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Full text of "Log-book of Timothy Boardman: Kept on Board the Privateer Oliver Cromwell, During a Cruise from ..."

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'2 



LOG-BOOK 



OF 



.« 



TIMOTHY BOARD MAN; 



Ebft on Boabd thb Pbitatebb Ouybb Cromwell, dubino a 
Oruisb fbom Nbw London, Ct., to Ghablebton, 

S. C, AND Rbtubn, 
IN 1778; 



ALSO, 



A BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 



OF THE AUTHOR. 



BY THE REV. SAMUEL W. BOARDMAN, D.D. 



ISSUED UNDEB THE AUSPICES OF THE BUTLAND 
OOITNTY mSTOBICAL SOGIETT. 



ALBANY, N. Y.: 

JOEL MUNSELL'S SONS. 

1885. 



PREFACE. 



Under the auspices of the Rutland Oounty Historical 
Society, is published the Log-Book of Timothy Board - 
man, one of the pioneer settlers of the town of Rutland, 
Vermont. This journal was kept on board the privateer, 
Oliver CromweU, during two cruises ; the second one 
from New London, Conn., to Charlraton, S. C. ; the 
third from Charleston to New London, in the year 1778. 
It seems that the Log-Book of the iirst cruise was either 
lost, never kept, or Mr. Boardman was not one of the 
crew to keep it. It was kept as a private diary with- 
out any view to its ever being published. 

When this manuscript, on coarse, unruled paper, was 
brought to light, it came to the knowledge of the offi- 
cers of the county historical society, who, at once, de- 
cided that it was a document of considerable value and 
should be published. Correspondence was accordingly 



opened with the Eev. Samuel W. Boardman, D.D., of 
Stanhope, New Jersey, a grandson of Timothy, to whom 
this document properly belonged, asking his permission 
to allow the society to publish it. The Reverend Doctor, 
immediately gave his consent; and in his own words : 
*' Supposed it was largely dry details. Still these may 
throw side lights of value, on the history of the times." 
At the same time he also consented to furnish a bio- 
graphical sketch of his grandfather to be pubUshed with 
the Log-Book. Accordingly the sketch was prepared, 
but it proves to be not only a sketch, but a valuable 
genealogy of that branch of the Boardman family. 
This sketch was collected from many sources, mostly 
from manuscripts. 

The Boardmans in Rutland county are all known as 
a strictly industrious, upright, religious, scholarly race; 
and they are so interwoven with the early history, 
business and educational interests of the county, that 
this document must meet with general favor and in- 
terest. 

John M. Cubrier, 

Sec, of the Rutland County 

Historical Society. 



/ 






BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 



OP 



DEA. TIMOTHY BOARDMAN. 



BY 



Eev. Samuel W. Boardman, D.D 
Stanhope, New Jersey. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. 

There is still preserved a letter from England, written 
in a fine hand, with red ink, dated Obeydon ? Feb. 5, 
1641, and directed, 

** to her very loveing sonne 

Samuel Boreman, 

Ipswich in New England 

give this with 

haste." 

The letter is as follows: 

^*Good sonne, I have receaved your letter: whereby 
I understand that you are in good health, for which I 
give God thanks, as we are all — Praised be God for the 
same. Whereas you desire to see your brother Chris- 
topher with you, he is not ready for so great a journey, 
nor do I think he dare take upon him so dangerous a 
voyage. Your five sisters are all alive and in good 
health and remember their love to you. Your father 
hath been dead almost this two years, and thus trouble - 
ing you no further at this time, I rest, praying to God 
to bless you and your wife, unto whome we all kindly 
remember our loves. 

* * Your ever loving mother, 

*' JULLAN BORMAN." 



8 

This letter exhibits many of the characteristics of the 
Puritans to whom the Bormans belonged. They were 
intensely religious ; this short letter contains the name 
of God three times and speaks of both prayer and praise. 
The Puritans were an intelligent people, reading and 
writing; this letter is a specimen of the correspondence 
carried on between the earliest settlers and their kin- 
dred whom they had left in England. They were an 
affectionate people, * * remembering their loves " to one 
another ; and praying, for one another, as this mother 
did for her son and his wife. This short letter has the 
word " love " four times. 

They were a persistent people, those who came hither 
did not shrink from the hardships around them. They 
came to stay, and sent back for their friends. Samuel 
desired Christopher to follow him. Many of their fami- 
lies were large, there were at least nine members of 
this Puritan household. Samuel was born probably 
about 1610 ; he had emigrated from England in 1636 or 
1636. His name is found at Ipswich, Mass., about 1637 
where land was assigned to him. Ipswich had been 
organized in 1635 with some of the most intelligent and 
wealthy colonists. His father died after Samuel's emi- 
gration to America, in 1639. His wife's name was 
Mary ; their oldest child, so far as we have record, was 
Isaac, born at Wethersfield, Ct., Feb. 3, 1642. He 
probably journeyed through the wilderness from Ips- 
wich, Mass., which is twenty-six miles north of Bos- 
ton, to Wethersfield, Ct., about one hundred and fifty 
miles, m 1639 or 1640. 



I 



9 

Between 1630 and 1640 many of the best families in 
England sent representatives to America. It is said 
that Oliver Cromwell was at one time on the point of 
coming. Between February and August, 1630, seven- 
teen ships loaded with families, bringing their cattle, 
furniture and other worldly goods, arrived. One ship 
of four hundred tons brought one hundred and forty 
passengers, others perhaps a larger number. Among 
them were Matthew and Priscilla Grant, from whom 
Gen. Grant was of the eighth generation in descent. 
Bancroft says, **Many of them had been accustomed 
to ease and affluence ; an unusual proportion were 
graduates of Cambridge and Oxford. The same rising 
tide of strong English sense and piety, which soon 
overthrew tyranny forever in the British Isles, 
under Cromwell, was forcing the best blood in Eng- 
land to these shores." The shores of New England 
says George P. Marsh, were then sown with the 
finest of wheat ; Plymouth Rock had but just received 
the pilgrims ; the oldest cottages and log-cabins on 
the coast were yet new, when Samuel Boreman first 
saw them. The Puritans were a people full of religion,- 
ministers came with their people ; they improved the 
time on the voyage, Roger Clap's diary, kept on ship- 
board 1630, says, ^* So we came by the good hand of our 
God through the deep comfortably ^ having preaching 
and expounding of the word of God every day for ten 
weeks together by our ministers." Mr* Blaine says that 
the same spirit which kept Cromwell's soldiers at home 
to fight for liberty after 1640, impelled men to America 
before that time, so that there was probably never an 



10 

emigration, in the history of the world, so influential 
as that to New England from 1620 to 1643. 

It is possible that Christopher Boreman fought and 
perhaps fell in the army of the commonwealth . But 
why did so many of the early settlers, quickly leave 
the Atlantic coast for the Connecticut valley ? Their 
first historians say there was even then ' ' a hankering 
for new land." They wished also to secure it from 
occupation by the Dutch who were entering it. Reports 
of its marvelous fertility, says Brancrof t, had the same 
effect on their imagination, as those concerning the 
Genesee and Miami have since exerted, inducing the 
*' western fever," '* Young man go West." The rich- 
ness of the soil of the Wethersfield meadows has been 
celebrated as widely as the aroma of its onions. It is 
only three miles from Hartford and was for two cen- 
turies one of the most prominent communities in Con- 
necticut. There was scarcely a more cultured society 
anywhere. " It were a sin," said the early colonists *Ho 
leave so fertile a land unimproved." The Pequod war 
had annihilated a powerful and hostile tribe on the 
Thames in 1637. Six hundred Indians perished, only 
two whites were killed. Connecticut was long after 
that comparatively safe from Indians. In 1639, the 
people formed themselves into a body politic by a vol- 
untary association. The elective franchise belonged to 
all the members of the towns who had taken the oath 
of allegiance to the commonwealth. It was the most 
perfect democracy which had ever been organized. It 
rested on free labor. *' No jurisdiction of the English 



••• • • 









11 

monarch was recognized ; the laws of honest justice 
were the basis of their commonwealth. They were 
near to nature. These humble emigrants invented an 
admirable system. After two centuries and a half, 
the people of Connecticut desire no essential change 
from the government established by their Puritan 
fathers. " (Bancroft). 

The first emigration of Puritans to the Connecticut 
river is supposed to have been to "Pyquag," now Weth- 
ersfield, in 1634. The next year 1635, witnessed the first 
to Windsor and Hartford ; while in the following year 
1636, Rev. Thomas Hooker and his famous colony made 
the forest resound with psalms of praise, as in June, 
they made their pilgrimage from the seaside ** to the 
dehghtful banks" of the Connecticut. Hooker was 
esteemed, *^ The light of the western churches," and a 
lay associate, John Haynes, had been governor of 
Massachusetts. The church at Wethersfield was or- 
ganized while Mrs. Boreman's letter given above, was 
on its way, Feb. 28, 1641 ; Samuel and Mary Boreman 
were undoubtedly among its earliest members. His first 
pastor there was Rev. Richard Denton, whom Cotton 
Mather describes, as ' ' a little man with a great soul, 
an accompUshed mind in a lesser body, an Hiad in a 
nutshell ; blind of an eye, but a great seer ; seeing 
much of what eye hath not seen." In the deep forests, 
amid the cabins of settlers, and the wigwams of sav- 
ages, he composed a system of Divinity entitled ' ' Solil- . 
oquia Sacra." Rev. John Sherman, born in Dedham, 
England, Dec. 26, 1613, educated at Cambridge, who 



12 

came to America in 1634, also preached here for a short 
time. He was afterwards settled at Watertown Mass., 
had twenty-two children and died in 1685. The colony 
at New Haven, which was soon united with them, was 
founded in 1638, under Rev. John Davenport and Gov. 
Theophilus Eaton . They first met under an oak and 
afterward in a barn. After a day of fasting and prayer 
they established their first civil government on a 
simple plantation covenant 'Ho obey the Scriptures." 
Only church members had the franchise ; the minister 
gave a public charge to the governor to judge right- 
eously, with the text : * ' The cause that is too hard for 
you bring it unto me, and I will hear it," **Thus," 
says Brancrof t, ' ' New Haven made the Bible its statute 
book, and the elect its freemen." The very atmosphere 
of New Haven is still full of the Divine favor distilled 
from the honor thus put upon God's word in the founda- 
tion of its institutions. There were five capital qualities 
which greatly distinguished the early New England 
Puritans. I. Good intellectual endowments ; they 
were of the party of Milton and Cromwell. II. Intense 
rehgiousness ; the names Pilgrim and Puritan, are 
synonymous with zealous piety. III. Education ; many 
were graduates of colleges ; they founded Harvard in 
1636. IV. Business thrift; godliness has the promise of 
the world that now is, as well as of that which is to 
come. V. Public spirit ; they immediately built churches, 
schools, court houses, and state houses. 

The newly married son to whom Julian Borman, the 
Puritan widow, with seven children, wrote from Eng- 



13 

land in 1641, obviously partook of these common 
characteristics. He was soon recognized as a young 
man to be relied upon . ' ' Few of the first settlers of 
Connecticut," says Hinman, author of the genealogy of 
the Puritans, * * came here with a better reputation, or 
sustained it more uniformly through life." 

In 1646-7-8. He was a juror. 

1649. Appointed by the Gen. Court, sealer of weights 
and measures. 

1657-8-9-60-61-62-63, and many years afterward, 
representative of Wethersfield in the Legislature of 
Connecticut, styled '* Deputy to the General Court." 

Hinman says, few men, if any, in the colony, repre- 
sented their own town for so many sessions. 

1660. On the grand jury of the colony. 

1670. Nominated assistant 

1662. Distributor of William's estate. 

1662. Appointed by Gen. Court on committee to pay 
certain taxes. 

1665. Chairman of a committee appointed by the 
Legislature, to settle with the Indians the difficulty 
about the bounds of land near Middletown, ^* in an 
equitable way." 

1660. On a similar committee to purchase of the 
Indians Thirty Mile Island. 

1665. Chairman of a committee of the Legislature 
to report on land, petitioned for by G. Higby. 

2 



14 

1663. Api)ointed chairman of committee to lay out 
the bounds of Middletown. 

He died just two hundred and twelve years ago in 
April, 1673. His estate was appraised by the select- 
men of Wethersfield, May 2, 1673 at £742, 155, about 
$4,000. His son Isaac then 31 years old is not named in 
the settlement of the estate, and had perhaps received his 
patrimony. He had ten children, seven sons and three 
daughters, of whom the youngest was six years old ; 
he had three grandchildren, the children of his oldest 
son, Isaac. All his children received scriptural names, 
as was common in Puritan families. His descendants 
are now doubtless several thousands in number. Only 
a very small part, after two hundred and fifty years, of 
a man's descendants bear his name. His daughters 
and their descendants, his sons' daughters and their 
descendants, one-half, three-quarters, seven-eights, di- 
verge from the ancestral name, etc., till but a thou- 
sandth part, after a few centuries retain the ancestral 
name, and those who retain it owe to a hundred others 
as much of their lineage as to him. Such is God's plan ; 
the race are endlessly interwoven together; no man liv- 
eth unto himself. But a few comparatively, of the de- 
scendants of Samuel Borman can now be traced. His 
own name, however, has been carried by them into 
the United States Senate ; into the lower house of Con- 
gress ; into many State Legislatures ; to the bar and to 
the bench ; into many pulpits, and into several chairs 
of collegiate and professional instruction. Yet these 
can represent but a few of his descendants who have 



15 

been equally useful. Probably a larger number of them 
are still to be found in Connecticut than in any other 
state. Among them is the family of Rev. Noah Por- 
ter, D. D., LL. D., the President of Yale College, who 
married a daughter of Rev. Dr. N. W. Taylor. The 
prayers of Julian Borman for ' ' her good sonne ^' — ' ' her 
very loving sonne, Samuel Boreman " already reach, 
under the covenant promise of Him who remembers 
mercy to a thousand generations, a widely scattered 
family. 

In the above letter the name is spelled both with 
and without the letter '* e " after ''r; " the letter ''d'' 
is not found until 1712. The letter '' a," was not in- 
serted until 1750 ; so that the descendants of Samuel, 
may still bear all these names, Borman, Boreman, 
Bordman or Boardman, according to the generation at 
which the line traced, reaches the parent stock. It is 
said that the name, however spelled, is still pronounced 
** Borman," at Wethersfield. The rise of Cromwell 
in England, the long Parliament, the Westminster 
Assembly, the execution of Charles the First, the 
establishment of the commonwealth, its power by sea 
and land, the death of the Protector, the restoration 
of Charles the Second, were events of which Samuel 
must have heard by letter from his brother and sisters, 
as well as in other ways. He doubtless had numerous 
kinsmen on the side of both his father and his mother, 
who were involved in these movements of the times 
in England. Perhaps Richard Boardman, one of the 
first two ^* Traveling Methodist Preachers on the con- 



16 

tinent," who came here from England in 1769, was 
among the descendants. 

At the same time the pioneer legislator in the 
Colonial Greneral Court just estabUshed in the wilds of 
America, was aiding to lay Scriptural foundations 
for institutions of civil and reUgious liberty in the New 
World. He left a Thomas Boreman, perhaps an uncle, 
in Ipswich, Mass. During the thirty-seven years of 
his life, after his emigration, he saw new colonies 
planted at many points along the Atlantic coast. He 
saw the older colonies constantly strengthened by fresh 
arrivals, and by the natural increase of the population. 
Several other Boremans came to New England very 
early, some of whom may have been his kindred. He 
accumulated and left a considerable estate for that day, 
derived in part undoubtedly, from the increase in the 
value of the new lands, which he had at first occupied, 
and which he afterward sold at an advanced price. 
Some in every generation, of his descendants have 
done likewise ; going first north, and east, and then 
further and further west. One of the descendants of 
his youngest son Nathaniel, now living, a man of 
distinguished abiUty, Hon. E. J. H. Boardman of 
Marshalltown, Iowa, is said to have amassed in this 
manner a large fortune. 

Samuel Boreman died far from his early home and 
kindred. He was not buried beside father or mother, 
or by the graves of ancestors who had for centuries lived 
and died and been buried there ; but on a continent 
separated from them by a great ocean. He was 



17 

doubtless buried on the summit of the hill in the old 
cemetery at Wethersfield, in a spot which overlooks 
the broad and fertile meadows of the Connecticut river. 
In the same plot his children and grandchildren lie, 
with monuments, though no monument marks his 
own grave. In his childhood, he may have seen 
Shakespeare and Bacon. He lived cotemporary with 
Cromwell ; and Milton, who died, a year after he was 
buried at Wethersfield. His wife Mary, the mother 
of us all, died eleven years later, in 1684, leaving an 
estate of $1,300. As his body was lowered into the 
grave, his widow and ten children may have stood 
around it, the oldest, Isaac, aged 31, with his two or 
three little children ; the second, Mary, Mrs. Bobbins, 
at the age of twenty-nine ; Samuel, Jr., twenty- 
five ; Joseph twenty-three ; John twenty -one ; Sarah, 
eighteen ; Daniel, fifteen ; Jonathan, thirteen ; Na- 
thaniel, ten ; Martha, seven. Most of these children 
lived to have :;: '; i..;^, HjJlJl ieCt cliiWv:ii. v v j-,,- d^i- 
scendants now doubtless number thor vlJs. Iif.;iac 
had three sons and one daughter ji'! :'. '4 iu 1710. at 
the age of seventy-seven. Samuel had r,vo sons a Lid 
three daughters, and died in 1720, at ?t»venr.y-two 
years of age. Daniel, then fifteen; from whom Timothy 
Boardman, the author of the Log-Book, was descended ; 
had twelve children, nine sons and three daughters, 
and died in 1724, at the age of seventy-six. Jonathan 
had two sons and three daughters, and died September 
21, 1712, at the age of fifty-one. Nathaniel married 
in Windsor, at the age of forty -four, and had but one 
son, Nathaniel, and died two months after his next older 



18 

brother Jonathan, perhaps of a contagious disease, 
November 29, 1712 ; at the age of forty-nine. The 
descendants of Nathaniel are now found in Norwich, 
Vt., and elsewhere ; and those of Samuel in Sheffield, 
Mass., and elsewhere. But the later descendants of 
the other sons, except Samuel, Daniel and Nathaniel, 
and of the daughter, I have no means of tracing. 
They are scattered in Connecticut and widely in other 
states. During the lives of this second generation 
occurred King Phillip's war, which decimated the New 
England Colonies, and doubtless affected this family 
with others. Within their time also, Yale College was 
founded, and went into operation first at Wethersfield, 
close by the original Borman homestead. 

The writer of this has made sermons in the old 
study of Rector Williams, the president of the college, 
near the old Boardman house, which was standing in 
1856, the oldest house in Wethei-sfield. The second 
generation of Boardmans, of course occupied more 
''new lands." Daniel, the fifth son of Samuel, owned 
land in Litchfield and New Milford, then new settle- 
ments, as well as in Wethersfield. Jonathan married 
in Hatfield, Mass. 

The third generation, the grandchildren of Samuel, 
the names of twenty-nine of whom (seventeen grand- 
sons and twelve grand-daughters), all children of 
Samuel's five sons, are preserved ; went out to occupy 
territory still further from home. We have little 
account however, except of the nine sons of Daniel, 
the seventh child of Samuel. Daniel the great-grand- 



19 

father of Timothy, the author of the Log-Book, was 
married to Hannah Wright just a hundred years before 
the marriage of that great-grandson, June 8, 1683, 
while the war-whoop of King Phillip's Narraganset 
savages was still resounding through the forest. Of 
his twelve children, two sons, John and Charles, died 
before reaching full maturity, John at the age of 
nineteen, near the death of two of his uncles, Jonathan 
and Nathaniel, in 1712 ; and Charles the youngest 
child, at the age of seventeen, very near the time of 
his father's death, in 1724. One son died in infancy. 
Of his daughters, Mabel, married Josiah Nichols, and 
for her second husband John Griswold of New Milf ord ; 
Hannah married John Abbe of Enfield ; and Martha 
married Samuel Churchill of Wethersfield. Of his six 
surviving sons, Richard was settled at Wethersfield ; 
he married in Milford, and had three children. His 
second son Daniel, born July 12, 1687, was graduated 
at Yale College in 1709, became the first minister of 
New Milford in 1712 and died in the ministry with his 
people, August 25, 1744. Hinman says : ^* He gave 
character and tone to the new settlement, by his devo- 
tion and active service." 

He was a man of deep piety, and of great force of 
character. It is related that an Indian medicine man, 
and this Puritan pastor met by the sick-bed of the same 
poor savage. The Indian raised his horrid clamor and 
din, which was intended to exorcise according to their 
customs the evil spirit of the disease. At the same 
time Mr. Boardman lifted up his voice in prayer to 



20 

Him who alone can heal the sick. The conflict of 
rival voices waxed long and loud to see which should 
drown out the other. Mr. Boardman was blessed vdth 
unusual power of lungs like his nephew Rev. Benjamin 
Boardman, tutor at Yale and pastor in Hartford, who 
for his immense volume of voice, while a chaplain in 
the Revolutionary army was called by the patriots the 
''Great gun of the gospel." The defeated charmer, 
acknowledged himself outdone and bounding from the 
bedside hid his defeat in the forest. Mr. Boardman 
died about the time his parishioners and neighbors 
were on the famous expedition to Cape Breton and the 
capture of Louisburg and when Whitfield's preaching 
was arousing the church. He was twice married and 
had six children. His second wife, the mother of all 
but his oldest child was a widow, Mrs. Jerusha Seeley, 
one of nine daughters of Deacon David Sherman of 
Poquonnocli. Their children were : 

I. Penelopy, Mrs. Dr. Carrington. 

II. Tamar, wife of Mr. Boardman's successor in the 
pastorate at New Milford, Rev. Nathaniel Taylor ; 
mother of Major-Gteneral Augustine Taylor, of the 
war of 1812 ; and grandmother of Prof. Nathaniel W. 
Taylor, D.D., of New Haven. 

III. Mercy, the wife of Gillead Sperry, and grand- 
mother of Rev. Dr. Wheaton of Hartford. 

IV . Jerusha, wife of Rev. Daniel Farrand of Canaan, 
Ct., and mother of Hon. Daniel Farrand (Yale, 1781), 
Judge of the Supreme Court of Vermont. This judge 



21 

had nine daughters, one of whom married Hon, 
Stephen Jacobs, of Windsor, also a Judge of the Su- 
preme Court of Vermont. 

Rev. Daniel Boardman left but one son, the Hon. 
Sherman Boardman, who was but sixteen years old at 
the time of his father's death . From the age of twenty- 
one he was for forty-seven years constantly in civil or 
mihtary office. He was for twenty-one sessions a 
member of the General Assembly of Connecticut, of 
which his great-grandfather Samuel, had been so long 
a member. His four sons, Major Daniel (Yale, 1781), 
Elijah, Homer, and David Sherman (Yale, 1793), were 
all members of the Connecticut Legislature, in one or 
both branches, for many years. Elijah was also 
elected a United States Senator, from Connecticut in 
1821. He foimded Boardman, Ohio, and died while on 
a visit there Aug. 18, 1823. His son, William W. 
Boardman (Yale, 1812), was speaker of the house of the 
Connecticut Legislature, and elected to Congress in 
1840. He left an ample fortune, and his large and 
comely monument stands near the centre of the old 
historic cemetery of New Haven, Ct., in which city he 
resided. This branch of the family, second cousins of 
the author of the Log-Book, though descended from the 
Puritan pastor Daniel Boardman, are now associated 
with the Protestant Episcopal church. 

The brothers of the pastor, grandsons of Samuel, were 
scattered in various places. Eichard settled in Wethers- 
field, as already noticed. Israel settled at Stratford, and 

3 



22 

had two sons and one daughter. Joshua, received by his 
father's will the homestead, but afterward removed to 
Springfield, Mass. Benjamin settled at Sharon, and 
received from his father lands in Litchfield and New 
Milf ord, lands which the family had probably purchased 
while the son and brother was preaching there. 
Timothy, the ninth child of Daniel, only twelve years 
old when his brother became pastor at New Milf ord, died 
only a few days before the birth of his namesake, and 
first grandchild, the author of the Log-Book. He 
lived and died in Wethersfield. His enterprise however, 
like that of his grandfather who emigrated from Eng- 
land, and that of his father who acquired lands in 
Litchfield and New Milford, went out, as that of many 
of their descendants does to-day, in the west, for 
*' more land." He and his brother Joshua, and other 
thrifty citizens of Wethersfield, fixed upon the province 
of Maine as the field of their enterprise. Timothy and 
Joshua owned the tract of land, thirty miles from 
north to south, and twenty-eight from east to west, 
which now, apparently, constitutes Lincoln Co. They 
had a clear title to eight hundred and forty square 
miles, about twenty-two townships, along or near the 
Atlantic coast. By the census of 1880, the assessed 
valuation of real estate in this county was $4,737,807 ; 
of personal property $1,896,886. Total $6,634,693. It 
embraces 3,213 farms ; 146,480 acres of improved land, 
valued, including buildings and fences at $4,403,985 ; 
affording an annual production, valued at $759,560. 
The population was 24,326 of whom 23,756 were natives 
of Maine. 



23 

This tract which should have been called '^ Boardman 
county," had been originally purchased of the Indians 
by one John Brown, probably as early as the close of 
King Phillip's war. It was purchased by the Board- 
man brothers in 1732, from the great-grandchildren of 
John Brown, requiring a considerable number of deeds 
which are now on record in the county clerk's office at 
York, Maine. These deeds were from Wm . Huxley, 
Eleazar Stockwell, and many others, heirs of John 
Brown, and of Richard Pearse his son-in-law. Two of 
them show $2,000 each as the sums paid for their pur- 
chase. 

WilUam Frazier, a grandson of Timothy, and an own 
cousin of the author of the Log-Book, received some- 
thing more than two townships, and although German 
intruders early settled upon these lands, many of whose 
descendants are now among the leading citizens of that 
county, yet there seems to be little reason to doubt 
that if, after the close of the Revolutionary war, the 
author of the Log-Book and other heirs had gone in 
quest of those ample possessions, something handsome, 
perhaps half of the county, might have been secured. 
There is a tradition that the true owners were betrayed 
as non-resident owners of unimproved lands often are, 
by their legal agents, who accepted of bribes to defraud 
those whose interests they had promised to secure. 

Timothy Boardman 1st, died in mid-hfe, at the age of 
fifty-three, and this noble inheritance was lost to his 
heirs. The county became thickly settled, and the 
Boardman titles though acknowledged valid, were it is 



24 

said, confiscated by the Legislature of Massachusetts 
in favor of the actual occupants of the soil, as the 
shortest though unjust settlement of the difficulty. 

The fourth generation, the great-grandsons of Samuel 
included several men of prominence, some of whom 
have been already noticed. Hon. Sherman Boardman 
of New Milford ; Rev. Benjamin Boardman, the army 
chaplain, of Hartford, and others. The majority of the 
family, however, were plain and undistinguished men of 
sterUng Puritan qualities, and of great usefulness in 
their several spheres, in the church and in society. 
Many were deacons and elders in their churches, these 
were too numerous for further especial mention, except 
in a single line. The third child of Timothy, the Maine 
land proprietor, only four years old when Lincoln Co., 
Me. was purchased by his father, became a carpenter, 
ship-builder and cabinet maker, and settled in Middle- 
town, Ct., which his great-grandfather Samuel had sur- 
veyed nearly a century before. He married Jemima 
Johnson, Nov. 14, 1751, and his oldest child, born Jan . 
20, 1754, was the author of the Log-Book. The preach- 
ing of Whitfield, and the ''Great Awakening" of the 
American churches, North, South and Central, at this 
time, and for a whole generation, immediately preced- 
ing the Revolutionary war, had very much quickened 
the rehgious Ufe even of the children of the New Eng- 
land Puritans. The Boardman family obviously felt 
the infiuence of this great revival. The country was 
anew pervaded with intense religious influences. 



25 

Many letters and other papers remain from different 
branches of the family of this and of more recent dates, 
exhibiting a deeply religious spirit. The boy Timothy 
grew up in an atmosphere filled with such influences . 
Many of the habits and feelings brought by the Puritans 
from England still prevailed. To the day of his death he 
retained much of the spirit of those early associations. 
He left a double portion to his oldest son. He inherited 
the traits of the Puritans ; intelligence ; appreciation of 
education ; deference for different ages and relations in 
society ; piety, industry, economy and thrift. His 
advantages at school in the flourishing village of Mid- 
dletown must have been exceptionally good ; he early 
learned to write in an even, correct and handsome 
hand, which he retained for nearly three-quarters of 
a century ; his school book on Navigation is before me . 

More attention was paid to a correct and handsome 
chirography, at that time, the boyhood of Washing- 
ton, Jefferson, Sherman and Putnam, than at a later 
day when a larger range of studies had been introduced. 
**The Young Secretary's Guide," a volume of model 
letters, business forms, etc., is preserved; it bears on the 
first leaf ** Timothy Boardman, his Book, A. D. 1765." 
The hand is copy -like, and very handsome, and extra- 
ordinary if it is his, as it seems to be ; though he was 
then but eleven years old. A large manuscript volume 
of Examples in Navigation, obviously in his hand- 
writing, doubtless made in his youth, is also before me. 
The writing and diagrams are like copper-plate. No 
descendant of his, so far as known to the writer could 



26 

have exceeded it in neatness and skill. In his early boy- 
hood the French and Indian war filled the public mind 
with excitement ; reports of the exploits of Col. Israel 
Putnam were circulate, as they occurred. The con- 
quest of Canada under Gen. Wolf filled the colonies 
with pride and patriotism. But already disaffection 
between the mother country and the colonies had arisen. 
Resistance to the tea tax and other offensive measures 
were discussed at every fireside. The writer before he 
was seven years old caught from the author of the Log- 
Book, then over eighty, something of the indignant 
feeling toward England which the latter had acquired at 
the very time when the tea was thrown overboard into 
Boston harbor. Timothy Boardman was ripe for partici- 
pation in armed resistance when the war came. He was 
just twenty-one as the first blood was shed at Lexington 
and Concord, April 19, 1775. Putnam who had left 
his plow in the furrow, was with his Connecticut 
soldiers, in action, if not in chief command at Bunker 
hill. Timothy Boardman joined the army which 
invested Boston, under Washington in the winter of 
1776-1776. He was stationed, doubtless with a Con- 
necticut regiment, on Dorchester Heights, now South 
Boston . 

After completing this service, in the great uprising of 
the people to oppose the southward progress of Bur- 
goyne, he was called out and marched toward Saratoga, 
but the surrender took place before his regiment arrived. 
With his father he had worked at finishing houses, and 
the inside of vessels built on the Connecticut river, on 






27 

which Middletown is situated. In the winter he was 
employed largely in cabinet work, in the shop ; I have 
the chest which he made and used on the Oliver Crom- 
well, 

Congress early adopted the poUcy of sending out pri- 
vateers or armed vessels to capture British merchant ves- 
sels. These vessels became prizes for the captors. The 
Oliver Cromwell wa& chartered by Connecticut, with 
letters of marque and reprisal from the United States. 
Captain Parker was in command. The Defence accom- 
panied the Oliver Cromwell ; they sailed from New 
London ; Timothy Boardman then twenty-four years of 
age enlisted and went on board ; he commenced keep- 
ing the Log-Book April 11, 1778 ; he seems to have been 
head carpenter on board the ship, and to have had 
severe labors. His assistants appear to have deserted 
him before the close of the voyage. It was his duty to 
make any needful repairs after a storm, or in an en- 
gagement and to perform any such service necessary 
even at the time of greatest danger. In a terrific 
storm it was decided to cut away the mast. His hat 
fell from his head, but he scarcely felt it wortli while 
to pick it up, as all were Uable so soon to go to the 
bottom. In action, his place was below deck, to be in 
readiness with his tools and material to stop instantly , 
if possible, any leak caused by the enemies' shot. At 
one time the rigging above him was torn and feU upon 
him, some were killed ; blood spattered over him, and it 
was shouted ** Boardman is killed." He, however, and 
another man on board, a Mr. Post, father of the late 



28 

Alpha Post of Rutland, were spared to make their 
homes for half a century among the peaceful hills of 
Vermont. 

In the following year 1779, he seems to have sailed 
down the Atlantic coast on an American merchant 
vessel. He was captured off Charleston, S. Carolina, 
by the British, but after a few days' detention, on 
boaixJ his Majesty's vessel, it was thought cheaper to 
send the prisoners on shore than to feed them, and he 
and his companions were given a boat and set at 
liberty. They reached Charleston in safety. The 
city was under martial law, and the new-comers were 
for about six weeks put upon garrison duty. About 
this time Lord Cornwallis was gaining signal advan- 
tages in that vicinity, while Gen. Gates, who had re- 
ceived the surrender of Burgoyne, three years before, 
was badly defeated. After completing this service the 
author of the Log Book, started to walk home to Con- 
necticut. He proceeded on foot to North Carolina, 
where Andrew Jackson was, then a poor boy of twelve 
years. Jackson's father, a young Irish emigi'ant died 
within two years after entering those forests, and his 
widow soon to become the mother of a President, was 
*' hauled" through their clearing, from their deserted 
shanty, to his grave, among the stumps, in the same 
lumber wagon with the corpse of her husband. He 
had been dead twelve years when the pilgrim from 
Connecticut passed that way. Overcome, probably by 
fatigue and by malaria, his progress was arrested in 
North Carolina by fever, and he lay sick all winter 
among strangers. 



29 

In the spring of 1780, unable probably, to proceed on 
foot, he embarked from some port, on a merchant ship 
bound for St. Eustatia, a Dutch island, in the West 
Indies. He was again captured and taken prisoner 
by the British. 

He was, however, transferred to a British merchant 
vessel on which he rendered a little service by way of 
commutation, when he was set at liberty on St. 
Eustatia. The island has an area of 189 square miles, 
population 13,700 ; latitude 17°, 30', North. Climate 
generally healthy, but with terrific hurricanes and 
earthquakes, soil very fertile and highly cultivated by 
the thrifty Hollanders, with slave labor. It has be- 
longed successively to the Spanish, French, English 
and Dutch. Having been enfeebled by his fever of the 
winter before, Timothy Boardman now twenty-six 
years old, worked for several months at his trade with 
good wages. I have heard him say that there the 
tropical sun shone directly down the chimney. He 
used to relate also, how fat the young negroes would 
become in sugaring time, when the sweets of the cane- 
field flowed as freely as water. He returned home to 
Connecticut probably late in the year 1780. Vermont 
was then the open field for emigration. It was 
rapidly receiving settlers from Connecticut. I have no 
knowledge that he ever made any account of the im- 
mense tract in Maine, purchased and held by deeds, 
still on record at York, Me., by his grandfather, and 
in which he, as the oldest grandson, born a few days 
after his grandfather's death and named for him, 
might have been expected to be interested. 

4 



30 

He was now twenty-seven. A large family of 
younger chOdren had long occupied his father's house. 
He sought a home of his own. His younger brothers 
Elisha and Oliver were married and settled before him. 
He seems to have inherited something of the ancestral 
enterprise of the Puritans, *' hankering for new land." 
All his brothers and sisters settled m Connecticut, but 
he made his way in 1781 to Vermont. For a year 1781- 
1782, he worked at his trade in Bennington. During 
this time, he purchased a farm in Addison, it is sup- 
posed of Ira Allen, a brother of the redoubtable Ethan 
Allen ; but the title proved, as so often happened, with 
the early settlers to be defective. He recovered, many 
years afterward, through the fidelity and skill of his 
lawyer, the Hon. Daniel Chipman of Middlebury, the 
hard earned money which he had paid for the farm at 
Chimney Point. It shows how thrifty he must have 
been, and how resolute in his purpose to follow a 
pioneer life in Vermont, that after this great loss he 
fitill had money, and a disposition to buy another farm 
among the Green Mountains. Having put his hand to 
the plow, he did not turn back. He did not perhaps 
like to have his Connecticut kindred and friends think 
he had failed in what he had undertaken. He had 
saved a good portion of his wages for six or seven 
years. He had received, as the most faithful man in 
the crew, a double share in the prizes taken by the 
Oliver Cromwell, He had perhaps received some aid 
from his father. Though he had paid for and lost one 
unimproved farm, he was able to buy, and did pur- 
chase another. He came to Rutland, Vt., in 1782 and 



31 

bought one hundred acres of heavily timbered land from 
the estate of Rev. Benajah Roots, whose blood has 
long flowed in the same veins, with his own. He 
perhaps thought that if he bought of a minister, he 
would get a good title. He may have known Mr. 
Roots, at least by reputation, in Connecticut, for he had 
been settled at Simsbury, Ct. , before coming to a home 
missionary field in Rutland. The owner of the land 
was in doubt whether to sell it. 

The would-be purchaser had brought the specie with 
which to buy it, in a strong Unen bag, still it is supposed 
preserved in the family, near the same spot. '' Bring in 
your money," said a friend, ** and throw it down on a 
table, so that it will jingle well." The device was suc- 
cessful, the joyful sound, where silver was so scarce, 
brought the desired effect. The deed was soon secured, 
for the land which he owned for nearly sixty years. 

A clearing was soon made on this land at a point 
which lies about one-half mile south of Centre Rutland, 
and a-half mile west of Otter creek on the slope of a 
high hill. It was then expected that Centre Rutland 
would be the capital of Vermont. In 1783, he erected 
amid the deep forests, broken only here and there by 
small clearings, a small framed house. He never occu- 
pied a log-house ; as he was himself a skillful carpenter, 
house-joiner and cabinet maker and had been reared 
in a large village, a city, just as he left it, his taste 
did not allow him to dispense with so many of the com- 
forts of his earlier life as many were compelled to re- 
linquish . 



32 

He returned to Middletown, and was married, Sept. 
28th, 1783, to Mary, the eighth child and fifth daughter 
of Capt. Samuel Ward of Middletown, who had twelve 
children. The Ward family were of equal standing 
with his own. The newly married couple were each 
a helpmeet unto the other, and had probably known 
each other from early life in the same church and 
perhaps in the same public school. They were both 
always strongly attached to Middletown, their native 
place ; it cost something to tear themselves away and 
betake themselves to a new settlement, which they knew 
must long want many of the advantages which they 
were leaving. I remember the pride and exhileration 
with which, in his extreme old age, he used to speak 
of Middletown, as he pointed out on his two maps, one 
of them elaborate, in his native city, the old familiar 
places. He revisited it from time to time during his 
long life, the last time in 1837, only a year and a-half 
before his death. 

In his journeys between Rutland and Middletown, 
ivhich he visited with his wife, the second year after 
their marriage, he must have met many kindred by the 
way. His Uncle Daniel Boardman Uved in Dalton, and 
his Uncle John in Hancock, Mass., while three brothers 
of his wife, and a sister, Mrs. Charles Goodrich, resided 
in Pittsfield. Mrs. Ward, his mother-in-law, lived also 
in Pittsfield with her children, till 1815, when she was 
ninety-six years old, her oldest son seventy- six, and 
her eighth child, Mrs. Boardman, over sixty. She and 
her son-in-law. Judge Goodrich, the founder of Pitts- 



33 

field, who was of about her own age, lived, it is said to 
be the oldest persons in Berkshire Co. He had also a 
cousin Mrs. Francis at Pittsfield, and a favorite cousin 
Elder John Boardman, at Albany and another cousin, 
Capt. George Boardman in Schenectady. These three 
cousins were children of his uncle Charles of Wethers- 
field. His grandmother Boardman, the widow of the 
Maine land proprietor, also spent her last days in 
Dalton, and died there at her son Daniel's, about the 
time when Timothy first went to Vermont. 

His youngest brother WiUiam, distinctly remembered 
my grandfather's playing with him, and bantering him 
when a little child, and also the September morning 
when with his father and mother he rode over in a chaise 
to Capt. Ward's to attend Timothy's wedding. He told 
me that when Timothy was there last, he shed some 
tears, as he cut for himself a memorial cane, by the 
river's bank, where he used to play in boyhood, and 
said he should never see the place again. WilUam, 
whom he used to call *'Bill," named a son for him, 
Timothy. 

The spot where he built his first house, and called on 
the name of the Lord, and where his first two or three 
children were bom, is now off the road, at a considera- 
ble distance, about a-half mile north-east of the house, 
occupied by his grandson, Samuel Boardman, Esq., of 
West Rutland. It is near a brook, in a pasture, cold, wet, 
bunchy and stony, and does not look as if it had ever 
been plowed. He had better land which he cultivated 
afterward, and which yielded abundantly. But at first 



84 

he must have wrung a subsistence from a reluctant soil. 
Yet the leaf -mould and ashes from burned timber on 
fields protected by surrounding forests would produce 
good w^heat, com and vegetables. Near that spot 
still stands one very old apple tree and another lies 
fallen^and^ decaying near by. So tenacious are the 
memorials of man's occupancy, even for a short time. 

After a few years he removed this small framed 
house, fifty rods westward and dug and walled for it a 
cellar which still remains, a pit filled with stones, water 
and growing alders. He then made some additions to 
the house as demanded by his gi-owing family. He 
alsogbuilt near it a barn. His house was still on the 
cold, bushy land which slopes to the north-east, and is 
now only occupied for pasturage. Here seven young 
children occupied with him his pioneer home. 

The tradition used to be, that at first he incurred 
somewhat the derision of his neighbors, better gkilled 
in backwoodsman's lore than himself, by hacking all 
around a tree, in order to get it down. It is said that 
some imagined his land would soon be in the market, 
and sold cheap ; that the city bred farmer, better taught 
in navigation and surveying, than in clearing forests 
and in agriculture, would become tired and discouraged 
and abandon his undertaking. But he remained and 
persevered, and his good Puritan qualities, industry, 
frugality, good management, and persistency for the 
first ten or fifteen years, determined his whole subse- 
quent career and that of his family. He was never 
rich, but he secured a good home, dealt well with his 



35 

children, and became independent for the remainder of 
his life. Indeed, like most New England Puritans, of 
resolute and conscientious industry, and of moderate 
expenditures, he was always independent after he was 
of age. 

A man of such character, and of so fair an education 
would, of course, soon be valued in any community, 
and be especially useful in a new settlement where 
skill with the pen and the compass are rarer than in 
older places. 

He was appreciated and was soon made town clerk 
of Rutland, and county surveyor for Rutland county. 
He was also in time made captain of the miUtia, in 
recognition perhaps, in part, of his Revolutionary 
services. He was also made clerk of the Congregational 
church, I have some of his church records. On Nov. 
20th, 1806, he was elected a deacon. He was also on 
the committee to revise the Articles of Faith and Rules 
of Discipline. About 1792, he bought fifty acres of 
good land lying west of his first purchase, and on this 
ground, one hundred rods west of his previous home, 
and about half a mile south-west of the spot first 
occupied, he erected in 1799, a good two-story house, 
which is still in excellent preservation, where till his 
death, he lived in a home as ample and commodious 
as the better class of those with which he had been 
familiar in his native state. 

In sixteen years after coming to the unbroken forest 
on what has sinc« been called ' ' Boardman hill, " he 
had won a good position in society and in the church, 



36 

and a comfortable property. He was afflicted in 
the death of his oldest daughter and child, Hannah, 
October 26, 1803. But this was the only death that 
occurred in his family for more than fifty-three years. 
His six remaining children lived to an average age of 
about eighty. 

The Congregational church in West Rutland, one of 
the oldest in Vermont, had been formed in 1773, 
nine years before his arrival. He became a member 
in 1786, and his wife in 1803. Not long after his com- 
ing. Rev. Mr. Roots, the pastor, died, and the widely 
known Rev. Samuel Haynes, a devout, able and witty 
man, became their pastor, and so continued for thirty 
years, until his dismission in 1818. Timothy Boardman's 
children were early taken to church, were trained 
and all came into the church under, the ministry of 
Rev. Mr. Haynes. 

He said that he would sooner do without bread than 
without preaching, and he was always a conscientious 
and liberal supporter of the church. He appreciated 
and co-operated with his pastor. In the great revival 
of 1808, five of his children were gathered into the 
church. One of them, perhaps all of them, were pre- 
viously regarded by their parents as religious. 

In politics he was a Federalist. In respect to the 
war with Great Britain 1812-1815, his views did not 
entirely coincide with those of some others, including 
his associate in the diaconate, , Dea. Chafcterton, who 
was a rigid Democrat. This eminently devout and 
useful man, was so burdened with Dea. Boardman's 



37 

lukewarmness in promoting the second war with 
Great Britain, against whose armies both had fought 
in the Revolution, that he felt constrained to take up 
a labor with him, hoping to correct his political errors 
by wholesome church disciphne. It must have been a 
scene, for a painter. 

Perhaps no better man or one more effective for good, 
ever lived in West Rutland than Dea. Chatterton. In 
both politics and religion he was practical and fervid. 
The church meeting was crowded. 

The occasion compelled my grandfather, as Paul was 
driven, in his epistle to the Corinthians, and as Demos- 
thenes was forced in his oration for the crown, to enter 
somewhat upon his own past record. Though a very 
modest and unpretentious man, yet it is said that the 
author of the Log-Book, on this memorable occasion 
straightened himself up, and boldly referred his hearers 
to the glorious days of the war for Independence, 
which had tried men's souls, and when he had forever 
sealed the genuineness of his own patriotism, by 
hazarding his life both by sea and land for his 
country. 

Weighed in the balances on his own record, so far 
from being found wanting, his patriotism was proved 
to be of the finest gold ; and his place like that of Paul, 
not a whit behind that of the chief est apostle. Though 
he did not feel it to be his duty to fall in behind the tap 
of the drum, and volunteer to fight, beside the aged 
democratic veteran who served with him at the com- 
munion table ; yet he showed that the older was not a 

5 



88 

better soldier ; that with diversities of politics, there 
was the same loyalty, and that his own patriotism 
was no less than his brother's. 

The tremendous strain which the struggle for 
American Independence put upon the generation who 
encountered it, was touchingly illustrated in the lives of 
these two men, a generation, or two generations after 
the struggle had been successfully closed. Amid the 
quiet hills of Vermont, the minds of both were affected 
for a time, with at least partial derangement. Dea. 
Boardman labored temporarily imder the hallu- 
cination, that he was somehow liable to arrest, and 
prepared a chamber for his defence. He was obliged, 
for a time to be watched, though he was never confined. 
A journey to Connecticut, on horseback, with his son 
Samuel, when he was perhaps sixty years old, effected 
an entire cure. Dea. Chatterton in his extreme old 
age, after a life of remarkable piety, became a maniac 
and was obliged to be confined. He had suffered 
peculiar hardships, perhaps on the prison-ships, in the 
Revolution; and his incoherent expressions, in his 
insanity, sixty years afterward, and just before his 
vdeath, were full of charges against the *' British." 

Timothy Boardman's supreme interest in life, how- 
ever, was in his loyalty to Christ, and his intense de- 
sires were for the extension and full triumph of Christ's 
kingdom. The revivals which prevailed in the early 
part of the century and the consequent great expan- 
sion of aggressive Christian work, were in answer to 
his life-long prayers, as well as those of all other 



39 

Christians ; and he entered heartily, from the first, 
into all measures undertaken for the more rapid spread 
of the gospel. He was greatly interested in the for- 
mation of the American Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Missions, and read the Missionary Herald^ 
with interest from its first pubUcation, until his 
death. The formation of the Bible Society, Tract 
Society, Seaman's Friend Society, Sunday School 
Society, American Home Missionary Society, etc., 
engaged his interest, and received his support. He 
made himself an honorary member of the A. B. C. F. M. 
near the close of his life, in accordance with the sug- 
gestion of his sister Sarah, whom he greatly valued, 
the wife of Rev. Joseph Washburn, and afterward of 
Dea. Porter, both of Farmington, Ct., by the contribu- 
tion to Foreign Missions, at one time, of one hundred 
dollars. 

In social and domestic life, he was a son of the 
Puritans and of the Connecticut type. He exacted 
obedience, . and somewhat of reverence from his 
children. They did not dare, to the last, to treat him 
with unrestrained famiUarity. His wife and children 
stood, waiting at their chairs, until he was first seated 
at the table. He gave his children a good education 
for the time, sending them to *' Master Southard." 
His habitual temper of mind was one of deep reverence 
toward God. He sat in awe during a thunder storm, 
and a cyclone which passed over his home deeply 
impressed him. His letters abound in affectionate 
and in religious sentiments. He was scrupulous in 



40 

the observance of the Sabbath ; required it of his 
children, and he expected it of the stranger] within his 
gates. The family altar probably never failed from 
the day he first entered with his newly married wife, 
into their pioneer home, amid the forests, till|his death. 
He was solemn, earnest and felicitous in prayer. The 
atmosphere of his home was eminently that of a 
christian household. Two of his four sons became 
officers in their churches, and also both his sons-in-law. 
Four of his grandsons entered the Christian ministry, 
and a granddaughter is the wife of a clergyman. 
Those who regard the Puritans in general, as too 
severe in industry, in frugality, in morals and in re- 
ligious exercises, would have regarded him as too 
exacting in all these directions. He certainly could 
not on one hundred and fifty acres of Jand, which he 
found wild, and not all of it very good, have reared 
a large family, and supported public institutions as 
he did ; have given each of his sons at settlement 
in life, six hundred dollars, and left to each at his 
death, eight hundred, if he had not practiced through 
life, a resolute industry, and a somewhat rigid 
veconomy. 

It is worthy of notice that like his grandfather, 
Timothy Boardman of Wethersfield, he owned, what by 
a little change of circumstances, might have brought, 
not a competence merely but wealth to his heirs. 
Early in his residence at Rutland, he became possessed, 
with many others of a small lot in what was called 
the ' * Cedar Swamp. " These lots were valued almost 



41 

exclusively for the enduring material for fences which 
they afforded. Their cedar posts supplied the town. 
They obtained also on the rocky portions of these lands 
a white sand, which was employed for scouring pur- 
poses, and also for sprinkling, by way of ornamentation, 
according to the fashion of the times, the faultlessly 
clean, white floors of the * ' spare rooms. " Timothy 
Boardman's cedar lot, is now one of the largest marble 
quarries in Rutland, a town which is said to furnish 
one-half of all the marble produced in the United 
States. It brought to one of his sons, a handsome 
addition to farm profits, but was disposed of just before 
its great value was appreciated and lost, as in case of 
the Maine lands. 

His grandfather Timothy Boardman, is said to have 
been '* a short, stocky man;" his monument, and until 
recently that of his father Daniel, son of the emigrant 
from England, might both be seen, near together in 
the old cemetery at Wethersfield. 

The author of the Log-Book, was a little below the 
average height, of rather full face, with a peach-bloom 
tinge of red on each cheek in old age, and of light com- 
plexion, and light hair. His motions were quick, and 
his constitution healthful, though he was never strong. 
He had undoubtedly a mind of fair ability ; inclined 
perhaps to conservative views, and acting as sponta- 
neously, it may be in criticism, as in any other exercise 
of its energies. I remember to have received reproof 
and instruction in manners, from him when I was five 



42 

or six years of age. He was careful of his possessions, 
and articles belonging to him, were very generally 
marked '^T. B." 

It is a tradition among the older kindred, that the 
writer, though he does not remember it, finding at the 
age of five or six, on grandpa's premises, some loose 
tufts of scattered wool, and being told that they were 
his, expressed the candid judgment, that it could not 
be 80, '' because they were not marked T. B." 

I am not aware that he was much given to humor, 
yet he would seem not to have been entirely destitute of 
it from the philosophical account he gave of the advan- 
tages of his position, when some one ventured to con- 
dole with him on the steep hiU of nearly a mile which 
lay between his house and the church. He said it 
afforded him two privileges, first that of dropping down 
quickly to meeting, when he had a late start; and 
secondly, that of abundant time for reflection on the 
sermon while he was going home. 

His wife, undoubtedly his equal in every respect, to 
whom much of his prosperity, usefulness, and good 
repute, as well as that of his family was due, after a 
married life of fifty -three years and three months, died 
in Dec, 1836. She had long been feeble. Her children 
watched around her bedside on the last night in silence 
till one of her sons, laying his hand upon her heart, 
and finding it still, said ** we have no longer a mother." 
I remember the hush of the next morning, throughout 
the house, when we young children awoke. It was 



43 

lonely and cold in grandma's room, and only a white 
sheet covered a silent form. 

At eighty -three he was alone, and he deeply felt, as 
was natural, that loneUness. Yet he had affectionate 
children, and with his youngest son, who had four 
daughters, to him kind and pleasant granddaughters, 
he made his home for the remainder of his life. With 
the oldest of these he made in 1837, as already noticed, 
his last visit to Connecticut, going as far as New Haven 
and the city of New York. On this journey he went 
in his own carriage. He visited us, once at least in 
Castleton, at the house where the Log-Book was so 
long concealed. I remember his figure there, as 
that of a "short and stocky man," who seemed to 
me very old. He died while on a visit to Middlebury, 
where two of his children had been settled for more 
than twenty years, at the house of his youngest daugh- 
ter and youngest child, Betsey, then the widow of Dea. 
Martin Foot. She and her six daughters did everything 
possible for his comfort. A swelling made its appear- 
ance upon his shoulder, and the disease advanced stead- 
ily to a fatal termination. His appointed time had co me. 
From his death-bed he sent to his children a final letter 
of affectionate greeting and counsel. The feeble hand, 
whose lines had been so fair and even for nearly three- 
quarters of a century, wandera unsteadily across the 
pages, expressive of a mind perhaps already wandering 
with disease. And so the fingers that had traced the 
neat lines of the Log Book, on board the Oliver Crom- 
welly in 1778, "forgot " sixty years afterwards " their 



44 

cunning," and wrote no more. He was buried beside 
his wife, in the cemetery at West Butland, near the 
church where he had worshipped nearly sixty years. 

On the death of his wife, he had ordered two monu- 
mental stones to be prepared just alike, except the in- 
scriptions; one of which was to be for her, and the 
other for himself. They may be seen from the road, 
by one passing, of bluish stone standing not very far 
from the fence, and about half way from the northern 
to the southern side of the lot. On these stones was 
inscribed at his direction, where they may now be read, 
the words, contained in Rev. 14: 13, divided between 
the two stones; on the one: " I heard a voice from 
heaven saying unto me, write Blessed are the dead, 
which die in the Lord from henceforth; " and on the 
other: '• Yea saith the Spirit that they may rest from 
their labors and their works do follow them:" 

His children were: 

Hannah, born July 23, 1734; died Oct. 26, 1803. 

Timothy, born March 11, 1786; settled in Middlebury, 
and died there April, 1857. 

Mary, bom Jan. 27, 1788; married Dea. Robert Barney 
of East Rutland 1824; died at her son's house, in Wis- 
consin, 1871. 

Dea. Samuel Ward, bom Nov. 27, 1789; died in 
Pittsford, Vt., May 13, 1870. 

Dea. Elijah, born March 9, 1792; died Sept. 24, 
1873. 



45 

Capt. Charles Goodrich, born Feb. 19, 1794; died 
Dec. 17, 1875. 

Betsey, bom, 1796; married Dea. Martin Foot of 
Middlebury; died April 26, 1873. 

The proclivity of the Puritans for education is illus- 
trated in the fact, that only five years after the found- 
ation of Yale College one of this family, Daniel a 
grandson of Samuel, the emigrant from England, 
became a student there and was graduated in 1709, and 
that wherever different branches of the family have 
since been settled they have generally sent sons to the 
nearest colleges, not only many to Yale, but several to 
Dartmouth, Wilhams, Middlebury, Union, and others. 
The eighth and ninth generations are now in the pro- 
cess of education, in various institutions east and west, 
The descendants of Timothy Boardman who have en- 
tered professional life, are : 

Hon. Carlos Boardman (grad. Middlebury College 
1843), a lawyer and judge, in Linnaeus, Mo., oldest son 
of Capt. Charles. G. Boardman, of West Rutland. 

Rev. George Nye Boardman, D.D. (Middlebury Col- 
lege 1847). Prof, of Systematic Theology, in Chicago 
Theological Seminary, Chicago, 111. 

Rev. Samuel W. Boardman, D.D. (Midd. Col., 1851). 
Pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, Stanhope, N. J. 

Rev. Simeon Gilbert Boardman (Midd. Col., 1855). 
Pastor of the Presbyterian Church, Champlain, N. Y. 

Charles Boardman, a member of the class of 1850, in 
Middlebury College, and who died of typhoid fever in 

6 



46 

the sophomore year, doubtless had in view the chris- 
tian ministry. 

These four were sons of Dea. S. W. Boardman, of 
Castleton. 

Horace Elijah Boardman, M.D. (Midd. Col., 1857), in 
practice at Monroe, Wis. , youngest son of Dea. Elijah 
Boardman, of West Rutland. 

Harland S. Boardman M.D., (Midd., 1874), a grand- 
son of Timothy 4th, and son of Timothy 5th, of Mid-' 
dlebury, was graduated at the Homeopathic Hospital 
College of Cleveland, Ohio," 1877. He is now prac- 
ticing at Ludlow, Vt. 

WiUiam Gilbert Boardman, in practice of dentistry 
in or near Memphis, Tenn., a grandson of Dea. Elijah 
Boardman. 

Edgar William Boardman, M.D., son of Dr. Horace 
E., now practicing at Janesville, Wis.; both he and his 
father were graduated at the * * Hahneman Medical 
iJoUege and Hospital, of Chicago." 

Webster, M.D., grandson of Mary, Mrs. Dea. 

Robert Barney, in practice in Schuylerville, N. Y. 

Dea. Martin Foote, the husband of Betsey, was a stu- 
dent in Mid dlebury College for two years, it is believed, 
in the distinguished class of 1818, but by reason of im- 
paired health, he was unable to complete the course. 

A few words in regard to the Log Book may not be 
inappropriate. It seems to be a mere waif that has 
floated on the current, and among a thousand things 
that have perished, to have been, as it were by accident, 



47 

preserved. A portion of the volume seems to be a 
kind of a private journal kept by my grandfather, for 
a feviT weeks in 1778. He does not appear to have 
valued it greatly, as on the blank leaves, he has made 
some entries of his business, as town clerk, and some 
as county surveyor, and afterward, a few notes of 
account with his son Elijah, who took a part of his 
farm. His last entry in it, as if it were in part a waste 
blank book, was made forty-eight years after he left 
the Oliver Cromwelly in 1826. 

It must have come into my father's hands with some 
other papers, on the division of his father's effects in 
1839. Both seem to have been reluctant to destroy 
anything, though they did not much value it. My 
father, at last, weary of keeping it, would seem to 
have given it to me merely for its blank pages, as 
scribbling paper. Six leaves, apparently blank, were 
torn out. Several pages are covered with mere vacant 
scrawling by my boyish hand; whether I threw it away 
in utter contempt, or concealed it back of the old 
chimney, in curious conjecture whether some unborn 
generations, would not at some distant day discover it, 
and puzzle over it, I cannot tell. I have no recollec- 
tion of it whatever; except that I had a general im- 
pression that we used to have more of grandfather's 
writings than we possessed in later years. Whether 
we had still others I know not. How little of such 
writing survives for a century ! It was lost for forty 
years, till a quarter of a century after we had sold and 
left the house. It was found in 1884, in a dark recess, 



48 

back of the chimney, in the garret, by Master Fred. 
Jones, the son of an esteemed friend, who in her child- 
hood, about the time of the loss of this manuscript, 
was a member of my father's household. Many years 
afterwards, she became the worthy mistress of the 
house, and this lad, exploring things in general, came 
across this old Log Book. If it is of any interest or 
value; to him and to Dr. J. M. Currier, the accompUshed 
secretary of the Rutland County Historical Society, and 
to James Brennan, Esq., an old schoolmate who took 
an interest in the manuscript, is due all the credit of 
its publication. 



JOURNAL 



▲ND 



SAILING DIRECTIONS 



OF THE 



OLIVER CROMWELL 



SECOND CRUISE. 




JOURNAL OF THE SECOND CRUISE. 



April 7th the Defence had Five Men Broke out With 
the Small Pox. 

9th they Lost a Man w* the Small Pox. 

10th Exerais* Cannon & Musquetry. 

11th Saw a Sail the Defence Spoke with her She was 
a Frenchman from Bourdeaui Bound to the "West 
Indies. 

13th Cros* the Tropick Shav* & Dnck About 60 Men. 

14th at four Oclock Afternoon Saw a Sail Bearing 
E S E, We Gave Chase to her & Came Up With her 
at 8 Oclock She was a Large French Ship we Sent the 
Boat on Board of her She Informed us of two English 
Ships which She Left Sight of at the time we Saw her. 

15th at Day Break We saw two Sail Bareing SEbS 
Distance 2 Leagues We Gave Chase Under a Moderate 
Sail at 9 oClock P. M. Came Up with them they at 
First Shew French Colours to Decoy us when we Came 
in About half a Mile of us the Ups with English Colours 



52 

We had Continental Colours Flying We Engaged the 
Ship Admiral Kepple as Follows When We Came in 
About 20 Rods of her We Gave her a Bow Gim She 
Soon Returned us a Stern Chaise & then a Broad Side 
of Grape & Round Shot Cap* Orders Not to fire till we 
Can See the white of their Eyes We Got Close Under 
their Larbard Quarter they Began Another Broad Side 
& then We Began & heV Tuflf & Tuff for About 2 
Glasses & Then she Struck to Us at the Same time the 
Defence Engaged the Cyrus who as the Kepple Struck 
Wore Round Under our Stem We Wore Ship & Gave 
her a Stern Chase at which She Immediately Struck. 
The Loss on our Side was One Kill* & Six Wounded 
one Mortally Who Soon Died Our Ship was hull* 
9 Times with Six Pound Shott Three of which Went 
through Our Birth one of which wounded the Boat- 
swains yoeman the Loss on their Side was two Kill* & 
Six wounded their Larbourd quarter was well fill* with 
Shott one Nine Pounder went through her Main Mast. 
Imploy* in the After-noon Takeing out the Men & 
Maning the Prise The Kepple Mounted 20 Guns 18 
Six Pounders & two Wooden D** with about 45 Men, 
the Cyrus Mounted 16 Six Pounders with 35 Men Let- 
ters of Marque Bound from Bristol to Jamaica Laden 
with Dry Goods Paints & C. 

18th Cap* Day Died. 

19th Cap* Brown of The Ship Adm» Kepple & Cap* 
Dike of the Cyrus with Three Ladies & 8 Men Sett oflE 
in a Long Boat for S* Kitts 0' Cap*" Parker & Smed- 
leys Permition 



53 

20th Imploy* in taking things out of the Prise Viz. 
One Chist of Holland a Quantity of Hatts & Shoes 
Cheeses Porter & Some Crockery Ware Small Arms 
Pistols Hangers two Brass Barrel Blunderbusses a 
Quantity of Eiggen & C . 

21"* At Three oClock Afternoon we wore Ship to the 
Southward The Prises Made Sail to the Northward we 
Lost Sight of them at Six. 

May 2** Sprung Our Foretopmast Struck it & Ship* 
Another in its Room. 

8*** Saw a Sail over Our Starboard bow We Gave 
Chase to her She was a French Guineaman Bound to 
the Mole With 612 Slaves on Board Our Cap* Put 6 
Prisoners on Board of Her Left her Just at Dark. 

11*** At 5 o'clock in the Morning Saw a Sail at the 
Windwai'd two Leagues Distance Bearing Down Upon 
Us we Lay too for her till She Came in half Gun 
Shott of us the Man at Mast head Cry** out 4 Sail to the 
Leeward Our Officers Concluded to Make Sail from her 
Supposing her to be a Frigate of 36 Guns after we Made 
Sail We Left as Fast as we wanted She Gave Over 
Chase at two oClock Afternoon She was the Seaford of 
28 Guns. 

22'^ Sprung our Maintop sail Yard. 

28** Made the Land at Port Royal. 

29** the Ship Struck Bottom Thrice 

30** Came over the Bar this Morning & Arriv** in this 
Harbour In Company with the Ship Defence Com** by 
Sam" Smedly. Charlestown, S**. C". May r 30** 1778. 

7 



54 



SAILING DIRECTIONS OF THE SECOND 

CRUISE. 



April 



2 
8 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

18 

14 

16 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
28 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 

29 

80 
May 
1 
2 

8 



H 



1 

4 

10 



Course 



7 
12 



1 
11 



1 

8 
1 
8 



8W 

SE 

EbS 

ESE 

SE 

ESE 

8EbE 

SE 

ESE 

SSbS 

8W 

SSW 

South 

SSW 

SSW 

South 

West 

East 

WNW 

NNW 

NW 

NbW 

NNW 

SbE 

SbE 

SbE 
South 
South 
NbW 
SbE ) 
NbWf 
NbW 
Calm 
NNW 

NNW 
NNW 
South 
NNW 
South 



Nth Latt 


May 


H 


Course 


81.18 


4 




North 




6 


7 


North 


81.20 


9 


SbW 


80.68 


6 


1 


SSW ) 


80.21 




9 


North 


29.44 


7 


1 


SbW 


29.22 




6 


North 


29 64 


8 


1 


NbE) 


2a7 




9 


South V 


26.29 




11 


NbE) 


266 


9 


1 


8W) 
NWf 


NoObs 


12 


22.86 


10 




East 


NoObs 


11 




WNW 


20.17 


12 


1 


North ) 
NWf 


19.18 




8 


19.16 


13 


1 


NW 
West 


19.14 


14 




SE 


19.36 


16 




SW 


19.46 


16 




West) 

NW ' 


NoObs 




20.20 


17 




West) 
North \ 


19.16 




18.10 


18 




West 


16.80 


19 




West 


14.80 


20 




West) 

NWf 


12.64 




13.8 


21 




NW 


12.85 


22 
23 




NbW 
NW 


13.16 


24 
26 




NW 
West 


15.00 


2« 




West 




27 




West 


16.63 


28 
29 




NW 
West 


16.21 


30 




West 


16.66 









Nth Latt 



17.21. 
17.8 

17.20 

17J87 

17.89 

17.80 

18J30 
19.82 

21.7 

21.60 

NoObs 
NoObs 

22.25 

22J^ 

22.22 
NoObB 

28.88 

26.8 
27.45 

NoObs 
8018 
30.10 
80.81 

NoObfl 
82.7 
82.28 

NoObe 



55 



An Account of the Months, Days And Knots Run, 
by the Ship Oliver Cromwell in her Second Cruise. 



Months 


Days 


Knots 


March 

April 

May 


1 
1 
1 


9 
30 
30 


1148 
2084 
3086 


Total 3 


69 


63.18 



CONTRACT 



BBTWBEN 



TIMOTHY BOARDMAN 



AND 



CAPT. PARKER. 



POB TEB THIIU) CBUISB. 



Charlestown, July 6^ 1778. 
Conversation Between Cap* Parker & My Self this Day. 



P'. What are you Doing a Shore. 

My Sf . I wanted to See You Sir. 

P'. Verry well. 

My Sf . The Term of my Inlistment is up & I would 
be glad of a Discharge Sir. 

P'. I cannot Give you One, the Ship is in Distress 
Plumb has been trying to Get You away. 

MySf. No Sir, I can have Good Wages here & I 
think it Better than Privatiering I can* Think of Going 
for a Single Share I had a hard task Last Cruise & 
they all Left me. 

P'. You have had a hard task of it & I will Consider 
you. & You Shall have as Much again as You Expect. 
Eanny & those that Leave me without a Discharge 
will Never Get anything you Better go aboard Board- 
man. I will Consider you & you, 11 Lose Nothing by it. 

My Sf . I am Oblig* to you Sir. & So went on Board. 



JOURNAL 



AND 



SAILING DIRECTIONS 



OP THE 



OLIVER CROMWELL 



THIRD CRUISE. 



JOURNAL OF THE THIRD CRUISE. 



July 24 Weigh*' Anchor at 5 Fathom hole & Came 
Over the Bar In Comp' with the Notredanie a 16 Gun 
Brig & two Sloops. Mett a French Sliip of 28 Guns on 
the Bar Bound in, 

25* A Smooth Sea. 

29* Saw A Sail Gave Chace. 

30" Saw A Sail Gave Chace. 

31" Saw two Sail Gave Chace. Light winds. 

August e"" at half after Sis Afternoon Saw a Sail & 
Gave Chace, at 11 Gave her a Bow Gun which Brought 
her too She was a Big from New Orleans in Missippi 
Bound to Cape Francois a Spainard Went on Board 
Kept her All Night & Lett her Go at 10 °aock the 
Nest Day her Cargo was Furr & Lumber She had 
Some Englismen on Board the Occasion of our Detain- 
ing her So Lo:^. 

T"" At 5 OClock Afternoon Made the Land the Island 
of Abaco. 



64 

8** at 10 *»Clock Harbour Island Bore East Dis* 2 
Leagues. 

9*** Hard Gales of wind. 

10*^ Fresh Gales of wind & Heavy Squals. 

11*** Fresh Breeses & a Rough Sea. 

12 at Six Afternoon Caught a Great Turtle which 
was Kook* the Next Day for the Entertainment of the 
Gentlemen of the Fleet No Less than 13 Came on 
Board to Dine. 

14 At 2 oClock P M Harbour Island Bore SbW 1 
League Dis* Sent the Yoll on Shore The Brig Sent 
her Boat a Shore too. 

jgth rpj^^ ^y^Q Boats Returned with a two Mast Boat 
& 4 Men Belonging to New Providence Squally Night 
& Smart Thunder & Lightning. 

16*** Cros** the Bahama Banks from 8 Fathom of 
water to 3f Came to Anchor at Night on the Bank. 

17*** Arrivd at the Abimenes Fill** our Water Cask & 
Hogg^ Ship & Boot Top* the Ship. 

18*^ At Day Break Weigh** Anchor together with the 
Bice Thumper Fleet at Noon Parted with Them & 
Fired 13 Guns the Other fir,d their Guns Which was a 
16 Gun Brigg the Notredame Command by Cap* Hall 
A 10 Gun Sloop Com** by Cap* Robberts A 12 Gun 
Sloop Com** by John Crappo or Petweet & Stood to the 
westward a cross* the Gulf. 

19*** at Day the Cape of Floriday bore west we stood 
for it a Cross* the Gulf we Came out of the Gulf in five 



65 

fathom of Water & Within 30 Eods of a Rieflf in the 
Space of 15 Minutes in About a League of the Shore 
Which Surpris** the Capt. & Other Officers we have the 
Ship in Stays & beat off the wind being moderate . 

20**» Saw a Sail & Gave her Chace & Came Up She 
was a Saniard a Palacca from Havanna Bound to 
Spain She Inform** us of the Jamaica Fleet that they 
Pass** the Havanna ten Days Back Which made us Give 
over the Hopes of Seeing them. 

22 Saw this Spaniard about a League to the Wind- 
ward. 

23 a Sunday, Saw a Ships Mast in Forenoon & 
Just at Night A Large Jamaica Puncheon Floating we 
hoisted out our Boat* & went in Persuit of it but 
Could not Get it we Suppos** it was full of Rum this 
Afternoon a Large Swell brok & Soon after A fine 
Breese Which Increas** harder in the Morn*. 

24*** Sun about two hours high we Saw white water 
in About a Mile Under our Lee Bow we Saw the 
Breakers which was on the Bahama Banks which 
Surpris** our Officers & Men Greatly we Put our Ship 
About & had the Good Fortune to Clear them the 
wind Blew harder we Struck Top Gallant Yards & 
Lanch** Top Gallant Masts Lay too Under one Leach 
of the Four Sail Got 6 Nine Pounders Down in the 
Lower hold & Cleard the Decks of unecessary Lumber 
The Wind Continued verry hard The air was Verry 
Thick Just before Night the Sea Came in Over our 
Larboard Nettens on the Gangway. All the officers 
Advis* to Cut away the Main Mast which we Did, Just 



66 

at Dusk, All the hope we had was that it would not 
Blow harder, but it Continued harder till After Mid- 
night About one oClock it Seemd to Blow in whirlwinds 
which obUg* us to Cut away our Four Mast & Missen 
Mast. Soon after the Wind Chang^ to the Eastward 
which Greatly Encourag** us Being Much Aff raid of the 
Bahama Banks the fore Mast fell to the windward & 
Knock* our Anchor off the Bow So that we Cut it away 
for fear it would Make a hole in the Bow of the Ship 
our Fore Mast Lay along Side for two hours After it 
fell, it Being Impossible to Gtet Clear of it We Bent our 
Cables for fear of the Banks that we Might try to Ride 
it out if we Got on. 

35 Moderated Some But Verry Rough So that we 
Could Do no work. 

26 Got a Jury Mast Up on the Main Mast. 

27 Got up Jury Masts on the Fore & MiSon Masts. 

30 at 8 oClock in the Morning Saw a Brigg over our 
weather Bow 2 Leagues Dis* We Kept our Course She 
Stood the Same way Just at Night we gave her two 
Guns but She kept on at Night we Lost Sight of her. 

SI"* at 5 in the Morning Saw the Brigg a Head Gave 
her Chace Came up with her about Noon we hoisted 
our Colours She hoisted EngUsh Colours, we Gave her 
one gun which made them come Tumbling Down. 

Sep*' 1" We Saw a Sail a Head Giving us Chace She 
hoisted Englis Colours & we & the Brigg hoisted Eng- 
lish Colours She Came Down towards us we Put the 
Ship about & She Came Close too us we up Parts & Our 



67 

Colours She put about & we Gave her about 12 Guns 
Bow Chaces & She Got Clear She was a Small Sloop of 
6 or 8 Guns. 

Sep* 2*^ Got Soundings of Cape May 46 Fath". 

Sep* 3** at Night Lost Sight of The Prise. 

Sep* 4*** Saw a Sail A Privatier Schoner She kept 
Bound us all Day & hoisted English Colours we hoisted 
English Colours but She thought Best Not to Speak 
with. 

Sep* 5**" Made the Land at 9 oClock in the Morning 
the South Side of Long Island against South Hampton 
& Came to Anchor Under Fishes Island at 12 oClock at 
Night Saw five Sail at 2 Afternoon Standing to the 
Westward two of them Ships. 

Sep* 6*** 1778 New London. Arriv^ in this Harbour. 



68 



SAILING DIRECTIONS OF THE THIRD 

CRUISE. 



1 

3 
3 

4 
5 
6 

7 
8 
9 

10 

11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 



\i 



Days 


U 


Course 


July 






25 




SW 


26 




8SW 


27 




EbS 


28 




W8W 


29 




S£ 


30 




8SE 


81 




SEbS 



Obser'n 



August 



Stood 



SE 
Calm 

SE 
8SW 
SSW 
South 
SW 
NNE 
East 
East ) 
West) 

SE 

WNW 

WNW 

Off & on 

wsw 

West 
West 
Abimeues 
West 
East 



No Latt 
82.19 

82.07 
31.88 
81.29 
80 20 
80.80 



80.15 
80.05 
29.44 
28.88 
27.02 
26.20 
No Obsn 
No Obsn 
26.15 

26 82 

26.24 
No Obsn 
No Obsn 
25.88 
25.50 
No Obsn 
No Obsn 

25.80 
No Obsn 
No Obsn 



Days 



22 
28 

24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 

30 

81 



H 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 



Course 



NW 
NE 

West 
West 

NE 
NE 
NE 

NE 

NE 

NbE 

North 

NbW 

East 



Obser'n 



26.04 

27.40 

28.14 
L78.54 
No Obsn 
L78.89 

80.02 
L77.42 

80.86 
L77.n 

32.02 
L75.89 

8408 
L74.51 

86.02 
L78.01 

88.10 
L72.58 



SeptemlKT 



j North 
ISE 
jSE 
^NbE 

NW 

EbS 

NWbW 

EbS 



88.88 
L72.52 

88.46 
L72.18 

88.85 
L72.01 

88.25 
L72.18 

89.25 
L7-.>.06 



69 



An Account of the Months, Days, & Knots the Ship 
Olv* Cromwell Run the Third Cruise. 



Months 


Days 


Knots 


July 
August 
September 


1 
1 
1 


7 

31 

6 


211 
860 
151 


Total 3 


44 


1222 



9 



GUNNER'S REMARKS. 



REMARKS OF OUR GUNNER ON CHAR- 

LESTOWN, IN S. C. 

Charlestown is Pleasantly Situated on Ashley River 
on verry low Land it was Extreamly well Built but the 
Fire which happen** in January last has Spoiled the 
Beauty of the Place, it may if times alter be as pleasant 
& Beautifull with Regard to y* Buildings as ever. But 
I Cannot Behold such a Number of my fellow beings 
(altho Diflfering in Complexion) Dragged from the Place 
of their Nativity, brought into a Country not to be 
taught the Principles of Religion & the Rights of Free- 
man, but to Be Slaves to Masters, who having Nothing 
but Interest in View without ever Weting their own 
Shoes, Drive these fellows to the Most Severe Services, 
I say I cannot behold these things without Pain . And 
Expressing my Sorrow that are Enlighten** People, a 
People Professing Christianity Should treat any of 
God's creatures in Such a Manner as I have Seen them 
treated Since my arrival at this Place. & I thank God 
who Gave me a Disposition to Prefer Freedom to 
Slavery. 

I have Just mentioned a People Professing Christian- 
ity. I believe there is a few who now & then go to 
Church but by all the Observation I have been able to 



74 

make I find that Horse Racing, Frolicking Rioting 
Gaming of all Kinds Open Markets, and Traffick, to be 
the Chief Business of their Sabbaths. I am far from 
Supposing there is not a few Righteous there But was 
it to have the chance which Soddom had, that if there 
was five Righteous men it Should Save the City. I 
believe there would be only a Lot & Family, & his wife 
I should be afraid would Look Back. 

Another remark that I shall make is this, Marriage 
in Most Countrys is Deemed Sacred, and here there are 
many honourable and I believe happy Matches, But to 
see among the Commonalty a Man take a Woman 
without so much Ceremony as Jumping over a Broom 
Stick at the time of their Agreement, to see her Con- 
tent herself to be his Slave to work hard to maintain 
him & his Babs & then to Content herself with a flog- 
ging if she only says a word out of Doors at the End 
of it, and then take his other Doxy who Perhaps has 
Served him well — and so one Lover to another. Succeeds 
another and another after that ^he last fool is as wel- 
come as the former, till having liv,d hour out he Gives 
Place & Mingles with the herd who went Before him. 
These things may to some People who are unacquainted 
with such Transactions appear Strange and Odd, but 
how shall I express myself — what Feelings have I had 
within myself to behold one of these Slaves or Rather 
whole Tribes of them belonging to one Master who 
Perhaps has the happiness of an Ofspring of beautiful! 
Virgins whose Eyes must be continually assaulted with 
a Spectacle which Modesty forbids me to Mention. I 



75 

have Seen at a Tea table a Number of the fair Sex, 
which a Man of Sentiments would have almost Ador,d 
and a man of Modesty would not have been so Indecent 
as to have Unbutton** his knee to adjust his Garter — 
Yet have I Seen a Servant of both Sexes Enter in Such 
Dishabitable as to be oblige** to Display those Parts 
which ought to be Concealed. To see Men Approach 
the Room where those Angelick Creatures meet & View 
those Beautifull Countenances & Sparkling Eyes, which 
would almost tell You that they abhor, d the Cruel im- 
position of their Parents, who Perhaps Loaded with a 
PlentifuU fortune, would not afford a decent Dress to 
their Servants to hide their Shame from such Sight I 
have turn** my Eyes. I would not mean to be two 
Severe nor have it thought but there are great numbers 
who have a Sence of the Necessity of a Due decorum 
keep their Servants in a Verry Genteel manner and do 
honor to their keepers but those who have Viewed such 
scenes as well as myself will testify to this Truth & Say 
with me that Droll appearances would Present them- 
selves to view that in Spite of all that I could Do would 
ObUge me to give a total grin, the Particular above 
mentioned altho they appear a Little forecast are abso- 
lutely matters of fact & not Indeed to Convey any P 
Idea to y* mind. 

In a Commertial way by what little opportunity I 
have had to make any Remarks on them. I find that 
in Casting up their accounts that there are a Number 
which Deservs to be Put on y* C Side. But money 
getting being Mankinds Universal harvest I find as 






76 

many Reapers as one would wish to see in Such an 
Open Field for every one to have a fare Sweep with 
the Sickle which as frequently cuts your purse Strings 
as anything Else, their Bakes are Most Excellent 
nothing is lost for want of geathering & you may 
depend on it their Bins are so Close that But a trifle of 
what they Put in ever Comes out of the Cracks. 
Sometimes you will see a small Trifle peep its Nose 
out on a Billiard Table, now & then the four knaves 
will tempt a Small Parcell to walk on the Table, & I 
believe Black Gammon, Shuffle Board, horse Racing, 
& that Noble Game of Boleing two Bullets on the 
Sandy Ground Where if there Should be y* Least 
Breath air it would BUnd you all those would help a 
little of it to Move & if I added Whoreing and Drinking 
they would Not Deny the Charge. If the things 
Mentioned above are to be Deemed Vices. I think no 
Person that Comes to Carolina will find any Scarcity, 
Provided they have such articles as Suits such a Market. 
I cannot from my hart Approve of their Method of 
Living — not but that their Provision is Wholesome but In 
Q^nral they Dont Coock it well. Rice bares the Sway, 
in Room of Bread, with any kind of victuals and Ever 
in Families of Fashion you will see a Rice Pudding (If 
it Deserves the Name) to be Eat as we do our Bread, I 
am affraid of Being too cencorious or I would Remark 
Numberless things which to a Person unacquainted 
with Place would even Look Childish to mention but 
as I only make this Obs' for my own amusement never 
Intending they Shall be ever seen but by Particular 
friends. I shall omit any niceities of Expressions and 



77 

Shall write a few more Simple facts I have seen 
Gamblers, Men Pretended Friends to you that would 
hug you in their Bosoms till they were Certain they 
had Gotten what they could from you, & then for a 
Shilling would Cut Your Throat. I would not Mean 
by this to Convey the Idea of their being a Savage 
people in General. There are Gentlemen of Charracter 
& who Ritchly Deserve the Name — but as there are 
Near Seven Blacks to one White Man, the Austerities 
used to the Slaves in their Possessions, is the Reason 
as I immagion of their looking on & Behaving to a 
White Man who Differs from them in their Manners 
and not bred in their Country in a Way Not much Dif- 
ferent from which they treats their Blacks. I Have 
been told that the Place is Much alterd from what it 
was Before the Present Dispute & that a Number of 
the Best Part of People are Moved out of Charlesfcown 
for the honour of Charlestown. I will believe it and 
wish it may be Restor** to its Primitive Lusture. How- 
ever let me not look all on the Dark Side there are 
Many things well worth Praise, there Publick Buildings 
are well finish** & Calculated for the Convenience of 
Publick & Private Affairs, their Churches make a verry 
fine Appearance and are finish** Agreeable to the Rules 
of Architecture. I do not Mean that they are the Most 
elegant I ever Saw, but so well Perform** as would 
Declare those who Reared them Good Artissts, the 
Streets are well Laid out & a verry good Brick Walk 
on Each Side for foot Passengers, their Streets are not 
Pav** but Verry Sandy, and the heat of the Climate is 
Such that the Sand is Generally verry Disagreeable & 

10 



78 

Occasions a number of Insects Commonly Call'* Sand 
flies, the Lowness of the Land and the Dead water in 
Different Places in the Town & out of it Occasions 
another Breed of Insects well Known by the Name of 
Musketoes. These Creatures are well disciplined for 
they do Not Scout in private Places nor in Small 
Companies as tho Affraid to att^k but Joining in as 
many Different Colloums as there are Openings to 
Your Dwellings they make a Desperate push and 
Seldom fail to Annoy their Enemy in Such a Manner 
that they leave their Adversary in a Scratching 
humor the Next Morning thro** Vexation. It would be 
endless to mention the advantages & Disadvantages of 
the Place but this I am fully Assur** of. If the White 
People would be so Industrous as to till the Land them- 
selves and see every thing Done so as to have less of 
those Miserable Slaves in the Country the Place to me 
would have a verry Different Appearance. I have 
heard it Alleg^ as a Pretext for keeping so many Slaves 
that white People cannot Endure the heat of the CUmate 
& that there can be but verry little done without these 
Slaves, that there could be but a verry Uttle done is to 
me a Matter of Doubt, but that there would be but 
Verry little If the People Retain their Luxury & Love 
of all kinds of Sport is to me Beyond all doubt. I have 
Seen more Persons than a few worry themselves at 
Gaming In an Excessive hot Day in Such a Manner 
that a Moderate Days work would be a Pleasure to it. 
These things have convinc** me of the Foolish wicked 
and Absurd Notions which People seem to have 
Adopted in General that Because these Issacars are 



79 

like Issacars of Old. Strong Asser Couching Down be- 
tween two Burthens and have not Got the means of 
Preserving their Liberty ]were they Ever So Desirous 
of it and are kept in Such a miserable manner as never 
to know the Blessings of it. I say these things have 
Convinc** me of the Notorious Violation of the Bights 
of Mankind and which I think no Rational Man will 
Ever try to Justify. America my Earnest Prayer is 
that thou mayst preserve thy Own Freedom from any 
Insolvent Invaders who may attempt to Rob the of the 
Same — but be Sure to let Slavery of all kinds ever be 
Banish'* from thy habbittations. 

Fins Oamsiocelo. 



SONGS. 




A SEAMAN'S SONG. 



Come all you Joval Seaman, with Conrage Stout & bold 
that Value more your Honour, than Mysers do their Gold 
When we Receive Our Orders, we are Oblig^ to go 
O'erthe Main toProud Spain, Let the Winds Blow high or Low. 



It waa the fifteenth of September, from Spithead we Sat Sail 
we had Rumbla In our Company, Blest with a Pleaaant Gale 
we Sailed away together, for the Bay of Biscay, o 
Going along Storms Come on, and the winds Began to Blow. 



The winds and Storms inoreas^ the Bumbla Bore away 
and left the Cantaborough, for No Longer Could She Stay 
£ when they Came to Qibralter, they told the People So 
that they thought we were Lost, in the Bay of Biscay, 0. 



84 



But as Proyidence would have it, it was not quite so Bad 
But first we lost our Missen Mast, and then went off our Flag 
the Next we Lost our Main Mast, one of our Guns also 
With five Men, Drowned then, in the Bay of Biscay, O. 

5 

The Next we Lost our foremast, which was a Dreadfull Stroke 
and in our Larboar Quarter, a Great hole there was Broke 
and then the Seas come Roleing in, our Gun Room it Did flow 
Thus we Bold and we told, in the Bay of Biscay, O. 

6 

It was Dark and Stormy Weather, Sad and Gloomy Night 
Our Captain on the Quarter Deck, that Day was kill*^ Outrite 
the Rings that on his fingers were, in Pieces burst Also 
Thus we were in Dispare, in the Bay of Biscay, O. 



But when we Came to Gibralter, and lay in our New Hold 
the People they Came flocking Down, our Ship for to Behold 
they Said it was the Dismalest Sight, that Ever they Did know 
We never Pind, But Drunk Wine, till we Drowned all our Woe. 



86 



A COUNTRY SONG. 



On the Sweet Month of May we'll Repair to the Mountain 
And Set we Down there by a Clear Crystial fountain 
Where the Cows sweetly Lowing In a Dewy Morning 
Where Phebus oer the Hills and Meddow are Adorning. 



A Sweet Country Life is DelightfuU and Charming 
Walking abroad in a Clear Summer's Morning 
O your Towns and Tour Cities Tour Lofty high Towers 
Are not to be Compared with Shades & Green Bowers. 



O Little I regard your Robes and fine Dresses 

Tour Velvets & Scarlets and Other Excesses 

My own Country Fashions to me is More Endearing 

Than your Pretty Prisemantle or your Bantle Cloth Wearing.