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PRESENTED BY 



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PUBLISHED BY THE 




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MARTKORD, CONN 

1889. 



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PUBLISHED BY THE HARTFORD STEAM BOILER INSPECTION AND INSURANCE COMPANY. 



New SEKiiis— Vol. X. HARTFORD. CONN., JANUARY, 1889. 



No. 1. 



Corrosion Around Stay Bolts. 

Arounfl the stay bolts of water lej^s, or furnaces, curious grooves are often found in 
the plates, radiating from the bolts as centers. This kind of corrosion is well illustrated 
in Fig. 1, which shows the water side of a piece of metal recently cut from a fire-box 
subjected to considerable strain. The plate, undoubtedly, bent backward and forward 



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CoRiiosioN AiiouND Stay Bolts. — Fig. 1. 

slightly under the varying pressures, and though the flexure, and consequent alteration of 
the surface, was probably too small to be seen, it is easy to believe that it was sufficient to 
open up the fibres to the water in certain directions, rather than in certain others. Judging 
from the appearance of the plate, it seems likely, also, that in tapping out the holes for 

78612 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[January, 



the stay bolts, strains -were brought to bear on the plate, which disturbed the skin of the 
iron and afterwards hastened the corrosion. The effects of apparently unimjiortant 
strains are often much greater than one who has not studied them would readily believe. 
"We have already shown that surface markings on iron plates may often be reproduced 
with considerable distinctness, by simple immersion in acid, even after they have been 
planed off, and the metal polished until its surface appears to be perfectly uniform. 
(See the Locomotive for July, 1884.) 

In the case illustrated in Fig. 1, the boiler often lay idle for a considerable time, 
and the water that was used was rather impure, so that the action was naturally more 





CoRROsiox Around StaY' Bolts. — Fig. 2. 

rapid than it would be uuder less favorable circumstances ; but the same thing takes 
place with the purest water, provided there is sufficient strain upon the bolts to disturb 
the arrangement of the surface particles. In cases of this kind there is no external 
evidence of the condition of things inside, for the exterior looks perfectly sound. 

Fig. 2 represents a portion of the inner plate of a water leg of a locomotive boiler. 
The furrows in this case were quite deep, and looked as though they had been cut by a 
tool ; and the stay bolts had been corroded entirely off at the outer ends. 



Inspectors' Reports. 

November, 1888. 

In the month of November, 1888, our inspectors made 4,467 inspection trips, visited 
8,606 boilers, inspected 3,216 both internally and externally, and subjected 642 to hjdro- 
static pressure. The whole number of defects reported reached 6,835, of which 555 
were considered dangerous ; 38 boilers were regarded unsafe for further use. The defects 
in detail were as follows : 

Nature of Defects. 
Cases of deposit of sediment, ... 

Cases of incrustation and scale, - . - 

Cases of internal grooving, - - - - 

Cases of internal corrosion, - - - - 

Cases of external corrosion, ... 

Broken and loose braces and stays, 
Settings defective, - - - - - 

Furnaces out of shape, .... 



Whole Number. 


Dangerous. 


378 


- 


35 


673 


- 


30 


50 


- 


13 


210 


- 


33 


463 


- 


45 


95 


- 


31 


313 


- 


33 


250 


- 


8 



1889.] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE, 



Nature of Defects. 
Fractured plates, - ... 

Burned plates, . . . 

Blistered plates, - . . 

Cases of defective riveting, 
Defective heads, . - - 

Serious leakage around tube ends, - 
Serious leakage at seams. 
Defective Avater-gauges, 
Defective blovp-offs. 
Cases of deficiency of water. 
Safety-valves overloaded, - 
Safety-valves defective in construction. 
Pressure-gauges defective, - 
Boilers without pressure-gauges. 
Unclassified defects. 

Total, - - - - 



Whole Number. 


Dangerous. 


1G7 


- 


36 


126 


- 


28 


263 


- 


26 


1,679 


- 


44 


60 


- 


11 


1,376 


- 


119 


303 


- 


16 


220 


- 


13 


47 


- 


9 


18 


- 





37 


- 


7 


61 


- 


13 


323 


- 


21 


3 


- 


2 


33 


- 






6,835 



555 



December, 1888. 

During this month our inspectors made 4,353 inspection trips, visited 8,628 boilers, 
inspected 3,339 both internally and externally, and subjected 461 to hydrostatic pres- 
sure. The whole number of defects reported reached 7,419, of which 639 were consid- 
ered dangerous; 33 boilers were regarded unsafe for further use. Our usual summary is 
given below : 

Nature of Defects. 
Cases of deposit of sediment, ... 

Cases of incrustation and scale, ... 
Cases of internal grooving, - - - . 

Cases of internal corrosion, - . . - 

Cases of external corrosion, - - . - 

Broken and loose braces and stays, ... 
Settings defective, . - - - . 

Furnaces out of shape, .... 

Fractured plates, - - . . . 

Burned plates, ..... 

Blistered ])lates, ..... 

Cases of defective riveting, - . . . 

Defective heads, - - . . . 

Serious leakage around tube ends, ... 
Serious leakage at seams, .... 
Defective water-gauges, .... 
Defective blow-ofis, .... 

Cases of deficiency of water, ... 

Safety-valves overloaded, . - . . 

Safety-valves defective in construction, 
Pressure-gauges defective, - . . . 

Boilers without pressure-gauges, ... 
Unclassified defects, .... 

Total, 7,419 - - 639 



WTioIe Number. 


Dangerous. 


479 


- 


- 


17 


737 


- 


- 


31 


61 


- 


- 


9 


383 


- 


- 


30 


479 


- 


- 


57 


178 


- 


- 


63 


360 


- 


- 


18 


259 


- 


- 


9 


243 


- 


- 


53 


134 


- 


- 


19 


349 ' 


- 


- 


13 


1,630 


- 


- 


66 


76 


- 


- 


13 


1,333 


- 


- 


85 


375 


. 


- 


50 


318 


- 


- 


23 


63 


. 


- 


6 


33 


. 


- 


i 


56 


. 


- 


23 


38 


- 


- 


16 


236 


- 


- 


19 


5 


- 


- 


5 


15 


- 


- 


1 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. [January, 



Summary of Inspectors' Reports for the Year 1888. 

"We present herewith a summary of the work done by the inspectors during the past 
year, and, for comparison, we give the corresponding summary for 1887 : 

Visits of inspection made, - - - - 

Total number of boilers inspected, - 

" " " " " internally, 

" " " " tested by hydrostatic pressure, 

" " " defects reported, - - - 

" " " dangerous defects reported, 

" " " boilers condemned. 



Nature of Defects. 

Cases of deposit of sediment, ... 

Cases of incrustation and scale, ... 

Cases of internal grooving, . - - - 

Cases of internal corrosion, - - - ■ 

Cases of external corrosion, - - - - 

Broken and loose braces and stays, - - - 

Settings defective, - - - 

Furnaces out of shape, . . . - 
Fractured plates, ..... 

Burned plates, . _ . - . 

Blistered plates, . . _ - . 

Cases of defective riveting, - - - - 

Defective heads, . . - - - 

Serious leakage around tube ends, . - - 

Serious leakage at seams, - - - - . 

Defective water-gauges, . . . - 

Defective blow-offs, - - - - - 
Cases of deficiency of water. 

Safety-valves overloaded, - ' - 
Safety-valves defective in construction, 

Pressure-gauges defective, - - - - 

Boilers without pressure gauges, . . - 

Miscellaneous defects, . - - - 

Total, - - - -■ - - - 91,567 - - 8,967 



1887. 


1888. 


46,761 - 


- 51,483 


89,994 - 


- 102,314 


36,166 - 


- 40,240 


5,741 - 


6,536 


99,642 - 


- 91,567 


11,523 - 


8,967 


623 - 


426 


L during the year 


1888: 


Whole Number. 


Dangerous. 


6,199 


- 353 


9,263 


- 473 


503 


- 122 


3,649 


- 399 


6,010 


- 437 


1,484 


- 306 


3,394 


- 178 


3,045 


- 115 


2.178 


- 634 


1,703 


- 355 


3,226 


- 177 


32,747 


- 1,588 


1,404 


- 192 


15,133 


- 2,065 


4,552 


- 417 


1,703 


- 238 


682 


- 141 


168 


54 


473 


146 


542 


- 176 


3,208 


- 361 


92 


59 


1.223 


81 



Grand Total of the Inspectors' Work Since the Company Began Business, to 

January 1, 1889. 

Visits of inspection made, -..---- 450,262 

Whole number of boilers inspected, ..... 901,896 

Complete internal inspection, _..-.- 330,347 

Boilers tested by hydrostatic pressure, ..... 64,496 

Total number of defects discovered, ..... 614,140 

" •' " dangerous defects, - - - - • . - 101,989 

" " " boilers condemned, ..... 5,722 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



Boiler Explosions. 

December, 1888. 
Donkey Engine (208). The boiler of the donkey engine in use at H. A. Stevens's 
coal yard, on South Front Street, Fair Haven, blew up on Wednesday, Dec. 5th. The 
explosion destroyed the engine and boiler, and blew the shanty in which the machinery was 
located, in every direction. The noise of the explosion was heard a long distance away. 
The engineer, Thomas Hempstock, was somewhat injured, but not seriously so. 

Iron "Works (209). A boiler exploded at the Shelby Iron "Works, Shelby, Ala., on 
Dec. 6th, killing three men. 

BiTUMiNotis Rock Heater (210). On Dec. 7th, Mark Bates was standing before a 
steam boiler used to melt bituminous rock, at San Diego, Cal., when it exploded, blow- 
ing him twenty feet and literally cooking his flesh. He died in five minutes. 

Steam Yacht (211). An explosion took place on the fast Herreshoif yacht, Say 
When, ofl^ Hope Island, Narragansett Bay, on Dec. 8th, while she was making her trial 
trip. Charles F. Newman, fireman, was fatally injured, and George C. Horton, 
engineer, was fearfully scalded about the face and arms. The Say When, disaliled, was 
picked up by a tugboat and taken to Bristol. The boiler was of the well-known 
Herreshoff safety coil type. 

Feed Mill (212). The explosion of a boiler in Strohel & Hamon's feed mill at 
^Trowbridge, Ohio, on Dec. lOtli, killed Henry Hamon and Albert Kline, and badly 
injured "Wallace Strohel and a boy. The mill was wrecked. 

Oatmeal Mills (213). An explosion occurred at the oatmeal mills, corner of 
Halstead and Fulton Streets, Chicago, at 2 o'clock on the morning of Dec. 11th, and 
the building was soon wrapped in flames. Several lives were lost. 

Saw-Mill (214). On "Wednesday afternoon, Dec. 12th, a boiler exploded in "Wilcox 
Mills, near Evergreen, Ala., killing four persons. Five others were wounded, but their 
names were not learned. The property was valuable, and is now a total wreck. The 
dead were horribly mutilated, and it is said that parts of their bodies were found four 
hundred yards away. 

Machine Shop (215). On the afternoon of Dec. 12th, a boiler exploded in the 
shop of William Bonner, at the corner of North Main and Read Streets, Providence, R. I. 
The top went up into the ceiling, striking directly beneath a boiler in the works of 
Samuel Crane, breaking the main steam pipe and damaging the engine. No one was 
killed, and the damage was small. 

Cotton Gin (216). A boiler explosion on Dec. 13th, in G. W. Turner's cotton 
gin, near Montgomery, Ala., killed George Turner and two negroes. Seven other 
persons were wounded. 

Cotton Gin (217). In Selma, N. C, on Dec. 14th, the head of Mr. B. L. Aycock's 
boiler blew out, breaking the arm of his son, Mr. Charles Aycock, in two places, and 
inflicting a dangerous wound on his head. The firejnan and three others were also 
injured, some of them seriously. 

Steam Heating Apparatus (218). Mr. T. L. Aldrich was heating water for live 
stock, in Woodville, Mass., on Dec. 16th, and as he reached up to open a valve, the 
boiler exploded. He was seriously but not fatally burned about the face and arms. 

Steam Tug (219). On December 17th, the steam tug Susie was bought by the 
Fox Island clay works, situated near Tacoma, W. T. Two days later, while she was 



Q THE LOCOMOTIVE. [January, 

bein«- looked over by her purchasers, her boiler exploded with great violence, shattering 
her hull to the water's edge, so that she sank in a few minutes. The president of the 
company was blown over a high pile of lumber, and acro.ss an eighty-foot wharf, striking 
the water a^ain fully 100 feet from the tug. He was badly cut and bruised, and severely 
scalded about the back and legs. The captain of the steamer was found on the edge of 
a boom of logs. He was badly disfigured, and will probably die. His brother, who 
was present, was badly scalded, and was picked up in the water 100 feet away. The 
enrnneer, who escaped without injury, made off into the woods after the accident, and 
could not be found. He was a new hand, in place of the regular engineer, who was 
awav to be married. The new man is blamed for the accident, as the boilers and 
machinery had been inspected before the purchase. The Sude was a twin-screw 
propeller, 100 feet long. 

Quartz Mill ^220). One of the boilers in a ten-stamp quartz mill in Silver Creek, 
Xevada. exploded on December 18th, while the men were at dinner. The mill was 
badly damaged and another boiler that stood by the side of the exploded one was thrown 
about 300 yards, out into a salt marsh. The boiler that exploded had bagged over the 
fire. Xo one was in the mill at the time of the explosion, and no one was injured. 

Spoke Factory (221j. The large boiler in the spoke factory of Emmett & Sons, at 
Mount Yemon, Ind., exploded on Dec. 20th. James Lett, of Columbus, was instantly 
killed, and James Lee, Jo.shua E. Low, Andy Jones, and Charles Reed were fatally 
wounded. Several other employees were injured. 

State Factory (222). On Dec. 21.st, the boiler in Bracken's stave factory, 
Frankfort, Ind., exploded, killing Martin Xolan, the engineer. Walter Fenstemacher 
and Albert Franty were mortally wounded. Xolan was a married man, and leaves a 
widow and two children. 

Horse Radish Grater (223). A small boiler exploded in East Hartford on Decem- 
ber 21st. The man in charge was struck on the forehead by a fragment, and had a nar- 
row escape from death. The water in the boiler had probably frozen during the night 
and broken the stays. 

Loiber Yard (224). Rufus Swett, 32 years old, was killed by the explosion of a 
boiler in the lumber yard of Warren J. Case & Co., at Milbrook Thornton, near 
Plymouth. X. H., on December 22d. He leaves a wife and three children. 

Heatixg Apparatus (225). The boiler used for heating the Eagle Bridge Hotel, 
near Trov. X. Y.. exploded on Dec. 22d, severely injuring seven persons who were in the 
waiting-room of the Delaware & Hudson railroad, which is in the hotel. Station Agent 
Reynolds was badly scalded, and two ladies were dangerously injured. The loss on the 
boiler and building is about $1,000. 

Saw -Mill (226). An explosion occurred near Gold Hill, twenty-nine miles from 
Denver, on Dec. 22d, which resulted in the instant death of four men and the scalding 
of another. The mill hands had gone to work early, and, wishing to do a big day's 
work, they fired np with low water in the boiler in order to get steam quickly. When 
the pressure reached 115 pounds the boiler foamed badly and cold water was pumped 
in. Those killed are : Andy McDonald, whose bead was blown off, and A. Barnard, 
Adam Xodlett, and Xiles. Another man was badly scalded. 

LocoMOTrvE (227). Engine Xo. 52, on the Cincinnati, Washington & Baltimore 
railroad, left Blanchester, Ohio, at 9:15 a. m., on Dec. 24th. When it was about one 
mile west of the town the boiler exploded with a loud report, tearing out the two front 
sheets of the shell, and completely wrecking the engine. Engineer Rother's hand was 
slightly injured, but otherwise nobody was hurt. 



1889.] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE, 



Flouring Mill (228). The mud drum under two boilers in the National Flouring 
Mill, San Francisco, burst on December 26th. The boilers ^vere under 80 pounds of 
steam, and the engineer, who was tiring up at the time, was badly scalded. The setting 
of the boilers was ruined, but very little damage was done otherwise. The opening is 
only nine inches by twelve, and was caused by external corrosion. 

Sugar Reflkery (229). The boiler in W. M. Lonsdale & Co.'s molasses and sugar 
refinery, New Orleans, exploded on Dec. 27th, doing considerable damage to the 
building and injuring three of the employees. In its flight the boiler passed through 
two twelve-inch brick walls, and the shell was found seventy-five feet away from its 
original position. 

Shingle Mill (230). The boiler in Dush's shingle mill, near Millbrook, Mich., 
exploded at 6 a. m., on Dec. 3 1st, killing W. W. Dush, the proprietor, and John Carr, 
the night watchman. A man named Miley was fatally injured, also. The whole 
establishment is a complete wreck. 



Correcting" Thermometers. 

(Concluded from December Xiimber.) 
The first step is to separate from the column of mercury in the tube, a portion 
which shall occupy about 10° of the scale. This may at first sight appear to be a ditfi- 
cult matter, but it is very easily done. Invert the tube and tap the end on the table, it 
will separate at some point, and a portion will run down the tube. The point of 
separation will nearly always be determined by a minute air bubble adhering to the side 
of the tube. If the mercury runs out of the bulb and fills the tube without breaking, 
turn the tube up and let the mercury run back into the bulb; an air bubble will always 
be found here, which with a little patient manipulation may be made to ascend to the 
neck of the tube, when by again inverting the tube the column will separate at this 
point. Sometimes a vigorous shaking up of the tube so as to agitate the mercury will 
produce the same effect. The portion which now separates will generally be longer 
than is wanted, but it can be "cut off" to any desired length as follows: Suppose the 
piece which has separated is two inches long, and we want a piece three-fourths of an 
inch long. Heat the bulb, still keeping the tube inverted, and the column separated, 
until that portion connected with the bulb has risen (or descended, as the tube is in an 
inverted positjion) 1^ inches. The end of the column of mercury will push the air-bub- 
ble before it. When it has descended IJ inches, quickly bring the tube to the upright 
position, and bring the separated portions of the column together. A slight tap on the 
table may be necessary to bring them into contact. The mercury in the bulb now con- 
tracts, while the air-bubble sticks to the side of the tube, and the mercury fiows past it. 
When it has regained its former temperature, again invert the tube, when the column 
will separate at the air-bubble, and we shall have a thread of the required length, if the 
operation has b?en dexterously performed. If it has not, one or two repetitions will 
usually suffice to separate a portion of the desired length. 

Having a thread of the required length we now proceed to bring it to different por- 
tions of the tube by inclining the tube, and measuring its length in the various posi- 
tions. It is evident that the length of the division of the scale, instead of being of 
uniform length, must be inversely proportional to the area of the bore of the tube, or 
what is the same thing, directly proportional to length of the thread of mercury in the 
various corresponding portions of the tube. The method usually followed is to use the 
scale, which accompanies each instrument, and determine the error for each degree. A 
table of these errors is kept to refer to. Our method of procedure with common ther- 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. [January, 



mometers is to discard entirely the original scale, and make a new one. This is most 
conveniently done by marking it on the back of the original scale. The first method 
requires less labor, and is the more accurate one. The second makes the after use of 
the thermometer much more convenient, and is sufficiently accurate for all practical pur- 
])oses, where scientific exactness is not necessary. It has the great advantage of not 
requiring any special or refined apparatus or calculations, and may therefore be easily 
performed by any one. It gives very good results, and where geater accuracy is 
essential, it is always better to send the thermometer to some physical laboratory and 
have it compared with some standard thermometer by trained observers. 

If we are graduating to the Fahrenheit scale, sejiarate as above described, a portion 
of the mercury which shall occujDy about 10 degrees of the scale. Divide the interval 
between the freezing and boiling points into eighteen equal parts, mark these divisions 
with a pencil, each division is then equal to approximately 10 degrees. Bring the sepa- 
rated column of mercury into each one of the divisions and measure its length. Then 
make the permanent spaces for each 10 degrees proijortional to the length of the column 
measured when it occupied that particular division. Divide each 10" sjDace into ten 
equal spaces for the degrees, and the operation is complete. 

Suppose, for example, the distance from freezing to boiling points is 6| inches. 6f" 
divided by 18 equals f", the space occupied by 10° on the scale. Mark on the scale 
with a pencil these 18 divisions, making each f of an inch long. Separate a portion of 
the mercury column abovt f of an inch long; exactness is unnecessary. Then bring it to 
coincide with each division successively, and measure its length in each. Suppose we 
find these lengths as follows : — 

1st division, from 32° to 40° the mercury measures .39" 

2d " " 42 " 52 " " " .395 

3d " " 52 " 63 " " " .40 

4th " " 62 " 72 " " " .40 

5th " " 72 " 82 " " " .40 

6th " " 82 " 92 " " " .39 

7th " " 92 " 102 " " " .40 

8th " " 102 " 112 " " " .405 

9th " " 112 " 122 " " " .41 

10th " " 122 " 132 " " " .41 

11th " " 132 " 142 " " " a41 

12th " •' 142 " 152 " " " .415 

13th " " 152 " 162 " " " .415 

14th " " 162 " 172 " " " .41 

15th " " 172 " 182 " " " .41 

16th " " 182 " 192 " " " .415 

17th " " 192 " 202 " " " .42 

18th " " 202 " 212 " " " ' .42 



7.315" 
Take the sum of the lengths of the mercury column as found by measurement, which 
in this case is 7.315 inches, and find the correct length of each 10 degree division by 
proportion as follows : — 

7.315 : 6.75 :: .39" : .359 = the 10° from 32 to 42. 
7.315 : 6.75 :: .395 : .365 == " 10° " 42 to 52, 
7.315 : 6.75 :: .4 : .369 = " 10° " 52 to 62. 



1889.] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE, 



9 



And similarly we find the length of the remaining divisions. 

From 62° to 72 = .369" 

" 73 to 82 = .369 

" 83 to 93 = .359 

" 93 to 103 = .369 

" 103 to 113 = .374 

" 113 to 123 = .378 

" 123 to 133 = .378 

" 132 to 142 = .378 

" 143 to 153 = .383 

" 153 to 163 = .383 

" 163 to 173 = .378 

" 173 to 183 = .378 

182 to 193 = .383 

" 193 to 303 = .388 

303 to 313 = .388 

Total, =6.748" Trithin j^" of '6f 

The sum would come out exactly 6J" if the operation is carried far enough, but ^i/' 
is within the limit of error in reading the thermometer, or marking the scale by ordinary 
means. 

These divisions are now marked permanently on the scale, divided in degree marks, 
and the thermometer is corrected accurately enough for all practical purposes. 

H. F. s. 



The Microscopist's Serenade. 



O come, my love, and seek with me 

A realm by grosser eye unseen. 
Where fairy forms will welcome thee, 

And dainty creatures hail thee queen. 
In silent pools the tube I'll ply. 

Where green conferva-threads lie curled, 
And proudly bring to thy bright eye 

The trophies of the protist world. 

We'll rouse the stentor from his lair. 

And gaze into the cyclops' eye ; 
T 1 chara and nitella hair 

The protoplasijiic stream descry, 
Forever weaving to and fro 

With faint molecular melody ; 
And curious rotifers Til show, 

And graceful vorticellidae. 

Where melicertse ply their craft 
We'll watch the playful water-bear, 

And no envenomed hydra's shaft 
Shall mar our peaceful pleasure there ; 



But while we whisper love's sweet tale 
We'll trace, with sympathetic art, 

Within the embryonic snail 
The growing rudimental heart. 

Where rolls the volvox sphere of green, 

Andplastids move in Brownian dance,- 
If, wandering 'mid that gentle scene, 

Two fond amcebfe shall percliance 
Be changed to one beneath our sight 

By process of biocrasis. 
We'll recognize, with rare delight, 

A type of our prospective bliss. 

O dearer thou by far to me 

In thy sweet maidenly estate 
Than any seventy-fifth could be, 

Of aperture however great! 
Come, go with me, and w^e will stray 

Through realm by grosser eye unseen, 
Where protophytes shall homage pay. 

And protozoa hail thee queen. 

Jacob F. HE^^lICI. 



^0 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [January, 

Sit Stttiittltt* 



QiSXS 



HARTFORD, JANUARY, 1889. 
J. M. Allen, Editor. H. F. Smith, ( ^^^^^.^^^ ^^. 

A. D. RiSTEEN, \ 

The Locomotive can te obtained free by calling at any of the company^s agencies. 
Subscription price 50 cents per year ichen mailed from this office. 
Bound volumes one dollar each. 

The " Microscopist's Serenade," given on another page, is from our editorial scrap 
book. We regret that we cannot give proper credit for it, as we do not know where it 
first appeared. 

Obituary. 

George W. Rogers. 
We are pained to announce the death of George W. Rogers, Chief Inspector of 
our Southern Department, which occurred on the 10th of December, at Charleston, 
S. C. He was ill with pneumonia but a few days, and his death so sudden was a 
surprise to all his friends. In early life Mr. Rogers learned his trade at the M^orks of 
Woodruff & Beach in this city, naturally choosing mechanical and steam engineering. 
His grandfather, Capt. Moses Rogers, commanded the Savannah on her first trip across 
the Atlantic Ocean (this was the first ship that crossed the Atlantic Ocean propelled by 
steam), and his father was the engineer of the ill-fited steamer Arctic, of the Collins 
Line, Avhich was lost at sea many years ago. After finishing his trade young Rogers was 
appointed engineer in the United States service, and was on the Niagara when the 
neo-ro captives were returned to Africa after having been landed in this country as slaves. 
He was in the naval service during the war, and was commended for efficiency and in- 
trepidity. He entered the service of the Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance 
Company about eight years ago, and had always proved an able and efficient member 
of the inspection corps. When the Southern Department of the company's business 
was established, he was appointed chief inspector of it, and this office he filled up to 
the time of his death. Mr. Rogers was a genial, companionable man. He made many 
friends and was widely known the country over. In his death this office loses an 
honest and capable ofliicer, and his associates a firm and faithful friend. 



We have before us a map of the planet Mars, constructed from observations made 
by the Italian astronomer Schiaparelli. Maps of this interesting little world have been 
made before, but this one excels in the amount of detail shown ; and such careful work 
has been done by Schiaparelli and others that we actually know more about the geogra- 
phy of the polar regions of Mars than we do about that of our own polar regions, 
especially in our southern hemisphere. 

The things that are known about our neighbor, thus far, are extremely interesting 
and suggestive. There is water over there, certainly ; for the spectroscope tells us that. 
There is some kind of an atmosphere, also, for we can distinguish masses of cloud and 
even trace the course of storms. It seems to be comfortably warm there, too; for there 
is nowhere near the amount of snow about the poles that there is about our own poles. 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. ±± 

We can see continents and islands, and undoubtedly there are mountains and valleys on 
them, and so we have every reason to believe that there are rivers and lakes. And, 
strangest of all, the continents are crossed in many directions by dark streaks about 
forty miles or so wide, running from sea to sea. No one knows what these streaks are. 
They do not look like natural formations, yet who can say what Nature may be doing 
on this other world, so many millions of miles away? If they are not natural forma- 
tions, then Mars is undoubtedly inhabited by a remarkable race of beings, whose skill 
in engineering is vastly greater than our own. Years must elapse before the mystery 
can be solved, but if it can be shown to be probable that our neighbor is inhabited by 
intelligent creatures, who are watching us, perhaps, as we are watching them, there can 
be no doubt that we shall find some way of communicating with them. 



Lig-ht Without Heat. 

great many experimenters are now trying to find out some way of jiroducing 
light without producing heat at the same time. If this can he done at all it will prob- 
ably lessen the cost of lighting our streets and buildings very considerably. Some years 
ago James Clerk ]\Iaxwell advanced the theory that light is a sort of electrical disturb- 
ance of the ether that is supposed to fill space. This tlieory, though not yet rigorously 
proven, is supported by a great deal of evidence — in fact, by all the evidence we have. 
We know, for instance, that light and electric induction are propagated by the same 
medium, and with the same velocity. We know, further, that each consists of wave- 
like motions, or strains, in that medium; and that the waves of both are transverse and 
unlike those of sound. There are other reasons, too, for believing that Maxwell's theory 
is correct, and that the difference between light and electric induction is the i^eriod of 
their respective waves. If this is a fact, it is evident that if we could charge and dis- 
charge a Leyden jar rapidly enough it would break out and shine with a brilliancy that 
would depend only on the intensity of the electricity supplied to it. Now it is believed 
to be possible to charge and discharge such a jar a thousand million times a second, 
which would be the same as sending a thousand million waves a second out into space; 
yet this rapidity, though it is utterly inconceivable to the human mind, is stillness it- 
self compared with what is required to produce light, and it must be increased at least 
four hundred thousand fold before it can produce the faintest glimmer. 

Grim as the outlook is, we can take courage from the fire-flies, for they seem to 
have overcome the diflBculties somehow. Maxwell's theory, if correct, is a stupendous 
generalization ; and though it has been of no use to us yet, some way of applying it in 
the arts must soon be discovered. The possibility that it suggests, of transmitting light 
by electricity as we now transmit sound, is curious and interesting ; and it would be a 
novel experience to stroll the streets of Hartford on a summer evening, bathed in light 
shining somewhere in China. 



Electric Power. 

A great many people seem to think that the days of steam are numbered, and that 
electricity is to supplant it as soon as inventors have suflSciently reduced the cost of the 
apparatus and secured the proper efficiency. This belief is partially correct, when 
taken in a certain sense ; but when taken literally it is in error. Electricity, as a prime 
mover, is still in extreme infancy ; for there are problems involved in its use that are 
much more difficult than the mere reduction of the cost of installation, and the securing 
of efficient motors: in fact, we shall probably find these the easiest to solve of all. 
Before steam can be dethroned, a great principle must be discovered: a method of 
generating electricity directly, by the combustion of coal, and not indirectly as at 



12 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[Janitart, 



present. This principle has been approached from various directions, and we have 
thermopiles, primary carbon batteries, calelectric generators, and pyromagnetic motors ; 
but thus far we have had only a glimpse of the incalculable possibilities, while the main 
problem is still before us. 

In another way, however, electricity promises to be of great service to us. It is a 
recognized fact that power can be developed at large central stations, and transmitted to 
small users, with greater efficiency than these users could produce it themselves by 
small local engines; and it is this fact, principally, that creates the great field now open 
to electricity. There are numerous industries, too, where the electric motor is valuable 
on account of its simplicity and cleanliness, and where it could be used with advantage, 
even if the cost of running it should be somewhat greater than the cost of steam. 

As an agent for transferring energy, there is much for the subtle fluid to do ; but as 
a prime mover it is, as yet, exceedingly expensive and unjirofitable. 



Heating" and Ventilation. 

A great many mistakes are made in these things, and we are often consulted with 
regard to the heating of dwellings and other buildings by steam. The changes that 
may be desirable can usually be made without much difficulty when the heating is direct ; 
but in indirect heating we often find that the expense of altering the system so as to 
bring it into proper arrangement and proportion, greatly exceeds the first cost of it; for 
the mutilation of nicely-finished rooms in cutting out the walls so as to secure sufficient 
area in air ducts, is serious business. The ducts can be properly constructed when 
building without one cent of extra expense, and architects and builders should see that 
this is done; or, if the individual who proposes to build would first consult some special- 
ist on heating and ventilation, disappointment and failure might be easily avoided. 

One example will show how far out of proportion some of the arrangements of flues 
are that are to be met with. In examining a dwelling heated wholly by the indirect 
system, we found the surface of the radiator stacks ranging from 80 to 160 square feet, and 
the hot-air ducts all one size — four inches by ten, or forty inches in area — and cased 
up in the brick walls. The cold-air boxes were in better proportion, but would not have 
been sufficient for the stacks had proper hot-air flues been put in. Another defect 
that is often found is that there is no closure between the stacks and boxes, cold air 
passing up all around the heated coils, and not through them as it should. 

We give below a table of openings for registers and cold-air ducts, which has been 
found to give very satisfactory results. The cold-air boxes should have 1^ square 
inches area for each square foot of radiator surface, and never less than f the sectional 
area of the hot-air ducts. The hot-air ducts should have 2 square inches of sectional 
area to each square foot of radiator surface on the first floor, and from 1|- to 2 inches on 
the second floor. 



Heating enrface in 
Blacks. 


Cold air sapply first floor. 


Size register. 


Cold air supply, 
second floor. 


30 square feet. 


45 J 


square inches = 5 " by 9 " 


9 "by 12" 


4 " by 10 " 


40 " 


60 


" =6" by 10" 


10 "by 14" 


4 " by 14 " 


50 " 


75 


" =8" by 10" 


10 "by 14" 


5" by 15" 


60 " 


90 


" =9" by 10" 


12 "by 15" 


6 " by 15 " 


70 " 


108 


" =9" by 12" 


12" by 19" 


6 " by 18 " 


80 " 


120 


" =10"bvl2" 


12 " by 22 " 


8 " by 15 " 


90 " 


135 


" =11 "by 12" 


14" by 24" 


9 " by 15 " 


100 " 


150 


" =12" by 12" 


16 "by 20" 


12 " by 12 " 



The sizes in the table approximate to the rules given, and it will be found that they 
will allow an easy flow of air and a full distribution throughout the room to be heated. 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 13 

The Manufacture of Paper. 

We make the following extracts from a pamphlet called A Sheet of Paper, issued by 
the L. L. Brown Paper Company, of Adams, Mass. The entire pamphlet is well worth 
reading, and those interested in paper will find it worth their while to secure a copy : — 

The rudimentary art of paper making was acquired by the Arabians, from the 
nomadic tribes of Buckharia ; and Damascus appears to have been one of the first cities 
where paper was made, for it was known at that time as "Carta Damascene." There 
was a manufactory established at Samarcand as early as the year 648, for making paper, 
and about the same time there was one in Mecca; and when the Moors invaded Spain, 
they caiTied with them the knowledge of the art. From Spain linen paper passed into 
France, in the year 1390. It was carried into Germany in 1312, reached England in 
1320, and in the year 1690 John Rittenhuysen, a native of Holland, built the first paper 
mill in America at Roxboro, Pa. The first machine was invented by a Frenchman, Louis 
Robert. In 1806 another Frenchman — Fourdrinier by name — perfected a self-acting 
machine which, with improvements, is the one used to-day, and known as the 
Fourdrinier machine. 

The difference between hand and machine-made papers, lies in the manipulation of 
the sheets. In making a sheet of paper by hand, the pulp, made from rags by the usual 
process of washing and beating, is emptied into an open vat, along with a considerable 
quantity of water. Into this vat, the workman dips a mold or framed piece of wire 
cloth, which he holds in both hands at an inclination of about 65°, and taking up a 
sufficient quantity of pulji, he raises it horizontally, the frame or deckle holding it upon 
the wire cloth. A double oscillating motion is imparted to the frame, distributing the 
pulp Avith beautiful uniformity over the entire surface of the mold, and intertwining the 
fibres. Gradually the water drains through, and the pulp solidifies and assumes a 
peculiar, shiny look, which indicates to the experienced eye the completion of the first 
process. The frame or deckle is then removed, and the mold is laid upon a woolen felt 
or blanket, to which the wet sheet or pulp adheres as the mold is lifted away. Another 
felt is spread over this, upon which the next sheet of pulp is laid, and this is continued, 
alternating the layers of felt and paper, until a sufficient number are accumulated to 
form a "post"; after which the whole is carried to a press, and subjected to varying 
degrees of pressure, suitable to the purpose and finish of the sheets to be made. After 
this come the sizing, drying, and other finishing processes. 

In taking a retrospective view of the early days, we are struck with wonder at the 
changes that have taken place in the old-time method of production. Prior to 1816 the 
manufacture of paper in the United States was carried on entirely by hand. By this 
slow, laborious process, it took five persons a day to make three reams. The same 
quantity is now produced in fifteen minutes. Upon the introduction of machinery for 
forming rag pulp into sheets of paper, making by hand was practically abandoned. The 
deckle-edged paper disappeared from the markets, and skilled artisans who could give 
the " old-time shake " to the mold, had passed away. A modern paper-making machine 
will turn out a sheet of ordinary newspaper, from sixty to ninety inches wide, at the rate 
of 150 to 200 feet a minute — that is, more than twenty miles of it in a working day of 
ten hours. There are thirty mills in the Ohio Valley to-day, producing daily 180 tons of 
paper, of various grades ; but about 90 per cent, of the writing paper made in the 
United States comes from Massachusetts. 

A word as to how the water mark is produced. The mold or wire frame, on which 
the pulp is formed, is raised where it is desired to stamp the water mark, making the 
layer of pulp thinner there than in other portions of the mold, so that the design remains 
impressed in each sheet. 



14 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[Jaktjakt, 



Wroug^ht Iron Welded Pipes for Gas, Steam, or Water. 

Table of Standard Dimexsioxs. 
(Morris, Tusker d: Co., Limited.) 
li" and below, butt welded i , ,. 

U" and above, lap welded s ^^^^^^ ^° ^^^ ^^^- P^^ ^"i- ^°^^ ^^ hydraulic pressure. 



Taper of Screw per 
inch of Length. 


.a 


^ I J. ;^ 

te» b» !i» « tr? ^J^^ ■" ■"■.(''' '^'—*'— '=*—''' -*.^*'— ** "".-^ *■''•-• t£ E -^ 

1= 1= 1= 1= -= ■-:;'^,- m 1= .=:"« tt: != -:: i=; 1= ir:".:; ^ rs O = £ 

c fa - ft-, 


Tteads per inch in 
Length of Screw. 




t-OOX-'*''* — — — — X X X X X X X X X X X e £ - i 

i 1 S .H 


Length of Perfect 
Screw. 


"S 


.10 
.29 

.30 

.39 

.40 

.51 

.54 

.55 

.58 

.89 

.i»5 

1.00 

1.05 

1.10 

1.16 

1.26 

1.36 

1.57 
1.C8 

For 8 
dlani. C 
riveted 
mended 
Joints. 


Weight per foot of 
length. 


^ " -* ~ t2 ? — ^ ~ 'z " '"2 ? ij n: ;Z — 2 -" :; E" "-Z 2 3; S ? p ;Z "* ? 

"5 « ^ iH X ^ ;c c^ £ S I- L- e i.i ^ i}t r^ ^ rr cr S £■- ^ S 5 ?i — ft cl I- 
g ■■■■_._■ -i li zz la I- sv c; cj -T X r: x -*' t-^ ^ — ' x i- » :c' — ' 

£ — T-. — ^C}CJCO-<a<-*»COt-t-XC:C:— « 


Length of pipe con- o o »= — ' -? -^ " --^ ~ -^ ~ ~ ~ — ~ t^~ -^ r-i -< ^ ' ■ ' 

laining 1 cu. foot, g; Ex>u~l~T^~~^4i^."r--'^ " •' -< « -^ ^ '- " 

^ »S CO t> -S- 71 — 


Length of pipe per ^ 
sqr. foot of Mean i t 


SHiSiiiiflSilPf iiSililiiiig^^liS 


Surface. — 


— XSSiCTCOIJCi — ^^ 


Length of pipe per 
sqr. foot of Out- 
side .Surface. 


iC <- c? £- r: — — X — 4-t c: «-- =: t- 1.- -^ ^ 1.- X ?t cc -* X t.~ « — -- 10 
*: t t- L- c; cc c; — — — i:< =; L- -r -.c cj i- 'J' C5 i-~ — c: t^ ic ct. CJ r- c: X 
§ t tt ..- tt c; rt :r -.= rt c: » X t~ » iS ir: -* CO eo CO « ci cj « cj Ti « T- .rH 

fn ci i> ic "T CO •;i ?i •ri «' — ^ — J 


Length of pipe per 
square foot of In- 


■S 


L- =: X — X t- L~ t- c: X »- -*■ X 1- — cr # x t^ ct ?c7 « 

L0 9f^cotot;:s«j;-r-3;-^i^^-rL-co-^t^oix^ — s;t>-»ccoo> — oos 


side Surface. ^ 


33t---=Trco?J«---^- 


£ Ci CS X — ^ i 1 i-~ 3 — ' .— ^ -r L- Si — cc tt iS' CJ f^ O X »C « O Ci C: O -^ 




t^^^^^Hol^XL^coxj-ocv^cvt^rvcoxoJoeixt^jit-jio— I 
0^— 5:i5x^c5r:t-cTXt~s;5ixt-ic®xo»s»c5x — SSt~c- 


X 


— li r: — i~ =: ci <-- r: X X » x' X i= ;^' l;2 i- z; ^ ji ^ ^ 
T— .. . . . ^ ■" _- ;z ^ _ c5 fi -jj c> CO 


^ Ti !£ — c< s; -r L- c; — •7/ ;= :c c- X ic ic ^ CC ^ CJ c; TJ ^ L- £- X ?> CO 
E^^^ Circnm- | ^1 g t' £ ?j 2 ^^ § :=§=:=>: ^ ^ x §§? i^ 2 x §- ^J ? ^ gj^ S 


Intemal Circnm- i 
foence. S 


X^CJi;;S:cvi2 — ^TI-r^^XCtrv-TjOtCC-L-r — ^X rX J'X'-H 

00 — if :i is c5 H S T? t-^ ii r^ ;c — X 5 ^ T> -^ ?? « ^ CJ C'J CJ OJ CI ?i 


■r- T- • T-cQwcjcC'Coco-^'^-eooiCiceo 


Thickness. 




XX— ClCO-rC:L--f-rt»:=i-l-Ci — Ci-rf»X Cf — ^X0CJ'»'O 

csxsiS'— rr-r-TL-o — cJct'+L-xo-'Tccx — cOL-:i-cvc"!-i-:sx 
= — — — — c;; ?j CJ CJ CJ 01 ?3 ct CO cc CO CO -<r •'T -r ■<T -T L- L- »o 






Aetna] Outside 
Diameter. 




»o LO in Lo i'^ ct LO 1- la X 

■* t- -^ i-o — ;c t- t- ts oj oi « X i-o 
•^o»aDOco;=c;coxiSC;io »s^»!r:sc- 

' 1—' — ' — — ri Oi r: -r -<s' »s' i~ ^ t- x s: o c? so •* ic o i> OD cJ O -th 


Actnal Inside i 
Diameter. ! g 


■^ T CO -? X T-c <- X i- X !» X L'M-'i CO « — 05 -* 0} X t 5C 01 X 

t-!Sc:o>oj— x-r-:r«-.i — o?c;-*^oixo — OJXcoc5-j"0;c — *-o* 

« CO -^ CC X Ct :C> C; 'P e LO LO C: C5 C ^ 01 ^_ — S: CS X X 

._■_■._ -J cj ~;' ~; .^ .^ 4-' ts i-^ <> ci — 01 r: -# to tt tt t- X as 


1 '"' 


r- f^ - 1—1 





1889.] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE, 



15 



Lap Welded American Charcoal Iron Boiler Tubes. 

Standard Dimensions. 
{Table of Morris, Tasker & Co., Limited.) 



Weight pr. Lineal 
foot. 


-a 

1 


00 to — QOiOl^COOOfNO <0501C0 07 C5OC0thC1OC>«0CSIC-^ 

■ -rk T-i' r-I Ci CJ eC CO CO ■<*< -"t iri O £> C5 *J o' o6 ?( IC Xi T> tO O O C5 -*' ci :£> M 

T-iT-ii— iCiCJOiCOIC-^rti-^iOuSCCC- 


Length of tube 
per sq. foot of 
Mean Surface. 


S 


CO lO O '- -^ < ■- 3 -t 0» -T^J CO i.-; 00 r- Oi O ID GO CO C5 O CI c; '- 1- -r T( — ' o s; QO 
T-H CJ I- CO O « - — ^ lO Ci rt O 35 00 «> O LO Tti Tj< CO CO CO C-J CJ <?J Ci C( CJ C* 1-H T-I 

-^' JO CJ CJ OT tH tH r-i T-i T-i i-i r-i 


Length of tulie pr. 
sq. fool of Out- 
side Surface. 




C50J>coc:cocoocoo-^cDioC5-^f^ioa)Tt<ot-oow(MM<oo-*cioo»-^ 
T-H lo •«*< X' c ~ cj C5 1- t> CI T-I 1.-^ -^ to CO -^ t~ cj GO -rf — • C5 1- Lo CO <?} -^ o oi ao 
oooio — c»oiiTcocjrHooo500o;oi-'r'*'3'cocococ>c'»cicio>oicjT-iT-i 


coeociCjT-iT-.,-i.r-ii-iT-iT-iT-i 


Length of tube 
per sq. foot of 
Inside Surface. 


fe 


oiccoaooooco»coGo^ooco — C50-Ttio-*ci — oi2C7:oi-c<c;f;-i^GO 

50 0TJI — i.Tl^Of-Ot-X/OfOOf-t-O-rncCCOOXO-rcO— OCSvO 
Tt< -^ 00 -^ 1-1 X CO lO CO CJ ^ O O 05 OC ?0 lO lO Tf CO CO CO CO CJ CJ CV Ci C? CJ r-i ^ 

-*■ ed cj oj w 1-i T-I -h' ^ ,-; r-1 7-1 ,-i 


c 

w 


+3 

u 

92 


JOiCCOf^X^— lO— i^QOt^C^f-^-^COCOOX-f-^'^M C7 Of^ t-co 
i.O X 0( » -^ ( r — C5 f - CO •-= f- O CO O I- 35 T— I.O O IT — CI f^ X ^ t- Ci ^ o 

oo^-^cJCfcoT-^ocoi-x-^eooico-^-r-^coxcJcoo^xi-cooxo 

COOOCOOOO^^COOT-ii-i^OJCO-^LtCOC-CiOOJT-iLOi-O — •<*< 

T-l' T-i ^ ^ T-l' T-; «' «■ 


a 
S 


ic t- t- 1(0 CJ CO 35 o 35 » ^ o CO -* l-^ ^ '^ <c t- o CO f- o X LO o> o ::n r; c; T-I 
xo>coo'*f-o-fco35o;-:rcoocot-xcDT-'-'#coc5cocor'S;£'— ^i'-^;5 

t- Oi O rf 1— 35 35 35 O 0< O O JO 35 CO O^ ■<»< C> CO C-: O O t- 35 t> O 3; -r LO ^ CO 
■ T-i T-; Ci CO CO Tf LO ^- 00 05 — oKo 35 GO 00 d CO X lo' CO Oi CO CO -;■ CO -J 

T-ir-iT-T-icjcjCiCjeoco 


4 

< 
"a 
v., 


■fl 


£^ r- CO r- o -p o? lo co cr ^ lo t-i t- x x lo lo -f co x c? x co ic co o? 

'+iCO35C0t-«)X<C0<35Xf-COX — t-T-HX-t<35l-C;i.O-rCOCOCO-T>CO^CJ 

C O S tH T-I C} O? CO ^ -* iC CO (^ 35 0» O- "^ — O 35 O OJ l-O 35 -^ O i^ i-O -rfl -^ lO 

OOOOOOOOOOO'OOO'-i'^CJC0'rt<-*C0t^X35^-K)-^C0XOC} 

„■ ^ ,_ _■ ^' CQ ;?} 


100COT-iCO-^-^C;CO»0£-t^01COf^C5lCO^-li035C5t-S5X£-t^ ^iCOCO-rt 

r-C035T-H10T-i35COXOJL-5X35 0»35003505(-{--7l'XXT-H^C10}Ot-T-l 
lO 05 CO 05 LO CO O O O 1-1 CO O 35 1-H -rji lO X (.-_ CJ 35 -^ t-_ i-i ^ t-_ CO O) C? 35 CO CO 

■ T-i T-i «■ CO '^ lO CO £> 00 35 o ■*■ £-■ lo -* ic x" T-i r-' co' CO CO -*■ t-i o> 55 ;2 i' IS 
^T-iTHOjco'^iac-xocj'a-cox — cc^ssoj 

T-l r-l ^ T-I 1-1 CI 03 CJ « CO 


External Circum- 
ference. 


C>{-C-»XM35^C5L'rOl~ — CO£^X35^C?^COf-350C:!T:}<lOr;;X02i^ 
1*0 — C5XC0l/^C0C}^35XOC0O■^3iC0^-^»035-^XCJC0O-*35C0^- 
■^ 35 O -* CJ O X CO T* C7 35 (.- i« ■n- C- X 35 T-.< CJ T* LO CO X 35 T- OJ -^ lO — X 35 

eo CO T}J lo CO £> t- 00 05 d d T-i c« -*' o" 00 --' lo x' — -t t-' o CO t-^ i CO CO »' -;^ o 
T-iT-i-iT-iTH,-iT-icJciCJCococO'#-*^i-o<cii-oi-oco;o 


Internal Circum- 
ference. 


o 
a 

o 


05'fT--<r-^c?t-cocixcococox-*M'«LO'*io_»o-*cocij2i*o— ;fr 
cico•^^■o•col^t^x•dd-■-•oo;2;r;:dgi^^dco■odo•o•x- 


Standard Thick- 
ness. 


1 


C:»CJC0»0XXC53535S53535OC:O'-CJC>C0i*' 35XX35--;5;C> 
l-«-X353535C:00 — — — C0C0T1OI-X35 — C->C^C0-Pi£:l-X35CJ^ 

o o o o o o T-I T-1 T-I 1-1 1-1 1-1 T-H T-I — — 1 T-^ r-i T-I cj d cj cj CI ci cj cj c> CO CO CO 


Internal Diam. 


.= 


COCO-*Oi*-rt<COCOCOC>C:»C?T^T-005t-«Oi.OCOOC>i*-*C>qOCiCOOOO 

lOOCOCOOlOXOOX — COT-i^T^-MOLOCOT-t-COiChCJOX^C? — OCOCJ 

T— iT-l-rH 1-Hl-lT-ll-ll— IT-I-— C} 


External Diam. 


.a 
c 


rHr-lT-lT-lClCJCJCJC0C0C0C0i*Kj<lC«0l>XC5OT-IC1C0T*l0C0t-X^OjH 





In estimating the effective steam-heating or boiler surface of Tubes, the surface in contact with air or 
gases of combustion (whether internal or external to the tubes) is to be taken. 

For heating liquids by steam, superheating steam, or transferring heat from one liquid or gas to another, 
the mean surface of the Tubes is to be taken. 



16 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



Incorporated 
1866. 




Charter Per- 
petual. 



\zm Policies of iDsnrauce after a Carefnl iDspectlon of Itie Boilers, 

COVERING ALL LOSS OK DAMAGE TO 

BOILERS, BUILDINGS, AND MACHINERY. 

ALSO COVERING 

LOSS OF LJFE AND ACCIDENT TO PERSONS 

ARISING FROM 

Steam Boiler Explosions- 

Full information concerning the plan of the Company's operations can be obtained at the 

Or at any Agency. 



J. M. ALLEN, President. 
J. B. PIERCE, Secretary. 



W. B. FRANKLIN, Vice-Prest. 
FRANCIS B. ALLEN, 2d Viee-Prest. 



Uoard. of 

J. M. ALLEN, President. 

FRANK W. CHENEV, Treas. Cheney Brothers 

Silk ^Manufacturing Co. 
CHARLES M. BEACH, of Beach & Co. 
DANILL PHILLIl'S, of Adams I':xpress Co. 
RICHARD W. H. JAR VIS, Prest. Colt's Fire Arms 

JIanufacturins Co. 
THOMAS 0. ENDERS, President of the United 

States Bank. 
LEVERETT BRAINARD, of The Case, Lockwood 

& Brainard Co. 
Gex. WM. B. FRANKLIN, late Vice-Prest. Colt's 

Pat. Fire Arms Mfg. Co. 



T>ireotors. 

NEWTON CASE, of The Case, Lockwood & 

Brainard Co. 
NELSON HOLLISTER, of State Bank, Hartford. 
Hex. HENRY C. ROBINSON, Attorney-at-Law, 

Hartford. 
Hon. FRANCIS B. COOLEY, of the National 

Excliancre Bank, Hartford, Conn. 
A. W. JILLSON, late Vice-Prest. Phoenix Fire Ins. 

Co., Hartford, Conn. 
EDMUND A. STEDJIAN, Treasurer of the Fidelity 

Co , of Hartford, Conn. 
CLAl'P SPOONER, Bridgeport, Conn. 
GEORGE BURNHAM, Baldwin Locomotive Works, 

Philadelphia. 



GENERAL AGENTS. 

THEO. H. BABCOCK, 
CORBIN & GOODRICH, 
LAWFORl) & McKIM, 

C. E. ROBERTS, 

H. D. P. BIGELOW, 
C. C. GARDINER, 
L. B. PERKINS, 
W. G. LINEBURGH & SON, 
GEO. P. BURWELL, 
HUTCHINSON & MANN, 
W. S. HASTIE & SON, 
G. A. STEEL & CO., 
FRITH & ZOLLARS, 



CHIEF INSPECTORS 

R. K. McMI'RRAY, 
WM. G. PIKE. 
JOSEPH CRAGG, 

WM. U. FAIRBAIRN, \ 



H. D. P. BIGELOW, 
J. S. WILSON, 
F. S. ALLEN, 
J. H. RANDALL. 
C. A. BURWELL, 
J. B. WARNER, 

M. J. GEIST, 
T. E. SHEARS, 



New York City 
Philadelphia. 
Baltimore, Md. 
Boston, Mass. 

Pl'.OVIDENCE, R. 

Chicago, III. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Hartford. 
Bridgeport. 
Cleveland. 
San Francisco. 
Charleston, S. 
Portland. Ore. 
Denver, Col. 



OFFICES. 

Office, 285 Broadway. 

" 4.30 Walnut St. 

" 22 So.HallidaySt. 

" 35 Pemhertoii Sq. 

I. " 29 Wevbosset St. 

" n2QuincvSt. 

" 404 Market St. 

" 218 Main St. 

" 94 State St. 

" 208 Superior St. 

" 306 Sansome St. 

C. " 44 Broad St. 

" Opera House Block. 



Witt S^otomoim, 



PUBLISHED BY THE HARTFORD STEAM BOILER INSPECTION AND INSURANCE COMPANY. 



New Series— Vol. X. HARTFORD, CONX., FEBRUARY, 1889. 



No. 2. 



The Construction and Manag-ement of Rendering" Tanks. 

By the explosion of two rendering tanks, as hereinafter described, a three-story brick 
tank house was demolished, surrounding property injured, and a considerable part of 
the equipment wrecked, so that the resulting damage probably exceeded $25,000. We 
are gratitied to announce there was no loss of life by this explosion, as it occurred in 

file early evening, after the large force that is employed 
there had gone home and left the night-tank man in charge, 
who, fortunately, was in a distant part of the room at the 
time of the occurrence. Even as it was he would not have 
escaped had he not been near a heavy wall, against which, 
the falling debris lodged and shielded him. In addition to 
the two tanks that exploded, a third was blown some dis- 
tance, and several adjacent ones were moved from their 
foundations, breaking the pipe connections, fittings, and 
attachments, and adding to the general destruction and 
confusion. 

Fig. 2 shows the old style of tank commonly found in 
our best packing establishments, with the safety-bolt from 
head to head as recommended by this company. These 
tanks are usually five to six feet in diameter, and fourteen 
to sixteen feet high, made of good material and equipped 
with a safety valve and suitable pipe connections for filling 
and emptying the tank. We may here note, and it probably 
will not be disputed, that tank construction has not been 
improved during the past ten years to the extent that steam- 
boiler construction has. Yet the demand for packing 
products has been greatly increased, and there has been 
a corresponding need of increased tank service. This has 
been met partly by putting in additional tanks, and partly 
by driving the old ones a little harder. 

As near as can be computed from the limited data 
available, eighty-five explosions of these tanks have occurred 
within a few years, resulting in a loss of 149 lives, in injuries, 
to 170, and in an approximate property damage of over a. 
million of doHars. 

In view of the foregoing, and considering the number of 
human lives at stake and the magnitude of the business in- 
terests involved, it may be profitable to review the subject 
of construction and management of tanks, with some practical siiggestions, the applica- 
tion of which has been found of value in lessening the danger, and possibly has pre- 




Rendering Tank. 
Fig. 1. — New Style. 



vented the occurrence of many such disasters. 



■18 THE LOCOMOTIVE.. [February, 

In the old style of tanks, the bottom often rested in a timber framework or cradle. 
This was objectionable because, while it prevented access to the bottom plates, it facil- 
itated corroSion by keeping the whetted surfaces in contact. The better plan is to sus- 
pend the tank from lugs riveted to the sides of the shell, and resting on suitable beams. 
(These are not illustrated because their positions will vary within certain limits.) 
The external surface of such a tank is at all times in sight, external corrosion 
is reduced to the minimum, and the metal can be scraped off and ^^ainted 
as often as is necessary. There should be as few seams as possible in a tank ; 
and if the shell could be made in one sheet and the joint welded, it would be a great 
advantage, for the fatty acids will in time find their way between the plates through 
small leaks at the lap-seam, and corrode and groove the plates at the joints with aston- 
ishing rapidity. Probably the expense of such work will be so reduced in the near 
future as to make such welding practicable. We must for the present, however, con- 
tent ourselves with making shells in two or more rings, and in doing this we shall 
increase the durability, if we arrange the laps of the circular ring so that they will look 
down rather than up, thus preventing a lodgment of corrosive material on the edge of 
each ring. A suitable combing of wood or angle iron, the latter preferably, should be 
on the charging floor surrounding every tank. This will prevent the continued diippings 
and washing of the floor from running down the sides of the tank, — an abominable 
nuisance in many tank-houses. 

Where the older kind of tanks are used, with an arched frame or mouthjiiece, as 
shown in Fig. 2, frequent examinations should be made, for it is a very common thing 
to find such frames fractured ; and if rupture occurs with a charge in, the results are 
most disastrous. To provide against such a contingency, when tanks are made in the 
old way, there should be a strong bolt from head to head of the tank which, in the 
event of accident, will hold it together until it can be put out of service. Fig. 3 illus- 
trates the form of bolt we have recommended. The same precaution has been 
recommended by this company, with satisfactory results, in plain cylinder boilers, 
that formerly went off in two parts whenever the shell rujjtured, wrecking everything 
within i-ange ; but which are now generally held together by the bolts until they can be 
shut off and put out of service. 

Cast-iron mouthpieces and frames are unreliable at best, and in a joint that is opened 
and closed once in twenty-four hours, by men not the most experienced, forged ones 
would be far safer and more durable. 

Modern tanks, illustrated in Fig. 1, discharge through a gate valve in the bottom, 
which gives an unobstructed opening. Braces cannot so easily be put in these tanks 
without obstructing the movement of the charge. Therefore, additional strength should 
be provided in the shell. All shell seams, both girth and vertical, should be double 
staggered riveted. This is done not only to give an increased strength at the riveted seam 
(an important consideration owing to the stress upon the heads and the tendency to 
separation of the shell girthwise, which tendency, owing to the absence of the holding 
power of the long bolt heretofore referred to, is measured by the resistance of the shell 
plates at their weakest section), but also to give as large a bond as is possible, and one 
free from leaks. The gore-sheets forming the top and bottom heads are single riveted, 
with rivets of the necessary diameter, and ample length to head up properly, conforma- 
bly to the plan of this com]mny in such cases — all rivets to be driven from the inside, 
and all seams to be caulked both inside and out. Upon the shell and heads there 
should be reinforcing pieces, of proper thickness and suitable size, with holes of the 
requisite diameter for the various pipe fittings all threaded and ready for use. The 
diff"crcnce in the general shape of the tanks shown in the two cuts is accidental, and is 
not intended to indicate a corresponding diff"erence in design between the old and new 
styles. 



1889.] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



19' 



Tank-heads are now made more conical than formerly, and the gore-sheets are 
better arranged, so that there is less fretting at the seams. The cone should be about 
twenty inches high, surmounted by a substantial cast-iron center-plate on the top head 
and a flange on the bottom, both drilled and tapped for pipe fittings. To the flange- 
plate on the bottom, a gate-valve is attached. As the heads, under ordinary circum- 
stances, corrode faster than any other part of the tank, they should be made corre- 
spondingly tliick. The durability of the heads will be increased l)y careful design and 
workmanlike fitting up of the gore-sheets, by the use of cast-iron plates, and by attention 
to other essential details. We fear that in the past, anything half way decent in the 
way of material or work was thought good enough for tank use ; and while we do not 
believe that the best material would prove to be the 
most durable (because not so likely to resist corrosive 
action), the material used should be sufficiently ductile 
to flange without fracture, and a little additional ex- 
pense in the purchase of the material may be considered 
a good investment, as it will prolong the life of the tank 
and make it safer to use. 

At many of cur largest packing houses it has been 
found more satisfactorj' and no more expensive to set 
off" a portion of the boilers and run them at a lower press- 
ure for the tanks (say fifty pounds), than to draw the 
supply from the other boilers that arc run at a much 
higher pressure, and depend upon reducing pressure- 
valves ; for these valves, however well they perform 
elsewhere, are troublesome here. Even with the forego- 
ing precautions, the steam pressure is sometimes raised 
above the desired pressure. This is apt to in the drowsy 
hours toward morning. To prevent this as far as pos- 
sible it is necessary that at some convenient place, in 
plain sight of the tank man, there should be a large 
faced steam gauge, with pipe connections, so arranged 
that it can be readily removed as often as is necessary 
to clean and adjust it. 

The safety-valve should be a free-working one, 
and it should be examined frequently, and arranged, 
if possible, so as to blow off in the room w^hen the safe 
pressure at which it is set is exceeded. 

A careful, experienced man in the tank-room is 
to be desired. The attendant there has it in his 
powder to make or lose considerable for his employer, 
not only in maintaining or neglecting to maintain a low 
and even temperature on the product in the tanks, but 
also by the care that he exercises in gradually warming 
the tanks from the lower temperature at which they are 
charged, to that at which they are to be run. 

The stresses at the lap-joints about door-frames, mouthpieces, etc., from unequal 
expansion alone, are suflicient in many cases to cause fractures, though commonly they 
are brought to notice by leaks that require frequent caulking. The wrench used for 
screwing up the manhole covers, or other joints, should not be longer than eighteen 
inches. When the joint cannot be made tight with that leverage, it should be taken 
off and re-made. To attempt to force it to its place with a longer leverage will often 




LIB 
a 

Rendering Tank. 
Fig. 2. — Old Style. 



20 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[February, 



cause a fracture of the mouthpiece or frame ; and ^vhen steam is on, as is commonh- the 
case, such an accident has many times cost the operator his life. 

Our assured, or those contemjilating insurance, may obtain, ^itiiout charge, full 
information concerning the experience of this company in these matters, and also plans 
and specifications for tanks, stills, digesters, rotaries, and other special boilers, by com- 
municating with the home office at Hartford, or with any agency. 

F. B. A. 



Inspectors' Reports. 

January, 1889. 

During this month our inspectors made 5,009 inspection trips, visited 9,324 boilers, 
inspected 3,300 both internally and externally, and subjected 533 to hydrostatic pres- 
sure. The whole number of defects reijorted reached 7,131, of which 717 were consid- 
ered dangerous ; 47 boilers were regarded unsafe for further use. Our usual summary is 
given below : 

Nature of Defects. 
Cases of deposit of sediment, ... 

Cases of incrustation and scale, ... 

Cases of internal grooving, - - - . 

Cases of internal corrosion, - - - - 

Cases of external corrosion, - - - - 

Broken and loose braces and stays, - - . 

Settings defective, - - - . . 

Furnaces out of shape, - . . . 

Fractured plates, ----- 

Burned plates, - ... - 

Blistered plates, . - - . . 

Cases of defective riveting, - - . . 

Defective heads, - - - . . 

Serious leakage around tube ends, - . - 

Serious leakage at seams, - . . . 

Defective water-gauges, - . . - 

Defective blow-offs, - . . . 

Cases of deficiency of water. 

Safety-valves overloaded, . . . . 

Safety-valves defective in construction, 

Pressure-giiuges defective, . - - - 

Boilers without pressure-gauges, - . - 

Unclassified defects, - . . . 

Total, ..--... 7,131 . . 717 

Strange accidents happen in connection with boilers, as well as with other things. 
On(; of them happened not long ago. The engineer had been inside the boiler cleaning 
it out, and as the shell and setting were still warm he perspired profusely. He had 
with him a cloth on which he wiped his face at frequent intervals. When he left the 
boiler he forgot this cloth, and, closing the man-hole, left it inside. In the course of 
time the cloth lodged on the seat of the blow-off valve, keeping it slightly open and 
slowly allowing the water to escape. Well, the boiler got dry and was badly burned ; 
all on account of forgetting the rag. 



UTiole Number. 


Danf^erous. 


400 


- 


- 


31 


694 


. 


. 


26 


47 


- 


- 


7 


182 


- 


- 


24 


315 


- 


- 


61 


142 


- 


- 


39 


179 


- 


- 


18 


111 


- 


- 


10 


201 


. 


- 


81 


126 


- 


- 


19 


213 


- 


- 


6 


1,890 


- 


- 


78 


81 


. 


- 


24 


1,605 


- 


- 


174 


319 


- 


- 


23 


108 


- 


- 


19 


57 


- 


- 


14 


24 


- 


. 


8 


39 


- 


- 


11 


56 


- 


- 


22 


254 


- 


- 


20 


7 


- 


- 


7 


81 


- 


- 






1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 21 

Boiler Explosions. 

January, 1889. 
Hoop Factory (1). At Clinton, N. C, on Jan. 3d, a boiler exploded in the hoop 
factory of Colonel John Ashford, instantly killing two sons of Colonel Ashford, and also 
a negro, and fatally injuring Colonel Ashford himself. A man named W. II. Britt was 
also seriously and perhaps fatally wounded. 

Locomotive (2). When the passenger train from Cincinnati on the Cincinnati, 
Hope ttGreensburg Railroad, was about two miles out of Columbus, Ind., on January 5th, 
several of the tubes in the locomotive gave way. Lou Foster, the fireman, and Arch 
Black, a brakemau, were blown from their positions by the force of the escaping steam 
and water. The train was moving rapidly, and their fall was terrible. Foster had both 
of his arms broken in two places, and was badly scalded on the body and face, besides 
receiving internal injuries which will cause his death. Black received a broken arm and 
was badly burned. 

Grist-Mill (3). About 1 o'clock on January 5th, William Jerome, Thomas Carter, 
J. E. French, Wade Shufflebarger, John Wimmer, Levi Shields, and Eli Shields were 
sitting in William Carter's steam grist-mill, at Newhope, W. Ya., when the boiler burst. 
The mill was wrecked, and French, Carter, Levi Shields, and John Wimmer were 
killed. Eli Shields was horribly scalded, and died next day. Shufflebarger was 
badly burned about the face and body. Jerome was injured on the head and had 
his collar-bone broken. William Carter was seriously injured internally. The explo- 
sion was of terrific force, breaking the beams into si")linters, and pieces of the boiler 
weighing 200 pounds were blown over 300 yards. 

Saw-Mill (4). The boiler in Bell's mill, at Pellston, Mich., blew up on Jan. 11th, 
killing the fireman, the head sawyer, and one other man. 

Factory (5). The boiler in the Appleton Manufacturing Company's works, Apple- 
ton, Wis., exploded at 3 o'clock in the morning of January 14th, killing watchman Reich- 
ter. Flues and pieces of boiler shell were thrown several hundred feet, and the boiler- 
house was torn to pieces, not one brick being left upon another. The wood-working 
department, situated thirty feet from the boiler-house, was bombarded with bricks and 
twisted, racked, and splintered. Windows and doors were blown out, and the inside 
filled with debris. The report and concussion shook houses for half a mile around. The 
loss is estimated at $5,000.00. 

Steam Heater (6). A steam-heating boiler exploded at Carter's greenhouse, New- 
burg, N. Y., on Jan. 14th. The sheets of the boiler were ripped off, and large pieces 
were hurled in all directions. The boiler was a second-hand one, and had been put in 
only a few weeks. 

Steel Works (7). A terrific boiler explosion occurred at Park Bros.' Black 
Diamond steel works, in Pittsburgh, on Jan. loth. The head of one of the boilers in 
the pumping department gave way, and the explosion followed, seriously injuring one 
man, and tearing out a large portion of one of the sheet-iron walls of the mill. A Scotch- 
man named Seehan had charge of the boiler, and was standing near it at the time of the 
explosion. The force of the shock stunned him, and the boiling water flew all over him. 
horribly scalding his face, hands, and head. The mill physician was summoned and 
dressed his wounds, after which he was removed to his home. His injuries are not con- 
sidered to be fatal. Seehan's escape from death is considered almost a miracle by his 
fellow workmen, as he was within a very few feet of the boiler when the explosion 



22 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [Februatiy, 

occurred, and yet he was not touched by the flying fragments. Had the explosion hap- 
pened two or three hours later, several persons would probably have been killed. The 
day men had not come to work yet. Seehan was a night man, and had charge of the 
pumps. 

Newspaper Office (8). On Jan. 16th the boiler in the building occupied by the 
Standni-d and Democrat, in De Fere, Wis., exploded, injuring several men and causing 
$6,000 loss. 

Farm Boiler (9). A boiler exploded on the farm of Maj. W. J. Sutherland, at 
Milton, N. C, on Jan. 19th, killing Paul Terry, and badly injuring several others. 

Saw-mill (10). The boiler of a portable steam saw-mill, situated in the west part of 
Danville, Vt., exploded on Jan. 22d, instantly killing Ernest Comstock and seriously injur- 
ing Albert Morgan and Carl White. Comstock's death is peculiarly sad, as he leaves a 
young wife who is nearly helpless with paralysis, and a young child. 

Saw-mill (11). On Jan. 22d, the boiler in Robert Carter's saw-mill. Dawn, Out., ex- 
ploded, demolishing the mill. 

Saw-mill (12). On Jan. 23d, a boiler exploded at Cabot, Vt. , killing the owner 
and injuring several others. 

Saw-mill (13). By the explosion of a saw-mill boiler near Chillicothe, O., on Jan. 
24th, two men were killed and two others received probably fatal injuries. The saw-mill 
was located in a region known as Tar Hollow in the hills northeast of the city about 
twelve miles. It was operated by George and James Dearth, John W. Arlidge, and 
Ebenezer Starling. The explosion occurred just after the men had returned to work 
from dinner, killing both the Dearths and mangling Arlidge and Starling in a horrible 
manner. The head of George Dearth Avas torn from the body and thrown through the 
air fully one hundred yards. The body was also thrown a considerable distance in an 
opposite direction, landing upon the bank of a creek. The body of James Dearth was 
also hurled about one hundred yards and landed on a hill across the hollow. Arlidge 
and Starling are not expected to live. 

Saw-mill (14). A terrible boiler explosion occurred on Jan. 27th at Perkins's mill, 
five miles east of Poplar Bluff, Mo. Just before the explosion Judge Shamount of Pop- 
lar Bluff and a farmer named Robins were pas.sing and dropped in to see Mr. Perkins. 
The exyjlosion wrecked the mill and 100 feet of shed attached to it. Judge Shamount, 
John Moore, and John Chronister were instantly killed. W. H. Perkins, Mr. Robins, 
and a young man named Malcolm were so badly burned and injured that they are not 
expected to live. Two brothers named Spencer, employed in the mill, were badly scalded. 
Portions of the boiler were found 300 yards away. 

Thresher (15). The boiler of a rye-thresher, owned and operated by Dennis Ham- 
mond, exploded on Jan. — th, while threshing at Mr. John D. Gaither's, near Unionville, 
Mo., sending the debris in all directions. Mr. John Gaither, his brother, W. A. Trump, 
and Keston Coats were all struck with the flying matter, the latter being felled to the 
ground. They had been threshing about an hour and a half, when something became 
disarranged and the strap flew off" the straw carrier. The machinery was stopped for 
repairs, and was just starting up when the explosion occurred. Mr. Gaither was sta- 
tioned at the jack with a crowbar in his hand, to keep the strap on the pulley while the 
machinery got under way. Mr. Hammond had just left the front of his machine to look 
after the straw carrier, thereby escaping death or fatal injury, as the entire machine is a 
total wreck. Mr. Gaither, the moment the explosion occurred, ran to his horses, but m 
his flight a ten pound piece of cylinder struck him upon the head, but not low enough 
to do serious damage. 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE 23 

Electric Light Plant (16). About 11 o'clock on Jan. 27th, one of the boilers 
belonging to the old Pontiac coal shaft, Pontiac, III., exploded, instantly killing Charles 
Young, the fireman. A. B. Sells, brother of the engineer, was seriously injured and is 
not expected to live. His injuries are principally internal. Samuel Calkins, a young 
man whose parents reside a couple of blocks from the shaft, had just stepped into the 
engine-room, and he received slight injuries about the face from the escaping steam. 
The engine-room caught fire immediately, and was mostly burned down before the fire 
company reached it. The shaft, owned by Haynes & Co., of Chenoa, has not been in 
operation for the past two years, but the boilers were leased to the Pontiac Electric Light 
Company, who used them to run their engine. The exploded boiler was comparatively a 
new one. 

Ocean Steamer (17). An accident occurred on the White Star Line steamer 
Republic on Jan. 27th, shortly after noon, by which ten men narrowly escaped 
being scalded to death in the stoke hold by the bursting of a boiler-flue. Three of them, 
Thomas McFarland, fourth engineer; James Dwer, sixth engineer; and John Leonard, 
a coal passer, died afterward, from their injuries. Two of the men — Charles Yates, 
second engineer, and Henry Ibbs, fifth engineer — returned to the vessel after their 
wounds were dressed. From an investigation it appears that six firemen and coal-passers, 
and five assistant engineers, were in the hold drawing the fires, cleaning up, and making 
everything snug so that they could leave their posts. There was a steam pressure of 
fifty-six pounds to the square inch on the boiler that failed. Ther# was a sharp report, 
and at the same instant the men received a stream of boiling water and steam in their 
faces. The room that the men were in was about forty feet long and twelve feet wide, 
and as it was in the hold of the vessel, there was no way for the steam to get out except 
through the openings where the ladders stood. There were two ladders, and some of tne 
men climbed out on one of them, but the others were cut off by the jet and could get out 
only by passing through the stream of steam and water. Those who got out quickly 
opened the safety-valve and relieved the pressure. Meantime those shut up in the hold, 
which was by this time filled by steam, suffered horribly, and they were all of them nearly 
suffocated. Three were entirely jarostrated, and had to be hoisted out of the hold by 
means of a derrick; the others could barely crawl up the ladder into the engine-roum. 

SiLK-MiLL (18). A terrific explosion occurred at Harvey's silk-mill, at Scranton',, 
Pa., on Jan. 28th. One of the four large boilers in use exploded, tearing the engine audi 
boiler rooms to pieces, and throwing the debris in every direction. One side of the mill 
was completely wrecked, and the three floors were filled with bricks and pieces of timber, 
Nicholas Schistel, engineer, and Horace Anderson, fireman, were badly scalded. August 
Albert, another fireman, and Alfred Harvey, owner of the mill, who were in the engine- 
room, were slightly cut by flying debris. Schistel's home, a small two-story frame house 
close by, was literally torn in pieces; but his wife, though covered with wreckage, 
escaped serious injury. 

Summary of Boiler Explosions for the Year 1888. 

■ Our usual summary and classified list of explosions during the year is given below. 
The total number of explosions, so far as we have been able to learn, was 246. In a 
number of cases more than one boiler exploded at the same time, and while it has been 
our custom in previous years to count instances of this kind as single explosions, we 
have this year counted each boiler separately, believing that by so doing we can convey 
a fairer conception of the amount of damage done during the year. It is partly for 
this reason that the number of explosions (246) reported, in. 1B88 exceeds those (198) 
reported in 1887 so considerably. 



24 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[February, 



The number of persons killed outright, or who died within a very short time, was 
331 during 1888, against 264 in 1887, and 254 in 1886 ; and the number injured (fully 
100 of whom were reported to be fatally so) was 505, against 388 in 1887, and 314 in 
1886. This makes a total of 836 persons killed and maimed during the year — not 
counting the many minor accidents that were not considered sufficiently " newsy" to 
interest the general public. 

Classified List of Boiler Explosions in the Year 1888. 



CLASS OF BOILER. 



c3 a .cj _; 






,-^ J^ i-s ^Hj <: 02 o 



o a> 



1 Saw-mills and other Wood-working Establiirhmeuts, .... 

2 Locomotives, 

3 Steamships, Tugs, and other Steam Vessels, 

4 Portable Boilers, Holsters, and Agricultural Engines, .... 

5 Mines, Oil Welle, Collieries, 

6 Paper Mills, Bleacheries, Digesters, etc., 

7 Rolling Mills and Iron Works, 

i » 

8 Distilleries, Breweries, Dye- Works, Sugar Houses, and Rendering Works, 

9 Flour Mills and Grain Elevators, 

j 

10 Textile Manufactories, . . . , 

11 Miscellaneous, 



III! 



7 8 13 



I 911 6 4 9 7 1 

I I I ' ' I I 
2, 4 5 2 2.. 2 11 8..; i; 
I I I I I I I ; I I 
2 2, li 3 2 2 ll 3 li 1 .. 2 



I J 
2 1 1 ..I 1 4 
I I 
t 1 



I I 
2 1 . 

1 
2 



7 3 2 



II,,, 
2 5 .5' 2 3 4 



1 7 



1 1 

I 



1 1 
1 



2 1 

•■I 1' 

I 

2.. 

I 



4, 2 2 8, 2 3 



Total per month. 
Persons killed, (total, 331,) " " " 
Persons injured, (total, 505,) " " " 



29 22 22,18 16 19 24 20 25 13 15 23 

I I I I I M I ^ : i i I 
22 59 23 20 20 20 17 54 37 13 22 24' 
I I I M ! I I I : I I I 
,56 68 37 40 35 38 40 41 56 15 29 50 



246 



Photographing" Wonders in the Heavens. 

The effort now making to enable the Naval Observatory at AVashington to take part 
in the great enterprise of photographing the heavens, in which the astronomers of half a 
dozen nations are engaged, calls attention once more to the surprising developments 
of astronomical photography. Nobody would have believed, ten years ago, that any 
such achievements and discoveries as we have recently witnessed were possible. It is as 
if a new sense had been given to man. We are surrounded by thousands of celestial 
phenomena which powerful telescopes were unable to disclose to the eye, but which the 
same telescopes, when properly prepared, reveal to the more sensitive, or more efficient, 
retina of the photographic camera. Even well-known objects, like the Orion nebula, 
take on new forms, and are beheld surrounded by unsuspected subsidiary phenomena when 
tliey are photographed. The etheric undulations, which escape the ordinary sense of sight, 
have a story of their own to tell respecting the constitution of the universe ; and by 
impressing their images upon chemical films, they give us glimpses into the arcana of the 
heavens that are startling in their significance. We now possess well-printed photo- 
graphs of vast and monstrous creations, gulfs of chaos, like some of those strange 
nebulous masses in Orion or the Pleiades, whose existence had hardly been suspected 
four or five years ago. 



1889] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 25 

Streams of suns, strung along like pebbles in the bed of a creek, are seen involved in 
streaks and masses of nebulous matter of perfectly enormous extent. In one place in 
the group of the Pleiades, which at this season adorns the evening sky, there is seen, in 
the photographs taken at the Paris observatory, a nebula in the form of a long, straight, 
narrow streak, upon which six or seven stars are set, like diamonds on a silver bar. As- 
suming that the parallax of this object is half a second of an arc, which is the largest poa- 
ble value that could be given to it, it has been shown that the length of that strange 
nebulous pathway, leading from sun to sun, cannot be less than five hundred thousand 
millions of miles ; and the distance between the two nearest of the stars thus connected 
is more than four hundred times as great as that which separates our sun from the 
earth ! The reader should keep in mind that these are minimum values, and that in all 
probability the dimensions involved are really much larger. By the same calculation 
the width of the nebulous streak can be shown to be not less than seven hundred and 
eighty million miles, or more than eight times the distance from the earth to the sun. 
It seems highly probable that this great streak is in reality only the rim of a broad circu- 
lar disk of nebulous stuff, presented edgewise toward the earth, and which, as indicated 
by the stars already involved in it, is undergoing changes that will finally result in its 
complete transformation into stars. 

One of the most interesting of the celestial photographs recently taken has just been 
published in England. It is a photograph of the great nebula in Andromeda, made by 
Mr. Roberts, of Liverpool, and it shows that stupendous cosmical mass in an entirely 
new light. Heretofore it has been represented as a shapeless expanse of nebula, sprinkled 
over with stars. But the photograph brings into view fainter portions which give a 
most suggestive shape to the nebula. It is now seen to be composed of a huge central 
mass encircled by ring within ring, and presented in an inclined position to our line of 
sight so that its outline is strongly elliptical. This is regarded as confirmatory of La 
Place's nebular theory of the origin of solar systems. Two or three globular masses are 
seen, whose situation and aspect suggest that they are in the act of formation 
from the nebulous rings, just as the planets are supposed to have been shaped from sim- 
ilar rings in the first stages of our solar system. 

The appearance of motion, or rather of the evident eff'ects of motion, as shown in 
this photograph, is very striking. Covering all the sky where the nebula is, dotting the 
nebula itself over as thick as falling snowflakes, appear innumerable stars. Through 
these stars shine the great ovals of the nebula surrounding the enormous, white, and 
comparatively shapeless central body. In the stream-like arrangement of the stars, in 
the broad sweep of the nebular rings, even in the chaotic central aggregation itself, the 
eye is seized by the whirling appearance that characterizes the whole phenomenon. It 
is like facing a storm of snow, and perceiving through the fast-fiying throngs of nearer 
flakes a huge eddy of the storm bearing down upon the beholder, furiously swept and 
gyrated by a cyclonic blast into an immense, white, confused, all -swallowing cloud I 
In fact, the simile of a storm is particularly apt, if one has in mind Mr. Lockyer's 
recent theories, according to which nebulae must be regarded as clouds of whirling and 
clashing meteors. Considering that the dimensions of the nebulous phenomenon in the 
Pleiades, described above, sink into insignificance in comparison with those of this 
nebula in Andromeda, it is enough to make the imagination dizzy to gaze ujDon Mr. 
Roberts's photograph. — Neio Y&rh Sun. 



2g THE LOCO ]MOTIVE. [February, 



Mk$ Stttmttltt 



HARTFORD, FEBRUARY, 1889. 
J. M. Allen, Editor. H. F. Smith, } ^,,,,,v.^. Editors. 

A. D. RiSTEEN, \ 

TriE Locomotive can &e obtained free by calling at any of the company's agencies. 
Subscription price 50 cents per year lohen mailed from this office. 
Bound volumes one dollar each. 

Mr. Geo. H. Barrus has kindly sent us a neatly-bovind copy of his recent paper 
on Boiler Tests, read before the New England Cotton Manufacturers' Association at its 
October meeting. This paper contains 199 pages, gives results of fully 150 evapora- 
tive tests conducted personally by the author, or under his direction, and is a very inter- 
esting and valuable collection of data. 



We have received a copy of the second edition of The Electric Motor and its Applica- 
tions, written by Messrs. Wetzler and Martin, and published by the Electrical World. The 
first edition came out in 1887, and was very full and complete ; but the progress of 
electrical science has been very rapid since that time, so that much matter has been added 
to bring the book down to date, and in its present form it gives a very satisfactory 
account of the various motors and railway systems now in use, and makes numerous 
interesting suggestions concerning the directions in which future progress will probably 
be made. 

The editor of the Railway Master Mechanic, in a recent issue of his journal, is in- 
clined to criticise our remark in the Locomotive of July, 1888, page 111, that it is an 
eminently safe rule to " burn your fuel as close to the heating surface of a boiler as you 
conveniently can." He evidently failed to see that the word burn was italicized. We 
also referred more particularly to the furnaces of horizontal tubular boilers than we did 
to the fire-boxes of locomotive boilers. If, however, he wishes to confine the question 
to locomotive boilers, he is at perfect liberty to do so ; but it would be a good plan for him 
to examine into the performance of the Strong locomotive boiler, also those used on the 
Pennsylvania Railroad where the bottom of the fire-box comes above the frames. There 
is also an excellent article on the subject of locomotive fire-boxes in a recent number of 
the The Railroad and Engineering Journal. 



A few years ago there was a considerable discussion in the papers about the ability of 
base-ball players to pitch a ball in a curved line. This is now well known and understood ; 
but we wish to call attention to the following extract from a letter written by Sir Isaac 
Newton to Oldenburg, for it appears from this that Sir Isaac had noticed a similar 
phenomenon in connection with tennis balls, as early as 1666, and that he had given the 
correct explanation of it : 

" Then I began to suspect, whether the rays, after their trajection through the 
prism, did not move in curve lines, and according to their more or less curvity, tend to 
divers parts of the wall. And it increased my suspicion, when I remembered that I had 
often seen a tennis-ball, struck with an oblique racket, describe such a curve line. For, 
a circular as well as a progressive motion being communicated to it by that 
stroke, its parts, on that side where the motions conspire, must press and beat the con- 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 27 

tiguous air more violently than on the other, and there excite a reluctancy and .reaction 
of the air proportionably greater." 



The Lion and the Lamb. 

In a recent number of the Locomotive we jniblished an article on electric welding. 
A number of papers asked permission to reproduce the article, and among them, we 
regret to say, was one that printed it verbatim, literatim, et punctuntim, and then 
credited us simply with the cuts. 

A Lamb was one day walking in a Desert, when he met a famishing Lion. " I have 
no doubt you would like to Eat me," said the Lamb, keeping at a respectful distance. 
"My Friend," said the hypocritical Lion, approaching him with doleful Look and 
stealthy Step, "Lamb has not agreed w^ith me for many Days." "That is doubtless 
true," cried the Lamb ; "but you have purposely neglected to say that Nothing has 
agreed with you ; you have told Part of the truth, but not All of it ; you have tried to 
get all the Benefits of a Lie, without Telling one. Such Dishonesty should not go 
unpunished ;" and he Fell upon the Lion and punished him Severely. 

This Fable teaches that papers should do the square Thing, or they won't get any 
more of our Cuts. 

Collapse of a Corrug'ated Furnace. 

The Locomotive recently printed a paper by Mr. "W. Parker, Chief Engineer Sur- 
veyor to Lloyd's Register, on copper tubes deposited by electricity. This same gentle- 
man has latel^nnade a report concerning an interesting accident on a new British steamer, 
from which we take the following: "The vessel was engaged in trade between 
Garston and Dublin, and had been at sea only 240 hours, altogether. Her engines and 
boiler were properly designed, the latter being 11 ft. 6 in. in diameter and 10 ft. long, 
with two ribbed furnaces, 41 in. in diameter and ^ in. thick, stayed to work under a 
pressure of 160 lbs. per square inch. On examination it was found that the port furnace 
had collapsed in two places to the extent of 14 inches, and the starboard furnace to 3 
inches. The whole of the surfaces below the water line, including tubes, chambers, 
furnaces, and shell, were covered with small cubical crystals, samples of which have 
been analyzed and found to consist of nearly pure common salt, there being only traces 
of other matter. 

" This is the first case of a furnace of this form collapsing, and considering the pecu- 
liar appearance of the inside of the boiler it was thought proper that it should be investi- 
gated. The boiler was originally filled with fresh water, and the practice of the man in 
charge, according to his statement, was to pump the boiler up to what he called "three- 
quarter glass " when at Garston and Dublin, and when at sea to blow out five inches of 
water each trip. When at sea the density of the water was measured by a salinometer, 
and was never found to exceed (in the language used by sea-going engineers) " three-and- 
a-quarter thirty-tw^os," one "thirty-two" being equal to five ounces of solid matter to 
each gallon, which is the mean density of sea water. Any extra supply of water 
required was taken from the sea. This sahnometer has been tested and found to be in- 
accurate, inasmuch as it shows three ounces per gallon short of the tnie density at a 
tcmjierature of 200 degrees Fah., and when the density approaches sixteen ounces per 
gallon, the density at which the engineer acknowledges the boiler was worked, the read- 
ing of the salinometer becomes quite unreliable owing to defective weighting, so that it 
was never known at what density the boiler was being worked. At times the water must 
have almost reached the point of saturation. 

" This is a case which shows the safety of furnaces of this form to resist collapse even 
when neglected until they become highly heated. If they had been plain furnaces the 



28 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [Februaby, 

collapse would probably have been accompanied with rupture, and a serious accident 
might have occurred. In their cold state it would have taken a pressure of from 800 to 
850 lbs. to have collapsed them, but when hot they collapsed locally at 160 lbs., the 
strengthening ribs keeping the remaining portions of the furnaces in their original posi- 
tion and preventing rupture taking place. 

"Theoretically speaking, by the process of converting water in steam, condensing it 
into water, and again converting it into steam, no loss whatever should take place; but 
in practice there is a considerable loss from leaky pumps, stuffing boxes, safety-valves, 
condenser tubes, etc., and in an engine kept in good working order, I find that for every 
thousand horse-power exerted, one ton of water per day has to be added to the boiler in 
the form of extra supply. If this water has to be taken from the sea, no less than two 
cwt. of solid matter must be deposited every day, and it can easily be seen how detri- 
mental such treatment must be to boilers engaged on long voyages. It is considered that 
all boilers working at high pressures should have some means of making up this loss in 
the form of fresh water, either by carrying it in the vessel, or evaporating and condens- 
ing." 

We understand, from another source, that the deposit of salt in this boiler was from 
1^ to 2 inches thick, and " nearly level with the top of the corrugations." 



The Dance of the Lady Crab. 

About the 12th of September, 1888, there was brought into the laboratory of the 
United States Fish Commission a male specimen of the lady crab {Platyonychus ocellatus), 
which was placed in an aquarium with a female crab of the same species. During the 
evening of the 13th, while sketching some hermit crabs which had previously been placed 
in the same tank, I was attracted by the movements of the male Platyonychus. With- 
out apparent cause, he was seen to rise upon the third and fourth pairs of legs; his large 
chelae were thrown above his head with the claws open and their points touching in the 
middle line ; his fifth pair of feet were held horizontally behind, and his body perpendi- 
cular to the floor of the aquarium, or at right angles to the normal position. The 
posture was ludicrous, and, when in this position he began slowly to gyrate, his move- 
ments and attitude were the cause of much merriment upon the part of the spectators. 
At times he balanced on two legs of one side, again on two legs of opposite sides. Xow 
he advances slowly and majestically, and now he wheels in circles in the sand on the floor 
of the aquarium, and now for a few moments he stands as if transfixed in this unnatural 
position. An electric light hung above and to one side of the water, which suggested 
the possibility that it might be the exciting cause. It was turned out, and still the dance 
went on, and the joy was unconfined. At last, from sheer exhaustion, he sinks down to 
the sand in his usual attitude. 

But now the female, who has all this time remained tucked away in the sand, comes 
forth and begins to move about the aquarium ; soon she comes near to the male crab, 
when instantly he rises to his feet and begins to dance. Again and again the perform- 
ance is repeated, and each time the approach of the female is the signal for the male to 
rear high upon his hind-feet, and to reel about the aquarium as if intoxicated. 

At times, when the female approached as he danced, he was seen to make attempts 
to enclose her in his great chelate arms, not with any violence, for the claws never 
snapped nor closed violently; but she was coy, however, and refused to be won by his 
advances, for the dance may have been nothing new to the lady crab, nor half as interest- 
ing as it was to the two spectators outside the water. Later, he too buried himself in the 
sand, and the performance came to an end. 

The next day, and the day following it, the two crabs were watched, but without 
anything unusual taking place Performances such as these are by no 



1889.1 



THE LOCOMOTIVE 



29 



means uncommon among the vertebrates, especially with male birds in their endeavors to 
attract the female; but I believe there are few, if any, performances of this kind on rec- 
ord below the vertebrates. — T. H. Morgan, in the Po]iulur Science Monthly. 



18750 



33S00 



45000 



8" THICK 
IsFT.DIAM. 



The Stability of Chimneys.* 

After the determination of the proper size and height of a chimney flue to produce 
the requisite draft for any given boiler-plant, the next step is to fix upon such dimen- 
sions for the stack as shall insure its safety against overturning by the highest winds to 
which it is likely to be subjected. 

The factor which operates to overturn a chimney is 
the force of the wind acting against the body of the stack; 
the resistance to overturning is due to the weight of the 
masonry taken in connection with the diameter of the 
chimney at the base. 

The relation between the velocity of the wind and its 
pressure against flat or curved surfaces opposed to its force 
is not very well understood. Proper experiments to de- 
termine it exactly have never been made, although it would 
appear that there is no great difficulty involved in making 
such experiments at the present time. The pressure is 
generally supposed to increase as the square of the velocity 
when the opposing surface is at right angles to the direc- 
tion of the wind, and in such cases Smeaton's rule is to — 

Divide the square of the velocity in miles per hour hy 
200/ the quotient is the pressure in pounds per square foot. 

By this rule which is used by the U. S. Signal Service, 
and engineers generally, but which Trautwine, an excellent 
authority, considers "probably quite defective," the table 
on page 30 has been calculated, which will be found 
interesting. 

Whether the rule is correct or not, it is certain that 
wind pressures of between forty and fifty pounds per 
square foot have been observed in this country, so it will 
be well to make allowance for the latter pressure in design- 
ing a new chimney. It was the practice of Professor 
Rankine to provide against a pressure of fifty-five pounds 
per square foot for such structures in England. 

In designing new chimneys we must depend upon 
the weight of the brick-work alone to prevent the shaft 
from overturning, for fresh mortar has no amount of tensile 
strength for several months after it is laid. The theoreti- 
cally correct outline for a chimney-shaft is a hollow batter, 
nearly straight at the top, and increasing in concavity as 
the ground is approached, but this form is difficult to 
build, and in chimneys of ordinary heights the amount of 
concavity is so slight as to be hardly worth considering, 
and certainly not worth the extra cost required to build it. 
For chimneys of four feet in diameter and one hundred feet 
high, and upwards, the best form is circular with a 
straight batter on the outside. A circular chimney of 

this size, in addition to being cheaper than any other form is lighter, stronger, and 
looks much better and more shapely. 

* Reprinted by request from the Locomotive for June, 1886. 



< 1 2" THICK" 



-lOilFT.DIAM. 



I 



I6"THICK 



IE FT >• 

•° Era 
Fig. 1. 



30 



THE LOCOMOTIVE, 



[February, 



TABLE OF WIND VELOCITIES AND PRESSURES. 



Velocity in 

miles 
per hour. 


Velocity in 

feet 
per second. 


Pressure in 

pounds 

per square foot. 


Remarks.— Character of wind, etc. 


1 
2 


1.467 
2.933 


.005 
.02 


Hardly perceptible. 
Pleasant. 


3 


4.400 


.045 




4 


5.867 


.08 




5 


7.33 


.125 




10 


14.67 


.5 




13^ 


18.33 


.781 


Fresh breeze. 


15 


22. 


1.125 




20 


29.33 


2. 




25 


36.67 


3.125 


Brisk wind. 


30 


44. 


4.5 


Strong wind. 


40 


58.67 


8. 


High wind. 


50 


73.33 


12.5 


Storm. 


60 


88. 


18. 


Violent storm. 


80 


117.3 


32. 


Hurricane. 


100 


146.7 


50. 


Violent hurricane, uprooting large trees. 



Chimneys of any considerable height are not built up of uniform thickness from 
top to bottom, nor with a uniformly varying thickness of wall, but the wall lieavicst of 
course at the base, is reduced by a series of steps, as shown in the illustration. It is 
evident that any given section of the wall is weakest at its lower end, or where the 
thickness changes; hence, if the stack as shown possesses a sufficient margin of strength 
at the joints, 10, JN, and at the base, it will be amply strong at all other portions of 
its height, for the joints mentioned are its weakest points. 

To determine the stability of the chimney, it is necessary to consider fir.st, the upper 
section, from I to P, second, the two upi)er sections from J to P, and last, the entire 
chimney from K to P, calculating the weight and pressure of the wind against each 
separately, as though they were independent stacks and standing by themselves. 

In calculating the weight of the brick-work which is available to resist the action of 
the wind, we can figure in that m the inside stack, for although the two stacks are not 
bonded together, and the wind-pressure acts only on the outer one, yet the wings built 
into the outer one, and running in and almost touching the inner one, as shown in Fig. 2, 
practically make one stack of the two, as far as resistance to a lateral pressure is con- 
cerned. The pressure of the wind being practically horizontal and acting uniformly on 
each square foot of the shaft, we may consider it for the purposes of our calculation as 
concentrated at the center of the figure of each section. Thus the surface of the upper 
section from I to P, in the sketch shown would be 375 square feet, and the total pressure 
against this section, if we allow for a wind-pressure of fifty pounds per square foot, 
would be 375 x 50 = 18,750 pounds, which we may consider to be concentrated at A, 
the center of the surface of this section. 

In a similar manner we find that the pressure against that portion of the stack above 
J N, to be 33,600 pounds acting at B, while for the whole stack it is equal to 45,000 
pounds acting at C. 

The centers of magnitude. A, B, and C, of the sections shown, or of any similar 
pyramidal or conical figure, may be found by the following rule : 

Divide the difference of the outside diameter at the base and top ly three times their sum; 
subtract the quotient from 1 ; multiply the remainder hy half the height; the product will he 
the height of the required point above the base. 

Thus to find the height of the center of pressure A, in the example we are consider- 



1889.] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE 



31 



iig: the diameter of the outer shaft at I, O, is 9 feet, the diameter at the top is 6 feet. 
The height of this section is 50 feet from I to P, then the height of A, above the base 
9 6 



10, is equal to ( 1 



X 25 = 2U feet. 



3 (9 + 0) 

In a like manner we find B to be 3G.19 feet above J; and C to be 44| feet above the 
surface of the ground. 

Having found the heights of these centers above their respective bases, we lay them 
off on the center line of the chimney, as shown in A, B, and C. 

Next, we compute the weight 
of I)rick-work in both shafts above 
the respective joints I, J, and K, 
the weight of each cubic foot being 
about 113 pounds. In the example, 
which represents a square chimney 
100 feet high with a 40-inch flue, 
the weight above I would be about 
213,000 pounds; the weight above 
J about 347,000, and the weight of 
the whole chimney about 538,000 
pounds. 

Now, with any convenient 
scale, lay off on the center line of 
the chimney, from A downward, 
AD equal to 313,000, and from D, 
in a horizontal direction, DG with 
the same scale 18,750, and draw 
the Ime AG. This is the resultant 
of the two forces which may be 
considered as acting at A, the one, 
313,000 pounds vertically down- 
ward, and due to the weight of the structure above the joint I, giving it sttihil'ty, and the 
other, 18,150 horizontally, and due to the force of the wind, and tending to overturn it. 
If their resultant falls within the base of the joint at I, the chimney would stand in a 
gale blowing with sufficient intensity to cause a pressure of fifty pounds per square foot. 
As will be seen, it falls well tcithin the base, crossing it at O, hence we conclude that the 
upper section has a good margin of safety. 

Proceeding similarly with the other joints where the thickness of the wall changes, 
using the figures for weight and pressure due to these joints, we find that in each case 
the resultant lines BF, and CE, fall well within the stack ; hence we may conclude that 
the chimney, as a whole, has an ample margin of safety. 

Had the resultant line in either case fallen outside the outer shaft at the respective 
joints 10, JN, or KM, the chimney would be unsafe, and would fall in any wind blowing 
with a force of fifty pounds per square foot. 

If the chimney shaft has any other form of cross section, the effect of the pressure of 
the wand against it will be modified. If it is hexagonal in form the effect of the pressure 
will be about three-fourths, if octagonal about five-eighths, and if it is circular only about 
nine-sixteenths what it would be on a square stack of the same cross section. Thus m 
the example given, if the shaft were circular m plan, the force of the wind tending to 
overtuni it would be but a trifle over one-half of the figures given, while the reduced 
weight, due to the fact that a lesser number of bricks would be required for the circular 
constmction, would be about three-fourths of that given for the square cross section. 
Thus we see that the round stack would be, for equal dimensions, considerably stronger 
than the square one. 




32 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



Incorporated 
1866. 




Charter Per- 
petual. 



Issues Policies of Icsurauce after a Carefnl Inspection of the Boilers, 



COVERING ALL LOSS OR DAMAGE TO 



BOILERS, BUILDINGS, AND MACHINERY. 



ALSO COVERING 



LOSS OF LIFE AND ACCIDENT TO PERSONS 



ARISING FROM 



Steam Boiler Explosions. 

Full information concerning the plan of the Company's operations can be obtained at the 

co:M:iP.A.]sr^s"'s oipp^ioib, :e3:^^k,t:foe,id, coisrisr., 

Or at any Agency. 



J. M. ALLEN, President. 
J. B. PIERCE, Secretary. 



W. B. FRANKLIN, Vice-Prest. 
FRANCIS B. ALLEN, 2d Vice-Prest. 



ISoa/i'cl of 

J. M. ALLEN, President. 

FRANK VV. CHENEY. Treas. Cheney Brqtliers 

Silk Manufacturing Co. 
CHARLES I\L REACH, of Bencli & Co. 
DANiEL l^HILLU'S, of Adams Express Co. 
KICHaRD W. H. .IARVIS, Prest. Colt's Fire Arms 

Manufacturins; Co. 
THOMAS O. ENDERS, President of the United 

States Bank. 
LEVERETT BRAINARD, of The Case, Lockwood 

& Brninard Co. 
Gen. W.\L B. FRANKLIN, late Vice-Prest. Colt's 

Pat. Fire Arms Mfg. Co. 



T>irootor.s. 

NEWTON CASE, of The Case, Lockwood & 

Rrainard Co. 
NELSON HOLLISTER. of State Rank. Hartford. 
Hon. henry C. ROBINSON, Attorney at-Law, 

H.irtford. 
Hon. FRANCIS R. COOLEY, of the National 

Exchan'sre Rank, Hnrtford, Conn. 
A. W. JILL'SON, late Vice-Prest. Phoenix Fire Ins. 

Co.. Hartford, Conn 
EDJIUND A. STEDMAN, Treasurer of the Fidelity 

Co , of Hnrtford, Conn. 
CLAi'P SPOONER. Bridgeport, Conn. 
GEORGE BURNHAM, Baldwin Locomotive Works, 

Philadelphia. 



GENERAL AGENTS. 

THEO. H. RARCOCK, 
CORBIN& GOODRICH, 
LAWFORD & McKIM, 

C. E. ROBERTS, 

H. D. P. rigi:low, 

C. C. GARDINER, 
L. R. PERKINS. 
W G. LINEBIIRGH & SON, 
GEO. P. BURWELL, 
HUTCHINSON & MANN, 
W. S HAS ITE & SON, 
G. A. STEEL & CO.. 
FRITH & ZOLLARS, 



CHIEF INSPECTORS, 

R. K. McMURRAY, 
\VM. G. I'IKE 
JOSEPH CRAGG, 

WM. U. FAIRBAIRN, | 

H. D. P BIGELOW, 
.T. S. WILSON, 
F. S. ALLEN. 
.1. H. RANDALL. 
C. A. BURWELL, 
J. B, WARNER, 

M. .1 GEIST. 
T. E, SHEARS, 



OFFICES. 



New York City. 
Phii.adelphia. 
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Providence, R. I. 
Chicago, III. 
St Loris. Mo. 
Hahtkohi). 

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Office, 285 Broadway. 

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•' Opera House Block. 



WIxt %ocomoikt 



PUBLISHED BY THE HARTFORD STEAM BOILER INSPECTION AND INSURANCE COMPANY. 



New Series— Vol. X. HARTP^ORD. CONN., MARCH, 1889. 



No. 3. 



A Terrible Catastrophe. 

At 4.50 A. M., February 18, 1889, a tubular boiler of about sixty nominal horse 
power exploded in the cellar of the Park Central Hotel, corner High and AUyn streets, 
Hartford, Conn., the building, a fine looking five-story brick structure, was completely 




Fig. 1. — The Pakk C'enthai. Hotel After the Explosion. 



34 



THE LOCOMOTIVE, 



[March, 



demolishecl, and the inmates were buried in the ruins. The work of rescue began at 
once, and ten persons were taken out more or less severely injured and sent to the 
hospital ; while twenty-three bodies, many of which were so mutilated as to be scarcely 
recognizable, were sent home and buried by symjiathizing friends. In several cases 
whole families perished. The loss is estimated at $75,000, none of which can be re- 
covered, as the lirojierty was covered by fire insurance only, which does not indemnify 
against loss or damage by explosion. Such was the violence of the catastrophe that the 
roar and shock of it were heard and felt for miles around the city, and surrounding 

property suffered a damage of 

^^^E^\ thousands of dollars. 

'^.- — ^ Our illustrations will give 

^p" ] the reader a good idea of the 

^^ apjjearance and magnitude of 

the hotel. Fig. 2 shows it as it 
was before the explosion, and 
Fig. 1 shows what was left 
standing of the rear portion of 
the building. This had after- 
wards to be pulled down, thus 
making the destruction com- 
plete. 

The cause of this terrible 
disaster was an iron boiler of 
the horizontal tubular type, 
about four years old, and of the 
following dimensions : diameter 
5-4 inches; length 16 ft. 3 in.; 
shell plates of Bay State refined 
iron, 5-16 inches thick, double 
riveted ; heads (iron) 3-8 inches 
thick ; tubes 3 in. in diameter, 
15 ft. long and 58 in number. 
Two engineers were employed, 
one of whom has held a marine 
license; one of them stood 
watcli Ijy day, the other by night. The boiler was inspected annually by the State In- 
spector of Steam Boilers. First Congressional District, and was last tested by hydrostatic 
pressure in August, 1888, and a certificate given conformably to law, for a steam pres- 
sure of 75 lbs. per square inch. It is not true, as was stated in various papers, that this 
boiler had been inspected by the Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Com- 
pany. This company had never inspected the boiler in question, nor had it any knowl- 
edge of it. 

The work of recovering the fragments of the boiler was undertaken promptly after 
the explosion, and as fast as they were brought out of the ruins they were carefully 
measured, and the work of re-assembling them was begun. The result is shown in Figs. 
3 and 4. It will be readily seen that, although a few small pieces were lost, the five 
jn-incipal pieces into which the boiler separated (see lines of fracture, Figs. 3 and 4) Avere 
recovered, and their position, condition, etc., carefully noted; and these tell the story of 
the explosion. 

It was thought at one time, before the wreck was cleared n\\ that owing to defects 
and general structural weakness known to have existed in the building, it was possible 




Fig. 



The Hotel Before the Explosion. 



1889.1 



T II E LOCO M O T I V E . 



35 



that tile building- had fallen first and in its fall wrecked the boiler; but as soon as the 
pieces of the boiler were exhumed from the ruins that belief was dispelled, and it was 
apparent that a boiler explosion was the cause of the calamity, and not the effect. 

There was some diversity of opinion as to the cause of the explosion, but it was 
thought from the first, by the representatives of this company, that there was no evi- 
dence of low water, nor any appearance of overheating upon the shell plates or heads. 
This opinion was fully sustained by the subsequent discovery of the back head of the 
boiler with the fusible safety-plug still unmelted. 

The shock of the explosion (which was felt for miles around the city), and the gen- 
eral destruction of the hotel and injury to adjoining property, must, of necessity, have 




Fig. 3. — Elevation of the Restored Boiler. 

arisen from the release of a very considerable force ; and this force we believe to have 
been the stored energy in the water contained in the boiler at the time of the explosion, 
the approximate amount of wiiich we will endeavor to compute from the available data. 
In view of all the facts that have been brought out by investigation since the explosion, 
we are of the opinion that it cannot be accounted for vipon any other hypothesis than 
that of a pressure greatly in excess of the seventy-five pounds allowed l>y the State In- 




FiG. 4. — Plan View of the Restored Boiler. 

specter's certificate, — how much greater, is a matter of conjecture. The steam gauge, one 
of the Bourdon patent, was found in the ruins in a dismembered condition fuufortunately 
it had been so badly shattered as to be of little service in unraveling the mystery), but 
it was noted that the steam tube or Bourdon spring had been straightened out so as to 
re?ceive a ]iermanent set; and there were no indications that this had resulted from any 
other cause than a high pressure. As Bay State refined stam]is were found upon the 
plate of the boiler, it will, perhaps, be fair to assume it to have been of the tensile 



36 



THE LOCOMOTIVE, 



[March, 



strength usually accorded to that quality of iron plate; that is, 45,000 lbs. per square 
inch of sectional area. This, in a boiler of 5-16 inch thickness, double riveted, and 54 
inches diameter, would give a safe load of 104 lbs. (see United States Steamboat InsjDec- 
tors' Manual, p. 76), and a bursting pressure of some 375 lbs. The steam nozzle and 
man-hole of this boiler were placed upon the same sheet, the openings being 8^ inches, 
and 12^ by 16^ inches respectively. It will be apparent from a study of the illustrations 
that this portion of the shell would not be as strong as other parts of the shell of like 
area. Under an excessive pressure the longitudinal section of the middle part in the 

line of the man-hole opening 
would be the weakest, and 
there would be a distortion, 
as it flattened down in assum- 
ing an oval shape under a 
gradually increased pressure, 
from a concentration of the 
strain at that part. That 
this was the case seems dem- 
onstrated by the drawing 
down of the plate on that 
line ; for this was the only 
place, so far noticed, where 
there was any perceptible re- 
duction of thickness in the 
plate along a line of rupture. 
This strain would have to be 
withstood by the man-hole 
frame; and when that frac- 
tured, the opening being so 
close to the edge of the 
sheet, rupture and explosion 
were inevitable. (See Fig. 5.) 
The man-hole frame is 
thought to have been shat- 
tered, but no pieces have as 
yet been found. 

If, as we believe, this 
middle sheet was weaker 
than the others, a much 
lower pressure than 375 lbs. 
(the theoretical bursting pres- 
sure) would cause rupture. 
Suppose, then, for the purjiose of our computation, that the pressure at the time of rupture 
was 200 lbs. per square inch, the corresponding temperature being 388° Fahr. It is true 
that we cannot tell the height of water in the boiler at the time of the explosion with 
precision, but the fact that the fusible plug was found intact and that it readily fused 
when subsequently heated, establishes beyond dispute that there must have been at least 
enough water to cover it; and our calculation will assume this to have been the case. 
On making this assumption we find that the boiler contained 5,552 lbs. of water and 
48 lbs. of steam. When the explosion occurred a portion of this mass of water was 
vaporized, the temperature of the remaining water being thereby reduced to 212 degrees. 
The assumed original temperature l>eing 388 degrees, the fall in temperature was 388°— 







Fig. 5. — The Initial RrPTURE througs the Man-hole. 



i8Hy.] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



37 



212°, or 176°; and this multiplied by 5,552 lbs. gives 977,150 British thermal units, 

wliioli Ls the amount of heat given oflf and immediately converted into mechanical energy. 

The diiference between the total heat of a pound of 

steam at the assumed pressure and at atmospheric 

pressure is 12000.2-11400.0, or 530.6; and this, mul- 
tiplied by 48 lbs., the weight of steam in the boiler, 

gives 530.6 X 48 = 2572. British thermal units. Now 

if we add this to 977, 150 (the heat given off by the 

water) we have 979,722 heat units, which is the 

amount of heat given off in the form of mechanical 

energy. Since one heat unit is equivalent to 772 foot 

pounds of energy, the heat given off by the boiler 

was equivalent to 772 x 979,722 = 756,345,000 foot 

pounds. 

This large number of foot pounds means this: 

The mechanical energy develojied by the liberation 

of the water and steam in the boiler, at the tempera- 
ture due to 200 pounds pressure, was sufficient to 

raise 756,345,000 pounds one foot; or, if we assume 

that the boiler and fixtures weighed 6 tons, it would 

have been sufficient, if applied vertically to the boiler 

alone, to raise it in the air to a height of many 

thousand feet. 

We may more fully understand the magnitude of 

the force confined within the boiler by comparing it 

with the destructive effect of the wind at the time of a 

violent hurricane that destroys buildings and uproots 

large trees. The wind, we are told, has a maximum 

velocity at such times of one hundred miles per hour, 

and exerts a pressure of 50 lbs. per square foot; while 

in the boiler under consideration the pressure is be- 
lieved to have been 200 x 144 = 28,800 lbs. per 

square foot. 

Many of the most destructive explosions of w^hich jrij(j g The Safety Valve. 

we have any knowledge, have been caused by an 

inoperative safety valve, an accumulated pressure, and a full supply of water in the boiler; 

indeed the greater the quantity of water at such times, the more disastrous the effect. 

There are many stories in circulation as to the 
want of care and proper management of this boiler. 
The coroner is now engaged in an investigation, and 
it is hoped that he may clear up the mystery of the 
safety-valve, and among other things, tell us whether 
it was purposely set fast, or became so in some other 
way. It was of the common lever variety, with a 
conical valve 3 inches in diameter, and it was amply 
large, when in working order and intelligently used, 
to discharge all the steam the boiler was capable of 
making. Fig. 6 shows the valve as it appeared after 
the explosion. The observed tendency of a conical 

valve to stick in its seat, and the ease with which it may be tampered with, have led to 

the introduction of various improved safety-valves. Figs. 7, 8, and 9, represent por- 





FlG. 



. — Upper Half op 
Front Head. 



38 



THE LOCOMOTIVE, 



[March, 




8. — LowEii Half op Front Head. 



tions of the heads. There are other details of the boiler that might be discussed 
with advantage, and will be, in a later issue of the Locomotive ; but it would not be 
courteous for us to discuss them now, while the official investigation is in progress. 

The facts that we have outlined seem to 
justify the following hypothesis : That the tire 
was not properly banked by the engineer who 
went off duty at midnight ; or that if it was, 
one of the two tramps who were allowed to 
sleep in the fire-room, and lost their lives there, 
had opened the damper and closed the fire-door 
after the engineer was gone, probably not realiz- 
ing the danger of the act: that the safety- 
valve was inoperative and that steam accumu- 
lated until the strain on the shell reached the 
limit of strength of the weakest point, which 
weakest point is shown by the explosion to have 
been the man-hole frame and middle course 
sheet: that the explosion wrecked the partition wall in the cellar, against which the 
boiler was placed, and that it then raised the building, displacing connecting walls, 
joints, and supports, drawing them inwardly with the exception of the front wall on 
High street, which, not being connected, was 
blo\^n outwardly and fell into the street. 

Explosions of boilers similarly placed have 
not always wrecked the building as completely 
as this one did, but of course there is the pos- 
sibility that the other explosions were not so 
violent. When boilers are placed beneath 
buildings (and it is impossible to avoid placing 
them so, in some cases), the result is apt to be 
very serious in the event of an explosion, for 
such walls as are not blown down at the time 
are often so badly shattered that they have to 

be pulled down and rebuilt. In this case if more of the main walls had remained 
standing it is probable that beams and other parts would have lodged against them in 
such a manner as to save many of the lives that were lost. 

We shall be glad to record for the benefit of our readers the result of the coroner's 
inquest, and also to describe some examinations and tests of our own concerning the iron 
boiler plates, giving the conclusions we have drawn from them and discussing some 
other matters not referred to in the present article. 




Fig. 9. — Lower Half of Back Head. 



Boiler Explosions. 

February, 1889. 

Tow-BoAT (19). The tow-boat Two Brother's, lying at the Allegheny wharf at the 
foot of Eleventh Street, Pittsburgh, Pa. , burst her boiler on Feb. 2d, completely demol- 
ishing the vessel and badly wrecking the tow-boat Return, which was lying by the side 
of the Two Brothers. When the boiler burst the debris and scalding water was scat- 
tered in all directions. Two persons were killed outright and eight others were injured. 
The names of the killed are : George Wilson, engineer of the Retium, and Robert Coch- 
ran, fireman of the Two Brothers. Pieces of fire-brick struck a grain elevator, 200 yards 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 39 

distant, and the safety-valve was picked up on the corner of Eleventh Street and Penn 
Avenue. 

Insane Hospital (20). Two boilers in the engine-room of the State hospital for 
the insane exploded at Lincoln, Neb., on Feb. 5th, completely wrecking the engine- 
house, killing two patients and one engineer, and injuring two patients and the 
other engineer. The main building was uninjured with the exception of glass broken 
by the concussion. The exi^losion completely destroyed the five boilers and the dynamo 
for furnishing electric light, leaving the building without heat or means of prej^aring 
food. The loss will probably be $20,000. 

Portable Boiler (21). A boiler explosion at Darlington, Mo., on Feb. 7th, killed 
Ben McCurry, injured Henderson Weeks so that he died soon afterwards, and seriously 
wounded Elmer Slielley. The men were engaged with a portable engine in sawing 
lumber, the engineer being inexperienced and the boiler old and unreliable. Weeks 
leaves a large family of children. McCurry was a single man. 

Creosoting Works (22). On Feb. 11th a brick creosoting boiler exploded at 
■Chattanooga, Tenn., saturating H. J. Falls with hot tar and burning him to a crisp. 
His son was also frightfully injured, so that there is no possibility of his recovery. 
According to the night engineer the gauge showed 38 lbs. ten minutes before the 
explosion, the manufacturers having guaranteed that the boiler would safely stand 
50 lbs. It failed by blowing out the front head. As this was removable, it is prob- 
able that it was not properly braced. 

Saw-Mill (23). A disastrous explosion occurred at Maroney's saw-mill in Aspen. 
Col., on Feb. 11th. One of the strange things about it was that though there were 
sixteen men in and around the mill at the time, only one w'as injured. Suddenly, 
without any warning, there was a crash like the explosion of a stick of giant powder, 
the men inside were all thrown down and none of them could see what had happened. 
Some were covered with falling boards, and each thought that the rest must be dead ; 
but when they all crawled out it was found that they were uninjured with the single 
exception mentioned. They were all coal black, supposedly from flying soot. On 
looking around the men saw that there was nothing of the mill left. The boiler was 
all gone, except a piece of one grate-bar. The 10x10 timbers to which the boiler was 
bolted was gone. Two cords of wood that stood in front of the boiler were gone. 
The carriage was broken in two. The main shaft was gone and the building was 
literally carried away, the saw itself being the only thing that was not destroyed. 
The men who were outside declare that the boiler went up through the roof and 
exploded in mid-air like a fire-cracker. It was several hours before any part of it 
could be found, when the smokestack was discovered behind a lumber pile. It was 
then observed that a track had been mowed through the timber up the hill. This was 
followed and one -half of the boiler was found a quarter of a mile away. It had cut 
a swath in its flight, cutting off a great many large trees about .50 feet from the 
ground. No other part of the wreck has been discovered, not even the timbers upon 
which the boiler stood. 

Locomotive (24). The boiler of a locomotive attached to a freight train on the 
North Pennsylvania branch of the Philadelphia & Reading road exploded near Centre 
Valley, Pa., Feb. 15th, killing Fireman Crockett and fatally injuring Frank McGowan, 
the engineer, both of Philadelphia. Brakeman Fred Schroek, who was in the cab at 
the time, was thrown 100 feet, but escaped with comparatively slight injuries. The 
locomotive was a camel-back. No. 935. 



40 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [March, 

Saw-^Itll (25). Six men were killed on Feb. 16th, by a boiler explosion in 
John F. Jenks' saw-mill at Murphy, Pleasant County, W. Va. Mrs. Jenks, who was 
passing by, was also killed. 

Hotel (26). The boiler in the Park Central Hotel, Hartford, Conn., exploded on 
Feb. 18th. burying the inmates of the building in the ruins. Details of this explosion 
will be found in our leading article for this month. 

MiXE (27). A boiler of the Blue Jay mine at Butte, Mont., burst on Feb. 21st, 
and narrowly missed killing five men. The boiler was blown 190 feet through the 
office, which was entirely destroyed. Five men, who were working at the mouth of 
the mine, were all injured. Jim McCrimmir was the most seriously hurt. He was 
struck on the head by an anvil, which was blown sixty feet by the explosion. Pieces 
of the boiler were blown 1000 feet. 

Machine Shop (28). A boiler in the Lake Erie & Western shops exploded on 
Feb. 21st, killing Peter Shick and demolishing a part of the building. 

Saw-Mill (29). At Clarksonville, Mich., on Feb. 21st, the boiler of M. Shanks & 
Son's saw and planing mill exploded, completely wrecking the mill, instantly killing 
Charles Rogers, the engineer, and slightly injuring several other employees. Seven 
employees were at work on the floor above and adjoining the boiler-room, all of 
whom were prostrated by the concussion, the roof falling almost at the same instant. 
Pieces of the boiler were hurled forty rods, one large piece passing over the head of 
a man who Avas unloading logs in the yard at the time. The loss on the mill is 
about $2,000. 

Cotton Mill (30). A boiler explosion occurred on Feb. 26th, at Wampanoag 
MUl, Xo. 1, Fall River. Mass., in which John Hyslop, a fireman, was scalded. The mill 
has six boilers of the Harrison pattern, and of late they have been in the habit of 
exploding. 

Machine Shop (31). A boiler exploded on Feb. 26th, in the machine room of 
the Bigelow Blue Stone Company's works. Maiden, N. Y., and two men were injured 
badly, one of them perhaps fatally. Considerable damage was done to the boiler-room, 
and the chimney was so cracked that it will have to be taken down. The boiler was 
small and failed by blowing out a head. 



18,000 OP 20,000 H. P. 



The great experiment of the past year has been the Inman and International Com- 
pany's steamer City of New TorTc. She was intended to make the run to New York in 
six days. The Etruria has crossed the Atlantic in six days and one hour, but this was 
an exceptional run, and the average performance of the Etruria is more like six and a 
half days. Consequently the City of New Torh must be somewhat faster than the 
Cunard boats. Up to the present she has failed to attain the expected speed, but she is 
an extremely fast ship, and it is worth notice that in stormy weather she has twice 
beaten the Etruria by some hours as a consequence of her great size. The City of New 
Torh lias been taken off the line for the purpose of undergoing some modifications, 
which, it is expected, will bring up her speed to the required point. 

Calculation shows that certainly not less than 18,000 indicated horse-power will be 
needed to drive the ship at 20 knots an hour. It is possible that more will be needed, 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 4-I 

because of the way in wLiich the hull has been jiut together with vertical butt straps out- 
side. Taking, however, as a basis, 18,000 horse-power, we find that nine boilers have 
been provided to suj^ply it. These boilers are double-ended, with six furnaces in each ; 
the boilers are about 19 ft. long, and tlie grates 6 ft. 6 in. ; the boilers stand fore and aft, 
in groups of three; there are in all 54 furnaces. The Etruria, to indicate 14,000 horse- 
power, has 72 furnaces; but she has only compound engines, while the City of New York 
has triple expansion engines. The area of her grates is approximately 1 , 250 square feet 
to produce 18,000 horse jjower. Then each square foot of grate must represent nearlj- 
15 horse-power. 

It is a very easy matter to talk of 18,000 or 20,000 horse-power; but few people we 
think realize what it means. The following figures may help them to form a conception 
of what the much-despised practical engineer has to do and does. It is more than 
probable that the White Star boats being built by Messrs. Harland & Woolf will develop 
20,000 horse power. At least, so rumor says; for rightly or wrongly, it is asserted that 
they will have each 1^ boilers and 72 furnaces, worked with forced draught on Howden's 
system. Assuming that the engines will require 18 pounds of steam per horse per hour, 
then 160 tons of feed water must be pumped into the boilers every hour, and 160 tons of 
steam wall pass through the engines in the same time. In twenty-four hours the feed 
water will amount to 3,840 tons, occupying 138,240 cubic feet. A tank measuring 52 
ft. on the side would hold one day's consumption, or it would fill a length of 493 ft. of 
a canal 40 ft. wide and 7 ft. deep. Taking the condensing water at thirty times the feed 
water, it will amount to 4,800 tons per hour — 115,200 tons in twenty-four hours ; or, 
for a six days' run across the Atlantic, to not less than 691,200 tons, or 24,883,000 cubic 
feet. This would fill a cubical tank 295 ft. on the side — a tank into which the biggest 
church in London, steeple and all, could be put and covered up. The coal consumed 
will be 400 tons per day, which would fill forty wagons. This will require for its com- 
bustion 8,600 tons of air, occupying a space of 222,336,000 cubic feet. It is impossible 
for the mind to take in the significance of these latter figures. It may help if we say 
that if this air was supplied to the ship through a pipe 20 ft. in diameter, the air would 
traverse that pipe at the rate of about 5.6 miles per hour. It will be seen that the circu- 
lating pumps and fan engines of such a ship have no sinecure. — The Engineer. 



We are all familiar with the legend, "Drop a nickel in the slot." As a 
contemporary expresses it, " One can be weighed, have his strength tested, secure some 
chewing gum or a package of cigarettes, have his handkerchief perfumed, buy postage 
stamps and stationery, or even insure his life, in this most convenient way." The latest 
device that we know of in this line is the " pre-payment gas meter, " invented in England 
by a Mr. Brownhill. A penny deposited in the proper place will cause the meter to 
work for six or eight hours; and if several pence are deposited, the time will be 
increased proportionately. By this means, the inventor hopes to save the gas companies 
considerable trouble, and also to enable small tenants to buy their gas at retail. 



OwiKG to the fact that water is slightly compressible, the lower strata of the ocean 
are pressed into a smaller space than they would occupy at the surface. This means 
that the ocean is somewhat shallower than it would be if water were perfectly incom- 
pressible. According to Prof. Tait, "in a depth of six miles the decrease in depth 
from this cause would be 620 feet ; and if the water of the ocean were to suddenly 
cease being compressible the result would be that four per cent, of the habitable land on 
the globe would be submerged, because the mean level of the sea would be raised by 
116 feet." 



42 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [March, 



c!l£^;SX£) 



HARTFORD, MARCH, 1889. 

J. M. Allex, Editor. H. F. Smith, } . . . „,.^ 

A. D. RiSTEEN, ^^««^^^««« Editors. 

The Locomotive can he obtained free by calling at any of the company^s agencies. 
Subscription jyrice 50 cents per year when mailed from this office. 
Bound Tolumes one dollar each. 

In the January number of the Locomotive, we referred to an explosion in an oat- 
meal mill in Chicago. Our information was from the daily jiress, as usual, and we have 
since learned that the explosion was caused by dust, and that the boilers were afterwards 
found intact. We make the correction with pleasure. 



The cut on the first page of this issue of the Locomotive is from a .sketch made 
by ''our special artist" early on Monday morning. It represents the condition of the 
hotel immediately after the explosion much more perfectly than the photographs do, 
for the day was so rainy and the air so full of smoke and steam that no photograph 
could be taken until late in the forenoon, and the better ones were not taken until the 
next day, after the debris had been well pulled over. The hotel extended out into the 
near foreground of the picture, before the explosion, and was flush with the front of 
the house shown on the right. The photographs of the parts of the boiler were taken 
under the direction of Mr. F. B. Allen, second Vice-President of the company, who 
made a very thorough investigation into the cause of the explosion, the results of which 
are set forth in our leading article. 



We have received from Prof. J. F. Klein, of Lehigh L'niversity, a set of tables for 
laying out accurate profiles of cycloidal, epicycloidal, hypocycloidal, and involute gear- 
teeth. The method he proposes involves only multiplication, the use of the T-square and 
triangle, and ability to lay off distances accurately. Numerous points on the profile of 
each tooth are laid out by the draughtsman, with the aid of the tables, and the outline 
of the tooth is then .sketched through them. The labor of this process would be jirohib- 
itory, of course, unless the nicest results are required. We consider the tables good 
things, however, and have no doubt but that they will find a wide field of usefulness. 



The fifth annual report of the State Inspector of Workshops and Factories in Ohio 
is full of instructive matter, and shows that Inspector Dora has been mindful of his 
duties. Among other things he makes some good suggestions regarding the care of 
boilers and fittings, which we quote and commend: "Another dangerous practice is the 
caulking of joints in steam pipes while pressure is on. If pipes or fittings are corroded, 
as they very frequently are, there is danger that the chisel or caulking tool may be 
driven through the pipe. In such a case the workman is likely to be seriously scalded. 
The practice of screwing up man-hole, hand-hole, and similar plates, while boilers are 
under pressure, to stop leakage, is of a similar nature and should be as strongly discoun- 
tenanced. A great many accidents have been caused in this manner. The following 
occurred some years ago: A battery of three horizontal tubular boilers was fired up. and 
on raising steam the joint of one of the man-hole plates was found to leak quite badly. 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 43 

Instead of letting down the stetim and repacking the joint, a -wrencli was applied and 
the attempt was made to stop the leak by screwing up on the bolt. This proving insuf- 
ficient, a long piece of pipe was slipped over the handle of the wrench and more force 
applied. The immediate result was the fracture of the man-hole frame, the explosion of 
the boiler, the destruction of about $10,000 worth of property, and the loss of three 
lives." 



Electricity and Lig"ht. 

In the Locomotive for January we referred to the relation that is believed to exist 
between light and electricity. Since that time we have had the pleasure of reading 
accounts of the experiments of Dr. Hertz and others in this direction. Dr. Hertz finds 
that Maxwell's theories are correct in every respect, so far as he has been able to examine 
them experimentally. He finds, for instance, that waves of electrical disturbance travel 
with the same velocity as light, and that some substances, such as glass, are transparent 
to them, while others, such as the metals, are opaque. They are reflected from polished 
metal surfaces in the same manner as light, and may be brought to a focus, or sent in a 
parallel beam, by parabolic mirrors. He found, also, that the electric waves are capable 
of giving interference phenomena in every way analogous to those of light. By passing 
them through a prism of pitch he was even able to calculate that the refractive index of 
this substance for the particular waves he used is 1.C8. But, most remarkable of all, 
Dr. Hertz found that the rays of electric disturbance can be polarized in the same man- 
ner as light. 

The discoveries that we have outlined here are of such a magnitude, and give us 
such an insight into the machinery of nature, that in future years they will, without 
doubt, be ranked in importance with the discovery of universal gravitation; We may 
now rest assured that light is nothing more nor less than a vibratory electrical disturbance 
in the ether. This being established both by theory and by experiment, it cannot be 
long before some application is made of it to the practical afi'airs of every-day life. 
It seems probable that this will be in the w^ay of electric illumination ; for so much 
energy is now wasted by our electric lights, in the shape of heat, that there is great 
room for improvement. 

The Alaskan Free Press tells of the " City of the Icebergs " : 

' ' The great field of ice in Glacier Bay reveals to the looker-on many of the wonders 
of Nature, but perhaps none are more wonderful than the reflection of a great and 
strange city upon its glassy surface. When atmosphere and fogs are at certain phases, 
and just as the sun has set out of sight behind Mount Fairweather, this mirage, as it 
is, shows remarkably clear and seems to be suspended in the air, just over a huge basin, 
formed by Nature, in this icy waste. The streets of this strange city are very wide, per- 
haps fifty yards or more, and away back in the dim distance, as far as the eye can 
reach, they appear as a thread, still lined upon either side with tiny dark objects, or 
buildings, indicating that the city is of great length ; but its width cannot be determined, 
for back a street or two from this main one, the buildings grow dim and hazy, apparently 
being enveloped in the fog. Upon certain days, when the atmosphere is just right, the 
houses along the main street show up very plain, the most prominent one observed being 
seven stories high, with arched doors and windows, and whether from lights within or 
paintings on the glass, they all show red, the top of the building running up in spires and 
cupolas. In the streets many people are seen moving about, dressed in loose-flowing 
garments, with something after the fashion of Turkish caps upon their heads. Domestic 
animals are also seen ; mules, of apparently twice the ordinary size, are drawing loads. 



44 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [March, 

and large dogs, with lion-like heads and manes, are following the human beings. From 
the architecture of the buildings and the dress of the inhabitants, the picture resembles 
a Japanese city; only the width of the streets, and the size of the domestic animals 
and the queer appearance of the dogs are certainly unlike those of this earth. But 
whether it is a city in Japan or on some planet or world unknown, scientific men are 
better able to judge than we." — Vox PopuU, Lowell, Mass. 



Chesley Heal, the Centenarian. 

Chesley Heal was born at Westport, Me., on November 16, 1778, and died at Sears- 
mont, Me., October 6, 1888, nearly comi^leting the almost unprecedented term of 110 
years. He was a soldier in the war of 1813, and served in the division stationed along 
the coast of Maine, at Lincolnville, Northport, and Belfast. He was at Belfast when 
the British forces, under Major-General Gasselin, crossed the Penobscot Bay from Cast- 
line and captured the town. The English force consisted of 700 picked men, of almost 
equal height, who had served under Wellington. The small American regiment was 
unable to cope with this force, and no opposition was offered to the landing of the 
troops. Owing to this fact, the British commander gave orders that the people should 
not be molested, and that all provisions should be paid for, which was accordingly done. 

In 1833, Heal purchased a farm of several hundred acres, at Searsmont, near Belfast. 
He determined upon clearing and developing this land, and turned all his energies to 
to that end. He took great interest in raising cattle, and his farm was usually in a 
good state of cultivation. He was very frugal, very industrious, almost parsimonious 
in his style of living, and as he was considered a successful farmer, it was anticipated 
that during so long a life his accumulations would be considerable, but at his decease very 
little was discovered, and what has become of his wealth nobody knows. Some suspect 
that he buried his money, and as he never confided it to any one, his secret died with 
him. 

He took quite an interest in politics, and was a staunch Democrat, having voted at 
every election from 1800 to 1880. His first vote was cast for Thomas Jefferson. Pos- 
sibly his absolutely quiet life had something to do with his longevity. He rarely 
left his own neighborhood, and never, it is said, traveled on a steamer or on a railroad 
train. He never saw anything of the turmoil and bustle of the world, and his nerves 
were never disturbed. He was quite unlettered, being unable to read or write. He 
kept his accounts by peculiar marks on his barn door, which he alone understood. His 
memory was highly cultivated, owing to the constant calls made upon it on account of 
his being unable to read and write, and this aided him in keeping his accounts. 

Physically he was well proportioned and strongly built. He was five feet eight 
inches in height, and weighed normally about 175 pounds. He had a full, well- 
developed chest. He was a great talker, and had a loud voice. His health was so per- 
fect that during his whole life he was only once visited by a physician, until his last illness. 
His eyesight and hearing continued unimpaired until the end. His hair did not turn 
gray imtil he had experienced the frosts of a hundred winters. He was a remarkably 
good sleeper, retiring usually at sunset and arising at dawn. He was a good eater, living 
on fresh meat during the autumn and early winter when the farmers were slaughtering, 
but during the summer his diet was principally salt pork cut into slices and fried. The 
bread on his table was made from wheat, rye, corn, barley, and buckwheat from his 
own farm. He used tobacco nearly his whole life. He preferred to chew rather than 
smoke the weed. When young he was addicted to the use of spirituous liquors. He 
never had any mental labor of any kind, nor any care or worry. A curious feature of 
his life is that at the age of 105 he concluded to remain in-doors, and although being 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 45 

quite strong and active in his movements, he did not leave the house during the last five 
years of his life. He did not use a cane, and at times was as active as a boy. He said 
he could move about the country as well as ever, and would give no reason for his vol- 
untary seclusion. He retained his faculties to the end, and died quietly, and was 
buried in a field on his own farm. 

It is interesting for a moment to look at the remarkable changes that have taken 
place during the lifetime of a single human being. Heal was born in the midst of the 
revolutionary war, and was nearly three years old when the surrender of Cornwallis 
marked the close of the struggle. He was in his nineteenth year when Washington 
retired from the Presidency, and during his life all the Presidents were nominated to 
their high offices. He was nearly fifteen when Louis XVI was beheaded and the 
Reign of Terror began. He had entered on his twentieth year when Napoleon was 
made first consul, and was twenty-six years old when he was elected emperor. It was in 
his thirty-seventh year that the great commander was defeated at Waterloo. He lived 
during the period of the three French revolutions. During his life France had been 
three times a kingdom, three times an empire, and three times a republic. He was a 
boy in his teens when Robert Burns was composing his lyrics, when Burke was thunder 
ing in the House of Commons, and when Sir Joshua Reynolds was giving the world his 
great works of art. He was twenty-eight when Fulton launched the first regular steam- 
boat, and sixty-six when Morse first brought the telegraph into practical use by sending 
messages between Washington and Baltimore. It is almost impossible to conceive that a 
single life can span such epochs in history. — Scierdific American. 



Bellite, the New Explosive. 

We learn from Engineering that an extensive series of experiments made in England 
with this explosive in the early part of February, showed that it is, without doubt, the 
safest substance yet discovered for blasting and similar uses. " The experiments were 
arranged in groups, each of which was intended to illustrate either a distinguishing 
characteristic of bellite or its adaptability to some specified end. The first experiment 
was intended to exemplify its use in submarine mining; \^ lbs. of the material was in- 
closed in a tin canister, and on being fired by a detonator, the explosion sent the spray 
fully 150 ft. high. The next group of experiments were made with the object of show- 
ing the perfect safety of the material and that it could only be fired by a detonator. A 
bellite cartridge was broken in two, and one-half thrown on a fire, where it slowly burnt 
away with a reddish flame. The other half, weighing about 2 oz. , was then exploded 
on a wrought-iron plate 12 in. by 12 in. by f in. thick, the charge being tamped with 
clay. The shock bulged the plate to a depth of about 2 in., but did not pierce it. To 
our mind an even more convincing proof of its safety was afforded by the chairman of 
the company, wlio, holding part of a naked bellite cartridge in one hand, calmly applied 
a lighted fuse to the fragment with the other. The bellite charred and smouldered, but 
went out immediately on removing the match. An iron weight, weighing 120 lbs., was 
then dropped from a height of 18 ft. on to a number of naked bellite cartridges sup- 
ported on an iron plate. The test was repeated twice, as on the first occasion the weiglit 
fell somewhat to' one side; but on the second trial, with more careful centering, the mass 
of bellite was crushed to a powder. " A severer test than this had been applied some 
time previously, a weight of half a ton being allowed to fall upon the cartridge from a 
height of 20 feet, Mathout causing it to explode. "A small canister, capable of holding 
5 oz., was then filled with the fragments resulting from the last experiment, and laid on 
the web of an old steel-faced rail, the charge being slightly tamped with clay. On firing. 
the rail was snajiped in two, a piece about 1 ft. long being flung 6 yards, and smaller 



46 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [March, 

fragments much farther, while a pit 15 in. deep was sunk in the ground immediately 
underneath the position of the charge. 

" The next experiment was a repetition of one first made at one of the collieries of 
South Wales. In it 1 lb. of ordinary blasting powder and 1 lb. of naked bellite cart- 
ridges were placed together in an open pit 1 ft. 10 in. deep, and the powder ignited. 
Some pieces of the bellite were thrown out of the hole, and all were slightly charred; 
but none of it exploded. 

" To further illustrate the safety of the material, a fragment of bellite was fired from 
a large calibre gun (No. 8) with two drachms of powder, against an iron plate, without 
any explosion of the bellite occurring either in the bore of the gun or on striking the 
target. This experiment would seem to prove that bellite is well adapted for use in 
shells. It had been the intention of the experimenters to fire a bullet from the same gun 
at a target formed of bellite cartridges backed by an iron plate, but owing to the jam- 
ming of a cartridge in the gun, this experiment had to be abandoned. 

"To compare the effects of bellite with those of dynamite, 2 oz. of each explosive 
were fired on wrought-iron plates measuring 12 in. by 12 in. by | in. thick, each plate, 
with the object of rendering the conditions as uniform as possible, being supported 
above the ground by a narrow cast-iron ring, about ^ in. thick, 3 in. high, and 11 in. 
internal diameter, the charge in each case being tamped with clay. Both plates were 
pierced through, but the rents in the one on which the dynamite had been fired were 
considerably larger, while, on the other hand, the bulge in this plate was only 2|- in. 
deep, as compared with 3 in. in the case of the other, thus showing the action of the 
dynamite to be more local. 

"The next series of experiments were made with a view to showing the adaptability 
of bellite to military purposes. To this end the ballistic properties of bellite and rifle 
powder were first compared, a 6-in. ball weighing 32 lb. being fired from a mortar, first 
with ^ oz. of powder, and secondly, with ^ oz. of bellite. With the powder the ball 
was thrown a distance of 40 yards 1 ft., and with the bellite to a distance of upwards of 
100 yards, the penetration into the ground being also much greater in this case. A mine 
containing 8 lbs. of bellite was fired underneath a length of railway laid down for the 
purpose. The explosion smashed both rails clean through, and several of the sleepers 
were splintered, a large piece of one being flung fully 40 yards, while the crater formed 
was upwards of 12 ft. in diameter." 

If inventions of this nature are to go on multiplying, there will come a time when 
war will become a too disastrous operation for anybody to undertake, and the remark 
facetiously attributed to Bismarck will be full of painful meaning: "Peace? You tet we 
will have peace ! " 

Curiosities of Exploration in Africa. 

The ten or twelve explorers who have done most to prove that the Congo basin, 
until recently almost unknown, is the second greatest river system in the world, have 
of course discovered many things of surpassing interest to the student of geography 
and its kindred sciences. It is intended here to speak, not of the great discoveries of 
sensational importance, but of interesting facts which have attracted less attention. 

About 450 miles above the mouth of the river the Congo widens into an almost 
sea-like expanse, and for more than a hundred miles up stream it is from five to twenty 
miles in width. It is a curious fact that though many of the Congo tribes travel far 
from home, the natives along one bank of the widened stream had hardly a particle of 
information about the dwellers on the other shore when the whites first met them. The 
great river was a barrier that news rarely crossed, separating the tribes almost as com- 
pletely as though an ocean stretched between them. Here hundreds of lovely islands 



188!).] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 47 

so impede the view that travelers skirting one bank cannot see the other for more than 
one hundred miles. Of course the river is very shallov? except in the channels, which 
are not }'et well known, and steamers often run aground. It has occurred that steamers 
have passed in broad dayliglit without knowing of each other's proximity. 

Many natives are eager to learn the results of exploring expeditions. When the 
more intelligent chiefs understand that the whites are spying out ^the land, they are 
anxious to learn whether the new facts can be utilized to their own advantage. Thus 
when Grenfell returned to the Congo from his 260-mile trip up the Lulongo, the big 
Chief Ibengo and his head men were as inquisitive as an American interviewer. They 
wished to know how far the Lulongo could be ascended in canoes, whether the natives 
were numerous and friendly, whether they had ivory and slaves to sell, and so on. 
Here, as in other parts of the Congo Basin, the discoveries of the whites have largely 
stimulated the inland trade of the natives. They now send canoe trading parties far up 
tributaries where they did not venture before the whites pioneered the way. Native 
geographical information has been rarely serviceable to the whites. Coquilhat says that 
before a native answers a geographical question he makes up his mind what answer is 
desired or expected and rejilies accordingly. Von Francois found on some of the south- 
ern tributaries that information given in one village was contradicted in the next. 

While women joerform most of the drudgery of the field and house, there are cer- 
tain compensations for the stern fact that they belong to the fair sex. Women are not 
regarded as fit subjects for the boiling pot, and throughout the Congo basin, where 
cannibalism is doubtless practiced to a greater extent than in any other part of the 
world, women as a rule are not among the victims. Then while the lazy men are 
exchanging gossip in the village street the women are pounding grain into flour or 
delving in the fields. The result is that in some tribes the women fully equal the men 
in muscular development. In the great Baluba tribe the harmful practice of hemp 
smoking, confined to the men, has made them conspicuously inferior to the women 
in physique. So it happens that in many a Congo household it is not the man who 
"bosses the ranch." Many of the women are credited with great abilit}' as scolds, and 
having the muscle needed to back up their voluble complaints, they lord it over the 
household as completely as though they were strong-minded Caucasians. 

Some very forcible methods are employed for keeping up the price of commodities 
on the Congo. A while ago a woman's body was found hanging from a tree on the 
river bank near Irebu. It was learned that the crime of Avhich she was accused was 
that of selling provisions too cheaply to white men. 

If we happened to be on a Congo steamboat, which, rounding a sharp bend, came 
suddenly into view of scores of people who had never heard of a steamboat or a white 
man, we would probably regard the actions of that astounded crowd as among the 
strangest spectacles we ever saw. Explorers say that every mode of expressing aston- 
ishment is shown on such occasions, and that actors would find among these awe- 
stricken blacks a rare chance to study facial expression. Many stand and stare, with 
eyes bursting from their sockets, and with wide open mouths, which they presently 
cover with their hands, a common mode of expressing unbounded astonishment. Others 
stand a long time motionless, as though riveted to the spot. Still others are seized with 
the wildest panic, and bound away into the forest as though bewitched. One day 
Grenfell on his little steamer suddenly came upon about fifty women, who were fishing 
along the shore of an island. With a wild shriek all plunged into the water and swam 
with frantic strokes to the mainland, where they disappeared in the underbrush. On 
another occasion a woman who suddenly saw the strange apparition fell to the ground 
in a fit. Dr. Wolf and Lieut. Von Frangois have written most graphic accounts of the 
remarkable effects upon the natives of their first sight of a pufling steamboat. — New 
York Sun. 



48 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



Incorporated 
1866. 




Charter Per- 
petual. 



Issues Policies of iDsnrauce after a Carefnl Inspection of ttie Boilers, 



COVEErS'G ALL LOSS OR DAMAGE TO 



BOILERS, BUILDINGS, AND MACHINERY. 

ALSO COTEP.rSG 

LOSS OF LIFE AND ACCIDENT TO PERSONS 

AKISING FROM 

Steam Boiler Explosions. 

Fall information concerning the plan of the Company's operations can be obtained at the 

Or at anv Atreucv. 



J. M. ALLEN, President. 
J. B. PIERCE, Secretary. 



W. B. FRANKLIN, Viee-Prest. 
FRANCIS B. ALLEN, 2d Vice-Prest. 



Board of 

J. M. ALLEN. Pre=ident. 

FRANK W. CHENEY, Treas. Cheney Brothers 

Silk Manufacturing Co. 
CHAKLE.S M. BEACIL of Beach & Co. 
DANIEL PHILLIP.S, of Adams Express Co? 
RICHARD W. H. .L\RVIS, Prest. Colt's Fire Arms 

Manufacturinz Co. 
THOMAS 0. ENDERS, President of the United 

States Bank. 
LEVERETT BRAINARD, of The Case, Lockwood 

& Brainard Co. 
Gen. WM. B. FRANKLIN, late Vice-Prest. Colt's 

Pat. Fire Arms Mfg. Co. 



T>ireotors. 

NEWTON CASE, of The Case, Lockwood & 

Br.iinard Co. 
NT;LS0N HOLLISTER, of state Bank, Hartford. 
Hon. HENRY C. ROBINSON, Attomey-at-Law, 

Hartford. 
Hon. FRANCIS B. COOLEY", of the National 

Exchansre Bank, Hartford, Conn. 
A. W. JILLSON, late Vice-Prest. Phoenix Fire Ins. 

Co., Hartford. Conn 
EDMUND A. STEDMAN, Treasurer of the Fidelity 

Co , of Hartford, Conn. 
CLAPP SPOONER. Bridgeport, Conn. 
GEORGE BURNHAM, Baldwin Locomotive Works, 

Philadelphia. 



GENERAL AGENTS. 

THF.O. H. BABCOCK, 
CORBIN & GOODRICH, 
LAWFORD & McKDI, 

C. E. ROBERTS, 

H. D. P. BiGELOW, 

C C. GARDINER, 

L. B. PERKINS. 

AV G. LINEBT-RGH & SON, 

GEO. P. BURWELL, 

MAN'N & WILSON. 

W. S. HASTIE & SON, 

G. A. STEEL & CO.. 

FRITH i- ZOLLARS, 

C. J, McCARY & CO., 



CHIEF INSPECTORS 

R. K. McMT'RRAY, 
WM. G. PIKE. 
JOSEPH CRAGG, 

WM. U. FAIRBAIRN, | 

H. D. P. BIGELOW, 
.1. S. WILSON, 
F. S. ALLEN. 
J. H. RANDALL. 
C. A. BURWELL. 
J. B. WARNER, 

M. .1. GEIST. 
T. E. SHEARS, 



OFFICES. 

New York City. OflBce, 285 Broadwav. 



Philadelphia. 
Baltimore, Md. 
RosTi s, Mass. 
Pkovidexce, R. I. 
Chicago, III. 
St. Louis. Mo. 
Hartford. 
Bridgeport. 
Cleveland. 
San Francisco. 
Charleston, S. C. 
P<»RTLAND. Ore. 
Denver. Col. 
Birmingham, Ala. 



430 Walnut St. 
22 So.HallidaySt. 

35 Pemberton Sq. 

29 Wevbos=et St. 
112 QuincvSt. 
404 Marke"t St. 
218 Main St. 

94 State St. 
208 Superior St. 
306 Sansome St. 

44 Broad St. 

Opera House Block. 
2015 First Av. 



Witt %uomoixvt 



PUBLISHED BY THE HARTFORD STEAM BOILER INSPECTION AND INSURANCE COMPANY. 



New Series— Vol. X. HARTFORD, CONK, APRIL, 1889. 



No. 4. 



Setting" Boilers Over a Single Furnace. 

We liave had a number of calls for designs for settings arranged so that one furnace 
will suffice for several boilers. The cuts illustrate one of these settings as designed for 
a saw-mill, Fig. 1 giving an end elevation and Fig. 2 a side elevation. In this case only 
two boilers are shown, but the method can be readily extended so as to include three or 
four; and though this is as far as we have yet carried the principle, we can see no rea- 
son why even six boilers might not be mounted iu the same manner, if there would be 
any advantage in doing so. 




<|||{j|jiiiS!!! '''"''*'''''<<'<<''' "''''"""™"'''''' '''''''''''< 'iiu^^^^ 



i aa^£55E55S5IB5r5 j n 

L —Hi i I 



Fig. 1. — Setting Boilers Over a Single Furnace. 

Since there is to be but one furnace, it is evident that the boilers cannot be sup- 
ported in the usual manner, but must be suspended from overhead by means of beams or 
trusses. In the pair here shown each boiler was 42 inches in diameter and 21 feet long, 
and the two together might weigh some 28,000 pounds when filled with water. To 
support this weight six wrought-iron beams, D D, are provided, each being 10^ inches 
high and of sufficient length to reach over the brick walls on each side and rest on cast- 
iron posts, as shown. These beams are arranged in jjairs and bearing-plates or saddle- 



50 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[April, 



pieces rest on them, from each of whicli a two-inch hanger is suspended, the lower end 
of which is formed into a laook which enters the forged ear (7, riveted to the shell. 




1889.] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE, 



51 



TJic boilers are set much closer to one another than usual, the space between them 
ia this instance being only three inches. This space is closed by means of a filling of 
cut brick, which rests against both boilers in the manner indicated in Fig. 1, and pre- 
vents the products of combustion from escaping between them. A single wide grate 
extends entirely across the furnace, making it possible to burn shibs and other long 
pieces that would otherwise have to 
be sawed. The closeness of the boil- 
ers makes it difficult to put in the 
feed-pipe A, in the way that is usually 
recommended, and it is accordingly 
arranged, in this case, as shown in the 
cuts. It then enters near the centers 
of the heads, running inside nearly 
through to the back head before it 
discharges. 

We have shown the setting as 
we should always recommend it to be 
put in; but objections to this method 
are sometimes raised, on account of 
the expense of making the forged ears 
C; so that, while we prefer the forged 
ears, we have designed a substitute 

for them, shown in Fig. 3. The ears are not expensive when made by a workman 
accustomed to such shapes, but the places where this setting is in demand are usually 
remote from shojos where such work is done, and it is generally the case in such places 
that the only one at all skilled in metal work is the village blacksmith. The support 
shown in Fig. 3, however, can be easily made by such a workman, and will be found 
very satisfactory. 




Inspectors' Reports. 

FEBRUARY, 1889. 

During this month our inspectors made 4,281 inspection trips, visited 7,797 boilers, 
inspected 2,333 both internally and externally, and subjected 424 to hydrostatic press- 
ure. The whole number of defects reported reached 6,471, of which 550 were consid- 
ered dangerous; 26 boilers were regarded unsafe for further use. Our usual summary is 
given below: 

Nature of Defects. 

Cases of deposit of sediment, _ . . 

Cases of inci'ustation and scale, . . - 

Cases of internal grooving, - - - - 

Cases of internal corrosion, - - - - 

Cases of external corrosion, - - - - 

Broken and loose braces and stays, - - - 

Settings defective, - - - - - 

Furnaces out of shape, . . . - 

Fractured plates, ... - - 

Burned plates, . . - . - 

Blistered plates, - . . - - 

Cases of defective riveting, - - - - 



Wtole Number. 


Dangerous. 


363 


- 


- 


22 


d31 


- 


- 


17 


38 


- 


- 


4 


155 


- 


- 


9 


494 


- 


- 


37 


130 


- 


- 


14 


142 


- 


- 


11 


226 


- 


- 


10 


191 


- 


- 


86 


108 


- 


- 


38 


224 


. 


- 


30 


1,193 


-. 


- 


16 



52 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[April, 



Defective heads, ... 

Serious leakage around tube ends, - 

Serious leakage at seams, 

Defective water-gauges, 

Defective blow-oflfs. 

Cases of deficiency of water, 

Safety-valves overioaded, 

Safety-valves defective in construction. 

Pressure-gauges defective, 

Boilers without pressure-gauges, 

Unclassified defects, 

Total, - - . - 



148 


-. 16 


1,437 


- 136 


413 


36 


169 


19 


54 


10 


3 


2 


54 


9 


59 


27 


183 


18 


3 


3 


54 






6,471 



550 



Some remarks have been made, here and there, about inspection failing to prevent 
explosion in the case of the Park Central Hotel boiler, illustrated in our March 
issue. 

The inspection was thorough. The very violence of the explosion shows that the 
boiler was in good condition. It is of course impossible for any inspector to watch over 
a boiler in his charge day and night ; -that is the engineer's business. It is what he 
is hired for. The inspector has done his duty when he has looked the boiler over 
and seen that everything is in good condition ; and they who talk about the iueificacy 
of inspection are really finding fault with the insjjector because he is not also engineer. 



An Interesting" Autobiography. 

Hon. William A. Richardson, of Washington. D. C, Chief- Justice of the Court of 
Claims, who used to reside in Lowell, contributed the -following article to the last issue 
of the If. E. Historical and Genealogical Register. As it is not only highly entertaining in 
itself, but also relates to prominent personages who once lived in Lowell, we cheerfully 
adopt Judge Richardson's suggestion that it be reproduced in our columns. He 
writes : — 

Some years ago, when residing in Cambridge, I became acquainted with the late 
Alvan Clark, the distinguished astronomical instrument maker, and after coming to 
Washington I had some correspondence with him. Among his letters is one containing 
his autobiography, written at my request ten years ago last October. If you think it 
would be of interest to the readers of the Register you may publish it there. 

CAMBRrDGEPORT, October, 1878. 

My Dear Sir, — The account of my career you have desired, I can write in pencil 
more conveniently than Avith ink. I have written but little in my life, and less of late 
than ever ; so it is hard and slow work for me. 

My father's name was Ahram, and he was born in Harwich, Mass. ; and my mother 
was Mary Bassett, born in Dennis, Mass. They removed to Ashfield, Franklin Co., 
Mass., in 1794, where I was born, March 8, 1804. I was the fifth son of ten children, 
seven sons and three daughters ; five of us are living at this date. 

Our farm of one hundred acres was one of the roughest and most rocky in that 
rough and rocky town, and over the greater part of it, when I was a lad, the stumps of 
the primitive forest trees, mostly hemlock, and some very large, were standing. Two 
. splendid trout brooks joined near the lower or eastern border of the farm, upon the 
larger of which is a grand waterfall near the middle of the farm, but being three and 
one-half miles from the center of Ashford, and about the same distance from Conway 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 53 

and Gosheu centers, it has attracted little attention. The year I was born my father 
built a saw-mill just below the confluence of these streams, and close upon the line 
between Conway and Ashford. It was a fourth of a mile from the house, in plain sight, 
and of course a prominent object in my childish thoughts. It was washed away after 
standing seven years, but rebuilt when I was eight. I concluded that I should be a mill- 
wright, being wonderstruck by the achievements of Captain Gaines, the chief in this 
work of rebuilding. 

The first school-house in the district was located on our farm, and built when I 
was seven years old. At times forty scholars attended there, where now they can 
scarcely muster ten, and I sometimes might be inclined to fear that in forsaking a home 
al)ounding in inviting influences, my example had been pernicious, were it not that I see 
with regret the same depopulation going on almost all over the rural portions of New 
England. 

An old grist-mill located by the waterfall, built before I was born, was piirchased by 
my father when I was about twelve. The school, the farm, and these mills busied me until 
about seventeen, when I began to think that perhaps I might be better fitted for some 
other calling, and I went into a wagon -maker's shop and worked about a year with an 
older brother, but returned to the paternal mansion and put myself at work in good 
earnest to learn alone engraving and drawing, though I had first visited Hartford and 
seen something of such works, which were cheerfully explained to me, green as I was, 
by strangers well-skilled, of whom there were a number at that time in the place. I 
visited Boston in the autumn of 1824, carrying with me specimens to show my proficiency, 
which, though not great, were sufficient to secure me a living employment for the time. 

Supplying myself with some of the most needed art materials, I returned to Ashfield 
the next May, and spent the summer as studiously as possible, with no settled plans further 
than the acquisition of skill. In neighboring towns I offered my services in making 
small portraits, some in India ink and some in water colors, and with a pretty satisfac- 
tory measure of success. 

Here I must give you one little incident which tends to show what small matters 
can change the course of a human life. Wanting some fine sable-hair brushes, I sent for 
them by a man in the habit of visiting Boston. Upon looking over a piece of newspa2)er 
in which they were wrapped when received, my eye fell upon an advertisement of 
recent date, headed " Engravers Wanted." I was not long in making up my mind to 
apply for the situation. On reaching Boston I found the engravers were wanted 
at the engraving shop of the Merrimac Works, in East Chelmsford, for calico printing. 
The agent informed me that they had just contracted with Messrs. Mason & Baldwin, of 
Philadelphia, to do their engraving, and that one of the firm would soon be in East 
Chelmsford and very likely Avould employ me as an assistant. 

Mason at once on his arrival offered me eight dollars per week for one year, and nine 
dollars per week for the three succeeding years, with opportunity for learning the trade 
in which they were engaged. I was to work nine hours in winter and ten in summer, 
per day, which terms I accepted. Such pay would now be considered small for a 
beginner in housekeeping, but I was able to supplement it a little by painting and cut- 
ting stamps out of the shop. 

I have always felt that I incurred a very serious risk in marrying as I did. 'My 
wife, Maria, was the daughter of Asher Pease, and was born in Enfield, Conn., 
November 30, 1808. The family removed to Conway and settled on a farm within half 
a mile of my own father's residence in 1811, where she resided with her parents until 
our marriage, except for a short time she boarded in the family of Dr. Edward Hitch- 
cock, while lie was settled preacher in Conway, previous to his taking the presidency of 
Amherst College — this for the purpose of attending a select school After remaining 



54 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [April, 

about six months in East Chelmsford, I invited my father to accompany this young 
woman to the place, which he did, and we were manied, as the record shows, on the 
25th of March, 1826.* My employer, Mr. Mason, was very kind, and procured 
credit for me, that we could arrange for housekeeping in an unpretentious way, where I 
felt we were established for three years and six months at least. 

But a disagreement sprang up between 3Iason & Baldwin and their employees, re- 
sulting in Mr. Mason returning to Philadelphia ; but previous to leaving, he offered to 
cancel our engagement, or take me with him to Philadeljshia to serve it out, or he 
would open a branch shop in Providence, R. I., and give me charge of it, with pay of 
ten dollars per week and one-fourth of the profits. I accepted the last proposition, as 
there was no chance that I could remain in the Lowell shop with comfort, for they had 
imported English engravers who had no notion of allowing the secrets of their art to 
sliji into the hands of Americans. Our tarry in Providence was of only about one year's 
duration, when this branch of Mason & Baldwin's works was removed to Xew York, 
where I continued on the same terms with them, until the spring of 1832, at which date 
I received an offer from Andrew Robeson for my services at his print works in Fall 
River, such that I was induced to relinquish my connection with Mason & Baldwin. We 
had but just settled in Fall River when the cholera broke out in Xew York. Before 
passing I would say the partner of Mason was M. W. Baldwin, afterwards the famous 
builder of locomotives. While residing in Xew York I had excellent opportunities for 
studying painting, and practiced all I could, and never gave it up even after removing 
to Fall River. 

In 1835. Lucius Manlius Sargent was invited by temperance people to give a lecture 
in each of the churches in the place, and as he was to be several days there, I sought a sea- 
sonable opportunity for inviting him to give me sittings for an ivory miniature. During 
these sittings I questioned him as to my chance of success as a miniature painter in 
Boston. He asked what practice, or experience, or opportunities for instruction I had 
thus far enjoyed in the art ? After receiving my replies, and perceiving that my heart 
was in it, without committing himself by advice, he wished to know the highest price I 
had ever received for a picture, and when I stated twenty dollars he said he wished to 
take this home with him and also to pay me forty dollars for it. This was an expression 
of liberality to which I had been quite unused, and caused me to throw up engraving 
a;nd quit Fall River for Boston. The sjTnpathy and friendshij) thus opened I was per- 
mitted to enjoy through the remainder of Mr. Sargent's life, which was of great advan- 
tage to me. I bought the house in Pro.spect Street, Cambridgeport, in 1836, where I 
resided until 1860 ; supporting my family by painting portraits and miniatures in 
Boston. 

In 1844 my son, George Bassett Clark, born in Lowell, February 14, 1827, had been 
for a time in the academy at Andover as a student, with a view of qualifying for a civil 
engineer. In the course of his scientific reading this youth happened to fall in with 
some account of casting and grinding reflectors for telescopes, and before mentioning it 
to me had procured his metal and made a casting for a small mirror. I watched his prog- 
ress in grinding and polishing with much interest, and perceiving a growing interest on 
his part, I was at some pains to acquaint myself with what had been done, and how 
done, in this curious art, that my son could have the benefit of my maturer judgment, in 
giving effect to his experiments. We spent much time on reflectors, and found for our- 
selves that the ditficulties which have led to such an extensive abandonment of this form 
of telescope were really irremediable. The sacrifice here was pretty serious for us, with 



* This was the first marriage in the toicn of Lowell. That part of Chelmsford called East Chelmsford was 
incorporated as Lowell, March 1. 1826. The first town meeting was held at Colburn's Tavern, March 25, 1826, 
and Mr. Clark was married that very day, by the late Rev. Theodore Edson.— W. A. R. 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 55 

then very limited means. I finally proposed to the youth to try a refractor, but he did 
not believe we would succeed with it. for the books described it as a very difficult 
thing. 

About this time the great telescope at Harvard College observatory was put to use, 
and greatly did I wish to see it and look through it ; but Professor Bond informed me 
that I must come witli an order from President Everett before this could be allowed. 
This order was speedily obtained. I was far enough advanced in knowledge of such 
matters to perceive and locate the errors of figure in their fifteen-inch glass at first sight, 
yet those errors were very small, just enough to leave me in full possession of all the 
hope and courage needed to give me a start, especially when informed that this object- 
glass alone cost twelve thousand dollars. 

I began by reworking some old and poor object-glasses of small instruments, there 
being no material in our market of suitable quality, and after gaining confidence and 
tact, sufficient, as I thought, to warrant the outlay, I imported one pair of disks of five 
and one-quarter inches, and found others in New York of larger size, even up to eiglit 
inches, of very good (]uality. 

"\Ye made some instruments to order and sold some, working on our own account ; 
but the encouragement was small, until I reported my doings to Rev. "W. R. Dawes, the 
famous double-star observer in England, in 1851. I gave him the places of two new 
double stars I had discovered the next year with a glass four and three-quarter inches 
diameter. One of the stars was a specially difficult one in Sextant is. 

In 1853 I had finished a glass of 7^ inches aperture, with wdiich the companion of 
95 Ceti was discovered. Upon reporting this to Mr. Dawes, he expressed a wish to pos- 
sess the glass, but to test its qualities further sefit me a list of Struve's difficult double 
stars, wishing me to examine them, which I did, and furnished him such a description 
of them as satisfied him that they were well seen. I sold liim this glass, and afterwards 
four others, one of which, an 8-inch, in the hands of Huggins, has become well known. 
Knott, an English astronomer, has one of them, 7^ inches, which he greatly prizes. 

Previous to 1859 my correspondence with Dawes had become more extensive than 
with any other fellow mortal in all my life. I visited him that season, carrying with me 
one equatorial mounting and two object glasses, one of 8, the other 8^ inches. All were 
admitted without duty at Liverpool, tliough I paid 30 per cent, on the rough glass in 
Boston ; nor was that all ; the glass Avas warranted first quality, and when I informed the 
deputy collector that a large portion of the amount in invoice was in consideration of 
the warranty, and asked him if any allowance would be made in case it turned out worth- 
less; he said, "No, not a cent; if you buy the devil you may sell him again." Tlie 
crown did turn out defective, and I had to import another and pay 30 'pev cent, again. 
But we were then under a democratic administration. 

I spent between five and six weeks with Mr. Dawes, visited London with him, 
and we attended together the visitation at Greenwich Observatory and a meeting of the 
Royal Astronomical Society, seeing and conversing with many notable personages, 
among them Sir John Herschel and Lord Rosse. Before taking leave of Dawes I told 
him he had paid me more money than I had ever received from one individual in all my 
dealings with my fellow-men, and it was most gratifying to me that he cordially allowed 
I deserved it. 

The reports concerning the performance of these glasses, published by Mr. Dawes 
from time to time in the monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, was of 
great service to me in procuring orders, without which, situated as I was, the proficiency 
which comes from long practice could never have been reached. In 1860, Dr. F. A. P. 
Barnard, now President of Columbia College, New York, then chief of the L'niversity 
of Mississippi, ordered from us a telescope to be larger than any refractor ever before 



56 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [Apkil, 

put to use. I say we, for my two sons, G. B. and Alvan G. Clark, were well-skilled 
men, on whom my efforts in training had not been thrown away, and who were now 
ready to embark in an undertaking the importance of which they were qualified to 
appreciate. 

It now became necessary for us to secure more commodious quarters than had 
served our purposes thus far, and, after visiting various sites, we finally settled where we 
now arc, purchasing nearly an acre and one-half of land, and erecting our buildings in 
the summer of 1860. The glass for the Mississippi telescope in the rough was received 
from the makers, Messrs. Chaunce Bros. & Co., of Birmingham, England, about the 
beginning of 1862, and within one year from that time Alvan G. Clark discovered with 
it the companion of Sirius, which after a few days in a fine night Prof. George P. Bond 
was able to see and measure with the 15-inch telescope at Cambridge Observatory. Our 
glass was 18^ inches, and for the production of such a lens-, coupled with this discovery, 
the Imperial Academy of Paris awarded my son the Lalande prize for 1862. 

The war coming on and cutting off all communication with Mississi])pi, this telescope 
was sold to parties in Chicago, and is now in charge of S. W. Burnham, who has gained 
great celebrity by double star discoveries, though much of his work has been done with 
a glass of only 6 inches apei-ture. 

We have made many instruments of smaller size, but one of 12^ inches for the 
Pritchett School Institute of Glasgow, Missouri; one of 12| inches for Dr. Henry Draper 
of New York, one of 11| inches for the Austrian Observatory at Vienna, and one of 11 
inches for the observatory at Lisbon, Portugal'. Also one of 12 inches for the Wesleyan 
University at Middletown, Conn., and have now in hand one of 15|^ inches for the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, at Madison. 

But the most imjiortant work we have ever attempted was making t »to telescopes of 
26 inches clear aperture, one for our government, and one for L. J. McCormick of 
Chicago. The orders for them were received in the summer of 1871. The government 
telescope was delivered in the autumn of 1873, and it was with this instrument that 
Prof. Asaph Hall discovered the two satellites of Mars at the time of its last opposition. 
The government paid us for this work $46,000. The McCormick telescope is not yet 
entirely finished, but will be very quickly when provisions are made for it in the Avay of 
a suitable site and buildings and the support of a competent astronomer. 

Now I must give a narrative in response to another query. 

Dr. Jacob Bigelow returned from a visit to Europe soon after the great telescope at 
Cambridge was jjlaced in the observatory. Knowing that he had been in Munich where 
it was made, I asked him one day in the street if he saw the establishment where it was 
made ? He answered in the negative. When I informed him that I was interested in 
such matters, and was then at work upon object glasses, he remarked, that if I wished to 
learn to make telescopes I must go where they make them, and passed along. Some 
years later the Rumford committee sought information as to what original means or 
methods I employed. 3Iy reply was that I knew so little of the doings of others that I 
could not say, but if they would meet at our shop I would explain to them as well as I 
could the steps by which I had been in the habit of bringing object glasses into figure. 

The result was the Rumford prize was awarded me for a method of local correction. 
Upon the occasion of its presentation the Academy meeting was attended by Dr. Bigelow. 
The president. Prof. Asa Gray, stated the grounds on which the award was made, and 
I replied as well as I could. Charles G. Loring and Dr. Bigelow were seated near, and 
I heard one say to the other, "That was well done." After the adjournment I reminded 
Dr. B. of his saying that if I wished to learn to make telescopes I must go where they 
make them, and added that I had been. ,, Have you! — where ?" " Cambridgeport," 
was my reply. 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 57 

I met Dr. Hare at the August meeting of Scientists .it Albany in 1856. Finding 
him soon after in Boston, I invited him to sit for a portrait, wliich I finally sold to 
Dr. Henry for $100. * 

So you will perceive that the three periods of my life, of which you write, have been 
considerably blended. Lives thus changeful are frequently troubled in their finances, 
but I have been fortunate enough to meet my money promises all along, and have a fair 
reserve for a rainy day. 

I have received the degree of A.M. from Amherst, Chicago, Princeton, and Harvard. 
I have read much popular astronomy, but in its mathematics I am lamentably deficient. 
You will see by the printed papers I shall send with this that I have made some use of 
telescopes. I have lived to see the companion of ii Uereidis therein mentioned go through 
considerably more than half a revolution. 

This is the most of an autobiography I have ever prepared, and my condition is 
such that I siiall probably never make another attempt, so I would like you to preserve 
this after selecting your points, for some of the Ashfield people may be pleased to see it. 
Let me know at once if it is safely received, and when you publish send me a copy of 
your production. 

I will add fui'ther what may be of interest. I have always voted with the Republi- 
cans, when voting at all, since they came into power, but have never attended caucuses 
or held an office. I have never been a church-member, nor had either of my parents, 
but my faith in the universality of God's providence is entire and unswerving. My 
grandfathers died, one at 87, and the other 88. I knew them well, and they were good 
men. Both had been engaged in killing whales. I have never heard of one of my pro- 
genitors — Thomas Clark t of the "Mayflower" was one — as being a bankrupt, or 
grossly intemperate. I was never but once sued, and in that case employed 
Joel Giles as counsel, who made a compromise without going to trial. I never sued but 
one man, and that was Collector Austin, and I gained my case. I nev^r studied music 
or attended an opera in my life, and know nothing of chess or card-playing. I never 
learned to dance, but was a good swimmer, though lacking generally in the points which 
go to make an expert gymnast. I have long lieen a member of the American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences, and my elder son, G. B., enjoys the same honor, more recently 
conferred. 

I hope the above will serve your purpose. Yours with great esteem, 

Alvan Clark. 

Hon. Win. A. Richardson.^ Court of Claims. 

— Lowell Vox Populi. 

Mr. J. R. Hayden, engineer for the Putnam Machine Company, was shoveling 
coal for the boiler furnace into a wheelbarrow, recently, when his attention was attracted 
by what seemed to be a round stick of wood about eighteen inches long, and an inch in 
diameter. He took it up and examined it, and threw a little piece into the fire, which 
burned with a blue flame. He then took a part of what he liad found into the shop, 
where it was examined and found to be a dynamite cartridge, such as is used in blast- 
ing coal. There was no cap on the cartridge, or a sadder tale might have been written. 
Dynamite explodes by concussion, and under ordinary conditions will burn without 
explosion, provided that no shock is given, though its use as fuel is not recommended 
by chemists or physicians. A part of the cartridge was carried to the company's office. 
It is easy to imagine what the result would have been had there been a cap or 
"exploder" on the cartridge. Possibly this discovery may give a clue to mysterious 
boiler explosions. The cartridge was probably carelessly drojiped in the coal at the mine. 
— Fltchhurg Sentinel. 

* This was Prof. Joseph Henry, Secretary or Director of the Smithsonian Institution at Washington, where 
the portrait is still preserved. — W. A. R. • 

t From whom Clark'8 Island, near Plymouth, takes its name. 



58 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [April, 



Mht Mtttmttln 



cj'isSkS 



^ 



HARTFORD, APRIL, 1889. 
J. M. Allen, Editor. H. F. Smith, } ,,,„..-„^. Editors 

The Locomotive caw &e ohtainfd free by calling at any of the company's agencies. 
Subscriptio?i price 50 cents per year when mailed from this ojfice. 
Bound volumes one dollar each. 

Some weeks ago a cal)legram announced that a certain Dr. Kriiss of Munich had 
succeeded in splitting up the metals, nickel and cobalt, into other substances. This was 
believed to be one of the sensational rumors that come along three or four times a year, 
wearing such a look of plausibility that we often don't know whether to credit them or 
not. The truth is that we have come to have such respect for a science that can extract 
saccharine — a .substance 280 times as sweet as cane sugar — from coal tar, that we don't 
like to say that anything we hear isn't so, if some chemist says it is. This time the 
report appears to be true. The atomic weights of cobalt and nickel have long been 
considered to be equal — each 58.6 — and Professors Kruss and Schmidt have been 
carrying on very delicate measurements with each of the two. presumably for discovering 
whether the equality is real, or only apparent. After careful investigation ten differ- 
ent methods of splitting up either cobalt or nickel were found, and considerable quanti- 
ties of a substance common to the two were isolated. A black metal was the result, 
to which, so far as we know, no name has yet been given. 



A Serious Charg-e. 

We take the following from our esteemed New York contemporary, the American 
Machinist : "It is rather a dull day when no new scheme is developed for making 
money without any very hard work, except that which is done by others not in the 
scheme, whose labor is of course very necessary to the success of the enterprise. The 
organized eno-ineers of this city have made a formal protest to the authorities against the 
operations of a company whose plan seems to be to contract with the owners for the 
management of steam plants at rates for which competent engineers cannot be em- 
ployed, and then, in order to make profits upon the service, employ incompetent men 
utterly unable to obtain licenses, and compel them to act not only as engineers, but as 
firemen, steam-fitters, and general roustabouts. One of the methods made use of by 
this enterprising company is said to be to report a boiler as 'out of use,' and thus avoid 
the necessity of applying for a license. An instance is given of a boiler reported ' out 
of use,' which exploded, killing the engineer. It is claimed that the steam-heating 
apparatus of the school buildings is in the hands of utterly incompetent men. The 
engineers ask that this state of things be remedied, and it is certainly in the interest of 
the public and of owners of steam plants, as well as of the engineers, that it should 
be remedied, and that speedily." This is a grave charge to bring against any company, 
but if it is true — if the engineers have good evidence that this state of things exists — 
the sooner the transgressors are brought to justice the better. Life and property are 
endangered enough already, by thoughtlessness and negligence, and the cooperation of 
any such company is not necessary. 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. . 59 

Hig"h Pressures. 

In the Locomotive for Octol^er we publislied an article under tliis heading, which 
seems to have been misunderstood in various quarters. The accuracy of our figures has 
also been questioned. Now, if, as in the case cited, the diameter of the boiler is 
seventy-two inches, and the length sixteen feet, or one hundred and ninety-two inches, 
there can be no doubt that the area of the shell is 43,000 square inches in round num- 
bers. Then, if there is a pressure of one hundred pounds on each square inch, the total 
pressure on the shell must be 4,300,000 pounds, or 2,1.50 tons. All this seems very sim- 
ple ; and the question as to whether the pressure so calculated tends to burst the boiler 
or not seems to be equally simple. 

There is a suspicion in our minds that one correspondent, at least, who objects to 
our calculations in the columns of a contemporary, does not see the difference between 
the pressure of steam against the inside of a boiler, and the strain on the shell produced 
by this pressure. These two things are widely different ; they act at right angles to 
one another, to begin with, and they are calculated in very different ways. One of 
them is calculated in the first paragraph of the article mentioned, and the other, by an 
utterly different process, in the second paragraph. 

Eead the article again, friend, before moralizing on the relations between theory 
and practice, and the sweetness of morsels. We have been calculating the strains on 
boilers for nearly tweuty-t^YO years, now, and we think we know how to do it. 



Captain John Ericsson. 

In the death of John Ericsson, on March 8th, the world loses one of its hardest 
workers, and one who has done much to bring engineering to the point at which it 
stands to-day. In his early youth he showed great aptness in scientific and mechanical 
studies, and his work continued uninterruptedly almost to the day of his death. Up to the 
last two weeks he had worked in his laboratory personally, and in his la.st hours, when 
he could hardly speak above a whisper, he drew his chief engineer's face close to his 
own, gave him final instructions for continuing the work, and exacted a promise that it 
should go on. 

He was one of the earliest builders of steam fire engines, one of which, built by him, 
was in use in London in 1839. In that same year he built a locomotive, the Novelty^ to 
compete with Stevenson's Rocket^ on the Liverpool & Manchester Railway. The Novelty 
is said to have attained a speed of thirty miles an hour ; but the Rocket, weighing nearly 
twice as much, had considerably more tractive force, and was the accepted competitor, 

A few years later Ericsson became a strong advocate of the screw-propeller, urging 
its special usefulness on ships of war ; and in 1837 he built a small tug with twin 
propellers, which navigated the Thames with success. The British Admiralty author- 
ities inspected his vessel, but declined to adopt her as a model on account of the sup- 
posed difficulty of steering a ship whose motive power is applied at the stern. He then 
removed to this country, and designed the Princeton for our navy ; and we have the dis- 
tinction, therefore, of having built the first screw-propeller for use in war. 

During the thirteen years that he lived in England, he brought out no less than forty 
inventions. Among other things he introduced the link motion now used on almost 
every locomotive built. The caloric engine is another one of his better-known inven- 
tions, many hundreds of these engines being now in use in New York city alone. He 
is known best of all, perhaps, as the designer and builder of the Monitor, whose famous 
engagement with the Merrimac in Hampton Roads led all the maritime nations of the 
earth to remodel their navies. In 1878 he had the torpedo boat Destroyer built at the 
Delamater Iron Works, During an attack this vessel is to be submerged, the torpedoes 



60 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [April, 

being discharged under water by means of specially designed apparatus. His latest 
years were devoted to a study of sunlight, and a means of obtaining power therefrom. 
A sun-motor, built after his plans in 1883, developed a steady and reliable power when 
exposed to ordinary sunlight. 

"No %"isitor was allowed to enter his workshop. Even his most intimate friends 
have never gained entrance there. Xor has any servant been in the room where the 
captain spent more than twelve hours daily for thirty years. Here in his workshop, as 
it were, Ericsson lived, and here he died, a recognized leader among those who have 
added to human welfare, and honoring by his name the rolls of more than a score of 
associations of learned men."' 

He never returned to Sweden, his native country, but he has received from her 
many honors and decorations. In 1867, a great granite monument, quarried by unpaid 
labor, was set up with festi^•ities before his birthplace, and inscribed, "John Ericsson 
was born here on July 31, 1803 ; " and under this stone he will probably be buried. 



The fourth annual report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the State of Connec- 1 
necticut is an interesting publication of about 300 pages, containing much valuable 
information. We wish to call attention specially to the following extracts from the 
introduction : " One of the most gratifying features of the investigation has been the 
discovery of large establishments, owned and operated by corporations, where labor 
troubles have never been known. The secret of the pleasant relations which have 
always existed between employers and employed is in the fact that the employers have 
not only entertained feelings of kindness toward their employees, but have recognized 
in them fellow beings who had their rights, which they have always been scrupulously 
careful to respect. There is very little change of help, and the employers have reaped 
the benefits resulting from permanent help thoroughly trained to their work. In one 
of these establishments a man died a few years since who had been in its continuous 
employ for sixty-seven years. During the last years of his life he was able to do but 
little work, and for the last three years be could do nothing, but his wages were con- 
tinued to the end. This company has a regular pension list of deserving emjiloyees who 
have become superannuated, or have become incapacitated for work by reason of sickness 
or accident while in the service of the company. A similar policy is pursued towards 
employees by a number of other establishments, with like happy results. It by no means 
follows that such a course should, or could, be adopted by employers generally. With 
many, perhaps with most, it would not be right. It is easy to see, however, why labor- 
ing men and women like to remain in the employ of such corporations. 

"Many philanthropic employers who desire to benefit their employees fail to appre- 
ciate the sensitiveness of the laboring people to anything which savors of charity or pat- 
ronage. The laboring man is always on his guard against such a spirit, and frequently 
resents acts that were meant in the utmost kindness. A policy of liberality on the part 
of the employer, judiciously exercised, is a good thing, but a careful study of the interests 
of his employees, and the kind of treatment that will make them respect themselves 
and honor him, is the greatest good he can bestow. The cultivation by the employer 
of that spirit which leads them to treat their employees with uniform courtesy and 
respect will awaken manly instincts in the employee, and bind him to his employer's 
interests. A disposition to regard his employer's interests as his own is worth a small 
fortune to the laboring man." And we might add that this same disposition is worth a 
large fortune to the employer. 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 61 

History of the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat. 

The history of the establishment of tlie science of thermodynamics is very interest- 
ing, especially of that fundamental principle which is known as the "first law." This 
principle, stated in simple language, is that a pound of water, in cooling one degree Fah., 
gives off an amount of heat which is capable of raising 778 pounds through a height of 
one foot. 

Credit for the determination of this important constant is usually accorded without 
question to Mr. James Prescott Joule, of Manchester, England. As early as 1843 this gen- 
tleman had made a number of experiments for determining the constant in question, obtain- 
ing results varying from 587 to 1,026^ He made exi^eriments, also, on the heat evolved 
by the friction of water in small pipes, from which he deduced an equivalent of 770 foot- 
pounds. In the following year Mr. Joule entirely changed the plan of his work, emjiloy- 
ing new and better methods and obtaining numerous results. From five different exper- 
iments he obtained as many results ; but they agreed very well and gave a mean value of 
802 foot pounds. In 1845 he experimented on water agitated by a paddle-wheel, and 
by comparing the work expended in turning the paddle with the rise in temperature of 
the water, he found 890 as the value of the equivalent. Two years later he made similar 
experiments with both water and oil, with additional refinements that his experience 
had suggested; and from these he obtained 781.5 and 782.1 respectively, the mean of 
which is 781.8. He had been at work on the problem for a number of years, when in 
1849 he undertook a final determination of the equivalent, and with all the care and 
watchfulness that his experience and keen insight had shown to be necessary, he carried 
out a series of 40 experiments on the friction of water, 50 on the friction of mercury, and 
20 on the friction of cast-iron plates ; from which he deduced the value, 772 foot-pounds, 
that has been accepted without question for nearly 35 years. 

Great as is the credit that Joule has fairly won, we must not overlook the fact that 
equal credit belongs to Dr. Julius Robert Mayer, who was engaged, at the same time, 
upon investigations which were of equal importance, though carried on in an entirely 
different manner. In 1840 he was a physician on the island of Java, and while there he 
noticed that the venous blood of his patients was unusually red. He pondered over this 
for some tinie, and concluded that it was owing to the fact that a less amount of oxida- 
tion of the tissues of the body would keep up the bodily heat in a hot country like Java, 
than would be required in a colder one. Following up this thought he at length came to 
the conclusion that a fixed relation must exist between heat and work. In 1842 he pub- 
lished a paper containing his views, and in this he made the attempt to determine this 
relation numerically. Professor Tyndall thus describes his reasoning : "It was known 
that a definite amount of air, in rising one degree in temperature, can take up two dif- 
ferent amounts of heat. If its volume be kept constant, it takes up one amount : if its 
pressure be ke})t constant it takes up a different amount. These two amounts are called 
the specific heat under constant volume and under constant pressure. The ratio of the 
first to the second is as 1 : 1.421. No man, to my knowledge, pnor to Dr. Mayer, 
penetrated the significance of these two numbers. He first saw that the excess .421 was 
not, as then universally supposed, heat actually lodged in the gas, but heat which had 
been actually consumed by the gas in expanding against pressure. The amount of work 
here performed was accurately known, the amount of heat consumed was also accurately 
known, and from these data Mayer determined the mechanical equivalent of heat. Even 
in this first paper he is able to direct attention to the enormous discrepancy between the 
theoretic power of the fuel consumed in steam engines, and their useful effect. Though 
this paper contains but the germ of his further labors, I think it may be safely assumed 
that, as regards the mechanical theory of heat, this obscure Heilbron physician, in the 
year 1842, was in advance of all the scientific men of the time." 



62 THE LOCOMOTIVE [April, 

Comparing Joule and Mayer, Professor Tyndall continues: " Withdrawn from me- 
chanical appliances, Mayer fell back upon reflection, selecting with marvellous sagacity, 
from existing physical data, the single result on which could be founded a calculation of 
the mechanical equivalent of heat. In the midst of mechanical appliances. Joule resorted 
to experiment, and laid the broad and firm foundation which has secured for the mechan- 
ical theory the acceptance it now enjoys. A great portion of Joule's time was occupied 
in actual manipulation; freed from this, Mayer had time to follow the theory into its 
most abstruse and impressive applications. With their places reversed, however. Joule 
might have become Mayer, and Mayer might have become Joule." 

Other distinguished experimenters have undertaken the determination of the mechan- 
ical equivalent of heat. Joule himself, as late as 1878, published results obtained by 
himself shortly before, from the thermal effects of the friction of water. In a paper read 
before the Royal Society in that year he stated that, taking the unit of heat as that 
which can raise a pound of water (weighed in a vacuum) from 60° to 61° of the mercu- 
rial thermometer, its mechanical equivalent, reduced to the sea level and to the latitude 
of Greenvv'ich, is 772.55 foot-pounds. Of the other prominent physicists who have 
studied this constant, Favre deduced 753 from the friction of steel on steel, and 807 
from the heat aljsorbed by an electromagnetic engine for the production of work ; Hirn 
deduced 787 from the friction of liquids, and 775 from the compression of lead; Quintus 
Icilius deduced 714^ directly from the heat developed in an electric circuit. By com- 
paring the work expended in revolving the plate of a Holtz electrical machine with the 
heat produced by the resulting current, Rosetti deduced 776.1 foot-pounds. Le Roux, 
from the heat produced by rotating a tube full of water in a magnetic field, found 835 ; 
VioUe, by similar experiments on disks of metal in the place of water, found 793.3 with 
copper, 794.3 with tin, 797.3 with lead, and 792.7 with aluminium. The mean of these 
is 794.4; but M. Violle, feeling more confidence in some of his results than in others, 
gives his preference to the number 793. Bartoli deduced 771.12 from the friction of 
mercury in small tubes. No doubt many others have made good determinations of the 
mechanical equivalent of heat, whose results we do not have at hand. At least two ex- 
perimenters that we have not yet mentioned have made highly important contributions 
to our knowledge of the subject. They are Regnault and Rowland. By a careful study 
of the velocity of sound in gases, Regnault determined the ratio of the two specific heats 
of gases, which ratio was used by Mayer in his first calculation. Regnault's result was 
1.3945, instead of 1.421; and from this and certain other data Mayer's calculation was 
repeated, and the result was 794.8. 

The ditficulty of a determination of this kind is very great; and the differences 
among the results that we liave called attention to are perhaps no greater than might be 
expected. Prof. Henry A. Rowland has made a classical determination of the equiva- 
lent, and his result is without doubt entitled to the fullest confidence. His investiga- 
tions were very extensive and involved many difficult problems in thermometry. He 
found among other things, and contrary to the accepted belief, that the specific heat of 
water is greater near the freezing point than it is at and near 80". Rowland's result is 
that the mechanical equivalent of heat is 778 foot-pounds at 39 2'' F., if the temperature 
is measured by a mercurial thermometer, and 783 foot-pounds if by an air thermometer. 
The older numljer, 772, is so widely known that it will very likely be used among engi- 
neers for a long time yet, especially as it is sufficiently near the truth for most purposes; 
but sooner or later Rowland's value — 778 — will probably supersede it, and for this 
reason we used it in the beginning of this article in defining the first law of thermody- 
namics. 

"Lloyd's." 

In English books and papers we often find mention of "Lloyd's." Rules for 
designing flues, for staying furnaces, for proportioning safety-valves, and for multitudes 
of other things, are given under authority of this name, and we do not doubt that many of 
our readers have wondered what it means. "Lloyd's " is an association of merchants, 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE 63 

ship-owners, underwriters, and ship and insurance brokers, having its headquarters in a 
suite of rooms in the northeast corner of the Koyal Exchange, London. It is the center 
where the business of maritime insurance is transacted, and the earliest shipping intelli- 
gence from all parts of the world is posted there for the benefit of members and 
subscribers;!. 

The first mention of this institution is found in the London Gazette of February 18, 
1688. It was then a mere gathering of merchants, who met for business or gossip in a 
coffee-house in Tower Street, kept by Mr. Edward Lloyd. Four years later Lloyd re- 
moved to Lombard Street, in the very center of that portion of the old city of London 
that was most frequented by merchants of the highest class, and shortly afterwards he 
began the publication of a weekly newspaper, giving commercial and shipping news. 
It was known as Lloyd''s News, and though it was not long-lived itself, it was the 
predecessor of the now well-known Lloyd's List, which is said, to be the oldest paper 
in existence, excepting the London Gazette. Llo7/d''s List was printed as a weekly from 
1716 to 1800 ; since that time it has been a daily, containing the fullest details of ship- 
ping from all parts of the world. In Lombard Street the business transacted at Lloyd's 
coffee-house grew steadily in extent and importance, but up to about the time, of the 
Revolutionary War it does not appear that the association was a formal one, or that its 
members were subject to any rules. The rapid increase of the business transacted there 
ultimately obliged the members to find more commodious quarters, and after finding a 
temporary resting place in Pope's Head Alley, the organization moved into its present 
quarters in March, 1774. 

One of the first improvements under the new regime was the introduction of a 
printed form of policy for marine insurance. A committee of members proposed a 
general form, and this was adopted on January 13, 1779, and with slight modifications 
it has now continued in use for over 110 years. In 1811 the association was reorgan- 
ized, and in 1871 an act was passed, granting to Lloyd's all the rights and privileges of 
a corporation sanctioned by Parliament. " According to this act of incorporation, the 
three main objects for which the society exists are : First, the carrying out of the 
business of marine insurance ; secondly, the jirotection of the interests of the members 
of the association ; and thirdly, the collection, publication, and diffusion of intelligence 
and information with respect to shipping. In the proiiiotion of the last-named object, 
(obviously the foundation upon which the entire superstructure rests,) an intelligence 
department has been gradually developed, which, for wideness of range and efficient 
working, has no parallel among private enterprises in any country." 

The rooms of the association are open only to subscribers and members. The 
former pay an annual due of twenty-five dollars, and have no voice in the management 
of the institution ; the latter are divided into two classes, according to the kind of 
business they transact. They that are underwriters pay an entrance fee of five hundred 
dollars ; they that are not underwriters pay a fee of sixty dollars. Underwriting mem- 
bers are also required to deposit securities to the value of from twenty-five to fifty 
thousand dollars, according to circum.stances, as a guarantee that they will fulfill their 
engagements. All the officials and agents of the association are appointed by the 
"committee on management," and the daily routine work is carried on by a secretary 
and a large staff of clerks. The insurance system is so arranged that the individual 
underwriters do not risk more than five hundred to eight hundred dollars on any single 
vessel, and the rates of insurance are not high. There is a vast "merchants' room," con- 
taining newspapers from all parts of the world, and a " captain's room," where auctions 
are held and convivial gatherings meet. 

The name " Lloyd's " is also applied to other institutions of the same kind, in other 
parts of the world. The most celebrated of these are the Austrian Lloyd at Trieste, 
which was established in 1823, and the North German Lloyd at Bremen. The Austrian 
Lloyd has issued a Giomale ("journal") since 1834. 



64 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



Incorporated 
1866. 




Charter Per- 
petual. 



Mm Policies of Icsnrance after a Carefnl Inspection of tlie Boilers. 



COVERING ALL LOSS OR DAMAGE TO 



BOILERS, BUILDINGS, AND MACHINERY. 



ALSO COVERING 



LOSS OF LIFE AND ACCIDENT TO PERSONS 



ARISING FROM 



Steam Boiler Explosions. 

Full information concerning the plan of the Company's operations can be obtained at the 

Or at anv Agencv. 



J. M. ALLEN, President. 
J. B. PIERCE, Secretary. 



W. B. FRANKLIN, Viee-Prest. 
FRANCIS B. ALLEN, 2d Vice-Prest. 



33oai'<i of 

J. M. ALLEN, President. I 

FRANK \V. CHI':N1-:Y, Treas. Cheney Brothers 

Silk JIamifactnring Co. \ 

CHAKLKS M. BEACH, of Beach & Co. 
D \NIEL PHILLIPS, of Adams Express Co. 
RICHARD W. H. .lARVIS, Prest. Colt's Fire Arras 

Manufacturino; Co. 
THO.MAS O. ENDERS, President of the United 

States Bank. 
LEVERETT HRAINARD, of The Case, Lockwood 

& Brainard Co. 
Gex. W.M. B. franklin. Late Vice-Prest. Colt's 

Pat. Fire Arms Mfo. Co. 



T>ireotors. 

NEWTON CASE, of The Case, Lockwood & 

Brainard Co. 
NELSON HOLLISTER, of State Bank. Hartford. 
Hon. henry C. ROBINSON, Attornev-at-Law, 

H.nrtford. 
Hon. FRANCIS B. COOLEY, of the National 

Exchange Bank, Hartford, Conn. 
A. W. .JILLSON, late Vice-Prest. Phoenix Fire Ins. 
! Co.. Hartford, Conn. 
EDJIUND A. STEDMAN, Treasurer of the Fidelity 

Co , of Hartford, Conn. 
CLAl'P Sl'OONER, Rridpeport, Conn. 
.GEORGE BURNHAM, Baldwin Locomotive Works, 
I Pliiladelphia. 



GENERAL AGENTS. 

THEO. H. BARCOCK, 
CORBIN& G001)RI<;H, 
LAWFORD & McKLM, 

C. E. ROBERTS, 

H. D. P. BIGELOW, 

C. C. GARDINER, 

L. B. PERKINS, 

W. G. LINEBURGH & SON, 

GEO. P. BURVVELL, 

MANN & WILSON, 

W. S. HASTIE & SON, 

G. A. STEEL & CO., 

FRITH & ZOLLARS, 

C. J. McCARY & CO., 



CHIEF INSPECTORS, 

R. K. McMURRAY, 
WM. G. PIKE 
JOSEPH CRAGG, 

WM. U. FAIRBAIRN, | 

H. D. P BIGELOW, 
.T. S. WILSON, 
F. S. ALLEN. 
.T. H. RANDALL. 
C. A. BURWELL, 
J. B. V/ARNER, 

M. .T. GEIST. 
T. E. SHEARS, 



New York City. 
Philadelphia. 

P>ALTIJI0I!E, 5Id. 

BosTi N, Mass 
Providence, R. I. 
CiiiCAoo, III. 
St Loiis. Mo. 
Hartford. 
Bridgeport. 
Cleveland. 
San Francisco. 
Charleston, S. C. 
Pop.tl.vnd. Ore. 
DENVKir. Col. 
Birmingham, Ala. 



OFFICES. 

Office, 285 Broadw.av. 
" 430 Wahiut St. 
" 22 So.FallidaySt. 
" 35 Pemberton Sq. 
« 29 Wevbopset St. 
» n2QuincvSt. 
■' 404 Market St. 
' 2l8]\IainSt. 
94 State St. 
' 208 Superior St. 
' 306 Sansome St. 
' 44 Broad St. 



Opera House Block. 
2015 First Av. 



Wkt Kuamaikt 



PUBLISHED BY THE HARTFORD STEAM BOILER INSPECTION AND INSURANCE COMPANY. 



New Sekies— Vol. X. HARTFORD, CONN., MAY, 1889. 



No. 5. 



Explosion of a Vulcanizing" Press. 

A curious and interesting explosion of a vulcanizing press recently came to our notice. 
The press is illustrated in Fig. 1. It consists of u number of plates of cast iron, each four 
inches thick, and forty inches square, which are contained in a stout framework, and 
forced upward from below by an 18-inch hydraulic ram, into which water is forced at a 
pressure of 3,000 lbs. to the square inch. The diameter of the plunger being 18 inches, its 




Fig. 1. — Perspective View of Press. 



66 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [May, 

area is 254 square inches, and the total pressure upon it was 254 x 3, 000 ='i 62,000 lbs. 
Between the plates the articles to be vulcanized are placed. Thej' generally consist of a 
mixture of asbestos and rubber, in varying proportions, according to the purpose for which 
the finished product is intended; and after being subjected to the desired pressure and tem- 
perature they become so dense and compact that they may readily be turned in a lathe in 
the same manner as iron. 

The iron plates between which the articles are placed are cast hollow, one inch of iron 
being left all around, on top, bottom, sides, and ends; and into them steam, at 80 lbs. 
pressure, is introduced by means of a sow and a series of telescoping pipes, as shown in 
Fig. 1. Each pipe is braced to its plate, and each is provided with a cock so that the 
pressure may be reaioved from any desired plate at wili. In this way a temperature of 
324" F. is obtained, which is sufficient for the purpose required. The surface acted upon 
by the steam we will consider to be 38 inches square, or 88x38 = 1,444 .square inches. The 
total pressure tending to burst the plate is therefore 1,444x80—115,520 lbs. This is so far 
within the collapsing pressure exerted bj^ the water below that there is evidently no likeli- 
hood of the plates bursting in a vertical direction when the press is in operation, provided 
the articles to be compressed are properly arranged so as to distribute the stress over the 
surface of the plates, and not allow it to be concentrated on a small area anywhere. 

Cast-iron staybolts an inch and a half in diameter extend from face to face of the 
plates. They are spaced six inches apart in both directions; there are thirty six of tliem in 
all, and they form an integral part of the plate. When steam pressure is on and the 
hydraulic ram is in action, the staybolts sustain a compressive strain; and when the steiim 
pressure is on and the ram is not in action, they are exposed to tension. 

The press had been in use for about eight months, when one morning, after running 
for about twenty minutes, one' of the plates fractured under the strain. A workman near 
by narrowly escaped death from a flying core bolt, and several others were so shaken up 
as to l)e unable to work for the rest of the day. The appearance of the fractured plate, 
after its removal from the press, is shown in Fig. 2. The upper portion of it was broken 
into two nearly equal parts, and the fracture along the edges of the fragments was bright 
and crystalline, and had the appearance of good cast iron. The same is true of the frac- 
tured surface of the outer row of staybolts, completely round the plate. The sixteen 
s'aybolts composing the inner rows, however, presented a very different appearance. In 
nearly every case the surface of separation was of a dull reddish brown, and on most of 
these bolts no sign of a bright fracture was to be seen. Some showed small bright spots at 
the center; and the appearance of all was as though flaws had started along the under sur- 
face of the plate, approaching the center of the bolt from all sides, and that in most cases 
the flaws had reached the centers of the bolts long before the time of the accident, while 
in a few cases the separation at the center was not yet quite complete. Some such action 
might possibly result from slight but repeated flexure of the surfaces of the plate by the 
■unequal distribution of strains through the points of contact of the articles placed in the 
press to be vulcanized. It is hard to understand, however, why nearly all the bolts broke 
off at the same end, if the flaws resulted simply from the flexure of the plate; for in that 
case there is obvious)}^ no reason why the bolts would break off at either end in preference 
to the other end. Moreover, such of the fractures as were dull appear to have been so for 
a long time — probably for as long a time as the press has been in use. 

In casting work like this it is hard enough to get a sound casting, even when every 
possible precaution is taken; but when the foundry is run under pressure, and the articles 
. cast must be delivered almost immediately, there is a great temptation to uncover the molds 
ami expose the contents to the air so as to facilitate their cooling. Castings cooled in this 
way have been known to explode with violence, and even to wreck the foundry in which 
they were lying. A plate like the one under consideration should be allowed at least twen- 
ty-four to thirty-six hours to cool in, and it is possible that its cooling was hastened by 
removing the sand above it, and that the o])served fractures were caused in this way. 

Another bad habit that some foundrymen have, in working on jobs of this kind, is to 
let them cool down almost to 2120 F. , and then introduce a little water into them. The 



1889.] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



67 



steam so produced removes the sand from the interior in a lively manner, and considerable 
laborious digging and scooping is avoided. We should not like to say that the man who 
cast these plates adopted that method, but still it is possible, and if it icere so we could 
hardly be surprised at finding the bolts broken off. 

However the original fractures were made it is apparent that after the plate had been 
under hydraulic pressure for twenty minutes, it would hardly burst without some immedi- 
ate cause ; and it would be interesting to know what that cause was. By reference to Fig. 
1 it will be seen that one end of the press was provided with steam pipes, and the other 
end with drip pipes to remove the water of condensation. Those attached to the near esd 




Fig. 2. — Appeauance of Exploded Plate. 



in the engraving are the drip pipes. They are braced in such a manner that it is conven- 
ient to have them enter the plates at about midway of their thickness; and an examination 
on the morning of the explosion showed what evidently must be the fact, namely, that 
every plate must be constantly half filled with water, since the drip pipes are so arranged 
that they cannot drain the lower part of any plate. It is probable, therefore, that with this 
large surface of water exposed, some sort of a w^aterhammer action was set up, which, 
acting in addition to local strain caused by the articles under treatment, caused the frac- 
ture. All drip pipes should open into the space to be drained at the lowx^st point. 

One of the staybolts in the exploded plate was placed in a planer and cut apart longi- 
tudinally. The tool pushed its way through with a soft, unresisting sound; no chips were 



53 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [Mat 

thrown off, but the tool pushed out before it a pulverized, dark-colored substance, verj' 
unlike the ordinarj' chips from common cast iron. This suggests that, under the peculiar 
condition of strain and temperature to which tbese staybolts were exposed, the metal may 
undergo a modification of structure. The staybolt in question was planed down and pol- 
ished to a perfectly smooth surface and then immersed in an acid oath. It was etched all 
over very evenly, and seemed to be of very uniform composition. 

In Fig. 2 the engraver has given a very good representaiion of the plate as it appeared 
after the accident, the brigbtness or dullness of each fracture being faithfully imitated by a 
corresponding shade in the wood cut. 



Inspectors" Reports. 

]ilABCH, 1883. 

Durinc thLs month our inspectors made 4,671 inspection trips, visited 9,692 boilers, 
inspected 3.824 both internally and externally, and subjected 533 to hydrostatic press- 
ure. The whole number of defects rej»orted reached 8,449, of which 652 were consid- 
ered dangerous: 40 boilers were regarded unsafe for further u.se. Our usual summary is 
given below : 

Natnre of Defects. 
Cases of deposit of sediment, ... 

Cases of incrustation and scale, ... 
Cases of internal grooving, - - - - 

Cases of internal coiTO-sion, - - - - 

Cases of external corrosion, - - - - 

Broken and loose braces and stays, - - - 

Settings defective. - - - - - 

Furnaces out of shape, . . . . 

Fractured plates, . - - - - 

Burned plates, . . _ . . 

Blistered plates. . . . - - 

Cases of defective riveting, - - - - 

Defective heads, . . . . - 

Serious leakage around tube ends, - - - 

Serious leakage at seams, . . - - 

Defective water-gauges, . . . . 

Defective blow-offs. . . . . 

Cases of deficiency of water, 

Safety-valves overloaded, « - • - 

Safety-valves defective in construction, 
Pressure-gauges defective, - - - - 

Boilers without pressure-gauges, - - .- 

Unclas-sified defects. 

Total, S.449 - - 652 

On comparing the number of boilers examined by our inspectors during the past 
month with the numbers examined in the same month of previous years, we find the 
follow in 2: 



Whole Number. 


Dangerous. 


564 


- 


- 


16 


939 


- 


- 


24 


52 


- 


- 


10 


274 


- 


- 


23 


613 


- 


- 


60 


213 


- 


- 


50 


192 


- 


- 


19 


263 


- 


- 


11 


175 - 


- 


- 


53 


160 


- 


- 


22 


412 


- 


- 


24 


1,831 


- 


- 


62 


75 


- 


- 


23 


1,480 


- 


- 


i t 


451 


- 


- 


31 


166 


- 


- 


35 


81 


- 


- 


18 


21 


- 


- 


6 


51 


- 


- 


14 


65 


- 


- 


18 


286 


- 


- 


47 


i 


- 


- 


7 


78 


- 


- 






Month. Boilers Examined. 

March, 1889. . . 9.692 



18><8, 
1887, 
1886, 
1885, 



7.6S2 
7.445 
6.0.38 
6,060 



Month. Boilers Examined. 

March, 1884, . . 5,368 



1883, 
1882, 
1881, 
1880, 



4,964 
4,642 
3,976 
4,155 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 59 

These figures speak for themselves. It is gratifying to see such a progressive increase 
in the number of boilers under our care, as it shows that, as the public comes to under- 
stand the objects of our business, and our methods of conducting it, they are quick to 
avail themselves of the advantages it offers them. 



Boiler Explosions. 

March, 1889. 

Saw-Mill (33). A boiler explosion occurred at Amos Kent & Son's saw-mill, four 
miles from Tangipahoa, Fla., on Feb. 28th, demolishing the boiler-house and unroofing 
the buildings adjacent. The boiler was thrown a distance of 240 yards. The colored 
fireman was buried beneath the debris, but was taken out alive and will probably 
recover. Mr. Ingersoll, a Northern settler at Kentwood, was loading lumber about 100 
yards from the boiler-house when the explosion occurred, and had his right leg broken 
below the knee by flying brick. 

Saw-Mill (34). On March 8th the boiler in Warner's saw-mill, about one-half 
mile east of Wayne, Mich., exploded with terrific force, wrecking the building and 
instantly killing Engineer Westfall, whose terribly mangled body, with the head blown 
off and every bone broken, was found several yards from the boiler-room. There were 
six other men in the building, but none of them were seriously injured. The top of the 
boiler was found nearly 1,000 feet from the scene of the disaster, and parts of the 
machinery were thrown nearly as far. The damage to the mill and machinery is esti- 
mated at about $10,000. 

Flouring-Mill (35). The two boilers at the Victoria Flour-Mills, St. Louis, Mo., 
exploded on March 10th. One was hurled fifty yards in the air and fell in a stone- 
quarry a hundred feet away. The other was badly broken and scattered about, break- 
ing a hole in a brick house four hundred feet distant. The mill was just about to be 
shut down for the day when the explosions occurred. Seven men were in the mill at 
the time. Patrick McMahon, the fireman, was literally cut to pieces, his head being 
blown off, his limbs torn away, and his body terribly crushed. Neill Brown, a former 
employe, who was in the engine room, was instantly killed, his head being crushed by 
falling bricks, and his body badly bruised. Ten others were more or less severely 
injured, and the boiler house was completely demolished. 

Rolling Mills (36). A boiler thirty feet long in the forging department of the 
rolling mills in the southern part of the city of Cleveland, O., exploded on March 11th, 
with terrific force. One piece of it went west, and, crashing into Hugh Graham's house, 
500 feet away, bounded off and buried itself beneath the foundations of a house a dozen 
yards distant. Graham was slightly hurt. Just before the fragment struck Graham's 
house it wrecked his coal house. In it were Mrs. John Scelaga and Mrs. Culaja, both 
of whom sustained scalp wounds. The other fragment of the boiler went west 1,600 
feet and demolished an outhouse in which was Mary Vargo, four years old. Her left 
arm was broken. At the mill there were thirty men near the boiler when it exploded. 
James Barr and Thomas Dorsey were killed, and a dozen others received more or less 
serious wounds. 

Colliery (37). On March 13th two boilers exploded at the St. Nicholas Colliery, 
Mahanoy City, Pa. A section of one of the boilers was hurled 600 feet down an em- 
bankment ; another weighing 300 pounds was hurled through a blacksmith shop ; a third 
cut off a huge tree five feet from the ground, while others mowed down fences and small 
outbuildings. Edward Seltzer was hurled into the air and had his skull fractured. 



70 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [Mat, 

Edward Watts was struck in the back of the head and fatally wounded. Mary Hoffman 
of Mahanoy City, carrying a child in her arms, was passing on the road 150 feet away, 
and her hip was broken and her child killed. Patrick Wannes was driving a mine 
wagon, just ahead of the woman, and had his legs fractured by falling fragments. 
James Delaney, who was sitting alongside of him os the wagon seat, had his skull frac- 
tured. Michael Warner, a lad aged thirteen, sitting in the back of the wagon, had one 
of his thighs broken and his ankle dislocated. The wagon was upset and the mules ran 
away, throwing the Avounded people into the dust. James Thomas, Henry Abrams, and 
Sol Thomas, employed at the works, were badly scalde'd, and a few others received 
slight injuries. 

Boiler Works (38). A boiler at the West Point Boiler Works of R. Monroe & 
Sons, at Twenty-third and Smallman streets, Pitt.sburg, Pa., exploded on March 14th, 
completely wrecking the plant and burying a number of men in the ruins. The build- 
ing was a large one-storj' brick structure, and was formerly occupied by William Smith 
& Sons, pipe manufacturers. The plant was a valuable one and will prove a complete 
loss. Nothing remains but a mass of brick, mortar, and timbers. The beiler was 
inspected six months ago and was thought to be in first-class condition. It was eight 
years old. The work of rescue was continued until late in the afternoon. All the 
employes have been accounted for. Of the sixty-five workmen, five were killed and 
fifteen others were injured. Some of the men said they heard the gauge tried just a few 
minutes before the explosion, and everything seemed all right. Everj' one expressed 
confidence in the engineer, and agreed that he was a careful and competent man, one 
who was unusually careful in his work. The loss will reach $30,000. 

Rubber Works (39). A large boiler at Murray, Wliitehead & Murray's rubber 
works, in Trenton, N. J., blew up on March 16th, blowing out the south side of the 
building in which it was located, and injuring James Mosedale, the engineer, and Adam 
Hayden and James Hoy, two workmen. The newspaper report says that ''the boiler 
carried 180 pounds of steam, was ten by eighteen feet in size." [I ! ] It also adds that 
"parts of the boiler were hurled 300 feet to a vacant lot plowing up the ground like a 
cyclone '" ; but why the vacant lot was so vigorously engaged in agriculture does not 
appear. 

Saw-Mill (40). The boiler in Whitney & Tuttle's saw-mill at Pound, Wis., 
exploded March 18th, wrecking the building. Otis Clement was killed, and six others 
were severely injured. 

CoTTO:s-^IiLL (41). A slight explosion took place at the Riverside Mills, in Olney- 
ville, R. I., on March 22d. The front of the furaace was blown out, and for a time 
there was great excitement among the employes. The mills were not shut down. The 
damages amount to $l,oOO. No one was injured. 

ForxDRY (42). A fatal explosion occurred on March 24th at the new AUis fovm- 
dry on South Bay street, Milwaukee. A newly-completed boiler, intended for steam- 
heating purposes, was being tested by William Malone, a mechanic employed in the 
foundry. The boilers are subjected in testing to a greater pressure than they will ever 
be required to stand in practical use, and this one failed to bear the strain. It was 
tested by steam, and it burst with great violence. ISIalone was scalded by the rush of 
escaping steam and mangled by the fragments of flying iron, so that he died shortly 
after. The only other person hurt by the explosion was a Polish laborer, whose injuries 
are not serious. The extreme foolishness of testing a boiler in this way must be appar- 
ent to everyone, and we doubt if the owners of the foundry knew what was being done. 
The hydrostatic test would have been perfectly safe and perfectly satisfactory. 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 71 

Pulp-Mill (43). Oa March 26th, a shell boiler, used in steaming pulp, exploded 
at the P. C. Cheney Company's pulp-mill, at Goffstown Centre, near Manchester, N. H. 
There were sixty pounds pressure on, and portions of the boiler were hurled through the 
roof. A large number of employes were in and about the building, but all escaj^ed save 
one, Augustus Kidder, who was severely, but not fatally, injured. 

Printing Office (44). A boiler in the Fairfield Journal office, Faii-field, Me., 
blew up on March 26th, completely demolishing the engine, scattering pieces in all 
directions, and breaking every square of glass in the office, but doing no injury to any 
person. 

Saw-Mill (45). A boiler exploded on March 26th, in Sanford & Evans' saw -mill, 
near Helena, Mont. Four men were injured. 

Shingle Mill (46). The boiler in Morgan's shingle at Hungerford, Mich., ex- 
ploded March 28th, killing Edward Stewart, and fatally injuring his brother Charles. 



Boiler Explosions — The Causes and Remedies. 

By a. J. Wkight. 

The several recent disastrous boiler explosions, — notably those at Hartford, Conn. ; 
Scranton, Reading, and Pittsburgh, Pa. ; St. Louis, Mo., and Cleveland, O., incurring an 
average loss of about ten lives, including many womes and children, and other jieoj^le 
wholly innocent of any responsibility for them, and destroying an average of over $30,- 
000 worth of property, — have awakened great interest and anxiety not only among steam 
users but also among employes; and, in fact, on the part of the public in general. These 
six appalling explosions all occurred within the short period of four weeks, — the first, that 
at the Park Central Hotel, Hartford, Conn., occurring on February 18th, and the last, that 
at the West Point Boiler Works, Pittsburgh, on March 14th. There were several other 
explosions within this period, but they were of such an ordinary nature as to be com- 
pletely overshadowed by those hientioned, which followed each other in such rapid suc- 
cession that the uneasiness manifested is but natural. 

These explosions were exceptional in many respects beside their magnitude. All of 
them, except the first, occurred in what may be termed first-class plants, all belonging to 
large corporations, where the boilers are generally well equipped and everything is sup- 
posed to be kept in repair, and where the best regulations prevail, one being in a silk 
mill, one in a colliery, one in a boiler works, which, by the way, enjoyed an enviable 
reputation for first-class work, one in a rolling mill, and one in a large flour mill. The 
newspaper reports, which furnish the only data for this article, and are probably 
not wholly accurate, also show that nearly if not all of these boilers, excepting in 
the hotel at Hartford, where there was a combination of enough carelessness and 
negligence to place this average also above the ordinary, were insured, and inspected 
periodically, as all boilers should be, and in at least two of the cases city inspection 
also prevails. [Our readers will remember that the Park Central was under State 
inspection.] 

Such being the condition, it is necessary, in looking for the cause, to take a liberal, 
common-sense view, laying aside the too common charge of carelessness or negligence, 
which, it must be admitted, would be absurd as applied to a majority of these cases. 
What then is the cause? 

It is, of course, impossible to go into the details of each case in the absence of defi- 
nite and reliable information, but in such extremities, a general opinion based upon 
close observation must be interesting, and the fact of its coming from an interested 
source can hardly be regarded as prejudicial. 



72 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [May, 

The annual report of the Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection & Insurance Company 
for the year 1888, shows that the inspectors of that company, in addition to 168 cases of 
deficiency of water, 54 of wliich were dangerous, found 1,702 burned plates, 255 
of which were also reported dangerous. In other words, the inspectors of this one com- 
pany found 309 boilers, which were in immediate danger of exploding, no matter 
how full of watei', as a result of the water having been low at some previous time. 
When in this connection we consider the fact that this is only the report of one com- 
pany, and, again, that only a small proportion and the best of the boilers in use are in- 
sured, and that there were, according to this company's reports, 8,658 other cases of 
danger found during the year,amongthe number being 473 dangerous cases of incrustation 
or scale, 306 cases of broken stays and loose braces, 178 defective settings, 1,588 cases of 
defective riveting, 417 cases of leakage at the seams, and 3,065 dangerous cases of leak- 
age around tube ends, 233 cases of defective water gauges, 146 cases of overloaded 
and 176 cases of safety valves defective in construction, 361 cases of defective pressure 
gauges, and, "God save the mark," 92 boilers without pressure gauges, and several 
hundred miscellaneous defects, — a total of 8,967 cases of defects where there was abso- 
lute danger of immediate explosion, — it must be agreed that the only strange thing about 
the frequency of boiler explosions is that they are not more frequent. 

But to return to the cause. There were 1,702 burned plates, 255 of which were 
dangerous, 15,122 cases of "serious leakage around tube ends," 2,065 dangerous; 
4,552 cases of "serious leakage at seams," 417 dangeroiis; in addition to 168 cases 
of " deficiency of water," 54 of which were dangerous, all of which had weakened 
and shortened the lives of the boilers. Now, it is not improbable that a large number 
of these nearly 20,000 cases of leakage around the tubes and seams, were caused 
by unequal expansion due to low water at some previous time. Is it not a reason- 
able conclusion, therefore, that the w^ater becomes low much more frequently than is gen- 
erally supposed, and that it is the indirect cause of many boiler exi^losions not attributed 
to it, and that many competent and faithful engineers and firemen suffer, as a result 
of the ignorance and negligence of their predecessors. A boiler burned and dangerous- 
ly weakened under one engineer may not explode until after he has been superseded by a 
most competent and painstaking one, who may be as innocent a sufferer as the 
many others killed by it, but we read in the columns of even the technical trade journals, 
as well as the dispatches of the Associated Press, that " the cause will probably never 
be known, as the engineer was killed outright." 

Furthermore, we have evidence other than theoretical tending to the same con- 
clusion. The experience of steam users with Reliance safety water columns is that they 
whistle for low water about once a month, on the average, even where the best help and 
most perfect regulations prevail. This may be hard for people without experience with 
reliable safeguards of this kind, to believe, but it is a fact which can be easily demon- 
strated, and to it is largely due the action of many of the large corporations in throwing 
out the ordinary combination and equipping all their boilers with these appliances, after 
learning their value through practical experience. It is clear that the water in 
steam boilers becomes low oftener than most people suppose, likewise that the boiler is 
weakened more or less every time it becomes low, and there is no room for doubt th*t it 
may ultimately give way with plenty of water in it and even without the contribu- 
tory assistance of ignorance, negligence, or even over-pressure, in which event it is 
no less the result of low water than if it had occurred when the water was low. 

In this conclusion, and the evidence leading to it, may, we believe, be found the 
ti-ue solution of many mysterious boiler explosions. "What then is the remedy? First, 
no matter whether your boilers are new or old, get them insured in some company 
of recognized standing and noted particularly for the thoroughness of its inspection. 
This means a great deal more than appears on the face of the advice. It means that if 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 73 

the material or workmanship is defective, or in other words, if improperly riveted or in- 
sufficiently braced, you will find it out at once, and if the setting is defective or the fur- 
naces out of shape you will be advised and will have to repair the defects before the com- 
pany will accept the risk. Nor is this all. It means that if the safety-valve is overloaded 
or defective you will know it, or if your boilers have been dangerously btirned, blistered, 
corroded, or grooved you will have an urgent opportunity to prevent loss of life and 
property by repairing them, before you can get the insurance, and that if they are seri- 
ously scaled or filled with sediment, that you will have to remove it at once, and then 
perchance have some patches put on. Perhaps your boilers may be condemned. The 
Hartford company condemned 436 boilers last year, and the benefits have now only 
begun. But you can go to bed and sleep at night with the satisfactiou of knowing 
that the boilers are safe and that you have done a duty to yourself, your employes, 
and the public, and at the same time made a good investment, for it also means that 
so long as you keep your boilers insured the company will, in so far as possible, by 
periodical and systematic inspections, keej) your plant in the condition in which it 
compels you to put it at the outset. 

But how about the low water? The company's inspectors cannot prevent it except in 
so far as keeping the appliances in working order are concerned. The inspector may 
find your boiler in first-class condition to-day, and the water may get low and weaken it 
to-night while you sleep. Or the same result may be brought about by the stopping of 
a pump, by foaming, by leakage, or as a result of carelessness, ignorance, drunkenness, 
or what not, within the period between inspections, and may result in an explosion as 
disastrous and fatal as any of those which have horrified the country within the 
past month, before the inspector gets around again. A boiler may be inspected to-day 
and found to be safe under a working pressure of 100, and be weakened to-night by low 
water so as to be dangerous to-morrow with 50 pounds pressure. It may explode 
a month hence with 60 pounds pressure and plenty of water, but the cause is as cer- 
tainly low water as if it had exploded when the water was low. 

There is but one sure remedy, and it is a simple one. Put on a safety water column, 
not some complicated device which is pretty in theory and worse than worthless in prac- 
tice, or some untried and perhaps inoperative low water detector, or a fusible plug which 
becomes coated with scale and fails to fuse, but a real safeguard, something simple, 
which has been tried and proven to be trustworthy by steam users whose judgment can 
be relied upon. The result will be highly gratifying. You will find a most pleasing re- 
sult in the effect it will have on your firemen, who will be doubly watchful as a natural 
result of having this monitor over them. As a result of personal pride you yourself 
would watch the water closer with than without these safeguards. By and by some acci- 
dent will happen and you will hear it whistle unexpectedly, and on investigation you 
will find that no one was directly blamable for the water becoming low, and 
will see that the little whistle brought brains to the rescue. You will sooner or 
later hear of its attracting the watchman's attention at night in ample time to obviate 
any serious results, and when you begin to get acquainted with the appliance and inves- 
tigate its workings you will discover that it has saved its cost in fuel by keeping 
the water at the proper level, and at the end of the year you will find a very small item 
opposite the "repairs to boilers " in the expense account. These are not imaginary 
figures, they are actual experiences. 

Both the insurance and the safety water columns have a like effect on the employes, 
which is of the utmost importance. They make those who might otherwise be careless 
or indifferent, watchful and careful, for any negligence is sure to be reported to the 
proprietor either by the inspector or the whistle. This extra watchfulness is of itself 
of vast importance, and will go a long way toward preventing " mysterious explosions," 
and solving the problem of safety. — Iron Trade Review. 



74 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [May. 




HARTFORD, MAY, 1889. 

J. M. Allen, Editor. H. F. Smith, ) . . . „,.^ 

A. D. Rlsteex, \^^<''<^i^ Editors. 

The Locomotive can he obtained free by calling at any of the company's agencies. 
Subscription price 50 cents per year when mailed from this office. 
Bound volumes one dollar each. 



We have received the latest number of the World Trarel Gazette, published by the 
World Travel Co., 207 Broadway, Xew York. It is a peculiar and interesting publication, 
copiously illustrated, and conducted in the interests of the traveler in all parts of the 
world. The present number is largelj" devoted to Switzerland and Hungary. 



Mr. a. J. Wri3HT, who wrote the article on " Boiler Explosions — the Causes and 
Remedies." in this issue, is manager of the Reliance Gauge Company, and is naturally 
interested in the sale of the appliance he represents. We do not often print articles of 
this nature, but this one is so fair and so temperately worded that we give it a place. 
We wish to say, however, that we never recommend any patented devices to our 
patrons, as we feel that such matters should be decided by the man who has to pay for 
them, and not by us. We are pretty ajit to be heard from, however, when one of our 
patrons meditates buying a device that we consider unsafe. 

It may be fair to say that we know of no objection to the appliance Mr. Wright 
advocates, if it is properly put on, provided the man in charge is as attentive as ever 
to his water-glass and gauge-cocks. We do not believe that any automatic apparatus, 
however excellent, can take the place of a good, live, capable, watchful engineer. 



The Scientific American is responsible for the following very fishy statement . " There 
may be more method than madness in the longing of the American student for a finishing 
course at a German university. At a recent discourse on chemistry, Prof. Heinrich 
Hoffman of Berlin, illustrated the atomic constitution of organic compounds by the use of 
the ballet. Each girl was dressed in an individual solid color and represented an atom, 
and the grouping and movements of the atoms is said to have been very effective. 
Chemistry has now become a very popular study with the stfudents, and the attendance at 
the lectures very full." 



The New York Sun calls attention to the fact that the four new States recently 
admitted into the Union have an area about equal to that of Maine, New Hampshire, Ver- 
moHt, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana combined. 
It is an area three times as great as the British Islands, more than three times as great 
as Italy, more than a hundred and fifty thousand square miles in excess of Germany. 
A very thriving area it all is, too, which will soon add to the census wondrous figures 
of products and population as well as of acres. 



1889] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 75 

Explosion in an Eng-lisli Colliery. v 

We have received from the Yorkshire Boiler Insurance and Steam Users' Company, of 
England, an interesting and illustrated account of an explosion at Drighlingtou. The fol- 
lowini;; extracts from it may be of interest to our readers: " On the morning of March 19th 
a boiler exploded at Spring Gardens Colliery, under circumstances which I consider extra- 
ordinary. The explosion was fortunately unattended by loss of life, though one or two 
inhabited cottages were partially destroyed by portions of the exploded boiler in its flight. 
The boiler was cylindrical, egg-ended, and externally fired. It was about thirty-two years 
old, and the maker's name is not known. I am informed that the blowing-ofE pressure was 
25 lbs. per square inch, and the probability is that the boiler has been run at a daily work- 
ing pressure of 20 to 25 lbs. per square inch. For some years there has been a leakage on 
the left side of the shell, so that the plates have been reduced by corrosion from y\ of an 
inch — their original thickness thirty years ago — to less than ^V of an inch, or to about the 
thickness of a sixpence; and this over an area of about five square feet. It seems incredi- 
ble that a boiler should be in this condition without the knowledge of the man in charge, 
or the owner of the colliery, for the law requires (1) that a certified manager shall have the 
' control and daily supervision ' of the mine, and all that pertains to it, and (3) that under 
special rules the man in charge ' must, at least once a iceek, carefully examine the engine, 
boilers, and appliances, and shall write a true report of the result of such examination in a 
book provided for the purpose, and shall sign the same.' In addition, it is also a rule in 
Yorkshire collieries that the engineer must see that each boiler is well cleaned at least once 
in three weeks. Notwithstanding these precautions, we have a boiler in daily use, with 
people in close proximity passing to and fro, and with inhabited houses within seventy 
yards of such boiler, working at a pressure of 20 to 35 lbs. per square inch, with plates the 
thickness of a sixpence ! 

"On the morning of the explosion the en^ineman had lowered the men into the pit 
and gone to the office to make his report; no doubt he would say all was ' right and in good 
working order,' sign his name, and experience some misgivings as to the correctness of his 
report, when he heard the explosion and saw the wrecked property around him. Now, 
what of the owner ? "When asked if he had ever had the boiler inspected by some outside 
competent authority, he said, in effect, 'Oh, no; I have a certified man to examine every- 
thing — a man in whom I placed implicit trust, and who seems thoroughly upset by the 
accident [!]. Boiler insurance companies have, through their agents, often canvassed me, 
but feeling such great confidence in the ability of vay certificated man, together with my 
great confidence in a Power from on high, I have considered everything safe ! ' 

"In conclusion, I may say that had this boiler been placed under competent inspec- 
tion the explosion would never have occurred; and it is to be regretted that any boiler 
owners, for the sake of saving the small annual cost, should decline to avail themselves of 
the periodical inspection that steam boiler insurance companies offer." 



Nitrogen. 

There is a substance which is invisible, which has neither odor nor taste, and in fact 
possesses no qualities of matter except weight and bulk. This is the gas nitrogen, which 
constitutes four fifths of the atmosphere which surrounds us. It is apparently a dead and 
inert form or manifestation of matter, and yet it is perhaps one of the most important and 
useful of the elements, and if it should vanish from the universe, life would cease to exist. 
This apparent paradox is explained by the fact that by its combination with other elements 
the remarkable characteristics of nitrogen are awakened into action. The gas is neither 
poisonous, corrosive, explosive, nutritious, nor medicinal; but combined with carbon and 
hydrogen it forms the deadly prussic acid; with oxygen and hydrogen, the strong corrosive 
nitric acid; with hydrogen alone, the strongly basic alkali ammonia; with carbon, 
hydrogen, and oxygen, the terrible explosive nitro-glycerine ; and with the same elements 



76 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [May, 

in varying pi-oportions, it forms the albuminoids, tlie gelatines, the glutens, and other 
strength-giving elements of our food, or the indispensable medicinal agents, quinine, 
morphine, atropine, strychnine, veratrine, cocaine, and many others. 

Although nitrogen is tasteless, it forms an indispensable part of the flavors of the 
peach, plum, apricot, and other delicious fruits, as well as coffee, tea, chocolate, and 
tobacco. Without smell, it is found in many of the most powerful and delicious perfumes, 
as well as in the nauseating odors of putrefaction. Present in immense quantities in the 
.air, it furnishes little or no support to vegetation, but combined with other elements the 
amount present in the soil determines its fertility, and the amount of crops that may be 
raised upon it. Colorless and invisible, nearly every dyestuff or coloring matter known 
contains it in a greater or less proportion. Harmless and powerless by itself, when 
combined with another non-explosive gas, chlorine, it forms the most powerful explosive 
known, of which a ray of sunlight is sufficient to arouse the terrible destructive power. 

And yet, notwithstanding the pre-eminent importance of this element in the affairs 
of life, there are but few of its combinations which we can form directly. Millions of 
tons of nitrogen are all about us, but not a grain of morphine or theine, gelatine or 
albumen, aniline or naphthaline, can we make from it. Only the mysterious vital force 
working in the natural laboratory of the vegetable and animal organism can build up most 
of these molecules from their ultimate elements, and place the atoms of nitrogen in their 
proper position like the beams or stones of a building. Our wonder at the marvelous 
powers displayed by these organisms is none the less when we see what simple, com- 
mon, and uncharacteristic elements are used by them in making up their wonderful 
products, and we can only say that it is a part of the great and unsoluble mystery of life. 

Neither can we explain satisfactorily from a chemical standpoint the properties 
and reactions of this strange element. By itself it is nothing, but united with other 
elements, spme almost equally inactive, the combinations thus produced manifest the most 
powerful and positive chemical and physical properties. It is like the springing into 
life of dead matter, but there is no system of chemical philosophy which can give a reason 
why it is so. It is the part of the chemist to observe and record the facts connected with 
the properties of different forms of matter, and in time we may from these facts construct 
a rational theory, but we are still a long way from a clear comprehension of the phenom- 
ena of the universe. There are about as many things in heaven and earth still undreamt 
of in our philosophy as there were in Shakespeare's time, and the further we advance 
toward the end, the more the field widens and appears to be of illimitable extent. — Jour- 
nal of Chemistry. 



Measuring- the Earth. 

There is a pretty general belief that the methods used by scientists to find out the 
size of the earth are beyond the comprehension of common people. Now this is a 
delusion, for although the actual execution of the work is full of the most perplexing 
difficulties, the general principle involved is exceedingly simple; and we are about 
to explain it. 

It is a well-known fact that the further west one travels, the later the sun rises ; and 
that by traveling completely around the world in a westerly direction we can make the 
Bun apparently fall behindhand an entire day. The same is true of the stars and other 
heavenly bodies ; and since it is more usual to use stars in the process of measuring the 
earth than to use the sun, we shall confine our attention to them. First we must under- 
stand that owing to the fact that the stars rise 3 min. 56 sec. earlier each night, the 
sidereal day is only 23 h. 56 m. 4 sec. long, instead of 24 h. Anyone can satisfy himself 
of this by noting that owing to the revolution of the earth around the sun, any given 
star will rise 366 times in a year, while the sun rises 865 times. The star will therefore 
gain l-366th of a day each day; which is 336 sec, or 3 min. 56 sec. 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 77 

Now let us imagine two observers, A and B, on the earth's equator, and diametri- 
cally opposite to one another. By means of a telegraph wire they can set their clocks 
exactly alike, and after they have done so it is jilain that B will see Sirius rise exactly 12 
hours later than A. Now suppose B moves his observatory eastward till he is only a 
quarter of the earth's circumference away from A ; then it is plain that he will see Sirius 
rise six hours later than A. If B moves eastward again until he is only an eighth of the 
circumference away from A, he will see Sirius rise ^^r<?e hours later than A; and so on. 

Suppose, now, that the two observers are only about thirty or forty miles apart, and 
that by careful observing it is found out that B sees the star rise precisely 2 m. 14.7 sec. 
later than A ; and let us further suppose that when the distance is carefully measured 
with a steel tape it is found to be 38 miles, 1622 yards. Then 

As the difference in time is to an entire day, 

So is this distance to the circumference of the earth. 

That is, 2 m. 14.7 sec. : 23 h. 56 m. 4 sec. :: 38 m. 1622 yds. : x 

where x is the circumference desired. Expressing the times in seconds and the distances 
in yards, this becomes 

134.7 : 86,164 :: 68,502 : x 

whence .-c = 43,818,900 yards, or 24,897 miles. This corresponds to a diameter of 7,925 
miles, which is the generally accepted figure. 

This is the principle of the whole operation. In making the actual measurement, 
however, several modifications have to be introduced. For example, it is impossible to 
estimate the instant of a star's rising with the necessary accuracy, partly because the 
horizon is irregular in shape, and partly because the refraction due to the earth's atmos- 
phere varies considerably. It is customary, therefore, to note the instant at which the 
star is exactly south of the observer. This can be done with extreme accuracy by means 
of a telescoiDe mounted on a liorizontal axis that is fixed in a true east and west position. 
Across the center of the field of view of the telescope a spider's thread extends ; and 
when the star passes behind this it is exactly south. 

It is curious to follow out the ideas that men have had as to the shape of the earth. 
At first it was supposed to be flat, and then, when this belief was found to be untenable, 
it was believed to be perfectly spherical. In the course of time it was seen that the ro- 
tation of the earth on its axis must cause it to bulge out at the equator. It was then 
believed to be of an elliptical outline. More recently still it has been shown that there 
are considerable deviations in the earth's contour from the elliptical form, and the 
accepted teaching at present is that it is of an irregular shape, approximating to an 
ellipsoid. Tlie equator is not by any means a circle, though for practical purposes it 
may be regarded as such. 



Pig" Iron Production in 1888. 

The total production of pig iron in the United States in 1888 was 7,269,628 net tons, 
or 0,490,739 gross tons, against 7,187,206 net tons, or 6,417,148 gross tons, in 1887. The 
production in 1888 was slightly in excess of that of 1887, and was the largest in our 
history. The extraordinary activity of the furnaces in the last few months of the year, 
notably in November and December, brought the total production far above the figures 
indicated by the statistical results of the first half of the year and by subsequent un- 
official statements. "While an increased production in the last half was anticipated, 
general surprise will be expressed upon learning how great it has been, which is shown 
as follows : 



78 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[May, 



Production. Gross tons. 

First half of 188S '. • 3.020,(92 

Second half of li:88 3,470,647 

The total production of pig iron in this country since 1881 has been as follows, in 
gross tons: 



Years. Gross tons. 

1881 4,144,254 

1882 4,623..323 

1883 4.595.510 

1884 4,097.868 



Years. Gross tons. 

188.1 . 4.044.526 

18^6 5.68;i.329 

1H87 6.417.148 

1888 6.490,739 



Our productioii of pig iron in 1888, classified according to the fuel used, was as 
follows, compared with the production in 1885, 1886, and 1887: 





Fuel— Net tons. 


1885. 


1886. 


1887. 


1888. 




2 675.6F5 ' 3.806.174 


4.270.635 

V.:338.3>-9 

578.182 


4.74.5.110 




1.454.::.9.) 
o99,K44 


2.099.597 
459,557 


1.9i;5.r-.9 




598.7^9 







The anthracite figures include all pig iron made witli mixed anthracite and coke, as 
well as that made with anthracite alone. The production of pig iron with anthracite 
alone is now annually less than that made with charcoal. 

The production of pig iron in the Southern States in 1887 did not equal the general 
expectation, being only about 50,000 gross tons in excess of the production in 1886. 
But in 1888 the Southern pig-iron industry made a great stride forward. The production 
was as follows, compared with the production in 1885, 1886, and 1887: 



States — Net tonj. 


1885. 


1£86. 


1887. 


18S8. 




227.433 

161.199 

ir>3.782 

69.0(17 

37..5.53 

.32 924 

17.299 

1.843 

1,790 


2a3.S.=i9 

199.166 

156.250 

98.618 

54,844 

46.490 

30,502 

3,250 

2,200 


292.762 

250..344 

175,715 

f 2.311 

41.907 

40.fM7 

37,427 

4.383 

3.M0 


449.493 


Ten..essee 


2K7.931 
1S7..S96 




95.259 




56.790 




39.597 




17 6('6 


Texas 


6.587 




2,4c;o 






Total 


712,635 


875,179 


929,436 


],1.S2,653 







The increased production of pig iron in the Southern States in 1888 over 1887 was 
over 203,000 net tons. As late as 1865 the whole country made less pig iron than the 
South made in 1888. 

Among the Northern and Western States that increased their production of pig 
iron in 1888 as compared with 1887, Pennsylvania is not to be counted; she made less in 
1888 than in 1887. So did New York, New Jersey, Maryland, Wisconsin, and Missouri. 
Michigan's and Connecticut's figures for the two years do not materially vary. Illinois, 
Indiana, and Massachusetts show slight gains in 1888. Ohio shows a grert gain, jump- 
ing from 975,539 net tons in 1887 to 1,103,818 net tons in 1888, and nearly equaling the 
production of the whole South. 

Notwithstanding the large production of pig iron in the last few months of 1888, 
there was no increase of unso'd stocks beyond the quantity on hand at the close of the 
first six months of the year; on the contrary, there was a decrease. The stocks of pig 
iron which were unsold in the hands of manufacturers or their agents at the close of 
1888, and which were not intended for the cons^imption of the manvfncturers, amounted to 
336,161 net tons, against 401,266 net tons on June 80, 1888. — Fro7n the Bulletin of the 
American Iron and Steel Association. 



1869] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 79 



A Water Immersion Ode. 

A Rotifer, deep iu an eddy-swept pool, 
By the leaf-shaded shore of a rivulet cool, 
Contentedly lived in her own minute style, 
Invisible, voiceless, but active the while. 

And starlight and moonlight, and sunshine and storm. 
Lent their varying hues to her transparent form, 
And the o'erhanging branches dropped green shadows down 
On the flickering sands of the water-bed brown. 

The minnows above her oft swam to and fro. 
And naviculae sailed o'er the pebbles below, 
Closterium segments divided anew. 
And the horns of the fair scenedesmus grew. 

The rayed rhizopoda clung lightly between 

The filaments of the spirogyra green, 

And actinophrys sol softly put forth his rays, 

Glad that Old iSol's above made the warm, sunny days. 

For the spring time had come with its warmth and its light. 
And the cells of the desmids were verdant and bright, 
For the season had sent its primordial thrill 
Through all protoplasm and all chlorophyll. 

And the Rotifer glad in her limpid retreat, 
Wheeled through the fair water on cilia fleet. 
Glad that the sunshine had melted her out. 
And given her a chance to go waltzing about. 

But a student whose nerve-cells and brain-matter gray 
"Were attuned to the touch of the sun's vernal ray, 
Came wandering over the vivified sod, 
To explore tliis fair pool with his bottle and rod. 

And he gathered spores, larvae, and desmids a few. 
Some diatoms brown, and this Rotifer too. 
Transferred to the slide on a microscope stage, 
And held by a cover-glass close in her cage. 

Did the Rotifer sigh for her home in the pool, 
And for freedom to roam through its water-ways cool ? 
In the close-compressed water and unchanging glare. 
Did she long for green shadows and free-flowing air ? 

If she did she exhibited no such emotion; 
But by waltzing and turning she gave us a notion 
She was rather enjoying the new situation. 
Though too busy to rest from her old occupation. 

And we said it was better this short life to yield 
To the great cause of science in micioscope field. 
Than to live out its few days unseen and unknown 
In ever so pleasant a pool of her own. 



80 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



Incorporated 
1866. 




Charter Per- 
petual. 



Issues Policies of Insurance afler a Careful luspection of tlie Boilers, 



COVERING ALL LOSS OR DAMAGE TO 



BOILERS, BUILDINGS, AND MACHINERY. 



ALSO COVERING 



LOSS OF LIFE AND ACCIDENT TO PERSONS 



ARISING FROM 



Steam Boiler Explosions. 

Full information coucerniug tlie plan of the Company's operations can be obtained at the 

Or at anj' Aijency. 



J. M. ALLEN, President. * 
J. B. PIERCE, Secretary. 



W. B. FRANKLIN, Viee-Prest. 
FRANCIS B. ALLEN, 2d Viee-Prest. 



JSoarcl of 

J. M. ALLEN, President. 

frank; W. CHh:NKY, Treas. Cheney Brothers 

Silk Manufnctnrini:; Co. 
CHAKLKS M. BKACH. of Beach & Co. 
DVNIKL PHILLIPS, of Adams Express Co. 
RICHARD VV. H. .lARVIS, i^-est. Colt's iMre Arms 

Mnnufacturincj Co. 
THOMAS O. ENDERS, President of the United 

States Hank. 
LEVERE I'T BRAINARD, of 'I'he Case, Lockwood 

& Brainard Co 
Gen. \V.\L B. FRANKLIN, late Vice-1'rest. Colt's 

Pat. Fire Arms JIf<^. Co. 



T>ii*eotors. 

NEWTON CASE, of The Case, Lockwood & 

Brainard Co. 
NELSON HOLLISTER, of State Bank. Hartford. 
Hon. HENKY C. ROHINfcON, Attorney at-Law. 

H.nrtford. 
Hon. FRANCIS R. COOLEY, of the National 

Excliamre Bank, Hartford, Conn. 
A. \V. JILLSON, late Viee-Prest. Plioenix Fire Lis. 

Co. Hartford, Conn 
EDMUND A. STEDMAN, Treasurer of the Fidelity 

Co , of Hartford, Conn. 
CLAl'I' SI'OONER, Hridpeport, Conn. 
GEORGE BURNHAM, Baldwin Locomotive \Vorks, 
I Pliiladelphia. 



GENERAL AGENTS. 

THEO. H. BABCOCK, 
C0R15IN& GOODRLH, 
LAWFOKD & JMcKLM, 

C. E. ROBERTS, 

fl. D P BIGELOW, • 

C. C. GARDINER, 

L. B. PEBKINS, 

W. G. LINEBURGH & SON, 

GEO. P. BURWELL, 

MANN & WILSON. 

W. S. HAS TIE & SON, 

G. A. STEEL & CO.. 

FRITH & ZOLLARS, 

C. J. McCARY & CO., 



CHIEF INSPECTORS 

R. K. McMTlJRAY, 
WM. G. PIKE 
JOSEPH CRAGG, 

WM. U. FAIRBAIRN, | 

H. D. P BIGELOW, 
.1. S. WILSON, 
F. S. ALLEN. 
.L H. RANDALL. 
C. A. BURWELL, 
J. B. V/ARNER, 



OFFICES. 



M. .T. GEIST. 
T. E. SHEARS, 



Ni;w York City. 
Piin.Ai)i;LrHiA. 
Baltimore, Md. 
Boston, Mass. 

Plif)Vn>ENCE, R. I. 

CutrAGo, III. 
St. Locis. Mo. 
Hartkohi). 
BniiXiEroRT. 
Cleveland. 
San Francisco. 
Charleston, S. C. 
Portland. Ohe. 
Denver, Col 
Birmingham, Ala. 



Office, 285 Broadv-av. 

" 4:30 Walnut St. 

" 22 So.HallidaySt. 

" 3.5 Pemljerton Sq 

" 29 Wevbosset St. 

" 112 QuincvSt. 

" 404 Market St. 

" 218 Main St. 

" 94 State St. 

" 208 Superior St. 

" 306 Sansome St. 

" 44 Broad St. 

" Opera House Block. 
2015 First Av. 



Wkt 3l0t0m0ttot 



PUBLISHED BY THE HARTFORD STEAM BOILER INSPECTION AND INSURANCE COMPANY. 



New Series— Vol. X. HARTFORD, CONK, JUNE, 1889. 



No. 6. 



Location of Man-holes and Steam-Nozzles. 

A boiler recently came to our notice, in which the man-hole and steam-nozzle were 
both placed upon the middle sheet, as indicated in the engraving. The more usual way 
of arranging these openings is to place the man-hole in the middle of this sheet, and the 
steam-nozzle somewhere on one of the others. 

The objection to placing both openings on the same sheet will be apparent upon a little 
reflection. When arranged as they are in the cut, fully thirty-seven per cent, of the sheet 
is cut away; and though the castings riveted to the shell are supposed to possess sufficient 
rigidity to make up for this loss of section in the plate, yet the strains resulting from such 
a disposition of the openings are not easily calculated, and it is evident that the failure of 




Location op Man-holes and Steam Nozzles. 

one or two rivets, either from imperfect workmanship or from xindue stress, would alter 
the disposition of these strains materially. It is more usual, also, to have the length of the 
manhole extend across the boiler, instead of longitudinally as shown in the cut. This gives 
us a greater area of plate along the line where it is most needed, and, moreover, it cuts 
away less of the grain of the metal. It is also harder to get into a boiler whose man-hole 
is placed as in the cut, and we cannot see that such a construction is any cheaper or easier. 
The boiler in question exploded with disastrous effect; and though the explosion was 
due to other causes than the arrangement of the openings in the shell, yet it is significant 
that the primary rupture was in this middle sheet, and directly on the line of centers of 
the holes. The point that we wish to make is this: tliat although the explosion was abun- 
dantly explained by external causes, it is probable that a different arrangement of the open- 
ings would have allowed the boiler to hold together for a time.longer, and perhaps until an 
attendant noticed the state of things under which it was working, and remedied them. 
That the fracture along the center line of these openings was tlie initial one, was shown by 



82 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [June, 

the reduction of plate there. It would be natural to expect that the first rupture would 
occur at the weake.st spot, and that before the metal |it that spot broke it would gradually 
stretch out and be reduced in thickness. Such was the actual fact; for the average thick- 
ness of the plate, measured with a micrometer, was 0.315 inch, but at the point where the 
man-hole is nearest the girth seam, the thickness was only 29 inch. As soon as the first 
fracture was developed, the stress that that part of the shell had previously withstood was 
suddenly transferred to other portions, and the result was that the succeeding fractures 
took phice so quickly that the plates were literally snapped apart, and there was no time 
for the drawing out of the metal to take place; and therefore no reduction in thickness is 
observable along them. 

Man-holes and steam nozzle openings may of course be punched out either by hand or 
hy machine. If the work is done by hand the holes can be cut at any part of the plate 
that is desired; but if it is done by machine, they mast be located near the edge, since the 
arms of the machine punches have not sufficient reach to cut very far in towards the 
center of the plate. The expense of cutting them out by hand is somewhat greater than 
when it is done by machine, and this seems to be the only reason why the man-holes 
sometimes located near the edge of the sheet, as shown in the cut, instead of in the middle 
of the sheet, where it belongs. 



Inspectors' Reports. 

April, 1889. 
DurincT this month our inspectors made 4.487 inspection trips, visited 9.031 boilers, 
insper'tfed 4, 148 both internally and externally, and subjected 589 to hj-drostatic press- 
ure. The whole number of defects reported reached 8,995, of which 644 were consid- 
ered dangerous; 37 boilers were regarded unsafe for further use. Our usual summary is 
given below: 

Nature of Defects. 
Cases of deposit of sediment, ... 

Cases of incrustation and scale, ... 
Cases of internal grooving, - - . . 

Cases of internal corrosion, - - - - 

Cases of external corrosion, .... 
Broken and loose braces and stays, ... 
Settings defective, - - - 

Furnaces out of shajie, . . . . 

Fractured plates, ..... 
Burned plates, ..... 

Blistered plates. - - 

Cases of defective riveting, - . - - 

Defective heads, . - . . . 

Serious leakage around tube ends, . . - 

Serious leakage at seams, .... 
Defective water-gauges, .... 
Defective blow-oflFs, .... 

Cases of deficiency of water, ... 

Safety-valves overloaded, . . . - 

Safet\--valves defective in construction. 
Pressure-gauges defective, - - . - 

Boilers without pressure-gauges, ... 
Unclassified defects, .... 

Total, ....... 8,995 - - 644 



■^Tiole Nil 


imber. 


Dange 


TOUS. 


632 


- 


- 


37 


tJ20 


- 


- 


38 


55 


- 


. 


8 


321 


- 


- 


24 


529 


- 


. 


42 


147 


- 


- 


32 


225 


- 


- 


15 


291 


. 


- 


14 


189 


- 


. 


44 


135 


- 


- 


15 


332 


- 


- 


21 


2,213 


- 


. 


57 


i i 


- 


- 


8 


1,688 


- 


- 


122 


409 


- 


- 


56 


208 


- 


- 


18 


109 


- 


- 


19 


13 


. 


- 


^ 


32 


- 


- 


13 


48 


- 


. 


15 


870 


. 


. 


38 


5 


- 


. 


5 


47 


- 


- 


1 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 83 

Boiler Explosions. 

April, 1889. 
Saw-Mill (47). — A boiler in the saw-mill at Waverly, Pierce county, Wis., exploded 
March 30th, demolishing the mill and instantly killing the proprietor, Philip Blakely, and 
a workman named John Wilkins. 

S.\w-MiLL (48). — The boiler at Mr. H. C. Caynor's saw-mill, situated near Bowling 
Green, Ky., burst, April 1st, wounding two white and four colored employes severely, 
besides destroying the mill. One of the men was blown 120 feet. 

Electric Light Works (49). — The boiler in the Utica (N. Y.) Electric Light Works 
exploded April 5th, blowing off the roof of the boiler house, and scalding the engineer and 
two other employes. All the electric lights in the city were extinguished. 

Steam Launch (50). — Six young men hired a steam launch for an excursion up 
the Kansas River, on April 7th. They had been gone but a short time when the boiler ex- 
ploded, entirely demolishing the craft and throwing all hands into the river. Three of 
them were very seriously injured, and one of them will die. The others escaped with a 
ducking. 

Saw-Mill (51). — Croft's saw-mill, near Junction City, Ky., was wrecked by a boiler 
explosion on April 8th, and four men were killed. 

Hoisting Engine (52). — At Somerset, Mass., April 9th, the boiler of a hoisting engine 
used in unloading the schooner Josi'e R. Burt, at the "old mill" dock, exploded, and the 
boiler, boiler-house, and fragments of the engine were blown in all directions. The boiler 
landed on the deck of the Burt, 50 feet away, smashing her wheel and otherwise damaging 
her. The engineer, J. J. Brown, was found lying under the flj'-wheel of the engine, shock- 
ingly wounded. Both legs appeared to be broken, and he was badly injured about his head 
and body. There is little likelihood that he will live. • 

Pumping Engine (53). — On April 9th, a terrible explosion took place on the ranch of 
C. Nelson, near Woodland, Cal., fatally wounding John Daniels, who died in about two 
hours after the accident. Two other men were blown about fifty feet, and were somewhat 
hurt. The boiler was used to pump water for irrigating purposes, and was twelve or fifteen 
years old, and supposed to be in a poor condition. 

Locomotive (54). — On April 10th, just as the regular east-bound passenger train on 
the Chicago Santa Fe & California Railroad was leaving Lorenzo station, 50 miles from 
Chicago, the extra fast stock train following ran into it, telescoping the private car at the 
rear. The boiler of the stock train locomotive exploded at the same time, and the escaping 
steam badly scalded five persons, one of whom was J. F. Hart, mayor of Brookline, Mass. 
Four others were killed. 

Grist-Mill (55). — On April 13th, the boiler in Mr. E. F. Peters's grist-mill, at DeKalb, 
Tex., exploded, filling the air for hundreds of feet with fragments of brick, flues, and tim- 
ber, hurled with terrific force. The negro fireman was killed, and Mr. Peters, the pro- 
prietor, was severely injured internally. Three others were more or less hurt, and a horse, 
150 feet away, had one leg nearly cut off by a flying fragment. 

Tannery (56). — On April 18th, one of the boilers at Hollinger's tannery, Columbia, 
Pa , exploded. The noise awoke Mr. Hollinger. who lives in the house near the works, 
and he immediatel}' dressed himself and went to the tannery to see what had happened. 
One boiler was found to be about three feet from its usual place, but the other was nowhere 
to be seen. A hunt was instituted and the other boiler was discovered fully 250 feet from 
the tannery, it having plowed its way through the yard, barking trees and knocking down 
fences, and landing in a lane on the other side of the Lancaster turnpike. The boiler- 
house was shattered, and not a brick in the setting was left standing. No one was injured. 

Shingle-Mill (57). — A terrific explosion occurred at Davis Bros.' shingle mill, about 



34 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [June, 

six miles from Oaliland, Md., on April 23d, by which Louis Johnson was fatally injured, 
and the mill and machinery totally wrecked. The explosion occurred just as the machinery 
was being started in the morning. Johnson was blown through the side wall of the build- 
ing a distance of thirty-five yards, and was terribly scalded. He was a married man and 
had a large family. The mill was the property of ex-Senator H. G. Davis. 

Locomotive (58). — The boiler of locomotive No. 712, on the Lake Erie division of 
the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, exploded near Utica, O., on April 2tjd. The fireman was 
slightly bruised, but nobody else was hurt. 

Saw-Mill (59). — The boiler in an Ashland, Ky., saw-mill exploded at noon, April 
25th. All hands were out of range, so that no lives were lost. The properly loss was 
abowt $1,000. The proprietor of this discontented but not vicious boiler, Mr. James 
Runyon, expressed entire satisfaction witli its movements, both as to the time of day, and 
as to the route selected, except in one particular. It did not go far enough by about 60 
feet, and five dollars or so had to be expended on that account, so that it would not be in 
the way. 

City Hall (60). — On April 30th, one of the boilers in the basement of the City Hall 
in Minneapolis, Minn., exploded. Two men were stunned by the shock, but they returned 
to consciousness in a few minutes and were not seriously hurt. The damage was not 
heavj% 



The American Boiler Manufacturers' Association. 

This association had its origin in Pittsburgh, among the local boiler manufacturers, 
but others from other States immediately showed great interest in the movement, and the 
first meeting was held at Hotel Anderson on the morning of April 16th, about forty mem- 
bers being present. The following resolutions, which were passed, will give a good idea of 
the objects of the organization : 

Resolutions. 

Whereas, No business calls for greater care, better material in the construction of it's 
commodity, and more exact workmanship than ours; and in view of the fact that so 
many disastrous explosions have occurred in the past, where materials afterwards 
tested have been shown to be of an inferior quality, therefore, that we may better 
secure safety to the lives and the property of every community where boilers are 
used, be it 

Resolved, That we will in all cases use the best material in the construction of boilers, 
refusing to accept contracts where specifications do not call for material of suitable 
quality. 

Resolved, That it is the sense of this convention that the system of inspection pre- 
scribed by the United States Marine Laws should be adopted with but few exceptions. 

Resolved, That we recommend all manufacturers of iron and steel boiler plate to make 
but one brand, which shall have a tensile strength of not less than 55,000 pounds to the 
square inch, and that the same be stamped with" the initial letters found in the name of 
this association, viz., A. B. M. A., and that this brand be sold to the members of the 
organizatii)n only. 

Resolved, That we use all honorable means in influencing our representatives in Con- 
gress to procure the passage of such laws as will make it a criminal offense, punishable by 
fine and imprisonment, to manufacture or sell iron or steel of an inferior quality for boilers, 
and a similar offense, punishable in like manner, to make boilers, for any purpose, of a 
quality inferior to that specified by such laws. 

Renolved, That we invite all manufacturers of boilers to join our association, knowing 
as we do that our object is purely philanthropic, and that we are bestowing one of the 
greatest blessings upon the public at large, who should look with distrust upon any manu- 
facturer who, by reason of personal motives, refuses to take this important step. 

The officers of the association for the ensuing year are as follows: President, James 
Lappan, of Pittsburgh; Vice-Presidents, Philip Rohan, of St. Louis; George Marshall, of 
Dayton, O,; Christopher Cunningham, of Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Secretary, A. T. Douthett, of 



1889.] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



85 



Allegliany, Pa. ; Treasurer, Richard Hammoud, of Buffalo, N. Y. The next regular 
meeting will be held in New York on the first Tuesday in February, but a preliminary 
meeting will be held in Pittsburgh on Oct. 15th. 

In addition to the officers named above, committees were appointed on the following 
subjects: On specifications and tests of materials, on proper rules for riveting and caulking, 
on proper dimensions and construction of manholes and hand-holes, on braces and stays, 
on the attachment of valves, gauges, and fittings, on safety-valves, on uniformity in State 
boiler inspection laws, on boiler tubes, and on the rating of boilers ])y healing surface or 
otherwise. 

This organization of boiler manufacturers cannot fail to interest every man who has 
anything to do with boilers; and we sincerely trust that the practical workings of the 
association may prove as beneficial to the public as the gentlemen interested in the move- 
ment hope to make it. Any step that leads to improvement in either workmanship or 
material ought to be hailed with joy. 



The Six Day Line Passed. 

The wonderful new steamer, the Citi/ of Paris of the Inman Line, has crossed the 
ocean in less than six days; the best previous time, made by the Etruria last June, being 
6 daj'S, 1 hour, and 55 minutes. Following is an abstract of the log, the distances being 
given in knots: 



Date, 

1889. 


Wiud. j Distance. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 


Remarks. 


May 2. 

3. 
4. 
5. 

6. 

7. 
8. 


Variable. 

West. 

N. W. 

N.W. t»W.S.W. 

W.N.W. 

Variable. 


445 
492 

501 

505 
511 
398 


50« 58' 
49 24 
45 38 

42 48 

41 11 

To Sandy 


190 45' 
32 16 
43 22 

54 06 
65 21 
Hook. 


Left Queenstown at 1 h. 
43 m. p. M. 

Strong br. to mod. gale. 

Fresli breeze. 

Mod. to light breeze. 

Mod. to light breeze. 
Light breeze. 
Arrived at Sandy Hook 
Light Ship at 8 h. 15"^m. a.m. 






2.855 









The apparent length of passage was therefore 5 days, 18 hours, and 32 minutes; but 
on correcting this for the 4 hours, 35 minutes difference in time between Sand}' Hook and 
Queenstown, the actual time will be found to be 5 days, 23 hours, and 7 minutes. The 
strong head winds and consequent seas at the beginning of the trip appreciably impeded 
progress, and a fog near the American coast necessitated slowing up somewhat; but in 
spite of these difficulties the magnificent ship eclipsed all previous records and achieved 
"what mariners have been looking forward to for many years. 

On three successive days, too (the 5th, 6th, and 7th), the City of Paris surpassed every- 
thing recorded by the other ocean grej'hounds as the best single day's run. Owing to the 
change in longitude, the actual time consumed from the 4th to the 5th was 24 hours, 44 
minutes, from the 5th to the 6th, 24 hours, 43 minutes, and from the 6th to the 7th it was 
24 hours, 45 minutes. 

It is unnecessary to say that the passengers w'erc highly enthusiastic. A meeting was 
held in the main cabin, and Commander Frederick Watkins and his assistants were highly 
complimented. Speeches were made and resolutions were adopted to the effect that 
"there never was such a vessel, such a captain, or such a crew before." 

We regret to say that we have no exact data at hand concerning the machinery of the 



86 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [June, 

City of Paris, but the following extract from Engineering (London) concerning her twin 
sister, the City of Xev Y&rk, will be of interest ; for we are inclined to believe that the City 
of Paris differs from her only in having more boiler room: 

'"The adoption of the principle of twin-screws has been almost compulsory in this 
case, as it would be very difficult and probably very imprudent to construct single-screw 
eno-ines having the enormous power that these combined twin-screw engines are intended 
to exert. The great advantage of the duplication of all parts is too obvious to be dwelt 
upon here, excepting to state that with only one of the engines running, sufficient power 
would be developed to propel the vessel at about 15 knots per hour. To indicate how 
the dimensions and power of the engines of the City of New TorTc compare with those of 
the principal merchant single-screw steamers afloat Ave give a table compiled partly from 
a paper read by 3Ir. W. John, at the Liverpool meeting of the Institute of Xaval Archi- 
tects two years ago, and partly from the records of the trials of the steamers. 

'• It will readily be seen that the power to be developed in the City of 2sew York, 
CJO.OOO indicated horse-power) is considerably in excess of that in the other steamers, 
and to have fitted a single set of engines, even supposing it had been advisable from 
every other standpoint, would have been a veiy questionable step to take. The two 
engines are separated by a longitudinal bulkhead reaching up to the main deck, com- 
munication being established by a sliding door, worked by a rack and pinion from above 
in case of need. 

'The engines are built upon a very solid structure in the ship, but have, in addi- 
tion, a cast steel bedplate. This bedplate is formed in three parts, each part weighing 
about 16 tons. The columns are also of cast steel and are of the "split type." The 
condensers, which usually form part of the main engine structure, are made, as in 
war ships, of brass, and are quite independent. The cylinders and their covers are cast 
iron, but the pistons are of cast steel of the di.shed type. The crankshafts are built of 
steel: the thrust, tiinnel, and propeller shafts are also of steel. The crankshaft is 20^ 
inches in diameter at the journal, and 21 inches at the pin; the tunnel shafting is 19^ 
inches, and the propeller shafting 20J^ inches. The piston-rods and all the principal 
moving parts are of ingot steel. The piston-rods have tail-rods, and are attached to 
the pistons by flanged connections. 

'•The high, intermediate, and low-pressure cylinders are 45 inches, 71 inches, and 118 
inches in diameter respectively, the stroke being 60 inclies. All the valves are piston 
valves, there being one on the high, two on the intermediate, and four on the low-pressure 
cylinders. The adoption of the four sets of piston valves for the low-pressure cylinder is 
unique, and is necessitated by the large port area in this cylinder, and to avoid the .strains 
due to the great overhang which would be caused by the adoption of two sets only. 
The valve gear is of the ordinary eccentric type, the eccentric straps being of cast steel 
lined with white metal. The equilibrium valve, which controls the inlet of steam, is 
worked by an independent engine which can be connected to the Dunlop governor. 
The adoption of this engine renders the handling of the main engine very much easier. 

'• The turning engine is of a new type, being simply a hydraulic ram working by a 
])awl on a ratchet wheel. This ram is vertical, and takes up very little space: but is at 
the same time very powerful. 

'• In addition to the usual draining from the jackets and casings, which is collected 
in the hot-well, there is a continuous flow through the casings from the high-pressure 
to the intermediate pressure ca.sings, and from the intermediate pressure to the low-pressure 
casing. In the latter casing the drainage passes into the low-pressure cylinder in the 
form of vapor, there doing work, and finally paissing into the condenser. By this means 
any accumulation of water is prevented iu the casings when the engines are running, and 
the glands are always dry. 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 87 

" The air pumps are tlie only auxiliaries driven from the main engine. There are two 
of them to eacli engine, of the ordinary vertical type, and they are worked by levei-s off 
the high-pressure and low-jire.ssure crossheads. A small oil pump is also driven (jfF the 
main engines. It is for keeping the crank-pits clear of oil, which is forced into the 
stern tubes. 

" The boilers are fed by Wortliington vertical pumps, four in number, as.sociated with 
Gilmour's feed heater. These during the trial proved satisfactory, and in this connection 
it may not be uninteresting to indicate briefly their system. Each pump has two 12 inch 
steam cylinders, and 38)^ inch double-acting water plungers, with a 10 inch stroke. 
There are two ])unips in each engine-room. Of these one supplies the feed heater with 
water at the temperature of the hot-well. This water has its temperature raised in the 
feed heater by live steam from the boiler to nearly the boiler temperature, and the second 
pump delivers this heated feed water at a slightly increased pressure to the boiler. 
There is no advantage on the score of economy ; but in so far as the feed water is intro- 
duced at boiler temperature there is complete absence of any possibility of strain due to 
irregular cooling of the boiler plates. The heater can be thrown out at any time and 
only one pump used, and as the capacity of each pump is sufficient of itself for boiler 
feeding, the other may be looked upon as an alternative in case of breakdown. In the 
ordinary arrangement, the first pump, which delivers from the hot-well into the feed 
heater, is controlled by a float in the tank, so that it will be impossible either to have 
overflow or an insufficient quantity in the hot-well. As all the water passing through 
the feed heater is at a high pressure, all impurities in the water are deposited in the 
latter, from which they are occasionally discharged by means of a blow-off^ and since 
the heater itself is in no way cramped or confined by large tubes, its cleaning becomes a 
verj' easy matter. Indeed it is completely done by blowing off at regular intervals. 

"There are two fire and bilge pumps in each engine-room for general ship purposes. 
These are also so arranged that they can be used as feed pumps in the event of the main 
getting out of order, and they are connected to the double-bottom system of 2)iping, and 
are available for pumping the compartments between the bottoms should the circulating 
pumps be in use for other purposes. The water is circulated through each of the main 
condensers by two sets of 15 inch centrifugal pumps, either of which is more than 
capable of doing all the work required. There are fresh-water condensers in e;ich engine- 
room, which have their own feeding and circulating pumps automatically worked. All 
these pumps are of the Wortliington type. 

" The hydraulic installation of the shiji, which is the most extensive fitted on ship- 
board, has its pumping engines — two in number — in the engine-room. These engines 
work seven hoists, nine derricks, two warjiing ends, a windlass, and two warping 
capstans aft on the promenade deck. 

"The steel boilers which supply the steam are nine in number, and are equally 
divided in three water-tight compartments. They are built of steel, the shell plates 
being Ig^^ inches in thickness. The diameter of each boiler is 15 feet 6 inches, tlie 
length 19 feet, and the working pressure is 150 lbs. to the square inch. The boilers are 
double-ended, and have each six furnaces, whose mean diameter is 3 feet 11 inches. 
The tubes are 7 feet G inches long, 2% inches in diameter, and in each boiler there are 
1056 tubes or 9504 in the nine boilers. The total heating surface 50,040 .square feet. 
The furnaces on each end have a common combustion chamber. Each boiler weighs 
74 tons. 

" The boilers are worked on what is known as the closed stokehold system. This 
is the first ship for the Atlantic passenger trade that has been worked on this system, 
and it necessarily introduces many novelties. There are no air hatches excepting those 
through which the fans draw down the air supply. The fans for supplying air to the 



88 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[Juke, 



furnaces are twelve in number, and are each 66 inches in diameter. They are the result 
of very exhaustive experiments. The application of forced draught has become so 
general that the designing of the engines for supplying it has become equal in import- 
ance with the designing of the engine for propelling the ship." 



Hulls and Engines of Atlantic Steamers. 



Name. 



Vessel's Dimension 



S. S. City of Rome, . . . 

" Normandie, . . 

" Arizona, 

" Orient, 

" Sterling Castle,. . 

" Elbe, 

" Umbria and Etruria, 

" Aurania, 

" America, 

" Servia, 

" Alaska, 

" Ems, 

" Aller,... 

" Ormiiz, 

" Lahn, 

" City of New York 



ft. in. 
543 6 



ft. in 
52 



459 4 

450 

443 

4-20 

420 

500 

470 

4.32 

515 

.500 

m 

m 

(65 

448 5 



Engines 



49 11 

45 n 

46 
.50 
44 9 
57 
57 
51 
53 

50 
46 10 

48 

52 n 

49 



Is 



ft. in 

21 5i 

19 9f 
18 9 

21 4i 

22 3 

20 

22 6 

20 
26 

23 Si 

21 

20 7J 

21 






.560 063 3 



25 



11,890 
6,959 
6,300 
5,433 
8,390 
5,665 
14,321 
8,500 
7,354 
10,.300 
10,500 
7,251 
7,974 
9,000 
9,500 
20,000 



Engine Cylinders. 



Boilers. 



Diameters. 



3 

46 in. 

3 
35 7-16 in. 

1 
62 in. 

1 
60 in. 

1 

62 in. 
1 

60 in. 
1 

71 in. 
1 

68 in. 
1 

63 lu. 
1 

72 in. 
1 

68 in. 

1 
62 in. 



3 

86 in. 

3 
74J im. 

2 
90 in. 

2 
85 in. 

2 

90 in. 
3 

fc5 in. 

2 
105 in. 

2 

91 in. 
2 

91 in. 

o 
100 in. 

3 
100 in.' 

2 



Weft 



ft.in. in sq.ft. 
6 29,386 



1 


1 
70 in. 


1 


44 in. 


100 in. 


1 


1 
73 in. 


1 


46 in. 


113 in. 


2 

32i in. 


1 
68 in. 


2 

85 in. 


2 


o 


3 



46 in. 71 in. 113 in. 



5 7 

5 6 

5 

5 6 

5 

6 
6 
5 6 



31,404 



21,161 



38,817 



33,284 



<.i: 
f^ 



insq. ft. 
1398 



787 



22,750 
6 6 27,483 

6 

19,700 
22.630 
26,000 



5 

6 
6 
6 

5 50,2C5 



1606 
1001 

882 
1014 



780 
799 
850 



O V 

lbs. 
90 



f5 
90 

75 
100 



110 
90 
95 
90 
100 
100 
150 
150 
ISO 
150 



Production of Gold and Silver in the United States in 1888. 

The Director of the Mint has submitted to Congress his report on the production of 
gold and silver in the United States during the calendar year 1888. 

The gold product was 1,604,927 fine ounces of the value of $33,175,000. This is 
about the same as in 1887, being an excess of only $175,000. 

The silver product was 45,783,632 fine ounces of the commercial value of about 
$48,000,000, and of the coining value of $59,195,000. This is an increase of 4,515,337 
fine ounces over the product in 1887. 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 89 

In addition to the product of our own mines some 10,000,000 ounces of silver were 
extracted in the United States from foreign ores and base bullion, principally Mexican. 

The total refined product of the United States was in gold 1,777,877 tine ounces, 
and of silver 53,128,698 fine ounces. 

The average price of silver during the year was about ninety-four cents. At this 
price the bullion value of the silver contained in the silver dollar was $0.72'6 ; at the 
highest price of silver during the year the bullion value of the silver dollar was $0.75 "5; 
and at the lowest price $0.70'5. 

The government ^^urchased 28,&20,398 standard ounces of silver during the year, 
costing $24,491,340, an average price of ninety-four cents per fine ounce. The total 
amount of silver purchased for the coinage of the silver dollar since March 1, 1878, has 
been 275,007,939 standard ounces, costing $266,091,445, an average price of $1.07-5 
per fine ounce, or $0.96 7 per standard ounce. 

The value of the gold deposited at the mints during the year, not including 
re-deposits, was $41,496,410, or including re-deposits, $48,794,988. The foreign 
material comprised in this was $7,055,046. 

The amount of silver deposited and purchased was 35,512,789 standard ounces of 
the coining value of $41,323,973, exclusive of re-deposits. 

The coinage of the mints during the calendar year 1888, was as follows: 

Gold $31,380,808 

Silver dollars, 31,9i)0.833 

Subsidiary silver, ■ 1,034,773 

Minor, 912,201 

Total 165,318,615 

In addition to the coinage, bars were manufactured at the mints containing gold of 
the value of $21,650,798, and of silver, $7,635,490. 

The imiwrt of gold bullion and coin was $11,031,941, and the exports $34,619,667; 
a loss by export of $23,587,726. 

The import of silver was $21,592,062, and the export $29,895,222, a loss by export 
of $8,303,160. 

The metallic stock of the United States, January 1, 1889, including bullion in the 
mints awaiting coinage, is estimated by the director to have been: gold, $705,061,975; 
silver, $403,516,756; total, $1,108,578,731. 

The stock of coined and paper money in circulation January 1, 1889, was 
$1,396,106,154, against $1,376,930,003 on January 1, 1888, an increase of $19,175,151. 

The director estimates the consumption of gold and silver in the industries in the 
United States during the calendar year 1888 to have been: Gold, $14,600,000; silver 
$5,280,000. 



To THE EdiTOU op THE LOCOMOTIVE: 

Sir: The " Microscopists' Serenade," published in the January number of the Loco- 
motive, first appeared in the bric-dbrac departmjnt of Scribaer's Magazine, in November, 
1879. Charles H. Robixson. 

Hartford, April 25th. 

[We are pleased to give credit for the poem, even at this late day. and. as explained in 
the January number, we should have given credit for it at the time, had we known to 
whom it was due. — Ed.] 



90 THE LOCOMOTIVE [June, 




t *t#itmttitt 



HARTFORD, JUNE, 1889. 

J. ]M. Allen, Editor. A. D. Risteex, Associate Editor. 

The Locomotive can le obtained free by calling at any of the company's agencies. 
Subscription price 50 cents per year when mailed from this office. 
Bound volumes one dollar each. 

Papers that borrow cuts from us will do us a favor if they will plainly mark them in returning, 
so that we may give proper credit on our books. 

The boiler of a steam dredging tug exploded in the liarbor of Calais, France, on April 
29tli, killing seven men and badly injuring a number of others. The dredger was 
demolished. 



A MODEL of the Park Central boiler has been on exhibition in this office for some time, 
and any of our friends who have not already seen it are cordially invited to call in and do so. 



SoirE of the gentlemen connected with the Boston Journal of Commerce have organized 
into a "Mechanical Specialties Manufacturing Company," and are selling the "arc 
indicator " described in a recent number of that paper. They also make a new style of 
planimeter, a reducing motion, a tube cleaner for vertical boilers, and an outfit for level- 
ing shafting. 



We have received the fourteenth annual report of the Frankfurt (Germany) Markischer 
Verein for the inspection and supervision of .steam boilers. During the year 1888 this 
association has had 1,343 boilers under its care, 338 of which have been tested hydrostati- 
cally ; 752 internal inspections were made, and 3,100 externals. The report contains, among 
other things, an interesting essay on the purification of water, in which the principal devices 
used in Germany for this purpose are illustrated and described. 

The eighteenth report of the Silesian Association is also at hand. The number of 
boilers under the care of this association was 2,340 at tke end of 1887, and at the end of 
1888 it had increased to 2,506. 



A DECENT number of the Scientific American contains two excellent engravings of a 
young Moi, twelve years of age, who has a tail nearly a foot long. Similar appendages 
have been observed in other members of the human race, but so far as we are aware, no 
case has been previously recorded in which the tail has reached such great length. Bartels 
enumerates twenty-one cases of such development in his memoire on the subject (" Ueber 
Menschenschwanze "), and in nearly every case the appendage is conical or spherical in 
shape. It is rarely cylindrical, as in the present case, is seldom more than three or four 
inches in length, and is generally curled at the end, something like a pig's tail. Professor 
Virchow dissected one specimen and found it to consist simply of fat and muscle, and no 
case is on record in which vertebrae were present. 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. Q-l 

Poisoned Arrows. 

In the letter recently received by the Royal Geographical Society, the African ex- 
plorer, Stanley, gives some very interesting information concerning the poison used on the 
arrow tips of the savages through whose country he had been traveling. Lieutenant Stairs 
and several others of the party were wounded with the arrows, and four persons in all 
died from the effects of the poison, almost immediately. Stanley greatly desired to know 
what is the nature of the poison that has such deadlj' effect. At Arisibba he found several 
packages of dried red ants, and the m5'stery was soon cleared up. It has long been known 
that formic acid exists in a free state in the bodies of these little creatures — indeed, the 
acid received its name from this iaci, formica being the Latin name for the ant. Formic 
acid, in its pure state, readily blisters the skin, and without doubt it is the "deadly irri- 
tant by which so many men have been lost with such terrible suffering." In fact, Stanley 
learned the manner in which the poison is made ready for use. The unfortunate ants, 
after being dried, are pulverized and cooked in palm oil, and the resulting composition is 
smeared over the tips of the arrows. The savage that first prepared this deadly bug-juice 
was dolichocephalous indeed, and was looked up to, no doubt, as the Bismarck of his tribe. 



The Heat Evolved by Animals. 

At a recent meeting of the Berlin Physiological Societ}', Professor Rosenthal gave an 
account of experiments he has been carrying on for the past few years, concerning the. 
heat given off by animals. According to JSafure he placed the animal to be experimented 
upon in a copper vessel that could be easily ventilated, and surrounded this vess-el by a 
reservoir containing air, whose expansion or contraction was to give the means of deter- 
mining the heat given off from the animal within. Although the dog used in the experi- 
ments was fed in exactly the same way at each meal, the quantities of heat produced varied 
verj- largely, and no considerable uniformity could be had without taking the mean of a 
long series of observations. Up to about the third hour after the meal, the heat-production 
diminishes. It then rises rapidly and attains a maximum, after which (at about the eighth 
hour) it begins to fall again, irregularly, until the next meal. When an excess of food 
was given, the heat produced was always less than that calculated from the oxidation of 
the food; but, with a uniformlj^ constant diet, the mean value of the heat produced corre- 
sponded to the amount calculated. When the sun-ounding air varied in temperature between 
41° Fall, and 77° Fah., all other conditions remaining the same, a minimum production of 
heat was observed at 59^ Fah. From this point it increased uniformly in both directions 
— not only when the temperature fell to 41", but also when it rose to 77°. The amount of 
carbonic acid gas gjven off by the animal agreed with the theoretical amount when the 
experiments were continued over a considerable length of time. 



An Experimental Test of a New Steel Boiler. 

A paper recently read before the Institution of Naval Engineers (England) by Mr. 
John Scott, F.R.S.E., contains some interesting facts concerning the strength of boilers, 
and the following abstract is made from it. 

A number of iron boilers have been experimentally submitted to bursting pressure, 
from time to time, by various engineers. No record, however, appears to exist of any 
bursting experiment made with the shell of a new boiler of a size used in actual practice, 
constructed of steel, and intended to work at the high pressures that modern engineers are 
demanding. Such an experiment was accordingly resolved upon, and was carried out at 
the Greenock foundry. 

Last summer boilers were built at that establishment for Her Majesty's gunboats 



92 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [June, 

SpaiTow and Thrush, intended for a working pressure by Admiralty specification of 145 
lbs. per square inch. The diameter of these boilers was such that an experiment on a 
duplicate shell could be conducted without too serious expense. Such a one was accord- 
ingly prepared, the design and dimensions being as follows: Plain cylindrical shell, length 
11 feet, mean diameter 7 feet, 8^ inches; double staggered riveted girth seams, triple stag- 
gered riveted butt-joints for the longitudinal seams; thicknessof shell plates i* inch; of butt 
straps, I inch; of heads, f inch; of washers, | inch; of man-hole strengthening plate, f inch. 
The plates and stays used were subjected to the usual Admiralty' tests for tension and 
elongation, with results as follows: 

For What Part Used. 
Flanged ends, . 

End plate of shell, . 

Middle plate of shell, 
Butt straps, 

Man-hole strengthening plate. 
Boiler stays, 



Tensile Strength in 
Tons per Square Inch 


Elongation in 10 in. 
Per Cent. 


28.1 


25 


27.3 


25 


26.9 


29 


27.8 


25 


27.7 


25.2 


26 2 


27 


26.7 
26.8' 


26.6* 



*In8in. 

No special precautions were taken in regard to workmanship. The flanged ends were 
pressed by hydraulic pressure at one heat, and were not annealed. The .shell plates wer« 
bent cold. The rivet holes were drilled in place after bending. The shell plates and one 
end were riveted by a hydraulic machine, with a pressure of 120 tons per rivet. The clos- 
ing end was riveted by hand. The boiler was caulked in the usual way, and prior to com- 
mencing the experiment it was tested for tightness to the pressure required by the 
Admiralty specification for this class of boiler: that is, to 235 lbs. per square inch. 

In the first trial the pressure was raised to 145 lbs., the intended working pres.sure. A 
slight alteration in form was noticed, which was due, no doubt, to the eflforl of the boiler 
to assume a true cylindrical shape. The diameter of the boiler appeared to increase at 
some points, and to decrease at others. The pressure was then increased to 235 lbs., the 
Admiralty test pressure. The greatest deflection of the plate outward at this pressure 
was \ of an inch, and the greatest deflection' inward was likewise \ of an inch. 
No leak occurred at 300 lbs., which was as higli as the pressure was carried in the 
first experiment. The pressure was then removed, and the boiler was found to return to 
its original state, no permanent set being observable. 

In the next experiment the pressure was gently raised up to 330 lbs., when leaking 
commenced to a small extent through the manhole; all other portions of the boiler 
remained tight. Pumping was then continued until 450 lbs. was reached, at which point 
the volume of water supplied by the four pumps was equaled by the leakage from the 
man-hole, and the trial had to be suspended. The remainder of the boiler was tight, except 
a very small leak from one of the corners of each of the two butts. On examination it was 
found that the strengthening plate surrounding the man-hole was buckled, and the caulk- 
ing around the edges started. This plate was then removed and a larger one was riveted 
on in its place. No other repair was made. The greatest permanent bulge produced by 
this pressure (450 lbs.) was i of an inch on the shell, and f^ of an inch on the 
heads. 

In the next experiment the pressure rose to 350 lbs. without any leakage. At this 
stage, a slight leak was noticed at the man-hole again. The pressure was then carried up 
to 520 lbs., when the leakage again overcame the supply from the pumps. In addition to 
that at the man-hole, leaks of some extent were visible at the ends of all the butt straps, 
but all other portions of the boiler remained tight. A permanent bulge of slightly over 



1889.] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



93 



one inch was observed on one of the heads, but the greatest set on the shell was -^^r inch. 
An examination internally showed that the greatest elongation of the stays was 2^^ inches, 
and the greatest reduction in diameter was ^\ inch. All the center staj's were reduced by 
this amount, and throughout the experiments it was observed that the reduction in diam- 
eter of the stays was uniform throughout their length, until within 8 inches of the ends ; 
they then tapered gradually up to their original diameter. The center line of the boiler 
had increased about one inch at each end. No starting of the butt straps was observed, 
either internally or externally. They were caulked at tlie ends, and an increased number 
of bolts was fitted to the man-hole door, which was recaulked. 

In the fourth experiment no leak was observed at 350 lbs., but at 580 lbs. the leakage 
was once more equal to the supply, and the experiment could not be pushed further. It 
commenced at the man-hole, as before, at 360 lbs., and gradually increased. Larger leaks 
than before were observed at the ends of the butts, and some slight leaks were seen at the 
sides of the butt-straps, and about the nuts that secured the stays. An examination 
showed that no visible change had taken place in the caulking of the butts outside, but 
the ends of the inside straps were ^\f inch open, and the caulking of the inside straps had 
started so as to be visible, but the thinnest testing knife could not be inserted. Some of 
the stays had been reduced nearly J^ inch in diameter, throughout their length. The 
heads had bulged, permanently, If inches each, and the greatest bulge on the shell was 1 
inch. At one point, the diameter of the boiler had increased If inches, and the greatest 
observed set of the stays was 3i inches. The butts were caulked and three additional 
pumps were connected, to increase the supply of water. 

In the next trial, which was also the last, a slight leak appeared just before 400 lbs. 
was reached. The leakage at the sides and ends of the butt-straps incieased up to 620 lbs., 
which pressure was maintained for five minutes, but could not be increased. With the 
exception of one or two slight leaks the rivets remained unimpaired throughout the experi- 
ments, and no difference in this respect was observable between the hand and machine 
riveting. The greatest permanent bulge of the heads was 1|-| inches; and of the shell, 1 
inch. The greatest observed increase in diameter was Iff inches. The greatest elongation 
of stay bolts was 3f inches, and the greatest reduction in diameter was j\ inch. 

The stresses on the boiler at various pressures are given in the table below : 

Stresses on Boiler at Various Pressures. 



Internal pressure in pounds per 
square inch. 


130 


135 


145 


235 
lb. 


300 


450 


520 


5S0 


620 


Stress on shell per square inch of 


lb. 


lb. 


lb. 


lb. 


lb. 


lb. 


lb. 


lb. 


solid plate, 


10,09:4 


10,840 


11,256 


18,243 


23,288 


34,933 


40.367 


45,025 


48,1.30 


Stress per square inch of section 




















left after rivet holes are 




















drilled, .... 


12,057 


12,531 


13,448 


21,796 


27,834 


41,737 


48,239 


53,794 


57,504 


Stress on rivets in longitudinal 




















seams per square inch of 




















section (double shear), . 


8,330 


8,040 


9,380 


15.040 


19,200 


28,800 


83,280 


37,120 


39,680 


Stress on stays per square inch 




















of section,. 


8.910 


9,353 


9,938 


16,107 


20,562 


30,843 


35,640 


39,753 


43,494 



The mean tensile strength of the shell-plates and butt-straps, before bending, may be 
taken at 61,500 lbs. to the square inch. It will be seen from the table that when the press- 
ure was 620 lbs., the section of plate left after drilling the rivet holes withstood a strain 
of 57,504 lbs. per square inch, without rupture or serious disturbance of the structure. 
This corresponds to a strength of joint equal to 93^ per cent. It is interesting to note, 
also, that at the end of the experiments the heads of the boiler had bulged into a fairly 
regular curve from circumference to center. 

In concluding our account of these experiments, we will say that in our opinion this 



94 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [June, 

was a very exceptional boiler — almost as exceptional as Dr. Holmes' "one lioss shay." 
We do not believe that one new boiler in twenty would show such equal strength all over. 
Moreover, this boiler had neither tubes, nor flues, nor f urnaces^ as they were not considered 
essential to the investigation. In designing boilers, too, it is necessary to take into account 
the extra strains that may be accidentally brought to bear on them, as well as the possible 
reduction of metal by corrosion, and many other things; and the wisdom of using a factor 
of safety of five or six will be apparent. The factor of safety on this boiler seems to have 
been about 4J; and the testing pressure was carried nearly up to the theoretical bursting 
point. 



A Leg-al Foundpyman. 

It has been said that a lawyer in practice should know something of everything, 
because he would sooner or later be required to use that knowledge in some details of the 
litigations with which he might be connected. An illustration of this fact occurred in 
Providence, R. I., during the progress of an important patent suit on spinning machinery, 
in which the maintenance of the rights patented were contested on the ground that the pat- 
ent was not a valid one, as it lacked the element of novelty, by reason of its having been 
anticipated by a spinning frame, containing the identical features, which had been built 
and operated some twenty years before. 

The lawyer retained by the patentees had in his boyhood days played in his father's 
foundry and machine shop. He had often made patterns out of wood and moulded them 
in the sand. When the men were casting in the foundry, some of the iron would be 
poured into these moulds, and in turn the boy would finish his castings into various wheels 
for carts and other toys. In this manner he obtained, by close observation and practice, a 
good knowledge of the principles of moulding. 

In the case referred to, the testimony in opposition to the patent was all given by one 
man, who claimed to have made, some twenty j'ears before, a spinning frame which was 
an absolute anticipation of the one in litigation. He explained in great detail that he was 
at the time the superintendent of a mill owned by a father and several sons, and that the 
spinning frame had been made in the repair shop of the mill, the men working on it at 
times when there was no especial need of other work. He further testified that the frame 
had operated satisfactorily, but that the young men became jealous and used their influence 
with their father to an extent which prevented the construction of any more frames. In 
course of time the machine became worn out, and was broken up for old iron. 

The parties owning the mill had all died, so that there was no testimony beyond this 
man's bare assertion, with the exception of a small portion of the spinning frame, termed 
the bolster, which contains the upper bearing on each spindle. This pattern was a small 
piece of wood about an inch in diameter and six inches in length. The witness testified 
that he had never made any drawing for this bolster pattern, but had turned it out himself. 
He stated that it was the identical pattern used in casting all the bolsters for the frame, 
and that after its use he had kept it in his office, and on leaving the establishment took it 
with him, this being the only portion of anything relating to the spinning frame which 
was in existence. 

If his statements could have been substantiated, it wotild have defeated the suit, be- 
cause it contained salient features which were essential to the patent owned by the plaintiffs. 
During the cross-examination the lawyer scrutinized the pattern, and from his knowledge 
of the practice in foundries, perceived that it had never been used to make a mould. It 
was of such a form that if it had been placed in the sand it could not have been removed 
by the fingers, but woidd have been taken out by a small awl, called a pick, which would 
have been inserted to remove it, and this pattern bore no evidence whatever of having been 
scarred by the sharp point of such an instrument; therefore, after the witness had thor- 



1889] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 95 

oughly identified tlie pattern as the one used in making the mould for casting the bolsters, 
the lawyer demanded that the pick-mark should be sliown. The witness was confused, and 
the lawyer again requested him to show the pick-mark. This unexpected technical knowl- 
edge on the part of the counsel broke down the witness, who, like all perjurers, had 
neglected to make his story complete. 

The next action in the case was the summoning into the court the foremen of the prin- 
cipal foundries in the vicinity, all of whom asserted that the pattern had never been used 
in making a mould, as it would have been impossible to remove a pattern of that form from 
the sand without a pick. A pick had never been used on that pattern, and therefore the 
pattern had never been used in moulding. 

It was the unanticipated information possessed by the lawyer which enabled him to 
win a very important lawsuit. On the other hand, it is doubtful if any one can conceive 
how many cases of litigation have been lost for the lack of suitable practical knowledge 
on the part of the counsel. It was a feature of the practice of the late William H. Seward, 
in his prime, that, whenever he was engaged in a case involving any practical application 
of mechanical principles, he would go to workmen in that specific line and learn from them 
all that was possible in regard to the practical features of the work. He carried this practice 
to such an extent as to introduce new methods in the conduct of patent litigations. — C. J. 
H. Woodbury, in American Maclunist. 



If the salvation of the human race could be attained by talk, we should be on the 
verge of the millenium. During the period of the Paris Exposition, no less than sixty-nine 
international congresses will meet under government patronage, besides a good many 
which will lack official sanction. Nearly every imaginable subject will be under discus- 
sion, before audiences which will be freer from conservative ideas than those that attend 
fashionable congresses in this country [England]. Politics and religion are the onty mat- 
ters that are absolutely forbidden; everything else may be investigated and criticized, and 
any one may become a member of this vast debating society by the payment of twenty 
francs [four dollars]. — Engineering. 



At a recent meeting of the Eoyal Society, Dr. Hugo Miller, F.R.S. , showed specimens 
of the new metal gnoaiium, recently discovered by Krliss and Schmidt of Munich. These 
gentlemen have shown that both cobalt and nickel are always associated with gnomium, 
which substance they have isolated for the first time, as announced in the Locomotive 
for April. 



No Time for Fun — You will frequently hear people complaining that this or that 
man is discourteous or self-important, simply because he does not enter upon a discussion 
of unimportant topics whenever approached by an acquaintance. The accusation in 99 out 
of 100 cases is unjust. A man may be ever so sociable when he has the leisure time to 
devote to sociability, but when business is to be looked after he cannot afford to be so, 
even at the expense of friendship. Take the managing or executive head of any great 
business, and Avhcn approached during business hours for sociable purposes, he will almost 
invariably receive the thoughtless intruder very coldly. Take this same man at leisure 
and he may be a Chesterfield. Forty years ago, there was time to talk. Today there is 
scarcely time for action. When the boy of to-day has attained the age of 40 he will fully 
appreciate this fact, and in half a century from now the man who expects his neighbor to 
devote an hour or so of his business tiiue to social conversation will be considered insane. 
— St. Louis Globe-Democrat. 



96 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



Incorporated 
1866. 




Charter Per- 
petual, 



Issues Policies of iDsnrauce after a Careful luspectiou of llie Boilers, 



COVEHING ALL LOSS OR DAMAGE TO 



BOILERS, BUILDINGS, AND MACHINERY. 



ALSO COVERING 



LOSS OF LIFE AND ACCIDENT TO PERSONS 



ARISING FROM 



Steam Boiler Explosions- 

Full information concerning the plan of the Company's operations can he ohtained at the 

Or at any At^encv. 



J. M. ALLEN, President. 
J. B. PIERCE, Secretary. 



W. B. FRANKLIN, Viee-Prest. 
FRANCIS B. ALLEN, 2d Vice-Prest. 



ISoard of T>ireotors. 

J. M. Af.LEN, Presiilent. NEWTOX CASE, of The Case, Lockwood & 

FRANK \V. CHENEY. Treas. Cheney Brothers Brninard Co. 

Silk Manufactiirim? Co. " IXELSON HOLLISTPIR, of State Bank, Hartford. 

CHAKLES M. BEACH, of Beach & Co. iHox. HENRY C. ROBINSON, Attorney at-Law, 

DXNIEL I'HILLIl'S, of Adams Express Co. Hartford. 

RICHARD W. H..IARVIS, Prest. Colt's Fire Arms Hon. FRANCIS B. COOLEY, of the National 

Manufaeturino' Co. | Exchanee Bank, Hartford, Conn. 

THOMAS O. ENUERS, President of the United A. W. JILLSON, late Vice-Prest. Phoenix Fire Ins. 

States Bank. 1 Co., Hartford, <^onn 

LEVERETT BRAINARD, of The Case, Lockwood EDMUND A. STEDMAN, Treasurer of the Fidelity 

& Brainard Co. I Co , of Hartford, Conn. 

Gen. WM. B. FRANKLIN, late Vice-Prest. Colt's CLAI'P SPOONER, {'.ridceport, Conn. 

Pat. Fire Arms Mfg. Co. GEORGE BURNHAM, Baldwin Locomotive Works, 

1 Philadelphia. 



GENERAL AGENTS. 

THEO. H. BABCOCK, 
CORBIN& GOODRICH, 
LAWFORD & McKIM, 

C. E. ROBERTS, 

H. D P BIGELOW, 

C. C. (JARDINF.R, 

L. B. PEl.'KINS. 

W. G. LINEHURGH& SON, 

GEO. P. LU'RVVELL, 

MANN & WILSON. 

W. S. HAS ITE & SON, 

G. A. STEl'.r, & CO.. 

FRITH & ZOLLARS, 

C. J. McCARY & CO., 



CHIEF INSPECTORS 

R. K. JIcMURRAY, 
WM. G. PIKE 
JOSEPH CRAGG, 



OFFICES. 



WM. U. FAIRBAIRN, 

H. D. P BIGELOW, 
.7. S. WILSON, 
F. S. ALLEN. 
.1. H. RANDALL. 
C. A. BURWELL, 
J. B. WARNER, 

M. .T GEIST. 
T. E, SHEARS, 



New York City. 

PTIII.AnEI.l'MIA. 

Baltimore, Md. 
Boston, Mass. 

l^KOVIDEXrE. R. I. 

Chicago. III. 
St. Lnris. Mo. 
Hartford. 
Bridoei'ort. 
Clevelanp. 
San Francisco. 
Charleston, S. C. 
Poktlano. Ore. 
Denver. Col. 
Birmingham, Ala. 



Office, 285 Broadwav. 

" 4-30 Walnut St. 

" 22 So. Hall id ay St. 

" 3.5 Pemherton Sq. 

" 29 Wevbosset St. 

" 112 QnincvSt. 

" 404 Market St. 

" 218 Main St. 

" 94 State St. 

" 208 Superior St. 

" 306 Sansome St. 

" 44 Bro.ad St. 

" Opera House Block. 
2015 First Av. 



Wkt Kocomoikt 



, PUBLISHED BY THE HARTFORD STEAM BOILER INSPECTION AND INSURANCE COMPANY. 



Ni:\v Ski!ies— Vor. X. HAHTFOHI). CONN., JULY, 1889. 



N(.. 7. 



Defects in Boilers. 

Many seem to tliink that no great amount of skill i.s required to qualifj- one as an in- 
spector of steam boilers, but this is a very erroneous impression. The reports of the in- 
spectors of the Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company, published each 




Fu. 



month in The Locomotive, afford abundant evidence that the ills to which boilers are 
heirs are very numerous and varied : and eacli inspector must constantlj' be on his guard, 
so that the .slightest detail may not escape him. He must, in the first place, possess all the 
qualities that go to make uj) a first-class steam engineer ; and secondly, he must have a 



98 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[July, 



clear head and a sound judgment. He must not only observe every defect that exists in 
a boiler; he must also be able to tell at once whether any defect that he may find is danger- 
ous or not, and whether it is likely to become so by continued use. He has. on the one 













1^ 




Fig. 2. 



hand, tOAvarn the owner of the boiler of the slightest defect that may cause damage of any 
kind, and on the other hand, he must be careful not to advise the making of repairs that 
are not in reality necessary. 

Fig. 2, in this issue, shows a piece of a boiler that had been examined (but not by one 
of our inspectors) and pronounced in good condition. It ran for three weeks, at the end of 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. QQ 

which time it siiowod evident signs of weakness, and the proprietor, realizing its condition, 
ininicdiately summoned an inspector of this companj', and requested liim to look it over 
and see what was the trouble. The plate at the back end of the boiler was eaten entirely 
through by corrosion, in one place, as is shown at ^1 ; and around the blow-off pipe at B 
the plate was so weakened from the same cause that the inspector pwW^f^ the blow-off out by 
hand. Here was an instance in which a man who no doubt knew considerable about boilers, 
and was considered competent to decide on their fitness for use, entirely overlooked a dan- 
gerous and very marked defect that might have produced disastrous consequences had our 
inspector not found it. 

Fig. 1 shows, full-size, a defect that occurred in the same neighborhood, and which 
illustrates the necessity of sound judgment on the part of the inspector. One of our men, 
in examining the boiler, found a small, very thin internal blister in the steam space, and 
with u cold chisel and hammer he trimmed it up in the usual way. All that then remained 
of it was the tongue-shaped depression extending from about the center of the engraving 
up to upper right hand edge. The blister was small, slight, and local, and could not 
possibly give any trouble. Afterward some one who was examining the boiler (it was not 
one of our men), found it, and although it had not changed its appearance in the slightest, 
and had never given the least trouble, he recommended the proprietor to have it cut out 
and replaced by a patch. The piece that was cut out is shown in the engraving. The 
metal was sound and strong, and the hole through the middle of the piece indicated by 
the white spot, was made with difficult}'. In a word, the expense of cutting out this piece 
Wi>s wholly unnecessarj', and the plate with the patch on it is not as strong nor as durable 
as the original plate with the blister. 

Our inspectors are all trained men, and are selected with special reference to the quali- 
ties that a first-class inspector needs to have. Our patrons can trust their judgment full)'. 



Inspectors' Reports. 

May, 1889. 
During this month our inspectors made 4,795 inspection trips, visited 9,063 boilers, 
inspected 3,941 both internally and externally, and subjected 580 to hydrostatic press- 
ure. The whole number of defects reported reached 11,308, of which 605 were consid- 
ered dangerous; 61 boilers were regarded unsafe for further use. Our usual summary is 
given below : 

Nature of Defects. 
Cases of deposit of sediment, ... 

Cases of incrustation and scale, - . - 

Cases of internal grooving, - - - - 

Cases of internal corrosion, - - - . 

Cases of external corrosion, - - - - 

Broken and loose liraces and stays, - - . 

Settings defective, - - - . - 

Ftu-naces out of shape, ... 

Fractured plates, - - . _ . 

Burned plates, - . . . . 

Blistered plates. ...... 

Cases of defective riveting, - - . - 

Defective heads, - - . . . 

Serious leakage around tube ends, ... - 

Serious leakage at seams, - . . . 

Defective water-gauges, - , . . 

Defective blow-offs, .... 



Whole Number. 


Dangerous. 


597 


- 


34 


866 


- 


35 


43 


- 


13 


285 


- 


16 


571 


- 


36 


131 


- 


38 


242 


- 


27 


314 


- 


21 


156 


- 


54 


149 


- 


18 


312 


- 


16 


4,710 


- 


41 


71 


- 


17 


1,675 


- 


91 


378 


- 


25 


161 


- 


26 


108 


- 


21 



dOO 



THE LOCOMOTIVE 



[July, 



Nature of Defects. 
Cases of deficiencj* of water, 
Safety-valves overloaded, 
Safety-valves defective in construction, 
Pressure-gauges defective, 
Boilers without pressure-gauges, 
Unclassified defects, 

Total, - • . - 



rhole Number. 


Dangerous. 


11 


4 


31 


14 


67 


25 


341 


20 


4 


4 


85 


3 



11,308 



605 



Boiler Explosions. 

May, 1889. 
Sleeping Car (61). — A Baker steam heater in the sleeping car Riverton exploded 
March 30th, at the Union depot, Cleveland, O. F. Farrell, the porter, was at work in the 
car at the time, and two passengers, one of whom was Charles W. Reed of Buffalo, were 
asleep in their berths. No serious damage was done. (We did not learn of this explosion 
early enough to include it in its proper place.) 

Iron Foundry (62). — On May 5th a Ijoiler explosion occurred at Lowell's iron foun- 
dry and machine shop, Manchester, N. H. The building was brick, three stories high, and 
40x50 feet on the ground, and it was totallj' wrecked. Only the chimney is standing 
A section of the boiler was blown througii the wall in the rear of boiler, and a second piece 
was .shot into'the air and came down through the roof of the S. C. Forsyth Machine Com- 
pan3''s foundry. Charles Ouimette, the engineer, was standing in front of the boiler and 
was knocked insensiljle, but was not seriously injured. Three other persons were about 
the building at the time. Had the explosion occurred on a week-day, the loss of life 
would have been verj' large, as a heav}- force is employed. The loss will nearlj' be total. 

Box Factory (63). — Late in the afternoon of May 9th a boiler exploded in the box 
factory of A. A. Foster, Racine, Wis. The engine-house and rear of the two-story brick 
factory were wrecked, and several hundred windows in the Racine basket factory building 
adjoining were shattered. George Wheeler, engineer, and Wright, an emploj'ee, escaped 
with slight injuries Mr. Foster and ]\Iarlin Peterson received internal injuries that may 
prove fatal. William McHale was also seriously injured. 

Box Factory (64). — A mud drum exploded on ]\Iay 9th in the basement of the 
Spooner Paper Box Manufacturing Company, No. 252 West Twenty-seventh Street, New 
York, and a German laborer named Daniel Klupka was killed. The building received $75 
damage, and the stock $500. The most notable thing about the accident was the conduct 
of the 300 girls employed in the place. When the explosion occurred the superintendent 
ran up stairs, and after quietly telling the girls that an accident had happened, formed 
them into two lines and marched them down stairs to the street, and across to the other 
side to a place of safety. 

Saw-Mill (65). — A boiler in Seward Davis' mill, Payne, O., exploded May 13th, kill- 
ing Edward Hartshorn and William Tarley, and seriouslj' injuring four others. 

Locomotive (66). — A locomotive boiler on the North Pacific Coast Railroad exploded 
near Occidental, Sonoma Co., Cal., on May 15tli. The water tank at that place was 
wrecked, but nobody was killed. (Occidental is a small place about 30 or 35 miles north 
of San Francisco.) 

Wrecking Steamer (67). —On ]\Iay 17th, while the wrecking steamer Florence was 
aiding to float the bark Mary K. Campbell ashore at Matane (Quebec), the boiler of the 
Florertce exploded, scalding Engineer Charrier and throwing two other men into the hold 
of the vessel. All were ver}- .severely injured. 



1889] THE LOCOMOTIVE. ^01 



Printing House (68). A boiler exploded iu a printing and publishing house in 
Cincinnati, on May 28d. Further particulars of this explosion are given in our Cincinnati 
letter in this issue. 

Steam Shovel (69). — On May 'J5th, Avliile three men were engaged at work in the 
engine room of the steam shovel which is being used for loading ballast on the cars at 
Wales, Out., for grading purposes on the Grand Trunk Railway double track, the boiler 
exploded, seriously injuring two of the men, one of whom, Mcintosh, is expected to die. 

Portable Saw-Mill (70). — The boiler of Gilfilen & Gibson's portable saw-mill, situ- 
ated on Poindexter's creek, near Winfleld, W. Va., blew up on the morning of May 31st, 
with terrific force. "William Doss was instantly killed ; George Gilfilen died two days later 
from a crushed skull, broken collar bone, and other injuries ; Burns Wooten was badly 
bruised and scalded, and cannot recover ; David Chambers, the sawyer, received several 
injuries about the body and head, none of which are serious. Several of John Gibson's 
bones were broken, and he was otherwise seriously but not dangerously hurt. One of John 
Niberl's eyes was blown out, and he was badly burned about the body. The lumber inspector 
of the ^IcLaughlin Timber Company, of Columbus, O , happened to be on the grounds, and 
was seriously hurt. Engineer Wolford, who was slightly injured, fled to the woods after 
the accident, and has not been seen since. About five feet of ^that portion of the boiler to 
which the tire-box is attached was blown about one hundred feet in the air, coming down 
about one hundred 3'ards from the mill, imbedding itself into the ground three feet. The 
mill, which is estimated to have been worth two thousand dollars, is a total wreck. 



On the Longitudinal Riveted Joints of Steam-Boiler Shells.* 

BY JOHN H. COOPER, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

The initial statement to the English Lloyd's rules for steam-boilers is eml)odied in the 
following words : " The strength of circular shells to be calculated from the strength of 
longitudinal joints," which assures us that this part of the boiler should be properly pro- 
portioned. To these rules a memorandum is added : " In any case where the strength of 
the longitudinal joint is satisfactorily shown by experiment to be greater than -given by this 
formula (Lloyd's), the actual strength may be taken in the calculation." Later on, Lloyd's 
rules (under the head of " Periodical Surveys," regarding the examination of boilers after 
they have been several years in service) say : "The safe working pressure is to be deter- 
mined by their actual condition." These statements lie in the line of practical efiiciency, 
and point to the necessity of providing material in accordance with the requirement of the 
load to be carried. 

Any one who takes the trouble to collect and compare data on this subject cannot fail 
to notice the great disparity of rules for determining the working pressure permissible for 
boilers. The case is clear bj' simple reasoning on the data collected, that boilers are held 
together, it would seem, more by conformity to rule than by the materials of which they 
are made. But of course the true course to pursue is to give to each member its proper 
allowance of section, in order that the components of the joint .shall have an equal chance 
under strain according to its resisting power. The diminished strength of the shell of a 
boiler by a longitudinal joint is well known, and it becomes good engineering so to propor- 
tion its parts as to obtain the greatest strength possible within the limits of practical 
econom}^ 

When it became necessary to assure themselves confidently of the permanent safety of 
a structure composed of plates held together by rivets, engineers were not long in finding 
out that a certain allotment of rivet section to plate section at the joints was necessary, and 
that these sections were found to be nearly ecjual in the strongest joints. The experiments 



Comniunicated to the Locomotive by the author. 



-102 THE LOCO-ALOTIVE. [Jult, 

of Fairbairn, conducted in the year 1838, proved that — '• the sectional area of tlie rivets ia 
a joint was nearly equal to the sectional area of the plate through the rivet holes." Subse- 
quent experiments by Clark on riveted plates for the Britannia and Conwaj' Tubular Bridge 
fully corroborate the above statement; his conclusion was: "The collective area of the 
rivets is equal to the sectional area of the plate through the rivet-holes." This relation of 
the components of the joint in course of time became embodied in the English Board of 
Trade rules and in Lloyds rules now iu force, regulating the construction of steam boilers. 
It also forms the basis of the Philadelphia steam-boiler inspection ordinance, lirst formu- 
lated in 1882. 

Referring now to those rules only which relate to the proportions of the longitudinal 
joints of the cylindrical .shells of boilers, we are prepared to say they may be most con- 
veniently presented by the following notation and formulae : 

A = Percentage of punched plate to the solid plate. 
B = Percentage of driven rivet section to the solid plate. 
C — The pressure in lbs. per square inch which the boiler is allowed to carry. 
a = Area of driven rivet, or rivet -hole. 
d — Diameter of rivet-hole. 
71 = Number of rows of rivets. 
p = Pitch of rivets. 
t — Thickness of plates. 
R~ Piadius of boiler shell. 

S — Ultimate shearing strength of rivets in lbs. per square inch of section. 
T— Ultimate tensile strength of plates in lbs. per .square inch of section. 
/ = Factor of safety. 

E= Limit of ela.sticity in the plates in lbs. pei- square inch. 
% = Percentage of joint strength. 

The least of A or 5 should be inserted in the formula for finding C. All dimeu.sions 
are in inches. The notation and the formulae mutually explain each other. 

. . . (1), 
. . . (2), 
. . . (3). 



A^ 


f) — d 
P 






B- 


a n 
pt 






= 


t{AOT 


B) 


T 



5R 

These formula? are intended exclusively for the guidance of the inspector in ascertain- 
ing the exact strength of the joints in the boilers which come under his care, and which 
enable him to determine the working pressure of steam allowable under the rules. They 
do not, however, enable the boiler-maker to determine directly that proportion of pitch 
which he should use with any given plate thickness and rivet diameter, in order to secure 
the strongest joint and which will also pass the highest inspection. To secure these 
results, the following simple formulae were devised by the writer (early in 1882), in which 
the notation given above is similarly employed, and which may be thus expressed. For 
single riveted joints, when iron plates are secured by iron rivets and when the plate thick- 
ness and rivet diameter are given, it is desired to find a pitch that will secure equalitj- of 
plate and rivet section — the formula- will be : 

a 
p= — +d (4). 

This plainly means that the pitch is equal to the area of the rivet hole, divided by the 



1889.] THE LO.COMOTIVE. 103 



thickness of the plate, and to the result of which the diameter of the rivet hole must he 
added. 

For multiple riveted joiuts, wheu iron phites are secured hy iron rivets, the same 
formula is used with the addition only of n, representing the uumuer of rows of rivets, thus; 

n a 

p = +d . . . . (•-)). 

The difTerent resisting power of equal areas of section, as many times found by tests of 
the shearing stress of the rivets and the tensile stress of the plates, is not taken into account 
in the make-up of these rules. They are treated in all cases as equals under the strains of 
continued use. That is to say — The Philadelphia.Boiler Ordinance and the English rules 
alike impliedly declare : The shearing strength of the rivets is just equal to the tensional 
strengtli of the plates per square inch of area in boilers made of iron plates and iron rivets. 

If any one takes exception to this treatment of the two strains, the formulae permit 
him to introduce his own iigures of difference into their make-up, by which he can get a 
re.sult in accordance with his own belief ; but of the mathematical base embodied in the 
formula, we are sure. 

For single and multiple riveted joints when steel plates are secured by iron or steel 
rivets, the relative resistance of the plates to tension and of the rivets to shear must be in- 
serted in the formula. First, let us assume, as the rules for inspection have done and do in 
all cases, that, area for area subjected to stress and acting together, iron plates and iron 
rivets are equal in resistance. The best Staffordshire iron boiler plates will stand 48,000 
lbs. tension per square incli of section ; but tlie Board of Trade and Lloyd's limit all best 
iron plates and rivets alike to 47,000 lbs. The Philadelphia Ordinance will pass iron plates 
which have shown on test a tension of 50,000 lbs. per sq\iare iuch, but will allow no more 
wliatever the plates may show, and will give full credit to a joint in which the driven 
rivets have equal section to the punched plates. And yet we well know it to be a matter 
of fact that the shearing strength is less than the tensile strength of the same material. 
Mr. William H. Shock's experiments on xVmerican iron gave as a mean for single shear 
41,033 lbs. per square inch, and 78,030 lbs. for double shear, these experiments being made 
upon iron bolts in a shearing device which did not include the uncertain element of friction 
by the rough surfaces of the plates when bound closely by the rivets of a riveted joint 
made in the usual waj'. 

When iron rivets are used with steel plates they are accepted under the rules for just 
what they are worth under shear and no more. The English rules say: "Iron rivets in 
steel boilers should have a section of -^^^- of the plate section." Steel rivets must be calcu- 
lated from their actual strength to resist shearing ; and for these the fraction t| will express 
tlu" larger area they must have to the plates with which they are used to make joints, sim- 
ply becau.se steel plates show an ultimate tensile strength of 28 tons, and steel rivets an 
ultimate shearing strength of 23 tons per square inch of section. The old rules published 
by Fairbairn, and used by him and by many boiler-makers since, are obsolete now, in the 
liulit of the later method of proportioning joints and the laM-s which sanction their use. 
although he fin-nished the first material for the base upon which this law has been built. 
From an extended list of all iron single joints, proportioned on the principle of equality of 
sectional areas, the percentage of joint strength to the solid plate will reach to .64 and in 
double joints to .78 and be practically tight under pressures up to say 100 lbs. of steam per 
square inch — a material increase over the oft-quoted figures of .56 and .70 originated and 
recommended by Fairbairn. 

If we accept the inspection laws referred to, assuming even results of the two strains, 
then rules 4 and 5 will find the proper pitches for boiler joiuts made of iron plates and iron 
rivets ; but in composite boiler shells, the introduction of symljols representing the actual 
powers of resistance of the components, will be necessary : we will then have for double 
or multiple joints ; 



404 THE LOCOM'OTIVE. [July, 

n a S 
p=--^+d .... (6), 
t T 

which can be applied also to au all-irou joint or to joints made of other materials than the 
usual iron and steel. If we desire, to tind the pitch of the rivets, when the rivet diameter 
and a certain percentage of joint strength are given, we may use the following formula ; 

d X % 

p = +d . . . (7). 

(100-5?) 

This do^snot include the thickness of the plates; it relates only to the proportion existing 
between the distance from center to center of the rivet holes and the space between the 
holes. 

Other convenient formulae are readily obtained from A , B, and C, hy transposition ; 
as, for instance, if it is desired to know the shear to which the rivets are exposed in any par- 
ticular case after all the elements have been obtained — the formula will take this shape : 

Cx Bxf 

Shear--- . . . (8), 

txB 

and will give the lbs. per square inch of cross-section to which the rivets are subjected in 
the seam bj^ the steam pressure C, which has been obtained bj' the Ordinance formula. 

The rivet liole determines the size and measure of the rivet after it is driven, because it 
is then tilled by it ; and in making calculations with the aid of these formulae, the trade 
sizes of the rivets must not be taken. In punching holes for rivets in boiler plates, it is the 
usual practice to use punches -^^ of an inch greater in diameter than the trade diameter of 
the rivets, and it is also usual to make the dies which are used with the punches ^^ of an 
inch larger in diameter than the punches to be used with them. The result of this method 
is to make conical holes in the plates, corresponding to the sizes of punch and die. If the 
punched holes are net to the dimensions of the punch and die here given, and if the 
material of the plate immediately around the hole has not suffered in the act of punching, 
then the proper size of holes to be used in the formula would be the mean diameter of the 
conical holes so made, instead of jV" larger than the punch, as they are usually assumed to 
be. It is well known, however, that the material of the plates bordering the holes is 
weakened by the detrusion of the punch ; to what distance this reaches from the surface of 
visible separation of the metal may not be definitely known, and must necessarilj- be differ- 
ent Avith different materials and punches — but it is certain to be a small measurable dis- 
tance into the plate around the hole. If we take the diameter of the punclied holes to be equal 
to that of the die, we will not be far from the actual state of the case, especially as some 
of this disturbed metal is removed by the reamer or crushed by the drift-pin. We are safe 
in this assumption in so far as the ultimate strength of the joint is concerned, because, as 
usually happens in rupture, the plates give way, \vhile the rivets rarely fail ; and again, the 
plates suffer loss of substance by wear and waste, while the rivets are preserved against 
deterioration, and therefore the initial strength of the plates ought to be favored. 

In view of these facts, the suggestion is here made that when we wish to determine 
pitches from given plates and rivets, that we use the greater diameter of the punched hole, 
whatever that may be, for the quantity expressed by a in all of these formulae, and that we 
assume the rivet diameter to be that of the lesser diameter, or reamedout diameter of the 
rivet-hole. The result of this apportionm.ent of the material will be effectively to 
strengthen the plates, which all experience has proven to be necessary ; so that while this 
decision appears to be against reason and the isolated facts of experiment — the resistance 
to shearing always proving less than that to direct tension in the same material — it must 
be constantly borne in mind that the strain on the plates and rivets are not direct in the 
ordinary lap-joint as they are used in a boiler, the plates being subjected to some transverse 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 105 

strain while under tension, and tlie rivets to some tensile strain while under shear. 
Strictly speaking, the plate loses what is punched out of it, together with the metal de- 
stroyed around the punched hole, and the rivet gains by whatever increased diameter it 
gets in the process of riveting. They should be estimated upon what they actually are 
when the joint is made up. 

The Ocean Greyhounds. 

After the remarkable passage of the peerless City of Paris, noticed in our last issue, 
the officers of the Cunard steamer Etmria, whose record had previously been the best, had 
something to say about the trip. It was stated that a correct figuring of the time allowance 
for longitude, and of the actual time of the departure and arrival of the City of Parts,- 
would show that the Etruria's best time was still two minutes less than that made by the 
City of Paris. The time given for the departure of the City of Paris from Queenstown, 
they say, was the time of her passing a point considerably outside the harbor, and it is 
further asserted that her officers do not know, surely, what time she arrived off Sandy 
Hook. It is claimed that she was not reported by the observer there, and that she was so 
much in the dark about her exact position that when the fog lifted, about 10 o'clock, she 
was off the Long Branch coast. The time fixed upon as that of her arrival at the Hook, 
they say, is calculated from data furnished by the pilot when he came aboard. 

However these things may have been, the officers of the Etruria were for the most 
part .willing to admit that the City of Paris can beat the record under favorable circum- 
stances before the season ends ; and a few days later the wisdom of their admission was 
proven. On her return trip to England the City of Paris passed Sandy Hook, outward 
bound, at 7.20 p.m., Wednesday, ]May 15th. She passed Brow Head on the following Tues- 
day at 10.15 P.M., and three hours later she arrived off Roche's Point, Queenstown, which 
is the point to which time is always taken in the ocean races. According to the official 
log the actual time from Sandy Hook to Roche's Point was 6 days and 29 minutes ; but 
the early reports of the Maritime Exchange make it 6 days, 2 hours, and 4 minutes. There 
is evidently a mistake somewhere, but whichever is right, the record was beaten, for the 
fastest eastward passage ever made before was made by the Cunarder Umhria, who.se 
record is 6 days, 2 hours, and 22 minutes. 

Once arrived at Liverpool, the passengers were put on a special train and whisked off 
to London. They left New York on one Wednesday night and dined in London the next. 
Nobody ever did that before. 

The runs for the several days were as follows : First day, 300 miles ; second, 450 ; 
third, 463 ; fourth, 471 ; fifth, 470 ; sixth, 476 ; and the part of the seventh day, 264. The 
total is 2,894 miles, or 39 miles more than the distance passed over on her previous west- 
ward trip. The Inman people hint that they hope to reach 5 days, 12 hours on some trip 
when the City of Paris has gotten fairlj^ at work, and when she has favorable weather ; 
but 5 days and 12 hours is yet a long way off. 



The canal across the Isthmus of Corinth that was begun by the Romans, under Nero, 
is now being completed. It has been in process of construction for over 1700 j'ears. 
When completed it will be four miles long and 26 feet deep, and will allow the passage of 
the largest vessels used in the Greek traffic. It does not amount to. much from an inter- 
national point of view, but it will be a great thing for 3Iodern Greece. 



Two well known clergymen missed their train, upon'which one of them took out liis 
watch, and finding it to blame for the mishap, said he would no longer have any faith in 
it. 

" But," said the other, " isn't it a question, not of faith, but of works ? " — Living Church. 



103 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [July, 




ttmttlt 



HARTFORD, JULY, 1889. 
J. M. Allen, Editor. A. D. Risteen, Associate Editor. 

The Locomotive can le obtained free by calling at any of the company^s agencies. 

Subscription price 50 cents per year iclien mailed from this office. 

Bound Tolumes one dollar each. 

Papers that borrow cuts from us will do us a favor if they will plainly mark them in returning, 
so that we may give proper credit on our books. 

Under the head of " Great Innovations of the Past Sixty Years," the first number of 
whicli appears in tliis issue, we propose to describe a few of the remarkable inventions and 
discoveries that have been made during that period. Tlie railwaj' system, the telegraph, 
tlie telephone, phonograph, electric light, and other equally well known inventions, we 
shall not touch upon, because excellent accounts of their history and workings maj' be 
found in books that are accessible to all. We shall treat only of achievements that are less 
known to the public in general. 

Mr. E. J. IMuRPHY, who has for the past nine years been connected with The -Colt 
Patent Fire Arms Manufacturing Company as mechanical engineer, has lately been 
employed by the Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection & Insurance Company. He will 
occupy the position of mechanical and consulting engineer. Mr. Murphy has had a wide 
experience in steam engineering. He was chief draughtsman of the Woodruff & Beach 
Iron Works from 1855 until the dissolution of that firm. He was then appointed secretary 
and treasurer of the Hartford Foundry & INIachinc Company, and subsequently filled the 
position of president and superintendent of the Hartford City Water Works. His experi- 
ence and al)ilities will be valuable in his new position. 



In examining a ])oiler recently, that was offered us for inspection and insurance, we 
found the following state of things: The fire line extended above the water line, the back 
head was insufficiently braced, and there was a stop-valve between the boiler and the safety- 
valve. Of course we directed that the fire-lines be lowered to the top of the tubes, that the 
back head be covered above the tubes, and that the stop-valve be removed, or else that the 
safety-valve be put directly in the dome. It was also directed that three additional braces 
be put in on the back head, and it was advised that the feed-pipe be changed to the top so 
that the inflowing water might not chill the shell, and that the blow-off be inserted on the 
bottom of the shell instead of through the head as at present. We meet with all of these 
defects very often, but it is rare that so many of them are found at the same time in one 
boder. This boiler is in a planing mill. It is comparatively new, and is fired with 
shavings. 

Our readers are doubtless all familiar with the shocking disaster at Johnstown last 
month. No such calamity ever befel us before, though there have been several equally 
destructive floods in Cluna in recent years. We are not yet Avell enough acquainted with 
China to have any very warm sympathy for her subjects in their adversit}', but when the 
waters sweep away ten thousand of our own citizens we are appalled. After the news of 
the disaster was received, it was particularly gratifying to see the readiness and the gener- 
osity with which contributions for the relief of the sufferers were made. In Pittsburgh 
alone a quarter of a million of dollars was subscribed within 34 hours; and similar 
amounts came from other cities. The American public is warm-hearted and sympathetic: 
of this fact it has furnished abundant and magnificent proof. 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 107 



The Royal Society Soiree. 

On Wednesday, INIay Sth, the customary annual conversazione was given by the Presi- 
dent of tlie Royal Society. These conversaziones are very swell affairs. A young man, 
now living in Massachusetts, was over in London a few years ago, and learning that he 
was just in time to attend one of them, he sought vainly for a card of admission. Failing 
in his effort to secure one, he wrote a note to Tyndall explaining his difficulty and asking 
if something could not be done. Tyndall replied very courteously, inclosing two cards of 
invitation, and stating that it gave him great pleasure to afford one of his American friends 
an opportunity of attending. Now the young man in question had bought him a dress 
suit shortly before, and as he was soon to return to this country he wanted to be able to 
swear that he had worn it. So with some hesitation he put it on. "I shall be out of 
jilace," he thought : "I shall be conspicuous ; but 1 have got to wear this suit some time 
or other before I quit England, and I don't see any better time than now." Well, he was 
ushered into a room blazing with light and filled with the cream of English scientific 
society, all arrayed in spotless evening dress. The elegance of the affair astounded him. 

As usual on such occasions, a large number of objects of special scientific interest were 
exhibited. A magnificent collection of instantaneous photographs illustrative of the vari 
ous phases of animal locomotion were shown on the screen bj- an electric lantern, and were 
witnessed by a large and distinguished audience. They were taken by Mr. Eadweard 
IMuyliridge in the course of his elaborate researches on the subject. Mr. E. S. Bruce 
showed an ingenious method of illustrating the persistence of images on the retina of the 
eye. He caused a whitened lath to rotate rapidly so that it took the appearance of a round, 
fixed white screen. He then projected pictures on this screen by means of a lantern in the 
ordinary way, and the effect was as if a transparent, filmj'- image was suspended in the air. 
As objects could also be distinctly seen through the revolving lath, the pictures shown on 
it are said to be peculiarlj^ ghostlike. Mr. C. V. Boys exhibited a very delicate and 
interesting piece of apparatus, designed to show the force of gravitation between two 
pieces of lead. Many other interesting things were shown, and the meeting was agreat 
success. 



A Cincinnati Explosion. 

[from the locomotive's CINCINNATI CORRESPONDENT.] 

A boiler explosion -- or, more correctly, a rupture — occurred in this city about noon 
on May 23d. The boiler did not move from its setting, nor was any person injured by 
escaping steam, although the boiler was running under sixty pounds pressure at the time. 
It was run in conjunction with an adjoining boiler, and the only connection between the two 
was a smgle pipe running from one steam dome to the other. This pipe has a stop-valve, 
so that if necessary one boiler can be operated alone. The engineer closed this valve when 
the accident occurred, so that the machinery in the building was stopped onh' a few 
moments. 

Any person examining the ruptured boiler with the great buckle in the two fire sheets 
must wonder why the boiler did not move out and carry along everything that is harnessed 
to It. Had It done this, great loss of life would have been inevitable, and the property loss 
would probably have been from $30,000 to $40,000. 

The boiler has six flues, and there is every evidence that the water line was about 
opposite the middle of the lower flues at the moment of rupture. Float water-gauges are 
used on these boilers, and an examination showed that they were m good condition. They 
will, however, be discontinued. The float-gauge on the ruptured boiler was farthest from 
the engineer, and the other gauge was noticed more, and was relied upon to indicate the 
water-level in both boilers ; which is somewhat strange, considering the fact that the boilers 
were connected only as previously stated. 



■108 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [July, 



Good Work on the Railroads. 

Public attention has been once more called to rivaliy between English and American 
locomotives by the purchase of the compound English locomotive, Dreadnaught, by the 
Pennsyvania Railroad, from the London & Northern Railway Company. This locomotive 
is one of those with which such excellent time is made between London and Edinburgh, 
and it is proposed to made a thorough test of her on the Pennsylvania Companj-'s tracks. 
She has three cylinders — a low-pressure one inside and two high-pressure ones outside, — 
and two pairs of unconnected diiving wheels. In the place of the old-time link motion 
with eccentrics on the driving axle, she has a valve gear which takes its motion directly 
from the connecting rod. She is run by an English engineer, and a machinist is constantly 
in attendance to see that she has all the advantages that the road offers. On one occasion 
recently she made the seventy-three miles between Johnstown and Pittsburgh in three 
hours and thirtj'-three minutes (the usual time), loaded with an unusually heavy train. 

According to Superintendent Pitcairn the Dreadnaught is doing very well, and the only 
dithcultj^ thus far is that she does not start very quickly, especiallj^ on the heavy grades. 
This ditficulty arises from the fact that in starting she can only make use of her high- 
pressure cylinders, as the low-pressure cj^linder remains inactive until the high-pressure 
pistons have made a couple of strokes and supplied it with steam. 

When in working order the Dreadnaught weighs 95,200 pounds, and her tender, when 
empt}^ weighs 27,000 pounds He driving wheels are 6 ft. 3 in. in diameter. Her outer 
cylinders are 14" x 24" and her inner cylinder is 30" x 24". She has taken a train weighing, 
with engine and tender, 464,000 pounds, up a grade of 70 feet to the mile, four and one 
quarter miles long, at the rate of 33 miles an hour. She has pulled a train weighing 544,- 
000 pounds from Euston to Crewe, 158 miles, in 3 hours and 34 minutes, including stops, 
or at the rate of 44.3 miles an hour. Leaving out stoppages this corresponds to 46 miles 
an hour, which is excellent for a train of that weight. The Dreadnaught evaporates 9-i 
pounds of water per pound of coal, and, with ordinary loads, her average coal consump- 
tion per mile, we understand, has been 29 pounds, against about 37 pounds consumed by 
the ordinary locomotives of the Pennsylvania Company when doing the same work. 

While we are speaking of railroads and locomotives, it will be interesting to Examine 
some of the remarkable runs in this country and in England, and the conditions under 
which they are made. The best run in Great Britain, according to the New York Sun, is 
from London to Edinburgh, 400 miles, in 7 hours and 25 minutes actual running time, 
excluding stops, or about 53.6 miles an hour, average speed. This train, however, con- 
sisted of only four small cars, weighing 80 tons when loaded. Foxu' American cars will 
weigh 108 tons when empty, and the engines used in this country are heavier also. More- 
over, the grades and curves in England are much lighter than here. " When the construc- 
tion of railroads was first begun in England," says the Sun, "George Stephenson, who 
produced the famous Rocket, advocated the expenditure of vast sums to make the road- 
beds straight and level, his object being to keep down the cost of operating. The ideal 
raihvay would be built on a perfectly direct and horizontal line, and to closely approach 
this model was Stephenson's desire. The Great Western road, from London to Liverpool, 
was made after his ideas, and the grades on it rise only four feet to the mile for most of 
the way. The Great Northern Railway, that on which the Flying Scotchman speeds along, 
is built with gradients of 1 in 200. or 26.4 feet to the mile. Heavy as these latter seem in 
comparison to the phenomenally light grades previously mentioned, they would be consid- 
ered extremely easy in this country. As to curves, for many j^ears an act of Parliament 
prevailed in England prohibiting the construction of any railroad curve with less than half 
a mile radius. On one of the great American trunk lines in the Alleghanies will be found 
curves of 400 feet radius, and it was in the devising of engines to pull trains rapidly over 
such lines as that that American ingenuity succeeded in producing a type of locomotive 
that for general excellence is unequaled anywhere else in the world." 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. -109 

Although England has unquestional)ly the fastest long-distance trains in the world, it 
is interesting to note a few of the runs that we make in this country, under the disadvan- 
tages above pointed out. The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad runs a train from Washington to 
Baltimore, 40 miles, in 43 minutes. This is at the rate of 55.8 miles an hour, which is 
pretty good speed, although it is not fair to compare it with the run from London to Edin- 
burgh, as it is onlj' one-tenth as long. One of the Baltimore & Ohio engines, with 69-inch 
drivers, and cylinders 19"x 24", has run a train of average weight from Locust Point. Balti- 
more, to Washington, 42^ miles, in 40 minutes, including one stop. This is at a through 
rate of 64.3 miles an hour. 

In England the express trains and trains carrying the mails run at an average speed of 
40 miles or more an hour, but accommodation trains run no faster than similar trains do 
here. A few of the regular runs in England are these: 105:^ miles in 1 hour 58 minutes, or 
53^ miles an hour ; 77^^ miles in 1 hour 27 minutes, or 53^ miles per hour ; 76 miles in 1 
hour 27 minutes,' or 52f miles per hour. In America the Pennsylvania limited runs from 
Jersey City to Trenton, 55f miles, in 64 minutes, or at an average speed of 52.3 miles an 
hour, which is about equal to the English runs just mentioned ; and tlie train is much 
heavier. 



Great Discoveries and Innovations of the Past Sixty Years. 

I. The Spectroscope. 

It has long been known that white light is a mixture of light of many colors, and that 
it may b? split up into these constituent colors bj* means of a prism. Newton was the first 
man to declare the compound nature of white light, and he was also the first to give an ex- 
planation of the action of the prism. His explanation was, that in passing through the 
prism, the different component colors are deflected from a straight course in varying degrees, 
violet light being most turned aside and red the least, so that after emerging from the 
•prism the colors follow different courses, and instead of all falling on the wall at the same 
spot and giving us the mixed sensation that we call white, they fall each on a different 
spot, and form a gorgeous band of color that we call a spectrum. Lender certain conditions 
drops of rain act like prisms, and a spectrum is produced in the clouds by Nature. We 
call this natural spectrum a rainbow. 

There are generally considered to be seven principal colors in the spectrum — red, 
orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet ; but these merge into one another so gradu- 
ally, and through such a delicate and uniform succession of tints, that in reality there is an 
infinite number of colors between the red at one extreme and the violet at the other. 

The wonderful discovery on which the spectroscope is based was made by Wollaston 
in 1802. He found that when a ray of sunlight is let into a dark room through a very nar- 
row slit, and then passed through a prism, the liand of color is produced on the wall as 
before ; but he noticed, what previous observers had not noticed, that a number of the 
tints are missing. So definitelj' and sharply marked are the gaps, that the spectrum looks 
as though some one had purposely drawn black lines across it. These lines are known as 
'■ Fraunhofer's lines," from Fraunhofer, a celebrated optician of Munich, who first stud- 
ied them and gave a detailed description of them. 

Fraunhofer counted, in the spectrum of sunlight, upwards of 600 of these dark lines. 
Brewster counted 2,000, and Professor Rowland's beautiful photographs show many thou- 
sands. The lines are perfectly definite in position, and they are very constant. They 
are not distributed evenly throughout the spectrum, but occur grouped and scattered with- 
out the slightest perceptible trace of order. Some of them are verj- strongly marked, and 
others are so faint that thej' can be seen only with the best of apparatus, and under excep- 
tional circumstances. 

It was natural, when the existence of dark lines in the sun's spectrum had been proven, 
to examine the spectrum of other kinds of light. It was found that white-hot iron, and in 



no THE LOCOMOTIVE. [July, 

fact, all while-hot solids with two rare exceptions, give a continuous spectrum without any 
dark lines. In examining the light of the stars it was found that similar lines are present, 
but that they are differently grouped. In the electric light bright lines were found, and 
various colored flames gave very brilliant bright lines, whose positions varied according to 
the substance that was used to give the flame its color. 

These facts naturally suggested the theory that each substance is capable of producing 
lines peculiar to itself. Bir John Herschel, in 1822, remarked that certain substances, 
when volatilized in a gas flame, impart such characteristic colors to certain of the dark 
lines in the spectrum that they can readily be detected bj^ this, means ; and in 1834, Mr. 
Fox Talbot suggested that if this optical method were developed, it would probably fur- 
nish a very delicate method of detecting substances which are present only in very small 
(juantities. But it is to the labors of Messrs. Kirchhoff and Bunsen that we owe the present 
method of spectrum analysis. They showed that compounds of the same metal, when in- 
troduced into a fliime, give rise to spectral lines that are constant in color and in position 
for each metal, but which vary in color, position, and number for different metals. And, 
lastly, they showed that this new method of analysis, known as " spectrum analysis," is of 
.dmost incredible delicacy. The millionth part of a gj-ain of lime or strontia can easily be 
detected. Lithium, a metal that was found formerly in only four minerals, has been 
shown by the new method to be one of the most widely distributed elements. According 
to Roscoe, it exists in almost all rocks, in sea-water and river-water, in milk, in blood, 
and in muscular tissue ; and the six-millionth part of a grain of it can be detected with 
certainty. Sodium, which forms the basis of common salt, is the most easily detected of 
all substances ; for the one-hundred and eighty-millionth part of a grain of sodium makes 
itself distinctly visible. 

The delicacy of the new method is still further illustrated by the following, quoted by 
Roscoe : Several persons who were to be operated on for cataract were caused to partake 
of lithia water containing, perhaps, twenty grains of carbonate of lithium. Three hours 
and a half afterward, when a portion of the lens of the eye was tested, a distinctly percep- 
tible quantity of lithia was found in it. " It was thus seen that in the human body twenty 
grains of "carbonate of lithium will, in three hours and a half, penetrate through every 
part of the body, and be capable of detection even in each particle of the lens of the eye." 

It will readily be believed, after what has been said, that spectrum analysis has shown 
the existence of numerous elements that we formerly knew nothing at all about. About 
30 years ago, Professor Bunsen, in examining the alkalies left from the evaporation of a 
large quantity of water from a certain mineral spring, noticed in his spectroscope some 
bright lines that he bad never seen before, and which he at once concluded were due to 
some new substance. He proceeded to evaporate some more water, in the hope of being 
able to procure some of the new substance for more detailed examination ; but he was 
obliged to evaporate no less than forty-four tons of water before he obtained SCO grains 
of it. He then found that it was not a simple substance, but consisted of a mixture of the 
chlorides of two new metals, which are now known by the names " caesium" and " rubi- 
dium." Several other elements have since been added to the list in a similar manner. 
Thallium, discovered by William Crookes, and gallium, discovered by Lecoq de Boisbau- 
dran, are perhaps the best known of them. Indium, discovered by Reich and Richter, is 
also comparatively well known, and its properties have been fairly well investigated. 
There are a host of other claimants for admission among the generally accepted list of ele- 
ments — gnomium, one of the most recent, having already been mentioned in this paper — 
but chemists are very conservative on the subject of elements, and as most of the alleged 
new substances are very rare, there is some difficulty in tindiog out whether their claims 
are good or not. 

One of the most beautiful applications of spectrum analysis, is to the determination of 
the composition of the sun and the stars, for, by the optical method, we do not need to 
have the sul)stance to be analyzed near by us, and it is a great deal more comfortable, for 
instance, to analyze the sun from our present distance of «J5,000,000 miles, than it would 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. HI 



be to analyze him at close quarters. Kirchlioff showed that the sun contains iron, calcium, 
magnesium, sodium, chromium, nickel, barium, copper, zinc, and possibly cobalt. Ang- 
strom and Thalen added hydrogen, manganese, aluminum, and titanium, to the list, and 
Lockyer added cobalt, lead, cadmium, potassium, cerium, strontium, uranium, vanadium, 
and probably lithium, rubidium, cfesium, tin, bismuth, and silver. There are, therefore, 
twenty-seven of our known elements present in the sun, and the others are very likely there, 
only in such a condition that we have not yet recognized them. lu the stars, also, some of 
our familiar terrestrial substances have been found, and the sudden flashes of light that 
take place among the stars sometimes giving us " new stars" as we call them, have been 
found to be due to outbursts of wiiite-hot hj'drogen gas. 

But the spectroscope has other applications in astronomy besides celestial analysis. It 
enables us to judge of the speed with which the stars are approaching us or receding from 
us. Many of our readers have probably noticed the sudden lowering in pitch of the sound 
given out by the bell of a locomotive that passes rapidly by. When the train is appr(?ach- 
ing the pitch of the bell seems slightly higher than it is in reality, and when the train is 
receding the pitch seems lower than it is. This is known as " Doppler's principle," and it 
is true of light as well as sound. When a star is approaching us the light waves that we 
receive from it come to us a little more rapidly than they would if the star was still, and 
this causes each ray of the light to be a little more refracted by the prism in the spectro- 
scope. Thus the lines in the spectrum of a star all appear to be shifted slightly toward the 
blue or toward the red according as that star is approaching us or receding; and the 
amount by which the sodium lines, for example, are displaced from the position they 
would have if the star was still, gives us a measure of the velocity of the star's motion in 
miles per second ; and this measurement can be made equally well whether we know the 
distance of the star, or whether it is buried hi unfathomable depths of space. Thus it has 
been ascertained that Sirius is receding from the sun with a velocity of 18 to 22 miles per 
second, and Castor with a velocity of 23 to 28 miles per second, while most of the stars of 
the great dipper are receding at from 17 to 21 miles a second. On the other hand, Arc- 
turus is approaching with a speed of 55 miles per second, Vega is approaching at the rate 
of -44 to 54 miles, a Cygni at 39 miles, Pollux at 49 miles, and a Ursm Majoris at from 46 
to 60. 

Not the least mteresting of the discoveries of the spectroscope is one made on our little 
neighboring world across the way. Mars. We knew long ago, that there was a liquid 
of some kind on Mars, for we could see fields of snow and ice, and mas.ses of clouds, but 
it was left for the spectroscope to show that that liquid is really water, such as we have 
here. 

Lastly, the spectroscope has opened up before us a vast amount of information con- 
cerning the structure and nature of matter, the only trouble being, that thus far no man 
has been found who is wise enough to understand what the spectroscope is trying to tell. 
There must be some reason in the nature of things, why each substance gives certain lines, 
particular lines peculiar to itself. Many of the lines that were at first thought to be sin- 
gle, have been found to be double or triple, or even to consist of a multitude of delicate 
parallel lines. Thus the line in the orange-yellow, due to sodium, is easily resolved into 
two parallel, equal lines. (The writer has seen these two lines so well separated in the 
spectrum of the sun that he could distinguish nine other exceedingly faint lines between 
them.) With care many other lines in the sodium spectrum can be seen, and in every 
instance they are double. The calcium spectrum contains many very beautiful triple 
lines, and the spectrum of nitrogen consists of a succession of lines distributed at very 
nearl)' uniform distances. Many physicists have attempted to explain the peculiar ar- 
rangement of the lines, but thus far they have met with very little success. It is plain to 
every one who has studied the subject that spectrum analysis is like a big storehouse, full 
of important discoveries, and before long we may find the key. Although the results of 
Wollaston's discovery are already marvelous, they are as nothing when compared with 
those that await us. 



112 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



Incorporated 
1866. 




Charter Per- 
petual. 



• Issues Policies of Insurance after a Carefnl Inspection of tlie Boilers. 



COVERING ALL LOSS OR DAMAGE TO 



BOILERS, BUILDINGS, AND MACHINERY. 

ALSO COVERING 

LOSS OF LIFE AND ACCIDENT TO PERSONS 

ARISING FROM 

Steam Boiler Explosions- 

Full information concerning the plan of the Company's operations can be obtained at the 

Or at any Agency. 



J. M. ALLEN, President. 
J. B. PIERCE, Secretary. 



W. B. FRANKLIN, Vice-Prest. 
FRANCIS B. ALLEN, 2d Vice-Prest. 



lioai'd. of 

J. M. ALLEN, President. 

FRANIv W. CHENEY, Treas. Cheney Brothers 

Silk ^lanufacturing Co. 
CHARLES M. BEACH, of Beach & Co. 
DANIEL PHILLIPS, of Adams Express Co. 
RICHARD W. H. .JARVIS, Prest. Colt's Fire Arms 

]\Ianufactaring Co. 
THOMAS 0. ENDERS, President of the U. S. Bank. 
LEVERETT BRAINARD, of The Case, Lockwood 

& Brainard Co. 
Gen. WM. B. FRANKLIN, late Vice-Prest. Colt's 

Pat. Fire Arms Mfs;. Co. 
Hon NATHANIEL SHIPMAN, Judge United 

States Circuit Court. 



I>ii*eotoi's. 

NEWTON CASE, of The Case, Lockwood & 

Brainnrd Co. 
NELSON HOLLISTER, of State Bank, Hartford. 
Hon. henry C. ROBINSON, Attorney-at-Law, 

Hartford. 
Hon. FRANCIS B. COOLEY, of the National 

Exchange Bank, Hartford, Conn. 
A. W. JILLSON, late Vice-Prest. Plioeuix Fire Ins. 

Co., Hartford, Conn. 
EDMUND A. S'l'EDMAN, Treasurer of the Fidelity 

Co., of Hartford, Conn. 
iCLAPP SPOONER, Bridgeport, Conn. 
GEORGE BURNHABI, Baldwin Locomotive Works, 
1 Philadelphia. 



GENERAL AGENTS. 

THEO. H. I>.ABCOCK, 
CORBIN & GOODRICH, 
LAWFORD & McIvIM, 

C. E. ROBERTS, 

H. D. P. BIGELOW, 

C. C. GARDINER, 

L. B. PERKINS. 

W. G. LINEBURGH & SON, 

GEO. P. BURWELL, 

MANN & WILSON. 

W. S. HASTIE & SON, 

G. A. STEEL & CO., 

FRIIH & ZOLLARS, 

C. J. McCARY & CO., 



CHIEF INSPECTORS 

R. K. McMTTRRAY, 
WM. G. PIKE 
•JOSEPH CRAGG, 

WM. U. FAIRBAIRN, | 

H. D. P.. BIGELOW, 
.T. S. WILSON, 
F. S. ALLEN, 
J. H. RANDALL, 
C. A. BURWELL, 
.T. B. WARNER, 
B. F. .JOHNSON, 
M. J. GEIST, 
T. E. SHEARS, 



OFFICES. 



New York City. 
Philadelphia. 
Baltimore, Md. 
Boston, Mass. 
Providence, R. L 
CmcAfio, III. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Hartford. 
Bridgeport. 
Cleveland. 
Sax Francisco. 
Charleston, S. C. 
Portland. Ore. 
Den\-er. Col 
Birmingham, Ala. 



Office, 285 Broadway. 

'* 430 Walnut St. 

" 22 So.HallidaySt. 

" 35 Pemberton Sq. 

" 29 Wevbosset St. 

" 112 Qui'ncy St. 

" 404 Market St. 

" 218 Main St. 
94 State St. 

" 208 Superior St. 

" 306 Sansome St. 

" 44 Broad St. 

" Opera House Block. 

" 2015 First Av. 



PUBLISHED BY THE HARTFORD STEAM BOILER INSPECTION AND INSURANCE COMPANY. 
New Series— Vol. X. HARTFORD, CONX., AUGUST, 1889. No. 8. 



On Fusible Plug's. 

The fusible plug is one of the most abused appliances to be met with around boiler 
rooms. It is so small, and in such an out-of-the-way position that there is great tempta- 
tion to let it take care of itself. Again, it is so seldom heard from that a fireman who is 
not very watchful is liable to forget about it. Yet when it is properly cared for the fusible 
plug is a most important safeguard. 

In the event of an explosion, too, it often furnishes valuable evidence concerning the 
immediate cause of the explosion. Thus, after the disastrous explosion at the Park Cen- 
tral Hotel in this city, described and illustrated in the March Locomotive, the fusible plug 
was found intact; and hy placing it in a retort and carefully ascertaining the melting point 
of the filling, it was easily shown that at the time of the explosion the water in the boiler 
was several inches over the tubes. That is, direct proof was obtained that the water in 
the boiler was not lower than it should have been. 




The "fu.sible" plug illustrated in this number of the Locomotive was found in a 
boiler in the South. The water in this boiler got low one day, and of course the fus- 
ible filling melted out and gave the alarm. The owner not having time to have it refilled, 
and not having another one on hand, drove a nail into it and went ahead as usual until 
the water got low a second time; when as the nail was not any more fusible than the 
boiler, both got red hot at the same time. Fortunately this caused such a leak around 
the nail that the escape of steam relieved the pressure somewhat, and the repairs cost 
only about seventy-five dollars. The boiler was 43 inches in diameter and eight feet 
long, with an internal flue used as a fire-box. The chances are that the owner will not drive 
any more nails into fusible plugs. 

We remember another instance, in which the fireman had driven an iron rivet into the 
plug in a similar manner. When we remonstrated with Inm he answered: "By gar, she 
do be melting out all the time." We told him if he would be more watchful of his water- 
line that would not happen, but he insisted that the water had never been low since he 
had been fireman. 

In Massachusetts the law concerning safety-plugs reads as follows: "No person 
shall manufacture, set up, use. or cause to be used, a steam boiler, unless it is pro- 
vided with a fusible safety-plug, made of lead or some other equally fusible material, 
and of a diameter of not less than one half an inch, placed in the roof of the fire- 
box, when a fire-box is used, and in all cases in a part of the boiler fully exposed to 
the action of the fire, and as near the top of the water-line as any part of the fire-surface 
of the boiler. . . . Whoever without just and proper cause removes from a boiler the 



^^4 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [August, 

safetj^-plug thereof, or substitutes therefor any material more capable of resisting the 
action of the fire than the plug so removed, shall be punished by fine not exceeding one 
thousand dollars. Whoever manufactures, sets up, or knowingly uses or causes to be used 
for six consecutive days a steam-boiler unprovided with a safety fusible plug. . . . shall 
be punished by fine not e.xceeding one thousand dollars." And it seems to us that it would 
be wise to have similar laws in all the States. 

When fusible alloys are used for filling safety -plugs it is found that their melting point 
is often considerably raised by long exposure to the heat. The exact cause of this lise in 
the melting point does not appear to be clearly known. It has been suggested that the. 
metals composing the alloy are gradually separated or crystallized out from one another by 
the prolonged action of heat. However this may be, it is certain that pure Banca tin is a 
much more reliable material to use for filling. As tin is an element its melting point 
remains constant, and it is low enough — 420° Fah. — to adapt it perfectly for use in 
fusible plugs. 

In order to prevent delay, in case a plug should melt out, all owners of boilers should 
see to it that extra ones are constantly kept on hand so that they can be put in place at 
short notice. 



Inspectors' Reports. 

June, 1889. 
During this month our inspectors made 4,695 inspection trips, visited 9,302 boilers, 
inspected 3,946 both internally and externally, and subjected 618' to hydrostatic press- 
ure. The whole number of defects reported reached 8.332, of which 700 were consid- 
ered dangerous; 26 boilers were regarded unsafe for further use. Our usual summary is 
given below : 

Nature of Defects. 
Cases of deposit of sediment, ... 

Cases of incrustation and scale, ... 
Cases of internal grooving, - - - - 

Cases of internal corrosion, - - - - 

Cases of external corrosion, - - - . 

Broken and loose braces and stays, ... 
Settings defective, . - - - . 

Furnaces out of shape, .... 

Fractured plates, . . . . . 

Burned plates, ..... 

Blistered plates, - . . - . 

Cases of defective riveting, .... 
Defective heads, ..... 
Serious leakage around tube ends, ... 
Serious leakage at seams, . . . . 

Defective water-gauges, .... 
Defective blow-offs, .... 

Cases of deficiency of water, ... 

Safety-valves overloaded, - ' - 
Safety-valves defective in construction, 
Pressure-gauges defective, .... 
Boilers without pressure-gauges, ... 
Unclassified defects, .... 

Total, 8,332 - - 700 



WTiole Number. 


DaugeroHS. 


499 


- 


20 


776 


- 


33 


55 


- 


6 


323 


. 


24 


738 


- 


44 


63 


- 


13 


176 


- 


16 


376 


- 


11 


189 


- 


89 


116 


- 


25 


240 


- 


21 


2,129 


. 


103 


55 


- 


23 


1,457 


- 


103 


401 


- 


67 


126 


. 


12 


62 


. 


24 


8 


- 


5 


45 


- 


12 


38 


- 


11 


340 


- 


35 


6 


- 


3 


115 


- 


1 



1889] THE LOCOMOTIVE. ^15 



Boiler Explosions. 

June, 1889. 

Lard Refinery (71). — A distressing accident occurred on June 6th, at the N. K. Fair- 
banks & Go's lard refinery, Hutchinson, Kan., by which tliree men were severely injured. 
The works were preparing to draw off the first lard refined at this place, and while General 
Manager J. L. Woods, together with George D. Lewis, superintendent of the St. Louis 
works, and John Garvin, a steam-fitter, were testing the heat of a steam lard vat, a terrible 
explosion occurred. The three men were standing directly over the vat, and were thrown 
to the ceiling above. Mr. Woods was slightly cut, and w^as scalded from head to feet and 
is in a very dangerous condition. Superintendent Lewis fared the worst of the three, for 
in' addition to being scalded in a most horrible manner he sustained a compound fracture 
of the ankle, and received two severe scalp wounds. Garvin was also terribly scalded. 
Physicians are doing everything to relieve the sufferers, but as yet are in doubt as to the 
recovery of Mr. Lewis. The others will get well. 

Iron-Works (73). — At Youngstown, Ohio, on June 10th, the mud drum in a boiler at 
the sheet mill of the Mahoning Valley Iron Company, which is located between the nail 
plate mill and the blast furnace, gave way, causing the boiler to explode and badly wreck- 
ing four other boilers in the battery. Joseph Robinson, the fireman, was instantly killed. 
He was thrown about 15 feet, and two large boilers were lodged across his body. The 
remains were badly mutilated. Robinson had gone on duty ten minutes before the acci- 
dent occurred. He leaves a wife and one child. William Edwards, the engineer, was 
injured by inhaling the escaping steam from the boilers. John McPherson was badly 
scalded on the back by hot water, but botli will recover. After the explosion the coal bin 
took fire and the fire department was called and extinguished the flames, preventing what 
might have been a serious conflagration. After the fire had been extinguished the blast 
furnace, which was about ready to run off its molten iron, broke out at the bottom, and 
after,mucli difficulty the fire department and mill employes succeeded in stopping the flow, 
and putting the fire out. The works will be idle for some time. 

Saw-Mill (73). — The boiler of a saw-mill situated on Loss Creek, five miles west of 
Middletown, Mo., exploded on June 11th, completely demolishing the building and ma- 
chinery. There were three men at work at the mill at the time, and all received injuries. 
Ben. Ogden, the proprietor, received a bad gash in the face, and another back of his ear. 
Joe Scotlander, a workman, had one leg broken and his back and head scalded. Another 
workman by the name of Moran was badly scalded on the hands and face, and was deeply 
gashed in the leg. The force of the explosion threw the engine some 60 yards away, over 
a wagon and team standing near. The engine and entire machinery are a total w reck. 

Experimental Boiler (74). — Harry and William Jesser, 15 and 17 years old respect- 
ively, were killed in Philadelphia on June 22d, by the explosion of an old range boiler, 
with which they were experimenting. They had connected it by lead pipe with a small 
engine, and were preparing to turn the crank of the family ice-cream freezer by steam 
power, when the boiler blew up with a tremendous report. Harry was thrown with 
great force against a fence and instantly killed. His legs and arms were broken and one 
side of his head was horribly crushed. William was thrown under a shed, and a flying 
brick evidently struck him in the head, fracturing the skull. Both his legs were fright- 
fully crushed. He was taken to the Pennsylvania Hospital, where he died in about an 
hour. Little Henry Kniese, who was watching the experiment from a shed, was cut under 
the eye, and Mrs. Flora Kniese was badly scalded about the back. 

Brewery (75). — At midnight on June 24th. a large horizontal tubular boiler exploded 
in the brewery of George Renner, Jr., Youngstown, Ohio, tearing the greater part of the 
plant to pieces, and shattering the windows in all the surrounding buildings. Charles 
Richter, the engineer, aged 50, was instantly killed, his face being mashed into a pulp, and 



116 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [August, 

his body frightfully mutilated. Carl Stalter, Michael Kelly, aud Thomas Reynolds, who 
were in the building at the time, were injured and taken to the hospital. It is reported 
that two other men are in the debris, and the bodies have not been recovered. The wreck 
took tire from the explosion. The loss is estimated at $50,000. A son of Mr. Renner left 
the building Ave minutes before the explosion, and thus escaped. 



The Prevention of Consumption. 

Drs. Prudden, Biggs, and Loomis having now presented their report on tuberculosis 
to the Board of Health of New York Citj-, it remains to be seen what action will be taken 
on it. This report was prepared at the express request of the Board, aud it is to be hoped 
that some action may be taken that will ultimately lessen the ravages of this terrible dis- 
ease. There is no other disease to which mankind is heir that is so widespread or that 
claims so many victims. "Cholera, yellow-fever, and small-pox — diseases that paralyze 
with fright entire countries — are exceedingly limited in their results," says Science, "in 
comparison with the slaughter of consumption. Last year Florida was panic stricken 
from the havoc of j^ellow-fever; but during the same year consumption destroyed more 
than twice as many lives in the little State of Xew Hampshire, and not a tremor ran 
through the bodj- corporate. The average annual death-rate in tliis country, from cholera, 
yellow-fever, small-pox, typhoid-fever, diphtheria, and scarlet-fever, all combined, does 
not reach the enormous total of deaths from consumption. It is time that some determined 
and systematic effort be made to lessen this disease, ^Ahich is now regarded hy so many as 
preventable. Among the general sources of infection there is one, at least, that should be 
removed, or, if not wholly removed, greatly lessened by legal action, and that is the sale of 
tuberculous food-products. Such foods, chiefly in the form of tuberculous meat and milk, 
particularly the latter, are undoubtedly extensively sold to unsuspecting consumers; and 
that the results are not infrequently lamentable, no sanitarian doubts.'' 

We are well aware that it is quite the fashion in these days to annoy the public with 
stories of germs and bacilli, and we realize that if any one were to heed the inuumelabie 
injunctions that are published every few days concerning what he should eat and drink, 
how his food should be cooked, and the manner in which he should live in order to escape 
inoculation by the germs of dreadful diseases, this world would be a very uncomfortable 
place. "We have no desire to add to this kind of literature; but, seriously, is it not proper, 
now that we know something about the worst disease to which we are liable, that we 
should take some elementary precautions against it? Listen to what the eminent doctors 
say in their report: "The disease known as tuberculosis, and, when affecting the lungs, 
as pulmonary tuberculosis (consumption), is very common in the human being, and in 
certain of the domestic animals, especially cattle. About one-fourth of all deaths occur- 
ring in the liviman being during adult life are caused by it, and nearly one-half of the 
entire population at some time in life acquires it. The disease is of the same nature in 
animals and in man, and has the same cause. It has been proved beyond a doubt that a 
living germ, called the ' tubercle bacillus,' is the cause, and the only cause, of tuberculosis. 
It does not seem necessarj- to state the facts upon which this asseition is based, for the 
observation first made by Robert Koch in 1882 has been confirmed so often and so com- 
pletely that it now constitutes one of the most absolutely demonstrated facts in medicine. 
Tuberculosis may affect any organ of the body, but most frequently it first involves the 
lungs. When the living germs find their way into the body they multiply there, if favor- 
able conditions for their growth exist, and produce small new growths or tubercles. The 
discharges from the tubercles, containing the living germs, are thrown off from the bod}'. 
In consimiption these discharges constitute part of the expectoration. The germs thus 
thrown off do not grow outside the living human or animal body, except under artificial 
conditions, though they may retain their vitality and virulence for long periods of time, 
e%'en when thoroughly dried. As tuberculosis can only result from the action of these 
germs, it follows, from what has just been said, that when the disease is acquhed it must 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. i±J 

result from receiving into tlie body the living germs that have come from Sf)me other 
human being, or from some animal affected with the disease. It has been al)uadantly 
established that the disease may be transmitted by meat or milk from the tubercular 
anlnuil. Boiling the milk, or thoroughly cooking the meat, destroys the germs. 

"Although the meat and milk from the tubercular animals constitute actual and 
inipoitant sources of danger, the disease is acquired, as a rule, through its communication 
from man to man. Consumption is commonly produced by breathing air in which the 
living germs are suspended as dust. The material which is coughed up by persons suffer- 
ing from consumption contains these germs, often in enormous numbers. It lodges 
frequently on the streets, floors, carpets, clothing, handkerchiefs, etc., and after drying it 
is very apt to become pulverized and float in the air as dust. It is plain, therefore, and it 
has been proven by direct experiments, that where there are cases of consumption, under 
ordinary conditions the dust surrounding them often contain the 'tubercle bacilli,' and 
persons inhaling the air in which this dust is suspended may be taking in the living germs. 
It should, however, be distinctly understood that the breath of tubercular patients, and the 
moist sputum, received in proper cups, are not elements of danger, but only the dried and 
pulverized sputum. The breath and moist sputum are free from danger, because the 
germs are not disloflged from moist surfaces by drafts of air. If all discharges were 
destroyed at the time of exit from the bod}^ the greatest danger of communication from 
man to man would be removed. 

" The question of preventing consumption, therefore, resolves itself principally into the 
avoidance of tubercular meat and milk and the destruction of the discharges, especially of 
the sputum. As to the first means of communication, those measures of prevention alone 
answer the requirements which embrace the governmental inspection of dairy cows and of 
animals slaughtered for food, and the rigid exclusion and destruction of all those found to 
be tuberculous. For the removal of the second means of communication, i. e., the sputum 
of consumptive persons, the problem is simple when the patients are confined to their 
rooms or houses. Then wooden or pasteboard cups, with covers, should always be at 
band for the reception of the sputum. At least once a day, and oftener if neces.sary, these 
c\ips should be thrown with their contents into the fire. A cheap and efficient cup for this 
purpose is now on the market, and is supplied by the druggists. The disposition of the 
expectoration of persons who are not confined to their rooms or homes is a far more difla- 
cult problem. The expectoration certainly should not be discharged on the street, and the 
only practicable means for its collection seems to be in handkerchiefs, which, when soiled, 
should at the earliest possible moment be soaked in a five per cent, solution of carbolic 
acid, and then boiled and washed. Handkerchiefs thus soiled are exceedingl}' dangerous 
factors in distributing the bacilli; for, when the sputum becomes dry, it is easily separated 
in flakes from the cloth, and then soon bgcomes pulverized and suspended as dust. 

" It becomes evident from what has been said that the means which will most cer- 
tainly prevent the spread of this disease from one individual to another are those of scru- 
pulous cleanliness regarding the sputum. These means lie largely within the power of the 
affected individual. It is further to be remembered that consumption is not always, as 
was former]}' supposed, a fatal disease, but that it is in verj^ many cases a distinctly 
curable affection: and an individual who is well on the road to recovery may, if he does 
not with the greatest care destroy his sputum, greatli/ diminish his chances of recovery by 
se'f -inoculation." 

It must be admitted that matter of this kind docs not afford very agreeable reading, 
but we have given a very full abstract of the report because the subject, even if not pleas- 
ant, is of the highest possible importance. When once the principles advocated in this 
report are fully understood by the public, it ought not to be very difficult to rid ourselves 
to a great extent of this most terrible disease: for the preventives that the learned doctors 
have suggested are simple enough for any of us to put into operation, if we have friends or 
relatives so unfortunate as to be stricken. 

If we could only make a beginning in this matter, in a few years the number of 



118 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[August, 



afflicted ones would be so much lessened that the subsequent control of the disease would 
be comparatively easj-. We can liardly hope to exterminate it entirely, as we have exter 
miuated small pox, but we can certainly take a long step in that direction if we will all 
take hold tot^ether. 



Bracing" Boiler Heads. 

The accompanying tables will greatly facilitate the calculation of the number of braces 
required in a boiler that is to run under any given pressure. They contain the results of 
our experience on the subject, and can be relied upon to give perfectly satisfactory results. 

It has been shown by direct experiment that the tubes pos.sess sufficient holding power 
to amply stay the part of the head to which thej' are attached, and we ma}- safelj' consider 
that they will also possess sufficient staying power to take care of the head for say two 
inches aljove their upper surfaces. The flanges of the heads being securely united to the 
shell, and being also curved or dished, it may likewise be safely assumed that no braces 
need be provided for that part of the head which lies within three inches of the shell. The 
part to be braced, therefore, consists of a segment of a circle whose circumference lies 
three inches within the circle of the shell, and whose base is two inches above the upper 
row of tubes. 

Thus in a 66-inch boiler, whose upper row of tubes is 26 inches below the top of the 
shell, the part of the head that requires bracing consists in a segment of a circle the diame- 
ter of which is 60 inches, and the height of which is 21 inches: 21 inches being the meas- 
ured heighth (26 in.) minus the 3 inches that lies between the shell and the segment to be 
braced, and minus the two inches that lies between this segment and the top of the tubes. 
The area of such a segment is easily found by means of the table given in the Locomotive 
for December, 1886, on p. 184. Thus 2lH-60 = .350 and opposite .350 in the table we find 
0.24498. Then 60x60x0.24498=882 square inches, the area in question. 

TABLE I. AREAS TO BE BRACED (Square Inches). 



Height 




♦e 


aiAMETER OF BOILER 


IN INCHES. 






Height 


FROM Tubes 
















FROM Tubes 


TO Shell. 


3G" 


42 " 


48" 


54" 


60" 


«6" 


72" 


TO Shell. 


15 ' 
Hi 


206 
235 














15" 
16 


17 


264 


297 












17 


18 
19 




331 
366 


365 

401 


396 • 
439 








18 
19 


20 

21 




401 


444 

485 


483 
528 


519 
568 






20 
21 


22 






526 


574 


618 






22 


23 
24 








620 
667 


668 
720 


714 
769 




23 
24 


25 
26 








714 
761 


772 
834 


825 

882 


937 


25 
26 


27 








809 


877 


940 


998 


27 


28 
29 










930 
983 


998 
1,056 


1.061 
1,124 


28 
29 


30 
31 










1,037 


1,115 
1,174 


1,187 
1,252 


30 
31 


32 












1,234 


1,317 


82 


33 
34 














1,382 
1,447 


33 
34 



1889.] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE, 



119 



In Tal)le I this calculation has been made for all the sizes of boilers that are ordinarily 
met with. The area to be braced has been calculated as above in each case, the two inch 
strip above the tubes and the three-inch strip around the shell being taken into account. 
As an example of its use, let us suppose that upon measuring a boiler we find that its 
diameter is o4 inches, and that the distance from the upper tubes to the top of the shell is 
25 inches. Then by looking in the table under 54" and opposite 25" we find 714, which is 
the number of square inches that requires staying on each head. 

In case the measured height from the tubes to the shell is not an exact number of 
inches we may either call it the nearest ^even inch and take out the area as before, or we 
may proceed as in the following example: Ex. What is the area to be braced in a boiler 
72 inches in diameter, the distance from the top of the shell down to the upper row of 
tubes being 31^^ inches'? For 31 inches the table gives 1,253, and for 32 inches it gives 
1,317. The difference between these is 65, and one-quarter of 65 is 16, which is the 
amount to be added to 1,252, on account of the measured heighth being 31|- inches instead 
of 31 in. Then 1,253 + 16-1,268 sq. in., which is the area to be braced in this case. 



TABLE II. NUMBER OF BRACES REQUIRED, AT 100 LBS. PRESSURE. 



Height 






DIAMETER 


OF BOILER 


IN INCHES 






Height 


















FROM Tubes 


TO Shell. 


3G" 


42" 


48" 


54" 


60" 


66" 


72" 


TO Shell. 


15" 
10 


3.5 
4 














15" 
16 


17 
18 


4.5 


5.0 
5.6 


6.3 


6.7 








17 
18 


19 
20 




6.3 
6.8 


6.9 
7.5 


7.5 

8.3 


8.9 






19 
20 


21 
22 






8 2 
8.9 


9.0 
9.8 


9.6 
10.5 






21 
22 


23 
24 








10.5 
11.3 


11.3 
13.3 


13.1 
13.1 




23 
24 


25 

2G 








13.1 
13.9 


13.1 
14.0 


14.0 
15.0 


15.9 


25 
26 


27 

28 








13.7 


14.9 
15.8 


16 
16.9 


16.9 

18.0 


27 

28 


29 
30 










16.7 
17.6 


17.9 
18.9 


19.1 
30.3 


29 
30 


81 
32 












19.9 
21.0 


31.3 
22.4 


31 
32 


33 
34 














23 5 
24.6 


33 
34 



Table II will be found of more practical use than Table I, for it gives directly the 
number of braces required in any given boiler, instead of the area to be braced. It was 
calculated from Table I. The iron used in braces will safely stand a continuous pull of 
7,500 lbs. to the square mch, which is the figure used in designing braces in this office. A 
round brace au inch in diameter has a sectional area of .7854 of an inch, and the strain 
that it will safely withstand is found by multiplying .7854 by 7,500, which gives 5,890 lbs. 
as the safe w^orking strain on a brace of one-inch round iron. 

In a 60inch boiler, whose upper tubes are 38 inches below the shell, the area to be 
braced is, according to Table I, 930 square inches. If the pressure at which it is to be run 
IS 100 lbs. to the square inch, the entire pressure on the area to be braced will' be 93.000 
lbs. , and this is the strain that must be withstood by the braces. As one brace of inch 



d20 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [August, 

round iron will safely stand 5,890 lbs., the boiler will need as many braces as 5,890 is 
contained in 93,000, which is 15.8. That is, 16 braces will be required. The table is made 
out on the basis of 100 lbs. pressure to the square inch, because that is a very convenient 
number to calculate from. If the actual pressure in the foregoing example was only 60 
pounds instead of 100, only six-tenths as many braces would be required: six-tenths of 
15.8 is 9.48, which we will call 10 in order to be on the safe side. In this way Table II 
was calculated: i. e., by multiplying each number in Table I by 100 and dividing by 5,890. 
As an example in the use of Table II let us take the following: How many braces of 
inch round iron are required to stay the head of a 72-inch boiler, the distance from the top 
of the shell down to the tubes being 29| inches, and the allowable pressure being 75 lbs ? 
Ans. Under 73 and opposite 29 we find 19.1 ; under 72 and opposite 30 we find 20.2. The 
difference between these is 1.1, half of which is .6, which being added to 19.1 gives 19.7, 
which is the number of braces that would be required if 100 lbs. were the allowable press- 
ure. For a boiler on which only 75 lbs. are allowed, -^-^^ of this number of braces will be 
sufficient, — that is, y^^y (or three-quarters) of 19.7, which is 14 8. Hence 15 braces will be 
sufficient on a boiler of this size and design, running at a pressure not exceeding 75 lbs. to 
the square inch. • 

The Sahara. 

Across the Atlantic, on the African Continent begins a series of deserts which extend 
with little interruption to the boundaries of China. The first of these is the greatest 
desert in the world, known under the name of Sahara or Zahara. The Arabian geogra 
pliers were the first to apply the name. These writers also. called it Sahara-belama, or the 
"waterless waste," or Sahara ul-aski, the "complete waste." Beginning at the Atlantic 
Ocean, this desert extends eastward for a distance of 3,100 miles, broken only by the oases 
formed by the Nile, and reaching to the Red Sea. The average width is six hundred miles, 
so that it is equal in area to two-thirds of Europe. It has but one season, that of summer, 
iburning and merciless. While the mean altitude is estimated at two thousand feet, there 
lis one part near the northern boundary one hundred and sixty-five feet below the level of 
the Mediterranean, and other places on the south and east where the ground rises into 
plateaux and mountains of sandstone and granite, reaching an elevation of six thousand 
feet and more. In the center stands the mountain Djebel-Hoggar, the top of which is 
covered with snow three months of the year, while from December to March its sides are 
furrowed by streams which flow some distance and are lost in the sand. This group of 
mountains forms the dividing line between the eastern desert, or Sahara proper, and 
the western portion, known as the Sahel. "The Sahel," says Reclus, "is very sandy. 
Throughout the greater part of its extent the soil is composed of gravel and large-grained 

:sand, which does not give way even under the foot of the camel." Sometimes it forms 
hills heavy enough to resist the action of the wind, but in other cases it is so fine and small 
that the constantly blowing trade winds carry it in clouds to the southwest, encroaching 
upon the channels of the Niger and Senegal, and driving them from their courses. At the 
wdst it also encroaches upon the ocean, forming such extensive banks that the Arabs who 

.go to collect the waifs and strays from wrecked vessels can safely venture out several miles 
from shore. It is also stated that at times the sand so fills the air several miles out at sea 

■that the weather seems hazy. Parts of the desert on the east are sandy also, but the main 
portion is occupied by plateaux of rock or clay, or groups of mountains. 

Scattered in long lines over the desert are numbers of oases, little tracts of land 
watered by springs of water which gush out of the ground or descend from some groups 

• of mountains. Here date palms, apricots, peaches, and other fruits ripen, and caravans stop 

.for rest and refreshment. Every speck of space is utilized, the huts being built on the 
most unproductive spots. Date palms supply the greater part of the food of men, camels, 

.horses, and dogs. 

Immense tracts exist where these oases are not found. Here the path taken by the 

< caravan follows a straight line to its destination. Sometimes the faint foot marks are cov- 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 121 

ered with sand, and then the compass, an occasional hill, a bush, and often a heap of 
bones indicates the way. Vegetation is rare. Those plants that exist at all are spiny or 
aromatic. Wormwood, thistles, and the thorny mimosa are the principal kinds. Ants, 
scorpions, lizards, and vipers constitute the animal life. Flies accompany the caravan for 
a few days, but are soon killed by the heat, and even the flea finds it impossible to e.xist. 
Radiation from the white or red sand dazzles the eye, and all nature looks somber. The 
mirage displays cities, palaces, groves of palms, lakes and streams of water with a vivid- 
ness scarcely to be credited. When the wind blows, the face and body are beaten by 
grains of sand which prick like needles. The wells scattered over the desert are some- 
times good, sometimes bad, generally the latter. Sometimes the wells fail or are missed 
by the guides, and then each drop of water is guarded as a jewel of untold price. 

Although terrible stories are told of whole caravans and whole armies being over- 
whelmed by the sand, and though the bleaching bones of men and camels often line the 
track of caravans for miles, generally speaking companies led by experienced guides, and 
protected by treaties from the depredations of tribes through whose country they pass, 
arrive safely at their journey's end. They experience little suffering except that caused by 
the bad water, the excessive heat of the day, and the cold of night. The air being so 
entirely destitute of aqueous vapor causes excessive radiation from the soil as soon as 
night sets in, so that burning days are followed by cold nights. Not a year passes without 
ice forming on the ground, and white frosts are frequent. A difference of 129° Fah. has 
been observed between the lowest (24° Fah.) and the highest (153° Fah.) temperature, and 
the real difference between extremes of heat and cold is estimated at 144° Fah. 

The eastern portion of the desert, known to the Arabs as the Atmoor, is the ideal 
desert. "This," says General Colston, "consists mainly of hard gravel plains, diversified 
by zones of deep sand, rocky ridges, sometimes of considerable altitude, and rugged 
defiles. It is absolutely destitute of all vegetation, and consequently of animal life. 
Only the ostrich and hyena cross it .swiftly by night, and the vulture hovers over the cara- 
vans by day. Not a tree, not a bush, not a blade of grass, relieves the glare of the sun- 
light upon the yellow sand." " Within the limits of Egypt and the Soudan these desolate 
atmoors extend over three-quarters of a million of square miles, never trodden by the foot 
of man. Only a few caravan trails cross them in their narrowest part, with scanty wells 
at long intervals, and the necessities of trade can alone account for their being penetrated 
at all. They are like oceans, where caravans pass each other in haste, like vessels at sea. 
The marches are perfect! j^ terrible, and j'et it is worse to halt during the day than to keep 
in motion, for the heat makes sleep or rest impossible even under canvas. . . . The air 
that blows feels as if it had just passed through a furnace or a brick kiln. Over the plain 
it quivers visibly in the sun, as if rising from a red-hot stove, while the mirage mocks your 
senses with the most life-like images of lakes, ponds, and rippling waters." 

Tlie Nile valley may be considered as nothing else than a long oasis in the midst of 
the desert. The life of this oasis is the Nile, which after centuries of speculation and 
exploration has had its secret wrested from it. For a distance of seventeen hundred miles 
above the delta, the river receives no tributaries. At this point two streams, the White 
and the Blue Nile, join to form the main stream. The latter of the two has many 
branches having their sources in the mountain regions of Abyssinia. The heavy summer 
rainfall causes torrents to rush down the sides of hills and mountains, carrying great 
quantities of soil with them. The White Nile, on the other hand, has its source in the 
great Victoria Nyanza, lying under the equator. The arable land of Egypt covers an 
area of about ten thousand square miles, which is made to support seven or eight million 
people. Where the irrigating waters cease the desert begins, and its limit is as sharply 
marked as a gravel walk across a greensward. From the eastern side of the Nile the 
desert extends without interruption to the shores of the Red Sea, and across this begins 
the great Arabian Desert, a tract not well defined, and but little known. — Joseph F. James, 
in Scientific American, Svpplement. 



122 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [August, 




HARTFORD, AUGUST 15, 1889. 
J. M. Allen, Editor. A. D. Risteen, Associate Editor. 

The Locomotive can he obtained free by callivg at any of the company's agencies. 

Subscription price 50 cents per year when mailed from this office. 

Bound vohimes one dollar each. 

Papers that borrow cuts from us will do us a favor if they will plainly mark them in returning, 
so that we may give proper credit on our books. 

When the Hartfoid Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company was organized, 
twenty odd years ago, the business of insuring steam boilers was new to this country. 
At first the public was inclined to treat it as a sort of innocent joke, but gradually they 
began to appreciate the benefits to be derived from it, and now it is universally acknowl- 
edged that boilers need to be insured fully as much as houses and factories. Not only 
have the people of the United States come to realize this fact, but even in Canada tlie 
people have arrived at the same conclusion, and a native Canadian company, with its 
headquarters in Toronto, has been in business for several years. There are numerous 
companies and associations in Europe, organized for the same purpose, and in the next 
issue of the Locomotive we hope to review some of tbem and indicate the differences 
between the methods of conducting the business in Europe and in this country. 



At St. John, N. B., a carnival was recently held to commemorate the union of what 
were formerly the two cities of St. John and Portland, N. B. The particularly inter- 
esting thing about the festivities was the exhibition of electrical devices, most of which 
were furnished by American companies. New Brunswick covers a large area, yet it is so 
little known among our people that although it forms the eastern boundary of Maine, and 
would naturally attract attention from that fact, few hear it spoken of without thinking 
at once of the city by that name in New Jersey. Yet the people of New Brunswick are 
alive and awake, Mr. Charles Dudley Warner notwithstanding; and now that all parts of 
the province are so easily accessible our merchants and manufacturers should keep an eye 
open in that direction. New Brunswick now has more miles of railroad, in proportion to 
her population, than any of our States, and more, it is said, than any other country in the 
world. Her people know us and respect our abilities, and we fancy that if a little more 
attention were paid to them the market that she offers us would be more profitable. 



Fou some time past we hnve noticed in the papers a discussion of somebody's dis- 
covery of a way to keep a fire going without using up coal. Now we do not see how 
any one, in these days, can cling to such a delusion as that, or even give it sober considera- 
tion. Experience has pretty solidly established the fact that you can't get something from 
nothing, no matter whether the something that you want is heat, light, electricity, money, 
or potatoes. Perpetual motion men have been of some service to us by piling up experi- 
mental evidence of this fact, and it is about time that we accepted it and made it one of 
our guiding principles. 

We will not describe the new "discovery" in detail, partly because it is not worth it, 
and partly because most of our readers have already read all about it. But we want to 
say that it might be possible to "burn" our atmosphere if we could only persuade the 
oxygen and nitrogen in it to combine. These two elements do comlnne with one another 
under suitable conditions, and several oxides of nitrogen are familiar to the chemist; but, 



1889.] ' THE LOCOMOTIVE. 123 

fortunately for us that have to breathe the air in its present state, nitrogen is a very inert 
substance, and has but little aiTinity for oxygen or for anything else. It is to the ease with 
which nitrogen compounds decompose that we owe the explosive properties of gunpowder, 
uitro-glycerine, gun-cotton, and that most explosive of all substances, chloride of nitrogen. 
In fact, it appears to be neccssar}'', in order to make nitrogen combine directly with oxy- 
gen, to pass through the mixed gases a stream of electric sparks; and it will, we conceive, 
be several years before the saw mills of our land are supplied with induction coils, con- 
densers, and other suitable laboratory apparatus, to enable them to burn the air. 



A Boiler of To-day. 

A few daj^s ago we saw a boiler that is worth more than passing mention. It belongs, 
now, to a saw-mill; but as it is placed outside the mill and blocked up in position by logs 
and bits of wood, the appearances indicate that the proprietor has some misgivings as to 
the length of time that his boiler is going to stay with him. 

Running from the dome to the mill is a steam pipe, jacketed only by the accumulated 
rust of several winters. The pipe not being long enough for one length to reach from the 
boiler to the mill, there is a joint in it ; and that joint is a study. One of the lengths of 
pipe is a little larger than the other, so that a sort of telescope joint is formed, the packing 
for which is composed of chips driven in tightly all around. Of course the leakage of 
steam at this joint is almost as great as the flow througli the pipe itself. 

There was neither safet}'-valve nor pressure-gauge attached to this wonderful boiler; 
and we looked for a glass water-gauge in vain, though we did find two try-cocks in a 
somewhat dilapidated condition. Some day or other — probably not very far away in the 
future — this boiler will rebel, and another "mysterious explosion " will go on record. 



The Reversibility of Nerves. 

When any portion of a person's body comes in contact with anything, the nerves that 
run to that portion of the body are thrown into a state of disturbance, the intensity of which 
depends on the violence with which the contact was made. This disturbance (the exact 
nature of which we do not know) passes up along the nerve until it reaches the brain, 
when we become conscious of it. About all we know about this wave of disturbance is 
that it travels with a velocity of onlj- about 90 feet a second, so that if a weight should fall 
on the foot of a man 6 feet tall it would be l-15th of a second before he would know he 
was hurt. 

The impulses that are sent out by the brain to the muscles travel by different paths, 
known as motor nerves ; and these are distinguishable in appearance from the sensory 
nerves. It will be seen, therefore, that each nerve has one particular direction in which it 
transmits the wave of nervous disturbance, and it occurred to a Frenchman, 'SI. Bert, to 
discover whether nerves would be capable of transmitting impulses in the opposite direc- 
tion if the}- could be turned end for end. To test the question he secured a rat, and after 
removing the skin from the tip of its tail and from a small spot on its back, he sewed the 
two together. After it had taken root in its new position he cut it off close to its original 
point of insertion. The rat now wore a tail reversed in position, the former tip being the 
root. After some time he found that the new tail was sensitive, which showed that the 
nerves of sensation can carry impulses in either direction. 

Dr. Koch recently performed the same experiment on forty rats. In thirty cases the 
tails united satisfactorily with the body, but never, even eight months later, was any sen- 
sation present in the new appendage. However, if M. Bert is a reliable observer — and we 
have not the slightest reason to doubt that he is — the failure of Dr. Koch does not affect 
the conclusion. One positive experiment of this kind is worth tliousands whose results are 
merely negative. 



■124 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [August, 

The EflBciency of Heat Eng-ines. 

A few months ago we called attention to the fact that tlie formula for efficiencj', so 
often quoted and called Carnot's, in reality is not Carnol's at all, it having been first stated 

T —To 
by Clausius. We refer to the expresion t +461^° ' '^'^^ great discovery that M. Sadi Car- 

not did make is that the efficiency of a perfect heat engine does not depend upon the par- 
ticular substance whose expansion docs the work. He announced, that provided the 
engine is perfect in every way, its efficiency depends solely upon the two temperatures, Tj 
and Tg, between which it works; but in what manner it depends on them he did not know. 

It is natural to ask why he did not discover the formula itself, when he came near 
enough to it to see that one could be found, and that when it was found its value would 
depend in some way on the two temperatures between which the engine is to work. The 
answer is, that the calculation was much more difficult for him, with 'his conceptions of 
matter, than it is for us with our conceptions. A perfect gas — that is, one that exactly 
obeys the laws of Mariotte and Gay Lussac, and whose two specific heats are constant — 
was not a possible thing, according to the principles that Carnot held. In fact, he had dem- 
onstrated, as he thought, that the specific heat of a gas, instead of being constant as we 
now know it to be, must increase in proportion to the volume that the gas occupies. The 
principles that Carnot believed in, and those that are accepted by phj-sicists to daj', are in 
direct opposition to one another. When a gas passes through a cycle, Carnot believed that 
it takes up as much heat in the second part of the cycle as it gives up in the fir.st part. 
We no longer believe this ; we believe that the difference is very appreciable, and that it is 
proportional to the work performed during the cycle. 

M. Bertrand has recently undertaken the task of imagining himself in Carnot's posi- 
tion, and then deducing the formula that Carnot would have found had he pushed his 
investigations further. It will not be necessary for us to give the argument by which he 
demonstrated his result to the French Academy of Sciences, though it is in itself highly 
interesting, being as ingenious a piece of mathematical work as we ever remember having 
seen. It will suffice to say that he finds that the efficiency of a perfect heat engine is pro- 

T, -f461o 
portional to the logarithm of ■y +4ft]o - This formula, rigorously deduced from the prin- 
ciples that Carnot held to be true, is very different from that which we now hold to be 
correct. 

Carnot's great stumbling block was his belief that heat is a substance, and when that 
belief was done away with, it was so simple a matter to deduce the formula now known as 
Carnot's, that Prof. Clausius was too modest to attach his own name to it. 



Great Discoveries and Innovations of the Past Sixty Years. 

II. Evolution. 

We do not wish to approach the subject of evolution in the attitude either of an 
opponent or an advocate. The truth or untruth of a great principle like this can only 
be determined by long study of the facts, and all that we hope to do in this article is to 
present the subject in such a manner that those of our readers who have not already 
looked it up can form a clear conception of what the believers in evolution really claim 
for u. 

It will be well to bear in mind that there are great and honest differences of opinion 
among naturalists and others on this subject. No one, for instance, will question the vast 
knowledge of Prof. Huxley, concerning animals and plants, nor will any be disposed to 
doubt the accuracy or the extent of Louis Agassiz's information in the same field; yet 
Huxley is one of the foremost disciples of Charles Darwin, and Agassiz was one of his 
warmest opponents. 

The doctrine of evolution, as taught by Darwin, may be said to vest upon four main 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. -[25 

facts, which are ascertained to be true by direct observatiou of Nature. The first of these 
facts is that among animals and plants there is a tendency for each species to piopairate 
itself in a sort of geometrical progression. For example, let us suppose that a single pair 
of rabbits, introduced into a new region by man, breeds eight others, all of which live and 
grow to maturity. After the death of the original pair there will be four pairs remaining; 
and we will assume that each of these breeds eight rabbits in the same manner. When the 
second generation has died there will be sixteen pairs still living. In the fourth generation 
there will be sixty-four pairs; in the fifth generation two hundred and ffty-six pairs; in the 
si.xth generation o/i« thousand and tirenty-four pairs; in the tenth generation tiro hundred 
and sixty-two thousand one hundred and forty-four. It will be easily seen from this that if 
this multiplication continued after a comparatively few generations the countiy would be 
entirely overrun with rabbits; and this is what has actually taken place in Australia. In 
our own country, too, we observe the same rapid multiplication in the case of the English 
sparrows. These were introduced only a few years ago. and now they number millions. 
The potato bug is another well-known example. Among plants the tendency is not .-o 
noticeab'.e, but yet abundant examples might be given of it. For instance, the writer has 
observed that a certain variety of clover that was new to us here only a short time ago. 
and was then highly prized by the botanist as a rare plant, has now become so common 
that specimens of it are to be found bj' almost every road-side. 

The second general fact that the theory rests upon, is that the food supply for the 
animals and plants about us cannot increase with the same rapidity. At first thought 
this statement does not appear to be true; for as animals usually feed upon things 
lower in the scale of creation than themselves, and as the fertility of lower organ- 
isms is observed to be greater than that of higher ones, it would seem that the food 
supply for any particular animal must increase faster than the animal itself. This prin- 
ciple, however, is not a sound one. Animals cannot live solely by eating one another any 
more than a community of men can get rich by simply trading with one another. 
Some animals will have to eat plants, and the plants that they eat must grow out of the 
earth: and as the earth can support only a limited amount of verdure, it follows that the 
food-supply of herbaceous animals is limited, so that the herbaceous animals cannot go on 
multiplying beyond a certain point without suffering from want of food. Therefore, the 
next higher animals, whose food these lower ones are, cannot go on multiplying indefi- 
nitely; and so on up the scale. 

This doctrine was once preached by Dr. Malthus, who taught that man himself is not 
an exception to- it. It would s^em, however, that man is an exception, for the reason that 
he does not live simply on the products of unassisted nature. He directs nature's opera- 
tions in such a manner as to make her yield him a supply of food adequate to his needs; 
and as the numbers of the race increase, the food-producing power of the race increases 
also, and in the same proportion. 

From the fact that animals and plants both tend to increase faster than their food 
supply, it follows that when a species reaches the point at which the supply of food is just 
equal to the demand, a '! struggle for existence " begins. In the next generation there will 
be more individuals than can be properly nourished by the food that is available. Now, it 
is a matter of observation that in such a case some individuals get more than their pro- 
portional share of nourishment, and accordingly thrive better than their less fortunate 
neighbors. Being better nourished they will naturally be stronger and more healthy; and 
if any of the species die of starvation it will not be they. The better fed animals, too, 
will be better able to elude their enemies; while the weaker ones will be captured and 
devoured. One writer facetiously but accurately says, "the swiftest men caught 
the most animals, and the swiftest animals got away from the most men." As a general 
rule the " struggle for existence " is not only among individuals of the same species, but 
between different species that live in the same locality. For example, there are many 
plants that may be successfully cultivated in countries to which they are not indigenous, 
provided the plants that are indigenous are not allowed to come into competition with 



•126 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [August, 

them. Weeds in a garden are a great source of annoyance to the gardener, because they 
grow -with such rapidity that they speedily overtop the plants that he is trying to raise, 
and cut off from tliem the warmth and light without which they cannot grow. 

The term " struggle for existence," as used by evolutionists, is often misunderstood by 
the public at large; for the phrase naturally suggests a visible and desperate combat 
between creatures endowed with motion. It is, however, applied to the quiet rivalry 
between plants, as well as to that between animals; and it is hoped that what has been 
said will show, after a little reflection, that the "struggle for existence" may be fierce and 
decisive, and yet not violent. One species may be mercilessly exterminating another 
without the fact being apparent to any, but the experienced eye. 

The next point to be observed is that in the struggle for existence the individuals that 
succeed do so because they are in some way fitted for success. If five plants start to 
grow in a space that can support only four, the one that dies will die because it cannot 
keep pace with its neighbors in extending its roots, in growing up into the sunlight, or in 
some other way. It dies because it is not so well adapted to the environment — not so 
well fitted to survive. From this illustration the meaning of the phrase "survival of the 
fittest" may be inferred. "The fittest" does not mean the most desirable or the most 
useful; the "fittest" individuals are those that are most nearly adapted to survive in the 
environment in which they subsist. Weeds exterminate potatoes, not because they are 
more useful to man, but because they are more vigorous and more adapted to take care of 
themselves. The usefulness of the anim il or plant has nothing to do with the case. 

We have seen that the tendency of animals and plants is to multiply faster than the 
means of subsistence, and that this results in a "struggle for existence," in which the 
"fittest" will survive. It is evident that the survival of the fittest may arise from other 
causes than inadequacy in the food suppl}', for a hard winter, or a long season of dryness, 
or any other unusual happening in nature will necessarily single out the animals and 
plants that are least adapted to survive. 

The gradual elimination of the weakest organisms and the survival of the fittest, 
whatever be the cause of the process, is called "natural selection "; since it is a selection 
performed by natural causes. 

It will be seen that the process of "natural selection" ensures the existence of the 
strongest and healthiest individuals of each species; and it is plain that the "fitness," of 
whatever kind it is, that ensures the survival of any given individual, consists in some 
physical superiority of that individual over its fellows. Now it is a known fact that 
peculiarities of all kinds tend to be inherited from the par^t to offspring, and hence it is 
that the fourth and last point for us to consider in the chain of evolution is heredity. 
Instances might easily be given of the most minute peculiarities being transmitted from 
one generation to another in this way, and no doubt many such instances will occur to the 
reader; and he should remember that the traaismitted peculiarities that he has noticed are 
external only, and that there are also peculiarities in the internal organs and hence in the 
microscopic and the chemical constitution of each individual, and that these peculiarities 
may also be transmitted by hei'edity from parent to offspring. The offspring of the 
" fittest " of one generation may therefore be supposed to inherit in some degree the 
peculiarities that enabled their parents to survive; and it may also be supposed that they 
will themselves possess qualities of "fitness" that will aid them in their struggle for exist- 
ence. The peculiarities in structure thus exercised and inherited will m time become more 
and more marked, and will finally become distinct features of the species. 

It should be remembered, in considering this process, that those that possess the ad- 
vantageous peculiarities in the greatest degree will be best fitted to survive ; and that 
when these individuals come into competition with others possessing the same peculiarities 
but in a different degree, the survivors will always be those that possess the advantageous 
peculiarities in the most marked degree. There will therefore, under all circumstances, 
be a constant tendency toward the development of these peculiarities, until, as has been 
said, they become distinct features of the species. 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 127 

The whole argument, as represented in this article, may be included in the following 
diagram : 

(1) (2) (3) (4) 

Geometric Propagation. Constant Supply of Food. " Survival of Fittest. " Heredity. 



Struggle for E.xistence.' 



Natural Selection." 



Evolution. 

The process here outlined is evolution in the true sense. It applies equally well to 
plants and to animals. It is, of course, impossible to review or even to meiuiou the evi- 
dence that has been gathered together to show that this process of evolution is in reality 
taking place around us now. The horticulturist, the dog-fancier, the stock raiser, and 
all who have to do with the modification and improvement of animals and plants, testify 
that the process we have described certainlj- takes place when the variations in individuals 
are properly watched for and suitable selections are made. Whether natural selection 
is adequate to produce the same or greater effects must be a matter of study and individual 
opinion. 

It will be seen from the foregoing that evolution tends, in general, to improve each 
species, and to raise it in the scale of development. It tends to preserve every peculiarity 
that is favorable to the species, and to blot out every one that is unfavorable. 

The great bones of contention among naturalists who discuss this subject, are the 
permanence and the magnitude of the improvements resulting from natural selection, and 
over these a vast deal of thought has been spent. Some admit that small changes are pro- 
duced by natural selection, but denj' that great and permanent changes can be; others 
boldly claim that the considerations herein set forth, together with other analagous ones 
that we have not the space lo consider, are adequate to explain the entire range in develop- 
ment that exists between the smallest anamalculum and man himself. Still others believe 
that all plant life, and all creatures except man, were developed in this way from some 
primitive and very simple form of life. 

It is proper to say in closing, that there are three stages in the process of producing 
man (admitting that he was produced in this way) that are unthinkable, even to so strong 
a believer in evolution as Mr. Alfred Russell Wallace. In the first place, it is impossible 
to conceive of an}' process by which an animate cell, however simple, could be produced 
from inanimate matter; and it is fair to say that Darwin appreciated this difficulty, and ad- 
mitted that he could not explain how \\\c first organism was produced. Secondly, it is im- 
possible to conceive how consciousness could have been evolved from non-conscious matter. 
Lastly, it is difficult to conceive how the tastes for mathematics, for chess, for music, and 
for other such things that we take pleasure in, but which cannot be supposed to directly 
promote our welfare, could have originated through natural selection. 



The late Mr. Miguel de CervantesSaavedra said, in Don Quixote, that honesty is the 
best polic^^ It is plain, therefore, that he was unfamiliar with the policies issued bj' the 
Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company ; for they have all the virtues 
that honesty has, and some others in addition. 



128 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



Incorporated 
1866. 




Charter Per- 
petual. 



Issues Policies of Icsurauce after a Careful Inspection of tie Boilers. 



COVERING ALL LOSS OR DAMAGE TO 



BOILERS, BUILDINGS, AND MACHINERY. 



ALSO COVERING 



LOSS OF LIFE AND ACCIDENT TO PERSONS 



ARISING PROM 



Steam Boiler Explosions. 

Full information concerning the plan of the Company's operations can be obtained at the 

Or at any Agency. 



J. M. ALLEN, President. 
J. B. PIERCE, Secretary. 



W. B. FRANKLIN, Viee-Prest. 
FRANCIS B. ALLEN, 2d Vice-Prest. 



of 



Cheney 



of The Case, Lockwood & 



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jNEWTON CASE, 
Brothers! Brainard Co. 

NELSON HOLLISTEi;, of State Bnnk, Hartford. 
Hon. henry C. liUBlNSON, Attornev-at-Law. 
Hartford. 

National 



DBoard. 

J. M. ALLEN, President. 
FRANK W. CHENEY, Treas. 

Silk Manufacturing Co. 
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RICHARD W. H..IARVIS, Brest. Colt's Fire Arms'HoN. FRANCIS B. COOLEY, of the 

Manufacturino- Co. I P'xchanire Bank, Hartford, Conn. 

THOMAS O. EXDERS, President of the U. S. Bank.'A. W. JILLSON, late Vice-Prest. PhcBnix Fire Ins. 
LEVERETT BRAINARD, of The Case, Lockwoodj Co., Hartford, dim. 

& Brainard Co. lEDMUNI) A. STEDMAN, Treasurer of the Fidelity 

Gen. WM. B. ERANKLIN, late Vice-Prest. Colt'si Co., of Hartford, Conn. 

Pat. Fire Arm> :\lfe. Co. iCLAPP Sl'OONER, Bridseport, Conn. 

Hon NATHANIEL SHIPMAN, Judge United GEORGE BURNHAM, I'.aldwin Locomotive Works, 

States Circuit Court. | Philadelphia. 



GENERAL AGENTS. 

THEO. H. HABrOGK, 
CORBIX& GOODRii-H, 
LAWFORI^ & McKLM, 

C. E. ROBERTS, 

H. D. P. BIGELOW, 

C. C. GARDINER, 

L. B. PERKINS. 

W. G. LINEP.IIRGH & SON, 

GEO. P. BURWi'>LL, 

MANN & WILSON. 

W. S. HASITE & SON, 

(}. A. STEEL & CO.. 

FRITH & ZOLLARS, 

C. J. McCARY & CO., 



CHIEF INSPECTORS 

R. K. ]\IcMURRAY, 
WM. G. PIKE 
JOSEPH CRAGG, 

WM. U. FAIRBAIRN, | 

H. D. P. BIGELOW, 
J. S. WILSON, 
F. S. ALLEN. 
J. H. RANDALL. 
C. A. BURWELL, 
J. B. V/ARNER. 
B. F. JOHNSON, 
M. J. GEIST. 
T. E. SHEARS, 



New York City. 
Philadelphia. 
Bai.timoke, ^Id. 
Boston, Mass. 
PKOVinENCE, R. I. 
Chicago, III. 
St. Loi'is. Mo. 
Hahtfokd. 
Bkidgepokt. 
Cleveland. 
San Francisco. 
Charleston, S. C. 
Portland. 'Ore. 
Denver, Col. 
Birmingham, Ala. 



OFFICES. 

Office, 285 Broadway. 

" 4.30 Wahuit St. 
'• 22 So.HallidaySt. 
" 35 Pemberton Sq. 

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" 112 Qui'ncvSt. 

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2015 First Av. 



Witt |[0r0m0tte. 



PUBLISHED BY THE HARTFORD STEAM BOILER INSPECTION AND INSURANCE COMPANY. 



New Series —Vol. X. HARTFORD, CONN., SEPTEMBER, 1880. 



No. f). 



On Pumps for Boiler Feeding". 

Our illustrations, this month, sliow two arrangements of pumps that were designed for 
boiler feeding by this company, and have now been in successful operation for a consider- 
able time by the Boston Duck Conijiany, Bondsville, Ma.ss., and the Otis Company, Ware, 
Mass., respectively. The particular difficulties that these systems were 
designed to overcome were as follows : In each case a large amount of water 
is used, and in order to run economically it was desired to return the drip 
from the various mills to the boiler room. This was attended with consider- 
able difficulty, as the boilers are higher than the points where the traps must 
be placed. A survey of the yards showed that certain points could be 
selected, though at considerable distances from the boiler houses, to which 



T 




Fig. 1. 

the drips could easily be returned ; and it was resolved to place the receiving tanks at 
these points. In order that the pumps might be flooded it was necessary to place them 
in the same pits with the tank, several hundred feet from the boilers ; and after some 
consideration it was decided to do this, and to arrange the pumps so that they might govern 
themselves automatically, and not need the personal attention of the firemen. 

Fig. 1 shows how this was accomplished at Bondsville. Into the tank, A, all the 
drips from the mills are discharged, by means of traps of our own design. The exhaust 
from the pump also discharges into the same tank. The water in tank A is maintained 
at a constant level by means of a governor, J, which controls a valve, H, in the feed 
pipe G. in the usual way. This governor communicates with the tank by means of the 
pipes shown, which are provided with cocks, L, and K, so that the governor may be shut 
off from the tank when desired. Within the tank the feed pipe is perforated as shown 
at V so that the incoming water may condense any steam it may come in contact with, 
and be itself heated thereby. A blow-off is provided at N. and a three-inch overflow 
pipe at P. which discharges surplus water into the blow off through R, and allows any 
uncondensed steam to escape through Q. 



d30 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[September, 



The pump, B, draws its supply from the tank through pipe D, and discharges through 
M, which passes to the boiler room. Steam to operate the pump enters through the pipe 

C, which is provided with a reducing 
valve, as shown, which serves to maintain 
the pressure on the steam end of the 
pump constantly at 3.5 pounds, which is 
indicated by the gauge E. The water 
pressure in pipe M is indicated at F. 

The operation of this sj'stem is very 
simple. If the attendant in the boiler- 
room shuts off all his valves, the pressure 
in the water pipe M immediately runs up 
to from 100 to 105 lbs., the steam and 
water cylinders of the pump being so 
proportioned that when this pressure is 
attained the water in M just balances the 
reduced steam pressure in C, and the pump 
can no longer run. It therefore remains 
motionless until a valve is opened some- 
where on the pipe M. Then, the pressure 
in M being relieved, the pump is no longer 
balanced ; the .steam pressure preponder- 
ates and the pump starts. This adjust- 
ment is so fine that if the attendant opens 
ip^^Bfi^il^ -a t I II ^i^ valve a single spoke the pump responds 

^^M- T^^m^ .„i__tiiifF^Bi^i_i 1 1 immediately, and moves so slowly that its 

motion can hardly be seen ; while if he 
opens all his valves wide the pump in- 
stantly starts at full speed. 

To prevent unpleasant rattling and 
pounding in the boiler-room a standpipe, 
S, is provided near the boilers, which acts 
as an air chamber and causes the whole 
to work smoothly and noiselessly. It 
happens occasionally, as for instance 
when the temperature of the boiler-feed is 
changed, that some of the air in S is 
absorbed or dissolved by the water, so 
that in time (say once in two or three 
months) pipe S becomes filled with water 
and ceases to act as an air chamber. In 
this case it is only necessary to stop the 
pump for a few moments and open the 
small cocks T and U. Water then runs 
out at U and air bubbles up through T 
into the chamber overhead. When suffi- 
cient air has entered the small cocks are 
closed and the system is ready for opera- 
tion once more. 

The plant at the Otis Company's mills 
is similar in principle, but somewhat more 
complicated in its details owing to the 
fact that a power pump is there used, in addition to a steam pump. The operation of 
this plant will be understood from Figs. 2 and 3, which are respectively an elevation 
and plan of the whole system. In these figures A is the tank for receiving the drips, 




1889.] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE 



131 



X is the governor ami II tlie valve that regulates the flow of water from the river into the 
tauli through the perforated pipe V. The power pump. B, has two fly-wheels, C and D, 
on one of which runs the driving belt. It draws water from the tank through pipe E, 
and delivers through GKL 
to the boilers. The steam 
pump, P, is provided with 
a reducing valve, Q, as in 
the plant previously de- 
scribed ; it draws its water 
from the tank through M 
and delivers it to the boil- 
ers through RRiL. At 
T a pipe is shown which 
runs through the mills and 
supplies water in case of 
fire or other emergencies. 
Valves are provided at S 
and N that allow the 
steam pump to be shut 
off entirely if desired, and 
similar valves, H and F, 
are provided for the power 
pump. 

The action of these 
combined pumps is as fol- 
lows : The power pump, 
B, runs continuously, 
while the machinery is in 
motion, and it is ample 
in size to supply all the 
ordinary wants of the 
boilers. In case the de- 
mand for water is less 
than the supply that this 
pump affords (which is 
frequently the case), the 
surplus passes back to the 
tank A through a relief 
valve, J, which is set to 
open at 115 pounds water 
pressure. Under these 
circumstances the steam 
pump, P, remains motion- 
less; for the steam press- 
ure in it is kept constantly 
at from twenty-four to 
twentj'-five pounds by 
means of Q, which cor- 
responds to a pressure in 
the water end of 105 
pounds, so that it is im- 
possible for this pump to start unless the pressure in KL falls to 105 pounds or less — that 
is, it is impossible for it to start while the demand for water does not exceed the capacity 
of the power pump. 

To follow the action of the pumps, let us first suppose that all the valves in the boiler- 




132 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [September, 



room are closed. Thea the pressure iu the main, KL, rises at once. As soon as it 
readies 115 pounds the rehef valve, J, opens, and after that the entire delivery of 
the power pump passes through J and W and back into the tank A. Now let us 
suppose tliat the belt on the power pump breaks. Immediately the delivery of this 
pump ceases, and the valve J closes. The pressure in the main, KL, is now 115 lbs., and 
both pumps are motionless. Now suppose an attendant iu the boiler-room opens a feed 
valve there, the pressure in the boiler being only 80 lbs., water begins to flow from the 
main into the boiler; but this reduces the pressure in the main, KL, which pressure, at the 
time of opening the valve in the boiler-room, was 115 lbs. The moment that this pressure 
falls below 105 lbs., however, the steam pump, P, ceases to be balanced: the steam pressure 
preponderates over the water pressure, and the pump starts with a velocity proportional to 
the demand for water, the working of this pump, from this moment on, being exactly the 
same as the working of the pump shown in Fig. 1. 

Now let us go back to the beginning once more, and suppose that the belt on the 
power pump does not break, but that the demand for water, owing to a fire breaking out 
or to any other cause, suddenly increases, so that pump B can no longer supply it. The 
pressure in KL then decreases as before, the relief valve, J, closes, the steam pump, P, 
starts up the moment the pressure in KL falls to 105 lbs., and both pumps run together, 
the power pump at a uniform speed and the steam pump at a variable speed, depending on 
the amount of water that is wanted. 

When night comes on the power pump of course stops at six o'clock, and the steam 
pump at once starts automatically and takes its place; and at seven o'clock in the morning 
the power pump starts once more and the steam pump stops. 

In both of these plants pressure gauges are attached to the steam and water pipes, so 
that an occasional visit to the pump-room shows at once whether everytliing is working 
properl)^ or not. Both sj^stems also have an air-chamber in the boiler-room, as shown at S 
in Fig. 1; and it seems proper to say that in each case the pumps have worked smoothly 
from the outset, and to the entire satisfaction of everj'one. 

In order that the advantage in economj'^ that comes from returning the drips from the 
various pipes maybe appreciated, we would call attention to the following figures: The 
water in the tanks of these systems has a temperature of between 160° and 190° Fah. Now, 
one of tlie companies referred to in the beginning of this article uses five boilers constantly, 
and for these boilers and the dye-houses between 15,000 and 20,000 pounds of water are 
required per hour. To raise this amount of water from say 70° to 170°, as many heat units 
must be expended as would evaporate say 2,000 pounds of water per hour; that is to saj-, 
it would be necessarj' for this company to run six boilers instead of five, if the drips were 
thrown away. 

Inspectors' Reports. 

July, 1889. 
During this month our inspectors made 4,479 inspection trips, visited 9,680 boilers, 
inspected 4,732 both internally and externally, and subjected 622 to hydrostatic press- 
ure. The whole number of defects reported reached 9.841, of which 887 were consid- 
ered dangerous; 38 boilers were regarded unsafe for further use. Our usual summary is 
given below : 

Nature of Defects. 'Whole Number. Dangerous. 

Cases of deposit of sediment, . . . - 58.') - - 51 

Cases of incrustation and scale, . . . - 1,062 - - 78 

Cases of internal grooving. - - - - - 57- -14 

Cases of internal corrosion. ----- 352 - - 24 

Cases of external corrosion. - - - - - 739 - - 59 

Broken and loose braces and stays, - - - - 90 - - 31 

Settings defective, - - - - - - 243 - - 31 



1889.] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE, 



133 



/ Nature of Defects. 

Furnaces out of shape, 

Fractured plates, . - - 

Burned plates. 

Blistered plates, 

Cases of defective riveting, - 

Defective heads, . - - 

Serious leakage around tube ends, - 

Serious leakage at seams, 

Defective water-gauges, 

Defective blow-offs. 

Cases of deficiency of water, 

Safety-valves overloaded, 

Safety-valves defective in construction. 

Pressure-gauges defective. 

Boilers without pressure-gauges. 

Unclassified defects, 

Total, - - - - 



Whole Number. 


Dangerous. 


398 


- 


16 


195 


- 


56 


156 


- 


36 


351 


- 


18 


3,434 


- 


47 


73 


- 


15 


1,966 


- 


202 


394 


- 


31 


243 


- 


63 


82. - 


- 


35 


16 


- 


8 


56 


- 


16 


57 


- 


16 


315 


- 


44 


7 


- 


7 


81 


- 


4 



9,841 



887 



Boiler Explosions. 

July, 1889. 

Paper Mill (76). On July 3d, an immense upright steam bleaching vat in the Lyons 
Paper Mill, Lyons, Iowa, exploded, totally wrecking the building and killing two work- 
men — Thomas McBride and Alexander Hart. James Callahan, another workman, was 
fatally scalded. The damages to property are estimated at $15,000. 

Locomotive (77). A wash-out took place on the Norfolk & Western Railroad, thirty- 
one miles above Lynchburg, Va. , on July 3d, and a passenger train plunged into it while 
running at forty miles an hour. As the locomotive struck the bottom of the cut the 
boiler exploded. Debris was thrown in every direction, and firebrands were lodged 
among the coaches. Flames broke out and spread rapidly, and many were burned to 
death. Altogether eleven are known to have been killed, and it is said that eighty were 
injured. 

Threshing Engine (78). On Saturday, July 6th, the boiler of a threshing engine 
exploded at the ranch of J. M. Lewis, near Phoenix, Arizona. David Holman and Frank 
Opershaw were dangerously hurt. The separator was ruined and 80,000 pounds of grain 
were burned. 

Threshing Engine (79). On the morning of July 8th the boiler of a threshing engine 
owned by Simpson & Rubel and working at J. Parks' ranch, ten miles north of Marys- 
ville, Cal., blew up. Engineer Rubel and fireman Rogers narrowlj^ escaped with their 
lives. Rubel was badly scalded, and his injurj^ may prove fatal. 

Saw-Mill (80). James Raisen, colored, fireman in John H. Thawley's saw-mill, near 
Denton, Md., was instantly killed by a boiler explosion on July 9th. Rai,senwas found by 
Mr. Thawley after the disaster with his head jammed between two slabs. The engine was 
blown from its bed and fell thirty feet from its former position. The building in which 
the boiler was situated is almost a total wreck. Mr. Thawley and a colored man narrowly 
escaped witli their lives. 

Locomotive (81). An explosion occurred July 16th, on the Union Pacific Railway, 
three miles west of Topeka, Kan. A switch engine employed in the yards here was haul- 
ing a train of cars to a point where the track was being repaired. Just as it was slowing 
up the boiler of the engine exploded with terrible force. Fireman James Dutton 



134 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [September, 

was fatally injured, and Engineer R. T. Seacord received injuries which will probably 
prove fatal. Trainmen on the cars also received serious injuries. The truck was torn up 
for a distance of 150 feet and the cars were scattered promiscuously about. 

Saw-Mill (82). Three men were killed in Chicago on July 18th by the explosion of a 
boiler in the yards of the R. B. Stone Lumber Companj', and four others were badly 
injured. A piece of the boiler weighing three hundred pounds tore out the brick sup- 
ports for the roof in the main room of the mill and lodged on top of a ripsaw fifty 
feet from where it started. Another piece knocked out the west wall of the engine-room, 
tore a hole in the side of a freight car and tipped it off its trucks. One end of the boiler 
knocked off the roof of the engine-room and tore down some of the supports of the shed. 
The bricks in the furnace and iron pieces composing the engine were scattered in all direc- 
tions. King, the engineer, was instantly killed, and his body was buried under a great 
pile of sawdust, pieces of iron, and broken beams. 

Tannery (83). An explosion occurred, July 19th, in the Eagle Valley tannery at 
Ridgeway, Pa. A young man named Striker was cremated, and six other employes were 
badly burned, some of them fatally. 

Saw-Mill (84). At Days Station, Wash., on the line of the Seattle, Lake Shore & 
Eastern Railroad, July 19th, a boiler exploded, and set fire to Day Bros.' mill. The fire com- 
pletely destroyed the mill, which was valued at $25,000. 

Portable Saw-Mill (85). A boiler explosion occurred at Washington Courthouse, 
Ohio, on July 19th, in a portable saw-mill, which was at the time in use for pumping out 
water from wells for the new water works in process of construction at that place. Fred 
Worrell (the engineer) and Nathaniel Taylor were instantly killed. Eight others were 
seriously injured, some probably fatally. 

Chemical Works (86). A still exploded in Dodge & Olcott's chemical works, Jersey 
City, July 20th, and a three-story brick building 100x25 feet was destroyed. The loss was 
estimated at $300,000. 

Pleasure Yacht (87). The boiler of the steam yacht Lotus Seeker, owned by E. R. 
Holden, Vice-President of the Delaware & Lackawanna Railroad, exploded July 21st, 
while lying at the private dock of the owner in Thousand Island Park, N. Y. Only one 
end of the boiler blew out, and, although several persons were in the boat, no one was 
injured. The loss was about $1,000. 

Stone Quarry (88). A boiler in the stone quarry of Louis Canterbury, at One Hun- 
dred and Seventy-eighth Street and La Fontaine Avenue, New York, exploded July 22d, 
and set fire to a lot of hay. One of the pieces struck the stoop of the house at 4,273 Third 
Avenue, occupied by George Neuffer, damaging it slightly. 

Brewery (89). A horizontal tubular boiler exploded at the Eagle Brewery, Altoona, 
Pa., on July 30th. Fortunately no one was injured. The boiler-house and the brick-stack 
were demolished. 

Mill (90). On July 30th the boiler in the mill of Andrew and John Flanagan, Mana- 
yunk. Pa., exploded, killing two boys and injuring two men. The upper half of the 
shell was thrown 150 yards, the boiler-house was wrecked, and the loss to the proprietors 
will be about $10,000. 

Saw-Mill (91). A saw-mill boiler exploded at Golden Gate, about seven miles from 
Fairfield, 111., on July 30th, instantly killing Frank Peters, a son of the proprietor, and 
injuring Joe Wallace and William Fox so badly that they cannot recover. 

TuG-BoAT (92). The boiler of the tug-boat Jersey Boy, owned by Richard Parrot, 
exploded July 31st, at the mouth of Five Mile River harbor. Conn. She was engaged on a 
government contract in digging mud. The boat was blown to atoms, only small frag- 
ments being found. The crew had just left her. 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 135 



Heating and Ventilation. 

By Thomas Elkinton. 

Fifty years ago buildings were heated by stoves, and bad no provision for change of 
air, beyond the leakage of the doors and windows. It will be remarked in passing that 
the air in a room heated by stoves will remain for a short time surprisingly pure, because 
of the rapid transfer of the lower strata to the upper, by the currents induced by the hot 
surfaces of the stoves; but when it becomes uniformly bad, as it quickly does, its conditio' 
cannot be described in terms of refinement. 

No public buildings are now constructed without some recognition of the importance 
of ventilation; but, as a rule, the recognition is scarcely more than in appearance, for 
although outlets are provided for the foul air, there is scarcely any means for the inflow of 
air that is pure. The fact seems to be constantly overlooked, that while provisions for the 
passage of foul air are well enough in themselves, they are of little account without equal 
provision for the inflow of fresh air. It is true that windows and doors afford inlets for 
air, but as the choice between pneumonias and neuralgias and the evils of foul air are not 
worth discussing, all such sources of air supply should be dismissed from consideration. 

There is much difference of opinion concerning the temperature that the air of rooms 
should have, in order to be most conducive to the health and comfort of the occupants, 
and the ideas of different nations present curious phases. Curtis tells us that the Chilians, 
with a climate similar to that of Washington, think that fires in a house are unhealthful, 
and that they wear their wraps indoors as well as out, and although coal is cheap and wood 
abundant, sit in their houses with noses blue and teeth chattering, and at fashionable gath- 
erings women appear in evening dress with the thermometer between 40° and 50°. He also 
states that the mortality from throat and lung complaints is immense. The Englishman, 
too, sits in his large parlor with a small grate and considers himself comfortable with the 
thermometer in the fifties. The proper temperature for each individual is probably that at 
which he feels most comfortable; and this will be found to be about as follows: In audi- 
ence chambers, where the occupants sit with their wraps on, 65° is suitable; in schools, 69° 
to 70° will be necessary; and 70° to 72° will be better for parlors in private houses, 
especially if there are elderly persons in the family. 

Authorities differ concerning the quantity of air that is necessary for good ventilation. 
The lowest estimate is ten cubic feet a minute, for each person, this being based on the 
supposition that each person receives perfectly pure air at each inhalation, and that the air 
he exhales is removed from the room at once. This state of things is realized out of doors 
in a stiff breeze, but within doors it is not practicable. Sixty cubic feet a minute, for each 
person, is none too much for health and comfort in school-rooms and other places of public 
gathering, and a much greater supply should be provided in the sick room and the hospital; 
and forty feet for each person, each minute, should certainly be provided. This means 
1,200 cubic feet a minute in a class-room of thirty; 2,000 cubic feet for a parlor containing 
fifty; 4,000 for a school-room of 100; 20,000 for a lecture-room or court-room of 500; 
40,000 for an audience of 1,000; and, lastly, 100,000 cubic feet a minute for a larger audience 
of 2,500. This amount certainly ought to be provided to secure conditions fairly healthy 
and comfortable; yet how manj- buildings of the day are supplied with air in quantity like 
this, or anywhere approximating it ? 

If these figures appear startling to one who has not thought of them before, let him 
consider his own head encased for a minute in an air-tight box three feet and six inches 
square (forty feet in capacity) ; after he had taken about a dozen full breaths, would he not 
deem it proper to have a fresh box at the end of that minute, — especially if, instead of 
having his box all alone he should be sharing his exhalations with his neighbors, and 
breathing back theirs in return? — Adapted from the Journal of the Franklin Institute. 



-[36 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [September, 



Mk$ BtmmttH 



HARTFORD, SEPTEMBER 15, 1889. 
J. M. Allen, Editor. A. D. Risteen, Associate Editor. 

The Locomotive can te obtained free by calling at any of the company's agencies. 

Subscription price 50 cents per year when mailed from this office. 

Bound volumes one dollar each. 

Papers that borrow cuts from us will do us a favor if they will plainly mark them in returning, 
so that we may give proper credit on our books. 

The Toronto meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science 
was held from August 27lh to September 7th. Papers were read bj^ Prof. J. D. Dana, Dr. 
E. O. Hovey, Prof. Gilbert, Prof. Newberry, Prof. J. Le Conte, Prof. A. Winchell, Mr. 
C. D. Walcott, and others, and the occasion was one of special interest. 



Japan is rapidly growing in civilization, and we should not be greatly surprised if it 
turns into a republic some day in the not very distant future. Among other encouraging 
things, we learn than the Imperial University of Tokio has now no less than 138 instruct- 
ors and 788 students. That would be a very respectable college in any country. " New 
buildings for technical education, and a new chemical laboratory, have been erected at a 
cost of nearly $300,000, and more money is promised by the government for further 
extensions." 

The Mikado's palace, it will be remembered, is lighted by electricity, the dynamos for 
which are run by a Sweet straight-line engine. 



As WE go to press word comes that the peerless City of Paris has broken her own record 
again — this time by nearly four hours! She has crossed the Atlantic, from Queenstown 
10 Sandy Hook, in five days nineteen hours and eighteen minutes. The distances covered 
in the respective days were as follows: On Aug. 23, 432 miles; on Aug. 24, 493 miles; on 
Aug. 25, 502 miles; on Aug. 26, 506 miles; on Aug. 27, 509 miles; and on Aug. 28, 346 
miles. She brought over 527 first cabin passengers, 192 second or intermediate, and 422 
steerage; in all, 1,141. And everyone on board was inexpressibly happy. 



We understand that the trustees of the estate of the late Sir Joseph Whit worth have 
just presented to Owens College, Manchester, Eng.j an engineering laboratory containing, 
among other things, a vertical testing machine with a capacity of 224,000 pounds, and a 
triple expansion engine made by Messrs. Mather & Piatt. This engine was designed es- 
pecially for experimental work, and interesting results maj' be expected of it, though it is 
not large enough, of course, to be strictly comparable with modern marine engines of the 
same type. The cylinders are respectively 5"X12", 8"xl2", 12"xl5", and the volumes 
swept through in a single stroke are to one another in the proportion of 1, 2.56, and 7.2. 
The cranks can all be coupled so as to run as if on a continuous shaft, in which case the 
angles at which they are set can be modified at will, or all three of the cranks can be run 
at different speeds. Steam jackets are provided on each cylinder, and the water con- 
densed here and in the condenser can be accurately measured. Each cylinder is provided 
with thermometers and with a pair of Crosby indicators. 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 137 

A <!OOD deal is being said in the papers about the liability of electricity to a tariff duty, 
when brought into the United States from a foreign country. The immediate cause of 
this newspaper uneasiness is the fact that a company whose plant is to be on the Canadian 
side at Niagara Falls, proposes to run wires across the river and furnish light to one or 
two towns ou the American side. This company, it seems, has applied to the Treasury 
1'or a decision, being unwilling to put up its wires and machinerj' until it knows whether 
it will be taxed or not. Of course we don't know what the present Secretary will decide, 
but we remember that when a similar cjuestion was put to Secretary Fairchild by some 
one down near Calais, Me., he took the very sensible and reasonable ground that "elec- 
tricity, being an imponderable fluid or force, and not a material article of manufacture," 
cannot well be counted among the things that Congress had in mind in pa.ssing our present 
tariff laws. 

The electric lighting company is getting a little free advertising by raising this ques- 
tion again, but we imagine that that will be all it will come to. 



A CURIOUS illustration of the necessity of eternal vigilance in the boiler room came to 
our notice a few daj's ago. The particular engineer that we have in mind is in the habit 
of shutting off the water-column when leaving his boiler for the night. One morning he 
opened the cocks as usual, as he supposed, and proceeded to get up steam. After a time 
it occurred to him to consult his gauge glass, when he noticed that it was either full or 
empty — he couldn't tell positively which, but from the appearance of it he judged it to 
be full, and the subsequent events proved his judgment to be correct. Proceeding there- 
fore to his blow-off valve he opened it and allowed a considerable amount of water to 
escape. About this time it struck him that it would not be a bad idea to examine his try- 
cocks. Finding nothing but steam he became greatly alarmed and hauled his fire with 
great expedition, and sent for one of our inspectors, to whom he explained that he could 
not make steam. The inspector, viewing the fire on the floor, said he did not wonder 
much at that ; and immediately suspecting the cause of the trouble he stepped up to the 
water column and examined the cocks. The lower one was broken, so that the wheel 
turned freely on the stem, while the valve remained pressed against its seat. Upon open- 
ing the broken valve the water in the glass immediately ran out and the trouble was at an 
end. "Water was then pumped in, the fires were re-started, and all went on as usual. 



We take pleasure in acknowledging the receipt of the report of Mr. Henry Hiller, 
Chief Engineer, to the National Boiler Insurance Company of Manchester, England. 
This report is full of interesting and instructive matter concerning the defects that 
have been observed by the company during the past year, and concerning the explosions 
that have come to their notice. Both the defects and the explosions are exhaustively dis- 
cussed. We quote the summary of explosions: "During 1888, 83 actual explosions of 
steam boilers in the United Kingdom were reported, causing the deaths of 18 persons and 
injury to 44 others. In 1887 there were reported 33 explosions, causing 21 deaths and in- 
jury to 39 persons. In 1886, 32 explosions, 30 deaths, and 57 injured . . . Eleven of the 33 
exploded boilers were vertical, with internal fire-box. Many of them were not under proper 
supervision and had not been inspected by competent persons." On page 17 is a list made 
up from 12,000 to 13,000 boilers, and intended to show what percentage of the whole 
are Cornish, what percentage are Lancashire, what cylindrical, etc. We select the more 
numerous ones: Lancashire, 31.3 per cent; Corni.sh, 24.0 per cent. ; vertical (with internal 
fire-box), 12.4 per cent. ; plain cylindrical, 9.3 percent.; portable, 5.7 percent.; Galloway, 
4.3 per cent.; multubular and multiflued, 2.27 per cent. Of the remaining types no one 
forms as large a proportion as two per cent. From the fact that these proportions are based 
on such a large number of measurements, they may be considered as representing the av- 
erage practice in England. 



138 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [Septembek, 

The Bruce Telescope. 

3ns5 C. W. Bruce of New York, has recently presented to the astronomical observa- 
tory of Harvard College the sum of .$-50,000, to be devoted "to the construction of a photo- 
graphic telescope having an objective of about twenty-four inches aperture with a focal 
length of about eleven feet, and of the character described by the director of the observa- 
tory in circular of November last ; also to secure its use under favorable climatic condi- 
tions in such a way as in his judgment will best advance astronomical science." A tele- 
scope eight inches in diameter, but otherwise similar to the one proposed, has been in. use 
in the observatory for several years, and has done very satisfactory work ; in fact, stars 
have been photographed by this eight-inch glass that cannot be seen through the excellent 
lo-inch at the observatory. The Bruce telescope will be designed to take photographs 
thirteen inches square, and on such a scale that the moon will be an inch and a half in 
diameter. 

As this instrument will be somewhat of a new departure it may be well to explain that 
telescopes designed for photography alone differ from other telescopes in two important 
respects. The object-glass is designed with esp>ecial reference to the chemically active rays 
of light, rather than the rays by which our eyes are affected: and, furthermore, the focal 
length of the object-glass is much less in proportion than in ordinary telescopes. Since so 
much good work has been done already with the eight-inch glass at Cambridge, it is confi- 
dently hoped and expected that the new glass having three times the diameter, and therefore 
nine times the light -gathering i)ower. will be of the greatest service in unraveling the mys- 
teries of the stars. 



The Elixir of Life. 



It seems proper that we should make some mention of the "elixir of life" that Dr. 
Brown-Sequard aflSrms that he has discovered. The details of his process of preparing the 
elixir may be found in the Scientific American Supplement ioT August 10th and more fully in 
the Compter Rendus of the Paris Societe de Biologic for June 21st, et seq. Suffice it to say 
that the learned doctor has sf)ent twenty years of thought on this subject, and that he be- 
gan experimenting upon it as long ago as 18T5. The fluid that he prepared he injected un- 
der the skin of his arm and legs with a morphine needle on ten different occasions. The 
results m his own words were as follows: "I am seventy-two years old. My general 
strength, which has been consideraWe, has notably and gradually diminished during the 
last ten or twelve years. Before May loth last (the date of the first injection), I was so 
weak that I was always compelled to sit down after half an hour's work in the laboratory. 
For many years, on returning home in a carriage by six o'clock, after several hours passed 
in the laboratory, I was so extremely tired that I invariably had to go to bed, after having 
hastily taken a very small amount of food." He then relates that he was greatly improved 
after the first injection, and goes on to say that "on one day, the 23d of May (after the 
sixth injection), after three hours and a quarter of hard experimental labor in the standing 
attitude, I went home so little tired that after dinner I was able to work and to write for 
an hour and a half a part of a paper on a difficult subject. For more than twenty years I 
had not been able to do as much. For a great many years I had lost all power of doing 
any serious mental work after dinner. Since my first subcutaneoas injections I have very 
frequently been able to do such work for two, three, and one evening for neariy four 
hours." He then tells of experiments of the same kind made by Dr. Yariot on patients 
who did not know what to expect, and who knew nothing of Dr. Brown-Sequard's experi- 
ments. Three of these patients were treated with the " elixir," and two with clear water; 
for it was desired to distinguish between mind-cures and actual material benefits. The 
three that were treated with the elixir grew stronger and more active, as did the dis- 
tinguished discoverer of the elixir himself. The other two obtained no effect whatever. 

We regret to say that experiments similar to these have been lately carried on in this 
country in rather an indiscriminate manner. Dr. Brown-Sequard was Charles Sumner's 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. ^39 

physician, it will be remembered, after he was assaulted in the Senate ; and there is no 
doubt but that lie is an able man, and one whose words should be listened to with consider- 
ation and respect. It is proper that our truly eminent physicians should turn their atten- 
tion to the "elixir "and give it such trial as they think wise; but reports are coming in 
from all over the country, that this, that, and the other doctor is experimenting with it to 
try its virtues. Now, apart from the danger of inoculating the patient with the germs 
of tuberculosis or some other affection, there is a serious likelihood of blood-poisoning in 
its most serious forms, and no ordinary physician has any right to experiment with the 
elixir imtil properly qualified and properly equipped pathologists have examined it and dis- 
covered a way to administer it without danger. 

We are led to make these remarks by the fact that several cases have come to our 
knowledge in which patients were made seriously ill by the "elixir" presumably admin- 
istered by some one who did not understand it. We have even heard rumors of a suit for 
five thousand dollars damages, growing out of such a case. The best thing for our doc- 
tors to do with this elixir, for the present, is to not do anything. It may be an excellent 
thing ; but let us wait till we find out for sure. 



The Latest Ocean Wonder. 



The following description of the magnificent new steamship Teutonic, that broke the 
maiden record in her recent race across the Atlantic with the City of New York, is taken 
from the London Times, and will be of interest to all who are watching the development 
of ocean navigation : The vessel has been built by Messrs. Harland & Wolff for Messrs. 
Ismay, Imrie & Co., and may be regarded as absolutel}^ the safest ship afloat. She is 
fitted with twin screws, and the whole of the machinery, engines, boilers, and coal for 
working either screw is shut off completely from its neighbor by a fore and aft bulkhead, 
which extends from the after end of the engine room to the forward end of the foremost 
coal bunker, and in fact intersects the six largest of the twelve water-tight compartments 
made by the eleven ordinary transverse bulkheads. This fore and aft bulkhead is pierced 
by only one locked door, the key of which is held by the chief engineer. The doors be- 
tween the engine rooms and the stokeholes are in every instance duplicated, and the dupli- 
cate door in every case under the control of the Captain on deck. When liberated they 
close by their own weight, but by an ingenious contrivance their descent is freed from 
violence. Ascending from the door is a rod surmounted by a piston, which works in a 
cylinder 4i inches in diameter filled with glycerine. When the door is allowed to descend 
the whole of the glycerine has to pass through a half-inch hole in the piston, and the sluo-- 
gish liquid thus prevents a rapid and dangerous descent of the massive door. 

There is, however, another and more interesting novelty about these doors. In the 
event of water flowing into the ship the doors will close automatically. As the water 
rises in the bilge it will buoy up a hollow ball attached to a rod. This rod, on being 
pushed up about a foot, removes the catch that holds the door, and it might chance that 
the first information of danger in the engine room would be the automatic closing of these 
protective doors. The principle is common enough. It is merely an adaptation of the 
domestic ball cock ; and, assuming the buoyancy sufl3cient for the work to be done, noth- 
ing could be more certain in its action. The introduction of the fore and aft bulkhead di- 
viding the separate engines of a twin-screw ship has been objected to by high authorities, 
on the ground that if one side were filled with water the list would be so great that the 
ve.ssel would inevitably overturn, and that what was conceived as a means of safety would 
become a source of certain danger. It has, however, been experimentally demonstrated in 
this case that if the two largest compartments on one side of the fore and aft bulkhead 
were filled the list would be only 12 degrees, and facilities are at command to correct this 
by pumping in water on the other side. 

These engines are triple expansion, with three cylinders 43 inches, 68 inches, and 110 
inches in diameter, and they have been constructed to develop 17,000 horse power. The 



140 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [September, 

pistons have a 5-foot stroke, and the machinery, in accordance with Admiralty require- 
ments, has all been placed below the water line. The boilers are twelve in number. Some 
are 13 feet and some 12 feet 6 inches in diameter, and 17 feet long, with six furnaces in 
each, and a grate area of 1,163 feet. 

The propellers, which are 21 feet 6 inches in diameter, with a pitch of 28 feet 6 inches 
and a superficial area of 128 feet, are of special interest in this ship on account of the un- 
usual manner in which they are placed . They overlap each other to the extent of 5 feet 6 
inches, or, in other words, they each extend over the center line 2 feet 9 inches. The cen- 
tres of their axles are 16 feet apart, and the port side propeller is 6 feet forward of the star- 
board, measuring from boss to boss. The port propeller is a left-handed screw and the 
starboard a right-handed ; thus both work away from the ship, and the port propeller 
working in the loose water of the after screw makes two revolutions a minute more than 
its twin. The propeller shafts are 199 feet and 205 feet long respectively, and are entirely 
encased to the boss of the screw. The hull is verj' much cut away under the stern, and a 
large space has been cut in the frames to admit of the massive casting that carries the screw 
shafts. The stern post is connected with the rudder post by a bar on a line of the keel in 
the ordinary way, the scheme of allowing the rudder to be suspended without support be- 
low having been abandoned as dangerous. 

The vessel herself is 582 feet long — the longest ship afloat ; 57 feet 6 inches broad, 39 
feet 4 inches deep, and has a gross tonnage of 9,685 tons. She has a cutter stem, and, re- 
lying wholly on her two sets of engines, the masts are little more than three bare poles 
without yards. Thirty feet up the foremast is a sort of crow's nest for the lookout. 

Accommodation is provided for 300 first-class, 150 second, and 750 steerage passengers. 
She has a promenade deck 245 feet long, with a clear way of 18 feet on each side of the 
deck houses. Some portion of this promenade is covered by an awning deck, which is 
used for stowing the boats. 

For the fittings and decorations throughout the boat, it must suffice to say that they 
are unusually lavish, even in these days of sumptuous ocean traveling. 



Great Discoveries and Innovations of the Past Sixty Years. 

III. PHOTOGRAPHY. 

Although the beginnings of photography reach back farther than sixtj' j'ears, yet the 
progress that has been made during the sixtj' years has been so vast and has so immeasur- 
ablj' exceeded what was known at the beginning of that period that we may fairly include 
it among our serial articles. 

The fact that an image may be produced on a screen by means of a lens had been 
known for many years, and legions of experimenters had seen this image and had com- 
mented on its beauty. A beautiful picture of any scene, in all the colors of nature, could 
be thrown on a screen by a single lens, men and horses could be seen moving about, trees 
and fields of grain could be seen rustling in the wind ; yet all this was transitory, for no 
means of fixing the image was known. Some substance sensitive to sunlight was neces- 
sary — something that could be spread over the screen, and that would turn dark in the 
dark places of the picture, aad remain light in the light places. It was known, of course, 
that the human skin is sensitive to light in a certain degree, so that the sun on a warm day 
will turn it brown ; but human skin was not a very promising thing to print pictures on, 
nor was there any way of fixing such pictures after they were printed. At length it was 
proposed to use compounds of silver, as it was noticed that sunlight has the power of 
blackening them. A Swedish chemist, Scheele, was the first, we believe, to examine this 
blackening action of sunlight on silver compounds. About 1780 he found that when moist 
chloride of silver is exposed to the sun it is split up into chlorine and metallic silver, the 
latter being in such a fine state of division that it appears black. Jean Senebier, a Swiss 
clergyman, repeated his experiments and found that this action is due almost entirely to 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. -141 

the violet rays. Many still doubted if the decomposition of the silver chloride was really 
effected by light, and in 1798 Count Runiford contributed an article to the Royal Society 
which he called "An Inquiry concernins^ the Chemical Pro|)ertics that have been at- 
tributed to Light," in which he endeavored to show that it is heat and not light that pro- 
duces the observed change. Four years later Harrup proved that certain compounds of 
mercury are reduced by light and not by heat. 

It will be seen that these early discoveries and investigations had only a remote bear- 
ing on what we now know as photography, yet they are most interesting, as showing from 
wliat small beginnings the modern art started. 

In 1801 Ritter showed that there are rays in the sun's light that are invisible to our 
eyes, but whicli have a most important influence in blackening the compounds of silver. 
This discovery attracted great attention, and during the next seven years Seebeck and 
Berard carried on investigations that had valuable results. But the event of greatest in- 
terest in those early times was the publication of Wedgwood's paper, in June, 1802, on his 
" Method of Copying Paintings upon Glass, and of making Profiles by the Agency of 
Light." His process, as he explains, is based upon tlie fact that white paper moistened 
with nitrate of silver undergoes no change in the dark, but quickly becomes first brown 
and then black, when exposed to daylight. His method of procedure was to let tlie 
shadow of his object fall on the sensitive paper. The part of the paper in the sun rapidly 
blackened, and the profile of the object was therefore reproduced. Wedgwood explains 
tliat he found it impossible to make these prints permanent, for wash it as mucli as lie 
would he could not remove the silver from the unexposed portions so tliat they would not 
in the course of time turn black like the rest. Sir Humphrey Davy (though lie w^as not at 
that time a " Sir") then tried to make use of this paper in the camera obscura, but failed, 
as he explains, on account of the faintness of the image. Even at the time that Davy and 
Wedgwood were experimenting a substance was known tliat would fix the prints in the 
manner desired ; for hyposulphite of soda was discovered by Chaussier in 1799, three 
years before Wedgwood's paper was published ; but it was left for Herscliel to discover the 
usefulness of this substance, which lie announced in February, 1840. 

Passing on a few years in the history of the art we come to a Frenchman, Nicephore 
de Niepce, who began his researches in 1814 and continued them witli rather discouraging 
results until 1837, when his labors were crowned with success. In a word, to Niepce be- 
longs the honor of first discovering a process for taking pictures that were afterwards 
unaffected by light. He coated plates of metal with a solution of asphaltum in oil of lav- 
ender, and then, after drying them, he exposed them for a prodigious length of time in a 
camera. A very faint image was the result. His developer consisted of one part of oil of 
lavender and ten parts of white petroleum, which must be allowed to stand three days be- 
fore using. When the plate is immersed in this developer the parts unaffected by light 
gradually dissolve away, leaving a picture formed of asphaltum modified by liglit. Later 
on Daguerre associated liimself with Niepce, and the two formed a partnership for prose- 
cuting their researches together. After working with the old process for a time they mod- 
ified it somewhat, and after they had made some improvements in it Daguerre says that 
"tlie time required to procure a photographic copy of a landscape is from seven to eiglit 
hours, but single monuments, when strongly lighted by the sun, or which are themselves 
very bright, can be taken in about three hours." Yet in these days we think nothing of 
photographing a moving cannon ball, or a flash of lightning ! In 1827 Niepce sent to Dr. 
Bauer of Kew, then secretary of the Royal Society of London, a paper narrating the re- 
sults he had attained, and accompanied by specimens illustrating the quality of his work. 
The process, however, remained a secret ; and for this reason his paper was not printed in 
the "Proceedings" of tlie society. 

We regret to say that there are strong grounds for thinking that Daguerre took unfair 
advantage of the partnership into which he and Niepce had entered, and that he published 
processes as liis own when in reality they belonged equally to his fellowworker. Indeed 
it is believed that Daguerre bodily appropriated, without any credit whatever, some of 



^42 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [Septembeb, 

Niepce's most important discoveries. This belief is supported by a considerable amount 
of evidence, a considerable portion of which still exists in letters written by Daguerre 
himself, and by others. 

The process, now known by Daguerre's name, consisted in coating a silvered plate 
with iodine, and then exposing it in the camera for from three minutes to half an hour. It 
was then exposed to the vapor of quicksilver, which condensed most on those places where 
the light had acted most. The image was then fixed by immersion in hyposulphite of 
soda. Afterward it became customary to ' ' tone " the picture by adding to the hyposul- 
phite bath a small quantity of chloride of gold. Other modifications and improvements 
have since been made, but it would be useless for us to follow them since the whole sub- 
ject of daguerreotyping has only a historic interest to us now. The process of Niepce and 
Daguerre was first published on the 6th of February, 1839. 

In 1841 Mr. Fox Talbot patented a process that has considerable interest. He brushed 
sheets of paper over with silver nitrate, and then dipped it in iodide of potash until iodide 
of silver had formed on the paper. It was then brushed over with a sensitizing solution 
composed of 100 grains of silver nitrate, 2 ounces of water, and a third of an ounce of 
acetic acid, to which, immediately before applying it, an equal volume of saturated gallic 
acid was added. After exposure in the camera the picture develops itself in the dark, and 
it is fixed by washing in water, dipping in potassium bromide, washing again, and drying 
with blotting paper. 

In 1848 Niepce de St. Victor (who was a nephew of Nicephore de Niepce) substituted 
glass for the paper and metal that had hitherto been used as the sensitive films, coating 
the glass with a thin layer of iodized albumen. His process, as afterward perfected by Le 
Gray, was substantially like that of Talbot, except that he used glass instead of paper, and 
was thus able to print as many positives as he pleased from the one plate — which previous 
experimenters had not been able to do. 

In 1850 a great step was taken ; for in that year the collodion film was introduced, and 
from that time on the success of photography was assured. With the introduction of this 
new substance photography passed into the hands of great numbers who had been deterred 
from taking it up before on account of the difficulties that had to be contended with ; and 
in consequence of this sudden increase in the number of its votaries the art grew with sur- 
prising rapidity and processes multiplied so that we shall no longer attempt to follow them 
in detail. 

In 1854 M. Gaudin in France and Mr. Muirhead in England, announced that it is not 
necessary that the sensitive plate in the camera should be kept wet, but that if certain pre- 
cautions were taken dry plates would work equally well ; and a little later Dr. Taupenot 
published an excellent method of preparing plates for dry work. The "alkaline de- 
veloper " followed soon after, and with it came the first important contribution to the art 
that the United States had furnished. 

Although the introduction of the collodion process had brought about a revolution in 
photography, a still greater revolution was instituted in 1864 when Sayce and Bolton pro- 
posed the use of collodion emulsion. The new method, briefly stated, "was to dissolve a 
soluble bromide in plain collodion, and add to it, drop by drop, an alcoholic solution of 
silver nitrate." This was poured over the plate in the usual manner and allowed to set. 
The special advantages of plates so prepared was that they could be used dry, and that the 
tiresome sensitizing bath of nitrate of silver did not have to be used. This process at- 
tracted a great deal of attention, and gave a new turn to experimental work, and it was 
not long before gelatine was tried, among other things, as a substitute for the collodion. 
In 1871 Dr. Maddox had produced excellent negatives with gelatine in the place of collo- 
dion, and from that time on until 1878 numerous improvements in the process were made. 
In this year (1878) it was shown that by keeping the gelatine solution for a number of days 
in a liquid condition by warming it slightly, the silver salt becomes extraordinarily sensi- 
tive ; and in 1879 Col. Wortley announced that the same result could be obtained by 
stewing the emulsion at 150° Fah. in a few hours instead of days. Improvements then 



1889] THE LOCOMOTIVE. ^43 

followed one another in rapid succession until the art reached its present high state of 
perfection. 

The applications of photography are very numerous and interesting, and its field of 
usefulness is widening every day. Instead of having to expose our plates for from three 
to six hours, as in the early days, we now require only a small fraction of a second. We 
are thus able to photograph animals and other objects even though they are moving at a 
high rate of speed ; and Mr. Eadweard Muybridge, who has given special attention to this 
branch of the art, has given us a large amount of information concerning the attitudes that 
animals take while they are in motion. In fact, artists have found his work of great value, 
and the fruits of it are easily seen by comparing pictures of moving animals, drawn some 
years ago, with those drawn in more recent days. 

In astronomy the uses of photography are numerous and increasing. Maps of the 
heavens, indefinitely surpassing in fullness and accuracy the best of the hand-made maps, 
can now be made in the hundredth part of the time and with the hundredth part of the 
labor formerly required. Accurate records can also be made with ease, of the appearance 
of the heavenly bodies at critical times, as, for instance, during the eclipse of the sun or a 
transit of Venus ; and measurements of parallax have likewise been executed in the same 
manner. Beautiful discoveries have been made, by exposing the plate for a great length of 
time, of objects, such as nebulte, too faint to be seen by the human eye. 

In the arts photography has also found a wide field of usefulness. Engraving is now 
largely done by means of it, and entire books have been duplicated by photo-engraving each 
page in the .same manner as a drawing would be photo-engraved. (The writer has in his 
possession a complete set of the Encyclopssedia Britannica, reproduced in this way.) Valu- 
able manuscripts are reproduced mfac simile for the benefit of scholars all over the world, 
and many other like applications will doubtless suggest themselves to the reader. Even 
surveying is making use of the new" art, and photo-surveys promise to be familiar things to 
us in the near future. 

Composite photography claims our attention as one of the peculiar possibilities of the 
art, and thougli the pictures produced by it are rarely very elegant in appearance, they are 
often of great interest. Not long ago some very good likenesses of Washington were ob- 
tained by means of it, the similar features of the different paintings used being preserved 
in the final picture, while the differences were eliminated ; so that in all probability the 
result was a better likeness of the Father of his Country than we have heretofore had. 

Photography in the true colors of nature — when shall we have that ? Attempts that 
have been made in this direction have already met with some degree of success, but it has 
been very slight, and the main problem may be considered to be practically untouched. 



Back in 1884, when the Mexican Central Railroad was yet a curiosity to the simple 
people along its line, and the locomotive was not as familiar an object to them as it now 
is, an Irish employe of the company named Mike McCue set his wits at work to devise a 
method whereby he could transfer his cooking stove to his new home on the south side of 
the Rio Grande without having to pay the duty of 9 cents a pound exacted by the Mexican 
Government. Fortunately for him, he was one day directed to move a lot of freight be- 
longing to the company from El Paso to Paso del Norte. Taking advantage of the op- 
portunity thus offered him, McCue strapped his stove on the front of the locomotive, 
placed a few joints of stovepipe on it, built a fire in it, and passed the customs officers 
without the slightest difficulty. They supposed it to be a necessary adjunct to the loco- 
motive. — Railway Age. 

A CITIZEN of Elmira, Cal., has finished working up a fir tree which grew on his 
place. He received $12 for the bark, built a frame house 14x30 feet, 8 feet high, with a 
kitchen 8 feet wide and 20 feet long ; built a woodshed 14x30 feet ; made 330 fence rails 
10 feet long ; made 334 railroad ties, 500 boards 6 inches wide and 12 feet long, and 15 cords 
of wood. All this from one tree, and part of the tree is left. — Machinist. 



144 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



Incorporated 
1866. 




Charter Per- 
petual. 



Issues Policies of iDsnrance after a Careful Inspection of tlie Boilers. 



COVERING ALL LOSS OR DAMAGE TO 



BOILERS, BUILDINGS, AND MACHINERY. 

ALSO COVERING 

LOSS OF LIFE AND ACCIDENT TO PERSONS 



ARISING FROM 



Steam Boiler Explosions. 

Full information concerning the plan of the Company's operations can be obtained at the 

Or at any Aseucy. 



J. M. ALLEN, President. 
J. B. PIERCE, Secretary. 



W. B. FRANKLIN, Vice-Prest. 
FRANCIS B. ALLEN, 2d Viee-Prest. 



Uoard of 

J. M. ALLEN, President. 

FRANK W. CHENFA', Treas. Cheney Brothers 

Silk Manufacturing Co. ; 

CHARLES M. BEACri, of Beach & Co. , 

DANIEL PHILLII'S, of Adams Express Co. ' 

RICHARD W. H. .LARVIS, Prest. Colt's Fire Arms 

Manufncturins: Co. I 

THOMAS 0. ENDERS, President of the U. S. Bank. 
LEVERETT BRAIXARD, of The Case, Lockwood 

& Brainard Co. 
Gen. WM. B. FRANKLIN, U. S. Commissioner to 

the Paris Exposition. 
Hon. NATHANIEL SHIPMAN, Judge United 

States Circuit Court. 



Directors. 

NEWTON CASE, of The Case, Lockwood & 

Brainard Co. 
NELSON HOLLISTER, of State Bank, Hartford. 
Hon. HENRY C. ROBINSON, Attorney-at-Law, 

Hartford. 
Hon. FRANCIS B. COOLEY, of the National 

Exchange Bank, Hartford, Conn. 
A. W. JILLSON, late Yice-Prest. Phoenix Fire Ins. 

Co., Hartford, Conn. 
JEDMUND A. STEDxMAN, Treasurer of the Fidelity 

Co., of Hartford, Conn. 
CLAl'P SPOONER, Bridgeport. Conn. 
GEORGE BI'RNHA:\I, Baldwin Locomotive Works, 

Philadelphia. 



GENERAL AGENTS. 

THEO. H. BABCOCK. 
CORBIN & GOODRICH, 
LAWFORD & McKIM, 

C. E. ROBERTS, 

H. D. P. BIGELOW, 

C. C. GARDINER, 

L. B. PERKINS. 

W. G. LINEBITRGH & SON, 

GEO. P. BURWELL, 

MANN & WILSON. 

G. A. STEEL fr CO.. 

FRITH & ZOLLARS, 

C. J. McCARY & CO., 

W. S. HASTIE & SON, 



CHIEF INSPECTORS 

R. K. MrMT'RRAY, 
W.M. G. PIKE. 
JOSEPH CRAGG, 

WM. U. FAIRBAIRN, \ 



OFFICES. 
NE^y York City. Office, 285 Broadway. 



H. D. P. BIGELOW, 
J. S. WILSON, 
F. S. ALLEN. 
J. H. RANDALL, 
C. A. BURWELL, 
J. B. WARNER, 
M. J. GEIST. 
T. E. SHEARS, 

t B. F. JOHNSON, 



I. 



Philadelphia. 
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218 Main St. 

94 State St. 
208 Superior St. 
306 Sansome St. 

Opera House Block. 
2015 First Av. 
44 Broad St. 



Witt J[0C0m0tte, 



PUBLISHED BY THE HARTFORD STEAM BOILER INSPECTION AND INSURANCE COMPANY. 



New Sekies— Vol.. X. HARTFORD, CONN., OCTOBER, 1889. 



No. 10. 



On Firing- With Soft Coal. 

It is too generally assumed, in firing steam boilers, that the fuel is burned under 
conditions over which the fireman or engineer has little or no control; and that any man 
who can keep u[) a projjer supply of steam is equally good with any other man. That 
such an opinion is very erroneous is fully shown by many almost daily observations; 
and one case in point will be enough to illustrate the fact. In a certain plant of three 
or four hundred horse-power the water for the boilers was passed through a meter, the 
coal was carefully weighed, and the fire-room log was kept by a competent man. In 
this way it was easily shown that Mr. A evaporated less than eight pounds of water per 
pound of fuel, while JMr. B, apparently just the same kind of a man, evaporated over nine 




Fig. 1. A Good Fire. 

pounds, the difference between the two results being exactly two pounds of water per 
pound of coal in favor of ^h\ B. 

It is also a fact that much of the waste generally attributed to the steam engine is 
in reality due to lack of knowledge and skill in the boiler-room. That a certain quantity 
of air is necessary in order to secure perfect combustion, is well known ; that too much 
air detracts from the economy and injures the boiler, is also well known; and the skilled 
and experienced engineer needs no anemometer to tell him when he has reached the del- 
icate point where the air supply is just right. A glance at his fires, a knowledge of his 
chimney draft, a look at his dampers, and an understanding of the work his boilers 
are doing, are sufficient to guide him. But there are boilers and boilers, not all of 
which are cared for or fired in this manner; and it is to those that are not that our 
illustrations apply. 

In Fig. 1 a bituminous coal fire is shown, from six to nine inches thick. It is kept 



146 



THE LOCOMOTIVE, 



[OCTOBEK, 



thicker at the back end and along the furnace walls and in the corners, because the heat 
radiated from the side walls and the bridge causes the coal in these places to burn faster 
than that on the rest of the grate. It is kept solid and in form by quickly sprinkling a 
thin uniform layer of coal on alternate sides of the furnace at frequent intervals, and by 
filling in such parts as may burn hollow. If the fire is neglected for a short time it is 
morally certain to burn hollow, and holes will develop, through which the cool air in 
the ash-pit will pour up freely, cliilliug the hot gases of combustion and materially 
lessening the efliciency of the boiler. 

Fig. 2 illustrates what is called coke firing. The grate is covered with incandescent 
fuel as in Fig. 1, except near the doors, where a windrow eighteen inches wide, and built 
of fresh coal, extends entirely across the front of the furnace. The heat to which this 
windrow is exposed causes it to coke as it would in a retort in a gas works, and to give 
off the infiiimraable gases that it contains, which are burned as they pass back over the 
incandescent bed of fuel. When fresh fuel is required this mass of coke is broken up 
and distributed evenly over the grate, bearing in mind the necessity of keejnng a good 




Fig. 2. Coke Firing With Soft Coal. 

supply on those portions of the fire which tend to burn the fastest. When the fire has 
again become incandescent, fresh coal is put to coke, and so the firing continues. In 
this method of running a fire it is still all-important to prevent holes from burning 
through, and admitting undue quantities of air into the furnace. 

Other methods of firing are often seen. One is, to fire only at considerable inter- 
vals, throwing on coal so heavily as to almost shut off the draft for a time. Fires run in 
this way and then left to themselves burn hollow, and air rushes though the holes, burn- 
ing the fuel away around the edges of them, and thus constantly enlarging them until 
after a time a strong current of cool air passes unchecked uj) through the grates, along 
the side walls and the bridge, and tlie hot gases coming from the coal are so chilled by 
it that it is almost impossible to make steam. The same result follows when the coal is 
heaped upon the center of the grate like a haycock, as shown in Figs. 3 and 4; and in 
both cases the invariable restilt is a hard-worked fireman, laboring manfully to keep up 
steam, and a bitter complaint from the office at the cost of the fuel consumed. The cold 
air that passes up through 'the empty places on the grate, and which must be heated and 
pfissed out at the chimney, puts a constant drain upon the coal jiiles and a constant ef- 
fort upon the muscles of the fireman, who punches and works away, fretting at the 2>oor 
steaming qualities of the boilers and at his inability to keep up steam. 



1889.] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



147 



To burn hitiinihious coal without smoke has long been the hope of inventors and 
euoineers, lor it is generally adniitted that an enormous waste occurs when any con- 
siderable amount of smoke issues from the chimney. It is true that smoke is a sure in- 
dication of imi)erfect combustion, but the vapor ordinarily seen coming from the chim- 
ney is not all smoke. The dense bhu-k smoke sometimes seen consists almost entirely 
of uncousumed carbon, but the composition of the lighter smoke is very diflereut. Most 




Fig. 3. Bad FiiaNO. — Side Vikw of Fuknace. 




Fig. 4. Bad Firing. — Plan View of Furnace. 

coal contains a considerable quantity of moisture, especially bituminous coal ; and this 
moisture is, of course, evaporated by the heat of the fire, and driven off as steam, in 
company with other products of combustion, giving the light vapor usually .seen issuing 
from the chimneys. Even the densest smoke contains but a small quantity of imcom- 
surned carbon, though of course it is likely to contain a considerable quantity of in- 
visible gases tliat would have been burned and utilized had the combustion been 
more perfect. The black smoke is usually given off when long flames of a yellowish or 



^48 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [October, 

reddish hue lap along the whole length of the boiler and perhaps pass into the flues. 
"When the damper is right, and the draft good, and the tires well laid, so tliat all parts 
of the grate are evenly covered, the lazy smoky flame is changed to a short flame of 
intense brightness. 

Too much air is as capable of producing smoke as too little; for by its chilling 
action, previously explained, it makes perfect combustion impossible, and causes the 
same dense cloud to appear at the stack. 

In charging fresh coal it is a good plan to leave the furnace door ajar slightly until 
the fire has burned up a little, so as to admit an exti-a supply of air, that which passes 
up through the grate being checked for a few moments by the fresh fuel. If the door 
is kept wide open the boiler will be cooled down and may be severely strained, and a big 
column of cold air will pass right over the fire in a body, and up the chimney ; but if 
the door is kept half or three-quarters of an inch ajar the air that is admitted will dis- 
tribute itself through the furnace pretty uniformly, and will consume the gases given 
off by the fresh coal. As soon as these gases burn off the door should again be tightly 
shut. 



Inspectors' Reports. 

August, 1889. 



During this month our inspectors made 4,416 inspection trips, visited 7,964 boilers, 
inspected 8,371 both internally and externally, and subjected 726 to hydrostatic press- 
iH'e. The Avhole number of defects reported reached 8,470, of which 650 were consid- 
ered dangerous ; 25 boilers were regarded unsafe for further use. Our usual summary is 

given below : 

Nature of Defects. 

Cases of deposit of sediment, ... 

Cases of incrustation and scale, _ . . 

Cases of internal grooving, - - - - 

Cases of internal corrosion, - - - - 

Cases of external corrosion, - - - - 

Broken and loose braces and stays, - - - 

Settings defective, - - - >- - 

Furnaces out of shape, . . . . 

Fractured plates, - - . . . 

Burned plates, . _ _ - - 

Blistered plates, . _ . - . 

Cases of defective riveting, - - - - 

Defective heads, . . - _ . 

Serious leakage around tube ends, - - - 

Serious leakage at seams, . . - - 

Defective water-gauges, . . - . 

Defective blow-offs, - - - - - 

Cases of deficiency of water, . . - 

Safety-valves overloaded, - - - - 
Safety-valves defective in construction, 

Pressure gauges defective, - - - - 

Boilers without pressure gauges, . - - 

Miscellaneous defects, _ _ _ _ 

Total, 8,470 - - 650 



Whole Number 




Dangerous. 


415 


- 


- 


37 


708 


- 


- 


43 


39 


- 


- 


11 


309 


- 


- 


34 


078 


- 


- 


33 


90 


- 


- 


31 


189 


- 


- 


15 


287 


- 


- 


9 


139 


- 


- 


52 


123 


- 


- 


27 


249 


- 


- 


8 


2,446 


- 


- 


139 


69 


- 


- 


16 


1,602 


- 


- 


58 


345 


- 


- 


25 


223 


- 


- 


25 


71 


- 


- 


17 


11 


- 


- 


6 


43 


- 


- 


12 


38 


- 


- 


13 


269 


- 


- 


27 


1 


- 


- 


1 


127 


- 


- 


11 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. J49 



Boiler Explosions. 

August, 1889. 

Coal Wokks (93). The e.xplosion of a boiler at Gumbert & Huey's coal works near 
McKeesport, Penn., ou August M, completelj' wreeked tlie boiler and engine-house, and 
instantly killed the engineer, Louis Erb. Three others, John and Philip Harvey, and an 
unknown young man, were badly scalded, and may not recover. Portions of the boiler 
were carried a quarter of a mile, and Erb's body was terribly mangled. 

Pleasure Boat (94). The boiler of the pleasure yacht Cedar Ridge, owned by L. B. 
Crocker, superintendent of the New York Central stock yards, blew up on August 7th, in 
the boat house at the foot of Ferry street, Buffalo, N. Y., killing three of Crocker's chil- 
dren and a Avorkman, and severely burning three other persons. The boat, a naphtha 
launch, was completely wrecked, and was burned, together with the boat house. 

Saw-Mill (95). On Friday, August 9th, the boiler of " Squire Grounds's " steam 
mill exploded with terrific force, tearing the engine room into splinters, demolishing the 
machinery, and w'ounding or scalding a number of persons, and causing the death of Mr. 
J. M. Crooks. A stranger named William Lee, a colored man living near Fulton, was in 
the yard, and received a wound in the back, Avhich it is feared will prove fatal. The 
loss is not heavy, perhaps $1,000. No insm-ance. The wounded are James Jackson, 
colored, badly scalded; William Lee, colored, badly injured internally; J. W. Grady, 
white, slightly wounded on the head; Robert Chamberlain, slightly burned; Frank 
Matthews, hit on the head, slightly, and some others whose names could not be 
ascertained. 

Planing Mill (96). On Saturday, August 10th, a flue burst in the boiler of Burn- 
ham, Stanford & Co., at First and Washington streets, Oakland, Cal. No one was 
injured, but the mill will be closed some time for repairs. 

Threshing Engine (97). The boiler of a threshing engine exploded on Monday, 
August 13th, near Haines Canyon, San Luis Obispo Co., Cal. No one was injured. 

Stave Factory (98). A portable boiler, used at Thomas Anderson & Co's stave 
factory, at Dawson, Ky., to furnish extra power when the factoiy was specially busy, 
exploded August 12th, killing James Jackson, Laton Menser, and Dennis L. Purdy, and 
wounding four others. 

TuRESHiNG Engine (99). A threshing-machine boiler exploded in New Hope 
township, D. T., on August 14th, instantly killing Frank Arnswell, William Fowler, 
and an unknown man who was acting as fireman, and seriously injuring a Russian and 
a man named Lamaka. Two of the killed were blown a distance of twelve and seven 
rods respectively. 

Threshing Engine (100). Jefferson Mooney was blown twenty feet and his body 
fearfully torn and his head crushed, John Kennedy's skull was fractured, and several 
other people were seriously injured, by the explosion of the boiler of a threshing 
machine at Nortonsville, Va., on August 15th. 

Brewery (101). On August 20th, the boiler in the Gangwisch Brewing Company's 
establishment, on the corner of Juniata and Magnolia streets, Allegany City, exploded 
with terrible force. A young man named Schneider, who was acting as engineer in the 
absence of the regular man, was hurled fifty feet and instantly killed. A Swede named 
Johnson had both his arms and legs broken and is probably fatally injured. ]\Iiss Lizzie 
Blasco, a domestic standing in an adjoining yard, had her back broken and was other- 



^50 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [October, 

wise terribly bruised by tlie flying debris. The brewery building is almost a total wreck. 
Several employees were more or less severely hurt. 

EoLLiNG Mills (102). On August 21st a boiler exploded in the rolling mill of 
Scruo-o-s & Whaley, Gainesville, Texas, blowing out the east end of the building. The 
top of the boiler was blown over the tops of houses 300 feet away, half burying itself 
iu the ground where it fell. Mr. Bosley, the engineer, was blown over the debris 
and landed against a pile of wood twenty feet away. He was badly burned about the 
head, and had both legs scalded. No bones were broken. The air was filled with flying 
timbers and pieces of iron, some which fell hundreds of feet away. The fire department 
was called to the scene and quickly subdued the flames. The loss is estimated at from 
$5,000 to $8,000, with no insurance. 

Threshing Engine (103). A boiler attached to a threshing-machine belonging to 
Charles Swift exploded at Buena Vista, near lone, Cal., on August 22d, blowing the fire- 
man, George McGivens, eighty-five feet, breaking several ribs and badly scalding him. 
He is not expected to live. 

Saw-Mill (104). A boiler in the saw and planing mill at Port Angles, W. T., ex- 
ploded on or about August 24th, seriously injuring three men. Two of these, Meagher 
and Campbell, had their ankles crushed. A piece of steel penetrated the left cheek and 
under the ear of Meagher, that it required a weight of ninety pounds to remove. 

Saw-Mill (105). A flue collapsed on August 27th in the middle boiler of Mr. C. B. 
Paul's saw-mill, located at the foot of Shelby street, Louisville, Ky. Three men were 
badly scalded and bruised, and considerable damage was done. 

Nail Factory (106). On August 27th, a boiler in the nail factory of Godcharles & 
Co., at South Towanda, Pa., exploded. Five men were instantly killed, two others 
will die, and four were terribly injured. The killed are: Richard Ackley, Sanford 
Smith, John Bostwick, Isaac Bantford, and Guy Heenan. J. Rider and George Seebeck 
will probably die. Charles MacVeagh, Ray Thomas, and two Swedes, names unknown, 
are badly hurt. The building was wrecked, and the ruins took fire, but the flames were 
soon extinguished. The boiler was hurled 70 feet, striking on the railn^ad track, which 
it tore up for some distance. The damage to the building and machinery is from $15,000 
to $20,000. 

Saav-Mill (107). A terrible boiler explosion occurred at the saw-mill of W. H. 
Weller, five miles southwest of Murphysl)oro, 111., on August 29th, which resulted in the 
death of two men and the terrible mangling of another. Every vestige of the mill was 
literally blown away, and parts of the boiler were found nearly a quarter of a mile 
distant. 

Locomotive (108). A tube fsiiled recently on a locomotive belonging to the Rapid 
Transit Railroad, Staten Island. The engineer and two friends were badly scalded, one 
of them being also thrown out upon the track. No one was killed. 



Machinery Riots. 

The most serious outbreak of machinery rioters occurred in the early part of the 
present century. This was the period when some of the chief labor-saving machines 
were being introduced in the factories of this country [England], and the working pop- 
ulation were seized with the sudden impulse of destruction. The long and costly war 
which England had waged, and was still waging, with Napoleon, had reduced the 
pbople to the verge of starvation. Heavy taxation, dearucss of provisions, and scarcity 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. i^i 

of employment had cnislied the hope out of the hearts of the laboring clas.ses, and they 
were ready to wreak their resentment upon almost any object that presented itself. 
Tiiey watched with strong discontent the increasing ])ower of machinery, which seemed 
to tlireaten them with extinction, and at last, unable to bear the prospect any longer, 
they began to ])lot autl conspire to prevent any further encroachment upon their imagined 
rights. 

It was in Nottingham that the first manifestation of violence was displayed, the 
stocking-weavers of the ancient town rising in determined opposition to the new loom, 
which was then being largely introduced. Riots were organized, under the leadership of 
a mysterious but not altogether mythical personage called General Lud, and attacks were 
made upon the various factories in which the obnoxious frames had been adopted. Over 
a tliousand looms were destroyed in Nottingham. So desperate were the rioters that 
they quickly spread themselves over the whole of the manufacturing districts of the 
north, and wherever they went carried destruction with them. 

Nowhere did the agitation bear more bitter fruit than in the West Riding of York- 
shire, where it spread with relentless force. The rioters used to assemble by night on 
the moors and commons, and there determine their ])lans of attack. They administered 
a fearful oath to all who joined them, each member being sworn never to reveal "to any 
person or persons under the canopy of heaven " the names of those who composed the 
secret committee, "their proceedings, meetings, places of abode, dress, features, con- 
nections, or anything else that might lead to a discovery of the same, either by word, or 
deed, or srgn, under the penalty of being sent out of the world by the first brother," who 
should meet him, and having his name and character "blotted out of existence, and 
never to be remembered but with contempt and abhorrence." 

The movement almost swelled to the proportions of a rebellion. As time wore on 
the boldness of the rioters increased; no mill was safe from attack, no mill-owner but 
felt his life in peril, for they not only pronounced the doom of the machinery, but of all 
who used it. Thousands of pounds' worth of property was destroyed in the cloth- 
weaving districts around Leeds, Dewsbury, and Iluddersfield. Vigorous measures were 
adopted by the local authorities to put down the rioters, but for a long time their efforts 
were of little avail. Mr. Joseph Radcliffe, of Milne Bridge, was one of the most active 
of the Yorkshire magistracy in organizing a system for the surprise and detection of the 
ringleaders, and he was bravely aided by the Rev. Hammond Robertson, of Hartshead 
(the Mr. Helstone of Charlotte Bronte's " Shirley"). For his services in this cause Mr. 
Radcliffe had a baronetcy conferred upon him. The assistance of the military had to be 
sought in many instances, and conflict between the soldiers and the rioters was fre- 
quent. Deeds of murder, atrocity, and outrage were committed on all sides, and the 
government were compelled to pass a special act of parliament with a view to checking 
these crimes. Arrests were made daily, and the prisoners became so numerous that 
special commissions for their trial were opened in the various assize towns of the nortli. 
Rewards Avere offered and king's pardons to accomplices; but, tliough manj' offenders 
were brought to justice, the agitation did not abate. A crisis was precipitated, liow- 
ever, in the month of April, 1812, by the perpetration of two crimes of startling 
violence. 

On the night of Saturday, the 11th of April, according to a preconcerted plan, a 
body of Ludites, some hundred and fifty strong, made an attack upon the mill of Mr. 
William Cartwright, at Rawfolds, near Liversedge. For more than six Avecks previous 
to this night, Mr. Cartwright, four workmen, and five soldiers, had slept in the factory. ' 
Tile mill-owner knew that the Ludites were bent upon destroying his machinery, and 
he had determined, if possible, to prevent them. Shortly after midnight this gallant 
little band of defenders retired to rest, Mr. Cartwright having first assured himself that 



i52 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [October, 

the pickets outside were at their posts. For a while all was as still as death; the first 
hour of the Sabbath had been entered upon with a calm peacefulness that was in har- 
mony with the associations of the day. But the stillness was not to be of long duration. 
At twenty-five minutes to one, the dog in the yard began to bark furiously, and Mr. Cart- 
wright immediately jumped out of bod. As he opened the door of the room where he 
had been lying down, he was startled Ijy a crash of breaking windows and a discharge of 
fire-arms. He also heard a loud hammering at the mill doors, and the sound of many 
voices. He rushed to the spot where he and his companions had piled their arms before 
going to bed ; the workmen and the soldiers were running to the same place ; and all, like 
himself, were without clothing, except their shirts. There was no time to be lost. 
Each man seized his gun. Two of the workmen ran to the top of the mill and rang th; 
bell. Then the bell rope broke, and they rushed down again. All this time the mot 
without were discharging their guns and pistols at the windows, and tlie hammering at 
the door was kept up unceasingly. George Mellor, the G^nieral Lud of the district, was 
leading the attack, the rioters having advanced in regular military order, the musket- 
men first, then the pistol-men, then the hatchet-men, club-men, and staff'-men, those with- 
out weajjons bringing up the rear. " Bang away, my ladsl " "In with you I " " Kill 
them every one! '' were the shouts that proceeded from the mob, as volley after volley 
was fired. But the half score besieged men were not to be so easily overcome. The 
conflict was kept up for about twenty minutes, and then, unable to efi'ect an entrance, 
and having spent all their ammunition, the Ludites, repulsed and furious, retreated in 
the direction of Huddersfield, leaving behind them two wounded comjwnions, who 
afterwards died. 

Tliis was the incident which Charlotte Bronte worked up with dramatic effect in 
" Shirley," only, for the sake of jjicturesqucness, she described the little mill in the hol- 
low near Haworth instead of the one at Rawfolds. Mrs. Gaskell, in a note upon this 
circumstance, mentions the fact that some of the rioters had threatened that if they did 
not succeed in forcing their way into the mill, they would break into the house, which 
was near, and murder Mr. Cartwright's wife and children. " This was a terrible threat," 
she wrote, " for he had been obliged to leave his family with only one or two soldiers to 
defend them. Mrs. Cartwright knew what they had threatened ; and on that dreadful 
night, hearing, as she thought, steps apjiroaching, she snatched up her two infant 
children and put them in a basket up the great chimney common in old-fashioned York- 
shire houses." Within a week of the attack on the mill, Mr. Cartwright was twice shot 
at on the high road. The ringleaders were subsequently arrested and tried at York. 
Mr. Cartwright was presented with a sum of £3,000, subscribed by neighboring mill- 
owners, as a tribute of admiration of his courageous conduct. 

A few days after the attack on Rawfolds mill, Mr. William Horsfall, a manufacturer 
at Marsden, while riding home from the Huddersfield market, was fired at from behind 
a wall and killed. Four Ludites — George Mellor, William Thorpe, Thomas Smith, 
and Benjamin Walker — were concerned in the commission of this crime. Walker after- 
wards turned king's evidence, and the other three were hanged. At the siiecial com- 
mission opened at York in January, 1813, sixty-four persons were put ujDon their 
trial for offenses connected with Ludism, and fifteen of them were executed on the 
same scaffold on the morning of the 16th of January. This severe example had the 
effect of repressing the agitation. — Romnnce of Invention. 



That is a story worth preserving — the one that comes from Chicago, narrating how 
the workingmen helped one of their fellows to a home. A Bohemian laborer, Mr. 
Seveck, by years of self-denial had saved money enough to build himself a home ; not a 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. ^53 

mansion, but a sufficient shelter for himself and family. But in a furious gale his house 
was blown down and utterly demolished. The saving of years were gone in a moment, 
and old age was coming on. Then it was that the workingmen — men scarcely better 
off than himself — carpenters and masons — gave the work of three Sundays to building 
him a new house. They finished it completely, ready for him to move into, and the 
women of the neighborhood provided a dinner, and the children brought flowers. True 
the work was done on Sundays, but it was a good deed, for the doing of which there is 
high authority. The Chicago Tribune^ which notices the matter at considerable length, 
says: " The Sevecks are obscure people. The new house is a little one. The people 
wlio built it are not famous, but no more beautiful or charitable deed ever illuminated 
this world." When consj^icuous examples of charity and good will are wanted, the 
place to look for them is amongst those who have little to give. There is a great deal 
besides lumber and nails and stone and brick in this house that Chicago workingmen 
built for the Sevecks. — American Machinist. 



Near-Sig-htedness. 

"We learn from Science that Dr. Boucheron, a Paris physician, has made some obser- 
vations on near-sightedness that are highly interesting, if true. "The children of myopes 
are not born myopes; they become so, but at an age more and more young, according as 
generations succeed. Thus, a grandfather who became myope at twenty years, having 
a son myopic at fifteen years, would be able to read in old age without spectacles, and 
the son would also ; but the grandchildren will become myopic at twelve years. The 
great-grandson will be a myope at eight years, will arrive at six dioptrics of myopia at 
fifteen years, at eight dioptrics at thirty years, will lose an eye at thirty-five years, and 
will have great difficulty in preserving his second eye to the end of his days. It is there- 
fore necessary that this state of things should be more vigoroiisly attended to. Dr. 
Boucheron remarked that in children somewhat the same thing hapjiens with the muscles 
of the eye as what occurs in writer's cramp. The child strains, contracts himself, and 
there is produced cramp of the accommodation of the eye, and this abnormal accommoda- 
tion tends to become permanent in myopic pupils. Dr. Boucheron examined one hundred 
pupils in one institution, and took the measure of their myopia. He instilled atropine 
into their eyes, and their myopia was modified. Hence, beyond the principles of hygiene, 
so easy to institute, he recommends the emjjloyment of feeble doses of atropine, or simply 
cocaine." 

It may be that Dr. Boucheron's conclusions are correct in the long run of cases, but 
they certainly are not borne out by observations in this country. The facts are as fol- 
lows, according to the practice of our best American oculists: A tendency to near-sight- 
edness is observable, among the children of near-sighted persons, and this tendency 
appears to be more pronounced when both parents are myopic than when only one of 
them is so; and this is precisely what we might expect from general considerations. 
Moreover, it is by no means certain that children are not born myopic, for it must be 
evident that it is exceedingly difficult to find out whether the sight of a baby is normal 
or not. It is true that the ophthalmoscope enables us to measure the curvature of the 
different refracting surfaces of the eye, and then to learn, by calculation, whether the 
images of objects are formed on the retina or not; but the eye of a child only a few days 
old is so excessively sensitive and delicate that the strong light ordinarily used in such 
examinations would ruin it forever. Measurements have been made, however, with very 
faint light, on the eyes of children less than a week old, and some have been shown to 
be near-sighted by the process of calculation above referred to. In several respects, 
therefore, Dr. Boucheron's results look questionable. 



154 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [October, 




tttmttint 



IIAKTFOKD, OCTOBER 15, 1889. 
J. M. Allen, Editor. A. D. Risteen, Affsociate Editor. 

The Locomotive can le obtained free by calling at any of the company's agencies. 

Subscription price 50 cents per year wJien mailed from this ornce. 

Bound, cohtmes one dollar each. 

Papers that borrow cuts from us will do us a favor if they will plainly mark them in returning, 
so that we may give proper credit on our books. 

Mator Grant, of Xew York. lia.s done himself credit in selecting tlie men who are to 
get the World's Fair of 1892 under weigh. The indications are, now, that the fair will 
be held, and that it will be successful. 



Ox Tuesday, October loth, the American Boiler Manufacturers' Association meets at 
Pittsburgh. It was organized in that city six months ago, the fii-st meeting being held 
at Hotel Anderson on Aprfl IGth. The next regular meeting is to be held in Xew York on 
the first Tuesday in February, 1890. the present meeting being called for the purpose 
of hearing certain committee reports, and for discussing certain matters relating to the 
organization. 

The reports of the twelfth and thirteenth meetings of the chief engineei*s of the 
steam boiler owners' associations of France {Comptes Eendus des Seances des 12* et 13"" 
Congres des Ingenieurs en Chef des Associations de Proprietaires <Z' Appareils d Vapeur), 
which we have just received, are full of useful information and discussion concerning 
the strength of materials, the evaporative power of boilers, the elBciency of engines, and 
many other important things. We were specially interested in the very full and detailed 
accounts of explosions that are given. 



Mr. HE>rRY C. Adams, statistician to the Interstate Commerce Commission, has 
recently submitted a first annual report of the statistics of railways in the United States, 
for the year ending June 30, 1889, a copy of which we have received. It consists, 
briefly, of five tables, treating respectively of the classification of railways and mileage, 
of the amount of railway capital on June 30, 1888, of the earnings and income for the 
year, of the general expenditures, and of payments on railway capital. To the main body 
of the work an appendix is added, treating the subject of railway statistics in general; 
and to the whole two very complete indexes are attached. The entire work forms a 
volume of 390 pages. 

'•Boiler Explosions in 1888 "" is the title of an interesting little pamphlet published 
by E. ifc F. X. Spon. from the pen of E. B. Marten, who is chief engineer to the Mid- 
land Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company, of England. This is the 27th re- 
port of the kind that has been issued by Mr. Marten, and it includes all the explosions in 
England during the year. In all there were 47 true boiler explosions during 1888, re- 
sulting in the death of 18 persons, and in injury to 49 others. There were 15 other ex- 
plosions of apparatus similar to boilers, but which could not properly be classified with 
them. These additional explosions resulted in the death of 3, and in injury to 16. The 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 155 

casuulties are illustrated, almost without exception, and the manner of failure is indi- 
cated in each case, making the jnimphlet both interesting and instructive. 



We acknowledge with much pleasure the report of the board of commissioners ap- 
pointed by Massachusetts to set to rights the boundary line between Massachusetts and 
New Hampshire. The line from Lowell to the ocean is very crooked, and is supposed to 
follow the course of the river, three miles distant therefrom, on the northerly side. The 
(piestions to be decided were, whether the boundarj^ monuments as they now stand 
represent the present line of jurisdiction between the two States; when, by whom, and 
under what circumstances these boundary monuments were erected; and whether the 
present line or any other line had ever been established by competent authority. In dis- 
cussing these matters the report reproduces many interesting old documents bearing on 
the question, and several fac simile maps. As the outcome of much discussion it has 
been decided to let the line stand as it is, and to make no changes except such as may be 
necessary in replacing monuments that have been moved, or that were not originally 
placed in the positions tUey were intended to be in. 



Experiments on Iron and Steel. 

We have received from Mr. James E. Howard a most interesting paper on the 
"Physical Properties of Iron and Steel at Higher Temperatures," giving the results of 
experiments made at Watertown Arsenal, Watertown, ]Mass. A large number of bars 
were tested, the co-efficient of expansion of each being carefully measured, and the tem- 
perature of the bars during the subsequent tests determined by observing the elongation, 
by heat, of measured lengths of them. It appears that ''the tensile strength of steel 
bars diminishes as the temperature increases from zero, Fah., until a minimum is reached 
between 200° and 300° Fah. ; the milder steels appearing to reach the place of minimum 
strength at lower temperatures than the higher carbon bars. From the temperature of 
this first minimum strength the bars display greater tenacity with increase of temperature 
imtil the maximum is reached between 400° to GoO° Fah." The greatest loss of strength, 
in passing from 70° to the temperature of first minimum strength, was 6.5 per cent., at 
295° Fah. The greatest gain over the strength of the metal at 70° was 25.8 per cent., 
the maximum point being reached at 460° Fah. "The elastic limit appears to diminish 
with increase of temperature. Owing to a period of rapid yielding without increase of 
stress, or even under reduced stress, the elastic limit is well defined at moderate tempera- 
tures with most of the steels. Mild steel shows this yielding point up to the vicinity of 
500° in hard steels, if present, it appears at lower temperatures. ... It appears 
that the contraction of area of the mild and medium hard steels is somewhat less at 400° 
to 600° than at atmospheric temperatures, and within this range there is a tendency to 
fracture obliquely across the bar. The hard steels showed substantially the same con- 
traction up to 500° Fah. Above 500° or 600° the contraction increases with the tempera- 
ture of the metal. . . . One specimen of steel, fractured at the temperature of 
1,572°, contracted 08.9 per cent." 

Experiments were also made with riveted joints and steel boiler plates, at tempera- 
tures ranging from 70° to 700° Fah. "Joints at 200^ showed less strength than when 
cold; at 250° and higher temperatures the strength exceeded that of cold joints; and 
when overstrained at 400° and 500° an increase of strength was found upon completing 
the test cold. . . . Rivets that sheared cold at 40,000 to 41,000 lbs. per square 
inch, sheared at 46,000 lbs. per square inch at 300°; and at 600°, the highest temperature 



^56 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [October, 

at which the joints failed in this manner, the shearing strength was 42,130 lbs." The 
paper from which we quote contains six valuable plates in addition to the many tables, 
and throws a good deal of light upon some vexed questions. 



Great Discoveries and Innovations of the Past Sixty Years. 

IV. The Conservation of Energy. 

The discovery of the conservation of energy is probably the greatest achievement of 
man. It may be explained in simple language, and one soon comes to look upon it 
almost as a self-evident truth ; yet its importance can hardly be overestimated. It is, in 
fact, the foundation of everything. Our everyday work would be impossible without 
it; the simplest calculations that we make are based upon it; and even our philosophies 
(though the fact is not always easy to see) accept it as their ultimate basis. 

In beginning our examination of this subject, let us consider a few examples of the 
fact that 'faction and reaction are equal and opposite." Let us suppose that a glass 
globe containing a number of goldfish is so delicately mounted upon wheels or rollers 
that the slightest conceivable touch is sufficient to make it move. Now, however the 
goldfish move about in that globe — with whatever violence or in whatever direction — 
we may rest assured that the globe itself will not move in any direction. If a fish 
presses upon the water with his tail, so also does the water press back upon the fish to 
an equal extent and in an opposite direction. (In fact, any pressure whatever, when 
produced between two objects, must of necessity act equally upon both of them.) The 
result is, that whatever the forces are that are set in action by the fishes in the globe, an 
equal number of precisely equal forces exist in the opposite direction; so that no motion 
can possibly be communicated by the fishes to the globe as a whole. 

Let us now consider the case of a rifle and ball. "When we fire the rifle the most 
noticeable result is that the ball rushes forward with great velocity, and goes perhaps a 
mile before it comes to rest again. It seems to us that here is surely a case in which 
action is not equal to reaction. It appears that the ball has been sent forward without 
any equal eflect being produced in the opposite direction. As a matter of fact, however, 
an equal effect has been produced ; for if the ball weighs say one ounce, and the rifle 100 
ounces, and if the velocity given to the ball is 1,000 feet per second in a forward direc- 
tion, a velocity of 10 feet per second in a backward direction will be given to the rifle 
itself, causing it to " kick," as the sportsmen say. The force that acts forward on the 
ball is precisely equal to the force that acts backward on the rifle ; but the velocity that this 
force communicates to the rifle is only one one-hundredth of that which it communicates 
to the ball, because in the rifle there is 100 times as much matter to be moved. Thus we 
see that although at first here seemed to be a case in which action and reaction were ex- 
ceedingly unequal, we find upon examination that the equality does in reality exist. 

There are many other apparent exceptions to the law of equality of action and reac- 
tion, but every one of them, when properly examined, will be found to confirm the law 
instead of opposing it. For instance, when we let a stone fall to the earth we do not 
see a reaction, but we may be sure that one exists. In fact, the case is very much like 
the one just cited, except that here the bodies are coming together instead of going 
apart. The earth corresponds to the rifle, and the stone to the ball ; and though the 
motion of the earth toward the stone is exceedingly small, it is nevertheless capable of 
being calculated, and we may be certain that it really takes place, and that we could per 
ceive it if we had instruments sufficiently delicate. 

Returning to the consideration of the rifle and ball, we have to own that although 
the momentum of the rifle is equal to the momentum of the ball (the greater mass of the 



1889] THE LOCOMOTIVE. -157 

rifle exactly compensating for its lesser velocity), there is, nevertheless, a tremendous 
difference between being in front of the rifle and being behind it. Now in what docs 
this difference consist ? Clearly it is that the ball has the power of penetrating wood, 
water, flesh, etc., and that the rifle has not; that is, the ball has the power of mercom- 
ing resistance^ and the rifle has not. This something that the ball possesses that the rifle 
does not is called energy; and energy may therefore be defined as "the jiower of over- 
coming resistance, or of doing work. " 

A little consideration will shoAV that this energy will be projwrtional to the weight 
or mass of the ball; for, as Balfour Stewart says, "a ball of two ounces moving with the 
velocit}' of one thousand feet per second will be the same as two balls of one ounce mov- 
ing with this velocity, but the energy of two similarly moving ounce balls will man- 
ifestly be douljle that of one, so that the energy is proportional to the weight, if we 
imagine that meanwhile the velocity remains the same." But though the energy that a 
moving body possesses is thus projiortional to the weight of that body, it is not propor- 
tional to the velocity with wliich the body moves. It increases much faster than that 
velocity ; for if this were not the case tlie energy of the rifle and the ball would be the 
same, the greater weight of the rifle exactly compensating for its lesser velocity, as 
already explained. It must be, therefore, that when the velocity of a body is doubled, 
its energy is much more than doubled. Experiment shows tliat a cannon ball has its 
penetrating power, or power of overcoming resistance, increased fourfold by doubling its 
velocity; that is, a ball that has a certain velocity can penetrate a certain number of 
inches of plank ; and a similar ball with double the velocity can penetrate four times as 
many inches of plank. Tliis fact is expressed by saying that the energy of a body is 
proportional to the square of the body's velocity. 

At tills point it will be necessary to explain the exact meaning of the word icorlc. 
Every one knows in a general way what work is, but for the purposes of this article we 
want a more precise definition. Work is the overcoming of resistance; and, for scien- 
tific purposes, at least, it is measured in foot-pounds. A foot-pound is the amount of 
work that must be done in order to lift a one-pound weight through a vertical height of 
one foot. To raise ten pounds one foot, ten foot-pounds of work must be done ; to raise 
one pound thirty feet, thirty foot-pounds of work must be done; to raise 10 pounds 30 
feet, 300 foot-pounds of work must be done. That is, the work done in raising a weight 
is found by multiplying the weight (in pounds) by the distance (in feet) through which 
it is lifted. In the same manner, the work done in overcoming any other resistance is 
found by multiplying this resistance (estimated in pounds) by the distance (in feet) 
through which it is overcome; and the work done by any force is found by multiplying 
that force (estimated, as before, in pounds) by the distance, in feet, through which it acts. 

We are now prepared to understand the following statement: It has been found by 
experiment that a body weighing w pounds, and moving with a velocity v, possesses an 
amount of energy equal to lo x «--;- 64. As an example, let us return to the bullet, 
which weighed one ounce, and was moving with a velocity of 1,000 feet per second. Its 
weight is l-16th of a pound, so that wx «'-= JgXl, 000,000, or 62,500. Dividing this by 
64, in accordance with the formula, we find that the energy of the ball is 976 foot-pounds. 
This means that if it were possible to attach one end of a string to the moving bullet, 
and the other end to a train of perfectly frictionless gearwheels (to reduce the velocity), 
the bullet would raise a weight of 976 pounds through a height of one foot before it 
came to rest. Again, if the bullet should strike against a target made of wood of such 
a quality that a pressure of 400 lbs. would have to be exerted against a similar bullet in 
order to press it into the wood, our imaginary bullet with a velocity of 1,000 feet a sec- 
ond would penetrate this target 2.44 feet before it came to rest. (976-^400=2.44.) For 
in order to penetrate at all the bullet must keep up a continuous pressure against the 



-158 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [Octobeb, 

wood in front of it of 400 lbs. ; and in moving tbrougli the wood a distance of 2.44 feet 
it does 3.44x400 (=976) foot-pounds of work, which is exactly all the work it was 
capable of doing, and therefore at the end of 2.44 feet it stops. 

We may now perceive, perhaps, a part of the meaning of the expression "conserva- 
tion of energy." The bullet, in penetrating the wood, can do no more (and no less) work 
than the equivalent of the energy it had, in virtue of its velocity. 

A stone or a weight, weighing one ])ouud, and raised sixteen feet above the ground, 
can do sixteen foot-pounds of work in falling. If it is connected to a train of ■^'heels 
and made to run a clock, or some other piece of mechanism, it does that work, and 
comes down slowly to the ground. If it is allowed to fall freely, it does no work, but 
comes quickly to the ground, and strikes it with considerable velocity. Surely here is a 
case in which energy is not " conserved"; surely here is a case in which the energy that 
the stone 2)ossessed, in virtue of its elevated position, does nothing, and is lost. But no ; 
when the stone starts it has no velocity, and when it strikes the ground it has a consid- 
erable velocity. The energy that it had in virtue of its elevated jDosition has disappeared, 
it is true, but in disappearing it has given rise to the velocity that the stone has when it 
strikes the ground; and that velocity may be shown, by experiment, to be 32 feet per 
second. The pound weight, moving with a velocity of 32 feet per second, as it is when 
it strikes the earth, is capable of doing precisely as much work as it would have done if 
allowed to fall slowly, while connected with the clock. For, as we have said, when it 
operates the clock it does 16 foot-pounds of work; and when it is moving with a speed 
of 32 feet per second it possesses 1x32^-^64 (=1,024^64=16) foot-pounds of energy — 
the same as before. During its fall, therefore, it has lost none of its power of doing 
work — that is, it has lost none of its energy. When it does strike the earth its energy is 
at once removed from it, it is true, but still it is not lost. It is converted into heat, as 
we shall see later on. 

As a matter of fact, no instance has ever yet been found in which energy is either 
created or lost; and scientists are now fully persuaded that there is no such instance in 
the whole universe. The planets and their satelites afford us beautiful examples of the 
transformation of one kind of energy into another — of the energy of position into the 
energy of motion, and vice verm — but it appears from a mathematical analysis of their 
motions that none of their energy passes out of existence into nothing, or comes into ex- 
istence from nothing. 

Our readers are all very well aware that heat was at one time regarded as a substance ; 
but that this theory was exploded early in the present century, and that we now know 
heat to be a kind of motion — a motion of the molecules of substances. It has been 
found that heat and mechanical energy can be converted, the one into the otiier. 
Accordingly, we are now pretty familiar with the fact that the heat given off by a pound 
of water in cooling one degree Fah., would, if it could all be converted into mechanical 
energy, raise a one-j^ound weight through a vertical height of 772 feet (780 feet according 
to later measures). We are also growing more familiar with the fact that electricity, chem- 
ical affinity, and all other forces can be converted into heat, and that each has its own 
invarialile heat equivalent. The dynamo converts mechanical energy into electricity, 
and the electric motor reconverts electricity into visible mechanical energy. The ther- 
mopile converts heat into electricity, and any electrical resistance -will convert electricity 
back into heat. Plants convert the energy of sunlight into the energy of chemical sepa- 
ration, giving us coal, oil, and natural gas. These again, in our ordinary stoves and 
lamjDS, have their energy of chemical separation transformed once more into light and 
heat. The steam engine transforms heat into mechanical energy; and any unlul)ricated 
bearing or hot box illustrates the conversion of mechanical energy into heat. In fact, 
every form of energy is transformable into every other form ; and when an amount of 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 159 

energy of one form disappears, a precisely equivalent amount of some other form of 
energy appears. When the rifle ball penetrated the wooden target, therel)y doing 976 
foot-pounds of work, the visible energy of motion that it possessed became at once 
transformed into invisible heat. When the ball had come to rest, in the place of 976 foot- 
])ounds of mechanical energy we had 1.26 units of heat (976-^772 = 1.26) given off, 
which heat was absorbed by the target. (We may show, experimentally, that heat is 
produced in this manner, by hammering a piece of lead on an anvil. Under repeated 
blows the lead grows quite hot.) When the stone weighing one pound fell a distance 
of 16 feet, the energy that it possessed became converted into heat immediately upon 
its striking the ground; but since it takes 772 foot-pounds of mechanical energy to pro- 
duce enough heat to raise the temperature of a pound of water one degree, the heat 
given out by a stone falling through a small distance is so slight that it cannot be 
detected without special instruments. When the stone falls a groat distance, however, 
(as is the case with meteors), the heat given out is at once apparent; it may even be so 
great, in the case of meteors, as to vaporize part of the stone. 

So all the phendmena that we see, from the grand falls of Xiagara to the truck-horse 
drawing a wagon, are merely instances in which some form of energy is being trans- 
formed into some other form — without the loss or creation of a single foot-poiuid. In 
fact, it istirmly believed that the sum total of all the energies of the universe is precisely 
the same now as it was when the universe was created — that there is not one single 
foot-pound more or less of it tlian there was then, or than there will be when it all 
comes to an end. 

This, then, is what is meant by the "conservation of energy." The honor of its 
discovery does not belong to any one man. Grove, Mayor, Segnin, Joule, Hclmholtz, 
Rankine, Clausius, Tait, Andrews, Maxwell, and William and James Thomson — all con- 
tributed to it, and to them all belongs the glory. 

There is one consideration that must not be omitted. It is easy enough to transform 
all of a given quantity of mechanical energy into heat ; but the heat so produced cannot 
all be transformed back again into mechanical energy; some of it, Avhen once changed 
into heat, must evermore remain as heat. This arises from the fact that no heat engine 
can be perfect, even in theory, for reasons that were pointed out by Carnot. There is 
no energy lost, be it understood. The point is, that it is easier to make the transforma- 
tion in one direction than to make it in the other; and the result is that there must be a 
gradual and continuous transformation of mechanical energy into diffused heat, which 
will come to an end only when all the mechanical energy of the universe is transformed 
into heat, and that heat has become uniformly diffused throughout space. "Although, 
therefore, in a strictly mechanical sense," says Balfour Stewart, " there is a conservation 
of energy, yet, as regards usefulness or fitness for living beings, the energy of the uni- 
verse is in process of deterioration. Universally diffused heat forms what we may call 
the great waste heap of the universe, and this is growing larger year by year. . . . 
It has been well pointed out by Thomson that, looked at in this light, the universe is a 
system that had a beginning and must have an end; for a process of degradation cannot 
be eternal. If we could view the universe as a candle not lit, tlien it is perhaps conceiv- 
able to regard it as having been always in existence; but if regard it rather as a candle 
that has been lit, we become absolutely certain that it cannot have been burning from 
eternity, and that a time will come when it will cease to burn. We are led to look to a 
beginning in which the particles of matter were in a diffused chaotic state, but endowo(l 
with the power of gravitation, and we are led to look to an end in which the whole uni- 
verse will be one equally heated inert mass, and from which everything like life or 
motion or beauty will have utterly gone away." 



160 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



Incorporated 
1866. 




Charter Per- 
petual. 



Issues Policies of Iiisiirauce after a Careful Inspection of tlie Boilers. 



COVEP.rSG AT.T. LOSS OB DAMAGE TO 



BOILERS, BUILDINGS, AND MACHINERY. 



ALSO COVZP.rSG 



LOSS OF LIFE AND UCIDENT TO PERSONS 



AEI5ISG rr.OM 



Steam Boiler Explosions, 

Full information concerning the plan of the Companye operations can be obtained at the 

Or at anv Ac^eucv. 



J. M. ALLEN, President. 
J. B. PIERCE, Secretary. 



W. B. FRANKLIN, Vice-Prest. 
FRANCIS B. ALLEN, 2d Vice-Prest. 



Hoard of 

J. M. ALLEN. Pre?i.ient. 

FRANK \V. CHENKY. Treas. Cheney Brothers 

Silk Manufatturins Co. 
CHARLES M. BEACiL of Beach & Co. 
DANIEL PHILLIP.S, of Adams Express Co. 
RICHARD W. H. JARVIS, Frest. Colt's Fire Arms 

Manuf:iciurin2 Co. 
THOMAS O. EXDERS. President of the U. S. Bank. 
LEVERET T BRAINARD, of The Case, Lockwood 

& Brainard Co. 
Gex. W.M. B. FRANKLIN, U. S. Commissioner to 

the Paris Exposition. 
Hox NATHANIEL SHIPMAN, Judge United 

States Circuit Court. 



T>ireotors. 

NEWTON CASE, of The Case, Lockwood & 

Brainard Co. 
NELSON HOLLISTEE, of State Bank. Hartford. 
Hox. HENKY C. ROBINSON, Attomey-at-Law, 

Hartford. 
Hox. FRANCIS B. COOLEY, of the National 

Exchange Bank, Hertford, Conn. 
A. W. JILLSON, late Vice-Prest. Phoenix Fire Ins. 

Co.. Hartford. Conn 
EDMUND A. STEDMAN, Treasurer of the Fidelity 

Co., of Hartford, Conn. 
CLAI'P SPOONER. Bridgeport, Conn. 
GEORGE BURNHAM, Baldwin Locomotive Works, 

Philadelphia. 



A. S. Ferry, General Agent, Office at Hartford, Conn. 



GENERAL AGENTS. 

THEO. H. B.ABCOCK, 
COR BIN & GOf^DRKH. 
LAWFORD & McKIM, 

C. E. ROBERT.S, 

H. D. P. BIGELOW, 
C. C. GARDINER, 
L. B. PERKINS. 
W. G. LINEBURGH & SON, 
GEO. P. BURWELL. 
MANN & WILSON. 
G. A. STEEL & CO- 
FRITH & Zf^LLARS, 
C. J. McCARY & rO., 
W. S. HASTIE & SON, 



CHIEF INSPECTORS 

R. K. Mc MURRAY, 
WM. G. PIKE 
JOSEPH CRAGG, 



OFFICES. 



WM. U. FAIRBAIRN, 

H. D. P BIGELOW, 
J. S. WILSON, 
F. S. ALLEN. 
J. H. RANDALL. 
C A. BURWELL, 
.r. B. WARNER, 
M. J GEIST. 
T. E. SHEARS, 

I B. F. JOHNSON, I 



New York Citv. 
Pmr.ADEi.PHiA. 
Baltimoke, Md. 
Bo.STOX, Mas.s 
PlUiVIDEXCE, R. I. 

Chicago, III. 
St. Lovis. Mo. 
Haktfokd. 

BRIDGEroP.T. 

Cleveland. 
Sax Fk.\xcisco. 

PfiRTLAXD. GhE. 

Denver. Col. 
BiRMixoHAM, Ala. 
Charlestox, S. C. 



Office. 285 P.roadwav. 
" ■ 430 Wahmt St. 

22 So.HollidaySt. 
" .35 Pembertoii Sq. 

" 29 Wevbo.=set St. 

" 112 Quincv St. 
404 Marke't St. 
" 2ifc Main St, 

94 State St. 
" 20*^ .Superior St. 
" 306 Sansome St. 

" Onera House Block. 
" 201 ■=> First Av. 
" 44 Broad St. 



PUBLISHED BY THE HARTFORD STEAM BOILER INSPECTION AND INSURANCE COMPANY. 



New Si:iues— Vol. X. HARTFORD, CONN., NOVEMBER, 1889. 



No. 11. 



Explosion of an Oil Still. 

The engravings illustrate au instructive explosion that took place some little time 
ago in Pennsylvania. The still was used only for the purpose of removing the lighter 
hydrocarbons, and it did not reduce the oil to more than sixty degrees specific gravity. 
There was therefore no liability to accident from burning, from dejiosit or from fouling 
of pipes and connections, as only a low degree of temperature was required. The gen- 
erator which exploded was 21 feet in diameter and 8|- feet high from the bottom to the 




Fig. 1. — The Still Befoke the Explosion. 

root of the roof flange, and was heated internally by 300 lineal feet of three-inch 
steam pipe. The upper head, or roof, was about 3 feet 3 inches high, and to it a dome 
was fitted that was 7 feet high and 30 inches in diameter. The bottom of^the still was 
flat, and was secured to the shell with 3"x3"x^" angle iron. The bottom and shell 
plates were each -j^^ inch thick, and the dome and roof ^". The vertical seams of the 
shell were double riveted. 

The generator was supported upon a stone foundation consisting of 18-inch walls with 
strong buttresses, and two division walls for central support; and crossing underneath 
it, and firmly and evenly bedded in all tlie walls, were bars of railroad track iron, to give 
an even and uniform su])port. All the work was new, and the accident took place dur- 
ing the third run, just at night. It was proposed ultimately to run the still under 10 



^62 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [Xoyember, 

to 15 lbs. of internal pressure, but at the time of the accident the ball had not yet been 
placed on the safety-valve, and as the weight of the lever was all that held the valve 
down, the pressure in the tank at the time of rupture could not have been greater than 
1^ lbs. to the square inch. A heavy shower of rain was falling at the time, and a stiff 
wind was blowing, the initial rupture taking place upon the exposed side. The fracture 
was along the row of rivets in the bottom of the shell, and in the angle iron, the action 
being to tear the siiell from the bottom through either the line of rivets or the root of 
the angle in the flange. 

After the explosion the generator was found in the yard in the position indicated 
in Fig. 2. The dome was driven inward through the roof, as shown, part of it also 
projecting downward into the ground. From the position of the wreck we infer that 
the generator must have been buckled in construction, so that it did not rest evenly and 
equally upon its seating; it may have been unsupported, therefore, for many fet;t in its 
circumference and for some distance inward, throwing a severe strain upon the angle 
iron and its connection to the shell. This view of the case was borne out by an exami- 
nation of a duplicate still at the same works, which was found to rest upon the central 




Fig 2. — Position of the Still After the Explosion. 

portion of the bottom, this part being held rigid by the weight of the pipe coils, while 
the outer edge of the still touched the seating at two or three points only. It was also 
borne out by the fact that at the time of the first filling or run, the dnp-pipe connection 
was broken at A and B, which would indicate that the generator had settled. The 
foundations showed no sign of having settled, save for a crack through the arch over 
each door. We understand, however, that these cracks were not visible before the ex- 
plosion, so that they probably occurred at the moment when the explosion took place. 

The primary cause of the accident, therefore, seems to have been the settling and 
consequent alteration of form, each time the still was used, throwing a severe strain 
upon the point ruptured. The plates were not of a quality suitable to withstand much 
strain or buckling, and no doubt the fracture was large and perhaps nearly complete 
some time before the accident, the final giving out of the structure being hastened by the 
contraction caused by the rain. The shell was not thrown to any distance, but merely 
tipped over into the position shown in Fig. 2, which would require but slight internal 
pressure, assisted by the wind and the steam escaping after the coil connections were 
broken inside. 

Stills of such a size as this one should be constructed with great care, and should 
contain only the best of material. In forming the angle iron that joins the shell to the 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 163 

bottom plates everything should be made true and uniform, so that the shell can be at- 
tached without the use of drift-pins to draw the parts together. In order to eftect this, 
drilled instead of punched holes would be necessary on this part of the work. Any dis- 
tortion or buckling in so large a surface is greatly augmented when the generator is filled 
with oil. The bottom and sides are made rigid by the timbers and scairolding ])laced 
within for the support of the coils, and hence, if there is a depression on one side, owing 
to a want of contact with the foundation, the strain would very naturally locate itself at 
the joint connecting the cylinder with the bottom. That a tendency to such deflection 
and strain would exist may be seen by the following figures: the weight of the contents 
of the generator, including the timbers and coils, and assuming the oil to weigh 55 
pounds per cubic foot, would be not far from 80 tons. The unsupported part of the 
bottom would be sul)jected to a strain due to a considerable part of this Aveight, and in 
our judgment it is quite possible that this strain might be so distributed as to rupture the 
plates receiving it. After the crack or rupture had occurred there was nothing to hold 
the cylinder to the bottom, through the ruptured section, and as the area of the bottom 
of the tank was about 50,000 square inches, one pound of internal pressure per square 
inch would give a total pressure of 50,000 pounds, tending to separate the top of the 
generator from the bottom. Now, the weight of the cylinder and the top was only 
about 12,000 pounds, so that it is plain that with one pound of internal pressure per 
square inch, the lifting force exerted on the upper part of the generator and tending to 
lift it from the lower ])art would be over four times the generator's weight. The condi- 
tions were similar to those in a balloon. The generator would naturally begin to lift at 
the fractured portion and turn over in the opposite direction, the unfractured poi'tion 
preventing its being lifted ofl[ tlie bottom bodily. The sudden gust of wind striking it 
on the west side, and the dash of rain suddenly cooling it off were efficient aids to the 
accident, no doubt, and the reaction of the steam as it escaped from the broken coil con- 
nection may have helped also. 

In building and setting up stills of this size and description, the following precau- 
tions should be taken. The angle iron connecting the cylinder or shell to the bottom 
should be laid out with great care so that it shall lie on the bottom without rocking or 
buckling. The holes in the angle iron and the shell should then l)e drilled instead of 
punched, and care should be taken to have them coincide without being forced to make 
them do so by the use of drift-pins. In seating the tank upon its foundation, care 
should be taken to have complete contact at all points. It would be difficult to con- 
struct a still of such size as this w-ith an absolutely flat bottom, and hence the necessity 
arises of paying careful attention to the seating in order that no part shall be left un- 
supported, so as to bring an undue strain on the more rigid portions. All places 
where there is not contact with the foundation walls should be grouted with good 
cement, and such places within the wall as do not rest firmly on the foundation should 
be ''shimmed" up and made secure. A good quality of iron should be used in these 
large generators, and in oiu- judgment the lower course of plates on such a one as this 
should be three-eigths of an inch thick. The angle iron, too, should be stouter — we 
should recommend 2^" by 4|", and 3" thickness. Lastly, it would be wise to brace such 
tanks from the bottom to the shell, with f " iron braces, three feet or so in length, and 
about two feet apart. 



The reports of the committees appointed by the American Boiler Manufacturers'! 
Association will undoubtedly be printed hiter on, and when they are we shall be jileased 
to review them more fully than is jiossible at present. 



-[54 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [November, 

Inspectors' Reports. 

September, 1889. 

During this month our inspectors made 5,024 inspection trips, visited 9,0G0 boilers, 
inspected 3,911 both internally and externally, and subjected 628 to hydrostatic press- 
ure. The whole number of defects reported reached 8,285, of which 616 were consid- 
ered dangerous; 34 boilers were regarded unsafe for further use. Our usual summary is 
given below : 

Nature of Defects. Whole Number. Dangerous. 

Cases of deposit of sudiment, _ _ . . 495 . - 35 

Cases of incrustation and scale, . - _ . 821 - - 44 

Cases of internal grooving, ----- 61 --6 

Cases of internal corrosion, ----- 305 - 18 

Cases of external corrosion, ----- 617 - - 31 

Broken and loose braces and stays, - - - - 87 - - 10 

Settings defective, - - - - - - 217 - - 26 

Furnaces out of shajje, ----- 197 - - 13 

Fractured plates, - - - - - - 136- -85 

Burned plates, - - - - - - 112- -18 

Blistered plates, - - - - - - 287 - - 13 

Cases of defective riveting, ----- 2,266 - - 58 

Defective heads, ...... 57 - - 19 

Serious leakage around tube ends, - - - - 1,464 - - 50 

Serious leakage at seams, ----- 314 - - 19 

Defective water-gauges, - - - - - 177 -.-26 

Defective blow-offs, ------ 64 - - 24 

Cases of deficiency of water, - - - - 17- - . Q 

Safety-valves overloaded, ----- 34- -7 

Safety-valves defective in construction, - - - 51 - - 18 

Pressure gauges defective, ----- 280 - - 34 

Boilers without pressure gauges, • - . - 3 - - 3 

Unclassified defects, ----- 223 - - 103 

Total, 8,285 - - 616 



Boiler Explosions. 

September, 1889. 

Coal Mine (108). A boiler of the north mine, at the Portsmouth coal mines, 
Portsmouth, R. I., exploded with tremendous noise and force at half-past six, on the 
morning of Sept. 5th. Charles Morgan, a fireman, was so badly scalded that he died two 
hours later. The whole side of the building over the mouth of the mine is a mass of 
broken timbers and loose bricks. The work of the mine will be delayed four or five 
weeks. 

Dry Dock (109). A boiler supplying steam to a stationary engine on McKeever's 
dry dock, south of the gap in Washington Street, Jersey City, blew up on Sept. 8th. 
Charles Nelson, the engineer, was struck by one of the iron plates, and both his legs 
were broken by the blow. The force with which he was thrown down broke his arms 
and sprained his back. The escaping steam scalded him. The part of the boiler that 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. ^65 

did not hit him flew high in the air and hit Tliomas Murphy, a laborer, who was on his 
way home from work when it fell. He was injured about the head and back. Nelson 
cannot live. Murphy will j^robably recover. Besides the loss of the boiler, very little 
damage was done by the explosion. 

Threshing Machine (110). On Sept. 9th, a boiler used on the f\\rm of John "VV. 
Snyder, half a mile east of Carbondale, 111., exploded' with disastrous results. Five 
men lost their lives, viz. : John W. Snyder, Thomas Lyget, Andrew Lyget. John Biggs, 
and Isaac ]Miller. The men were grouped about the boiler, which was leaking and giv- 
ing trouble. Mr. Snyder gave the order to shut down, when, in an instant, the boiler 
exjjloded. William G. Spiller was blown some distance, and escaped with a broken leg. 

Sash Factory (111). A boiler in the California sash, door, and blind factory at 
Oakland, Cal., exploded on Sept. 10th, killing four men outright and injuring several 
others, two probably fatally. Two others are supposed to be buried in the ruins. The 
explosion occurred in the engine-room, where there were three boilers. One was blown 
one hundred feet away, another half that distance, and the third — the one which 
exploded — was blown in two pieces. The engine-house was completely demolished, 
and the factory caught fire. At the time'of the explosion, the engineer and two firemen 
were in the engine-room. Three packers and a plumber were at work on the boilers, 
and four or five others were in the yard near by. The fireman, a Portuguese, is expected 
to die. Edward J. White, one of the men in the yard, was badly injured internally. 
Emanuel Francis was found dead two hundred feet from the engine-room, terribly muti- 
lated. Charles Baemer was badly burned and had his eyesight ruined. Frank Hodge 
had both arms and legs broken, and William Ball received a number of deep cuts. One 
body was found on a lumber-pile, headless and crushed. It has not yet been identified. 
Charles Anderson, a Contra Costa laundry employe, was crushed out of all resemblance 
to human shape. A man named Dailey, who was in the engine-room, is missing. 
(Later in the day his body was found.) John Dolan was blown out of the building, but 
was not injured. 

Locomotive (113). The fast eastward-bound express, on the Pennsylvania railroad, 
was about an hour behind time in passing Altoona, Pa., on Sept. 12th. It was delayed 
by an accident of rare occurrence on the Pennsylvania road. Ahead of it, and coming 
eastward, was a freight train, which was being helped up the western slope of the 
mountain by engine No. 1,106. When within a short distance of Lilly, the boiler of 
the helping engine exploded and blockaded the track. It was derailed, and its cab 
torn off, and was otherwise damaged. Neither engineer nor firemen were seriously hurt. 
The former had his back scalded, and the latter suffered similar injuries to his face. 
The fireman was blown out of the cab and across the north track. 

Steam Yacht (113). The boiler of the pleasure yacht Lee exploded near Cleve- 
land, Ohio, on Sept. 16th, and nine men were drowned before assistance could be had. 

Saw-Mill (114). The boiler at the saw-mill of Fritz Brothers, Berlin, Pa., 
exploded Sept. 24th. John Fritz, Edward Fritz, Oliver Ross, David Ross, and David 
Baker, all well-known young men of this vicinity, were instantly killed. Two brothers, 
named Brant, who were near the saw-mill, were badly injured, but m.ay recover. The 
force of the explosion was terrific, and the mill was completely wrecked. 

Fertilizer Works (115). A tank used for refining oil in George Slimer's fertilizer 
works, in Deer Creek, near Cincinnati, exploded on Sept. 23d. The upper part of the 
tank went up like a rocket through the second floor of the building and through the 
roof. William Hulligan was seriously, but not fatally, hurt, and ten others had very 
narrow escapes. 



d66 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [Novemuek, 

Saw-Mill (116). The boiler of a saw-mill, near Hopkinsville, Ky., blew up on 
Sept. 24tli, instantly killing Frank Herriugton and Joseph Beckuer, who were near the 
boiler at tlie time. 

Sausage Factory (117). On Sept. 27th, an explosion occurred in Heniy Schofel's 
sausage factory, Louisville, Ky., by which Jacob Wagner was badly hurt. Wagner, 
who is something of an expert in the boiler line, had, the day before, placed in position 
a large second-hand boiler, and at the time of the explosion was trying its power. 
Schofel's factory has been completed but a short while, and the owner was anxious to 
begin operations by Monday. Wagner seemed rather confident of the cajjacity of the 
boiler, and a very heavy pressure had been reached, when suddenly there was a crash 
that startled the entire neighborhood. Luckily, no one chanced to be in the boiler- 
room at the time save Wagner; and when some laborers ran in they found him about 
twenty feet from where he had been standing at the time of the explosion, suffering the 
most excruciating pain from scalds which extended all over the lower half of his body. 

Stone Quarry (118). A portable boiler in Billmeyer & Baker's limestone quarry, 
Wrightsville, Pa., exploded Sept. 2Sth. Lemuel Barnes, the fireman, was eating his 
dinner a short distance from the engine, at half-past eleven o'clock tliis morning. His 
mother, Mrs. Joseph Barnes, and his wife, a young woman of twenty-five, who had 
brought him his dinner, were sitting near by when the explosion took place. The head 
of Barnes' wife was blown off, and he himself was so badly scalded and injured about 
the legs that he will probably die. His mother, aged fifty years, received serious, 
though probably not fatal, injuries about the head and body. A portion of the boiler- 
house was blown over into the quarry among a large quantity of dynamite, which 
exploded and completed the destruction. A number of workmen who were near by 
narrowly escaped death, but none of them were seriously injured. Fragments of the 
boiler were thrown a distance of 500 feet. Nothing but a hole in the ground marks the 
scene of destruction. 

Steam Laundry (119). At 8.30 p. m., on Sept. 30th, a boiler exploded in the steam 
laundry of Wyoming, Pa. Some damage v/as done, and a number of jieople were badly 
scared, but no one was hiu't. 

Ice Factory (120). An explosion at the Wichita ice factory, Wichita, Kan., on 
Sept. 30th, wrecked one entire end of the building and much of the machinery. About 
ten o'clock, it was noticed that the heads of the heater were cracking, and the fires 
were liauled to allow of repairs. A few minutes later the boilers burst, and the huge 
heater, weighing eight tons, went flying through the walls, skipped over the JVIissouri 
Pacific tracks, struck the depot platform on the other side, splintering it into match 
wood, and finally buried itself some feet in the ground abQut 150 feet from where it 
started. The employes of the works all escaped injury. The factory will be rebuilt at 
once. 

Steam Laundry (121). By the explosion of a mud-drum on September 30th, at 
the Memphis Steam Laundry, Memphis, Tenn., the engineer, Nelson McClure, and Philip 
Liuz, and Ed. Hine, one of the projirietors of the laundry, were terribly scalded. 
McClure died from his injuries, but the others will recover. 



Saw-mill boilers do not explode quite as frequently as threshing engines at 
this time of year, but they are in use during a much greater portion of the year, and 
are thus able to make up for deficiencies. In most saw-mills the question of fuel 
economy is not considered at all. There are usually more slabs and cuttings lying 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 167 

around than can pos.sibly be burned by the most wasteful plant, but, as it is desirable to 
get rid of as much of the refuse as possible, the only thing to do, apparently, is to make 
the steam plant as wasteful as possil)le. And where economy is so entirely disregarded, 
it is, of course, thought to be entirely superfluous to employ an engineer who knows any- 
tliing of liis business. No further explanation as to the causes of the numerous explo- 
sions of saw-mill boilers is required; for the intelligence by which a steam-plant is main- 
tained in a condition to secure good economy usually .secures also the conditions of 
.safet}'. Of course there are some real engineers employed in saw-mills, but, for the 
reason we have mentioned, tliey are the exception, and the best preventive of explosions 
of boilers in saw-mills would be a discovery which would impart considerable value to 
slabs and other cuttings. — American Machinist. 



To THE Edttok op The Locomotive — Sir : In the March number of The Loco- 
motive I noticed something about the " danger of caulking steam pipes while the 
])ressure is on," which reminded me of conversations I have had with boiler-maker.s 
about caulking flues, and also of a question that I wish to put to you. The question is 
this : Is it best to caulk flues when the boiler is cold and in a contracted state, or when 
it is warm but without pressure, or when it is under working pressure ? 

Respectfully, 

Milwaukee, Wis. A. E. P. 

[Caulking may be done either wdien the boiler is hot or when it is cold ; but it 
should never be done while under pressure. When pressure is on, the entire boiler is in 
a state of strain, and nothing should be done to it that will increase the strain on any 
part. Distressful accidents have resulted from a neglect of this maxim. — Ed.] 



The American Boiler Manufacturers' Association. 

As announced in our issue of last month, the association met at Pittsburg on Oct. 
15th. Most of the reports that were read were tentative, and were intended to draw 
out the opinions of the members and start up discussion, rather than to be final. In fact, 
the only final report submitted was the one by the Committee on Materials and Tests. As 
a i)reliminary to the preparation of this report, the conunittee had sent out about a thousand 
circulars to members of the association and others known to be interested, requesting 
answers to the following nine questions: "(1.) Is there any warrant for the use of 
wrought-iron in the place of homogeneous steel in the shells or heads of boilers; if so, 
what qualities do you find in the boiler-iron of commerce not possessed in the same or a 
higher degree by boiler steel? (3.) Should the use of cast-iron be permitted in boilers 
anywhere except in such minor parts as manheads, mudheads, handhole plates, etc. ; i. c, 
is it good practice to use cast metal for such parts as mud-drums, legs, necks, headers, 
and the like, subject to internal strains? (3.) What physical properties should cast-iron 
])osses8 to make it safe for use in boilers? (4.) For- testing the physical properties of 
boiler steel or boiler iron there are foiu' types of test pieces in use, namely: a. the U. S. 
treasury standard employed by the government boiler inspectors, and being simply a 
coupon with suitably reduced test section made by cutting half-round holes near the 
center of the two opposite edges ; h. a coupon reduced to uniform width for a length of two 
inches by planing or milling down the opposite edges for that distance; c. a coupon aim- 



-[68 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [November, 

ilarly reduced for a length of 8 inches or 10 inches; d, a coupon phmed or milled clown 
to uniform width for its entire length. Which of the four is best adapted to determine 
the requisite qualities of boiler steel (or iron)? Give reasons in detail for this prefer- 
ence. (5.) Should different grades or qualities of metal be used in boilers, for instance, 
one for shells, one for fire-box or furnace-plates, one for flanged heads, one for flues, 
etc., or is it the best practice to use but one grade throughout the boiler? (6.) What 
physical qualities, such as tensile strength, reduction of area, per cent, of elongation, de- 
gree of bending, etc., should good boiler steel (or iron) possess? (If you believe in using 
several grades, please specify for each.) (7.) How should bending tests be made? 
Please give particulars as to length of test piece as compared with thickness or width; 
bending by successive blows of a hand-hammer or power-hammer, around a horn or 
mandrel, in a die, or between the jaws of a testing machine, and the advantages or dis- 
advantages of each method. (8.) Between what i)ractical limits of greatest and least 
heat must all flanging be done? (9.) Which is the best material for rivets? Charcoal 
iron or mild steel? Please give reasons for your preference, based on experience in the 
shop." 

From the answers to these questions the report was largely made up. It continues: 
"The unanimous opinion of all parties is that the use of cast-iron in mud-drums, legs, 
necks, headers, etc., and in any part of boilers where it will be subject to tensile strains, 
is dangerous and should not be permitted. For handhole-plates, crabs, yokes, etc., of 
manheads it may be used, but only a superior article, such as is generally known as ' gun 
metal,' should be thus employed; i. e. a metal of soft grey texture and of a high de- 
gree of ductility. For the strengthening rings of man-holes, homogeneous steel or 
wrought-iron, or soft and annealed steel castings should be used. In testing materials 
for boilers the grooved section known as the Marine section, because still in use for ma- 
rine inspection purposes under the regulations of the treasury department, should be 
discarded and the eight-inch straight or reduced section exclusively used by the inspec- 
tors of the U. S. Navy should be sul)stituted. It is immaterial whether the test piece be 
a straight, planed jiiece, or an 8-inch reduced section, planed or milled down. The 
latter has some practical advantages in the testing machine, but is somewhat more expen- 
sive to make, and has the further ol^jection of consuming more time in preparation. 
The cross-sectional area of the test piece should be not less than one-half of one square 
inch; i. e., if the piece is one-fourth of an inch thick its width should be two inches; 
if it be one-half inch thick its width should be one inch. But for heavier material the 
width shall in no case be less than the thickness of the plate. On this test piece the 
metal shall show the following physical qualities: The tensile strength shall be from 
55,000 to G5,000 pounds; the elongation shall be 20 per cent, for plates | inch thick or 
less, 22 per cent, for plates from | inch thick to | inch thick, and 25 jier cent, for plates 
over I inch. The reduction of area as a test is found to be entirely unreliable by all 
expert testing engineers. Not only is it impossible for two inspectors to get even 
approximately the same reduction of area in their measurements of the same piece, but 
no single inspector can get the same measurement twice in succession." 

Concerning the bending tests the report says: "Good boiler steel up to one-half 
inch in thickness should be capable of being doubled over and hammered down on itself 
without showing any signs of fracture, and above that thickness it should be capable of 
being bent round a mandrel of a diameter equal to one and one-half times the thickness 
of the plate to an angle of 180 degrees without signs of distress. Such bending pieces 
should not be less in length than sixteen times the thickness of the plate. If the bent 
edge shows any roughness, which under the magnifying glass will appear as a series of 
incipient cracks, the specimen should be rejected. In preparing specimens for bending, 
the rough shear edges should be milled or filed off. The pieces for bending test should 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 169 

be cut both lengthwise and crosswise of the phite. We recommend that all tests be 
made at the steel mill. Three pulling tests andthree bending tests shall be made from 
the plates of each lieat. If one of these fails the manufacturer shall have the right to 
prepare and test a fourth piece, but if two fail the entire heat to be rejected. 

" When a member of this association orders a lot of steel from a steel manufacturer 
he shall be entitled to receive a certified copy of the chemical and phj'sical tests of the 
heat from which his plates are made, which must conform to the above requirements. 
It is, of course, understood that all boiler steel must be made by the open hearth or cru- 
cible processes. The flanging of steel should be done at not less than a good red heat, 
and not a single blow should be given after the plate is cooled down to less than cherry 
red by daylight. After flanging, all plates should be annealed simply by uniform cool- 
ing from an even dull red heat for the whole sheet, in the oj^en air. 

" Rivets should be made of good charcoal iron or a very soft mild steel running 
between 50,000 and GO, 000 pounds tensile strength, and showing an elongation of not 
less than 30 per cent, in eight inches, and having the same chemical composition as spec- 
ified for plates; /. ^., not more tliau .04 per cent, of phosphorus, nor more than .03 per 
cent, of sulphur." 

Reports were read from the Committee on Bracing, Stays, and Proper Tube Spacing, 
and the Committee on Valves and Fittings, and from others also. Some of the commit- 
tees asked for more time, and tlieir full reports will not be heard until the New York 
meeting is held in February next. 



Ox the 22d day of December next there will be a total eclipse of the sun. It will 
not be visible here, but can be seen anywhere along a certain strip of the earth's surface, 
5,000 miles in length and 100 miles wide. This strip begins in the Caribbean Sea and 
extends from there across the Atlantic Ocean to Africa, which it strikes a few hundred miles 
south of the Congo river. There are many interesting things about tlie sun that we do 
not understand yet, and some of these cannot be studied at any other time than during 
total eclipses. When we remember how infrequent these eclipses are, and how short a 
time they last when they do come, it will be seen that it is highly important to take ad- 
vantage of every one of them. An expedition from the Lick Observatory will observe 
the eclipse in French Guiana, which is the only point in South America from which it 
wnll be visible. Another expedition, fitted out by the L^nited States Government, sailed 
for Africa on October 17th in the war ship Pensacola, and if the weather is clear we may 
hope that during the few brief moments of totality many photographs, measurements, 
and other observations may be taken. Mr. Carbutt will accompany the expedition to 
Africa, and will try his orthochromatic dry-plates. 



" The boom in steel andiron rivals the memorable advance of 1884. Even when 
compared with that time, other things considered, the advance in products of steel and 
iron is more remarkable. Steel rails cannot to-day be bought for less than $32 per ton, 
and manufacturers are quite independent on these figures, for it is confidently believed 
the price will yet reach $35. In the last few days Bessemer pig has stiffened from 
$18.75 to $19.50, and a heavy consumer said to-day he doubts if he could buy one 
hundred or one thousand tons for less than $20. This in an advance in the past five 
weeks of between $5 and $6. At the office of Carnegie Bros. & Co., it was learned that 
the advance is caused by the increased cost in raw materials. Said the authority, ' If 
Bessemer pig advances to $20, rails and other products must cost just so much more. A 
$4 advance on pig means a $5 advance on the finished product, for the shrinkage is 
estimated at 2o per cent., and in addition to that is the sliding scale under which our 
men work.'" — Indianapolis Journal for Oct. A.tJi. 



170 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [Novemeer. 

HARTFORD. NOVEMBER 15, 1889. 

J. 31. Ali.ex, Editor. A. D. Risteex, Associate Editor. 

The Locomotive can he ohtainfd free by calling at any of the company's agencies. 
Subscription price 50 cents per year when mailed from this office. 
Bound volumes one dollar each. 

Papers that borrow cuts irom us will do us a favor if they will plainly mark them in returning, 
so that we may give proper credit on our books. 



The Corona, a steamer plying the lower Mississippi, blew up her boiler at about 
noon of October 3d, and sank in a few minutes with the loss of thirty-six lives. The 
disaster occurred opposite False River Settlement, ten miles above Baton Rouge. The 
Corona had just been repaired at a cost of $12,000, and was supposed to be in complete 
order. This was her first trip since the repairs were made. Further particulars of the 
explosion will be given next month. 



"We have received from the publishers, Messrs. John TViley & Sons, a copy of 
Wilson's "Treatise on Steam Boilers,"' edited and enlarged from the fifth English 
edition, with Mr. Wilson's permission, by Prof. J. J. Flather of Lehigh University. 
The original work was highly esteemed in this office, and it gives us pleasure to say that 
Prof. Flather's additions have considerably increased its value. The appendix is of 
special interest, as it contains considerable matter relating to American practice that is 
not to be found in the orijfinal. 



The Eiffel Tower at Paris has been found useful for scientific purposes. M. Jann- 
sen. a distinguished spectroscopist, has been carrying on observations for the purpose of 
discovering whether the oxygen lines in the spectrum of the sun are due to oxygen in 
the sun itself, or only to that which exists in our air. By observing the electric lights 
on the tower from a distance of five miles, he finds that the lines in question in the 
sun's spectrum are distinctly visible in the spectrum of the tower lights; and the con- 
clusion is, that these* are probably due to the earth's atmosphere, and cannot be con- 
sidered to prove the existence of oxygen in the sun. 



We are pleased to learn that the Johns Hopkins University begins its work this fall 
with unimpaired efficiency. Some time ago sensational rumors were going the rounds 
in the papers, to the effect that the days of the University were numbered. The revenue 
of the institution had been largely derived in the past from Baltimore and Ohio stock 
that it owns, and it is no secret that this source of income is now unavailing. However, 
the savings of former years, the income from investments outside of the railroad, the in- 
come from tuition (which will be about $40,000), the gift of $108,000 received from 
generous persons interested in the institution, and the gift of $100,000 left them by 
John W. McCoy, will enable the trustees to continue the work of the University for the 
next three years with all the thoroughness for which it is noted. 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 171 

Cesar's House. — Apropos of the frequent discovery in the far West of fossils of 
liorses with toes, has it ever been recalled that Julius C'sesar had such a horse ? Lue- 
tonius, in his Life of CW'nar, si.xty-first section, says, "'Ciesar made use of a remarkable 
liorse, with feet almost human, and lioofs divided in the manner of toes " {Utebahir equo 
insigni, 2>edibus jvope humanis el in modum digitorum ungulis Jissis.) The whole passage 
is interesting. The horse, it appears, was foaled in Caesar's stud. The soothsayers at 
once proclaimed that it betokened for its master the dominion of tlie world, whereupon 
Ctvsar had it reared with tiie utmost care, and was the first to mount it. Indeed, it 
would never suffer anybody else upon its back. Later he sat up an image of the horse 
in front of the Temple of Venus Genetri.x. Was not this an instance of what evolution- 
ists call " reversion ?" — Charles li. Will lams in New York Evening Pod. 



" Groombridg'e 1830." 

Under this heading an article appeared in the August number of the Locomotive, 
1883, giving some interesting particulars concerning this star, which is known among 
astronomers as one of the most remarkable of all. It is traveling through space with a 
velocity so prodigious that the combined attraction of all the known matter in the uni- 
verse fails to account for it. Through the kindness of Prof. Asaph Hall, of the L'. S. 
Naval Observatory, we are enabled to place the following additional facts before our 
readers. 

The star "1830 Groombridge '' is so called because it is Xo. 1830 in the catalogue 
observed by Groombridge. Stei)hen Groombridge was a London merchant who had a 
great fondness for astronomical studies, and after he had acquired a comfortable fortune 
he bought a good meridian circle, which he used with skill. His observations were 
reduced and published after his death hy Airy. The star mentioned is very interesting, 
but nobody knows the cause of its enormous velocity. At first it was thought that this 
star must have a large parallax, and in fact Faye found a parallax of more than 1" ; but 
this is a mistake, and the best determinations give nearlv + 0."1. 



Dr. Wells and Nitrous Oxide Gas. 

The minute history of the first practical application of nitrous oxide may be of in- 
terest to our readers. Mr. Colton was going about the country giving lectures and ex- 
hibiting the peculiar jaroperties of the gas, which was popularly known as "laughing 
gas." When he came to Hartford, he spoke in Union Hall, which was at that time the 
only suitable place in the city. Dr. Wells lived near by, and for an evening's diversion 
he and his wife went over to see Colton's exhibition. Mr. Cooley was one of the sub- 
jects, and while he was under the influence of the gas he injured his shin in some way, 
but paid no attention to the injury until the effects of the gas had passed off, and ap- 
parently was not aware of it until then. Wells remarked this, and called his wife's at- 
tention to it. He afterwards asked Cooley about it and learned that his surmise was 
correct. He went home and passed a sleepless night, and next day, before Colton was 
up, he went to his room at the hotel and asked if he had any of the gas left. Colton 
replied that he had, and Wells then invited him to bring it down to his office so that he 
might take it while Riggs pulled a tooth. Colton laughed at the idea of using the gas 
in that way, but admitted that it might be done, and agreed to do what he could to 
help him out. The tooth was pulled, and as he returned to consciousness. Wells leaped 
from the chair and cried, " I didn't feel it ! The greatest discovery of the age ! " 



^72 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [November, 



Safety-Valves on Heating Boilers. 

The proportion of the area of a safety-valve to the area of the grate, according to 
the United States rule, should be such that there is half an inch of valve area to each 
square foot of grate surface, when lever or dead-weight valves are used, and one-third 
of an inch of valve area to each square foot of grate surface when spring or pop valves 
are used. It has been shown by actual trial that when these propoi-tions are observed, 
the valve is of sufficient size to prevent any considerable rise of pressure beyond the 
point of blowing off — that is, if everything is in good order. This rule, therefore, is a 
very safe one to follow. 

In heating boilers, the valve area should be increased rather than diminished, 
because the class of help employed to run these boilers usually lacks the experience and 
intelligence of the class employed to run high-pressure boilers, and the necessity of see- 
ing to it that all pertaining to such boilers is properly designed becomes correspondingly 
more urgent. But it would seem, judging from our past experience, that altogether too 
many people consider anything in the form of a safety-valve to be good enough for a 
heating boiler, and we found one boiler with a grate area of seven square feet, which 
had a safety-valve area of only 44-100 of an inch (or somewhat less than half an inch), 
when according to the United States rule the area should have been three inches and a 
half. If the safety-valve on such a boiler should at any time have to be depended upon 
to relieve the boiler, a dangerous rise of pressure would take place, the steam being 
unable to escape as fast as it is formed. 

Another trouble in the safety-valves of low pressure boilers is so frequently met with, 
that it seems almost to be the rule, even when the areas are properly proportioned. It 
is that the regular high-pressure valve and weight is used, so that even when the weight 
is 2:)ushed in as close to the valve as it will go, it takes a steam pressure of from twenty 
to forty pounds to raise it. In other words, the valve was made to use on a high- 
pressure boiler, and is so designed that it can be set to blow off at any pressure between 
forty and one hundjed pounds, with the idea that this range would be all that would 
be required; and this being the case, forty pounds is the lowest pressure at which it 
can be set to blow off. The safety-valves and weights on all heating boilers should 
be adapted to the duty they have to perform, and the levers should be marked 
accordingly. 

Let us consider any ordinary heating boiler. The maximum pressure carried is ten 
pounds, the pressure gauge registers up to twenty pounds, and the damjier regulator is 
adjusted to ten pounds. Now let us suppose that through ignorance or neglect the 
draft doors are blocked open. The pressure rises, and the damper regulator cannot con- 
trol it, when ten pounds are reached. The safety-valve should have been so constructed 
and set that it would blow at twelve or fifteen pounds, but with the ball pushed in, in 
too many cases it takes thirty-five pounds to lift the valve. The light diaphragms in 
the damper regulators are broken, and the pressure gauge is destroyed or strained. 

The weight of the lever and valve, ordinarily, will balance about two pounds of 
internal pressure, and the weight placed on the lever should be such that when it ie 
pushed in close to the valve, the boiler will blow off at five pounds or less. Then, if it 
is desired to set the valve to blow at ten pounds or fifteen pounds, it will be easy to do 
so by shifting the weight outward along the lever till tiie proper point is reached. 

We have stated what can take place when valves are weighted as we frequently find 
them, and we will say, further, that just such accidents as these have come under our 
personal observation, and that frequently in our practice we are obliged to re-adjust 
valves by having light weights substituted for lieavy ones. The only objection to this 
change is, that the point at which the valve blows off will no longer correspond with the 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 173 

marking- oa the lever. If tliose fitting up low-pressure boilers will call upon the valve 
manufacturer for valves weighted and graduated for low-pressure work, they can easily 
procure iirecisely what is needed. 



Great Discoveries and Innovations of the Past Sixty Years. 

V. An/ESTIIESIA. 

The greatest of all human benefactors is lie Avho relieves his race from misery and 
suft'ering. Surely, then, the first man to employ anyesthetic substances for the annihila- 
tion of pain deserves the highest honor, and should command our most respectful con- 
sideration. Unfortunately there are rival claimants for this distinction, whose respective 
claims to it have been contended for with unusual earnestness, and the controversy, we 
are sorry to say, has been one of exceeding length and bitterness. We have been 
to some considerable trouble to learn the precise truth of the matter as nearly as may be, 
and the resulting story is given below : 

The use of drugs for producing temporary insensibility is an ancient practice. 
Homer mentions the anaesthetic effects of nepenthe. Herodotus refers to a practice the 
Scythians had of inhaling the vapor of a certain variety of hemp, in order to bring on 
a condition of intoxication. Dioscorides and Pliny allude to the employment of man- 
dragora in surgical operations. This name will doubtless call to the reader's mind sev- 
eral passages in Shakespeare, as, for instance : 

" Give me to drink maudragora."* 

Also, 

" Not poppy, nor mandragora, 
Nor all the drowsy syrups of the world, 
Shall ever medicine thee to that sweet sleep 
Which thou owedst yesterday." t 

According to Dr. Affleck, too, it seems that M. Julien, a French academician, has 
found an ancient Chinese manuscript showing that Hoa-tho, a physician who lived about 
two hundred years after Christ, gave his patients a preparation of hemp, and performed 
surgical operations upon them while they were unconscious. Again, in the thirteenth 
century maudragora was extensively used for the same purpose by Hugo de Lucca. In 
1782 a treatise was published in German by Dr. Meissner, in which it is said that Augus- 
tus, King of Poland, had an amputation performed while he was under the influence of 
a narcotic. 

In spite of these numerous evidences of the use of anaesthesia, su.rgeons generally 
regarded it with disfavor — probal)ly because they considered the agents then used to be 
unsafe. However, the magnificent discoveries made shortly after the Revolution by 
Priestley and others gave a new impetus to chemistry, and led to the careful examination 
of the properties of gases and vapors, in the hope that some of them would be found 
to be of value in medicine. In the year 1800 Sir Humphrey Davy noticed the anaes- 
thetic properties of nitrous oxide (" laughing gas"), and made the following suggestion, 
which we quote in his own words: "As nitrous oxide, in its extensive operation, seems 
capable of destroying physical pain, it may probably be used with advantage in surgical 
operations in which no great effusion of blood takes place." It is strange, indeed, that 
such a valuable suggestion, from so eminent a man, should have remained entirely 
unheeded for nearly half a century, but such appears to have been the fact. 

Nitrous oxide was not the only gas or vapor whose peculiar properties were known 
in the early part of this century. Sulphuric ether had been administered by inhalation 
by Dr. Pearson of England, in 1785, as a remedy for asthma, and by Dr. Warren 

* Antony and Cleopatra, Act I., Sc. 5. t Othello, Act III., So. 3. 



174 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [November, 

of Boston in 1805; and in 1818 Faraday showed that by administering an increased 
quantity of this vapor anaesthetic effects could be produced that were similar in every 
way to those produced by nitrous oxide. Nevertheless, the surgeons did not make use 
of either. They continued to perform operations in the old, blood-freezing way, strap- 
ping the patient down to an operating table so that he could not writhe with the pain 
that their knives and saws produced. 

Up to this point the facts are indubitable ; and now begins a narrative whose every 
sentence, almost, has been questioned and contested. We believe, however, that it is 
substantially correct. 

Horace Wells, who figures in the story to follow, was born in Hartford, Vermont, on 
the twenty-first of January, 1815. He received a general education in several academies 
in New England, and in 1834 he began the studj^ of dentistry in Boston. Two years 
later he opened an ofiice in Hartford, Connecticut. His business prospered, and he soon 
began to consider the possibility of performing dental operations without pain. He 
experimented with a number of narcotics, but found all of them to be unsatisfactory. 
In 1840 he expressed his belief that nitrous oxide possessed the properties he desired, 
but for some reason or other he does not appear to have tried it until four years later. 
On December 10, 1844, Dr. Gardiner Q. CoLton gave a lecture on "Laughing Gas" in 
this city, and administered it before his audience to several persons, for the purpose of 
illustrating its peculiar properties. On the very next day Dr. Wells took a large quan- 
tity of the gas, administering it to himself in order that no responsibility might 
rest upon his associate in case of failure or unpleasant after effects, and while 
he was under the influence of it Dr. Riggs removed one of his teeth. As he felt no 
pain whatever, and no unpleasant symptoms followed the operation. Dr. Wells at once 
began to use it in his business, holding it out as a special inducement to his patrons that 
in his office operations were performed without pain; and later on other Hartford den- 
tists adopted it. 

Dr. William T. G. Morton had been a pupil of Wells in Hartford, and by the assist- 
ance of Wells, Morton had become connected with the Massachusetts General Hospital 
in Boston. When Wells had become satisfied, by continuous use of the gas, that it was a 
valuable thing, he became desirous of bringing it more prominently before the medical 
profession, and he went to Boston for this purpose in January, 1845. Naturally enough 
he sought Morton, and to him and Drs. Chas. T. Jackson and John C. Warren 
he explained his discovery. Dr. Warren extended to him an invitation to lecture at the 
Harvard medical school, which invitation he accepted. For some reason or other, prob- 
ably on account of the strange surroundings and a fear lest he might, in his agitation, 
administer too much of the gas, the experiment that he had repeatedly performed with 
success in his own office, failed. That is, the ana?thesia that he produced was only par- 
tial. The students hissed him, called him a charlatan, and pronoimced his gas a hum- 
bug. 

In 1846 ^lorton and Jackson applied for a patent, claiming the discovery of anses- 
thesia. Wells had used ether on one occasion in his own work. Morton announced 
that he had discovered a compound vastly superior to Wells's gas or ether; but this 
compound, it subsequently appeared, was nothing but ether itself, though he called it 
by the name " letheron." Wells immediately protested against the issue of a jiatent, 
gave the results of his own experiments, and for a substantiation of his statements 
he referred to the medical fraternity of Hartford. His eftbrts were fruitless, and in No- 
vember, 1846, the i^atent was granted. Later on Drs. Morton and Jackson placed their 
claims before the Institute of France. Wells immediately took passage for Europe 
to contest them, but again he met with defeat, and the medal of the institute was 
awarded to Morton. 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 175 

The consciousness that the fruits of his labor were passing into the hands of 
another weighed heavily upon Wells, and deranged his mind. In 1847 he removed to 
New York, wliere lie hired a small room for a laboratory and continued his experiments, 
fruitlessly striving to establish his rightful claim to priority. He ultimately i:)roke down 
entirely, and on the 24th of January, 1848, while he was yet only thirty-three years of 
age, he passed away. \ 

Dr. H. P. Stearns, in a paper published in 1876, makes tlie following statements, 
which are supported, we believe, by affidavits: "Not only were Wells, Riggs, 
and others using nitrous oxide in Hartford during 1845, but Morton was thoroughly 
aware of the fact; and during that and the succeeding year he came to Hartford on at 
least two occasions, and is known to have had conferences with Wells on the subject, 
and from him and Riggs he learned the fact that ether as well as nitrous oxide had been 
used. This last interview was only a short time before Morton drew the tooth of Eben 
Frost, under the influence of ether, in Boston." Dr. Stearns sums up his paper under 
the following four heads: "1st. In December, 1844, Wells made the suggestion and 
applied the test in his own jjerson by inhaling a large dose of nitrous oxide, and having 
a tooth extracted without ]3ain. He and his friends in Hartford continued to perform 
painless operations with nitrous oxide (except once, when ether was used) until his death. 
2d. In September, 184G, Morton, a former pupil of Wells, aware of his discovery 
and repeating his experiments, extracted a tooth without pain, while the patient 
was under the influence of sulphuric ether. He afterwards introduced the practice 
of anaesthesia by ether into the Massachusetts hospital, and from there it became known 
to the world. 3d. In 1847, Simpson first introduced the practice of anjesthesia in mid- 
wiferj', thereby making known more widely its value. He also discovered the ansKS- 
thetic properties of chloroform, and by his writings and teachings very largely contrib- 
uted to introducing the practice of anaesthesia to the world. 4th. Others have since 
discovered the anaesthetic properties of different vapors, which are more or less used in 
practice.'' 

We are told that Dr. Crawford W. Long, of Athens, Ga., administered sulphuric 
ether to a patient on the thirtieth of March, 1842, and performed a surgical operation 
while the patient was unconscious. We know nothing of the details of this operation, 
and, in truth, the fact itself is new to us. We do not understand that Dr. Long has 
ever claimed the honor of being the first in modern times to apply anaesthesia in this 
way, and although our account goes on to say that "Dr. Long's expectations were 
fully realized, and thenceforward sulphuric ether was administered in his surgical opera- 
tions," we do not understand his silence in the matter. 

Chloroform, which has since assumed a very important role in medicine, is believed 
to have been discovered by Samuel Guthrie of Sackett's Harbor, N. Y., in 1830 or 
thereabouts. His announcement of the discovery, unfortunately, is not dated; but 
from certain circumstantial evidence it appears that the date was about July 1, 1831. 
Guthrie wrote a letter to Prof. Silliman on Feb. 15, 1832, describing a process for pre- 
paring it in a state of great piu'ity, so that the original discovery must have been made 
some time previous to that. In the latter part of 1831, Souberein, in France, announced 
the discovery of the same substance, and Liebig, in Germany, published his discovery of 
it in February, 1832. There were thus three independent discoverers of chloroform, all 
at about the same time; but the indications are that Guthrie was first. 

Although chloroform was discovered at this early day, it does not appear that it was 
used as an anaesthetic until after Wells and Morton had used nitrous oxide. It is true 
that Eli Ives administered it by inhalation as early as 1831, but he used it as a remedy 
for pulmonary disease, and not for the purpose of producing unconsciousness. 



176 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



Incorporated 
1866. 




Charter Per- 
petual. 



Issnes Policies of Mraiice after a Carefnl Iiispectiou of Itie Boilers. 



COVERING ALL LOSS OK DAMAGE TO 



BOILERS, BUILDINGS, AND MACHINERY. 

ALSO COVERING 

LOSS OF LIFE AND ACCIDENT TO PERSONS 



ARISING FROM 



Steam Boiler Explosions. 

Full information concerning the plan of the Company's operations can be obtained at the 

Or at any Agency. 



J. M. ALLEN, President. 
J. B. PIERCE, Secretary. 



W. B. FRANKLIN, Vice-Prest. 
FRANCIS B. ALLEN, 2d Vice-Prest. 



Board of T>li'eotors. 

J. M. ALLEN. President. NEWiOX CASE, of The Case, Loekwood & 

FRANK \V. CHENEY, Treas. Cheney Brothers Br.ainard Co. 

Silk Manufacturing Co. " NELSON HOLLISTER, of Stnte Bank. Hartford. 

CHAKLES >L BEACH, of Beach & Co. Hon. HENRY C. ROBINSON, Attornev-at-Law, 

DANIEL PHH.LIl'S, of Adams Express Co. i Hartford. 

RICHARD W. H. .lARVIS, Frest. Colt's Fire Arms Hox. FRANCIS B. COOLEY, of the National 

Mainif.ii'turin^ Co. 1 Exchange Bank, Hartford, Conn. 

THO.MAS O. EXDERS, President of the U. S. Bank. A. W. JILLSON, late Vice-Prest. Phoenix Fire Ins. 
LEVEHEfT BHAINARD, of The Case, Lockwood Co., Hartford, Conn. 

& Brainard Co. EDilUND A. STEDilAN, Treasurer of the Fidelity 

Gen. W.AL B. FRANKLIN, U. S. Commissioner to Co., of Hartford, Coim. 

the I^ari> Expo-ition. CLAI'P Sl'OONER, RridKeport, Conn. 

Hon. NATHANIEL SHIPMAN, Judge United GEORGE BURNHAM, Baldwiu Locomotiye Works, 

States Circuit Court. | Philadelphia. 



A. S. Ferry, General Agent, Office at Hartford, Conn. 



GENERAL AGENTS. 

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OFFICES. 



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PUBLISHED BY THE HARTFORD STEAM BOILER INSPECTION AND INSURANCE COMPANY. 



New Seiues— Vol. X. HARTFORD. CONN., DECEMBER, 1889. 



No. 13. 



Corrosion from Standing- Water. 

Our illustrations this month show some of the effects of standing water upon metal 
■with which it is in contact. Figs. 1 and 2 show a familiar form of corrosion, one that 
we meet with every day, and which has doubtless been seen by all of our readers. In 
the chemistries both tin and iron are classed as metals that do not decompose water at 
ordinary temperature ; that is, they do not abstract oxygen from pure water and ap- 
propriate it to themselves to form rust. It would seem, therefore, that the oxygen 
that forms the rust must come from something in the water. Now, the purest water 
often is the most active in corroding and pitting plates, and this makes it probable that 
the active substance, in some cases at least, is air. It is well known that water is capa- 
l)le of dissolving a considerable amount of air; in fact, it is this dissolved air that 
enables fish to breathe. It is not so widely known, however, that the oxygen of the air is 




Fig. 1. — Corrosion from Standing "Water. 

more soluble than the nitrogen. If a small quantity of water be shaken up in a bottle it 
dissolves some of the enclosed air, and when this is afterwards driven off by boiling, and 
analyzed, it is found to consist of oxygen and nitrogen in the proportion of 1 to 1.87, 
instead of 1 to 4, as in the natural air. Thus the dissolved air, being more than twice 
as rich in oxygen as common air is, and being brought into more intimate contact with 
the metal by means of the water that holds it in solution, exerts a correspondingly more 
noticeable effect. It is probable, too, that water plays some other important action in 
connection with the oxidation of metals, for it has been found by recent experiments 
that pure oxygen will not combine with things that it has the greatest affinity for, jn-o- 



178 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[Decembek, 



vide*l it is i^erfectly dry. Even the metal sodium, Avhich has an intense affinity for 
oxygen, may be heated in it to a very high temperature without combination, ])rovided 
sufficient precautions are taken to excUide the slightest trace of moisture. It appears, 
therefore, that water plays a most important part in the oxidation of metals by air — a 
part, indeed, that we cannot explain, and that we really know but little about. 

The dipper shown in Fig. 1 has hung for a considerable time in the boiler-room of a 
large paper-mill, Avhere it has been in constant use every hour in the week except for a short 
time on Sunday. Its usual position is shown in Fig. 2. The 
fireman, after taking a drink, would throw the unused water to 
one side and return the dipper to its place on the Mall. The 
film of water still clinging to it would run down on the inside 
and collect at the lowest point. A, in Fig. 2, standing there 
until the dipj^er was once more in use, when the same thing 
would happen again. The result is, that though the dipper is 
perfectly sound in all other places, in the particular spot where 
the water rested it resembles a sieve, as shown in Fig. 1. 

In Fig. 3 the efi'ects of a related but different form of 
corrosion are seen. The cut represents a portion of a two-incli 
tube taken from a small boiler that was used at irregular in- 
tervals, water being left standing in it during the time it was 
not in operation. Perhaps it would be used for a few days, and 
then remain idle for a month or more. Most of the pits were 
quite deep, and two, near the left-hand end of the part shown, 
had perforated the tube entirely. The action shows itself first 
in the formation of a thin blister of rust, two good examples of 
which are shown on the upper side of the tube, and one near 
the right-hand end. In some cases these have fanciful and 
fantastic shapes, resembling fungus growths on the metal. 
These blisters or fungus-like growths may be easily removed, 
and the surface of the metal below will be found to be of a 
reddish black color. It may be that no change, other than this 
discoloration, will be visible when the blister is removed ; but by jiecking at this dis- 
coloration sharply with the point of a kuife, it will be found that a considerable 








A Tube Pitted by Standtng Water. 



quantity of oxide may be removed before the bright metal is exposed, leaving pits of 
Various sizes. Those shown in the cut were brought out in this way. 

The pitting action shown in Fig. 3 is most liable to occur when the boiler is put out 
of use, and left with water standing in it ; but it often occurs in boilers that are running 
constantly, provided the circulation is not good so that water stands in places. It often 
develops, for instance, in mud-drums, and in feed-pipes that are not in continual use. 
An interesting case of feed-pipe pitting is to be seen near here at the moment of writing. 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 179 

Water is taken from the city mains and pumped through a heater to the boiler. From 
the city main to the heater the pipe is clean and free from pits; but from the heater to 
the boiler, where the water is warm and often not in motion, the pipe is pitting with 
great rapidity. 

The fact that this action is often most severe where the water is purest seems to be 
explained by the formation of a thin projecting layer of scale in the l)oilers using water 
that is less pure, which acts as a sort of varnish, and prevents the water from coming 
into intimate contact with the metal. 

In laying by heating boilers for the summer water should never be left standing in 
them, for, if the conditions are just right, the tubes may be entirely ruined, and the 
shell badly pitted, -in a few summers. Tiiesc boilers should be blown off while warm, 
and cleaned and washed out, and it is a wise thing, when it is possible to do so, to send 
a man inside to wipe everything out dry, and see that no water is left standing any- 
where. Then a light tire of shavings may be started on the grate — just enough to 
warm the boiler through and dry it out well. 



Inspectors' Reports. 

October, 1889. 
During this month our inspectors made 4,995 inspection trips, visited 10,540 boilers, 
inspected 8,639 both internally and externally, and subjected 737 to hydrostatic press- 
ure. The whole number of defects reported reached 10,108, of which 893 were consid- 
ered dangerous; G7 boilers were regarded unsafe for further use. Our usual simimary is 

given below: 

Nature of Defects. 

Cases of deposit of sediment, . . _ 

Cases of incrustation and scale, - - . 

Cases of internal grooving, - - ' - 

Cases of internal corrosion, - - - - 

Cases of external corrosion, - - - - 

Broken and loose braces and stays, - - . - 
Settings defective, ----- 

Furnaces out of shape, - - - _ 

Fractured plates, - - - . . 

Burned plates, - . . . . 

Blistered plates, - . . - . 

Cases of defective riveting, - - . - 

Defective heads, . . _ » _ 

Serious leakage around tube ends, . - - 

Serious leakage at seams, - - - .. 

Defective water-gauges, . - . - 

Defective blow-offs, - - - - - 

Cases of deficiency of water, - - . 

Safety-valves overloaded, - . . - 
Safety-valves defective in construction, 

Pressure gauges defective, - - - - 

Boilers without pressure gauges, - . . 

Unclassified defects, - - - - 

Total, - - - - - - - 10,108 - - 893 



Whole Number 




Dangerous. 


586 


- 


- 


53 


1,032 


- ■ 


- 


69 


63 


- 


- 


13 


343 


- 


- 


28 


702 


- 


- 


53 


147 


- 


- 


53 


241 


- 


- 


23 


263 


- 


- 


14 


197 


- 


- 


93 


150 


- 


- 


29 


317 


- 


- 


18 


2,443 


- 


- 


63 


213 


- 


- 


13 


1,916 


- 


- 


200 


454 


- 


- 


40 


299 


- 


- 


29 


64 


- 


- 


15 


25 


- 


- 


10 


69 


- 


- 


23 


88 


- 


- 


20 


327 


- 


- 


32 


3 


- 


- 


2 


169 


- 


- 


6 



180 THE L0C03I0TIVE. [December, 

Boiler Explosions. 

October, 1889. 

SA"^-MrLL (122). Robert Leach and his son Thomas, living in Jackson county, 
about six miles southeast of Hamden. O.. and operating a saw-mill in the Kanawha 
Valley, were blown to pieces by the bursting of the boiler on October 3d. Leach was 
married and leaves a large family. 

River Steamer (123). The steamer Corona^ of the Ouachita Consolidated line, 
left Xew Orleans at 7.30 p.m., on October 2d, for the Ouachita river, with a full cargo 
of freight and a good list of passengers. She exploded her boilers at False river, nearly 
opposite Port Hudson, at 11.45 on the morning of October 3d, causing the loss of the 
steamer and thirty-six lives. The Anchor-line steamer City of St. Louis, Captain James 
O'Xeil, was near by, and saved many lives. The surviving passengers and crew were 
taken on board by Captain 0"Xeil, and very kindly cared for by him and his crew. The 
Corona was on her first trip of the season and liad but recently come out of the dry-dock, 
where she received repairs amounting to nearly $13,000. She was built at Wheeling, 
"W. Va., by Sweeney Brothers of that city, about seven years ago, and had a carrying 
capacity of 2,700 bales of cotton. At the time of the accident she was valued at 
$20,000. Ten of the saved are wounded, but not dangerously. Five minutes after the 
explosion not a vestige of the Corona was to be seen, except the floating pieces of her 
upper works, and a portion of her lighter freight. 

Threshing Machin-e (124). The boiler of Hoeschen Bros.' steam thresher ex- 
ploded October 7th in the town of Oak, ]VIinn., injuring a number of men. John "Wieg- 
raan had his skull fractured and his body badly scalded. Henry Meyer Avas badly 
scalded and his right arm nearly torn off. Another man, name unknown, received 
injuries necessitating the amputation of one arm. Others were more or less injured, but 
not seriously. 

Threshing Machine (125). Four men were instantly killed and horribly mangled 
by the explosion of a threshing engine boiler on the farm of Martin McAndrews, 13 
rniles northwest of Grafton, N. D., on October 7th. The killed are Edward McCaffrey, 
"\Vm. Paul, Richard Dailey, and Charles Frazer. John Burke, seriously but not fatally 
injured, has one leg broken and his head badly torn. The men had barely got to 
work when the accident occurred, and McCaffrey, Paul, the engineer, and Frazer, the 
waterman, were clustered about the engine, discussing some trouble in its operation, as 
the steam gauge did not seem to be working properly. The force of the explosion was 
in the direction of the separator, and McCaffrey was directly in its line. He was thrown 
10 rods and his right leg and arm torn off, and the abdomen torn open. A flying frag- 
ment struck Dailey, bandcutter, in the middle of the back and tore every rib from the 
vertebra. He lingered in awful agony, begging the horror-stricken people to end his 
misery, for three hours. Paul, the engineer, had nearly all his bones broken, and his 
face was flattened and distorted in death. The boy, Charles Frazer, had his arms and 
legs broken, and was almost driven into the earth. 

Saw-Mill (126). At Baker saw-mill at the head of Mill Creek canyon, twenty-five 
miles from the "Walla "Walla, "Wash., a boiler exploded on October 7th, tearing Alex. 
Harding, a night watchman, to pieces. He happened to be the only man in the mill at 
the time of the explosion. Harding's body was blown out of the boiler-room thirty feet, 
across the saw frames up to the main floor of the mill, tearing off the head, both 
legs, and one arm. One leg was foimd on a joint above the saw frame, and the missing 
arm 150 feet away from the mill. The head and other leg have not yet been found. 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. -[81 

Shingle Mill (127). About six o'clock a. m. on October 10th, the town of 
Lindsay, Ont., was startled bj- a heavy explosion. Houses in various parts of the town 
felt the vibration, and the sound was heard miles away. The boiler in John Dovey's 
shingle mill had exploded. So terrific was the explosion that the frame mill was almost 
leveled to the ground, and parts of the building and machinery blown and scattered a 
quarter of a mile or more from the scene of the disaster. Several large plate glass win" 
dows in the stores on Kent Street, half a mile distant, were broken. The engineer, 
John Poles, was the only person on the premises at the time, and was killed. Had 
the accident occurred ten minutes later the employees would have been assembled for 
work. 

Tractiox Engine (128). In McCanna, a small village of North Larimore, N. D., 
a traction engine belonging to A. E. Hanson exploded its boiler on October 12th, killing 
one man and injuring six others. They were going up a steep grade at the time, and the 
blame seems to rest upon the engineer, who is still demented from the injuries received. 
Bernt Rom, fireman, was instantly killed. Another man has his right leg and arm 
broken, and is badly cut about the face. 

Planing Mill (139). Five boilers exploded in Hughes' planing mill, Chattanooga, 
Tenn., on October 12th, tearing out the entire side of the building, and killing a 
negro named Charles Bradshaw. The fireman, Dave Pullim, was blown fifty feet, but 
not fatally injured. The damage to the building and machinery was $13,514.75. The 
boilers in a brick house, separated from the other buildings, were in two batteries, one 
battery of two six-flue boilers, each 53 inches by 18 feet, in which the explosion took 
place, was literally blown to pieces. The second battery, consisting of three two-flue boil- 
ers, 40 and 43 inches by 30 feet, were ruptured and dismembered, and the settings 
demolished, by the force of the explosion. Although the explosion occurred at a time 
when the engineers and fireman were on duty, their reports were very conflicting. The 
shattered and torn iron plates, heads, and flues of the boilers, which were scattered in 
every direction for a distance of from 200 to 1,500 feet (the heads of the boilers Vjeing 
among the largest of the pieces recovered), all indicated an unusual pressure, and there 
were also some evidences of low water, all of which the attendants claim to have known 
nothing about; nor had they any theory to account for the explosion. 

Sorghum Factory (130). The boiler at Heinlen's sorghum mill, Bucyrus, O., ex- 
ploded at two o'clock A. M., on October 14th, tore through the brick wall, and landed 
eight hundred feet away. Engineer John Howard and his assistant, Ed. Heinlen, were 
thrown through a brick wall, both having their skulls fractured. They were also badly 
burned, Heinlen dying instantly and Howard a few hovirs later. Frank Raiser was 
literally roasted alive by the escaping steam, and died after lingering in agony for two 
hours. 

Saw-Mill (131). The boiler of Ben Yeach's saw-mill, five miles west of Marshall, 
111., exploded October 16th. Clem Beuuing, who had charge of the engine, was thrown 
several yards and badly bruised as well as terribly scalded. His wounds are thought to 
be fatal. Ben Veach had two ribs broken, his right leg crushed, and his whole body 
bruised and scalded. His hurts are very serious. Jack and Tom Keith and Tom Hud- 
son were severely bruised by flying timber, but not fatally. The mill was completely 
wrecked. Parts of the boiler and large pieces of timber were blown hundreds of feet. 

Threshing Machine (132). A threshing machine boiler exploded on the farm of 
W. Hanson, near St. Mary's, Ohio, on October 16th, killing Berry Sigler, fatally injur- 
ing Joseph Silvers, and badly scalding Jacob Hemlern and another man whose name we 
could not ascertain. 



^32 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [December, 

Fertilizer Factory (133). The explosion of the large steam boiler in Riven- 
bur<:(h"s bone mill, one mile north of Carbondale, Pa., on October 17th, resulted in the 
total destruction of the establishment. Six men were at work when the explosion took 
place. Samuel Sly was thrown through a window and landed fully fifty feet from the 
building. He will recover. Three others were carried by the force of the explosion 
some distance and escaped injury. Two men, John and Peter Rivenburgh, were caught 
Ijeueath the falling timbers, but both miraculously escaped instant death by being thrown 
close to the basement wall, which was .strong enough to resist the weight of the great 
timbers of the frame building. Both men were extricated, and, aside from a few cuts, 
they suffered no serious injuries. The building in which the explosion occurred was 
60 X 150 feet and three stories high. Men who witnessed the explosion say the structure 
was lifted from the foundations before it collapsed. 

Saw-Mill (134). The boiler in the saw-mill of Wm. Titus, at Providence, six 
miles west of Franklin, Ind., exploded October 17th, seriously injuring three men and 
perhaps fatally injuring a little boy. The owner received injuries about the head and 
shoulders, Willis Deer about the side and abdomen, Edward Titus about the head. The 
Titus boy received internal injuries from which he may not recover. The workmen 
, happened to be out of the mill at the time, or they would have been killed outright. 

Saw-Mill (135). The boiler in Walton's saw-mill, Anderson, Ind., exploded 
October 19th. The mill was torn to atoms and pieces of the boiler scattered over three 
squares of territory. Horace Kuhn and Walter Mingle were killed and Wm. Rumler 
and Sam. Cook badly injured. E. G. Barlow, Wm. Stanley, John Biddle, and Perry 
Denny were severely hurt. 

Locomotive (136). At Wellsboro, O., a small station on the Chicago & Grand 
Trunk Railroad, on October 22d, as an east bound freight train, drawn by one of the 
huge Mogul engines belonging to the Atchison, Topeka «fe Santa Fe road, was pulling 
out of the station the boiler exploded with a frightful report, blowing the engineer and 
fireman to pieces and entirely destroying the locomotive. Fragments of the bodies of 
Thomas Callahan, the engineer, and Jack Hadden, the fireman, were found many yards 
distant from the scene of the disaster, and large sections of the boiler were discovered 
three hundred yards away half buried in the earth. 

Plakixg Mill (137). The boiler in T. M. Xeal's planing mill, in Prescott, Ark., 
exploded with great violence on October 22d. It is said that the safety-valve had rusted 
to its seat, so that it did not blow off; and the proprietor of the mill testified that 
.shortly before the explosion he had examined the gauge and found that it registered 
140 lbs. He had remarked that there was danger of an explosion, and had just gone out 
into the yard with four or five of his men to help pull a wagon load of cotton on the 
scales, to weigh it. While he w^as thus engaged the boiler burst, nearly demolishing 
the buildings, and killing E. B. Raye, the fireman. 

Ocean Steamship (138). A boiler exploded on the Cunard line steamer CepTialo- 
nia, shortly after her departure from Liverpool for Boston, on October 24th. She put 
into Holyhead, and later, returned to Liverpool for repairs. The second engineer and 
four firemen were dangerously hurt. Three of these afterwards died, and it is believed 
that one other will not recover. 

Locomotive (139). A locomotive, while running at full speed between Valparaiso 
and Haskells, Ind., exploded her boiler on Octol)er 24th. The fireman, John Hadden, 
was killed, and engineer Thomas Callahan was fatally injured. 

Coke Works (140). Two of the boilers of the Mount Braddock Coke Works, Con- 
nellsville, Pa., blew up on October 23d. wrecking the engine house and tearing down 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 183 

three brick stacks that have been recently completed. Edward StuU and Anthony 
Matheany, who were in the engine liouse, were buiitd under the debris, but not badly 
hurt, and were able to get loose from the wreckage. 

Dry Goods HorsE (141). On October 29th, the boiler in the new four-story brick 
block occupied by O'Neil & Dye, Akron, O., exploded. The building took fire, and in 
less than an hour all was a mass of ruin. It is said that not even a spool of thread was 
saved from the $175,000 worth of .stock, and all that remained standing was the corner 
of one wall. 

Mine Locomotive (142). A mine locomotive exploded with terrific force at the 
colliery of the Pierce Coal Company in Archbald, a short distance from Scranton, Pa.^ 
on October 29th, killing the engineer, Simon Horey, and the fireman, John Moyle, 
together with a small boy named Dougher. The engine was torn in pieces, and the 
men, wdio were terribly scalded and burned by steam and fire, were flung a considerable 
distance by the force of the explosion. The engine had been in use for many years 
liauling coal cars about the breakers. 

Nail Works (143). A boiler exploded in the Bellaire Nail Company's works, 
Bellaire, O., on October 30th, doing much damage but fortunately killing nobody. One 
end of the factory was carried away, and several machines inside were demolished; but 
as the factory was not running at the time, nobody was Ixurt. 



The Manchester Ship Canal. 

Mr. "W. Greer Harrison recently read an interesting paper on the great ^Manchester 
Ship Canal, before the Association of Marine L^nderwriters, and from his paper we take 
the following interesting ])articulars: The work may be classified under the following 
heads: — (1) The canal from Manchester to Runcorn, (2) the docks, (3) railroad divisions 
and branches, and (4) the estuary works in the Mersey. 

The canal proper is 21^ miles long, and its width at bottom is 120 feet, which is 
largely increased at the locks so as to give approaches wide enough to permit vessels 
to turn when necessary. At either end of the canal provision is made, by greater width, 
for large vessels to lie for the purposes of discharge, and yet to permit of two other ves- 
.sels passing at any point. At the Runcorn end, for a distance of three-quarters of ai 
mile, the bottom width is 200 feet, and for a length, of four miles at the Manchester end; 
the bottom width is 170 feet. The minimum depth of the canal at the lowest state of 
the water is 26 feet, three feet deeper than the Amsterdam canal, and within a few 
inches of the depth of the Suez Canal. 

There are four sets of locks, viz. : Barton, Irlam, Latchford, and Runcorn. At each 
point there are three locks alongside each other of various sizes to suit the varying 
classes of vessels — one 550 feet long by 60 feet wide, another 300 by 40, and a barge 
lock 100 by 20. The fall at low water will be: Barton Locks, 13 feet 6 inches; Iriam 
Locks, 13 feet 6 inches;' Lachford Locks, 15 feet; Runcorn Locks, 8 feet 6 inches. 
Total, 50 feet 6 inches. The total fall is given to the existing low water level at Run- 
corn. But at high water of average tides, there will be no fall at Runcorn locks, and as 
the spring tides flow to the Lachford locks, the fall thus will be diminished in propor- 
tion to the rise of the tide, which at high spring tides will be five feet. Ast average and 
high tides no delay will take place in passing vessels at the Runcorn locks, as the 
pound above them (that is to say, the waters from the Barton and Irlam locks) will be 
leveled by the tides and all the gates will be open. Hydraulic power is employed in 
working all gates and sluices, and the time occupied in passing a steamer w-ill be abaut 
fifteen minutes. 



d84 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[December, 



The main supply of water will be the river Irwell, and that portion of the Irv.'ell 
which, when united with the Mersey, is called by that name. The construction of the 
ship canal disposes of the Irwell, as that river will be diverted from its present course 
and turned into the canal. One can better understand the scheme if he will regard 
the new waterway as a canalized river. In the spring of 1883, which was an exception- 
ally dry one, gaugings in the Irwell showed an average flow of 26,000,000 cubic feet per 
day; with one- half of this flow there would be water sufficient to allow of the daily 
passage of 175 vessels, viz. : 25 steamers, 2,000 to 5,000 tons each; 50 steamers, 500 to 
2,000 tons each; 100 barges, 50 to 150 tons each. 

At each set of locks there will be flood sluices, 120 to 160 feet in the clear, resting 
on sills at the level of the bottom of the canal. The piers supporting the sluices will be 
high enough to avoid all danger from floods and consequent obstructions. 

The 'traffic of the Bridgewater Canal, now the property of the Ship Canal, will be 
passed over the latter by an aqueduct at the same level as at present, but one span will 
be a caisson or wrought-iron trough which will be movable on a center like an ordinary 
turn-bridge. The ends of the trough, and of the aqueduct on which the trough closes, 
will have gates to prevent the escape of water while the trough is turned. We thus 
have one waterway operated over another. Elevators at Barton have been provided to 
connect the Bridgewater Canal and the Ship Canal, and turn-bridges have been pro- 
vided for road traffic at the various locks. 

Docks have been or are in process of being built at Manchester, Warrington, and 
Partington (the latter for the purpose of loading coal from branch railroads).* The 
approach to the Manchester dock is by locks similar in size to those on the canal. 
These locks will keep the level of the water in the docks ten feet above the canal level. 
The area of the dock is 67 acres. On the projecting arms (4: in number) each 250 feet 
wide, divided by piers 200 feet wide, storage sheds are being erected. The largest ves- 
sel may safely turn inside or outside the docks. The dock quays will be 3 miles in 
length, with a further extension of 3 miles between Barton locks and Traflford Bridge — 
thus giving 6 miles of quays. Vast warehouses will be erected at these points. The 
area of the Warrington Dock is 20 acres. 

Five railways cross the canal ; these will be carried over it by high, level bridges 
allowing sufficient headway to enable large steamers to pass under. 

The main low water channel will commence at the ship canal above Runcorn and 
terminate opposite Garston, a distance of 10 miles. The initial point of this channel 
will be 300 feet wide, gradually extending to a width of 1,000 feet. The depth will be 
12 feet at low water spring tides, 20 feet at low water neap tides, 40 feet at high water 
spring tides, and 32 feet at high water neap tides. The channel will be made by tram- 
ming walls built of rock taken from the company's quarries. A subsidiary channel from 
the main channel to Sloyne deep, will complete this magnificent waterway. 

Contracts have been let for the various works, based on the original estimates, as 
follows: 
Construction of five deviation anci three branch railroads, ... . $2,280,860 

Dock at Manchester, ,,,..,.. 5,040,075 
Dock at Warrington, ....... 566,235 

Ship Canal Works, ........ 10,600,855 

Estuary Works, ........ 6,952,095 

New Roads, 80,810 

$34,530,930 

Eleven thousand men are at work along the line of the canal, and as a rule they are 
steady, sober workers, and are vastly better, morally and mentally, than the old-fashioned 
"navvies." At various points along the line temporary villages have been constructed 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. ^85 

for the accommodation of the men, and these villages are very pretty and picturesque, 
and exceptionally clean. The chief contractor, Mr. Walker, takes the deepest interest 
in his men, building churches, chapels, schools, and reading and smoking rooms for 
them in each temporary village along the line. 

Along the line attention is frequently called to the work of the " steam navvies." 
"There was something weird and gruesome about these steam demons," said Mr. Harri- 
son. "The way in which their huge steel teeth bit into the banks of the excavations 
and tore away mouthfuls big enough to fill a good sized cart, was a sight to see." 

Many fossil remains have been found during the process of the work, and huge tree 
trunks have been uncovered which must have been buried ages ago. 



A Chapter of Casualties. 

A radiator explosion took place in Boston recently. Two teamsters were sitting 
in a room on the lower floor of the building No. 46 Federal Street, when they 
suddenly heard a loud noise in the adjoining room, and were both flung violently from 
their .seats to the floor, one of them, Mr. O. H. Webber, being so badly injured that he 
had to be carried home. A radiator had exploded in the office of Mr. Theodore 
Pinkham, and the whole building was shaken on its foundations. The basement of the 
building, and the office in which the explosion took place, were considerably damaged, 
the office furniture being nearly all broken. Fortunately there was no one in the room 
at the time. 

On the 28th of October, a boiler burst on board the General Transatlantic Line 
steamer Ville de Brest, as she lay in Tunis Bay. Five persons were killed. 

A short time ago a large fly-wheel burst in the rail mill of the Pennsylvania steel 
works at Steelton, Pa. Happily no one was injured, although men were standing all 
around the big engine. The immediate cause of the accident is not known, but the 
destruction of the engine was almost complete, and several thousand dollars will be 
required to repair the damage. The engine was of 1,100 horse-power, the fly-wheel 
being thirty feet in diameter. It had been securely braced with heavy wrought-iron 
rods, and these were twisted and bent. 

On the morning of October 17th, a bad accident occurred in 9, mill in Manayunk, 
Pa., occupied by the Manayunk Paper Company. The head of a large cast-iron paper 
drying cylinder, thirty-six inches in diameter and weighing 300 pounds, blew out. A 
number of men were at work near by at the time, loading paper on one of the mill 
wagons. Two of them, John Wardell and Patrick Dorsey, were badly hurt. Wardell 
received a compound fracture of the right leg, a fracture of the right thigh, a fracture 
of the right arm in two places above the elbow, and several bruises and lacerations on 
the back of his head. Dorsey sustained a fracture of the pelvis, and various lacerations 
about the head and body. Wardell is sixty-nine years of age, and it was thought that 
he could not recover. 

Two days later a main steam-pipe burst at the new River Street rubber mills in 
Hyde Park, Mass., blowing a hole through the engine-house and displacing the roof. 
No one was hurt. 

According to the China Mail, " The boiler of a launch, built for a stingy Chinese 
mandarin who would not pay money enough for a good article, burst in the Shanghai 
river recently.' The Chinese builder, a number of his friends, and several friends of the 
mandarin were on board at the time. Upwards of twenty were killed or drowned." 
The fireman was saved, and was in a great rage at the engineer, who, he said, had 
carried too much steam. He had remonstrated with him, but had received instructions 
to mind his own business. 



-jgQ THE LOCOMOTIVE. [December, 



wlS!i5>^ 



HARTFORD, DECEMBER 15, 1889. 

J. M. Ai.LEN, Editor. A. D. Risteex, Associate Editor. 

The Locomotive can he obtainrd free by callivg at any of the company's agencies. 
Subscription price 50 cents per year when mailed from this office. 
Bound volumes one dollar each. 

Papers that borrow cuts from us will do us a favor if they will plainly mark them in returning, 
so that we may give proper credit on our books. 

Our ne.xt issue begins a new volume : the year 1889 has come, editorially, to an 
end. It has been a prosperous one to us, and our sincere wish is, that the next may be 
like unto it. 



We publish, with this number of the Locomotive, a title page and index for the year. 
We send these free to any one who may wish to have them to append to their file for the 
year. The bound volumes will be ready shortly, and will be sold at the regular price — 
one dollar each. 



In the death of James Prescott Joule, the discoverer of the mechanical equivalent of 
heat, the scientific and engineering world loses one of its ablest workers. A sketch of 
some of Mr. Joule's labors was given in the Locomotive for April, 1889, on page 61. 



DcRiNG the jnonth of October an unusual number of explosions took place, some of 
wliich were most disastrous. The -worst of these was the wreck of the steamer Corona 
on the lower Mississippi, but several others were most frightful. The saw-mill boiler 
comes in for its usual share of space, and the threshing-machine boiler naturally holds its 
own at this season of the year. 



For the benefit of our mathematical readers we will say that the problem that 
Leverrier and Adams had to attack was the solution of a series of simultaneous partial 
differential equations containing, we believe, nine unknown quantities. As Miller says of 
this problem, "Even the usual devices of the Planetary Theory, evolved by the genius 
of Lagrange and La])lace, failed in application in consequence of the inverse character 
of the problem. In fact, the old armory of Science was unavailable, and Adams and 
Leverrier, in fighting their great battle with Nature, had to invent a fresh weapon for 
everv stage of the conflict." 



We have repeatedly cautioned boiler hands and engineers against opening or clos- 
ing valves quickly. How often do we go into a boiler-l)ouse or an engine-room and see 
an attendant hurry to a valve and spin the wheel around as though it were a top 1 Now, 
if such men would consider matters a Httle. and read up the histories of boiler explosions 
and other such accidents, they would, we think, be more careful in their operations. 
How often do we read, " The works had been shut down during the noon hour, and at 



1889.] T PIE LOCOMOTIVE. 187 

one o'clock the engineer went to the throttle to start up: as soon as he had touched the 
valve there was a deafening report .... ," or something of that general nature! 
When any structure is under a state of strain it should be treated with the utmost con- 
sideration, and no sudden variation of this strain should be allowed to take place. This 
is carefully looked after in railroad bridges and such structures, and the same principles 
tliat teach the locomotive engineer to go across bridges slowly should teach the station- 
ary engineer to open and close his valves slowly. 

It often happens that in making tests of boilers one out of a battery has to be shut off 
from the rest and run separately, and at a different pressure. In such cases, particularly, 
it would be highly dangerous to open the valves in the connecting pipes quickly. The 
valves should be barely started from their seats, so that steam will leak through very 
slowly. The gauges should be closely watched, and as they gradually come together 
the valves may be started a hair more. At the end of half an hour or so they will come 
together, and then the valves may be opened wide, though even then they should be 
started slowly, a spoke at a time, for greater security. 



Some Experiences with Zinc. 

Zinc is often used in boilers and hot water tanks to prevent the corrosive action of 
the water on the metal of which the tank or boiler is composed. The action appears to 
be an electrical one, the iron being one pole of the battery, and the zinc being the 
other. Under the action of the current of electricity so produced, the water in the 
tank is slowly decomposed into its elements, oxygen and hydrogen. The hydrogen is 
deposited on the iron shell, where it remains. It will not unite with iron to form a new 
compound, but if any iron-rust (known to the chemists as oxide of iron) is present, it will 
remove tlie oxygen from this and deposit the metallic iron on the plates. The oxygen 
of the water that is decomposed, instead of going to the iron, goes to the zinc, and 
forms oxide of zinc, and in the course of time tlie zinc will be found to be almost 
entirely converted into oxide, only a small fraction of the original metal being left. 

On account of the action we have outlined above, it is generally believed that zinc 
is always a good thing to prevent corrosion, and that it cannot be harmful to the boiler 
or tank under any circumstances. Some of our experiences go to disprove this belief, 
and we have met with numerous cases in which zinc has not only been of no use, but 
has even been harmful. In one peculiarly marked case a one-hundred horse-power 
horizontal tubular boiler had been troubled with a deposit of scale consisting chiefly of 
organic matter and lime, and zinc was recommended as a preventive, some few weeks 
previous to our annual internal inspection. When the inspection was made, large 
amounts of detached scale from the shell and tubes were found in the bottom of the 
boiler, and the iron surfaces from which they had been detached showed markedly the 
action of the zinc, the crystals of which, deposited upon the iron, gave it the appear- 
ance of frosted silver work. On the rear portions of the tubes, the scale being much 
heavier and more obstinate to remove, partially remained; but it was easily loosened and 
detached, and when it was removed the same frosted appearance of the iron was 
observed. The beneficial action of the zinc w'as so obvious that its continued use was 
advised, with frequent opening of the boiler and cleaning out of detached scale until 
all the old scale should be removed and the boiler become clean. Eight or ten months 
later the water supply was changed, it being now obtained from another stream sup- 
posed to be free from lime, and to contain only organic matter. This change of feed 
water was unknown to the inspector, who two or three mouths after its introduction 
opened the boiler for inspection, and was greatly surprised at its condition. The tubes 
and shell were coated with an obstinate adhesive scale, clinging tenacio.usly to the 
iron, and composed of zinc oxide and the organic matter or sediment of the water used. 



188 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [December, 

The deposit had become so heavy in places as to cause overheating and bulging of the 
plates over the fire. It was with difficulty that these patches were separated and 
removed by the use of long chisels made specially for the purpose. This action of zinc 
when the water supply is changed has been noted by us in many cases, but in no other 
case that we have yet met with has the contrast between its beneficial action at first and 
its injurious action afterwards, in the same boiler, been so marked. 

Another very interesting instance of the peculiar action of zinc under certain con- 
ditions came to our notice not long ago. This time the trouble was with a tank used 
for heating water, and containing coils of brass pipe through which exhaust steam was 
passed. The shell of the tank corroded rapidly, and one day a large crack opened in 
one of the plates, and the hot water (which was under a pressure of 75 pounds) 
was discharged into the room. An entirely new ^^g in. shell, 42 inches in diameter, and 
8 feet high, was then constructed, and when it was placed in position, a thirty-pound 
pig of zinc was hung between the tubes to prevent the continuance of the corrosion. 
The zinc certainly did prevent the species of corrosion that had given so much trouble 
before, but it gave rise to a very peculiar alteration of the iron of which the new shell 
was made. After the lapse of two years, the handhole plates were renewed, and it was 
found that although the old ones had preserved their form, they were softened on their 
inner surfaces so that a penknife point could be easily thrust into them about -^-^ of an 
inch. The metal on these surfaces was black and lusterless, and had every appearance 
of being graphite or black lead. So soft was it that the strengthening ribs on one of 
the plates were entirely cut away by an ordinary pocket-knife. The interior surface of 
the tank presented the same appearance, but as the tank showed no signs of distress, it 
was continued in use, and for six years it has proved serviceable and satisfactory, no 
leaks or other symptoms of weakness having been observed. The old handhole plates 
were kept for subsequent examination, but in a short time they hardened up so that a 
cold -chisel would make scarcely any impression on them. The zinc pig that had been 
used was removed, and its character was found to be entirely changed. It had pre- 
served its former shape and general outward appearance, but its fracture was no longer 
bright. and metallic, resembling wood from which all the sap had been expelled. By 
carefully melting it in a clean black lead crucible, it was found that only fifteen per 
cent, of it remained in the metallic state. The remaining eighty-five per cent, was 
probably zinc oxide, though no analysis of it was made. 

It appears from these experiences and from others of like natiire that the action of 
zinc is not always as simple and harmless as it would appear to be at first thought. In 
fact, zinc is one of the numerous things that don't always work as we should naturally 
expect them to; and in making use of it, the boiler should be frequently opened and 
the action carefully watched, so that if any undesirable eflEects show themselves they 
may be checked in time to prevent serious trouble. 



The course of lectures at Sibley College, Ithaca, N. Y., by non-resident lecturers, on 
mechanical engineering, began late this year on account of Prof. Thurston's absence in 
Europe. On November 22d, Prof. W. LeConte Stevens opened the course with a lecture 
on " The History of Aeronautics." Among the later lecturers, it is expected, will be S. 
P. Langley (Secretary of the Smithsonian Institute), 0. Chanute, C. E. Emery, Benja- 
min F. Isherwood of the United States navy, Alexander Graham Bell, J. M. Allen, 
president of the Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company, and George 
H. Babcock. Later in the season it is hoped that Mr. Leavitt, the consulting engineer 
of the Calumet & Hecla Mining Company, Mr. Holoway, Prof. Anthony, Mr. Weston the 
electrician, -Dr. Dudley, and Major Michaelis will be heard. An unusual amount of 
attention will be given, during the course, to aerial navigation. 



1889] THE LOCOMOTIVE. ^89 

Great Discoveries and Innovations of the Past Sixty Years. 

VI. The Discovery op jSTeptune. 

In these clays everybody knows that the sun is the center of the system of worlds to 
which we belong, and that around him circulate the eight planets, Mercury, Venus, the 
Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. These worlds or planets are held in 
their orbits by the wonderful force of gravitation exerted upon them by the sun. With- 
out this marvelous force the earth and all the rest of the sun's numerous family of worlds 
would pass off into the dark, unfathomable emptiness that surrounds us on all sides. 

Long ago it was known that some force of gravitation must hold us within the sun's 
dominion, but it was Newton who showed that this force is identical with what w'e 
know upon the earth as gravity. He announced that every particle of matter in the 
universe attracts every other particle with a force decreasing rapidly as the distance 
between the particles increases, but never entirely ceasing to act. He showed that the 
path of a single planet revolving about the sun must be of an elliptical shape ; but he 
showed more than that. According to his conception, not only must the sun attract the 
planets, and the planets in their turn attract the sun ; but also each planet must attract 
every other planet, thereby pulling it slightly out of the elliptical orbit in which the sun 
tends to make it travel. Here was a source of complexity that made it exceedingly 
difficult to calculate the exact position that any heavenly body will be in at any given 
moment. Yet Newton, Laplace, and other eminent mathematicians have set their wits 
to Avork upon the problem with such distinguished success that although even now it is 
quite impossible to calculate the motions of three or more bodies of anywhere nearly 
equal size, Ave find ourselves able to solve the actual problem that we meet, in which 
one of these bodies, the sun, is vastly larger than all the others together, without 
serious difficulty. We can now predict the position of any planet or of almost any 
satellite with an accuracy that is simply marvelous to the uninitiated, — in fact, our 
ability to do this furnishes the lecturer and preacher with many an illustration of the 
wonderful powers of the human intellect. 

It will not be surprising, therefore, when we state that the slightest deviation of 
any heavenly body from the path the mathematicians have laid down for it to follow, at 
once arouses the liveliest interest in the astronomical world, even though the discrepancy 
can be detected only with instruments of great accuracy ; and immediately the air is 
rife with theories to account for the strange anomaly, and papers are read about it 
before learned societies. 

One of the most historic of these discrepancies is that observed in the case of 
Uranus. This planet was discovered on March 13, 1781, by Sir William Herschel, who 
thought it to be a comet at first, but soon satisfied himself that it was indeed a planet, mil- 
lions of miles beyond Saturn, which was at that time the outermost known member of the 
solar system. As soon as it was discovered it was carefully observed and its orbit 
calculated, and all went well until the year 1800. The planet had then followed its calcu- 
lated orbit for nineteen years (about one-(]uarter of its period of revolution). About this 
time, however, certain slight irregularities in its motion were noticed, but at the begin- 
ning no great importance was attached to them. In 1803, however, they had increased 
so as to be what an astronomer would call prominent ; that is, they had grown to be so 
considerable that they attracted serious attention. In 1820 they reached a maximum, 
and then, as Herschel says, "an alarm was sounded." Various theories were proposed, 
as is usual in such cases, but none seemed to be satisfactory save one. This was, that 
there exists, beyond Uranus, a planet hitherto "Imknown, whose attraction on Uranus 
caused the slight but methodical deviation that the astronomers had detected. This 
suggestion, we believe, was originally made by Bouvard, an astronomer who concerned 
himself much with intricate calculations of orbits and ephemendes. 



190 



THE LOCOMOTIVE, 



[December, 



Granted that the hj-pothetical planet existed, who should say where to look for it ? 
Two eminent mathematicians, one English and the other French, undertook to answer 
this question. Great as are the difficulties of determining the minute irregularities of a 
planet's motion that are caused by the attraction of its neighbors, these men proposed to 
themselv'es, all unknown to one another, the vastly more difficult task of working the 
problem backwards — of taking the observed perturbations, trifling as they were, as a 
starting poirt, and calculating the position in the heavens that the hypothetical planet 
must have, in order to produce them ! The tremendous difficulties of such an operation 
cannot be conceived by the ordinary mind ; and to any but the greatest and most skillful 
of mathematicians they must have proven insuperable. The gentlemen who proposed 
for themselves such an enormous task were Mr. Adams of England, and M. Leverrier 
of France ; and both of them succeeded. 

Both saw that it would greatly lessen the labor of computation if they could get 
some approximate idea of the distance the new planet is from the sun. How they 
obtained this approximate value will appear from what follows. 

Professor Titius of Wittemberg, had pointed out, some time before, a curious 
numerical relation existing between the distances from the sun of the planets then 
known. The relation was this: If we write down the numbers 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96, 
192, each after the second being obtained by doubling the one before it, and then 
add four to all of them, we have the series 4, 7, 10, 16, 28, 52, 100, 196; and these rep- 
resent, with a fair approach to accuracy, the distances of the respective planets from the 
sun. The actual degree of aerreement is shown be'ow: 



Planet. 


Mercury. 


Venus. 


Earth. 


Mars. 


» 


JUI'ITEU. 


Satcrn. 


Uranus. 


Real Distance, . . . 
By Series, 


4 
4 


7.5 
7.0 


10.3 
100 


15.8 
16.0 


28.0 


53.7 
52.0 


98.6 
100.0 


108.2 
106.0 


Difference, . . 


0.0 


0.5 


0.3 


0.2 




1.7 


1.4 


2.2 



The first line of the table shows the distances of all the planets then known, taking 
Mercury's distance as 4. The agreement is not exact, but it must be confessed that it is 
remarkably close. There is every indication that it represents a natural law, and the 
presumption was, that if we only understood that law more fully we should see reasons 
for the slight discrepancies. There is one remarkable disagreement, however. Corre- 
sponding to the number 28 in the series was a vast stretch of space lying between Mars 
and Jupiter, and so far as known, absolutely empty. Professor Bode of Berlin suggested, 
as a possible explanation, that some small undiscovered body might be circling about the 
sun in this apparently empty space, and proposed that a search be made for it. Judge of 
the astonishment of the astronomical world when Professor Piazzi of Palermo, on the first 
day of January, 1801, announced the discovery of the pigmy planet Ceres, moving about 
the sun in the region under discussion, and when this announcement was followed by 
the discovery of three other such bodies by Olbers and Harding, in 1802, 1804, and 1807. 
These little bodies differed greatly in the shapes of their orbits, but their average dis- 
tance from the sun agreed well with the number 28 in the series, and they filled 
the gap. 

These circumstances, as Herschel says, "tended to create a strong belief that the 
law was something more than a mere accidental coincidence, and that it bore reference 
to the essential sti'ucture of the planetary system. It was even conjectured that the 



1889.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. |g [ 

asteroids are fragments of some greater planet which formerly circulated in that interval, 
but wliicli has been blown to atoms by an explosion." However that may be, it will be 
plain that at the time Leverrier and Adams started out on their laborious calculations, 
there was every reason to believe that the distance of the unknown planet from the sun 
might fairly be represented by the next term of the series given above ; that is, by 388, 
the distance of Mercury being 4. 

Thus one element in the orbit of the unknown planet was found; and then the cal- 
culators lauuciied out into the unknown, and for two years nothing was to be seen but a 
wilderness of figures. At last the computations were completed. In September, 1845, 
Adams quietly communicated his results to Professor Challis, and one month later he 
communicated to the astronomer royal the same results slightly corrected. Incredible 
as it may seem, no steps were taken to discover the planet until the summer of 1846, 
"after the publication of Leverrier's second memoir, in which the same position, within 
one degree, was assigned to the disturbing planet as that given in Adams' paper." On 
August 31, 1846, Leverrier read before the French Academy his third paper on the sub- 
ject, entitled " *S'i/r la plunete qui jyroditit les anomalies dbservees dans le mouvement fZ'- 
Uranus — Determination de sa masse, de son oriit, et de sa position actuelW'' ("On the 
planet that produces the observed anomalies in the motion of Uranus — Determination 
of its mass, orbit, and actual position.") "Leverrier wrote to his friend Dr. Galle of 
Berlin," says Proctor, " requesting him to search for the planet with the large refracting 
telescope of the Berlin Observatory, in the place he indicated. This letter reached Ber- 
lin on September 23d, and on the same evening Galle observed all the stars in the neigh- 
borhood of the place indicated, and compared their places with those given in Bremiker's 
Berlin Star-Map. . . . He very quickly found a star of the eighth magnitude, 
nearly in the place pointed out, which did not exist in the maj). Little doubt was en- 
tertained at the time that this was the planet, and the observations of the next two days 
confirmed the discovery." Thus, although Adams' results were published first, the 
honor of the actual discovery rests with Leverrier and Galle. Dr. Challis, it is true, had 
actually seen it on August 4th and 12th; but owing to the fact that he had no accurate 
map of this portion of the heavens, he did not recognize it as the object of which he 
was in search. 

Thus ended one of the most brilliant exploits of the human intellect in the field of 
astronomy. The planet was of course observed closely after its discovery, and its orbit 
has been carefully calculated by several eminent astronomers. It was traced backward, 
too, to see if it had ever been observed before; and, wonderful to relate, it was found 
that it had been seen, and the observations placed on record, on no less than nineteen 
separate occasions, without its planetarj^ nature being once suspected ! Lemonnier, one 
of the men who had seen it, narrowly escaped discovering its true nature, for he had 
observed it on several different occasions. He recorded his observations in such an un- 
methodical manner, however, that it was difficult to compare them with one another 
properly. In fact, one of his most important observations, one that was used afterwards 
in computing Neptune's orbit, was found by Bouvard "scribbled upon a confectioner's 
paper bag." 

Those interested in this historical discovery will find fuller accounts of it and of 
the principles underlying it in Herschel's Outlines of Astronomy, in Grant's History of 
Astronomy, in Airy's Historical statement of circumstances connected with the Discovery of 
the Planet ieyond Uranus, and in the Encyclopaidia Britannica under " Leverrier." 



192 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



Incorporated 
1866. 




Charter Per- 
petual. 



Issnes Policies of Insnrauce after a Carefnl Inspection of tlie Boilers, 



COVEIIING ALI, LOSS OR DAMAGE TO 



BOILERS, BUILDINGS, AND MACHINERY. 



ALSO COVERING 



LOSS OF LIFE AND ACCIDENT TO PERSONS 



ARISING FR03I 



Steam Boiler Explosions. 

Full information concerning the plan of tbe Companj-'s operations can be obtained at the 

Or at any Ageuev. 



J. M. ALLEN, President. 
J. B. PIERCE, Secretary. 



W. B. FRANKLIN, Vice-Prest. 
FRANCIS B. ALLEN, 2d Vice-Prest. 



ISoard of 

J. M. ALLEN. President. 

FliAXIv \V. CHHNKY. Treas. Cheney Brothers 

Silk M.iiiufacturins Co. 
CHAKLKS M. BEACH, of Bench & Co. 
D\N[E[, I'HILLIl^S, of Adams Express Co. 
RICH \liD \V. H. .lARVIS, Brest. Colt's Fire Arms 

Manufacturing Co. 
THOMAS O. EN'DERS, President of the U. S. Bank. 
LEVEIiElT BRAIXARD, of Tlie Case, Lockwood 

& ISrainard Co. 
Gen. W.AL B. FRAXKLIN, U. S. Commissioner to 

the I'aris Exposition. 
NEW'ION CASE, of Tlie Case, Lockwood & 

Brainard Co. 



T>ii'ec'tors. 

NELSON HOLLLSTER, of State Bank. Hartford. 
Hon. HENRY C. ROBINSON, Attorneyat-Law, 

Hartford. 
Hon. FRANCIS B. COOLEY, of the National 

Exchange Bank, Hartford, Conn. 
A. W. JILLSON, late Vice-Prest. Phoenix Fire Ins. 

Co.. Hartford, Conn 
EDMUND A. STEDMAN, Treasurer of the Fidelitj- 

Co., of Hartford, Conn. 
CLAl'P SPOONER, I'.ridgeport, Conn. 
GEORGE BURNHAM, Baldwin Locomotive Works, 
1 Philadelphia. 

Hon. NATHANIEL SHIPMAN, Judge United 
I States Circuit Court. 



A. S. Ferry, General Agent, Office at Hartford, Conn, 



GENERAL AGENTS. 

THKO. H. BARrOCK, 
COIMUX & GOODRL'H, 
LA\VFORD& McKIM, 

C. E. ROBERTS, 



H. D P BIGELOW, 

C. C. (JARDIXKR, 

L. B. PEI.'KIXS. 

\V G. LINEUIRGH & SON, 

GEM. P. KURWELL, 

MA\N'& WILSON. 

FRITH & ZOLLARS, 

C. I. .McCARY & CO., 

W. S. HASTIE & SON, 



CHIEF INSPECTORS 

R. K. MrMT'RRAY, 
W>r G. PIKE 
JOSEPH CRAG G, 

WM. U. FAIRBAIRX, | 

H. D. P BIGELOW, 
J. S. WILSOX, 
F. S. ALLEX. 
.L H. RAXDALL. 
C. A. BURWELL, 
.1. B. WARXER, 
T. E. SHEARS, 



OFFICES. 
New Yohk Pity. Office, 2f5 Broadway 



I B. F. JOHNSON, j 



Pnil-ADKI.rHIA. 
I>AI,TIMOKE, Md. 

Boston, Mass 
Pi{<")yinEXCE. R. I. 
CmrAGo, III. 
St Boris. Mo. 

HAI;TFf>KI). 
P.KIKGEl'ORT. 

Clevelanii. 
San FnAxrisco. 
Denvek. Col. 
Birmingham, Ala. 
Charleston, S. C. 



4:)ft Walnut St. 

22 So.HollidaySt. 

3.5 Pembertoii Sq. 

29 Wevbosset St. 
112 Quincv St. 
404 Marke't St. 
218 Main St. 

94 State St. 
208 Superior St. 
306 Sansome St. 
Opera House Block. 
2015 First Av. 

44 Broad St. 



INDEX TO TOL. X, NEW SERIES. 



ARTICLES MARKED WITH A STAR (*) ARE ILLUSTRATED. 



Accideut iu a boiler room, 137. 
Accidents, a cliapter of, 185. 

strange, in connection with boilers, 20. 
Adfims and Leverrier, concerning. 186, 189. 
Africa, curiosities of exploration in, 46. 
Air, burning the, 122. 
Alvan Clark, autobiography of, 52. 
American Association for the Advancement of Sci- 
ence, 136. [163, 167. 

Boiler Manufacturer.?' Association, 84, 154, 

Charcoal Iron IJoiler Tubes, standard dimen- 
sions of, 10 
Aniesthesia, 171, 173. 
Andromeda, the nebula in. 2.5. 
Animals, heat evolved by, 91. 
.Arctic, the, 10. 

Arrows, poisoned. 91. [154, 103, 167. 

Association of American Boiler Manufacturers, 84. 
Atlantic steamers, concerning, 40. 85, 105, 136, 139. 
Autobiography, an interesting, 52. 
Ballet, use of in teaching chemistry, 74. [26. 

Barrus, Geo. H.. notice of his paper on Boiler Tests, 
Base ball, curved i)itching in, 26. 
Bellite, the new explosive, 45. 
Blisters, unnecessary cutting out of, 97. 
Boiler, experimental, test of an, 91. [149. 164, 180. 

Explosions, 5, 21, 38, 69, 83, 100, 115, 133, 
causes and preventives, 71, 74. 
summary of, for 1888, 23. 

feeding, arrangement of pnnips for, 129. 

insurance, growth of, 122. 

Manufacturers' Association, 84, 154, 163, 167. 

ottered for insurance, defects in a, 106. 

of today, a, 123. 

room, vigilance in the, 137. 
Holler Tests, notice of Mr. Barrus's paper on, 26. 
Boilers, bracing heads of, 118. 

caulking flues in, 167. 

defects in, 97. 

falsely reported " out of use," 58. 

heating, safety-valves on, 172. 

on thelongituilinal riveted joints of, 101. 

setting two or more over a single furnace, *49. 

strains in, 59. 
Bode's law (so called), 190. 
Bracing boiler heads. 118. 
Brown-Sequard's " Elixir of Life," 138. 
Bruce telescope for photography, the, 138. 
Ciusar's horse. 171. 
Calibration of thermometers, 7. 
Canal across the isthmus of Corinth, the, 105. 

the Mancliester ship, 183. 
Carnival in St. John. N. B.. 122. 
Carnofs formula (so called), 124. 
Cast-iron plates, hollow. 66, 67. 
Casualties, a chajjter of, 185. 
Catastrophe, a terrible, at Hartford, *3.3. 
Caudal ai)pendage in man, 90. 
Caulking flues in boilers. 167. 

joints while under pressure, 42. 
Centenarian, Chesley Heal. the. 44. 
Chapter of casualties, a, 185. 
Charge, a serious. 58. 

Chemistry, use of the ballet iu teaching, 74. 
Chesley Heal, the centenarian, 44. 
Chimneys, stability of, *29. 
Cincinnati, an explosion in, 107. 
City of icebergs, the, 43. 
Citi/ of \ew York, concerning the, 40, 86. 
City of Paris, concerning the, 85, 105, 136. 



Clark, Alvan, autobiography of, 52. 

Clausius's formula, 124. 

Closing and opening valves quicklj-, 186. 

Coal, soft, on tiring with, *145. 

Collapse of a corrugated furnace, 27. 

Colliery, explosion in an English, 75. 

Comlnistion of air, 122. 

Completion of a canal begun by Nero, 105. 

Compressibility of water, 41. 

Congo, the, 46. 

Conservation of energy, the, 156. [*17. 

Construction and management of rendering tanks. 

Consumption, prevention of, 116. 

Corinth, canal across the isthmus of, 105. 

Cornell University, lectures at, 188. 

Corona, the, explosion of, 170. 

Correcting thermometers. 7. 

Corrosion around stay bolts, *1. 

from standing water, *177. 
Corrugated furnace, collapse of a, 27. 
Curiosities of exploration in Africa, 46. 
Curved pitching in base ball. 26. 
Cuts borrowed from us, concerning credit for, 27. 
Crab, lady, dance of the. 28. 
Dance ot the lady crab, 28. 

Danger of opening and closing valves quickly, 186. 
Defects in a boiler oflered for in.surance, 106. 

in boilers. 97. 
Destroyer, the, 59. [14. 

Dimensions, standard, of gas, steam, and water pipes, 

of iron boiler tubes, 15. 
Discourtesy of bn.siness men, apparent, 95. 
Disco\eries and innovations of the past sixty years, 

great. 106. 109, 124. 140, 156, 173, 189. 
Discovery ol' the planet Neptune. 186, 189. 
Ih-eadna'i((jht, the, trial of in the Tnited States, 108. 
Ducts tor Void air. data concerning, 12. 
Dust explosion, a, .5, 42. 
Dynamite cartridge in the coal heap, a, 57. 
Earth, measuring the, 76. 
Eclipse of the sun, an, 169. 
Efficiency of heat engines, concerning the, 124. 
Eiffel tower, use of for scientific purposes, 170. 
Eighteen or twenty thousand horse-power, 40. 
Electric induction, 11. 

power, 11. 
Electrie Motor and its AiJJilicdl'ons (notice of), 26. 
Electricity and light, connection between, 11, 43. 

liability of to duty, 137. 
Elixir of life, the, 138.' 
Employes, kindness toward, 60. 
Energy, conservation of, 156 
Engine, exj)erimental, at Owens College, 136. 
Engines, heat, etfi<'iency of, 124. 
England, explosions in, during 1888, 137. 
Ericsson, death of, 59. 
JEtruria, concerning the, 40, 85, 105. 
Evolution. 124. 

Expeiiences with zinc, some. 187. 
Experimental test of a new steel boiler, 91. 
Experiments on iron and steel, 155. 
Exploration iu Africa, eurio.sities of, 46. 
Explosion in an Enniisli colliery, 75. 

in Park Central Hotel. Hartford, ♦SS, 42, 52. 

of dust in oatmeal mills._5, 42. 

of vulcanizing press, *65. 
I of a dredging tug_in Erance, 90. 

I in Cincinnati, 107. 

of an oil still, 16_1. 

of the Corona, 170. 



INDEX 



Explosions, Boilers, 5, 21, 38, 69. 83, 100, 115, 133, 
149. 164. 180. 
snnimary of. for 1888, 23. 
causes aud prevention, 71, 74. 

in England during 1888. 137. 

iiiiu.sual uumljer of. during October. 186. 
Explosive. Bellite, the new. 4.5. 
Fable of the Lion and the Lamb. 27. 
Faith vg. "Works, 10.5. [129. 

Feeding boilers, ou an arrangement of pumps for. 
Firing with soft coal. "145. 

without coal. 122. 
Flue.s in boiler.s. caulking, 167. 
Formula for limiting efficiency of engines, 124. 
Foundryman. a legal. 94. 

Fourdrinier, inventor of paper machinery, 13. 
Fun, no time for. 9.5. 
Furnace, collapse of a corrugated, *27. 

single, setting boilers over a, 49. 
Fusible plugs, on, *113. 
Gas-meter, a "prepayment," 41. 
Gauge glasses, shutting off at night. 137. 
Gear teeth, tables for laying out (notice of), 42. 
Gnomium. the new metal from nickel, 58, 9.5. 
Gold and silver, production of, in 1888. 88. 
Great discoveries and innovations of the past sixty 

years. 106. 109, 124. 140. 156. 173, 189. 
Grenfell's experiences on the Congo, 47. 
■' Groombridge, 18.30," 171. 
Grooving around stay-bolts, *1. 
Growth of boiler insurance. 122. 
Heads of boilers, on bracing the. 118. 
Heat engines, limiting efficiency of, 124. 

evolved by animals, 91. 

mechanical equivalent of, 61. 
Heating boilers, safety-valves on, 172. 

and ventilation, 12. 13.5. 
Heavens, photographing wonders in the. 24. 
Hertz's experiments on light and electricity, 43. 
High pressures, .59. 
Honesty the best policy, 127. 
Horse, C<esar's, 171. 

power, 18,000 or 20.000, 40. [52. 

Hotel, Park Central, explosion of boUer in, *33, 42, 

model of boiler in. 90. 
Human beings with tails, 90. 
Icebergs, the city of, 43. 

Induction, electric. 11. [148, .164. ISO. 

Inspectors' reports. 2. 20, 51. 68, 82. 99. 114, 132. 
summary of, for 1888, 4. 

work since the company began business, 4. 
In.surance, boiler, growth of,' 122. 
Interesting autobiography, an, 52. 
Iron production in 1888, 77. 

and steel, boom in. 169. 

experiments on, 1.55. 
Isthmus of Corinth, canal across the, 105. 
Japan, rapidity of progress in, 136. 
Johns Hopkins University, concerning the, 170. 
Johnstown, disaster at, 106. 
Joints, caulking, while under pressure, 42. 

longitudinal riveted, strength of, 101. 
Joule, James Prescott. 61, 186. 
Kindness towards employes, 60. 
Klein, Prof. .J. F.. on laying out gear teeth, 42. 
Kriiss and Schmidt, researches on nickel and cobalt, 

58, 95. 
Lady crab, dance of the. 28. [15. 

Lap-welded iron boiler tubes, standard dimensions of. 
Latest ocean wonder, the, 1.39. 
Laughiuir gas. Dr. "Wells and. 171. 
Lectures at Siblej- College (Cornell University), 188. 
Legal foundr\nnan. a, 94. 
Lf-verrier and Adams, concerning, 186, 189. 
Leyden jar. the. 11. 
Life, a remarkablv long, 44. 

the elixir of. 13S. 
Light without heat, 11. 43. 
Linen paper, 13. 

Lion and the Lamb, Fable concerning the, 27. 
•■Lloyds,"62. 

Location of man-holes and steam nozzles, *81. 
Lockyer's recent meteoric theories, 2.5. [108. 

Locomotive. English, trial of in the United' States, 
London Gazette, the. 62, 
Long life, a remarkably. 44. 
Longitudinal riveted .joints, strength of, 101. 
Machinery riots, 1.50. 

Man-holes and steam nozzles, location of, *81. 
Manchester ship canal, the, 183. 



Manufacture of paper, the. 13. 

Map of Mars. Schiaparelli's. 10. 

Mars, concerning. 10. 

Maxwell. James Clerk, his tlieory of light, 11, 43. 

Mayer. Dr. -Julius Robert. 61. 

Measuring the earth, 76. 

Mechanical Specialties Company, the, 90. 

equivalent of heat, history of the, 61. 
Merrimac, the, 59. 

Microscopists .Serenade, the, 9, 10, 89. 
Model of the Park Central Hotel boiler, 90. 
Jfonifor, the, 59. 
Murphy, Mr. E. J., 106. 
Myopia, 153. 

Xaval observatorj-, the U. S., 24. 
Xear-sijihtedness,' 1.53. 
Xebula in Orion, the, 24. 

Andromeda, the, 24. 
Nebular theory, the, 25. 
Ifeptune, discovery of the planet, 186, 189. 
Kerves, reversibility of, 123. 
Xero, completion of a canal begun by, 10.5. 
Xew Brunswick (Province of), 122. 
Newspaper, the oldest in existence, 62. 
Xewton, Sir Isaac, on the jjath of "curved.'' balls, 26. 
Niagara, the, 10. 

Kikel and cobalt, new metal found in, 58, 95. 
Nitrogen, 75, 122. 

Nitrous oxide gas. Dr. "Wells and, 171. 
Xovelfy, the, 59. 

I Nozzles and hand-holes, location of, *81. 
Oatmeal mills, exjilosion of dust in, 5, 42. 
I Obituary notices, 10, 59, 186. 
Observatory at "Washington, the naval, 24. 
Ocean steamships and records, 40, 85, 10.5, 136,139. 

wonder, the latest, 139. [186. 

October, 1889, unusual number of explosions during. 
Ode, a water immersion, 79. 
Oil still, explosion of an, *161. 

Opening and closing valves quickly, danger of, 186. 
Orion, the nebula in, 24. 
Owens college, experimental engine at, 136. 
Oxygen in the sun, concerning the existence of, 170. 
Paper, the manufacture of, 13. 
Paris exposition, congresses at the, 95. 
Park Central Hotel, explo.sion in the, *33, 42, 52. 

model of boiler in, 90. 
Parker, Mr. W., on the "collapse of a corrugated 

flue, " 27. 
Past sixtv years, great discoveries and innovations of 

the", 106, 109, 124, 140, 156, 173, 189. 
Photogiaphing "wonders in the heavens, 24. 
Photography, 140. 

the Bruce telescope for, 138. 
Pick mark, the, 94. 

Pig iron production in 1888, 77. [of, 14. 

Pipes for gas. steam, and water, standard dimensions 
Pitching curves in base ball, 26. 
Pleiades, the, 24. 
Plugs, fu.sible,*! 13. 

Planet Neptune, discovery of the, 186, 189. 
Poisoned arrows, 91. 
Power, electric, 11. 
Prepayment gas meter, a, 41. 
Pressures, high, .59. 
Prevention of consumption, 116. 
Princeton, the, 59. 
Publications, (notices of) : 

Boiler Tests, by Geo. H, Barrus, 26. 

Electric Motor and its Ajjplications, the, by 
"Wetzler and Martin, 26. [42. 

Tahle.nfor laying out Gear Teeth, by J. F. Klein, 

Fifth Annual Keport of the State Inspector of 
VTorkshops and Factories in Ohio, 42. 

World Traiel Gazette, the, 74. 

Fourth Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor 
Statistics in Connecticut. 60. 

Fourteenth Annual Report of the Mdrkischer 
Verein for the inspection and gupervision of 
steam boilers, 90. 

Eighteenth Annual Report of the Silesian Asso- 
ciation, 90. 
I Report of Mr. Henry Hiller to the Xational 

' Boiler Insurance Co., of Manchester, England, 

137. 

Rejmrts of the 12th and I'ith meetings of the 
Chief Engineers of the Steam Boiler Owners 
Association of France, 154. 

Railiray Statistics of the Interstate Commerce 
Coiii mission, 154. 



INDEX. 



Boiler HxjAosions (in England) during 1888, 
154. 

Report of the iTfissachusetts Commissioners con- 
cerninf/ the boundary line between that State 
and Xciv If((iiij)shire, 155. 

"Wilsons Treati.se on Steam Boilers, 170. 
Pumps for boiler feeding, on an arrangement of, *129. 
Railiray Master Mechanic, remarks addressed to the, 

26. 
Railroads, good work on the, 108. 
Eats' tails, exiieriments on, 123. 
Registers, >S:c., datii concerning the size of, 12. [*17. 
Kendering tanks, coustriu-tiou and management of. 
Reports — set- Insjiertors' Reports : also Publications. 
Rever.sibilit.v of nerves, the, 123. 
Riots, machinery, 150. 
Rittenhuysen, John, builder of first paper mill in 

America, 13. 
Riveted joints in boilers, strength of, 101. 
Robert, Louis, inventor of paper machinery, 13. 
Roberts' photograph of the Nebula in Andromeda, 25. 
Rock-et, the, 59. 
Rogers, Geo. "W"., obituary notice of, 10. 

Capt. Moses, 10. 
Rotifer, song of the, 70. 
Rowland, Henrv A., and the mechanical equivalent 

ofheat, 6'2. 
Royal Society, Soiree of the, 107. 
Rule for determining wind pressure on chimneys, 29. 

tinding center of gravity, 30. 
Safety plugs, on, *113. 

valves on hea ng boilers, 172 
Sahara, the, 120. 

Salvation of the human race by talk, the, 95. 
Savannah, the, 10. 

Schiajiarelli's observations on Mars, 10. 
Science, meeting of American Association for Ad- 
vancement of, at Toronto, 136. 
Serenade, the microscopist's, 9, 10, 89. 
Serious cliarge, a, 58. 

Setting .several boilers over a single furnace, *4;9. 
Sevecks, house built by laborers for the, 152. 
Sheet of paper, a, extracts from, 13. 
Ship canal, the Manchester, 183. 1 

Sibley college, lectures at, 188. j 

Silver and gold, production of, in 1888, 88. 
Sir Isaac Newton on the path of " curved " balls, 26. 
Six day line, passed^ the, 85, 136. 
Sixty years, great discoveries and innovations of the, 

106, 109, 124. 140, 156, 173, 189. 
Smeaton's rule for wind pressure, 29. 
Soft coal, on tiring with, *145. 
Soiree of the Royal Society, 107. 
Some experiences with zinc, 187. 
Specifications for tanks, stills, digesters, rotaries, 

and other special boilers, concerning, 20. 
Spectroscope, the, 10, 109. j 

Stability of chimneys, the, *29. I 



Standard dimensions ot gas, steam, and water pipes, 
iron boiler tubes, 15. [14. 

Sta:iding water, corrosion from, 177. 
Stanley, Henry M., on arrow poison, 91. 
Star known as" " 1830 Groombridge," the, 171. 
Stars, velocitie-s of approach and recession of, 111. 
States, the new, 74. 
Stay-liolts, corrosion iiround, *1. 
Steam-nozzles ami haiid-liolcs, location of, *81. 
Steamships, see Atlnntic St i-inn ships. 
Steel and iron, experiments on, 1.55. 

the lioom in, 169. 
Still, explosion of an oil, *161. 
St. John, N. B., carnival at, 122. 
Summary of boiler explosions in 1888, 23. 
Sun, an eclipse of, 169. 
Tables : 

Standard dimensions of wrought-iron pipes and 
tubes, 14, 15. 

Sizes ot registers and cold air ducts, 12. 

On braces in boilers, 118. 
Tail, the, in man, 90. 

Tails, rats', experiments on, 123. [*17. 

Tanks, rendering, construction and management of. 
Telescope for photography, the Bruce, 138. 
Tennis lialls. Sir Isaac Newton on the motion of, 26. 
Test, experimental, of a new steel boiler, 91. 
Teutonic, the, 139. 
" Thirty-two," definition of a, 27. 
To-day, a boiler of, 123. 
Tuberculo.sis, prevention of, 116. 

Tubes in boilers, table of standard dimensions of, 15. 
Tyndall, John, 61. 
Umbria, concerning the, 10.5. 

University, the Johns Hopkins, concerning the, 170. 
Unusual uumber of explosions during October, the, 

186. 
Valves, safety, on heating boilers, 172. 

opening and closing cjuickly, danger of, 186. 
Ventilation and heating, 12, 135. 
Vulcanizing press, explosion of a, *65. 
"Watch, an untrustworthy, 105. 
"Water, compressibility of, 41. 

glass, shutting off of, at night, 137. 

immersion ode, a, 79. 

leg of locomotive boiler, corrosion in, 1. 

mark in paper — how produced, 13. 

standing, corrosion from, 177. 
"Welded pipes for gas, steam, or water, standard dimen- 
sions of, 14. 
"Wells, Dr., and nitrous oxide gas, 171, 173. [26. 
"Wetzler and Martin on the Electric Motor (notice of), 
"Wonder, the latest ocean, 139. 
"Wonders in the heavens, photographing, 24. 
Works rs. Faith, 105. 
JVorld Trnn-I Gazette, the (notice of), 74. 
World's fair, the coming, 154. 
Zinc, some experiences with, 187.