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Full text of "Locomotive engineering : a practical journal of railway motive power and rolling stock"

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Vol. X. 

New Year's Greeting;. 

"Locomotive Engineering," herself cel- 
ebrating her ninth birthday, sends greet- 
ings to all her readers at home and 
abroad. 

With this issue commences the tenth 
year. For the hearty support and co- 
operation of the thousands of readers and 
hundreds of advertisers in the past nine 
years we are thankful. Their support has 
made all our enterprises possible and suc- 
cessful. 



NEW YORK, JANUARY, 1897. 

Misplaced Urease. 

O .r genial friend, Mr. William Gib- 
son, erst-time superintendent of the Big 
Fot r, has gone to be assistant to the gen- 
era' manager of the Baltimore & Ohio. 
Hi numerous friends in Cincinnati ban- 
queted him as a means of collectively 
dropping the farewell tear. The senti- 
m -nt of the gathering may be inferred 
from the following extract from the chair- 
man's address: 

"We assembled here to-night to get a 



No. 1. 

would make sure of catching the 11:45 at 
Crewe.' 

"The conductor went to the engine 
driver, who had been a witness of the 
tipping business, and said: 

" ' 'Ere, Billy, this 'ere gentleman want* 
to catch the 11:45 at Crewe.' 

"They arrived there just in time to see 
the 11:45 leaving the station. 

"The old gentleman went in a rage to- 
the engineer and shouted: 'Weren't youi 
told to catch the 11:45?' 




A MODERN SIGHT-WHEELER IN SWITZERLAND. 



For the future — well, we will make 
no promises; we believe in the motto, 
"Never tell what you are going to do — ■ 
do it." 

We believe we can make "Locomotive 
Engineering" better each succeeding is- 
sue, and intend to do so. 

Vfter a long depression, business is 
slowly but surely getting better. Better 
times on the railroads means better times 
to us, more opportunity and more means 
to push out and make this paper the ideal 
paper [or railroad men in the mechanical 
departments — that's what we are living 
for. That's why we are having a "Happy 
New Year" ourselves and hoping all our 
readers will have the same. 

Sinclair & Hill. 



r$io dinner for $5 cash, and to bid God- 
speed to one of the best fellows it was ever 
my good fortune to know. I was both 
glad and sorry when I learned that our 
friend, Billy Gibson (for we always call 
you 'Billy' — even after you become presi- 
dent of the B. & O. system), was going to 
leave us — glad that he was going to fill a 
more exalted position, and sorry to lose 
of the very few men whose friend- 
ship I really cherish. 

"When I heard of his intentions some- 
one asked me why he had made up his 
mind to go. I replied that it reminded me 
of a story I once heard of an old gentle- 
man who, before getting into an express 
train at a London station, gave the con- 
ductor a shilling and said: T wish you 



"The impassive engineer, with, a solemn 
wink, replied: 'Yes. sir: but vo - : greased 
tlie wrong end oi the train.' " 

~ I § 

We notice a growing tendency amongl 
those who contribute papers to engineer-; 
ing societies to give metric measurements' 
of articles described. We wish to sug- 
gest to these people that the recognized- 
system of measurement among American 
engineers and mechanics is based on the 

>r inch, and that standard is not 
likely to be changed as long as time lasts. 
The practice oi giving measurements ac- 
cording to the metric system is in most 

. piece of snobbishness which ought 
to be snubbed. 



84551 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Photographing Railway Trains at 
Full Speed. 

BY F. \V. BI.Al VKI.T. 

Although photographs have frequently 
been taken of swiftly moving trains, it is 
an operation verging very closely on the 
brink of an impossibility, because, to 
make it successful, so many favorable con- 
ditions are necessary at the same instant; 
one of the first difficulties is to get a 
proper focus without the sitter (the train) 
being present, and this is followed by 
many others too numerous to mention. 

The surprising part of this operation is, 
that with the very quick exposure neces- 
sary to overcome the motion of the train, 
enough light can be transmitted through 
the lens to cause the chemical action on 
the plate necessary to leave the image of 
the train and the surrounding scene upon 
it. 

The exposure on the plates from which 
the four photos herewith were made was 
on 'v T35 °f a second, which was none too 
quick, for even in that very small fraction 
of time a train running 60 miles an hour 
moves about 8 inches, at 55 miles an hour 
about y 1 /, inches and at 53 miles an hour 
about 7 inches, so that they cannot be suc- 
cessfully taken broadside, and if it were 
not possible to use a long focus lens which 
makes a fairly good-sized picture a con- 
siderable distance from the object, it is 
doubtful if an exposure of ^ of a second 
would be quick enough to overcome the 
motion sufficiently to leave as little blur 
from it as there is in these pictures, even 
when taken nearly head on. 

The rate of speed given with these 
photos is only intended to show as nearly 
as possible how fast each train was run- 
ning at the time it was photographed. 
That of the "Empire State Express" was 
fixed by the engineer of that train; the 
.•others were estimated by myself, by tim- 

'ing them by the watch for a certain dis- 

• • • • 
•tance. as/they approached me; this I was 

.enabled* to do quite accurately, being per- 
fectly familiar with the localities where the 
".pictiJras Vere taken, which were on long 
•stretches of straight track, where I could 
'•see tyre"frains coming for a mile or more. 

• Tlte 'lEmpire State Express" runs from 

• New^. York City to Buffalo, N. Y., 440 
milej^fn 8 hours and 15 minutes (495 

"miniit^sT. while its rival, the "Black Dia- 

• mon*d"Eycpress," covers the same distance 

• betwees.the same points in 9 hours and 
•55 miniJtes (595 minutes); this train has 
'very, lkjavy grades to climb which ac- 
.coun+sj.for the extra time used. The 
■"RoyaVBlue Line, Limited," runs from 
*New York City to Washington, D. C, 

227 miles in 5 hours (300 minutes) and the 
"Pennsylvania Limited" runs from New 
York City to Chicago, III. 988 miles in 24 
hours (1.440 minutes); this train also has 
very heavy mountain climbing to do. Of 
course, on all these runs there are several 
changes of engines, some regular stops 
and ordinary detentions which have to be 



covered in the time given, and as the 
three last-mentioned trains start from Jer- 
sey City. X. J., a deduction of from 12 to 
15 minutes should also be made from their 
running time, lor the time used in cross- 
ing by ferryboat (1 mile) from New York 
tn .mil netting away from Jersey City, the 
schedules all being from New York to 
various points of destination. 

The engines shown in these pictures not 
emitting sun ike, burn anthracite or hard 
coal, in mi which there is none. 



Graphic History of the Locomotive. 

We present herewith Chart No. 1 of the 
twelve we propose to use during 1897 to 
show up the history of the locomotive at 
a glance. 

To Sir Isaac Newton, in 1680, belongs 
the credit of first suggesting the use of 
steam for propelling a wheeled vehicle. 
His plan was simply to mount an enlarged 
"Hero" engine on wheels. "Hero" of 
Alexandria invented the engine using a 
jet of steam against the pressure of the 
atmosphere centuries before. 

Leaving out all the suggestions, models 
and experiments of mechanics who tried 
tc build locomotives for common roads, 
and coming down to railroads, we find 
that the first locomotive that ever did any 
actual work on a railroad was the one 
shown in the upper right-hand corner of 
our chart, marked "1803," the date of its 
construction. This locomotive was de- 
signed and built by Richard Threvithick 
and employed on the Merthyr Tydvil 
tramway, in South Wales. This engine 
hauled ten tons of iron and nine persons 
on her trial trip. The boiler was filled with 
water at the start, and no more put in. 
She could run five miles per hour, but 
used, as a regular thing, four hours to go 
nine miles. This engine had 3-foot wheels, 
the boiler being 4 feet 3 inches in diameter 
and 6 feet long. The single cylinder had 
a bore of 8J4 inches and a stroke of 4 feet 
6 inches. Not much of a locomotive, but 
the grandfather of them all. 

In the lower left-hand corner of the 
chart is shown a good picture of the 
"Puffing Billy." the first successful loco- 
motive employing smooth driving wheels 
and discarding gears, teeth and other 
means for increasing the driving power. 
This engine was built in 181 3, by William 
Hedley, at Wylam, near Newcastle, Eng- 
land. This engine did the work of ten 
horses on the Wylam tram line in haul- 
ing coal. Speed, 5 miles per hour; steam 
pressure, 50 pounds. The exhaust entered 
a small drum on top of boiler, and from 
there to the stack; this was to prevent 
noise. This engine is still preserved in 
the South Kensington Museum, in Eng- 
land. 

In the upper left-hand corner of our 
chart is a picture of the first locomotive 
with flues — a multi-tubular boiler. This 
engine was originally built by George 
Stephenson, in England, and sent to the 



first railroad in France — the St. Etienne 
& Lyons. The chief engineer of the road, 
Marc Seguin, experimented with the 
boiler, taking out the old single flue and 
firebox combined, and putting in a num- 
ber of small tubes, using a brick firebox 
and designing a cylinder arrangement of 
his own. 

In the lower right-hand corner of our 
chart is a picture of the famous "Rocket," 
the winner at the Rainhill trials on the 
Liverpool & Manchester Railway, in 1829. 
She was built by George Stephenson at 
Newcastle, and had many new features not 
before employed. She was the first to 
have a rectangular firebox surrounded by 
water; this was of the form afterward 
known in this country as the "fantail." 
There were twenty-five copper tubes 3 
inches in diameter. The barrel of the 
boiler was 6 feet 3 inches long and had 
ample steam space, the tubes all being be- 
low the center line. This engine weighed 
4'/2 tons and at the trial ran 30 miles per 
hour, opening up a new field for steam 
locomotives. The main features employed 
in. the "Rocket" have lived until now; the 
principle of the boiler is the same, and 
the exhaust was in the stack. So famous 
has this engine become in history that 
many believe she was the first locomotive 
built. As a matter of fact, nearly a hun- 
dred locomotives had been built before the 
"Rocket;" her builder used the best ideas 
of other engineers, and thus made a world- 
beater. 

There will be a chart each month, com- 
ing nearer and nearer in date to our own 
time. 

& $ & 

The Rogers Locomotive Works are 
busy building several new boilers, the 
greatest number of which are of the Bel- 
paire type. Two boilers just completed 
are for the Oroya Railway of Peru. They 
were constructed to replace some boilers 
on locomotives built at these works twen- 
ty-six years ago, and are of the kind 
known as the "Milholland." They are 
expected to fit into the frames of the en- 
gines to which the old and scrapped boil- 
ers belonged. A good-sized and interest- 
ing homily on the value of a properly 
equipped and managed drawing office is 
written in unmistakable language in the 
construction of these two boilers from the 
same drawings of 26 years before; they fur- 
nish the best of evidence that thorough 
work was done at that time, and that 
proper care was taken of the drawings, 
otherwise perfect duplicates of those old 
boilers never would have been possible. 
This is a good object-lesson to the few 
who still cling to the idea that a drawing 
office is a luxury, and prefer to carry de- 
tails around in their hats. 



"The infirmary road" is the term used 
by Scotch railway men for the track set 
apart for storing disabled cars. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 




LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



*-j 





'EMPIRE STATE EXPRESS," AT THE SPEED OF 6U MILES AN HOUR. 
The fastest regular train in the world— N Y. C. & H R R R. 




■BLACK DIAMOND EXPRESS,'' AT THE SPEED OF 55 MILES AX HOUR. 
Lehigh Valley R. R. 

A GLIMPSE OF FOUR POPULAR AND FAST 

From Photographs (Copyright, 18961 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 




■PENNSYLVANIA LIMITED," AT THE SPEED OF 53 MILES AN HOUR. 
Pennsylvania R. R. 




"ROYAL BLUE LIME LIMITED." AT THE SPEED OF 55 MILES AX HOIR 
K. A O., P. & R. and C. K. R of N. I. Railroads. 

AMERICAN RAILWAY TRAINS AT FULL SPEED. 

by P. W. Blauvelt, INew York. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Passenger Locomotive for the Illinois 
Central Railroad. 

A new passenger engine representing 
what is considered by the builders to 
closely approach the highest development 
of the eight-wheeled type, is just out of 
the shops of the Brooks Locomotive 
Works. It embodies some innovations, 
as would be expected in a machine for 
which advanced practice was claimed, 
among which are the location of the air 
pump under the waist of the boiler, be- 
tween the motion plate and cylinder sad- 
dle. The sandbox is also under the waist. 
located just back of the reverse shaft and 
forward of the main driving axle. 

The pops and whistle are made to ex- 
tend from a small dome of their own situ- 
ated in the cab, up through the roof of 
same, and are cased in. With nothing 
visible on the boiler but the bell and sand- 
box, the machine looks extremely plain, 
but handsome withal and businesslike, 
as will be seen by the half-tone engrav- 
ing. 

Particular attention has been given to 
the matter of comfort and convenience of 
the engineer and fireman, by means of 
drop sliding seats, that a man don't have 
to climb into and out of. The injectors 
are both on the right-hand side. There 
is a flush deck for the fireman, from the 
cab floor to the coal space in the tank. 
There are steps and handholds to get into 
the cab. that are safe, easy to climb, and 
worthy of the name. With these brief 
notations of some of the prominent fea- 
tures, we present some working elevations 
of this engine that will be interesting, in 
which will be seen the slab frame l^i x 10 
inches between the drivers, by which 
means a wider firebox was obtained, the 
lower section of frame being of the regu- 
lation bar type. The method of connect- 
ing the underhung spring to the top of the 
driving boxes, instead of the bottom, is 
also clearly shown, among the other de- 
tails. 

Steel has been largely used in the con- 
struction of this engine; this material is 
found in the wheels, crossheads, pistons, 
cylinder heads and steam chests, the ob- 
ject being to keep down the weight. Be- 
low is a description of the engine: 

Type — Eight- wheeled passenger. 

Simple or compound — Simple. 

Gage — 4 feet 8^ inches. 

Fuel — Bituminous coal. 

Steam pressure — 200 pounds. 

Diameter of cylinders — 18 inches. 

Stroke — 26 inches. 

Wheel-base of engine — 23 feet 7 inches. 

Driving-wheel base — 8 feet 9 inches. 

Total wheel-base of engine and tender — 
50 feet 6 inches. 

Driving-wheels, diameter over tire — 75 
inches. 

Driving wheels, diameter over centers — 
68 inches. 

Driving-wheel centers — Cast steel 

Driving-wheel tires — Krupp crucible 
steel. 




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LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 




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LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Engine-truck wheels, diameter — 36 

inches. 

Weight under drivers — 80,000 pounds. 

Weight under engine truck — 40,000 
pounds. 

Weight of tender, loaded — 88,000 
pounds. 

Weight of engine and tender, total — 
208,000 pounds. 

Tractive power, at 90 per cent. B. P., 
minus 10 per cent, for friction — [8,190 
pounds. 

Co-efficient of adhesion — 4.4. 



Type — Patent improved Belpaire wagon 
top with cnnical connection. 

Material — Steel. 



Tubes — Diameter, 2 inches; length, II Lubrication, guides — Adjustable needle 

feet 7 inches. cup-. 

Tubes, number — 274, No. 12, B. W. G. Lubrication, rods — Spindle feed, cups 

Heating surface, tubes — 1,649.4 square forged on. 

feet. Lubrication, cylinders — No. 9 old style 

Heating- sin iace, firebox — 152.2 square Nathan, and oil cups on steam chest, 

feet. Injectors — One No. 9 Monitor, and one 

Total heating surface — 1,801.6 square No. 8 Ohio. 



feet. 
Grates — Shaking, fingerbars. 



Safety valve — Two 3-inch Ashton pops 
(one open and one muffled). 




£wcmoflM En.jtnitnng 



DETAILS OF CONSTRUCTION, ILLINOIS CENTRAL LOCOMOTIVE. 



Diameter at smallest ring — 62 inches 
outside. 

Thickness of cylindrical plates, waist — 
9-16, Yt, Yz and 7-16 inches. 

Thickness of throat sheet — §^ inch. 

Longitudinal seams, kind — Quintuple 
riveted. 

Vertical seams, kind — Double riveted 

Firebox, kind — Sloping between frames. 

Firebox, length inside — 1075^ inches. 

Firebox, width inside — 36^ inches. 

Firebox, material — Steel. 

Firebox, side sheets, thickness — 5-16 
inch. 

Firebox, back sheet, thickness — Y& inch. 

Crown sheet, I ■* ,s inch. 

Tube sheets, thickness — Front, Y% inch; 
back, Yi inch. 

Water spaces, width — 3Y2 inches 
4 inches front and b 



MACHINERY. 

Piston-rods, kind — Ewald C. C. bloom 
iron. 

Piston-rods, diameter — 3Y .inches. 

Piston-rod and valve stem packing — 
L'nited States metallic. 

Piston packing — Dunbar. 

I rosshead — Alligator type, cast steel. 

Driving axles, kind — Hammered iron. 

Driving axle journals — 8Y2 inches diam- 
eter, 11 inches long. 

Engine truck axles, kind — Hammered 
iron. 

Engine truck journals — $Yi inches diam- 
eter. 12 inches long. 

Connecting-rods — I-section, hammered 
iron. 

Side-rods — I-section, hammered iron. 

Valves, kind — Allen. American bal- 
anced- 



Whistle— B. L. W. 6-inch chime. 

Brakes, train — Westinghouse automatic 
on all tender wheels. 

Brakes, driver — Westinghouse, with 
push pistons. 

Train signal — Westinghouse, Schedule J. 

TENDER. 

Frame, kind — Oak. 

Truck, kind — Two, four-wheeled. 

Wheels, diameter — 38 inches. 

Truck axles — Hammered iron. 

Truck axle journals — 4% inches diam- 
eter. 8 inches long. M. C. B. standard. 

Capacity for water — 4,200 United States 
gallons. 



Get a computer. It figures tractive 
pow er without mistakes. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Plan of Turret 



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DETAILS OF CONSTRUCTION, ILLINOIS CENTRAL LOCOMOTIVE. 




. 



DETAILS OF CONSTRUCTION 1 , ILLINOIS CENTRAL LOCOMOTIVE. 



10 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Staybolt Threading and Stripping 
Device. 

Master Mechanic J. N. Weaver, of the 
Lehigh Valley Railroad, at Sayre, Pa., 
has built and in operation at his shops, a 
machine for threading staybolts and also 
removing the thread to an amount equal 
to a little more than its depth and for any 
required length, at one setting of the work 
in the machine; the depth being regulated 
by the diameter of bolt, and the length of 
the stripped portion by the width of the 
water space through which the bolt 
passes; that is, nearly all the thread is re- 
moved except that portion required to 
make a fit in the sheets. 

In our illustration of this ingenious ar- 
rangement, Fig. I shows the die holder 
and stripper block as used on the machine, 
which, by the way, was improvised from 
an old drill press, on which is shown the 
air cylinder in connection with the spindle, 
and which is used for starting the bolts 
in the dies, besides raising the spindle 
when necessary to introduce a new bolt 



Die Holder 



-Slotted to admit of 

removing Stripper 

Tool from Block 




. Feed Screw 
;>i diam. 3 per in. 
Double thread 



Fig. J 



VERTICAL CROSS SECTION OF DIE HOLDER nETAIT s OF D1E 

AND STRIPPER BLOCK ON LINE CD. DETAILS UI- Ult 





2 diam. 
am. neck of 7* bolt 



Stripped Stay-bolt 



Fig. 2 



Fig. 3 shows a horizontal section of the 
stripper block on line A B of the eleva- 
tion immediately above it. A plan of the 
die holder is shown at H, and the tool- 
head at /. The feed screw thrust block 
and the tool-locking dog and wedge are 
shown at / and K, respectively. The sec- 
tion makes it plain how the stripping cut- 
ters are advanced against the bolt by the 
right and left hand screw, and how they 
are locked in position by K. 

We are indebted for the sketches from 
which our illustrations were made to Mr. 
W. G. Thomas, foreman of the tool-room 
at Sayre (who built the tool described), 
and present them to our readers just as 
they came from his pencil. For freehand 
work they will be conceded to be beauti- 
ful specimens of the art, showing a cor- 
rect knowledge of perspective and shading 
that is only possessed by the most gifted 
artists. 



for cutting. In this view is seen the 
screw that operates the stripping cutters, 
at the end of which are seen the microm- 
eter graduations on the edge of the disk. 
These marks show at once to the operator, 
at what point to set stripping cutters for 
a given sized bolt being threaded. With- 
out this index it would be impossible to 
advance the cutters the correct distance, 
or to set them twice in the same place. 

Fig. 2 shows a vertical cross-section of 
the die holders and stripping block on 
line CD of Fig. I, and also details of the 
die. At E is shown the plug fitting the 
hole of die holder, and this is used for set- 
ting the stripping cutters to the size of 
neck required for a %-inch bolt. F shows 
the stop for the engaging lever, which is 
hinged to throw out when the feed screw 
is to be given more than one turn. G 
shows the finished staybolt with thread 
cut and reduced. 




Fig. 3 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



11 



The New General Manager. 

BY R.OGHE v. BOOK. 

It was a very odd thing, all the way 
through; probably nothing else like it 
ever occurred. The fact of men raising 
themselves by the force of their ability 
from the lowest ranks in railroad service 
to the highest position possible in that 
service, has more than once been accom- 
plished; but sudden elevation from loco- 




STAY-BOLT THREADER AND STRIPPER. 

motive engineer to general manager was 
unheard of, and that was the cause of all 
the talk along the line of the First division 
of the L. & Western R. R., when rumors 
were circulated that Engineer George 
Granger was to be general manager of the 
L. & Northern. 

The Western was a big trunk line, and 
had some two hundred and odd engines in 
service on the First division alone; the 



Northern was a suburban road, some half 
a hundred miles long and running only a 
score of so of engines; yet had the rumors 
said that Granger was to be made General 
Manager of the Great Pennsylvania sys- 
tem, the excitement could have been no 
greater, and his popularity increased at a 
remarkably rapid rate as the rumors grad- 
ually took the appearance of actual fact. 

There were skeptics, of course, who 
argued somewhat in this manner: "There 
:in- brains enough among engineers to fill 
any position in railroad service and engin- 
eers have climbed up the ladder to the gen- 
eral manager's rung, 'way up top. But 
they don't make it in one jump, and if 
they did, why should Granger be picked 
out? Now, he's a good fellow and a good 
man with an engine; but he's never given 
evidence of special ability, nor distin- 
guished himself above the rest of us, even 
if he has had the wreckers and special 
work for years. Blamed if I can see 
through it!" 

Then these skeptics would try, very 
very quietly, to sift the rumors and get at 
the truth; but while positive facts were un- 
obtainable, it was certainly in the air and 
accepted as a fact. 

Granger was an engineer of long and 
good standing on the Western. For many 
years he had run the "77" on specials and 
wreck train; a kind of special job which is 
no longer common. And the "77" was no 
common engine, having been built in the 
company's shop, apparently by "rule of 
thumb." She had many peculiarities of 
her own; one of them being a sort of 
double-deck crown sheet which ran back 
for a couple of feet horizontally from the 
flue sheet, then dropped vertically for 
nearly a foot, then continued back hori- 
zontally again. The dome was placed over 
this elevated part of the crown sheet and 
well forward of the cab, so that in appear- 
ance she was something like a modern 
engine with radial-stayed boiler and ex- 
tended wagon top; but she was light and 
slippery, and the corners of the crown 
sheet developed leaks that were chronic, 
and no extra man ever tackled the "77" 
without condemning her in language that 
was forceful enough, if not commendatory 
in other particulars. 

The "77" was Granger's ideal engine, 
however, and he was fond of boasting of 
what he could do with her — how far he 
could run with one oiling, with one tank 
of water, the time he could make, and so 
on — for what pertained to Granger was by 
him always considered a little bit better 
than the best of anyone else's. And that 
was where his undoing started. 

Granger had married the only daughter 
of a man considered well-to-do, and had 
come to consider that he was a little higher 
in the social scale than his fellows on the 
road. He had a son, George, Jr., and a 
daughter, Mary; the latter of the age when 
a change of name and permanent depart- 
ure from the parental protection might 
naturally be expected at any time, and a 



bright, attractive girl with many ad- 
mire 1 

I 1m- most ardent of her admirers, and 
the "ii>- most favored by Mary, was Fred 
Sand, a yard brakeman on the same road. 
Sand was a clean, intelligent young man 
(he made a successful engineer of him- 
self four or five years later); but he was 
only "following the engine" in the yard, 
not 1 en a drill conductor, and Granger, 
who felt that he belonged to the very select 
one hundred and fifty in railroad society, 
did all that any man could do to turn the 
course of true love, but without success. 
As time passed, Fred rose higher in 
Mary's estimation, and all the mandates of 
Papa Granger failed to prevent these two 
from getting together and improving the 
limited opportunities they had, until it 
was quite commonly understood that Fred 
would marry Mary Granger. In fact, Fred 
had successfully passed the turning-point 
of love's fever, and the only qualification 
to Mary's "Yes" was that Fred should 
secure papa's consent. Knowing papa's 
ideas very well, Fred tried to get this qual- 
ification removed; but Mary was obdurate, 
and would not listen to Fred's arguments 
in favor of slipping quietly away to some 
clergyman first and getting papa's consent 
afterwards; so Fred tackled his prospec- 
tive father-in-law with determination and 
self-possession. He anticipated Granger's 
reply, so perhaps went at it differently 
from the way he might have done under 
more favorable circumstances. 

"George," he said abruptly, "I suppose 
you know I have been going to see Mary, 
off and on, for a good while?" 
"Yes," said Granger, shortly. 
"Well, she loves me and I love her. I 
can take care of her and make a good man 
for her, and she's willing. Are you?" 

"Well, by , I ain't," howled Granger. 

"If Mary hasn't got more sense than to 
throw herself away on a common switch- 
man, I've got too much sense to let her. 
No, sir; you can't have her, and I want 
you to keep away from her." 

If Sand had expected a different recep- 
tion, there's no telling what might have 
happened at this; but it was just what he 
had looked for, what he had been prepared 
for, and he merely flushed a little as he re- 
plied: "Very well, Mr. Granger. I give 
you credit for your self-respect, and I 
didn't think you would consent to having 
Mary tied up to a poor devil of a switch- 
man like me, but I couldn't help asking 
you because I love her so. I've always 
looked up to you and admired you, and it 
has been my ambition to get up to your 
position in the world, and I felt that it 
was outrageous to even ask you for your 
daughter. Please excuse me?" he asked 
humbly. 

Granger stared at him in surprise, but 
said nothing, and Fred continued: "I have 
nothing against you for your refusal. Mr. 
Granger: nothing in the world. And I'll 
prove it to you before long. If my hum- 
ble help can put you in a position that your 



12 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



abilities entitle you to, perhaps you may 
look upon me with more favor." 

"What do you mean?" demanded 
Granger. 

"I can't tell you yet," said Sand, "but I 
will soon. You know that a mouse helped 
a Him out of a hole once, and I'll surprise 
you yet. You must remember that many 
a man that doesn't amount to much him- 
self has big, powerful friends," and he 
walked away, leaving Granger in a molli- 
fied but perplexed frame of mind. 

Fred Sand had left Mary, the evening 
before his interview with her father, with 
an angry burning at his heart. He knew 
he could never persuade her to marry 
him against her father's wishes, and he 
knew exactly how her father would re- 
ceive his request A feeling of bitter re- 
sentment had taken possession of him; 
and, whether in a desire for revenge or as 
a means to secure Granger's consent, he 
had hit upon a remarkable scheme which 
had kept him awake all the night before, 
and which was upon his mind all the while 
he had Keen talking with Granger. 

A few days later he met Granger again. 
The latter wasn't quite sure whether to be 
friendly or "offish." He was still puzzled 
over the hints Sand had thrown out, and 
was wondering what he had meant by re- 
ferring to powerful friends, and wherein 
his connection lay with them. His curi- 
osity had led him to be more civil than 
usual with Sand, and to wink at a couple 
of calls the latter had made upon Mary in 
the meanwhile, although the embargo was 
still nominally in force. 

"Mr. Granger," said Fred (he had 
stopped using the familiar "George"), "I 
hinted something the other day which I 
have not forgotten, if you have." 

"I hadn't thought much more about it," 
said Granger. 

"Well, I have," said Sand, "and I'll have 
more to say to you, if I can bring things 
around as I want to. I have two or three 
good friends, if I am only a switchman, 
and I'll surprise you yet. You know the 
Northern road?" 

"I know of it," replied Granger. 
"\\ ell, the general manager there doesn't 
fdl the bill, and he's going to be allowed to 
resign pretty soon. It pays five thousand 
a year. Nice job, eh? Better than run- 
ning the '77' or anything else on a road 
where merit like yours isn't recognized. 
Ever hear of Chauncey P. Green?" 
"No," said Granger. 
"Well, he's vice-president of the North- 
ern and the heaviest stockholder in the 
road, lie's a self-made man. Me and 
him — well. 1 wont tell you any more now; 
I'll wait a day or two until I have some- 
thing definite." 

Granger invited Sand to "come around 
to the house to-night," and after Sand left 
him, went down to the master mechanic's 
office and borrowed the "List of Railroad 
Officials" from the chief clerk. In the list 
of officers of the L. & Northern he found 
"Chauncey P. Green, V. P." When Sand 



called at Granger's house that night he 
was warmly received, and before he left, 
Granger managed to have quite a talk 
with him, by themselves, in which Sand 
carelessly dropped the information that 
Chauncey P. Green had been a poor boy 
and a schoolmate of Sand's; that Sand had 
rescued young Green from drowning, and 
that Green had never forgotten it, and now, 
since he had turned a small fortune, left 
him by an uncle, into millions by lucky 
speculations, he still thought as much of 
Sand as ever. "No airs about him, if he 
is a millionaire." 

Granger pondered a few moments and 
then asked, suspiciously: "Why don't you 
get a good place from him?" 

"Say," replied Sand, "I could have any- 
thing I wanted, but I won't take a thing — 
not yet — not even a job firing. He's 
wanted to make me superintendent, but I 
know I'm not competent to fill the bill, 
and I told him I had a friend I could 
recommend, and I told hiim all about you. 
Then be told me about their general man- 
ager not giving satisfaction, and said that 
would be better for you, if I could con- 
vince htim that you was all that I had said, 
and wanted to know if I would take super- 
intendent if he made you general man- 
ager. I told him that would be different, 
and I wouldn't mind if he made you G. M., 
for you would help me out, and" 

Just then there came a terrific ring at 
the door bell, and Mary, who answered it, 
came into the room with a telegram. "The 
messenger said he was sent here from 
your boarding house," said she, smiling, 
as she handed the message to Sand. "I'll 
bet it's from Chaunce," said Fred, as he 
tore the envelope open and read the mes- 
sage with evident pleasure. "It's from 
him," he said. "Is the boy out there yet?" 

"Yes," said Mary; "he said he called for 
an answer." 

"Bring him in," said Fred. The boy 
came in and gave Fred a blank, upon 
which he wrote a long message. "There," 
he said, handing it to the boy; "that's paid 
at the other end." 

" It's 'D. H.,' " said the boy, as he went 
out, while Fred picked up the message 
again and read it to Granger. "Listen 
to this," he said: " 'Will have to drop 
our G. M. first of month sure. I want to 
see you about your friend at once. If I 
send my coach for you to-morrow night, 
can you come over? Answer at once; 
don't prepay.' It's marked 'D. H.,' too," 
said Fred, showing it to Granger, who 
stared open-mouthed at the signature, 
"Chauncey P. Green," and could see noth- 
ing else, and who didn't know that it cost 
Fred a dollar to get that message fixed up 
and delivered. The next day Granger was 
very respectful in his manner to Sand, and 
in the afternoon he noticed that Sand 
was not at work. Granger was just eating 
supper that evening, when a stylish turn- 
out stopped in front of the house. It was 
a handsome coach, drawn by two high- 
stepping horses; a coachman and a foot- 



man, both handsomely liveried, on the 
box. The footman jumped down and 
opened the coach, and out popped Fred 
Sand, elaborately attired in full evening 
dress. 

"Just thought I'd have them drive 
around this way," he said. "That's 
Chaunee's turn-out. He's got a lot of 
'em, and I've had some nice rides with 
him. I don't like this kind of a rig to 
wear, but I have to over there. He'll 
take me to the opera to-night, and talk 
business in the box, between the acts. 
Then there'll be a good supper and cham- 
pagne afterwards. But I must go and 
not keep him waiting. He's great for 
punctuality and always wants everything 
on time. I'll tell you all about it to-mor- 
row night. Good-bye!" and Fred ran out, 
jumped into the coach, the footman closed 
the door, mounted the box, the coachman 
cracked his whip, and the high-spirited 
team whirled the coach away from Gran- 
ger's astonished vision. And in the 
coach, Fred smoked cigars and com- 
muned softly to himself, with many smiles, 
until the coach drew up at a fashionable 
livery and boarding stable, several miles 
out, in a stylish suburb; but he did grit 
his teeth and make an occasional wry face 
as he dragged back to town in a horse- 
car and thought of the bill he had had to 

pay- 
Next morning, Granger looked for Fred 
in the yard, but found one of the night 
men working in his place, and Sand didn't 
appear until noon. 

"After the opera," he told Granger, 
"we had a swell supper at Port's, and then 
he made me go to his house with him to 
talk some more, and it was after two 
o'clock this morning before he'd let me 
go. He wanted me to stay all night; but 
I told him I had to be at work, and he 
says: 'That's right, always 'tend to busi- 
ness,' and sent me back in the coach again. 
He wants me to bring you over to Port's 
to meet him to-night at 8:30. We'll have 
supper there at his expense, and he'll 
make some arrangements with you that 
will surprise you. You'll have to get 
your dress suit on for that." 

"I haven't got any dress suit, ' said 
Granger. 

"Then you'll have to hire one," said 
Sand. "Wouldn't never do to take dinner 
at Port's in the evening without a dress 
suit. I'll call about 7:30, so I can have 
a few minutes with Mary before we 
go" 

"Oh — ah — yes, do!" said Granger, ab- 
sently. "Fred, I — ah — you must — well, 
I've thought the matter over, and I guess 
Mary couldn't do better than to marry 
you after all. I was out of sorts the day 
you asked me, or I wouldn't have talked 
as I did." 

"I knew something like that was the rea- 
son," said Fred, highly delighted, "and I 
thank you. When can we get married 
now? Next week?" 

"Not so soon," said Granger. "Better 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



18 



wait until we've both got better positions. 

It'll sound better in the papers." 

Sand's jaw dropped, but he said: "That 
won't be until after the 1st — three weeks 
yet." 

"Well, we ci mldn't get up a wedding any 
sooner and have it right and as it should 
be," replied Granger. 

The next evening, Fred came in a liv- 
ery hack. "Wouldn't do to go to Port's 
on foot or on horse-cars," he said, "and I 
can't afford a turn-out like I was in last 
night." 

"You must let me pay (<>r the rig," said 
Granger, as they drove away. 

"No, sir; you can't spend a cent on this 
deal," said Fred, decidedly. 

Arrived at Port's, they were promptly 
shown upstairs to one of the private din- 
ing rooms. The style of the place awed 
Granger very much, and he felt ill at ease 
in his hired dress suit. They found the 
table spread for three, but Mr. Chaunccy 
P. Green was not in evidence. Fred 
looked at his watch; "It's 8:40 now," he 
said, "and I never knew Chaunce to be a 
moment late." Turning to the colored 
waiter, he asked: "Hasn't Mr. Green ar- 
rived yet?" 

"No, sail." replied the waiter, "He don't 
come yet. sah." 

"Something has kept him, or he would 
have been here before this," said Fred. 
"Hello!" he added, as a district messenger 
appeared. "What's this?" The messen- 
ger handed him a note inclosed in an 
envelope hearing Fred's name and orna- 
mented with a crest. "Pshaw!" said 
Fred, as he opened it. "It's from Chaunce, 
and something has happened to detain 
him." After reading it, he added: "That's 
to bad. He's been summoned to attend 
a meeting of the I. B. & W. directors, and 
is very sorry he can't ccune. Says for me 
to go ahead and make the arrangements 
with you that he told tne of last night, and 
let him know if you accept. He says for 
us to eat our dinner just the same, with 
his compliments, as he has arranged for 
it and it will he charged to him. Read 
it," handing it to Granger. Granger took 
it gingerly, hut read it carefully, clear 
down to the signature. "Hastily yours, 
C. P. G.." and handed it back. "It's too 
bad." he said. 

"Yes, I'm sorry," said Fred; "but it 
can't be helped. You see, Chaunce is a 
busy man. He is director in a dozen dif- 
ferent roads and president of two or three, 
and I'll bet. if you start on the Northern 
as G. M., he'll have you G. M. of some 
big road before he quits. All I'm afraid 
of is that he'll kill himself with so much 
on his mind all the while. He looked 
tired last night." 

"Well, what'll we do now? Go back?" 
asked Granger, dejectedly. 

"Certainly not." said Fred. "We'll just 
stay and cat the dinner. You saw he said 
he'd pay for it. And he says for me to go 
ahead and tell you what he wants — he told 
me of it last night. All you've got to do 



is to eat your dinner, on Chaunce, of 
course, and say 'Yes' or 'No' to his propo- 
sition." And In- orden d Bh< waifo 1 to 
serve the: dinner at once, as Mr. G 
would not COme. Grant-i 1 • 1 ; > 1 nol a p prat 

to relish the dinner thoroughly, but 1 red 
certainly did — he had alreadj paid 
all and was determined to gel as near his 
money's worth a^ possible. Il<- remained 
n re ponsive to all of Granger's efforts to 
draw him out, saying: "Wait until the 
cigars come; Chaunce will never talk busi 
ness until the 1 igars go around;" and 
when they had finished their coffee and the 
waiter had held a lighted match to the tip 
of Fred's perfecto, he leaned bark in his 
chair luxuriously and with a sigh of con- 
tentment. "Now," said he, "I'll tell you 
what Chaunce said last night. He said 
fhat on my recommendation and as a 
friend of mine, he would offer you general 
manager of the Northern at five thousand 
a year to start with; so now all you've gol 
to do is to say 'Yes' or 'No' and that's 
settled. The other fellow was requested 
to resign, and Chaunce has his resigna- 
tion now. to take effect the 1st. He showed 
it to me. He's told all the other officials 
that you are to have the place; but on ac- 
count of the other man's feelings he hasn't 
bulletined it yet, and won't until the last 
minute. Chaunce is very considerate that 
way. And he says that he's so dissatisfied 
with the way things are going there that 
he wants you to clean 'em all out — super- 
intendent, assistant superintendent, master 
mechanic, trainmaster, train dispatchers, 
all of 'em, and put your men in. Says he 
wants you to be successful, and that's the 
best way, for you to pick out your own 
staff." 

"I'll accept, certainly," said Granger, 
eagerly, "and I'll make you superinten- 
dent. Fred. It won't look bad, will it, to 
see a notice on the bulletin, 'Frederick 
Sand is appointed Superintendent of the 
L. & N. R. R.. vice so-and-so, resigned, to 
take effect at once. He will be respected 
accordingly. George Granger, General 
Manager?' " 

The smile on Sand's face was as childish 
and bland as that on Bret Harte's China- 
man, as he replied: "Yes. that would look 
nice, and I thank you for the offer: but 
Chaunce said last night that if you took 
( V M. of the Northern, I couldn't do any- 
thing on it, positively. He knows I ex- 
pect to marry your daughter, and he 
doesn't approve of having connections to- 
gether on a road that way at all. Says it 
looks bad and is bad. and he'll fix me out 
on one of his other roads — maybe the New 
England, so I won't have to take Mary s 1 
far from her folks." 

"That's too bad." said Granger, but yet 
felt relieved, for he was already planning 
some way to leave Sand out without 
jeopardizing his own position. He didn't 
want anyone around who could say to 
him: "I put you where you are." He felt 
that somehow his merit was at last being 
recognized, and his reflection in the big 



mirror opposite was that of a general 
not that of an engineer. 

vatching him keenly, and prob- 
ably divined his thought,; for the smoke 
it -1111 his cigar suddenly choked him and 
1 ly, 11 Granger 
had noticed it. 

Vnother thing Chaunce said," Fred re- 
marked, after clearing his throat of the 
smoke, "is that they are -hort ol p 
and he wants you to order ten new en- 
gines; get '1 in where you like, and the 
kind you like. He says the Brooks en- 
gines they've got don't fill the bill, and 
they've got two or three Portlands that 
are no better. They're extending the road 
now and you'll have to order them at 
once." 

"I'll get them at Grant's or Baldwin's," 
said Granger, proudly. "I know what an 
engine is and I'll get them the right kind." 

"That's what Chaunce said," replied 
Fred. "He said you would know all about 
engines and could order them better than 
anyone else." 

"Yes, I do," said Granger, "and I'll get 
them all like the '77' exactly." 

"Crown sheet and all?" said Fred. 

"Crown sheet and all," replied Granger, 
sharply. "She's an engine!" 

"Another thing he said." went on Fred, 
"was that, as they open more of the ex- 
tensions and you are successful, he'll raise 
your wages." 

"That's good." said Granger; "but in 
speaking of officials you should say 
'salary.' Switchmen and engineers are 
paid 'wages'; officials receive 'sala- 
ries.' " 

"All right," said Fred; "but as I was out 
with Chaunce nearly all last night. I'm 
sleepy and guess we'd better go home. 
You had better think over your engines 
and make selections for your officers, for 
Chaunce expects you to rustle when the 
1st comes." 

As they passed the cashier's desk going 
out, Fred nodded carelessly; a proceeding 
that made a great impression on Granger, 
and would have made more had he known 
just how many dollars it took out of 
Fred's savings to clear the way for the 
nod. And as Fred said "Good night" to 
Granger, after declining an urgent invita- 
tion to "come in." he thought: "Great 
snakes! I'll be bankrupt by the 1st. and if 
we should get married. I won't have 
enough left to pay for a wedding tour to 
Coney Island!" 

Inside of twenty-four hours the whole 
First division of the Western knewall about 
it. and Granger's dignity was wonderful 
to behold. He handed in his resignation, 
to take effect at once, and was indignant 
when the master mechanic urged him to 
take leave of absence ior thirty, sixty or 
ninety days instead. "The idea!" he said. 
"Do you suppose I'll ever come down to 
running an engine again?" 

"Don't never prophesy unless ye know." 
replied the master mechanic, drily: "but 1 
hope you may not come down." 



14 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



"Of course 1 won't," said Granger, with 
dignity. 

Granger went home, after taking a last 
fond farewell of the "77," and burned up 
his overclothes. Then began a time of the 
greatest excitement ever known on the 
First division. Every man on the division 
who was not skeptical, and the skeptics 
were few. wanted a job of some kind from 
Granger; from the pitmen up to some of 
the minor officials, and all applications 
were loftily received by Granger, whose 
stereotyped reply was: "I'll consider your 
application later — after the ist. I'm too 
busy to do anything for you now," and the 
dance went merrily on. 

Sand said nothing and sawed wood. He 
arranged two or three other meetings be- 
tween Granger and Chauncey P. Green; 
but each time a message from Mr. Green 
at the last moment announced that he had 
been imperatively summoned elsewhere, 
but that all arrangements Sand had made 
were approved by him. All that worried 
Fred was that he couldn't hurry up the 
wedding, and the thought of the rapid 
manner in which his savings were dwind- 
ling down. As Granger didn't care to have 
it known that he owed his elevation to a 
switchman, and as Fred felt that ignorance 
was bliss anyway, neither one told how it 
was brought about and everyone was 
guessing. The Western officials were 
mildly skeptical, but took care not to be 
offensive in case it might prove true. 
Then Granger announced his selections 
for officials that were to reorganize the 
Northern service under his directions. 
Lew Coss, the first trick dispatcher, hand- 
ed in his resignation; he was to be super- 
intendent under the new general manager, 
and as Lew was very popular, and it wasn't 
a bad idea to be good to a man who was 
advancing officially, a paper was hastily 
circulated for subscriptions, and Lew was 
given a big supper, at which he was pres- 
ented with a valuable gold watch and 
chain. His successor was duly named to 
take his place on the eventful 1st. Con- 
way, the branch trainmaster, was to be 
assistant superintendent, and he, too, re- 
signed, but got no watch. Hank Red- 
wood, the night engine dispatcher, was to 
be master mechanic; but Hank took thirty 
days' leave of absence, commencing with 
the 1st. Meanwhile, Granger had gone 
to Philadelphia to see about ordering ten 
engines, duplicates of the "77." but was 
advised to wait until he had actually taken 
possession of the office. They didn't care 
to do business in futures, and his protesta- 
tions that the engines were wanted in a 
hurry, and that he would have to go else- 
where, failed to move them. 

Fred was anxious to have the wedding 
before the 1st and Granger was anxious to 
meet Chauncey P. Green before the 1st — 
they both sparred for time. Granger told 
Fred the wedding couldn't possibly be ar- 
ranged for until after he was settled in his 
new position, and Fred reported to Gran- 
ger that "Chaunce" had been taken sick 



and was confined to his bed. "He told me 
that everything is arranged for," said 
Fred, "and that his private secretary has 
the notices properly signed, and will bul- 
letin them and give the announcement to 
the papers on the morning of the 31st, 
and that you are to go to the office and 
take possession on the 1st at 10 A. M. 
But I'm afraid poor Chaunce will kill him- 
self," he added; "It's foolish for a man 
with his money to work so. He looks 
bad." 

At last the 31st came, and Granger was 
determined to see Chauncey P. Green. 
Fred had to telegraph in order to satisfy 
Granger, and the reply was signed, 
"Chauncey P. Green, by E. P., Private 
Sec'y," and said that Mr. Green was too 
ill to see anyone at all, but that all arrange- 
ments were made for Mr. Granger to take 
possession at 10 A. M. the next day, and 
Granger felt somewhat reassured. He 
wanted Fred to go with him the next 
morning; but Fred, who was very glum 
after a last desperate effort to get Mary to 
go with him to a minister's residence and 
get married at once, declined. "Chaunce 
wouldn't want me to go poking around 
with you," he said, "and he wouldn't like 
it at all. He might think you wanted back- 
ing." 

So Granger started off alone. He hired 
a hack and drove grandly up to the L. & 
Northern offices, where he arrived at just 
10:10 A. M. 

He walked firmly up the stairs and along 
the corridor, until he came to a door 
marked "General Manager — Private." 
Boldly opening the door, he walked in. 
A gentleman sitting at the desk looked 
up surprised, and the stenographer at the 
typewriter looked amazed at the intru- 
sion. Granger nodded to them; said 
"Good morning," and took off his light 
overcoat and hat. looking for a place to 
hang them up. 

The man at the desk was speechless, 
and the stenographer looked anxiously at 
the doorway to another office, as if con- 
templating flight. "I believe this is my 
private office and I suppose that is my 
desk." said Granger, with dignity. The 
stenographer looked still more anxiously 
at the doorway, and the man at the desk 
finally recovered sufficiently to exclaim: 
"Well, who in thunder are you, anyway, 
and what do you want?" 

"I'm the new general manager," replied 
Granger, calmly. 

"The iiczv general manager!" ejaculated 
the man at the desk, as the stenographer 
bolted through the other door. "Then 
who am I?" 

"I don't know who you are," said Gran- 
ger, as a number of clerks and officials 
came running into the office, alarmed by 
the stenographer. "You'll find notice of 
my appointment on the bulletin." 

Thinking he was dealing with a mild 
lunatic, the man arose from the desk and 
said: "Well, let's look at the bulletin. I've 
been general manager here for four years. 



and I didn't know my place was vacant. 
There's the board — I don't see the notice." 

Neither did Granger, and he stammered: 
"Mr. Green was to have the notice up yes- 
terday." 

"Mr. Green?" asked the other. "Chaun- 
cey P. Green?" 

Granger nodded. 

"Why, he hasn't had any connection nor 
any interest in this road since the annual 
meeting last March. My dear sir, I fear 
you are the victim of some hoax." 

In a daze, Granger walked out without 
a word. In a daze he wandered around 
the streets all day, taking care to keep 
away from his home neighborhood. 
About dusk he reached home. He was 
recovering from the shock by this time, 
and was beginning to feel like wreaking 
vengeance on Fred Sand. To his surprise 
he found Fred at his home, talking with 
Mrs. Granger and Mary, and before poor 
Granger could say a word, Sand ad- 
vanced and offered his hand and congratu- 
lations. 

"Fred, what have you done? What 
have you done?" groaned Granger, sink- 
ing into a chair. 

"What do you mean?" demanded Fred. 

"Why they don't know a thing about it 
at the Northern offices. Have you been 
fooling me?" he demanded fiercely. 

"You know better than that," said Fred, 
earnestly. "You saw all the letters and 
telegrams yourself. I can't understand it, 
but it must be due to poor Chauncey's 
sickness. I'll get a hack at once and we'll 
go to see him, alive or dead." 

Fred was gone but a few minutes for the 
hack, and as he helped the limp Granger 
into it, he directed the driver to drive as 
fast as possible to No. ■ Four Hun- 
dredth avenue. 

In a short tirrje the hack stopped in 
front of one of the mansions on that fash- 
ionable avenue, and Fred, jumping out, 
said: "You wait in the hack until I find 
out if we can see him." 

Poor Granger, sitting in the hack and 
still dazed, didn't know that Fred had lo- 
cated this house because its occupants 
were in Europe. He didn't know that 
Fred, concealed in the vestibule, saw only 
a servant who was taking care of the 
house during the family's absence, nor 
that his question was only as to the resi- 
dence of some imaginary personage in the 
neighborhood, nor that Fred managed to 
keep the servant talking long enough to 
let a plausible time elapse before return- 
ing to the hack. 

When Fred returned to the hack he had 
a handkerchief to his eyes and his voice 
was husky. 

"What is it?" asked Granger, eagerly. 

"It's all clear now." said Fred, sadly. 
"Poor Chauncey died at three o'clock yes- 
terday afternoon." 



If there is no club raised in your ter- 
ritory, write for cash club rates. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



IS 



Railway Accidents of a Year. 

A report of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission, recently received, says con- 
cerning railway accidents: 

"The number of railway employes killed 
during the year ending June 30, 1895, was 
1,811, and tlic number injured 25,606, be- 
ing a decrease of 12 in the number of em- 
ployes killed and an increase of 2,274 '" 
the number injured. 

"The number of passengers killed dur- 
ing the year covered by the report was 
170, and the number of passengers injured 
2,375, being a decrease in the number of 
passengers killed of 154 and in the number 
injured of 659. It is worthy of remark 
that the number of passengers killed dur- 
ing the year covered by the report is less, 
both relatively and absolutely, than dur- 
ing any year for which complete statistics 
are obtainable. 

"It appears that during the year covered 
by this report 1 employe was killed for 
each 433 employes, and 1 was injured for 
each 31 men employed in the railway 
service. Of trainmen — that is to say, en- 
gineers, firemen, conductors, and other 
employes whose service is upon the trains 
—it appears that 1 person was killed for 
each 155 employes of this class, and I per- 
son injured for each 11 trainmen. The 
number of passengers carried for each 
passenger killed during the year covered 
by the report was 2,984,832, and the num- 
ber of passengers carried for each pas- 
senger injured was 213,651. The liability 
of accident to passengers varies, of course, 
other things being equal, with the length 
of the journey. A more accurate state- 
ment of the liabilities sustained by passen- 
gers according to the results of the year 
covered by this report is that 71,696.743 
passenger-miles were accomplished on the 
railways of the United States for I pas- 
senger killed, and 5,131,977 passenger- 
miles were accomplished for 1 passenger 
injured. 

"From the above comparative state- 
ment it is clear that the year ending June 
30, 1895, is more satisfactory, so far as 
accidents are concerned, than any pre- 
vious year. Reference was made in last 
year's report to the fact that the marked 
reduction in the pay-roll of the railways, 
by which the incompetent and inefficient 
were dropped from the railway service, 
and the consignment to the scrap heap of 
equipment worn out or out of date, were 
largely responsible for the greater safety 
in railway travel and railway employment 
shown by the statistics of the year. The 
result of raising the character of railway 
sen ice and grade of railway equipment is 
yet more marked during the present year, 
and to this must be added the fact that the 
demands upon the passenger service dur- 
ing the present year have been somewhat 
decreased. It is also worthy of sugges- 
tion, although the facts yet at command 
are not adequate for confident assertion, 
that the fitting of equipment with automa- 
tic devices is beginning to show its bene- 



ficial results. The class of employes most 
liable to those accidents which automatic 
couplers and train brakes are designed to 
avoid is trainmen, and from the pi' 
Statement it appears that but 1 trainman 
for each 155 in the railway service was 
killed in 1895, as compared with 1 train- 
man killed for each 105 employed in 1890. 
But it is easy to lay too great stress upon 
this consideration." 



& ■•■ 



Ball-Joint Grinder. 

An attachment for a grinding machine 
to do ball-joint work is shown herewith. 
This dr\ ice is mounted on the table of any 
machine where grinding is done, or in any 
convenient position before an emery 



The First Railway Strike. 

I hi t. ' railway strike on record was 
1 ed by opposition to 1 proposed im- 
ment in the material for the track. 
Early in the last century, a wooden tramway 
was used in connection with the Duke of 
Ik's colliery, near Sheffield, Eng- 
land, lor facilitating the transportation of 
the coal. The wheels of the wagons ran 
on wooden stringers, which wore out very 
rapidly and caused a great deal of expense 
and labor in maintenance. In 1776, one 
John 1 urr proposed to put in a more sub- 
stantial form of permanent way. After 
some negotiations with the proprietors of 
the colliery, Curr built a cast-iron tram- 
way, the rails being spiked upon v. 
sleepers. The plan was bitterly opposed 
by the laboring people of the colliery, and 




BALL-JOINT GRINDER. 



wheel, and when fastened in place is well 
adapted to the work it was gotten up 
for. 

The work to be operated on is secured 
on the centers, and when there, any re- 
quired position between the work and 
emery wheel is obtained by means of 
screws giving either a longitudinal or 
transverse motion to the frame carrying 
the work on the centers. Rotation about the 
grinding wheel is had by means of the lug 
shown at the bottom of the base plate; the 
lug fitting in a corresponding recess in the 
table of the grinding machine, which is 
not shown. All ball reamers, whether 
solid or of the inserted tooth type, are 
neatly put in shape with this device, which 
was gotten up by Mr. D. C. Shepard. the 
tool-room foreman at the Pavonia shops 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad at Camden. 
N. T. 



a riot ensued in which the track was torn 
up and stringers and coal station burned 
up. 

The author of this improvement in per- 
manent way had to take to the woods to 
escape the fury of the conservative ele- 
ment, and he lay concealed for several 
weeks, then escaped to other fields where 
his delinquencies were unknown. 

§ § © 

The "Tramp'' compound of the Rich- 
mond Locomotive Works has just fin- 
ished a service test on the Louisville & 
Nashville Railway, and goes on the Wa- 
bash at once for experimental runs be- 
tween St. Louis and Decatur, which will 
be watched with interest. The Louisville 
6c Nashville Railway has made no report 
yet, but it is understood that the engine 
has given perfect satisfaction and showed 
great fuel economy. 



10 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Where Balanced Valves Were First 
Made a Success. 

A great many attempts wore made to use 
balanced valves before any degree of suc- 
cess was obtained with them. The sub- 
ject was repeatedly up before the Master 
Mechanics' Association for discussion. 
Several men, who appeared interested in 
special balanced valves, spoke hopefully 
of the advantages to be derived from their 
use, but after a little experience they 
nearly always fell back to the conclusion 
that there was more annoyance caused in 
keeping a balanced valve in working or- 
der than there was benefit derived from 
its use. About the time that the balanced 
valve began to get hopelessly discredited. 
Mr. George Richardson, the inventor of 
the well-known pop safety valve, called 
upon Mr. Underbill, superintendent of 
motive power of the Boston & Albany, 
and wished to apply a balanced valve of 
his invention to a locomotive. Mr. Un- 
derbill had heard a good deal of talk about 
balanced valves in his time, and had sdme 
experience with their use, so he did not 
want to have any conversation on the sub- 
ject. Mr. Richardson, however, proved 
intensely persistent in his desire to put a 
balanced valve on a locomotive belonging 
to the Boston & Albany. He offered to 
do the entire work himself, and to take 
the valves off if they did not give satisfac- 
tion; and he promised in no case to 
bother anyone by talking about the valves, 
whatever their record might be. 

Under these conditions, permission was 
given to put in a set of valves, and the 
work was done. Mr. Underhill forgot all 
about the circumstances till four years 
afterwards, when the engine happened to 
be in the shop for repairs, and the fore- 
man came and asked him if anything 
should be done to the valves. They had 
run all that time without being touched, 
and on examination they were found to 
be in good order. That set of valves ran 
nine years without any repairs. The 
balanced valve had proved itself worthy 
of adoption in such a quiet, unassuming 
way that others were immediately put on 
the Boston & Albany locomotives, and the 
device has long been a recognized feature 
of the engines. The success which it at- 
tained on the Boston & Albany did more 
than anything else to push it into favor 
with other railroads. 

i ® $ 

Seventeen-Ton Pneumatic Press. 

The pneumatic press shown in the en- 
graving was designed by Mr. F. B. Grif- 
fith, master mechanic of D., L. & W. shops 
at East Buffalo, for general use in his shop. 
This machine was built from new ma- 
terial throughout, and planned to give a 
squeeze up to [7 tons with a pressure of 
100 pounds of air per square inch of pis- 
ton, of which there are two, working n 
cylinders 1; inches in diameter and 24 
inches stroke, arranged vertically side by 
side. 



A heavy crosshead connects the two 
pistons at the upper ends, at the center of 
which is secured the 6-inch ram, the latter 
being guided at its lower end by the cast- 
ing, which ties the two cylinders together 
at the top. To raise the ram from its low-, 
est position, it is connected by a wire cable 
to the piston of a 5->4-inch air hoist, which 
is suspended above the press. The tool is 
mounted on a neat cast-iron base, and 
gotten up in harmony with the other ex- 
cellent air appliances that Mr. Griffith has 
in use in his shops, among which may be 
cited an air lift at the driving-wheel lathes. 



/ent Hole 



Dust Guard 




fcffiL 




j_ — _j- 



Carry to 3 4- Vent Pipe il » "" ' 

Wall 

These lifts travel on a circular track and 
are operative in every direction desired — 
ali motions controlled by air — making one 
of the most complete devices for the pur- 
pose ever worked out. 

Another arrangement worthy of men- 
tion in this connection is a traveling air 
lift, having all the functions of a traveling 
crane within the capacity of its lifting 
power, and that at a merely nominal first 
cost. It consists simply of small air cylin- 
ders with a long piston travel, say 8 or 10 
feet, the motion of which can be had in 
either a vertical or horizontal plane, in 
which latter direction it is multiplied so 
as to cover 200 feet or more by means of 
multiple sheaves and a cable of the proper 
length. There is no cheaper method for 
transferring work in a shop than has been 



evolved in this scheme. Both these lifts 
are patented, and their virtues will be 
somewhat lessened (to the pirate) in con- 
sequence — but they are a good thing. 

i i i 

The Taper Fit. 

Truly cylindrical bolts used to be almost 
universally used in locomotive work for 
all purposes, but the taper fit is steadily 
becoming universal. The only merit of 
the straight hole was its cheapness. It 
cost little skill or labor for a good work- 
man to bore a straight hole and turn a 
straight plug; while to taper the hole and 
taper-turn the bolt to make a, true fit, re- 
quired skill and time. 

A taper fit, when well done, can be de- 
pended upon to give a more uniform bear- 
ing that a straight fit, and a bad fit cannot 
be hidden so readily as in the case of a 
straight fit. A taper fit gives a great ad- 
vantage when the time comes for remov- 
ing the bolts from such places as frames, 
cylinders and rods. They can be driven 
out much more readily than a straight- 
fitted bolt, and they can be replaced and 
made a perfect fit a second time. 

i © $ 

A rather striking illustration of the diffi- 
culty of handling very heavy guns for 
coast defense was given by Secretary 
Lamont in a recent report. He said: 
"How difficult a problem it was will ap- 
pear when it is noted that such a carriage 
must endure, without breaking or strain- 
ing any of its parts, the tremendous shock 
due to the ballistic force necessary to pro- 
pel a 1,000-pound projectile at a velocity 
of 2,100 feet a second, lowering its 52-ton 
gun for a distance of nearly 8 feet to se- 
cure a position for loading and returning 
it to its firing position, and that it must 
do this rapidly, certainly and easily, and 
by mechanism not liable to get out of 
order and easy to be operated by the aver- 
age soldier. The technical difficulties in- 
volved may, perhaps, be better appre- 
ciated when it is considered that a similar 
case would be that of a 50-ton locomotive 
and tender, running at a speed of 20 miles 
per hour, which is required to be brought 
to a full stop from this speed within a 
distance of 16 feet, or one-third of its 
length, yet so easily and gently that at the 
end of the motion there shall not be the 
slightest jar." 

gas 

The Leslie Rotary Snow Shovel Com- 
pany disposed of their property recently 
to an organization known under the style 
and name of the Rotary Snow Plow Com- 
pany- — Fred. W. Cooke, President; Jas. 
S. Cooke, Vice-President; Chas. D. 
Cooke, Secretary and Treasurer. No 
part of the old organization is in the new. 
The Cooke Locomotive & Machine Com- 
pany will continue to build the rotaries as 
heretofore. Two new plows are now in 
course of construction for the new com- 
pany. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



17 



The First Cases of Reducing Expenses. 

When the first railway was built in Lon- 
don, in 1836, the conservative people, high 
and low, of England's greatest city, looked 
at the enterprise as one of the most ridicu- 
lous attempts ever heard of to change 
people's established habits. The idea of 
deserting omnibuses and hackney coaches 
to ride behind a "puffing fire engine," as a 
locomotive was then called, was consid- 
ered absurd. The first railway there was 
extended from the neighborhood of Lon- 
don Bridge to Greenwich, and was known 
as the Greenwich Railway. 

The directors seemed to understand 
how to deal with the prejudices of the 
populace, for they proceeded to make the 
railway an attraction, calculated to rival 
a big circus. To make the show draw, 
a band of musicians, dressed up like beef- 
eaters (royal servants), was stationed at 
each end of the road, and discoursed 
music to attract the curious. Then glib- 
tongued tooters expatiated on the joys 
of a ride on the rail. The show part, 
which might be called the early adver- 
tising department, soon became the ob- 
ject of retrenchment; for within a few 
months after the show was started, barrel 
organs were employed in place of the 
brass bands, one man doing the work of 
half-a-dozen. This was really the first 
radical move made to reduce operating 
expenses of railroads. As usual, the di- 
rectors did not rest satisfied with the first 
reduction, for they shortly afterwards 
abolished the musical feature altogether. 

Another feature of the Greenwich Rail- 
way was, that the whole length of the 
line was lighted up at night by a row 
of lamps on either side, like a street. This 
was done to enable the engine drivers to 
see if any curious person had climbed over 
the fence to examine the track and was 
putting the lives of himself and passen- 
gers in jeopardy. There was also an im- 
pression that artificial light was needed 
to enable the engine driver to regulate the 
speed at night. A little experience taught 
the managers that lights were not needed 
to enable the engine driver to do his 
work, and it was found that the tresspasser 
endangered only his own life, so the sec- 
ond act of cutting down expenses was 
abolishing the lights on the right of way. 

$ $ i 

Richards' Automatic Belt-Driven Air 
Compressor. 

The air compressor here shown has 
been designed to meet the rapidly grow- 
ing demand for such a machine for shop 
service, and is adapted for maintaining a 
constant supply of compressed air at the 
lowest power cost and without requiring 
any attention. It is entirely automatic in 
action, stopping and starting itself as the 
pressure rises or falls, and the occasional 
filling of the oil cups is all the looking- 
after required. There are two vertical 
compressing cylinders completely water- 
jacketed with trunk pistons, each of 
course single acting, 10 inches diameter 



and 10 inches stroke At 110 1 
per minute, which is a very moderate 
Speed as compressors are run, 100 cubic 
feet of free air per minute are compressed 
and delivered. Either cylinder may be 
used independently, giving one-half this 
capacity. The inlet and delivery valves 
are under the cylinders, easily accessible 
and easily removable. The air delivery 
pipe, at the back of the machine, is 2 
inches diameter. The delivery pipe and 
the shipper may be on either side of the 
machine as ordered, and the shaft may 
turn in either direction. The pulleys are 



sold by M. C. Hammctt, Troy, N. Y. 
Three of these machines have been run- 
ning several months in shops of the Lake 
Shore Railroad, and one in the Middle- 
town, N. Y., shop of the New York, On- 
tario & Western Railroad. 

$ $ & 

With the increasing steam pressure em- 
ployed in locomotive boilers, there is a 
great deal of difficulty experienced in 
keeping valves and pistons running 
smoothly. Improvements in lubricators 
and in lubricating material do not seem to 
be sufficient to overcome the difficulty. In 








RICHARDS' BELTED AIR COMPRESSOR. 



56 inches diameter and 8 inches face, giv- 
ing ample belt surface for easy driving. 
The normal position of the belt shipper 
is with the belt on the driving pulley, it 
being drawn to that position and held 
there by springs. The vertical diaphragm 
at the right is connected with the air re- 
ceiver and is adjusted to act at the re- 
quired pressure. When this pressure is 
reached, a small valve admits air pressure 
to the horizontal diaphragm, and the 
shipper is thrown over and the belt is 
held on the loose pulley until the pressure 
falls, when the machine immediately starts 
again. 

The compressor is from designs, upon 
which, we understand, patents are pend- 
ing, by Frank Richards, and is made and 



connection with this subject, it is strange 
to reflect that there is a great tendency 
among marine men to stop the lubrication 
of pistons and valves entirely, although 
the steam pressure in marine boilers is 
about equal to the pressure of locomo- 
tives. On the White Star boats, no lubri- 
cation whatever is employed, and several 
other companies follow the same practice. 
The objection to lubricating oils in the 
cylinders of marine engines is that it 
passes through the condenser into the 
boiler and forms an insoluble soap on top 
of the furnaces, causing accidents from 
over-heating. The marine engineers who 
have charge of engines that get no lubri- 
cating say that they have very little diffi- 
culty from valves and pistons cutting. 



18 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Traversing Grinder for Lathes. 

Our illustration of a grinding attach 

[or lathes was made directlj from 

sketches furnished n~ by the builder of 

the device, Mr. W. G. Thomas, foreman 

of the tool-room of the Lehigh Valley 



Bessemer to find out what quality of ores 
or iron could be used in the process. He 
assured them that the ore or pig had to 
be unusually pure, more than .02 of 1 per 
cent ol phosphorus not being admissible. 
As the- Bethlehem Steel Company could 



Gun M-'tal Bushing 




18 threads 
2^6 *( very loose 

54" 14 threads 



A NEW GRINDER FOR LATHES. 



shops at Sayre, Pa. It is got up on lines 
that are mechanical throughout, as will 
be seen by an examination of the cone 
bearings to keep lost motion down to the 
minimum, and also by the care taken to 
exclude all abrasives from the bearing 
parts. For the latter purpose, felt washers 
are used under each adjusting nut at the 
ends of the bearings. 

The clamp shown at the center of the 
body, engages with the shank which fits 
the lathe tool post, and thus allows for ad- 
justment of the grinder to any angle. 
There is provision made on the shaft for 
two sizes of grinding wheels, making the 
tool almost universal in its adaptability to 
the general run of tool-room grinding; 
but it is specially efficient on long work 
that is required to be as round and true as 
tools can make it. It is driven from a 
drum of a length sufficient to take in any- 
thing within the limit of the lathe centers. 
The endless uses to which a tool of this 
character can be put would seem to make 
it indispensable to proper tool manage- 
ment, but it is a fact that there are very 
lew in use in railroad shops. 



More Phosphorus Than He Thought. 

In the course of a discussion on the 
Bessemer process of steel-making, at a 
meeting of the American Society of Me- 
chanical Engineers, President Fritz, of the 
Bethlehem Steel Works, mentioned a 
curious fact, which delayed the making of 
Bessemer steel by the Bethlehem people 
for two or three years. 

When the Bessemer process was first 
successfully used in England, the Beth- 
lehem people were willing' to introduce it; 
but before doing so, they applied to Mr. 



not conveniently obtain ore or iron so free 
from phosphorus as Mr. Bessemer said 
was necessary, they decided not to attempt 
making steel by the Bessemer process. 

About two years after this decision was 
made, the Lehigh Valley Railroad Com- 
pany imported a lot of Bessemer rails 
from England. Some of the rails got 
broken when being unloaded, and Mr. 

SECTION ON LINE A-B 



more than what Mr. Bessemer said was 
admissible. Plenty of American ore was 
available for making steel with half the 
quantity of phosphorus that the imported 
Bessemer rails contained, and the Beth- 
lehem people lost no time in having a 
Bessemer plant in operation. 



A Reversible Ratchet Wrench. 

We present herewith a neat and me- 
chanical ratchet wrench operative in either 
direction. It was built in the tool room 
of the Sayre shops of the L. V. R. R., 
which are presided over by Master Me- 
chanic Weaver. The cap plate is locked 
in place by means of three lugs or pro- 
jections fitting into corresponding recesses 
in the upper face of the body, but in such 
a position that these parts do not coincide 
when the plate is in its proper place. A 
lip or flange on the top face of the body 
prevents any upward action on the plate, 
and a cap screw holds it laterally. 

The arrangement to prevent the cap 
screw from backing out, consists of a nut 
on the bottom, and in addition to this, the 
screw itself is put into the body at a tight 
fit, and these two features in combination 
prevent any tendency to movement in the 
screw. The beauty of this wrench lies in 
its lightness, and the accessibility of its 
parts when the cap plate is removed. 



We understand that the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company are 
about to resume the work of developing 



CAP PLATE 




ARRANGEMENT 
TO PREVENT 

LOSS OF 
CAP SCREW 



REVERSIBLE RATCHET WRENCH. 



Fritz got one of them and had the ma- 
terial analyzed. Specimens were sent to 
an expert chemist, who made the u 
sary tests and found that the rails con- 
tained .12 of phosphorus, being six times 



the Westinghouse-Baldwin locomotive. 
A variety of experiments with this form 
of engine were made several months ago, 
but were suspended, owing to the depres- 
sion of business. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



II) 



Compressed-Air Locomotives. 

Among the most promising uses tor 

compressed air for the transmissi i 

powei is that of locomotives working in 
places where the gases oi fuel combustion 
are objectionable, and for places where 
inflammable materials are liable to take 
fire from sparks thrown by ordinary loco- 
motives. Of late, ll. K. Porter & Co., 
Pittsburgh, have received orders for the 
construction of numerous locomotives to 
be operated by compressed air. The six- 
wheel engine shown is one of the latest 
built by the company named. The air 
reservoir looks like two boilers set side 
by side. It was built for the Adrian mines 
of the Rochester & Pittsburgh Coal el- 
Iron Company, near 1'unxsutawney, Pa. 
This makes three of these locomotives 
which H. K. Porter & Co. have furnished 
this company. The locomotive "Adrian. 



gram show \ tl nclusively, giving an 

advanta ei sti am < il pi rhap j to 15 

pi lunds, 

I In I tivi 1 to 1 -I" 1 ate grad 

sleep as 3 and | per 1 1 nl i"i empty trains, 
and about 1 ! 1 per cent, grades again 1 thi 
loads, getting out 1,200 tons of coal per 
day, on a haul ol about '1.000 feet. 



Economical Uses of Compressed Air. 

"In our machine shops, air is now as im- 
portant as steam. It is performing many 
things better than steam did, as there are 
many tools about a shop that are run 
by air that could not be run by steam. A 
three-cylinder Brotherhood engine, oper- 
ated by air, is one of the most important 
tools in the shop. It is mounted on a 
small iron truck and can be readily moved. 
All complete, it does not weigh over joo 



1 . ■ . blow oul tli' port . pul 

fill ili. boili 1 again with air, and 
run tie eni of the hop into the 

roundhou e. Yi 11 n< d no 

nobod . 

hot, and you ha 'I hours in 

hing the 1 ngine. In testing 

taj boll .'■ ith loo pounds of air pn 
.,n tin boiler, a broken staybolt is imme- 
diati lydetected hi n 1 tunded with a ham- 
mer, when it might not be discovered ii 
sounded •■■■ hen the bi till 1 h or full 

of water. 
"At tin crap pili d 1 ffective 

in .'i for rutting off bolts to length can 
be in. id' by using tv. 

inch I-beam, and a passenger-car brake 
cylinder which can be made to work auto- 
matically or by hand. A freight-brake 
cylinder, set in an upright wooden frame. 

with an anvil below and a ' ..utile 




AIR LOCOMOTIVE FOR MINES. 



No. 2," shown by the photograph, is a 
very powerful machine, representing the 
most improved practice. 

The cylinders, g'i inches diameter by 
14 inches stroke; six 26-inch driving 
wheels; weight in running order, 27.000 
pounds; height, 5 feet 2>Va inches; width. 
6 feet 2 inches; length, 19 feet Sl4 inches; 
two motor tanks, adapted to a regular 
working pressure of 600 pounds; supplied 
with metallic couplings, ami fitted with re- 
ducing and regulating valve; and auxil- 
iary reservoir, using the air in the loco- 
motive cylinders at about 120 pounds 
pressure. The engine is equipped with a 
very powerful brake to the driving wheels. 

This engine can be charged to the full 
pressure in about one minute. As com- 
pared with a steam locomotive, we notice 
one interesting item of saving of power, 
viz., that as the exhaust openings are 
large, and not contracted, as in the case 
of a steam locomotive, for securing a 
blast to drive the fire, there is no back 
pressure whatever, and the indicator dia- 



pounds. It will run an 18-inch slotter or 
a 42 x 42-inch planer; it will run a small 
driving-wheel lathe and turn tires up to 
56 inches in diameter; it will run a lathe 
for turning steel-tired car wheels; it will 
run a drill press, a bolt cutter or any single 
machine, and frequently it will save run- 
ning the whole shop when it is necessary 
to run one machine only. A press for 
rod work, driving-box brasses, or other 
work that does not require over 15,000 
pounds on the piston, is a great improve- 
ment over the old screw press and much 
quicker. 

"An emery wheel driven by air, on the 
principle of the Pelton water wheel, makes 
a very handy tool for light grinding; two 
6-inch emery wheels on one shaft can be 
run from a '4 -inch pipe. A transfer table 
100 feet travel can be successfully run by 
air by using a small engine. 

"Among the many uses of air in our 
shops that of blowing out steam passages 
in cylinders commends itself at once. To 
do this fill the boiler with air at 100 pounds 



end of the piston rod, makes a good auto- 
matic hammer for straightening bolts and 
rods. The valve motion to the hammer 
consists of an ordinary three-way cock, 
with a lever attached to the plug, and a 
J/^-inch rod connection to the end of the 
piston rod. The supply of air regulates 
the stroke. It can be regulated as closely 
as a steam hammer, and will strike two 
hundred blows a minute if desired. These 
tools can be located anywhere about a 
yard. 

"A 16-inch cylinder makes a press for 
the tin shop, and with the proper dies and 
stamps the largest part of your tinware 
can be cut out. stamped and flanged readv 
to be put together. Galvanized iron water 
pails, dope and other buckets are made in 
this way in pieces. The sides are cut out 
in sections, two sections forming the pail. 
The bottom is cut out and flanged at one 
blow. The tops and bottoms of tin or 
galvanized oil cans are made this way. also 
engine oilers, oil cans, spouts, tallow pots, 
water-glass lamps, and a great variety of 



2J 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



tinware can be made more cheaply and 
quickly than by hand. 

"Attach a small air cylinder to the split- 
ting shears in the sheet-iron shop, and 
you have a very effective shear for split- 
ting sheets from three-sixteenths of an 
inch in thickness down. 

"A portable forge for rivet heating and 
light blacksmith work is made by using a 
3-inch iron tube below the fire plate. Ex- 
tend this down below the bottom of the 
forge, connect a J^-inch gas pipe, use an 
elbow on the pipe, screw in a brass nipple 
with a 1-32-inch hole for the discharge, 
place the top of the nipple there J-jj-inch 
above the bottom and in the center of the 
tube, and use a J4-inch globe valve to 
regulate the supply of air. With this 
forge rivets can be heated faster than two 
gangs can drive them, and a welding heat 
can be made on a bar of 2^-inch round 
iron. 

"In the office, attach an 8-inch cylinder 
to the letter press for copying letters; you 
will like it so well that you will not want 
any more screw letter presses. 

"The application of air in a sandhouse 
as a means of elevating sand to a tower 
where it can be discharged through a 
spout into the sandbox of the locomotive, 
has been adopted on a number of railroads. 
A passenger-car auxiliary reservoir, with 
the necessary air connections, makes a 
convenient and economical machine for 
kindling fires in locomotives with oil. In 
a blacksmith shop, a blast for all fires can 
be supplied by compressed air and the 
fan blast dispensed with, experiments in 
this direction having demonstrated the 
success of this plan. 

"New applications of air are constantly 
being made about railroad shops; each 
new application suggests another, and no 
shop is complete at the present time with- 
out an air compressor. Even small shops 
can afford to dispense with locomotive air 
pumps and buy a compressor, because one 
that will furnish as much air as six pumps 
can be purchased for about $800. 

"The economies effected by the use of 
air will, in a short time, pay for a complete 
air plant. A large reservoir supply is a 
great advantage; the larger you have it the 
more economically can the system be 
operated. A machine shop to-day can be 
fitted up to a better advantage and for less 
money than ever before. No main-line 
shafting extending the entire length of the 
shop is necessary. A short line shaft may 
be used for heavy machinery, and all the 
light machinery may be driven by air. 

"The last five years have produced 
many useful compressed air tools, and the 
future will bring out others. Manufactur- 
ing establishments are investigating the 
advantages of air, and all railroad shops 
are more or less engaged in bringing out 
new appliances, so that we are all looking 
to the future and wondering what will be 
the next application of compressed air in 
shop practice." — J. H. McConnell, at 
Western Railway Club. 



Rambles in Europe--Geneva to Turin. 
[ 1 : 1 > I X 1 IRIAL CORRESPONDENCE.] 

There has been so much agitation going 
on in this country about the abolishing 
of highway crossings over railways that 
many people believe that the United States 
and Canada have a monopoly of highways 
going across railway tracks on the same 
level. Very little travel on the continent 
of Europe convinces one that other coun- 
tries are as great sinners in this respect 
as we are, and in many cases with less jus- 
tification. I have traveled in nearly every 
country in Europe and find outside of the 
British Isles that level crossings are prac- 
tically universal, and more than that, the 
railway companies do not appear to make 
the least effort to lead the roads above or 
below grade when that could be done at 
very little expense. 

Familiar features of all continental rail- 
ways are the numerous level crossings with 
carefully closed gates, a neat crossing- 
keeper's house and the meek-eyed woman 
standing by the gate embracing a red flag 
with military precision. They all stand 
with drooping eyes, as if they were too 
timid to gaze at the train, although occa- 
sionally I noticed the flag fluttered in re- 
sponse to gestures of waggish engine driv- 
ers. I fancy these women railroaders are 
not so meek with their husbands. 

This reminds me of a small gate-keeper 
romance that happened in the British Isles 
when these crossings were not so rare as 
they are to-day. On a certain railway there 
was a guard of the Adonis tribe who con- 
sidered himself a veritable lady-killer, his 
principal game being the daughters of sta- 
tion masters and other employes who had 
houses on the company's property. In the 
course of a few years this man began to 
have a shady reputation which extended 
from one end of the division to the other, 
for his actions were not confined to ogling 
when occasion served. There was a gate- 
keeper of a crossing who had a pretty 
daughter, and this girl took charge at cer- 
tain times to relieve her father, and, of 
course, was in evidence. Adonis had 
grinned his sweetest grins and grimaced 
his most alluring grimaces for years to 
this girl before it seemed that she became 
interested. Then he began throwing her 
amorous epistles. This was succeeded by 
requests that he should be permitted to 
visit the girl at night, when she was in 
charge. It came about that permission 
was granted. When the would-be lover 
arrived quietly at the gate hut. he found, 
not one. but four young women. They 
fell upon his neck, and they brought forth 
each a big calcimine brush, which was 
dipped into a capacious bucket of white- 
wash, and the guard was anointed from the 
top of his head to the sole of his brogans. 
When the girls ceased their attentions, the 
swain went, and stood not on the order 
of his going, staying not even to gather 
his hat that had disappeared during the 
fray. As he approached the nearest station 
he created general consternation, for the 



belief in ghosts still lingered in that dis- 
trict. The swain was ridiculed so much on 
this adventure that he went and enlisted 
for a soldier. 

When I meet Americans traveling in 
Europe who have never seen any of the 
romantic and grand scenery of their own 
country, it makes me melancholy to listen 
to their effusive admiration of every hill, 
glen, river and lake. I met a party of 
young American women in Savoy, most 
of them from Philadelphia, and several of 
them admitted that they had never seen 
Niagara Falls. They were fascinated with 
the pretty scenery traversed by the railway 
on its way to Italy, but short of the Mount 
Cenis surroundings they might have wit- 
nessed scenes quite as attractive by riding 
over the Lehigh Valley Railroad from 
Philadelphia to Buffalo. But, then, that 
would not have given them the right to 
boast that they had "done Europe." In all 
my travels I was amazed at the number of 
American women I met. When men were 
found in parties, they seemed to be 
sprinkled in by accident and they always 
appeared bored. The masculine-like in- 
dependence which our women assume 
while traveling is irritating to a man who 
wishes to see his countrywomen respected. 

The places a traveler sees in Southern 
France and Northern Italy are enough to 
stir up sentiment even in phlegmatic 
breasts, but to me the greatest interest 
was excited by the knowledge that ever 
since civilization extended over Europe 
this region has been the theatre of most 
of the grim human dramas, mostly trage- 
dies, that the history has recorded. The 
stern barrier of the Alps offered a natural 
protection to Italy, which was long the 
cradle of civilization and the training 
school of the arts and sciences. Down 
these mountain passes which the railways 
now traverse, marched in the old days the 
Roman legions on their quest of conquest, 
and in the other direction for centuries 
afterwards marched the stalwart fair- 
haired races of the north, bound to take 
a share of the wealth and treasures which 
had been accumulating in every city of 
Italy and its islands. But whichever way 
the pendulum of war and conquest swung, 
the people who tilled the fields, pressed 
the grapes, turned wool into cloth and 
did every stroke of useful work performed 
on both borderlands of the Alps, were 
ground by the contending armies, like 
grain between two millstones. 

As hour after hour we sit in the train, 
which twists round the edge of many giddy 
precipices, and goes through rockbound 
chasms and cuttings that we cannot num- 
ber, the wonder grows upon us at the 
enterprise displayed in building such a 
railway some forty years ago. The great 
engineering feat of the route is Mont 
Cenis tunnel, so called erroneously, for 
Mont Cenis is nearly twenty miles to the 
east; but that is where the overhead pass 
is, and the railway people held on to the 
name of the route, even as the "Santa Fe 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



21 



trail" is given to parts of the Atchison, 
Topcka & Santa Fe that are far from the 
real trail. 

Mont Cenis tunnel, begun in January, 
1861, is 7.% miles long, 26 feet wide and 19 
feet high. It is a most substantial piece 
of work, being lined throughout with 
masonry. The drilling for this immense 
hole was done with compressed air, and 



and protection walls, that the cost must 
have equaled that of the tunnel itself. 

I was in a carriage with glass in the 
front, whii li enabled the inmates to obtain 
a good view of the railway and of the 
scenery. The roadbed is all ballasted with 
stone, and the single-headed rail is used, 
ecured direct to the ties without the in- 
ti rventioi hairs. This is the same as 

SNAP SHOTS IN THE ALPS. 



• Hit wheels are almost universally used. 
In the locomotive works at Winterthur, 
Switzerland, I saw 90 Ogul locomo- 

tives in course of construction, and the 
manager told me that that was becoming 
a favorite engine for mountain service, 
but I did not any of them at work. 

The six-wheel connected engines had no 
truck, which must make them Jianl on 





READY FOR T 



•NTA1N GRADE. 



A MOUNTAIN HELPER 




AN ITALIAN ROUNDHOUSE. 



TRAIN FROM WINDOW OF LAST CAR. 



was the first time that this method of 
transmitting power was employed for any 
great work. There is about 4.000 feet of 
mountain above the tunnel, and the center 
is 4,245 feet above sea level. The tunnel 
cost about $15,000,000. There is such 
stupendous work for miles towards both 
approaches of the tunnel, consisting of 
rock cutting, short tunnels, stone viaducts 



American practice and is followed by 
many continental railways. They are us- 
ing a good many steel ties all over Europe, 
the favorite form being an oblong steel 
trough with a lump squeezed up in the 
middle to resist lateral movement. On the 
railway divisions near the mountains, six- 
wheel connected locomotives are used for 
passenger service; but in other places 



wheel flanges, for the mountain roads are 
very crooked, some parts comparing 
favorably with the Baltimore & Ohio in 
this respect. 

The ride from Geneva right through to 
Turin, in Italy, is throughout the whole 
route an ever-changing panorama such as 
I have never witnessed before in any other 
journey. There are hills and dales, moun- 



32 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



tains, torrents, sylvan lakes, silvery rivers 
and dark-green forests. There arc towns 
and villages with quaint old houses and 
churches without number, in some oi 
which famous events had happened long 
Columbus discovered America. 
There arc chateaux, inns that look like 
old-fashioned fortresses, castles that look 
habitable for people who are not particu- 
lar about personal comforts, and others 
roofless ruins. These latter seem to be 
in the majority, for their usefulness for 
defense lias long vanished, and the owners 
no longer find them paying stock, so they 
are permitted to go to decay. The pay- 
ing era of these structures was in the 
clays when they gave refuge to a band of 
troopers who followed their leader to levy 
toll upon travelers and to stimulate the 
neighboring food-raisers to the paying of 
blackmail. No political organization ever 
began to equal the robber barons of auld 
lang syne in skill at making collections. 
The modern landlord may deal just as 
ely with the tillers of the soil, but 
he seems to leave them enough to feed 
themselves and families; for nowhere in 
the country districts does one see dis- 
tressing signs of poverty, and the people 
look well fed and decently clad. 

As the train toils slowly up some of the 
valleys that lead to the main range of 
mountains, I frequently conjectured if any- 
one but the cultivator of the soil expected 
to take anything out of it. Are there 
landlords with rent rolls of farms that 
stand on end? Up the mountain sides, as 
far as grapes will grow, there are terraced 
vineyards, with wall upon wall built to 
keep the earth from slipping away. There 
does not appear to be an acre of land in 
the whole of Savoy capable of growing 
any useful thing that is not cultivated, and 
there are thousands of acres growing 
grapes and corn that none but a moun- 
taineer could go over without danger of 
falling and breaking his neck. There are 
too many people for the size of the coun- 
try. When one has traveled in Savoy 
and Italy he no longer marvels at the in- 
dustry of organ grinding being overdone, 
and that the ash-barrels of American cities 
provide a subsistence to a considerable 
percentage of the community. 

A striking thing about the Alps country- 
is the number of torrents, streams rushing 
like Niagara River below the falls, dashing 
furiously against rocks and immense 
boulders, rolling down in a series of cas- 
cades, tumbling in the shape of waterfalls 
and everyw-here redolent of activity, en- 
ergy and power. A fair sample of this 
kind of stream is seen in the view of the 
entrance to the St Gotthard tunnel. It 
seems to me that the stream referred to 
could generate enough power to operate 
all the trains that pass through the tun- 
nel. If the power of the thousand and 
one other streams touched by the railway 
were utilized to generate electricity, the 
whole of the road might be operated by 
that means. The rivers that rush out of 



many Swiss lakes, notably lakes Geneva 
and Zurich, might supply power to drive 
all the machinery in a large manufacturing 

tl IVi 11. 

What strikes one as odd attachments to 
the ends of the Alpine tunnels is a battery 
of guns commanding the entrance. The 
French are ready to shatter at this critical 
point any invasion of Italians, and at the 
other end the Italians are ready with the 
same attentions for the French. 

The Alps seem to be more rugged on 
the Italian than on the French side, for 
there are thirteen tunnels, besides several 
viaducts and bridges, in the first sixteen 
miles after we emerge from the southern 
end of the Mont Cenis tunnel. But the 
rugged part does not extend more than 
thirty miles, when we emerge upon a plain 
as flat as any part of Illinois. This is rich 
Piedmont (foot of the mountain), which, 
with Lombardy, the neighboring province, 
used to raise the food that supported 
Rome when the city was the heart of a 
great empire. Upon the rulers of the city 
fell the duty of feeding the populace, those 
who could not purchase food being fed at 
public expense. If modern large cities 
should adopt this policy, there would not 
be any trouble with overproduction of 
foodstuffs. 

Although lower Piedmont reminds one 
of Illinois, the resemblance is confined 
to flatness. The fields in Italy look very- 
different from our Western prairie land. 
We hear frequently recommendations 
given to American farmers to diversify 
their crops more than they do, and the 
diversity is supposed to lead to prosper- 
ity. This agricultual diversity has been 
worked up to the thirty-third degree in 
Northern Italy; for I believe the farmers 
raise every kind of produce that grows in 
the temperature zone. What strikes the 
observer in these parts is the number of 
people working in the fields. They do 
not use good farm implements, but they 
seem to make up for that in the number 
of laborers employed. They are mostly 
women. 

As I was trying to count up the number 
of the different crops I had noticed in 
the twenty miles of level country, and 
had given up wrestling with a French- 
woman to find out what they called "buck- 
wheat" in her country, the train rolled 
into the station of Turin. The chief glory 
of Torino, as the Italians spell Turin, in 
my opinion, is that a city larger than Cin- 
cinnati has only one railway station. Two 
views of this fine building were given in 
the December issue of "Locomotive En- 
gineering." In some respects this station 
was unique to me. In days gone by, the 
people in Catholic countries have de- 
lighted to devote their highest art to the 
decoration of churches. A common mani- 
festation of this feeling was covering the 
walls and ceilings of churches with fres- 
coes which are paintings done on a stucco 
ground. When the Stazione Centrala, as 
the station of Turin is called, was built, 



the people were sufficiently proud of it to 
decorate the waiting-rooms with frescoes, 
and very handsome they appear. 

The station has the renown of having 
been built upon the site of a fortress built 
by the Romans long before the beginning 
of the Christian Era. Strange as it may 
appear. Turin is the most regularly laid- 
out city in Europe, and it owes this pecu- 
liarity to its founders, who built only one 
large rectangular block. In this case it 
was 2,210x1,370 feet, which comprised, 
the city until the 17th century. When ex- 
tensions were made, the streets were laid 
out parallel with the walls of the old city, 
and so a city of square blocks grew 
and prospered. The citadel that occu- 
pied the space where the station now 
stands was in the center of the ancient 
town. 

In connection with Turin, the guide- 
book makes a note that reminds one of 
the grim fashion in which colonizing was 
done in days later than the time when the 
children of Israel were ordered to kill 
every human being found in the lands 
they were going to overrun. When Han- 
nibal of Carthage crossed the Alps to 
invade Italy, he found Turin inhabited by 
a tribe of Celts. He destroyed them root 
and branch. 

The antiquities, works of art, fine build- 
ings and handsome streets make Turin a 
highly interesting city for the ordinary 
tourist. A man looking for things of a 
railroad nature has to be contented with 
the fine station and great workshops of 
the Mediterranean Railway. Particulars 
about the latter must stand over for an- 
other letter. A. S. 

fill 
Where is the Microphone? 

It is wonderful the number of inven- 
tions that are accepted by the engineering 
world, as promising to be great and use- 
ful, that come to nothing. Nearly every 
person connected with machines that have 
to transmit great power, has been im- 
pressed with the advantage it would be 
to have some method of testing which 
would show hidden flaws in steel or iron 
rods or bars. About ten years ago an in- 
strument called the microphone was in- 
vented, which seemed capable of detecting 
hidden flaws in metals; yet we have never 
heard anything about what it has done, 
after being told in numerous articles what 
it would do. An experimental instrument 
was made, which detected the flaws in 
wires and small pieces of iron, and the in- 
ventor was willing to give the engineering 
world the benefit of wdiat he had brought 
forth, but the engineering world seems to 
have treated the thing with indifference. 
If we remember rightly, an instrument to 
detect flaws in larger pieces could be made 
at small expense, and we are surprised that 
no effort has been made to apply it to the 
detection of flaws in axles and crank 
shafts. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 






Loss of Power in Shafting. 

There appears to be a growing tendi m ( 
among railroad companies to use the 
cheapest lubricating oils they can pur 

chase. If an oil will keep a journal n 

running hot, no matter how much ina\ 
be used to do the work, it is considered 
satisfactory — and the cheaper it is. the 
better. Those who follow this policy 
would do well to weigh carefully th< re 
suits of a variety of investigations made 
by Professor Benjamin, of the Case 



the wholi liop 1 and this re- 

dui ed again to a pet 

startling loss wa fi mnd in i brii 
1 1 . 1 1 factory, where the shop wen 
over a lot ol ground Eight) pi i 
of the engine's power was lost in the 
shafting then In a planing mill th< li i 
was 73 pet i 'Hi . ui a sewing m 
factory it was nearlj 70 per cent. It was 
77 per cent, in a stamping mill and 6 p 
cent, in a boiler and machine works. The 
average li iss i' ir hca\ j machine shi p 



• 1 yations were 
nted to the ^mi 1 ii an 
( hanii 

1 anation ol the larg 

on in man I that 

1 quantity or quality 

of oil hat at once a favoral on the 

bills, while the - in< rease in 

umption ma> be iin- 

] 01 am ibuted to othi 1 1 au es. '1 his 

is a case ol saving at the spigot and 

it the hung. 




School of Applied Science. Cleveland, to 
determine by actual observations in fac- 
tories of various kinds, just what loss oc- 
curred through friction in transmitting 
power by belts and shafting from the en- 
gines to the driven machines. 

The tests were made in sixteen different 
factories. During the daytime, when the 
works were in operation and the machines 
were running, indicator cards, showing 
the work being done by the engines, were 
taken each hour. Then during the noon 
hour, or at night, when the engines were 
driving only the shafting, similar cards 
were taken; and when these and the first 
ones had been averaged, the difference 
between the power required to drive the 
shafting alone and that required to drive 



ENTRANCE TO THE GOTTHARD TUNNEL. 

found to be 62.3 per cent. The average 
for light machine work was 55.1 per cent.. 
and in but one instance did the loss fall 
below 47.3 per cent. 

In this one case the percentage of loss 
was so small that it must serve as a seri- 
ous commentary upon the character of 
the work generally done in putting up 
shafting. This was in a steel screw works, 
and the loss was only 14.5 per cent. In 
this factory the machinery is all of the 
automatic type, very compactly arranged, 
and the shafting had been put up in the 
most careful manner. The shafting was 
in perfect alignment, and ran' in hard 
cast-iron boxes without babbitt metal. It 
is supported by very rigid hangers, and 
was oiled by hand instead of wick oilers. 



Where the loss is due to a necessarily 
extended and complicated system of shaft- 
ing, it would be wise to determine ii elec- 
trical transmission of the power would 
not be cheaper in the end. 

§ § i 

We learn from our friend. Mr. B. R. 
Lacy. Commissioner of the Bureau of 
Labor Statistics of North Carolina, that 
the Seabord Air Line made an extraordi- 
narily fast run lately with a directors' spe- 
cial train. The run from Weldon, X. C 
to Portsmouth. Va.. a distance of 76.8 
miles, was made in 72' 2 minutes. This 
ihject to a reduction of about 5 min- 
utes lost by reducing speed to run through 



24 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



Electrical transmission has been intro- 
duced into the Baldwin Locomotive 
Works, in the Long & Allstatter Com- 
pany, at Hamilton, O.. and in a great 
many other machine shops, with great 
saving of power. The discoveries made 
by Professor Benjamin ought to induce 
men in charge of railroad shops to find 
out for themselves how much power they 
are losing by friction. With accurate 
knowledge of the actual loss going on, 
they could figure intelligently on the im- 
provements necessary, whether it should 



on each engine. They are considered 
particularly well adapted for mine work; 
but similar engines are in use on railways 
and yards where cotton and other inflam- 
mable material are hauled. They are 
growing in popularity and their use is ex- 
tending. 



Relative Value of High and Low 
Grade Coal. 

Mr. C. M. Higginson, assistant to the 
president of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa 




EVOLUTION OF COAL MINE LOCOMOTIVES. Fig. I. 



could probably afford to use the better- 
grade coals, at a price in direct proportion 
to their theoretical heating value as com- 
pared with poorer ones. In practice, 
however, the difference in price is often 
much more than the difference in heat- 
ing value. Care should be taken, how- 
ever, that the coal paid for should, even 
if of a low grade, be well inspected, so 
that it is a good representative of its kind 
and that the road should receive the grade 
of material paid for. 

"In this connection it might be well 
to state that the question of burning dif- 
ferent grades of coal will be a simpler 
one when we get better locomotive boiler 
designs in general use. The average lo- 
comotive is a very crude device as far as 
burning bituminous coal is concerned, as 
our mechanics and students have, as a 
rule, paid much more attention to 
steam-using than to steam-making. A 
larger proportion of heating surface to 
grate area than is often used is one 
direction in which we should make 
improvement, while another is increasing 
the flameway before reaching the tubes. 
When material improvement is made in 
these directions we will be in better shape 
to pay higher prices for higher-grade 
coals." 



Tonnage Rating of Locomotives. 

At the last meeting of the New England 
Railroad Club, the tonnage rating of loco- 
motives and its effect on fuel consumption 



be in the form of improved methods of 
transmission or in the use of better lubri- 
cants. 

i i & 

Development of the Mule's Substitute. 

In the office of H. K. Porter & Co., Pitts- 
burgh, makers of light locomotives, there 
i; a series of photographs illustrating the 
development of power used in handling 
coal about the mines in Pennsylvania. 
We here reproduce the principal pictures. 

First, in Fig. I, there is the patient mule 
and the impatient driver, who is doing his 
best to keep up the speed of his train, but 
the method was faulty and too slow for 
enterprising people. 

So the mule gave place to a small four- 
wheel locomotive, Fig. 2. This would 
haul the cars all right on the surface of 
the ground, but below, in the coal pits, 
the combustion gases were objectionable 
and the escaping steam was a nuisance. 

Then electricity was tried and Fig. 3 was 
the form of motor brought out to chase 
the locomotive out of the field. It did 
not prove satisfactory and its reign was 
short. 

The electric motor was succeeded by the 
locomotive driven by compressed air. 
Various kinds of these motors are built 
by the Porter Company, one being shown 
in Fig. 4. The boiler-like cylinder is an 
air reservoir, and there are two of them 




EVOLUTION OF COAL MINE LOCOMOTIVES. Fig. 2. 



Fe, who has been a very keen student of 
combustion problems, was applied to by 
one of our editors for his views on the 
relative economy of high and low grade- 
coal for locomotive use, and he writes: 

"The matter is not a simple one to de- 
cide. The course to be pursued on dif- 
ferent roads varies according to the qual- 
ity and price of the coal, the efficiency of 
the firebox and boiler construction in use, 
and the care that is taken in firing. If 
we had well-designed and efficient loco- 
motive boilers, with intelligent firing we 



was discussed at considerable length. 
Most of the members who took part in the 
discussion expressed the belief that the 
method of rating tons by the number of 
cars had become obsolete, since the loads 
now varied from 20,000 to 80,000 pounds. 
Statistics of the work done by the con- 
solidation engines running between Provi- 
dence and New London were presented: 
Engine No. 300 was observed during 30 
round trips. The number of cars hauled 
was 2,404; loaded cars, 1.448; empty cars, 
056: tons freight hauled, 21,690; dead 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



26 



weight hauled, 35,030 tons; pounds of coal 
burned, 314,300; engine mileage, 3,840; 
mileage for one round trip, 128; average 
number of cars per train, 24 loaded and 16 
empty, total, 40; net tons of freight per 
train, 360; net tons of empty cars, plus 
weight of cars loaded, 600; average coal 
consumed per train of 40 cars for 64 miles, 
5,236 pounds; average coal burned per ton 
hauled 64 miles, 546 pounds; average coal 
consumption per ton hauled one mile, 
0.085 pound. 

In this calculation it is assumed that the 
average car weighs 30,000 pounds. Fully 
half of the cars hauled were Pennsylvania, 
Lehigh Valley and Philadelphia & Read- 
ing cars that had a light weight of about 
34.000 pounds. The others were home 
cars of about 25,000 pounds' weight; aver- 
age of the whole 30,000 pounds. This was 
not a rating for those engines, only a 
comparative record of work performed 
and coal consumed. Those engines are 
capable of taking 50 loaded cars in either 
direction. Instead of hauling 40 cars they 
could have hauled 50 loaded cars, and that 
would have brought the amount of coal 
consumption per ton hauled lower. John 
Henney, Jr., the designer of the new en- 
gines used on the New York, New Haven 
& Hartford Railroad, believes that the 
size of the wheels has a good deal to do 
with the fuel consumption. His idea is 
that with a wheel that is too small, unless 
it is to run at a low rate of speed so there 
will be no slip, there will be quite a waste 
of fuel. 



Indorsement of the Decimal Gage. 

Through the united efforts of the engi- 
neering societies named in the resolutions 



by the solid array of well-known firm 
names: 

"1. Resolved, That we, The Association 
of American Steel Manufacturers, indorse 
the Decimal System as the proper Stand- 
ard for measuring all materials. 

"2. Resolved, That the Secretary be 
requested to forward a complete copy of 



Co., Carbon Steel Co., The Carnegie Steel 
Co., Ltd., Catasauqua Mfg. Co., Central 
Iron Works, Cleveland Rolling Mill Co., 
Colorado Fuel & Iron Co., Glasgow Iron 
Co., Illinois Steel Co., Jones & Laughlin, 
Ltd., Lukens Iron & Steel Co., Otis Steel 
Co., Ltd., Pacific Rolling Mill Co., Pax- 
ton Rolling Mills, Park Bros. & Co., Pas- 




EVOLUTION OF COAL MINE LOCOMOTIVES. Fig-.;3. 



the Committee's report, together with a 
copy of these resolutions, to the Secre- 
taries of the American Institute of Min- 
ing Engineers; the American Society of 
Civil Engineers; the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers, and the Ameri- 
can Railway Master Mechanics' Associa- 
tion, as an evidence of the appreciation 
of the work accomplished by these socie- 



saic Rolling Mill Co., Pennsylvania Steel 
Co., Pottstown Iron Co., Pottstown Iron 
& Steel Co., Reading Rolling Mill Co., 
Schoenberger Steel Co., Spang Steel & 
Iron Co., Worth Brothers. 



In answer to the demand to perform 
all railroad mechanical operations auto- 




EVOLUTION OF COAL MINE LOCOMOTIVES. Fig. 4. 



below, the decimal system received its 
start as a standard for measurement of all 
materials used in metal construction. The 
support of the American Steel Manufac- 
turers is a handsome recognition of the 
value of good work well done. These 
resolutions were adopted by the Associa- 
tion of American Steel Manufacturers, at 
its meeting in New York on October 23, 
1896, and their full import is best shown 



ties towards the establishment of the Deci- 
mal System of Gaging, and as a proof of 
the hearty co-operation of this Associa- 
tion in this movement." 

As an evidence that this indorsement of 
the Decimal System of Gaging carries 
considerable weight, the following list 
of members of the association is given in 
the letter of advice to this office: 

The Bethlehem Iron Co., Cambria Iron 



matically, Charles H. Hall, of Glidden, 
Wis., has invented apparatus for automa- 
tically sounding the whistle of locomo- 
tives at the points where whistling is nec- 
essary. The invention consists principal- 
ly of beveled blocks secured alongside the 
track for the purpose of actuating ap- 
paratus designed to operate the whistle. 
The invention is quite elaborate and 
covers seven paragraphs of description. 



26 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Horizontal Air Press. 

An example of what can be evolved out 
of scrap material and made into a useful 
hop appliance, is shown in the accom 
panying cut of an air pros made at the 
Sayre simps of the Lehigh Valley R. R. 
by Master Mechanic J. N. Weaver, who 
required a tool to use on bush work and 
tc press driving-box brasses in and out. 
The tool was made out of an old to. x -'4 



Mow this was dour is explained by our 
engraving of the device, which is nothing 
mi 11 e nor less than an 8-inch Westinghouse 
air pump with the pump left off — the 
steam end and its reversing mechanism 
only being used, and compressed air taken 
for the power instead of steam. 

Leather packing was applied to the pis- 
ton, and guides, crosshead and main rod 
were fitted up. making a complete little 




locomotive cylinder, by cutting it off to 
20 inches between joints and putting dou- 
ble-acting leather air-packing in the pis- 
ton. The valve seat was planed off, and 
the wide face was then used to secure the 
cylinder to large cast-iron frame, slotted 
similar to a planer platen and mounted on 
legs at a convenient height to handle 
work. 

In order to effectually eliminate all 
shock when pressing out work, occa- 
sioned by the piston being suddenly freed 
when the work let go, an auxiliary cylin- 
der, 4 inches in diameter, was placed at 
the outer end of the large cylinder, from 
which the piston was made continuous. 
This small cylinder was filled with oil, and 
its piston had a small hole through it for 
the passage of the oil from end to end of 
the cylinder, as the piston displaced it 
when in action. The resulting movement 
of the ram was smooth enough thereafter. 

An engineer's valve and air gage, when 
piped to the cylinder, completed a good 
tool that is always in commission. When 
we saw this press, an air lift was under 
way, to be placed immediately over it to 
handle the work, and is probably in full 
operation by this time. Mr. Weaver is 
more fortunate than most heads of divi- 
sion shops, in having a good air com- 
pressor to furnish the needful, and he 
takes full advantage of the situation by 
devising ways and means to utilize it. 



An Air Hoisting-Engine. 

Mr. John Campbell, master mechanic of 
the Lehigh Valley shops at East Buffalo, 
N. Y., had long been annoyed by the diffi- 
culties attending the stowage of cotton 
waste and other material kept on the upper 
floor of the oil house, and set about to 
surmount the trouble at one fell stroke. 



uiim t-n'ji/iienng 



engine, which, though wasteful of air, does 
not cause any serious loss, because of its 
intermittent use and short duration of ser- 
vice. 
The main rod was coupled up to a crank 



get out, but the transformation of an air 
pump into a hoisting engine is rare enough 
to deserve classification among the novel- 
ties. The machine has a lifting capacity 
of 2,ooo pounds. 



The Country's Rolling Stock. 

The following information about rail- 
road rolling stock is gleaned from the 
Report of the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission: 

"The total number of locomotives on 
June 30, 1895, in the employ of the rail- 
ways of the United States was 35,699, be- 
ing an increase of 207 over the previous 
year. The average annual iticrease since 
1890, including the year covered by this 
report, is 1,112. 

"The number of cars in service of rail- 
ways on June 30, 1895, was 1,270,561, be- 
ing a decrease of 7,517 as compared with 
the previous year. The decrease in cars 
assigned to freight service was 9.050, pas- 
senger cars showing an increase during 
the same period of 94, and cars assigned 
to the company's service an increase of 
1,439. It cannot be said that this decrease 
in freight cars is due entirely to an effort 
on the part of railways to economize in 
equipment, for, as is shown by subsequent 
summaries, freight traffic and freight- 
train mileage have both increased during 




on the same shaft, with a driving pinion, 
and motion was transmitted from the pin- 
ion to spur gear on the shaft of the wind- 
ing drum. All the parts for this con- 
trivance were picked up and put together 
to save labor, just as has occurred many 
times before and will continue to be done 
as long as power is needed to take the 
place of muscle. A way out of a difficulty 
is always provided for those who want to 



the year covered by the report, while the 
average length of haul per ton has de- 
creased. The true explanation of this de- 
crease in the number of cars assigned to 
freight service is found in the increased 
use which railways make of private cars. 
Reference has frequently been made in 
these reports to the fact that the existing 
law does not enable a complete compila- 
tion of railway equipment. This must be 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



37 



constantly held in mind in order to avoid 
erroneous conclusions. It was stated in 
last year's report that 'the railway man 
agement made the slackness in business 
the occasion for destroying a larger num 
ber than usual of old cars and cars of an 
mi. i ior type.' It is possible that this may 

have influenced somewhat the chair. 

equipment during the present year, but 
there is no evidence in the correspondence 
pertaining to the present rep. nt that the de- 
crease in freight ears shown in the above 
summary can be explained in this manner. 
"The number of tons carried per freight 
locomotive in 1X05 was ,14,817, being an 
increase of 2,908 over the corresponding 
figures for the previous year. The num- 
ber of ton-miles per freight locomotive 
was 4,258,821. being an increase of 242,- 
066 over the corresponding figures for 



fitted i\ iili train brake mi Jum |0, [895, 

was 9,876, being an incre. [06 

tie ...ii. ponding figures for thi pri \ iou 
year. It appears that practically all pa 

1 in-. 1 1 1 ■ are fitted with train 

1,1. .I. ,. while the mi rease in the numbi i 

..I pa 1 ne. 1 1 1..1 1'-. 1 . ta< tly the 

-.nil.- a- lie- in. 1 . a-.- 111 the numbei fittl '1 
with train brakes. The number of freight 

1 Ittves titled with train l.ial 

June .to. 1895, was [6,712, OUt of a total 01 
20,012 freight locomotives. The increase 
in freight locomotives fitted with train 
brakes during the year covered by the re- 
port is 729, being 717 in excess of the in- 
crease in locomotives. The number of 
passenger locomotives fitted with auto- 
matic couplers on June 30, 1895, was 3,893, 
being an increase of 414 over the pri m 
ous year. By comparison with the num- 



,1 total 01 1,196,1 19 ca to tlx- 

ii eight - ' I rvice, 

both lo 10 be 

fairly well equipped with automatic ap- 

to be 
the freight service." 

@ $ $ 

Caledonian Suburban Engine. 
The locomotive here illustrated i 

of a class recently designed by Mr. John 
F. Mcintosh, lo juperintendent 

,,i 1],. 1 ,,;. Railway, for handling 

the suburban traffic 111 and around the city 
of Glasgow The trains handled are simi- 
lar in weight to the trains pulled on our 
elevated railways, and this new engine does 
tin- work very satisfactorily. It is much 
smaller than the locomotives usually em- 




the previous year. These figures show 
increased economy in the transportion of 
freight. The same result is shown by the 
fact that 1,717 freight cars were required 
to move 1,000,000 tons of freight in 1895 
as against 1,888 in 1894; but. as already 
pointed out, these figures are not satis- 
factory, because so large a portion of 
freight is moved in cars not owned by 
railway corporations, and consequently not 
included in the basis of these computations. 

"Out of a total of 1,306,260, only 362,498 
locomotives and cars were fitted with 
train brakes, and 40S.S56 with automatic 
couplers. The increase in equipment 
fitted with train brakes during the year 
covered by the report was 31,506. and the 
increase in equipment fitted with auto- 
matic couplers was 51.235. While these 
figures are considerable in themselves, 
they do not indicate a rate of improve- 
ment which will satisfy the conditions of 
the law. 

"The number of passenger locomotives 



CALEDONIAN SUBURBAN ENGINE. 

ber of locomotives in service, it appears 
there yet remain 6.106 passenger locomo- 
tives without automatic couplers. The 
number of freight locomotives fitted with 
automatic couplers on June 30, 1895. was 
2, 039, being an increase of 731 over the 
previous year. When, however, it is re- 
membered there are 20.012 locomotives 
in service, the deficiency in this regard 
becomes apparent. 

"The number of passenger cars fitted 
with train brakes on June 30, 1895. was 
32.384. being a decrease of 19 as compared 
with the previous year. The number of 
passenger cars in service was 33.112. The 
number of freight cars fitted with train 
brakes on June 30. 1895. was 295,073, out 
of a total of 1.196.119 cars assigned to the 
freight service. The number of passen- 
ger cars fitted with automatic couplers on 
June 30, 1895, was 31.971. out of a total 
of 33,112 cars in the passenger service. 
The number of freight cars fitted with 
automatic couplers at the close of the year 



ployed on suburban service in Great Brit- 
ain, but it is quick and powerful, with 
plenty of weight on drivers to prevent 
slipping. The men running the engines 
say they are the handiest and best engines 
to handle that the company ever owned. 



A track foreman of Hibernian origin 
was called upon to give evidence at a 
coroner's inquest on the body of a man 
found dead on the line, and was told by 
his inspector to be careful in doing so. 
Asked by the coroner if he knew the de- 
ceased, he replied. "No, sorr." "Did you 
ever see him before?" "Niver, sorr." 
"Then he was a complete stranger." con- 
tinued the coroner. "Not at all. sorr." 
was Pat's reply. "Why. what do you 
mean? You said just now that you had 
never seen him before!" "Nayther I had, 
yer honor: but when I did say him. he was 
a very incomplate stranger, ez wan of his 
legs and wan of his arms wiz off h 



OS 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



The Thomas Pneumatic Switch and 
Signal System. 

Through the courtesy of J. VV. Thomas, 
Jr., assistant general manager of the Nash- 
ville, Chattanooga & St. Louis Railway at 
Nashville, Tenn., we are enabled to place 
before our readers the description and 
illustration of a switch and signal system 
operated by compressed air exclusively. 
We quote from Mr. Thomas' description 
as follows: 

"The fundamental feature of this sys- 



pounds before the switches and two-posi- 
tion signal would fail to respond. The 
three-position signal refused to leave its 
danger position when pressure had fallen 
to 60 pounds. All signals can be put to 
danger, even if pressure should fall as low 
as 4 pounds. A "4-inch cock may be left 
wide open on the controlling or indication 
pipe of a signal 1,000 feet away, and even 
with this leak, signal and its indication 
will respond promptly. 

"Home and distance signals can be 




EXPERIMENTAL PLANT, BEEN IN OPERATION Tft'U YEARS. 




SWITCH* OPERATING FOR THREE YEARS WITHOUT SINGLE FAILURE. 



tem is the manipulation of the valves ad- 
mitting compressed air to and exhausting 
it from the working cylinders of railway 
signals and switches by means of pistons 
of the equalizing type. The pressure must 
be increased or decreased suddenly, other- 
wise the equalizing pistons will not be 
actuated. To throw a switch, get an indi- 
cation, or place a signal at safety position, 
an increase of pressure must be had in the 
pipes. A reduction or increase of pres- 
sure caused by a leaky slide valve will not 
actuate these pistons. To demonstrate 
this, one of each of the slide valves was 
made to leak very badly, the leak being 
very much greater than if valve was per- 
mitted to run for years without attention. 
In each instance the increase or reduction 
of pressure caused by such leaks failed to 
actuate the equalizing pistons. 

"The apparatus needs no delicate ad- 
justment; the pumps have been stopped 
and the pressure allowed to fall to 50 



handled with the same lever, the indica- 
tion being so arranged that lever cannot 
be fully reversed unless both signals go 
to safety, and that lever cannot be put near 
enough towards its normal position to 
unlock conflicting levers unless both sig- 
nals go to danger. To interlock the levers 
of the machine, the beveled type of lock- 
ing is used; hence, if lever cannot be fully 
reversed, it locks all levers with which it 
i. - interlocked. 

"Assuming that it is more important to 
know that a signal resumes its danger 
position than it is to know that it goes to 
safety, the indication for signals has been 
arranged so that an increase of pressure 
must take place in the indication pipe be- 
fore the lever operating the signal can be 
brought near enough to its normal posi- 
tion to unlock conflicting levers." 

Four years ago Mr. Thomas conceived 
the idea of handling railway switches and 
signals with air, and without the aid of 



hydraulic or electric appliances. After an 
innumerable number of tests with various 
pressures and different sizes of pipe, he 
finally settled upon 70 and 80 pounds as 
the proper pressures, and found that air 
could be handled more quickly through 
34-inch pipe than through any other size 
or combination of sizes. 

About a year after these experiments 
began he was able to handle switches and 
signals very nicely, and determined to put 
up an experimental plant. This plant was 
completed two years ago, and consists of 
eight levers, handling one cross-over, two 
single switches and seven signals. Photo- 
graph A shows this plant with the excep- 
tion of a distant signal, which is placed 
2.000 feet from the tower. 

One of the switches is 250 feet from the 
tower, another 750 feet, and the cross- 
over 500 feet. 

The top blade of the two-arm mast is 




REAR VIEW OF TWO-POSITION 
SIGNAL. 



500 feet from the tower, the bottom 
blade is 120 feet away, the distant signal 
for top blade is 1,000 feet, home signal 
nearest on photo is 750 feet, the three- 
position signal 300 feet, and the dwarf sig- 
nal is 350 feet away. 

Notwithstanding the fact that this plant 
has been roughly used and has been given 
little or no attention, it is in perfect work- 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



29 



ing order and has more than fulfilled ex- 
pectations. 

With the thermometer at 10 degrees 
below zero, no trouble whatever was ex- 
perienced with ice closing up the ports 
or passages, or causing the equalizing pis- 
tons to stick. A careful search was made, 
but not the slightest particle of ice could 
be found in any of the valves, ports or pas- 




overs, 8 switches, 27 signals and 3 cro 
11 1 K gates. 

Pai 1 Stn 'i 16 levers, handling 3 cross 
overs, i switch, 10 signal- and -• cro ing 
gates. 

Bostick Street— 28 levers, handling 5 
cross-overs, 2 switches, 16 signals, 4 cross- 
ing gates and 2 spare spaces. 

Shop— 24 levers, handling 5 cross-overs, 
2 switches, 15 signals and 2 spare spaces. 

Two 18^1 x 18-inch Ingersoll com 
sors at the shops convey the air to Cedar 
street, two miles distant, by means of 
3-inch galvanized pipe laid in vitrified 
clay pipe; 54-inch galvanized pipe is used 
for controlling and indication pipes. He 
expects to put Line and Park street 
towers into service about January 1st, and 
the others as fast as they can be com- 
pleted. 

Mr. Thomas has always laid great stress 
upon the necessity for simplicity in the 



and tli ' valve at each 
in ' system. 'II" equal- 
izing valves are made very much upon the 
iple as tl"- plain triple. 
i mi tor two years without the 
slight. oil, and as they will not re- 
ceivi the same amount of hard usage given 
lil brake triple valves, they should, 
on . last for years. 
Any ordinary machinist should be able 
1 comprehensive idea of the system 
within an hour's time. 

For interlocking th( levers he uses 
niiiM locking For special locking lo- 
uses an appliance of his own invention. 
The entire apparatus is covered by letters 
patent. 

Concerning this system of interlocking, 
Mr. Thomas says: "I am frank to confess 
that the first cost and cost of maintenance 
is more than for the mechanical system; 
but it must be remembered that with the 



TWO-POSITION SIGNAL, SHOWING 
SIGNAL INDICATION VALVE. 

sages. With yard flooded with water to 
the tops of the ties, the switches and sig- 
nals responded without interruption. 

Photograph B shows a switch which 
has been handled three years without a 
single failure. 

Photograph C is rear view of two-posi- 
tion signal. 

Photograph D is front view of two- 
position signal, showing signal indication 
valve. It will be noticed that there is a 
little whistle on the side of this mast which 
has been rigged up temporarily with a 
chain. The whistle blows as long as the 
signal is at danger, thus giving an audible 
as well as a visible signal. 

Photograph E is the dwarf signal, 300 
feet from the tower. It can be operated 
in I second. Indication can be gotten in .1 
of a second. The time from first move- 
ment of the lever to receipt of indication 
is 1.1 seconds. 

Mr. Thomas is putting in between the 
city and his shops six pneumatic inter- 
locking plants as follows: 

Cedar Street — 20 levers, handling 9 
switches and derails, 14 signals and 4 
spare spaces. 

Line Street — 19 levers, handling 9 
switches. 13 signals and 1 spare space. 

Clay Street — 43 levers, handling 5 cross- 




DWARF SIGNAL, CAN BE OPERATED SIXTY TIMES PER MINUTE. 



apparatus, there being no springs nor 
delicately adjusted parts to give trouble. 
All he uses is plain everyday slide valves. 
3j4-inch equalizing pistons fitted with 
snap rings and provided with small ports 
through which the pressures equalize, 
pipe, pipe fittings, cast reservoirs, operat- 
ing cylinders fitted with leather packing, 



latter system no indication is had. The 
53 -ti 111 we are putting in is. in my opinion, 
much cheaper than the hydro-electro- 
pneumatic, the electro-pneumatic, or the 
electric. In the first place we do away 
with all hydraulic and electric apparatus, 
and I believe we can put down a 54-inch 
pipe as inexpensively as a properly pro- 



30 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING, 



tected and insulated wire can be laid. 
Leakage from electrii ir systems, 

and the Eury of electric storms, have no 
tenors for us. We do not have to wail 
for the equalization of pressures, as the 
air in the controlling pipes is nol used 
to handle the switches and signals, but 




THREE-POSITION SIGNAL OPERATED 
WITH ONE LEVER. 

run a separate pipe from the main supply; 
hence it is that we are able to handle a 
switch 250 feet away, 28 times a minute. 
We have handled a signal 1,728 times 
without stopping, an operator handling 
lever just as fast as he could, and the only 
reason that he quit was that he got tired." 
Below is given the time consumed in 
operating switches and signals, including 
indications for same: 

SWITCH. 

100 feet away 0.8 seconds 

25° " 1-05 

500 1.75 

750 " 2.5 

1,000 3.1 " 

SIl'.NALS. 

100 feet away 1. 25 seconds 

300 " 1.1 " 

350 " t.34 

500 " 1. 91 



1.000 feet away 3.07 seconds 

4.00 

2,000 " 5o6 

It is not necessary to wait for pressure 
to equalize. By actual test, a switch was 
handled as follow s: 

250 feet away. .28 times per niiii. 
500 20 

A -.ignal 300 28 

1,000 " 28 

The passenger and freight yards are lo- 
cated at Cedar street, and Mr. Thomas ex- 
pect-, to use air from the main to test 
brakes, clean ears, etc. He is also arrang- 
ing to equip his shops with pneumatic 
tools, etc., and the compressors will, of 
course, furnish air for them. 

Mr. Thomas is the inventor of the only 
purely pneumatic system for operating 
switches and signals. The unerring ac- 
curacy and surprising speed attained in 



A committee of the Western Railway 
Club has been investigating recent devel 
opments in the tonnage system of rating 
locomotive performances, and has made a 
report on the same. They make several 
recommendations calculated to make it 
easier to find out the actual tonnage 
hauled. Several railroad companies have 
adopted the ton-mile system of showing 
locomotive performance, but the results 
have been by no means satisfactory. We 
have talked to several leading superinten- 
dents of motive power on the subject, and 
we see very little prospect of ton-mile rat- 
ing "coining into general use. Most of 
them say that there are serious objec- 
tions to the ordinary car-mile system; but 
when attempts are made to change to the 
ton-mile, complications arise which make 
the system worse than the old one. They 
all agree, however, that the agitation in 
favor of ton-mile rating has had the effect 




EIGHT-LEVER MACHINE IN EXPERIMENTAL PLANT. 



the development of this system records 
another notable achievement for com- 
pressed air. Yet no more remarkable is the 
adaptation of this fluid to another use- 
ful and highly important purpose than is 
the energy and capability of the man 
whose technical knowledge of railroad 
matters qualifies him to design and de- 
velop such a system, meanwhile perform- 
ing his routine duties of directing from a 
high executive office the operation and 
business affairs of a large railroad. 



of directing the transportation depart- 
ments to the number of partly loaded cars 
passing over nearly all lines. The result 
has been that there is a material increase 
in the average car-loads within the last 
year. 

i $ $ 

We have on hand twenty-four bound 
volumes of 1894, that are in the way. Will 
mail one to any address for $1 (just 
enough to cover cost of carriage). First 
come, first served. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



81 



Punching Machine. 

The accompanying engravings show .1 
machine for punching a series o( holes 
simultaneously at a single Stroke of tin- 
punch. It was designed by Mr. Jas. 
Long, foreman of the Lehigh Valley Rail- 
road shops at Packerton, Pa. Fig. 1 is 



13 



hr 



3" 



-j 




15 



t=3 



Fig. 1 



ered bj met 1 vertical column 16 

w hii li pa i i through the plate and are 
riveted over at the top, the plat bi 
mi shouldei i foi mi d on the 1 olumn u 

In operation, the objei I to bi pu 
1- plai 1 'I "ii thi die to, and the punching 
block is then forced down, which carries 
the work against the punches, the latter 
passing completely through. The wads 
or blanks removed by the punches are 
forced upward through the apertures in 
plate 7. and are discharged through tin- 
passages 20 and 21. After the punching 
is completed and pressure removed, the 
lifting plate rises and strips the work from 
the punches, when the machines is ready 
to punch another piece. 



a front elevation of the machine; Fig. 2 is 
a side elevation of same; Fig. 3 is a trans- 
verse section on line x x of Fig. 5; Fig. 4 
is a face view of the punch block, detached 
from the machine; Fig. 5 is a side eleva- 
tion of the punch block, also detached; 
Fig. 6 is a face view of the punching die 
and guide plate, which guides the punched 
wads or blanks to the openings in the 
punch block; and Fig. 7 is a longitudinal 
section on line 31 y of Fig. 6. 

The numeral 1 indicates the frame of 
the machine, which is formed with upper 
and lower jaws 2 and 3. The upper jaw 
is provided with vertical ways 4, between 
which is arranged a reciprocating ram or 
plunger 5. At the lower end of this plun- 
ger the punch block 6 is secured, and has 
on its lower face the plate 7. which is pro- 
vided with apertures 8. equal in number 
to the holes to be punched. 

The lower jaw 3 forms a seat for the 
die 10. which is provided with a series of 
punches II. which are also equal to the 
number of holes to be punched and are 
in alignment with the apertures in plate 7. 
A lifting plate is indicated by the numeral 
12, and also has holes through which the 
punches 11 pass. The plate 12 has a ver- 
tical movement within a recess in the 
upper face of die 10, and is raised and low- 




Fig. 4 



2J 



t 



, 20 f 

T3T7 

Fig. 3 




Fig. 5 



sr* " » 






5 

y 10 


y 


12 


II 


^ 







Fig. 6 



11 11 12 






16 J 1F-I1 16 41 16 J . 

Fig. 7 *- ''■'' /; "*" 



One Eye Better Than One and a Half. 

!. railway 

animation 
[or defect i'erc was in this 

country whin the practice 

started, and there are peculiarities to the 
British system of examination, which are 
all their own A protest was recently 
1,1 ought bi of I rade by the 

Amalgi ty of Railway Ser- 

vants on rhal eem to us to have been a 
curious case. The Caledonia Railway 
1 ompany had bi ng the sight of 

their driver- and firemen. Three drivers 
and two firemen were able to pass suc- 
ully with one eye. but failed to count 
spots correctly with the other. The men 
in fact, found to be short sighted in 
one eye only, and on that ground were 

Off their engines and 1 
the workshops, where they were employed 
on lower pay. At the present lime there is 
an engine driver at work on the road, who 
has only one eye and he is permitted to 
remain on duty. Contention was made 
by the society that a man with an eye and 
a half, which is about equal to what the 
men rejected had, was in a better position 
e 1 rrectly than the man who had 



Ltmmativi Enyi-nctrmg 

The engravings show the machine rig- 
ged with punch and die for brake-lever 
holes. This specimen of work, to illus- 
trate the capabilities of the device, is well 
chosen; lor the importance of having tli 
holes in brake levers absolute duplicates 
in spacing for a given standard of lever- 
age, is too little understood or appreci- 
ated. Mr. Long has had this machine in 
operation at the Packerton shops for some 
time, where it can be seen doing fast first- 
class work by any who are interested. 

§ ® § 

The Trethewey Manufacturing Com- 
pany. Pittsburg, Pa., builders of steam 
hammers and heavy punches, shears and 
hydraulic tools, are now making si 
for cutting ij^-inch steel boiler plate. 
They have recently received several or- 
ders from abroad for their heavy shears. 




£aa ■ '.', B^yuMovy 



only one eye. We have not heard of a 
decision being made, but it is certainly a 
very peculiar case. 

i i $ 

It is reported that the Russian Govern- 
ment intend to use chilled wheels largely 
for freight cars on the Government Rail- 
ways, that are under construction to the 

Far East. 



3-* 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



A Pipe-Bender. 

Among the various schemes for bend- 
ing pipes to the curves required in piping 
an engine or car, the one long in use at 
the Wilkes-Barre shops of the L. V. R. R, 
and which we illustrate herewith, will be 
found a more simple rig for the purpose 
than many that have been shown hereto- 
fore. 

In the development of his air devices, 
Master Mechanic Roth had to face the 
need of a pipe-bending machine, and he 
tackled the problem in his usually original 
way, producing a cheap and very efficient 
arrangement that will bend any size of 
pipe to any radius. 

The whole thing consists of an old 
8-inch air-cylinder secured to a post, and 
two levers pivoted in castings fastened to 
the floor. The levers have a grooved 



Curious Method of Compressing Air. 

There is a curiosity to be seen at Magog, 
a village near Montreal, Canada, where 
the machinery of cotton mills is driven 
by compressed air obtained in an odd 
way. A stream of running water is used 
to do the compressing of the air, and the 
surprising feature of this arrangement is 
that no machinery whatever is employed 
in doing the compressing. 

It is done by a singular application of 
the principle of induced currents; the 
running water falls into a deep shaft, and 
a variety of small air pipes are led down 
from above into the falling current of 
water. The water naturally sucks in the 
air, which is mixed with the falling mass. 
At the bottom of the shaft is a cone similar 
to the cones used in diamond smoke- 
stacks. The water falls on this and is 




roller at their upper ends, in which the 
pipe is laid in the bending process, and 
the former are adjustable to any angle in 
a vertical plane, by means of a pair of tie- 
bars, which secure them in any position, 
with the rollers near to or remote from 
each other; the levers passing through the 
floor, and are raised or lowered at will 
to meet the varying conditions of bending 
pipes to different radii. 

Here is a solution of the pipe-bending 
problem in its simplest form; the machine 
embracing so few parts, and the degree of 
roughness at which these parts can be 
put up. makes the cost an item that should 
not have serious consideration by those 
who have an air plant and want a good 
machine to do pipe-bending. 

ft ft ft 

Two improvements on car seats have 
been patented by Mr. Henry S. Hale, of 
Philadelphia, the senior partner of the firm 
of Hale & Kilburn. 



dashed into spray, releasing the air. Re- 
turn pipes are provided for the flow of 
the water and it goes away in one direc- 
tion, and the air passes up from the air 
chamber through pipes provided for the 
purpose. The degree of pressure secured 
is regulated by the height of the return 
water level above the bottom level of the 
inflowing shaft. 

The principle has been applied on a 
small scale before for compressing air, 
but we do not think it was ever used for 
driving a factory. In books on ancient 
machinery, this method of compressing 
air is described and is called a "trompe." 
It was used for compressing air used in 
furnaces and forge fires. It is mentioned 
by Pliny (A. D. 76), and Kircher in his 
"Mundus Subterraneus" (1665) gives a 
figure of it, and in his "Musurgia Uni- 
versals" he shows his application to the 
blowing of organs, in which, however, 
he is anticipated by Branca (1629), whose 



illustrations represent it as blowing or- 
gans and also forge fires. 

Although used for various purposes 
during the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries, the introduction of steam seems 
to have put the "trompe" into desuetude, 
but it has been applied to practical uses in 
a few instances within the last twenty 
years. 

In a communication to the "American 
Machinist," Mr. W. F. Durfee said that 
in the year 1869 he designed a modifica- 
tion of the "trompe" for use as a vacuum 
pump and table blow pipe. This was be- 
lieved at the time to be the first use of 
the principle of the "trompe" for exhaus- 
ting air; but, as a matter of fact, Professor 
Bunsen had employed this principle in 
construction of his filter pump a few years 
before. Mr. Durfee also fitted up a 
"trompe" for compressing air in the 
laboratory of the steel works at Wyan- 
dotte, Mich. The apparatus seems to 
provide a very convenient means of trans- 
posing the power of running water into 
the air medium of transmission of power, 
that is much more convenient than water. 

ft ft ft 

A report has been made to the British 
Board of Trade about the accident to a 
passenger train which happened at Preston 
during the summer, and which was illus- 
trated in our September number. Our 
readers will remember that there was go- 
ing to be train-racing between the East 
and West Coast roads last summer, and 
the various railway companies compris- 
ing the rival routes had prepared for 
victory by designing and building ex- 
tremely fast locomotives, but this ac- 
cident put an end to it in the start. 
The report on the disaster summarizes the 
causes as follows: "A reverse curve with- 
out any intervening tangent, without check 
rail, with super-elevation suitable only for 
very low speeds and badly distributed, and 
with a radius at one part of only seven 
chains; a train drawn by two engines, each 
having a rigid wheel base of 15 feet 8 
inches; and lastly, a speed of 40 miles an 
hour or more, form a combination of con- 
ditions which were almost certain to lead 
to disaster." 

ft ft ft 

Some improvements going on in con- 
nection with the Baltimore & Ohio Rail- 
road at Baltimore recently, required that 
a large freight warehouse should be 
moved. At first it was thought that the 
building would have to be taken down and 
rebuilt, but the department of buildings 
conceived the idea of moving it bodily, 
and the feat was successfully accomplished 
a short time ago. The building is 440 feet 
long by 120 feet wide and 60 feet high. 
Besides its own weight, the building con- 
tained a great quantity of freight, among 
which was 3.000 cases of china and crock- 
ery. The moving was performed in five 
weeks, and no perceptible damage was 
done to the structure. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 

Car Department. 



88 



Steel Car Trucks—Passenger and 
Freight. 

There has been for some time past con- 
siderable thought given to designs for 
steel car trucks, in which the well-known 
conventional lines have been deserted for 
various forms in which the details were 
at wide variance with old practice. The 
goal which all aimed to reach was ap- 
parently to be gained only by a total 
abandonment of the arch bar, and with a 



CONDUCTED BV O. M. REYNOLDS. 

frame which was practically solid and con- 
tinuous between the wheels. 

The possibilities of a plate frame to 
reach this result were (juickly recognized, 
and from that form of construction it was 
only a step to a composite frame made up 
of rolled sections in combination with a 
web plate, and the whole securely riveted 
together to form the complete frame. 

Two trucks of the latter type are shown 
herewith; one for passenger service and 



one i'ir Ircight. The same general idea of 
using easily obtainable commercial shapes 
in the training has been worked out in 
both cases. Fig. I is the passenger truck 
in elevation, plan and sections. The upper 
and lower sections of the side frame con- 
sist of angle bars arranged in pairs, with 
the web plate extending between and 
riveted to them. Two half-elliptic springs 
rest on each box, and sustain the frame 
by bearing against suitable seats under 



Section at Hanger Bars 



Side View of Frame 
B-'j — , >K — l'c- —| 




Section, 
Center of Bolster 



-s'e^- ««■ -l'l"— «*-— ifs 5 ■^«t*---i'i i --*i' 2'oM- 




A NEW STEEL TRUCK. 



34 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



each upper angle, one outside and one in- 
side. 

Jaws for the journal boxes are made of 
angles, also riveted to the web plate, and 
to the faces of these angles are riveted 
chafing pieces, readily removable to com- 
pensate for wear. At the center of the 
web plate an aperture is cut to allow the 
bolster springs to pass through. The 
transoms, formed of two channels, are 
secured to the plate of the side frames by 
two horizontal angles, which support the 
transoms at a point just above the lower 
frame angles, and in addition to this, the 
transoms are riveted to short vertical 
angles, which are in turn riveted to the 
plates of the side frames. 

A channel extending across the truck 
and parallel to the transoms, forms the 
lower spring seats. This channel is sup- 
ported in the usual way on swing hangers, 
from the inside of the transoms. The 
truck bolster is made of one long channel 
at the top with flanges extending upward, 
and one short section of channel at the 
bottom in the center of its length, to 
which are riveted a plate at each side. 

To resist distortion of the truck frame, 
and to hold in check any tendency to dis- 
turb a proper alignment of the parts, there 
are gusset plates secured to the upper 
flanges of the transoms and the top angles 
of the side frames. 

Provision is made to swing the outer 
section of the frame which forms the jaw 
(if that form of construction is preferred), 
for the purpose of removing the wheels 
and axles end\*ffse. This is accomplished 
by means of the bolt at A, which forms a 
hinge and allows the ends of the side 
frame to swing up and out of the way 
when the tie-bolt under the journal 
box is removed. Failure to provide for 
removal of wheels except by the jacking 
process has been a weak feature in trucks 
of this character, and all objections in this 
line appear to have been met in the truck 
under consideration, it only being neces- 
sary to lift the truck high enough to re- 
lieve the frame springs of their weight. 

Fig. 2 is a freight truck of 100,000 
pounds capacity. The frame in this case 
is made up of an angle bar g, horizontal 
for a portion of its length at the center, 
bent upward to form the jaw for the jour- 
nal box, and again bent downward at the 
ends so as to be a part of the outer pedes- 
tal jaw. To the vertical flange of this 
angle is riveted the plate frame, which ex- 
tends the whole distance between jaws 
horizontally, and from the upper to the 
lower angles of the frame. The jaws are 
formed of an angle bent to an inverted U, 
which incloses the three sides of the jaw. 
An angle bar k, extending the length of 
the side frame, has its ends passing over 
the top and down the outside faces of the 
jaws. It is bent down in its central por- 
tion, forming a support for the bottom 
edge of the transoms, which are made of 
15-inch channels, extending across the 
truck from frame to frame, and secured to 



the latter through short vertical channel 
sections. At the ends of the transoms are 
strengthening plates riveted to the top of 
transoms and to the angles g, contributing 
to the end of having the truck a rigid one 
in every particular. 

The aim of the inventor of these trucks, 
Mr. F. H. Kindl, of Pittsburgh, Pa., has 
been evidently to avail himself of every 
advantage to be had in the use of com- 
mercial rolled shapes, and thus obviate the 
necessity of expensive manipulation in 
construction. 

$ ® & 

Quick Way to Make a Push Pole. 

Push poles for yard engines are usually 
turned in a lathe, but Superintendent of 
Car Department Leutz, of the Lehigh 
Valley Railroad, has a scheme in vogue 
at his Packerton shops, for getting the 
rough off a piece of timber, that is cer- 
tainly a time-beater. 

A reference to our engraving will, when 
supplemented with a few words, make the 
idea quite clear. In the plan view is seen 



ent forms of couplers in use. There was 
such a diversity of link and pin couplers 
that railroad companies labored under 
great inconvenience in keeping in stock 
the great variety of forms required for 
the repairing of foreign cars. Nearly all 
railroad men supposed that the adoption 
of a standard coupler by the Master Car 
Builders' Association would aid in bring- 
ing about uniformity, and would end the 
necessity for carrying so many forms in 
the repair yards. 

The reality sadly mocks the prediction 
of the coupler reformers. In a report of 
the Interstate Commerce Commission re- 
cently published, mention is made of 105 
different kinds of couplers in use, besides 
others not classified. That is merely the 
different kinds of couplers that are 
actually in use on cars. There have prob- 
ably been twice as many more couplers 
patented since the Master Car Builders' 
form was adopted, and the patentees or 
proprietors of most of them are doing 
their best to get railroad companies to 
give their coupler a trail. Verily it looks 



■ iiQ 



3 



-r'°- 
-7 — 



■-H 



-i— 



r 



LvCumutivt £nglnctring I 





<f5?T 


pi 




...... 


4!\ , 






ZJ 



MAKING A PUSH POLE. 



the finished push pole held in a wooden 
frame on two screws, pointed similar to 
lathe centers. The pole, when in the 
rough, is octagon in section and placed in 
the frame as shown, the outline of which, 
as seen in the side elevation, is that of 
frustums of two cones joined at the base — 
that is, the frame is tapered from the cen- 
ter both ways, to correspond with the 
shape wanted in the completed piece. It 
is then nothing more nor less than a 
former for the pole. 

The other parts consist of an ordinary 
saw table, under which, on an arbor, is a 
cutter head improvised out of a matcher 
head, on which is placed two concave- 
shaped cutters. On the table above the 
cutters, and central with them, is another 
frame (shown in section), which is a 
guide for the frame holding the pole. In 
operation, the pole is simply held in one 
frame and guided over the cutters through 
the other. Four cuts do the job, and leave 
the pole in a condition not fully equal to 
the best lathe work, but smooth enough 
for switching purposes. Time, five min- 

$ i $ 

Diversity of Car Couplers. 

When the Master Car Builders' Asso- 
ciation adopted a standard coupler, or 
rather standard coupling lines, we be- 
lieved that the result of the movement 
would be to reduce the number of differ- 



as if this attempt at bringing about uni- 
formity has ended in making confusion 
worse confounded. 



Automatic Air Brakes and Couplers. 

The law relating to safety appliances, 
passed several years ago by the United 
States Congress, requires that by January 
1, 1898, all cars and locomotives engaged 
in interstate commerce shall be equipped 
with automatic air brakes and car coupl- 
ers. According to the last report of the 
Interstate Commerce Commission, there 
were over one million cars and locomo- 
tives in the United States which have not 
yet been equipped with automatic brakes 
and couplers. 

As there is only one year remaining to 
finish this work, many of the roads will 
find themselves in a difficult position when 
the law goes into effect. For the last two 
years none but first-class roads have been 
applying those safety devices to their roll- 
ing stock, and even some of the first-class 
roads that are paying dividends have been 
doing the work very slowly. A majority 
of roads appear to have done nothing 
whatever. 

There appears to be a belief prevalent 
that more time will be given to get the 
brakes and couplers put on, but it is not 
by any means certain that Congress will 
agree to this. Something, however, will 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



35 



have to be done, as it is impracticable to 
make all the equipment necessary before 
the time expires. According to the exist- 
ing law, a company violating the cnact- 
nuiil will be fined $100 per day for each 
case violated. 

i $ § 

A Uniform Freight Car. 

The commendable movement originated 
by the Ohio Falls Car Company, to induce 
railroad companies to co-operate in estab- 
lishing uniformity in the construction of 
a 60,000 pounds capacity freight car, ought 
to meet with success, but past experience 
leads us to fear that the desirable agree- 
ment will not be consummated. 

It is now twelve years ago, at a time 
when the writer believed in the sincerity 
of railroad men to compromise their own 
small prejudices in favor of establishing 
standards that would be for the benefit of 
the railway community generally, that he 
wrote: "It is now very probable that 
before the close of the present year, the de- 
tailed specifications for a standard freight- 
car truck will be agreed upon by the Mas- 
ter Car Builders' Association, and sub- 
mitted to the railway companies for ap- 
proval and adoption. In view of the nu- 
merous defects in the best trucks now in 
service, some of which, it is not too much 
to say, are inherent in the nature of the 
structure, it is not to be expected that the 
standard to be recommended will be more 
than approximately perfect. It is one 
thing to prescribe the dimensions of the 
various parts, and how they shall be con- 
nected, and another thing to make sure 
that the workmanship shall in all respects 
be as complete and perfect as the design. 
Aside from defects in constructive design, 
or such as are purely mechanical, the con- 
trolling consideration of first cost has been 
a great obstacle to improvement in the 
past. Master car builders have been afraid 
to do what they wanted to do, and what 
would have been true economy in the end. 
lest the cost of a truck would exceed that 
of some other truck which the managers 
considered equally as good. What is now 
wanted is not only a freight-car truck free 
from defects which are clearly remediable, 
and capable of carrying maximum loads, 
but a truck of such improved construction 
as to make it for the interest of railroad 
companies to adopt and use it for all new 
cars, instead of continuing the diversity 
of styles and patterns now existing." 

It seemed twelve years ago that the day 
for the adoption of that truck had come, 
but in this year of grace it seems as far off 
as ever. Meanwhile the makers of patent 
trucks are getting in their work, and they 
promise soon to relieve railroad com- 
panies from the necessity of adopting a 
standard truck that would secure uniform- 
ity. It looks as if there would be various 
forms of steel patented trucks used in the 
near future to carry freight cars. It would 
be a good thing for railroad companies if 
only one form of freight-car steel truck 



were adopted; but should the forms be- 
1 in is diverse as the forms of car coup- 
lers, it will be an improvement on the 
condition of things existing before the 
steel truck came into use. 

We arc afraid that the attempt to get 
railway companies to adopt a standard 
form of box car will meet with as little suc- 
cess as the attempts to make them adopt a 
uniform truck. A uniform size and di- 
mensions of box cars would be a great 
benefit to railroad companies, and would 
save a great deal of money in labor, to say 
nothing of prevention of delays, but there- 
are many petty prejudices to overcome be- 
fore a general agreement can be arrived at. 

As it is easier for a small body of men 




X Steel 



Punch 



Zocomuttv« Engineering 




Side Heads 

to arrive at an agreement than what it is 
to get a multitude of minds to settle in 
the same direction, we think that the most 
practicable way to popularize the idea of a 
uniform box car would be for the different 
manufacturing car builders to agree to- 
gether upon what form, dimensions and 
attachments should be used in a uniform 
car. If they would agree to build a car of 
this kind for stock purposes, and were to 
supply it when no particulars were speci- 
fied, it would gradually force its way into 
popularity. Unless this is done, the stand- 
ard box car will never go beyond the 
vision of those who perceive the most 
practicable way of keeping down the first 
cost of the maintenance of freight cars. 

© i s 

The Bolt-Header as a Punch. 

A great many ways have been devised 
for punching cotter-holes and keyways in 
bolts and pins at shops not blessed with 



special tools for the purj mi: of 

dhemes we have shown and de- 
scribed, which have given strong evi- 
dence of cultivation of the inventive faculty 
to a degree that always puts gold in the 
coffers of employers of that kind of talent. 

The latest exhibit of the kind coming 
to our notice is one from the foreman of 
the car department smith-shop of the L. 
V. R. R. at Sayre, Pa., who has rigged up 
the bolt-heading machine on permanent 
and mechanical lines, to do all this work in 
his department, and that means a large 
ni put per month. 

Our engraving shows a plan view of the 
ram and side-heads only, of the machine, 
as those parts are all that are involved in 
the cotter case. The end of the ram is 
bored out for a sleeve, and that in turn is 
bored for the punch; a set screw ho]. Is 
the sleeve in place. 

The side-heads, after detachment from 
their vibrating mechanism, are made to 
do duty as a vise and hold the bolt rigidly 
before the advancing punch, which is 
nothing but a piece of round steel of the 
correct size for the cotter. The J^-inch 
punch shown, pierced 8.000 bolts before 
re-dressing, which operation consists 
simply in squaring up the end. 

Holes for cotters from J4 inch up to l /i 
inch, and keyways up to ^ x i}£ inches, 
are readily made by this shaping of means 
to ends by a mechanic. 

8 & $ 

After enduring for many years bitter 
complaints from their pafcr° ns about badly 
lighted cars, the Manhattan Railway Com- 
pany of New York have eventually decided 
to use Pintsch gas on all their cars. The 
Elevated Railroad Company made a very 
thorough investigation of all methods of 
lighting cars before they concluded to 
adopt the Pintsch system. They talked for 
a time of- using city gas to light the cars, 
but investigation convinced them that city 
gas would cost about as much as Pintsch 
gas, without giving nearly such a good 
light. Electric lighting companies were 
invited to send in bids, and some of them 
did so, but the Pintsch people carried off 
the prize. It is not so big as people in 
New York think it is. The Manhattan 
Railway have 1,200 cars, but only 400 of 
them are to be provided with Pintsch gas 
at present. It will take more public howl- 
ing before the other two-thirds of the car 
equipment is provided with decent light. 

$ i i 

In the United States a worn-out loco- 
motive is known among railroad men as 
a "scrap heap." That is about the most 
opprobrious name that can be given to 
an engine — worse than "a played-out 
cow." When men on British railways 
wish to express supreme contempt for a 
locomotive in bad condition, they call her 
"a blacksmith shop." A term of half- 
loving contempt which we heard in the 
neighborhood of London was: " 'Ere's 
my hold homnibus commin'." 



36 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



The Passing of the Locomotive — A 
Reverie. 

"Ah, well," said the Iron Horse, heaving 

a sigh 
That was followed anon by a tear; 
"They've made me do everything else but 

My. 

Since Stephenson sent me here. 

"From killing an hour for every twelve 
miles, 
To a hundred and twelve an hour; 
The Yankee redoubles his toil and smiles 
As he doubles my pace and power. 

"When tempests have howled I have gone 
to the front 
The force of the blizzard to check; 
Of countless collisions I've taken the 
brunt 
And have laid in the ruins a wreck. 

"Now, like the 'old woman,' they say I 
must go, 
And so make a place for the 'new'; 
A mile and a half in a minute's too slow 
For the Yankee. I know what I'll do: 

"I'll go back to England, for over the sea, 
My pace will be swift there, I'm told; 
Tho' the old things of England are new 
to me, 
The new things of England are old. 

"There a thousand long years are the same 
as a day, 
And a day as a thousand years. 
There, when an old thing has wasted 
away. 
Another old thing appears. 

"Adieu to the land of the setting sun, 
Impetuous Yankee, good-bye. 
I'll just jog along to the end of my run, 
You put on your wings and fly." 
— Cy War man in JSIew York Sun. 

@ i $ 

The Most Powerful English Passen- 
ger Locomotive. 

A new eight-wheel passenger engine 
has recently been designed by Mr. Wil- 
son Worsdell, of the Northeastern Rail- 
way of England, which is said to be the 
most powerful passenger engine in Great 
Britain. It has cylinders 20x26 inches, 
driving wheels 7 feet 7% inches diameter, 
boiler 52 inches diameter, giving a total 
heating surface of 1,220 square feet. The 
tractive force per pound of steam press- 
ure in cylinders is 114 pounds at the rail. 

The engine is very light, considering 
the power developed, and, according to 
American ideas, is very short of heating 
surface. The statement has been made 
that this engine, working in the fast ex- 
press traffic of the line, does the work 
on an average of 30 pounds of coal per 
mile. The co-efficient of adhesion is 2.52, 
which is exceedingly low and ought to 
produce a very slippery engine. 

A novel feature of this engine, accord- 
ing to English practice, is that the valves 
are on the top of the cylinders and are 
operated by rocking arms actuated by a 
shifting link motion. 



A Valve-Setting Machine. 

One of the novelties in valve-setting de- 
vices, and something entirely original in 
that line, has been in operation for some 
time at the Wilkes-Barre shops of the Le- 
high Valley Railroad. It is a product of 
the fertile mind of Mr. F. Roth, the mas- 
ter mechanic, who had become convinced 
that there could be no more unsatisfactory 
method of getting a revolution out of a 
pair of main drivers than by the pinch-bar 
plan. The result of his head-work is seen 
in our engraving of his machine. 

Rollers are used under the main wheels, 
with a shaft resting in boxes let into the 



pawl is engaged, the other is dragging; 
the pawls are also made to reverse in 
either direction at will. 

Air is admitted to the piston by a small 
slide valve similar to that in a triple valve. 
All movements are controlled by hand, 
by the small lever operating this valve, it 
being easier to stop the machine at a 
given point by this arrangement than 
would be possible if it had a continuous 
reciprocating motion. It works so satis- 
factorily that a 50-inch wheel is made to 
turn once in 60 seconds, and 20 minutes 
is sufficient to determine what is neces- 
sary to do to the eccentric rods — whether 



noi^Bi mW\ 




floor in the usual way where friction 
rollers are used, and the shaft is extended 
out to one side about 4 feet. At the end 
of this shaft, just inside of the bearing, is 
mounted a ratchet 4 inches in diameter, 
having a lever slotted at its upper end to 
receive a jaw on the end of a piston from 
a 6 x 26-inch air cylinder. The recipro- 
cating motion from this piston is changed 
to a rotary one by the ratchet for one 
direction of stroke of the air piston, and 
to make that motion nearly constant, an- 
other like ratchet was placed on a short 
shaft and motion transmitted to it from 
the piston by a short link connecting the 
levers, and through two 10-inch gears. 
By this arrangement, when one ratchet 



to lengthen or shorten, and how much. 
Since that is the business end of valve- 
setting, the device may be pronounced a 
time-saver. 

® 6 i 

There is a guard on an English railway 
popularly known as "The Corkscrew." 
That name has stuck to him on account of 
his wonderful ingenuity in twisting his 
nose into all the secrets of the service. 



The Union Switch and Signal Com- 
pany, Swissvale, Pa., are preparing to put 
upon the market a new form of track 
drill recently patented by John P. Cole- 
man. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



87 



Practical Letters from Practical iVlen. 



A Novel Air Compressor. 
Editors: 

We have been making some improve- 
ments in compressed-air tools in our shops 
at Rochester. Believing that a description 
of our compressor, together with photo- 
graphs of same, would be worthy of men- 
tion in your paper, and possibly of interest 
to a number of its readers, we submit same 
to you. 

This tool was designed by Mr. C. E. 
Turner, superintendent of motive power 
of the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburg 
Railway, and constructed under the super- 



docs not close until pressure has been 
raised to the normal. 

This compressor has been in practi- 
cal operation for the past two months in 
the Rochester shops, furnishing all the 
compressed air needed, at 85 pounds pres- 
sure without compounding. In operation, 
this compressor will raise air from at- 
mosphere to 100 pounds, without visible 
effort. The machine is of ample strength 
and occupies but little space, showing 
that much practical observation and 
thought had been embodied in it by the 
designer. 



Effect of Piston Clearance on Steam 
Consumption. 

Editors : 

An editorial writer in the current num- 
ber of "Locomotive Engineering," in dis- 
cussing the results of Professor Goss' 
tests of locomotives, attributes the greater 
economy at the later cut-off O/3) to a 
smaller percentage of condensation and to 
slightly superheated steam, due to wire- 
drawing. The reasoning is good so far 
as it goes, but it acounts for only a small 
part of the gain due to the later cut-off. 

The locomotive engine is necessarily 




vision of J. A. Barhydt, division master 
mechanic. It is on the oscillating prin- 
ciple, and has two cylinders 10 inches 
diameter and 12 inches stroke. The cyl- 
inders have a circulation of water around 
and through the heads and cylinder bod- 
ies. The cylinders are held securely to 
their seats on the frame by air pressure 
in two small cylinders on the outside of 
the gudgeon boxes, the pressure on the 
seats being uniform under all variations 
of pressure in the delivery pipes. 

The cranks are set at right angles and 
aie geared from line shaft to a ratio of 
3^2 to 1. The compressor is driven by 
two 8-inch belts, and is automatically con- 
trolled by a very neat and simple device, 
which will allow of only a variation of 4 
pounds of air in the pipe line at any time. 
The undesirable feature of belted air com- 
pressors — the slipping of belts — is avoided 
by a valve which releases the compressor 
of all air pressure when stopping, and 



A NOVEL AIR COMPRESSOR. 

Mr. Turner is a strong advocate of the 
use of compressed air in shops, and to this 
end has constructed storage reservoirs, 
out of old locomotive boilers. These are 
placed at different convenient points about 
the shops. In furtherance of this equip- 
ment, there are about 3,000 feet of 1 54- 
inch pipe throughout the yard for testing 
air brakes on the cars; the pipe system 
having suitable connections at every point 
where air is likely to be required. The 
accessories used in the car tests embrace 
an engineer's brake valve, a small reser- 
voir and a duplex air gage; these are per- 
manently secured to a small, easily port- 
able, barrow-like vehicle, which is taken 
to any part of the yards by the inspector 
when making tests of car brakes. The 
pipe lines are all connected to the reser- 
voirs, which are supplied by air pressure 
from the compressor. 

J. A. Barhydt, M. M. 

Rochester, X. J". 



one with large clearance, probably 10 per 
cent, of the piston displacement, and in 
many cases even more. Clearance is a 
very decided factor in determining the 
best ratio of expansion, and it should 
always be considered in relation to the 
point of cut-off, and not piston displace- 
ment. With small clearance, the best re- 
sults are obtained with an earlier cut-off; 
and with a large clearance, economy calls 
for a longer steam admission. 

For illustration we will take the locomo- 
tive, assuming the clearance to be 10 per 
cent, of the piston displacement: With a 
cut-off at % the stroke (6 inches), just 40 
per cent, of the total steam admitted goes 
into the dead space, clearance, and from 
which we get very little in the way of im- 
pulse against the piston; with a cut-off at 
Yi stroke (8 inches), only 30 per cent, of 
the steam admitted is required to fill the 
clearance space; if we carry the cut-off 
still later, say to J4 stroke (12 inches), 



38 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



then only 20 per cent, will go into the dead 
space. It is possible that if Professor 
Goss had delayed the cut-off still more, 
and admitted steam at boiler pressure, his 
results might have made a pound of coal 
still more valuable. 

The question of valve leakage bears on 
steam economy, and here again the point of 
cut-off exerts an influence. Leakage is al- 
ways induced by higher pressure on the 
confined side, and lower pressure on the 
opposite side. An early cut-off makes the 
greatest difference in these two pressures, 
and a later cut-off tends to equalize; hence, 
we are safe in assuming that if there is any 
tendency for steam to leak past the valve, 
a much smaller percentage will thus es- 
cape when the later cut-off is employed. 
It is probable, however, that the greatest 
part of the gain from the later cut-off is 
due wholly to the fact that a smaller per- 
centage, of the steam admitted to the cyl- 
inder is called upon to fill the clearance 
space. 

If Professor Goss had tested an engine 
with small clearance, say 2 per cent., his 
results would have been very different. 
We have only to study a catalog of build- 
ers of engines with small clearance for 
evidence. Simple "Corliss" engines, and to 
these may be added the "Buckeye," rarely 
run with a cut-off later than % stroke, and 
the majority of them cut off steam earlier. 
These types of engines are never com- 
pounded when run non-condensing. On 
the other hand, engines with large clear- 
ance, when large powers are called for, 
are usually compounded and are run non- 
condensing. A decided gain always fol- 
lows the compounding of engines whose 
construction calls for more than the aver- 
age clearance, not because of the greater 
expansion thus obtained, but because 
compounding reduces the clearance, or 
rather reduces the weight of steam which 
goes to fill the clearance. When the large 
clearance type of engine is compounded, 
it is fully the equal of the "Corliss" simple 
engine in economy. Part of the gain is, 
of course, due to the reduction of the dif- 
ference in temperatures in the cylinders. 

The gain from compounding locomo- 
tives is largely made by reduced clear- 
ance. Greater care is taken to keep the 
clearance down, and then expansion is car- 
ried somewhat further, thus reducing the 
weight of steam which fills the clearance 
in the low-pressure cylinder. 

Harris Tabor. 

Elizabeth, N. J. 

& § @ 

Cotters for Securing Steam Pipes. 

Editors: 

In view of the difficulty experienced in 
tightening and slackening steam-pipe 
joint bolts in front ends, would it not be 
preferable to employ bolts with keyways 
punched through and tapered steel cot- 
ters? It would be possible to locate the 
bolts closer to the pipe and they could be 
applied and removed with greater facility. 



as owing to the extremely awkward places 
in which steam-pipe bolts are placed 
(especially over tee pipes), it is frequently 
almost impossible to apply sufficient force 
to slacken and properly tighten screwed 
bolts. The corrosive action of the gases 
which so effectually locks nuts upon screw 
threads would have but little effect upon 
taper cotters. 

Will those who have seen cotters tried 
in this capacity please state results? 

S. J. HUNGERFORD, 

Montreal, Can. C. P. Ry. 



Peculiar Wear of Valves. 

Editors: 

The valves in many of our passenger 
engines wear in a very strange manner 
(as shown in inclosed sketch to an exag- 
gerated extent), for which I would like 
an explanation. From a and a" outward 
both the valves and seats wear off (as 
shown), as though the valves were tilted 
up a little on each edge alternately; while 
the bridges and central portion of valves 




Loevmotitu I 



from a to a" show practically no wear 
at all, as the file-marks are plainly visible 
after engines have run many thousand 
miles. The valve connections are ar- 
ranged on several engines in such a man- 
ner that the slight vertical movement due 
to rocker arm is entirely eliminated; yet 
the results are the same. Allen valves of 
the same dimensions otherwise apparently 
wear more rapidly than the plain balanced, 
and we believe that those having greatest 
travel, lap and lead also show most wear. 
As an example of the amount of balanced 
area for one class (19 inches cylinder), the 
face measures 11^2x20^2, while balanced 
area inside strips is \yY% x 7%, and leak- 
age hole in valve J^. The different classes 
of engines showing this wear range in 
valve travel from s to 6 inches; outside 
lap, Y% to 1 inch; lead, nil to 3-16. The 
exhaust cavities are in every case line and 
line. Steam pressure from 160 to 180 
pounds. 

S. J. HUNGERFORD, 

Montreal, Can. C. P. Ry. 

[The only cause we can think of for 
this wear of valves is that they receive 
a rocking motion due to the vertical mo- 
tion of the rocker pin. We think that 
our correspondent must be mistaken 
when he says this vertical motion has been 
eliminated. — Eds.] 



Continuous Brakes in Great Britain. 

Editors : 

Upon page 911 you refer to the use of 
brakes in England. As to which brake is 
the best, there can be no question. But 
for certain reasons some of the companies 
in England choose to use a vacuum 
brake; but it is a very inferior appliance 
to the Westinghouse. Looking at the 
brake question from the sole point of 
which is the best brake, there can be no 
question that the whole trains of the world 
ought to be fitted with the Westinghouse 
quick-action; it is the best brake. 

Clement E. Stretton, C. E. 

Leicester, England, Nov. 12. 



Experience With Joy's Valve Gear. 

Editors: 

I have read your article, page 885, and 
observe that your experience in America 
is very much the same as mine in Eng- 
land, namely, that Joy's valve gear is a 
very unsatisfactory appliance for locomo- 
tive engines, and certainly it would be of 
no use for the speeds and loads that I 
know American engines have to work. 

On the Midland Railway of England 
there are ten express engines, Nos. 1667 
to 1676, having cylinders 19 x 26 and 7 
feet drivers, but the engines are failures 
on account of having Joy's gear. 

I am convinced that the best valve gear 
is the link motion, which was invented 
and first used by Mr. W. T. James, of 
New York, in 1832. 

Clement E. Stretton, C. E. 

Lei tester, England, Nov. 12. 



Universal Tools. 

Editors: 

I send you herewith photographs of 
some special shop tools. Fig. 1 shows 
a machine for rolling boiler tubes, cutting 
out boiler tubes, drilling holes, tapping 
staybolt holes, screwing in staybolts, and 
running valve-seat facers and cylinder- 
boring tools. 

We consider this the most complete 
tool for the purposes named, that we have 
ever seen, and also think that it should 
be a part of the equipment of any shop 
using compressed air. This tool was de- 
signed by Mr. C. E. Turner, superinten- 
dent of motive power, and Mr. J. A. Bar- 
hydt, division master mechanic of the B., 
R. & P. Ry. It was constructed at the 
Rochester shops and placed in practical 
operation at once. The actual saving to 
the railway company, in flues, together 
with removing and re-setting same, has 
made itself so manifest that Mr. Turner 
has equipped all the shops on his line with 
the tool. 

The machine consists of a main cylin- 
der having a hollow piston through which 
passes a revolving splined shaft. Air ad- 
mitted to both sides of this piston balances 
it perfectly in any part of its travel; there- 
fore, a reduction of pressure on either side 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



of the piston will cause a movement for- 
ward or back, at the will of the operator. 
Power is transmitted from the revolving 
shaft through a shaft with universal coup- 
lings to either the flue expander or cutter, 
or any other tool used in connection with 
the device. 

The cylinder described is surmounted 
by a double oscillating engine which 
drives the cone shaft, and through it, a 
pair of spur gears which in turn drives 
the shaft running through the hollow pis- 
ton in the cylinder controlling the hori- 
zontal adjustment. 



on staybolt and boiler work, cither in the 
back shop or roundhouse, on account of 
its portability. One man can handle it 
and secure it to any part of an engine, 
inside or outside of a firebox. The 3x3- 
inch oscillating cylinders couple direct to 
the driving shaft, on which is a three- 
step cone, which is used on both of these 
machines to drive any one of the machine- 
shop tools at night, when it is too expen- 
sive or not expedient to start up the shop 
engine. 

J. A. BARHYDT, M. M. 
Rochester, N. J. 



sc rewed up with a pipe or alligator 
wrench. This brings the tube in line, and 
there will be no trouble of any of them 
leaking. 
The hollow tap is a useful tool. It is 





Fig. 1. 



-rrfiag 



the invention of the boilermaker fore- 
man, Mr. Salomon Keck, of the N. C. R. 

shops. 

J. A. HlSENAKKK. 

Elmira, N. I. 

[Wc have illustrated this tool and pub- 
lished the letter because we are always 
willing to show up any improved appli- 
ances made by railroad men. At the 
same time we must enter an earnest pro- 
test against this manner of fastening the 
tubes that support the brick arch in a fire- 



Attachment can be made to either the 
top or bottom shaft, making possible a 
great range of power and speed for any 
operation. One very objectionable fea- 
ture in most air engines, not in evidence 
in this little motor, is the noise from the 
exhaust. In this engine it is muffled in 
such a manner as to be comparatively 
noiseless, and that without causing back 
pressure, by passing it down by a parti- 
tion in the chamber seen between the cyl- 
inders. 

The tool is well adapted to driving the 
Stowe flexible shaft, it being only neces- 
sary to make direct connection with the 
shaft, thus doing away with the rope drive 
and consequent breaking of couplings, 
dropping of counterweight, etc. In the 
picture are seen some of the accessories 
used with this tool; at the right is a drill 
and the flue cutter used at the back flue 
sheet, and at the left is seen a staybolt tap 
and the flue cutter used at the front flue 
sheet to cut flues to length while in the 
boiler. 

This device has been patented by Mr. 
Turner, who will be glad to furnish to 
those interested, any information as to 
cost and the saving resulting from its use. 

Fig. 2 is another useful little air-driven 
tool of the same general character as Fig. 
I, except that it is lighter and more com- 
pact. It is in use driving drills, Stowe 
flexible shafts, cylinder-boring and valve 
facing machines, and is specially valuable 




Fig. S. 



Fastening; Brick-Arch Tubes. 

Editors: 

The accompanying sketch represents 
one of the arch tubes A in locomotive 
firebox, and what we illustrate is the hol- 
low tap C, which is threaded inside, so it 
screws over the end of arch bar. The 
outside of the hollow tap is made in the 
same style as any other common taper 
tap of that size. After the collar nut D 
is screwed up. the hollow tap C is to 
re-tap the hole in throat sheet E. and in 
that way tap the hole in center line with 
tube. The tap is then taken off. and a 
collar nut like D is put on its place and 



box. It is an exceedingly dangerous 
practice to cut a thread on any tube for 
this purpose, as the thread in numerous 
instances has led to breakage, which re- 
sulted in scalding the enginemen. The 
proper way to secure these tubes is by 
expanding them — the same as the boiler 
tubes are secured. We do not believe 
that a railroad company would be able to 
clear itself in a case for damages caused 
by an accident happening through a tube 
breaking that had a thread cut on the 
end of it. Self-interest, if nothing else, 
ought to induce railroad companies to 
adopt the safe method. — Eds.] 



40 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



Flue-Cutting Machine. 

A machine for cutting off flue ends is 
shown herewith, that is gotten up on 
different lines than are followed in the gen- 
erally accepted practice for such a tool. 
It was designed by Mr. Aldrich, the fore- 
man boiler-maker of the Lehigh Valley 
Railroad shops at East Buffalo, which are 
under the supervision of Master Mechanic 
Jno. Campbell. 

The old-time method of carrying the 
rear end of the cutter shaft on trunnions, 
and raising and lowering the cutter by 
means of a screw, was not satisfactory, on 
account of the lost motion so easily ac- 
quired by the parts actuating the cutter. 

This machine, it will be seen, is not 
open to the objections cited, to the same 
extent as the other, for the reason that the 
cutter shaft is closely fitted up in boxes 



In Schenectady Locomotive Works. 

During a recent visit to the Schenec- 
tady Locomotive Works, I found that the 
works were not by any means busy, but 
they have experienced considerable im- 
provement since the election. I found 
them working on a group of ten-wheelers 
for the Michigan Central, and engines 
of the same type for the Lake Shore & 
Michigan Southern. They have received 
an order from the Southern Pacific for 
five very heavy ten-wheelers, and they 
have some engines in the erecting shop for 
the Portland & Rumford Falls. 

The drawing office and pattern shop 
are rushed with work, getting ready for 
the immense mastodon engines to be built 
for the Northern Pacific. The cylinders 
of these engines, which are compound, 
will be 23 and 34 inches diameter by 30 



large enough for the outside of the fire- 
box, so they had to put in seamed ones. 
The welts are 10] x 63J, f e inch thick, and 
i6i x 58$, ,'•'<, inch thick. 

I noticed that several new practices have 
been introduced into the shops since I 
last visited them. In the boiler shop 
there is a special form of Hilles & Jones 
drilling machines, which is used to drill 
out all the holes for longitudinal seams. 
They punch a small hole first and then 
finish it with a twist drill. When the 
seams that have punched holes are bolted 
together, a reamer, driven by an electric 
motor, is used to ream the holes true. 
This effects a radical improvement in 
boiler-making, as the men never need to 
use the drift before putting in the rivet. 
They are very careful now about reaming 
all bolt holes to gage sizes. As the bolts 




Loc otivi Bnffinnring 



FLUE-CUTTING MACHINE. 



that are always in line, and the flue is 
raised to the cutter, which, under the con- 
ditions named, is in the best possible shape 
to do work. Such is the opinion of the de- 
signer of this machine, after a wide ex- 
perience with both types. 

The arrangement for raising the flue 
during the cutting-off process is about as 
simple as could be desired to do the work. 
It is made up of two rollers carried by a 
frame which is connected to a treadle by 
a rod; the treadle having such a leverage 
that a slight pressure with the foot suffices 
to raise the flue against the cutter with 
enough pressure to quickly make the cut. 
There are thought to be many advantages 
in using the foot for this purpose, and 
leaving the hands free to manipulate the 
flue. 



An improved form of pneumatic tool 
suitable for calking, beading tubes and 
similar work has been patented by Ches- 
ter B. Albree, Allegheny, Pa. 



inches stroke. The proportions for the 
engines throughout are so much greater 
than anything hitherto built in the works, 
that a great many new pattern and de- 
signs are necessary. A cylinder, 34 inches 
diameter, is something new in locomotive 
building, and it looks like a huge hogs- 
head. They had one of the cylinder pat- 
terns in the molding sand, and was nearly 
ready for pouring. This will be the larg- 
est casting ever made for a locomotive. 

The boiler for this engine will be 72 
inches in diameter at the smokebox end, 
and will have a great extended wagon top. 
An idea of the dimensions of this huge 
boiler can be had from seeing dimensions 
of some of the plates. The plate for the 
first ring is 224! x 71 J inches, {^ inch 
thick; for the third ring it is 24154x64 
inches, \% inch thick ; the bottom sheet is 
10554 x 25 ',4 inches and J4 inch thick; 
the tube sheet is 7554 inches diameter and 
T 9 ,f inch thick ; the top sheet is 1251x115 
inches and T 9 S inch ^ thick ; the two side 
sheets are 123I x 73} inches and T \ inch 
thick. They could not get a single sheet 



are all turned to gages, no fitting is neces- 
sary. 

They have lately put in a new Bement 
& Miles miller, very powerful and stiff, 
for milling mud rings. Most of the mud 
rings are planed top and bottom and then 
milled in the sides. This practice entails 
a good deal of work, but it insures a very 
good job. In connection with this opera- 
tion, I noticed they have changed the 
radius of the inside corners from i54 to 
2% inches. They say that the sheet can 
be fitted much better with the greater 
radius than with the smaller one. 

They are doing a great deal of forming 
work with their large hydraulic press, 
and every week brings new uses to which 
this useful apparatus can be applied. They 
are making dome caps and all sorts of cas- 
ings under the hydraulic press, besides the 
forming of boiler heads, gussets, sheets, 
etc. The work turned out in this depart- 
ment is very handsome and artistic in ap- 
pearance. 

They had a curious experience in the 
forming of a base for smokestacks, which 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



41 



is now made i "i pressed steel. When 

they first tried to make it, they began by 
punching an oblong hole as near the con- 
tour of the base as they could make it. 
Every time the metal was put under the 
press, the base came out cracked. One of 
the workmen had been reading a book 
about making forms under the hydraulic 
press, which said that holes ought all to 
be punched round. This was tried and 
they had no more broken stack bases. 

They use small electric motors for 
nearly every purpose where work has to 
be done that cannot be put under a heavy 
tool. The electric motor, with them, has 
dispensed almost entirely witli hand drill- 
ing and reaming. 

The air hoists are used in a very sys- 
tematic fashion, although the shops are 
particularly well supplied with traveling 



This is a very good illustration of the 
extraordinary accuracy attained in fitting 
up the essential parts of a locomotive. We 
are not surprised to find parts 'I I 
mac bine c, r typewriter made to the thOU 
sandth of an inch, but it is marvelous to 
find the same accuracy with the large 
forms used in locomotive use. 

They are doing a great deal of work in 
the testing department, and it is done very 
systematically. They keep records of 
tests of all sheets used in boilers, and of 
the material of every part likely to break. 
This has already borne very good fruit, 
in preventing manufacturers from sending 
material that has not been properly in- 
spected and tested. 

I notice they are cutting off the ends 
of flues with a revolving cutter having one 
side beveled and the other perfectly flat. 



n, with the admission and exhaust 
passages SO i paratc '1 that lagging I 
placed between I his may effect a 

saving of steam by preventing condensa- 
th« theory. It seems 
to be rather far-fetched. Be that 
as it may, there is demand for that style 
of cylinder, and the locomotive builders 
have to meet it. It greatly increases the 
danger of failure in casting cylinders. 

A. S. 



Valve-Stem Guide. 

The device shown in our engraving, 
was designed on the Old Colony Railroad 
for the purpose of relieving valve-stem 
packing of the weight of the parts usually 
supported by the same, and thus insure 
longer life to the packing by saving undue 

U \iH--~ 

v 




— f- -T*f 

; ,£ ■- L — 

♦XT" _t " 6M 



_ 






Zoeoauxuw £nj l nrtrtng 



/fr 1 — f 



cranes. Above every tool where work is 
done that one man cannot lift easily, there 
is an air lift, most of them being made 
from brass tubing. 

While loungingaround the machine shop, 
I got watching a man boring the brasses 
of solid-ended rods, and I was struck with 
the extraordinary care he exercised in 
measuring for the center. When talking 
to Mr. White, the assistant superintendent, 
about the great care with which the work 
was done, he said that they required ab- 
solute accuracy in the boring of these 
holes. To show how close the work was 
done, he took two sets of side rods for a 
ten-wheeler, with the front and back pins 
15 feet centers; then the workman took 
plugs 1-64 inch larger than the crank pins, 
and put one into each of the holes, and 
they went down through the brasses of 
both sets of rods. The fit was just suffi- 
cient to make the plug, by its own weight, 
slide down through the two bearings. 



*-• 



VALVE-STEM GUIDE. 

Mr. White tried a cutter of this kind years 
ago, but it did not occur to him to make 
one side flat, and it always left a burr which 
had to be ground or filed off. It struck 
some long-headed man to make the little 
change, and now the flues are cut off per- 
fectly smooth. I do not know whether or 
not that cutter has been patented, but if it 
has, those who have tried revolving cut- 
ters previously would be inclined to claim 
the invention. This has been the experi- 
ence with a great many celebrated inven- 
tions. One man or set of men produce an 
appliance which is nearly perfect, but not 
quite; another man comes along and 
makes what seems a very trifling change, 
but it is just the difference that makes the 
failure into a success. This was the his- 
tory of the development of the pop safety 
valve, of the balanced slide valve, and of 
a great many other things that might be 
mentioned. 

They have lately got out a new cylinder 



y , <^-J 



wear. To reach that end, the valve stem 
was increased J4 inch in diameter for a 
distance of 7J4 inches from the yoke, and 
a sleeve, made to a sliding fit on the en- 
larged portion, was held in position by 
two nuts against the outer end. 

The sleeve was also made an easy fit 
in a casting made to receive it and the 
packing. This arrangement formed a per- 
fect guide for the valve stem, and left the 
packing to exercise its functions as pack- 
ing, and not take any wear other than that 
due to the reciprocating motion of the 
valve stem. The sleeve and guide as 
shown has a record of ten years' wear 
without renewal. 

$ g | 

The consolidation locomotives on the 
New York, New Haven & Harttord haul 
trains weighing 1,800 tons at a speed of 
25 miles an hour. The engines are re- 
ported to be doing their work very' satis- 
factorily. 



42 



I.OCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Tool for Truing Crank Pins. 

Master Mechanic John Campbell is 
us'ng the primitive but very efficient 
tool shown in our cut, for truing up worn 
crank pins, at his East Buffalo shops. 
This device has not received the attention 
it is properly entitled to, the tendency be- 
ing to strain after something more ex- 
pensive and complicated, that will not 





LeeomottM F.n.jtttctrtng 

give any better results. This tool is se- 
cured to the quartering bar on the wheel 
lathe by means of a split clamp and key, 
and will do as good a job as any other 
device. Its simplicity puts it within the 
reach of all. 



Origin of the Word "Tram." 

In a recent issue of "London Engi- 
neering," a correspondent makes the state- 
ment that the word "tram" originates 
from the word "Outram," an owner of 
that name having been a pioneer in the 
construction of early railroads. 

This is one of the far-fetched theories 
respecting names, that has no foundation 
except in the ingenious imagination of 
certain writers. The word "traam," 
meaning the handle of a wheelbarrow or 
sled, is Scandinavian, and has been known 
ever since the articles to which the name 
is applied were used. It has also been 
used in Scotland for centuries as applied 
to the shafts of carts, wheelbarrows, 
ploughs, etc. Burns, in his "Inventory," 
says: 

"An auld wheelbarrow, mair for token; 
Ae leg an' baith the trams are broken." 

In 1555 the following note was written 
in connection with an English institution: 
"To the amendinge of the highwaye or 
tram from the weste ende to Bridgegait, 
in Barnard Castle, 20s." 

From this testimony it would appear 
that the word "tram" has probably been 
used since implements with parallel han- 
dles were employed, and it has no doubt 
originated from the word "trammel." 
The French use the word "tramme" in 
the sense that we use "tram," and it is to 
be found in old books written in that 
language. Instead of the name "Out- 
ram" giving us the expression "tram," 
it probably originated from the word as 
many other surnames have come from the 
occupation people followed. In old times 
in Scotland, when two men were required 
to manage a plough, one man was within 
the trams, the other was out-tram man. 
Nothing is more natural than that some 
man doing that work should get the 



name "Outram" until it became his re- 
cognized surname. 

$ § $ 

Variable Counterbore. 

A method for reducing counterbores to 
their lowest terms is in vogue in the Sayre 
shops of the Lehigh Valley Railroad. It 
is accomplished by making one drill shank 
do duty for any size of counterbores. The 
shank is slotted at its lower end for the 
cutters, which are of a common thickness, 
after which it is tapped for a stud to re- 
ceive the guiding tits, which are made of 
sizes to suit all demands, and this con- 
stitutes the variable feature of the tool. 

These tits are made hollow and tapped 
out to screw on the stud in the shank, 
and are fitted with a shoulder to bear on 
the bottom edge of the cutter, which is 
faced true to receive it. The stud con- 
struction can be replaced by a solid piece 
turned on the end of the shank, and 
threaded for the tits; but as careless hand- 




I 


11 " 1 



One pipe is placed in a central position 
with reference to the remainder of the 
tools, and run down to the floor. The 
shavings from these tools are conveyed to 
the pipe by the men who handle the tools; 
each man is thus held responsible for the 
appearance of the space controlled by 
him and his machine. 

A strict insistence on cleanliness is one 
of the rules that are never relaxed by the 
management of these shops; the neat ap- 
pearance of the men and surroundings 
bear witness to the statement that there 
are no shops in this country that excel 
these in this particular — and this applies 
to the whole plant, car shops and machine 
shops alike. 

In the car-erecting shop, no horses or 
trestles are used; a car body is elevated 
with air jacks sufficiently high to reach 
rods hanging from the roof truss, by 
which it is suspended until the trucks are 
again run under the car. This system is a 
good one to give access to the bottom of 
a car, but it is open to criticism, aside 
from the fact that few roof trusses are con- 
structed with a margin of strength more 
than sufficient to hold themselves in the 
air. 



Die for Trimming Brake-Lever Ends. 

A very neat device for trimming the 
ends of brake levers into a semblance of 
symmetry is used at the smith shop of the 
Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburg Railway, 
at Rochester, N. Y. It is given herewith 
as designed by the foreman blacksmith 
and used on the steam hammer. 

The plan view shows a block with a 
die which is rectangular on three sides and 
concaved on the fourth, the concave part 
being the cutting face that trims the ends 
of the lever. The section shows the block 
and die and also a portion of the brake 
lever. In the operation of trimming, the 
lever is placed in the opening of the block 
and a pin passed through the block and 
lever, holding the latter firmly, and the 
die is then driven down past the project- 



ling is certain to break it off and make a 
stud necesary, the form as shown was 
adopted, making one of the best con- 
structed and handiest tools of the kind. 

§ i i 

Wood-Working Shop Notes. 

The practice of piping all wood-working 
tools to the shaving exhauster does not 
find favor in the eyes of Master Mechanic 
Griffith, of the Delaware, Lackawanna & 
Western Railroad at East Buffalo. The 
ground is taken that he can use his shop 
power to better advantage on his tools 
than on the exhaust system. The piping 
i? only used to take the refuse from the 
sill dresser, gainer and matcher, and the 
fan is never run except when these tools 
are in operation. 




SECTION A-B 

ing end of the lever, taking off the stock 
neatly and accurately at a constant radius 
for each end. A trimmed lever has the 
appearance of having been slotted, so 
smoothly is the work done. 



A Brazing Furnace. 

One of the best devices in the way of a 
furnace for brazing purposes, that we 
have seen, is shown herewith. It was 
found in operation at the Buffalo, Roches- 
ter & Pittsburg shops at Rochester, N. Y., 
where it is said to surpass the best results 
obtained with coke or charcoal. 

The little affair was made of two No. 
10 steel plates, bent around two wrought- 
iron rings and riveted to same, the rings 
serving the purpose of two heads, leaving 
a cylindrical space between the inner and 
outer plates, the former of which was 
perforated over its entire surface with 
holes ^ inch in diameter, about ;^-inch 
centers. 

A substantial support held the arrange- 
ment at a convenient working height 
above the bench. An air pipe was tapped 
into the under side of the cylinder, and 
just below the latter, this pipe was joined 
by a connection with the (illuminating) 
gas main. At this junction of the two 
pipes was a valve for controlling the ad- 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 

Some Smith-Shop Dies. 

We illustrate a couple of dies taken at 
random from a large collection of special 
forming tools, for the purpose of laying 
emphasis on our contention that dies are 
the thing for rapid production of work in 
the blacksmith shop. The samples shown 
are not possessed of any particular virtues 
over the lot of which they are a part, but 
are simply well-made dies, designed by the 



43 



Jim Skeevers' Object Lessons. 




mission of gas, and in the air pipe near 
this point was a nozzle to carry the air 
beyond the entrance of the gas. 

Regulating the admission of air and 
gas in proper quantities, a heat is devel- 
oped that will cause spelter to get a move 
on itself as quickly as by any means we 
know of, and with the advantage that it 
is equalized — no one place hotter than 
another. 

For brazing of pipe work, and all kinds 
of sheet joints, this furnace is thought to 
have no superior. 



A paper read at the meeting of the 
Society of Mechanical Engineers, last 
month, on "Efficiency of the Boiler 
Grate," gave particulars 'of a great many 
boiler tests. According to the author, 
the tests went to show that a consumption 
of 13 pounds of anthracite per foot of 
grate per hour was the most economical 
rate, and that with bituminous coal 23.8 
pounds per hour in the same area gave 
the most economical results. 




□ 



TT 1 17 



_M-i 



tivt t.nffxiitcrinff 

Fig. 1. 

foreman of the motive power blacksmith 
shop at Sayre, Pa. 

It will be noted that care is taken to 
specify the department in which the shop 
is located, for the reason that the Lehigh 
Valley Railroad has two smith shops at 
the point named above, and both are pre- 
sided over by men who are up in their 
business. 

Fig. I is a die for making packing 
wrenches on the steam hammer, for which 
purpose scrap spring steel is used. These 
dies are made solid, and when the cutting 
edges show signs of fatigue, they are 
planed on the face and the edges are 
brought up to cutting shape again. The 
upper die has the contour of the part to 
be made, and is guided into true alignment 
with the opening in the lower die, by 
means of guide pins in the latter which 




Fig. 2. 

work in corresponding holes in the upper 
die. 

The dies in Fig. 2 are also used on the 
steam hammer to work up old spring steel 
into a combination packing hook and 
wrench. The wrench part is at the center 
of the blank shown in outline on the plan 
view, the opening of which will take any 
nut from 'A inch to % inch. After the 
blank is cut out, the ends are drawn out 
as shown in the finished article below the 
dies. These hooks are very popular on 
the road; it is said that no dope bucket or 
engine kit is complete without it. 



The New Performance Sheet—Where Light 

Trains Were Not Wanted— More Way» 

than One to handle Men. 

BV JOHN AI.li.UN I) V. K . 

The last time I wrote you, Skeevers and 
the boys were wrestling with the fuel and 
oil economy problem. 

Skeevers got up his dollar performance 
sheet and left out all reference to pints, 
pounds and tons. At the top of the sheet 
he had a plain statement of the kind of 
fuel used and the price per ton, the kinds 
of oil used and its cost per gallon. Op- 
posite the numbers of the engines came 
the name of the engineer, as usual; then 
the fireman's name; following was the 
monthly cost for fuel, oil. supplies, repairs, 
etc.; then the cost per mile for oil and 
fuel, and finally the cost per ton hauled 
per mile for both. 

Skeevers allows a certain amount of 
fuel and a certain amount of oil per mile 
for each class of engine for running the 
engine, and then bears down hard on the 
cost of fuel and oil for hauling tons of 
freight miles — that's what counts. 

The first two months Skeevers did not 
allow for running the engines at all, and 
some curious things happened. 

In the first place the men soon dis- 
covered that the fellow with the lightest 
trains made the worst records, and the 
peculiar anomaly of an engineer kicking 
because he had light trains was presented 
when Hank Bitters came into Skeevers' 
office and "made a holler," as he called it, 
because his local train was always light 
one way, and he explained his poor record 
to Skeevers thus: 

"Mr. Skeevers, it's like this: If I run my 
consolidation over the division light, it 
takes considerable coal and oil; if I pull 
six cars, the amount used by the engine is 
divided up between the six loads, and if I 
pull twenty, it's divided up into twenty 
parts. The fellow with the full train haj 
the advantage every time. Now, I'm on 
local one way, and usually have a very 
light train most of the time. You ought 
to allow so much coal and oil a mile for 
engines, anyhow, and just count what a 
fellow uses in doing work that the com- 
pany gets paid for. What d'ye think?" 

Skeevers thought Bitters was right, and 
said so. 

One day. as Skeevers was going through 
the roundhouse, the boiler washer was 
blowing off an engine, and the house was 
full of fog and noise. From the depths of 
this gloom Skeevers heard the sonorous 
voice of. Rory Moore, the traveling en- 
gineer, jacking up a runner for a poor 
oil record. Skeevers listened: 

"Now, Tom. this is the last time I'm 
a goin' to tell you," said Rory. "You've 
had notis enough. Git right down to 
business, and use as little oil as any of 'em. 
or I'll pull you off the run. Seel The 
'old man' (meaning Skeevers) is a goin' 
to have results or jobs. I don't care if 
you have a new engine; the road's goin' to 



-II 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



have less oil used. Cut! Well, let her 
cut; don't you use the oil, or I'll pull you 
off. Remember that. Why, when I used 
to run the '16' I could" 

Skeevers didn't wait to hear that; he 
knew it was twenty years since Rory had 
run anything, and that he couldn't get 
over the road with any kind of a modern 
engine in anything like modern time or 
with modern economy. 

Skeevers waited until afternoon, and 
then sauntered around to that same engine 
and called Tom down. Tom was ugly 
mad at what Rory had said — came down 
with a bad grace. 

"Tom," said Skeevers, pleasantly, 
"would you mind going down on the 
Coal Creek branch for a week or two, 
as a special favor to me?" 

"Well, I don't know, Mr. Skeevers; but 
I — say, does old Rory ever go over the 
branch?" 

"I'm afraid not much " 

"It's all right; I'll go. I don't care 
much about bein' away from home and 
leavin' the '310' here. Can I have her 
when I come back?" 

"Yes, Tom; you can take her with you, 
if you'd rather. I'll tell you. I've got a 
lot of young fellows down there that are 
careless, and I can't interest 'em in this 
oil or coal saving — they see so much coal 
they think it costs nothing. I want to 
send a good, careful man down there to 
set 'em a pattern — going to commence a 
special bulletin for that branch next 
month. Now, I know you can do it, and 
do it right and honest — use all that's nec- 
essary and not waste any. You know 
there is nothing like a pattern to build 
to. Much obliged, Tom; I knew you'd 
help me out. I'll send you down soon as 
I am ready. How's she doin'?" 

"Pretty fair; got her to steaming now; 
but she runs a little warm yet, and — well, 
I have to use a little more oil than regular; 
but I'll do the best I can." 

"I know you will, Tom. Go out to the 
storehouse and tell Harry I said to give 
you a package of that flake graphite to 
put in her boxes; she'll be all right. So 
long!" 

Tom scratched his head for three min- 
utes, and then went and looked on the 
performance sheet for his name; it was 
down near the tail; then he scratched 
again and went home. That night he told 
Tom, Jr., who is a fireman, that Skinney 
Skeevers was the decentest man that ever 
had charge of anything, and a man that 
wouldn't try and help him out ought to 
have his gullet cut. 

And say, Tom did go down on the Coal 
Creek branch, and he did set the boys 
a pattern that will make 'em hump to 
equal. It's funny, but the men there said 
he could run light on oil because he had 
a new engine — same reason Tom first 
claimed for using more! 

There are more ways than one to handle 
men. 

Skeevers thought long and hard over 



what he should do with Rory Moore, the 
traveling engineer. Rory had a leg broken 
through his own carelessness, years before; 
but that was in the days when everybody 
was against the railroad, and rather than 
let him sue for damages, they created a 
soft place for him and agreed to give him 
a life tenure for it. Skeevers figured it 
out that the company would have been 
"in" big money if they had let him sue. 
He antagonized the men and loved to 
show his authority rather than teach; he 
always said "Go," never "Come;" unlike 
Skeevers, he was no leader. 

Skeevers had just concluded to ask the 
general manager to "promote" him to 
some job in the water department, when 
Providence came to his aid and sent Mas- 
sey over on a visit. 

There had been talk of a strike on the 
Midland and Massey was scared; he al- 
ways had a blue funk when he heard that 
the engineers and firemen were uneasy. 
He had spies out, but they seemed to re- 
port little to comfort him, and Massey 
was suspicious of 'em, anyhow. 

"Now," said he, "if I only had Rory 
over there, he'd find out for me and he'd 
jolly 'em up. Great man to go among 
men and get 'em satisfied. That traveling 
engineer I had was no earthly good; al- 
ways messing around about coal and oil 
economy and a regular crank on air 
brakes; had to set him back runnin'. 
Now, Rory " 

"Glad you spoke of it, Mr. Massey," 
said Skeevers; "was just wondering what 
what I'd do with him. Got orders to cut 
expenses again; thinking of putting him 
on the pay car. If you can give him a 
better job on the Midland it will help all 
three of us out — he's out in the round- 
house now. Jimmy, Jimmy! go out in 
the roundhouse and find Moore; tell him 
Mr. Massey wants to see him in my 
office right away. Yes; Rory would find 
out all that's goin' on for you. They 
couldn't do much in a division that Rory 
wouldn't put you onto," said Skeevers, 
lowering his voice and winking at Massey. 

Skeevers talked gravely of the troubles 
from organized labor, and the value of a 
peacemaker general, until Rory came; 
then he left the two worthies alone for 
half-an-hour. 

"Mr. Skeevers," said Rory, coming into 
his private den; "Mr. Massey wants me to 
go to the Midland. I don't like to leave 
you, but he offers more money — but I've 
got a life job here, and " 

"Let me congratulate you, Rory; it's a 
great chance for promotion. Don't you 
see that Massey, poor fellow, is sickly — 
on his last legs? You go, and go right 
away; be his right-hand man and you will 
soon be — well, you know." 

Then Rory thanked Skeevers, shook 
his hand warmly, and went out and 
clinched matters with Massey. 

Verily, there are more ways than one to 
handle men. 

The news of Rory's resignation leaked 



out quickly, and inside of twenty-four 
hours it had got down to the general 
office. As soon as the general manager 
heard it, he wrote a personal note to 
Skeevers as follows: 

"My Dear Skeevers — Just learned with 
pleasure that you had buried another dead 
man on the Midland. That's right; let 
them have all of them. Rory has been a 
thorn in my flesh for years, with his con- 
founded life contract. In reference to the 
position, I would consider it a favor if 
you promote Engineer E. J. Staver to 
the position. We want young blood; I 
think he is capable, if he is a nephew of 
mine. I used to have compunctions about 
this relation business, but they have worn 
off — everybody favors relations; it's nat- 
ural. "A. W." 

Not content with that, he dropped a 
line to his nephew and asked him to call 
upon Skeevers in reference to a new posi- 
tion. 

That very evening, as Skeevers was en- 
joying his after-supper cigar, Staver rang 
the door-bell and was ushered into the 
Skeevers sitting-room. Skeevers wel- 
comed him warmly, gave him a cheroot 
and talked about the weather. Mrs. 
Skeevers took the baby into the next 
room, leaving the men to themselves. 

"Well, Ed, what's new?" asked Skeev- 
ers. 

"That's just what I come over to find 
out," answered Staver. "I got a note 
from 'A. W.' when I got home to-night, 
to call on you about another position, and, 
being as I live in the same block, thought 
I'd come over and find out what was up." 

"I got a note, too," said Skeevers, 
slowly, blowing a cloud of smoke toward 
the ceiling. "I suppose you have heard 
that Rory Moore has quit?" 

"No! I thought he had a cinch." 

"Well, he did have; but he traded it to 
Massey," and Skeevers laughed. 

"Well, Mr. Skeevers, was you consider- 
ing me?" 

"Yes, Ed; I was just thinking about 
you and that job when you came in; and 
do you know what I thought?" 

"No; but I'd like to know." 

"Well, I was thinking that it would be 
a bad thing for you, for me and the ser- 
vice — but especially for you." 

Staver kept still and looked solemn for a 
minute, and Skeevers continued: 

"There are a good many reasons why 
you would be a dead failure in that posi- 
tion, and to fail in such a job at your age 
is a set-back for life. Now, you can't afford 
to fail, can you?" 

"No, I don't want to, but I'm not so 
sure I would. I think I'd like it, and no 
one would try harder, Mr. Skeevers." 

"I know that, Ed; that's the worst of it. 
You'd fail for other reasons than the ones 
you were to blame for. Let me explain it 
to you. 

"You are not a favorite with the men. 
Now, a traveling engineer don't need to 
be a favorite, but he must be a man that 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



45 



they like and respect as an engineer — 
one they can look up to as being as capa- 
ble as any of them. 

"You came on this road about ten years 
ago to fire; was put to work ahead of a lot 
of men on the list. Why? Because you 
were a nephew of the general manager. 

"You were promoted two years earlier 
than other firemen. Because you were a 
better fireman? No; because you were a 
nephew of the general manager. 

"You pulled freight eighteen months 
and was given a light passenger run ahead 
of a dozen older and as capable men. Be- 
cause you were a better engineer? No; 
because you were a nephew of the general 
manager. 

"You are looked upon as a man among 
men, who is not to be judged upon his 
merits, but his blood — a man with a pull. 

"Now, I believe you are a good engi- 
neer; above the average, perhaps. But 
you cannot be judged on your merits here. 
I believe you want to do the fair thing 
and go to the front because you deserve 
to, don't you?" 

"Yes, I do; and Mr. Skeevers, I've often 
thought I'd quit and go on another road, 
just for the way the boys hold me under 
suspicion like. I've never tried to join 
their lodges, for I know they think I'd 
carry things to 'A. W.' But" 

"Well now, Ed, look here. You are a 
young man yet. and there's lots of room 
for you on your own merits; let me help 
you out. I don't blame you; you were 
pushed ahead, and, like most of us, took 
what the gods sent and was happy — most 
human beings would. You take my 
medicine and I'll warrant a cure of all 
these ills, or no pay. What do you say? 
The medicine is unpleasant to the taste, 
but good for the system. What do you 
say?" 

"I'll do just what the doctor says," said 
Staver; "and really, Mr. Skeevers, I'd 
rathered be figured on as E. J. Staver by 
all hands than as Mr. Wider's nephew — 
I ain't to blame for being a relative of his, 
am I? A man has to have some rela- 
tions." 

"I've always noticed that they do," an- 
swered Skeevers, lighting a fresh cigar. 
"But listen — the doctor is prescribing 
now. 

"In the first place, I want you to write 
'A. W.' a nice note, telling him you don't 
want the job — that all hands would say 
that it was on account of your blood, and 
not your ability: that while you are proud 
of the Wider blood in your veins, you 
want to show the men and the officials of 
the G. A. L. that you are an engineer first 
and a nephew afterward, and you think 
you can do that best on a freight engine, 
and have asked me to transfer you to one. 
Have you got that?" 

"Yes; go on." 

"Then write me a note, asking to be 
transferred to a freight engine on the 
division farthest from headquarters, and 
simply add that you realize that older men 



and better men deserve the easy runs, and 
that you want to work where the men 
don't know who your relations are. Stop 
there and don't tell a soul that you have 
written either note." 

"Yes; anything else?" 

"You are a single man and don't care 
where you are. I'll send you to Granger 
to trade off with a man who wants to movt 
here on account of his children going to 
school. You go into the freight pool there 
and saw wood. You have something in 
you; get it out. You stand at the head of 
that performance sheet month after month, 
and show all hands that it's Ed Staver and 
not A. Wider that is backing you, and 
then I will have a good reason for pro- 
moting you — and I will promote you. 
Your reputation with the men leave to 
me. I'll square you there, and I won't be 
all winter about it. I've got the 'leakiest' 
time-keeper on earth in Ball; he's a 
chronic gossip. I left the 'old man's' 
letter, equal to a command, about your 
taking Rory's place, where Ball would 
see it — he has peddled that out long be- 
fore this, and the Stove Committee are 
discussing it now. Just you keep still and 
leave that to me. Can you go to Granger 
Saturday?" 

"Yes," said Staver, getting ready to go. 
"I'll be glad to, and, Mr. Skeevers, I want 
to thank you for this talk — I'm going to 
surprise you; watch me. Good-night!" 

"James," said Sarah, ten minutes later, 
"I was just thinking that there are more 
ways than one to handle men — that's one 
way." 

The next morning Skeevers ordered the 
roundhouse foreman to put Ole Sanderson 
on "7" and "8" regular, and send E. J. 
Staver to his office; then he took a long 
walk through the shop. 

While he was out, the "old man" came 
in, nodded to the clerks, got into Skeev- 
ers' chair in his little glass pen — out of 
sight of the door — hunted through the 
drawers for a cigar, found it, put his feet 
on the desk and waited. 

Skeevers came in and stopped in the 
outer office to wash his hands; before he 
was through, the door opened and a half- 
dozen engineers filed in under the leader- 
ship of Milt Smith. 

"Good morning, Mr. Skeevers, said 
Milt. "Don't git scairt; this ain't no 
Grievance Committee. We jest come in 
to ask you one question; then we're all 
a goin' to kneel right down by that railin' 
and pray that you answers it the way we 
want yer to. There ain't no manner o' 
dou't in any of our minds that you had a 
reason for chain-gangin' the passenger 
engines; but now that the '511' is out, we 
hope and pray that you give us our regular 
engines agin." 

"Well, boys. I'll relieve your minds 
right now — you will all have your regular 
engines again to-morrow, the 1st. I did 
have an object in the change; that object 
has been accomplished, and we will go 
back to the old way — it's the best." 



"Boys," said Milt, solemnly, looking 
around to them, "shall we kiss him?" 
Then, recovering himself suddenly, he 

said: "Really, Skin I mean Mr. 

Skeevers, we are very much obliged, and 
while on the thanks branch we want to 
say that we thank you for putting Sander- 
son on the run that belongs to him by 
rights; he ought to had it when young 
Staver got it; but that was a'fore your 
time. O'course, you can't help pushin' 
the young lad along — we know how that 
is — old Rory wan't no good, and the kid 
would have to be mighty poor if he 
couldn't do better than him, and lessen 
he gits to feelin' his oats and gits " 

"What are you driving at?" asked 
Skeevers. 

"Why, our new traveling engineer, Mr. 
Staver, of course; you know he's got a 
cinch; but Lord, man, we don't blame 
you " 

"Now, boys, look here; this is too bad. 
Just let me tell you something. You 
don't and never did give young Staver 
credit for what he is; as engineers go, for 
a young one" — here Skeevers bowed to 
the veterans — "he is above the average; 
but if he was the best and was promoted, 
you fellows would not give him credit. 
Now, I don't know as a man is justified 
in showing private letters, but here's one 
from Staver that shows that he's a man 
among men; for mind you, he could have 
had Rory's place if he had wanted it, but 
he refused it " 

"Refused it!" said three men at once. 

"Just read that out loud," said Skeevers. 
producing Staver's letter from an inner 
pocket and handing it to Smith. 

Smith read: 

"Jas. Skeevers, S. M. P.: 

Dear Sir — I hereby make application 
for transfer from passenger to freight ser- 
vice at your earliest convenience. In 
making this request, it is due you to ex- 
plain that I recognize now more than I 
did at the time that older and better engi- 
neers are entitled to easy passenger runs. 
I request that you send me to the farthest 
end of the road, where I can be known 
and measured by my work and not by my 
blood relations. 

"Respectfully yours, 

"E. J. Staver. 
"Private." 

"Milt Smith, all of you," said Skeevers. 
"you have misjudged a man. There's a 
boy who wants to stand on his merits 
with the rest of you and don't want any 
advantage, yet you fellows won't let him. 
It's you, not he. that mention his relation- 
ship with our general manager." 

"That's right, Skeevers," said Milt: 
"and here's a sucker that ain't afraid to 
say so to him. I'm agoin' right out to the 
roundhouse and shake hands with the 
young feller; he's the making of a man." 

"No use now. Milt: he's in Granger: 
went down on No. 1 — going to run out of 
there. But mind vou. he deserves vour 



46 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



respect; he's the peer of any of you; don't 
forget that when you do see him." 

"Well." mused Squire Tobin, "if Mister 
Staver ain't going to be traveling engi- 
neer, who is?" 

"That's to the point," said Skeevers, 
smiling, "and it also brings us back to the 
original question — the chain-gang. I 
don't know as it's good policy to tell who 
you are going to promote before they are 
consulted, but I guess it will be safe this 
time. You remember that I told you, 
when the new performance sheet was 
adopted, that promotions would be made 
on that, other things being equal? Well, 
I meant what I said. Who stands at the 
head of the list, and has stood there from 
the first?" 

"Barney Murray." 

"Right, and Barney Murray will be your 
new traveling engineer. Some of you 
complained that he had the best engine, 
had different injectors, patent valves, etc., 
and that anyone could show a record if 
given an advantage — that's why I chain- 
ganged you this month. 

"The new sheet will be out the 2d, and 
you will see that it was not the engine, but 
the man. Barney Murray will be at the 
top there, too. Besides that, Barney is an 
engineer capable of imparting his knowl- 
edge to others; his firemen are the best- 
posted freightmen we have on the road, 
and he graduates quite a number. He is 
the man who asked to go with the air- 
brake car when it came — some of you were 
ready to sign a petition to send it away. 
Barney knows you all, is square and fair, 
and won't expect too much of you. But 
take my advice and follow him; he can 
lead you all right; and don't forget that 
the record is what counts — not your age, 
or your relationship, or your pull, but what 
you can do as engineers. You are doing 
well on fuel and oil; but look out for 
some of these freightmen; they are think- 
ing and working — sure to do something." 

When the men got into the roundhouse 
again, on familiar ground, they talked 
over the whole matter and agreed that 
things couldn't be better. Barney Murray 
came in to register and was pulled into the 
circle and congratulated, and just when the 
good feeling was at its best the "present 
fiend" arose and said: "I move that we 
present old Skinney Skeevers with a gold 
watch for Christmas; he's hot stuff." 
There were ten seconds to the motion; 
but Barney Murray held up his hand for 
silence, got it, and said: 

"Boys, Skeevers wouldn't take it; don't 
you remember five years ago, when a 
paper was passed for a gold watch for 
Massey, and half the men on the road 
had signed it; when it got to Skeevers and 
he wouldn't sign, and raised such a row 
that Massey had to order the paper with- 
drawn? You might pass a resolution, or 
something, but you couldn't give Skeev- 
ers a watch; he won't let you." 

"A testimonial, that's the thing," said 
one, "engrossed, framed and" 



"Mon," said Sandy Taylor, the round- 
house foreman, who had joined the crowd, 
"d'ye mind a tecstamonial jest till the mind 
'o Maister Skeevers? It wad be fra the 
shape o' a blueprant and framed wi' the 
reegular frame a the hoose awa'; it's the 
gude showin' o' savin' coals the mon 
wants for a teestimonial fra' ye, d'ye 
mind?" 

"Sandy's right," said Milt Smith, look- 
ing over his crowd; "we couldn't please 
Skeevers better than by making a show- 
ing on that performance sheet; it's results 
he wants; that's his success and ours, and 
I, for one, propose to try to improve my 
record; and boys, boys, if all of you didn't 
steal so much coal and oil I would be the 
bull o' the woods." 

As Skeevers went into his office, the 
"old man" slowly took his feet off the desk, 
opened the drawer, took a fresh cigar, and 
said: 

"Skeevers, me boy, I came up in a 
hurry to see you on a certain matter, but 
I'm going back. I heard what you said to 
the gang — dead right — couldn't be no 
righter — you done that almost as good as 
I'd a' done it myself; all of which reminds 
me of that true old saying, that there is 
more ways to skin a cat than to run her 
through a potato peeler." 



with the air supply, and is fitted with a 
piston 2J4 inches in diameter, having a 
^-inch hole through it lengthwise. The 
piston is packed with leather at the 
air end, and has a leather gasket for the 
flue end to bear against, similar to that at 
the opposite end. The air cylinder is 
shown in an enlarged sectional view above 
the elevation of the machine. 

Below the parts described is a long 
shallow trough filled with water. In the 
testing operation, the flue is placed upon 
a pair of hooked arms connected to the 
rocking shaft and reaching over the 
trough. The ends of the flue are placed 
against the leather gaskets, and it is then 
lowered into the water by means of the 
handle on the rocking shaft; air is turned 
on, and while the piston in the small cyl- 
inder holds the flue securely against the 
leather gaskets at the ends, there is suffi- 
cient air passing through the J^i-inch hole 
in the piston to put the interior of the 
flue under pressure. Since the flue is 
under water, the slightest leak will be at 
once apparent from the bubbles coming 
to the surface, due to the air pressure 
in the flue. 

There are no waits for water to empty 
itself from the flue after the test, as is the 
case in the hydrostatic methods, and the 



Cylinder 




£'." ■"■ 'fu* ^"yinaring 



Flue-Testing Machine. 

There is a flue-testing tool at the East 
Buffalo shops of the Erie Railroad, that 
is a departure from traditions supposed 
to govern that class of machine. It was 
designed and built by Master Mechanic 
Moore, who presides over the destinies 
of those shops. 

Flues are tested in this case by air 
pressure while immersed in water, and 
the test is accomplished as follows: There 
is a long rocking shaft which is supported 
loosely at the ends, in bearings secured to 
the shop wall. Just inside of these bear- 
ings are a pair of arms, and cast on the 
outer ends of each is a 3j4-inch cylinder, 
one of which is solid, with a leather gas- 
ket, and the other hollow; the latter is at 
the right of the cut illustrating the device, 
and the other at the opposite end. The 
hollow cylinder has a flexible connection 



cleanliness of the operation is attested by 
the dry surroundings. 



The annoyance from incrustation of boil- 
ers is so great and it is so costly that in- 
genuity is constantly at work trying to find 
out something that will remove the scale 
or keep it from forming. The latest scale 
preventer that we have seen is a mixture, 
consisting of 90 per cent, of soluble chro- 
mate and 10 per cent, of soda. These salts 
transform the soluble carbonates in the 
water into soluble chromates, which settle 
in the form of mud without adhering to 
the heating surface, and can be washed out. 
It is said that the mixture gradually re- 
duces old incrustation that has been 
formed on boilers. The boiler of a freight 
locomotive may be kept clean by using a 
half pound of the mixture every day. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



IT 



The Inspector. 

We are indebted to Superintendent W. 
W. King, of the Norfolk & Southern Rail- 
road, for the photograph lure reproduced, 
showing how easily and neatly an old 
eight-wheeler can be converted into an 
inspection locomotive. We believe it is 
perfectly safe to say that one trip of an 
official over a road "on the head end" is 
worth three trips made in the coaches. 
He sees things as the engine finds them 
and notes their effects. Misplaced signals 
can never be noticed from the cars and a 
rear-end view is the wrong point of view 
altogether. 

The more of these little inspectors that 
carry superintendents, road masters and 



Two Kinds of Firemen. 

BY \ <. < I SINCLAIR. 



Till. BAD I IK 1 MAN. 

Some men are so constituted that they 
never make good firemen, no matter how 
much they may try. The average bad 
fireman is, however, of that quality be- 
cause he never tries to be a good one. 
The average bad fireman is careless about 
how his work is done; indifferent about 
how his inferiority may cause delay to 
trains, annoyance to the engineer, or ex- 
pense to the company. All he cares for is 
to get through his work with as little per- 
sonal exertion as possible. It often hap- 
pens that his efforts to shirk the most 




THE INSPECTOR. 



other officials over the roads, the better 
it will be for the service. 

@ © @ 

Cutting of Flanges. 

One of the most common subjects of dis- 
cussion at railroad clubs and other places 
where railroad men meet, is the causes 
of flange wear of wheels. Some speakers 
are always trying to find far-fetched causes 
for this source of accident and annoy- 
ance, but we do not think that anyone 
who stands for a few hours looking at 
workmen putting car wheels on axles 
will find much difficulty to explain the 
cause of flange-cutting. There is not 
nearly enough care taken in matching 
wheels to go on axles. 

The writer recently had the opportunity 
to make careful measurements of a great 
many wheels that were waiting to be put 
under cars. He very rarely found wheels 
on the same axle within T V of an inch of 
the same diameter. They varied from T J 5 
to T 3 ff in difference. It is a very stupid 
policy that allows wheels in this condition 
to be put under rolling stock; for besides 
the trouble from the cutting of flanges, 
the uneven size greatly increases the fric- 
tion, and consequently makes the car re- 
sistance greater. It is safe to say that 
99 per cent, of the cutting of wheel flanges 
arises from two causes — wheels unevenly 
matched and trucks out of square. 



necessary part of his work greatly in- 
crease his labors before a trip is finished; 
yet he will go through the same perform- 
ance on the next run. 

When called to go out on a run, the 
poor fireman reaches the engine-house 
just as it is time to start for the train. 
He pitches some coal into the firebox, and 
sweeps the cab and waters the coal as the 
engine is on its way to the starting point. 
As soon as the engine pulls out, working 
hard to force the train into speed, this 
fireman pulls open the fire-door and 
throws in a heavy load of coal. Steam be- 
gins to go back and the engineer shuts off 
the injector. As the fire burns through, 
the steam comes up; and just as the engi- 
neer finds it necessary to start the injector 
again, the fireman jerks open the fire- 
door and pitches in eight or ten shovel- 
fuls of coal as fast as he can drop it inside 
the door; then he climbs up on the seat 
and waits for the black smoke ceasing to 
flow from the stack as the signal to get 
down and repeat his method of firing. 

Finding that the engine is not steaming 
freely under his treatment, he gets down 
reluctantly and tears up the fire by violent 
use of the shaking lever. When the train 
reaches a stopping-place, this kind of fire- 
man occupies himself looking at the 
sights, and pays no attention to the fire 
until the signal to start is given, when he 
throws open the door again and repeats 



the operation of firing followed at the first 
start. 

By this method of firing, small mounds 
of coal are dropped promiscuously over 
the grates. In intervening spots the grates 
are nearly bare, and cold air passes 
through without meeting carbon to feed 
upon, and not sufficiently heated to ignite 
with the volatile compounds distilling 
from the mounds. The product is worth- 
less smoke. Each mound is a protection 
for the formation of clinker, which grows 
so rapidly that the shaking-bar has to be 
frequently toiled on to let sufficient air 
through the fire to make steam enough for 
making slow time. 

The result of this fireman's way of work- 
ing is irritation all round. Towards the 
end of the trip he is overworked, throw- 
ing the extra coal needed and the hard 
shaking of grates. At every stopping- 
place he has to crawl beneath the engine 
to clean the ashpan, and is fortunate if 
the grates are not partly burned. The 
practical result for this man's employers 
is that he has burned from 25 to 35 per 
cent, more coal than a first-class fireman 
would need for doing the same work. 

TIIK GOOD FIREMAN. 
The highest type of fireman is one who, 
with the smallest possible quantity of fuel, 
can keep up the required pressure of 
steam without waste through the safety 
valves. The majority of firemen try to 
reach this ideal. A good fireman reaches 
the engine-house in time to see that all the 
necessary tools and supplies are on the 
engine, that the tank is full of water and 
provided with the coal necessary for the 
the trip. He examines the fire to see that 
it has a good foundation for starting, and 
if not, puts in the necessary quantity of 
coal at several firings, letting the fire 
burn through by degrees. The ashpan 
is examined and care is taken to find out 
that the grates are level. 

When the train is ready to start, there 
is a glowing fire on the grates, sufficient 
to keep up steam until the reverse lever 
is notched back after the train has worked 
into speed. With heavy freight trains 
this firing is made sufficient, so that the 
door has not to be opened until the tre- 
mendous exertion of starting is over. 
When the time for replenishing the fire 
arrives, the good fireman knows either 
from instruction or by observation that 
the effect of throwing fresh coal into the 
burning mass of the firebox is similar to 
that of pouring a dipper full of cold water 
into a boiling kettle. The cold coal cools 
the fire, and if thrown in in large quanti- 
ties its tendency is to depress the burning 
mass for a brief time below the igniting 
point. A small quantity of cold water 
does not check the boiling of a kettle 
much, and three or four shovelfuls of coal 
are little felt on the fire of a big locomo- 
tive; so our man throws in only a few 
scoopfuls at a time, is quite deliberate in 
applying each charge, scattering it over 



48 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



the surface of the burning mass, so that 
each portion of fresh supply quickly gives 
up its hydro-carbon gases and becomes 
a vital addition to the bed of incandes- 
cent fuel. This bed of glowing fuel, on 
which the fresh coal is thrown, being com- 
paratively thin, a supply of air passes 
through sufficient to provide the neces- 
sary oxygen to the hydro-carbons re- 
leased, and the gases are burnt with the 
high generation of heat of which they are 
capable. 

From various causes the fire does not 
tend to burn evenly all over the grate sur- 
face, but thins rapidly in spots. The 
good fireman, on glancing into the fire- 
box, knows where these spots are, and 
loses no time in filling them up. The fire 
is maintained nearly level; but the coal 
is supplied so that the sides and corners 
are well filled, for their liability to draw 
air is most imminent. 

REGULATING AIR ADMISSION. 

Until he realizes that the supply of air 
drawn from the ashpan is becoming less 
than equal to the demands of the fire, this 
fireman keeps the front damper closed and 
permits the exhaust to draw in its own 
supply of air from the back damper. 
Locomotives deficient in grate area may 
not steam freely with the front damper 
closed, even when the fire is clean; but 
engines of that sort are getting to be ex- 
ceptional. The blast from the nozzles 
creates an impetuous draft through the 
grates; and when to this is added the 
rapid current of air impelled into the open 
ashpan by the violent motion of the train, 
the firebox is found to be the center of a 
furious windstorm. Unless kept in check, 
the currents of this storm are liable to do 
damage to the firebox and tubes when thin 
spots in the fire permit them to pass up 
without being properly heated. 

SHAKING THE GRATES. 

Should indications appear that the fire 
is not receiving sufficient air, our fire- 
man gently shakes the grates, an opera- 
tion which is repeated during the trip at 
intervals sufficient to keep the fire as 
clean as possible. No act marks the poor 
fireman so strongly as his method of 
shaking grates. He does the work so 
violently and so frequently that a great 
deal of fuel is wasted. The fire is per- 
niciously disturbed, and unless it is very 
heavy, holes are made which admit the 
cold air. Good coal requires no more 
grate-shaking than what will prevent 
clinkers from hardening between the grate 
openings. Coal that contains a great 
deal of ash will be burned to greater ad- 
vantage when the grates are shaken 
lightly and frequently, and this shaking 
should be done by short, quick jerks. The 
long, slow movement that some men give 
the grates, in shaking, merely moves the 
clinkers resting upon them. The pur- 
pose of shaker grates is to provide a means 



of breaking the clinker, so that it will fall 
into the ashpan and permit the dead ashes 
to fall. 

AT STOPPING POINTS. 

When approaching a stopping place, 
our fireman takes care to have sufficient 
fuel in the firebox, so that he will not 
have to begin firing until the start is made. 
When this has not been done, a fresh 
supply of coal should be applied while the 
engine is standing at the station. The 
common practice of throwing open the 
door and beginning to fire as soon as the 
throttle is opened, is very hard on fire- 
boxes, because the cold air drawn through 
the door strikes the firebox sheets and 
tubes, contracting the metal and tending 
to produce leakage. Firing just as a 
train is pulling out of a station is bad for 
another reason— at that time the fireman 
ought to be looking out for signals. 

FIRES TO SUIT THE WORK TO BE DONE. 

The good fireman maintains the fire in 
a condition to suit the work the engine 
has to do. At parts of the road where 
there are grades that materially increase 
the work to be done, he makes the fire 
heavier to suit the circumstances, but 
this is done gradually, and not by pitch- 
ing a heavy charge of fresh coal into the 
firebox at one time. This system of fir- 
ing keeps the temperature of the boiler 
as even as possible, and has the double 
result of being easy on the boiler and 
using coal to the best advantage. From 
the time he reaches the engine until the 
hostler takes charge at the end of the 
journey, this fireman attends to his work, 
and to his work alone. It is only by con- 
centrated attention to the work to be 
done that a fireman can do it in a first- 
class manner. The good fireman does 
not attempt to run the whole of the rail- 
road, including the engineer, when he is 
making a trip over the road. The inveter- 
ate meddler with other people's affairs, 
who is found occasionally filling a fire- 
man's position, distributes his attentions 
too thinly to succeed in performing a 
fireman's duties successfully. 

There are circumstances where the 
method of firing followed would not be 
a success, because certain coals and cer- 
tain engines require special treatment. 
But, in a general way, the methods de- 
scribed are those of the most successful 
firemen. A man who does the work of 
firing with skill and intelligence is a pro- 
moter of morality and a dispenser of har- 
mony. The engine steams well and is 
always equal to the work to be done, pre- 
venting a great deal of profanity; the 
meeting-points are all made on time, and 
a general good feeling prevails towards 
all the men engaged in operating the 
train. Each man takes some credit to 
himself for everything going on so com- 
fortably, but the principal meed of praise 
belongs to the fireman. 



Character of Air in Underground 
Railways. 

One of the best illustrations we know 
of the conservative habits of railway 
managers in Great Britain, is the atmos- 
pheric condition of the underground rail- 
ways in London. The air is so stifling 
from the combustion fumes of the loco- 
motives operating the system, that weakly 
persons find it dangerous to ride on these 
railways. There is no reason in the world 
why electricity or compressed air should 
not be introduced as a motive power, 
except that the management of the rail- 
ways does not care to incur the expense 
of making the change. 

Dr. Angus Smith, a famous chemist, 
has lately been analyzing the air found in 
the underground railways, and he has 
made revelations that ought to be of great 
interest to the people who use the lines. 
Pure air contains 20.94 per cent, of oxygen 
in 100 parts by volume, and it was found 
that in the underground railways the pure 
oxygen amounts only to 20.6. The air 
in the tunnels is naturally heavily charged 
with carbon-dioxide gas and some car- 
bon-monoxide, a highly poisonous com- 
pound. The nominal quantity of carbon- 
monoxide gas in the air is .037 in 100 parts, 
but in the underground railway tunnels 
this disagreeable gas amounted to .388 per 
cent. 

Eminent chemists have expressed the 
opinion that atmosphere containing more 
than .1 per cent of this gas is too 
much polluted to be breathed with safety. 
The result can easily be imagined on the 
health of the people breathing air contain- 
ing four times the quantity of carbonic- 
dioxide. 



The numerous inventors who are con- 
stantly claiming that they were the first 
to conceive the idea on which some suc- 
cessful invention was founded, and which 
was perfected by others, ought to remem- 
ber that the mere idea of what may be 
done is not patentable. They must devise 
a practicable apparatus for carrying out 
the idea. This was very clearly defined 
by the Supreme Court of the United 
States years ago in giving a decision sus- 
taining the validity of the Richardson 
safety valve. Others had attempted to 
make pop safety valves before Richard- 
son patented his device, but his was the 
first one that worked successfully. The 
court held that Richardson's inventions 
had not been anticipated by others, and 
that he was the first person who made a 
safety valve which, while it automatically 
relieved the pressure of steam in the boiler, 
did not in effecting that result reduce the 
pressure to such an extent as to make the 
use of the relieving apparatus practically 
impossible, because of the expenditure of 
time and fuel necessary to bring up the 
steam again to the proper working stand- 
ard. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



19 



Air=Brake Department. 



Odd Answers to Air-Brake Questions. 

A prominent air-brake inspector and in- 
structor sends us the following dialogues 
which actually took place. The following 
is probably a slip of the tongue, or perhaps 
the dangerous use of a doubtful word: 

Instructor — "Now trace the air from the 
train line back." 

Answer — "Through the triple to the 
auxiliary, from the auxiliary through the 
triple to the brake cylinder, when the 
brake is set, and when released, from the 
brake cylinder through the triple to the 
hemisphere." 

The next is more than a slip of the 
tongue or a misuse of a word: 

Instructor — "What causes the jar on a 
train when making station stops with a 
passenger train?" 

Answer — "The rush of air from the 
main reservoir to the train line." 

This man was positive, yet shaky and 
erratic: 

Instructor — "What would you do if in 
looking over a train you found a retain- 
ing valve gone and a plug put in the end 
of the exhaust pipe?" 

Answer — "Any man would be a 

fool if he left that in!" 

Instructor — "Well, what if you were 
looking over a train and a retaining valve 
was missing and a blow were coming 
from the exhaust pipe?" 

Same man answers — "Plug it up." 
In the following the man was learning, 
but was wrong in the cause: 

Instructor — "Which gives us more 
braking power, a long or short piston 
travel, and why?" 

Answer — "The short one, because the 
long one has to go farther." 
This man had been there: 
Instructor — "Would a brake work just 
as well with the retaining valve gone?" 

Answer — "Yes, as far as setting and re- 
leasing is concerned; but [interruption] 
it would not, for we had a car the other 
day with a retaining valve gone, and I 
whittled plugs all the way down the hill 
and couldn't make it work. They blew 
out as fast as I put them in." 

Pressure and volume bothered this man: 
Instructor — "If you don't drain your 
main reservoir after each trip, and the 
water accumulates in your reservoir until 
it is half full, how much pressure will you 
have there when you are charged up and 
the pump stops?" 

Answer — "Forty-five pounds." 
Instructor — "Why so?" 
Answer — "Because we only have half 
the room." 



CONDUCTED BY F. M. NKLLIS. 

The instructor was evidently hard i" 

please, so thought this man: 

Instructor — "We are all charged up 
now, what must we do to set the brake? 

Answer — "Pull the conductor's valve." 

Instructor — "Yes; but what docs that 
do?" 

Answer — "Sets the brake." 

Instructor — "Yes; but how?" 

Answer— "By pulling the cord." 

Instructor — "Oh" 

This man was wide awake to the com- 
pany's interest, but had a long way to 
travel yet: 

Car Inspector — "Mr. Instructor, Oi wud 
loike ter ask yees a quistion." 

"All right, sir; you may." 

"Well; it was loike this. A passinger 
care came to our road the other day, and a 
blow was coming out of a little round 
hole in the thriple. Oi woudn't accipt the 
care unless they put a bolt in the hole. 
Was Oi roight?" 

i g & 

Air-Brake Items. 

"Keep the main reservoir drained," 
especially in this kind of weather. Also 
keep the hose hung up properly in the 
dummy coupling. 

Preventing hose from kinking by allow- 
ing them to drag is one thing; scooping 
up snow which freezes in train pipes and 
triples is another. 

The time required in a yard to make 
up a train so all air-braked cars are ahead, 
is time well spent. The cost of the extra 
labor will very often yield a thousandfold 
return by preventing costly accidents 
while the train is en route. 

Thawing out a frozen triple valve only 
temporarily relieves the trouble. The 
water remains and is likely to freeze again. 
Frequent drainage of the main reservoir, 
and preventing the hose coupling from 
scooping up snow, will keep the water out. 

A strainer for air-brake couplings has 
been patented by George H. Herbert, of 
Anaconda, Mont. It consists of a circular 
pocket of gauze wire which fits inside the 
gasket of the coupling. The purpose of 
the invention is to exclude dust when the 
coupling is hanging loose. 

Those men who bore out the exhaust 
part of the triple valve to get a quicker 
release of brakes, lengthen the reversing 
slide-valve rod in the pump, and other- 
wise put on the finishing touches (?). 
would do well to read a correspondent's 



article on change of air-brake standards 
in this number. 

Switch ahead, couple up and use all 
braked cars. Not only can a shorter stop be 
which an emergency may demand 
at any moment, but expensive wrecks 
caused by break-in-twos, where the rear 
end collides with the head, may be pre- 
vented if the train-pipe can be broken at 
the same time the train parts. 

Faster time can be made on suburban 
and accommodation trains by releasing 
the brakes in time to avoid the shock. 
Passengers will then be up in the aisles 
ready to unload; but on roads where 
rough braking is common, passengers will 
not get out of their seats until the train 
comes to a standstill and the shock is 
over. 

It is a pretty hard trial on an engineer's 
temper to have to stop after being signaled 
to go, in order that a tardy passenger may 
get on or oflf. Especially is this true 
when the train is heavy and the time fast. 
But a loss of temper and use of the emer- 
gency does not help matters. Keep cool. 
Grin, if possible, but maintain your repu- 
tation as a smooth braker. 

A correspondent writes good reasons 
why hose should not drag through the 
snow, thereby inviting a stoppage in the 
train pipe. A frozen obstruction in a 
train pipe is to be more dreaded than a 
closed angle cock. The latter can be 
discovered at a glance and remedied, but 
the former does not usually manifest itself 
until an attempt is made to stop. 

Some time ago a cast-iron brake shoe, 
having small pieces of wood inlaid, was 
experimented with and gave some very 
good frictional results. The wood, how- 
ever, charred when the brake shoe heated 
up and would loose out. To overcome 
this defect, the manufacturer has substi- 
tuted cork with improved results. This 
type of brake shoe is well adapted for 
street-car use, and is claimed to have 
given good service on a steam railroad. 

Air brake men will be deeply grieved 
to learn of the death of D. L. Barnes, the 
notice of which appears elsewhere in this 
number. Mr. Barnes was in the fore- 
most rank of mechanical and civil engi- 
neers, and a most successful and brilliant 
future was seemingly in store for him. 
He was a member of the Air Brake Asso- 
ciation, and gave to it his encouraging 
support in the trying days of its early ex- 
istence. The friends made at the St. Louis 
convention will ever cherish the memory 
of this brilliant and magnetic man. 



50 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

Utilizing Old but Serviceable Material. 

Editors: 

At this terminal we use lour transfer 
engines which transfer from the C. & O. 
to several roads in Cincinnati. In per- 
forming tiiis duty they are ofttimes re- 
quired to remain from _>o to 30 minutes 
on the Cincinnati end of the Ohio River 
bridge, which has a very steep grade. 

These engines are equipped with the 
D-9 pump governor and D-8 brake valve. 
With this style of brake valve, when the 
brakes are applied and left on lap posi 
tion, the pump is allowed to accumulate 




Lot nBofiw Etiglntt 



a very high pressure in the main reser- 
voir. I have seen it as high as 135 pounds. 
When the brakes are released, this high 
pressure of air is allowed to be thrown 
into the train line, not only overcharging 
it, but straining all the weak points, and 
destroying the sensitiveness of the gov- 
ernor. 

We are applying the improved gov- 
ernors and brake valves as speedily as 
convenience permits, and I have taken 
steps to utilize the old governors on these 
engines by combining two diaphragm 
bodies as shown in the accompanying 
sketch. 

Check valve body E is the body of a 
J^-inch globe valve, tapped to fit the 
diaphragm body F. C is a nipple and 
guide for the check valve D, which per- 
forms the functions of a check valve, 



piston and reducer, and is made of an 
excess pressure valve of the D-8 brake 
valve, with two small holes drilled near 
the seat to prevent the main reservoir 
pressure from gaining admission too sud- 
denly to the diaphragm of the train-line 
governor. 

The train-line connection is made at /, 
the pressure passing under the check 
valve D to the diaphragm body F, and is 
adjusted by regulating nut G. Main res- 
ervoir pressure is admitted at M, and is 
adjusted by regulating nut A. In con- 
junction I use governor filter such as was 
exhibited at the convention of Air-Brake 
Men in St. Louis two years ago. 
P. P. HALLER, 
A. B. Insp., C. & O. R. R., 

Covington, AY. 

§ $ @ 
Leaking Train Pipes. 

Editors: 

The train pipe is a part of the air-brake 
system that is being overlooked to a 
great extent, especially on freight cars. 
There should be an effort made to apply 
train pipes to cars in such a manner that 
leakage could be reduced to the lowest 
possible amount, as leaking causes a great 
deal of trouble. An engineer cannot make 
a good stop if the leaks amount to much 
from pipe or hose or hose gaskets. 

I notice a great many hose gaskets that 
have the flange that fits in casting beveled. 
Inspectors do this with a knife to make 
it go in easy. This causes a leak hard to 
locate, as the face of the gasket looks 
good. This practice should be stopped. 

Another bad plan for leaks is where the 
two sections of train pipe connect. Rub- 
ber is generally used for gaskets, and as 
it will not stand pressure perfectly, there 
is a leak to some extent all the time. 
Then we have leaks where the cross-pipe 
from train pipe to triple connects to train 
pipe, and also at elbow joints to same. 
This elbow could be done away with, and 
the pipe be bent. Again, where the pipe 
connects to the triple valve a rubber gas- 
ket is used, which soon gives with pres- 
sure, and leaks. 

My experience is that leather is the best 
for gaskets. I have had engines run with 
leather gaskets for as long as two years, 
or until returned to shop, and never 
bothered with them giving out or leaking. 
I would recommend their use in all joints 
except where the discharge pipe connects 
tc the air pump. At that point a gasket 
cut the proper size from sheet asbestos, 
gives the best results, and will not con- 
tract the opening when tightened up. If 
leather is used for gaskets at all points in 
the train pipe where a gasket is used, the 
train pipe be fastened solid to body of car 
so the pipe will not be pulled forward and 
back again in cases where the train parts 
at that point, the auxiliary and brake cyl- 
inder be kept tight on body of car so they 
will not loosen the joints to cross-over 
pipe (and, by the way, you won't find one 



freight car out of fifty, that has been out 
of shop very long, that is bolted solid), 
and the pipe be bent instead of using 
elbows, this trouble of leaky train pipes 
will be stopped. I believe the saving in 
hose alone will almost pay for this trouble, 
from the fact that with fifteen or twenty 
cars leaking badly, the heat generated by 
the air pump will sometimes affect the 
first two or three hose on front end of the 
train and rot them out so they are not 
air-tight, especially in cases where the 
pump becomes overheated and an exces- 
sive amount of oil is used. An air pump 
will supply almost any number of cars 
that do not leak as easy as ten that do 
leak. 

Another point is the bleed cocks. A 
great many of them leak, which is equally 
wasteful as a leak in the train pipe. When 
brakes are applied, this one leaks right off, 
and then draws the train-pipe pressure 
down, besides wasting a great deal of air 
when brakes are released. It must be re- 
membered that a leaking train pipe de- 
stroys the graduating feature of the triple 
valve till the brakes do not go on with a 
violence equivalent to the emergency; yet 
the application is taken out of the en- 
gineer's hands, and it takes a good deal 
of brains to figure the leakage and the 
grade you may be making the stop on, so 
as to make a nice stop Also, it is hard 
on the car bodies, as they crowd together 
harder than they would if the brakes ap- 
plied slower. 

Private cars give us the most trouble, 
as they do not seem to be very well cared 
for. Then we have a great many cars 
equipped with a style of brake that will 
not work; they may comply with the law, 
yet they will not stop the car. They only 
bother the rest of the brakes if allowed 
to be cut in. They are better cut out. 
I. H. Brown, 
C. & O. Ry. 

Covington, AY. 



Danger of Allowing Hose to Drag. 

Editors: 

Every air-brake instruction book I ever 
read, every instruction I have ever heard, 
and almost every reference made to the 
main reservoir, contains that old stereo- 
typed charge: "Keep the main reservoir 
drained." I am finding no fault with the 
charge in question. It contains good 
sensible advice, and is well put. 

Water in the main reservoir usurps 
space properly belonging to the system 
for releasing and recharging brakes. Main 
reservoirs are never too large, nearly al- 
ways too small, and have no room for 
water. Again, and really more important 
than the preceding, the water contained 
in a main reservoir gets back into the 
train pipe and triple valves and, in cold 
weather, freezes. We who have held a 
torch under a frozen triple to thaw it out, 
or have followed the train pipe from the 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



51 



front end to rear end of car with a blaz- 
ing piece of kerosene-saturated waste on 
the end of a packing hook in freezing 
weather, appreciate the importance of 
keeping the main reservoir drained. But 
when I see air-brake hose dragging 
through the snow, the opening in the head 
entirely closed and clogged, as I did in 
our Boston yards during the late snow- 
storm, I am impelled to ask if keeping 
the reservoir drained to prevent freezing 
up of triple valves and train pipes, and 
allowing snow to enter through the hose, 
is not equivalent to barring burglars by 
locking the front door and permitting the 
rear door to stand wide open? 



Instruction Room Device for Showing 

Movement of Quick-Action Triple. 
Editors: 

Under separate cover is being sent you 
a photograph of a device for showing 
the action of the quick-action triple valve. 
Mr. Decker, air brake inspector of the 
Southern Pacific, and myself, through the 
kindness of Mr. Small, superintendent of 
motive power and machinery, got this 
scheme up, and it is now in the engineer's 
room in the Sacramento roundhouse. 
From the photo it will be seen that tin: 
! i e is made up mostly of wrecked ma- 
terial. 

On the upper triple we drilled a hole 



ing valve and pi ton. We have an E-6 
i piping to rep- 
resenl a tender, and piping, and hose and 
coupling i" repri enl two u foot ears. 
well, and is an ex- 
cellent means of showing the action of 
the triple valve. 

H. C. Prazkr. 
San Francisco, < al 

g $ 
Observations and Suggestions from 
Florida. 
ors: 
I would like to suggest a remedy for the 
troubles of many, as explained l>y Fred 




The old stereotyped rule, "Keep the main 
reservoir drained," is all right as far as it 
goes. But it only guards one end of the 
line. Something is needed at the other 
end. Brakemen may knock the coupling 
heads together to dislodge the loose snow, 
but in zero weather they will not clear out 
the packed snow and ice. Is there no way 
by which brakemen and others can be 
compelled to hang up the coupling in the 
dummy, where it belongs? This is a seri- 
ous question that deserves due considera- 
tion. 

Amos Judd. 
Boston, Mass. 



through the emergency check valve, and 
screwed the ;4-inch steel rod into the 
emergency valve. Then below we took 
an old triple, and cut it off down to the 
slide-valve seat, and drilled a hole so that 
the rod would strike the emergency pis- 
te m in the center. This shows the move- 
ment of the emergency piston and emer- 
gency valve. 

On the lower brake the rod is fastened 
to the emergency check valve, and shows 
the movement of that valve. We then 
have a triple with both sides cut out. and 
a piece of looking-glass behind it to show 
the movement of the slide valve, graduat- 



M. Tait in the December "Locomotive 
Engineering." I would say that all en- 
gines should have pressure-retaining 
valves on both tender and driver brakes. 
They should be spring valves, so made 
that they could be easily and quickly ad- 
justed to retain from 15 to 25 pounds, and 
so placed that the engineer could use them 
without leaving his seat. 

Referring to an article in same number 
by C. O. Mikle. in regard to proper at- 
tachment for governor with D-8 valve, 
will say that it seems to me it would be a 
good idea to use a Westinghouse double 
governor, and pipe one to train line and 



52 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



set to 70 pounds, and pipe the other to 
main reservoir and set to 95 or 100 pounds. 
Set excess pressure valve to carry 10 or 
15 pounds. There is no need of carrying 
more excess on short trains on levels, for 
the reason that when valve handle is car- 
ried to service application on lap position, 
the pump starts pumping additional ex- 
cess, and when it runs up to amount that 
governor for main reservoir is set at, the 
pump will stop. The 9^2 inch pump will 
make 10 or 15 pounds additional excess 
pressure while making a stop. With the 
double governor, the faults of both the 
D-8 and E-6 valves could be remedied 
without carrying high excess pressure, 
and would be easier on the pump. 
Orange Pound, 
S. F. & W. R. R. 
Barlow, Fla. 



Pump Governor Connection for D-8 
Brake Valve. 

Editors: 

In reference to C. O. Mikle's article in 
December number, it would seem that 
time and experience has quite thoroughly 
settled the question of what pressure 
should operate the air-pump governor, 
and to resume discussion on the subject 
now would be untimely as well as unin- 
teresting. There are many other impor- 
tant matters that demand air-brake men's 
attention. However, after all that has 
been said and written on the subject, we 
find that facts and conditions exist, about 
as follows: 

The pressure most necessary to govern 
is the train-line pressure, for that is the 
base upon which the braking power is 
calculated. That we may have freedom 
from slid flat wheels, the train-line press- 
ure must be properly and unmistakably 
governed. It must, therefore, be gov- 
erned directly. If there is but one gov- 
ernor, that governor must govern the 
train-line pressure. If we wish to govern 
the main reservoir pressure (and I hold 
that that pressure should also be gov- 
erned), we may govern it either indirectly 
through the medium of the excess pressure 
valve, or directly with a second or ad- 
ditional governor, as a few pounds varia- 
tion will cause no damage. But the train- 
line pressure, the all-important pressure, 
should never be subordinated in govern- 
ment to the main reservoir pressure, such 
as would be done by attaching the gov- 
ernor to the main reservoir and control- 
ling the train-pipe pressure through the 
medium of the excess pressure valve. 

The feed-valve attachment on the E-6 
brake valve is not only an automatic 
feeder to supply the train pipe with press- 
ure lost through leakage, but is also a 
governor valve which governs the train- 
line pressure when the valve is in running 
position. As this valve directly governs 
the train-line pressure, and as there is no 
use for two governors for one pressure, 



we may now remove the pump governor 
connection from the train-line pressure 
and attach it to the main reservoir to gov- 
ern that pressure, thus giving us two gov- 
ernors which govern directly the main 
reservoir and train-line pressures, respect- 
ively. But if the use of the feed-valve at- 
tachment were discontinued, and an or- 
dinary excess pressure valve substituted, 
then we would be obliged to change the 
pump governor from the main reservoir 
pressure to the train-line pressure, as the 
latter pressure is the most important pres- 
sure of all and must be governed directly. 

I notice one road running into this city 
which has still in service quite a number 
of D-8 brake valves. Engines so equipped 
have a combination governor consisting 
of one body and two tops. One top is 
connected to the train-line pressure and 
set at 70 pounds, and the other to the main 
reservoir pressure and set at 90 pounds, 
thus controlling directly and certainly 
both of these pressures. The inevitable 
uncertainties of operating through a me- 
dium are thereby avoided. 

I trust I may be pardoned for dwelling 
at such length upon a subject which I 
characterized as uninteresting, but I have 
been prompted to write in this manner, 
believing that Mr. Mikle's communication 
should have a reply. 

Amos Judd. 

Bos/on, Mass. 

i § § 

Tampering with Air Brake Standards. 

Editors: 

It is quite evident to those who fre- 
quently come in contact with men who 
do air-brake work, or who handle air 
brakes, that tampering with air-brake 
standards is of too frequent occurrence, 
and results in improper performance of 
the brakes, and not infrequently is the 
cause of mysterious manifestations which 
confront the men operating them. 

The writer has many times been called 
upon to unravel the trouble with a re- 
calcitrant air pump, locate the cause of 
quick action when the locomotive and cars 
were apparently provided with the latest 
proper standards, or started on the trail of 
some ignis fatuus which had disturbed 
the equanimity of those who had made a 
vain search for something that did not 
exist. It might properly be remarked here 
that while this last remark does not really 
apply to the subject, still it is among the 
mysteries of fancied erratic brake action. 

As a general proposition, it may be re- 
marked that perfection, and perfection 
only, is what everybody expects in brake 
performance, and if a near approach to 
this is to be obtained, it is self-evident that 
the brake apparatus must be in a most 
perfect condition to contribute to this re- 
sult in the highest possible degree. 

In the design and manufacture of air- 
brake apparatus, every detail is most care- 
fully considered. In addition to this, 
nothing is put upon the market until 



such time as it has been thoroughly tested 
and closely watched in actual service, and 
every possible effort made to definitely 
determine what the requirements are that 
must be embodied in the part. It is pos- 
sible that, under some conditions of ser- 
vice, certain details of the present stand- 
ards might be, to some extent, changed, 
and no one understands this better than 
the company manufacturing the appara- 
tus; but it must be borne in mind that 
nothing pertaining to railroad equipment 
is subjected to such a variety of condi- 
tions, under all of which the mechanism 
is expected to work equally well, as the 
automatic air brake; hence, the impor- 
tance of not tampering with the devices 
which are especially adapted to conform 
to all those varying conditions of service. 

In what has been said, the endeavor has 
been to point out the importance of never 
changing, in any detail, the vital parts of 
the air-brake apparatus, whether it be the 
pump, governor, brake valve or triple 
valve; but to make these remarks more 
comprehensive, a few of the many de- 
partures sometimes made from the stand- 
ards may be properly noted. 

The preliminary exhaust port of the 
Plate E-6 and D-8 brake valves is one of 
the vital points in controlling brake ap- 
plication, and its size must be rigidly main- 
tained to insure expected results. When, 
as a fact, it is stated that an increase of 
1-32 inch, or even less, in the diameter 
of this port results in a quite radical 
change in the brake valve's performance, 
under the varying lengths of trains upon 
which the brakes are worked, it is ob- 
viously apparent that the standard size of 
port should not be changed. 

Incidentally it might be said that in 
cleaning out this port, no metal tool should 
ever be used which would have a tendency 
to ream out and enlarge the aperture. 
The idea that a larger preliminary ex- 
haust port facilitates the application of 
the brakes is a pernicious one, for the 
only effect likely to follow such enlarge- 
ment would be an emergency application 
of the brakes when such was neither in- 
tended nor desired. 

To some, the escape of air through the 
relief port of the E-7 and E-8 pump gover- 
nors (an apparently needless waste of 
pressure) impels them, in their efforts to 
promote economy of air, to plug up the 
port. This act may result in the pump 
failing to start after having been stopped 
by the governor, regardless of a reduc- 
tion of pressure in the main reservoir or 
train pipe, and invites possible disaster 
from a lack of air pressure when such is 
required. 

The feed port in the triple valve may 
also be cited, for its size has been deter- 
mined upon after careful experiment, and 
a departure from this size will doubtless 
cause trouble sooner or later. 

Sufficient has been said, perhaps, to 
give the reader an understanding of the 
object sought to be pointed out in this 



article, though the changes sometimes 
made might be carried to far greater 
length, with convincing reasons why, 
in every instance, the standard should 
not be departed from, and the undesirable 
results that would follow such departure. 
The one object sought, however, is to im- 
press on the minds of those interested, the 
importance of not tampering with the 
standards. 

In conclusion, I would add that I quite 
agree with my friend who reads this and 
mentally remarks that he has done some 
of the very things criticised, and has not 
observed the alleged troubles; but bear in 
mind that some of the very troubles which 
you have encountered, and could not suc- 
cessfully combat, have been directly or 
indirectly the result of tampering with a 
vital part of the air brake. 

If such trouble has not been experi- 
enced, do not assume that the particular 
conditions which would contribute to 
such a result are not liable to appear at 
any and the most unexpected moment. 

S. J. Kiddkr. 
Chicago, III. 

§ $ i 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

On Air-Brake Subject*. 

(i) A. R. L., Louisville, Ky., asks: 
Does the mere heating of an air pump 
reduce its capacity for making air? A. — 
Yes. There is a loss in pressure which is 
delivered hot and is cooled. 

(2) J. A. J., Nashville, Tenn., asks: 
Is there any substance that could be 

used on air-hose packing ring that would 
prevent groove in coupling from rusting 
and not rot the rubber? A. — Yes. Clean 
the groove out well, and use a little 
graphite. 

(3) A. B. C, Wilkesbarre, Pa., asks: 
What will cause signal whistle to re- 
bound upon a reduction of signal-line 
pressure? A. — A loose diaphragm stem. 
By lowering the stem about a thirty-sec- 
ond of an inch into the bushing will cor- 
rect the trouble. 

(4) A. R. L., Louisville, Ky., asks: 
Will the oJ-2-inch pump make more air 

than the 8-inch? If so, how much? A. — 
Yes. With the same steam pressure and 
other conditions being equal, the former 
will compress about 60 per cent, more 
pressure than the latter. 

(5) J. A. J., Nashville, Tenn., asks: 
In working quick action, is the increase 

over a service application as great with 
extra large piping as where the ordinary 
pipe is used? A. — Yes. A large train 
pipe will contribute more pressure to the 
cylinder in an emergency application than 
a small one. 

(6) E. A. M., Albany, N. Y., asks: 
Will you please explain in full in your 

January number the construction and 
workings of the reinforced brake used 
on the "Empire State Express" and other 
fast trains? A. — On page 184 of Febru- 
ary number a full description is given 
of the high-speed or reinforced brake, as 
it is sometimes called. This brake stops a 
train is about 25 per cent, shorter distance 
than the ordinary quick-action brake. 

(7) A. B. C, Wilkesbarre, Pa., asks: 
With D-5 brake-valve handle in run- 
ning position I could obtain no excess. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 

Gaskets "O. K." What was the trouble? 
A. — Possibly the adjusting nut on the 
feed valve attachment was screwed up too 
far. Again, maybe the spring case of the 
1 valve attachment was screwed up 
so tightly as to cause edges of the gaskets 
to crush and allow the piston to force the 
supply valve off its seat. Possibly the 
supply valve did not have a tight seat. 

(8) R. L. J., Cincinnati, O., asks: 
When backing a train having ten air 

cars and twenty-five non-air, out of a side 
track, is it better to hold the train with 
hand brakes or to let the engineer do the 
holding with his air brakes? A. — While 
a careful engineer can safely do the hold- 
ing under the circumstances, it would 
perhaps be better to set the hand brakes 
next to the caboose, thus keeping the 
slack bunched. A harsh application of 
the air brake by the engineer is liable to 
break the train in two, in a similar man- 
ner that hand brakes on the rear end, 
when making a forward stop, are liable 
to do. 

(9) G. E. R., Mattoon, 111., writes: 

We have a few of the small brass en- 
gineer's valves that have been in use here 
ever since they were put on the market. 
When you make a reduction of 5 or 7 
pounds you can hear no escape of air at 
all from the valve, and it makes the re- 
duction so suddenly that with a train of 
quick-action triples you get the emer- 
gency action when you do not want it. 
What makes these valves act this way? 
A.— They are worn out, and good braking 
cannot be done with them until they are 
repaired. The better plan would be to re- 
place them with modern equalizing dis- 
charge valves. 

(10) J. A. J., Nashville, Tenn., asks: 

Of what advantage or why are check 
valves placed in pipe between pump and 
main reservoir, when either one or two 
pumps are used? The valves in these 
checks are much lighter than the pump 
valves, and are not as readily accessible 
for examination. A. — There is no ad- 
vantage gained by using check valves as 
described. The discharge valves are all 
the checks that are needed, and any more 
are useless, and only serve to collect mat- 
ter that reduces the size of opening 
through which air flows and contributes 
to the heating of the pump. Where 
check valves are found in the discharge 
pipe, they should be taken out. 

(11) G. M. N., New York, asks: 

Of what advantage to the air pump is 
the steam that goes to the top end of the 
reversing-valve rod other than lubricating? 
A. — A small direct port connects the 
chamber in which the top end of the rod 
works with the top end of the main steam 
cylinder, thereby giving the same pressure 
on the top end as on the bottom end of 
the rod. On the down stroke, live steam 
is on both ends of the rod. On the up 
stroke, exhaust pressure is had on both 
ends. If there was live steam on one end 
of the rod and exhaust steam on the op- 
posite end, there would be a tendency for 
the rod to be forced in the direction of the 
weaker pressure by the stronger pressure 
alone, and reverse the pump without the 
assistance of the reversing plate. 

(12) W. W. U., Bloomington, 111., 
writes: 

When making a service application the 
brake will hold until released; but when a 
direct emergency application is made, and 
the brake valve handle placed on lap, the 
brake will release. What is the cause of 
this? A. — We presume that this occurs on 
the light engine and tender. In the emer- 
gency application the equalizing reservoir 



\ 



58 



pressure is not used and leaks past the 
pack " the equalizing nto 

the train pipe, and increases that pressure 
higher than that in the auxiliary; conse- 
ntly, the brake will release. If the 
brake whistles off through the triple, the 
brake has been released by an increase of 
pressure in the train pipe. If it slips off 
silently, there is a leak past the leather 
packing in the cylinder, 

(13) W. B. M., Columbia, Pa., writes: 
For what are those two small pipes lead- 
ing from the train-pipe connection of the 
brake valve to the cut-out cock in the 
main reservoir pipe that is being put on 
our freight engines? A.— We presume 
you refer to the cut-out cock adopted and 
used by the Pennsylvania Railroad. This 
cock is placed in the main reservoir pipe 
under the brake valve so the second man 
on a double-head train can use the emer- 
gency brake if necessary. Two small 
pipes connect with train-pipe exhaust 
angle fittings. When the cut-out cock is 
open, the train-pipe exhaust is made 
through one small pipe. When the cock 
is closed, the service application cannot 
be made, but the emergency can. The 
second pipe allows train-pipe pressure to 
be recorded on the gage of the second en- 
gine. We will illustrate this cock next 
month. 

(14) G. E. R., Mattoon, 111., writes: 

I am using a D-5 valve which has been 
in service eighteen months. I have had 
the feed valve down frequently and 
cleaned it, but it is very erratic in its 
action. Sometimes the gage shows 60, 
70, 80. etc.; and it is a sure thing, if the 
train line shows 80 or 85 with light en- 
gine, and I couple onto five or more brake 
cars, it will drop to 50, and I will have to 
use the tension nut on feed valve to in- 
crease the train-pipe pressure. I would 
like to know what the trouble is and have 
it repaired. A.— The edges of the gasket 
have been thinned by taking down and 
screwing up the feed-valve attachment 
so frequently. Put in new gaskets, and 
when the valve needs cleaning, take out 
the supply valve by removing the cap nut, 
but leave the bottom part alone. Possi- 
bly dirt on the supply valve has caused 
some of the trouble. 

§ § $ 

Every year or two some inventor pro- 
poses to take the air for the ventilation of 
railway cars from the front of the locomo- 
tive, and thereby prevent the entrance of 
smoke and cinders to the car through the 
openings usually left for air to get in. It 
seems to be a very attractive way of doing 
the work, but somehow cars have never 
been ventilated in this way, although the 
patented appliances offered for the pur- 
pose are beyond number. The latest can- 
didate for disappointment in this line of 
human effort is Joseph I. Dunlap, of 
Wadesborough, N. C, who proposes to 
run a pipe over the top of the locomotive 
and cars, right through to the end of the 
train, the front opening being a bell- 
mouth attachment, intended to take in as 
much air as possible and force it through 
the pipe. Inventions very much like this 
have been repeatedly offered before, but 
we never heard of one being tried. On the 
face of it. the invention would be a nuis- 
ance and would add very materially to the 
labor of keeping train mechanism in order. 



54 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Lake Shore Ten-Wheel Passenger 
Engine. 

The ten-wheel passenger engine shown 
in the annexed engraving is an improve- 
ment on the old passenger ten-wheelers 
of the Lake Shore & Michigan South- 
ern, worked out by Mr. Geo. W. Stevens, 
superintendent of motive power for the 
company, and built by the Schenectady 
Locomotive Works. 

The engine has cylinders 18 x 24 inches; 
boiler, extended wagon top, 56 inches 
diameter in the front ring; and driving 
wheels, 68 inches diameter. 

A series of very difficult engineering 
problems were involved in the designing 
of this engine. It was desirable to pro- 
duce a locomotive of considerably greater 
power than the old ten-wheelers, but the 
mechanical department was bound down 



be done consistently with maintaining 
strength. All the rods are channeled out 
and made as light as possible, even the 
top of the guides being channeled; over 
50 pounds weight has been taken out of 
the cross-heads alone, due to coring it 
out. The crank pins are made of 
Krupp steel and are also hollow. All 
castings and the front end of the smoke- 
box are of pressed steel, and steps, 
braces and other parts, formerly made of 
cast iron, are of malleable iron. The 
various casing covers, which are pressed 
out under the hydraulic press in the works, 
are notable for their graceful forms. 
While the reduction of weight has been 
carried as far as possible, no expense on 
work or on material has been spared to 
make the engine efficient and durable. 
The valve motion gives a very good 



tions. The hangers connect with link 
suspension pins about 8 inches long, and 
the upper rocker pins are about the same 
length between head and washer. The 
outside of the tires is polished. 

The frames are wonderfully substantial, 
considering the lightening process that 
the engine has undergone; the part that 
extends from the front joint to the front 
of the cylinder is 7 inches deep. The 
guides are of the double-bar style, and 
are secured in front to lugs cast on the 
back cylinder head, and in the back by 
cross-braces i;4x8jij inches. 

The firebox is set above the frame and 
is held up by swinging hangers on each 
side, with expansion pads at the front cor- 
ners, and a single pad extending nearly 
the whole breadth at the back of the fire- 
box above the foot plate. The cylinder 



' 




LAKE SHORE TEN-WHEEL PASSENGER ENGINE. 



to a total weight of 118,000 pounds, which 
is about the same as the weight of the 
old engines. The work was, however, 
carried out successfully, and this engine 
has 1 inch greater diameter of cylinder, 
2 inches more diameter of boiler and has 
263 square feet more heating surface than 
the old type. When people proceed to 
design a new engine, it very often happens 
that the real weight comes out very dif- 
ferently from what was calculated upon; 
but this engine was an exception, for 
when put upon the scales in working or- 
der, it came within a few hundred pounds 
of the specified weight. This displayed 
unusually skillful designing. It was de- 
termined from the first that the process 
of lightening the whole engine should not 
reduce the strength of essential parts — 
like frame, rods, axles, etc. The reduc- 
tion of weight was effected to a great 
extent by improved forms, and the use 
of stronger material, such as steel and 
malleable iron castings. 

The driving-wheel centers are steel, 
cored out at every point where this could 



distribution of steam, especially consid- 
ering the shortness of the eccentric rods. 
With ten-wheel engines it has generally 
been considered necessary to place the 
links in front of the drivers and span the 
axle with the eccentric rods, or to make 
a very complex arrangement of transfer- 
ring motion from links to rockers. This 
was considered necessary to prevent un- 
due lead of valve when the links were 
notched up to cut off short. In this case 
the links are placed between the front and 
main drivers, making a very short eccen- 
tric rod; but by good designing and pe- 
culiarity in valve-setting, the distribution 
of steam is as good as it is in the ordinary 
eight-wheeler. When linked up to cut 
off at six inches, the lead opening is only 
T \ inch. The valves are set T ', inch blind 
in forward motion, and ,. 9 f inch in full gear 
back. The valve rod of this motion is 
unusually long and looks heavy, but it is 
really light, for it is made of steel tubing. 
The links have a remarkably wide bearing 
surface, and, indeed, all the rubbing and 
wearing parts are of very liberal propor- 



saddles have unusually wide flanges, and 
are bolted to smokebox by five ij^-inch 
bolts on each side and six on back and 
front, besides two rows of bolts screwed 
into the saddle from the smokebox side. 

Particular attention has been bestowed 
upon covering every part where heat is 
liable to be carried away, with material 
calculated to keep out the cold. The 
boiler, steam chest and cylinders are 
covered with sectional magnesia, and, as 
usual with all Mr. Stevens' locomotives, 
the front, sides and back of the firebox 
are carefully lagged. Asbestos cardboard 
and hair felt are used for the firebox lag- 
ging. 

Before mounting to the cab, we pause 
to admire the provision made to enable 
people to reach the deck and come down 
from it without danger to life and limb. 
There are substantial steps that are not a 
deception to the feet, and handholds that 
people of ordinary stature can reach. 
There are also good convenient steps for 
enabling a man to reach the sandbox and 
headlight, while the tender has been pro- 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



vided wiili unusually convenient appli- 
ances of this kind. 

In the cab wc find all the attachments 
applied with a view to convenience in 
handling and for safely in case of accident. 
All the pipes are connected with one 
"combination globe," which connects with 
the dome and has an automatic closing 
valve. The throttle lever, engineer's 
valve, reverse lever, injector, gage cocks 
and automatic sanding lever are all within 
a radius of 18 inches. Immediately in 
front of the engineer is a small lamp, 
which he can use to read his orders by or 
to look at his watch. Besides that, there 
are lamps for showing water glass and 
the different gages. The cab has an ele- 
vated arch roof, is very roomy, and is put 
together so that the nuts of all bolts used 
are exposed for the purpose of tightening. 

The main rods weigh 385 pounds each; 
back section of side rod, 225 pounds; for- 
ward section, 189 pounds; crosshead, com- 
plete, 150 pounds. 

The tender has a pit, sloping forward 
towards the bottom — a practice which is 
becoming very common. Wells are pro- 
vided in front of the tank for the feed-pipe 
connections. The frame is of steel, and 
trucks with bolsters of I-beam steel. The 
water scoop has a novelty in the form of 
wing-like guards over the dipper, which 
prevent the water from flying over the 
truck when water is being let into the 
tender. 

The rigid wheelbase of the engine is 15 
feet, and the total wheelbase 24. feet 9 
inches. There is 30,000 pounds weight on 
the engine truck. Dunbar packing is 
used for the pistons, and they arc 4 7 s 
inches thick, and piston rod is 3 inches 
diameter. United States metallic packing 
is used for piston and valve stems. The 
size of the steam ports is 17.x i5/£ inches, 
and the exhaust port 3 inches wide. The 
bridges are i^jj inches wide. The valves 
are Allen-Richardson, with I inch outside 
and 1 1-16 inches inside lap; greatest travel 
of valve, SJ4 inches. The driving boxes 
are of steeled cast iron, and a cast-iron 
liner is screwed into the wheel hub to pre- 
vent cutting. The driving springs are un- 
derhung, and are separated by hangers 
which are hooked to top of box. A. 
French springs are used throughout the 
engine and tender. 

The main driving-wheel journals are 
8x9 inches, and the forward and back 
driving journals are 7^x9 inches; the 
main crank-pin journals are4j4 x 6 inches; 
on the main pins the side rod journals are 
Sl/2 x 4-)4 inches, and the front and back 
ends are 4x4 inches. The engine-truck 
journals are 5 x 10 inches. 

The boiler throughout is built of Carbon 
steel, and is designed to carry a working 
pressure of 190 pounds per square inch. 
The boiler sheets are 7-16, y 2 , 9-16 and Ys, 
inch in thickness; the butt joints are sex- 
tuple-riveted, with welt strip inside and 
out; the circumferential seams are double- 
riveted. The firebox is 95 3-16 inches long 



and 4i->ij inches wide; the depth is 67^ 
inches in the front and 55^4 inches in the 
back; the side sheets are 5-16 inch; back 
sheet 5-16 inch, crown sheet fjj inch and 
tube sheet l /z inch thick. The water space 
is 4 inches in the front, zVi inches 
and 3 to 4 inches back. The crown is se- 
cured by radial stays of Taylor iron, 1 
inch diameter, except the front three rows, 
which have sling stays. There are 249 
charcoal iron tubes, 2 inches diameter and 
13 feet 3 inches long. The brick arch is 
supported by water tubes 3 inches diam- 
eter. The boiler tubes provide 1,716.6 
square feet of heating surface; the water 
tubes, 14.7; the firebox, 135.3 — a total of 
1,866.6 square feet. The grate has 27.35 
square feet of area; a Smith triple-expan- 



There has been a great ''-al written of 
late years about the men who deserve the 
credit for making a success of the exten- 
sion front and Open front stark of locomo- 
Whcn we look over the field of 
effort and experiment in this line, we think 
that a good deal of credit is due to Mr. 
E. M. Reed, who was vice-president and 
gi 11 ral superintendent of the New York, 
New Haven & Hartford Railroad at the 
time of his death. As early as 1863, Mr. 
Reed, who was then master mechanic of 
the road, applied an extended smokebox 
to one of the locomotives, and after a 
great deal of experiment and changing 
he made it work successfully. He was 
impressed with the advantage that must 
arise from giving the exhaust steam and 




ON LOOKOUT MOUNTAIN. TENN.. NARROW GAGE. 3,200 FEET ELEVATION. 
MOCCASIN BEND, TENNESSEE RIVER IN DISTANCE. 



sion exhaust pipe is used; the smokestack 
tapers from 16 to 17 inches diameter. 

There are two No. 9 Monitor injectors 
and a Nathan sight-feed lubricator for 
cylinders and air pump. The American 
brake is applied to all drivers and the 
Westinghouse to tender. The Gould 
coupler is applied to pilot and tender. A 
Hudson bell ringer, Sherburn chime 
whistle and Ashton muffled safety valves 
are used. 

The engine has a very handsome ap- 
pearance, and is reported to be giving 
highly satisfactory service. 

ft ft ft 

Nearly all locomotive engineers are 
fond of a smart engine, one that will start 
with a bound when the throttle is opened 
and run at any speed. Many men are 
firmly of the opinion that the proper way 
to make a smart and fast-running engine 
is to give the valves plenty of lead. Lead 
will help an engine in starting quick, but 
it acts against her when fast running is 
required. 



gases a free passage from the smokebox 
to the atmosphere, unobstructed by 
cones or other spark-arresting appliances. 
A year or two before his death, the writer 
had a conversation with Mr. Reed about 
locomotive matters, and he appeared to 
take greater pride in what he had done to 
make the extension front a success than 
in any of his achievements connected with 
railroad work. He believed that his labors 
had been the means of saving a vast 
amount of fuel to railroad companies, and 
had prevented untold claims for fire dam- 
ages arising from spark-throwing. 



We have received requests to make men- 
tion of several scores of calendars that 
have been issued as standing display ad- 
vertisements. The number is so great that 
we cannot find room to mention them all, 
so we will not discriminate by mention- 
ing anj r . If any reader wants a calendar, 
he cannot be far wrong if he applies to 
any firm handling railway supplies. 



56 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Vandalia Line Mogul. 

The engine shown in annexed engrav- 
ing has cylinders 20x26 inches; driving 
wheels, 62 inches diameter outside of 
tires; boiler, 62 inches diameter at small- 
est ring and 72 inches diameter at back 
head. 

The crown sheet is supported by i-inch 
radial stays. There are 318 2-inch tubes, 
12 feet long, in boiler. The firebox is 108 
inches long inside and 41 inches wide. In 
the tubes there are 1,950 square feet of 
heating surface and 179 square feet in the 
firebox, making a total of 2,129 square 
feet of heating surface. The grate area is 
30.6 square feet. The working pressure 
is 185 pounds per square inch. Total 
weight of engine in working order is 



in steam pressures from 1800 to 1850 was 
slow; but since that time the increase of 
pressure has been comparatively rapid, 
and the economy of the steam engine has 
continued to become greater. At the 
present time the indications seem to be 
that for some cause, not fully determinable, 
but very probably connected with the diffi- 
culties in securing satisfactory boiler con- 
struction, the rate of exhilaration of pres- 
sure is beginning to fall off. The pres- 
sures have risen from 50 pounds a genera- 
tion ago to 125 pounds in 1880, to 200 
pounds in 1890, to 250 pounds in 1895, and 
are likely to be above 300 pounds in 1900. 
This applies principally to marine prac- 
tice. The author predicts that by the use 
of water-tube boilers, it will be found as 



less obstacles in the way of varying con- 
ditions when experimenting, found that 
the maximum economy was reached when 
cutting off at one-third to two-fifths of 
stroke. They discovered that when ex- 
panded beyond this point, the variation in 
temperature of the cylinder walls was too 
extreme. When steam rushes in from the 
hot boiler, it finds the cylinder cooled 
down to approximately the temperature of 
the exhaust which has just left it. It is 
immediately chilled, some of the vapor is 
condensed to water, and the pressure is 
materially reduced. When the steam is 
highly expanded and exhaust takes place, 
the condensed water re-evaporates and 
acts retardingly on the piston on the re- 
turn stroke, while the heat reabsorbed 




HEAVY MOGUL FOR VANDALIA LINE. 



142,000 pounds, of which 127,000 pounds 
are on the drivers. 

This engine is the latest design of Mr. 
W. C. Arp, S. M. P. of the Vandalia, and 
built by the Pittsburgh Locomotive Works. 

© s $ 

High-Pressure Steam. 

Nearly all engineers understand that in- 
creasing the steam pressure leads to an 
increase of efficiency, but exact figures are 
not easily found. The use of high steam 
pressures has progressed to a great ex- 
tent along with the art of boiler-making. 
At the beginning of this century, 20 
pounds to the square inch above atmos- 
pheric pressure was very rarely exceeded, 
and no very rapid increase came about 
until compound engines began to come 
into favor. 

In a paper presented to the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers, by Pro- 
fessor Thurston, on "Promise and Po- 
tency of High-Pressure Steam," he gives 
tables and data which show that the rise 



easy to control and utilize 500 and 1,000 
pounds per square inch as it is to-day to 
employ those of 100 to 150. 

In a paper, contributed to the North- 
western Railway Club by Mr. J. N. San- 
born, master mechanic of the Brainerd & 
North Minnesota, he gave calculations 
which made out that a theoretical saving 
of 20 per cent, resulted when steam pres- 
sure was increased from 130 to 200 
pound per square inch. He admitted that 
there were practical difficulties in the way 
of realizing this saving with locomotives. 
Short cut-off and long expansion has al- 
ways been the theoretical demand, but 
the practical engine driver says: "I find 
I can run with less coal by dropping re- 
verse lever down a little and reducing the 
pressure by throttling, so why are you 
talking of increasing the pressure?" 

Our stationary engine brothers step in 
here and say: "Yes, we found the same 
trouble years ago when the Corliss auto- 
matic cut-off was invented." and having 



from the cylinder in re-evaporation is 
wasted. 

The successful expansion of steam in 
more than one cylinder has induced in- 
ventors to apply the compound principle 
to locomotives, and some remarkable re- 
sults have been obtained where high- 
pressure steam was used in this manner. 

The compound locomotive is not greatly 
in favor among many railroad men to-day; 
but if they are going to utilize the ad- 
vantages that come from higher steam 
pressures, they will be compelled to use 
compound engines for the purpose. The 
simple engine with a boiler pressure of 
200 pounds is a much more powerful ma- 
chine than one carrying steam pressure of 
150 pounds, and it is doubtful if the higher 
pressure produces any more economical 
results when it is used only in one cylin- 
der. The designers and users of stationary 
and marine engines have shown them- 
selves fully alive to the advantages of high 
steam pressure, and they are using the 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



.-,? 



best appliances at their command to 
realize the economy made possible. If 
the men responsible for the economical 
operating of locomotives wish to obtain 
the best possible results from their en- 
gines, they will be compelled to follow the 
example set by other steam engineers. 

§ ® § 

Provide Uniform Fuel. 

Mr. W. E. Amman, locomotive foreman 
of the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & 
Omaha Railway, has evidently made a 
very thorough study of the numerous 
causes that lead to the waste of coal. A 
paper of his on "Fuel as It Is Used and 
Abused," contributed to the Northwestern 
Railroad Club, is an exhaustive treatise 
on the prevailing methods of wasting coal. 



Grates should be made suitable in area 
and openings for the admission of the 
necessary amount of air, and of a pattern 
best suited to prevent clinker or loss of 
coal by excessive openings. Nettings, 
diaphragms, nozzle pipes and stacks should 
be made to conform to the requirements 
for burning the kind of coal adopted, thus 
eliminating any necessity for making fre- 
quent changes. 

"Where this is impossible and more 
than one kind of coal is used, each kind 
should be confined to certain divisions; 
engines could then be sent to these divis- 
ions and appliances so designed and ad- 
justed that the best results could be ob- 
tained from the coal used in the district. 
It is a fallacy to believe that engines can 
be run over long divisions, or over more 



Seaboard Air Line Ten-Wheeler. 

ten-wheel freight locomotive here- 
with shown was recently built by the Pitts- 
burgh Locomotive Works from designs of 
Mr. W. T. Reed, S. P. M. of the Seaboard 
Air Line. 

The cylinders are 19x24 inches; driv- 
ing wheels, 58 inches diameter outside of 
tires; the boiler is of the wagon-top type, 
60 inches diameter at the smallest ring 
and 67J4 inches diameter at the back head; 
the boiler contains 239 2-inch tubes, 11 
feet 77/z inches long. The firebox is loiyi 
inches long inside, 35J/J1 inches wide. The 
tubes supply 1,448 square feet of heating 
surface and the firebox 144 square feet, 
giving a total of 1,592 square feet. The 
grate area is 23.4 square feet; the work- 
ing pressure is 180 pounds per square inch. 




TEN-WHEELER FOR SEABOARD AIR LINE. 



We have long been forcibly impressed 
with the belief that one of the most ex- 
tensive sources of waste of fuel on rail- 
roads results from the practices of pur- 
chasing different kinds of fuel, that re- 
quire different adjustments of locomotive 
draft appliances to burn economically. 
Roundhouse foremen cannot be changing 
the draft appliances to suit every quality 
of coal supplied, and consequently they 
have to make the adjustment to suit the 
worse quality of coal, and that wastes fuel 
when a superior quality of coal is pro- 
vided. 

Under this head, Mr. Amman says: 
"Only one kind and quality should be 
adopted, and this standard adhered to. 
Then engines should be arranged for 
burning that particular coal. Practical 
road tests should be made with each class 
of engine, and the different parts on which 
combustion depends carefully adjusted. 



than one division, using coal of different 
kinds and qualities, and produce good re- 
sults. An engine that is designed to burn 
one kind advantageously will not burn 
another kind as well, be it better or worse. 
Therefore, after a kind and grade have 
been selected, and suitable appliances for 
its economical use have been adopted, it is 
of the utmost importance that these 
standards should be maintained inviolate, 
as any departure from either will incur a 
pecuniary loss to the company. 

"The practice of allowing shop foremen, 
engineers and others to incorporate fanci- 
ful ideas in the alterations of front ends 
and stacks is not good policy, and causes 
much waste of labor and material as well 
as fuel." 

§ g § 

Get a bound volume of 1896, $3, now or 
never. 



The engine weighs 131,000 pounds in 
working order, of which 104,800 pounds 
are on the drivers. 

§ § § 

We have seen considerable comment 
about the rotary engine mentioned in our 
last issue, which, according to the press 
dispatches, was to bring a great fortune 
to its patentee. The newspaper reporters, 
who gave so much publicity to that en- 
gine, seem to think that the rotary engine 
(one which worked without a crank) was 
an unheard-of novelty. If these people 
would pay a little attention to the prog- 
ress of invention, they would be saved a 
good deal of ridicule. It may be of in- 
terest to more than newspaper reporters 
to know that in the United States alone 
there have been about 1.400 patents taken 
out for rotary engines. 



5S 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Medley's "Puffing Billy." 

"Puffing Billy," the curious-looking 
locomotive shown in our chart, was built 
by William Hedlcy, of Wylam, England, 
in 1813, and was the first locomotive to 
haul cars profitably and to do the work 
that the builder and owners expected that 
it would do. The engine is now preserved 
in the South Kensington Museum, of 
London. 

Before Hedlcy built this engine, a va- 
riety of attempts had been made to con- 
struct a steam engine that would travel on 
land, either on common roads or on tram- 
ways: but all these efforts were fruitless 
of any commercial value. Some of the 
machines built were able to move on fiat 
plain surfaces, most of them were not able 
to turn a wheel, and none of them were 
sufficiently perfected to be recommended 
as prime movers that would transport 
passengers or freight more cheaply or 
more expeditiously than horse-power. 

The history of inventions seems to 
show that when any radical improvement 
is urgently needed on ancient methods, 
the man to invent the improvement ap- 
pears and produces what was wanted. 
Toys that were run by the force of ex- 
panding steam were invented more than 
two thousand years ago, and philosophers 
and prophets predicted for centuries that 
the force generated by the evaporation of 
water by fire would some day perform the 
heavy burdens of mankind. Prophecies 
and predictions led to nothing until, in 
the fullness of time, a tremendously ur- 
gent necessity arose for pumping water 
out of deep mines. The power exerted 
by horses had ceased to meet the require- 
ments and a great industry was threatened 
with ruin. At this crisis (1705), New- 
comen and Cawley, two mechanics, of 
Dartmouth, England, made a steam en- 
gine that employed a piston in a cylinder, 
and gave to the world the principal ele- 
ments of the steam engine of to-day. But 
for their crude preliminary work, Watt 
nor Evans nor any of the other improvers 
of the steam engine would have found 
their opportunity. 

The locomotive, the electric telegraph, 
the Bessemer process of steel making, the 
air brake, the electric light, and all other 
great inventions have come in the fullness 
of time — when the world seemed unable 
to do longer without them. Every radi- 
cal invention has been heralded by minor 
inventors who saw the need and tried to 
provide the invention, but their work did 
little more than pave the way for the in- 
tellectual giant who in due time came 
along with his masterpiece. 

The birth of the locomotive became due 
when the world's demand for coal grew to 
be so great that horses ceased to be equal 
to the task of hauling the loaded cars from 
the mines to the shipping points. Up till 
within a few decades England supplied the 
industrial world with coal. A vast part 
of England's coal measures are in the 
northeast part of the country, in the coun- 



ties of Northumberland and Durham. 
Newcastle is the capital of the coal king- 
dom, and near its gates the prototype of 
the modern locomotive was conceived, 
built and put successfully to the work of 
hauling coal cars. 

Newcastle, which was a place of some 
note when the Romans occupied Britain, 
seventeen hundred years ago, owes its 
importance to the river Tyne, which is 
navigable for large ships up to the city. 
The river traverses the heart of the coal 
country, and on its waters the coal was 
carried in barges for shipment at New- 
castle. About eight miles from the city 
is a small place called Wylam, where at 
one time there was one of the principal 
collieries in England. In the beginning 
of this century the proprietor was a Mr. 
Christopher Blackett, who was a very en- 
terprising man, ever ready to encourage 
his workmen or others in any efforts made 
to improve the crude machinery and 
primitive methods employed in the min- 
ing and handling of coal. 

Under the labors of Watt and other en- 
gineers, the steam engine had been greatly 
improved for stationary purposes, and 
inventors began to work on the problem 
of making it a locomotive. There were a 
variety of unsuccessful attempts made in 
the first decade of this century to build a 
locomotive that would haul cars on rails, 
and the failures were in a great measure 
due to an erroneous belief that smooth- 
tread driving wheels could not be em- 
ployed, as they would slip without moving 
the engine. In one very ambitious at- 
tempt to make a practicable locomotive, 
a rack rail was employed, and another 
engineer tried an endless chain in the 
middle of the track, to enable the locomo- 
tive to pull itself ahead, while a still more 
radical inventor built an engine that was 
pushed forward by legs and feet that imi- 
tated the action of a horse. 

At this time, Mr. William Hedley was 
what we would call chief engineer of the 
Wylam colliery. He was a well-educated 
engineer, which was a rarity in those 
days, and he devoted a deal of attention 
to improving the methods for transport- 
ing the output of the Wylam pits to the 
shipping station, five miles distant. His 
employer seems to have entered heartily 
into all the plans for improvement pro- 
posed by Hedley, and it was this liberal 
policy which led, after one serious failure, 
to the building of a successful locomotive. 

Hedley had mental independence suffi- 
cient to doubt the correctness of the pre- 
vailing belief that smooth wheels would 
not have sufficient adhesion to enable a 
locomotive to haul a train of cars. To test 
the matter, he made a variety of experi- 
ments, which he described in a letter to 
Dr. Lardner, an English scientist of some 
note and much pretension, as follows: "I 
was forcibly impressed with the idea that 
the weight of an engine was sufficient for 
the purpose of enabling it to draw a train 
of loaded wagons. To determine this im- 



portant point, I had a carriage constructed. 
This carriage was placed upon the rail- 
road and loaded with different parcels of 
iron, the weight of which had previous- 
ly been ascertained; 2, 4, 6, etc., loaded 
coal wagons were attached to it. The car- 
riage itself was moved by the application 
of men at the fore-handles [employed to 
turn the wheels], and in order that the 
men might not touch the ground, a stage 
was suspended from the carriage at each 
handle for them to stand upon. I ascer- 
tained the proportion between the weight 
of the experimental carriage and the coal 
wagons at the point where the wheels of 
the carriage would surge [slip] or turn 
round without advancing. The weight of 
the carriage and the number of the wagons 
also were repeatedly varied, but with the 
same relative result. This experiment, 
which was on a large scale, was decisive 
of the fact that the friction of the wheels 
of an engine carriage upon the rails was 
sufficient to enable it to draw a train of 
loaded coal wagons." 

By these experiments, Hedley deter- 
mined the ratio of adhesion so correctly 
that for years his figures were taken by 
engineers as the best authority on the sub- 
ject. 

Having vanquished the bugaboo of 
wheel-slipping, Hedley proceeded to build 
a locomotive with smooth wheels. His first 
attempt was not a success; the engine was 
a very crude affair, with a boiler of cast 
iron, with a single tube which passed into 
the chimney. The engine had but one cyl- 
inder, and a fly-wheel was employed to 
regulate the movement. This crude ma- 
chine was sufficient to demonstrate certain 
lines of improvement, and shortly after- 
wards the "Puffing Billy" was built, and it 
was at once put to service pulling cars 
from the colliery to the shipping station. 
It drew regularly eight loaded cars at a 
rate of 4 or 5 miles an hour. Other en- 
gines of the same kind were afterwards 
built, and within a year or two, locomo- 
tives entirely superseded horse-power in. 
hauling cars on this railroad. The "Puff- 
ing Billy" was built in the blacksmith shop 
connected with the Wylam colliery. It 
had two vertical cylinders, the power be- 
ing transmitted by fulcrum levers to geai 
wheels which engaged gears connecting 
with the axles of the carrying wheels. The 
boiler had a return flue, and provided 
much more heating surface than the boiler 
of the first locomotive built. 

The success of the "Puffing Billy" in 
hauling cars and doing the work without 
delay or interruption, excited a great deal 
of talk and discussion in Northumberland 
and Durham, and a great many persons 
went to see the remarkable sight. Among 
those who witnessed the working of the 
"Puffing Billy," early in its career, was 
George Stephenson, then connected with 
a neighboring colliery, whose proprietors 
were casting about for improved methods 
of transporting their coal. Stephenson 
was a very ingenious mechanic, and on ex- 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



r.9 



amining the Hedley engine, declared his 
intention to build a better one. This led 
to the construction of a locomotive al 
Killingworth colliery, under Stephen .m' 
supervision. The machine was put to 
work the following year. The perform ■ 
ance of the early Stephenson locomotives 
compared very unfavorably with those 
that Hcdley constructed. The "Puffing 
Hilly" is a small, crude-looking machine, 
but it possesses all the elements of the 
modern locomotive except the multi-tubu- 
lar boiler. To appreciate the great work 
done by the designer, we must remember 
that the whole of his efforts were without 
aid from anything that had been done in 
the same line before. He had to work out 
proportions for himself, just as he worked 
out facts concerning adhesion. The lead- 
ing defect of the first engine was want of 
steam, and this he rectified in the second 
one by materially increasing the heating 
surface. The complex form of transmit- 
ting power to the driving wheels was made 
necessary by the weak track on which the 
engine worked, and which required a long 
distribution of weight. With all its 
obvious faults, Hedley's "Puffing Billy" 
was a triumph of good designing in a field 
where no precedent existed, and the 
builder has the undoubted right to the 
credit of being called "The Father of the 
Locomotive Engine." 



The Weak Draft Gear. 

In talking, at the Northwestern Railway 
Club, on "Draft Gear," Mr. E. A. Wil- 
liams, mechanical superintendent of the 
Soo Line, said: 

"I think it will be conceded by all who 
are in charge of freight-car repairs that the 
maintenance of freight-car equipment on 
account of weak draft gear is one of the 
largest items of expense in the repair of 
cars. I think we have all noticed that the 
improvement in draft gear has not kept 
pace with the other improvements of 
freight-car equipment, such as brake gear, 
bolsters and framing. 

"If we pass through any large freight 
yard and examine the draw gear of dif- 
ferent cars, we find that, practically, a 
large majority of cars have the same de- 
sign of draft gear that was applied fifteen 
years ago on twenty or twenty-five thou- 
sand pounds capacity cars. While it is 
true that parts of the attachment, such as 
pocket straps, follower plates, draw lugs 
and springs, are made heavier in order to 
resist the pulling and buffing, at the same 
time they are attached to the draft timbers 
in practically the same manner as was the 
practice on lighter cars — that is. the draw 
lugs are bolted, each independently to the 
draft timbers, which, in itself, is an element 
of weakness. The continual shocks that 
the drawbar receives weaken and loosen 
the bolts, and eventually draft timbers are 
split and destroyed. 

"There are a great many excellent de- 
vices, in a number of cases patented, which 



are an improvement for draft gear. 
\mong othei I might mention one where 
the spring is inclosed in a casing with 
double projections on each side of the 
spring pocket, gained into draft timbers, 
the bolts extending through both draft 
timbers and spring casing, and bolting 
the draft timbers and spring casing or 
box firmly together. I think this is a 
decided improvement, and an arrange- 
ment that will reduce the damage to the 
draw gear. There are others that I have 
noticed, such as double springs, and in 
one case that I have in mind where not 
only double springs but a double pocket 
strap is used. This, in my opinion, is a 
very excellent device, and one that cer- 
tainly will reduce the cost of repair of 
draft rigging. Of course, the continuous 
drawbar is no doubt an improvement over 
the old style of drawbar rigging, but, from 
my observation, there is an element of 



i the end oi the pindle. Keliance 
foi the fit of the new bolt in the out< i 
i placed entirely on the taper fit, which 
unnecessary, as it is 
screwed in from the firebox side, and the 
fit is assured by the taper .don.-. 

The shank is made to fit the shaft of 
the "universal tools" illustrated in an- 
Other column, and this device is easy of 
manipulation in the firebox or any other 
place it may be used. The tool was de- 
signed under the supervision of Superin- 
tendent of Mod I ei Turner, of the 
Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh Railway. 
Mr. Harry Edwards, the foreman boiler- 
maker at Rochester, informs us that its 
value cannot be over-estimated in the sav- 
ing it effects by drilling out a broken stay- 
bolt while the main frame of an engine is 
left undisturbed. The cost for staybolt 
renewals has been an item of no inconsid- 
erable consequence when the removal of 




I 



TOOL FOR CUTTINGIOUT BROKEN STAYBOLTS 



weakness in the continuous bar, i. e., it 
is liable to stretch, and I think that there 
has been considerable difficulty experi- 
enced in keeping the rods at the proper 
length. 

"' )n a large number of cars that have 
recently been built I noticed that the 
drawbars have been applied directly to the 
center sills, doing away with draft timbers. 
Of course, an arrangement of that kind 
would be impracticable on cars already 
built for draft timbers, for the reason that 
it would raise the drawbars too high above 
top of rail. At the same time, it strikes 
me that where cars are designed to place 
the drawbars or couplers between center 
sills, it is a very excellent arrangement." 



A Tool for Broken Staybolts. 

The terrors of a staybolt broken behind 
the frame of an engine, are dissipated by 
the little tool shown in our engraving. It 
is made to use from the inside of the fire- 
box after the ordinary' drill has done its 
work, by passing through to the outer 
hole and gradually enlarging it until the 
broken bolt is entirely cut away down to 
the thread. This is done by forcing out 
the swiveled cutter to any amount wanted, 
by means of the f 8 -inch spindle passing 
through the center of the tool, and which 
is forced against the inclined face of the 
cutter's edge by means of the shank- 
shown screwed on the body and bearing 



a frame was involved: this tool has reduced 
it to a reasonable figure. 

@ 

A flue-cutter has been recently patented 
by Thomas De Coursey Ruth, of Buffalo. 
X. V . which has a very strong resem- 
blance to one that has been used for several 
years by Mr. Turner, master mechanic of 
the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh Rail- 
way. The cutter consists of a sectional 
block with flange on the end. which goes 
up against the tube plate. Inside there 
are two cutters which are pushed against 
the tube by a tapered arbor. The only 
difference that we can see between it and 
Mr. Turner*s device is that the patented 
article has two cutters, while Mr. Turner 
uses one. 



The Executive Committee oi the Xew 
York Railroad Club have decided that the 
sending of their monthly reports to the 
members of all other railroad clubs is a 
source of expense, embarrassing to the 
club, and they recommended that the 
practice be stopped. On the question be- 
ing put before the last regular meeting of 
the club, it was unanimously voted not to 
send reports to those who are not mem- 
bers of the club. The Executive Commit- 
tee have arranged to purchase sufficient 
copies of other clubs to supply one to 
each member of the club. 



<!0 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



A Fighting Engineman. 

Every man who has railroaded for a 
single day on the Rio Grande has heard 
of John Jones — "Scrappy" Jones they 
called him. If there is such a disease as 
scraptomania, then John Jones had it, 
good and hard. He began at the bottom 
as helper in the machine shops, and in- 
dustriously fought his way up the ladder 
until he became a full-edged locomotive 
engineer. There is scarcely a flag station 
on the entire system that has not been his 
battlefield. 

The most interesting feature in the his- 
tory of Jones is the fact that he never 
sought a fight, or fought for the "fun of 
it," as most fighting characters do. I 
knew him intimately, worked with him 
many a day, and it seemed to me that he 
had fights thrust upon him in nearly every 
instance. When he was "hostler" at 
Salida I was his assistant. One day when 
we were dangling our feet from a high 
bench in the roundhouse I asked him how 
it was that he had so many fights. "You 
are better tempered and happier than I 
am; I have had one fight since I be- 
gan railroading; how many have you 
had?" 

" 'Bout a hundred," said Jones, and his 
homely face was sad. He told me, then 
and there, that fighting was his besetting 
sin. He had worked and prayed that he 
might be spared the necessity of thrash- 
ing men, but it seemed a part of his mis- 
sion on earth. When the noon whistle 
sounded we slid off the high bench and 
went into the washroom to prepare for 
luncheon. Before we left the house we 
were obliged to use the turntable. "Hey, 
there, back up. We want to use the turn- 
table!" Jones called cheerfully enough to 
a passenger engineer who was oiling his 
locomotive, which, contrary to all rules 
and customs, was left standing on the 
turntable. Now, Jones had thrashed 
nearly every engineer he had fired for 
during his apprenticeship, and they all 
hated him, so this middle division man 
only gave him a sour look and went on 
oiling. "Say," said Jones, rolling his 
thumb and twirling his watch chain about 
it, "are you going to back up?" 

"Yes, when I get ready," was the reply. 
Jones made straight for the engine. As 
he climbed up on one side, the driver 
mounted from the other, and, snatching 
up a hand hammer, raised it above Jones's 
head and warned him to keep off his en- 
gine. I held my breath as Jones con- 
tinued to climb and the engineer stood 
ready to brain him. When the hostler, 
who appeared not to have heard the warn- 
ing, had gained the deck, he twisted the 
hammer from the grasp of the engineer, 
threw it back into the coal tank, backed 
the engine from the table, set the air 
brakes, and leaped to the ground. He 
had missed a fight here simply because 
the engineer weakened, and yet Jones was 
wholly in the right. 

Once when he was firing a passenger 



engine they stopped at Cleora, only two 
miles from the end of the run. The en- 
gineer abused Jones and Jones thumped 
him. The driver told the conductor that 
he would not run the engine in with that 
fireman, whereupon Jones gave the driver 
another licking, drove him into the cab, 
and compelled him to go to the end of 
the division. There was an investigation 
in the office of Master Mechanic Kelker, 
at Pueblo. The engineer began to abuse 
the fireman and he was notified by the 
latter that such a course was liable to lead 
to trouble. Presently the engineer called 
Jones a liar, and instantly he fell spraw- 
ling across the master mechanic's desk. 
This caused the fireman's discharge. But 
the provocation had been great, and the 
official gave Jones a rather complimentary 
letter to the general master mechanic at 
Denver. Jones went up and told the 
whole story, not even attempting to justi- 
fy his own actions, and he was reemployed 
upon another run. 

In those days engineers and firemen 
worked far apart, and as Jones had licked 
about half the engineers on the middle 
division, he was simply despised by the 
men on the right-hand side. There was a 
young Irishman who was a magnificent 
man, physically, and possessed of no end 
of sand, and to this handsome fellow was 
given the task of thrashing Scrappy 
Jones. They met one day out at the steel 
works and the Irishman had no trouble 
in working Jones up to the proper pitch. 
Jones told the story of this fight to me. 
"He looked like a giant," he said, "when 
he faced me, but I was mad. Before I 
knew he was within reach he hit me square 
between the eyes, and it seemed to me that 
it was raining fire. I fell sprawling on my 
back, but got up as quickly as I could, 
and he knocked me down again. I got 
up again, with the air full of sparks. He 
knocked me down again. More fire, I 
continued to go down and get up. It 
.didn't hurt so very much, only it blinded 
me, and that annoyed me, for I was anxi- 
ous to see how he did it, for I had never 
found it utterly impossible to get at a 
man before. As often as I straightened 
up he hit me plumb between the eyes and 
down I went. I had been down six times, 
but my wind was better than that of my 
opponent, and that very fact seemed to 
discourage him. He was breathing like 
a snow plough, and when I went down 
for the seventh time he started to climb 
my frame, and that was his Waterloo. I 
saw him coming, dimly, as through a veil 
all dotted with stars. I doubled up like 
a jack-knife, and when I straightened my 
legs out I drove my feet into the stomach 
of my antagonist. He went over on his 
back, and I went over on top of him and 
closed the incident. He had me whipped. 
I was completely done out, and three more 
falls would have ended me, but he got 
scared and wanted to end the fight." 

The next man selected to discipline 
Jones was a yard master, Jim Williams. 



When Williams saw the fighter for the 
first time he laughed. 

"Are you the artist that has licked all 
the engineers on the middle division?" 
asked Jim with a quizzical smile. 

Jones showed plainly that he was em- 
barrassed. He always looked so when 
he knew that a man was trying to pick a 
quarrel with him. He answered that he 
had done the best he could for those who 
had come up against him, and Jim laughed 
some more, Three or four seconds were 
now wasted in preliminary talk, and then 
the two climbed into an empty box car 
and shut the door. The men on the out- 
side only listened to catch a word that 
would give them some idea as to how the 
fight was going, but there was no talk. 
At times one would fancy that a football 
team was performing inside. Now there 
came heaves and grunts as if two men 
were trying to put up a heavy stove, and 
then you might guess that a dray had 
backed up to the opposite door and they 
were throwing in a few sacks of potatoes. 
Presently there was a "rush," and they 
threw in the dray, horse and all. This 
was followed by perfect quiet, save for the 
heavy breathing of the horse. A few 
moments later the door was opened and 
the two men came out, bleeding through 
their smiles, and still the result of the 
fight was a secret, and it has, so far as 
I know, remained so to this day. 

Jones's fights became so notorious that 
the traveling engineer waited upon him 
to say that the master mechanic had or- 
dered that the beligerent engineer be dis- 
charged at the conclusion of his next 
fight. Jones promised to reform. About 
a month later the traveling engineer 
climbed into the cab of the engine, which 
Jones was running, helping trains from 
Colorado Springs up over the Divide. 
The young driver showed much feeling 
upon meeting the T. E., and at once as- 
sured the official that he appreciated the 
kindness of the management; that they 
had all been very forgiving, and now he 
hoped that he might leave the service with 
the good wishes of the officials. 

"Why, you are not going to quit, are 
you, John? The old man has compli- 
mented you repeatedly upon the excellent 
work you have been doing here on the 
hill." 

"Then I take it that the old man isn't 
on," said Jones. "That's like you, Frank, 
to try to save my neck, but it's no use." 

Suddenly it dawned upon the mind of 
the traveling superintendent of motive 
power that Jones had been fighting. If he 
wanted to be sure all he had to do was to 
ask Jones and he would get the whole 
truth, so he asked him whom he had 
fought with. 

"The hill crew," was the brief reply. 

"All of them." 

"Yep — began on the head brakeman 
and cleaned out the caboose, including the 
captain," said Jones, with no show of 
pride. The official jumped off the engine 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



61 



and swung into the caboose of an east- 
bound freight train, and that was the last 
Jones heard of the order to discharge him, 
for the conductor was too proud to re- 
port the fact that a little man weighing 
less than 140 pounds had cleaned out the 
crew with his naked hands. The story 
of this fight, and how it came about, was 
related to the writer by the traveling en- 
gineer himself. 

"We've got a cranky engineer," the old 
brakeman had said to the new brakeman 
who boasted that he was off the stormy 
division of the "Q" and that he had not 
yet met an engineer who could tame him. 
"The only way you can handle him is to 
go at him dead hard from the jump — cuss 
him good and plenty, and, if necessary, 
thump him, and he'll be your friend." 

"Cussin's like walkin' to me," said the 
"Q" man, "and when it comes to a scrap, 
that's me Prince Albert," and he went up 
to the head end. When he had arrived 
at a point immediately under the cab win- 
dow he began a torrent of blankety blank- 
ing that made the engineer dart his head 
out of the window to see what was the 
matter. The moment that Jones realized 
that the fellow was cursing him he leaped 
right out through the cab window and lit 
on top of the brakeman, and by the time 
the rear man came up the head man was 
yelling for help. He told Jones at once 
that the rear brakeman had informed him 
that the engineer was a tough mug, and 
had to be cursed or he would be ugly, 
and Jones promptly apologized to the 
head brakeman and thrashed the other 
fellow. Now, the conductor, who had al- 
lowed all this to come about with his 
knowledge and silent consent, observed 
that Jones was a brute, and he got what 
the other two men had received, and from 
that day the hill crew dwelt together in 
peace and brotherly love. 

Once when Jones was still a fireman he 
was transferred to the mountain division, 
so as to be forgotten for a time by the en- 
gineers of the middle of the road. When 
he reached the top of the hill for the first 
time he noticed that the rear end of the 
tank was covered with wet cinders, and, 
like the industrious fireman that he was, 
he got up and began to sweep them off in 
the long snow shed at Marshall Pass. 

The superintendent's private car was 
standing near by, but Jones did not notice 
it in the smoky shed, and the first swipe 
of his broom sent a flood of cinders over 
the superintendent, who happened at that 
moment to be passing. 

"Blank blank you!" shouted the official, 
and as he looked up he saw the fireman 
leap from the top of the tank, and he had 
to step back to avoid a crush. "Do you 
know who I am?" asked the official. 

"No, and I don't care so long as you've 
got gray hair." 

"I'm the superintendent." 

"Well, you, don't you me 

again." said Jones, and he got back on his 
engine, and the superintendent, who was 



himself a high-spirited man, remarked 
afterward that he liked that fellow's spunk, 
and, in fact, he showed in after years that 
he did like it, for he would have Jones 
when none of the other division superin- 
tendents would. 

The last time I saw Jones he told me 
that he had quit railroading. He had 
bought, with the money he had saved up, 
the old farm in Kentucky, where he was 
born, had married the little girl who had 
been his playmate in childhood, and I 
presume she and I were about the only 
close friends he had whom he had never 
thrashed. — Cy War man in New York 
Sun. 



Relation Between Track and Rolling 
Stock. 

A highly valuable paper was read at the 
December meeting of the New York Rail- 
road Club, by Mr. E. E. Russell Tratman. 
on "The Relations of Track to Traffic on 
American and Foreign Railways." The 
drift of the paper was to the effect that 
track matters do not receive sufficient 
consideration from railroad companies, 
and that the best interest of the com- 
panies suffer thereby. 

A great deal of valuable information 
was given concerning the conditions of 
track, the weight of rails, the fastenings 
of the same, and the kind and quality of 
ties used by different companies. It was 
said that it sometimes happens among 
American railroads that during seasons 
of depression the necessary work was not 
put out upon maintaining the track in 
proper condition, and that it was a very 
expensive policy. We consider that one 
of the worst phases of American railway 
management has been that whenever a 
call for reduction of expenses arises, the 
track is the first to suffer by a reduction of 
expense and labor. This not only in- 
volves much extra expense in getting the 
track back into safe condition, but it is 
destructive on the rolling stock that runs 
over it, and greatly increases the expense 
of maintenance and repairs. 

Although this policy is a great deal 
too common, the tendency to maintain 
tracks in good condition is growing, and 
the authority of the Railroad Commission 
of New York State is quoted to the effect, 
that notwithstanding the financial depres- 
sion, many betterments have lately been 
added to the main lines, looking to in- 
creased safety in transportation. The dan- 
ger of facing switches is being eliminated 
as rapidly as possible upon all principal 
roads. The rule-of-thumb method of ad- 
justing curves has given way to modern, 
scientific formulas, and the principal roads 
are placing and keeping curves in better 
adjustment for speed. Derailing switches 
are coming into more general use upon 
spur lines and sidings having a down 
grade to main track. Many of the single- 
track roads are making dead ends where 
feasible on sidings, thereby reducing to 



minimum the facing-switch evil. The 
ihIt ads in other States are working 
slowly in the same line of progress. 

Exception was taken to the enormous 
weight on locomotive drivers, and tables 
were given showing the weight of driving 
wheels on locomotives belonging on a few 
of the principal lines. The greatest 
weight of wheel is 22,650 pounds, which 
is carried by the moguls belonging to the 
Delaware, Susquehanna & Schuylkill 
Railroad. Some of the other roads are 
not very far behind these, and the track 
department insists that the enormous 
weight is very hard on rails and their con- 
nections. 

The statement was made that rail- 
way engineers are less aggressive in 
asserting the needs of the track than the 
superintendents of motive power in as- 
serting the needs of rolling equipment. 
The financial officers are more disposed 
to heed the latter, as being more directly 
and apparently related to the earning ca- 
pacity of the road. This is no doubt true 
to a great extent, especially on small 
lines, and it is a pity that a broader policy 
is not pursued, for railway managers 
ought to have an. eye to the best interests 
of the company, which would require that 
the kind of rolling stock employed should 
depend on the kind of track and bridges 
that are going to carry it. 

In the discussion that followed the read- 
ing of the paper. Dr. P. H. Dudley, the 
well-known engineering expert, made a 
statement concerning the advantages that 
had arisen from the introduction of 
heavier rails upon the New York Central 
and Boston & Albany railways. Dia- 
grams were given showing the improved 
condition of the track that resulted from 
each addition to the weight of rails. 

The practical effect of the improvement 
has been that locomotives haul more cars 
with greater ease and there is less wear on 
running gear. Increase in the size of rail 
heads has a very decided effect in prevent- 
ing the wear of tires, and locomotives 
with 20,000 pounds per driving wheel 
show less wear on tires on heavy rails 
than much lighter locomotives did when 
the rails were lighter. Dr. Dudley made 
the point, that the better the track, the 
cheaper and safer was the operating of 
traffic, which engineers have come to ac- 
cept as an acknowledged axiom. 

A statement was made to the effect 
that ties now cost more than rails for rail- 
road tracks, which is an additional rea- 
son why heavy rails should be employed. 



@ 



When tool-users purchase tools by 
weight, it is a wise plan to find out how 
much each tool actually weighs. We 
heard of a case lately where a very heavy 
tool fell 8,000 pounds short of what it was 
represented to weigh. Smaller tools are 
liable to the same kind of miscalcula- 
tion. 



62 

Why They Don't Steam. 

We know of no subject connected with 
the operating of trains that excites so 
much attention among all classes of rail- 
road men as— "What is the matter with 
locomotives that are hard steamers?'' A 
variety of causes help to bring this unde 
sirable condition about. A few of them 
arc well described in an article contributed 
by R. MacBain to the "Fireman's Maga- 
zine": 

Some of the causes why "she don't 
steam well," he says, may be summed up 
as follows: Smokestack or exhaust pipe 
out of "line," front-ends not kept tight 
enough to exclude atmosphere; tubes not 
bored out often enough; grate openings 
not sufficient, on account Of openings be- 
coming filled by foreign matter or perhaps 
not enough when entirely clear; and last, 
but not least, poor management on the 
part of enginemen. The smokestack and 
exhaust nozzle should be in perfect align- 
ment. This is imperative for economy. 
The exhaust tip should be just large 
enough to handle the fire to the best ad- 
vantage and produce the necessary heat 
units to make the required amount of 
steam without "forcing" the fire by shak- 
ing grates and using slash bar to excess. 
li more than one grade of coal is used 
the locomotive should be so adjusted as 
to meet the demands of each kind to the 
best possible advantage, i. e., strike the 
medium. It will be found, on the average 
extension front locomotive, it is more eco- 
nomical to have the nozzle a little small 
rather than a little large, particularly on 
freight engines. I do not mean to advo- 
cate a small nozzle, but of the two evils I 
would choose it, for the reason that it will 
do the best and most economical work 
when the coal varies in quality. The front 
ends should be kept tight (watch the cin- 
der trap) and all other openings that are 
liable to get out of order and admit air to 
the detriment of the engine by destroying 
the "vacuum" in the smokebox. Keep 
the flues bored out clean. One engine 
neglected in this way will waste enough 
coal in a trip to pay for cleaning out a 
dozen sets of flues. Keep the grate bar 
openings clear and the clinkers off the 
crown-bar bolt heads, and the efficiency 
of the engine will repay for the labor in 
carrying out the above. 

To bring about the best possible results, 
there must, in addition to the above, be 
careful, skillful and conscientious effort 
on the part of engineers and firemen. A 
great amount of fuel is wasted by some 
engineers (who are good runners) in start- 
ing out of town in neglecting to "cut her 
back" as the speed increases, or as it 
should be done. I have ridden with men 
who complained of their engine not steam- 
ing, yet in pulling out of stations (with 
the latest design of quadrant) they would 
go about two train lengths at full stroke, 
then they would hook her up about half 
way and put their heads out of the win- 
dow and forget that the fireman was on 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 

earth. Alter having their visit out with 
the scenery along the way would suddenly 
look around to find both steam and water 
low. She would then get the final hook 
up, accompanied by an inquiring look at 
the unfortunate on the "wooden end of 
the shovel." Result, poor time; cause, 
poor judgment on part of engineers, who 
are not the last men "set-up" either, ex- 
cept in a very few instances. 

In order to do what is just by the em- 
ployer, an engineer should pay the closest 
attention to his work at all times and in- 
stead of hooking her up by installments 
of ten or twelve notches at a time he 
should do so one or two at a time. By so 
doing the fire can be maintained at some- 
thing near proper conditon, water can be 
kept up to the proper level and she will 
steam better. Besides this the fireman 
will think you are a nice runner and feel 
it incumbent upon himself to do the best 
he can, a thought that will never occur to 
him if you "visit" in getting out of town.. 
A fireman to be valuable to his employers 
should have in addition to his muscles a 
liberal amount of ambition and all the 
information he can avail himself of in re- 
gard to combustion, etc. No very success- 
ful or progressive firemen ever develop 
out of the boy who gets around on short 
time, and who does the most of his firing 
"off the seat." In order to get the best 
results he must attend strictly to his work. 
Never while running put in more than two 
shovelfuls at a time, and doing this syste- 
matically, always keeping in mind where 
the last fire was put. Never cover the whole 
surface of fire in putting on fresh coal; 
leave a bright spot to ignite the gases 
from the new coal as they pass toward the 
flues. By so doing you will soon get the 
banner as a smoke-preventing fireman, 
and that is the best possible evidence that 
you are an economical one. It is safe to 
estimate that if men in charge of power 
and engineers and firemen would carry 
out the above suggestions that a good 
many thousand dollars a year could be 
saved to their employers and you would 
all feel better toward one another. 



Citizenship and Technical Education. 

We have received from the Lehigh 
University a copy of an address delivered 
on Founders' Day, on "Citizenship and 
Technical Education," by Mr. John H. 
Converse, A. B., of the Baldwin Loco- 
motive Works, Philadelphia. The ad- 
dress is particularly pointed and interest- 
ing, and in a broad way discusses the 
subject of technical education from a 
business man's standpoint. 

It is too long to be published in our 
columns in full, and it is one of those 
products little susceptible to being con- 
densed. Our advice to those interested 
ir practical technical education is to send 
to the University for the pamphlet. Mr. 
Converse is not much in sympathy with 
the practice prevailing in this country 



which keeps the various States from pro- 
moting technical education. In this re- 
gard he says: "France has its comprehen- 
sive scheme of education, including the 
primary, the secondary and the superior 
technical schools. The outgrowth of that 
era of organization which marked the 
First Empire has been maintained and 
developed to the present day. Govern- 
ment supervision and uniformity of meth- 
ods have made its advantages available 
to all seekers. Germany goes still fur- 
ther. There the gymnasium leads to the 
university for literary and general culture, 
to the 'realschule' for business training, or 
to the technical schools for the acquire- 
ment of the practical professions. Even 
China, half heathen as we are accustomed 
to regard 'The Flowery Kingdom,' has its 
system of competitive examinations under 
government auspices, promoting the high- 
est culture under the standard there pre- 
vailing. Appointments and promotions 
to civil office are made from the lists of 
those who have obtained the highest rank 
in these competitions." 

After discussing the advantages and 
duties of technical education, he con- 
cludes: "The education will, it is true. 
be an effective implement, but its owner 
will still have to learn its use. The in- 
terests of manufacturing and commerce 
have little respect for the dignity of 
science. Their motto is that 'Nothing 
succeeds like success.' The practical man 
who knows thoroughly a few things is 
considered superior to the theorist who 
has a partial knowledge of a variety of 
subjects. The graduate must, therefore, 
be ready to subordinate his training to the 
necessities of the business. He will un- 
doubtedly in good time find ample oppor- 
tunity to utilize his knowledge. There is 
one term toocommonlyused which is mis- 
chievous in its influence. We hear of a 
young man seeking a 'position' in a busi- 
ness. It is not 'position,' but opportunity 
of usefulness that should be sought. 
Faithful and intelligent service will gen- 
erally secure recognition in the long run. 
"A young man of my acquaintance, 
who had completed his course as an elec- 
trical engineer, sought employment with 
the Westinghouse Electrical Company. 
The first work to which he was assigned 
consisted in trueing up by hand the plates 
of an armature and covering it with asbes- 
tos, a process which perhaps could have 
been as well done by an ordinary laborer. 
The manager grimly remarked that such 
a job was what they usually assigned to 
college graduates. The young man ac- 
cepted the task without a murmur, and in 
no long time was promoted to more im- 
portant and congenial duties. Another 
case within my knowledge is that of a 
young man who had received his degree 
as mining engineer. He learned that a 
certain smelting works in one of the 
Western States had applied to the presi- 
dent of his institution for some one to 
serve as a helper in the assay department. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



63 



The salary was inconsiderable, but llic 
place was accepted, and within a year he 
had been promoted by successive steps 
until he was offered an engagement as 
manager of the works. 

"One more instance will suffice. At 
the commencement exercises of 1895 of 
my own Alma Mater, a young man just 
graduated as mechanical engineer applied 
to me for employment. It was arranged, 
and on September 1st he reported for 
duly and was assigned to worl< in run- 
ning a shaping machine in a night gang. 
Several promotions were secured in a 
reasonable time, and on May 1st an appli- 
cation, which was received from the 
Government of the United States of Co- 
lombia for a principal instructor in a 
mechanical school in that country, was 
filled by the nomination by his employers 
of the young man referred to." 

g i ® 

Thermodynamics. 

Among the new sciences which have 
grown up during the last century in con- 
nection with the development of the me- 
chanic arts, that of thermodynamics holds 
a conspicuous place. We have been asked 
to define thermodynamics, and to do so 
we turn to our right-hand mentor, Web- 
ster's Unabridged Dictionary, and find 
that it is "the science which treats of the 
mechanical action or relation of heat." 

When we are further asked what has 
that science done for the world, we were 
at a loss for particulars until we remem- 
bered something of an address made on 
the subject by Professor De Volson Wood 
at the Stevens Institute of Technology. 
On looking that up, we find the learned 
professor says of thermodynamics that: 

1. It has shown wherein the efficiency 
of heat engines may be improved by in- 
creasing the range of temperature through 
which the fluid is worked. 

2. It determines the efficiency of an en- 
gine compared with the calorific power of 
the fuel. This could not have been done 
prior to the determination of the mechani- 
cal equivalent of heat. 

3. It generalizes and systematizes the 
study of all heat engines — steam and 
other vapor engines, gas and hot-air en- 
gines, compressors, injectors, etc. 

4. It has led to the determination of 
certain properties of saturated vapors. 

5. It has led to certain graphical rep- 
resentations which present certain princi- 
ples more clearly to the mind. 

6. By it one may design, thermodynami- 
cally, the volume of the cylinder to do a 
given amount of work, determine the 
pounds of fuel and the pounds of steam. 
In practice there are wastes which must 
be determined practically and allowed for 
before the thermodynamic engine will be 
a practical one. 

7. It gives a definite solution to certain 
problems in refrigeration. 

8. It has been a means of discovery; as, 



imi instance, by it was made the first cor- 
rect determination of the specific heat oi 
air; the liquefaction of vapor due to ex- 
pansion in a non-conducting cylinder; the 
volume of a pound of vapor; the p 
heat oi steam and other superheated va- 
pors at constant volume; the heat of va- 
porization of ammonia; the approximate 
value of the specific heat of liquid am- 
monia; the lowering of the melting point 
"i ice due to pressure; and is used in the 
solution of many problems which might 
be resolved by other means. 

9. It is related to some of the higher 
and refined problems of physics. What 
elements seem more unrelated than the 
mechanical equivalent of heat and the 
velocity of sound in air — or other gas — 
and yet they arc definitely connected by 
an algebraic equation — they are so defi- 
nitely connected that they cannot be sepa- 
rated. Surely there is poetry in science 
even if it takes a mathematical genius to 
find it. 

10. By a study of heat in all its phases, 
oj which the mechanical theory is one, 
a student is led the more to appreciate the 
importance of saving heat and of means 
for avoiding wastes; and it gives him an 
advantage, in the management of steam, 
over one whose chief business it is to bore 
cylinders and make pistons and connect- 
ing rods. 



Where He Learned the Science of 
His Business. 

"I knew Brown was a pretty well-posted 
man on a locomotive; but when he got to 
talking with the professor, he cracked it 
off as glib as you please about foot-pounds, 
indicated horse-power, Mariotte*s law, 
and a whole lot more things I never heard 
of before. 

"Then we went into the chemical room, 
and the professor showed us how they 
test water to see what it has got in it that 
will scale up a boiler. My! what a sight 
of gas furnaces, glass measures and little 
copper stew-pans they had, and about a 
dozen of the students were at worK in 
there. They got some well water from a 
pump out in the yard and put a pinch of 
powder like baking soda in it; it got 
milky right off; then the white stuff set- 
tled at the bottom of the glass, which was 
the stuff that makes the scale and mud. 
He put some of the powder in the rain 
water out of their big cistern, and it didn't 
show a sign of anything in it. He said 
all soft water was like that, which made it 
Al for boilers. 

"Well, when we were coming home I 
says to Brown: 'How did you learn all 
these things, so you could talk right along 
with the professor? When I first knew 
you it was about all you could do to read 
good and figure a little; you hain't never 
gone to school any since you began rail- 
roading, except the drafting school the 
master mechanic started and run nights 
till he had a lot of you young fellows run 



through the steps, y d do pretty 

fair work at n 

"Brown Hushed up a little and said: 
'I'll tell you, I 1 ill' 1 Troy; I am going to 
1 all the time. I get good books; 
they were all borrowed ones at the start; 
now we have money enough to buy them 
and take papers like "Locomotive Engi- 
neering" ami our "Magazine," beside what 
I get from the reading room.' 

" 'Yes,' says I; 'we get the same papers 
and read them all through, but I don't 
remember half what is in them.' 

" 'That is just it,' says Brown; 'you 
only read to satisfy your curiosity or to 
pass away the time. You read the "Loco- 
motive Engineering" all through in one 
afternoon and forget all about it before 
next Sunday, but it lasts me a whole week 
and I think about it between times. Arti- 
cles on mechanical subjects want t" 1» 
read over carefully and find out just what 
they mean, and whether it is anything that 
will do you any good. If it is, it should 
be all studied out so the information will 
be stored away where it will do some 
good.' 

"Now, Clint, wasn't that a quiet roast, 
and from a young man that fired for me, 
too? But he done it so cool and quiet 
like I had to take it. Says Brown, 'So 
many men think they are studying hard, 
when the subject they are working over 
produces no more effect on their mind 
than the dew on a dusty road; it only 
lasts till the hot sun comes up. You have 
got to get right down to business, and 
work hard at it, when you are learning 
mechanical principles and operations. It 
is just as you said — when I began rail- 
roading it soon was very plain that to get 
to the front I must keep up to the times. 
Most of all the young men now have a 
pretty good common school education, 
but you need more than that; so I went 
right to work to get it, and though it 
looks like a big job to get up above the 
common level, it is awful easy when you 
once get started. It is just fun for me 
now, and more real enjoyment to put in 
an hour with my books than out with the 
boys." — Clinton B. Conger in Fireman s 
Magazine. 



Railroad Officers Should Keep Out of 
Politics. 

At the beginning of the presidential 
campaign, we were urged to advocate in 
our pages sound money principles for the 
benefit of our railroad readers. We de- 
clined to deviate from our rule of discus- 
sing merely mechanical problems, and we 
doubted the wisdom of any railroad paper 
trying to influence railroad men as to how 
they should vote. 

From what we have known of railroad 
men in a somewhat lengthened experience. 
we were disposed to think that, instead of 
following advice given by technical papers 
and representatives of official opinion, the 



64 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



men interested would take the opposite 
course. Facts seem to have warranted the 
truth of our prediction. While talking re- 
cently with one of the chief officers of a 
Kansas railway about the election, he ex- 
pressed the opinion that the management 
had made a mistake in trying to induce the 
employes to vote for particular candidates. 
He said that the men nearly all carried 
McKinley badges and attended the sound 
money demonstrations; but when voting 
day came, he was persuaded, from the re- 
sults, that a majority of them voted the 
other way. 

The following paragraph from a letter 
of the Kansas correspondent of the "New 
York Evening Post" appears to corrobor- 
ate our views: 

"For one thing, there was too much 
railroad in the campaign. When a Repub- 
lican speaker of note came to the State, he 
was met by a railroad official in a private 
car, and the farmers who drove for ten and 
fifteen miles over the plains in a wagon 
without a spring or a cover, looked at the 
luxurious car and its silver and china- 
laden table just inside the plate-glass 
doors and shook their heads. When a 
Republican speaker missed his appoint- 
ment, he was accommodated with a special 
car and engine to haul him half across the 
State. If a Populist missed his appoint- 
ment, he did not get there at all. The 
people who saw the special car come in 
did not think so much of the speaker as 
did the other crowd of the man who could 
not come. It would have been better to 
hold the special trains until later in the 
day. Too many men were riding on passes 
and too much work was done with the 
railroad employes. They got the idea 
that there was more influence brought to 
bear on them than on other people, and 
this was fostered by the cry of "coercion," 
until they really believed that they were 
imposed upon. As a result the sound 
money element did not get more than half 
of the railroad vote, whereas they con- 
fidently expected 75 per cent. 

"To get even, the Populists are deter- 
mined to make their chief business the 
regulation of railways. There will be 
passed some of the most radical laws that 
have ever been on the statute book, the 
session laws will read like a dream-book, 
and poor Kansas will be a laughing-stock 
again." 



Not Equal to Test Results. 

When mechanical engineers and others 
go out to make tests of improved appli- 
ances for locomotives, they are very often 
disappointed to find that the performance 
which they recorded is very rarely equaled 
in the practical working of the engines. 

A well-known master mechanic, who 
understood human nature, and had taken 
part in hundreds of tests of locomotive 
appliances, used to say, that if you painted 
the stack of a locomotive red and made 



tests to find out the effect of the change, 
a saving of 10 per cent, would be certain 
to follow. While the test is on, the en- 
ginemen are on their mettle to do their 
best, and so an apparent saving is found; 
but when they drop back into their easy- 
going, everyday practice, the 10 per cent, 
disappears. 

Mr. Amman, in a paper read at the 
Northwestern Railroad Club, related some 
particulars of a test which appear to sus- 
tain this theory of how apparent savings 
are effected. He said: "A series of tests 
were made; several varieties of coal were 
tested, and very satisfactory results were 
obtained from a certain grade of Eastern 
coal. The engine was one of the standard 
type used on that portion of the road, 
and was in ordinary condition. The rec- 
ords showed that 55 miles per ton were 
made by the engine with the coal referred 
to, and as a result it was adopted as the 
fuel to be used. When making the test, 
no coal was charged to the engine other 
than that actually used in hauling the 
train from one terminal to the other, and 
as the trains were composed of through 
freight, no delays occurred; but when the 
same engine and crew were put into ordi- 
nary service, and received coal in the same 
manner as it was delivered to other en- 
gines, the best mileage that could be ob- 
tained was from 25 to 28 miles per ton, 
or about 50 per cent, of a falling off." 

This, he says, was undoubtedly due to 
the improper methods of accounts. We 
are inclined to think that it was due partly 
to the tendency that nearly all experts 
have to favor the machine they are testing, 
and the tendency that enginemen have to 
do their very best when they know that 
the eyes of experts and master mechanics 
are upon them. 

i i i 

Too Much Counterbalance. 

It is a mistake to imagine that because 
a locomotive is counterbalanced to run 
smoothly that she is in a condition to do 
no damage to the track. There are many 
master mechanics who appear to think that 
adding counterweights, until the engine 
runs without any horizontal or oscillating 
action, is all that is necessary to make 
the counterbalances satisfactory. We have 
never known of an engine that did dam- 
age to track which did not ride fairly well. 
A Western master mechanic got a very 
good object lesson some time ago on 
counterbalancing which others may benefit 
by reading. There was a certain loco- 
motive on the road that the roadmaster 
blamed for bending rails when she was 
running at high speed. The superinten- 
dent took up the matter with the master 
mechanic, and the latter declared that the 
engine was the best balanced engine on the 
road. To prove the position taken, he 
offered to take the engine out a few miles 
to the top of a steep grade and run her 
down at high velocity to let the superin- 
tendent feel for himself how finely the 



engine rode, and consequently how well 
counterbalanced she must be. The trial 
was made; they went up to the top of the 
grade and started down and attained a 
speed of 72 miles an hour. The thing 
seemed highly satisfactory. They had got 
the engine back to the roundhouse, and 
superintendent, master mechanic and en- 
gineer were talking among themselves 
about the cranky roadmaster, when sec- 
tion foreman Tim Sullivan, with his gang, 
came pumping up on the hand-car. He 
scarcely got within shouting distance 
when he called out to the engineer: "Ah! 
Phil Brown, ye blackguard, ye've raised 
hell with five miles of my track." Sure 
enough, for nearly that distance the 
greater part of the rails were more or less 
bent by the engine that was considered 
properly counterbalanced. 

i ® © 

Meeting of Mechanical Engineers. 

The seventeenth annual meeting of the 
American Society of Mechanical Engi- 
neers was held at the rooms of the society 
in New York City in the first week of last 
month. The proceedings opened with the 
retiring address of President Fritz, who 
spoke on "The Progress of the Manufac- 
ture of Iron and Steel, and the Relations 
of the Engineer to It." The address was, 
to a great extent, historical, and gave 
many reminiscences of the progress of the 
iron and steel industries in this country. 

At the conclusion, the address of Presi- 
dent Fritz was discussed by Messrs. An- 
drew Carnegie, A. H. Jacques, Robert W. 
Hunt, Robert Forsyth, S. F. Wellman and 
Allen Stirling. The remarks made con- 
sisted mostly of expressions of apprecia- 
tion of the great services which Mr. Fritz 
had performed towards the metallurgical 
interests of this century. 

The convention occupied over three 
days, during which time a variety of valu- 
able engineering papers were submitted 
and discussed. Abstracts of these are 
likely to be of interest to our readers and 
will be published from time to time. 



i $ i 

"The hard times we are now emerging 
from," says Master Mechanic Sanborn, 
"have compelled us to study economical 
methods more energetically and persis- 
tently than before. We have delved into 
scrap piles and resurrected material. We 
have invented methods for harnessing new 
and old forces to labor for us and work it 
into equipment. We have squeezed the 
old oil out of discarded packing to lubri- 
cate our machines. We have shut down 
on supplies for cleaning and running them, 
and one company, it is stated, even refuse 
to issue new brooms to firemen until they 
have cut strings on old ones and worn 
them down till handles are bald-headed; 
but we have not materially reduced the 
largest item of expense in the entire cost 
of operation — that is the coal account." 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



65 



The Apprentice System. 

For years there have been numerous 
public speakers interested in the promo- 
tion of industrial schools, who have been 
preaching to the people of this country 
that the apprentice system is defunct, and 
urging that the trades schools are the 
proper places to learn a trade. The prim- 
ary object in making these assertions ap- 
pears to have been to excite charitable 
behests in favor of industrial schools. 

The preaching on this text was carried 
on so persistently that a great many people 
believe that apprenticeship is a thing of the 
past, and that the industrial establishments 
of the country have now to depend upon 
trade schools and technical institutes for 
the training of mechanics. The public 
press, as a rule, believed what the advo- 
cates of trade schools said about appren- 
ticeship, and these representatives of public 
opinion take the tone that apprenticeship 
has gone forever, and that it is good for 
the community at large that it no longer 
exists. 

We have repeatedly said that the par- 
ties who represented the apprentice sys- 
tem to be dead were either mistaken or 
were making deliberate misrepresenta- 
tions, but we were not able to enter into 
the question very systematically. We are 
glad to learn, however, that our contem- 
porary, the "American Machinist," has 
made a thorough investigation of the sub- 
ject, and has devoted almost the entire 
issue of December 24th to letters and arti- 
cles on the subject. The editor of that jour- 
nal sent out 200 letters to leading machine 
shops and other establishments where 
they were likely to employ apprentices; 
and 116 letters were received in reply. 
Among those applied to for information 
were the principal railroad and locomo- 
tive building establishments. Replies 
were received from 25 of the principal 
railroad companies and locomotive build- 
ers, and nearly all those that answered 
favored the apprenticeship system and 
employ all the apprentices they can use 
conveniently. Several of the railroad 
companies employ apprentices more from 
a sense of public duty than in the expecta- 
tion of obtaining profit from the work 
done by the boys. 

We regret that want of space prevents 
us from printing the letters from railroad 
men. We recommend those interested in 
the subject to send for the paper. 

£ £ i 

A remarkably handsome, illustrated 
general catalog has been published by the 
Buffalo Forge Company, Buffalo, N. Y. 
It is a book of 400 pages, 7^ x 9 inches, 
profusely illustrated and got up in the 
highest style of the printer's art. It illus- 
trates the whole of the immense product 
of the Buffalo Forge Company, and gives 
numerous illustrations of places where 
the hot-air system of heating has been 
applied. Among the subjects dealt with 
and illustrated are: Horizontal and up- 



right steam engines; met hanical draft fans 
andapparatu , teel-plate steam and pulley 
fans; fan system of heating, ventilating 
and drying; disk ventilating fans; blow 
crs and exhausters; manual-training 
school outfits; hand and power black- 
smith drills; punch, shear and bar cutters; 
tire upsetters, blacksmith tools, etc.; black- 
smith hand blowers; stationary, portable 
and heating forges. The Buffalo Forge 
Company will send the catalog on appli- 
cation to any parties interested in the 
purchase of the goods which they manu- 
facture. 



Some train robbers, who held up a train 
on the Chicago & Alton Railroad, near 
Independence, Mo., towards the end of 
last month, improved on the methods of 
former train robbers. The usual plan is 
to stop the train for a brief period, ter- 
rorize the passengers, and rob the express 
car as quickly as possible. In the latest 
case they cut off the engine, baggage and 
express cars, and ran away with them. 
They were then able to select the place 
where pillaging the express car could be 
done most conveniently and safely. As 
the attack was made at night, and only a 
few telegraph operators were at stations, 
they could go where they wanted without 
danger of molestation. 

£ § © 

Nearly everybody connected with loco- 
motive operating has occasion at times to 
figure out the tractive power of engines 
having certain proportions. Some men 
are working out that problem daily at the 
cost of tedious calculations. We have 
got out a sort of circular slide rule which 
is a graphic computer by which any man, 
who can read figures, can find out the 
tractive power of a locomotive in a few 
seconds. He can also find out in almost 
as little time the effect of changing such 
proportions as diameter of drivers, size of 
cylinders and boiler pressure. It is the 
handiest device produced for the benefit 
of busy men in many years. It costs only 
one dollar. 

ft ft ft 

The National Association of Manufac- 
turers will hold a convention in Phila- 
delphia, commencing on January 26th. It 
is expected that this convention will be 
one of great interest, as the president will 
submit a report of the first full year of 
practical work. The purpose of the asso- 
ciation is to promote American manufac- 
turing interests, and to help in securing 
foreign markets for our manufactures. 

ft ft ft 

The popularity of the work done by the 
Association of Railroad Air-Brake Men 
may be inferred from the fact that they 
have sold over seven thousand copies of 
their last annual report. The report is in 
demand because it contains information 
about brake matters that all intelligent 
trainmen desire to read and study. 



No Change in New York Central Man- 
agement. 

The "New York World," which is 
Famous for publishing vents that 

never happened or never will happen, re- 
cently announced a coming change of 
control and management of the New 
York Central. It announced that Presi- 
dent Depew was going to resign and be- 
come Ambassador to the Court of Eng- 
land, and that Mr. Samuel Spencer was 
going to take his place. Mr. Spencer is 
repn ntative of the Drexel-Morgan in- 
which were reported to have a 
controlling interest in the New York Cen- 
tral stock, and that an entire change of 
policy would be the result. 

The "World's" story is without any 
foundation, for Mr. Depew has not been 
offered the position of Ambassador and 
has no thought of giving up railroad life. 
Mr. Depew was interviewed concerning 
the "World's" story, and he said: 

"The Vanderbilts have not had a con- 
trolling interest in New York Central 
stock since 1880, when William H. Van- 
derbilt sold $30,000,000 in stock to Eng- 
lish buyers represented by the Morgan 
house. Mr. W. H. Vanderbilt thought 
that the ownership of a majority of the 
shares of the company by one person or 
family would be to the detriment of the 
property. Though the public used and 
profited by the railroad, it would be more 
likely to complain of one than of many 
owners. It was deemed advisable to dif- 
fuse the ownership among many persons, 
and there are now 13,000 stockholders, 
persons of every condition of life, of 
course, and the usual number of widows 
and orphans. To return to Mr. Morgan: 
He came into the board with Cyrus Field, 
whom he nominated in 1880, when the 
English sale of shares was made. Mr. 
Morgan's house continues to represent the 
English shareholders. His advice in the 
management has been invaluable. He is 
a great upholder of credit, and his rela- 
tions with other roads and with the bank- 
ing world make his counsel, as I said, 
invaluable, just as the Vanderbilts are in- 
valuable with their knowledge of railroad 
management. Mr. Morgan's relations 
with the Vanderbilts and with the com- 
pany are up to this minute precisely what 
they have been for a long time, and the 
cordial co-operation will continue to exist. 
Since the sale of the $30,000,000 to English 
investors, the capital stock of the company 
has been increased from $89,000,000 to 
$100,000,000. The English have not in- 
creased proportionately." 

£ £ £ 

The Watson & Stillman people, of New 
York, made very exhaustive tests some 
time ago of the strength of Mannesmann 
tubes, that are used a great deal as reser- 
voirs for compressed air. They found 
that up to 4.500 pounds pressure to the 
square inch there was no distortion of the 
tubes. It took over 6.000 pounds pressure 
to burst them. 



60 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



l0C0M T,VEEeS ,H <i 



. ■ ■ " 



i- 



- Raj way Motive Poweh 
«*hd Rou-img Stock- 



Published monthly bv 

SINCLAIR & HILL, 

256 Broadway, New York. 



Associate Editors. 






Editorial Department : 

W.I - SINCLAIR. Chief. 

O. H. REYNOLDS. 1 

P. H. NELLI3, I ' 

Illustration Department: 

A. L. DONNELL, Chief. 
Business Department : 

JOHN A. HILL, General Manager. 

C. P. DAY, Eastern Representative. 

J. M. WAKEMAN, Western Representative. 

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Correspondents must give their names and ad- 
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Entered at Post Office. New York, as Second- 
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January Issue, 30,000. 



Misplaced Affection for Scrap. 

In our peregrinations among railroad 
shops, we notice that the hard times, 
which have brought the scrap heap to the 
front as supply resort for repair material, 
have had a demoralizing effect which it 
will take years to counteract. The perni- 
cious habit of laying aside old worn ma- 
terial, in the expectation that it can be 
used in the repairs of some engine or car, 
has attained painful proportions. Rail- 
road companies have gone through the 
same experience time after time, but the 
same practices seem always to be repeated 
when there is difficulty in obtaining sup- 
plies from the storehouse. 

An engine comes in and gets a new set 
of axle boxes; two of the old ones are 
found to be in pretty fair condition, and 
they are laid away carefully under a vise- 
bench to be handy for some other engine 
of the same class that may come in with a 
broken box. They are not refitted or 
thoroughly repaired and put into the 
storehouse where they would be available, 
but stored away to be forgotten. The 
men in charge are so solicitous to have 
something ready for use, without making 
requisition upon the store department, 
that the vise benches and other dark re- 
cesses are lumbered up with eccentric 
straps very little out of round, feed pipes 
that might be used again under extraordi- 
nary circumstances, half-worn piston 
rings, imperfect cylinder heads, a few oil- 
box cellars, a twisted link hanger, a worn- 
out rocker box, and a variety of other 
articles that ought to have been passed 
through the cupola or forge months ago. 
A systematic foreman might use some of 



these things if he would put them in shape 
for application to the engine before they 
are stored away; but this is seldom done, 
and the articles kept to be handy for re- 
pairs are never ready when wanted. 

Some months ago we visited a large 
machine-tool-making establishment, and 
were surprised to find a multitude of pat- 
terns, that seemed in good condition, 
broken up and being used for firewood. 
This came to us like a startling revelation; 
for, as far as our knowledge went, it was 
something unprecendented in the annals 
of railways. New patterns had been made 
for improved forms of the machines, and 
the company considered it the proper 
policy to destroy the old ones. We had 
often seen new patterns made to take the 
place of old ones in railway shops, but we 
had never heard of the old patterns being 
destroyed. They are always stored some- 
where, to be handy when a demand comes 
for the article they can reproduce. As a 
rule, the demand never comes; but the 
patterns are left there to confuse the men 
in charge, and to take up room that ought 
to be utilized for other purposes. 

The predilection for preventing the 
scrap heap from receiving its honest due 
is not confined to small pieces of rolling 
stock, and the tendency to take room that 
ought to be occupied by more useful arti- 
cles is not confined to obsolete patterns. 
After years of soliciting, the master me- 
chanic has succeeded in getting a new 
planer for one that had toiled in decrepi- 
tude, long after exactitude and usefulness 
had become strangers to its operations. 
The new planer is placed on the founda- 
tion occupied by the old one, and it might 
be supposed that the worn-out tool was 
consigned to the scrap heap. That is not 
the prevailing practice, however. It is 
moved to the corner of the shop, for the 
purpose of being used for odd jobs. It is 
continually in the way, and the work done 
on it needs so much hand-finishing that 
the jobs cost double what they are worth. 

A worse policy than that of crowding up 
the floor with the old planer is moving a 
worn-out lathe into another corner and 
converting it into a bolt cutter. In this 
new capacity it is a failure from the start, 
and soon wastes more money in doing 
poor work, and little of it, than what it 
would cost to buy a machine designed for 
the purpose it is doing so badly. Manu- 
facturing concerns that have to look close- 
ly to the cost of production cannot afford 
to follow a policy of this kind, yet intelli- 
gent railroad men pursue it and think they 
are saving money for the companies that 
employ them. It seems to need special 
training to make railroad men understand 
that the scrap heap is the best place for a 
worn-out article. We commend the work 
of advocating this sound principle to the 
railway clubs and other advocates of 
sound engineering opinion. A few papers 
and discussions on the evils of scrap- 
hoarding would do much good at this 
time. 



The Metric versus the Duodecimal 
System. 

A very important contribution to the 
literature of the metric system of weights 
and measures has recently been made in 
a paper contributed to the American So- 
ciety of Mechanical Engineers, by Mr. 
George W. Colles, entitled "The Metric 
versus the Duodecimal System." 

The author gives some very interesting 
historical data about different methods of 
weights and measures, and makes a very 
strong plea on behalf of the English sys- 
tem as being not only more convenient, 
but based on a better philosophical foun- 
dation than the French metric system. 
The confusion caused in France and other 
countries by the introduction of the metric 
system is graphically described, and it is 
shown that the system originated and was 
forced into use by theorists who knew 
nothing about the inconvenience to trade 
that would result, or about the injustice 
inflicted upon the people through the ac- 
tion of rogues who cheated the buyers 
who were slow to learn particulars of the 
new system. The influence of savants, 
backed by the power of senators, em- 
perors and kings, made very slow prog- 
ress in forcing the new metrology upon 
an unwilling people, and several times 
insurrections against the new system 
stopped its progress for a time, or led 
to modifications which made confusion 
worse confounded. 

In 1812, after more than eighteen years 
of compulsion, and at a moment when a 
widely popular measure was required of 
him, the Emperor Napoleon issued a de- 
cree completely abandoning, except for a 
few special cases, the decimal principle, 
and restoring once more to the people the 
foot, the ell, the toise, the pound and bois- 
seau, and all their customary subdivisions. 
This enactment was called the "Systeme 
Usuel"; but it was far from being the 
usual system, for the measures to which 
these terms were now applied were not the 
old measures, but near approaches to them 
only, in terms of the metrical unit. Thus 
the toise was not the old toise, but 2 
meters; the foot was not the old foot, but 
Yi meter; the ell was 12 decimeters; the 
boisseau }/& hectolitre, and so on. The 
effects of this unfortunate new attempt 
to relieve the commercial distress of the 
nation may well be imagined; for besides 
giving to it. as to its units, names which 
neither it nor they could justly lay claim 
to. it merely added a new mode of meas- 
urement to the already existing diversity, 
instead of driving them out. The coun- 
try then had really four different systems 
of weights and measures, differing in 
many particulars from each other. There 
ensued, under this condition of affairs, 
twenty-five years of inextricable chaos 
and countless frauds. The small dealers 
in groceries and liquors, the market men 
and trades-people generally, cheated with- 
out restraint, under the protection of con- 
fused laws. When the true metric system 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



07 



was finally restored, it took many years 
to familiarize the people with the standard 
system, and no end of injustice and an- 
noyance resulted; shrewd tradesmen, fa- 
miliar with the system, using their knowl- 
edge to defraud ignorant customers. 

When conditions of this character were 
encountered in making and changing the 
weights and measures in a country where 
there were few manufacturing or me- 
chanical industries, it may readily he im- 
agined how stupendous the difficulties 
would be in changing the weights and 
measures of countries like Great Britain 
and America. The friends of the metric 
system have been laboring strenuously 
for thirty years to force their hobby upon 
the whole English-speaking people, and it 
seems probable that Great Britain or 
America will have laws passed, making 
the metric system compulsory. Should 
that be done, the people will awake to 
realize the inconvenience that must result 
from such a radical change, and the indig- 
nant protest of the whole nation will soon 
make an end of the attempts to change the 
system of weights and measures, which is 
much better than the substitutes offered. 
Railroad companies have done more than 
any one interest to establish the use of 
interchangeable standards, and they would 
be the leading sufferers from any change 
which interfered with their established 
sizes. There is, however, very small 
danger of their being forced to make an 
active fight against the proposed change. 

g i A 

Bessemer's Great Work. 

Next to the invention of the locomo- 
tive itself, the Bessemer process of steel- 
making has had the most stupendous in- 
fluence upon the world, and upon the 
condition of mankind in countries remote 
from each other. The locomotive led the 
way to the giving of convenient means 
of transportation to every region of the 
globe that could produce anything worth 
carrying away. The Bessemer process 
made the steel arteries of commerce so 
strong and durable, that it is cheaper to 
move a ton a thousand miles on a rail- 
way than twenty miles over an ordinary 
road. The effect of this invention has 
been practically to abridge distance, and 
to bring products, raised thousands of 
miles away from a market, into active 
competition with those raised at the doors 
of the consumers. But for the Bessemer 
process, or some other method of steel 
production, the wheat fields of the Great 
Northwest, and of other remote wheat- 
raising districts of the world, would yet 
remain in the condition of grazing lands, 
and the competition from over-produc- 
tion, which has brought cheap food to 
manufacturing communities and ruin to 
many farming interests, could not have 
taken place. Steel rails made it possible 
to run a driving wheel with 20,000 pounds 
of weight upon it without destructive re- 
sults to the permanent way. The great 



locomotives with immense weight on their 
drivers have steadily decreased the ex- 
pense of moving freight, until it is now 
asserted that there is profit in moving a 
ton of freight at 3 mills per mile. 

These wonderful effects, resulting from 
one invention, make the world interested 
in learning all the facts connected with the 
working-out of an invention of such great 
importance. It was natural, then, that 
great interest should be manifested in a 
paper recently prepared by Sir Henry 
Bessemer on a historical and technical 
sketch of the origin of the Bessemer pro- 
cess, for the American Society of Me- 
chanical Engineers. The paper is doubly 
valuable historically on acount of the age 
of the author, who has reached his nine- 
tieth year, and is not likely to contribute 
any more facts about his great invention. 
The experiments which led to the inven- 
tion of the Bessemer process were com- 
menced about 1855, their purpose being 
to improve cast iron by the fusion of 
wrought-iron scrap in a pig-iron bath. 
There was an urgent demand for the 
stronger quality of cast iron for ordnance 
purposes, and Mr. Bessemer proceeded 
systematically to attempt the production 
of the article required. He carried on a 
great variety of experiments in open- 
hearth furnaces without producing what 
he desired; but incidentally he discovered 
that air, when blown through a mass of 
molten cast iron, had the effect of decar- 
burizing the iron. This is the principle 
on which the successful operation of the 
Bessemer furnace is founded. 

In the course of his experiments, Mr. 
Bessemer came "within measurable dis- 
tance," as he calls it, of discovering the 
method of making steel in an open-hearth 
reverberatory furnace. Where he fell 
short was in the absence of a regenerative 
furnace to maintain the high temperature 
of the air blast. 

It might be well to mention for that 
portion of our readers not well acquainted 
with metallurgical operations, that the 
principal difference between pig iron and 
steel is that the cast iron contains a large 
proportion of impurities in the form of 
silicon, carbon and other hardeners, which 
were formerly eliminated by the laborious 
process of puddling. 

The importance of Bessemer's discov- 
ery will then be understood when he per- 
ceived that it was possible to blow out 
the impurities from the crude metal with- 
out any fuel, by merely passing through 
the mass a current of atmospheric air. 
Towards the developing of this process 
he then devoted all his ingenuity, chemical 
knowledge and energy. A host of diffi- 
culties had to be overcome, but they were 
surmounted step by step until the pro- 
cess became an assured success. 

In the Bessemer process, the molten 
cast iron is taken from the smelting fur- 
nace and run in the liquid state into a 
converting vessel, which is a pear-shaped 
furnace, lined with firebrick or with some 



highly refractory material. The 

rter is suspended on trunnions, so 

admit of its being turned from an 

upright to a horizontal position, by means 

of apparatus provided for the purpose. 

In the bottom there are a variety of air 

through which the atmospheric air 

is driven with a pressure of about twenty 

pounds per square inch. The molten iron 

in the converter is resting from the first 

on a bed of air, the strength of the blast 

being sufficient to keep it from falling 

through the tuyeres into the blast way. 

In the first part of the blow, the silicon 
burns out with a steady hot flame; then 
the oxygen attacks the carbon with an 
ever-increasing stream of sparks and a 
voluminous white flame, followed by a 
succession of mild explosions, throwing 
the molten slag and splashes of metal into 
the air — the apparatus becoming a minia- 
ture volcano in a state of eruption. At 
this point, it is known that the silicon and 
carbon are almost entirely eliminated from 
the molten mass. 

To make a useful metal, it has to be 
recarburized. This is done by throwing 
into the converter a charge of ferro-man- 
ganese or spiegeleisen — metals that con- 
tain a known quantity of carbon and man- 
ganese. The blast is again turned on to 
stir up the mixture, and then the steel is 
ready for pouring. The recharging of the 
converter with spiegeleisen, for the pur- 
pose of supplying the necessary carbon, 
was proposed by Mr. Mushet, the well- 
known steel maker; but in his patent for 
the process, taken out a year or two be- 
fore, Mr. Bessemer described how the 
state of carburization of the converted 
metal might be regulated by the addition 
of molten pig iron after the blow had 
taken place, and in another patent, taken 
out before one was applied for by Mr. 
Mushet, he proposed to alloy his steel with 
any metals previously used to alloy cast 
steel, and various ways were shown how 
this could be done. As manganese was 
one of the metals used for that purpose, it 
is evident that Mr. Bessemer did not re- 
quire any help in devising compounds for 
recarburating his steel. 

When Sir Henry Bessemer's paper was 
read at the meeting of the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers, a some- 
what heated discussion arose, in which 
several members hotly contested the 
claims that the author made for being the 
inventor of his own process. We do not 
believe that any great invention has ever 
been developed where the inventor was 
allowed the full credit for what he had 
done. There is always some party who 
sets up claims for having thought of the 
same invention and of having worked at 
it before the successful man got out his 
patent. Whatever annoyance Sir Henry 
Bessemer may be subjected to by parties 
trying to divert the ownership of his work 
to others, it will have very little effect with 
the world at large. No man ever suc- 
ceeded in making steel direct until Bes- 



6S 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



semer showed the way. The process was 
complex, and he may have got sugges- 
tions from others; but he was the man 
with the genius to grasp the entire require- 
ments of the case, and it is very ungen- 
erous to try and detract from the merit of 
his great achievement. 



The number of workmen out of em- 
ployment during the last three years is 
not surprising when the depressed condi- 
tion of railway business is taken into con- 
sideration. During the years 1890 to 1892, 
the average increase in the locomotives 
in the country was over 1,200. During 
the year ending with June, 1895, the in- 
crease of locomotives was only 207, and 
the succeeding year was still less, al- 
though the exact figures are not yet com- 
puted. The decrease in the number of 
cars added to the rolling stock equipment 
was even on a greater ratio. The de- 
crea in the number of cars and loco- 
motives built during 1894-5 represented 
a whole army of men thrown out of em- 
ployment. To add to this army, there 
were nearly one hundred thousand less 
persons employed last year than there 
were in 1893. 

i 6 S 

BOOK REVIEWS. 

"Combustion and Smoke Prevention on 
Locomotives." By Angus Sinclair. 
Press of "Locomotive Engineering," 
256 Broadway, New York. 
This is a small book, 3*/ 2 x 6, of 43 pages, 
made convenient for the pocket. It has 
been written especially for the benefit of 
enginemen, but other people who are in- 
terested in combustion problems will find 
it interesting and edifying reading. The 
scientific problems relating to combus- 
tion are treated in a very simple and ele- 
mentary fashion, the chemical nomen- 
clature being made as simple as possible. 
It contains explanations of the chemical 
processes involved in the action of com- 
bustion, written in a fashion that any 
man. who can read, will readily under- 
stand. The method of measuring heat by 
units is explained; also the methods of 
measuring power processes by foot- 
pounds; and the mechanical equivalent of 
heat is made plain. Several pages are de- 
voted to explaining how things burn, what 
are practical fuels, qualities of coal, and 
whence the potential energy of the coal 
arises. The elements that perform their 
various functions in the act of combustion 
are mentioned, and the nature of atmos- 
pheric air described. The importance of 
keeping the fire up to the igniting tem- 
perature is dwelt upon at some length, 
and causes mentioned which may reduce 
this temperature locally in a firebox with a 
resulting loss of heat. Some of the sub- 
headings of the pamphlet may be men- 
tioned and will give an idea of the scope 
of the treatise, as. for instance — How a 
Fire Burns: Distilling Gases from the 
Fuel; Burning Hydrogen Compounds; 
Burning the Solid Carbon; Applying the 
Principles of Combustion to a Firebox; 
Heat Value of the Proper Admixture of 
Air; and Velocity of Fire Gases. About 
half of the book is devoted to the work of 
firing, from the standpoint of a practical 
fireman. It is sold by the publishers for 
25 cents a copy; $15 per hundred. 



PERSONAL. 

Mr. T. J. Anderson has been appointed 
roundhouse foreman of the Illinois Cen- 
tral at Burnside, 111. 

Mr. J. K. Andrews has been appointed 
chief clerk to Receiver Murray, of the 
Baltimore & Ohio, at Baltimore, Md. 

Mr. Robert T. Baker has been appointed 
general superintendent of the Morristown 
& Cumberland Gap. Office, Morristown, 
Tenn. 

Mr. G. W. Russell has been appointed 
master mechanic of the New York, Phila- 
delphia & Norfolk, with headquarters at 
Cape Charles, Va. 

Mr. Benj. Wooster has been appointed 
master mechanic of the Cartagena-Mag- 
dalena Railway, with headquarters at Car- 
tagena, Colombia, S. A. 

Mr. R. S. McVeigh has been appointed 
traveling agent of the coal traffic depart- 
ment of the Baltimore & Ohio South- 
western at Cincinnati, O. 

Mr. J. P. Rogers has been appointed 
acting superintendent of the Kalispell di- 
vision of the Great Northern, with head- 
quarters at Kalispell, Mont. 

Mr. M. A. Miller has been appointed 
chief train dispatcher of the Rochester 
division of the Western New York & 
Pennsylvania at Olean, N. Y. 

Mr. C. C. McNeil has been appointed 
general superintendent of the Maricopa & 
Phoenix and Salt River Valley roads, with 
headquarters at Phcenix, Ariz. 

Mr. George P. Haskell, a passenger 
conductor on the Lima Northern, has 
been appointed assistant superintendent, 
with headquarters at Lima. 

Mr. R. H. Sanborn has been appointed 
assistant superintendent of the Dakota 
division of the Chicago & Northwestern, 
with headquarters at Huron, S. D. 

Mr. J. D. Wright has been appointed 
general foreman of painters at the Mt. 
Clare shops of the Baltimore & Ohio, in 
place of Mr. E. L. Bigelow, resigned. 

Mr. M. D. Schaff has been appointed 
trainmaster of the Cincinnati division of 
the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. 
Louis, with headquarters at Springfield, 
111. 

Mr. E. H. Bankard has been appointed 
purchasingagent of the Baltimore & Ohio, 
with headquarters at Baltimore, Md. He 
was formerly secretary to Receiver Mur- 
ray. 

Mr. T. F. Barton has been appointed 
general foreman of the Illinois Central 
shops at Weldon, Chicago, 111. He was 
formerly roundhouse foreman at Burn- 
side, 111. 

Mr. Frank Barr has been promoted 
from division superintendent of the Bos- 
ton & Maine to be assistant general man- 



ager of the road, with headquarters at 
Boston, Mass. 

Mr. W. B. McCaleb, superintendent of 
the Bedford division of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, has been appointed superinten- 
dent of the Sunbury division, with office 
at Sunbury, Pa. 

Mr. H. F. Houghton has been appointed 
assistant superintendent of the Chicago 
division of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chi- 
cago & St. Louis, with headquarters at 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

Mr. A. N. Gray, chief clerk to Second 
Vice-President Newman, of the Great 
Northern, has been appointed chief clerk 
to General Traffic Manager Clarke, of that 
road, at St. Paul, Minn. 

Mr. R. H. Bowron has been appointed 
superintendent of the Montana division of 
the Great Northern, with headquarters at 
Kalispell, Mont. He was formerly train 
master of the Montana Central. 

Mr. C. E. Lee, heretofore train dis- 
patcher, has been appointed superinten- 
dent of the Worcester, Nashua & Port- 
land division of the Boston & Maine, 
with headquarters at Nashua, N. H. 

Mr. R. C. Westcott has been appointed 
division superintendent of the Minneapo- 
lis & St. Louis. He was formerly assist- 
ant superintendent of the Minnesota divis- 
ion of the Northern Pacific at St. Paul. 

Mr. R. G. Mathews, formerly general 
superintendent of the Buffalo, Rochester 
& Pittsburgh, has accepted the position 
of general sales manager of the Mozier 
Safety Signal Company, of Cleveland, O. 

Mr. William Quinn, trainmaster of the 
Cairo division of the Cleveland, Cincin- 
nati. Chicago & St. Louis, has been ap- 
pointed superintendent of the same divi- 
sion, with headquarters at Mt. Carmel, 111. 

Mr. H. A. Wilson has been appointed 
advertising agent of the Toledo & Ohio 
Central, with headquarters at Toledo, O. 
He was formerly district passenger agent 
of the Columbus, Hocking Valley & 
Toledo. 

Mr. E. Youngman has been appointed 
chief clerk of the advertising department 
of the Pennsylvania, vice Mr. D. N. Bell,, 
who has gone to New England as general 
agent of the company in the passenger de- 
partment. 

Mr. W. G. Bayley, superintendent of 
the Cairo division of the Cleveland, Cin- 
cinnati, Chicago & St. Louis, has been 
appointed superintendent of the St. Louis 
division of that road, with headquarters at 
Mattoon, 111. 

Mr. W. C. Shoemaker, who has been 
chief clerk to Superintendent S. B. Floeter 
at Lima, has been appointed assistant 
superintendent of the Dayton & Michigan 
division of the Cincinnati, Hamilton & 
Dayton road. 

Mr. E. M. Neel, superintendent of the 
St. Louis division of the Cleveland, Cin- 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



09 



BRAINS and 

GRAPHITE. 

A celebrated painter, on being asked 
how he mixed his colors, said he mixed 
them with brains. Brains were quite as 
necessary as the finest and most durable 
colors. It has been the brains that loco- 
motive engineers have mixed with Dixon's 
Pure Flake Graphite that have produced 
such splendid results in graphite lubrica- 
tion during the past year. 

Many roads have now adopted the use 
of Dixon's Pure Flake Graphite and are 
better equipped for having done so, as the 
trials made by expert and intelligent en- 
gineers have demonstrated the value of 
this graphite beyond any question. 

An instance of the good sense and skill 
of the engineer, and care of his locomo- 
tive, is shown in the following letter from 
an engineer on the P. R. R.: 

"On August 25th, while on my way to 
Toms River, the left back engine-truck 
box became hot, but having a fast train, 
I was some time in locating it; then, by 
the liberal use of oil and water, finished 
my trip with only about ten minutes' de- 
tention. 

"Finding the box and journal very hot, 
I decided to repack it the next morning. 
In the morning I went to my engine about 
an hour earlier than usual, took the cellar 
down, cleaned it and found the metal en- 
tirely gone from the box, the crown bear- 
ing only remaining. 

"I packed the cellar with new waste, 
and that part next to journal I supplied 
quite plentifully with Dixon's Flake Gra- 
phite; but even then I expected trouble. 

"I left Toms River with train known 
as 'Long Branch Limited.' After running 
about fifteen miles, I examined the box 
and found it with simply the chill off, and 
on reaching Long Branch found it but 
little warmer after running eighteen miles 
more. 

"At this time we were six minutes late, 
caused by waiting for connection. Our 
time from Long Branch to Jersey Gity, a 
distance of fifty miles, is one hour and 
seven minutes. Deducting the six min- 
utes delayed, left me only one hour and 
one minute; but having confidence by this 
time that no trouble would come, I con- 
cluded I would make up the six minutes, 
and I am extremely pleased to say I 
reached Jersey City on time, making the 
fifty miles in sixty-one minutes, with two 
stops — Elizabeth and Newark. At no time 
was the box warm enough to smoke, and I 
know of no more severe test of the cooling 
and lubricating properties of Dixon's 
Pure Flake Graphite." 

If the right kind of graphite is used, 
and used properly, it will relieve the en- 
gineer from many worriments, reduce the 
number of train detentions, and prove a 
source of great economy to the railroad 
companies. 



cinnati, Chicago & St. Louis, has been ap- 
pointed assistant to General Superinten- 
dent Van Winkle, of that road, with head- 
quarters at Indianapolis, Ind. 

Mr. A. D. Peck has accepted the posi- 
tion of chief train dispatcher of the Florida 
Central & Peninsular, with headquarters at 
Savannah, Ga. He was formerly train dis- 
patcher of the Rochester division of the 
Western New York & Pennsylvania. 

Mr. J. D. Finn has been appointed sup- 
erintendent of the Lake Superior Terminal 
& Transfer Railway, with headquarters at 
Superior, Wis. He was formerly superin- 
tendent of the Montana division of the 
Northern Pacific at Livingston, Mont. 

Mr. Edward Sauvage, chief mechanical 
engineer of the Western Railway of 
France, is author of a well-known book on 
Locomotive Engines, and a new work 
from his pen, on the Steam Engine, has 
just been published by a Paris publish- 
ing house. 

Mr. W. C. Dotterer, of Little Rock, 
Ark., has been appointed general manager 
of the New Orleans & Western, with head- 
quarters at New Orleans, La. Mr. Dot- 
terer has been manager of the Union Com- 
press Company, of Little Rock, since 
August, 1889. 

Mr. F. P. Abercrombie, assistant engi- 
neer of the Eastern division of the Phil- 
adelphia & Erie and the Susquehanna divi- 
sion of the Northern Central, has been 
appointed superintendent of the Bedford 
division of the Pennsylvania Railroad, 
with headquarters at Bedford, Pa. 

Our readers will be pleased to learn that 
Mr. Spencer Miller, engineer of the cable- 
way department of the Lidgerwood Man- 
ufacturing Company, New York City, is 
again at his desk after an absence of very 
nearly four months. Mr. Miller was taken 
with appendicitis early in the summer, 
and has but recently recovered from the 
operation necessary. 

Mr. Gerrit Fort, for the last five or six 
years chief clerk of the general passenger 
department of the New York Central, has 
been appointed secretary of the Central 
Passenger Committee at Chicago. Mr. 
Fort was formerly in the general offices of 
the Burlington, Cedar Rapids & Northern 
at Cedar Rapids, and learned the first part 
of the business there. 

Mr. J. D. Hawks has been elected presi- 
dent of the Detroit & Mackinac. He has 
hitherto been vice-president and general 
manager and he will continue to perform 
these duties. His headquarters will be in 
Detroit. Mr. Hawks is one of the most 
accomplished civil engineers in the coun- 
try, and was for eight or ten years chief 
engineer of the Michigan Central. 

Mr. A. J. Davidson has been appointed 
superintendent of transportation of the 
St. Louis & San Francisco, with head- 
quarters at St. Louis. Mo. He was form- 



erly gup iiern divis- 

1 the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe, 
and was pn ill a handsome silver 

service by his friends and associates at 
Ft. Worth, Tex., when he left the road. 

Mr. O. W. Beckwith, who was recently 
appointed trainmaster of the Cincinnati 
division of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, 
Chicago & St. Louis, at Springfield, O., 
has been transferred to Kankakee, 111., as 
trainmaster of the west end of the Chicago 
division. Mr. Thomas Reynolds has been 
appointed trainmaster of the east end of 
the Chicago division, with headquarters 
at Cincinnati. 

Mr. C. L. Mayne, division superinten- 
dent of the Fitchburg Railroad at Fitch- 
burg, Mass., has been appointed assistant 
general superintendent of that road, with 
headquarters at Boston. Mr. Mayne was 
formerly 7^ years connected with the 
Chicago & Atlantic as chief train dis- 
patcher, trainmaster and superintendent, 
and went to the Fitchburg as division 
superintendent in January, 1892. 

Mr. A. E. Reed, superintendent of the 
Sunbury division of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, has been appointed superinten- 
dent of the Altoona division, with head- 
quarters at Altoona, Pa., to succeed Mr. 
Robert T. Marshall, deceased. Mr. Reed 
has risen through the track and engineer- 
ing department, and at one time attained 
considerable celebrity in connection with 
original designs of engine houses. 

Mr. A. J. Cabe has been promoted from 
assistant superintendent to be superinten- 
dent of the Butte, Anaconda & Pacific, with 
headquarters at Anaconda, Mont. Mr. Cabe 
was for five years superintendent of the 
Dakota division of the Northern Pacific, 
and for some time superintendent of the 
Kalispell division of the Great Northern. 
Of late he has been assistant superinten- 
dent of the Butte, Anaconda & Pacific. 

Mr. J. S. Lane, formerly of Webster, 
Camp & Lane, Akron, O., and later of 
M. C. Bullock Company, Chicago, has 
just returned from a professional engineer- 
ing trip to England, and to the gold fields 
of the Transvaal in South Africa. He re- 
ports things as very active in the African 
gold fields, a large number of Americans 
and Englishmen with capital having lo- 
cated there. Mr. Lane is with his family 
in Connecticut, and will shortly return 
to London. 

Mr. D. D. Briggs was some time ago 
appointed general foreman of the New 
Orleans shops of the Louisville & Nash- 
ville. He is a son of Mr. R. H. Briggs, 
general master mechanic of the Kansas 
City, Memphis & Birmingham Railroad 
at Memphis, Tenn.. the well-known past 
president of the Master Mechanics' As- 
sociation. Mr. D. D. Briggs learned the 
machinist trade under his father and left 
the shops for the road. He has been loco- 
motive engineer on the Louisville & Nash- 
ville for the last five years. 



70 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Mr. Charles E. Henderson, for seven 
years general manager of the Philadelphia 
& Reading Coal & Iron Company, has, in 
addition to his present duties, been chosen 
second vice-president of the reorganized 
Philadelphia & Reading Railway, in 
charge of freight traffic. Mr. Henderson 
was formerly for a number of years gen- 
eral manager of the Indiana, Bloomington 
& Western, was for two years receiver of 
the Danville, Olney & Ohio River Rail- 
road, and from May, I, 1886, to 1888, was 
general manager of the Chicago & Ohio 
River road. 

Mr. George F. Evans, since December 
1, 1895, assistant general manager of the 
Boston & Maine, was on November 30th 
chosen general manager of the Maine 
Central, to succeed Mr. Payson Tucker. 
Mr. Evans was superintendent of the 
Southern division of the Boston & Maine 
from March 1, 1892, to December 1, 1895, 
and was formerly for eleven years con- 
nected with the Louisville, Evansville & 
St. Louis, successively as secretary and 
treasurer, assistant to president, receiver 
and general manager during receivership, 
and general manager after reorganization. 

Good fortune sometimes comes to rail- 
road men, even in their old age. We are 
gratified to report the good fortune that 
has come to John King, a gray-haired 
switchman at Salamanca, on the Erie Rail- 
road, who owned an 80-acre tract of wild 
land in the Chipmunk Valley in Cat- 
taraugus County. Oil was struck on 
his land lately, and to-day he is re- 
ceiving $250 a week in royalty for 
its production. Every indication is that 
the oil wells will bring him a fortune. The 
day the first well was struck on his land, 
he gave up his switch key and has decided 
to risk his future maintenance on the oil 
wells. 

Mr. M. M. Meehan, traveling engineer 
of the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic, 
has left the service of the company to ac- 
cept a position with the Galena Oil Com- 
pany. His territory will be on the Grand 
Trunk, where he will be stationed to in- 
struct railroad people about what Galena 
oil will do in the way of preventing hot 
boxes. A correspondent, writing about 
this change, says: "Although we are very 
sorry to lose Mike, we are glad to know 
that he is doing better in the financial part 
of it at least. He has been highly popu- 
lar with the enginemen and officers of the 
road during the nine years he has held the 
position of traveling engineer." 

We are gratified to learn that Mr. W. 
J. Fransioli, who has been acting general 
manager of the Manhattan Railroad since 
the death of Colonel Hain, has received 
the appointment of general manager. Mr. 
Fransioli has practically been general 
manager for the last two or three years, 
impaired health having prevented Colonel 
Hain from performing the actual duties 
of his office. It is a source of great sat- 



isfaction to the employes of the Manhat- 
tan Railway that the directors have 
acknowledged the fitness of Mr. Fransioli 
for the position. He is highly popular 
with high and low, and has been emi- 
nently just in his dealing with the nu- 
merous cases of discipline that neces- 
sarily come up on that system. 

Mr. John Hickey, for the last six years 
superintendent of motive power and 
rolling stock of the Northern Pacific, has 
resigned, on account of ill health. Mr. 
Hickey has gone through great family af- 
fliction since he went to the Northern 
Pacific, having lost four of his children 
within three years, which no doubt 
contributed to a great extent to bring 
about the sending in of his resignation. 
Mr. Hickey was previously general mas- 
ter mechanic of the Milwaukee, Lake 
Shore & Western, and while there gained 
a high reputation for the able manage- 
ment of his department, a reputation 
which brought to him the appointment 
to the Northern Pacific. He was for 
some time president of the Western Rail- 
way Club and was two years president of 
the American Railway Master Mechanics' 
Association. He takes a very active in- 
terest in the affairs of this organization. 

Mr. Frank S. Gannon, who has for the 
last six or seven years had charge of the 
Baltimore & Ohio interests in New York 
City, and was general manager of the 
Staten Island Rapid Transit, has been 
elected third vice-president and general 
manager of the Southern Railway, with 
headquarters at Washington, D. C. Mr. 
Gannon is a remarkably able railroad man, 
and has commended himself to this high 
position by the skillful and judicious man- 
ner in which he managed to keep at bay 
a variety of interests that were constantly 
trying to take advantage of the Baltimore 
& Ohio in New York City. He is a 
graduate of the Erie, where he began work 
as a telegraph operator, and he has a great 
many amusing reminiscences to tell about 
the way business was transacted on the 
Erie thirty years ago. He was for a time 
general superintendent of the New York 
City & Northern, and his management of 
that property was no less skillful than the 
work he did for the Baltimore & Ohio. 

Mr. E. M. Herr has been appointed 
superintendent of motive power and roll- 
ing stock of the Northern Pacific, with 
headquarters at St. Paul, Minn. Mr. 
Herr has recently been assistant superin- 
tendent of motive power of the Chicago 
& Ntjrthwestern, and is one of the best- 
known of the young, technically educated 
railroad men of the West. He entered 
railroad service originally as a telegraph 
operator, but, realizing the small chances 
of promotion from that position, and 
having a turn towards mechanics, he de- 
termined to obtain the education imparted 
by a good engineering school. After 
graduating, he went into the test depart- 



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LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



71 



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H. S. PETERS, 

DOVER, N. J. 



mcnt of the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy, where he remained several years. 
He left that to be master mechanic of the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, which 
he left to accept the position of superin- 
tendent of the Grant Locomotive Works 
in Chicago. Some of the best engineering 
papers that have been presented to the 
Western Railway Club and to the Ameri- 
can Railway Master Mechanic' Associa- 
tion have been prepared by Mr. Herr, 
and he has done very valuable engineer- 
ing work in connection with the locomo- 
tive testing plant belonging to the Chica- 
go & Northwestern. 

Mr. David Leonard Barnes, the well- 
known consulting engineer and editorial 
writer, died last month in New York, at 
the age of 38 years. Mr. Barnes was born 
in Rhode Island in 1858. He received a 
good technical engineering training at 
Brown University and at the Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology. From the 
latter institution he went to the Rhode 
Island Locomotive Works, and three years 
later was made chief draftsman. Having 
been of literary tastes, he began writing to 
the railroad and engineering papers on 
mechanical problems. This naturally led 
him towards journalism, and about ten 
years ago he went West and joined the 
editorial staff of the "Railway Review." 
Shortly afterwards he changed to the staff 
of the "Railroad Gazette" and was con- 
nected with it at the time of his death. 
He continued his residence in Chicago, 
did consulting engineering work, and by 
degrees secured quite a lucrative business 
in that line. He was a young man of tre- 
mendous energy and industry, and took 
a leading part in a variety of engineering 
societies. Of late he has been consulting 
engineer for the Baldwin Locomotive 
Works and Westinghouse Electric Manu- 
facturing Company, in their combined 
work in the development of electric loco- 
motives. His untimely death put an end 
to a career that promised to be great and 
useful. 



The compressed-air locomotive which 
has been under construction for the New 
York Elevated Railroad for some time, is 
finished and will be ready for service as 
soon as the air compressor is ready for 
work. The engine is built under the 
Hardie patents, and the machinery is of 
the same design as that used on the air 
motor working on One Hundred and 
Twenty-fifth street, New York. There 
was a compressed-air engine, designed by 
Air. Hardie, tried on the elevated railways 
about fifteen years ago, and it worked 
fairly well, although the compressed air 
was only about 900 pounds per square 
inch. The new motor will start out with 
a pressure of 2,000 pounds, and will pos- 
sess several features conducive to economy 
of air, which were wanting in the first en- 
gine tried. 



EQUIPMENT NOTES. 

The Illinois Central has recently or- 
1.000 cars. 

The Wilmington & Northern is in the 
market for 200 cars. 

The Toledo, St. Louis & Kansas City 
has ordered 500 gondola cars. 

The St. Louis & San Francisco is get- 
ting 300 freight cars built at St. Charles. 

The Southern Railway is reported to be 
in the market for a lot of new locomotives. 

The Wisconsin Central has placed an 
order for 1,000 cars with Haskell & Bar- 
ker. 

The Rogers Locomotive Works has re- 
ceived an order for eighteen Moguls for 
Japan 

The Florida Central & Peninsular has 
ordered two passenger cars from Jackson 
& Sharp. 

The Rio Grande Southern has ordered 
eight passenger cars from the Ohio Falls 
Company. 

The Louisville, Evansville & St. Louis 
has ordered one passenger car from the 
Ohio Falls Company. 

The Berind-White Coal Mining Com- 
pany has ordered 150 freight cars from the 
Middletown Car Works. 

The Southern Railway has ordered four 
combination vestibule, passenger and bag- 
gage cars from Pullman. 

The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western 
management talk of ordering some new 
locomotives before the month is out. 

The Brooks Locomotive Works is 
building five ten-wheel freight engines for 
the Nickel Plate, and some others for the 
Butte, Anaconda & Pacific. 

The Boston & Maine has placed an 
order with the Rhode Island Locomotive 
Works for twenty engines, and with the 
Manchester Works for five more. 

The Illinois Central are putting the 
standard coupler and platform upon a 
number of their suburban cars. This 
coupler and platform has lately been ap- 
plied to some Pullman sleepers. 

The manufacturers of woodworking ma- 
chinery are said to be trying to form 
an organization for self-protection and 
preservation, similar to one formed some 
years ago by locomotive builders. 

President Diaz, of Mexico, has ordered 
three magnificent cars from Barney & 
Smith Car Company. The cars will consti- 
tute the president's private train, and will 
consist of dining car, sleeper and library 
car. 

The Dickson Locomotive Works, 
Scranton, Pa., are rebuilding five engines 
for the Erie & Wyoming and one for the 
Ontario & Western. They have also a 
number of mining locomotives that they 
are working at. 
The Schenectady Locomotive Works 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



have recently received an order for five 
heavy ten-wheelers for the Southern Pa- 
cific, and several ten-wheelers suitable for 
passenger or freight for the Michigan 
Central. They are also building four en- 
gines for the Boston & Albany, and five 
for the Midland Terminal of Colorado. 

Among recent orders given to the Bald- 
win Locomotive Works is one engine for 
the Chicago & West Michigan, seven for 
the Norfolk & Western, one for the New 
York. Philadelphia & Norfolk, two for 
the Erie, and ten for the Kansas City, 
Pittsburgh & Gulf. It is also reported 
that they have received an order from 
China for some engines. 

The Tyler Tube & Pipe Company, of 
Washington, Pa., have the contract to fur- 
nish the knobbled hammered charcoal 
iron boiler tubes required in the new 
battleships Nos. 7 and 8, as well as the 
tubes for the water-tube boilers in the 
United States steamer "Chicago." They 
have lately completed the order for tubes 
for the United States vessels "New York," 
"Columbia," "Minneapolis," "Castine," 
and the ram "Katahdin." 

® ® §1 

WHAT YOU WANT TO KNOW. 

Questions and Answers. 

Correspondents wishing to have ques- 
tions answered in these columns should 
send in their mums and addresses, not 
for publication, but for evidence of good 
faith. We throw all anonymous letters 
into the waste basket. 

(1) W. W., Lafayette, Ind., writes: 
Can you tell me where I can get any 

hints as to balancing driving wheels? 
A. — The report of proceedings of the 
American Railway Master Mechanics' 
Association for 1896 contains the informa- 
tion you ask for, set forth by a committee 
appointed to investigate the best methods 
for handling the counterbalancing of 
driving wheels. 

(2) C. F. B., Bridgeport, Conn., writes: 
Some railroad men claim that they can 

make better time when the heavy cars 
(postal, etc.) are in the fore part of the 
train, than they can when attached to the 
rear of the train. Will you be kind enough 
to explain this? A. — Experiments have 
been made with the dynamometer, for the 
purpose of testing the truth of this' propo- 
sition, and it has been demonstrated that 
the pull on the drawbar was exactly the 
same when the heavy cars were ahead as 
when they were in the rear of the train. 

(3). H. T,. Paducah, Ky., writes: 
Being a subscriber of your paper, I ask 
if you will kindly answer the following 
questions: 1. What are the principal rea- 
sons why a Monitor injector refuses to 
take up water at the overflow? A. — See 
Answer No. 73 in September, 1896, issue. 
2. What causes an engine, while running 
shut off at a high rate of speed, to give 
short puffs or exhausts through the stack; 
would it indicate faulty valve motion? 
A. — A leaking throttle valve would pro- 
duce such an effect. 3. What causes the 
drumming or roaring noise frequently 
made by engines? A. — Explosion of 
minute quantities of gas in the firebox in 
rapid succession is what causes this noise. 

(4) T. J. M., Jersey City, N. J., writes: 
I would like to ask why some engines, 



when running about 40 miles an hour, 
wabble or, as some say, "nose." I know 
of two engines on the P. R. R., one of 
them Class L and one Class P, that do 
this, so that it is uncomfortable to ride 
upon them at high speed. I have tried to 
solve this problem, but would like some- 
one else's opinion on the matter. A. — 
The action you speak of is undoubtedly 
due to a lack of counterbalance of the re- 
ciprocating parts. If this horizontal dis- 
turbance is eliminated by a correct balance 
of the unbalanced forces, there will be 
found a new trouble in the shape of a ver- 
tical disturbance, for the reason that when 
the wheels are properly balanced for the 
revolving weights, any attempt to balance 
the reciprocating parts will destroy the 
revolving balance vertically, and it is this 
vertical overbalance with its hammering 
action that is sought to be avoided. Be- 
tween two evils the lesser one is usually 
taken, and that will probably account for 
the "nosing." 

(5) J. W., St. Paul, Minn., writes: 
We have a logging engine here that 
weighs about 40 tons with coal and water. 
It has a saddle tank and a four-wheeled 
truck under the coal bunker. Engine has 
run nearly two years and is cutting the 
flanges on all driving wheels and truck 
wheels. Forward driving wheel flanges 
are cut the worst. Total rigid wheelbase 
is 23 feet. Tires are not worn at all on 
tread. What is best to do with the en- 
gine — run the tires as long as possible and 
then turn them off? A. — Turn the tires 
before the flanges have become too thin. 
This should be done as a measure of 
economy, for the reason that the tread 
of the tires will have to be sacrificed too 
greatly in order to bring up the flanges 
to the proper thickness if turning is de- 
ferred too long. 2. How thin can the 
flanges be allowed to get? A.— They 
should not be run at less than I inch thick 
for the above reason. 3. What is the cause 
of the tires cutting on all the wheels? A. — 
The cause can probably be traced to the 
curves on your road. 4. How much does 
a new set of tires cost for four wheels? 
A. — The cost will depend on the diameter 
and thickness of tires, which information 
you do not furnish; you may, however, 
determine this for yourself by calculating 
the weight of them and computing the 
cost at about 4 cents per pound. 5. How 
much is it worth to take the wheels out 
from under the engine, and replace them 
after turning the tires? A. — The cost of 
this work hinges entirely on the facilities 
for doing it, and the price of labor. It 
will take two machinists and two laborers 
one day or more, under ordinary condi- 
tions, to disconnect and raise the engine 
off her wheels and onto the blocks, with 
the common screw jack, and a like time to 
put her on the wheels again and couple up. 
The cost of turning the tires will depend 
on the amount of material removed, their 
degree of hardness, and the price paid for 
labor. On the basis of ten hours to the 
pair, the four wheels would require two 
days. The entire cost would therefore 
range anywhere from $20 to $40, or even 
more if the turning was hired dorie in an 
outside shop, where a round figure is 
usually charged for the use of tools. 



Besides investing in a great deal of 
first-class rolling stock, the new manage- 
ment of the Baltimore & Ohio are mak- 
ing a great deal of improvement in the 
shops where repairs are to be carried on. 
They are putting up a new locomotive 
repair shop at Baltimore. 



Railroad men 
Can Educate 
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Any man who will study can eduoate himself in. 
Arithmetic, Mensuration, Mechanics, Mechanical 
Drawing and Locomotive Engineering without 
losing time from work. Even though he never 
attended school and does not understand Arith- 
metic, if he can read and write and will study, he 
<an learn by our method. We teach by corre- 
spondence and without the use of text-books. In- 
struction and Question Papers, simplified and 
condensed, prepared especially for our students, 
are furnished free. The student receives personal 
assistance from the instructors. His work is ex- 
amined and corrected separately, so that he is a 
class by himself— neither pushed forward too 
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slowly. 

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who wish to study Locomotive Steam Engineer- 
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mechanical engineering. 

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english Branches. 

The English Branches Scholarship includes in- 
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LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



78 



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The electrical operation of the South 
Shore branch of the Old Colony part of 
the New York, New Haven & Hartford 
system, has worked so satisfactorily that 
the management is reported to be pn pal 
ing to introduce electrical traction on the 
branch between New Britain and Hart- 
ford. The system employed will be the 
same as that used on the South Shore 
branch. A third rail, insulated upon 
wooden blocks in the center of the track, 
is used as a conductor, and remarkably 
few delays have occurred through de- 
rangement of the electrical apparatus. 



The Manhattan Elevated Railway Com- 
pany of New York have fitted up one of 
their locomotives to burn oil and are ex- 
perimenting with it in train service. There 
appears to be no difficulty, as might be 
expected, in making the engine steam all 
right, and this one seems to give entire 
satisfaction. To judge from the experi- 
ence of other roads where coal is cheap, 
the only difficulty in making a success of 
the oil burner on the Elevated is on the 
score of expense, for, unless under excep- 
tional circumstances, coal is cheaper than 
oil. 



At the last meeting of the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers the sec- 
retary gave public notice that the society 
would no longer supply the annual report 
free to libraries, institutions of learning 
and other places which nearly always ap- 
ply for complimentary copies. This is a 
movement which other societies will soon 
have to take part in. There are certain 
libraries and seats of learning which al- 
ways expect publications free, although 
in many cases they are better able to pay 
than the donors are able to give free. 



A somewhat curious practice has been 
adopted by Mr. G. W. Stevens, superin- 
tendent of motive power of the Lake Shore 
& Michigan Southern, in securing bolts 
on locomotives. Instead of using cotters 
01 split pins, he puts in a copper rivet and 
rivets the end. This has to be cut out 
before a bolt can be removed. It has the 
effect of preventing men from taking out 
bolts except in cases of absolute necessity, 
and it is found more reliable than a cotter 
or split pin. 

§ i ® 

The Northwestern Railway Club is be- 
coming noted for the highly practical 
character of the papers read by the mem- 
bers. The discussions are also about as 
good as the papers. Among twenty-four 
new members admitted to the club at one 
meeting there were seventeen foremen, 
one general superintendent, one assistant 
general superintendent, two foundrymen, 
one air-brake inspector, one master me- 
chanic and one lumber asent. 



Buyers' Finding List. 



AIR BRAKE FITTINGS. 

Cranei :-", 111. 

AIR BRAKE HOSE. 

Mass. 
Men 'i I' 

N Y i New York. 

Peerli r , .,rk. 

AIR BRAKES. 

Westtngnouse Air Brake Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 

AIR-BRAKE PUMP GOVERNORS. 

Foster Engineering Co., Newark. N J. 
Mason Regulator Co., Boston, Mass. 

AIR COMPRESSORS. 

Clayton Ail I ..mpresBor WorkB. New York. 

w. Hi-:', ft Co Hoi oken, N. J. 

Hammett, M C.,1 roy, N'. v. 

Ingeraoll Si i '-.'. Y. City. 

Norwalk Iron Works Co.. South Norwalk, Ct. 

Pedriek K- Aver Co.. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rand Drill Co., New York. 

St. I. Mins Steam Engine Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

AIR HOISTS. 

Pedriek & Ayer Co.. Philadelphia, I'a. 

Rand Drill Co., New Y< ik 

AIR PUMP PACKING. 

United States Metallic PackingCo., Phila., Pa. 

AIR SIGNAL HOSE. 

ii Belting Co., BoStOD. Mass. 
X. V. Belting A' Packing Co., New Y->rk. 
Peerless Rubber Mfg. Co., New York. 

ARCH BARS. 

Cambria Iron Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

ASBESTOS. 

H. W. Johns Mfg. Co., New York. 
AXLES. 

Cambria Iron Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Gould Coupler Co., Buffalo, N*. Y. 
B. M. Jones & Co., Boston, Mass. 
Krupp (T. Prosser & Son. New York). 

BAKER CAR HEATERS. 

W. C. Baker, New York. 

BALANCED SLIDE VALVES. 

Am. Bal. Slide Valve Co., San Francisco, Cal. 
D. H. Brown, McComb. Miss. 
M. C. Hammett, Troy, N. Y. 

BARB WIRE. 

Cambria Iron Co , Philadelphia, Pa. 

BEARING METAL. 

Ajax .Metal Co., Philadelphia. Pa. 
Paul S. Reeves, Philadelphia, Pa. 
U. S. Metallic Pkg. Co , Philadelphia, Pa. 

BELL RINGER. 

U. S. Metallic Packing Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

BELTING. 

Boston Belting Co., Boston, Mass. 

N. Y. Belting & Packing Co., New York. 

BOILER CHECKS-INSIDE. 

Foster Engineering Co., Newark, N. J. 
Dickson Locomotive VYorks, Scranton, Pa. 

BOILER LAGGING. 

Keasbev ft Mattison Co., Ambler, Pa. 

BOILER SETTINGS. 

Garden City Sand Co , Chicago, 111. 

BOILERS. 

Pittsburg Locomotive Works. Pittsburg. Pa 
Brooks Locomotive Works. Dunkirk. N. Y. 
Cook Locomotive & Machine Co.. Patetson. 
N. I. 

BOILER TESTERS. 

Rue Mfg. Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

BOILER TOOLS. 

Richard Dudgeon, New York. 
Hilles & Jones Co., Wilmington. DeL 
Long & Allstatter Co., Hamilton, O. 
Prentice Bros.. New York. 

BOILER WASHERS. 

Nathan Mfg. Co.. New York. 
Rue Mfg. Co., Philadelphia. Pa. 

BOLT THREADING MACHINERY. 

Acme Machinery Co.. Cleveland, O. 
Armstrong Mfg. Co.. New York. 
Detrick& Harvey Machine Co.. Baltimore. Md. 
Hill. Clarke SC . B ston. Mass. 
National Machinerv Co.. Tiffin. O. 
Prentiss Tool X Supply Co.. New York. 

BOOKS. 

H. C. Baird A: Co.. Philadelphia. Pa. 
Philadelphia Book Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
D. Van Nostrand Co.. New York City. 
John Wiley A Sons, New York. 

(Continued on page } 



71 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



BUYERS' FiNOING LIST— Continued. 

BORING AND TURNING MILLS. 
Betts Machine Co . Wilmington I (eL 
Davis&Egan Machine Tool Co., Cincinnati, O. 
Hill. Clarke i I . Boston, Mass. 

BOXES FOR SHAFTING. 

P. I'ryibil, N'ew York City. 

BRACKET (RUNNING BOARD). 
1 1,11 ton Malleable Iron Co., 1 laj ton, O. 

BRAKE ADJUSTERS. 
Q. & C. Co.. Chicago, 111. 

BRAKE FORKS. 

Dayton Malleable Iron Co., Dayton, O. 

BRAKE SHOES. 

Ramapo Iron Works, Hillburn, N. Y. 
Ramapo Wheel* Foundry Co., Ramapo. N.Y. 
The Sargent Co, Chicago, Ills. 

BRAKE WHEEL. 

Dayton Malleable Iron Co., Davton. O. 

BRASS CASTINGS. 

Ajax Metal Co., Inc.. Philadelphia, Pa. 
Paul S. Reeves, Philadelphia, Pa. 

BRIDGE AND STRUCTURE PAINT. 

Standard Paint Co., N'ew York. 

BUFFERS. 

Could Coupler Co.. Buffalo, N. Y. 
Pryibil, P., New York. 

BUILDING AND SHEATHING PAPERS. 

Standard Paint Co , New York. 

BULLDOZERS 

Williams. White & Co., Moline, 111. 

BUOY LIGHTING. 

Safety Car Heating * Lighting Co., New York. 

CARS. 

Allison Mfg. Co.. Philadelphia. Pa. 

J. G. Brill Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Lima Locomotive & Machine Co., Lima, O. 

Ramapo Iron Works, Hillburn. N. Y. 

CAR AXLES. 

Dickson Locomotive Works, Scranton, Pa. 

CAR COUPLERS. 

Gould Coupler Co.. Buffalo, N. Y. 
McConway & Torley Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 
National Malleable Castings Co., Chicago. 111. 
St. Louis Car Coupler Co., St. Louis. Mo. 
Sams Automatic Coupler Co.. Denver, Col. 
Smillie Coupler & Mfg. Co., Newark, N. J. 
Standard Coupler Co., New York. 
Trojan Car Coupler Co., Troy, N. Y. 

CAR DOORS. 

National Malleable Castings Co., Chicago, 111. 

CAR DOOR FASTENERS. 

Dayton Malleable Iron Co., Dayton, O. 
National Malleable Castings Co., Chicago, 111 

CAR FORGINGS. 

Dickson Locomotive Works. Scranton, Pa. 
Peerless Rubber Mfg. Co., New York 

CAR HEATING. 

William C. Baker. New York. 

Safety Car Heating & Lighting Co., New York. 

CAR HEATING HOSE. 

Boston Belting Co . Boston, Mass. 

N. Y. Belting & Packing Co., New York. 

CAR LIGHTING. 

Safety Car Heating & Lighting Co., New York. 

CAR ROOFING. 

Standard Paint Co., New York. 

CAR SEATS. 

Hale & Kilburn Mfg. Co . Philadelphia, Pa. 
Scarritt Furniture Co., St. Louis, Mo 

CAR SHOP TOOLS. 

Niles Tool Works Co., Hamilton. O. 
Prentice Bros . New York. 

CAR SEAT SPRINGS. 

W. D. Gibson Co., Chicago, 111. 

CAR STEP TREADS. 

Boston Belting Co., Boston. Mass. 

CAR VENTILATORS. 

Harrington & King Perforating Co., Chicago, 

M. C. Hammett. Trov, N. Y. 

Palmer Car Ventilator Co., Boston. Mass 

CAR WHEEL BORERS. 

Betts Machine Co , Wilmington. Del. 
Prentiss Tool Supply Co., New York. 
CAR WHEELS. 

Krupp (T Prosser & Son. New York). 
Lima Locomotive & Machine Co., Lima, O. 
Ramapo Wheel & FoundrvCo.. Ramapo, N.Y, 
Standard Steel Works, Philadelphia, Pa. 

CARS, LIGHT RAILWAY. 

Kalamazoo Railroad V. R. Co., Kalamazoo, 
Mich 

CASTINGS. 

Ramapo Wheel & Foundry Co , Ramapo, N.Y. 
Cook Locomotive & Machine Co.. Paterson 

N.J. 
National Malleable Castings Co., Chicago 111. 
The Sargent Co., Chicago. 111. 



CATTLE GUARDS. 

Q. & C. Co., Chicago. 111. 

CENTER INDICATORS. 

J. Stevens Arms & Tool Co., Chicopee Falls, 

M.L-.-, 

CHANNELERS. 

lniiLTs.'ll-Sergeant Drill Co., New York, 

CLAMPS, TOOL MAKERS'. 
Armstrong Mfg. Co., New York. 
|. Stevens Arms A: Tool Cm, Chicopee Falls, 
Mass, 

CLEANING MATERIAL. 

Alkali Works, Huston, Mass. 

CLOCKS. 

John J. McGrane, New York. 

CLUTCHES. 

American Tool & Machine Co., Boston, Mass. 

COAL CHUTES. 

Williams, White & Co., Moline. 111. 

COAL HANDLING MACHINERY. 

Ingersoll-Sergeant Drill Co.. New York. 
Link Belt Enerineerine Co., Philadelphia. Pa. 
The Pratt & Whitney Co , Hartford, Conn. 

COAL PICKS. 

Davton Malleable Iron Co., Davton, O. 

COMPRESSED AIR LOCOMOTIVES. 

Dickson Locomotive Works, Scranton, Pa. 
H. K. Porter & Co.. Pittsburgh, Pa. 

CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS. 

Internat'l Corres. Schools, Scranton, Pa. 

CORUNDUM WHEELS. 

Norton Emery Wheel Co., Worcester, Mass. 

COUPLER SPRINGS. 

Wm. S Gibson Co., Chicago. 

COUPLING CEMENT. 

Boston Belting Co., Boston, Mass. 

CRANES. 

Manning, Maxwell & Moore, New York. 
Maris Bros., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Pedrick & Ayer Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
William Sellers & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
R. D. Wood & Co., Philadelphia. Pa. 

CRANK PIN GAGES. 

M. C. Hammett, Troy, N. Y. 

CRANK PINS. 

Cambria Iron Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
B. M. Jones & Co., Boston, Mass. 
Krupp iT. Prosser & Son, New York). 

CUTTERS, STAY-BOLT. 

Acme Machinery Co., Cleveland, O. 

DAMPER REGULATORS. 

Mason Regulator Co., Boston, Mass. 

DRAW BAR ATTACHMENT. 

Butler Draw Bar Co., Cleveland. O. 

DRAWING AND DESIGNING. 

W. D. Forbes & Co., Hoboken, N. J. 

DRILL RODS. 

Armstrong Bros. Tool Co., Chicago, 111. 

DRILLS. 

Armstrong Bros. Tool Co., Chicago, 111. 
Bignall & Keeler Mfg. Co.. Edwardsville, 111. 
Cleveland Twist Drill Co., Cleveland. O. 
Pedrick & Ayer Co , Philadelphia, Pa. 
Prentice Bros , New York. 
The Pratt & Whitney Co.. Hartford, Conn. 

DRILLING MACHINES. 

Hill. Clarke A Co., Boston. Mass. 
Gould & Eberhardt, Newark. N I. 
The Pratt & Whitney Co.. Hartford, Conn. 
Prentice Bros., New York. 

ELECTRIC LIGHTING AND POWER 
APPARATUS. 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. .Pittsburgh, Pa 

EJECTORS. 

Hancock Inspirator Co., Boston, Mass. 
EMERY WHEELS. 

Armstrong Bros. Tool Co.. Chicago, 111. 
Norton Emery Wheel Co., Worcester, Mass. 

ENGINES. 

St. Louis Steam Engine Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

ENGRAVINGS 

Bradley & Poates, New York. 

FILES AND RASPS. 

Arcade File Co., New York. 
Armstrong Bros. Tool Co., Chicago, 111. 
Nicholson File Co., Providence, R. I. 

FIRE BRICK. 

Garden City Sand Co., Chicago, 111. 

FIRE HOSF- 

Boston Belting Co.. Boston. Mass. 
Peerless Rubber Mfg. Co.. New York. 



(Continued on page ?j.) 



BOOKS-- 



FOR 

MECHANICAL 
ENGINEERS 

KENT : The Mechanical Engineers' 
Pocket Book, t2mo, morocco, 
$5.00. 

KNEASS: Practice and Theory of 
the Injector, 8vo, cloth, $1.50. 

SINCLAIR : Locomotive Running; 
and Management, J2mo, cloth, 
$2.00. 

REAGAN : Locomotives, Simple, 
Compound and Electric, J2mo, 
cloth, $2.00. 

MEYER: Modern Locomotive 
Construction, 4to, cloth, $10.00. 

HEMENWAY: Indicator Practice, 
J2mo, cloth, $2.00. 

SEND FOR 
GENERAL CATALOGUE. 

John Wiley & Sons, 

NEW YORK. 

Chapman & Hall, Limited, London. 



Sawgran 

For Clean Cleaning. 
INDIA ALKALI WORKS, BOSTON. 



World's Fair Medil, 1<W<. Silver l&^7. 




JUST OUT. 

PRACTICAL GUIDE FOR FIREMEN. 

By W. H. WAKEMAN. 
SOpages. Price, ".V. New Catalogue, lust out. Bent free. 
AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL PUB. CO., 

Bridgeport, Conn. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



75 



Canals 









fiydraulic 

Gifting 

lack. 

A good, reliable Jack for Lifting 
or Pushing in any direction.** 
Lever for pumping up.***.* Key 
lowers and stops at any point.** 
Sizes from 4 to 200 tons. . 

JOSEPH F. McCOY CO.,- 




26 WARREN SE.. NEW YORK. 



LEONARD & ELLIS- 




Trade "^iiHii^' Mark. 

OILS FOR RAILROADS. 



■* *~*^ j1, has long been used on man} 

VALVOLINE of the leading railroads in thit 
jtjt OIL J*«s« country and abroad. It has no 
,ii,,n,,,,, equal in quality and mileage. 

W. A. BOYDEN, General Agent, 
J57 Chambers Street, NEW YORK 

Injectors 

LIFTING AND NON-LIFTING. 
LOCOMOTIVE, STATIONARY AND 
MARINE. BOILER WASHERS. 
EJECTORS and all JET APPARATUS. 
OLD RELIABLE « LITTLE GIANT " 
AND "UNIQUE" BOILER FEEDERS. 

RUE M'F'G CO., 

J 19 No. Ninth Street, 
PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



HYDRAULIC 



RIVETERS— Fixed and Portable. 
PUNCHES, SHEARS, c 
PRESSES, LIFTS, CRANES 
and ACCUMULATORS. 




Matthews' Fire Hydrants, Eddy Valves, 
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THE CAMDEN HIGH-PRESSURE VALVES. 



CAST IRON PIPE. 



B.D.W00D&C0„EEr- 



400 Chestnut Street, 



PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



SIGNAL OIL WORKS, 

LIMITED, 

FRANKLIN, J?A. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

SIBLEY'S Perfection VALYE OIL. 

The only perfect Locomotive Valve Lubricant. 

J.C. SIBLEY, Prest. 



D. Van Nostrand Co.'s 
Recent Publications. 



A Primer of the Calculus K Sherman «;<»nld. 

with i. plates. Ifl boards, v I 

LVan Nostrand Science Series, No. LIS 
Tiii- little wort la an attempt to teach the 
absolute rudiments of the science, ( »\ pre enl 
lug a few elementary rules and ih'-n putting 
them to Immediate ase as far as they wul go. 

• • • 

Dements of Mechanics, Including Kine- 
matics. Kinetics and Batlcs, with applica- 

li. hi. Hv Thomas Wallace Wright, MA., 

Ph.D., Professor in Union College* Bro ( 

.huh, illustrated. 82.50. 

• • • 

Letters for Draughtsmen, Engineers and 
Students A practical system of Free- 
hand Lettering for Working Drawings. By 

C.E. Kelnhanlt. Oblong board. Hxll Inches. 
£1 pages. 11 Illustrations and «t plat«-s. $1.(1(1. 

Treats upon purely freehand lettering In a 
thoroughly practical way, giving the proper 
sequence of strokes employed for forming each 

letter, and warning the beginner at rhe *nuw 

time against errors moBt commonly committed. 
special attention has been given lot in- subject 
or Lettering working drawings. The wors la 
the result of the writer's experience sained in 
years of practice a! theheadoftheBnglneertng 
Sen.' drafting department and Is Intended to 
beapruetleal hum* towards efficiently doing 
the best class ox work within the shortest pos- 
sible time. 

• • • 

JUST READY. Thirteenth Edition, Kes Ned. 

8vo. eloth. 28 Woodcuts, 30 copperplate En 

gravings. together with a Travel Scale. |3.00; 

The Practical Application of the Slide Valve 

and Link Motion to Stationary. Portable, 

Locomotive an. I Marine Engines, with New 

and Simple Methods for Proportioning the 

Parts. By William S. Auchlncloss, C. E., 

Mem. A. S. C.E. 

Contents: Parti. The Slide Valve— Elemen- 
tary Principles and General Proportions. Part 
II. General Proportions Modified by Crank and 
Piston Connections. Part III. Adjustable Ec- 
centrics. Part IV. Link Motions. Part V*. In 
dependent Cut-off, Clearance, etc. Appendix, 
Formulae Relating to Crank and Piston Mo- 
tions. 

• • • 

A USEFUL REFERENXE BOOK. 300 pages, 
One Volume. Pocket Size, Morocco. Price, $2.00. 
Machinists* and Steam Engineers' Practical 
Calculator. By D. B. Dixon. 
Contents: Signs and Abbreviations. Defini- 
tions. Tables. Decimal Fractions. Numera- 
tion Tables. Single Rule of Three, or Single 
Proportion. Compound Proportion, or Double 
Rule of Three. Involution, Evolution. Ex 
i traction of the Square Root. Extraction uf the 
Cube Ro..t. Mensuration. Screw ( utting. Gear 
I ing. Pumps. Steam Engine Indicator. \\ ire 
Gauge. The Fulcrum. The Injector. Steel. 
Receipts and Useful Information. Steam Roil 
ers. Steam Engine. Valve Motion. Link Mo- 
1 tlon. Miscellaneous Rules and Problems. 

*** Copies sent by mail, prepaid, on receipt of 
price. 48-pa.ge catalogue of mechanical bonks 
sent gratis on application. 

D. Van Nostrand Company 

Publishers, 

23 Murray and 27 Warren 

Streets, New York. 



Octavius Knight 

Patent Expert, 

37 Liberty Street, 

New York. 



Forty Years' Experience. 

Litigated Cases; Applications; 

Investigations. 

Telephone, 4106 Cortlandt. 



I 

J 

5 

j 
t 
J 
5 
3 

I 

5 



BUYERS' FINDING LIST— Continued. 

FIREPROOF HEATERS. 

W. C. Baker, New York. 
FLEXIBLE SHAFT. 

st<.w l-'l. xlbla Shaft I o Philadelphia, Pa. 
FLEXIBLE STEAM JOINT. 

lioran Ple%ibleSteamJointCo.,Louiayille,Kyi 

FLUES AND TUBES. 

Allison Mfg. Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Tyler Tube- & Pipe Co.. Washington. Pa. 

FORGES. 

Armstrong Bro ' Mcago, DL 

The Bradley < 0., Syracuse. N. Y. 
Buffalo I : Balo, N. Y. 

FORGINGS, LIGHT. 

W.D. Forbi tCOj Hoboken, N. J. 
Cambria Iron Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

FROGS AND CROSSINGS. 

Ramapo Iron Works. Hillburn, N. Y. 

FROG AND SWITCH POINT PLANERS. 

Prentiss Tool .y Supply Co . New York. 

GAGES. „ „ , 

Ashi roft, in Uberty Btre< I New '. ork. 
( v*alveCo.,Bi 

Star Brass Mfg. Co.. Boston, Mass. 
LTtica Si earn Gage Co . ■ 'tica. N. Y. 

GAS COMPRESSORS. 

Norwalk Iron Works I I walk. Conn. 

GAS ENGINES. 

W D. I orbes&Co., Hoboken. N. J. 

GASKETS AND RINGS. 
Boston Belting Co., Boston, U 

GASOLINE MOTOR INSPECTION 

CARS. 

Kalamazoo Railroad Velocipede &, Car Co. 
Kalamazoo, Mich. 

GRAPHITE. „. „ , 

Jos. Dixon Crucible Co., Jersey City, N. J. 
HAMMERS. 

The Bradley Co., Syracuse. N". Y. 
Williams, White & Co , Moline. 111. 

HAND PRESSURE PUMPS. 

W. D. Forbes & Co., Hoboken, N. J. 

HANGERS. 

American Tool & Machine Co . Boston, Mass. 
The Pratt A Whitney Co., Hartford, Conn. 
P. Pryibil. New Yoik City. 

HEATING SYSTEM FOR SHOPS. 

Buffalo Forge Co. 

Gold Car Heating Co . New York. 

HOLDERS FOR BRASS AND NICKEL- 
PLATED PIPE. 
Armstrong Mfg. Co., New York. 

HOLLOW STAYBOLTS. 

Falls Hollow Staybolt Co.. Cuyahoga Falls, O. 

HOSE, AIR-BRAKE STEAM AND 
WATER. 

Mercer Rubber Co.. New York. 
Boston Belting Co., New Y'ork. 

HOT WATER CAR AND HOUSE 
HEATERS. 

\V C. Baker, New Y'ork. 

HYDRAULIC CAR WHEEL PRESSES. 

Prentiss Tool & Suprly Co.. New 'i ork. 
The Watson-Stillman Co., New \ i Tk. 

HYDRAULIC CRANK PLN PRESSES. 

The Watson-Stillman Co., New York. 

HYDRAULIC TACKS. 

R. Dudgeon. New York. 

The Watson-Stillman Co.. New \ ork. 

HYDRAULIC PRESSES. 

R. Dndgeon. New York. 

The Watson-Stillman Co.. New York. 

HYRDAULIC PUMPS. 

The Watson-Stillman Co.. New York. 

HYDRAULIC PUNCHES. 

R. Dudgeon, New Y ork. 

The Watson Stillman Co., New York. 

HYDRAULIC RAIL BENDERS. 

The Watson-Stillman Co.. New- \ ork. 

HYDRAULIC RAIL PUNCHES. 

The Watson-Stillman Co., New York. 

HYDRAULIC TOOLS- 

Richard Dudgeon, New York. 

The Watson-Stillman Co., New York. 

R. D. Wood & Co.. Philadelphia. Pa. 

HYDRAULIC TRANSFER JACKS. 

The Watson-Stillman Co.. New- York. 

INDICATORS. 

Ashcroft Mfg. Co., New York. 

Crosbv Steam Gage and Valve Co.. Boston. 

The Pratt & Whitnev Co.. Hartford, Conn. 



(Continued on fagc 76.) 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



BUYERS' FINDING LIST Continued. 

INJECTORS. 

Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit, Mich. 
Hancock Inspirator Co B< ton Mass. 
itayden & Derby Mfg. Co., New York. 
Nathan Mfg. Co.. New York. 
Rue Mfg. Co., Philadelphia, Fa. 
William Sellers* Co.. Philadelphia, Pa. 

INSPECTION HAND CARS. 

Kalamazoo Railroad Velocipede it Car Co., 
Kalamazoi ■. Mich, 

INSPECTION RAILWAY. 
K \v Ilm i Co . Chicago, 111. 

INSPIRATORS. 

Hancock Inspirator Co., Boston, Mass. 

INSULATING COMPOUNDS, PAPERS 
AND TAPE. 
Standard Paint Co., New York. 

JACKS. 

E C. Boyer, Dayton, O. 
Richard Dudgeon, New York. 
A L. Henderer, Wilmington, Del. 
A O. Norton, Boston. Mass. 
Watson & Stilhnan, New York. 

JOURNAL BOXES AND LIDS. 

National Malleable Castings Co., Chicago, 111. 

KEROSENE OIL BOILER FEEDERS. 
Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit, Mich. 

LAGGINGS FOR LOCOMOTIVES. 

H. W. Johns Mfg. Co., New York. 
Keasbey & Mattison Co , Ambler, Pa. 

LATHE DOGS. 

Armstrong Mfg. Co , New York. 

LATHES. 

Hill. Clarke & Co., Boston, Mass. 

Prentice Bros., New York. 

Cement, Miles & Co., Philadelphia. Pa. 

Betts Machine Co., Wilmington, Del. 

Davis A- Esan Machine Tool Co., Cincinnati, O. 

W. D. Forbes & Co., Hoboken. N. J. 

Gould & Eberhardt, Newark, N. I. 

Jones * Lamson Machine Co., Springfield, Yt. 

Manning, Maxwell A Moore, New York 

National Machinery Co., Tiffin, O. 

Newton Machine Tool Wks., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Niles Tool Works Co., Hamilton, O 

Pratt & Whitney Co., Hartford. Conn. 

Prentiss Tool & Supply Co., New York 

William Sellers & Co., 'Inc., Philadelphia, Pa. 

LATHE TOOLS. 

Armstrong Bros. Tool Co., Chicago, 111. 

LOCOMOTIVES. 

Baldwin Locomotive Works, Philadelphia, Pa 
Brooks Locomotive Works, Dunkirk, N. Y. 
Cooke Loco. & Machine Co.. Paterson, N J. 
Dickson Mfg. Co., Scranton. Pa. 
Lima Locomotive & Machine Co., Lima, O. 
Pittsburg Locomotive Works, Pittsburg Pa. 
H. K. Porter & Co.. Pittsburg, Pa. 
Richmond Loco. & Mch. Wks.. Richmond, Va. 
Rogers Locomotive Works, Paterson, N. J. 
Schenectady Loco. Wks.. Schenectady. N.Y. 

LOCOMOTIVE CASTINGS, MODEL. 

G. H. Olney, Brooklyn. X. Y. 

LOCOMOTIVE DRTvTNG WHEEL 
LATHES. 

Prentiss Too l A Supply Co.. New Y'ork. 

LOCOMOTIVE LAGGING. 

Keasbey a Mattison Co.. Ambler, Pa. 
LOCOMOTIVE MACHINERY. 

VilesTool Works c.i . Hamilton, O. 
LOCOMOTIVE SPEED RECORDERS. 

i r.isby Steam Gage & Valve Co., Boston.Mass. 

LOCOMOTIVE STAYBOLT IRON. 

Fads Hollow Stavbolt Co., Cuyahoga Falls, O. 

locomotive Wheel tires. 

Krupp ij. Prosser & Son', New York. 
Latrobe Steel Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

lubricators. 

Detroit Lubricator Co.. Detroit, Mich. 
M C. Hammett, Troy, N. Y. 
"Than Mfe. Co.. New York. 

LUBRICATING OILS. 

Galena Oil Works. Ltd., Franklin, Pa. 
Leonard & Ellis. New \"ork. 
Si nal Oil Works. Franklin Pa 

MACHINISTS' AND WOOD-WORKERS' 
CLAMPS. 

Armstrong Bros Too] Co., Cleveland, O. 
MACHINE TOOLS 

Bement. Miles & Co., Philadelphia. Pa. 

Hetts Machine Co., Wilmington, Del. 

I '.mi A Bgan Machine Tool Co., Cincinnati.O 

W. D. Forbes & Co., Hoboken. N. J. 

Gould & Eberhardt. Newark, N. J. 

I ones & Lamson Machine Co., Springfield, Vt. 

Manning, Maxwell & Moore, New York. 

National Machinery Co . Tiffin. O. 

Newton Machine Tool Wks., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Niles Tool Works Co . Hamilton, O. 

Pratt & Whitney Co.. Hartford. Conn. 

Prentiss Tool and Supply Co., New York. 

William Sellers & Co.. Inc., Philadelphia. Pa. 

{Continued on page r; 



D. SAUNDERS' SONS, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 

PIPE 2. MACHINES 

FOR HAND AND POWER. 

All sizes ){ inch to iS inch for Pipe Mill, Gas and 

Steam Fitters' use. Tapping Machines 

for steam fittings. Also, 

Steam and Gas Fitters' Hand Tools. 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE. 
No. 4 B Machine,!^ to 4' Hand or Power sUd Atf ieriOn St., YOnkeFS, N. Y. 

Beveled Packing Ring 





Simple, 
Durable, 



Self-Supporting, 



Standard. 

American Balance Slide Valve Co. 

San Francisco, CaL or Jersey Shore. P» 




^ ~ « Brown's 

AND SOLID STEAM CHEST. 



Balance Valve 



JM NQ Valve Stem PACKING 



SIMPLE, 
SMART 
and DURABLE. 



Address, D H. BROWN, McCOMB, MISS. 



Newton Machine Tool Works, 



PHILADELPHIA. 




Newton Cold Saw Cutting-Off Machines. 
Jiarly Delivery. 
Write for Catalogue. 
I hirty-eight Sizes. 
C_)ver 450 in Operation. 
JNo Machine Shop Complete Without One. 



A MONTHLY JOURNAL devoted to Steam 
Engineering: and Practical Work relative 
to the Economic Generation and Trans- 
mission of Power. Sixty-four pages, pro- 
fusely illustrated. Price, $1.00 a year. 
Send for Sample Copy— FREE. Address, 

The Power Publishing company, 

World Buildings Ntw York. 




Locomotive Photographs. 

The largest collection on earth. Over 10,001) varieties to select from. 
All the railroads of the world, American, British, French, German, 
Italian , etc., etc. Locomotives, cars and trains. Samples, 8 In. x 6 in., 
35 cents ; 10 in. z 8 In., 36 cents, post free. Illustrated price list gratis 
on application. 

Mooki'i Illustrated Monthly Magazine, full of railway pic- 
tures and Information, containing supplement to list of photographs, 
•nailed free for 6 centa. 

F. flOORE, the World's Railroad Photographer, 

u South Place. Finsbury, London, E C. 



1,000 Pointers. 



for Machinists and Engineers. 

Treating on the Construction, (are and Eco- 
nomical Management of the Locomotive. By 
Cuaeiles McShane. 185 illustrations. 340 pages, 
cloth bound, $1.50. Sent by mail on receipt of 
price. 

Catalogue of Mechanical Books free, 
Philadelphia Book Co., 19 S. 9th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 




THE N0RWALK IRON WORKS CO., 

South Nonvalk, Conn. 

Makers of \jr and Gas Compressors 

For All Purposes. 



SEND FOR CATALOG. 



Asbestos 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 

Fire-Felt Curved Sheet Lagging, 
Mill Board, 
Cement Felting, 



For Boilers of Locomotives. 



TRAIN PIPE COVERINGS, 

Our Asbestos Pipe and Boiler Coverings arc unaffected by vibration. 
VULCABESTON PACKING, for Piston-Rods, Air-Brake Pumps, Etc 

H. W. JOHNS M'F'G CO. 

CHICAGO. PHILADELPHIA. 



NEW YORK 



BOSTON. 



RICHARD DUDGEON 



24 & 26 COLUMBIA ST., 




NEW YORK. 



MAKER AND PATENTEE OV 
IMPROVED 

HYDRAULIC JACKS 

Punches, Roller Tube Expander^ and 
Direct Acting; Strain Hammers* 

fy Jacks for Pressing on Crank-Pins or Car- Wheels 
made to order. Communications by letter will receive 
Drompt attention. 




BETHLEHEM^IRON CO. 

SOUTH BETHLEHEM, PA. 

STEEL RAILS, 

BILLETS AND MUCK BAR, 

STEEL FORGINGS, 

Hollow Shafting. Cranks. Rolls. Guns and Armor. 
Rough, Machined or Finished, Fluid Compressed, Hydraulic Forged. 

NEW YORK OFFICE : 100 Broadway. PHILADELPHIA OFFICE: 421 Chestnut Street. 

CHICAGO OFFICE: Marquette Bldg. 



J. G. BRILL CO. 



Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 



Street Railway 
Supplies. 



Cars, Trucks. 



WE 
MAKE 



- . xtiiiiirrrm 



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Ratchet Handles, 
Tiller Brakes, 
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Lever Brakes, 
Gates, 
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Draw Bars, 
Drop Draw Bars. 



We can Furnish Anything used on a Street Railway at Low Prices. 



77 



BUYERS' FINDING LIST Continual, 

MACHINISTS' SMALL TOOLS. 

ders, cutl , sur- 

face gages, U threading too!, 

compasses, scratch gage, Universal 
beval, center indicators, Universal 
[Uare. 

J. Si. 

Mi 

Callip . hack saws, milling cut- 

ters, tool holders, vises. 
\.,r itrong B j . m, 

MACHINERY. 
Railroad, Locomotive, Car. 
Nik--, Tool \v..rk, Co., Hamilton, O 
Car link and pin, wire nail, automatic 
cold i 
Nationi I 
Railroad, 

rson, N J. 
Mining, quarrying. 

New York. 
MACHINES. 
Air drilling. 

C. H. 1 1.,- Philadelphia, Pa. 

Air, ice, automatic tapping and reaming, 
tapping, special drilling and tapping. 
W. D. F< I ten, N. J. 

Automatic cold rivet, Forming and 
bending, spike, washer, nut, nut tap- 
ping, forming and bending, car link 
and pin, wire nail, head shaving and 
trimming. 
National .Machinery Co., Tiffin, O. 
Automatic spacing and punching. 
Long A Allstatter Co., Hamilton, O. 
Boring and drilling. 
Betts Machine Co . Wilmington, Del. 

Car boring, cutting-off and centering, 
cylinder boring, metal planing, port- 
able valve, seat milling, slotting, Uni- 
versal milling. 

Premice Bros.. New Vork 

Premie Tool & Supplj ( n . Ni •- York. 

Screw cutting dies, metal sawing. 

Armstrong- Mfg. Co . New Y'ork. 

Forging. 

Pra't A Whitney Co . Hartford, Conn. 
Williams, White & Co. Moline, 111. 

Gear-cutting, grinding and polishing 

screws. 

Hill. Clarke & Co.. Boston. Ma*s 

Metal sawing. 

Newton Machine Tool Works, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Pratt & Whitnev Co , Hartford. Conn. 
Q. & C , Chicago. 111. 

Moulding. 

Tabor Mfg. Co . New York. 
Ticket cancelling. 

Ineersoll Sergeant Drill Co.. New Y'ork. 

MAGNESIA LAGGING. 

Keasbev tte Mattison Co . Ambler, Pa. 

MALLEABLE IRON CASTINGS. 

National Malleable Castings Co. Chicago. 

MECHANICAL BOOKS. 

D. Van N'ostrand Co., New York. 
Tohn Wiley a- Sons, New York. 

METAL POLISH. 

(t. W. Hoffman lndianar»oti« Ind. 

METAL SAWING MACHINES. 

Armstr nc Mfg Co . New Y'ork. 
Newton Machine Tool Works. Phila . Pa. 
Pratt & Whitnev Co. Hartford. Conn. 
O- * C. Co.. Ch icago . 111. 
MILLING CUTTER AND ARBORS. 

W D F S Hoboken. N. 1. 

MILLING MACHINES 

Cincinnati Milling Machine Co . Cincinnati. O. 
Hill, Clarke * Co.. Boston, t 
Newton Machine Tool Works. Phila.. Pa. 
Pedrick & Aver Co.. Philadelphia. Pa. 
Pratt & Whitnev Co Hartford. Corn. 
Prentiss Tool & Supply Co.. New Y'ork. 



(Continued ; - 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



BUYERS' FINDING LIST- Continued. 

MINING MACHINERY. 



Rund Drill Co 



New York. 



MODEL LOCOMOTIVES.' 

Geo N I ttney, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
MOLDING SAND. 

Garden City Sand Co.. I hicago, 111. 
MOLDING MACHINES. 

Tabor Mir. Co., New York City. 

MULTIPLE PUNCHES. 

The Long .t Allstatter Co.; Hamilton, O. 

MUFFLED POP SAFETY VALVES. 
Crosby .steam Gage and Valve Co.j Boston, 
Mass 

NUT MACHINES. 

National Machinery Co., Titiin, O. 
Prentiss Tool & Supply Co., New York. 

NUT BURRING MACHINES. 
National Machinery Co.. Tiffin. O. 

NUT TAPPING MACHINES. 
National Machinery Co., Tiffin, O. 

OIL CUPS. 

Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit, Mich. 
Hammitt, M. C, Troy, N. Y. 

OIL SEPARATORS. 

American Tool a Machine Co., Boston. Mass 

OVER CLOTHES 

H. S. Peters. Dover, N. J. 

PACKING. 

Boston Belting Co., Boston, Mass. 

Gould Packing Co.. East Cambridge. Mass. 

H. W. Johns Mfg. Co., New York. 

Jenkins Bros., New York. 

N. Y Belting & Packing Co.. New York. 

Peerless Rubber Mfg. Co., New York. 

U. S. Metallic Packing Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

PAINTS. 

Detroit Graphite Mfg. Co , Detroit, Mich. 
H. W. Johns Mfg. Co.. New York. 
Standard Paint Co., New York. 

PATENTS. 

O. Knight, New York. 

John Wedderburn & Co., Washington, D. C, 

George P. Whittlesey. Washington, D. C. 

PERFORATED METAL. 

A. J. Beckley & Co.. Meriden, Conn. 
Harrington & King Perforating Co., Chicago, 

111. 
The Hendrick Mfg. Co., Ltd., Carbondale. Pa. 

PHOTOGRAPHS. 

F. Moore, London, Eng. 

PIPE CUTTERS. 

Armstrong Manufacturing Co., New York. 

PIPE FITTINGS. 

W. C. Barker. New York. 

PIPE FLANGES. 

Latrobe Steel Co , Philadelphia, Pa. 

PIPE THREADING AND CUTTING 
MACHINERY. 

Armstrong Mfg. Co., Bridgeport. Conn. 
W. D. Forbes & Co.. Hoboken, N. J. 
Bignall & Keeler Mfg. Co., Edwardsville, Ills 
Hill. Clarke & Co., Boston, Mass 
D. Saunders' Sons, Yonkers, N. Y. 

PIPE VISES. 

Armstrong Manufacturing Co., New York. 

PISTOLS. 

J. Stevens Arms & Tool Co., Chicopee Falls. 
Mass. 

PISTON RODS. 

Cambria Iron Co., Philadelphia. Pa. 

B. M. Jones & Co.. Boston, Mass. 
Thomas Prosser & Son. New York. 

PIT OR MINING CARS. 

Kalamazoo Railroad Velocipede & Car Co., 
Kalamazoo, Mich. 

PLANE MILLERS. 

W. D. Forbes & Co., Hoboken, N.J. 

PLANERS. 

Belts Machine Co., Wilmington Del. 
Hill. Clarke & Co . Boston, .Mass 
Prentiss Tool & Supply Co., New York. 

PNEUMATIC TOOLS. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co.. Chicago 111. 
C H. Haeseler & Co.. Philadelphia. Pa. 
Pedrick & Ayer Co . Philadelphia 
CJ. S Metallic Packing Co.. Philadelphia. 

POHLE AIR LIFT PUMP. 

Ingersoll Sergeant Drill Co., New York. 

POP SAFETY VALVES. 

Crosby Steam Ga«e & Valve Co, Boston. 

Mass 
Star Brass Mfg. Co.. Boston, Mass. 

POWER HAMMERS. 

The Bradley Co., Syracuse. N. Y. 
( Continued on page^jq. i 



THE3 



ALLISON MFC. CO., 

MANUFACTURERS OF ' 

FREIGHT CARS AND 
LOCOMOTIVE BOILER TUBES. 

WROUGHT IRON PIPE OF SUPERIOR QUALITY. 



PHILADELPHIA, 



THE SAP. 

OLD COLONY BLD'fl 




CASTINGS 




COMPANY 



-\ 



CHICAGO ILL. 

ST.LOUIS. 

CINCINNATI. 

SAN FRANCISCO 
ST. PAUL, 
TACOMA, 

PORTLAND. 

RAKE 




THE HANCOCK INSPIRATOR. 



Interchangeable with all standard Injectors 
in use. Capacities INCREASE as steam pres- 
sure increases. Minimum capacity, less 
than fifty per cent. (50,) of the maximum. 
ABSOLUTELY NO ADJUSTMENT of either 
steam or water supply under steam pressures 
Of from 35 TO 200 LBS. AND HIGHER. 
Durability, absolute reliability, highest de- 
gree of efficiency, and greater range of ca- 
pacity than any Injector in use GUARANTEED. 



THE HANCOCK INSPIRATOR COMPANY, Boston, Mass. 

the Lima Locomotive and Machine Company, lima, ohio. 

Manufacturers and 
Builders of 





Shay Patent and Direct Connected Locomotives, Freight and Caboose Cars, all kinds of 
Steel Castings, Brass and Gray Iron Castings, Car Wheels and Railroad Work. 

CORRESPONDENCE SOMCITED. 



CRANES, TROLLEYS, PORTABLE HOISTS, OVERHEAD TRACK, 

SEND FOR CATALOCUE. 

JL 




MARIS BROS., 



2343 & 2345 

CALLOWHILL ST., 

Philadelphia, Pa. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



79 




PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

LABOR-SAVING TOOLS for LOCOMOTIVE SHOPS 




CRANES. 

PLANERS, 

TOOL GRINDERS, 

BORING AND TURNING 
MILLS, 

UHIVINGWHEELLATHES. 

VERTICAL. HORIZONTAL 
DRILL PRESSES. 

LOCOMOTIVE TURN- 
TABLES, 

MILLING MACHINES, 

STEAM HAMMERS. 

AXLE LATHES. 

CRANES. 

Injectors for Locomotives. 




TT7HE screw being 
1 lubricated ana 
protected, the Jack 
is always ready foi 
instant service. Rail- 
road men appreciate 
the importance of 
havine" Jacks always 
in g-ood working con 
diti^n. Serious de- 
lays frequently occui 
in getting common 
Jacks so that thev can be worked when suddenly 
required in train service. 

Common Jacks are frequently destroyed in efforts 
to make them work quickly after the screws are 
«et with rust and dirt. This consideration alone 
makes the CHAPMAN JACK the most economical 
one to purchase. 

THE CHAPMAN JACK CO.. CLEVELAND, OHIO. 




: Jones & Lamson Machine Co. 

Springfield, Vt., U. S. A. 

SOLE BUILDER OF THE 

Flat Turret Lathe. 

FOREIGN REPRESENTATIVES I 

M. Koyemauu, Charlottenstrasse 112, Dusseldorf, 

Germany. 
Adolphe Jaussens, 16 Place de la Republlque, Paris, 

France. 
Charles Churchill & Co.. 9-15 Leonard St., Flnsburv, 

London, E.C.and Albert St., Blrmtugham.En'g. 
Henrv Kelley & Co., 26 Pall Mall. Manchester, Eng. 



THE PILGRIM.— HOLIDAY NUMBER. 

Sent free to any address on receipt of six 
cents In postage. Write to Geo. H. Heafford, 
General Passenger Agent, Chicago, Milwau- 
kee & St. Tanl Railway, Old Colony Building. 
Chicago, II.. 



<-■ 



■®® 



Steam Working Models 
of Locomotives. 

EVERYBODY delighted with the little 
engines— "870" and," 999." Build 
jour own engines — and study yalve 
motion all you want. Complete sets 
castings in two sizes for building work- 
ing model latest style heavy Schenec- 
tady 8-Wheeler ; Large Drivers, High 
Saddle— right up to date. 

Send 4 cts. in stamps for 
Catalogue. 

G. H. OLNEY, 



© 



@ 



163 Herkimer Street, 
BROOKLYN, N.Y. 



50 YEARS' 
EXPERIENCE. 




TRADE MARKS, 
DESIGNS, 

COPVRICHTS Jtc. 

Anyone sending a sketch and description may 
quickly ascertain, free, whether an invention is 
probably patentable. Communications strictly 
confidential. Oldest agency fdrsecuring patents 
in America. We have a Washington office. 

Patents taken through Munu i Co. receive 
special notice in the 

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, 

beautifully illustrated, laree-a circulation of 
anv scientific journal, weekly, terms $3.W a year; 
|1.50six months, specimen copies and Ha>'d 
Book on Patents sent free. Address 

MUNN & CO., 
361 Uroiidnny, New York. 



FOSTER 
FOSTER 
FOSTER 
FOSTER 



Pressure Regulators. 

Reducing Valves. 
Air=Brake 



Pump Governors. 
Inside Boiler Checks. 



FOSTER ENGINEERING CO., 

NEWARK. N. 



BinERS' finding \.\K\— Continued . 

POWER AXLE LATHES. 

Prentl Tool 4 Supply ;o., New York. 

PRESSES. 

R, Dudgeon, New Vork. 

Watson btillman Co., New York. 

PRESERVATIVE PAINTS. 
Standard Painl I 

PRESSURE REGULATORS. 

I .-. ark. N. J. 

Ha* i ■ '•' 

Newark Regulator Co., Newark, <>. 

PUBLISHERS. 

I) Van Nostrand ' o . New York. 
oho Wll Mew York. 

PUMPS. 

onStillman Co., New York. 

PUMPS, AIR LIFT. 

Rand Drill Co., New York. 

PUMP VALVES. 

Boston Belting Co., Boston, Mass. 
N. Y. Belting & Packing Co., New York. 
leg! Rubber Mfg. Co.. New York. 

PULLEYS. 

American Tool .V Mai bine Co., Boston, Mass. 

PUNCHES AND SHEARS. 

The Long & AUatattei Co., Hamilton, O. 
The Watson-StiUman Co., New York. 

PUNCHING AND SHEARING MA- 
CHINERY- 

Long & Allstatter Co., Hamilton. O. 
Williams, While & Co., Moline, III. 
R D. Wood & Co., Philadelphia. Pa. 
Pratt & Whitney Co., Hartford, Conn. 

PUSH CARS. 

Kalamazoo Railroad Velocipede & Car Co., 
Kalamazoo. Mich, 
QUARRYING MACHINERY. 

Ingersoll-Sargeant Drill Co., New York. 
Rand Drill Co.. New York. 

RADIAL DRILLS. 

Prentice Brothers. New York. 
Prentiss Tool & Supply Co., New York. 

RAIL BENDERS. 

w.itson & Stillman. New York. 

RAIL OR CONSTRUCTION CARS. 

Kalamazoo Railroad Velocipede & Car Co., 
Kalamazoo. Mich. 

RAILWAY CYCLES. 

Kalamazoo Railroad Velocipede & Car Co., 

Kalamazoo. Mich. 

RAILWAY FENCES. 

Page Woven Wire Fence Co.. Adrian. Mich. 
Peerless Rubber Mfg Co., New York. 

RAILROAD MACHINERY. 

Niles Tool Works Co., Hamilton. O. 

RAILROAD VELOCIPEDE. 

Kalamazoo Railroad V. A: C. Co., Kalamazoo, 

Mich. 

RAILS. 

Cambria Iron Co.. Philadelphia. Pa. 

RAPID FIRE MACHINE GUNS. 

W D. Forbes A Co., Hoboken, N. J. 

RASPS. 

Nicholson File Co., Providence, R. I. 

RECORDING GAGES. 

Crosby Steam Guage and A alve Co., Boston, 

Mass. 

REDUCING VALVES. 

Mason Regulator Co., Boston, Mass. 

REGULATORS. 

Mason Regulator Co.. Boston, Mass. 

RETAINING RINGS. 

Ramapo Wheel & Foundry Co.. Ramapo.N.Y 

REVOLUTION COUNTERS. 

Cr ~bv Steam Gage and Valve Co., Boston, 

MASS 

RIFLES. 

J. Stevens Arms & Tool Co.. Chicopee Falls. 
Mass. 

ROCK DRILLS. 

Rand Drill Co.. New York. 
Ingersoll-Sergeant Drill Co., New York. 

ROOF PAINTS. 

Standard Paint Co., New \ ork. 

ROLLER TUBE EXPANDERS. 

R Dudgeon. New York. 
Mercer Rubber Co., New York. 

RUBBER. 

Boston Belting Co., Boston. Mass. 

X Y Belting & Packing Co.. New ^ ork. 

RUBBER MATS AND MATTING. 

Boston Belting Co.. Boston. I 



(r^n/inued on fagi 



80 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



BUYERS' FINDING USX— Continued. 

SAFETY VALVES. 

Ashion Valve Co . Boston, Mass, 

Coalt* Muffler and Safety Valve Co., Baltimore. 

Consolidated Valve Co.. Bridgeport, Conn 
Crosb\ Steam Gage& Valve Co. .Boston Mass. 
Star Brass Mfg. Co.. Boston. Mass. 

SANDING APPARATUS. 

Henry L. Leach, North Cambridge, Mass 
Sherburne & Co., Boston. Mass. 

SCREW STAYBOLT CUTTER. 
i Machine Co . Cleveland, O. 

SELF-HARDENING STEEL. 
W. fessop A' S« lis, New York. 

SHAFTING. 

American Tool & Machine I o . Boston. Mass 

William Sellers* Co., Philadelphia. Pa 

SHAPERS. 

Hill. Clarke * Co . Boston, Mass. 

SHEARS AND PUNCHES. 

Lone, ,t Allstatter Co., Hamilton, O. 
National Mai bine Co.. Tiffin, O. 

SHOT GUNS. 

1. Stevens Arms & Tool Co.. Chieopee Falls, 
Mass. 

SLOTTING MACHINES. 

Betts Machine CI . Wilmington, Del. 
Prentiss Tool .v Supply Co., New York. 

SNOW PLOWS, STEAM ROTARY 
AND STREET RAILWAY. 
i ooki Loco ,\ Machine Co.. Paterson, N. I 

SOFT STEEL PIPE FLANGES. 
Latrobe Sleel Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

SPARK ARRESTER PLATE. 

A. J. Beckley & Co., Meriden, C«>nn. 
Harrington & King Perforating Co., Chicago. 

111. 
Hendrick Mfg. Co.. Carbondale. Pa. 

SPLICE-BAR PUNCHES. 

The Lone, & Allstatter Co., Hamilton, ( >. 

SPIKE MACHINES. 

National Machine Co., Tiflin, O. 

SPRINGS. 

A. French Spring Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 
W. I). Gibson Co.. Chicago, 111. 

SPRING STEEL. 

Thomas Prosser & Son, New York. 
Win. Jessop ,v Sons. Ltd., New York. 

STAY BOLTS 

Falls Hollow Stay-Bolt Co., Cuyahoga Falls.O. 

B. M. Jones & C»>. Boston. Mass. 

STAYBOLT CUTTERS. 

Acme Machinery Co., Cleveland, O. 

STEAM ATTACHMENTS. 

W. C. Baker. New York. 

STEAM FIRE EXTINGUISHERS. 

Nathan Mfg. Co., New York. 

STEAM GAGES. 

Crosby Steam Gage & Valve Co., Boston. 
Star Brass Mfg. Co., Boston, Mass. 
Utica Steam Gage Co., Ctica, N. Y. 

STEAM HAMMERS. 

Bement. Miles & Co.. Philadelphia, Pa. 
R. Dudgeon. Mew York. 

STEAM HOSE. 

Boston Belting Co., Boston, Mass. 
Mc-reer Rubber Co., N-ew York. 
N. Y. Belting & Packing Co., New York. 
Peerless Rubber Mfg. Co., New York. 

STEAM INSPECTION CARS. 

Kalamazoo Railroad Wloeipede & Car Co, 
Kalamazoo. Mich. 

STEAM PUMPS. 

A S Cameron Si earn Pump Works. New York 
Mason Regulator Co., Boston, Mass. 

STEAM TRAPS. 

Mason Regulator Co., Boston, Mass. 

STEEL. 

Cambria Iron Co , Philadelphia. Pa. 
Carbon Steel Co., Pittsburgh, Pa 
W. Jessop & Sons, Ltd., New York. 
B. M. Jones & Co., Boston. Mass 
Krupp (T. Prosser & Son. New York'. 
Latrobe Steel Co.. Latrobe. Pa 
Shoenberger Steel Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 

STEEL AXLES. 

Cambria Iron Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

STEEL CASTINGS. 

The Sargent Co . Chicago, 111. 

STEEL, SELF-HARDENING. 

Armstrong Bros. Tool Co., Cleveland, O. 

STEEL SUGAR WAGONS. 

Kalamazoo Kailroad Velocipede & Car Co., 
Kalamazoo, Mich. 

{Continued on page Si.) 



THE STANDARD STEEL WORKS ... 




Philadelphia. 






TIRES 






^ Wrought Iron Centers, 
jtjt Spoke and Plate 
„£££ Steel Tired Wheels. 

KEPREStNTATIVES. 

Chicago: FITZHUGH & SPENCER. 

1217 Monadnock Building. 
St. Louis: ANDREW WARREN RAIL- 
WAY SUPPLY CO., 5J6 
. N. Third Street. 
Boston : JOHN KENT, 

52 Mason Building. 



TAYLOR 



BEST 
YORKSHIRE 



STAYBOLT IRON 



Axles, Piston Rods, Crank Pins and Forging* of all 
Descriptions, nsed by Leading Railroads. 



R.MUSHETS 



SPECIAL and 
TITANIC 



STEELS 



SOLE REPRESENTATIVES IN THE UNITED STATES, 

B. M. JONES & CO., 

BOSTON, 11 and 13 Oliver Street. New York, 143 Liberty Street. 



Locomotive 
BOILER, 
Smoke Stack, 
Tank and Sheet 

STEELS. 




Quality Unsurpassed. 



Plates up to 118 inches in width. 



SHOENBERGER STEEL CO, 



PITTSBURGH, PA. 



QIANE COMPANY, 



Manufacturers 



of Air Brakes, 



Air Brake Repairs, 
Mso > Air Brake Pipe, 
Air Brake Fittings, 



CHICAGO. 



T 



he Cameron 
Steam Pump. 




LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 

GALENA OIL WORKS, 

(LIMITED). 

Galena Engine] Coach ami far Olid, 

hm Standard i."i>rl<atlng oil» 

of America* 

SAFETY, SPEED and ECONOMY a™ tho rc»ult« of 
the ute of Galena OU . OOLD TE8T, 10 to IS BELOW 

zi.i: i, .ills ill. nut freeze in theooldeel weather, 

voile itii'v ii r<- adaptable to the botti il cllmal 

In the use of Galena < » 1 1 -i there is mi en tin- fr lorn 

friuii lint boxes, except when these uro caused by me 

Chunk-Ill delVi Is. 

Tho mil i j. i inn of Galena mIm aa Htamlnni railway la 

bricnntHiiv ii inrx njnriiv of the leading railways "t 

this intrv Is mi ei [deace of their HUli'Tl'irlty. while 

the fad thai the same nun is use these nils to-aaj that 
usisi them more than 20 rears ago, is an evidence ol 
their uniformity from year to year and year In and out. 

(Jnh'iiiii)llniirn in ixrliislvi' usn njnm thr ontlnu 

mis lines from Boston and Mew Sort i" the 

BOasI "ill upon mi nlliiil'.ns lim- from tin' t'ltyof 

jirvin to New York, thus demonstratinirthelr adapta 
billtv to nil temperatures and climates. Being entirely 
fnefrom ram, these oils are not affected by dust and 
■and as other oils are. _ «„.„ 

We nisi, furnish our customers Smi.EY'S PERFEO 
TTON VALVE OIL. which Is also used exclusively upon 
a jjiaj. ii-lty of the leading railways of America. 

GALENA OIL WORKS, Limited, 

CnARLES Miller, President. 
Chicago Branch Office, Franklin, Pa, 

Phoenix Building, 138 Jackson St, 



HI 



COMPLETE WITH BOILER. 



The A. S. Cameron 
Steam Pump Works, 

Foot of East Twenty-third Street, 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue. NEW YORK. 



Stow Flexible Shafts 

FREDERIC SCHOFF, 

Proprietor, 

26th & Callowhill Sts., 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Manufacturers of 

Flexible Shafts, 

Portable DRILLING, 
TAPPING, 

REAMING, 
AND BORING 
MACHINES, 
also 
Tools for Emery 
Wheel Grinding, Metal and Wood Polishing, Cattle 
Brushing and Clipping. 

Builder of Special Machines for Railroads, Bridge 
and Boiler Makers, Contractors, etc 




C. H. & D. 

THOUSAND MILE TICKETS 

Only $20.00. 

Are pood on the following railroads : Louisville, 
New Albany and Chicago; Michigan Central bet. 
Toledo and Detroit; Terra Haute & Indianapolis: 
Peoria, Decatur & Evansville; Indiana, Decatur & 
Western; N. T., P. & O. Div., ErieTDayton & Union: 
Findlay, Ft. Wayne & Western; New York, Chicago 
& St. Louis; Toledo, St. Louis & Kansas City; 
Balto. & Ohio, west of Pittsburg and Benwood. and 
between Pittsburg and Wheeling: also between 
Indianapolis and Washington, D. C, via Cincinnati 
and Parkersburg, for continuous passage; B. & O. 
Southwestern; Cleveland Terminal and Valley; 
Pittsburg & Western; Columbus. Hocking Valley 
& Toledo, Cleveland, Lorania & Wheeling, and 
will be accepted in payment for excess baggage, 
also for seats in the C. H. & D. Ry. Parlor Cars, 
and for Bridge Tolls into St. Louis. 



DAYTON, OHIO, 



E. C. BOYER, p " To r 



EXCLUSIVE MANUKA! 'TUBER 



Lever 



MAX0N PATENT 



Ratchet Railroad Jacks 

Screw 

Strongest and Most Powerful Jacks 

IX USE. 




For Locomotives and Cars. 



$par|t Arrester Plate. 
» ■ ■— 




HENDRICK 
0C0M0TIVE SPARK 
PLATE 




THE HENDRCK MFG. CO. 

CARB0NDALE, PA. 



BUYERS'.FINDINC LIST Continued. 



STEEL SURFACE CATTLE GUARDS. 

Kalao 

\li- h 

STEEL TIRED WHEELS 

K 1 1: : ..n New York). 

■ . Ramapo, N.Y. 
delphia, Ha. 

STEEL TIRES. 

i strobe, Pa. 
Km; er & Son New York). 

Standard Steel Works. Philadelphia. Pa. 

STEEL TRUCK FRAMES- 

i .... Solid Co., Chicago, III. 

STEEL VELOCIPEDES. 

Kalamazoi ' ■ Car Co 

K :il,ini:i/< II -, M 1' ii 

STEEL WHEEL HAND CARS. 
Kolamaz «> Railroad ' 
Kalamazoo. 

STOCKS AND DIES. 

Armsiri.ne MfjJ. Co., !' ' '>nn 

Prau ,v Whitney Co.. Hartford, Cono, 

STREET RAILWAY SUPPLIES. 
J. ii. Brill Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

SUGAR CANE CARS. 

Kalamazoo Railroad Velocipede & Car Co., 
Kalamazoo, Mich. 

SURFACE GAUGES. 

J. Stevens Arms & Tool Co., Chicopee Falls. 

MaSS. 

SWITCH ENGINES. 

Rogers t/ocomotive Co.. Paterson, N. J. 

SWITCHES 

Ramapo Iron Works, Hillburn. N Y 

TAP WRENCHES. 

Armstrong Mtg. Co., New York. 

TESTS. 

R. \V. Hunt Co., Chicago. 

TIE PLATES. 

Q. & C. Co.. Chicago. 111. 

THERMOSTATIC WATER-BACK 
GAGES. 

Crosby Steam Gage & Valve Co , Boston. Mass. 

TIRES. 

Knipp (T. Prosser & Son. New York.. 
Lairobe Steel Co.. Philadelphia, Pa, 

TOOL HOLDERS. 

Armstrong Bros. Tool Co., Chicago, 111. 
Gould & Eberhardt. Newark. X . 1. 

TOOLS. 

Nicholson File Co., Providence, R. I. 

TOOL STEEL. 

Wra. Jessop & Sons. New York. 
B M Jones & Co.. Boston. Mass. 

TORCHES. 

Dayton Malleable Iron Co., Davton, O. 

TRACK SANDERS. 

H L. Leach. X. Cambridge. Mass. 

TJ. S. Metallic Packing Co, Philadelphia. Pa. 

TRUCKS. 

J. G. Brill Co., Philadelphia. Pa. 

TUBE EXPANDERS. 

A. L. Henderer, Wilmington, Del. 
R. Dudgeon. New Y'ork. 

TURNBUCKLES. 

Cleveland Citv Forge & Iron Co.. Cleveland. O. 

TURNING MILLS. 

Davis A Egaxi Machine Tool Co., Cincinnati.O. 

TURRET LATHES. 

American Tool A Machine Co., Boston. Ifa&S. 

TURRET MACHINES. 

Hill. Clarke & Co.. Boston. Mass. 
Jones & Lamson. Springfield, Vt 
Pratt A Whitney Co., Hartford. Conn. 

TWIST DRILLS. 

Armstrong Bros Tool Co., Chicago. 111. 
Cleveland Twist Drill Co.. Cleveland O 
Pratt & Whitney Co , Hartford, Conn. 

TWIST DRILL STEEL. 

W. Jessop & Sons. Ltd.. Xew York. 

UNIVERSAL MILLING MACHINES. 

Prentiss Tool & Supplv C" . Xew York. 

VALVE MOTION MODELS. 

Pedrick & Aver Co.. Philadelphia, Pa. 

VALVES. 

Ashton Valve Co.. Boston, Mass. 

Coale Muffler and Safety Valve Co., Baltimore, 

Md. 
Crosbv Steam Gage & Valve Co.. Boston, Mass. 
Detroit Lubricator Co.. Detroit. Mich. 
Hancock Inspirator Co., Boston. Mass. 
Jenkins Bros.. Xew York. 
Star Brass Mfg Co., Boston. Mass. 

(Continued on page S3.) 



v.' 



BUYERS' FINDING LIST— Continued. 

VALVES, REDUCING. 

Poster Engineering t *• . Newark, N. J. 
Ross Valve Co., Troy. N Y. 

VALVES, SPRING-SEAT GLOBE AND 
ANGLE. 

Crosby Steam Gage & Valve Co., Boston, 

Mas- 

VARNISHES. 

F. i". Reynolds, New York. 

VARNISHES, ARMATURE. 
Standard Paint Co., New York 

VENTILATORS 

Palmer Car Ventilator Co., Boston, Mass. 
Pancoast Ventilator Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

VERTICAL AUTOMATIC ELECTRIC 
LIGHT ENGINES. 

W, D. Forbes A Co., Hoboken, N. J. 

VESTIBULES. 

Gould Coupler Co., Buffalo. N. Y. 

VISES. 

Armstrong Bros. Tool Co , Cleveland, O. 
Bign.Ul A Keeler Mfg. Co., Edwardsville, 111. 

VREELAND TRANSFER JACKS. 

The Watson-Stillman Co., New York. 

VULCABESTON AND TRAIN PIPE 
COVERING 

H. W. Johns Mfg. Co., New York. 

WASHERS. 

Boston Belting Co., Boston, Mass. 

WATCH CASES. 

Dueber Watch Works, Canton, O. 

WATCHES. 

Dueber Watch Works, Canton, 0. 
lohn J. McGrane. New Y'ork 

WATER GAGES, AUTOMATIC SAFE. 

Crosby Steam Gage A Valve Co.. Boston, Mass. 

WATER. GAS AND STEAM FITTERS' 
TOOLS. 

Armstrong Mfg. C<>., New York. 

WATERPROOF CANVAS. 

Standard Paint Co.. New York. 

WEIGHING MACHINES. 

Pratt & Whitney Co., Hartford, Conn. 

WHEEL PRESSES. 

R. Dudgeon, New York. 

WHISTLES. 

Crot>bv Steam Gage& Valve Co., Boston, Mass 
Star Brass Mfg. Co., Boston. Mass. 

WIRE FENCES. 

Cambria Iron Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Page Woven Wire Fence Co.. Adrian, Mich. 

WIRE NAIL MACHINERY. 
National Machinery Co., Tiffin, O. 

WRENCHES. 

Davton Malleable Iron Co., Dayton, O. 

WROUGHT IRON PIPE. 

Allison Mfg. Co . Philadelphia Pa. 

YACHT ENGINES. 

W. D. Forbes & Co., Hoboken, N. J. 






LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 

Catechism 
of the 

(Locomotive 

Has correct 
drawings of every 
part of the loco- 
motive and of 
the different 
classes of locomotives 
in use in this 
country. Is writ- 
ten in such 
language as an 
engineer or fireman 
can easily under- 
stand. 

On many railroads 
it is the 

Standard for 
Examination 




A CRACK 

IN THE JAW 



sometimes follows a bad temper. Ever 
seen the cool, deliberate workmanship 
in the 

PEERLESS COMBINATION VIQP^ V 
BENCH AND PIPE V I O C O . 

PosUl C.ird t.niiL't *n Int.' entlng Catalogue. 

THE BIQNALL& KEELER CO. 

EDWARDSVILLE, ILL. 

Builders of Pipe-Threading Machinery. 



I 



of firemen for 
promotion. A 
study of such a 
book will enable 
either an engineer 
or fireman to 
thoroughly know 
his business. 

e#> ntfl rtrt 



the — 

Railroad Gazette, 

n Park Place, 
Hew VorK City. 



I'i , rlMONIAL. Chas. M. Weir, Chief Engineer 
U.S. Projectile Works, Brooklyn, N.V : "It is 
one of the most practical and concise works on 
the subject 1 ever saw. It is just the right thing 
in the right place, and I most cheerfully recom- 
mend it to all who desire a practical knowledge 
of olectrity."" 



Hawkins' 



New Catechism of 



Electricity 



A Practical Treatise 




This is a book of 550 pp., full of up- 
to-date information. 300 illustrations. 
Handsomely bound in red leather, 
pocket book form, size (4^2 x 6)4 
inches), with titles and edges in gold. 
Price, $2.00, post paid. 20 page de- 
scriptive catalogue free on request. 

THEO. AUDEL & CO., 

63 Fifth Ave., cor. 13th St., NEW YORK. 

Every Locomotive Engineer will soon be called up- 
on to say how much he knows upon the subject of 
Electric .Motors and the Care and Management 
of Electric Appliances. This book will enable 
him to answer. 



Send your name for a Souvenir 
ol the Works of Eugene Field, 

FIELD^FLOWERS 

the tactic field monument Souvenir 

The most beautiful Art Production of the cen- 
tury. "A small bunch of the most fraaraot of blos- 
soms gathered from the broad acres of Eugeoe Field's 
Farm of Love." Contains a selection of the most 
beautiful of the poems of Eugene Field. Hand- 
somely illustrated by thirty-five of the world's 
greatest artists as their contribution to the Mon- 
ument Fund. Bat for the ooble contributions ol the 
great artists this book could not have been manufac- 
tured for J7.00. For sale at book stores, or sent 
prepaid on receipt of $1.10. The love offering to 
the Child's Poet Laureate, published by the Com- 
mittee to create a fund to build the Monument 
and to care for the family of the beloved poet. 
Eugene Field Monument Souvenir Fund, 

180 Mooroe Street. Chicago. Ill 

Our Line Engravings are made by the 
wax process, a plan securing' accuracy and 
distinct lines on original copper plates. 
They are made by BRADLEY & POATES, 
10 & 12 Vandewater St.. New York City. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



m:j 



The Dayton 

Malleable Iron Co. 



Dayton, 
Ohio. 




Our Specialties: 



Write for descriptive circulars 
and price-list. 



The Dayton Freight Car Door Fastener 

has no pins, hooks, or chains to be broken or lost — 
gravity button takes their place. Over 100,000 now 
m use. 

The Dayton Brake Wheel 

has a perfect hand-hold -just fits the hand ; jt pos- 
sesses great strength, and will not break in the 
trainman's hand, thus saving many lives and limbs, 
Over 16,000 now in use. 

Hoey Draft Rigging 

is simple, strong and cheap; can be used with strap 
if desired, but is specially designed for tail bolt, 
which can be used safely. Has a slot through which 
a wrought iron key passes, and also through slot 
stem of coupler. 

Kelley's Brake Forks 

have been tested by a pulling strain of 40,000 lbs. 
without fracture; no welds to give way ; costless 
than one-half the price of wrought iron, and have 
more strength. 

Cushing Draft Rigging 

is largely in use and has great merit, very simple 
and strong. 

Shop and Engine Torches. 

Made entirely of best malleable iron; practically 
indestructible; nozzles interchangeable. 

Gunn Running Board Bracket 

Takes the place of the ordinary wooden bracket, 
which soon rots out and allows the boards to warp 
up and trip brakemen. This is a device which saves 
constant repairs and avoids damage suits. 

Coal Picks, for Use on Engines. 

Made of best malleable iron; points case hardened bv 
special process; cost less than steel, but the excel- 
lent service rendered make them cheaper in the end. 

Shop Door Hinges and Latches. 

Use these for your shop doors— no repairs ever nec- 
essary. 

Wrenches of all kinds (Shop, Engine and 
Track) . 

Much cheaper than steel, wear well, and new ones 
can be bought for less money than it costs to repair 
a worn-out steel wrench. 



High Class Malleable Castings of All Kinds 



for 



Locomotive, Car and Track Work. 



8-1 

• - 



Crosby 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 

— •— 

Steam Gage and 
Valve Co. 



Makers of High Grade Steam Appliances. 




The Crosby Patent 

Thermostatic Water- Back 

Pressure Gage. 

Under the extremely high pressures at which steam is 
now carried, gages often become heated to a high degree, 
and the tube springs become expanded and consequently 
weakened, so that they offer less resistance, whereby the 
pointer shows more pressure than actually exists This 
has been the cause for much complaint wherever, from 
the necessary conditions, the ORDINARY steam gage is 
subjected to extreme heat, as is the case on the boilers of 
steamships, cruisers, locomotives, and in many other situ- 
ations. To meet such cases the Ckosbv Patent Ther- 
mostatic Water Back Gage was invented and is now 
offered to the public. It is fully guaranteed to register 
the pressure of steam correctly throughout its working 
range, at any temperature from 150 to 200 degrees F. 

The upper illustration shows this device. When the 
gage is subjected to a high temperature, the movement of 
the thermal bar C, D, exactly counteracts the excessive 
movement of the tube springs', and keeps the pointer true 
to the actual pressure in the boiler. 



Crosby Steam Engine Indicators. 

The standard throughout the world. 

Crosby Pop Safety Valves 

For all kinds of boilers. 

Crosby Water Relief Valves 

For pumps, hydrants, hose, etc. 

Crosby Improved Steam Gages, 

And all other pressure and vacuum gages. 

Crosby Single Bell Chime Whistles 

For railroads, mills, factories, marine buoys, etc. 

Crosby Spring-Seat Valves, 

Globe and angle, for high pressures. Warranted. 

Crosby Patent Gage Testers. 

Accurate and altogether reliable. 

Revolution Counters, Pressure Recorders, 
Blow-Off Valves. 

The Crosby Muffled Pop Safety Valve. 

This is of new design and embodies all the essential features of a first-class Muffled Valve, as required to-day. It is practically noiseless ; 
all steam is discharged upward ; adjustment is made from the outside ; the spring is encased and there is no back pressure. 

The valve proper employs the well-known Crosby seat, the most durable and efficient type known. It is made of strong and heavy 
metal and fully guaranteed in every way. Will send on trial if desired. 




Gold Medals, Paris, 1 

Medal and Diploma, Chicago, 1893, 

Gold Medal, Atlanta, 1895. 



Crosby Steam Gage and Valve Company, 

Main Office and Works, Boston, Mass., U. S. 

Branch Offices: — New York. Chicago. London, Eng. 

— • — • — 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



85 



Stevens •ri>rM>rcrM>rM>fM>nc^tri>r?urcrcrtrtrtr« stevenS 




• — 


r~ 


— • 




« 




1" | I 1 "!" 1 ] „ Vj'ii|i|i|iii|iii|i,ii|i|i|i|i|ip| n 






f 




| \ 








/' ' 




Fine Mechanical Tools 


/ 




For the up-to-date designer and 








worker in all classes of the best 










machine building 








b 



a 



J\ triumph in Small Bore Rifles." 



$6.00 



Cne Stevens "favorite" Rifle. 





The model of the " Favorite " 
Rifle has been pronounced perfect. 
Weighs i l /i lbs. Is strongly and 
thoroughly made. Of greatest 
accuracy. Rifled and chambered for .22 and .25 rim-fire cartridges. Barrel 
is 22 inches long, is easily and speedily detached, allowing the packing of 

the arm into a very small # _ 

space. Ask for handsome 

booklet " Practical Pointers 

for Those Who Shoot," free 

for the asking. .... 



T 

v 

E 
N 




Every tool bearing the imprint of 
"J. Stevens Arms and Tool Co." 
can be depended upon at all times 
and in all places. .... 
New Catalogue awaits your ad- 
dress. 



J. Stevens Arms & Tool Co. 

P. 0. BOX 62, 

Chicopee Falls, Mass., 

U. S. A. 




T 
E 
V 
E 
N 
S 



2 

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Sevens •« 



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LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 




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LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



87 




Always use the 



Pancoast 



Latest Improved 
Car and Building 



SECTIONAL VIEW. 



Uentilators. 



mri&ni 


■s- -» — -»■ ■* 


<&<£? 




t^nrtl 


Used by leading 


rTifti 


Railroads of the 


f$r> 


World, such as the 


r$ft 


Pennsylvania R.R. 


m 


Great Northern and 


rita 


others of the United 


i*?^ 


States. 



Absolutely storm Proof, 



It gives the best of Ventilation. Handsome appearance when applied to Buildings, Depots, Train Sheds, etc. 
The cost is small, but the satisfaction is great. The fact that I110re PatKOaSt UdltilatOrS are $0ld each year is 
proof that true merit is appreciated We guarantee them. Made in all sizes, from two inches to seven feet. 
We guarantee to exhaust more cubic feet of air per minute than any other storm-proof ventilator made. 



«*« 



Strong, fiandsome. Durable, effective. 



The Pancoast tested as above was a Single Deflector. It is now made with Double Deflector, whose ef- 
ficiency will be nearly double that of the former, and superior to all others. 

The Pancoast will exhaust more cubic feet of air per minute than any 
other storm-proof ventilator. 

Manufactured and for sale by the 



Pancoast Uentilator Company, 



INCORPORATED, 



MainOffice: 316 Bourse Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Foreign Office; 31 Westburn Terrace, Hyde Park, London, Eng. 




SHOWING EDQE-WISE BF 







NORTON BALL-BEARING JACK 
WITH HOOK. 



SECTIONAL VIEW 

NORTON BALL-BEARING JACK. 



NORTON TRACK JACK. 



NORTON JOURNAL JACK. 



The Norton Ball-Bearing Jack. 

The Norton Ball-Bearing Ratchet Screw Jacks are specially adapted to all classes of heavy Railway and Bridge 
service. The Ball Bearings reduce the friction and make the Jack more easily operated. The Jacks are perfectly 
safe, and always reliable ; working parts are fully protected from grit and rust, and the Jacks may be used in any 
position, or applied to traversing bases. The cheapest, lightest and best Jack made. 

Superior to the Hydraulic No expense for alcohol or packings, and no valves to give out or leak. In use on 
many of the leading American railroads, and fully guaranteed by the manufacturer. 

Catalogue contains cuts and descriptions of Jacks for all classes of service from 8 to 70 tons capacity, also the 
best Track Jack on the market. 

Special inducements are offered for export, and highest references given. 

Full Information from the Manufacturer, A* \J* IN 01* [Oil, 

336 Congress Street, Boston, Mass., U. S. A. 



s- 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Sold Car Beating Company 



j 




¥ ¥ ¥ 

Hew VorK: 

Frankfort and Cliff Streets. 

¥ ¥ ¥ 

Chicago : 

668 The Rookery. 

¥ ¥ ¥ 






Car 







t 



i 



2 






gating 

Systems. 

¥ ¥ ¥ 

Storage Heaters, 

With Heat Storage Fluid in 
Hermetically Sealed Tubes. 

Storage Heaters, 

With Inner Heat Storage Body 
of Earthenware or Terra Cotta 

Double Duplex Coils, 

For Use With Baker Heater 
Hot Water Circulator, with or 
without Sealed Jet System. 

Direct Steam, 

With Plain Piping. 

¥ ¥ ¥ 

Gold's Universal Straight 
Port Coupling 

Which couples with the Sewall, is 
the only one extant having an 
Adjustable Brass Faced Seat, sup- 
plied with Gold's Automatic 
Gravity Relief Traps, which are 
a preventative against freezing. 

¥ ¥ ¥ 

Our New Electric Heaters 

Have been pronounced by experts 
" the very best on the market." 
We have some very interesting 
literature on " Car Heating," and 
will gladly send same on receipt 
of address. 





LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



ASK YOUR PURCHASING AGENT TO ORDER 

Combustion and Smoke Prevention on Locomotives 



One book, 
Ten books. 



PRICE . 

$0.25 One hundred books, - $15.00 

2.00 One thousand books, - 100.00 

,i i 



eral roads have ordered from joo to i,ooo 1 ks and distributed them to their enginerai 

count 11 a g i lt» e i! merit 

PUBLISHED BY 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING, 



256 Broadway, NEW YORK. 






HENRY CAREY BAIRD & CO. 

■ffn&uBtrfal publishers, fcoohecllcrs, 
ant> Importers, 

810 WALNUT ST., PHILADELPHIA, PA., U. S. A, 

HT f>or NVw »n<! Ry'«"I Cat* ' ^IrnllAe 

■Ian, tb« 
, lbs Art«, aaal 
f rM 'f P"*UW« to »»y »"• '« »»y f-"! of lh« wofld who 
lh fall I'Mim. 



The I mproved S tandard C oupler 



NEW YORK: 



26 



Cortlandt St. 



M.C B. TYPE. 



Forged Steel Knuckle and Locking Pin. Only } parts. No pivot pin. STANDARD COUPLER CO. 

Simplest in desien. strongest in service. Thousands in use. QEO. A. POST. P»s«. a. p. Dennis. 8rc 




m ' ' 



ifl IV"- r'Ks 




u~ iU"^3 



Pneumatic Tools. GRE ^ v ^ F r NG 

CALKING BOILERS, 

BEADING FLUES, 

HEADING RIVETS, 

CHIPPING CASTINGS. 

CUTTING KEY SLOTS. 

DRIVING NAILS AND SPIKES, 

ESPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR RAILROAD SHOPS. 

T^ill 33©«.d "rx*7-o Flues a. Minute. 

All Hammers sent on ten days' trial subject to approval, and guaranteed for one year against repair*. 

CHICAGO PNEUMATIC TOOL, CO., 

'553 Monadnock Block, Chicago. 



NORTON EMERY AND CORUNDUM WHEELS 



Emery Wheel Machinery 

AND SPECIALTIES. 

■ ■ ■ 

Complete Illustrated Catalogue 

Furnished Free on Application. 



WALKER UNIVERSAL TOOL AND CUTTER GRINDER. 

For Sizing Cylindrical and Conical 
Surfaces, Internally and Externally. 

For Sharpening all forms of Milling Cutters, Reamers, Taps, Counterbores, etc. 





NORTON EMERY WHEEL CO., 



.WORCESTER, MASS. 



90 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 




ullfaps 



Williams, White & Co. 



Moline, 111. 



Forging Machinery. 

Coal Chutes for Coaling 
Locomotives. 



AAA 



• • 



MAKERS OF 



Blast Furnaces, 

Cold Hydraulic Tire 
Setters, 

Crank Drop Presses, 

Double-ended Bull- 
dozers, 

Emery Jointer, 

Eye Bolt Machines, 

Friction Board Drop 
Presses, 

Gang Boring Ma- 
chines, 

Multiple Drilling Ma- 
chines, 

Multiple Punch and 
Shear Machines, 

Pulley Drilling and 
Tapping Machines, 

Skein Press. 

Steam Hammers, 

Staple Machines, 

Tire Rollers, 

Taper Rolling Ma- 
chines, Etc. 




JUSTICE HAMMER. 



THESE TOOLS ARE THE RESULT OF HARD 
AND CONSCIENTIOUS WORK, AND ARE IN A 
CLASS BY THEMSELVES — THE FIRST CLASS. 
OCR NEW BOOK COMES FOR THE ASKING. 



American Tool and 
Machine Co 

302 Federal Street, 

BOSTON, MASS. 



Manufactures 



Turret and Square 
Arbor Lathes with 
Screw Chasing 
Apparatus, for Brass 
Work. 

w -^kM "^hjtf "^A -"vkW "^fc/j 1^4 "*Wt "&4 ~^to{ "^ftjtf 

Roper Oil Separators. 



Improved 
Worrall Friction 
Clutch Pulleys and 
Couplings. 



M Self-oiling Adjustable 
Hangers. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



91 



ALL that is Modern in Design, 
Accurate in Construction 



and 



Labor-Saving in the Working 

is embodied in the 




Betts Horizontal Boring and Drilling Machine 




Planers. 



Slotters. 



Boring and 
Turning Mills. 



Vertical 
Drills. 






Wheel Borers. 



Wheel Lathes. 



Drilling Machinery 
and Engine Lathes. 



Catalogues on Application. 





Gang Drills, Universal 
Radial Drills, Plain Radial 

Drills, Radial Drilling and Counter Sinking 
Machines, Portable Drills, Boiler Shell Drills. 
Vertical Drills, 12 in. to 50 in. swing, Engine Lathes, \\ in. to 24 in. 

swing. Car, Locomotive, Ship Boiler 
and Engine Builders. 




SS* Prentice Bros,, 



Worcester, Mass. 



Foreign Agents: 

Chas. Churchill & Co., Ltd., London. Schuchardt & Schutte, Berlin. 

Adphe Janssens, Paris. Eugen Soller, Basel, Switzerland. 

White, Child & Beney, Vienna. 




92 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Send for Catalogue 

with 

450 Illustrations. 



* 



Abroad. 



In America. 

Nicholson Files have been the acknowledged 

Standard of America for 30 years, and 

w -~ are sold in much greater quantities 

f^ ^ than any other files in the world. 

Af _^ They are constantly specified 




They are sold in 

every quarter of the 

world, and are called for 

by many leading concerns 

in Great Britain and on the 

Continent of Europe in preference 

to the best English and European files 



NICHOLSON FILE COMPANY, 

PROVIDENCE. R.I.. U.S.A. 

LONDON OFFICE AND WAREHOUSE: WORCESTER HOUSE, 35 EASTCHEAP, E C. 

Largest Producers of Files and Rasps in the World. 



for U.S. Government and 
Railroad contracts. 



NOTED FOR 
Durability. 



Ease and 
Smoothness 
of Cutting. 
Uniformity. 
Reliability. 



AIR COHPRESSORS 

Straight Line Duplex, Half Duplex and Corliss 
Steam and Belt Driven, 

For Railroad Shop Use. 



+¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥*¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥ 

¥ ¥ 

* THE |J 




¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 



Ingersoll= 
Sergeant 



CLASS "D," DUPLEX. 



* Drill Co... 

* Havemeyer Building, 

* New York. 



¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 




CLASS "F," STEAM DRIVEN. 



*¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥ 

Rock Drills Channelers Coal Cutters. 
The Pohle Air Lift Pump. 



Send for Catalogue. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



98 




Guaranteed for 
Cen years. 

P. « B. Ruberoid 
Car Roofing. 

Will not split and tear. No pa- 
per — made of hair felt — water 
and acid proof. 

■ ■ ■ 

P. « B. Ruberoid 
Roofing. 

For roundhouses, car sheds, 
repair shops, station buildings 
and for any structure requiring 
a durable, water, acid, alkali 
and coal-gas proof covering. 

■ ■■ 

R * B. Waterproof 
Papers. 

In use by prominent railroad 
and steamship companies for 
insulating dairy, fruit and re- 
frigerator cars and cold stor- 
age rooms. 
Free from tar, odorless and air 

tight. 

■ ■ ■ 

The Standard 

I alflL l^O»j Manufacturers, 

81-83 John St., NEW YORK. 

CHICAGO : 189 Fifth Avenue. 
....WRIT! fOR INrORMATION AND SAMPLES.... 




Registered. 



94 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Nearly One Hundred 
R. R. Shops are using 



Bradley Hammers. 



More than 2500 Bradley 
Hammers have been sold. 




200-lb. Bradley Cushioned Helve Hammer. 

The superiority of the Bradley Hammers has never been questioned. We make them in Helve, 
Upright Helve and Upright Strap styles. All with cushioned blow, as in no other Hammer 
ever made. Several sizes with heads weighing from 15 lbs. to 500 lbs. <£ «/*j* j-j-jt ^^tjtji 

We also make several sizes of Heating Forges 
for hard coal or coke, that are the very best 
of their kind. Send for printed matter. J-J- 

AAA 

The Bradley Company, 

Foreign Agencies: 

Buck & Hickman, Whitechapel Road, London, England. 
Schuchardt & Schutte, Berlin, Germany. 



.Syracuse, N. Y. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



95 



> 



f 




A j,9/NAu. .. f^ EMBRACES 

~ amd 



M^»fBOLTANDMUT 
MACHINERY. 



v , 



Vend for new IL^TrATx^ DEKfUPTlVe CAtAL°GOEi, 
» Ready *k»l" April l r i' IS97- Will Confaii\ 

Hv! most" complete represenfafiorv of"- 
BOLT ft NUT MACHINERY 

ever presenfeJ. 



(?mpl?fe Outfits ?f this class "ffwls 

Includirxq- SPECIAL MACHINERY 

f?r RAILROAD, CARS, 

LOCOMOTIVE SH?P5. 



m 



96 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



i 



Gould Coupler Co. 



Offices: New York, 66 Broadway. 
Chicago, 941 The Rookery. 
St. Louis, 3J9 Commercial Building. 




Gould Spring Buffer Blocks and Gould Freight 
Car Coupler. 



Manufacture M. C. B. Freight Couplers, «g <£ M* C. B. 
Passenger Couplers, <<£ *£ M. Q B» Tender Couplers, «£ *£ 
M* C* B, Pilot Couplers, *£ <j£ Vestibules, «£ *g Continuous 
Platforms and Buffers, <<£ «g Malleable Iron Castings, <£ <£ 
Locomotive and Car Axles, «£ *£ Steel Castings, ^6 *£ 



Works : Steam Forge, Depew, N. Y. 
Malleable Iron, Depew, N. Y. 
Cast Steel, Anderson, Ind. 



«f> 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 




5 
5 
I 



5 
5 
5 
J 

r. 

2 
5 
2 



An Established Reputation 

as Jack Makers for many years is the foundation of our business. We have made and 
sold to the best railroads of America, some thousands of jacks that in everyday service 
have proven the quality and character of our work. We use wrought steel and steel 
castings in all our jacks — great strength for less weight. We have patterns and carry in 
stock more than 200 varieties of jacks alone — anything and everything in the jack line. 

Of course, in such a works 
as ours, building hydraulic 
machinery, great and small, 
tools for railroad work form 
a large part of the output. 

We make a great variety 
of wheel presses. The Vree- 
land transfer jack — for tak- 
ing wheels out from under 
engines without a drop pit. 
Crank-pin presses, punches, 
shears, straighteners, and 
dozens of other hydraulic 
tools. 

The large illustration here 
shown explains the construc- 
tion of a very cheap and use- 
ful press, made especially for 
railroad shop work. It was 
originally designed to press in 
and out driving-box brasses, 
and is particularly handy and 
efficient in this kind of work. 
The cylinder or base of 
jack is counterweighted, the 
lever connection is lowered 
on frame for ease in working, and the lower platen is true. There is a four-inch hole 
in lower platen, not shown in cut, which can be used for forcing work through; a plug 
fills the hole when not in use. 

Lower platen is 30 x 48, movement of ram 12,' takes work 18 in height. An 
ideal press for driving brass, rod bush, and such work. No other straightening device 
or press needed in a railroad shop where one of these presses is in use. You take it 
to the work instead of taking the work to it. 

Catalogues sent on application. State line of work ; no use send- 
ing you catalogues of hydraulic fish presses or 600 ton lead pipe 
presses, when you want a die sinker's press or a pulling jack - 
have them all. 

The Watson-Stillman Co*, 202 e. 43d St., 




Catalogue "N" tells the story for R. R. men. 



New York. 



!I7 



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98 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Finest 



Coach 
Parlor Car 
Sleeping: Car 
Street Car 
Rattan Elevated 



Seats 



PLUSH - RATTAN - ELASTIC SLAT 

With either ' Reversible' or ' Walk-Over' Back. 



Outout Larger than All Other 
Seat Makers combined. 


~ - "■"""■ 

Over 
150 Roads 

Use 
these Seats. 


C— — — 


SUPERIORITY 

PROVEN BY 

POPULARITY. 








UP TO THE 


TIMES. 1 



Our "Walk-Over" Pattern is the Finest of its class. 

See cut of " Standard " here next month. 






EITHER IS BETTER THAN ANY OTHER MAKE. 



The Hale & Kilburn Mfg. Co. 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 







K« 



THE NEW TILING^ 

What would you think of a floor covering 
durable as marble, beautiful as mosaic, noise- 
less as carpet ? " But isn't such a combina- 
tion impossible?" It was up to three years 
ago — now it isn't, interlocking rub- 
liEK tiling possesses not only these feat- 
ures but others — cleanliness, non-slipperi- 
ness, imperviousness to moisture, elasticity, 
and, last but best, our Patent Interlock. This 
dovetails the tiles together so firmly that it is 
absolutely impossible for jar or vibration to 
displace them. It wears everlastingly — the 
first tiling laid was in the Broad St. Station 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad, at Philadel- 
phia. After a period 
of over two years, with 
50,000 people passing 
over it every day, it is 
practically as good as 

new. NOT ONE CENT 
HAS BEEN SPENT 
POK REPAIRS 
SINCE IT WAS LAID. 



Air Brake Hose 
Car H't'g Hose 
Water Hose 
Fire Hose 
Packing 
Belting 
Matting 
Tiling 



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$8% 
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^$555 

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MANUFACTURED SOLELY BY 



NEW YORKBELTING& PACKING C0.LTD. 



PIONEERS AND LEADERS, 25 PARK PLACE. 



mi 

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Block 



and 



Interlocking 





By W 


H 


. ELLIOTT, 




S 


IQ 


ENGR 




C. 


M. 


A 


St. P 


R. R. 



Signals. 



Do you want a complete descrip- 
tion of all the kinds of Block 
Signals? What they are for? 
What they do? How they do 
it? 

200 pages; \29 illustrations; 
6x9 size. Handsomely bound 
in leather. Price, $3. 

Address, 

Locomotive Engineering, 

256 Broadway, New York. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



99 



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Eureka 



I I.' Mil: HAWK 



Engine and Tender 

Connection 

Hose. 

Will not kink or collapse 

All kinds of 

Rubber Goods for Railroads. 

Superior quality and reliability have earned for our manufactures 
a world-wide reputation. 




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Red Signal Hose 

It has a rough finish. Its natural color is red. It doesn't require painting. 
Paint injures Rubber Hose. Trainmen can instantly distinguish it from air- 
brake hose, night or day. Prices and samples on application. 




Air Brake, Steam, Water and Gas Hose 

Gaskets, Washers, Mats, Treads, Etc. 



—rfa- 



Boston Belting Co. 

JAMES BENNETT FORSYTH, 
Manufacturing Agent and General Manager. 
Boston : 256 Devonshire St. New York : 102 Reade St. 



Buffalo: 00 Pearl St. 

St. Louis: 9th and Spruce Sts. 



Chicago: 109 Madison St. 

San Francisco : 24 Fremont St. 



100 LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



RAND *mm COMPRESSORS 

For RAILROAD SHOP WORK. 

SMALL. MEDIUM. OR LARGE CAPACITY. 

Vertical Compressors, and Compressors 
driven by Water Power or Electricity. 

Compound Steam and Air Cylinder Two- 
Stage or more Compressors are the Best 
and Most Economical made. 

Air Compressors for every kind of ser- 
'— YV^ vice. All latest improvements. 

Class "E" Belt-Driven Compressor. 

The RAND AIR COMPRESSORS are Simple, Economical, Efficient and Durable. 

Crand DRILL CO.) 

100 Broadway, New York, U. S. A, 




Write for Illustrated Catalogue, 
and state about the capacity 
you want. J- •£• J* J* *s* 



JESSOP'S STEEL IS STILL THE STANDARD 

For First-class Tools of all Descriptions. 

Don't use cheap Steel in your shops. 

Jessop's is the Best 

For Lathe and Planer Tools, Milling-Cutters, 

Twist-Drills, Reamers, Chisels, Pop-Valve Springs, Etc., Etc. 

Jessop's Self-Hardening Steel 

Will true the Faces of your Driving Wheels 

Quicker than any other Steel. 



Manufactory, Sheffield, England. 



WILLIAM JESSOP & SONS, Ltd. 

91 John Street, New York. 

Agencies in the Principal Cities of the United States. 



I 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 

rfrfl 



101 

4, 



Celebrated 

Gleason Engine Lathes. 



For Locomotive Shops, Railroad Repair Shops, Engine Building, 

Forge Works and all places where heavy 

duty is required. 



• • • 



Triple Geared. 

Sizes : 32, 38, 42, 48, 54, 60, 72 and 84-inch. 

Special sizes for rough turning heavy forgings. 




Peculiar Points. 

Great strength and great power, Crucible Steel Spindles, Patent Interlocking and 
Reverse Motion for Feed Mechanism, Thread Indicator on all sizes so as to cut any thread 
without using back motion, New Combination of Feed-Gearing, one set of Gears giving three 
changes of feed or of threads. 



Hill, Clarke & Co. 



General Selling Agents, 

156 Oliver Street, Boston, Mass. 14 South Canal Street, Chicago. 



»*, 



102 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



PEDRICK & AYER CO. TaSSJT 



¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥ 



COMPOUND AUTOMATIC AIR COMPRESSOR Driven by a 

Ruiatea itself uu- 
■ally, maintain* 
pressure within 
lounas at any tie- 
■ hint ; compound 
water Jacketed ; 
ipplv air at less 
all (he cost for 
i' brake pumps. 
uly so long as air 
K used. Delivers 
c feet of free^alr 
niiuute. 




Case Dust-Proof. 



Requires no attention but oiling, and but little off that 

¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥ 



• • • 



We make a Specialty of Tools for Railroad 
Repair Shops. 



EVERYTHING IN 



AIR— LIFTS, CRANES, DRILLS, ETC. 

VALVE SEAT FACING MACHINES. 

PORTABLE CYLINDER BORERS. 

BRASS JOINTERS. 

CRANK PIN TURNERS. 

MILLING MACHINES. 

OPEN SIDE PLANERS. 

TIRE HEATERS. 

LINK RADIUS SLOTTERS. 

PLANER CHUCKS. 

VALVE MOTION MODELS. 



Write for our 
'96 Catalog. 



Link-Belt 

Engineering Co. 

NICETOWN, PHILA. 
Design and 49 Dey St., NEW YORK, 
Erect 

Locomotive Coaling Stations 

and Supply 

Coal and Ashes 
Handling Machinery, 

Of Modem Design, 

To meet any conditions. 

Western House : 

LINK-BELT MACHINERY CO., 

CHICAGO and NEW ORLEANS. 



TheNew"NATHAN 

(See Illustration i, and 

MONITOR INJECTORS 
LOCOMOTIVES. 



"NATHAN" SIGHT-FEED LUBRICATORS. 

For Locomotive Cylinders and Air Brakes. 

STEAM FIRE EXTINGUISHERS. 

For Switching and Yard Engines. 

BOILER WASHERS, 

Road and Guide Oil Cups, etc. 

SEND FOR DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUES. 



Nathan Manufacturing Co., 

92 & 94 Liberty St., New York. 

Western Office, 117 ft 119 VA1T BUEEN 3TEEET, CHICAGO, ILL. 





For Farm. 
For Railroads. 
Around Parks and 
Cemeteries. 



PAGE WOVEN WIRE 
FENCE CO. 



ADRIAN, MICH. 



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LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 






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The Westinghouse 
Air Brake Co. 

Pittsburgh, 
Penn'a. 



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Annual Capacity: 250,000 Freight Car, 6,000 Passenger and 

10,000 Locomotive Brakes. 



428,000 

Equipments already 
in use. 



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108 



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104 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Cbe Cower Coupler 



THE MOST PERFECT M. C. B. COUPLER IN 
ALL MECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS. 



HdOPtCd a$ B V ten important roads in different \b jtj*Jtjtj*j*j*J*J*«*J*«*<.*J*«*J*J*«*«*J*J*«*J*«*J*J*J*J*J*J*Jtj*J*J*J* 

<t1tlrfird parts oi **" country ' and in use in ^ ttlilllCtlblC T 1*011 C3 S tlH(|S The "^ of mallea M e iron in car^t^* 

MallUarU « large quantises on twenty-five other ^ - RailfiN^ri Jlc/* construction gives increased strength 

roads and private lines. Our four great works with W T0 ' l\<»lirO<IU IW ****** whik lessening ^ weight f rom 40 to 
their unrivaled capacity insure prompt delivery as ^ 50 per cent. Correspondence on this subject is invited and sample castings 
well as best material and workmanship, jtjtjtjtj* w will be furnished to railroads interested. <M u *«<j*j*jtjtjtj*«#j*jt^tjtjt 

The National Car Door Fastener, J* The National Center Piatt, J* The National Journal Box, 

this company Tn designing"^™"- The National Journal Box Lid, •£ Coffin's Sill and Brake Block PocketsJ^t Eubank Car Door. 

leable Iron parts insures the best -n a TT WA V TVCTP A T? TMTnVTT 

possible results to our customers. R/ULWiil l^crAfv X 1V1C1N 1, 



Works: Cleveland, Chicago, 

Indianapolis, Toledo. 



NATIONAL MALLEABLE CASTINGS COMPANY, 

1525 Old Colony Building, CHICAGO. 



»..«.».«» 



Ramapo Wheel and Foundry Co., 




MANUFACTURERS OF 



»0TtOH OF BOLTLEflS FASTENING, 



BOLTLESS STEEL-TIRED WHEELS 

For Passenger and Locomotive 
Service. 

Tires with Annular Web and Hook, 

Best Charcoal Iron Double-Plate 
or Spoke Centers, 

Wedge-Shaped Retaining Ring. 




4 Continuous Circumferential Fastening. 

CHILLED IRON WHEELS 

Of Superior Quality, 

Drawing Boom, Passenger and 
Freight Cars, 

Locomotives, Tenders, 
Plantation and Mine Oars. 
Qyllnder Packing Rings. 



Simple, Safe, Economical. 

Congdon Brake Shoes 

For Chilled Iron Wheels, 

Outwear from 4 to 6 ordinary 

Shoes and enhance 

mileage. 



Office and Works: RAMAPO, N. Y. 



Ramapo Iron Works, Hillburn, N. Y. 



MANUFACTURE 



BRAKE SHOES 

For Steel-Tired Wheels. 

ROSS, for Steel-Tired Car and Tender Wheels, 
ROSS-MEEHAN, for Locomotive Drivers, 
SHEPPARD, for Blind or Bald-Tired Drivers. 



Narrow Gauge Gars, Switches, Automatic Stands. 



YOKED, BOLTED AND SPRING RAIL FROGS, CROSSINGS, 
TRACK EQUIPMENT. 



RAILROAD AND MACHINERY 

CASTINGS, 



HEAVY AND LIGHT. 




STAR BRASS MANUFACTURING CO. 

CHAS. W. SHERBURNE, PRESIDENT. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Star Improved Locomotive Steam Gages. 



Star Improved Locomotive Pop Safety Valves, 

MUPPLE 

Victoria Car Lamps, 



MUFFLED OR PLAIN. 



AND OTHER 
STANDARD APPLIANCES. 

The Star Steam Gages are the only Non-corrosive Gages made, also 
the only Gages fitted with our Patent Corrugated Seamless Drawn 
Spring'Tube, which for its non-setting qualities is unequaled. 




to 39 LANCASTER STREET, BOSTON, MASS. 



SHERBURNE'S AUTOMATIC TRACK SANDING 
APPARATUS FOR LOCOMOTIVES. 



For sanding the track instantly when brake is applied, and by 
sand blast in starting or hand blast only. 

SHERBURNE A CO., 

No. 53 OLIVER STREET, BOSTON, MASS. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



105 



The Safety Car Heating and 
Lighting Co., 

160 Broadway, New York. 
Pintsch System Car and Buoy Lighting. 

■P This company controls in the United States the celebrated 

Pintsch System of Car and Buoy Lighting. It is economical, 
safe, efficient, and approved by railway managers and the 
Light House Board of the United States, and has received 
the highest awards for excellence at the World's Expositions 
at Moscow, Vienna, St. Petersburg, London, Berlin, Paris, 
Chicago and Atlanta. 70,000 cars, 3,200 locomotives, and 
560 buoys are eguipped with this light. 



<#» 



Street Railway Lines. 



This system of Lighting has also been adopted by the Man- 
hattan Elevated R. R., the Broadway and Third Avenue Cable 
Lines of New York ; the North and West Chicago and the 
Chicago City Railway Lines of Chicago ; the Olive Street Rail- 
way of St. Louis ; the Columbus Central Electric Line of Co- 
lumbus, Ohio; the Metropolitan Street Railway of Kansas City 
and the Denver Cable Lines of Denver, Colorado. These roads 
„t, have over 2,400 cars equipped with this light. 



** 



Car Heating by Steam Jacket System of Hot 
Water Circulation, Regulating Direct Steam 
System, Return and Single Trainpipe Systems. 



Automatic Steam Couplers. 



106 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 




Established 1848. 



Schenectady Locomotive Works, 

Schenectady, N. Y 



Annual Capacity, 450. 
Edward Ellis, Pres. Wra. D. Ellis, Viee-Pres. and Treas. A. J. Pitkin, Supt. A. P. Strong, Secy. 




Makers of 

Locomotives of Standard Design for all classes of service, or from designs 

furnished by Railroad Companies. 



Compound Locomotives 

Showing an Economy of from 15$ to 30$ in Fuel and Water. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



107 




H. K* Porter & Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Locomotives of all designs 
and gauges of track, steam, 
compressed air and electric, 
4 to 40 tons weight, includ- 
ing Locomotives for freight 
and passenger and yard 
service ; Industrial Rail- 
ways, Street Railways, 
Plantations, Steel Works, 
Blast Furnaces, Iron Mills, 
Quarries, Coal Mines, Iron, 
Copper, Silver and Gold 
Mines, Phosphate Works, 
Contractors' Service, Log- 
ging Roads, etc 



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All work to duplicate sys- 
tem and duplicate parts on 
hand in stock. Compress- 
ed Air Locomotives for 
Underground Work, Pow- 
der Milk, Textile Manu- 
facturers, Cotton Ware- 
houses. Locomotives, wide 
and narrow gauge, always 
on hand, completed. Our 
Locomotives have been ex- 
ported to Canada, Mexico, 
Cuba, Porto Rico, San 
Domingo, Colombia, Vene- 
zuela, Guiana, Brazil, Ar- 
gentine, Uruguay, Chili, 
Peru, Ecuador, Hawaii, 
Japan, Russia, and South 
Africa. 




► <><*•• 



New Catalogue 

In preparation and 
will be sent in re- 
sponse to bona-fide 
inquiries. J* J* J* 

H. K. Porter & Co. 

547 Wood St., 



A Pittsburgh, Pa^ \ 





108 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Can You Figure the Tractive Power of 

a Locomotive? 



Are you always sure of your figures? 



The Formula : 



Tractive Power in 
Pounds, 



d 2 x s x p 
D 



Often Puzzles. 



Can you easily figure the ef- 
fect on the power of a Locomo- 
tive of : 

A change in size of drivers ? 

Of increasing the mean ef- 
fective pressure ? 

Of enlarging the diameter of 
cylinders ? 

Of changing the stroke ? 



This little device figures all 
this instantly, and never makes 
a mistake. 

Full directions with each 
computer. 

Simple, accurate complete. 



Bound in cloth boards, $1.00 
each; in leather case, $1.50. 
Sent by mail. 



Locomotive Tractive-Power Computer, 



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PU 3USHED BY 

SINCLAIR & H)LLi 
256 Broa d W ay, New ^ 



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80 o* 



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' M ivritiLit. 1806, by SlNCLAUt & HlLI 
New Sork. 




Designed by Wili.taw 
New York. 



Cox, 



Time Saver. 
Mistake Preventer. 
Good Thing. 



Locomotive Engineering, 

256 Broadway, 



New York, 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 109 



T . h . e United States 
Metallic Packing 
Company, — 



427 North 13th Street, 



Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 



United States Metallic Packing. 



The Standard Piston and Valve Stem Packing of America, more in 
use than all others combined. 



Air Pump Packing. 



Metallic Packing for Air Pumps that saves time, trouble and acci- 
dents; reduces friction and increases pump efficiency. 



Halsey Portable Pneumatic Drills. 



A Piston Device, economical of air, and runs steadily ; safe for 
small drills; no "wabble;" compact, complete. Three sizes for 
drills from 3-8 up to 2 inches. 



Chouteau Pneumatic Hammer. 



New form, fewest parts, easiest controlled. Strikes any blow at any 
speed. Wonderful chipper, and the |best flue header in the world. 



Golmar Pneumatic Bell Ringer. 



A cheap, reliable Bell Ringer, that runs for years without repairs. 



Deane Pneumatic Track Sander. 



A new Sander on a new principle; nothing in sight, fewest parts; 
will send sand around corners, through T's or past obstructions. 
Cheaper and better than anything of a similar nature on the market. 



ll0 LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 

BOOK DEPARTMENT. 

I ash must accompany order. No books sent C. O. D. Give name of book ami author, and we ran furnish any book wanted. The list 
below is especially recommended for mechanical readers. All books sent by mail free Jor price named, unless otherwise stated. 

ADDRESS LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 256 BROADWAY. NEW YORK. 



A Catechism <>f the Sienm Engine. John 
Bourne. 1886. One of the very best beginners' 
books "ii the steam engine that lias ever been 
written. Question and answer style s-a.oo 

Air-Brake Catechism. Conger. 1895. This 
IsConger's " Air-lSrak«- and signal Instructions 
rewritten ami improved, containing the air-brake 
and signal instructions approved by the Master 

Car Builders' and Master Mechanics' Associations ; 
also the standard list of questions for airbrake 
instruction. This is the latest and best book on 
air brakes. Issued November 1 , 1895. Price . . <J5c . 

Air-Brake Practice. Phelan. 1890. The 
only practical book about handling the air brakes 
on the road, by a practical man. Bound for 
pocket » 1,00 

Alexander's Ready Reference. Alexander. 
1898. A first-class work. Tells what to do in al- 
most any kind of breakdown on the road . . . . sji.o" 

A Library of Steam Engineering. Feh- 
renbatch. 1895. Illustrates and explains every 
kind of steam engineering, stationary, locomotive 
and marine. Has chapters on the mathematics of 
steam engineering, covering all possible points, 
but in plain figures. No "higher" mathematics 
used Can be understood by any man with a com- 
mon school education. A whole library of steam 
engineering. 800 6J4 x9)4-inch pages Sj.ou 

A Practical Treatise on the Steam En- 
gine. Arthur Kigg. 188S. An excellent treatise 
on the construction of the steam engine. Contains 
a few simple formulas. Expensive but worth the 
money S12 8^ x 11-inch pages; 200 Illustrations 
and 91 full page plates 910. uu 

A Treatise on Steam Boilers, their 
Strength, Construction and Kconomical 

Working. Robert Wilson. 1889. A standard 
English work, with additions giving American 
practice by J. T. Flather. A thoroughly practical 
book. 4)T"4!4 x7-in. pages; 108 illustrations. »*»>» 

Block and Interlocking Signals. Elliott. 
1896. Tells what signals are. What they do. How 
they do it. A full, complete description of all 
kinds of block and interlocking signals with de- 
tails of their construction, operation and main- 
tenance. The best book published on signals 
877 pages, 6' x 9'. Leather binding $3.00 

Boiler Making for Boiler Makers. W. 11 
Ford 1888. A practical treatise on the shop pro- 

es of boib-r making. 233 4x:Uyinch pages: 

134 illustrations 91.00 

Car Lubrication. Hall. Ought to be read 
by every one interested in keeping journals run- 
ning cool SI .00 

Catechism of the Locomotive. Forney. 

1890. Enlarged. Illustrated 50.000 sold. Every 
beginner wants it, and every locomotive engineman 
ought to have it. 800 5% x 8-inch pages .. ..93.50 

Combustion and Smoke Prevention on 
Locomotives. Sinclair. 1896. A practical book- 
let telling the "why " of things about combus- 
tion that every engineer and fireman ought to 
know a5c - 

Compound Locomotives. Wood. 1894. En- 
larged. Tells the history and explains the prin- 
ciples of all the kinds of compound locomotives in 
use 93.00 

Compressed Air; Practical Information 
Upon Air Compression and the Trans- 
mis-ion and Application of Compressed 

Air. Frank Richards. 1895. About the only 1 k 

in print that Bupplies the inform ition on tbis im- 
portant snbject thai so manv an- in search of. A 
practical I k without mathematical ornamenta- 
tion. 195 5x7Wh,cb pages 25 illustrations and 
diagrams, with many useful tables 91.50 

Discipline Without Suspension. Brown. 
1896. Pamphlet explaining the "Brown" system 
of discipline, by the originator; full data l°c. 

Dlseai.es of the Alr-Brake System. 

Bynnestvedt. 1894. Tells how to find and repair 
every defect that the air-brake system is liable to 
have *'- 00 

Elementary Manual on Steam and the 
stettm Engine. Andrew Jamison. Intended 

especially for beginners in the science of steam 



engineering, contains problems t" be worked out 
by the student, and is a helpful book. 2S!4Jtx7M- 
inch pages ; numerous ill us 1 rations »■•*" 

Elementary Treatise on Mechanics. 

William G. Peck A good book on the theory pi 
mechanics. Designed especially for students n 
schools, but useful to others, especiall> those who 
have some know 'ledge of mathematics. 296 4^v x .7hj- 
inch pages; 179 illustration* 91. ->o 

Englneinen's Guide, Time and Pocket- 
Book. Kinne. 1892. Rules of procedure in a break- 
down, for handling air, etc. Contains a time book. 
Good for three years. Bound for pocket — 91.00 

Enginemen's Pocket Companion. Booth. 
1895. Contains pages arranged for time-keeping. 
Has Traveling Engineers' Examination for Engine- 
men, articles on brakes, valve setting, combus- 
tion, and much valuable information for engine- 
men 91-00 

Evolution of the Air Brake. Synnestvedt. 
1895. A brief but comprehensive history of the de- 
velopment of the modem railroad brake, from the 
earliest conctption contained in the simple lever, 
up to, and including, the most approved forms of 
the present day "* • 00 

Hand Book of Practical Mechanics. 

Chas. H. Saunders. This book is designed especi- 
ally for use in the shop and drafting-room, and 
contains very many rules, tables and simple formu- 
lae for the solution of such practical problems as 
are constant Iv coming up in the shop. It contains 
much valuable information for shop men. and is an 
excellent book for the shop. 116 6^x 4-inch 
pages 9 ' »oo 

Haiwell'l Engineer's Pocket-Book. 1892. 
Probably the best authority in engineering mat- 
ters. Rules for almost everything 9*.00 

Heat, a Mode of Motion. Tyndall. The best 
known work on the nature and phenomena con- 
nected with heat, and one which no one who de- 
sires to understand the subject can afford to miss 
reading. Interesting and instructive. 591 5x?Mr 
inch pages; 125 illustrations. 93. jO 

How to Save Money in Rallroau Black- 
smith Shops by the Use of Bulldozer and 
Helve Hammer. Reynolds. 40 illustrations of 
dies and work. Very valuable to shop manager 
and foreman blacksmiths. SO 6 x 9-in. pages -45c. 

Indicator Practice and Steam Engine 
Economy. F. F. Hemenway. 1890. Thoroughly 
practical and useful. Gives much information on 
the action of steam in the steam cylinder and in 
lanmiaire which anybody can understand wlui will 
try. 184 5x7j^-inch pages; 45 illustrations. .S'—OO 

Key to Steam Engineering. Williams. 
1892. More especially for stationary engines, but 
good information for anyone. Boiler, engine, 
combustion, evaporation, etc., explained in a 
commonsense way 5 "C 

Link and Valve Motions. W. S. Auchln- 
closs 1891. A work that has been standard for a 
qua-ter of a century, especially on 1 nk motions. 
Newly revised. 138 854 xs^-inch pages; 6a il ! u !! tra ; 
tions •»" 00 

Locomotive Catechism. Grimshaw. 1894. 
Latest book out. Contains 1,300 questions and 
answers about locomotives and air brakes. Fully 
illustrated 93-00 

Locomotive Engine-Running and Man- 
agement. Illustrated. Sinclair. 1893. En- 
larged. Best work on running and care of locomo- 
tives Plain facts plainly stated. 416 4?ix7k-inch 
pages 93.00 

Locomotive Mechanism and Engineer- 
ing. Reagan. 1894. By a practical locomotive 
engineer. Up to date. A good book 93.00 

Locomotive Rnnning Repairs. Hitch- 
cock. 1892. A practical treatise on running repairs, 
by a practical man. Numerous diagrams and il- 
lustrations. 110 4 x 53i-inch pages 50c. 

Machine Shop Arithmetic. Colvin & 
Cheney 1896. Plain ruies showing shop men how 
to calculate speed of pulleys and gearing, how to 
figure the gears for screw cutting, and giving a 
great many facts about tools which every mechanic 
ought to understand 50c - 



Modern Locomotive Construction. Illus- 
trated. Meyer. 1892. Tells how to design, ngure 
out and make everv part of a locomotive. A work 
of reference, especially valuable to draughtsmen 
and those in •■.hartreof building and repairs. Large 
and elaborate. 658 9 x 14-inch pages 910.00 

Practice and Theory of the Injector. 

Kneass. 1894. The only complete work on the In- 
jector vet published. All about all kinds of inject- 
ors. 132 5^x9 inch pages 91..1O 

Progressive Examinations of Locomo- 
tive Engineers and Firemen. Hill. 1893. 
Three hundred questions, and answers to them, or 
firing and ruuuiug locomotives. Standard form of 
examination on several roads. Contains colored 
plates of standard train and engine signals. 97 4 x 
6-inch pages 50c ' 

Simple Lessons In Drawing, for the 
Shop. Reynolds. 1893. Twelve lessons that can 
be done with a $10 set of instruments. The rudi- 
ments of drawing in the best form. 83 4x6Mi-inch 
pages 50c - 

Slide Valve Gears. F. A. Halsey. 1890. Full 
of diagrams, but no mathematics. Makes the slide 
valve as plain as words can do it. 135 5x7^ inch 
pages; 79 illustrations 91. jU 

The Elements of Machine Design. W. 

C. Unwin. The standard all around treatise on 
machine design. Contains considerable algebra, 
but most of its matter is useful to one not under- 
standing algebra. 

Part I. General Machinery. 459 4^x6?4 inch 
pages; 301 illustrations 9«."0 

Part II. Steam Engine. 291 4%x69$-inoh pages; 
174 illustrations SI.jO 

The Mechanical Engineer's Pocket 

Book. Kent. 1895 A reference book of rules, 
tables, data and formulas for the use of engineers, 
mechanics and students. The latest and best 
pocket book. Bound in soft leather, with flap. 
The author has verified every rule and table used, 
brought the whole work up to date, and covered 
the field more completely than has any previous 
author « 5 - 00 

The Mechanics of Machinery. Alex. B. 
W Kennedy. A standard and excellent authority 
on the problems involved in scientific machine de- 
sign Useful to all students of machinery, but 
requiring some knowledge of mathematics to he 
fully understood, 652 4^ x 7-inch pages ; 3.4 illus- 
trations » J. JO 

The Modern Machinist. Usher. 1895. A 
practical treatise on modern machine shop meth- 
ods. Illustrated by 257 engravings Does not con- 
tain descriptions of machine tools, but of special 
tools and appliances, methods and plans of doing 
work with them. The book is one that evert me- 
chanic should have. 322 49£x75£-ib. pages. .•»•■" 

Theoretical Mechanics. J. Edw. Taylor. 
An introduction to the study of theoretical me- 
chanics. Clear, easily understood. 11 1 B00K1OT 

beginners. Numerous problems to be worked out. 
264 4\4 x 714-inch pages si.uo 

The Steam Engine. Geo. C. V. Holmes. 
1895 An excellent English treatise 05 the con- 
struction of the steam engine. Rule s f. or Propor- 
tions are given in algebraic signs. 528 4H x6 'g-„ ,n ^ 1 , J 
pages ; 212 illustrati. ms 



ii.OO 



Treatise on the Richards Steam Engine 
Indicator and on the Development and 
Application of Force in tile Steam t.ii- 

ein*. Chas T. Porter. 1891. Although a non- 
mathematical book, it gives an excellent outline of 
the Dhilosophy of the -team engine. It is hard 
reading and should he attempted only by 'hose 
who mean business 2sr> r/i.xs'., inch pages. .S3.no 

Ways and Means. For metal workers, model 
makers watch and tool makers jewelers, drafts- 
men etc. This book is written by our correspond- 
ent A 11 Cleaves, and in it will be found illustra- 
tions ami descriptions of many approved devices 
which are used in watch factories and other shops 
to facilitate tool making and other 'manufacturing 
operations. Very many things will be found ^m it 
of -rent value to every machinist, ton] maker and 
draftsman 158 4K,x7-inch pages; 126 illustrations. 
Price 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Ill 



SILAS HOWE, Pres't and Tree 

ENOCH PETERSON, Vlce-Prea't and So 

The Wm.D. Gibson Co 

Mfrs. of Superior Grades of Every Description of 

Car Seat 
Air Brake 
Trolley 
Coupler 
Engine and Valve 



SPRINGS 



Special Springs for all purposes 
Made to Order. 




For Electrical Lines, Car Builders, 
and all kinds of Machinery 

12 & 14 South Jefferson St., Chicago. 



PEAKING about net results," the Best 
Varnish is the cheapest in the end. 



"S 

VVTM. HARLAND & SON'S 
English Varnish 

is the best because it is DURABLE, RELIABLE, 

Brilliant and Economical. It keeps your 

cars on the road longer, thereby effecting a large 



saving. 



™ j ^N* ^^rf 



f%^»%%»%»»»%^»»»»»»» %< »»»%»»»»%»»%%%%%»»%%%%; 






w 



Dries as well in Summer as in Winter. 

Don't be deceived by first cost — but 
S analyse the cheapness of our varnishes 
I from your own test. "NET RESULTS 
', EVERY TIME." J»jtjftjt^J»J»»J»jt 

* We want to send you samples to try. j 



RITE F. C. REYNOLDS, Sales Agent 
for United States and Canada, 

4 Gold Street, New York, 



Or our "HOME MISSIONARY » will call on you. 



•f^O'O-l 



Dueber-Hampden 

17 Jewel Watches 

lead the World. 

Especially desirable for railroad service or where accurate 

time is desired. 

Any Watch is a good Watch 

until you look for time, then you wish it was a 

Dueber-Hampden Watch 



made at the 



Dueber Watch Works, Canton, 0. 



The Dueber Watch Case Mfg. Co. 
Watch Cases. 



We make the complete watch. 



Hampden Watch Compam 
Watch Movements. 



112 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



SECURE MAXIMUM SERVICE FROM YOUR LOCOMOTIVES 





o 
o 

a 



s 





























By having them equipped with 



The Detroit Sight Feed 
Lubricators- . -- 

The No. 2 Improved, Double Sight Feed, delivers the oil to both 

steam cylinders. (This style is made in 3 sizes, 1 pint, \ l / z pint and == 

1 quart.) g 

The No. 3, Triple Sight Feed (3-pint size), and No. 4, Triple Sight 
Feed ('/£ gallon), oils both steam cylinders and the air pump. 

The Detroit Air Pump Lubricator delivers oil to the air pump. It 
is of "^-pint capacity and has a record of over 1000 miles to once filling. s= 

These Lubricators deliver the oil positively and regularly to the steam chests 
and cylinders under all conditions and against highest pressures. Besides protect- 
ing the vital parts from injury by friction, and increasing the efficiency of the 
locomotive, they effect a saving in oil and fuel amounting to several times 
their cost each year. == 

The Pennsylvania Railway System have 
about 5,000 of these Detroit Locomotive 
Lubricators in constant use. ^ 

We issue a large catalogue which fully describes these goods, and contains 
reduced cuts of our blue prints, showing their interior construction. It will be 
sent to any part of the world on application. § 

Correspondence Solicited. All Inquiries Answered. ===. 

Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit, Mich., U. S. A. 

^a0000=00000=00000=00000^00000=0000=0000=00000=00000=0000fe =00000=00000= 



No. 2 Improved 




AM STEEL TIRES 



On Locomotive Driving Wheels, and on Stee1=Tired Wheels, 
Give the Best Results for Every Variety of Service. 



The Cast Steel Works of Fried. Krupp, Essen, Germany, 

Cover an area of 1,200 acres, employ about 25,000 men, have the most improved plant, and stand unique, 
from the fact that they have their own Ore and Coal Mines, Blast Furnaces, etc., and that every stage of 
manufacture is under their own supervision, and are not (like others) dependent on the open market for a mis- 
cellaneous assortment of crude material; which, in connection with 75 years' experience, enables them to turn 
out a product of a very superior quality, second to none, and at the same time the different grades of Steel 
are always of the sa?ne uniform quality. 

Crank Pins, Piston Rods, Spring and Tool Steel, Steel=Tired 
Wheels, Axles, Shafts and Steel Forgings up to 70 Tons, 

Steel Castings, etc. 
Steel of Every Description Forged, Rolled, or Cast into any form 

or article desired. 



After a test of over 35 years, the "KRUPP TIRE" has proved itself the best in the 
market, and parties, when ordering Locomotives, would do well to insert in their specifications 
that " KRUPP TIRES " be used on the driving wheels, and thereby obtain an article which 
will give entire satisfaction. 

THOMAS PROSSER & SON, 

15 Gold. Street, New York. 






LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



118 






The Pratt & Whitney Co., 

Hartford, Conn. 

(#> 

Makers of 

Machinery and Tools 

For General and Railway Hachine Shops. 

Hachine Tools, Hilling Hachines, Drilling Hachines, Forg= 

ing Hachinery, Turret Hachines, Automatic Weighing 

Hachines, Punching and Shearing Hachinery, Hetal 

Band Sawing Hachines, Hilling Cutters, Spiral 

Shear Punches, Hangers, Coal Handling 

Hachinery, Hachine Taps, Dies and 

Stocks, Standard Reamers, straight 

and taper, Indicators, Thread 

Gauges, Hilling Cutters, 

Twist Drills, Etc. 

Hodern Hachine Tools for manufacturing on 
the interchangeable system, 
Locomotive Work, Electrical Apparatus, 
Bicycles, Typewriting Hachines, Sewing 
Hachines, Guns, Etc. 

Specially designed Hachinery for every pur= 
pose where accurate, rapid and economical 
production is essential. .*. 

Send for an Illustrated Catalogue and Prices. Correspondence 

Invited. 









4 



. r#|($)<4h. 






114 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



PRESSED STEEL TRUCK FRAMES 

AND PRESSED STEEL PARTS FOR CAR AND TRUCK CONSTRUCTION. 

FOX SOLID PRESSED STEEL COMPANY, ^^aXTffi "^ 

JAMES B. BRADY, General Sales Agent, Havemeyer Building, NEW YORK. 



XAlViftvtWl. 



*=H 




78 



10 



I he Butler 



The Butler Attachment, with yoke, is an 
absolute spring protector, most durable, eco- 
nomical and the strongest device on the mar- 
ket. Over 200,000 cars now running with this 
attachment in every variety. Offers the most 
advantages of any attachments for the cost of 
ordinary stops. Our No. 68 is the best — up- 
to-date — write for working drawings. 



Drawbar Attachment' Lo, 



Cleveland, Ohio. 



Coffin Toughened Process 




Cambria Iron Company, 



Driving, Truck, Freight 
and Passenger Axles, 
Pistons, Crank Pins and 
Side Rods — 

ALSO SOFT STEEL ARCH BARS, 
Bent and Drilled. 

| t. R. POMEROY, Sales Agent, 

33 Wall Street, NEW YORK. 

• • • 

General Office, PHILADELPHIA. 



Works, Johnstown, Pa. 



RAILS AND AXLES— 33 Wall Street, New York. STRUCTURAL STEEL— 100 Broadway, New York. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



115 



• • •- 



The Long & Allstatter Company, 



-• • • 



Hamilton, Ohio, U. S. A. 



Our Catalogue comes to those 

interested, by return mail. 



Over 350 styles 
and sizes for all 
kinds of punch- 
ing and shearing 
in metal, by 
power. 




Punching and 

Shearing Machinery 

for Railroad Shops. 



Single, Double, Twin, Horizontal, Angle Iron, Hand or Automatic Spacing, Gate 
or Multiple, Punches or Shears, Belt, Steam or Electrically Driven, for all purposes. 



• • •- 



-• • • 



s 

z 
o 

< 



MASON* 



► MASON) 



MASON»<1 



The Mason 



OIR VALVES AND GOVERNORS ARE 
STANDARD ON 150 RAILROADS. 



rtrt 




REDUCING VALVES AND 
AIR-PIMP GOVERNORS 



rstrt 



The Mason Air Pimp Governor 9 

Is Interchangeable 
with the Westinghouse. 
No change in the pip- 
ing required, as our 
Governor is fitted 
with couplings. It is 
now standard with 
the Penna. R. R., C. R. I. & P., 
B. & A. R. R.. Fitchburg and 
many others. 




AAA 



The Mason Reducing Valves £ 

Are furnished with couplings suitable # 
for different connections. *\ 

Guaranteed reliable. #» 



The Mason 

Regulator Company, 1 



•r>c r>Ci oct 



■^MASONI 



Z 

9 

L>fMsrM»IASONf>tf>l;«r>un>MASONfMJf>l;» 



6 Oliver SLreeL, Boston, Mass. 



utf 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 

Keasbey & Mattison Company's 

MAGNESIA LOCOMOTIVE LAGGINGS. 




ILI.l SI RATING THE 



uiroved api'LICation of MAGNESIA SECTIONAL LOCOMOTIVE LAGGING 

TO A LOCOMOTIVE AT THE P. R. R. SHOrS, ALTOONA, 1'A. 



SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONS 
MAGNESIA LAGGING TO LOCOMOTIVES, 



ist. Draw the wires tightly around the boiler, but not so tightly but that the hooks can be put underneath 
the wires with ease. f= " 

2d. Apply the first block of Magnesia Lagging to the boiler immediately underneath the centre, so that the 
laggers or other mechanics can work at applying the Magnesia Lagging upon both sides of the locomotive at the 
same time. Insert the curved ends of the hooks underneath the wires and drive them with the block tightly against 
the straight edges of the Magnesia Lagging, as then the straight ends of the curved hooks will press firmly upon 
the top or exterior surface of the Magnesia Lagging, and this will hold the Magnesia Lagging firmly in position. 

3d. Next place another block of the Magnesia Lagging tightly against the first one, as this secures the one 
edge of the second block of Magnesia Lagging firmly against the first one ; then insert another curved hook 
underneath the wire and drive it firmly over the other edge, then another block of the Magnesia Lagging, [then 
another hook, and so on, block after block, until all the blocks are firmly in place and all firmly secured. 

4th. In applying the last block of Magnesia Lagging, turn up the straight ends of the hooks, insert the 
block, and then turn the tips again at right angles and hammer them down carefully and firmly, when the appli- 
cation will be completed. 

5th. After all the blocks of Magnesia Lagging are firmly in place, cut the steel tape (which goes over all) 
into a suitable length for bands, and draw this very tightly around the exterior surface of the Magnesia Lagging 
and thus make the ends thoroughly secure. This renders the covering firm and prevents any slipping of L the 
Magnesia Lagging, thus making a very firm, secure and strictly first-class job. 

Use at least two bands of the steel tape to each length of the Magnesia Lagging. When the lagging is 
more than 30 inches long, use three bands, that the Magnesia Lagging may be held rigidly in place. 

BE CAREFUL to COUNTERSINK for RIVET or BOLT HEADS, as the blocks of Magnesia Lagging 
will be injured by driving them with a hammer. Wherever driving is necessary, place a piece of board upon the 
surface or edge of the Magnesia Lagging and tap this gently, but firmly, thus driving it home without injuring 
the Lagging. 

COUNTERSI NKING can best be done with the sharp corner of a hatchet. 
The blocks may be cut, like wood, to any shape desired, by means of an ordinary saw. 

After the application of the Magnesia Lagging is finished, go over all the work with a stiff brush, when the 
job will be completed and left in good condition for the application of the planished iron jacket. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. l>7 

Views similar to tins were shewn In tin- ruins of the buildings re entry destroyed by lire, in which the tanks, steam plpi ivered with 

MAGNESIA SECTIONAL COVERING were preserved from ruin, at 

WASHBURN A MOEN CO. WIRE WORKS, 



11. DISSTON .t SON'S' SAW WORKS, 
Tacony, Philadelphia 



THE EVENING STAR BUILDING 
Washington i> i 



Woi ■ 




Ruins of the A. W. Eaton Paper Co.'s Mill, at Lee. Mass. 
SHOWING FIRE-PROOF CHARACTER OF THE MAGNESIA SECTION'AL COVERINGS, 




View of boiler of Glen Echo Cafe, on Conduit Road. Washington. D. C. which was completely destroyed by fire. November 19, 1S90. 

The boiler and steam pipes covered with MAGNESIA SECTIONAL COVERING were the only things saved from destruction. The boiler with the 

Magnesia still intact, has been continuously and completely exposed to the elements since the lire, now about tour vear^ Both boiler 

and covering arc still in a good condition, and the owners, Messrs. E. & E. Baltzley. propose now to use the old coverings, 

which have passed fire, water, frost and snow, upon the boilers of the new restaurant. 

SHOWING FIRE-PROOF CHARACTER OF THE MAGNESIA SECTIONAL COVERINGS. 



118 LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



TIRES 



Latrobe Steel Co. 

Locomotive 

and 

Car Wheel Tires. 

Weldless Soft Stee r 

Flanges 

For High Pressure Pipe. 

Principal Office, 

Girard Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 
N. Y. Office, 33 Wall Street. 
Chicago, Old Colony Building. 
St. Louis, Union Trust Building. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



119 



Plain Miller. 




Cylindrical Column Design with and 
without back gear. 



A 

Modern 

Milling 

Machine 

at a 

Fair 

Price. 

Plain, 

Honest, 

Efficient. 

$ 



Adapted to the requirements of the Modern R. R. Shop. 



r^(^^pf^f^f^r^f^f^r^f§^f^r^f^r^f^^^r^r^r^f^r^f^r^ir^,f^r-%^i 



«$> 
<$> 

($» 

<$» 
<$» 

<$» 

<$» 

<$» 

«$> 

($» 
*$> 




<#) 

»$» 
»$> 
<♦) 

*$7 

»$> 

«$» 

(♦) 

*$» 

(ft 

<^» 

«$» 



fftfftfftfft*ft^fftfftfft(ft^^^^fftfftift^^*ft^fft^fft*ft«ft^^^ 



You 

cannot 

Afford 

to use 

a Planer 

on 

Work 

this Tool 

will 

Handle. 



List Price, without back gear, $600.00. List Price, with back gear, $680.00 

W. D. FOrbCS & CO., Hoboken, N. J., U. S. A. 

130? Hudson Street, (near 14th Street Ferry). 



Correspondence Solicited. 



Send for Pamphlet and Discounts. 



Mention " Locomotive Engineering:.' 



120 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Kalamazoo Railroad Velocipede and Car Company, 



Kalamazoo, Mich, 



Manufacturers of fifty different styles of Light Railway Cars, 
including Steel Velocipedes, New Railway "Safety" Section 
Hand Cars, Inspection Hand Cars, Steam Inspection Cars, 
Gasoline Motor Inspection Cars, Rail or Construction Cars, 
Push Cars, Cane J* 

Cars, Steel Sugar J* K 

Wagons, Metal «*.* 
Surface Cattle J»J»J» 
Guards, etc. «*,*«*«* 





Railway "Safety." 

Weight only 55 lbs. 

Ball bearings and 

made throughout 

similar to road 

bicycle. 

Furnished with 

rubber cushioned 

tires. 



Steel Surface Cattle Guard. 

The surest and safest stock turner in the 

market, fast taking the place of 

old style pit guards. 



K«- 



• 





Rail or Construction Car. 

For use in laying track, capacity 

10 to 12 tons. 



2 H. P. Gasoline Motor Inspection Car. 

It has no fire exposed, is free from any possibilities 

of explosion, ready to start at a 

moment's notice. 

Capacity 2 or 3 inspectors, speed 20 miles 

per hour. 




Our new hand 
car wheel is «* 
composed of but 
two pieces, tire 
is shrunk, on to 
malleable center. 
<* There are no 
parts such as «* 
bolts, separate «* 
hub, etc., to work 
loose. e* It is the 
Strongest, Most 
Durable and J* 
MostEconomical 
Wheel in the.* 
market. J* Order k •- 
a set and be con- 
vinced of superior merit. 



j* Send for our Red Catalogue, No. JO, 
56 pages, 5 J illustrations of the best 
Light Railway Cars made. <* <* .* .* «J* 



Combination Pleasure or Mail Car. 
Capacity four men. 
Net weight 260 lbs. 



IK 



Inspection Car. 

Capacity four men. Used ex 

tensively in southern 

countries. 





Spiral Spring Roller Bearing Steel 

Velocipede. 

Weight, 120 lbs. 20-inch driving^ 

wheels with rubber 

cushioned tires. 

, *K 



1895 Standard Section Hand Car 

Net weight 500 lbs., platform 

6 ft. x 4 ft. 4 in. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



121 




Fire Brick 



FOR 

Locomotives, 
Stack Linings, 
Boiler Settings, 

Moulding- Sand and General 
Railway Shop Supplies. 




Send^for our book. 

GARDEN CITY 
SAND CO., 

1010 SECURITY BLDG., 
CHICAGO. 

Automatic Molding Machines* 




300 DAILY 
ONE 
MAN'S WORK _ 



PATTERN SET FOR 

CHRISTIE 

BRAKE SHOES. 



+, + + + + *<«<<<<<«<«<« 

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The Tabor Manufacturing Co., 

Office and Works : Front and Franklin Streets, 
ELIZABETH, N.J. 



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if 

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The Palmer 

Car Ventilator 

t 

The only system ever de- 
vised which can perfectly 
ventilate a car when full 
of passengers, so as to be 

Absolutely free from 
Cinders, Dust 
and Draughts 

«$» 

and have an abundance of 
fresh air. It is :: :: :: 

Practical 
Effective 

Economical 
Ornamental 

Any railroad expert can have 
it freely for the road he repre- 
sents, if he will improve the 
methods or discover anj- de- 
fects in its practical working 
when properly applied. 

Palmer Car 
Ventilator Co. 

Boston, Mass. 
James M. Palmer, Treas. 



++<+<+<<<<<<<<<< 



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LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



The Fire Proofl 



Baker Car Heaters. 



Hot Water. Non-Freezing, Self Regulating. 



■»■*•» 



Made of flexible steel, 
one-quarter inch thick. 

Impossible to break them. 

Impossible to burn a car 
with them. ." 

William C. Baker, 

(Successor to The Baker Heater Co.) 




MANY OTHER STYLES. 

*** 

For Extra Large Cars, Two Circula- 
tions of Hot Water with One Fire. 

Small Hot Water Heaters for Cable 
and Electric Cars. 

Special Extra Heavy Fittings for 
Baker Heater Work. 

*** 



Office, 143 Liberty St., 

New York City. 



Robert W. Hunt, 



G. W. G. Ferris & Co., 



John J. Cone, 



A. W. fiero. 



The Robert W. Hunt & Co. 



Bureau of Inspection 
Tests and Consultation 

Inspection of Rails, Fish Plates, 
Cars and Other Railway Material 

▼ — ▼ 

37 The Rookery, Chicago 

Chemical & Physical Laboratories 

Branch Offices : 
HAMILTON BUILDING. - - PITTSBURG 
80 BROADWAY, .... NEW YORK 
328 CHESTNU T ST., PHILADL LPHIA, PA. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



m 



£K0<©>0 ©<©\©.© ©000 ©<00© © < 
i 



W$m3M@M 



Cutting and Threading 

Pipe 




Either by Hand or Power, is done Easier, Quicker and at the 
Least Expense, using the 



Armstrong 

Pipe Threading and Cutting-Off 



IMPROVED 



Machines. 



HAND OR POWER. 



SIZES, I to 6 Ins. 



OUR NEW No. 1 ', MACHINE is a high-grade Tool, and will thread and cut 
pipe from one to four inches, inclusive. It is operated by hand or power, pref- 
erably the latter for the larger sizes. Weighs, with countershaft, 1,100 
a) pounds, and is furnished complete with set of right-hand dies. 

OUR NEW No. 3 MACHINE cuts and threads pipe from one to six inches, 
" inclusive. Usually operated by power. Weighs, with countershaft, about 1,450 
pounds. Is simple and compact in construction. Gears and bearings run in 
oil in an enclosed chamber. 

THESE MACHINES WILL ALSO THREAD AND CUT BRASS PIPE. 



ARMSTRONG'S 



ADJUSTABLE 



STOCKS AND DIES 




No. 2 STOCK. 



Can be adjusted to the variations in the size of fittings. Work easier and accomplish the desired results in less time 
than solid dies. The ARMSTRONG DIES, being made in parts, can be more perfectly constructed ; the cutting edges 
reached more directly; the work done with greater precision and uniformity. 
OUR No. 2 STOCK can be fitted with Dies for threading either Iron or 
Brass Pipe or Bolts, and the No. 1 STOCK either Iron Pipes or Bolts. 



These goods are universally acknowledged 
to.be the BEST on the market. 

THEY ARE MANUFACTURED FROM THE BEST OF MATERIAL, AND ARE 
^>;,THOROUGHLY RELIABLF. OUTFITS OF SEVERAL SIZES. 

OUR MACHINES ARE FURNISHED WITH AUTOMATIC CUTOFF. 

CATALOCUE FREE 
ON APPLICATION. 

The Armstrong Mfg. Co. 



139 Centre St., New York. BRIDGEPORT, CONN. 




NEW No. 3 MACHINE. 



| 






„• §g |s sV 3* S3 53 sasoiiSi i*" 



124 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 

r- 




Lathe for Turning Steel-Tired Car Wheels. 

Self-centering chucks to grasp the axle journals, and chuck jaws to engage the tires, are provided, in order that the power of 
the machine may be fully utilized. The use of these chucks and chuck jaws, in connection with the patented driving dogs attached 
to the centrally driven plates, prevents any springing of the axle or crowding the wheels out of true sideways. 

The tool slides can be set to give any desired coning to the tread of the wheels, and are operated by hand or positive power feed. 

The following table is a report of wort accomplished on this machine in several shops : 



ALLEN WHEELS. 


PUT IN LATHE. 


COMPLETED. 


TIME CONSUMED. 


One Pair 3S inch. 


5.30 p. m. 


7.00 a. m. 


1 hour 30 minutes. 




7.00 a. m. 


8.20 a. m. 


1 hour 20 minutes. 




8.20 a m. 


9.30 a. m. 


1 hour 10 minutes. 




g.30 a. m 


11.25 a - m * 


1 hour 55 minutes. 




11 25 a. m 


1.42 p. m 


1 hour 32 minutes. 




1.42 p. m. 


3.18 p. m. 


1 hour 36 minutes. 




3 18 d. m. 


4.50 p. m. 


1 hour 32 minutes. 



Seven pairs, I0 hours 35 minutes. 

Average time consumed per pair in turning, 1 hour 30 minutes. The last four pairs turned were harder than the average wheel. 

Cahpenng attachments can be furnished if desired. 

THE POND MACHINE TOOL COMPANY, 

PLAINFIELD, K. J. 

MANNING, MAXWELL & MOORE, Sales Agents, 

111 4ND :i 3 LIBERTY STREET, NEW YORK CITY; 60 S. CANAL STREET, CHICAGO, ILL ; 424 TELEPHONE BUILDING, PITTSBURG, PA. 




Ashcroft Manufacturing Co, 



The largest Steam Gauge Works 
in the World. 



TRUE TO START WITH -AND 
STAYS SO. 



SPECIALTIES. 
Double Tube Bourdon Pressure Gauges 

for Steam, Water or Ammonia. 

Tabor Indicators. 

Brown's Adjustable Pipe Tongs. 

Packer Ratchets. Pipe Stocks and Dies. 
Pipe Fitters' Tools. 

4<.,™ n ™p. « ^n . MOVEMENT NO CONNECTION TO 

Ashcroft Gauges are Dust-proof, Accu- back of case. 

rate and the standard everywhere. 




MANNING, MAXWELL & MOORE, 

Railway and Machinists' Tools and Supplies. 

m-113 Liberty St., NEW YORK. 60 S. Canal St., CHICAGO. 424 Telephone Bldg., PITTSBURGH. Pa. 



'LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 






The Metropolitan 

Double Tube 
Locomotive Injector, 



Designed for the severe 
service of modern Loco- 
motives. 




Will work at all steam pressures, from 25 lbs. to 250 lbs., without any adjustment of the steam or water supply for varying 
pressures. Used on the leading railroads throughout the United States. By actual use it has been demonstrated that these 
injectors are more reliable under the varying steam pressures, under high and low steam pressures, and the cost of main- 
tenance is less than any other injector on the market. These injectors take water at 145 degrees Fall. Made interchangeable 
with standard makes. 

THE HAYDEN & DERBY MFG. CO. 

1 r 1 Liberty St., NEW YORK. 60 So. Canal St., CHICAGO. 424 Telephone Bldg., PITTSBURGH, Pa. 



Consolidated Safety Valve Co. 



SOLK MANUFACTURERS 

RICHARDSON - ASHCROFT 




Pop Safety Valves 

They are adopted as the Standard on leading 
Railroads. 



Made under the Well-known Richardson 
and ashcroft patents. 



Best Muffler Made. 

Sample sent 
on trial. 

OFFICES AND SALESROOMS: 

in Liberty Street. NEW YORK. 60 So. Canal St., CHICAGl '. 
424 Telephone Bldg.. PITTSBURGH. Pa. 




MANNING, MAXWELL & MOORE, 
General Railway Supplies, HI Liberty St., NEW YORK. U. S. A. 



126 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 




The Dickson Locomotive Works, 



Scranton, Pa. 




Builders of 



Locomotives for Standard and Narrow Gauge 
Railroads, Logging and Mining Purposes. 

Compressed Air Locomotives. 

♦♦• 

New York Office: 100 Broadway. The Dickson Manufacturing Company. 



C. H. ZEHNDER, President. 
L. F. BOWER, Secretary and Treasurer. 
DC COIRCY MAY, General Manager. 
J. II. CAMPBELL, Manager. 




LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



187 



Richmond Locomotive and Machine Works, 

Richmond, Virginia. 

Builders of 

High-Class Locomotives 

for every service, 

Single Expansion or Compound, 

To our own designs or to the requirements of purchasers. 




Have you investigated the 



Richmond Compound? 




138 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 




LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Baldwin Locomotive Works, 



Buruham, Williams & Co. 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 



Established 

i S3 1. 

Annual 

Capacity, 

1 000. 




Design, 

Materials, 

Workmanship 

and 

Efficiency 

Guaranteed. 



Single Expansion and Compound Locomotives. 

Broad and Narrow Gauge Locomotives. 



Mine and Furnace 
Locomotives. 






Compressed 

Air 
Locomotives. 



Electric Locomotives and 
Electric Car Trucks 

Adapted to every variety of service, and built 

accurately to 



Steam Cars and Tramway 
Locomotives. 

Oil Burning Locomotives. 






\ 






nr'Pil 


'k 


G S . G - M CO . 


gflfi 


■ 

y 


3 



gauges and 
templates after 
standard de- 
signs or to railroad companies' drawings. 
Like parts of different engines of same 



Rack-Rail 
Locomotives. 



class perfectly interchangeable. 

Burnham, Williams & Co., 
Philadelphia, - - Pennsylvania, U.S A. 




130 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



I 



R. S. Hughes, 


President. 


G. E. Hannah, 


Treasurer. 


G. H. Longbottom, 


Secretary. 


Reuben Wells, 


Superintendent. 



\ 




< 



Rogers 

Locomotive 

Company 



of 



Pater son, N. J. 
44 Exchange Place, New York. 




Builders of 



1 



Locomotive Engines 
and Tenders 

of every description, 

And Railroad Machinery. 



\ 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



i:u 



8' 



ooo 



ooo 



ooo 



-oo 
o 



All Staybolts give warning 
when Broken. 



The Solid Staybolt 
in this way. 




The "Falls Hollow" 
in this way. 



One broken "Falls Hollow Stay- 
bolt" will prophesy trouble at 
once and keep on repeating the story 
until it is fixed. One broken solid bolt 
leads to another, and in grim silence a 
mine is laid and exploded. The Falls Hollow 

Staybolt is just as good a bolt as any made — the best " charcoal iron "- 
sesses in addition the self inspection and warning features. 



-and pos- 



"An Inspector that inspects." 



Falls Hollow Staybolt Co., 
Cuyahoga Falls, 0., U.S.A. 



8 

o 



o 

oo 



ooo 



ooo 



ooo 



18 



182 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



« ^ y<* I v safety Mw 



Is the pioneer and is the best. 



The Coale Muffler Pop Safety Valve ... 

Is the standard on leading railroads and power plants in the 
United States. Specify our valves on your new locomotives 
and boilers. Simple in construction and reliable under all 
conditions. Sample put on trial on application. 

The Coale Muffler and Safety Valve Company, 

Charles & Lexington St.s., Baltimore, Md. 



r^kXJL S. R^EEVES, Philadelphia. 

PHOSPHOR BRONZE S. * locomotive-car bearihgs 

BRASS and PHOS. BRONZE CASTINGS from V* lb. to 5,000 lbs. in WEIGHT. 



Brooks Locomotive Works, Dunkirk, n . y . 



F. H. Stbtxns, Pres 
K. -I- Gro98, Vice iTes 



M. I.. Hinman, Treaa 

T M. Bequbmbouro Sei \ 



cm \ 

tJL/ 



David Russell, Supt. 
H. Tandy, Ass'l Supt. 




BUILDERS OF LOCOMOTIVE EN- 
GINES FOR ANY REQUIRED 
SERVICE 
from our own designs or those of purchasers. 
Perfect interchangeability , and all work fully guaranteed. 

Compound 
* Locomotives 

FOR 

Passenger and Freight Service. 
ANNUAL CAPACITY 400. 



CARBON STEEL COMPANY, Pittsburgh, pa. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

OPEN HEARTH ^^ £? g L PLATES FOR ALL PURPOSES. 

SPECIALLY SUITED FOR LOCOMOTIVE FIREBOXES AND BOILERS. 

PARTICUIi AH S SENT OBT APPLICATION. 

909 Havemeyer Bldg., New York. 1413 Fisher Bldg., Chicago. 505 Union Trust Bldg., St. Louis. 



New York Office, 
Taylor Building, 
39 Cortlandt St. 




BEMENT, MILES & CO., 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



MANUFACTURERS OP 



Chicago Office, 
1534 Marquette Bldg 



Metal IVorktng Machine Tools, 

For Railroad Shops, Locomotive and Car Builders, 

Machine Shops, Rolling Mills, Steam Forges, Ship Yards, 

Boiler Shops, Bridge Works, etc., etc. 



STEAM HAMMERS. 



Steam and Hydraulic 

RIVETING MACHINES 



u 



qqq' Chart, the Car Chart and the Colored Air-Brake Chart 
/// for 50 cents. «g<j£*g*g<Jiit*g«£«£*gig*£ 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



188 



T 

* 



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if? 
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($) 

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($i 

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f§> 
(#1 

f§»f#Jf$> f#) rfrn ($) f#J r$n r$i ($) rtfl «t* f>ti f$) »♦« rt* fft) rti (#) ($) i^» r#j rti i-fri rAi rfri <-ti *t* r$> f$) r*< »♦•» (*» •*■> «*• r*"i <*i •** •♦ r** f*» f*» r&* »♦* 



Lead Screw Stay-Bolt Cutter. 

This is the machine that Jim Skeevers used to cut his accurately-threaded 
stay-bolts. We make them single headed as well, but where much thread- 
ing is done the two-head machine is best — one man runs both heads. 

True threads cannot be made on a bolt cutter that depends on the die 
to pull the work into the head — a lead screw does the business. 

This machine will remove at one cut as much stock as a good lathe 
will take in ten cuts. It will thread bolts up to 8 feet in length, from 3-8 
inch to 2 inches in diameter, either right or left hand threads, and tap to 
match, and make true threads all the length of the bolt all the days of the 
year. 

The "Acme" head and dies are an important feature of all our bolt 
cutters. We guarantee threads from this machine as perfect as can be cut 
on any lathe. 

Ask for Skeevers' Catalog. 

The Acme Machine Company, 

Cleveland, Ohio. 



134 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



WM.M'CONWAV. Prcj.d«nt. 

C P. KRAUTH. Secretary. 

A J DRAKt.Suponnt«nd«nt 





facturersoj 

ALLEABLE I RON CASTINGS 

^)Sole Manufacturers Of 

/ THE JANNEY COUPLER 

C FOR PASSENGER AND FREICHT CARS 

/b/fy r/fj/tf// Sf V.I. YA: 

i / ) ///,s/jJ//Y///'. ( /h. 



LOCOMOTIVE SPRINGS 

WITH PATENT V SHAPE BANDS. 




Manufactured by A. FRENCH SPRING CO. 



A. FRENCH, GEO. W. MORRIS, D. C. NOBLE, 

Pre8. Gen. Mgx. Sec. and Treat 

J. E. FRENCH, P. N. FRENCH, 

Vice-Pres. Gen'l Supt 

k <?0& SP% 

K \^ V PITTSBURGH, PA. u (//) 

^* Chicago Office, 1414 Fisher Bldg. " t 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Elliptic and Spiral Springs 

OF ALL DESCRIPTIONS. 



THE TROJAN CAR COUPLER CO. 

(Troy.N. Y. 

Mf n TVDF" The knuckle may be thrown open for coupling by the hand rod at the side of the car, WORKS' East St. Louis. III. 
• \,« D. I I r L. rendering it unnecessary for trainmen to go between the cars to open the knuckle. I Smith's Palls Ontario, Can. 



TROY, N. Y. 

New York Office : 49 Wall Street. 

Chicago Office : 1030 Monadnock 

Building. 



Get nne Use Honestly Built 

Knobbled Charcoal Iron Flues only. Manufactued * TYLER ™ BE AND PIPE «>., Washington, Pa . 

^ m |^^ — mm ^ „.^ aM ^ — m ^^ mmm ^ .^ ^ mmmm GEO. E. MOLLESON, R.R. Rep., 26 Cortlandt St., New York. 



Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co., 



Manufacturers of 



... I'll I Mil ROM, PA. ... 

The Tesla Polyphase Alternating System of Electrical 
Transmission, by which Power, Incandescent and 
Arc Lighting may be Supplied from the Same Circuit. 



Standard Systems for 
Electric Light and 

fffn ■ - ■ 

*f» Power Distribution in 



Cities, Factories, 



d New York, 120 Broadway. ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ *f MUlS and MittCS. 

Boston, Exchange Building. Pittsburgh, Westinghouse Building. fflWfl(W(WWriWft«WW(MrtWfl 

Buffalo, N.Y., 8 Erie Co. Bank Bldg. St. Eouis, American Central Bldg. 
Charlotte, N.C., 36-38 College St. San Francisco, Mills Building. 
Chicago, New York Life Building. Syracuse. N.Y., Bastable Building. 
Philadelphia, Girard Building. Tacoma, Wash., 102 S. 10th Street. 

Westinghouse Electric Co., Ltd., 

32 Victoria Street, London, S.W., England. 
32 Avenue de I'Opera, Paris, trance. 



ffa The Westinghouse Electric Railway System, which is the 
r t«, Most Durable, Economical and Efficient on the Market. 

For Canada, address, 

AHEARN & SOPER, Ottawa, Ont. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



SAMS 

SAMSt 

SAMS 



Cheap, 

Simple, 

Durable. 



Sams Automatic 
Coupler. 




SAMS 

• SAMS 

SAMS 



SAMS 

SAMS< 

SAMS 



SAMS 
• SAMS 
SAMS 



TTisan object to use the SAMS on Railroads whether 
I heir cars are interstate or not, as it has proven much 
cheaper than the old link and pin in the saving of links and 
loss of Pins. It is the cheapest automatic Coupler now in 
the market 30 Railway Systems are using it, most of them 
have been using the M. C. B. or Vertical Plane. Where rail- 
roads make their own draw-bars the cost per car will not 
exceed™;: 00. Solidity of patent and as to its meeting the 
reauhements of the law has been passed upon by the associa- 
tions This is the only Automatic Coupler proving entirely 
Xactorv on narrow gauge cars, as it has all the vertical 
and latera motions of the Sid link and pin. It is the only 
nractical coupler that can be used to advantage on coal car, 
company carfand others too nearly wornoutto^,t 
advisable to apply the too expensive \ ertical Plane. 



185 

SAMS 

# SAMS 

SAMS 



General Office: 
516 EQUITABLE BUILDING, 

DENVER, COLORADO. 

LOU. D. SWEET, 
General Manager. 



• 

SAMS 

SAMS«- 
SAMS 



SAMS 
— »SAMS 

SAMS 



13G 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



SEND TOR 






CATALOGUE AND PRICE LIST 

P ARMSTRONG 
PATENT 
TOOL 
HOLDERS 



Turning, Planing and 
Boring Metals. 

OVER 100.000 IN USE. 
Manufactured only by 

Armstrong Bros. 
Tool Co. 

98 W. Washington St., 
Chicago, III. 




Armstrong Tool Holder, No. 7. 

This size is made offset 
Right and Left. 

The Right hand tool 
can be used for heavy 
boring, such as Locomo- 
tive Tires, Car Wheels, 
Piston Rings, etc. 
A pair of these tools will 
[ take the place of a dozen 
31 forged tools. 
- - ■• Especially adapted for 
the economical use of 
self-hardening steel. 




Chicago, January l, 1897. 
Mr. Railway Official: 

Dear Sir : — Please send tracer after the following, at once : 

On June 1, 1S96, we shipped to the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern 
Railway, care E. Elden, M. M., Buffalo. N.Y.: 

One No. 2 Armstrong Patent Tr ol Holder. 

Three " 3 

Two " 4 " '* " "' 
One " 6 " 

On July 1st, to L. S. & M. S. Ry., to J. O. Bradeen, Norwalk, O.: 

One No. 4 Armstrong Tool Holder. 

On July 1st, to L. S. & M. S. Ry., to W. L. Gilmore, Elkhart,;ind.: 

Two No. 1 Armstrong Tool Holders. 
1, >( 2 .. 11 11 

" 3 

" 4 

" 5 " " 

.. 6 .1 .. .1 

On September 1st, to L. S. & M. S. Ry., to E. Elden, Buffalo, N. Y.: 

One No. 5 Armstrong Tool Holder. 
Three " 6 " " " 

On September 1st, to L. S. & M. S. Ry.. to J. O. Bradeen, Norwalk, O.: 

One No. 3 Armstrong Tool Holder. 
•• 6 Right Offset " 
" 6 Left 

On October 1st, to L. S. & M. S. Ry.. to A. A. Bradeen, Cleveland, O.: 

One No. 3 Right Offset Tool Holder. 

•' - 3 Left 

" 3 Straight " " 

:: :; « :; ;: ;; • 

On October 1st, to L. S. & M. S. Ry., to J. O. Bradeen, Norwalk, O.: 
Two No. 3 Armstrong Tool Holders. 

One " 3 Right Offset '• ■' 

.. .. 3 Left .. .. .. 

" 7 Right " " 

On November 1st, to L. S. & M. S. Ry.,to J. O. Bradeen, Norwalk, O.: 

Two No. 6 Straight Tool Holders 
One " 6 Right Offset Tool Holder. 
" 6 Left 

On November 1st, to L. S. & M. S. Ry., to E. Elden, Buffalo, N. Y.: 

One No. 2 Armstrong Tool Holder. 
.. .. ^ 1. 

On December 1st. to L. S. & M. S. Ry., to A. A. Bradeen, Cleveland, O.: 

One No. 6 Straight Tool Holder. 

On December 1st, to L. S. & M. S. Ry.,to W. L. Gilmore, Elkhart, Ind.: 

One No. 1 Right Offset Tool Holder. 

.. " 3 '.'. !i i. .'" 

Two " 3 Left 
'• 4 

One '* 5 
1, .. T 11 .- .1 

" 1 Straight " 
" " 3 " " " " 
" 6 " 

On December 11th, to L. S. &-M. S. Ry.. to J. O. Bradeen, Norwalk, O.: 
Two No. 8 Boring Tools. 

" " q '* '" 

Three " n " " 

Although many of the above tools were sent subject to approval not 
one has been returned to us. 

The following letter we think will show the reason why it is that the 
foremen and workmen take to the Armstrong Tool Holder : 

Norwalk, O., Dec. 7, 1896. 
Armstrong Bros, Tool Co.. Chicagt 

Gentlemen : Through the courtesy of Mr. R. H. Kennedy. General 
Foreman of the Lake Shore Shops in this city, we have had our attention 
called to the advantages of your Tool Holders and System. We have 
looked over the pamphlet-catalog and have decided to place an order 
as follows : 

Two No. 1. One No. ?, One No < Staight Armstrong Tool Holders. 
" 1 k it! ht Offset Armstrong Tool Holders. 
'• " 1 Left 
One " g Armstrong Boring Tool, 
i. T1 1. >• .. 

Hoping to receive prompt service, which we will reciprocate, we are, 

yours truly, 

NORWALK FOUNDRY & MACHINE CO., 

A. W. SIDWELL, Secretary. 

WE WANT TO SEND EVERY RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC A SET OE 
THESE TOOLS ON 30 DAYS' TRIAL. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



137 




New 37-inch Boring and Turning Mill. 

This is our New 37' Boring and Turning Mill, and has the following features that should appeal to the buyers and users of strictly 
first-class tools : 

The main frame is of the box girder type, combining strength and rigidity, two essential features in the construction of a tool of this class. 

The driving mechanism is situated at the back of the machine, thus avoiding any liability of becoming injured by chips or careless handling 
of the work while putting on or taking off of the machine. 

The cone has four speeds, and, in connection with the two speeds of the countershaft, gives 16 changes of speed to the table, a range that 
col ers to the best advantage, all work that the machine will accommodate. 

The rail is of the box girder form and has wide bearings on the column ; it is raised ami lower The saddles are made right and 

left so that the boring bars may be brought close together. 

The boring bars are of steel and octagonal in section, and the rack by which they are operated is integral with the bar. The bars may b( 
set over at any angle independently and are ci ranter-balanced. 

The feed is of the well. known friction disk arrangement, has a wide range and can be quickly adjusted. 

All gears are accurately cut from the solid, and all are steel. 

The countershaft has tight and loose pulleys, V; diameter for 3* belt, and should run 120-1S0 revolutions per minute. 

Swings 37', will take under rail 29 , range of boring bar 18", range of feed o to jV has four-step cone for 3* belt. 

THE DAVIS & EGAN MACHINE TOOL CO. 

Successors to THE 10DGE & D*VIS MACHINE TOOL CO. 

Works, CINCINNATI, OHIO, U.S.A. 



NEW YORK, 

107 Liberty Street. 



CHICAGO, 

68 and 70 South Canal SI 

PHILADELPHIA. 

1 1 N'orth Seventh St. 



ST. LOLIS. 

720 Xorth Second St. 



BOSTON. 

: .c Federal Street. 



SAN FRANCISCO. 

Corner Mission and Fremont. 



13S 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 




SHOWING APPLICATION BETWEEN ENGINE AND TENDER. 



Moran Flexible Steam Joint Company. 



HENRY U. FRANKEL, Pres. 



rfc 



Louisville, Ky. 



r\tfl 



<$> 
«$> 

Interesting Literature, just from the ^ 

Press, concerning: this appliance, * * X 

-shall we send? ♦♦♦ 

f$» rtrt rstrt f\1b fst« ntn flh «1b «to ctrt «trt rtfl 




Wherein this 
Joint Excels: 



All metal connections. 

Absolutely flexible. 

Positively steam tight 

under any pressure. 

Indestructible short of 

wreck. 

No delays, no repairs. 

Steam, oil, hot ashes, 

or dirt does not affect 

its life. 

First cost is the only 

cost. 



Sectional view; shows 

Automatic Relief 

Trap. 



f$» r$» (Wj r$» r&ri wj tW) (WJ f$» f$» 

<$><$><$, Special Joint 

J£ for Steam Heating con- 
,|, nection between Engine 
<$» and Tender. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



139 



Not the Lowest Priced, but Cheapest in the End. 



.... 



■< 




When ordering Hydraulic Jacks, Punches, 
Roller Tube Expanders, specify 



BASE JACK. 



Dudgeon's 



Latest 
Improved 



Patents on the 
Hydraulic Jack. 

July 8, 1851. 
Aug. I, 1865. 
April 15, 1873. 
I eh. 2, 1882. 
Jan. 23, 1883. 
May 6, 1884. 
Nov. 17, 1885. 
Nov. 17, 1885. 
Jan. 12, 1886. 
Sept. 13, 1887. 
Sept. 13, 1887. 
July 5, 1892. 





ELEVATING HYDRAULIC CRANK PIN AND SMALL WHEEL PRESS. 



TRAVERSING JACK. 





HVDRAILIC HEAD PINCH 



SMALL WHEEL PRESS. 



All correspondence will receive 
prompt and careful attention. 



Original inventor, 

Patentee and 

Manufacturer of the 

Hydraulic Jack, 

and Controller of all 

Patents. 




I Wheel Presses 



and 



IMPROVED TLBE EXPANDER. 



Direct Acting 
Steam Hammers 



Richard Dudgeon, 24-26 Columbia St., New York City. 



140 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Established J 842. 



The. 



Arcade File Works, 

Makers of 

Improved Increment Cut Files* 




The Arcade File Works are 
the only File Works in the 
world using Natural Gas 
throughout their plant. i 




Sg»gK«~j 



New York City: 
97 Chambers St. 
Chicago: 118 Lake St. 
W Works : Anderson, Ind. 

y &** e^* ^** 

SAMUEL W. ALLERTON, Pres. 
C. C. CLARKE, Sec. & Treas. 
A. WEED, Vice-Pres. & General Manager. 




All Arcade Files have Weed's Improved 
Increment Cut, which insures sharp cut- 
ting and wearing qualities. 

We guarantee our Improved Increment Cut 
Files to cut faster and wear longer than any 
on the market. Although we have been urged to 
buy unsuccessful file plants, and thus reduce com- 
petition, we have preferred to build the most modern 
file works in existence and equip it with the latest in- 
ventions in file machinery. Our marvelous growth 
has demonstrated most emphatically that our method of 
concentrating the highest mechanical talent on one modern 
plant, instead of renovating old ones, is the successful policy 
to adopt. 

When buying always ask for "ARCADE BRAND." 

There are no files "just as good." Arcade 

Files are guaranteed. 



Look at this file lengthwise 
in a slanting direction. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



ill 



Phoenix Pneumatic Tools. 



>0 Phoenix Pneumatic 



o 
o 



5 
i 
I 
2 
J 



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View taken at the Lebanon Boiler. Foundry and Machine Co/S Works, at Lebanon, Pa . showing the utility 

of our Compressed Air Drills and' Caulking Tools Eoi outside work. Work shown was 

over ioo feet outside of boiler shop. 

C. H. Haeseler & Co., 

....Makers of.... 

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Export Selling Agents, 

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Catalogue for 1S97, containing views of our tools in operation upon different classes of work, will 
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Katalog fiir 1S97 enthaltend Ansichten unserer Werkzeuge in Operation in verschiedenen Klassen 
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142 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 




Prentiss Tool & Supply Co. 



New York, 115 Liberty Street, 
Chicago, 62-64 S. Canal Street. 



GENERAL SALES AGENTS FOR 
LEADING AMERICAN MACHINE 
i BUILDERS *^ 



The Equipment of Railroad Shops with 

Modern Up-to-Date Labor Saving 

Machinery a Specialty. 



Correspondence with 
those contemplating- the buying 
of Machine Tools of any 
description requested. 
Machinery in stock for 
Immediate delivery. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



148 




t 



f "Utica Steam Gauges stand for «j 

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« Utica Steam Gauge Company, 



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70-72 Fayette Street, 
Utica, N. Y. 



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Utica Locomotive Gauge, No. 6. 
Utica Cab Gauge for Heating, No. 3. 
Utica Air Brake Gauge. 



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The « smillie - 



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M. C. B. Coupler 

Only 4 Pieces. 



S. J. Meeker, 






The simplicity and 
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locking device makes 
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double lock which will draw any train even if pivot pin is lost. 

TRADE 

COUPLES BY SLOW IMPACT. 

riARK. 

The Smillie Coupler and Manu'fg Co., 

Office and Works: 
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Malleable, 
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Castings made from 
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RAILROAD WORK 
a specialty. 



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144 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



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Cooke Locomotive and Machine Co< t 

Paterson, N* J. f U«S*A* 
Builders of Locomotives, Simple and Compound* 




ocofellS'! 15 



&Pm£ 



railwayMotiye Power 
^ahd Rolling Stock- 



Vol. X. 

New Passenger Locomotives for the 
New York Central & Hud- 
son River Railroad. 

The accompanying cut, from photo- 
graph of engine 928, and specification, 
illustrate and describe one of a lot of 
eight-wheel passenger locomotives re- 
cently built by the Schenectady Locomo- 
tive Works for the New York Central & 
Hudson River Railroad Company. 

The engines were built to specifica- 



[Trade-Mark Registered.] 



NEW YORK. FEBRUARY, 1807. 

ing boxes are of solid magnus metal. The 
driving wheels are cast of gun iron. The 
piston rods are extended through front 
cylinder heads — a practice which has been 
found very advantageous by Mr. Buchan- 
an — reducing to a minimum the trouble 
with wear of cylinders and broken piston 
rods. 

There were ten engines in the above lot, 
five of which had drivers 78 inches, as 
shown by cut and specification, while five 



No. 2. 

through the streets of Syracuse, a dis- 
tance of about i'/z miles, in compliance 
with that city's ordinance limiting the 
speed to eight miles per hour. Deducting 
ten minutes for the time in running the 
iJ/2 miles in Syracuse and three minutes' 
stop at Utica, leaves the running time 
from the city limit of Syracuse to Albany 
two hours and seventeen minutes. De- 
ducting the i l /z miles in Syracuse from 
the total distance leaves 146.34 miles, 




tions and drawings prepared by Mr. Wm. 
Buchanan, superintendent of motive 
power and rolling stock of the New York 
Central & Hudson River Railroad, and 
though somewhat similar to those previ- 
ously designed by Mr. Buchanan, and 
which are rendering such efficient ser- 
vice, possess many features of marked 
improvement. 

As will be seen from the specification, 
the boilers of the new engines have a very 
large heating and grate surface — a very 
important feature in fast heavy traffic, 
and one which Mr. Buchanan has always 
advocated. The driving and truck jour- 
nals are of very large si?e. while the driv- 



BUCHANAN'S LATEST FLYER. 

were duplicates, excepting having driv- 
ers 70 inches diameter. 

All these engines are in fast service on 
the celebrated "Empire State Express." 
the Fast Mail, and the Chicago, St. Louis 
& Cincinnati Limited trains, and have al- 
ready made some exceptionally fast time 
on these trains. 

On December 1st one of the engines. 
No. 924, made the run with train No. 50 — 
the "Empire State Express." east — from 
Syracuse to Albany, a distance of 147.^4 
miles, in two hours and thirty minutes, 
including a three-minute stop at Utica. 
together with a slow-down going through 
Schenectady and a slow-down going 



which made a speed of sixty-four miles 
per hour for the 146.34 miles, not allowing 
for slow-down through Schenectady. 

GENERAL DIMENSIONS. 

The following are a few of the leading 
particulars about the engine: 

Weight in working order — 136.000 
pounds. 

Weight on drivers — 90.000 pounds. 

Wheel base, driving — 8 feet 6 inches. 

Wheel base, rigid — 8 feet 6 inches. 

Wheel base, total — 23 feet 11 inches. 

CYLINDERS 

Diameter of cylinders — 19 inches. 
Stroke of piston — 24 inches. 



146 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Kind of piston packing— 3-ring, cast 

iron. 

Kind of piston rod packing— U. =■ 

metallic. 

Size of steam ports— 18 inches by i l A 

inches. 
Size of exhaust ports— 18 inches by 2% 

inches. 
Thickness of bridges— I % inches. 

VALVES. 

Kind of slide valves— Richardson bal- 
anced. 

Greatest travel of slide valves— 5/2 

inches. 

Outside lap of slide valves— 1 inch. 
Inside lap of slide valves— Line and 

line. . 

Lead of valves in full gear— 1-16 inch. 
Kind of valve stem packing— U. S. 
metallic. 

wheels, ETC. 
Diameter of driving wheels outside of 
tire— 78 inches. 

Material of driving wheels, centers- 
Gun iron. 

Diameter and length of driving jour- 
nals (material hammered iron)— 9 inches 
diameter by 12^ inches. 

Diameter and length of main crank pin 
journals (crank pins hammered iron)— 
S]/ 2 inches diameter by S 1 /^ inches. 

Diameter and length of side rod crank 
pin journals (rods steel)— 4/2 inches 
diameter by 3V2 inches. 

Engine truck, kind— 4-wheel, rigid cen- 
ter, with spring side bearings. 

Engine truck journals (axles iron) — 
6J4 inches diameter by \oVa inches. 

Diameter of engine truck wheels— 36 

inches. 

Kind of engine truck wheels— Krupp 
No. 3, with O. H. tire 2^ inches thick, 
held by retaining rings. 

BOILER. 

Style— Wagon top. 

Outside diameter of first ring (smoke- 
box jacketed)— 60 inches. 
Working pressure— 190 pounds 
Material of barrel and outside of fire- 
box — Carbon steel. 

Thickness of plates in barrel and out- 
side of firebox— Throat, V% inch; balance, 
9-16 inch. 

Horizontal seams— Butt joint, sextuple 
riveted, with welt strip inside and out- 
side. 
Circumferential seams— Double riveted. 
Firebox, length— 108^ inches. 
Firebox, width— ifiVt inches. 
Firebox, depth— Front, 7A l A inches; 
back, s8'/4 inches. 

Firebox, material— Carbon steel. 
Firebox plates, thickness— Sides, 5-16 
inch; back, 5-16 inch; crown, K i ncn : 
tube sheet, 9-16 inch. 

Firebox, water space— 4 inches front, 
3 inches sides, 3 to A l A inches back. ^ 

Firebox, crown staying— 5 x J^-inch 
crown bars, welded at ends. 

Firebox, stay bolts— Brown & Co.'s 
U. S. iron, V& inch and 1 inch diameter. 



Tubes, material— Charcoal iron, No. II, 

W. G. 

Tubes, number — 288. 

Tubes, diameter— 2 inches. 

Tubes, length over tube sheets— 12 feet 
i l /s inches. 

Fire brick supported on— Water tubes. 

Heating surface, tubes— 1,809.56 square 

feet. 

Heating surface, water tubes— 12.93 

square feet. 

Heating surface, firebox— 158.23 square 

feet. 

Heating surface, total— 1,980.72 square 

feet. 

Grate surface— 30.69 square feet. 

Exhaust pipes— Double. 

Exhaust nozzles— 3^4 diameter. 

Smoke stack, inside diameter— 16 
inches. 

Smoke stack, top above rail— 14 feet 8 

inches. 

Boiler supplied by— Two monitor in- 
jectors, No. 10 R. S., No. 9 L. S. 

TENDER. 

Weight, empty— 43,220 pounds. 

Wheels, number of— 8. 

Wheels, kind— Krupp No. 4, with O. H. 
tire 2H in= hes thick - held by retainin S 
rings. 

Wheels, diameter— 36 inches. 

Journals, diameter and length (axles 
iron)— \Vi inches diameter by 8 inches. 

Wheel base— 15 feet io'/2 inches. 

Tender frame— 6/2 x 4 x ^-inch angle 

iron. 

Tender trucks— Railroad company s 
style, wood bolster, side bearing, front 
and back. 

Water capacity— 4,5°o U. S. gallons. 
Coal capacity— 17,000 pounds (8^ tons). 
Total wheel base of engine and tender— 
48 feet 9^2 inches. 

Total length of engine and tender— 58 
feet AAi inches. 

Engine equipped with: Double-riveted 
mud ring; two 3-inch consolidated muffled 
safety valves; Westinghouse automatic air 
brake on drivers, tender, and for train; 
Westinghouse air signal; 95/2-inch air 
pump; asbestos cement boiler lagging; 
Gould pilot and long-shank tender coup- 
ler; water scoop on tender; piston rods 
extended through front cylinder heads: 
Nathan No. 9 triple-sight feed lubricator; 
springs made by Schenectady Locomo- 
tive Works; round case headlight; Amer- 
ican steel brake beams on tender; Ross- 
Meehan shoes. 

% i « 

An improved form of boiler check has 
been patented by Mr. Chas. Linstrom. 
master mechanic of the Yazoo & Mis- 
sissippi Valley Railroad at Vicksburg, 
Miss. It consists essentially of a check 
valve, having an extended stem, to which 
is attached a spring that holds the valve 
to its seat and can be adjusted by means 
of a nut to any tension which may be de- 
sirable. This will prevent checks sticking 
off the seat. 



Russian Railways. 

BY W. J. M'CARROLL. 

I do not remember ever reading any- 
detailed account of the railroads in Rus- 
sia, and thinking it might be interesting 
to the many readers of "Locomotive En- 
gineering" to hear something of this 
country, I will therefore attempt to give 
a description of the right of way, track, 
locomotives, cars, etc. In the first place 
it may be well to form some comparison, 
by size to the United States, as to area in 
square miles, population, miles of railroad 
and miles of telegraph lines. 

Russia in Europe and Asia has a popu- 
lation of 112,976,900; area in square miles, 
8,457,289; number of miles of railroad, 
about 23,000; number of miles of tele- 
graph lines, 105,000. Population of the 
United States, 62,622,250; area in square 
miles, 3,581,885; number of miles of rail- 
road,' 181,000. . . By this comparison 
it will be seen that the United States has 
50,345,750 less population, and is 4,875,- 
404 square miles less in area. But the 
United States has 158,000 miles more of 
railroads. 

Railroad building for a number of years 
was practically at a standstill, and was 
mostly owned and controlled by private 
companies. In 1890 and 1891 the govern- 
ment began to assume control of all the 
railroads, and now, with a few exceptions, 
all are under government control. There 
is at present nearly 10,000 miles of road 
under construction. 



TRACK AND RIGHT OF WAY. 

The oldest line in Russia is between St. 
Petersburg and Moscow. It is 609 versts 
long (403 miles) and is known as the 
Nicholas Railroad, so called after Em- 
peror Nicholas, who gave consent to build 
the line, and decided on the route by tak- 
ing a ruler and drawing a straight line 
on the map between St. Petersburg and 
Moscow. It has been in operation fifty- 
one years. It is the only all double-track 
line. The country through which it passes 
is mostly fiat and uninteresting. 

The right of way of all lines is kept per- 
fectly clear of trees and brush, ditches 
kept clean, banks well sodded. The lines 
in general in the north and interior are 
practically straight and level, while in the 
southern section they have many heavy 
grades and sharp curves. The bridges are 
overhead girder style, and from appear- 
ance are unusually strong, from the size 
of girders and truss rods. Many of the 
wooden bridges are being replaced by 
stone arches. The rails are of the Amer- 
ican pattern; 30 feet long, 56 and 66 pounds 
per yard. Gage O'f track, 5 feet. Rails 
jointed together by angle-bar fish plates, 
with four ^-inch bolts. Cross-ties are 6 to 
8 inches thick, 10 inch face, and 9 feet long. 
Rails fastened to ties by T-head spikes and 
lag screws, some few tie plates being used. 
Rails laid with even joints. Ties spaced 30 
to 40 inches, center to center. Spring rail 
frogs and split switches are in general use. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



147 




148 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



All along the line one will see sign boards 
indicating the change of grade. The posts 
are 10 feet high and have two arms on top. 
One arm is marked for the variation of 
grade, while the other is marked for the 
distance of the variation. When the track 
is level, the variation board is in a horizon- 
tal position and marked zero, and the dis- 
tance board marked the number of feet 
level. Then, if the grade is descending, 
the variation board will be inclined down- 
ward at an angle of 15 degrees and marked 
1.8 in 212, indicating a down grade of 1.8 
feet in 212 feet, and so on if the grade is 
ascending. 

Not too much could be said in favor of 
the general appearance of the track, as it 
is mostly all stone and gravel ballast, 
some places 3 feet thick. The edging of 
ballast is very accurately laid in a straight 
line by women and children. The clear- 
ing from edge of ballast to ditch or edge 
of bank is in many places kept swept 
clean. While the appearance of the track 
is so good, it cannot be classed as good 
riding track, on account of the ties being 
placed so far apart and the rails light. 

The stations and office buildings are of 
brick or stone, large and commodious, 
with unusually long and wide platforms. 
Around each station will be found a fine 
garden, some as large as 5 and 6 acres. 
Through the gardens they have nice 
walks, flower beds, shade trees, fountains, 
band stands, etc. These gardens are 
fenced in by fencing made from old con- 
demned fish plates and bolts, bolted to- 
gether in many different designs which 
are quite unique, but expensive. They 
also make fences from old worn-out flues. 
The pickets are cut in 3-foot lengths, flat- 
tened and sharpened on one end for the 
top; the railing is made from the whole 
length of flue, all bolted together by $i- 
inch bolts. Mostly all platforms are low; 
that is, about 10 inches above the track. 
The edge is made by laying old rails, 
bolted together, on a stone foundation, 
with tie rods running back to the build- 
ing to keep them in place. The space is 
then filled in with stone and cement, 
rolled smooth on top, making a good 
substantial platform. 

One cannot help observing the many 
uses old rails arc put to in buildings; they 
are used for girders and beams through- 
out a building, for roof and awning sup- 
ports; in many shops and engine houses 
they are used for columns for girder sup- 
ports; they are riveted together, base to 
base, and are set in castings cored out to 
fit. 

CARRIAGES OR l'\SSENGER CARS. 

These cars, like all others, are all shapes 
and styles. One would naturally think 
the companies were trying to make a col- 
lection of different style of cars. They 
are all 9 feet wide, but vary in length from 
20 to 54 feet. They can, however, be 
classed as superior to any European cars. 
These cars are divided into three classes — 



first, second, third. The outside of the 
first-class car is painted blue; second- 
class, yellow; third-class, green; plainly 
lettered, without any striping. Some cars 
are partitioned off in the center — one sec- 
tion for first-class passengers, the other 
for second-class — these are painted one 
half yellow, the other half blue; and the 
same combination for second and third 
class — these are painted half yellow and 
half green. The second-class cars are 
the most favored, and are uncomfortable, 
from the fact of always being crowded. 

The entrance to all cars is on the end 
by platform. Usually the aisle is to one 
side. Three persons can sit comfortably 
on the wide side, and one on the narrow 
side. 

All the first-class cars are finely fin- 
ished, inside and out. Some are all com- 
partments (eight in number), while many 
have compartments in one end, aisle on 
one side; the other end contains ten chairs 
and one end seat; by unfolding the chairs 
they can be converted into couches. In 
each compartment there is sitting room 
for six people, and only sleeping room 
for four. The seat is one berth, while the 
back is on hinges, and is raised up and 
supported by a swinging brace; this is 
then converted into another berth, so in 
each compartment there are four berths 
which are quite comfortable. There is 
also a cushion pillow, and as almost every 
traveler in European countries carries a 
blanket and often a pillow, a good night's 
rest can be had. 

These cars also contain ladies' and gen- 
tlemen's lavatories and closets. They are 
poorly ventilated, and poorly lighted by 
candles. No drinking water. Heated by 
steam from a special boiler car in the 
middle of the train. Double windows 
dropping down, floors carpeted, and 
everything kept perfectly clean. 

The second-class cars are arranged simi- 
larly inside, but only have two compart- 
ments in the center and four seats in each 
end, the backs swinging up to form sleep- 
ing berths; seating capacity for forty- 
eight people, and sleeping capacity for 
thirty-six. They are also poorly venti- 
lated and poorly lighted. The third- 
class cars have wooden benches with 
backs to swing up and make a lying-down 
place; these are very dirty and very poorly 
lighted. 

Some of the cars have two pairs of 
wheels, some three, and a number of first 
and second class now have four wheels 
and double truck and can be called good 
riding cars. All cars have screw coup- 
lings with safety chains and spring buf- 
fers. They are also equipped with West- 
inghouse automatic brake. Conductor's 
valve in each car, and sealed. Conduc- 
tor's bell or whistle rope carried on hooks 
near the roof on outside of car. 

( \Ks AND WAGONS. 

Th. n does not appear to be any stand- 
ard at all in any class of cars, as they are 



all shapes and sizes. The average box car 
is 15 to 22 feet long, 9 feet wide, and a 
capacity of 8 to 15 tons, and has two 
pairs of wheels. The flat cars, 16 to 23 
feet long, 9 feet wide, capacity 8 to 18 
tons. 

Recently some new flat cars were put 
in service on the Nicholas line, 35 feet 
long, 9 feet wide, capacity 24 tons. The 
frames on these cars were made of 10- 
inch channel iron, four ij^-inch truss- 
rods, four wheel trucks with pressed-steel 
frames. The Vladicaucase railroad has 
been putting new oil-tank cars in service, 
(illustrated on page 150) which, for de- 
sign and appearance, are superior to any 
we have on the American lines. These 
tanks are 6 feet in diameter, 38 feet 
long; the frame or body of the car 
is made of two 10-inch channel irons and 
two 12-inch channel irons, well cross- 
braced and riveted, and have two i]/z- 
inch and two 2-inch truss rods. The tanks 
have heavy angle irons riveted on the un- 
der side, and these rest on timbers run- 
ning the whole length and securely bolted 
to the channel iron frames, which are 
about 4 feet wide. There are no side- 
walks or running boards on these cars. 
They have four wheel trucks with pressed- 
steel frames. All wheels have wrought- 
iron centers with steel tires and Mansell 
retaining ring. Screw hand brakes are 
connected to one truck. 

LOCOMOTIVES. 

They have a great variety of engines, 
many of the old inside-cylinder six-wheel 
engine, and makes from England, 
France, Belgium. Austria, Germany, Rus- 
sia, America — from Grant and Baldwin. 
They are of all shapes, styles and sizes, 
and. as a rule, could be called neat and 
clean; many are models of cleanliness. 
They have for several years past been get- 
ting many new engines of German and 
Russian make, all two-cylinder com- 
pounds; some with link valve gear, and 
many with the Joy valve gear. The two- 
cylinder compounds have not given the 
satisfaction expected, and have been a 
great source of annoyance by giving out 
on the road. 

A great number of new Baldwin (Vau- 
clain compounds) locomotives have been 
put in service the past year in different 
sections, and from the tests made with the 
German and Russian makes of two-cylin- 
der compounds and the new Baldwins of 
equal size and weight, the American en- 
gines have been in the lead in every in- 
stance. These engines are running side 
by side in exactly the same service, and all 
the enginemen are free in expressing their 
views as to the choice of the Vauclain 
cylinder engines, as they are called. The 
men claim they are more comfortable, 
easier to ride, easier to handle, and they 
can see all parts without getting under, as 
all the other makes of engines have the 
slab or plate frames. 

Nearly all engines are now burning 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



149 




The back boiler head has asbestos lag- 
ging and a heavy iron casing closely fitted 
to all bolts and fittings. The cabs are 
made of heavy sheet iron, well braced, 
large and roomy, but doors and windows 
small. I 1 fireman stand on a 

level with the de< k. Mostly all passenger 
engines an ed with speed record- 

ers, many of the Boycr make. The speed 
gage is always placed in easy view of the 
engineer. 

SIGNALS. 

Not much attention has been given to 
interlocking and semaphore signals until 
lately. Now some of the lines are about 
equipped, but to no degree of perfection 
as on American lines. All stations have 
a semaphore with distance signal worked 
by single wire. Cross-over and yard 
switches are always attended by a man. 
At a number of switches leading from the 
main line to a side track, they have a 
padlock to prevent the lever from being 
tampered with, and also a large lock in 
the center of the track which is spiked to 
one of the cross-ties, and this is bolted 
into the switch rod by the switch tender, 
who carries the key, which is about 10 
inches long and weighs several pounds. 
In switching and making up of trains, 
all signals are given by sound; that is, 
the switchman has a tin horn which he 
blows, and the engine driver is obliged to 
repeat this signal by whistle before he 



naphtha oil for fuel, with excellent re- 
sults. This oil is the refuse from the first 
refining, and costs about 40 cents per 
barrel. This oil is also used for general 
lubricating purposes. 

I saw a number of new compound two- 
cylinder engines, Russian make, that were 
burning wood. In these days of modern 
locomotive building it appeared quite a 
novelty to see a wood-burning compound 
engine with a large balloon stack. 

All engines now in passenger service 
are equipped with the automatic air brake. 
Engines in freight service have the hand 
screw brake, and the last new ones the 
American steam brake. All the driving 
boxes and tender-truck journals are lubri- 
cated by wool wicking feeders, and have 
good success with it. None of the engines 
have bells, but instead have two whistles. 

The engines are finely painted; the 
wheels red, frames black; jacket and cabs 
green, with a fine black stripe; the inside 
of cabs nearly white, or a cream color. 



SCENES ON SIBERIAN RAILWAY. 
Prom Lodian, Tomsk. Western Siberia. 



150 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



moves or stops the engine. He is also 
obliged to sound the whistle three short 
blasts after the engine is stopped. One 
can easily imagine the music in a yard 
where there are six or eight engines 
switching. All switch lights are red, 
white and green, and have about the 
same indication as in America. The tail 
or rear-end lights are red and green, and 
are very large, about 12 inches in diame- 
ter. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Naturally, most all employes are na- 
tives; a few Germans can occasionally be 
found as engine drivers, and a number of 
shop foremen are Germans. 

I might mention at this point, in reply 
to the numerous letters received from 
American railroad men inquiring for posi- 
tions on the Russian railroads, that there 
is no show whatever unless he under- 
stands the language and is satisfied to 



holding a green flag, and from general 
appearance she is well fed. 

One can often see women and girls 
working on the track, placing stone edg- 
ing on ballast, weeding, etc. Through 
the southeastern section it is more com- 
mon to see them at work, and it can be 
often seen where they have their babies 
playing on a blanket or sheepskin beside 
them while at work; can also see the 
babies in a box or bag, suspended by a 
rope from the limb of a tree in the shade, 
swinging back and forward as contented 
as can be. During a severe snowstorm, 
when the track is likely to be blocked, they 
turn out, men, women and soldiers, to 
shovel snow. 

Water tanks are usually built of brick 
and stone foundations, 18 feet high. The 
iron or wooden tubs are incased by a 
respectable-looking building of an old 
design, resembling somewhat the tower of 



which equals 1,167 yards, or 593 yards 
less than the United States mile. The 
foot has twelve divisions, called inches, 
and this inch has six divisions. The 
foot equals 13.75 United States inches. 
The metric system is used for scale draw- 
ings and shop work. All weights are cal- 
culated by the pood, which is 40 pounds, 
or equal to 36.8 American pounds. 
Samara, Russia. 



There is in use, in the erecting shop of 
the Schenectady Locomotive Works, a 
new form of experimental electric lamp, 
made by the Edison people. When seen 
at a distance, it looks like an ordinary arc 
lamp; but on closer inspection, it is a 
small double truncated cone, in which two 
carbons are used — the same as in an arc 
light. It is in the same circuit as the in- 
candescent lights, and a current, equal to 




put in longer hours for less pay. The 
enginemen work from eight to ten hours 
per day and receive about 125 roubles per 
month; this will be equal to about $64 
American money. 

The section hands are divided into 
gangs, about the same as in America; 
but instead of four and five men in a 
gang, they have about ten men, one boss, 
one clerk or time keeper. These men 
go to work in the summer at 4 A. M., 
have tea 8 to 8:30 A. M., breakfast 12 to 
I, and work to 8 P. M.; and receive 40 
to 50 kopecks per day. which equals to 
20 to 25 cents in American money. The 
section boss is usually provided with a 
nice, neat house to live in, and keeps 
boarders. The house is always at a road 
crossing; and as all road crossings are 
protected by gates, the wife attends to 
closing the gates when a train is approach- 
ing. She stands there with all the grace 
and dignity of a Goddess of Liberty, 



RUSSIAN OIL CAR. 



an ancient castle. The tubs or tanks be- 
ing so high, they can get force enough to 
run the water through the various build- 
ings in the vicinity. The spout is about 
4 inc,hes in diameter and it takes some 
time to fill a tender. They are now erect- 
ing a number of standpipes which are 
modern, with a 7-inch spout. These 
standpipes have a stove bolted to the 
base of the column, to keep from freezing 
in winter. 

The shop buildings, as a rule, are large 
and have plently of room in them, but are 
dark, from the fact that the windows are 
all double and are not kept clean, the 
machinery is not very modern, and one 
will not find what could be called an up- 
to-date shop with modern labor-saving 
appliances. 

The speed of freight trains is limited to 
20 miles per hour, while the fast express 
is limited to 35 miles per hour. 

All distances are measured by the verst. 



Locomotive Engineering 

that required for ten incandescent lights, 
is said to make it as powerful as an or- 
dinary arc lamp, and is between 800 and 
900 candle-power. 



A movement has been started in Eng- 
land by Mr. C. E. Stretton in favor of a 
National Railway Museum. There are a 
great many relics of railway appliances 
that have valuable historical interest, that 
will soon be lost to posterity unless some 
systematic method is established of col- 
lecting and preserving them. It it a pity 
that the movement did not take active 
form forty years ago. Had that been the 
case, hundreds of articles, long ago de- 
stroyed, would have been preserved that 
were of the greatest value as relics of early 
railroad efforts. This is the case where 
"Better late than never" is good phil- 
osophy, and we heartily wish that great 
success may attend the movement. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



151 




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Delaware, Lackawanna & Western 
Passenger Engine. 

Our eruM i the eight-wheeled 

passenger engine for the Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna & Western Railway shows a ma- 
chine built by the Dickson Manufacturing 
Company, 'juite similar to one designed 
by Mr. D. Brown, master mechanic at 
Scranton, Pa. Culm is the fuel to be 
burned, and judging from the success that 
has attended its recent use, there is no 
reason to doubt the outcome in the pres- 
ent case. The problem of successfully 
utilizing the immense culm piles has 
been one of no small moment, but it was 
practically solved when they were made to 
give up some of their stored energy in 
hauling freight and passengers. 

A fair general idea of the prominent feat- 
ures of the engine will be had from the 
following description: 

Type — Eight-wheeled passenger. 

Simple or compound — Simple. 

Gage— 4 feet, S'/ 2 inches. 
Fuel — Culm. 

Steam pressure — 160 pounds. 

Diameter of cylinders — igl/ 2 inches. 

Stroke — 24 inches. 

Steam ports, length— 17% inches. 

Steam ports, width — iy 2 inches. 

Exhaust ports, length— 17% inches. 

Exhaust ports, width — 3 inches. 

Bridges, thickness — 1% inches. 

Valves, kind — Allen-Richardson, bal- 
anced. 

Valves, travel — sVi inches. 

Valves, outside lap — 1 inch. 

Valves, inside lap — o inches. 

Valves, lead in full gear— 1-16 inch. 

Piston rods, diameter — 3^ inches. 

Piston rod packing— Jerome metallic. 

Wheel base of engine — 22 feet 11H 
inches. 

Driving-wheel base — 8 feet 6 inches. 

Wheel-base of engine and tender, total 
— 49 feet 1 inch. 

Length of engine and tender over all — 
59 feet 3 inches. 

Driving wheels, diameter over tires — 
68 inches. 

Driving-wheel centers — Cast steel. 

Engine-truck wheels, diameter — 33 
inches. 

Weight on rail under drivers — 79,500 
pounds. 

Weight on rail under engine truck — 
37.500 pounds. 

Weight of engine, total — 117,000 pounds. 

Tractive power, at 90 per cent. B. P., 
minus 10 per cent, for friction — 17,400 
pounds. 

Co-efficient of adhesion — 4.56. 

Height, center of boiler above rails — 
8 feet 6 inches. 

Height, top of stack to rails — 15 feet I 
inch. 

Stack, kind — Straight. 

Stack, diameter — 18 inches. 

BOILER. 

Type — Wootten. 

Diameter of smallest ring inside — 56 
inches. 



154 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Thickness of cylindrical plates — 1 /2 and 
$i inch. 

Seams — All double riveted. 

Firebox, kind — Above frames. 

Firebox, length inside — 10 feet. 

Firebox, width inside — 8 feet. 

Firebox, depth front — 465-6 inches. 

Firebox, depth back — 39MS inches. 

Firebox, side sheets, thickness — 5-16 
inch. 

Firebox, back sheet, thickness — }i 
inch. 

Crown-sheet, thickness — fjj inch. 

Tube-sheets, thickness — % inch. 

Tubes, material — Wrought iron. 

Tubes, diameter — 2 inches. 

Tubes, length over tube sheets — 12 feet 
6 inches. 

Tubes, number — 220. 

Heating surface, tubes — 1,439-9 square 
feet. 

Heating surface, water grates — 104.72 
square feet. 

Heating surface, firebox — 175.22 square 
feet. 

Total heating surface— 1,719-84 square 
feet. 

Grates — Wrought-iron water tubes. 

Grate area, total — 80 square feet. 

$ § i 

A Journal Club. 

In connection with his instruction in 
mechanical engineering at the University 
of Minnesota, Professor Hibbard has in- 
troduced a method of instruction from 
the reading of current engineering litera- 
ture, which is well worthy of imitation, 
and might be followed to advantage in 
every school, society or evening class 
where students ought to be well-informed 
concerning existing practices. 

He has established what he calls a 
"Journal Club," which meets weekly for 
the discussion of articles that appear in 
technical newspapers. Each member is 
allotted one weekly, and, if possible, also 
one monthly, which he is required to read 
with care and report to the club whatever 
of its contents he judges of sufficient value 
for discussion. Speaking to the North- 
western Railway Club on the subject, Pro- 
fessor Hibbard said: 

"As an example of the methods, a par- 
ticular case may be taken. One paper 
has an article upon the uses and costs of 
compressed air in a railroad shop. A 
preliminary discussion by the club makes 
it evident to the instructor that a more 
extensive reading-up upon the subject is 
needed by the members before it can be 
profitably discussed, and it is put over one 
week to permit this. Each member fills 
out a blank slip relating to each impor- 
tant item presented to the club, and it is 
placed in its proper alphabetical order in 
his private 'card index' of technical in- 
formation and references." 

i tt 6 

An improvement on his sanding ap- 
paratus has been patented by Mr. Henry 
L. Leach, of Cambridge, Mass. 



Baltimore & Ohio Trainmen. 

The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Com- 
pany appears to be doing more for the 
education of enginemen than ever has 
been done before, although the old man- 
agement of the Baltimore & Ohio had 
spent considerable money for school and 
library purposes in connection with their 
headquarters at Baltimore. The aims of 
the old educational system seemed to be — 
Try and make college professors of all 
the young men belonging to the road; the 
new system seems to aim to aid engine- 
men and others to the understanding of 
the science problems immediately con- 
nected with their business. 

Knowledge concerning their business 
is now made a condition for obtaining 
promotion. We notice that there is a 
wonderful increase in the number of sub- 
scribers to "Locomotive Engineering" 
lately on the road, and that from being 
one of the lowest roads for subscribers on 
our list, it promises to be one of the best. 
In the new order of things, there seems 
to be no knowledge of high science 
required from the men; everything is prac- 
tical. A circular issued by Mr. John Bill- 
ingham, one of the master mechanics of 
the road, is representative of what is going 
on on other divisions. He is urging 
upon enginemen to be more careful in the 
saving of coal. In this connection he 
says: "As near as it can be figured, it has 
been shown that when an engine blows 
off, the waste of steam amounts to the 
consumption of J4 pound of coal for each 
second it continues, or about a shovelful 
of coal per minute from the tank, and it 
should be borne in mind that if an engine 
is allowed to blow off, it amounts to prac- 
tically the same thing and costs as much 
money. A fireman should watch the en- 
gineer and water closely, as the engineer 
is sometimes compelled to put water into 
the boiler to prevent steam blowing off, 
and at this time no coal should be used, as 
it is a waste." 

$ $ i 

Why Foundries Do Not Receive Im- 
proved Tools. 

A discussion has arisen between the 
"Foundry" and the "Iron Trade Review" 
regarding a question asked in "Locomo- 
tive Engineering" some time ago as to 
why the foundry is the last place to re- 
ceive the benefit of improved appliances. 
The "Iron Trade Review" took the 
ground that the hostility of molders has 
been the principal cause to hinder the in- 
troduction of new appliances. In regard 
to this charge the "Foundry" says: 

"We are on this point compelled to 
differ with our worthy contemporary. It 
is true that opposition has been manifested 
by workers in all trades against any in- 
novations threatening to take away their 
present chance to earn a livelihood, but 
it is also true that such opposition has 
never been allowed to prevail nor been 
able to sustain itself against the condemna- 



tion of public opinion. Every improve- 
ment that has been made in any line of in- 
dustry has carried with it opposition, be- 
cause it became necessary for its success- 
ful working to either displace individuals 
altogether or else reduce their number; 
they have been compelled to find othet 
avenues of employment, and this has at 
all times produced some friction. But 
every improvement is soulless and pushes 
itself to the front just as far as its merits 
will allow, and if foundry improvements 
have not been able to secure introduction, 
such is not caused by the molders' hos- 
tility, but by a lack of merit or a failure 
to show merit. 

"What molder objects to the power 
crane that deprives him of the chance to 
strain his back? Who finds fault with the 
sand conveyor or the trolley track system 
that ease the burden of manual labor? 
Did you ever find a molder who refused 
to pour a casting with the geared ladle? 
Did a case ever come to your notice 
where the molders refused to accept a bet- 
ter illumination because it would allow 
them to do more work? 

"A leading manufacturer of molding 
machinery recently mentioned that the 
old cry about molders' hostility was be- 
coming antiquated and should be buried 
along with the campaign lies of the sea- 
son. The officials of the molders' union 
have never expressed any hostile views on 
the introduction of machinery and im- 
proved appliances — nor have any others 
possessed of sufficient intelligence to be 
considered good citizens. 

"The large number of molding ma- 
chines in actual use testifies that the mold- 
ers' hostility has not amounted to any- 
thing. The number of machines that 
have been installed and taken out again, 
have been discarded, not because any ef- 
fective boycott had been placed on them, 
but because they lacked the quality so 
essential to all improvements, that of 
being money-makers." 

i $ i 

Slipping of Driving Wheels. 

As there are always discussions arising 
periodically concerning the cause of the 
slipping of driving wheels when the steam 
is shut off, and as there are a great many 
curious theories about the cause, we sub- 
mit some ideas expressed by the veteran 
master mechanic, Mr. Wilson Eddy: 

"When the throttle is shut, the drivers 
drive all that is connected to them, instead 
of being driven. Suppose we take a loco- 
motive in running order and jack it up so 
that the drivers are clear from the track 
(or perhaps the experiment would be 
more satisfactory if the driving wheels 
are removed from the shaft and cranks 
put on the ends of it for the purpose of 
making connections), and then apply 
power sufficient to turn the driving shaft 
280 turns in a minute, that would be the 
number a 54-inch wheel would have to 
make to run 45 miles an hour. It is 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



10!5 



plain to be seen that we not only have to 
put everything in motion connected with 
the drivers, including weight of the parts, 
compression in the cylinders and friction, 
but that all must be stopped and started, 
or the motion reversed, at every stroke of 
the pistons, and the pistons make four 
strokes at every revolution of the wheels, 
or 1,120 in a minute. I think, if the above 
experiment should be tried and the power 
computed, the result would be surprising, 
and the question settled that speed is 
sometimes obtained on long, steep grades 
sufficient to cause the drivers to slip, 
for it matters not, as far as that is con- 
cerned, whether the drivers drive the pis- 
tons or the reverse; the point of resist- 
ance in either case is the adhesion of the 
drivers, and when that is overcome, all 
know the result. An engineer asks: 'Why 



side of the boiler shop, and after they 
have acquired a low red heat they are 
thrown into a tank conveniently near. The 
sudden contraction of the metal on cool- 
ing in the tank, sheds every particle of 
scale, leaving the tube as clean as when 
new, both inside and out. 

A wide contrast is afforded between this 
way of doing business and the primitive 
scheme of sawing a tube back and forth 
on edges of two half-round files secured 
in position on a bench or horse, or even 
the later execrable nerve-destroying rat- 
tler. There is only one arrangement that 
anywhere near approaches the efficiency 
of the furnace and bath, and that is the 
machine with steel rollers through which 
the flue is fed, but this does not take the 
scale off as thoroughly as Mr. Weaver's 
method. 



a system of filing and indexing necessary 
in order to avoid confusion in the care 
of the immense number of details in both 
locomotive and car work. 

The equipment of the Lehigh Valley 
is one of wide diversity in point of motive 
power, and the question of reaching a 
standard has been one of great magnitude; 
for the interchangeability of parts, as far 
as possible, had become an absolute neces- 
sity. The most important of these parts 
were: Cylinders, cylinder heads, piston 
heads, driving boxes and driving springs. 
Those who have never tried to bring 
order out of chaos, simply cannot com- 
prehend the slow growth of such a move, 
until it is explained that the standard part 
does not come into use except in case of 
failure of the old work, as a rule; but 
a general overhauling is when the stand- 




ON ONE OF THE PENNSYLVANIA LINES WEST OF PITTSBURGH. 



is it that the drivers will slip so long after 
shutting off steam?' My answer is: The 
longer the engine runs after the throttle 
is closed, the dryer the cylinder gets; con- 
sequently, the greater the friction on the 
packing, making more resistance to be 
overcome." 

§ $ i 

Freeing Boiler Tubes of Scale. 

The removal of scale from boiler tubes 
is no mean item in the expense account of 
roads that are obliged to use water strong- 
ly impregnated with scale-producing ele- 
ments, and the methods resorted to by 
different roads to accomplish the same 
end is a fruitful theme for thought. 

Mr. J. N. Weaver, master mechanic of 
the Lehigh Valley Railroad at Sayre, Pa., 
removes the scale from all tubes by heat- 
ing and immersing in a tank of cold water. 
It has the double charm of novelty and 
thoroughness to recommend it. There is 
no scale left on a flue after this treatment, 
which consists in laying flues in a wide 
furnace, constructed for the purpose, out- 



The Lehigh Valley Drawing Office. 

The superintendent of motive power of 
the Lehigh Valley road, Mr. S. Higgins, 
has apparently adopted some correct 
methods to get tangible results from the 
administration of the affairs of his de- 
partment; that is, he has around him a 
corps of subordinates who are up in their 
respective duties, and besides, he has kept 
in view the fact that a well-managed draw- 
ing office is one of the institutions that it 
will not pay to let languish for want of 
nourishment. 

At the Easton shops is a drawing office 
with all appointments of the first order, 
and one that has talent to put to their 
legitimate uses all of the accessories pro- 
vided to do work with; the staff consisting 
of Chief Le Van and four first-class men, 
the whole under the charge of Mechanical 
Engineer Taylor. As on most large sys- 
tems, the drawings are centralized at some 
one point, and in accordance with that 
idea, all prints for new work, or involving 
change of detail in old work, are issued 
from this office. This, of course, makes 



ard is brought in evidence, in the reduced 

weight of castings and in shapes that bear 

the imprint of to-day. 

<*. 

& & H 

Old-Time Railroad Reminiscences. 

BY S. J. KIDDER. 

I wonder if it does not cause a smile, 
and again perhaps a chill, when old-time 
railroaders fall into a reminiscent mood 
and recall ludicrous scenes enacted, or 
the extremely loose methods with which 
trains were run years ago, with some of 
which, perhaps, they may have been per- 
sonally connected. 

If written up, they no doubt would be 
equally as interesting to your army of 
readers as have been the cuts and descrip- 
tions of the old locomotives that from 
time to time have appeared in "Locomo- 
tive Engineering.'' 

[[CURIOUS TRAIN" DISPATCHING. 

On a certain single-track New England 
railroad, a train dispatcher was consid- 
ered a luxury rather than a necessity, and 



156 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



the passenger-train conductors did their 
own dispatching, when conditions ap- 
peared to justify, in a manner both crude 
and attended with danger by no means re- 
mote. If one of two opposing trains was 
late, the conductor of the belated train 
would send a telegram to the other con- 
ductor, designating some station, other 
than the regular meeting-point, where 
they should meet. This message being 
sent, the receiving operator was expected 
to deliver it to the party addressed, and 
he in turn to his engineer. These mes- 
sages were passed from one to the other, 
verbally, without any pretense of ascertain- 
ing whether they were understood prop- 
erly, or, in fact, understood at all. This 
practice finally came to an abrupt conclu- 
sion, for one day the train that should 
have been notified, passed the flag station 
without stopping and failed to receive the 
"meeting order." Two passenger trains 
came together with most dire results, and 
verbal train-dispatching was relegated to 
the archives of the things that had been. 
Following this, a train dispatcher assumed 
the controlling movement of trains by 
telegraph, though he worked a day-trick 
only, and it was a number of years before 
a continuous system of train-dispatching 
was inaugurated. 

ENGINEERS WEARING PLUG HATS. 

Coal had not come into use as fuel, and 
"wood burners" were the rule. They 
were more cleanly in the cab than modern 
coal burners, and overclothes were not 
considered a necessary adjunct to the 
enginemen's apparel. An engineer wear- 
ing a tall hat was not a novelty, and one 
of the banner engineers of a Boston road 
might be seen any day on his engine with 
his standing dickey, plug hat and swallow- 
tail coat. 

CROWDED WHEELS. 

Blind tires were the rule on front driv- 
ers of eight-wheel engines, and some of 
the old inside-connected Hinkleys had 
their driving wheels in such close prox- 
imity, that a recess was turned in the face 
of the blind tires to provide clearance for 
the flanges of the back drivers. 

1 i:\v pilots USED. 
Pilots, more generally known as cow- 
catchers, were not used on some roads. 
The only provision for clearing the rails, 
or protecting the front wheels from ob- 
struction, was a vertical guard over each 
rail, bolted to the bunter beam, to the 
bottom of which was attached a stiff brush, 
slightly clearing the rail. During the 
winter season a plank was bolted to these 
guards, parallel to and under the bunter 
beam, and placed sufficiently low to pre- 
vent the snow from entering the ashpan. 
These crude appliances were, abandoned 
only after a stray bovine or horse had 
trespassed upon the track and ditched the 
engine or train. 

MEETING POSTS 

Among the time-card rules on many 
roads was one pertaining to white posts. 



These were placed midway between sta- 
tions, and when two trains moving in op- 
posite directions got between these sta- 
tions, the one reaching the post first had 
the right of way, and the opposing train 
backed up and took the siding. It has 
never been recorded how many accidents 
resulted from each train endeavoring to 
reach the goal first, intent on making the 
other fellows back up. 

AGAINST THE LINK MOTION AND OTHER 
IMPROVEMENTS. 

A new Amoskeag engine came to a 
Massachusetts railroad. This engine 
weiged 28 tons, and was so heavy that no 
one cared to run her. She was the first, 
also, on the road with the link valve gear. 
One morning, one of the old reliable en- 
gineers started out with her to make his 
run, with a two-car passenger train. 

All he knew about links was, that after 
attaining partial speed, the proper caper 
was to "hook her up." He tried it; but 
the gear, being a little stiff, jerked with 
each turn of the wheels. Something evi- 
dently was wrong, and the reverse lever 
was tenderly dropped in the corner, where 
it remained. A couple of stations beyond, 
our engineer saw his old "hook motion" 
attached to a wood train, standing on the 
siding. He traded engines, coupled to his 
train, and, with the engine backing up, 
completed his trip. 

The advent of air brakes came very 
near precipitating strikes on a number of 
roads, for more wages. Engineers looked 
upon the innovation as a means of trans- 
ferring to them the work formerly done 
by the brakemen, and they took the stand 
that their pay should be increased accord- 
ingly. 

Some of the older roads had round- 
houses surmounted with a high dome, 
and in these houses were turn-tables of 
extremely abbreviated length. Every time 
an engine was put in or taken out of the 
house, or turned round, the tender was 
uncoupled from the engine, the former 
being pushed on or off the table by a 
gang of men. 

On a little New England road three en- 
gines did the work. The three engineers 
and firemen in turn filled the dual capacity 
of both. For instance, one day Engineer 
Smith would have Fireman Brown; an- 
other day Engineer Jones would have 
Fireman Smith; the next it would be En- 
gineer Brown and Fireman Jones, and so 
on through the scale. 

MAKING TRAINS WAIT TILL PLAY WAS 
OVER. 

The writer remembers an occasion when 
he was a new man on a New York road. 
One day I was running the third of four 
sections, all of which reached their desti- 
nation about 6 p. m. The roundhouse 
blackboard had us all scheduled to de- 
part on our return trip at 8.30 the same 
evening. The engineers and conductors 
went to the lunch room for supper, and 
while waiting to be served, a conductor 



remarked that George Fox was playing at 
the opera house. 

Another suggested that we all go to the 
show, which met with general approval. 
In my ignorance I reminded them that we 
were marked to leave at 8.30. Instantly I 
was "set down upon" and informed that 
I couldn't leave town until the rest did. I 
fell in, went to the show, and about 11.30 
we proceeded to the freight yard, coupled 
to our trains and departed, no one about 
the roundhouse or freight yards seem- 
ingly taking sufficient interest in our de- 
lay to inquire its cause. 

Chicago, III. 

i % % 

General Interest in the Locomotive. 

It is wonderful the warm interest 
manifested by all classes of people in the 
locomotive engine. Hundreds of the 
most interested readers of "Locomotive 
Engineering" are not connected in any 
way with railroad work, but they like to 
read the paper on account of the articles 
relating to locomotives — the most won- 
der working machine of modern times. 

The interest in the construction and 
working of the locomotive is studied 
keenly by thousands of railroad men who 
have no connection with the mechanical 
department, and books on the locomotive 
are found on their book-shelves. They 
like to know something of the mechan- 
ism which produces such wonderful speed, 
and like to be able to talk intelligibly 
about locomotive operating. From the 
greenest brakeman to the hoary-headed 
president, there is pride displayed in talk- 
ing familiarly about the size of cylinders, 
driving wheels, etc., and in giving intelli- 
gent reasons for the preference of one 
make of engine over another. Nor is 
the knowledge acquired always of a sup- 
erficial character. We are acquainted 
with railroad presidents who can talk 
parts and proportions of locomotives as 
intelligently as the ordinary master me- 
chanic, and this of men who never had 
any direct connection with mechanical 
work. Their great interest in the engine 
has kept them informed of every step 
in its development, and acquiring tech- 
nical knowledge on the subject has be- 
come a labor of love. 



New Way of Shortening the Water Leg. 

W. B. Paist, of the Baldwin Locomotive 
Works, who has recently returned from 
Brazil, tells of a new way to repair boilers 
in use on the Baturite Railroad, in Cerra, 
Brazil. On this road they had a class of 
engines that rolled on curves and accumu- 
lated so much side play in boxes that the 
inside of tires wore through the side of the 
firebox. This was repaired by moving 
the washout plugs and grates above the 
line of wear and filling the water leg to a 
point above the holes with cement. No 
trouble at all was experienced with or on 
account of the novel patch. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



157 



Early Engineering Appliances. 

We reproduce from the "Practical Me- 
chanics' and Engineers' Magazine," Glas- 
gow, 1842, a steam-engine indicator and 
an oil-testing machine, designed by Mr. 
McNaught. These devices bring us to a 
realization of the fact that we of to-day 
cannot lay claim to everything in sight in 
the way of original engineering thought, 
and they are interesting when compared 
with our present methods of reaching the 
same results. 

The indicator, it will be seen by the 
scale attached to the cylinder, was made to 
register low pressures; it is not so greatly 
different from the later indicators, except 
in the absence of a multiplying and parallel 
motion for the mechanism actuating the 
pencil. The other essentials are there, 
crude maybe; but they made a start in the 
development of the steam-engine indicator, 
rough as they were. 

We quote from the magazine referred to, 
the description of the oil-tester: 




when in 1 again 1 the mn « ill 1 ome in 

contact with the pin /', and endeavor to 
carry it forward toward thi StO 
side next the cramp. The stops are to 
prevent its being carried too far out of the 
perpendicular. /(' is a sliding weight. 1>' 
ing kept steady in any situation by a small 
spring. (' is the center upon which the 
lever turns, being supported in the upper 
part of the brass frame; the lever is di- 
vided into 150 equal parts. B is a coun- 
terweight. When the mark upon the 
counterweight corresponds with 0, the 
graduated lee', ol the lever will be hori- 
zontal; and the leg P will be perpendicu- 
lar, plunging freely between the stops 
without touching either of them, and is 
then in equilibrium. V is a pulley with 



nd at 30, the other at 60; then 
the medium is 40. This will be the case 
tures have been equal; however, it 
will be sufficiently near to show thi 
oil cannot be mixed with good without 
being detected. 

"As oils sold under the same name dif- 
fer so much in quality, it is impossible to 
precisely the speed that will make 
any given oil point to a given number; 
but as con trial is all that is 

wanted, every person will be able to do 

"From what has been explained and 
described, the principle upon which the 
instrument is constructed will be_ easily 
comprehended. Thus, if with one kind 
of oil the tenacity will only lift the weight 



McNAUGHT'S lib TESTER. 

"The oil tester is an instrument for 
ascertaining the quality of oil as applied to 
machinery, or for burning; it shows ex- 
actly the different degrees of tenacity, and 
in what degree different oils lessen fric- 
tion, or what the lubricating qualities 
of the oils submitted to trials are, and en- 
ables a person in a few minutes to ascer- 
tain with certainty the relative values of 
what he means to purchase and to com- 
pare the stock with the sample he has 
made trial of. 

"A is a cramp with its screw for fixing 
the instrument; P is a pulley for driving 
the arbor, D is a piece of brass screwed on 
the top of the arbor, for holding the oil 
to be tested. The top of the arbor passes 
through the socket of the upper plate; 
those plates are turned perfectly true and 
flat, but do not touch each other; this is 
regulated by a small screw on the top of 
the socket of the upper plate, which can 
be screwed down so as to prevent the 
plates touching each other, only leaving a 
thin film of oil between. As much oil 
must be put into the cup of the under plate 
as will just appear above the upper plate; 
the motion will cause the superfluous oil 
to fly off. 

"F is a pin fastened to the plate, which. 




1 
McNAUGHT'S INDICA fOR. 



six or eight grooves varying about one- 
eighth of an inch each; for the conveni- 
ence of finding the desired speed and for 
immediate application it is supposed to 
be fixed on the point of a turning lathe 
spindle, the cramp being fixed to the 
lathe rest. The rest will slide out or in 
so as to answer the driving band and the 
different sizes of the pulleys. 

"When the oil to be submitted to trial is 
put between the plates and the apparatus 
is set in motion, the sliding weight may 
be shifted above the graduated lever till 
it stands at some point, for instance, with 
good sperm oil; if it is brought to such 
a speed as to indicate 30 upon the scale, 
then neat-foot, olive and gallipolic oils 
will be about 60. 

"To judge of the correctness of the in- 
strument, let a trial be made of equal 
parts of different oils; suppose one of 



of 20, and another at 40, it is evident that 
the tenacity of the former is but one-half 
of the latter, and will lessen friction in 
the same proportion, as far as oil is con- 
cerned, thereby leaving it in the option 
of the proprietor of machinery, whether 
he will save his money in oil, and waste 
it in the purchase of coal, or waste the 
power otherwise, besides the injury of 
the machinery." 



A new, improved system of storing elec- 
tricity is under trial in London. Great 
improvements have- been effected in the 
arrangement of the leaden bars, which is 
the principal material used in storage bat- 
teries. Those trying the battery' say that 
it will reduce the weight of storage bat- 
teries about one-half. 



158 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 

Car Department. 



Double Drop-Bottom Coal Car, 65,000 
Pounds Capacity. 

Our illustration of a coal car for heavy 
service shows a design of Mr. C. E. Tur- 
ner, superintendent of motive power of 
the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburg Rail- 
way, who has given much thought and 
attention to the needs of this particular 
branch of service, because of the fact that 
the coal trade comprises a very important 
part of the traffic on his line. 

This car is 35 feet long outside of end 
sills, and 8 feet n inches wide outside of 
side sills. Length inside, 33 feet; width 
inside, 8 feet sVi inches; and height in- 
side, 3 feet 10^2 inches. The end sills are 
8 inches wide by 9 inches deep. There are 
six longitudinal sills — the center and in- 
termediate being 5x8 inches, and the out- 
side 5x14 inches, the latter having a lip 
on the underside, extending to the front 
face of the end sills, which in turn project 



CONDUCTED BY O. M. REYNOLDS. 

beyond the outside face of the side sills. 
Here is seen a good solid foundation to re- 
sist the trials of the exceptionally hard 
service of a mountain road. 

The arrangement of the truss rods is an 
object lesson in car trussing, that is alive 
with healthy suggestion to those in a 
position to absorb the hints and profit 
by them. There are four rods with bodies 
i'/i inches in diameter, and ends upset to 
\ l /i inches for nuts and turnbuckle, with 
depth of truss at the cross-tie timbers of 
34 z /i inches. The advantages resulting 
from the care devoted to this detail are 
plainly a low fiber stress on the rods, even 
if they are called upon to sustain the en- 
tire load, and therefore a freedom from 
stretch; an item that figures largely in car 
maintenance, and that is conspicuous by 
its absence in this equipment. The loca- 
tion of the two intermediate truss rods 
between the center sills, for the purpose of 



avoiding the drop doors, is a practice 
that might well be adopted on other cars, 
for the reason that rods so placed will then 
deposit their load on the body bolsters at 
a point near the origin of moments, and 
thus eliminate the bending moment pres- 
ent on the bolster when their loads are 
made to come outside of the center sills or 
near the intermediate sills — their positions, 
in general practice. In these cars the only 
trouble from this source is confined to the 
outside pair of rods. 

The wrought-iron body-bolsters are 
formed of two plates in the usual way for 
bolsters of this type; that is, the upper 
plate has a shoulder forged on for the 
lower plate to abut against, but here the 
simile ends, because these bolsters have a 
depth of 10J/2 inches over the plates at the 
center — a most unusual thing; indeed, so 
rare that attention is invited to the fact. 
Stiffness was the prevailing idea in this 




65,000-POUND COAL CAR. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



159 



design, and wc arc informed that all ex- 
pectations looking to tlic divorce of side 
bearings have been realized. 

A novel construction has been followed 
for the ends of the bolsters at their junc- 
tion with the outside sills, in which the 
bolster is ty\ inch short of the inside faces 
of the sills, and is connected to same by 
a malleable bracket casting, which is 
bolted to the top of the bolster and the 
inside of sill; the castings pass under the 
sill with a lip. These castings also form 
the seats for the outside truss rods. The 
center and intermediate sills are gained 
Yi inch for the top member of bolster, 
and the latter has hooked bolts, ~/% inch in 
diameter, passing forward to the end sills. 
To resist buffing shocks, there is a solid 
wooden block fitted, between the draft 
timbers, with its front against the drawbar 
spring case and its rear against the bol- 
ster, the block solidly secured with y%- 
inch bolts, making a strong job at the 
draft rigging. 

There has been a great deal of trouble 
with the bulging of coal sides on all cars 
of the gondola kind. One of the best 
methods for the cure of this evil is shown 
on this car. It consists simply of two 
i-inch round rods passing across the car 
and through the two center stakes, on line 
with the flooring. Sufficient tension can 
be placed on these rods with the nuts at 
their ends, to spring the sides in at the 
top and prevent bulging with the load. 
It is an inexpensive way to solve what 
has been found to be a serious problem 
with coal cars. 

Malleable iron has been used in these 
cars to a very great extent, with the view 
of keeping the dead weight within reason- 
able bounds. This is a practice long out of 
the swaddling clothes of experiment, and 
conceded by prominent authorities to be 
one of the best avenues out of dead-weight 
complications; yet, notwithstanding the 
fact that its advantages are so well known, 
its general introduction is slower than its 
merits deserve. In this case, however, it 
has received full recognition. The en- 
gravings will, we think, repay a critical 
study of all details by anyone interested in 
modern car construction as developed to 
meet the most rigorous condition of 
freight service. 



If a statement by Mr. Hiram S. Maxim, 
whose name is familiar to the engineering 
world through his gun inventions and ex- 
periments with flying machines, is correct, 
the world is going to get a new quality 
of steel which appears to rival the dia- 
mond in hardness. He says that his 
brother. Mr. Samuel Maxim, has pro- 
duced a form of steel that is capable of 
drilling a hole through any British steel 
made as hard as fire and water will make 
it. In addition to going through the 
hardest kind of material, Mr. Maxim as- 
serts that he is prepared to shave himself 
witU the drill. 







BRAKE \VHEEL-G5,(00-POUND COAL CAR. 




Locomotitm E*gi**eri*g 



BOLSTER BRACKET-65.000-POUXD COAL CAR. 



160 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 




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LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



101 



The Standard 60,000-Pound Car. 

In the month of November, 1896, the 
Ohio Falls Car Manufacturing Company 
sent out circulars to those interested in 
car construction, inviting an expression 
of their preferences of constructive prac- 
tice, for the purpose of establishing a 
standard 60,000-pound car, having the 
Master Car Builders' standards and re- 
commended practices as a base. 

The result of this move up to date is 
shown in the following tabulated state- 
ment, sent to us by the sponsors of the 
scheme. It will be seen that there is not 
such a wide difference of opinion as to 
warrant the belief that such a standard is 
impossible of attainment. It is no easy 
task to get men on record in a matter 
of this kind, and the results assume a 
value not to be underestimated on that 
account. When it is understood that there 
is no reason for perpetuating the present 
maze of differing dimensions for cars of 
the same capacity, the full import of the 
good work inaugurated by the Ohio Falls 
Company will dawn on the minds of those 
responsible for them. 

A standardizing of the woodwork alone 
in a car. would be the means of saving 
thousands of dollars yearly to many cor- 
porations that can ill afford to lose them. 
That fact ought to be incentive enough to 
insure united action on the part of those 
who make standards for our railroads. 



The general appearai I th< 

quite -innl. 11 to tho 1 Willi the wooden 

sheathing, with the exception >>[ the ab 
sem ' "i batti n , •■■. hii I) is al "in • not i< 1 
able. IIk coppei heel an plat ed on 
the outside face of the regulation sheath- 
ing, in strips a little wider than each 
board, and extending up from the bottom 
of tin- mIIs with a flashing under the belt 
rail; the strips being of such a width 
to cover the tongue and fill the groove of 
each sheathing board, which is double- 
grooved, presenting a face of about Ij4 
inches in width. 

Between the windows the finish is the 
same as below the belt rail, the copper 
passing under the letter board, which is 
also covered, and both made tight by 
flashing as previously noted. 

The copper plates are oxidized before 
application to the car, and each piece is 
then rolled to the wood, leaving a hand- 
some smooth surface, in color much re- 
sembling the so-called standard or olive 
tint; this, taken in connection with the 
metallic sheen which is present, notwith- 
standing the dulled surface, gives a satin 
finish greatly different from that of var- 
nish, and one expected to outlast any- 
thing heretofore obtained by the latter 
means. 

If all expectations are realized, this 
copper plating of passenger cars will work 
a revolution in lowering paint-shop ex- 



Clear inside length 

width 

' " height 

Door opening 

Center to center of center ties 

Section of side sills 

" center " 

" intermediate sill. . . 

side plate 

" end " 

Height of lining 

Truss rod's diameter 

" " end 

Wheel spread 

Upper arch bar 

Lower " •• 

Tie bar " •• 

Set of upper arch bar 

lower •' " 

tie bar 

Diameter of column bolts . . 
" " oil box " 



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33' O'A" 


36' 0" 


33' 6" 


34' 0" 


34' 0" 


33' 4 1 , 


8' 3'/ 2 " 


8' 0" 


8' 4" 


8' 0" 


8' 2%" 


8' i. 4 " 


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7' 0" 


6' 9" 


6' 11" 


6' S'A" 


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5' 0' 


6' 0" 


5' 6" 


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8' 10" 


4' 6" 


6' 9" 


t, 3" 


8' 0" 


5"x8^" 


5"xa" 


5"x9" 


5" x 10" 


5"xg" 


5 x 9 " 


5"x8^" 


5"xg" 


5"x9" 


4" x 10" 


5"x8^" 


5"x9" 


5"x8K' 


5"xa" 


4 x 1 1 


4" x 10" 


5"x8j4" 


5"x9" 


3^"x7" 




4" x 6" 




3"x6" 


3"xS" 


3^"X12" 








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3' 6" 


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The Copper-Plated Passenger Car- 
New York, New Haven & Hartford. 

An evolution in the outside finish of 
passenger cars was recently seen in this 
city, embodied in a day coach. By in- 
vitation of Master Car Builder Apple- 
yard, of the New York, New Haven & 
Hartford, we had an opportunity to in- 
spect this example of a metal-clad car, 
which was covered on the outside with 
No. 28 sheet copper. 



pense, since there is no paint or varnish 
used to get these results, which compare 
so favorably with the best work of the 
painter. 

The total weight of the copper used on 
this car is only 1,000 pounds, but by re- 
ducing the thickness of the sheathing, 
the weight of the car remains practically 
the same as before the copper was used. 
Considering the fact that special tools 
had to be devised to apply the copper 



to the car, and that the men who 
• lid the job were the regular employes, 
who had no previous training in this class 
rk, so different from their accus- 
tomed duties, Mr. Appleyard has abund- 
uti cause for his evident pride in this 
lampli 1 

.-, .-. .-. 

Freight-Car Doors. 

One of the most troublesome details 
of car construction that the master car 
builder has to wrestle with is getting a 
freight-car door that will open and shut 
without the use of pinch bars and sledge 
hammers, and continue after the car has 
sagged out of shape to close the opening 
against the entrance of rain, snow and 
cinders. A few years ago the Wagner 
flush door jumped into sudden popularity, 
and many railroad men thought that the 
difficulties with freight-car doors were at 
an end. At a recent meeting of the 
Southern Railway Club, Mr. R. P. C. 
Sanderson, of the Norfolk & Western, 
read the following amusing paper on car 
doors generally: 

"If a parody on the once-famous ser- 
mon by a Mississippi flat boatman may 
be indulged in, I would like to say as a 
preface, Oh, my brethren, there are more 
kinds of doors that produce profanity than 
one door. There is the firebox door that 
you fire through, and the general manager's 
private door that you get fired through, 
the generally unmanageable all-fired vesti- 
bule door, and the saloon door that you 
invite another fellow through, and the 
salon door where the other fellow gets 
in first and keeps you out, and the safe 
door to keep burglars out, and the safe 
cell door to keep burglars in, and the 
side door that the trunks are thrown 
out of, and the side door that the 
drunks are thrown out of, and the 
single door and the double door, 
and the half door, and the swing door, 
and the sliding door, and the fold- 
ing door, and the lift door, and the drop 
door, and the trap door, and the front 
door, and the back door, and the steve- 
dore, and the commodore; but the box- 
car door is worse than all these. 

"We still see on some of our neighbors' 
old-time 2x4 box cars, the aboriginal 
box-car door, an 'outside' door, or rather 
'cover,' that had many faults, but we 
ought to be charitable to it and let it rest 
in peace. 

"If there never had been any freight 
claim agent, there never would have been 
any flush door. The old-time door was 
made to cover the hole, when the car was 
new and square, with from 1 inch to 2 
inches of lap. After awhile the door hole 
was changed from a rectangular one to 
an irregular opening, circumscribed by 
four compound curves, the top and bot- 
tom being curved downward, and the two 
sides being curved outward by bulging. 
The lap of the door being small, and the 
bulge of the sides keeping it from lying up 



182 

close, the smoke, cinders and rain drove 
in and kept the freight claim agent busy 
standing off claims for damaged bulk 
grain, sacks of flour and boxes of corsets. 
In his efforts to compensate and settle 
claims, the freight claim agent could not 
help explaining this to the country store- 
keeper and farmer, which stimulated the 
dormant inventive genius of the bucolic 
mind, giving birth to the large family of 
flush car doors, which help to make flush 
times for the car repair men. 

"The flush door, if it did not shrink, 
and if it could not get out of order, is 
morally a failure from its inception, be- 
cause it presupposes that the door hole 
in the car is going to retain its rectangu- 
lar shape. After the car has left the shop 
awhile and has settled, shrunk, swelled, 
bulged and warped, the problem of clos- 
ing a close-fitting flush door, or opening 
it again if it has been closed, by the aid 
of a pinchbar, is only a modification of the 
old one of fitting a square plug in a round 
hole. This trouble with flush car doors is 
common to all of them, no matter what 
the gyroscutus may be like that is pro- 
vided for the purpose of closing the door 
into the hole. 

"With an outside-hung door it is a 
simple and easy job to insure a claim 
and damage proof joint at the top and 
locking side of the door, and by giving lap 
enough at the other side and bottom a 
pretty safe door can be secured even after 
the car has sagged and bulged, shrunk 
and swelled, to its full content, as the dis- 
tance along which the rain and soot, or 
car thiefs wire hook, must travel be- 
tween the car side and door, due to the 
long lap, will prevent them getting at the 
contents of the car. 

"The Wagner door depends for its suc- 
cess on top and bottom rails, and on these 
keeping the same distance apart. As 
these rails will not stay parallel on ac- 
count of the springing, sagging, warping 
and shrinking, the upper shoes often 
come off the top rail and allow the door 
to fall off. It was at first supposed that 
this was due to the bottom shoe on the 
crank shaft wearing out, and to remedy 
this a cast or malleable bracket with flat 
foot is largely used to carry the weight 
of the back of the door; this relieves the 
crank shaft and its shoes of carrying all 
weight; they only have to answer the pur- 
pose of opening and closing the doors. 

"As the Wagner door still continued 
to fall off, it was found that the trouble 
was not in the door so much as in the 
guides, it being almost impossible to keep 
the top and bottom guides anywhere near 
parallel under all conditions of load and 
service, even on modern strongly framed 
cars. 

"The Wagner door depends for its suc- 
cessful working on the alignment of the 
bottom rail, as this has to guide the front 
of the door into position. It has been 
found almost impossible to keep bottom 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 

rails in any sort of good condition, as 
they are too convenient for use in sup- 
porting the ends of skids, and often carry 
the bulk of the weight of a piece of ma- 
chinery, etc., being skidded into the car; 
they are damaged by wheels, stone and 
other heavy articles being dumped out 
of the car, and are constantly being 
bent and battered against the side of the 
car by heavy wagons being backed up 
against the cars. 

"The crank shaft of the Wagner door 
is provided with shoes sliding on the 
top and bottom rails. The crank pins are 
not turned up in the lathe. The holes in 
which these pins fit are usually cored in 
the casting; consequently, we have a loose 
wiggly fit, and as the weight of the door 
is always carried at an offset equal to the 
arm of the crank, the loose fit referred to, 
followed by further looseness due to wear, 
allows the door to settle down out of 
position. 

"The general bad condition of the Wag- 
ner doors around the edges, showing only 
too plainly the marks left by the vigorous 
use of a pinchbar, led to the belief that 
these doors, after closing, were being 
nailed by anxious shippers, so broad 
flat straps of iron were fitted around the 
edges of the doors. The result is just the 
same, only more so; for not only was the 
wood of the door, and the siding around 
the door, scarred and split up by the 
pinchbars, but the iron straps are pried 
off and curled up, adding to the trouble 
and expenses. Closer inquiry revealed the 
fact that the pinchbar was most needed 
on account of the doors getting jammed 
shut, by the gradual sagging of the cars 
under load, by the swelling of the wood 
in wet weather, and by the bulging of the 
car sides, although the trouble from ship- 
pers nailing doors does add to the neces- 
sity for the pinchbar. When a flush 
door has been nailed, the pinchbar must 
be used with destructive effect to force 
it open. The results of nailing an out- 
side-hung door are not so bad, as the 
pinchbar can be pushed well under it, 
and you don't have to peck at it with the 
bar. Also, with an outside door, the nails 
can be got at and cut off with a cold chisel, 
which is not possible with a flush door. 
"That the Wagner flush door is no 
better than an 'ornary' outside-hung door, 
as far as the weatherproof qualities are 
concerned, can be readily observed by 
visiting the yards and noticing the gaps 
over the tops of the doors, varying from 
a small crack to an inch or more in width, 
through which the sunshine, rain, snow 
and dirt can freely enter. Bad fitting up? 
Oh no! The doors are fitted up with only 
three-eighths clearance each way. Green 
lumber? No; it is as good kiln-dried 
lumber as can be got for car repairing. 
What is it due to? Why, to the settling 
of the door out of place, from the shaft 
and cranks bending, the shoes getting 
crooked, the bottom guides getting bent. 



the door shrinking, and the door hole 
stretching. 

"The inventor of the Wagner door de- 
vised an arrangement for securing the 
handle on the crank shaft in either the 
open or shut position, by means of a small 
half-round casting with notches on the un- 
der edge, which drops over the lever and 
locks it in 'open' or 'shut' position. On 
this locking casting is the word 'Lift.' 
How often do we see people of education 
come to an office door with the word 
'Private' painted on it in plain large black 
letters, and after gazing on the letters with 
a far-away look, walk in and ask if this 
is the Y. M. C. A. rooms, or Mr. Legal 
Shyster's law office, when the Y. M. C. A. 
and Mr. Shyster's signs are standing 
right across the hallway in large red and 
white type. Owing to this same peculiar 
trait of the ordinary human, a man who 
has not become an expert on car doors 
by long practice will read the little word 
'Lift,' wondering what it is put there 
for, and forthwith get a lever or pinchbar 
or fence rail and pries away at the handle 
of the crank shaft in his efforts to turn 
it; the end of the struggle is a broken 
handle, or broken locking casting, and 
bad language. That this is no exaggera- 
tion is evidenced by a large number of 
broken and bent crank shafts and broken 
castings with the ear-marks of the bar 
or lever on the door underneath the han- 
dles. 

"This trouble led some of us to do 
away with the locking casting, and hinge 
the handle so that it would drop down 
for safety when let go. Our ignoramus 
immediately makes use of this handle to 
pull the door open and shut; as he does 
so, he operates the closing device and 
jams the door fast against the car side. 
Ignoramus No. I calls Ignoramus No. 2. 
with a pinchbar, and while one pulls on 
the handle, keeping the door jammed 
tight against the side, No. 2 pinches it 
along, using the beaded edges of the car 
siding for 'holds' for the points of the 
bar; the marks on the doors and sides of 
cars often tell this story as plainly as a 
picture story can. 

"One might answer this by saying the 
railroad companies shouldn't employ 
such ignoramuses to do their work, or 
should teach them. That may be so; but 
railroad companies cannot afford to send 
an expert along with each car to explain 
how the doors work to the men who can- 
not read at the shingle mills, bark sidings, 
quarry sidings, or to the negro freight 
hands in territories where such doors are 
not much used. 

"To sum up the troubles with the Wag- 
ner car door in a few words, is to say that 
it bears on its face an ingenious mechan- 
ism for accomplishing an improper pur- 
pose. 

"The first essential qualification for a 
successful car door is simplicity and the 
absence of all mechanism." 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 






Practical Letters from Practical iVien. 



m r 

Throttling versus Close Cut-off. 

Editors: 

In studying the various arguments with 
regard to "Throttling versus Close Cut- 
off," the fact has been forcibly impressed 
on my mind that many a ton of coal has 
been wasted annually by one notch being 
too light to handle the train and the next 
one too heavy. Such an engine will per- 
form differently with different engineers 
on her. One man will work a very heavy 
throttle with reverse lever in second 
notch, and each exhaust will be sent out 
with a short, sharp blast, which being 
intermittent has a disastrous effect on the 
fire, and the engine appears to be laboring 
continually. 

Suppose with a notch on quadrant such 
engine will handle her train easily with 
half-closed throttle on the level. Suppose 
an engineer who advocates full throttle 
whenever possible goes out to run her. He 
will hook her in that notch, pull her wide 
open, and put his head out of the window 
and listen. He will conclude she does not 
clear herself, and down she goes into the 
next notch with throttle partly closed, 
regardless of what percentage of cut-off it 
is. Some men work an engine in a certain 
notch, regardless of everything. The 
same man will come to a hill and gradually 
widen out on the throttle until she is wide 
open; then when he gives her a notch 
without easing off on the throttle, he will 
lift the grates out, providing the fireman 
has not plenty of coal on top to hold them 
down. 

Suppose another engineer goes out on 
the same engine who tries to see how easy, 
soft and prolonged he can make her ex- 
haust and still do her work, regardless of 
whether she clears herself or not, which 
makes a constant drain on the boiler with- 
out fluctuations. This enables a fireman 
to keep a more uniform temperature with- 
out forcing the fire at times and retarding 
it at other times. 

I had an experience with a 14 x 22 en- 
gine with 54-inch wheels, on a two-coach 
passenger run. The piston speed was 
very high, sometimes reaching 1,000 feet 
per minute. Over parts of the road where 
engine would handle her train in the cen- 
ter notch, which was less than 20 per cent. 
of stroke, and maintain high piston speed, 
was very economical; but as soon as pis- 
ton speed dropped bekow a certain limit, 
it was better to drop her down to the next 
notch, which was about 30 per cent, of 
stroke, and throttle the steam. On this 
point W. De Sanno's "Eli" should show 
good results. It seemed as if the limit of 
economical expansion had been reached 
when the speed dropped below the point 
where condensation and re-evaporation 
exceeded the economy to be obtained with 



higher speed. When the speed droppi d, 
the engine would seem to have a different 
exhaust, and labored hard to get rid of 
her exhaust steam, and it appeared to be 
damp and of greater volume, producing 
more compression. It also had a different 
effect on the fire. 

The steam pressure carried has its effect 
on where to work the engine and throttle. 
Engines with short eccentric rods work 
better with the steam throttled than en- 
gines with long ones, on account of in- 
crease in lead with shorter rods. 

A. A. LlNDLEY, 

Iowa Central Railway. 
Oskaloosa, la. 



New England Inspection Engine. 

Editors : 

Your article about "the inspector" on 
the Norfolk & Southern Railroad has 



spection room, which is finished in ma- 
hogany and maple. Comfortable willow 
chairs, cane-seated, together with plush 
cushions, are within the inspection room, 
upon tastefully carpeted platforms well ar- 
ranged for observation by being raised 
where the boiler and the wagon-top rise 
above the floor-level. Artificial light is 
obtained by electricity from storage bat- 
teries placed under the engineer's seat, 
and the inspection room is supplied with 
heat from the boiler, the heat being regu- 
lated by means of registers. Communi- 
cation between the inspection room and 
the cab is secured by speaking tubes and 
electric bells. The bell, hung on the ten- 
der, is rung by compressed air. 

The design of the engine is artistic 
and tasteful. Its predominant color is 
dark olive-green, with ornamentation and 
lettering in gold-leaf, while the cylinder 
casings and handrails are of polished 




NEW ENGLAND INSPECTION ENGINE. 



suggested sending to you a photograph 
of the inspection engine "Boston," on 
the Fitchburg Railroad, a machine that 
was likewise rebuilt from an eight-wheel 
locomotive. 

It was built at the Mason Machine 
Works, and was formerly on the Ash- 
burnliam Railroad, 2.58 miles in length, 
till that road became a branch of the 
Fitchburg system. The rebuilding was 
done by the Fitchburg Company at its 
locomotive shops in Keene, N. H., and 
its car shops in Fitchburg, Mass. The 
"Boston" has cylinders 12 x 22 inches, and 
a 38-inch boiler, while its weight, origi- 
nally 48,000 pounds, is now 77.700 pounds. 

The two rear windows on the side are 
in the cab. the other four being in the in- 



brass. Although similar to several 
engines built originally for inspection 
service, the "Boston" is, I believe, the 
first and only one introduced into New 
England. G. Franklin.Starbuck. 
Waltham, Mass. 

§ § 3 

Some Suggestions to Car Inspectors. 

Editors: 

With the more general use of air brakes 
on freight cars, the necessity for better 
care of them and keeping down the ex- 
pense of maintenance becomes daily more 
apparent. If the following suggestions 
to car inspectors are heeded, these men 
will contribute a great deal toward the 
ends mentioned: 



104 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



i. Don't overlook the sure sign of 
needed repairs indicated by paper between 
hose couplings; but, by replacing the de- 
fective gasket, discourage the practice of 
so using paper by doing away with the 
leak the paper was intended to stop. A 
piece of cord wrapped around a train 
pipe at a joint often indicates a leak at 
that point. Be as ready to hear an air 
leak, and as willing to remedy it, as many 
men are to hear the whistle in the even- 
ing and at once to quit work. Pressure 
will then be more easily gained, and 
brakes will operate more satisfactorily. 

2. Don't fail to turn angle cocks to the 
correct position, no matter who put them 
wrong. They are not infrequently seen 
pointing toward the outside instead of a 
little toward the center of track. This 
position soon results in a leaky and 
bursted hose. 

3. Turn the hose couplings so they can 
be connected without a quarter or a half 
twist being given the hose. You will see 
many needing this change if you look for 
them. 

4. Don't put a hose coupling into ser- 
vice, nor let one there remain that has 
been so bent as to bring its face too close 
to that of the other when connected. When 
in proper condition there should be about 
7-64 inch clearance between the faces. In 
pulling apart, as must be expected in case 
of a break-in-two, this clearance decreases 
to a scant 1-32 inch; therefore, if not hav- 
ing very nearly the standard clearance 
when coupled, instead of pulling apart, 
either a hose will be torn off or the piping 
will be pulled from under the car. This 
and poor train-pipe clamping is responsi- 
ble for many leaks at train-pipe connec- 
tion to triple valve, and for broken 
branch pipes. 

5. Keep the bolts well drawn up which 
attach the reservoir and cylinder to the 
car. When these are loose, there is a 
movement of the supported parts each 
time the brake is applied and released. 
Not only does this movement tend to 
cause a leak at the train-pipe connection 
to the triple valve, but it frequently re- 
sults in breaking the pressure-retaining 
valve pipe off at the triple valve. 

6. Keep all pipe clamps drawn up 
snugly, and don't fail to replace any that 
are missing. The sooner either of these 
jobs is done, the less it will cost, as delay 
will result in the development of other 
defects. 

7. Don't imagine you can't adjust the 
piston travel properly on a freight car 
without air pressure. Shove the push bar 
back in the hollow piston rod until it 
strikes the piston; then make a mark on 
the bar just opposite the end of the hol- 
low rod. Then set the hand brake with a 
"club," and the distance from mark on 
bar back to end of hollow rod will be 
tin- piston travel that would result from 
the air brake being applied. 

8. When taking triple valves apart for 
cleaning and oiling, don't pull the branch 



pipe away from the valve after discon- 
necting the union. Moving this pipe 
helps to start a small leak when the pipe 
is brought back. Many small leaks equal 
a big one, and are much more difficult 
to locate and, as a whole, to remedy. 

9. Don't let go unrepaired a brake 
beam which has lost a wheel guard. A 
few cents of expense here will often save 
dollars in damage resulting from the 
beam riding the wheel. 

10. If you are stationed at or near the 
foot of a grade, and inspect trains that 
have just descended, don't fail to touch 
quickly with the bare hand one wheel 
tread in each truck. The comparative 
temperature of wheels will tell you the 
relative amount of brake work done, thus 
enabling you to detect the existence of 
many defects that would otherwise go un- 
noticed, or require a much more elabo- 
rate test to indicate their presence. If the 
wheels are much cooler in one truck than 
the other, or on one car than the average 
cars of the train, it is absolute proof that 
such wheels are not getting their share 
of brake power. With the knowledge 
that a defect exists, it is easier to trace, 
and there is more surety of its exact 
nature being determined. 

F. B. Farmer. 
SI. Paul; Minn. 

i 6 .i 

Steel Piston Rings. 

Editors: 

Referring to your paragraph in Decem- 
ber number, about steel piston rings com- 

m 




Section of Steel Spring Ring 
for 17" Cylinder-Full size 



~^ 



n'Ii f I. '.,/iiii'.criiij/ 



ir.g into use in Great Britain for stationary 
engine purposes, mild steel for packing 
rings has been in use for stationary and 
locomotive practice for a number of years 
with very good results. Mr. John Rams- 
bottom, when locomotive superintendent 
of the London & Northwestern Railway, 
prior to 1872, introduced these rings, 
which have since borne his name (the 
Ramsbottom packing ring); they were 
used on all London & Northwestern loco- 
motives, including the compound, whose 
low-pressure cylinder took a 30-inch ring. 
I saw them in stationary engines nearly 
twenty years ago, where, for simplicity, 



cheapness and good wearing qualitites, 
they were, I think, without equal. Oc- 
casionally on locomotives we had trouble 
with them, on account of cylinders being 
soft, and they would wear out in a very 
short time; where this was the case we 
replaced the steel rings with drawn brass 
ones, the brass rings lasting just as long 
in soft cylinders as steel rings did in hard 
ones. 

The following are some of the advan- 
tages of steel rings: 

No tee or bull ring, follower plate or 
bolts required. 

Lighter piston head can be used. 

No lathe work required on rings, as 
steel is made of proper section, passed 
through rolls and finished. 

Can be made to fit a cylinder that is not 
perfectly round. I herewith send you 
draft of piston head, also section of ring, 
which for a 17-inch cylinder was about 
Yt^Vi inch. As will be seen by looking 
at draft, three rings are used in each pis- 
ton head, the joints being divided so that 
they are not opposite one another. I 
have seen these rings wear so thin, where 
the piston head was a close fit in cylinder, 
that when taken out they would not be 
more than ^ inch thick in places. 

H. T. Benti.ky. 

Belle Plaine, la. 

% d i 

" Peculiar Wear of Valves." 

Editors: 

The article with the above heading, on 
page 38 of January issue, according to my 
idea is not fully explained by the editor. 
While discussing this subject, I will en- 
deavor to explain or answer question No. 
2 of H. T., of Paducah, Ky., page 72; 
question No. 3 under the Head of "What 
You Want to Know." 

The wear described by Mr. S. J. Hun- 
gerford's drawing is evidently caused by 
not letting the reverse lever down in 
corner while rolling down hill. As a rule, 
on fast runs engineers drop their reverse 
levers down about half way to the 
"corner," which does not allow valves 
to travel their full stroke, and instead the 
valve stops over the port and closes it 
before the piston completes its stroke, 
causing a pressure in cylinder sufficient 
to lift that end of valve, and causing the 
"peculiar wear" on opposite end, and 
vice versa. 

It is evident, then, where H. T. gets his 
short puffs and exhausts, which occur 
when the compressed air lifts the valve 
and allows air, smoke, etc., to enter steam 
chest from exhaust openings — remem- 
bering there is always a partial vacuum in 
chests while rolling, caused by pistons 
acting as pumps; and when valve is raised, 
this vacuum is partly relieved from the 
smokebox, causing the puffs. 

As Mr. Hungerford states that valves 
having the greatest travel, lap and lead 
show the most wear, it goes to sub- 
stantiate the above idea. I also claim this 
lifting of the valve is one of the principal 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



165 



causes of slats and springs breaking in 
balanced valves, for this reason: While 
working steam, the springs and slats are 
heated to the temperature of the steam, 
and when steam is shut off, and rolling 
down grade, cold air is admitted through 
relief valves to chest and cools these 
springs suddenly and causes them to 
break, especially when they are of ellipti- 
cal form. On this account I would sug- 
gest, that in renewing balanced valves, 
never leave any unnecessary space be- 
tween the top of valve proper and the 
balance plate, which is often done when 
valves and seats are faced off. 

w. w. Pitts. 
Hillsboro, Tex. 

% ® i 

A Successful Variable Nozzle. 

Editors: 

We have been experimenting with a 
variable nozzle on our road for the past 



Another advantage outside of its coal- 
saving qualities is, that it will save the 
continual changing of tips to meet the 
various conditions arising. On a hill or 
hard pull the uneven motion of all en- 
gines with small nozzles is entirely lack- 
ing, and no hitch is noticed as she travels 
over the centers. 

The cost of the nozzle is about $29. 
We are getting out castings of nozzle for 
other classes of engines, to try it still 
further, and will be glad to answer all 
questions in regard to its performance. 
For the benefit of those interested, I will 
say that this is the square nozzle that has 
been described in "Locomotive Engi- 
neering" before (attached to reach rod), 
gotten up by two engineers of the C, St. 
P., M. & O., Messrs. Wallace and Kel- 
logg, of Altoona, Wis. L. H. Bryan, 

General Foreman. 

Two Harbors, Minn. 



hose until a regular stop is made, and 
then probably a detention report to make 
out, only to be repeated several times dur- 
ing the trip 

Or you are working on a grade. You 
set your injector where it supplies the 
boiler. The fireman notices that she 
steams freer than usual, but don't let her 
pop to attract your attention. After a 
while you try your water, just to keep 
down suspicion, and find yourself terribly 
short. You can't spare your right in- 
jector to blow the dirt back. Your left 
one is treacherous. You are afraid to 
stop to fill her up. 

Do you remember how you squirmed? 
I do, but have not been caught in that 
scrape for several years. I have a pair 
of screens, about the size and shape of a 
gallon measure, that fit snug over the 
tank valves. I take them with me when 
I change engines, and would not be with- 




AT THE NORFOLK AND WESTERN SHOPS, BLUEFIELD, VA. 



two years at various times and under dif- 
fering circumstances. As this is a subject 
of universal interest to railroad men in 
general and master mechanics in particu- 
lar, I venture to give some of the results 
of our experiments. For ten days just 
passed we have run the engine equipped 
with this nozzle, on a local run having 
four engines of the same class, with con- 
ditions as nearly the same as possible. 
This engine has saved in fuel 2,332 pounds 
of coal per trip of 220 miles. 

The engine steams freely, and at the 
conclusion of the test we enlarged the 
nozzle still further and she still steams. 
The nozzle is now set so that in first notch 
of quadrant it equals area of old nozzle, 
which was 4]4 inches, and in either cor- 
ner it exceeds the total area of old nozzle 
by 2V2 square inches. 



Hose Screens. 

Editors: 

I have a spare engine to-day and have 
just finished cleaning out a hose screen. 
My hands are cut and scarred by the rag- 
ged edges of the hose nut beaten out of 
shape, my feet are wet, and I am tempted 
to ask a question : Why, in the march of 
improvement, have we returned to that 
relic of barbarism, the hose screen? Is 
it because of its insignificance that it has 
not been thought worthy of attention? 
If so, those in charge of the construction 
and maintenance of power should ride a 
trip with someone on a fast train while 
he is worrying with a tank of dirty water, 
and he will become enlightened. His 
water supply becomes strangled; the in- 
jectors won't keep up the proper level 
of water in boiler. He can't clean out the 



out them for money. These screens will 
admit of a finer perforation than the hose 
screen, and made of sheet copper will last 
the life of an engine. Their advantage is 
apparent in more ways than I can men- 
tion. Take the case of a leaking engine. 
They admit of the use of anything that 
will stop a leak. No matter how much 
shavings, chips or straw it contains, force 
enough will pass through; that too coarse 
will remain in the tank until worn out by 
the action of the water. You never know 
it is there — unless perhaps you get a 
mouthful in taking a drink out of the tank 
cock. I don't claim originality, but do 
claim that I know a good thing after I 
use it. 

If any of your readers wish to realize 
satisfaction after they have found it, let 
them have a pair of these screens made. 



ICO 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



See that they are securely anchored down, 
to prevent the slashing of the water from 
moving them and letting dirt underneath. 
Then throw away the hose screen and 
they will leak no further. 

R. I. CtOOD. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

§ s i 

New Express Engines for the North- 
eastern Railway-Manchester, Shef- 
field & Lincolnshire Bogie Ex- 
press Locomotives. 

Editors: 

Kindly allow me to correct an error 
which has unconsciously crept into my 
letter appearing in your December num- 
ber, page 975, respecting the new express 
engines for the Northeastern Railway. 
It will be noticed that in the first part of 
my communication I have stated the cyl- 
inders to be 20 x 26 inches, and, farther 
on as 18 x 26 inches. The former figures 
are correct. 

On page 965, in the same issue, you 
describe the Manchester, Sheffield & Lin- 
colnshire bogie express engines as having 
cylinders 19 x 26 inches, and four-coupled 
wheels 7 feet 6 inches in diameter. These 
dimensions should be I8J-4 x 26 inches 
and 7 feet, respectively. 

The Northeastern is at present the 
only company which possesses engines 
with coupler wheels of a nominal diameter 
of 90 inches; the railway using the next 
largest four-coupler drivers — viz., 87 
inches in diameter — being the Lancashire 
& Yorkshire. 

F. \V. Brewer. 

London, Eng. 

i § § 

Piston Rings. 

Editors: 

Referring to your paragraph on page 
990, December issue, am not sure whether 
you meant to imply that steel piston rings 
were uncommon in locomotive practice. 
I only know of their use on one line, the 
L. N. W. Ry., England; I put in many a 
set when working there as far back as 
1887. There were three in a set, about 
i inch wide by T \ inch thick ; made of 
mild steel. I never saw them made, be- 
ing in their London repair shops, but 
should think they were very cheaply pro- 
duced, as you could cut up the rolled rod 
to right length and then bend to required 
shape in the rolls; all ready for piston 
then; this required shape, by the way, 
wouldn't be circular. 

When we found a soft cylinder, we 
used to put in a set of brass rings and 
lay the old ones aside; if they came out 
of re-bored cylinders, would do later on 
for smaller ones. These rings, owing to 
their small section and softness, hadn't 
much spring in them, but they could 
easily be "faked" when worn. We used 
to give them a light pening on the inside, 
holding the ring vertically on an iron 
block and working round the ring. They 
required a little care to insure their being 



circular when in the cylinder, instead of 
having flat places. Other things being 
equal, I prefer cast-iron rings, as I have 
a huge fancy for cast iron on cast iron. 
Had ample opportunities of seeing how 
it "panned out" when on the Brighton 
line, for, as you know, Stroudley used 
that combination largely. Slide blocks 
and slide bars: eccentric sheaves and 
straps; piston, rings and cylinders; slide 
valves and steam chest, are four of his 
cast-iron combinations that occur to me. 

H. Rolfe. 
Cambridgeport, Mass. 

i $ $ 

Evil Done by Drip from Steam Heat- 
ing Pipes. 

Editors: 

I find that the steam heat on passenger 
and fast express cars is a very expensive 
thing to railroad corporations in its pres- 
ent state. The drips are so high from the 
ground that the wind blows the water on 
the rail, making ice and causing train to 
haul hard; also, when freight on side track 
follows, the drip makes it hard for them. 
A few days ago there was a freight lying 
on siding for a train of five express cars 
and one sleeper. When the freight fol- 
lowed, it took them two hours to go 4]/i 
miles; they were making 12 to 15 miles 
an hour before taking side-track. 

Some of the cars have drips in center 
of car; some on one side, over the rail; 
others near the truck, on end of car. 
There was one car on the train I had yes- 
terday, and I noticed the drip was fas- 
tened so as to run directly on the rail 
on a straight line. I think there is room 
for the M. C. B. and palace car builders 
to improve this by bringing the outlets 
near the center of car and nearer the 
ground, so the wind will not blow the 
water on rail. 

An improvement of this kind will be a 
great saving of coal, iron, sand; and the 
engine pulling the passenger train could 
make better time, the rail being free of 
ice; also the freight following. Even 
when it is not freezing, the drip on rail 
makes it very slippery for the freight 
train following. 

James Hepinstall. 
Greenbush, N. )'. 

d $ $ 

Relation of Expansion to Clearance. 

Editors: 

The question of the relation of expan- 
sion to clearance losses in steam engines 
has been discussed to some extent in the 
late engineering journals, and the con- 
clusions of some of the writers appear to 
be extremely illogical. 

Mr. Harris Tabor, in the January issue 
of "Locomotive Engineering," contends 
that the loss from clearance is greater 
with an early cut-off, because, as he says 
in effect, the capacity of the clearance 
spaces is constant, but the volume of 
steam admitted varies with the point of 
cut-off. The ratio of initial loss is, of 



course, greater with an early cut-off; but 
this is more than returned by the greater 
ratio of expansion. When steam is car- 
ried full stroke, the contents of the clear- 
ance spaces is total loss, because the effec- 
tive pressure on the piston is not in- 
creased an atom thereby; but when steam 
is expanded, the additional volume con- 
tained in the clearance spaces helps to 
keep up the expansion line, and thereby 
increases the effective pressure. There- 
fore, the greater the expansion, the less 
the loss from clearance. Contrary results, 
should be attributed to increased con- 
densation, or other causes. 

Mr. S. J. Hungerford asks for an ex- 
planation of the wearing of the outer edges 
of the valve and valve seat, illustrated in 
his article. As compression, to the ex- 
tent of the area of the port, counterbal- 
ances the pressure on the valve at one of 
its ends, but not at the other, the effect 
would, of course, be to increase the wear 
on the outer edges of the valve and valve 
seat. 

W. F. Cleveland. 

Moncton, N. B., Can. 



Selection of Enginemen. 

"It is the individual that reaches the 
highest round of the ladder, not the many. 
Men cannot be any more alike in ability 
to run a locomotive than in any other 
line of business," said Mr. W. E. Amman, 
in a paper read before the Northwestern 
Railway Club. "Railroads must have the 
percentage of bad with the good — the 
wasteful with the careful; but these condi- 
tions can be altered and a high average 
of intelligence attained if a proper method 
of system and discipline is maintained. 
The proper education of enginemen and 
firemen in the natural causes of combus- 
tion, and a strict compliance with rules 
and regulations governing coal consump- 
tion, would result in saving a consider- 
able portion of what is now wasted 
through ignorance and lack of interest 
In order to accomplish this result, much 
is required, and many of our roads are 
taking steps in the right direction. Too 
much credit cannot be given to those 
officials who are assisting their engine 
crews by the aid of literature, and employ- 
ing capable and active traveling engineers 
to advise and instruct them in the way to 
get the desired results by proper use of 
fuel. 

"When a judicious selection is made, 
the traveling engineer soon proves him- 
self a valuable addition to the motive 
power department. His special know- 
ledge of engines and men should con- 
stitute him a teacher, and we should look 
to him for a proper selection of material 
for competent engineers and firemen. 

"Aside from all other sources of waste, 
there is none so great as that caused by 
careless and ignorant handling of engines 
on the road. The standard of excellence 
should be governed by their standing on 



the performance sheet for cost of coal, oil 
and repair. This will always prove to be 
an incentive for energetic and ambitious 
enginemen. Everything consistent should 
be done to foster in them a spirit of in- 
terest in their work. Inattention or in- 
difference to their suggestions or com- 
plaints are serious obstacles to their ad- 
vancement, and invariably result in loss 
to the company. We frequently find cases 
where an engineer and firemen are not 
agreeable to one another. The work of 
one does not suit the other. Such cases 
should be investigated without delay and 
a change made, as no economy is effected 
under any circumstances by keeping them 
together. The fireman cannot fire an en- 
gine with economy if the engine is not 
properly handled; neither can an engineer 
run his engine with satisfaction unless it 
is fired to the best advantage. Inflexible 
rules for firing cannot be followed. Con- 
ditions are not always alike; which make 
it necessary that engine crews should be 
men of ready conception, that their work 
can be made to conform to the existing 
conditions. The early education of the 
fireman should begin in the shop, where 
the rudiments of railroading should be 
taught, and the capacity of the apprentice 
can be observed. Selecting material for 
firemen from butcher shops, grocery 
stores and the farm, and sending them 
out a few trips to learn how to fire, is a 
practice that cannot be too strongly con- 
demned. It is costly to the companies, 
and does not permit of the experience 
necessary to make competent and reliable 
engineers. If heads of mechanical depart- 
ments would remember that the preced- 
ing generation makes the next succeed- 
ing, we would have less poor enginemen 
and better coal records." 



Machine for Bending Drawbar Yokes. 

In the forming of drawbar yokes by 
hand, the blacksmith has no easy task to 
bring up corners and get a reasonably 
good job, without an expensive outlay of 
time. The device thaJt will do this job 
cheaper and better than it can be done by 
the mauling-into-shape process, is a boon 
to the smith, and a money-saver to the 
company employing it; such a machine we 
herewith illustrate. It was designed with 
the end in view of bending the I x 4-inch 
iron into shape for a yoke at a single 
movement, and was built new for the pur- 
pose. Nothing was picked up to do duty 
as a makeshift in this case, and fail to do 
what was expected of it with the regularity 
known of such construction, but each part 
was adapted to and made for the work it 
had to do. 

A cast-iron frame, 6 feet 10 inches high, 
carries all the accessories for doing the 
job. At the top of the frame is bolted a 
pair of 12 x 12-inch air-cylinders, having 
leather packing on both sides of the pis- 
ton — for motion in two directions. The 
pistons connect with a crosshead made to 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 

work in suitable dove-tailed surfaces on 
each side of the frame, as shown in section 
A B of the frame and crossheads. On the 
latter there is pivoted a pair of }4 * 2 !^- 
inch links, extending down to the bending 
arms. These arms are journaled into the 
frame on the rear side, and into a heavy 
bar at the front, and are at such a distance 
from center to center as will bring their 
faces, when in a vertical position, equal to 



167 

The forming block has outside dimen- 
ilie finished inside face of 
the yoke, and the latter, as a flat bar, is 
laid on the top of the block as a prelimi- 
nary to fhe bending, after which air is ad- 
mitted to the cylinders and the bending 
arms turn on their journals, forcing the 
bar down against and parallel to the sides 
of the block. Since the bar is held firmly 
at the top, the metal cannot free itself in 




over-all depth of the yoke when finished. 
Located below the bending arms is the 
block former, over which the bar for the 
yoke is bent. This block is bolted se- 
curely to the frame and has slotted holes 
for adjustment; the bolts, however, are 
not depended on to hold it vertically, this 
being accomplished by means of an eccen- 
tric on the end of a short shaft, and actu- 
ated by the lever shown at the rear of the 
machine. 



Locomotive Enu 1 



any direction, and must therefore come 
from the die square and true. The sec- 
tion D E gives a clear idea of the amount of 
metal in the frame and block. 

This machine is responsible for its exist- 
ence to Superintendent of Motive Power 
Turner, of the Buffalo, Rochester & Pitts- 
burg Railway, who has brought out many 
good things in tools operated by com- 
pressed air. 



168 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING, 



Time Necessary for Building; a Lo- 
comotive. 

There is an article going the rounds of 
the technical press about the rapidity with 
which a locomotive was built in a French 
railway shop. We have had many com- 
petitions of the kind in this country, and 
the impression was given that certain 
shops could build a locomotive in about 
twenty-four working hours. They may 
put an engine together in less than that 
time, and nearly all locomotive builders 
would undertake to do the work still 
more expeditiously if anything was to be 
gained by the performance. People should 
remember that there is a vast difference 
between building an engine from speci- 
fications and assembling the finished 
parts. 

To follow the operations from the draw- 
ings is a tedious process. We believe 
that Baldwin's people turned out engines 
on their first great Russian order within 
four weeks after the order was given, and 
European builders wanted twice as many 
months. 

It takes four pattern makers from six 
to eight weeks to make the complete set 
of patterns for a mogul engine. Two men 
will be ten or twelve days making the 
pattern for a cylinder and half saddle and 
all core boxes. Locomotive builders are 
very expeditious when they have an en- 
gine ready six weeks after the specifica- 
tions have been received, especially with 
the diverse forms and special patterns 
now in vogue. 



Our Insert. 

The five queer-looking machines, 
shown in our insert, do not appear much 
like the modern locomotive, but they 
contained nearly all its essential princi- 
ples, and they formed in brass and iron 
tentative steps that led to the perfected 
locomotive. All are native American ex- 
cept one, and give a good illustration of 
what this country was prepared to do 
without assistance in developing the loco- 
motive. 

For years before 1830 the belief was 
gaining followers that the development 
of America's system of inland transporta- 
tion must be done by railroads, and the 
more advanced thinkers believed that 
these roads would be operated by steam 
engines. In 1828 several railroads were 
under construction, but the motive power 
to be employed upon them was not set- 
tled. Horatio Allen, a celebrated civil 
engineer in the employment of the Dela- 
ware & Hudson Canal Company, went to 
England in that year to purchase material 
for a small railroad the company were 
building, and he was authorized to pur- 
chase some locomotives if he considered 
their use practicable. The following year 
he brought back the "Stourbridge Lion," 
which was built by an engineering firm 
in England. It was taken to Honesdale, 
Pa., where it was tried. The engine 



worked satisfactorily, but was considered 
too heavy for the track, and was never 
used as a locomotive after the first 
trial. 

At this time one of the most ambitious 
railway schemes in the world was the 
connecting of Chesapeake Bay and the 
Ohio River by means of a railroad, an 
enterprise which was pushed principally 
by citizens of Baltimore. Early in 1829 
a few miles of this railroad, which is now 
the Baltimore & Ohio, was ready for ser- 
vice, and the question had to be settled, 
what kind of motive power should be 
employed. The famous trial of locomo- 
tives on the Liverpool & Manchester 
Railway had not yet taken place, and re- 
ports from England gave little encour- 
agement to those who thought that loco- 
motive engines would be the future mo- 
tive power of railways. An enterprising 
citizen of Baltimore, the late Peter 
Cooper, however, determined to settle 
the matter himself, and he constructed a 
small engine to run on the railway. The 
thing was a failure at first, but he had it 
taken to a machine shop run by George 
W. Johnson in Baltimore. Among John- 
son's men was an apprentice, named 
James Milholland, who was an ingenious 
youth. Milholland appears to have taken 
the lead in putting the tiny locomotive 
into practical shape, which was success- 
fully done. When it emerged from John- 
son's shop, the machine worked quite sat- 
isfactorily. It had an upright boiler, with 
tubes made of gun barrels. 

Although this little engine was too 
small for doing useful, practical work, it 
demonstrated that a successful engine 
could be built for operating railway 
trains. Peter Cooper's "Tom Thumb," 
as it was called, was much smaller than 
Stephenson's "Rocket," but it contained 
all the elements of the "Rocket," and was 
built without the designer knowing any- 
thing about what Stephenson was doing. 
It weighed less than 1 ton, and on trial 
developed 1.43 horse-power. The idea 
of using tubes in the boiler was not new, 
that kind of boiler having been built 
many years before in this country by 
Nathan Read. 

The Milholland boy, who did so much 
to put the Cooper engine into practicable 
shape, afterwards became superintendent 
of motive power of the Reading Railroad, 
and put the stamp of his ability more in- 
delibly upon the American locomotive 
than any other man. 

The first managers of the Baltimore & 
Ohio appear to have been intensely 
patriotic, for while those in charge of 
other railroads were arranging to import 
locomotives from England, the Baltimore 
& Ohio directors advertised that they 
would give a prize of $4,000 for the best 
locomotive of home manufacture. This 
brought out five competitors, and the 
prize was awarded to the "York," shown 
in our engraving, made by Phineas Davis, 
a watchmaker, of York, Pa. Another of 



the competing locomotives was built also 
by a watchmaker of Philadelphia. Davis 
followed Cooper's plan of using a vertical 
boiler. The engine weighed about three 
tons, and was the precursor of the vertical 
locomotives largely used by the Baltimore 
& Ohio in early days. 

The "York" was not, however, the first 
locomotive built in the United States for 
practical service. On returning from 
Europe Horatio Allen entered the ser- 
vice of the Charleston & Hamburg Rail- 
road, and designed for them the "Best 
Friend," which was built at West Point 
Foundry, N. Y. Allen adopted Cooper's 
idea of an upright boiler, but he did not 
use tubes. The heating surface was en- 
tirely in firebox, which had a conical 
crown, running nearly to top of the boiler. 
That engine went into regular train ser- 
vice, and was the first on the American 
continent to pull trains. It finally came 
to grief by the negro fireman holding 
down the safety valve to stop the noise of 
the escaping steam. After the resulting 
explosion, the horizontal tubular boiler 
was applied to the engine. 

Among the competitors for the Balti- 
more & Ohio prize was one engine built 
by Wm. T. James, of New York, a most 
ingenious engineer. His engine, shown 
in our group, was built subsequently, and 
a celebrated feature about it was the link 
valve motion. The mechanical world did 
not then appreciate the value of that de- 
vice, and it did not come into general use 
until it was reinvented in England and 
adopted by the Stephensons. 



The best wood ever tried for railway 
ties is sapota, used to some extent for this 
purpose in Mexico. It is a tropical tim- 
ber and is exceedingly durable for out- 
door or indoor use, above or below 
ground. Pieces of this wood taken out 
of buildings said to have been erected over 
two centuries ago, show not the slightest 
indication of decay. In color it is nearly 
as dark as logwood and very heavy, and 
so hard that the boring of holes for spikes 
is very laborious work. It has a tendency 
to split if exposed to the heat of a tropical 
sun for a few months, and for this reason 
the sapota ties have to be well covered 
with ballast. 



Many railroad people and travelers have 
marveled at the wonderful, the odd and 
the idiotic names given to Pullman cars. 
The secret has been revealed that the find- 
ing of names is assigned to a daughter of 
the car-building magnate, and that the 
young woman is engaged on congenial 
work when choosing silly names for the 
cars. She has lately selected for the new 
equipment of sleeping and dining cars on 
the Iron Mountain line, the following 
names: Diningcar. "Quantzintecomatzin;" 
sleepers, "Chililitli" and "Nezahualcoyatl." 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



169 



An Rngine Register. 

There have been a great many devices 
gotten up for the purpose of keeping an 
accurate record of the condition and loca- 
tion of power, and the general idea of the 
best of them has been based on pegs or 
blocks which carried a symbol to repre- 
sent a certain state of things — good, bad 
or indifferent, as the case might be — ar- 
ranged in a series of holes in a gorgeously 
decorated board. 

On systems where 500 or more engines 
are in service, the flat board reaches pro- 
portions of no mean magnitude, some- 
times covering the whole side of a room. 
In such a case it is no easy task to keep 
the record in proper shape, or gather the 
information required from it. 

The register shown in the engraving is 
in the office of Superintendent of Motive 
Power Thomas and Assistant Superinten- 
dent of Motive Power Chapman, of the 
Southern Railway, at Washington, D. C, 
and was evolved by those gentlemen. It 
is octagonal in shape, 28 inches in its 
greatest width, and 62 inches high. Each 
perforated face is g% inches wide by 36}^ 
inches high, and contains 324 holes for 
pegs, with a total of 2,592 on the eight 
faces. 

At the top of each panel is found the 
division shop which that panel represents, 
and under it are letters denoting kind of 
service an engine is in — P indicating pas- 
senger, F freight, M mixed, S switching, 
W work, R reserve, and V vacant. On 
the face of each peg is a depression made 
to receive a pasteboard tag which is lined 
off into four spaces, the first of which in- 
dicates by x x the driver brake only, the 
fourth with x denotes driver and tender 
brake, the second has number of engine, 
and the third has size of cylinder. In ad- 
dition to these characters on the face of 
the pegs, there are pasteboard washers, 
red one side and white on the other, show- 
ing bad or fair condition, and a blue 
washer has been added to signify a condi- 
tion between fair and bad. 

These are the keys to one of the most 
convenient engine registers we have seen. 
It is mounted on castors and swivels 
easily, so as to bring any division or set 
of pegs into view without the necessity 
of one leaving his seat. The two feat- 
ures of portability and small amount of 
floor space occupied by this register are 
its strong points. The designers of it 
have reason to congratulate themselves 
on the possession of a good thing, for it 
is a long way in advance of ordinary 
methods of keeping in touch with facts 
motive power officers have to deal with. 



Railway Operating in Turkey. 

With all the confusion and misrule that 
prevails in Turkey, there are a great many 
flourishing industries in that country, and 
in some lines the people are peculiarly 
skillful in various arts. When necessity 
compels the people to carry on operations 





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Locomotitx Engi 



ENGINE REGISTER. Fig. 1. 



170 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



that have been forced upon them by the 
advances in Western civilization, they are 
found at their worst; but in such work 
as operating railroads, they follow exact 
and rigid methods which more progres- 
sive people might imitate to advantage. 

According to Mr. Henry C. Finkelstein, 
who has been connected with Turkish 
railroads for some years, the total railway 
mileage in Turkey is now 3,123, the prin- 
cipal lines being from Constantinople to 
Bellova via Adrianople and Philippopolis, 
562 miles; from Smyrna to Aiden, 507 
miles, with branches in different direc- 
tions. The discipline on the Turkish 
roads is stated by him to be very severe. 
Negligence is punished with heavy penal- 
ties, and if a collision occurs, all employes 
who share in the responsibility are likely 



out of a railway pound. Animals that are 
not ransomed within a given time are sold 
at auction for the benefit of the railway 
company, which, however, must return 
to the owner a sum in excess of the fine 
imposed by law and the cost of keeping 
the animal while in charge of the com- 
pany. All articles left by travelers in the 
cars or in the station houses are also sub- 
ject to similar rules. They can be re- 
deemed upon the payment of a fee, and 
at the end of a certain period all articles 
not redeemed are sold for the benefit of 
the company. 

Every passenger must be in his seat 
when the last gong sounds, a few moments 
before the departure of a train. Travelers 
buying tickets must present the exact 
amount of money to the ticket agent; 



KNOXVILLE 




started and the first station reached after 
they are discovered, when they are al- 
lowed to buy a ticket for the rest of their 
journey at the regular rate. One hun- 
dred pounds of baggage is allowed for 
every ticket, but the traveler has to pay 
three cents for having his trunk checked. 
The Oriental express and trains from Con- 
stantinople to Vienna (44 hours) and to 
Paris (72 hours), run twice a week, and 
carry first-class parlor and sleeping cars. 
Similar trains run between Smyrna and 
Aiden. 

§ $ i 

Facing Valve Seats with an Air Motor. 

At the Erie Railroad shops, East Buf- 
falo, they have a little slide-valve engine 
with one cylinder, i l A inches diameter and 
4 inches stroke, that was designed by 
Master Mechanic Moore for facing valves. 
It is used to drive the valve-facing ma- 
chine, on the plate of which it is mounted. 
Power is transmitted to the cutter by 
means of a spur gear on the engine shaft, 



MANCHESTER 

ENGINE REGISTER. Fig. 2, 




HARDiWOOD L_ l - ^ T' PAPER 

PEG PASTE BOARD TA G 

WASHER 
Red on One Side. 
White on Other Side. 




to be sent to prison, and, if anyone is 
killed or injured, under sentences for long 
terms. Employes of the roads who are 
injured in service receive pensions, and 
if the injuries prove fatal, their families 
are provided for. The law requires rail- 
road companies to provide for the families 
of persons who are killed on their lines 
by accident, and those who are injured re- 
ceive compensation to cover their board, 
medical attendance and loss of wages as 
long as they are unable to pursue their 
accustomed avocations. 

At the same time there is a penalty of 
$1 for walking upon a railroad track in 
Turkey, for every offense. Cattle and 
other animals found on the right of way 
of railways can be confiscated by the com- 
pany, although the owner may redeem 
them by paying 25 cents each for sheep, 
dogs, goats, hogs and other small ani- 
mals. It costs $2.50 to get a cow or horse 



otherwise he is authorized to charge a 
commission of 4 per cent, for making 
change, which goes into his own pocket. 
Local tickets are good only for the train 
for which they are sold, and will not be 
redeemed, but through tickets will be ac- 
cepted on all trains within the limit of 
time indicated upon them. Children un- 
der three years of age travel free, and be- 
tween three and seven are carried at half 
rates. All gendarmes, prisoners of state, 
policemen and other officials are carried 
at half fare upon the presentation of a 
certificate of identity. Army officers and 
soldiers are carried for one-third fare 
upon the presentation of an "ilmihaber" 
certificate. Soldiers traveling on duty for 
the Government are carried free upon the 
presentation of a "pestie" certificate. 

Passengers found upon trains without 
tickets are required to pay three times the 
full fare between the place where they 



Lvcumvtivt Engineering 

ENGINE REGISTER. Fig. 3. 

meshing into a corresponding gear that 
drives the facing machine. 

The engine, easily carried with one 
hand, is kept in the tool room until wanted 
for use either in the roundhouse or erect- 
ing shop, when it is quickly put in posi- 
tion on the facing machine, and piped to 
any air reservoir conveniently near; most 
generally that on the engine having the 
valve seats faced, if it is a roundhouse job. 
This little engine is economical in air 
consumption, being geared to the ma- 
chine so as to cut off short and use the 
air with least waste, contrary to the con- 
ditions found in the air consumers gen- 
erally used for light powers. 

They are a great improvement in any 
event over the crank-and-elbow motor 
for which the facing machines were origi- 
nally gotten up, and are a joy to the old- 
timer who looks back a few years to the 
period when he did this job, perched on 
a crazy foundation of blocking, and had 
to take a roughing cut with a hammer and 
chisel, on a hot engine, with a dreary 
prospect of file pushing ahead of him. 

d i i 

The Baldwin Locomotive Works have 
an order for one locomotive from the 
Chicago & West Michigan Railway. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



171 



Ancient Water-Tube Boilers. 

The saying that "there is nothing new 
under the sun" lias received a new illus- 
tration in discoveries made at Pompeii, 
of boilers, which seem to prove that the 
water-tube boiler, supposed to be a 
modern invention, was used by the peo- 
ple of Italy two thousand years ago. 

In a paper by W. T. Bonner, Cincin- 
nati, O., submitted to the last meeting of 
the American Society of Mechanical En- 
gineers, several Pompeiian boilers, which 
are now in the National Museum at 
Naples, were illustrated and described. 
Two of the boilers have tube water grates, 
and the belief is that the tube sur- 
face was used for the purpose of accelera- 
ting the boiling of the water. 

The boilers are all made of bronze, and 
are still in good condition. The boilers 
do not appear to have been subjected to 
much pressure above the atmosphere, and 
were used, evidently, for cooking purposes. 
They are all very elaborately ornamented, 
and are reinforced at the points where 
they would be liable to give out. 



Coal from China. 

It is rather startling to find that coal can 
be mined in China and sold in California 
at a profit. Several cargoes of coal from 
China have been imported into California, 
and it is reported to be of very good 
quality. 

Those who are familiar with the coal 
market say that within a very few years 
the Chinese coal mines will supply the 
whole market of the Pacific Coast, except 
those portions where coal is found. The 
extremely cheap labor of China enables 
the coal to be brought to the surface at a 
very low price. The only obstacle to very 
active competition in this industry at 
present is the want of good transporta- 
tion facilities in China. The extension of 
Chinese railways, which has begun very 
actively, is going to exert a very preju- 
dicial effect on the coal-mining interests 
of the United States and Great Britain. 



A reporter of a New York newspaper, 
who attempted to describe an accident 
that happened to a locomotive belong- 
ing to the Long Island Railroad through 
the breaking of a crank pin, involuntarily 
made a funny description. The mishap, 
he said, caused the cylinder head to blow 
out and the released piston flew round 
with such rapidity that it smashed the 
pump of the air brake. It also smashed 
the window on the side of the engine cab. 
Another reporter makes his description 
of the accident read: "The Patchogue ex- 
press, over the Long Island Railroad, at 
10,24 met with a slight accident atWinfield. 
The crank pin of the locomotive blew out 
and wrecked the part of the cab used by 
the fireman. Fireman Conklin was, for- 
tunately, not in his seat at the time. 



Apprentices in Railroad Shops. 

Since the Master Mechanics* Associa- 
tion took upon themselves the work of in 
vestigating the condition of the appren- 
tice boys, there has been a great deal of 
investigation and discussion of the sub- 
ject, which is likely to do a great deal of 
good for our future mechanics. The ap- 
prentices in nearly all railroad shops 
have reason to be thankful to those who 
brought up the investigation of their con- 
dition, for it is certain that the interests 
of many of these young men have been 
very badly neglected, even in places 
where the highest kind of treatment might 
have been expected. 

Since the subject has been thoroughly 
stirred up, we are certain that it is going 
to result in considerable improvement 
over existing practices. There are friends 
of the apprentice working in two lines 
for his benefit; one side of men propose 
that something more shall be done to give 
the apprentice the opportunity to learn his 
trade properly, and the other side pro- 
poses that he shall be given the oppor- 
tunity to learn the scientific branches of 
his business. 

Among the many expressions that we 
have seen recently regarding the condi- 
tion of the apprentice, a report made by- 
Mr. John Mackenzie, superintendent of 
motive power of the New York, Chicago 
& St. Louis, to the Central Railroad 
Club, seems to contain the most sensible 
and practicable views. He said that there 
are more applicants for the position of 
apprentice than it is possible for railroad 
officers to accept, and he was in favor of 
regulating the pay of apprentices by the 
work they were able to perform; ability 
and skill should be recognized and should 
be made an incentive to increased re- 
muneration. 

It is a well-known fact that where men 
are placed, for instance, on a lathe, and 
become proficient in handling that partic- 
ular tool, they are often kept in that posi- 
tion for a long time. A practice of this 
sort is good for the employer, but it is 
not good for the workman, and appren- 
tices should be changed from different 
tools periodically and given an oppor- 
tunity to do all classes of work. It is a 
difficult matter to pass judgment, in many 
cases, as to the proper course to pursue 
in the changing of the boys, and from 
one class of work to another, as some of 
the boys learn much more readily than 
others and pay a greater attention to the 
work to be done. Upon his own progress 
and adaptability for the work to be done 
should depend to a great extent his ad- 
vancement. 

The tendency to require technical edu- 
cation for the apprentices leads up to the 
question: Have we not gone beyond the 
practical training of the apprentice, and 
is it the duty of railroad companies to 
train the boys as mechanical engineers? 
There are few people who consider that 
any such duty rests upon railroad com- 



panies, or any other employers of labor. 
The training of mechanical engineers 
ought to be a private matter, followed 
outside of railroad establishments. The 
tendency to specialize work makes it all 
the more difficult to give technical train- 
ing to apprentices, or even the training 
that makes a good all-round mechanic. 
The piece-work system, which is growing 
every year, tends to make specialists, and 
it makes necessary some special system of 
education for workmen. 

The easiest solution of this problem 
of training workmen as mechanics would 
be the selecting of good mechanics, who 
have the faculty of teaching, and make it 
their duty to impart to the boys a knowl- 
edge of the work to be done, and to see 
that they are kept on operations for 
which they were best fitted, so that it 
would be to the benefit of both employer 
and employe. The education which boys 
can obtain by attending night schools, 
drawing offices, testing departments, etc., 
open up great possibilities which will be 
embraced or neglected according to the 
tastes and tendencies of those most inter- 
ested. 

i $ § 

To Help in Reducing Fuel Bills. 

The following circular letter has been 
sent by Mr. George F. Wilson, superin- 
tendent of motive power of the Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific, to all the engineers 
and firemen employed on the system: 

"After January 1, 1897, a book pub- 
lished by Mr. Angus Sinclair, on 'Com- 
bustion and Smoke Prevention on Loco- 
motives,' will be furnished to each engi- 
neer and fireman in the employ of these 
companies. It is expected that each man 
will study the contents of this book, as all 
master mechanics are instructed, after the 
expiration of ninety days, to examine en- 
gineers and firemen to ascertain it' they 
have given the contents of the book atten- 
tion. I believe you all realize that the 
locomotive fuel bill on a railroad is one 
of the most expensive items, and without 
proper care there is more waste in this 
than any other expense pertaining to a 
locomotive. 

"We find there is as much as Si, 000 
per annum saved by some engineers and 
firemen over others where conditions are 
as nearly equal as it is possible for them 
to be, and the object in furnishing these 
books is to educate you to a higher stand- 
ard of economy in the use of fuel. 

"It is necessary for us to do this, be- 
cause the rates received by railroad com- 
panies for doing business, and the high 
competition which exists, make it our duty 
to acknowedge a merit in good and eco- 
nomical men. All officers are watching 
this item of expense closer than ever in 
the history of railroads. 

"We hope you will find the book profit- 
able, as we are satisfied you will, none of 
us doing so well that it is not possible to 
make an improvement, and I think all of 



173 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



you wi to do better after studying 

the contents of this book and applying 
yourself rigidly to its instructions. We 
are satisfied when this is done our com- 
pany will get good results from you." 



Spontaneous Combustion. 

BY SAM SHORT. 

The principal American cities have been 
suffering for some time from the labors 
of certain knights of peculiar industry 
who seem to think that arson, or start- 
ing fires that may commit wholesale mur- 
der, is an easy and fairly safe way of mak- 
ing a living. Detectives have been re- 
markably successful in identifying these 
pirates of law and public safety, and many 
principals in this line of bread-winning 
have been sent to institutions where the 
earning of meals will no longer be a cause 
of solicitude. 

It is good for society that deliberate 
fire-raisers should be sent to penitentiaries 
for the remainder of their miserable lives, 
but there are left at large a set of imbeciles 
whose carelessness does almost as much 
harm as the deliberate crimes of the fire- 
raisers, and yet law and justice seem 
incapable of reaching them. The trouble 
is that people cannot be punished for be- 
ing fools, and the fool in the long run is 
more dangerous than the knave. 

Experiment has repeatedly demon- 
strated that a mass of cotton saturated 
with oil will in a short time generate 
sufficient heat to set the material on fire. 
There are many materials that moisture 
alone is sufficient to raise the mass to 
the igniting point. The act of a mass of 
thi> kind setting itself on fire is known 
as spontaneous combustion. 

The writer was walking about a railroad 
car shop the other day, where most of 
the material within reach was of a highly 
inflammable nature, and he saw a mass 
of greasy waste which had been taken 
out of oil boxes, heaped up against a 
wooden partition. Naturally the thought 
occurred, "That is a dangerous practice," 
and the question was put to my escort; 
"Are you not afraid of fire starting from 
that mass?" 

"Fire?" he exclaimed; "don't you see 
that this shop is heated by steam and 
lighted by electricity. Why, we don't per- 
mit anything in the shop that could pos- 
sibly cause fire. Can't afford it. See 
the valuable cars we have got in the shop 
all the time." 

"Did you never hear of spontaneous 
combustion?" 

"Spontaneous combustion? Seems to 
me I once read about a ship taking fire 
with that. It is something about gases 
and chemistry, and I don't know anything 
about these things." 

"Did you never hear that a heap of 
greasy waste would soon generate suffi- 
cient internal heat to start a fire?" 



"Never heard of such a thing, and 
don't believe it. I have been a shop fore- 
man for twenty-one years, and I never 
knew a case of greasy waste putting it- 
self on fire. It is against Nature, and is 
one of the silly ideas that you theoretical 
people are annoying practical men with. 
Spontaneous combustion is one of your 
brain troubles." 

I did not argue out the case; but as we 
walked pensively through the far-reaching 
scrap heap, a stumble over a dilapidated 
oil box roused me from a reverie about 
the benefit it would be to people at large 
if the fool-killer would make the rounds 
of railroad shops a trifle more frequently. 

§ -•• $ 

Traveling Air Lifts in Shop Economy. 

It has come to be well understood that 
there are very few openings in a manufac- 
turing or repair shop that yield a better 
return for the investment than a well- 
equipped compressed-air outfit. This fact 
is so well established for most industrial 
plants that it is not our purpose to extol 
any imaginary schemes, but we want to 
emphasize the beauties of some that are 
a good thing in a locomotive shop. 

Among these may be mentioned the 
crane that is mounted over the erecting 
pits and parallel to same, as installed in 
the Chesapeake & Ohio shops at Rich- 
mond, Va. These cranes are operative 
both transversely and longitudinally, and 
are of the simplest possible construction, 
consisting of an air lift 6 inches in diame- 
ter and 7 feet long. The cylinder is 
mounted on a small carriage rolling on a 
light 9-inch I-beam which spans the pit; 
the I-beam is also mounted on wheels and 
has a movement the whole length of the 
engine. All bearings are of the roller 
type, making the crane remarkably easy 
to handle. 

In situations where the crane can be 
carried on the chord of the roof-truss, as 
it is in the case under consideration, 
there can be no cause for a "kick" on the 
score of expense, when it can be shown 
that a few months' use will return every 
dollar put into it. 

For handling stacks, cabs, sandboxes, 
dome-caps, frames and steam and exhaust 
pipes, these cranes are sure to come under 
the head of indispensable tools after the 
first experience with them. This has been 
the record at the Richmond shops, under 
the charge of Master Mechanic T. S. 
Lloyd, who has a Pedrick & Ayer belted 
compressor to supply his wants. 

One other instance equally as good 
from a money-saving standpoint, is that 
of the air traveling crane in the brass 
foundry of the Huntington shops, pre- 
sided over by Master Mechanic A. F. 
Stewart. An always-behind state of affairs 
in this foundry led to a few improvements 
that gave the men an opportunity to do 
work. The output of 43,000 pounds of 
brass per month, as turned out by the 



hand method of wrestling with the cruci- 
bles, was, by a few well-considered im- 
provements, almost doubled, running up 
to 83,000 pounds — and this is done with 
practically the old force. 

The improvements comprised a new 
floor, a traveling crane that would lift a 
crucible from either furnace and convey 
it to any part of the floor, together with 
some minor details, all looking to the 
comfort of the men. The crane is of the 
simplest character, home-made — only a 
small air cylinder made to roll on an over- 
head rail; but it furnishes another object 
lesson in what can be done cheaply by 
air when brains are backing the proposi- 
tion. 

In furnishing these master mechanics 
of the Eastern and Western divisions of 
the Chesapeake & Ohio road with the 
means to compress air, Superintendent of 
Motive Power Morris has shown con- 
siderable acumen, and will be certain to 
get his reward in the shape of a reduction 
in operating expenses that will prove the 
wisdom of the move. 

& ft $ 

Machinists' Small Tools. 

The small economies made necessary 
by the pressure of hard times appear to 
have revived, to a great extent, the prac- 
tice of machinists making their own 
small tools. The manufacture of ma- 
chinist's small tools has been so highly 
perfected by specialists, and the price at 
which tools of that kind are sold is so low, 
that no man can really afford to do the 
work for himself; but there are still a 
good many men to be found in leisure 
hours laboring away at the production of 
tools of this kind. 

Some notes written by Chordal for the 
"American Machinist," several years ago, 
on this subject are still of living interest. 
He said: "Machinists are always han- 
kering after nice little tools, and I 
have often wondered why in the world 
they do not have them. A fellow 
will go to work on a 4-inch try-square 
with the best of intention, perhaps, to 
have the finest square that the eyes of 
man ever beheld, something better than 
the square you buy, you know, some- 
thing worth having. He works about 
thirty noons on this thing, and a few 
nights and a little on Sunday, and takes a 
half-holiday to finish it, and when it is 
done, it is simply a very awkward common 
tool, which no man of judgment would 
willingly pay him 75 cents for. It is as 
square inside as he can file it, and it is 
as square outside as he can file it, but it 
is not particularly square in any other 
way. The finish is decidedly bad, and in 
many places has destroyed the accuracy 
of the rougher filling. If the man is 
silly he will be proud of this square, and 
will carry it away from the shop in his 
pocket for two or three weeks, in order 
to exhibit it evenings to men working in 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 






oilier shops; and then he will put some 
fancy notches in his toolbox to hold the 
thing, and it will be some months before 
he will become fully aware of how com- 
mon a job this square really is. If he is a 
tolerably sensible man he will begin to 
slouch it when it is about half done, and 
finally get disgusted and give it to some 
apprentice boy as a keepsake. If he is a 
really sensible man he will quit making it 
before he ever thinks of beginning it, 
and will buy a decent hardened square with 
a day's wages. It will be square any way 
you take it. 

"A home-made straight-edge is another 
abomination. It is ugly and crooked — 
two fatal qualities in a straight-edge. 

"The average machinist always insists 
on making his own inside and outside 
calipers. It takes a good deal of time 
to make a pair of 9-inch inside calipers, 
and they are never a really creditable job, 
no such tools as our machinists ought 
to have, but they are all right as calipei •-,. 
They are true on the joints and the points 
are all right, and they will go into a small 
deep hole and all such as that, but still 
there is that peculiar home-made ugliness 
about them, which is not a matter to be 
proud of." 

ft i i 

Discipline Without Suspension. 

Mr. G. R. Brown, general superinten- 
dent of the Fall Brook Railway; sends us 
the following list of roads that have 
adopted the Fall Brook system of "Dis- 
cipline Without Suspension." We under- 
stand that there will be a meeting of all 
the superintendents of the Erie system 
soon to discuss the desirability of adopt- 
ing the Brown system. The probabilities 
are that they will vote to adopt it, as sev- 
eral of them are personally warm ad- 
mirers of the plan. 

Louisville & Nashville; Pittsburg, 
Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis; Corn- 
ing & Painted Post Street Railway; Wa- 
bash Railroad Company; Columbus, San- 
dusky & Hocking Valley; Plant system; 
Canadian Pacific Railway; Kanawha & 
Michigan Railway Company; Toledo & 
Ohio Central; Kansas City, Fort Scott & 
Memphis; Chicago & Alton Railroad; 
Missouri, Kansas & Texas; Chicago 
Great Western; Chicago & Northwestern; 
Columbus, Hocking Valley & Toledo; 
Boston & Maine; Detroit, Lansing & 
Northern; Chicago, Peoria & St. Louis; 
Norfolk & Southern; Chicago, Rock 
Island & Pacific; Toledo, St. Louis & 
Kansas City; Flint & Pere Marquette; 
Southern Pacific; St. Paul & Duluth; 
Lehigh & Hudson River Railroad; Chi- 
cago & Eastern Illinois; Minneapolis, St. 
Paul & Sault Ste. Marie Railway; Co- 
lumbus. Shawnee & Hocking Valley Rail- 
road; Duluth & Winnipeg; Burlington & 
Missouri River Railroad: Peoria & Pekin 
Union Railroad; Chicago & West Michi- 
gan: Wheeling & Lake Erie; Duluth & 
Iron Range. 



Pneumatic Riveter. 

We are indebted to Mr. Reuben Wells, 
superintendent of the Rogers Locomo- 
tive Works, fur photographs of the pneu 
matic riveter here illn trated Mr. Wells 
writes us: 

"As per your request, I inclose photo- 
graphs of two views of my pneumatic 
riveter, designed for putting in the mud 
ring rivets of locomotive boilers. The 
boiler is, of course, turned bottom side up 
within reach of a swinging crane. In our 
case the boom of the crane is 20 feet long, 
made of a 12-inch I-beam, with a trolley 
and a chain hoist. The following are the 
dimensions of the main parts: 

Diameter of cylinder — 16 inches. 

Stroke ol piston- 23 inches. 

Leverage — 7 to I. 




WELLS' PNEUMATIC RIVETER. 

Stroke of die bar — 3^4 inches. 

Range of screw — 7 inches. 

Pitch of screw — I inch. 

Diameter of screw — 3 inches. 

Between dies, maximum — 11 inches. 

Center of die to top of gap — ioJ4 
inches. 

Weight — 2,000 pounds. 

Hose — i-inch, 4-ply. 
"The riveter is carried by a swinging 
crane, a trolley and a worm-geared 2-ton 
chain hoist. A pressure of 80 pounds per 
inch gives a pressure on the rivet of 112,- 
000 pounds. The motion of the die holder 
is parallel, the screw is turned by hand, 
with or without the crank handle, so as to 
take up all unnecessary slack between the 
dies and the rivet ends previous to apply- 
ing the power. The air is applied by turn- 
ing the handle to a horizontal position, and 



exhausted by turning it back to the verti- 
cal position. The piston and lever are 
1! back to their normal position by 
the coder springs. The die holder follows 
the movements of the lever. All important 
ig parts are oi case-hardened ham- 
1 iron. The plates forming the sides 
arc of l}4-inch steel; the post be- 
them holding the screw nut and main 
lever, and the link's connecting it to the 
sleeve-shaped piston are of wrought iron: 
cylinder and piston of cast iron; piston 
packing, leather. The outer end of cylin- 
di 1 1 open and has a shoulder to prevent 
the piston from passing out. The dies in 
the end of screw and die bar are change- 
able, and held in position by a i'/i inch 
diameter shank entering the end of the 
screw and the die bar, and secured by 
cotters. The handle shown is for the 
purpose of adjusting and holding the ma- 
chine in position. 

"The machine is in daily use, and seems 
to answer its purpose perfectly. An air 
gage is used for showing at all times the 
pressure in the hose and air pipes. Rivets 
can be driven as rapidly as they will cool 
sufficiently to allow the pressure to be 
released." 

® ® i 

The emery wheel, which is such a use- 
ful tool in nearly all shops where grind- 
ing has to be done, is a comparatively 
new-comer as a rival of the grindstone. 
In 1842, one Henry Barclay patented in 
Great Britain an emery wheel which was 
made of Stourbridge clay and emery, the 
mixture to be pressed in molds and then 
baked to a bright red heat. That wheel 
was not a success, but from the day the 
patent was issued there were tentative at- 
tempts made in England to improve the 
emery wheel. American mechanics were, 
however, the first to make the emery 
wheel a decided success, and nearly all 
the valuable improvements effected upon 
it have been carried out in the United 
States. 

s § § 

A patent has been granted to Lewis S. 
Proctor, of Sheffield, Ala., for a reversible 
rail. The idea is to get a rail the life oi 
which will be doubled. With this design, 
when one of the wearing surfaces has been 
pounded out of shape by the passage of 
heavy trains, the rail is simply released 
from the bed-plates and reversed. An 
entirely new surface is then presented. It 
is curious to read about an "invention" 
of this kind being patented in this year oi 
grace. The rails of all early European 
railways were double-headed, the idea be- 
ing that they could be turned when the 
first head was worn out. It was found 
in practice that the chair wore grooves into 
the head placed first beneath, and these 
grooves made such a rough-riding track 
that turning of rails was abandoned after 
a very few years' experience with the 
plan. 



171 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



^^HSr^ ^Sl ISfe'AfCW^-' R* 1 mw Mo-nvt Power 
•wirTOWwu -^- Cjv „ D Ronmc Stock- 

Published monthly by 

SINCLAIR & HILL. 

256 Broadway. New York. 

Editorial Department : 

ANGUS SINCLAIR. Chief. 

O. H. REYNOLDS, I Associate Editors 

F n. NELLIS, \ A8,ocla,e taitore. 

Illustration Department: 

A. L. DONNELL. Chief. 
Business Department: 

JOHN A. HILL. General Manager. 

C. P. DAY. Eastern Representative. 

J M. WAKEMAN, Western Representative. 

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w % @ 
Education of Railroad Men. 

For many years after railway operating 
began, the men in charge did not con- 
sider that knowledge or intellectual train- 
ing was of any special value as a recom- 
mendation for those who applied for em- 
ployment. In fact, one of the most cele- 
brated pioneer railway managers in Eng- 
land used to argue that entirely illiterate 
persons made better trainmen than those 
who could read and write. There never 
was this prejudice in favor of ignorance 
in the United States, but there was little 
objection to the employing of illiterate 
men, until sad experience had demon- 
strated, by many a fatal collision, that a 
man who could not read train orders was 
not a safe person to employ in train ser- 
vice. 

In the pioneer times, the fact that a 
man was strong enough to twist a brake 
wheel, or to throw wood or coal into the 
firebox of a locomotive, was regarded 
as a satisfactory indication of efficiency. 
As time wore on, and the teaching of ex- 
perience became properly recognized, 
railroad managers came to understand 
that facts concerning the successes and 
the failures of the earlier generations of 
railway men ought to be useful informa- 
tion for their successors. The facts and 
data concerning the experience of one 
generation, put into book and pamphlet 
form, became the text-books by which 
their successors could obtain safe guid- 
ance. For the last twenty years there 
has been a growing tendency to exact 
educational tests from the men who were 
candidates for promotion, and the treat- 
ises concerning the experience of former 
railway men form the text-books on 



which examinations are based. There 
was long an inveterate prejudice against 
book-instructed railroad men; but like 
every prejudice founded upon ignorance, 
it is rapidly disappearing. To-day "higher 
education for railroad men" is a demand 
expressed in many quarters, and philan- 
thropists and educational establishments 
are urging forward a crusade with these 
words as the watch-cry. Up to the pres- 
ent time, most of the agitation has been 
confined to talk, but the work has been 
earnestly begun in some quarters. 

There are few educational establish- 
ments that have attracted so much atten- 
tion as that drawn to the engineering 
department of Purdue University during 
the last few years. This attention has 
been principally aroused by the fact that 
the institution is educating a department 
of its students in special lines of railroad 
work which have never been undertaken 
by any educational establishment before. 
That there is a demand for the special in- 
struction of railroad men has been ap- 
parent for years, and the Purdue Uni- 
versity has been the first to undertake the 
work in a practical manner. 

The authorities of several universities 
have been considering for some time the 
advisability of introducing a regular rail- 
road course into their curriculum, and 
we have no doubt that within a very few 
years young men will graduate in the 
railroad profession, just as they now 
graduate for medicine, law and divinity. 
The friends of higher education for rail- 
road men are very hopeful of the bene- 
ficial results to be secured from special 
university education. No doubt, many of 
the men who are the leaders in railway 
affairs at present suffer from the want of 
early special educational training; but 
there are greater difficulties encountered 
in making a special educational course 
applicable to what might be called the 
railroad profession than there is to any 
other. When a young man graduates in 
law or medicine, he has learned enough 
of the profession to begin business in a 
tentative fashion; he is able to make a 
decent living from what he has learned. 
A young man graduating from a course 
of railroad science is not likely to be ac- 
ceptable for any position except a low 
one, which few college graduates would 
care to accept. So much of success in 
railroad work depends on practical ex- 
perience that special training must neces- 
sarily be of little use unless experience in 
doing actual railroad work is added to it. 
A young medical practitioner or lawyer 
may walk on the edge of starvation for 
the first year or two, but he is not re- 
quired to do uncongenial menial work. 
A graduate in the principles of railroad 
management, in spite of the high title he 
may receive from a university, must be- 
gin practical work as a clerk, fireman or 
brakemen, and his education tends to unfit 
him for the hard work to be performed. 
The tendency of the higher educational 



establishments is to fit men for being 
officers rather than workmen, and the 
training tends to make them think that 
experience in the ranks is not necessary. 
Some very successful railway managers 
have commenced at the top, but their suc- 
cess was due to extraordinary ability and 
quickness of perception. The ordinarily 
successful railroad man has risen from 
the ranks, and by the experience gained, 
rising step from step, has acquired the 
qualifications which made him successful. 
Special college training will make a man 
more useful in railroad business if he goes 
through the same practical experience as 
ordinary railway men have to undergo; 
but unless he is satisfied to do that, his 
school education will be of little advan- 
tage. Graduates of engineering schools 
are rapidly coming to the front in me- 
chanical departments of railways at the 
present day, but those who are succeed- 
ing are men who were not afraid to don 
overalls and learn the details of the me- 
chanical trade after they had graduated 
from college. Most of the engineering 
graduates refuse to do this, and they drop 
into minor positions, as draftsmen and 
clerks, and they are rarely ever qualified 
for the higher positions. 

While we consider that the movement 
to give college instruction to railroad 
men to be highly commendable, we think 
greater benefit to the greater number 
might be performed in a different way. 
The vast majority of railroad men drift 
into the business after they have passed 
their majority, and have become railroad 
men through circumstance rather than 
through a purpose followed from boy- 
hood. We think that the most prac- 
ticable way to elevate the educational 
standard of railway men would be, to 
give those in service assistance in edu- 
cating themselves, and the encouraging 
of studies that will supply required infor- 
mation in the lines which the men are 
going to follow. In the industrial coun- 
tries of Europe there is a vigorous move- 
ment going on to supply the means of 
technical education for workmen, and 
every facility is given to ambitious work- 
men to study the scientific part of their 
business. Something of this kind has 
been going on in a few American cities; 
but the movement drags slowly, because 
it seems to be no person's particular busi- 
ness to urge it forward. It ought to be 
made the business of the States, just as 
much as primary education is now, and 
the educational training of railroad men 
ought to be part of it. 

The men who educate themselves after 
entering railroad service are those likely 
to reach the higher positions eventually, 
because the fact that they labor on self- 
instruction shows that they possess the 
kinds of qualities which push men above 
their fellows. What is most urgently 
needed is the providing of better means 
to help the men who are striving to help 
themselves. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



175 



While there is undoubtedly agitation 
going on in favor of the educating of rail- 
road men, we do not think that railroad 
officers, as a rule, show much favor 
towards the better educated men found 
in the ranks. The selecting of men for 
promotion has not usually been dictated 
by an effort to find the most intelligent 
men, or even the men best adapted to 
perform the duties required. Personal 
favor is nearly always the force that starts 
a man from the ranks to a higher position. 
If he has not the natural capabilities to 
perform higher duties, he will fall back 
into the ranks again; but when he fails, 
no greater care than before will be exer- 
cised in finding men of superior training. 

We know the particulars of one case, 
where ten young men, about fifteen years 
ago, joined together to form a firemen's 
lodge. They were all ambitious and 
naturally of studious habits. All of these 
men are alive to-day, and only one of 
them is performing railroad work, and he 
is running an engine. The others are all 
in outside professions, and all are highly 
successful. There is no doubt but any 
one of these men would have made a 
highly successful railroad officer, and 
would have been a credit to the business; 
but not a single one of them was selected 
by the officers of the road for advance- 
ment, or saw the least indication that 
they would ever rise above the position 
of locomotive engineer, no matter how 
long they might remain with the com- 
pany. This is merely a specimen of what 
is going on in various parts of the coun- 
try to-day. The crying want of railroad 
life is not for the importation of higher- 
educated men from the outside, but the 
exercise of a little more inclination on 
the part of those in power to help forward 
the men who have educated themselves. 



The Roundhouse Foreman. 

We are not aware that there is any po- 
sition in railroad service where the com- 
pensation received is so small, in propor- 
tion to the importance of the duties per- 
formed, as that drawn by roundhouse 
foremen. A roundhouse foreman, even 
at a very important point, is generally 
paid about the same as a freight engineer. 
He must be an engineer himself to per- 
form his duties satisfactorily; and unless 
he is a machinist, the different problems 
that are daily and hourly imposed upon 
him to settle will be left to the final set- 
tlement of a breakdown, with all the ex- 
pense and delay that such an accident in- 
volves. 

Besides the duty of providing engines 
for all trains promptly, and crews for all 
engines, the roundhouse foreman is the 
physician who has to diagnose the com- 
plaints of all locomotives, without having 
the equivalent of a pulse or coated tongue 
to aid him in deciding what is the prob- 
able malady. About the most common 
report made on the work-book of a 



roundhouse is "Engine not steaming." 
There are numerous defects that may pre- 
vent an engine from steaming, but the en- 
gineer gives no indication of what may 
be the particular trouble, and the round- 
house foreman must proceed to make 
changes or adjustments on the lines, 
which experience has taught him are the 
most likely to effect a remedy. 

An engine is reported to have a pound 
on, say, the right-hand side; the engi- 
neer cannot tell to a certainty where the 
pound is, but he thinks it is in the driv- 
ing boxes; the driving boxes are care- 
fully examined, the wedges and main-rod 
bearings are thoroughly tried, and noth- 
ing can be found that is likely to cause 
the pound complained about. The en- 
gine goes out again without the trouble 
being remedied, and on returning, the 
same complaint is made, and likely 
enough the observant roundhouse fore- 
man finds it was caused by a flat spot on 
one of the tires, or he may have exhausted 
all his ingenuity in looking at parts that 
could be examined or tried in the usual 
way, and finds out after the engine has 
been steamed up to go out on next trip 
that the trouble is a loose piston head. 

Another source of worry to the hard- 
worked roundhouse foreman is reports 
about injectors and air pumps not work- 
ing properly. Some engineers habitually 
neglect their feed-water strainers, and re- 
port injectors not working properly, 
when nothing is the matter but a trifling 
obstruction to the water, which could be 
remedied in a few minutes by intelligent 
attention. 

Some men appear to have continual 
difficulty with their air pumps, yet are 
never able to give an intelligent report of 
what is the matter. The air-brake school- 
master is pretty widely abroad in the land 
at present, and we think that his work 
ought to result in the establishing of a 
rule that no engineer should be allowed 
to make the report "Pump not working 
properly." He ought to be familiar 
enough with the apparatus to indicate 
what is the matter. 

The increasing number of locomotives 
equipped with solid-ended rod connec- 
tions has done much to reduce the work 
on rods; but the report "Lost motion of 
rods to be taken up" is by no means a 
thing of the past. An eight-wheel en- 
gine, with the rods properly put up and 
the wedges kept in shape, ought to run 
at least 50,000 miles before anything has 
to be done to the side rods; but many 
engineers seem to think that something 
ought to be done every month, and they 
make the life of the roundhouse fore- 
man a burden, with their orders that lost 
motion should be taken up. Another 
fertile source of annoyance to this over- 
worked official is hot boxes. Some en- 
gineers never think of having cellars 
packed until the box begins to run hot; 
then the bearing gets cut, and the pack- 
ing of cellars has to be attended to every 



trip until the bearing gets back to its nor- 
mal condition. 

Besides the worry of keeping the en- 
gines in good running condition, a great 
many roundhouse foremen are constantly 
under fire of engineers and firemen, who 
are troubled about not getting their 
rights, or are anxious to obtain rights 
which belong to others. When a man 
covets a particular run, it is wonderful 
the amount of ingenuity he will sometimes 
display in bringing up evidence to show 
that the run belongs to him, though 
everyone else is satisfied that he has no 
right to it. When a man of this sort fails 
to get anything which he wants, the 
roundhouse foreman is blamed for being 
unjust, and he has to carry the burden 
of abuse and hatred, because he is doing 
his best to do justice to all around. In 
many cases the roundhouse foreman is 
used as a buffer between master mechanic 
and the enginemen, and all disagreeable 
duties are put upon him, while the pleas- 
ant actions go to the credit of his su- 
periors. 

We used to believe that the position of 
a brakeman of a. freight train, when the 
car roofs are covered with ice and the 
wind blowing like a myriad of knife- 
blades, was about the most disagreeable 
position we could imagine; but, on calm 
deliberation and actual experience, we 
rather think we would prefer the position 
of brakeman to that of roundhouse fore- 
man at a place where there are few en- 
gines to do the work properly and the 
engine men are indifferently under con- 

tro '- * ft i 

The Benefits of Shop Kinks. 

The progress of shop practice in the 
use of special tools, known as kinks, is 
well illustrated in this issue. The Lehigh 
Valley Railroad having contributed the 
greater portion of them, the attention of 
those interested will be attracted in the 
direction of that road, and to the manage- 
ment of a , machinery department that 
gives evidence of a correct understanding 
of shop needs and how to provide for 
them. 

One of the best proofs that the publica- 
tion of these short cuts to reduce cost of 
work, are working a revolution in shop 
expense, is seen in the great strides made 
in the application of compressed air, a 
field that bids fair to keep the inventive 
faculties well sharpened in conjuring up 
new schemes by which to harness it to 
new uses. 

This interchange of practical ideas 
among practical men is a good thing from 
any point of a shop view. When encour- 
aged, as it should be, it serves to bring 
out the best there is in a man. incites all to 
renewed efforts, and gives the fellow with 
no capital except a healthy brain, an op- 
portunity to get to the fore that he would 
be unlikely to reach by any other means. 
It is simply the quiet working of the law 
of the survival of the fittest. 



V,0 

In our wanderings among railroad 
shops in pursuit of something new for 
these pages, we often find some tool under 
construction that is being put up from 
the dimensions furnished by our engrav- 
ings, with slight modifications, perhaps, 
to meet certain local wants, but the tool 
in its essential particulars would be copied, 
thus paying tribute to some man's head 
work. And this, too, by men who were 
not copyists, but who were the authors of 
many good things that someone else 
wanted, and were quick to recognize 
merit wherever found. 

The lesson of this is that a spirit of 
emulation properly fostered is a producer 
of net results. We know of no better way 
to accomplish these than for the heads of 
machinery departments to offer a pre- 
mium for the best and cheapest methods 
of getting out work. Such a course would 
have the effect of snuffing-out the incom- 
petents and putting to the front those 
properly entitled to advancement. 

® & & 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 

Among the other influences at work to 
prevent the organization of a technical 
auxiliary to the machinery department, is 
the widespread fear that it will be the en- 
tering wedge for so-called luxuries that 
are likely to follow in its train; among 
which the most prominent are a testing 
plant and a chemical laboratory. While 
these are certainly a good investment on a 
large road, they are not absolutely neces- 
sary to the small one. The live mechani- 
cal engineer will manage to save more 
with their help. 

That the railroad mechanical engineer 
has a future, there is no doubt. The re- 
sults shown by roads which are run on 
broad-gage lines, are the best guaranty 
that his mission in the machinery depart- 
ment is coming to be recognized. These 
results are object lessons to doubting 
managements, and are more potent than 
any appeal from the head of that depart- 
ment, because they are bespangled with 
the sign of the dollar. 



ft ft 



The Mechanical Engineer. 

A mechanical engineer with a good shop 
training is perhaps one of the best-paying 
adjuncts of the machinery department of 
a railroad. He is rightly regarded as an 
institution that ought to be cultivated, 
and many a motive power officer in full 
sympathy with the worth of that indivi- 
dual has at some time in his career had 
visions of what he would be able to ac- 
complish if the required appropriation 
were forthcoming. 

The endless round of important details 
that are handled in the mechanical en- 
gineer's office only go to emphasize the 
wisdom of its installation, since, if it were 
not made, these identical details would 
never receive attention, and would suffer 
in consequence. This is an infallible test 
of a most convincing character; it will 
have as much weight with the guards of 
the strong box as anything that can be 
said in its behalf. All opposition quickly 
disappears when proof is available that the 
mechanical engineer's office is a paying 
investment, and not until then in most 
cases, for it is a cold-blooded business 
proposition, without the remotest sem- 
blance of sentiment; a statement true for 
all cases except where "pull" is involved. 
There is one disagreeable phase of this 
subject, seen in the attitude of many cor- 
porations which can well afford the ex- 
penditure necessary to have first-class 
talent, but which will dishonestly force a 
draftsman to perform the duties properly 
belonging to the mechanical engineer, and 
at a miserable compensation; the while 
falsely holding out to him specious prom- 
ises of preferment in order that he may 
not quit the job that he is too poor to 
abandon. To those draftsmen who have 
had to play the dual role (and they are 
legion), this appears to be the very es- 
sence of contemptible meanness. 



Drip from Car-Heating. 

In our correspondence department a 
railroad trainman directs attention to the 
annoyance, expense and delay caused to 
railroad companies by the drip from the 
pipes of car-heating apparatus. From what 
we have seen in connection with steam- 
heated trains, it seems to us that our cor- 
respondent has treated the evil very 
mildly. We have never seen anything 
connected with railroad operating where 
more senselessness was displayed than in 
the locating of the drip pipes from car- 
heating apparatus. Experience has taught 
most men who have charge of locomotives 
to exercise as much care as possible to 
prevent leakage from cylinder cocks and 
feed pipes from falling upon the rail. 
These men have learned that wetting the 
rails in front of the driving wheels causes 
wasteful slipping, and that water poured 
upon the rail behind the drivers fills the 
flange spaces with ice in frosty weather 
and greatly increases the resistance of 
trains that follow. 

But this department of dearly earned 
experience does not seem to have radiated 
itself in the smallest degree to the men 
who have charge of cars. They have per- 
mitted the car-heating people to dispose 
of the water of condensation as best 
suited their convenience, and several of 
the most popular systems drop the water 
upon the rail, or as near to it as they 
can locate the drip cock. It seems in- 
credible that this condition of affairs has 
escaped the notice of the railroad officers 
who are responsible for the prompt move- 
ment of trains, and who are presumably 
interested in preventing anything likely 
to materially increase the cost of train 
movement. We would rather refrain from 
lecturing practical railroad men about 
their duties, but we are moved to urge all 
concerned to pay some attention to where 



the drip from car-heating pipes finds its 
goal. This is a minor detail thoroughly 
worthy of attention. 

§ d ft 

Variable Exhaust Nozzle. 

In another part of this issue we publish 
a letter concerning a successful variable 
nozzle which is now in use on the Duluth 
& Iron Range and other railroads in the 
Northwest. A peculiar feature about the 
form of variable nozzle described is that 
the operating mechanism is connected 
with the reverse lever, and consequently 
is always used. 

There have been a great many variable 
nozzles invented, to be put into service a 
short time and then dropped. The reason 
of this has been, not that the variable noz- 
zle is not a good thing, but that the ap- 
pliance would be neglected for a day or 
two, and then when the engineman tried 
to operate it, the parts had become so 
much gummed up that they could not be 
moved. 

We do not believe that any minor im- 
provement of a locomotive could produce 
so much saving of fuel as the regular use 
of a good variable nozzle. The serious 
objection to a fixed nozzle is that it is 
too small at the time when the engine is 
working hardest, and produces too strong 
a suction on the fire, while the same steam 
opening is at times too small for good 
production of draft when the engine is 
working lightest. The plan adopted by 
the designer of the variable nozzle we 
are referring to, is that it opens to its 
maximum area when the engine is work- 
ing hardest and closes up when the en- 
gine is working lightest. This can be 
easily adjusted to make the engines steam 
freely at any point of cut-off, at the same 
time reducing the force of the exhaust ac- 
tion at the time it is most destructive upon 
the fire. 

§' ft i 



Adhesive Weight vs. Weight on 
Drivers. 

A misnomer that is now so strongly 
intrenched in our mechanical vocabulary 
as to be, and is regarded as the cor- 
rect thing, is the so-called "weight on 
drivers." The universal acceptance of the 
term is that it represents the adhesive or 
frictional weight on the rail, but, as a 
matter of fact, the weight on drivers is 
literally the weight resting on the jour- 
nals of those wheels, and not the weight 
on the rails under the wheels. Here is a 
state of things that is likely to befog the 
average mind not up in locomotive tech- 
nics. 

The weight of two pairs of cast-iron 
driving wheels 62 inches in diameter, with 
the eccentrics and straps on the main 
axles, will be 12,000 to 14.000 pounds, and 
it is not necessary to say that this is all 
adhesive weight, since it rests on the rail. 
If we accept the standard expression, 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



IT? 



"weight on drivers," as correct, we vir- 
tually deprive the engine of 12,000 to 14,- 
000 pounds that ought to be in use to hold 
her to the rail. 

"Weight under the drivers," which 
would be understood as the reaction of the 
rail against the weight on and in the 
drivers, would be preferable to the exist- 
ing style of reference. "Adhesive weight" 
is sometimes used, and we think properly, 
for the reason that it tells at once what it 
is for, and we have no difficulty in under- 
standing that it is the total weight on the 
rail under the drivers, and that its function 
is to enable the engine to move on the 
rail, which it could not do without the fric- 
tion between the wheel and rail due to this 
weight. 

It is about time that some of these mis- 
applied mechanical terms were relegated 
to a side track having a derailing attach- 
ment. "Weight on drivers" ought to go. 

$ § $ 

Attempt to Stop the Tide of Progress. 

There has been a somewhat curious 
agitation going on among New York. 
New Haven & Hartford brakemen. It 
appears that it has been the habit of that 
road to employ five brakemen on freight 
trains; but since the general introduction 
of the air brake on freight cars, the men 
are not required for braking purposes, 
and only four are now employed. The 
brakemen are agitating in favor of bring- 
ing the question before the Legislature of 
Connecticut, for the purpose of getting 
laws passed that will compel the railroad 
company to revert to the old practice of 
employing five brakemen on each train. 

The men who are engaged in this agita- 
tion might as well agitate against high 
tides rising over the low lands on the 
coast of Connecticut. The tide of prog- 
ress says that before many days the occu- 
pation of brakeman on freight cars will 
be gone, just as certainly as it is now 
gone on passenger trains. Trainmen will 
be needed for switching purposes and for 
the protection of trains; but the word 
"brakeman" will have no more meaning, 
as applied to practical work, than the 
word "plate-layer" has to-day as applied 
to trackmen in the British Isles. 



Seeking Positions Abroad. 

In hisvery interesting letter on "Russian 
Railways" that appears in the first por- 
tion of this paper, Mr. McCarroll gives 
some salutary advice to American railroad 
men who are striving to obtain positions 
on railroads abroad. He tells that there 
is no opportunity whatever for men who 
cannot talk the language, and that the 
hours are longer and the pay much smaller 
than that paid by American railroads. 

We have repeatedly in these columns 
told American railroad men that they 
cannot better their condition by going 
abroad, but we seldom mention any 
new railway enterprise in foreign coun- 



tries that we do not receive in- 
quires from trainmen about how they 
should proceed to obtain a position 
on the railway mentioned; this, too, 
from men who have good jobs. To thi 1 
men we would again declare emphatically 
that there is no country on the globe 
where trainmen are so well paid and so 
fairly treated as they are on American 
railroads. In other countries the pay is 
lower, the working hours longer, and the 
treatment from superiors is harsh as com- 
pared with our standard, and frequently 
brutal. To those who are dissatisfied with 
railroad life in this country, and intend 
going abroad, we would say — Don't. 
Rather turn to farming or working on the 
track; you will find it more comfortable. 

§ § III 

Report of Traveling Engineers' 
Convention. 

We have received the report of the pro- 
ceedings of the Fourth Annual Conven- 
tion of the Traveling Engineers' Associa- 
tion. It is a volume of the standard 
size and contains 258 pages, and is well 
got up in every particular. The reports 
and discussions upon them are excellent, 
and are noted for their practical common 
sense and absence of all fads and foolish- 
ness. The discussions are particularly 
good and represent the views of men who 
have something of value to say and know 
how to say it. It is a long time since we 
looked over a report which contained so 
much matter that we would like to select 
for the pages of "Locomotive Engineer- 
ing." We cordially recommend the re- 
port to people who like to read good en- 
gineering literature. It can be obtained 
from Mr. W. O. Thompson, Secretary, 
at Elkhart, Ind.; price 50 cents. 

i i i 

Nearly all the leading railroad com- 
panies in the country have purchased 
for the mechanical department, decimal 
gages to be employed for measuring sheet 
iron, tubes and wire; but the men in 
charge do not seem to be making much 
use of the gage. In the course of last 
month we had a conversation with a tube 
maker, and he acknowledged that he had 
not yet received one order for tubes with 
the dimension of thickness indicated ac- 
cording to decimal measurement. The 
railroad mechanical men in this country 
have in their hands the effecting of a 
great reform in a line of measurement 
where great confusion now prevails. It is 
to be hoped that they will not permit the 
opportunity to pass, through indifference 
or carelessness. 



We have received from Professor Mag- 
ruder, of the Ohio State University, a 
bulletin concerning the engineering edu- 
cation to be received at the Ohio State 
University. We judge from the bulletin 



that the university authorites are follow- 
ing an extremely comprehensible system 
of engineering education, and that then 
plan of admission is arranged so that any- 
one desirous of higher engineering cdu- 
catioi '.hi obtain it without difficulty. 
The great obstacle which mechanics, as a 
rule, find in entering engineering schools, 
is the difficult preliminary cxaminati 
be encountered. The Ohio State Univer- 
sity has a system of short courses which 
students are admitted to without any en- 
tering examination. We do not have 
space to give the whole of the bulletin, 
but we earnestly recommend young men 
who have aspirations for a sound engi- 
neering education to send for it to Pro- 
fessor Magruder. The engineering tui- 
tion at that institution is free, and un- 
usually good provisions are made to 
enable students to earn a livelihood while 
attending the university. 



s 



® 



There is talk of the Chicago, Burling- 
ton & Quincy system undertaking a novel 
business of newspaper publishing, the 
printing office to be carried on a train, 
and all the station agents on the road to 
be turned into local reporters. It is a 
pretty scheme, and no doubt originated 
with some minor official, hankering after 
notoriety as an editor. The hard-headed 
management of the system are not likely 
to spend the company's money on any 
such crack-brained enterprise. There are 
too many railroad companies engaged in 
doing business their charters do not en- 
title them to pursue, but publishing a 
pretentious daily paper would be carry- 
ing illegitimate business too far. It is 
difficult enough for men trained to the 
business to make daily papers pay, and 
amateurs would make failure certain when 
their operations were carried on on a large 
scale. 



An earnest effort is making by a com- 
bination of railroad managers to induce 
Congress to extend the time for the com- 
pulsory equipment of cars with air brakes 
and automatic couplers. Unless this ex- 
tension is granted, the time allowed ex- 
pires with this year. The unusually hard 
times that have prevailed since the law 
was passed offers a valid reason for ask- 
ing an extension of time, but it seems to 
us that the demand for five years' exten- 
sion is not reasonable. Some railroad 
companies have done their best to be pre- 
pared to comply with the law when it be- 
comes due, while others have done little 
or nothing, and it has not been the poor- 
est lines which have done least. We be- 
lieve that the most equitable course for 
Congress to pursue would be to permit 
the law to be suspended for a certain time, 
at the option of the Board of Interstate 
Commerce Commission, and that the 
board should have authority to deal with 
individual cases on their merits 



178 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



PERSONAL. 

Mr. F. H. Dehn has resigned the posi- 
tion of master mechanic of the Texas 
Central. 

Mr. A. H. Smith has resigned as mas- 
ter mechanic of the Middle division of the 
Grand Trunk, on account of failing health. 
Mr. J. D. Evans, foreman of the Peoria 
& Pekin Union shops at Peoria, 111., died 
in the latter city on January 16th, aged 
57 years. 

Mr. W. H. Fry, formerly superintendent 
of the car department of the New York, 
New Haven & Hartford, died recently at 
St. Louis, Mo. 

Mr. J. A. Fillmore, manager of the Pa- 
cific system of the Southern Pacific Rail- 
way, is seriously ill with pneumonia at 
San Francisco. 

Mr. P. T. Mooney has been appointed 
master mechanic of the Texas Central at 
Walnut Springs, Tex., taking the place of 
Mr. F. H. Dehn. 

Mr. H. K. Gilbert, auditor of the Crane 
Company, of Chicago, up to January ist, 
has been elected treasurer of the Sargent 
Company, Chicago. 

Mr. E. W. Knapp has resigned as mas- 
ter mechanic of the Mexican National, to 
accept the position of master mechanic of 
the Inter-Oceanic-Puebla Railway. 

Mr. Wm. W. Noble has been appointed 
purchasing agent and paymaster of the 
Huntingdon & Broad Top Railroad, with 
headquarters at Philadelphia. Pa. 

Mr. William Bullock, engine dispatcher 
on the Long Island Railroad at Long 
Island City, has been promoted to be 
roundhouse foreman at the same place. 

Mr. Curtis W. Shields has accepted 
the position of New York representative 
of the Pedrick & Ayer Company, of Phil- 
adelphia. His headquarters will be at in 
Liberty street. 

Mr. S. D. Warrener has resigned as 
mechanical engineer of the Lehigh Valley 
Coal Company, to take effect February 
ist. to accept a position with the Calumet 
& Hecla Coal Mines. 

Mr. H. C. Smith, master mechanic of 
the Delaware and Hudson Canal Com- 
pany at Oneonta, has resigned and has 
been succeeded by Mr. J. R. Skinner, who 
was formerly foreman. 

Mr. C. E. Doyle and J. M. Gill, super- 
intendents of the Eastern and Western 
divisions of the Chesapeake & Ohio, re- 
spectively, have had their titles raised to 
general superintendents. 

Mr. Frank S. Gannon, prior to his leav- 
ing the Staten Island Rapid Transit road, 
of which he had been general manager, 
was presented by his employes with a 
silver service, valued at $1,000. 

Mr. R. W. Ryan, who is so well known 
to railroad men in connection with report- 



ing conventions and club meetings, has 
opened a stenographer's office in the 
Post Office Building, New York. 

Mr. Chas. A. Cole, formerly foreman 
of the Wiggins Ferry Company, has ac- 
cepted the position of roundhouse fore- 
man with the St. Louis & San Francisco 
Railway Company at St. Louis. 

Mr. C. A.Thompson has been appointed 
the representative of the Standard Steel 
Works in St. Louis and the Southwestern 
territory. His headquarters are at 615 
North Fourth street, St. Louis, Mo. 

Mr. Elmer W. Brown has been pro- 
moted to be traveling engineer on the Sus- 
quehanna division of the Erie. Mr. Brown 
has risen rapidly, and made his mark first 
through high efficiency as a fireman. 

Mr. G. A. Woodman has been ap- 
pointed superintendent of the car depart- 
ment of the Lima Locomotive & Ma- 
chine Company, Lima, O. He was form- 
erly with the Illinois Central Railroad. 

Mr. John Commerford, who on Janu- 
ary ist entered the service of the Chicago 
& Northwestern as master car builder, 
has had an experience of twenty-five years 
in the car department of the Tan Handle 
road. 

The position of master of machinery of 
the Pittsburgh & Lake Erie has been 
abolished, Mr. L. H. Turner's title be- 
ing changed to superintendent of mo- 
tive power and equipment, at McKee's 
Rocks, Pa. 



Mr. Frank E. Barnard, so well known 
to railroad men in connection with his 
work for B. M. Jones & Co., has been ad- 
mitted a partner into the firm. We con- 
gratulate both the firm and Mr. Barnard, 
but more especially the firm. 

Mr. W. D. Trump, assistant to the 
general manager of the Flint & Pere 
Marquette, has been appointed assistant 
superintendent of that road, with head- 
quarters at Saginaw. Mich., succeeding 
Mr. W. F. Potter, resigned. 

The numerous railroad men who were 
acquainted with Mr. George H. Eager, 
treasurer of the Crosby Steam Gage & 
Valve Company, will be sorry to hear that 
he died in the early part of last month, 
after about three weeks' sickness. 

General Manager W. M. Greene, of the 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, has appointed 
Mr. J. M. Graham, superintendent of the 
Ohio division, vice J. Van Smith, as gen- 
eral superintendent of the Trans-Ohio 
division, with headquarters at Chicago. 

Mr. George A. Hancock, superinten- 
dent of machinery of the Gulf. Colorado 
& Santa Fe has been appointed to the 
position of assistant superintendent of 
machinery of the Atchison. Topeka & 
Santa Fe, with headquarters at Topeka. 

Mr. George Royal, Jr., has resigned 
his position as Western agent of the Ster- 



lingworth Supply Company, to enter that 
of the Nathan Manufacturing Company. 
His office will be with his father, whom he 
will assist in working the Western field. 

Mr. Henry L. Morrill, ex-second vice- 
president and general manager of the St. 
Louis & San Francisco, received, as a 
New Year's present from the employes of 
that road, a gold-headed cane as a mark 
of the high estimation in which he is held. 

Mr. W. E. Symons, formerly a master 
mechanic on the Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe, has accepted a position with 
the Galena Oil Company, with headquar- 
ters at Savannah, Ga. He will have the 
Plant system of railroads for his territory. 

There is an official announcement that 
Mr. E. R. Reynolds, having resigned as 
general manager of the Long Island Rail- 
road, the officers who have heretofore re- 
ported to him will now report direct 
to President W. H. Baldwin, Jr., at Long 
Island City, N. Y. 

Mr. J. S. Coffin, for many years one 
of the popular representatives of the Ga- 
lena Oil Company, has been appointed 
assistant superintendent of the mechani- 
cal expert department of the Galena Oil 
Works, Limited, appointment taking ef- 
fect January I, 1897. 

Mr. James C. Currie, a well-known pas- 
senger engineer on the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, has resigned to enter the service of 
the Nathan Manufacturing Company, 
with headquarters in New York. He 
takes the place made vacant by the death 
of the late W. H. Gurney. 

Mr. Wm. Gibson, who recently went 
from the "Big 4" to be assistant to the 
general manager of the Baltimore & Ohio, 
has been promoted to be assistant general 
superintendent of the Baltimore & Ohio 
lines west of the Ohio River, with head- 
quarters at Baltimore, Md. 

It is announced that the private office 
of Mr. George L. Bradbury, vice-presi- 
dent and general manager of the Lake 
Erie & Western, has been removed to 
room 623 Monadnock Building. Chicago. 
His office for ordinary business will re- 
main at Indianapolis, as heretofore. 

The Queen of England always makes 
New Year's Day notable by conferring 
titles upon persons who are considered 
worthy of such honors. Among those 
who were favored last New Year's Day 
was William Birt, the general manager of 
the Great Western Railway of England, 
who was made a knight. 

Mr. W. R. Stirling, of Chicago, who re- 
signed the position of first vice-president 
of the Illinois Steel Company a year ago. 
to take charge of the Universal Construc- 
tion Company, has now resigned and 
gone to Europe. He expects to travel 
several months, and it is his intention to 
go into other business on his return. 

Mr. M. E. Ingalls, the well-known 
president of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



m 



Chicago & St. Louis, who is also one of 
the strongest personages politically in the 
Middle States, has entered a protest with 
the Ways and Means Committee of Con- 
gress against increasing the tariff on rail- 
road supplies, such as iron and steel. 

Mr. H. B. Hodges, late superintendent 
of tests of the Southern Railway, has 
been appointed purchasing agent and 
superintendent of tests of the Long Island 
Railroad. Mr. Hodges' connection with 
the Southern Railway, as superintendent 
of tests, dates from October, 1895, and he 
held a similar position previously on the 
Baltimore & Ohio. 

Mr. C. G. Geddes, who has been general 
manager of the Toledo, Bowling Green 
& Fremont road ever since its inception, 
has tendered his resignation to take effect 
January 1st. It is thought the Maumee 
Valley road and the Bowling Green will 
be consolidated under one manager. Mr. 
(leddes has several offers under consider- 
ation from corporations that run into 
Toledo. 

Mr. Wm. Smith has been appointed 
superintendent of motive power of the 
Duluth, Missabe & Northern Railway, to 
succeed Mr. A. F. Priest, with headquar- 
ters at Duluth, Minn. Mr. Smith was for 
several years superintendent of motive 
power of the Chicago & Northwestern. 
He has been idle for two or three years, 
and we are glad to welcome a first-class 
mechanic like Mr. Smith back into the 
railroad fold. 

Mr. Jacob Johann, who has for years 
been a prominent figure among railroad 
mechanical men, has retired after being in 
harness for fifty years. Mr. Johann has 
been one of the most successful men in 
his line during his long course of service, 
and retires to a well-deserved rest and 
leisure with the good-will of a large num- 
ber of railway men and other friends. We 
trust he will long be spared to enjoy his 
pleasant home at Springfield, 111. 

Mr. H. Monkhouse has been appointed 
superintendent of machinery of the Chi- 
cago & Alton, with headquarters at 
Bloomington, 111. Mr. Monkhouse has 
for several years been assistant superin- 
tendent of motive power of the Chicago. 
Rock Island & Pacific, in charge of the 
Western divisions and of the shops at 
Horton, Kan. Mr. Monkhouse is a grad- 
uate of the Baltimore & Ohio, and has 
been with the Rock Island for eight years. 
A circular issued by Vice-President and 
General Manager Ramsey, of the Wabash, 
announces the appointment of James Bruce 
as chief inspector of fuel and locomotives. 
The employes hitherto known as road 
foremen of engines on the various divis- 
ions will in the future have the title of di- 
vision inspectors of fuel and locomotives, 
reporting to Mr. Bruce, and he in turn 
to the vice-president and general manager. 
Mr. Bruce's headquarters will be at St. 
Louis. 



1 Ine of the first actions taken by Mr. 
W. H. Baldwin, Jr., when In I ■ < imi 
president of the Long Island Railroad, 
was to find out the cause of the discon- 
tent which prevailed among the employes 
of the system. He found a rather savage 
system of discipline in force, men being 
punished with very little investigation of 
whether they deserved punishment or not. 
This has now been changed, and the 
Brown System of Punishment without 
Suspension established on that road. 

Sir Jos. Hickson, for many years gen- 
eral manager of the Grand Trunk Rail- 
way, died at Montreal, Can., on January 
4th. He became general manager of the 
Grand Trunk in 1874, after a long experi- 
ence in other railway positions. He was 
born at Otterburn, Northumberland, Eng- 
land, in 1830. While a young boy he 
entered the service of the Northeastern 
Railway of England, and there received 
his baptism in the troubles of railway 
operations. He was a capable and able 
railway officer, as his career from the 
start up to the time of his demise clearly 
shows. 

At the annual meeting of the Central 
Railroad Club, held in Buffalo last month, 
the following officers were elected for the 
ensuing year: President, John MacKen- 
zie, superintendent of motive power, 
Nickel Plate; Vice-President, John S. 
Lentz, superintendent car department, Le- 
high Valley; Secretary-Treasurer, Harry 
D. Vought, railroad editor of the "Cour- 
ier." Executive Committee — A. M. Waitt, 
master car builder, Lake Shore; E. D. 
Bronner, assistant superintendent of mo- 
tive power, Michigan Central; E. A. Mil- 
ler, master mechanic, Nickel Plate; J. R. 
Petrie, joint inspector. 

Mr. John Hickey, whose resignation of 
the office of superintendent of motive 
power, machinery and rolling stock of the 
Northern Pacific Railway, was the result 
of ill-health occasioned by the loss of 
four children in quick succession, was sur- 
prised at his home on the evening of Jan- 
uary oth by the master mechanics, general 
foremen of his road, and his office force, 
who sprung another surprise on him by 
first reading a handsomely engrossed tes- 
timonial, and afterward presenting him 
with a diamond stud and ring. The latter 
is a massive one, and unique, the top 
representing the front view of a locomo- 
tive. A large diamond does duty for the 
boiler, and two smaller ones for the cyl- 
inders, while still another stands in the 
place occupied by the headlight. From 
long associaion with the gentleman, we 
know that he is worthy of any mark of 
esteem from his subordinates, and that the 
fire from their precious gifts is not 
warmer than the affection they bear their 
late chief. Mr. Hickey has left for the 
South to find that rest and return of health 
he sadly needs. We hope his recovery 
will be rapid, so that he can again be at 
the front in locomotive engineering. 



EQUIPMENT NOTES. 

I li Wabash are said to be getting out 
specifications for new locomotives. 

1 ! ■ i Poultry Company are getting 
some new cars built for carrying poultry. 

It is said that the Mexican Central will 
order over 500 freight car-, of different 

classes. 

I In reports are renewed that the 
souri Pacific are about to order a lot of 

1 ars. 

The Canadian Pacific Railway is wir- 
ing all new passenger train cars for elec- 
tric lighting. 

The Chicago & Eastern Illinois are to 
order some new coal cars — not less than 
300, it is said. 

The Ensign Manufacturing Company- 
are building one car for the Canda Cattle 
Car Company. 

The Colorado Midland Railway has 
ordered 180 freight cars from the Pull- 
man Car Company. 

The Michigan Peninsular Car Com- 
pany are building some cars for the G. 
H. Hammond Company. 

Two hundred gondola cars will be built 
by the Pittsburgh, Ft. Wayne & Chicago 
Railway at their shops. 

A number of new cars are being built 
by the Atlanta, Knoxville & Northern 
Railroad at their shops. 

The Brooks Locomotive Works are 
building one locomotive for the St. Marys 
& Southwestern Railroad. 

It is said that Armour & Co., of Chi- 
cago, have ordered 200 cars from the 
Wells & French Company. 

After a long shut-down, the Youngs- 
town Car Company, of Youngstown, O., 
have started up their works. 

The Baldwin Locomotive Works have 
delivered five ten-wheel engines to the 
Colorado Midland Railway. 

It is said that the Marietta & North 
Georgia Railroad are about to order 500 
freight cars of different kinds. 

The Union Pacific has prepared speci- 
fications for fifty coal cars of 40.000 pounds 
capacity, having 36-inch gage. 

The Union Pacific, Denver & Gulf Rail- 
way is having 100 new coal cars built by 
the St. Charles Car Company. 

The Erie Car Company are building 
some cars for the Nichols Chemical Com- 
pany and others for G. W. Arper. 

The Pittsburgh Locomotive Works are 
building two locomotives for the Cleve- 
land Terminal & Valley Railroad. 

The Wells & French Company are 
building 150 freight equipment cars for 
the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe. 

The receiver of the Colorado Midland 
Railroad will, it is said, be shortly in the 
market for twenty refrigerator cars. 

Two hundred new box cars have been 



180 

recently built at the Ft. Wayne shops of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. 

The Pullman Car Company havetwenty- 
five box cars under way for the Portland 
& Rumford Falls Railroad in Maine. 

The Union Pacific. Denver & Gulf Rail- 
way have received six new locomotives 
from the Baldwin Locomotive Works. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 

building of i.ooo cars for the Fairport 
Dock Company, by the Baltimore & Ohio 
Railway. 

An order has been placed with the 

Richmond Locomotive Works by the 

Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. 

Louis and Chesapeake & Ohio railways 

for six locomotives. 



The Jackson & Sharp Company are 
building two passenger equipment cars 
for the Jamestown & Lake Erie Railroad. 
Two locomotives have been ordered 
from the Pittsburgh Locomotive Works 
by the Cape Fear & Yadkin Valley Rail- 
way. 

The Osborn-Saeger Company are re- 
ported to have ordered 125 cars from the 
Youngstown Car Manufacturing Com- 
pany. 

The Chicago, New York & Boston 
Transportation Company are building 
twenty-five refrigerator cars at their Elgin 
shops. 

The Schenectady Locomotive Works 
are building three locomotives for the 
Texas Midland and two for the Fall 
Brook. 



The Universal Construction Company, 
of Chicago, are building ten steel flat cars 
for the Chicago, Lake Shore & Eastern 
Railroad. 

The St. Louis & San Francisco Rail- 
way has ordered 300 coal cars of 60,000 
pounds capacity, from the St. Charles Car 
Company. 

The Schenectady Locomotive Works 
have received an order for five locomo- 
tives from the Midland Terminal Railroad 
Company. 

The Union Car Company are building 
seven freight equipment cars for the 
Lackawanna Live Stock Transportation 
Company. 

Murray, Dougal & Co., are building 
four freight equipment cars for Efros C. 
Co. and four freight cars for the Eagle 
Cotton Oil Company. 

The Seaboard Air Line people are get- 
ting out specifications for twelve new lo- 
comotives. They will be ten-wheel en- 
gines, similar to the last received. 

The Bangor & Aroostook Railroad 
are receiving their order of 150 new flat 
cars, built by the car works at Berlin, 
N. H., at the rate of from 25 to 50 per day. 
The United States Metallic Packing 
Company, of Philadelphia, have purchased 
the Dean sanding device for locomotives, 
and will handle it with their other special- 
ties. 

The Nippon Railroad of Japan has or- 
dered 44 engines from the Baldwin Loco- 
motive Works, the order being equally 
divided between freight and passenger 
engines. 

A contract has been awarded the Mis- 
souri Car & Foundry Company for the 



The Cornwall & Lebanon Railroad has 
given an order to the Lebanon Manufac- 
turing Company to equip 200 recently re- 
paired freight cars with air brakes and 
automatic couplers. 

An order for ten locomotives has been 
placed by Southern Pacific Railway, five 
of which will be built at the Cooke Loco- 
motive Works, and five at the Schenec- 
tady Locomotive Works. 

The Weimer Manufacturing Company, 
of Lebanon, Pa., are to build sixteen steel 
cinder cars for the Edgar Thompson 
Works; these cars are to be used for haul- 
ing cinders and slag from furnaces. 

The export agents of the Bloomsburg 
Car Works, H. C. Dayton & Co., of New 
York, shipped during December, 1896, 
sixty-four freight and four passenger cars 
to Central America and South America. 

The Charleston & Western Carolina 
Railway has made a contract with the 
( )hio Falls Manufacturing Company to 
build for the former, eighteen passenger 
and baggage cars, ten caboose and 375 
freight cars. 

The Pullman Palace Car Company are 
building four combination passenger and 
baggage cars for the Southern Railway. 
These cars will run on the Washington 
& Southwestern vestibule limited trains, 
and will be ready for delivery by Feb- 
ruary 15th. 

Barney & Smith are building one 
freight equipment car for Barnum & 
Bailey; two passenger equipment cars for 
C. P. Huntington; two passenger equip- 
ment cars for the Jamestown & Lake 
Erie, and 100 freight equipment cars for 
the Kansas City, Pittsburgh & Gulf. 

Three 30-inch gage locomotives have 
been completed at the Baldwin Locomo- 
tive Works for the Mapimi Railroad on 
the Mexican Central system. They arc 
made to run by cog or by adhesion, at 
pleasure, and weigh 28 tons. The fire- 
boxes are put in at an incline correspond- 
ing to the 6 per cent, grade they are to 
run on. 

In the description of "First-class Gage 
Testing Appliances" in our December, 
1896, number, we innocently referred to 
the weighted testing apparatus as an "Ash- 
croft" device, when it should have read 
"Crosby." While this excellent gage 
tester is so well known that all would 
recognize it from our engraving, simple 
justice to the manufacturers of it demands 
a full explanation. It is made by the 
Crosby Steam Gage & Valve Company. 
Boston, Mass. 



The Big Four's Fast Run. 

The Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati & 
St. Louis people are feeling proud these 
days, all on account of an extraordinarily 
fast run made from St. Louis to Cleveland 
with a special. Besides a sheet sent us 
by the general traffic manager, giving 
particulars, we have received seven letters 
about the run, so there seems to be a fairly 
widespread desire that "Locomotive En- 
gineering" should convey the news of the 
trip to the uttermost parts of the earth. 

The train carried the Geisha Opera 
Company, and consisted of five cars, 
weighing 351,000 pounds, exclusive of 
passengers and baggage. Eight-wheel en- 
gines with cylinders 18^ x 24 inches, driv- 
ing wheels 68 inches diameter, and boiler 
giving 1725.6 square feet of heating sur- 
face, pulled the train from St. Louis to 
Indianapolis, a distance of 262 miles. The 
run from Indianapolis to Cleveland, 283 
miles, was made by eight-wheel engines 
having cylinders 18x24 inches, driving 
wheels 62 inches diameter, and 1,600 
square feet of heating surface. 

The entire run of 545 miles was covered 
in it hours 18 minutes. With delays in 
actual stops deducted, the time used in 
running was 9 hours 55 minutes. From 
that it will be seen that the 545 miles were 
run in 595 minutes, an average of 55.38 
miles per hour. 

The greatest speed was attained between 
Mitchell and Comstock, on St. Louis 
Division, 3 2-10 miles in 2^4 minutes, 
or 76.3 miles per hour; Gays to Mattoon, 
12 miles in 10 minutes or 72 miles per 
hour. On Cleveland Division, Marsh's 
to La Rue. 3 7-10 miles in 3 minutes, or 
74 miles per hour; Wellington to Grafton 
11 1-5 miles in 9V2 minutes, or 69.7 miles 
per hour. 
The train was handled by the following 

trainmen: 

St. Louis to Mattoon, Engine No. 188. 
Engineer Cale Kirby, Fireman Arthur 
Krolin, Conductor F. M. McClelland. 

Mattoon to Indianapolis, Engine No. 
197. Engineer Frank Presler, Fireman 
H. L. Bauer, Conductor F. M. McClel- 
land. 

Indianapolis to Bellefontaine. Engine 
No. no. Engineer J. D. Caskey, Fireman 
Thos. Robinson, Conductor E. A. Orr. 

Bellefontaine to Cleveland, Engine No. 
115. Engineer J. W. Kunkel, Fireman 
F. E. Fowle, Conductor Wm. McGraw. 



The Chicago & Northwestern mechani- 
cal department have been engaged lately 
in making a series of tests on their sta- 
tionary testing plant of compound and 
simple locomotives to demonstrate the 
relative value of the two forms of engines. 

i @ ® 

The Central Railroad Club, at last meet- 
ing, changed their constitution, making 
it the duty of the Executive Committee 
to elect the secretary and treasurer. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING, 






Air=Brake Department 



CONDUCTED UV P. M. NELLIS. 



Two-Pipe Air Brake System. 

For the benefit of those who are partial 
to double-pipe air brake systems, and 
who do not know that this ground has 
been gone over thoroughly, we are illus- 
trating a form patented by Mr. Geo. 
Westinghouse, Jr., as far back as 1873, 
which is probably the simplest one of that 
type. As will be seen, the system can 
be operated either as straight air or auto- 
matic at will of the engineer, either form 
of brake being automatically cut out at 
will by the engineer. Auxiliary reservoirs 
can be recharged while the brake is set. It 
will also be seen that the. double-pipe sys- 
tem wasconsideredas far back as the triple 
valve itself; but the inventor recognized 
the disadvantages of such a system, and 
wisely confined his attention to the de- 
velopment of the single-pipe system. In 
his patent specifications, Mr. Westing- 
house describes his device as follows: 

"My present invention relates to an 
improved construction of the valves and 
pipe couplings employed in such appar- 
atus. 

"I will first describe my improved con- 
struction of valves, referring to Fig. 1, 
which represents a section of the valve- 
box. This valve-box has three chambers 
or compartments, and is provided with 
three valves, A, B and C, united by one 
stem. The first or upper chamber com- 
municates, by the end passage E, with the 
pipe by which compressed air is conveyed 
throughout the train, and, by the side 
passage F, with the auxiliary reservoir of 
compressed air. In this chamber there 
are two valves, A and B, on the same 
stem of which the upper valve A, has a 
greater area than the lower valve, B, and 
has holes through it near its periphery 
covered by a disk a, pressed against its 
back by a spring. The second chamber 
communicates, by a side passage G, with 
the brake-cylinder, and the third chamber 
has an opening H to the atmosphere. 
This third chamber contains the third 
valve C, also on the same stem, which can 
close upward against a caoutchouc or 
leather seating c when the valve A is 
closed against its upper seat. The 
seating c is made with a little space 
between its inner edge and the body 
of the valve-box, so that when the 
valve C bear against it the pressure of air 
above the seating shall press it against 
the raised annular edge of the valve C, 
and thereby insure the tightness of its 
closure. 

"The operation of these valves is as 
follows: Assuming that the auxiliary 
reservoir is not charged with compressed 
air, when compressed air is admitted into 
the air-pipe it enters by the passage E, 




K 
Fig. 3 



■s - 



Fig. 2 




Iioeomotit* Enffin**n*g 

Fig. 5 

EARLY DESIGN OF AUTOMATIC RECHARGING SYSTEM OF AIR BRAKE. 



182 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



and, its pressure acting on the larger 
valve A, opens it and closes the valve B. 
The compressed air thus admitted flows 
through the holes in the valve A, pressing 
away the disk a that covers them, and, by 
the passage /•', to the auxiliary reservoir, 
which it charges. At the same time the 
valve C, being on the same stem with A 
and B, is opened, and air from the brake- 
cylinder issues, by the passage G, past the 
valve C and through the opening H to the 
atmosphere; so that the brakes are taken 
off by relieving the piston in the brake- 
cylinder from pressure. 

"If now it be required to put on the 
brakes, air is allowed to escape from the 
air-pipe, either by opening a cock or valve 
by hand or automatically (in the manner 
described in the specifications referred to 
above), when the air-pipe or its connec- 
tions give way, or when a carriage be- 
comes detached or runs off the line. The 
auxiliary reservoir having been charged 
with compressed air, as described above, 
the pressure communicated through the 
passage F acting on the larger area of the 
valve A, and finding no escape by the 
holes in its periphery, which are closed 
by the disk o, raises that valve against its 
seat, and so closes communication with 
the air-pipe by the passage E. At the 
same time the valve B is opened, and the 
valve C is closed. Compressed air then 
flows from the auxiliary reservoir by the 
passage F, past the valve B, through the 
passage G to the brake-cylinder, where it 
acts on the piston so as to put on the 
brakes. 

"Thus, by means of this triple-valve 
arrangement, when the air-pipes com- 
municating with E are charged with com- 
pressed air the auxiliary reservoirs are 
charged and the brakes are taken off, and 
when air is discharged from the air-pipes, 
the brakes are put on by the action of the 
air stored in the auxiliary reservoir. 

"Fig. 2 represents a section of a con- 
struction of such a valve-box in which the 
lower disk-valve C is replaced by a sliding- 
ring valve K. In this case the opening to 
the atmosphere is a side passage H, and 
the communication to the brake-cylinder 
is by the end passage G. 

"Fig. 3 represents a sectional plan on 
the line X X. The ring K acts as circular 
slide, which closes the opening H when 
the valve A is seated, and leaves it open, 
as shown in Fig. 2, when the valve B is 
seated. 

"The ring is divided at one side to 
allow it to spring so as to make an air- 
tight fit in the cylindrical part of the valve- 
box in which it fits, and a steady-pin k 
projecting into the slit of division, pre- 
vents the ring from turning round. The 
ring is connected to the valve-stem by a 
pin /, passing through the sides of the 
ring and the stem. The action is in this 
case the same as that described with refer- 
ence to Fig. i. 

"I have described the action of this 
valve arrangement as if it communicated 



with only one air-pipe. By combining it, 
however, with double valves connected by 
a stem, such as have been described in the 
specifications above referred to, either or 
both of the duplicate air-pipes serve to 
work upon the auxiliary reservoir and 
brake-cylinder, as above described. 

"By referring to the before-mentioned 
specifications it will be seen that these 
double valves are of two kinds; one which 
opens the passage from the pipe or higher 
pressure and closes the passage to the pipe 
of lower pressure, and the other which 
closes the passage from the pipe of higher 
pressure and opens that to the pipe of 
lower pressure. 

"In connecting the duplicate air-pipe 
with the valve-box above described, and 



the other pipe may be used to operate the 
brakes. An arrangement of valves for 
this purpose is shown in the diagram- 
matic plan, Fig. s, where A and B rep- 
resent the two air-pipes; C, the brake- 
cylinder; R, the auxiliary reservoir; T, 
the triple-valve arrangement, above de- 
scribed; D 1 and D~, double valves, such 
as that marked D in Fig. 4; and E, one of 
the other kind of double-valve arrange- 
ments, described in the former specifica- 
tion referred to above, whereby the pipe 
containing air at higher pressure is cut off 
from communication. 

"From this arrangement it will be seen 
that one of the pipes — such as A — may be 
employed to charge the reservoir R, the 
compressed air from A passing by the one 



To Air Gauge 

Main Reservoir 

Pressure 



To Air Gauge 
Main Reservoir 
Pressure C 

To Air Gauge 
Train Line 
Pressure 



To 

Equalizing 
Reservoir 



ffl 





4 ( I 



Jl/Iain Reservoir Zimutm Bniin*n*i 

IMPROVED STOP COCK— CLOSED POSITION. 



with the brake-cylinder, such double 
valves may be arranged in the manner 
shown in the diagram plan, Fig. 4. In 
this diagram A and B represent the two 
air-pipes, communicating throughout a 
train; R, the auxiliary reservoir; and C the 
brake-cylinder. T is the triple-valve ar- 
rangement, above described, and D is one 
of the double-valve arrangements de- 
scribed in the specification above referred 
to, whereby either of the pipes A or B, 
that contains air at lower pressure than 
the other, is cut off. It will be seen that 
compressed air conveyed along either or 
both of the pipes A and B will operate on 
the auxiliary reservoir R and the brake- 
cylinder C by means of the triple-valve 
arrangement T, in the manner above de- 
scribed. 

"Sometimes it is desirable that either 
of the two communicating air-pipes may 
be employed to charge the reservoir, while 



end of E, and past one of the valves in 
D 1 , acting on the large valve in T, so as 
to open it and the farthest valve, and 
close the middle valve of T to the reser- 
voir R. At the same time the other pipe 
B may be charged with compressed air 
for putting on the brakes, the air from 
that pipe passing the open valve e', and 
thence by the pipe G to the valve-box 
D 2 , where it will open the valve d' and 
close d, and thence to the brake-cylinders 
C, where the pressure will act on the pis- 
ton so as to put on the brakes. If, now, 
the pipe B be relieved of pressure, then, 
the valve e being closed and e' being open, 
the air in the pipe G will have its pressure- 
reduced. The valves d d' will then be in 
equilibrium, allowing the air from the 
brake-cylinder to escape past either or 
both of them, and either past the third 
valve in T to the atmosphere, or by the 
pipe G and past the valve e' to the dis- 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



188 



charge-pipe D. Again, assuming the 

reservoir R to have been charged with 
compressed air, and the pipe B to be re- 
lieved of pressure, by relieving the other 
pipe A of pressure the brakes will be put 
on, for the valves in E and D 1 being then 
in equilibrium the. pressure is taken off 
the large valve in T, which is therefore 
closed, opening the second valve in / and 
closing the third, so that compressed air 
will flow from R past the open valve in 
T, and opening the valve d and closing 
</' into the brake-cylinder C." 



$ 



ft s 



Improved Cut-Out Cock. 

We illustrate this month an improved 
form of cut-out cock designed by the 
Pennsylvania people, which is placed in 
the main reservoir pipe, and, when closed, 
permits the second engineer on a double- 
head train to make the emergency appli- 
cation, should it be needed. 

When the cock is closed, the main reser- 
voir pressure is cut off, and is registered, 
as usual, on the red hand of the gage, 
through pipe G. Train pipe pressure is 
registered on the black hand through 
pipe N and cut-out cock. Pipe M is 
thrown into disuse. Train-pipe pressure 
can only be discharged through the emer- 
gency ports, as the outlet at the angle 
fitting is piped to the cock by pipe M, and 
is there blanked. 

When the cock is open, pipe N is 
thrown into disuse by being blanked, and 
the pressure released by the equalizing 
piston through the angle fitting passes 
freely through the opening in the small 
end of the plug to the atmosphere. 

A close inspection of the cock as shown 
in the cut will make its construction and 
operation clear. 

ft ft A 

The use of dummy couplings for hang- 
ing up air-brake hose on freight cars has 
been abandoned by the Southern Pacific 
Railway. The company will hereafter re- 
ceive freight cars at interchange points 
without "dummy couplings," and will de- 
cline, on and after January I, 1897. to 
receive bills for replacing or repairing 
such couplings. 

ft ft ft 

An air-compressor plant for shop work 
has been put in at the Union Pacific Rail- 
way shops at Cheyenne. Wyo. It will be 
used for operating machine tools, yard 
derricks, car cleaning, etc. Similar plants 
will be put in at the other principal divi- 
sional points. So says an exchange. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

An Automatic Retaining Valve. 

Editors: 

I would like to be accorded space in 
your journal for an airing of my auto- 
matic retaining valve which is intended to 
iupplant the present retaining valve in 
general use on all air-brake cars. It 
works as follows: 

Fig. 1 is an auxiliary reservoir, the 
same as the one in use at present. 

Fig. 2 is a cylinder, with leather pack- 
ing on the piston and a spring underneath 
the piston head. 

Fig. 3 is an adjustable screw which 
gives the spring the required tension. 

Fig. 4 is a lever which connects the 
piston rod with valve stem. 



Fig. 8 is an air pipe, tapped in top of 
the auxiliary reservoir to 1 onvey air to top 

of the cylinder. I r ig. 2. 

1 pipe running from the triple 
through the auxiliary reservoir to 
iii> brake cylind 

With 70 pounds of air in the train line 
and auxiliary reservoir, the pressure will 
ualized at 50 pounds. When a 
reduction of 25 or 30 pounds has been 
1 It in the train line in service applica- 
tion el the ti n sion of the spring with the 
adju table nuts to about 52 pounds, so 
the tension would be about 2 pounds 
. r than the pressure in the auxiliary 
oil ["hi equalization of the brake 
cylinder and auxiliary reservoir pressures 
would cause valve 7 to seat, thus holding 
all pressure in the brake cylinder. If, 
from any cause, valve 7 should become 
seated before the brake cylinder and 
auxiliary reservoir pressures had become 
equalized, it would unseat itself on ac- 
count of the slot in the stem. This valve 
7 will be of such dimensions that, when it 
is seated, it will take a pressure of about 
15 pounds to raise it off its seat; and if 
raised, it will not seat before the brake 
cylinder and auxiliary reservoir pressures 
equalize. The pressure in the brake cyl 
inder will cause about 15 pounds pressure 
on top of the valve if the valve is of the 
right dimensions. Now the tension of 










; 



AUTOMATIC RETAINING VALVE. 



A good test of brake shoes could be 
made by ascertaining in how short a dis- 
tance the train could be stopped, instead 
of testing for long wear or large mileage 
made. Perhaps a compromise between 
these two tests could be advantageously 
arranged. 



Fig. 5 is a stand which is connected 
w ith the lever. Fig. 4. 

Fig. 6 is a stuffing-box to make the 
stem air tight. 

Fig. 7 is a valve and cavity in the brake 
Pipe- 



spring being set at 52 pounds, and the 
15 pounds on top of valve after it is seated. 
would make a pressure of 67 pounds. 

This device will not work when brakes 
are used in ordinary service application, 
and it would not work when brakes are 



184 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



applied in the emergency, as the pressure 
in the auxiliary reservoir would still be 
greater than the tension of the spring. 
For illustration: Suppose we had a train 
of ,50 air cars and were drifting down a 
long hill and wanted to keep the train 
under control. We begin to apply brakes 
gently until the train line is drawn down 
to such a point that we know the auxiliary 
reservoir and brake cylinder pressures 
have become equalized; then we move 
the engineer's brake-valve handle back to 
full release, or running position, until the 
air gage shows 65 pounds. If the brakes 
are still holding good, we would move the 
brake handle on lap, and would have the 
train line and all auxiliary reservoirs 
charged up to within about 5 pounds of 
the required amount, with brakes still on 
and pumps at rest. Now suppose we 
wanted to re-apply brakes, some brakes 
having leaked and others still holding 
a sufficiently great amount of pressure to 
cause the wheels to slide if any more pres- 
sure is added. I have arranged for this 
in bottom of the valve 7, where there is 
another valve with another spring, the 
tension of which can be set at about 40 
pounds, so that when the auxiliary reser- 
voirs are being charged (with brakes 
on) the pressure will be uniform in all 
the brake cylinders. 

I think this device will save the pump 
a great deal of work, and it will also save 
the necessity of brakemen going over the 
train and turning up retaining valves. It 
would be a good thing for some engineers 
who make from two to four applications 
at most every stop and then run by. If 
brakes were handled in this way (by this 
device) they would not release until 
enough pressure had accumulated in the 
auxiliary reservoirs to apply brakes as 
soon as they were released. As it is much 
better to stop too soon than not soon 
enough, I think this device would be a 
great improvement over all air brakes. 
It does not necessitate any changes in 
the present construction of air brakes, and 
does not require any extra hose or train 
line. It is to be inserted under car. on 
top of each auxiliary reservoir, where it 
cannot be seen or tampered with. 

Please let me have your views on this 
device after you have given it your closest 
scrutiny. 

G. M. Schwf.nd. 
Engineer A. G. S. R. R. 

Birmingham, Ala. 

[Without belittling the results of our 
correspondent's endeavors, we feel 
obliged to say, in all candor and respect, 
that we gravely doubt the device becom- 
ing a practical commercial success, even 
though it should be made to pass the 
usual experimental trials. The mechani- 
cal design is not of the high order of suc- 
cessful devices. Again, many good-ap- 
pearing mechanisms on paper suffer quick 
collapse when given form in metals. 

In the freight brake apparatus extrem.' 
difficulty would be had in placing valve 



7 in the pipe running through the auxili- 
ary reservoir, and it would be totally im- 
possible to reach it for repairs after it was 
once placed there. The opportunities of- 
fered for additional leakage are against the 

If, by any reason, the auxiliary reservoir 
pressure should be reduced below 50 
pounds, the brakes could not be released 
until the pressure was restored to about 65 
1 'i •unds. In service the auxiliary reservoir 
pressure is sometimes necessarily brought 
below 50 pounds and the delay then oc- 
casioned to trains would quite likely 
prove fatal to the device: for should a fast 
train be thus delayed, more than ordinary 
eloquence and logic would be necessary 
to pacify an indignant railway official. It 
would be difficult to offer any explanation 
that would satisfy him that this little ir- 
regularity was harmlessly incidental to the 
wrong operation of the brakes. He would 
probably further object to delays being 



To Train \ '< , 

Line \ 
Pressure p 




To Main 

! / Reservoir 

I Pressure 



N. V, X. H: .V H. R. R. DUPLEX AIR 
PUMP GOVERNOR. 

made a mode of correction for the engi- 
neer who used too much air. 

With some few modifications the device 
could undoubtedly be made to work sat- 
isfactorily on grades where the cars could 
be all kept together in that class of ser- 
vice; but the objections cited would be- 
yond a doubt prove the device fatally de- 
ficient for level road work, and would 
prohibit its use in general service. — Eds ] 

® ® i 

A Duplex Air Pump Governor. 

Editors: 

I am sending you under separate cover 
a blueprint of a duplex governor we have 
been using on our D-8 brake valves on 
the New York, New Haven & Hartford 
Railroad for nearly four years with entire- 
ly satisfactory results. 

The governor consists of a standard 
single body and two standard tops. A 



special casting, made by us, unites the 
tops with the body. One top is connected 
with the main reservoir pressure and the 
other is connected to the train-pipe pres- 
sure. 

When either governor is working, the 
blow will escape from small vent hole 
in the neck of the tops of them both, so it 
is well to put a drop of solder into one; but 
this is not imperative, only to save a little 
air. I cannot speak too highly of this in- 
vention for what it is intended to do, as I 
have never known it to fail when properly 
adjusted, and the cost is light and the 
benefits are great, and, best of all, the 
Westinghouse standards are not altered. 
J. L,. Andrews, 

A. B. Insp., N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R. 

New Haven, ( 'onn. 



A Queer-Acting Triple Valve. 

Editors: 

Several days ago we received a sleep- 
ing car from the Pullman shops, which 
had been in for repairs. The triple had 
been oiled. The brakes were tested and 
they worked all right. The car was placed 
in the train for its regular run, which was 
almost directly north and south, a dis- 
tance of about 1,400 miles round trip. 

When the train was on its return trip, 
the brakes began to apply in the emer- 
gency. One of the engineers who han- 
dled the train, told the last man to whom 
he turned it over, that every time he made 
two reductions the brakes would go on 
in the emergency; but if he made the 
stop with one reduction of about 8 or 10 
pounds, the brakes would work all right. 

When this last engineer started out, he 
was on the lookout for the uncalled-for 
action. He, however, attempted to make 
the stop in the usual manner. He made 
two reductions, and on the second reduc- 
tion the brakes applied in the emergency. 
The next stop he tried a 7-pound applica- 
tion and made the stop nicely. This en- 
gineer pulled the train 162 miles, made 
eight stops, and a number of times the 
brakes were applied to steady the train 
on sharp curves. The superb manner in 
which the train was handled prevented the 
quick action from ensuing. 

The train was composed of eight cars: 
six were equipped with 14-inch brake 
cylinders, and two with 10-inch brake 
cylinders. 

When the train was inspected after ar- 
rival, and the brakes were to be applied, 
they applied in quick action on a second 
reduction, or a single heavy reduction of 
12 or 15 pounds. When the car was re- 
ceived from the shops the weather was 
mild, and when the train returned it was 
much colder. The graduating pin was 
••O. K." 

THE CAUSE. 

When the car was in the shop for re- 
pairs, the man who oiled the triple valve 
used low-grade car oil which would 
freeze. While the weather was mild, the 






LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 






oil remained thin and did not obstrui I the 
action of the' triple; hut as soon as the 
train came into a cold climate, the triple 
chilK d, causing the oil to become stiff 
and frozen. This retarded the movement 
of the slide valve and prevented it from 
moving on a light reduction. When it 
did start, it went into quick action. 
I'. P. Hai.i.kk, 
\ B. Insp., C. & O. Ry. 
( 'ovington, AY. 

§ § @ 

An Early Locomotive Brake. 

Editors: 

On page 984, December number for 
1896, the query is put : "Why are not 
more questions asked?" In what follows 
I have a question to ask. 

The writer of this letter was for many 
years in the employ of the old Madison 
& Indianapolis Railroad. At the Madison 
end of this road is a grade of about 316 
feet to the mile. For many years, on this 
grade there was a cog rack in the center 
of the track, and the engines used on this 
grade had cog wheels so arranged as to 
work in this rack. The locomotives were 
eight-wheeled, all connected in the or- 
dinary way. About the center of the boiler, 
horizontal and on the top thereof, were 
the upright cylinders, geared to a cross- 
shaft underneath the boiler. On this shaft 
was a pinion working the main cog wheel. 
In each of the four cylinders was cast a 
passage between the steam ports that lead 
to each end of the cylinder. In each ol 
these passages was a suitable plug for 
opening and closing the passage. These 
plugs were attached to suitable levers, 
placed handy for the engineer to operate. 

Now, in dropping down this grade, the 
locomotive was hitched onto the down- 
hill end of the train and was run backward 
The upright cylinders were geared for 
forward motion only, and there was no 
reverse lever. This, of course, converted 
all of the cylinders into air pumps when 
the engine dropped backward down the 
hill. Each stroke of the piston filled the 
cylinders with air, and thus made a very 
efficient braking apparatus. 

The writer of this letter ran these en- 
gines many times, and they were used as 
described for over twenty years, but are 
not used now. The question I want to ask 
is: Was not this a better plan than the 
water brake as described on page 982 by 
Mr. Hedendahl, and would it not be better 
still, where air brakes are used, especially 
on freight trains, to run a pipe from one 
of the steam chests, having suitable valve 
thereon, to the main air reservoir, to be 
used in cases of emergency to supply air? 
If not. why not? 

Benj. W. Smith. 
Princeton, Ind. 

[The scheme is a good one: It is used, 
and has been used for some time. 

In addition to the air brake and the 
water brake, there has been used for some 
years past on the locomotives of some ol 



the Wi sti 111 1. nil 0.1.1 . .! brake known as 

I In . 1 1. ," so called after the in- 

ventor, Thomas Sweeney, a locomotive 
engineer on the Southern Pacific sy tern. 
The Swei is used 1 m the loco- 

motive only, and is designed to convert 
the steam cylinders of the locomotive into 
air pumps when the reverse lever is placed 
back of the centre notch. To do this, the 
1.. .111 chest is tapped by a 3-inch pipe 
H lin h leads to the main reservoir. In this 
pipe is a globe valve which can be opened 
or closed by the engineer in the cab. There 
is also a safety valve in the pipe between 
the globe valve and the main reservoir 
which relieves the pressure in case it is 
sent too fast or too high to the main reser- 
voir; also, a non-return check valve. 

To operate the Sweeney brake, the en- 
gineer reverses his engine, opens the 
globe valve, and thereby makes air pumps 
of his steam cylinders which compress air 
through the pipe into the main reservoir 
for use of the train brakes. The pumping 
action of the pistons in the steam cylin- 
ders also retards in a measure the speed 
of the train. The Sweeney brake is thrown 
out of action by closing the globe valve 
and placing the reverse lever ahead of the 
center. 

The water brake, as described by Mr. 
Hedendahl in a recent number, is a use- 
ful auxiliary brake for heavy mountain 
grades, and is quite different from the 
Sweeney brake. The former brake im- 
parts retardation to the train by the re- 
sistance of the air pressure against the pis- 
tons in the steam cylinders when the en- 
gine is reversed. The Sweeney brake 
converts the pistons and steam cylin- 
ders into air compressors when the engine 
is reversed, and pumps air for the use of 
the train brakes. The water admitted to the 
steam cylinders during the operation of 
the water brake serves merely as a cooler, 
and when any more is admitted than will 
vaporize, it will be thrown out at the stack 
and cylinder cocks. Water is not the re- 
tarding force in the water brake, as many 
persons unthinkingly believe. — Eds.] 



A Dutchman's "Rapid Fire" Brake. 

To der edditur uf dot Air Brage de- 
bardment on Logomodif Ensheneei ing: 

Lasd weeg I in Musgogee was in der 
Intyant derridory to visid my son who a 
skqaw has marrit oafer dere. 

I was sdanting on der bladform py der 
sdashun ven one uf dem fasd gow dranes 
goes by on der gaty tint ven der ensheneer 
he abblies der air brage dot mages some 
noiss lige ef he got hiss sylinter goks 
opent, or dot he schood off er rabid 
vire kun. I dond unterstant me dot. I 
gott me fife poinds in der insdrugshun gar 
unt I neffer hert dem brageses mage such 
kint of noiss pebore dey goss on. dey 
mage dose noises ven dey goss off. 

I asgk der draffelingk ensheneer ry dot 
vos undt he dolt me dot was de ladest 
improft brage only der ensheneer forgod 



, iintcr goks on der 

lb dots itt is itt," 

sait "Yaas," but ven I n 

mi. 1 .■tit of dot bladform der draffelink 

ensheneer unt anotter longk lekket feller 

dey laff lige der diffcl. 

Yot 1 wants me now to find me oudt 
is who der laff iss on. If dose air brages 
now haf sylinter goks den I wants to fint 
me dot oudt, unt go mit myself a gorcc 
dru in der instrugshun gar. 

Yourss druly, 

Fritz Pumpernickle. 

Keokuk, la. 

[The traveling engineer and the taU 
young gentleman were making fun ol 
you. Air brake cylinders don't have cyl- 
inder cocks for the engineer to forget to- 
close. You had better take another course 
in the instruction car, and get more points. 

The mysterious occurence you describe 
was merely an emergency application of 
an odd style of brake which vents the 
train line pressure to the atmosphere, in- 
stead of to the brake cylinder, as with the 
standard form of triple valve. Each car 
in this system vents to the atmosphere in- 
quick succession, and produces the noise 
you describe as resembling the firing of a. 
rapid fire gun. — Eds.] 



Frozen Packing Leathers. 

Editors: 

During the winter season, when the 
weather is very cold, we have engineers 
come in and report that the tender brake 
will not work. Examination shows that 
the packing leather has frozen to the 
cylinder. If the engine remains in the 
house for a short time, or a little fire is 
held under the cylinder, the brake will 
work "O. K." 

This trouble is experienced with en- 
gines that are known to have main reser- 
voirs drained regularly, and all other con- 
ditions being good; and also, with tenders 
that do not have the water scoop. 

We do not have so much trouble with 
packing leathers freezing to brake cylin- 
ders under cars. The question has come 
up among ourselves, that perhaps other 
people do not have this kind of trouble. 
I would be very glad to hear, through 
"Locomotive Engineering," of a sure 
cure for this complaint. 

J. R. Alexander. 
Gen. A. B. Insp., P. R. R. 

Atioona, Pa. 

[In order that the leather packing may 
freeze to the walls oi the cylinder, there 
must necessarily be moisture present. 
Examination of the parts and the thaw- 
ing-out process which corrected the 
trouble prove that moisture was present. 

The data given by our correspondent 
indicates that the moisture was not placed 
in the cylinder by the splashing of the 
water scoop in taking water from the 
track tank, and that it did not find its way 
there from the main reservoir and train 
pipe. If the latter route were used, the 



186 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGUNEEKING. 



triple valve would freeze and give trouble 
before the freezing of the packing in the 
cylinder would become manifest. 

As no reference is made to the triple 
valve, it is presumed that it performed its 
functions undisturbed. 

The moisture which is necessarily pres- 
ent to permit of freezing must, therefore, 
effect its entrance to the cylinder either 
when the leather packing is renewed, or 
with the oil which is injected through the 
oil hole. 

The leather packings furnished by the 
air-brake manufacturer undergo a treat- 
ment by which the pores are filled with a 
grease that preserves the leather. These 
packings seem hard and stiff at first, but 
may be made soft and pliable by subject- 
ing them to the heat of the sun or a stove, 
and working them with the hands. When 
placed in this condition, their entrance to 
the cylinder is easy. Some repairmen are 
unacquainted with this process, and soak 
the leathers in water to render them 
pliable. Soaking is necessary with un- 
prepared leathers, but a heavy-bodied oil 
or grease should be used. Leathers soaked 
in water, to shape and prepare them for 
easy entrance to the cylinder, will freeze 
in cold weather. The fact that freezing of 
leathers is not experienced in the same 
degree on tenders and cars indicates that 
the treatment is not the same, or that the 
oil used is of a different kind in our 
correspondent's roundhouse and car 
shops. 

Light-bodied oils which offer little re- 
sistance to freezing are used for oiling 
brake cylinders on many railroads. In 
some shops any oil, regardless of its qual- 
ity, is considered good enough for brake 
cylinders. Recent experiments made by 
the Air Brake Association prove that a 
good grease is superior and more eco- 
nomical for this purpose than oil. In tests 
on several of the Northwestern railroads, 
where below zero weather prevails the 
greater part of the winter months, Kent's 
Compound, as a brake cylinder lubricant, 
gave extremely satisfactory results, and 
has since been adopted by the Westing- 
house Air Brake Company. 

We would recommend a trial of this 
grease, as it is peculiarly adapted for such 
use as desired by our correspondent, and 
gives equally satisfactory service in driver- 
brake cylinders which suffer from the 
firebox heat. — Eds] 



$ 



Proper Procedure in "Double Head- 
ing." 

Editors: 

A singular case occurred on a road in 
this Western country, a short time ago, 
that would perhaps bear repeating. 

Over a certain section of the road, a 
"helper" is employed for all full-tonnage 
freight trains. This "helper" is a power- 
ful engine. Many of the small road en- 
gines have light frames, and it is there- 



fore made a rule to place the road engine 
ahead in double-heading. 

On the particular trip in question, the 
air pump of the road engine had broken a 
valve and was doing poor work. So Mr. 
Road Engineer requested Mr. Helper to 
do the pumping and braking. The train 
then ascended and descended three heavy 
grades, and then approached a level where 
they had a meeting-point with a train of 
superior rights, which rights they tried 
to knock out by damaging the three en- 
gines to a slight extent. 

Upon investigation, each engineer 
claimed he was waiting for the other to 
make the station stop at their meeting- 
point, as neither of them had applied the 
brake coming down any of the heavy 
grades. The trainmen claimed that they 
were on top all the way; never saw the 
air handled any more nicely on the hills; 
and furthermore, that the train had no 
leaks. Here is a case where truth (?) is 
indeed stranger than fiction. 

I bring this tale up to arrive at the 
proper procedure in a case of this kind. 

Where, for any reason, the defective 
pump has to go ahead, it might do for 
the head man to do the braking, even 
though the second man did the pumping. 
If the head engineer carries his brake- 
valve handle in full release position, his 
main drum can be charged up with the 
train line, provided the second man uses 
running position in recharging. When 
the head man applied the brake, if the 
second engineer cut out or lapped his 
valve, the braking would be done all 
right. There would be enough main 
drum pressure on the first engine with 
which to release an average train, which 
release would be a signal to Engineer 
No. 2 to place his handle in running posi- 
tion for recharging. 

As this is by no means an imaginary 
case, although exceptional, I would be 
glad to hear others' views on the subject. 
E. W. Pratt, 
Genl. A. B. Insp., C. & N. W. Ry. 

Chicago, III. 

[If the engineers did not use the air 
brakes in descending the "three heavy 
grades" and the trainmen set no hand 
brakes, and it is true that "the train had 
no leaks," the occurrence as described 
must contain considerable "fiction"; for 
an unbraked train will drop down a heavy 
grade of any considerable length at a 
speed which will not mislead all hands 
concerned into thinking that someone else 
is doing the braking. 

If the air-brake apparatus on the head 
engine should become so disabled as to 
make the. operation of the train brakes 
necessary from the second engine, it 
would seem that satisfactory arrangements 
for so doing could easily and understand- 
ing^ be made by the two engineers. 

On roads where double-heading is done, 
the practice of the leading engineer doing 
the braking is pretty generally estab- 



lished. This practice is deviated from in 
cases of the "helper" being coupled on for 
a short run up grade where there is little 
or no braking to do, and in cases where 
the air-brake apparatus on the leading 
engine becomes disabled. Should an ac- 
cident occur to either the pump or the 
brake valve on the leading engine, it is 
considered better practice to turn over 
the pumping of air and operation of the 
brakes to the second engineer, instead of 
having one man do the pumping and the 
other the operating. 

While it is possible to do the pumping 
on one engine and the operating from 
the other, it is generally believed that 
the successful operation of the process 
depends too much upon certain refine- 
ments of operation to make it of any con- 
siderable practical value. This co-part- 
nership scheme, however, has been suc- 
cessfully operated, and certain exigencies 
may make its employment advantageous 
in cases where both engineers understand 
its operation and understand each other; 
but aside from the novelty of the opera- 
tion, and the satisfaction had in being able 
to use it to squeeze out of a tight place, 
its greatest recommendation is that it is 
a part of the knowledge of the man who 
knows how to take advantage and make 
the best use of brakes under adverse cir- 
cumstances. Material objections seem to 
outweigh the advantages of the scheme 
when it is compared to the surer and safer 
way of cutting one man out, and giving 
full control and responsibility of the brakes 
to the other man. — Eds.] 



December Air-Brake Patents. 

We compile from the "United States 
Patent Office Gazette" the following list 
of patents on air brakes and directly re- 
lated devices that were granted during 
the month of December, 1896. The pat- 
ents and names of patentees are as fol- 
lows: 

No. 572192. Niels A Christensen, Mil- 
waukee, Wis. Air Pump Valve. 

No. 572518. William S. G. Baker, Bal- 
timore, Md. Car Brake. 

No. 572553. William Mable, Fort Col- 
lins, Col. Air Brake. 

No. 572569. Carl J. Rosen, Jr., To- 
peka, Kan. Brake Beam. 

No. 572662. William Robinson, Boston. 
Mass. Power Brake. 

No. 572802. Solon G. Howe, Detroit, 
Mich. Car Brake. 

No. 572871. Alex. Dallas and Oscar P. 
Amick, Herington, Kan. Fluid Pres- 
sure Brake. 

No. 572939. Chas. B. Fairchild, New 
York. Vehicle Brake. 

No. 572992. Moses G. Hubbard, Jr., 
Chicago, 111. Brake Connection for 
Trucks. 

No. 573024. Thomas Miller, New 
York. Car Brake. 

No. 573190. Geo. Westinghouse, Jr., 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



1S7 



Pittsburg, Pa. Fluid Pressure Automatic 
Brake. 

No. S73227. Alva A. Lindlcy, Oska- 
loosa, la. Brake Shoe. 

No. 573246. Vardiman T. Sweeney, 
Springfield, Ky. Vehicle Brake. 

• No. 573252. Wm. W. Whitcomb, Wake- 
field, Mass. Brake Shoe. 

No. S73376- John L. Wicks, Fitzgerell, 
111. Brake Shoe. 

No. 573523. John McLachlan, Chicago, 
111. Brake Shoe. 

No. 573613- Dominic C. O'Kain. Wil- 
kinsburg, Pa. Slack Adjuster for Brake 
Rigging. 

No. 573663. Benj. F. Jackson, Sutton, 
W. Va. Car Brake. 

No. 573790. Harvey S. Park, Chicago, 
111. Fluid Pressure Brake. 

No. 573791- Wm. Pendley, Hinton, Ga. 
Automatic Brake. 

No. 574062. Wm. H. Hall, Baltimore, 
Md. Automatic Air Brake. 

No. 574067. Edward J. Knapp, Syra- 
cuse, N. Y. Hose Coupling. 

No. 574236. Jos. S. Blackburn, Salem, 
O. Hose Coupling. 

No. 574268. John M. Rainey, Keller- 
ton, la. Automatic Car and Air Brake 
Coupling. 

§ i § 

Air Brake Items. 

Several patent brake shoes having metal 
bodies in which cork blocks or sections 
are inlaid, have recently been granted. The 
cork is forced in under compression, and 
is retained in the cavities by the natural 
expansion. High frictional qualities are 
reported from light service tests of these 
shoes. 

The following original description of 
the function of the graduating valve is 
given by a bright fireman. He says: 
"Controlled by train-pipe pressure, the 
graduating valve acts as a governor for 
the auxiliary reservoir pressure going to 
the brake cylinder until equalization takes 
place all around, and then it retires." 

The Forty-fourth annual report of the 
Railroad Commission of Connecticut, 
under date of December 19, 1896, says: 
"The commissioners call attention to the 
need of power brakes on electric cars, 
especially where two or more cars are run 
together. An efficient brake is believed to 
be a greater preventative of injury to per- 
sons on the track than any kind of fen- 
der." 

The Hardie compressed air locomotive, 
for trial on the New York Elevated rail- 
ways, has been completed at the works of 
the New York Locomotive Company, 
Rome, N. Y. According to report, it has 
no smokestack, and a two-wheel instead 
of a four-wheel truck. The four driving 
wheels are under the reservoir, which 
takes the place of the boiler, and the cylin- 



ders are under the cab. A compressor 
plant is being established at Greenwich 
street. 

A new form of slack adjuster for brake 
rigging has been patented by Dominic 
C. O'Kain, VVilkinsburg, Pa. It is a 
combination of a live and dead lever and 
a rod pivotally connected to one of the 
levers and provided with teeth on its upper 
and lower sides, the teeth of one side 
having a length slightly greater than the 
normal distance of tin- brake shoes from 
the wheels; and two rods provided with 
teeth corresponding in length and 
adapted to engage the teeth on the other 
rod and so pivoted to the other lever 
as to have different ranges of movement 
when shifted by the lever. The arrange- 
ment looks as if it would work, but there 
are too many parts to it. 



Fourth Annual Convention of the Air 
Brake Men. 

Secretary Kilroy has issued to the mem- 
bers of the Air Brake Association a circu- 
lar letter from which we make extracts 
as follows: 

"Due and regular notice is hereby 
given that Mr. S. D. Hutchins has re- 
signed the office of president, and Mr. 
M. E. McKee, first vice-president, suc- 
ceeds in regular order to that office. Mr. 
Hutchins, having ceased to be an active 
member, on account of having severed his 
connection with a railway company, be- 
comes disqualified for holding office as 
per sections 1, 2 and 3, Article III of the 
constitution. 

"By request of Mr. Otto Best, Presi- 
dent McKee has ordered that C. C. Far- 
mer assume the chairmanship of the Com- 
mittee on 'Air Pumps, Their Troubles 
and Treatment, and Tools for Making 
Repairs,' and that Mr. Best take the place 
vacated by Mr. Farmer on the Committee 
on 'Foundation Brakes for Locomotive 
Tenders.' Regular notice is hereby given 
both committees, and they will be gov- 
erned accordingly. 

"The Committee of Arrangements for 
the fourth annual convention to be con- 
vened at Nashville, Tenn., April 13, 1897, 
reports that the Nicholson House has 
been selected for headquarters, where the 
following special rates will be given the 
members and their friends. Rooms for 
single persons, including meals, $2, $2.50 
and $3 per day. The $3 rooms have baths. 
Two persons together will be given large 
front rooms, with meals, at $2 per day. 

"The meeting will be called to order by 
the president at 9 A. M.. April 13th, in 
the State Capitol, which is a few blocks 
distant from the hotel. 

"Members desiring to attend the con- 
vention should make application for trans- 
portation to their immediate officials, in 
regular order, in ample time to permit the 
same to be obtained." 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

On Air Brake Subject*. 
(15; W. If. K., Cleveland, O., asks: 
Arc the Westinghouse air pumps and 
attachments ever leased to railroad com- 
panies, or are they sold direct? A. — The 
nghouse fixtures are sold outright 
to railroad companies. 

(16) B. L. S., Midland, Ontario, asks: 
When air is cut, all hose put in dummy 

at a terminal station, why will brakes set 
on a certain coach? When bled, will go 
on again until air is out of auxiliary. Car 
ers say triple is all right. A. — There 
must be a leak in the train-line pressure 
on this coach, or in a part of the triple 
valve where train line pressure is. Prob- 
ably a stopped-up leakage groove com- 
bines with the leak to give this trouble. 

(17) C. R. O, Toronto, Can., asks: 
Would you please say why 70 pounds 

pressure per square inch became the stand- 
ard train-pipe pressure, and how the 
auxiliary reservoir received its present 
proportioning to the brake cylinder, or, 
in other words,-why an equalized pressure 
of 50 pounds per square inch was chosen? 
A. — These pressures were found by ex- 
periment, and as they were believed most 
advantageous and economical, their adop- 
tion followed. 

(18) J. W. M., So. Frankfort, Mich., 
asks: 

Please inform me which brake will re- 
lease first after an emergency application, 
the one with the long or the one with the 
short travel. A.— The long travel piston 
will start to release first with a slow in- 
crease of pressure in the train pipe, but 
when the short piston travel starts it will 
finish quicker. With a sufficiently high 
excess pressure thrown into the train pipe 
to increase the train-line pressure above 
the auxiliary pressure of both cars, both 
brakes will start to release about together, 
but the short travel will finish first 

(19) G. K. S., New London, Conn., 
asks: 

1. Are the receiving and discharge 
valves the same size in an 8-inch pump; 
also are they the same in a 9^2-inch pump? 
A. — The air valves of the 8-inch pump are 
not of the same diameter, but when the 
receiving valve is given a % inch lift and 
the discharge valve is given a / 5 inch lift, 
they both give the same amount of open- 
ing. The construction of the 954-inch 
pump permits a larger valve to be used, 
and both receiving and discharge valves 
are given ^ inch lift. 2. Is the gi-inch 
the largest pump made by Westinghouse? 
A. — Yes. 

(20) J. S., Quincy, 111., asks: 

1. What is the trouble with engineer's 
equalizing discharge valve when you draw 
off 10 or 12 pounds and shove the handle 
back to lap the brakes let go? A.- — The 
rotary' valve probably leaks and permits 
the main reservoir pressure to pass back 
into the train pipe and release the brakes. 



188 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



2. What would you say if you had a 
brake-valve reservoir half of an auxiliary 
ux.'s.l; what will be the result? A. — 
There would be no bad result. The drop- 
ping of the black hand and the reduction 
of pressure at the preliminary exhaust 
port would be slower, but ordinarily 
would not be harmful. 

(21 ) \Y. L. B., Rutland, Vt., writes: 

I have an 8-inch air pump which pounds 
badly; air valves have proper lift, and 
pipes and passages are clean. Pump does 
not sound bad from the ground, but it 
makes things jump in the cab. Tump 
has run ten months. What is wrong 
with it? A. — Your pump is probably 
fastened to an insecure and shaky frame. 
There are three principal kinds of pound 
in a pump: A pound resulting from the 
piston head striking the cylinder head; this 
is common at low pressure. Another 
pound comes from a sort of dull "thump" 
when high pressures are reached. The 
jarring pound frequently made by a pump, 
and felt in locomotive cab, is caused by 
the pump being insecurely fastened to the 
boiler. 

(22) J. A. J., Nashville, Tenn., writes: 
You quote me wrong in my question 

in January number of "Locomotive 
Engineering," relative to pressure ob- 
tained working quick action where extra 
thick pipe is used, you say extra large pipe. 
On our passenger equipment our train 
pipes are I inch extra thick pipe, making 
the internal area considerably less than the 
common gas pipe ordinarily used. Please 
make correction. A. — If, in increasing the 
thickness of the pipe, the inside diameter 
has been lessened, the amount of train- 
pipe air passed to the cylinder will be 
proportionately less. If the increased 
thickness is made up on the outer surface, 
and the inner diameter of the pipe remains 
the same, there will be no difference, of 
course, in the volume of train-pipe air 
going to the brake cylinder. 

(23) C. R. O., Toronto, Can., asks: 
How were the relative sizes of the pre- 
liminary exhaust port and equalizing res- 
ervoir secured? I understand the object 
in proportioning these parts is to prevent 
quick action on a one-car train. Theor- 
etically I suppose it would be, viz., as 
the auxiliary reservoir is to the graduat- 
ing port, so should the equalizing reser- 
voir be to the preliminary exhaust port — ■ 
the graduating spring overcoming the 
difference in pressure required to start the 
triple. A. — The sizes of the respective 
preliminary exhaust ports in the Plate 
D-8 and Plate E-6 brake valves were de- 
termined experimentally and with no par- 
ticular reference to the sizes of other ports 
in triple- valves or the volume of air in 
auxiliary reservoirs. The object sought 
in experimentally determining the size of 
the preliminary exhaust port and equaliz- 
ing reservoir was to merely obtain a grad- 
ual instead of a sudden preliminary rise of 
the equalizing piston of the brake valve, so 



as to start the exhaust of air from tin- 
train line through the fitting at the foot 
of the brake valve gradually instead of 
suddenly; a sudden discharge being likely 
to cause quick action on a one-car train. 

(24) J. A. J.. Nashville, Tenn., writes: 
In answer to question No. 187, Decem- 
ber number, it is claimed that no par- 
ticular effort is made to make an air tight 
joint between the bushing and the shoulder 
or beveled part on the piston. I have al- 
ways considered that there should be a 
true joint or seat at this point, and that 
the flow of air from train line to auxiliary 
was regulated by the feed groove in this 
beveled part; if this is not done, a worn 
piston packing ring, or one that leaked, 
would charge the auxiliary much quicker 
than one with a good fitting packing ring. 
Why is this shoulder and bushing beveled 
if it is not to form a true seat? A. — Both 
feed grooves in the triple act as a check, 
one upon the other, both being as nearly 
as possible of the same size and capacity. 
It is believed this is the best plan, all 
things considered, since, if the groove on 
the beveled surface of the bushing were 
to govern the feed, the deposit of a small 
obstruction to the triple-valve piston seat- 
ing against this surface would interfere 
more or less seriously with the functions 
of the feed port. A triple-valve packing 
ring must wear to an abnormal degree to 
seriously increase the feed, and would re- 
quire a good many years' service to bring 
it about. 

(25) D. M. W., Southbridge, Mass., 
writes: 

Does the slide valve in plain and quick- 
action triple valves move more than once 
in one service application of the brake, 
making two or more reductions? A says 
that after the first reduction of 8 or 10 
pounds, it is the triple piston and graduat- 
ing valve that moves, and not the slide 
valve. B says the slide valve moves and 
compresses graduating spring after the 
first reduction, and brings port 5 in valve 
opposite port R in seat. Who is right? 
A.- — The first service movement of the 
triple piston is to draw the graduating 
valve from its seat inside of the slide valve, 
thereby opening the inlet end of the grad- 
uating port. The piston, continuing its 
ti averse, draws the slide valve to the posi- 
tion where the outlet end of the graduat- 
ing port registers with the brake cylinder 
port, thus making a communication from 
the auxiliary reservoir to the brake cylin- 
der, through which pressure from the 
former place will flow to the latter until 
the auxiliary reservoir pressure is thereby 
reduced a trifle lower than the train-line 
pressure. Then the piston and graduat- 
ing valve will move toward release posi- 
tion until the graduating valve seats and 
closes the communication between the 
auxiliary reservoir and brake cylinder. 
In succeeding reductions, until full service 
application is had, the slide valve does not 
move again. A is therefore right. 



"< )ur Express Trains" is the title of a 
publication issued by Stackhouse & Co., 
publishers, London, England. The book 
is very profusely illustrated and gives 
highly colored pictures of most of the 
leading express trains in Great Britain. 
I: is sold by the publishers for sixpence. 



A very convenient and durable form of 
stair tread is being made by A. J. Beckley 
& Co., Meriden, Conn. It is light, clean 
and very durable, and collects no objec- 
tionable dirt apt to become a menace to 
health. These treads are recommended 
highly for railway car purposes, and seem 
to be entirely suitable for the purpose. 



The American Industrial Publishing 
Co. of Bridgeport, Conn., have issued a 
new list of books, which they will send 
free to anyone who makes application. 
The company deals in scientific books re- 
lating to steam, mechanics, engineering, 
etc. 

$ g $ 

India has a fairly good system of rail- 
ways that are managed by the government 
and by a few private companies. There 
has lately been a demand for an accelera- 
tion of railway mail service throughout 
India and the railway people are prepar- 
ing to make the required change. Up 
to the present time the maximum speed 
in India has rarely been more than 25 
miles per hour. 



We have noticed lately a revival of in- 
terest in the advantages to be derived from 
putting speed retarders in the fire tubes 
of toilers. All that we have ever seen 
or heard about the effect of tube retarders 
is that they increase to a greater or smaller 
degree the amount of heating surface. A 
much simpler way than putting in re- 
tarders inside tubes would be to put in 
smaller tubes, which would produce the 
same effect with less annoyance from the 
choking-up of the inside of the tubes. 



The Bell spark arrester, designed by 
Mr. J. Snowden Bell, which we illus- 
trated some years ago, has been applied 
to some heavy locomotives built for the 
Baltimore & Ohio by the Pittsburg Lo- 
comotive Works. The peculiarity of the 
Bell spark arrester is a double perfor- 
ated deflecting plate, and the arrangement 
of the netting in a series of planes that 
have a triangular section, the idea being 
to increase the netting area, at the same 
time having no horizontal surface. The 
practical result of using the Bell spark 
arrester, we understand, is that it not 
only lessens spark throwing, but materi- 
ally increases the life of the netting. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



189 



Steam Engineering 
Mechanical Engineering 
Electrical Engineering 

TAUGHT BY MAIL. 

any man who will sniov can educate blmaelf 
bytheoorres] Lenoe system Id the theory of his 

trade ni- profession ami quality lor advancement. 

iir i l lust- no time from work, but oan study at 

home in his Leisure hours, 

IWENIY-SIX TICHNICAl COURSES, including Me- 
ohantoal Drawing, Mechanics, Rleotrloity anil 
Steam Engh ring are taught l>y mail by THE IN- 
TERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS, 
SCRANTON, PA. Students in every part >>r the 
United States, Canada and Mezioo, will testifyto 

the Worth <if the Set mi lis, the value ul the instruc- 
tion anil the su ssful methoils ul teaching. 

EACH SEIIOENT is a class hy himself; he begins 
at the beginning of every subject ami is instructed 
until he completes his course, no matter ln»w long 
ho may take, lie may interrupt bis studies and 
resume them when desired, and may review, if 
necessary, without extra cost. The courses are 
designed by practical men who know just what 
workinginen should learn to tit themselves for 
advancement. The Instruction and Question 
Papers and Drawing Plates used in teaching have 
been prepared especially fur our students at an 
expense exceeding One Hundred Thousand Dol- 
lars. In these Schools the fireman can gain the 
education necessary to be a successful engineer ; 
the engineer who aspires to be a Superintendent 
or Master Mechanic can gain much of the theo- 
retical knowledge required in such a position, and 
the machinist, pattern-maker, tool-maker or other 
workiugman can fit himself to be a designer of 
machinery or a Mechanical or Electrical Engineer. 

Locomotive Steam Engineering:. 

LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS' SCHOLARSHIP, for Loco- 
motive Engineers, Firemen, Apprentices and 
others, who wish to study Locomotive Steam 
Engineering. The subjects taught are Arithmetic, 
Mensuration ami the Use of Letters in Algebraic 
Formulas, Mechanics, Mechanical Drawiug, Lo- 
comotives, Dynamos and Motors. This Scholar- 
ship is fully described in our Locomotive Engi- 
neering Circular which will be sent free. It also 
contains a reduced specimen drawing plate of a 
Passenger Locomotive and Tender, and sample 
pages of the Instruction Papers. 

Mechanical Engineering-. 

COMPLETE MECHANICAL SCHOLARSHIP includes in- 
struction in Mechanical Drawing, Steam and 
Steam Engines, Strength of Materials, Applied 
Mechanics, Boilers, Machine Design, Dynamos 
and Motors and a preparatory course in Mathe- 
matics and Physics. For a full description of this 
Scholarship, sample pages of the Instruction 
Papers and a reduced specimen drawine plate, see 
our Mechanical Circular, which will be sent free. 

Electrical Engineering. 

ELECTRICAL POWER AND LIGHTING SCHOLARSHIP for 

those who wish to fit themselves to install and 
operate Electric Light, Power and Railway Plants. 
MECHANICAL-ELECTRICAL SCHOLARSHIP for tnose who 
wish to obtain such a technical education as will 
qualify them to design electrical machinery and 
become Electrical Engineers. For a full descrip- 
tion of these Scholarships, sample pages of the 
Instruction Papers and a reduced specimen draw- 
ing plate, see our Electrical Circular, which will 
be sent. free. 

We also have courses in Hechanlcal Drawing. 
Civil Engineering In all its branches, Architec- 
ture, Architectural Drawing and Designing, 
Plumbing, Heating and Ventilation, Mining, 
Prospecting, Book-Keeping and Business Forms. 

Mention the subject in which you are interested 
and we will send Free Circulars and a Book of 
Testimonials from Students. 

THE 

INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS, 

Box SOI, Scranton, Pa. 



Here is the way a respectable English 
engineer begin i a letter, replying 

correspondent ol "Engii ig," whose 

views he did not agree with: "I hi 

a French history of the. steam engine, in 
which the names of Watt, Stephenson and 
Fulton did not appear. A French writer, 
in writing of chemistry, said: 'Chemistry 
is a French science.' Some years ago it 
was a common saying in England that all 
foreigners were Frenchmen, and all 
Frenchmen were fools. Many years ago 
an Englishman, in writing of France, said: 
'France is a country where the people eat 
frogs and speak a vile lingo that nobody 
can understand.' I once knew of a young 
Englishman who, having graduated from 
a technical college, obtained a situation to 
go to the States, but, before doing so, he 
provided himself with some firebricks, 
some common bricks and a quantity of 
stovepipe, and it was said that he was 
much astonished upon arriving in the 
States to find that the Americans were 
actually making bricks and that stovepipe 
was not unknown." 

§ @ § 

The British engineering papers have 
been giving somewhat glowing descrip- 
tions of a new complete Pullman train, 
which began last month to run on the 
Southeastern Railway between London 
and Hastings. A peculiarity about it, for 
a Pullman train, is that it consists of first, 
second and third class vestibule cars. The 
first-class passenger is provided with an 
upholstered revolving chair, all to him- 
self, which is a novelty to British travel- 
ers. These cars are finished with green 
and gold trimmings, decorated alcove 
panels, and a great deal of varied embel- 
lishments to increase the luxurious ap- 
pearance to the highest degree. The 
second and third class cars have less pre- 
tentious furnishings, but are said to be 
very comfortable. The train is lighted by 
electricity and heated by hot-water circu- 
lating system. Our English friends say 
that the trains mark a new epoch in Eng- 
lish traveling. 

i $ $ 

Reports to the engineer maintenance of 
way by the supervisor of signals, on a 
leading trunk line, show most satisfac- 
tory results obtained with a waterproof 
graphite grease manufactured by the 
Joseph Dixon Crucible Company, Jersey 
City, N. J. At one point, from October 
ist to November 28th, JjJ pound of the 
waterproof Dixon's pure flake graphite 
grease was used on locks, cranks and 
compensations on outside and on machine 
in tower. The cost of putting on was 
found to be very little more than oil. The 
same test was made at another point on 
the road with the same good result. The 
supervisor found the waterproof graphite 
grease better than any other kind of lubri- 
cant, as it can be applied quickly and 
stays where it is put. It is also clean 
and the water has no effect upon it. 



gly recom- 

ili'- it • all the 

places named abo 

$ ••• i 

The next conventions of the Master Car 
Builders' and Master Mechanics' Asso- 
ciations will be held at Old Point Comfort, 
Va., commencing Tuesday, June 8th. The 
headquarters will be at the Hotel Cham- 
berlin, where satisfactory rates have been 
secured. Parties wishing for rooms should 
apply to Mr. George W. Swett, manager 
of the hotel, for accommodation. The 
Hygeia Hotel, where two or three pre- 
vious conventions were held, will also be 
open. Mr. F. N. Pike, the old genial man- 
ager, will be glad to do his best for his 
old friends. Messrs. S. A. Crone, of the 
New York Central, and R. H. Soule, of 
the Norfolk & Western, constitute a joint 
Committee of Arrangements. 

i § $ 

Parties who have suffered loss by fires 
caused by sparks from locomotives, can- 
not recover unless it is shown that the 
railway company was guilty of negligence 
in not using a good form of spark arrester 
on the locomotive. Decisions on these 
lines have been so uniform of late years 
that suits for damages of this character 
are becoming very rare. It used to be the 
case that any house or factory near a rail- 
road, getting on fire, the railroad company 
was blamed and sued for damages. Rail- 
road companies have been compelled to 
pay thousands of dollars in this way when 
spark-throwing had nothing to do with the 
origin of the fire. 

i i i 

As a matter of curiosity, United States 
Consul Morris at Ghent reports to the 
State Department that the most expensive 
product in the world is the charcoal thread 
employed for incandescent lamps. It is 
for the most part manufactured at Paris 
and comes from the hands of an artist 
who desires his name to remain unknown 
in order to better protect the secret of 
manufacture. It is by the gramme that 
the product is sold at wholesale. In re- 
ducing its price to the basis of pounds, it 
is easily found that the filaments for lamps 
of twenty candles are worth $8,000 per 
pound, and that for lamps of thirty candles 
they are worth $12,000 per pound. The 
former have a diameter of twenty-thou- 
sandths of one millimeter, and the latter 
four and one-half thousandths of a milli- 
meter. The filaments for lamps of three 
candles are so light that it would require 
nearly 1.500.000 of them to weigh a pound. 
As the length of each of them is ten centi- 
meters, their total length would be 187 
miles. 

I I ■•- 

The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Com- 
pany estimate that the travel to witness 
the inauguration of the President next 
month will be twice what it was four years 
ago. 



190 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



The Ashcroft Manufacturing Com- 
pany, in Liberty street, New York, have 
issued a new illustrated catalog, showing 
the various devices manufactured by the 
company. Besides illustration of their 
products, there are very good half-tones, 
showing the works and inside views of the 
various shops. This catalog is partic- 
ularly interesting to shopmen, owing to 
the great variety of shop appliances which 
are shown in it. Besides a great variety 
of shop tools, gages, etc., the catalog con- 
tains very handsome illustrations of the 
Tabor indicator, and a most interesting 
article on the use of the injector. The 
catalog will be sent, on application, to 
parties interested in the Ashcroft Manu- 
facturing Company's products. 

§ i © 

The Norton Emery Wheel Company, 
Worcester, Mass., have issued what they 
call an "Illustrated Catalog of Emery 
Goods and Grinding Machinery." It is 
very handsomely got out, and we think 
the proper name of it ought to be a 
"Hand-book of Emery Goods and Grind- 
ing Machinery," for besides illustrating 
the various appliances made, it gives a 
great deal of technical information re- 
garding them, which we are not aware 
has ever been published before. They 
intimate that they are willing to send the 
catalog to anyone who applies for it. Our 
railroad friends who are interested in em- 
ery wheel work will find this catalog very 
valuable, and we should advise them to 
send for it. 

g I $ 

Some improvements in the Smith ex- 
haust pipe have lately been patented by 
the original inventor of the pipe, John 
Y. Smith, of Doylestown, Pa. The new 
features patented consist principally of a 
peculiar form of diaphragm plate, which 
will be applied between the flues of the 
exhaust pipe. The Smith exhaust pipe 
is becoming very popular, and is highly 
spoken of by the roads using it. A strik- 
ing peculiarity about it is that anyone 
listening to the exhaust of a locomotive, 
having the exhaust pipe on, can tell it by 
the soft sound of the exhaust. This, of 
course, means lower velocity of gases 
through the flues, and ought to result in 
saving of fuel. 

i £ $ 

Several important changes have lately 
been made in the staff of the Westing- 
house Electric & Manufacturing Com- 
pany. Mr. L. Bannister, previously gen- 
eral manager, has been made first vice- 
president, with control of the whole com- 
mercial business of the company. His 
office will be in New York City. Mr. 
R. H. Warren, who was assistant to Mr. 
Bannister, has been made second vice- 
president, and he will have charge of the 
manufacturing department and will look 
after the large plant at East Pittsburgh. 
Mr. P. F. Kobbe has been made third 
vice-president, with charge of the financial 



department of the company, with office 
in New York City. 

£ £ i 

Two very handsome illustrated hand- 
books have been recently issued by that 
most enterprising of general passenger 
agents, Mr. George H. Daniels, of the 
New York Central Railroad. One tells 
all about the trip of Prince Michel Hil- 
koff. Imperial Minister of Ways and Com- 
munication of Russia, over the New York 
Central. The other tells about New York 
as a winter resort. They are both pro- 
fusely illustrated with very fine half-tones. 
and are got up in first-class style. That 
relating to New York as a winter resort 
will be found a convenient guide to 
America's greatest city. 

£ £ £ 
The Hancock Inspirator Company, of 
Boston, make an announcement that they 
will conduct the sale of their goods di- 
rect in future. For several years past 
the Fairbanks Company have been ex- 
clusive selling agents for the Hancock 
inspirator for stationary boilers, and 
also of the Hancock ejectors. Mr. Wm. 
McGowan, Jr., so well known to railroad 
men, who is now treasurer of the Han- 
cock Inspirator Company, is vigorously 
pushing the injector in all directions. 

§ £ $ 

We have received from the Cincinnati 
Milling Machine Company catalog just 
issued, which describes an entirely new 
line of milling machines, possessing many 
important improvements incident to mod- 
ern milling practice. The company will 
send their catalog on application to par- 
ties interested in this kind of work. 

i g g 

One of the greatest travelers of the 
world is Capt. W. W. Peabody, vice- 
president and general manager of the 
Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern. He 
appears to practically live in his private 
car, for last year he traveled 54,419 miles, 
and that was not by any means the great- 
est travel made by him in one year. 

£ g g 

The New York Belting & Packing 
Company have opened a large warehouse 
at 143 to 145 Lake street, Chicago, 111., 
where they will carry a complete stock of 
rubber goods and mill supplies. It is the 
intention to make this the distributing 
point for the company's business. 

g g £ 

A correspondent in Richmond sends us 
an account of a fast run made on the 
Chesapeake & Ohio, where a six-coupled 
engine with 4-foot drivers maintained a 
speed of 45 miles an hour, and at one 
place ran 8 miles in 9 minutes. 

g g g 

A judgment has been obtained by the 
Morris Box Lid Company, of Pittsburgh, 
against the Davis Pressed Steel Company, 
for infringements of patents. 



More 
About 

Graphite. 

New Testimony to Its Usefulness Re- 
ceived Daily. It Cools Hot Bear- 
ings and Saves Oil. 

The confidence that superintendents of 
motive power and other officials of the op- 
erating departments of railways have that 
the Dixon Company will not make public 
their names, nor even the names of their 
roads, but only the bare facts, has brought 
to the Dixon Company a most interesting 
series of letters on the subject of Dixon's 
Pure Flake Graphite. The general fore- 
man of the operating department of one of 
the most extensive railway systems in the 
West, writes, under date of January 7, as 
follows: 

"In regard to the usefulness of Dixon's 
Pure Flake Graphite, one of our large 
Mogul engines, running on this division, 
had a main pin and rod brass in bad con- 
dition and running very hot. The pin was 
badly cut, and in the rush of business it 
was impossible to hold the engine in, and 
do the necessary work required on same. 

"Up to the time the graphite was re- 
ceived we had been using valve oil, tallow, 
plumbago, soap and anything else that 
anyone would suggest, but the pin con- 
tinued to give trouble. In going over a 
division of 106 miles, the pin had to be 
doctored and rod cup filled with valve oil 
at nearly every stop, in order to keep the 
pin from burning up. 

"I mixed some graphite in a pint of 
ordinary engine oil, and had the engineer 
fill rod cup with it. The first fourteen 
miles the pin ran a little warm, and rod 
cup fed out about half of the oil. The en- 
gineer refilled the cup, and the balance of 
the trip the pin ran as cool as the pin on 
the other side. We used the Graphite on 
this pin for several trips before we were 
able to lay the engine in and do the neces- 
sary work, and during the time the Graph- 
ite was used, barring the first fourteen 
miles the pin caused no trouble whatever 
from running hot. 

"The experience has taught me that I 
can truthfully recommend Dixon's Pure 
Flake Graphite to be the very thing for 
hot pins, and for any other bearings that 
are running hot, and that it will do exactly 
what you represent it. 

"In conclusion, if you see fit to use my 
letter, I will request that you do not use 
my name, nor date my letter as originat- 
ing at ." 

Under date of January 8th the travel- 
ing engineer of another large trunk line 
writes as follows: 

"I believe that it is possible to almost 
double the mileage on valve oil by the use 
of Dixon's Pure Flake Graphite. I also find 
that it is good to use in rod cups, or, in 
fact, on any of the bearings of a locomotive. 

"One of our engineers on the line has 
designed a cup to feed the Graphite, which 
I believe will work all right: if so, it will 
permit the use of Graphite in steam chests 
and cylinders to the very best advantage." 

There is an enormous mass of evidence 
on the value of Graphite for reducing 
friction on all parts of locomotives and 
journal bearings, and we believe that a 
careful investigation of the subject by 
railroad officials will discover a very large 
source of economy. 

Samples and printed matter will be sent 
on request by the Josph Dixon Crucible 
Company, Jersey City, N. J. 



S. N. Clarkson 



& Co., 

Wholesale 
Jewelers, 

103 State St., 
Chicago, 111. 

Send for nur new 
1897, 68-page 
Illustrated 
Catalogue. 



PRICES OF A FEW COMPLETE WATCHES WITH 
SILVEREENE CASES. 




The President, nickel, 
Crescent St., " 
W. B. Reymond, " 



$28.50 
17.50 
17.00 



FoL'NUKU MY M»THKW CaKKY, 1785. 



HENRY CAREY BAIRD & CO. 

Industrial ipubUsbcvs, ffioofcecllcre, 
an& Importers, 

810 WALNUT ST., PHILADELPHIA, PA., U. S. A. 

IIT Our New and Revised Catalogue of Practical anil Scientific 
Books, 91 pnefs, 8vo., and our other Catalogues and Circular*, the 
whole covering every brunch of Silence applied 1<> the Aria, sent 
free and free of pi>«tn|fe to any oue in any part of the world who 
wit) furnish his , i.,,, ■.-. 



I T CAN'T HANG LP, 

IS THE VITAL CLAIM WE MAKE FOR 

STEAM PUMP. 

OUR CATALOG TELLS WHY. 



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for Machinists and Engineers. 

Treating on the Construction, Care and Eco- 
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Charles McShane. 185 illustrations. 340 pages, 
cloth bound, $1.50. Sent by mail on receipt of 
price. 

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For Locomotives. 

HENRY L LEACH, 176 HURON AV., N. CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 
WHAT YOU WANT TO KNOW. 

Question, and Answer,. 

Correspondents wishing to have aues- 
tions answered in these columns should 
send in their names and addresses, not 
for publication, but fot evidence of good 

faith. We throw all anonymous tetters 
into the waste basket . 

(6) W. H. R., Cleveland, O., writes: 
Kindly tell me if it is customary for 

shop men who run lathes and planers, or 
other tools, to keep those tools clean? 
A. — In most shops it is an unwritten law 
that a man running a machine shall have 
sufficient pride to keep the tool fairly 
clean. It is the rule in many places for 
the men operating tools, to stop work on 
Saturday afternoons one hour before 
quitting time, and devote that hour to a 
general clean up of the tool and its sur- 
roundings. 

(7) J- S., Quincy, 111., asks: 

What size stack would you suggest for 
a 17 x 24 engine, measuring the same at 
the top as at the bottom? A. — Consider- 
able latitude is allowed in the proportions 
of a locomotive stack, and there is there- 
fore a great diversity of opinion among 
mechanics as to the proper ratio of diam- 
eter between cylinder and stack. Our ex- 
perience with 17 x 24 engines has shown 
that a stack can be used from 13 to 16 
inches in diameter and give practically the 
same results. We would recommend a 
stack not less than 14 nor more than 16 
inches in diameter, for a 17-inch cylinder. 

(8) J. L., Albany, N. Y., writes: 
Please answer through your publication 

the following question: Is it possible for 
one looking at an engine just out of the 
shop, to tell upon which side of that en- 
gine a thump or pound will first be de- 
veloped in the boxes or wedges, consider- 
ing the wear to be equal on both sides? 
I contend that what is known as a right- 
hand lead engine will first show pound on 
the left side, and a left-hand lead engine 
will first show a pound on the right side. 
Am I correct? A. — Our experience in 
locomotive practice has never shown any- 
thing to confirm your statement. If there 
are any well-authenticated cases of pound 
in accordance with the conditions you 
propose, we would be glad to have the 
facts. 

(9) C. H. S., Ottumwa, Iowa, writes: 

1. Can you tell me through your col- 
umns, whether a person can take a boiler 
and put a pressure of 150 or 180 pounds 
of steam on it without any water in the 
boiler, and start an injector throwing 
water into the same boiler with the water 
below the check line'? We have had an 
argument on this point, and leave it to 
you for settlement A. — Injector manu- 
facturers to whom this question was re- 
ferred, say that an injector will work un- 
der the above conditions. 2. Has not the 
Central Railroad of New Jersey got a 



191 

single driver compound pulling passenger 
trains? There are runners here who say 
she is not a success on account of slip- 
ping, is that a fact? A. — We understand 
that this engine will do all that was 
claimed for her by her designers. 

(10) G. D. B., Oakland, Cal., writes: 
Please furnish a rule to ascertain the 
length of a corner brace for a box car. 
The space between all posts is four feet. 
The height between the sills and plates is 
6 feet II inches. Camber in the car is I 
inch. A. — The length of braces may be 
computed from the formula for finding 
the length of a side of a right-angled tri- 
angle, when the other two sides are 
known. Letting h equal the height, 6 feet 
11 inches, and b equal the base, 4 feet, the 
distance between the posts, we have for 



the length of the brace, ^6,916* -\- 4' = 
7.989 feet, or 7 feet 11% inches, nearly. 
Written, this would be expressed: The 
square of the height in feet is to be added 
to the square of the base in feet, and from 
the sum the square root is to be taken. 
The safest and most expeditious method 
of handling this problem in practice, is to 
mark off the braces from their respective 
positions, or cut them to templates known 
to be correct. 

(n) F. H., Whitecliff, New Zealand, 
asks: 

1. What is best to be done with the 
strips of a balanced valve when they are 
blowing very hard? A. — True up the 
strips and the balance plate against which 
they wear. 2. If running an engine with 
slide bars above and below the crosshead, 
and the top shoe breaks, how would you 
fix her up to run in? A. — Since the great- 
est pressure is against the top guide and 
shoe while the engine is running forward 
under steam, you can take the bottom 
shoe and place it at the top, and run in 
slow. 3. What would you do if the piston 
seized while the crank pin was on the 
top quarter, with an engine that you 
could not get at the keys in that position, 
nor get the pin out of the crosshead in 
order to uncouple? A. — The situation is 
an impossible one. There was never yet 
a locomotive so constructed that either 
one or the other ends of the main rod 
could not be disconnected, no matter 
what its position. 

(12) W. G. Wallace, Baraboo, Wis.. 
asks: 

Would you kindly explain the friction of 
fluids, and give the correct answer to the 
question, "What is the friction of fluids?" 
A. — Fluid friction is the resistance to mo- 
tion due to roughness of a vessel or pipe 
containing the liquid; a proof of this can 
be had by comparing the velocity of liquid 
flowing through long and short pipes, and 
also through rough and smooth pipes. 
The short and smooth pipe will be found 
to give a higher velocity, showing a de- 
creased resistance. Trautwine says, in re- 



19S 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



ferring to this subject, that "the friction o! 
liquids, moving in contact with solid 
bodies, is independent of the pressure, be- 
cause the lifting of the particles of the 
fluid over the projections on the surface 
of the solid body is aided by the pressure 
of the surrounding particles of the liquid, 
which tend to occupy the places of those 
lifted. Hence, we have, for liquids, no co- 
efficient of friction corresponding with 
that (= resistance -=- pressure) of solids. 
The resistance is believed to be directly 
as the area of surface of contact. Recent 
researches indicate that resistance = a co- 
efficient X area of surface X velocity to 
the nth power, in which both n and the co- 
efficient depend upon the velocity and 
upon the character of the surface; and that 
.it low velocities n = I, but at a certain 
"critical" velocity (which varies with the 
circumstances) n suddenly becomes = 2, 
owing to the breaking-up of the stream 
into marked counter currents or eddies. 
The resistance of fluid friction arises prin- 
cipally from the counter currents thus set 
in motion, and which must be brought 
into compliance with the direction of the 
force which is urging the stream forward." 

(13) F. S. B., Easton. Pa., writes: 
In the October number of "Locomotive 
Engineering," in the article "American 
Railway Master Mechanics' Committees 
for 1897," the following is to be answered 
by the committee: "What should be the 
ratio between diameter of cylinder and 
length of steam port?" Would you please 
inform me what points are considered in 
the determination of this ratio? I. A. — 
The principal important thing governing 
the design of steam ports is to have them 
of such dimensions as will give a free ex- 
haust with the least back pressure on the 
pistons, and at the same time allow steam 
to enter the cylinder at as near boiler pres- 
sure as possible. If the first condition is 
fulfilled, the second is most usually found 
to be provided for. Mr. D. K. Clark's 
"Railway Machinery," an authority widely 
quoted, says that a steam port having an 
area equal to one-tenth that of the cylin- 
der, will, at a piston speed of 600 feet per 
minute, give a free exhaust. Taking this 
as a basis for any other speed, the port 
will, of course, be proportionally larger 
or smaller, as the speed is to be greater or 
less. For a piston speed of 500 feet per 
minute, and a cylinder 18 inches in diam- 
eter, the port would be equal to £g£ X 0.1 
— 0.083 of the piston area. This is seen 
to be less than 0.1, as it should be to pro- 
vide for the lesser piston speed. The 
18-inch cylinder having an area of 254.47 
square inches, the area of the port will, by 
the Clark formula, be equal to 254.47 X 
0.083 = 21.2 inches. Assuming that the 
port shall have a length equal to 16 inches, 
the width will be equal to 21.2 -f- 16 = 
1.325 inches, or nearly 1% inches. 2. Is 
it not always advisable to make the steam 
ports as short as possible? A. — It is not 
considered good practice to have a short 



port, for the reason that such a port will 
give less opening for a given valve travel 
than a long port. This can be shown by 
taking the length 16 inches and a travel 
of 1 inch, from which we get an area of 
16 square inches. If now the port was 
one-half as long, or 8 inches, the port 
would have, with the same valve move- 
ment, an area of 8 square inches only. 
Several years ago Mr. Wilson Eddy made 
many practical tests with short ports and 
found that the length could be reduced 
greatly from the practice then in vogue. 
In fact, he found in his experiments that a 
port could be made only 5 inches long and 
let steam in and out of a 16 x 22-inch cyl- 
inder. 



Art of Fine Steel Making. 

There is an impression among many 
people, who read about the wonderful 
steel used in the manufacture of ancient 
swords, that the art of steel-making, so 
far as high quality is concerned, has been 
lost in modern times. Curious stories 
are related of the Damascus blades, of the 
way in which they were made, the process 
of tempering them, and all their superior 
qualities; but they have been more than 
equaled by swords made in this country 
within the last few years. 

N. P. Ames, of Cabotville, Mass., was 
a famous sword-maker during the war 
times, and he had great pride in the qual- 
ity of the sword blades which he forged. 
To test their quality, in comparison with 
the best that tradition said were to be 
found in the world, he visited Spain with 
specimens of his handiwork; and when 
the authorities there produced from 
among the rarest treasures of their 
armories a sword that was particularly 
famous, and tested it in his presence, he 
successfully submitted his samples to 
tests which were much more severe. It 
may not be generally known, but it is 
nevertheless a fact that in no country are 
better swords made than have been manu- 
factured in the United States for the last 
seventy years. 

& § @ 

The opening exercises at Camden Sta- 
tion, which inaugurated the winter's work 
at that point and opened the excursion 
room for use as a reading room, occurred 
a month ago. The programme was one 
of the best ever given among many 
good ones at this place. The speakers 
were Mr. Wm. Gibson, assistant to gen- 
eral manager, and Mr. Geo. H. Camp- 
hell, the terminal agent for Baltimore. 
Both are Baltimore & Ohio officials 
who have recently become identified 
with the road. It is very gratifying to 
note that they took pronounced ground 
and spoke very encouragingly of the 
practical character of the work done by 
the association. "-£. &= O. )'. M. A. Bul- 
letin. 



BOOK FREE. 



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Price U8t "f Books. 
AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL PUBLISHING CO., 
Publishers of Scientific Hooks, 

Box 33, Bridgeport, Conn. 




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required in train service. 

Common Jacks are frequently destroyed in efforts 
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set with rust and dirt. This consideration alone 
makes the CHAPMAN JACK the most economical 
9ue to purohase. 

THE CHAPMAN JACK CO.. CLEVELAND, OHIO. 



MODEL LOCOMOTIVES 

Complete Sets Castings for latest design, 
Schenectady 8-Wheeler. Same as 
"999." Something to work on this 
winter. Send 4c. for catalogue. 

G. M- OLMEY, 163 Herkimer St., Brooklyn, N.Y 



3? ASHTON 
MUFFLER 

With Top Outside Pop 
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ALSO 

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and Gages. 

T"f ASHTON VALVE CO. 

2?1 Franklin Street, Boston, Mass. 

Locomotive Photographs. 

The largest collection on earth. Over 10,000 varieties to select from. 
All the railroads of the world, American, British, French, German, 
Italian, etc., etc. Locomotives, care and trains. Samples, 8 In. z 6 in,, 
35 cents ; 10 in. x 8 in., 36 cents, post free. Illustrated price list gratia 
on application. 

The 1 ... -im ii-. 1 M.u.nM, full of railway pictures and infor- 
mation, containing supplement to list of photographs, mailed free 
for & cent*. 

F. HOORE, the World's Railroad Photographer, 

q South Place, Finsbury, London, E.C. 




Sawgran 

For Clean Cleaning. 
INDIA ALKALI WORKS, BOS TON, 

World's Fair Medal. 189:1. Silv.-r 1**7. Bronze, 1878. 



OCTAVIUS KNIGHT, 

Patent Expert, 
37 LIBERTY ST., NEW YORK. 

Forty Years* Experience. 

litigated Cases; Applications; Investigations. 

Telephone 4106 Cortlandt. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING, 



108 




MARIS BROS. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

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EVERY FALLS HOLLOW 
STAYBOLT IS 



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Send for Price-list No. 8. 



INDEX TO ADVERTISEMENTS. 

PAGE 

Acme Machinery Co 199 

Ajax Metal Co., Inc . 1 

Allison Mfg. Co 

American Balance Slide Valve Co 1 .' 

Am. Industrial Pub. Co 

Armstrong Bros. Tool Co 

Armstrong Mfg. Co 

A sht on Valve Co 19a 

All ilc l. Thro. & CO 191 

Baird, II. C. fk Co 

Baker, Win. C 205 

Baldwin Loco. Works 215 

P.ecklcy, A. J. & Co 206 

Bement, Miles & Co 204 

Bethlehem Iron Co 196 

Bignall & Keeler Mfg. Co 1,4 

Boston Belting Co 208 

Boycr, E. C Cover 

Bradley & Poates 213 

Bradley Co 2c6 

Brill, J. C Co 2ij 

Brooks Loco. Works 215 

Buffalo Forge Co Cover 

Cambria Iron Co 209 

Cameron, A. S., Steam Pump Works 211 

Carbon Steel Co 205 

Chapman Jack Co 192 

Clarkson, S. N 191 

Clayton Air Compressor Works Cover 

Cleveland City Forge and Iron Co Cover 

Cleveland Twist Drill Co Cover 

Coale Muffler & Safety Valve Co 209 

Cooke Locomotive and Machine Co 213 

Crane Co 197 

Crosby Steam Gage and Valve Co 213 

Detroit Lubricator Co 195 

Dickson Mfg. Co 214 

Dixon, Joseph, Crucible Co 19a 

Dudgeon, Richard 195 

Falls Hollow Stay bolt Co 193 

Forbes, W\ D. & Co 209 

Foster Engineering Co 207 

Fox Solid Pressed Steel Co 21 2 

French, A., Spring Co Cover 

Galena Oil Works, Ltd 207 

Gould Coupler Co 196 

Gould Packing Co 195 

Gould & Eberhardt Cover 

Haeseler, C. H M & Co 197 

Hammett, M. C Covei 

Harrington & King Perforating Co Cover 

Hendrick Mfg. Co 205 

Hoffman, Geo. W Cover 

India Alkali Works 192 

Ingersoll-Sergeant Drill Co 212 

International Correspondence Schools 189 

Jenkins Bros Cover 

Johns Mfg. Co., H. W T Cover 

Jones, B. M., & Co 197 

Jones & Lamson Machine Co. 194 

Kalamazoo Railroad & Velocipede Car Co. .Cover 

Knight, O T92 

Latrobe Steel Co 213 

Leach, H. L T91 

Leonard & Ellis 205 

Lima Locomotive and Machine Co :n 

Link Belt Engineering Co 207 

Long & Allstatter Co 206 

Manning, Maxwell & Moore 211 

Maris Bros iq3 

Mason Regulator Co 191 

McConway & Torley Co Cover 

McCoy, Jos. F., Co Cover 

McGrane, John J Cover 

McKee. Fuller & Co Cover 

Meeker, J. S . . 211 

Moore, F.. 192 

Moran Flexible Steam Joint Co .206 

Munn & Co 193 

Nathan Mfg. Co 206 

National Machinery Co 106 

National Malleable Castings Co 204 

Newton Men. Tool Works 195 

N. Y. Belting and Packing Co., Ltd 209 

Nicholson File Co Cover 

Niles Tool Works Cover 

Xorwalk Iron Works Co 194 

Olney. G. H 102 

Page* Woven Wire Fence Co 214 

Pancoast Ventilator Co Cover 

Pedrick & Aver Co. 208 

Peerless Rubber Mfg. Co 2x1 

Peters. H. s Cover 

Philadelphia Book Co 10 1 



Pittsburgh Loco* Works 

Pond M. 

I 



•<( i 

rV Whitney Co 

To "pply Co 195 

■ Thoa.| & Son 

Cover 

Kamapo Iron Works. 

oundry Co . ma 

Rand bnii ' 

' Paul S 211 

r< mold 1 1 

Richmond Loco, and Machine Works 

locomotive Co 

ROSS ValveCo Cover 

Sackmann, V. A 

Safety Car Heating and Lighting < o 

Sams Automatic Coupler Co 

Sargent Co 

Saunders', I) Sons 

Schenectady Loco. Works 214 

Seller*, William & Co., Inc 

Sherburne & Co 208 

Shoenberger Steel Co 207 

Signal Oil Works, Ltd 21 j 

Smillie Coupler & Mfg. Co 

Standard Coupler Co 198 

Standard Steel Works 

Star Brass O 208 

Stow Flexible Shaft Co 207 

Tabor Mfg. Co Cover 

Trojan Car Coupler Co Cover 

Tyler Tube and Pipe Co 

United States Metallic Packing Co 202 

Ctica Steam Gage Co 

Watson & Stillman Cover 

Wedderburn. John. & Co Cover and 21* 

Westinghouse Air- Brake Co. . . axo 

Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. Co 205 

Whittlesev. Geo. P.. . . .. 194 

Williams, White A Co 206 

Wood. R. D. & Co 



© 



i 



Buyers' Finding List. 



AIR BRAKE FITTINGS. 

Crane Co., Chicago. 111. 

AIR BRAKE HOSE. 

Boston Belting Co.. Boston. Mass. 

N Y. Beltine & Packing Co.. New York. 

Peerless Rubber Mfg. Co.. New York. 

AIR BRAKES. 

Westinghouse Air Brake Co.. Pittsburg. Pa. 

AIR BRAKE GAGE. 

Utica Steam Gage Co., Utica, X. Y. 

AIR-BRAKE PUMP GOVERNORS. . 

Foster Engineering Co.. Newark. N. J. 
Mason Regulator Co.. Boston. Mass. 

AIR COMPRESSORS. 

Clayton Air Compressor Works. New York. 
Ingersoll Sergeant Drill Co.. N Y. City. 
Norwalk Iron Works Co.. South Norwalk, Ct, 
Pedrick & Aver Co. Philadelphia, Pa. 
Rand Drill Co.. New York, 

AIR DRILLING MACHINE. 

C. H. Haeseler & Co , Philadelphia. Pa. 

AIR HOISTS. 

Pedrick & Aver Co.. Philadelphia, Pa. 

ARCH BARS. 

Cambria Iron Co.. Philadelphia, Pa. 

ASBESTOS. 

H. W. Johns Mfg. Co.. New York. 

AXLES. 

Cambria Iron Co.. Philadelphia, Pa. 
liould Coupler Co., Buffalo. N. Y. 
B. M. Jones & Co., Boston, Mass. 
Krupp (T. Prosser & Son. New York). 

BALANCED SLIDE VALVES 

Am. Bal. Slide Valve Co., San Francisco, CaL 
M. C. Hammett. Trov, N. Y 

BEARING METAL. 

Ajax Metal Co.. Philadelphia, Pa. 
Paul S. Reeves, Philadelphia, Pa. 
I S. Metallic Pkg. Co . Philadelphia, Pa. 

BELL RINGER. 

U. S. Metallic Packing Co.. Philadelphia. Pa. 

BELTING. 

Boston Belting Co., Boston. Mass. 

N. Y. Belting & Packing Co.. New York. 

Peerless Rubber Mfg. Co.. New Y 
BOILER AND FIREBOX STEEL. 

Shoenberger Steel Co . Pittsburg, Pa. 

BOILER CHECKS-INSIDE 

Foster Engineering Co.. Newark. N. J. 

BOILERS. 

Brooks Locomotive Works. Dunkirk. N. \ . 
Cooke Locomotive & Machine Co., Paterson, 

N. I 
Pittsburg Locomotive Works, Pittsburg. Pa. 



{Continued 



194 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



BUYERS' FINDING LIST- Conlinutd. 
BOILER TOOLS. 

Richard Dudgeon. New York. 

BOILER WASHERS. 

Nathan Mfg. Co., New York. 

BOLT THREADING MACHINERY. 

Acme Machinery Co., Cleveland, O. 
BOOKS. 

AikU'1 A. Co., New York. 

H. C. Baird ,V v o M I'luia.lelphia. Pa. 

Philadelphia Book Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

BRAKE ADJUSTERS 

Q. & C Co.. Chicago, 111. 

BRAKE SHOES. 

-Ramapo Iron Works, Hillburn, N. Y. 
Ramapo Wheel .V Koundrv Co., Ramapo, N.Y. 
The Sargent Co , Chicago, 111. 

BRASS CASTINGS. 

Ajax Metal Co., Inc.. Philadelphia, Pa. 
S. J, Meeker, Newark. N. J. 
Paul S. Reeves, Philadelphia, Pa. 

BUFFERS. 

Gould Coupler Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 

BULLDOZERS. 

Williams. White & Co., Moline. III. 

CARS. 

Allison Mfg. Co.. Philadelphia. Pa. 

I. G. Brill Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Lima Locomotive & Machine Co., Lima, O. 

Ramapo Iron Works, Hillburn. N. Y. 

CAR COUPLERS. 

Gould Coupler Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 
McConway & Torley Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 
National Malleable Castings Co., Chicago, 111. 
Sams Automatic Coupler Co.. Denver, Col. 
Smillie Coupler & Mfg. Co., Newark, N. J. 
Standard Coupler Co., New York. 
Trojan Car Coupler Co., Troy, N. Y. 

CAR HEATING. 

William C. Baker, New York. 

SafetvCar Heating & Lighting Co., New York. 

CAR LIGHTING. 

SafetvCar Heating & Lighting Co., New York. 

CAR VENTILATORS. 

Harrington & King Perforating Co., Chicaro, 
M. C. Hammett, Troy, N. Y. 

CAR WHEELS. 

Krupp (T. Prosser & Son, New York). 
Lima Locomotive & Machine Co., Lima, 0. 
Ramapo Wheel & Foundry Co., Ramapo, N.Y. 
Standard Steel Works, Philadelphia, Pa. 

CATTLE GUARDS. 

Q. & C. Co., Chicago. 111. 

CHIME WHISTLES. 

Crosbv Steam Gage & Valve Co., Boston, 

\l iss 
Star Brass Mfg. Co., Boston, Mass. 

CLEANING MATERIAL. 

India Alkali Works, Boston, Mass. 

CLOCKS. 

John J. McGrane, New York. 

COAL HANDLING MACHINERY. 

Ingersoll-Sergeant Drill Co.. New York. 
Link Belt Eneineering Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
The Pratt & Whitney Co , Hartford, Conn. 

COAL CHUTES. 

Williams, White & Co., Moline. 111. 

CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS. 

Internat'l Corres. Schools, Scranton, Pa. 

CRANES. 

Manning, Maxwell & Moore, New York. 
Mans Bros., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Pedrick & Aver Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
William Sellers & Co.. Philadelphia, Pa. 
R. D. Wood & Co., Philadelphia. Pa. 

CRANK PIN GAGES. 

M. C. Hammett, Trov, N. Y. 

CRANK PINS. 

Cambria Iron Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
B. M. Jones & Co., Boston, Mass. 
Krupp (T. Prosser & Son, New York). 

DAMPER REGULATORS. 

Bfasoa Regulator Cor, Boston, Mass. 

DRILLS. 

Armstrong Bros. Tool Co., Chicago, 111. 
Bignall.& Keeler Mfg. Co.. Edwardsville 111 
Cleveland Twist Drill Co., Cleveland. O. 
Pedrick & Aver Co , Philadelphia Pa 
The Pratt & Whitney Co.. Hartford, Conn. 

DRILLING MACHINES. 

Gould & Eberhardt. Newark. X 1 

The Pratt & Whitnev Co.. Hartford, Conn. 

ELECTRIC LIGHTING AND POWER 
APPARATUS. 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co.,Pittsburgh.Pa 
(Continued on page >oj.) 



P. SaGod«rS' Sons '"tt.lR 



MANrFACTURERS OF PATENT 




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Builders of Pipe-Threading Machinery. 
Il- l| 



THE PILGRIM. -HOLIDAY NUMBER. 

Sent free to any addresB on receipt of six 
cents In postage. Write to Geo. H. Heafford, 
General Passenger Agent, Chicago, Milwau- 
kee & St. Paul Railway. Old Colony Building, 
Chicago, 111. 

ATENTS • 

CEO. P. WHITTLESEY, 

Atlantic Building, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

RAILROAD INVENTIONS A SPECIALTY. 



Hydraulic 

RlVeterS— Fixed and Portable. 

Punches, Shears, 
Presses, Lifts, Cranes 
and Accumulators. 

Matthews' Fire Hydrants, 

Eddy Valves, 

Valve Indicator Posts. 

The Camden High-Pressure Valves. 

Cast Iron Pipe. 
R. D. Wood & Company, 

Engineers, Iron Founders, Machinists, 
400 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 




THE NORWALK IRON WORKS CO., 

South Norwalk, Conn. 

Makers of Air and Gas Compressors 
Tor All Purposes. 



SEND FOR CATALOG. 



C. H. & D. 

THOUSAND MILE TICKETS 

Only $20.00. 

Are good on the following railroads : Louisville, 
New Albany and Chicago; Michigan Central bet. 
Toledo and Detroit; Terra Haute & Indianapolis: 
Peoria, Decatur <fc Evansviile; Indiana, Decatur & 
Western; N. Y., P. & O. Div., Erie; Dayton & Union; 
Pindlay, Ft. Wayne & Western; New York. Chicago 
& St. Louis; Toledo, St. Louis & Kansas City; 
Balto. & Ohio, west of Pittsburg and Benwood. and 
between Pittsburg and Wheeling; also between 
Indianapolis and Washington, D. C, via Cincinnati 
and Parkersburg, for continuous passage; B. & O. 
Southwestern; Cleveland Terminal and Valley; 
Pittsburg & Western; Columbus. Hocking Valley 
& Toledo, Cleveland, Lorania & Wheeling, and 
will be accepted in payment for excess baggage 
also for seats in the C. H. & D. Ry. Parlor Cars, 
and for Bridge Tolls into St. Louis. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



100 



RICHARD DUDGEON, 24 and 26 Colombia St., New York 

Maker and Patentee of 

Improved Hydraulic 
JACKS, 



tlTJackH for JtvmhImk on Crank 
friHor Car- Wheeta made to order. 
Communication!) by letter wiii 
receive prompt attention. 




Punches, Eoller Tube Expanders and Direct Acting Steam Hammers. 



PRENTISS TOOL & SUPPLY CO. 



♦ ♦ ♦ 



ENGINE LATHES, MILLING MACHINES, 
AXLE LATHES, SCREW MACHINES, WHEEL 
LATHES, BOLT AND NUT MACHINES, 
DRILLS, RADIALS PLANERS, SLOTTERS, 
BORING MILLS, SHAPERS, KEY SEAT- 
ERS, PINCH, SHEAR AND BINDING 
MACHINERY. :: :: :: :: :: 



♦ ♦ » 



WE ALSO HAVE A FINE ASSORTMENT OF SECOND-HAND MACHINERY. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

62 & 64 South Canal St. 115 LIBERTY ST., N. Y. 




NEWTON 

PLAIN MILLING MACHINES. 

BUILT IN 8 SIZES TO ADMIT WORK 1 5' X 15' TO 72' X 72' 
TO MILL ANY LENGTH. 

Newton Machine Tool Works, 

PHILADELPHIA. 



THERE ARE OTHERS T AVA ^OAP 

but none to equal L,JX 1 £X 0\J£\l 

or quickly removing all greasy, Inky , or sticky substances from hands 
without injuring the akin. 

JUST THE SOAP FOR ENGINEERS, FIREnEN 
AND MACHINISTS. 

Write for small sample by mail Frkk. Price, regular aire, \ O Cte.; 
by mail, postage prepaid, 1 5 els. 

WM. WALTKE & CO.. ST. LOUIS. Sole Manufacturers. 

BEWARE OF IMITATIONS! 



WANTED- 



By young man with years of experience re 
pairing locomotives, position with prospect: 
of foremanship. Address, 

Locomotive Engineering 



ffi SUGGESTION. 

When you want something reli- 
able 
Ask for the " Utica" Gauge. 



UTICA STEAM GAUGE CO. 

70-72 FAYETTE ST.. UTICA. N. Y. 



JL 



Locomotives Equipped 
with 

Detroit 
J [J Sight Feed 
3 Lubricators 

Make the Best Records 
and show Least Expense 

for Maintenance and 

Repairs. 

Catalogue sent on application. 

Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit, Mich. 



Steam and Water Packing 

Patented June 1, -- . 
Especially adapted for Locom olive*. 

Never sticks the Throttle. 

The Original Ring Packing. 

In ordering give exact diameter of Stiiffin| 

Box and Valve Stem. 

None pennine without this Trade Mark. 

THE GOULD PACKING CO., 

EAST CAMBRIDGE, MASS 





A. CHifM*.\, TmM. 



BUYERS' FINDING LIST- ' ontinutd. 

EMERY WHEELS. 
M, Y I 

ENGRAVINGS 

lew York. 

FILES AND RASPS. 

NlchoUoi Providence, R. L 

FIRE HOSE. 

ton. Mass. 
N v 1 New York, 

leu Rabbi « York. 

FLEXIBLE SHAFT. 

Stow Flexible Shefl ( o., I'hiladelphia. Pa. 

FLEXIBLE STEAM JOINT. 

Moran Flexible Steam Joint Co.,Loul«vllle,KT 

FLUES AND TUBES. 

Allison Mfg. Co . I'hiladelphia. Pa. 
Tyler Tube & I'ipe Co.. Washington. Pa. 

FORGES. 

Buffalo Forge Co , Buffalo. N\ Y. 
The Bradley Co., Syracuse. N. Y. 

FORGING MACHINERY. 

William-., v. ' Moline, 111. 

FROGS AND CROSSINGS 

Ramapo Iron Works, Hillburn, N. Y. 

GRAPHITE. 

Jos. Dixon Crucible Co., Jersey City, K. J 

GREY IRON. 

S. J. Meeker. Newark. N*. J. 

HEATING SYSTEM FOR SHOPS. 

Buffalo Forge Co. 

HOLLOW STAYBOLTS. 

Falls Hollow Staybolt Co., Cuyahoga Falls, O. 

HYDRAULIC TOOLS 

Richard Dudgeon, New York. 

The Watson-Stillman Co., New York. 

R. D. Wood & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

INDICATORS. 

Ashcroft Mfg. Co., New York. 

Crosby Steam Gage and Valve Co., Boston. 

INTECTORS. 

Havden & Derby Mfg. Co., New York. 

Nathan Mfg. Co.. New York. 

William Sellers & Co., Philadelphia. Pa. 

JACKS. 

E. C. Bover, Dayton. O. 
Richard Dudgeon, New York. 
Watson & Stillman, New York. 

LAGGINGS FOR LOCOMOTIVES 

H. W. Johns Mfg. Co., New York. 

LATHES. 

Bement, Miles & Co., Philadelphia. Pa 

W. D. Forbes & Co., Hoboken. N. J. 

Gould & Eberhardt, Newark, N. J. 

Innes & Lamson Machine Co , Springfield, Vt. 

Manning, Maxwell & Moore. New York. 

National Machinery Co., Tiffin. O. 

Newton Machine Tool Wks., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Niles Tool Works Co., Hamilton, O. 

Pratt & Whitney Co., Hartford. Conn. 

Prentiss Tool & Supplv Co., New York. 

William Sellers A Co.. Inc , Philadelphia Pa. 

LOCOMOTIVES. 

Baldwin Locomotive Works, Philadelphia. Pa. 
Brooks Locomotive Works. Dunkirk, X. \ . 
Cooke Loco. & Machine Co.. Paterson. X. J. 
Dickson Mfg. Co., Scranton. Pa. 
Lima Locomotive & Machine Co.. Lima. O. 
Pittsburg Locomotive Works. Pittsburg, Pa. 
H. K. Porter & Co.. Pittsburg, Pa. 
Richmond Loco. & Meh. Wks.. Richmond,\ a. 
Rogers Locomotive Works. Paterson, N. J. 
Schenectady Loco. Wks.. Schenectady. NY. 

LOCOMOTIVE CASTINGS, MODEL. 

G. H. Olney, Brooklyn. N. Y. 

LUBRICATORS. 

Detroit Lubricator Co.. Detroit, Mich. 
M. C. Hammett, Troy, N. Y. 
Nathan Mfg. Co.. New York. 

LUBRICATING OILS. 

Galena Oil Works. Ltd.. Franklin. Pa. 
Leonard & Ellis. New York. 
Signal Oil Works. Franklin, Pa. 

MACHINE TOOLS. 

Bement. Miles & Co.. Philadelphia. Pa. 

W. D. Forbes & Co.. Hoboken. N. J. 

Gould & Eberhardt. Newark. N. J. 

Jones & Lamson Machine Co., Springfield, \ t. 

Manning. Maxwell & Moore. New York. 

National Machinerv Co . Tiffin. O. 

Newton Machine Tool Wks., Philadelphia. Pa. 

Pratt & Whitnev Co.. Hartford. Conn. 

Prentiss Tool and Supplv Co., New York. 

William Sellers & Co.. Inc.. Philadelphia. Pa. 

MALLEABLE CASTINGS. 

S. 1 Meeker, Newark. N. J. 

MECHANICS' TOOLS. 

Armstrong Bros.' Tool Co.. Chicago. 111. 

(Continued on page'iqb.) 



196 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



BUYERS' FINDING LIST— Continued. 

METAL POLISH. 

G. W. Hoffman, Indianapolis. ln<i. 
METAL SAWING MACHINES. 

Armstrong Mi C New York. 

Newton Machine Tool Works, Phila Pa 

Pratt & Whitney Co., Hartfora, Conn. 

Q. & C Co., Chicago, 111. 

MILLING MACHINES. 

Newton Machine Tool Works, Phila., Pa. 
Pedrick & Ayei Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Pratt & Whitney Co.. Hartford, ( oi o 
Prentiss Tool & Supply Co . New York. 

MOLDING MACHINES. 

Tabor Mfg, Co.. New York City. 

OVER CLOTHES 

H. S. Peters. Dover. N. J. 

PACKING. 

Boston Belting Co.. Boston, Mass. 

Gould Packing Co.. East Cambridge. Mass. 

11 \V Johns Mfir. Co , N'ew York. 

Jenkins Bros.. New York. 

N Y Belting & Packing Co.. New York. 

Peerless Rubber Mfg. Co., New York. 

U. S. Metallic Packing Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

PAINTS. 

Detroit Graphite Mfg. Co . Detroit, Mich. 
H. W. Johns Mfg. Co., New York. 

PATENTS. 

O. Knight, New York. 

John Wedderburn & Co.. Washington, D. C. 

George P. Whittlesey. Washington, D. C. 

PERFORATED METAL. 

A. J. Beckley & Co.. Meriden, Conn. 
Harrington & King Perforating Co., Chicago, 

The Hendrick Mfg. Co., Ltd.. Carbondale, Pa. 

PHOTOGRAPHS. 

F. Moore, London. Eng. 

PIPE THREADING AND CUTTING 
MACHINERY. 

Armstrong Mfg. Co., Bridgeport. Conn. 
D. Saunders 1 Sons, Y'onkers, N. Y. 

PISTON RODS. 

Cambria Iron Co., Philadelphia. Pa. 

B. M Jones & Co., Boston, Mass. 
Thomas Prosser & Son. New York. 

PNEUMATIC TOOLS. 

C. H. Haeseler & Co.. Philadelphia. Pa. 
Pedrick & Ayer Co . Philadelphia. 

U. S. Metallic Packing Co.. Philadelphia. 

PRESSURE REGULATORS. 

Foster Engineering Co.. Newark, N. J. 
Newark Regulator Co., Newark, O. 

PUMP VALVES. 

Boston Belting Co., Boston, Mass. 

N. Y. Belting & Packing Co.. New York. 

Peerless Rubber Mfg. Co.. New York 

PUNCHING AND SHEARING MA- 
CHINERY. 

Williams, White & Co., Moline, 111 
R D. Wood & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

PUSH CARS. 

Kalamazoo Railroad Velocipede & Car Co., 
Kalamazoo. Mich 

RAILWAY FENCES. 

Page Woven Wire Fence Co., Adrian. Mich. 

REGULATORS. 

Mason Regulator Co.. Boston, Mass. 

RETAINING RINGS. 

Ramapo Wheel & Foundry Co.. Ramapo, N.V 

RUBBER. 

Boston Belting Co., Boston, Mass. 

N. Y Beltinir & Packing Co.. New York. 

Peerless Rubber Mfg. Co., New York. 

SAFETY VALVES. 

Ashton Valve Co., Boston. Mass. 

Coale Muffler and Safety Valve Co.. Baltimore. 

Md 
Consolidated Valve Co.. Bridgeport, Conn. 
Crosbv Steam Gage & Valve Co.. Boston. Mass 
Star Brass Mfg. Co.. Boston. Mass. 

SANDING APPARATUS. 

Henry L. Leach. North Cambridge, Mass. 
Sherburne & Co., Boston, Mass. 

SHAFTING. 

American Tool & Machine Co . Boston. Mass 
William Sellers & Co.. Philadelphia. Pa 

SPARK ARRESTER PLATE. 

A. J. Beckley & Co., Meriden, Conn. 
Harrington '& King Perforating Co.. Chicago, 

Hendrick Mfg. Co., Carbondale. Pa. 

SPRINGS. 

A. French Spring Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 

SPRING STEEL. 

Thomas Prosser & Son, New York. 
(Continued on page rqy.) 



«- » ^» » *-* *%% . 





i BOLT, NUT 

\ and SPECIAL MACHINERY. 

y. • t Complete Outfits of this Class of Tools for 

R. R., Car and Locomotive Shops a Specialty. 
Send for Illustrated Catalogue ' B.' 



The National Machinery Co., 

TIFFIN, 0.,U.S.A. 



BETHLEHEM^IRON CO. 

SOUTH BETHLEHEM, PA. 

STEEL RAILS, 

BILLETS AND MUCK BAR, 

STEEL FORGINGS, 

Hollow Shafting. Cranks. Rolls. Guns and Armor. 
Rough, Machined or Finished, Fluid Compressed, Hydraulic Forged. 

NEW YORK OFFICE : 100 Broadway. PHILADELPHIA OFFICE: 421 Chestnut Street. 

CHICAGO OFFICE: Marquette Bldg. 



OFFICES: 

66 Broadway, 

NEW YORK 
941 The Rookery, 

CHICAGO 
319 Commercial Bldg., 

ST. LOUIS 



Gould 

Coupler 

Co. 



WORKS: 

Steam Forge, 

bEPEW. N. Y. 
Malleable Iron, 

DEPEW, N. i. 
Cast Steel, 

ANDERSON, IND. 



<P*T— 





, 



*W-"* 




GOULD SRRIIMG BUFFER BLOCKS and 
GOULD FREIGHT OAR OOURLER 




Beveled Packing Ring 

Simple, Self-Supporting, 



Durable, 



Standard. 



American Balance Slide Valve Co. 

San Francisco, Cal. or Jersey Shore, P» 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



I!i7 



THE STANDARD STEEL WORKS ... 




Philadelphia. 



Jljtjttjt 



TIRES 



^ Wrought Iron Centers, 
j*„* Spoke and Plate 
jSSA Ste€l Tircd Wheels. 

REPRESENTATIVES. 

Chicago: nTZHUGH & SPENCER, 
J217 Monadnock Building. 

St. Louis :C. A. THOMPSON, 

615 North Fourth St. 

Boston : JOHN KENT, 

52 Mason Building. 



{ 

\ 

9 



© 



■r 

in 



- 
© 

J 

I 



L>000» COMPRESSED AIR TOOIS«<*< 



Compressed Air Tools 



I 

J 

5 
3 



For Drilling, Reaming, Tapping, Counter- 
sinking, Expanding and Beading Boiler 
I lues. Caulking and Chipping Boilers and 
Castings, Sifting Sand, Hoisting, Die 
Sinking, Scaling Armor Plates, Cutting 
Stay Bolts, Carving Stone, etc., etc., etc. 



■J 
I 

'J 
'J 
I 
■J 



C. H. Haeseler Co. 

Manufacturers 

1026-1030 Hamilton St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

*O0OO0-» COMPRESSED AIR TOOLS »<-»-<*^-»^<^c*<^<*«r»i 



TAYLOR 



BEST 
YORKSHIRE 



STAYBOLT IRON 



Axles, Piston Rods, Crank Pins and Forging* of all 
Descriptions, nsed by Leading Ballroada. 



R.MUSHET'S 



SPECIAL and 
TITANIC 



STEELS 



SOLE REPRESENTATIVES IN THE UNITED STATES, 

B. M. JONES & CO., 

Boston, 11 and 13 Oliver Street. New York, 113 Liberty 



TRANE COMPANY, 

Manufacturers of AlR BRAKES, 

Air Brake Repairs, 
Also, Air Brake Pipe, CHICAGO. 

Air Brake Fittings, 



BUYERS' FINDING LI8T— Continued. 

STAYBOLTS. 

■ illi.O. 
B. M. Joni I .' 

STEAM GAGES. 

I r otto Gage A Valve I 

I 

STEAM HAMMERS. 

Bemcnt. Milc*& Co., Philadelphia, 1'a. 
R. D ■ i tt, New York 

STEAM HOSE. 

Boston Belting Co, Boston, Mass. 

N, Y. Belting &• Packing Co . New York. 

Pet-il i i \._-w York. 

STEAM PUMPS. 

A S Cameron Steam Pump VVorki, New York. 

STEEL. 

Cambria Iron Co., Philadelphia. Pa. 
Carbon Steel Co., Pittsburgh. Pa. 
B M. Jones & Co., Boston. Mass. 
Krupp (T. Prosser & Son. New York 1 . 
Latrobe steel Co . Latrobe Pa 
Sboenberger Steel Co.. Pittsburg. Pa. 

STEEL SURFACE CATTLE GUARDS. 



Kahuna/' 



Railroad Velocipede & Car Co., 

■o. Mi, )i 



STEEL TIRED WHEELS. 

Krupp iT. Profiler & Son. New York). 
Ramapo Wheel & Foundry Co., Ramapo, N.Y. 
Standard Steel Works, Philadelphia, Ha. 

STEEL TIRES. 

Latrobe Steel Works. Latrobe. Pa. 
Krupp (T. Prosser &■ Son New York). 
Standard Steel Works. Philadelphia. Pa. 

STEEL TRUCK FRAMES. 

Fox Solid Pressed Steel Co., Chicago, 111. 

STOCKS AND DIES. 

Armstrong Mfg. Co., Bridgeport. Conn. 
Pratt A Whitney Co., Hartford, Conn. 

STREET RAILWAY SUPPLIES. 

J. ('.. Brill Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

SWITCHES. 

Ramapo Iron Works, Hillburn, N. Y. 
TIE PLATES. 

Q. & C. Co.. Chicago, 111. 

TIRES. 

Krupp (T. Prosser & Son. New Yorkt. 
Lairobe Steel Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

TOOL HOLDERS. 

Armstrong Bros. Tool Co., Chicago, 111. 
Gould & Eberhardt, Newark, N I. 

TOOL STEEL. 

B. M Jones & Co., Boston. Mass. 

TRUCKS. 

J. G. Brill Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

TUBE EXPANDERS. 

R. Dudgeon. New York. 

TURNBUCKLES. 

Cleveland City Forge & Iron Co.. Cleveland, O. 

TURRET MACHINES. 

Jones & Lamson. Springfield, Vt. 

TWIST DRILLS. 

Cleveland Twist Drill Co., Cleveland. O. 

VALVES. 

Ashton Valve Co.. Boston, Mass. 

Coale Muffler and Safety Valve Co. .Baltimore, 

Md 
Crosbv Steam Gage & Valve Co., Boston, Mass. 
Detroit Lubricator Co.. Detroit. Mich. 
lenkins Bros.. New York. 
Star Brass Mfg Co., Boston, Mass. 

VALVES, REDUCING. 

Foster Engineering Co.. N'ewark, N. J. 
Ross Valve Co., Troy, N. Y. 

VARNISHES. 

F. C. Reynolds. New York. 

VELOCIPEDES. 

Kalamazoo Railroad Velocipede & Car Co., 
Kalamazoo, Mich. 

VENTILATORS 

Pancoast Ventilator Co.. Philadelphia, Pa. 

VENTILATING FANS. 

Buffalo Fotge Co. 

VESTIBULES- 

Gould Coupler Co.. Buffalo. N Y. 
VULCABESTON AND TRAIN PIPE 
COVERING 

H \V. Johns Mfg. Co., New York. 

WATCHES. 

lohn J . McGrane, New York. 

WIRE FENCES. 

Page Woven Wire Fence Co., Adrian. Mich. 

WROUGHT IRON PIPE. 

Allison Mfg. Co.. Philadelphia Pa. 



198 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



The I mproved S tandard C oupler 



NEW YORK: 



26 



M.C. B. TYPE. 



Cortiandt St. 

Forged Steel Knuckle and Locking Pin. Only 3 parts. No pivot pin. STANDARD COUPLER CO. 

Simplest in design, strongest in service. Thousands in use. GEO. A. POST, Pres. a. p. DENNIS, Sec 



THE POND MACHINE TOOL CO. 



MAKERS 11F 



Powerful and 

Accurate 
Metal- Working 
Machine 
Tools. 

£ 




PLAINEIELD, N. J. 



SEVEN-FOOT BORING AND TURNINO MILL WITH SLOTTING ATTACHMENT. 

MANNING, MAXWELL & MOORE, Sales Agents, 



NO. in AND 113 LIBERTY STREET, 

NEW YORK 



No. 60 South Canal Street, 
CHICAGO. ILL. 



No. 424 Telephone Building, 
PITTSBURGH, PA. 




Consolidated Safety Valve Co. 



SOLE MANUFACTURERS 



RICHARDSON - ASHCROFT 

Pop Safety Valves 

They are adopted as the Standard on leading 
Railroads. 



Made under the Well-known Richardson ' 
and ashcroft patents. 



Best Muffler Made. 

Sample sent 
on trial. 

OFFICES AND SALESROOMS: 

in Liberty Street, NEW YORK. 60 So. Canal St., CHICACi ) 
424 Telephone Bldg., PITTSBURGH, Pa. 




LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



199 



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Lead Screw Stay-Bolt Cutter. 

This is the machine that Jim Skeevers used to cut his accurately-threaded 
stay-bolts. We make them single headed as well, but where much threading is 
done the two-head machine is best — one man runs both heads. 

Perfectly true to pitch, threads cannot be made on a bolt-cutter that depends 
on the die to pull the work into the head — a lead screw does the business. 

This machine will remove at one cut as much stock as a good lathe 
will take in ten cuts. It will thread bolts up to 40 inches in length, from 3-8 
inch to J 1-2 inches in diameter, either right or left hand threads, and tap to match, 
and make true threads all the length of the bolt all the days of the year. 

The "Acme " head and dies are an important feature of all our bolt 
cutters. We guarantee stay-bolts from this machine as perfect in lead as can 
be cut on a lathe. 

Ask for Skeevers' Catalog. 

The Acme Machinery Co. 

Cleveland, Ohio. 



AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A A A A A AAA A AAAAAAAAAAA AA AAA 



300 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Can You Figure, Accurately, 

The Resistance of Any Given Train at 
Any Speed on Any Grade ? 



Can you tell what a locomotive of known draw-bar pull can haul on any 
grade at any speed ? 

Can you figure the problem : 



Total Resistance in Tons = mQ (— + ^ 



Cox's Train Resistance Computer 



FEET 




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Copyright 1896. 1>J W1LL1A5I COX. 178 Greenwich.St., New York. 



Here is a computer that 
does all this instantly and 
never makes a mistake. 
Complete directions with 
each computer. This and 
the Tractive Power Com- 
puter should be in the 
hands of every transporta- 
tion officer of a railroad, 
and every mechanical man, 
from engineers up. Even 
if you can figure up all 
these problems, what's the 
use ? Save time and 
brains. 



AAA 



Bound in Cloth Boards, $1.00 
Bound in Leather Cases, 1.50 



AAA 



Locomotive Engineering, 

256 Broadway, New York. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 






Can You Figure the Tractive Power of 

a Locomotive? 



Are you always sure of your figures ? 



The Formula : Tracti £ e P ° wer *" 

rounds, 



Can you easily figure the ef- 
fect on the power of a Locomo- 
tive of : 

A change in size of drivers ? 

Of increasing the mean ef- 
fective pressure? 

Of enlarging the diameter of 
cylinders ? 

Of changing the stroke? 



This little device figures all 
this instantly, and never makes 
a mistake. 

Full directions with each 
computer. 

Simple, accurate complete. 



Bound in cloth boards, $1.00 
each; in leather case, $1.50. 
Sent by mail. 



n p Often Puzzles. 



[ 



Locomotive Tractive-Power Computer. 






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Time Saver. 
Mistake Preventer. 
Good Thing. 



Locomotive Engineering, 

256 Broadway, 

New York. 



203 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



United States Metallic Packing Company 



<«$n r$n rjfci rfa 

IMi ww WW 



United States Metallic Packing Company. 






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Portable Pneumatic Tapping 

Reaming and Drilling 

Machine, 



Q. 



(Patented Aug. 13, 1895.) 



Can be Operated 
by Steam or Com- 
pressed Air. 

Multiple Cylinder 
type of Motor. 
Simple in Construc- 
tion, Few Parts and 
Durable. 




We will guarantee 
its Economy and 
Durability. 

Not of the Rotary 
type of Motor. 
No Connecting Rods, 
No Eccentric Rods, 
Nothing to Get Out 
of Order. 



No. 00. Breast Drill, weight, 15 lbs., to i 8 Drill. No. 0. Screw Feed Drill, weight, 25 lbs i 8 to I 
No. I. Screw Feed Drill, weight, 48 lbs., I to 2 Drill (Taps or Reams, \y A " hole). 



Drill. 



Metallic Packing for all Kinds of Service. 
Chouteau Pneumatic Hammer. 

Gollmar Locomotive Bell Ringer. 

Dean Pneumatic Sander. 



L 



United States Metallic Packing Co., 

427 North 13th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



IB 



# 






United States Metallic Packing Company. 



<■$? <#j «$» 

w^j i^p U^i y±* 



J 



<6 

D. 

e> 
» 

VI 
9 



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a 
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*-_ 

S' 



United States Metallic Packing Company. 



Smillie Z LE 



Coupler 



^ <% THE SMILLIE COUPLER & MFG. CO., 



TRADE.' 

COUPLES BY SLOW IMPACT. 

MARK. 



91 Clay Street, Newark, N.J. 



New York Office: 39Cortlandt Street. 



HAS ONLY FOUR PIECES. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



208 



BOOK DEPARTMENT. 

Cash must accompany order. A'o books sent C. (>. D. Give name of book and authot , and we can furnish any book wanted. The list 
below is especially recommended for mechanical readet .. . /// books tent by mail free for price named, unless otherwise stated. 

Address Locomotive Engineering, 256 Broadway. New York. 



a Catechism <•' ' lie Steam Engine. John 

Bourne 1886. Oi i' the. very best beginners 

hooks on the steam engine that has ever been 

writ leu. Question anil answer style $'4.O0 

Air-Brake Catechism. Conger. 1895. This 
Is Conger's "Air Brake and Signal Instructions" 
rewritten and improved, containing the air-brake 
and signal Instructions approved by the Master 
Ceu Builders' anil Master Mechanics' Associations ; 
also the standard list of questions for air-hrake 
Instruction. This is the latest and best book on 
air brakes. Issued November 1, 1895. Price. .*5c. 

Air-Brake Practice. Phelan. 1890. The 
only practical book about handling the air brakes 
on the road, by a practical man. Bound for 
pocket $1.00 

Alexander's Ready Reference. Alexander. 
1892. A flrst-class work. Tells what to do In al- 
most any kind of breakdown on the road $1.50 

A Library of Steam Engineering. Feh- 
renbatch. 1895. Illustrates and explains every 
kind of steam engineering, stationary, locomotive 
and marine. Has chapters on the mathematics of 
steam engineering, covering all possible points, 
but In plain figures. No " higher " mathematics 
used. Can be understood by any man with a com- 
mon school education. A whole library of steam 
engineering. 8u0 6J4 x 9>4-iuch pages $5.00 

A Practical Treatise on the Steam En- 
gine. Arthur Rigg. 188S. An excellent treatise 
on the construction of t lie steam engine. Contains 
a few simple formulas. Expensive but worth the 
money. 318 8}£xll-iiu-h pages; 200 illustrations 
and 91 full page plates $10.00 

A Treatise on Steam Boilers, their 
Strength, Construction anil Economical 
'Working. Robert Wilson. 1889. A standard 
Knirlisii work, with additions giving American 
practice by J. T. Flather. A thoroughly practical 
book. % 4')?4i4 x7-in. pages; 108 illustrations. $'4.50 

Block and Interlocking Signals. Elliott. 
1896. Tells what signals are. What they do. How 
they do it. A full, complete description of all 
kinds of block and interlocking signals with de- 
tails of their construction, operation and main- 
tenance. The best book published on signals. 
877 pages, 6" 19'. Leather binding $3.00 

Boiler Making for Boiler Makers. W. H, 

Ford. 1888. A practical treatise on the shop pro- 
cesses of boiler making. 283 4xf^ineii pages ; 
134 illustrations $1.00 

Car Lubrication. Hall. Ought to be read 
by every one interested in keeping journals run- 
ning cool $ 1 .00 

Catechism of the Locomotive. Forney. 
1890. Enlarged. Illustrated. 50.000 sold. Every 
beginner wants it, and every locomotive engineman 
ought to have it. 800 &% x 8-inch pages $3.50 

Combustion and Smoke Prevention on 
Locomotives. .Sinclair. 1896. A practical book- 
let telling the "why" of things about combus- 
tion that every engineer and fireman ought to 
know 35c. 

Compound Locomotives. Wood. 1894. En- 
larged. Tells the history and explains the prin- 
ciples of all the kinds of compound locomotives in 
use $3.00 

Compressed Air; Practical Information 
Upon Air Compression and the Trans- 
mission and Application of Compressed 

Air. Frank Richards. 1895. About the only book 
in print that supplies the information on this im- 
portant subject that so many are in search of. A 
practical book without mathematical ornamenta- 
tion. 195 5x?V^inch pases 25 illustrations and 
diagrams, with many useful tables $1 .50 

Discipline Without Suspension. Brown. 
1896. Pamphlet explaining the "Brown" system 
of discipline, by the originator ; full data 10c. 

Diseases of the Air-Brake System. 

Synnestvedt. 1894. Tells how to find and repair 
every defect that the air-brake system is liable to 
have $1.00 

Elementary Manual on Steam and the 
Steam Engine. Andrew Jamison. Intended 
specially for beginners in the science of steam 



engineering. Contains problems to be worked out 
by the student, and 1 a hi Ipful book, 852 4Wx7!4- 
Inoh pages ; numerous Illustrations, $i.40 

Elementary Treatise on Mechanics. 

Willi: I. Peek, A g 1 1 k on the th. orj ol 

mechanics, Designed especially for students In 
sell,,. .is, hui useful to others, especially tho 

have some knowledg thematli S96 1' ' 

Inch pages; 179 Illustrations i»i.".o 

Knglnemen'g Guide, Time and Pocket- 
Book. Klnne. 1892. Rulesof procedure In a break- 
down, for handling air, etc. Contains a time book. 
Good for three years. Bound for pocket $1.00 

Enginemen's Pocket Companion. Booth. 
1895. Contains pages arranged for time-keeping. 
Has Traveling Engineers' Examination for Engine- 
men, articles on brakes, valve setting, combus- 
tion, and much valuable information for engine- 
men $1 .00 

Evolution of the Air Brake. Synnestvedt. 
1895. A brief but comprehensive history of the de- 
velopment of the modern railroad brake, from the 
earliest conception contained in the simple lever, 
up to, and including, the most approved forms of 
the present day $1.00 

Hand Book of Practical Mechanics. 

Chas. II. Saunders. This I k is designed especi- 
ally for use in the simp ami drafting room, and 
contains very many rules, tables ami simple formu- 
la? for the solution of such practical problems as 
are constantly coming up in the shop. It contains 
much valuable information for shop men. and is an 
excellent book for the shop. 116 6J4 x 4-inch 
pages $1.00 

HaswelTs Engineer's Pocket-Book 

Probably the beet authority in engineering mat 
ters. Rules for almost everything $*.00 

Heat a Mode of Motion. Tyndall. The best 
known work on the nature and phenomena con- 
nected with heat, and one which no one who de- 
sires to understand the subject can afford t<i miss 
reading. Interesting and instructive. 591 5x?H- 
inch pages ; 125 illustrations. $4.50 

How to Save Money in Railroad Black- 
smith Shops by the Use of Bulldozer and 
Helve Hammer. Reynolds. 40 illustrations of 
dies and work. Very valuable to shop manager 
and foreman blacksmiths. SO 6x9-in. pages 35c. 

Indicator Practice and Steam Engine 
Economy. F. F. Hemenway. 1890. Thoroughly 
practical and useful. Gives much information on 
the action of steam in the steam cylinder and in 
language which anybody can understand who will 
try. 184 5x7J4inch pages; 45 illustrations. .$'4.00 

Key to Steam Engineering. Williams. 
1892. More especially for stationary engines, but 
good information for anyone. Boiler, engine, 
combustion, evaporation, etc., explained in a 
common-sense way 50c. 

Link and Valve Motions, w. S. Auchln- 1 
closs. 1891. A work that has been standard for a 
quarter of a century, especially on link motions. 
Newlv revised. 138 8-)i x s^-incb pages ; 52 illustra- 
tions $a.oo 

Locomotive Catechism. Qrimshaw. 1894. 
Latest book out. Contains 1.300 questions and 
answers about locomotives and air brakes. Fully 
Illustrated $8.00 

Locomotive Engine-Running and Man- 
agement, Illustrated. Sinclair. 1893. En- 
larged. Best work on running and care of locomo- 
tives. Plain facts plainly stated. 416 4*4 xT> 4 inch 
pages $8.00 

Locomotive Mechanism and Engineer- 
ing. Reagan. 1894. By a practical locomotive 

engineer. Up to date. A good book $9.00 

b 

Locomotive Running Repairs. Hitch- 
cock. 1892. A practical treatise on running repairs, 
by a practical man. Numerous diagrams and il- 
lustrations. 110 4 x 534-inch pages 50c. 

Machine Shop Arithmetic^ Colvin 4 
Cheney. 1896. Plain rules showing shop men how 
to calculate speed of pulleys and gearing, how to 
figure the gears for screw cutting, and giving a 
great many facts about tools which every mechanic 
ought to understand 50c. 



Modern Locomotive Construction. Illus- 
trated, Meyer. 1892. Tells how to design, figure 
out and make every part of a 1-. A work 

of reference, especially valuable to draughtsmen 
and those in charge of building and repairs. Large 
and elaborate. 858 9 x 14-inch page* $10.00 

Practice and Theory of the injector. 

Kneass. 1894. The only complete work on the In- 
jector yet published. All about all kinds of inject- 
ors, 132 6*4x9- Inch pages $i.so 

Progressive Examinations of Locomo- 
tive Engineers and Firemen. Hill. 1893. 
Three hundred questions, and answers to them, on 
firing and running locomotives. Standard form of 
examination on several roads. Contains colored 
plates of standard train and engine signals. 97 4 x 
0-inch pages 50c. 

Simple Lessons in Drawing, for tho 
Shop. Reynolds. 1893. Twelve lessons that can 
be done with a $10 set of Instruments. The rudi- 
ments of drawing In the best form. 83 4x6t£-inch 
pages 50c. 

Slide Valve Gears. 1 A.Balsey. 1890. Full 

of diagrams, but no mathematics. Hakestl 
ralveas plain aswords can <i" it. 185 5x' 

pages ; 79 illustrations $1 .50 

The Elements of Machine Dealgn. W. 

i'. I'nwin. The standard all around treatise on 
machine design. Contains considerable algebra, 

but most of its matter is useful to one not under- 
standing algebra. 

Part I. General Machinery. 459 i^ifA inch 
pages; 304 Illustrations $4.00 

Part II. Steam Engine. 291 4H x6?$-inch pages; 
$1.50 



1892. 174 illustrations. 



The Mechanical Engineer's Pocket 
Book. Kent. 1895 A reference book of rules, 
tables, data and formulae for the use of engineers, 
mechanics and students. The latest and best 
pocket book. Bound in soft leather, with flap. 
The author has verified every rule and table used, 
brought the whole work up to date, and covered 
the field more completely than has any previous 
author $5.00 

The Mechanics of Machinery. Alex. B. 

W. Kennedy A standard and excellent authority 
on the problems involved in scientific machine de- 
sign. Useful to all students of machinery, but 
requiring some knowledge of mathematics to be 
fully understood, 652 4)^ x 7-inch pages: 374 illus- 
trations $3.50 

The Modern Machinist. Usher. 1895. A 
practical treatise on modern machine shop meth- 
ods. Illustrated by 257 engravings. Does not con- 
tain descriptions of machine tools, but of special 
tools and appliances, methods and plans of doing 
work with them. The book is one that every me- 
chanic should have. 322 4?^x7?i-in. pages. $!J.50 

Theoretical Mechanics. J. Edw. Taylor. 
An introduction to the study of theoretical me- 
chanics. Clear, easily understood. Good book for 
beginners. Numerous problems to be worked out. 
264 4J^x7J4-inch pages $1.0O 

The Steam Engine. Geo. C. V. Holmes. 

1895. An excellent English treatise on the con- 
struction of the steam engine. Rules for propor- 
tions are given in algebraic signs. 528 4^x6*4 -inch 
pages ; 212 illustrations $ 4.0O 

Treatise on the Richards Steam Engine 
Indicator and on the Development and 
Application of Force in the Steam En- 
gine. Chas. T. Porter. 1891. Although a non- 
mathematicai book, it gives an excellent outline of 
the philosophy of the^ steam engine. It is hard 
reading and should be attempted only by those 
who mean business. 285 53 4 x8*4 -inch pages. S3. 00 

Ways and Means. Formetal workers. model 
makers, watch and tool makers, jewelers, drafts- 
men, etc. This book is written by out correspond- 
ent, A. 11 Cleaves and in it will be found illustra- 
tions and descriptions of many approved devices 
which are used in watch factories and other shops 
to facilitate tool making and other manufacturing 
operations. Very many things will be found in it 
of great value to' everv'machinist. tool maker and 
draftsman. 158 &£x 7-inch pages; 126 illustrations. 
Price 91.0O 



■.'Ill 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



the Cower goupler 



THE MOST PERFECT M. CB. COUPLER IN 
ALL MECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS. 



Always Operative. Prompt and Sure in 
Coupling. The Only Reliable Knuckle 
Opener. Send for Descriptive Pamphlet. 



The long and varied experience of 
this company In designing mal- 
leable Iron parts insures the best 
possible results to our customers. 



Malleable Iron Castings The use of maUeaH « ir ° n in car**,* 

frtr Rlilrtvl llt& construction gives increased strength 

I VI 1\ ill 1 1 WIU \%9\ while lessening the weight from 40 to 

50 per cent. Correspondence on this subject is invited and sample castings 
will be furnished to railroads interested. jtj*******„*j***jt.Mj*j*jtj*j* 

The National Car Door Fastener,-.** The National Center Plate,!** The National Journal Box, 
The National Journal Box Lid, J* Coffin's Sill and Brake Block Pockets. •.** Eubank Car Door. 

RAILWAY DEPARTMENT, 



Works: Cleveland, Chicago, 

Indianapolis, Toledo. 



NATIONAL MALLEABLE CASTINGS COMPANY, 

1525 Old Cohnv Buildine. CHICAGO. 



THE 




0- 



CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED. 
LOU. D. SWEET, Qen'l Mgr. 



A MS Automatic Coupler 

is rapidly gaining favor with Railroad 
Managers. Its simplicity, cheapness and 
durability, and the fact that it works with old link 
and pin couplers — with which the majority of cars 
are yet equipped — makes it desirable for all re- 
newals and repairs. It is strong and has few parts. 
Conforms to the U. S. Law, and is a cheaper 
and better coupler than the vertical-hook. Any 
road can afford to put the Sams on its old 
equipment. We give systems the right to make 
and use drawbar and lever attachments, and sell 
them the pins at $1.00 each. 

Cast Iron Bars weigh about 185 lbs.; 
Malleable, 135 to 140 lbs. 

Can furnish Malleable Bars at $4.25 each, F.O. B. Chicago. 

Pins, $1.00 each, F. O. B. Detroit. 



SAMS AUTOMATIC GOUPLER CO., 516 Equitable Bldg., Denver, Gol. 



New York Office, 
Taylor Building, 
39 Gortlandt St. 




J BEMENT, MILES & CO. 

?K PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Chicago Office, 

1534 Marquette Bldg, 






[■mans 




MANUFACTURERS OP 



Metal Working Machine Tools. 

For Railroad Shops, Locomotive and Car Builders, 

Machine Shops, Rolling Mills, Steam Forges, Ship Yards. 

Boiler Shops, Bridge Works, etc. , etc. 



STEAM HAMMERS. 



Steam and Hydraulic 

RIVETING MACHINES 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERiNv 






Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co., 



MdnufrH lur'-rs of 



PITTSBURGH, PA. 



The Tesla Polyphase Alternating System of Electrical 
Transmission, by which Power, Incandescent and 
Arc Lighting may be Supplied from the Same Circuit. 



m 



Standard Systems for 
Electric Light and 
Power Distribution in 
Cities, Factories, 



New York, 120 Broadwtiy. 



Boston, txchnnge Building. Pittsburgh, Westinghouse Building. f^f^rtft<4,ftr,ffr,rfrtfxtr,f>tr1f>tr, 

Buffalo, N.Y., 8 Erie Co. Bank Bldg. St. louis, American Central Bldg. 

Charlotte, N.C., 36-38 College St. San f ram isco, Mills Building. 

Chicago, New York life Building. Syracuse. N.Y., Bastable Building. 

Philadelphia, Girard Building. Tacoma, Wash., 102 S. 10th Street. 



t Mills and Mines. 



ftr> 



Westinghouse Electric Co., Ltd., 

32 Victoria Street, I Ion S.W., Fnaland. 

Avenue de I'Opera, Paris, Trance. 



^ n The Westinghouse Electric Railway System, which is the 
,jf„ Most Durable, Economical and Efficient on the Market. 



For Canada, address, 

AHEARN 4 S0PER, Ottawa, Ont. 



The Pratt c£ Whitney Co., 

HARTFORD, CONN., U. S. A., 

MANUFACTURERS OP 

STANDARD CYLINDRICAL SIZE and TJ. S. STANDARD THRKAD GAUGES. 

Special Gauges of every variety of interchangeable production. 

REAMERS, TAPS AND DIES. 

In all usual styles for Machinists, Pipe Fitters and Boiler Makers. 

Renshaw Ratchet Drills, Combination Lathe Chucks, Die Stocks, Bolt Cutters, 

Lathes, Planers, Drilling:, Milling, Profiling, Cutter Grinding, Die Sinking, 

and Drop Forging Machines, Forging and Trimming Dies. 

MONITOR MACHINES FITTED WITH TOOLS 

Jbr finishing to Sample. Screws, Studs, Locomotive Fittings, Plumbers' and Gas Fitters' Brass Goods. 
CATALOG VE L SEXT Off APPLICATION. 

LOCOMOTIVE WORKS AND CAR SHOPS — 




NEED THE BEST TOOLS. 

WE MAKE THE HIGHEST GRADE ONLY OF 

PIPE THREADING and 
CUTTING-OFF MACHINES 



Hand or 
Power. 



Our Adjustable Stocks and Dies are the Most 

Convenient, Durable and Satisfactory 

Tools of the Kind in the World. 

SECURE OUR CATALOG. 



THE ARMSTRONG MFG. CO. 



No. 3 Machine. 



BRIDGEPORT, CONN., 

104-116 Knowlton St." 



NEW YORK, 
139 Centre St. 



LEONARD & ELLIS. 




Trade 



Mark. 



OILS FOR RAILROADS. 



has long been used on many 

VALVOLLNE of the leading railroads in this 
Jtjt OIL J*«"* country and abroad. It has no 

TT^-rrr-rT.^TT equal in quality and mileage. 



W. A. BOYDEN, General Agent, 
J 57 Chambers Street, NEW YORK- 



Spark Arrester Plate. 




i : i : 

» i ■ ■■ 



THE HENDRICK MFG. CO. 

CARBONDALE, PA. 



CARBON STEEL COMPANY, httsburqh. pa. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

OPEN HEARTH 3T E E L PLATES F0R ALL PURP0SES - 

SPECIALLY SUITED FOR LOCOMOTIVE FIREBOXES AND BOILERS. 

FARTICUliARS SSNT OPff APPLICATION. 



909 Havemeyer Bldg., New York. 



1413 Fisher Bldg., Chicago. 



505 Union Trust Bldg., St. Louis. 



THE BAKER CAR HEATERS 

SINGLE AND DOUBLE CIRCULATION. 

Jointless, Flexible, Steel Fire-Proof, 

^l\;c atucd ctvi cc Impossible to break them. 

rlVfc, UIHbK MY Lcb. Impossible to burn a car with them. 



Special Fittings for Baker Heater Work 
Perfected Jointless Safety Vent. 



MADE AND SOLD 
ONLY BY 



WILLIAM C. BAKER, 

(Successor to baker heater Co.) 

143 Liberty Street, New York, 



206 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING, 



TheNew" NATHAN 

(Ske Illustration", and 

MONITOR INJECTORS 
LOCOMOTIVES. 

"NATHAN" SIGHT-FEED LUBRICATORS. 

.For Locomotive Cylinders and Air Brakes. 
STEAM FIRE EXTINGUISHERS. 

For Switching and Yard Engines. 

BOILER WASHERS, 

Road and Guide Oil Cups, etc. 
SEND FOR DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUES. 

NATHAN MANUFACTURING CO., 

92 &. 94 Liberty St., New York. 

Western Office, 117 4 119 VAN BUEEN STEEET, CHICAGO, ILL. 




Bradley 
Forges 



FOR HARD COAL AND COKE. 



THESE FORGES will heat irons 
fast enough to keep a hammer-man 
busy, and have features that make them 
the best on earth. 

Patent Arch Top 

That Cannot Sag. 

Rocking Grate 

Insures a Clean Fire. 

Dumping Ash Pan, 

Air Box Always Free. 
7 SIZES. SEND FOR PRINTED MATTER. 

The BRADLEY CO. 

SYRACUSE, N. Y. 




ADVANTAGES OF 

THE MORAN FLEXIBLE JOINT 

For a Steam Heating Connection 

Between Engine and Tender. 

ALL METAL CONNECTION. 

ABSOLUTELY FLEXIBLE. 

Positively Steam Tight under ANY Pressure. 

Indestructible Short ot Wreck. No Delays. No Repairs. 
First Cost is the Only Cost. . 

STEAM, OIL, HOT ASHES, OR DIRT, 

does not affect its life. 

MORAN FLEXIBLE STEAM JOINT CO., Inc'd. 

HENRY U. FRANKEL, President. 

149 THIRD ST., LOUISVILLE, KY. 



Sectional View of Standard 
Railroad Joint, showing 
Automatic Relief Trap. 




THIS CUT SHOWS OUR 

Duplex Compressor 

For Railroad and 
Machine Shops, 

Having Compound Air Cylinders, with In- 
ter-Cooler and Compound Steam Cylinders 
with Meyer Cut-Off Valves. This is the 
Best Construction for Small and Medium 



SEND TOR CATALOGUE. 



RAND DRILL CO 



100 Broadway, New York. 
1328 Monadnock Block, Chicago. 



A Full Line. Over 300 Sizes. 

PUNCHES 

AND 

SHEARS 

FOR 

R. R. SHOPS 

i 




WILLIAMS, WHITE & CO., 




MOLLNE, ILL., U. S. A. 



.^%<%<\ 



Makers of JUSTICE HAMMERS, 

AUTOMATIC COAL CHUTES FOR COALING LOCOMOTIVES, 

BULLDOZERS, DROP HAMMERS, 

STEAM HAMMERS, PUNCHES AND SHEARS, 

EYE-BOLT MACHINES, 

TAPER ROLLING MACHINES. 



Write for fully illustrated descriptive circulars 
and catalogue of Double, Single, Angle -Bar, 
GangrHorizontal, Twin, Boiler. Spacing, Gate 
MuUiple, Belt, and Steam-Driven 'Puncnes an<5 
Shears. 

THE LONG & ALLSTATTER CO. 

HAMILTON. OHIO, U.S.A. 




LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



.">; 



Stow Flexible Shafts 




TRFDERIC SCHOIT, 

Proprietor, 

26th & Callowhill Sis., 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Manufacturers of 

Flexible Shafts, 



Portable DRILLING, 
TAPPING, 

REAMING, 
AND BORING 
MACHINES. 
also 
Tools for Emery 
Wheel Grinding, Metal and Wood Polishing, Cattle 
Brushing and Clipping. 

Builder of Special Machines for Railroads, Bridge 
and Boiler Makers, Contractors, etc. 



GALENA OIL WORKS, 

(LIMITED). 

Galena Engine, Coacn and Car Oils, 

the Standard Lubricating Oils 

of America* 

SAFETY, SPEED and ECONOMY are the results of 
the use of Galeua Otis. COLD TEST, 10 to 15 BELOW 
ZERO. These oils do not freeze In the coldest weather, 
while they are adaptable to the hottest climates. 

In the use of Galena Oils there is an entire freedom 
from hot boxes, except when these are caused by me 
Ohanlcal defects. 

The adoption of Galena Oils as standard railway lu 
bricants by a large majority of the leading railways of 
this country is an evidence of their superiority, while 
the fact that the same roads use these oils to-aay that 
used them more than 20 years ago, is an evidence o* 
their uniformity from year to year and year In and out. 

Galena Oils are in exclusive use upon three continu 
ous lines from Boston and New York to the Pacific 
coast, and upon one continuous line from the City of 
Mexico to New York, thusdemonstriitiuLT their adapta- 
bility to all temperatures and climates. Being entirely 
tree from gum, these oils are not affected by dust and 
•and as other oils are. 

We also furnish our customers SIBLEY'S PERFEC- 
TION VALVE OIL, which is also used exclusively upon 
ft majority of the leading railways of America. 

GALENA OIL WORKS, Limited, 

Charles Miller, President, 

OmcAao Branch Office, Franklin, Pa. 

Phoenix Building, 138 Jackson St. 



Link-Belt 
Ens 



NICETOWN, PHILA. 
Design and 49 Dey St., NEW YORK, 
Erect 

Locomotive Coaling Stations 

and Supply 

Coal and Ashes 
Handling Machinery, 



To meet any conditions. 

Wegtern House: 

LINK-BELT MACHINERY CO., 

CHICAGO and NEW ORLEANS. 



FOSTER 
FOSTER 
FOSTER 
FOSTER 



Pressure Regulators. 

Reducing Valves. 
Air=Brake — 

Pump Governors. 
Inside Boiler Checks. 



THE3 



FOSTER ENGINEERING CO., 

NEWARK, N. J. 



ALLISON MFC. CO., 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

FREIGHT CARS AND 
LOCOMOTIVE BOILER TUBES. 

WROUGHT IRON PIPE OF SUPERIOR QUALITY. 



i»hiij-a.ide:31iI>3eii-a., :e»-a.. 



THE SARCA* 


^COMPANY 1 


OLD COLONY BLDG ^^^ 


py^CHICAGO ILL.^^v 




I w.^^m. ST- LOU IS, ^^hLm 


^■aB mm^ 1 * ^^ftJWi 


\Lfr ^CINCINNATI. ■■ 11 


mm r**^F 


\L^^^\ 5AN FRAMCISCOHLJI 


{jipB 1 -HHL 


Jj m T^ mm m ST. PAUL, tffll 




H^^»w^» TACOMA, If 


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JlV IT PORTLAND. BujU 


STEEL. Xa 


'VjBRAKE®* 


CASTINGS^" 1 


"^ SHOES 



Locomotive 

BOILER, 
Smoke Stack, 
Tank and Sheet 

STEELS. 



Quality Unsurpassed. 




Plates up to 118 inches in width 



SHOENBERGER STEEL CO 



PITTSBURGH, PA. 




PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

LABOR-SAVING TOOLS for LOCOMOTIVE SHOPS 

CRANES. 

PLANERS. 

TOOL GRINDERS, 

BORING AND TURNING 
MILLS, 

DRIVING WHEEL LATHES, 

VERTICAL, HORIZONTAL 
DRILL PRESSES. 

LOCOMOTIVE TURN- 
TABLES, 

MILLING MACHINES. 

STEAM HAMMERS.! 

AXLE LATHES.: 

CRANES. 

Injectors lor Locomotives. 




208 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Boston Belting Co. 



JAMES BENNETT FORSYTH, Manufacturing Agent and General Mdn i. 

MANUFACTURERS Or 

Air Brake, Steam and Water Hose, 

AND 

RELIABLE, DURABLE, ECONOMICAL 

boston DiiDDrD rnnnc n EW york : 

J->d. 25S and Ji.ci Devonshire Street. |\ I IB B R I t\ 111 II II F a » ""' '"-' Reade Street. 





CHICAGO : 

'09 Madison Street. 



FOR 

RAILWAY EQUIPMENT. 



SAN TRANCISCO: 
24 Fremont St. 



PEDRICK & AYER CO. ^SSSjr 

¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥ 

da 



COMPOUND AUTOMATIC AIR COMPRESSOR-Driven by a 

belt, regulates itself au 
tomatlcally, malntaln : 
Ing the pressure within 
three pounds at any de- 
sired point ; compound- 
ed and water jacketed ; 
will supply air at less 
than ball" the cost for 
fuel of brake pumps. 
Runs only so long as air 
Is being used. Delivers 
44 cubic feet of free air 
per minute. 




¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 



¥ 
¥ 
¥ 



Requires no attention but oiling, and but little ol that. Case Dust-Proof. 

¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥*¥ *V¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥W¥ 



• • • • 

We make a Specialty of Tools for Railroad 
Repair Shops. 

EVERYTHING IN ' 

AIR-LIFTS, CRANES, DRILLS, ETC. 

VALVE SEAT FACING MACHINES. 

PORTABLE CYLINDER BORERS. 

BRASS JOINTERS. 

CRANK PIN TURNERS. 

MILLING MACHINES. 

OPEN SIDE PLANERS. 

TIRE HEATERS. 

LINK RADIUS SLOTTERS. 

PLANER CHUCKS. 

VALVE MOTION MODELS. 



Write for our 
'96 Catalog. 



BY 

USING 



garland's £n$Si$b Uarni$lK$ 



You keep your cars on the road longer, thereby effecting a large saving. 

F. C. REYNOLDS, Sales Agent for United States and Canada. 

4 Gold Street, New York. 



STAR BRASS MANUFACTURING CO. 

CHAS. W. SHERBURNE, President. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Star Improved Locomotive Steam Gages. 
Star Improved Locomotive Pop Safety Valves, 

MUFFLED OR PLAIN. 

Victoria Car Lamps, standard appL?ances. 

The Star Steam Gages are the only Non-corrosive Gages made, also 
the onlv Gages fitted with our Patent Corrugated Seamless Drawn 
Spring'Tube, which for its non-setting qualities is unequaled. 

-31 to 39 LANCASTER STREET, BOSTON, MASS. 





SHERBURNE'S AUTOMATIC TRACK SANDING 
APPARATUS FOR LOCOMOTIVES. 



Fur sanding the track instantly when brake is applied, and by 
sand blast in starting or hand blast only. 

SHERBURNE & CO., 

No. 53 OLIVER STREET, BOSTON, MASS* 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 






Plain miller 



••• 







Cylindrical Column 
Design, with and with- 
out back gear. 



••• 



Adapted to the require- 
ments of the modern 
Railroad shop. 

•»* 
A modern Milling Ma- 
chine at a fair price, — 

plain, honest, efficient. 

••• 

You cannot afford to use a planer on work this 

tool will handle. 

••• 

Price List,— Without Back Gear, $600.00; 
with Back Gear, $680.00. 

Ask for particulars on these Milling Machines. Sent free. 

• •• 

W\ D. FORBES & CO., 

1307 Hudson Street, two blocks from 14th Street Ferry, 

HOBOKEN, N. T. 




m 
m 

>Pjs> 

'/Ml 

:t/Lv 



is/is 



FIRST AND LAST^* 

Rubber mats and treads have found a pi 
nenl place on aisles, platforms and Btep 



Xhej add rtd cleanliness that 

know; l.ut have you noticed the differ* 
in weai I" i ••'■' en one matting and anoth< i 
[f the rubber is tough and elastic, it gives to 

gas 

the foot, without breaking. A brittle com- £'&' 

pound looks just as well, but stands up too £}J| 

stiffly ; the- foot strikes i eavily, and the )£& 

&&■ 
heavier it strikes the shorter the life of the g 

matting. Elastic rubber is expensive -that •*«•} 

explains the first cost of our matting. But it ggfe 

wears — that explains the last cost. THE 

FIRST IS ONLY APPARENT, THE 

LAST. IS REAL -which do you prefer? 

9M 



NEW YORK BELTING& PACKING CO.LTD. 



PIONEERS AND LEADERS, 25 PARK PLACE. 



Vs&L 






Coffin Toughened Process 

:,^s®2ig«as«s&7>;,-ioiv-o r^. .w,^,^ o,';<o ^.r^ ,?\ r^,r?>^ ^^,^,^ ■-^ DrivinQ, Truck, Freight 




and Passenger Axles, 
Pistons, Crank Pins and 
Side Rods -*■ 

ALSO SOFT STEEL ARCH BARS, 

Bent and Drilled. 

L. R. POMEROY, Sales Agent, 

33 Wall Street. NEW YORK. 



|(!KW.ww.w w;wa '^ w ^.< \ggQ® ^ 



Cambria Iron Company, 



General Office, PHILADELPHIA. 



Works, Johnstown, Pa. 



RAILS AND AXLES— 33 Wall Street, New York. 



STRUCTURAL STEEL— 100 Broadway, New York. 



OK 



«« 



Coak 



muffler Pop 
Safety Ualoc 



Is the pioneer and is the best. 



it 
it 
it 
it 
it 
it 
it 
it 
it 
it 
it 



The Coak Muffler Pop Safety Valve ~ 

Is the standard on leading railroads and power plants in the 
United States. Specify our valves on your new locomotives 
and boilers. Simple in construction and reliable under all 
conditions. Sample put on trial on application. 

The Coale Muffler and Safety Valve Company, 
Charles & Lexington Sts., Baltimore. Md. 



210 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



• •<»<*<^^«<^<J<»^»<^-<J<»~<J«^^<»^«<^<*<»^*^^J<^<J»<^^ 



J? 



iS& -H.J, 



. \ 






d/F ^a 









The Westinghouse 
Air Brake Co. 

Pittsburgh, 

Pcnn'a. 




Annual Capacity: 250,000 Freight Car, 6,000 Passenger and 

10,000 Locomotive Brakes. 



428,000 

Equipments already 
in use. 









^ ■•■ 



^ PJF 



m 

I 

6 



t 



2 

3 



6 



t 
6 



6 



z 

Z 

5 

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r-M^. r> o < 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



211 



<-. h. Dale, /v.-, 
C. C. MiifKii, 7, eaa. 
Brown l m dwell, Secy, 



Guarantee the Best 
Ever Manufactured. 



Peerless Rubber Manufacturing Co. 



16 WARREN ST. 
N. Y. CITY. 





Matting, Belting, 
Water Hose, Gaskets, 
Rainbow Packing. 



itc Name "Peerless" Signifies its [>urahllitv. 



[TRADE MARK] 

ANACONDA. 



ENGINE 

AND 

TENDER 

HOSE 

CAN'T 

KINK. 




co\ PE.E.RIXS5 ST^.MA. 

CT ;Al 2 3 4 5 6 78 9 10 11 1Z 
' |R 12345678 9 10 11 12 
™f PEERLESS RUBBER MFG CO. N.Y. 



tm v. Vgr. R >■■ Di 



< ■ s Prosseb •■!., I- 




I»AXri-i S. REEVES, Philadelphia. 

PHOSPHOR BRONZE XL * locomotive^- car bearings 

BRASS and PMOS. BRONZE CASTINGS from J* lb. to 5,000 lbs. in WEIGHT. 



J. S. MEEKER'S 



Refined Malleable Castings made from Air Furnace and Cupola 
Railroad Work a Specialty. 



HIGHEST AWARD AT WORLDS FAIR. 



MALLEABLE, GREY IRON AND BRASS 



CORRESPONDENCE ASKED. 

Clay, Spring and Ogden Streets, NEWARK, N. J. 



FOUNDRIES 



J. G. BRILL CO. 



Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 



Street Railway 
Supplies. 



& 



Cars, Trucks. 



B HlMIMtTO 



ETTTTTgTgg 



WE 

MAKE 



Ratchet Handles, 
Tiller Brakes, 
Track Scrapers, 
Lever Brakes, 
Gates, 
Sand Boxes, 
Draw Bars, 
Drop Draw Bars. 



We can Furnish Anything used on a Street Railway at Low Prices. 



ASK YOUR PURCHASING AGENT TO ORDER 

Combustion and Smoke Prevention on Cocomotives 



One book, 
Ten books, - 



PRICE . 

$0.25 One hundred books, - $15.00 

2.00 One thousand books, - 100.00 

NET.l 



Several roads have ordered from 200 to 1,000 books and distributed them to their engineraen and 

;count it a good investment. 

PUBLISHED BY 

LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING, 

256 Broadway, NEW YORK. 



The Cameron 
Steam Pump. 




COMPLETE WITH BOILER. 



The A. S. Cameron 
Steam Pump "Works, 

Foot of East Twenty-third Street, 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue. NEW YORK. 



"999 



" Chart, the Car Chart and the Colored Air-Brake Chart 
for 50 cents* *£«*«£«£«£«£«£«£«£«£*£ 



212 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



PRESSED STEEL TRUCK FRAMES 

AND PRESSED STEEL PARTS FOR CAR AND TRUCK CONSTRUCTION. 

FOX SOLID PRESSED STEEL COMPANY, ^ SS ESSE CH,CAGa 

JAMES B. BRADY. General Sales Agent, Havemeyer Building, NEW YORK. 

"A STRAIGHT LINE IS THE SHORTEST DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO POINTS." 




Che "Straight One," Class "fl," flir Compressor, 

OF THE INGERSOLL-SERGEANT MAKE, IS 
THE SHORTEST LINE BETWEEN STEAM 
AND AIR. CATALOGUE OF AIR COMPRESS- 
ORS OF MANY TYPES, FOR USE IN EVERY 
LINE OF INDUSTRY, SENT ON REQUEST. 



HAVEMEYER BUILDING, 
NEW YORK. 



THE INGERSOLL- 
SERGEANT DRILL CO. 



Ramapo Wheel and Foundry Co., 




MANUFACTURERS OF 



'«CTK>I* Or B0LTLEB8 FASTENING. 



BOLTLESS STEEL-TIRED WHEELS 

For Passenger and Locomotive 
Service. 

Tires with Annular Web and Hook, 

Best Charcoal Iron Double-Plate 
or Spoke Centers, 

Wedge-Shaped Retaining Ring. 




t Continuous Circumferential Fastening. Simple, Sale, Economical. 

CHILLED IRON WHEELS Ganglion Brake Shoes 

Of Superior Quality, 

Drawing Boom, Passenger and F° r Chille <l lron Wheels, 

''locomotives, Tenders, 0utwear from 4 to 6 ordbar y 
Plantation and Mine Cars. Snoes and enhance 

Cylinder Packing Rings. mileage. 

Office and Works: RAMAPO, N. Y. 



Ramapo Iron Works,Hillburn, N.Y. 



MANUFACTURE 



BRAKE SHOES 

For Steel-Tired Wheels. 

ROSS, for Steel-Tired Car and Tender Wheels, 
ROSS-MEEHAN, for Locomotive Drivers, 
SHEPPARD, for Blind or Bald-Tired Drivers. 



Narrow Gauge Gars, SwitGlj6S, Automatic Stands. 



YOKED, BOLTED AND SPRING RAIL FROGS, CROSSINGS, 
TRACK EQUIPMENT. 



RAILROAD AND MACHINERY 

CASTINGS, 



HEAVY AND LIGHT. 



A.. W. SOPER, Pres. Robt. ANDREWS, Vice-Pres. C. H. Howard, Sec W. R. Thomas, Treas. R. M. Dixon, Engineer 

The Safety Car Heating and Lighting Co. 

160 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 

HEATING SYSTEMS — By hot water circulation and direct steam with regulating devices, 
Reliable and uniform heat. Economical and rapid circulation. Gibbs automatic couplet. 
of Westinghouse type, absolutely steam-tight. 

IGHTING SYSTEM. — The celebrated Pintsch compressed oil gas method. In use on ovei 
70,000 cars in Europe and America. Adopted by the U. S. Lighthouse Board for 
' lighting Buoys. The best, most economical and only safe light for Railroad purposes, 

IN BRILLIANCY AND CLEANLINESS UNSURPASSED. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



218 



/ooke Locomotive and Machine Company, 



PATERSON, 

N.J. 




General Agent, H. A. ALLEN, 45 Broadway, New York. 







H. K. PORTER & CO., 6th and Wood Sts., Pittsburgh, Pa., 

BUILDERS OF 

Light Locomotives, — Steam, Compressed Air and Electric,— for all gauges of track, 
every variety of service, 3 to 45 tons weight. 

STANDARD AND NARROW GAUGE LOCOMOTIVES ALWAYS KEPT ON HAND, IN STOCK, 
impositions, with Specifications and Photographs, promptly furnished on bona fide Inquiry. 







the Lima Locomotive and Machine Company, lima, ohio, 



Manufacturers and 
Builders of 




Shay Patent and Direct Connected Locomotives. Freight and Caboose Cars, all kinds of 
Steel Castings, Brass and Gray Iron Castings, Car Wheels and Railroad Work. 

CORRESPONDENCE SOMCITED. 

BOSTON & ALBANY R. R. 

The only line from or to New England running through Sleeping' Cars 
over the New York Central & Hudson River, Lake Shore & 
]Hiehig;aii Southern, Michigan Central and " Big Four " 
R. ltd.. 

SHORTEST AND QUICKEST LINE TO THE WEST, 

NORTHWEST AND SOUTHWEST. 

Five superb trains between Bostmi and New York, via Springfield Line. 
For information, maps, time-tables and reservation of berths apply to 

A. S. HANSON, 

General Passenger Agent, Boston, Mass. 

A MONTHLY JOURNAL devoted to Steam 
Engineering and Practical Work relative 
to the Economic Generation and Trans- 
mission of Power. Sixty-four pages, pro- 
fusely illustrated. Price, $1.00 a year. 
Send for Sample Copy— FREE. Address, 

The Power Publishing company, 

World Building, New York. 




LATROBE STEEL CO., 



T i 



MANUFACTURERS 



FOR 



R 



OP 



E 



S 



LOCOMOTIVE 
and CAR WHEELS. 



WORK'S. LATROBE. PENNA. 

Automatic Steel Couplers, 

Elliptic and Spiral 
Springs and Steel Castings. 

MANt'FA' T! HEU AT 

WORKS, MELROSE PARK, ILL. 



Main Office, 1200 Girard Building, Philadelphia. 

ii i I f),< l Colony Building. Chicago. 
Branch . Xi WaM Btreet< Bew Y ork. 

I Union Trust Building, St. Louis. 



I iftVi-M. 




POP safety valves, 

MUFFLED A>D PI. UN. 
MPROVED 

STEAM GAGES. 

SINGLE BELL 

CHIME WHISTLES. 

A perfect equipment 
for a locomotive, giv- 
ing noiseless relief, ao- 
curacy and steadiness, 
agreeable tone. Specif, 
these goods when or* 
dering locomotives. 

CROSBY STEAM GAGE 
AND VALVE CO,, 

Boston, Mass. 



Branches : 

New York, Chicago, and 

London, England. 



SIGNAL OIL WORKS, 

LIMITED, 

FRANKLIN, PA. 

MANUFACTURERS OP 

SIBLEY'S Perfection YALYE OIL. 

The only perfect Locomotive Valve Lubricant. 

J. C. SIBLEY, Prest. 



Our Line Engravings are made by the 
wax process, a plan securing accuracy and 
distinct lines on original copper plates. 
They are made hv BRADLEY & POATES, 
10 & 12 Vandewater St., New York City. 



WANTED— AN IDEA. JJM 

some simple thing to patent f Protect your ideas ; 
they mav bring vou wealth. Write JOHN WED- 
DERBURN A CO.. Patent Attorneys, Washington, 
D. C. for their $1,800 prize offer. 



214 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 




m& STEEL TIRES 



ON LOCOMOTIVE DRIVING WHEELS 

AND ON 

STEEL-TIRED WHEELS. 

GIVE THE BEST Hl>l I IS FOR EVERY VARIETY OF SERVICE. 

THOMAS RROSSER <£ SON, 15 Gold Street. New York. 

OLD COLONY BUILDING. CHICAGO. 



SCHENECTADY LOCOMOTIVE WORKS, 



Schenectady, 

N. Y. 




EVERY DESIGN UP-TO-DATE. 
ANNUAL CAPACITY, 400. jtjt 

COMPOUNDS 



Showing Economy of from 
J 5 to 30 per cent. 

DESIGNS FURNISHED, OR ENGINES 
~» BUILT TO R. R. SPECIFICATIONS. 



Rogers Locomotive Company 

OF PATERSON, N. J. 
Address, Paterson, N. J., or 44 Exchange PI., New York. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Locomotive Engines and Tenders 

FOR EVERY VARIETY OF SERVICE. 

R. S. Hughes, President. 

G. E. Hannah, Treas. G. H. Longbottom, Sec'y. 

Reuben Wells, Superintendent. 





DICKSON MFG. CO. 



SCRANTON, P£NN. 

Locomotives of every style and size, Stan- 
dard and Narrow Gauge, made to Standard 
Gauges and Templets. Also for Plantations, 
Mines and Logging:. 

Specifications on application, 

C. H. ZEHNDER, President. 
L. F. BOWER. Secretary and Treasurer. 

DE COURCY MAY, General Manager. 




For Farm. 
For Railroads. 
Around Parks and 
Cemeteries. 



PAGE WOVEN WIRE 
FENCE CO. 



ADRIAN, MICH. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



318 



ESTABLISHED 
1831. 



BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE WORKS. 



ANNUAL CAPACITY, 
1,000. 



Single Expansion and 
Compound Locomotives 

Broad and Narrow Gauge Locomotives, Mine and 
Furnace Locomotives, Compressed Air Locomotives, 
Steam Gars and Tramway Locomotives, Plantation 
Locomotives, Oil-Burning Locomotives. 

Adapted to every variety of service, and built n<<ur;it<ly to ftiinw* and tem. 
platen after Htandard deni^im '.r to railroad companies' drawings. 
lAkf partB of different engines of Maine, clown perfectly Interchangeable. 

Electric Locomotives and Electric Car Trucks 
with Approved Motors. 

BURNHAM, WILLIAMS & CO., Philadelphia, Pa.. U. S. A. 

Established J 865. 





Richmond Locomotive 



AND 



Machine Works, 



RICHMOND, VA. 



LOCOMOTIVES FOR EVERY SERVICE. 



Brooks Locomotive Works, Dunkirk, »y. 



F. H. Stevens, Pres. 
U. J. Gross. Vice- Pres, 



M. L. Hinman, Treas. 

T. M. Hequexbourq, Sec'y 




David Kusskll, Supt. BUILDERS OF LOCOMOTIVE EN- 
H. Tandy, Ass'l Supt. GINES FOR ANY REQUIRED 

SERVICE 
from our own designs or those of purchasers. 
Perfect interchangeability, and all work fully guaranteed. 



Compound 



Locomotives 

FOR 

Passenger and Freight Service. 



ANNUAL CAPACITY 400. 



WILSON MILLER. 
President 

D. A. WISHTMAN. 




Pittsburgh Locomotive 

Manufacturers of \Cf()rks PITTSBURGH, PA. 

Locomotives adapted to every variety of 

service, from standard designs or 

purchasers' specifications. 

Builders of the Most Successful Compound 
Locomotives in the World. 



316 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



ColumbiaJ^^f. 



are made of 



5Z JVickcl Steel Tubing 



Because it makes the strongest and most rigid bicycle frames. We control the entire production of 5 per cent. 
Nickel Steel Tubing, and use it exclusively in Columbia bicycles. A thousand dollars would not buy a better 
bicycle than a Columbia — nor as good. 

. . . Strongest « Bicycles « in « the « World . . . 

. ^ nil Ml TO ALL ALIKE 

Hartford bicycles are better than most hundred dollar wheels, except the Columbia, and at prices within the 
reach of all— $75, $60, $50, $45. 

POPE MANUFACTURING CO., Hartford, Conn. 

Greatest Bicycle Factory in the World. Over 17 Acres of Floor Space. 
Branch House or dealer in almost every city and town. If Columbias are not properly represented in your vicinity, let us know. 

You should know about bicyles. Send for the handsomest Catalogue ever issued Free if you call at any Columbia 

dealer ; by mail from us for one 2 cent stamp. 




There are no Back 
Numbers of 1896 to be 
had. We have fifty 



Bound Volumes m 



and no more. They will 
not last a month. Price, 
$3.00, cash with order. 
First come first served. 






m 



S3 

mi) 

BBS 



Locomotive Engineering, 

No. 256 Broad\v;i\ . 
New York. 




Block 



and 



Interlocking 



Bv W. H. ELLIOTT, 

SlG ENGR. 
C. Ml. & St. P R. R. 



Signals* 



Do you want a complete descrip- 
tion of all the kinds of Block 
Signals? What they are for? 
What they do? How they do 
it? 

200 pages; 129 illustrations; 
6x9 size. Handsomely bound 
in leather. Price, $3. 

Address, 

Locomotive Engineering, 

256 Broadway, New York. 



< 



SmMST 5 



&Pm£ 



Vol. X. 



railwayMotiye Power 
^ahd Rolling Stock- 

[Trade-Mark Registered.] 

NEW YORK, HARCH, 1897. 



Mill Valley and Mount Tamalpais 
Scenic Railway. 

Looking from San Francisco northwest, 
across the bay, we see a rugged plot of 
mountains, among which rises Mount 
Tamalpais, which, Robert Louis Steven- 
son said, "stands sentry like a light-house 
over the Golden Gate, between the bay 
and open ocean, and looks down indiffer- 
ently on both." 

The people of San Francisco have a 



There are 270 curves and twenl 
trestles. Three trestles have a radius of 
70 feet; four have a radius of 100 feet; four 
have a radius of 80 feet; two a radius of 
140 feet; one has a curvature of 30 de- 
grees, and one 17 degrees, and two are 
straight. 

"There are on the road forty-four 
curves with a 100-foot radius: twenty-two 
with a 70-foot radius; nineteen with an 
80-foot radius: nineteen with a 90-foot 



No. 3- 

tain, you can sec toward the west the 
Pacific ocean and San Francisco bay; to 
the east, San Rafael and the Sonoma val- 
ley; and to the north, the snow-capped 
Sierras. The elevation of the road is 2,35s 
feet above the sea level. 

"There are two locomotives on the 
road. One is the 'Heisler,' designed by 
William Heisler and built by the Stearns 
Manufacturing Company, of Erie, Penn. 
She weighs 35 tons; has two cylinders. 




BOW KNOT ON MOUNT. TAMALPAIS SCENIC RAILWAY. 



natural desire to visit the summit of that 
picturesque mountain, and their wishes 
in this direction led to the building of the 
railroad shown in the annexed engrav- 
ing-. 

Mr. Charles E. Stocker, an engineer 
on the road, to whom we are indebted for 
the photographs from which our engrav- 
ings were made, writes us: 

"The road is 8]i miles in length, the 
first mile being practically level and 
through a beautiful grove of redwoods. 



radius. The longest straight piece of 
track is 413 feet. The average of the grade 
is about 5 per cent. 

"There is one place on the road in which 
the track forms a figure 8. and if standing 
on a point above it. you can see across 
five tracks. Along the route are num- 
erous streams of water. It crosses a num- 
ber of canons in which are mammoth 
redwoods. About 200 feet below the top 
of the mountain a hotel has been erected, 

"Looking from the top oi the moun- 



one on each side — diameter, 14 inches by 
12-inch stroke — connected to a shaft run- 
ning through the center and geared to 
and back ax'c, and driving wheels 
connected with side rods. This engine 
is equipped with the modern Westing- 
house automatic air brakes, and a Sweeney 
emergency and water brake. She is built 
for burning wood and coal. 

"The other engine is a Shay patent 
direct-connected locomotive, built by the 
Lima Locomotive &: Machine Works. 



'JIN 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



She has three cylinders 8 x 8, connected 
to a shaft on one side and geared to the 
driving wheels. She is equipped with a 
steam brake and built [or burning wood 
and coal. This engine weighs jo tons. 
The engineer is E. Thomas. 

"These engines will push from two to 
three observation cars up at a trip. 

"Mill Valley is a beautiful summer re- 
sort, situated at the base of the mountain. 
and is about 12 miles from San Francisco 
by rail and water. 

"I send you pictures of the 'Heisler' 
and of the hotel, and also a picture of the 
'Shay' on level track." 



for water, and why? Merely because the 
subject has attracted attention only dur- 
ing the past year, when the demand for 
speed has made it necessary for some 
official to add this to his other numerous 
burdens. To neglect it was all right as 
lung as the reports came in from the con- 
ductors that they were delayed at the 
station two or three or four minutes to 
oil up, and this at every station stopped 
at. 

"But recently we hear a new doctrine 
promulgated that stops for oiling to ex- 
ceed one minute in duration are not nec- 
essary, and some say they are not neces- 



water at each tank stop. The appliances 
can be had for delivering this at the rate 
of 4,000 gallons a minute, and faster if it 
should be found that this time should be 
cut down to three-quarters of a minute. 
It is simply a question of quantities, vel- 
ocities and friction — a mere problem in 
arithmetic." 

& i $ 

The School at Huntington Shops- 
Chesapeake & Ohio Railway. 

There is a school at the Huntington 
shops, for apprentices employed there, un- 
der the patronage and fostering care of the 
railway management, which has fitted up 




The Slow-Running Water-Stand Pipe. 

We have repeatedly commented upon 
the subject of delays caused to fast trains 
at water stations owing to the use of in- 
adequate openings in the water stands and 
station tanks, and it appears that this line 
of railroad appliances has been the last to 
feel the touch of improvement. While 
railroad men have been devoting zealous 
attention to providing the means for get- 
ting trains over the road with the utmost 
dispatch, the unnecessary time spent at 
stations, taking water, has apparently 
been overlooked. We know water sta- 
tions on important railroad systems where 
the stand pipes are too low for modern 
tenders, and the greatest difficulty is ex- 
perienced in obtaining the supply of water 
required. 

A rather interesting discussion took 
place lately in connection with a paper on 
"Water Supply Stations, - ' during the 
course of which one speaker said: "It is 
the rule to find an engine stopping four 
minutes to take water on an express train, 
and there are probably not half-a-dozen 
railroads in the country that are not los- 
ing more than two minutes at each stop 



MOUNTAIN-CLIMBING SHAY LOCOMOTIVE. 

sary at all within distances of 150 miles, 
the claim being made that oiling can be 
done on the engine. This brings the 
water question onto the water man, where 
it belongs, and places the full responsibil- 
ity on his shoulders. He has escaped 
notice so far. He is usually a quiet, 
modest fellow, who makes but little noise. 
He is likely to be soon promoted to a 
more responsible position, and when the 
reports commence to come in that a train 
was delayed at Station X on account of 
the water man, we shall see signs of life, 
and some very sudden signs, too, in that 
department. It is more than likely that 
the general manager will want to know 
why these delays are necessary. The 
water man will retaliate, saying that he 
is doing the best that he can with the 
stingy appliances which the road has given 
him. It is then proper for the general 
manager to ask how long these appliances 
have been in use. and when he hears the 
answer, there will probably be an appro- 
priation made for betterment in this re- 
spect. 

"The tenders of our large locomotives 
to-day will require about 3.000 gallons of 



commodious quarters for the purpose, 
and supplied them with drawing-boards, 
lights, T-squares, angles, paper, and in 
fact all accessories for successfully pur- 
suing a course of primary instruction 
This is all free to the attendants, a nom- 
inal sum only being charged for tuition. 

Mental pabulum is furnished by Me- 
chanical Engineer J. J. Ewing, a graduate 
of Cornell, who is thoroughly conversant 
with the requirements of a tutor for such 
a course of instruction, having had an 
extensive shop experience to round out 
and finish his theoretical training. 

Drawing, with the principles of pro- 
jection and the development of surfaces, 
is receiving the most ardent attention 
from these ambitious students, so earnest- 
ly striving to fit themselves for a higher 
place. Free-hand sketching is taught, 
and the more advanced scholars work up 
the drawings from their own sketches, 
made from parts of a locomotive on which 
they may be engaged in the shop. This 
is a good procedure to keep interest in 
the studies alive, as we know from the 
standpoint of both scholar and tutor. 

The course at present embraces the 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



>19 



above work of two evenings a week, but 
will later include a drill in physics and 
mechanics. A. F. Stewart, Ihc master 
mechanic, is exercising a fatherly inter- 
est in his boys, and leaves untiling undone 
that will be likely to advance them in 
their studies. General Foreman Elviu is 
making a strong effort to get the Ped- 

rick & Ayer valve-motion i lei In place 

in the instruction room, so that he can 
lead the young idea into the intricacies of 
the movements of the slide valve. This 
policy is one of the best to encourage the 
learners in correct paths, and reflects 
credit on one of the rising young fore- 



there are any at this time who entertain 
doubts as to the influem e of these two 
important fai tors in the output of a shop, 
thej may be easily dispelled by a little 
experimenting along the lines noted 
In the mattei 61 car « heels and. by the 

way, there are few shops where the ub 
ject of wheels is not a live issue, since 
nearly all are chronically behind in their 
orders— a revolution can be worked by 
speeding up, or increasing the feed, or 
both. It has been done in the above 
shop to the extent of doubling the pro- 
duct of an antiquated machine. 

The old tool could never be mad'- to 



Ky., is chairman, has 
work investigating I he ( iperation of 
Lubricators under High Steam-Chest 
Pressure, and other Automatic Appli- 
ances for Oiling Cylinders and Valves." 
iii i been much trouble with 

atic lubricators since steam pres- 
sures were raised above 140 pounds per 
square inch, that exact information, re- 
ng the failure hi the lubricators to 
deli i' thi oil in the cylinders, is badly 
wanted, The committee sends out ten 
qui 110ns to be answered, which will elicit 
important information, if the membi 
the association do their duty in the 




MOUNTAIN-CLIMBING HEISLER LOCOMOTIVE. 



men, who has shown by his record that he 
is not a drone in the hive. 

It is not intended or expected that 
this help for the apprentices will turn 
them out into the world fitted to cope 
with the problems of mechanical engi- 
neering; the only object is to put before 
them opportunities to improve them- 
selves. Some will profit by the opening; 
others will fail. That is the history of all 
similar moves. Superintendent of Mo- 
tive Power Morris is laying a foundation 
for the future of these boys; it remains for 
them to make the most of it. 



Speeds and Feeds. 

At the Richmond shops of the Chesa- 
peake & Ohio Railway, the question of 
speeds and feeds is given the closest at- 
tention by General Foreman Gould. If 



yield up more than 20 wheels in 10 hours, 
until it was speeded up to the limit of 
endurance of the cutter, when 50 wheels 
per day were forthcoming regularly. The 
wheel platform is now constantly filled, 
whereas, before there was never a wdieel 
in sight. Driving-box brasses, which are 
here bored on a mill, suffered from the 
same blight until the remedy was applied. 
Nobody is asked to sacrifice himself on 
the altar of his duty by this policy; 
the tools are simply made to do what they 
were designed for, to furnish a good rea- 
son for their continued existence in the 
shop. When they fail in this by intelli- 
gent management, the scrap pile should 
claim its own. 



The committee of the Traveling Engi- 
neers' Association, of which I. H. Brown. 



premises. We urge that the committee's 
circular receive prompt attention, and that 
members shall make experiments, if nec- 
essary, to help out with the work. 



An English export firm has just sent to 
London a good-sized shipment of hydrau- 
lic jacks and other special railroad tools. 
They claim that their shipments last year 
for special railroad supplies were larger 
than for five years past. According to 
present indications, a considerable quan- 
tity of iron-working tools will be sent to 
English markets from the United States 
this year. "In referring to these tools." 
said the exporter, "we do not mean to 
infer that bicycle tools are included. This 
class of American machinery, it is well 
known, leads all foreign makers, and their 
principal export markets are in Europe." 



220 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING, 



Compound Twelve- Wheeler— Northern 
Pacific Railway. 

The half-tone illustration oi the "Mas- 
todon" represents one locomotive of an 
order now being built for the Northern 
Pacific Railway by the Schenectady Lo- 
comotive Works. The vastness of the 
proportions of this engine are hardly 
realized at first glance, but with the figure 
of Mechanical Engineer Sague in the pic- 



front and rear wheels. The valve rod on an 
incline will also be pronounced an inno- 
i ation in the construction oi to-day; these 
wire so made in order not to have rockers 
of inordinate length; to do this the valve 
seats are on an angle with the cylinder 
bore. Extended piston rods are used, and 
will no doubt be found a good thing in 
preventing undue cylinder wear. Con- 
trary to usual practice in these leviathans 




NORTHERN PACIFIC TWELVE-WHKELER. 



ture as a base of comparison, the immen- 
sity of the machine looms prominently 
forth; the low-pressure cylinder in partic- 
ular, lending the impression of pent-up 
power. 

Among some of the details that will 
catch the eye of the observer, are the 
sandboxes, one at either end of the boiler, 
with their pipes extending down at the 



of the rail, the boiler head does not ex- 
tend to the back end of the cab, but comes 
just through the front, as in the ccse of the 
standard engines, leaving a fine roomy 
cab with the handiest appointments for 
the comfort and convenience of the run- 
ner and fireman. 

These engines are counterbalanced in 
accordance with the recommendations of 



the committee of the American Railway 
Master Mechanics' Association at the 1896 
convention, and it is fair to assume that 
these are the only heavy engines in this 
country with a counterbalance that can 
make any pretence to accuracy as viewed 
bj those who know what accuracy means 
in this connection. The close approach to 
ideal counterbalancing was made possible 
in the present instance by reason of the 
lightest construction of reciprocating 
parts, and also because of the steel wheels 
which enable the builders to introduce 
the metal where it was required. 

On trial runs with loads on Scnenectady 
hill, this engine indicated 1,200 horse- 
power at a speed of 18 miles per hour. 
The performance ahead of heaviest avail- 
able loads, not, however, requiring the 
maximum tractive effort of the engine, 
was in every respect highly satisfactory, 
we are informed by Mr. A. J. Pitkin, the 
superintendent of Schenectady Locomo- 
tive Works. 

The receiver pipe has a cubic capacity 
of about i l / 2 times that of the ntgh-pres- 
sure cylinder, and is ribbed inside and 
out for the purpose of absorbing and dif- 
fusing a greater number of heat units than 
any other design is capable of. The hori- 
zontal seams of the boiler are sextuple- 
riveted with welt strips inside and outside, 
and have an efficiency by test of 85 percent, 
of the solid sheet. All firebox sheets are 
drilled in pairs, and the holes are after- 
ward reamed to size while in place; this 
manner of doing work, however, is stand- 
ard and does not have to be specified. To 
further show the good character of the 
work on the boilers, it may be mentioned 
that all mud rings are planed on edges 
and milled at the corners inside and out, 
and the bottom section of the dome ring 
is bored out and turned on the edges be- 
fore flanging, so as to insure perfect 
calking edges. 

The mechanism for working the engine 
simple or compound is the well-known 
Pitkin system, changing from compound 
to simple by the movement of a small 
lever, and running in either system at 
will and for any period. There is one 
good feature noticeable in the sector, in 
the fineness and number of teeth for the 
reverse lever latch; they are about y 2 inch 
pitch and placed the whole length of the 
sector. 

The heaviest power on the Northern 
Pacific, prior to the purchase of these 
engines, was 22 x 28 simple consolida- 
tions, having an adhesive weight of 135,- 
000 pounds, and a total weight of 150,000 
pounds. The compounds have adhesion 
of 150.000 pounds and a total of 186,000 
pounds. These figures will be interesting 
to those following the development of 
heavy power, as these engines have an 
adhesion equal to the total weight of those 
so long considered big fellows. 

All work on this new power is of the 
highest character, and fully up to the 
(Continued on page 222.) 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



221 







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222 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



standard established by the builders, 
stamping them as ranking second to none. 
The following items will furnish a good 
general idea of dimensions and give must 
particulars of interest: 

Type — Twelve-wheeler. 

Simple or compound — Compound. 

Gage — 4 feet S 1 _■ inches. 

Fuel — Bituminous coal. 

Steam pressure — 200 pounds. 

Diameter of cylinders — H. P. 23 inches, 
L. P. 34 inches. 

Stroke — 30 inches. 

Horizontal thickness of pistons 4*^ 
and 5J4 inches. 

Diameter of piston rods — 354 inches. 

Size of steam ports — H. P. 20 x 2j< 
inches, L. P. 23 x 2% inches. 

Size of exhaust ports — H. P. 20 x 3 
inches, L. P. 23 x 3 inches. 

Size of bridges — i$£ inches. 

Kind of valves — AJlen-Richardson. 

Greatest travel of valves — 6J4 inches. 

Outside lap of valves — Ijjj inches. 

Inside clearance of valves — Both cylin- 
ders J4 inch. 

Diameter of driving wheels over tires — 
55 inches. 

Material of wheel centers — Cast steel. 

Driving-wheel base — 15 feet 6 inri.es. 

Rigid wheel base— 15 feet 6 inches. 

Total wheel base — 26 feet 4 inches. 

Total wheel base of engine and t nder — 
53 feet 8 inches. 

Total length over all — 62 feet 1 inch. 

Engine truck wdieels, diameter — 28 
inches. 

Engine truck wheels, kind— Steel tired, 
cast iron, spoke center. 

Adhesive weight— 150,000 pounds. 

Weight in working order — 186,000 
pounds. 

Weight of tender loaded— 81, 30Opounds. 

Total weight of engine and tender— 267- 
300 pounds. 

Driving box material— Cast steel on 
main axle, others steeled cast iron. 

Diameter and length of driving journals 
—9 inches long on main axle, 8]/ 2 diam- 
eter by 10 inches on others. 

Diameter of main crank pin journals— 
6J4 inches, by 6 inches long. 

Diameter of main crank pin for side 
rods— 7 inches by $Y A inches long. 

Diameter of side rod crank pin journals 
—Intermediate, 514 inches by 5 inches. 
Front and back 5 inches diameter by 3.34 
inches long. 

Brakes, driver — American, on all 
wheels. 

Brakes, water— Le Chatelier. 

Brakes, tender and train— Westing- 
house automatic. g]/ 2 inch air pump. 

Air signal— Westinghouse. 

Safety valves— Three, 3 inch Ashton 
pops. 

Insulation— Magnesia sectional cover- 
ing on boiler, dome and cylinder. 
Sanding device — Dean's. 
Brake beams — Kewaunee reversible. 
Blow-off cock — Mcintosh. 



BOILER. 

Type — Extended wagon-top. 
Material — Carbon steel. 
Outside diameter at small ring — 72 
inches. 

Thicknessof plates— }4, }J, }J, %, \, H 
and ^ inch. 

Horizontal seams — Butt joint, sextuple 
riveted, with welt strips inside and out- 
side. 
Circumferential seams — Double riveted. 
Firebox, length inside — iao^ inches. 
Firebox, width inside — 42 inches. 
Firebox, depth — Front 77 inches. Back 
73'A inches. 

Firebox material — Carbon steel. 
Firebox plates, thickness— sides /',.. inch, 
back T \ inch. 

Crown sheet, thickness — y$ inch. 
Tube sheets, thickness — Y 2 inch. 
Water space — Front 4J4 inches, sides 
3 l / 2 to 4 inches, back 3 J / 2 to 4 inches. 

Crown stays, kind — Radial bolts ij^ 
inch diameter. 

Firebox staybolts. kind — Iron, 1 inch 
diameter. 

Tubes, material, charcoal iron, No. 12 
W. G. 

Tubes, number of — 332. 
Tubes, diameter — 2% inches. 
Tubes, length over tube sheets — 14 feet. 
Firebrick, supported on water tubes. 
Heating surface, tubes — 2721.6 square 
feet. 

Heating surface, water tubes — 15.3 
square feet. 

Heating surface, firebox — 206.51 square 
feet. 

Total heating surface — 2943.41 square 
feet. 

Grate area — 35 square feet. 
Exhaust pipes, type — Single, high. 
Exhaust nozzles, diameter — 5'4, 5J4 
and sVa inches. 

Smokestack, inside diameter — 18 inches 
at top, 16 inches near bottom. 

Smokestack, from rail to top — 14 feet. 
Boiler supplied by two Sellers' Im- 
proved Class M, No. ioj4 injectors. 
TENDER. 
Frame, kind — 10-inch steel channels. 
Truck — 4-wheeled, channel iron, cen- 
ter bearing; side bearing on back truck. 
Wheels, kind — Cast iron, plate. 
Wheels, diameter — 33 inches. 
Journals, diameter and length — 4^ by 8 
inches. 

Wheelbase — 15 feet, 3 inches. 
Water capacity — 4.000 U. S. gallons. 
Coal capacity — 7Y2 (2,000 lb.) tons. 



Protest Against Increasing Duty 
on Steel. 

It is quite a novelty to find American 
manufacturers making protest to the 
Ways and Means Committee of Congress 
against increasing duties on the produc- 
tions they make, but this has lately been 
done by one of America's largest steel 
makers. 

The statement sent to the Wavs and 



Means Committee says that the chief im- 
porter of tires from abroad into this coun- 
try is Frederick Krupp, of Essen, and the 
tires of that maker are invariably sold at 
much higher figures than prices charged 
by American makers, and this business 
would not be in anywise affected by any 
tariff legislation. Any slight increase in 
the business of this foreign corporation 
that may have taken place of late years, is 
not due to the action of the Wilson Bill, 
but to the superior ability of their New 
York agents, in distributing the Krupp 
product, owing to a change in the per- 
sonnel of the firm of these agents, by 
which younger men have come to the 
front and assumed the management of the 
agency. 

The rate on steel castings is more than 
sufficient for the protection of this branch 
in the United States, which is best evi- 
denced by the fact that castings made of 
steel are sold in England at between 30 
and 50 per cent, higher prices than ob- 
tained in this country, and in France at 
over 100 per cent, higher prices than 
prevail in the United States. 

§ $ § 

Traveling Engineers' Committees for 
1896-97. 

1st. The Brown system of discipline, 
its operation and methods used. Chair- 
man— G. W. Gould, of M., St. P. & S. Ste. 
M. R. R. 

2d. The operation of lubricators under 
high steam-chest pressure, and other au- 
tomatic appliances for oiling cylinders 
and valves. Chairman — I, H. Brown, of 
C. & O. Ry. 

3d. The care, maintenance and econom- 
ical operating of metallic packing. Chair- 
man — J. A. Gibson, of C, C, C. & St. L. 
Ry. 

4th. How should a locomotive be oper- 
ated to secure the most economical use 
of steam and fuel, speed and weight of 
train to be considered? Chairman — W. 
E. Widgeon, of The Vandalia. 

5th. The injector, the difficulties met in 
its operation, and best remedies for the 
troubles. Chairman— J. W. Hall, of St. 
L., S-W. of Tex. R. R. 

6th. The preparation of coal for use on 
locomotives, and proper tools to be fur- 
nished. Chairman — D. R. McBain, of 
Mich. Cent. Ry. 

7th. Is the brick arch an economical 
adjunct to a locomotive? Chairman — 
John Donovan, of Vt. Cent. R. R. 

8th. The duties of engine and trainmen 
in testing air-brake equipment on engines 
and trains. Chairman — D. C. Woods, of 
C.,R. I. & P. Ry. 

9th. Repairs and adjustment of air- 
brake equipment while on the road. 
Chairman — T. A. Hedendahl, of Union 
Pac. Ry. 

10th. Air-brake instructions by the 
traveling engineer while on the road. 
Chairman— M. M. Meehan, of D., S. S. 
& A. R. R. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



223 




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LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



225 



Railway Mail Service. 

One of [lie most efficient sub-depart- 
ments of the Government is that which 
deals with the transportation of the mails 
over railroads. From a report of the 
general superintendent of the Railway 
Mail Department for the year ending 
June, 1896, we find that the total number 
of full post-office cars was 778. The Post- 
Office Department has been urging for 
years that the cars carrying mail should 
be equipped with all the appliances neces- 
sary for securing safety, and the report 
intimates that great progress had been 
made during the last year. About 27 per 
cent, of the cars are equipped with the 
Pintsch light, which the department fa- 
vors as the best and safest light that has 
been tried, and 40 per cent, of the cars are 
heated by steam. 

As a result of these improvements in 
the construction and equipment of post- 
office cars, there has been a decided fall- 
ing-off in the number of clerks killed or 
injured, and in the amount of mail matter 
destroyed or damaged during the year, 
notwithstanding the fact that nearly as 
many accidents occurred as formerly. For 
the year ending June 30, 1896, there were 
495 casualties, in which five clerks were 
killed, 42 seriously injured and 65 slightly 
injured — a decrease of 68 in the number 
of killed and injured, while the number of 
clerks employed in the service was greater 
than ever before. In the detailed list of 
casualties given in tire report, we notice 
that there are fewer instances than for- 
merly of damage to mail matter by oil 
from the lamps, or its destruction by fire 
originating from the lamps or from the 
stoves. Three cases of fire occurred which 
were directly traceable to the oil lamps, 8 
to the stoves, and 8 from unknown 
sources, in all of which considerable mail 
matter was destroyed, thereby entailing 
much loss and great annoyance on both 
public and private interests; and in 32 ad- 
ditional cases, mail matter was more or 
less seriously damaged by oil from the 
lamps. 

i © $ 

Horizontal Oscillation of Locomotives. 

A correspondent in Altoona, Wis., 
writes us at some length, giving his views 
on the cause of the "nosing" or horizon- 
tal oscillation of locomotives. He argues 
that the peculiar disorder referred to is 
not in any way connected with the coun- 
terbalance, but to the tendency of the for- 
ward pair of truck wheels in one engine 
running to one side. It strikes the rail on 
one side and is then projected off towards 
the other rail, and by this means sets up 
the oscillation which is found so dis- 
agreeable and dangerous. 

Our correspondent may be correct in re- 
gard to some engines, but it is generally 
acknowledged that defective counterbal- 
ance and want of lateral stiffness in the 
frames is the most common cause of hori- 
zontal oscillation. 



l-'rank Thomson— I'rom Machinist Ap- 
prentice to President. 

It is the pride and glory of American 
mothers that a son to them born may be 
President of the United States; the 
mothers of American railroad boys may 
entertain with reason the hope that one 
of their sons may rise to be president 
of the railroad. There are few railroad 
presidents in America who have not risen 
from the lower ranks by the force of 
native energy, so that the prizes are nearly 
as numerous as the number of railroad 
companies; yet it is only a fortunate few 
who reach the pinnacle of an enterprising 
railroad boy's ambition. 

The latest man to reach the top, and 



high-school education, which was a very 
unusual thing in those days with youths 
who were willing to learn mechanical 
trades. He was, however, of a sturdy 
Scotch stock, with an inheritance of push 
qualities. Mr. Andrew Carnegie, who 
was secretary to Col. Thomas A. Scott 
when Mr. Thomson entered the shops at 
Altoona, told the writer, that the secret 
of Mr. Thomson's steady rise was his 
determination to understand every 
of his work. His superior edu> 
which was kept up by private study, also 
helped in no small degree. 

Six years after entering the Altoona 
shops, Mr. Thomson was chosen by Col. 
Scott as his assistant in the management 




MR. FRANK THOMSON, PRESIDENT PENNSYLVANIA KAILHOAD. 



that, too, of the greatest railroad in the 
world, was Frank Thomson, who climbed 
step by step from machinist apprentice to 
the presidency of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road. There are few men with the rail- 
road strain in their blood who would pre- 
fer being President of the United States 
before being head of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad. 

Mr. Thomson rose slowly by well- 
earned steps, and it is safe to say that 
there is no work about a railroad that he 
does not understand as well as the men 
who are doing it. He entered the Al- 
toona shops as an apprentice in 1858, and 
was the first of the technically educated 
apprentices for which the Pennsylvania 
Railroad is now distinguished. Mr. 
Thomson was not technically educated 
in the way that modern engineering col- 
lege graduates are, but he had received a 



of the railroad military service for the 
Government. He performed his duties 
so satisfactorily that he was shortly after- 
wards promoted to be superintendent. 
Then for a year he was superintendent of 
motive power, and from that was ad- 
vanced to be general manager. A gentle- 
man who is intimately acquainted with 
Mr. Thomson remarked that the way he 
performed the duties of general manager 
stamped him as a leader among the ablest 
railroad men. 

Mr. Thomson was not favored by po- 
tentialities of birth and backing more 
than hundreds of young men who are 
working at the vice bench to-day. His life 
is "a guide, a buckler, an example," that 
ought to encourage the most lowly of our 
railroad boys to "take heart again," and 
make the top their goal. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Dissolution of the Steel Rail Trust. 

For a number of years the makers of 
steel rails have kept up the price of their 
product by means of a trust which regu- 
lated prices. Trusts contain within them- 
selves the elements of dissolution, and 
the steel rail trust obeyed the law of nature 
last month and died. There was a pecu- 
liarity about this trust that is unique in 
the history of such combinations. We 
have the authority of the head of the larg- 
est steel-making company in the country 
for saying that the rail trust was organized 
by railroad men and practically managed 
by the late President Roberts, of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad. 

Several years before the steel rail trust 
was formed ten years ago, there were 
fourteen concerns in the country making 
steel rails, and competition was waged so 
fiercely that eight of them dropped out of 
existence, and there were indications that 
several of the six remaining companies 



trived to prevent the different members 
of the trust from violating the agree- 
ment, but he often had great difficulty 
in doing so. 

Since the beginning of Mr. Roberts' 
illness, the trust has been without a guid- 
ing head, and there has been a good deal 
of discord. Mr. Sloan, one of the presi- 
dents who helped establish the trust, gave 
it a blow which ended in dissolution. 
He wanted to buy rails, but refused to pay 
$25 per ton for them to the Scranton 
people. The president of the Scranton 
company was firm in refusing to break 
the trust price, and Mr. Sloan applied to 
President Gates, of the Illinois Steel Com- 
pany, who did not show so much firm- 
ness. President Gates wenr to Pittsburg 
and had an interview with President 
Frick, of the Carnegie Steel Works, and 
wanted to cut prices, but could not obtain 
permission to do so. On returning to 
Chicago, he called a meeting of the di- 
rectors of the Illinois Steel Company, and 




WRECK THAT HAPPENED IN A TUNNEL. ENGINE AND CARS HAULED 
SIXTY MILES IN THIS CONDITION. 



would also have to fail. The Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company was very much inter- 
ested in the prosperity of the steel-making 
plants, for three of the largest works were 
on their road, and a lourth one at Chicago 
which had to transport its coke from 
Pennsylvania. Disaster to the steel ra!l 
industry meant disaster to the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad, and President Roberts 
conceived the idea of forming a trust for 
the maintenance of living prices. He suc- 
ceeded in obtaining the co-operation of 
President Vanderbilt of the New York 
Central, and of President Sloan of the 
Delaware. Lackawanna & Western, who 
were both interested in keeping the steel- 
making industries prosperous, and the 
three prevailed upon the steel makers to 
form the trust. 

President Roberts went to one of the 
steel-making plants in which his company 
was directly interested, and found out 
the exact cost of making a ton of steel 
rails. To that he added $3 for profit, and 
established the selling price of rails on 
that basis. Throughout years of highly 
fluctuating conditions, Mr. Roberts con- 



they agreed to leave the business to the 
judgment of their president, and he then 
agreed to sell under the trust prices. The 
Carnegie people at once quoted lower 
prices than ever steel rails had been sold 
for, and the trust was dead. 

Since the trust was formed, there have 
been great improvements effected in the 
steel-making business, and the cost has 
been greatly reduced where the most 
modern furnaces, machinery and pro- 
cesses have been introduced. Two or three 
of the steel makers have devoted part of 
their incomes to betterment of their 
plants, but others have done little or noth- 
ing to improve their facilities; conse- 
ouently, there are several rolling mills 
which can sell rails at profit at a price 
which will ruin the others. Unless some 
new kind of arrangement can be fixed up, 
about three of the six remaining steel 
mills will close up as soon as the heavy 
demand for steel rails ceases and the era 
of competition returns. About 800,000 
tons of rails have been contracted for 
under the cut prices, which is two-thirds 
of the entire output of last year. 



Double Button for Locomotive Head- 
light. 

The double button for locomotive head- 
lights, hereby shown, has been invented 
by Mr. W. W. Pitts, an engineer on the 
Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railway. The 
object of the invention is to prevent the 
smoking of chimneys and burning of the 
same. 

When this button is once properly ad- 
justed to the burner, the flame assumes 
the form of an egg, and seems to make 
the combustion so perfect that the flame 
can be out at the top of the chimney with- 
out causing any smoke. 




DOUBLE BUTTON FOR HEADLIGHTS. 



Those who have wrestled with the ad- 
justing of a locomotive headlight on a 
stormy night will appreciate the advan- 
tage that this button gives, since it makes 
adjustment so easy and does away with 
the nuisance of smoky chimneys. The in- 
ventor is making the button for sale, and 
it is in use on the headlights of a great 
many locomotives in the Southwest, and ; 
i; highly popular with the engineers. 

§ i § 

The management of the Baltimore & 
Ohio Southwestern have established a 
bureau of development, whose duty it is- 
to interest manufacturers in the towns 
along the railroad, and try to get them to 
settle in some of the towns which will give 
business to the company. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 






New Compound Express Engines — 
North of France Railway. 

We illustrate herewith a new type of 
compound locomotive for express service 
on the Northern of France Railway 
("Cliemin dc fcr du Nord"), and built by 
the Societe Alsacicnne de Constructions 
Mecaniques. 

The success of the original compounds, 
Nos. 2121-2122, has been such that the 
main features of the design have been ad- 
hered to in each succeeding class that has 



Notwithstanding this increase of boiler 
capacity, which contributes so largely to 
the splendid steaming qualities of these 
engines on long, rising gradients, the 
dead weight of the engine, empty, has 
only been augmented by 2.3 tons; and on 
this score, these Northern engines still 
remain remarkably light, relatively to 
their maximum power. 

For long-distance runs, a more ex- 
tended smokebox has been advantage- 
ously introduced, its inside measure- 



without necessity for taking 
water. 

Although the new engines have only 
been in service for a few months, and 
therefore still under trial, the results ap- 
pear to be highly satisfactory, and reflect 
to the initiative ability of M. du Bous- 
quet, for maintaining his motive power 
Upon a level with the most approved 
practice of the day. On curve 
movement of the tender is said to be re- 
markably easy, and it is very probable 





NORTHERN* RAILWAY OF FRANCE COMrOUXD. 



since appeared, the boiler power alone 
having been progressively increased. 
Thus, with cylinders of precisely the same 
dimensions, the grate area has been in- 
creased by 2.8 square feet, the firebox 
heating surfaces by 5.1 square feet, and 
the tube heating surfaces by 702 square 
feet. The tubes remain the same length 
— 12 feet 9 inches — as before: but, by rais- 
ing the axis of the boiler, larger barrels 
are permissible, as well as deeper fire- 
boxes. In these new engines the boiler 
center is raised to 7 feet 11 inches, and the 
inside diameter of the smallest ring next 
smoke-box is increased to 5l")4 inches. 
The boiler pressure is now 201}^ pounds, 
instead of 182 pounds, and the maximum 
tractive effort has been consequently 
raised to 7.9 tons, or, with boiler steam 
direct to the low-pressure cylinders, 10.3 
tons. 



ments being 3 feet 2*/i inches long by 4 
feet 7J/2 inches diameter, while a deeply 
concaved door has still further added to 
its effective capacity. 

Another alteration of detail is in the 
dome, now placed on the middle ring, 
farther from the firebox, and in front of 
the apparently unavoidable outside dry 
pipe of Continental practice, which is, 
thus, in some way sheltered behind the 
dome casing. 

The chimney is fitted with a shield for 
facilitating the ascent of smoke when the 
regulator has been closed. 

The tender, now, for the first time in 
France, carried upon two four-wheel 
bogie trucks, is of more elegant design, 
and lower by about 7 inches, than the six- 
wheel tenders. An increased capacity for 
water of 234 gallons, and for coal of 1 
ton, permits runs of 95 miles with aver- 



that this class, 2158-2160, will be repeated 
in the subsequent orders placed by the 
Northern Railway. 

New Compound Engines. Class 

- 

Grate area — 24.7 square feet. 

Heating surfaces, fireboxes — 122 square 
feet. 

Heating surfaces, tubes — 1.767 square 
feet. 

Heating surfaces, total — 1,889 square 
feet. 

BOILER. 

Inside diameter of smallest ring — 4 feet 
3}i inches. 

Smokebox, inside diameter — 4 feet 7¥i 
inches. 

Tubes, length between plates — 12 feet 
9 inches. 



228 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Center from rail — 7 teet 11 inches. 

Pressure — 201^2 pounds. 

Cylinders, high-pressure — 13^2 inches. 

Cylinders, low-pressure — 21 inches. 

Piston stroke — 25J4 inches. 

Wheels, driver (coupled), diameter — 
6 feet 11 inches. 

Wheels, bogie — 3 feet 5 inches. 

Centers, bogie axles — 5 feet 11 inches. 

Centers, bogie axles to drivers — 8 feet 4 
inches. 

Centers, driving axles — 9 feet 10 inches. 

Centers, total wheelbase — 24 feet 1 
inch. 

Weight of engine, empty — 45.4 tons. 

Weight of engine, loaded — 49.5 tons. 

Weight under driving tires — 30.5 tons. 

Maximum tractive effort (theoretical), 
working compound — 7.9 tons. 

TENDER. 

Total length of frame- — 24 feet 2 inches. 

Total length of frame over buffers — 26 
feet. 

Height to top of tender (loaded) — 8 
feet 8 inches. 

Bogie pins, center to center — 12 feet 7}£ 
inches. 

Centers, rear driver to first bogie pin — ■ 
8 feet 4^2 inches. 

Centers, bogie axles — 5 feet 11 inches. 

Centers, between nearest axles of each 
truck — 6 feet 10 inches. 

Total wheelbase — 18 feet 8 inches. 

Total length of engine and tender over 
buffers — 58 feet 7 inches. 

Weight of tender, empty — 19.5 tons. 

Capacity, coal — 5 tons. 

Capacity, water — 3,520 gallons. 

Weight of tender, loaded — 40.3 tons. 

Weight of engine in working order — 
89.8 tons. 



Tonnage Rating of Locomotives. 

Some time ago the Western Railway 
Club appointed a committee to investigate 
recent developments in the tonnage sys- 
tem of rating locomotive performance. 
Report was made at the December meet- 
ing of the club. It said: 

"The developments in the tonnage sys- 
tem of rating locomotives, as far as your 
committee has been able to carry its in- 
vestigation, consist principally of three 
parts or divisions. First — In efforts to 
improve the accuracy of the way-bill 
weights and light weights marked on cars, 
which are used to ascertain the weights 
of trains as made up. Second — To make 
proper allowances in the ratings when 
trains consist wholly or in part of empty 
or partially loaded cars. Third — To so 
arrange the performance sheet that proper 
deductions may be made from the results 
shown thereon. Much yet remains to be 
done in these three directions, and it is 
the intention of your committee to offer, 
as suggestions for discussion and further 
investigation, the following topics, which, 



in its opinion, have a direct bearing on 
the question. 

"Under the first division, the following 
topics are of importance: 

"(a) The actual weight of the contents 
of the car should always appear on the 
way-bill. Agents often bill unweighed 
bulk freight at minimum carload weights, 
almost regardless of the actual weight of 
the contents. Where actual weights can- 
not be obtained, agents should be trained 
to estimate them as closely as possible. 
Present practice results in general over- 
rating. 

"(b) Actual weights of empties contain- 
ing tare of various kinds should be used. 
Empty stock, refrigerator or other cars 
often contain large amounts of refuse mat- 
ter, ice and other substances, which make 
them, in fact, partially loaded cars. Sys- 
tematic methods of treating such cars as 
partially loaded should be worked out. 
The tare in these cars will vary on dif- 
ferent divisions of the same road, and 
often on the same division. 

"(c) The weight of the engine and ten- 
der should be included in the weight of the 
train. The engine and tender must be 
moved as well as the cars, and as they 
vary greatly in weight, their weights 
should be included in the rating. Where 
coal premiums are given, allowances 
should be made for the varying propor- 
tion of coal consumed in moving the en- 
gine and tender, when hauling trains of 
different weights below their full rat- 
ing. 

"Under the second division, the methods 
to be employed to improve existing con- 
ditions must be more experimental than 
administrative. We may improve the ac- 
curacy of our loading and estimating the 
weights of trains, by proper instructions 
and administrative methods; but we can- 
not tell the relative effect upon the per- 
formance of the engine, of a given ton- 
nage in heavily loaded cars, and the same 
tonnage in empty cars, without actual 
tests. Tests should be made of trains of 
loaded, partially loaded and empty cars, 
of known tonnage, on different gradients 
and with different conditions of curvature; 
such tests, to cover even ordinary condi- 
tions, must be made with a dynamometer. 
They must be numerous and very ex- 
haustive, and when finished they may 
show so many variable factors necessary 
as to make their practical value small. 
Every train that is run can be made a 
means of giving valuable information on 
the proper rating of empty and partially 
loaded cars, provided a careful record of 
its make-up, and the resulting perfor- 
mance, is kept and compared with other 
trains of different make-up, hauled by 
the same engine and crew. Close at- 
tention must be given to weather con- 
ditions, especially the wind, in making 
comparisons. 

"Under the third division, the economic 
results to be obtained by the stimulus 
upon the enginemen, of a well-arranged 



locomotive performance sheet, are unques- 
tionable. How can the actual performance 
of locomotives be best expressed on the 
performance sheet, and the relative effi- 
ciency of different men, as well as different 
kinds of motive power, shown? The coal 
consumed per ton-mile is generally recog- 
nized as the most accurate and best basis 
of comparison. This may be shown either 
in pounds of coal per 100, 1,000, or some 
other unit of ton-miles; or, and preferably 
for the improvement of the men, in dol- 
lars and cents cost for fuel per some con- 
venient ton-mile unit. As the pounds of 
coal are more valuable as a basis of en- 
gine comparison, both methods should 
be used. Grouping all enginemen who 
are in exactly comparable service, together 
upon the performance sheet, is important. 
It is manifestly unfair to compare men in 
dissimilar service, and it should be under- 
stood that only those grouped together 
can be compared. The weight of the aver- 
age train hauled during each .month, by 
each crew, should be shown. The aver- 
age speed is important, but practically im- 
possible to obtain, especially in freight 
service. It need not be shown. Different 
types, weights and designs of locomotives 
give different results on the same division. 
The tonnage rating, together with a prop- 
erly arranged performance sheet, should 
enable the most efficient design to be 
selected for each division. Here espe- 
cially, but of course in all other phases of 
this important question also, the hearty 
and intelligent co-operation of the operat- 
ing and mechanical departments is of the 
greatest importance." 

ft i & 

Somewhat Fishy. 

We have published several anecdotes 
lately concerning matters on the Dela- 
ware, Lackawanna & Western, but a cor- 
respondent, located on the Western part 
of that great railroad, sends in a story 
that is liable to put considerable strain 
upon the credulity of the readers. 

He says that when the "Queen City 
Special" was making its way toward Buf- 
falo, the engine being in charge of John 
Evans, who is generally regarded as a 
truthful man, the injector suddenly 
stopped working, and the engine was 
stopped, that the cause of the trouble 
might be ascertained. On taking down 
the hose between the engine and tender, 
a large eel wiggled out and began mak- 
ing its way over the ice. The engineer 
despatched the eel with a monkey wrench, 
and carried it to the end of the division, to 
put forward as a testimony of why time 
was lost on an important express. 

The eel was 14 inches long, but our cor- 
respondent does not give the dimensions 
as to its thickness. Any of our readers 
who wish to have full particulars regard- 
ing this eel story, should apply to Mr. 
T. H. Gonware, 1107 Lake street, Elmira, 
N. Y., or to Engineer Evans. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 






Cheap Air Hoists. 

\li. D. J. Justice, general foreman of 
?hc W. C. & A. Railroad shops at Flor- 
ence, S, C, writes us: 

I have noticed with much interest the 
various appliances for labor-saving, cs- 
pei Lilly the application of compressed 
ail m lifts, etc., which have appeared in 
your most excellent journal from time to 
time; and as we have gone more or less 
extensively into using it in our shops heir, 
within the past year or so, we find its use 
not only very satisfactory, but now almost 
indispensable in such work as cleaning 
out boiler tubes in locomotives, driving 
rotary drills, valve-seat planers, cylinder 
boring-bars; furnishing blasts for portable 
forges, and power for hoists. As I have re- 
cently erected two large home-made air 
hoists, I take the libertj ol sending 



be done with old material, with the exer- 

me thought and ingenuity. 

In operation, air is admitti d to eai h i nd 

of cylinder, admission and discharge be- 
ing rolli 'I by a four way cock, giving 

a very pi pi and accurate movement. 

This hoist is located between machine 
shop and store room. The second is 
erected in the wheel-press room, in rear of 
machine shop; ha i a cj linder made of 

the [Ox 14 inch brake cylinders, 

similarly fastened together. This cylin- 
der swings from a trolley, which runs on 
two 8-inch I-beams which travel on 
trai I at each end. which gives it move- 
ment in all directions, controlled at will 
by hand chains. Air is controlled in this 
cj linder also bj a four way cock. 

These hoists work very satisfactorily; 
were erected at small cost, as principally 




CHEAP AIR HOIST. 



you a description of them and photograph 
of the first (for which I am indebted to one 
of my enginemen, who is almost as handy 
taking snap-shots as he is handling one 
of the Baldwin 19 x 24 trailers with the 
famous "A. C. L. Florida Special Vesti- 
bule Train"), which you may publish, if 
you see fit, as my contribution to the 
current air-hoist literature. 

The view shows the hoist in the act of 
lifting an engine truck center casting. As 
will be noted, the cylinder of the hoist is 
bolted to one of the pillars, and pulls 
down on the chain ; it is made of seven 
10 x 14-inch coach-brake cylinders, which 
had been discarded on account of broken 
flanges. These cylinders are arranged in 
line, and held together by rods, with nuts 
on each end. 

As you will see, this makes a cheap, 
convenient and powerful hoist, with about 
8 feet lift, and is an example of what can 



old material w-as used; and they are much 
admired. 

For the benefit of any wishing to make 
use of such cylinders for this purpose, I 
will state that it is necessary to recess or 
counterbore, male and female, the joints 
at ends of each cylinder, to keep them in 
proper alignment. 

gj §j © 

Combination Planer and Grinder. 

It is not uncommon to find an old 
planer utilized as a surface grinder after 
having outlived its usefulness as a planer, 
but it is quite unusual to see a planer that 
will do good work in either capacity. 
There is one fitted up at the Huntington, 
W. Va.. shops, to true up the worn sides 
of hardened links, and at the same time 
reduce the block in width, a proper 
amount to have the correct play between 
flanges. 



In grinding links to take up lost mo- 
tion flue to block wear, a surfai 

h is secured the link and block, is 
to the planer platen. The plate 
has a depressed surface on its face to re- 
the block; the depression or groove 
of such a depth that the bottom of 
the block stands below the bottom of the 
link about a thickness of thin paper, or an 
amount which will leave the block 
ciently thicker than the link to give a 
proper play between flanges. The ma- 
chine is speeded up with two ranges of 
platen speeds, so as to satisfy all condi- 
tions of grinding and planing. All grind- 
ing attachments are quii kly applied or re- 
moved, which makes the machine a very 
useful tool to the link gang. 

I I ... 

The Enggren Oil Cup. 

The oil cup shown in annexed engrav- 
ing has several good points that are en- 
tirely its own. In the first place, the 
top is quite securely fastened, so that it 
cannot possibly shake off, and yet it is 
fastened in a shape that any man can take 
oil without the use of a wrench. The 




km ;g it en oil err. 

using of wrenches on oil cups is a bad 
thing, for men in a hurry often fail to 
discriminate on the extent of the twist 
to be given, and consequently many cups 
are wrenched off by accident. 

Another good point about the cup is 
that the adjusting can be done with the 
fingers without any difficulty. A man 
can reach through the drivers, take the 
top of this cup off and adjust the feed 
without taking his gloves off. It appears 
to us that the cup will be found a great 
convenience. 

It was patented by Mr. E. L. Enggren, 
Ozone Park. N. Y.. and is for sale by the 
patentee. 

(0) [Sj 

gj iN 

Illinois has a greater number of miles 
of railroad than any other State — 10.509.59. 
Pennsylvania is second, with 9.666 miles; 
Texas third, with 9.222.88 miles. Rhode 
Island has the least mileage — 321.05. 
New York has 8.078 miles; Ohio, 8.500.23; 
Indiana, 6.295.28. 



280 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Car Department. 



CONDUCTED BY O. H. REYNOLDS. 



Standard Twin Hopper Gondola Car — 

New York Central & Hudson 

River Railroad. 

The New York Central coal car here- 
with illustrated will bear the closest scru- 
tiny of those interested in good practice 
in ca- construction, for the reason that 
it is of to-day and represents what is con- 
sidered the proper thing for the coal traf- 
fic of one of the most important systems 
of this country. It is of the double hop- 
per type, and has many strong points in 
its make-up that will commend them- 
selves to all who are familiar with the 
difficulties attending the attainment of 
proper strength in a car body having twin 



inches, and the end sills are 9 inches thick 
by 10 inches wide for a distance of 38 
inches at the center, to receive an angle 
iron 3 l /i x 6 x 35^6 inches, whose function 
is solely to take the shocks from the draw- 
bar buffing lug. The ends are beveled on 
the outer face from the angle iron to the 
ends, leaving the latter 8x9 inches on the 
face, the corners of which are rounded 
off. Into the center sill reinforce timbers 
there are tenoned two header blocks 6x8 
inches, 6 feet IOJ4 inches from the inside 
face of the end sill, and these are mortised 
to receive the two intermediate sills. 
These headers are firmly secured to place 
by a J^-inch rod with washers and nuts. 



inches at the center, and are supported on 
two posts, while the inside pair have a 
truss of 44 inches, and each is supported 
by one post on the 5 x 10-inch center 
cross-tie timber. This liberal trussing 
will show results on the right side of the 
ledger after these cars have seen a few 
years of service. 

What looks like an efficacious scheme 
for the prevention of bulge at the sides of 
the box, is seen in the end sectional views. 
There is a ^-inch rod at each center stake, 
passing down through the cross-tie tim- 
ber; the top end of the rod having a 
Ys, x 2-inch flat end, which hooks over the 
top of the stake. The rod is backed by 




^-"VN/vW 



Locomotive Engineering 



DRAFT ATTACHMENTS OF NEW YORK CENTRAL HOPPER GONDOLA CAR. 



hoppers, whose construction involves the 
sacrifice of material in places where it 
is most needed. 

In general dimensions the car does not 
depart greatly from existing figures for 
its kind, it being 35 feet 4 inches long over 
end sills, and 8 feet 9 inches wide over side 
sills. The center sill is formed of two 
5 x 8-inch pieces extending the length of 
the car, making a stiff center member, 
and this is reinforced by two 5 x 8-inch 
pieces for a distance of 8 feet from each 
end sill. The outside sills are 5 x 13V2 



on the outside faces of side sills, and they 
are further tied (longitudinally) by a 1- 
inch rod through the end sill. 

At the center of the car, between the 
points just noted, the construction is, of 
necessity, somewhat weaker, on account 
of the hoppers, but recourse is had to a 
system of trussing that compensates for 
the loss of material of the usual kind in 
the form of intermediate sills. There are 
four truss rods \y 2 inches diameter, with 
ends enlarged to \Y\ inches. Two of 
these, the outside pair, have a drop of 30 



an oak block having a base 10 inches 
wide and tapering to a point at the top. 
The hoppers are lined with J4-inch plate 
and are well secured by 1 x 3-inch carry 
irons. The sides are covered at the top 
with 14 x 2j4-inch iron, well secured with 
'^-inch lag screws, and J^-inch bolts 
through sideboards and outside sills. A 
detail that is specially prominent as a 
good thing is the steel corner plate, con- 
tinuous from flooring to top of coal sides, 
both inside and outside; there is rigidity 
and strength in such plates, and if there 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



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232 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



i .any place where those conditions are 
required, it is at the corners. They are 
certainly an improvement over the sec- 
tional variety of corner plate. 

The composite body bolster with truss 
rods has stood up under the most exact- 
ing conditions on this road, and is not 
now deserted for its metallic congener, 
as will be noted in the engravings. A 
good solid construction is shown in the 
details of the draw-gear, in which great 
attention has apparently been given to put 
this part of the car into an invulnerable 
shape. The draft timbers are 6 inches 
thick, and extend back to the body bolster, 
furnishing a massive foundation fo'- the 
draft lugs, which are also assisted in resist - 



Buchanan, superintendent of motive 
power and rolling stock, for the prints 
from which our engravings were made. 

§ ® & 

A Home-made hoist. 
One of the handiest inexpensive ar- 
rangements for hoisting cabs, pilots, head- 
lights and other impedimenta out of the 
way to an elevated platform, and coach 
seats and trimmings to the upholstering 
department, is shown in accompanying en- 
graving. It is only a combination of pul- 
leys, but an effective one. A tight pulley 
with a slack belt drives another pulley on 
the same shaft, with a drum, on which is 
wound an ample length of rope. 



Extensive Use of Compressed Air on 
the Chesapeake & Ohio. 

The wide range of uses to which com- 
pressed air has been put in the past few 
years cannot be better exemplified than by 
citing a few of them as found in a West 
Virginia shop at Huntington, just an or- 
dinary well-appointed railroad shop, but 
one where the master mechanic is not 
willing to take long routes to reach a re- 
sult while a short cut is in the line of his 
vision. 

Like a great many other shops, this 
has had its experience in compressing air 
with air pumps, and found the drain on 
the boiler such as to preclude their use, 
except in such a restricted way as to 




ing buffing strains by their bearing against 
a heavy block which fills the space between 
draft timbers, and also extend back to the 
bolsters; three transverse bolts, J$ inch 
ir diameter, bind the timbers and block 
firmly as one piece. The draft timbers 
are under strain against the bolster by 
means of two i-inch bolts, which pass 
through the bolster, with nuts at back, 
and engage with the former with a strap 
body having a lug turned over at the end; 
two of the transverse bolts pass through 
these straps, thus providing for trouble 
in either direction. 

The coal space is 33 feet long, 8 feet 3 
inches wide, and 3 feet 10 inches high, 
giving, with the hoppers, a capacity of 
1,220 cubic feet. With coal at 50 pounds 
per cubic foot, the load would be 61.000 
pounds. We are indebted to Mr. Wm. 



STEWART'S HOME-MADE IIOIST. 

The slack belt referred to is made to 
tighten on the driving pulley by means 
of a pivoted lever in the control of the 
operator by another rope within com- 
fortable reach. Any pull on this rope 
starts the machine in motion, and as the 
load lifted depends on the degree of taut- 
ness of the belt on the driving pulley, the 
lift is easily within the control of the man 
handling the tightener. When seen in 
operation, this lift looked like an efficient 
device for the money there was in it. It is 
one of Master Mechanic Stewart's schemes 
at Huntington, W. Va. 

i § i 

An improvement on his well-known 
sanding apparatus has been patented by 
Mr. Henry L. Leach, of Cambridge, 
Mass. 



Locomotive Engineering 



practically shut out anything like an ex- 
tensive application of the new power for 
labor-saving appliances; but, unlike many 
more shops, this has had the good for- 
tune to obtain a two-stage Norwalk com- 
pressor, 9 x 16 inches, with an accumulat- 
ing cylinder 14 x 16 inches. This com- 
pressor has taken the place of nine 8-inch 
air pumps, and does its work on about 3i 
per cent, of the steam consumption for- 
merly required for the nine pumps. This 
looks like a good place for somebody to 
stick a pin for reference, when the subject 
of compressors for shop use is up for dis- 
cussion. 

All boilers are put under a test pres- 
sure by air, 25 per cent, greater than the 
rated boiler pressure, by means of a 6-inch 
pump having its air cylinder bushed down 
to ■zYz inches diameter for exclusive use 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



28a 



in boiler testing. When applying thi ti I 
pressure, the pump is connected to 1 1 1 * - 
engine l>y piping to the blower pipe at the 
smoke arch and taking the pn 
through the blower valve in the cab. The 
pressure is nicely sustained by the pump 
governor. The air used for the test is 
theri Utilized for blowing out the cylinders, 
leaving everything clean and dry about 
the engine in beautiful contrast to the 
wet process. 

Boilers are run out of the erecting shop 
under air at no pounds pressure, let in 
on one gage of water at a temperature of 
212 degrees; this pressure and volume be- 
ing sufficient to take the engine to the 
transfer table and off on the test track, 
preparatory to coupling up the tender. 

Air hoists, noiv so much in evidence in 
all shops making any pretensions to the 
use of air. are in extensive use here, and 
seen at their best. There are twenty of 
these useful tools in the machine shop, 
two of which, located at the driving-wheel 
lathe and wheel press, are 12 inches in 
diameter by 5 feet lift. The others are 4 
and 6 inches diameter by 6 feet lift. In 
the car shop there are also two of 12 inches 
diameter by 9 feet lift, for raising or trans- 
ferring a six-wheeled passenger truck. 
All these lifts are run on trolleys, and are 
capable of movement in any direction. 
The brass foundry is also equipped with 
traveling lifts, to handle the molten yellow 
stuff; in fact, there are few places about 
the shops, in which air can be used to ad- 
vantage, that it is not speedily harnessed; 
all of which is made possible by the com- 
pressor. 

g $ $ 

A Glass-Etching Device. 

Devices for doing work with com- 
pressed air are brought to a state border- 
ing closely on perfection at the Hunting- 
ton paint shop; in fact, it may be said that 
there are few kinks with air that are un- 
known in that shop, as it is the policy to 
do everything possible by means of that 
useful agent. 

In glass ornamentation with air and 
sand, silver foil is used largely in trans- 
ferring figures to the glass. The foil is 
first placed on the plain glass; a perforated 
pattern is then laid on the foil, and the 
latter is trimmed with a knife to the lines 
of the desired ornamentation. A coat of 
parafline is then placed on the trimmed 
.surface, and also on the silver foil; after 
which a second trimming is necessary to 
remove the parafrme outside of the pat- 
tern; this operation then leaves the glass 
bare outside of the required figures. The 
glass is then ready for the sandblast, and 
is placed in a box 6 feet long, 3 feet high 
and 18 inches wide, which constitutes a 
part of the permanent sandblast outfit. 
The engraving shows one of the handiest 
and most complete arrangements of what 
is now a very well-known process in glass 
ornamentation by abrasives. It is seen to 
be a permanent rig, made up of a 12 x 33- 



inch air brake auxiliary turned into a 
tank for holding th< and Supply, and 
properly piped for air and a nozzle, all of 
which ili'- engraving explain- to tho I 
who ha\ e a de ire I', imp! n i make- 
shift outfit. The nozzle is J^-inch di- 
ameter and the air pressure ranges from 
So io ion pounds per square inch. 



Scrap Credits. 

The Arbitration Committee oi the 

Master Car Builders' Association held a 
meeting on December 16, 1896, and made 

the following rulings: 

II -When scrap credits are allowable, 



'I hat thi i' i" • " ■' - Hi'", it . 

life 1 of strength, is amply proven by pcr- 

quar 
1 M. a- tie 1 an are frequentl) 
loaded all the way from 70,000 to 72.000 
pounds, and will a vi ' ' 00 pounds 

to the load with no 1 vidi n 



How to Suppress Train-Robbing. 

If legislators and June- would take in- 
spiration from Governor Stom 
souri. in trying to suppn ime of 

train-robbing, the industry would be 
stamped out as effectually as similar 




Locomotive Engineering 



GLASS ETCHING 1 >i:\ I' K. 



the weights credited should always be 
equal to the weights of the new metal 
applied, except as otherwise provided in 
the Rules and in Section D oi Leaflet 
No. 1, September 16, 1896. 

"I. — Several inquiries as to the mean- 
ing of the words 'switching roads,' in 
Section 25 of Rule 5, were considered. 
and the committee makes the following 
ruling as a definition of a switching road 
as used in this connection: 

"A switching road is a corporation do- 
ing the major part of its business on a 
switching charge, or one which does not 
pay mileage to car owners for the use of 
the owner's car." 

§ i @ 

Malleable Iron in Freight Cars. 

The importance of malleable iron as a 
factor in holding down the dead weight 
of cars, is well exemplified in the case of 
the 65.000-pound coal car illustrated in 
the February issue. With this car are 
shown two examples of light malleable 
castings, usually made of gray iron. 

Superintendent of Motive Power Turner 
writes, since the description of the above 
cars was put in type, that he has decreased 
the weight 1.800 pounds less than when 
cast iron was used in their construction, 
bringing the light-weight down to 29.200 
pounds, which will be acknowledged very- 
low for a 65,000-pound car. 



crimes were suppress! '1 il by the 

vigorous action of President Diaz. In a 
letter written on the subject of train rob- 
bers. Governor Stone said: 

"During the last two or three years 
several train robberies have occurred in 
this State. They have also occurred fre- 
quently in other States. In almost every 
instance, those committing these crimes 
in Missouri have been apprehended and 
punished by imprisonment. In 1805 a law 
was enacted by the Legislature of this 
State, making train robbing a capital of- 
fense. I heartily indorsed the enactment 
of this law-. Train-robbing is a crime 
which greatly endangers human life, as it 
is accompanied by circumstances of risk 
and danger, and is perpetrated by armed 
and desperate men. It is usually accom- 
panied by actual violence done tb 
charge of the trains and express cars. But. 
in addition to the foregoing, it is a crime 
which brings a State into public disrepute 
to an extent greater than any other crime 
in the calendar of which I have knowl- 
edge. Its frequent occurrence will do 
incalculable harm to the State. It is a 
crime that should be broken up. and I 
confess disappointment and impatience 
that juries do not deal with criminals 
of this class with the utmost severity. The 
execution of a few highwaymen, a punish- 
ment always richly deserved, would, in 
my judgment, put an end to this descrip- 
tion of crime m this State." 



334 



LOCQMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Practical Letters from Practical iVien. 



m « 

Two Kinds of Engineers. 

(A Sequel to "Two Kinds of Firemen." 
THE POOR ENGINEER. 
Editors: 

So me men would never make good 
onomical engineers if they would run 
an engine all their lives. A poor engineer 
will couple onto a train, and if he is late 
he will try to make all the time up the 
first ten miles out. The fireman will get 
a "slug" in her, and the engineer will 
pound a fresh fire to pieces and ruin it for 
economical steam-making in the begin- 
ning of the run. 

Some men, if they are late, will make 
up their time and then lose it again oiling 
around at the next stopping-place. Some 
men will leave the starting-point of a run 
on time, with a reasonably fast time to 
make, and will run as fast as they can part 
way to the next town, and, finding they 
are going to arrive too soon, shut off and 
let the train roll into the next town. The 
same process is repeated at each succeed- 
ing station throughout the run. In the 
meantime, the fireman gets in a good fire 
at each station, determined to keep her 
hot or burn all the coal in the tank, and 
when the engineer shuts off to let her roll 
into the next town, the safety valve will 
scream with joy. 

Another kind of poor engineer is a man 
who may not be a hard hitter, but who 
will let his balance packing blow, or his 
steam pipes or nozzle leak, or his dia- 
phragm be poorly adjusted or loose; and 
if the fireman ventures to hint that he 
thinks so-and-so is the matter with the 
engine, he will at once become alarmed 
about showing his ignorance, and gravely 
inform the fireman that he is "firing her 
too heavy," or "not firing her level." He 
may, to cover up his ignorance, tell him 
he is "not paid for running the engine," 
or he may say. "You know too much." 
Such a man will be afraid to report any- 
thing, because he don't know for sure 
what to report. 

Some engineers have no confidence in 
the engine's ability or their own, on a hill, 
and want the engine popping ail the time, 
as they say they can't "pull cars on cold 
water." Some men go over a hill like a 
man running a mile to jump over a three- 
board fence. He is out of wind and weak 
when he gets to the fence, and can't jump. 
Some men will do half of their work and 
neglect the other half, in order to do half 
the fireman's work, watching the stack 
and steam gage and each shovelful of coal 
that the fireman puts in, in the meantime 
forgetting to hook her up or shut off his 
injector. A master mechanic can look 
over a- roundhouse work-book and pick 
out- the intelligent engineer by his reports. 
Some engineers will be noted for hav- 



ing a good-running engine and a good 
steamer, while another will be noted for 
having a poor engine and a poor steamer. 
Some men will make the statement that 
the vent hole in the top of a balanced 
slide valve is to let oil into the valve and 
cylinder, or to set out the packing with 
steam; or that the overflow of a Monitor 
injector is leaking, when it will be the 
primer valve; or as soon as you apply the 
air brake, the retaining valve keeps the 
brake set; or will report on the round- 
house work-book that the driver-brake 
triple releases as fast as it is applied, or 
brakes apply themselves while running, 
or that tank brake does not set. Again.they 
will make the statement that there are no 
engines built with one pair of drivers; it 
would be impossible to run them; or that 
there are no cast-steel driving-wheel cen- 
ters. If a statement is made that a steam- 
ship is run without valve oil, or any oil, 
in her valves and cylinders, he will sneer 
at such an idea, and on being quoted 
"Locomotive Engineering" for authority, 
will swell up with his five or ten years' ex- 
perience, and say he has taken "Locomo- 
tive Engineering" for several years, and 
has Westinghouse's book, and never saw 
such statements. So many men will scan 
a mechanical book or paper the same as 
a child would scan a picture book, skip- 
ping over a hard, knotty problem, and 
reading a whole book in one hour. Such 
men would be hard to fire for, because 
they do not take enough interest in the 
machine they operate to find out' the prin- 
ciples of its construction. One-half the 
credit for a good coal record is traceable 
to the interest and intelligence an engi- 
neer takes in the performance of his duty. 
If the engineer does not take interest, the 
fireman will be compelled to accept cir- 
cumstances as they are, and probably will 
be unjustly blamed for the engineer's 
shortcomings. 

THE GOOD ENGINEER. 

The good engineer is the one who can 
do the work with the least amount of 
steam passing through the cylinder, and 
has confidence in his ability to contend 
with difficulties. He always does the right 
thing at the right time; no hurry, no fuss; 
everything goes along smoothly. A good 
engineer is not afraid to get down and 
take the scoop for miles, in order to "see 
how she steams." But in these days of 
extension fronts, large nozzles and brick 
arches (of which numbers do not under- 
stand the principles), they are in a quan- 
dary; probably having been educated un- 
der the contracted nozzle, diamond-stack 
age, some do not study to keep up to date. 
The good engineer does not rail and con- 
demn the Traveling Engineers' Associa- 
tion or its form of examinations, or state- 



ments made by Westinghouse that an air 
brake don't fail. (For my part, I fail to 
find a useless question in the 272 questions 
of the Standard Examinations.) He is not 
afraid to discuss a question with a fire- 
man, and would rather have an intelligent 
fireman than an ignoramus. There are 
three things that go together to produce 
good results; First comes smooth, steady 
running; second, slick pumping; third, 
an engine well kept up; fourth, good light 
firing will follow as a natural result from a 
combination of the other three. 

A. A. Lindley, 
Iowa Central Railway. 
Oska/oo.sa, la. 

% i i 

The First Belted Compressor. 

Editors: 

In connection with the cuts and de- 
scriptions of the new belt air compressors, 
in your January issue, I inclose herewith 
a blueprint showing the general plan and 
details of a belt air compressor which I 
have had in use for the last five years. 

As it may be of interest to you, and pos- 
sibly some of your readers, to know 
something more of the tool and its use, 
I will add that my first idea of a belt com- 
pressor originated in connection with a 
deep-well pump which I constructed and 
patented in 1886, a blueprint of which is 
also inclosed herewith. We have one of 
these pumps working in a well 2,000 feet 
deep, and 600 pounds air pressure will 
start the flow of water, and 450 pounds 
pressure will maintain it. With this pump 
we can get a pressure of 800 pounds to 
the square inch with about 70 pounds of 
steam pressure. 

The belt compressor was built in 1891, 
and, as will be seen by referring to the 
drawings, is constructed in a cheap and 
simple manner. There are two vertical 
compressing cylinders 8 x 14 inches, com- 
pletely water-jacketed, each single-acting, 
having two cranks set opposite each other 
on a shaft driven by two 6-inch belts over 
a 40-inch pulley. This pulley also acts as 
a balance wheel, its weight being about 
3.600 pounds. The compressor is entirely 
automatic in action, starting and stopping 
itself as the pressure rises or falls. This 
is accomplished by means of a small cyl- 
inder so arranged as to shift the belt when 
the desired pressure is attained. 

This compressor has been in practical 
operation in our Houston shops for the 
last five years, furnishing air for hoists, 
jacks, small riveting machines, rivet cut- 
ters, and for moving dead engines in and 
out of the shops. In addition to this, we 
have our yard fully equipped with pipes, 
with suitable connections at all points 
where air is likely to be required for mov- 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



280 



able jacks and for testing air brakes on 
cars, which is a great convenience. 

In the last two years we have built a 
number of these compressors, which are 
now in use in some of our division shops. 
J. J. Ryan, 
Supt. M. P. 
Houston, Tex. 

[The above letter from Mr. J. J. Ryan, 
superintendent of motive power of the 
Southern Pacific Railroad at Houston, 
Tex., conveys some information that may 
be more or less new to the users of belted 
air compressors. In this connection we 
will say that in May, 1892, one of the 
editors of this paper, Mr. John A. Hill, 
visited the Houston shops, and fully de- 
scribed this air compressor in the June 
issue of "Locomotive Engineering" of 
that year, together with the deep-well 
pump mentioned by Mr. Ryan. There is 
little doubt in our mind that this descrip- 
tion of this belted compressor led to the 
building of all the belted compressors 
still made on the same lines. — Eds.] 

i $ $ 

Adjusting Eccentrics When Wheels 
Are Not Under the Engine. 

Editors: 

Given the main driving wheels of a lo- 
comotive standing on the shop floor, the 
old axle having been replaced by a new 
one, and required that the four eccentrics 
are to be set and keyed, so that they will 
have the correct angular advance accord- 
ing to lap and lead of value. This to be 
done before the wheels are placed under 
the engine. 

The first thing to be determined is. 



also seen that the center line of motion C 
is on an incline. It will be necessary to 
lake these three inclinations into consid- 
eration, namely, the two inclined posi- 
tions of the main rod and the inclined posi 
tion of the center line of motion. The 
next move is to find the amount of each 
inclination. 

Take a pine board planed on one side 
and on lower edge, Fig. 2, and draw line 
AA to represent the center line of axles; 
after which, draw line XX parallel to it, 
and at a distance from it equal to the 
distance between lines XX and AA, in 
Fig. 1. The length of the main rod is 
then taken, to which is added 12 inches for 
the length of the crank arm, and a line 







E 










11 


C|— 


















A 






k| 




D 



Locomotive Engineering 



Fig. 2 

ADJUSTING ECCENTItlCS. 

is drawn from center D to D' ; also from 
center D, minus 12 inches of the length of 
main rod, to center E, these lines giving 
the inclination of the main rod for the 
front and back positions of the crank pin. 
The radius of link, which is the dis- 
tance from the center of the axle to the 
lower rocker pin center, when in its middle 
position, is next taken, and the arc K is 
drawn. The distance from the center line 
A A to center of lower rocker pin is next 
laid off, and the line drawn from C to D is 
the inclination of the center line of mo- 




Locomothx Sngiu 



Fig. 1 
ADJUSTING EGCENTHIGS. 



whether the center of cylinder and cross- 
head pin is in line with the center of the 
axle. Fig. I shows that these centers are 
not in line; that is, that the center line 
XX of the cylinder and crosshead is not 
coincident with the center line AA of 
the axles, but above it. It also shows that 
the inclination of the main rod, when the 
crank pin is on its front center DD, de- 
viates from its inclination when the 
crank pin is on its back center EE. 

With the valve in its central position, 
in the steam chest B, and the upper and 
lower rocker pins an equal distance from 
the center A', the lower arm is seen to be 
bent forward or have an offset, and it is 



tion. Next, a square piece of wood is nailed 
under and parallel with each line, upon 
which is laid the degree spirit level L, by 
which to find the degree of inclination of 
each line, a memorandum of which is 
made for further use on the same class 
of engine. 

The alligator plate A. Fig. 3. which has 
been described in "Locomotive Engineer- 
ing" (page 973). and the level L, are ap- 
plied to the wheel as shown; after which 
the wheel is rolled so that the alligator 
plate will be brought to the same inclina- 
tion as line DD, Fig. 2. The valve is next 
measured and is found to have Ya, inch 
lap, and the lead is taken at 1-16 inch. The 



straight edge S S, Fig. 4 (also described 
on page 97.3;, is laid off, and as the rocker 
arms arc of equal length, the distance 
D C is made 13-16 inch, which equals the 
lap and lead. 

Straight-edge 55 is placed in position 
with the level L on it, and the former is, 
by means of the wedge K, brought to the 
same degree of inclination as the center 




otivc En'ji leering 
Fig. 3 

ADJUSTING KCCENTKICS. 

line of motion D C, Fig. 2. Bringing 
mark B, Fig. 4, in line with the outside 
of the axle, the square is moved in line 
with mark D, and moving the forward 
eccentric F so as to touch the square, it 
will be in its proper position. Moving 
the wheel on its back center like Fig. 5. 
and bringing mark B, Fig. 6, in line with 
outside of axle, the square is moved in 
line with mark D, and the backing eccen- 
tric B' is rnade to touch the square, bring- 




Fig. 4 
ADJUSTING ECCENTRICS. 

ing it into correct position. The other 
eccentrics are treated similarly, and when 
all are keyed to place the job is completed. 

J. A. ElSENAKER. 

Elmira, X. }'. 

« ••• $ 

Phot jgraphing Moving Trains. 

Editors: 

The exceedingly interesting article by 
Mr. F. W. Blauvelt. on photographing 
trains which are running at high speeds, 
was. without doubt, enjoyed by your large 
circle of readers. When one looks at the 
dial of a watch and sees the tiny divisions 
over which the second hand moves, and 
at the same time considers that the pe- 



236 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



riod "i exposure which produced those 
excellent illustrations in your January is- 
sue only lasted tin 130th part oi a second, 
one is inclined to agree with Mr. I'.lau 
velt that the surprising part of the opera- 
tion is that enough light can pass in upon 
the sensitized photographic plate in a pe- 
riod of time so exceedingly minute. 

There is. however, another considera- 
tion which brings before us how delicate 
must be the preparation now used in tak- 
ing photographs. Professor Dolbear, in 
his work on "Matter. Ether and Motion," 
tells us. on page 158, that the silver solu- 
tion used to-day can be affected by an 
exposure the 1000th part of a second in 



This engine used to have the valve-stem 
rod extended to guide yoke, hut now has 
solid-end valve rod. Would this not agree 
more with your explanation in January 
number? 

W. Woods. 

Echo, I 'tali. 

[ft looks that way.— Eds.] 

§ i i 

The Locomotive Balanced Slide Valve- 
Reminiscent. 

Editors: 

The so-called balanced slide valve, as 
used on locomotives, is not a balanced 
valve. It is a relieved valve; that is, a 
valve which is relieved of a very con- 
siderable part of the pressure forcing it 



There was too much opportunity for the 
sparks to interfere with the packing strips 
and grooves, which they did, to their 
rather speedy destruction. The first ap- 
plications were to wood-burning locomo- 
tives, where the evil effects of the sparks 




Locomotive Engineering 

Fig. 5 

ADJUSTING ECCENTIUCS. 

duration. Edison first used, in experi- 
menting for the kinetoscope, an exposure 
of 2720th of a second, though the period 
of exposure has since been lengthened to 
vi 1 y nearly that used by Mr. Blauvelt. 

It is therefore not so wonderful that 
enough light can get into the camera in 
the prescribed time, as it is that, in this 
highly sensitive solution, the molecules 
of the silver salts can be dislocated and 
broken up with such incredible rapidity. 
The exposure of 130th of a second, dur- 
ing which the "Empire State Express," at 
full speed, was able to advance over 8 
inches— most rapid as it certainly is— 
was yet slow enough to allow a ray of 
light 1,430 miles long to dash in upon the 
plate. If the ray of light had been a 
gossamer golden thread, stretching from 
Montreal to Winnipeg, its farthest end 
could have sped over half the continent, 
and the thread itself have been entirely 
reeled into the camera, in the time re- 
quired for the shutter to spring across the 
face of the lens. 

Geo. S. Hodgins. 
Windsor, Ont. 

§ $ & 
Peculiar Wear of Valves. 

Editors: 

W. W. Pitts says that the wear is evi- 
dently caused by reverse lever not being 
let down in corner while running down 
hill. I am running an engine on a 25-mile 
hill; the lever is run in corner "down hill." 
and still the valves have this peculiar wear. 




Zocomotive Engineering 

Fig. 6 
ADJUSTING ECCENTRICS. 

against the seat. While this relief per- 
mits the valve to be moved more easily, 
its motion consuming less power, if this 
saving of power was all there was to it, 
it would never be worth consideration. 
Moving more easily, there is less spring 
of the parts moving it, less wear of pins 
and other parts, and less wear of valve 
face and valve seat. All these parts will 
maintain their integrity longer, the result 
being a more satisfactory steam distribu- 
tion and a saving from less leakage. But 
a balanced valve may be wasteful of steam 
quite as easily as saving. 

I am led to this line of thought by the 
communication from S. J. Hungerford, 
with the title "Peculiar Wear of Valves," 
in January issue, and by happening to 
have been an actor in the making of the 
first (as well as several succeeding) slide 
valve for a locomotive that I ever saw 
balanced by four rectangular packing 
strips, inclosing a rectangular space top 
of the valve, from which space steam from 
the steam chest was excluded. The valve 
to which I refer was the invention of the 
late George W. Richardson, and the time 
nearly thirty years ago. 

The rough sketch, Fig. 1, may be 
taken as a cross-section of this valve and 
seat. It will be seen that this was an 
open-top valve, the exhaust striking in 
full volume the plate a, against which the 
packing strips make a steam-tight joint. 
This proved a poor construction, al- 
though it was, in the main, like the orig- 
inal model that went to the Patent Office. 



Locomothv Engineering 



Fig. J 

BALANCED SLIDE VALVE. 

were not particularly noticeable. But 
when the application was to a coal burner, 
this weakness developed without delay. 
Of course, when the engine was running 
regularly, the packing strips were held 
firmly against the plate a, Fig. 1, as well 
as against the inner surfaces of the 
grooves, as b b b b. Fig. 2; b