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Full text of "The Locomotive"

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PRESENTED BY 

PUBLISHER. 







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COPYRIGHT, 1910, BY THE HARTFORD STEAM BOILER INSPECTION AND INSURANCE CO. 
Vol. XXVIII. HARTFORD, CONN., JANUARY 25, 1910. No. 1. 




Fig. I. — Milwaukee Boiler Explosion: General View of the Wreckage' 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[January, 



The Milwaukee Boiler Explosion. 

A fearful boiler explosion occurred at 4 :20 a. m., on October 25, 1909, at 
the plant of the Pabst Brewing Co., Milwaukee, Wis. Owing to the early 
hour at which the accident occurred, the only persons in the boiler room at 
the time were two firemen, Frederick Stirn and Gottlieb Jehnert. Mr. Stirn 
was killed, and ^Ir. Jehnert was seriously injured. The plant was badly 
damao-ed also, as will be evident from the illustrations presented herewith. 

The boiler house, which was totally wrecked, had a frontage of approxi- 
mately so feet on Tenth street (the street seen in Fig. 2), and was 161 feet 
deep.' A big malt elevator adjoining the boiler plant on the south, one corner 
of which can be seen at the extreme left of Fig. 2, was moved bodily from 




',<>.' ; " " Fig. 2.— General View of Tenth Street. 

ius-'i'uundjitiftn by more than three feet, and the south wall of the three-story 
taaclline sh.op (shown in Fig. 2) was torn out Two of the six steam drums 
that ' burst A'ere hurled across Tenth street, landing on top of a refrigerator 
iiou^'e soiHs'.'deventy feet high ; and Tenth street itself was buried under tons 
of ;brick 'an'4 iron debris. 

'., V.The 'plant was insured with the Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and 
'■Tri5urance;; Company, under a policy for $150,000, with a limit of $50,000 for 
any' one ''explosion. The property loss was estimated, by the assured, to be 
rndre th'an $114,000; and as soon as it became apparent that the damage 
axceeded ' $50,000, the Hartford company tendered the owners of the plant a 



IQIO.J 



THE LOCOMOTIVE 



check for that sum in full. At the liiui of writitis this article, however, the 
matter has not been closed. 

A few weeks prior to the explosion, the boilers that were destroyed were 
thoroughly inspected by one of the; most competent and painstaking boiler 
experts in our organization — a man with over twenty years of continuous 
experience as a boiler inspector, and with previous experience as a marine 
engineer, under a U. S. Government license. A careful investigation made 
by experts after the explosion showed that the accident was not due to any 
cause that inspection could have detected. 




Fig. 3. — Ruptured Ste.nm Drum on the Refrigerator House Roof. 



3 1G451 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[January, 



Boilep Explosions. 

September, 1909. 

(351-)— A boiler exploded, September i, at Flemington, near Trenton, 
N. J. John Schenck was seriously injured. 

(352.)— On September i a boiler exploded at the Filer mining plant, 
Grove City, Pa. 

(353-)— A boiler ruptured, September 2. at the plant of the Chicago In- 
sulated Wire & Mfg. Co., Sycamore, 111. 




Fig. 4. — Another View of the Wreckage. 

(3S4-) — On September 2 a tank used for the storage of compressed air 
exploded in the boiler room of the Fort Logan military post, near Denver, 
Colo. Fireman Frank Becovar was seriously injured, and the property loss 
amounted to several thousand dollars. 

(355-) — The boiler of a threshing outfit exploded, September 2, at 
Deloraine, Man. John R. Rogers was killed. 

(356.) — A small boiler exploded, September 2, at the fair grounds, 
Des Moines, Iowa. 

(3S7-) — On September 3 a boiler exploded on the tug R. B. Little, of the 
Rugge Towing Co., near the upper end of Blackwell's Island, East River, 
opposite New York City. John O'Donald was killed, and James Lavin and 
one other man were seriously injured. The explosion occurred as the result 
of a collision between the tug and a float. 



igio.] 



Til !•: LOCOMOTIVE 



(358.) — Four tubes burst. Scptonibir 4, in a boiler at the plant of ilic 
Flint Electric Light & Power Co., Flint, Mich, James K. Grandy and Frederick 
McLail were injured, and it was thought thai Grandy might not recover. 

(359-) — A cast-iron header fractured, September 5, in a water-tube boiler 
at A. H. Belo & Co.'s printing plant, Dallas, Tex. 

(360.) — A boiler exploded, September 6, on the steam yacht Eulic, at 
Halifax, N. S. One person was severely injured. 

(361.) — On September 7 a blowoff pipe failed at the plant of the Uptcgrove 
Cigar Box Lumber Co., Brooklyn, N. Y. 




Vk 



One of the Rlttl-ked 13rums. 



(362.) — A tube ruptured, September 8, in a water-tube boiler at the plant 
of the John C. Roth Packing Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

iz^i-) — The boiler of a freight locomotive exploded, September 8, at 
Ellensburg, Wash. One man was fatally injured, and two others were injured 
severely but not fatally. 

(364.) — A cast-iron mud drum, attached to a water-tube boiler, exploded, 
September 8, in a building owned by the Corporation of Trinity Church, and 
located at 440-444 Canal St., New York City. 

(365.)^ — ^Two tubes failed, September 9. in a water-tube boiler at the 
Evansville & Southern Indiana Traction Co.'s power plant, Evansville, Ind. 

(366.) — A boiler exploded. September 10, in Rozelle's cotton gin, at Full- 
bright, fourteen miles west of Clarksville, Tex. Engineer IMcMillan was 
killed, and the owner of the plant was scalded. 



Q ' THE LOCOMOTIVE. [January, 

(367.) — A tube ruptured, September 10, in a water-tube boiler in the 
plant of the Texas Refining Co., Greenville, Tex. Fireman John V. Russell 
was scalded. 

(368.) — A tube failed, September 10, in a water-tube boiler in the Pabst 
Grand Circle Hotel, New York City. William Ander was slightly scalded. 

(369.) — A heating boiler exploded, September 12, on ]\Irs. J. D. Layng's 
estate, at ]\Iount Kisco, N. Y. Hugh Burcli was seriously injured, and the 
boiler house was wrecked. 

(370-) — On September 12 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler in the 
plant of the Sioux City Gas & Electric Light Co., Sioux City, Iowa. Alfred 
Johnson and John Tilton were injured. 

(37'^-) — i he boiler of a steam shovel belonging to David Benjamin & Co. 
exploded, September 13, at Buck ]\lountain, near Hazleton, Pa. Two men were 
injured very seriously, and six others were injured somewhat less severely. 
The shovel was demolished. 

(272.) — A boiler exploded. September 13, at the Lurlirie baths, on 
Geary street, San Francisco, Calif. Richard Damme and William C. Hansen 
were severely injured, and one corner of the building was blown out. 

i373-^ — ^ The boiler of a traction engine exploded, September 15, on Wil- 
liam Haas's farm, near East Randolph, N. Y. H. Lee Bushnell was badly 
injured, and C. B. Stoughton and a man named Darling received minor injuries. 
The machine was demolished. • 

(374.) — The boiler of a threshing outfit exploded, September 15, on the 
Patrick O'Mera farm, ten miles southwest of Junction City, Kans. Charles 
Kruger was instantly killed, J. L. W^aters and Joseph Smith were severely 
injured, and several other persons were badly bruised. 

(375-) — A boiler exploded, September 16, in a sawmill at ^Middle Fork, 
on Dog Creek, Jackson county, W. Va. David and Bascom Roggess were in- 
stantly killed, and Appleton Garner was injured so badly that he died three 
hours later. 

(376.) — -A boiler exploded, September 16, near River Falls, A\'is. Charles 
R. Ecker was killed. 

(377.) — -On September 17 a stop-valve ruptured on a boiler at the 
Pennsylvania Industrial Reformatory, Huntingdon, Pa. 

(378-) — A cast-iron header ruptured, September 18, in a water-tube boiler 
in the plant of the American Steel & Wire Co., Waukegan, 111. 

(379) — A tube ruptured, September 18, in a water-tube boiler in the 
]\Ietropolitan West Side Electric Railway Co.'s power plant. Van Buren and 
Throop streets, Chicago, 111. 

(380.) — A boiler exploded, September 18, in G. M. Lanning's sawmill, 
several miles east of Lawrenceburg, Tenn. One man was slightly hurt. 

(381.) — A slight boiler accident occurred, September 20, in the Bockstege 
furniture factory. Evansville. Ind. 

(382.) — A tube ruptured, September 21, in a water-tube boiler at the 
Ingersoll-Rand Co.'s plant, Phillipsburg, N. J. 

(383.) — On September 21 a boiler accident occurred at the wood working 
plant of the Hotchkiss Bros. Co., Torrington. Conn. The accident consisted 
in the rupture of a triple-riveted butt joint, through the plate at the outer row 
ot rivets. 



I9IO.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 7 

(384.) — Oil September 22 a boiler exploded in Basil Roberts's sawmill, 
three miles west of Crofton, Ky. ihrre sons of the owner, Houston, Edgar, 
and Charles, were badly injured. 

(385.) — The boiler of a Canadian Pacific locomotive exploded, September 
22, at St. Augustin, r.tar Montreal, 1'. Q. l-'ireniau lulward Edwards was 
instantly killed. *' 

(386.) — A tube failed, September _'3, in a boiler at the Smith ice plant, 
Tiffin, Ohio, killing lireman William llooveral. 

{3^7-) — ^ small boiler exploded, September 25, on the steamer .Idviiral 
Sampson, at San Francisco, Calif. Mack Moore was terribly scalded. 

(388.) — A boiler exploded, September 26, in the milk sterilizing plant of 
R. F. & T. E. Osborne, Providence, R. I. Leon A. Osborne, a brother of the 
owners of the plant, was fatally injured, and Edward Ziegler was scalded 
seriously but not fatally. 

(389-) — On September 28 a boiler exploded in E. E. Boone's sawmill, 
near Spring Lick, Grayson county, Ky. Edward Boone (a son of the owner) 
and Frank Westerfield were killed, and John Boone. Charles Boone, and George 
Boone were seriously injured. 

(390.) — A boiler used for operating a steam plow exploded, September 30, 
at Manslield, near Malette, S. Dak. Clarence Wilson was seriously injured. 



October, 1909. 

^(39^) — A tube ruptured, October i, in a water-tube boiler at the plant of 
the Greenville Electric Light, Heat & Power Co., Greenville, Pa. 

(392.) — -A tube ruptured, October i, in a water-tube boiler at the H. C. 
Frick Coke Co.'s Bridgeport mine, Brownsville, Pa. 

(393-) — A slight accident occurred, October i, to a boiler in the Dahm & 
Kiefer Tanning Co.'s plant, Grand Rapids, Mich. 

(394.)- — A tube ruptured, October i, in a water-tube boiler at the 
Olympia Cotton Mills, Columbia, S. C. Fireman Isaac Dixon was injured. 

(395) — On October 2 a boiler exploded at a mine on the Cox land, a mile 
and a half north of Joplin, Mo. E. H. Hover and Ramey Oldfield were injured 
badly, but not fatally. 

(396.) — A tube ruptured, October 3, in a water-tube boiler at the 
Standard works of the H. C. Frick Coke Co., Mt. Pleasant, Pa. 

(397-) — A boiler exploded, October 4, in the Poindexter sawmill, at 
Addison, near Gallipolis, Ohio. George Poindexter was fatally injured. 

(398-)— On October 4 a boiler exploded in the Brighton flouring mill, 
Sacramento, Cal. The explosion wrecked one side of the building, and the 
destruction of the plant was then completed by fire. The total property loss 
was estimated at from $50,000 to $60,000. 

(399-) — A tube ruptured, October J, in a water-tube boiler at the National 
Ring Traveler Co.'s plant. Providence, R. L 

(400.) — An accident occurred, October 4, to the boiler of A. J.. Henry & 
Co., Camden, N. Y. 

(401.)— A boiler ruptured, October 4, in the .\merican Granite Co.'s plant, 
Lohrville, Wis. 

(402.) — A boiler exploded, October 5, in Arnold's feed mill, at Byron, 
near Owosso, Mich. 



8 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [January, 

(403.) — The boiler of an Illinois Central freight locomotive exploded, 
October 5, at Waterloo, Iowa. Two men were fatally injured. 

(404.)— On October 5 the drum of a superheater attached to a boiler 
ruptured at the Jeffersonville Water Supply Co.'s plant, Jeffersonville, Ind. 

(405.) — A boiler belonging to the Pacific Borax Co. exploded, October 5, 
at San Bernardino, Cal. Two persons were fatally injured. 

(406.) — A boiler exploded, October 6, in R. F. Campbell's sawmill and 
ginnerj^ th-ree miles southeast of West, Miss. Dudley King and Otis McAfee 
were fatally injured. 

(407.) — :A boiler ruptured, October 7, at the ]\Iammoth shaft of the 
H. C. Frick Coke Co., Scottdale, Pa. 

(408.)- — A boiler exploded, October 9, on the Rogers dredge boat, at 
Bishop, Til. The owner of the boat and one fireman were seriously injured, 
and the property loss was estimated as over a thousand dollars. 

(409.) — On October 9 a cast-iron header ruptured in a water-tube boiler 
in the Polar Wave Ice & Fuel Co.'s plant, St. Louis, Mo. 

(410.) — A boiler exploded, October 9, in the Cincinnati, Hamilton & 
Dayton shops, at Fort Wayne, Ind. One man was killed. 

(411.) — A tube ruptured, October 9, in a water-tube boiler at the Carnegie 
Steel Co.'s plant, Duquesne, Pa. 

(412.) — On October 11 a boiler belonging to the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy Railroad exploded at Forest City, 111. One man was fatally injured. 

(413.)- — A boiler exploded, October 12, in J. B. Hastings' cotton gin, in 

Fork township, near Goldsboro, X. C. Mr. Hastings was instantly killed, and 

Tobias V. Crocker and several other men were more or less seriously injured. 

(414.) — A boiler exploded, October 12, in the pumping station at El Paso, 

111. The fireman was killed. 

(415.) — A boiler exploded, Octolier 12, at the ofiice of the Havana 
Metal Wheel works, Havana, 111. 

(416.) — A boiler exploded, October 12, in the West Side power house 
of the Amoskeag Mills, Manchester, N. H. Joseph Lyons and Edgar B. 
Harrington were injured so badly that they died in the hospital a few hours 
later. Five other men were also injured to a lesser degree. According to the 
local press, the property damage amounted to some thousands of dollars. 

(417.) — A boiler exploded, October 12, in the Aylmer Electric Light Co.'s 
plant, Aylmer, Ont. One person was killed. 

(418.)— A boiler exploded, October 13, in the Turkish Bath Hotel, at 
Montreal, Canada. Arthur Quelette was instantly killed, and Charles Binks 
was seriously injured. 

(_,iQ.)_The boiler of a donkey engine exploded, October 13, at the Lake 
Whatcom Logging Co.'s Camp 4. near Bellingham, Wash. Fireman John 
Larson and engineer George Beckwith were badly injured, and were conveyed 
to the hospital at Bellingham, where Larson died. 

(420.)— On October 15 a boiler exploded at Harmon's cotton gin, at 
Graham, near Ardmore, Okla. Fireman William Ross was instantly killed, 
and three other persons were injured. The plant was destroyed by fire. 

C421.)— A small boiler used for heating water exploded. October 15, in 
the basement of Holyoke Hall, at Massachusetts avenue and Holyoke street, 
Cambridge, Mass. 



I9IO.J THE LOCO MOT IVL. 9 



(422) — A boiler ruptured, October 15, at the Glemi Lowry Manufacturing 
Co.'s cotton mill, Whitniire, S. C. (See also the next item.) 

(.423.) — A tube ruptured, October 16, in a water-tube boiler at the Glenn 
Lowry Manufacturing Co.'s plant, Wliitniire, S. C. (See also the preceding 
item.) 

(424.) — On October 16 an east-bound passenger train on the St. Louis & 
San Francisco railroad was wrecked near Tahlequah, Okla. As a result of the 
wreck, the boiler of the locomotive exploded, killing engineer A. P. Vance. 

(425.) — On October 16 the main stop valve ruptured on a steam main 
in Burch & Champagne's sugar house, Glendale Plantation, Lucy P. O., La. 

(426.) — A boiler belonging to the Ohio Western Lime Co. exploded, 
October 16, at Sugar Ridge, Ohio. One man was seriously injured. 

(427.) — A boiler belonging to the Griffin Lumber Co. exploded, October 
18, at Griffin, fifteen miles south of Camden, Ark. Seven persons were killed, 
and three others severely injured. The planing mill was demolished and 
several neighboring buildings were badly wrecked. 

(428.) — .\ heating boiler exploded. October 19, in the United States Indian 
School at Rapid City, S. D. Adolph Russel, a pupil from the Pine Ridge 
reservation, was killed, and Ronald Whitefeather, another pupil from the 
same reservation, received injuries that were believed to be fatal. 

(429.) — On October 19 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the plant 
of the Lehigh Portland Cement Co., Ormrod, Pa. One man was injured. 

(430.) — A cast-iron header fractured, October 21, in a water-tube boiler 
at the plant of the St. Lawrence International Electric Railroad & Land Co., 
Alexandria Bay, N. Y. 

(431.) — On October 22 several tulies failed in a water-tube boiler at the 
plant of the Shenango Furnace Co., Sharpsville, Pa. 

(432.) — A boiler exploded, October 22, at the Ratz sawmill, at St. Clements, 
twelve miles from Berlin, Ontario, killing a well driller and seriously injuring 
another man. The mill was completely demolished, and the property loss 
was estimated at upwards of $ro,ooo. 

(433) — On October 22 a heater exploded in the Chateau Frontenac, 
Quebec, Canada. Four men were more or less seriously injured. 

(434.) — A boiler ruptured, October 23, in the sawmill of the E. Libby & 
Sons Co., Gorham. N. H. 

(435.)— On October 21 a boiler ruptured in the Iroquois Creamery Co.'s 
plant, Iroquois, S. D. 

(436.) — A heating boiler exploded. October 24, in Plamondon & Paro's 
dry-goods store, Quebec, P. Q. Fire followed the explosion, and the entire 
property loss was about $1,200. 

(437.) — The boiler of a freight locomotive exploded, October 24, about 
a mile from Gano station, on the Big Four railroad, twenty miles north of 
Cincinnati, Ohio. Oscar Pease and Charles Wycof? were killed outright, 
and Granville Fuller was fatally injured. Two other men were also injure! 
more or less seriously, but not fatally. 

(438.) — On October 25 a terrible boiler explosion occurred in the Pabst 
Brewing Co.'s plant, Milw-aukee, Wis. Frederick Stern was killed, and one 
other man was injured. The property loss was estimated at over $114,000. 
(See the illustrated article on this explosion, elsewhere in the present issue 
of The LocoMOTn-E.) 



10 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [January, 

(439-) — On October 25 several cast-iron headers ruptured in a water- 
tube boiler in the plant of the Elyria Iron & Steel Co., Elyria, Ohio. 

(440.) —A boiler exploded, October 26, at the No. 2 mine of the Chicago, 
VVilmmgton & Vermilion Coal Co., Joliet, 111. Fireman Jerome Shenk was badly 
scalded. 

(441.) — A boiler ruptured, October 26, in the Norwood Manufacturing 
Co.'s plant, Tupper Lake, N. Y. 

(442.) —On October zy a heating boiler exploded in a public school build- 
ing, near Lafayette, Pa. The janitor was badly scalded. 

C443.) — -The boiler of a Trinity & Brazos Valley railroad freight loco- 
motive exploded, October 27, at Pearland, Te.x. Engineer AI. E. Tarver, 
fireman W. M. Murchison, and brakeman F. Leach were seriously injured. 

(444.) — A slight boiler explosion occurred, October 28, in the electric 
lighting plant at Red Bank, N. J. W. B. Sheppard and Joseph Valleau were 
injured. 

(445.) — The boiler of a Grand Trunk locomotive exploded, October 29, at 
Montreal, Canada. One man was fatally injured, and three others received 
lesser injuries. 

(446.) — A boiler exploded, October 29, in a sawmill on David Dawson's 
farm, at Rockford, near Clarksburg, W. Va. Arthur Kringle and Curtis Nutt 
were instantly killed, and Worthy Dawson was severely injured. 

(447.) — A small boiler exploded, October 30. at luka. Miss. Some boys 
built a fire under it without authorization, and the explosion was the result. 
Samuel Kimberly was fatally injured, and Sidney Patterson, James Wood, and 
Joseph Ross were seriously scalded. 

(448.) — A boiler ruptured, October 30, on C. S. ]\Iathews' sugar planta- 
tion, Mathews, La. 

(449.) — The boiler of a freight locomotive exploded, October 30, on the 
Coal & Coke railroad, near Yankee Dam, forty-six miles from Charleston, 
W. Va. Engineer John Rogers, firemen W. E. Carruthers and T. J. Finley, 
conductor James Riddle, and brakeman R. B. Thomas were instantly killed^ 
and brakeman Charles Patten was seriously injured. 

(450.) — The boiler of Lake Shore locomotive No. 5948 exploded, October 
31, just east of Geneva, Ohio. Fireman A. E. Crawford was instantly killed, 
and engineer Harry Braymer was badly injured. 



November, 1909. 

(45T.) — A boiler ruptured, November i, in the pumping station of the 
city water works, Frederick, Okla. 

(452.) — A boiler ruptured, November i, in the plant of the Evans Marble 
Co., Baltimore, Md. 

(453-) — A tube ruptured, November 2, in a water-tube boiler at the power 
station of the Columbus Railway & Light Co., Columbus, Ohio. Fireman 
James Gaszway was injured. 

('454.) — On November 3 a boiler exploded in E. P. Catron's sawmill, at 
Purcell, Lee county, Va. A. J. Deaton was instantly killed, and William 
Carroll was seriously injured. 

("455.) — On November 4 an accident occurred to a boiler in William 
Booth's shoddv mill, Gladwvne, Pa. 



iQio.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. H 



(456.) — On November 4 the nnul driiin of a boiler exploded in Wcstphal & 
Sons' flouring mills, Oakland, Cal. Janus Peterson was badly scalded, but at 
last accounts his condition was improving. 

(457-) — A boiler explosion occurred, Novcmljcr 4, on the steamboat 
Gloria, at Sterling. 111. 

(458.) — A tube ruptured, Xovcnihcr 5, in a \vatcr-tui)e boiler at the 
power plant of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., Thirty-thir?f and Market 
streets, Philadelphia. 

(459) — A boiler tube burst, Xovcmlicr 5, on the United States battleship 
Xortli Dakota, while she was on an endurance run off Cape Ann. Mass. William 
H. Qrange, John Souden, A. Peterson, and Peter McConnell were injured. 

(460.) — Several sections of a cast-iron heating boiler fractured, November 
5, in an apartment building owned by ^lary H. Ilusted, Denver, Colo. 

(461.) — On November 5 a boiler exploded at Orangeburg, S. C, killing 
one person. 

(462.) — The boiler of a freight locomotive exploded, November 6, on the 
New York Central railroad, at Belmont, near Hornell, N. Y. Engineer 
Chauncey C. Green and fireman Christopher Rider were instantly killed, and 
three other men were injured. The freight train was wrecked as the result 
of the explosion. 

(463.) — A boiler exploded, Novcmlier 6, in Keith & Thomas' sawmill, 
Algood, Tcnn. Three men were injured, and the property loss was about 
$2,500. 

(464.) — A tube ruptured, Novcmlicr 7, in a water-tube boiler in the 
plant of the Sharon Tin Plate Co., South Sharon, Pa. 

(465.) — A boiler used in drilling an oil well exploded, November 7, on the 
S. I. Davis farm, on Big Wheeling creek, near Wheeling, W. Va. 

(466.) — On November g a boiler exploded in Charles Creech's cotton gin, 
near Selma, N. C. L. S. Parrish was instantly killed, three other men were 
injured, and the plant was wrecked. 

(467.) — A boiler exploded, November g, at the plant of the Palatka Gas, 
Light & Fuel Co., Palatka, Fla. Walter Croomer and Marshall Smith w-ere 
killed, and the property loss was about $3,000. 

(46S.) — On November g a boiler exploded in the brick and terra cotta 
plant at Carnegie, some thirty miles south of Stockton, Calif. Two persons are 
said to have been injured, and the plant was considerably damaged. 

(46g.) — On November 10 a slight boiler explosion occurred in the Samuel 
Mundheim Co.'s hat factory, Brooklyn, N. Y. John Wheeler and John Kurz 
were scalded to death. 

(470.) — A small boiler exploded, November 12, in Brace, ?iIcGuire & Co.'s 
cleaning works, Chenango street, Buffalo. N. Y. 

(471.) — A heating boiler exploded, November 12, in the basement of the 
building occupied by the post office, at Allegan, Mich. The damage was 
serious, but we have seen no estimate of its actual amount. 

(472.) — A boiler belonging to the Stewart Logging Co. exploded, 
November 12. at Aberdeen, Wash. One man was killed. 

(473.) — A tube ruptured, November 13, in a water-tube boiler in the 
Pillsbury- Washburn Flour Mills Co.'s Palisade j\Iill, [Minneapolis, ]\Iinn. Fire- 
man Edward Lafore was injured. 

(474.) — A tube ruptured, November 13, in a water-tnlie boiler at the 



12 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [January, 



Dall Lead & Zinc Co.'s plant, Meekers Grove, near Platteville, Wis. Firemanj 
Joseph Raisbeck was injured. 

(475-) — The boiler of freight locomotive No. -/-jj of the Seaboard Air 
railroad exploded, November 14, between Richmond, Va., and Petersburg. 
Engineer Thomas C. Ennis was seriously injured, and died within a few hours. 

(476.) — Three cast-iron headers fractured, November 15, in a water-tube 
boiler at the Kingston Coal Co.'s plant, Kingston, Pa. 

(477-) — A boiler exploded, November 15, at Storm & Corsa's paper mill, 
Catskill, N. Y. Five persons were more or less injured, the boiler house was 
demolished, and several other buildings were damaged. 

(478.) — On November 16 a blowoff pipe failed in Maley & Wertz's planing 
mill, Evanville, Ind. Henry Strunk was scalded. 

(479.) — Several tubes ruptured. November 17, in a water-tube boiler at 
the Havlin Hotel, operated by The Havlin Realty Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

(480.) — A boiler exploded, November 17, at the Beaver Dam Paper Mills, 
near Timicula, Chester county. Pa. One end of the mill was torn out. 

(481.) — The boiler of a locomotive belonging to the New York Central 
railroad exploded, November 17, at Buffalo, N. Y. One person was injured 
fatally, and two others severely, but not fatally. 

(482.) — On November 18 a blowofif valve broke on a boiler at the plant 
of the North Shore Gas Co., Waukegan, 111. 

(483.) — The boiler of freight locomotive No. 2046, of the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy railroad exploded, November 18. at Lincoln, Neb. Fire- 
man George Meecham was instantly killed, and engineer George Pierce and 
brakeman Upton were seriously injured. 

(484.) — A tube ruptured, November 18, in a water-tube boiler at the 
plant of the Crescent Portland Cement Co., Wampum, Pa. 

(485.) — The boiler of a locomotive used in connection with a construction 
train exploded, November 19, five miles west of New Castle, Ind. Engineer 
Edward Walters was instantly killed, and fireman Glessie Davison v/as seriously 
injured. 

(486.) — The boiler of a locomotive exploded, November 20. on the 
St. Louis & San Francisco railroad, near South Greenfield, ]\Io. William 
O'Brien was injured so badly that he died on the following day. 

(487.) — A tube ruptured. November 22. in a water-tube boiler at the 
Beach street power house of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., Philadelphia. 
Pa. 

(488.) — On November 22 a boiler exploded in E. B. Arnold's steam 
laundry. Aurora. Neb. 

(489.) — -A boiler ruptured, November 23, on the dredge Niagara, at 
Tonawanda, N. Y. Two persons were seriously injured. 

(490.) — A boiler exploded, November 24, on the Hunter farm, Franklin, 
Pa. One person was killed, and two others severely injured. 

(491.) — A boiler exploded, November 24, in a laundry at JopHn, Mo., 
wrecking the building. Mr. Loren Galloway, w-ho was passing the place at 
the time, was seriously injured, but will recover. 

r492.)— The boiler of a sawmill belonging to R. S. Nickle and Riley 
Thompson exploded. November 25. at Richmond Falls, near Beckley, W. Va. 

C493.)— A heating boiler exploded, November 25, in the Westminster 
Apartments, Seattle, Wash. The property loss was estimated at $3,000. 



I910.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. j^Q 



(494.) — On November 25 a boiler exploded on McDowell's farm, near 
Tarboro, N. C. One person was killed, and one severely injured. 

(495) — A boiler exploded, Noveinhor 27, in R. L. Owens' shingle mill, 
four miles west of Magnolia, Ark., killing a child, and severely burning the 
engineer. 

(496.) — A cast-iron header fractured, November 27, in a water-tube boiler 
in the Fairfield Dairy Co.'s plant, Fairfield, N. J. 

(497-) — A copper boiler exploded, November 27, in J. A. Wright & Co.'s 
silver-polish plant, Keene, N. H. The property loss was estimated at $2,000. 

(498.) — A rotary boiler exploded, November 28, in R. S. Morehouse's 
paper mill, Bridesburg, Philadelphia, Pa. The entire first floor of the plant was 
wrecked. 

(499.) — A header fractured, November 28, in a water-tube boiler at 
the Baldwin Locomotive Works, Philadelphia, Pa. 

(500.) — A boiler exploded, Noveml)cr 29, in the Foreman-Blades Lumber 
Co.'s sawmill, Elizabeth City, N. C. Henry Smith and Robert Perry were 
injured, and the property loss was aljout $3,800. 

(501.) — Several cast-iron headers fractured, Novemlier 29, at the Rose 
Hill Sugar Refining Co.'s plant, Abbeville, La. 

(502.) — A boiler exploded, November 29, in the J. A. Greene stone quarry, 
Stone City, Iowa. One person was killed, and the property loss was estimated 
at $t 0,000. 

(503.) — A heating boiler exploded, November 30, in the Central High 
School building, Pueblo, Colo. 

(504.) — On November 30 the inner shell of a steam-jacketed drier col- 
lapsed at the rendering works of the F.rie Reduction Co., Erie, Pa. 



December, 1909. 

(505.) — A boiler exploded, December i, in Radclift'e Brothers' woolen 
mills, Shelton, Conn. One man was instantly killed, and another was injured. 
The property loss was estimated at from $200,000 to $250,000. 

(506.) — A tube ruptured, December i, in a water-tube boiler in the 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.'s power house, Kent and Division avenues, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. George Williams and Robert Hansen were scalded seriously 
and probably fatally. 

(507.) — A boiler exploded. December i, in the Temple-Belton Traction 
Co.'s power house at Midway, near Temple, Tex. Engineer Asa Bunn was 
injured. 

(508.) — A blowofif pipe rupturcfl, December i, at the Boston Woven Hose 
& Rubber Co.'s plant, Cambridge, Mass. Fireman Abraham Jones was slightly 
injured. 

(509-) — On December i several tubes ruptured in a water-tube boiler 
in the Havlin Hotel, operated by the John H. Havlin Realty Co., Cincinnati, 
Ohio. 

(Sio.) — A small boiler, intended for use on a steam launch, exploded, 
December 3, at Hudson, Mich. Linford McQueen was badly injured. 

(511.) — A tube ruptured, Derrmber 3, in a water-tube boiler at the 
plant of the L^niversal Portland Cement Co., South Chicago. Til. 



14 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [January, 



(512.) — A boiler exploded, December 4, in St. Patrick's Orphanage, 
Ottawa, Canada. The property loss was estimated at $3,000. 

(513.) — A tube ruptured, December 4, in a water-tube boiler at the Beach 
street power station of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

(514.) — A boiler exploded, December 6, at the Peccio coal slope just 
north of Brazil, Ind. Charles Durgan and Felix Nelson received injuries that 
were believed to be fatal. Another man was also injured seriously i)ut not 
fatally. 

(515.) — A boiler ruptured, December 6, at the Oconee Mills, Westminster, 

s. c. 

(516.) — A boiler exploded, December 6, in a six story building owned by 
the Homestead Realty Co., and situated at 910 Broadway, Kansas City, Mo. 
James Foley and James Cox were killed, and four other men were injured, — 
one of them, it is believed, fatally. The damage to the building was estimated 
at $7,500. It is also said that there was a stock of drugs on the third floor, 
which was damaged to the extent of $40,000. It is reported that the explosion 
was due to simple overpressure, and that between the boiler and the safety- 
valve there was a stop-valve, which was found to be tightly closed, after the 
explosion. 

(517.) — On December 6 the crown-sheet of locomotive No. 208, of the 
Denver & Rio Grande railroad, collapsed at a point 25 miles north of Santa Fe, 
N. M. Fireman Kincaid was injured. 

(518.) — The boiler of a Denver & Rio Grande locomotive exploded. 
December 8, at Blanca, 18 miles east of Alamosa, Cal. Fireman W. B. Chase 
and brakeman Joseph Wetsenberger were injured, and the former died of his 
injuried.a few hours later. 

(519-) — On December 8 a number of sections fractured in a cast-iroii 
heating boiler in the opera house owned by W. A. Maurer and W. S. Keeline, 
Council Blufifs, Iowa. 

(520.) — The boiler of a hot-water heating plant exploded, December 8, 
in the residence of D. W. R. Macdonald, Washington street, St. Louis, Mo. 
The property loss was estimated at about $1,000. 

(521.) — A boiler belonging to the Logan Gas Co. exploded, December 8, 
at Avon, near Lorain, Ohio. Joseph Wolf and William Cummings were 
seriously injured, and it was believed that the former would die. 

(522.) — On December 9 a boiler exploded at the plant of the LTnion 
Phosphate Co., at Tioga, nine miles west of Gainesville, Fla. The plant was 
completely demolished. 

(523.) — On December 9 a number of tubes failed in a water-tube boiler 
at the Havlin Hotel. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

(524.) — A boiler used for heating water exploded, December 9, in the 
basement of a three-story house at 416 West Forty-second street. New York 
City. Mrs. Daniel O'Keefe was slightly injured. The property loss is 
estimated at $5,000. 

(525.) — The boiler of a hot- water heating plant exploded, December 9, 
in the basement of John A. Bubb's residence, Williamsport, Pa. 

(526.) — On December 9 an accident occurred to the boiler in the office 
building of Morley Bros., Saginaw, Mich. 

(527.) — A hot-water boiler exploded, December 10, in the basement of 
McVicker's Theatre, Chicago, 111. 



igio.J THE LOCOMOTIVE. 15 



(5JiS.) — On Dc'ccmhor lo lut-Ki.- sections of a cast-iron heating hoilcr 
fractured in tlie I'linnix Insurance Cd.'s office building, on Pearl St., ilartford, 
Conn. 

(5J9. ) — A cast-iron header fractured, December 10, in a water-tube 
boiler at the plant of the South Western Milling Co. (owned by the Standard 
Milling Co.), Kansas City, Kans. ^ 

(530-) — On December 10 a blowoff pipe ruptured in the plant of the 
Commercial Sash & Door Co., Chicago, 111. 

(531.) — A heating boiler exploded, December u, in the Maple Hall build- 
ing, Park City, Utah. Fire followed the explosion, and the total property loss 
(mainly from the fire) was $26,500. 

(532.) — A tube ruptured, Decemlicr 14, in a water-lube boiler at the plant 
of the West Virginia Pulp & Paper Co., Covington, Va. Lawrence Jones was 
killed, and Lee Loving was injured slightly. 

(533-) — A. boiler exploded, December 15, at the Earlington Iron Works, 
Earlington, Ky. William Patterson, Frank Breman, and John Cox were 
nijured, and Patterson will die. The entire building was wrecked. 

(S34-) — O" December 16 the boiler of locomotive No. 476, of the Chicago, 
Milwaukee & Puget Sound railroad, exploded at Miles City, Mont. Engineer 
James M. jMarker, fireman P'rank 1:L Walters, and brakeman James E. Bowman 
were badly injured. Walters died two days later, and at last accounts it was 
thought that both of the other injured men might also die. 

(535-) — A hot-water heating boiler exploded, December 17, in the Great 
Western automobile factory, Peru, Ind. 

(556.) — A boiler exploded, December 17, at the Oakville Pin factory, 
Oakville, Conn. 

(537) — On December 17 a boiler exploded at the Rayol plant of the 
Robinson Clay Product Co., three miles from New Philadelphia, Ohio. David 
Hines and Daniel Aliraham were instantly killed. 

(538-) — A vertical heating boiler exploded, December 18, in the Railroad 
Department of the Young Men's Christian Association, Knoxville, Tenn. 

(539-) — The boiler of a Baltimore & Ohio locomotive exploded, December 
18, at the foot of Clark avenue, Cleveland, Ohio. Fireman Thomas Klindel 
was badly injured. 

(540.") — The boiler of locomotive No. 140, of the Rio Grande Western 
railroad, exploded, December 19, at Salt Lake City, Utah. Fireman L. M. 
Strick and brakeman H. P>. Williamson were seriously injured. 

(541.) — On December 21 five cast-iron headers fractured in a water-tube 
boiler at the Leamy Home for Aged Ladies, at Mt. Airy Philadelphia, Pa. 

(542.) — A tube ruptured, December 21, in a water-tube boiler at the 
Interstate Iron & Steel Co.'s rolling mill, Cambridge, Ohio. 

(543-) — On December 22 an accident occurred to a boiler in the Freiberg & 
Workum Co.'s distillery, Lynchburg, Ohio. 

(544.) — A boiler exploded, December 23, in Hoffman Bros.' lumber yard. 
Reserve street, Youngstown, Ohio. The property loss was about $1,000. 

(545-) — On December 23 a section fractured in a heating boiler in the 
Methodist church at Sullivan, Ind. 

(546.) — A tube ruptured, December 24, in a water-tube boiler at the 
Astoria Veneer Mills, Astoria, N. Y. Fireman Frederick Campo was scalded. 



16 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[Janlary, 



(547.) — A locomotive boiler exploded, December 24, in the repair shop 
of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacilic railroad, at Shawnee, Okla. Robert 
Kerr, John Johns, and a boy whose name was not known, were killed, and 
thirteen others were more or less severely injured. The shop was almost 
totally wrecked, and the property loss was estimated at $100,000. 

(548.) — A slight explosion occurred, December 25, in the boiler room of 
Saengerbund Hall, Schermerhorn and Smith streets, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

(549.) — A tube ruptured, December 28, in a water-tube boiler at the 
Athens State Hospital for Insane, Athens, Ohio. 

(550-) — A. boiler exploded, December 29, at the new power plant (now in 
course of erection) of the Metropolitan Electric Co., West Reading, Pa. 
Elmer Dengler, Frank Cole, Matthew Lynch, Clifford Martin, and James 
Cooney were instantly killed. 

(551.) — A heating boiler exploded, December 30, on the premises oc- 
cupied by George A. Heiden, Green Bay avenue, Milwaukee, Wis. Fire 
followed the explosion, and the total property loss was estimated at about 
$18,000. 



Summary of Boiler Explosions, from 1886 to 1909 Inclusive. 



Year. 



i8S6 
1887 
188S 
18S9 
1890 

189T 
1S92 

1893 
1894 

1S95 

1896 
1897 
189^ 
1899 
igoo 

1 90 1 
1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 

i9o''i 
1907 
1908 
1909 



Number of 
Explosions. 



185 
19S 
246 
180 
226 

257 
260 
316 
362 

355 

346 
369 

383 
3S3 
373 

423 
3'Ji 
3 = 3 
391 
450 

431 

471 
a-o 

550 



Persons 
Killed. 



254 
264 

331 
304 
244 

263 
298 
327 
331 
374 

3S2 
398 
324 
298 

268 

312 
304 
293 
220 

3S3 

235 
300 
281 
227 



Persons 
Injured. 



314 
388 
505 
433 
351 

37r 
442 

385 
472 

519 

529 
528 
577 
456 
520 

646 

529 
522 

394 

585 

467 
420 

531 
422 



Total of 

Killed and 

Injured 



563 
652 
836 
737 
595 

634 
740 
712 
803 
893 

911 
926 
901 

754 
78S 

958 
833 
815 
614 
968 

702 
720 
812 
649 



igio.] Tin: LOCOMOTIVE. 17 




f $mttlti^> 



A. D. RisTEEN, Ph.D., Editor 



HARTFORD, JANUARY 25. 1910. 

The LocoMOTlVK. can be obtained free by calling at any of the company s agencies. 
Subscription price ^o cents per year when mailed front this office. 
Bound volumes one dollar each. 



Obituary. 

Charles B. Dudlev. 

We note with deep regret that Mr. Charles B. Dudley, President of the 
International Association for Testing ^Materials, died, on December 21, at 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Mr. Dudley's whole life had been devoted to the 
testing of materials, and to cognate studies, and it was a high compliment to 
him. and to the engineering profession in the United States, when the Inter- 
national Association elected him to its highest office. He lived barely three 
months to enjoy the honor conferred upon him. In a special note, issued by 
the Association and signed by its first vice-president and its general secretary, 
we find the following well-merited tribute: "For the Association itself it is 
indeed a most serious loss, that the work of the newly elected president should 
come suddenly to so abrupt a conclusion. From the moment when j\lr. Dudley 
accepted the difficult office of president, he set to work with positively youthful 
ardor, to smooth all paths, so as to facilitate the future development of the 
Association, to make the attainment of its great aims possible, and to ensure 
the success of its coming Congress. As a prominent researcher, as -a clear- 
sighted and untiring worker, and at the same time as a man both of touching 
goodness and of that fine simplicity which recalls the great men of American 
tradition — as such, the late President will continue to live in the memories 
of all who had the happiness of knowing him." 



In our regular list of boiler explosions for the month of April, 1909. as 
printed on page 231 of our last issue, we gave an account (No. 161) of the 
foundering of the tug George A. Floss, on Lake Erie, with a statement that her 
disappearance was accompanied by a loud noise that was believed to be due to 
the explosion of her boiler. We learn that the tug has since been raised, and 
that her boiler was found to be intact, so that it is now in use again. It is 
of course impossible to make the statements of today agree, in every case, with 
the information that comes on the morrow; and in the present instance we 
can only say that our original item was based upon the best information available 
at the time it was written. 



±Q THE LOCOMOTIVE. [January, 

Why is it that writers and periodicals every now and then appear to be 
obsessed by some devil that makes them want to print things that they steal 
from somebody else? This ancient query, which often occurs to the honest 
purveyor of printers' ink, is prompted, on the present occasion, by an article 
in the issue for July, 1909, of the Practical Engineer^ of Chicago, and by a 
similar one in Ryerson's Montlily Journal and Stock List for December, 1909. 
The article in the Practical Engineer is entitled " Diagonal Riveted Joints," 
and it appears under the name of Mr. Norman S. Campbell. It is, in effect, 
an abstract of two articles that have appeared in Tpie Locomotive, one in the 
issue for July, 1897, and the other in the issue for July, 1908. Credit is indeed 
given to the Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company, for 
a short table occupying something like an inch of space, but otherwise we are 
not honored by the least mention, and the implication is, that the rest of the 
article is Mr. Campbell's own child. The article in Ryerson's Journal is con- 
densed from the one put forth by ^Ir. Campbell, and gives us precisely the same 
notice, and no more. 

The only objection that we know of, to giving credit, in this case, where 
credit is due, is that that might involve granting the " Hartford " a little free 
advertising. In a case of this kind, however, that argument appears to have 
little force. We did not ask either paper to print the article, and if they 
desired to do so on their own initiative, it would be only ordinary civility to 
mention the fact that they took it from us. Let us hope that with the new year 
they have turned over a new leaf, and that hereafter a higher standard of 
literary ethics will prevail in their offices. 



The Diseases of Boilers.* 

Boilers are heirs to nearly as many diseases as the human family. Some 
are crippled from birth, owing to errors in construction. The most marked 
and important of these congenital troubles is the one that makes itself known 
by the failure of the lap seam along a line which passes close to the rivet 
holes, but usually does not enter them, except when radiating branch cracks 
are present. 

There were few failures from the lap joint crack when iron plate was 
exclusively used in the construction of boilers, and this was doubtless due to 
two main facts, • — first, the fact that the plates then used were small, and 
second, the fact that steel (which is now used almost universally for boiler 
shells) is much more likely than iron to develop this particular defect. 

Certainly the workmanship was no better in the days of iron than it is 
now, and in fact it was, as a rule, probably distinctly inferior ; and while the 
pressures that were carried were less than they are today, the boilers were 
no better adapted, by reason of design and construction, to bear those lower 
pressures, than modern boilers are, to bear the higher ones that we find 
today. 



•From an address before the New England Association of Electric Lighting Engineers, 
by F. S. Allen, Chief Inspector of the Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Com- 
pany, Hartford, Conn. 



I9IO.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. n 19 



A more important circumstance was, that in the use of iron it was 
impossible to obtain large plates. Thus boilers four feet or more in diameter 
were made with two plates to a course, and a boiler sixteen feet long was 
usually built in live courses, and never in less than four. The girth seams 
doubtless stiffened the plates, for in the examination of a great number of 
boilers that had exploded by rupture of the seams it was «iound that the 
fractures commenced midway between the girth joints. In hundreds of cases, 
too. the main line of fracture has developed lateral Ijranch cracks, which have 
been detected by the inspector because they showed just beyond the edge of 
the inner lap; and then, by cutting out rivets and opening the joint longitu- 
dinal fractures have been discovereil without actual explosion of the boiler. 
Cracks discovered in this manner are always in the center of the course. 
Furthermore, in destructive tests of l)oilers we have found the distress to 
begin, and failure to occur, at the middle of the course. All of these facts 
show the importance of the stiffening action of the girth joints upon the 
shell. 

Passing now to the consideration of the effect of the material itself, we 
note, first, that iron withstood the severe treatment of whipping down the 
ends of the plates with sledges, — this practice having once been nearly 
universal in boiler shops. The only remedy for this is to provide a massive 
former, which, by heavy pressure, finishes the ends of the plates and brings 
the laps to as nearly a circular form as possible, though even with this pre- 
caution there is always some flattening at the lap. 

Steel appears to resent the sledge-hammer treatment, and it is also sensitive 
to the slight local movements that occur near the joint, owing to variations of 
pressure in the boiler, and to the fact that the contour of the boiler shell 
is not truly circular near the joint. 

These causes, singly or in combination, are very likely to cause fractures 
at the longitudinal joints, these being undiscoverable except by cutting the 
plates apart, unless branch cracks happen to radiate from the main line of 
fracture, and run out from the edge of the lap. Often, too, the plates are 
not l)ent in the rolls, so that they conform to each other in shape at the 
ends; and in this case the closing up of the joint, as the rivets are driven, 
causes a severe and permanent stress in the material, the effect of which is 
doubtless to hasten the formation of a lap joint crack. 

Another defect that can be produced in riveted joints is due to neglect 
in adapting the pressure that is employed for closing the rivets, in hydraulic 
riveting (which is the best method of riveting), to the nature of the joint 
that is being made. The pressure that is maintained upon the accumulator 
should be varied according to the diameter of the rivet that is to be driven, 
and the thickness of the plate of which the shell is to be made. 

Ruptures of plates from these causes occur with little reference to factors 
of safety, or to the age of the boiler. They sometimes develop within a year 
or two, while in other cases they do not appear until after several years of 
service. 

Alteration of the structure of the material of the boiler, under the in- 
fluence of stress and temperature, is undoubtedly the cause of failure in many 
cases, and evidence of the fatigue of metal, which admittedly occurs in all 



20 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [January, 

classes of machinery, is found in boiler plates. Fractures in the plates, away 
from the seams, have been found occasionally, and surface cracks, either 
internal or external, may develop in the shell, the plates being then brittle 
enough to be readily broken up with a hammer when they have been removed 
from the boiler. Such cracks are not so frequent, in the central or free parts 
of the plate, as they are near a flange or some other rigid connection, where 
the effect of the movement of the plate may be localized. The localization of 
strains in this way has been the cause of frequent failure or fracture in 
some tj'pes of boilers, with the result that expensive repairs have been re- 
quired, and in many cases explosions have resulted. 

We also find evidence of profound alteration of the structure of the 
material in boiler tubes, these often losing their ductility after a few years 
of service, even though they may have been reasonably ductile when new. 
Undoubtedly the skelp from which these tubes were made was of an inferior 
quality; and the alteration in their structure, with the resulting liability of 
fracture, is probably due to the temperature to which they are exposed, 
rather than to the pressure. 

There is much difficulty in detecting alteration in the structure of a boiler 
tube, although there is not infrequently some unusual color to the tube, or 
some unusual sound given out under the hammer test, that will attract the 
attention of the examiner. A case which came under my own observation 
related to a large battery of boilers in which the tubes showed no evidence of 
thinning, over-heating, distortion, or sediment. They were found to have 
the full standard thickness required -for boiler tubes of their diameter. When 
they were rubbed clean of soot and ash, down to the original skin of the 
metal, however, they showed a peculiar and unusual color, although under 
the file bright metal showed at once. The appearance of the tubes was so 
peculiar that two of them were removed for testing, with the result that 
they were found to have lost their ductility almost entirely. The tubes in 
all the boilers were subsequently removed, and all (or nearly all) were found 
to be brittle, often breaking when one or two blows were struck upon the 
chisel in cutting them off. For the sake of comparison, a tube that had 
been in service in another boiler in the same plant for 23 years was removed, 
and the physical tests that were made upon it showed that its condition was 
excellent. In this case, however, the tube had not been subjected to a tem- 
perature in excess of that due to 125 lbs. of steam pressure, while the boiler 
having the defective tubes had been operated at 160 lbs. pressure. The old 
tube, moreover, which was in good condition after many years of service, 
was made of charcoal iron, while the others, which had become brittle, were 
of steel. 

Of late there are many defective bolts found, among those that are used 
for holding the tube-caps on the manifolds in some types of water-tube 
boilers. This is a dangerous defect, as most of these boilers are operated 
under high pressure, and the caps are upon the outside, so that the failure 
of the bolt releases the whole contents of the boiler into the fire room. This 
matter is so serious that it has been taken up by one of the large electric 
road operators, and chemical tests have been made of the various bolts in actual 
use, and of the bolts purchased. The number of defective bolts found during 
the past year was very great, while ten years ago it was the exception to 



I9IO.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 21 



find any such bolt defective. I cannot say what the result of the investigations 
now going on in my department, and among steam users, will develop, but 
from personal investigation I believe that the bolts that have been used for 
tlie past few years are of steel, and evidently they are commercially-made 
bolts. The ductility of many of the defective bolts is so far reducctl that, 
though they are an inch in diameter, a blow from the light hammer used 
by the inspector would snap them off with a single blow. Many were also 
found to be cracked partially through. 

With regard to these bolts I would say that the remedy, in my opinion, 
would be to use bolts that are forged from the very best quality of Swedish 
iron. These bolts are not subject to alternating or intermittent variations of 
stress, and hence it appears probable that the change in molecular structure that 
they undergo is to be ascribed to the natures of the material from which they are 
made, the alteration taking place as a result of the temperature to which 
they are exposed. 

One other cause of rapid deterioration and loss of efficiency in boilers 
is the formation of incrustation and scale. Water-tube boilers are peculiarly 
sensitive to this, as their tubes are liable to become overheated, and the thin 
material of which they are made then becomes subject to distortion, where 
the relatively heavy plates of a boi-ler shell would remain comparatively 
unaffected. A great many cases of this kind occur yearly, and the rupture of 
the tubes is not infrequent. 

Some twelve years ago several tubes ruptured in one of our best equipped 
and largest electric plants, and overheating of the lower tubes was noted 
in all the boilers. Many were quite badly affected, and others not so seriously. 
Some of the least affected tubes were selected, and many specimens taken 
from them were sent to Watertown, Mass., for test. The results were of 
considerable value. Test pieces were taken from different parts of the same 
lube, and on two tubes, specimens taken from the top of the tube, over 
the furnace, gave an elongation, in a length of 8 inches, of i8 and 19 per 
cent., respectively, the ultimate strength of the material being 57,800 and 
58,000 lbs. per square inch, and the elastic limit 38,900 and 39,000. Specimens 
taken from the same tubes, in the rear of the bridge wall, and on the upper 
side where they were exposed to the descending currents of heat, but not 
quite at the exact topm.ost point, gave elongations of 16 and 17 per cent., 
respectively, in a length of 8 in., the corresponding tensile strengths being 
55,700 lbs. and 58,000 lbs., and the elastic limits 36.300 lbs. and 38,000 lbs. 
These were the best tests, some of the others running somewhat lower for 
strips taken in similar localities. Test pieces taken from the bottom of a 
tube, over the furnace, but in locations selected so as to avoid distorted spots, 
and to secure specimens that were apparently uninjured, gave ultimate strengths 
running from 41,500 lbs. to 46,500 lbs. per square inch, the elastic limit in 
these cases ranging from 24.000 to 31,000 lbs. per square inch, and the elonga- 
tion, in a length of 8 inches, from 2 to 9 per cent. Another set of tests gave 
results better than those just quoted, but in these cases the specimens were 
taken from the side of the tube, just above the center; the tensile strength 
running, in these instances, as high as 47,000 lbs. per square inch, and the 
elongation as high as 12 per cent, in a length of 8 in. 

The tests made upon specimens taken from the top of the tubes in 
the upper part of the boiler, where there was no 'direct exposure to the fire, 



22 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [January, 

showed a total strength and a percentage of elongation that were practically 
the same as the corresponding results for new tubes, although the boilers 
had seen some two years of service. The rapid deterioration of the tubes was 
considered to be largely due to the feed water and to the nature of the 
incrustation. A change was made in the water supply, and "I do not recall any 
trouble with tubes that has been experienced at this plant since. 

The failure of tubes in water-tube boilers is not infrequent. It is some- 
times due to defects in construction or in welding; but I have noted one 
peculiar fact, which has impressed me considerably, and that is, that except 
in cases in which the weld was defective, I have not noted a single case in 
which the failure occurred directly at the bottom of a tube. This fact may 
be of little interest, but it has impressed upon my mind the view that structural 
change in the material, leading to the failure or splitting of the tube, takes 
place a little towards one side of the bottom, or (say) at "about eight o'clock" 
in the circle of the tube. 

The increase of temperature attendant upon the use of higher pressures 
has brought about some new developments, detrimental to boilers, in con- 
nection with the formation of scale, and this is especially true in the fire-bo.'c 
type of upright boilers. There is little space, in these boilers, for the deposit 
of scale upon the tube sheets directly over the fire, and in view of the large 
amount of heating surface and the normal evaporation, the formation of scale 
must be very rapid upon the tube sheet, especially when the feed water is 
at all brackish. Two marked instances are worthy of notice, the observed 
results seeming hardly credible. In both cases the boilers were nearly new, 
and were of good construction, and working under proper factors of safety. 
Leakage aroun-d the tubes developed quite early. In one of the cases the 
trouble occurred in a battery of very large boilers of this upright type, 
operating at a pressure of 170 lbs. per square inch; the owners in this case 
(as well as in the second one, presently to be noted) having a large number 
of boilers of the same type operating at 125 lbs. There had never been 
trouble from scale, although in the older boilers, operated at 125 lbs., there 
was a considerable deposit of mud which was readily removed by periodical 
washings. No trouble from leakage had been experienced from this sediment 
at any time, in any of the boilers of this plant, until the new high-pressure 
boilers were installed for electric power; and the plant was thoroughly modern 
and up-to-date, and everything of the best construction. An examination 
of the high-pressure boilers, after the leakage around the tube-ends had 
developed, showed a thin, hard coating of sulphate of lime over the whole 
tube sheet, and making a slight fillet around each tube. The coating resembled 
an enamel lining more than a scale, owing to its extreme thinness, and its 
adherence to the plate. The fact that the same water had been used in 
boilers in operation in this plant for over twenty years, and that no trouble 
had occurred from scale or deposit, made it difficult to persuade the engineer 
that the leakage was due to the feed water, and to scale formation ; but by 
the judicious use of solvents the enamel-like coating was finally dissolved, and 
no leakage has occurred since, solvents being now used to prevent further 
deposition of scale. The second case w^as similar to the first, but the plant 
was many miles away, and used an entirely different water. Nevertheless, 
the same kind of action took place in the boilers that were operated at 160 lbs., 
although boilers in the same room had been operated on the same water, 



I9IO.J THE LOCOMOTIVE. 23 

with entire success, for twelve years, at 125 lbs. This second case also 
yielded to treatment, anil the affected boilers have since been running at their 
inaxiniuni capacity without leakage or trouble of any kind. 

By way of explanation we may assume that the difference between the 
temperature due to 125 ll)s. pressure, and that due to 160 lbs., was sufficient to 
cause the precipitation, in each case, of a small quantity of sulphate of lime, 
which, at the lower temperature, had remained either in solution, or in 
suspension with the mud that had been washed out so readily. 

The importance of eliminating all lubricating oils from boilers is almost 
too well known to be worthy of mention, yet oil continues to be a great source 
of injury and destruction, where the water of condensation is recovered from 
the exhaust steam, and used over again in the boilers. Separators are put in, 
having a nominal capacity based upon the area of the exhaust pipes, without 
reference to the volume of steam that these exhaust pipes are to carry. This 
is a grave error, in many cases. Separators have capacity, as well as other 
machinery ; and in installing an oil separator, care should be taken to ensure 
for it a capacity sufficient to handle the full volume of steam passing through 
it. 

There also seems to be much difficulty experienced in removing oil from 
boilers, when it has once effected an entrance. This can be done readilj', 
in some types of boilers, by swabbing the sheets and tubes with a mop dipped 
in kerosene oil, after taking the highly important precaution of extinguishing 
all ol^cn lights about the boiler, as a measure of safety. In other cases, where 
the boilers are inaccessible for mopping, they can be boiled out with a strong 
solution of soda ash (or caustic soda if the soda ash does not prove effective), 
with a generous addition of kerosene oil, the pressure being maintained at 
half or two-thirds of the regular working pressure for from twelve to twenty 
hours. After this treatment the oil can usually be washed out in the form of 
a curd. (With respect to the treatment of boilers for scale troubles, see The 
Locomotive for October, 1908.) 

Corrosion, another boiler disease, is not so common toda^' as formerl}', 
but it still is an active enemy of steam boilers. I say it is less common 
than it was formerly, because a great change has been made, in the last few 
years, in the types of boiler in general use, and those that are at present 
most common are less liable to corrosive action than were the drop flue, 
hammer head, and similar types having a poor circulation at the bottom. We 
still have with us some types in which there is a tendency to corrosion, and 
no universal remedy can be relied upon. Instead, each case must be carefully 
investigated, and a remedy applied that is appropriate to the cause of the 
difficulty. Where the water is pure and the boilers are operated intermittently, 
corrosion is frequently found in the form of pitting. This action takes place 
very often in pumping stations, and in power plants and electric stations 
where the fires are kept banked for long periods, with the water in the boilers 
quiescent, and far less often in boilers that are always in active service. Boilers 
that are used exclusively for heating purposes suffer more than any others 
from pitting. 

Once started, corrosion is likely to go on until the material of the boiler 
is destroyed, unless measures are taken to check it. When corrosion is ob- 
served in connection with the use of a pure water, one of the best methods 



24 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [January. 

of treatment is to keep the water alkaline with soda ash, for this tends to 
check the corrosive action, and the soda does not injure the boiler. 

Care should be exercised, in selecting feed water for a new plant, or for 
a new location of a plant, to see that the quality of the water is good. Nitrates 
in the water should be especially avoided, as they are especially troublesome 
and dangerous. The presence of nitrates commonly results in the formation 
of a light scale coating, under which an active destruction of the material of 
the boiler goes on, the plates and tubes l)ecoming wasted away, and the 
braces and rivet heads cut off. 

In certain types of boilers the breakage of staybolts is a frequent and 
annoying, as well as expensive, occurrence. Such bolts are often drilled with 
a %6 in. hole, which either passes through the entire length of the bolt, or 
at least goes in deeper than the thickness of the outside sheet; and such 
holes are supposed to give absolute safety, so far as the detection of broken 
bolts is concerned, the theory being that steam will escape from the end of 
the bolt as soon as fracture has occurred, and thereby call attention to the 
trouble. The drilled hole is not to be relied upon, however, because, in the 
process by which the staybolt fails, the fracture will creep into the bolt slowly, 
and when it first encounters the hole, moisture from the boiler will leak out 
through it in very slight quantities, and evaporate without attracting any 
attention. In evaporating, however, the moisture leaves behind it a certain 
amount of solid matter, and this accumulates until it forms a hard, baked 
residue, completely choking the opening in the center of the bolt, so that the 
apparent absence of leakage leads to a sense of security which is far from 
corresponding to the actual facts. Many bolts that have been drilled, for 
the purpose of providing security against undiscovered fracture, have been 
found to be completely broken off, and many others have been found to be 
partially broken, without any noticeable leakage occurring in either case. 
It will be plain, therefore, that if any reliance is to be placed upon the 
drilled staybolt, it is important to ream out the holes frequently, and keep the 
openings free. The breakage of staybolts is sometimes due to circumstances 
connected with the environment of the boilers, to their exposure to injury 
from external causes, to strains from varying temperature and differential 
expansion, and to faulty construction or poor material in the bolt. 

jNIany of the minor diseases of boilers, such as rapid loss of ductility, 
and development of incipient fractures at different parts (as at the girth joints 
in the plain tubular boiler), may be due to the conditions under which the 
boilers are operated, such as to the varying level of the water, and to the 
introduction of cold feed water, or to blowing down the boilers under high 
pressure and leaving the drafts on, so that cold air may be drawn through 
and so give rise to serious unequal contraction, or to pushing the fires too 
hard in raising steam from cold water. Severe strains, resulting in leakage 
at the seams and around the staybolts and tube ends of fire-box boilers, are 
frequently caused by the burning out of the fire under one boiler of a 
battery, while this boiler is left connected with the rest of the battery, and 
with the draft full on. All these defects are developed by poor practice or 
management. 

Just a word, in conclusion, about the action of superheated steam. When 
superheating is done in connection with steam generators, the elasticity and 



I910.J THE LOCOMOTIVE. 25 

strength of the material are affected if a high temperature is produced, and 
1 look forward with considerable anxiety to the results that may follow wheti 
boilers are operated in this way for a term of years. It has been I)rought 
to your knowledge, I believe, or to the knowledge of similar bodies, and it 
has come under my own observation, that cast-iron is an unsuitable matcri.il 
to use, for exposure to superheated stoam of high temperature. I have in 
mind some extra heavy valves of the l)cst make, with cast-iron bodies, which, 
when exposed to superheated steam at high temperature, became badly checked 
and marked, so that the whole body of the casting had an appearance sug- 
gestive of the crazy cracking observed on imperfect crockery. These valves 
were replaced by others in which soft steel castings of the best quality were 
used in the place of the cast-iron, and the new ones have thus far, I believe, 
shown no defects. Fittings or manifolds of cast-iron, connecting superheaters 
with the generator, should not be endorsed or approved for superheating to 
too degrees or over. In fact, I think that cast-iron for such purposes has 
already been abandoned in the best practice, forged or wrought iron being 
substituted for it. 



Boiler Explosions During* 1909. 

We present, herewith, our usual annual summary of boiler explosions, 
giving a tabulated statement of the numl)er of explosions that have occurred 
within the territory of the United States (and in adjacent parts of Canada 
and Mexico) during the year iQog, together with the number of persons 
killed and injured by them. As we have repeatedly explained, it is difficult 
to make out accurate lists of boiler explosions, because the accounts that we 
receive are not always satisfactory ; but we have taken great pains to make 
the present summary as nearly correct as possible. It is based upon the brief 
accounts that we have published in our regular lists, in The Locomotive, 
during the past year. In making out those lists it is our custom to obtain 
several different accounts of each explosion, whenever this is practicable, and 
then to compare these accounts diligently, in order that the general facts 
may be stated with a considerable degree of accuracy. We have striven to 
include all the explosions that have occurred during 1909, but it is quite 
unlikely that we have been entirely successful in this respect, for many accidents 
have doubtless occurred that have not been noticed in the public press, and 
many have doubtless escaped the attention of our numerous representatives 
who furnish the accounts. We are confident, however, that most of the boiler 
explosions that have attracted any considerable amount of notice are here 
represented. 

The total number of boiler explosions in 1909, according to the best infor- 
mation we have been able to obtain, was 550, which is the greatest number 
we have ever had occasion to report in any one year. There were 470 in 1908, 
471 in 1907, 431 in 1906, and 450 in 1905. But while the number of explosions 
was greater this past year than ever before, we note, with pleasure, that the 
number of deaths was less than it has been for any year since 1904. 

The number of persons killed by boiler explosions in 1909 was 227, against 
281 in 1908, 300 in 1907. 235 in 1906. 383 in 1905, and 220 in 1904; and the 
number of persons injured (but not killed) in 1909 was 422, against 531 in 



26 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[January, 



1908, 420 in 1907, 467 in 1906, 585 in 1905, and 394 in 1904. 

Tlie average number ol persons killed, per explosion, during 1909, was 
0.413, and the average number of persons injured (but not killed), per explosion, 
was 0.767. The average number of persons that were either killed or injured, 
per explosion, was therefore 1.180. 

The statistics herein given for the year 1909, taken in connection with 
those given in The Locomotive for January, 1909, show that for the period 
included between October i, 1867, and January i, 1910, we recorded 10,601 
boiler explosions, these being attended by the deaths of ii,iii persons, and by 
the more or less serious injury of 16,056 others. 

It will be noted that the table gives the number of explosions in April, 1909, 
as 35, whereas the number actually reported for that month, in our list as 
printed in the issue for October last, was 36. The change is made because, 
as noted elsewhere in the present number, we have learned that item No. 161, 
in the October issue, should have been excluded from the list. 

During the year 1909 there were many very serious explosions, but we are 
glad to be able to record that there was none in which the loss of life approached 
the appalling total that characterized the great explosion at Brockton, Mass., 
in 1905. or the one on the U. S. gunboat Bennington, in the same year. The 
worst boiler explosion of 1909, so far as loss o£ life and injury to person is 
concerned, was the one that occurred in Denver, Colo., on June 15. By this 
explosion six persons were killed, and six others were more or less seriously 
injured. 

Summary of Boiler Explosions for 1909. 



Month. 


Number of 
Explosions. 


Persons 
Killed. 


Persons 
Injured. 


Total of 

Killed and 

Injured. 


January, 

February, 

March 

April 

May, 

June 

July. 

August, 

September, 

October 

November, ..... 
December, 


61 
59 
37 

35 
40 
38 

40 

39 
40 

60 

54 
, 47 


14 
II 
16 

13 
21 
18 

II 

25 
14 

42 
19 
23 


39 
37 
24 

17 
32 
32 

19 

58 
42 

48 
40 
34 


53 
48 
40 

30 
53 
50 

30 

83 
56 

90 
59 

57 


Totals 


550 


227 


422 


649 



The total loss of property from boiler explosions, during the year, was very 
large, although we have no complete figures relating to it. In the Denver 
explosion, just cited, the immediate damage to property was estimated at 
$60,000, and the total loss, including damage to wire service and equipment, 
ar.d through failure to supply power in accordance with contracts, was said 



iQio.J THE LOCOMOTIVE. 27 



to be $joo,ooo. In tlic explosion at tlic plant of the Pabst Brewing Co., Mil- 
waukee, Wis., on October 25, the property damage was estimated by the owners 
to be in excess of $114,000; and we arc credibly informed that the explosion 
at the plant of Radcliflfe Bros., of Shclton, Conn., on December i, damaged 
property to the amount of $250,000. The total value of the property destroyed 
by these three explosions alone was thus estimated to be $564,000. Other very 
disastrous explosions of the year might be included, if our purpese were merely 
to make as impressive an exhibit as possible. Thus on December 24 a loco- 
motive boiler exploded at Sliawnee, Okla., causing a property loss reputed to 
equal or exceed $100,000; but we have not included this large sum with the 
three that are mentioned above, because we are not equally well informed as to 
the accuracy of the estimate. 



A Terrible Explosion in Iowa. 

The following clipping from the St. Louis Post-Dispatch of January 4 is 
forwarded to us by Mr. Victor Hugo. Manager of our St. Louis department, 
with a request that we submit, for his guidance, some ruling as to the size of 
safety-valve that a duck should have, in order that it may be acceptable to us 
as a risk, provided inspection shows it to be in good condition in other respects, 
and free from all discoverable defects. 

Duck Eats Yeast, Explodes, and Puts Man's Eye Out. 

Rhadamanthus Was Prize-Winner's Name, Before He Blew to Pieces. 

Des Moines, Iowa, January 4. — The strangest accident recorded in local 
history occurred when Rhadamanthus, a duck, which had taken prizes at the 
recent Iowa poultry show, exploded into several hundred pieces, one of which 
struck Silas Perkins in the eye, destroying the sight. 

The cause of Rhadamanthus' untimely explosion was a pan of yeast. This, 
standing upon Perkins' back porch, tempted the duck, which gobbled it all up. 

Upon returning from church, Perkins discovered his prize duck in a logy 
condition. Taletale marks around the pan of yeast gave him a clew to the 
trouble. 

He was about to pick up the bird when it exploded with a loud report and 
Perkins ran into the house, holding both hands over one eye. A surgeon was 
called, and it was found that the eyeball had been penetrated by a fragment 
of flying duck. He gave no hope that the sight could be saved. 

[We don't believe the yeast had a thing to do with the explosion. The 
accident was plainly due to the presence, somewhere in the duck, of a concealed 
quack. — Editor The Locomotive.] 



The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company publishes 
a small book entitled The Metric System, which explains the metric system 
and gives a brief history of it, and contains very complete tables for reducing 
metric units to their English and American equivalents, and the converse. One 
distinguished reviewer says " It is a little jewel," and we think he is right. 
It is sent, postpaid to any address, upon the receipt of $1.25: and a special 
edition, printed upon bond paper, may be had for $1.50. 



28 



THE LOCOMOTIVE 



[January, 



Summary of Inspectors' Reports for the Year 1909. 

During the year 1909 the inspectors of the Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection 
and Insurance Company made 174,872 visits of inspection, examined 342,136 
boilers, inspected 136,682 boilers both internally and externally, subjected 12,563 
to hydrostatic pressure, and found 642 unsafe for further use. The whole 
number of defects reported was 169,356, of which 16.385 were considered 
dangerous. The usual classification by defects is given below, and a summary 
by months is given on page 29. 

Summary, by Defects, for the Year 1909. 

Nature of Defects. 
Cases of deposit of sediment, 
Cases of incrustation and scale. 
Cases of internal grooving, . 
Cases of internal corrosion. 
Cases of external corrosion, 
Defective braces and stays. 
Settings defective, 
Furnaces out of shape. 
Fractured plates, . 
Burned plates, 
Laminated plates, . 
Cases of defective riveting, . 
Defective heads. 
Cases of leakage around tubes, 
Cases of defective tubes. 
Tubes too light, 
Leakage at joints, 
Water-gages defective. 
Blow-offs defective, 
Cases of deficiency of water, 
Safety-valves overloaded. 
Safety-valves defective. 
Pressure gages defective, 
Boilers without pressure gages, 
Unclassified defects. 



Whole 


Danger- 


Number. 


ous. 


20,644 


1.235 


41,451 


1,251 


3,188 


256 


14,086 


576 


9,782 


706 


2,947 


534 


5.37T 


639 


7.264 


298 


3.278 


520 


4,887 


368 


663 


38 


3.584 


770 


1,469 


204 


13,423 


2,039 


9.523 


2,205 


3.045 


495 


5,184 


340 


2,942 


670 


4,137 


1,234 


307 


76 


1,350 


442 


1,546 


559 


8,781 


454 


466 


466 


38 


10 



Total, 



169,356 16,385 



Comparison of Inspectors' Work during the Years 1908 and 1909. 

Visits of inspection made. 
Whole number of inspections made, . 
Number of complete internal inspections. 
Boilers tested by hydrostatic pressure. 
Total number of boilers condemned, 
Total number of defects discovered. 
Total number of dangerous defects discovf 









igo8. 


, 1909. 


167,951 


174,872 








317.537 


342,136 








124,990 


136,682 








10,4-19 


12.563 








572 


642 








151,359 


169.356 


vered. 






15,878 


16,385 



I910.] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE 



29 



Summary by Months FOk 1909. 



Month. 


Visits 

of 

inspection. 


Number 
of boilers 
examined. 


No. inspected 

internally 

and externally. 


No. tested 

hydro- 
statically. 


No. con- 
demned. 


No. of 
defects 
found. 


No. of 

dangerous 

defects 

found. 


January, 
February, . 
March . . . 

April, . . 
May, . . . 
June, . . . 

July. . . . 
August, . . 
September, . 

October, 
November, . 
December, . 


14.851 
14,070 
16,069 

14,840 
13.S12 
14,560 

14,684 
12,975 
13,990 

15.010 

14,743 
15,268 


28.570 
27,278 
31.073 

28,763 
27,742 

28,775 

26,504 
25,566 
27.693 

30,013 
29,070 
31,089 


10,987 

9.315 
10,897 

11,878 
12.476 
13.541 

13,934 
11,429 
11,267 

11,366 

9.831 
9,761 


658 
676 
872 

1,088 
1,056 
1,504 

1,448 
1,135 
1. 177 

1,043 

1,001 

905 


62 
22 
40 

47 
43 

55 

78 
79 
50 

71 
53 
42 


12,850 
11.999 
14.723 

15,207 
14,980 
15-948 

16,593 
14.155 
13,810 

13.942 
12,181 
12,968 


1.257 
1,105 
1,180 

1.637 
1,412 

1.525 

1.503 
1,465 
1,286 

1.415 
1,246 

1.354 


Totals, . 


174,872 


342,136 


136,682 


12,563 


642 


169,356 


16,385 



The following table is also of interest. It shows that our inspectors have 
made nearly three million visits of inspection, and that they have made nearly 
five million and three-quarters of inspections, of which nearly two and a quarter 
million were complete internal inspections. The hydrostatic test has been applied 
in more than a quarter of a million cases. Of defects, more than three and a 
half million have been discovered and pointed out to the owners of the boilers ; 
and more than a third of a million of these were, in our opinion, dangerous. 
jNIore than twenty thousand boilers have been condemned by us as unfit for 
further service, good and sufficient reasons for the condemnation being given 
to the assured in every instance. 

Grand Total of the Inspectors' Work Since the Company Began Business, 

TO January i, 1910. 
Visits of inspection made, 2,954,134' 



Whole number of inspections made, 

Complete internal inspections, 

Boilers tested by hydrostatic pressure, 

Total number of boilers condemned. 

Total number of defects discovered, 

Total number of dangerous defects discovered, 



5 >7 1 3. 658 
2,239,126 

274.349 

20,342 

3.654.065 

375,483 



We append, also, a summary of the work of the inspectors of this company 
from 1870 to 1909, inclusive. The year 1S78 is omitted, because the data that 
Vs-e have at hand for that year are not complete. Previous to 1875 it was the 
custom of the company to publish its reports for the year ending with September 
1st, but in that year the custom was changed and the summaries were thereafter 
made out so as to correspond with the calendar year. The figures given opposite 
1875, therefore, are for sixteen months, beginning September i, 1874, and ending 
December 31, 1875. 



30 



THE LOCOMOTIVE 



1910.] 







Summary 


OF Inspectors' Work 


SINCE 1870. 






Year. 


Visits of 

inspection 

made. 


Whole num- 
ber of boilers 
inspected. 


Complete 

internal 

inspections. 


Boilers 

tested by 

hydrostatic 

pressure. 

882 
1,484 


Total num- 
ber of 
defects 
discovered. 


Total num- 
ber of 
dangerous 
defects 
discovered. 


Boilers 

con- 
demned. 


1870 
1871 


5.439 
6,826 


10,569 
13.476 


2,585 
3.889 


4,686 
6,253 


485 
954 


45 
60 


1872 
1873 


10,447 
12,824 


21,066 

24,998 


6,533 
8,511 


2,102 
2,175 


11,176 
11,998 • 


2,260 
2,892 


155 
178 


1874 
1875 


14.368 
22,612 


29,200 
44.763 


9.451 
14,181 


2,078 
3.149 


14,256 
24,040 


3,486 
6,149 


163 
216 


1876 
1877 


16,409 
16,204 


34,275 
32,975 


10,669 
11,629 


2,150 
2,367 


16.273 
15,964 


4,275 
3,690 


89 
133 


1879 
18S0 


17,179 
20,939 


36,169 
41,166 


13.045 
16,010 


2,540 
3,490 


16,238 
21,033 


3,816 
5-444 


246 
377 


1S81 
1882 


22,412 
25.742 


47.245 
55-679 


17.590 
21,428 


4,286 
4,564 


21,110 
33,690 


5,801 
6,867 


363 
478 


1883 
1884 


29,324 
34.048 


60,142 
66,695 


24-403 

24-855 


4,275 
4,180 


40,953 
44,900 


7,472 
7,449 


545 
493 


1885 
1886 


37.018 
39.777 


71.334 
77.275 


26,637 
30,868 


4,809 
5,252 


47,230 
71,983 


7,325 
9,960 


449 
509 


18S7 
1888 


46,761 
51.483 


89.994 
102,314 


36,166 
40,240 


5.741 
6,536 


99,642 
91,567 


11,522 

8,967 


622 
426 


18S9 
1890 


56.752 
61,750 


110,394 
118,098 


44.563 
49,983 


7,187 
7,207 


105.187 
115,821 


8,420 
9.387 


478 
402 


1891 
1892 


71.227 
74.830 


137.741 
148,603 


57,312 
59.8S3 


7,859 
7-585 


127,609 
120,659 


10,858 
11,705 


526 
681 


1893 
1894 


81,904 
94.982 


163,328 
191-932 


66,698 
79,000 


7,86r 
7,686 


122,893 
135,021 


12,390 

13,753 


597 

595 


1895 
1896 


98,349 
102,911 


199,096 
205,957 


76,744 
78,118 


8,373 

8,187 


144,857 
143,217 


14.556 
12,988 


799 
663 


1897 
1898 


105,062 
106,128 


206,657 
208,990 


76,770 
78,349 


7-870 
8,713 


131,192 
130,743 


11.775 
11,727 


588 
603 


1899 
1900 


112,464 
122,811 


221,706 
234,805 


85,804 
92,526 


9,371 
10,191 


157-804 
177,113 


12,800 
12,862 


779 

782 


1901 
1902 


134,027 
142,006 


254,927 
264.708 


99,885 
105,675 


11,507 
11,726 


187,847 
145.489 


12,614 
13,032 


950 
1,004 


1903 
1904 


153.951 
159-553 


293,122 
299.436 


116,643 
117,366 


12,232 
12,971 


147,707 
154,282 


12,304 
13,390 


933 

883 


1905 
1906 


159.561 
159.133 


291,041 
292,977 


116,762 
120,416 


13,266 
13.250 


155,024 
157,462 


14,209 
15,116 


753 
690 


1907 
1908 


163,648 
167,951 


308,571 
317,537 


124,610 
124,990 


13-799 
10,449 


159-283 
151,359 


17,345 
15,878 


700 

572 


1909 


174.872 


342,136 


136,682 


12,563 


169,356 


16,385 


642 



Ttie Harirom steam Boiiei iDspeciloii aqd insurance Compaiig. 



ABSTRACT OF STATEMENT, JANUARY 1, 1910. 
Capital Stock, . . . $1,000,000.00. 

ASSETS. 



Casli on liaiul ami in course of transmission, 
Premiums in course of collection, 

Real estate, 

Loaned on bond and mortgage, . 
Stocks and bonds, market value, . 
Interest accrued 



Total Assets, . 



LIABILITIES. 



Re-insurance Reserve, .... 
Losses unadjusted, .... 
Commissions and brokerage. 
Other liabilities (taxes accrued, etc.), 

Capital Stock, 

Surplus, 

Surplus as regards Policy-holders, 

Total Liabilities, 



$154,845.83 

228,048.46 

93,600.00 

1,107,060.00 

3,063,476.00 

67.580.50 

$4,714,610.79 



$1,943732.29 

90,939-53 
45,609.69 

41,835-50 



$1,000,000.00 
1,592,493.7s 

$2,592,493.78 2,592,493.78 



$4,714,610.79 



On January i, 1910, The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and In- 
surance Company had 104,589 steam boilers under insurance. 



L. B. BRAINERD, President and Treasurer. 

FRANCIS B. ALLEN, Vice-President. CHAS. S. BLAKE, Secretarv, 

L. F. INIIDDLEBROOK. Assistant Secretary. 

W. R. C. CORSON, Assistant Secretary. 

A. S. Wickham, Superintendent of Agencies. 

E. J. Murphy. M. E., Consulting Engineer. 

F. M. Fitch, Auditor. 



Board of directors. 



CHARLES M. BEACH, of Beach & Co., 
Hartford, Conn. 

GEORGE BURXHAM, Baldwin Locomo- 
tive Works, Philadelphia. 

PHILIP CORBIN, Prest. American Hard- 
ware Corporation, New Britain, Conn. 

ATWOOD COLLINS, Prest. Security 
Co., Hartford, Conn. 

LUCIUS F. ROBINSON, Attorney, 
Hartford, Conn. 

JOHN O. ENDERS, U. S. Bank, Hart- 
ford, Conn. 

LYMAN B. BRAINERD, Director, Swift 
& Company. 

MORGAN B. BRAINARD, Treasurer 
..^^tna Life Insurance Co. 



F. B. ALLEN, Vice-Prest., Hartford Steam 
Boiler Inspection and Insurance Co. 

CHARLES P. COOLEY, Vice-Prest., Fi- 
delity Trust Company, Hartford, Conn. 

ARTHUR L. SHIPMAN, Attorney, Hart- 
ford, Conn. 

GEORGE C. KIMBALL, President Smyth 
Manufacturing Co., Hartford, Conn. 

CHARLES M. JARVIS, ist Vice-Prest., 

-American Hardware Corporation, New 

Britain, Conn. 
FRANCIS T. MAXWELL, President, 

Hockanum Mills Co.. Rockville, Conn. 
HORACE B. CHENEY, of Cheney 

Brothers Silk Manufacturing Co., 

South Manchester, Conn. 



Incorporated 1866. 




)arnegie Libraryj 
i^lttsburgh, Pas 



Charter Perpetual. 



me paiilord Steaii) Boiler inspection anil iqsiiraiiGe GonipBiig 

ISSUES POLICES OF INSURANCE COVERING 

ALL LOSS OF I^ROPERTY 

AS WELL AS DAMAGE RESULTING FROM 

LOSS OF LIFE AND PERSONAL INJURIES DUE TO EXPLOSIONS 
OF STEAM BOILERS OR FLY WHEELS. 

Full information concerning the Compa7iy's Operations can be obtained at 

any of its Agencies. 



Department. 

NEW YORK, . 



BOSTON, . 

PHILADELPHIA, 

BALTIMORE. . 

ATLANTA, 
BIRMINGHAM, 
NEW ORLEANS, 
HARTFORD, . 

BRIDGEPORT, 
PITTSBURG, 
CLEVELAND, 
CINCINNATI, 
CHICAGO, . 
ST. LOUIS, 
DENVER, . 
SAN FRANCISCO, 
PORTLAND, . 



Representatives. 
C C. Gardiner, Manager, 
R. K. McMuKRAY, Chief Inspector, 

C. E. Roberts, Manager, 

F. S. Allen, Chief Inspector; 

CoRBiN & GooDRiGH, Gen. Agents, 
Wm. J. Farran, jChief Inspector, 

Lawford & AIcKiM, Gen. Agents, 
R. E. Munro, Chief Inspector, 



W. M. FranciSj. Manager, 

W. M. Francis, Chief Inspector, 

George C. Oliver, General Agent, 

H. E. Stringfellow, Chief Inspector 

Peter F. Pescud, General Agent, 

R. T. Burwell, Chief Inspector, 

H. C. Long, Special Agent, 

F. H. Williams, Jr., Special Agent, 

F. S. Allen, Chief Inspector, 

W. G. Lineburgh & Son, Gen. Agts., 

F. S. Allen, Chief Inspector, 

James W. Arrott, Ltd., Gen. Agt.. 

Benjamin Ford, Chief Inspector, 

H. A. Baumhart, Manager, 

H. A. Baumhart, Chief Inspector, 

W. E. Gleason, Manager, 

p.. F. Cooper^ Chief Inspector, 

H. M. Lemon. Manager, 

James L. Foord, Chief Inspector, 

V. Hugo, Manager, 

V. Hugo, Chief Inspector. 

Thos. E. Shears, General Agent, 

Thos. E. Shears, Chief Inspector, 

H. R. Mann & Co., General Agents, 

J. B. Warner, Chief Inspector, 

McCargar, Bates & Lively, G. Agts., 

C. B. Paddock, Chief Inspector, 



Ofi&ces. 
New York City, N. Y., 

100 William St. 
Boston, Mass., 

loi Milk St. 
Providence, R. I., 

17 Custom House St. 
Philadelphia, Pa., 

432 Walnut St. 
Baltimore, Md., 

14 Abell Bldg. 
Washington, D. C, 

511 Eleventh St., N.W. 
Atlanta, Ga., 

611-613 Empire Bldg. 
Birmingham, Ala., 

Brown-Marx Bldg. 
New Orleans, La., 

833-835 Gravier St. 
Hartford, Conn., 

56 Prospect St. 

Bridgeport, Conn., 

I Sanford Building. 
Pittsburg, Pa.. 

401 Wood Street. 
Cleveland, Ohio, 

Century Building. 
Cincinnati. Ohio. 

67-69 Mitchell Bldg. 
Oiicago. TIL, 

169 Jackson Bvd. 
St. Louis, Mo.. 

319 North Fourth St. 
Denver, Col.. Room 2, 

Jacobson Bldg. 
San Francisco. Cal., 

Merchants' Ex. Bldg. 
Portland. Ore., 

Failing Building. 



COPYRIGHT, 1910, BY THE HARTFORD STEAM BOILER INSPECTION AND INSURANCE CO. 

No. 2. 



Vol. XXVIII. HARTFORD, CONN., APRIL 25, 1910. 



Explosion of a Fly Wheel. 

The accident described in the present article cotisisted in the explosion 
of a lly wheel, with disruption of the wheel, and the projection of its parts 
to considerable distances. It is well worth reporting and illustrating for its 
own sake; and it also derives an added interest (at least for the Hartford 
Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company and its policy-holders) from 




Fig. I.— View of the Wrecked Wheel. (Looking South.) 
the fact that it is the first loss of the kind that we have experienced since we 
have been engaged in the insurance of fly wheels. Our activity in this f^eld, 
It IS probably unnecessary to say, is as yet only a few months old. 

General Description of the Plant. 
The wheel that burst was on an engine generating some 560 horse-power, 
and Its normal speed was 100 revolutions a minute. It was a rope-drive pulley, 



34 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[April, 



1 I SHAFT 




5^ 

d a 
o 

Cl 

o 
a: 



-U- 



"lilH I I isirFT ■'''^■' 



D 



DYNAMO 



ENGIf 
NO. 3. 



D 



qEMERGENCY 
VALVE 



HEATER 



BOILERS 



Fig. 2. — Plan of Engine Room. 

(Not drawn to scale.) 



14 feet in diameter with 13 grooves, and 
it drove a similar pulle}-, 7 feet in dia- 
meter, on a line shaft 50 feet distant, 
by means of a i^ inch continuous 
manila rope. 

The general arrangement of that part 
of the power plant with which we shall 
have to deal in the present article will 
be understood from Fig. 2. On one 
side of the driven pulley there was 
belted a 400-kilowatt direct-current 
dj'namo, which was taking about 200 
horse-power at the time of the accident. 
On the other side of the driven pulley 
was another 7-foot, 8-groove rope pulley, 
which delivered about 350 horse-power 
to another part of the plant, located in 
a separate building, some 160 feet to the 
north of the engine room. Between the 
fly wheel that burst, and the line shaft 
pulley that it drove, there was a frame- 
W'Ork bearing auxiliary pulleys and a 
carriage, for keeping the rope properly 
taut. These details are not shown in 
Fig. 2, as they were situated exactly in 
line between the fly wheel and the driven 
pulley, and hence would lie directly 
below the 13 ropes that are there 
indicated. The ruined framework may 
be seen in Fig. 4, however, as it appeared 
after the accident. 

Gener.-\l Description of the Explosion. 

The attendant in the engine room 
states that he was about twenty-five 
feet from the engine, drawing some oil, 
when he heard a report, apparently 
between the engine and the shaft pulley. 
He turned at once toward the engine, 
but before he could reach the throttle, 
or the rope to the quick-closing valve 
(presently to be described) in the steam 
line, debris was falling so thickly that 
he concluded to try to reach the stop 
valves on top of the boilers. He went 
out of the door of the engine room for 
this purpose, but before he could get 
to the stop valves in question the fly 
wheel had ruptured. The time, in all. 



igio.] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE 



he says, was not over fifteen seconds. Men working in the yard outside say 
that one fragment passed through the roof of the building and went 600 feet up 
into the air. Only one person was injured, he being struck a glancing blow 
and bruised about the legs and arms, with the result that he was incapacitated 
for some days. 

The first evidence of trouble, outside of the engine room itself, was the 
extinguishing of the electric lights. The electrician, who was in his work 
house (a separate building), ran at once to the power plant to see what was 
the trouble, and as he reached the engine room the wheel ruptured. One of 
our own representatives afterward timed this man with a stop watch, while he 




Fig. 3. — View of the Wrecked Wheel. (Looking South.) 

ran over the same course. The time so taken was just fifteen seconds, so that 
it appears that the estimates, given independently by the engineer and the 
electrician, that it was fifteen seconds from the first indication of trouble up 
to the explosion of the wheel, were unusually close to the actual facts. 



The Damage Wrought by the Explosion. 
The fly wheel was made in two sections, and had eight arms in all. Its 
general appearance after the accident will be evident from Figs, i and 3, which 
show it from two slightly different positions. Seven of the spokes broke 
at the hub of the wheel, but the eighth remained attached to the hub. The hub 
itself was not injured in any way, and was found to be still tight upon the 
shaft. No parts of the spokes were left attached to the rim, but all were 
broken off close to the rim, and all parts of the spokes were found in the rope 



36 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[April, 



pit. The outward foundation was broken, and the anchor bolts were pulled 
loose in both foundations. 

Fragments of the ruptured rim were thrown about with great violence. 
One of the flanged joints was found to be intact, the section of rim in which 
it occurred being, after the rupture, 5J/2 feet long as measured along the curved 
surface. This was the largest piece. of the rim, and in the unbroken wheel it 
had extended from one spoke exactly to the next one, the flanged joint being 
in the middle of its length. The other flanged joint was broken, the line of 
fracture passing through the bolt hole in one of the flanges. A careful exami- 
nation of this joint leads us to believe, however, that it did not fracture at 
the outset, but that it was broken after the failure of the wheel, by being 
thrown violently against one of the other wheels, or against a shaft. It was 




Fig. 4. — View of the Engine Room. (Looking North.) 



found in the rope pit. Apart from these two sections, containing the respective 
flanged joints, the fragments of the rim were of no especial interest, and all 
were broken into small pieces. 

Several of the roof girders were damaged by fragments of the wheel, and 
a number of pieces went up through the roof. Boiler No. 6 (the one seen in 
Figs. I and 3 with the manhole open) was struck in the rear head and indented, 
and it was likewise indented in the water-leg so badly that the depression 
there had to be heated and pressed out with jacks. The feed-water heater, 
seen also in these two engravings, was somewhat damaged. The greater part 
of the fragments of the ruined wheel-rim went northward, however, or in 
the direction in which the camera was looking when the photograph shown 
in Fig. 4 was taken. This view shows the wreck of the framework on which 



igio.] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE 



37 



the carriage for the rope-tightening device traveled. It also shows the bent 
shaft on which the one-groove winder pulley ran. The tiirce pulleys along this 
I)ath were broken to pieces. 

Fir.. 6 shows the damage that was done to one of the large storage tanks. 
This tank was i6 feet in diameter and J5 feet high, and was built of 3/16 in. 
tank steel. It was situated more than 200 feet from the fly wheel, as will be 
understood from Fig. 2. Fragments of the fly wheel rim struck this tank and 
tore it badly, so that it was necessary to replace 380 square feet of it with 
new sheets. « 




Fig. 5. — Showing the Emergency Valve, A. 



Eight days after the accident enough steam was given to the engine to turn 
it over, and, apart from a cracked main bearing cap and a slight spring in the 
crank shaft, the engine appeared to have sufYered no great injury. After the 
crank shaft had been taken out, however, and properly centered on two pins 
fastened in two vertical 12 in. by 12 in. timbers, it was found to be sprung 
about 3/16 in. The strain extended to the main bearing, as was to be expected, 
since the outboard bearing was shoved south, cracking the cement pedestal on 
which it rested, as may be seen in Fig. i, on the right and directly under the 
end of the shaft. The crank disk was likewise found to be out by z/2^ i"-, 
when the shaft was turned on the pins. The piston rod was then put in a 
lathe and was found to be sprung about 3/32 in., and the connecting rod, when 
examined in the lathe in the same way, was found to be sprung about 1/16 in. 
The total property loss was about $4,200. 



38 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [April, 

The Closing of the Emergexcy Valve. 
One singular and verj- fortunate thing about the accident here described 
is that the explosion of the wheel shut off the steam from the engine, though 
in a most unexpected and unforeseen way. In the main steam line leading to 
the engine, and about 24 feet from the cylinder, was a quick-closing, emergency 
steam valve, seen, though unfortunately not very distinctly, at A in Fig 5. 
This valve was supposed to be operated from the floor by means of a rope, a 
jerk on the rope shutting off the steam from the engine at once. The frag- 
ment of the rim bearing the uninjured flanged joint, which weighed about 500 
pounds and which was, as we have already said, the largest section of the rim, 
struck the girder B (seen in Fig. 5), over which the rope from the quick-acting 
valve hung. This girder was broken and displaced in a southward direction, 
and in moving it pulled the rope, closed the valve, and thereby shut off the 
steam from the engine, causing it to come to a stop almost immediately after 
the rim fractured. Had it not been for this interesting and fortuitous incident, 
the engine would doubtless have torn itself to pieces. We may add that the 
flying fragment of rim that displaced the girder and thus shut off the steam, 
having given up its momentum in this way, fell to the floor after passing over 
the boilers, and crashed down upon the fireman's chair. The chair was unoccu- 
pied at the time, to the fireman's subsequent great joy. 

The Governor Stop. 

The engine was not provided with an automatic speed controlling device, 
in the proper sense of that term, although the contrary would naturall}- be 
inferred from the earlier reports of the accident that were made public. The 
device that was reported as an automatic speed stop did not have for its pur- 
pose the controlling of the speed of the engine, but its object, instead, was to 
so regulate the action of the governor balls as to prevent any difficulty in 
starting up the engine, after it had been purposely stopped. 

In a centrifugal ball governor, such as is usually found upon engines of 
the Corliss type, the balls drop when their speed of rotation lessens, and by so 
doing they cause more steam to be admitted to the engine, and so tend to bring 
back the speed to its correct value. Or, which amounts to the same thing, they 
increase the period of admission of the steam, by lengthening the cut-off. Now 
this mode of operation is correct, so long as the engine is operating properly. 
It is easy to see, however, that if the governor belt (or whatever other means 
of transmission is used to drive the governor) should break, so that the 
governor slows up and its balls fall without a corresponding slowing of the 
engine, the result will be to admit more steam to the engine, and hence to 
accelerate its motion. The governor belt being broken, the balls will not 
respond to this increase in the speed of the engine, but will continue to fall 
lower and lower as they lose their own speed, thereby admitting more and 
more steam to the engine, and causing it to race, with serious results. 

To guard against an accident of this character, it is now usual to con- 
struct fly-ball governors so that although they increase the amount of steam 
delivered to the engine so long as they do not fall below a certain point, yet. 
when they do fall belozv that point, they cause the supply of steam to be 
diminished, and cut it off altogether when they come into their lowest possible 
position. Such a governor provides a proper regulation of the speed of the 



IQIO. 



THE LOCOMOTIVE 



39 



engine under normal conditions, but brings the engine to a standstill in the 
event of the breakage of the belt by which the governor is operated. 

The governor, modified as here indicated, is a great improvement over 
the earlier style, yet there is one difficulty in its use that the older form did 
not have. Namely, when the engine has been purposely stopped, it cannot be 
started again by merely opening the throttle valve, unless further special 
provision for this contingency is made; because the governor, with the balls 
in their lowest position, will not permit steam to enter the engine. In starting 
up with such a governor it is therefore necessary for the engineer to block up 
the balls in some way, so that the engine will take steam when he opens the 
throttle. Several methods are in use for accomplishing this end conveniently 




Fig. 6. — Showin'g thl. Damaged Storage Tank. 



and safely. It is plain that any device that is employed for the purpose should 
be automatically thrown out of action when the engine has once attained a 
certain speed, because the engineer might forget to attend to it himself, and 
then, if the governor belt should break, the engine would run away just as it 
would if the governor were of the old-fashioned type. Any device whose 
purpose is to prevent the balls from falling to their lowest possible position 
when the engine is intentionally stopped, or to hold them up, when the engine 
is started, until it attains a certain speed, is called a " governor stop." 

The engine whose wreck we are describing was fitted with a form of 
governor stop in w'hich a pin is automatically thrust under the balls, when the 
engine is stopped by closing the throttle, thus holding them up so that when it 
is desired to start the engine again it is only necessary to open the throttle once 



40 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [April. 

more. If the governor slows down from any other cause than the closing of 
the throttle, however, the pin is supposed to remain out of the way, so that the 
balls can descend to their lowest possible position without hindrance, and thus 
shut off the steam entirelj^ The device was operated by steam, conveyed to 
the governor through a small pipe from a point in the main steam pipe, below 
the throttle valve. The pin was therefore supposed to be held out of the way so 
long as the throttle was open, but to be promptly thrust under the balls when 
the throttle was closed. 

We have explained this feature of the engine at considerable length, be- 
cause an understanding of it is essential to a clear comprehension of the way 
in which the accident herein described came about. 

Cause of the Accident. 

A superficial glance at Figs, i or 3, where the arms of the wheel are seen 
to be broken off at the 'hub, might lead one to think that the accident was due 
to the throwing of a sudden overload upon the engine, this producing a bend- 
ing moment upon the spokes which caused them to fracture. The condition of 
the fragments, however, and the distances to which they were hurled, when 
taken in connection with all the other available evidence, shows that there is no 
foundation for this idea, and shows, moreover, that the explanation outlined 
below is the true one. 

There is no doubt but that the first thing that happened was the breakage 
of one of the ropes from the engine-pulley. This may have been a simple 
break, or the ropes may have piled up and then jumped off and broken, or they 
may have jumped off without piling up, and then broken. However these 
particulars may have been, it appears clear that the breaking of the rope was 
the initial cause of the accident, and it was very likely this, that the engineer 
heard, and described as a " report ". The rope was certainly found to be broken, 
after the accident. 

If the spokes had fractured first, from overload, there would not have been 
the fifteen seconds of warning that the engineer and electrician both describe, 
before the wheel went altogether to pieces. The fact that the lights went out 
some time before the wheel burst into fragments also bears out the view that 
the breaking of the drive-rope was the first thing that happened. 

When the rope broke, it tore up some 160 square feet of two-inch plank- 
ing, which was over the rope pit. One of the fragments of the planking struck 
the governor belt and knocked it off. It did not break the belt, however, 
although it tore it, and also knocked a piece out of the flange of one of the 
pulleys, as may be seen in Fig. i. There were but g inches of space between, 
the governor belt and the fly wheel, and in this space was the vertical wooden 
housing of the wheel, from which fact it is easy to account for the throwing- 
off of the governor belt. 

The engine, being freed from its load by the breaking of the rope, would 
at once begin to race. The governor being thrown out of service by the loss 
of its driving belt, its revolving balls would begin to slow up and fall at once, and 
while this would mean the increased admission of steam for a few moments, 
the steam supply would presently be cut off altogether by the balls falling to their 
lowest possible position, provided the automatic governor stop had acted as it 
was supposed to act under these circumstances. 



igio.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 41 

But it so happened that one of the planks cast up by the flying rope broke 
the small steam pipe leading to the governor stop, and this caused the pin of 
the stop to be thrust into position so as to prevent the balls from falling to 
their lowest position, just as it would be if the steam had been cut off from 
the engine by the closing of the throttle. The result was that the governor 
balls fell until they rested against the pin that was intended to come into play 
only when the throttle was closed. They could descend no lower, and hence 
could not shut off the steam. The engine therefore continued to race at an 
ever increasing speed, until the fly wheel burst; and nothing stood in the way 
of its utter annihilation except the fortuitous closing of the emergency valve, 
at A in Fig. 5, when the flying fragment of the rim of the wheel struck the 
girder over which the valve rope passed. 

Fortunate Features of the Accident. 

There were many fortunate things about this accident, — many ways in 
which it would have been far worse, if the pieces of wreckage had taken slightly 
different directions. It was certainly a happy circumstance that nobody was 
killed, and that only one man was injured, and that his injuries were not of a 
very serious nature. The remarkable way in which steam was shut off from 
the engine by the emergency valve is also worthy of special consideration. We 
wish to call attention, furthermore, to the fact that with the boilers and steam 
piping situated as they were, it was little short of providential that none of 
the sections of the wrecked wheel penetrated the boilers nor broke the steam 
main. Either of these contingencies would have added a serious element to a 
situation already quite bad enough. 

In designing a steam plant, the boilers and piping, as well as any rooms in 
which considerable numbers of workmen are congregated, should be kept well 
away from the plane of the fly wheel, whenever this is possible ; for the frag- 
ments of an exploding wheel are far more likely to remain near that plane than 
they are to depart from it by any great amount. The company insuring the 
wheels rareh' has an opportunity to make suggestions of this nature at a time 
when they might be of value, because the plant is usually built and in operation 
before the insurance is sought. 



Generally speaking, the reports that we send to our assured, after making 
our inspections, are full enough to give a good idea of the condition of the boiler 
in all respects. Once in a while, however, the routine is broken by circum- 
stances over which the inspector has no control. Recently, for example, one of 
our assured received this communication, when he was looking for a report of 
an external inspection : " On account of the smallpox in this section, the train 
conductor had orders not to stop at this station. No inspection made". 

In another recent case one of our assured was surprised at receiving the 
following note: "Will you kindly advise me if the rat-tail file which Inspector 
Day found driven into the fusible plug in your locomotive No. 999 has been 
removed, and the plug re-filled?" 

By the way, the use of nails, rat-tail files, and other infusible things, in the 
repairing of " fusible " plugs, is no modern invention. We find this brilliant 
conception carried out every little while, and we illustrated a case of it in The 
Locomotive, more than twenty years ago, — namely, in the issue for August, 1889. 



42 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [April, 

Boiler Explosions. 

January, 1910. 

(l.) — On January i a tube failed in a boiler in the cotton gin of I. Dorn- 
bush, Vicksburg, ]Miss. 

(2.) — A cast-iron sectional heating boiler ruptured, January i, in the 
Catholic School and Asylum, Hamlin and Schubert streets, Chicago, 111. 

(3.) — A tube ruptured, January i, in a water-tube boiler in the John H. 
Havlin Realty Co.'s hotel, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

(4.) — A boiler belonging to R. J. Pender exploded, January i, at Tarboro, 
N. C. One person was seriously injured. 

(5.) — A tube ruptured, January 3, in a water-tube boiler in the Germania 
building, Milwaukee, Wis. 

(6.) — On January 3 a locomotive boiler exploded on the Colorado & 
Southern railroad, at Trinidad, Colo. Two persons were seriously injured. 

(7.) — ^A flue collapsed, January 4, in a boiler on a pumping boat at Safe 
Harbor, opposite Industry, Pa. George Young was killed, and two other men 
were slightl}' injured. 

(8.) — On January 4 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the plant of 
the American Steel & Wire Co., Waukegan, 111. 

(9.) — 'A tube ruptured, January 5, in a water-tube boiler in the John H. 
Havlin Realty Co.'s hotel, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

(10.) — On Januarj- 5 a blowoff pipe failed in William H. Coleman & Co.'s 
sawmill and finishing works, Jackson, Tenn. 

(11.) — Two sections of a cast-iron heating boiler ruptured, January 5, in 
" Forbes House ", Milton Academy, Milton, Mass. 

(12.) — A boiler shell ruptured, January 5, in the Keokuk Hotel Co.'s hotel, 
Keokuk, Iowa. 

(13.) — A boiler exploded, January 6, at the American Dewey mine, at 
Porto Rico, near Carthage, Mo. John Jones, a miner, was seriously injured. 

(14.) — A boiler belonging to Walker Bros, exploded, January 7, at Herrs 
Island, Pa. One person was fatally injured. 

(15.) — A tube failed, January 7, in a water-tube boiler at the Perry Iron 
Co.'s plant, Erie, Pa. 

(16.) — On January 7 the boiler of a locomotive exploded at Grand Junc- 
tion, Colo. Two persons were killed. 

(17.) — A heating boiler exploded, January 8, in the I. O. O. F. building, 
Boise, Ida. The property loss was estimated at $2,500. 

(18.) — A heating boiler ruptured, January 9, at the Terre Haute Rose & 
Carnation Co.'s greenhouse, Terre Haute. Ind. 

(19.) — A heating boiler exploded, January 9, in Charles Utermoehler's 
bakery, 1614 South Tenth street, Philadelphia, Pa. Four persons were injured 
and the building was badly damaged. 

(20.) — On January 9, a cast-iron header ruptured in a water-tube boiler 
in the store of the Emery, Bird-Thayer Dry Goods Co., Kansas City, Mo. 

(21.) — -A boiler ruptured, January 9, at the Centerville Water Works, 
Centerville, Iowa. 

(22.) — A heating boiler 'belonging to the Boston & Maine railroad ex- 
ploded, January 10, at Portland, Me. 



igio.J THE LOCOMOTIVE. 43 

(23.)— A tube burst, January 11, in a water-tube boiler at the Common- 
wcaltli Edison Co.'s Quarry street station, Chicago, 111. Fireman James 
Glennon was injured. 

(24.) — A boiler exploded. Jamiar> 11, at High Point, N. C. 

(25.) — A blowoff pipe ruptured, January 12, at the Campbell Mills, 
Toronto, Can. 

(26.) — A blowoff pipe failed, January 13, in the Dean Hotel Co.'s hotel, 
Kansas City, Mo. 

(27.) — A water-tube boiler ruptured, January 13, in the Grasselli 
Chemical Co.'s plant, Grasselli, Ind. 

(28.) — A live steam heater, used for heating feed water and located on top 
of one of the boilers, exploded, January 13, at the Central Kansas mill, Lyons, 
Kans. One man was injured. 

(29.) — Two sections of a cast-iron sectional heating bpiler ruptured, 
January 13, at Clemson Agricultural College, Clemson College, S. C. 

(30.) — On January 13 three tubes failed in a water-tube boiler at the 
Athens State Hospital, Athens, Ohio. 

(31.) — A heating boiler belonging to A. L. Johnson exploded, January 14, 
at Palmer, Mass. 

(32.) — On January 14 a connection to a superheater on a water-tube boiler 
failed at the Edison Electric Illuminating Co.'s plant. South Boston, Mass. 

(33.) — Three cast-iron headers fractured, January 15, in a water-tube 
boiler at the North American Lace Co.'s plant, Philadelphia, Pa. 

(34.) — A heating boiler exploded, January 15, in the Seabright ^^lethodist 
church, at Red Bank, N. J. 

(35.) — A tube collapsed, January 15, in a vertical boiler at the American 
Steel & Wire Co.'s plant, Worcester, ]\Iass. 

(36.) — A heating boiler exploded, January 15, at Southbridge, Mass. It 
was used for heating the Tremont theater and a building adjoining it. 

(S7-) — A boiler belonging to the Vanderbeck Ice Co. exploded, January 15, 
at Dundee Lake, near Paterson, N. J. Richard Vanderweel was seriously 
injured. 

(38.) — On January 16 a tube ruptured, and ten cast-iron headers fractured, 
in a water-tube boiler at the American Steel & Wire Co.'s plant, Waukegan, 111. 

(39.) — A small boiler exploded, January 16, at the Monongahela furnace 
plant, McKeesport, Pa. Three men were injured. 

(40.) — A heating boiler exploded, January 16, at Frederick C. Witthuhn's 
greenhouse, Cleveland, Ohio. The boiler room was blown to atoms, and the 
greenhouse was wrecked. 

(41.) — The boiler of a locomotive exploded, January 17, on the Dawson 
railroad, at Tucumcari, N. M. Two persons were fatally injured. 

(42.) — A flue collapsed, January 17, in a fertilizer drier, in Swift & Co.'s 
packing house. South Omaha, Neb. 

(43.) — A blowoff pipe failed, January 17, in W. L. Petty & Co.'s tobacco 
curing plant, Lexington, Ky. Two men were injured. 

(44.) — On January 17 a cast-iron header fractured in a water-tube boiler 
at the Hammermill Paper Co.'s plant, Erie, Pa. 

(45.) — A slight accident occurred, January 17, to a boiler in the Angola 
Lumber Co.'s plant, Wilmington, N. C. 



44 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [April, 

(46.) — A tube ruptured, January 17, in a water-tube boiler at the Metro- 
politan Street Railway Co.'s power plant, Second and Grand streets, Kansas 
City, Mo. One man was slightly injured. 

(47.) — A tube raptured, January "19, in a water-tube boiler at the H. C. 
Frick Co.'s plant, near Ronco, Pa. Two men were injured. 

(48.) — The boiler of locomotive No. 1208, of the Southern railway, rup- 
tured, January 20, near Afton, Tenn. The engineer was injured. 

(49.) — A blowoff pipe failed, January 20, at the Warsaw Furniture Manu- 
facturing Co.'s plant, Warsaw, Ky. 

(50.) — On January 20 a boiler exploded at Boyle's sawmill, five miles from 
Mayesville, S. C. Five persons were fatally injured, and three others were 
injured less severely. 

(51.) — An economizer exploded, January 21, in the Edison Electric Light 
Plant, Paterson, N. J. Emil Van Wounden was fatally scalded, and eight others 
were severely injured. The property loss was estimated at $25,000. 

(52.) — The boiler of a Pere Marquette switching locomotive exploded, 
January 22, at Saginaw, Mich. The locomotive was wrecked. 

(53.) — On January 23 a blowoff pipe drew out of the elbow at the plant of 
the Gem Hammock & Fly Net Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 

(54.) — A small boiler exploded, January 23, in the Hotel Macatee, Houston, 
Tex. A bell boy was injured. 

(55.) — The boiler of a Norfolk & Western locomotive exploded, January 
24, at Roanoke, Va. Two persons were seriously injured. 

(56.) — The crown sheet of a freight locomotive failed, January- 24, on the 
Wisconsin division of the Chicago & Northwestern railroad, two miles south 
of Barrington, 111. Engineer F. Wooding and fireman A. Caeder were injured. 

(57.) — Three cast-iron headers ruptured, January 24, in a water-tube boiler 
at the plant of the American Steel & Wire Co., Waukegan, 111. One man was 
injured. 

(58.) — The boiler of a locomotive exploded, January 25, on the Denver & 
Rio Grande railroad, near La Veta, Colo. Two men were killed and two were 
injured. 

(59.) — A slight boiler explosion occurred, January 27, at the Nelsonville 
Electric Light & Water works, Nelsonville, Ohio. 

(60.) — On January 27 the boiler of a donkey engine exploded at Elmhurst, 
L. I. John Dawson was badly scalded. 

(61.) —A tube ruptured, January 28, in a water-tube boiler at the plant of 
the Illinois Steel Co., Milwaukee, Wis. One man was injured. 

(62.) — On January 28 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the 
Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co.'s power station. Thirty-third and Market streets, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

(63.) — A blowoff pipe failed, January 28, at the Greer-Beatty Clay Co.'s 
plant. Magnolia, Ohio. One man was injured. 

(64.) — A tube ruptured, January 29, in a water-tube boiler at the Allegheny 
Steel Co.'s plant, Breckenridge, Pa. 

(65.) — A boiler exploded January 30, in the plant of the Pennsylvania 
Rubber Co., Jeannette, Pa. The property loss was estimated at $4,000. 

(66.) — 'A boiler exploded, January 30, in the William Strange Co.'s silk 
mill, at Paterson, N. J. One man was fatally injured. 



I9IO.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 45 



(67.) — A blowoflf pipe ruptured, January 31, at the Morss Hill Coal Co.'s 
plant, Fell Township, Pa. 

(68.) — A blowoff pipe ruptured, January 31, at the plant of the American 
Brass Co., Ansonia, Conn. 

(69.) — On January 31 two Hues ruptured in a boiler at the Mint Mlectric 
Light Co.'s plant, Flint, Mich. Eli T. Crump and Hiram Marsh were killed. 
(See, also, explosion No. 76, below.) 



Febku.\rv, 1 9 10. 

(70.) — A heating boiler exploded, February 2, in a school building at 
Culloni, near Bloomington, 111. 

(71.) — A tube ruptured, Fel^ruary 2, in a water-tube boiler at the Upson 
Nut Co.'s plant, Cleveland, Ohio. 

{72.) — On Fcl)ruary 2 a boiler exploded at Rice Bros.' mine, Tuscaloosa, 
Okla. 

{73.) — On February 3 the crown sheet of a St. Paul locomotive collapsed 
at Portage, Wis. Three men were injured. 

(74.) — On February 3 a tube burst in a water-tube boiler at the plant of 
the Mutual Electric Light Co., San Francisco, Cal. 

(75.) — On February 4 the crown sheet of a locomotive type boiler collapsed 
at the plant of the Allentowai Non-Freezing Powder Co., Allentown, Pa. 

(76.) — 'On February 5 a tube burst in a water-tube boiler at the Flint 
Electric Light Co.'s plant, Flint, Mich. George Palmer was killed, and four 
other men were injured. (The boiler that exploded in this instance was next 
to the one that exploded in the same plant on January 31, as described above, 
under No. 69.) 

(77.) — The boiler of an agricultural engine exploded, February 5. on the 
Frank Clay farm, near Quincy, Ohio. Four men were badly injured, and a barn 
was destroyed by fire. 

(78-) — A tube failed, February 7, in a water-tube boiler at the South 
Works of the Illinois Steel Co., South Chicago, 111. 

(79-) —On February 7 a boiler exploded in the lumber and spoke mill of 
J. Ezra Thomas, at Thomastown, near Scottsburg, Ind. One man was fatally 
injured, one was injured badly but probably not fatally, and some four others 
received lesser injuries. 

(80.)— A tube burst, February 7, in a heating boiler at the Lee avenue 
police station, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

(81.) — On February 9 a steam drying cylinder exploded in the Frost 
Finishing Co.'s factory, West Harrington, R. I. Two men were seriously injured. 

(82.) —A heating boiler exploded, February 9, in the Y. M. C. A. building, 
Knoxville, Tenn. One person was severely injured. 

(83.) —A tube ruptured, February 10, in a water-tube boiler in the Congress 
Hotel, Chicago, 111. Two men were killed. 

(84.) — On February 10 a heater exploded in the Fairchild & Shelton Co.'s 
soap factory, Bridgeport, Conn. One man was killed. 

(85) — A boiler exploded, February 10, in L. I. Princing & Son's sawmill, 
near Crump. 22 miles northwest of Bay City, Mich. Seven men were killed, 
and six other persons were injured, of whom it was thought one would die. 
The mill was completely wrecked, as was also the neighboring residence of Mr. 
Princing. 



46 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [April, 



(86.) — A boiler exploded, February lo, in a sawmill on Shelton Laurel 
creek, in Madison county, near Marshall, N. C. One man was killed and several 
others were badly injured. 

(87.) — 'On February 11 the furnace of a locomotive partially collapsed on 
the St. Joseph Valley railway, at La Grange, Ind. 

(88.) — A boiler exploded, February 11, at the Snow Hill mine, at Roscoe, 
near Monongahela, Pa. One man was injured. 

(89.) — A heating boiler exploded, February 11, in the Dearborn-Morgan 
school, Orange, N. J. No pupils were present at the time. 

(90.) — A tube ruptured, February 12, in a water-tube boiler at the Ohio 
Electric Railway Co.'s power plant, Medway, Ohio. 

(91.) — 'On February 12 a boiler exploded in James Hasey's grist mill, at 
Hardiman, four miles from Campton, Ky. Two men were killed, and four 
others (one of whom will die) were injured. 

(92.) — A boiler exploded, February 13, in the oil fields at Robinson, 111. 
One person was killed. 

(93.) — The boiler of a steam heating plant exploded, February 13, in Mrs. 
Mary C. Struve's residence, Huntsville, Ala. Two men were severely injured, 
and the house was badly wrecked. 

(94.) — A tube ruptured, February 14, in a water-tube boiler at the Lacka- 
wanna Steel Co.'s plant, Lackawanna, N. Y. 

(95.) — A hot-water heating boiler exploded, February 14, in H. Bernhart's 
residence, Reading, Pa. 

(96.) — A boiler tube ruptured, February 14, on the United States torpedo- 
boat destroyer Hopkins, in the harbor of San Diego, Cal. Fireman R. E. Taylor 
was scalded to death, and six other men were badly injured. It was thought 
that one of the injured could not recover. (This accident occurred close to the 
place where the terrible explosion on the gunboat Bennington took place, on 
July 21, 1905. Compare explosion No. 144, page 48.) 

(97.) — On February 15 a boiler exploded in the Harrison & Shraner grist 
mill. Tell City, Ind. Four men were seriously injured. 

(98.) — A heating boiler burst, February 16, in a public school building at 
Middlesboro, Ky. 

(99-) — A main stop valve failed, February 17, in the Washington Ice Co.'s 
plant. New Orleans, La. 

(100.) — A boiler used for heating a Pullman tourist car exploded, February 
17, in the Big Four railroad yards, Cincinnati, Ohio. The property loss was 
estimated at $1,000. 

(loi.) — ^A boiler belonging to Ward & Grisham exploded, February 17, at 
Ironton, Mo. Two men were killed and one severely injured. 

(102.) — 'The Voelkner & Harry Manufacturing Co.'s plant, Detroit, Mich., 
was partially destroyed, February 18, by a fire that was said to have been 
started by a boiler explosion in the basement. 

(103.) — The boiler of switching locomotive No. 339, on the Frisco road, 
exploded, February 18, near Joplin, Mo. Two men were killed and one fatally 
injured. 

(104.) — The boiler of a Reading railroad locomotive exploded, February 
19, at New Hope, Pa. 

(105.) — The boiler of a Pennsylvania railroad locomotive exploded, Febru- 
ary 19, at Lambertsville, N. J 



I9IO.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 47 



(io6.) — On February 20 a drum fractured on a water-tube boiler at the 
Summit Branch Coal Mining Co.'s plant, VVilliamstown, Pa. 

(107.) — A boiler exploded, February 21, at the East Side coal mines, at 
Equality, near Shawneetown, 111. Two men were killed. 

(108.) — A boiler flue burst, February 21, at the Scranton Gas & Water 
Co.'s plant, Scranton, Pa. One person was killed. 

(109.) — A blowofF pipe failed, February 21, in the Major & Loomis Co.'s 
saw and planing mill, Hertford, N. C. One man was injured. 

(no.) — A blowoff pipe failed, February 22, at the American Lead Pencil 
Co.'s plant, Murfreesboro, Tenn. Four men were scalded. 

(in.) — On February 23 a boiler exploded at the Stanley Motor Carriage 
Works, Newton, Mass. 

(112.) — A blowoff pipe failed, February 23. at the tannery of Thomas A. 
O'Keefe, and M. J. O'Keefe, Peabody, Mass. One man was injured. 

(113.) — On February 23 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the 
Camden Coke Works of the Public Service Corporation of New Jersey, Camden, 
N. J. One man was injured. 

(114.) — On February 24 the boiler of a locomotive exploded two miles 
north of Tremonton, near Ogden, Utah. Two men were injured. 

(115.) — On February' 25 the crown sheet of a locomotive collapsed at the 
logging camp of the Interstate Lumber Co., Columbus. Miss. 

(116.) — On February 27 a hot-water heater ruptured at Bridgeport, Conn. 
It was connected with engine No. 7 of the city fire department. 

(117.) — A cast-iron header ruptured, February 27, in a 'water-tube boiler 
in the hotel building belonging to the estate of John Plankinton, at Milwaukee, 
Wis. 

March, 1910. 

(118.) — On IMarch i, a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the Portage 
Coal ^Mining Co.'s plant, Portage, Pa. One man was injured. 

(iig.) — The boiler of a freight locomotive exploded, March i, at Lincoln, 
Neb. 

(120.) — A flue ruptured, March i, in a boiler at the City Hall, Milwaukee, 
Wis. One man was severely scalded. 

(121.) — A boiler exploded. March 3, in the oil fields near Tiffin, Ohio. 

(122.) — A boiler exploded, March 4, at the Poll Hill mica mine, near 
Newdale, N. C. Two men were killed and another was seriously injured. 

(123.) — -A tube ruptured, March 5, in a water-tube boiler at the Toledo 
Furnace Co. plant of the Pickands-Mather Co., Toledo, Ohio. 

(124.) — A tube ruptured, March 6, in a water-tube boiler in the Baltic 
Mining Co.'s stamp mill, Redridge, Mich. 

(125.) — On March 7 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler in the Illinois 
Maintenance Co.'s office building, Chicago, 111. Three men were scalded. 

(126.) — 'The boiler of an Oregon Railway & Navigation Co. locomotive 
exploded, March 8, at Whitman station, near Walla Walla, Wash. Nine persons 
were severely injured. 

(127.) — The boiler of a freight locomotive exploded, March 8, on the St. 
Louis & San Francisco railroad, near Hoxie, Ark. Three men were killed. 

(128.) — A heating boiler exploded, March 10, in the parish house of the 
Church of the Annunciation, Chicago, 111. Property loss about $1,500. 



48 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [April, 

(129.) — A tank used for the storage of compressed air exploded, March 11, 
at the Herald mine, Cave Springs, Mo. Loss about $400. 

(130.) — Six cast-iron headers fractured, March 12, in a water-tube boiler 
at the Cass avenue plant of the Pressed Steel Car Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 

(131.) — A cast-iron mud drum ruptured, March 13, in a water-tube boiler 
at the power house of the Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Co., 
Terre Haute, Ind. 

(132.) — 'A boiler exploded, March 14, on the towboat R. L. Auhrcy, off 
Arctic Springs, near Louisville, Ky. One man was killed, one is missing and 
was probably killed also, and two were fatally injured. Three other men were 
injured less severely. The Aubrey sank almost immediately. 

(133)— 'A tube ruptured, March 14, in a water-tube boiler at the Metro- 
politan West Side Elevated Railway Co's power house, Throop and Congress 
streets, Chicago, 111. 

(134.) — 'On March 15 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler in the Phila- 
delphia Rapid Transit Co.'s power plant, at Beach and Laurel streets, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

(135.) — Seven cast-iron headers fractured, March 15, in a water-tube 
boiler at the Valley Electric Co.'s plant, New Brighton, Pa. 

(136.) — 'The boiler of a donkey engine exploded, March 17, at Bordeaux, 
Mason county. Wash. Arthur Sapp's residence was demolished. 

(i37-) — 'The boiler of a sand dredge belonging to the Meierhoffer Sand 
Works exploded, March 18, at Boonville, Mo. Loss about $15,000. 

(138.) — Two' tubes ruptured, March 20, in a water-tube boiler in the 
County Court and Jail building, Greensburg, Pa. 

(139) — The boiler of a Santa Fe freight locomotive exploded March 22, 
near Bakersville, Cal. One man was killed, and one fatally injured. 

(140.) — On March 22 a tube and six headers ruptured in Swift & Co.'s 
packing plant, Kansas City, Kans. 

(141.) — -A tube ruptured, March 23, in a water-tube boiler at the Home 
Riverside Coal Co.'s No. 3 mine, Leavenworth, Kans. 

(142.) —The boiler of a basket factory, near Galesburg, Mich., exploded on 
March 2^. 

(143.) — 'A boiler exploded, j\Iarch 22,. in the Michigan Creamery Co.'s plant, 
Clare, Mich. Three men were injured, and the property loss was $6,500. 

(144.) — On March 25 several tubes, located in two different boilers, rup- 
tured on the United States torpedo-boat destroyer Hopkins, just outside the 
Golden Gate, near San Francisco, Cal. (Compare explosion No. 96, page 46. The 
Hopkins was on her return trip from San Diego and San Pedro to the Mare 
Island Navy Yard when the present explosion occurred, temporary repairs 
having been made on her boilers after the San Diego accident.) 

(145.) — 'A tube ruptured, March 28, in a water-tube boiler at the Oak 
Park Construction Co.'s power plant, Oak Park, 111. 

(146.) — On March 28 a blowoff failed in the Fred L. Sayles Co.'s woolen 
mill, Pascoag, R. I. 

(147.) — A boiler exploded, March 28, in F. L. Kister's sawmill, Bowling 
Green, Ky. One man was killed, one was fatally injured, and three were 
injured less seriously. The property loss was estimated at $1,000. 

(148.) — The boiler of freight locomotive No. 432, of the Houston & Texas 
Central railroad, exploded, March 29, near Sherman, Tex. 



igio.] THE LOCOMOTIVE 49 



Changes in our Personnel. 

Mr. F. H. Williams, Jr., who has been a special agent in our Hartford 
department for some years, has been appointed general agent in that territory, 
in the place of Mr. E. H. Warner, whose resignation we announced recently. 

Mr. F. H. Kcnyon has been appointed special agent in the Hartford 
department. 

Mr. J. P. Hagarty, who has been assistant to the chief inspector in the 
Hartford department for several years, has been appointed a special agent, 
in addition to his other duties. His time will continue to be mainly devoted 
to the engineering work in which he has heretofore been engaged. 

Mr. John L. Mee has been appointed a special agent for the company, 
and is temporarily located at the Hartford office. 

Mr. W. W. Manning has been appointed acting chief inspector in the 
New York department, in the place of Mr. R. K. IMcMurray, whose assistant 
he has been for a number of years, and whose death is announced in the 
present issue. 

Mr. S. B. Adams has been appointed assistant chief inspector in the 
Philadelphia department, with which he has long been connected, both as an 
inspector and as a special agent. 

Mr. C. H. Dennig, formerly a special agent for this company at New 
York, and later at Denver, will hereafter represent us, in the same capacity, 
at Detroit, Mich. 



A Mechanical ^Minstrel Joke. — In looking over an old number of Power, 
the other day, we came across a joke having for its victim Professor Jacobus, 
who is an acknowledged authority upon the flow of liquids through pipes, and 
upon the loss of hydraulic head due to elbows, valves, orifices, and the like. The 
joke is mellow with age. but it seems good enough to resuscitate. So here it is, 
with our apologies to the professor. 

Imagine yourself, if you please, at a minstrel show. 

■■ Dat Professor Jacobus is a nice man ", says Tambo, the end-man. 

■■ Yes ", says the interlocutor, " I think Professor Jacobus is a very nice 
man ". 

" Now, me and him was talking dis afternoon ", continues Tambo, " down 
in the bar-room ; and — " 

■'What's that?" cries the horrified interlocutor. "You were talking to 
Professor Jacobus down in the bar-room?" 

" Yassir, an' he says — " 

" But you are surely mistaken. Professor Jacobus is a very serious minded 
and sober man. He could not possibly have been down in the bar-room." 

"■ No, I ain't mistaken. He was thar all right, but he had a good right to 
be thar". 

" He had a right to be there, did he.. Well, what was Professor Jacobus 
doing in the bar-room?" 

'■ He was collecting data on the loss of head due to the flow of a liquid 
through an orifice ". 



50 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[April, 




A. D. RiSTEEN, Ph.D., Editor. 



HARTFORD, APRIL 25, 1910. 

The Locomotive can be obtained free by calling at any of the company s agencies. 
Subscription price ^o cents per year when mailed from this office. 
Bound volumes one dollar each. 




Robert Kermit McMurray. 



I9I0.J THE LOCOMOTIVE. 5^ 

Obituary. 

Robert Kekmit McMlrkay. 

We record, with profound sorrow, the death of Robert Kermit McMurray, 
who was prominently connected with the Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and 
Insurance Company for many years, and widely esteemed for his estimable 
personal qualities, and for the breadth and soundness of his professional attain- 
ments. He was born in Brooklyn, New York, on February 23, 1837, and died in 
that city, of pneumonia, on March 8, 1910. He was ill only a few days, and 
was at his desk on ^Nlarch 2. 

Mr. McMurray was a veteran of the Civil War. He enlisted in the 
Thirteenth Regiment, New York Engineers, on April 21, 1861, and was assigned 
almost immediately, by General Benjamin F. Butler, to the construction of the 
first military railroad of the United States. This extended from the wharves 
of the military academy at Annapolis. Maryland, to a point two miles distant, 
where it made a junction with the Elk Ridge railroad. In the execution of the 
work he was put in command of three thousand troops, and in four days he 
surveyed and leveled the road-bed, superintended the construction of the road 
itself, and ran the first train over it. For this service he was commended by 
the War Department, and also honored by the Secretary of War, who wrote 
him a personal letter of thanks. 

On May 26, 1862, Mr. IMcMurray was promoted to the rank of lieutenant 
of Company F, of the Thirteenth Regiment of New York Volunteers, and in 
the same year he was in several skirmishes near Sufifolk and Black Water, 
Virginia. He was discharged from the service on July 21, 1863, his term of 
enlistment having expired. 

On December 24, 1867, he entered the service of the Hartford Steam Boiler 
Inspection and Insurance Company, and served continuously from that date 
until the day of his death, as Chief Inspector of its New York department. 
His work as a designer of boilers and settings is well known, especially to the 
steam-using public of New York and New Jersey. He was one of the pioneers 
in the preparation of definite specifications for the construction of boilers, and 
was an early advocate of the use of steel for boiler shells. He was famous, 
too, as a designer of chimneys. The celebrated brick stack of the Clark Thread 
Company's factory, near Newark, New Jersey, was built from his designs, 
twenty years ago or more. 

He was also one of the original few who taught that steam boiler insurance 
should be primarily of a preventive character, — a principle that has guided this 
company in its development, since its earliest days. Our late president, Mr. J. M. 
Allen, continually sought his counsel in laying the foundations of our business, 
and great weight was assigned to his judgment upon all mechanical matters. 

At the time of his death Mr. McMurray was a member of the New York 
Yacht Club, of the Thirteenth Regiment Veteran's Association, of Grant Post of 
the Grand Army of the Republic, and of the Masonic Club. In the Masonic 
order he was a member of Damascus Commandery, a thirty-second degree 
Scottish Rite Mason, and a member of Kismet Temple of the Mystic Shrine. 

It is impossible to estimate the value of the services that Mr. McINIurray 
has rendered to the Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company, 
with which he had been identified practically from its very start, and to whose 



52 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [April, 

interests he had given his unremitting attention for over forty years. Of his 
personal quahties it is equally impossible to speak with justice. As a token of 
the respect and affection that he had inspired throughout his long term of service, 
a complimentary dinner was given to him in New York, on February 22, 1906, 
by his associates, in celebration of his sixty-ninth birthday. He there received 
the honorary title of " Dean of Steam Boiler Inspection ", which fittingly 
expresses the light in which his co-workers had long regarded him. In his 
death this company has met with a great loss. His personal and professional 
influence will be felt and remembered for many years. 



The article in our issue for January, 1909, respecting the terrible boiler 
explosion on the Sultana, in 1865, aroused much interest. Mr. S. M. Gaston, 
one of the few living survivors, has since given us some further particulars 
concerning it, calling our attention, at the same time, to a letter written on 
the subject by him, and published in Power for May, 1897, page 17. It appears 
that the Sultana, arriving at Memphis on the afternoon preceding the explosion, 
stopped there and discharged her cargo of sugar. She then crossed the river and 
took on a supply of coal, after which she proceeded on her way up the river 
toward Cairo, 111. Except for these few additional details, the story of the 
explosion is as we told it. 

There is a legend to the effect that the late Samuel L. Clemens (" Mark 
Twain") was pilot, or assistant pilot, on the Luminary, which preceded the 
Sultana up the river ; but this was not the case, because Mr. Clemens, although 
he had been a pilot, left the river when the breaking out of the Civil War 
interrupted traffic there, and, as related in his Life on the Mississipfi, he did not 
return to it again for twenty years. A letter addressed by us to Mr. Clemens, 
asking for a definite assurance on this point, brought back the reply that on the 
date of the e.xplosion of the Sultana he was at San Francisco, California. 



Robert Fulton or John Fitch? 

Since the article with this heading was printed in the issue of The 
Locomotive for October, 1909, our attention has been called to the second 
volume of " The Documentary History of the State of New York ", which was 
printed at Albany, N. Y., in 1850, and edited by F. B. O'Callaghan, " under 
direction of the Hon. Christopher Morgan, Secretary of State". 

A portion of this volume is devoted to the question of priority in the inven- 
tion of the steamboat, so far as it relates to the rival claims of Rumsey and 
Fitch. It reprints in full, for example, " A Short Treatise on the Application 
of Steam, etc. ; by James Rumsey, of Berkely County, Virginia". This was 
originally printed in Philadelphia in 1788, and is an attempt, on the part of 
Rumsey, to establish his claim to the invention of the steamboat. The work 
before us also gives, in full, Fitch's " The Original Steam-Boat Supported ; Or, 
\ Reply to Mr. James Rumsey's Pamphlet". This was also printed originally 
in Philadelphia, in 1788. 

As there are now few historians who put forth any claim to priority on 



igio.] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



53 



Rumsey's behalf, we have not thought it necessary to give any extracts from 
either of the pamphlets noted above. The "Documentary History", contains, 
however, a lithographed sheet about 20 inches long and 16 wide, prepared by 
John Ilutchiiigs and dated 1846, which has a direct and (as it appears to us) 
a very important bearing upon the question of priority between John Fitch and 
Robert Fulton, l-'or this reason we have thought that it would be of interest 
to reproduce the contents of the sheet, and this we do, below, following the 
original faithfully, even to the spelling, which is here and there somewhat 
erratic, particularly where a certificate of Hatchings' "voracity" is given. 



usfeNARO sr 



^^-"-'^nCH- 




iCHAMBcn ST. 



MrJIKlUN ST 






-JU^JT. 



54 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[AlRIL, 



At the top of the sheet are the following title and introduction : 

" ' Honor to Whom Honor is Due '. 
" Origin of Steam Navigation. 
" A View of Collect Pond and its Vicinity 
in the City of New York in 1793. 
" On which Pond the first boat, propelled by steam with paddle 
wheels or screw propellers was constructed by John Fitch, 
six years before Robert Fulton made trial of his boat upon the 
River Seine, in France, and ten years prior to his putting 
into opperation his boat Clermont in New York; with a repre- 
sentation of the boat and its machinery, on the Collect pond. 
" By John Hutchings, 
"No. 2 Wesley Place, IVilliamsburg, L. Island. 
" 1846." 

Then follow the data given below. The arrangement of the sheet is not 
very logical, and the story is not as consecutive as it might have been made ; 



John Fitch's First Boat Perseverance 




AS SEEN ON THE DELAWARE PhILA. I787. SpEED J MILES AN HOUR. 



but we should be grateful to Mr. Hutchings for the facts that he has given us, 
rather than critical respecting his imperfect literary style. 

"John Fitch was born in Conn. 21th of June 1743. First we find him a 
farmers boy, next an apprentice to a Watch-maker, then in a store at Trenton 
N.J. with a stock valued at 3000 dolls, all of which was destroyed, when the 
British took Trenton next a Lieutenant in the A. Army, taken prisoner by the 
Indians, and sold from one tribe to another through the N.W. Territory, until 
he was purchased by an Englishman and thus obtained his freedom. During 
this time he became acquainted with that part of the country of which he made 
a map, and although printed on a common Cider press it had an extenive sale. 
He was then a Surveyor in Kentucky, then a Civil Engineer in Pa. and on the 
Delaware made his first experiment of & Steam-Boat with paddles, he then left 
America, and traveled through France and England, but not meeting with the 
encouragement anticipated, became poor and returned home, working his 
passage as a common sailor to Boston, from there to his native town in Con- 
necticut, thence to New York, where he remained some time, then back to 
Kentucky where he died in 1798. 



19IO.J TflE LOCOMOTIVE. 55 

" Mr. John Hutchings 
Sir 

I have a perfect recollection of having seen a Boat on the Collect Pond in 
this City with a screw Propeller in the Stern driven by Steam accross the Pond. 
I do not recollect the year but I am certain that it was as early as 1796, it was 
about the size of a Ships yawl. 

I am Sir Respectfully 
yours &c. 
"New York, July 3(1, 1846. Anthony Lamb. 

Residence, Albion Place, 
City N. York. 



"This is to Certify, that we have Personally known Mr. John Hutchings of 
the Village of \Villianisl)urg for the last Forty years past, and have the utmost 
confidence in him for truth and voracity. New York, Octr. loth 1846. 

RiCH.ARD L.\VCR.\FT. M.\TT O. HaLSTED 

Residence 178 Franklin st. City N. Y. Senior Partner of the Firm of Halsted, 
was a member of the first Methodist Hains & Co. No. 31 Nassau At. N. Y. 
Class in the City of N. Y. and has Family Residence Orange N. Jersey. 
been a Respectable member of the 
M. E Church from its commencement 
in the U. S. 

New York, July 3th, 1846. 
"To Mr. John Hutchings 
Dear Sir, 

It affords me much pleasure, to state : that I was an eye witness to the 
circumstance of a Boat, being propelled be Steam on the Collect Pond in this 
City about the Year 1796 as exhibited on your Map and that I have a perfect 
recollection of all these localities as there shewn, and you are perfectly welcome 
to use my name in connection with it. 

Yours, 

Wm. H. ]\Iietlock* 

Citv Survevor. 



" State of New York 

City and County of New York Ss. 
John Hutchings of Williamsburgh L. I. being duly Sworn deposeth and 
saith that the facts set forth in the foregoing remarks and description by him, 
subscribed are correct to the best of this deponents remembrance and belief 

John Hutchings 
" Sworn before me, this First day 
of December 1846. 

Thomas S. Henny 

Com. of Deeds &c. 

" S. S. 1797. 8 When his health would allow of moderate exercise, he wrought 
upon a model Boat about three feet in length, at the shop of Mr. Howell Its 
machinery was constructed of brass. This model Boat had wheels, and has been 
seen floating in a small stream near the Village by persons now living. It was 
burnt in Mr. Cown's tavern in 1805 Nelson Co. Kentucky. 
(Spark's American Biosrraphy) 
New Series Vol. VI. 

* [The signatures on the sheet are fac similes of the orieinals, and there is some doubt if 
this name is Mietlock, as it is hard to decipher.— .fiViV^r The Locomotive.] 



56 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[April, 



" REMARKS. In the Summer of 1796 or 7 Mr. Hutchings, then a lad, 
assisted Mr. Fitch in steering the boat, and otherwise attending to the working 
of the Machinery. At that time Robert R. Livingston Esq. and Robert Fulton 
with Mr. Fitch and the lad Hutchings, worked or passed several times around 
the pond on different occassions, white Mr. Fitch explained to Livingston & 
Fulton the Modus-Operandi of the Machinery Mr. Fitch having a patent for his 
invention from the State of N. Y. I believe Mr. Fitch to have been the 
original inventor of the application of steam to boats as a propelling power and 
likewise, the two persons represented in the drawing (dressed in black) to have 
been Robert R. Livingston Esq. and Robert Fulton. I being a lad had conver- 
sation only with Mr. Fitch. From hearsay, I believe Colonel Stevens of 
Hoboken, N. Jersey, and another person by the name of Rosevelt had some 
knowledge of the enterprise and felt an interest in its success. In conversation 
Mr. Fitch remarked to Mr. Fulton that in a former experiment paddle wheels 
splashed too much and could not be used in Canal Navigation. No one in that 
time, thought of having them covered with boxes. They had no doubt, but the 
boat might be propelled 6 Miles per hour, (though then making something less.) 
The steam was sufficiently high to propel the boat once, twice or thrice around 




the pond, when more water being introduced into the boiler (or pot) and Steam 
generated She was again ready to start on another expedition — 

" DESCRIPTION. The boat was a common long boat, or Yawl about 18 ft. 
in length and 6 ft. beam, with square stern, and round bows, with seats. She 
was steered at the bow with a small oar when the propeller was used. 

" The boiler was a 10 or 12 gallon iron pot, with a lid of thick plank, firmly 
fa.«tened to it by an iron bar, placed transversely. The Cylinders were of wood, 
barrel shaped on the outside and straight on the inside, strongly hooped. The 
main steam pipe led directly from the boiler top into a copper box, (about 6 
inches square) receiver, or valve box. The leading pipes led seperately into the 
bottom or base (The one short cylinder F and longer one E) seperate cylinders 
and each piston rod was attached to the extremities of the working beam. This 
beam was supported by an iron upright, the connecting rod was so arranged as 
to turn the crank of the propelling shaft which passed horrizontally through the 
stern of the boat and was made fast to the propeller or screw as at L. The 
valves were worked by a simple contrivance attached likewise to the working 
beam as will be easily seen and understood by refTerence to the attached 
perspective drawings — 



i9ioJ THE LOCOMOTIVE. 57 



"Aj Boiler. B, Maine pipe. C, Valve box. D, Smoke pipe. E, Cylinder 
f, do. (J, Supporter of beam. /, Conneeting rod. J, Valve rod. A', Crank. 
L, Serew propeller. No. I, Mr. Fitch, 2, Mr. I'ulton, 3, R. R. Livingston Esq. 
4, Lad Hutchings. 

" The boat, together with a portion of its machinery was abandoned, by 
Mr. Fitch, and left to decay on the muddy shore of the Collect Pond and was 
carried away piece by piece by the children of the neighbourhood for fuel. In 
the .Autumn Mr. Fitch left New-York for Kentucky, being forced to go by his 
pecuniary and domestic troubles. Having made his last successful effort, to 
succeed in this glorious enterprise of Steam Navigation. 

"John Fitch died in Kentucky in the year 1798, and if he or R. Fulton had 
written their own history, I have no doubt, either one or both of them would 
have left some account of the transaction as related here by me, but finding no 
account of it in the history of either, I have given as e.xact an account of it as 
I possibly can. Having often spoken of it, I do betieve my memory to be 
perfectly correct, li his country had furnished. J. Fitch the means, we should 
have been blessed with Steam Navigation, ten or fifteen years sooner that we 
were 

"John Hutchings. 

"The progress of Steam Navigation from that date to the present period is 
such that nearly all Navigable waters on the face of the Globe have Steam boats 
on them, thus fulfilling Fitch's prediction in a letter to Franklin dated Oct. 12th, 

1785. 

"Charles Brownne built the Clermont for Livingston & Fulton in 1806 and 
the machinery came from England. James P. Allaire who is now, and has been 
manufacturing machinery for Steam boats, did the brass and ornamental Work 
for the Boat, as I was repeatedly on board the boat and Fulton was present and 
I then believed him to be the same man that was with us on the Collect in 1796 
or 97. The Clermont left the wharf at Corlears Hook & made in speed from 4 
to 5 miles an hour 1807. 

" The World is indebted for the original idea and to the mechanical genius 
of JOHN FITCH, of East Windsor, Conn. 

" And to the perseverance and indefatigable attention to the use of Steam 
of Robert Fulton Esq. Pa. The wealth & exalted character of Robert R. 
Livingston Esq. Chancellor of the State of New York. 

" Entered according to act of Congress in the year 1846 by JOHN 
HUTCHINGS in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Southern 
District of N. Y. 

" Census of the City New York 
Periods. 

1697 . . . 4305 1820 . . . 123000 

1699 . . . 6000 1825 . . . 166088 

1756 . . . 13040 1830 . . . 203005 

1771 • • . 21865 1835 • • . 259873 

1790 . . . 33231 1840 . . . 3 127 ID 

1800 . . . 60000 1845 . . 371702 " 

1810 . . . 96373 



58 



THE LOCOMOTIVE, 



[ArRiL, 



The illustration showing Fulton and Fitch on the boat has no cut line 
under it in the original, and is placed in the upper left hand corner of the sheet. 
The one with the tiag and pennant flying has the cut line here given and stands 
in the upper right hand corner of the sheet. The map occupies the center of the 
sheet, and has no cut line. The census ligures and the little cut of the Bardstown 
boat are placed below the map, the cut just to the right of the center line of the 
sheet, and the figures just to the left, so that the two balance each other. The 
cut line under the small illustration is as here given. 

The Collect pond was filled up in 1817, and about 1840 the Tombs prison 
was erected on the square bounded by Elm, Leonard, Center, and Franklin 
streets, occupying the entire block. Li the map before us this square is marked 
" Halls of Justice ", from which we infer that in 1846 the criminal courts were 
held in the Tombs building. A few years ago the New Criminal Courts build- 
ing was erected on the square immediately north of the Tombs, and communica- 
tion between the two squares is afforded by a covered bridge spanning Leonard 

the " Bridge of Sighs ". The middle of the 
pond was on the north side of Leonard street, 
just west of Center. Quite recently the New 
Criminal Courts building settled and devel- 
oped numerous cracks, so that it was con- 
sidered to be in a dangerous condition. A 
glance at the accompanying map will show 
that the ground upon which it stands was 
formerly a bog, bordering on the north edge 
The Model Boat of the Collect pond ; and it will also be seen 

AT Bardstown, 1797-8. that the pond itself was sixty feet deep. 

The most striking part of jNIr. Hutchings' contribution is his testimony, 
given under oath and wath no hope of personal reward, to the eflfect that Fulton 
and Livingston were actual passengers on Fitch's 'boat, on the Collect. This, 
taken in connection with the fact that Fulton lived in Philadelphia when Fitch 
was operating his boat there, and that Fulton afterwards had possession of all 
of Fitch's plans and specifications for several months*, would seem to throw 
the entire burden of proof upon whoever claims priority for Fulton. On the 
face of things, he appears to have no reasonable ground whatever for such a 
claim. 



street, which is locally known 




Ix our issue for January, 1910, we took occasion to remark upon a 
certain article that was printed in the Practical Engineer, of Chicago, and 
which, in substance, was an abstract of two that had appeared in The 
Locomotive. Our objection to the article lay in the fact that no credit was 
given to us for the matter that was thus taken from our pages. Since our 
remarks were printed, we have received from the managing editor of the 
Practical Engineer, assurances which abundantly satisfy us that the dis- 
courtesy was offered entirely without his knowledge or approval ; and we 
therefore desire to offer to him and to his paper the apology that is due, and to 
express our regret with respect to the entire incident. 
r*See The Locomotive for October, igog, page 250.] 



iQio] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 59 



Selling Second-hand Boilers. 

Engineers are concerned more or less with the clastic properties of materials. 
From gage glasses possessing little elasticity to rubljer packing rings possessing 
a great deal, the range is very considerable. The elastic qnalities of many of 
the materials and things that lie within these limits arc interesting, but none is 
more inexplicable or harder to understand than the elasticity of the conscience 
of the average steam user when he wishes to sell a second-hand boiler. He 
may be a pillar in the community, and a most conscientious man in all other 
business transactions, but when it comes to disposing of a second-hand boiler, 
he seems to take, as it were, a moral holiday, and lets what is unscrupulous in 
him, and hidden from sight under ordinary conditions, run riot until the boiler 
is sold. 

We should expect such a man to say: " Here is a boiler that has been con- 
demned, and because it is not good enough for me, it is not good enough for you, 
and it is valuable only as scrap, and I will accept no greater amount than that 
which its weight justifies; and I have further caused the word 'Condemned' to 
be stenciled on the front head, so that no unsuspecting person may be led to 
use this boiler as a steam generator, and thus endanger his life and property and 
the lives of others." But does he do this? No. He gives the boiler a nice coat 
of thick tar paint and chuckles at his shrewdness as he palms it of? on an un- 
suspecting public. 

Just as all horses offered for sale are three years old, so all second-hand 
boilers are offered for sale because the plant has out-grown them, and they 
are now too small for the work. Possibly this may be the case, and it is also 
possible that the thick coat of tar paint which is invariably given the boiler 
when it is oflfered for sale may be in the nature of an affectionate testimonial 
on the part of the owner in behalf of the good service the boiler has rendered 
in the past; it may be merely a natural pride in having the object which he 
offers for sale appear at its best, but we doubt it. 

If a factory closes down permanently, and the whole plant is sold piece- 
meal, then one would be justified in assuming that the boilers offered for sale 
were in as good condition as the length of time they had been in service would 
warrant, and in such a case one can expect to pay a reasonable price, and not to 
get a great bargain ; but it is seldom that a large plant is abandoned and the 
machinery sold in this manner, and generally when a second-hand boiler is 
offered for sale by a concern still in operation, it is because that boiler is no 
good. — Power. 

[There is much in the foregoing article that prospective purchasers should 
bear in mind. Yet there are some honest sellers of second-hand boilers, just 
as there are some honest plumbers. A boiler may be sold, for example, because 
it is not considered to be safe at the pressure that the seller finds it necessary 
to carry; but this need not of necessity signify that it would be dangerous at a 
lower pressure, such as might suffice for the man who is to buy it. Yet buying 
a second-hand boiler is a good deal like buying a pig in a poke, unless the said 
boiler has a certificate of good character from some competent inspector who has 
known it in its better days.— Editor The Locomotive.] 



60 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [April^ 

Water-Back and Kitchen Boiler Explosions. 

In our regular lists of boiler explosions we do not include explosions of 
water-backs connected with kitchen ranges, nor do we include kitchen boilers 
of any kind, unless it appears that they were of a size or design that would 
fairly entitle them to be classed as something more than ordinary domestic 
tanks. Kitchen boilers and water-backs frequently explode, however, and ofteru 
with serious consequences. A number of cases of this sort have come to our 
attention since the first of the year, although we make no effort to collect data 
regarding them. A few examples are given below. 

January 5, 1910. A hot-water boiler attached to a kitchen range exploded, 
in a dwelling house at 327 Sip avenue, Jersey City Heights, N. J. The explo- 
sion was doubtless due to the freezing of the water-pipe between the tank and 
the city main. Live coals were scattered about by the explosion, and fire 
ensued, with a resulting property damage estimated at $200. 

January 5. A hot-water boiler exploded at 240 Main street, Everett, Mass., 
injuring Mrs. Esther Williams. The accident was due to the freezing of the: 
water-pipe 

January 5. An accident of almost identically the same nature occurred at 
83 Birch street, Roslindale, Mass., injuring Mrs. Catherine Hastings. 

January 13. During the course of a fire, a kitchen boiler exploded in the 
residence of Albert Wood, 3224 Pierce street, San Francisco, Calif. In this- 
case the explosion appears to have been the result of the fire, and not its cause. 

February 7. A hot-water boiler exploded in the kitchen of the Memorial 
Hospital, Morristown, N. J. Jennie Hendershot and two other employees were 
seriously burned. Windows, doors, and walls were shattered. The kitchen and 
its contents were wrecked, and adjoining rooms were much damaged. The 
force of the explosion may be inferred from the fact that an opening was blowa 
through a twelve-inch brick wall. The property loss was estimated at fromi 
$3,000 to $4,000, and the probable cause of the explosion is not stated. 

February 7. A water-back exploded in the cooking range of the Tiffin? 
Dining Club, 114 State street, Boston, Mass., setting fire to the place, with a. 
resulting loss estimated at $35,000. The explosion is said to have been caused 
by the freezing of the water-pipe. 

February 7. A hot-water boiler, or tank, exploded in Max Herzka's 
restaurant. West Twenty-eighth street. New York City. Mr. and Mrs. Herzka 
and Mary Phillips were badly burned, and it was thought that Mrs. Herzka 
could not recover. The restaurant was badly damaged, and the wreckage took 
fire, the total property loss being estimated at $5,000. The accident was said 
to be due to the freezing of the water-pipe. 

February 10. A water-back exploded in A. E. Miller's residence, Hinton,. 
W. Va. The stove was completely demolished and a number of windows were 
broken. The accident was attributed to the freezing of the water-pipe. 

February 24. A boiler attached to a gas range exploded in the residence 
of Luther D. Wishard, 175 South Mountain avenue, Montclair, N. J. Miss- 
Janet Wishard, Laura Green, and Kate Dawson were seriously injured, and it 
was considered doubtful if any of them could recover. The kitchen was 
wrecked. We have seen no estimate of the property loss, nor any statement 
as to the probable cause of the accident. 



igio.] THE LOCOMOTIVE g^ 



It will be noted that the reason assigned for the explosion in most of these 
cases is the freezing of the supply pipe, or feed pipe, extending from the boiler 
or the water-back to the city or town main. A word of explanation in regard 
to this may not be amiss. Kitchen boilers in this country rarely are provided 
with safety valves, though such valves are in common use, we arc informed, 
in England. When the heating arrangements are operating as they are intended 
to operate, the pipe by which the boiler or water-back is supplied with water 
is freely open, and hence the pressure in the boiler cannot exceed that in the 
city main. If the water in the boiler is expanded by being warmed, or if the 
fires are run so vigorously as to generate steam, a portion of the water in the 
boiler merely backs out into the water main, and there is no increase of 
pressure. 

If, on the other hand, the feed pipe through which water is introduced into 
the boiler becomes sealed by freezing, then the boiler or water-back has no 
means of relieving itself, and the expansion of the water by heat is attended 
by the development of a considerable pressure; and the formation of steam, if 
it occurs, may easily cause the boiler or the water-back to explode violently. 

It will be seen, therefore, that it is highly important, before building a fire 
in a cold house where the range has a water-back, to assure one's self that the 
feed pipe is not frozen. This may easily be done by opening the faucet at the 
kitchen sink, through which hot water is drawn when the range is operating 
normally. If there is a free flow from it, we may be assured that the supply 
pipe is not frozen. There may, of course, be a temporary flow, with but little 
force, due to the head or pressure already in the pipes in the house; but any 
flow due to this cause will quickly cease, and the cessation must be interpreted 
as a danger signal. 

Stoppage of the supply pipe from any cause other than freezing will of 
course have a result similar in all respects to that due to the actual freezing. 
For example, every house has a " shut-off " valve on its water system, this 
being usually located where the pipe enters the building, in the basement. If 
this valve is closed for any reason, the free communication between the boiler 
and the mains is thereby interrupted, and an explosion upon building a fire in 
thp range is the probable result. In addition to the general " shut off " in the 
basement, a valve is sometimes placed upon the hot-water pipe near the kitchen 
range, on the street side of the range and its boiler, so that the entire hot water 
system may be isolated without shutting off the cold water supply from the 
rest of the house. Valves of this sort constantly invite trouble. They are 
intended for use only in case of leakage developing about the boiler or the 
piping, and they should never be closed except in real emergencies ; and when 
they are closed, a faucet somewhere on the hot-water system should be opened 
at the same time, so that the boiler may be relieved of pressure in case the 
fire in the range generates steam in the water-back. It is safest to fasten these 
emergency valves in the open position by wiring their wheels, so that they 
cannot be accidentally closed ; and if this cannot be done conveniently, the 
valves should be provided with tags warning the would-be operator not to 
close them. 

In houses in which the tenants use a basement laundry in common, valves 
are almost invariably provided upon the hot water systems in the several 
kitchens ; but these should always be put between the boiler and the laundry 



62 THE LOCOMOTIVE [April. 

tubs, and never between the boiler and the city main. In fact, they always are 
so placed, except by gross error on the part of the pipe-fitter ; for if they are 
placed on the wrong side of the boiler they will not only shut off communica- 
tion with the laundry, but will also (when closed) make it impossible to draw 
hot water even at the kitchen sink. 

In some cases check valves are placed between the street main and the 
boiler, to prevent hot water from backing out through the water meter in event 
of the generation of steam. This, of course, is a dangerous practice, since, as 
we have already sufficiently explained, the safety of the whole place depends 
upon permitting the water to back out freely in this manner ; and it is far 
more important to protect the building and its inmates than it is to protect the 
water meter. Moreover, the water meter may be adequately protected in a 
much better way, — namety, by placing a cold-water tank of generous capacity 
between the boiler and the main, and locating the meter on the street side of 
this tank. Hot water from the boiler will then back out into the intermediate 
tank, thereb}' displacing cold water from the tank out through the meter. 

That the placing of a check valve upon the water-pipe between the boiler 
and the main is a real source of danger, was abundantly shown in the issue 
of The Locomotive for December, 1903, where an explosion due to this cause 
is illustrated and described. 

Returning to the matter of frozen pipes, it should be borne in mind that 
the test proposed above, of trying the hot-water faucet before building a fire, 
will not detect stoppage of the pipes between the water-back and the boiler. 
If both the pipes connecting these two are frozen solidly, the water-back will 
be thereby shut off from communication with the boiler, while the boiler itself 
may yet be in free communication with the city main. Building a fire in the 
range will then be very likely to cause a disastrous explosion of the water- 
back, although no harm would come to the boiler. To prevent an accident of 
this kind, judgment must be exercised. If it is known, for example, that the 
kitchen has been less cold than the pipes have been elsewhere, it may be reason- 
ably inferred that the water-back is not frozen, provided the rest of the pipes 
are free. If there is any doubt, no fire should be built in the range until the 
kitchen has been heated by other means (say by gas or by lamps or by warm 
air from other rooms) to a temperature well above the freezing point (32° 
Fahr.), for a considerable time. 

A frozen water-back may also be thawed out without danger by keeping a 
very light fire of paper or shavings in the range, provided care is taken to 
prevent the range from becoming more than moderately warm in the region of 
the water-back. We have some hesitation in making this suggestion, however, 
because if the operation is not carried out intelligently, it may lead to the very 
result that it is designed to prevent. The running of such a light fire, for thaw- 
ing the water-back, should certainly not be entrusted to an ordinary domestic 
servant. 



There is a slight but unimportant error on page 253 of the issue of The 
Locomotive for October, 1909, in the article entitled " Robert Fulton or John 
Fitch. " The third signature should read " Luke E. Wood, Committee", — not 
" Luke E. Wood, Senate Committee ". The error arose from a misunderstand- 
ing of the official record. 



me Hartlom Steani Boiler lospeciioq aqd lusuraqce Company. 



ABSTRACT OF STATEMENT, JANUARY 1, 1910. 
Capital Stock, . . . $1,000,000.00. 

ASSETS. 

Cash on hand and in course of transmission, .... $154,845.83 

Premiums in course of collection 228,048.46 

Real estate, 93,600.00 

Loaned on bond and mortgage, 1.107,060.00 

Stocks and bonds, market value, 3,063,476.00 

Interest accrued 67.580.50 



Total Assets, $4,714,610.79 



LIABILITIES. 

Re-insurance Reserve, 

Losses unadjusted, 

Commissions and brokerage, 

Other liabilities (taxes accrued, etc.). 

Capital Stock, 

Surplus, 

Surplus as regards Policy-holders, 

Total Liabilities, .... 



$1,943,732.29 
90,93953 
45,609.69 
41.83550 



^1,000,000.00 

1,592,493.78 



$2,592,493.78 2,592.49378 



$4,714,610.79 



On January i, 1910. The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and In- 
surance Company had 104,589 steam boilers under insurance. 



L. B. BRAINERD, President and Treasurer. 

FRANCIS B. ALLEN, Vice-President. CHAS. S. BLAKE, Secretary. 

L. F. MIDDLEBROOK, Assistant Secretary. 

W. R. C. CORSON, Assistant Secretary. 

A. S. WiCKHAM, Superintendent of Agencies. 

E. J. Murphy, 1M. E., Consulting Engineer. 

F. M. Fitch, Auditor. 

Board of directors. 



CHARLES M. BEACH, of Beach & Co., 
Hartford, Conn. 

GEORGE BURNHAM, Baldwin Locomo- 
tive Works, Philadelphia. 

PHILIP CORBIN. Prest. American Hard- 
ware Corporation, New Britain, Conn. 

ATWOOD COLLINS, Prest. Security 
Co., Hartford, Conn. 

LUCIUS F. ROBINSON, Attorney, 
Hartford, Conn. 

JOHN O. ENDERS, U. S. Bank, Hart- 
ford, Conn. 

LYMAN B. BRAINERD, Director, Swift 
& Company. 

MORGAN b' BRAINARD, Treasurer 
JEtna Life Insurance Co. 



F. B. .A.LLEN, Vice-Prest., Hartford Steam 
Boiler Inspection and Insurance Co. 

CHARLES P. COOLEY, Vice-Prest Fi- 
delity Trust Company, Hartford, Conn. 

ARTHUR L. SHIPMAN, Attorney, Hart- 
ford. Conn. 

GEORGE C. KIMB.\LL, President Smyth 
Manufacturing Co., Hartford, Conn. 

CHARLES M. JARVIS, ist Vice-Prest., 

.American Hardware Corporation, New 

Britain, Conn. 
FRANCIS T. M.\XWELL, President. 

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Vol. XXVIII. HARTFORD, CONN., JULY 25, 1910. 



No. 3. 



Watep-Hammer Action in Steam Boilers. 

" Water-hammer action " is the action that occurs, in a steam boiler or in 
steam piping, when a mass of water is driven with a considerable velocity 
against a solid body, or against another mass of water, in such a way as to 
have its motion suddenly checked or destroyed.. Under these circumstances a 
severe momentary pressure is generated in the region where the collision occurs, 





Fig. I. — Formation of a Bubble. 

just as there is when we bring a heavy sledge 
hammer down forcibly upon an anvil. If the 
moving water strikes directly against the boiler shell, 

the pressure is also exerted directly against the shell; p The Cylindrical 

while if the moving mass is stopped by colliding Plug of Water 

with another rnass of water, the pressure arises in 

the midst of the fluid, w'here the collision occurs. In the latter case, however, 
a pressure-wave is generated in the water, and this travels forward until it 
presently comes to bear against the shell of the boiler. In either case, there- 
fore, the shell will be subjected to a shock, as the result of the sudden stoppage 
of the moving water; and under suitable conditions this shock may be very 
heavy indeed — quite sufficient, in fact, to rend the boiler in pieces. 

Conditions for the De\telop.ment of Water-Hammer Action. 

It is plain, from what has been said, that the immediate conditions for 
the development of water-hammer action are two in number, (i) Some portion 
of the water must be caused to move with a considerable speed, and (2) this 
moving mass must strike against the boiler, or against another mass of water, 
in such a way that its own speed is suddenly checked or destroyed. The pres- 
sure that is generated is only momentary, but it may be of great intensity during 
the instant that it lasts. 

The violent commotion which precedes and leads to the water-hammer 
effect cannot arise unless there are sensible differences of pressure or of tem- 
perature, within the boiler. There can be no water-hammer action, for example, 
in a boiler whose contents are everywhere at the same temperature and pressure. 



> 



QQ THE LOCOMOTIVE. [July, 

In practice we find that the action develops in undrained steam pipes when 
steam is turned into them, and in boilers that are being cut in (*) with a steam 
main that is already in communication with other boilers ; but in order to 
realize it, the conditions referred to above must be fulfilled. That is, the water 
and steam must be at different pressures, or at different temperatures. 

When a boiler is cut into a steam main, it will be the difference in pressure 
that determines the action, provided the pressure in the boiler exceeds that in 
the main ; for when we open the stop-valve imder these circumstances, the 
water in the boiler will tend to " lift," and considerable masses of it may be 
thrown against the shell, with a resultant shock that may be sufficient to produce 
rupture. 

Converse^, if the pressure in the boiler is less than that in the main, the 
action will be primarily due to the difference in temperature between the steam 
in the pipe and the water in the boiler. (This will appear later.) 

The case in which the pressure in the boiler is greater than that in the 
pipe, and the action consists in the lifting of the water, is undoubtedly the better 
understood of the two, and we shall therefore dwell, in this article, upon the 
second case, in which the pressure in the boiler is less than that in the main. 
This second case appears to be widely misunderstood by engineers in general, 
and yet it is the one that is most likely to arise in practice ; for in firing up a 
boiler that has been out of service for a time, the attendant is far more likely 
to cut it in as soon as the pressure approaches that in the main, than he is to 
wait until it is higher than that in the main. In fact, it is a more or less common 
(though highly dangerous) practice, to cut in the boiler as soon as the pressure 
comes up to within (say) ten or fifteen pounds of that prevailing in the pipe 
line at the time. 

Our attention has been called quite recently to a plant in the South, where 
the practice was, for a time, to fill up a boiler with comparatively cold water, 
and then to open its stop-valve at once, so that the steam in the main would 
assist in bringing the water up to the operating temperature. It seems incredible 
that this can be true, and the boiler still remain upon earth ; but from the 
representations that have been made to us we are forced to believe it. At all 
events the practice has been discontinued in that particular plant, on account 
of certain emphatic counsel given by our inspector. The superintendent of 
the plant admitted, by the way, that the boiler occasionally "jumped some "• 
while it was being warmed up. Why it didn't jump a couple of miles is a 
mystery that we cannot solve. 

The Two Points of View. 

We may look at the water-hammer problem from two different points of 
view. Thus we may ask ourselves (i) what pressure may be produced within 
a boiler by water-hammer action, or we may ask (2) what is the maximum 
mechanical work that can be performed, under given circumstances. 

The first of these questions cannot be answered with any approach to pre- 
cision, partly because we never know, in any given case, just how the water in 
the boiler is thrown about, and partly because the entire theory of impact is 
still in an imperfect state, as we have already explained at some length, in 



* For the benefit of the non-tpchrical reader, it mav be well to explain that " cuttin;? in " 
a boiler is the act of puttinsr a boiler that has been nreviouelv isolated, into full and free com- 
munication with a steam main that is already carrying the pressure from other boilers. 



I9IO.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. ^7 



the issue of The Locomotive for July, 1909. The second question can be 
definitely answered, however, since, in solving it, we do not need to know the 
exact way in which the disturbance of the water takes place. 
We shall take up these two questions in order. 

Nature ok the Disti kh.xnce in the Boiler. 

In dealing with the momentary pressure that water-hammer can produce 
in a boiler, we have, first, to go over a line of reasoning very similar to that 
given in The Locomotive for July, 1909; so that we can here treat the matt«r 
more briefly than might otherwise be permissible, referring the reader, for a 
further elucidation of the principles involved, to the articles in the issue cited. 

The steam that is discharged into the boiler from the main disturbs the 
surface of the water there, and generates waves; and the moment one of these 
waves breaks, so as to form a sort of bubble enclosing some of the steam, the 
water-hammer action begins. (See Fig. i.) For, by hypothesis, the water is 
somewhat cooler than the steam (on account of the original pressure in the 
boiler being lower than that in the main), and it follows that the steam enclosed 
within the bubble will condense, leaving a partially vacuous space there. The 
pressure acting upon the surface of the water will then close the bubble up 
almost instantly, the water that forms its upper wall being brought down against 
that which forms the bottom of it, with great speed and corresponding violence. 
The hammering action thus initiated will increase the disturbance in the water, 
and larger and larger bubbles will be formed in the same way, with the pro- 
duction of increasingly violent shocks when they collapse. 

A more concrete idea may be had of the action by considering the familiar 
operation of blowing steam into cold water from a small pipe. A bubble of 
steam forms momentarily, and is immediately condensed by the cooler water, 
the sides of the bubble coming together with a resounding crack. In the 
boiler the case is similar, save that the experiment is there performed on a 
terrible scale, with steam furnished by a battery of boilers, through a six-inch 
pipe (perhaps) instead of a quarter-inch one. and with the bubbles, quite likely 
as big as water-pails, collapsing under a pressure of 100 pounds or so, per 
square inch, instead of under simple atmospheric pressure. 

Ide.\l Case of a Cylindrical Plug of Water. 

In order to estimate the magnitude of the momentary pressure that is 
produced in the water by these sudden shocks, we proceed as follows : 

Consider first (as in our previous article of July, 1909, already cited), the 
case of a cylindrical plug of water, moving along the interior of a smooth, 
cylindrical tube which it just fills. (Sec Fig. 2.) Underneath the plug there 
is a space which is filled, at the outset, with steam fresh from the main steam 
pipe, and having, therefore, a temperature higher than that of the water in 
the boiler. Now let us suppose that the imaginary tube in which the plug 
travels is surrounded by water at the temperature that prevails in the boiler, 
and that the walls of the tube are not real walls, of metal, but that they are 
imaginary, permitting the free passage of heat, while not allowing the water 
composing the plug to flow out sidewise. 

L'nder these circumstances the steam under the plug, being surrounded by 
water cooler than itself, will partially condense. Its pressure will promptly 
fall, in fact, to the pressure corresponding to the temperature of the water. 



68 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [July, 

If we represent the pressure in the steam main by />i, and the reduced pres- 
sure below the plug by p2, and if we also assume that the sectional area of the 
plug is one square inch, we see that (as indicated in Fig. 2) the plug is subject 
to a downwardly-directed force equal to pi, and an upwardly-directed force 
equal to pi. Since pi is greater than p2, the resultant force acting on the plug 
is downward, and equal to pi — p2. In forcing the plug downward through a 
distance of V inches, so as to cause the space under it to disappear, the work 
done by the steam is therefore (^pi — pi) V inch-pounds. 

As soon as the plug strikes the water below it, a pressure is produced at 
the surface where the two come together, accompanied by a local compression 
of the water along that surface, in the vertical direction. This pressure at the 
surface of contact acts downward on the free substratum of water, and upward 
on the water-plug. The motion of the plug is arrested at this point, but the 
rear (or upper) part of the plug will continue to press forward, for a moment, 
after the front part has become stationary. So far as the pressure within the 
water is concerned, the effect will be as though there were a wave of com- 
pression transmitted through the water, traveling with the same velocity as 
sound (since sound is only a succession of compression waves). As soon as 
the wave of compression has passed back through the plug and reached its rear 
(or upper) surface, this rear surface will also become stationary, and for an 
instant the entire plug will be motionless and in a state of uniform compression. 
The compressive stress to which it is subjected at this instant, by reason of 
its own sudden loss of momentum, is, in fact, the " water-hammer pressure " 
that we are seeking to determine. 

The water below the plug will be compressed, in just the same way as is 
the water of the plug itself; and since the compression wave will have the 
same velocity, downward through the free water, as it has backward through 
the plug itself, it follows that at the moment when the pressure-wave reaches 
the back end of the plug (the length of which we will call W inches), it will 
also have penetrated the water below the plug to the same distance. Hence, 
at the instant the plug comes to rest, there will be a total volume of water under 
compression, equal to 2W cubic inches (the sectional area of the plug being one 
square inch) ; half of this being the volume of the plug itself, and the other 
half being the volume of that part of the free water which is also at the same 
time under an equal compression. 

If we think of this volume, 2]]^, as being under a momentary uniform com- 
pression equal to P lbs. per square inch, we may deduce the pressure, P, by the 
following process: Let C be what is termed the "modulus of compressibility" 
of water. That is, C is the pressure, per square inch, that would suffice to 
compress the water to nothing, if its diminution of volume, at indefinitely high 
pressures, should follow the same law that holds for pressures that are moderate. 
(Of course there is no pressure that actually would compress the water to a 
zero volume; but the "modulus of compressibility," as defined above, is an 
exceedingly convenient thing to use, in practical computations.) Also, let x 
be the amount by which the volume 2W of tlie compressed water is reduced 
by the actual (though as yet unknown) pressure P. We then have the proportion 

P : C :: X : 2W. 
And solving this for x we find 

2P\Y 



19IO.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. gg 



The work done in compressing a liquid is very nearly independent of the 
way in which the compression is performed. (We mention this, because the 
fact is quite otherwise with a gas or vapor.) Hence the potential energy stored 
up in the compressed water will be the same (or sensibly the same) as it would 
be if we effected the compression slowly and uniformly, beginning with the 
pressure at zero, and gradually increasing it up to P. Now in this case the 
flTVM7(/i' pressure applied would be \P\ and multiplying this by x (the height 
by which the volume 2\l' has. been reduced), we find that the total work done 
would be itPx. And if we replace .r by its value as just found, above, we see, 
finally, that the potential energy stored in the 2]V cubic inches of water under 

P^ IV 

compression is 

C 

Now since energy cannot be created nor destroyed, this must be equal to 
the work done by the steam in pushing the plug to the end of its cylindrical 
passage ; and hence w-e have the equation 

,J, J, ^ T^ - P'lV 

(/i —Pa) ^ = —^ 
which, upon being solved for P , gives 



V \v 

This, it is to be remembered, is the expression for the pressure that may 
be produced in the ideal case, in which a plug of water is driven along a cylin- 
drical channel so as to come suddenly and violently against another mass of 
water of equal cross section, and extending indefinitely in the direction of the 
length of the channel. 

APPLIC.A.TION TO THE ACTUAL CaSE. 

In order to see how the foregoing formula for P applies in the actual case 
that arises in practice, let us consider a bubble of rectangular shape, such as is 
indicated in Fig. 3. This consists, as. will be seen, of a sort of slab of water, 
of thickness W , raised to a distance /'. Let us imagine the upper slab, the 
space below it, and the water that lies below the space, to be divided into 
imaginary cylindrical tubes, as suggested by the dotted lines. If, now, the 
top wall, or slab, comes down uniformly in all its parts when the bubble 
collapses, the water in each of these imaginary cylindrical tubes will act just 
as we have supposed the plug to act, in the ideal tube described above. There 
w'ill be no sidewise flow of the water, or none of any account, provided the 
rectangular bubble is big enough in its horizontal dimensions. Hence the for- 
mula w^ill be as applicable to this case, as it is to the case of the single plug 
in its cylindrical tube. 

Finally, if the bubble, instead of l)eing rectangular, is more or less oval or 
ellipsoidal, as in Fig. 4, the pressure actually developed will agree with the 
calculated pressure to an order of approximation corresponding to the 
(unknown) degree in which the conditions in the actual case conform with 
those that were assumed to exist, in deriving the formula. 

After the pressure that is due to the impact has been generated, it is trans- 
mitted through the water to the boiler shell. In this transmission it will be 



70 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[July, 



somewhat lessened in intensity, and it will be propagated mainly in the direction 
in which the top slab of the bubble collapses. 

We have supposed, for the sake of simplicity, that the bubble collapses 
vertically ; but since the water in the boiler is thrown about in an utterly inde- 
scribable manner, the actual collapse may take place horizontally or obliquely, 
and hence the maximum pressure may be exerted upon the boiler shell sidewise, 
or in any other direction. 

The formula may be expressed in words as follows : First find the difference 
(P1 — P2) between the pressure in the steam main and that in the boiler before 
opening the valve, and multiply this by the modulus of compressibility of water 
(C), which may be taken as equal to 300,000 lbs. per square inch. Then multiply 





Fig. 4. — Oval Bubble. 

again by the depth (F), in inches, of the steam inside of the bubble, measuring 
this depth in the direction in which collapse takes place. Finally, divide the 
product so obtained by the thickness of the upper layer (JV) of the bubble, in 
inches, and take the square root of the quotient. The result will be the 
momentary pressure produced in the water by the collapse of the bubble. 

This rule, be it understood, cannot be used to determine anything but the 
general order of magnitude of the pressures produced by water-hammer. No 
rule could do more than this, however, when applied to a problem as indefinite 
as the one with which we are dealing. Yet with all its limitations the rule has 
a considerable value, since it shows that water-hammer effects may be exceed- 
ingly serious, and that we need to guard against their production, with the 
greatest care. 

Numerical Example. 

Let us now apply the formula to the calculation of the maximum possible 
pressure that water-hammer might produce, in a particular case. We shall 
suppose, for this purpose, that a boiler is being cut in with others, and that the 
pressure it carries is less than that prevailing in the steam main at the time. 
We shall assume that the pressure in the main is 95 lbs. per square inch, and 
that that in the boiler is 88 lbs. per square inch. 

In this example, as in all others of like nature, we shall have to arbitrarily 
assume the thickness of the bubble and of the top layer thereof. We cannot 
tell what these thicknesses were, but we must endeavor to choose values for 
them that might reasonably be expected to occur. Let us suppose that the 
thickness of the steam-filled portion of the bubble was 6 in., and that that of 
the slab, or top portion, was 3 in. Then our rule works out as follows: The 



igio.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 7-^ 

difference between the pressure in the steam main and that prevailing in the 
boiler just before opening the stop-valve was 95 — 88 = 7 lbs. per sq. in. This, 
multiplied by 300,000, gives 300,000 X 7 = 2,100,000. Multiplying again by the 
thickness of the steam space of the bubble, we have 2,100,000X6= 12,600,000. 
Then, dividing this by the thickness of the top layer of the !)ubble, we have 
12,600,000 -^ 3 = 4,20 0.noo. A nd, finally, taking the square root of this last 
number, we have v 4,200,000 = 2,049 lbs. per sq. in., which is the maximum 
pressure that could be developed by water-hammer action in the given boiler, 
under the assumed conditions. It is evident, here, that we may make very 
large allowances indeed for the fact that the conditions may not have been 
just like those prc-supposed, and yd we shall have a pressure quite sufficient 
to cause the rivets, or any other part of the boiler, to snap at once — especially 
when we remember that the in.<;tantaneous pressure developed by the water- 
hammer action was in addition to the normal load of 95 lbs. per sq. in., which 
the steam exerted upon the shell directly, as soon as the stop-valve was opened. 
Once again we may state that when a boiler is burst by water-hammer 
action, the pressure that is generated acts only for an instant, and its efifect 
upon the boiler is similar to that of a sudden hydrostatic pressure. That is, 
it disrupts the boiler, but it does not throw the pieces about. The momentary 
water-hammer pressure having separated the parts of the boiler, it is the 
normal steam pressure within the boiKr that docs the rest of the work. 

The Maximum Amount of Mechanical Work that can de Performed. 

We come, now, to the second aspect of the water-hammer question. Namely, 
we have to look at the case from the following point of view, which is more 
general than the one from which we have approached it above. A boiler con- 
taining a mass of water at a given temperature is placed in free communication 
W'ith a steam main capable of supplying a practically unlimited amount of steam 
at a pressure higher than that due to the temperature prevailing within the 
boiler. As we have here two bodies, or substances, at two different temperatures 
(namely, the steam in the main and the water in the boiler), the theory of 
heat teaches us that a certain amount of mechanical energy can be developed, 
as an accompaniment to the process of temperature-equalization which at once 
begins. The quantity of mechanical energy that can be so developed, however, 
is strictly limited by the laws of thermodynamics; and it is not at all diflficult 
to find an expression from which its maximum amount can be calculated. 

Let ti be the temperature of the steam that is admitted from the steam 
main — this being constant throughout the entire operation, since the steam 
is furnished by outside boilers, at a constant pressure and temperature. Also, 
let t- be the temperature that the water in the boiler has at the outset, just as 
the stop-valve is opened. As soon as the steam, at the higher temperature ti, 
enters the boiler, it comes in contact with the cooler water there, and begins 
to condense ; and although the heat that it gives out in condensing may be 
partially converted into mechanical energy, available for throwing the water 
in the boiler about, the major portion of it must go to the direct heating of 
the water, without the production of any such mechanical work. In fact, the 
principles of thermodynamics, upon which we have dwelt in many of the 
previous issues of The Locomotive, show that when, in the equalizing process, 
the incoming steam gives up a small quantity of heat — a quantity so small. 



72 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [July, 

namely, that it does not materially alter the temperature of the water in the 
boiler as a whole — we may find the maximum quantity of mechanical energy 
that can be developed, by multiplying this small quantity of heat (expressed 
in foot-pounds) by the fraction 

A - t^ 
/i + 459.7° ' 

the constant number 459.7° being the Fahrenheit temperature of the Fahrenheit 
zero, on the absolute scale of temperature. 

If, as in the example worked out above under the other rule, we take the 
pressure in the main at 95 lbs. per square inch, and that in the boiler before the 
stop-valve was opened at 88 lbs., we find, by consulting a table of the properties 
of steam, that the temperature (fi) of the steam in the main was 334.4°, and 
that the temperature (/-) of the water in the boiler was 329.5° Fahr. Hence 
/i — t. = 334.4° — 329.5° = 4.9°, and U + 4597° = 334-4° + 4597° = 794-1 °. With 
these values of the temperatures, the foregoing fraction becomes equal to 
4.9 -j- 794.1 =0.00617; so that when the entering steam begins to condense, the 
first foot-pound of heat that it gives up can generate 0.00617 of a foot-pound 
of mechanical energy, which can manifest itself by throwing the water about; 
but the remaining 0.99383 of the foot-pound must pass directly and quietly into 
the water, without appearing in the mechanical form at all. 

As the water in the boiler rises in temperature, owing to the heat that it 
is receiving from the steam, the same sort of a calculation can be made at 
every stage of the process. The only difference will be, that the value of ti 
will increase as the water warms up, while the value of t\ remains constant. 
The fraction that expresses the proportion of the heat that can be converted 
into mechanical energy will grow less, therefore, as the temperatures become 
equalized. The average value of the expression given above for the efficiency 
of the conversion is 

J_ /j - /g . 
2 ■ /j -I- 459.7° ' 
and if we multiply this last expression by the total amount of heat given up 
by the steam, we shall have the total amount of mechanical energ\' that can be 
developed, within the boiler, as a result of cutting it into the steam line, at a 
temperature (or pressure) below that of the steam in the main. 

Now the total amount of heat that is given up by the steam is equal to 
that absorbed directly by the water, plus that which is converted into mechanical 
energy. But since considerably more than 99 per cent, of that which the steam 
gives up is directly absorbed by the water, we shall not commit any error of 
the slightest practical importance if we assume, in this particular calculation, 
that the two are equal. If the average specific heat of the water between ti 
and ti is S, then each pound of water, in becoming warmed from t^ to fi, will 
absorb S {t^ — /=) units of heat. To express this quantity of heat in foot- 
pounds, which is a more convenient way for our present purposes, we have 
merely to multiply it by Joule's equivalent, which we will take at 780 foot- 
pounds per Fahrenheit heat unit. Moreover, we may take the specific heat, S, 
of the water as equal to unity. Hence the total quantity of heat absorbed by 
the water is 780 (^ — ?=) foot-pounds. Assuming that this is equal to the 
amount given up by the steam (as explained above), we have merely to 
multiply it by the fraction given in the preceding paragraph, and again by the 



1910.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 73 

number of pounds (say w) of water in the boiler, and we have the total number 
of foot-pounds of mechanical energy that can be developed when the boiler is 
cut in with its fellows. Thus the expression in question becomes 

3907f / (/, - /,)» 
/i + 459.7° 

In words, this may be expressed as follows: Find the square of the diflfer- 
ence in temperature between the steam in the main and the water in the boiler, 
multiply this by the number of pounds of water in the boiler, and multiply 
again by the constant number 390. Then divide the product so obtained by the 
temperature of the steam plus 459.7°. (Fahrenheit temperatures are to be used.) 
The result is the greatest possible number of foot-pounds of mechanical work 
that the water can do, in being thrown about as a consequence of the boiler 
being cut in before the pressure within it has become equal to that prevailing 
at the time in the steam main. 

Application to a Numerical Example. 

By way of illustration, we shall apply this formula to the same example 
as before. We have already found the difference of temperature between the 
water and the steam to be 4.9°. The square of this is 4.9X4.9 = 24.01. We 
shall throw away the small decimal, and call it 24. We next need to know 
the total weight of water in the boiler, and for the purposes of illustration we 
shall take this to be 12,000 lbs. Then proceeding with the application of the 
rule, we have 12,000 X 24 = 288,000; and 288,000 X 390 = 112.320,000. We have 
already found that fi + 459.7° = 794.1. Hence we have 112,320,000 -i- 794.1 = 
141,440 foot-pounds, which is the maximum quantity of mechanical energy that 
could be developed inside of the boiler, as a consequence of cutting it in with 
the others before the pressure had become equalized to within less than seven 
pounds per square inch. 

As before, this result is merely a maximum one, but in obtaining it we do 
not have to make any supposition respecting the proportions of the steam 
bubbles that are formed. The result is exact, save that we have made certain 
assumptions of a merely arithmetical nature, in the interest of simplicity — 
assumptions which certainly do not aflfect our conclusion by more than a few 
per cent. 

A mere fraction of this maximum available amount of work would suffice, 
without doubt, to start the rivets shearing; and, as we have several times 
remarked, it is the steam pressure normally within the boiler that throws the 
parts asunder, when once the work of disruption has been well begun. The 
energy developed directly by the water-hammer does not have to account for 
any portion of the mechanical work of the explosion, save that which is 
required to stress some of the parts up to their breaking points. 

We would direct attention particularly to the fact that the quantity of 
mechanical energy that can be developed within the boiler, and be manifested 
by throwing the water about with more or less violence, varies as the square 
of the difference in temperature between the water and the steam. Hence if 
this diflference were twice as great as we have assumed, the quantity of mechan- 
ical ener,e^^ that could be developed, under otherwise similar conditions, would 
be four times that calculated above. 



74 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [July, 



Can the Water-Hammer Action be Delayed? 

Water-hammer action, if the conditions for its occurrence exist, usually 
begins the moment the stop-valve is opened. If, however, the pressure in the 
main exceeds that in the boiler, and the stop-valve is opened cautiously, there 
appears to be no reason why the steam might not enter quietly. Part of it 
must condense, of course, on account of the chilling action of the water upon 
it ; but this might conceivably occur without mechanical disturbance, the super- 
ficial layers of the water in the boiler becoming heated, so that a sort of 
equilibrium would be established. If nothing should occur to agitate the 
water, this state might persist until the entire bulk of the water became heated 
up to the temperature of the steam in the main; and after that no water-hammer 
would be possible. 

The pseudo-equilibrium thus established would be highly unstable, however, 
and the least disturbance of the water, by bringing its deeper and cooler layers 
to the surface, would precipitate water-hammer action at once. It would be 
only under the most exceptional circumstances that delayed development such 
as we have suggested could occur, and yet such delay is manifestly possible. 

Precautions for the Avoidance of Water-Ham mer Action. 

In conclusion, let us emphasize the fact that it is of exceeding importance, 
in cutting in a boiler, to be sure that the pressure upon it is as exactly identical 
as possible with the pressure that is prevailing, at the time, in the steam main. 
Mathematically exact equality can hardly ever be attained, however, partly 
because commercial steam gages will seldom agree to within a pound or so. 
Hence w-hen the equality of pressure is judged to be exact, the stop-valve should 
be opened very carefully indeed — opened just a bare crack at first, and then, 
as the slight outstanding difference of pressure equalizes itself, opened wider, 
very slowly, until it is open full. The complete operation should occupy a 
couple of minutes or more, and the attendant should hold himself in readiness, 
at every instant, to close the valve at once, if there is the slightest evidence of 
any unusual jar or disturbance of any kind, about the boiler. 



Boiler Explosions. 

April, 1910. 

(149.) — A heating boiler exploded, April i, in the Portland Mfg. Co.'s 
factory, Portland, Mich. One man was injured, and the plant was badly 
damaged. 

(150.) — The boiler of a Milwaukee locomotive exploded, April 2, at River 
Junction, near La Crosse, Wis. Two men were badly injured. 

(151-) — Four tubes burst, April 2, in one of the boilers of the U. S. cruiser 
Maryland, near Santa Barbara, Calif. One man was killed, two were fatally 
injured, and two other received lesser injuries. 

(152.) — A boiler flue failed, April 4, at the Delaware River Steel Co.'s 
blast furnace, Chester, Pa. 

(i5,'^.) — A boiler exploded, April 5, in Horace M. Moser's stone crushinsr 
plant, Mount Carmel, Pa. The boiler was throvra three blocks, over the tops 
of a dozen houses, but nobody was hurt. 



1910.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 75 



U54-)— A portable boiler, owned by McCarry & Co., of Knoxvillc, Tcnii., 
exploded, April 5, near Newport, Tenii. Two men were badly hint. 

(155) — 'i"li<; boiler of a Santa I\'' railroad locomotive exploded, April 6, 
at Gallup, N. M. One man was killed. 

( 156.) — On April 6 a blowoflf pipe failed at the plant of the IJeaven-Jackson 
Lumber & Veneer Co., Evergreen, Ala. 

(157) — A slight explosion occurred, April 6, at the Illinoi.s Steel Co.'s 
plant, Joliet, 111. One man was seriously injured. 

(158.) — The boiler of a Michigan Central locomotive exploded, April 6, 
near Grayling, Mich. One man was killed outright, and two others were fatally 
injured. 

(159.) — A tube ruptured. April 8, in a water-tube boiler at the plant of 
the Cincinnati Horse Shoe & Iron Co., Cleves, Ohio. Two men were injured. 

(160.) — A boiler tube failed, April 8, in the power house of the Oil Well 
Supply Co.'s Twenty-first street plant, Pittsburg, Pa. Three men were scalded. 

(161.) — A tube ruptured, April 10, in a water-tube boiler at the blast 
furnace of Pickands, Mather & Co., Toledo, Ohio. 

(162.) — On April 10 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler in the Brooklyn 
Rapid Transit Co.'s power house, Kent Avenue and Division street, Williams- 
burg, N. Y. Four men were injured, two of them fatally. 

(163.) — A slight boiler explosion occurred, April 13, at the American Sheet 
Sc Tin Plate Co.'s plant, Dresden, Ohio. 

(164.) — A tube ruptured, April 13, in a water-tube boiler in the Lavonia 
Cotton Mills, Lavonia, Ga. 

(165.) — A boiler exploded, April 14, at the plant of the Robinson Water, 
Light & Lleat Co., Robinson, 111. Two men were injured, and the property 
damage amounted to about $5,700. 

(166.) — A tube ruptured, April 16. in a water-tube boiler at the Crescent 
Portland Cement Co.'s plant. Wampum. Pa. 

(167.) — A boiler exploded, April 16, in a new sawmill plant at ^ladison, 
Boone county, W. Va. One man was killed and three others were fatally injured. 

(168.) — A tube ruptured, April 16. in a w-ater-tube boiler at the Omaha 
Electric Light & Power Co.'s plant, Omaha, Neb. One man was slightly injured. 

(169.) — The boiler of a locomotive exploded, April 16, at Monterey, Mex., 
in the yards of the National Railways of Mexico. Eleven men were instantly 
killed, and two others were terribly injured. 

(170.) — A boiler exploded, April 17, in the municipal light and power 
plant, at Santa ]\Iaria, Calif. One man was injured, and the boiler house was 
wrecked. 

(i/i-) — A boiler exploded, April 18, in the Miller sawmill, at Casper, Wyo. 
One man was killed. 

(172.) — A tube ruptured, April 19, in a water-tube boiler at the plant of 
the National Malleable Casting Co., S2d Avenue and nth street, Chicago, 111. 

(173.) — A blowoflf pipe failed, April 20, at the Birmingham Coal & Iron 
Co.'s plant. Short Creek, Ala. 

(174.) — A heating boiler exploded. April 21, in the Rich block. Maiden, 
Mass. The property loss was estimated at $3,500. 

(175.') — A tube failed, April 21. in a superheater attached to a water-tube 
boiler at the water works and light station, Bloomington, 111. 



76 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [July, 

(176.) — A boiler exploded, April 21, in a small lumber mill operated by 
George Noyes, at Orneville, near Milo, Me. Property loss, $1,000. 

(177.) — A boiler exploded, April 21, at the Wyoming Brick Works, Wyo- 
ming, Pa. Fireman Burke was terribly injured and is likely to die. 

(178.)— A slight explosion occurred, April 21, at the Eleanor Moore Hos- 
pital, Boone, Iowa. One person was severely injured. 

(179.) — A heating boiler exploded, April 24, in Julius Thomesert's resi- 
dence, 4730 Sheridan road, Chicago, 111. 

(180.) — On April 24 a slight accident befell a boiler in the Equitable 
Electric Light Co.'s plant, Lake Geneva, Wis. 

(181.) — A boiler belonging to A. Cameron exploded, April 25, at Chatham, 
Canada. 

(182.) — A slight explosion occurred, April 25, in the heating apparatus in 
the residence of Prof. H. G. Chase, West Somerville, Mass. Fire followed, 
and the total property loss was about $1,000. 

(183.) — The boiler of a locomotive on the C. & O. R. R. exploded, 
April 26, at Russell, Ky. Three men were severely injured. 

(184.) — On April 2"^ an accident befell a boiler in the No. i ice plant of 
Victor Erath, New Iberia, La. 

(185.) — A small boiler exploded, April 28, in the Wilson greenhouses, 
Des Moines, Iowa. 

(186.) — A tube ruptured, April 28, in a water-tube boiler in the Union 
Special Machine Co.'s plant, Chicago, 111. 

(187.) — On April 28 a boiler exploded in Tidwell Bros.' sawmill, ten miles 
east of Selmer, Tenn. One man was killed, and nine were injured. Property 
loss, about $1,200. 

(188.) — A boiler belonging to W. A. Willig exploded, April 29, at St. Cloud, 
Minn. 

(189.) — A blowofif pipe ruptured, April 29, at the City Water Works, 
McAlester, Okla. One man was slightly injured. 



May, 1910. 

(190.) — A boiler exploded. May 2, on a steam dredge, off the foot of 
Hamburg place road, Newark, N. J. One man was killed and eight were 
severely injured. The dredge, which belonged to the Newark Meadow Improve- 
ment Co., was wrecked and sunk. 

(191.) — On May 2 a manifold ruptured in a cast-iron sectional boiler in 
Henry Joseph Richter's school, at Grand Rapids, INIich. 

(192.) — A tube ruptured, May 3, in a water-tube boiler at the Helenbacher 
Forge & Rolling Mills plant of the American Car & Foundry Co., St. Louis, 
Mo. One man was injured. 

(153.) — The boiler of locomotive No. 195, attached to the Pitcairn express, 
on the Pennsylvania railroad, exploded, May 6, at Pittsburg, Pa., near the old 
Ben Venue station. One man was killed and five were injured. 

(ig_j_) — The crown-sheet of a boiler of the locomotive type collapsed. 
May 7, in the Sioux Falls Gas Light Co. plant of the United Gas Improvement 
Co., at Sioux Falls, S. Dak. 

(195.")— A heating boiler exploded. May 7, in the Y. M. C. A. building, 
Lansing, ]\Iich. The property loss was estimated at $500. 



I910.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 77 



(196.) — A boiler shell ruptured, May 7, in the Pennsylvania Milk Product 
Co.'s dairy, at Shippensburg, Pa. 

(197J — The boiler of a locomotive exploded. May 7, at Waycross, Ga. 
One man was killed. 

(198.) — A tube ruptured. May 7, in a water-tube boiler at Armour & Co.'s 
glycerine works, 31st and Benson streets, Chicago, 111. Two men were injured. 

(.199.) — A blowoff ruptured, May 8, in the water works and electric 
lighting plant at St. Johns, Mich. 

(200.) — A tube ruptured. May 10, in a water-tube boiler at the U. S. Port- 
land Cement Co.'s plant, Yocemento, Kans. 

(201.) — A boiler exploded, May 11, in a sawmill near San Bernardino, 
Calif. One man was killed. 

(202.) — A big hot-water boiler exploded. May li, in the basement of the 
quarters occupied by Troop L, Sixtli cavalry regiment, at Fort Des Moines, 
Des Moines, Iowa. The building was partly wrecked. 

(203. > — Several cast-iron headers fractured. May 13, in the American 
Graphite Co. plant of the Joseph Dixon Crucible Co., Graphite, N. Y. 

(204.) — The boiler of a New York, New Haven & Hartford railroad loco- 
motive exploded. May 13, at Green Haven, near Poughkeepsie, N. Y. Two men 
were severely injured. 

(205.) — On May 13 a slight boiler explosion occurred in the Gisholt plant, 
Madison, Wis. 

(206.) — A boiler explosion occurred, on May 13, at the ^Icllroy Belting & 
Hose Co.'s plant, 131 North Canal street, Chicago, III. The plant was destroyed 
by the fire that followed, the entire loss being about $25,000. 

(207.) — A blowoff pipe failed, May 14, at the Easley Cotton Mills, Easley, 
S. C. One man was fatally scalded. 

(208.) — An internally fired water-tube boiler exploded, May 15, in the plant 
of the Fremont Gas & Electric Light Co., Fremont, Neb. 

(209.) — A boiler exploded. May 15, at the plant of the Diamond Coal & 
Coke Co., at Chewtown, near Brownsville, Pa. Three persons were killed, 
and six seriously injured. The property loss was estimated at $25,000. 

(210.) — A handhole plate failed, May 16, in a water-tube boiler at the 
Barney & Smith Car Co.'s plant. Dayton, Ohio. One man was scalded to death. 

(211.) — A hot-water boiler exploded, on or about May 16, in the basement 
of the three-story dwelling at 4457 ^Matilda avenue, Borough of the Bronx, New 
York. A large section of the front of the house was blown out, and the damaged 
building took fire. The total loss was about $2,000. 

(212.) — A boiler exploded, May 16, in O'Neil's mill, at Arthur, Ont. 
Total property loss estimated at $20,000. 

(213.) — A boiler exploded. May 17, in the McCurdy Lumber Co.'s plant, at 
Fruithurst, Ala., twelve miles west of Tallapoosa, Ga. One man was killed, one 
was fatally injured, and five others received injuries more or less serious, but 
not fatal. 

(214.) — A boiler exploded, INIay 17, at the plant of the American Sheet & 
Tin Plate Co., Canton, Ohio. Thirteen persons were killed and fifty were in- 
jured, and the property loss was many thousands of dollars. 

(215.) — A boiler belonging to the Zeir Oil Co. exploded. May 18, near 
Los Angeles, Calif. Two persons were severely injured. 



78 THE LOCOMOTIVE. Quly, 

(216.) — A cast-iron header fractured, May 18, in a water-tube boiler at 
shaft No. 2 of the Kingston Coal Co., Kingston, Pa. 

(217.) — A boiler exploded, May 19, at J. R. Brown's sawmill, in Jones 
count}-, Ga. Tw^o men were killed and the mill was wrecked. 

(218.) — A tube ruptured, ]\Iay 19, in a water-tube boiler at the East 
Palisade Irrigation District plant, Palisade, Colo. 

(219.) — A slight explosion occurred, May 19, in the Monarch Laundry, 
Shamokin, Pa. 

(220.) — On ]\Iay 19 a boiler exploded in A. F. Sides' sawmill, near Winston- 
Salem, N. C. ]Mr. Sides was slightly scalded. The explosion was heard for 
miles. 

(221.) — On May 19 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at Waterside 
Station No. i of the New York Edison Co., New York City. Three men were 
injured. 

(222.) — A boiler explosion occurred, May 20, in the Jefferies sawmill, at 
Huntington, W. Va. One man was killed and one fatally injured. 

(22^.) — A tube ruptured, a\Iay 21, in a water-tube boiler at the North- 
western Iron Co.'s plant, ]\layville, Wis. 

(224.) — A tube ruptured. May 2^, in a water-tube boiler in the Commerce 
street power station of the Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co.. Milwaukee, 
Wis. Two men were badly scalded. 

(225.) — A boiler exploded. May 23, at the plant of the Charles A. Brickley 
Novelty Works, Cranston, R. I. The property loss was estimated at $3,000. 

(226.) — On May 23 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the hosiery 
mill of the Joseph Black & Sons Co., York, Pa. 

(227.) — The boiler of a freight locomotive exploded, INIay 24, at Bluefield, 
W. Va. One person was killed and one injured. 

(228.) — On May 24 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the plant of 
the Choctaw Railway & Lighting Co., McAlester, Okla. 

(229.) — A boiler exploded, May 24, in the Simon Korb sawmill, at Venus, 
Pa. 

(230.) — On ]May 24 the head blew out of a steam drum on a boiler in the 
W. R. Pickering Lumber Co.'s plant, Pickering, La. 

(231.) — On May 25 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler in the North 
Adams Gas & Electric Co.'s plant. North Adams, ]Mass. Two men were injured. 

(232.) — A boiler exploded, l^.Iay 25, in the oil fields near Coalinga, Calif. 

(233.) — A boiler exploded. May 26, at the Dilworth Paper Co.'s plant, 
Newcastle, Pa. One man was killed, and one was slightly injured. The property 
loss was estimated at $10,000. 

(234.) — A tube ruptured, ]\Iay 26, in a water-tube boiler at the Philadelphia 
Rapid Transit Co.'s power house. Beach and Laurel streets, Philadelphia, Pa. 

(235.") — On May 26 a boiler exploded at Tietjen & Lang's drydock, 
Hoboken, N. J. Three men were badly injured, and two others received minor 
injuries. 

(236.) — Seven cast-iron headers fractured. May 26, in a water-tube boiler 
at the ^Milwaukee Coke & Gas Co.'s main plant, Milwaukee, Wis. 

C237.) — A blowoff pipe failed. May 27, in the Bay City Gas Co.'s plant, 
Bay City, Mich. 

(238.) — A boiler exploded, i\Iay 28, in the Sherman Cotton Oil & Provision 



I9IO.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 79 

Co.'s plant, Slicrinan, Tex. One man was seriously injured. Property loss, 
$2,000. 

(239.) — A boiler rui)ture(l, May j8, in Cliaries J. Spies' ilourint^ mill, 
Wykoflf, Minn. 

(240.) — A tube ruptured, May 30, in a water-tube boiler at the plant of 
the Savannah Electric Co., Savannah, (ia. Two men were injured. 

(241.) — On May 30 a tube colla])sed in a vertical boiler in Isaac Frink's 
amusement park, Qialfont, Pa. One man was injured. 

(242.) — A blowoff pipe ruptured, May 31, in Hillman's departnuMit store, 
ChicaTO. 111. One man was severely scalded. 

(243.) — A traction engine boiler exploded, May 31, on tlie llanlon farm, 
three miles west of Ma.xwell, Iowa. One man was severely injured. 



June, 1910. 

(244.) — A locomotive boiler exploded, June i, on the Troy & Eastern rail- 
way, at Donk Bros.' coal mine, eight miles from Edwardsville, near Alton, Mo. 
Three men were killed. 

(245.) — On June i a blowoff pipe failed at the lumber mill of ^IcWilliams 
& Henry, Everett, Wash. One man was injured. 

(246.) — An accident occurred, June i, to a water-tube boiler in the Siegel 
& Cooper Co.'s department store, Chicago, 111. 

(247.) — A blowoff pipe failed, June 2, at George Frank & Co.'s fruit 
packing plant, San Jose, Calif. Two men were injured. 

(248.) — 'The crown sheet of a boiler of the locomotive type collapsed, 
June 2, at the Roberts-Kingston Contracting Co.'s Union mine, at Eveleth, St. 
Louis county, Minn. One man was fatally injured. 

(249.) — On June 3 a boiler exploded in the plant of the Midvalc Steel 
Co., Nicetown, Philadelphia, Pa. Four men were killed and two others were 
seriously injured. 

(250.)— A tube ruptured, June 3, in a water-tube boiler in the American 
Iron & Steel Manufacturing Co.'s plant, Lebanon, Fa. 

(251.) — On June 4 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the National 
Works of the American Sheet & Tin Plate Co., Monessen, Pa. 

(252.) — A boiler exploded, June 6, in Joseph Clevenger's sawmill, seven 
miles south of Nacogdoches, Tex. One man was killed and two were injured. 

(253.) — An acident occurred, June 6, to a water-tube boiler at the Hensel- 
Collod'ay Co.'s plant, Philadelphia, Pa. 

(254.) — A boiler exploded, June 9, at the Yellow Pine Lumber Co.'s plant, 
Franklinton, La. Three men w-ere injured. Property loss, about $3,000. 

(255.) — On- June 12 a boiler exploded at 'thfe Oklahoma Portland Cement 
Co.'s plant, Ada, Okla. The property loss was estimated at $15,000. 

(256.) — On June 13 a tube-sheet fractured in a water-tube boiler at the 
power plant of the Columbus Railway. Light & Power Co., Columbus, Miss. 

(257.) — A boiler exploded, June 16, on Joseph H. Wagner's farm, at 
Woytych Station, near Annapolis, Md. Two men were badly injured. 

(258.) — On June 16 the boiler of a hoisting engine belonging to the Pitts- 
burg Sand & Supply Co. exploded near Baden, Pa. Two men were severely 
injured, and one of them will die. 



80 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [July, 

(259.) — A boiler exploded, June 16, in the INIyer & Lutz sawmill, near 
Clarion, Pa. One man was killed, and the entire upper end of the mill was 
wrecked. 

(260.) — A tube ruptured, June 17, in a water-tube boiler at the Highland 
Iron & Steel Co.'s plant, Terre Haute, Ind. Three men were injured. 

(261.) — A feed water heater exploded, June 18, at the Keeler Brass Co.'s 
plant, Pottsville, Pa. One man was seriously injured. 

(262.) — Several cast-iron headers fractured, June 19, in a water-tube boiler 
at Jeddo No. 4 mine of the G. B. Alarkle Co., Jeddo, Pa. 

(263.) — A boiler exploded, June 19, at the Central colliery of the Erie 
Coal Co., at Avoca, Pa. 

(264.) — On June 20 several cast-iron headers fractured in a water-tube 
boiler at the plant of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co., East 
Pittsburg, Pa. 

(265.; — A boiler exploded, June 21, at the sawmill operated by William 
Hansel at Borden Shaft, near Cumberland, Md. One man was seriously 
injured, and a man and three children received minor injuries. 

(266.) — A boiler exploded, June 22, in the Vinegar Bend Lumber Co.'s 
plant. Vinegar Bend, Ala. Two men were killed, and the property loss was 
heavy. 

(267.) — On June 22 a boiler ruptured at the rendering and ice plant of 
the St. Joseph Ice & Manufacturing Co., St. Joseph, Mo. 

(268.) — A boiler exploded, June 2},, in F. J. Lutz' bakery, Kensington 
avenue and Lippincott street, Philadelphia, Pa. The property loss was estimated 
at about $1,000. 

(269.) — A small boiler exploded, June 22,. at the Prosch-Harris boiler shop, 
Terre Haute, Ind. 

(270.) — A boiler exploded, June 24, at High Shoals, near Bogart, Ga. One 
man was killed and three others were severely injured. 

(271.) — On June 24 a cast-iron header ruptured in a water-tube boiler at 
the power station of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., Thirty-third and 
Market streets, Philadelphia, Pa. 

{2'j2?i — A boiler exploded, June 26, in the garbage reduction plant at 
Cherry Hill, Va. One man was severely injured. 

(273.) — On June 28 a small boiler used for vulcanizing automobile tires 
exploded in T. E. Downs' shop, Kalamazoo, Mich. Mr. Downs was killed, and 
another man was injured. 

(274.) — A boiler exploded, June 28, in the W. L. Judd malt drying plant, 
Aurora, 111. 

(275.) — On June 29 the boiler of a switching locomotive exploded in the 
freight yards of the Eastern District Terminal Co., Brooklj'n, N. Y. Two 
men were scalded seriously and perhaps fatally. 



In our issue for .\pril, 1908, we reprinted an article by Mr. William H. 
Bryan, entitled " A Color Scheme for Pipe Lines," which he originally pub- 
lished in Steam. In Pozver, for April 26, 1910, there is a similar article by 
Mr. J. P. Sparrow, to which we would direct attention, not only because of 
the excellence of the text, but also because the article is illustrated in colors. 



igio.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 81 




A. D. RisTEEN, Ph.D., Editor. 



HARTFORD, JULY 25. 1910. 

The Locomotive can be obtained free by calling at any of the company s agencies. 
Subscription price ^o cents per year when mailed from this office. 
Bound volumes one dollar each. 



A Reasonably True Story, as Told by a Two-flue Boiler.* 

By Charles S. Bl.\ke. 

Some years ago I had the misfortune of being born but since I came into 
the steam world I have conscientiously endeavored to conduct myself in a 
manner becoming my station in life. I cannot tell where my parts came from, 
but they were doubtless from some good place, because the materials were 
faultless. My makeup was of the ordinary kind, but I claim a lineage dating 
far beyond some of the new kind of so-called boilers. I am now about ten 
years old. I suppose this would be called middle-aged, though I am prematurely 
worn out. I was purchased by a mine-owner, who gave me a permanent home 
in the coal regions of the Hocking Valley, where I was surrounded by other 
helpmates. We were placed side by side so that we could work in harmony, 
and we enjoyed the same pleasures and suffered the same sorrows. 

We were given water to drink, and at most times we had all we wanted. 
This, too, was a good feature of our care, for our thirst seemed unquenchable 
when we were warm, and the greater the temperature, the greater the thirst 
became. It is upon this subject of drmking- water that I shall say the most, 
for the quality served to us was, in the end, the cause of my downfall. It was 
mine-water that they gave us. It was collected in a reservoir, and during what 
you would call a dry season it became quite roily and tasted bad. At times it 
was quite fishy. However, we managed to get along all right by having our 
insides washed out once in a while. We naturally grew a little crusty, and we 
had some sore spots. None of these seemed to threaten our lives, however, 
until for some inscrutable reason we were given a water to drink that not only 
nauseated us, but also fairly burned our vital organs. We manifested our 
discomfort, to our master, by emitting blood from our joints. A day or so 
later we had another change, but while the new water tasted somewhat different, 
it acted in the same way upon our constitutions. 

After one month I realized that I was going into a rapid decline. I tried 
to bear up under the thought, but one day a lung was punctured and I had to 
go out of commission until my master inserted a bolt in the opening. This 
served to stop the flow of blood, and I was again " fired up." I was very weak, 
but rallied and tried to do my duty. A few days later one of my companions 



♦Originally written for the Boiler Maker. 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[July, 




iQio.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 33 



collapsed and died. I was so grieved and indignant that on the spur of the 
moment I, too, rebelled, collapsed, and — horror of horrors — killed my master. 
I have been very repentant ever since, but that will not bring him back again. 
I knew he liked me, though he had a knowledge of my feeble condition when 
he plugged my lung. 

I might say, right here, that 1 am able to translate tiiis story by the aid of 
an expert who makes a specialty of investigating the causes of troubles such 
as my own, and holding autopsies, lie was sympathetic and understood boiler 
talk, so 1 confided in him, and he in turn helped me translate my experiences. 
He explained that the water that iiad brought me to an untimely end was 
strongly impregnated with sulphur, which must have come from the mines. 
That is what had eaten my vitals away so rapidly. What is to become of me 
now I do not know. I\Iy boiler friend thinks I ought to be cut up and worked 
over into some other product, where the dangers are not so great. I should 
not object to this; but if they sell me to a second-hand dealer, and he tries to 
repair my organs, puts a coat of paint on me, and then sells me for a boiler 
" as good as new,'' I shall most likely make a further record as a man-killer. 



Steam Boiler Explosions in the United States during- 1909. 

In our issue for July, 1907, we puldished a map of the United States, upon 
which the location of each of the l)oiler explosions of 1906 was marked by a 
dot. In the present issue we give a similar map, prepared by Inspector Royal 
H. Holbrook of our Cincinnati department, and showing the locations of the 
boiler explosions of the year 1909. Like its predecessor, this map is based 
upon the explosion lists that we print in The Locomotive regularly, and a short 
account of each of the explosions here indicated will be found in one or 
another of our last si.x issues. 

The number of explosions represented upon the present map is 550, and 
our records show that these were accompanied by 227 deaths, and by injuries 
to 422 persons. Roughly speaking, therefore, every alternate dot represents a 
death, and four out of every five of the dots represent more or less serious 
personal injuries. 

.•\s might be expected, the explosions of 1909, like those of 1906, were 
grouped in a marked manner about the regions in which steam power is most 
extensively employed. The comparative absence of dots in the western portion 
of the map is due in large measure to the fact that there are fewer boilers in 
that part of the country ; but there can be no doubt that the reports that we 
receive from regions west of the Mississippi are less complete than those that 
come to us from the northeastern section, so that the relative scarcity of the 
dots in the west is attributable, in some measure at least, to the incompleteness 
of our data. 

A comparison of the two maps is interesting. It will lie noted, for example, 
that there is an unmistakable increase in the number of explosions in states 
which showed but few in 1906. Thus Washington had i in 1906, but 6 in 1909 ; 
Colorado had i in 1906 and 11 in 1909. Oklahoma (including the region known 
as Indian Territory in igo6) increased, similarly, from i to 8, and North 
Carolina increased from 3 to 11. Maine, on the other hand, fell off from 5 
to 2, and Vermont has the distinction of being the only state that hid -o boiler 
explosion in either year. 



84 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [July, 



A New Mode of Inspecting Boilers. 

In the first volume of The Locomotive (old series), under the date June,. 
1868, there is an article with the caption given above, which was written by 
our late president, ^Ir. J. ^^L Allen. If we remember aright, it was based upon 
an actual experience of his, and as it has doubtless been forgotten by all of 
our friends, we reprint it below : 

It is a trite saying that " we live in an age of progress " ; and because the 
truth of the thing is so universally conceded, we presume our readers will not 
be greatly surprised to learn of a new application of an old " system." It came 
to our notice in this wise: A few days ago, our editorial meditations on the 
subject of boiler explosions were interrupted by the entrance of a stranger, 
who inquired (in a manner indicating the performance by him of an unpleasant 
duty) respecting the whereabouts of our inspector. Quoth he, "I've got a small 

boiler in use out here in (naming a village not many miles away), which I 

'pose I've got to have inspected, as the law makes me liable to a fine if it ain't 
done. So I called in to see about it." We gave him the information he desired, 
and then he volunteered this opinion : " I don't consider this inspection zi'iith 
anything to me, for I've had my boiler inspected by a higher power." " Ah ! 
have you? How is that?" we asked, with a desire to learn of any improvement 
that might have been made in our line of business. He replied with the air 
of a man communicating an important fact, and standing forth in the calm 
consciousness of a superior intelligence, "I had a clairvoyant examination of 
my boiler a few days ago, and the medium told me it w-as all right — clean and 
nice inside, and safe to run." So saying, he w-ithdrew, and left us in deep 
thought. 

This discovery may signify but little to those unskilled in the mysteries of 
boiler inspection, but we are sure it will excite a peculiar interest in the minds 
of our inspectors, who have been accustomed to regard the process now in 
vogue as a rather laborious way of accomplishing what the Frenchman called 
" making his bread of ze perspiration of his eyebrows." 

In imagination, our men will foresee a mighty change. Instead of a sturdy- 
looking man. grimy with soot and ashes, clad in a suit of well-worn " dirt- 
proof," and busying himself with hammer and pump, or striving, wath many 
contortions, to pass himself through a manhole many sizes too small for his 
shoulders, or coming " to the surface " for air after trying to find out how much 
heat a human being can endure w'ithout being converted into a roast — instead 
of all this, they will see a benevolent-looking old gentleman, bidding defiance 
to the summer sun in a suit of spotless linen and a huge Panama. He enters the 
boiler room, and after gazing abstractedly about him for a moment, sinks into 
an easy chair and composes himself for a siesta, while an attendant prepares to 
record the words of somnolent wisdom, as they shall drop from his lips. 

" General appearance of interior good," he murmurs, when the trance is 
well upon him; "slight incrustation, i/64th of an inch thick, on the crown 
sheet. Some corrosion — of second plates — around fourth and fifth rivets — 
from rear end. Boiler safe — at a running pressure of — eighty — pounds." 

Then his mild blue eye gently opens, he draws his bandanna across his 
massive brow, affixes his signature to the certificate of inspection, and departs^ 
after mechanically depositing the fee in his well-lined wallet. 

You see, gentlemen of the inspection department, what an immense amount 



iQio.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 85 

of uncomfortable experience would be avoided, should the new system go into 
general use; and it may be that a few lessons would suffice to make you all 
adepts at it. 



The Agent on the Spot. 

It often happens that an insurance agent approaches a prospective patron 
at the wrong time. Occasionally, however, he arrives at the exact psychological 
moment, and tinds his task unexpectedly easy. Mr. John R. Bentley, a special 
agent in our Philadelphia department, tells of an experience of the latter kind 
that recently befell him. 

" Calling at the plant of one of our assured," he writes, " the manager 
mentioned two canning establishments at the other end of the town, with 
which he thought I might be able to do business. I visited one of them at 
about six o'clock in the afternoon, and found that its owner and manager 
is a .woman. I spoke with her respecting the advisability of insuring the 
three boilers in the plant, and she admitted that it would be well to consider 
• the subject, but said that in their experience of twelve or fifteen years they 
had never had an accident. Before there was time for me to reply there was a 
terrific explosion^, and I made a hasty retreat to an open field. In the course 
of the said retreat I passed through a perfect deluge of debris from the .roof 
of the plant, accompanied by a hail of cans of peas, exploding in the air and 
all around me on the ground. I was literally smeared from head to foot, with 
overcooked peas. 

" Reaching a point on the edge of the shower, I looked back and saw the 
employees, mostly girls and boys, escaping through the doors and windows. 
The storm having subsided, I hastened back and found that one of the two 
cast-iron steam* cooking kettles had blown up, the cover being broken in half. 
Inside the k-ettle there were three iron racks, holding, I presume, a hundred 
or more cans each. These were throv\Ti through the roof, tearing everything 
to pieces in their passage, and scattering the exploding cans in every direction. 

" The young man in charge of this kettle was sitting in front 'of it at 
the time, and was quite badly cut about the face and arms. If he had been 
standing, it is likely that he would have been killed, or, at all events, far more 
seriously injured. 

■' In the morning a so-called tailor endeavored to clean my clothes, while 
I, being fortunate enough to have a second suit, visited the proprietress and 
secured the application on the three boilers. The scare from the kettle- 
expriosion made further persuasion unnecessary." 

Some of our readers, in going over this interesting communication, may 
wonder why the cans of peas exploded. A word of enlightenment on this point 
may therefore be acceptable. The cans are first filled with uncooked peas, and 
then, after being sealed, are placed in the closed kettle and exposed to steam 
at a pressure somewhat higher than that of the atmosphere until their con- 
tents are properly cooked. After a time the peas become heated up to the 
temperature of the steam by which they are surrounded, and this rise in 
temperature causes steam to be generated inside the cans, by the evaporation 
of some of the moisture there. In fact, the pressure inside the cans will 
become equal to that outside, as soon as the temperature becomes the same 




86 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [July, 



in both places. When the kettle exploded, the pressure that had been acting 
externally upon the cans was suddenly removed, while the internal pressure 
upon them remained unaltered. As soon as the kettle gave way, therefore, 
the cans were in the condition of little boilers carrying an internal pressure 
too great for them to withstand, and they popped open by the dozen, be- 
spattering our respected representative with a hot vegetable diet. 

(The peas were not literally "overcooked," but they exploded individually 
as soon as the cans failed, and became converted into a sort of mush. Grain 
kernels are treated in this way commercially, and the process is patented.) 



Bugg-y and Shovel Inspections. 

The following is a true story, save that we have changed the name of the 
man mentioned, doing this because we don't want to throw any mud at state 
inspectors. The real name is uncommon enough to make the identification of 
the place possible. 

In soliciting fly wheel insurance of Mr. Jones (writes one of our agents), 
he asked me what kind of inspections we give on fly wheels. 

"Do yon give buggy inspections, or shovel inspections?" he inquired. 

I told him he could have both if he wanted them, and added that there isn't 
any kind of an inspection that the Hartford wouldn't give the assured, if he 
desired it. But I added that I was unfamiliar with the special kinds he had 
mentioned, and asked him to explain. 

He said that a few years ago they received visits from an inspector who, 
when his horse was particularly fractious or his rheumatism was bothering 
him, gave them a buggy inspection, by driving to the engine room and whistling 
to attract the attention of the boiler man. Without alighting from his buggy he 
would then ask a few questions, after which he would drive back to the office 
and whistle again ; and when some one from the office went out to him, he gave 
them his inspection report. At other times, when he had a quiet steed that 
would stand without hitchin', and Avhen his rheumatism was not particularly 
aggressive, he sometimes went into the boiler room, opened the furnace door, 
and poked at the bottom of the boiler with a long-handled shovel. If this par- 
ticular part of the boiler seemed reasonably solid, and his shovel did not 
perforate it, he said everything was all right. 

I asked Mr. Jones whom he was insuring with at that time, and he said 
with the Hartford company. I need not tell you that I was shocked to hear 
one of our patrons give such an acount of our service as that. I hardly knew 
what to say, so I merely told him that I had never heard of one of the Hartford's 
inspectors making any such examination as that. 

" Neither have I ", he responded. "It is true that I was insuring with the 
Hartford at the time, but these particular inspections were made by the State 
inspector ". 

At that a great load was lifted from my soul, and I thought that if the 
State inspector had knovvn that the Hartford was insuring the boilers, his own 
examinations might have been more carefully made. Or did he feel that a 
" shovel inspection " was good enough for him to make, after the Hartford's 
man had been there? 



igio.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 87 



The Speed of Masses Thrown by Boiler Explosions. 

It is occasionally possible to calculate, with some approach to accuracy, 
the initial speed with which masses of matter are projected into the air by 
exploding steam boilers. The best example of this that we know of was af- 
forded by the explosion at the plant of the Denver Gas & Electric Co., at 
Denver, Colo., on June 15, 1909. This was described in the issue- of The 
Locomotive for July, 1909, where we showed how to determine, not only the 
initial velocity of the boiler shell and the maximum height to which it was 
thrown, but also the actual path that the shell followed, through the air. 

It is rare indeed that data enoucfh are available to compute the actual 
initial velocity of a fragment of a boiler, or of any mass that is thrown to a 
distance by a boiler explosion ; but we wish to draw attention to the fact 
that it is always easy to find a viinimum limit to that velocity, — that is, it is 
always easy to determine a velocity which is the least that the projected mass 
could possibly have had, at the moment when its flight began. 

Thus it is not hard to show, from the theory of falling bodies, that when 
the mass is tlfrown in such a way that it first returns to its original level after 
traveling a horizontal distance of D feet, its original speed rrust ha\»e been 
equal, at the very least, to ^ 22D feet per second. In other words, if the 
ground about the boiler is level, we may conclude that the original speed of 
projection was certainly as great as that calculated by the following rule: 

Multiply the horizontal distance, in feet, between the place where the part 
first stood and the place where it first struck the ground, by z^, and then take 
the square root of the product. The result will be the smallest velocity, in 
feet per second, that the part could have had, when it started off. 

This rule gives the actual initial velocity, when the starting point and the 
point of first contact with the ground are on the same level, and when the 
angle of elevation at which the mass started off was 45°. In general, the flying 
mass will first hit the ground at a point a little lower than the level that it 
originally occupied, and neglecting this circumstance will tend to make the rule 
give too large a result. On the other hand, the fact that the actual angle of 
elevation of projection will never be exactly 45°, but will always be greater or 
less than tWs by some indeterminate amount, will tend to make the rule give 
too small a result. The two sources of error will therefore tend to neutralize 
each other, so that the rule may be employed, with some considerable con- 
fidence, in the form given above. Moreover, the slope of the ground about 
the boiler may be neglected, unless it is very marked indeed. 

In explosion No. 214 of our regular list for May, printed in this issue, 
one of the firemen was thrown 527 feet, passing through a wooden dwelling 
on the way. Let us apply the foregoing rule to calculate the least possible 
value of the velocity with which the poor fellow started on his fearful course. 

The bod\^ must have been retarded to some considerable extent bj' the two 
walls of the house through which it crashed, and perhaps we may reasonably 
assume that it would have traveled 600 feet, horizontally, in all, if it had not 
been impeded in that way. Applying the rule on this assumption, we have 
600 X 32 = 19,200 ; and taking the square root of 19,200, we have 138 feet per 
second, which is the least velocity it could have had, as it left the boiler room. 
This is equivalent to about 94 miles per hour. 



88 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [July, 

The Properties of Steam. 

Ninth Paper. — The Experiments of Holborn and Baumann at High 

Pressures. 

Since the appearance of our last previous paper on the properties of steain 
(The Locomotive, July, 1909, page 217), an important and exceedingly valuable 
contribution to the subject has been made by Messrs. L. Holborn and A. Bau- 
mann, who have investigated the pressure of saturated steam from 200° centi- 
grade up to the critical point of water, — that is, from a pressure of 225 lbs. 
per square inch up to a pressure of about 3,200 lbs. per square inch. Their 
original paper is in German, is entitled " Ueber den Sattigungsdruck des Wasser- 
danipfes oberhalb 200°" ("On the Pressure of Saturation of the Vapor of 
Water above 200° C"), and was published April 5, 1910. in the Annalen der 
Physik, fourth series, volume 31, page 945. The paper is wholly experimental, 
and the work was carried out at the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt, 
Charlottenburg, Germany, — a fact which in itself is sufficient to give great 
weight to the results. 

The investigation was conducted by the static method (The Locomotive, 
July, 1906, page diy), and the apparatus that was used is shgwn diagrammatically, 
in the accompanying illustration. The steam was generated in the steel 
cylinder S, shown on the right, this being submerged in a liquid bath- of known 
temperature. By means of steel tubing, A^ M L, having a very fine bore, the 
cylinder 5" was placed in communication with an apparatus AZ, shown on the 
extreme left, which served for the determination of the pressures. The inter- 
mediate parts E, C, B, D, that appear in the illustration, were auxiliary devices, 
whose purposes will be explained below. 

Steam Generation and Temperature Measures. 

The cylinder 6" was about ^ in. in diameter internally, and 6 in. high, 
enclosing a space of about 2 cubic inches. It was not heated directly by a 
flame, but was submerged in a hot fluid bath, whose temperature could be 
raised and controlled by means of a heating coil of nickel resistance-wire, 
through which an electric current was passed. The bath was arranged to 
slide up and down along vertical Vvays, so that it could be drawn away 
from the cylinder 5" at will. For temperatures below 230° C. (that is, for 
steam pressures below 400 lbs. per sq. in.) the bath was filled with oil, while 
at higher temperatures, where the oil could be no longer used, it was filled 
with melted saltpeter. In each case the bath was kept well stirred, so that its 
temperature was sensibly the same in all parts. 

The temperature of the steam in the cylinder 5" was ascertained by 
measuring the temperature of the bath in which it was submerged, a platinum 
resistance thermometer being used for this purpose. This part of the work 
does not call for extended explanation in the present place, as it was carried 
out in the same general way as in Holborn and Henning's experiments, which 
were described in The Locomotive for April, 1909,* save that in the present 
investigation the observers do not state that there was any secondary compari- 
son with the boiling points of naphthalin and benzophenon. 

The platinum-resistance thermometer that was used is designated as " No. 



* Pee paares i3i and iqo of that article. 



iQio.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 89 

II." Its constants were determined l)y observations at the melting point of ice, 
and at the boiling points of water and of sulphur. In order to test its 
accuracy, it was further compared with the Reichsanstalt's standard thermometer 
No. 7, at 200° C. and at 37^° C. At joo° the two agreed to within 0.01° C, 
and at 373° to within 0.03° C, 

Pressure Measiremknts. ^ 

The pressure-measuring device, which was designed by Thiesen and con- 
structed under his direction, consisted of a heavy brass cylinder Z, fitted with 
a plunger, A', upon which a known load could be placed, by means of the 
weights shown at A. It will be seen that the apparatus determined the total 
upward fluid pressure against the plunger K by balancing it directly against 
the weights. This method was proposed by Altschul, and instruments based 
upon the same principle are in use for the testing of standard pressure gages, 
and for other commercial purposes where accuracy is desired. The chief dif- 
ficulties to be overcome in using this apparatus are two in number. Thus (i) 
there will be more or less friction between the plunger A.' and the cylinder Z, 
unless means are employed for its elimination; and (2) a small error in 
measuring the diameter of K may give rise to an error in the result that would 
be quite inadmissible in work of a high degree of precision. In the experi- 
ments that w-e are describing these two sources of error were considered with 
much care. 

In the ordinary commercial form of this apparatus, the friction of the 
plunger K is eliminated by causing it to spin around about its own axis 
while the measurement is being performed. In Holborn and Baumann's ex- 
periments it was not practicable to accomplish the desired end in quite this 
way, but the same purpose was achieved by causing the plunger K to rotate 
back and forth about its own axis through an angle of about 18°, the rotation 
being executed in a period of approximately one second. The motion was 
produced by means of an electric motor, not shown in the sketch, which operated 
on K in such a way as to produce the desired backward and forward oscillations 
about the vertical axis, while not interfering in the least with the entire 
freedom of the plunger in a vertical direction. 

The effective diameter of the plunger K was found b\- a separate series 
of experiments, in which pressures running up to 227 lbs. per square inch were 
measured by the dead-weight apparatus shown in the illustration, and also, 
simultaneously, b}' a mercury column. By comparing the readings of the 
mercury column with the indications of the dead-weight apparatus, it was found 
that the effective sectional area of K was 0.99964 square centimeters (or ap- 
proximately 0.15s sq. inch.). 

The sensitiveness of the pressure-measuring apparatus was carefully in- 
vestigated, and was found to be satisfactory. When the pressure of the steam 
was 225 lbs. per square inch, the plunger K was sensitive to 5 grams, or 
one-sixth of an ounce, — the addition or subtraction of this amount to or from 
the pile of weights A causing an unmistakable motion of the plunger. At 
higher pressures the apparatus became less sensitive, but when the pressure was 
3.000 lbs. per square inch, it was still sensitive to a change in the weight-pile of 
154 ounces. 

The standard weights that were used were disk-like in form, each having 



90 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[July, 



a radial slot so that it could be placed centrally under the plunger, and each 
weighing ten kilograms (about 22 lbs.). For obtaining values intermediate 
between those afforded by two successive standard weights, smaller v/eights 
were used, of the type employed for ordinary balances. 

The Remaining Parts of the Apparatus. 
The space below the plunger K, in the pressure-measuring device, was 
filled with oil ; and since the plunger could not fit the cavity in Z too tightly 
without the production of an excessive amount of friction, oil slowly exuded 
around it during the course of the experiments, the amount so escaping being 
about a quarter of a cubic inch per hour at the highest pressures that were 




Diagram of Holborn and Baumann's Apparatus. 

encountered. On account of this leakage it was necessary to introduce more 
oil from time to time, and this was accomplished by means of the device 
shown at E. In operating E the conical valve g was first closed, and then 
the screw P was turned until the frame in which it worked, and which sup- 
ported the weights, was lowered so as to rest against a stop not shown in the 
illustration. £y this means the plunger K was relieved of its load, the pres- 
sure being at the same time relieved in the cavity in Z. Then, by opening 
the valve f, oil could be introduced into the interior of Z by means of F. 
Upon closing f and opening g, the apparatus was again ready for use, with an 
additional supply of oil in the cavity of Z. 

To prevent the water in S from becoming contaminated by contact with 
the oil in the pressure-measuring device, the horizontal tubes C and D were 



igio.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 91 



provided. The lower half of each of these was hlled with inerciiry, the upper 
half of D being tilled with water and tne upper half of C with oil. 

Between the tubes C" and D there was an apparatus shown at B, whose 
main purpose was to vary the volume occupied by the steam iu 6'. This ap- 
paratus, B, consisted essentially of a plunger \V , which could be forced into 
the cylinder to a variable distance, by means of a hand wheel and screw that 
are not shown. At the upper end of this apparatus there were three conical 
valves, a, b, c, by means of which the space in B could be placed in communica- 
tion with the steam space S, or with the pressure-measuring apparatus, or (by 
means of the tube H) with an air-pump or any other external device. 

In order to free the entire apparatus of air as completely as possible, the 
tubes C and D and the device B were placed in communication with one 
another and pumped out by means of the openings r and /. Then the necessary 
quantity of mercury (for partly filling C and D) was allowed to flow in through 
the tube H, after which the space remaining in the tube D was filled with water 
through the opening t, and that in the tube C with oil through the opening r. 
Finally, by taking every precaution against the admission of air, the tube N 
was secured to D at t, and the tube M was similarly secured to C at r. When 
the plunger K was loaded, after putting the whole apparatus together, it was 
easy to tell, from its motion, whether all the air had been expelled from the 
apparatus or not, and if any were present it could be located by successively 
closing the intermediate conical valves c and a. 

IMaxipul.vtion. 

Before bringing the hot-bath up around the cylinder S, the plunger IV 
was drawn back so as to make room for the expansion of the water in 6". 
This was particularly important at the higher temperatures, where the ex- 
pansion of the water was very marked. 

Shortly before each series of observations was begun, the plunger W was 
run into the receiver B until the pressure produced by any further motion 
showed that the apparatus was entirely filled with fluid. Under these cir- 
cumstances there would be no steam-space in the cylinder S, but any desired 
amount of space could be produced there by withdrawing the plunger W by 
a measured amount. This feature of the apparatus was extremely important, 
since it enabled the experimenters to vary the volume in the cylinder .S" at will. 
If there were no air nor other fixed gas present, the pressure should depend 
entirely upon the temperature, and be entirely independent of the volume of 
the steam space in S; whereas if air or other similar gas were present, the 
observed pressure would vary to some extent with the volume of the space 
occupied by the steam. Ordinarily, each series of observations for obtaining 
the pressure corresponding to a given fixed temperature was divided into two 
parts, one being executed with one fixed value of the steam space, and the 
other with a materially different value. A practically identical agreement of 
the various parts of the series so taken was assumed to prove the absence 
of air or other fixed gas. 

Previous observers have maintained that water does not attack the steel 
containing vessel to any noticeable extent, even at the highest pressures ; but 
Holborn and Baumann do not agree with this conclusion. They state that after 
the cylinder 5" had been repeatedly heated to above 300°, a small quantity of 



92 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[July, 



iron went into solution, so that upon standing in contact with air the water 
became somewhat colored, and finally threw down a precipitate of oxide of 
iron. This action appeared to be attended by the production of a small 
quantity of gas (undoubtedly hydrogen) in the cylinder S. Direct evidence of 
the presence of such gas was afforded, indeed, by the observed fact that when 
the same mass of water had been used for a long time above 300°, the satura- 
tion pressures which were subsequently obtained with it at lower temperatures 
were no longer independent of the steam volume. Observations, which we 
have not thought it necessary to reproduce, are given by Holborn and Baumann 
to illustrate this point. The data that we give in present article are believed 
to be free from error due to this cause, since, to guard against its occurrence, 
the water in the cylinder S was renewed at frequent intervals. 

The Final Data. 

The experimental data obtained by Holborn and Baumann will be found 
in the accompanying table. In tlie original paper the observations are all given 
separately, but inasmuch as they were made in groups, with the temperatures 
in each group almost identically constant throughout, we have thought it 
sufficient to reprint only the mean value as obtained from each individual group, 
indicating in every case, however, the number of separate observations that 
were combined to yield the result as given. The entire range of temperature 
comprised in any one group did not ordinarily exceed a tenth of a degree or 
so. The result that we give for the temperature 336.15°, for example, is the 
mean of six separate observations, taken at the respective temperatures 336.10°, 
336.12°, 336.16°, 336.16°, 33620°, and 336.17°. 



Experiments by Holborn and Baumann, 


ABOVE 200° C. 




Temperature. 


Pressure. 


No. of ob- 


Temperature. 


Pressure. 


No. of ob- 


(Centigrade.) 


(Kg. per sq. cm.) 


servations. 


(Centigrade ) 


(Kg. per sq, cm.) 


servations. 


200.98° 


16.168 


12 


336.15° 


141.61 


6 


202 . 14 


16.553 


11 


341-33 


151-03 


10 


214.07 


21.061 


12 


347-25 


162.50 


9 


219.86 


23-574 


12 


348.34 


164.85 


7 


230.90 


28.952 


12 


353-88 


176.18 


II 


241.05 


34-713 


13 


356.72 


182.44 


6 


250.41 


40.750 


13 


358.29 


185.76 


14 


261.97 


49-315 


12 


362.25 


194.92 


16 


271.78 


57-560 


11 


364.73 


200.61* 


9 


281.34 


66.629 


12 


365.31 


202.13 


3 


292.07 


78.061 


11 


368.38 


209.71 


3 


301.82 


S9-75 


6 


370. 25t 


214. 3o| 


10 


311.14 


102.14 


12 


370.96 


216.43 


3 


321.61 


117.40 


11 


373-39 


222.67 


4 


330.44 


131-57 


14 


374.o8§ 


224.47 


7 


335-11 


139.60 


2 









* 200. 7g in the original, t 370.26 in the original X 214.28 in the original. § 374.07 in the original. 
(The changes here noted were made because the averaging in the original appears to be 
erroneous.) 



1910.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 93 

Holborn and Ikuiniaiin arc not ([uite so explicit as \vc could wish, with 
reference to the nature of their therniometric scale, but if we understand them 
correctly, their temperatures are suppo.>^ed to be given on the scale of the normal, 
constant-volume hydrogen thermometer. We may also, without material error, 
regard tiiem as given on the absolute thermodynamic scale, since this scale, 
according to Berthelot, is almost identically the same as that of the hydrogen 
thermometer. 

The pressures are expressed in kilograms per square centimeter, and they 
have been corrected for all recognized experimental errors, such as for the fact 
that the bottom of the plunger A' was not at precisely the same level as the 
surface of the water in the cylinder S, the connections between 5" and Z being 
filled with water, oil, and mercury. The barometric pressure acting upon the 
top of the plunger K was of course taken into account also, and all pressures 
have been reduced to the values they would have had if observed at sea-level 
in latitude 45°. 

We rind nothing in Holborn and Baumann's paper respecting the purity 
of the water that was employed, save in respect to the absence of air and other 
free " fixed " gases, nor do we find any statement as to the density of the 
mercury in the gage that was used in determining the eflfective diameter of the 
plunger A', as described above. The following words that we used in our 
seventh paper, in speaking of a similar omission in the paper of Holborn and 
Henning, apply here with, equal force : " It would have been exceedingly 
reassuring if explicit statements respecting these points had been given, and 
the omission is most unfortunate. As it is, we have to depend upon the known 
reputation of the observers for accuracy and care, and upon the fact that all 
that emanates from the Reichsanstalt, where these measures were made, is 
distinguished by a faithful attention to details of this sort. According to 
experiments made at the Reichsanstalt, a cubic centimeter of pure mercury, 
at o" C, weighs 13.59593 grammes at sea-level in latitude 45° ; and in the 
absence of further information, we shall have to assume that this was the 
density of the mercury used in the experiments herein described." If this 
assumption be made, then the pressures of Holborn and Baumann, which are 
expressed in kilograms per square centimeter,, may be reduced to their equivalent 
/alues in millimeters of mercury by multiplying them by the number 735.5141 
(whose common logarithm is 2.8665910). 

The Critical Temperature of Water. 
As we have previously explained in The Locomotive (see, for example, 
the issue for November, 1891, page 173), there is a temperature, known as 
the " critical temperature," at which water and its vapor cease to be dis- 
tinguishable, and above which the expression " saturated steam " has no 
meaning. In The Locomotive for July, 1907, we described the methods used 
by Battelli and by Cailletet and Colardeau for the determination of this 
temperature. Holborn and Baumann carried their experimental work up to 
the same point, and determined the value of the critical temperature with much 
care. Battelli found it to be 364.3 C, and Cailletet and Colardeau found it 
to be 365°. Holborn and Baumann found it to be a fraction of a degree above 
374°, and although their result differs by nearly ten degrees from those just 
cited, it will probably be accepted in preference to the earlier values, since 
the experimental evidence upon which it is based appears to be of a higher 




94 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [July. 

order of precision. Moreover, the value found by liolborn and Baumann agrees 
almost perfectly with that obtained by Traube and Teichmann (namely, 374°) 
in 1904, by a totally different method. (See the Annalcn der Physik, volume 
13, page 620.) 

Eriefly described, the method used by liolborn and Baumann for finding 
the critical temperature was as follows : So long as there were both steam and 
v.ater in the cylinder S, and no air or other fixed gas, the observed pressure 
depended upon nothing but the temperature, — a slight change in the volume 
cf the steam-space making no difference whatever in the pressure, so long as 
the temperature remained constant. As the temperature at which the trials 
were made became progressively higher, it was found that at 374.08° C. there 
was still a distinctly recognizable difference between the steam and water in S, 
so that a slight change could be made in the steam-volume without any 
consequent change resulting in the pressure. At 374.62° C, however, this was 
found to be no longer possible, for at this temperature and at higher ones, 
the contents of the cylinder i' behaved like a homogeneous gas, the pressure 
upon which could be varied at will, while the temperature was kept constant. 
Somewhere between 374.08° C. and 2)7-\-^^° C., therefore, the distinction between 
v/ater and steam ceases to exist. Holbom and Baumann do not give a close 
estimate of the exact point at which this occurs. They merely say : " Die 
kritische Temperatur liegt . . . bei 374° " ("The critical temperature is close 
to 374° "). From an examination of the diagram given on page 966 of their 
original paper, we are of the impression that a close analysis of their results 
would indicate that the critical temperature of water is about 374-5° C. 



Eel Oil as Boiler Fuel. 

The following astonishing item was printed in a recent issue of the Syra- 
cuse, N. Y., Herald, and it purports to be a " special " from Dugway. We don't 
know Dugway. Dugginsville, Mo., we know, and Dugdemona, La., and Dug- 
down, Ga., and Dugout, W. Va. ; but Dugway is outside the pale cf our geog- 
raphy. ' Anyhow, here is what the item says : 

" For the last month the sawmill here has been running on a fuel which 
puzzled the fireman of the boiler, and not until Friday did he solve the enigma. 

" Several weeks ago the fireman was feeding the firebox a cord of four-foot 
wood a day ; while today he uses only a few sticks in the morning to start the 
fire. The boiler is fed from a creek back of the mill, a three-inch pipe running 
from the boiler to the stream. This creek is noted for its small eels. The eels 
ran up the pipe to the injector on the boiler and were forced into the flues [ ! ]. 
The hot water soon cooked the eels, and investigation showed that the boiler 
contains several barrels of eel oil. The flues of the boiler leak, — not badly, 
but just enough to let the oil into the firebox, where it keeps us a seething flame." 

[Shades of Louis de Rougemont ! In comparison with the author of that 
item, we shall have to count Ananias among the minor prophets.] 



We can still furnish copies of our little book, " The Metric System." It is 
the best thing to be had, for comparing metric measures with our own. Bound 
in sheep, it costs $1.25. A special bond paper edition for $1.50. 



THe HanfOFd Steaiq Boilei iDspeciioii and Insuraqce Conipaiiij. 



ABSTRACT OF STATEMENT, JANUARY 1, 1910. 
Capital Stock, . . . $1,000,000.00. 

ASSETS. 



Cash on hand and in course of transmission, 
Premiums in course of collection, 

Real estate 

Loaned on bond and mortgage, . 
Stocks and bonds, market value, . 
Interest accrued 



$'5-4.845-83 
228,048.46 

93,600.00 
1,107,060.00 
3,063.476.00 

67.580.50 



Total Assets, $4,714,610.79 

LIABILITIES. 

Re-insurance Reserve, $1,943,732.29 

Losses unadjusted, 90,939-53 

Commissions and brokerage, 45,609.69 

Other liabilities (taxes accrued, etc.), . . . 41.835.50 

Capital Stock, $1,000,000.00 

Surplus, 1,592,493.78 

Surplus as regards Policy-holders, . . $2,592,493.78 2.592,49378 



Total Liabilities, 



$4,714,610.79 



On January i, 1910, The Hartfokd Steam Boiler Inspection and Ln- 
SURANCE Company had 104,589 steam boilers under insurance. 



L. B. BRAINERD, President and Treasurer. 

FRANCIS B. ALLEN, Vice-President. CHAS. S. BLAKE, Secretary. 

L. F. MIDDLEBROOK, Assistant Secretary. 

W. R. C. CORSON, Assistant Secretary. 

A. S. WiCKHAM, Superintendent of Agencies. 

E. J. Murphy, M. E., Consulting Engineer. 

F. M. Fitch, Auditor. 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 



GEORGE BURNHAM, Baldwin Lnromo- 
tive Works, Philadelphia. 

PHILIP CORBIN, Prest. American Hard- 
ware Corporation, New Britain, Conn. 

ATWOOD COLLINS. Prest. Security 
Co., Hartford, Conn. 

LUCIUS F. ROBINSON, Attorney, 
Hartford, Conn. 

JOHN O. ENDERS, U. S. Bank, Hart- 
ford, Conn. 

LYMAN B. BRAINERD, Director, Swift 
& Company. 

MORGAN B. BRAINARD, Treasurer 
.i^tna Life Insurance Co. 



F. B. ALLEN, Vice-Prest., Hartford Steam 
Boiler Inspection and Insurance Co. 

CHARLES P. COOLEY, Vice-Prest., Fi- 
delity Trust Company, Hartford, Conn. 

ARTHUR L. SHIPMAN, Attorney, Hart- 
ford, Conn. 

GEORGE C. KIMBALL, President Smvth 
Manufacturing Co., Hartford, Conn. 

CHARLES M. JARVIS, ist Vice-Prest.. 

.American Hardware Corporation, New 

Britain, Conn. 
FRANCIS T. MAXWELL. President. 

HnrVanum Mill"; Cr,.. Rockville. Conn. 
HORACE B. CHENEY, of Cheney 

Brothers Silk Manufacturing Co. 

South Manchester, Conn. 



uUf!^^ 



Incorporated 1866. 




r\V^*' 



Charter Perpetual. 



vi« 



me Harilord Steaiq Boiler iqspectioii ami Insurance Gonipaiiji 

ISSUES POLICIES OF INSURANCE COVERING 

ALL LOSS OF PROPERTY 

AS WELL AS DAMAGE RESULTING FROM 

LOSS OF LIFE AND PERSONAL INJURIES DUE TO EXPLOSIONS 
OF STEAM BOILERS OR FLY WHEELS. 

Full information concerning the Companf s Operations can be obtained at 

any of its Agencies. 



Department. 

NEW YORK, . 
BOSTON, . 
PHILADELPHIA, 

BALTIMORE, . 

ATLANTA, 
BIRMINGHAM, 
NEW ORLEANS, 
HARTFORD, . 

BRIDGEPORT, . 
PITTSBURG, . 
CLEVELAND, . 
CINCINNATI, . 
CHICAGO, . 
ST. LOUIS, 
DENVER, . 
SAN FRANCISCO, 
PORTLAND, . 



Representatives. 

C. C. Gardiner, Manager, 

W. W. Manning, Acting Chief Insp. 



C. E. Roberts, Manager, 

F. S. Allen, Chief Inspector, 

CoRBiN & Goodrich, Gen. Agents, 
Wm. J. Farran, Chief Inspector, 
S. B. Adams, Asst. Chief Inspector, 



r 

Lawford & McKiM, Gen. Agents, I 
R. E. Munro, Chief Inspector, i 

W. M. Francis, Manager, 

W. M. Francis, Chief Inspector, 

George C. Oliver, General Agent, 

H. E. Stringfellow, Chief Inspector, 

Peter F. Pescud, General Agent, 

R. T. BuRWELL, Chief Inspector, 

F. H. Williams, Jr., General Agent, 

H. C. Long, Special Agent, 

F. H. Kenyon, Special Agent, 

F. S. Allen, Chief Inspector, 

W. G. Lineburgh & Son, Gen. Agts., 

F. S. Allen, Chief Inspector, 

James W. Arrott, Ltd., Gen. Agt., 

Benjamin Ford. Chief Inspector, 

H. A. Baumhart, Manager, 

H. A. Baumhart, Chief Inspector, 

W. E. Gleason, Manager, 

B. F. Cooper^ Chief Inspector, 
H. M. Lemon, Manager, 
James L. Foord. Chief Inspector, 
V. Hugo. Manager, 

V. Hugo, Chief Inspector, 
Thos. E. Shears. General Agent, 
Thos. E. Shears. Chief Inspector, 
H. R. Mann & Co., General Agents, 
J. B. Warner. Chief Inspector, 
McCargar, Bates & Lively, G. Agts., 

C. B. Paddock, Chief Inspector, 



Offices. 
New York City, N. Y., 

100 William St. 
Boston, Mass., 

loi Milk St. 
Providence, R. I., 

17 Custom House St. 
Philadelphia, Pa., 

432 Walnut St. 

Baltimore, Md., 

14 Abell Bldg. 
Washington, D. C, 

511 Eleventh St., N.W. 
Atlanta, Ga., 

61 1 -613 Empire Bldg. 
Birmingham, Ala., 
, Brown-Marx Bldg. 
New Orleans, La., 

833-835 Gravier St. 
Hartford, Conn., 

56 Prospect St. 



Bridgeport, Conn., 

I Sanford Building. 
Pittsburg, Pa., 

401 Wood Street. 
Cleveland, Ohio, 

Century Building. 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 

67-69 ]\Iitchell Bldg. 
Chicago. 111., 

169 Jackson Bvd. 
St. Louis, Mo., 

319 North Fourth St. 
Denver, Col., Room 2, 

Jacobson Bldg. 
San Francisco, Cal., 

339-341 San some St. 
Portland, Ore., 

Failing Building. 



8heyo t0m0tite 

COPYRIGHT, 1910, BY THE HARTFORD STEAM BOILER INSPECTION AND INSURANCE CO. 



Vol. XXVIII. HARTFORD, CONN., OCTOBER 25, 191^ 



No. 4. 



The Stiffening- Effect of Girth Joints. 

From time to time we have pointed out, in The Locomotive, that the girth 
joints in a steam boiler have a stiffening effect upon the shell which is of 
considerable importance on the score of safety. In the issue for October, 1909, 
for example, we discussed the number of courses that have been recommended 
and used in the manufacture of boiler shells, and we there said that " the 
stiffening action of the girth joint is quite an important element in a boiler 
shell, and its absence was doubtless one of the causes of failure of the single 
bottom-sheet type." 

The correctness of our contention is beautifully shown by the accompany- 
ing photograph, which represents an ammonia tank that exploded recently in an 




Illustrating the Stiffness of a Girth Joint. 

ice-manufacturing plant at Coffeyville, Kans. The building was destroyed by 
fire, and the ammonia tank became overheated in consequence, so that it was 
unable to sustain the pressure to which it was subjected. The tank was 
originally cylindrical, with the same diameter throughout, and, as will be seen, 
the two end courses toward the right of the photograph were swelled out by 
the pressure, so that one of them assumed an almost perfectly spherical form, 
drawing down in thickness at the same time until a rent opened in the shell, 
lengthwise. 

The main thing to which we would draw attention is the fact that not- 
withstanding the severe overheating to which the shell was exposed, the girth 



93 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [October, 

joint between the first and second courses retained its diameter, almost without 
any change whatever, while the shell bulged to a very marked extent on each 
side of it. 

If the shell had not been provided with girth joints, it is highly probable 
that it would have swelled out through a considerable part of its length, and 
that, instead of merely opening locally, it would have exploded violently, with 
much more serious results. 



Steam Boiler Insurance.* 

Origin of " Uxderwritixg." 

It is recorded that no serious attempt was made to engage in the business of 
insurance, in any form, until after the great fire of 1666, in London, England ; 
and I cannot find definitely whether fire or marine hazards were the first to be 
covered, although the evidence appears to favor the latter. One historian, 
however, states that an ofiice was opened in 1681 " at the back side of the 
Royal Exchange," to insure against loss by fire. About the same time, or at 
any rate not later than 1687 or 1688, the Lloyd's method was conceived, grew 
into favor, and met with success. 

Many things have been charged against coffee, our common beverage. I 
have heard persons say they had coffee hearts or coffee heads, and some, 
affected in the limbs, have laid this trouble to coffee also. Now I find that at 
least one form of insurance had its inception in a coffee house, where it was 
probably inspired by that delicious stimulant, and I am not sure but that some 
of the troubles of present day companies can be traced to too much coffee. 

Edward Lloyd was one of a number to open a place, in the latter part of 
the ' seventeenth century, for the purpose of serving what then was a new 
beverage, called " kauphy." It was first located in Tower Street, London, 
England, but in 1692, some two hundred years after the discovery of America, 
it was removed to Lombard Street. Certain merchants and ship-owners were 
wont to gather there to talk over their cargoes and profits, and other matters, 
and to discuss the merits of different vessels, including their speed and safety. 

The English are reputed to have been great betters, and in the early reign 
of George the Third, about one generation after Edward Lloyd's time, an 
extraordinary mania for betting had developed. Human nature still tends 
somewhat in that direction, even (I might add) in insurance circles. In fact, 
insurance is a legalized form of chance-taking. 

It is my theory that the frequenters of Lloyd's first began to bet on the 
vessels in which they were interested, and it seems but a step from betting to 
the acceptance, as then practiced, of individual responsibility for others' loss. 
The patrons of Lloyd's were wealth}^ and they agreed to assume limited 
individual liability upon vessels and their cargoes. After setting down in a 
document (or, as one historian has said, "on a blackboard") the sum they 
were willing to guarantee, they would write their names under the amount; 
hence the term "underwriting" sprang into being. I can fii ': rlier use 

of this word. In Dickens' "All the Year Round" (May, iS;''. ; i article 
entitled "Who's Llovd's?" where it is said that the insurei, ..rwrote" 



♦An address before the Insurance Institute of Hartford, by Charles ■ :• n Secretary 
of the Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Co. 



I9IO.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 99 



their names to contracts of insurance, and were hence known as "underwriters." 
Edwards, in "Words, Facts and Plirases" (London, 1901) also states that the 
word originated at Lloyd's. 

We arc not told what part LIomI himself originally took in underwriting 
at his kauphy house, but either through his intcrc.-t in it, or through the asso- 
ciations of the place, the method or i)ractice took his name, and became known 
as Lloyd's. Later on he did take an active, personal part in gatUcring maritime 
news, and in marine underwriting. 

The same association of merchants and owners continued the underwriting 
with varying degrees of success, but with the lapse of time certain loose and 
unsatisfactory practices crept in, and finally, after 130 years, the institution was 
reorganized to correct the said troubles. In 1871 Lloyd's was granted all the 
rights and privileges of a corporation by the English Parliament. The same 
230-year-old Lloyd's is still in business, making money, and continuing prac- 
tically the same old form of contract. The early form of guaranteeing has been 
broadened, and developments have taken place in systems, but the original 
term "underwriting" has been retained, and is now applied to all forms of 
insurance. Indeed, it is commonly used in connection with many forms of 
contract, to designate the guarantors thereof. 

Boiler Underwriting. 

Boiler underwriting is the practice of insuring against losses arising from 
boiler explosions. An owner or operator, having a steam boiler or boilers, 
is approached, and when the terms of the contract have been agreed upon, 
a document in the form of a policy is executed and signed by the authorized 
officials. It then becomes the instrument to decide all questions which may arise 
under the contract. The act performed by the insurer is termed "underwriting," 
and the company issuing the policy is the underwriter. 

Boiler underwriting, like marine and fire underwriting, was first practiced in 
England. An inspection company was organized at Huddersfield in the fifties 
of the last century (I have not been able to obtain the exact date), and was 
called " The Huddersfield Association for the Prevention of Steam Boiler 
Explosions." 

In 1859 The Steam Boiler Assurance Company was organized, at Man- 
chester, England, to inspect and insure boilers; and in i860 it absorbed the 
Huddersfield Association. This company was probably the first to issue a 
guarantee, or policy of insurance, covering steam boilers, and the present Vul- 
can Boiler & General Insurance Company, by reason of its being the ultimate 
successor of the Steam Boiler Assurance Company, claims to be the oldest 
company writing this form of insurance. 

The Steam Boiler Assurance Company, as I infer from its records, started 
as a mutual company, but in November, 1864, it became a stock company, and 
a change of name made it The Boiler Insurance & Steam Power Company, Ltd., 
under which title it had a varied experience of ups and downs until a little 
over thirteen years ago, in December, 1896, when it was again reorganized as 
The Vulcan Boiler & General Insurance Company, Ltd. 

Late in 1854 numerous meetings were held in the " Town Hall Buildings," 
at Manchester, England, for the purpose of organizing an association to lessen 
the dangers in the use of steam, and to study its economy. At this meeting a 
resolution was adopted, to the effect: "That an Association be formed under 



iQO THE LOCOMOTIVE. [October, 

the title of ' The Association for the Prevention of Steam Boiler Explosions, 
and for Effecting Economy in the Raising and Use of Steam.' " The asso- 
ciation does not appear to have been actually formed, however, until the public 
meeting in January, 1855. 

At first, this organization did not contemplate the insuring of boilers, but 
between 1861 and 1864 its business of inspecting boilers and indicating engines 
fell off to such an extent that it was decided, in December of the latter year, 
to guarantee the safety of boilers. The loss of business to which I refer was 
attributed to the inroads made by The Steam Boiler Assurance Company, 
which insured as well as inspected boilers. It was first proposed that the 
members voluntarily subscribe a sum of money as a guarantee, and that they 
be reimbursed at the rate of 6s. 8d. per boiler per annum; but most of the 
members had such confidence in the inspection service that they refused to 
accept any bonus or profit. Thirteen members came forward, at first, and put 
up ii.ooo each, and afterwards five others came in on a like basis, making the 
total guarantee fund £18,000 (or about $90,000). The name of the company was 
changed to " The Manchester Steam Users' Association for the Prevention of 
Boiler Explosions and for the Attainment of Economy in the Application of 
Steam." Strange as it may seem, the company's own history does not show 
when this change was made. So far as the length of title goes, the last one 
slightly outdistances its predecessor. 

There was an antagonistic feeling abroad in the early sixties concerning the 
combination of inspecting and insurance by one company, but, as a compromise, 
the last-named company issued a guarantee in which it undertook to make 
good the owners' loss, if a boiler under its inspection care should explode. 
While in this sense a guarantee and a policy of insurance are synonymous, the 
Manchester Association evidently preferred to keep to the form of a wager, 
and to bet on its work, instead of issuing a contract of indemnity, as its com- 
petitor did. 

There are several other companies abroad, with from 20 to 30 years' expe- 
rience, Canada having one, — The Boiler Inspection & Insurance Company of 
Canada — which was organized on English lines 35 j-ears ago, and is to-day the 
leading company of the Dominion. 

The pioneer company of this continent was organized in 1866, in this city 
of Hartford. It was then, as now, known as The Hartford Steam Boiler 
Inspection and Insurance Company. 

In the spring of 1876, the Knickerbocker Plate Glass and Accidental Insur- 
ance Company was organized in New York. Its name was soon changed to 
the Knickerbocker Casualty Insurance Company, and shortly afterward it was 
again changed to the Fidelity & Casualty Company, which it still retains. As 
the name indicates, this company transacts a general casualty business. 

In 1883, the now defunct American Steam Boiler Insurance Company, de- 
voted solely to boiler insurance, was formed in New York, and in more recent 
times many companies have entered the field, to underwrite boiler insurance. 

Since the days of the American Steam Boiler Insurance Company, there has 
been strenuous competition in the business. There are today no less than 14 
companies writing boiler insurance in the United States, but only two are con- 
fining themselves exclusively to the underwriting of the hazards pertaining to 
steam — one of these. The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance 
Company, operates in all the states of the Union, while the other. The Mutual 



I9IO.] THE Lui O MOTIVE. ^Ql 



Boiler Insurance Company of Boston, confines its operations to the State of 
Massachusetts. All the remaining cmnpanies are doing various lines of under- 
writing, such as liability, plate glass, automobile, burglary, and so on, one of 
them priding itself on the multiplicit\ of its lines, of which it has, not fifty- 
seven varieties, but sixteen. 

A number of multiple-line companies have retired from the boiler-insurance 
field, finding, after an honest endeavor to maintain an adcqtfete inspection 
service on a necessarily small preminm income, that it is impossible to do so 
to the satisfaction of the assured, witliout severe loss to the stockholders. 

While there are still 14 companies trying to build up boiler departments, it 
is necessarily slow work, not because their efforts are not well directed, but 
because the field is not developing so as to keep pace with industrial advances. 
At first thought you will charge me with being a pessimist, but when I tell 
you the facts about the narrowing field, you will readily understand what I 
mean, and I think you must also admit the truth of my contention. 

Up to a few years ago the boiler-making industries were keeping pace with 
other advances, but in more recent times there has been a tendency toward the 
use of larger units of power, and this means a reduction in the number of 
boilers used for the development of a given power. The smaller steam powers 
are also giving way to internal-combustion engines that do not require the 
generation of steam. Indeed, there are some large and notable power plants 
abroad, as well as in our own country, where no boilers are employed, at all, 
except possibly in a small way as auxiliaries, for furnishing steam for minor 
purposes. 

It is the intention of one of the largest and latest equipped boiler shops of 
this country to go out of the boiler business entirely, and engage in the man- 
ufacture of internal combustion engines. This shop has had a capacity for pro- 
ducing from 2,500 to 3,000 boilers per annum, and has actually turned out 
that number when business was fairly good. Every day some owner gives up 
boiler insurance because he has substituted eitlier gas, gasoline, or kerosene 
engines, for steam power. We have also to reckon with the concentration of 
power, as it is observed in public utility corporations, supplying electric power 
to the smaller consumers, and displacing a corresponding number of the minor 
steam power plants. 

Successful methods of transmitting electric power over long distances have 
permitted the utilization of great and heretofore undeveloped water powers, and 
made it possible to bring the electric current generated therefrom within the zone 
of power users, and this has still further checked the multiplication of steam- 
power plants. The number of boilers so being discontinued is startling, yet 
every year some new company is formed to insure boilers (with other lines 
of casualty insurance), or some casualty company adds boiler insurance to the 
lines it is already carrying. 

Boiler owners have been fairly well educated to perceive the need of 
inspection service, and of protection in case of loss, although there are occasional 
exceptions where they are still unfamiliar with the subject, or indifferent to it. 
The education has been brought about by liberal advertising upon the part of 
the companies engaged in the business, and by severe penalties exacted from 
uninsured boiler owners in the courts, in suits for recovery for personal injuries. 
Competition is so keen that little or no business comes in, as one would say 
commercially, '" over the counter." It is mostly secured by personal solicitation. 



^02 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [October, 

Boiler insurance differs from some other forms of insurance in the fact that 
the contracts or poHcies offered by the various companies are widely different, 
there being no two absolutely alike. Occasionally a company will undertake to 
furnish a duplicate form, but will balk at some one or two clauses, so that 
there is never any real identity in the contracts. 

I intended to point out the differences in the policy forms that are in actual 
use, but as I found that it would take an entire evening to do so, I shall have 
to confine myself to a brief review of the most important points. 

Taking a composite view of those that exist, we have a policy covering, in 
blanket form, the property of the assured, as well as the property of others, 
and also any personal injuries for which the assured may be liable, — provided 
such injuries and losses are caused directly by the explosion of the insured 
boiler. 

All contracts agree, within certain limits, to absolutely indemnify the assured 
for his own property, wherever it may be located, and whether it consists of 
boilers, buildings, machinery, or stock ; and while some contracts permit the 
owner to exercise an option as to whether his own property loss shall be paid 
first, or before the policy contributes to other claims, others do not do so. In 
my own experience, extending over 25 years, I have never known an owner to 
ask the suspension of payment for his own property loss, in order to first 
determine his legal liability for his neighbors' property, or to ascertain the 
outcome of the adjudication of personal injury claims, both of which settlements 
might conceivably be drawn out for years. An insuring company may some- 
times be asked, however, to first settle personal injurj^ claims of a minor 
character, when it is evident that there would be a remaining sum large enough 
to cover the property loss. Self-preservation is the first law of nature, so 
naturally the owner would always prefer to have his own direct property loss 
paid first. 

It is my opinion that under the optional clause, a coinsuring liability company 
could force the boiler policy to participate in the personal injury claims before 
the property claims could be paid out of it; hence, under certain conditions, 
the owner might suffer a loss that, under a contract covering property first, he 
might be saved. I base my opinion upon this reasoning : Assuming, of course, 
that liability insurance is also carried, if the owner should hold an optional 
boiler contract at the time of an explosion, and if he had not indicated prior 
thereto which character of loss should first be paid, the personal injury indemnity 
would be in full force at the moment of the explosion, and it would therefore be 
subject to pro rate Avith other insurance of like nature, and it would be beyond 
the power of the holder to discriminate against another insuring company. 

As all liability companies make conditions in their policy contracts providing 
that they shall participate in personal injury claims only in the proportion that 
their limits bear to the whole amount applicable at the time of the accident, 
the liability company can force either the boiler policy or the assured to con- 
tribute, inasmuch as at the moment of the explosion there zvas contributing 
insurance. 

The optional contract seems analogous to the following: If the assured 
carries a like or similar insurance in another company, and one company fails 
after the accident, the solvent company cannot be held for more than its propor- 
tion of insurance carried by the assured at the time of the accident, for at that 
moment the insurance of the defunct company was in force. A policy which 



1910.] THE L(jCO MOTIVE. lOS 



makes the payment of death and injury claims secondary, and effective only 
after the payment of property damaj^e, cannot be made to contribute until the 
property claim is settled, as it is not contributing at the moment of the explosion. 

Boiler policies do not cover fire, whether it is caused by an explosion or not. 

The maximum pressure allowed on the insured boilers is sometimes fixed 
in the policy. This is a better plan than the one followed by some companies 
of having it fixed by the reports or certificates of the inspectors, because under 
the latter system changes with intent or by error can easily be made by the 
insuring company, and overlooked by the policy-holder; — and then, in case 
a claim arises under the policy, there is a loophole provided, which may enable 
the insuring company to escape payment, if it should Ije disposed to make the 
attempt. 

An increase of pressure beyond that allowed l)y the policy or certificate, 
comes within the general clause of " Changes material to the risk," and thus 
makes the contract void. The same clause is necessary in all contracts, to avoid 
liability for damages caused by a weakening of the structure, and within the 
control of the assured ; for otherwise the hazard might be increased without 
the knowledge of the insuring company. 

The definition of an explosion, under the composite view, is " a violent 
separation of the metal, or of the component parts of the boiler," and the con- 
tract is usually extended to cover all pipes — water or steam — up to, and 
including, the first shut-off valve in each pipe. A necessary provision is, that 
the explosion shall be caused by the pressure of steam. You may ask. What 
else would burst, explode, or rupture a boiler? To which I answer. Dynamite, 
gas, ice, or a number of other agencies that it would be easy to enumerate. I 
have personally observed results from the three causes mentioned, and I have 
known of a case in which a boiler was destroyed by a landslide. 

No company agrees, in its policy contract, to make inspections, although it 
provides that its inspectors shall have all reasonable opportunity to inspect the 
insured boilers and the appliances on which their safety depends. Very properly, 
all companies reserve the right to suspend the insurance at once, in the event" of 
urgent need; — for example, in case a dangerous defect were found in a boiler, 
and the local persons in charge of the boiler should insist upon its continued vise. 
There is but little difference among policies in the matter of the terms of can- 
cellation. The inspection service being quite expensive, it is necessary to provide 
that in the event of cancellation by the assured, the cost of the inspections ren- 
dered shall be included in the charge to the assured. 

It is imperative that immediate notice of accident shall be rendered to the 
insuring company, so it may have an opportunity to investigate the cause, as 
well as to determine the extent of the damage. 

Sufficient consideration is not always given to fixing the amount of insurance 
needed to properly protect the assured. It has been common practice to deter- 
mine the amount of the policy by allowing $5,000 per boiler, but such a custom 
is illogical, and inconsistent with the best interests of either of the parties con- 
cerned. There are many one-boiler or two-boiler plants, carrying, on that basis, 
$5,000 or $10,000 of insurance, respectively, while, by reason of their locations, 
in proximity to expensive buildings or to a large number of persons, they 
should be carrying $50,000 to $75,000. A boiler is equally capable of exploding 
and causing death and destruction, whether it be isolated or set in company with 
a number of others. 



•104 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [October, 

In these days of aggregations and combinations, many companies owning 
boilers have consolidated, so that a demand has arisen for a form of policy 
covering a number of individual plants under one contract, and commonly known 
as a " schedule form." Such a contract is sometimes demanded, also, by owners 
having a number of boilers in one plant, and desiring a coverage beyond the 
usual limit for one explosion. In these cases a policy is issued having a limit 
fixed for any one accident, and a larger or principal sum, which would cover two 
or more accidents of the same limit. Such a policy has the advantage of afiford- 
ing continued protection to the remaining boilers in a battery, if their use were 
continued immediately after the destruction of one of them. 

Occasionally an owner desires to cover property loss only, with no provision 
for personal injuries and death claims. This appears to me to be the best way, 
for I believe boiler policies should cover property only, leaving claims for per- 
sonal injuries and deaths to the liability policies. But as such protection against 
personal injury claims was demanded and provided, before any employers' 
liability or public liability insurance was written in this country, it has become 
a fixed feature in connection with boiler insurance. 

That part of the hazard which relates to compensation for the destruction 
of property belonging to persons other than the owner of the boiler, stands upon 
exactly the same basis as death claims and claims for personal injury; that is, 
the insurance is really and legally applicable only to the liability of the policy- 
holder. In general practice this part of the loss is usually settled by the insuring 
company, and upon the same basis as that adopted in settling for the property of 
the assured, — • namely, the actual cash value of the property at the time of the 
explosion. 

Death and personal injury indemnity, under a boiler policy, is really a pro- 
tective feature that can be classed as liability insurance, pure and simple. 
» 

Inspection Service. 

A full evening would be required, to treat this part of the subject properly, 
and hence I shall try to interest 3-ou in a few things only. 

The success of a boiler insurance company depends very largely upon the 
nature of its inspection service. The organization and maintenance of an 
inspection department seems a simple thing, even to shrewd business men and 
engineers; but high efficiency in this work implies familiarity, on the part of 
the employees, with an enormous mass of facts respecting boiler design, con- 
struction, operation, defects, and so on, and it takes many years to fully train 
an inspector; and his superior must have had much more experience, in order 
to lay out the work and guide the men, and then to pass upon doubtful points. 
Boiler inspectors are selected from a class of men who have had experience in 
as many of the following branches as possible : Boiler designing, construction 
and operation, and the manufacture of the different elements that go to make 
up a boiler and engine plant. 

The company with which I have had the pleasure to be connected, endeavors 
to inspect all boilers offered for insurance before their acceptance, and thereafter 
it makes periodical inspections, characterized as internal and external, and often 
applies a hydrostatic test. 

Internal inspections are made when the boilers are prepared by having their 
fires drawn, and being slowly cooled. All parts must be open, and must be clean 
and accessible to the inspector, who examines every visible part, sounds with 



I910.J THE LOCOMOTIVE. 105 



a hammer any part liable to be afYecUd, and takes the dimensions of all parts of 
the boiler subject to strain, lie tests the steam gages, examines the gages for 
determining water-levels, inspects the safety-valves, and closely scrutinizes all 
the other apparatus of the boiler plant upon which safety depends. 

The external inspection is made when the plant is working under the regular 
running conditions, and, contrary to the opinion of many persons, it is really a 
highly important detail. Some of the appliances can best be tested when the 
boilers are in operation, this being true, in particular, of the water and steam- 
gages and the safety-valves. The inspector is also able, at this time, to observe 
the general attention given to the oj)eration, to detect leaks in the boiler con- 
nections, to observe the efficiency of the feeding methods, and to form some 
opinion of the duty required of the boilers and of their attendants. 

The hydrostatic pressure is applied only under certain conditions or in con- 
formity with special requirements. In the City of Philadelphia a water-pressure 
must be applied annually, and before the certificates are issued. 

Each day brings some new lesson with regard to defective boilers, and it 
is here that long experience better qualifies a man or a company to decide the 
future of a boiler. In our own practice the inspectors figure up the pressure 
allowable upon the boilers under examination, according to the requirements of 
the company, and of any state or municipal laws that may apply to them, — 
making due allowance for defects and deterioration. The result is passed on to 
the chief inspector of the department, who, in turn, checks up the data and the 
figures, and forwards them to the home of^ce, where a corps of experts review 
the work of both the inspector and the chief inspector. 

New conditions, new types of boilers, and rare defects are reported daily, 
and taken up with the experts at the home office, who keep in close touch with 
all the chief and field inspectors, and give the benefits of a wide range of 
experience to the assured. 

The average man does not always understand how much trouble and expense 
an inspector may cause, by an immature judgment. If he fails to grasp the 
significance of certain defects, and permits the use of the boiler without repairs, 
an explosion or rupture may follow, and frequently docs follow, causing damage 
to property, and very likely loss of life and personal injurj^ On the other hand, 
if his judgment is equally imperfect in the opposite direction, he may cause great 
expense by ordering unnecessary repairs, or he may even require the installation 
of a new boiler, when the old one is really quite safe and fit for several more 
years of service. 

Some time ago, in this state, and not far from Hartford, an inspector of a 
liability company reduced the pressure on a boiler so greatly that it could not 
perform its accustomed work, and, if the inspector had been the court of last 
resort, the boiler would have had to be removed. In the particular case I have 
in mind, the owner did not accept the judgment of the inspector, but cancelled 
his insurance and placed the boiler with arother company that had insured it 
previously, and whose men were familiar with the risk. The pressure was 
thereupon restored, and' the installation of a new boiler, with its attendant 
expense, was postponed, — for how long I cannot yet tell, but more than four 
years have elapsed since the incident, and the boiler is still doing effective duty. 

It would be impossible for me this evening to tell you how to discover defects, 
or where to look for them in a boiler. Corrosion, structural weakness, bad 



-[06 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [October, 



workmanship, the formation of scale, and many other things, go to make boilers 
unsafe, and different types are differently affected. 

I will take this opportunity to say that firemen and engineers are too often 
blamed for causing explosions, especially if either has lost his life and cannot 
be present to defend his acts. It is so easy for those who are inexperienced, 
or who do not know the actual conditions, to attribute an explosion to low 
water, or, the attendants being killed, to say that they alone could tell the cause. 
Whenever the facts justify an exoneration of the engineer or fireman, I take 
great pleasure in freeing him from the criticism and stigma, for those attend- 
ants, as a class, have been unjustly condemned, on many occasions. 

Adjusting. 

Even though a boiler insurance company has enjoyed the fullest confidence 
of its assured for many years, and has been trusted in all its dealings, these 
facts are often forgotten after an explosion, and the company is put to a severe 
test in facing the problem of adjusting a loss. Save for the facilities it has 
for rendering valuable mechanical service, one company is as good as another 
until that test of tests comes, — the adjusting and settling of the losses. 

An explosion occurs, a telegram is received, and immediately two persons 
who have never known each other personally are brought together to settle a 
purely business transaction, involving many thousands of dollars. Confidence 
on the part of both is most needed at this time, and it is a hard position for 
either the claimant or the adjuster. I think there is no other line of business, 
outside of insurance, in which two strangers are suddenly brought face to face, 
to transact a business deal involving so large an expenditure. 

It is highly important for the adjuster to show a friendly disposition from 
the very outset. He should so conduct himself as to inspire confidence, not 
only in the company he represents, but also in himself ; for unless he commands 
confidence personally, he cannot obtain it for his company. 

Time and again have I appeared on the scene of an accident for the purpose 
of investigating the cause of a boiler explosion and settling the claims arising 
therefrom, and found the owners anxiously waiting to see with what kind of a 
man they were to reckon. The adjuster is always looked upon with suspicion, 
and the belief is held that he is the sharpest man that could be selected to drive 
a bargain with a claimant. At such a time he should be most discreet, even in 
his manner of expressing sympathy, — a single injudicious remark, or a single 
misunderstood action being sufficient to broaden the gulf that appears to stand 
between the assured and the insuring company. Even commonplace conversation 
with employees, or with people of the town, is sometimes looked upon with 
suspicion, as though one were working up a case against the assured, instead 
of being friendly and acting in his interests. Every movement of the adjuster 
is watched, and note is made of where he goes, what he does, whom he talks 
with, and what he says. 

In my experience I have found most men honest, and I have had but little 
difficulty in arranging satisfactory terms of agreement ; but occasionally I have 
found a person who has deliberately set out to defraud the company. When 
dishonesty or fraud is thus resorted to by the assured, it forces the adjuster 
to assume the defensive, much to his dislike. It then becomes legitimate, in 
fact, for him to stifle his natural tendency towards liberality, and to adhere t' 
the strict letter of the contract, and compel the assured to do the same. 



19IO.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. \QJ 



I believe most insurance companies have a desire to be fair with their 
patrons, and that, if treated right, thiy will leave the claimant in the same mood 
in which I found a jeweler in a Southern city a few years ago. Upon dis- 
covering that I had been adjusting a loss, he told me that some months before 
he had suffered from fire and water — mostly the latter. He said he thought 
insurance companies were honest and liberal, as he spoke from experience. 
After his loss had been scheduled and paid, and the repairs to Bliildings, show- 
cases, etc., were all completed, he found that he was two thousand dollars ahead. 
"Don't you think that was pretty good?" he asked. I agreed with him, espe- 
cially after running my eye over his place of business. 

It has been my practice in adjusting losses to fmd out what had existed before 
the explosion, and to get the assured to agree upon two or more reputable 
contractors for each character of construction involved, and have these men 
estimate the loss. With their figures as a basis, and a reasonable allowance for 
depreciation, it is usually not a hard matter to arrive at the true cash value of 
the property destroyed. Losses on boilers and machinery may be determined 
largely by the same process. Owing to fluctuations in the price of materials 
and labor, the cost of restoring property may be either greater or less, at the 
time of an explosion, than tlie original first cost. 

The value of stock in the raw state, or in process of manufacture, can usually 
be determined from the assured's records, which are commonly preserved. The 
market price is always available, and in case of need, advice as to the cost of 
carrying the materials through the various stages of production can be had from 
neighboring factories, although one is sometimes compelled to send outside the 
zone of influence of the local company for such assistance. 

Consequent losses, or losses incurred subsequently to an explosion, are not 
covered, except under special contracts. Hence they are absolutely ruled out of 
consideration when a boiler policy alone covers. 

A knowledge of buildings, and of mechanics as applied to boiler construction 
and operation, is positively essentia! to the satisfactory adjustment of losses 
arising from boiler explosions. It is also important to have some knowledge 
of machinery, general and. special, because many questions arise concerning all 
those things — sometimes when you are many miles away from anyone with 
whom you might consult. In Florida I once encountered a most singular sit- 
uation in relation to the immediate use of a boiler thrown out of its setting by 
the force of the explosion of another one. It was at an ice manufacturing 
plant, far from a boiler shop, and to get the boiler back into immediate service 
we had to devise a method of making repairs that had never before been used, 
so far as I am aware. We met the emergency, however, and effected the repairs, 
and for all that I know to the contrary, the boiler is still in use. 

After the adjuster has gained the confidence of the assured, he can, if so 
trained, render valuable advice concerning temporary expedients, as well as the 
permanent restoration of the power plant. Each case, since it necessarily 
involves persons and questions peculiar to itself, must be carefully studied by 
the adjuster, who should be a student of human nature. To be successful, he 
must be open and frank, and, above all, honest; taking no advantage of the 
assured even in little things. But his duties nevertheless require him to be firm, 
and this attitude he can maintain with dignity and courtesy, so as to command 
the hearty respect of the assured. 



108 THE LOCOMOTIVE [OcrcBER, 




A. D. RiSTEEN, Ph.D., Editor. 



HARTFORD, OCTOBER 25, 1910. 

The Locomotive can be obtained free by calling at any of the company's agencies. 
Subscription price ^o cents per year when mailed from this office. 
Recent bound volumes one dollar each. Earlier oftes two dollars. 



Obituary. 

Charles Mason Beach. 

It is with profound regret that we record the death of Mr. Charles Mason 
Beach, who passed away on June 27, 1910, at his home at Vine Hill, West 
Hartford, Connecticut. He was born at Hartford on February 18, 1826, 
the son of George and Harriet Bradley Beach, and was one of seventeen chil- 
dren, of whom but one, Isaac T. Beach of Atlantic City, New Jersey, is now 
living. He began his business career as a clerk in the store of Howe, Mather 
& Company, on Asylum Street, Hartford, and in 1848, in company with two 
of his elder brothers, he organized the firm of Beach & Company, to deal in 
dye-stuffs and chemicals. This is still in active existence, and Mr. Beach 
retained his connection with it up to the time of his death, although for the 
last two years or so he had taken no active part in its management. 

Mr. Beach was widely known, also, on account of his agricultural interests, 
and at Vine Hill he maintained a farm which was managed in accordance with 
strictly scientific methods, .and was regarded as a model, particularly in respect 
to the raising and handling of sheep and dairy cattle. He was one of the 
founders of the American Jersey Cattle Club, and of the American Guernsey 
Cattle Club, and he was a director of the Phoenix Insurance Company, the 
Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company, the Phoenix National 
Bank, the Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance Company, the Hartford Carpet 
Corporation, and the Holyoke Water Power Company. For many years, too, 
he was a director of the Illinois Central Railroad Company, resigning only a 
short time ago, on account of his age. 

At a meeting held on September 26, the Directors of the Hartford Steam 
Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company adopted the following minute : 

" In the death of Mr. Charles INIason Beach, this Board loses a valuable 
counsellor, and its members lose a friend who was universally respected and 
esteemed. He was elected to the directorate on Octol)er 6, 1866, when the com- 
pany was first organized, and he had served upon it, continuously and faithfully, 
to the end. In his departure we have lost the sole remaining member of the 
first, historic board, that laid the foundations of our success. 

" Mr. Beach was the first vice-president of the company, holding that 



I9IO.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 109 



position from the outset up to 1873, when the pressure of his own affairs forced 
him to relinquish it. In Januarj-, 1904, he was again elected to the same office, 
accepting the second tenure temporarily, pending the appointment of a perma- 
nent incumbent. 

" Mr. Beach was markedly optimistic, with a philosophy that was cheerful 
and full of hope, and his confident and reassuring counsel was largely instru- 
mental in preventing the dissolution of this company, shortly after its first 
organization. His years were spent in Hartford and its suburbs, and he had 
been closely identified with many phases of the city's business life. With 
increasing age he had retired from many of the activities of earlier days, but 
he retained a prominent connection with numerous institutions of a varied 
character, in an advisory capacity, his counsel being widely sought and highly 
prized. 

" He was a kind-hearted, generous and considerate man, showing a courte- 
ous regard for others in all relations, whether business or social. He was a 
man of the finest instincts, with a keen sense of personal honor and integrity. 
He passed away full of years, venerated by all, and commanding the deepest 
respect and the tenderest regard of hosts of friends and associates." 



In the last issue of The Locomotive we printed a short article under the 
heading " Buggy and Shovel Inspections." Some of our readers have taken it 
for granted that the story relates to Connecticut, but this assumption is entirely 
incorrect. The incidents really occurred, precisely as we related them, but not 
in Connecticut, nor anywhere near Connecticut. 



We beg to announce that Mr. A. S. Wickham, our former superintendent 
of agencies, has associated himself with Messrs. Corbin & Goodrich in the 
management of our Philadelphia department, under the firm name of Messrs. 
Corbin, Goodrich & Wickham, General Agents. 

Messrs. Corbin & Goodrich opened an office in Philadelphia in August, 
1867, and through their efforts the Philadelphia department has been built 
up and established, as since that date they have been the company's sole repre- 
sentatives. Under their long and able management, the department has grown 
until it now ranks as one of the largest and most important of the company, 
doing annually a volume of business approximating the total volume done by 
the entire company in any one of its first fifteen years, and today, with but 
two exceptions, the premium receipts of their department exceed the total 
premiums paid for steam boiler insurance to any one of the fifteen other com- 
panies now writing this line of insurance. 

Mr. Wickham first entered the employ of the Hartford Steam Boiler In- 
spection and Insurance Company in September, 1899, as senior special agent 
in the New York department, which position he held until March, 1908, when 
he was invited to come to the home office and assume the responsibilities of 
superintendent of agencies. He has filled these various positions with credit to 
himself, and acceptably to the company, and from his varied and extended 
experience and natural adaptability we consider that he is peculiarly qualified 
to render Messrs. Corbin & Goodrich the assistance they now need in the 
executive management of a department so large and important. 



^^0 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [October, 

Wooden Boilers. 

The following extract, from a recent issue of the New Haven Evening 
Register, may be of interest to those who were unaware that wood was some- 
times used as structural material for the manufacture of boilers, in the early 
days of steam engineering. 

" The newspapers of New London, Conn., have long occupied a prominent 
place in the opinion of those who seek accurate information respecting marine 
affairs. This was so, even back in 1817, when the New London Gazette was being 
pulled out of the press; for that paper 'explained' the real reason for the 
accident that ' befell the Norwich steamboat on July 2, 1817,' and the points 
brought out were so important that the Connecticut Herald of Tuesday, July 15, 
1817, reprinted the Gacette's story of the accident, assigning, as its cause, the 
fact that a wooden boiler was used. Think of a wooden boiler, and figure out 
where the ocean-skimmers would wind up. if such boilers were used nowadays ! 

•'" The Gazette disliked the idea of misleading the public, as do all good 
newspapers, and herewith is reproduced the true story of the accident to the 
Norwich boat, which, as shown, was due entirely to the desire of someone to 
save money : 

" ' The account given of the accident which befell the Norwic.i steamboat 
on the 2nd instant, and running through the public papers, is calculated to mis- 
Jcad those who are unacquainted with steamboats. The facts are as follo'ws. 

" ' The boat in question is a small vessel, lately built, and owned by a 
few individuals in Norwich, to ply between Norwich and New London. The 
proprietors, wishing to save the expense of Fulton and Livingston's patent 
right and an expensive engine, have put into her a simple engine upon a new 
■construction, and entirely experimental, with high-pressure cylinders and (ex- 
traordinary as it may seem) wooden boilers, without condensers, safety-valves, 
or balance wheels. As was predicted, her wooden boilers burst, and three 
persons were hurt, though not dangerously. 

" ' It is a fact worthy of notice that the steamboats upon the North river 
and Long Island sound, constructed upon the Fulton and Livingston plan, have 
been running ten years without a single person ever being injured; and it is 
impossible that any serious injury should happen to them, since their safety- 
valves are calculated to relieve an excess of steam spontaneously.* 

" ' Editors who think the public ought to be correctly informed upon this 
subject are requested to publish the above.' 

"Great boiler this, — ^ made of wood without balance wheels, condensers, or 
safety-valve. 

"The Connecticut Herald, from which the foregoing presumably truthful 
account of this accident is taken, is a well-preserved copy, owned by John Lucy, 
former station master at the Union station. New Haven, Conn. The Herald 
was published by Steele & Gray, printers, on State street. New Haven." 

We are not quite sure whether the next-to-last paragraph of the foregoing 
was evolved by the present management of the Register, or by his respected 
fellow-townsman, the former editor of the Herald, long since gone to his reward. 
If we did know with certainty, we should try, by United States post or through 
some efficient spiritualistic medium, to let the responsible individual know that 



♦The serene confidence in the safetv-valve, here shown, has hardly been justified by sub- 
sequent experience ! — £i/?V(?r The Locomotive. 



igio.] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



Ill 



balance wheels and condensers arc not regarded as in any way essential to the 
safety of steam boilers, whether the said boilers be made of sleel, or wood, or 
putty. 

Wooden boilers were used to a limited extent when the steam engine was in 
its infancy, and when the pressures that were employed were to be measured, 
as we might say, in ounces per sciuare inch, instead of poinds. (The term 
" high pressure," as employed in the foregoing extract, is not to be interpreted 
in the modern sense, of course, but merely as meaning a pressure higher than 
was commonly employed in other boilers at the same period.) Tlie Scientific 
American Supplement of November 4, 1876, gives some highly interesting data 
respecting a wooden boiler that was in regular use for nearly four years, in 




^yma^^ ^y 



Wooden Boiler ix the Center Square W'ater Works, Philadelphia. 

the pumping station of the Center Square Water Works, at Philadelphia, Pa 
This boiler began its service on January 21, 1801, and its use was continued 
up to December i, 1804. 

The Center Square boiler had the form of a rectangular chest, and was 
made of white pine planks, five inches thick. It was nine feet square inside, 
at the ends, and fourteen feet long in the clear. It was braced upon the 
sides, top, and bottom with oak scantling, ten inches square, the whole being 
securely bolted together by inch-and-a-quarter iron rods, passing through the 
planks. Inside of this chest was placed a fire-box 12 feet 6 inches long, 6 feet 
wide, and i foot 10 inches deep, with vertical flues, six of 15 inches diameter 
and two of 12 inches diameter. Through these flues the water circulated, the 
fire actnig around them and passings up into an oval flue situated just above 
the fire-box. 



^12 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [October, 

The illustration shows the boiler with one side removed. It was fired at 
the left-hand end, the fire-doors not being shown. The black, elliptical patches 
represent the flues through which the water circulated. The gases of com- 
bustion passed horizontally to the right, through the shaded fire-box and com- 
bustion chamber, and then up into the smoke-flue at A, passing toward the front 
end of the boiler along A B, and then back, and finally out to the chimney, 
along C D. 

The fire-box and the water-flues appear to have been made, at first, entirely 
of cast-iron. A wrought-iron fire-box was next tried, the water-flues still being 
of cast-iron. This arrangement was found to be unsatisfactory on account 
of leakage, which was attributed to the unequal expansion and contraction of 
the two metals, and eventually the water-flues were also made of wrought-iron. 

So far as we can judge from the data at hand, the smoke-flue, A B C D, 
was made of wrought-iron from the first. Thus under date of July 4, 1800, 
Thomas Cope says of a similar plant, having a similar wooden boiler and located 
on the Schuylkill river at the foot of Chestnut street, " The wrought-iron for 
the flue of the boiler over the fire will be imported from England, and is in 
sheets 38 inches by 32 inches. That yet made in this country is clumsy stuff 
of diff^erent sizes, the largest being 36 inches by 18 inches, with rough edges, 
which have to be cut smooth by the purchaser." 

The low heat-conducting power of wood was supposed to be of great ad- 
vantage on the score of economy, and the water-flues running vertically through 
the fire-box were also supposed to be highly important for like reasons. 

As might be expected, great difficulty was experienced in keeping these 
wooden boilers tight, and the one at the Center Square works was replaced, 
on December i, 1804, by a boiler having a cast-iron shell. 



Boiler Explosions. 

July, 1910. 

(276.) — A sectional boiler exploded, July 2, in the Hahnemann Hospital, 
Philadelphia, Pa., where it was being installed. One man was killed. 

(277.) — On July 2 a boiler exploded at Endicotte, near Littleton, W. Va. 
One man was killed and one fatally injured. The boiler house was destroyed. 

(278.) — On July 3 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the Hammond 
plant of the National Packing Co.. Union Stock Yards, Chicago, 111. 

(279.) — The boiler of freight locomotive No. 949, of the Santa Fe railroad, 
exploded, July 3, at Yucca, near Needles, Calif. One man was killed, and one 
was fatally injured. 

(280.) — A tube ruptured. July 5, in a water-tube boiler in the American 
Steel & Wire Co.'s plant, De Kalb, 111. One man was injured. 

(281.)— The boiler of Jenkins Bros.' laundry exploded, July 5, at Laconia, 
N. H. One man was killed and seven were injured, and the building was 
badly wrecked. 

(282.)— A boiler ruptured, July 5, at the No. i plant of the Washington 
Coal & Coke Co., Star Junction. Pa. 

(283.)— On July 7 a boiler ruptured at the plant of the Appleton Brewing 
& Malting Co., Appleton. Wis. 



I9IO.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 1^3 



(284.) — A boiler exploded, July 8, in John L. McQueen & Co.'s mill, 
eight miles from Butler, Johnson county, Tenn. One man was instantly killed. 

(285.) — A tube ruptured, July X, in a water-tube boiler in the Johnstown 
Passenger Railway Co.'s power plant. Johnstown, Pa. One man was injured. 

(286.) — On July 9 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the plant of 
Spang, Chalfant & Co., Etna, Pa. One man was injured. 

(287.) — A boiler used by the Good Roads Commission for operating a 
rock crusher exploded, July 10, four miles southeast of Los Angeles, Calif. 
One man was instantly killed. 

(288.) — A boiler ruptured, July 12, in F. L. Jones' laundry, Fort Wayne, 
Ind. 

(289.) — On July 12 a tlue ruptured in a boiler in the pumping station at 
California, Ohio, near Cincinnati. One man was fatally scalded. 

(290.) — A boiler exploded, July 13, at Ncave's coal mine, Sheffield, 111. 

(291.) — On July 13 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler in the Detroit 
Salt Co.'s plant, Detroit, Mich. (Sec, also, No. 299, below.) 

(292.) — On July 15 a boiler exploded in the plant of the Peoria Auto 
Tire Co., Peoria, 111. One person was severely injured. 

(293.) — A boiler exploded, July 15, in James Webb's sawmill, eight miles 
west of Cove, Ark. Three men were killed and seven injured, and the mill 
was demolished. 

(294.) — On July 18 a boiler exploded in Gay's sawmill, near Smithfield, 
Va. One man was killed and two were seriously injured. The mill was 
demolished. 

(-95-) — A boiler ruptured. July 19, at the No. 7 mine of the Boone Coal 
& Mining Co., Fraser, Iowa. 

(296.) — The boiler of a threshing outfit exploded, July 20, on the Hunting- 
ton ranch, two miles south of Redondo Beach, near Los Angeles, Calif. Two 
men were injured. 

(297.) — A boiler exploded, July 21, in the United Portland Cement Co.'s 
plant, at Lehunt, five miles from Independence, Kans. The engineer was 
fatally scalded. 

(298.) — On July 2T, a boiler exploded in Hill Bros.' sawmill, near Atlee, 
Ark. One man was fatally injured. 

(299.) — A tube ruptured, July 24, in a water-tube boiler at the Detroit 
Salt Co.'s plant, Detroit, Mich. (Compare No. 291, above.) 

(300.) — A boiler exploded, July 24, in the B. & O. S. W. plant, Cincinnati, 
Ohio. One person was killed, and one seriously injured. 

(301.) — -On July 25 a boiler exploded on a dredge boat in the Nixon 
special drainage district, near Weldon, 111. 

(302.)^ A tube ruptured. July 25, in a water-tube boiler in the Indiana 
Provision Co.'s ice and cold storage plant, Indiana, Pa. (Compare No. 309, 
below.) 

(303.) — A boiler exploded. July 26, in the Coquille Mill & Mercantile Co.'s 
sawmill. Coquille City. Ore. One man was killed, and his wife was seriously 
injured. The property loss was estimated at $10,000. 

(304.) — A boiler belonging to the New York Coal Co. exploded, July 27, 
at Hamley Run, Ohio. One person was severely injured. 

(305.)— The boiler of a threshing outfit exploded, July 27, on A. L. 



■114 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [October, 

Scott's farm, four miles north of Lincoln, Neb. One man was killed, and three 
were injured. 

(306.) — A slight explosion occurred, July 27, on the tugboat Peerless, at 
Spedden's wharf, Baltimore, Md. One man was killed, and two others were 
seriously injured. 

(307-) — 'The boiler of a threshing outfit exploded, July 28, on a farm oc- 
cupied by Daniel Dearwachter, at ]\IcGillstown, Lebanon county, Pa. Two 
persons were injured. 

(308.) — On July 29 the boiler of Santa Fe freight locomotive No. 975 
exploded at McConnico, near Kingman, Ariz. One man was killed, and one 
fatall}^ injured. 

(309) — A tube ruptured, July 30, in a water-tube boiler at the plant of 
the Lidiana Provision Co., Indiana, Pa. (Compare No. 302, above.) 

(310.) — A boiler ruptured, Jul}' 30, at the department store of Hillman's, 
Inc., on State street, Chicago, 111. 

(311.) — On July 30 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the Dayton 
Arcade Co.'s. office and market building, Dayton, Ohio. 



August, 1910. 

(312.) — A boiler exploded, August i, in J. O. McMillan's sawmill, at 
New Prospect, near Spartanburg, S. C. Some four persons were injured. 

(313-) — The boiler of a traction engine, used at the time for sawing wood, 
exploded, August 2, on Union avenue, just outside of Saginaw, Mich. One man 
was seriously injured. 

(314.) — 'The boiler of a threshing outfit exploded, August 3, on J. A. 
Doner's farm, seven miles east of Celina, Ohio. Two men were killed. 

(315.) — On August 3 a boiler exploded in C. W. Shimp's sawmill, two 
miles west of Germantown, Ohio. Tw^o men were seriously injured, and the 
mill was wrecked. 

(316.) — 'A boiler exploded, August 4, in the oil fields at Nowata, Okla. 
One man w-as seriously injured. 

(317.) — On August 4 a boiler tube burst on the fishing-excursion steamer 
Satellite, off Spectacle Island, near Boston, Mass. Tw-o men were killed and 
one was fatally injured. 

(318.) — The boiler of a Boston & Maine locomotive exploded, August S, 
at Oak Island, near Boston, Mass. The rupture occurred in the firebox. The 
engineer and fireman were injured. 

(319-) — O" August 6 a fertilizer drier ruptured in the packing house of 
Schwartzschild & Sulzberger, Kansas City, Kans. 

(320.) — -A cast-iron header ruptured, August 7, in a water-tube boiler in 
the plant of the North American Cold Storage Co.. Chicago, 111. 

(321.) — ^A boiler exploded, August 8, in C. A. Durbin's shingle mill, 
Keenan, Tex. Five men were killed and one was fatally injured. 

(322.) — On August 8 a boiler ruptured at the brick works of the Harbison- 
Walker Refractories Co., Layton, Pa. 

(323.) — A hot-water boiler exploded, August 8, in the rear of Simon 
Newman's bakery, at the corner of Clinton and Broome streets. New York City. 
Two men were badly scalded, and the basement of the building was considerably 
damaged. 



iQio.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 115 



(324.) — On August 10 an upriylu boiler used for hoisting exploded on tlie 
dock of the Farist Steel Co.'s plant, Bridgeport, Conn. 

(325.) — A boiler exploded, on or about August 11, in tlie oil fields near 
Childcrs, Okla. One man was fatally injured. 

(.326.) — A boiler of the locomotive type exploded, August 11, in the Chess- 
Wymond Co.'s stave factory, at Duttouville, near Jackson, Miss. One man was 
killed and one was severely scalded. Three others also received minor injuries. 

(:}i27.) — A locomotive boiler exploded, August 12, on the Chicago & Nortli- 
western railroad, Chicago, 111. One man was killed, and one was seriously 
injured. ' 

(328.) — The boiler of William Jackson's threshing outfit exploded, August 
12, at Wintcrsct, Iowa. One man was seriously injured. 

(329.) — On August 13 a boiler exploded in J. G. Peery's sawmill, at Rich 
Valley, near Big Stone Gap, Va. Three men wore killed and one was fatally 
injured. 

(330) — A boiler exploded, August 13, on the steam schooner Phoenix, 
about ten miles north of Point Arena, Calif., and 100 miles north of San 
Francisco. Two men were killed outright, two died within a few hours, and 
three others were more or less injured. The schooner was lost. 

(331.) — A boiler exploded, Aiigust 13, in the Robinson Land & Lumber 
Co.'s mill, at Chicora, three miles west of Buckatunna, IMiss. Two men were 
instantly killed, and two _ were badly injured. 

(332.) — The boiler of John Donart's threshing outfit exploded, August 14, 
at New Corydon, Ind. One person was killed, and two were seriously injured. 

(333-) — On August 14 a boiler exploded on a jet-boat used in dredging 
out the channel at the Government dam, at Fernbank, near Cincinnati, Ohio. 
One man was badly burned, and the machinery and cabin of the boat were 
completely w-recked. 

(334-) — On August 17 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the 
Columbia Chemical Co.'s plant, Barberton, Ohio. 

(335)— The boiler of Larson Bros.' threshing outfit exploded, August 18, 
at Geddes, S. D. 

(SS^-) — 'A tube ruptured, August 18, in a water-tube boiler in the Baltic 
Mining Co.'s stamp mill, Redridge, ^lich. 

(337-) — On August 18 a slight boiler accident occurred in Glen D. Finney's 
ice plant. Eureka, Kans. 

(338-) — Four cast-iron headers ruptured, August 19, in a water-tube boiler 
at the How-ell-Hinchman Co.'s tannery, Middletown, N. Y. 

(339) — A tube ruptured, August 22, in a water-tube boiler in the Thomas 
Steel Co.'s rolling mill, Niles, Ohio. One man was injured. 

(340.) — 'On August 22 a boiler exploded in Mullen & St. Onge's meat 
market, Willimantic, Conn. 

(341.) — A boiler exploded, August 22, in the Maverick hotel, San Antonio, 
Tex. 

(342.) — ^ On August 23 a tube rujjtured in a water-tube boiler in the power 
house of the Northern Cambria Street Railway Co., St. Benedict, Pa. 

(343-) — A boiler exploded, August 23, in the Nicholas sawmill, at Mossy 
Head, near Pensacola, Fla. Two men were killed and two were badly injured, 
and the mill was wrecked. 

(344.) — The boiler of a Cincinnat:. TTamilton & Dayton locomotive ex- 



±iQ THE LOCOMOTIVE. [October, 

ploded, August 2^. at Barr's station, near Dayton, Ohio. Three men were 
injured. 

(345-) — A tube ruptured, August 23, in a water-tube boiler in the power 
plant of the Qioctaw Railway & Lighting Co., ^McAlester, Okla. 

(346.)— A boiler exploded, August 24, on the Compton oil lease, at 
Reward, near Sapulpa, Okla. One man was killed. 

(347.)^ — -On August 24 a cast-iron header failed in an economizer at the 
Arlington Mills, Lawrence, ^^lass. 

(348.) — A tube failed. August 25, in a w^ater-tube boiler in the Selma 
Oil, Ice & Fertilizer Co.'s plant, Selma, Ala. 

(349-) — On August 26 a boiler exploded in the oil fields at Earlsboro, 
Okla. One man was killed. 

(350-) — On August 27 a boiler exploded in the plant of the McAllister Dry 
Dock & Shipbuilding Co.. at West New Brighton. Staten Island, X. Y. The 
building in which the boiler stood was badly damaged. 

(351.) — A tube exploded, August 29, in a water-tube boiler at the plant 
of the West Virginia Pulp & Paper Co., Luke, Md. One man was killed and 
one severely injured. 

(352.) — On August 29 a •boiler exploded at the Val Dukey coal bank, 
near Catlin, 111. One man was seriously injured, and the boiler room was 
wrecked. 

(353-^ — -'^ slight boiler accident occurred, August 29, in the A. ^lerriam 
Co.'s plant, South Acton, Mass. 

(354-) — The boiler of Michael Alcorn's threshing outfit exploded, August 
31, near Sedalia, Mo. One man was badly injured. 

(3S5-) — A portable boiler, used for hoisting, exploded, August 31, at 
Speed, Ind., ten miles north of Jeflfersonville. Two men were killed and one 
was fatally injured, and three others also received less serious injuries. The 
explosion resulted from the overturning of the boiler, consequent, apparently, 
upon the breaking of a guy rope. 



September, 1910. 



(356.) — On September i a blowofif pipe failed in the J. R. Williams 
Lumber Co.'s sawm.ill. Bay St. Louis, Miss. 

(357-) — ■ On September 3 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the 
Denver Tramway Power Co.'s plant, Denver, Colo. One man was scalded. 

(358) — A boiler exploded, September 4, at the Crane Iron Works, Oxford, 
N. J. One man was killed. 

(359-) — 'A slight boiler explosion occurred, September 5, at the Arcade, 
Cleveland, Ohio. Two men were injured. 

(360.) — The boiler of a threshing outfit exploded, September 6, on Hayes 
Jarret's farm, near Middleburg, Pa. One man was fatally injured, and two 
others were injured seriously. 

(361.) — The boiler of a threshing outfit exploded, September 7, at Danville, 
near Martinez, Calif. One man was killed, and one was fatally injured. 

(362.) — The boiler of a Santa Fe locomotive exploded, September 7, at 
White's Ranch, near Galveston, Tex., while drawing a freight train on the 
Gulf & Interstate railway. One man was killed, and one was injured. 



I9IO.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. ^^7 



(3^3) — A tube failed, September 8, in a horizontal tubular boiler in the 
Ensley-Pratt Ice Co."s plant, Ensley, Ala. One man was injured. 

(364.) — A boiler exploded, September 9, in Simmons' sawmill, near 
Florence, Ala. Two men were killed and one was injured. 

(365-) — A boiler exploded, September 10, at an oil well at Eaton Rapids, 
Mich. 

(366.) — On September 11 a blowoff pipe failed at the plant of the American 
Candy Mfg. Co., Selma, Ala. 

(3^7-) — On September 11 a boiler exploded in the pumping station of the 
T. & O. C. railroad, at New Lexington, near Zanesville, Ohio. One man was 
killed and two were fatally injured. 

(368.) — 'On September 12 a boiler accident occurred in the plant of the 
Macomb Electric Light & Gas Co., Macomb, 111. 

(369.) — A boiler exploded, September 12, on the tug Joseph Peenc, at 
Yonkers, N. Y. One man was severely injured. 

(.37^-) — A number of cast-iron headers fractured, September 12, in a 
boiler at the Chittenden Hotel, Columbus, Ohio. 

(371.) — On September 13 a boiler ruptured in the Madison Brewing Co.'s 
plant, Madison, Ind. 

(.372-) — The boiler of a locomotive drawing a Missouri, Kansas & Texas 
passenger train exploded, September 15, near Coffey ville, Kans. One man was 
killed and one was fatally injured, and the locomotive was wrecked. 

{373-) — .On September 15 a boiler ruptured at the Standard No. 2 plant 
of the H. C. Frick Coke Co., J\It. Pleasant, Pa. 

(374-) — -On September 16 a blowoff pipe failed at the Home Laundry, 
Paducah, Ky. 

(37S-) — A tube ruptured, September 17, in a water-tube boiler at the 
Inland Steel Co.'s plant, Indiana Harbor, Ind. 

(376.) — A boiler ruptured, September 20, at the plant of the City Ice 
Delivery Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 

(377.)— On or about September 20, the boiler of a locomotive exploded 
in the shops of the Chicago & Northwestern railroad, Chicago, 111. One man 
was killed, and one was seriously injured. (It is said that the explosion was 
due to an attempt to calk the flues of the boiler while it was under pressure.) 

(378-) — The boiler of the locomotive drawing the south-bound "Meteor 
express " on the St. Louis & San Francisco railroad exploded, September 20, 
near Olathe, Kans. Two men were instantly killed, and one person was 
injured. 

(379-) — A cast-iron header fractured, September 21, in a water-tube boiler 
in A. PI. Belo & Co.'s publishing plant, Dallas, Tex. 

(3S0.) — The boiler of a threshing outfit exploded, September 21, on Wright 
Bros.' farm, near IModale, Iowa. One man was scalded. 

(381.) — On September 22 the boiler of John M. Lee's threshing outfit ex- 
ploded near Selma, Iowa. Mr. Lee was fatally scalded. 

(382.) — On September 23 a blowoff pipe failed in the Brushy Gin Co.'s 
cotton gin, at Brushy, near Montague, Tex. 

(v383.) — 'Three cast-iron headers fractured, September 23, in a water-tube 
boiler at the Edge I^.Ioor Iron Co.'s plant, Edge Moor, Del. 

(384.) — A tube ruptured, September 23, in a water-tube boiler at the Hot 



lis THE LOCOMOTIVE. [October, 

Springs Water Co.'s electric lighting and water works, Hot Springs, Ark. One 
man was injured. 

(385-) — On September 25 three tubes ruptured in a water-tube boiler 
at the Jacob Dold Packing Co.'s plant, Wichita, Kans. 

(386.) — A tube ruptured, September 26, in a water-tube boiler at the 
Sharon works of the American Steel & Wire Co., Sharon, Pa. Two meh were 
injured. 

(387-) — On September 27 a tube failed in a boiler in the convent of the 
Sisters of Charity of Our Lady Mother of Mercy, Baltic, Conn. 

(388.) — On or about September 28 a boiler exploded at St. Francis' 
Hospital, Topeka, Kans. 



The Properties of Steam. 

Tenth Paper. — The Experiments of Scheel .\nd Heuse, at Temper.\tures 
between 0° c. and 50° c. 

Messrs. Karl Scheel and Wilhelm Heuse have recently published a valuable 
series of experimental results respecting the pressure of saturated steam at 
temperatures between o° C. and 50° C. (32° Fahr. and 122° Fahr.). The data 
previously obtained by Thiesen and Scheel within this interval, and published 
in The Locomotive for October, 1907, were classed by us as " exact deter- 
minations," because they were apparently of a higher order of precision than 
any that had been published, up to that time, for the same range of temperature. 
Those that they made at the frec::mg point itself are still to be regarded in the 
same light. Their measures above tlie freezing point were professedly pro- 
visional, however, and we presume that the data now furnished by Scheel and 
Heuse constitute the additional investigations that were then foreshadowed, 
although the apparatus used in the present research is different from that 
employed by Thiesen and Scheel. 

The paper that we are about to review is printed in the German language, 
under the title " Bestimmung des Sattigungsdruckes von Wasserdampf zwischen 
0° und+ 50° " (" Determination of the Pressure of Saturated Water Vapor 
between 0° and +50° C'), and was published on March 15, 1910, in the 
Annalcn dcr Pliysik, fourth series, volume 31, page 715. It is wholly experi- 
mental in character, and the work was carried out at the Physikalisch-Technische 
Reichsanstalt, Charlottenburg, Germany. 

The static method was used (see The Locomotive, July, 1906, page 87), 
and all the work was done with the care characteristic of the observers, and of 
the institution at which the research was carried out. The apparatus of Scheel 
and Heuse, as well as their experimental methods, varied somewhat according 
as the temperature of the water was higher or lower than that of the room in 
which the apparatus stood. Roughly speaking, three fifths of the experiments 
were made at temperatures below that of the room, and two fifths at temper- 
atures higher than that of the room. 

Form of the Apparatus at Temperatures below that of the Room. 

The apparatus that was used at temperatures below that of the room is 
shown diagrammatically (with the exception of the manometer) in Fig. I. The 



I9IO.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 119 



part of the apparatus containing the water and the water-vapor was constructed 
entirely of glass, and the water itself was contained in two tubular receptacles, 
i<i and H2- 'i'^o i^u^'h receptacles were provided, instead of one, in order to 
avoid error from the supercooling that is produced when, by reason of a sudden 
connection of the water-vapor space with some part of the tubing that is highly 
exhausted, a considerable quantity of vapor is generated very quickly. The 
rapid evaporation under these circumstances chills the water that gives off the 
vapor, so that its temperature is no longer exactly equal to that of the bath 
in which it is submerged. One of the water-tubes was therefore used exclusively 
for the production of the major portion of the vapor required under these 
circumstances, while the other was reserved for effecting the final adjustment 
of the pressure, and for maintaining its constancy while the measurements were 
made. 

The manometer could be put into communication with cither of the water- 
tubes, ui and «2, or with the condenser K (which was. surrounded by a mixture 
of alcohol and solid carbon dioxide), by means of the mercury-valves, (/i, U2, 
U:\. The mode of operation of these valves will be sufficiently obvious from the 
illustration. By causing mercury to flow up or down through the lower stems 
of these valves, the corresponding connections could be sealed or opened. In 
the illustration the manometer is in communication with the tube wo, while it is 
shut off from u\ and K. The condenser K was used in order to ascertain the 
position of the " zero-point " of the manometer. For when, by closing Ui and 
f/o and opening U-.^, the manometer was shut off from u\ and M2 and placed in 
communication with K, it measured the pressure in K, and this could be taken to 
be :iero. since it is known that the pressure of water-vapor at the temperature 
of solid carbon dioxide is less than o.ooi mm., or, in other words, practically 
indistinguishable from zero. 

Before beginning the work, the entire apparatus was exhausted as perfectly 
as possible, by means of a Gaede air pump. While the observations were being 
made, the pump was sealed off from the rest of the apparatus by means of a 
mercury valve, shown on the right. 

The water-tubes were submerged in a water-bath, which was kept well 
stirred by means of a screw stirrer, and the temperature of the bath was 
measured by means of a platinum-resistance thermometer. The cooling of the 
bath, and the maintenance of the lower temperatures, were effected by passing 
into the water-bath a continuous stream of chilled water, whose flow could be 
closely regulated by a stopcock, and which had been drawn through crushed ice, 
and so brought to 0° C. An overflow was provided, so that the water in the 
bath was kept at a constant levei. 

Form of the Apparatus for Temperatures Higher than that of the Room. 

In the part of the research where the temperature of the water was higher 
than that of the room, it was necessary to modify the apparatus somewhat, 
because the conditions that had to be fulfi^ed, in order to ensure accuracy, 
were then different from those that prevailed before the temperature relations 
between the apparatus and its environment were reversed. 

If we have a piece of apparatus sealed up hermetically, and entirely free 
from air, but containing water in two different places, then if one of these 
masses of water is warmer than the other, the warmer mass will become con- 
tinuously diminished by evaporation, and the cooler mass will be simultaneously 



120 



THE LOCOMOTIVE, 



[October, 



increased by condensation. The pressure of the vapor within the apparatus will 
always tend towards that particular value which corresponds to the temperature 
of the cooler of these masses of water. It may happen (if the evaporation is 
active enough) that the actual pressure at any given moment stands a little 
above the value due to the temperature of the cooler mass, but it will never 
be as high as the value due to the temperature of the warmer mass. 

The bearing of these facts upon the experiments under consideration is 
plain. They show, namely, that if the pressure that we measure in our apparatus 
is to be the pressure corresponding to the temperature of the water in the tubes 
III "2 'in Fig. i), then the water in these tubes must be cooler than any other 
part of the apparatus that the vapor can reach at the time the measurement is 
made. For if there is any other part that is cooler than »i 7/0, vapor will con- 
dense upon this cooler part, and thereafter the pressure will not be that due to 
the temperature in iii 112, but will be less than this, and nearly equal, in fact, to the 
pressure due to the temperature of the cooler spot where the condensation has 
occurred. 

No error from this cause could arise when the water in »i 112 was below 
tlie temperature of the room ; but in order to avoid such error when the water 




MERCURY VALVES 



Fig. I. — Di.\GR.\M of the Low-Pressure Apparatus. 

was wanner than the room, it was necessary to heat the entire apparatus — 
manometer, connecting tubes, and all,— to a temperature higher than that of 
the water in ii\. 112- 

Under these changed circumstjinces, it was not convenient to make use of 
mercury valves, and the omission of these valves made it necessary to dis- 
pense with one of the water-tubes, the remaining tube being fused directly to 
the manometer, by a glass connection. In the first part of the work, at the 
lower temperatures, the zero-point of the manometer was noted before and after 
each separate observation. At the higher temperatures, however, where the 
omission of the mercury valves made it necessary to dispense also with the 



igio.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. -j[21 



condenser K, the zero-point of the manometer was taken only at the beginning 
and end of each scries of oliservatioiis, the \vater-tul)e being surronndcd, for 
thiis purpose, with solid carbon dioxide, in order to reduce the pressure within 
the apparatus sensibly to zero. As in the earlier experiments, the entire 
apparatus was freed from air by the (iaede pump, before beginning the work; 
but in the later experiments the coimection to the air pump was fused off after 
the exhaustion was completed, instead of being sealed by a mtfrcury valve. 

At the higher temperatures the bath in which the water-tube was submerged 
was filled with mineral oil instead of with water, and it was surrounded by a 
vacuum jacket, to reduce the loss of heat from radiation. The temperature was 
maintained bj^ means of an electric heating coil surrounding the" stirrer and kept 
in an upright position. 

Some experiments were executed with the oi]-l)alh, at temperatures slightly 
lower than that of the room. To maintain these temperatures, use was made, 
with good results, of a " cooling wire," which could be submerged to a greater 
or lesser depth in the bath. This cooling wire was soldered to the bottom of a 
metal vessel, which, according to the desired degree of chilling to be produced, 
was filled with cold water, ice, or solid carbon dioxide. (The effectiveness of 
the wire depended, it will be understood, upon its removing more or less of the 
heat in the bath, by conduction, to the cold vessel above.) 

Throughout the experiments of Scheel and Heuse, it was found that the 
temperature of the bath could be kept constant for a long period of time, to 
within a few thousandths of a degree. 

Pressure Measurements. — Manometer No. 3. 

Two different forms of manometer were used in the experiments, one for 
temperatures below that of the room, and the other for the higher temperatures. 
The manometer used at the lower temperatures is shown in Fig. 2. (A full 
account of this instrument is given in the Zcitschrift filr Instrumentcnkunde , 
1909, volume 29, page 347.) The tube C2 here communicated with the vapor 
whose pressure was to be measured, while Ci communicated with a space that 
had been exhausted of air as perfectly as possible, by a pump. 

The tubes C\ and C2 were fitted with a pair of spherical bulbs, Bi Bo, 
which were partially filled with mercury, and united by the long, thin, flexible 
glass tube H. The difference in pressure between Cj and C2 was then measured 
by noting the difference in height of the mercury in the bulbs Bi and Bo, to 
each of which there was fused, internally, a downwardly-projecting glass point, 
or spur; the mercury surfaces being so adjusted, in making the observation, 
that each of these spurs either touched its own image in the brilliant, reflecting 
surface below, or came within a certain very small, measured distance of it. 

The bulb Bo was adjustable in a vertical direction, it being attached, for 
this purpose, to a sliding piece, L, which was operated by a screw S. By turning 
this screw the bulb Bo could be lowered by any desired amount, within the 
range of the apparatus ; and by means of the barometric tube extending down- 
ward from Bi, mercury could be introduced into the bulbs or withdrawn from 
them, so that the level could be brought to the ends of both of the glass inde.x 
points simultaneously. 

When the adjustment we have just described had been effected, it only 
remained to measure the difference in level between the two glass points. For 
doing this, the bulbs were provided with glass tubes, G\ Go, projecting upward. 



122 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[October, 



and made flat and horizontal on their tops. Across the upper ends of the two 
there lay a sort of little table, T, which was provided with three tiny, conical 
feet, two of these resting upon Pi and the third upon Fo- Secured to this table 
w^as a small mirror N, whose inclination from the vertical position could be 
observed by means of a telescope and scale. Then, knowing this inclination 
and the length (between supports) of the little table T, a simple calculation 
gave the difference in level of the two ends P\ P2, from which the corresponding 
difference in level between the glass points in the bulbs below followed at once. 
The lengths of the tubes Gi G2 were so selected that when the bulb Bo was 
at the highest point to which it could be raised, the flat ends Pi P2 were 
approximately upon the same level with each other. With this disposition of 
the apparatus, pressures up to about 5 millimeters; of mercury could be 

Nl 



P 

1 

G 



^.. 




Fig. 2. — Manometer No. 3. (For the lowest pressures.) 

measured with ease. When the pressure in Bo became greater than 5 milli- 
meters, however, the inclination of the little table T became inconveniently 
large; hence for higher pressures the table was not allowed to rest directly 
upon Po, but upon a glass plate of known thickness, that was first laid upon Po- 
Observation and calculation then proceeded as before, save that allowance had 
to be made for the known thickness of the interposed plate. Further increases 
of pressure were provided for in the same way, either by inserting several 
plates of equal thickness, or by inserting a single plate of a greater thickness. 
This manometer had a useful pressure-range extending from zero up to 
about 30 millimeters of mercury. In other words, it could be used, con- 
veniently and accurately, from the lowest temperatures encountered in the 
research, up to about 30° C. (or 86° Fahr.). 



I9IO.] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



123 



Pressure Measurements. — Manometer No. 4. 
As already explained, it was necessary to heat every part of the apparatus, 
in carrying out the experiments that were made at temperatures higher than 
that of the room. The manometer that was used for these higher temperatures 
was therefore constructed with especial reference to the possibility of heating 
it conveniently. It was designated as " No. 4," and is shown diagramatically in 
Fig. 3. (It is also described, at length, in the Zcitsclirift fiir Instrumcntenkunde, 
1910, volume 30, page 45.) It consisted essen- 
tially of a U-shaped glass tube of about 25 mm. 
(i in.) diameter, whose closed branch (shown 
on tlie left) was free from air, and whose 
branch upon the right communicated with the 
water, the pressure of whose vapor was to be 
measured. 

The heights of the mercury columns in the 
branches of the manometer tube were deter- 
mined by the aid of sighting-collars, Bi B-z, 
which encircled the manometer tube closely, ])ut 
without actually touching it. These collars were 
operated by means of the screws S\ S2, and 
were supported by forks of nickel-steel, having 
a small but known coefficient of expansion. 
The positions of the sighting-collars could be 
determined by means of the nickel-steel milli- 
meter scale, N, the errors of whose graduations 
were known to within +^ 0.005 mm. Each of 
the fork-shaped pieces was provided with an 
index-mark (/i I2), which traveled along the 
scale, and a micrometer eye-piece, not shown 
in Fig. 3, was used for accurately determining 
the positions of these index-marks relatively to 
the scale divisions next above and below them. 

The manometer was enclosed in a double- 
walled metallic case, M, and was jacketed with 
the vapor of boiling acetone (56° to 57° C), 
which passed through the hollow cover as well 
as through the lower portion of the case, as 
indicated by the arrows. A thermometer was 
provided, for ascertaining the exact temperature 

of the interior of the case of the manometer, 

^, ^ ^, , . • u^ 1 1 Fig. 3. — jManometer No. 4. 

so that the necessarj' correction might be subse- •-' 

quently applied, for reducing the height of the mercury column as read, to the 

value that would have been observed if the mercury in the gage had been ice-cold. 

The tube V, which connected the manometer to the tube containing the 
water whose vapor pressure was to be determined, was wound with an elec- 
trically-heated spiral of wire, from the point where it left the manometer case 
up to the point where it entered the bath containing the water-tube. In this 
way its temperature was kept at 10° to 20° C. above the temperature of the bath. 

Windows were provided in the casing of the manometer, through which 




124 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [October, 

the sighting-collars on the mercury-tubes could be seen. It was found that this 
arrangement gave a higher degree of accuracy than could be had by taking 
direct observations of the mercury columns by means of a cathetometer, 
through windows damp with acetone. 

All the manometer readings were reduced to the values they would have had, 
if the mercury had been ice-cold (/. e., at o° C), and, further, they were 
reduced to the values they would have had if the experiments had been made 
at sea level, in latitude 45°. (This last correction is important in all accurate 
work of this kind, in order that measurements made in various parts of the 
world may be strictly and immediately comparable with one another.) 

Temperature Measurements. 

The temperatures of the baths surrounding the water whose vapor pressure 
was under investigation were obtained by means of a platinum-resistance ther- 
mometer, which had been in use for several years in the Reichsanstalt. This 
part of the work was carried out similarly to that executed by ]Messrs. Holborn 
and Henning, and described on pages 181 and 190 of the issue of The 
Locomotive for April, 1969. The constants of the thermometer were obtained 
by observations made at 0° C, iao° C, and the boiling point of sulphur, — the 
boiling point of sulphur being taken to be 445.0°, on the scale of the hydrogen 
thermometer. The temperatures given by Scheel and Heuse may therefore be 
regarded as given on the international hydrogen scale ; and if we accept the 
present view of physicists, to the effect that the hydrogen scale is practically 
identical with the absolute thermodynamic scale (save for the addition of a 
constant), we may also assume that the temperatures, as given, are sensibly 
the same as they would be if stated upon the absolute scale. 

The temperatures were mainly determined by means of one particular 
platinum-resistance thermometer, designated as " R 6." In addition, however, 
certain measurements were made, for purposes of verification, with a second 
thermometer of like nature, designated as " N." The constants of thermometer 
" N " were determined by observations at the freezing and boiling points of 
water, and at the boiling point of naphthalene (about 218° C). In general, the 
observations made by these two thermometers were very close, so that the 
mean of the readings of the two instruments might have been taken, when both 
were used. Messrs. Scheel and Heuse were of the opinion, however, that 
thermometer No. R 6 was the more trustworthy, and hence they used its read- 
mgs alone for the definitive determinations of the temperatures, employing the 
other one solely as a check. 

Results of the Observations. 

The accompanying table gives the results that were obtained by the exper- 
iments we have described (save for a few at 0° C, presently to be mentioned). 
The arrangement of the table will be understood at a glance. The first, third, 
and fifth columns give the observed temperatures of the bath in which the 
w-ater under investigation was immersed, while the second, fourth, and sixth 
give the corresponding observed pressures of the saturated vapor. The pres- 
sures are given in millimeters of mercury, and (as already noted) they have all 
been corrected to the values they would have had, if the mercury in the ma- 



I9IU.J 



THE LUCUMOTIVE. 



125 



nomctcr gages had been at o° C, and if the experiments had been performed at 
sea-level in latitude 45'. Nothing is said respecting the density of the mercury 
employed, but, as we stated in our hist paper in this series, experiments made 
at the Reichsanstalt indicate that mercury, purified by the method there used, 
has a density such that a cubic centimeter of it, at the temperature 0° C, weighs 
13.59593 grammes, at sea-level in latitude 45°. As Scheel and Heuse's exper- 
iments were made at the Reichsanstalt, it is fair to assume, iri' the absence of 
further information, that the mercury in their manometer tubes had this density. 

T.\1!I.E OK THE Exi'EKl.MEM AI, RESULTS OK SCHEEL AND HeUSE. 

(Pressure of Saturated Water Vapor between 0° C. and 50° C. ) 



Temperature. 
(C.) 


Pressure. 
( mm. ) 


Temperature. 
(C.) 


Pressure, 
(mm. ) 


Temperature. 
(C.) 


Pressure, 
(mm. ) 


I. 520" 

3.100 

3.766 


5. 116 

5-725 
6.004 


14.424° 

14-927 

15-479 


12.318 

12.735 
13.192 


23.155" 
23.611 

24- 133 


21.256 
21.856 
22.570 


4-574 
4 837 
5.612 


6.352 
6.467 
6.833 


16.659 
16.744 
16.757 


14-225 
14.306 
14-321 


27.806 
27.819 
29.995 


28.036 
28.074 
31-824 


6.988 
7-158 
7.760 


7.511 
7.602 
7. 911 


17.306 

17.889 
18.903 


14.821 
15-384 
16-377 


31-725 
34.478 
34-619 


35-133 
40.985 

41-311 


8.295 
8.998 
9.278 


8.209 
8.602 

8.772 


19.049 
19-154 
19.923 


16.536 
16.642 

17-457 


34-652 
34-887 
37-473 


41 392 
41.918 

48-315 


9-454 

9-578 

10.972 


8.904 
8.950 
9.824 


19.959 
20.279 
20.304 


17-499 
17.846 
17. 868 


39-379 
41.619 
41.710 


53-490 
60.305 
60.565 


11.168 
11-539 
"•935 


9-950 
10.202 
10.473 


2 I . 000 
21.067 
21.830 


18.648 

18.734 
19.640 


46.010 
49 . 200 
49.293 


75.667 
88.940 
89.356 


12.749 

12.774 
13-448 


11.047 
11.071 
11.564 


22.222 
22.293 
22.476 


20.101 
20.171 
20.420 


50.026 


92.707 



The Pressure of Water Vapor at 0° C. 

By way of testing the manometers that were used, separate experiments 
were made for determining the pressure of saturated water-vapor at the freez- 
ing point of water. With manometer No. 3, the result was 4.576 mm., and with 
manometer No. 4 the result was 4.580 mm. These values agree very satisfactorily 
indeed with the careful determination made by Thiesen and Scheel some years 
ago, and also with the later determination by Scheel and Heuse in 1909. The 
result of Thiesen and Scheel's researches (see The Locomotive, October, 1907, 
page 250) was 4.579 mm., and that obtained by Scheel and Heuse (Annalen 
der Physik, 1909, volume 29, page 729) was 4.5788 mm. We may also note 
that the value obtained by Marvin, according to the re-calculation made in our 



126 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [OcToiiER, 

eighth paper on this subject (The Locomotive, July, 1909, page 222), was 
4.578 mm. The experiments of Scheel and Heuse, in the paper to which the 
present article is devoted, were not intended to correct the previously accepted 
value (4.579 mm.) of the pressure of saturated water vapor at 0° C, but were 
executed merely to test the apparatus and methods that they were using in 
this research. 

Concluding Remarks. 

Especial care appears to have been taken by Scheel and Reuse, to ensure 
accuracy in all respects, and the various known sources of error have been 
eliminated by the design of the apparatus and the mode of conducting the 
experiments, or else nullified by the subsequent application of corrections cal- 
culated from known data. The influence of mercury vapor upon the observed 
pressures was studied by varying the temperature of manometer No. 4, and 
corrections were applied to eliminate error from this source. Corrections were 
also applied for the slight static pressure arising from the fact that the 
surfaces of the water in the water-tube and of the mercury in the manometer 
were not at the same level, though, since the density of water vapor is very 
small at the temperatures at which these experiments were conducted, the cor- 
rections thus called for were trivial, though not absolutely negligible. 

There is no statement in Scheel and Heuse's paper respecting the purity of 
the water that was used. This omission has characterized several of the most 
important papers upon the vapor pressure of water that have appeared in recent 
years, and it is to be deplored. In the present case we may rest fairly well 
assured that the water was as pure as it could be made, since, as we said in our 
ninth paper, " all that emanates from the Reichsanstalt, where these measures 
were made, is distinguished by a faithful attention to details of this sort." 

Scheel and Heuse give a table in which the pressure of saturated water- 
vapor, as inferred from their own experiments, is given for every degree, from 
0° C. to 50° C. They consider that the results therein summarized are likely 
to be correct to within about 0.005 "im- ^t 20° C, and to within about 0.05 mm. 
at 50° C. 

The two final sections of Scheel and Heuse's paper are devoted to a con- 
sideration of the relation of their own measurements to those made by other 
experimenters just above 50° C, and just below 0° C. They conclude that 
their own results do not suffer by the comparison, and in connection with the 
work of their predecessors they make a few remarks to which attention should 
be given by anyone engaged in the preparation of a final table of the pressure 
of saturated steam. The consideration of these remarks must be deferred, 
however, until a later paper of the present series, in which we propose to give a 
critical discussion of points of this nature. 



An esteemed correspondent writes: "Yours of the 29th, referring to fly 
wheels bursting, came duly to hand. I think a firm ought to be put in state 
prison for allowing such murderous work. It is all nonsense, to have a wheel 
fly to pieces." We're sorry our good friend considers the fly wheel problem so 
simple. He's got a lot to learn. He'll learn it quick, too, if one of his own 
wheels goes up. 



Tlie Hartloril Sieao) Boiler iDspeciiOQ aqil \m\m GompaQy. 



ABSTRACT OF STATEMENT, JANUARY 1, 1910. 
Capital Stock, . . . $1,000,000.00. 

ASSETS. 

Cash on hand and in course of transmission, .... $154,845.83 

Premiums in course of collection 228,048.46 

Real estate, 93,600.00 

Loaned on bond and mortgage, 1,107,060.00 

Stocks and bonds, market value, 3,063,476.00 

Interest accrued 67.580.50 

Total Asset6; $4,714,610.79 

LIABILITIES. 

Re-insurance Reserve, $1,943,732.29 

Losses unadjusted, 90>939-53 

Commissions and brokerage 45,609.69 

Other liabilities (taxes accrued, etc.), . . . 41,835.50 

Capital Stock, $1,000,000.00 

Surplus, 1,592,493.78 

Surplus as regards Policy-holders, . . $2,592,493.78 2,592,493.78 

Total Liabilities $4,714,610.79 



On January I, 1910, The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and In- 
surance Company had 104,589 steam boilers under insurance. 



L. B. BRAINERD. President and Treasurer. 

FRANCIS B. ALLEN, Vice-President. CHAS. S. BLAKE, Secretary. 

L. F. MIDDLEBROOK, Assistant Secretary. 

W. R. C. CORSON, Assistant Secretary. 

E. J. Murphy, M. E., Consulting Engineer. 
F. M. Fitch, Auditor. 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 



GEORGE BURNHAM, Baldwin Locomo- 
tive Works, Philadelphia. 

PHILIP CORBIN, Prest. American Hard- 
ware Corporation, New Britain, Conn. 

ATWOOD COLLINS, Prest. Security 
Co., Hartford, Conn. 

LUCIUS F. ROBINSON, Attorney, 
Hartford, Conn. 

JOHN O. ENDERS. U. S. Bank, Hart- 
ford, Conn. 

LYMAN B. BRAINERD, Director, Swift 
& Company. 

MORGAN B. BRAINARD, Treasurer 
.(Etna Life Insurance Co. 



F. B. .\LLEN, Vice-Prest., Hartford Steam 
Boiler Inspection and Insurance Co. 

CHARLES P. COOLEY, Vice-Prest Fi- 
delity Trust Company, Hartford, Conn. 

ARTHUR L. SHIP.MAN, Attorney, Hart- 
ford. Conn. 

GEORGE C. KIMBALL, President Smyth 
Manufacturing Co., Hartford, Conn. 

CHARLES M. JARVIS, ist Vice-Prest., 
American Hardware Corporation, New 
Britain, Conn. 

FRANCIS T. MAXWELL, President, 
Hockanum Mills Co., Rockviile. Conn. 

HORACE B. CHENEY,, of Cheney 
Brothers Silk Manufacturing Co., 
South Manchester, Conn. 



of Pittsijurg'd 



Incorporated 1866. 




Charter Perpetual. * 



Tim Haittorii steaq Boiler liispeciioii and Insurance GoiQpaiiji 

ISSUES POLICIES OF INSURANCE COVERING 

ALL LOSS OF PROPERTY 

AS WELL AS DAMAGE RESULTING FROM 

LOSS OF LIFE AND PERSONAL INJURIES DUE TO EXPLOSIONS 

OF STEAM BOILERS OR FLY WHEELS. 

Full infortnation concerning the Company s Operations can be obtained at 

any of its 'Agencies. 



Department. 

NEW YORK, 



BOSTON, . . 
PHILADELPHIA, 

BALTIMORE, . 

ATLANTA, 
BIRMINGHAM, 
NEW ORLEANS, 
HARTFORD, . 

BRIDGEPORT, 
PITTSBURG, 
CLEVELAND, 
CINCINNATI, 
CHICAGO. . 
ST. LOUIS, 
DENVER, . 
SAN FRANCISCO, 
PORTLAND, . 



Representatives. Offices. 

C. C. Gardiner, Manager, New York City, N. Y., 

W. W. Manning, Acting Chief Insp., lOO William St. 

r Boston, Mass., 
C. E. Roberts, Manager, J loi Milk St. 

F, S. Allen, Chief Inspector, 1 Providence, R. I., 

__, L 17 Custom House St. 

Corbin, Goodrich & Wickham, G. Agts., Philadelphia, Pa., 
Wm. J. Farran, Chief Inspector, 432 Walnut St. 

S. B. Adams, Asst. Chief Inspector, 

.1 f Baltimore, Md., 

Lawford & McKiM^ Gen. Agents, J 14 Abell Bldg. 
R. E. MuNRO, Chief Inspector, ) Washington, D. C, 

J I 511 Eleventh St., N.W. 

W. M. Francis, Manager, Atlanta, Ga., 

W. M. Francis, Chief Inspector, 611-613 Empire Bldg. 

George C. Oliver, General Agent, Birmingham, Ala., 
H. E. Stringfellow!, Chief Inspector, Brown-Marx Bldg. 
Peter F. Pescud, €*eneral Agent, New Orleans, La., 
R. T. Burwell, Chijef Inspector, 833-835 Gravier St. 

F. H. Williams, Jr., General Agent, Hartford, Conn., 
H. C. Long, Special Agent, 56 Prospect St. 

F. H. Kenyon, Special Agent, 
F. S. Allen, Chief Inspector, 

W. G. LiNEBURGH &■ Son, Gen. Agts., Bridgeport, Conn., 
F. S. Allen, Chief Inspector, i Sanford Building. 

James W. Arrott, Ltd., Gen. Agt., Pittsburg, Pa., 
Benjamin Ford, Chief Inspector, 
H. A. Baumhart, Manager, 
H. A. Baumhart, Chief Inspector, 
W. E. Gleason, Manager, 

B. F. Cooper^ Chief Inspector, 
H. M. Lemon, Manager, 
James L. Foord. Chief Inspector, 
V. Hugo, Manager,' 
V. Hugo, Chief Inspector, 
Thos. E. Shears, General Agent, 
Thos. E. Shears, Chief Inspector, 

H. R. Mann & Co., General Agents, San Francisco, Cal.. 
J. B. Warner, Chief Inspector, 339-341 Sansome St. 

McCargar, Bates & Lively, G. Agts., Portland, Ore., 

C. B. Paddock, Chief Inspector, Failing Building. 



401 Wood Street. 
Cleveland, Ohio, 

Century Building. 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 

67-69 Mitchell Bldg. 
Chicago. III., 

169 Jackson Bvd. 
St. Louis, Mo., 

319 North Fourth St. 
Denver, Col.. Room 2, 

Jacobson Bldg. 



8he|[Dt0mattte 

COPYRIGHT, 19t1, BY THE HARTFORD STEAM BOILER INSPECTION AND 4)ISURANCE CO. 



Vol. XXVIII. HARTFORD, CONN., JANUARY 25. 191 1. 



No. 5. 



Boiler Explosion near Midvale, Ohio. 

Our leading illustrations in this issue show the damage wrought by a boiler 
explosion that occurred some montlis ago, at Factory No. 6 of the Robinson 
Clay Products Co., located at Uhriciisville, Ohio. Two men were killed, the 
body of one of them being thrown to a distance of 900 feet. The destruction 
of property was also large, as will be understood from the illustrations, and 
we are credibly informed that it amounted to approximately $25,000. 

The factory in which the explosion occurred was a four-story brick build- 
ing. All the floors gave way, allowing the entire machinery to fall to the 




Fig. I. — Genekal View of Ruins. 

ground, and damaging it badly. Tliere were six boilers, set in a single battery. 
Only one of them exploded, but all were destroj'ed, and the large engine was 
also practically ruined. 

The exploded boiler w-as of the horizontal tubular type, and was built in 
two courses, the top half of the shell being composed of one sheet and the 
bottom half of another, so that there were no girth joints save at the ends, 
where the heads were attached. (The construction will be understood from 
Fig. 4) 

The shell plates were of steel, 1 1 ^32 in. thick. No brand was to be readily 



-V 



130 



THE LOCOMOTIVE 



[January, 



found, but Poii-cr states that the material composing the shell was tested, after 
the explosion, and found to have a tensile strength of about 67,000 pounds per 
square inch. This, of course, is a rather high tenacity for boiler plates, in 
which it is particularh^ important to secure not only strength, but also ductility ; 
and, as is well known, these two properties are to a certain extent incompatible 
with each other, high tenacity being usually accompanied by a reduced ductility, 
and a smaller reduction of area upon fracture. The boiler had a flush front, 
and was built by the Stearns ^lanufacturing Co. 

The longitudinal joints were of the lap-riveted type, the rivet holes being 
13/16 in. in diameter, and pitched 3 in. from center to center. The heads were 
of steel, 7/16 in. in thickness, and there were 40 lap-welded tubes, each 4 in. in 
diameter and 16 feet long. All the tubes were beaded. There were thirteen 
one-inch square braces to each head above the tubes, and two similar braces to 
each head below the tubes. 

The boiler was provided with two manhole openings, one in tlie top of the 




Fig. 2. — Gexeral View of Ruixs. 

shell, and the other in the front head, below the tubes. Tlie manhole frame- 
at the upper opening was of cast-iron, with the dimensions and sectional form 
indicated in Fig. 5.. The blowoff pipe was 2 in. in diameter, and was connected 
at the bottom of the shell, near the rear head. The feed water was taken from 
a neighboring creek, and was of fairly good quality. It was introduced at the 
top of the shell, and an open heater was used. The boiler was provided with 
a three-inch pop safety-valve, and it had no fusible plug. We are informed 
that the stipulated pressure allowed by the company carrying the insurance was 
no lbs. per square inch, and that the boiler was in operation at this pressure 
when the explosion occurred. 

There were no evidences of external corrosion or leakage, nor were any 
of the plates or tubes burned. There was a slight internal deposit, and we 
should pronounce the general condition of ♦^he boiler to be fair, so far as it. 
could be determined by an inspection made under unfavorable circumstances. 



1911. J 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



i31 




I'lc. 3.— Shki.l i>f Exploded Hoilek. 

The positions and soncral nature of the lines of rupture in the shell are- 
shown in Figs. 6, 7. and 8. The initial rupture occurred, so far as could be 
judged by an examination of the ruins, along the center line of the boiler, on 
top. where indicated in Fig. 6. ( .According to Pon'cr, the company insuring 
the boiler maintained that the initial rupture was on the top of the boiler,. 
ttz^'ards the back head; but we cannot agree with this, from our own 
examination of the plate.) 

It will be noted that the manhole opening in the shell was so placed that 
its length extended in the direction of the length of the boiler. This design; 
was formerly more or less common, and is still met with occasionally, though 
it is not to be commended. When a boiler is under pressure, the stress in the 
plate is twice as great in the girthwise direction as it is in the direction of the 
length of the boiler. Therefore the manhole opening should be cut so that 
its least diameter comes in the longitudinal direction. In the exploded boiler 
there was a ligament of plate only fourteen inches long between the edge of 
the manhole opening and the edge of the steam pipe opening, and it was appar- 
ently along this ligament that the initial rupture occurred. 



Fig. 4. — Illustr.\ting thi Construction of the Shell. 



132 



Tin-: LOCOMOTIVE 



[January, 



The front head of the boiler 
was blown clear of the shell, and 
the back head was 1)ent into the 
shape suggested by the dotted line 
on the right of Fig. 7. 

At the time of the explosion, 
one of llic men that were killed 
appears to have been on the top of 
the boiler. We have been advised 
that leakage appeared along the 
upper part of the shell somewhere, 
a short time before the explosion, 
and that the fireman went up to 
ascertain the nature of the trouble. 
The theory of the cause of the 
explosion that was put forth by 
the company insuring the boiler 
V, as. that there was a water-liammer effect produced by the sudden lifting of 
the pop safety-valve, and that it was this that caused the shell to suddenlj- 
give way. It ajjpears to us doubtful if this explanation is tenable, in the case 
under consideration. 




Fig. 5. — Section of ]\I.\xiioi.k Frame. 




Fig. 6. — Top View of P)Oiler, Showing Initial Rupture. 

We were also advised that the boiler was cleaned, the day before the explo- 
sion, and that it was supposed to have been connected with the main steam 
line during the night, or early in the morning, before the accident. We have 
Ijeen unable to determine whetlier the stop valve to the exploded boiler was 

*■' FLANGE 




■z'fLAhiaa. 
Fig. 7. — Right-Hand Side of Boiler, Showing Lines of Rupture. 



igii] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE 



133 



i<lHMi whtu ii was fomul, or not. If it wvn- closed, and it no jtroof were 
fortliconiinp to show tliat tlic safety-x alve was in a i)ropcr operating condition, 
we niiglit have to add this exjjlosion to tlie list, already far too long, of those 
due to not cutting a Ixiiler in pr()ptrl\, when it had hccn out of service for a 
time. ^ 

Taking ail the ascertained facts together, we are of tlie opinion tiiat the 
explosion v.as due either to a weakness deveioiK-d at or near the manhole, or 



XL 



LINt OF RUPTURE 



Fig. 8. — Left-Hand Side of Ijoilek, .Showing Lines of Rupture. 

to simple over-pressure from the boiler not being properly cut in with the rest 
of the battery, when it was supposed to be. 

In conclusion, let us add that the dimensions and other data given above, 
in connection with this explosion, were obtained under difficulties. We believe 
them to be correct in all essential particulars, but they may contain slight inac- 
curacies, of no serious import. The parties most nearlj' interested in the explo- 
sion were unwilling to give our representatives access to the ruins for purposes 
of examination, and the photographer who took the views refused to furnish us 
with copies of them, so that we had to obtain them in another way. 



Boiler Explosions. 

October, 1910. 

(3<*^) — The boiler of Hradec Bros.' threshing outfit exploded, September 
16, on the John Calelly farm, near Clarkson, Neb. One man was killed, and 
another received minor injuries. (This account was received too late to be 
given in its proper place, in the regular list for September.) 

(.390.) — A boiler exploded, October i, in a planing mill at \\'cst Augusta, 
near Staunton, Va. One person was killed. 

(.391) — On October i, the boiler of a Northern Pacific locomotive exploded 
at Missoula, ]^Iont. One man was killed and two were severely injured. 

(392.) — The boiler of a Denver & Rio Grande locomotive exploded, October 
I, at Tennessee Pass, near Leadville, Colo. Two men were killed. 

(393.) — On October 2 the boiler of a C. & O. locomotive exploded at 
Fowlerton. Ind. Two men were severely injured. 

(.194) — A boiler exploded, October 3, in W. R. Fossett's gin and grist mill, 
Toomsboro, Ga. Five persons were injured, and it was thought that two of 
these might not recover. 

(.395) — Two tubes failed. October 3, in a water-tube boiler at the Inland 
Steel Co.'s rolling mills. Indiana Harbor, Ird. 



134 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [January, 

(396.) — Eight cast-iron headers ruptured, October 3, in a water-tube 
boiler at Swift & Co.'s packing house, East St. Louis, 111. 

(.397-) — On October 4 a slight accident occurred to a boiler in an apart- 
ment building owned by the Weissinger-Gaulbert Real Estate Co., Louisville, Ky. 

(398) — Nine cast-iron headers fractured, October 5, in a water-tube boiler 
at the Shoenberger Works of the American Steel & Wire Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 

(399) — On October 5 an accident occurred to a boiler in the plant of the 
Rowesville Cotton Oil Co., Rowesville, S. C. 

(400.) — The boiler of a narrow gage locomotive exploded October 5, at the 
plant of the Lackawanna Steel Co., Buffalo, N. Y. One man was severely in- 
jured. 

(401.) — A tube ruptured, October 6, in a water-tube boiler at Swift & Co.'s 
plant. South Omaha, Neb. One man was injured. 

(402.) — A boiler exploded, October 6, in the Breise sawmill, at Frederick 
House, Ont. One man was killed, and two were seriously injured. 

(403.) — The boiler of a Chesapeake & Ohio freight locomotive exploded, 
October 7, at Losantville, near Newcastle, Ind. One man was fatally injured. 

(404.) — The boiler of a Cleveland & Pittsburg locomotive exploded, Octo- 
ber 7, at Newburg, Ohio. Three men were killed, and two were severely injured. 

(405.) — On October 8, a flue burst in a heating boiler at New Jersey 
avenue and E street, Washington, D. C. One man was seriously scalded. 

(406.) — An accident nearly identical with No. 405 occurred October 8, in 
the District Pumping Station, W^ashington, D. C. One man was seriously in- 
jured, his skull being fractured. He may not recover. 

(407.) ^-The boiler of a Pennsylvania freight locomotive exploded, Octo- 
ber 8, near Bedford, Ohio. Three men were fatallj' injured. 

(408.) — On October 10, the crown sheet of a boiler of the locomotive type 
collapsed in the plant of the iNI. Rumely Co., La Porte, Ind. One man was 
injured. 

(409.) — A boiler belonging to Witham & Bowen exploded, October 11, at 
L'nion City, Ind. One man was severely injured. 

(410.) — On October 12, an accident occurred to a boiler in the Richmond 
Baking Powder Co.'s plant, Richmond, Ind. 

(411.) — On October 12, a boiler exploded on the Marion Oil Co.'s lease, 
three miles north of Lafayette, Ohio. One man was instantly killed, and another 
was seriously injured. 

(412.) — A boiler belonging to J. W. Boyd exploded, October 14, at Lewis- 
ton, 111. One person was seriously injured. 

(413.) — A boiler exploded, October 14, in W. T. Carroll's sawmill, at Dun- 
mor, near Russellville, Ky. Two men were killed, and two were seriously in- 
jured. 

(414.) — A tube ruptured, October 14, in a water-tube boiler at the blast 
furnace of the R. Heckscher & Sons Co., Swedeland, Pa. 

(415.) — A boiler exploded, October 16, at the shops of the National Rail- 
ways of Mexico, Mexico City, ]\Iex. Two men were injured, and a fire fol- 
lowed, which caused a heavy property loss. 

(416.) — The boiler of a Kansas City Southern locomotive exploded, Octo- 
ber 17, at Dequeen, Ark. Two men were killed and two were severely injured. 

(417.) — The mud drum of a water-tube boiler exploded, October 17, in the 



1911] THE LOCOMOTIVE, -135 



department store of the luiu-ry-Hird- I h.iyer Dry Goods Co., Kansas City. .Mo, 
< )iie man was injured. 

(418.) — Tlie boiler of a tliresliin.i; macliine oiitlU explnded ()ctol)er iS, near 
Lawrence, Kan. One man was fatally iniure<l. 

(419.) — A boiler exploded, October 18, in the Uertig Supply Co.'s cotton 
gin, at Jonesboro, Ark. 

(.4JO.) — A cast-iron header ruptured, October iS, in a water-tul)e I)f)iler at 
the plant of the Great Western Sugar Co., Longmont, Colo. 

(421.) — Three sections of a cast-iron heating bf)iler fractured, October \<), 
in William Buthorn's hotel, Grand Junction, Colo. 

(422.) — On October 20, a blow-off pipe failed at tlie power ])lani of ilie 
Marquette City & Presque Isle Railway Co., Marquette, Mich. 

(42,^) — .A. tube ruptured, October JO. in a water-tube boiler at the power 
plant of the American Railways Co., Scranton, Pa. One man was scalded. 

(424.) — An accident occurred, October 20, to a lK)iler in the Richmond 
Cotton Oil Co.'s plant, Holcomb, Mo. One man was scalded. 

(425.) — A boiler exploded, October 20, in the bagging and rope plant of 
the American Manufacturing Co., at Green Point, Brooklyn, N. Y. Six men 
were killed and two were seriously injured, and one of the injured men subse- 
quently died. The property loss was $20,000. 

(426.) — The boiler of a freight locomotive exploded, October 20, at Hart- 
wick, near Belle Plains, Iowa. One man was instantly killed, one was fatally 
injured, and a third was injured so Ividly that his recovery was considered 
doubtful. 

(427.) — On October 22, an accident occurred to a boiler in Brandon & 
Bcal's brewery, Leavenworth, Kans. 

(428.) — A tube ruptured, October 24, in the Eettendorf Axle Co.'s plant, 
Bettendorf, Iowa. 

(429.) — On October 24, a section ruptured in a heating boiler in the Penn- 
sylvania railroad station at Nescopeck, near Bloomsburg, Pa. 

(430.) — A boiler exploded, October 25. in Enos Fuller's sawmill, near 
Emory, Tex. Two men were scalded so badly that they may not recover. The 
plant was badly wrecked. 

(431.) — A tube ruptured, October 25, in a water-tube boiler at tlie Chicago 
Coated Board Co.'s plant. North Water Street, Chicago, III. 

(432.) — On October 25. a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiher at the plant 
of the Semet-Solvay Co., Ensley, Ala. 

(433-)— On October 25, a boiler exploded on the steamer City of Berlin, 
Sturgeon Bay, Wis. One person was killed. 

(434.) — A tube collapsed, October 26, in a boiler in C. C. Barton's sugar 
house, Albemarle, La. 

(435-) — The boiler of a traction engine exploded, October 28, at Scuffle- 
town, some four miles northeast of Eaton, Ohio. Two young men, owners of 
tlic outfit, were badly injured. 

(436.) — The boiler of a Frisco loci:>motive exploded, October 28. at Poca- 
hontas. Ala. The fireman was badh' scalded. 

(437-) — On October 28. a tube ruptured and ten cast-iron headers frac- 
tured in a water-tube boiler in the Savannah Lighting Co.'s power station. Savan- 
nah, Ga. 



136 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [January, 



(438.) — A tube collapsed and ruptured, October 28, in a si.gar house boiler 
on R. Chauffe Bros.' Ruth Planation, "Breaux Bridge, La. 

(.439-) — ^On October 28, a blow-o!? pipe failed on a cotton gin boiler oper- 
ated by Henry E. Wynn, ilfear Bremen, Ga. Mr. Wynn was fearfully scalded. 

(440.) — On October 30, a blow-off pipe failed at the plant of Henry A. 
Silsbee, Brookline street, Lynn, Mass. 

C441.) — On October 30, an accident occurred to three boilers at the Lock- 
hart Iron & S^^eel Co.'s plant, McKees Rocks, Pa. 

(442.) — On October 31, a boiler exploded in Blackwell's cotton gin, Mays- 
ville, Ga. Two persons were seriously injured. 

(443.) — A boiler belonging to E. R. Earley exploded, October 31, at Louis- 
ville, Ky. One person was injured. 

(444.) — A tube ruptured, October 31, in a water-tube boiler at the Kim- 
berly-Clark Co.'s paper mill, Appleton, Wis. One man was scalded. 



November, 1910. 

(445.) — On November i the boiler of a threshing outfit exploded at Rich's 
Corners, near Lapeer, Mich. Three men were killed. 

(446.) — A boiler used in drilling an oil well exploded, November 2. at 
Martinsville, 111. One man was killed. 

(447.) — The boiler of a Northern Pacific freight locomotive exploded, 
November 2, at Newton Station, near Billings, Mont. One man was killed, one 
was fatally injured, and two others were injured seriously but not fatally. 

(448.) — -On November 2, several tubes ruptured in a water-tube boiler at 
the Old 76 Distilling Co.'s plant, Finchtown, Ky. 

(449.) — A water-tube boiler ruptured, November 3, in the Sharon Tin 
Plate Co.'s works, South Sharon, Pa. 

(450.) — The boiler of a Big Four locomotive exploded. November 3, at 
Newcastle, Ind. One man was seriously injured. 

(451.)^ — ^ On November 3, a boiler exploded on the Ohio River Sand Co.'s 
dredge boat Ohio, at Ambridge, Pa. One man was killed, and six persons were 
injured. 

(452.) — The boiler of a traction engine, used for shredding corn, exploded, 
November 4, on C. G. Lee's farm, at Putnamville, near Greencastle, Ind. Two 
men were killed and one was seriously injured. 

(453) — A tube failed, November 4. in a water-tube boiler at the Warren 
Manufacturing Co.'s plant, Milford, N. J. One man was severely scalded. 

(454.) — The boiler of a N. & W. locomotive exploded, November 5, in 
the yards at Columbus, Ohio. The locomotive was wrecked. 

(4E5-) — A hot-water heating boiler exploded, November 7, in A. H. Lamm's 
residence, on Grand Boulevard, Qiicago, 111. The property loss was estimated 
at $500. 

(456.) — A tube ruptured, November 7, in a water-tube boiler in the Kim- 
berly-Clark Co.'s paper mill, Appleton, Wis. One man was scalded. 

(457) — On November 7, a tube ruptured in a water-tube boilet at the 
power house of the Edison Electric Co., Brooklyn, N. Y. Six men were injured. 

(458.)— A boiler exploded, November 8, in the Deemer Manufacturing 
Co.'s plant, Deemer, ]\Iiss. 



igii.j THE LOCOMOTIVE. • 137 



(459.) — On November 9, a liibr failed in a water-tube Ijoiler at the power 
house of the Johnstown Passenger Railway Co., Johnstown, Pa. 

(460.) — A boiler used for agricultural purposes exploded, Novenilxr 10, 
at Lewiston. 111. One person was severely injured. 

(461.) — A tube collapsed, November 11, in a boiler at the Dc" Run Lead 
Co.'s plant, Flat River, Mo. One man was killed and two were injured. 

(462.) — A sawmill boiler exploded, November 11, at Byhalia, near Kenton, 
Ohio. Four men were killed. 

(463.) — A slight boiler cxpiosidii occurred, November 13, in the press 
room of the Index-Appeal, Petersbur^i, Va. One man was injured. 

(464.) — The boiler of a Grand Rapids & Indiana locomotive exploded, 
November 13, at Vicksburg, Mich. Tliree men were injured. 

(465.) — Two sections of a cast-iron heating l)oilcr fractured, November 14, 
in Canodc's hotel, Amarillo, Tex. 

(466.) — Two tubes ruptured, November 15, in a water-tube boiler at the 
Spring street power plant of the Columbus Railway & Light Co., Columbus, 
Ohio. 

(467.) — A boiler used for agricultural purposes exploded, November 15, 
at Dime, near Vandergrift, Pa. One man was injured seriously and perhaps 
fatally. 

(468.) — A tube ruptured, November 15, in a water-tube boiler at the power 
plant of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., on Thirty-third and Market streets, 
Philadelphia. Pa. 

(469.) — On November 16, several sections of a cast-iron heating boiler 
fractured in a business and apartment building at 77-79 Second avenue. New 
York City. 

(470.) — On November 16, a boiler accident occurred in the plant of the 
Beaver Dam Light, Heat & Power Co., Beaver Dam, Wis. 

(471.) — 'On November 16, a boiler exploded in J. P. Mosher's sawmill, at 
Tunmouth Creek, near St. Martin's, N. B. 

(472.) — The boiler of a traction engine exploded. November 17, on Lind- 
sey Reese's farm, near Pana, 111. Four men were injured. 

(473) — A tube ruptured, Novemlicr 17, in the Highland Park Manufactur- 
ing Co.'s cotton mill, Charlotte, N. C. One man was injured. 

(474.") — On November 17, an accident occurred to a boiler owned by the 
Hinsdale Sanitarium & Benevolent Association, Hinsdale, 111. 

(475.) — The boiler of a Texas & Pacific locomotive exploded, November 
18, at Sulphur river, near Texarkana. Tex. Tw'o men were killed and a third 
w-as fatally injured. 

(476.") — .\ heating boiler exploded, November 19, in the Methodist Church 
at Califon, N. J. The boiler was new. and had been installed during the past 
summer. 

(477.) — The boiler of a freight locomotive exploded, November 19, in the 
Pennsylvania yards at Altoona. Pa., cau-^ing a wreck which resulted in the death 
of three men and injuries to three others. 

("478.") — A boiler exploded, November 20, in the electric lighting plant at 
Long Prairie, near Sauk Center, Minn. The property loss was estimated at 
$1,500. 



138 '^HE LOCOMOTIVE. [January, 

(479.) — A cast-iron header ruptured, November 20, in a water-tube boiler 
at the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co.'s power station, on Thirty-third and 
^Market streets, Philadelphia, Pa. 

(480.) — On November 21, a heating boiler exploded in a school building 
at Ainsworth, near Omaha, Neb. 

C481.) — A boiler exploded, November 22, on the Braun farm, near Grand 
Rapids, Wis. Two men were badly injured. 

(482.) — A blow-oflf pipe failed, November 22, in the oil refinery of the 
A. D. Miller Sons Co., Pittsburg, Pa. One man was injured. 

(.483.) — On November 2^, a tube failed in a water-tube boiler at the Hyde 
Park Manufacturing Co.'s cotton mill, Charlotte, N. C. 

(484.) — The boiler of a freight locomotive exploded, November 24, on the 
Pittsburg division of the Pennsylvania railroad, at ]\Ianor, near Greensburg, Pa. 
One man was killed and two were injured. 

(485.) — A heating boiler ruptured, on or about November 26, in the South 
Chester Methodist church, South Chester, Pa. 

(486.) — A boiler exploded, November 26, in the basement of Joseph Berko- 
witz's glazier store, 775 Westchester avenue, the Bronx, New York City. T'our 
persons were slightly injured, and the property loss was estimated at $1,000. 

(487.) — On November 26, an accident occurred to a boiler at the Hoyle 
Lurnbering Co.'s plant, South Carver, Mass. 

(488.) — Two tubes ruptured, November 2y, in the Omaha Electric Light & 
Power Co.'s plant, Omaha, Neb. 

(489.) — On November 28, a mud drum, attached to a boiler, exploded at 
the No. ID shaft of the St. Joseph Lead Co., Gumbo, Mo. 

(490.) — A boiler belonging to Wheeler & Howes, coal merchants, ruptured, 
November 28, at Bridgeport, Conn. 

(491.) — The boiler of a Big Four locomotive exploded, November 28, at 
Tilden, Ind. Three men w-ere injured. 

(492.) — A boiler belonging to the Bell L'nion Coal Co. exploded, Novem- 
ber 28, at Bell's mines, on Tradewater river, near Sturgis, Ky. Two mei: were 
instantly killed. 

(493.) — A tube ruptured, November 30, in a water-tube boiler at the Omaha 
Gas Co. plant of the L^nited Gas Improvement Co., Omaha, Neb. 



December, 1910. 

(494.) — A boiler ruptured, December i, in the Akron Laundry Co.'s plant, 
Akron, Ohio. 

C495.) — On December 2 a blowoff pipe ruptured at a power plant under 
the charge of Deliver A. Spaulding, Trustee, Plainville, ]\Iass. One man was 
injured. 

(496.) — The boiler of a freight locomotive exploded. December 3, on the 
Denver & Rio Grande railroad, at Soldier Summit, near Salt Lake City. Utah. 
Three men were killed. 

(497.) — A blowofif pipe ruptured, December 3, in the plant of the Wor- 
cester Lumber Co., Chassell, Mich. 

("498.) — A heating boiler ruptured. December 5, in the North School build- 
in?, Ada, Okla. 



iQii] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 139 



(499) — A slight lx)ilcr accident mcurred, December 5, in G. A. Robertson 
& Co.'s paper mill, Hinsdale, N. H. 

(500.) — On December 5 a boiler i xplodcd at Boyce, near Alexandria, La., 
in Dr. Robinson James's shingle mill. Dr. James was killed, and another man 
was injured badly. 

(SOI.) — A tube cxi)lo(lcd, Dccciiilicr 6, in a water-tube boiler at the plant 
of the Pueblo & Suburban Traction \ Lighting Co., Pueblo, Colo. One man 
was killed, and one was injured. 

(S02.) — On December 6 one or more tubes failed in a boiler at the power 
house of the Aurora, Elgin & Chicago lines, at Batavia, 111. One man was 
severely injured. 

(503.) — A blowofF pipe failed, December 6, in the plant of the Traders' 
Paper Board Co., Bogota, N. J. One man w'as slightly scalded. 

(.S04.) — A tube ruptured, Deccml)(.T 6, in a water-tube boiler at the Inland 
Steel Co.'s plant, Indiana Harbor, Ind. 

(505) — On December 7 a boiler accident occurred in the plant of the 
Mountain Ice & Coal Co., Pueblo, Colo. 

(506.) — A boiler belonging to A. W. Allen & Co. exploded, December g. 
at New Bedford, Mass. Seven men were injured, three of them seriously. The 
building was said to be a total loss. 

(507.) — A boiler exploded, December 10, in the butcher shop of Mrs. 
Lizzie Landis, Palmyra, Pa. 

(508.) — A small boiler exploded, December to, in the laundry of the Mount 
Mercy hospital, Buffalo, N. Y. One man was badly scalded. 

(509.) — A cast-iron header ruptured, December 11, in a water-tube Ijoilcr 
at the Rose Hill Sugar Refining Co.'s plant, Abbeville, La. 

(510.) — A tube ruptured, December 12, in a water-tube boiler in the office 
building of the Union Savings Bank & Trust Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. One man 
was injured. 

(Sii.) — The boiler of locomotive No. 261, of the IMissouri, Kansas & Texas 
railroad, exploded, December 12, some seven miles north of Dallas, Tex. Two 
men were killed and another was injured. 

(512.) — On December 12 a boiler exploded at Weatherly, Pa., in the plant 
of Read & Lovatt, silk throwsters. Two men were killed, and the property 
loss was estimated at $22,000. 

(513-) — A freight locomotive, drawing an International & Great Northern 
freight train, exploded its boiler, December 13, at Aldine, between Houston and 
Palestine, Tex. Three men were injured, and it was believed that one of these 
could not recover. 

(514.) — A tube ruptured, December [3, in a water-tube boiler at the Brooks 
works of the American Locomotive Co., Dunkirk, N. Y. 

(515.) — On December 15 a tube luptured in a water-tube boiler at the 
Southern Iron & Steel Co.'s plant, Alabama City, Ala. 

(516.) — Two boilers exploded almost simultaneously, on December 15, in 
the plant of the Bendure Steam Heating Co., Fredonia, N. Y. One man was 
killed, and another received injuries which imay result fatally. The building 
was completely demolished, and all buildings within a radius of 300 feet were 
damaged. The property loss was estimated as high as $250,000, but it is likely 
that it did not materially exceed $150,000. 

(517-) — A heating boiler exploded. December 16, in the county buildings 
at Riverhead, L. I. One man was se\erely scalded. 



140 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [January, 

(518.) — The boiler of a camel-back locomotive exploded, December 17, on 
the Erie railroad, at Cresthill, N. J. The fireman was fatally scalded. 

(519-) — On December 20 a boiler belonging to T. J. Treadwell exploded 
at Burke, Tex. 

(520.) — On December 21 a section ruptured in a cast-iron sectional heating 
boiler in the Allied Investors' Realty Co.'s apartment house, 18-20 West 107th 
street, New York City. 

(521.) — As the result of a collision, the boiler of the locomotive drawing 
the "Manhattan Fl3'er" on the Pennsylvania railroad exploded, December 21, 
at West Fifty-seventh street, Chicago, 111. One man was fatally bruised and 
scalded. Ten other persons were also injured in a lesser degree, by the shock 
due to the collision. 

(522.) — A small boiler, used in a tunneling operation, exploded. December 
21, at Belleville, N. J. Three men were injured. 

(523.) — A tube ruptured, December 22, in a water-tube boiler at the plant 
of the Electric Storage Battery Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

(524.) — On December 22 a slight explosion occurred on freight locomotive 
No. 92 of the Grand Trunk railroad, at Battle Creek, Mich. Two men were 
badly injured, and one of them cannot recover. 

(525.) — A slight boiler explosion occurred, December 22. in the plant of 
the Standard Manufacturing Co., Council Bluffs, Iowa. 

(526.) — A boiler explosion occurred, December 22. in the electric lighting 
plant at Alexandria, La. 

(527.) — A boiler belonging to the J. Wood ^lanufacturing Co. exploded, 
December 24, at Conshohocken, Pa. One person was injured. 

(528.) — On December 24 a boiler exploded at the Pueblo smelter. Pueblo. 
Colo. One man was injured seriously and perhaps fatally. 

(529.) — A boiler used for heating the Grand Trunk railway station at St. 
Catharine's, Ont., exploded on December 25. 

(530.) — A flue ruptured. December 25, in a boiler at the Rail-Light power 
house, Detroit avenue and Virginia street, Toledo, Ohio. One man was killed. 

(531.) — Several cast-iron headers fractured, December 26, in a water-tube 
boiler at the paper manufacturing plant of M. & W. H. Nixon, Manayunk, Pa. 

(532.) — On December 26 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the Louis 
Bergdoll Brewing Co.'s plant, Philadelphia, Pa. 

(533-) — Three cast-iron headers fractured, December 28. in a water-tube 
boiler at the Anson-Gilkey & Hurd Co.'s sash, door, and blind factor\', Merrill, 
Wis. 

(534-) — A boiler exploded, December 29, at the plant of the Morewood 
Lake Ice Co., Morewood Lake, near Pittsfield, Mass. Thirteen men were killed, 
and some twenty others were injured. 

(535-) — Several cast-iron headers fractured, December 30, in a water-tube 
boiler in the Marion Hotel Co.'s hotel, Little Rock, Ark. 

(536.) — A blowoff pipe failed, December 30. at the sawmill of E. B. Norman 
& Co.. Louisville, Ky. Five men were injured. 



We can still furnish copies of the little book entitled The Metric System. 
Ordinary edition, one dollar each ; bond paper edition, a dollar and a quarter. 
Address our Hartford office. 



X91I.] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE 



141 



Boiler Explosions During* 1910. 

We present, licrcuitli, uiir usual annual sunnnary of boiler explosions, 
giving a tabulated statement of the nunil)er of such explosions that have occurred 
within the territory of the United States (and in adjacent parts of Canada and 
Mexico) during the year 1910, together with the number of persons killed and 
injured by them. As we have repeatedly explained, it is difficult to make out 
accurate lists of boiler explosions, because the accounts that we receive are not 
always satisfactory; but, as usual, we have taken great pains to make the present 
sunnnary as nearly correct as Rossil)!e. It is based up<jn the chronologically 
arranged lists of explosions that are regularly published in The Locomotive; 
and in making out these lists it is our custom to obtain several different accounts 
of each explosion, whenever this is practicable, and then to compare these 
accounts diligently, in order that the general facts may be stated with accuracy. 
We have striven to include all the explosions that have occurred during 1910, 
but it is quite unlikely that we have been entirely successful in this respect, for 
many accidents have doubtless occurred that have not been noticed in the public 
press, and many have doubtless escaped the attention of our numerous repre- 
sentatives who furnish the accounts. We are confident, however, that most of 
the boiler explosions that have attracted any considerable amount of notice are 
here represented. Moreover, we can assure our readers, with the utmost posi- 
tiveness, that no statistics of boiler explosions, at all comparable in accuracy 
with those given in The' Locomotive, can be had from any other source whatever. 

In three cases, during the year 1910, our attention has been called to the fact 
that the source from which we drew our information was incorrect, and that 
<ur accounts were correspondingly in error. The cases in question were as 
fallows : 

No. Ill, February 2^, Stanley Motor Carriage Works, Newton, Mass. 

No. 174, April 21, Rich block. Maiden, Mass. 

No. 182, April 25, residence of Prof. H. G. Chase, West Somerville, Mass. 

Summary of Boiler Explosions for 1910. 



MOXTH. 


Number of j 
Explosions. 1 


Persons 
Killed. 


Persons 
Injured. 


1 Total of 
Killed and 
Injured. 


January, . . . . 

February, 

March 

April, 

May, 

June, 

July 

August 

September, .... 

October, 

November, .... 
December. .... 


69 
47 
31 

39 
54 
3- 

36 
44 
34 

55 
49 
43 , 


17 

27 
13 

26 
30 
15 

21 

33 
17 

30 
23 
28 


44 
53 
24 

36 

102 

29 

32 

^5 

39 
44 
50 


61 

80 

\ 37 

i 

1 62 

132 

44 

53 
71 
32 

69 
67 
78 


Totals 


533 ' 


2S0 


506 


78') 



142 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [January, 

In these three instances the accidents that occurred could not properly be 
described as boiler explosions, and we have therefore omitted them in preparing 
the present summary. 

The total number of boiler explosions in 1910, according to the best infor- 
mation we have been able to obtain, was 533, which is somewhat smaller than the 
number we recorded in 1909. There* were 550 in 1909, 470 in 1908, 471 in 1907, 
431 in 1906, and 450 in 1905. 

The number of persons killed by boiler explosions in 1910 was 280, which 
is almost identically the same as the number in 1908. There were 227 persons 
Icilled in 1909, 281 in 1908, 300 in 1907, 235 in 1906, and 383 in 1905. 

The number of persons injured (but not killed) was 506 in 1910, against 
422 in 1909, 531 in 1908, 420 in 1907, 467 in 1906, and 585 in 1905. 

The average number of persons killed, per explosion, in 1910, was 0.525 ; 
the average number of persons injured (but not killed), per explosion, was 0.949; 
and the average number of persons that were cither killed or injured was 1.474 
per explosion. 

A summary of the .boiler explosions that we have recorded as occurring in 
the United States, Canada, and Mexico, between October i, 1867, and January i, 
1909, is given in The Locomotive for January, 1909. Correcting the figures 
there given so as to bring them down to date, we find that between October i, 
1867, and January i, 191 1, we recorded no less than 11,134 boiler explosions, 
and that these resulted in the deaths of 11,391 persons, and in more or less 
serious injuries to 16.562 others — the total number of persons that were either 
.killed or injured by boiler explosions during this period being no less than 27,953. 



At the quarterly meeting of the directors of the Hartford <6team Boiler 
Inspection and Insurance Company, held at Hartford on Januar}? 2, 1911, Mr. 
D. Newton Barney and Dr. George C. F. Williams were elected members of 
the board. Mr. Barney is treasurer of the Hartford Electric Light Company 
and a director of the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad, and Dr. 
Williams is vice-president and general manager of the Capewell Horse Nail 
Company, and a director of the Standard Fire Insurance Company, of Hart- 
ford, and of the Hartford National Bank. 



Mr. Sherwood F. Jeter, recently appointed supervising inspector of the 
Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company, is a native of the 
south. He was born at Columbus, Georgia, on December 5, 1872, attended the 
public schools of New York and Atlanta, and was graduated in the class of 
1893 from the Georgia School of Technology. He entered the mechanical 
department of this company at New Orleans in 1898, and (save for a short 
period) continued with us, at New Orleans, Pittsburg, and Hartford, until 1906, 
when he became associated as mechanical engineer with The Bigelow Company, 
a well known boiler manufacturing concern of New Haven, Connecticut. Mr. 
Jeter is a member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, is a fluent 
writer on boilers and related subjects, and is peculiarly fitted, by education, 
experience, and temperament, to perform the duties of the office to which he 
has been called. 



iQii.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. |4^ 




tt* 



A. D. RisTEEN, Ph.D., Editor. 



HARTFORD, JANUARY 25, 191 1. 

The Locomotive can be obtained free by calling at any of the company's agencies. 
Subscription price ^o cents per year when mailed from this office. 
Recent bound volumes one dollar each. Earlier ones two dollars. 



Obituary. 

Philip Corbix. 

Philip Corbin, one of the foremost citizens of Connecticut, died, November 3, 
at his home in New Britain, Connecticut, at the age of eighty-six. Born a poor 
boy, he made his way, by his own efforts, to the high position that he occupied 
in the industrial life of the state, and his life history should be thoughtfully 
considered by all young men who aspire to a like advancement. 

Mr. Corbin was born at \\'illington, Connecticut, October 26, 1824, and 
was one of a family of ten children. He had few educational advantages, his 
experience in this direction, outside of the ordinary public schools, being limited 
to a term and a half at the West Hartford Academy. Up to the time that he 
was nearly twenty he worked at farm labor, but on' March 18, 1844, he went to 
New Britain and entered the employ of Matteson, Russell & Company, a concern 
later known as the Russell & Erwin Manufacturing Company, where he earned 
fourteen dollars a month, eking out his revenue by sweeping the factory for an 
additional fifty cents a week. In the fall of 1844 he entered the shops of North 
& Stanley, where he worked for a lock contractor at nineteen dollars a month, 
spending his evenings with another contractor, who taught him the trade of 
lock-making. He soon began to take contracts for the manufacture of locks, 
and at the age of twenty-one he had nineteen men working for him, and four 
years later his force numbered thirty. In June, 1849. he married Francina T. 
Whiting, of New Britain, and the union proved a happy and altogether for- 
tunate ond, up to the time of Mrs. Corbin's death, in February, 1909. 

In 1848 Mr. Corbin, together with his brother Frank and a brass founder 
named Edward Doen, formtd a partnership under the name of Doen, Corbin 
& Company, to manufacture hardware, each of the partners contributing three 
hundred dollars to the capital. Six hundred dollars were expended for land 
and a building, and a hor^e and tread-mill were installed to supply power for 
the machinery, which consisted of two lathes, a grindstone, and an emery-wheel. 
Work was begun in ^lay, 1849, and the first shipment of goods was made on 
July 4, 1849. Mr. Corbin usually began work at daylight, and did. each day, 
labor probably equivalent to what three or four paid employees would have 
performed. 

On September i. 1849, Mrs. Corbin's father bought out Doen's interest in 
the concern, and this interest he re-sold, in the fall of 1851, to the two Corbin 
brothers. The firm then became knnwn as P. & F. Corbin. under which name 



^44 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [January, 

it is still doing business, after the lapse of nearlj^ sixty years. In 1858 Andrew 
Corbin, another brother, joined the firm, and from that date down to Andrew's 
death, on January .;, 1907, he and Philip were inseparably associated. Dr. Styles, 
who had been intimate with these two brothers for nearly thirty years, said they 
were two of the finest men he had ever known, and there are multitudes of 
others who will give this sentiment their heartiest approval. 

The growth of the business interests of the Corbin brothers was rapid and 
continuous, and as they expanded, new companies were organized for dealing 
with the special branches of manufacture, though all were under the same 
central management. The Corbin Cabinet Lock Company was formed in 1882, 
the American Hardware Corporation on ]\Iarch 13, 1902, the Corbin Screw Cor- 
poration on May 2, 1903, and the Corbin Motor Vehicle Corporation on June 11, 
1903. During Mr. Corbin's career, the invested capital under his management 
increased from nine hundred dollars to ten million dollars, and the number of 
persons employed increased from the original three to approximately ten 
thousand. 

He was a Christian of the most genuine kind, and a man generous in his 
gifts of money and of counsel. Save under exceptional circumstances, he was 
careful not to have his name known in connection with his benevolences, and 
hence no man can tell how great these may have been. It is known, however, 
that they were far in excess of any estimate of them that has yet been made, and 
in some years his gifts exceeded his income. He did not leave a great fortune, 
as fortunes are now reckoned, because he preferred to expend his wealth in the 
doing of good, during his own life. 

yir. Corbin had no desire for public office, but he served New Britain as 
representative in the general assembly in 1884, and as senator in 1888. He was 
also one of the presidential electors in 1892. As corporator, director, vice- 
president, and ultimately president, of the New Britain Savings Bank, he gave 
his ser\'ices to the public without any recompense whatever, and, as Mr. C. E. 
Mitchell has well said, " His integrity was of that rock-ribbed order ^vhich is 
based upon a man's recognition of his responsibility to God." 

It is a rare man indeed, whose departure is felt as deeply as that of Philip 
Corbin. 

The following minute was adopted by the directors of the Hartford Steam 
Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company, at a meeting held on January 2. iQii: 

" With profound sorrow we, the directors of the Hartford Steam Boiler 
Inspection and Insurance Company, record the death of our venerated associate, 
Mr. Philip Corbin, who passed away at his home in New Britain, Connecticut, 
on November third, beloved by thousands of his fellow citizens, and respected 
and esteemed by all. Born in 182J, he had been actively engaged in business for 
sixty-six years, and the remarkable development of the city in which he lived 
was due in no small measure to his influence. He became a member of this 
Board on February sixteenth, 1892, and served upon it continuously from that 
time until his death. The great industries that grew up and prospered under 
his guidance tell eloquently of his ability as an organizer and an executive, and 
his name was the symbol of integrity and honor. His loss will be keenly felt, 
and he will long be gratefully and kindly remembered by his associates, and 
by legions of others who knew him for the fame that his noble character had 
won." 



191 1.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 145 



Flywheel Explosions during" the Year 1910. 

We present, below, a list of the flywheel explosions that occurred in the 
United States during the year 1910, so far as they have come to our attention, 
it is doubtless incomplete, although wc have tried to make it as comprehensive 
as possible. .\ny of our friends who may be interested in statiatics of this nature 
can help us materially in the collection of the data, by giving us notice of any 
flywheel accidents that may happen in their own neighborhood, and assistance 
of this nature will be most gratefully received. Newspaper accounts should 
always be marked with the name .uid date of the paper from which they are 
taken, and the name and location of the plant at which the accident occurs 
should also be accurately stated. 

In the 67 accidents here recorded there were 16 men killed and 28 more or 
less seriously injured. In many cases there were very narrow escapes from loss 
of life on an appalling scale, and hence we ought not to assume the figures for 
1910 to be fairly representative of extended experience in the matter of deaths 
and injuries. Some of the averted possibilities of 1910 may become gruesome 
actualities in 191 r. 

The total property loss from flywheel explosions in 1910 cannot be stated 
with anj' approach to accuracy. The loss is given whenever we knew what it 
was, and the sum total for the year, counting only the estimates that are cited, 
was $i53.6co. Yet a perusal of the facts as given in the list shows that this is 
far short of representing the true loss. Thus in Xo. 21 '" the engine was 
destroyed," though the loss is not stated; in No. 36 " the building and machinery 
were damaged so that it was said that the department could not be operated 
for several weeks," and yet no estimate of the damage is given ; in No. 40 it 
is said that " the mill was shut down for three weeks as a resu'.r of the accident " ; 
in No. 48 " the engine room was totally wrecked " ; and so on. It is not at all 
unlikely that the actual total loss of propert}- from the accidents that we have 
listed e.xceeded half a million dollars. 



Flywhkfx Exn.n.sioxs Dtkixc, tqio. 

(i.) — A flywheel burst, January 10, at the plant of tlie Vaughn Manufac- 
turing Co., Columbia, Tenn. The accident appears to have been due to the 
working loose of a set screw in one of the goverr.or gears, permitting the engine 
to race. Property loss estimated at $500. 

(2.) — A flywheel burst, January 10, at a gas well in Chesterfield. Iiid. 
Property loss estimated at $100. 

- (3.) — On February 18 a flywheel and wood chipper burst in the plant of 
the Brevard Tannin Co., at Pisgah Forest, near Asheville, N. C. .apparently 
the wood chipper went to pieces first, and then the governor of the engine failed 
to operate properly, so that the engine raced on account of the removal of its 
load. The flywheel was nine feet in diameter, and the property loss was said 
to be between $5,000 and $6,000. 

(4.) — .A. flywheel exploded, February 2^. in th.e Boehme & Ranch mill, 
Monroe, Mich. 

(5.) — The flywheel of a gasoline engine, ufcd for driving a pump, rup- 
tured, on or about February 25, in the city water works, Stockton, Kans. The 
wheel was 55 in. in diameter, and we are informed that the rim- was not broken. 



146 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [January, 

The hub was defective, and a new key was fitted — the said key being driven 
so hard as to split the hub. There was no racing, so far as we are aware. 

(6.) — A flywheel, 80 in. in diameter and normally making 200 revolutions 
a minute, exploded, February 26, in the Provident Coal Co.'s plant, St. Clairsville, 
Ohio. The accident was caused by the fracture of a bolt securing a leaf spring 
in the shaft governor. The engineer was within a few feet of the engine, yet 
the wheel exploded before he could shut off the steam. Property loss estimated 
at $2,000. 

(7.) — On February 27 a flywheel burst at AI. C. Harper's brick pit, McKees- 
port, Pa. Property loss estimated at $2,000. 

(8.) — On March 2 a flywheel exploded in tlie plant of the Ashgrove Lime 
& Portland Cement Co., at Ashgrove, near Chanute, Kans. The wheel that 
burst was a rope-drive whtel, 14 feet in diameter, on an engine generating some 
560 horse-power. Apparently the driving rope ruptured or ran off the wheel, 
breaking the governor belt in so doing. The engine, being thus relieved of its 
load, and freed from the regulating action of the governor, ran away. As soon 
as the wheel burst, a fragment of the rim accidentally struck and closed the 
emergency valve on the rnam steam pipe to the engine, thus shutting off any 
further supply of steam. The propertj' loss was estimated at $4,200. (An illus- 
trated account of this accident is given in the issue of The Locomotive for April, 
1910.) 

(9.) — A flywheel burst, March 17, at the plant of the Central City Veneer- 
ing Co., Huntington, W. Va. Property loss estimated at $1,500. 

(10.) — On IMarch 19 a fl3-wheel exploded in the power house of a mine at 
Ducktown, Tenn. 

(11.) — A flywheel weighing some 15 tons exploded, March 2^, on a Corliss 
engine in the paper mill of the C. G. Weeks Co., near Mott\alle, N. Y. After 
the accident it was found that the main belt was broken, but it does not appear 
whether this was the cause of the explosion, or one of its results. The broken 
wheel is said to have sho\ui no flaws, and the owners of the plant stated that 
there was no unusual duty on the engine at the time. 

(12.) — A flywheel exploded, March 26, in the IMershon shops, at Sagi- 
naw, Mich. One man was fatally injured. 

(13.) — On March 27 a pulley burst in the plant of the Central Massachu- 
setts Electric Light Co., Palmer, Mass. 

(14.) — A flywheel exploded, April i, at the Universal Stone Co.'s plant, 
Ives, Wis. 

(15.) — On April 5 a flywheel burst at the Never Sweat mine. Anaconda, 
Mont. One man was killed. 

(16.) — A flywheel burst, April 5, in Butler county. Pa. One man was 
killed. 

(17.) — On April 14 an eight-foot flywheel exploded at the Pittsburg-Buffalo 
mines, Marianna, near Monongahela, Pa. Fragments of the wheel broke two 
ten-inch steam mains, so that for a time it was impossible to enter the building. 
The chief engineer's skull was fractured by the flying wreckage, and he was 
scalded to death by the escaping steam. 

(18.)— A pulley exploded, April 28, in the Meade paper mill, Chillicothe. 
Ohio. The accident was apparently due to the speeding up of the engine from 
some cause. It is thought that the man in charge of the engine tried to stop 
it, but just as he reached it a hea\'y pulley on another shaft exploded, killing 



19II.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. -[47 



liim instantly. It was found tliat tlu engine was uninjured, save for tlie break- 
ing of a steam pipe that was struck by a fragment of t\ve wrecked pulley. 

(19.) — A six-foot flywheel e.\[)loded, April 30, at the Stegcr piano factory, 
Steger, 111. The chief engineer was instantly killed. 

(20.) — On May 5 a serious accident occurred in the pow-er-house of the 
Owosso & Corunna Electric Co., Owosso, Mich. The exact^jature of the acci- 
dent is not clear, but so far as wc can judge from the data at hand, it was a 
flywheel explosion. Apparently the governor failed to operate properly, and 
the engine ran awa}'. The engine itself was practically destroyed, and a dynamo 
is said to have been seriously damaged. The property loss was estimated at 
$t 0,000. 

(21.) — A ten-loot flywheel exploded. May 6. at the plant of the Westport 
Paving Brick Co., Westport, Md. It is said that '" one of the ball springs of 
the throttling governor worked out of place, preventing the governor from 
regulating the admission of steam, with the result that the engine ran away." 
The engine was destroyed, and one fragment of the flywheel was found a 
thousand feet from the engine room. 

(22.) — On May 7 a flywheel exploded in the Miller-Link sawmill, at New- 
ton, near Orange, Tex. 

(23.) — A flywheel exploded, May 9, at Freeport, Long Island, X. Y., in 
Ira H. I'l-fommedieu's bakery. The governor broke and permitted the engine 
to run away. Mr. L'Hommedieu was badly inj- red. 

(24.'* — A four-foot fl>^■heel exploded. May 2', i.i the electric light plant 
at Kennett Square, Philadelphia, Pa. The building was badly wrecked. 

(25.) — A four-foot driven pulley burst. May 24, at the plant of Russe & 
Burgess, Inc., Memphis, Tenti. The normal speed of the i ulley was 210 revo- 
lutions per minute. (See also Nos. 59 and 65, below.) 

(26.) — On May 25 a twelve-fix)t flywheel exploded in the Weyerhaeuser 
planing mill. Everett, Wash. The roof of the building and one of the walls 
were damaged. 

(27.) — On May 31 a large flywheel exploded in the plant of the Escanaba 
Manufacturing Co., Escanaba, Mich. Three employees were slightly injured, 
and many had narrow escapes from death. 

(28.) —A flywheel exploded, June 8, in the Stafford Mill, Fall River. Mass. 

(29.) — A flywheel exploded. June 11, at the Empire Plow Works. Cleve- 
land, Ohio. One man was injured. 

(30.) — On June 12 a pulley, 70 in. in diameter, exploded in Frost & Son's 
paper mill, Napanoch, N. Y. One man was killed, and two others were injured. 
(See also No. 39, below.) 

(31.) — The flywheel of a 400 horse-power Bates-Corliss engine exploded, 
June 12, at the plant of the Oklahoma Portland Cement Co., Ada. Okla. One 
■man was slightly injured, and fragments of the wheel were thrown to a distance 
of 600 feet. The wheel was t6 feet in diameter, weighed about twenty tons, and 
carried a i6-inch belt. It is said that the governor belt broke, and that the 
safety cams, which are supposed to throw out the valve mechanism under these 
circumstances, were improperly adjusted and inoperative. The engine raced, 
and the flywheel burst before steam could be shut off. 

(32.) — On or about June 17 a fly-wheel exploded at Cambridge, Iowa, in- 
juring H. M. Bennington so badly that he died a week later. 



-148 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [January, 



(33.) — The flywheel of an Overland automobile exploded, June 19, while 
the machine was being tested in a garage at Somerset, Pa. One man was in- 
jured. The wheel broke into five pieces, one of which passed through two 
plank floors and an inch of concrete, and the others went through the ceiling 
and walls. 

(34.) — On June 23 a large flywheel burst at the Russell oil well, near New 
Carlisle, Ind. One man was injured. 

(35.) — A flywheel, 80 in. in diameter and 13 in. across the face, exploded, 
June 23, in the MorgaiUown & Kingwood railroad shops, Morgantown, W. Va. 
One man was killed. 

(36.) — On June 2S a flywheel exploded in No. i rod mill of the Illinois 
Steel Co., Joliet, 111. One man was slightly injured. The building and machi- 
nery were damaged so that it was said that the department could not be operated 
for several weeks. 

(37-) — A flywheel -exploded, July 2, in the file room of the Disston Saw 
Works, at Tacony, Philadelphia, Pa. One man was injured. The wrecked 
wheel was hurled througb a sixteen-inch brick wall. 

(38.) — On July 2 a flywheel exploded in the plant of the Neosho Electric 
Light Co., Neosho, Mo. It is said that a generator pulley broke first, thereby 
removing the load from the engine, and that the governor failed to shut off 
the steam, so that the engine raced. The estimated property loss was $2,800. 

(39.) — A particularly interesting pulley explosion occurred, July 5, at the 
Frost & Son's paper mill, Napanoch, N. Y. After the explosion at this plant 
on June 12 (see No. 30, above), a new pulley was constructed to take the place 
of the one that was destroyed, and especial care was taken to have the new 
one strong and safe. It was 70 in. in diameter, with a rim ;^ in. thick, and it 
weighed about 1,800 lbs., and ran at 350 revolutions per minute. The new pulley 
exploded on July 5, after running 15 hours. 

(40.) — At 12.15 a- rn., on the morning of July 9, a twelve-foot flywhe.l 
exploded in the factory of the Akers & Taylor Manufacturing Co., at Qiarlton 
City, Mass. It was running at 93 revolutions per minute, and formed part cf a 
George H. Corliss engine, which was not provided with a separate safety stop. 
The factory was running all night at the time, and the engineer in charge had 
not been in the engine room for about half an hour. Suddenly the lights began 
to grow dim, and the engineer ran to the boiler room at once, and proceeded 
to the top of the boiler to shut off the steam. While he was there the wheel 
exploded. One spoke, weighing about 500 lbs., passed up through three stories 
of the mill, and fell again, through another part of the building, into the cellar. 
Another part of the wheel tore through the outside wall of the building, and 
landed some distance away, in a field. It is said that the mill was shut down 
for three weeks, as a result of the accident. No cause has been definitely 
assigned, but the fact that the lights grew dim just before the explosion would 
naturally lead one to infer that the load was taken from the engine (by the 
breaking of the main belt or otherwise), and that the engine then ran away. 

(41.") — The flywheel of an automobile exploded. July 13, at the Pittsburjr 
Automobile Academy, Pittsburg, Pa., while the machine was undergoing a 
test. Two men were injured. 

(42.) — The flywheel of an automobile belonging to Dr. Laidlaw exploded, 
July 17, at Bluffton, Ind. One person was severely injured. 



19"] THE LOCOMOTIVE. ^49 



(43.) —On July 21 a flywheel exploded at the plant of the Burlington Flour- 
ing Co., Winooski, Vt. The property loss was estimated at $4,000. 

(44.) — A flywheel exploded, July 28, in the plant of the Lebanon Valley 
Iron & Steel Co., Lebanon, Pa., killing one man. The engine, which was used 
to operate a train of rolls, ran away, and the wliecl burst before steam could 
be shut off. ^ 

(45.)— An eight-foot flywheel e.xploded, July 29, in the Friend Paper Co.'s 
plant, West Carrollton, Ohio. The engine was a Buckeye, running at 138 revo- 
lutions per minute, and the rim of the wheel was 3 in. thick and 24 in. wide. 
It is said that the accident was cau.sed by the rocker arm key working out, and 
rendering the cut-off inoperative. One fragment of the wheel passed through 
the roof, 80 feet above the engine, and came down on the tracks of the Ohio 
Electric Co., 600 feet away. Another passed through a 17-inch brick wall and 
down through a floor, where it broke oflf a four-inch pipe. 

(46.) — On August 9 a flywheel burst in the pickling department of the 
Cambridge plant of the American Sheet & Tin Plate Co., Cambridge, Ohio. 
One man was killed almost instantly. The wheel was eight feet in diameter. 

(47-) — On August 18 a flywheel belonging to Edson J. Neighbor exploded 
at Vernoy, N. J. 

(48) — The engine room of the Bicking Paper Mills, at Bridgeport, near 
Norristown, Pa., was totally wrecked, August 26, by the explosion of a flywheel. 
One man was slightly injured. The engine house was unroofed, and one side 
was torn out. It is said that the main belt ran off^ the wheel, and that the engine 
then raced. 

(49-) — A thirty-ton flywheel exploded, August 29. in the Arkansas Lum- 
ber Co.'s plant at Warren, Ark. Seven men were injured, and it was thought 
that two of these could not recover. The plant was also wrecked, and the prop- 
erty loss was estimated at $90,000. Some of the flying fragments of wreckage 
cut off twelve-inch timbers. The main drive belt broke, and one end of it 
struck the governor and rendered it inoperative. The engine then ran away. 

(50-) — A flywheel exploded, September 6, in the Standard Sanitary Manu- 
facturing Co.'s plant, Louisville, Ky., killing the engineer. The engine was of 
the Corliss typ.e making 72 revolutions per minute, and the wheel was 14 feet 
in diameter, and built in two sections. The accident was caused by the racing 
of the engine. Apparently the governor belt broke. The engine was not 
equipped with a broken-belt stop, nor with an automatic stop of any kind. 
Every spoke of the wheel was broken off close to the hub, and the engine was 
completely wrecked. 

(51.) — The flywheel of an automobile belonging to E. L. Sprague, of 
Brandon, Vt., exploded, September 11, at Syracuse, N. Y. The chauffeur was 
seriously injured. He had just cranked up the engine, and the wheel had come 
up to speed, but the automobile itself was not in motion. The wheel flew into 
hundreds of pieces, and the entire machine was badly damaged. 

(52.) — -On September 16 a flywheel burst in the Hanover mill, at Whip- 
pany, N. J. The engine had been shut down, and for some reason . (probably 
for repair purposes) the governor had been removed, or disconnected. It is 
said that an unauthorized workman, unaware of the true state of things, started 
up the engine for the purpose of doing a small job. The engine at once devel- 
oped great speed, and the workman, becoming alarmed, ran out of the building, 
instead of shutting off the steam. One piece of the wheel passed throuch a 



150 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [January, 

brick wall, and landed 500 feet away. Another fragment, weighing nearly 500 
pounds, went out through the side of the building. 

(S3-) — A flywheel exploded, September 16, in the Pittsburg Coal Co.'s 
power station, at Scott Haven, Pa. The chief engineer was instantly killed. 
The wheel was 12 feet in diameter, and 31 in. across the face. Its normal speed 
was 148 revolutions per minute. The main shaft was thrown fifteen feet, and 
the engine was damaged beyond repair. Property loss estimated at $6,000. 

(54-) — A driven pulley, 48 in. in diameter, exploded, September 30, in the 
Roswell Manufacturing Co.'s plant, Roswell, Ga. The engine was connected 
with a water-wheel. The belt ran off of the pulley driven by the water-wheel, 
and the engine then ran away, the governor being inoperative. 

(55.) — A flywheel exploded, September 30, in the canning factory at 
Onarga, near Loda, 111. One man was badly injured. 

(56.) — The flywheel of Joseph C. Hutchinson's automobile exploded, Octo- 
ber 6, on South Thirtieth street, Philadelphia, Pa. Three men were slightly 
injured, and the automobile was ruined. Fragments of the wheel also damaged 
a near-by house. 

(57.) — On October 12 a flywheel exploded in the Demmler Plate Co.'s 
plant, McKeesport, Pa. Property loss estimated at about $25,000. 

(58.) — -A flywheel belonging to F. Wayne exploded, October 15, at James- 
town, N. D. One person was seriously injured. 

(59.) — On October 15 a driven pulley, 48 in. in diameter, and running at 
210 revolutions per minute, exploded at the plant of Russe & Burgess, Inc., 
Memphis, Tenn. This pulley was installed on May 26, to take the place of the 
one whose explosion is noted luider item No. 25, above. (See also No. 65, 
below.) 

(60.) — On October 29 a flywheel exploded in the plant of the Fostoria 
Glass Co., Moundsville, W. Va. 

(61.) — On November 3 a flywheel exploded in the Scranton Electric Co.'s 
power plant, Scranton, Pa. One person was injured. 

(62.) — -A flywheel exploded, on or about November 14, in the Grafton 
Roller Mills, Grafton. N. D. 

(63.) — The flywheel of a threshing outfit exploded, November 18. at 
Staunton, Va. One man was instantly killed. The accident was due to the 
failure of the governor, the belt of wdiich either broke or ran off its pulleys. 

(64.) — A flywheel exploded, December 2, in W. D. Byron & Sons' tannery. 
Mercersburg, Pa. One man was killed and another was severely injured. It is 
said that the engine raced, and that the men ran to shut off the steam, but that 
the explosion occurred before they could do so. A piece of the wheel struck 
the main steam pipe and broke it. 

(65.) — ^ On December 8 a 48-inch driven pulle}-, running at 210 revolutions 
per minute, exploded at the plant of Russe & Burgess, Inc., Memphis, Tenn. 
This pulley was installed on October 16, to take the place of the one whose 
failure is recorded above, in item No. 59. (See also No. 25.) 

(66.) — On December 18 an unusual flywheel accident occurred in the Lona- 
coning Electric Light Co.'s plant, Lonaconing, Md. A spring broke on the 
shaft governor, within the flywheel, and some part of the governor flew out- 
ward against the rim of the wheel. The rim was a foot or so in width, and 
two inches thick, but the shock cracked it completely through. The engineer 
succeeded in stopping the engine before further trouble ensued. 



TUE L O C () M O T I V K. ^ 5 ^ 



(67.) — On December 20 a flywlucl exploded in the plant of William Ayres 
& Son, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Some Boiler Mathematics. 

Here is a problem upon which any of our readers who may be so inclined 
can try tlioir malhcmatical teeth. It came up in actual practice, although we 
h.ivc changed the figure:, somewhat, so as to make the calculations a little 
simpler. 

A certain Ixiilor had two availa!)le sources of feed water, either one of 
which was quite sufficient to supply all that was needed, under ordinary cir- 
cumstances. One of the sources was a brook, and the other was a well. 
Experience showed that when the boiler was running on the brook water alone, 
it had to be opened and cleaned every eight weeks, while when it was running 
on the well water alone, it had to be cleaned every three weeks. 

The past summer being an unusually dry one in the locality in question, 
it was found that neither source would furnish enough water, by itself, to 
meet the needs of the plant. The two waters were therefore used together, 
being run into a storage tank in the proportion of 1,600 gallons of the brook 
water to 900 gallons of the well water. The problem is. to determine, from 
the data here given, how often it would be necessary to clean the boiler when 
running with the mixed feed. 

Please note that this is a purely mathematical problem. In other words, 
it is to be assumed that the character of the solid matter deposited by the two 
waters is identically the same, and it is also to be assumed (although this would 
not be the case in practice) that in the dry season each of the waters carries 
just the same amount of solid matter, per gallon, that it does when the rainfall 
is more plentiful. 

We shall take pleasure in printing the solution of this problem, some time in 
the near future ; but we must utterly and absolutely and unconditionally decline 
to enter into correspondence about it. We make this explanation so that our 
friends will spare us a repetition of the experience we had once before, when we 
printed some problems without making this stipulation about writing letters. 
The editor then had stacks of them to answer, so that before he had finished 
the task, he accumulated a great and unprofitable weariness of the spirit. 



Inspectors' Reports. 

On pages 152 to 155, inclusive, we present general summaries of the work 
done by the inspectors of the Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance 
Company, showing the number of delects of various kinds that were discovered 
during each of the twelve months of the year 1910. The number of visits of 
inspection, the total number of inspections (both internal and external), and 
the number of complete internal inspections, as well as the number of hydro- 
static tests performed, and the number of boilers condemned, during these 
respective months, are given in the " Summary by Months," which will be 
found on page 157. 



152 



THE LOCOMOTIVE, 



[January, 






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THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



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-154 



THE LOCOMOTIVE 



[January , 



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Cases of deposit of sediment. 
Cases of incrustation and scale, 
Cases of internal grooving, 
Ca.ses of internal corrosion. 
Cases of external corrosioi'. 
Defective braces and stays, 
Settings defective. 
Furnaces out of shape. 
Fractured plates, 
Burned plates, , 
Laminated plates, 
Cases of defective riveting. 
Defective heads, 
Cases of leakage around tubes 
Cases of defective tubes, . 
Tubes too light. 
Leakage at joints, 
Water-gages defective, 
Blow-offs defective, . 
Cases of deficiency of water, 
Safety-valves overloaded, 
Safety-valves defective, . 
Pressiu-e gages defective, 
Bc^ilers without pressure gages 
LTnclassified defects, 



XQI^1 



THE LO(OMOTIVE 



155 



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O y U O O Q X fa &- 33 ,-3 O Q U O H J ^ P3 O -X X 0. M t) 



156 



THE LOCOMOTIVE 



[Janlary, 



Summary of Inspectors' Reports for the Year 1910. 

During the year 19 lo the inspectors of the Hartford Steam Boiler In- 
spection and Insurance Company made 177,946 visits of inspection, examined 
347,25s boilers, inspected 138,900 boilers both internally and externally, sub- 
jected 12,779 to hydrostatic pressure, and found 625 unsafe for continued in- 
surance. The whole number of defects reported was 169,202, of which 16.746 
v/ere considered dangerous. The usual classification by defects is '^ivcu be- 
low, and a summary by months is given on page 157. 

Summary, by Defects, for the Yi:ak 1910. 

Nature of Defects. 
Cases of deposit of sediment, 
Cases of incrustation ard scale, 
Cases of internal groov^ing. 
Cases of internal corrosion. 
Cases of external .orrosion. 
Defective braces .md stays. 
Settings defective, 
Furnaces out of shape, 
Fractured plates, 
Burned plates, 
Laminated plates. 
Cases of defective riveting. 
Defective heads. 
Cases of leakage around tubes. 
Cases of defective tubes. 
Tubes too light. 
Leakage at joints. 
Water-gages defective, 
Blow-ofifs defective, . 
Cases of deficiency of v?ter, 
Safety-valves overloaded, . 
Safety-valves defective. 
Pressure gages defective, 
Boilers without pressure gages 
Unclassified defects, . 



Total, 



Whole 


Danger- 


Number. 


ous. 


19,471 


1-367 


43,663 • 


1,468 


2,830 


229 


13,781 


611 


9,668 


Soi 


2,611 


524 


5.677 


687 


7,674 


402 


3,654 


5-' I 


5,174 


478 


565 


50 


3,225 


610 


1,204 


166 


13.015 


1.789 


9,691 


2.50S 


2,009 


552 


5,956 


353 


3,402 


668 


4,436 


1,288 


430 


122 


1,209 


354 


1,334 


356 


8,145 


469 


369 


369 


9 


4 



169,202 



16.746 



Comparison of Inspectors' Work during the Years 1909 and 1910. 

Visits of inspection made 

Whole number of inspections (both interna! and external), 
N,.mber of complete internal inspections. 
Boiler.-, tested by hydrostatic pressure, . 
1 otal number of boilers condemned. 
Total number of defects discovered, 
Total number of dangerous defects discovered. 



1909. 


IQIO. 


174.872 


T 77.946 


342.136 


?: 17,^55 


136,682 


138,900 


12,563 


T 2,779 


642 


625 


169.356 


169.20.? 


T6.385 


16.746 



igii] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE, 



157 



Summary by Months for 1910. 



Month. 


Visits 

of 

inspection. 

15.431 
13.944 
15.732 

15.503 
14.671 

14,329 

14,104 
13.772 
14,211 

16.143 
13,701 
14,405 


Number 
of boilers 
examined. 


No. inspected 

internally 
and externally. 


No. tested 

hydro- 
statically. 


No. con- 
demned. 


No. of 
defects 
found. 


No. of 

dangerous 

detects 

found. 


January, 
February, . 
March, . . 

April, . . 
May. . . . 
June, . . . 

July, . . . 
August, . . 
September, . 

October, 
November, . 
December, . 


30,978 

27,275 
30,831 

29,913 
29,716 

26,934 

26,529 
26 276 
27.937 

31.754 
30,082 
29,030 

347,255 


10,647 

8.520 

11,157 

12,359 
12,821 
13,232 

14,304 
11,863 
1 1 ,902 

12,079 

10.979 

9,037 

138,900 


784 

898 

1,079 

1,251 
1,097 
1,119 

1,334 
1,134 
1,292 

1,194 
913 
684 


41 

45 
52 

69 
44 
64 

77 
39 
50 

60 
38 
46 


Ik 

15,601 
12,476 
14.787 

15.470 
15.723 
14,908 

15,298 
13.141 
13.721 

13.695 
12.943 
11,439 


1.503 
1.246 
1.350 

1.547 
1.531 
1,304 

1,468 
1.233 
1.492 

1.365 
1,418 
1,289 


Totals, . 


177,946 


12,779 


625 169,202 


16,746 



The followintj table is also of interest. It shows that our inspectors have 
nnde over three million visits of inspection, and that they have made over 
six million inspections, of which more than two and a third million were com- 
plete internal inspections. The hydrostatic test has been applied in more 
than a quarter of a million cases. Of defects, more than three million and 
three-quarters have been discovered and pointed out to the owners of the 
boilers; and nejirly four hundred thousand of these were, in our opinion, 
dangerous. Nearly twenty-one thousand boilers have been condemned by us 
as no longer insurable, good and sufficient reasons for the condemnation being 
given to the assured in every instance. 

Grand Total of the In.spectors' Work from the Time the Company Began 

Business, to January i, 191 i. 
A'isits of inspection made 3,132,080 



Whole number of inspections (both internal and external), 

Complete internal inspections, 

Boilers tested by hydrostatic pressure, 
'I'otal number of boilers condemned, .... 
Total number of defects discovered, .... 
Total number of dangerous defects discovered, 



6,060,913 
2.378,026 

287,128 

20,967 

3,823,267 

392,229 



We append, also, a summary of the work of the inspectors of this company 
from 1870 to T910 inclusive. The year 1878 is omitted, because the data that 
we have at hand for that year are not complete. Previous to 1875 it was the 
custom of the company to publish its reports for the year ending with September 
I. but in that year the custom was changed and the summaries were thereafter 
made out so as to correspond with the calendar year. The figures given opposite 
1875, therefore, are for sixteen months, '.leginning September r, 1874, and ending 
December 31, 1875. 



158 



THE LOCOMOTIVE 



[January. 







Summary < 


3F Inspectorf Work 


SINCE 1870. 










! 




Boilers 


Total num- 


Total num- 






Visits of 


Whole num- 


Complete 


tested by 


ber of 


ber of 


Boilers 


Year. 


inspection 


ber of boilers 


internal 


hydrostatic 


defects 


dangerous 


con- 




made. 


inspected. 


inspections. 

2.385 


pressure. 


discovered. 


defects 
discovered. 


demned. 


1870 


5.439 


10,569 


882 


4,686 


485 


45 


1871 


6,826 


13,476 


3,889 


1,484 


6.253 


954 


60 


1872 


10,447 


2i,o65 


6.';33 


2,102 


11,176 


2,260 


155 


1873 


12,824 


24,998 


0.511 


■ 2,175 


11,998 


2,892 


178 


1874 


14,368 


29,20c 


9.451 


2,078 


14,256 


3.486 


163 


1875 


22,612 


44,76; 


.4,181 


3,149 


24,040 


6,149 


216 


1876 


16,409 


34,275 


30,669 


2,150 


16,273 


4.275 


89 


1877 


16,204 


32,97E 


11,629 


2,367 


15,964 


3,690 


133 


1879 


17,179 


36,169 


13.045 


2.540 


16,238 


3,816 


246 


1880 


20,939 


41,166 


16,010 


3.490 


21,033 


5.444 


377 


1881 


22 41 i. 


47,245 


17.590 


4,286 


21,110 


5.801 


363 


1882 


25 742 


55.679 


21,428 


4.564 


33.690 


6,867 


478 


1883 


29,324 


60, 142 


24,403 


4.275 


40,953 


7,472 


545 


1884 


34.048 


66,695 


24,855 


4,180 


44,900 


7.449 


493 


1885 


37.018 


71.334 


26,637 


4.809 


47,230 


7,325 


449 


1886 


39.777 


77.275 


30,868 


5.252 


71.983 


9,960 


509 


1887 


46,761 


89,994 


36,166 


5.741 


99,642 


11,522 


622 


1888 


51,483 


102,314 


40,240 


6,536 


91.567 


8,967 


426 


1889 


56,752 


110,394 


44,563 


7,187 


105,187 


8,420 


478 


1890 


61,750 


118,098 


49,983 


7.207 


115,821 


9.3S7 


402 


1891 


71,227 


137.741 


57.312 


7,859 


127,609 


10,858 


526 


1892 


74.830 


148,603 


59.883 


7.585 


120.659 


11,705 


681 


1893 


81,904 


163,328 


66,698 


7.861 


122,893 


12,390 


597 


1894 


94,982 


191,932 


79,000 


7,686 


135,021 


13,753 


595 


1895 


98,349 


199,096 


76,744 


8.373 


144.857 


14,556 


799 


1896 


102,911 


205,957 


78,118 


8,187 


143,217 


12,988 


663 


1897 


105,062 


206,657 


76,770 


7,870 


131,192 


11,775 


588 


1898 


106,128 


208,990 


78,349 


8,713 


130.743 


11.727 


603 


1899 


112,464 


221,706 


85,804 


9.371 


157.804 


12,800 


779 


1900 


. 122,811 


234.805 


92,526 


10,191 


177,113 


12,862 


782 


1901 


134,027 


254.927 


99,885 


11.507 


187.847 


12,614 


950 


1902 


142,006 


264,708 


105.675 


11,726 


145.489 


13,032 


1,004 


1903 


153.951 


293,122 


116,643 


12,232 


147,707 


12,304 


933 


1904 


159.553 


299.436 


117,366 


12,971 


154,282 


13,390 


883 


1905 


159.561 


291,041 


116,762 


13,266 


155,024 


14,209 


753 


1906 


159.133 


292,977 


120,416 


13.250 


157.462 


15,116 


690 


1907 


163,648 


308,571 


124,610 


13,799 


159,283 


17,345 


700 


1908 


167,951 


317,537 


124,990 


10,449 


151.359 


15,878 


572 


1909 


174,872 


342,136 


136,682 


12,563 


169,356 


16,385 


642 


1910 


177,946 


347,255 


138,900 


12,779 


169,202 


16,746 


625 



To avoid possible misunderstanding with respect to the figures in the last column of this 
table, we would direct attention to the fact that no insurance company has the power to cause 
the use of a boiler to be discontinue!. In other words, when we say we "condemn " a boiler, 
we merely mean that we pronounce it unfit for the continuance of the insurance. 



me Paitloril Sieani Boiler iDspeciion aqil iQSiiraiice Gonipaiiir. 



ABSTRACT OF STATEMENT, JANUARY 1, 
Capital Stock, . . . $1,000,000. 



ASSETS. 



Cash on hand and in course of transi 
Premiums in course of collection. 

Real estate 

Loaned on bond and niortgasjio. . 
Stocks and bonds, market value. 
Interest accrued, .... 



1911. 
00. 



$174,137-52^ 
209,440.08 , 

91,400.00, 
1,140,810.00, 
3,180,527.72 

71,231.96. 



Total Assets, $4,867,547.28, 



LIABILITIES. 

Premium Reserve, .... 

Losses unadjusted, .... 

Commissions and brokerage. 
Other liabilities (taxes accrued, etc.). 

Capital Stock, 

Surplus over all liabilities, . 

Surplus as regards Policy-holders, 

Total Liabilities, 



$1,000,000.00 
1,638,967.31 



$2,638,967.31 



$2,010,733.76 

130,809.04 

41,888.01 

45.149.16 



2,638,967.31 

$4,867,547.28 



L. B. BRAINERD, President and Treasurer. 

FRANCIS B. ALLEN. Vice-President. CHAS. S. BLAKE, Secretary, 

L. F. MIDDLEBROOK, Assistant Secretarv. 

W. R. C. CORSON, Assistant Secretary. 

S. F. Jeter. Superv^ising Inspector. 

E. J. Murphy, M. E., Consulting Engineer. 

F. M. Fitch, Auditor. 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 



GEORGE BURXHAM, 

The Baldwin Locomotive Works, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 
ATWOOD COLLINS, President. 

The Security Co., Hartford, Conn. 
LUCIL'S F. ROBINSON, Attorney, 

Hartford, Conn. 
JOHN O. ENDERS, United States Bank, 

Hartford, Conn. 
LYMAN B. BRAINERD, 

Director, Swift & Company. 
MORGAN B. BRAINARD, 

Vice-Pres. and Treasurer. The .-Etna 

Life Insurance Co., Hartford, Conn. 
FRANCIS B. ALLEN. Vice-Pres., The 

Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and 

Insurance Company. 
CHARLES P. COOLEY, Vice-Pres.. 

The Fidelity Trust Co., Hartford, 

Conn. 



ARTHUR L. SHIPM.VN, Attorney, 

Hartford, Conn. 
GEORGE C. KIMBALL, President, The 

Smyth Mfg. Co.. Hartford, Conn. 
CHARLES M. JARVIS, President, The 

American Hardware Corporation, New 

Britain, Conn. 
FRANCIS T. MAXWELL, President, 

The Hockanum Mills Company, Rock- 

ville, Conn. 
HORACE B. CHENEY, Cheney Brothers 

Silk Manufacturing Co., South Man- 
chester, Conn. 
D. NEWTON BARNEY. Treasurer, The 

Hartford Electric Light Co., and 

Director N. Y.. N. H. and H. R. R. 

Co. 
DR. GEORGE C. F. WILLIAMS, Treas, 

& General Manager, The Capeweli 

HoTse Nail Co., Hartford, Conn. 



Incorporated 1866. 







Charter Perpetual. 



THe Haitforil Sieani Boilei Inspeclioi) aqd Igsuiaiice Gonipaiiji 

ISSUES POLICIES OF INSURANCE COVERING 

ALL LOSS OF PROPERTY 



Department. 

ATLANTA, Ga., . ■ . 
611-613 Empire BIdg. 

BALTIMORE, Md., . 
13-14-15 Abell Bldg. . 

BOSTON. Mass., 
loi Milk St. 

CHICAGO, III., . 

160 West Jackson St. 

CINCINNATI, Ohio, 
67-69 Mitchell Bldg. 

CLEVELAND, Ohio, ,. 
Century Bldg. 

DENVER, Colo.. 

Room 2, Jacobson Bldg. 

HARTFORD, Conn., 
56 Prospect St. 

NEW ORLEANS, La., . 
833-835 Gravier St. 

NEW YORK, N. Y., . 
100 William St. 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa., . 
432 Walnut St. 

PITTSBURG, Pa., . 
401 Wood St. 

PORTLAND, Ore., . 
Failing Bldg. 

SAN FRANCISCO. Cal.. . 
339-34^ Sansome St. 

ST. LOUIS, Mo., 

319 North Fourth St. 



AS WELL AS DAMAGE RESULTING FROM 

LOSS OF LIFE AND PERSONAL INJURIES DUE TO EXPLOSIONS 
OF STEAM BOILERS OR FLY WHEELS. 

wF«// information concerning the Company s Operations can be obtained at 

any of its Agencies. 

Repres^Jltatives. 

W. M. Fr.\ncis, • 

Manager & Chief Inspector. 

L.wvFORD & jMcKim, General Agents. 
R. E. MuNRO, Chief Inspector. 

C. E. Roberts, Manager. 

V. S. ALLEifj Chief Inspector. 

H. M. Lem'ON, Manager. 

James L. ^oord. Chief Inspector. 

J. T. ColeS^an, Assistant Chief Inspector. 

\\'. E. GlE^son. Manager. 

B. I"". CocirER, Chief Inspector. 

H4 A. BaVmhart, 

Manager & Chief Inspector. 

Thos. E. ^hears. 

General Agent & Chief Inspector. 

I'. H. Wii^iAMS, Jr., General Agent. 
F. S. Alle^, Chief Inspector. 

Peter F,^ Pescud, General Agent. 
R. T. Bu~kWELL, Chief Inspector. 

C. C. Garimner, Manager. 
W. W. Manning, Acting Chief Inspector. 

CoRBiN, G(jiPDKiCH & WiCKHAM, General Agents. 

Wm. J. Fa-rran, Chief Inspector. 

S. B. Adaji^s, Assistant Chief Inspector. 

James W.^Arrott, Ltd., General Agent. 
BenjaminiFord, Chief Inspector. 

]\[cCargar| Bates & Lively. General Agents. 
C. B. Padqock, Chief Inspector. 

H. R. Mann & Co., General Agents. \ 

J. B. Warner, Chief Inspector. 

V. Hugo; | 

Manjlgcr & Chief Inspector. 



jkay'^ 



COPYRIGHT, 19t1, BY THE HARTFORD STEAM BOILER INSPECTION AND INSURANCE CO. 



Vol. XXVIII. HARTFORD, CONN., APRIL 25, 1911. 



No. 6. 



A Fly-Wheel Explosion at Towanda, Pa. 

Tlic bursting of a wheel on atC " automatic " engine in the plant of the 
Towanda Electric Illuminating Co., at Towanda, Pa., in the early morning 
of April 20, 191 1, gives striking evidence of the incorrectness of the popular 
opinion that engines of this class arc immune from such explosions. A brief 
description of the attendant conditions, and a discussion of the probable cause 
of failure, should therefore be of interest. 




. Fk;. I. — Showing the Broken Wheel and Governor. 

The wheel in question was mounted upon one of a pair of center-crank, 
automatic, slide-valve, simple engines, each of which was belted to an 
electric generator. Each engine was equipped with a shaft governor of 
the Rites inertia tj-pe, the governor on the south engine (on which the 
failure occurred) involving the use of a very heavy weight-bar. 



-162 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [April, 

During the evening of April 19 this south engine had been in operation 
alone, and it was easily carrying the station load. At about 12.30 a. m. 
of April 20 the night engineer, standing in the front doorway of the room, 
heard a noise from the engine as though something was thrown from it. He 
states that the lights immediately grew dim, and he thinks they went out 
completely. In the darkness he hurried back to the rear of the room, intend- 
ing to shut off steam at the throttle. He had reached the throttle and had 
started to turn its hand wheel, when suddenly the engine speeded up, 
the lights grew intensely bright, and, as he expressed it, " things began to fly." 
Under the circumstances he prudently and hurriedly sought refuge in the 
adjacent boiler room. In a brief time the commotion in the engine room 
ceased, and upon returning he found the engine at rest with its valve gear 
broken. He then completed the closing of the throttle valve, and, with 
assistance, soon had the north engine in operation. 

When opportunity afforded, an examination was made of the wrecked 
engine, and it was found that the eighty-inch governor wheel had lost a 
section of its rim, that one end of the governor weight-arm was missing, 
and that the remainder of this arm had swung around on its pin so as to 
wedge against the rim. The springs were still attached to the weight-arm, 
but the rod or bolt by which they had been secured to the rim was broken 
at the lock-nut, close to the spring-yoke, the portion which passed through 
the wheel rim not being found. A structure of cast-iron, fastened to the 
inner face of the rim and forming stops to limit the motion of the governor 
arm, had been torn apart and destroyed. The eccentric rod and rocker arms 
were irreparably damaged, and the foundation was so cracked and broken 
that rebuilding will be necessary. The general appearance of the engine, 
after the accident, is shown in Figs, i and 5. 

The damage, except to the engine itself, was fortunately small. The slightest 
imaginable deviation of the fragments from the courses they actually took 
would probably have resulted in heavy losses, however. One fragment of the 
rim passed through the ceiling and roof of the building, narrowly missing 
the main steam pipe. A larger piece had apparently been thrown on a 
descending tan-gen-t against the light floor, which it crushed, and from which 
it rebounded against the face of the main switch board. It merely sheared 
off a pair of pilot lamps from this board, and then carromed aside and 
finally came to rest just short of the dynamo. The heavy weight-arm end also 
bounded from the floor against the resistance box of a voltage regulator, 
destroying this resistance and cracking the marble panel to u-iiich it was 
attached, but not damaging the delicate mechanism of the regulator itself, 
nor even breaking its glass case. 

Happily no one was injured by the flying wreckage, though it is almost 
certain that one death would have resulted, if the accident had occurred a 
few minutes later. One of the attendants was purposing to change the load 
from the south engine to the other one, and this operation would have taken 
him to the front of the switchboard, directly in the path of the fragments. 

In fly-wheel accidents, especially when they occur on shaft-governed 
engines, it is often most difficult to determine the primary cause of the 
failure. In this case, however, the behavior of the engine immediately 
before " things began to fly "' tells a pretty fairly intelligible story, which 
we proceed to relate, so far as we have been able to read it. 



19"] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE, 



163 



iMg. 2 is an outline drawing of the wheel and the governing apparatus. 
AH is a heavy arm, called the "fiovernor arm", which is secured to one 
of the spokes bj' means of a pivot, I'. At the respective ends of the governcjr 
arm are cast-iron boxes, A and B, within which are weights, firmly bolted 
in position so that they cannot sliift about during the operation of the 
engine. The little cross indicates tlie center of the shaft, an4» the point .1/ 
shows the pcxsiiion of the center of mass of the arm and its weights. If the 
weights in A and B were exactly eipial, and were also similarly placed, the 
point M would coincide with the gcdmetrical center of the governor arm- 
In the actual case, however, more weij^hts are placed in B than in A, so as 
to make the center of mass of the governor arm lie a little towards B, as 
indicated. At R is a pin, known as the " eccentric pin ", which operates the 
slide valve of the engine, and at S is a device for limiting the motion of 
the governor arm in both directions. 

In Fig. 2 the governor is shown with the arm close to the position giving 
the maximum cut-off. When the wheel is revolving at a uniform speed the 
governor arm is subject to a centrifugal force which tends to throw its 
center of mass, \I, further away from the center of rotation (which is 




Fig. 2. Fic. 3. Fic. 4. 

Diagrams Illustrating the Action of the Governor. 



marked by the cross). This tends to make the governor arm turn about 
the pin P in the direction in which the hands of a clock move. To oppose 
this tendency a pair of springs are provided, as shown, and when the 
apparatus is properly adjusted, the centrifugal force of the arm is balanced 
against the tension of the springs in such a way that the cut-off of the 
engine has the proper value, at the speed at which the engine is designed 
to run. 

If, now, th€ engine were to gradually speed up, the centrifugal force 
developed in the governor arm would also gradually increase at the same 
time, and this would cause the point M, in Fig. 2, to recede further from 
the little cross, the governor arm turning about the pin P, and simulta- 
neously stretching the springs. In this way the eccentric pin, E, would 
be brought nearer to the center of the shaft, and the cut-off shortened. 

Furthermore, if the engine were to speed up suddenly (instead of gradually), 
as might happen, for example, from the breakage of the main driving belt, 
the wheel itself (which is revolving in the direction of the arrow) would 
jump forward quickly, but the heavy governor arm, AB, would not do so, 
on account of its inertia. As a result, the wheel would almost instantly 



164 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[April, 



gain on the arm, and the cut-ofif of the engine would be reduced with 
corresponding promptness. 

It will be seen, from the account here given, that in a governor of 
this type it is the inertia of the arm that regulates the cut-off when the 
change of speed is sudden, while it is the centrifugal force ' acting upon 
the arm that effects the regulation when the change of speed is gradual. 
The mechanism is ingenious, and under ordinary circumstances it is 
also quite efficient. It has the disadvantage, however, that any sudden 
variation in the speed, even though it be but slight in amount, causes the 
governor arm to be brought smartly against one or the other of the limiting 
^tops at S: and we are of the opinion that the shocks so produced are 



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Showing the Damaged Foundation. 



likely, sooner or later, to weaken the cast-iron parts upon which these 
shocks are thrown. Care should therefore be taken to detect such incipient 
•cracks as may form in any part of the stop device, S, or in the projection 
from A that engages with these stops, or along the lines where the boxes 
A and B join the central portion of the governor arm. 

Returning, now, to a consideration of the accident which serves as a 
text for these remarks, we may assume that prior to the accident the arm 
was approximately in the position shown in Fig. 2, although, as the load 
was light, it probably was swung on its pin so as to produce a somewhat 
shorter cut-ofT than that here indicated. Now the engineer first heard a 
noise as of something thrown from the wheel, and immediately thereafter 



1911.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 165 



the electric lamps grew dim ;iiiil perhaps went out entirely. Of course 
the dimming of the lamps indicates a slowing of the engine speed, and 
with undiminished steam admission pressure, the reduced speed -suggests 
a shortening cut-ofT. ihc bolt holding the springs to the rim of the wheel 
was found to be broken, after the accident, and it appears almost certain 
that it was this bolt that gave out first, its breakage releasing the spring 
tension and permitting the governor arm, under the influcrtte of centrifugal 
force, to fly around to its position of minimum cut-off, as shown in Fig. 3. 
The broken end of the spring bolt was probably thrown from the wheel 
at the outset, and it was very likely this that made the noise that first 
attracted the engineer's attention. Our theory that it was the spring bolt 
that lirst failed would seem to explain each circumstance of the early events 
that were noted. We proceed, ne.xt, to trace the later consequences. 

Had the governor arm, under the action of centrifugal force, remained 
in the position shown in Fig. 3, the engine should gradually have come to 
rest without further damage. This would doubtless have been the actual 
course of events, except for the inertia of the governor arm itself, which in 
this type of apparatus (as we have explained above) is utilized to secure 
close regulation. As the wheel slowed down, it presently reached a speed 
where the centrifugal force of the governor weight was insufficient to hold the 
arm in its extreme position, against the tendency of its mass to maintain its 
own velocity of rotation. When this state of affairs had been attained, the 
slightest additional retardation of the engine would cause the governor arm 
to advance relatively to the wheel, until it was again in the position shown 
in Fig. 2, with the eccentric pin in the position of maximum cut-off. This 
movement, when it took place, was undoubtedly very sudden, and the engine, 
then acting under the stimulus of a long cut-off, at once leaped to high speed, 
generating the brilliant lights noted by the attendant. 

Reasoning along the lines here indicated, it will be seen that we might 
logically anticipate an alternate retarding and speeding of the 
wheel, which might continue without any great damage until the throttle was 
closed. Experiences of this sort are not uncommon, wnth broken springs 
upon shaft governors. In the case now before us, however, the rapid accelera- 
tion of the wheel was attended by a powerful effort of the arm — due to 
inertia, acting this time in conjunction with centrifugal force and unopposed 
by the spring — to seek the position shown in Fig. 3. Apparently the effort 
was so great that the rim stop at 5" was broken away, and the arm ceased its 
individual motion only when the weight box. B, had wedged against the rim 
as shown in Fig. .j. The shock of this sudden stop was severe enough to 
snap off the weight box A, which may have been already weakened in fractur- 
ing the stop 5". The box A, flying against the rim, then broke it out at the 
point shown in the illustrations. The flange of the broken portion of the rim 
shows evidence of contact with the weight box, and thus corroborates the 
foregoing theory of the accident. 



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It gives many tables for converting metric measures into our own, and the reverse. 
We believe it to be the handiest and best thing of its kind to be had. Price 
$i..25. (Bond paper edition $1.50.) 



166 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [April, 

Boiler Explosions 

January, 191 i. 

(i.) — On January- i a slight boiler explosion occurred in Secor's green- 
houses at Forest Cit}-, Iowa. 

(2.) — Several headers fractured, January i, in a water-tube boiler at the 
power house of the Lima-Honeoye Electric Light & Railroad Co., Lima, N. Y. 

(3.) — A tube ruptured, January i, in a water-tube boiler at the power 
plant of the Pueblo & Suburban Traction & Lighting Co., Pueblo, Colo. Two 
men were injured. 

(4.) — On January 2 a blowoff pipe failed at the water works and electric 
light plant, Appleton, Minn. The engineer was scalded. 

(5.) — A blowoff fractured, January 3, in the Colburn Mills, IMcPherson, 
Kans. Three persons were severelj^ injured. 

(6.) — A cast-iron section ruptured, January 3, in a heater at the Staples 
School, Bridgeport, Conn. 

(7.) — A boiler flue burst, January 4, on the Big Four railroad, at Brooks 
Station, Ohio. Four persons were severely injured. 

(8.) — On January 4, a blowoff pipe failed at the New Mohn Laundry, 
Cincinnati, Ohio. One man was scalded. 

(9.) — A boiler belonging to C. A. Lindan exploded. January 4, at Duluth, 
Minn. 

(10.) — A blowoff pipe ruptured, January 4, in the Warrant Warehouse Co.'s 
Cotton Compress, Birmingham, Ala. The fireman was injured. 

(11.) — On January 4 a blowoff pipe failed in E. B. Norman & Co.'s saw- 
mill, Louisville, Ky. 

(12.) — A tube ruptured, January 4, in a water-tube boiler in the light, 
power and water works plant of the City of Monroe, La. 

(13.) — A boiler exploded, January 5. in a seminary at Manchester, Vt. 

(14.)— A hot water boiler exploded, January 5, in the high school build- 
ing at St. Paul, Neb. 

(15.)— A tube ruptured, January 5, in a water-tube boiler at the Joliet 
plant of the Illinois Steel Co., Joliet. 111. One man was injured.^ 

(16.)— On January 5 a return bend failed in a pipe boiler in the plant 
of O. J. Maigne & Co., New York City. 

(i7.)_0n Januarj^ 5 a hot water boiler exploded in the Collegiate In- 
stitute, St. Catharines, Ont. 

(18.)— A tube failed, January 5. in a water-tube boiler in Charles Pope's 
beet sugar factory, Riverdale, 111. One man was injured. (Compare No. 3^ 

below.) 

(19.) _0n January 5 a heating boiler exploded in the Hotel Royal. Altoona, 

Pa. 

(20.)— On January 5 a boiler ruptured in the Duff Grain Co.'s elevator, 

Nebraska City, Neb. 

(21.)— The boiler of a locomotive exploded. January 6. on the Burhngton 
Railroad, at Bachester, Wyo. Two persons were killed and one was fatally 
injured. 

(22.) _ A tube ruptured, Janiwry 6, in a water-tube boiler at the Union 
Buffalo Mills, Union, S. C. One man was injured. 



19".] THE LOCOMOTIVE. lt)7 



(-'3) — Four cast-iron licackrs riii)tured, January 7, in a water-tube boiler 
at the plant of the Ingersoll-Rand Co., Easton, Pa. 

(24.)— A boiler belonging to O. C. Hcggen exploded, January 8, at Des 
Moines, Iowa, l-'our persons were severely injured. 

(25.) — On or about January 8 ;i boiler exploded in the central heating 
plant of the George Junior Republic, at Freeville, N. Y. 

(26.) — The boiler of a Chesapeake & Ohio locomotive exploded, January 
8, fifteen miles east of Frankfort, Ky. One man was fatally injured, and two 
were injured less seriously. The explosion consisted in the failure of the 
crown sheet. 

{27.) — A slight boiler explosion occurred, January 8, at the sanitarium 
of the Kneipp Water Cure Co., New Orleans, La. 

(28.) — A heating boiler exploded, January 9, in the residence of Julian H. 
Hill, Richmond, Va. The property loss exceeded $3,000. 

(29.) — On January 9, at the plant of the Light, Heat and Power Co., Fair- 
bury, 111., a spring broke in a pop safety valve while under steam pressure, 
causing the rupture of the bonnet of the valve. 

(30.) — On January 9, a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler in A. J. 
Stahl's electric light and hot water heating plant, Belvedere, 111. One man was 
injured. 

(31.) — A boiler exploded, January 10, in Charles Hearst's saw and grist 
mill, near Little Rock, Ark. Two men were severely injured. 

(32.) — On January 10, a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the 
plant of the Michigan Alkali Co., Wyandotte, Mich. 

(33.) — On January 10, a slight boiler explosion occurred in a bakery at 
Elyria, Ohio. 

(34.) — On January 11, a tube failed in a horizontal tubular boiler at the 
Ce^ntral Grammar School, Grand Rapids, Mich. 

(35.) — A boiler exploded, January 12, in the city hall at Crookston, Minn. 
One person was injured. 

(36.) — The crown sheet of a locomotive belonging to the Longdale Iron 
Co. exploded, January 12, at Longdale, Va. 

(37.) — The boiler of a Southern Pacific locomotive exploded, January 12, 
near Flatonia, Texas. Two men were killed. 

(38.) — A tube failed, January 12, in a water-tube boiler at Charles Pope's 
beet sugar factory, Riverdale, 111. One man was injured. (Compare No. 18 
above.) 

(39.) — A locomotive boiler exploded, January 13, on the Illinois Central 
Railroad, at Kankakee, 111. Three persons were severely injured. 

(40.) — A tube ruptured, January 13, in a water-tube boiler at the plant 
of the Southern Iron & Steel Co., Alabama City, Ala. One man was scalded. 
(Compare Nos. 43, 71, 93, and 109 below.) 

(41.) — On January 13 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the plant 
of the Lackawanna Steel Co., Lackawanna, N. \'. (Compare No. 45, below.) 

(42.) — A boiler exploded, January 14, in the electric light and power 
house at Rushville, Mo. Two men were killed and the plant was demolished. 

(43.) — A tube ruptured. January 14, in a water-tube boiler at the plant 
of the Southern Iron & Steel Co., Alabama City, Ala. (Compare Nos. 40, 71, 
93, and 109.) 



168 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [April, 

(44-,) — On January 14 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler in the 
Electric Storage Battery Co.'s plant, Philadelphia, Pa. 

(.45-) — A tube ruptured, January 15, in a water-tube boiler at the plant 
of the Lackawanna Steel Co.. Lackawanna, N. Y. ( Compare No. 41, above. 
The accidents were on different boilers.) 

(46.) — A tube ruptured, on January 16, in the J. L. Hudson Co.'s depart- 
ment store, Detroit, Mich. 

(47) — A slight explosion occurred, January 16, in a heating boiler in a 
public school building at White, S. D. 

(48.) — A boiler exploded. January 16, on the towboat T. N. Davis, on the 
Ohio River, six miles above Cairo. 111. One man was killed and the boat was 
badl}' damaged. 

(49.) — On January 16, a boiler exploded at Cleary's Stone Works, Marietta, 
Ohio. Two men were killed and one w-as seriously injured. 

(50-) — A boiler exploded, January 17, in the Archer sawmill, at Eagle 
Point, twelve miles north of New Boston, 111. One man was killed. 

(51.) — On January 17, three headers failed in a boiler on the V. S. 
battleship Dclaix.'are, as she was nearing Hampton Roads. Va. Eight men were 
killed and one received injuries that were believed to be fatal. 

CS^) — A heating boiler burst, January 18. in the high school building at 
Wethersfield, Conn. 

(53-) — A tube ruptured, January 18, in a water-tube boiler at the plant 
of the Old "76 Distilling Co., Finchtown, Ky. 

(54) — The boiler of a New York Central freight locomotive exploded, Jan- 
uary 18, at Wende, twentv miles east of Buffalo. N. Y. Three men were 
killed. 

(55-) — A cast-iron header fractured, January 19. in a water-tube boiler 
at the power station of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., Thirty-third and 
Market streets, Philadelphia, Pa. (Compare No. 134. below.) 

(56.) — A boiler exploded, January 19, in the primary school building, at 
Hopkinton, Iowa. 

(57-) — A cast-iron header fractured, January 19. in a water-tube boiler 
at the power station of the Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Co., 
Terre Haute, Ind. 

(58.) — On or about January 19 a boiler exploded in Benjamin Hendrickson's 
greenhouse, Delphi, Ind. Two men were injured, and the property loss was 
estimated at $400. 

(59.) — A tube failed. January 19. in a boiler at the power house of the 
Lehigh Coal & Navigation Co., Lansford, Pa. One man was fatally injured. 

(60.)- — h. heating boiler exploded. January- 19, during the course of a 
revival in the Wesley Methodist Episcopal Church, Georgetown, Del. 

(61.) — A tube ruptured, January 20, in a water-tube boiler in the power 
house of the Elast Liverpool Traction & Light Co., East Liverpool, Ohio. Two 
men were injured. 

(62.) — A boiler exploded, January 20, in the Sunday Creek Coal Co.'s 
plant. Cedar Grove, W. Va. Two persons were severely injured. 

(63.) — A cast-iron header fractured, January 20, in a water-tube boiler in 
the Savannah Lighting Co.'s plant. Savannah, Ga. 



19II.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 169 



(64.) — A blowoff pipe failed, January 20, in E. H. Plank's elevator mills, 
Lodi, Ohio. One man was slightly injured. 

(,t>5. ) — On January 20, a hlovvofT i)ii)e ruptured in tlic Lucke Cotton Mili.^,, 
Concord, X. C. Two men were injured. 

(66.) — A small boiler exploded, January 21, in the basement of the Sweet- 
water College Preparatory School building, Sweetwater, Tenn. The property 
loss was estimated at from $500 to $600. 

(67.) — Two tul>es ruptured, January 21, in a water-tube boiler in the 
Chittenden Hotel, Columbus, Ohio. (Compare No. 88, below). 

(68.) — On January 24, a l)oiler exploded in a public school buildinf>: at 
Greensboro. N. C. 

(69.) — A cast-iron header ruptured, January 24. in a water-tube boiler 
operated by the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

(70.) — .\ boiler exploded, January 24, In tlie St. Germain Garage, St. 
Cloud, Minn. 

(71.) — A tube ruptured, January 25. in a water-tube boiler in the Southern 
Iron & Steel Co.'s plant, Alabama City, Ala. (Compare Nos. 40, 43, 93, and 
109.) 

(72.) — On January 26, a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler in the .Mkali 
Rubber Co.'s plant, Dubuque, Iowa. 

(73.) — A boiler belonging to Barkley Bros, exploded, January 27, in the 
Cannon oil field, near Sour Lake, Tex. 

(74.) — On January 27, a cast-iron header fractured in a water-tube boiler 
at the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co.'s power house, Ninth and Dauphin streets, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

(75.) — On January 29, five sections of a cast-iron sectional heating boiler 
fractured in the buildirg of Tintic Lodge No. 711, B. P. O. E., Eureka, LUah. 

(76.) — -A tube ruptured, January 31, in a water-tube boiler in the New- 
berry Cotton Mills, Newberry, S. C. 



February, 191 i. 

(77.) — A boiler exploded, February T, in a grist mill at Bruin, Elliott 
county, Ky. Two persons were killed and two others were fatally injured. 

(78.) — A tube failed, February i. in a water-tube boiler in the Colonial 
Theater, Boston, Ma.ss. 

(79.) — On February 2 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler in the City 
Light & Water Works, Fairbury, Neb. 

(80.) — On February 2 a blowoff pipe connected to a digester fractured in 
the Champion Fibre Co.'s plant, Canton, N. C. Five men were scalded. 

(81.) — Three sections of a cast-iron sectional heating boiler fractured, 
February 3. in the Skelton Publishing Co.'s plant. Salt Lake City, Utah. (Com- 
pare No. 119, below.) 

(82.) — A blowoff pipe failed, February 3, in the L. B. Southwick Co.'s 
tannery, Peabody, Mass. Two men were injured. 

(83.) — A tube ruptured, February 5, in a water-tube boiler in the Northern 
Cambria Street Railway Co.'s plant, St. Benedict, Pa. 

(84. ') — On February 5 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler in the Ohio 
Electric Railway Co.'s plant, Medway. Ohio. 




170 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [Aikil, 

(85-) — On February 6, a hot water boiler exploded in a tenement house 
on East Sev^enty-seventh Street, New York City. Fire followed the explosion, 
and the building, which was known as the " House of All Nations " (on account 
of the varied nationalities of its tenants), was badly damaged. 

(86.) — On February 6 a blowoff pipe failed in the boiler plant of the 
Michigan Agricultural College, Lansing, Mich. One man was injured. 

(87.) — A blowoff failed, February 6, in the American Carving Mfg. Co.'s 
plant, Grand Rapids, Mich. 

(88.) — A cast-iron header ruptured, February 7, in a water-tube boiler 
at the Chittenden Hotel, Columbus, Ohio. (Compare No. 67, above.) 

(89.) — The boiler of a Missouri, Kansas & Texas locomotive exploded, 
February 8, in the roundhouse at Smithville, Tex. Ten men were instantly killed 
and nine were injured. The property loss was estimated at $20,000. 

(90.) — Several tubes ruptured, February 8, in a water-tube boiler at the 
plant of the Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern Railway Co., Waterloo, Iowa. 

(91) — A boiler exploded, February 10, in Franks' steam laundry, West 
Third street. Little Rock, Ark. Three persons were slig'htly injured. 

(92.) — On February 10, a boiler exploded in Thomas King's sawmill at 
Parksville, six miles south of Benton, Tenn. Four men were killed and three 
were seriously injured. 

(93.) — On February 14 two tubes failed in a water-tube boiler in the 
Southern Iron & Steel Co.'s plant, Alabama City, Ala. (Compare Nos. 40, 43, 
71, and 109.) 

(94.) — The boiler of a Great Western freight locomotive exploded, Feb- 
ruary 14, near Ingalton, 111. One man was instantly killed and five others were 
injured. It was believed that one of the injured could not recover. 

(95.) — On February 14 a boiler exploded in the basement of the candy 
factory of H. Nuss & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. One man was killed. 

(96.) — On February 15, a blowoff pipe failed in the Taylor-Burt Co.'s 
paper mill, Holyoke, Mass. One man was injured. 

(97.) — A section fractured, February 17, in a cast-iron heating boiler in 
the public library, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

(98.) — A boiler exploded, February 17, at Fiborn Quarry, Mackinac county, 
Mich. One man was killed and seven were injured. The property loss was 
estimated at $10,000. 

(99.) — On February 18 a boiler ruptured in St. Joseph's Retreat, an insane 
asylum at Dearborn, Mich. 

(100.) — A boiler exploded, February 18, at the pumping station of the 
Hooks Oil Co., at Vinton, La. One man was killed. 

(loi.) — ^A boiler exploded, on or about February 18, in a saw-mill near 
Montreal, P. Q. Three men were killed. 

(102.) — On February 19 an accident occurred to a boiler at the hospital 
of the Congregation of St. Agnes, Fond du Lac, Wis. 

(103.) — A flue collapsed, February 20, in a boiler in the Randolph Mill- 
ing Co.'s flouring mill, Baldwin, 111. 

(104.) — The boiler of a Baltimore & Ohio locomotive exploded, February 
20, near Rockville, Md., some twelve miles northwest of Washington. Thr^e 
men were injured, one of them fatally so. 

(105.) — On February 20 several sections fractured in a cast-iron heating 
boiler in the city hall, Taunton, IMass. 



igii.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 171 

(,o6.)— On I'cbruary 20 a tiihi- failed in a boiler at the Southern Lumber 
& Mfg. Co.'s plant, Naslwillc, Itnn. 

(,07.) — The boiler of a Grand Irunk locomotive exploded. February 20, 
at Ionia, Mich. One person was injured fatally and two others seriously. 

^lo8.) — A tube ruptured, February 20, in a water-tube boiler in the Sparks 
Milling Co.'s flouring mill at Alton, 111. One man was injured. 

(109.) — A tube ruptured, February 21, in a water-tube boiler at tlie 
Southern Iron & Steel Co.'s plant, Alabama City, Ala. (Compare Nos. 40, 43, 
71, and 93, above.) 

(no.) — On February 21 a tube burst in a water-tube boiler in the Phila- 
delphia Rapid Transit Co.'s power station, Beach and Laurel streets, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

(ill.) — On l'\'bruary 21, a slight accident befell a boiler in the McUermott 
Oil Co.'s plant, Fairmont, W. Va. One person was killed. 

(112.) — A tube ruptured, February 22, in a water-tube boiler in the Grand 
Rapids Railway Co.'s power station. Grand Rapids, Mich. One man was injured. 

(113.) — A boiler exploded, February 22, in the Timpson Lumber Mill, two 
miles west of Silas, Tex. Two men were fatally injured, two were injured 
seriously but not fatally, and three others received minor injuries. 

(114.) — A small hot water boiler exploded, February 22, in the basement 
of the Angle Hotel, Decatur, 111. The owner of the hotel was killed, and his 
wife was slightly injured. 

(115.) — On February 22 five sections of a cast-iron heating boiler fractured 
in E. J. Hines & Co.'s hotel. Independence, Kans. 

(116.) — On February 24 a slight accident befell a boiler in tlie Cyril Jolin- 
son Woolen Co.'s plant, Stafford Springs, Conn. 

(117.) — A tube ruptured, February 26, in a water-tirbe boiler in the Pratt 
street station of the LInited Railways & Electric Co., Baltimore, Md. One man 
was injured. 

(118.) — On February 28 the boiler of a locomotive exploded in the vicinity 
of the Wellington street subway, at Point St. Charles, near Montreal, P. Q. 
One man was badly hurt. 

(119.) — Several sections of a cast-iron heating boiler ruptured, February 
28, in the Skelton Publishing Co.'s plant. Salt Lake City, Utah. (Compare No. 
81, above.) 

(120.)— A boiler exploded, February 28, in the Ideal Steam Laundry at 
Verona, a suburb of Pittsburg, Pa. Two men were injured, and the property 
loss was estimated at $10,000. The boiler went hig"!! into the air, and in coming 
down it crashed through two floors of the Zimmerman building, half a block 
away. 



March, 191 i. 

(121.) — A boiler exploded, March i, in Capt. Ogden Candy's lumber mill, 
at Dennisville, near Ocean City, N. J. Two men were seriously injured. 

(122.) — A tube burst, March i, in a water-tube boiler at the Portland Iron 
& Steel Co.'s plant. South Portland, Me. Two men were injured. 

(123.) — On March i an accident occurred to a boiler in one of the power 
stations of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., Philadelphia, Pa. One man 
was injured. 



172 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [April, 

(124.) — A boiler exploded, March 3, at a mine at Sligo, Ala. A boy was 
fatally injured, and two men were injured seriously. 

(125.) — A boiler used for operating a wood-cutting outfit exploded, March 
3, on the Melvin White farm, near Wyalusing. Bradford county, Pa. Five men 
were injured, and it was thought that one of them would die. 

(126.) — A boiler ruptured, March 4, in the Taylor Chair Co.'s plant, 
Bedford. Ohio. 

(127.) — On March 4 a boiler exploded in the plant of the Atlantic Coast 
Lumber Co., Georgetown, S. C. Five mer* were instantly killed and another was 
fatally injured. The property loss was estimated at $25,000 to $30,000. 

(128.) — The boiler of a logging locomotive exploded, ^Nlarch 4, at Estacada, 
Oregon. Five men were killed and four were injured. 

(129.) — A boiler exploded, March 4, in the Blackburn-Gambill distillery, 
on Howards Creek, Breathitt county, Ky. Three children and a man were killed, 
and six other persons were injured. 

(130.) — A cast-iron hot water heating Iwiler exploded, March 4, in the 
basement of Andrew M'arelli's restaurant. South Twelfth street, Philadelphia, 
Pa. The basement was totally wrecked. 

(131.) — A tube ruptured, March 5, in a water-tube boiler in the Kimberly- 
Clark Co.'s paper mill, Appleton, Wis. One m-an was slightly scalded. 

(132.) — On March 6 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler in the plant 
of the Leavenworth Light, Heat & Power Co., Leavenworth, Kans. 

Ci33-) — A blowoff pipe failed, March 6, in the Hamilton Woolen Co.'s 
plant, Amesbury, Mass. One man was injured. 

(134.) — A cast-iron header fractured', March 6, in a water-tube boiler in 
the power station of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., Thirty-third and 
Market streets, Philadelphia, Pa. (Compare No. 55, above.) 

(135.) — A" tube ruptured, March 6, in a w^ater-tube boiler at the plant of 
the American Locomotive Co., Sch'ertectady, N. Y. One person was injured. 

(136.) — -A hot water heating boiler exploded, ]\Iarch 9, on a Lehigh 
Valley transit car, AUentown, Pa. 

(137.) — The Russ building, San Francisco, Cal., was destroyed, March 10, 
by a fire accompanied* by a boiler explosion. It is not clear whether the 
explosion was a consequence of the fire, or its cause. The total property loss 
was estimated at $125,000. 

(138.) — A boiler used' for heating water exploded, ]\Iarch 14, in the Y. M. 

C. A. building at BloMningtoi'k, 111. 

(139.) — A boiler ruptured, March 14, in the electric light and water works 
plant at Downers Grove, III. 

(140.) — A boiler exploded, March 14, i" the Pennsylvania Railroad com- 
pany's power house at East Altoona, Pa. One man was injured seriously and 
perhaps fatally. Tlie property loss was probably about $2,000. 

(141.) — On March 15 a boiler exploded at John' HuffuTan's coal slope, 
three miles north of Brazil, Ind". O'ne mbn was instantly killed. 

(142.) — A tube ruptured, March 16, in the Athens State Hospital for the 
Insane, Athens, Ohio. 

(143.) — On March 17 a boiler explosion, followed by a fire, occurred in the 

D. P). Martin Co.'s fertilizer factory, at the Union Abattoir, Baltimore, Md. 
One man was killed, and the property loss was estimated at $20,000. 



19II.] THE Locomotive. 173 



(144.) — On March jo tv\t> corrugated furnaces collapsed in an iiilcrnallj 
fired boiler at the Lane Cotton Mills, Xew Orleans, La. 

(145.) — On March 20 the shell i.f a boiler fractured in Pomeroy & Co.'s 
flouring mill, Barrinnton, 111. 

(146.) — A small boiler used for luating water exploded, March 21, in the 
Abercrombie apartment building, on West 165th street, New York City. The 
basement doors and windows were lilown out. 

(147.) — A tube ruptured, March Ji, in a water-tube boiler in the Crane 
Co.'s plant, Chicago, 111. 

(148.) — A boiler exploded, March ji, in Lowder's sawmill, live miles south 
of Albemarle, X. C. The owner of the plant was fatally injured, and several 
others received minor injuries. 

(149.) — On March 22 a section fractured in a cast-iron power boiler in 
the Lycoming Opera House, Williamsport, Pa. 

(150.) — The boiler of a Union Pacific locomotive exploded. March 22, 
<it Cheyenne, Wyo. The fireman was killed. 

(151.) — On March 22 a cast-iron section fractured in a heating boiler in 
a building owned by the Estate of John C. Haynes, Boston, Mass. 

(152.) — A tube ruptured, March 23, in a water-tube boiler in the Scranton 
suburban plant of the American Gas & Electric Co., Scranton, Pa. One man 
was fatally scalded. 

(153.) — .^ boiler ruptured, ^larcli 22,, at the coal plant of the Henry C. 
Qark Estate, Providence, R. L 

(154.) — A boiler exploded, March 24, in the Cobourg Apartments, on 
Stanley street, Montreal, P. Q. One man was killed. 

(155.) — A boiler used for operating a pile driver exploded. March 24. 
at the new Southern Railway steel bridge, Augusta, Ga. Tw-o men were killed, 
and. 'two others were seriously injured. 

(156.) — On March 25 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiier in the plant 
of the Thomas Phillips Paper Co., Akron, Ohio. Two men were injured. 

(157.) — A boiler exploded, March 29, in Phillips & Bros.' sawmill, near 
Campbellsville, Ky. niree men were instantly killed, and another received 
minor injuries. The mill was destroyed, and part of the wreckage was thrown 
half a mile. 

(158.) — On ]\Iarch 30 a boiler explosion occurred in the Harrison Boiler 
Works. Philadelphia. Pa. A fireman was injured so badly that he will probably 
die. 

(^159) — A boiler exploded, March 31, in the Rocheport flouring mill, at 
Rocheport, Mo. Three persons were injured. Fire followed the explosion, and 
the total loss was estimated at $10,000. 



We receive many letters from persons seeking employment in the inspection 
corps of this compan3\ It sometimes happens that these applications do not 
receive direct acknowledgment, but they are always filed for future reference. 
In making such applications our friends would do well to address the nearest 
department of the company, as their communications would be referred to that 
department in any event, before any favorable action were taken. A list of our 
principal offices will be found on the last page of this issue. 



174 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [April. 

Fly-Wheel Explosions. 

(i.) — On January 3 a 16- foot fly-wheel exploded in the engine room of 
the Champion Coated Paper Co.'s plant, at Hamilton, Ohio. One man had his 
leg crushed. A piece of the wheel weighing over a ton flew through a con- 
crete floor to the roof, passed fifty feet into the air, and finally fell upon 
a big paper making machine. The floor, roof, and machine were badly damaged. 

(2.) — The fly-wheel of an outfit run by horse-power, and used for sawing 
wood, exploded, January 3, at Nappanee, Ind. One man was badly injured. 

(3.) — A 16-foot cast-iron fly-wheel exploded, January 5, in the Lafean 
paper mill, at York, Pa. The engine was wrecked. 

(4.) — On January 9 the fly-wheel of a corn grinding machine exploded 
in Stark & Plunkett's elevator, at Perry, JNlich. One man was injured. 

(5.) — A 20- foot fly-wheel exploded, January 9, in the B. B. & R. Knight 
Co.'s cotton mill, at Manchaug, near Sutton, Mass. The main driving belt 
broke and the wheel ran away, wrecking the engine room when it burst. 
Half the roof of the engine house was torn off. One fragment of the wheel, 
weighing some 1,200 pounds, passed high into the air and came down through the 
roof of another building,- and a second piece, weighing half a ton, came down 
through the ell of a neighboring gas house. Estimates of the property loss 
range from $1,000 to $20,000. It very likely was $6,000 or so. 

(6.) — On January ir a fly-wheel burst in the Thompson Roller Mills, 
Thompsontown, Pa. 

(7.) — Two large wheels, one connected with an engine and the other 
with a water wheel, exploded, January ii, at the plant of the American Ax 
& Tool Co., East Douglas, Mass. The belt connecting the two wheels broke, 
and both wheels (as we understand the reports) then ran away. The property 
loss was probably about $500. 

(8.) — On January 16 a fly-wheel exploded in the mill and elevator plant 
at McKinney, Tex. On« section of the wheel, weighing about 1,000 pounds, 
was thrown through the roof, and landed about 100 feet from its original 
position. The engine is said to have run away. The property loss was estimated 
at $3,000. 

(9.)— A fly-wheel burst, January 17, in the electric lighting plant at 
Richmond", Mich. One person was injured, and the plant was wrecked. 

(10.) — On January 19 a fly-wheel exploded in the National Casket Co.'s 
plant, at Louisville, Ky. One person was fatally injured. 

(11.) — A fly-whoel exploded, January 20, in the city electric lighting plant 
at Nelsonville, Ofliio. The night engineer of the plant wa3 killed, and the 
property damage was very heavy. The engine ran away. 

(12.) — On January 21 a fly-wheel exploded in the Jackson Veneering 
Co.'s plant, Jackson, Tenn.., as the result of the racing of the engine. One man 
was injured severely and perhaps fatally, and the north wall of the engine 
roorrif was torn away. Two or three pieces of the wheel imbedded themselves 
in the machinery of the sawmill department, after crashing through the walls. 
Our account says that "the buildings in the immediate vicinity of the engine 
room looked as though they Kad been bombarded by a battery of heavy 
artillery." The property loss was severe. 



igiij THE LOCOMOTIVE. ^jp^ 

(13.) — Ihc tl)-\vhccl of an cnj;iiK' belonging to Louis Sapolsky exploded, 
January 25, at ConncUsville, Pa. One person was fatally injured. 

(14.) — On January 26 a fly-wheel exploded in the Boott Mills, at Lowell, 
Mass. The engine to which the wheel belonged was of the cross compound 
condensing Corliss type, running at 61 to 65 revolutions per minute, and 
generating about 1,200 horse-power. The fly-wheel carried three 24-inch belts. 
It is presumed that the governor belt was broken, or forced (M by one of the 
24-inch belts. At all events th^ engine raced with disastrous results, and the 
wheel, in exploding, practically destroyed the engine, the economizer, the 
smoke flue, and the 14-inch steam main and its branches, besides damaging 
shafting and looms on five floors. One section of the wheel passed up through 
the entire five floors and the roof of the building. Other sections were thrown 
sidewise through the brick walls, penetrating them as though they were paper. 
The property loss was estimated at $50,000. No one was hurt save a young 
Greek girl, who received minor injuries. 

(15.) — A fly-wheel burst, February i, in- Schrade's cutlery shop, at Walden, 
N. Y. 

(16.) — On February 11 a fly-wliccl burst in the Wise Manufacturing Co.'s 
plant at Watertown, N. Y. The property loss was estimated at $400. 

(17.) — A fly-wheel burst, February 20, in B. D. Blake & Co.'s redrying 
plant, at Springfield, Ky. The wheel was totally destroyed, the rim and spokes 
all being broken. The property loss was estimated at $1,000. 

(18.) — On March i a fly-wheel exploded in the trial assembling depart- 
ment of the Buick plant, Flint, IMich. 

(19.) — A fly-wheel exploded, ^larch 2, in the plant of the Bromwell 
Brush & Wire Co.. Greensburg, Ind. It appears that the governor belt broke 
and the engine tlien raced until the wheel burst. Fragments of the wheel 
were thrown through the walls of the building, and' one large piece was found 
500 feet from the engine. Estimates of the property loss ranged from $1,500 
to $3,000. 

(20.) — On March 3 a fly-w^heel belonging to Hodgkinson & Kennelly ex- 
ploded at Charlotte, Mich. 

(21.) — A fly-wheel burst, March 14, in the Belmont bleachery, at Fairview, 
N. J. One person was severely injured. 

(22.) — On March 17 a fly-wheel burst in the rod mill of the steel plant 
at Pueblo, Colo. Three men were instantly killed, and nine others were injured. 
Tlie wheel that burst operated a rope drive. It appears that the cable broke, 
and that the engine then ran away, its governor being presumably damaged 
by the flying end of the cable. Pieces of the wheel were thrown through the 
brick walls of the mill. The total property loss was measured by thousands of 
dollars, although we have seen no exact estimate of it. 

(2^.) — The fly-wheel of a corn-shredding machine exploded, April 6, at 
John Ruble's place, near Springbrook, Iowa. Mr. Ruble was seriously injured, 
one of the spokes of the wheel penetrating his lung. 

(24.) — On April 6 a fly-wheel exploded in the Griswold Worsted mill, 
at Darby, a suburb of Philadelphia, Pa. One young woman was killed, and 
five other persons were injured. The young woman who was killed w-as struck 



176 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [AiRii, 



uy a fragment of the wheel that crashed up through the second floor of the 
mill. Another fragment took a horizontal course, and tore a hole ten feet in 
diameter through one of the walls of the engine room. It appears probable 
that the governor belt broke or becanie loose. 

(-35) —A fly-wheel exploded, April 12, in the power plant of the Richmond 
Electric Co., at Richmond, Ky. Apparently the engine raced, on account of 
the failure of the governor to operate properly. The wheel was torn into many 
pieces, and these were thrown about with great violence. The engine (which 
was new, and of the Corliss type) was badly damaged, a new generator was 
seriously injured, and one side of the building was torn out. The property 
loss was undoubtedly as great as $5,000. 

C26.) — On April 17 a shaft governor broke on an automatic slide-valve 
engine in the plant of the Ludowici Celdon Co., Chicago Heights, 111. The 
governor was somewhat similar to the one whose explosion is illustrated else- 
where in the present issue, and the arm broke into three pieces, one of which 
struck and killed the engineer. The wheel, proper, was not injured. • 

(27.) — On April 20 a fly-wheel accident occurred in the plant of the 
Towanda Electric Illuminating Co., Towanda, Pa. (An illustrated account of 
this accident is given on another page.) 

(28.) — A fly-wheel accident occurred, April 26, in the machine shop of 
Harrison Bros.' paint works. Thirty-fifth street and Gray's Ferry road, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. One man received injuries that were believed to be fatal. We 
have been unable to obtain further particulars. 



Explosion Freaks. 

The drag-net that we have out for data for our regular list of boiler ex- 
plosions occasionally brings us a queer fish. Here is an item from Ida Grove, 
Iowa: "The oldest daughter of Mrs. Gibelstein was terribly burned about the 
face and neck by the explosion of a can of water. A molasses can filled with 
water exploded, and the scalding water and steam burned the little girl severely." 
We don't know what a rrtolasses can is, b-ut presumably is is something that 
can be closed up tight with a screw top, and probably it was placed upon a 
stove to heat the water, and left there too long. 

Here is another item frorrr Kenton, Ohio : " John Willian> Exline, J2 years 
old, is awake after a sleep of thirtj' years, — just ten. j'ears longer than Rip 
Van Winkle's, — and is face to face with the wonders that science and invention 
have accomplished since his niemory was blasted by a boiler explosion, in 1880. 
Before he received this injury he had thought of the possibility of men flying 
like birds, and* had even discussed the subject with his fellow-workmen, a 
few moments before the explosion took place. ' We flew that day,' says Exline. 
rather grimly, 'and now they tell me that men can fly without waiting for 
somebody to blow thenf up. Oh, I can se^ I have a great deal to learn.' " 

In our explosion lists for 1880 we do not find anybody of the name of 
Exline mentioned among the injured. Nevertheless, the foregoing item may be 
truthful, because our list of the names of the injured is not complete. In some 
cases we merely knew how many were hurt, without knowing who they were. 



igii] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 177 




t Stttmttitt 



A. D. RiSTEEN, Ph.D., Editor. 



HARTFORD, APRIL 25, 1911. "^ 

The LocOMOTlVK can be obtained /ret by calling at any of the company's agencies. 
Subscription price JO cents per year -when mailed from this office. 
Recent bound volumes one dollar each. Earlier ones two dollars. 



Sulphite Dig-ester Accidents. 

The failure of a wood-pulp digester, in a paper mill, is one (jf the worst 
forms of accident that we meet with in connection with apparatus carrying 
pressure. The digester itself is a huge upright cylindrical tank, built of heavy 
steel plates, and lined with cement and acid-proof brick. It is often big enough 
to hold fifty cords of wood chips at one filling. In operating it the chips are 
first introduced, and after the cover- plate has been put on, a solution of bisul- 
phite of lime is run in. Steam is then blown into the mass, and as the pulping 
process requires an elevated temperature, the pressure that is carried may be 
moderately heavy. The bisulphite of lime dissolves the gummy matter by which 
the wood}' particles are cemented together in the natural tree, and after a time 
the chips are reduced to a homogeneous mass of loose, disconnected fibres, suit- 
able for the manufacture of paper. Large quantities of sulphur dioxide (the 
suffocating gas produced by burning sulphur) are also given off by the bisulphite 
solution at the same time. When this stage of the process has been reached, 
the contents of the digester are blown off into a cement-lined room, and allowed 
to drain and cool. 

Some years ago a digester of this sort exploded near Bangor, Me., and blew 
the major portion of the big plant from the face of the earth. These tanks are 
so large that their contents have a tremendous storage capacity for heat, and 
the damage wrought when an explosion occurs is correspondingly great. 

A blowoff valve ruptured, recently, on a digester in the International Paper 
Co.'s plant at Fort Edward, near Glens Falls, N. Y., overwhelming the night 
superintendent of the mills with tons of hot chips, boiling water and chemicals. 
There was no possible way of rendering him aid. Two other men were also 
badly injured at the same time. 

We recall a similar case at another plant, where a workman apparently fell 
asleep in the blowoff room. His companions, receiving no response when they 
called out to know if all was clear, concluded that the room was empty, and 
discharged the entire contents of a digester upon him. When he was found, 
later, nothing having any definite form was left of him, save his bones. 

The consequences of digester accidents are so terrible that it behooves 
paper mill operators to exercise every care for their prevention. Among other 
things, the protective value of good insurance should be considered ; for although 
a cash indemnity will not restore the life of a man who is killed, the inspections 
that go with the insurance will materially reduce the chance of accident. It 



178 



THE LOCOMOTIVE, 



[April, 



should not be forgotten, however, that digester inspection is a highly specialized 
form of work, and that there are few boiler insurance companies that employ 
men skilled at it. The Hartford has such men, and it makes inspections of the 
very highest order. 



Calking" and Making- Repairs under Pressure. 

Never do any calking nor make any repairs whatsoever, upon a boiler, 
or a pipe, or a fitting, that is under pressure ! 

We have given this counsel over and over again, and we shall keep en 
giving it until our mortal career is ended ; because experience shows that this 
particular lesson, simple as it is, is hard to learn. 

Consider, for example, the accident that occurred some months ago at the 
Merrimack Woolen Mills, Dracut, Mass. According to the information that 
we have at hand, " Pierre Pelletier was engaged in calking a joint when the 
accident occurred. It was in the boiler room in the rear of the big mill, and 
he was i6 or i8 feet from the floor. He used a hammer in the course of his 
work, and while hammering a pipe that carried somewhere in the neighborhood 
of lOO lbs. of steam to the square inch, it blew out at the joint that he was 




Before. 



After. 



calking and hurled him^ with terrific force against a stone Avail. His head 
struck the wall and death was instantaneous. Even though he had not been 
killed by the fall, he would have died from llis scalds." The unfortunate man 
is survived by a wife and seven children. We reproduce, herewith, two pictures 
from the Lowell Sun, which, though they are but crude newspaper sketches, 
illustrate graphically the nature of the accident, and may serve to fix the danger 
of ^he thing in the mind of the next man who is tempted to try it. The very 
fact of leakage shows that something is loose or corroded or wrong in some way, 
and it is the height of folly, while the steam pressure is on, to pound upon the 
weakened place with a hammer. 

Another somewhat similar accident came to our attention in October. In 
this case two men were engaged in connecting a six-inch steam pipe to an engine. 



19".] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 179 



W'c have ]wi:n unahlo Ui ascertain tin details in full, hut it appears that the 
men were working ahont tiie pipe wiiile it was under pressure, and that it 
suddenly gave waj-, releasing the stean> froin> three hoilers upon them. One of 
the men was fatally injured, and the other was injured so Ijadly that it was 
thought to he douhtful if he could live. 

In November another case of this kind came to our notice, in which three 
men were fatally scalded. Our informant says that "it was another case of 
atten>pting to make repairs to the pii)e while it was under pressure, and was a 
shining example of things as they ought not to be." " It scents too bad," he 
continues,* " that such accidents can occur in these enlightened times, but in 
spite of all warning engineers seem to make it a common jKactice to attempt to 
tighten joints under pressure, the all too frequent result being that a hurry call 
is scn-t out foir the undertaker." 

In another more recent example a man was killed by a steam pipe failure, 
and his employers were held to be responsible for his death. Naturally they 
werci reticent, under the circumstances, about giving out particulars; but as 
nearly as we could learn, the accident was due to the use of some kind of a 
patent clamp, in an efifort to stop a leak at a joint. The joint itself was said 
to be a bad one, only a few threads on the pipe having engaged in the fitting. 
It had been leaking considerably, and we understand that the engimeer was 
endeavoring to tighten the bolts on the clamp when the explosion occurred. 

In January of the present year an accident apparently du'e to manipulating 
a fitting while under pressure occurred in Brooklyn, N. Y. In this case " some- 
thing went wrong with one of the pipes connected with a boiler, and the 
foreman with three helpers went down into the basement to repair the damage. 
He found that there was a leak in the pipe which ran along the floor overhead, 
and, getting a ladder, he climbed up to make a closer examination. An explosio-n 
followed shortly afterward. The sound w^s heard in the engine room above, 
and in a few moments clouds of scalding steam were rolling up the stairway. 
One of the helpers, though badly burned, succeed-ed in reaching the engine room 
alone, and the other two were rescued by fellow employees. Steam was shut 
off from the pipe at the boiler, and the foreman was then found to be dead, 
oi> the basement floor. Beside him lay the fragments of a valve that had b'urst 
from the pipe." 

We should like to say something that would convince every boiler attendant 
in tiie land of th£ grave danger of doing any kind of work upon a pipe ar 
fitting that is under pressure, but if a perusal of such accounts as we have given 
above will not accomplish this object, we do not know how it can be done. 
Whenever there is a leakage or a sign of weakness of any kind, the thing to do, 
of course, is to shut ofT the steam from the affected pipe or fitting, and investi- 
gate the trouble zvhen the pressure is off. All too frequently the difificulty is 
tlxat some pipe thread has not been made to standard, or has not been screwed 
into place properly. Poor pipe fitting is unfortunately quite common, and 
leakage at a joint, when it is due to this ca.use, indicates that there is liability 
of failure in the ordinary course of events. The stress upon the pipe threads, 
if the joint is not properly made up, may have caused them to yield a little, 
so as to allow steam' to escape around them. Then a little injudicious hammer- 
ing, or the application, of a pipe wrench or a calking tool, may be like the last 
stisaw that broke the camel's back. We dealt with the subject of poor pipe 



180 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [Aikil, 



luting at some length in the issue of The Locomotive for January, 1905, to 
whidi the reader is referred for furtlier information along that line. 

Never do anj^ calking, nor make any repairs whatsoever, upon a boiler, or 
a pipe, or a fitting, that is under pressure ! 



An Eng"ineer for Two Hours.* 

Jones, Smith & Co. were extensive manufacturers, who owned and operated 
a mill in one of the interior towns of this state. Jones and Smith were capitalists, 
and resided in New York; while Robinson, who was the "Company," lived near 
by, and superintended the concern's operations. 

The mill, a very modest affair when first constructed, bad been furnished 
with two boilers and an engine, of sufficient power for the work tlrat the firm 
contemplated doing. The needs of their business required additional buildings 
and machinery from time to time, and at the period of which we write the 
aggregate horse power required was more than double that used when the mill 
first started. 

The boilers, the engineer said, had been used twelve years when he took 
charge of them fifteen years before ; and now he began to have fears of their 
safety under the high steam pressure required to do the work, and he often 
spoke to ]\Ir. Robinson, recomm^ending him to buy new ones or at least to have 
the old ones thoroughly examined, and repaired if they were worth it. The 
general reply was, " We must run along awhile yet : can't stop now. We'll 
think of it. They are good enough for tire short time we shall use them." 
Next year, when business slackened up. Greaser, the engineer, spoke again 
about new boilers and a new engine, and said it would be a capital time to make 
the change, while the mill could be idle without loss. But Jones & Smith thought 
the outlook for business was very bad, and perhaps thej' might never need the 
factory again. Anyway, they were opposed to spending so much money just 
then, when so little wvts coming in. 

Bu'siness began to boom in the following fall, and at the mill they were very 
soon head over ears in work, demanding more and more power, and running 
overtime. Robinsoai said it was a pity they did not overhaul when they had a 
chance, but that they could not help that now. It was no use crying over 
spilt milk. " Keep her going. Greaser, till we get another chance." And so the 
years came and we-nt, and the old boilers steamed away, while the v/heezy 
engine squirmed as though it nlight jump off its bed some da-y, and va'k out 
in disgust. 

The faithful engineer, tired out trying to keep things together, and alarmed 
for his own safety and for that of his fellow employees, had been talking about 
a new engine and new boilers so iruuch th'at he had been voted a nuisance by 
the firm. They thought he made more fuss than was necessary about what they 
regarded as a small matter. 

About this time certain changes in the market called for a new class of 
goods, and another line of shafting for some additional machinery was added. 

* This sketch originally appeared in the issue of the American Machinist for April 22, 1882, 
where it was credited to "A Traveling Engineer". The real author was Mr. Francis B. Allen, 
now vice president of the Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Co. The article is 
reproduced here, because the lesson it contains is still good, and still needed. 



X9I1.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. -[Q ]^ 



Greaser said it was no use trying any longer, — he "' might as well give it up 
first as last." He was pacitied for a liiiic. Having a large family, and no other 
job offering, he conohulcd to try it a wliile longer; but his conversation showed 
he was very much dissatislied. Wluii this was reported at the ofhce, Smith 
thought they ought to look out for another man "not so full of old woman's 
notions." Jones said: "If we employ another regular engineer he will be just 
as cranky as this one." Me was not in favor of paying eighteciii' dollars a week 
to sucli a man for finding fault with their management. " They're all alike," 
said he. "We'd better get one of our own mei> and train him for the business 
as we want it done. I'll ask Robinson if he can't find such a man." Of course 
it never for a moment occurred to Jones that a man might be trained (that is, 
taught all the firm knew about the tluties of an. engineer), and still be very 
lightly equipped. 

Robinson agreed with his partners, and thought he had just the man they 
wanted in the person of Jimmy, who at the time was driving an ox cart, hauling 
in coal and carrying away ashes. He had been about the fire room a great deal, 
and had often been ordered to " lend a hand " in helping the engineer. Almost 
any one could be an engineer, declared Robinson, if he would only keep the fires 
up, and oil the engine. 

Jimmy was approached and offered an increase of pay to twelve dollars 
a week, if he thought he could run the engine. He thought he could, if he 
watched around for a w.eek or so. So he was told to post himself in that way, 
and at the end of the week they would discharge the old engineer and give him 
the job. Foi' the next few days Jimmy kept his eyes and ears open and did 
his level best to- acquire the needed education, and in due time the engineer was 
called up, paid ofY, and told that his services were not wanted there any longer, 
as they had employed another man in his place. He complained that it w-as 
pretty short notice, but obtained.' no satisfaction; so he picked up his tools and 
other cfifects and started ofT for home, feeling relieved at getting away from the 
old boilers, but yet sad at the prospect of being out of work. 

On Monday morning the new shaft was coupled on, and Jimmy busied 
himself about the fires and the engine, feeling the importance of his new 
position. The superintendent — or the "super," as he was more familiarly 
known — was in and out of the engine room several times, to ask how things 
were going. He got satisfactory replies, and things certainly were humming. 

About nine o'clock Robinson came to the mill, and, meeting the " super," 
asked how Jimmy was getting along, 

" Everything is running finely,"' was the reply. " I never saw shafting run 
faster. You can see for yourself. Aird all our work is on." 

" Glad I made the change," said Robinson. " We didn't get rid of that 
other fellow any too soon. Those engineers are always wanting some foolish 
thing done. If we had satisfied him then, the next thing we knew he would 
have wanted the boiler fronts nickel plated." 

" Sure as you live he would," said the " super." 

" Let's go 'round to the engine house," proposed Robinson. 

They found that Jimmy had just finished firing one of the furnaces. 

"Good morning, Jimmy," said Robinson with a sly wink at tlie "super;" 
''this is better than engineering the ox cart, eh? " 

" You're right, boss," was Jimmy's reply. 



182 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [April, 



"Any trouble to keep steam?" 

"Oh, no; it's as easy as rolling off a log." 

" Well, Jimmy, you attend to your business, and we'll do well by you," said 
the " super," by way of encouragement. 

i\Ieanwhile Robinson was looking intently at the water glass, and he 
now began to try the gage cocks. Fmding no signs of water with either, he 
called out, "Hey, Jimm\', where's your water?" 

" I guess it's there," said Jimmy ; " I didn't change it any.'' 

"What! haven't you put on your pump this morning?" 

"What's that? Pump? I don't know," was the bewildered reply of the 
whilom ox cart manrager. 

" Haul your fires ; the water's all out of your boilers ! " shouted Robinson as 
he fled from the fire room, the " super " close at his heels. Jimmy, thoroughly 
demoralized, did not stop to haul any fires, but took to his heels also ; and later 
in the day the boiler makers pronounced the old boilers unfit to repair. Robinson 
then sent a messenger after Greaser, the former engineer, informing him that 
his discharge was a mistake, which arose from a misunderstanding on the part 
of the " super." He was to come back at once, and go right on repairing his 
engine and o.ther machinery, so that all would be ready when the new boilers 
were in. 

Several of Greaser's friends, engineers at other mills about the town, came 
around to his house that evening, and all seemed greatly amused at what he 
told them: — how Jimmy had fired up that morning on less than one gage of 
water, had followed too literally the injunction of the firm to "keep a good fire 
and oil his engine," had gone on evaporating water in blissful ignorance, and 
finally had burned the boilers so badly that they were to be taken out and con- 
signed to the scrap heap. His friends agreed with him that there had been a lucky 
escape from a bad boiler explosion, and all felt that there might perhaps yet be 
a chance for experienced engineers who had learned their business in the good 
old way. Anyhow, so far as can be judged from present indications, it is not 
likely that there will be another opening for a "trained engineer" about the 
plant of Jones, Smith & Co. for some time to come. 



Don't Touch any Valve Whatsoever! 

Every little while there is a serious accident from the careless turning of 
steam into a boiler in which a man is at work. A man who enters a boiler that 
forms part of a battery, some of the other units of which are in service at the 
same time, always takes a chance that some stupid or careless or irresponsible 
person will scald him to death, and the wonder to us is, that fatal results do 
not occur oftener. 

Not long ago there was an accident of this sort at Akron, Ohio. Our account 
reads thus : " While John Kabazas, partially stripped, was inside a boiler at 
the Diamond rubber plant, cleaning it, the engineer turned on the steam and 
scalded him before his cries were heard. The engineer knew Kabazas had gone 
inside, but he saw him come out again, and supposed he was through with his 
work. He had gone back into the boiler however. His flesh is parboiled, and 
he will not live." 

Here is another recent accident of the same general order: "Andrew Gurko 



19II.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 183 

was scalded to death, on March i8, at Horatio, four miles from Puiixsutawney, 
Pa. Gurko and William Coy were ck-aniiig a pair of boilers, and Coy, thinking 
the blow'off pipe connecting the two hollers was closed, turned steam into one 
boiler. It escaped into the boiler in which Gurko was working, and before it 
could be turned off, Gurko was dead." Probably the reporter didn't get the 
details of this accident just right, for it is hard to understand why a man should 
turn steam into an empty boiler. Hut whatever the said details rtiay have been, 
the final result was all the same, — one man was scalded to death by another 
one opening a valve upon him. 

Many other cases, analogous to these, could be given. It will be observed 
that in each of the instances here cited the man who did the wrong thing 
" thought " something was so, when it wasn't so at all. It reminds one strongly 
of the old '■ didn't-know-it-\vas loaded " excuse. 

The man who goes into a boiler should always notify the engineer in charge 
of the room that he is about to do so, and after that the engineer should make it 
his particular personal business to see that no valve whatsoever is touched by 
anyone until the man who entered the boiler has given formal notice that he 
is through with his work. This is a very simple and reasonable precaution 
to take, and its uniform observance would save many lives. 

A still safer way would be, for the man entering the boiler to actually lock 
all the valves that could do him any harm, if opened ; — unlocking them again 
upon finally leaving the boiler. This would require inspectors to carry chains 
and padlocks with them, as locks could not be expected at every plant visited. 
The lock plan would w-ork very well on globe valves or gate valves, but it 
would not be easy to apply it effectively to plug cocks on blowoff pipes. We find, 
moreover, that some men object to using a lock on the ground that it is 
suggestive of timidity; but we consider that any sentimental objection of this 
kind, on the part of the man who is risking his life, springs from an unsound 
and unjustifiable view of the case. The man who puts a lock upon a valve does 
so because he knows, quite well, that every once in a while somebody gets 
killed because he didn't do likewise ; the lock, therefore, doesn't show timidity 
— it only shows good horse sense. 

Tags, bearing the words " Danger : Do not Touch," are sometimes affixed 
to the valves in the place of locks. These are good, so far as they go. They 
afford a considerable amount of protection, but they are less efficient than locks. 
Many plants employ men who cannot speak or read English, and against these 
the tag would be ineffective. Moreover, if any emplo3'ee doesn't have his wits 
about him enough to remember the man in the boiler without having his 
intellectuals jogged up by a sign, there is always some doubt about his noticing 
the tag, or reading what it says. 

On the whole, we strongly recommend the use of chains and padlocks ; 
but if the man entering the boiler is unwilling to go to the trouble that they 
involve, or if he feels the sentimental objection to which we have already 
referred, and finds it unconquerable, then, as a substitute measure, we recommend 
the plan first suggested, of making the engineer in charge of the room personally 
responsible for even*' valve about the boiler. But it should be remembered that 
this plan is not absolutely effective, for however good the intentions of said 
engineer may be, his attention may be temporarily drawn to something else, 
or he may not see all that is going on, or he may be called from the room for 



184 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [April, 

a short time; — and any one of the few moments during which his vigilance 
is relaxed may be the fatal one. 



"Some Boiler Mathematics." 

Under this heading we published a problem in the January issue of The 
Locomotive, promising a solution of it in an early issue. This was the problem: 

" A certain boiler had two available sources of feed water, either one of 
which was quite sufficient to supply all that was needed, under ordinary cir- 
cumstances. One of the sources was a brook, and the other was a well. 
Experience showed that when the boiler was running on the brook water alone, 
it had to be opened and cleaned every eight weeks, while when it was running 
on the well water alone, it had to be cleaned every three weeks. 

" The past summer being an unusually dry one in the locality in question, 
it was found that neither source would furnish enough water, by itself, to 
meet the needs of the plant. The two waters were therefore used together, 
being run into a storage tank in the proportion of i,6oo gallons of the brook 
water to 900 gallons of the well water. The problem is, to determine, from 
the data here given, how often it would be necessary to clean the boiler when 
running with the mixed feed." 

Now for the solution, which is to be effected thus. First we find out how 
much solid matter will be thrown down in one zveek by each kind of water, 
when running zvith that kind alone. Then we find out, for each kind of water 
separately, how much deposit will be formed, in one week, by the quantity of 
that particular kind of water that is actually used when running with the mixed 
feed. By adding the respective quantities of deposit so calculated, we ascertain 
the total amount of solid matter that will be thrown down by the mixed water 
in one week, and having found this, we can tell, at once, how many weeks the 
boiler can run, with the mixed feed, before cleaning is required. 

In the original statement of the problem we tried (and we hope with success) 
to make it plain that the boiler is to be cleaned when the total amount of solid 
matter that has been formed in it reaches a certain amount. That amount was 
not given, but it was supposed to be the same in all cases. For example, if the 
boiler, running with well water alone, has to be cleaned when (say) 800 lbs. 
of solid matter have accumulated, then it also has to be cleaned when 800 lbs. 
have been precipitated in either of the other cases, — that is, whether we run 
with the brook water or with the mixed water. Moreover, the total quantity 
of water used, per week, is supposed to be the same in all cases. 

Now when running with the mixed water, out of every 2,500 gallons that 
are used, 1,600 are from the 'brook and 900 are from the well. In other words, 
i6/2Sths of the mixed water come from the brook, and 9/25ths of it come from 
the well. 

If the feed water were all taken from the brook, then in one week we 
should have a deposit equal to ;^th of the greatest allowable quantity. But when 
running with the mixed feed, only i6/2Sths of the supply is from the brook. 
Hence, in running one week with mi.xed water, the quantity of deposit that will 
be thrown down from that part of the feed that conies front the brook will be 
only i6/25ths of Vsth of the greatest allowable quantity. — or 2/25ths thereof 
(since 16/25 "^ Vs — 16/200 = 2/25). 



igii.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 185 



Similarly, if all llu' \vatt.r wore trnni the well, tiicii in out week \vc should 
have a deposit equal to '/.jrd of the greatest allowable quantity. When running 
with the mixed feed we draw, from the well, only p/jsths as much w-ater as we 
do when we are using this water exclusively. Mence in one week <jf use of 
the mixed feed, that part of the water tliat is draz>.'ii from the well will deposit 
9/25ths of i/3rd of the greatest allowable quantity of solid matter, — or 3/25ths 
thereof (since 9/25 X 1/3 = 9/75 = .V25). 

Hence we see that when we run for one week with the mixed feed, that 
part of it which comes from the brook will deposit 2/25ths as much sediment 
as would call for cleaning, and that part of it which comes from the well will 
deposit 3/25ths as much as would call for cleaning. Together, therefore, the 
two parts of the mixed water would deposit 2/25ths plus 3/25ths, or 5/25ths ( = 
I 5th) of the amount of solid matter that would require the boilers to be 
cleaned. It follows that when running with the mixed water we should have 
to clean the boiler every five weeks. 

Despite the uninviting remarks that we made in our last issue concerning 
correspondence about this problem, we received quite a number of solutions of it. 
We were glad to have them, and we looked them all over with interest. The 
majority were correct, but some of our friends, when they examine this present 
solution, will see that they didn't quite grasp tiie principle upon which the thing 
must be worked out. 



An Instructive Boiler Explosion. 

In the present article we shall treat of a recent boiler explosion which 
serves to illustrate the value of inspections, and the importance of attending 
to the verdict that is given by an expert inspector, when he has looked a boiler 
over and pronounced judgment upon it. 

The boiler that exploded was one of a large battery, and when it gave 
way it wrecked all of the other boilers save two, and destroyed the boiler 
house and part of the mill. The total property loss was between $25,000 and 
?30,ooo. Several men were also killed. The two boilers that were still left in 
jiosition had their steam pipes stripped off. Very little damage was done to 
the big engine, nothing but the governor attachments being injured. The 
engine room, however, was practically destroyed. 

The exploded boiler was of the horizontal tubular type, and was built in 
three courses. Judging from an examination of the ruins, the initial rupture 
was at the longitudinal joint of the middle course, the fracture running the 
entire length of this course, along tlie calking edge of the plate. Tlie teai 
then continued around the girth joints at either end of the middle course, 
the rivets of these girth joints splitting out through the edge of the plate for 
the most part. The middle course, being thus freed from the rest of the boiler, 
passed out through the end of the brick power house and landed about fifty 
feet away from the building, on the outside. Nearly all of the tubes of the 
boiler were pulled out, but the two end courses of the shell remained attached to 
their respective heads, and the heads themselves were held together by the 
through braces. 



186 THE. LOCOMOTIVE. [April, 

The exploded boiler was 60 in. in diameter, and by calipering along the 
fracture of the middle course at a point where no thinning could be detected, 
the thickness of the plate was found to be %2 in. The rivet holes were ^%q 
in. in diameter, and the longitudinal joints were of the double-riveted lap type, 
with rivets pitched 2% in. from center to center. The plates were of iron, 
and while no stamps could be found, and no tests have been made, so far as 
we are aware, since the explosion, it is probably fair to assume that the 
material of the plate had a tensile strength of about 50,000 lbs. per square inch 
of sectional area. 

Calculation will readily show that the longitudinal joint of this boiler is 
weakest as regards fracture along the ligaments of the plate, between the 
rivet holes. The length of one such ligament is 2% in. — ^%Gin. = 2.75 in. — 
0.8125 in. = 1.9375 in. Hence the efficiency of the joint, as respects fracture 
along the ligaments of the joint, is 1.9375 "^ 2.75 = 70.45 per cent. 

For the sake of simplicity in the calculation, we may take the efficiency of 
the joint as an even 70 per cent. Then with the other data as given above, we 
find the theoretical bursting pressure of the boiler as follows : Bursting pressure 
= (50,000 X 0.70 X %2) -^ 30 = 9,844 -^ 30 = 328 lbs. per square inch. At a 
working pressure of 70 lbs. per square inch this boiler would therefore have a 
calculated factor of safety of 4.68, whereas at a working pressure of 100 lbs. 
per square inch (the pressure actually carried) the factor of safety would be 
only 3.28. The factor of 4.68 is as small as would be justifiable; while 
the actual factor of 3.28 was altogether too small, and (according to our 
lights) merely invited the destruction that actually came. 

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, in " The White Company ", well says that " It is 
easy to sit in the sunshine and preach to the man in the shadow." We 
are going to indulge in a little preaching of this kind, but it is with a full 
knowledge of the ease of the thing, and our only purpose is to try and 
prevent a recurrence of certain of the incidents involved in the history of the 
present case. We are not simply saying " I told you so ", but we are point- 
ing out that an expert inspection has a real value, and we are appealing to 
all boiler owners to bear in mind such lessons as the present case may afford. 

Some years ago three boilers that had been bought second-handed were 
offered to us for inspection, and although our inspector discouraged any 
consideration of them, the purchasers, who were then insured with the 
Hartford, insisted upon our making a record of our opinion, and we complied 
by making out the two following reports. The first covers two of the boilers, 
and the other one covers the third. 

This is the first report : 

"Internally: — The inner surfaces are practically clean. The laps of the 
seams and the flanging of the heads show no fractures nor other defects. 
The shell plates show some grooving below the water line. Some of the 
rivet heads on the longitudinal seams are partially gone, but not sufficiently 
to make it necessary to put in new ones at this time. New braces were 
being put in at the time of the inspection. 

" Externallj^: — The fire surfaces are free from fire cracks, bulges or 
other effects of overheating. A new half sheet has been put on the No. 2 
boiler, which has not been calked. The manholes in the rear heads are being 
closed with a patch, and new ones are being put in the top of the shell. 
The external surfaces are corroded, and the corrosion has thinned the plates 



19".] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 137 

considerably, the plates being less than J4 in. thick in places. The boilers arc 
not worth the repairs being made to them, and if a iiigh pressure is desired, 
we would advise against their being set. After the repairs are completed, and 
the boilers are subjected to a hydrostatic pressure of 105 lbs., a pressure of 
70 lbs. to the square inch can be allowed for the present." 

Here follows the second report : 

"Intemariy: — A light incrustation was noted on the plates and tubes, 
which is not sufficient to give any trouble at this time. The laps of the 
seams and the flanges of the heads show no fractures nor other defects. 
The braces are sound and taut. The shell plates below the tubes have been 
pitted through in four or five places, and the holes plugged with rivets. 

"Externally: — IHie lire surfaces show no effects of overheating, and the 
seams and tube ends show no leakage. The three lower rows of tubes are 
getting thin and should be renewed before the boiler is put into service. 
We should advise that a fusible plug be placed in the rear head, two inches 
above the top of the tubes. The flange on the nozzle to the mud drum is 
entirely gone, and if the mud drum is to be used it will be necessary to put 
on a new nozzle. A pressure of 70 lbs. to the square inch will be allowed 
after repairs are completed." 

Our position, at the time of the inspections, will be sufficiently clear 
after perusing the foregoing reports that were made upon the boilers. Never- 
theless, the purchasers of the boilers were not satisfied that we were right, 
and they proceeded to spend very nearly the price of new boilers in fixing 
up these old ones, and they afterwards set them and connected them with a 
number of other high-pressure boilers, running the battery at 100 lbs. pressure 
per square inch. As we would not insure them at this pressure, the insurance 
was given to another company that was not so critical as to the pressure 
carried. 

One of the old boilers exploded about six months after they were put in 
service, and now another one has gone up. We are not sure whether the 
third one is still doing duty, or not. Possibly it was one of those that were 
destroyed by the present explosion. At all events, the moral of the tale plainly 
is, that it is foolish to keep a dog and then do your own barking. If the 
inspector, who knows a lot more about boilers than you do, says your 
boilers ought not to carry the pressure that you want, you had better listen to 
him, and govern yourselves accordingly. It pays, in the long run. 



How to Make a Locomotive. 

Items having a combined theological and mechanical bearing are not very 
common, but here is one that has been making the rotinds of the press, and we 
are going to add our mite towards its perpetuation. It emanated from Dr. 
Hiram C. Cortlandt, of Des Moines, Iowa. 

" Thomas A. Edison tells us," says the doctor, " that he thinks the soul 
is not immortal. But, after all, what does this great wizard know about souls? 
His forte is electricity and machinery, and when he talks of souls he reminds 
me irresistibly of the young lady who visited the Baldwin Locomotive Works, 
and then told how a locomotive is made. 



■188 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [April, 

" ■ You pour a lot of sand into a lot of boxes,' she said, ' and you throw old 
stove-lids and things into a furnace, and then you empty the molten stream into 
a hole in the sand, and everybody yells and swears. Then you pour it out, and 
let it cool, and pound it, and then you put it in a thing that bores holes in it. 
Then you screw it together and paint it, and put steam in it, and it goes 
splendidly, and they take it to a drafting room and make a blueprint of it. 

" ' But one thing I forgot — they have to make a boiler. One man gets 
inside and one gets outside, and they pound frightfully; and then they tie it 
to the other thing, and you ought to see it go ! ' " 

We don't know how this will strike the Baldwin Locomotive Works, but 
we guess it will hold Mr. Edison for a while, — if he sees it. 



Legislation and Engine Accidents, 

Many of the states have factory-inspectors, whose duty it is to inspect 
factories and call attention to conditions inimical to health and safety. The 
duties of these inspectors are often laid out with a precision which leaves them 
little, if any, discretion, and in most cases, beyond calling attention to actual 
violation of the law, they have no power to enforce their recommendations. 

A matter which naturally receives general attention is the placing cf 
guards about moving machinery, the prohibiting of projecting set screws upon 
revolving shafts, etc. One of the provisions directed at the reduction of 
injury from accidental entanglement with shafting, or from a machine gone 
wrong, is the requirement of a clutch upon each floor, by means of which the 
motive power may be cut off in case of accident. While this may occasionally 
serve its purpose (although the damage has usually been done before the 
clutch can be thrown), it has in it the possibility of aggravating trouble and 
precipitating a catastrophe which might otherwise be averted. If the engine 
commences to race and the machines to run wild, the natural impulse of some- 
body on every floor will be to throw the clutch, taking the load off from the 
engine and aiding it in its race to destruction. The fragments of a big fly- 
wheel plowing their way through the several floors may be the result. 

A much more logical and safer arrangement is a number of reliable circuit 
closers or other devices conveniently distributed throughout the building, by the 
use of which the engine may be shut down in case of accident. The mechanism 
by which this is effected may be, and usually is, arranged to be operated auto- 
matically by a device attached to the engine itself, and independent of the 
governor in case the speed increases beyond a fixed limit. 

In some of the states, automatic engine stops are required by law, hut 
the law is not always sufficiently explicit to require an engine stop in the true 
sense. It might be maintained, for instance, that the usual safety-cams on a 
Corliss engine constitute an " automatic engine stop," preventing, as they do, 
the hooking on of the valves and the admission of steam when the govenor 
halls fall below a certain plane. But this is really a part of — an attachment 
to — the primary governor, and subject to derangement with that governor. 
If the governor belt breaks and the balls drop, it will act; but if the belt slips, 
so that the governor runs slowly enough to permit a late cut-off, but not so 
slowly as to bring the safetA'-cams into play, there may be an accident. It is 



igii.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 139 



a too common practice, moreover, to leave in place, while the engine is running, 
the pin which holds the safety-cams out of action while starting up, although 
most modern engines are fitted with latches which automatically drop out 
of the way when the governor collar rises away from them. 

A rider upon the governor belt, arranged in any of the usual ways to shut 
off the steam when the belt breaks and the rider falls, might be construed as 
satisfying the requirements of the law; but it is far from a positive safeguard. 

The law should require specilically, and every provident engine owner 
should install whether the law requires it or not, a device entirely independent 
of the main governor, which will positively cut off the supply of steam when 
the speed becomes excessive. The danger in a mass of swiftly rotating metal 
is very real, and destructive explosions of fly-wheels are not uncommon. Such 
an explosion may be far-reaching in its effects. The fragments of a wheel fly 
for hundreds of feet, and are ugly and destructive missiles. Persons who live 
and pass near industrial establishments, as well as those who are obliged to 
spend their working hours within the range of fly-wheels, should have the 
assurance that something more than a two-inch belt and a fallible ball governor 
stands between them and eternity. — Pozccr. 



The explosion of a kitchen range boiler at Racine, Wis., early in January, 
lias brought about some legal complications. Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Kadowsky 
were killed by the explosion, and it is important to determine which one of them 
died first. This problem will have to come up before the court that is charged 
with the disposition of the Kadowsky estate, valued at $8,000. Each of the 
victims had been married before, and each left children from the earlier marriage. 
The two sets of children cannot agree, and the court's decision will probably 
turn upon which of the parents lived the longer. Even though the survival was 
but a fraction of a minute, it would suffice to determine the course of the 
inheritance. 



A Few Home-Office Confidences. 

Some time ago we received the following letter from a corporation that 
had a sort of lukewarm desire to insure its boilers, if the thing could be done 
without any great trouble : 

" Our experience in the past with boiler insurance people and their boiler 
inspectors has been anything but satisfactory. At the beginning of the policy 
the inspectors are reasonable. On one occasion, however, we purchased a three- 
year policy, and some six or eight months ago an inspector was here and 
undertook to impose such unreasonable and unnecessary repairs and work on 
our boilers and furnaces that we refused to do the work and had the policy 
cancelled. 

"We should like to carry insurance on our boilers if your inspectors will 
be men of common sense and reason, and provided also that all internal 
inspections can be made at a time tliat will not interfere with the operation 
of our plant. This can seldom be done when the plant is closed down, for the 
reason ^hat we never close except on Sundays, or in the event of an accident. 



190 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [April. 

Accidents are very unusual that will close us down for more than one day at 
a time, and in such cases we could not give you sufficient notice to have an 
inspector here. We have found it troublesome to have the manholes opened and 
closed on Sundays, as our men are not required to do work on Sunday except 
when it is absolutely necessary. We should not object to your making an 
internal inspection then, however, provided your men would remove the 
manhole plates and put them back again in time to fire up the boilers by 
midnight Sunday night. We have never had any insurance with your company, 
and therefore w^e know nothing of your manner of inspecting, nor of your 
general business methods. We shall be glad to hear from you with reference 
to same, unless you would prefer to send a man to see our plant and talk 
the matter over. This would probably be more satisfactory." 

Here is a letter that came from a man who was about to insure his boiler. 
It is brief, but it bears a tale of hard luck : 

" Yours received. Sorry to say we shall not need to have the boiler inspected, 
as the mill is burned and the boiler blown up. Didn't leave enough to inspect." 

Here is something from a discouraged manufacturer in Tennessee, in 
response to a request from, us for a date for inspection : 

" Replying to your letter of the i6th in regard to coming here to inspect 
our boiler, I would say that we are not going to run our plant this season, 
and hence the inspection will not be necessary. From our experience it would 
seem that we, the stockholders, are the ones that need inspection, rather than 
the boiler; for we are certainly in danger of bustin', on account of the low 
prices of the products we make. If we run next season we will take up the 
matter of inspection then." 

Here, again, is an extract from a report that we recently made upon a 
boiler that was in use in a hotel : 

" All parts of the boiler are heavily coated, internally, with scale, and the 
fire sheets, in particular, are heavily coated with loose scale and mud. The 
tubes and shell are extremely corroded and pitted ; the braces are tight, but 
they are small and poorly designed. The side seams are also poorly designed, 
and they are below the top tubes, and nearly inaccessible for inspection. From 
the condition in which we found the boiler we doubt if the manhole covers have 
been removed since the boiler was installed. Among the things that we found 
inside the boiler was a box containing a water-column with gage cocks and 
glass fittings, a steam gage, and two pieces of pipe.* These fittings were evi- 
dently in the boiler when it was shipped from .... three years ago, 
and had not been removed. The boiler is about twenty years old, and of poor 
design. Externally, the shell plates and tube ends are corroded and thin, 
and several of the tubes are leaking. As the boiler is practically worthless 
for any useful pressure, we advise that it be thrown out and a new one installed 
in its place." We can't help wondering whether or not the writer of the first 
letter quoted above would consider this report to be " unreasonable." Probably 
he would think it is conservative and excellent in all respects, if he were 
stopping at the hotel where the boiler was in use. 



* This reads as though the thing inspected was a museum instead of a boiler. 



me tlartlord Sisani Boiler lospeciion and iQSuiaqce Gonipaiiy. 



ABSTRACT OF STATEMENT, JANUARY 1, 1911. 
Capital Stock, . . . $1,000,000.00. 



ASSETS. 

Cash on hand and in course of transmission, 
Premiums in course of collection, 

Real estate 

Loaned on bond and mortgage, . 
Stocks and bonds, market value, 
Interest accrued, .... 

Total Assets, . 



$174,137-52 
209,440.08 

91,400.00 
1,140,810.00 
3,180,527.72 

71,231.96 

p4,867o47-28 



LIABILITIES. 

Premium Reserve, $2,010,733.76 

Losses unadjusted, 130,809.04 

Commissions and brokerage 41,888.01 

Other liabilities (taxes accrued, etc.), 45,149.16 

Capital Stock, $1,000,000.00 

Surplus over all liabilities, 1,638,967.31 

Surplus as regards Policy-holders, . . $2,638,967.31 2,638,967.31 

Total Liabilities $4,867,547.28 



L. B. BRAINERD, President and Treasurer. 

FRANCIS B. ALLEN, Vice-President. CHAS. S. BLAKE, Secretary. 

L. F. MIDDLEBROOK. Assistant Secretary. 

W. R. C. CORSON, Assistant Secretary. 

S. F. Jeter, Supervising Inspector. 

E. J. Murphy, M. E., Consulting Engineer. 

F. M. Fitch, Auditor. 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 



GEORGE BURNHAM, 

The Baldwin Locomotive Works, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 
ATWOOD COLLINS, President, 

The Security Co., Hartford, Conn. 
LUCIUS F. ROBINSON, Attorney, 

Hartford, Conn. 
JOHN O. ENDERS, United States Bank, 

Hartford, Conn. 
LYMAN B. BRAINERD, 

Director, Swift & Company. 
MORGAN B. BRAINARD, 

Vice-Pres. and Treasurer, The .(^tna 

Life Insurance Co.. Hartford, Conn. 
FRANCIS B. ALLEN, Vice-Pres., The 

Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and 

Insurance Company. 
CHARLES P. COOLEY, Vice-Pres., 

The Fidelity Trust Co., Hartford, 

Conn. 



ARTHUR L. SHIPMAN, Attorney, 

Hartford, Conn. 
GEORGE C. KIMBALL, President, The 

Smyth Mfg. Co., Hartford, Conn. 
CHARLES M. JARVIS, President, The 

American Hardware Corporation, New 

Britain, Conn. 
FRANCIS T. MAXWELL, President, 

The Hockanum Mills Company, Rock- 

ville. Conn. 
HORACE B. CHENEY, Cheney Brothers 

Silk Manufacturing Co., South Man- 
chester, Conn. 
D. NEWTON BARNEY, Treasurer, The 

Hartford Electric Light Co., and 

Director N. Y.. N. H. and H. R. R. 

Co. 
DR. GEORGE C. F. WILLIAMS, Treas. 

& General Manager, The Capewell 

Horse Nail Co., Hartford, Conn. 



Incorporated 1866. 




Charter Perpetual. 



Tiie HaiUoril Steani Boiler IqspeGlioq and iQsuraiite Gonipaqg 

IS3UES POLICIES OF INSURANCE COVERING 

ALL LOSS OF PROF»ERTY 

AS WELL AS DAMAGE RESULTING FROM 

LOSS OF LIFE AND PERSONAL INJURIES DUE TO EXPLOSIONS 
OF STEAM BOILERS OR FLY WHEELS. 

Full information concerning the Cotnpany's Operations can be obtained at 

any of it,s Agencies. 

■"■Representatives. 

W. M. Francis, 

Manager & Chief Inspector. 

Lawfoed & McKiM, General Agents. 
R. E. MuNRO, Chief Inspector. 

C. E. Roberts, Manager. 

F. S.. Allen, Chief Inspector. 

H. M. Lemon, Manager. 

James L. F"oord, Chief Inspector. 

J. T. Coleman, Assistant Chief Inspector. 

W.-fi. Gleason, Manager. 
B.'F. Cooper, Chief Inspector. 

H^ A. Baumhart, 

Manager & Chief Inspector. 

Trio's. E. Shears, 

General Agent & Chief Inspector. 



Department. 

ATLANTA, Ga., 

611-613 Empire Bldg. 

BALTIMORE, Md., . 
13-14-15 Abell Bldg. 

BOSTON, Mass., 
loi Milk St. 

CHICAGO, 111., . 

160 West Jackson St. 

CINCINNATI, Ohio, 

First National Bank Bldg 

CLEVELAND, Ohio, 
Century Bldg. 

DENVER, Colo., 

Room 2, Jacobson Bldg. 

HARTFORD, Conn., 
56 Prospect St. 

NEW ORLEANS, La., . 
833-835 Gravier St." 

NEW YORK, N. Y., . 
100 William St. 

PHILADELPHIA. Pa., . 
432 Walnut St. 

PITTSBURG, Pa., . 

1801-1802 Arrott Bldg. 

PORTLAND, Ore., . 
Failing Bldg. 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal., . 
339-341 Sansome St. 

ST. LOUIS. Mo.. 

319 North Fourth St. 



F. H. Williams, Jr., General Agent. 
F^^s^AirxEN, Chief Inspector. 

Peter F. Pescud, General Agent. 
R. X BuRWELL, Chief Inspector. 

C. C. Gardiner, Manager. 

W. W. Manning, Chief Inspector. 

CoRBiN, Goodrich & Wickham, General Agents. 

Wm. J. Farran, Chief Inspector. 

S.. B. Adams, Assistant Chief Inspector. 

C. D. AsHCROFT, Manager. 
Be^^JAMin Ford, Chief Inspector. 

McCargar, Bates & Lively, General Agents. 
C. B. Paddock, Chief Inspector. 

H. R. Mann & Co., General Agents. 
J. B. Warner, Chief Inspector. 

V. Hugo, 

Manager & Chief Inspector. 



Shcj[0r0motite 



COPYRIGHT, 1911, BY THE HARTFORD STEAM BOILER INSPECTION AND INSURANCE CO. 
Vol.. XXVIII. HARTFORD. CONN., JULY 25, 1911. No. 7. 



SUGGESTIONS 

For the Management and Care of 

STEAM BOILERS 

Used for Power Purposes, and Insured by 

The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection 

and Insurance Company. 



1. 

Water Level. The first duty of the attendant, upon entering the boiler room 

in the morning, is to find out where the water level is in the boilers. 

J^^^^ Xci'cr unbank nor replenish the £res until this is done. Neglect 

of this precaution has caused many accidents, and ruined many 

boilers. 

If there arc valves on the pipes connecting the water-column 
with the boiler, make sure that they are open. Then open the 
mud valve at the bottom of the water-column, letting the water 
blow out freely for about one minute, so that the column may be 
thoroughly flushed. Then close this valve and open the pet cock 
at the bottom of the glass gage, letting water and steam blow 
out for some time, so that the gage connections may be well 
flushed. Blow out the column and the glass in this way, alternately, 
several times, to make sure that everything is in good order. See 
that the water returns to the glass gage freely. The entire opera- 
tion here described should be repeated several times a day, or on 
each shift of the attendants. 

See that there are no steam leaks from the upper part of the 
water column, nor in any of the piping between the gage glass and 
the boiler. Such leaks cause the water in the glass to stand at 
a false level, so as to indicate more water in the boiler than is 
actually present. For the same reason it is bad practice to draw 
steam from any part of the water column or its connections, for 
operating tube cleaners or injectors, or for any other purpose for 
which an actual flow of steam is required. The steam gage may 
properly be attached to the water column, however, because it does 
not call for such flow. 



^A 



194 The Hartford Steam Boiler 

Do not rely entirely upon the gage glass for determining the 
level of the water in the boiler. The gage cocks are there to 
verify the indications of the glass, and they should be used for 
that purpose, regularly. Try all of these cocks several times a 
day, to make sure they are clear and in good working order, and 
that their indications agree with those of the glass gage. 

Keep the w^ater in the boiler at as even a level as possible, at 
all times. Keep the glass gage clean, so that the position of the 
water in it can always be plainly seen. Have the glass gage and 
the steam gage well lighted, so that there can be no difficulty in 
reading their indications. 

See also suggestion No. 8, below. 

2. 
Leaks After having assured himself that the boilers contain plenty of 

water, and that the appliances for showing the position of the 
water level are in good order, the attendant, before starting up 
his fires, should open each door about the settings, and carefully 
look for leaks at every visible point. He should note particularly 
if there are any leaks about the tubes in the combustion chambers, 
or (if the boilers are of the water-tube type) around the tube 
ends or the covers of the openings on the headers, front and 
rear. 

When leaks are discovered (whether it be before starting up 
the fires, or later, in the regular operation of the boiler) they 
should be located and repaired as soon as possible. (Give par- 
ticular attention, however, to the caution expressed in suggestion 
No. 9, warning against setting up bolts and nuts, calking, and 
making other changes and repairs while the boiler or pipe is under 
pressure.) 

In water-tube boilers having cast-iron mud drums, if leakage 
appears at the mud drum ends of nipples entering the headers, 
the nipples should be removed and the drums thoroughly examined 
for cracks. 

If leaking occurs at any time at the longitudinal (or fore-and- 
aft) seams, the boiler should be put out of service at once, and the 
HARTFORD STEAM BOILER company should be promptly noti- 
fied, at its nearest office. (The addresses of its chief offices are given 
on the last page of this issue of The Locomotive.) This is highly 
important, whether the attendant considers the leakage to be serious 
or not; and it is especially important when the boiler has a single 
bottom sheet, or is of the two-sheet type. 

3. 

Filling up When a boiler has been emptied of water, it should not be filled 

the Boiler. again until it has become cold. Cold water, when pumped into 

hot boilers, causes contraction strains that are very injurious. 

4. 

Tight Joints In preparing to get up steam after a boiler has been out of 

and service, great care should be exercised in making the manhole anc 

Good Gaskets., ji i ■ ■ ^ ..• i ^ 
handhole jomts tight. 



Inspection & Insurance Co. 195 



Never use lead gaskets after they have become thin and hard, and 
avoid all gaskets of other metals, unless they are corrugated or soft 
and pliable. It is difticnlt to make a tight joint when using a hard 
gasket, without setting u]) the cover-plate bolt with great force. 
Bolts and cover-plates are often cracked by the severe strain thus 
thrown upon them. 

5. *• 

Getting up First of all, the boiler should he vented in some way, to permit 

Steam. ^\y^. escape of air. hor this purpose the steam space may be put 

in free communication with the atmosphere by any convenient 

method. Opening the upper gage cock is sufficient, unless the bore 

of this cock is unusually small. 

Water should next be run (or pumped) into the boiler, until 
it stands at the proper level. Special care should be exercised 
with regard to this point, because boilers are often fired up while 
empty, and thereby ruined. If the water column is correctly 
located upon the boiler, it is sufficient to bring the water level to 
a point just above the second gage. 

Fuel may then be placed upon the grate, the damper opened, 
and the fire started. If the chimney or stack is cold and does 
not draw properly, the trouble may be remedied by burning some 
oily waste or light kindlings inside of the chimney, at the base. 
Start the fires in ample time, so that it will not be necessary to 
urge them unduly, in order to have the pressure up at the required 
hour. When steam issues from the vent opening, close this open- 
ing, and thereafter pay strict attention to the steam gage. If the 
boiler that is being fired up is to be cut in with others that are 
already under steam, pay careful attention to suggestion No. 7, 
below. 

6. 

Gas When gas or oil is used as fuel, care should be taken to adjust 

^., ^ , the burners so that the flame cannot impinge directly upon the 

heating surfaces. Checker-work, when used in such furnaces, 
must also be arranged so that it will not concentrate the flame 
upon the boiler surfaces. Suitable peep-holes should be provided 
for observing the fire surfaces during the operation of the boiler. 
W^hen the settings or the flues running to the chimneys have blind 
pockets or spaces where gas can accumulate, suitable vent openings 
should be provided at the highest points of these pockets, to permit 
the gas to escape from them. In firing up a boiler with oil or gas, 
it is very important that steam be raised slowly: — that is, no 
faster than would be possible when using coal as fuel. Serious 
damage may otherwise be done. 

In using gas or oil fuel, the greatest caution should be observed, 
before lighting the fire, to see that the drafts are open for a suf- 
ficient length of time to remove any gas that may have accumulated 
in the setting. Never turn on the fuel supply when starting up, 
nor after the snapping out of a burner, without first introducing a 
lighted torch, or a piece of burning waste, into the furnace. Dis- 
regard of these precautions is likely to result in a serious accident. 



Oil Fuel. 



196 



The Hartford Steam Boiler 



Cutting 
In. 



When a boiler is tired up after having been out of service for 
a time, extreme care should be taken in cutting this boiler in with 
others that are already in service, and communicating with the same 
steam main. It is a more or less common (though highly danger- 
ous) practice, to cut in the boiler as soon as the pressure upon it 
comes within (say) ten or fifteen pounds of that prevailing in the 
steam main at the time. This should never be dune Many fear- 
ful explosions have resulted from management of this kind. In 
cutting in a boiler with others, it is of exceeding importance to be 
sure that the pressure upon it is as nearly identical as possible with 
the pressure that is prevailing, at the time, in the steam main. When 
the equalit}' is judged to be exact, the stop-valve of the boiler that 
is to be cut in should be opened very carefully indeed, — opened 
just a bare crack at first, and then, as the slight outstanding dif- 
ference of pressure equalizes itself, opened wider, very slowly, 
until it is open full. The complete operation should occupy a couple 
of minutes or more, and the attendant should hold himself in readi- 
ness, at every instant, to close the valve at once, if there is the 
slightest evidence of any unusual jar or disturbance of any kind, 
about the boiler. 

Correctl}' designed steam pipe lines will not have pockets in 
which water of condensation can be trapped. If any such pockets 
exist, they must be provided with drain-pipes, and all condensed 
water must be removed from the piping by means of these drain 
pipes, before cutting in the boiler. Neglect of this precaution is 
likely to lead to water-hammer action, which may destroy the 
boiler, and perhaps the whole plant. 



Low Water. In case of low water. at any time, immediately cover the fire with 
ashes, or, if no ashes are at hand, use fresh coal. Close the damper 
and the ash-pit doors, and leave the fire doors open. If oil or gas 
is used as fuel, shut off the supply from the burners. Don't turn on 
the feed under any circumstances, and don't open the safety valve 
nor tamper with it in any way. Let the steam outlets remain as 
they are. Get your boiler cool before you do anything else. 
See also suggestion No. i, above. 



Repairs 

under 

Pressure. 



No repairs of any kind should be made, either to boilers or to 
piping, while the part upon which the work is to be done is under 
pressure. This applies to the calking of pipes and joints, to setting 
up nuts and bolts, and to every other operation by which extra stress 
is thrown upon any part that is already under a steam load. Acci- 
dents of the most serious nature are common, from neglecting this 
caution. 

Many water-tube boilers have their tube-holes covered by outside 
caps or plates, — that is, caps so fitted that the boiler pressure is ex- 
erted upon the bolts that hold the caps. If leakage should occur 



Inspection & Insurance Co. -197 



arouiKl such joints, do not screw up the bolts while the boiler is 
under pressure, and do not, under any circumstances, bring an un- 
due strain upon the bolts, in order to stop the leakage. When the 
pressure is off, find out why the joint cannot be kept tight with a 
suitable tension on the bolt, and apply the proper remedy. The bolt 
itself may be faulty, and by tightening it beyond reason you may 
be merely aggravating the trouble, and you may bring about a 
failure that will result in loss of life or in serious personal injury. 
Similar caution should be used in manipulating the blowoff valve. 
If it does not open easily, do not exert unreasonable force upon it, 
but when the pressure is off, find out what ihe trouble is, and have 
it remedied. 

10. 
Care of The safety-valve must not be set, upon any boiler, to blow at a 

V^^v*^' pressure higher than that permitted by tiie HARTFORD STEAM 

150ILER company. The attendant should ascertain, from his em- 
ployer, the limiting pressure permitted on each boiler, and should 
make a written memorandumi of this limit, in order to avoid 
possibility of error with respect to it. 

Try all safety valves cautiously, every day, easing them gently 
from their seats, until it becomes evident that they are free. Other- 
wise they are liable to stick, and thus become useless for the pur- 
pose for which they are intended. As a further test of the condi- 
tion of the safety valve, it is well, under ordinary conditions, to 
run the pressure up, every day, to the point at which the valve is 
supposed to blow, and see that it does blow at this pressure. When 
the regular working pressure is a good many pounds lower than 
the blowing point, however, it is better to run up the pressure less 
frequently, though the valve should still be tried in this way often 
enough to make sure that it is always in good working order, 
and that it agrees with the gage. In case the actual blowing pres- 
sure as shown by the gage exceeds the pressure at which the valve 
is supposed to blow, inform your employer immediately, so that 
notice may be sent to the HARTFORD STEAM BOILER company 
promptly, at its nearest office. (The addresses of the Hartford's 
principal offices are given on the last page of this issue of The 
Locomotive.) 

The outlet of each safety-valve should everywhere have a di- 
ameter at least equal to the diameter of the discharge opening in 
the casing of the valve. There should be no attachment upon the 
safety-valve outlet, except the valve itself. In particular, there 
must be no stop-valve in the safety-valve pipe, between the safety- 
valve and the boiler, nor on the other side of the valve. The 
discharge pipe of the valve should preferably pass out of the boiler 
room horizontally, or with a slight downward inclination. Vertical 
discharge pipes, passing up through the roof, are objectionable 
unless thoroughly drained, because they will accumulate water of 
condensation in case the valve leaks. 



198 



The Hartford Steam Boiler 



Use of 

Scale 

Solvents. 



11. 

Soda ash is widely used as a scale solvent, when the feed water 
is hard enough to make a troublesome deposit of scale. It is 
effective under most circumstances, and it has the advantage of be- 
ing cheap. The amount required will vary according to the nature of 
the feed water and the duty required of the boiler. If the water 
is of average quality, and the boiler to be treated is of the horizon- 
tal tubular type, 72 inches in diameter and with tubes 18 feet long, 
ten pounds of soda ash may be introduced at the start, when the 
boiler is first filled up, and after that two or three pounds may be 
introduced each day. The same amount may be tried in boilers 
of other types, but of like capacity. This suggestion is made for 
the guidance of those inexperienced in the use of soda ash, and 
it should be understood that the actual amount of solvent required 
is to be found by trial. If the water is bad and deposits an un- 
usual amount of scale, the quantity of soda ash used should be 
greater than the estimate here given ; and if it is unusually soft 
and pure, a correspondingly smaller quantity may be sufficient. 

The soda ash should be dissolved before it is introduced into 
the boiler ; and when badly scaled boilers are treated with soda 
ash, or with any other scale solvent, they must be frequently opened 
and cleaned, to avoid burning of the fire surfaces from the lodg- 
ment of fragments of loose scale upon them. (See suggestion 
No. 22.) 

12. 

The blowoff pipe is highly useful in the regular opera- 
tion of the boiler, especially when the feed water carries a con- 
siderable amount of sediment, because it enables the attendant to 
remove large quantities of deposit without opening the boiler. In 
using it for this purpose, the blowoff should be opened in the 
morning, before steam is raised, and before the fires have been 
started up. The water having stopped circulating during the night, 
a considerable amount of sediment will have settled at the bottom 
of the boiler, and much of this will be removed if the blowoff is 
opened before the circulation has started up again. If the boiler 
is used night and day, the blowing should be done at the end of 
the noon hour, or at some similar time, when the sediment has 
had a reasonable chance to settle. 

The blowoff valve should be opened and closed gradually, in 
order to avoid the violent shocks that are almost certain to be pro- 
duced by opening or closing it suddenly. But when it is opened, 
it should be opened wide, if only for a few moments. This will 
give any fragments of scale that may have lodged in the pipe an 
opportunity of passing out through the blowoff valve. They 
might be trapped by it and retained in the pipe, if the valve were 
only partially opened. 

In general, boilers should be blown down at least one gage 
daily, though no fixed recommendation can be made in this respect, 
that will apply to all the widely varying conditions of water and 



Routine 
Use of the 

BlQWOff. 



Inspection & Insurance Co. 



199 



of duty required of the boilers. When the water is bad, and the 
duty of the boiler is litavy, the blowofF should be opened oftencr 
than is necessary undor more favorable conditions. When the 
feed water carries a large amount of scale-forming matter and 
considerable quantities of scale solvent are used, blowing should 
be frequent, fresh water licing fed into the boiler to take the place 
of that so removed. 'Ihis tends to prevent the water in the boiler 
from becoming unduly saturated with dissolved solid matter. 
Under any circumstances, however, the blowoff valve should be 
opened at least once a day, sufficiently to thoroughly flush out the 
blowofF pipe. Upon closing the blowoflF valve, see that it shuts 
tight. If it is held partially open by the lodgment of some foreign 
substance upon its seat, the water in the boiler may quickly be- 
come low. If the blowofF pipe is so situated that there is a pos- 
sibility of its discharge injuring passers-by, or children playing about, 
see that nobody is near it when the valve is opened. (Compare, 
also, suggestion No. 21. and the latter part of No. 9.) 

When surface blowoffs are used, they should be opened often, 
for a few moments at a time. 



Foaming. 



Oil 

in 

Boilers. 



13. 

If foaming is observed, check the draft and cover the fires with 
fresh coal (or shut off the burners, if oil or gas is used as fuel). 
Then close the throttle and keep it closed" long enough to show 
the true level of the water. If that level is sufficiently high to 
permit doing so, blow down some of the' water in the boiler, and 
feed in some fresh w^ter, repeating the operation several times, 
if necessary. If t\\is does not remedy the trouble, draw the fires 
and blow- and feed alternately. When the boiler and the brick- 
work are sufficiently cool, empty the boiler and wash it out, as- 
certain the cause of the foaming, and take such measures as may 
be necessary to prevent its recurrence. 

14. 

Care should be taken to prevent cylinder oil from entering the 
boilers with the feed water. It is very likely to get in from the 
exhaust of the engines, pumps, etc., when open feed-water heaters 
are used, and hundreds of boilers are ruined ever>' year by lack 
of proper caution in this respect. Even a thin coating of cylinder oil 
(or other non-volatile or "heavy" oil) on the tubes or drums or 
shell sheets may cause serious damage, and lead to extensive 
repairs. Oil showing in the glass gage indicates oil in the boiler, 
and yet the attendant must not rely upon its showing itself in 
this way. because oil is often present in the boiler in large amounts. 
when none is to be seen in the glass. 

When a horizontal tubular boiler is badly affected with cylinder 
oil. it may be treated in either of two ways: — (i) by the direct 
removal of the deposit by scraping and scrubbing, or (2) by 
" boiling out " the boiler with kerosene and soda ash. A com- 
bination of these two methods is useful in particularly bad cases. 




200 The Hartford Steam Boiler 



In attacking the deposit directly, the handhole plates should be 
removed (or the manhole cover on the front head, if there be one), 
and the shell and all other accessible surfaces thoroughly scraped, 
and then scrubbed vigorously with a stiff brush attached to the 
end of a pole, and wet with kerosene. The boiler should also be 
entered from above, and the oil scum that has collected upon the 
side sheets about the water line scraped and scrubbed off in like 
manner. Thorough washing and ventilation of the boiler should 
follow. Oily deposits may be removed from the tubes of water- 
tube boilers by the use of a swab dipped in kerosene. 

The method indicated above will remov^e considerable quantities 
of the oily deposit, but more or less of it will be lodged where it 
can be reached only by the "boiling out" process. To apply this 
process, put the boiler out of service, close its outlets, and fill 
it to the top of the gage glass (in order that the oily scum just 
above the normal water line may be covered) with water in which 
from 100 to 175 pounds of soda ash have been dissolved, and to 
which from 10 to 25 gallons of kerosene have been added. The 
boiler being of the horizontal tubular type, 100 pounds of soda 
ash and 10 gallons of kerosene may be used, if it is 6o inches in 
diameter with 18-foot tubes, and 175 pounds of soda ash and 25 
gallons of kerosene if it is 72 inches in diameter and has 20-foot 
tubes. The proper quantities for use in horizontal tubular boilers 
of other sizes will vary with the capacities of the boilers, and may 
be estimated with sufficient accuracy from the data here given. 
If the boiler to be treated is of a different type, — for example, 
if it is of the water-tube type, — the quantities used should be the 
same as would be employed in a horizontal tubular boiler of similar 
horse-power. When the boiler has been filled as indicated, build 
a light fire under it (all its outlets being closed), and carry a low- 
pressure (ten pounds per square inch or thereabouts) upon it for 
not less than 12 to 24 hours. If tiine will permit, it is better to 
continue the boiling for two or three days. Then run off the water, 
ventilate the boiler well, and wash it out thoroughly with a strong 
stream of water. 

When treating a boiler with kerosene, keep all open lights 
away from the handhole and manhole openings, both zvheii af^f'lyiiig 
the kerosene and upon opening up the boiler again. If strict at- 
tention is not paid to this point, serious vapor explosions may 
result. If incandescent electric lamps are not available, sufficient 
light for examining the internal condition of the boiler may be had 
by reflection from a mirror held at some distance (several feet) 
from the openings. A second, smaller mirror may be used inside 
the boiler, when necessary, to direct the light into the dark corners. 

Distilled (or pure) water is a valuable scale solvent, and if the 
feed carries much scale-forming matter, it is well to recover a 
large amount of water of condensation for use in feeding, w'hen 
it is practicable to do so. In putting this plan into practice it may 
be necessary to use serviceable oil separators and filters to remove 
the oil from the exhaust steam, and render the condensed water 



Inspection & Insurance Co. 



201 



Blisters, 
Bulges, and 
Laminations, 



Suspended 
Boilers. 



Fusible 
Plugs. 



fit for use ; and in sucli casts all the sttaiii tliat is to be condcnst-tl 
for use as feed water sli(»iild jfo throuf^h tlie separator, whether it 
comes from tl\i- ennines or from immps or other auxiliary devices. 

15. 

When a blister, IjuIkc, or laminalion appears, it sliouid \k- care- 
fully examined at once, and its exact nature determined. Small 
blisters are usually unimportant, calling for no special treatment 
except trimming; Imt an extensive lamination should receive such 
attention as its condition derminds. A bulge usually indicates 
tlie presence of scale or oil inside of the boiler at the affected 
region, and any sucii coating or deposit should be removed before 
the boiler is again used. If a bulge appears upon a tube in a 
water-tube boiler, it is best to replace the tube as soon as possible, 
if the trouble is at all serious. Otherwise the bulge forms a lodging 
place for scale and sediment and is likely to give further trouble, 
because the tube cleaner will pass over the depression without 
removing the deposit that it contains. 

16. 

When a boiler is suspended from overhead beams, see that each 
of the hanger bolts is kept drawn to a proper tension, so that 
each will carry its own fair share of the weight. To maintain 
this equality of tension it will probably be necessary to set up 
or slacken certain of tlu nuts on the suspension lx)lts from time 
to time. 

In suspended water-lube boilers, see that the lower drums and 
boxes are free from contact with the floor of the setting, or with 
any other obstruction that may interfere with their free motion, as 
the boilers expand and contract in service. Otherwise, severe 
strains will be thrown upon the drums and their connecting nipples. 
The drums may have been correctly hung when the boilers were 
installed, and may have come in contact with the setting subse- 
quently, through the settling of the supporting columns. Such set- 
tling should be detected as soon as it occurs. If it is slight in 
amount its effects may be neutralized by setting up the nuts on the 
suspension bolts, so as to raise the boiler again to its proper 
position. 

17. 

Fusible plugs are often used in boiler.^, and in some states and 
cities they are required by law. In a horizontal tubular boiler the 
plug, when used, should be screwed into the back head, not less than 
two inches above the to]) of the highest tube. In any type of 
boiler they should be so placed that they will melt out, under the 
influence of the heated gases, before the water line has reached a 
dangerous low level. In a boiler of the locomotive type the fusible 
plug should be inserted in the crown sheet. In water-tube boiler^ 
having horizontal steam drums exposed to the heat of the fire, the 
plugs should be inserted in these drums at their hottest parts, and 
at least six inches (measured in a vertical direction) higher than 
their lowest points. 



202 



The Hartford Steam Boiler 



In the vertical tubular boiler it is a somewhat common practice 
to insert the fusible plug in the crown sheet. When properly set, 
such a plug will usually afford sufficient protection to the crown 
sheet in case the water becomes low, although the tubes (since 
they will then become uncovered throughout their entire length 
before the plug melts) may become hot enough to warp and make 
trouble. The HARTFORD STEA^I BOILER company recom- 
mends that in the ordinary vertical tubular boiler the fusible plug 
be screwed into one of the outer tubes, as is required in marine 
practice by the United States Board of Supervising Inspectors. 
A handhole must then be cut in the shell opposite the plug, so it 
can readily be inserted, examined, and replaced ; and the tube 
in which the plug is inserted should preferably be an extra-heavy 
one, so that the threaded joint between tube and plug may be 
made tight. When located' in a tube, the plug should be at least one- 
fourth of the length of the tube above the crown sheet, and some 
authorities require it to be above the lozvcr third of the tube. In 
a vertical tubular boiler having a submerged upper head, the plug 
should be inserted in the upper head. 

Fusible plugs should always project into the water space of the 
boiler by three-quarters of an inch or more, and they should be 
filled with pure tin. Alloys are objectionable, because their melting 
points are liable to change upon prolonged exposure to heat. The 
fusible plug should be renewed or refilled every year, or as often 
as may be necessary in order to keep it in good, effective condition. 



Removing 
Ashes. 



18. 

Ashes should not be allowed to accumulate in the ash-pit, because 
they obstruct the flow of air and, check the radiation of heat, and so 
lead to the burning out of the grate bars. The combustion chamber 
back of the bridge wall of a horizontal tubular boiler should be 
kept clean at all times, since a heavy accumulation of ash in this 
space tends to choke the draft and prevent proper combustion, and 
so cuts down the efficiency of the boiler. When the blow-off pipe 
runs along the floor of the combustion chamber, many engineers 
consider it to be good practice to leave a light layer of ashes over 
the pipe for its better protection. We advise keeping the chamber 
well swept out, however. If protection is wanted for the pipe, lay 
a small l)rick channel for it, and use loose bricks for the covering- 
layer, so the pipe can be readily examined. 



19. 
Banking The fires should be cleaned previously to hanking, and a good 

the Fires. body of coals should be returned and pushed back against the bridge 
wall, and well covered with fresh coal. The ash-pit doors should 
be closed. The damper should also be nearly closed, but it must 
not be shut absolutely tight at any time when fresh coal has been 
placed on the fires, because coal gas would then collect in the 
combustion chamber and the other passages, and its sudden ignition 
will give rise to an explosion that will endanger the brick work, 



Inspection & Insurance Co. 203 

and perhaps lead to consequences even more serious. Many 
dampers are loosely fitted, to make it impossible to close them per- 
fectly tight. The fire d(K)rs should be opened by a slight amount, 
so that air may enter to sweep out the coal gas. Leaving the fire 
doors zvidc open, however, is liable to strain the boiler l)y the con- 
traction caused by the cold air striking the heated shell, and leakage 
at the joints is likely to result. Be particular to sec that the ash- 
pit doors arc closed tij^ht, and the dampers properly adjusted. 

20. 
Cooling Off In cooling a boiler preparatory to emptying it, first let the fire 

die out, and then close all doors and leave the damper open, until 
the steam gage shows that the pressure has fallen to the value at 
which it is proposed to blow oflF. (See suggestion No. 21, on this 
point.) Clean the furnace of all coal and ashes, and allow the 
brickwork to cool down for at least two hours before opening 
the blowoff valve. When it is desired to make the boiler ready 
for a man to enter it, first cool it as here indicated, and then, 
after the vrater has been drawTi oflf, leave the boiler as it would be 
if it were in service, — the fire doors, the front connection doors, 
and the cleaning door or doors in the setting being closed, while 
the damper and the ash-pit doors are left wide open. By this 
means a good circulation of air is drawn through the setting, 
around the boiler, and through thie tubes, and the cooling proceeds 
rapidly and effecJ:ivel)i. If it is found that this procedure inter- 
feres too much with the draft of other boilers that are still in 
operation in connection with the same stack, check the flow of 
cold air as much as may be necessary', by partially closing the 
damper on the boiler that is being cooled. ^lany engineers, in 
attempting to cool boilers for entering them, open the front con- 
nection doors. This retards the cooling, however, because it pre- 
vents a proper circulation of cold air through the boiler, and heated 
air collects in all the high parts of the setting and passes out only 
verv slowly. 

21. 

Emptying When it is desired to empty the boiler, the boiler and its 

the Boiler, setting should first be cooled in the way explained in the first part 
of suggestion No. 20. A pressure exceeding ten or fifteen pounds 
per square inch, by the gage, should not be allowed when boilers 
are blown out. If they are emptied under a much greater pressure 
than this, the heat that is retained by the setting walls will sub- 
sequently cause t-lie deposit in the boiler to bake into a needlessly 
solid incrustation upon the sheets and tubes. It is better to run 
the water out practically without pressure, when it is feasible to 
do so. The scale and deposit can then be washed out much more 
easily. The manhole plates and the covers to the other openings 
should be removed immediately after the boiler is empty. When 
the boiler that is to be emptied is one of a battery, care should 
be taken to open the proper blowoff valve; for if the wrong valve 
is opened, and the water is drawn off from a boiler having a fire 



204 The Hartford Steam Boiler 



Sediment. 



under it, the sheets may become badly burned, or an explosion may 
result, before the mistake is discovered. (Compare, also, suggestion 
No. 12. and the latter part of No. 9.) 

22. 
Removing Ihc accumulation of scale and other forms ot deposit in a 

Deposit and holler interferes with the economical generation of steam, and it 
is also likely to give rise to overheating of the boiler, with con- 
sequent burning, distortion, or cracking of the metal. Hence the 
boiler should be opened as often as may be necessary, for examina- 
tion and cleaning. The frequency with which a boiler should be 
opened varies widely with the nature of the feed water and the 
duty required of the boiler. When the duty is heavy and the water 
contains a considerable amount of scale matter, it may be necessary 
to open the boiler and clean it every week. On the other hand, 
some plants are fortunate enough to have feed water so soft and 
pure that cleaning once in three or four months is sufficient. The 
engineer should carefulh' watch the internal condition of his boilers, 
and determine for himself how often he will have to open them 
up and clean them, in order to keep them in proper condition. 
When kerosene has been introduced for loosening «p scale, or 
when a large ampunt of scale solvent of any kind has been used, 
or when the feed water becomes unusually soft (as almost in- 
variably happens in the spring of the year), scale that may have 
fornied upon the tubes and plates at other times i? almost certain 
to be thrown down upon the fire sheets in considerable quantities. 
Under these conditions, therefore, the boilers must be opened much 
oftener than- usual. 

In cleaning the interior of the boiler, always remove the hand- 
hole and manhole plates, and use either the hose service or hand 
tools (or both) for removing the scale attached to the shell plates 
or deposited upon the fire sheets. It is highly important to remove 
all scale or sediment that inay accumulate on the fire sheets, or tipon 
any part of the boiler that is subject to an intense heat. Never rely 
upon water let in through the feed pipe in washing the boiler, be- 
cause effective results cannot be obtained in this way. A hose 
should be used that delivers a stream of considerable force, and 
it is important to wash the tubes of horizontal tubular boilers froin 
above, as well as from below. Always pass a light into the boiler 
after washing, to see that no deposit remains, and that no tools 
have been left behind. (Note, however, the caution in suggestion 
No. 14, respecting open lights al)out boilers that have been treated 
with kerosene.) 

For advice respecting oily or greasy deposits, see suggestion 
No. 14. 

23. 

To Avoid When the boiler that is opened for cleaning, or repairs, or in- 

Scaldmg Menspgcj-JQ^^ jg Q^g of ^ battery, some portion of which is still ui]der 

pressure, every care must be taken to prevent the scalding of any 

person who may be inside of the empty boiler, by the thoughtless 



Inspection & Insurance Co. 



205 



opening of valves thai iiUKlit discharge sleaiii ur hut water into it. 
Extreme aiutio)! should be exercised in this respect, because such 
^accidents are by no means uncommon. Ihe man in cliargc of the 
boiler room shoiihl personally take it upon himself to see that no 
2'alz'e zchatsoex'cr is touciied, in any port of the room, while anyone 
is inside of a boiler under bis care, n<.r until all the men who may 
have been at work upon ilie boiler have personally >reported to bini 
that they have left tiie interior permanently, lie should likewise 
see that all other persoi..-, in the boiler room arc notilied to the 
same efifect. It is not sufficient to see a man come out of the boiler, 
because he may do so merely to obtain some necessary tool, and 
may be back inside again, a few moments later. 

The blov\'off valve upon the empty boiler should be closed before 
the boiler is entere<l, so that steam or water cannot back up through 
the pipe in case the foregoing suggestion is violated, and a bhnvoff 
valve is opened upon some other boiler. 

Whenever a boiler is shut down and cooled off. its stop valve 
should be closed tightly, under all circumstances. If the boiler has 
an automatic valve, the hand valve should be closed, nevertheless; 
and when all the boilers of a battery are shut down, the stop valve 
should be closed upon each one separately. Furthermore, before 
anyone enters a boiler, he should make sure that all the valves 
to the boiler are shut tight. 



24. 
Cleaning In water-tube l)oilers liaving horizontal or inclined tubes, the 

the Tubes of i>,jvers over the openings in the headers opposite the ends of the 

Water-tube , , '- , , , i , , \-, 

Boilers three lower rows ot tulx's should be taken off once a month, and 

the tubes thoroughly scraped and washed out; and all the tubes 

should be thoroughly scra])ed and washed out, at least once in four 

months. ( The frequency here indicated is for feed-water of 

average quality. If the water is bad, the cleaning should be done 

oftener; and in some cases, when the water is exceedingly good, it 

may be safe to do the cleaning at somewhat longer intervals.) 

The principle here given applies also to water-tube boilers in 

which the tubes are vertical, instead of horizontal or inclined. That 

is. the tubes that are most directly exposed to the lire should be 

cleaned far otteixT tnan those that are less directly exposed. 



Mechanical 

Tube 

cleaners. 



25. 

In either lire-tube or water-tube boilers, when mechanical ham- 
mers or cleaners are employed for retnoving scale from tubes, the 
l)ressure used to operate them should be kept as low as possible, 
consistently with doing the work. An unnecessarily high pressure 
is liable to damage the tube, by causing the cleaner to act upon it 
with excessive force. It is also important, in using these devices, 
to prevent the cleaner from operating for more than a few seconds 
at a time upon any one spot, as continuous application to one limited 
region is liable to injure the tube at that place. Whatever the type 
of cleaner used, alway- sc. that it goes entirely through the tul)e. 



206 The Hartford Steam Boiler 

High temperatures should be avoided in the steam or water 
used to operate mechanical cleaners, as otherwise the tendency of 
the heat to expand the tube that is being cleaned, while the other 
tubes remain at their normal length, may give rise to severe strains, 
and bring about loosening of the tubes, or even cause fracture of 
some part of the boiler. 

26. 

Records It is advisable to keep a complete written record of the work 

i^D^"'"^ that is done in cleaning and repairing the boilers, including a full 
' and definite statement of the condition in which they were found 
when opened, and the condition in which they were left when closed 
up again. Any defects that may have been found should also be 
described, and a statement recorded concerning such measures as 
may have been taken to remedy them, the exact nature and loca- 
tion of each repair being clearly described. Keeping a record of this 
kind will improve the character of the cleaning and repair service, 
and thus tend to reduce the number of accidents from bursting tubes 
and other causes. The record would be of almost inestimable value, 
too. in the event of a disaster, as it would enable the engineer to 
show that he had done his duty. 

27. 

Laying Up When a boiler is to be out of service for a considerable time, 

iJouers. jj should be cooled, emptied, and thoroughly cleaned, both inside 

and outside. All scale and deposit of every kind should be care- 
fully removed from the interior, and the external surfaces should 
be scraped and swept so as to be entirely free from soot and ashes. 
All chambers and passages in the setting should likewise be cleaned 
out, the side walls of the setting being brushed down, and all coal 
and ashes rem.oved from the grates and the ash-pit. The handhole 
covers and manhole plates should be left off. When the interior 
of the boiler has been cleaned and washed, it should be allowed 
to drain, and (if the boiler is an isolated one) it should then be 
dried out thoroughly by burning a few newspapers under it. This 
operation should be carried out by a man of good judgment, be- 
cause it is easy to damage a boiler by building even a light fire 
under it, when it is dry. Use newspapers, — not shavings nor 
wood, — -and be careful not to heat the metal hot enough to make 
it painful to the touch. If another boiler is under steam by the 
side of the one that is being shut down, and in the same battery 
with it, the newspaper fire may be omitted, because enough heat 
will then be conducted through the side walls to complete the 
drying-out process. 

The boiler once being well dried out, care should be taken that 
no moisture can collect upon it or within it, or trickle down over 
it, either from leaky valves or from any other source. If the 
boiler forms one of a battery, some of the remaining members 
of which are to be continued in service, see to it that the stop 
valve, feed valve, and blowoff valve upon the boiler that is laid 
up are tight, so that no moisture can enter through any of them. 



Inspection & Insurance Co. 207 



If the i)()ilcr is to lie laid off in the winter season in our 
northern latitudes, take care to empty the siphon below the steam 
gage, so that tlie gaf;e may not be damaged by freezing. It is 
better to remove the gage entirely, storing it in a safe place until 
it is again wanted. 

28. 
Corrosion. Care should be taken that no water comes tn contact with the 

exterior surfaces of the boiler at any time, either from leaky joints 
or otherwise. The furnaces of internally tired boilers should be 
carefully cleaned of ashes when put out of service, since such 
ashes, if allowed to remain in contact with the plates, are likely 
to absorb moisture and give rise to corrosion. 

In water-tube boilers, external corrosion frequently occurs on 
mud drums, on mud drum nipples, at the rear ends of horizontal 
and inclined tubes, and in other places that are more or less 
likely to be overlooked or neglected by the engineer, by reason of 
their being out of the way, or not readily accessible. As such cor- 
rosion is usually due to leakage, and to wet sooty matter being 
allow-ed to remain in contact with the parts, it is imiportant that 
leaks be promptly stopped, and that the affected surfaces be kept 
free from soot. 
[[ ^^ ^ If evidences of iittcnial corrosion should be found, report the 
matter to the ofifice, so that the HARTFORD STEAM BOILER 
company may be notified at once. Prompt attention to this may 
avert trouble. 

29. 
Baffle Walls When cleaning water-tube boilers, examine the baffle walls 

carefully, and see that there are no bricks or tiles displaced, so 
as to allow any considerable portion of the furnace gases to pass 
to the chimney by a short cut, without following the course that 
the builders of the boilers intended. Attention to this point will 
tend to save fuel. 

30. 

Brickwork The brick-work of the setting should be kept in good repair 

^".'^ at all times. For if the setting leaks air, either through the brick- 

work itself, or around the fire doors or the back connection doors, 
or if air can enter it in any other way except through the fuel 
on the grate, the hot gases from the furnace will be correspondingly 
chilled, and the result will be a loss of efficiency. That is, it will 
be necessary to burn more fuel in order to perform a given amount 
of work. 

31. 

Miscel- Whenever boilers are laid off, the engineer should carefully 

laneous examine them in all accessible parts, to see that they are every- 

i>uggestions. ^^.j^^j.^ jj^ good condition. At all times he should keep the sheets 
and other parts of the boiler that are exposed to the fire per- 
fectly clean both inside and outside. All tubes, flues, and connec- 
tions should also be kept well swept. This is particularly neces- 
sary when wood, soft coal, or waste gases are used as fuel. In 



208 



The Hartford Steam Boiler 



firing, rcnu-mbcr that small (|uantities of fuel, fed into the furnace 
frequently, are more effective than large quantities fed at longer 
intervals. In water-tube boilers, the feed water should be in- 
troduced into the upper drum, and under the water-line. A mud 
pan or other suitable receptacle should be placed under its dis- 
charge end, and this should be provided with a blowoff pipe, so 
that sediment can be blown out of the pan. 

Keep everything about the boiler room in a neat and orderly 
condition. See that all doors about the settings are kept securely 
fastened, except when the operation of the boiler recjuires them to 
be open. When anything needs repairing or renewing, see that 
it receives the attention it demands. Give especial care to the 
safety-valve, the feed pump or injector, the gage cocks, the glass 
gage, and the pressure gage. It is common to find the gage cocks 
in very poor condition. They are highl_v important, however, and 
should be kept in first class repair in all respects. Keep the face 
of the pressure gage clean, so that the pointer can be clearly 
seen, and have the gage glass and the pressure gage well lighted. 
f^*^ If. at any time, you consider it possible that serious trouble is 
impending, shut down the boiler at once. Take no chances, and if 
you err. err on the safe side. 

32. 

In many states and cities there are special laws and ordinances 
respecting the duties of engineers and firemen. The boiler superin- 
tendent, or engineer in charge, should inform himself, fully, with 
respect to any legal requirements that may apply to him or to the 
plant with which he is associated. If there be any such, he must 
obey them faithfully, — giving them unquestioning preference over 
the suggestions herein contained, in case the two should chance to 
conflict. 



Local Laws 
and 

Ordinances. 



The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Com- 
pany's Inspectors Will be Pleased to Give Special Advice and 
Counsel, in Cases Not Covered by These Suggestions. 

11- .\ BOILF.R SHOWS DISTRESS, OR ANY UNUSUAL 
BEHA\'10R. THE HARTFORD STEAM BOILER CO.\l- 
PANY SHOULD BE NOTIFIED AT ONCE, AT ITS 
NEAREST OFFICE. The addresses of its principal depart- 
ments are given on the back page of this issue of The Locomotive. 




Inspection & Insurance Co. 209 



Boiler Explosions. 

\iK]; , lyl 1. 

(160.) — On April i a stctiini fractured in a ca>t-irun luatinj^ boik-r in an 
apartment house bclouKing to tlu- Mlird Investors Realty Co., West 107th street, 
New York City. ^ 

(lOi.) — A hot water heater e.\i)l()<le(l. April 2, in the basement of Dr. B. A. 
Cheney's sanitarium. New Haven, Conn. The jiroperty loss was estimated at 
$1,000. 

(162.) — A boiler exploded, April 3. in a sawmill at Louisville. Ky. .\ boy 
was killed. 

( 163. > — The boiler of a freight locomotive exploded, April 4, on the Puget 
Scpuiul extension of the Milwaukee railroad, three miles east of Mcintosh, S. D. 
Three men were killed and the locomotive was wrecked. 

( 164. ) — A tube ruptured, April 5, in the State Insane .Asylum at Athene, 
( )hio. 

(165.) — ^ On April 6 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler in the J. R. 
Williams Lumber Co.'s sawmill. Bay St. Louis, Miss. 

( 166.) — A boiler exploded, April 6, in Brumley & Jones's sawmill, near 
Mt. Washington, Ky. One man was killed and four others were injured. The 
building was also totally destroyed. 

(167.) — A tube failed, April 7, in a water-tube l^oiler in the .Mgoma Steel 
Co.'s plant, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. One man was injured. 

(168.) — A cast-iron header fractured, April 7, in a water-tube boiler in 
the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co.'s power house, at Thirteenth and INIt. Vernon 
-treets, Philadelphia. Pa. 

(169.) — On April 7 a blowoff pi])e tailed in the Hygeia Refrigerating Co.'s 
cold storage plant, Elmira, N. Y< One man was slightly injured. 

( 170.) — On April 8 two tubes ruptured and six ca.st-iron headers frac- 
tured in a w^ater-tube boiler at the Union Ice Co.'s plant, Pittsburg, Fa. 

(171.) — The boiler of a locomotive exploded, April 10, at Northfork. 
W. Va. One man was severely injured. 

(172.) — On April 10 an accident occurred to a boiler in the Elizabeth City 
Cotton Mills, Elizabeth City, N. C. 

(173.) — Five sections of a cast-iron heating boiler fractured. April 10. in 
a business block owned by the Geo. Q. Cannon Association, Salt Lake City. 
Utah. 

(174.; — A tube ruptured. April 12. in a water-tube boiler at the Westing- 
house Electric Manufacturing Co.'s lamp works, Bloomfield, X. J. One man was 
scalded. 

(175.) — The boiler of a San Antonio & Aransas Pass railroad locomotive 
exploded, April 14, at Waco, Tex. One man was seriously injured. 

(176.) — On April 14 a cast-iron header fractured in a water-tube boiler at 
the plant of the Philadeljjhia Rapid Transit Co., Thirty-third and Market 
streets. Philadelphia. Pa. 

(177.) — A tube ruptured, April 16. in a water-tube boiler in the rod and 
wire mill of the Southern Iron & Steel Co., Alabama City. Ala. 

(178.) — On April 16 an accident occurred to a boiler in the Hughes Eyelet 
Co.'s plant. Taimtnn. Mass. 



210 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [July. 

(lyg.) — On April i8 a boiler exploded at tlie plant of the Thompson Lum- 
ber Co., Centerville, Ala. One person was injured, and the property loss was 
large. 

(i8o.) — A copper boiler, used for beating water in the laundry, exploded, 
April i8, in the basement of the Christian Home for Working Girls, Pittsburg, 
Pa. The boiler passed up through the building until it was stopped by a steel 
girder in the ceiling of the second floor. The property loss was estimated at 
$i,ooo. 

(iSi,) — A boiler exploded, April 18, in the Acme Laundry, West Pittston, 
Pa. Two persons were injured. 

(182.) — Two sections of a cast-iron heating boiler ruptured, April 19, in 
Edwin Wilcock's apartment house, Boston, Mass. 

(183.)— The boiler of an Oregon Short Line locomotive exploded, April 
19, some four miles west of Shoshone, Idaho One man was killed, one was 
fatally injured, and a third was injured seriously but not fatally. 

(184.)— On April 20 a slight accident occurred to a boiler in the plant of 
the Holmes Brick Works, Holmes, Pa. 

(185.)— A boiler ruptured, April 20, at the Eddy Paper Co.'s plant. Three 
Rivers, ]\Iich. 

(186.) — Six cast-iron headers fractured, .\pril 20-, in a water-tube boiler 
at the plant of the Georgia Steel Co., Aubrey, Ga. 

(187.) — A stearh "cooker," used for cooking grain in the manufacture of 
yeast and whisky, exploded, April 20, in the Fleischmann Company's distillery, 
at Riverside, Cincinnati, Ohio. One man was killed, another was fatally injured, 
and four received injuries more or less serious, but not fatal. The property loss 
was estimated at $2,000. 

(188.) — Twa tubes ruptured, April 24, in a water-tube boiler in the rod 
and wire mill of the Southern Iron & Steel Co., Alabama City, Ala. 

(189.) — A boiler ruptured. April 24, in the box factory of the Illinois 
Glass Co., Alton, 111. 

(190.) — On April 24 two tubes ruptured in a water-tube boiler in the State 
Insane Asylum, Athens, Ohio. 

(191.) — A tube ruptured. April 26, in a water-tube boiler in the Ellicott 
Square Co.'s general office building, Buffalo, N. Y. One man was fatally injured. 

(192.) — The boiler of a Baltimore & Ohio railroad locomotive exploded, 
April 27, at Parkersburg, W. Va. Two persons were fatally injured. 

(193.) — Two tubes ruptured, April 27, in a water-tube boiler at the Lacka- 
wanna Steel Co.'s plant, Wehrum, Pa. 

(194.) — On April 27 two tubes ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the blast 
furnace of the Southern Iron & Steel Co., Alabama City, Ala. 

(195.) — A tube ruptured, April 27, in a water-tube boiler in the rod and 
wire mill of the Southern Iron & Steel Co., Alabama City, Ala. 

(196.) — A boiler exploded, April 28, in La Carona factory, Callejon Pradito, 
Miex. Two persons w^ere killed and four were seriously injured. 

(197.) — -On April 28 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the Sherwin- 
Williams Co.'s paint manufacturing plant. Pullman, 111. 

(igS.) — The boiler of an Atlantic Coast Line locomotive exploded. April 
29, at Ocala, Fla. One person was severely injured. 



19".] THE LOCOMOTIVE. g^ 211 



May, iqii. 

(199.) — On May i a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the Sliawmont 
pumping station, near Manayunk, Pa. Three men were injured. 

(.200.) — On May i the cross connection between tlie drums of a water- 
tube boiler failed at the plant of the Schwartzschild & Sulzberger Co., Kansas 
City, Kans. 

(201.) — An accident occurred, May i, to a boiler in Dani«i F. Water's dye 
works, Philadelphia, Pa. 

(202.) — On May 2 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the Southern 
Iron & Steel Co.'s rod and wire mill, Alabama City, Ala. • 

(203.) — On May 3 a tube failed in a water-tube boiler at the blast furnace 
of the Southern Iron & Steel Co., Alabama City, Ala. One man was injured. 

(204.) — A cast-iron header ruptured. May 3. in a water-tube boiler in the 
power house of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., Thirty-third and Market 
streets, Philadelphia, Pa. 

(205.) — A heating boiler exploded, May 3, at the plant of the Union Elec- 
tric Light & Power Co., St. Louis, Mo. Three men were injured so badly that 
they died shortly afterward. 

(206.) — A boiler exploded, May 4, on the steamer State of Ohio, at Cleve- 
land, Ohio. Nine persons were injured, two of them being injured fatally. 

(207.) — A tube ruptured. May 4. in a water-tube boiler at the Duquesne 
works of the Carnegie Steel Co., Duquesne, Pa. 

(20S.) — A boiler exploded. May 4, in the Manly & Colvin Mill, at Arcadia, 
La. Two men were injured seriously and perhaps fatally. 

(209.) — The boiler of a traction engine exploded, ^May 6, near St. Joseph 
111. One man was injured. 

(210.) — A hot-water boiler belonging to the Tamaqua Courier exploded. 
INIay 8, at Tamaqua. Pa. 

(211.) — On May 9 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler in the Pittsburg 
Railways Co.'s Brunot Island power house, Pittsburg, Pa. One man was injured. 

(212.) — On ^lay 10 a tube ruptured in the water-tube boiler at the plant of 
the Allentown Portland Cement Co., Allentown, Pa. One man was slightly 
injured. 

(213.) — A tube ruptured, May 10, in a water-tube boiler in the Larson 
Lumber Co.'s planing mill, Bellingham, Wash. Two men were injured. 

(214.) — A boiler belonging to J. B. Wood exploded. May 10, at Peet, Bur- 
nett county. Wis. Two person? were killed and two others were injured 
seriously. 

(215.) — On May 11 a boiler belonging to Grover Hall exploded at Temple 
Hill. Ky. 

(216.) — A boiler exploded, May 12, in a sawmill at Grantsburg, near Green 
Bay, Wis., One man was killed, and two others were seriously injured. 

(217.) — The boiler of a Milwaukee freight locomotive exploded, May 12, 
at Frontenac, Minn. One person was killed and one was injured. 

C218.) — A boiler used for operating a pile-driver exploded. May 13, at 
Clinton, Iowa. One man was injured fatally, and another received lesser 
injuries. 

(219.) — The boiler of a Chesapeake & Ohio locomotive exploded, May 15, 
at Frontenac, Minn. One person was killed and one was injured. 



212 % I'HE LOCOMOTIVE. [July, 



(220.) — The boiler of a locomotive attached to the Southern Pacific "Sun- 
set Express" exploded. May 15, at Brjn Mawr, near San Rcrnardino, Cal. One 
man was killed and another was seriously injured. 

(221.) — The boiler of locomotive No. 68, on the St. Paul road, exploded. 
May 16, three miles west of Lake City, Minn. One man was instantly killed, 
and another was fatally injured. 

(222.) — The mud drum of a water-tube boiler ruptured, May 17. at the 
Lane Cotton Alills, New Orleans, La. 

(,223.) — A tube ruptured, May 18, in a. water-tube boiler at the riouring; 
mills of the Sparks ^Tilling Co., Alton, 111. One man was scalded. 

(224.) — A boiler exploded at Port Fulton, Ky., May 18, on a boat belong- 
ing to the Monongahela Coal Co. 

(225.) — On May 19 a small vertical boiler, used in excavating for a foun- 
dation, exploded at the corner of La Salle and Madison streets, Chicago, 111. 
The engineer was fatally scalded, and five other men received serious injuries 
also. 

(226.) — -On i\lay 20 a boiler, used in the construction of tlie W'liite Rock 
reservoir, exploded at Dallas, Tex. The fireman was killed. 

(227.) — A boiler exploded, JNIay 23, at the Jones & .\danis mine, Spring- 
field, 111. One person was injured. 

(228.)— A boiler explosion occurred. May 2.^, at the Kosniosdale cement 
plant, West Point, Ky. The fireman was fatally injured. 

(229.) — On ^lay 23 two cast-iron headers of a water-tube boiler fractured 
at the pumping station of the Troy water works, Troy, Ohio. 

(230.) — A blowoff pipe failed, INlay 23, in W. E. Parker's ice and cold 
storage plant, Winnfield, La. 

(231.) — A boiler ruptured. May 23. at the Lake Erie Eorging Co.'s plant, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

(232.) — A tube ruptured, ALiy 24, in a water-tube Ixiiler at the W. J. 
McCahan Sugar Refining Co.'s plant, Philadelphia, Pa. 

(^33-) — A flue burst, May 25, on a Lehigh Valley loco;:iniive at Eastnn, 
Pa. One man was injured. 

(234.) — A boiler exploded. May 26, at the electric power sta:ion of the 
Illinois Glass Co.. Alton, 111. Two men were injured, and one of them died a 
few days later. The property loss was about $4,500. 

(235.) — A slight accident occurred. May 26, to a boiler in the plant of the 
Pennsylvania Warehousing & Safe Deposit Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

(236.)— On May 26 an accident occurred to a boiler at the plant of the 
iSIissouri Cotton Yarn Manufacturing Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

{237.) — A tube ruptured, May 28, in a water-tube boiler owned by the 
Pocahontas Consolidated Collieries Co., Pocahontas, Va. One man was injured. 

(238.) — A hot-water heating boiler exploded. May 29, in the residence of 
George E. Rogers, Springfield, ^lass. A portion of the heater was blown up 
through the kitchen, and the house was otherwise damaged. 

(239.) — On May 30 a flue burst in a boiler owned by Shaun & llhlinger, 
Philadelphia, Pa. Two persons were injured. 

(240.)— On May 30 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the Georgia 
Steel Co.'s plant, Aubrej', Ga. One man was scalded. 

(241.) — A boiler exploded. May 30. in the electric lighting plant at Wayne- 
town. Tnd. 



1911.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 213 



June, lyii. 

(242.) — On June I a blowotT pipe ruptured at the Aurora Electric Co.'s 
electric light and water works, Aurora, Neb. One man was scalded. 

(243.) — On June I an accident occurred to a boiler in the Johnson 
Service Co.'s plant, Milwaukee, Wis. One person was severely injured. 

(.244.) — The boiler of a Union Pacific freight locomotiv^j^exploded, June _>, 
six miles west of North Platte, Xeb. Three trainmen were killed. 

(245.) — The boiler of freight locomotive No. 672, on the Chesapeake & 
Ohio railroad, exploded, June S. at Hurricane, Putnam county, W. Va. Three 
men were injured, and one of them died on the following day. 

(246.) — The boiler of a donkey engine exploded, June 9, at Camp 23 of 
the North Coast Timber Co., near Orting. Pierce county. Wash. One man 
was killed outright, and another was fatally injured. 

(247.) — A tul)e ruptured, June 10, in the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co.'s 
power house. Beach and Laurel streets, Philadelphia, Pa. 

(248.) — A boiler ruptured, June 11. in Charles F. .Vntz's ice factory, Jefifer- 
sonville, Ind. 

(249.) — On June 11 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the bla>t 
furnace of the Southern Iron & Steel Co., Alabama City, Ala. 

(250.) — A tube ruptured. June 12, in a water-tube boiler in the blooming 
mill of the Southern Iron & Steel Co.. Alabama City, Ala. 

(251.) — A cast-iron header fractured. June 12, at the plant of the Lawrence 
Portland Cement Co.. Siegfried. Pa. 

(252.) — A tube ruptured, June 12, in a water-tul)e boiler in the Chittenden 
Hotel, Columbus, Ohio. 

(253.) — A tube ruptured, June 13. in a water-tube boiler at the power 
station of the Tri-State Railway & Electric Co., East Liverpool, Ohio. One 
man was fatally injured. 

(254.) — The boiler of a Baltimore & Ohio locomotive exploded. June 14. 
at Fairmont, W. Va. One person was seriously injured. 

(255.) — A boiler exploded, June 14, during the course of a tire at the 
Hurricane Lumber Co.'s mill, near Bay Minette. Baldwin county, Ala. The 
explosion scattered burning brands to every part of the structure, and the entire 
plant was destroyed, with a loss of $75,000. 

(256.) — The boiler of a traction engine exploded. June 14. on the main 
street of Yoe. York county, Pa. Four men were burned and scalded — two of 
them so badly that it was considered doubtful if they could recover. 

(257.) — A boiler exploded, June 16. on the steam yacht Ji'atcrboy. fifty 
miles east of Pensacola, Fla. The vessel took fire and sank in six fathoms of 
water. The crew was rescued by fishermen whose attention was drawn to the 
wreck by the flames. 

(258.) — Two cast-iron headers fractured. June 17. in a water-tube boiler 
in the Lawrence Portland Cement Co.'s plant, Siegfried. Pa. 

(259.) — A boiler ruptured. June 18. in the Columbia ^L'lnufacturing Co.'s 
plant, Dallas, Tex. 

(260.) — On June 19 a cast-iron header fractured in a water-tube boiler 
in the Provider.ce plant of the American Locomotive Co., Providence, R. L 

C261.) — A boiler exploded, June 19, in the J. F. Kainerer Co.'s sawmill, 
at Union City. Pa. Two men were slightly injured, and the property loss was 
estimated at $15,000. 



214 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [July, 

(262.) — A boiler ruptured, June 20, in the plant of the Xew York &. Penna. 
Co., Johnsonburg, Pa. 

(263.) — -The boiler of a passenger locomotive exploded, June 20, on the 
Chicago & Eastern Illinois railroad, one mile south of Kensington, Chicago, 111. 
One man was severely scalded, the locomotive was wrecked, and traffic on three 
railroads was delaj^ed some two hours. 

(264.) — A boiler exploded, June 2^, in the J. B. Berlin sawmill, at Cas- 
sandria, near ^larksville, La. One person was killed and one was seriously 
injured. 

(265.) — A small hot-water boiler exploded. June 24, in the Saranac Lake 
Laboratory, Saranac Lake, N. Y. 

(266.) — A boiler exploded, June 24, on the. ^Mississippi river packet City 
of St. Joseph, seven miles below rvlemphis, Tenn. Seventeen men were killed, 
and three others were fatally injured. 

(267.) — On June 26 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the Monon- 
gahela works of the American Sheet & Tin Plate Co., Pittsburg, Pa. One man 
was scalded. 

(268.) — A hot-water heater exploded, June 2'. in the National Ice Cream 
Co.'s plant at Taylorsville, Ky. One man was badly injured (his skull being 
fractured), but it was said that he will recover. 

(269.) — A boiler ruptured, June 28, in the Lexington Brewing Co.'s plant, 
Lexington, ^Mo. 

(270.) — A boiler ruptured, June 29, in the Case & Martin Co.'s bakery, 
Chicago, 111. 

(271.) — On June 30 a cast-iron header ruptured in a water-tube boiler in 
the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co.'s power station, Thirty-third and Market 
streets, Philadelphia, Pa. 

(272.) — On June 30 a boiler exploded in the power house of the Marmet 
Coal Co.'s mine, at Hernshaw, near Marmet, W. Va. Two little girls were 
killed, two men were injured, and the power house was demolished. 



Until within quite recent times, it was almost universal, whenever a boiler 
burst, to attribute the accident to low water. " Boilers never explode," said the 
wise ones, "unless the water is low." Of course this opinion, which we have 
been lighting for many years, has now pretty well died out, though it still crops 
up occasionally, and sometimes in the most unexpected places. 

These remarks are prompted by an accident that occurred, March i, at 
Roxbury, Mass. The account that we have received reads thus : " Several 
hundred gallons of beer in a Roxbury brewery proved too strong for a vat today, 
and in bursting its bonds the liquid hurled three workmen violently against the 
walls of the building, with the result that one man sustained a fractured skull 
and two others were severely injured." 

We dare say some of the " old timers " would have been ready to argue 
that the beer was too low. 



IQii.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 215 



Vice President Allen's Seventieth Birthday. 

Mr. Francis B. .-Mien, vice-president of the Hartford Steam Boiler Inspec- 
tion and Insurance Company, reached the age of three-score years and ten, on 
June I. Shortly before that date word was passed around, privately, and the 
employees of the company conspired to see that Mr. Allen was reminded of 
the day from many points of the compass. When he entered ms office in the 
morning, he was surprised to find a silver loving cup there, bearing the inscrip- 
tion " Presented to Francis Burke .-Mien in respectful remembrance of his seven- 
tieth birthday by his office associates, June i, 191 1." At four o'clock the 
employees of the home office gathered in the vice-president's room, and Pres- 
ident Brainerd made the formal presentation address. Mr. Allen thanked those 
assembled for remembering him, and then exhibited a second, similar cup that 
he had received during the day from Mr. J. M. Lawford, general agent of the 
company at Baltimore. Maryland. A very fine gold-handled umbrella was also 
received from Mr. Pescud, general agent at New Orleans, and telegrams poured 
ir all day long, from every part of the country. 



The Wooden Boilers of the "Argyle." 

There was a slight accident, recently, on the steamer Argylc, near Toronto, 
Ont.. and the report of it that was given in the Toronto Globe was far more 
interesting, in some respects, than the accident itself. • 

'■ The Argyle," said the Globe, " is equipped with two wooden and two steel 
boilers, and the wooden boilers (which are the easiest on the rest of the 
machinery) had been right through the season up to yesterday. Yesterday 
morning, however, the steel boilers, which cause much strain on the machinery, 
were installed, and this was the cause of all the trouble. 

"When the Argylc started out, the greater vibration of these proved too 
much of a strain on the rest of the machinery, the trouble being made more 
apparent owing to a wooden patch with which one of them has been repaired. 
It was the added vibration of these that jarred the valve pin out of place, 
and thus cutting the steam off, caused the machinery to stop and the side 
wheels to come to a standstill. Had the steamer been kept going with the 
valve pin out of place, the piston rods would have knocked in among the 
cylinders and very serious consequences would have resulted. 

" As soon as the passengers were landed, the six members of the engi- 
neering department of twelve, who were on duty, were at once put to the 
work of replacing the steel boilers with the wooden ones. Before morning 
they expect to have made the change, and with a new valve pin replacing 
the one that was shaken out, the machinery will be in good working order again. 
With the wooden boilers in place, it is stated that the machinery works in 
first class shape, and no further trouble is looked forward to." 

This account, the reading of which gives one strabismus, was written by 
a guileless reporter who was innocent of any knowledge of steam engineering. 
Some of the fresh-water " old salts '' on the Argyle's staff had merely been 
trying to see what he could be made to believe, and he swallowed the bait, 
hook, line, and sinker. 



216 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [July, 

Wooden boilers luivc been used in the past, however, when the steam pres- 
sure carried was measured in ounces rather than in pounds. In the issue of 
The Locomotive for October, rgio. there will be found an illustration of a 
lioiler of this kind, that did service in Philadelphia for nearly four years, 
about a century ago 



The Melting- Point of Tin. 

Pure tin makes the best tilling for the fusil)le plugs of steam boilers, alloys 
being objectionable because those that have been tried for the purpose appear 
to undergo a gradual change when exposed continuously to heat, so that their 
melting points do not remain constant. F"our closely accordant and apparently 
quite accurate determinations of the melting point of tin have been made, with 
the following results : 

Date. Observers. ^Melting- Point. 

1892 Callendar and Griffiths, ^3i-7° C. 

1895 Heycock and Neville, ^3^-9 

1900 Reinders, 232.0 

1902 KUrnakow and Puschin, ^31-5 



Average, 231.8° C. 

This corresponds, on the Fahrenheit temperature scale, to 449.2° Fahr,, 
which is likely to be within a few tenths of a degree of the true melting point 
of pure tin. 

According to the formula given by Marks, on page 573 of the Journal 
of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers for May, 191 1, the pressure of 
saturated steam at 449.2° Fahr. is 378.0 pounds per square inch, above a vacuum; 
so that it will be seen that a tin-filled plug will not melt out from the natural 
heat of the steam until the pressure of the steam becomes 363.3 pounds per 
square inch greater than the ordinary pressure of the atmosphere. The tin 
might perhaps soften at a somewhat lower temperature, sufficiently to blow otit, 
but between the highest pressure now used in the generation of power, and the 
pressure at which pure tin will melt from the heat of the steam alone, there is 
evidently a margin wide enough to take care of any contingency of this kind, 
without the slightest uncertaintv. 



A Boiler Explosion in a Sawmill. 

Our illustrations show the efifects. in part, of a boiler explosion that 
occurred some months ago in the A. W. Allen Co.'s sawmill, New Bedford, 
Mass. The boiler that exploded was thrown through the roof of the building, 
to a height estimated at from sixty to seventy feet. Three men, including Mr. 
Allen, were badly injured, and four others received minor injuries. One 
account of the explosion says : " The center of the roof disappeared entirely, 
broken shingles and pieces of timber being scattered over surrounding roofs 
and in the street, and the sides of the building bulged outward in the middle. 
The two ends of the roof sagged toward the missing center, forming a sort of 
blanket to cover the scene of havoc within." The property loss was large, 
but we have seen no estimate of its amount. 

The boiler was not insured in the Hartford. 



IQII.J 



THE LOCOMOTIVE 



217 




Fig. I. — Shoui.\(, ,,i,. LAiLi.i.Eu JJoi 




Fig. 2. — Some Details of the Wreckage. 



218 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [July, 

On the Firing of Boilers Having* External Furnaces. 

In the issue of The Locomotive for March, iSgr, we gave a description 
of the external furnace invented by President J. M. Allen, of this company, 
and in our issue for June, 1893, we gave a further illustration of the way in 
which this furnace may be applied to upright boilers. In both cases we had 
a few words to say concerning the best method of firing with these furnaces, 
but as we have learned b}' experience that firemen have some difficulty with 
handling waste tan bark, sawdust, and other such material, until they have 
served a considerable apprenticeship at the business, we have thought it well 
to print a short article dwelling especially upon the art of handling such fuel 
to the best advantage. 

The main thing to provide for, in handling fuel of this kind, is an abund- 
. ant supph- of oxygen. When burning coal or wood in ordinary furnaces the 
oxygen is easily had, because the fuel is of sufficiently open character to allow 
air to be drawn through it by the chimney draft ; but the refuse that is burned 
in external furnaces is ordinarily of such a character that it lies in heavy 
masses on the grates, and is so solid that no draft could draw air through it. 
unless it were strong enough to pull the whole mass up the stack. It is there- 
fore necessary to burn this fuel largely from the surface. Some air should 
be admitted at the ash-pit doors, because there will be holes, here and there, 
in the mass of fuel, through which air can be drawn. Air should also be 
admitted, to a limited extent, through the fire doors, and through the feed 
openings. It is important not to admit too much air, however, because (just 
as in burning fuel of other kinds) an excess of air would chill the furnace 
gases, and so make the boiler less efficient. A l)rief experience will enable 
the fireman to estimate very well whether he is admitting the correct amount of 
air or not. if he will remember that the object to be attained is a good, bright 
fire, which is burning over every part of the mass that is upon the grates. 

It is important to stir up the fuel from time to time, as it lies upon the 
grate, always drawing it up from the bottom as much as possible, so as to 
loosen the mass and expose fresh, unburned surfaces constantly to the action 
of the fire. Fuel is sometimes fed to these external furnaces through hoppers 
inserted in the feed openings, but while this practice may do very well with 
some kinds of fuel, with other kinds it is by no means advisable. When the 
fuel has been thrown into the hoppers in such quantity that they remain par- 
tially filled, it is impossible for air to pass down through them, unless the 
fuel is of a very porous nature. The result is that the hopper becomes heated 
and warped out of shape, and the fuel in it begins to char from the heat, and 
to distil off objectionable vapors, which form a source of unnecessary annoy- 
ance to the fireman. When the fires are managed in this way, it is also diffi- 
cult to stir them up properl}^ and it is almost impossible to regulate the draft 
through the feed openings. It is much better to dispense with the hoppers 
altogether in most cases, and to cover the feed openings with cast-iron plates 
that can be slid about over the floor. The draft can then be regulated niceh' 
by sliding the covers to one side far enough to admit as much air as is desired ; 
and the fireman can easily introduce more fuel by pushing it across the floor 
and allowing it to fall into the opening. Care should always be taken to keep 
the floor around the feed openings swept up clean, after the furnace has been 
freshly fired, because if this is not attended to there is danger that the fuel on 



I9II.J THE LOCOMOTIVE. 219 



the floor will lake fire, and the flames may then spread to the main heap from 
which the supply is being drawn. When the fuel is damp the sweeping of the 
floor is not so important, l)Ul it must not he neglected under any circum- 
stances when the fuel is of a dry and greasy character, so that it I)urns readil\. 



Loss of Heat by Painting* Radiators. 

It is generally believed that iIkt^ is a great loss in efficiency from painting 
radiators. We do not agree with this opinion, however, and it has long t^'en 
our custom to require piping and radiators to be painted in colors appropriate 
to the finish of the rooms in which they are placed. Prof. C. L. Norton, of 
Boston, Mass., made a long series of experiments upon the transmission of 
heat through and from painted surfaces. His results are highly interesting, 
and are recorded in the nineteenth volume (1898) of the Transactions of the 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers. They have seemingly never at- 
tracted the attention they deserve. Taking the amount of heat radiated from 
a new pipe as 100, Professor Norton obtains the following relative values for 
the heat radiated, under similar conditions, from pipe treated as indicated: 

LOSS OF HE.\T AT 200 POUXns PRESSL"RE FROM E.\RE PIPE. 

New pipe, lOO 

Fair condition 1 16 

Rusty and black, iig 

Cleaned with caustic potash, inside and out ii6 

Painted dull white 120 

Painted glossy white 100.5 

Cleaned with potash again 116 

Coated with cylinder oil I16 

Painted dull black 120 

Painted glossy black lOi 

It appears from the foregoing results that the color of the pipe has little 
or no effect upon the radiation of heat, though the condition of the surface 
with respect to glossiness or dulness has quite a sensible influence. Thus a dull 
surface, w-hether it be white or black, has a radiative power of 120, and a glossy 
surface, whether white or black, has a corresponding power of only about loi. 
These results accord well with our experience, which is to the etifect that there 
is no loss in efliciency through making pipes and radiators harmonize with the 
general color scheme of the rooms in which they occur, provided glossy finishes 
are avoided. 



Fly-Wheel Explosions. 

(29.) — A fly-wheel burst, April 4. in the plant of the Hess Spring & Axle 
Co., Carthage, Ohio. One person was killed. 

(30.) — On April 10 a fly-wheel exploded in the clock case factory at 
Pen Argyl, Pa. 

(31.) — A fly-wheel accident, which resulted in the serious injury of one 
man, occurred. May i, in the Simpson sawmill at Carbon, near Brazil. Ind. 
A block of wood which had been attached to the wheel, presumably for strength- 



220 I'l^^ LOCOMOTIVE. [July, 



ening some part of it temporarily, broke away and struck the unfortunate man 
in the face, crushing a number of the facial bones. 

(32.) — On May 13 a fly-wheel exploded m paper mill "A," at Franklin, 
N. H. 

(^2-) — A fly-wheel exploded, May 13, in the electric lighting plant at 
Temple, Tex. The fragments of the ruptured wheel tore off a large section of 
the roof of the building in which the engine was located. The property loss 
was estimated at $2,000. 

(34.) — A fly-wheel exploded, June 23, at Wheeling, W. Va., severely injur- 
ing one person. 

(35.) — On June 30 a fly-wheel exploded in the drying room at the coke 
ovens at Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. Two men were killed instantly, and a third 
died before he could be removed to the hospital. The damage to property was 
estimated at $1,500. 

(36.) — Damage to the extent of $18,000 was done, July 4, by the bursting 
of a fly-wheel in the power house of the Fitchburg & Hudson division of the 
Worcester Consolidated street railwaj', at West Berlin, near Clinton, Mass. 
The engineer was also injured. The fragments of the wheel broke steam 
pipes, demolished the engine room, and passed through the roof and one end 
of the building. Some of them were found 200 yards from the engine. 

(^y.) — The plant of the Mooresville Water, Light, Heat & Power Co., of 
Mooresville, Ind., was wrecked, July 5, by the explosion of a fly-wheel on an 
ice machine. Large holes were torn in the walls and roof of the building, and 
the machinery of the lighting plant was badly damaged. The night engineer 
was also slightly injured. The flying wreckage destroyed an ammonia tank, 
and a number of persons living near the plant were obliged to flee in their 
night clothes, to avoid suffocation. The accident is said to have been due to 
the racing of the engine. 

(38.) — A fly-wheel exploded, July 14. at Coshocton, N. Y. 

(39.) — On July 27 a fly-wheel exploded at the Rome Brick Co.'s plant. 
Rome, Ga. Tlie engines were wrecked, the building was badly damaged, and 
one man was injured. 



The Plumber and the Kitchen Boiler. 

[The following imaginative effort is from a book of humor that was pub- 
lished some years ago, and which is too often overlooked by readers in search 
of material for the beguiling of a few hours. The said book is called " Out of 
the Hurly-Burly," and it was written by a man known to librarians and to 
the police as " Max Adeler," but known to textile workers, to the Sunday 
school of which (we believe) he is superintendent, and to the registrar of 
voters, as Charles Heber Clark. Parts of this extract seem like passages from 
our own experience, for though this be fiction, yet the truth about the plumber 
is often stranger than the fiction.] 

We have had a great deal of trouble recently with our kitchen boiler, 
which is built into the wall over the range. It sprang aleak a few weeks ago. 
and the assistance of a plumber had to be invoked for the purpose of repair- 
ing it. I sent for the plumber, and after examining the boiler he instructed 
the servant to let the fire go out that night, so that he could begin oper- 



19". J THE LOCOMOTIVE. 221 



atioiis early the next morning. His order was obeyed, but in tlie morning 
the plumber failed to appear. We had a cold and very uncomfortable break- 
fast, and on niy way to the depot I overtook the plumber going in the same 
direction. He said he was sorry to disappoint me, but he was called suddenly 
out of town on imperative business, and he would have to ask me to wait 
until the next morning, when he would be promptly on hand with his men. 
So we had no fire in the range upon that day, and the family breakfasted again 
upon cool viands without being cheered with a view of the plumber. Upon 
calling at tlfe plumber's shop to ascertain why he had not fultilled his promise, 
1 was informed by the clerk that he had returned, but that he was com- 
pelled to go over to Wilmington. Tl^e man seemed so thoroughly in earnest 
in his assertion that the plumber positively would attend to my boiler upon 
the following morning that we permitted the range to go untouched, and for 
the third time we broke our fast with* a frigid repast. But the plumber and 
his assistants did not come. 

As it seemed to be wholly impossible ta depend upon these faithless 
artisans, our cook was instructed to bring the range into service again without 
waiting longer for repairs, and to gi\t the family a properly prepared meal 
in the morning. WTiile we were at breakfast there was a knock at the gate, 
and presently we perceived the plumber and his men coming up the yard 
with a general assortment of tools and materials. The range at the moment 
of his entrance to the kitchen was red hot ; and when he realized the fact, 
he flung his tools on the floor and expressed his iirdignation in the most 
violent and improper language, while his attendant tiends sat around in the 
chairs and growled in sympathy with their chief. When I appeared upon 
the scene, the plumber addressed me with the air of a man who had suffered 
a great and irreparable wrong at my hands, and he really displayed so much 
feeling that for a few moments 1 had an. indistinct consciousness that I had 
somehow been guilty of an act of gross injustice to an unfortunate and 
persecuted fellow-being. Before I could recover myself sufficiently to present 
my side of the case with the force properly belonging to it. the plumbers 
marched into the )-ard, where they tossed a quantity of machinery and tools 
and lead pipe under the shed, and then left. 

We had no lire in the range the next morning, but the plumbers did 
not come until four o'clock in the afternoon, and then they merely dumped a 
cart-load of lime-boxes and hoes upon the asparagus bed and went home. 
An interval of four days elapsed before we heard of them again, and mean- 
while the cook twice nearly killed herself by stumbling over the tools while 
going out into the shed in the dark. One morning, however, the gang arrived 
before I had risen, and when I came down to breakfast I found that they 
had made a mortar bed on our best grass plot, and had closed up the prin- 
cipal garden walk with a couple of loads of sand. I endured this patiently 
because it seemed to promise speedy performance of the work. The plumbers, 
however, went away at about nine o'clock, and the only reason we had for 
supposing they had not forgotten us was that a man with a cart called in 
the afternoon and shot a quantity of bricks down upon the pavement in 
such position that nobody could go in or out of the front gate. Two days 
afterward the plumbers came and began to make a genuine efifort to reach 



222 THE LOCOMOTIVE, [July. 

the boiler. It was buried in the wall in such a manner that it was wholly' 
inaccessible by any other method than by the removal of the bricks from 
the outside. The man who erected the house evidently was a party with the 
plumber to a conspiracy to give the latter individual something to do. They 
labored right valiantly at the wall, and by supper-time they had removed at 
least twelve square feet of it, making a hole large enough to admit a loco- 
motive. They then took out the old boiler and went away, leaving a most 
discouraging mass of rubbish lying about the yard. 

That was the last we saw of them for more than a week. Whenever 
I went after the plumber for the purpose of pursuading him to hasten the 
work, I learned that he had been summoned to Philadelphia as a witness in 
a court case, or that he had gone to his aunt's funeral, or that he was taking 
a holiday because it was his wife's birthday, or that he had a sore eye. I 
have never been able to understand why the house was not robbed. An entire 
brigade of burglars might have entered the cottage and frolicked among 
its treasures without any diiificulty. I did propose at lirst that Bob and I 
should procure revolvers and take watch and watch every night until the 
breach in the wall should be repaired, but Bob did not regard the plan with 
enthusiasm, and it was abandoned. We had to content ourselves with fas- 
tening the inner door of the kitchen as securely as possible, and we were 
not molested. 

Finally the men came and began to fill up the hole with new bricks. 
That evening the plumber walked into ni}- parlor with mud and mortar , on 
his boots, and informed me that by an unfortunate mistake the hole left 
for the boiler by the bricklayers was far too small, so that he could not 
insert the boiler without taking the wall down again. 

" ]\Ir. Nippers," I said, " don't you think it would be a good idea for me 
to engage you permanently to labor upon that boiler? From the manner 
in which this business has been conducted, I infer that I can finalh' be rid of 
annoyance about such* matters- by employing a perennial plumber to live 
forever in my back 3'ard, and to- spend the unending cycles of eternity banging 
boilers and demolishing walls. ' 

■■ Mr. Nippers," I continued, " I am going to ask a favor of you. I do 
not insist upon compliance with mj' request. I know that I am at your 
mercy. Nippers, you have me, and I submit patiently to my fate. But my 
family is suffering from cold, we are exposed to the ravages of thieves, we 
are deprived of the means of cooking our food properly, and we are made 
generally uncomfortable by the condition of our kitchen. I ask you, there- 
fore, as a personal" favor to a man. who wishes you prosperity here and 
felicity hereafter, and who means to settle your bill promptly, to fix that 
boiler at once." 

Mr. Nippers thereupon said that he always liked me, and he swore a 
solemn oath that he would complete the job next day without fail. That 
was on Tuesday. Neither Nippers nor his men came again until Saturday, 
and then they put the boiler in its place and went awaj^, leaving four or five 
cart-loads of ruins in the yard. On Sunday the boiler began to leak as badly 
as ever, and I feel sure Nippers must have set the old one in. again, although 
when he called early Monday moraing with a bill for $237.84 (which he 
wanted at once because he had a note to meet), he declared upon his honor 
that the boiler was a new one, and that it would not leak under a pressure of 
one thousand pounds to the square inch. 



Ttie Hartford Steam Boiler lospectioq aqu losurance Gompaity. 



ABSTRACT OF STATEMENT, JANUARY 1, 1911. 
Capital Stock, . . . $1,000,000.00. 

ASSETS. 



Cash on hand and in course of transmission, 
Premiums in course of collection. 

Real estate 

Loaned on bond and mortgage, 
Stocks and bonds, market value, 
Interest accrued, . 



Total Assets, 



I. 



Premium Reserve, 

Losses unadjusted, 

Commissions and brokerage, 

Other liabilities (taxes accrued, 

Capital Stock, 

Surplus over all liabilities, . 



Surplus as regards Policy-holders, 



lABILITIES. 



etc. ) 



$174,137-52 
209,440.08 

91,400.00 
1,140,810.00 
3,180,527.72 

71,231.96 

$4,867,547.28 



$2,010,733.76 

130,809.04 

41,888.01 

45.149.16 



$1,000,000.00 
1,638.967.31 



$2,638,967.31 2,638,967.31 



Total Liabilities, 



$4,867,547.28 



L. B. BRAINERD, President and Treasurer. 

FRANXIS B. ALLEN. Vice-President. CHAS. S. BLAKE. Secretary. 

L. F. MIDDLEBROOK. Assistant Secretary. 

W. R. C. CORSON. Assistant Secretary. 

S. F. Jeter. Superyising Inspector. 

E. J. Murphy, M. E.. Consulting Engineer. 

F. M. Fitch, Auditor. 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 



GEORGE BURXH.AM, 

The Baldwin Locomotive Works, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 
ATWOOD COLLINS, President, 

The Security Co., Hartford, Conn. 
LUCIUS F. ROBINSON, Attorney, 

Hartford, Conn. 
JOHN O. ENDERS, United States Bank. 

Hartford, Conn. 
LYMAN B. BRAINERD. 

Director, Swift & Company. 
MORGAN B. BRAINARD, 

\'ice-Pres. and Treasurer, The .^tna 

Life Insurance Co., Hartford, Conn. 
FR.ANCIS B. ALLEN, Vice-Pres.. The 

Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and 

Insurance Company. 
CHARLES P. COOLEY, Vice-Pres., 

The Fidelity Trust Co., Hartford, 

Conn. 



ARTHUR L. SHIPMAN, Attorney, 

Hartford, Conn. 
GEORGE C. KIMBALL, President, The 

Smyth Mfg. Co., Hartford, Conn. 
CPIARLES M. JARVIS, President, The 

American Hardware Corporation, New 

Britain, Conn. 
FRANCIS T. MAXWELL, President. 

The Hockanum Mills Company, Rock- 

ville. Conn. 
HOR.ACE B. CHENEY, Cheney Brothers 

Silk Manufacturing Co., South Man- 
chester, Conn. 
D. NEWTON BARNEY. Treasurer. The 

Hartford Electric Light Co., and 

Director N. Y., N. H. and H. R. R. 

Co. 
DR. GEORGE C. F. WILLIAMS, Treas. 

&• General Manager, The Capewell 

Horse Nail Co., Hartford, Conn. 



Incorporated 1866. 




Cflrnegb Lib 



Charter Perpetual. 



Tl|8 Haitlord Sieani Boiler iQspeciioii aqil miw Compang 

ISSUES POLICIES OF INSURANCE COVERING 

ALL LOSS OF PROPERTY 

AS WELL AS DAMAGE RESULTING FROM 

LOSS OF LIFE AND PERSONAL INJURIES DUE TO EXPLOSIONS 
OF STEAM BOILERS OR FLY WHEELS. 

J^u/l information concerning the Company's Operatiojis can be obtained at 

a)ty of its Age?icies. 



Department. 

ATLANTA, Ga., 

611-613 Empire Bldg. 

BALTIMORE, Aid, . 
13-14-15 Abell Bldg. 

BOSTON, Mass., 
loi I\Iilk St. 

CHICAGO, 111., . 

i6o'West Jackson St. 

CINCINNATI, Ohio, 

I-irst National Bank Bldj 

CLEVELAND, Ohio, 
Century Bldg. 

DENVER. Colo., 

Room 2. Jacobson Bldg. 

HARTFORD. Conn., 
56 Prospect St. 

NEW ORLEANS. La.. . 

833-835 Gravier St. 

NEW YORK. N. Y., . 
100 William St. 

PHILADELPHIA. Pa., . 
432 Walnut St. 

PITTSBURG, Pa., . 

1801-1802 Arrott Bldg. 

PORTLAND, Ore., . 
Failing Bldg. 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal., . 
339-341 Sansome St. 

ST. LOUIS. Mo.. 

319 North Fourth St. 



Representatives. 
W. iSI. FRA^•CIS, 

Manager & Chief Inspector. 

Lawford & IMcKiM, General Agents. 
R. E. MUNRO, Chief Inspector. 

C. E. Roberts, ]\Ianager. 

F. S. Allen, Chief Inspector. 

H. M. Leaion, Manager. 

James L. Foord, Chief Inspector. 

J. T. Coleman, Assistant Chief Inspector. 

A\'. E. GLtASON. [Manager. 

B. F. CoeliPER, Chief Inspector. 

Hi A. Baumhart, 

Manager & Chief Inspector. 

Thos. E.' Shears, 

General Agent & Chief Inspector. 

F. H. ^^Stlliams. Jr.. General Agent. 
F. S. Allen, Chief Inspector. 

Peter F. Pescud, General Agent. 
R. T. BURVVELL, Chief Inspector. 

C. C. Qardiner, Manager. 

W. W." Manning, Chief Inspector. 

Corbin; Goodrich & Wickham, General Agents. 

Wm. }y Farran, Chief Inspector. 

S. B. Adams, Assistant Chief Inspector. 

C. D. AsHCROFT, INIanager. 
Benjamin Ford, Chief Inspector. 

McCarcar, Bates & Lively, General Agents. 
C. B. Paddock, Chief Inspector. 

H. R. Mann & Co., General Agents. 
J. B. Warner, Chief Inspector. 

V. Hugo, 

Alanager & Chief Inspector. 



®heJor0matJtie 



COPYRIGHT, 1911, BY THE HARTFORD STEAM BOILER INSPECTION AND INSURANCE CO. 



Vol. XXVI II. 



HARTFORD, CONN., OCTOBER, 1911. 



No. 8. 



Some Studies of Welds.* 

By E. F. Law, W. II. AIerriott, ^nd W. P. Digby. 
At the outset the author.s feel it advisable to define the sense in which the 
word " weld " is used in this paper, — namely, as designating an actual fusing 
together of similar or allied metals. Mere intimacy of contact without such 
fusion cannot be regarded as a weld in its real sense. The common impression 
that tensile tests really give the last word on the subject is erroneous. The 
authors urge that other comparisons are necessary. Consideration should be 
given to the nature of the fracture, and to alterations in the character and 




Fig. I. — Welded Steam Pipe, Showing Defective Weld. 

composition of the metals from the somewhat drastic thermal treatment. These 
alterations may not seriously afifect. the strength of the weld, and yet they may 
make themselves apparent by an increased liability to corrosion, and in other 
ways. 

The present contribution to the study of this subject, by calling attention 
to the well-defined abnormalities peculiar to certain methods of welding when 
imperfectly executed, will, it is hoped, explain the reasons for the admittedly 
wide variations in mechanical properties, as well as indicate the points requir- 

* Abstract of a paper read before the Iron and Steel Institute. Reproduced, here, from 
Vulcan. 



226 



THE LOCOMOTIVE, 



[October, 



ing special attention during the operations that the various processes involve. 
It is also hoped that the present paper will facilitate the enunciation of a 
metallurgical standard of excellence to which all welds should attain. 

Resistance Welds. — The authors' 
investigation of resistance welds in steel 
began with some experiments upon bars 
that had been welded together with 
plain butt joints, some of these bars 
being round with a diameter oi lYz in., 
while others were rectangular, with a 
section 2 in. by 2^ in. A round test 
bar was turned from the center of each 
of the round specimens, the extruded 
metal of bulbous shape at the point of 
junction being thereby removed. The 
rectangular specimens, on the other hand, 
were first sawn longitudinally down the 
middle, and each half was then again 
sawn down the middle in a similar way. 
From each of the four rectangular bars 
thus prepared, a test piece was turned. 
None of the specimens described in 
Tables i and 2 were in any way worked or annealed after welding. 




Fig. 2. 



-Section of Steam Pipe and 
Flange. (Etched.) 



Table i. — Tensile Tests of Resistance Welds on 25^ in. by 2 in. Bars, with 

Butt Joints. 



Weld 
No. 


Breaking 
stress. 

Lbs. per 
sq. in. 


Elastic 

limit. 

Lbs. per 

sq. in. 


Elongation 
on 2 in. 
Per, cent. 


Reduction 
of area at 

fracture. 

Per cent. 


Remarks. 


2A 


55,400 


36,330 


15.0 


31-25 


Broke at weld. Fracture 
mainly crystalline. 


2B 


43.790 


33,260 


5.0 


8.97 


Splintered fracture. Slight 
crystalline area. 


2C 


61,150 


45,400 


35-0 


65.70 


Original steel. Normal frac- 
ture. 


3A 


36,780 


31,250 


4.0 


7.61 


Splintered fracture. Slight 
crystalline area. 


3B 


28,220 


20,830 


3-0 


4-33 


Splintered fracture. Slight 
crystalline area. 


3C 


S9.400 


41,840 


34-5 


63.30 


Original steel. Normal frac- 
ttire. 


Ba 


39.310 


32,300 


4.0 


12.09 


Splintered fracture. 


Bb 


60,700 


44.910 

1 


33-0 


65.60 


Original steel. Normal frac- 
ture. 



19".] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



227 



Two examples of resistance welds of wrought iron may be cited as typical 
of average practice. Upon etching, each of tiiese showed a line of oxidation at 
the point of juncture (in one case distinctly pronounced), with large crystal- 
lization in the neighborhood of the weld. A test piece from the sample show- 
ing the oxidation less markedly broke at 51,400 lbs. per square inch, with an 
elastic limit of 34,500 lbs. per square inch, an elongation of ten per cent, on 
two inches, and a reduction of area of 15.65 
per cent. The test piece from the speci- 
men showing the distinct and pronounced 
line of oxidation broke at 37,900 lbs. per 
square inch, with an elastic limit of 26,630 
lbs. per square inch, an elongation of only 
three per cent, on two inches, and a re- 
duction of area of 2.95 per cent. Tlie 
former sample showed a fibrous fracture 
with slight indication of crystallization. 
The latter sample showed more crystalli- 
zation, yet its fracture was mainly of a 
fibrous character. 

Perhaps the best examples of success- 
ful resistance welds were found in a cliain 
made by the acetylene wielding process. 
Each link, upon etching, showed crystalliza- 
tion adjacent to the weld. The very effec- 
tive working given while the link was still 
toward extrusion of metal. 




Fig. 3. — Arc-welded Pipe .\m? 
Flange. 

plastic prevented any tendency 



HoT-FLAME Welds with Acetylene. — Various examples of acetylene weld- 
ing passed through the hands of the authors. Four tensile tests of one series, 
with butt joints, are given in Table 3. The average tensile strength of 54,020 
lbs. per square inch and the average elastic limit of 38,100 lbs. per square inch 
are both fairly good. 



T.\BLE 


2. — Tensile Tests of Resistance Welds 
Butt Joints. 


ON i^ IN. Round Bars, with 


Weld 
No. 


Breaking 
stress. 

Lbs. per 
sq. in. 


Elastic 

limit. 

Lbs. per 

sq. m. 


Elongation 

on 2 in. 

Per cent. 


Reduction 
cf area at 

fracture. 

Per cent. 


Remarks. 


4A 
4B 
4C 
Aa 
Ab 


62,940 
48,880 
60,370 
61,940 
57.570 


47,200 
43,680 
40,320 
45.140 
46,260 


10. 

3-5 
35-0 
37.0 
12.0 


12.40 

5-34 
63.70 
63.30 
13.65 


Crystalline fracture ; over- 
heated. 

Crystalline fracture ; over- 
heated. 

Original steel. Normal frac- 
ture. 

Original steel. Normal frac- 
ture. 

Crystalline fracture ; over- 
heated . 



228 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[October^ 



Another process in which acetylene is emploj'cd for welding boiler plates 
deserves mention. The plates are here shaped to a V end, and the weld effected 
by melting Swedish iron into the depressions on either side. Upon etching a 
section of a weld prepared by this process the iron and steel areas were found 

to be quite distinct. The tests 
given in Table 4 were made 
upon samples of this nature, 
sometimes without any treat- 
ment, and sometimes after heat 
treatment of the nature indi- 
cated in the table. 

Reviewing these results, it 
is apparent that mechanical ir- 
regularity of juncture, through 
imperfect fusion, far outweighs 
any improvements that may be 
introduced by the heat treat- 
ment. The differences between 
the two annealed specimens of 
either pair receiving a specified 
heat treatment exceed the dif- 
ference between the means of 
the two pairs. The authors 
would regard this process as 
a good one for filling cavities 
in castings, or for other work 
of that general character, but 
they could not recommend it seriously for cases in which mechanical strength 
is of prime importance. 




Fig. 4. 



Arc-welded Pipe 
(Etched.) 



AND Flange. 



Table 3. — Mechanical Properties of Acetylene Welds (Butt Joints"). 



Marks 

on 
sample 



14542 A 

14564 A 
250S2 A 
25085 A 



Breaking 
stress. 

Lbs. per 
sq. in. 



58,780 



60,260 



48,320 



48.700 



Elastic 

Limit. 

Lbs. per 

sq. in. 



Elonpration 
on 8 in. 
Per cent. 



43,680 



42,290 



31,300 



35.080 



12.50 



15.60 



6.26 



4.38 



Per- 
centage 
reduction 

of area. 



50.60 



52.80 



10.08 



2.43 



Remarks. 



Test-piece broke i| in. from 
end of bar, and not at 
weld. Fracture silky 
fibrous. 

Test-piece broke i in. from 
center, and not at weld. 
Fracture silky fibrous. 

Fracture at center of bar. 
Crystalline fracture ; broke 
at w^eld. 

Fracture at center of bar. 
Crystalline fracture ; broke 
at weld. 



19"] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE 



229 



HoT-FL.^ME Welds with Water-g.\s. — Out of a number of water-gas welds 
the authors have selected two normal good welds, and an alinormal on* obtained 
with an o.xidizing flame, all with scarfed joints. The mechanical tests of the 
series of plates from which the abnormal sample was selected would be gen- 
erally regarded as corresponding to fair practice. The tensile stresses were low, 
but tiie elongations and the percentage reductions of area wcrft,good. 

CoKE-FiKE W'ei.us FOR STE.\M-rirE Flanges. — For a long time certain con- 
sulting engineers have set their faces rigidly against the employment of weld?d 
flanges on steam pipes, preferring instead, screwed and riveted flanges. Two 
cases (one a coke-tire weld and the other an arc weld) coming before the 





T 


ABLE 4. — Acetylene 


Welds of 


Boiler Plates. 


Marks 
on 

sample. 


Breaking 
stress. 

Lbs. per 
sq. in. 


Elastic 

limit. 

Lbs. per 

sq. in. 


Elongation 
on 2 in. 
Per cent. 


Per- 
centage 
reduction 
of area. 


Remarks. 


A 


56,400 


38,440 


3X-7 


54-60 


Original steel, untreated. Nor- 
mal fracture. 


B 


36,960 


24,930 


7-5 


13.50 


Welded joint, untreated. 
Swedish iron, visible as crys- 
tals. Imperfect juncture at 
point of V. 


D 


43.460 


29,970 


9.0 


20.50 


Welded joint, untreated. 
Fracture partly crystalline, 
but aminated. 


As 


52,980 


33,490 


32.0 


51.65 


Original steel, at 750°C. for 172 
hours, and slowly cooled 
Normal fracture. 


B 5 


43.950 


30,460 


8.5 


18.85 


Welded joint, treated same as 
sample A 5. Bad fracture, 
of a burnt character. 


E 5 


44.460 


30,960 


9.0 


24.90 


Welded joint, treated same as 
sample A 5. Bad fracture, 
with marked cavities. 


A6 


53,530 


35-460 


37-0 


54-0O 


Original steel, annealed at a 
temperature rising from 850° 
C. to 900° C. for half an hour 
and slowly cooled. Normal 
fracture. 


C 6 


33,510 


23,470 


6.0 


9.15 


Welded joint, treated as 
sample A 6. Bad fracture ; 
broke at weld. Junction of 
metal imperfect. 


D 6 


52,240 


34.970 


16.50- 


25.25 


Welded joint, treated as 
sample A 6. Swedish iron, 
visible as crystals. Ten- 
dency to rupture noticed 
away from weld, where ac- 
tual fracture occurred. 



230 



THE LOCOMOTIVE, 



[October, 



authors tend both to confirm and to illustrate the soundness of this view. A 
welded pipe flange may be mechanically imperfect in some obvious way, or 
it may be superficially perfect and capable of passing hydrostatic pressure tests. 
In this latter case ignorance as to its real internal condition produces a peace 
of mind which knowledge is likely to destroy. 

Fig. I shows a segment of a wrought-iron flange nominally welded \o a 
mild steel steam pipe. As shown, the pipe has been stripped away by the use 
of a drifting tool. There being no fusion of the metal, the weld is merely 
nominal. 

Fig. 2 is from the other end of the segment, where the pipe had not been 
forced away mechanically from the flange. The clear demarkation of area 
shows that there has been no fusion of the metal. 

Arc Welds for Steam-pipe Flanges. — A segment of an arc-welded flange 
on a steel pipe is shown in Fig. 3, in its condition as received. Tlie welding 
is only partial, more than one third of the area of junction having an air 
space. In its entirety, this pipe would have passed all reasonable hydrostatic 
pressure tests. Fig. 4 shows the same section as Fig. 3, but after polishing and 
etching. This weld is an example of a perfect metallic fusion, but with a 
remarkable change in composition and structure of the fused material. It is 
evident that arc welds cannot be relied upon to vmite the entire area of contact 
in cases of this character. At least one case is known, in which a consign- 
ment of pipes separated from their flanges owing to the action of atmospheric 
corrosion alone. 

Conclusion. — No matter what the process is by which two metals are 
welded together, there must ahvays be an area, more or less sharply defined, of 
altered molecular structure. Just as quenching and annealing alter steel in 
a manner which is quite unmistakable to those acquainted with the micro- 
structure of steel, so it is obvious that the local heating to the high tempera- 
tures required for mechanically satisfactory welds leaves its impress upon the 
steel. Each of the methods to which the authors have referred has its own 
hall-mark. For instance, it is possible, by merely polishing and etching, to say 

Table 5. — Mechanical Properties of Water-gas Welds (Scarfed Joints). 



Marks 

on 

sample. 


Breaking 
stress. 

Lbs. per 
sq. in. 


Elastic 

limit. 

Lbs. per 

sq. in. 


Elongation 
on 8 in. 
Per cent. 


Per- 
centage 
reduction 
of area. 


Remarks. 


G 

32151 G 

32151 G 
(6) 

32151 G 
(8) 


49.390 
47,260 

44.420 
51.320 


33,060 
32,210 

28,940 

37.470 


17. So 

18.75 

6.26 

23-75 


59-20 
36.40 

56.70 
64.60 


Broke 2yi'm. from one end 
of bar — not at weld. 

Broke near center of bar, at 
weld. Laminated frac- 
ture. 

Broke near one end of bar. 
Fracture similar to cut- 
ting-end of a wood-turn- 
ing chisel. 

Broke near center of bar — 
not at weld. 



19"] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 231 



whether an electric weld has been made by an arc or a resistance method ; and 
acetylene and water-gas welds have each their own marked characteristics also. 
at least unless the specimen has been annealed so as to restore its original 
structure. 

The authors have not entered into the practical applications of the respec- 
tive processes, nor have they given descriptions of the apparatus required in 
putting the various processes into practice. Obviously an arc process, even 
were its results satisfactor>-, does not lend itself to the manufacture of welded 
boiler tubes; and on the other hand, a resistance process is not adapted, by its 
nature, to use in patching up a defective casting. 

Resistance welds (with the possible exception of acetylene welds) are 
seemingly least prone to oxidation, but in these the extrusion of the metal 
makes good working, while the material is still plastic, of supreme importance. 
Arc welds are most prone to oxidation, and many will hesitate to rely upon a 
process of this kind, in positions where corrosion is likely to occur. Where 
the metal is not likely to be subject to corrosion, the excellent fusion obtained 
by the arc process renders it commendable. 

Flame welds, except upon work such as patching up castings, should re- 
ceive adequate working and manipulation while in their heated condition. Of 
the two methods investigated, water-gas welds may be abnormal through the 
use of oxidizing flames, while acetylene welds certainly require annealing to 
break down the crystalline structure in the vicinity of the weld. 

The main sources of trouble to be avoided in order to do successful welding 
may be said to be : (i) Too low a temperature to secure true fusion of the 
metal, and (2) Oxidation of the metal at the point of welding. The first of 
these can be detected more easily tlian the second ; while the second is more 
insidious than the first in its effects. 



In connection with the foregoing article upon autogenous welding we 
maj- record that we had occasion not long ago to test a weld made by the 
oxy- acetylene process. The material was steel boiler plate, and the results of 
the test were as follow : 

Size of cross-section of specimen -• 2. no in. by 0.^33 in. 

Area of original cross-section, 0.914 sq. in. 

Ultimate stress in pounds (total) 43.130 

Ultimate stress in pounds (per square inch) 47.190 

Elongation in two inches (total) ■• 0.38 in. 

Elongation in two inches (percentage) 19 per cent. 

Size of reduced cross-section.. . • 2.013 in. by 0.376 in. 

Area of reduced cross-section, 0.757 sq. in. 

Percentage of reduction of area...-- 17.18 per cent. 

The specimen broke in the weld, and the fracture showed a full incorporation 
of the metal, except that there were a few little cells throughout the weld, not 
more than i/64th in. in diameter. 



232 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [October. 

Boiler Explosions. 

Jl'lv, 191 1. 

(273.) — A tube failed, July i, in a water-tube boiler at the Southern Iron 
& Steel Co.'s blast furnace, Alabama City, Ala. 

(274.) — Two flues collapsed, July i, at the Allegheny Ore & Iron Co.'s 
blast furnace, Buena Vista, Va. 

(275.) — The boiler of locomotive No. 3630, of the Salt Lake Route, ex- 
ploded, July 3, at Lake Point, some twenty miles from Salt Lake City, Utah. 
The engineer and fireman were killed. The locomotive was almost entirely 
demolished, and the freight train that it was hauling was wrecked. 

(276.) — On July 4 a boiler ruptured in the Frederick Railroad Co.'s power 
plant, near ^Middletown, Aid, 

(277.) — The boiler of a threshing outfit exploded, July 4, on Charles 
Martin's farm, at Millersburg, near Carlisle, Ky. One man was fatally injured, 
and the machinery was badly damaged. 

(278.) — On July 6 the boiler of a threshing outfit exploded on Peter Ridge- 
way's farm, near Fulton, Ky. One man was instantly killed, and two others 
were seriously injured. 

(279.) — A boiler exploded, July 6, in the Wileman & Helbing brick yard, 
at Beechwood Park, near Ironton, Ohio. One man was fatally injured and 
two others were injured seriously but not fatally. 

(280.) — The boiler of Joseph Jackson's sawmill exploded, July 7, near 
Veedersburg, Ind. 

(281.) — On July 7 a cast-iron header fractured in a water-tube boiler at 
the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co.'s power house. Thirty-third and Market 
streets, Philadelphia, Pa. 

(282.) — A tube ruptured, July 8, in a water-tube boiler in the water works 
and electric lighting plant at Fremont, Neb. 

(283.) — A boiler exploded, Julj^ 9, at the Rees coal mine in Grass Creek 
canyon, near Coalville, Utah. One man was killed and another was seriously 
injured. The property loss was estimated at $4,500. 

(284.) — A tube burst, July 11, in a water-tube boiler at the Lehigh & 
Wilkes-Barre Coal Co.'s No. 5 shaft, at South Wilkes-Barre, Pa. One of the 
firemen was severely burned. 

(285.) — Two boilers of a nest of six exploded, July 11, at the iMcTurk 
colliery, Girardville, Pa. Three men were seriously injured. 

(286.) —A boiler exploded, July 11, in William Beyer's sawmill, at Colloms- 
ville, near Williamsport, Pa. The mill was "literally reduced to splinters," 
and the owner's residence was damaged considerably. 

(287.) — A boiler ruptured, July 12, in the plant of the L^nited Kansas 
Portland Cement Co., lola, Kans. 

(288.) — On July 13 a boiler ruptured at the Munro Iron Mining Co.'s 
Hiawatha mine. Iron River, Mich. 

(289.) — The boiler of a threshing outfit exploded, July 13, on Eliza 
Campbell's farm, near Morganfield, Ky. One man was killed and six others 
were injured. 

(290.) — A boiler ruptured, July 14, at the No. i works of the Sunshine 
Coal & Coke Co., Martin, Pa. 



I9II.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 233 



(291.) — Five cast-iron lieaders ruptured, July 14, in the Terre Haute, 
Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Co.'s power plant, Terre Haute, Ind. 

(292.) — The shell oi a vertical tubular boiler failed, July 15, at the Bod- 
well Granite Co.'s Sands quarry, Vinal Haven, Me. 

(293.) — A boiler ruptured, July 15, at the Horton Manufacturing Co.'s 
fishing rod factory, Bristol, Conn. 

(294.) — Three men were injured seriously, July 17, by a boiler explosion 
in the American Ramie Manufacturing Co.'s plant at New Hartford, Conn. 
The boiler room was also damaged. , 

(295.) — A boiler exploded, July uS, in the Connell sawmill, Rusk, Texas. 
One person was killed and two others were injured. 

(296.) — A boiler exploded, on or about July 18, on the bark Max, at 
Tacoma, Wash. 

(297.) — A man was killed, and a woman fatally injured, July 19, by the 
explosion of a boiler used for drilling a well in the rear of the Campbell Hotel, 
Dallas, Tex. The boiler struck and damaged a neighboring building. 

(298.) — A boiler exploded, July 19, on Lafayette boulevard, Detroit, Mich. 
Two persons were seriously injured. 

(299.) — A boiler used for heating water exploded, July 21. in George Gar- 
vin's barber shop, McKeesport, Pa. Nobody was in the shop at the time. The 
property loss was estimated at $200. 

(300.) — A tube ruptured, July 22, in a water-tube boiler at the Southern 
Iron & Steel Co.'s plant, Alabama City, Ala. 

(301.) — A locomotive boiler exploded, July 23, on the Norfolk & Western 
Railroad at Batavia, Ohio. The engineer was killed. 

(302.) — The boiler of a threshing outfit exploded, July 24, on A. Y. Reed's 
farm, near Elgin, 111. Two boys were scalded. 

(303.) — A boiler exploded, July 25, at the Forrester-Nace box factor}', 
Kansas City, Mo. One of the firemen was critically scalded. 

(304.) — A boiler tube burst, July 26, on the tug A. B. Covington, off 
Buckroe Beach, near Norfolk, Va. One man was killed. 

(305-) — On July 26 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the Brunot's 
Island plant of the Pittsburg Railways Co., Pittsburg, Pa. One man was killed. 

(306.) — A tube ruptured, July 26, in a water-tube boiler at the plant of 
the Federal Coal & Coke Co., Grantown, W. Va. One man was injured. 

(307-) — On July 26 a boiler exploded in the Syracuse Reduction Co.'s 
plant, Syracuse, N. Y. One man was injured seriously and perhaps fatally. 

(308.) — On July 27 a boiler exploded at Monterey, Ky., killing one person 
and fatally injuring another. 

(309.) — The boiler of a threshing outfit exploded, July 28, on Theodore 
Rake's farm, two miles south of Sexton, Iowa. One man was instantly killed 
and another was seriously scalded. 

(310.) — A boiler exploded, July 2d>, at George P. Blackwelder's sawmill, 
in Cabarrus County, near Mt. Pleasant, S. C. Miss Tina Blackwelder was 
killed, and her father, brother, and sister were badly injured. 

(3iT.)--A boiler exploded, July 29, on Henry Bush's farm, at Grange, 
near Brookville, Pa. One young man was injured so badly that he died two 
days later. Two others were scalded seriously but not fatally. 

(312.) — On July 29 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler in the Cape 
Girardeau Portland Cement Co.'s plant, Cape Girardeau, Mo. 



234 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [October, 

(313-) — A tube ruptured, July 29, in a boiler in the Rogers Milling Co.'s 
flouring mill, Rogers, Ark. 

(314.) — On July 30 a boiler exploded in the oil fields, some two miles south 
of Bowling Green, Ohio. One man was killed. 



August, 191 i. 

(315.) — A boiler exploded, August 2, in the Painter Mills of the Carnegie 
Steel Co., Pittsburg, Pa. Three men were injured, and the property loss was 
estimated at $1,600. 

(316.) — On August 2 a boiler ruptured in the Cooper Light Co.'s plant. 
Cooper, Tex. 

(317.) — On August 3 a boiler ruptured in the Edgewater PR'geia Ice Co.'s 
plant, Edgewater, N. J. 

(318.) — A blowoff ruptured, August 7, in the Monumental Brewing Co.'s 
plant, Highlandtown, Md. 

(319.) — On August 10 a boiler exploded in the roundhouse of the Wabash 
shops at Moberly, Mo. Fire followed the explosion, destroying the machine 
shops and causing a damage estimated at $14,000 to $15,000. 

(320.) — A boiler exploded, August 10, on Etienne Benoit's farm, three 
miles from Morse, La. The owner of the boiler was thrown 200 feet, and 
instantly killed. 

(321.) — A boiler used for drilling a well exploded, on or about August 10, 
on the Mertens fruit tract, at Green Ridge, near Cumberland, Md. Three men 
were seriously injured. 

(322.) — -The boiler of a locomotive exploded, on or about August 10, near 
Raleigh, N. C. Three men were injured, and one of these has since died. 

(323.) — On August 12 a boiler exploded in an ice plant at Tipton, Ind. 

(324.) — On August 12 a boiler ruptured in the Newton Steam Laundry 
Co.'s plant, Newton, Kans. 

(325.) — On August 14 a boiler exploded at the Paragon paper mills, Eaton, 
Ind. Two men were killed outright. The boiler house was wrecked and other 
portions of the plant were also damaged. 

(326.) — A tube ruptured, August 15, in a water-tube boiler at the Brunot's 
Island plant of the Pittsburg Railways Co., Pittsburg, Pa. One man was in- 
jured. 

(327.) — On August 15 a boiler ruptured in E. P. Griswold & Co.'s green- 
house, Ashtabula, Ohio. 

(328.)— On August 16 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the Tri- 
State Railway & Electric Co.'s plant, East Liverpool, Ohio. One man was 
injured. 

(329.)— A boiler exploded, August 16, on S. P. Campbell's farm, three 
miles south of Loami, Sangamon county. 111. One man was killed and five were 
injured. 

(330.)— The boiler of a threshing outfit exploded, August 16. on the A. 
Hunter farm, two miles from Wallowa, Ore. The engineer wa:^ injured so 
badly that it was believed he could not recover. 

(331.) — A boiler used to operate a "merry-go-round" exploded, August 
17, during the course of a picnic at Trotting Park, Fort Fairfield, Me. One 
person was killed and another was badly injured. 



I9II.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 235 



(332.) — A slight explosion occurred, August 17, at the Prison Chair Co.'s 
shops, F"ort Madison, Iowa. Two men were painfully scalded. 

(333.) — A boiler exploded, August 18, in the Chicago-Windsor laundry, 
Omaha, Neb. 

(3vU) — A small boiler, used for heating water, exploded, August 18, in 
Mouquin's restaurant on Ann street. New York City. Three waiters were 
scalded painfully but not seriously. 

<.335-^ — A tube ruptured, August 21, in a water-tube boiler in the Ameri- 
can Box Co.'s plant, Cleveland, Ohio. 

(336.) — A boiler tube burst, August 22, at the Friend Paper Co.'s plant, 
West Carrollton, Ohio. One person was severely injured. 

(337-) — The boiler of a traction engine exploded, August 22, on the 
Frank Burbridge farm, near Greeley, Iowa. The engineer was almost instantly 
killed. 

(338.) — A boiling tank exploded, .A.ugust 22, in the mercerizing depart- 
ment of the Aberfoyle Manufacturing Co.'s mills, Chester, Pa. The roof of 
the building was torn off and one of the side walls was reduced to a mass of 
debris. The property loss was estimated at $3,000. 

(339) — A boiler used for operating a "merry-go-round" exploded, August 
22, at Atlanta, Ga. Three persons were severely injured. 

(340.) — A boiler used for heating water exploded, August 23, in the boiler 
room of the Grand Laundry Co., St. Louis, Mo. Two men were seriously in- 
jured. 

(341.) — A boiler exploded, August 25, at the Shawmont Pumping Station, 
Philadelphia, Pa. One man was fatally scalded. 

(342.) — A boiler ruptured, August 25, in the Blue Grass Condensed Milk 
Co.'s plant, Harrisonville, Mo. 

(343-) — A boiler exploded, August 27, near Simcoe, five miles west of 
Cullman, Ala. One man was instantly killed, and two others were fatally in- 
jured. 

(344.) — The boiler of a Norfolk & Southern locomotive exploded, August 
28, at Euclid, Va. One person was fatally injured and another was injured 
severelj- but not fatally. 

(345) — On August 29 a boiler exploded in the Tyrrel-Hitchcock sawmill 
at Van Zandt, near Deming, Wash. One man was fatally injured. 

(346.) — A boiler exploded, August 30, on the Canadian Crude Oil Co.'s 
' lease, Bakersfield, Calif Parts of the boiler were thrown 700 feet. 



September, igii. 

(347.) — The boiler of a threshing outfit exploded, September 2. near De- 
Graflf, Minn., on Michael Cavanaugh's farm. One man was killed. 

(348.) — The boiler of a threshing outfit exploded, September 2, on Herman 
Schultz's farm at Davis, near Sioux Falls, S. D. The owner of the machine 
was killed. 

(349-^ — On September 2 a boiler belonging to Fulton & Witz exploded at 
Mt. Elliott Springs, Ga. 

(350) — On September 3 a boiler exploded in the pumping plant of the 
Grace zinc mine. Joplin, Mo. One man was seriously injured. 



236 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [October, 

(351.) — A boiler exploded, September 3, in George W. Spencer's bakery, 
Madison, Wis. One man was killed and another uas badly scalded. The 
damage to the building was estimated at about $1,000. 

(352.) — A boiler ruptured, September 4, in the water works and electric 
lighting plant. Union City, Tenn. 

(353J — A sm.al! boiler exploded, September 4, in the Y. M. C. A. building 
at Lincoln, Neb. One man was seriously burned. 

(354-) — The boiler of a threshing outfit exploded, September 5, on W. 
C. Freas's farm at Troutville, eight miles from Punxsutaw-ney, Pa. One boy 
was killed, and three other persons were seriously burned. The property loss 
was estimated at $6,000. 

(355) — On September 7 a boiler exploded in R. J. Russell's sawmill, on 
Madeline Island, Big Bay, Lake Superior, near ]Marquette, Mich. One man was 
killed and four others were injured. 

(356.) — The boiler of a locomotive drawing a Central Railway special train 
over a division of the Atlantic Coast Line exploded, September 8, near Troy, 
Ala. The engineer and fireman were injured. 

(357-) — A tube ruptured, September 10, in a water-tube boiler at the plant 
of the Southern Iron & Steel Co., Alabama City, Ala. 

(358.) — A boiler used to furnish power for cutting feed for a silo ex- 
ploded, September 9, on Daniel Hunter's farm, near Frankfort, 111. Two men 
were scalded and bruised. 

(359-) — -'^ boiler ruptured, September 10, in the Beatrice Poultry & Cold 
Storage Co.'s plant, Beatrice, Neb. 

(360.) — On September 12 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler in the 
Southern Iron & Steel Co.'s plant, Alabama City, Ala. 

(361.) — On September 14 a boiler tube ruptured in the Cullen Hotel, Salt 
Lake City, Utah. 

(362.) — An explosion, apparently of a tube in a water-tube boiler, occurred 
September 14, in a planing mill on Godwin street, Paterson, N. J. 

(363.) — -A blowoflf pipe ruptured, September 14, in the Chicago Stove 
Works, Chicago, 111. 

(364) — On September 14 a blowoflf pipe failed at the plant of the Arcadia 
Cotton Oil Mill & Manufacturing Co., Arcadia, La. One man was scalded. 

(365.) — A boiler ruptured, September 16, in S. M. Roberts's ice plant, 
Douglas, Ga. 

(366) — A boiler ruptured, September 17, in the plant of the Farmersville 
Milling & Electric Light Co., Farmersville, Tex. 

(3^7-) —A boiler ruptured, September 18, in the electric lighting and pump- 
ing station at Merrimac, ]\Iass. 

(368.) — On September 20 a bleaching kier exploded in the Newburg 
bleachery, Newburg, N. Y. The property loss was estimated at $15,000. 
Nobody was present at the time. 

(369.) — On September 22 three cast-iron headers failed in a water-tube 
boiler at the plant of the American Steel & Wire Co., Waukegan, 111. 

(370.) — A boiler exploded. September 26, in the Scott-Lambert Lumber 
Co.'s mill at Micaville, Yancey county, N. C. Three men were seriously in- 
jured. 

(371-) — On September 27 a boiler exploded in J. B. Niles's sawmill, near 
Oakdale, Tenn., killing one man instantly and fatally injuring another. The 
plant was almost totally demolished. 



19".] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE, 



237 



(372.) — On or about September 2^ a boiler exi)l()(Ied at Freeborn, Minn. 
Two men were seriously injured. 

K2>72>-^ — ''^ tube failed, September JQ, in the Sparks .Milling Co.'s flouring 
mill, Alton, 111. 

(374.) — A tube ruptured, September 30, in a water-tube boiler at the 
newspaper plant of the Plaindealer Publishing Co., ClevelantL Ohio. 

(375) — The crown sheet of a boiler of the locomotive type collapsed, 
September 30, at the barge canal, near Mechanicsville, N. Y. The boiler was 
being operated by I. A. Hodge & Co., contractors. ^ 



Fly-Wheel Explosions. 

(40.) — A fly-wheel burst, ]\Iay 22, on the Koontz ranch, at Eltopia, Wash. 

(41.) — On May 27 a fly-wheel burst in the Republican Creosoting Co.'s 
plant, Indianapolis, Ind. Two persons were severely injured. 

(42.) — A seven-foot pulley exploded, June 16, in the Cabot mill, Bruns- 
■wick, Me, 

(43.) — On July 15 a fly-wheel exploded in the Fowlerville Lighting Co.'s 
plant, at Fowlerville, Mich. The property loss was estimated at $2,000. 

(44.) — The rotor of a Curtis steam turbine exploded, July 20, in the 
power plant of the Illinois traction system at Riverton, near Springneld, 111. 




Fly-Wheel Explosion No. yj. (See July Locomotive.) 
(Mooresville Water, Light, Heat & Power Co.) 



238 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[October, 




Two men were killed and two were in- 
jured. The property loss was estimated 
at from $40,000 to $50,000. (We give 
this accident in our fly-wheel explosion 
list because the hazard in the case of 
the Curtis turbine is very similar to that 
in a fly-wheel. — the Curtis rotor being 
disk-like in form.) 

(45.) — The fly-wheel of a threshing 
machine exploded, on or about July ij. 
at Boswell, near La Fayette, Ind. A 
part of the wheel struck a boy on the 
head, fracturing his skull and injuring 
him so badly that he died. 

(46.) — A fly-wheel burst, August 11. 
in the water supply station at White 
Hall, 111. One man was fatally injured. 

(47.) — On August 15 two fly-wheels 
exploded at the Barfield Lumber Co.'s 
plant, Ellentown, Ga. The property loss 
was large. 

(48.) — A fly-wheel exploded, August 
18. at the Friend Paper Co.'s plant, 
West CarroUton, Ohio. One of the 
fragments of the wheel severed a steam 
Fortunately most of the employees were at 



Fly-Wheel Explosion No. 52. 
(Salt Lake & Ogden Railway.) 



pipe supplying one of the engines 
dinner, and nobody was injured. 

(49.) — A fly-wheel burst, August 31, at the Aurora Furniture Co.'s plant, 
Lawrenceburg, Ind. One person was injured. 




Fly-Wheel Explosion No. 53. 
(Muskogee Gas & Electric Co.) 



igii.] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE, 



239 



(50.) — On September 8 the fly-wheel of Theodore F. Reynolds' automobile 
exploded at West Orange, N. J. The chauflfeur was seriously injured, the 
automobile was wrecked, and tlic garage in which the machine stood was 
badly damaged. (Compare the next item.) 

(51.) — The fly-wheel of an automobile belonging to E. B. Reynolds ex- 
ploded, September 10, at Westhampton, N. Y. The chauffeur was badly cut 
about the face, and also received other injuries. (Note the extraordinary 
resemblance between this item and 



the one preceding. The two read 
like slightly variant accounts of 
the same explosion, and yet this 
is not the case.) 

(52.) — On September 10 the 
fly-wheel of a Corliss engine ex- 
ploded in the electric power plant 
of the Salt Lake & Ogden rail- 
way at Lagoon, near Farmington, 
Utah. Large fragments of the 
wheel were thrown through the 
roof of the power house. The 
property loss was estimated at 
from $5,000 to $6,000. According 
to the information at hand, the 
main belt broke, damaging the 
governor ; and the engine then 
" ran away." A view of the 
wrecked wheel is presented here- 
with. (^Note the governor belt, 
wrapped around the spoke.) 

(53.) — A pair of fly-wheels, 
running on the same shaft, ex- 
ploded simultaneously on Septem- 
ber II in the power house of the 
Muskogee Gas & Electric Co., 
Muskogee, Okia. Fragments of 
the wheels were thrown hig'h into 
the air, and the engine room was 
wrecked. The property loss was 
estimated at $8,000. Two views of 




Fi.y-Wheel Explosion No. 53. 
(Muskogee Gas & Electric Co.) 



the engine room are presented herewith. 

(54.) — A fly-wheel exploded, September 16, at Bedford, Ind., in a quarry 
belonging to the Indiana Quarries Co. The powerman was badly hurt. 

(55.) — On October 10 the fly-wheel of an engine used for saw^ing wood 
exploded on Miller's farm, Delaware township, Penn. The owner's ten-year- 
old son was killed. 

(56.) — On October 16 a fly-wheel exploded in the power plant of the 
Consolidated Gas, Electric Light and Power Co., Westport, Md. The engineer 
was killed and two other men v/ere scalded by the steam that escaped from 
pipes broken by the fragments of the wheel. According to Power (October 31, 
1911, page 682), the accident was due to a piece of waste becoming caught in 
the gears of the governor, the engine then racing until the wheel was destroyed. 



240 



THE LOCOMOTIVE, 



[October, 




Stttmtt 



A. D. RiSTEEN, Ph.D., Editor. 



HARTFORD, OCTOBER 25, 1911. 

The Locomotive can be obtained free by calling at any of the company's agencies. 
Subscription price ^o cents per year when mailed from this office. 
Bound volumes one dollar each. 



The twenty-eighth volume of The Locomotive, covering the two years 
1910 and 191 1, ends with the present issue. Indexes and title pages for the 
volume will soon be ready, and may be had without expense by those who save 
their copies for binding. Applications should be made by mail to the Hartford 
office of this companj'. Bound volumes may also be had shortly, at the usual 
price of one dollar each. 



Obituary. 

Mr. John Pelcher, a valued member of our New York inspection depart- 
ment, died on August i6th 191 1, at his home at Ft. Richmond, N. Y. after a 
protracted illness. He was born in Brooklyn, N. Y. August 25, 1837. After 
an extended mechanical and engineering experience, part of which was spent 
with the Fletcher and Harrison Works as Chief Engineer, he entered the em- 
ploy of The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company in 1886. 
Mr. Pelcher was high in Masonic circles and a man greatly esteemed by his 
friends and associates. He is survived by a widow and two children. 



Some Minor Explosions. 

Every little w'hile we learn of the explosion of some small boiler, built 
by boys and operated by them for their own instruction or amusement. The 
consequences of these accidents are sometimes very serious. Two such ex- 
plosions occurred, for example, on July 28, — one in Kentucky and the other in 
Texas. In the former case, two boys living at Owenton, Ky., had built a boiler 
and an engine, and had operated them successfully for several weeks. The 
boiler was constructed by using a ten-gallon oil can as a basis. As nearly as 
we can judge from the accounts at hand, a safety-valve had been provided, but 



19".] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE, 



241 



it liad become inoperative. Tlic explosion killed one of tlie boys and fatally 
injured the other, and cansed less serious injuries to three more. In the second 
accident, whicli occurred at Ilcarne, I'e.x., two boys were also involved, and the 
boiler consisted of a remodeled live-gallon can. The explosion scalded both 
of the boys badly. 

Two persona were fatally injured, August 31, by the explosion of a peanut 
roaster at a promii.cnt street intersection in Newark, Ohio. Oii? of the injured 
men was struck in ^the head by a portion of the wreckage when he was walk- 
ing in the street, a block away from the original position of the roaster. 



Boiler Explosion at Weatherly, Pa. 

One of the most destructive boiler accidents of the past year was that of 
December 12, 1910, at the silk mill of the Read & Lovatt Manufacturing Co., 
Weatherly, Pa. The event has already been briefly recorded on page 139 of the 
issue of The Locomotive for January, 191 1; but because it so thoroughly 
illustrates the destructive possibilities of a boiler explosion, we present in this 
number a more complete account of the disaster. 

The Weatherly mill consisted of a rectangular group of one-story brick 
buildings, containing the silk spinning machinery. At the rear of this grcup, 
and attached to it, were the engine and boiler houses. In one of the latter, 
and immediately adjoining the engine house, was a battery of five horizontal 
tubular boilers arranged with their rear heads parallel with and close to the 




Fig. I. — General View of Wreckage. 



242 



THE LOCOMOTIVE 



[October, 



main mill. The battery was " pocketed "', as it were, by the mill at its rear, 
by the engine house on one side, and by a second boiler house on the other. 
At its front a large amount of coal was stored, with a trestled track for its 
unloading. 

At about 6.15 p.m. of December 12 the No. 2 boiler of the battery, — the 
second from the engine house wall, — exploded with great violence, killing two 
valued employees of the company and causing the damage that is partially 
indicated in our illustrations. Deplorable as was the actual loss of life, it 
was small in comparison with that which would most certainly have resulted 
had the accident happened for a few minutes earlier. The mill had shut down 
at six o'clock, and for several minutes thereafter the five hundred home-going 
employees were crowding the aisles and passages behind the boilers, — aisles 




Fig. 2. — The Exploded Boiler. 



which were choked, after the explosion, with the heaped up debris of fallen 
walls. Nearly all had gone in time, however, and only Michael Mooney, the 
chief engineer, who was preparing, in the boiler room, to leave his charge, 
and Robert Beers, the night fireman on duty there, were exposed to the full 
force of the explosion and fell victims to its violence. 

The destruction of property was very great, but even in this feature there 
were some fortunate circumstances which minimized the loss. The building 
containing the boiler was completely wrecked. Where it had stood there 
remained a mere heap of brick, wood, boilers torn from their settings, and 
tangled pipe and steel work. The engine house wall had been blown in and 
the roof had fallen, burying the main engine and its belt under tons of ruin-s. 
The spinning machinery at the rear of the boilers was bent and twisted under 
the load of brick from the wall wliich had separated that building from the 



igii.J THE LOCOMOTIVE. 243 

boiler house, and throughout the main buildings quantities of silk were damaged, 
and glass and roofs were broken, by the flying bricks and mortar. 

Of the five horizontal tubular boilers, those on either side of No. 2 were 
thrown from their settings and damaged beyond repair, though they did not 
themselves explode. The settings of boilers Nos. 4 and 5 were cracked and 
broken, and the fronts destroyed. A Manning vertical boiler, located in front 
of tliem, suffered only minor damage, and the second boiler hotise with its con- 
tents was practically unhurt. Had the engine and machinery been in operation 
when the boiler burst, or had the boiler taken flight through the mill instead 
of away from it, the loss, bad as it was, would have been greatly exceeded. 

The No. 2 boiler burst in the rear course, the original failure occurring 
in the outer lap of the horizontal seam. The sheet was torn completely from 
the next course and partly from the rear head, and was whipped out nearly 
flat by the force of the explosion. It was found in the ruins of the walls, 
together with the rear head, and not far from its original position. The 
rest of the boiler (comprising the forward course and the front head with the 
tubes), driven by the reaction of the released steam at its rear, rose from its 
setting like a rocket, and, after a flight of three hundred feet in the direction 
it had faced, landed in a wood in the rear of the plant. Tlie path of its 
projection was rather curiously marked by the height at which trees had been 
sheared off as it passed. 

An investigation immediately following the accident cleared the owners and 
their emploj^ees of all suspicion of negligence in any way contributing to its 
cause. It was conclusively shown that immediately prior to the explosion the 
water was at the proper level in the boilers, and that the pressure was less 
than could presumably be allowed with due regard to safety. It was also shown 
that the safety-valves were adjusted to the proper pressure, and that they were 
in operating condition. An examination of the wrecked boiler (No. 2) failed 
to disclose any indication of low water or over-pressure as a possible cause. 
The examination made it certain, in fact, that the failure was due to one of 
those undiscoverable cracks to which a lap seam is occasionally liable. 

The Read & Lovatt Manufacturing Company carried Hartford boiler 
policies, — not only the usual contract against direct loss, but also a " use 
and occupancy " contract, affording an indemnity for loss sustained because of 
the cessation of operations. The prompt payment that was made under both 
policies was an assistance greatly appreciated by that company in its time 
of trouble. 



Repairs under Pressure, Ag-ain. 

We have cautioned men, over and over, not to make repairs, nor to set 
up bolts or nuts, upon a boiler or other vessel that is under pressure. In our 
issue for A.pril, 191 1, for example, we gave a number of instances in which 
this procedure had resulted in serious accidents. Other cases are coming to 
our notice all the time. Thus in the issue of Power for July 4 we find the 
following item : "A serious accident occurred in the works of the Newburgh 
Rendering Company, Newburgh, N. Y., on June 20, in which one man was 
killed. A large boiler used for rendering purposes and carn.-ing a pressure of 



244 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [October, 

40 pounds per square inch began to leak around a 14-inch manhole cover. 
This cover v^'as fastened by two lugs and shackles. A bar of iron with a 
large tee-bolt was used to tighten up the joint. On noticing the leak the en- 
gineer tried to tighten up the tee-bolt by placing a piece of pipe over the end, 
thereby overstraining the parts. One of the shackles gave way, the cover blew 
oflf, and the contents were strewn all over the engineer, resulting in his death. 
It appears that he had done this time and again, although cautioned to the 
contrary." 

In connection with this item, we desire to call attention to following para- 
graph from our issue of July, 191 1: "No repairs of any kind should bt made, 
either to boilers or to piping, while the part upon which the work is to be done 
is under pressure. This applies to the calking of pipes and joints, to setting 
up nuts and bolts, and to every other operation by which extra stress is thrown 
uj)on any part that is already under a steam load. Accidents of the most ser- 
ious nature are common, from neglecting this caution." We wish every engi- 
neer and fireman in the land would learn this paragraph by heart so that he 
could say it at once, if he were scared awake in the night. 



An Air Receiver Explosion. 

The writer is familiar with a power plant consisting, in part, of an old 
two-stage duplex belt-driven air compressor and an air receiver; the air is 
compressed to 80 pounds. 

One afternoon the engineer was startled by a terrific report followed by 
a long and loud screech. The engineer examined the air receiver, where the 
disturbance seemed to be, and found that the spring pop safety-valve had burst. 
The compressor was stopped and a further investigation was made, when it 
was then noted that the lower section of the receiver was at a dull red heat 
and that the bottom head had been distorted so that the receiver stood some 
two inches off from its foundation, excepting at the center portion of the lower 
head. 

A hurried investigation showed no rupture in the air piping or the receiver. 
The relief valve was then replaced and the compressor started. Ever3l:hing was 
apparentlj^ in good order, except the receiver, which showed a few small leaks 
at the joints of the bottom head and shell. These joints were soon calked, and 
up to the present no further evidence of injury has appeared. 

A. mineral lard oil diluted with a large percentage of kerosene had been 
used during the previous winter with remarkably good results, and as its use 
was continued into the warm weather, the mixture undoubtedly caused the 
explosion. 

In this case it is fortunate that the relief valve was weak and burst, be- 
cause otherwise much greater damage would probably have resulted, as the 
pressure must have risen almost instantly. 

Without doubt, compressed air is the safest kind of power and there is 
little or no danger in storing it, but the introduction of kerosene or gasolene 
into the oil to clean the cylinder and valves sometimes results disastrously. 
A solution of soft-soap and water is an excellent cleanser for an air cylinder 
and may be used without danger; it is even recommended where high-grade oils 
are used. 



I9I1.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 245 

As the washing effect possessed by steam is lacking in air, it will be found 
that oil remains much longer in an air cj'Iinder than in a steam cylmdcr ; hence 
a surprisingly small quantity of good oil will lubricate an air cylinder without 
difficulty. Only the best oils of high flash and fire test should be used. They 
are the safest and also the most economical in the long run. 

A frequent cause of explosion in compressed-air discharge pipes and re- 
ceivers is an accumulation of carbon in the pipes or of oi^n the receiver. 
Oil should be drawn off from all air receivers at frequent intervals. 

Another cause of air-compressor explosions is the high temperature caused 
by the churning or continued recompressing of the air when the discharge 
valves leak. — Robert E. Xewcomb, in Power. 



Explosion of a Spanish Omelet. 

Under the heading '" Spanish Omelet Bursts : Big Scramble Follows," the 
New York Herald of June 22 records the following near-facts : 

" That Spain is still a little bit hostile to the United States was demon- 
strated to a girls' class in cooker\' in Washington Irving High School, at No. 
142 West Twentieth street, yesterday, when the rude behavior of a Spanish 
omelet resulted in the building taking fire. Miss Emma Crane, who was giving 
the lesson, sounded the alarm and all the girls went out with the idea that 
they were going through a fire drill. It was not until they reached the street 
that they learned of the perfidy of the omelet. 

■' Forgetting the ' safe and sane ' admonition regarding fireworks, the girls 
j-esterday decided on the preparation of a model Sunday night dinner that 
would make a man forget even a championship ball game. The dinner was 
to include the omelet, potato salad, strawberry shortcake, and tea. 

" The glorious American hen had provided her best offering for the omelet, 
the tomatoes had been introduced into the mixture, the Spanish onion was 
feeling perfectly at home, and so were the peppers. The blow-up came when 
the Irish potatoes were put in. They swelled with indignation, and of course 
-the omelet swelled with them. It began to look to Miss Crane as if her pupils 
had compounded a felony instead of an omelet. Finally the mixture, led by 
the potatoes, and desiring liberty or death, burst from the sheathing of yellow 
and landed on walls and ceiling. Much of the material landed against a 
blackboard on which the prescription for the meal was written. 

" When the alarm was eiven it was rumored that a meteor had fallen into 
the schoolroom, and all the meteor experts in town foregathered to look it 
over. They felt sure it was a composite of bronze, zinc, iron, and brass, that 
had been welded bv a vitriolic solution, but they could not trace its relationship, 
and so put it in a class by itself. 

'■ After the firemen had disposed of the omelet they found that the gas 
stove had also entered a protest by setting fire to the woodwork behind it, 
although this was protected bv a sheet of iron. The scientists said there would 
be no loss on the menu meteor, as it could be melted down and used over 
again. The damage to the schoolroom itself is about fifteen cents, fully 
covered bv insurance." 



246 



THE LOCOMOTIVE 



[October, 



A Bulged Boiler Repaired. 

In a certain plant below the Mason & Dixon line where the main purpose 
of operation is the extraction of a golden stream of oil from cotton seed, the 
attention of all hands was so firmly fixed on the main issue that less important 
details were slighted. Among these " details " happened to be the boilers. 
They had repos«d for years in their allotted position, humbly digesting- any 
and all of the fuel supplied and absorbing most of the water generousi> if 
spasmodically injected by the gentleman of color who attent'ed their wants. 
As far as that end of the institution was concerned he was supreme and 
satisfied all requirements so long as enough of the mysterious gas was 
provided to drive the presses which produced the golden stream. 

Whether the patient boilers ever suffered from indigestion or other com- 
plaint is not known, but one at least seems to have been afflicted by an irritation 



■^ 



C^^er-A- 






-^l"ROD 



GBOM/MCT ^NU7 



^ 



How THE Bulge was Braced. 

of its enveloping cuticle which resulted in a " rise " or " bulge " of dis- 
tressing dimensions. For when subsequent results finally forced attention 
the affected spot was about fourteen inches diameter and in it the i/.aterial 
had been pressed out four and one-half inches from its normally smooth con- 
tour. It is probable that this trouble was of a gradual development unobserved 
by the aforesaid attendant amid the exactions of more important duties. 
Perhaps he did notice the swelling but either failed to realize its seriousness, 
or postponed too long the treatment for its alleviation. However this may be 
and however mixed our metaphors, the time came when boiler strength could 
endure no more, and either in a final spasm of distress or in one mighty 
effort for relief, the bulge was burst and one boiler's contribution to the 
golden stream interrupted. 



I91I.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 247 

Now up to this point the narrative may appear but the record of a 
commonplace and well understood boiler failure. We admit all this and that 
as such it is not of suflicient interest to justify its appearane in The 
LocoMorn'E. But there is more to come, and as that " more " involves a most 
ingenious as well as a most ingenuous method of boiler repairs, we have 
felt it of value to our readers to set forth all of the circumstances. 

Of course, the bursting of the bulge with its attending din?!nution of the 
stream of oil was a disaster that demanded immediate action, and the lack 
of an available substitute boiler clearly indicated that such action must be 
directed to the repair of the disabled vessel. Boilers as a class, however, 
were scarce in that particular town and the demand for a specialist on their 
ills and remedies not sufficient to attract such a one to the neighborhood. 
Apparently, however, a general practitioner was at hand and his services 
secured. 

To this man the remedy to be applied seemed obvious, or so his sub- 
sequent action would indicate. A hole had been blown through a bulge in 
the bottom of the shell and that hole must of course be plugged in some 
manner if the boiler was to again retain water and steam. But further that 
bulge was an evidence of weakness and that weakness must be reinforced 
or the bulge would continue to increase and eventually burst again. Clearly 
the steps to be taken must both stop the leak and prevent any further strain 
on the affected spot, and the scheme outlined in our illustration, appeared at 
once to successfully meet both conditions. The idea was evidently to pre- 
vent the bottom of the shell from straying farther by tying it to the top and 
by the method of securing the tie or brace to cover the rupture. 

The general practitioner accordingly, with commendable skill, proceeded 
to prepare the hole in the center of the bulge for the passage of a one inch 
rod on which threads had been run at either end. This rod was then passed 
up through the hole and between the tubes to the top of the shell where a 
second hole was to be drilled directly over the bulge. But here the fates were 
against him, for on opening the man-hole the first thing that appeared was 
the end of the rod projecting vertically from the lower sheet to near the 
center of the man-hole opening. Clearly at this point no convenient material 
existed for drilling a hole. But the situation was not unsurmountable. If 
the rod could not be fastened at one point, why, of course, it must reach 
another where better conditions obtained. So a new rod was procured of 
a length sufficient to permit of the necessary- offset, and this second rod secured 
by grommets, nuts and check nuts, both to the bulge and to the top of the 
shell at a point where the man-hole could not trouble. 

The success of these repairs was unqualified, at least in the minds of 
those who continued the operation of the boiler through that season's produc- 
tion of the golden stream. The aforesaid attendant continued his attention 
to his charges with full confidence in the protection of that brace, and the 
general practitioner went on his way rejoicing at another deed well done. 
It is not surprising under such circumstances that an officious boiler inspector 
who visited the plant the following year, was generally criticised for requiring 
the removal of the brace and the heating and setting back of the bulged 
plate to its original position, with a patch covering the hole. 



248 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [October, 

Explosion of a Dye Extractor in Eng-land. 

[The British " Boiler Explosions Acts " of 1S82 and iSgo require that an 
investigation be made, under the auspices of the British Board of Trade, when- 
ever a boiler or other similar vessel carrying steam under pressure explodes. 
We reproduce one of these reports below. It relates to the explosion of a dye 
extractor, and is dated August 11, 191 1. It contains lessons that can be profit- 
ably learned in this country, as well as in England.] 

In pursuance of our appointment, dated the 12th day of July, 191 1, we 
held a formal investigation in the above matter at the Broughton Town Hall, 
Broughton, Salford, on the 2Sth, 26th, and 27th of July, 191 1, when Mr. George 
C. Vaux appeared for the Board of Trade, Mr. Cyril Dodd, Solicitor, of Man- 
chester, appeared for the Winterbottom Book Cloth Company, Limited (the 
owners), Jonathan Barnes (their manager), and William Sutherland (foreman 
mechanic). Having heard and carefully considered the evidence, and having 
inspected the dye extractor which exploded, we beg to report as follows : — 

The explosion occurred at 1.55 p. m. on the 19th October, 1910, at Brough- 
ton Dye Works, Blackburn Street, Salford, ]\Ianchester. The dye extractor 
was the property of The . Winterbottom Book Cloth Company, Limited, 12, 
Newton Street, Manchester. Samuel Galloway, the person who worked the 
dye extractor, was so severely scalded that he died from shock the following 
day. 

The apparatus, which was used for extracting dye from dye-wood, con- 
sisted of a vertical cylindrical cast-iron vessel 3 feet in diameter, and 7 feet 2 
inches in height. The cover or top of the vessel was dome-shaped, and was 
secured to the body by means of internal flanges fastened together with 24 
bolts originally 9/16 inch in diameter. The flanges had not been machined 
or faced in any way, but they were made steam tight with a rust joint the 
thickness of whicli varied from 1/8 inch at the inner edge to 5/16 inch at the 
outer edge. 

There was a hole 12 inches in diameter in the center of the cover, which 
was fitted with a suitable door, and was provided for the purpose of charging 
the apparatus with dye-wood. An elliptical hole, 13^4 inches by 9^ inches, 
with a suitable door, was provided in the side of the vessel near the bottom 
for withdrawing the spent charge, and which could also be used as a man-hole 
for internal examination. A perforated plate, having holes % inch in diam- 
eter, pitched I inch apart, was fitted near the bottom of the vessel to act as 
a strainer when the liquor was being discharged. 

A branched wrought iron pipe, 11^4 inches in diameter, was fitted near the 
top of the vessel for the admission of hot water when preparing the charge, 
and steam when discharging the liquor. Tlie branch leading to the water supply 
was provided with a cock, and a valve was fitted on the steam branch. The 
heating steam pipe, which was i^ inches in diameter, entered the vessel at 
the' bottom, and was provided with a cock. A 2-inch pipe and cock was also 
fitted to the lower part of the vessel for discharging the liquor into a receiving 
tank overhead, the open end of the pipe being at a height of 15 feet above the 
bottom of the apparatus. There was a J/2-inch test cock fitted on the front of 
the vessel near the top. 

The apparatus was not provided with either a safety-valve or pressure 
gage. 



19".] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



249 



The maker and the age of the dye extractor are unknown, hut it came 
into the possession of the company in 1891. It was not insured, and the only 
person wlio inspected it was Mr. William Sutherland. 

The rust joint under the cover of the dye extractor was partly remade 
in July, 1910, and entirely remade on October 3, 1910. 

The cover was blown off, and the contents of the dye extractor were dis- 
charged from the top. The explosion was not violent, and was a^ompanied by 



A»t>tato» joint 



' <=<^*- C^P. 




■((^//M/////^^ 



Weodjotnt^ 



Disclitriini 
ateam in, 



th^ 





The Digester before the Explosion'. 
a dull report. 

The cause of the explosion was that the pressure of steam in the dye ex- 
tractor was more than it could withstand. Its strength when new was not 
equal to a pressure of more than 19 pounds per square inch, but when it ex- 
ploded the bolts which held the cover were much corroded. Half were eaten 
through and the rest reduced from 9/16 of an inch to Y^ of an inch in thick- 
ness, while the greater part of these were fractured. 

At the conclusion of the evidence we stated as follows : — 

The case we have had to inquire into is a little out of the common. The 



250 I'HE LOCOMOTIVE. [October, 

vessel which exploded is not a boiler in the common acceptation of the word, 
though it is a boiler within the provisions of the Boiler Explosions Act. It is 
called a dye extractor or kettle, and it was used in the extraction of dye. 
Steam was not generated in the vessel itself, but was admitted into it for two 
purposes: (i) for boiling the material from which the dye was to be extracted, 
and (2) for forcing the liquor from the kettle to tanks at a higher level after 
the dye had been extracted. The pres&ure of steam required for the latter 
purpose (which completed the process of extraction of the dye) did not ex- 
ceed 14 pounds. The kettle was not calculated to bear a strain of more than 
19 pounds to the square inch when it was new, so that neither in the pressure 
of steam the vessel had to stand, nor the use to which it was put, was it in the 
ordinary sense a boiler. 

There were four of these kettles, and they .form only part of extensive 
works for the manufacture of book cloth. The works as a whole require con- 
siderable steam power to drive the various machines used in this manufacture. 
The particular boilers from which steam w^s taken for. the kettles at the date 
of the explosion, and from about the year 1904, were two Galloway boilers 
worked at a pressure of about 70 pounds. This pressure, being far in excess 
of anjlhing required for the kettles, was reduced to 57 pounds by a reducing 
valve on the main steam pipe range, and further reduced by another reducing 
valve in a shed at the back of the kettles to 14 pounds. On this last-mentioned 
reducing valve a pressure gage was fixed, so that it could be seen whether the 
reducing valve was at all times in working order. 

It is not necessary to refer to the description of the kettle, the particulars 
of which have already been given, but we should observe that there was no 
safety valve on any of th^ kettles. The age of the kettle which exploded is not 
known. It was taken over by the present owners in 1891, when they acquired 
the business from Messrs. Samuel Dewhurst & Company. 

Perhaps it would be convenient to describe the staff at the works. There 
was the staff of workmen employed in the manufacture of book cloth, and 
there was the engineering staff. Tlie engineering staff consisted of a foreman 
mechanic, Mr. Sutherland, and about 43 men, mechanics, joiners and laborers, 
and so on, and among them were five mill-wrights. Mr. Sutherland had had 
a very long experience, and had been 18 years with the present firm. He had 
charge only of the steam plant and machinery', including the upkeep and 
maintenance of the kettles. Mr. Jonathan Barnes was the manager. He was 
a chemist, and an expert in dyeing, and he depended upon Mr. Sutherland to 
advise him as to matters connected with the steam plant. The only person 
to whom it is necessary to refer in the manufacturing staff is Galloway, the 
unfortunate man who was scalded to death by the explosion. Galloway had to 
look after the charging and emptying of the kettles, and in that duty he acted 
r.nder ]Mr. James Tomlinson, the foreman of the dye works. 

The method of using the kettles is as follows : — 

The dye-woodj in the form of coarse sawdust, is introduced through the 
small .door in the top of the kettle, the amount usually put in for one charge 
being about 112 pounds. Hot water at a temperature of 212° F. is then run 
in until the vessel is three-quarters full. The kettle is then closed and heat- 
ing steam blown in at the bottom to boil the liquor. The contents of the kettle 
are kept on the boil for 40 minutes. The pressure in the kettle must be 14 
pounds above the atmosphere. This is necessary to force out the dye-wood 



1911.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 251 

extract. There is a j4-inch tap at the top, which should be kept open for the 
release of air in the kettle, and for the purpose of testing the liquor. After 
the contents of the kettle have been boiled sufficientlj' the steam is shut off 
at the bottom, and steam is then admitted at the top, and the discharging 
outlet at the bottom is then opened, by means of which the liquor is forced up 
the discharge pipe to the receiving tank on the floor above. 

We can now describe the events which led up to the ejtplosion. These 
kettles, during the i8 years that Mr. Sutherland hbd charge of them, had never 
required any material repairs. There had been one or two slight matters, but 
they are not worth mentioning. In July, however, of last year, the rust joint 
of the kettle that exploded gave way, and what is called "blew." Mr. Sutherland 
then gave orders to Halley, a fitter, to take out the joint of the part that had 
failed and re-joint it with iron filings and sal ammoniac. The kettle was al- 
lowed to stand for about a week, and after that it was worked. Later leaks 
developed between the joint of the part newly made and the old jointing, and 
Halley was instructed to take out the whole of the old jointing and re-make 
it without removing the cover (referred to in the evidence as re-calking), 
taking care not to touch the bolts in any way. Halley began this work on the 
24th September, and finished it on the 3rd October. Nothing material happened 
that we are aware of until the 19th October, the date of the explosron. On 
that day, Galloway, about 12 o'clock, told Mr. Sutherland that the kettle had 
been blowing. As to what followed we prefer to rely on what Mr. Sutherland 
said at the inquest rather than on what he told us here. At the inquest he said : 
"About 11.33 a. m. on Wednesday last (the day of the explosion), Galloway 
again complained to me about the kettle leaking in the same place and asked 
me to have a look at it after dinner. I told him I would see it after the 
dinner hour, but the explosion occurred before I could get there." At a quarter 
past one, Halley, who had overheard part of this conversation, went and saw 
the kettle because, he said, he was anxious about it. He said he told Galloway 
not to use it, but said nothing about it being unsafe. At 1.55 the explosion 
tX)ok place. George Tomlinson (a boiler attendant) says that Galloway ran 
out and met him in the yard and told him the cover .had blown off. Galloway, 
unfortunately, was very badly scalded, and subsequently died from his injuries. 

We now come to the events after the explosion, and the inquiries which 
took place to account for the explosion. It was found upon an examination of 
the reducing valve, which was in the shed at the back of the kettles, that it 
was out of order, and it was demonstrated by experiment that steam would pass 
through it to the extent of 50 pounds pressure per square inch. The cause of 
this was that a locking pin which prevented the valve screwed on the spindle 
from gradually working off was not in its place, so that the valve unscrewed, 
amd was, to all intents and purposes, useless. It was also found that the 
pressure gage which had been fitted on the kettle or reduced side of the valve 
had been removed, and so prevented 'anyone from ascertaining whether the re- 
ducing valve was working or not. 

Upon an examination of the cover of the kettle it was found that only 
five bolts held it and these had been reduced to about ^-inch in diameter 
on an average, owing to corrosion, and that the remainder must have been 
fractured before the explosion. Altogether, 24 bolts ought to have secured the 
lid. 

A curious feature of the evidence was that all the valves, both for inlet 



252 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [Octobkr, 

and outlet of steam, were found closed immediately after the explosion, so that 
it is difficult to understand how any explosion could take place if this were 
the fact, but there is no evidence before us as to what Galloway did. It may 
be that at the moment of the explosion he was on the pavement at the bottom 
of the kettle and suddenly closed the valve on the right hand side of the 
kettle. Whatever may have happened is a speculation, but we are inclined to 
think that the full pressure of steam was not being admitted into the kettle 
at the time of the explosion, because the explosion was not violent. All that 
was heard of the explosion by those who were a few yards away was a dull 
(report. The cover was blown off and the contents of the kettle were dis- 
charged from the upper part and in this way Galloway was very severely 
scalded. David Barnes, a laborer, who was standing about lO yards away from 
the kettle, was splashed with the liquid, but he was not injured. 

The most important matter in all these discoveries was the removal of the 
pressure gage. Mr. Sutherland admits that he ordered it to be removed by a 
man naaned Allen. He, Mr. Sutherland, did so (he told us), because they 
were breaking up an old boiler in the shed where the gage was, and he wished 
to prevent the gage from being broken or destroyed. Unfortunately he never 
gave orders for it to be replaced, and it never was replaced, and he knew it 
was a serious matter. There was no reason for its removal because it could 
have been cased and protected from damage in a perfectly simple manner. 

As regards the reducing valve. This w-as said to have been examined by 
Mr. Sutherland once a year, but the last examination was in July, 1909, a period 
of 15 months before the explosion. We find tha4; Allen was the only person 
who touched the reducing valve, though he said other persons touched it. 

As regards the bolts of the cover, these had never been removed or re- 
newed during the whole period that Mr. Sutherland was in these works, and 
the cover during tliiQt period had never been taken off. In July, when part of 
the kettle lid was rejointed and later, when the whole was rejointed, Mr. 
Sutherland might have examined the bolts, but he told us he found the nuts 
quite sound, and thought the bolts would be equally sound. 

No proper inspection had ever been made of this kettle as fair as we have 
heard. Mr. Sutherland described how he inspected it, but this could not be 
considered in any way a thorough inspection. He merely looked through the 
small door at the top and examined the inside as far as he could see it with 
the light of a candle. We should have thought that the fact that leaks were 
taking place in the joint of the cover would have been sufficient warning to 
Mr. Sutherland to inquire carefully into the cause, but he appears to have at- 
tributed the leak to the perishing of the joint, and not to any increased pres- 
sure of steam. 

We have now to consider who is responsible for the accident, and we come 
to the conclusion, without any doubt, that Mr. Sutherland was the person, and 
the only person, responsible. In the first place he took off this pressure gage 
and did not replace it, although he knew the danger of taking it away, and 
of the reducing valve being left without any pressure gage. Further than this, 
though he was asked by Galloway at about 12 o'clock on the day of the ex- 
plosion to go and look at the kettle, which was blowing, and promised to go, 
he did not do so, as he ought to have done, and the explosion occurred. 

Further, he failed to inspect the reducing valve for 15 months. Then there 
Avere what we might consider minor faults. He never made any proper e.x- 



I9II.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 253 



amination of the kettle, and when the joint of the cover was remade he never 

tested the bolts. 

Though not contributing to the explosion, we ought to call attention to the 
lax way he performed his duties in other ways. It appeared that Galloway had 
been tampering with the reducing valve (and Mr. Sutherland knew it), for 
over 15 months, by weighting the arm of the lever so as to increase the pres- 
sure of steam. During that period Mr. Sutherland never made any communi- 
cation to Mr. Barnes, the manager, as was his duty to do, and it was only on 
the last occasion, in June. 1910, that he made any report, and that, he told us, 
he did in a mild sort of way so that Galloway might not lose his place. We 
have some s>-mpathy with Mr. Sutherland in not wishing to see a workman 
discharged. At the same time, in matters of this kind, lives must not be risked 
for fear of causing a workman to lose his place. 

The chief failure in duty, which it is impossible for us to overlook, was the 
removal of the pressure gage. Mr. Sutherland said that he would not be 
satisfied to .work in front of a boiler in which there was a pressure of steam, 
without a pressure gage. In this case, by removing the pressure gage, he was 
not risking his own life, but the life of the man who had to attend to the 
kettles. There is this to be said, however, that Galloway was equally reckless, 
for while the pressure gage was there, and while he might have known what 
the pressure was, he weighted the valve so as to get more steam, entirely re- 
gardless of what the consequences might have been. 

We have had an opportunity of inspecting the works, and we are pleased 
to find that abundant precautions have been taken by the owners for the safe 
working of these kettles in the future. Safety valves have been fitted on the 
kettles, and also on the pipe on which the reducing valve is fixed. Further, we 
desire to say we have every reason to believe that had the firm at any time 
prior to this accident been advised that any additional precautions were neces- 
sary, they would not have failed to take them, Mr. Sutherland, we were told, 
always had a perfectly free hand to get whatever repairs he thought necessary 
done, and he was in entire charge of the steanr plant. The manager, Mr. Barnes, 
had no knowledge — no particular knowledge — of stean^ plant, and therefore 
he depended, naturally, upon ^Ir. Sutherland, who is the person to blame. 

We have now to answer certain questions which have been put to us 
by Mr. Vaux, and we will do so in order. The first is : " When did the log- 
wood kettle which exploded become the property of the Winterbottom Book 
Cloth Company. Limited ? " The answer is : In 1891, but it was not new 
when they acquired it. "Was it provided with proper fittings?" The answer 
to that is : It was provided with the usual fittings, but these were insufficient 
for safe working. 

The second question is : " When and by whose orders was the pressure 
gage on the reducing valve fitted on the pipe which conveyed steam to the 
kettle removed?" The answer is: By Mr. Sutherland, in July. 1910 "Was 
the reducing valve at that time in proper working order ? " We cannot say. 
There was no evidence before us. 

Question 3 : " Did Mr. William Sutherland, foreman mechanic, take proper 
measures after the pressure gage had been removed to insure that the reducing 
valve was working properly? The answer is "No." 

Question 4: "What was the cause of the joint of the cover of the kettle 
leaking in July and September, 1910?" The probable cause was either that the 
rust joint had perished; or that the bolts were giving way owing to corrosion. 



254 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [October, 

or both causes may have contributed to the leak. " Were proper measures 
taken by Mr. William Sutherland on those occasions to ascertain the cause 
of the leak, and to insure that the kettle was not again worked before proper 
repairs had been effected?" The cause of the leak was assumed by Mr. Suth- 
erland to be due to the perishing of the rust joint. He took no steps to ascer- 
tain whether the bolts were corroded or not, or whether the leaks were due 
to excessive pressure of steam in the kettle. 

Question s : "By whose orders or sanction was the kettle worked on the 
19th October, 1910?" With regard to that questirn we find it was with the 
sanction of Mr. Sutherland, for he knew on that date that it was being worked, 
and made no protest, and gave no orders for it not to be worked when he was 
told it was blowing. 

In answer to question 6 : " What was the cause of the explosion ? " Tlie 
cause of the explosion was that the pressure of steam in the kettle was beyond 
that which the kettle could stand. 

Question 7 : " Was the supervision and management of the kettle intrusted 
by the Winterbottom Book Cloth Company, Limited, to competent persons ? " 
Our answer to that is " Yes." 

Question 8 : " Were the kettle and fittings periodically inspected by a com- 
petent person ? " They were in,spected by a competent person, but the inspec- 
tion was insufficient for the purpose of ascertaining whether the kettle could 
be worked under safe conditions or not, and as we have already pointed out, 
the reducing valve at the date of the explosion was not in working order, while 
the pressure gage which would have denoted this had been removed 10 weeks 
before the explosion, and had not been replaced. 

Question 9: "Did the Winterbottom Book Cloth Company, Limited, take 
proper measures to insure that the kettle was being worked under safe con- 
ditions?" Yes, by employing a competent foreman mechanic. 

Question 10: "Are the Winterbottom Book Cloth Company, Limited, Mr. 
Jonathan Barnes, their manager, and Mr. Sutherland, their foreman mechanic, 
or is any, and which of them, to blame for the explosion? Should any, and 
which of them, pay any and what part of the cost of this formal investigation ? " 
The only person we find to blame for the explosion is Mr. Sutherland, for the 
reasons we have already given, and we order him to pay £?o towards the cost 
of this inquiry. 



Talking about old boilers reminds us. We were recently called on to in- 
spect a boiler that was not under insurance. We do not do this ordinarily, 
but we yielded in the present case, because of the unusual circumstances. " The 
boiler has quite an interesting history," says the inspector. " During the Civil 
War there was a battle just above this place, and several gunboats were sunk 
in the river. This was one of a pair of boilers on one of the gunboats. After 
the war it was fished out of the water and set up on the bank, by a man who 
had a contract to make coffins for the government, to bury the soldiers in. 
It has been in that same setting ever since, and has been run practically 
steadily, up to about three years ago. A colored man who said he fired it, told me 
that a pressure of 125 lbs. per square inch was often carried upon it." It is 
a wonder that the operators of this plant didn't have to use one of their coffins 
for their own engineer. 



Tlic parifom Sieaiq Boiler iDspeciloq aqd ipiaqce Gonpaiig. 



ABSTRACT OF STATEMENT, JANUARY 1, 1911. 
Capital Stock, . . . $1,000,000.00. 

ASSETS. 

Cash on hand and in course of transmission $174,137.52 

Premiums in course of collection 209,440.08 

Real estate 91,400.00 

Loaned on bond and mortgage 1,140,810.00 

Stocks and bonds, market value, 3,180,527.72 

Interest accrued, 71,231.96 

Total Assets, . $4,867,547.28 

LIABILITIES. 

Premium Reserve, $2,010,733.76 

Losses unadjusted, 130,809.04 

Commissions and brokerage, 41,888.01 

Other liabilities (taxes accrued, etc.), 45,149.16 

Capital Stock, $1,000,000.00 

Surplus over all liabilities, 1.638,967.31 

Surplus as regards Policy-holders, . . $2,638,967.31 2,638,967.31 

Total Liabilities $4,867,547.28 



L. B. BRAINERD, President and Treasurer. 

FRANCIS B. ALLEN, Vice-President. CHAS. S. BLAKE, Secretary. 

L. F. MIDDLEBROOK, Assistant Secretary. 

W. R. C. CORSON, Assistant Secretary. 

S. F. Jeter, Supervising Inspector. 

E. J. Murphy, M. E., Consulting Engineer. 

F. M. Fitch, Auditor. 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 



GEORGE BURNHAM, 

The Baldwin Locomotive Works, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 
.\TWOOD COLLINS, President, 

The Security Co., Hartford, Conn. 
LUCIUS F. ROBINSON, Attorney, 

Hartford, Conn. 
JOHN O. ENDERS, United States Bank, 

Hartford, Conn. 
LYMAN B. BR.^INERD, 

Director, Swift & Company. 
MORGAN B. BRAINARD, 

Vice-Pres. and Treasurer, The .^tna 

Life Insurance Co., Hartford, Conn. 
FRANCIS B. ALLEN, Vice-Pres., The 

Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and 

Insurance Company. 
CHARLES P. COOLEY, Vice-Pres., 

The Fidelity Trust Co., Hartford, 

Conn. 



ARTHUR L. SHIPMAN, Attorney, 

Hartford, Conn. 
GEORGE C. KIMBALL, President, The 

Smyth Mfg. Co., Hartford, Conn. 
CHARLES M. JARVIS, President, The 

American Hardware Corporation, New 

Britain, Conn. 
FRANCIS T. MAXWELL, President, 

The Hockanum Mills Company, Rock- 

ville, Conn. 
HORACE B. CHENEY, Cheney Brothers 

Silk Manufacturing Co., South Man- 
chester, Conn. 
D. NEWTON BARNEY. Treasurer, The 

Hartford Electric Light Co., and 

Director N. Y., N. H. and H. R. R. 

Co. 
DR. GEORGE C. F. WILLIAMS, Treas. 

&• General Manager, The Capewell 

Horse Nail Co., Hartford, Conn. 



Incorporated 1866. 




CinMgift ILI 
of Pittsburgli 

Charter Perpetual. 



me iiartforil Steani Boiler liispectloii aqd iQSiiraiiGe Gonipaiig 

IS3UES POLICIES OF INSURANCE COVERING 

ALL LOSS OF PROPERTY 

AS WELL AS DAMAGE RESULTING FROM 

LOSS OF LIFE AND PERSONAL INJURIES DUE TO EXPLOSIONS 
OF STEAM BOILERS OR FLY WHEELS. 

Full information concerning the Company's Operations can be obtained at 

any of its Agencies. 

Representatives. 

W. jM. Francis, 

^Manager & Chief Inspector. 

Lawford & McKiM, General Agents. 
R. E. MuNRO, Chief Inspector. 



Department. 

ATLANTA, Ga., 

611-613 Empire Bldg. 

BALTIMORE, Md., . 
13-14-15 Abell Bldg. 

BOSTON, Mass., 
loi Milk St. 

CHICAGO, 111., . 

160 West Jackson St. 

CINCINNATI, Ohio, 

First National Bank Bldg. 

CLEVELAND, Ohio, 
Century Bldg. 

DENVER, Colo., 

Room 2, Jacobson Bldg. 

HARTFORD, Conn., 
56 Prospect St. 

NEW ORLEANS. La., . 
833-835 Gravier St. 

NEW YORK, N. Y., . 
100 William St. 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa., . 
432 Walnut St. 

PITTSBURG, Pa., . 

1801-1802 Arrott Bldg. 

PORTLAND, Ore., . 
Failing Bldg. 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal., . 
339-341 Sansome St. 

ST. LOUIS, Mo.. 

319 North Fourth St. 



C. E. Roberts, Manager. 

F. S. Ai^fcEN, Chief Inspector. 

H. M. LpMON, Manager. 

J.A.MES L. Foord, Chief Inspector. 

J. T. Coleman, Assistant Chief Inspector. 

W. E. Gleason, Manager. 

B. F. Cooper, Chief Inspector. 

H. A. Baumhart, 

Manager & Chief Inspector. 

Thos. E. Shears, 

General Agent & Chief Inspector. 

F. H. Williams, Jr., General Agent. 
F. S. AlLen, Chief Inspector. 

Peter F. Pescud, General Agent. 
R. T. Burwell, Chief Inspector. 

C. C. Gardiner, IManager. 

W. W. Manning, Chief Inspector. 

Corbin, Goodrich & Wickham, General A{]^ents. 

Wm. J. Farran, Chief Inspector. 

S. B. Adams, Assistant Chief Inspector. 

C. D. Ashcroft, Manager. 
Benj.^min Ford, Giief Inspector. 

jNIcCargar, Bates & Lively, General Agents. 
C. B. Paddock, Chief Inspector. 

H. R. Mann & Co., General Agents. 
J. B. Warner, Chief Inspector. 

V. Hugo, 

Manager & Chief Inspector. 



muM 




< 






Vol. XXIX. HARTFORD, CONN., JANUARY, 1912. 



No. I. 



COPYRIGHT, 1912, BY THE HARTFORD STEAM BOILER INSPECTION AND INSURANCE CO. 




HOME OFFICE BUILDING 
Pkosi'kct and Grove Streets, Hartford, Conn. 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. [January, 



Water Gag-e Glasses. 

Charles S. Blake. 

The breaking of water gage glasses is of such frequent occurrence^ that 
a few words concerning their attachment and use may, if heeded, prevent some 
accident and possibly personal injuries, besides the annoyance of frequent re- 
placements. 

The use of a visible gage as an auxiliary to indicate height of water in a 
steam generator has become a recognized necessity, and is required by author- 
ities exercising jurisdiction over boilers. One municipality at least places such 
value on their use as to recognize a second gage glass as a substitute for the 
gage cocks and does not require the latter when two gage glasses are properly 
affixed. 

The ordinary or customary gage glass is a plain cylindrical tube, ranging 
for ordinary use from ^ inches to 74 inches in diameter and of a length to 
suit the varying conditions and types of boilers. These diameters are outside 
dimensions. They vary slightly, but as the glasses are set in compressible 
washers such variation is not detrimental. They are made in this country 
and abroad, but those of Scotch glass are considered the best. The very nature 
of the material makes it brittle, and aside from its brittleness it possesses other 
peculiar qualities that when known should cause engineers and firemen to 
handle these glasses with more than ordinary care. A novice in examining a 
gage glass will almost immediately pronounce it defective, because of the fine 
lines running lengthwise in it: but such lines are usually indicative of good 
quality and are more pronounced in the Scotch glass than in the American. 

All glasses are keenly susceptible to surface abrasions, even so minute as 
to be unobservable. If one receives the slightest scratch inside or out, it should 
not be used, and in handling or keeping them in stock, no metal of any nature 
should be allowed to come in contact with them. They are particularly liable 
to break if iron or steel touches them, and so should never be laid down even 
temporarily with tools, as is frequently done in preparation for a renewal. 

It may sometimes be thought desirable to clean an old glass when it has 
every appearance of being whole and sound. In such an event waste or a 
cleaning cloth should be used and should be pushed through the bore by means 
of a wooden stick small enough to pass without force. As a rule, however, the 
price of gage glasses is too low to bother with the cleaning of old ones, and 
if one shows any deterioration at its ends, it should be discarded in any case. 

In the prevention of accidents, not the least measure of importance is to 
have the receptacles for the glass properly attached before trying to insert it. 
Every one who has had occasion to put in gage glasses is familiar with the 
so-called gage glass " cocks," which form its support. They are not cocks, 
however, but valves. In some of the special types of water glass connections, 
cocks are used as a means of closing, but the percentage in use is very small. 
The valves are fitted in various ways, — sometimes directly into the boiler 
plate, more commonly into water columns of cast iron or those improvised 
from ordinary pipe and fittings. The openings to receive the valves should be 
parallel and threaded an equal depth, so that when the valves themselves are 
screwed iri position the sockets in them for the reception of the glass will be 
in a direct line. Both top and bottom valves have these sockets bored out to a 
considerable depth. If the eye cannot detect the valves out of line, the glass 



im2.| T H I-: I. () C () M O T I V E . 3 

should be inserted in tliem, to more clearly determine whether the valves are in 
true alignment or not. The glass should be cut to the greatest length that will 
permit its insertion, one cock or valve usually admitting it to a greater depth 
than the other. 

In the selection of a glass, one should be used that will freely enter the 
valve receptacle and leave a little space around it when in position, and the 
nuts or glands for compressing the gaskets should be large enough not to touch 
the glass when screwed up. Only fresh, pure rubber gaskets or washers cut 
by machine, uniform in size, and prepared for such purpose should be used. 
After inserting the glass in the valves, it should be shifted so the washers will 
be at an equal distance from its ends. This is very important, for the writer 
in his investigations of boiler explosions has found two instances where a 
washer softened by the heat, under pressure of the gland, has squeezed out 
under the glass and closed the opening, thus permitting a false indication of the 
water level. The glands should first be screwed by hand, each a little in turn 
until they can no longer be moved by the fingers. Then a small wrench may be 
used on them alternately, until the glas.s is firm in the packing. Care should 
be taken that the glass does not shift in its vertical position, during this 
operation. 

It may be needless to say that in renewing a glass with pressure on the 
boiler, the valves should be closed tight and the drip opened to release the 
pressure before attempting the removal. When a new glass has been put in, 
if the valves are not provided with means for opening at a distance, a board 
or sheet-iron shield large enough to protect one's head should be held between 
the face and the glass, and the valves then opened very easily and slowly to 
their full extent. When they are open, it is advisable to retire with the shield 
in front of the face to observe at a distance whether there are any leaks, and 
if any appear, to return to the glass with the face still protected, shut ofif the 
valves, release the pressure through the drip, and then tighten the nuts. Never 
under any circumstances attempt to tighten them with pressure on the glass. 

In the writer's experience, he has found it possible to make the joints tight 
by only a slight pressure of the wrench and whenever he has found gage valves 
out of alignment he has trued them up. As a result of this practice during 
considerable experience with marine and stationary boilers never has he had 
a glass break under pressure. 

If gage glasses are properly handled and used they will withstand great 
extremes of temperature, although it is well t® guard against drafts from out- 
side in cold weather. In the selection of glasses it is not necessary to pick out 
the ones with the heaviest walls, for those with slightly lighter walls are as 
strong and will last as long as the thicker ones. 

The great precaution is to keep the surface from being scratched, for, as 
every engineer knows it requires but the slightest breaking of the skin 
of the glass in a circumferential way to cause it to almost fall apart. The 
peculiar phenomenon of the glass breaking which has lain next to iron or steel 
has never been explained to me, but I have a number of times as an experiment, 
taken a glass, run a smooth rod of iron through it and put it away. Sooner or 
later it has been found shattered in many pieces. My first observation of this 
phenomenon was when I placed a glass on a shelf in an engine room with a 
large pocket knife against it to keep it from rolling off. The next day I found 
the glass all in pieces but the pieces in their respective positions, showing that 
the breakage was not from violence else the pieces would have been scattered. 



THE LOCOMOTIVE 



[January, 



A Scotch Marine Boiler Explosion. 



BecMusf ut the small number of Scotch marine boilers in the United States, 
it is comparatively rare that an explosion of one is recorded, and owing to this 
fact a layman often has the impression that this type is proof against explosion. 
That this is not the case, however, is shown by the following account of an 
accident to such a boiler which occurred at the plant of The Mt. Clemens Sugar 
Company, Mt. Clemens, Mich., on October 30. 191 1. The photograph, Figure r, 
gives some idea of the condition of the front of the boiler after the explosion, 
but the main damage was at its rear, where it was difficult to obtain a picture 
suitable for reproduction. 

The vessel was what is known as a "wet back boiler." The general con- 
struction of such a vessel is shown by the line cut. Figure 2. The tubes and 
flues terminate in an internal tube sheet, " D," and communicate with a com- 
bustion chamber, " A," within the shell. The back of this chamber is formed 
by a sheet, " B," stayed to the rear head, " C." The space between sheet " B '" 
and head "C" is filled with boiler water under pressure and gives the name 
" wet back " to the type. It was the bursting of this " wet back " and the conse- 
quent collapse of the combustion chamber that occasioned the disaster. Its initial 
cause was the pulling off of sheet " R " from the 172 staybolts which held it. 




Fig. I. Damaged Fkont ok Boiler. 



igi 



T H !•: LOCOMOTIVE. 



An investigation disclosed the fact that the holding ix:>\vcr oi many of these' 
staybolts had been greatly diminislicd by the buckling of sheet " B " between- 
them, this buckling causing the staylH)lt holes to take a conical shape with the 
larger diameter of the cone on the water side of the sheet. This deformation 
of the holes disengaged the thread> to such an extent that tiioso remaining were 
unable to support the load imposed on them by the boiler pres^re. 

The boiler at the time of the accident was connected in line with seven 
others, on which all pop valves were set to 105 lbs. per square inch, so there is 
a reasonable certainty that the pressure did not exceed this amount. The stay- 
bolts on sheet "B" were 1% inches in diameter and spaced 7J4 inches 
apart each way, and the sheet was 15 32 of an incli in thickness. The only 




Fi(7. 2. Section of Boiler. 



plausible explanation as to how a pressure which did not exceed 105 lbs. could 
seriously buckle a sheet of this thickness held by stays in the manner described, 
is that the sheet was weakened by overheating. 

From the data at hand the cause of this overheating cannot be definitely 
determined, but the boilers were reported clean, and if such was the case, forced 
driving or low water was probably responsible. Sheet " B " was thrown forward 
against the rear tube sheet " D " with such force that it drove a number of tubes 
through the front head, some of them extending as much as six inches from 
its face. This is shown on the accompanying view of the front of the boiler. 

Three men were seriously scalded by this accident, one being so severely 
injured that he died shortly afterward. The property damage was chiefly con- 
fined to the boiler, with the exception of a brick wall located some distance in 
front, which was throwm down by the force of the explosion. The doors and 
hoppers of the boiler front were blown through a window twentv feet awav. 



Q THELOCOMOTIVE. fjANUAKY, 

An Investig-ation of Electrolysis in Boilers. 

W. R. C. Corson. 

About a year and a half ago a case of abnormal tube pitting was brought to 
the attention of The Haktford Steam Boiler Inspectiox and Insurance Com- 
pany and its assistance asked in seeking the cause and a relief for the trouble. 
The investigation which followed resulted in the discovery of so unexpected an 
electrical condition of the affected boilers that it is believed a description of it 
and of the apparently successful remedy which was applied will be of general 
interest and suj^gcstion to those who may have steam vessels similarly circum- 
stanced. 

At first sight, the trouble appeared but the commonplace pitting which 
frequenth' occurs where a " pure water " is used for the feed, and an analysis 
of it promptly pronounced the water in that categorj'. The action of such waters 
has been discussed at length in The Locomotive for June, 1896. It is here but 
necessary to say that it is attributed to the acids or oxidizing gases generated 
in a boiler from a water which does not carry alkaline salts to neutralize them. 
In the case in hand, tube pitting was to be expected from the " pure water," 
but the rapidity of the corrosion aroused the suspicion that some other influence 
existed to exaggerate that action and as the boilers were in the power house of 
an electric railway, electrolysis immediately suggested itself among the possi- 
bilities. 

Now it should not be understood that those who were assigned to this 
investigation jumped at any conclusion thus suggested. One, at least, of these 
investigators (the writer admits identity) very much doubted the possibility of 
any such explanation. The general theory of the action of a current straying 
from the rails of an electric road was understood, but that it could wander into 
a boiler and cause any action there was not comprehensible. As The Locomo- 
tive once put it in doubting the responsibility of a stray current for the cor- 
rosion of an internal feed pipe, " It is hard to understand how an electric action 
from such a cause could take place within the closed conductor formed by a 
boiler shell." It was accordingly with a skeptical mind but in a spirit of 
thoroughness that preparation was made to investigate the electrical situation. 

The boilers — three Manning vertical tubulars — were found in a power 
house typical of street railways of the smaller class. It was located in the 
rear of a car barn and repair shop which in turn fronted on the highway and 
main track of the railroad. In the power house a room containing the engines 
and dynamos was nearest the car barn, and immediately behind it the boiler 
room. In a rear addition a storage battery was installed for equalizing the load 
on the station. 

Hydrants on the highway at either side of the car barn corroborated the 
statement of the superintendent that a water main was buried in the street 
and paralleled his rails for a considerable distance. These hydrants were the 
points selected for the first of the electrical tests. A low reading voltmeter was 
used and connected with one terminal in contact with the hydrant and the 
other with a rail. The object, of course, was to determine whether a difference 
of electric potential existed between these structures, and if it did, what its value 
was and which structure was of higher potential. The reading of the instrument 
fluctuated to some extent but was a maximum at about two volts, with the 
hydrant at the higher or positive potential. The condition thus indicated was 



I9I2.J T li K 1. I) L (> M () i I \' E . / 

expected, as it is characteristic of underground piping near a railway power 
house. The readings if anything were lower than usual, but served to show 
that the pipe and rail were not metallically connected in that vicinity, and that 
there was the tendency for a flow of electricity from pipe to rail through the 
earth. 

In a pit near the front of the car bam access was possible to the pipe whick 
supplied the plant with water and which appeared to brancn from the main 
directly in front of the building. Similar tests with similar results were made 
between this pipe and the rails in the barn, but no sufficient length of this branch 
pipe was exposed to give opportunity for determining by test whether current 
was flowing on it or not. 

Perhaps it is well here to say for the benefit of the non-technical reader 
that by potential is meant a sort of electrical pressure, and that where two poten- 
tials differ in value there will be — as there would be with two differing pres- 
sures of steam or air, for instance — a tendency of flow from the higher to the 
lower. If there is a path suitable for its conduction between such points, there 
will be an actual flow of current. Now a pipe, being of metal, is a suitable path 
for conducting electricity. If, therefore, two points on it are found at diff'ering 
potentials there is clear evidence of the existence of a current in it. The tests 
thus far made had disclosed a diff'erence in potential between pipe and rail, and 
had indicated the probability of a flow of current from the former to the latter, 
conceiving the ground as a suitable conducting path. It was probable that much 
of this current came from a distance along the structure of the water main itself, 
but it was essential to determine whether any flow actually existed on the branch 
pipe supplying the power house. 

Opportunity was given by an exposed feed pipe in the engine room to make 
such a test and by using an instrument capable of measuring a milivolt (one one- 
thousandth of a volt), an indication over a short length was had that current 
was flowing and that it was in the direction of the street. 

This was the first surprise for the investigator, for a flow in that direction 
meant from the boiler room, and his doubt of electrolytic action began to 
weaken. Further tests along the feed pipe followed — past the pumps and heater 
and up to the boilers. At the first of these — that in which the pitting was most 
aggravated — a distinct reading of nearly one milivolt was indicated between a 
point on its shell and the brass feed pipe near its entrance to the vessel. The 
instrument needle at this connection, however, was subject to frequent reversals; 
sometimes the shell was at higher potential, sometimes the pipe. The prevailing 
indication seemed to show the current flow from boiler to pipe, and the potential 
difference a maximum in this direction. 

Then the instrument was connected between the entering feed pipe at the 
top of No. I boiler and the blowoff pipe at its bottom. The needle of the 
instrument swung promptly to a maximum of six milivolts and in a direction 
indicating that the blowofif was at higher potential. Here was certain evidence of 
a flow of electricity at least through the metallic structure of the boiler from 
its bottom to its top. 

The blowoff pipes on the three boilers ran separately to a brick-lined well 
on the outside of the building, entering it horizontally about two feet below 
the surface of the ground. The ends of the pipes were well above the water in 
it, but from the boiler house they passed through earth which was maintained 
in a generally wet and conductive condition by the hot vapor with which the 



8 THELOCO MOTIVE. [January, 



well was filled. Tests made by the milivolt meter between different points on 
the same blowoff pipe showed current flow from the well, and, while the theor>- 
was not proved, it was believed that the electricity was drawn from the earth 
through its wet contact with that pipe. 

Here, then, existed one element of the situation whicli the writer had doubted. 
Current was wandering into and through a boiler, and that it was caused by 
the operation of the railway was evident from the behavior of the instrument 
used. Its needle, instead of remaining in any fixed and constant position, swung 
from one point to another as rapidly as that of the switchboard instrument which 
measured the current supplied to the trolley. The operation of the cars on the 
road accounted, of course, for the swing of the latter instrument, and it was a 
fair conclusion that the motion of the milivolt meter was due to the same cause. 
Had it been perfectly steady, a leak from the lighting wires or from the storage 
battery cables might have been suspected, but as it was the movement of the 
needle at times so exactly corresponded to the increments of current occurring 
when an electric car is started that one could note the steps of the operation as 
the motorman moved the handle over the controller. However, to be on the safe 
side, the run of all wires and of the cables from the battery were carefully 
looked over in an effort to' locate any leaks which might reach the boilers and 
none was found. 

It was clear from these tests, then, that an unexpected and unusual electrical 
condition existed in the boilers. But something unusual was necessary to 
explain the rapidity of the tube pitting, and so in spite of previous skepticism 
and present perplexity, the probability of a connection between the one situation 
and the other had to be admitted. It was still difficult to see how electrolysis 
" could take place within the closed conductor formed by a boiler shell," but it 
had been equally difficult to understand how a stray current from the rail could 
reach the boiler and that seemed to be a proven fact. 

It had been shown by the tests that a difference in potential existed between 
not only the extreme pipe connections, but also between one of them and the 
boiler shell. Other tests showed similar differences of greater or less value 
between the other pipe and the shell and even between the pipe and its blowoff 
cock. The instrument readings were much higher in every case for the No. i 
boiler, but the same general situation was indicated on all three. Of course, these 
differences were most minute, but it began to be clear that if similar conditions 
existed in the internal structure of the boiler, the current which produced them 
might be an influence in the corrosion. 

It has been stated that a difference in potential on a conductor is evidence 
of a flow in it. It is now best to further explain that the magnitude of this 
difference will depend on two conditions, viz., the amount of current flowing 
and the resistance offered to its flow b}^ the conductor on which the difference 
is measured. A small current on a conductor of high resistance may produce a 
potential difference as great as that of a large current on a conductor of low 
resistance. This broad statement of these relations seems necessary to explain 
the reason for an experiment which the situation next suggested. 

A piece of trolley wire of No. oooo gage was bound and soldered at its one 
end to the feed pipe and at the other to the blowoff pipe of No. i boiler. If the 
difference of potential previously existing between these two pipes was due to a 
large current flowing over a comparatively low resistance in the boiler structure, 
the connection of this wire would have little or no effect, for it would not have 



1912. 1 T H E L O C O M O T I V E . L) 

influenced tlic ainoniit of current, .nid its cross section was so small compared 
with that of the metal in the hoili-r that even though of superior conducting 
material it would but to a small degree reduce the total resistance. On the other 
hand, if the original potential dilTeniice was due to a small current! traversing 
a comparatively high resistance, perliaps due to the various joints and seams 
of the vessel or the water in it, then the relative improvement of the path by 
the addition of the wire might be marked. 'Hie result prof^d that the latter 
situation was the case, for the bond formed by the trolley wire reduced the 
potential difference between the pipes to practically zero, the instrument needle 
moving perceptibly, but not enough to determine a value. 

Strangely enough, however, the small reversing potential difTercnce which 
was noted as existing between the boiler shell and the feed pipe did not seem 
to be affected by the connection. It remained in fact and was clearly indicated 
by the instruinent after the power house had ceased operation for the night, 
and when all lights were turned off and the storage battery disconnected from 
its circuit. The only explanation offering was that it was due to galvanic action 
between the feed pipe, which was of brass, and the steel of the boiler. 

Now this paper is more in the nature of a narrative of an investigation than 
an explanation of the phenomena discovered. It is not difficult to form a prob- 
able theory to account for current through the boiler, but to demonstrate it would 
require more space than is here av^iilable. There was such a current undoubt- 
edly, but it may not be so assuredly stated that it by electrolysis produced corro- 
sion. The further investigation showed that the boilers had accumulated a mass 
of magnetic oxide scale, and that oxide was in evidence at every hot water drip 
and leak. This substance was not only indicative of the action of acids in the 
boiler, but by its accumulation there, under the action of the heat, produced 
further oxidization of the rnetal parts. It did — and does now^ — seem probable, 
however, that there existed the elements essential to electrolytic action — water 
more or less acid for an electrolyte and metal parts of differing potentials for 
the electrodes — and that, therefore, tlverc was cause for suspecting such action 
as an influence in this trouble. 

Accordingly, it was recommended that for a time, at least, the wire bond 
which had been connected as an experiment be allowed to remain. Other reme- 
dial measures were also suggested, such as the thorough cleaning of the boilers 
rmd the neutralizing of the water in them by the use of soda ash. For while it 
was appreciated that if all were applied it would be impossible to determine 
from a resulting improvement which of the remedies had been most effective. 
it was thought more important to take every measure of protection at once. 
Those in charge of the boilers, however, apvparently had a greater confidence in 
the wire bond, and took the responsibility of ignoring the other suggestions. That 
this confidence seems to have been justified by the result is indicated by the 
following quotation from a letter recently received from the superintendent of 
the railroad : " The bond which you put in between the blowoff and feed pipe 
still remains, and as we have had no more trouble from pitting v.ould say the 
trouble was due to electrolysis. We ran the boiler from August. 1910. [the time 
of the investigation] until September. iQii, without repairs. Since that time 
the boiler has been shut down." 

Now the facts stated in this quotation may not, perhaps, seem sufficient 
evidence to justify the superintendent's conclusion as to the responsibility of 
electrolysis. Taken with the other circumstances thev would seem, however. 



10 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [January, 

to indicate a strong probability that such action occasioned the trouble. It is 
because of this probability, rather than of any positive conclusion, that it is 
hoped that this description may be suggestive to those who operate steam vessels 
under similar circumstances. 



What's in a Name? 

In our long service to the public as specialists in boiler inspection, we 
have become so familiar with a common form of repair used on return tubular 
boiler shells, and known as a " Horseshoe Patch," that we have felt we knew 
all about the matter. Probably many of our inspectors have assumed on account 
of their experience, that they know perfectly well how the name of such patches 
was derived, and have considered that the usual shape was the connection that 
linked the name with that of the metal protection usually attached to the hoof 
of the noble steed which has served mankind for generations past. It will 
doubtless be a great surprise to our other friends, as well as to our inspection 
force, to learn that the relation between the two is much closer than would be 
indicated by this reasoning. The discovery of the remarkably intimate con- 
nection between the name of the patch and the horseshoe was recently made 
by one of our representatives who was traveling in the south. He was riding 
on a train in Alabama, and with his head on the back of the car seat, was doz- 
ing and dreaming that he had discovered a new material for boiler shells of 
100,000 lbs. tensile strength, and as ductile as gold, which would resist corro- 
sion and all other ills to v/hich boiler material is subjected, and that would also 
pass all state boiler laws, when he was rudely awakened by the sudden stopping 
of the train. He rubbed his eyes, and looking out of the car window discovered 
that he was at York ; but there were many things missing beside the " New " 
that indicated he was not near Broadway. However, his eyes finally rested on 
a sign painted in large letters over the entrance of a brand new one story shop 
which interested him at once. This sign clearly illustrates how really intimate 
is the connection between the horseshoe and the boiler patch. The sign was as 
follows : 

YORK BLACK'SMITHING CO. 

REPAIRS 

WAGONS, BUGGIES, BOILERS, ENGINES. 

HORSEHOEING A SPECIALTY. 

It is evident that the department store idea has penetrated every section of 
the country and man}' lines of business. For years past we have been thoroughly 
familiar with the department store methods used in the insurance field, and 
aside from the fact that we are not so accustomed to seeing it, the sign given 
above is not more incongruous than those of our competitors who advertise 
boiler and flywheel insurance along with an assortment of bonding, liability, 
accident, plate glass and burglary insurance. Reads like the description of a 
soup bunch purchased by the frugal housewife, doesn't it? 



1912 



T II E L O C O M T I V K . 



11 



TOOLS FOR CLEANING BOILERS, 
J. W. Hubbard, Inspector. 

Much has been published in the mechanical press regarding the need of 
keeping boilers clean. Init aside frorrv descriptions of patented devices, 
little has been told of the forms of implements suitable for the purpose of 
cleaning. On account of tlic lack of information on this subject, many boiler 
operators are not familiar with the tools which experience has shown to be 
well suited to the purpose and they are so easily fashioned by a blacksmith 
that they should be readily procured anywhere. 



^ 



4 5 



B 





7 



8 



Cleaning Tools. 

The tools described here are not new and doubtless many engineers are 
thoroughly familiar with them, but they are described with the hope that more 
engineers may become acquainted with them and learn of their usefulness in 
keeping their boilers clean and free from scale. 



12 T H E L O C O M O T I V E . [January, 



Tool No. I is of general utilitj'. The amount of angle near the point and 
the length of the handle can he varied to meet the requirements of each par- 
ticular case. The chisel point should he ground sharp and tempered hard. The 
knob on the end forms a convenient handle, and adds weight to the tool at 
a point that makes its use effective. The knob should be left soft so that if 
there is occasion to use a hammer on it, the eyes of the operator will not be 
endangered by flying particles. All portions of the tube sheet, with the ex- 
ception of the small surfaces on it between vertically adjacent tubes, can 
usually be reached for cleaning with this tool. One-half inch hexagonal steel 
is the proper size stock of which to form this implement. 

Tools represented by Nos. 2, 3, and 4 are scrapers for removing the scale 
from the tubes and should be made of one -half inch hexagonal stock. Nos. 2 
and 3 should be sharpened on the concave edges and No. 4 on both edges. By 
leaving off the loop handle on No. 4 and forming it of five-eighths inch steel, 
the cutting edge can be driven along the tops of the different rows of tubes 
against the head, breaking down a part of the scale which cannot be reached 
by No. I. With one edge formed, as illustrated in No. 5, it is especially effective 
for this use. 

Tool No. 6 may be used for breaking away heavy scale that may bridge 
the horizontal space between the tubes away from the heads. This is 
inserted in the vertical space between the tubes and is turned by the handle 
"A," which carries the projecting end "B" arovmd in a horizontal plane and 
forces out the scale between the tubes. The leg " B " should of course be made 
of such size that it will pass easily between the tubes at points where no scale 
is adhering. 

No. 7 is a convenient form of hoe, for removing loose scale or deposit from 
the bottom of the shell of horizontal tubular boilers. This tool is particularly 
convenient for this purpose where the boiler is only provided with a hand-hole 
communicating with the portion of the shell below the tubes. The points of 
the blade are cut away so that they may pass under the lower tubes at the side 
of the boiler and the edge of the blade is made to conform to the curvature of 
the boiler shell. This latter requirement is important, in order to make the use 
of this tool effective. The handle should be made of three-quarters inch pipe 
and the blade of one-quarter inch plate steel. The hole in the blade for the 
attachment of the handle should be tapped and the pipe screwed into it and 
held fast with a jam nut. If the space in front of the boiler is sufficient, it 
is preferable to have the handle of this hoe made of one piece of pipe, but if 
this is not practicable, it may be made of two or more pieces as required. When 
working with this hoe, it is often convenient to tie on the handle near the blade 
a small piece of waste saturated with oil, setting this on fire to light up the 
interior of the boiler in order to see where to reach for loose material. 

A hammer of the type illustrated in No. 8 is very useful for cleaning plates, 
but for jarring the scale loose from the tubes a flat-faced hammer should be 
used. 

There are, of course, cases where the thorough cleaning of a boiler is im- 
possible owing to either the hardness of the scale or inaccessibility due to 
design. Boilers in which the tubes are staggered or having poorly designed 
through bracing above the tubes or in which the tubes have been carried too 
far down, making the space below them cramped, are inaccessible for cleaning. 
In boilers of such design where the scale produced is hard, as is the case where 



IQI2. 



T II E L () C O M () T I V E 



13 



the feed water contains sulphate df lime, it is practically impossible to prop- 
erly clean them and as a conseqnence hoth safety and economy are affected. 

The nse of such boilers where the feed water supplied is necessarily bad. 
can only be attributed to lack of care or judgment on the i)art of those respon- 
sible for their installation. 

In using the tools here illustrated or an\ otlurs for a similar purpose, tlu- 
greatest care .should be exerci.sed that the tubes or other jxirlions of the boiler 
are not injured in the i)roress of clcnuing. 



A Boiler Disaster From Hig-h Water. 

The accompanyinj4 illustration sIiown the condition in which the boiler plant 
of the Marathon Paper Company was left by a Hood of the Wisconsin River, 
on which at Wausau, Wisconsin, that company's mill is located. Unusually 
heavy rains in the early part of last October had caused high watai- in all the 
streams of that neighborhood, and on the sixth of the month the Wisconsin 
had burst its banks and overflowed tlie Marathon Company's property, cutting 
new channels between its buildings. :i\m\ as it developed, undermining the boiler 
foundations. Late in the afternoon of that day, before the water had reached 
the boiler room floor and while steam was still maintained, an initial settlement 
occurred in the end one of a battery of six boilers. This caused a break in a 
feed pipe by which three of the attendants were seriously scalded. Soon after. 
the water invaded the room and opcr;itions had to be <uspi.-n(k(I. At 8:30 in 
the evening the foundation completely collajised at tlie rear, wrecking the 




Wrecked i;v a Fi.oop. 



14 THELOCOMOTIVE. [January 



settings and steam piping and tipping the boilers on end as shown in the pho- 
tograph. 

These pages have frequently described the circumstances of a wrecked steam 
plant, the cause of which was attributed to low water, but it is quite a novelty 
to record in them a case such as this, where the opposite condition must be 
held responsible for the misfortune. 



Another "Maine " Explosion. 

It seems incredible that a foreign government should acquire its munitions 
of war from among the revered relics of a friendly nation, but tliat such has 
been the case at least in one instance, would appear probable from an account 
of a serious ^ccident published by our English contemporary Vulcan. According 
to that paper, a working party at the Portsmouth (England) Dockyard was 
engaged in testing " a compressed air cylinder used for propelling torpedoes " 
when it burst "with a terrific report." killing or injuring eight men. The article 
continues : " At the inquest the evidence showed that the cylinder was not of 
the pattern generally used, but was of American make, and evidently came from 
the hospital ship Maine, which formerly belonged to the American Navy." No 
comment is made on this extraordinary circumstance, but perhaps as a warning 
to other pilferers of our national souvenirs it is added that the verdict of the 
jury recommended "the disuse of American cylinders." Hospital ship, indeed! 



Boiler Room Card. 

The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company has 
recently published in condensed form a set of suggestions for the care and 
management of steam boilers under the title, " Boiler Room Card." As its name 
implies, this sheet is intended for framing or other mounting, so that it may be 
hung in the boiler room for the ready reference of the attendants. The " sugges- 
tions " cover broadly conditions of maintenance and preservation as well as of 
safe operation of steam vessels used f©r power, and embody methods which an 
extended experience has approved as best practice. They are legibly printed in 
short paragraphs with prominent captions, so that reference to any particular 
condition may be easily made. 

The Boiler Room Card is, of course, published primarily for the benefit of 
its policy-holders to whom it is being distributed, but in the belief that it will 
prove of great value in every plant where boilers are used for power, the 
Hartford company is glad to furnish copies free to any bona fide boiler owners 
who will apply for them. If you have not already received one, address the 
Company at Hartford, Conn., and ask for the "Boiler Room Card," stating in 
your communication the number and pressure of the boilers you own and where 
they are located. 



1912] THE LOCOMOTIVE. ^5 



Boiler Explosions. 

October, 191 (. 

^37^) — A hot-water boiler burst, October i, in a "Cafeteria" at Los 
Angeles, Calif. Two persons were injured and property damaged to tlie ex- 
tent of about $500. 

(377-) — On or about October i, a boiler exploded at Mercer's mill, on 
the Suwance river, near Branford, Fla. No one was injured. 

(378.) — On October 2, a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the Pas- 
saic River & Coal street plant of the Public Service Corporation of New Jersey. 
One man was scalded and died the following day. The property damage was 
small. 

(379-) — A boiler exploded, October 2, in a confectionery store at Suther- 
land, Iowa. Three persons were injured and machinery and buildings were 
damaged. 

(380.) — A number of cast-iron headers fractured, October 3, in a water- 
tube boiler at the Louisville Gas Co.'s plant, Louisville, Ky. Considerable 
damage was done to the boiler. 

(381.) — A boiler in the butcher shop of J. A. Spaughy at Postville, Iowa, 
exploded October 6. Three persons were injured. 

(382.) — A boiler ruptured, October 6, at " Waverly Hall," an apartment 
house at 115 Mount Auburn street, Cambridge, ]\Iass. The damage, which 
was small, was confined to the boiler. 

(383.) — On October 6, a boiler exploded in a school-house at Clark's 
SuiTimit, Pa. 

(384.) — A boiler exploded, October 6, in the Astoria apartment house, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

(385-) — A sawmill boiler exploded, October 7, near Waynesburg, Ky. 
The engineer was instantly killed and several other persons injured. 

(386.)— A blow-off pipe failed, October 7, at the Cisco Oil Mill, Carbon, 
Texas. One man was injured. 

(387.) — A small water heater exploded, October 7, in the basement of the 
residence of M. C. Phillips, Oshkosh, Wis. The heater was practically de- 
molished and considerable damage was done in the basement. No one was 
injured. 

(388.) — A boiler exploded, October 8, in the Thirteenth avenue fire engine 
house, Oakland, Calif. No person was injured but the fire engine horses were 
thrown to the ground and the building was damaged. 

(389.) — The boiler of a threshing engine exploded, October 8, on William 
Allen's farm, near Franklinville, N. Y. Mr. Allen was struck by a part of the 
boiler plate and was thrown about thirty feet. He was seriously but probably 
not fatally scalded. One other man was slightly injured. 

(390.) — On October 9 an accident occurred to a boiler at the Citizens' 
Ice Co., Oswego, Kansas. The damage was small. 

(391-) — The boiler of a locomotive engine exploded. October 10. in the 
roundhouse of the Los Vegas & Tonopah railroad, at Goldfield, Nev. One 
man was seriously injured and the roundhouse was wrecked. 

(392.) — On October 11 a hot-water heater exploded in the basement of 
a two-flat building at 5042 Fulton street, Chicago, 111. Three persons were 
injured. 



16 THELOCOMOTIVE. [January, 



(393-) — A valve on a blow-off pipe ruptured, October 12, at the plant of 
the Michigan Bolt & Nut Co., Detroit, Mich. One man wras killed. 

(394.) — The boiler of a locomotive on the Louisville & Nashville rail- 
road exploded, October 12, near Knoxville, Tenn. Train Master H. M. 
Brownlee, who was riding in the engine cab, received scalds which caused his 
death the following day. 

(395-) — A hot-water boiler exploded, October 13, in the residence of E. 
Augustus Rine, Caldwell, N. J. No one was injured. 

(396) — On October 13 a boiler exploded at the plant of the National 
Refining Co., Marietta, Ohio, causing large damage to property. 

(397-) — A tube ruptured, October 13, in a water-tube boiler at the plant 
of the Consumers' Hygeia Ice Co., Union Hill, N. J. Three men were injured. 

(398-) — A boiler exploded, October 13, in the Stack Block, Lestershire, 
N. Y., causing a propert}' damage of $200. 

(399-) — On October 14 a number of cast-iron headers fractured in a 
water-tube boiler at the North Delaware avenue power station of the Philadel- 
phia Rapid Transit Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

(400.) — A blow-off pipe failed, October 14, at the Day Chemical Co.'s 
plant, Westline, Pa. One man was scalded. 

(401.) — A cast-iron header ruptured, October 14, in a water-tube boiler 
at the plant of the American Steel & Wire Co., Waukegan, 111. 

(402.) — One man was severely scalded, October 15, by an accident to the 
boiler of the tugboat John Mahar, at Fulton, N. Y. 

(403.) — On October 16 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the 
Joseph H. Bromley plant, Philadelphia, Pa. 

(404.) — On October 19 one or more boiler Uilios blew out on the torpedo 
boat Wilkes. 

(405.) — A boiler ruptured, October 19. at the plant of Wm. Goodrich & 
Co., linseed oil manufacturers, Milwaukee, Wis. 

(406.) — On October 20 a boiler exploded in the cellar of the Greenwich 
Cold Storage Co., Greenwich street. New York City. The boiler, which was 
located beneath the sidewalk, was blown some distance from its original 
position, breakmg ammonia pipes, a gas main and a high pressure water main, 
and damaging the Ninth avenue elevated structure. Eight persons were more 
or less severely injured and the property loss was estimated at $30,000. 

(407.) — The boiler of a locomotive engine exploded, October 22, on the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul railroad, at North Homan and Grand avenues, 
Chicago, 111. Four men were injured, one of them seriously. 

(408.) — -On October 22 three tubes ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the 
planing mill of the Cole Mfg. Co., Memphis. Tenn. The boiler was consid- 
erably damaged. 

(409.) — A boiler tube burst. October 22, on the torpedo boat Tingcy, whilc 
the vessel was off Charleston. S. C, proceeding to Hampton Roads, Va. One 
man was killed and another badly scalded. 

(410.) — A boiler exploded, October 23, at the Sterling Sugar Refinery. 
Franklin, La. One man w^as seriously burned. 

(411.) — On October 23 a boiler tube burst on the ferryboat Peerless, at 
Delta, La. One person was killed and seven others injured. 

(412.) — A tube ruptured, October 26, in a water-tube boiler at the Guth- 
man Laundry & Dry Cleaning Co.'s plant. Atlanta. Ga. Two men were in- 
jured. 



1912.] T H IC LOCOMOTIVE. -[J 



(413.") — A cast-iron header rupiurcd in a water-tube boiler. October 27, 
at tbo Utah-Idaho Sugar Co.'s plant. Salt Lake City, Utah. 

(,414) — Ihc boiler of a traction cnf^ine. belonginp: to C. Anderson, ex- 
ploded, October 27, near Waupun, Wis. Two men were severely injured. 

(415.) — On October 28 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler al the 
State Hospital for Insane, Athens, Ohio. 

(416.) — A boiler exploded, October 28, at the llintze greenhouses, I-'ond 
du Lac, Wis. Damage to property was estimated at $2,000. 

(417.) — The boiler of a locomotive on the Trinity & Brazos Valley rail- 
road exploded, October 28, near Karen, Texas. Three men were killed. 

(418.) — On October 30 a boiler exploded on the Pure Oil Co.'s steamer 
No. 5, at East Newark, N. J. One person was killed and five others were in- 
jured, three of them fatally. 

(419.) — A boiler tube blew out. October 30, in the plant of John Dichold 
& Sons, Louisville, Ky. No one was injured. 

(420.) — On October 31 a tube rujitured in a water-tube boiler at the sugar 
house of the St. Joseph Planting & Mfg. Co.. Feitel, La. 
(See also No. 427.) 

(421.) — On October 31 the boiler of locomotive No. 852. on the Wabash 
railroad, exploded near Riverton, 111. 'j'he engineer was killed and the fire- 
man and head brakeman severely injured. Tlie property damage was estimated 
at $10,000. 

(422.) — The boiler of a freight locomotive on the Pennsylvania railroad 
exploded. October 31, at EHzabeth, N. J. Three men were severely injured. 

(423.) — On October 31 a boiler exploded on the premises of Walter Oder- 
wald, Clifton. 111. One person was seriously injured. 



November, 191 i. 

(424.) — The boiler of a freight locomotive exploded, November i, on the 
Pennsylvania railroad near Lima. Ohio. Three men were seriously injured. 

(425.) — A boiler exploded, November i, at the plant of the Mt. Clemens 
Sugar Co., ]\It. Clemens. Mich. Three men were seriously injured, one of 
whom has since died. 

(426.) — A heating boiler exploded. November i, in the basement of the 
high school at Niagara Falls. N. V. One man was seriously and another 
slightly injured. 

(427.) — On November 2 a tu!)c ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the 
sugar house of the St. Joseph Planting & Mfg. Co.. Feitel. La. 
(See also No. 420.) 

(428.) — A locomotive boiler exploded, November 3, on the premises of 
the W. R. Pickering Lumber Co.. Pickering, La. One man was injured. 

(429.) — A cast-iron elbow of a blow-off pipe failed. November 3, at the 
flax spinning mill of Smith & Dove Mfg. Co., Andover, Mass. One man was 
fatally injured. 

(430.) — On November 4 a section cracked in a cast-iron heating boiler 
in the hotel of Rafter & Co.. Nevada, Mo. 

(431.) — The explosion of a small vertical boiler, November 4. at Zincite. 
Mo., near the Lincoln mine, seriously injured one man. 



18 T H E L O C O M O TI V E . [January. 



(432.) — A heater exploded, November 4, at 359 Massachusetts avenue, 
Indianapolis, Ind. One person was injured. 

(433-) — A boiler belonging to the Standard Oil Company exploded, No- 
vember 5, at St. Paul, Minn., causing a property loss of $150. 

(434.) — A boiler flue failed, November 5, on the Cauvel farm, near Oil 
City, Pa. No one was injured. 

(435-) — A boiler flue failed, November 6, on the Cauvel farm, near Oil 
City, Pa. One man was severely burned. 

(Items Nos. 434 and 435 refer to the same boiler, the two accidents 
occurring on two consecutive days. After the first accident the boiler flue was 
repaired and the boiler again put in service, with the result noted.) 

(436.) — A locomotive boiler exploded, November 6, on the Baltimore & 
Ohio railroad, at Brooklyn Junction, W. Va. Two persons were seriously in- 
jured. 

(437-) — A tube ruptured, November 6, in a water-tube boiler at the plant 
of the Southern Iron & Steel Co., Alabama City, Ala. 

(438.) — A boiler owned by W. N. McCann exploded, November 6, at 
St. Joseph, Mo. The property damage was estimated at $3,000. 

(439-) — A boiler tube failed, November 6, in the power house of the 
Consolidated Companj-, Charleston. S. C. No one was injured. 

(440.)— On November 8 a tube ruptured in a vertical boiler at the Oak 
Park Power Co.'s plant of the General Motors Company of Michigan, Flint, 
Mich. The boiler was used in connection with a producer gas plant. Consider- 
able damage was done to the boiler and surrounding property. 

(441.) — A Pennsylvania railroad locomotive boiler exploded, November 
8, at Worthington, 111. One person was seriously injured. 

(442.) — A tube ruptured, November 8, in a water-tube boiler in the base- 
ment of the " Ellicott Square," one of the largest office buildings in Buffalo, 
N. Y. One man was scalded. (See item No. 444.) 

(443.) — The boiler of the locomotive drawing the St. Louis & San Fran- 
cisco railroad's fast train, " Meteor," exploded, November 9. near Fort Scott, 
Kans. The engineer and fireman were killed. 

(444.) — On November 10 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler in the 
" Ellicott Square " office building, Buffalo, N. Y. Arthur Brady, a boiler maker, 
was killed, John Schrott, a boiler maker, and Bard Leavitt, an inspector for 
The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection & Insurance Company, were severely 
scalded, Schrott dying a few days later. 
(See Item No. 442.) 

(445.) — On November 10 a boiler ruptured at the American Terra Cotta 
& Ceramic Co.'s plant. Terra Cotta, 111. 

(446.) — The boiler of the forward locomotive of a double-headed freight 
train exploded, November 11, twenty miles west of Lynchburg, Va.. on the 
Norfolk & Western railroad. One man was killed, one critically scalded, and 
several other persons received minor injuries. 

(447.) — A cast-iron heating boiler exploded, November 12. at the residence 
of Eber Downs, Kewanee, 111. No one was injured. 

(448.) — A blow-off pipe failed. Novem.ber 13, in the hothouse of Hoerber 
Brothers, Des Plaines, 111. Two men were slightly scalded. 

(449.) — On November 13 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the 
Glen Allen Oil Mill, Glen Allen, Miss. One man was scalded. 



iyi2.J TIIK LOCOMOTIVE. ^Q 

(450.) — On November 15 tlirce sections of a cast-iron heating boiler frac- 
tured at the Masonic Temple, Greenville, S. C. 

(451.) — Four men were fatally scalded, November 16, by the bursting of 
a boiler tube in a boiler owned by Scott Brothers, canal contractors. The 
boiler was in use on the Seneca River section of the barge canal, near Seneca 
Falls, New York. 

(452.) — A boiler exploded, November 16, on dredge No. 3, of the Fitz- 
simmons & Council Dredge & Dock Co., at Madison street bridge, Chicago, 111. 
Four men were Rightly burned. 

(4S3-) — On November 19 a mud drum, attached to a boiler, ruptured on 
the sugar plantation of the Estate of H. C. Minor, Houma, La. 

(454.) — The boiler of the locomotive of the Overland Limited on the 
Union Pacific Railroad exploded on the morning of November 20 near Rawlins, 
Wyo., severely scalding the engineer and fireman. 

(455-) — A heating boiler exploded, November 21, in St. James' Parish 
School, St. Louis, Mo. No one was injured. 

(456.) — The boiler of a Big Four locomotive exploded, November 22, 
near Fortsville, Ind. Three trainmen were seriously injured. 

(4S7-) — A tube ruptured, November 27, in a water-tube boiler at the Liman 
Mills, Inman, S. C. Tlie fireman was injured. 

(458.) — A boiler on the farm of Oliver Launstein, at Owosso, Mich., ex- 
ploded, November 27. Mr. Launstein was painfully but not seriously injured. 

(459-) — The boiler of a locomotive exploded, November 29. while stand- 
ing in the yards at Creston, 111. The engineer was badly burned and the 
fireman sustained slight burns and scalds. 

(460.) — Two boilers exploded. November 29, in the Lower Merion Y. M. 
C. A. building, Ardmore, Pa. No one was seriously injured but the property 
loss was estimated at $S,ooo. 

(461.) — On November 29 the boiler of a locomotive on the Lake Erie, 
Alliance & Wheeling railroad exploded, near Wattsville, Ohio. The engineer 
was seriously injured and the firemen was badly scalded. 

(462.) — The boiler at the gin of C. L. Davis, near Bonham, Texas, ex- 
ploded, on or about November 30. No one was injured. Damage to prop- 
erty was estimated at $1,800. 



The record of boiler explosions for December, 191 1, and the summary and 
statistics of such disasters for the past year, which have previously found a 
place in the January issue, will appear in that for April, 1912. The verification 
of the latest explosions and the compilation of the complete data would cause 
a delay in the current number which we believe unadvisable. 



20 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[January, 




HARTFORD, JANUARY. 1912. 
Single copies can be obtained free by calling at any of the company's agencies 
Subscription price so cents per year ivhen mailed from this office. 
Recent bound volumes one dollar each. Earlier ones two dollars. 
Reprinting o_f matter from this paper is permitted if credited to 
The Locomotive of The Hartfokd Stkam Boii.tR 1. & 1. Co. 



We call attention to the .enlarged title appearing on this, the first number 
of a new volume. The old familiar name of the periodical is retained, but incor- 
porated with it is also the name of the institution responsible for its publication. 
This change from the shorter title of the past forty-four years is symbolic of 
our desire and purpose that hereafter The Locomotive shall be more closely 
identified with The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Com- 
pany and more representative of the activities of that corporation and of its 
views on the mechanical and insurance conditions essential to the protection of 
power apparatu';. 



The reason for the purclia,-e of protection against loss from damages for 
personal injury in a boiler insurance contract, by the holder of a liability policy, 
obviously is to supplement the protection afforded by the latter in those cases 
of serious boiler disaster for w'hich the liability policy limits may prove insuffi- 
cient or inapplicable. It cannot be with any desire to assist the liability company 
by contributions from other insurance in the settlement of claims that such 
purchaser expends his money in additional premiums : and yet when he selects 
a boiler policy in which the personal injury insurance is made to contribute pro- 
nortionately with the liability insurance, he may be defeating his very purpose 
and be practically reinsuring the liability risk in a manner which leaves himself 
not fully indemnified for personal injury claims, although with an unconsumed 
balance of liability insurance. Moreover, for the minor boiler accidents, such 
as tube, blowoff pipe, and water glass explosions, the limits of the liability 
policy alone would generally afford ample protection, without in any way 
diminishing the amount of liability insurance in force for future accidents ; for 
while liability insurance policies limit the amounts payable for injuries or death 
of one person, or of several persons hurt in one accident, there is no limit to 
the number of persons or accidents covered and thus no limit to the amount the 
liability insurance company might have to pay during the term of its policy. On 
the other hand, steam boiler policies necessarily insure for a definite amount to 
cover all accidents during the period for which the policy is in force, and what 
is paid on one accident is deducted from this amount. Thus everv time the 



1912.J T 11 E LOCO M OT 1 V E 21 



boiler insurance is called upon to lulp the liability insurance company settle a 
loss, tlie boiler explosion protection that the assured has paid for is diminished 
for the benefit of the liability company, without any compensatint,' benefit to the 
assured for the depletion of his insurance against subsequent loss from boiler 
explosions. 

Tins situation is due to the provisions commonly incorporated in each form 
of contract that where other insurance is applicable the assuftd cannot recover 
a larger proportion of the loss under one policy than the insurance available 
under it bears to the total available under all policies. Such has been the com- 
monly adopted provision of boiler policies. 

The Hartford Steam Boiler I.nspection and Insurance Compwy, realiz- 
ing this deficiency in the older forms, has recently put out an improved contract 
which in addition to the usual indemnity against property loss, affords insurance 
against loss from death and personal injury in a manner which, while as fully 
as any other protecting the assured where no liability policy exists or where it 
is inadequate or inapplicable, does not force contributions from the assured's 
boiler insurance to the liability company's losses. 

A complete discussion of this whole matter has been made by President 
Brainerd and published by The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and 
Insurance Company in a pamphlet entitled "The Excess or Non-Contributing 
Form of Policy versus The Concurrent and Contributing Forms." Every steam 
user who protects himself both by boiler and liability insurance should read 
this pamphlet and carefully consider its contents. It may be obtained from 
any of the offices of the Company, which are listed on the last (cover) page 
of this issue. 



From time to time, we are asked for an opinion as to the relative responsi- 
bility of owner and tenant, with regard to the explosion of a boiler. As a 
general proposition, if, after the explosion, it can be shown that the boiler was 
in excellent condition, but care and management were bad, the tenant would be 
held liable. On the other hand, if, after the explosion, it can be shown that 
the care and management were excellent, but the design and construction of 
the boiler poor, the owners might be held, but it is one of those cases which 
depends entirely upon circumstances, which circumstances are brought out by 
the explosion, and cannot be predicted beforehand. 

As a concrete case report No. 642 to the Secretary of the British Board 
of Trade is of interest. That report describes the explosion of a boiler in a 
com mill, caused by the wasting of the shell plates due to corrosion. The Court 
blamed the owner for neglecting to have the boiler examined and he was 
ordered to pay. The tenant was blamed for neglecting to ensure that the 
boiler was working under safe condition, and he also was ordered to pay. 

It is safe to say, therefore, that for full protection of both the owner and 
the tenant, the interest of each .should be covered by a boiler policy. 



No good business man would make a loan on property which was not pro- 
tected by fire insurance, yet loans are made on property containing steam boilers, 
where no insurance protection against their explosion exists. This too in the 
face of the obvious fact that the effect of a boiler explosion is immediate and 



22 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [Janlarv, 

almost instantaneous with the event itself, while with a fire subsequent to its 
discover}' efficient measures may be taken to minimize the resulting loss. 

One explanation why boiler insurance is not carried in such cases lies in 
the mistaken idea that after a boiler explosion, fire will likely ensue, and the 
total loss will then be collectible from the fire insurance companies. This is 
not the case, however. A fire policy takes hold where the boiler policy leaves 
off, so that if a boiler explodes in a building which was worth say, $50,000, and 
if after the explosion the building because of its wrecked condition is worth 
but $4,000, the latter amount only would be collectible under a fire insurance 
policy for a fire which completed the destruction. 

This is a matter which should receive the attention of bankers and others 
who, though not owning steam plants, may loan money on them. They should 
see that the property which secures the loan is itself secure from the effects of 
a boiler disaster bj^ adequate insurance under a steam boiler policy. 



Obituary. 

Benjamin F. Cooper, late Chief Inspector of The Hartford Steam Eoiler 
Inspection and Insurance Company, at Cincinnati, Ohio, died suddenly of 
heart failure in that city November i, 191 1. 

Mr. Cooper was born in Kenton County, Kentucky, in 1844. Prepared by a 
good common school education and an apprenticeship to the machinist trade, 
he early took up the work of a stationary engineer. In this he became most 
proficient and held many important engineering positions. In 1883 he entered 
the service of the Hartford company at Cincinnati, and in 1909 received his 
appointment as Chief Inspector of that department. 

Mr. Cooper served during the Civil War from 1862 to 1865 as a private 
in the 4th Ohio Cavalry, and ever after remained a loyal comrade of his asso- 
ciates in that great struggle and a zealous member of the Grand Army of the 
Republic. He was prominent in Masonic circles and held in high esteem for 
his many sterling qualities cf heart and mind by a broad circle of friends and 
associates. jNIany of our assured, who have benefited by consultation with Mr. 
Cooper on matters pertaining to their steam plants, and who have thus come 
to know the value of his advice and his carefully formed opinion, will feel with 
the Hartford company that in his death has been lost a good friend, a pains- 
taking official, and a conscientious adviser. 

Mr. Cooper was buried with the honors of the Grand Army of the Republic 
b}^ his comrades of the Cincinnati local post. He is surv-ived by two sons, Cassius 
G. Cooper of Chicago, and Frank P. Cooper of Cincinnati. 



Personal. 



The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company regrets 
to announce that Allan D. Risteen, Ph.D., who for the last twenty-three years 
has been in the service of the Company as Assistant Editor and Editor of 
"The Locomotive," has severed this connection. Dr. Risteen is an expert 



1912] T H E LO C O M O T 1 V E . 23 

mathematician and a versatile writer and lecturer in other branches of science. 
He has been a contributor to many technical journals and encyclopaedias and 
has now in course of preparation a new encyclopaedia of his own, covering in 
condensed form tlxe fields of history, literature, and science. His articles in 
The Locomotive have been highly regarded from an academic as well as a 
practical standpoint, and have been a potent influence in obtaining for that 
paper a place of merited appreciation in the libraries of thcr-Jiigher technical 
schools and colleges. 

In leaving the " Hartford " Dr. Risteen bears with him the high regard 
of its officers and of his associates and the sincere good wishes of all for his 
future success and happiness. 



In December, 191 1, Walter Gerner was appointed by The Hartford Steam 
Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company, Chief Inspector at its Cincinnati 
office, vice Benjamin F. Cooper, deceased. 

Mr. Gerner's early career was largely connected with the sea, during which 
he advanced through the several grades of marine engineering to that of chief 
engineer of trans-Atlantic vessels, including in the duties of the latter position 
the supervision of construction and repair of the vessels of the line with which 
he was connected. 

During his service with this Company, Mr. Gerner has acquired a broad 
experience with inspection work in field, shop, and office. By this and his 
engineering training he is well equipped to serve the interests of our patrons in 
his new territory. 



William A. Craig, who has been connected with its inspection force since 
1893, has been promoted by The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and 
Insurance Company to the position of Assistant Chief Inspector of its Pitts- 
burg department. We are sure Mr. Craig's advancement will receive the general 
approval of his associates in our Company and of his many friends among the 
steam users of his district. 



On Decem.ber 31, 191 1, Inspector Johnston Nolan resigned from the force 
of our Philadelphia department in order to engage more actively in the manu- 
facture and sale of a blowoff valve which he has invented. We learn that his 
valve has met with favorable consideration, and we wish Mr. Nolan all success 
in his undertaking. 



The Metric System of Weights and Measures. A valuable indexed 
hand-book of 196 pages of convenient size (3>^" x 5%") and substantially 
bound, containing a brief history of the Metric System, and comparative tables 
carefully calculated, giving the English or United States equivalents in all 
the units of measurement. 

Everyone who has had occasion to convert English weights and measures 
into their metric equivalents, and conversely, is familiar with the irritation pro- 
duced, either by the necessity of calculating them, or by finding that the par- 
ticular units required are not included in the tables at hand. But the tables in 
this hand-book are so numerous that this annoyance will be reduced to its 
lowest terms. The book is of convenient pocket size and well bound. 

Published and for sale by The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection & Ins. 
Co., Hartford, Conn. U. S. A Price $1.25. 



24 T H E L O C O M O T I V E . [January, 

Boiler Explosion Injures Inspector. 

Although not without precedent, it is rare that a boiler inspector is injured 
in an explosion. An accident with this result occurred on November loth at 
the Ellicott Square office building at Buffalo, New York, when one of our local 
inspectors, Bard Leavitt, was seriously scalded by the bursting of a tube in a 
water-tube boiler next to one which he was inspecting. Two boiler makers, 
Arthur Brady and John Schrott, were working on the boiler with the inspector. 
Both lost their lives. Mr. Brady being killed outright and Mr. Schrott dying 
several days later. 

Inspector Leavitt was particularly fortunate to escape with his life, as he 
was under the tubes in the back connection when the explosion occurred. In 
order to escape, it was necessary for him to crawl through a cleaning door about 
i8 inches square, into a narrow passagewaj" which was filled with steam 
and hot water from the explosion. Mr. Leavitt was so blinded by the steam 
and the pain of his injuries that in leaving the boiler room he ran into a pumping 
engine which was in motion, and severely cut his mouth and nose on the con- 
necting rod or the crank pin. 

We are glad to state that Mr. Leavitt is on the road to recovery. 



Inspection Work for the year 1911. 

The activity of the inspection force of The Hartford Steam Boiler In- 
spection AND Insurance Company for the year just closed is evidenced in the 
statistical tables of the following pages. This data is compiled from the record 
of the work accomplished and is published in this form that those who are inter- 
ested in such matters may obtain a realization of the magnitude and value of 
the service which is performed by our inspector? in the boiler plants of the 
United States. 

The summaries on page 25 are particularl}' interesting. From a comparison 
of their figures it appears that an inspector on the average found something 
defective at nearly every visit he made, and in every ten a condition which 
if continued was dangerous to the operation of the vessel. These figures are 
significant, for the breadth of the field covered by the tabulated experience is 
great enough to represent the average situation of the steam vessels of the 
country. If once out of ten visits to a boiler room a trained inspector discovers 
a dangerous condition the necessity and value of his visitation is emphasized, 
without mention of the benefit derived at every visit from his warning of a 
defect which may be remedied before it reaches a critical stage. 

From the summary of defects the character of the several diseases which 
afflict boilers may be seen and an idea gained of the relative frequency with 
which each occurs and the probability of its attaining a dangerous state. The 
predominance of defects due to impure water is most marked. 

These statistics are of the work among steam boilers, meaning by that 
term, steam containing vessels generally. In addition the inspection force of 
the company has made during the year 92 examinations of steam pipe lines, 
economizers, and miscellaneous apparatus, and 4,234 inspections of fly-wheels 
and pulleys. 



IQJ2. I 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



25 



Summary uk Instkctoks' Work for 191 i. 
Visits (if iii^ix-'ction made, ....... 

Whole number of inspeetions ( botli interii.il aiul extcriian. 
Number of complete internal inspections, 
Boilers tested I)y hydrostatic pressure. . 
Total number of boilers condenmed. 
Total number of defects discovered. 
Total number of dangerous defects discovered. 

Sl'M.MAR'i 01 Dll-fiCTS DiSCOVKRF.n. 



NaTURK 01 DKKhCIS. 

Cases of deposit of sediment. 
Cases of incrustation and scale. 
Cases of internal grooving. 
Cases of internal corrosion. 
Cases of external corrosion. 
Defective braces and stays. 
Settings defective. 
Furnaces out of shape. 
Fractured plates. 

Burned plate.s 

Laminated plates, 

Gases of defective rivetinsi. 

Defective heads, . 

Cases of leakage around tubes. 

Cases of defective tubes. . 

Tubes too light, . 

Leakage at joints. 

Water-gages defective. 

Blow-offs defective, 

Cases of deficiency of water. 

Safety-valves overloaded. 

Safety-valves defective, 

Pressure gages defective, . 

Boilers without pressure gages. 

Unclassified defects. 

Total. 





180,842 

352.674 
140,896 




12,724 

653 

164,713 




17.410 




• 


Whole 
Mumber. 


Danger- 
ous. 


19,710 

42,879 

2.756 

14.083 

9.755 
2.485 
5.686 


1,400 

1.699 

.305 

649 

898 

545 
731 


7.191 


397 


3,479 
4,837 


440 

477 


509 
3>026 


44 
636. 


I.3-I9 
11,188 


234 
1,627 


9,447 


2,935 


1,901 


521 


5,417 


?,7?< 


3.447 


17i 


4,509 


^■2,7?^ 


313 


90 


1,124 


319 


1.225 
7,836 


329 

525 


532 


71 


29 


19 



164,713 17.410 



Grand Tutai. of the Inspectors' Work from the Time the Company Behax 
Business, to January i. T912. 

Visits of inspection made, 3,312,922 

Whole number of inspections (botli internal and external). 6,413.587 

Complete internal inspections, ......... 2,518,922 

Boilers tested by hydrostatic pressure 299.852 

Total number of boilers condemned. . 21.620 

Total number of defects discovered, 3,987.980 

Total number of dangerous defects discovered 409,639 



26 



THE LOCOMOTIVE 



[Januaky, 



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M IH M CO M 




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r^r-^Nwr^M-^OcO'* cOi-iO_C>"incoco "O 

1-" CO l-T " 


m 


in 




















Nature of Defects. 






Cases of deposit of sediment, . 
Cases of incrustation and scale. 
Cases of internal grooving. 
Cases of internal corrosion. 
Cases of external corrosion. 
Defective braces and stays. 
Settings defective, . 
Furnaces out of shape, . 
Fractured plates. 
Burned plates, .... 
Laminated plates, . 
Cases of defective riveting, . 
Defective heads. 
Cases of leakage around tubes, 
Cases of defective tubes, . 
Tubes too light, 
Leakage at joints, . 
Water-gages defective, . 
Blow-offs defective, . 
Cases of deficiency of water, . 
Safety-valves overloaded. 
Safety-valves defective, . 
Pressure gages defective. 
Boilers without pressure gages, 
Unclassified defects. 


'c3 




I9I2.J 



THE L ( ) C O M O '1" I V !•: 



27 



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ooooc-^be'Os'Tsgo-^oo-^W) ^'^ o [^ ^ i: vi 5^' 



28 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[January 




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oo w o r^ moo lo o 00 oo r<ioD O m 0>oo ^n C7>c<^CJ^i-i mm 

in in N CI o w rj-vo cito MMOt—cicncncn mo 

i-T n i-c 



coroo^QOOO'^oOTi-"mOO^mOc*~i>n''^i-ii-icioociCJ 
O oo -I O ir> o "- cnoo OOOOdm"^!-! O^oo d O O "* c<^ 
ooOMu^O^Mmi^M-J- ciiioor^i-iTtcico mO 



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I912.I 



THE LOCOMOTIVE 



29 






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ube 


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internal gr 
internal co 
external co 
e braces an 
defective, 
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d plates. 


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jlates, . 

ed plates, 
defective 

e heads, 
leakage a 
defective 


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30 



THE LOCOMOTIVE 



[January, 







Summary 


OF Inspectors* Work 


SINCE 1870. 






Year. 


Visits of 

inspection 

made. 


Whole num- 
ber of boilers 
inspected. 


Complete 

internal 

inspections. 


Boilers 

tested by 

hydrostatic 

pressure. 


Total num- 
ber of 
defects 

discovered. 


Total num- 
ber of 
dangerous 
defects 
discovered. 


Boilers 

con- 
demned. 


1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 


5.439 

6,826 

10,447 

12,824 


10,569 
13.476 
21,066 
24,998 


2.585 
3,889 
6,533 
8,511 


882 

1,484 
2,102 

2,175 


4,686 

6,253 

11,176 

11,998 


485 

954 

2,260 

2,892 


45 
60 

155 
178 


1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 


14.368 
22,612 
16,409 
16,204 


29,200 
44.763 
34.275 
32,975 


9,451 
14,181 
io,66g 
11,629 


2,078 

3.149 
2,150 

2.367 


14.256 
24,040 
16,273 
15,964 


3.486 
6,149 
4,275 
3,690 


163 

216 

89 

133 


1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 


17,179 
20,939 
22,412 
25.742 


36,169 
41,166 
47,245 
55,679 


13,045 
16,010 

17.590 
21,428 


2,540 
3,490 
4,286 
4,564 


16,238 
21,033 
21,110 
33,690 


3,816 

5,444 
5,801 
6,867 


246 

377 
363 

478 


1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 


29,324 
34,048 
37.018 
39.777 


60,142 
66,695 
71,334 

77,275 


• 24,403 
24.855 
26,637 
30,868 


4,275 
4,180 
4,809 
5.252 


40.953 
44,900 
47,230 
71,983 


7,472 
7,449 
7,325 
9,960 


545 
493 
449 
509 


1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 


46,761 

51.483 
56,752 
61,750 


89,994 
102,314 
110,394 
118,098 


36,166 
40,240, 
44,563 
49,983 


5,741 
6,536 
7,187 
7,207 


99,642 

91,567 

105,187 

115,821 


11,522 

8,967 
8,420 

9,387 


622 
426 

478 
402 


1891 
1892 

1893 
1894 


71.227 
74,830 
81,904 
94,982 


137,741 
148,603 
163,328 
191,932 


57,312 
59.883 
66,698 
79,000 


7,859 
7.585 
7.861 
7,686 


127,609 
120,659 
122,893 
135,021 


10,858 

11,705 
12,390 

13,753 


526 
681 
597 
595 


1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 


98,349 
102,911 
105,062 
106,128 


199,096 

205,957 
206,657 
208,990 


76.744 
78,118 
76,770 
78,349 


8,373 
8,187 
7,870 
8,713 


144,857 
143,217 
131,192 
130,743 


14,556 
12,988 
11,775 
11,727 


799 
663 
588 
603 


1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 


112,464 
122,811 
134,027 
142,006 


221.706 
234,805 
254,927 
264.708 


85,804 

92,526 

99,885 

105,675 


9,371 
10,191 
11,507 
11,726 


157,804 
177.113 
187,847 
145,489 


12,800 
12,862 
12,614 
13,032 


779 

782 

950 

1,004 


1903 
1904 
1905 
1906 


153.951 
159,553 
159.561 
159.133 


293,122 
299,436 
291,041 
292,977 


116.643 
117.366 
116,762 
120,416 


12,232 

12,971 
13,266 
13,250 


147,707 
154,282 
155,024 
157,462 


12,304 
13.390 
14,209 
15,116 


933 

883 

753 
690 


1907 
1908 
1909 
1910 


163,648 
167,951 
174,872 
177.946 


308,571 
317,537 
342,136 

347,255 


124,610 
124,990 
136,682 
138,900 


13,799 
10,449 
12,563 
12,779 


159,283 
151,359 
169,356 
169,202 


17,345 
15,878 
16,385 
16,746 


700 
572 
642 
625 


1911 


180,842 


352,674 


140,896 


12,724 


164,713 


17,410 


653 



Tlie Hartford Steam Boiler lospectioii aqil Ipraqce Gonipaiiy. 



ABSTRACT OF STATEMENT, JANUARY 1, 1912. 
Capital Stock, . . . $1,000,000.00. 



ASSETS. 
Cash on hand and in course of transmission, 



Premiums in course of collection 

Real estate, 

Loaned on bond and mortgage, 

Stocks and bonds, market value 3,249,216.00 

Interest accrued 71,052.02 



$204,693.25 
263,453.33 
91,100.00 
1,166,360.00 



Total Assets, 

LIABILITIES. 

Premium Reserve 

Losses unadjusted 

Commissions and brokerage, . 

Other liabilities (taxes accrued, etc.), 

Capital Stock, 

Surplus over all liabilities. 

Surplus as regards Policy-holders, 

Total Liabilities, 



$5,045,874.60 

$2,042,218.21 

102,472.53 

52,690.67 

47,191.65 



$1,000,000.00 
1,801,301.54 

$2,801,301.54 2,801,301.54 



$5,045,874.60 



L. B. BRAINERD, President and Treasurer. 

FRANCIS B. ALLEN, Vice-President. CHAS. S. BLAKE, Secretary. 

L. F. MIDDLEBROOK, Assistant Secretary. 

W. R. C. CORSON, Assistant Secretary. 

S. F. Jeter, Supervising Inspector. 

E. J. Murphy, M. E., Consulting Engineer. 

F. M. Fitch, Auditor. 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 



GEORGE BURNHAM, 

The Baldwin Locomotive Works, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 
.\TWOOD COLLINS, President, 

The Security Co., Hartford, Conn. 
LUCIUS F. ROBINSON, Attorney, 

Hartford, Conn. 
JOHN O. ENDERS, United States Bank, 

Hartford, Conn. 
LYMAN B. BRAINERD, 

Director, Swift & Company. 
MORGAN B. BRAINARD, 

Vice-Pres. and Treasurer, The ^tna 

Life Insurance Co., Hartford, Conn. 
FRANCIS B. ALLEN, Vice-Pres., The 

Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and 

Insurance Company. 
CHARLES P COOLEY, Vice-Pres., 

The Fidelity Trust Co., Hartford, 

Conn. 



ARTHUR L. SHIPMAN, Attorney, 

Hartford, Conn. 
GEORGE C. KIMBALL, President, The 

Smyth Mfg. Co., Hartford, Conn. 
CHARLES M. JARVIS, President, The 

American Hardware Corporation, New 

Britain, Conn. 
FRANCIS T. MAXWELL, President, 

The Hockanum Mills Company, Rock- 

ville. Conn. 
HORACE B. CHENEY, Cheney Brothers 

Silk Manufacturing Co., South Man- 
chester, Conn. 
D. NEWTON BARNEY Treasurer, The 

Hartford Electric Light Co., and 

Director N. Y.. N. H. and H. R. R. 

Co. 
DR. GEORGE C. F. WILLIAMS, Treas. 

&• General Manager, The Capewell 

Horse Nail Co., Hartford, Conn. 



Incorporated 1866. 




0^ Pittsburgh 

Charter Perpetual. 



me MM Sieani Boiler liispeciioq am Insurance Gonipaiig 

ISSUES POLICIES OF INSURANCE COVERING 

ALL LOSS OF PROPERTY 

AS WELL AS DAMAGE RESULTING FROM 

LOSS OF LIFE AND PERSONAL INJURIES DUE TO EXPLOSIONS 
OF STEAM BOILERS OR FLY WHEELS. 

F'u// information concerning the Company's Operations can be obtained at 

any of itsf Agencies. ' 

Representatives 

VV. M. Francis, 

Manager & Chief Inspector. 



Department. 

ATLANTA, Ga., 

611-613 Empire Bldg. 

BALTIMORE, Md., . 
13-14-15 Abell Bldg. 

BOSTON, Mass., 
loi Milk St. 

CHICAGO, 111., . 

160 West Jackson St. 

CINCINNATI, Ohio, 

First National Bank Bldg. 

CLEVELAND, Ohio, 
Century Bldg. 

DENVER, Colo., 

Room 2, Jacobson Bldg. 

HARTFORD, Conn., 
56 Prospect St. 

NEW ORLEANS, La., . 
833-835 Gravier St. 

NEW YORK, N. Y., . 
100 William St. 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa., . 
432 Walnut St. 



PITTSBURG, Pa., . 

1801-1802 Arrott Bldg. 

PORTLAND, Ore., . 
306 Yeon Bldg. 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal., . 
339-341 Sansome St. 

ST. LOUIS, Mo.. 

319 North Fourth St. 



Lawford_& McKim, General Agents. 
R. E. MtmRO, Chief Inspector. 

C. E. Roberts, Manager. 

F. S. Allen, Chief Inspector. 

H. M. Lemon, Manager. 

James L. Fookd, Chief Inspector. 

J. T. Coleman, Assistant Chief Inspector. 

W. E. Gljeason, Manager. 
Walter Gerner, Chief Inspector. 

H. A. BAJJMHART, 

Manager & Chief Inspector. 

Thos. E. Shears, 

General Agent & Chief Inspector. 

F. H. Williams, Jr., General Agent. 
F. S. Allen, Chief Inspector. 

Peter F. pESCUD, General Agent. 
R. T. BtTjJwELL, Chief Inspector. 

C. C. Gardiner, Manager. 

W. W. Manning, Chief Inspector. 

CoRBiN, Goodrich & Wick ham. General Agents. 

Wm. J. Fasran, Chief Inspector. 

S. B. Adams, Assistant Chief Inspector. 

C. D. AsHCROFT, Manager. 

Benjamin Ford, Chief Inspector. 

W. A. Craig, Assistant Chief Inspector. 

McCargar, Bates & Lively, General Agents. 
C. B. Paddock, Chief Inspector. 

H. R. Mann & Co., General Agents. 
J. B. Warner, Chief Inspector. 

V. Hugo, 

Manager & Chief Inspector. 





mniiniimilj) Qit (ipnnnHi™^ 






Vol. XXIX. 



HAklFOklJ. L(K\N.. APKIL, 1912. 



No. 2. 



COPYRIGHT, 1912, BY THE HARTFORD STEAM BOILER INSPECTION AND INSURANCE CO, 




An Old Fly-Wheel. 



> 



34 THELOCOMOTIVE. [April, 

An Old Fly-Wheel. 

The cut on the first page of the present issue of The Locomotive illustrates 
the oldest fly-wheel, in point of service, in Pittsburg, and perhaps in the state 
of Pennsylvania. It is located at tlie rolling mill of Brown & Company, Incor- 
porated, loth Street and Duquesne Way. Mr. J. Stuart Brown, President and 
Treasurer of this company, informs us that the installation of this wheel 
antedates the remembrance of the oldest employe of the company. 

At present this wheel is attached to an engine which was installed in 1866, 
and which is of the poppet valve lever type : previous to this time the wheel 
had been in service on two other engines. 

Chief Inspector Ford, of the Pittsburg department, who has passed the 
" three score years and ten " mark, remembers visiting this plant, when a 
small boy, to see his father who was, at that time. Master Mechanic of the 
works. Mr. Ford states that the young men and boys employed at the plant 
used to watch the wheel closely in times of high water, as the mill is located 
near the Allegheny river, and at such times the water would back up into the 
wheel-pit. When it reached a certain height the mill, of necessity, would 
cease operating, resulting in one or more holidays for the employes. 

The construction of this wheel is unique in that the spokes are of locust 
wood. It is twenty-five feet in diameter and makes thirty-two revolutions per 
minute ; its estimated weight is twenty thousand five hundred-seventy pounds. 
The rim is of cast-iron, nine inches thick, with a nine-inch face, and is cast 
in sixteen sections and bolted together. The spokes — eight in number — extend 
from a hub, ten inches square, to the rim, to which they are fastened by pins, 
and, in order to add more strength, a flat band of steel is passed over the face 
of the wheel and down each side of the spoke, to which it is fastened. 

The durabilit>^ of these wooden spokes has been remarkable, as it has been 
necessary to replace but two of them in the last twenty years. The wheel, 
which is running day and night six days in the week, is regarded by the com- 
pany as a tried and true friend ; but we must not use the word " true " when 
we refer to the running of the wheel, as at each revolution it runs " out of true " 
at least four inches. As this has been a characteristic of the wheel since the 
oldest employe can remember, it occasions no alarm. 



Boiler Inspection Law State of Ohio. 

H. A. Baumhart, Member of Board of Boiler Rules. 

In an endeavor to protect the public from the recognized dangers attendisg 
the operation of steam boilers, a few States and several municipalities have 
for years past had laws requiring the periodical inspection of boilers. Many 
of these laws were, however, practically worthless owing to the fact that no 
rules or regulations were prescribed to guide the inspector in determining what 
was safe practice. 

Inspectors frequently held office without the least reference to their ability 
as boiler experts, their appointment often being the reward for political services 
rendered to the party in power. Under such conditions it would sometimes 
happen that an inspector who was not competent, but who had the force of law 



1912.J T H K LOCO M U T I V E . 35 



back of him, would make rules that were a hardship to the steam user and in 
no wise contributed to safe boiler operation. 

Massachusetts was one of the first states to enact a law requiring the 
annual inspection of steam boilers used in that state. It was of the generally 
inefficient character just described as was proven by its use for several years. 
Ihis law was amended in 1907 and made thoroughly efficient hy a provision for 
a Board of Boiler Rules which was given authority to prepare rules and regu- 
lations governing the construction, installation, operation and inspection of 
practically all the steam boilers for use in the State of Massachusetts. Irt due 
time after this Board was appointed, a set of rules was prepared, and these 
rules as amended from time to time have now been in use for a sufficient 
period to demonstrate their general value. 

In 1910 the National Association of Stationary Engineers of Ohio took up 
the subject of a boiler inspection law for their State, and after careful con- 
sideration it was concluded that a law similar to that in force in Massachusetts 
would afford the greatest safeguard to human life and property and be most 
likely free from political influence. The association accordingly prepared a bill 
which, after several amendments, became a law by the signature of Governor 
Harmon on June 14, 191 1. This law provides for the establishment in the office 
of the Chief Examiner of Engineers at Columbus, of a department to be known 
as the Board of Boiler Rules, to consist of the Chief Examiner of Engineers as 
chairman, and four members to be appointed by the governor. One of these is 
to be an employe of the boiler using interest, one an employe of the boiler 
manufacturing interest, one an employe of the boiler insurance interest, and one 
an operating engineer. 

The duties of this board are similar to the Board of Boiler Rules of Massa- 
chusetts; that is, to provide rules and regulations for the construction, installa- 
tion, operation and inspection of steam boilers, and the devices with which they 
are equipped. The board was also to pass on any plans that might be deemed 
necessary to the safe operation of steam boilers, and to prescribe a standard 
form of certificate of inspection ; also to examine all applicants for certificates 
as boiler inspectors. 

It was provided in the law that on or after Jan. i, 1912, all steam boilers 
and their appurtenances (with certain specified exceptions), should be thoroughly 
inspected, internally and externally, and under operating conditions at intervals 
of not more than one year. It was also provided that such boilers should not 
be operated at pressures in excess of the safe working pressure stated in the 
certificate of inspection and must be equipped with such appliances to insure 
safety of operation as may be prescribed by the Board of Boiler Rules. 

The specific exceptions exempted from the operation of the law certain 
classes of boilers used in agricultural and other field work, locomotives and 
boilers, under the jurisdiction of the federal government. Boilers for heating 
were exempt if operated at pressures below 15 pounds per sq. inch and provided 
with approved safety devices. 

In preparing the bill it was desired to avoid placing any hardship upon the 
steam user or boiler manufacturer in the construction and installation of new 
boilers. This wa^ accomplished by making the rules which govern the con- 
struction of new boilers effective July l, 1912, or nearly a year after the rules 
were prepared. This gave ample time to arrange contracts for future delivery. 

The bill was introduced to the General Assembly and was known as House 



36 THELOCOMOTIVE. [April, 

Bill No. 248. In its preparation the Legislative Committee of the National 
Association of Stationary Engineers had in mind two objects, which to them, 
were of vital importance. 

First: They desired boiler construction and inspection which would safe- 
guard human life and property. 

Second: They insisted that the inspection system be uniform and that the 
steam user should not be burdened with an expense or tax for similar services 
rendered by an insurance company. 

To avoid such extra expense and also to standardize the inspection work, 
the bill was made to provide for two classes of inspectors : one to be known as 
General Inspectors, in the employ of the state, and the other to be known as 
Special Inspectors, in the employ of an insurance company authorized to insure 
boilers. These two classes of inspectors were to work under the same rules 
and regulations governing the inspection of steam boilers. Each inspector was 
to be examined and obtain a certificate of competency, and also a commission 
from the state authorizing him to inspect boilers. 

The Ohio law differs slightly from that of Massachusetts in some respects. 
In Massachusetts an inspector, if employed by an authorized insurance company 
after passing a satisfactory examination, is granted a certificate of competency 
which permits him to make inspections of boilers for use in the State of Massa- 
chusetts. This certificate is granted without requiring a fee. In Ohio a fee of 
$10.00 must accompany an application for examination for a certificate, and 
after a certificate has been granted, the successful applicant is not authorized 
to inspect boilers for the state until a commission has been granted him by 
the Chief Inspector of Steam Boilers. In Massachusetts an inspector holding a 
certificate of competency can issue a certificate of inspection for a boiler which 
he finds to comply with all the requirements of the law, and no fee is charged 
the boiler owner for these certificates. In Ohio the certificate of inspection can 
only be issued by the Chief Boiler Inspector and the boiler owner is required 
to pay a fee of 50c. for each certificate. 

In compliance with the law, the Board of Boiler Rules met on August 9, 
1911, for the purpose of formulating rules governing the construction, installa- 
tion, and operation of steam boilers. The subject was an important one, requir- 
ing careful consideration, as the State of Ohio ranks among the largest in 
manufacturing and mining industries, and probably has within its borders 25,000 
steam boilers. 15,000 of which would on January i, 1912, be subject to the rules 
governing the inspection of them. The State of Ohio up to this time had never 
had a boiler inspection law. Its steam users and boiler manufacturers, therefore, 
were familiar only with such inspection requirements as the steam boiler insur- 
ance companies imposed, and in most cases the pressure allowed was that 
determined by the boiler manufacturer or an insurance company's inspector, 
when insured. As power plants are designed to operate with a certain fixed 
minimum pressure, it was realized that any reduction to permit of a fully 
adequate factor of safety would, in many cases, cause a great hardship. The 
factor of safety under which some of the boilers were operated was problem- 
atical but, judging from personal observation, a considerable number, perhaps 
40% of the total in the State, had a factor of safety of 5 ; about 30% a factor of 
safety of 4V2 ; 25% a factor of safety of 4, and perhaps 5% a factor of safety of 
less than 4. The question most difficult for the Board to decide, was what 
should be the minimum factor of safety for boilers already installed, and at 



i9>2.J T H E L C) COM OT I V E . 37 



what time in point of service should the pressure be reduced, in order to main- 
tain safe o])eration and not create ;in unnecessary expense or hardship, or per- 
haps in some cases, compel the mine or factory to close to avoid violation of 
the law. 

The Massachusetts rule places the minimum factor of safety at 5, and this 
is increased when the boiler is ten years old. This high standard was obtained 
after several years of educational work in that state. It would seem to be an 
injustice to the steam users to extend that rule to Ohio at this time. The mini- 
mum factor of safety generally used in Ohio for the past ten years was 4. It was 
thought that this factor could be safely extended to cover all boilers already in 
use in Ohio until the steam users could become accustomed to a higher standard 
and arrange conditions to meet it. It was, therefore, recommended that the 
minimum factor of safety for boilers already installed be placed at 4, and that 
the inspector should increase this when the general condition of a boiler required 
it. This rule was unanimously adopted by the board. It is recorded in Part i 
of the book of boiler rules and is now a law. 

When formulating the part of the rules governing boilers to be installed 
after July i, 1912, the board considered in addition to safety, the question of 
standard boiler construction. Some states and several cities have boiler inspec- 
tion laws, which dififer in but small details, but sufficiently so to prevent a boiler 
designed for one locality being installed in another, although meeting all the 
requirements of the law at the first location. Boiler manufacturers are placed 
at a serious disadvantage because of this situation, for it thus becomes necessary 
to know where the boiler is to be installed before it can be designed, a condition 
which tends to increase the cost of production. Manufacturers and contractors 
whose business requires the use of temporary steam power are inconvenienced by 
being prevented from removing boilers from one locality to another because of 
this difference in the inspection laws. The boiler manufacturers and steam 
users generally requested that the rules covering the construction of Ohio 
standard boilers be made similar to those adopted by the State of Massachusetts 
and the City of Detroit, believing that if Ohio followed those rules, it would be 
an incentive for other States to follow them, when inspection laws were enacted. 
After carefully analyzing the Massachusetts boiler rules, the board found that 
they covered in detail practically all the requirements of safety, and with the 
exception of a few slight changes relating to minor details, adopted them, and 
they are found in Part 2 of the book of boiler rules. 

These rules apply to all boilers installed in Ohio after July i, 1912. To 
avoid delay, additional expense, and perhaps rejection of a boiler, steam users, 
when ordering a boiler to be installed in Ohio, should specify that it comply 
with the Ohio Standard Rules. The law states explicitly that no certificate of 
in.spection shall be granted on any boiler installed in Ohio after July i, 1912, which 
does not conform to these rules. Boiler manufacturers, dealers and steam users, 
should understand that new boilers in the state, which are installed before July 
I. 1912, cannot be installed as Ohio Standard Boilers unless they have been con- 
structed to comply with the Ohio rules. 

Under the Ohio and Massachusetts law. all boilers must be inspected at the 
place of manufacture by an authorized inspector and stamped by the manufacturer 
in the presence of the inspector before shipment. This may appear an unneces- 
sary expense, but it has been found in practice to be necessary to insure com- 
pliance with the rules. 



38 



THE LOCOMOTIVE 



[April, 



A Peculiar Engine Accident. 

Usually it is not a very difficult matter after an engine or boiler accident 
to determine the cause. The engine accident which we here describe is, however, 
an exception to this general rule. We were given ample opportunity to make a 
thorough examination after this accident before any of the parts had been 
disturbed. 

The facts as stated by those in charge of the engine at the time of the 
accident were corroborated by the conditions found upon this examination. 
The engine was a cross-compound Corliss built by the Wm. Harris Steam 




Fig. I. A Peculiar Engine Accident. 



Engine Co. of Providence, R. I., and was used as an auxiliary drive for the 
No. 2 Mill of the Thorndike Company at Thorndike, Mass. 

Under normal conditions the power for this mill is derived from the 
Ware River, and the engine is used in times of low water. On account of 
the variation in the load it is required to handle, the piping is arranged so that 
it may be operated single cylinder condensing, compound condensing, or as a 
simple engine. 

At the time of the accident the connecting rod on the low pressure side 
had been removed and the high pressure cylinder was being used alone in 
connection with the condenser. The condenser is of the jet type, the pump 
being driven directly from the crank pin on the low pressure side. 

The results of the accident, which occurred while shutting down the engine 
at 6 P. M., are clearly illustrated in Figures i and 2. Owing to the necessity 



1<;12.J 



T H K LOCO M O T I V E 



39 



for releasing a clutch on the main line shaft, the shutting down of the engine 
was rather a slow process, requiring about ten minutes to complete. At the 
time of the accident the engine had slowed down to a point where it was 




Fig. 2. A Peculiar Engine Accident. 

judged that one or two more revolutions of the fly wheel would be the last, 
when an explosion occurred with the results as shown. 

In an accident of this nature the first cause suspected is water, but this 



40 THELOCOMOTIVE. [April, 



could not have returned by way of the cylinder, for the first thing done by 
the engineer in shutting down was to close the injection water valve. Even 
if this valve had not been shut, the condenser pump was operating as long as 
the engine continued to revolve. Also the reach rod was unhooked and the 
steam valves were closed as is clearly shown in Figure 2. There were no evi- 
dences of water in the steam chest, which contained considerable quantities of 
finely divided asbestos which was blown from the pipe covering, and if water 
had been present, the condition of this covering material would have indi- 
cated it. 

It can be assumed that a slug of water came over from the steam main 
and delivered a blow on the elbow sufficient to break it; but if so, why were 
there no evidences of the presence of water? 

Another objection to such a theory is that both the steam inlet valves and 
the throttle valve were closed and on this account there seems no good reason 
why water coming through the steam pipe should be moving with any con- 
siderable speed. The top of the steam chest was rather weakly constructed, 
being about i inch thick and 47 inches long by 1414 inches wide and not 
stiffened in any manner by ribs. 

The Master Mechanic of the mill thought that the elbow was broken in 
some manner by expansion of the pipe line, and that the main steam pipe 
was thrown up by the outrush of steam and fell back on the elbow, when the 
automatic valve closed, delivering a blow that broke in the top of the steam 
chest. This theory is very plausible as it would explain the position the parts 
were found in, but no marks could be found on the broken end of the elbow, 
or the flange attached to the Locke automatic stop valve, to show that such a 
blow had been delivered. That the steam pipe was thrown up quite a distance 
at the time of the accident is indicated by the bent hangers and broken air duct 
shown in the upper part of Figure 2. 

It is possible that owing to the weakness of the top of the steam chest 
the steam load of 80 lbs. per square inch acting downward on the elbow at the 
instant it broke, with the leverage of 15 inches between the center lines of the 
main steam pipe and the trottle valve, may have been sufficient to break in the 
top of the steam chest. The load applied to the elbow tending to throw it 
down in this manner would have been about 2.250 lbs. at the instant the elbow 
broke. 

We will be glad to hear from any of our readers who may think that 
they have a better theory to suggest as to the cause of this accident than the 
ones here given. It was extremely fortunate that this engine was supplied 
with an automatic stop valve, for the broken parts were thrown in such a 
manner that the auxiliary valve operating this device was tripped and the 
main valve immediately closed. Without such a device several occupants of 
the engine room would probably have been scalded by the out-rushing steam. 



Temperature Attained by Internal Feed. 

V. Hugo. 

The Locomotive for March 1882 and several more recent numbers of that 
paper have set forth the advantages of the method of supplying boilers with 
water by feeding it in at the top and through a length of internal pipe before 



1912.] 



T H E L () (• O MOTIVE 



41 



if 

































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no 








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vs/A.-r^ 


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IHTERNAU rtED-PlPt. or BOILER /WAiH- 




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EnTERIMQ TE.V\PER/>.TURe 
1 


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AO 50 fcO 10 

Rate of fceo, poohds pef^ aavnute 



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its final discharge into the body of water in the boiler itself. As these articles 
have pointed out, this method raises the temperature of the incoming feed to 
iiearly that of the body of water before its discharge and thus to a great extent 
relieves the boiler of strains to which it would be subjected by local contact 
with cool water. 

What temperatures may thus be obtained for the incoming feed by its 
passage through the internal pipe should be a matter of interest, and it is 
hoped that the results of a test made by the writer on the temperatures thus 
reached in one boiler may prove a contribution of value to the accumulated 
data on the subject. 

Two boilers were used in a test, the purpose of which primarily was to 
determine the evaporative value of a certain coal. Boiler No. i was used 



42 THELOCO MOTIVE. [April, 

for this purpose and all coal and water supplied to it were carefully weighed. 
Its feed water, however, was first passed through twenty-nine and one-half 
feet of 11/2 inch internal feed pipe in No. 2 boiler which was fired only to 
maintain a constant pressure, and consequently a constant temperature of the 
water in it. Thus by the arrangement of its feed pipe connections No. 2 boiler 
became practically an independent heater for the feed water of No. i, and as 
measurements of both rate and temperature of feed were constantly recorded 
the resulting data were available as evidence of the advantage of the internal 
pipe as a heater. This data is shown on the accompanying chart on which the 
rise in temperature attained at different rates of feed has been plotted. The 
average temperature of the water entering No. 2 boiler was 158 degrees Fahren- 
heit, and its steam pressure was maintained constantly at 80 lbs. per sq. in. 
corresponding to a temperature of 323 degrees Fahrenheit. 



Autog-enous Welding" for Repairing Boilers. 

By Henry Cave, President of " The Welding Co." 

Autogenous zvelding is the uniting of metals into one solid mass by fusion 
without using any dissimilar metal and without pressure or hammering. It 
differs from other forms of welding, in that the metal is actually melted and flows 
together and is not merely brought to a plastic condition by heat and then ham- 
mered together as in the case of the blacksmith's weld or forced together by 
pressure as in the case of the ordinary form of electric welding. 

The most common form of autogenous welding is that carried out by means 
of the oxy-acetylene flame, the temperature of which is 6300 degrees Fahrenheit. 
l"his high temperature is not required to fuse the common metals, but has the 
advantage of applying the heat so rapidly that the conductivity of the metal has 
not time to draw it away from the spot where it is applied, with the result that 
this spot very soon becomes red hot and is then fused, while the metal a few 
inches from the weld remains cool. The oxy-acetylene flame has the highest 
temperature of any known combustible, due to the fact, that it is produced by 
burning acetylene with pure oxygen. Acetylene having the largest amount of 
carbon in its composition that a gas can carry, has the greatest heat possibility 
and this heat is developed to its fullest extent when burned with pure oxygen. 

This process of welding is a natural development of the last few years 
following on the heels of the commercial development of acetylene gas from 
calcium carbide which is now cheaply produced by means of the electric furnace. 
The process was first developed in France. It required a number of years of 
experimental work before a satisfactory torch was produced, but at the present 
time every metal working establishment of any importance in that country is 
equipped to carry out this class of work. The development in this country has 
been slower, but the equipment now obtainable here is equal if not superior to 
anything produced abroad, and the work performed by it is fully up to the 
foreign standard. 

Two distinct types of equipment have been developed termed respectively, 
■'High Pressure Positive Mixture" and "Low Pressure Injector Mixture." The 
low pressure torch was developed to use acetylene gas from an ordinary lighting 
generator, the pressure of which is only a few ounces per square inch. With it 



1912. J 



THE LOCOMOTIVE 



43 




there was difliculty of ohtaininp; a 
thorough mixture of the gases, a con- 
dition which resulted in poor econ 
omy and weak welds. The hij^li 
pressure torch was then developed 
abroad to overcome this trouble. It 
had the disadvantage of rcquirinji a 
supply of gas under pressure which 
at first was obtainable safely only by 
compresing it and storing it as 
■' dissolved " acetylene in cylinders. 
When it was introduced into this 
country, however, " Yankee " inge- 
nuity devised a " pressure " generator, 
which produces the gas under the re- 
quired pressure (not over 15 lbs. per 
sq. in.) direct from the calcium car- 
bide, and thus removed from the 
" high pressure " torch the principal 
objection to its use. As most of the 
repair work on boilers is carried out 
without moving them, the equipment 
used for that work must necessarily 
be portable. I will not, therefore, go 
into any further detail with regard to the 
is in the shop where portability is not a requisite quality. 

For portable use the apparatus consists of a cylinder of compressed pure 
o.Kygen and a cylinder of dissolved acetylene. Both are provided with reducing 
valves which limit the pressure of the gas to that required in the torch. The 
latter is supplied by a hose connecting with both cylinders so that it may be 
taken inside a fire-box or boiler and the welding carried out in anj- position 
and on any part of the boiler. Welds can thus be made on the vertical seams 
or plates of fire-boxes without any trouble, as well as on overhead surfaces as 
required. As these various positions have some influence on the efficiency of 
the work, only men used to these various conditions should be allowed to 
attempt it. 

The oxygen is stored in the tank or cylinder merely by compression, it, 
of course, being necessary to have a sufficient number of cylinders on hand to 
supply enough gas for the particular job. This is also the case with the acetylene 
cylinders. These, however, are not merely tanks into which that gas is com- 
pressed, — for acetylene compressed above twenty-five pounds per square inch is 
dangerous, — but contain certain liquids which have the property of "absorbing" 
or " dissolving " acetylene, in which condition it is perfectly safe. The cylinders 
are first filled with an absorbant material such as asbestos, which holds like a 
sponge the absorbing liquid with its compressed and dissolved gas. 

With this apparatus, the company w-ith which the writer is connected has 
been most successful in the application of autogenous welding to the repair of 
steam boilers. The field for such application is almost boundless, and the saving 
that can be made over older methods by building up or strengthening corroded 
parts with new metal homogenously united with the old must be obvious to all. 



Fii.. I. Welding Tube Sheet. 
high pressure " generator, as its field 



44 T H E L O C O M O T I V E . [April, 

The work to be successful must l)e most carefully performed and only by tliose 
who are equipped with suitable apparatus and are expert in its use. So much 
depends not only on having the gases of the applied flame properly mixed and 
in proper proportions, but also on the correct application of the flame and its 
heat to the metal that in so important work as boiler repairs, too great emphasis 
cannot be laid on these requirements. An inexperienced operator even with 
proper equipment could produce results which would be disastrous, and any one. 
whether experienced or not, may obtain the equipment if he can afford the price. 
For these reasons the writer is strongly advocating the licensing both of the 
equipments for carrying out the work and of operators to use licensed equipments 
in the repair of boilers. The work should further be carried out under the 
the direction and supervision of one who is not on!}- informed in boiler con- 
struction but who has a broader knowledge of the nature of metals and their 
heat treatment than may be expected of even a most expert equipment operator. 
As illustrating the character of boiler repairs that our company has suc- 
cessfully undertaken, the following examples have been taken : 

1. A corroded section of the plate at the mud-ring of a Manning boiler was 
built up to its original thickness, the work being done without removing the 
boiler, whereas the boiler-makers required the shipment of the boiler to their 
shops for repair. 

2. The welding of cracks in the ogee ring of three Manning boilers, the 
welding of which was carried out in a few hours. The replacement of these 
rings practically meant a reconstruction of the boilers, which would have been 
a very expensive operation. 

3. The welding of the vertical seams in the rtre-boxes of six Manning boilers 
and also the welding of the rivets, it being impossible to caulk these seams so 
as to produce a tight joint. 

4. The welding of fourteen fire cracks in the girth seam of a horizontal 
boiler directly over the fire, this work being carried out overhead. Repeated 
efforts to take care of these cracks by ordinary means having proved unavailing. 

5. The building up of the plates in the fire-boxes of six vertical boilers 
over areas approximately six feet in length and 8 to to inches in width from the 
mud-rings up. This method was adopted instead of the more expensive and less 
efficient method of riveting in patches, which would sooner or later prove a 
source of trouble. 

6. The welding of numerous cracks in the neighborhood of fire door. This 
is a very common form of trouble on all types of boilers. 

7. The building on of metal on the bottom edge of the lire-door flange, which 
had been worn thin by constant barring. 

8. The welding in of a plate to form a new hand hole on a horizontal 
boiler, the hand hole having been enlarged to the limit to take care of the corro- 
sions due to leakages. In this way at small cost, the necessity of replacing the 
tube sheet was avoided. 

9. The welding of broken bridges in the tube sheet, it being practically 
impossible to satisfactorily repair these in any other way, though attempts are 
frequently made to plug them. (See Fig. i.) 

10. Bags can be put up with the help of the oxy-acetylene flame in a frac- 
tion of the time required by older methods and with more satisfactory results. 

IJ. ]\Iore extensive repairs were carried out on locomotive boilers. Fig. 
2 shows the side sheets of the fire-box of a locomotive repaired by welding in 
the lower halves instead of riveting them. It can readily be seen that by 
adding rivets and seams as in the case of patches, future trouble is invited, par- 
ticularly where these rivets and seams come in the neighborhood of the fire. By 
welding these half side sheets in, future troubles are avoided. In this same 
fire-box, as can be seen from the illustration, patches were put in the back sheet 
of each side. This boiler had been cracked between several stay-bolts on the 
back head and these had been repaired by riveting on patches. The cracks then 
extended beyond the patches, which were removed, the cracks being welded 



1912.] 



T H R L ( ) C O M C) T 1 \' E . 



45 



up and hlind rivets put in the hole. This repair materially reduced the lenj?th 
of time the locomotive was out of commission, which was an important item. 

12. Another locomotive fire-box had already had a riveted seam placed 
just above the line of the fire on the side plates and it became necessary to replace 
this seam, though the rest of the plates were in fair condition. The oxygen 
cutting torch was used to cut out a strip about 5 inches wide, including this seam, 
in each side plate. The patches were then welded in. the wi^ole operation was 
carried out within two or three days. It would have required nvo or three weeks 



" •'0O^*-i2l.a 



xW V 






'% 





Fig. 2. Welded Fire-Box. 

to repair it by ordinary means and the saving alone from this feature amounted 
to hundreds of dollars. 

These examples are chosen from a large number of such repairs which have 
been thoroughly tested and proved satisfactorj'. They should give a general 
idea of the scojie and character of the repairs that can be carried out by this 
means. 



The foregoing article by Mr. Cave, abstracts briefly a most comprehensive 
lecture which he presented before The Hartford Steam Boiler Technical Club 
on the evening of December 27, igii. The lecture was followed by a demon- 
stration of the equipment and methods employed by Mr. Cave's company in 



46 THELOCOMOTIVE. [April, 

the welding and cutting of metals by the oxy-acetylene process, and was most 
interesting and instructive to those who were present. 

The HARTFORD company recognizes the possibilities which autogenous 
welding has opened for the economical repair of machinery and metallic struc- 
tures of all kinds. We have felt, however, that in so important a matter as 
boiler repairs this new process should not be too hastily adopted for general 
application. We are accordingly pleased at the evidence in Mr. Cave's paper that 
he, as the head of a company which has done much in this line, appreciates the 
dangers involved in the performance of such repairs by unskilled operators or 
faulty apparatus. The success of a weld cannot be absolutely determined from its 
external appearance and when that success is so dependent on the skill of the 
operator and his manipulation of apparatus, we would hesitate to make use of this 
new process in a repair the strength of which was vitally necessary to the boiler's 
safety. There are many cases, however, where a defect appears which does not 
in itself lessen the boiler's strength. In the remedy of such defects the auto- 
genous weld may be applied without much risk and in this class of repair the 
process should find a broad field of usefulness. Undoubtedly success in this work 
will gradually overcome any- distrust of the weld for the repair of more vital 
defects. 



Boiler Explosions, Their Causes and Prevention.* 

S. F. Jeter. 

It is a great pleasure to be permitted to deliver a paper before the 
representative boiler manufacturers of the country, and particularly so on this 
subject and occasion. New Orleans was the scene of the speaker's first entry 
into the steam boiler insurance field with the company that has had more to 
do with the prevention of steam boiler accidents than any other organization. 

The causes of steam boiler explosions are so varied that it will only be 
possible to mention the more prominent ones in this paper. Broadly speaking, 
there is one explanation for all boiler explosions; namely, the boiler or some 
part of it is too weak to withstand the strain brought upon it. However, there 
are many causes contributing to such weakness. 

The public and many engineers assume that most explosions are caused 
by some mysterious influence which cannot be foreseen or guarded against, but 
as an actual fact, a definite cause can be given for most explosions of con- 
siderable violence. That a large percentage of boiler explosions are from 
causes that might have been foreseen and prevented, is a well established fact. 

The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company's business 
during the past forty-five years has been built upon this idea, and the Com- 
pany's success and low loss ratio have demonstrated its correctness. Public 
opinion is being aroused to the fact that many boiler explosions are preventable, 
as evidenced by the present agitation for laws governing the construction and 
operation of boilers. The lead of the city of Philadelphia has been followed 



* A paper delivered before the American Boiler Manufacturers' Association at New Orleans 
March 12-15, iqi?. 



I9I2.] T H E L ( ) C () M O T 1 V !•: . 47 



and improved upon by the State of Massachusetts. Ohio and several municipal 
governments now have boiler laws patterned after those of Massachusetts, and 
similar action is being seriously considered by a number of other states and 
cities. I can speak from experience gained in the manufacture of boilers, and 
I am sure you will bear me out in tlic statement, that good laws on this subject 
of uniform character will be welcomed by the high-grade boiler manufacturer 
as a distinct aid tending to eliminate unfair competition. 

The cause of boiler explosions which I will deal with first, because it is 
of particular interest to the manufacturer, is faulty design. Boilers are fre- 
quently constructed too weak for the pressure to be carried. This does not 
mean that the boiler will necessarily explode as soon as pressure is raised.- 
Explosions from this cause usually occur after years of use, the overload on 
the parts having had time to gradually weaken them until they are no longer 
capable of resisting the excessive strain. Of course, a manufacturer has prac- 
tically no control over the steam pressure to be used on a boiler, after he has 
delivered it to the purchaser. However, if the manufacturer should stamp his 
name and the safe working pressure for which it was designed on each boiler 
built, it would act as a protection to his reputation in the event of excessive 
pressure being used. Proper inspection and fixing of pressures by experts is 
the logical remedy for explosions due to this cause. 

A fault of design which often leads to an explosion is the adoption of a 
shape which tends to deform under pressure. In such cases, if the movement 
produced occurs in narrow limits along fixed lines, grooving or cracking is 
almost certain to occur, finally causing an explosion, unless the defect is dis- 
covered before the structure has been weakened to the breaking point. The 
obvious remedy is to use shapes which internal pressure does not tend to change, 
and if this is impractical to use such forms that the movement produced will 
occur over considerable areas and not be confined to narrow limits. 

Improper reinforcement of openings has occasionally been the cause of 
boiler explosions. If the openings in boiler work were not generally of such 
moderate dimensions this might be a more frequent cause of disaster. It may 
be well to say here that no definite information is available regarding the dis- 
tribution of stresses around an opening in a cylinder when subjected to internal 
pressure; consequently, the design for the reinforcement of such openings is 
by rule-of-thumb. 

A cause of boiler explosions, where the design is primarily responsible, is 
when the arrangement "does not permit of accessibility for the inspection of all 
parts. This is especially so when the inaccessible parts are located where rapid 
deterioration is likely to occur. No portion of the boiler proper should rest 
directly on a foundation or have any of its parts buried in earth or ashes. 

A design which does not permit free circulation of water in all of its parts 
is liable to produce rapid internal corrosion, for unless a current is produced 
by the circulation sufficiently strong to remove all bubbles of air that may 
attach themselves to the surfaces, rapid corrosion is almost certain to ensue, 
which if neglected may result in an explosion. Air, which is a mixture of about 
four parts of nitrogen to one of oxygen, together with very small quantities 
of other gases, dissolves to a certain extent in water. However, the oxygen, 
being more soluble than the nitrogen, dissolves more readily and the proportion 
of the gases found dissolved in the water are roughly one of oxygen to two 
of nitrogen, instead of in the proportions found in the air. When the dissolved 



48 T H E L O C O M O T I V E . [April, 

air is liberated by the heat, the high percentage of oxygen causes the surfaces 
on which the bubbles may collect, to be rapidly corroded. This accounts for the 
severe corrosion of vessels containing water, which is merely heated without a 
strong circulation being produced. 

A correct boiler design will provide uniform flexibility throughout. A stiflF 
rigid part next to one which is flexible is a menace to safety if there is any 
tendency towards movement between the parts, either due to temperature changes 
or pressure. 

Defective workmanship is responsible for some explosions. The barbarous 
practice of drifting rivet holes has doubtless contributed largely in the past 
to such accidents. The reputable manufacturer of today, however, will not 
knowingly permit such work. 

Lack of properly flaring the tubes and nipples in water-tube boilers has 
frequently resulted in explosions. The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and 
Insurance Company have always advocated proper flaring, and sometimes manu- 
facturers have taken issue with the Company on this point. Experience, which 
has cost the Insurance Company many thousands of dollars, has fully demon- 
strated the correctness of their position in this matter. The safety of the 
joints between a tube and plate when expanded and flared or merely expanded, 
is not a question of the relative strength of such connections newly made. When 
for some reason connected with the operation of a boiler a connection of this 
kind becomes loose due to a movement of the parts from expansion or vibra- 
tion, together with the excessive weight sometimes sustained, the tube or nipple 
with a flared end is decidedly giore safe than one which is merely expanded. 
The flared nipple usually gives warning of its looseness by leakage before it 
pulls out. 

We all know from experience that the tendency is for employees to cover 
up mistakes in the shop. A manufacturer cannot guard his reputation from 
injury by this means too carefully. A loss of reputation for good work, 
after it has been well established, is many times more costly to the manufacturer 
m dollars and cents than the correction of errors before work leaves the 
shop. 

Defective material is sometimes the cause of boiler explosions, and the 
boiler manufacturer is largely dependent upon the producer of the material 
entering his product for protection in this respect. Nothing but material of 
the best quality should be specified for all parts of a boiler which are called 
upon to resist the strains produced by the pressure of steam, and every precaution 
.should be exercised to see that such material is obtained. 

Cast iron should never be used in any part of a boiler called upon to resist 
tensile strains. This is in thorough accord with your views on the subject as 
expressed in your uniform boiler specifications. 

A cause of explosions which is particularly reprehensible because of its 
being preventable, is due to an owner's willingness to pit his judgment against 
more competent or conservative advice. Often boilers are known to be in 
need of repairs, but the work is put off to a more convenient season. A feed 
pump refuses to start, and instead of fires being drawn as soon as the water 
reaches the lowest safe level, a chance is taken that it can be run a little longer. 
Pressures are sometimes carried higher than reasonable safety would permit, 
to avoid the expense of larger engines, or better boilers. Boilers are forced 
beyond a reasonable duty for the heating surface they contain. This is a feature 



it,i2. 1 T H 1-: L O C O M () T I V K . 49 

that must be reckoned with more in the future than it has been in the past. 
Many engineers are apparently trying to discover by experiment the limit to 
the rate of transfer of heat from lire to water through the medium of boiler 
tubes and plate. In order to show minimum investments and other economies, 
resulting from high rates of driving, engineers are prone to advise overloads 
on both engines and boilers, and all seem to overlook the ail-important question, 
Is it safe? 

Boiler explosions are also the result of neglect or carelessness in operation. 
Scale and deposit are often allowed to collect in quantities that are dangerous 
Connections to water columns are allowed to become stopped. Oil is permitted 
to enter the boiler with the feed water. Repairs to settings which may affect 
the safety of the boiler are neglected. Safety valves are not regularly tested 
to ascertain if they are in operating condition. Occasionally a boiler owner 
who discovers his safety valve leaking, with an eye blind to every consideration 
except the prevention of loss of steam, places a stop valve on the connection 
to the safety valve or plugs the outlet. A steam gauge registers incorrectly and 
the engineer screws down on the safety valve in an endeavor to make the gauge 
show the correct pressure. The pressure of steam is not sufficient to produce 
the results desired with the machinery using it, and the safety valve is deliber- 
ately made inoperative to overcome the difficulty. All of these conditions have 
been the cause of boiler explosions in the past and they probably will continue 
to contribute their share in the future until the steam user is more thoroughly 
educated in the matter of the risk he runs by such carelessness. 

Tube failures, which are chiefly confined to the water-tube type of boiler, 
are a source of grave concern to the boiler insurance interest on account of 
the difficulty to guard against the usual failure of this kind by inspection. A 
defective weld usually does not show on the surface of the tubes, and even 
where the surface indications would lead to suspicion, a large percentage of 
the tubes in water-tube boilers are beyond the reach or vision of the inspector. 
The thorough inspection of tubes before they are placed in the boiler, while 
very unsatisfactory, even taken in connection with the mill test, is about the 
only protection possible against accidents due to defective tubes. 

The seamless tube, of course, will prevent accidents due to defective welding, 
but tubes made by this process are not always of uniform thickness, and with 
the cold drawn product there are apparently internal strains produc'ed by the 
process of manufacture which sometimes cause the tubes to break when merely 
heated. If cold drawn tubes are used for boiler purposes, the annealed stock 
should be obtained. Hot drawn seamless tubes are meeting with considerable 
favor among engineers for boiler purposes. A considerable percentage of tube 
failures occur without the slightest evidence as to their cause. A welded tube 
frequently break.s through the solid metal away from the weld, without being 
corroded or weakened in any way that may be detected by the eye, and without 
evidences of overheating. There must be some reason for such failures. 

It is a fact that while pressures and rates driving have been remarkably 
increased during the past 15 or 20 years, no increase in the thickness or strength 
of tubes has occurred. That the thicker tube is safer seems to have been 
demonstrated by a number of cases where heavy tubes have been put in place 
of those of standard gage at the recommendation of the Hartford Company, 
and the tube troubles have ceased. Of course, it can be contended that the 
theoretical factor of safety is higher on tubes even of standard thickness than. 



50 THELOCOMOTIVE. [April, 

on almost any other portion of the boiler. However, under operating conditions 
accompanying high rates of driving, is it not possible that there are decided 
fluctuations in the temperature of the material in the tubes? The rapid forma- 
tion of steam bubbles removes for a certain interval of time the water protection 
from the inner surface of a tube, and the thinner the material, the higher will 
its temperature rise during a given time in which it is not protected. It is 
conceivable that the structure of the metal in a thin tube may be affected in 
time by the constant change in temperature until it gives out, while the thicker 
tube might not be affected to the same degree by this means. 

This idea is only advanced as a possible explanation for some of the 
tube accidents which seem to defy definite causes being assigned for them. 

The thicker material in the cases of welded tubes will make more certain 
that the required strength is obtained in the weld, also, surface imperfections 
in the material would not affect the strength to the same degree in the thick 
tube as it would in the lighter one. 

The importance of the question of tube failures to the operator of boilers 
as well as to the insurance interest can be appreciated when I say as I believe 
I can conservatively, that the toll of loss of life and limb exactly by such 
failures probably exceeds other classes of boiler accidents when the relative 
number of fire-tube and water-tube boilers in use is considered. 

Corrosion has been the cause of many serious explosions, but with boilers 
built accessible for inspection, explosions from this cause may be reduced to a 
minimum where the boilers are under the care of a competent inspection 
service. 

A source of explosions, external to the boiler itself, but which has produced 
very serious disasters, is the improper arrangement of steam piping. It is very 
dangerous indeed to attempt to connect a boiler to a steam line where the 
piping is arranged so that water pockets may be formed. A water-hammer is 
likely to result in such cases which may break the pipe connections, and this 
in turn may produce an explosion of the boiler itself. 

A source of very disastrous explosions has been the prevalence of the hidden 
crack or so-called lap-seam crack. The cause of these defects are either the 
form of seam, poor material, improper shape of the joined ends of the sheet, 
or the abuse of the material in the process of manufacture ; or possibly a com- 
bination of some of these causes. That the form of seam alone is not the only 
factor is well demonstrated by the fact that all lap seams do not fail in this 
manner and also that some seams of the butt joint type have thus failed. 

It is, of course, readily recognized that with every precaution which can 
be taken, boiler explosions cannot be entirely eliminated but their number may 
be lessened materially. A proper inquiry into all accidents of this kind by 
Government officials qualified and clothed with ample authority to get at all 
facts in each case, and the blame, if any, placed where it properly belongs, would 
tend to reduce the number of explosions materially. This is a feature we might 
profitably copy from our English cousins. / 



I9I2. 



THE HJCOMOTIVE 



51 



Repairing' Bag-g-ed Fire Sheets. 



J. P. Morrison, Inspector. 

A very common occurrence in the operation of steam boilers is the bagging 
of the fire sheets, due to the presence of scale, oil, etc., that may prevent the 
proper cooling of the metal by the contained water. 

It is very much the best, when possible, to repair such defects by heating 
and driving the metal back to its original position instead of resorting to patch- 
ing. In driving up a bag it is, of course, desirable to prevent as far as possible 
the marring of the metal by hammer marks and to leave the surfaces straight 
and true to the original form. Tlie success with which a repair of this kind 
may be accomplished depends largely upon the skill of the boiler-maker, but 
proper tools are almost indispensable if a first-class job is to be obtained. 

The usual method of heating the sheet with a fire pot and bellows is familiar 
to nearly all boiler-makers and to many boiler owners who have had occasion 
to have such repairs made. The gasoline blow torch is now sometimes used 
instead of the old fire pot where compressed air is available, and the results 
obtained by heating in this manner are generally satisfactory. 




The novice can appreciate that if an attempt should be made to straighten 
a bent piece of rod without an anvil of some kind to hammer on, it would be 
almost impossible to obtain satisfactory results, and in a measure it is as difficult 
to straighten a bagged sheet without some similar device. The block here illus- 
trated can be used as an anvil against which the boiler sheet may be driven. 
It is made with one face to a radius of 36 inches and the other 30 inches, so 
that one face or the other will fit approximately any shell between 54 inches 
and 84 inches in diameter, and therefore, only one block is necessarv'. The 
width of the block is limited by the size of the man-hole opening to about 12 
or 13 inches and the length of from 12 to 15 inches is generally sufficient. If 
3 inches thick the weight will be about 85 to no lbs., which will permit good 
work without being difficult to handle. A hole is tisually drilled in the end 
and threaded for a i-inch pipe to facilitate handling. 

By placing this block over the bulged part after each heat and using the 
proper kind of hammers, the metal may be driven to its original position without 
corrugations or hammer marks. A final heat and careful use of a flatter will 
leave the sheet in practically as good condition as before it was bulged. 



THE LOCOMOTIVE 



[April,, 






HARTFORD, APRIL, 1912. 

Single copies can be obtained free by calling at any oj the company's agencies . 
Subscription price so cents per year when mailed from this office. 
Recent bound volumes one dollar each. Earlier ones two dollars. 
Reprinting of matter froin this paper is permitted if credited to 
The Locomotive of The Hartford Steam Boiler 1. & 1. Co. 



Mr. Baumhart's paper in' this issue on the Ohio Boiler Inspection Law we 
are sure will be read with interest by those who appreciate the need of 
governmental supervision over the operation of steam boilers. The danger ta 
life and property which is inherent in every steam generating vessel is ample 
justification for such supervision and for legal enactments which will compef 
compliance with approved methods and practices. 

In Ohio the legislature evidently realized that adequate measures of safety 
included both a frequent inspection of the condition of each boiler and the estab- 
lishment of definite standards of structure, equipment, and installation. It 
appreciated that these were all strictly technical questions on which only those 
expert in such matters were competent to pass and it therefore wisely delegated 
to a commission of such experts authority to determine those standards and' 
to establish them with the force of law. This is all very gratifying to the 
Hartford Company for it indicates a public realization of the necessity for 
those measures which for years this company has contended were essential to 
the safeguarding of boiler operation. It started on the theory that many a 
boiler disaster was preventable had the condition of the boiler been previously 
determined, and it organized and maintained a system of inspection which in 
the past forty-six years has proved that theory correct. The experience of 
those years enabled it to advocate certain standards of approved construction 
and installation and it is accordingly a matter of pardonable pride to the 
Hartford that the experts of the Ohio Board of Boiler Rules, following the- 
example of Massachusetts, have given their endorsement to so many of those- 
standards b}' including them in the legal regulations of their commonwealth. 



Richard Teller Crane. 

The April issue of The Valve Wnrld is devoted to an appreciative tribut-e- 
to the memory of Richard Teller Crane, late president of Crane Company, 
whose death occurred on January 8th, 1912. In it is told the life story of the- 
man whose genius as a mechanic and an organizer made possible the great- 
commercial institution which bears hi? name and which is so well known tr- 



1912. 



T H 1-: L () C O M O T I V E . 



53 



steam users throughout the land. Of him I'he Valve World write>: 

'■ He lived a long and eventful life in the age of iron and steel and in 
the developments of that age he wrought not only a journeyman's but a 
master's part. He was a consi)icuous member of that class of men to which 
this country has not yet paid its meed of praise simply because as yet it but 
imperfectly realizes the immense value to this country of the skilled and 
ingeiDOus mechanics of great busim-ss ability whom the last century produced." 



Boiler Explosions During- 1911. 

We desire to call attention to the statistics concerning boiler explosions 
•which occurred during 191 1. Great care has been exercised in the compilation 
of the chronologically arranged lists, upon which the appended summary is 
based, and it is our belief that we have accounted for by far the greater number 
■of boiler accidents which has taken place in the United States in the past year. 
As the accounts are received, and usually several newspaper clippings or letters 
reach us in regard to each explosion, they are carefully scrutinized and com- 
pared so that the actual facts are determined as nearly as possible. 

It happens occasionally that our source of information is unreliable and 
"that our lists are correspondingly inaccurate. When this occurs we take pleasure 
in correcting any errors which are called to our attention, and greatly appre- 
ciate any information which will lead to greater accuracy in our lists. 

We have been informed of one account, given in The Locomotive for 
October, which was incorrect, viz. Item No. 298, July 19, the explosion of a 
boiler on Lafaj'Ctte Boulevard, Detroit, Mich. Our correspondent states that 
no explosion took place there. 

The summary follows: 

Sl'.m.m.^rv ok Boiler Explosions for 1911. 



MONTH Number of 
^"^''^"- Explosions. 


Persons 
Killed. 


Persons 
Injured. 


Total of 
Killed and 
j Injured. 


January 

February, 

March. ' 

April. 

May. 

June. 

July 

August 

September. .... 

October 

November, .... 
December, .... 


76 

44 1 

39- 1 

39 
43 
31 

42 
32 
29 

48 
39 
37 


22 
31 

27 

14 
18 
30 

18 
13 

14 
II 

17 


43 
52 
38 

22 

39 
17 

34 
29 
20 

53 
35 
34 


65 
83 
65 

36 

57 
47 

52 
42 
27 

67 
46 

51 


Totals, .... 


499 222 


416 


638 



54 THELOCOMOTIVE. [Avril, 



Boiler Explosions. 

December, 191 i. 

(463.) — On or about December i the boiler of a locomotive on the Houston 
East & West Texas railroad exploded, near Houston, Texas. Three men were 
injured. 

(464.) — A boiler exploded, December 2, at the McVeagh Lumber Co.'s 
plant. Reader, Ark. Three men were killed and three others injured. Property 
damage, due to the explosion and resulting fire, was estimated at $25,000. 

(465.) — On December 3 the boiler of the towboat Diamond, owned by the 
the Diamond Coal & Coke Co., exploded on the Ohio river, about five miles 
south of Pittsburg, Pa. Five men were instantly killed, two seriously injured, 
and several other persons slightly hurt. 

(466.) — A cast-iron heating boiler fractured, December 3, in the Southern 
New England Telephone Co.'s building. Meriden, Conn. 

(467.) — The furnace of . a vertical boiler collapsed. December 4, in the 
plant of the Jackson Co., Nashua, N. H. No one was injured. 

(468.) — On December 4 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the 
mirror factory of The Zahn & Bowley Co., East Rutherford, N. J. 

(469.) — A boiler exploded, December 4, during a fire at the United Express 
Co.'s stable in Jersey City, N. J. Two men were injured. 

(470.) — On December 5 a blowoflf pipe ruptured at the plant of the Electric 
Steel Elevator Co., Minneapolis, Minn. One man was slightly scalded. 

(471.) — A tube ruptured, December 6, in a water-tube boiler in Public 
School No. 28, Scranton, Pa. No one was injured. 

(472.) — On December 6 a hot-water boiler exploded in the plant of the 
North Pole Dye Works, Houston, Tex. No one was injured, but the building 
was wrecked. 

(473-) — On December 7 two sections of a cast-iron boiler cracked in the 
Y. M. C. A. building, Frederick, Md. 

(474.) — A blowoff pipe ruptured, December 8. at the plant of the Merrill- 
Springer Co., Bethel, Maine. 

(475.) — On December 8 a tube burst in a vertical tubular boiler in the 
gas producer plant of the Southern Power Co., Charlotte, N. C. The explosion 
caused a fire which damaged property to the amount of $2,000. One man was 
killed and two others were injured. 

(476.) — The boiler of freight locomotive No. 754, on the D. & H. railroad 
exploded, December 8, near Westport. N. Y. One man was killed and two 
others severely injured. 

(477.) — On December 9 a sectional cast-iron boiler fractured in the apart- 
ment house at 80 St. Botolph street, Boston, Mass. 

(478.) — A sectional cast-iron boiler fractured, December 10, in the Phoenix 
Hotel, Findlay, Ohio. 

(479.) — A tube ruptured, December 11, in a water-tube boiler in the 
Bettendorf Axle Co.'s plant, Bettendorf, Iowa. The boiler was considerably 
damaged. 

(480.) — On December 11 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler in the 
Waukegan, 111., plant of the American Steel & Wire Co. 



1912.] T H E LOC'OMOT I V E . 55 



(481.) — A cast-iron header in a water-tube boiler fractured, December 13. 
in the Miiford, Attleboro & Woonsocket Street Railway Co.'s plant, Franklin. 
Mass. 

(482.) — On December 13 the boiler of a locomotive on the Trinity & 
Brazos Valley railroad exploded, near Dallas, Texas. Two men were killed 
and one other severely injured. 

(483.) — A tube ruptured, December 15, in a water-tube boiler in the plant 
of the American Gas & Electric Co., Muncie, Ind. 

(484.) — On December 15 a blowoff pipe burst at the plant of E. T. Steele 
& Co., textile manufacturers, Bristol, Pa. One man was scalded. 

(485.) — A tube ruptured, December 18, in a water-tube boiler, at the 
E>onora Wire Works plant of the American Steel & Wire Co., Donora, Pa. 

(486.) — A boiler ruptured, December 19, in the American Sand & Gravel 
Co.'s plant, Carpentersville, 111. 

(487.) — On December 19 the crownsheet of a locomotive on the P. C. C. & 
St. L. railroad blew out near Jones station, east of Piqua, Ohio. One man 
was killed and two others injured. 

(488.) — The boiler of McCormick Brothers' sawmill exploded, December 
20, at Ideal, Ga. Seven men were injured, one of them seriously. 

(489.) — On December 21 a boiler burst in the Beatty steam laundry, Ros- 
well, N. M. One man was severely injured. The property loss was estimated 
at $500. 

(490.) — A boiler exploded, December 21, in the Lowman mill. Apiary, 
near Rainier, Ore. Two men were killed and two others injured. 

(491.) — On December 23 a blowoff valve burst at the plant of the Chicago 
Malleable Castings Co., Chicago, 111. One man was fatally scalded, dying the 
following day, and another was severely burned. 

(492.) — A heating boiler exploded, December 24, in the Flushing avenue 
police station, Brooklyn, N. Y. No one was injured. Property damage was 
estimated at $300 to $400. 

(493.) — On December 25 a heating boiler burst in the Methodist Episcopal 
church, West Ocean Grove, N. J. 

(494.) — A tube burst, December 27, in a water-tube boiler at the plant 
of the Cadoza Lace Co., Pawtucket, R. I. 

(495.) — On December 28 a blowoff pipe ruptured in the Eureka Brick 
Co.'s plant, Lynnhaven, Va. 

(496.) — A boiler exploded, December 28, in the basement of No. 4 engine 
house, Lexington street, Baltimore, Md. No one was injured. 

(497.) — Several cast-iron headers in a water-tube boiler fractured, Decem- 
ber 29, in the water and light plant of the City of Starksville, Miss. 

(498.) — The boiler of a freight locomotive on the Wabash railroad 
exploded, December 29, at Thamesville, Mich. One man was fatally and 
another slightly injured. 

(499.) — On December 30 a sectional cast-iron heater fractured in the 
metal working plant of the George Q. Hill Co., Boston, Mass. 



5(3 T H E L O C O M O T I V E . [Ai-ril. 

January, 1912. 

(i.) — On January i a small heating boiler burst in the plant of the 
Jackson Milling Co., Steven Point, Wis. No one was injured. 

(2.) — A hot-water heating boiler exploded, January 2, in the basement of 
the Wren-Clancy department store, Altoona, Pa. Three persons were injured 
and the property damage was variously estimated at $5,000 to $10,000. 

(3.) — On January 2 a sectional cast-iron boiler ruptured in the furniture 
store of Haglage & Hawkins, Kansas City, Mo. No one was injured. 

(4.) — A boiler burst, January 2, in the basement of Plymouth Church, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

(5.) — On January 2 the crownsheet of a boiler of the locomotive type 
failed in the Imperial Laundry, Hamilton, Ohio. The explosion and resulting 
fire caused a property damage of $50,000. The boiler was said to be thirty 
years old. 

(6.) — On or about January 3 a heating boiler in the county jail at Mc- 
Alester, Okla., exploded. The building was somewhat damaged but no one was 
injured. 

(7.) — On January 4 a boiler burst at the Spriiigfield, Ohio, water works 
plant. According to the newspaper account a patch blew off from one of the 
boilers. 

(8.) — A blowoff pipe ruptured, January 4, at the cotton compress of the 
Warrant Warehouse Co., Birmingham, Ala. 

(9.) — On January 5 the boiler of a locomotive engine exploded in the 
Southern Pacific roundhouse, Los Angeles, Calif. Two men were killed and 
three others injured. 

(10.) — The boiler of a locomotive on the Bartlett & Western railroad 
exploded, January 5, near Georgetown, Texas. One man was killed and another 
injured. 

(11.) — A hot-water boiler burst, JanuaVy 5, in the basement of the 
residence of Ed. Rader, Allentown, Pa. No one was injured. 

(12.) — On January 5 a hot-water boiler burst in the basement of a two- 
story brick dwelling at 281-283 Thirty-third street, Milwaukee, Wis. The ex- 
plosion caused a fire which destroyed the building with a loss estimated at 
$12,000. No one was injured. 

(13.) — Three cast-iron headers fractured, January 6, in a water-tube boiler 
at the Washington & Lee University, Lexington, Va. 

(14.) — On January 6 a section of a hot-water boiler exploded in the boiler 
house of Z. G. Simmons, Kenosha, Wis. The loss was estimated at several 
thousand dollars. 

(15.) — A hot-water heater exploded, January 6, in the mail car of a Rock 
Island train at the union station, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. One man was slightly 
injured. 

(16.) — On January 6 a hot-water boiler burst on the premises of William 
P. Northrup, Buffalo, N. Y. Property damage was estimated at $5,000. One 
account of the explosion states that " Just what caused it to explode could not 
be learned yesterday, but it is thought that the boiler became too warm and 
burst, as is sometimes the case with new boilers." 

(17.) — A boiler exploded, January 7, in the residence of Max L. Woolf, 
Chicago, 111. The resulting fire almost totally destroyed the building. No 
one was injured. 



19I2.J T H E L C) C O M O T I V E . 57 



(i8.) — A tube ruptured. January 8, in a water-tube boiler at the Penn 
Central Light & Power Co.. Altoona. Pa. 

(19.) — A cast-iron heater burst, January 8, at the High School. Salis- 
bur>', Mo. 

(20.) — The boiler of a threshing engine exploded. January 8, at Star 
City, Ind. One man was seriously injured. 

(21.) — On January 8 a boiler exploded in a building being constructed at 
84 Gates avenue, Montclair, N. J. One man was painfully injured. 

(22.) — A vertical tubular boiler exploded, January 8, in the cellar of the 
provision house of George Doersch Co., New York City. Two men were 
injured. Property damage was estimated at $1,500. 

(23.) — On January 8 a boiler, used in the process of cutting ice, exploded 
at Salem, N. Y. One man was fatally injured. 

(24.) — A boiler explosion occurred, January 8, in the residence of William 
Hoagland, West Chester, Pa., causing considerable damage. 

(25.) — On January 9 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the plant 
of the Inland Steel Co., Indiana Harbor, Ind. 

(26.) — A boiler exploded, January 9, on the farm of Samuel Hadom, near 
Wheeling, W. Va. One person was slightly injured and the boiler house was 
completely demolished. 

(27.) — A boiler exploded, January 9, in the cellar room of the Imperial 
Laundry, Hamilton, Ohio, causing a fire which destroyed the building. 

(28.) — On January 9 the heating boiler of the Calvin College and Theo- 
logical Seminary, Grand Rapids, Mich., exploded, making the entire heating 
system useless. 

(29.) — On January 9 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler in the plant 
of the Ehret Magnesia Mfg. Co., Port Kennedy, Pa. 

(30.) — A boiler flue burst, January 10, in the Fort Worth and Denver 
shops, Amarillo, Texas. Four men were injured. 

(31.) — On January 10 a hot-water heater exploded in the residence of 
William S. Brace, West Hartford, Conn. 

(32.) — A boiler exploded, January 10, in the parochial school of the Church 
of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, AUentown, Pa. The loss was estimated at $1,000. 
(33.) — On January 11 a boiler exploded in the plant of the American 
Perfectile Co., Henry Clay, Del. Two men were slightly injured and consider- 
able property damage was done. 

(34.) — On January 11 an accident occurred to the boiler of a locomotive 
belonging to the Hope Lumber Co., Hope, Ark. 

(35.) —A bolt blew out of a boiler, January 11, at the coal mine of E. J. 

Walker & Co., Brisbin, Pa. 

(36.) — A hot-water heater exploded, January 11, in a trolley car of the 
Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co., Milwaukee, Wis. One person was 
fatally and several others severely injured. 

i2,7-) — On January 12 a boiler exploded at the Clarence colliery of the 
Hillside Coal & Iron Co., Pittston. Pa. No one was injured. 

(38.) — A tube ruptured, January 13, in a water-tube boiler in the plant of 
the American Steel Foundries, Alliance, Ohio. 

(39.) — On January 13 a heating boiler burst in the Roberts Street School, 
Lestershire, N. Y. 



58 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [April, 

(40.) — On or about January 13 a heating boiler burst on the premises 
of C. H. Mott, Adrian, Mich. 

(41.) — A boiler tube burst, January 14, in the boiler in the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, Lestershire, N. Y. 

(42.) — A section of a cast-iron heater fractured, January 14, in the apart- 
ment house of Mrs. Pauline Danere, New York City. 

(43.) — On January 14 six cast-iron headers ruptured in a water-tube boiler 
in the Multnomah Hotel, Portland Ore. 

(44.) — A hot-water heater exploded, January 14, in a trolley car of the 
Lehigh Valley Transit Co., at Fullerton, Pa. One man was injured. 

(45.) — On January 15 a boiler exploded at the No-Name mine, on the 
L. B. Jones land in Newton county, near Joplin, Mo. Three men were killed 
and one other was injured. 

(46.) — A blowoff pipe failed, January 16, at the plant of the Tremont 
Mfg. Co., Boston, Mass. 

(47.) — On January 16 a boiler exploded at the plant of the American 
Silica Co., Richwood, Mich. 

(48.) — A boiler exploded, January 16, at the grain mill of Harr & Cropp 
Co., Meadland, W. Va. One man was instantly killed and three others were 
fatally injured. The property damage was estimated at $1,000. 

(49.) — The boiler of a locomotive on the Louisville & Nashville railroad 
exploded, January 16, near Longrun station, Ky. The explosion was caused 
by a collision of a Louisville & Nashville and a Chesapeake & Ohio train. 

(50.) — On January 16 a boiler burst in the machine and plumbing shop 
of Fred Williams, near North East, Pa. No one was injured. 

(51.) — A boiler exploded, January 17, at Colebrook, twelve miles south 
of Lebanon, Pa. The boiler was owned by the United Coal & Ice Co., and 
was being used in the process of ice harvesting. Six men were seriously injured, 
two of them probably fatally. 

(52.) — On January 17 the boiler in the basement of the Holy Rosary 
■Convent, West Hoboken, N. J., exploded. There was considerable damage to 
property. 

(53.) — A boiler burst, January 17, in the residence of John B. Kates. 
Collingswood, N. J. 

(54.) — Eight sections of a cast-iron heater ruptured, January 17, in Science 
Hall of Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Ind. 

(55.) — On January 18 a section cracked in a cast-iron heating boiler in 
the belt dressing plant of the Cling Surface Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 

(56.) — On January 18 a boiler ruptured at Dr. W. B. Fletcher's sanatorium. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

(57.) — A heating boiler exploded, January 18, at St. Mary's Academy. 
Danville, 111. 

(58.) — On January 18 a hot-water boiler burst in the Lafayette apartment 
house, 320 Madison avenue. New York City. No one was injured. 

(59.) — On January 19 the boiler of the river steamer Sarah Dixon ex- 
ploded, four miles south of Kalama, Wash. Three men were killed. 

(60.) — A tube ruptured, January 19, in a water-tube boiler in the stamp 
mill of the Baltic Mining Co., Baltic, Mich. 

(61.) — On January 19 a tube ruptured in water-tube boiler No. 9 at the 



I9II.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 59 

plant of the Monongahela Light Co., Rankin, Pa. Two men were injured. (See 
Items Nos. 62. 63 and 64.) 

(62.) — On January 19 a tube ruptured in water-tube boiler No. 11 at the 
plant of the Monongahela Light Co., Rankin, Pa. (See Items Nos. 61, 63 and 64.) 

(63.) — On January 19 a tube ruptured in water-tube boiler No. 13 at the 
plant of the Monongahela Light Co., Rankin, Pa. (See Items Nos. 61, 62 and 64.) 

(64.) — On January 19 a tube ruptured in water-tube boiler No. 14 at the 
plant of the Monongahela Light Co., Rankin, Pa. (See Items Nos. 61, 62 and 63, 
These four accidents occurred at different times but all within an hour.) 

(65.) — On January 20 a boiler failed at the Minden Edison Light & Power 
Co., Minden, Neb. 

(66.) — A cast-iron sectional boiler fractured, January 20, in the restaurant 
of Housman & Co., Boston, Mass. 

(67.) — On January 21 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the Fort 
Wayne RolHng Mills Co.'s plant. Fort Wayne, Ind. One man was injured. 

(68.) — A hot-water boiler exploded, January 21, in the residence of J. G. 
Danio, Kenmore, N. Y. The damage was slight. 

(69.) — On January 22 a heating boiler exploded in the Cement Central 
Hotel, Allentown, Pa. No one was injured. 

(70.) — A heating boiler exploded, January 22, in the residence of Captain 
J. F. Tibbetts, Athens, Ga. One man was seriously injured. 

(71.) — On January 22 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler in the cotton 
mill of Swift Mfg. Co., Columbus, Ga. 

(72.) — A cast-iron heater fractured, January 22, in a water-tube boiler 
at the plant of the Hill Clutch Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 

(73.) — On January 23 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the planing 
mill of W. D. Young Co., Bay City, Mich. One man was injured. 

(74.) — On January 23 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the plant 
of the Pee-Dee Mfg. Co., Rockingham, N. C. 

(75.) — A tube ruptured, January 24, in a water-tube boiler at the plant 
of Marshall Field & Co., Chicago, 111. Considerable damage was done to the 
boiler. 

(76.) — Three sections of a cast-iron heating boiler fractured, January 24, 
in the hotel of Mary E. Schaefer, Findlay, Ohio. 

(77.) — A blowoff pipe failed, January 24, at the cotton seed oil mill of 
Frank G. Kinney & Co., Kansas City, Kans. One man was injured. 

(78.) — On January 24 a tube burst in the boiler of the lumber schooner 
Arctic, while the vessel was entering San Francisco harbor. 

(79.) — Six sections of a cast-iron heater fractured, January 25, in the 
hotel of H. P. & Mary G. Canode, Amarillo, Texas. 

(80.) — On January 25 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler in the paper 
mill of the Kimberly-Clark Co., Kimberly, Wis. 

(81.) — A boiler exploded, January 25, at the Smith- Pane Lumber Co.'s 
plant, near Braxton, Miss. One man was seriously injured and four others 
slightly hurt. 

(82.) — On January 26 the boiler of a New York Central locomotive ex- 
ploded near Oneida, N. Y. The engineer was instantly killed and the fireman 
was severely injured. 



60 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [April 



(83) — A cast-iron elbow on a blowoff pipe failed, January 26, at the 
plant of the Lynn Gas & Electric Co., Lynn, Mass. One man was injured. 

(84.) — On January 27 a heating boiler exploded in the basement of the 
Continental, a boarding house, Rumford Falls, Me. One woman was seriously 
injured. 

(85.) — A boiler exploded, January 27, on the farm of Israel Weilich, 
near Washington, Pa. One person was seriously and perhaps fatally injured. 

(86.) — A steam heater exploded, January 28, in the residence of Randolph 
H. Chandler, Thompson, Conn. Property damage was estimated at $1,500. 

(87.) — On or about January 28 a boiler burst in the offices of the 
American Cement Co., Egypt, Pa. 

(88.) — On January 28 a boiler ruptured at the plant of the Wyoming 
Valley Lace Mills, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

(89.) — The boiler of a locomotive exploded, January 29, in the Southern 
Pacific roundhouse at San Francisco, Calif. One man was seriously injured. 

(90.) — On January 31 a cast-iron elbow failed at the Ridgespring Oil 
Mill, Ridgespring, S. C. One man was injured. 



February, 1912 

(91.) — On February i, a blowoff pipe burst at the plant of the Lang Mfg. 
Co., West Point, Ga. One man was slightly scalded. 

(92.) — A blowoflf pipe burst, February 2, at the plant of the Lynn Gas & 
Electric Co., Lynn, Mass. One man was injured. 

(93.) — On February 3 a blowoflf pipe burst in the P. Echert factory of the 
National Candy Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

(94.) — On February 4 a heating boiler burst in St. Mark's Lutheran 
Church, York City, Pa. 

(95.) — A heating boiler burst, February 4, in the basement of the Brookline 
Presbyterian Church, Chicago, 111. The property damage was estimated at $2,000. 

(96.) — The boiler of a Lehigh Valley freight engine exploded, February 4. 
at Flagtown, near Somerville, N. J. Two men were killed and two others 
injured. 

(97.) — On February 5 a boiler of the locomotive fire box type exploded 
at the quarry of the Royal Marble Co., near Knoxville, Tenn. Two men were 
killed, three others injured, and property was damaged to the extent of over 
$1,000. 

(98.) — On February 6 a boiler exploded at the rendering plant of E. E. 
Frith, at Dubuque, la. Property damage was small. 

(99.) — A slight accident occurred, February 6, to a boiler in the plant of 
the Hemingway & Bartlett Silk Co., Watertown, Conn. (See also Item No. 106.) 

(100.) — Ten cast-iron headers ruptured, February 6, at the Ohio Electric 
Railway Co.'s power plant, Medway, Ohio. 

(loi.) — On February 7 a boiler exploded at the Pond Lily Laundn-. Dye- 
ing & Cleaning Co.'s plant, New Haven, Conn. 

(102.) — A boiler burst, February 7, in the Glidden School. De Kalb. 111. 

(103) — Four cast-iron headers fractured, February 9. in a water-tube 
boiler at the Iroquois Co.'s " Chittenden Hotel," Columbus, Ohio. 



191 1.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 61 

(104.) — On February 10 a heating boiler exploded in the residence of 
George Golsener, College Point, N. Y. 

(105.) — On February ii a boiler exploded in the residence of M. W. 
Boyle. Elizabeth, N. J. The damage was slight. 

(106.) — On February 11 a slight accident occurred to a boiler at the plant 
of the Hemingway & Bartlett Silk Co., VVatertown, Conn. (See also Item No. 99.) 

(107.) — A blowoflf pipe burst, February 11, at the plant of the Watson 
Oil Mill Co., Starr, S. C. The boiler setting walls were considerably damaged. 

(108.) — A sectional cast-iron heating boiler burst, February 11, in the 
apartment house of Louville Niles, Roxbury, Mass. 

(109.) — On February 11 a tube ruptured in a water-tube boiler at the 
power house of the Charleston Illuminating Co., a plant of the National Light, 
Heat & Power Co., Charleston, 111. One man was injured. 

(no.) — On February 11 a boiler exploded during the progress of a fire 
at the patent leather factory of W. C. Welch & Co., Woburn, Mass. No one 
was injured. 

(ill.) — On February 12 a cast-iron heater failed in engine house No. 5, 
City of Bridgeport fire department, Bridgeport, Conn. 

(112.) — A boiler burst, February 12, in the saw mill of E. Libby & Sons 
Co., Gorham, N. H. 

(113.) — On February 12 a cast-iron heating boiler burst in a building 
owned by William Crane, at 3-5 Vassar street, Cambridge, Mass. 

(114.) — A boiler explosion occurred, February 12, at the tobacco rehand- 
'ling house of R. F. Wright, West Mayfield, Ky. One man was seriously injured. 

(115.) — On February 13 a boiler burst at the plant of the Reed Colliery 
Co., Berwindale, Pa. 

(116.) — A heating boiler exploded, February 13, in the residence of Dr. 
A. G. Humphrey, Galesburg, 111. 

(117.) — A boiler exploded, February 14, in a vacant building owned by 
the Church of St. Martin of Tours, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

(118.) — On February 14 a cast-iron header ruptured in a water-tube boiler 
at the Thirty-third and Market streets station of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit 
Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

(rig.) — A blowofT pipe burst, February 15, at the Milwaukee Downer Col- 
lege, Milwaukee, Wis. One man was slightly injured. 

(120.) — A slight boiler explosion took place, February 15, at the plant of 
the Kennedy Laundry & Supply Co., Pullman, 111. 

(121.) — A boiler exploded February 15, in the garage of Charles Praden- 
hauer, Bernardsville, N. J. No one was injured. 

(122.) — On February 17 a sectional cast-iron boiler burst at the Sedgwick 
Machine Works, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

(123.) — On February 19 a water-tube boiler exploded at the saw mill of 
the Bond Lumber Co., Bond, Miss. The explosion was a very violent one, 
causing property damage amounting to over $27,000. Four men were killed and 
two others injured. 

(124.) — Two cast-iron headers in a water-tube boiler fractured, February 
19, at the plant of the Herman Zohrlant Leather Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 

(125.) — On February 19 a tube ruptured in a watertube boiler in the 
plant of the U. S. Board & Paper Co., Carthage, Ind. 



62 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [April, 

(126.) — A boiler owned by the Carter Oil Co., exploded, February 19, on 
the Carson farm at Trail Run, near Sistersville, W. Va. One man was killed 
and another probably fatally injured. 

(127.) — On February 21 a boiler tube ruptured in the Glenwood power 
house of the Pittsburg Railway Companies. Four men were injured, one of 
them seriously. 

(128.) — A tube in a water-tube boiler ruptured, February 22, in the plant 
of the Minneapolis Malt & Grain Co., Minneapolis, Minn. 

(129.) — On February 22, a tube in a water-tube boiler ruptured in the stamp 
mill of the Baltic Mining Co., Baltic,' Mich, 

(130.) — A blowoff pipe ruptured, February 23, in the cotton bleachery of 
The Bronx Co., New York City. One man was slightly injured. 

(131.) —On February 24 a blowoff pipe ruptured at the plant of the Lewis- 
ton Gas Light Co., Lewiston, Me. 

(132.) — A hot-water heater exploded, February 24, in the residence of 
William Bower, on Red Lion Road. Philadelphia. Pa. The explosion caused a 
fire which resulted in a property loss estimated at $17,000. 

(133) — On February 26 a slight accident occurred to a boiler at the 
Medina County Infirmary, Medina, Ohio. 

(134.) — A tube in a water-tube boiler ruptured, February 26, at the Inman 
Mills, Inman, S. C. 

(135.) — On February 26 the boiler of a freight locomotive on the Trinity 
& Brazos Valley railroad exploded at Chambers Creek, about fifteen miles north 
of Corsicana, Texas. One man was killed and four others injured. 

(136.) — On February 28 a boiler exploded in the flour mill of the Rea & 
Page Milling Co., Marshall, Mo. 

i'^2>7-) — On February 29 three tubes ruptured in a boiler at the Fox Co.'s 
paper mill, Lockland, Ohio. Two men were scalded. 



THE HARTFORD STEAM BOILER INSPECTION AND INSUR- 
ANCE COMPANY is now issuing to its policy-holders its " Vacation Schedule "' 
for 1912. Like those of previous years, this schedule affords a most convenient 
form for arranging and recording the hoUday period allotted to each of the 
clerks or other employees of an institution. From it at a glance may be deter- 
mined how many and what members of the force will be absent on any given 
date and thus by a little foresight and care the assignment of the same days 
to those whose simultaneous absence would cause inconvenience may be avoided. 
That this publication is appreciated by its recipients is shown by the following 
quotation from one of many similar letters which the HARTFORD Company 
has received : 

" We acknowledge receipt of your letter of 8th, and copies of your vacation 
schedule, which we received under separate cover and for which we wish to 
thank you very much. Your idea is the best we have seen for keeping record 
of the vacations, and your furnishing us with the blanks saves us considerable 
work in making them up for ourselves." 

Copies may be obtained by our policy-holders on application to the nearest 
of the offices listed on the last page of this issue. 



TUB Vartloril Steam Boiler iDspeGiloq aqd Insurance Gompaqg. 

ABSTRACT OF STATEMENT, JANUARY 1, 1912. 
Capital Stock, . . $1,000,000.00. 



ASSETS 

Cash on hand and in course of transmission, 
Premiums in course of collection, 

Real estate, 

Loaned on bond and mortgage, 
Stocks and bonds, market value, 
Interest accrued 



$204,693.25 

263^53.33 

91,100.00 

1,166,360.00 

3,249,216.00 

71,052.0a 



Total Assets. $5,045,874.60 

LIABILITIES. 

Premium Reserve $2,042,218.21 

Losses unadjusted, 102472.53 

Commissions and brokerage, 52,690.67 

Other liabilities (taxes accrued, etc.), 47,191.65 

Capital Stock, $1,000,000.00 

Surplus over all liabilities, 1,801,301.54 

Surplus as regards Policy-holders, . . $2,801,301.54 2,801,301.54 

Total Liabilities, $5,045,874.60 



'L. B. BRAINERD, President and Treasurer. 

FRANCIS B. ALLEN, Vice-President. CHAS. S. BLAKE, Secretary. 

L. F. MIDDLEBROOK, Assistant Secretary. 

W. R. C. CORSON, Assistant Secretary. 

S. F. Jeter, Supervising Inspector. 

E. J. Murphy, M. E., Consulting Engineer. 

F. M. Fitch, Auditor. 



Board of Directors. 



GEORGE BURNHAM, 

The Baldwin Locomotive Works, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 
ATWOOD COLLINS, President, 

The Security Co., Hartford, Conn. 
LUCIUS F. ROBINSON, Attorney, 

Hartford, Conn. 
JOHN O. ENDERS, United States Bank, 

Hartford, Conn. 
LYMAN B. BRAINERD, 

Director, Swift & Company. 
MORGAN B. BRAINARD, 

Vice-Pres. and Treasurer, The .i^tna 

Life Insurance Co., Hartford, Conn. 
FRANCIS B. ALLEN. Vice-Pres., The 

Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and 

Insurance Company. 
CHARLES P. COOLEY, Vice-Pres., 

The Fidelity Trust Co., Hartford, 

Conn. 



ARTHUR L. SHIPMAN, Attorney. 

Hartford, Conn. 
GEORGE C. KIMBALL, President, The 

Smyth Mfg. Co., Hartford, Conn. 
CHARLES M. JARVIS, President, The 

American Hardware Corporation, New 

Britain, Conn. 
FRANCIS T. MAXWELL, President, 

The Hockanum Mills Company, Rock- 

ville. Conn. 
HORACE B. CHENEY, Cheney Brothers 

Silk Manufacturing Co., South Man- 
chester, Conn. 
D. NEWTON BARNEY Treasurer, The 

Hartford Electric Light Co., and 

Director N. Y.. N. H. and H. R. R. 

Co. 
DR. GEORGE C. F. WILLIAMS, Treas. 

& General Manager. The Capewell 

Horse Nail Co., Hartford, Conn. 



Incorporated 1866. 




^^''"««'e Library 



Charter Perpetual. 



TUB Hanfofl Sieani Boiler iQspeciioii and Insuraqce CoiQpaiig 

ISSUES POLICIES OF INSURANCE COVERING 

ALL LOSS OF PROPERTY 

AS WELL AS DAMAGE RESULTING FROM 

LOSS OF LIFE AND PERSONAL INJURIES DUE TO EXPLOSIONS 
OF STEAM BOILERS OR FLY WHEELS. 

Full information concerning the Coinpany's Operations can be obtained at 

any of its Agencies. 

Representatives. 

W. M. Francis, 

Manager & Chief Inspector. 

Lawford & McKiM, General Agents. 
R. E. MxjNRO, Chief Inspector. 



Department. 

ATLANTA, Ga., 

611-613 Empire Bldg 

BALTIMORE, Md., . 
13-14-15 Abell Bldg. 

BOSTON, Mass., 
loi Milk St. 



CHICAGO, III., . 

160 West Jackson St. 

CINCINNATI, Ohio, 

First National Bank Bldg. 

CLEVELAND, Ohio. 
Century Bldg. 

DENVER. Colo.. 

Room 2, Jacobson Bldg. 

HARTFORD, Conn., 
56 Prospect St. 

NEW ORLEANS, La.. . 
833-835 Gravier St. 

NEW YORK, N. Y., . 
100 William St. 

PHILADELPHIA. Pa., . 
432 Walnut St. 

PITTSBURG, Pa., . 

1801-1802 Arrott Bldg. 

PORTLAND, Ore., . 
306 Yeon Bldg. 

SAN FRANCISCO, Cal., . 
339-341 Sansome St. 

ST. LOUIS, Mo.. 

319 North Fourth St. 



C. E. Roberts, Manager. 

F. S. Allen, Chief Inspector. 

H. M. Lemon, Manager. 

James L. Foord, Chief Inspector. 

J. T. Coleman, Ass'istant Chief Inspector. 

W. E. Gleason, Manager. 
Walter Gerner, Chief Inspector. 

H. A. Baumhart, 

Manager & Chief Inspector. 

Thos. E. Shears, 

General Agent & Chief Inspector. 

F. H. Williams, Jr., General Agent. 
F. S. Aixen, Chief Inspector. 

Peter F. Pescud, General Agent. 
R. T. Burwell, Chief Inspector. 

C. C. Gardiner, Manager. 

W. W. Manning, Chief Inspector. 

CoRBiN, Goodrich & Wickham, General Agents. 

Wm. J. Farran, Chief Inspector. 

S. B. Adams, Assistant Chief Inspector. 

C. D. AsHCROFT, Manager. 

Benjamin Ford, Chief Inspector. 

W. A. Craig, Assistant Chief Inspector. 

McCargar, Bates & Lively, General Agents. 
C. B. PAi)D0CK, Chief Inspector. 

H. R. Mann & Co., General Agents. 
J. B. Warner, Chief Inspector. 

V. Hugo, 

Manager & Chief Inspector. 



™™™iiii]iii5ii) o\ (DPiii^i^^ 



IIIMII 



HARIFOgo'''^TEAM 



CO. 



Vol. XXIX. HARTFORD, CONN., JULY, 1912. 



No. 3. 



COPYRIGHT, 1912, BY THE HARTFORD STEAM BOILER INSPECTION AND INSURANCE CO. 




An Automatic Engine Wreck. 



,\ 



66 



THE LOCOMOTIVE 



[July, 



Another Automatic Eng-ine Bursts its Fly Wheel. 

The illustration on the front cover of this issue of The Locomotive show^s 
the wreck resulting from the failure, May lo, 1912, of a fly wheel on an engine 
of the high speed, simple, automatic type. The engine in question was a 12" x 12", 
center crank, and was belted to a generator at the Higginsville, Mo., electric 
light plant. This illustration is of particular interest, because of the wide- 
spread notion among engineers, that engines of the " automatic " shaft governed 
type cannot run away. A somewhat similar instance was recorded in The 
Locomotive for April, 191 1. 

It would appear that in this case the governor pulley failed first, and we 
are told that fragments went through the roof with considerable violence. 
This failure may have been hastened by a blow delivered to the rim of the 
wheel by the governor weight. When relieved of the first wheel, the engine 
seems to have slewed around on its foundation, fouling the other pulley on 
the sub-base, and shearing its spokes free from both the hub and the rim. 
This rotation of the whole engine is in the right direction (left handed), to 
be explained by the principles of gyroscopic motion. If we consider the crank 
shaft balanced for weight by the two wheels, when running normally, it would 
become immediately unbalanced by the failure of one of them. This failure 
would probably occur at high speed, and so is favorable to such an assumption. 
It is of course well known to those who have experimented with the simple 
gyroscopic tops of their school days, that if the wheel is spinning, the top may 




Fig. 2. Simple Gyroscope. 



I9I2.J THE LOCOMOTIVE. 67 



be Iield at a point on the rim of the stationary ring, where it is unbalanced for 
weight, and in this position, instead of falling under the force of gravity, it 
rotates about a vertical axis, with a speed which depends on that of the wheel, 
and which will be greater, the heavier the top, or the more it is out of gravity 
balance. This appears to have been the behavior of the enginp. Fig. 2, in 
which the directions of rotation correspond to those in the engine, will perhaps 
make clear our point of view. 



A Disastrous Locomotive Boiler Explosion 

The boiler of Locomotive No. 704 of the Southern Pacific Ry. Company 
exploded Monday, March 18, 1912, at 8:55 A. M., in the yards attached to the 
railway shops at San Antonio, Texas. This locomotive had been in the shops 
for repairs from February 12th to March i8th, and was being prepared for its 
initial run when the explosion occurred, but was still in the hands of the 
hostlers, inspectors, and shop men. 

From the report of Chief Inspector Ensign of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission, as printed in " Power," the following facts and conclusions are 
abstracted, together with the results of tests on the sling stays made at the 
National Bureau of Standards. 

The locomotive was of the heavy passenger 4-6-0 type, and was owned and 
operated by the Galveston, Harrisburg and San Antonio Ry. Co. It was built 
in March, 1908, by the American Locomotive Company at the Brooks Works. 
The firebox was of three-piece construction, crown bar type. The working 
steam pressure was 200 lbs. per square inch. The barrel of the boiler was made 
of ^-in. steel, in three sections or courses, constructed with butt longitudinal 
joints having diamond shaped welts. The dome was located on the third course. 
The wrapper sheet was of ^-in. steel, the back head sheet and back flue sheet 
J^-in. steel, and the firebox door sheet, cro\yn and side sheets, ^-in. steel. The 
firebox was stayed with rigid bolts %-m. diameter at the ends, reducing to ^-in. 
at the center of the bolts; four rows of Tate flexible bolts at the top of the 
firebox and two rows at each end, staggered at the top corners. The crown 
bolts were of a driving fit with countersunk heads i^-in. diameter at the 
bottom end, and i in. diameter at the top end, extending through the crown 
bars with nuts on the top. The crown sheet was supported with 15 crown bars 
hung from the wrapper sheet; by 168 sling stays, 5^x3 in. and 12 sling stays ij4x 
2^ in. The flues numbering 355, were of 2-in. diameter. The boiler was 
equipped with three 3-in. Crosby safety valves. 

The investigation brought out the following facts : During the time the 
locomotive was laid up, the following repairs were made to the boiler. Two 
hundred flues reset, one back head brace repaired, one front flue sheet brace 
and two throat stays repaired, eighty staybolts renewed, safety valves ground 
in, steam gauge tested, and hydrostatic pressure of 250 lbs. per square inch 
applied. Repairs were completed about 5 145 p. m. March 17th, and the locomo- 
tive fired up but no steam was raised. It was again fired up at about 6:10 a. m., 
on March i8th, and the safety valves began to blow when the steam gauge 
registered 50 lbs. pressure, at about 7:30 a. m. The safety valves were screwed 
down and again opened at about 8:00 a. m. The locomotive had a heavy forced 
oil fire from 8:00 to 8:55 a. m., at which time the explosion occurred. 



68 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[July, 




Fig. I. Showing Broken Sling Stays. 



An employee of the railroad company, was engaged in setting the safety 
valves at the time of the explosion. The valves themselves could not be tested 
after the explosion owing to the damaged condition of the disks and springs, 
but the casings, with the adjusting screws and lock nuts were found and proved 
to be valuable pieces of evidence in unraveling the causes of the explosion. 
On one of the adjusting screws, the lock nuts were missing, another screw 
was bent, and the end burred over, and on all of them there was evidence that 
the corners of the hexagon heads had been rounded over in an attempt to 
tighten them, which resulted apparently in the subsequent application of a 
Stilson wrench in an attempt to further tighten the springs. 



I9I2.J 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



69 



The steam gauge was shown to have been tested but there was no evidencr 
to show that the siphon or connections were tested or known to be free fronr 
obstruction, and indeed, the government inspector found that on another locomo- 
tive of similar type, at the same shops, there were two valves between the 
gauge and the boiler, which when opened had their handles, one at right angles, 
and one parallel to the pipe. This arrangement was so confusing and unsafe 
that one of them was ordered removed. 

Reference to Figure i will show the general character of the explosion 
which resulted in the immediate death of 26 men and we are informed, in the 
subsequent death of three more, making a total of 29. It will be noted that 
the explosion apparently started in the firebox, which was blown directly down. 
The front head with many of the tubes attached will be seen to have been 
projected forward and to the right, while the wrapper sheet and part of the 
third course, carrying the dome, were blown backward some three blocks and 
were said by observers to have attained a considerable height, estimated to 
have been some 500 feet. These sheets, weighing some 6,000 lbs. landed in a 
dooryard and are shown in Figure 2. A glance at Figure 3 will show at once 
the terrific character of the explosion, and also the fact that the damage was 
much greater at the rear end of the locomotive than at the forward end, as 
one of the after drivers is seen to have been completely forced from the axle. 




Fig. 2. Wrapper Sheet .\nd Dome in Door Yard. 



The crown bar sling stays were shown on examination to have been made 
of wrought iron, where the specifications called for steel. It was further 
shown that five i-in. bolts had been used to attach the sling stays to the crown 
bars and also to the wrapper sheet, where the specifications on the drawing 
had required ij^-in. bolts. The crown bars were not supported on the side 
sheets as is customary in this type of boilers, therefore the whole strain was 
carried by the sling stays. It was further shown that the sling stays failed by 
stretching out the eyes, which were much reduced in section. This can be 
clearly seen by reference to Figure i, and would seem to indicate that the stays 



70 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[July, 



failed by a gradual application of stress far in excess of that which they could 
safely carry. 




Fig. 3. Dki\'ER Blown from Axle. 



Five crown bar sling stays from this locomotive were tested by the United 
States Bureau of Standards to determine the load the stays would support when 
I in. and i%-m. bolts were used. The bolts used were some taken from this 
boiler at the time of the explosion. Stays numbered i and 2, using i-in. bolts, 
failed at total loads of 26,650, and 21,840 lbs. respectively, yielding for the lower 
value, a factor of safety based on the net section of only 2.67 while the higher 
figure would give a factor of safety of 3.26. Stays numbered 3, 4, and 5 broke 
at total loads of 30,000, 33,890, and 31,620 lbs. respectively. The i^-in. bolts 
were used with these specimens, and showed factors of safety varying from 
3.67 to 4.15. The tensile strength of the material in the sling stays was found 
to be 43,200 to 48,300 lbs. per square inch, and the elongation from 18 to 40.5% 
in 2 inches. These tests are taken to indicate that the stays were drilled too 
near the ends. 

The investigating inspector finds that the cause of the explosion was exces- 
sive pressure, due probably to a defective gauge, and the attempted setting of 
the safety valves by men of insufficient experience. He censures the railroad 
company severely for permitting such men to handle work of this character. 
He also finds that the local inspector had sworn to a report of the setting of 
the safety valves and the testing of the steam gauge on the day before, although 



I9I2.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 71 

it was clearly shown that the actual work of setting the safety valves was in 
progress at the time of the explosion. He finds further that the railroad 
company was negligent in keeping a boiler in service whose factor of safety as 
shown by test was far below the limits generally set in such cases. 

We understand from press accounts, that the Galveston, Harrisburg, and 
San Antonio railway company have made a public statement since the finding 
of the government inspector, in which they give the report of their own inves- 
tigating board. This consisted of tlic following gentlemen: Col. Charles H. 
Clark, U. S. A., ordnance department ; Capt. George A. Schreiner, U. S. A. ; 
Lt. R. C. Burleson, U. S. A., expert on high explosives; J. H. Holmgren, presi- 
dent of the Alamo Iron Works, San Antonio, Tex. ; G. W. Taylor, superin- 
tendent of motive power, S. A. & A. P. railway; W. B. Tuttle, manager, San 
Antonio street railway; Daniel Cleary, locomotive boiler inspector, S. A. & 
A. P. railway; A. M. Fischer, druggist, San Antonio, Tex.; F. McArdle, road 
foreman of engines, S. A. & A. P. railway; and T. H. Mooney, former master 
mechanic, G. H. & S. A. railway. This board differed widely in their con- 
clusions. Four declared themselves of the belief that the wreck was due to 
overpressure. Two considered low water to have been the cause, followed in 
their estimation, by the pumping of cold water upon a hot crown sheet. One 
of the army officers expressed the opinion that " it is evident that the explosion 
was caused by some unusual, and extraordinary cause." All agree however, 
that the inspector of the Interstate Commerce Commission was at fault, in 
censuring the railway company as to the incompetence of its employees. We. 
can understand something of the feelings of these gentlemen, , especially as the 
accident occurred during a strike when rumors of dynamite and violence were 
prevalent, nevertheless, the photographs at hand, and the report of the tests 
made at the Standards Bureau, seem to give ample confirmation to the views 
of Inspector Ensign. 

There seems to have been no member of the railway company's board who 
had a realization of the fact that a boiler full of water, when hot and under 
a considerable steam pressure, constitutes in itself, a high explosive of no 
mean order. These gentlemen base their arguments against over pressure, 
apparently upon the fact that the injectors were said to have been working 
just previous to the explosion, and refer to a statement of the makers, that 
about 240 lbs. is the limit at which this type of injector will continue to throw 
water into a boiler. They fail to realize, it seems, that a boiler with its safety 
valve " gagged," and with a heavy fire such as this locomotive is shown to 
have had, can accumulate a dangerous pressure with great rapidity, the time 
in this case, of course, being less than might have been expected on account 
of the weakness of the furnace sling stays, when used with one inch bolts. 

A Dang-erous Installation of Safety Valves. 

The accompanying sketch of a steam pipe arrangement may be of interest 
as indicating the extreme of ignorance or carelessness in the installation of 
devices which are vitally necessary to the safety of a steam plant. 

Our company had covered the boilers of this mill by a policy of insurance 
which expired in the latter part of 191 1, and which we failed to renew because, 
as the assured stated, they had received much lower rates from a competitor. 



72 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[July, 




Unsafe Arrangement of Steam Pipes. 

Sometime later the manager of the plant, meeting one of our inspectors, 
told him that he was not altogether satisfied with a rearrangement of piping 
which had been made, although he himself was not sufficiently expert in such 
matters to point out the defects. He made the request that our inspector visit 
the plant to advise him. Our inspector did so and found that since our 
coverage two boilers had been added and the steam piping remodeled in the 
manner shown by our sketch and that this had been done without remonstrance 
or criticism on the part of our competitor's inspector. 

It is needless to add that when the absolute danger of the arrangement 
was pointed out, the management of the plant insisted that the competing 
policy be immediately canceled and that such premium be paid as was necessary 
to secure HARTFORD insurance and HARTFORD inspection service. 



Furnace in Scotch Boiler Fails From Overheating". 

The illustrations printed herewith show a dry back Scotch boiler after 
removal from the Dredge " Thor," one of the largest gold mining dredges on 
the Pacific Coast, used near Oroville. Cal. 

The boiler is 8 ft. 2 in. in diameter, and 13 ft. long. The shell is of ^-in. 
steel with the longitudinal joints of the triple riveted double butt strap type. 
The heads are ^ in, thick. The boiler is fitted with 128-3 inch tubes, and with 
a Morrison suspension furnace, 50 inches in diameter, and 13 feet long. The 
original thickness of the furnace plate was %6 i"-, but a measurement obtained 
by drilling at a point 4 in. from the end after the collapse, showed the actual 
thickness to be i%2 in. 

We are told that the ordinary working pressure was 135 lbs. and that this was 
about the pressure on the boiler at the time of the failure. Oil was used as fuel. 

The failure which occurred on March 18, 1912, consisted in a flattening of 
the furnace, the top going down about 28 in. and the bottom coming up about 
22 in., till the sheets met forming a sort of figure 8 turned on its side, as may 



I9I2.J 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



73 



be seen by reference to Fig. 2. The front head was pulled in, so that a number 
of the tubes above the furnace, projected through the sheet, from 54 to ij/a in. 
and of course resulted in severe leakage. 

After the accident, the oil burner was turned off and the steam used up in 
propelling the dredger to the bank, getting its buckets on shore, and hauling 
the water and oil barges alongside, some twenty minutes being consumed in 
the operation. No one was injured. * 




I'iG. i. iJOILtK OF THE " ThOR." 



The boiler was removed and shipped to San Francisco, with the idea of 
putting in a new furnace, and making other necessary repairs. It was found, 
however, on inspection that the boiler was so distorted as to make this im- 
possible. It was also found that the tubes and furnace were so heavily coated 
with oil as to indicate that the cause of the failure was due to the furnace sheet 
becoming overheated, a very frequent cause of trouble when such oil films are 
allowed to collect on the inside surface of those parts of a boiler directly 
exposed to the action of the fire. The dredger was operated condensing and 
apparently no effort was made to prevent the oil used in the cylinders for 
lubrication, from entering the boiler with the feed water. 

It would seem that this case is one of those preventable accidents which 
need not have occurred if the boiler had received regular and thorough internal 
inspections, as it is difficult to believe that a competent inspector could have 
failed to detect this particular trouble long before it reached the danger point 
We understand that the boiler was comparatively new. No insurance was 
carried. 



74 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[July, 




Fig. 2. The Collapsed Furnace. 



Locking- the Door After the Horse is Stolen. 

W. B. Warner, Special Agent. 

The accompanying illustration shows the condition of a boiler and premises, 
after an explosion which occurred recently, the location of which we do not 
mention for obvious reasons. 

Our " Special " had solicited the insurance on this boiler periodically for 
several years, and at each visit had been given various excuses by the owner 
for not taking insurance. A few weeks ago the " Special " was again in the 
district, and having in mind this boiler and its owner as a possible prospect, 
made a stop on the chance that he would have better luck this time, as we 
feel that every uninsured boiler is a prospect, and that sometime we will get it. 

When within a hundred miles of this place, he was advised of the explosion, 
and when he arrived at the town, he concluded to go over and see how serious 
the accident was, and incidentally, to speak of the folly of procrastination in 
matters of boiler insurance. As our " Special " approached the place, Mr. Owner 

spied him some fifty yards from it, and greeted him thus : " Hello Mr. , 

why the d didn't you make me insure my boiler the last time you were 

here?" "I did everything legitimate," replied the "Special," "to induce you 
to do so, and I thought I would come over and learn what new excuse you had 
to offer this time." " Well," said the owner, " my boiler blew up about two 



I9I2.J 



THE Locomotive. 




The Boiler Which Did Not Need Insurance. 

weeks ago, and I am just getting this one ready to use. I am ready for the 
insurance now. I wish I had taken it before." 

We now have a policy covering this plant, and if a similar accident occurs, 
it is our loss. 



Boiler Explosions. 

March, 1912. 

(138.) — The boiler of Locomotive No. 669 of the Philadelphia and Reading 
Railroad, attached to a through freight, exploded outside the station at Muncy, 
Pa., at about 9.30 p. m., March i. Engineer William Fink, Fireman William 
Meyers, Conductor Boulton Whitenight, and Brakeman Harry Robinson, were 
killed. One man was injured. 

(i39-) — On March 2, a boiler in the factory building, at 794 Tenth Ave., 
New York City, exploded, during a fire which completely wrecked the building. 
Deputy Fire Chief Binns, and several firemen were in the boiler room just 
previous to the explosion and were injured seriously. 

(140.) — A tube in a water tube boiler ruptured March 2, at the Allento\vn 
Portland Cement Co.'s plant, AUentown, Pa. 

(141.) — On March 3, two tubes ruptured at the plant of the Fox Paper 
Co., Lockland, O., killing Frank Brunkamp and Ernest Williams. This was the 
second case of tube failure at this plant within a week. (See item 137 in the 
February list.) 



76 THELOCOMOTIVE. [July , 

(142.) — On March 3, a tube ruptured in a water tube boiler at the plant 
of the Illinois Steel Co., South Chicago, 111. Geo. Novak and Alec Simon were 
injured. 

(143.) — An accident occurred March 3, at A. Lisner's department store, 
the " Palais Royal," Washington, D. C. Considerable damage was done to the 
boiler. 

(144.) — A tube failed March 6, at the Commerce St. power house of the 
street railway company, Milwaukee, Wis. Two men were badly scalded. 

(145.) — March 7, the boiler at a stone crusher used in connection with the 
construction of a dam at Hamilton, 111., exploded. 

(146.) — A boiler exploded March 7, at the toy, and umbrella handle factory 
of Gilpin Bros., Greentown, Pa. 

(147.) — The drum of a water tube boiler ruptured March 9 at the plant 
of the Sharon Tin Plate Co., Sharon, Pa. 

(148.) — On March 9, a tube ruptured in a water tube boiler at the Ehret 
Magnesia Mfg. Co., Valley Forge, Pa. 

(149.) — On March 9, boiler failed at the plant of the St. John Wood Work- 
ing Co., Stamford, Conn. The damage was small. 

(150.) — About March 9, the boiler in the old school building at Sellers- 
ville exploded. 

(151.) — An accident to the boiler of the torpedo boat destroyer, U. S. S. 
Paul Jones, at San Diego, Cal., March 9, causeid the death of Albert Grau, fire- 
man, and the serious injury of Peter Wiera, fireman, and John J. Eberlein, 
coal passer. 

(152.) — The boiler at the Belle Springs Creamery, Abilene, Kans., exploded 
on the morning of March 9, slightly injuring engineer Smart. 

(iS3-) — A tube ruptured March 10 in a water tube boiler at the plant of 
the Columbia Chemical Co., Barbertown, O. Considerable damage was done to 
the boiler. (See also item 168.) 

(154.) — On March 11, three sections of a cast iron sectional heating 
boiler failed at the Hotel Princeton, owned by Chas. M. Randall, Boston, Mass. 
(155.) — A boiler ruptured March ii, at the plant of the Anderson and 
Middleton Lumber Co., Aberdeen, Wash. 

(156.) — The boiler in the crating mill of Asa Smiley, Jamestown, N. Y., 
exploded March 11, seriously injuring the proprietor, and inflicting minor in- 
juries to one other. The entire plant was wrecked. 

(i57-) — March 12, the principal building of the Columbus Contractors' 
Supply Co. at Taylors Station, near Columbus, O., was destroyed by fire follow- 
ing the explosion of the boiler. The loss was estimated at $60,000. 

(158.) — The heating boiler in the home of Louis Muhs, Minot, N. D., ex- 
ploded, March 12, fatally injuring Mr. Muhs, who was firing the boiler at the 
time. 

(159-)— On March 13, the furnace of a vertical boiler ruptured on the 
Barge Canal Contract of Holler and Shepard, Ft. Edwards, N. Y. 

(160.)— On March 15, a tube ruptured in a water tube boiler at the 
Western Branch, National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, National 
Military Home, Kans. 

(161.) —A blow ofl^ pipe ruptured March 15, at the Port Huron Gas Co., 
Port Huron, Mich. Joseph Brown, fireman, was somewhat injured. 



1912] T H E LO COM OT I V E . 77 



(162.) —On March 16, the boiler at the plant of the Mills-Ellsworth Lumber 
Co., Pine Bluff, Ark., exploded, doinjj considerable damage to the plant. One 
man was slightly injured. 

(163.) — A tube ruptured March 18 at the plant of the Illinois Glass Co., 
Alton, 111. One man was slightly injured. 

(164.) — A locomotive boiler exploded in the yards of the Southern Pacific 
Railroad, at San Antonio, Tex., March 18. Twenty-five men were killed, four 
injured fatally, and many minor injuries inflicted. The damage to property was 
great. 

(165.) — Tlie internal furnace in a Scotch marine boiler collapsed March 
18, on the gold mining dredge " Thor," near Oroville, Cal. No one was injured, 
but the boiler was so distorted as to be a total loss. 

(166.) — On March 19, a boiler ruptured in the office building belonging to 
the estate of Thomas McGraw, Detroit, Mich. 

(167.) — The boiler of a logging engine exploded March 20 at the saw mill 
of Jeams Bros., Rockland, Tex. Jesse Patrick and Lewis Furguson were fatally 
burned, and Jack Best, engineer, was slightly burned. 

(168.) — A tube ruptured March 20 at the plant of the Columbia Chemical 
Co., Barbertown, O. This was the second accident within a month. (See also 
item 153.) 

(169.) — The boiler of a locomotive attached to a coal train on the N. & W. 
R. R. exploded March 20, near Blue Ridge Springs, Va. One man, John W. 
Hunter, engineer, was killed, and two were injured, one fatally. 

(170.) — On March 22, a wash-out plug blew out on a locomotive at the 
round house, Carthage, N. Y. The engine was under steam, and a workman 
was attempting to tighten the plug. He was fatally scalded. 

(171.) — Five men were scalded, none fatally, when the boiler at the mine 
of the Turner Coal Co., Evans City, Pa., exploded March 23. 

(172.) — On March 23, the boiler at the Cramer Creamery, Camden, N. J., 
exploded. No one was hurt, and the damage was confined to the boiler. 

(i73-) — On March 25 the boiler of a well drilling machine belonging to 
Denny & Cypher, Contractors, exploded at the Melarky farm near Marwood, Pa. 
No one was injured. 

(174.) — A tube ruptured in a water tube boiler at the plant of the Victor 
Talking Machine Co., Camden, N. J., on March 25. 

(i7S-) — A saw mill boiler owned by Stewart and Hardin, at Holcomb, Miss., 
exploded March 25, killing four men and injuring three more, one fatally. 

(176.) —A boiler exploded March 26, at the McCormick Works of the Inter- 
national Harvester Co., Western Ave. and Thirty-first St., Chicago, 111. Six 
were injured, one of whom died soon after the accident. 

(178.) —On March 26, a boiler exploded at the saw mill of H. L. Hearn, 
Salisbury, Md. Five men were instantly killed and three more injured. 

(I79-) —On March 27, one man was slightly burned by the explosion of a 
boiler at the City power house, Wellington, Kans. 

(180.)— A blow-off pipe failed March 25, at the Fall River Iron Works, 
Fall River, Mass. Antone Casmere, fireman, w^as scalded. 

(181.)— The boiler of an engine used to run a circular saw at the farm 
of H. H. Peterson, Whiting, la., exploded March 27, killing one man, and injur- 
ing four others, one seriously. 



78 THELOCO MOTIVE. [July, 

(182.) — A Delaware and Hudson locomotive exploded March 29, near East 
Worcester, N. Y., killing Howard Wickhapi, engineer, and Jacob Houck, fireman. 
Three others w^ere injured, one seriously. 

(183.) — Two cast iron headers fractured i\Iarch 30, in a water tube boiler 
at the plant of the American Laundry Co., ]\Iobile, Ala. 

(184.) — 'On March 30, the boiler of a locomotive exploded near Tuscola. 
111., on the Cincinnati, Hamilton and Dayton R. R. Alva Friddle, brakeman, 
was killed, and three others injured. 



April, 1912. 
(185.) — On April ist, a plate ruptured in a boiler at the Connors-Weyman 
Steel Co., Helena, Ala. 

(186.) — A blow-off pipe ruptured April 2, at the plant of the Southeastern 
Yaryan Naval Stores Co., Brunswick, Ga. 

(187.) — About April 2, two boilers exploded on David Hoover's saw mill 
operation,, near Saxton, Pa. 

(188.) — A heating boiler exploded in the, high school building, Pewaukee. 
Wis., on April 28, just after the close of the session. No one was injured. 

(igp) — On April 28, the boiler at the mill of the Ida H. mine, near Belle 
Center, 111. Two men were seriously injured, a small dog is said to have been 
killed. 

(igo.) — A boiler in the cant hook factory of C. A. and M. E. Wellman, at 
South Boardman, INIich., exploded April 5. One man was killed, and five 
others injured, one perhaps fatally. 

(191.) — On April 4, a locomotive belonging to the Southern Pacific R. R. 
exploded near Rice Hill, Ore. M. M. Bartlett, engineer, and Bert Anderson, 
fireman, were killed. 

(iQ2.) — A boiler at the plant of the Salisbury Ice Co., Salisbury, Md., ex- 
ploded April 5. One man was killed, one fatally injured, and several others 
were slightly injured. 

(193) — On April 6, an accident occurred to the boiler at the Painted Post, 
N. Y., plant of the Ingersoll-Rand Co. Considerable damage was done to the 
boiler. 

(iQ4_) On April 8, Solomon Burke was killed as the result of a boiler 

explosion at the saw mill of W. M. Walker, Linden, N. C. 

(195.) The explosion of a locomotive boiler on the Southern Pacific, at 

Stanwix Station, Ariz., April 9, resulted in the death of C. C. Vaughn, engineer. 
and the fatal injury of B. E. Norton, fireman. 

(iq6.) —On April 9, a heating boiler in the Turkish Baths at 120-122 Ridge 
St., New York City, exploded, fatally scalding two persons. 

(197.) — On April 10, the boiler at the mill of the Orillia Lumber Co., 
Orillia, Wash., failed, injuring three men, one fatally. 

(198.)— A tube ruptured April 10, at the plant of the Virginia Portland 
Cement Co., Fordwick, Pa. John A. Harris, fireman, was injured. 

(igQ.) — A cast iron header ruptured April 10, in a water tube boiler at the 
mill of the American Steel and Wire Co.. Waukegan, 111. 

(200.) — A blow-off pipe failed at the Moxie Co's plant. New York City, on 
April 12. 



I9I2.1 T H E L O C O MOT I V E . 79 



(201.) —On April 12, a stop valve on the main steam line ruptured at the 
Western Branch, National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, National 
Military Home, Kans. John Ockcrni.in, helper, was killed. 

(202.)— A boiler ruptured April 13, at the plant of the Union Dairy Co., 
Rockford, 111. The damage was small. 

(203.)— On April 15, a boiler used for well drilling at New Martinsville, 
W. Va., exploded, killing Thos. S. McNight, a tool drcsser^and injuring one 
other. 

(204.) — On April 16, the crown sheet of a locomotive portable boiler pulled 
off the stay bolts at the Holran Stone Company's quarry, Maple Grove, O. 

(205.) — On April 16, as the result of a boiler accident at the plant of the 
Pacific Coast Steel Co., South San Francisco, Cal.. one man was fatally injured. 

(206.) — A boiler exploded April 17, at an oil well near Cannonsburg, Pa. 
One man was injured, and will probably die. 

(207.) — On April 17, a boiler exploded at a fertilizer plant near Seven 
Stars, Pa. One man was sliglitly injured. 

(208.) — The boiler at the plant of the Powell River Milling Co. exploded 
April 19. Leonard Swanson and Henry HoUingsworth were killed, and some 
si.K others injured, one fatall}^ 

(209.) — On April 19, a boiler failed at Newbill's saw mill, Lebanon, Pa. 
Three men were killed and three injured, one fatally. 

(210.) — A tube ruptured April 19, in a water tube boiler, at the Donora, 
Pa., plant of the American Steel and Wire Co. Considerable damage was done 
to the boiler. 

(211.) — A copper cooker failed April 20, at the Fleishmann yeast plant, 
Cincinnati, O. One man was killed and five were injured, two fatally. 

(212.) — An Illinois Central locomotive boiler exploded in the yards at 
Bloomington, 111., April 21. Weaver Hillerman, engineer, was killed and Orvillc 
Clay, fireman, seriously injured. 

(213.) — A boiler ruptured April 22, at the plant of the Flower City Tissue 
Mills Co., Greece, N. Y. The damage was slight. 

(214.) — On April 22, the boiler of a Western Pacific locomotive exploded 
near Elko, Nev., killing three trainmen. 

(215.) — The boiler at the Butterfield saw mill, Kelso, Wash., exploded 
April 23. Three men were scalded, and property damaged to the extent of about 
$1,000. 

(216.) — A tube failed April 25. in the basement of the Rike-Kumler store, 
Daj-^ton, O. Two men were injured. 

(217.) — On April 25, a tube failed in a boiler at the power house of 
the Sheboygan Railway and Electric Co., Sheboygan, Wis. Two men were 
slightly injured. 

(218.) — On April 25, a tube ruptured in a water tube boiler at the Pickands 
Mather Co's furnace, Toledo, O. One man was injured. 

(219.) — A tube ruptured on April 26, at the power house of the Metro- 
politan St. Ry. Co., Central Ave. and Water St., Kansas City, Kans. 

(220.) — On April 27, the crown sheet of a locomotive collapsed on the 
main line of the Union Railroad Co., Port Perry, Pa. W. H. Watkins and W. 
F. Wesser, engineers, were injured. 

(221.) — A plate failed in a boiler at a paper box factory, Thomas and Cam- 
bridge Sts.. Milwaukee, Wis., on April 28. One man was scalded. 



30 THELOCO MOTIVE. [J'^ly, 



(222.) — A tube ruptured April 30, in a water tube boiler at the power 
plant of the Mobile Electric Co., Mobile, Ala. The damage was small. 

(223.) — Several cast iron headers fractured April 31, at the plant of the 
Quaker Lace Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 



May, 1912. 

(224,) — On May i, the furnace of a Scotch marine boiler collapsed at 
the plant of the National Biscuit Co., 409 Liberty St., Pittsburgh, Pa. The 
damage to the boiler was considerable. 

(225.) — The heating boiler at Public School No. i, Long Island City, N. Y., 
exploded May 2. Over 1600 school children were marched out of the building 
in less than three minutes, no one was injured. 

(226.) — A heating boiler exploded May 3, in a residence at Ridley Park, 
Chester, Pa. One man was injured. 

(227.) — On May 3, two concave heads in the steam drum of a water tube 
boiler collapsed, at the plant of the Ohio Iron and Steel Co., Lowellville, O. 

(228.) — A tube ruptured May 5, in a water tube boiler, at the plant of the 
Tri-State Railway and Electric Co., East Liverpool, O. Clyde Jones, fireman, 
was injured. 

(229.) — On May 5, the boiler of the launch Orin B., used by the Atlantic 
Gulf and Pacific Co., on the barge canal works near Glen Falls, N. Y., ex- 
ploded. Charles Grilse, engineer, was killed and George JI. Terry, injured. 

(230.) — The boiler of a threshing machine exploded May 6, on the farm 
of Otto Drake, Dundee, Mich. Two men were killed. 

(231.) — On May 6, the flanging of a vulcanizer failed at the plant of the 
Boston Woven Hose and Rubber Co., Cambridge, Mass. 

(232.) — A tube ruptured May 6, in a water tube boiler, at the Diamond 
Crystal Salt Co., St. Clair, Mich. 

(233.) — A water heater exploded May 6, in Hanscomb's restaurant, So. 
Ninth St., Philadelphia, Pa. The loss was estimated at $5,000. 

(234.) — A tube ruptured May 9, at the rolling mill of Moorehead Bros, and 
Co., Sharpesburg, Pa. Considerable damage was done to the boiler, and Wick 
Velump, fireman, was injured. 

(235.) — On May 11, a boiler at the Landingville knitting mill, Landing- 
ville. Pa., exploded. Harry Warmkessel, fireman was scalded. 

(236.) ^- A tube ruptured May 12, in a water tube boiler at the plant of the 
Kenosha Gas and Electric Co., Kenosha, Wis. 

(237.) — On May 15, a boiler failed at the Duquesne Steel Foundry, Ken- 
dall Station, Pa. The damage was confined to the boiler. 

(238.) — A vulcanizer exploded May 16, at the Empire Rubber Go's plant, 
Trenton, N. J., killing one man, and fatally injuring two more. 

(239.) — A blow-off pipe failed May 16, at the Lessing Apartments, owned 
by Chas. E. Rector and T. J. Tucker, Chicago, 111. Chas. O'Conner, engineer, 
was slightly injured. 

(240.) — On May 18, a flue in a dryer collapsed at the Kansas City, Kans. 
plant of the Swartzchild & Sultzburger Co. The damage was confined to the 
vessel itself. 



I9I2.] THELOCOMOTIVE. 31 



(241.) — The boiler exploded May 18, at the saw mill of John de Frain, near 
Brownback's Church, Pa. Charles Smith and Chester Herzog were killed, and 
three others injured. 

(242.) — On May 21, a steam pipe burst on the steamer James E. Davidson, 
in Lake Superior. Eight men were scalded, two fatally. 

(243.) — A saw mill boiler exploded May 24, at Farina, 111. One man died 
as the result of injuries received. 

(244.) — The boiler of a well drilling machine exploded May 24, on the 
property of F. Marion Vanderveer, North Branch, N. J. Two men were injured. 

(245.) — A tube ruptured May 25, in a water tube boiler at the blast farnace 
of the Upson Nut Co., Cleveland, O. 

(246.) — On May 25, a flue failed in a boiler at the power house of the 
Wheeling Traction Co., Wheeling, W. Va. Charles Grubb was injured. 

(247.) — A cast iron header failed May 30, in a water tube boiler at the 
plant of the Diamond Alkali Co., Fairport, O. No other damage is reported. 

(248.) — On May 31, a boiler ruptured at the plant of the Dallas Portland 
Cement Co. The damage was small. 



Fly Wheel Explosions. 

(To Complete the 191 i List.) 

(57-) — On September 16 an automobile By wheel burst at the corner of 
Pico and Howard Streets, Los Angeles, Cal. One man was severely injured. 

(58.) — A fly wheel at the plant of the Pittsburg Brewing Co., Connells- 
ville, Pa., failed September 21, doing damage to property to the extent of $5,000. 

(59.) — The fly wheel at the Transit Shoe Company's plant, Franklin, Pa., 
exploded October 9. One man was injured. 

(60.) — October — a fly wheel burst at the plant of the United States Handle 
& Cooperage Co., Maiden, Mo. Two men were killed and two others injured. 

(61.) — On October 24 a fly wheel at the plant of the Hagerty Shoe Com- 
pany, Washington Court House, Ohio, exploded, doing considerable property 
damage. (See Power for November 14, 1911.) 

(62.) — On December 2 Harry Waldron was killed at the plant of the 
Standard Motor Construction Co. by the bursting of a gasolene engine's fly 
wheel. The engine was being prepared for installation in a motor boat. 

(63.) — The fly wheel attached to an air compressor at the Ready Bullion 
Mine, Treadwell, Alaska, exploded about December 13. The compressor and 
building were demolished, and several hundred men thrown out of employment 
temporarily. 



Fly Wheel Explosions, 1912. 

(i.) — A fly wheel attached to a pumping engine used in connection with 
the construction of a sewer at Richmond Hill, N. Y., exploded January i. 
One man received a broken arm as the result of the accident. 

(2.) — On January 21 a large fly wheel failed at the plant of The Fox 
Paper Co., Lockland, Ohio. Oscar Cummins, an oiler, was attracted to the 
engine by the breaking of the main belt. The engine attained a dangerous 



82 THELOCOMOTIVE. [July, 

speed, and he was killed by the bursting fly wheel while trying to close the 
throttle. 

(3.) — The fly wheel attached to a deep well drilling machine exploded 
January 25 at the yards of the Paris Coal and Ice Co., Paris, Tenn. Will Dowe, 
engineer, received injuries which resulted in the loss of an arm. 

(4.) — A fly wheel at the mill of the Friend Paper Co., West Carrolton, 
Ohio, exploded January 26. No one was injured, but the mill was closed one 
day as the result of the accident. 

(5.) — On February 17 a fly wheel attached to the engine at the shingle 
mill of the Humbolt Manufacturing Co., Areata, Cal., burst. Property was 
damaged to the extent of about $500, and one man, a saw filer, was killed. 

(6.) — A wooden fly wheel at the saw mill of Triplett and McCann, Lost 
Camp, Mo., exploded April 17, killing John Triplett, one of the proprietors. 

(7.) — On April 24 a fly wheel in the Westchester Lighting Company's 
power plant, Yonkers, N. Y., exploded. There was some property damage, but 
no one injured. 

(8.) — The bursting of a fly wheel on April 28, at the plant of the Atha 
Tool Co., Newark, N. J., inflicted slight injuries to one man. 

(9.) — On May i a 12-foot pulley burst in the dynamo room at the paper 
mill of Dill and Collins, Philadelphia, Pa. Property damage to the extent of 
from $3,000 to $4,000 resulted, principally through the rupture of a steam line, 
and the pipes of the sprinkler system by flying portions of the wheel. 

(10.) — The fly wheel of an engine at the Higginsville, Mo., electric light 
plant failed I\Iay 13, doing property damage to the extent of about $3,000. 
(See front page of this number of The Locomotive.) 

(11.) — On May 22 a fly wheel at the brick yard of Nevill Bros, and Mink, 
Llanwellyn, Pa., exploded, resulting in damage to the plant estimated at $1,500. 

(12.) — A fly wheel attached to the engine at the Louisiana and Arkansas 
R. R. shops, Stamps, Ark, exploded June 4. The loss is thought to be under 
$1,000. 

(13.) — On June 7 a pulley burst at the Rittersville Electrical Works, Allen- 
town, Pa. One man was injured. 

(14.) — A fourteen-foot fly wheel burst June 7 at the Phoenix Cement 
Works, Nazareth, Pa. The damages are estimated at $3,000. 

(15.) — On June 10 the fly wheel of an engine at the East Jordan (Mich.) 
Electric Light and Power Co. burst, killing A. Z. Wilcox, the engineer, and 
damaging the plant to such an extent as to leave the town in darkness for a 
week. 

(16.) — A fly wheel exploded June 11 at the power plant of the D. & H. 
R. R.. Green Island, N. Y. The plant was damaged to the extent of $1,000. 



A Narrow Escape. 

W. J. Smith, Inspector. 

The opportunity of witnessing a " real live " lap seam crack in action is 
seldom afforded boiler operators. This unique and rather undesirable experi- 
ence was recently afforded several employees of The Anderson-Middleton 
Companj', Aberdeen, Washington. The fireman, desiring to operate a valve 



I9I2.] T H E L O C O M O T I V E . 33 



in a steam line over the boilers, was attracted by the issuance of steam from 
the insulating material on top of tlie boiler. Removing this covering, the steam 
and water were seen to spurt from a crack about ten inches long, the edges of 
which vibrated under the pressure. 

The Chief Engineer being called, with great presence of mind instead of 
shutting off the engines and turbines, which might have produced a shock or 
increase of pressure, immediately banked the fires, closed th* draft and opened 
the feed water valves. In this manner the pressure was soon reduced to less 
than forty pounds. The main stop valve was then shut off. The boiler, being 
one of three fired in battery, a division wall was built in the furnace and the 
day following the other boilers were in operation. 

The defective portions were cut out of the boiler and revealed a crack 
one eighth of an inch from the edge of the inner lap, and about 5 ft. 6 in. long, 
no portion of which was visible from the inside. 

The boiler was about seven years old, had been operated at its designed 
working pressure and had frequent and careful supervision with good care 
and management. 

It is needless to say there is considerable congratulation going the rounds 
among those interested, for aside from the probable heavy loss of life, the 
boiler was part of a very expensive plant and surrounded on all sides by high 
grade machinery and equipment. 



We wish to commend the coolness and good judgment of the chief engineer. 
and firemen of this plant. This type of boiler defect is undoubtedly one of 
the most treacherous of the many possible causes for boiler explosions, as it 
too often reveals itself only after the property is destroyed. 

Instead of stopping his engines, this chief had the good sense and nerve 
to cover his fires, and control his steam by using it up, thus saving not only 
the company's property, but perhaps many lives as well. Editor. 



A "Mexican" for a Safety Valve. 

We record on another page of this issue, an instance of safety valves being 
so erroneously installed as to become objects of danger, by the possibility of 
their leading to a feeling of false security, but it remains for the following, 
extracted from one of our inspection reports, to cap the climax, as a display 
of ignorance of the vital importance of this particular boiler accessory. We 
give the extract verbatim. 

"Engineer (?) of above plant explained that his reason for removing 
the safety valve from boiler was that it leaked, and that he thought as long 
as he had a Mexican watch the steam and not let it get too high, that the boiler 
was safe. He stated further, that he had a perfectly good ash pit door, and 
that by closing it the steam would go no higher. I tried to make it plain to all 
concerned, that Mexicans, and ash pit doors, would not answer in any way 
the purpose of a safety valve." (The inspector found that the safety valve 
had been replaced with a solid plug.") 



84 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[July. 




C. C. Perry, Editor. 



HARTFORD. JULY, 1912. 

Single copies can be obtained free by calling at any of the company's agencies. 
Subscription price so cents per year when mailed from this office. 
Recent bound volumes one dollar each. Earlier ones two dollars. 
Reprinting of matter from this paper is permitted if credited to 
The Locomotive of The Hartford Steam Boiler 1. & 1. Co. 



On another page we print a news item and editorial comment from the 
Hartford Courant announcing the reinsurance of the boiler and fly-wheel busi- 
ness of The Casualty Company of America by THE HARTFORD STEAM 
BOILER INSPECTION AND INSURANCE COMPANY. Of course we are 
gratified at this event for many reasons, but perhaps especially because of the 
confidence in us which is thus signified by the management of so prominent 
an institution as the Casualty Company. Obligations to its assured required 
that the service which supplanted its own should be above criticism, and self 
interest demanded that its reinsurance should be placed only with a company 
of high financial standing. We accordingly feel a pardonable pride in the 
recognition of our standing implied by this selection and expressed by President 
DeLeon of the Casualty Company in his announcement of the change to his 
agents as follows : 

" I need not call to your attention the standing and reputation of The 
Hartford Steam Boiler Company throughout the United States, or to the 
splendid service rendered by that company to its policy holders everywhere, 
which has made the Hartford company pre-eminently the leading boiler insur- 
ance company of America." 

Appreciation like that from a one-time warm competitor is a compliment 
indeed. We shall endeavor to justify it by a service to the boiler and fly-wheel 
owners whom President DeLeon has entrusted to us which will force their en- 
dorsement of his opinion. We welcome them all to the HARTFORD STEAM 
BOILER fold. 

The Casualty Company of America has been one of the four larger multiple- 
line casualty underwriters in the boiler and fly-wheel field. In 191 1 according to 
its official statement it wrote $117,594 in premiums of these two lines, and of 
this amount $108,229 was for boiler insurance. There were in 191 1 twenty- four 
casualty companies competing with the HARTFORD in steam boiler under- 
writing. The total of premiums written by them was $1,101,922, an average 



I9I2.J THE LOCOMOTIVE. 85 

of about $46,000 per company. The Casualty Company of America, writing 
more than twice as much business as its average multiple-]ine competitor, and 
exceeding all but three of those competitors in the volume of that business, 
would seem to have had a favorable position in the field. If it has become 
discouraged with the prospects and financial returns from such business what 
bright future can allure the twenty smaller companies? 

The truth is that steam boiler insurance, — and this applies to fly-wheel 
insurance also — is peculiar and distinct from other lines of underwriting 
in that to experience a normal loss ratio a technical supervision of the apparatus 
covered is necessary. It is obvious that the expense of such a service must be 
proportionately greater with a company which insures a small number of widely 
scattered boilers than with one whose business is so great as to justify a broad 
distribution of inspection centers from which all its assured may be econom- 
ically reached. To make the small boiler business successful, the company 
writing it must either be content with little or no profits, or it must charge 
more for its protection than its large competitor, or it must reduce the character 
and frequency of its inspection service at the risk of a higher loss ratio, more 
accidents, and the consequent annoyance and dissatisfaction of its assured. 

The HARTFORD STEAM BOILER with a business of $1,300,000 
annually and with over 100,000 boilers under its care, has been able to establish 
a standard of service which steam users generally have come to appreciate. It has 
been deriving from its business an average underwriting profit less than 9%. 
This is certainly a moderate return for the energy expended and the risks car- 
ried. Is it likely that an insurance company would be content with less? If 
not it follows that the small boiler underwriter must charge more for its pro- 
tection or reduce the character of it. The public is too well posted to pay to 
others a larger premium than will purchase HARTFORD insurance, nor will 
it long permit a character or lack of inspection service which risks disastrous 
explosions. The result is the dilemma of the kind in which the Casualty Company 
of America found itself and which it has solved in the manner announced. 



A correspondent sends us a newspaper clipping descriptive of the action 
of a New York tug captain in attempting after a collision to run his boat ashore 
before the water leaking in could reach the boilers " and cause an explosion ". 
With it he writes that this "and numerous articles in relation to the 'Titanic' 
and other sinking ships leads me to ask you if there is any foundation whatso- 
ever for the newspaper theory that boilers in sinking steamships explode because 
of being plunged into cold water". 

We agree with the view of this gentleman as further expressed that the 
theory is not tenable and that even should a boiler under such circumstances 
fail locally the force of the explosion would be slight owing to the almost 
instantaneous condensation of the steam when submerged in the cold water. 
We admit that we have not ourselves been on a sinking steamship, but our 
company has had opportunity of examining boilers which have passed through 
that ordeal, and others which because of a fire have had cold water poured 
upon them. The evidence thus available would indicate that not always at 
least does submerging cause a boiler explosion, and further we do not see 
why it should. 



86 THELOCOMOTIVE. [July 

It may be stated without fear of contradiction, that a boiler explodes 
because it is incapable of withstanding the internal pressure exerted in it. 
The disaster may be caused either by an abnormal increase in the pressure or 
by an equally abnormal decrease in the strength of the boiler material. Now, 
so far as we can see, none of the conditions necessary to an increase in pressure 
would be produced by submerging in water a boiler under steam. Such a 
treatment would naturally reduce the temperature and consequently the pres- 
sure very promptly. The treatment could have little effect, either, on the 
strength of a vessel made up of steel plate although it is probable that local 
contraction strains would be produced by a gradual rather than sudden sub- 
mergence. The steel used in boilers is not usually a brittle material and with- 
stands sudden and violent changes in temperature without cracking. Failing to 
discern among the conditions which attend the submerging of a boiler anything 
which would increase the pressure or decrease its strength and being to an extent 
backed by the slight experience already suggested, we will — pending evidence 
to the contrary — continue in the belief that a boiler explosion is not a neces- 
sary circumstance in the sinking of a ship. 

It may be added that the tug captain first mentioned did not according 
to the clipping succeed in "beaching" his boat before it sank, and if in sinking 
the boilers exploded, the effect was too insignificant for the reporter to record. 



Announcement. 

Hartford, Conn., July i, 1912. 

In the January number of The Locomotive our Company announced 
with regret the resignation of the editor who had so ably conducted this paper 
for a number of years. Since then we have been seeking a man to fill the 
place thus made vacant and from a number under consideration have selected 
Mr. Clarence C. Perry, who commences his editorial duties with this issue. 

We feel that Mr. Perry is especially equipped by his experience and 
education for a work which requires both a theoretical and practical knowledge 
of steam and allied engineering practices and also a wide acquaintance with 
the literature of those subjects. He is a graduate of The Sheffield Scientific 
School of Yale University, class of 1904, and since then as a member of the 
faculty of that institution has been instructing the students of the Department 
of Electrical Engineering in physics and steam engineering subjects. While 
in this position Mr. Perry was frequently called in consultation where expert 
advice on steam matters was desired and thus was brought in intimate contact 
with the practical problems of installation and operation. 

I take pleasure in this opportunity of introducing ]\Ir. Perry to those of our 
own organization who have not met him personally, as well as to our assured 
and other readers, and express my conviction that under his management our 
paper will continue in its position of authority and interest among technical 
periodicals. Lyman B. Brainerd, President. 



Obituary. 

Sylvester W. Higgins, special agent for the Hartford Steam Boiler Inspec- 
tion and Insurance Co., at Detroit, Mich., died May 7 at his home, 120 Euclid 



I9I2 ] THELOCOMOTIVE. 87 

Ave., in that city. His death came as the culmination of an illness of several 
months duration. 

Mr. Higgins was born in Utica, N. Y., in 1834, but removed to Detroit 
with his family at an early age. The family were prominent both in the city and 
state, being associated closely with church work in Detroit. His father was at 
one time State Geologist of Michigan. , 

Mr. Higgins had been the Detroit representative of the Hartford Steam 
Boiler Inspection and Insurance for some twenty years, and his sterling 
qualities won for him the esteem and respect of all his business associates. 

He is survived by a widow and three daughters, Frances E. and Ethel M. 
of Detroit, and Mrs. R. R. Strong of Pueblo, Col. 



Personal. 

Mr. Joseph H. McNeil, who, since 1898, has been connected with the boiler 
inspection service of the State of Massachusetts, first as inspector, and later 
as chief inspector, and chairman of the Board of Boiler Rules, tendered 
his resignation, to take effect July 8th, in order that he might accept the position 
of chief inspector in the Boston Department of THE HARTFORD STEAM 
BOILER INSPECTION AND INSURANCE COMPANY. 

Mr. McNeil's experience has been both wide and varied, and is of such a 
nature as to fit him most admirably for the position he now enters with the 
HARTFORD. Born at Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, in 1865, he 
was educated in the public schools, and Prince of Wales College. His experi- 
ence has included railway work, both mechanical and executive, with the 
Prince Edward Island Railway and the various phases of stationary and 
marine engineering. He has held the position of chief engineer of ocean 
going vessels, under licenses, both from the United States government and 
from the British Board of Trade. Of his work for Massachusetts, it is perhaps 
only necessary to say that the well-known boiler inspection law of that state 
owes much of its success, if not its very existence, to his judgment, tact, and 
executive ability. 

Chief Inspector Frank S. Allen, who has had charge of both the Boston 
and Hartford departments, will by this appointment be relieved of the detailed 
supervision of the large number of boilers in the former district. He will con- 
tinue in immediate charge of the inspection service handled from Hartford, 
and will be able to devote his attention to the general inspection problems of 
the Home Office to a greater extent even than in the past. 



The Metric System of Weights and Measures. A valuable indexed 
hand-book of 196 pages of convenient size (sV/' x 5^") and substantially 
bound, containing a brief history of the Metric System, and comparative tables 
carefully calculated, giving the English or United States equivalents in all 
the units of measurement. 

Published and for sale by The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and his. 
Co., Hartford, Conn. U. S. A Price $1.25. 



88 THELOCOMOTIVE. LJu^-y, 

The Boiler and Fly Wheel Insurance of The Casualty Co. of 
America Taken Over By the HARTFORD. 

[From The Hartford (Conn.) Courant June 28, 1912.] 

The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection & Insurance Company has taken 
over and reinsured all of the steam boiler and fly wheel business of the Casualty 
Company of America of New York City. 

The Casualty Company of America was organized and commenced business 
in September, 1903, as a multiple line company, and it has gradually built up 
and developed the numerous casualty lines to an extent that its aggregate net 
premium receipts last year exceeded $2,500,000. From the insurance commis- 
sioner's report of 1912, it would appear that it is one of the stronger and more 
progressive companies, having a paid up cash capital of $750,000, a net surplus 
over all liabilities exceeding $205,000, and total assets exceeding $2,801,000. 

As relating particularly to the steam boiler line, the Casualty Company of 
America ranks as the fourth or fifth company in point of volume, its steam boiler 
premiums written last year exceeded $108,000, and the volume of business 
taken over by the Hartford Steam Boiler Insurance Company exceeds 12,500 
boilers and about $100,000,000 of insurance liability. This is undoubtedly the 
largest transaction that has ever taken place in this particular line of insurance. 

From an interview with President Brainerd of the Hartford Steam Boiler 
Insurance Company it was learned that conditions pertaining to the steam boiler 
line are in a very unsettled and unsatisfactory condition, and that competition 
is very keen. He further said that as the steam boiler line was so limited in 
volume as to render it impossible for any one company to develop and greatly 
expand it, in view of the fierceness of competition and the great cost of main- 
taining an inspection service, such as is now demanded by the insuring public 
and in many instances required by law, the management of the Casualty Company 
of America had reached the decision that the resources of the company and the 
time and energy of its officers could be better and more profitably employed in 
developing and building up its other and more prominent and more promising 
lines of insurance. 

It appears that the total amount paid last year for steam boiler insurance 
throughout the United States amounted to but $2,303,104, and that of this amount 
$1,275,103 was paid to the Hartford company, notwithstanding there were no 
less than twent3'-five companies competing for this small volume of business. 
It was further explained that because of the peculiar character of steam boiler 
and fly wheel insurance, their distinctive feature being the rnaintenance of an 
efficient inspection service, they are two of the most limited and most expensive 
lines to conduct of all the numerous casualty lines, and that unless a considerable 
volume can be controlled in each state throughout the Union, an efficient in- 
spection service cannot be maintained with any promise of profit, in view of the 
expenses in maintaining an organization and an inspection service as today 
required, if the business is to be properly conducted. 

It will at once be observed that if the premiums paid for steam boiler in- 
surance should gradually become equally apportioned between all the companies 
at this time competing for it (and all things being equal, and each company main- 
taining an equal and as extended an organization and efficient inspection service, 
there is no reason why this condition should not obtain), there would be an 



I9I2.] THELOCOMOTIVE. 39 

average of less than $100,000 annually that it would be possible for any one 
company to secure, and that this sum would be barely sufficient to maintain 
one inspector in each state throughout the Union. 

The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection & Insurance Company was organized 
and commenced business in 1866, and on January i last its paid-up capital was 
$1,000,000, its net surplus over all liabilities exceeded $1,801,000, and its assets 
amounted to $5,045,874.60. It makes a specialty of steam boiler and fly wheel 
insurance and conducts no other class or kind of insurance. 

This is the seventh instance in which the Hartford Steam Boiler Company 
has taken over the steam boiler line of other companies. 



EDITORIAL COMMENT. 

It is an important announcement that President Brainerd of the Hartford 
Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company makes this morning — the 
acquisition of the steam boiler business of the Casualty Company of America. 
The amount of reinsurance is said to equal about one-tenth of the Hartford 
company's present business. It is a substantial business deal, comprehending an 
original premium income of over $300,000. 

The steam boiler insurance business has been conducted profitably in Hart- 
ford and many small companies have been formed to enter the field. These 
companies find that an adequate inspection service, such as the Hartford company 
maintains, is a great expense and one sure preventative of large profits. It 
would not be surprising, therefore, if other companies followed the Casualty 
Company's lead. The Hartford company can take over this insurance with very 
slight increase in its working force. It means more business for Hartford. 



Boiler Tubes Underg-o a Marked Loss of Ductility. 

By a Chief Inspector. 
In the examination of boilers and other vessels operated under steam pres- 
sure, the inspector often meets conditions which to him at least are unexpected 
and peculiar. But while they may be new to him, generally on conferring with 
other inspectors, he will learn of similar instances. The present incident, with 
its tests showing the nature of the trouble, may be of assistance to some one 
in clearing up such a difficulty. 

The agent for a large manufacturing concern desired an examination of 
one of his boilers, which were of the water tube type, and all duplicates. They 
had been in service but a comparatively short time. He requested this in- 
spection not because of any trouble, but on general principles, as several months 
had elapsed since the last regular examination. The writer responded to this 
request, finding one of the boilers properly prepared for inspection. No ordinary 
defects were found. The boiler was clean and free from scale in all its tubes 
and drums. The tubes were of full thickness, and under the hammer test not 
the slightest indication of anything defective was conveyed to the examiner. 
He noted however, a peculiar appearance to those tubes which were accessible, 
and directly exposed to the fire. Touched with a fine file the metal was bright. 



90 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [July, 

and its appearance was perfectly normal. The unusual color of the tubes how- 
ever disturbed him very much, and he requested that some of them be removed 
for testing; since while they might prove soft and ductile, he was of the opinion 
that they were dangerously brittle, and feared from the general arrangement 
of the fire room that loss of life would follow the failure of a tube at the high 
pressure carried. He held this view notwithstanding the fact that these boilers 
were designed with a good factor of safety for the pressure carried, for he con- 
sidered the danger of personal injuries greater than that of a property loss. The 
mill agent took up the question of testing the tubes at once. The first blow 
struck with a chisel in cutting off one of them close to the drum, caused the 
tube to break. Every tube was then removed and test specimens one inch wide 
cut from each. All were found to be practically as brittle as the first, and 
showed an entire absence of ductility. It was felt that if they had been con- 
tinued in service, a shock, or even the vibrations of the engine would have been 
sufficient to have fractured a tube, and the reaction might well have caused the 
breaking of several more. 

Samples of four of these tubes were sent for chemical analysis, the result of , 
which is given in table i. 

Table i. 





No. I. 


No. 2. 


No. 3- 


No. 4. 


Carbon 


.06% 


.06% 


.06% 


.06% 


Manganese 


.02% 


.02% 


.02% 


.02% 


Phosphorus 


.079% 


.073% 


.065% 


.073% 


Sulphur 


.020% 


.026% 


.024% 


.020% 



Silicon .154% .159% -143% .154% 

Compared with the requirements for fire box steel boiler plate the low 
percentage of carbon and manganese, with high phosphorus will be at once 
noted, and will indicate why the tubes were so deficient in ductility. 

At about this same time, a similar change was found to have occurred in 
the tube cap bolts of another type of water tube boiler, from the same maker, 
but belonging to another firm. These bolts which were not exposed either to the 
direct action of the fire, or to so high a pressure as in the first case, were found 
by the inspector to be so brittle that on sounding them with his light hammer, 
many of them broke as if they had been glass rods. The chemical analysis of 
these bolts was very similar to that of the tubes mentioned above, though dif- 
fering from it to a slight extent. The conclusion is obvious that the stock in 
both the tubes and bolts was of a very inferior quality and ought never to have 
been used in any place exposed to high temperatures or to strains due to 
pressure. 

A new tube and several bolts from the same stock as those removed, were 
tested physically and showed good ductility, but analysis proved that the material 
was no better than that which had been rejected for its extreme brittleness. 

It has long been a dream of the writer that all material used for boiler work 
should be plainly marked, the marks to be uniform with all manufacturers, and 
to indicate the quality of the material. These could be placed upon the head of 
a bolt in forging, at slight expense, and in welded tubes, could be made at the 
time of welding. Solid drawn tubes present of course, a slightly different prob- 



I9I2.] 



THE L O C O M O T T 1 \' I-: 



91 



lem, but that process itself would perhaps be a guarantee of a better quality of 
material than would be used for welding. 




Fig. I. The Oil Tank, Railroad and Boiler House. 



An Alabama Mystery. 

The accompanying photographs were sent us by a correspondent whose 
veracity we have no reason to doubt, in substantiation of the following most 
remarkable boiler accident. This mishap occurred to what was then the No. 2 
boiler of the Eufaula Cotton Mill, Eufaula, Ala., early in 1897. This boiler 
is said to have discharged certain of its tubes bodily through the tube sheets, 
sending four of them out of a window, across a gulley and a railroad track, 
until they were intercepted by an oil tank which they pierced. The relative 
location of the track, gully, boilerhouse, and oil tank can be seen by reference 
to the photograph, Fig. i, which shows the present appearance of this locality. 
A close scrutinj' of Fig. i will show patches applied to the tank, and if one 
will turn to Fig. 2, which is a nearer view, one will see that they consist of a 
horseshoe, and three round patches, said to have been placed there in repairing 
the damage done by the flying tubes. A fifth tube missed the tank, but punctured 
the stack which occupied the site of that shown in Fig. i, but has since been 
removed to a location such that it was impossible to obtain a photograph of it. 

The accident happened early one Sunday morning, about 5 a. m., when no 
one except the watchman was about the plant. He was attracted by an unusual 



92 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



[July, 



noise in the direction of the boiler house, but the performance was over before 
he could reach the scene. The cause of this peculiar action was never satis- 
factorily explained, and remains one of the mysteries of our Atlanta Department. 




Fig. 2. The Patched Oil Tank. 

The boiler itself did not leave the setting, indeed it was not sufficiently 
disturbed to disconnect it from the steam pipe. Nine tubes left the boiler 
entirely, and seven or eight more were projected part way through the front 
head. Aside from slight repairs to the setting, the only work needed on the 
boiler was the replacing of these sixteen or seventeen tubes. 

The question remains unanswered as to what made this boiler cut up this 
particular sort of caper, and if anyone can answer it, or cite a parallel case, we 
shall be very glad to hear from him. 



Patching a Boiler Without Rivets, Bolts, or Welding. 

E. J. Enoch, Inspector. 

Not long since a brother inspector, in reporting upon a patch applied to a 
boiler, remarked that " the job looked as though it had been done by a shoe- 
maker." 

The writer was recently sent to inspect a job of repair involving a patch, 
but as it was neither pegged, nailed or sewed, it could hardly be said to display 
the art of shoemaking, resembling more the handiwork of a bricklayer. 



I9I2.] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE 



93 



The patch in question was placed on the rear drum of a Hawley down draft 
furnace. This was attached to a horizontal tubular boiler which carried a work- 
ing steam pressure of one hundred and twenty-five pounds. A crack had de- 
veloped in the drum, starting at one of 




the tube holes in the upper row, near 
the center, and extending circumferen- 
tially to a point near the top, a length 
of about five inches. The boiler maker 
(?) who was called to make repairs 
prepared a patch of H " plate, shaped 
like Fig. i to fit over the top of the 
drum, and down each side of the tube 
opposite the fracture. A liberal quan- 
tity of asbestos cement was spread over 

the crack, the patch placed over the cement, and the brick arch, or deflecting 
wall rebuilt on top of the patch to keep it in position. 

It is not known what pressure was attained after the repair was completed, 
as the attendant was kept so busy in a fruitless effort to maintain a fire in the 
furnace against the flow of water from the fracture, that he failed to note the 
reading of the pressure gage. Nevertheless the patch was not blown out of 
the furnace, and the greatest damage was to the purse of the mill owner. 



Fig. I. The Patch. 





Fig. 2. Patch Bricked and Cemented in Place. 



Queer Cause for an Erratic Steam Gage. 

By Inspector J. J. McCurry. 

One of our inspectors relates the following incident relative to an incorrect 
steam gage, and the queer cause which he found for its lack of truthfulness. 

He was called to a plant to make a test as the gages were not reading 
together. There were two gages in the boiler room, one on each of two Stirling 
boilers, and one, a recording gage, in the engine room. On removing the gage 
from boiler No. i, it was found to be 5 lbs. " slow ", but on resetting, and 
replacing it, it agreed perfectly with the recording gage. The other gage on the 
No. 2 boiler was then found to be 125^ lbs. ahead of the one just reset, and it 



94 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [July. 



(No. 2 gage) had been supposed to register correctly. This caused the engineer 
to question the inspector's test gage. The inspector, however, took down and 
tested the No. 2 gage, and found it to be 2 lbs. "fast" as compared with his 
test gage. The engineer was now certain of the inaccuracy of the test gage, 
and not too sure of the reliability and usefulness of boiler inspectors in general, 
but the inspector, loath to distrust his old and tried friend, sought for some 
obstruction in the gage connection, without however succeeding in his search. 
As he tersely puts it, " She was wide open, and so was the engineer." Still, 
unable to lose all faith in his pet gage and pump, he ordered the offender 
replaced on the No. 2 boiler, and there it stood wnth its hand quite still at 125 
lbs. The inspector, now wholly aroused, climbed up on a ladder to obtain if 
possible, some additional information. The hand seemed clear of the glass and 
dial, but he finally noticed a slight bulge near the center of the dial, sufficient to 
cause the hand to hang up. He removed the face, set the dial back, and 
replaced the gage, only to find it still 10 lbs. off, as compared with that on the 
other boiler. 

This set the inspector thinking. He was sure the hand w^as not resting on 
the dial when he set the gage, and tested it with his pump. He had also done 
all the work himself except taking it down, and putting it back, which fact 
at last lead him to the answer to his puzzle. He examined the screws which 
held the gage to the boiler front, and found them all set up tight, clamping 
the back of the gage securely to the boiler front. This, instead of being per- 
fectly flat, was somewhat uneven, and thus caused the back of the gage to be 
pushed forward enough to make the dial encounter the hand, causing con- 
siderable friction, and explaining its erratic action. He found that he could 
easily vary the reading 10 lbs. by merely manipulating these holding screws, 
and when all tension was removed from the back of the gage, it fell into line, 
not only with the gage on the other boiler, but with that in the engine room 
as well, completely \nndicating his pet test gage, and we are lead to judge, 
somewhat discomfiting the engineer. 



A NOVEL METHOD FOR THE PREVENTION OF BOILER 

EXPLOSIONS. 

We extract the following from a letter, written by one of our southern 
inspectors. 

" Some few years ago a man in southern Arkansas owned and operated 
a small single boiler sawmill. The boiler after several years service, had 
developed a small steam leak at a longitudinal seam. The firemen reported 
the fact to the proprietor and stated that he, (the fireman) was afraid she would 
"bust." The German brains of the proprietor devised and executed the follow- 
ing idea. Securing several lengths of log chain, and fastening them together 
at the ends until a sufficient length was obtained. He wrapped the boiler in 
a spiral fashion with several turns of the chain, hauling it taut with a yoke 
of oxen, after which wedges were driven under the chains at several points." 



THe Hartford Steam Boiler lospeciiOQ aqil Insurance GoiDpaiiy. 



ABSTRACT OF STATEMENT, JANUARY 1, 1912. 
Capital Stock, . . . $1,000,000.00. 

ASSETS 

Cash on hand and in course of transmission $204,693.25 

Premiums in course of collection, 263,453.33 

Real estate, 91,100.00 

Loaned on bond and mortgage, 1,166,360.00 

Stocks and bonds, market value, 3,249,216.00 

Interest accrued 71,052.02 

Total Assets, $5,045,874.60 

LIABILITIES. 

Premium Reserve, $2,042,218.21 

Losses unadjusted 102,472.53 

Commissions and brokerage, 52,690.67 

Other liabilities (taxes accrued, etc.), 47,191.65 

Capital Stock, $1,000,000.00 

Surplus over all liabilities 1,801,301.54 

Surplus as regards Policy-holders, . $2,801,301.54 2,801,301.54 
Total Liabilities, $5,045,874.60 



L. B. BRAINERD, President and Treasurer. 

FRANCIS B. ALLEN, Vice-President. CHAS. S. BLAKE, Secretary. 

L. F. MIDDLEBROOK, Assistant Secretary. 

W. R. C. CORSON, Assistant Secretary. 

S. F. Jeter, Supervising Inspector. 

E. J. Murphy. M. E., Consulting Engineer. 

F. M. Fitch, Auditor. 



Board of directors 



GEORGE BURNHAM, 

The Baldwin Locomotive Works, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 
ATWOOD COLLINS, President, 

The Security Co., Hartford, Conn. 
LUCIUS F. ROBINSON, Attorney, 

Hartford, Conn. 
JOHN O. ENDERS, United States Bank, 

Hartford, Conn. 
LYMAN B. BRAINERD, 

Director, Swift & Company. 
MORGAN B. BRAINARD. 

Vice-Pres. and Treasurer, The JEtnn 

Life Insurance Co., Hartford, Conn. 
FRANCIS B. ALLEN, Vice-Pres., The 

Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and 

Insurance Company. 
CHARLES P. COOLEY, Vice-Pres., 

The Fidelity Trust Co., Hartford, 

Conn. 



ARTHUR L. SHIPMAN, Attorney, 
Hartford, Conn. 

GEORGE C. KIMBALL, President, The 
Smyth Mfg. Co., Hartford, Conn. 

CHARLES M. JARVIS, President, The 
American Hardware Corporation, New 
Britain, Conn. 

FRANCIS T. MAXWELL, President, 
The Hockanum Mills Company, Rock- 
ville, Conn. 

HORACE B. CHENEY, Cheney Brothers 
Silk Manufacturing Co., South Man- 
chester, Conn. 

D. NEWTON BARNEY, Treasurer, The 
Hartford Electric Light Co., and 
Director N. Y., N. H. and H. R. R. 
Co. 

DR GEORGE C. F. WILLIAMS, Treas. 
and General Manager, The Capewell 
Horse Nail Co., Hartford, Conn. 






Incorporated 1866. 




Charter Perpetual. 



TKe mrtforil Steam Boiler HispeetiOQ aqil Insoiance Gompaiii 

ISSUES POLICIES OF INSURANCE COVERING 

ALL LOSS OF PROPERTY 

AS WELL AS DAMAGE RESULTING FROM 

LOSS OF LIFE AND PERSONAL INJURIES DUE TO EXPLOSIONS 
OF STEAM BOILERS OR FLY WHEELS. 

Full information concerning the Company's Operations can be obtained at 

any of its Agencies. 



Department. 

ATLANTA, Ga., 

611-613 Empire Bldg. 

BALTIMORE, Md., . 
13-14-15 Abell Bldg. 

BOSTON, Mass., . 
loi Milk St. 

CHICAGO, 111., . 

160 West Jackson St. 

CINCINNATI, Ohio, 

First National Bank Bldg. 

CLEVELAND, Ohio, 
Century Bldg. 

DENVER, Colo., 

Room 2, Jacobson Bldg. 

HARTFORD, Conn., 
56 Prospect St. 

NEW ORLEANS, La., . 

833-835 Gravier St. 
NEW YORK, N. Y., 

100 William St. 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa., . 

432 Walnut St. 

PITTSBURG, Pa., . 

1801-1802 Arrott Bldg. 

PORTLAND, Ore., . 
306 Yeon Bldg. 

SAN FRANOSCO, Cal., . 

339-341 Sansome St. 
ST. LOUIS. Mo., 

319 North Fourth St. 

TORONTO, Canada, 

Continental Life Bldg. 



Representatives. 

W. M. Francis, 

Manager & Chief Inspector. 

Lawford & McKiM, General Agents. 
R. E. MuNRO, Chief Inspector. 

C. E. Roberts, Manager. 

Joseph H. McNeil, Chief Inspector. 

H. M. Lemon, Manager. 

James L. Foord Chief Inspector. 

J. T. Coleman, Assistant Chief Inspector. 

W. E. Gleason, Manager. 
Walter Gerner, Chief Inspector. 

H. A. Baumhart, 

Manager & Chief Inspector. 

Thos. E. Shears, 

General Agent & Chief Inspector. 

F. H. Williams, Jr., General Agent. 
F. S. Allen, Chief Inspector. 

Peter F. Pescud, General Agent. 
R. T. Burwell, Chief Inspector. 

C. C. Gardiner, Manager. 

W. W. Manning, Chief Inspector. 

Corbin, Goodrich & Wickham, General Agents. 

Wm. J. Farran, Chief Inspector. 

S. B. Adams, Assistant Chief Inspector. 

C. D. AsHCROFT, Manager. 

Benjamin Ford, Chief Inspector. 

W. A. Craig, Assistant Chief Inspector. 

McCargar, Bates & Lively, General Agents. 
C. B. Paddock, Chief Inspector. 

H. R. Mann & Co., General Agents. 
J. B. Warner, Chief Inspector. 

V. Hugo, 

Manager & Chief Inspector. 

H. N. Roberts, 

General Agent. 



"^^.^^my 




Vol. XXIX. HARTFORD, COXX., OCTOBER, 1912. 



Xo. 4. 



COPYRIGHT, 1912, BY THE HARTFORD STEAM BOILER INSPECTION AND INSURANCE CO. 




A VuLCAXizER Explosion. 



98 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [October. 

Vulcanizer Explosion. 

Our front cover shows the failure of a vulcanizer May l6 at the plant of 
the Empire Rubber Company, at Trenton, N. J. This type of vessel presents 
an interesting problem in design because of its large size> and the necessity of 
providing it with a large cover, which shall be at once amply strong and capable 
of quick opening and closing, a feature which usually results in the use of some 
form of casting, with all the difficulties which that type of construction involves. 
The failure of one of these vessels is apt to be very destructive and is frequently 
attended by loss of life. In the present instance ona man was killed outright, 
and two others were fatally injured. This was explosion No. 238 in our list 
for j\Iay, 1912. 



Old Boilers. 

The subject of a proper retiring age for old steam boilers is one which 
comes frequently to light, and which has been in the past a most fruitful 
source of controversy. Of course there can be no question as to the propriety 
of condemning to forced retirement those boilers whose diseases of one sort 
or another have reached the chronic stage, and are no longer curable, but there 
is at once the basis for a deal of argument when an inspector approaches the 
owner of a boiler with the statement that it must be replaced because of old 
age, especially if it is known to have all the apparent qualifications except 
youth, for many additional years of service. 

In the past many curious properties have been attributed to old boilers. 
One of the most interesting was the notion that they could not explode 
violently. It was supposed that an old boiler would merely rupture, allowing 
the pressure to be relieved much as if the safety valve had opened. This idea 
was discussed at some length in the Locomotive in 1881. It was definitely 
disproved along with many other fallacies, and much popular mystery concern- 
ing boiler explosions, by a series of experiments conducted by Mr. Francis B. 
Stevens, of Hoboken, the founder of Stevens Institute, and Prof. R. H. 
Tliurston, at the Sandy Hook proving grounds in the fall of 1871. These 
tests consisted of a series of prearranged boiler explosions in which old 
boilers, and some new boiler elements were exploded by raising a steam pres- 
sure in them sufficient to produce failure. They gave the first conclusive proof 
of the fact that a boiler filled with water to its normal level could explode, and 
also that a boiler might explode violently when hot and under steam at a 
pressure less than that which it had successfully withstood under the ordinary 
hydrostatic test. 

In 1881 ]\Ir. W. B. LeVan. of Philadelphia, proposed to the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers * that all steam boilers should be retired at 
the age of ten years arbitrarily, in much the same way that car wheels and 
axles are retired after a certain mileage. His reason for this view was his 
general distrust of boiler inspection, and although he admitted that the use 
and care a boiler received must influence its life, he was unwilling to believe 
in the probability of an inspector finding the extent of that influence, and so 
expected to forestall all danger by his ten year limit. Of course it was pointed 
out at that time that such a rule would work great hardship to the owner who 

*"TheLifetimeor Age of Steam Boilers." W. B. Le Van. Trans. .\.S.M.E. Vol. II.. Page 503. 



I9I2.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 99 

used a good boiler well, and would unduly encourage the unscrupulous owner 
to push his poor boilers, by fair means or foul, to accomplish their utmost 
in the allotted ten years. 

However there is a border line between the obvious defects an inspector 
can detect, and that gradual change in the physical character of the metal 
coming with advanced age and long use, which can only be implied by a 
knowledge of similar cases. Here it is that an insurance company must at 
times make a stand for the removal from service of an old boiler, or at least 
for a great reduction in the pressure at which it is worked. In order to prove 
the soundness of such rulings, old boilers have been tested from time to time, 
and it is the purpose of the present article to review certain of these tests, 
and show the character of the evidence upon which these old age retirements 
are based. 

In general two sorts of tests can be made. One sort, of which the early 
tests of Stevens and Tliurston are examples, consists in subjecting the entire 
boiler, considered as an engineering structure, to either a steam, or hydrostatic 
pressure great enough to cause rupture. The hydrostatic test is usually em- 
ployed since it permits careful measurements of the strains at various points 
to be made as the test progresses, and with these an accurate record of the 
pressures producing them. The other class includes tests of the metal taken 
from different parts of a boiler, to show its physical and chemical properties, 
and if the original condition of the material is known, is of great value. It of 
course may very well form an addition to a test of the first sort. Within a 
short time, five old boilers, whose entire history is knowm, have been tested 
to destruction by the application of hydrostatic pressure. Tliree of these, the 
property of the Oliver Iron Mining Co., of Ishpeming, Mich., were tested 
by Mr. A. M. Gow, their assistant engineer. The other two were presented to 
the Bureau of Standards for test by Mr. Nicholas Sheldon, treasurer of the 
Kendall Manufacturing Co., of Providence, R. I. These boilers were tested 
to destruction at the plant of W. H. Hicks, boiler makers. Providence, R. I., 
by Mr. James E. Howard, engineer — physicist of the Bureau of Standards, 
assisted and advised by Mr. F. B. Allen, vice-president of The Hartford Ste.\m 
Boiler Inspection and Insurance Co. All five of these boilers had been carried 
on the books of the Hartford, and had been removed from service at their 
request. 

The boilers tested by Mr. Gow, were known in the records of the Hartford 
by the numbers 301, 302, and 303 and will be designated in this way. They 
were nearly identical in construction, of the horizontal return tubular type, 
"72 inches in diameter, and 15 feet long. The shells were in five courses, and 
were made of y% inch plate. The heads were Yz inch in thickness. The longi- 
tudinal seams were of the double riveted lap type fastened with Y^ inch rivets, 
pitched 2 inches apart, and each boiler was fitted with a cast iron manhole 
frame on top of the next to the last course, with a clear opening of about 
12X16 inches having its greatest diameter girthwise of the boiler. Two 4 
inch cast iron nozzles were also fitted to each boiler, one on the rear, and 
one on the second course, for the attachment of the safety valves and steam 
pipes. The blow off connections were in the rear heads, and had been used 
for a long time for the introduction of the feed water. Reference to Fig. i 
will make clear the general arrangement of the boilers, and will indicate their 
only point of difference, namely that No. 302 contained 112 three inch tubes, 
while both No. 301, and No. 303 were provided with S3 four inch tubes. 



100 



T.HE . LOCOMOTIVE 

— -— yiU: ■ 



[October, 




I Fig. I. Details of Boilers 301, 302, and 303. 

Hie report of the Hartford's inspector shows that these boilers, aside from 
age were in apparent good order. There was evidence that no rivets had 
been replaced, and that the seams had never been chipped and caulked. No 
fire cracks were visible, and although there was a slight indication of over- 
heating on the bottom sheets of the rear courses, this was considered trivial. 
The only repairs known to have been made, were several complete renewals 
of the tubes. 

All three boilers appear to have been made by Kendall and Roberts of 
Boston, No. 302 about 1877, and the other two about 1879. The steel plates 
in No. 302 were branded " Bay State Homo," while those of No. 301 and No. 
303 bore the brand " Nashua Iron and Steel Co., Nashua, N. H." " Cast Steel 
60,000 lbs.," and an encircled Indian's head. Mr. Gow in his report of the 
tests published in "Power" gives it as his opinion that these were among 
the first boilers to be made in this country of Siemens open hearth steel. 

Boiler No. 302 was tested June 6, 1911. Pressure was applied gradually, 
and at 275 lbs., the manhole frame failed, tearing the adjacent sheet as shown 
in Fig. 2. A steel tape stretched around the boiler girthwise, showed a 
stretch of 3/16 inch in circumference just before the rupture, but on the re- 
lease of the pressure, no permanent set was found, showing that the elastic 
limit of the plate had not been reached. 

Boiler No. 303 was tested the following day, and in order to find if possible 
other sources of weakness, the manhole frame was removed, and the open- 



IQI^. 



T 1 [ I' L U C O M O T 1 V E , 



101 




Fig. 2. Showint, the Brikf.x Manhole Frame of Boiler 30_'. 




Fig. 3- Appearance of Boiler 303 After Testing. 



ing patched with a 5/^ inch plate. This was secured to the shell with ^4 inch 
tap bolts tapped into the patch, and passing through the holes where the manhole 
frame had been riveted to the shell plate. Pressure was gradually applied 
as with the other boiler, and at 297 lbs., the limit of the hand pump used was 
reached, so that the pressure had to be released, and another source of pres- 



102 



THE LOCOMOTIVE 



[October, 



sure connected. No permanent set was recorded up to this point. When the 
pressure was resumed and carried up to the 300 mark, the leakage was so 
general that the pump had to be stopped to enable a patch bolt to be caulked, 
and several plugs to be tightened. Pressure was applied for the third time, 
and at 300 lbs., 13 patch bolts sheared, the beading at the tube ends started, 
the tube sheets showed distress, and a permanent set of about 1/16 inch in 
the circumference of the boiler was recorded. After the release of pressure, 
the patch was found to overlap the bolt holes about Yi inch. Its appearance 
after the test is shown in Fig. 3. 

Boiler No. 301 was tested in its original condition, and failed through the 
manhole frame at a pressure of 260 lbs. A set of Vs inch in the circumference, 
was noted, along with evidences of distress in the longitudinal seams. 

Test specimens were cut from these boilers, at points exposed to the action 
of the fire, and also on the top. These were tested for strength and elonga- 
tion, and also submitted to a chemical analysis, the results of which are shown 
in Table I. 

Table I. 



Tensile strength. 

Elongation 

Reduction inarea 
Elastic limit. . 



Boiler No. 302. 



Over fire. 



60,460 lbs. 

22.5% 

53.7% 

36,690 lbs. 



On top. 



70,145 lbs. 

20.12% 

47.05% 

39,060 lbs. 



Boiler No. 303. 



Over fire. 



60, 186 lbs, 

21.5 % 

54.52% 

38,280 lbs. 



On top. 



56,400 lbs. 

27.25% 

64.88% 

37,230 lbs. 



Boiler No. 301. 



Over fire. | On top. 



60,780 lbs. 
26.5 % 
61.62% 



61,680 lbs. 

19.75% 
50.80% 



.33,100 lbs. '38, 820 lbs. 



Chemical Properties. 



Carbon .... 
Sulphur... . 
Manganese 
Phosphorus 



0.13 % 
0.026% 
0.27 % 
0.097% 



0.17 % 
0.023% 
0.29 % 
0.097% 



0.25 % 
0.121% 
0.37 % 
0.092% 



0.13 % 
0.022% 
0.20 % 
0.105% 



0.18 % 
0.022% 
0.28 % 
0.085% 



* Bent cold to 180° without fracture. 

These boilers had been designed for a pressure of loo lbs., but owing to the 
low factor of safety which they would have at this pressure, due to the low 
efficiency of the longitudinal joints, they had been worked at a pressure of 
8o lbs. At this pressure, the actual factor of safety, based on the pressure of 
260 lbs. at which the manhole frame of boiler No. 301 failed was only 3.25. 

The two old boilers tested at Providence by the Bureau of Standards were 
of a type very similar to those tested by Mr. Gow. Tliey were also five course 
horizontal tubular boilers, y2 inches in diameter, by fifteen feet long between 
tube sheets, with the first course extending 12 inches at the front as a dry 



191-'. 1 



THE LOCOMOTIVE, 



103 




Fig. 4. Boiler 4092 Prior to the Test. Note the io-inxh Gaged Lengths. 

sheet. Their appearance prior to the test is shown by Fig. 4. The longitudinal 
joints were double riveted lap seams, ^ inch rivets, pitched 2 inches, placed 
in punched holes. The plate thickness was ^ inch for the shell, and Yz inch 
in the heads. Both boilers contained 140 three inch tubes. Domes 2 feet 
6 inches in diameter were provided on the second course, and cast iron man- 
hole frames and safety valve nozzles were fitted to the middle and rear courses, 
respectively. Both boilers were made at the shops of the Whittier Machine 
Co., Boston, Mass., in 1881, of " Benzon " steel. They were known as No. 4084 
and No. 4092 on the Hartforb's records, and were designated by these num- 
bers in the report of the test published in the November 1911 number of the 
Journal of the American Societj- of Mechanical Engineers. 

In this series of tests especial attention was given to measuring the strains 
and deformations produced in the boiler sheets as the pressure was increased, 
because in this way a knowledge of the actual behavior of the boiler could be 
obtained, and so checked up with the strains which might be expected if the 
ordinary assumptions underlying calculations of boiler strength are justified. 
To this end small holes were drilled at different points in pairs, exactly ten 
inches apart as is shown in Fig 4. These were then reamed out with a conical 
reamer, so as to serve for centering two corresponding cone shaped points on a 
micrometer strain gage. This instrument could be applied to a pair of holes, 
and their exact distance apart compared to that between an exactly similar 
pair prepared at tbe ends of a carefully measured length in a standard bar. 
After a stress was applied to the boiler, the distance between any pair of 
holes could again be compared with the standard, and the difference between 
the two sets of readings would be the stretch. It was said that these measure- 
ments were known with a certainty of o.oooi inch, which is about the 
stretch which we might expect to find in a bar of steel, i square inch in cross 



104 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [October, 

section and ten inches long, if it were subjected to a pull of 300 lbs. If we take 
the stress which will produce a given stretch in a piece of material i inch 
long, and divide this pull or stress by the resultant strain, we get a number 
known as the " IModulus of Elasticity." In the present case, a stretch of 
1/10,000 inch in ten inches, would mean an increase of i/io of this, or 
1/100,000 inch in a length of i inch, and if we were to divide the stress, 300 
lbs., by this strain in a i inch length, i/ioo.ooo, we should obtain the number 
30,000,000 which is the modulus of elasticity for steel. (As a matter of fact 
the modulus must not be thought of as being obtained from these figures, for 
of course the pull to produce this stretch of 1/10,000 inch in ten inches was 
estimated from the modulus obtained by averaging a large number of tests, 
in which the length of the specimen, the pull applied and the resulting in- 
crease of length were carefully recorded.) Knowing the modulus then, we 
are in a position to predict the strain which ought to result from any given 
pressure applied to the inside of a boiler, and if in testing, the actual strains 
differ from these, we must look for the cause of the rigidity if the strains are 
too small, or of the yielding if they are too great, and see if the behavior of 
the metal can be attributed to any peculiarity in the boiler structure which 
causes a different distribution of stress from that expected. Having out- 
lined the methods of investigation, we will not endeavor to review all the de- 
tails of the measurements made, but refer the reader who desires to enter into 
these more fully to the published report, as we are concerned only with the 
results. 

Boiler No. 4084 was tested first. At a pressure of 266 lbs., leakage along 
the longitudinal joint of the dome had become so great as to necessitate its 
removal. The shell was closed with a patch, double riveted, which made use 
of the same holes as had previously served for fastening the dome. At 270 
lbs., the cast iron manhole frame ruptured across the middle of its length 
and a second patch, closing the opening, was applied in its place. When a 
pressure of 295 lbs. had been reached, 3-front head braces let go and the test 
was discontinued. The boiler was subsequently dismantled, in order to permit 
a detailed examination of its interior to be made. Certain regions of distress 
were revealed through the disturbance of the scale with which the metal was 
slightly incrusted. This distress was most evident in the dome, at its longi- 
tudinal seam, and also under the points of attachment of the lugs, by which 
the boiler had been supported during the test, and also when in service. Fig. 5 
shows this disturbance under the lugs excellently, and also indicates the slip 
of the longitudinal joint. 

The strain measurements were less comprehensive on this boiler than on 
No. 4092, and in general were very similar. One feature was noticed however, 
which was absent in the latter case. The gaged lengths, which spanned the 
longitudinal joints, and therefore measured their slip, decreased with great 
uniformity from the front towards the rear, suggesting that even though these 
seams were not directly exposed to the action of the fire, there was a greater 
range of temperature strain at the front than at the rear. This result is 
especially interesting in the light of the experiments, reported below, on a 
French boiler of considerable age, in which it was clearly shown that the 
deterioration of the metal was closely correlated to its position with respect 
to the direct action of the fire. 



1 1) I-'.] 



THE L O C O M O 1" 1 V E . 



105 



In tlie hope of attaining higher pressures, boiler No. 4092 was strengthened 
prior to the test, by removing the dome and manhole frame, and replacing 
them with patches. The safety valve nozzle was allowed to remain, but as the 
lest progressed, it was found necessary to replace it with a soft patch, as it 
was impracticable to caulk the leaks occurring at its junction with the shell. 
Six I ?4 "inch through stays were also added to give additional support to the 
sciiincnts of the heads above the tubes. 



i ^' ^ 



""■*\##^ 



'**:i:t*'*u 



♦♦•♦♦♦ 



♦♦♦* 



♦♦♦ 




Fig. 5. SHowaNG the Evidence of Distress Under the Lugs and at the 

Longitudinal Joint. 



Pressure was raised, and at each increment of pressure, careful measure- 
ments of the various gaged lengths were made, in order to compute the strains. 
At 300 lbs. pressure, the safety valve nozzle had to be replaced, and at 335 
lbs., the manhole patch failed, shearing its rivets, and tearing the sheet. 
A section of the sheet was cut out from girth seam to girth seam, and a double 
riveted patch inserted in its place. This patch was necessarily hand riveted, and 
at the time of publication of the results of these tests, higher pressures than 
335 lbs., had not been attained due to excessive leakage at this patch. 

The results of the strain measurements of which some 3,300 were taken, 
may be briefly summarized as follows : The well known stiffening effect of 
girth seams and heads were abundantly confirmed, as was the great weakness 
of the top center line of the boiler due to the presence of an opening in nearly 
every course. The double riveted lap joints, were found to give rise to an 
excessive slip, and the effect of this slip, in producing abnormal stresses in the 



106 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [October, 

solid plate abreast the ends of the seam were commented on. It was also 
evident that since the longitudinal seams in successive courses were only 
separated by three rivet pitches (6 inches), girthwise, a belt of great tan- 
gential weakness existed from end to end of the boiler, and on each side, 
through these seams. 

If a plain cylinder is subjected to an internal pressure, the metal ought to 
contract in length, to make up for its tangential, or round-a-bout extension. 
Such a contraction occurred in the metal of the boiler shell, but was not 
uniform, indeed in the top part of the boiler, there was an actual extension. 
It is also obvious, that if a plain cylinder, like a boiler tube, is subjected to 
an external pressure, the tube should extend in length, to make up for the 
girthwise contraction. In the boiler tested, such an extension of the tubes 
was found, though it was modified to some extent, by the position of the 
tube in the shell. Those tubes situated in the center of the nest, were in 
every case extended more than those near the shell, as if the flanged head 
exerted a restraining influence. It was pointed out as a matter of fact, that 
this extension of the tubes, coupled as it was with a contraction lengthwise of 
the shell, imposed a considerable bending moment on the flanges of the heads. 

Let us now, before attempting to form an opinion, or draw conclusions as 
to the results of these tests, pass on to a consideration of a series of tests 
of the second sort made with great care, in which samples of the material of 
some very old boilers of known antecedents were tested both physically and 
chemically. It is a point worthy of note that in these tests, especial care was 
taken to keep track of the part of the boiler from which the test specimens 
were taken in order that any peculiarity due to exposure either to extreme 
temperature conditions, or to unusual structural stresses might be observed. 

These tests, made by Messrs. A. Olry, and P. Bonnet, form the subject 
of an extended report to the (French) Association of Owners of Steam Ap- 
paratus, at the 33d Congress of that society held at Paris in 1909.* 

Their attention was called to this subject, by the fact that several more or 
less discrepant reports as to the effect of age on boiler plate, had been made 
from time to time, particularly, some tests on the material of very old boilers 
made by Walther-Meunier, and reported in 1903-1904, to the same Association. 
He had found some old plate so brittle that he was of the opinion that all 
boilers should be retired after from 30 to 35 years use, if worked 12 hours a 
day, and if worked 24 hours, he thought that a lower limit of useful life 
should be set, say 20-25 years. This raised a storm of protest and discussion 
among the French engineers, many of whom cited tests to the contrary, and the 
result was that his work came to be largely discounted because of lack of 
data as to the original condition of the material. 

Olry and Bonnet were interested in this controversy and when they were 
presented with the opportunity of testing some old boilers whose history was 
available, they made the investigations which form the basis of the report 
we are considering. 

La Societe des Hants Fourneaux, Forges et Acieries de Denain et D'Anzin, 
a French steel works of considerable note, installed during 1873 and 1874, 14 
boilers for use at their works. They were made by Schneider et Cie., at 



* Comptes Rendus Des Seances Du 33e. Congrfes Des Ingenieurs on chef Des Associations Dc 
Proprietaires D'Apareils A Vapeur. Tenu a Paris, 1909. 



igij. 



THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



107 



Creusot, and were of the type illustrated in Fig. 6, cylindrical, with internal 
furnaces and direct tubes, surmounted by a dome. The settings were such that 
the products of combustion passed first through the tubes, then returned under 
the right-hand side of the shell to the front, where they passed across, and 
back to the flue, under the left-hand side of the shell. A longitudinal baffle 
wall for this purpose was provided under the center line of the boiler as is 
indicated in Fig. 6. The boilers were designed for a pressure of 71 lbs., 
but were later tested and worked at 78 lbs. (5.5 kg. per sq. cm.). They had 
a heating surface of 1270 sq. ft., were oil fired, and forced day and night 
except Sundays, for more than 30 years. In 1900 the rate of firing, which is 
typical of the service they rendered throughout their life, was such as to 
consume about 150 kg. of oil per sq. meter of grate per hour, which is equiva- 
lent to 31 lbs. of oil per sq. ft. of grate per hour, a very high rate indeed. 
The evaporation obtained was about 6 lbs. of water per lb. of fuel. The 
material of which the boilers were constructed was Creusot wrought iron, 
designated by the following numbers: body of the boiler, No. 2; heads, lower 
furnace sheets, and domes. No. 4; upper furnace sheets and front tube sheets. 
No. 6. The entire battery was overhauled between 1905 and 1907, as the 
result of a general breaking down from old age, and has since been entirely 
replaced. This overhauling however gave the opportunity for obtaining test 
specimens, and the data given was obtained at this lime. 





Fig. 6. Boiler Kxown .\s S-3. 

The iron known as Creusot No. 2, was made to meet the following 
guarantee : 

Tensile strength 47.380 lbs. per sq. in. (^Minimum.) 

Elongation in 4 inches. 6.5% 

Reduction in area, 6% 

The original thickness of sheet was .55 of an inch. 

In January 1905, a crack developed in one of the boilers, known as S-3, 
in the bottom of the third course, in the fourth girth seam, necessitating the 
removal of a portion of the sheet. Eight specimens for tensile test of standard 
(eight inch) size, were cut from this sheet and broken with the following 
average results : 

Tensile strength, specimens cut lengthwise. 41700 lbs. 

Elongation (4 ins.) " "' '• 3.1% 

Tensile strength, specimens cut girthwise, 39000 lbs. 

Elongation (4 ins.) " " " - 1.7% 

Fourteen specimens of the type and dimensions shown in Fig. 7 were also 
cut and tested for brittleness by the impact test, in which a ram or hammer, of 



108 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [October, 



known weight, is allowed to fall from a known height, striking the specimen 
fairly on its flat side, at the point of least breadth. As a sort of standard of 
comparison, by which one can gage the performance of the various specimens 
under this test, it may be well to state that a similar specimen of good modern 
boiler steel, ^ in. thick, is required by French standards, to withstand a blow 
from a -ram of 28.7 lbs., falling 13.12 feet (13 kilograms, falling 4 meters). 
Tills means an expenditure of 374 foot lbs. of work without starting a fracture. 
These particular specimens were fractured on the average, by a blow from a 
26.4 lb. ram, falling 19.7 inches, or with an expenditure of 43.8 foot lbs. 

The deterioration of the material as indicated by these tests was so great, 
that another group of specimens was cut from the same shell, yielding the fol- 
lowing average results : 

Tensile strength (long.) 38400 lbs. 

Elongation, (8 in.) " 2% 

■' " (trans.) Practically nothing. 

Impact, complete fracture, 28.7 lbs., falling 19.7 in. 

A chemical analysis showed the following composition : 
Carbon, • 0.07% 

Manganese, 0.05% 

Sulphur, 0.046% 

Phosphorus, 0.290% 

This indicates rather more phosphorus than one would expect in first class 
boiler iron. 

To see if this brittle condition extended to the entire battery, specimens 
from the same region were cut from three of the other boilers, and the results 
were so nearly like those given above, that it was not thought necessary to 
quote them specifically. 

Specimens of the Creusot No. 4 iron, for testing were cut from both the 
front and rear heads of the boiler known as S-4. The original specifications 
for this iron called for the following properties: 

Tensile strength 4SS00 lbs. 

Elongation 14.6% 

Reduction in area, 1-3% 

The metal as tested from the front head of S-4- gave values for these quantities 
as indicated below : 

[43400 lbs. 
Tensile strength ^40700 

[41300 " 
Average 41800 

[10% 
Elongation (4 in.) -|ii% 

[18% 

Average 13% 

Reduction in area, average 2.2% 

A weight of 37.45 lbs. falling 39.37 inches started a fracture, while modern 
steel of this thickness would be required to withstand the impact of a like 
weight falling 13.12 feet, without injury. 



I9I2.] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE 



109 



The specimens of the same (No. 4) iron from the rear head of boiler S-4, 
gave the following results : 



Tensile strength 
Average 

Elongation (4 in.) 

Average 
Reduction in area, average 



[■44500 lbs. 
1 43400 •' 
145700 " 
[46000 " 

44900 " 

17% 

13% 

11% 
10% 
12.75% 
1 .42% 



Subjected to the impact test, 3 out of 
8 specimens failed under a blow from a 
ram of 44 lbs., falling 6.6 feet. Chem- 
ical analysis of the material showed its 
composition to be as follows : 

Carbon 0.05% 

Silicon 0.15% 

Manganese, less than 0.10% 

Sulphur 0.010% 

Phosphorus 0.100% 




Fig. 7. Impact Test Speci; 



Tliesc tests indicate that the No. 4 iron, which was lower in phosphorus 
than the No. 2, had not deteriorated to so great an extent, although its con- 
dition was far from satisfactory. It is rather interesting however, in view of 
the tests of steel boilers reported later, to see that the front head, which in 
this case was always at a moderate temperature, since the boiler was inter- 
nally fired, should have deteriorated more than the rear head, exposed as it 
was to contact with the hot gases from the tubes. 

The authors state that they were unable to report the condition of the No. 
6 iron, since, due to the many repairs which had been made to the furnaces 
from time to time, they were unable to positively locate any of the original 
iron of this grade. 

In the consideration of these results, giving as ihey did such obvious evi- 
dence of impairment, the authors raised the question as to whether the iron 
might be made to regain some or all of its original ductility by reworking. To 
this end billets were made by piling up and welding small blooms from the 
scraps of test pieces of each sort of iron, the billets were rolled into bars, 
from which new test pieces of the reworked material were cut and tested. 
The results are tabulated below. 



Reworked No. 2 iron. 
Tensile strength 
Elongation 
Reduction in area 
Impact test, 28.66 lb. ram, falling 4.: 



53500 lbs. 
23% 
2.8% 
feet, started fracture. 



110 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [October. 

Bent cold through 135°. 

Reworked No. 4 iron. 
Tensile strength 51500 lbs. 

Elongation 25% 

Reduction in area 2.5% 

Impact test, specimens cracked under blows from a 44 lb. ram, falling 12.3 to 
13.12 feet. 

Cold bend test, bent through 180° without cracks of any sort. Tliese tables 
show that by reworking, a most astonishing improvement in ductility was 
produced. The No. 4 iron became a most excellent material, equal to good 
boiler iron, though somewhat inferior to the best boiler steel, while even the 
No. 2 iron showed properties sufficiently good for many purposes, though still 
rather brittle for boiler use. 

The steel boiler from which specimens were tested was one of a battery 
of 22 fire tube boilers, with longitudinal bottom drums made by Carron-Del- 
motte at Anzin for the sugar refinery of C. Say, in Paris. The specifications 
called for Siemens-Martin basic steel with tensile strength greater than 
51000 lbs. and not over 56000 lbs., elongation in 8 inches, not less than 26% 
nor more than 40%. The steel was made by Schneider et Cie. at Creusot, and 
branded "A. S. acier soudable." Acceptance tests of this steel were made by 
Cornut in 1887. For this work the specimens were heated up to a cherry red 
before they were broken, and in some cases quenched by plunging them in 
water. He found as an average value for the tensile strength, 53000 lbs., 
elongation in 8 inches, 31.6% when reheated simph', and 68000 lbs. and 18.7% 
respectively when reheated and quenched. 

In reporting the results of the tests after the boilers had been in service, 
the authors classify their specimens in the same manner, that is, those un- 
treated but tested just as they came from the boiler, those reheated to a cherry 
red, and those reheated to a cherry red and subsequently quenched by plunging 
them into water maintained at a temperature of 82° Fahr. 

In 1908, the first two boilers of this battery were to be removed, and the 
owners gave the opportunity of testing the quality of the material, as they were 
anxious to see if the steel had deteriorated to such an extent as to render this 
removal unadvisable. They accordingly gave the lower or fire sheet of the 
right hand bottom drum of boiler No. 2 for the purpose. This sheet was 
cut up and tested through the courtesy of the steel works at Denain, who 
placed their equipment at the disposal of the authors. Fig. 8 will indicate 
the manner in which the sheet was divided, and will also serve to show how 
the specimens were placed with regard to the position of the sheet in the 
boiler. 

These boilers had been in service 24 hours a day during the interval 188S- 
1908, with the exception of Sundays, and certain intervals for cleaning and 
inspection. No repairs of any moment were ever made. The records of the 
owner show that this particular boiler had been in service a total' of 134172 
hours, consuming 3898.13 metric tons of soft coal, and 13050.7 metric tons of 
coke. This gives for the average rate of combustion, 42 kilograms per square 
meter of grate per hour, or in the more familiar English units, 8.6 lbs. per 
square foot of grate per hour, certainly very moderate service. Tlie averages of 
the tensile tests, classed in groups as to their location with respect to the fire, and 



I9I2.] 



THE LOCOMOTIVE, 



ill 



also divided into the three sets mentioned above, depending on the treatment 
tho}' received after cutting? from tlic slicet, will be found in the following table. 

Tests of Steel from the Fire Sheet of No. 2 Boiler. 



Untreated 
Specimens. 



Reheated 
Specimens. 



Reheated and 

Uuenched 

Specimens. 



Specimens from portion of sheet protected by FrcI^ Wall. 



Tensile strength 

Elon>ration 




Specimens from above the Grates. 



Tensile strength. 
Elongation 




70,000 
20.6% 



Specimens from over Bridge Wall. 



Tensile strength 
Elongation 




Sg Q.^'^og^" ^o°'b:^^€Po'^^^o^S5 



SS ^<^Zi° °^ ' %^°S$o° g| 




oooooiooooGoooooooooooioolooo, ODOOOOOOOOOO® 
ooooobooooooocooooooo o |o odoopooooooooooo Oog / 

Fig. 8. Fire Sheet of C. Say et Cie. Boiler No. 2. Showing the Location 
OF the Specimens with Respect to the Fire. 



Cold bend test of 38 specimens, fairly satisfactory. The real extent of the 
change in this boiler steel was not disclosed until the impact tests were made. 
162 impact specimens were tested all told, but as 10 of these were in the 
nature of special tests, to determine the effect of various sorts of abuse on 



112 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [October, 



this steel, sueh for instance as hammering it violently when at a blue heat, 
they were not included in the averages, or percentages to follow. Out of the 
152 tests considered to represent the real condition of the material, there were 
122 in which the specimens were untreated. Out of this number, 58 specimens 
failed to pass the test expected of new steel of this class and thickness (7/16 
inch) that is to stand without cracking, the impact of a 22 lb. ram, falling 
13.12 feet. It was found however, that none of the reheated specimens, whether 
quenched or not, failed, or that in other words, although the steel was found 
to have grown brittle, it could be made to fulfill the conditions of the im- 
pact test by heat treatment. If we now calculate the percentage failure, we 
find that based on the whole number broken, 38.1% failed, but if we consider 
only the untreated specimens, the percentage is seen to be 47.5%. It is also of 
interest to see where these specimens were located with respect to the grate, 
the bridge wall, etc., and to see if there is any connection between the percentage 
of failures, which must be taken to represent the average brittleness of the 
material, and the sort of treatment it received as regards temperature and 
heat transfer. It will be seen from the table given that there is such a con- 
nection, that it is identical with the changes in the elongation with exposure 
to the fire, as shown in the table of tensile tests, and that as we should expect, 
the metal over the grate suffered most, that over the bridge wall next, the 
metal located behind the bridge less, and that in the front wall and therefore 
entirely protected from the direct action of the flames, the least of all. 

Untreated Impact Specimens Grouped as to Their Location in the 

Fire Sheet. 

Location. 



Total number tested 
No. of Failures 
No. Intact 
9^0 Failures 



1 In Front i 
Wall. 


Over 
Grate. 


Over 
Bridge. 


Behind 
Bridge. 


17 


45 


14 


46 


6 


26 


7 


19 


11 


19 


• 7 


27 


35.5% 


57. 8 9^^ 


' 50% 


41.5% 



The work of Olry and Bonnet shows pretty conclusively that boiler plate, 
whether of iron or steel, will deteriorate with use. It is also well known 
that tubes, tube cap bolts, and other materials used in boiler construction 
suffer the same sort of depreciation. Such a case was discussed in the July 
1912 Locomotive, giving the experience of one of our own chief inspectors with 
tubes and bolts which had become very brittle with use. In all the cases which 
have come to our attention, the metal which has deteriorated very rapidly has 
been high in phosphorus. Olry and Bonnet also found that the metal which 
showed the greatest loss of ductility was the highest in phosphorus, and was 
least improved by either reworking or annealing. They also showed that iron 
suffers more than steel, although our experience with brittle tubes indicates 
that steel if it contains an excessive amount of phosphorus will change very 
rapidh^ Exposure to intense heat is shown to be a factor so that there is 
some justification for basing the condemnation of a boiler on the kind of 
service it has given, as well as on its life. 

Passing now to the hydrostatic tests first considered, in which five very 
similar boilers all of which had seen some thirty years of service, were tested 



1912.] THE LOCOMOTIVE. 113 

after they had been coiidciniicd for uld age by the ilAirn-OKn, it was found that 
all of them showed structural weaknesses, especially about the cast iron 
manhole frames, which gave abundant evidence of the wisdom of their re- 
tirement from service. It is interesting in this connection to recall that all 
three boilers which were permitted to fail at that point (no patches being usedj 
did so at pressures surprisingly close together, namely, 265 lbs., 260 lbs., and 
270 lbs. It has been said with some emphasis however in the engineering press, 
that none of these boilers had suffered any deterioration from age. 

It is true that the boilers of the Oliver ^ron Mining Co. proved to be made 
of a material whose properties were still excellent at the time of the test. 
Tests of the material of the other two boilers are not yet available lor dis- 
cussion. The facts of the case however which seem to need emphasis as 
showing the real reasons underlying such a retirement as these boilers present, 
are these. The art of boiler making and designing has progressed materially 
in say thirty years, and the boilers of that period, if of good material, do not 
compare especially well as to safety with the product of the present of equal 
grade. It is also a matter of record that boiler steel undergoes a slow but 
certain loss in strength and ductility. To be sure these changes are slower 
for good steel than for iron, but the presence of even a moderate excess of 
phosphorus hastens the process materially. 

Add to this the other equally obvious fact, that such deterioration can be 
detected by none of the ordinary inspection methods, and that even tensile 
tests may fail to indicate the extent of the change completely, and it would 
seem that the justice of the position which makes for old age retirements, was 
established beyond controversy. 



Instructions for Placing" Heating- Boilers in Commission. 

We have gathered together a few simple hints and instructions for putting 
a heating system in commission which may prove of value. No originality 
is claimed for them but it is hoped that they may assist some who have not 
learned through experience what method of procedure is best fitted to accom- 
plish the desired end. 

I. Clean the boiler thoroughly on the fire side if it has not been done 
when laying up in the spring. Remove all rust and soot. This is particularly 
important in the case of cast iron sectional heaters as rust and corrosion will 
form between the sections, accumulating moisture in the summer season, and if 
not removed will eventually swell sufificiently with moisture to fracture the 
sections. If this cleaning is neglected too long, it may become necessary to dis- 
mantle the boiler in order to remove the deposit. Remove all dry or moist ashes 
from the corners of the grate and ash pits. If this discloses rust, strike the 
iron a few smart blows with a light hammer and see if it shells of?. If the 
corrosion proves to be extensive, steps to repair the damage should he taken 
at once. Any rust spots found on the outside of the boiler, including the 
heating surface, should be carefully cleaned and painted with a mixture of red 
lead and boiled linseed oil to stop the spread of the corrosion. For this 
external cleaning a wire brush will be found of service. 



.114 THE LOCOMOTIVE. [October. 

2. Clean thoroughly the inside of the boiler. Remove all rust, scale and 
sediment. If the boiler is of such a form as to prevent ready access to its 
interior, wash it out as well as possible with a hose, using a good pressure 
if available. Then empty the boiler, introduce a few gallons of kerosene oil 
and fill with water very slowly, letting the oil float up on the surface of the 
water and so reach all portions of the interior surface. Introduce a few pounds 
of dissolved carbonate of soda (soda ash) with the water used for filling. When 
the boiler has been completely filled in this way, let the water run out until 
it stands at the ordinary steaming level, close the blow off, and build a slow fire 
under the boiler. This fire should be kept up for several days, never letting 
the pressure rise higher than a few ounces. Tliis will loosen and throw down 
the scale and sediment, so that on cooling off, the boiler may be washed out 
practically clean with a hose. It is especially important that the boiler be 
zuashed out after this treatment, and before it is put into service, as the loosened 
scale and mud, if allowed to gather on the heating surface of the boiler, zvill 
inevitably cause over heating, and perhaps failure of the metal. 

3. Look over all the boiler attachments. Wash out the water column 
and its connections, taking it down if necessary to make sure that it is free 
from rust and mud and that its connections with the boiler and the glass 
water gage are free. If the water column is not provided with a drip cock, 
so that it may be drained from time to time, allowing steam and water to 
blow through its connections to free them, and incidentally to prove that they 
are free, one should be installed. Look over the glass water gage. See that 
the rubber grommets or rings with which a tight joint is secured between the 
glass and its supporting fixtures are " alive." If the rubber is hard and 
brittle it should be renewed. (See the article on Gage Glasses, in the January, 
1912, Locomotive.) See that the gage cocks are clean and tight. Be sure 
their opening to the boiler is not clogged. (Blow through them.) Overhaul 
the safety valve, see that it is clean and free from rust or dirt. All pipes 
leading to or from the boiler, such as the steam supply, drip return, blow off and 
feed pipes should be tested to make sure that they are clear. All stop or 
check valves in these pipes should operate freely and shut off tightly, without 
leaking at the stems. Any defects in these important fittings should be 
remedied before raising steam. The steam gage connection should be known 
to be free and clear. 

4. Extend the inspection of pipes, valves and fittings to include the entire 
heating system. After pressure is raised for the first time, visit each radiator 
or coil, and make sure that its air cock is operating properly. It should be 
clean, and should promptly free the raditaor of air, but should not permit steam 
and hot water to drip. This will insure against dead radiators. 

5. Look over the run of the piping, both steam and return — and this 
applies equally well to hot water systems — see that there are no pockets in the 
steam supply line which can fill with water of condensation at night, to be vio- 
lently expelled in the morning as a slug, forming a water hammer, which may 
rupture pipe or fittings, or even a radiator section. One should be especially 
careful to see that there are no such pockets or indeed any piping in the 
system so exposed as to be liable to freeze solid. This will cause the boiler to 
build up an excessive pressure and in case the safety valve is too small, or 
fails to operate, an accident is c