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J. Haddon, Printer, Castle Street, London. 

. THE 









Sic oportet ad librum, presrtira miscellauei generis, legendum accedtre lectorem, IK solet ad eonvivinm eonvira 
civihi. ConTirator annititur omnibus satisfaeere ; ft tamen ti quid appunitur, qnotl bujut aut illlus palalo uon 
retpondeat, et hie et ille urbane dittimnlant, alia fercula probanl, ne quid cnntristent coniiratorem. 


A reader hould tit down to a book, eipecialljr of the miscellaneous kind, at a well-behaved Tititor doe< to a ban- 
quet. The matter or the feait exern himself to satisfy his guettt ; but if, after all his care and paint, something should 
appear on the table that doet not suit this or that person's taste, they politely pass it over without notice, and commend 
olhtr dishes, that they may not distress a kind host. Tranilalion 










CUSTOM-HOUSE, an office established by 
the authority of the king, in maritime cities, or 
port-towns, for the receipt and management of tne 
customs and duties of importation and exportation, 
imposed on merchandise, and regulated by a 
books of rates. An edifice with considerable 
pretensions to grandeur, on the score of external 
decoration, was erected for the purpose of trans- 
acting public business, in 1826. Its site was 
well chosen from its proximity to the Tower; 
but, unfortunately, the piles on which the building 
rested, being exposed to the action of the Thames, 
speedily decayed, and the whole of the interior 
of the edifice sunk to the ground. It has since 
been rebuilt. 

GUSTOS BREVIUM, the principal clerk be- 
longing to the court of common pleas, whose 
business it is to receive and keep all the writs 
made returnable in that court, filing every return 
by itself; and, at the end of each term, to re- 
ceive prothonotaries of all the records of the 
nisi prius, called the posteas. The posteas are 
first brought in by the clerks -of assize, of every 
circuit, to that prothonotary who entered the 
issue in the causes, in order to enter judgment ; 
and after the prothonotary has entered the ver- 
dict and judgment into the rolls of the court, he 
delivers them over to the custos brevium, who 
binds them into a bundle. The custos brevium 
also makes entries of writs of covenant, and the 
concord upon every line ; he likewise makes out 
exemplifications and copies of all writs and re- 
cords iu hi? office, and of all fines levied, which, 
being engrossed, are divided between him and 
the chirographer, which last keeps the writ of 
covenant and the note, and the former the con- 
cord and foot of the fine. The custos brevium 
is appointed by the king's letters patent. 

CUSTOS ROTULORUM, an officer who has the 
custody of the rolls and records of the sessions 
of peace, and also of the commission of the 
peace itself. He is usually a nobleman, and. 
always a justice of the peace, of the quorum, in 
the county where he is appointed. This officer 
is appointed by writing under the king's sign 
manual, being the lord chancellor's warrant to 
put (hem in commission. He may execute his 
office by a deputy, and is empowered to appoint 
the clerk of the peace; but he is prohibited from 
selling his office, under divers penalties. 

CUSTOS SPIRITUAI.IUM, he that exercises 
the spiritual jurisdiction of a diocese, during the 
vacancy of any see, which, by the canon law, 
belongs to the dean and chapter ; but at present, 
in Kngland, to the archbishop of the province by 

C.'rsTos TEMPORALIUM, the person to whom 
a vacant see or abbey was given by the king as 
supreme lord. His office was, as steward of the 

goods and profits, to give an account to the 
escheator, who did tlie like to the exchequer. 

CU'STREL, n. s. I'r. cnusfillier. A hurkh.<i~ 
bearer; a vesel for holding wine. The word is 
sometimes written coistrel. 

Every one had an archer, a demi-lance, and a 
autrel. Lord Herbert. 

CUSTRIN, a fortified town of Prussia, the 
capital of the New Mark of Brandenburgh, is 
situated in a plain at the junction of the Wartha 
and the Oder. The town though small has spa- 
cious suburbs, and contains 4500 inhabitants.' It 
is encompassed by extensive morasses, which 
add to its strength ; a fortified dike also com- 
mences at one of the suburbs, and is continued 
for the space of three miles by means of thirty- 
six bridges, across a succession of marshy ground. 
In the month of August, 1758, this place was 
bombarded and laid in ashes by the Russians, 
but afterwards rebuilt in a style of great regu- 
larity. It is forty-eight miles east of Berlin. 

CUT, v. a., v. n. & n. s. ~) Fr. couper,cou- 
CUTTER, n. s. j teau ; Sans. /CM- 

CUTTING, n. s. [tan. West Goth. 

GUTTER-OFF, n. S. [ kotd, KOTTTID. 

CUT-THROAT, n. s. & adj. \ Few words have 
CUT-PURSE, n. s. J more shades of 

meaning than to cut, but in all of them division, 
producing, in some way or other, a solution of 
continuity, is expressed or implied. To cut is, 
to penetrate with a sharp instrument ; to hew ; 
to sculpture; to form by cutting; to divide by 
passing through ; to pierce with an uneasy sen- 
sation ; to divide packs of cards ; to intersect ; 
to castrate ; to avoid a person, or pretend not to 
see or know him ; to make way by dividing ; to 
perform the operation of lithotomy. It obtains 
many additional meanings from its conjunction 
with down, off", out, short, up, and in. To 
cut down is, to fell ; to level with the earth by a 
blow from a sharp instrument ; to diminish the 
amount of any demand ; to excel ; to overpower. 
To cut off is, to separate by cutting; to extirpate ; 
to bring to an untimely death ; to rescind ; to 
take away ; to intercept ; to put an end to ; to 
obviate ; to withhold ; to preclude ; to interrupt; 
to abbreviate. To cut out is, to shape; to 
scheme ; to adopt ; to debar ; to excel. To cut 
short is, to interrupt ; to abridge. To cut up 
is, to divide an animal, or some article of animal 
food, into convenient parts; to eradicate. To 
cut in is a phrase used in card-playing, parti- 
cularly at whist, when the cut made by the par- 
ties determines who are to be the players. To 
cut a caper is to dance. The meanings of the 
noun are also numerous. It denotes the action 
of a sharp instrument ; the separation made by 



such an instrument ; an incised wound ; an arti- 
ficial channel; a part cut off from the rest; a 
small particle ; a lot made by cutting into un- 
equal portions, a stick, straw, or bit of paper, 
which portions are held between the finger and 
thumb, while another draws the lot; a near 
passage, which saves distance, by cutting off an 
angle ; an impression taken from an engraving 
on wood or copper ; the plate on which the draw- 
ing is engraved ; the dividing of a pack of cards; 
anciently, a fcol or cully ; a gelding. Cut and 
long tail is a proverbial expression for all kinds 
of men. The .participial adjective, cut, signifies 
prepared for use, in which case it is joined with 
dry; rather the worse for liquor; hurt in the 
feeling. Cut and come again is a trivial ex- 
pression, denoting that there is an abundance. 
Cutter is the agent that cuts anything; a small 
swift-going vessel ; the incisores, or cutting teeth ; 
an officer in the exchequer ; a ruffian. Cutter 
off means a destroyer. Cutting is, a piece cut 
off; an incision; a caper, but this is obsolete; 
division, as of a pack of cards. Cut-purse is a 
thief; cut-throat a murderer ; a butcher of 
men ; the animal which is sometimes miscalled 
a hero. For CUTLERY, see the article. 

And they did beat the gold into thin plates, and 
cut it into wires. Exod. xxxix. 3. 

And they caught him, and cut off his thumbs. 

Juil. i. 6. 

Thy servants can skill to cut timber in Lebanon. 

2 Chron. ii. 

Who cvt up mallows by the bushes and juniper- 
roots for their meat. Job xxx. 4. 

A bowe in honde and arowis had she, 
Her clothis cuttid were unto the kne. 

Chaucer. T/ie Legends of Dido. 
Right as a sword forcutteth and forkerveth 
An anue at-.vo, my dere son ! right so 
A tonjs cu!te:k friendship all atwo. 

Id. Cant. Tales. 

Now draweth cutte or that ye forlher twinne ; 
He which that hath the shortest shal beginne. 

Id. Prol. Cant. Tales. 
The cotelere dwellith iu this town that made the 

same kuyff, 
And for to prove the trowith he shall be here as 

blyve. Id. Cant. Tales. 

Either with nimble wings to cut the skies, 
When he them on his messages doth send, 
Or on his own dred presence to attend. 

Spenser. Hymn on Heavenly Love 
But that same squire to whom she was more dere 
Whenas he saw she should be cut in twaine, 
Did yield she rather should with him remaine 
Alive then to himself be shared dead. 

Id. Faerie Queene. 

Eftsoones her shallow ship away did slide 
More swift than swallow sheres the liquid skye, 
Withouten oare or pilot it to guide, 
Or winged canvas with the wind to fly : 
Only she turnd a pin, and by and by 
It cut away upon the yielding wave. Id. 

All Spain was first conquered by the Romans, and 
filled with colonies from them, which were still in- 
creased, and the native Spaniards still cut off. 

Id. On Ireland^ 

It hath a number of short ruts or shreddings, which 
may be batter called wishes than prayers. Hooker. 


My lady Zelmane and my daughter Mopsa may 
draw cuts, and the shortest cut speak first. Sidney. 
Why should a man, whose blood is warm within, 
Sit like his grandsire cut in alabaster ? Shakspeare. 

Ah, cut my lace asunder, 

That my great heart may have some scope to bear, 
Or else I swoon with this dead killing news. 

Id. Richard I II. 

He that cuts off" twenty years of life, 
Cuts off so many years of fearing death. 

Id. Julius Caesar. 

By the pattern of mine own thoughts I cut out the 
purity of his. Id. Winter's Tale. 

To have an open ear, a quick eye, and a nimble 
hand, is necessary for a cutpurse. Id. 

Send her money, knight, if thou hast her not in 
the end, call me cut. Id. Twelfth Night. 

Their clothes are after such a Pagan cut too. 
That, sure, they've worn out Christendom. 

Id. Henry VIII. 
A paultry ring 

That she did give, whose poesy was 
For all the world like cutler s poetry 
Upon a knife : love me, and leave me not. 

At quintin he, 
In honour of this bridaltee, 
Hath challenged either wide countee : 
Come cut and long tail ; for there be 
Six bachelors as bold as he. 

Ben Jonson. Underwood. 

Nor can good Myfon wear on his left hand 
A signet ring of Bristol diamond, 
But he must cut his glove to shew his pride, 
That his trim jewel might be better spyd. Hall. 

The king of this island, a wise man and a great 
warrior, handled the matter so, as he cut off their 
land forces from their ships. Bacon. 

It is no grace to a judge to shew quickness of con- 
ceit in cutting off evidence or counsel too short. Id. 

I, for my part, do not like images cut out in juniper, 
or other garden-stuff : they be for children. Id. 

The burning of the cuttings of vines, and casting 
them upon land, doth much good. Id. 

All the timber whereof was cut down in the moun- 
tains of Cilicia. Knolles. 

This great cut or ditch Sesostris the rich king of 
Egypt, and long after him Ptolemus Philadelphus, 
purposed to have made a great deal wider and deeper, 
and thereby to have let the Red Sea into the Medi- 
terranean. Id. 

CUTTING is particularly used in heraldry, 
where the shield is divided into two equal parts, 
from right to left, parallel to the horizon, or in 
the fesse way. The word is also applied to the 
honorable ordinaries, and even to animals and 
moveables, when they are divided equally the 
same way ; so however, as that one moiety is 
color, the other metal. The ordinaries are said 
to be cut, couped, when they do not come full 
to the extremities of the shield. 

CUTTING, in painting, the laying one strong 
lively color over another, without any shade or 
softening. The cutting of colors has always a 
disagreeable effect. 

CUTTING, in surgery, denotes the operation of 
extracting the stone out of the bladder by the 
knife. See LITHOTOMY. 


, in the manege, is when the horse's 
feet interfere j or when with the shoe of one foot 
ne beats off the skin from the pastern joints of 
another foot. This is more frequent in the hind 
feet than the fore : the cause is commonly bad 

CUTTING IN WOOD is a particular kind of 
sculpture or engraving; the invention of which, 
as well as that in copper, is ascribed to a gold- 
smith of Florence : but it is to Albert Durer and 
Lucas they are both indebted for their perfection. 
See ENGRAVING and PRINTING. Hugo da Carpi 
invented a manner of cutting in wood, by means 
of which the prints appeared as if painted in 

CUTTINGS, or slips, in gardening, the branches 
or spiigs of trees or plants, cut or slipped off to 
set again ; which is dono. in any moist fine 
earth. The best season is from August to April ; 
but care is to be taken, when it is done, that the 
sap he not too much in the top, lest the cut die 
before that part in the earth have root enough 
to support it : nor must it be too dry or scanty; 
the sap in the branches assisting it to take root. 
In providing the cuttings, such branches as have 
joints, knots, or burrs, are to be cut off two or 
three inches beneath them, and the leaves to be 
stripped off so far as they are set in the earth. 
Small top branches, of two or three years' 
growth, are fittest for this operation. 

CUTCtI, an extensive province of the south- 
western part of Hindostan, situated principally 
between the twenty-third and twenty-fourth de- 
grees of north latitude. It is bounded to the 
north by a sandy desert and the province of 
Sindy; to the south by the gulf of Cutch; to 
the east by Gujrat, and to the west by Tatta, from 
which it is separated by the most eastern branch 
of the Indus. Its limits northward are not ac- 
curately denned, but it may be estimated at 110 
milos in length, by seventy the average breadth. 
The greater part of the province is composed of 
woods and uncultivated plains ; where a number 
of very fine horses are bred, superior camels, 
and black cattle. Other parts produce grain and 
cotton. It is chiefly possessed by various inde- 
pendent chiefs, who are often connected with the 
pirates of the coast: the inhabitants are princi- 
pally Mahommedans. The chief towns are Boo- 
jehooje, Luckput, Bundar, and Mandavie. 

CUTCH GCTNDAVA, a district of Baloo- 
chistan, in Persia, situated at the bottom of the 
mountains south-east of Kelat, and about 150 
miles in length, by forty-five in breadth. The 
soil is black and rich, growing every species of 
grain, together with cotton, madder, ana indigo. 
The rains are in June, July, August, and in the 
spring months, during the summer, the simoom, 
or pestilential wind, is frequent and very de- 
structive. The climate is otherwise good, and 
the soil excellent, producing a large revenue to 
the khan of Kelat. Great quantities of grain 
are exported to the sea-ports of Corachie and 
Sonmeany. To the northward of Cutch Gunda- 
va lies Anund Dijil. 

CUTCHWARA, a district in the province of 
Malwah, Hindostan, situated about the twenty- 
fifth degree of north latitude, and mostly tribu- 
tary to the Malwah Mahrattas. It is intersected 



by the Gillysinde river. The chief towns are 
Dewaeur and Soonel. 

CDTII, signifies knowledge or skill. So 
Cuthwin is a knowing conqueror; Cuthred, a 
knowing counsellor ; Cuthbert, famous for skill. 
Much of the same nature are Sophocles and 

CUTH, or CUTIIAH, a province of Assyria, on 
the Araxes, the same with Cush ; but others take 
it to be the country which the Greeks called 
Susiana, and which to this day, says Ur. Wells, 
is by the inhabitants called Chusistan. Cahnet 
is of opinion that Cuthah and Scythia are the 
same place, and that the Cuthites who were 
removed into Samaria by Salmaneser (2 Kin^s 
xvii. 24), came from CushorCuth, mentioned in 
Gen. ii. 13. They worshipped the idol Nergal, 
id. ibid. 30. He adds that they came from Cush, 
or Cutha upon the Araxes ; and that their first 
settlement was in the cities of the Medes, sub- 
dued by Salmaneser and the kings of Syria, his 
predecessors. The Scriptures inform us, that the 
Cuthites, upon their arrival in this new country, 
continued to worship the gods formerly adored 
by them beyond the Euphrates. Esarhaddon, 
king of Assyria, who succeeded Sennacherib, 
appointed an Israelitish priest to go thither, and 
instruct them in the religion of the Hebrews. 
But these people thought they might reconcile 
their old superstition with the worship of tbe 
true God. They therefore framed particular gods 
for themselves, which they placed in the several 
cities where they dwelt. But afterwards they 
gave up idolatry, and adhered solely to the law 
of Moses. The Samaritans were their descend- 

CUTICLE, n. s.^ Lat. cuticttla. The out- 
CUTI'CULAR, adj. S ward skin of the body ; a 
CUTA'NEOUS, adj. j thin skin formed on the 

surface of any liquor. Belonging or relating to 

the skin. 

This serous, nutritious mass is more readily circu- 
lated iato the cutaneow or remotest part* of the body. 
Flayer on Humours. 

When any saline liquor is evaporated to cuticle and 
let cool, the salt concretes in regular figures, which 
argues that the particles of the salt, before they con- 
creted, floated in the liquor at equal distances in rank 
and file. . Newton t Optickt. 

Some sorts of cutaneous eruptions are occasioned by 
feeding much on acid unripe fruits and farinaceous 
substances. Arbuthnot. 

In each of the very fingers there are bones and 
gristles, and ligaments and membranes, and muscles, 
and tendons, and nerves and arteries, and veins and 
skin, and cuticle and nail. Bentley't Sermons. 

Where the spontaneous adhesive electric atmo- 
spheres are employed to charge plates of air, as in the 
Galvanic pile, or probably to charge their animal 
membranes or cuticlet, as perhaps in the shock given 
by the torpedo or gymnotus, it seems necessary that 
the intervening non-conducting plate must be ex- 
trornely thin. Darwin. 

Those parts of our system which are in health ex- 
cited into perpetual action, give us pain when they 
are not excited into action : thus, when the hands ire 


for a time immersed in snow, an inaction of the aita~ 
iteoiu capillaries is induced, as is seen from the pale- 
ness of the skin, which is attended with the pain of 
coldness. *" 

CUTLASS, n. s. Fr. coutelas. This word is 
written sometimes cutlace, sometimes cuttleax; 
iu Shakspeare, curtleax; and in Pope, cutlash. 
A broad cutting sword : the word is much in 
use among the seamen. 

Were 't not better 

That I did suit me all points like a man ? 
A gallant curtleax upon my thigh, 
A boar soear in my hand ? 

Shakspeare. As You Like It. 

Mores, in his curious dissertation on letter founders, 
calls a cutlass, as it seems, a courtlelasse, among the 
antique typographic ornaments. Warton. 

CUTLER (Sir John), bart. and citizen of 
London, was a great benefactor to the grocers' 
company, and contributed largely to the rebuild- 
ing of the college of physicians in Warwick-lane. 
After his death, however, in 1699, his executors 
claimed the sum which he had advanced, with inte- 
rest, amounting in all to 7000. They finally com- 
promised the claim for 2000. Pope commemo- 
rates this circumstance in some well-known 
verses ; describing our baronet as a perfect miser. 
It appears, however, that he liberally subscribed 
to many charities, and built at his own charge the 
north gallery of his parish-church, St. Margaret's, 
Westminster. He had two daughters, who were 
respectively married to John, earl of Radnor, and 
Sir William Portman, bart. His funeral it is said 
cost the sum of 7666. 

company was incorporated in 
1413 by Henry V. ; their arms 
are gules, six daggers in three 
crosses saltire argent, handled 
and hilled or; the crest an ele- 
phant with a castle. 

CUTLERY, in connection with the mecha- 
nical arts, will embrace all kinds of edged and 
sharp tools, of iron or steel, and the modes of 
their manufacture. 

It might be expected, that in no department 
of the arts of a country, would the progress of 
civilisation be more distinctly marked, than in 
the degree of excellence attained in this manu- 
facture. A knife will purchase half the lands of 
a village from a barbarous tribe ; and Great Bri- 
tain has well sustained her superiority among 
civilised nations in the general quality of her 
cutlery goods. 

But in other, and far less civilised countries, a 
superior steel has been manufactured for ages. 
It is a little remarkable, that none of our modern 
discoveries in chemistry have enabled us to imi- 
tate, successfully, the sword and sabre blades of 
Damascus ; and that, within a very few years, in 
1795, we believe, a new kind of foreign steel, 
the wooti of India, has been introduced into 
this country, and been found superior to any 
thing manufactured here for the blades of pen- 

The Damascene blades are supposed, by Euro- 
pean cutleis, to be constructed of fine iron and 
steel-wire welded together in alternate layers ; 

the wave or water being given to them by sul- 
phate of alumina applied to the final surface. 
Other accounts state them to be hardened by 
repeated immersions, when red-hot, in goat's 
blood. But the real process has never been 
accurately known in this country ; and it is not 
improbable, that the iron ore of Syria may pos- 
sess some peculiarity which is the foundation of 
this excellence in its manufactured steel. 

Such a conjecture has been offered by Mr. 
Stodart, with regard to the ores out of which 
the wootz of India is formed. For the intro- 
duction of it into this country, we are indebted 
to the late distinguished naturalist, Sir Joseph 
Banks, who first procured a pen-knife to be 
made from a cake of it, in the year above-men- 
tioned. The forging was attended with some 
difficulty, owing to the unequal fusion of the 
metal, some parts being overcharged with the 
steely principle, and others being as much defi- 
cient in it. But the pen-knife made was excel- 
lent. The Indian method of making wootz has 
been described as follows : forged iron, in pieces, 
is enclosed in a crucible, and heated in a furnace 
with wood. Two or three pairs of bellows are 
employed to augment the heat, until the wood is 
completely charred, and the iron fused and con- 
verted into steel. The chief peculiarity of the 
process seems to be the use of uncharred wood. 
A variety of cutting instruments have been ma- 
nufactured from this steel with great success. 

Those articles of cutlery which do not require 
a fine polish, and are of low price, are made 
from what is called blistered steel, or that which 
has not undergone fusion. See our article STEEL. 
Those which require the edge to possess consi- 
derable tenacity, but in which superior hardness 
is not required, are made from sheer steel. The 
finer kinds of cutlery are made from steel which 
has been in a state of fusion, and which is termed 
cast-steel, no other kinds being susceptible of a 
fine polish. Table-knives are mostly made of 
sheer-steel, the tang and shoulder being of iron, 
and the blade being attached, by giving them a 
welding heat. The knives, after forging, are 
hardened, by heating them red-hot, and plunging 
them into water ; they are afterwards heated over 
the fire, till they become blue, and then ground. 
Forks are made, almost altogether, by the aid of 
the stamp and appropriate dies. The prongs 
only are hardened and tempered. Razors are 
made of cast-steel, the edge of a razor requiring 
the combined advantages of great hardness and 
tenacity. After the razor-blade is forged into its 
proper shape, by the aid of a convex-faced 
hammer and anvil, it is hardened, by gradually 
heating it to a bright red heat, and plunging fc 
into cold water. It is tempered by heating it 
afterwards until a brightened part appears of a 
straw color. This would be more equally ef- 
fected by the use of sand, or, what is still better, 
by hot oil, or a fusible mixture, consisting of 
eight parts of bismuth, five of lead, and three of 
tin ; a thermometer being placed in the liquid at 
the time the razors are immersed, for the purpose 
of indicating the proper temperature, which is 
about 500 of Fahrenheit. After the razor has 
been ground into its proper shape, it is finished 
by polishing. 


The glazer, used in polishing, is formed of 
wood, faced with an alloy of lead and tin ; after 
its face is turned to the proper form and size, it 
is filled with notches, which are filled up with 
emery and tallow. This instrument gives the 
razor a smooth and uniform surface and a fine 
edge. The polisher consists of a piece of cir- 
cular wood, running upon an axis, like that of 
the stone or the glazer. It is coated with leather, 
having its surface covered with crocus martis. 
The handles of razors and knives are made of 
ivory and tortoise-shell, bone, or other materials, 
directed by fashion, or the use for which they are 
designed. The horn of razor-handles is com- 
monly cut into pieces, and placed between two 
dies, having a recess of the shape of the handle. 
By this process it admits of considerable exten- 
sion, and is dyed black by means of logwood 
and green vitriol. The clear horn-handles are 
sometimes stained, so as to imitate tortoise-shell, 
by being coated with a composition of three 
parts of potash, one of minium, ten of quick- 
lime, and as much water as will reduce the 
whole into a pulpy mass. Those parts of the 
handle requiring darker shades are more thickly 
covered, and the stains are dried in before the 

The manufacture of pen-knives is divided 
into three departments ; the first is the forging 
of the blades, the spring, and the iron scales ; 
the second, the grinding and polishing of the 
blades ; and the third, the handling, which con- 
sists in fitting up all the parts, and finishing the 
knife. The blades are made of the best cast- 
steel, and hardened and tempered to about the 
same degree with that of razors. In grinding 
they are made a little more concave on one side 
than the other, in other respects they are treated 
in a similar way to razors. The handles are 
covered with horn, ivory, and sometimes wood ; 
but the most durable are those of stags-horn. 
The general fault in pen-knives is that of being 
too soft. The temper ought to be not higher 
than a straw color, as it seldom happens that 
a pen-knife is so hard as to snap on the edge. 

The beauty and elegance of polished steel is 
never displayed to more advantage than in the 
manufacture of the finer kinds of scissars. The 
steel employed for this purpose should be of the 
choicest description ; it must possess hardness 
and uniformity of texture for the sake of securing 
a fine polish, and great tenacity, when hot, for 
the purpose of forming the bow or ring of the 
scissar, which requires to be extended from a 
solid piece, having a hole previously punched 
through it. It ought also to be very tenacious 
when cold, to allow that delicacy of form ob- 
served in ladies' sci?sars. After they are forged 
as near to the same size as the eye of the work- 
man can ascertain, they are paired. The bows 
and some other parts are filed to their intended 
form : the blades are also roughly ground, and 
the two sides properly adjusted to each other, 
after bting bound together with wire, and hard- 
ened up to the bows. They are afterwards 
heated till they become of a purple color, which 
indicates their proper temper. Almost all the 
remaining part of the work is performed at the 
grinding mill, with the stone, the lap, the po- 

lisher, and the brush ; the last being used to 
polish those parts which have been filed, anci 
which the lap and the polisher cannot touch. 
Previous to screwing the scissars finally to?ether, 
they are rubbed over with the powder of quick- 
lime, and afterwards cleaned with soft sheep 
leather. The quick-lime absorbs the moisture 
from the surface. Scissars are ornamented by 
bluing and gilding ; also with studs of gold or 
polished steel. Very large scissars are manu- 
factured partly of iron and partly of steel ; the 
shanks and bows being of the former. These, 
as well as those all of steel, which are not 
hardened all over, cannot be polished : an in- 
ferior sort of lustre, however, is given to them 
by means of a burnish of hardened polished 
steel, which is very easily distinguished from the 
real polish, by the irregularity of the surface. 
Having entered into these particulars, relating to 
the manufacture of the usual articles found in 
cutlers' shops, we shall now enter upon some of 
the more general principles that are applicable 
to the finer articles of cutlery. 

Cutlers do not use any coating to their work 
at the hardening heat, as the file-cutters do ; in- 
deed, it seems evidently unnecessary when the 
article is intended to be tempered and ground. 
The best rule is to harden as little as possible 
above the state intended to be produced by tem- 
pering. Work which has been overheated has a 
crumbly edge, and will not afford the wire here- 
after to be described. The proper heat is a 
cherry-red, visible by day-light. No advantage 
is obtained from the use of salt in the water, or 
cooling that fluid, or from using mercury instead 
of water; but it may be remarked, that questions 
respecting the rluid are, properly speaking, ap- 
plicable only to files, gravers, and such tools 
as are intended to be left at the extreme of 

While Mr. Stodart does not seem to attach 
much value to peculiarities in the process of 
hardening, he mentions it as the observation of 
one of his best workmen, that the charcoal fire 
should be made up with shavings of leather : 
and that he neve.r had a razor crack in the hard- 
ening since he had used this method. It appears 
from a consideration of other facts, that this 
process is likely to prove advantageous. When 
brittle substances crack in cooling, it arises from 
the outside contracting and becoming too small 
to contain the interior parts. But it is known, 
that hard steel occupies more space than soft, 
and it may be easily inferred, that the nearer the 
steel approaches to the state of iron, the less will 
be this increase of dimensions. If, then, we 
suppose a razor, or any other piece of steel, to 
be heated in an open fire with a current of air 
passing through it, the external part will, by the 
loss of carbon, become less steely than before ; 
and when the whole piece comes to be hardened, 
the inside will be too large for the external part, 
which will probably crack. But if the piece of 
steel be wrapped up in the cementing mixture, or 
if the fire itself contain animal coal, and is put 
together so as to operate in the manner of that 
mixture, the external surface, instead of being 
degraded by this heat, will be more carbonated 
than the internal part, in consequence of whidv 


it will be so far from splitting or bursting during 
its cooling, that it will be acted upon in a con- 
trary direction, tending to render it more dense 
and solid. 

One of the greatest difficulties in hardening 
steel-works of any considerable extent, more 
especially such articles as are formed of thin 
plates, or have a variety of parts of different sizes, 
consists in the apparent impracticability of heating 
the thicker parts before the slighter are burned 
away ; besides which, even for a piece of uni- 
form figure, it is no easy matter to make up a 
fire which shall give a speedy heat, and be 
nearly of the same intensity throughout. ' This 
difficulty,' says Mr. Nicholson, ' formed a very 
considerable impediment to my success in a 
course of delicate steel-work, in which I was en- 
gaged about seven years ago ; but, after various 
unsuccessful experiments, I succeeded in re- 
moving it by the use of a bath of melted lead, 
which, for very justifiable reasons, has been kept 
a secret till now. Pure lead, that is to say, lead 
containing little or no tin, is ignited to a mo- 
derate redness, and then well stirred : into this 
the piece is- plunged for a few seconds ; that is 
to say, until when brought near the surface, that 
part does not appear less luminous than the 
rest. The piece is then speedily stirred about 
in the bath, suddenly drawn out, and plunged 
into a large mass of water. In this manner, a 
plate of steel may be hardened so as to be per- 
fectly brittle, and yet continue so sound as to 
ring like a bell ; an effect which I never could 
produce in any other way. Mr. Stodart has 
lately made trial of this method, and considers it 
to be a great acquisition to the art, as, in fact, I 
found it.' 

The letting down, or tempering of hard steel, 
is considered as absolutely necessary for the 
production of a fine and durable edge. It has 
been usual to do this by heating the hardened 
steel till its bright surface exhibits some known 
color by oxidation. The first is a very faint 
straw color, becoming deeper and deeper, by 
increase of heat, to a fine deep golden-yellow, 
which changes irregularly to a purple, then to 
an uniform blue, succeeded by white and several 
successive faint repetitions of these series. It is 
well known, that the hardest state of tempered 
instruments, such as razors and surgeons' instru- 
ments, is indicated by this straw color ; that a 
deeper color is required for leather-cutters' 
knives, and other tools, that require the edge to 
be turned on one side ; that the blue, which in- 
dicates a good temper for springs, is almost too 
soft for any cutting instrument, except saws, and 
such tools as are sharpened with a file, and that 
the lower states of hardness are not at all adapted 
to this use. But it is of considerable import- 
ance, that the letting down, or tempering, as 
well as the hardening, should be effected by heat 
equally applied, and that the temperatures, es- 
pecially at the lower heats, where greater hard- 
ness is to be left, should be more precisely 
ascertained than can be done by the different 
shades of oxidation. Mr. Hartley first practised 
the method of immersing hard steel in heated 
oil, or the fusible compound of lead five parts, 
tin three, and bismuth eight. The temperature 

of either of these fluids may be ascertained in 
the usual manner, when it does not exceed the 
point at which mercury boils ; and, by this con- 
trivance, the same advantages are obtained in 
lowering the temperature of a whole instrument, 
or any number of them at once, as have already 
been stated in favor of my method of hardening. 
Oil is preferable to the fusible mixture for se- 
veral reasons. It is cheaper; it admits of the 
work being seen during the immersion, by reason 
of its transparency ; and there is no occasion for 
any contrivance to prevent the work from floating. 
Mr. Nicholson requested Mr. Stodart to favor 
him with an account of the temperatures at which 
the several colors make their appearance upon 
hardened steel; in compliance with which he 
made a series of experiments upon surgeons' 
needles, hardened, highly polished, and exposed 
to a gradual heat, while floating at the surface of 
the fusible mixture. The appearances are as 
follow: No. 1, taken out at 430 of Fahrenheit. 
This temperature leaves the steel in the most ex- 
cellent state for razors and scalpels. The tarnish, 
or faint yellowish tinge, it produces, is too eva- 
nescent to be observed, without comparison with 
another piece of polished steel. Instruments, in 
this state, retain their edge much longer than 
those upon which the actual straw color has been 
brought, as is the common practice. Mr. S. in- 
forms me, says Mr. Nicholson, that 430 is the 
lowest temperature for letting down, and that the 
lower degrees will not afford a firm edge. No. 
2, at 440, and 3, at 450. These needles differ 
so little in their appearance from No. 1, that it 
is not easy to arrange them with certainty when 
misplaced. No. 4 has the evident tinge, which 
workmen call pale straw color. It was taken 
out at 460, and has the usual temper of pen- 
knives, razors, and other fine edge-tools. It is 
much softer than No. 1, as Mr. Stodart assures 
me, and this difference exhibits a valuable proof 
of the advantages of this method of tempering. 
Nos. 2, 6, 7, and 8, exhibit successive deepe^ 
shades of color, having been respectively taken 
out at the temperatures 470, 480, 490, and 
500. The last is of a bright brownish metallic 
yellow, very slightly inclining to purple. No. 9 
obtained an uniform deep blue at the tempera- 
ture of 580. The intermediate shades produced 
on steel, by heats between 500 and 580, are 
yellow, brown, red, and purple, which are exhi- 
bited irregularly on different parts of the surface. 
As I had before seen this irregularity, particu- 
larly on the surface of a razor of wootz, and had 
found, in my own experience, that the colors on 
different kinds of steel do not correspond with 
like degrees of temper, and probably of tempe- 
rature in their production, I was desirous that 
some experiments might be made upon it by the 
same skilful artist. Four beautifully polished 
blades were, therefore, exposed to heat on the 
fusible metal. The first was taken up when it 
had acquired the fine yellow, or uniform deep, 
straw color. The second remained on the mix- 
ture, till the part nearest the stem had become 
purplish ; at which period, a number of small 
round spots, of a purplish color, appeared in the 
clear yellow of the blade. The third was left 
till the thicker parts of the blade were of a dep 


ruddy purple; but the concave face still continued producing a notch. But on the other hand, if 

yellow. This also acquired spots like the other, 
and a slight cloudiness. These three blades 
were of cast-steel ; the fourth, which was made 
out of a piece called Styrian steel, was left upon 
the mixture till the red tinge had pervaded 
almost the whole of its concave face. Two or 

the edge be made to move foremost and meet 
such particle, it will slide beneath it, and suffer 
no injury. Another precaution in whetting is, 
that the hand should not be;ir heavy ; because 
it is evident, that the same stone must produce 
a more uniform edge if the steel be worn away 

three spots appeared upon this blade; but the by many, than by few strokes. It is also of es- 
greater part of its surface was variegated with sential importance that the hone itself should be 
blu<> clouds, disposed in such a manner, as to of a fine texture, or that its silicious particles 
produce those waving lines which, in Damascus should be very minute. 

steel, are called ' the water.' Two results are The grind-stone leaves a ragged edge, which 
more immediately suggested by these facts : it is the first effect of whetting to reduce so thin 
first, that the iiregular production of a deep color that it may be bent backwards and forwards, 
upon the surface of brightened steel, may serve This flexible part is called the wire, and if the 
to indicate the want of uniformity in its compo- whetting were to be continued too long it would 

break off in pieces without regularity, leaving a 
finer though still very imperfect edge, and tending 
to produce accident while lying on the face of 

sition ; and, secondly, that the deep color, being- 
observed to come on first at the thickest parts, 
Mr. Stodait was disposed to think, that its more 

speedy appearance was owing to those parts not the stone. The wire is taken off by raising the 

having been hardened. See STEEL. 

face of the knife to an angle of about fifty de- 

An ingenious method of hardening delicate grees with the surface of the stone, and giving a 

steel-work was some time since communicated 
to Mr. Stodart by Dr. Wollaston. The steel 
enclosed in a tube is surrounded by the fusible 
alloy of eight parts lead, two tin, and five 
bismuth. The tube, with its contents, is then 
heated in a furnace to rednesss, and plunged 
into a cooling fluid. It is afterwards thrown 
into boiling -water, by which the alloy is fused, 
and the steel is left perfectly hardened and un- 
altered by twisting or cracking 

light stroke edge foremost, alternately towards 
each end of the stone. These strokes produce 
an edge, the faces of which are inclined to 
each other in an angle of about 100 degrees, and 
to which the wire is so slightly adherent that it 
may often be taken away entire, and is easily re- 
moved by lightly drawing the edge along the 
finger nail. The edge thus cleared, is generally 
very even : but it is too thick, and must again 
be reduced by whetting. A finer wire is by this 

Suppose our cutting instrument to be forged, means produced, which will require to be again 

hardened, and let down or tempered ; it remains 
to be ground, polished, and set. The grinding 
of fine cutlery is performed upon a grind-stone 
of a fine close grit, called a Bilston grind-stone, 
and sold at the tool shops in London at a mo- 
derate price. The cutlers use water, and do not 

taken off, if, for want of judgment or delicacy of 
hand, the artist should have carried it too 
far But we will suppose the obtuse edge to be 
very even, and the second wire to be scarcely 
perceptible. In this case the last edge will be 
very acute, but neither so even nor so strong as 

seem generally to know any thing of the ase of to be durably useful. The finish is given by two 

tallow. The face of the work is rendered finer 
by subsequent grinding upon mahogany cylinders, 
with emery of different fineness, or upon cylin- 
ders faced with hard pewter, called laps, which 

or more alternate light strokes with the edge 
slanting foremost, and the blade of the knife 
raised, so that its plane forms an angle of about 
twenty-eight degrees with the face of the stone- 

are preferable to those with a wooden face. The This is the angle which by careful observation 

last polish is given upon a cylinder faced with 
buff leather, to which crocus, or the red oxide 
of iron, is applied with water. This last opera- 

and measurement Mr. Stodart habitually uses for 
the finest surgeons' instruments, and which he 
considers as the best for razors, and other keen 

tion is attended with considerable danger of cutting tools. The angle of edge is therefore 
heating the work, and almost instantly reducing about fifty-six degrees. The excellence and 

its temper along the thin edge, which at the 
same time acquires the colors of oxidation. 
The setting now remains to be performed, 

uniformity of a fine edge may be ascertained, by 
its mode of operation when lightly drawn along 
the surface of the skin, or leather, or any or- 

ivhich is a work of much delicacy arid skill : so ganised soft substance. Lancets are tried by 

much so, indeed , that Mr. Stodart says, he can- 
not produce the most exquisite and perfect edge 
if interrupted by conversation, or even by 
noises in the street. The tool is first whetted 

suffering the point to drop gently through a piece 
of thin soft leather. If the edge be exquisite, 
it will not only pass with facility, but there will 
not be the least noise produced, any more than 

upon a hone with oil, by rubbing it backwards if it had dropped into water. This kind of edge 

and forwards. In all the processes of grinding 
or wearing down the edge, but more especially 
in the setting, the artist appears to prefer that 
stroke which leads the edge according to the ac- 
tion of cutting, instead of making the back run 
first along the stone: for if there be any lump 
or particle of stone or other substance lying 

cannot be produced, but by performing the last 
two or more strokes on the green hone. The 
operation of strapping is similar to that of grind- 
ing or whetting, and is performed by means of 
the angular particle of fine crocus, or other 
material bedded in the face of the strap. It re- 
quires less skill than the operation of setting, 

upon the face of the grinder, and the back of and is very apt, from the elasticity of the strap, 
the tool be first run over it, it will proceed be- to enlarge the angle of the edge or round it too 
neath the edge and lift it up, at the same time much. The chief manufactories of cutlery in 

CUT * 

England, are at Sheffield and in London. At 
the former by the local advantages of coal, &c. 
on the spot, and the greater division of labor, 
cutlery in general is afforded at much lower 
prices than in the metropolis, where the finer 
descriptions of this important manufacture are 
more attended to, and surgical instruments, in 
particular, are made witfi the greatest skill. 

CUTLET, n. s. |Fr. cotelette. A steak ; 
strictly, it means a rib. 

So mutton cutlets, prime of meat. Swift. 

CUTTACK, a considerable district of Orissa, 
Hindostan, situated between the twentieth and 
twenty-second degrees of north latitude. It is 
bounded on the north by Midnapoor and Mo- 
hurbunge ; on the south by the Circars ; on the 
east by the Bay of Bengal ; and on the west by 
several small states of the interior. Its length is 
about 150 miles, and breadth about sixty, con- 
taining a population of 1 ,200,000 souls. Between 
Gaintee and Bamori the country is richly pro- 
ductive, and is inhabited by weavers, who 
manufacture muslins in pieces for turbans. 
From Arickpoor to Cuttack the land is chiefly 
arable, but interspersed with bushes, and not 
thoroughly cultivated. The Mahanuddy River, 
in passing through this country, often changes its 
name, according to the vicinity of different towns 
and villages. It is also watered by other con- 
siderable streams. The rents are chiefly paid in 

The holy land of Juggernauth extends about 
fifteen miles on each side of the temple of Jug- 
gernauth, to the north and south. Its occupants 
have from time immemorial been exempt from 
the taxes which Hindoos pay for access to the 
temple, except during the ruth and dole jattries, 
when they also are liable to a small impost. 

The chief towns are Cuttack, Juggernauth, 
Buddruck, and Balasore. This district is men- 
tioned by the Mahommedan historians as early 
as the year 1212, under the title of Jagepore, or 
Jehazpore. It was then subject to a Hindoo 
prince, who resided at Jagepore ; it was subdued 
by and annexed to Bengal in the reign of Soly- 
man Kerang, 1569. Thus it remained till the 
year 1751, when it was ceded by the nuwab 
Alyverdy Khan to the Nagpore Mahrattas, who, 
in 1803, were again compelled to resign it to the 
victorious arms of the British, and it is now 
managed by a civil establishment of judge, 
collector, &c. 

CUTTACK, the capital of the above district, 
called also Cuttack Benares, formerly Saringgur, 
was once fortified, and a highly respectable town ; 
but, during the period it was governed by the 
Mahrattas, it fell to decay. In the year 1592 it 
withstood the Mogul arms for nearly a month, 
and is naturally strong, but the climate is un- 
healthy. It is at present the residence of the 
gentlemen of the civil establishment, and has a 
cantonment for a corps of native infantry. 

CUTTER, a small vessel, commonly navigated 
in the channel of England. It is furnished with 
one mast, and rigged as a sloop. Many of these 
vessels aiC used in an illicit trade, and others are 
employed by government to take them ; the 
litter of which are either under the direction of 
the admiralty, or custom-house. 

t cux 

CUTTLE. Ang.-Sax. cutele. A fish, which, 
when pursued, darkens the water with an inky 
substance ; a foul-mouthed fellow ; a knife. 

Away, you cutpurse rascal ; you filthy bung, away : 
by this wine, I'll thrust my knife in your mouldy 
chaps, if you play the saucy cuttle with me. 

Shakspeure. Henry IV. 

It is somewhat strange, that the blood of all birds 
and beasts, and fishes, should be of a red colour, aud 
only the blood of the cuttle should be as black as ink. 


He that uses many words for the explaining any 
subject, doth, like the cuttle fish, hide himself for the 
most part in his own ink. Ray on the Creation. 

CUTTS (John lord), was son of Richard 
Cutts, esq. of Matching in Essex; where the 
family were settled about the time of Henry VI., 
and had a large estate. He entered early into 
the service of the duke of Monmoutn, was aid- 
de-camp to the duke of Lorraine in Hungary, 
and signalised himself in a very extraordinary 
manner at the taking of Buda by the imperialists 
in 1686; which important place had been for 
near a century and a half in the hands of the 
Turks. Returning to England at the Revolution, 
he obtained a regiment of foot; was created 
baron Gowran in Ireland, December 6th, 1690 ; 
appointed governor of the Isle of Wight, April 
14th, 1693; was made a major-general; and, 
when the assassination project was discovered, 
1695-6, was captain of the king's guard. He 
was colonel of the Coldstream guards in 1701 ; 
when Mr. Steele, who was indebted to his 
interest for a military commission, inscribed to 
him his first work, The Christian Hero. On the 
accession of queen Anne, he was made a lieute- 
nant-general of the forces in Holland ; com- 
mander in chief of the forces in Ireland, under 
the duke of Ormond, March 23d, 1704-5; aud 
afterwards one of the lords justices of that king- 
dom. He died at Dublin January 26th, 1706-7, 
and was buried there in the cathedral of Christ 
Church. He wrote a poem on the death of queen 
Mary, and published, in 1687, Poetical Exercises, 
written upon several occasions, and dedicated to 
her royal highness Mary, princess of Orange. 
One of his songs is quoted by Steele in his Tat- 
ler; but his Muse Cavalier is erroneously 
ascribed by Walpole to lord Peterborough. 

CUT-WATER, the sharp part of the head of 
a ship below the beak, so called because it cuts 
or divides'the water before it comes to the bow, 
that it may not come too suddenly to the breadth 
of the ship, which would retard it. 

CUT-WORK, n. x. Embroidered work. 
CUVIER (George Leopold Christian Frederic 
Dagobert), baron and peer; born Aug. 25, 1769, at 
Montbeliard, in the duchy of Wiirtemburg. His 
brilliant talents early excited great expectations. 
His father was an officer. As (he son's health 
did not allow him to become a soldier, he re- 
solved to be a clergyman, and was obliged t 
pass an examination for the stipend, by the help 
of which he expected to study at Tubingen. A 
malicious examiner rejected him. The affair, 
however, was marked by so much injustice, that 
prince Frederic, brother of the duke, and go- 
vernor of the district, thought it his duty to 


compensate Cuvier by a place in the Charles 
Academy at Stuttgart, where he gave up his 
intention of becoming a clergyman. In Stutt- 
gart he studied law, although fond of natural 
history, and to, this period of his life he 
is indebted for his accurate knowledge of the 
German language and literature. The narrow 
circumstances of his parents compelled him to 
accept the office of tutor in the family of count 
D'Hericy, in Normandy, where he devoted 
his leisure to natural science. Cuvier soon 
perceived that zoology was far from that per- 
fection to which Linnaeus had carried botany, 
and to which mineralogy had been carried by the 
united labors of the philosophers of Germany 
and France. The first desideratum was a careful 
observation of all the organs of animals, in order 
to ascertain their mutual dependence, and their 
influence on animal life ; then a confutation of 
the fanciful systems which had obscured rather 
than illustrated the study. Examinations of the 
marine productions, with which the neighbouring 
ocean abundantly supplied him, served him as a 
suitable preparation. A natural classification of 
the numerous classes of vernies (Linn.) was his 
first labour, and the clearness with which he gave 
au account of his observations and ingenious 
views, procured him an acquaintance with all 
the naturalists of Paris. Geoffry St. Hilaire in- 
vited him to Paris, opened to him the collections 
of natural history, over which he presided, took 
part with him in the publication of several works 
on the classification of the mammalia, and placed 
him at the central school in Paris, May, 1795. 
The institute, being re-estahlished the same year, 
received him as a member of the first class. For 
the use of the central school, he wrote his Tableau 
Elementaire de 1'Histoire Naturelle des Animaux 
(1798), by which he laid the foundation of his 
future fame. From this time he was considered 
one of the first zoologists of Europe. He soon 
after displayed his brilliant talents as professor 
of comparative anatomy. His profound know- 
ledge was not less remarkable than his elevated 
views, and the elegance with which he illustrated 
them before a mixed audience. In the lecture- 
room of the Lycee, where he lectured several 
years on natural history, was assembled all the 
accomplished society of Paris, attracted by the 
ingenuity of his classifications, and by his exten- 
sive surveys of all the kingdoms of nature. In 
January, 1800, he justly received the place for- 
merly occupied by D'Aubenton, in the College 
de France. Nor did his merits escape the saga- 
city of Napoleon. In the department of public 
instruction, in which, one after another, he filled 
the most important offices, he exercised much 
influence by his useful improvements and inde- 
fatigable activity. He delivered a report very 
honorable to Germany, in 1811, when he re- 
turned from a journey in Holland and Germany, 
as superintendent of instruction. He was ac- 
companied in his journey by Noel. In 1813 the 
emperor appointed him Maitre des Requetes to 
the council of state, and committed to his care 
the most important affairs in Mentz. Louis 
XVIII. confirmed him in his former offices, and 
raised him to the rank of counsellor. As such, 
he belonged at first to the committee of legisla- 

9 CUX 

tion, and afterwards to that of the interior. As 
a politician, he drew upon himself the reproaches 
of the liberals. In general, the political course- 
of Cuvier forms a contrast to his scientific one, 
and is, besides, of little importance. The mea- 
sures of the abbe Frayssinons, then chancellor 
of the university of Paris, determined him to 
resign the office of university-counsellor, in 
December, 1822. The principal of his works 
are, Recherches sur les Ossemens Fossiles, 5 
vols., 4to., with plates (the classical introduc- 
tion to this work is printed separately); Discours 
sur les Revolutions de la Surface du Globe, et 
sur les Changemens qu'elles ont produit dans le 
Regne animal (Paris, 1825); also, Le Regne 
animal (1817, 4 vols.); Lecuns d' Anatomic 
Comparce, recueillies par Dume'ril et Duvernoy 
(1805, 5 vols.); Recherches anatomiques sur les 
Reptiles rcgardes encore comme douteux (1807, 
4to.); Memoires pour servir a 1'llistoire de 
1'Anatomie de"s Mollusques (1816, 4to.). As 
perpetual secretary, &c., of the academy, in the 
class of physical sciences, he pronounced clones 
on the deceased members of the institute. The 
Recueil d'Eloges Historiques (Paris, 1819, 2 
vols.), contains models worthy of imitation. The 
French academy received him, in consequence, 
among their forty members, and almost all the 
learne'd societies of the world sent him honorary 
diplomas. France is indebted to him for the 
establishment of a cabinet of comparative ana- 
tomy, which is the finest osteological collection 
in Europe. Cuvier may be said to have created 
the science of natural history, having, by his ex- 
traordinary and almost instinctive perception of 
the organic analogies, as traced in the fossil re- 
mains which had previously been considered as 
the mere ornaments of a cabinet of curiosities, 
thrown a light on the universal system of crea- 
tion, of which those formed in previous schools 
could not have even the remotest idea. In the po- 
litical changes which France underwent, the esti- 
mation in which he was held continued un- 
affected. King Louis Philippe conferred upon 
him the rank of peer, his title of baron being 
merely nominal. Cuvier expired on the 13lh of 
May, 1832, in the 63rd year of his age, leaving no 
property but his library and cabinet of natural 
history, both which were purchased by the 
French government for 72,000 francs. The 
French king, also, as a testimony of his regard for 
the learning and abilities of the deceased natu- 
ralist, conferred a pension of 6000 francs on his 
widow, with the enjoyment of the apartments in 
the Jardin des Plants, occupied by her late 

CUX HAVEN, a iea-port of Germany, in the 
duchy of Bremen, situated on the left bank of 
the Elbe, at its embouchure. The harbour, being 
very large and commodious, is much frequented, 
and vessels generally take in pilots here, in order 
to ascend the river to Hamburgh. A yacht is 
stationed out at sea, near the outermost buoy, 
with pilots ready to conduct any vessel that may 
demand them. The town and bailiwic belong 
to the corporation of Hamburgh, who have held 
them ever since the fourteenth century. During 
the late revolutionary wars Cuxhaven became a 
place of great importance as an entrepot i>f 




British goods. On the fall of Hamburgh in 
1806, it came into the possession of the French, 
and remained under their domination above seven 
years. When, at the close of the war, the French 
defended Hamburgh, Cuxhaven was the scene of 
some severe fighting. It is sixty miles north- 
west of Hamburgh, and the light-house is in long. 
8 43' 1" E., lat. 53 52' 21" N. 

CUYO, or CUJQ, an extensive province of 
Peru, and a portion of the former vice-royalty of 
Buenos Ayres, is bounded on the north by Tucu- 
man, on the east by the Pampas deserts, on the 
south by deserts, and on the west by the Andes. 

CYANOMETER, a contrivance, invented by 
Saussure, to ascertain a comparable specimen 01 
the shade of blue of the sky at different times 
and in different places. 

CYATHUS, Kvafloc, from x wai/ > to P our out > 
was a common measure among the Greeks and 
Romans, both of the liquid and dry kind. It 
was equal to an ounce, or the twelfth part of a 
pint, and was made with a handle like our 
punch-ladle. The Romans frequently drank as 
many cyathi as there were muses, i. e. nine; or 
as many as there were letters in their patron's 
name. The cyathus of the Greeks is said by 
Galen and others to have weighed ten drachms ; 
elsewhere he says, that a cyathus contains twelve 
drachms of oil, thirteen drachms and one scruple 
of wine, water, or vinegar, and eighteen drachms 
of honey. Among the Veterinarii, the cyathus 
contained two ounces. 

CYAXARES I., son of Phraortes, king of 
Media and Persia. He bravely defended his 
kingdom against the Scythians; made war 
against Alyattes, king of Lydia ; and subjected 
to his power all Asia, beyond the river Ilalys. 
He died after a reign of forty years, in the year 
of Rome 160. 

CYAXARES II. is supposed by Dr. Prideaux 
and others to be the same as Darius the Mede, 
the son of Astyages, king of Media. He added 
seven provinces to his father's dominions, and 
made war against the Assyrians, whom Cyrus 

CYBELE, in Pagan mythology, the daughter 
of Ccelius and Terra, wife of Saturn, and mother 
of Jupiter, Neptune, Pluto, &c. She is also 
colled Rhea, Ops, Vesta, Bona Mater, Magna 
Mater, Berecynthia, Dindymene, &c., and by 
some is reckoned the same with Ceres : but most 
mythologists make these two distinct goddesses. 
According to Diodorus, she was the daughter of 
a Lydian prince, and, as soon as she was born, 
she was exposed on a mountain. She was pre- 
served by sucking some of the wild beasts of the 
forest, and received the name of Cybele from the 
mountain where her life had been preserved. 
When she returned to her father's court, she had 
an intrigue with Atys, a beautiful youth, whom 
her father mutilated, &c. Most of the mytholo- 
gists mention the amours of Atys and Cybele. 
In Phrygia the festivals of Cybele were observed 
with the greatest solemnity. Her priests, called 
Corybantes, Curetes, Gal|i, &c., it is said were 
not admitted to the service of the goddess without 
a previous mutilation. In the celebration of the 
festivals, they imitated the manners of madmen, 
and filled the air with shrieks and bowlings, 

mixed with the confused noise of drums, tabrets, 
bucklers, and spears. This was in commemo- 
ration of the sorrow of Cybe.e for the loss of her 
favorite Atys. The goddess was generally repre- 
sented as a robust woman, far advanced in 
pregnancy, to imitate the fecundity of the earth. 
She held keys in her hand, and her head was 
crowned with rising turrets, or with leaves of 
oak. She sometimes appears riding in a chariot, 
drawn by two tame lions : Atys follows by her 
side, carrying a ball in his hand, and supporting 
himself upon a fir-tree, which is sacred to the 
goddess. She is also represented with a sceptre 
in her hand, and with many breasts, to show that 
the earth gives aliments to all living creatures ; 
and she generally carries two linns under her 
arms. From Phrygia the worship of Cybele 
passed into Greece, and was solemnly established 
at Eleusis under the name of the Eleusinian 
mysteries of Ceres. The Romans, by order of 
the Sibylline books, brought the statue of the 
goddess from Pessinus into Italy ; and when the 
ship which carried it had run on a shallow bank 
of the Tiber, the virtue of Claudia was said to 
have been vindicated, by removing it with her 
girdle. It is supposed that the mysteries of 
Cybele were first known about 257 years before 
the Trojan war, or 1580 years before the Augus- 
tan age. The Romans were particularly super- 
stitious in washing, every year on the 6th of the 
kalends of April, the shrine of this goddess in 
the waters of the river Almon. Many obsceni- 
ties prevailed in the observation of the festivals ; 
and the priests themselves were the most eager 
to use indecent expressions, and to show their 
unbounded licentiousness. 

CYBELICUM MAKMOR, a name given by 
the ancients to a species of marble dug in the 
mountain Cybele. It was of an extremely bright 
white, with broad veins of bluish-black. 

CYCAS, in botany, a genus of plants of the 
moncecia class, and polygamia order. The fruit 
is a dry plum, with a bivalved kernel. There 
is but one species described by Linnaeus, viz. 
the circinalis; but professor Thunberg mentions 
another, viz. 1. C. caffra, broad broom, or bread 
tree of the Hottentots. This plant, discovered 
by professor Thunberg, is described in the Nova 
Acta Reg. Soc. Scient. Ups. vol. ii. p. 283, tab. 
V. The pith, or medulla, which abounds in the 
trunk of this little palm, Mr. Sparrman informs 
us, is collected and tied up in dressed calf or 
sheep skins, and then buried in the earth for the 
space of several weeks, till it becomes sufficiently 
mellow and tender to be kneaded up with water 
into a paste, of which they afterwards make 
small loaves or cakes, and bake them under the 
ashes. 2. C. circinalis, or sago-tree, which 
grows spontaneously in the East Indies, and 
particularly on the coast of Malabar. It runs 
up with a straight trunk to upwards of forty feet 
in height, having many circles the whole length, 
occasioned by the old leaves falling off; for 
standing in a circular order round the stem, and 
embracing it with their base, whenever they drop, 
they leave the marks of their adhesion. The leaves 
are pinnated, and grow to the length of seven or 
eight feet. The pinnae or lobes are long, narrow 
entire, of a shining green, all the way of a 



breadth, lance-shaped at the point, closely 
crowded together, and stand at right angles on 
each side the mid-rib, like the teeth of a comb. 
The flowers are produced in long bunches at the 
foot-stalks of the leaves, and are succeeded by 
oval fruit, about the size of large plums, of a red 
color when ripe, and a sweet flavor. Each con- 
tains a hard brown nut, enclosing a white meat 
which tastes like a chestnut. This is a valuable 
tree to the inhabitants of India, as it not only 
furnishes a considerable part of their constant 
bread, but also supplies them with a large article 
of trade. See SAGO. 

CYCEON, from KVKUUV, to mix, a name given 
by the ancient poets and physicians to a mixture 
of meal and water, and sometimes of other ingre- 
dients. These constituted the two kinds of 
cyceon ; the coarser being of the water and meal 
alone ; the richer and more delicate composed of 
wine, honey, flour, water, and cheese. Homer, 
in the llth Iliad, speaks of cyceon made with 
cheese, and the meal of barley mixed with wine, 
but without any .mention either of honey or wa- 
ter ; and Ovid, describing the draught of cyceon 
^iven by the old woman of Athens to Ceres, 
mentions only flour and water. Dioscorides 
understood the word in both these senses ; but 
extolled it most in the coarse and simple kind : 
he says, when prepared with water alone, it re- 
frigerates and nourishes greatly. 

CYCINNIS, a Grecian dance, so called from 
its supposed inventor, one of the satyrs belonging 
to Bacchus. It consisted of a combination of 
grave and gay movements. 

CYCLADES, in ancient geography, islands 
so called, as Pliny informs us, from the Cyclus 
or orb in which they lie ; beginning from the 
promontory Geraestum of Eubcca, and lying 
round the island Delos. Their situation and 
number is not so generally agreed upon. Strabo 
says, they were first reckoned twelve, but that 
many others were added : yet most of them lie 
to the south of Delos, and but few to the north, 
so that the middle or centre, ascribed to Delos, 
is to be taken in a loose, not in a geometrical 
sense. Strabo recites them, after Artemidorus, as 
follows : Helena, Ceos, Cynthus, Seriphus, Melos, 
Siphnus, Cimolus, Prepesiuthus, Olearus, Naxos, 
Paros, Syrus, Myconos, Tenos, Andros, Gyarus ; 
but he excludes from the number, Prepesinthus, 
Olearus, and Gyarus. 


CYCLAMEN, sowbread, a genus of the 
monogynia order, and pentandria class of plants : 
natural order twenty-first, precise. COR. verticil- 
lated, with the tube very short, and the throat 
prominent: the BERRY is covered with the cap- 
sule. There are but two species, which, however, 
produce many beautiful varieties. They are low, 
herbaceous, flowery perennials, of the tuberous 
rooted kind, with numerous, angular, heart- 
shaped, spotted, marbled leaves ; and many fleshy 
foot-stalks six inches high, carrying monopetalous, 
five-parted, reflexed flowers, of various colors. 
CYCLE, n.s. ) Lat. cyclus ; KOK\OC- 

CYCLO'METRY, n. s. $ A circle ; a round 
of time ; a space in which the same revolutions 
be^in again ; a method, or account of a method 
till the same course begins again ; imaginary 


orbs ; a circle in the heavens. Cyclomctry is the 
art of measuring cycles. 

How build, unbuild, contrive 

To save appearances ; how gird the sphere 

With eentrick, and excentrick, scribbled o'er 

Cycle and epicycle, orb in orb ! Milton. 

We do more commonly use these words, so as to 
style a lesser space a cycle, and a greater by the name 
of period ; and you may not improperly call the be- 
ginning of a large period the epocha thereof. 

Holder on Time. 

We thought we should not attempt an unacceptable 
work, if here we endeavoured to present our gar- 
deners with a complete cycle of what is requisite to be 
doue throughout every month of the year. 

Evelyn's Kalendar. 

Chained to one centre whirled the kindred spheres, 
And. marked with lunar cycles solar years. JJarwin. 

I must tell you that Sir H. Savile had confuted 
Joseph Scaliger'a cyclometry. Wallit. 


is called also the golden number, and the Metonic 
cycle, from its inventor Meton the Athenian. At 
the time of the council of Nice, when the method 
of finding the time for observing the feast of 
Easter was established, the numbers of the lunar 
cycle were inserted in the kalendar, which, upon 
the account of their use, were set in golden let- 
ters, and the year of the cycle called the golden 
number of that year. 


CYCLISUS, in surgery, an instrument in the 
form of a half moon, used in scraping the scull, 
in cases of fractures of that part. 

CY'CLOID, n. s. i KueXotlfojc. A geome- 

CYCLO'IDAL, adj. 5 trical curve, of which the 
genesis may be conceived by imagining a nail in 
the circumference of a wheel : the line which the 
nail describes in the air, while the wheel revolves 
in a right line, is the cycloid. Relating to a 
cycloid; as the cycloidal space is the space 
contained between the cycloid and its substance. 

A man may frame to himself the notion of a para- 
bola, or a cycloid, from the mathematical definition of 
those figures. Reid. 

CYCLOID, or TROCIIOID, a mechanical or 
transcendental curve, which is thus generated : 
Suppose a circle F E II to roll along the straight 
line A B, so that all the parts of its circumference 
be applied to the straight line in succession; the 
point E, that was in contact with AB at A, will, 
by a motion thus compounded of a circular and 
rectilineal motion, describe a certain curve line 
A, to EDB, which is called a cycloid. The 
straight line AB is called the base, and the line 
CD perpendicular to AB, bisecting it at C, and 
meeting the curve in D, is called the axis of the 
cycloid. The circle by whose revolution the 
curve is described is called the generating circle. 
The following are some of the most remarkable 
properties of this curve. 1. The base AB is 
equal to the circumference of the generating circle. 
2. The axis C D is equal to the diameter of the 
generating circle. These two properties are ob- 
vious from the definition of the curve. 3. Let 
the generating circle C K D be described on the 
axis C D as a diameter, and let G K E be per- 
pendicular to the axis, meeting the circle in K, 

If ], 

and the cycloid in E. The straight line E G is 
equal to the sum of the circular arc D K, and its 
sine K G. Let the generating circle F E H pass 
through E and touch the base AB at F; join 
EF and KC, and draw the diameter FH. The 
chords F E and C K are evidently equal and 
parallel, therefore FCzzEK; now ACrzsemi- 
circumference F E H, and A F^arc F E which 
has quitted it, therefore FC arc EH, or EK~ 
arc DK, and EG=arc DK+sine KG. 4. If 
E H be drawn touching the cycloid at E, it is 
parallel to K D the chord of the generating circle. 
Draw e kg parallel and indefinitely nearto E K G, 
meeting the chord KD in n. Draw KL, DL, 
touching the generating circle. The triangles 
KLD, K/cn are similar, and KLizLD, there- 
fore K fc kn; now arc DK EK, and arc 
Dkek, therefore K /c, or &n EK ek, and, 
adding ek to each of these equals, EKizen, 
therefore the indefinitely small part of the 
cycloidal arc Ee, which coincides with the tan- 
gent, is parallel to K n, therefore the tangent E H 
is parallel to the chord K D. 5. The arc D E of 
the cycloid is equal to twice the chord D K of the 
generating circle. Join DA: and draw/co per- 
pendicular to Kn, then Kois the indefinitely 
small increment of the chord k D, and K k has 
been proved equal to kn (4), therefore Kn is 
bisected in o; but K Ee (4) therefore Ee the 
increment of the cycloidal arc De is always dou- 
ble Ko the corresponding increment of the chord 
D k, therefore the whole arc D E must be double 
the chord D K. Corollary. The whole cycloid 
ADB is equal to four times the axis CD, or 
four times the diameter of the generating circle. 
6. If C D is produced to M, so that C M=C D, 
and if the half of the cycloid B D be placed in 
the position AM, and the other half AD in the 
position M B, then, if a thread M Q ErzM Q A 
be unfolded from the arc MA, the extremity E 
of this thread will describe the cycloid ADB. 
Make AP equal and parallel to CM, and on 
AP describe the semicircle ATP. Let the 
thread touch the curve at Q ; draw QR perpen- 
dicular to A P, cutting the circle in T, and join 
A T. Then F Q is parallel to A T (4) and there- 
fore equal to it; now EQ is equal to the arc 
AQ which is double AT (5) or FQ, therefore 
EF=FQ-AT, if therefore EKG be drawn 
perpendicular to C D, C G is equal to A R, and 
arc CK arc AT, also the chord KC is equal 
and parallel, to the chord AT, which is parallel 
to EF, therefore FC=EK; now AF or TQ= 
arc AT (3). Therefore FC or E Kzzarc T P= 

12 CYC 

arc D K : therefore E is a point in the cycloid 
A B D. 7. Let D V be drawn parallel to A C, 
and EV perpendicular to D V, the area contained 
by the straight lines E V, V D, and E D, the arc 
of the cycloid, is equal to the area contained by 
the circular arc D K, and the straight lines D G, 
G K. Draw ev parallel to E V, and let ge meet 

by similar triangles (4) Ear; xe'.'.DG '. GK, 
that is Gg : Vi> ; : EV : GK, 
therefore the rectangle GK G g rectangle 
E V'Vv, that is, the contemporaneous increments 
of the circular area D kg and cycloidal area D ve 
are equal, therefore the circular area D KG is 
equal to the cycloidal area D V E. Cor. The area 
contained by the base AB and the arc of the 
cycloid AD B is equal to three times the area of 
the generating circle. For complete the rectangle 
D C AY, and the space D E AYis equal to the semi- 
circle DKC, therefore the rectangle DYAC is 
equal to the cycloidal area DEAC together with the 
semicircle DKC; but the rectangle DYAC is 
contained by D C the diameter of the circle and 
AC which is half its circumference, it is therefore 
four times the area of the semicircle, therefore 
three times the area of the semicircle is equal 
to the cycloidal area DEAC. See farther re- 
lating to the cycloid under PEKDULUM. 

CYCLOPEDIA, or ) KwicXoc, a circle, and 
CYCLOPE'DE, n. s. J iraiSeia. A circle of 
knowledge ; a course of the sciences. 

The tedious and unedifying commentaries on Peter 
Lombard's scholastic cyclopede of divinity. Warton. 

in modern times, has been appropriated, from the 
Greek, to express those useful and superioi 
Dictionaries of Science and Literature, of which 
we hope to furnish a favorable specimen. Under 
the term ENCYCLOPEDIA, which is the more 
common, we shall give some account of the 
principal works of this kind which have appeared 
in our language. 

CYCLOPE'AN, adj. ) From the Cyclops. 
CYCLO'PICK, adj. J Vast; inspiring terror; 
furious ; savage. 

The cyclopean furnace of all wicked fashions, the 
heart. Bishop Hall. 

Cyclopick monsters, who daily seem to fight against 
heaven. Bishop Taylor. 

CYCLOPS, in fabulous history, the sons of 
Neptune and Amphitrite : the principal of whom 
were Polyphemus, Brontes, Steropes, and Py- 
racmon ; but their whole number amounted to 
above 100. Jupiter threw them into Tartarus as 
soon as they were born ; but they were delivered 
at the intercession of Tellus, and became the 
assistants of Vulcan. They were of prodigious 
stature, and had each only one eye, which was 
placed in the middle of the forehead. Some 
mythologists say, that the cyclops signify the va- 
pors raised in the air, which occasion thunder 
and lightning; on which account they are re- 
presented as forging the thunderbolts of Jupiter. 
Others represent them as the first inhabitants ot 
Sicily, who were cruel, of a gigantic form, and 
dwelt round mount /Etna. 


CYCLOPTERUS, tlie sucker, in ichthyology, 
a genus belonging to the order of amphibia 
.antes. Thn head is obtuse, and furnished with 
sw teeth : there are four rays in the gills, and 
the belly fins are connected together in an orbi- 
cular form. There are ten species. The chief 
are: 1. C. liparis, or the sea snail, so called 
from the soft and unctuous texture of its body, 
resembling that of the land snail. It is almost 
transparent, and soon dissolves and melts away. 
It is found in the sea near the mouths of great 
rivers, and has been seen full of spawn in Janu- 
ary. The length is five inches; the color a pale 
brown, sometimes finely streaked with a darker. 
Beneath the throat is a round depression of a 
whitish color like the impression of a seal, sur- 
rounded by twelve small pale yellow tubera, by 
which probably it adheres to the stones like the 
other species. 2. 0. lumpus, the lump fish, cock 
paddle, or sea owl, grows to the length of nine- 
teen inches, and weighs seven pounds. The 
shape of the body is like that of the bream, deep 
and very thick, and it swims edgeways. The 
back is sharp and elevated : the belly flat, of a 
bright crimson color. Along the body there run 
several rows of sharp bony tubercles, and the 
whole skin is covered with small ones. The 
pectoral fins are large and broad, almost uniting 
at their base. Beneath these is the part by which 
it adheres to the rocks, &c. It consists of an 
oval aperture, surrounded with a fleshy, muscular, 
and obtuse soft substance, edged with many 
small threaded appendages, which concur as so 
many claspers. The tail and vent fins are pur- 
ple. This fish is sometimes eaten in England, 
neing stewed like carp : but is both flabby and 

CY'DER, n. s. A fermented drink, made of 
the juice of apples. See CIDER. 

A tendency to these diseases is certainly heredi- 
tary, though perhaps nut the diseases themselves ; 
thus a less quantity of ale, cyder, wine, or spirit, will 
induce the gout and dropsy in those constitutions 
whose parents have been intemperate in the use of 
those liquors. Darwin. 

CYDER, in rural economy, is particularly used 
for the liquor expressed and prepared by fer- 
mentation from the juice of apples. It has been 
made in this country from a very early period. 
Henry of Huntingdon, in describing a quarrel 
that arose at the court of Edward the Confessor, 
between the two sons of earl Godwin, represents 
one of them as departing in a rage to Hereford, 
(still famous for this beverage) where his brother 
had ordered a royal banquet to be prepared. 
* There he seized his brother's attendants, and 
cutting off their heads and limbs, he placed 
them in the vessels of wine, mead, ale, pigment, 
moral, and cyder.' Henry Hunt., vol. vi. p. 367. 
But the art of preparing it has never been in- 
vestigated with much attention, nor improved by 
science: it is principally, to this day, in the 
hands of the growers of the fruit. We shall 
present the reader with the best practical direc- 
tions that have been given to the public on the 
subject, viz. by Messrs. Marshall, Crocker, and 

The first of these gentlemen made a tour 
through the cyder counties with a view to ob- 

serve the different mctliods of preparing it. Tim 
may be divided into three processes : I. Pre- 
paring the fruit. II. (jriuding and expressing 
the juice from it. III. Fermenting and bottling. 
I. In preparing tltc fruit, care must be taken 
both as to its peculiar quality, and its stage of 
ripeness, or the season at which it is gathered. 
Few apples are ready for gathering before Mi- 
chaelmas; though they are sometimes manufac- 
tured before that time. For sale-cyder, and 
keeping-drink, they are allowed to remain on 
the trees till fully ripe ; and in general the 
middle of October is considered a proper time 
for gathering the stire apples. The ripeness of 
the fruit is judged of by its falling from the tree ; 
and Mr. Marshall, as well as Mr. Crocker, thinks 
that the forcing it away before that time robs it 
of some of its most valuable properties. ' The; 
harvesting of fruit,' says the former, ' is widely 
different in this respect from the harvesting o. 
grain, which has the entire plant to feed it after 
the separation from the soil ; while fruit, after 
it is severed from ihe tree, is cut off. ft urn all pos- 
sibility of a further supply of nourishment, and, 
although it may have readied its wonted size, 
some of its more essential particles are undoubt- 
edly left behind in the tree. Fruits which are late 
in ripening, however, will sometimes hang on the 
tree until spoiled by frost, and particularly the weak 
watery fruits. The general practice of beating 
them down with poles is much disapproved o. 
by Mr. Marshall, because the fruit must thus be 
unequally ripe, the apples on the same tree not 
ripening all at the same time; and thus part of 
the richness and flavor of the fruit is entirely 
lost : besides, if the fermentation is interrupted 
or rendered complex by a mixture of ripe and 
vmripe fruits, and the liquor is not, at first, suf- 
ficiently purged from its feculencies, it will be 
difficult to clear it afterwards. To avoid these 
.nconveniences, arising from the unequal ripe- 
ning of the fruit, the trees ought to be gone over 
first with a hook when the fruit begins to fall na- 
curally, and the trees may be afterwards cleared 
with the poles when it is all sufficiently ripened, 
or when tl-e winter is likely to set in. Mr. Mar- 
shall obseives, that the due degree of maturation 
of fruit for liquor is a subject about which men 
differ much in their ideas. The prevailing prac- 
tice of gathering it into heaps until the ripest 
begin to rot, is wasting the best of the fruit, and 
is by no means an accurate criterion. Some 
shake the fruit, and judge by the rattling of the 
kernels; others cut through the middle, an:! 
judge by their blackness : but none of these ap- 
pear to be a proper test. It is not the state or 
the kernels, hut of the flesh ; not of a few indi- 
viduals, but of the greater part of the prime 
fruit, which renders the collective body fit or 
unfit to be sent to the mill. The most rational 
test of the ripeness of the fruit is, that of the 
flesh having acquired such a degree of mellow- 
ness, and its texture such a degree of tenderness, 
as to yield to moderate pressure ; thus, when the 
knuckle or the end of the thumb can with mo- 
derate exertion be forced into the pulp of the 
fruit, it is deemed in a fit state for grinding. 

Mr. Marshall is of opinion that one of the 
grand secrets of cyder-making is the skilful sep&- 



ration of the ripe and unripe fruit, before send- 
ing it to the mill ; and as by various accidents 
they may be confounded, the most effectual me- 
thod of distinguishing them is by the hand. He 
also seems to think that the practice of mixing 
fruit* for liquor is improper, because the finer 
liquors are made from select fruits; and ob- 
serves, that it might be better to mix liquors after 
they are made, than to put together the crude 

Mr. Crocker recommends making three dis- 
tinct gatherings of the crop, and keeping each by 
itself. The prime cyder will then be made from 
the first, and the latter gathering and wind-falls 
make a fair common article. According to Mr. 
Knight, the merit of cyder will always depend 
much on the proper mixture, or rather on the 
proper separation of the fruits. Those whose 
rinds and pulp are tinged with green or red, 
without any mixture of yellow, as that color will 
disappear in the first stages of fermentation, 
should be carefully kept apart from such as are 
yellow, or yellow intermixed with red. The 
latter kinds, which should remain on the trees 
till ripe enough to fall without b^ing much 
shaken, are, as we have noticed, alone capable of 
making fine cyder. Each kind should be col- 
lected separately, as noticed above, and kept till 
it becomes perfectly mellow. For this purpose, 
in the common practice of the country, they are 
nlaced in heaps often inches or a foot thick, and 
exposed to the sun and air, and rain ; not being 
overcovered except in very severe frosts. The 
strength and flavor of the future liquor are, 
however, he says, increased by keeping the fruit 
under cover some time before it is ground; but 
unless a situation can be afforded it, in which it 
is exposed to a free current of air, and where it 
can be spread very thin, it is apt to contract an 
unpleasant smell, which will much affect the 
cyder produced from it. Few farms are pro- 
vided with proper buildings for this purpose on 
a large scale, and the improvement of the liquor 
will not nearly pay the expense of erecting them. 
It may reasonably be supposed that much water 
is absorbed by the fruit in a rainy season ; but 
the quantity of juice yielded by any given quan- 
tity of fruit will be found to diminish as it he- 
comes more mellow ; even in very wet weather, 
provided it be ground when thoroughly dry. 
The advantages, therefore, of covering the fruit, 
will probably be much less than may at first 
sight be expected. No criterion appears, the 
writer says, to be known, by which the most 
proper point of maturity in the fruit can be as- 
certained with accuracy ; but he has good rea- 
son to believe that it improves as long as it con- 
tinues to acquire a deeper shade of yellow. 
Each heap should be examined prior to its being 
ground, and any decayed o<- green fruit carefully 
taken away. The expense of this will, he ob- 
ser'es, be very small, and will be amply repaid 
by the excellence of the liquor, and the care with 
which too great a degree of fermentation may be 
prevented in the process of making it into cyder. 
In seasons ordinarily favorable half a hogshead 
of cyder may be expected from the fruit of each 
tree of an orchard in full beanng. As the num- 
ber of trees on the acre varies from ten to forty, 

the quantity of cyder must vary in the same pro- 
portion, that is, from five to twenty hogsheads, 
Pear trees, in equally good bearing, yield fully 
one-third more liquor : therefore, although the 
liquor extracted from pears sells at a lower price 
than that produced from apples, yet the value 
by the acre, when the number of trees is equal, 
is nearly the same. 

II. Of grinding the fruit, &c. The cyder- 
makers in Herefordshire generally agree in con- 
sidering it necessary towards the perfection of 
the cyder, to grind the rinds and seeds of the 
fruit, as well as the fleshy part, to a pulp; 
but Mr. Marshall complains, that the mills are 
often very imperfectly finished, and little in- 
debted to the operation of the square and chisel. 
As perfectly smooth rollers, nowever, would not 
lay hold of the fruit sufficiently to force it through, 
it might be proper, he suggests, to grind the fruit 
first in the mill to a cerlam degree, and after- 
wards put it between two smoother rollers to 
finish the operation. A bag, containing four 
corn bushels, is the usual quantity with which 
they charge a middle-sized mill ; and this 
should yield an equal quantity when ground. 
After the fruit is ground, it generally remains 
some time before pressing, that the rind and 
seeds may communicate their virtues to the li- 
quor ; and for this reason Mr. Marshall repro- 
bates the practice of pressing the pulp of the 
fruit whenever the grinding is finished. The 
ordinary cyder mill is exhibited on the right 
hand of our plate CYDER PRESS, &c., and will 
be further described at the close of this article. 

A difference of opinion exists as to the pro- 
priety of pressing the fruit immediately after it 
is ground. Mr. Knight,an able writer on the apple 
and pear, contends that it should remain at least 
twenty-four hours before it is taken to the press. 
Others recommend two days; but many take it 
at once from the mill to the press when the 
grinding is finished. Mr. Crocker thinks both 
extremes wrong. There is an analogy, he ob- 
serves between the making of cyder from apples, 
and wine from grapes ; and the method which 
the wine-maker pursues ought to be followed by 
the cyder-maker. When the pulp of the grapes has 
lain some time in the vats, the vintager thrusts his 
hand into the pulp, and takes some from the mid- 
dle of the mass; and when he perceives, by the 
smell, that the luscious sweetness is gone off, and 
that his nose is affected with a slight piquancy, 
lie immediately carries it to the press, and by a 
light pressure expresses his prime juice. In like 
manner, should the cyderist determine the time 
when his pulp should be carried to the press. 
If he carry it immediately from the mill to the 
press, he may lose some small advantage which 
may be expected from the rind and kernels, and 
his liquor may be of lower color than he might 
wish. If he suffer it to remain too long un- 
pressed, he will find to his cost that the acetous 
fermentation will come on before the vinous is 
perfected, especially in the early part of the cy- 
der-making season. He will generally find that 
his pulp is in a fit state for pressing in about 
twelve or sixteen hours. If he must of necessity 
keep it in that state longer, he will find a sen- 
sible heat therein, which will engender a prema- 


ture fermentation ; and he must not delay turn- 
ing it over, thereby to expose the middle of the 
mass to the influence of the atmosphere. 

In order to press the fruit, or pommage as 
it is now called, it is folded up in pieces of hair- 
cloth, or placed between layers of clean, sweet 
straw or reed, and piled up in a square frame or 
mould : the press is then pulled down and squeezes 
out the juice, forming the matter into thin and 
almost dry cakes. Care ought to be taken to keep 
the straw, reed, or hair-cloths sweet, or the ill ef- 
fects of their acidity will be communicated to 
the cyder. The first runnings come off foul and 
muddy, but the last, particularly in perry, will be 
as clear and fine as if filtered through paper. 
The refuse is generally thrown away as useless, 
or, when dry, used as fuel ; if it has not been 
thoroughly squeezed, the pigs will sometimes eat 
it ; and some people grind it a second time with 
water, and press it for an inferior liquor for fa- 
mily use. As long as a drop can be drawn, Mr. 
Marshall recommends to continue the pressure. 
Even breaking the cakes of the refuse with 
the hands only, he says, gives the press fresh 
power over it : regrinding them has a still 
greater effect : in this state of the materials, the 
mill gains a degree of power over the more rigid 
parts of the fruit, which in the first grinding it 
could not reach. The most eligible management 
in this stage of the process appears to be this: 
grind one pressful a-day; press, and regrind 
the residuum in the evening ; infuse the reduced 
matter all night among part of the first runnings, 
and in the morning repress while the next press- 
ful is grinding. 

III. Of fermentation and bottling. In the fer- 
mentation of the liquor, the common practice is 
to have it put into casks or hogsheads, immedi- 
ately from the press, and to fill them quite full; 
when the casks are put into airy sheds, where the 
warmth differs little from the open atmosphere. 
They are sometimes even exposed to the open 
air without any covering but a piece of tile or 
flat stone, propped up over the bung-hole to 
carry off the rain. It would seem, from Mr. 
Marshall's account, that the time with cyder, 
when the fermentation begins, is quite uncertain, 
in general varying from one day to a month after 
it is tunned ; though liquor taken immediately 
from the press, if much agitated, will sometimes 
pass directly into a state of fermentation. If the 
commencement of the fermentation is uncertain, 
its continuance is no less so ; liquors that have 
been agitated will frequently go through it in one 
day; but otherwise, when allowed to rest, it will 
take from two to six days. The appearance of 
the liquor also varies according to the ripeness 
of the fruit : if the fruit has been properly ma- 
tured, a thick scum is generally thrown up, re- 
sembling that of malt liquor. After the liquor 
has remained some time in the fermenting ves- 
sels it is racked off from the lees, and put into 
fresh casks. But as a fresh fermentation fre- 
quently takes place after racking, when this 
becomes violent, the liquor must be racked 
again ; and sometimes, before the fermentation 
is checked, the racking must be repeated five or 
six times ; but when there is only a small degree 
of fermentation, called fretting, the liquor is suf- 
fered to remain in the same cask ; this degree, 

however, is also very undetermined. The best 
informed cyder-makers are said to repeat the 
rackings until the liquor appears quiet or nearly 
so ; and when this cannot be accomplished 
by the ordinary methods of fermentation, they 
have recourse to fumigating the casks with 
sulphur, which is called stooming or stumming. 
For this purpose a match made of thick linen 
cloth, about ten inches long and an inch broad, 
well coated with brimstone for about three-fourths 
of its length, is lighted and hung in at the bung- 
hole of the cask (which has been previously 
well seasoned, and every other vent stopped), 
and, while the match burns briskly, the bung is 
driven in, keeping theuncoated end of the match 
by its side. The match thus suspended, burns 
as long as the air contained in the cask will sup- 
ply the fire ; and when it dies the bung is taken 
out with the remnant of the match, after which 
the cask is allowed to remain two or three hours, 
more or less, according to the degree of power 
the sulphur ought to have, before it is filled with 
liquor. A smell of the sulphureous acid is thus 
communicated to the liquor, but it goes off in a 
short time. Mr. Crocker says, when the fermen- 
tation ceases, and the liquor appears tolerably 
clear to the eye, it has also a piquant vinous 
sharpness upon the tongue, and if in this state 
the least hissing noise be heard in the fermenting 
liquor, the room is too warm, and atmospheric 
air must be let in at the doors and windows. 
' Now,' he continues, ' is the critical moment, 
which the cyderist must not lose sight of; for if 
he would have a strong, generous, and pleasant 
liquor, all further sensible fermentation must be 
stopped. This is best done by racking off the 
pure part into open vessels, which must be 
placed in a more cool situation for a day or two ; 
after which it may again be barrelled, and 
placed in some moderately cool situation for the 

It is advisable in racking, that the stream from 
the racking-cock be small, and that the receiving- 
tub be but a small depth below the cock, lest, 
by exciting a violent motion of the parts of the 
liquor, another fermentation be brought up 
The feculence of the cyder may be strained 
through a filtering-bag, and placed among the 
second-rate cyders, but it must not be returned 
to the liquor designed for prime cyder. 

It is observed by Mr. Knight, that 'after the 
fermentation has ceased, and the liquor is become 
clear and bright, it should instantly be drawn off, 
and not suffered on any account again to mingle 
with its lees ; for these possess much the same 
properties as yeast, and would inevitably bring 
on a second fermentation. The best criterion to 
judge of the proper moment to rack off will be, he 
says, the brightness of the liquor ; and this is 
always attended with external marks, which 
serve as guides to the cyder-maker. The dis- 
charge of fixed air, which always attends the pro- 
gress of fermentation, has entirely ceased ; and a 
thick crust, formed of fragments of the reduced 
pulp raised by the buoyant air it contains, is 
collected on the surface. The clear liquor being 
drawn off into another cask, the lees are put, he 
says, into small bags, to those used for 
jellies, being made, as noticed above ; through 
these, whatever liquor the lees coutain gradually 


C Y D E R. 

filtrates, becoming perfectly bright; and it istlien 
returned to that in the cask, in which it has the 
effect, in some measure, of preventing a second 
fermentation, as already hinted. It appears, he 
says, to have undergone a considerable change 
in the process of nitration. The color is re- 
markably deep, its taste harsh and flat, and it 
has a strong tendency to become acetous ; pro- 
bably by having given out fixed, and absorbed 
vital air. Should it become acetous, which it 
will frequently do in forty-eight hours, it must 
not on any account, he says, be put into the 
cask. If however, the cyder, after being racked 
off, remains bright and quiet, nothing more is to 
be done to it till the succeeding spring ; but if 
a scum collects on the surface, it must imme- 
diately be racked off into another cask ; as this 
would produce bad effects if suffered to sink. 
If a disposition to ferment with violence again 
appears, it will be necessary, he thinks, to rack 
off from one cask to another, as often as a hissing 
noise is heard. The strength of cyder is much 
reduced, he says, as noticed above, by being fre- 
quently racked off; but this, he supposes, arises 
only from a large portion of sugar remaining 
unchanged, which adds to the sweetness, at the 
expense of the other quality. The juice of the 
fruits which produce very strong cyders, often 
remains muddy during the whole winter, and 
much attention must frequently be paid, to pre- 
vent an excess of fermentation.' 

' The casks into which the liquor is put, when- 
ever racked off, should always have been tho- 
roughly scalded, and dried again ; and each 
should want several gallons of being full, to ex- 
pose a larger surface to the air of the atmos- 
phere.' * But,' he adds, * should the cyder- 
maker neglect the above precautions, the inevi- 
table consequence will be this : another fermen- 
tation will quickly succeed, and convert the fine 
vinous liquor he was possessed of into a sort of 
vinegar ; and all the art he is master of will ne- 
ver restore it to its former richness and purity.' 

He suggests, however, the following correc- 
tives : ' A bottle of French brandy, half a gallon 
of spirit extracted from the lees of cyder, or a 
pail full of old cyder, poured into the hogshead 
soon after the acetous fermentation is begun ; but 
no wonder, continues he, if all these should fail, 
if the cyder be still continued in a close warm 
cellar, lo give effect to either, it is necessary 
that the liquor be as much exposed to a cooler 
air as conveniently may be, and that for a consi- 
derable length of time. By such means it is 
possible fermentation may, in a great measure, be 
repressed : and if a cask of prime cyder cannot 
from thence be obtained, a cask of tolerable se- 
cond-rate kind may. These remedies are in- 
nocent ; but if the farmer or cyder-merchant 
attempt to cover the accident, occasioned by ne- 
gligence or inattention, by applying any prepa- 
ration of lead, let him reflect that he is about to 
commit an absolute and unqualified murder on 
those whose lot it may be to drink his poisonous 
draught. Such means should, therefore, on no 
account be ever had recourse to.' 

The time of bottling depends greatly on the 
quality of the liquors themselves : good cyder 
can seldom be bottled with propriety until a year 
old, and sometimes not till two years. It is 

stated by the writer just mentioned, that in th 
montli of April the cyder, in general, will be in 
a fit state for this operation ; but that the critical 
time for this process is, when the liquor has ac- 
quired in the cask its highest degree of perfec- 
tion : then, when the weatherj is fair, the baro- 
meter high, and the wind in some northerly 
point, let the bottles be filled, setting them by 
uncorked until the morning; thenletjthe corks be 
driven very tightly into the necks of the bottles, 
tied down with small strong twine or wire, and 
well secured with melted rosin, or other material 
of the same nature. 

Mr. Knight thinks, that cyders which have 
been made from good fruits, and have been pro- 
perly manufactured, will retain a considerable 
portion of sweetness, in the cask, to the end of 
three or four years ; but that the saccharine part, 
on which alone their sweetness depends, gradually 
disappears, probably by a decomposition and 
discharge of fixed air, similar to that which takes 
place in the earlier stages of their fermentation. 

The premises of a cider manufacturer consist of 
a mill-house, mill, press, vat, and cask, with their 
appurtenances. The mill-house is generally one 
end of an out-building ; or perhaps a shed, under 
which straw or small implements are occasionally 
laid up. The smallest dimensions, to render it any 
way convenient, are twenty-four feet by twenty ; 
a floor thrown over it, at seven feet high ; a door 
in the middle of the front, and a window oppo- 
site ; with the mill on one side, the press on the 
other side of the window ; as much room being 
left in front, towards the door, for fruit and 
utensils, as the nature of the mill and the press 
will allow. It consists of two beams supported 
by uprights with strong braces of wood. The 
apples being introduced between the pressing 
surfaces, the juice exudes. To produce this 
effect the more rapidly, a roller is previously 
employed, very similar to that used for crushing 
gypsum, in the manufacture of plaster of Paris ; 
and the cohesive fibre of the fruit is by this 
means broken down. When a screw-press is 
substituted for this instrument, a spur wheel should 
be added, and the whole apparatus may then 
be erected for about 10. We mention this cir- 
cumstance the more particularly as, while we are 
now writing, the whole of the duty has been taken 
off this valuable and healthy beverage, so that it 
bids fair to be more generally made than hereto- 

The apple-mill does not differ essentially 
from that of a common tanner's mill for grinding 
bark ; and consists of a mill-stone from two feet 
and a half to four and a half in diameter, running 
on its edge in a circular stone trough, from nine 
to twelve inches in thickness, and from one to two 
tons in weight : the bottom of the trough in which 
the stone runs is somewhat wider than the thick- 
ness of the stone itself; the inner side of the 
groove rises perpendicularly, but the outer is 
levelled in such a manner as to make the top of 
the trough six or eight inches wider than the 
bottom, by which means there is room for the 
stone to run freely, and likewise for putting in 
the fruit, and stirring it up while grinding. The 
bed of a middle sized mill is about nine feet, 
some ten, and some twelve, the whole being 
composed of two, three, or four stones, bound 



together with cramps of iron, and finished after 
being cramped in tins manner. The best stones 
are found in the forest of Dean, generally a dark 
reddish gritstone, not calcareous; for if the 
stone was of a calcareous quality, the acid juice 
of the fruit would act upon it and spoil the li- 
quor; a clean-grained erindstone grit is the 
fittest for the purpose. The runner is moved by 
means of an axle passing through the centre 
with a long arm reaching without the bed of the 
mill, for a horse to draw by ; on the other side is 
a shorter arm, passing through the centre of the 
stone. An iron bolt, with a large head, passes 
through an eye in the lower part of the swi- 
vel, on which the stone turns into the end 
of the inner arm of the axis ; and thus the dou- 
ble motion of it is obtained, and the stone kept 
perfectly upright. There ought also to be fixed 
on the inner arm of the axis, about a foot from 
the runner, a cogged wheel, working in a circle 
of cogs fixed upon the bed of the mill ; these not 
only prevent the runner from sliding, which it is 
apt to do, when the mill is full ; but likewise 
make the work more easy for the horse. 

The bottom of the press ought to be made 
entirely of wood or of stone ; the practice of 
covering it with lead being now well known to 
be pernicious. A few inches within its outer 
edges a channel is cut to catch the liquor as it is 
expressed, and convey it to a lip formed by a 
pi ejection on that side of tne bed opposite the 
mill ; having under it a stone trough or wooden 
vessel, sunk within the ground, when the bed is 
fixed low to receive it. The press is worked 
with levers of different lengths, first a short, and 
then a longer one, both worked by the hand ; 
and afterwards a bar, eight or nine feet in length, 
worked by a windlass. Mr. Marshall computes 
the expense of fitting up a mill-house at about 
20 or 25, or on a small scale at 10 or 
15, but if the stone has to be brought from 
a distance, the carriage will make a difference. 

' Where iron-mills have been tried, this metal 
has been found to be soluble in the acid of apples, 
to which it communicates a brown color, and an 
unpleasant taste. No combination has been as- 
certained to take place between this acid and 
lead ; but as the calx of this metal readily dis- 
solves in, and communicates an extremely poi- 
sonous quality to, the acetous juice of the apple, 
it should never be suffered to come into contact 
with the fruit or liquor.' Knight on the Apple 
and Pear, which may justly be considered as 
one of the most valuable treatises on this im- 
portant subject. 

There is a cyder-mill in use in the south of 
France, worked on a circular platform of boards, 
and, instead of stone, the wheel or conical roller 
is of cast-iron. The fruit is thinly spread over 
the platform, and the roller moved round by one 
man or woman. From the rollers covering more 
breadth than the narrow wheels in use in Eng- 
iand, more fruit is crushed in a short time by 
this sort of mill. 

Another and very convenient cyder-mill some- 
times consists, in its simplest form, of two toothed 
or indented wooden cylinders of about nine inches 
in diameter, each being enclosed in the manner 
of other mills, having a feeder at the top ; and 

being made so as to be turned by the hand Tin: 
cylinders are so arranged as to be capable of 
being removed to a greater or less distance from 
each other, and thus the business advances in ;i 
regular progressive manner, from the first cut- 
ting of the fruit until the cylinders are brought 
so close together that a kernel cannot pass with- 
out being bruised ; if a second pair of finer 
toothed cylinders bo made to work under these, 
the pulp will be brought into a perfect state of 
fineness. It is with difficulty that the same de- 
gree of fineness can be effected by the horse- 

A hand-mill, where cyder is only made for 
private use, sometimes consists of a pair of fluted 
rollers working into each other. They are of 
cast-iron, hollow, about nine inches diameter, 
with flutes or teeth, about an inch wide, and 
nearly as much deep : two men work them by 
hand against each other. The fruit passes be- 
tween them twice; the rollers being first set wide, 
to break it into fragments, and afterwards closer 
to reduce the fragments and the seeds. 

Cyder-vats are vessels for receiving the pom- 
mage, or the cyder before it is racked off into 
the cask. They should be made of wood, as, 
where lead is employed, it is liable to be cor 
roded by the acid. Of the casks we have al- 
ready spoken. 

Mr. Crocker observes that, in die districts of 
Hereford and Worcester, the following are con- 
sidered as the best liquor fruits : the bennet 
apple, captain Nurse's kernel, Elton's yellow, 
Normandy apple, and the yellow or forest stire. 
And that, in the county of Somerset, the Jersey, 
the white sour, the margill, vallis apple, barn's- 
door, crab red-streak, Du-ann, Jack Every, coc- 
cagee, Clark's prime, Buckland, Pit crab, Sla- 
ter's pearmain, Slater's No. 19, Slater's No. 20, 
Slater's No. 21, castle pippin, saw-pit, and the 
pomme apis, are supposed most valuable. But 
that in Devonshire, the most esteemed fruits are; 
the Seaverton red-streak, the sweet broady, the 
lemon bitter sweet, josey, Orcheton pippin, wine 
apple, marygold spice-apple, Ludbrook red- 
streak, green Cornish, the butter-box, red Cor- 
nish, broad-nosed pippin, cat's head, brandy- 
apple, Pine's red-streak, winter red, sweet 
pomme roi, and the Bickley red-streak. Mar- 
shall mentions the stire-apple, hagloe crab, 
the golden pippin, the old red-streak, and the 
woodcock, as favorite old cyder fruits, now on 
the decline. It was during the reign of Charles 
I. that the plantations of Herefordshire acquired 
the peculiar eminence which they yet retain, 
when by the spirited exertions of lord Scudamore, 
and other gentlemen of the county, Hereford- 
shire 'became, in a manner, one entire orchard.' 
The principal markets for the fruit liquors of 
this county, are those of London and Bristol, 
whence great quantities are sent to Ireland, 
to the East and West Indies, and toother foreign 
markets, in bottles. The price of the common 
cyder is generally fixed once a year by a meet- 
ing of the dealers at Hereford fair, on the 20th 
of October. 

CynER SPIRIT, is a spirituous liquor drawn 
from cyder by distillation, in the same manner 
as brandy from wine. Its flavor is not agree- 


CYD i 

able, hut it may be entirely divested of it, and 
rendered perfectly pure by rectification. The 
traders in spirituous liquors are well acquainted 
with the value of such a spirit as this : they can 
give it the flavors of some other kinds, and sell it 
under their names, or mix it in large proportion 
with foreign brandy, rum, and arrack, in the sale, 
without danger of detection. 

CYDER WINE, a kind of wine made from the 
juice of apples taken from the press and boiled, 
and which being kept three or four years is said 
to resemble Rhenish. The method of preparing 
it according to Dr. Rush of America, where it is 
much practised, consists in evaporating in a 
brewing copper the fresh apple juice till half of 
it be consumed. The remainder is then imme- 
diately conveyed into a wooden cooler, and after- 
wards put into a proper cask with an addition of 
yeast, and fermented in the ordinary way. The 
process is evidently borrowed from what has long 
been practised on the recent juice of the grape, 
under the term of vin cuit, or boiled wine, in 
Italy, and the islands of the Archipelago. This 
process has often become an object of imi- 
tation in the cyder counties, and particularly in 
the west of England. Dr. Fothergill made a 
variety of experiments to ascertain whether or 
not the liquor acquires any noxious quality from 
the copper in which it is boiled, and the result 
seemed to afford a strong presumption that the 
wine does contain a minute impregnation of 
copper. It is a curious chemical fact, he ob- 
serves, that acid liquors, while kept boiling in 
copper vessels, acquire little or no impregnation 
from the metal, but presently begin to act upon 
it .when left to stand in the cold. 

CYDIAS, an ancient Greek painter who made 
a painting of the Argonauts in the eleventh 
Olympiad. This celebrated piece was bought by 
the orator Hortcnsius for 164 talents. 

CYDNUS, in ancient geography, a river of 
Cilicia; rising in Mount Taurus, or rather inAn- 
titaurus, north of Tarsus, through whose middle 
it ran, in a very clear and cold stream ; falling 
into the sea at a place called Rhegma, a breach, 
the sea breaking in there, and affording the peo- 
ple of Tarsus a station or port for their ships. The 
water of the Cydnus is commended by Strabo, 
as of service in nervous disorders and the gout ; 
it was so cold, however, that bathing in it had 
almost proved fatal to Alexander. 

CYDONIAjOr CYDON, in ancient geography, 
one of the three most illustrious cities of Crete, 
situated in the north-west of the island, with a 
port walled round. Stephen of Byzantium says, 
that it was first named Apollonia from Cydon 
the son of Apollo. Pausanias ascribes the found- 
ing of it to Cydon the son of Tegetus, who tra- 
velled into Crete. Herodotus affirms, that it 
was founded by the Samians, and that its temples 
were erected by them. Alexander, in the first 
book of the Cretans, informs us, that it received 
its name from Cydon the son of Mercury. Cy- 
don was the largest city in the island ; and was en- 
abled to hold the balance between her contending 
neighbours. Phaleucus, general of the Pho- 
ceans, making an expedition into Crete with a 
fleet and a numerous army, invested Cydon both 
by sea and land ; but, lost his army and his life 

* CYL 

before its walls. In succeeding times, when Me- 
tellus subdued the island, he assailed Cydon 
with all his forces; and, after combating an ob- 
stinate resistance, subjected it to the power of 
Rome. Cydon occupied the present situation 
of Canea ; only extending half a league further 
towards St. Odero. 

CY'GNET, n. s. Lat. fron- cygnus. A young 

I am the cygnet to this pale faint swan, 
Who chaunts a doleful hymn to his own deatn. 

Shakspeare. King John. 

So doth the swan her downy cygnets save, 
Keeping them prisoners underneath her wings. 

Id. Henry VI. 

Cygnets, from grey, turn white. 

Bacm't Natural History. 

Young cygnett arc good meat, if fatted with oats ; 
but, fed with weeds, they taste fishy. 

Mortimer's Husbandry. 

Next the changed god a cygnet's form assumes, 
And playful Leda smooths his glossy plumes. 


And she bent o'er him, and he lay beneath, 
Hushed as the babe upon its mother's breast, 

Diooped as the willow when no winds can breathe, 
Lulled like the depth of ocean when at rest, 

Fair as the crowning rose of the whole wreath, 
Soft as the callow cygnet in its nest. 

Byron. Don Juan. 

CY'LINDER, n. s.~\ KvXwfyoc. A circular 
CYLINDRICAL, adj. /body terminated by two 
CYLIN'DRICK, adj. t flat surfaces. Partaking 
CYLI'NDROID, n. s. J of the nature of a cylin- 
der ; having the form of a cylinder. A cylin- 
droid is a body approaching to the figure of a 

The square will make you ready for all manner of 
compartments, bases, pedestals, plots, and buildings ; 
your cylinder, for vaulted turrets, and round build- 
ings. Peacham. 

The quantity of water which every revolution does 
carry, according to any inclination of the cylinder, 
may be easily found. Wilkiru. 

Minera ferri stalactitia, when several of the cylin- 
drick striae are contiguous, and grow to ether into one 
sheaf, is called brush iron ore. 

Woodward'* Natural History. 

Obstructions must be most incident to such parts of 
the body where the circulation and the elastick fibres 
are both smallest, and those glands, which are the 
extremities of arteries formed into cylindrical canals. 
Arbuthnot on Aliment. 

Nymphs ! your fine hands ethereal floods amass 
From the warm cushion, and the whirling glass ; 
Beard the bright cylinder with golden wire, 
And circumfuse the gravitating fire. Darunn. 

Pent in dark chambers of cylindric brass, 
Slumbers in grim repose the sooty mass. Id. 

This knob or corner of a cloud in being attracted by 
the earth will become nearly cylindrical, as loose wool 
would do when drawn out into a thread, and w?il 
strike the earth with a stream of electricity, perhaps 
two or ten vards in diameter. Id 

GYM 19 


CYLINDER, in geometry, a so- 
lid body, supposed to he gene- 
rated by the rotation of a rectangle 
about one of its sides, as the figure 
C D E F generated by the revolu- 
tion of the parallelogram A B E F 
round its side AB, which is the 
axis of the cylinder. See GEO- 

CYLINDROID, in geometry, a solid body, 
approaching to the figure of a cylinder, but dif- 
fe'ring from it in some respects, as having the 
bases elliptical, but parallel and equal. 

CYMA'lt, n. i. Properly written simar. A 
slight covering ; a scarf. 

Her comely limbs composed with decent care, 

Her body haded with a slight cymar , 

Her bosom to the view was only hare. Dryden, 

CYMA'TIUM, n. s. Lat. from Kvpanov, a 
little wave. A membe p of architecture, whereof 
one half is convex, and the other concave. 
There are two sorts, of which one is hollow be- 
low, as the other is above. 

In a cornice, the gola, or cymatium of the corona* 
the coping, the modillions, or dcntelli, make a nob'e 
ehow by their graceful projections. Spectator. 

CY'MBAL, n. s. Lat. cymbalum. A musi- 
cal instrument. 

The trumpets, sackbuts, psalteries, and fifes, 

Tabors, and cymbals, and the shouting Romans, 

Make the sun dance. Shaktpeare. Coriolamu. 

If mirth should fail, 111 busy her with cares, 
Silence her clamorous voice with louder wars ; 
Trumpets and drums shall fright her from the throne, 
As sounding cymbals aid the lab'ring moon. 

Dryden's Awengtebe. 

Ah '. tinkling cymbal, and high sounding brass, 
Smitten in vain I such music cannot charm 
The eclipse, that intercepts truth's heavenly beam, 
And chills and darkens a wide-wandering soul. 


A dolphin now his sportive limbs he laves, 
And bears the sportive damsel on the waves ; 
She strikes the cymbal as he moves along, 
A nd wondering ocean listens to the song. Darwin. 

Others their hands applausive beat. 
Like cymbalt sounding as they meet. Sheridan. 

Her large black eyes, that flashed through her long 


As it streamed o'er her ; her blue veins that rose 
Along her most transparent brow ; her nostril 
Dilated from its symmetry ; her lip 
Apart ; her voice that clove through all the din, 
As a lute's picrceth through the cymbal't clash, 
Jarred but not drowned bv the loud brattling. 

Kyron. Sardanapalui. 

CYMBALS, ANCIENT, Gr. rv/i/3oX.ov. Thy cym- 
bal was much used among the ancients. It was 
made of brass like our kettle drums, and, as some 
think, in their form, but smaller, and of different 
use. Ovid gives cymbals the epithet of genialia, 
because they were used at weddings and other 
diversions. Cassiodorus and Isidore call this 
instrument acetabulum, the name of a cup or ca- 
vity of a bone wherein another is articulated ; 
.aid Xenophon compares it to a horse's hoof; 

whence it must have been hollow : which ap- 
pears, too, from the figure of several other things 
denominated from it; as a basin, caldron, gob- 
let, cask, and even a shoe, such as those of Em- 
pedocles, which were of brass. The ancient 
cymbals appear to have been very different from 
our kettle drums, and their use of another kind. 
To their exterior cavity was fastened a handle , 
whence Pliny compares them to the upper part 
of the thigh, and Rabanus to phials. They were 
struck against one another in cadence, and made 
a very acute sound. The invention of them was 
attributed to Cybele ; whence their use in feasts 
and sacrifices ; setting aside this occasion, they 
were seldom used but by dissolute and effeminate 
people. M. Latnpe attributes the invention to 
the Curetes, who, as well as the Corybantes, were 
reputed to excel in the music of the cymbal. The 
Jews had thei- cymbals, or at least instruments 
which translators render cymbals ; but as to their 
material and form, critics are not agreed. 

CYMBALS, MODERN. The modern cymbal has 
been sometimes defined as a mean instrument, 
chiefly in use among vagrants, gypsies, &c. It 
consists of steel wire in a triangular form, 
whereon are passed rings, which are touched and 
shifted along the triangle with an iron rod held 
in the left hand, while it is supported in the right 
by a ring. Durandus says, that the monks 
sometimes use the word cymbal for the cloister- 
bell, which called them to the refectory. It is clear 
that our translators, at least, 1 Cor. xiii. 1, had 
this small kind of ' tinkling' instruments in view 
when they contrast ^oXjcoc ;x wv > sonorous brass, 
perhaps the sound of the trumpet, with nipfiaXov 
oXoXaoi', a tinkling cymbal. 

But modern times have witnessed the extensive 
introduction of a very different cymbal amongst the 
military instruments of Europe. It is an instru- 
ment of loud percussion, adopted by us imme- 
diately from the east, and resembling the 
celebrated cymbals of Bacchus, which were 
evidently struck one against another, and would 
produce a sharp clamorous sound. They are 
employed as being useful for the loudness of 
their music in marking the due time and military 
step of a march. But the sounds produced are 
said to be inappreciable to the ear : this how- 
ever is not the fact. 

CYME, or CUMA, in ancient geography, a 
city built by Pelops on his return from Greece. 
Cyme the Amazon gave it name, on expelling the 
inhabitants, according to Mela. Livy, Mela, 
Nepos, Pliny, and Tacitus use the Greek name 
Cyme, in preference to Cuma. It stood in 
./Eolia, between the Myrina and Phocaea, and in 
Pentinger's map is set down nine miles from 
Myrina. From this place was the Sybilla Cu- 
mjea, called also Erythrsea, from Erythrae, a 
neighbouring place. It was the country of 
Ephorus. Hesiod was a Cumean originally ; 
his father coming to settle at Astra in Bu-otia. 

CYMENE, in botany, a name given by the 
ancient Greeks to a plant with which they used 
to dye woollen stuffs yellow; and with which 
the women used also to tinge their hair ; yellow 
being the favorite color in those ages. It is the 
same plant with the latea herba of the Latins; or 
what we call dyer's weed. 

C V 


CYN^EGIRUS, an Athenian, celebrated for 
his extraordinary courage. He was brother to the 
poet TEschylus. After the battle of Marathon, 
he pursued the flying Persians to their ships, and 
seized one of their vessels with his right hand, 
which was immediately severed by the enemy. 
Upon this he seized the vessel with his left hand, 
and when be had lost that also, he still kept his 
hold with his teeth. 

CYNANCIIE, a species of quinsy, in which the 
tongue is inflamed and swelled, so that it hangs 
out beyond the teeth. Dr Cullen distinguishes 
h've species of this disease ; viz. 1. cynanche ma- 
ligna ; 2. cynanche parotidaea ; 3. cynanche pha- 
ryngaea ; 4. cynanche tonsillaris ; and 5. cy- 
nanche trachealis. See MEDICINE. 

CYNANCHUM, bastard dogsbane,in botany, 
a genus of the digynia order, and pentandria 
class of plants ; natural order thirtieth, contortae. 
The nectarium is cylindrical and quinqueden- 
tated. There are six species ; of which the fol- 
lowing are the most remarkable: viz. 1. C. 
acutum, commonly called Montpelier scammony; 
and 2. C. Monspeliacum, the round-leaved Mont- 
pelier scammony. They abound with a milky 
juice like the spurge, which issues out wherever 
they are broken ; and this milky juice when con- 
creted has frequently been sold for scammony. 
These plants propagate so fast by their creeping 
roots, that few people care to admit them into 
their gardens. 

CYNA'NTHROPY, n. s. Kvuv KVVOQ, and 
v0pa>7roc. A species of madness in which men 
have the qualities of dogs. 

CYNARA, the artichoke, in botany, a genus of 
the polygamia sequalis order, and syngenesia 
class of plants : CAL. dilated, imbricated with 
carnous squama, and emarginated with a sharp 
point. Of this genus there are eight species ; of 
which only two are cultivated for use : viz. 1. C. 
cardunculus, the cardoon, greatly resembles the 
artichoke, but is of larger and more regular 
growth : the leaves being more upright, taller, 
broader, and more regularly divided : the stalks 
of the leaves blanched are the only edible parts 
of the plant. This is a very hardy plant, and 
prospers in the open quarters of the kitchen garden. 
It is propagated by seed so'.vn annually in the full 
ground in March ; either in a bed for transplanta- 
tion, or in the place where they are designed to re- 
main. 2. C. scolynius, the garden artichoke, nas 
large, thick, perennial roots, crowned by a consider- 
able cluster of large pennatifid, erect leaves, two or 
three feet long. In the middle are upright stalks 
rising a yard high, on the top of which is a large 
round scaly head, composed of numerous, oval, 
calycinal scales, enclosing the florets, sitting on a 
broad fleshy receptacle, which, with the fleshy 
base of the scales, is the eatable part of the plant. 
The varieties of this species are, 1 . The conical 
green-headed French artichoke, having the small 
leaves terminated by spines, a tall stalk, the head 
somewhat conical, and of a light green color, 
with the scales pointed at top, opening and turn- 
ing outward. 2. The globular-headed red Dutch 
artichoke, having leaves without spines, a strong 
stalk, the head large, globular, a little compressed 
at top, and of a reddish green color ; broad ob- 
tuse scales cmarginated at ton. growing close, 

:0 CYN 

and turning inward. Of these varieties the last 
is deservedly the most esteemed, both on account 
of its superiority in size and the agreeablene?s of 
its flavor. Both varieties are perennial in their 
root; but the leaves and fruit-stem die to the 
ground in winter; and the roots remaining, send 
up fresh leaves and stems every summer, pro- 
ducing a supply of artichokes for twenty years if 
required. The flowers and seed of all the plants 
of this genus are produced in the centre of the 
head ; the scales of which are the proper calyx 
of the flower, which consists of numerous small 
bluish florets, succeeded by downy seeds sitting 
naked on the receptacle. Both the varieties of 
the artichoke are propagated by slips or suckers, 
arising annually from the stool or root of the old 
plants in spring, which are to be taken from good 
plants of any present plantation in March or the 
beginning of April, and planted in the open 
quarter of the kitchen garden, in rows five feet 
asunder; and they will produce artichokes the 
same year in autumn. It should however be re- 
marked, that, though artichokes are of many years 
duration, the annual produce of their fruit will 
gradually lessen in the size of the eatable parts 
after the third or fourth year, so that a fresh 
plantation should be made every three or four 

CYNARCTO'MACHY. Kvuv, aptrbc, parf. 
A word coined by Butler, to denote bear-baiting 
with a dog. 

That some occult design doth lie 
In bloody cynarctomachy, 
Is plain enough to him that knows 
How saints lead brothers by the nose. 


CYNEAS, or CINEAS, the friend of Pyrrhus 
and scholar of Demosthenes, who flourished 
A. A. C. 275. Pyrrhus and he wrote a treatise 
of War, quoted by Tully. 

CYNEGE'TICKS, n. s. Kvvtyi { Tiica. The 
art of hunting; the art of training and hunting 
with dogs. 

There are extant, in Greek, four books of cynege- 
ticks, or venation. Browne's Vulgar Errours. 

CY'NICK, n. s. & adj. > KIWKOC. A philo- 
CY'NICAL, adj. S sopher of the snarling 

or currish sort; a rude man; a snarler; a mis- 
anthrope. Having currish qualities ; brutal ; 
snarling; satirical. 

How vilely doth this cynick rhime ! 
Get you hence, sirrah ; saucy fellow, hence. 


Or been the manes of that Cynic spright 
Cloathed with some stubborn clay and led to light 1 
Or do the relic ashes of his grave 
Revive and rise from their forsaken cave 1 Hall. 

He doth believe that some new-fangled wit (it is 
his cynical phrase) will some time or other find out 
his art. Wilhint. 

Without these precautions the man degenerates into 
a cynick, the woman into a coquette ; the man grows 
sullen and morose, the woman impertinent and' fan- 
tastical. Addison. 

The Cynics of old, and some of the Stoics, main- 
tained, that in words there is no indelicacy ; that 
tliLTe can be no harm in speaking of any thing that is 




natural ; and that, if we may speak M ithont blame of 
anyone crime, or any ono part or 1 inction of the 
human body, we may, in like manner, of any other. 
But this is vile sophistry, tending to the utter debase- 
ment of man, and founded in the grossest ignorance of 
human nature and human language. Beattie 

CYNICS, a sect of ancient philosophers, who 
valued themselves upon their contempt of riches 
and of pomp, of the arts and sciences, and of 
every thing in short except virtue and morality. 
The cynic philosophers owe their origin and in- 
stitution to Antisthenes of Athens, a disciple of 
Socrates ; who being asked of what use his phi- 
losophy had been to him, replied, ' It enables me 
to live with myself.' Diogenes was the most fa- 
mous of his disciples, in whose character the 
system of this philosophy appears in its greatest 
perfection. See DIOCF.NES. These sages are 
said to have regarded chastity and modesty as 
weaknesses; and coarseness, even to indelicacy, 
was certainly one of their characteristics. They 
argued that what was right to be done, might be 
done at all times and in all places. Their chief 
principle, indeed, in common with that of the 
stoics, was, that we should follow nature. But 
the stoics clearly included the government of rea- 
son, in the rule of nature, which the cynics, for 
the greater part, rejected. 

CYNIPS, in zoology, a genus of insects be- 
longing to the hymenoptera order. The mouth is 
armed with jaws, but has no proboscis : the sting 
is spiral, and mostly concealed within the body. 
There are many species. We can only mention 

1. C. quercus folii, or oak-leaf cy nips, is of a 
burnished shining brown color. The antennae 
are black ; the legs and feet of a chestnut brown ; 
and the wings white, but void of marginal spots. 
It is in the little smooth, round, hard galls, 
found under the oak leaves, generally fastened 
to the fibres, that this insect is produced, a single 
one in each gall. These latter are ligneous, of 
a hard compact substance, formed like the rest, 
by the extravasation of the sap of the leaf, occa- 
sioned by ihe puncture of the gall fly when it 
deposits its eggs. Sometimes, instead of the 
cynips, there is seen to proceed from the gall a 
larger insect, of a brown color, which is an ich- 
neumon. This ichneumon is not the real in- 
mate of the gall, or he that formed it. 

2. C. quercus gemmae, or oak bud cyuips, is 
of a very dark green, slightly gilded : its antennae 
and feet are of a dun color, rather deep. It 
deposits its eggs in the oak buds, which produce 
one of the finest galls, leafed like a rosebud be- 
ginning to blow. When the gall is small, that 
great quantity of leaves is compressed, and they 
are set one upon another like the tiles of a roof. 
In the centre of the gall there is a kind of ligneous 
kernel, in the middle of which is a cavity ; and 
*r. that is found the little larva, which feeds there, 
takes its growth, undergoes its metamorphosis, 
and breaks through the enclosure of that kind of 
cod in order to get out. The whole gall is often 
near an inch in diameter, sometimes more when 
dried and displayed ; and it holds to a branch 
by a pedicle. 

CYNOBELINE, a king of the South Britons, 
who flourished in the reign of Claudius, and 

fought several battles with the Romans undct 
Plautius, the prictor; about A. D. 43-46. 

CYNOGLOSSUM, hound's tongue, in bo- 
tany, a genus of the monogynia order, pentandria 
class of plants; natural order forty-first, asperi- 
foliae : COR. funnel-shaped, with its throat closed 
up by little arches formed in it; the seeds do- 
pressed, and affixed to the style or receptacle 
only on their inner side. There are eight species, 
not remarkable for beauty. C. officinale, the 
common greater hound's tongue, was formerly 
used in medicine, and its root supposed to pos- 
sess narcotic virtues; but it is discarded from 
the present practice. The smell of the whole 
plant is very disagreeable. Goats eat it : sheep, 
horses, and swine refuse it. 

CYNOMETRA, in botany, a genus of the 
monogynia order and decandria class of plants ; 
CAL. tetraphyllous : ANTH. bifid at top ; the legu- 
men carnous, crescent-shaped, and monosper- 
mous. Species two, Indian trees. 

CYNOMORIUM, in botany, a genus of the 
monandria order and moncecia class of plants : 
natural order fiftieth, amentaceae : CAL. imori- 
cated catkin : COR. none : one style ; and one 
roundish seed. Species one only. 

CYNOPHONTiS, in antiquity, a festival ob- 
served in the dog-days at Argos, and so called 
OTTO Tsy Kvvag Qovuv, i. e. from killing dogs ; 
because it was usual on this day to kill all the 
dogs they met with. 

CYNOSARGES, a place in the suburbs of 
Athens, named from a white or swift dog, who 
snatched away part of the sacrifice offering to 
Hercules. It had a gymnasium, in which stran- 
gers or those of the half blood performed their 
exercises ; the case of Hercules, to whom the 
place was consecrated. It had also a court of 
judicature, to try illegitimacy, and to examine 
whether persons were Athenians of the whole or 
half blood. 

CYNOSCEPHALjE, in ancient geography, a 
place in Thessaly, near Scotussa; where the 
Romans, under Q. Flaminius, gained a great 
victory over Philip, son of Demetrius king of 
Macedon. These Cynoscephalae were small tops of 
several equal eminences ; named from their resem- 
blance to dogs' heads, according to Plutarch. 

CYN OSS EM A, the tomb of Hecuba, on the 
promontory Mastusia, over against Sigeum, in 
the south of the Chersonesus Thracica; named 
either from the figure of a dog, to which she was 
fabled to have been changed, or from her sad 
reverse of fortune. 

CYNOSURA, in astronomy, a denomination 
given by the Greeks to ursa minor, or the little 
bear, from mtvovupa, the dog's tail. This is the 
constellation next our pole, consisting of seven 
stars : four of which are disposed like the four 
wheels of a chariot, ->nd three lengthways repre- 
senting the beam ; whence some give it the name 
of the chariot, or Charles's wain. See CYNOSURE. 

CYNOSURA, in mythology, a nymph of Ida, in 
Crete, said to have nursed Jupiter, who changed 
her into a star. 

cient geography, a place in Laconia ; but whe- 
ther maritime or inland, is uncertain. Here 
/Esculapius was buried. 




CY'NOSURE, n. s. From KVVOQ owpa. The 
star near the north pole, by which sailors steer. 

Towers and battlements it sees 
Bosomed high in tufted trees, 
Where perhaps some beauty lies, 
The cynosure of neighbouring eyes. Milton. 

CYNOSURUS, in botany, dog-tail grass ; a 
genus of the digynia order and triaudria class of 
plants ; natural order fourth, gramina : CAL. bi- 
valved and multiflorous; the receptacle proper, 
unilateral, and foliaceous. There are ten spe- 
cies, four of which are natives of Britain, viz. 
the cristatus, or crested dog-tail grass ; the echi- 
natus, or rough dog-tail grass ; the caeruleus, or 
blue dog-tail grass; and the paniceus or bearded 
dog-tail grass. 

CYNTHUS, in ancient geography, a moun- 
tain of the island Delos, so high as to overshadow 
the whole island. On this mountain Latonawas 
fabled to have brought forth Apollo and Diana ; 
hence called Cynthius and Cynthia. 

CYNURIA, or CYNURIUS AGER, in ancient 
geography, a district of Laconia, on the confines 
of Argolis, that proved a perpetual bone of con- 
tention between the Argives and Spartans. 

CY'ON. SeeCioN. 

Gather cyons for graffs before the buds sprout. 


CYPERUS, in botany, a genus of the mono- 
gynia order and triandria class of plants ; natural 
order third, calamarise. The glumes are pale- 
aceous, and imbricated towards each side ; the 
corolla is wanting, and there is one naked seed. 
There are thirty species; the only remarkable 

1. C. longus, the English, Flemish, or long 
sweet cyperus, grows in the water, and along 
banks and river sides. Its root is as thick as an 
olive, full of little knots or specks, of an oblong 
figure, gray color, sweet and somewhat sharp 
taste, and almost without smell when it is newly 
taken out of the ground. It is much used by per- 
fumers and glovers. 

2. C. rotundus, the round cyperus, is a native 
of the East Indies, and grows by the sides of 
rivulets and ditches. The root is knotty, wrapped 
round with fibrous strings, not easy to break, of 
a brown color without any gray within ; of a plea- 
sant scent, especially when fresh and well dried ; 
the leaves are green, and resemble those of the 
reed and leek. The roots of both species are 
esteemed cordial, diuretic, cephalic, resisters of 
poisons, and expellers of wind. 


CY'PHERING, n. *. Skill in arithmetic; 
the art of arithmetic. 

Is a fine clerk, and has his cyphering perfect. 

Ben Jonson. 

CYPHON, in antiquity, akind of punishment 
used by the Athenians. It was a collar made of 
wood ; so called because it constrained the cri- 
minal to bow down his head. 

derived from ni^oc, crooked, a kind of torture or 
punishment in use among the ancients. The 
learned are at a loss to determine what it was. 
Some suppose it to be that mentioned by St. 
Jerome, in his Life of Paul the Hermit, chap. 2, 

which consisted in smearing the body over with 
honey, and thus exposing the person, with his 
hands tied, to the warm sun, to invite the flies 
and other vermin to torment him. 

CYPR^EA, the gowrie, in zoology, a genus 
of insects belonging to the order of vermes testa- 
cea. It is an animal of the limax or snail kind ; 
the shell is one involuted, subovated, obtuse, 
smooth valve. The aperture on each side is 
linear, longitudinal, and teethed. There are 
forty-four species, distinguished by the form of 
their shells. This genus is called cypraca and 
venerea from its being peculiarly dedicated to 
Venus ; who is fabled to have endowed a shell 
of this genus with the powers of a remora, so as 
to impede the course of the ship which was sent 
by Periander, tyrant of Corinth, with orders to 
mutilate the young nobility of Corcyra. 

CY'PRESS-TREE, n. s. Lat. cupressus. A 
tree anciently used in funerals ; thence, poeti- 
cally, the emblem of mourning. See CUPRESSUS. 

He taketh the cypresx and the oak, which he 
strengthened for himself among the trees of the 
forest. Isaiah xliv. 14. 

The aspine, good for staves, the cypresse funerall. 
Spenser. Faerie Queene. 
In ivory coffers I have stuffed my crowns ; 
In cypress chests my arras counterpanes. 


Poison be their drink, 
Their sweetest shade a grove of cypress trees. 

Id. Henry VI. 

Bind ye my brows with mourning cyperisse, 
And palish twigs of dcadlie poplar tree. Hall. 

Poplars and alders ever-quivering played, 
And nodding cypress formed a fragrant shade. 

Pope's Odyssey. 

Long aisles of cyprett waved their deepened glooms, 
And quivering spectres grinned amid the tombs. 


Though no funereal cypress shade thy tomb, 
For thee the wreaths of Paradise shall bloom. 


Oh, snatched away in beauty's bloom, 
On thee shall press no ponderous tomb j 
But on thy turf shall roses rear 
Their leaves, the earliest of the year ; 
And the wild cypress wave in tender gloom. 

Byron. Hebrew Melodies. 


CYPRIANUS (Thascius-Caecilius), a father 
of the church, born at Carthage, about the end 
of the second or beginning of the third century. 
His parents were heathen ; and he himself con- 
tinued such till the last twelve years of his life. 
Applying early to the study of oratory, he taught 
rhetoric in Carthage with the highest applause. 
His conversion is fixed by Pearson, A. D. 246, 
at Carthage, where, as St. Jerome observes, he 
had often employed his rhetoric in the defence of 
paganism. Cyprian, although a married man, 
as soon as he was converted, resolved upon a 
state of continence, which was then thought a 
high degree of piety. He wrote ably in defence 
of Christianity, and addressed to Donatus his 
first production De Gratia Dei. He next com- 
posed a piece De Idolorum Vanitate, upon the 
vanity of idols. Cyprian was now ordained 
priest, and, when the bishop of Carthage died. 

C Y P R I N U S 


none was judged so proper to succeed him as 
Cyprian. His first episcopal engagement was 
to draw up a piece De Habitu Virginum, on the 
dress of young females; in which he inculcates 
many lessons of modesty and sobriety. In 249 
Decius issued very severe edicts against the 
Christians; and in 250 the heathens, in the circus 
and amphitheatre of Carthage, insisted upon 
Cyprian's being thrown to the lions. Upon this 
he withdrew from Carthage, and wrote, in his 
retreat, some excellent letters to the Libellatici, 
or those pusillanimous Christians, who procured 
certificates of the heathen magistrates, to show 
that they had complied with the emperor's orders, 
in sacrificing to idols. At his return to Carthage 
he held several councils on the repentance of 
those who had fallen off during this persecution, 
and other points of discipline ; he opposed the 
schemes of Novatus and Novatianus ; and con- 
tended for the rebaptising of those who had been 
baptised by heretics. At last he died a martyr 
in the persecution under Valerian and Gallienus, 
in 258. Cyprian wrote eighty-one letters, and 
several treatises. The best editions of his works 
are those of Pamelius in 1568; of Rigaltius in 
1648 ; and of Oxford in 1682. 

CYPRINUS, in ichthyology, a genus of fishes 
belonging to the order of abdominales. The 
mouth is toothless ; there are three rays in the 
gills ; the body is smooth and white ; and the 
belly fins have frequently nine rays. There are 
thirty-one species, principally distinguished by 
the number of rays in the vent-fin. The most 
remarkable are 1. C. alburnus, the bleak. These 
fish keep together in large shoals. At certain 
seasons they seem to be in great agonies : they 
tumble about near the surface of the water, and 
are incapable of swimming far from the place; 
but in about two hours they recover and disap- 
pear. Fish thus affected, the Thames fishermen 
call mad bleaks. They seem to be troubled with 
a species of Gordius, or hair worm, which tor- 
ments them so, that they often rise to the surface 
and die. The bleak seldom exceeds five or six 
inches in length. Artificial pearls are made of 
the scales of this fish, and probably also with 
those of the dace. They are beaten into a fine 
powder, then diluted with water, and introduced 
into a thin glass bubble, which is afterwards 
filled with wax. The French were the inventors 
of this art. 2. C. auratus, the golden fish, a 
small fish domesticated by the Chinese, and ge- 
nerally kept for ornament in their courts and 
gardens. They breed them in small ponds made 
for the purpose, in basins, and even in porcelain 
vessels. This fish is no larger than our pilchard. 
The male is of a bright red color from the top of 
the head to the middle of the body : the rest is 
of a gold color : hut it is so bright and splendid, 
that the finest gilding cannot approach it. The 
female is white : but its tail and half of its body 
resemble the lustre of silver. F. du Halde, how- 
ever, observes, that a red and white color are not 
always the distinguishing marks of the male and 
female ; but that the females are known by seve- 
ral white spots which are seen round the orifices 
that serve them as organs of hearing, and the 
males, by having these spots much brighter. Gold 
fish are light and lively ; they love to sport on the 

surface of the water, soon become familiarised, 
and may even be accustomed to come and receive 
their food on sounding a small rattle. (Jreat care 
is necessary to preserve them ; for they are ex- 
tremely delicate, and sensible of the least injuries 
of the air : a loud noise, such as that of thunder 
or cannons, a strong smell, a violent shaking of 
the vessel, or a single touch, will oft-times de- 
stroy them. These fish live with little nourish- 
ment : those small worms which are engendered 
in the water, or the earthy particles that are mixed 
with it, being sufficient for their food. In winter 
they are removed from the court to a warm 
chamber, where they are kept, generally shut 
up in a porcelain vessel. During that season 
they receive no nourishment; however, in spring, 
when they are carried back to their former basin, 
they sport and play with the same strength and 
liveliness as they did the preceding year. In 
warm countries these fish multiply fast, provided 
care be taken to collect their spawn, which floats 
on the water, and which they almost entirely de- 
vour. This spawn is put into a particular vessel 
exposed to the sun, and preserved there until vivi- 
fied by the heat : gold-fish, however, seldom 
multiply when they are kept in close vases, be- 
cause they are then too much confined. In order 
to render them fruitful, they must be put into 
reservoirs of considerable depth, in some places 
at least, and which are constantly supplied with 
fresh water. They were first introduced into 
England about A. D. 1691 ; but were not gene- 
rally known till 1728, when a great number 
were brought over, and presented to Sir Matthew 
Dekker, and by him circulated round the neigh- 
bourhood of London, from whence they have 
been distributed to most parts of the country. 3. 
C. brama, the bream, is an inhabitant of lakes, 
or the deep parts of still rivers. It is a fish that 
is very little esteemed, being extremely insipid. 
4. C. carpio, the carp. This was introduced 
into England about 1514, by Leonard Maschal. 
Russia wants these fish at this day. Sweden 
has them only in the ponds of people o" fashion. 
They chiefly abound in the rivers and lakes of 
Polish Prussia, where they are sometimes taken of 
a vast size. They are there agreat article of com- 
merce, and sent in well-boats to Sweden and 
Russia. The merchants purchase them out of 
the waters of the noblesse of the country, who 
draw a good revenue from this article. They 
grow also to a very great size : some authors 
speak of carp 200 IDS. in weight, and five feet in 
Jength. They are prodigious breeders : the quan- 
tity of roe has been sometimes found so great, 
that when taken out and weighed against the fish 
itself, the former has been found to preponderate. 
From the spawn of this fish caviare is made for 
the Jews, who hold the sturgeon in abhorrence. 
The carp is extremely cunning, and is sometimes 
styled the river fox. They will sometimes leap 
over the nets, and escape that way ; at other times 
they will immerse themselves so deep in the mud, 
as to let the net pass over them. They are also 
very shy of taking a bait ; yet at the spawning 
time they are so simple as to suffer themselves 
to be tickled, handled, and caught by any 
body that will attempt it. This fish is apt to 
mix its milt with the roe of other fish ; from 



which is produced a spurious breed. 5. C. 
cephalus, the chub, is a very coarse fish and 
full of bones. It frequents the deep holes 
of rivers ; and in summer commonly lies on the 
surface, beneath the shade of some tree or bush. 
t is very timid^ sinking to the bottom on the 
east alarm, even at the passing of a shadow, but 
soon resumes its former situation. It feeds on 
worms, caterpillars, grasshoppers, and other 
coleopterous insects that happen to fall into the 
water ; and it will even feed on cray-fish. It 
will rise to fly. Some of this kind have been 
known to weigh eight or nine Ibs. 6. C. barbus, the 
barbel, a common inhabitant of most fresh waters 
in Europe, and easily distinguished from the 
other species of cyprinus, by the upper jaw being 
advanced far beyoiid the lower one, and in having 
the four beards appendant, from which the ap- 
propriate name of barbus or barbel is derived. 
This fish, during the summer, prefers the rapid 
currents and shallows of rivers, and retires at the 
approach of winter to the more full and deeper 
places. They live in societies ; lurking in holes 
along the sides of the water under shelter of the 
steepest banks, and feed on smaller fish, and 
worms and flesh of all kinds, for which they dig 
in the banks like swine. In the day-time they 
love to lurk occasionally among weeds, and be 
tween the stones in retired parts of the river, and 
wander out at night in search of prey. They 
spawn in April, and begin to be in season in 
May and June. The flesh of the barbel was 
never in great esteem for the table. Mr. Pen- 
nant quotes a passage in Ausonius, which, 
as he observes, is no panegyric on its excellence, 
for he lets us know it loves deep waters, and 
that, when it grows old, it is not absolutely 

Laxos exerces barbc natatus 
Tu melior pejore xvo, tibi contigit uni 
Spirantum ex numero non inlaudata senectus. 

And he adds himself, that ' they are the worst 
and coarsest of fresh-water fish, and seldom eaten 
but by the poorer sort of people, who sometimes 
boil them with a bit of bacon to give them a 
relish.' ' The barbel,' says old Walton, ' though 
he be of a fine shape, and looks big, yet he is not 
accounted the best fish to eat, neither for his 
wholesomeness nor his taste ; but the male is re- 
puted much better than the female, whose spawn 
is very hurtful.' 7. C. gobio, the gudgeon, is gene- 
rally found in gentle streams, and is of a small 
size, the largest not exceeding half a pound 
weight. They bite eagerly ; and are assembled 
by raking the bed of the river ; to this spot they 
immediately crowd in shoals, in expectation of 
food. 8. C. leuciscus, the dace, is gregarious, 
haunts deep still waters, is a great breeder, very 
lively, and during summer is very fond of frolick- 
ing near the surface of the water. It never ex- 
ceeds the weight of a pound and a half; the 
scales are smaller than those of the roach. 9. 
C. rutilus, the roach, is a common fish found in 
many of the deep still rivers of this country. 
They are gregarious, keeping in large shoals. It 
has never been known to exceed five Ibs. in 
weight. 10. C. tinea, the tench, was treated with 
rhe same disrespect by the ancients as the barbel; 

but is now in much more repute. It has by some 
been called the physician of the fish ; and its 
slime has been said to be of so healing a nature, 
that the wounded fishes apply it as a styptic. In 
this country it is reckoned a wholesome and de- 
licious food ; but the Germans are of a different 
opinion. By way of contempt they call it the 
shoemaker. Gesner even says that it is insipid 
and unwholesome. It does not commonly ex- 
ceed four or five Ibs., though some have been 
known to weigh ten, and even twenty. They 
love still waters, and are rarely found in rivers ; 
they are easily caught. They are thick in 
proportion to their length. The color of the 
back is dusky ; the corial and ventral fins of the 
same color; the head, sides, and belly, of a 
greenish cast, most beautifully mixed with gold, 
which is in its greatest splendor when the fish is 
in highest season. 

CYPRIPEDIUM, the lady's slipper, in 
botany, a genus of the diandria order", and 
gynandria class of plants : natural order seventh, 
orchideae. The nectarium is ventricose, inflated, 
and hollow. There are three species, of which 
only one, viz. C.calceolus, is a native of Britain. 
It grows in rough ground in different parts of the 
island. The other two species are natives of 
America. None of them are easily propagated 
in gardens, and therefore must be transplanted 
from those places where they are natives. 

CY'PRUS, n. s. I suppose from the place 
where it was made ; or corruptly from cypress, 
as being used in mourning, says Dr. Johnson. 
A thin transparent black stuff. 

A cypru*, not a bosom, 
Hides my poor heart ! Shakspeure. 

Lawn as white as driven snow, 
Cyprus black as e'er was crow. 

Id. Winter** Tale. 

CYPRUS, or KUPRIS, as it is called by the 
Turks, is the most important island of the Levant, 
and subject to Turkey. It is situated between 
33 and 36' E. long., and 30 atid 34' N. lat. 
It is about 150 miles in length by seventy-five 
broad, and is traversed from east to west by two re- 
markable mountain ranges, one of which yielded 
the third Olympus of the ancient mythology. 
The whole are covered with snow during the 
winter months, but seem only to render the neat 
of summer more oppressive. This island was 
called Macaria, the happy, by the Greeks. 
Homer celebrates its fertility, calling it by its 
present name, in Hymn. : 

Ztvar' iiri Tpoiijv, TrpoXursfft ivwSta KvTrpov. 

It is also known in history by the names of 
Acamantis, .^Erosa, Amathus, Cerastis, Colinia, 
Paphia, Salaminui, and Spechia : but its most 
common name was that which it still bears. 
The principal towns of ancient Cyprus were Pa- 
phos, Citium, Amathus, Salamis, Idalium, Lapa- 
thus, Arsinoe, &c. There were three celebrated 
temples here : two dedicated to Venus, who was 
said to be born here, and was called the Cyprian 
queen, and one to Jupiter. The females of the 
island were proverbially dissipated. 

Cyprus, according to Eratosthenes, was first 
discovered by the Phomicians two or three gene- 



rations before Asterius and Minos, kings of Crete ; 
that is, according to Sir Isaac Newton's- compu- 
tation, 200G years before the Christian era. It 
was then so full of wood that it could not be 
tilled, and the Phoenicians first cut down that 
wood for melting copper, with which the island 
abounded ; afterwards, when they began to sail 
without fear on the Mediterranean, that is, after 
the Trojan war, they built numerous vessels of 
this wood. But Josephus informs us, that the 
descendants of Chittim, the son of Javan, and the 
grandson of Japhet, were the original inhabitants 
of Cyprus. According to his account, Chittim, 
seeing his brother Tarshish settled in Cilicia, 
where he built the city of Tarsus, settled with his 
followers in this opposite island ; and either he 
or his descendants laid the foundations of Citium, 
which, according to Ptolemy, was the most an- 
cient city in the island. As Cyprus was too 
narrow to contain the great numbers who at- 
tended him, he left here as many as might serve 
to people the country, and with the rest passed 
over into Macedon. Cyprus was divided among 
several petty kings till the time of Cyrus. He 
subdued them all ; but left each in possession of 
his kingdom, obliging them only to pay him an 
annual tribute, and to send supplies of men, 
money, and ships, when required. The Cyprian 
princes lived thus subject to the Persians till the 
reign of Darius Hystaspis, when they attempted, 
but with little success, to shake off the yoke; their 
forces being entirely defeated, and themselves 
again obliged to submit. They made another 
more successful attempt about A. A.C. 357 ; but 
they could never become entirely independent. 
They submitted, it is probable, to Alexander the 
Great, though historians are silent as to this event. 
On his death, the dominion of Cyprus was dis- 
puted by Antigonus and Ptolemy. At last Anti- 
gonus prevailed, and the whole island submitted 
to him about A. A. C. 304. He and his son 
Demetrius kept possession of it for eleven years, 
when it was recovered by Ptolemy, and quietly 
possessed by him and his descendants till A. A. C. 
53, when it was unjustly seized by the Romans. 
In the time of Augustus, it began to be ranked 
among the proconsular provinces, and to be 
governed by magistrates sent thither by the senate. 
In 648 it was conquered by the Saracens ; but 
recovered by the Romans in 957. They held it, 
however, but for a very short time, and the bar- 
barians kept possession of it till the time of the 
crusades. It was then reduced by Richard I. of 
England, who gave it to the princes of the Lu- 
signan family, who held it till A.D. 1570. They 
divided it into twelve provinces, in each of which 
was a capital city, from which the province was 
denominated. So considerable was the island at 
this time, that besides the cities abovementioned, 
and others of less note, it contained 800 villages. 
In 1570 it was taken by the Turks, and it has 
ever since continued under their yoke. 

Cyprus has no river, and the torrents that 
descend from the mountains in winter do not 
reach the sea in summer, but form unhealthy 
stagnant lakes and marshes in the low grounds. 
It is generally fertile, producing wine, oil, cot- 
ton, silk, and pasture ; but has large tracts of 
forest. In minerals it is rich, having mines of 

gold and silver, and yielding emeralds, rock- 
crystal, red jasper, agate, amianthus, terre 
d' ombre, and other minerals, besides the Paphian 
diamond. It has no wild animals but foxes and 
hares. The population is, according to Olivier, 
60,000, half Greeks and half Turks ; according 
to Malte Bran 83,000. Dr. Clarke says that iu 
present state may be expressed in a few words. 
'Agriculture neglected; inhabitants oppressed; 
population destroyed ; pestiferous air ; contagion; 
poverty ; indolence ; desolation.' 

The bay of Salinas, between Cape Grego and 
Cane Tagista, or Chiti, is pointed out by the 
highest summit of the island, Mount Cius, or 
Rusie, being directly over it, whence it bears 
west. Larnaca, on the east shore of this bay, 
has a tolerable road even in winter, though ex- 
posed to the south-east and south. The town, 
which is a heap of ruins, is half a mile from the 
shore, on which is a suburb on the site of the 
ancient Citium : in the vicinity are many salt 
marshes, whence the name of the bay, which af- 
ford considerable quantities of salt, but render 
the air unhealthy. Salinas (Salamis) is at the 
head of the gulf; it has a citadel falling to ruin. 

The Bay of Limasole, or Limisso, is sheltered 
on the west by point Delia Gatta : the village 
at the head of the bay is supposed to stand on 
the site of Amathonte, and a league east of it are 
considerable ruins- Piscopia is a village east of 
the south point of the island, and in the most 
fertile part of it. On the west coast is Bati'a, 
supposed to be on the site of Paphos : it is a 
small town with a fort and port for small ves- 
sels ; the town is on an eminence one mile from 
the port, and is entirely inhabited by Greeks. 
Solea (Solce and ./Epeia) is on the north coast, 
as are Cerino (Ceronia), a village of 200 inhabi- 
tants with a castle in good order, and a small 
port within two rocks, but open to the north and 
unsafe in winter, Maceria (Macaria and Aphro- 
disum), and Artemisia. 

The commerce of Cyprus is considerable, ex- 
porting of its own produce cotton, which is con- 
sidered the best of the Levant, 5000 bags of 
600 Ibs. each, chiefly to Venice, Holland, and 
England ; silk, 25,000 bags of 300 Ibs. each , 
wool, 500 bags of 600 Ibs. each ; wine chiefly to 
Venice and Leghorn ; coloquintida, 100 quintals, 
chiefly to Holland and Leghorn ; laudanum, 
madder, chiefly to France ; cochineal a small 
quantity ; soda to Marseilles ; turpentine to 
Venice ; green earth for painters, and brown 
umber, chiefly to Holland ; corn, though pro- 
hibited, finds its way out of the island ; salt to 
Syria and Constantinople ; carob beans, pitch, 
tar, and planks, in small quantities, and some 
manufactured silks and cottons. The exports are 
chiefly paid for in specie. About 600 European 
vessels are computed to visit the island annually. 

Wine is the staple product of this island. Its 
grapes, yielding a juice which is almost a con- 
centrated essence, are considered among the 
richest and most luscious in the world. The 
wines made from them strongly resemble Tokay, 
and, in the language of the east, ate said to have 
power to restore health and youth to the most 
exhausted frames. They are kept in casks, 
without any other precaution to exclude lite 




air than that of placing a piece of sheet lead over 
the bung hole. At the age of forty years this 
nohle beverage is supposed to be in perfection, 
and its qualities are then truly balsamic. All 
the valuable kinds are white, the red being 
merely used as vin du pays. The apricots of 
Cyprus are also delicious. Near Baffa is found 
an amianthus, or mineral cloth, peculiarly dis- 
tinguished for its flexibility, whiteness, and deli- 
cate structure. Cyprus is likewise noted for the 
common Turkey manufactures of leather, car- 
pels, and printed cottons. The first is remarkable 
for its brilliant and lively color. The carpets 
are of excellent workmanship ; and, though barely 
large enough to cover an English hearth, bring 
from forty to fifty piastres a-piece. The cottons 
have the valuable quality of preserving their co- 
lors in washing; which, in fact, rather improves 
them. The principal towns are Nicotia, Fama- 
gusta, and Larnica, all situated in the south-east 
part of the island. 

Of the appearance ot the females of Cyprus, 
renowned from an early period of history, Dr. 
Clarke gives the following account: 'The in- 
teresting costume presented in the dress of 
the Cyprian ladies ought not to pass without 
notice. Their head apparel was precisely mo- 
delled after the kind of Calathus represented 
upon the Phoenician idols of the country, and 
upon Egyptian statues. This was worn by wo- 
men of all ranks, from the wives of the consuls to 
their slaves. Their hair, dyed of a fine brown 
color, by means of a plant called Henna, hung 
behind in numerous long straight braids ; and, 
in some ringlets disposed near the face, were 
fastened blossoms of the jessamine, strung to- 
gether, upon slips from leaves of the palm-tree, 
in a very curious and pleasing manner. Next 
to the Calmuck women, the Grecian are, of all 
others, best versed in cosmetic arts. They pos- 
sess the valuable secret of giving a brown color 
to the whitest locks, and also tinge their eyebrows 
with the same hue; an art that would be highly 
p r ized by the hoary courtezans of London and of 
Paris. The most splendid colors are displayed 
in their habits ; and these are very becoming to 
the girls of the island. The upper robe is always 
of scarlet, crimson, or green silk, embroidered 
with gold. Like other Greek women, they wear 
long scarlet pantaloons, fastened round the ancle, 
and yellow boots, with slippers of the same color. 
Around the neck, and from the head, were sus- 
pended a profusion of gold coins, chains, and 
other trinkets. About their waists they have 
a large belt or zone, fastened in front by two 
large and heavy polished brass plates. They en- 
deavour to make the waist as long as possible, 
and the legs, consequently, short. Naturally cor- 
pulent, they take no pains to diminish the size of 
their bodies by lacing, but seem rather vain of 
their bulk, exposing their bosoms, at the same 
time, in a manner highly unbecoming. Notwith- 
standing the extraordinary pains they use to dis- 
figure their natural beauty by all sorts of ill- 
selected ornaments, the women of Cyprus are 
handsomer than those of any other Grecian 
island. They have a taller and more stately 
figure ; and the features, particularly of the 
women of Nicotia, are regular and dignified, ex- 

hibiting that elevated cast of countenance so uni- 
versally admired in the works of Grecian artists. 
At present this kind of beauty seems peculiar to 
the women of Cyprus.' 

The Turkish governor resides at Nicotia ; his 
appointment is renewed annually, and obtained 
by purchase. So that each succeeding ruler has 
only the one great point of his personal aggran- 
disement for a short period in view, and the 
permanent interests of the island are no topic 
of consideration with any of its masters. A 
common type on the medals of this island is the 
temple of the Paphian goddess, 
as in the annexed figure; in- 
scription, KYEPIQN; some- 
times it contains the name of 
their kings, and sometimes that 
of the emperors Augustus, Ca- 
ligula, Claudius, Galba, Vespa- 
sian, Titus, Domitian, Trajan, 
Septimius Severus, Julia, Caracalla, Geta, or 

CYPRUS, KNIGHTS OF, an order instituted by 
Guy de Lusignan, titular king of Jerusalem, to 
whom Richard I. of England, after conquering 
Cyprus, made over his right. 

CYRENAICA, an ancient kingdom of Africa, 
corresponding to the present kingdom and desert 
of Barca and Tripoli. It was originally inhab- 
ited by a number of barbarous nations, differing 
little from gangs of robbers. Afterwards some 
colonies from Greece settled in it, and Cyrenaica 
became so powerful a state, that it waged war 
with Egypt and Carthage, often with success. 
In the time of Darius Hystaspis, Arcesilaus, the 
reigning prince in Cyrenaica, was driven from 
the throne ; on which his mother Pheretima ap - 
plied for assistance to the king of Cyprus. Her 
son afterwards returning to Barca, was there 
assassinated together with his father-in-law. 
Pheretima, finding herself disappointed by the 
king of Cyprus, applied to Darius Hystaspis, 
and by the assistance of the Persians reduced 
Barca. Here she behaved with the utmost 
cruelty. Cyrenaica, however, seems to have re- 
mained free till the time of Alexander the Great, 
who conquered it along with Egypt. Soon 
after his death, the inhabitants recovered their 
liberty ; but were in a short time reduced by 
Ptolemy king of Egypt. Under these kings it 
remained till Ptolemy Physcon made it over to 
his illegitimate son Apian, who, in the 658th year 
of Rome, left it by will to the Romans. The 
senate permitted all the cities to be governed by 
their own laws ; and this immediately filled the 
country with tyrants, those who were most potent 
in every city or district endeavouring to assume 
the sovereignty of it. Thus the kingdom was 
thrown into great confusion ; but Lucullus con- 
siderably restored the public tranquillity, during 
the first Mithridatic war. It was found impos- 
sible, however, totally to suppress these distur- 
bances, till the country was reduced to the form 
of a Roman province, which happened about 
twenty years after the death of Apion A. A. C. 
76. Upon a revolt, the city of Cyrene was 
ruined by the Romans ; but they afterwards re- 
built it. In process of time it fell to the Arabs ; 
and then to the Turks, who still retain it 



CYRENAICS, a sect of ancient philosophers, 
so called from their founder Aristippus of Cy- 
rene, a disciple of Socrates. The great principle 
of their doctrine was, that the supreme good of 
man in this life is pleasure ; whereby they not 
only meant a privation of pain, and a tranquillity 
of mind, but an assemblage of all mental and 
sensual pleasures, particularly the last. Cicero 
makes frequent mention of Aristippus's school ; 
and speaks of it as yielding debauchees. Three 
disciples of Aristippus, after his death, divided 
the sect into three branches, viz. the Hegesiac 
school, the Annicerian, and the Theodoran; 
from the names of their authors. Under this di- 
vision it languished and sunk. 

CYRENE, in ancient geography, the capital 
of Cyrenaica, and one of the five cities called 
Pentapolis, distant from Apollonia, its sea-port, 
ten miles, situated on a plain of the form of a 
table, according to Strabo. It is now called 

CYRILL (St.), bishop of Jerusalem, suc- 
ceeded Maximus in 350. He was afterwards 
deposed for selling the treasures of the church, 
and applying the money to the support of the 
poor during a great famine. Under Julian he 
was restored to his see, and firmly established in 
all his honors under Theodosius ; in which he 
continued unmolested to his death in 386. The 
remains of this father consist only of twenty- 
three catecheses, and one letter to the emperor 

CYRILL (St.), patriarch of Alexandria, suc- 
ceeded Theopliilus, his uncle, in 413. Scarcely 
was he installed, when he began to exert his 
authority with great vigor ; and drove the No- 
vatians and Jews from Alexandria, permitting 
their wealth and synagogue to be taken from 
them. This proceeding highly displeased Orestes, 
the governor. Upon which a civil war broke 
out between them ; many tumults were raised 
and some battles fought in the very streets o. 
Alexandria. St. Cyrill also distinguished himself 
by his zeal against Nestorius bishop of Constan- 
tinople, who, in some of his homilies, had as- 
serted that the Virgin Mary ought not to be called 
the mother of God. The dispute at first proved 
unfavorable to Cyrill, whose opinion was not 
only condemned, but himself deprived of his 
bishopric and thrown into prison. But he was 
soon after released, and gained a complete 
victory over Nestorius, who in 431 was deposed 
from his see of Constantinople. Cyrill re- 
turned to his see at Alexandria, where he died 
in 444. St. Cyrill also wrote against Theodoras 
of Mopsuesta, Diodorus of Tarsus, and Julian 
the Apostate. He composed commentaries on 
St. John's gospel, and wrote several other books. 
His works were published in Greek and Latin 
in 1 638, in six volumes folio. 

CYRUS THE GREAT, the founder of the 
united empire of the Medes and Persians. The 
two chief historians, who have written the life of 
Cyrus, are Herodotus and Xenophon ; but their 
accounts of him are extremely different. The 
former tells us, that Astyages king of the Medes, 
dreaming that a vine sprung from the womb of 
his daughter Mandane, the branches whereof 
overshadowed all Asia, was told by the sooth- 

sayers, that this portended the future power and 
greatness of a child who should be born of his 
daughter; and further, that this child should de- 
prive him of his kingdom. Astyages, to prevent 
the accomplishment of the prediction, married 
his daughter to Cambyses, a Persian of mean con- 
dition, and commanded one of his officers, named 
Harpagus, to destroy the infant as soon as it 
came into the world. Harpagus, fearing the re- 
sentment of Mandane, put the child into the 
hands of the king's shepherd. The shepherd's 
wife, we are told, was so extremely touched with 
the beauty of Cyrus, that she desired her husband 
rather to expose her own son, who was born 
some time before (a story equally unnatural and 
incredible), and preserve the young prince. 
Thus Cyrus was brought up among the shep- 
herds of the king, and one day, as the neigh- 
bouring children were at play together, being 
chosen for their prince or chief, he punished one 
of his comrades with some severity, and the 
child's parent complained to Astyages. This 
prince sent therefore for the youthful Cyrus, and 
observing something noble in his air, together 
with a great resemblance of his daughter Man- 
dane, he made particular enquiry into his history, 
and discovered that Cyrus was his grandson. 
Harpagus, who was the instrument of preser- 
ving him, was now punished with the death of 
his own son ; but Astyages, believing that the 
royalty which the soothsayers had promised to 
the young prince, was only that which he had 
lately exercised among the shepherds' children, 
laid aside his fears. Cyrus being grown up, 
Harpagus disclosed the secret of his birth to 
him, with the manner in which he had delivered 
nim from his grandfather's cruelty. He encou- 
raged him to come into Media, and promised to 
furnish him with forces, in order to make him 
master of the country, and depose Astyages. 
Cyrus now, therefore, engaged the Persians to take 
arms against the Medes, marched at the head of 
them to meet Astyages, defeated him, and pos- 
sessed himself of Media. He carried on many 
other wars ; and at length sat down before Ba- 
bylon, which, after a long siege, he took. 

Xenophon's account of the early life of Cyrus 
is more credible. According to that writer, 
Astyages king of Media married his daughter 
Mandane to Cambyses king of Persia, son and 
successor to Achaemenes. Cyras was born at 
his father's court, and was educated with all the 
care his birth required. When he was about the 
age of twelve, his grandfather Astyages sent for 
him to Media, together with his mother Man- 
dane. Some time after, a prince of Assyria 
having invaded Media, Astyages, with his son 
Cyaxares and his grandson Cyras, marched 
against him. Cyrus distinguished himself in 
this war, and defeated the Assyrians. Camby- 
ses afterwards recalled him, that he might have 
him near his own person ; and Astyages dying, 
his son Cyaxares, uncle oy his mother's side to 
Cyrus, succeeded him in the kingdom of Media. 
Cyrus, at the age of thirty, was. by his father 
Cambyses, made general of the Persian troops ; 
and sent at the bead of 30,000 men to the as- 
sistance of his uncle Cyaxares, whom the king 
of Babylon and his allies, the Cannadocianf, 



Carians, Phrygians, Cilicians, and Paphlago- 
nians, were preparing to attack. Cyaxares and 
Cyrus prevented them, by falling upon them and 
dispersing them. The latter now advanced as 
far as Babylon, and spread terror throughout the 


From this expedition he returned to his uncle, 
towards the frontiers of Armenia and Assyria, 
and was received by Cyaxares in the tent of the 
Assyrian king whom he had defeated. After 
this, Cyrus carried the war into the countries 
beyond the river Halys, entered Cappadocia, 
and subdued it entirely. From thence he 
marched against Croesus king of Lydia, defeated 
him in the first battle; then besieged him in 
Sardis the capital ; and after a siege of fourteen 
days obliged him to surrender. See CRCESUS. 
After this Cyrus, having almost reduced all Asia, 
repassed the Euphrates, and made war upon the 
Assyrians. He marched directly to Babylon, 
took it, and there prepared a palace for his uncle 
Cyaxares. After these expeditions Cyrus re- 
turned to his father and mother in Persia, where 
they were still living ; and some time after vi- 
siting Cyaxares in Media, he married his cousin 
the only daughter and heiress of his uncle's do- 
minions, and returned with her to Babylon. 
He is now stated to have again engaged in several 
wars, and subdued all the nations which lie be- 
tween Syria and the Red Sea. He died at the 
age of seventy years, after a reign of thirty : but 
authors differ much concerning the manner of 
his death. Herodotus, Justin, and Valerius 
Maxirnus relate, that he died in a war against 
the Scythians ; that falling into an ambush, which 
their queen Tomyris had laid for him, she or- 
dered his head to be cut off, and cast into a 
vessel full of blood, saying, 'Thou hast always 
thirsted after human blood, now glut thyself with 
it.' Diodorus the Sicilian states, that he was 
taken in an engagement and hanged. Ctesias 
assures us, that he died of a wound which he 
received in his thigh : but by Xenophon's ac- 
count he died peaceably in his bed, amidst his 
friends and servants ; and certain it is, that in 
Alexander's time his monument was shown at 
Pasagarda in Persia. From all this it is obvious, 
that we are but imperfectly acquainted with the 
history of this great prince, the founder of the 
Persian, and destroyer of the Chaldaean empire. 

Cyrus was monarch of all the east ; or as he 
himself speaks (2 Chr. xxxvi. 22, 23 ; and Ezra 
i. 1, 2,) ' of all the earth,' when he permitted 
the Jews to return mto their own country; A.M. 
3466, and A.A.C. 538. The enemies of the 
Hebrews, making use of this prince's affection 
to his own religion, prevailed with him to coun- 
termand his orders for the building of the temple 
at Jerusalem (Ezra iv. 5). The prophets fre- 
quently foretold the coming of Cyrus ; and Isa. 
(xliv. 28) mentions him by name 200 years before 
he was born. Josephus (Antiq. I. II. c. 2) says, 
that the Jews of Babylon showed this passage 
of the prophet to Cyrus, which is extremely 
probable; and that this prince, in the edict 
which he granted them for their return, acknow- 
ledged that he received the empire of the world 
from the God of Israel ; that the same God had 
described him by name in the writings of the 

prophets; and had foretold that he should buil(* 
a temple to him at Jerusalem. Cyrus is ex 
pressly styled in scripture, 'the Lord's anointed, 
and the shepherd of Israel,' (Isaiah xlv. 1, and 
xliv. 28.) ; and God says of him (Isa. xlv. 5) 
' I girded thee, though thou hast not known me ' 
Daniel is supposed to allude to this prince 
Chap. viii. v. 3 20, under the figure of the ram 
The taking of Babylon by Cyrus was clearly 
foretold by the prophets. See BABYLONIA and 
BELSHAZZA'R. Archbishop Usher fixes the birth 
of Cyrus to A. M. 3405 ; his first year at Babv 
Ion to 3466, and his death to 3475. 

CYRUS THE YOUNGER, son of Darius Nothus, 
and brother of Artaxerxes. He was sent by his 
father at the age of sixteen, to assist the Lacedae- 
monians against Athens. Artaxerxes succeeded 
to the throne at the death of Nothus ; and Cyrus, 
mad with ambition, attempted to assassinate him. 
He was discovered, and would have been pun- 
ished with death, had not his mother Parysatis 
saved him by her tears and intreaties. This cir- 
cumstance did not check the ambition of Cyrus ; 
he was appointed over Lydia and the sea coasts, 
where he secretly fomented rebellion and levied 
troops under various pretences. At last he took 
the field with an army of 100,000 barbarians, 
and 13,000 Greeks, under the command of Clear- 
chus. Artaxerxes met him with 900,000 men 
near Cunaxa. The battle was long and bloody ; 
and Cyrus might have perhaps obtained the 
victory, had not his rashness proved his ruin. 
It is said that the two royal brothers met in 
person, and their engagement ended in the death 
of Cyrus, 401 years before the Augustan age ; 
and Artaxerxes, having boasted that his brother 
had fallen by his hand, put to death two of his 
subjects for declaring that they had killed him. 
The Greeks, who were engaged in the expedi- 
tion, obtained much glory in the battle ; and no 
less by their retreat, which is particularly re- 
corded by Xenophon, one of their leaders. See 

CYST, or -\ Kv?c. A bag contain- 

CY'STIS, . *. (ing morbid matter. Con- 

CY'STICK, adj. plained in a bag. The art 

CYSTO'TOMY, n.s. J or practice of opening or 
extirpating encysted tumors. 

In taking it out, the cystii broke, and shewed itself 
by its matter to be a meliceris. Wiseman's Surgery. 

There may be a consumption, with a purulent spit- 
ting, when the vomica is contained in a cyst or bag ; 
upon the breaking of which the patient is commonly 
suffocated. Arbuthnot. 

The bile is of two sorts : the cystick, or that con- 
tained in the gall-bladder, a sort of repository for the 
gall ; or the heoatick, or what flows immediately from 
the liver. Id. 

CYTHERA, in ancient geography, an island 
opposite to Malea a promontory, and to Boa a 
town of Laconia ; sacred to Venus, with a very 
ancient temple of that goddess, who was ex- 
hibited in armour, as in Cyprus. It is now cal- 
led Cerigo. 

CYTHER^EA, in mythology, the surname of 
Venus, so called from Cythera, her birth-place, 
where she had a temple, and on the shores of 
which she was believed to be wafted by the Ze- 
phyrs, surrounded by the Cupids, the Graces 


the Tritons, and the Nereides, reclining in a lan- 
guishing posture in a sea-shell. 

CYTINUS, in botany, a genus of the dode- 
candria order, gynandria class of plants ; natural 
order eleventh, sarmentaceae : CAL. quadrifid, su- 
perior: COR. none; the anthene are sixteen, and 
sessile; the fruit an octolocular polyspcnnous 
berry. Species one, a Cape shrub. 

CYTISUS, tree treefoil, a genus of the de- 
candria order, and diadelphia class of plants ; 
natural order thirty-second, papilionaceae : CAL. 
bilahiated, with the upper lip bifid ; inferior, 
tridentate ; the legume attenuated at the base. 
There are eleven species ; of which the most re- 
markable are, 1. C. Austriacus, the Austrian, 
or Tartarian evergreen cytisus, has a shrubby 
stem, dividing low into many greenish branches, 
forming a bushy head three or four feet high, 
having smooth whitish-green leaves, and bright 
yellow flowers in close umbellate heads at the 
ends of the branches, having a cluster of leaves 
under each head. These flowers appear in May. 
2. C. laburnum, or large deciduous cytisus, has 
a large upright tree-stem, branching into n full 
spreading head, twenty or thirty feet high, having 
smooth greenish branches, oblong oval entire 
leaves, growing by threes on long slender foot- 
stalks; and from the sides of all the branches 
numerous yellow flowers collecting into long 
spikes, hanging loosely downward, and appearing 
in May. 

CYZICENI, CrziCENiANS, the people of 
Cyzicum, who were noted by the ancients for 
their timidity and effeminacy. Hence the pro- 
verb in Zenodotus and others, tinctura Cyzicenica, 
applied to persons guilty of an indecency through 
fear; but stateres Cyziceni, nummi Cyziceni, 
denote things executed to perfection. 

CYZICUM, in ancient geography, an island of 
the Propontis, on the coast of Mysia ; joined to 
the continent by two bridges, the first of which 
was built by Alexander the Great. 

CYZICUM, or CYZICUS, one of the noblest 
cities of the Hither Asia; situated in the above 
island. It was a colony of the Milesians, and is 
famous for its siege by Mithridates, which was 
raised by Lucullus. The inhabitants were 
made free by the Romans, but forfeited their 
freedom under Tiberius. It was adorned with 
a citadel and walls; had a port and marble 
towers ; and three magazines, one for arms, 
another for warlike engines, and a third for 

CZAR, n. s. ") Sclav, czar, tzar, from Per. 
CZARI'NA, n. s. ftajur, a crown; taijzar, a 
CZA'RISH, adj. J monarch. The emperor of 

Russia. Czarina is the feminine. Relating to 

the czar. 

There were competitors, the csur of Muscovy's sou, 
the duke of Newburg, and the prince of Lorraine. 


y czo 

His cgar'uh majesty dispatched an express. 

The Tatler. 

The czarina was satisfied with introducing them, 
for she found it impossible to render them polite. 


CZASLAU, or TZASLAU, a town of Bohemia, 
the capital of a circle of the same name, on the 
Crudimka. It is said to possess the highest spire 
in Bohemia; and within the beautiful church is 
interred the famous Zisca. The circle of Czaslau, 
or Csaslau, is enclosed by Moravia, the circle of 
Tabor, Caurzim, Bitschow and Chrudim. The 
soil is productive, but the manufactures are not 
flourishing. It contains eight towns, thirty-throe 
boroughs, and 829 villages. 

ment of European Russia, erected in the year 
1781, and lying between those of Mohilev, 
Smolensko, Orel, Kursk, Pultava, Kiev, and 
Minsk. The soil is very fertile. It has been 
augmented beyond its original boundaries by 
the addition of the government of Novgorod- 
Sieverskoi ; and now contains, according to offi- 
cial returns, 741,850 inhabitants. Czernigov, 
or Tchernigow, the capital, situated on the 
right bank of the Desna, is fortified, and is the 
see of a Greek archbishop. Population 5000. 
Seventy-five miles north of Kiev, and 344 
south-west of Moscow. 

CZERNOVICZ, orTscHERNOwuz, a town of 
Austria, the capital of the Bucharvine, or, more 
properly, of a circle in Galicia. It is situated at 
the foot of mountains, on the south bank of the 
Pruth, on the high road from Lemberg to 
Jassay, 140 miles south-east of the former, and 
ninety-five north-west of the latter. It was 
much enlarged and improved in 1771, and con- 
tains 5400 inhabitants. Here is a Greek bishop, 
a custom-house, a criminal court, a provincial 
and a charity school. The population of the 
circle, in 1803, was 195,268. 

CZIRKNITZ ZEE, a very extraordinary lake 
of Austria, in Carniola, five miles long and 
three broad, which annually produces both fish 
and corn : for, being dry in summer, its bottom 
is cultivated, and it produces corn, grass, &c. ; 
but about the 29th of September the water 
rushes in from several subterraneous passages, 
which, with the rains and streams that fall from 
the mountains, quickly fill it again for the winter 
season. These subterraneous passages are pro- 
bably connected with some gulf, the ebbing or 
flowing of whose waters depend upon periodical 
winds or currents. 

CZONGRAD, a market town of Hungary, in 
a county of the same name, situated at the con- 
flux of the Korosch and the Theyss. 

CZONGRAP, a county of Hungary, enclosed 
by the counties of Hewesch, Bekesch, Chonad, 
Batsch, Pesth, and Little Cumania. It is 
thirty miles in length and eighteen in breadth. 




D. The fourth letter of the Hebrew, Syriac, 
Greek, Latin, and French languages, is traced by 
Minsheu in its shape to the Heb 1 daleth, sig- 
nifying, says he, a gate, which the figure of this 
letter partly resembles. Hence, with a slight 
alteration, came the Greek A, and by rounding 
two of the angles of the delta, the Roman D. 

D is generally ranked among the lingual let- 
ters, having a middle sound between t and th, 
formed by a stronger impulse of the tongue to 
the roof of the mouth than the former letter. 
In Latin words the t and d are often changed for 
one another, as at fcr arf, set for sed, haut for 
huud, &c. And in the formation of words from 
the Latin, di frequently assumes the shape of gi 
or j, as journal for diurnal. In English the 
sound of d never varies, nor is it ever mute. D, 
as a numeral, signifies five hundred; D, five 

DAB, v. a. & n. ~\ Gr. Stvu, SVTTTU ; 

DA'BBLE, v. a. & n. f Chald. dub; Ger. efofg- 

DA'BBLER, n.s. twa,dopa; Sax.dapan, 

DA'B-CHICK. J dippan ; Scot, dub; 

Belg. dabben, dabbelen; Fr. dauber. All pro- 
bably, as Minsheu suggests, from the sound 
of mud, when struck. To dab is to apply 
something soft or moist, as to a sore; to strike a 
soft blow. Dab, as a substantive, is a low word 
for a man expert at something : also a small 
fish. Mr. Todd thinks it a corruption of adept, 
adab. To dabble is to move about ; to strike, 
or strike in water or mud ; and, by consequence, 
to smear, daub, or bespatter: metaphorically, to 
' meddle without mastery,' as Dr. Johnson well 
says; and hence a dabbler is ' a superficial 
meddler.' A dab-chick is a small water-fcwl. 
We first illustrate dab. 

A sore should never be wiped by drawing a piece 
of tow or rag over it, but only by dabbing it with fine 
lint. Sharp. 

Of flat fish there are rays, flowks, dabs, plaice. 


One writer excels at a title-page ; another works 
away at the body of the book; and the third is a 
dab at an index. Goldsmith's Essays. 

A shadow, like an angel, with bright hair 
Dabbled in blood. Shakspeare. Richard III. 

The little one complained of her legs, that she 
could neither swim nor dabble with them. 


Neither will a spirit, that dwells with stars, dabble 
in this impurer mind. Glanoille's Apol. 

I scarified, and dabbled the wound with oil of tur- 
pentine. Wiseman's Surgery. 

But when he found the boys at play, 
And saw them dabbling in their clay, 
He stood behind a stall to lurk, 
And mark the progress of their work. Swift. 
He dares not complain of the tooth-ach, lest our 
dabblers in politicks should be ready to swear against 
him for disaffection. Id. 

Shakespeare shall be put into your hands, as clean 
and as fair as it came out of them : though you, I 
think, have been dabbling here and there with the 

text, T have had more reverence for the writer and 
the printer, and have left every thing standing. 

Atterbury to Pope. 

A dab-chick waddles through the copse 
On feet and wings, and wades, and flies, and hops. 


DA CAPO, dial, from the head), in music, an 
Italian term signifying that the beginning of the 
tune is to be repeated to complete the piece. 

DACCA JELALPORE, an important and pro- 
ductive district of Bengal, situated for the 
greater part between the twenty-third and 
twenty-fourth degrees of northern latitude. It 
is bounded on the north by Mymunsingh, on 
the east by Tipperah, on the south by Backer- 
gunge, and on the west by Ranjeshahy and 
Jessore. It contains a great number of valuable 
zemindaries or estates, and is every where inter- 
sected by the Ganges and Brahmapootra, and 
their various branches, so that every town of 
consequence has its river or canal. These rivers, 
however, frequently occasion considerable da- 
mage by their inundations. In this district it 
is not uncommon to find fields of rice covered 
with water, six or eight feet deep. Rice is its 
principal produce, and has been sold, in cheap 
years, at the rate of 640 Ibs. the rupee. Its 
other productions of consequence are the betel 
nut, tobacco, and cotton ; but it imports large 
quantities of the last article, which is manu- 
factured in every town and village. Its muslins 
are very fine and delicate. A deputy of the 
nabob, called the naib nazim, was the chief of 
this district during the Mahommedan govern- 
ment : the last person who held this office was 
Jessarut Khan, who having been ordered in 1763, 
by the nabob Cossim Aly Khan, to put all the 
English at Dacca to death, kindly put them on 
board boats, and sent them under the protection 
of a guard to Calcutta ; in reward for which he 
was appointed, after the expulsion of his master, 
to act in his former office on behalf of the Bri- 
tish, and, on his decease, a pension was settled 
on his family, and the eldest son honored with 
the title of nabob. The principal towns of this 
district are Dacca, Narraingunge, Sunergong, 
and Rajanagur. It contains nearly 1,000,000 in- 
habitants, most of whom are Mahommedans. 

DACCA, a considerable city of Bengal, capital 
of the foregoing district, and for eighty years the 
capital of Bengal, when it was called Jehan- 
gireanagur. It is the residence of a judge, col- 
lector, &c., and is situated on the north bank of 
the Boor Gunga (Old Ganges), which is here 
very deep and broad, at the distance of about 
100 miles from the sea. The best houses are 
built of brick, but the bazaars are often thatched; 
and every vacant spot is filled with trees. The 
French, Dutch, and English East India Com- 
panies had factories here at an early period; 
those of the two former are gone to decay. The 
ancient citadel at the west end of the town is in 
ruins, but the palace or Pooshteh is in good re- 
pair. In this city are manufactured beautiful 
muslins, and shell bracelets much worn by the 




Hindoo ladies. The hot winds which pervade 
almost all other parts of India, are, through the 
abundant irrigation of the neighbourhood, little 
felt here. The months of September and Octo- 
ber are, however, unhealthy. The neighbour- 
hood abounds with game of all sorts, from the 
tiger to the quail. Provisions and fish are also 
here very cheap and abundant. Distant by land 
from Calcutta, 180 miles. 

DACE, n. s., called also DACE and DART, 
provincially. Sax. dagian, from dag to shine as 
in I. at. luciscit, luciscus ; a small fish. 

Let me live harmlessly, and near the brink 
Of Trent or Avon have a dwelling place ; 

Where I may see my quill or cork down sink 
With eager bite of pearch, or bleak, or dace. Walton. 

DACE, in ichthyology, a species of CYPRIN us, 
which see. 

DACIA, in ancient geography, a country 
which Trajan, who reduced it to a province, 
joined to Moesia by an admirable bridge. This 
country lies extended between the Danube and 
the Carpathian Mountains, from the river Tibis- 
cus, quite to the north bend of the Danube ; so 
as to extend thence in a direct line to the mouth 
of the Danube and to the Euxine ; being on the 
north next the Carpates, terminated by the river 
Hierasus, now called the Pruth ; on the west by 
the Tibiscus or Teiss ; and comprising a part of 
Upper Hungary, all Transylvania and Walachia, 
and a part of Moldavia. 

DACIA AURELIANA, a part of ancient Illyri- 
cum, which was divided into the eastern and 
western; Sirmium being the capital of the latter, 
and Sardica of the former. 

DACIER (Andrew), was born at Castres in 
Upper Languedoc, 1651, and studied at Saumur 
under Tannegui le Fevre, then engaged in the 
instruction of his celebrated daughter, who be- 
came Madame Dacier. The duke of Montausier, 
hearing of his merit, engaged him in an edition 
of Pompeius Festus, which he published in 1681. 
His edition of Horace printed at Paris in ten 
volumes, 12mo., and his other works, raised 
him to great reputation. He was made a mem- 
ber of the Academy of Inscriptions in 1695. 
When the history of Louis XIV. by medals was 
finished, he was chosen to present it to his ma- 
jesty ; who settled upon him a pension of '2000 
livres, and appointed him keeper of the books 
of the king's closet. When that post was united 
to that of library keeper to the king, he was not 
only continued in the privileges of his place 
during life, but the survivance was granted tc 
his wife, a favor of which there had been no 
former instance. The death, however, of Ma- 
dame Dacier in 1720, rendered this grant, which 
was so honorable to her, ineffectual. He died 
September 18th, 1722, of an ulcer in the throat. 

DACIER (Anne), daughter of Tannegui le 
Fevre, professor of Greek at Saumur in France, 
went after her father's death to Paris, whither 
her fame had already reached : she was then 
preparing an edition of Callimachus, which she 
published in 1674. Having shown some sheets 
of it to M. Huet, preceptor to the dauphin, and 
to several other men of learning, the work was 
so highly admired, that the duke of Montausier 
made a proposal to her of publishing several 

Latin authors tor the use of the dauphin. She 
now, therefore, undertook an edition of Floruj, 
published in 1674. Her reputation being soon 
after spread over Europe, Christina, queen of 
Sweden, ordered count Konigsmark to compli- 
ment her, and offer her a settlement at Stock- 
holm, in return for which Mademoiselle le Fevre 
sent the queen a Latin letter, with her edition of 
Florus. In 1683 she maricd M. Dacier; and 
soon after declared her design of reconciling 
herself to the church of Rome. Both she and 
her husband made their public abjuration in 
1685. In 1693 she applied herself to the edu- 
cation of her son and daughter ; the former, how- 
ever, died in 1694, and the daughter, after mak- 
ing great attainments, became a nun in the 
abbey of Longchamp. Her mother has im- 
mortalised her memory in the preface to her 
translation of the Iliad. Madame Dacier was 
in a very infirm state of health the last two 
years of her life ; and died, after a painful sick- 
ness, August 17th, 1720, aged sixty-nine. 

DACOLITHUS, in ichthyology, a name 
given by zoologists to a small fish, supposed to 
be a species of loache, and called by Ray and 
some others cobitis barbatulea aculeata. It is 
a very small fish, seldom exceeding two or at 
most three inches in length. The head is broader 
and flatter than the body : its back is of a dusky 
brown color spotted with black, and its belly yel- 
low. It has two beards on each side of the 
upper jaw ; and on the coverings of the gills, 
on each side, two prickles, or a double-pointed 
sharp hook, whereby it moves itself among the 
stones. It delights in shallow waters, with a 
stony bottom, and spawns in May and J une. 
DACTYLE.n.s.} Gr. SaKTvXof, a finger, 
DAC'TILET, Mfrom SUKU to point) be- 

DACTYL'IC, adj. j cause composed of three 
parts, the first longer than either of the others; 
Minsheu. A poetical foot, consisting of one 
long syllable and two short, like the joints of a 
finger ; as candidus. Bishop Hall uses dactilet 
as a diminutive. 

The nimble dactilt, striving to outgo 
The drawling spondees, pacing it below : 
The lingering spondees, labouring to delay 
The breathlesse dactilt, with a sudden stay. 
Whoever saw a colt, wanton and wilde, 
Yoked with a slow-foote oxe on fallow field, 
Can right arced how handsomly besets 
Dull Spoudees with the English dactilets. 

Bp. Hall. Satire*, 1. 6. 

A dactyl has the first 'syllable accented, and the 
two latter unaccented : as, labourer, possible. 

Murray. On Proiody. 

The dactylic measure being very uncommon, we 
shall give only one example of one species of it. 

From the low pleasure! of this fallen nature, 
Rise we to higher, &C. 


DACTYLE. The dactyle is said to have been 
the invention of Dionysius or Bacchus, who 
delivered oracles in this measure at Delphos, 
before Apollo. The Greeks call it *-oXrucoc. 
The dactyl and spondee are the most considerable 
of the poetical feet ; as being the measures used 
in heroic verse, by Homer, Virgil, &c. These 
two are of equal time, but not equal motion. 




DACTYLETHRA, or DACTYLITHRA, digi- a genus of the digynia order, and triandria class 

tails, among the ancient physicians, a medicine of plants; natural order fourth, gramina : CAI.- 

used to excite vomiting. It was a sort of topi- bivalved and compressed, with the one valve 

cal application, and is described at large by longer than the other, carinated, or having the 

Oribasius. rachis prominent and sharp. There are two 

DACTYLIC VERSES are hexameter verses, end- species, both natives of Britain; viz. 1. D. 

ing in a dactyle instead of a spondee ; as spon- cynosuroides, the smooth cock's foot grass, which 

daic verses are those which have a spondee grows in marshy places ; and 2. D. glomeratus, 

the rough cock's foot grass, which is common in 

in the fifth foot instead of a dactyle. An in- 
stance of a dactylic verse occurs in Virgil : jEn. 
vi. 33. 

Bis patriae cecidcre manus : quin protinus omnia. 
DACTYLI IDJEI, q. d. the Fingers of Mount 
Ida, in pagan mythology, personages very dif- 
ferently described by ancient authors. The 
Cretans paid divine worship to them, as to 
those who had nursed and brought up the god 
Jupiter ; whence it appears, that they were the 
same as the Corybantes and Curetes. Neverthe- 
less Strabo makes them different; and says, that 
the tradition in Phrygia was, that the ' Curetes 
and Corybantes were descended from the Dactyli 
Idcei : that there were originally 100 men in the 
island, who were called Dactyli Idaei ; from whom 
sprang nine Curetes, and each of these nine pro- 
duced ten men, as many as the fingers of a 
man's two hands ; and that this gave the name 
to the ancestors of the Dactyli Idaei.' He re- 
lates another opinion, which is, that there were 
but five Dactyli Idaei ; who, according to Sopho- 
cles, were the inventors of iron : that these five 
brothers had five sisters, and that from this num- 
ber they took the name of fingers of Mount Ida, 
because they were in number ten ; and that they 
worked at the foot of this mountain. Diodorus 
Siculus says, ' the first inhabitants of the island 
of Crete were the Dactyli Idaei, who had their 
residence on mount Ida: that some said they 
were 100 ; others only five, in numbers equal 
to the fingers of a man's hand, whence they had 
the name of Dactyli : that they were magicians, 
and addicted to mystical ceremonies : that Or- 
pheus was their disciple, and earned their mys- 
teries into Greece : that the Dactyli invented the 
use of iron and fire, and that they had been re- 
compensed with divine honors.' Diomedes the 
grammarian says, the Dactyli Idaei were priests 
of the goddess Cybele : called Idaei, because 
that goddess was chiefly worshipped on Mount 
Ida in Phrygia ; and Dactyli, because that, to 
prevent Saturn from hearing the cries of infant 
Jupiter, whom Cybele had committed to their 
custody, they used to sing certain verses of their 
own invention, in the Dactylic measure. Strabo 
gives us the names of four of the Dactyli Idaei : 
viz. Salaminus, Damnanaeus. Hercules, and 
Acmon. See CORYBANTES, CRETE, and CU- 

from SaKTv\u>, a ring, and fiavnia, divination, 
a sort of divination performed by means of a 
ring. It consisted in holding a ring, suspended 
by a fine thread, over a round table, on the edge 
of which were made divers marks with the letters 
of the alphabet. The ring in shaking, or vibra- 
ting over" the table, stopped over certain of the 
letters, which, being joined together, composed 
the answer required. 

DACTYLIS, in botany, cock's foot grass; 

meadows and pasture grounds. It is eaten by 
horses, sheep, and goats ; but refused by cows. 

8aKTv\of, and vo/toc, a rule, the art of number- 
ing by the fingers. The rule is this ; the left 
thumb is reckoned one; the index or fore finger 
two : and so on to the right thumb, which stands 
for the cypher. 

DACTYLUS, in zoology, a name given by 
Pliny to the pholas. In Toulon harbour, and 
the road, are found solid hard stones, perfectly 
entire ; containing, in different cells, secluded 
from all communication with the air, several 
living shell -fish, of an exquisite taste, called 
dactyli, i. e. dates: to come at these fish the 
stones are broken with mauls. Along the coast 
of Ancona, in the Adriatic, are stones usually 
weighing about fifty pounds, and sometimes even 
more, the outside rugged and easily broken, buf 
'he inside so hard as to require a strong arm 
and an iron maul to break them ; within them, 
and in separate niches, are found small shell- 
fish, quite alive and very palatable, called solenes 
and cappe laughe. These facts are attested by 
Gassendi, Blondel, Mayol, the learned bishop of 
Sulturara, and more particularly by Aldrovandi, 
a physician of Bologna. The two latter speak 
of it as a common fact, which they themselves 

DADUCHI, Gr. $aS<nx f Si torch-bearers, in 
antiquity, priests of Ceres. The goddess having 
lost hei daughter Proserpine, say mythologists, 
began to make search for her at the beginning of 
the night. In order to do this in the dark, she 
lighted a torch, and thus set forth on her travels 
throughout the world : for which reason she is 
represented with a lighted torch in her hand. In 
commemoration of this pretended exploit, it 
became a custom for the priests, at the feasts and 
sacrifices of this goddess, to run about in the 
temple with torches after this manner : one of 
them took a lighted torch from off the altar, and, 
holding it with his hand, ran with it to a certain 
part of the temple, where he gave it to another, 
saying to him, tibi trado : the second ran after 
the like manner to another part of the temple, 
and gave it to the third, and he to another and 
so on 

DAD, n.s. ) Heb. ^vi> dodh, beloved; Gr. 
DAD'DY. $ arra . Hind, ata ; Lat. tata; Goth. 
atia ; Fr. papa. One among those familiar words 
which, in all languages, children first salute 

pounds of a and t or d ; or a and *t or p. 
I was never so bethumpt with words, 
Since first I called my brother's father dad. 


His loving mother left him to my care, 
Fine child, as like his dad as he could stare. 


D.ED 33 

DADK, f. u. Dut. dituden. To hold up by a 
eading striiig. 

The little children when they learn to go, 
By painful mothers dudcd to and fro. Drayton. 

D/ED'AL, adj. Lat. dadalus ; Gr. faicaXXw ; 
to variegate skillfully, first applied to needlework. 
Why Dr. Johnson warns us against using the 
word with this meaning is difficult to divine. 
See Ainsworth, and the fine example from Spen- 
ser. Various ; variegated. Skilful. 

But living art may not least part expresse, 
. Nor life resembling pcncill it can paynt, 
All were Zcuxis or Praxiteles ; 
His Da-dale hand would faile and greatly faynt, 
And her perfections with his error taynt. 

Spenser. Faerie Queene. 

Nor hatK 

The daedal hand of nature only poured 
Her gifts of outward ^race. Philips. 

D./EDALA, two festivals in Boeotia ; one of 
them observed in Alalcomenos by the Plataeans 
in a large grove, where they exposed in the open 
air pieces of boiled flesh, and carefully observed 
whithtr the crows that came to prey upon them 
directed their flight. All the trees upon which 
any of these birds alighted were immediately cut 
down, and with them statues were made, called 
Doedala, in honor of Daedalus. The other festival 
was of a more solemn kind. It was celebrated 
every sixty years by all the cities of Boeotia, as a 
compensation for the intermission of the smaller 
festivals, for that number of years, during the 
exile of the Plataeans. Fourteen of the statues 
called Daedala were distributed by lot among the 
Plataeans, Lebadaeans, Coroneans, Orchomenians, 
Thespians, Thebans, Tanagrgeans, and Chaero- 
neans, because they had effected a reconciliation 
among the Plataeans, and caused them to be 
recalled from exile about the time that Thebes 
was restored by Cassander, the son of Antipater. 
During this festival a woman, in the habit of a 
bride-maid, accompanied a statue which was 
dressed in female garments, on the banks of the 
Eurotas. This procession was attended to the 
top of Mount Cithaeron by many of the Breotians, 
who had places assigned them by lot. Here an 
altar of square pieces of wood cemented together 
like stones was erected, and upon it were thrown 
large quantities of combustible materials. After- 
wards a bull was sacrificed to Jupiter, and an 
ox or heifer to Juno, by every one of the cities 
of Bceotia, and by the most opulent that attended. 
The poorest citizens offered small cattle; and 
all these oblations, together with Dxdala, were 
thrown into the common heap and set on fire, 
and totally reduced to ashes. They originated 
in this fable : When Juno, after a quarrel 
with Jupiter, had retired to Euboea, and refused 
to letnrn to his bed, the god, anxious for her 
return, went to consult Cithaeron king of Pla- 
taea, to find some effectual measure to break 
her obstinacy. Cithaeron advised him to dress 
a statue in woman's apparel, and carry it in a 
chariot, and publicly to report that it was Plataea 
the daughter of Asopus, whom he was going to 
rr.arry. The advice was followed ; and Juno, 
informed of her husband's future marriage, re- 
paired in haste to meet the chariot, and w^s 
Vor. VII. 


easily united to him when she discovered the 
artful measures he made use of to effect a recon- 

D/EDALUS, in fabulous history, the son of 
Eupalamus, descended from Erectheus king of 
Athens. He was the most ingenious artist of 
his age; and to him we are said to be indebted 
for the invention of the wedge, with many other 
mechanical instruments ; as well as the sails of 
ships. He made statues, we are told, which 
moved of themselves, and seemed to be endowed 
with life. After the murder of Talus, he, with his 
son Icarus, fled from Athens to Crete, where 
Minos gave him a cordial reception. Dxdalus 
made a famous labyrinth for Minos, and assisted 
Pasiphae the queen to gratify her unnatural 
passion for a bull. For this action Daedalus 
incurred the displeasure of Minos, who ordered 
him to be confined in the labyrinth which he had 
constructed. Here he made himself wings with 
feathers and wax, and carefully fitted them to his 
body and that of his son, who was the companion 
of his confinement. They took their flight in 
the air from Crete ; but the heat of the sun 
melted the wax on the wings of Icarus, whose 
flight was too high, and he fell into that part of 
the ocean, which from him has been called the 
Icarian Sea. The father, by a proper manage- 
ment of his wings, alighted at Cuma?, where he 
built a temple to Apollo, and thence directed 
his course to Sicily, where he was kindly received 
by Cocalus, who reigned over part of ihe country. 
He left many monuments of his ingenuity in 
Sicily, which still existed in the age of Diodorus 
Siculus. He was despatched by Cocalus,who was 
afraid of the power of Minos, who had declared 
war against him because he had given an asylum 
to Daedalus. The flight of Daedalus from Crete, 
with wings, is explained by observing that he was 
the inventor of sails, which in his age might pass 
at a distance for wings. He lived about A. A. C. 

D/EMON, Satpatv, a name given by the an- 
cients to certain spirits or genii, which they say 
appeared to men both to do them service and to 
injure them. The word is derived, according to 
Plato, in his Cratylus, from &HJ/JOJV, knowing or 
intelligent; but according to others from dato/uu, 
to distribute. They held a middle rank between 
the celestial gods and men, and carried on all 
intercourse between them. It was the opinion 
of many tnat the celestial divinities did not 
themselves interpose in human affairs, but com- 
mitted the entire administration of the govern- 
ment of this lower woild to these subaltern 
deities. Hence they became the objects of 
worship. ' If idols are nothing,' says CeUus 
(Origen cont. Cels. lib. viii. p. 393), 'wn*t 
harm can there be to join in the public festivals ? 
If they are daemons, then it is certain that they 
are gods, in whom we are to confide, and to 
whom we should offer sacrifices and prayers, to 
render them propitious.' Plutarch teaches, Vit. 
Romul. p. 36, ed. Paris, ' that according to a 
divine nature and justice, the souls of virtuous 
men are advanced to the rank of daemons ; and 
that from demons, if they are properly purified, 
they are exalted into gods, not by any political 
institution, but according to right reason.' He 




says in another place, de Is. et Osir. p. 361, 
' that Isis and Osiris were, for their virtue, 
changed from good daemons into gods, as were 
Hercules and Bacchus afterwards, receiving the 
united honors both of gods and daemons.' The 
word daemon is used indifferently in a good and 
in a bad sense. In the former sense it is very 
common among the ancient heathens. Pythago- 
ras held that daemons sent diseases to men and 
cattle. Diogen. Laert. Vit. Pythag. Zaleucus, 
in his preface to his Laws, supposes that an evil 
daemon might be present with a man to influence 
him to justice. The daemons of Empedocles were 
evil spirits, and exiles from heaven. And Plutarch 
in his life of Dion says, ' it was the opinion of 
the ancients that evil and mischievous daemons, 
out of envy and hatred to good men, oppose 
whatever they do.' Scarce did any opinion 
more generally prevail in ancient times than this, 
viz. that as the departed souls of good men 
became good daemons, so the departed souls of 
l>ad men became evil daemons. Besides the two 
forementioned kinds of daemons, the fathers, as 
well as the ancient philosophers, held a third, 
viz. such as sprang from the congress of superior 
beings with the daughters of men. In the theo- 
logy of the fathers these were the worst kind of 
daemons. Different orders of daemons had dif- 
ferent stations and employments assigned them 
by the ancients. Good daemons were considered 
as the authors of good to mankind ; evil daemons 
brought innumerable evils both upon men and 
beasts. Amongst evil daemons there was a great 
distinction with respect to the offices assigned 
them ; some compelled men to wickedness, others 
stimulated them to madness. See DEMONIAC. 
Much has been said concerning the daemon ot 
Socrates ; who declared to the world that a 
friendly spirit, whom he called his daemon, 
directed him how to act on every important oc- 
casion in his life, and restrained him from impru- 
dence of conduct. See SOCRATES. 

We have seen above, not only the meaning of 
the word daemon, but how the ancients wor- 
shipped da-mons. They were of various orders, 
and, according to the situation over which they 
presided, had different names. Hence the Greek 
and Roman poets talk of satyrs, dryads, nymphs, 
fauns, &c. &c. See MYTHOLOGY. These dif- 
ferent orders of intelligences, which, though 
worshipped as gods or demigods, were yet 
believed to partake of human passions and ap- 
petites, led the way to the deification of depart- 
ed heroes, and other eminent benefactors of the 
human race ; and from this latter probably arose 
the belief of natural and tutelar gods, as well 
as the practice of worshipping these gods 
through the medium of statues cut into a human 
figure. Daemons, however, were not more 
zealously worshipped among the heathens, than 
they have been among Christians. Bishop Newton, 
after establishing the meaning of Paul's prophetic 
words, 1 Tim. iv. 1, above referred to, as corre- 
sponding exactly to the heathen daemon worship, 
says, 'It appears then that the doctrines of 
daemons, which prevailed so long in the heathen 
world, should be revived and established in the 
Christian church ; and is not the worship of 
saints and angels now in all respects the same that 

the worship of daemons was in former times ? The 
name only is different, the thing is identically the 

D./EMONIAC, a human being, whose volition 
and other mental faculties are overpowered and 
restrained, and his body possessed and actuated, 
by some created spiritual being of superior 
power. Such seems to be the determinate sense 
of the word ; but it is disputed whether any 
of mankind ever were in this unfortunate con- 

It is the opinion of some, that neither good 
nor evil spirits are known to exert such authority 
at present over the human race : but in the an- 
cient heathen world, and among the Jews, par- 
ticularly in the days of our Saviour, evil spirit?, 
at least, are thought by many to have possessed 
more influence than they do now. The Greeks 
and Romans imagined that their deities, to re- 
veal future events, frequently entered into the 
prophet or prophetess who was consulted, over- 
powered their faculties, and uttered responses 
with their organs of speech. Apollo was believed 
to enter into the Pythoness, and to dictate the 
prophetic answers received by those who con- 
sulted her. Other oracles, besides that of Delphi, 
were supposed to unfold futurity by the same 
machinery. And in various other cases, either 
malignant daemons or benevolent deities were 
thought to enter into, and to actuate, human 
beings. The Lymphatici, the Cerriti, the Lar- 
vati, of the Romans, were all of this description ; 
and the Greeks, by the use of the word Saipovi- 
Zofiivoi, show that they referred to this cause the 
origin of madness. Among the ancient heathens, 
therefore, it appears to have been a generally 
received opinion, that superior beings entered 
occasionally into men, overpowered the faculties 
of their minds, and actuated their bodily organs. 
They might imagine that this happened in in- 
stances in which the effects were owing to the 
operation of different causes ; but an opinion so 
generally prevalent had surely some plausible 
foundation. The Jews, too, both from the sacred 
writings, and Josephus, appear to have be- 
lieved in daemoniacal possession. The case 
of Saul may be recollected as one among many 
in which superior created beings were believed 
by the Jews to exert in this manner their influence 
over human life. The general tenor of their his- 
tory and language, and their doctrines concerning 
good and evil spirits, prove the opinion of dae- 
moniacal possession to have been well known and 
generally received among them. 

We shall here subjoin the chief popular argu- 
ments on each side of this interesting subject, 
and add a few remarks. Those who are un- 
willing to allow that angels or devils have ever 
intermeddled with the concerns of human life, 
urge a number of specious arguments. The 
Greeks and Romans of old, say they, did believe 
in the reality of daemoniacal possession. They 
supposed that spiritual beings did at times enter 
into the sons or daughters of men, and distinguish 
themselves in that situation by capricious freaks 
deeds of wanton mischief, or prophetic enun- 
ciations. But, in the instances in which they 
supposed this to happen, it is evident that no 
such thing took place. Their accounts of the 

D /E M O N I A C. 

state and conduct of those persons whom they 
believed to be possessed in this supernatural 
manner, show plainly that what they ascribed to 
the influence of daemons were merely the effects 
of natural diseases. Whatever they relate con- 
cerning the larvati, the cerriti, and the lympha- 
tici, shows that these were merely people 
disordered in mind, in the same unfortunate 
situation with those madmen and idiots, and me- 
lancholy persons, whom we have among ourselves. 
Festus describes the larvati as being furiosi et 
mentemoti. Plato, in his Timaeus, says, 

jap tvvovf ttyairrtreu pavTtKijf tvQtovic, a\t)Gov. 
Lucian describes daumoniacs as lunatic, and as 
staring with their eyes, foaming at the mouth, 
and being speechless. It appears still more evi- 
dently, that all the persons spoken of as possessed 
with devils in the New Testament, were either 
mad or epileptic, and precisely in the same con- 
dition with the madmen and epileptics of modern 
times. The Jews, among other reproaches which 
they threw out against our Saviour, said, He 
hath a devil, and is mad : why hear ye him ? 
The expressions, he hath a devil, and is mad, 
were certainly used on this occasion as synony- 
mous. With all their virulence they would not 
surely ascribe to him at once two things that 
were inconsistent and contradictory. Those who 
thought more favorably of the character of Jesus, 
asserted concerning his discourses, in reply to his 
adversaries, These are not the words of him that 
hath a daemon ; meaning, no doubt, that he spoke 
in a more rational manner than a madman could 
be expecVed to speak. The Jews appear to have 
ascribed to the influence of daemons, not only 
that species of madness in which the patient is 
raving and furious, bul also melancholy madness. 
Of John, who secluded himself from intercourse 
with the world, and was distinguished for absti- 
nence and acts of mortification, they said, He 
hath a daemon. . The youth, whose father applied 
to Jesus to free him from an evil spirit, describ- 
ing his unhappy condition in these words, Have 
mercy on my son for he is lunatic, and sore 
vexed with a daemon; for ofttimes he falleth 
into the fire, and oft into the water, was plainly 
epileptic. Every thing, indeed, that is related in 
the New Testament concerning daemoniacs, 
proves that they were people affected with such 
natural diseases as are far from being uncommon 
among mankind in the present age. When the 
symptoms of disorders cured by our Saviour and 
his apostles, as cases of daemoniacal possession, 
correspond so exactly with those of diseases well 
known as natural in the present age, it would be 
absurd to impute them to a supernatural cause. 
It is much more consistent with common sense 
and sound philosophy, to suppose, that our Sa- 
viour and his apostles wisely, and with that con- 
descension to the weakness and prejudices of 
those with whom they conversed, which so emi- 
nently distinguished the character of the author 
of our holy religion, and must always be a 
prominent feature in the character of the true 
Christian, adopted the vulgar language in 
speaking of those unfortunate persons who were 
groundlessly imagined to be possessed with 
daemons, though they well knew the notions 
which had given rise to such modes of expression 

to be ill founded, than to imagine that diseases 
which arise at present from natural causes, were 
produced in days of old by the intervention of 
daemons, or that evil spirits still continue to 
enter into mankind in all cases of madness, me- 
lancholy, or epilepsy. Hesides, it is by no means 
a sufficient reason for receiving any doctrine as 
true, that it has been generally received through 
the world. Error, like an epidemical disease, is 
communicated from one to another. In cert-iiii 
circumstances, too, the influence of imagination 
predominates, and restrains the exertions of 
reason. Many false opinions have extended 
their influence through a very wide circle, and 
maintained it long. On every such occasion as 
the present, therefore, it becomes us to inquire, 
not so much how generally any opinion has been 
received, or how long it has prevailed, as from 
what cause it has originated, and on what evi- 
dence it rests. When we contemplate the frame 
of nature, we behold a grand and beautiful sim- 
plicity prevailing through the whole. Notwith- 
standing its immense extent, and though it 
contains such numberless diversities of being, 
yet the simplest machine constructed by human 
art does not display greater simplicity, or a 
happier connexion of parts. We may therefore 
infer, by analogy, from what is observable of 
the order of nature in general to the present 
case, that to permit evil spirits to intermeddle 
with the concerns of human life, would be to 
break through that order which the Deity ap- 
pears to have established through his works ; 
it would be to introduce a degree of confusion 
unworthy of the wisdom of Divine Providence. 
In opposition to these arguments the following 
are urged by the Dfemouianists. In the days of 
our Saviour, it would appear that dasmoniacal 
possession was very frequent among the Jews 
and the neighbouring nations. Many were the 
evil spirits whom Jesus is related in the gospels 
to have ejected from patients that were brought 
unto him as possessed and tormented by those 
malevolent daemons. His apostles, too, and the 
first Christians, who were most active and suc- 
cessful in the propagation of Christianity, appear 
to have often exerted the miraculous powers with 
which they were endowed on similar occasions. 
The daemons displayed a degree of knowledge 
and malevolence which sufficiently distinguished 
them from human beings : and the language in 
which the dasmoniacs are mentioned, and the 
actions and sentiments ascribed to them in the 
New Testament, show that our Saviour and his 
apostles did not consider the idea of daemoniacal 
possession as being merely a vulgar error con- 
cerning the origin of a disease or diseases pro- 
duced by natural causes. The more enlightened 
cannot always avoid the use of metaphorical 
modes of expression; which, though founded 
upon error, yet have been so established in lan- 
guage by the influence of custom, that they 
cannot be suddenly dismissed. But in descrip- 
tions of characters, in the narration of facts, and 
in the laying down of systems of doctrine, we 
require different rules to be observed. Should any 
person, in compliance with popular opinions, 
talk in serious language of the existence, dispo- 
sitions, declarations, and actions o r a race of 



beings whom he knew to be absolutely fabulous, reason can conjecture, concerning the existence 
we surely could not praise him for integrity : we of various orders of spiritual beings, good and 
must suppose him to be either exulting in irony 
over the weak credulity of those around him, or 
taking advantage of their weakness, with the 
dishonesty and the selfish views of an impostor. 
And if he himself should pretend to any con- 
nexion with this imaginary system of beings ; and 
should claim, in consequence of his connexion 

with them, particular honors from his c'ontem- a man who took advantage of the weakness and 
poraries ; whatever might he the dignity of his ignorance of his contemporaries, if this doctrine 

Character in all Other respects, nobody COuld *>f> nnthino- hilt a imla-nr Prrnr Tt tpqphps nnlhinrr 

hesitate to brand him as an impostor. In this 
light must we regard the conduct of our Sa- 
viour and his apostles, if the idea of daemoniacal 

bad, is perfectly consistent with, and even favor- 
able to, the doctrine of daemoniacal possession. 
It is mentioned in the New Testament in such 
language, and such narratives are related con- 
cerning it, that the gospels cannot well be re- 
garded in any other light than as pieces of im- 
posture, and Jesus Christ must be considered as 

be nothing but a vulgar error. It teaches nothing 
inconsistent with the general conduct of provi- 
dence. In short, it is not the caution of philo- 
sophy, but the pride of reason, that suggests ob- 

possession were to be considered merely as a jections against this doctrine. 

vulgar error. They talked and acted as if they 
believed that evil spirits had actually entered 
into those who were brought to them as pos- 
sessed with devils,, and as if those spirits had 
been actually expelled by their authority out of 
the unhappy persons whom they had possessed. 
They demanded, too, to have their professions 
and declarations believed, in consequence of 
their performing such mighty works, and having 
thus triumphed over the powers of hell. The 
reality of dasmoniacal possession stands upon 
the same evidence with the gospel system in 
general. Nor is there any thing unreasonable in 
this doctrine. It does not appear to contradict 

Such are the leading arguments generally 
urged on this subject ; the reader must of course 
judge for himself between them ; but we cannot 
dismiss the article without a few additional re- 
marks. It is argued by those who deny the in- 
fluence of daemons or evil spirits, that to permit 
such an influence on the concerns of human life, 
would be to break through that order which the 
Deity appears to have established throughout his 
works, and to introduce a degree of confusion 
unworthy of the Divine Providence. This, to 
say the least of it, is a most gratuitous assertion. 
For surely those who make it are well aware of 
the existence of much real evil in the affairs of 

those ideas, which the general appearances of human life, and yet the Divine government 

nature and the series of events suggest, concerning 
the benevolence and wisdom of the Deity, by 
which he regulates the affairs of the universe. 
We often fancy ourselves able to comprehend 
things to which our understanding is wholly in- 
adequate : we persuade ourselves at times that 
the whole extent of the works of the Deity must 
be well known to us, and that his designs must 
always be such as we can fathom. We are then 
ready whenever any difficulty arises to us, in 
considering the conduct of Providence, to model 
things according to our own ideas ; to deny that 
the Deity can possibly be the author of things 
which we cannot reconcile; and to assert that 
he must act on every occasion in a manner con- 

moves on with a regularity and an order that 
cannot fail to excite the admiration of every 
well-disposed mind. Now to meet the objection 
in all its bearings, we would ask those who 
make it, whether they think that all the evil 
which they see existing around them, or any part 
of it, is effected without the medium of any 
kind of agency ? This, we conceive, no rational 
man would venture to maintain. The question 
then is simply this, of what nature is this 
agency ? To this question, as the point at issue 
rests solely on the authority of Divine Revela- 
tion, we reply, it is of a purely spiritual na- 
ture, and has its origin in the spiritual world. 
The existence of such agency, both of a good 

sistent with our narrow views. This is the pride and of an evil nature, is as clearly taught as any 
of reason ; and it seems to have suggested the fact made known by the sacred writings. It is 
strongest objections that have been at any time by means of it that the various affections of the 
urged against the reality of dzemoniacal posses- human mind are produced; nor would any dif- 
sion. But the Deity may surely connect one 
order of his creatures with another. We per- 
ceive mutual relations and a beautiful connexion 
to prevail through all that part of nature which 
falls within the sphere of our observation. The 
inferior animals are connected with mankind, 
and subjected to their authority, not only in in- 

stances in which it is exerted for their advantage, 

ficulty be experienced by us on this point were 
we constantly to keep in mind that man, in his 
present state, is intimately connected with both 
worlds; with the invisible by means of his 
spirit, and with the visible or material world by 
means of his body. The cases of daemoniacal 
possession that occurred during the time of 
Christ's sojourning on earth were exactly what, 

but even where it is tyrannically abused to their from the information of Scripture, might have 
destruction. Among the evils to which mankind ' "* "' " "' ' 

have been subjected, why might not their being 
liable to daemoniacal possession be one? While 
the Supreme Being retains the sovereignty of the 
universe, he may employ whatever agents he 
thinks proper in the execution of his purposes : 
he may either commission an angel or let loose 
a devil, as well as bend the human will, or com- 
municate any particular impulse to matter. All 
ihat revelation makes known, all that human 

been expected to take place. The Eternal (ac- 
cording to the opinion of a vast body of Chris- 
tians) assumed the human nature, that in it He 
might, in the sight of mankind, effect their deli- 
verance from the infernal influence which threat- 
ened their destruction. This was accomplished 
by His passing through a series of the most un- 
paralleled trials, which terminated in a conflict 
unutterably awful. The numerous cases oi 
daemoniacal possession that are introduced to 


our notice in the sacred history appear to have 
been so many specimens of the ascendency 
which this influence had gained, and the cer- 
tainty of its being removed ; for we find, in 
every case, that the evil spirit was cast out: and 
certainly it was no obscure allusion that Jesus 
made to this when in the immediate prospect of 
the last great conflict with the invisible powers 
of darkness, and in reference to the grand tried 
of his triumph over them in the spiritual state, 
he said, ' Now is the judgment of this world : 
now shall the prince of this world be cast out.' 
Does not this very declaration seem to allude to 
the circumstance of such possessions being less 
frequent since that time ? We say less frequent, 
because we think there can be no doubt but that 
tome instances of extraordinary evil agency are, 
for wise purposes, still permitted to appear in 
the world ; although certainly, in no case, to the 
same extent as before our Lord's subjugation of 
such agency. We do not deny that superstition 
has much augmented the number of these; yet 
it would be easy to specify some cases that have 
powerful claims on the most rational and en- 
lightened belief. 

DEMONIACS, in church history, a sect whose 
distinguishing tenet was said to be, that the devils 
shall be saved at the end of the world. 

DAFF,r.a.&n. s. > Goth, doef; Fr. dofu-a, 
DAFT, ns. J to stupify. But Dr. John- 

son thinks our word d;iff, or daft, is a corruption 
of to do aft, or throw aside, and the examples 
from Shakspeare seem to justify him. To cast 
off; to daunt. A person treated contemptuously ; 
a dolt, or coward. 

When this jape is tald another day, 
I shall be halden a daffe or a cokenay, 
I wol arise and auntre it by my fay : 
Unhardy is unsely, thus men say. 

Chaucer. Cant. Talet. 

The nimble-footed mad-cap prince of Wale*, 
And his comrades, that daft the world aside, 
Bid it pass. ShuJupeare. Henry IV. 

I would she had bestowed this dotage on me : I 
would have daft all other respects, and made her half 
myself. Id. 

DA'FFODIL, n s. ~\ Supposed by Skinner 
DAFFODI'LLY. S to be corrupted from as- 

DAFFODOWNDI'LLY. Jphodelus. A common 

Strew me the green round with daffodowndilliet, 
And cowslips, and kingcups, and loved lilies. 


Bid amaranthus all his beauty shed, 
And daffodillies fill their cups with tears. 
To strew the laurcat herse where Lycid lies. 


The daughters of the flood have searched the mead 
For violets pale, and cropped the poppy's head : 
The short narcissus, and fair daffodil, 
Pansies to please the sight, and cassia sweet to smell. 

Dry <fen. 


DAG, orDAGGE,.. Because the Dacians, 
says Minsheu, first used it. A pistol or hand gun. 
Dr. Meyrick says, 'the name is peculiar to Great 

D'ye call this gun a dag ? 

Beaumont and Fletcher. 

7 DAG 

DAG, or -\ Old Fr. dugge ; Ital. 

DAOOE, n. s. {dugga; Span, dapa', 

DAGGER. I \\ ei. and Arm. dur', 

DAGGER-DRAWING. J from Ileh. ipi, to 
pierce; Minsheu. A cutting and stabbing wea- 
pon, principally the latter. 

Upon his armc lie barf a pale bracer, 
And by his side a swf rd ami a bokcler, 
And on that other side a jraie d<iti<jrre, 
Hani .is ,d v.ol, aiul "harpc as point of spcre. 

C/iaucer, Prut, to Cant. Talei. 

She ran to her son's dagger, and struck herself a . 
mortal wound. Sidney. 

This sword a dagger had his page, 
And was but little for his ape, 
And therefore waited on him so 
As dwarfs upon knights-errant do. Hwlibnu. 

They always aro at dtiggerxdratcing , 
And one another clapperclawing. Id. 

I have heart! of a quarrel in a tavern, where all 
were at dagijersdrawing, till one desired to know the 
subject of the quarrel. SiciJ't. 

He strikes himself with his dagger, but inter, 
rupted by one of his friends, he stabs him, and breaks 
the dagger on one his ribs. Addisun. 

The Roman, when his burning heart 
Was slaked with blood of Rome, 
Threw down the dagger, dared depart 

In savage grandeur home, Byron. 

DAG, v. a. & >j. s. ^ Sax. "eaj, to sprinkle, 
DAG'GLE, v. a. &n. f and uaj, dew. To be- 
DAG'TAILED. mire; let fall into water; 

DAG'GLETAIL. J besprinkle. Dagtailed.or 
daggletailed, is bemired, bespattered, or muddy. 

Would it not vexe thee, where thy syres did keepe. 
To see the dunged foldes of dag-tayld sheepe ? 
And ruined house, where holy things were said, 
Whose free-stone wals, the thatched roofe upbraid ? 

Bp. Hall. 

Now in contiguous drops the flood comes down, 
Threatening with deluge this devoted town : 
To shops in crowds the daggled females fly. 
Pretend to cheapen goods, but nothing buy. Swift. 

The gentlemen of wit and pleasure arc apt to be 
choaked at the light of so many daggletailed parsons, 
that happen to fall in their way. Id. 

Nor like a puppy daggled through the town, 
To fetch and carry sing-song up and down. 


DAGELET, an island on the coast of Corea, 
about three leagues in circumference, covered 
with fine trees, and surrounded with steep rocks, 
except a few sandy creeks, which form convenient 
landing places. It was discovered by La Fey- 
rouse in 1787, who found some boats of a Chi- 
nese construction upon the stocks. The men 
employed upon them, were supposed to be 
Corean carpenters, but as the ships approached 
they fled to the woods. The French navigator 
supposed that the island was uninhabited ; except 
during summer by people from Corea, for build- 
ing boats. -Long. 131 22' E., lat. 37 25' N. 

IJAGHESTAN, a country of Asia, west of the 
Caspian Sea, between the efflux of the Koisin 
and the Rubas. It is about 134 miles in lengtl-t 
by between thirty and forty in breadth. It is 
almost wholly mountainous ; but the soil is pro- 
ductive, and fine crops of grain are raised The 



Russians claim the sovereignty of Daghestan, 

hich is divided into four districts ; but their 
ithority is not universally acknowledged. 
Many of the inhabitants subsist by plunder; but it 
has recently been the scene of contest between 
.the Persians and Russians. The chief towns are 
Tarki, Derbend, Baschli, and Ottermisch. 

DAGO, or DAGHO, an island in the Baltic 
Sea, on the coast of Livonia, between the gulf of 
Finland and Riga. It is of a triangular figure, 
and may be about twenty miles in circumference. 
It has nothing considerable but two castles 
called Daggerwort and Paden. Long. 22 50' 
E,, lat. 68 44' N. 

DAGOE, DAGHO, or DAGEN, an island of the 
Baltic, at the entrance of the gulf of Finland, 
near the coast of Esthonia, and separated from 
the island of Oesel by a narrow channel. It is 
about forty miles long, and from twenty-six to 
thirty-six broad, and is well peopled. At Dage- 
rort a lighthouse. 

DAGQN, the idol of Ashdod or Azotus. He 
is commonly represented as a monster, half man 
and half fish ; whence most learned men derive 
the name from the Hebrew dag, which signifies 
a fish. Those who make him to have been the 
inventor of bread^corn, derive his name from the 
Hebrew, ])3~\, Dagon, signifying corn ; whence 
Philo-Biblius calls him Ztvg Aparptioe, Jupiter 
Aratrius. This deity continued to have a temple 
at Ashdod to the time of the Maccabees : for the 
author of the first book of Maccabees tells us, 
that 'Jonathan, one of the Maccabees, having 
beaten the army of Apollonius, Demetrius's 
general, they fled to Azotus, and entered into 
Bethdagon (the temple of their idol) ; but Jona- 
than set fire to Azotus, and burnt the temple of 
Dagon and all those who were fled into it.' 
Dagou, according to some, was the same with 
Jupiter, according to others Saturn or Venus ; 
but according to most Neptune. 

in the Red Sea, near the coast of Abyssinia, about 
twenty-five miles in length, and twelve in breadth, 
anciently celebrated for its pearl fishery. It is 
low and flat, with a sandy soil, and in summer 
destitute of every kind of herbage, except a small 
quantity of bent grass, which is barely sufficient 
to feed a few antelopes and goats. From the 
end of March to the beginning of October, they 
have no rain in Dahalak ; but in the inter- 
mediate months they have heavy showers, when 
the water is collected into artificial cisterns, to 
supply the inhabitants during the ensuing sum- 
mer. Of these cisterns, which are supposed to 
be either the work of the Persians or of the first 
Ptolemies, upwards of 300 remained at a recent 
period, cut out of the solid rock. Its principal 
port is Dahalece-el-Kebar, but it will only admit 
small vessels; and its trade is with Masuah. 
It was formerly much more populous than at 
present. This as well as the neighbouring islands 
is dependent upon Masuah ; and the governor is 
furnished monthly with a goat from each of the 
twelve villages ; besides which every vessel put- 
ting in here for Masuah, pays him a pound of 
coffee, and every one from Arabia, a dollar. 
From these his revenue chiefly arises. Long. 
E., lat. 15 40' N. 

DAIIL, or DAL, a large river of Sweden, 
which runs through the provinces of Dalecarlia 
and Gestricia, and falls into the gulf of Bothnia, 
four leagues E. S. E. of Gefle. Near Elfkarleby 
it forms a celebrated cataract, scarcely inferior 
to the fall of the Rhine at Lauffen. 

DAHLIA, in botany, a genus of plants be- 
longing to the syngenesia class and polygamia 
order, thus named by Cavanilles in honor of Dr. 
Andrew Dahl, a Swedish botanist. The stems 
die every winter, but the root is perennial and 
tuberous. The known species are but four. 1 . 
D. pinnata, figured by Cavanilles, and in An- 
drew's Botanical Repository : it has bipenuate 
leaves of a deep puqile color. 2. D. rosea, a 
rose-colored variety figured by Cavanilles in his 
Icones. 3. D. coccinea, a scarlet variety ; and, 
4. D. crocata, a saffron-colored species. These 
beautiful plants are now becoming so general in 
British gardens, that a lengthened description 
would be superfluous : it is sufficient to say, that 
they elevate the stem like the holly-hock, and 
bear fine showy axillary and terminal flowers 
late in the autumn. 

DAHOMEY, orDAUMA, akingdom of Africa, 
on the coast of Guinea, situated about sixty or 
seventy miles from the Atlantic, to the east of 
Ashantee. This kingdom,which is correctly placed 
in various old maps, particularly that of Merca- 
tor, who names its ancient capital Dauina, was 
erased from the maps of Africa in 1700, and the 
existence of the nation of Dauma denied ; but it 
emerged from obscurity in 1727, by the fame of 
its conquests of the maritime states ot Whidah 
and Ardra. Dahomey, as known at present, is- 
supposed to reach from the sea coast 150 miles in 
land, but no European has yet penetrated to that 
distance from the coast. The soil is a deep rich 
clay, of a reddish color, with a little sand on the 
surface, except about Calmina, where it is more 
light and gravelly ; but there is not to be found 
a stone so large as an egg in the whole country, 
so far as it has been visited by Europeans. Of 
farinaceous vegetables, the country yields a plen- 
tiful supply, in proportion to the culture. The 
Dahomese likewise cultivate yams, potatoes, the 
cassada or manioka, the plantain, and the 
banana. Pine-apples, melons, oranges, limes, 
guavas, and other tropical fruits, also abound in 
this fertile country. Nor is it destitute of pro- 
ductions adapted for commerce and manufacture ; 
such as indigo, cotton, the sugar-cane, tobacco, 
palm-oil, with a variety of spices, particularly a 
species of pepper, very similar in flavor, and 
indeed scarcely distinguishable from the black 
pepper of the East Indies. The Dahomese, 
like the other inhabitants of tropical climates, 
plant twice a-year, viz., at the vernal and autumnal 
equinoxes ; after which the periodical rains pre- 
vail. The harmattan, or dry wind, blows here 
strongly from the north-east ; hut Mr. Norris does 
not ascribe to it those pestilential qualities which 
have often been supposed, for while it parches up 
the ground, and injures every species of vegetable, 
it does not induce any fatal diseases. It is even 
said to cure cutaneous eruptions, and stop the 
progress of small pox, fluxes, and remittent fe- 
vers. The greatest bane of the climate is the 
periodical rains; which are attended with tern- 

D A H O M E Y. 


ole tornadoes. The language is that which the 
Portuguese call Lingua Geral, and is spoken not 
only in Dahomey Proper, but in Wliidah, and the 
other dependent states. The Dahoman religion 
is vague and uncertain in its principles, and ra- 
ther consists in the performance of some tradi- 
tionary ceremonies, than of any fixed system of 
belief, or moral conduct. According to Mr. 
Norris, human sacrifices are not unfrequent 
among the Dahomese. Their kings, lie says, 
water the graves of their ancestors every year with 
the blood of human victims. The same traveller 
mentions that the people in general take a peculiar 
pleasure in contemplating human skulls. The 
king said to a traveller, ' Some heads I place at 
my door : others I throw into the market-place. 
This gives a grandeur to my customs; this 
makes my enemies fear me ; and this pleases my 
ancestors to whom I send them.' The king is 
even said to sleep in a room paved with the 
skulls of prisoners of distinction taken in war ; 
and frequently to exclaim, ' Thus I can trample 
on the skulls of my enemies whenever I please.' 
It appears to be customary witli the Dahomese 
to cut off the ears of the prisoners they take in 
war, and to send them as a present to the Grand 
Seignior : upwards of 300 pairs of ears have been 
sent to him at one time. They believe more 
firmly in their amulets and fetiches, than in the 
deity ; their national fetiche is the tiger ; and 
their houses or huts are decorated with images, 
tinged with blood, stuck with feathers, besmeared 
with palm oil, and bedaubed with eggs. The 
government is perhaps the most perfect despo- 
tism upon earth, and seems to admit of no inter- 
mediate degree of subordination between the 
king and slave. Norris having asked a soldier 
if he did not think the enemy numerous in a war 
in which he found the Dahomese engaged ; the lat- 
ter replied, 'I think of my king, and then I dare en- 
gage five of the enemy myself He added, ' it is 
not material, my head belongs to the king, not to 
myself; if he pleases to send for it, I am ready 
to resign it ; for if it is shot through in battle, it 
is no difference to me, I am satisfied.' A mi- 
nister of state crawls towards the apartment of 
audience on his hands and knees, till he arrives 
in the royal presence, where he lays himself flat 
on his belly, rubbing his head in the dust, and 
uttering the most humiliating expressions. Be- 
ing desired to advance, he receives the king's 
commands, or communicates any particular busi- 
ness, still continuing in a recumbent posture; for no 
person is permitted to sit, even on the floor, in the 
royal presence, except the women ; and even they 
must kiss the earth when they receive or deliver 
the king's message. The king of Dahomey main- 
tains a considerable standing army, commanded 
by an agaow or general, with several other sub- 
ordinate military officers; the payment of these 
troops chiefly depends on the success of the ex- 
peditions in which they are engaged. Sometimes 
the king takes the field at the head of his troops ; 
and on very great emergencies a t the head of his 
women. For within the walls of the different 
royal palaces in Dahomey, are immured not less 
than 3000 women ; several hundreds of whom 
are trained to arms under a female general, and 
subordinate officers appointed by the king. 

These Ama/.ons are regularly exercised, and go 
through their evolutions with much expertness ; 
their accoutrements being precisely similar to 
those of the male troops. 1 he dress of the men 
in Dahomey consists of a p;iir of striped or white 
cotton drawers, of the manufacture of the coun- 
try, over which they wear a large square cloth 
of the same, or of European manufacture. This 
cloth is about the size of a common counterpane 
for the middling class, but much larger for the 
grandees. It is wrapped about the loins, and 
tied on the left side by two of the corners, the 
others hanging down, and sometimes trailing on 
the ground. A piece of silk or velvet, of sixteen 
or eighteen yards, makes a cloth for a grandee. 
The head is usually covered with a beaver or felt 
hat, according to the quality of the wearer. The 
king, as well as some of his ministers, often wears 
a gold or silver laced hat and feather. The 
arms and upper part of the body remain naked, 
unless when the party travels, or performs labo- 
rious work, when the large cloth is laid aside, 
and the body is covered with a sort of frock or 
tunic without sleeves. The feet are always bare, 
none but the sovereign having a right to wear 
sandals. The dress of the women, though sim- 
ple, consists of a greater number of articles 
than that of the men. They use several cloths 
or handkerchiefs; the neck, arms, and ancles, 
are adorned with beads and cowries ; and rings 
of silver, or baser metal, encircle the fingers. 
The ears are so pierced as to admit the little 
finger, and a coral bead of that size, red sealing 
wax, or a piece of oyster-shell, stuck into each. 
Girls, before the age of puberty, wear nothing 
but a string of beads or shells round the loins, 
and young women usually expose the breasts. 
The general character of the Dahomese is marked 
by a strange mixture of ferocity and politeness. 
The former appears in the treatment of their 
enemies ; the latter they possess far above most of 
the African nations with whom we have hitherto 
had any intercourse. Abomey, the capital, 
lies between long. 3 and 4 E., and in lat. 7 
50' N. 

DAILLE (John), a protestant minister of the 
seventeenth century, the most esteemed by the 
Catholics of all the controversial writers among 
the Protestants. He was tutor to two of the 
grandsons of the illustrious M. du Plessis Mor- 
nai. Mr. Daille having lived fourteen years in 
this family, travelled into Italy with his two 
pupils ; one of them died abroad ; with the other 
he visited Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Flanders 
Holland, and England, and returned in 1621. 
He was received minister in 1623, and became 
chaplain to the family of M. Mornai. In 1625 
he was appointed minister of the church of Sau- 
mur, and in 1626 removed to Paris, where he 
spent the rest of his life, and composed several 
works. His first work, Of the Use of the Fathers, 
was his masterpiece ; printed in 1631. He died 
in 1670, aged seventy-seven. 

DAINT, adj. -^ Fr. dain, delicate. 

DAIU'TEOI'S, adj. I From Lat. dens, a tooth, 
DAIN'TY, n. s. & adj.\ because pleasing to the 
DAIM'TILY, adv. i palate, as Minsheu 
DAIN'TINESS, n. s. J says : delicious, exqui- 



site, or of agreeable taste ; elegant. The adverb 
and substantives follow the meanings of the 

Be not desirous of his dainties ; for they are deceit- 
ful meat. Proverbs xxiii. 3. 
Both halle and chambres, eche in his degree, 

Houses of office stuffed with plentee ; 

Ther mayst thou see of deinteotu vitaille 

That may be found as far as lasteth Itaille. 

Chaucer. Cant. Tales. 

Ther may men fest and realtee beholde, 
And deintees mo than I can you devise, 
But all to dere they bought it or they rise. Id. 

Ne poets witt, that passeth painter farre 
In picturing the parts of Beauty daynt, 
80 hard a workmanship adventure darre. 

Spenser. Faerie Queene. 

Higher concoction is required for sweetness, or 
pleasure of taste, and therefore all your dainty plumbs 
are a little dry. Bacon. 

Truth is a naked and open day-light, that doth not 
hew the masks and mummeries and triumphs of the 
world, half so stately and daintily as candlelight. Id. 

My house, within the city, 
Is richly furnished with plate and gold, 
Basons and ewers to lave her dainty hands. 


Which of you all 

Will now deny to dance ? She that makes dainty, 
I'll swear hath corns. Id. Romeo and Juliet. 

Therefore to horse ; 

And let us not be dainty of leave-taking, 
But shift away. Id. Macbeth. 

Why, that's my dainty ; I shall miss thee j 
But yet thou shall have freedom. Id. Tempest. 

What should yet thy palate please ? 
Daintines* and softer ease, 
Sleeked limbs and finest blood ? Ben Jonton. 

The duke exceeded in the daitttiness of his leg and 
foot, and the earl in the fine shape of his hands. 


It was more notorious for the daintiness of the pro- 
vision which he served in it, than for the massiness 
of the dish. Hakewill on Providence. 

Why should ye be so cruel to yourself, 
And to those dainty limbs, which nature lent 
For gentle usage and soft delicacy 1 Milton. 

She then produced her dairy store, 
And unbought dainties of the poor. Drydtn. 

Your dainty speakers have the curse, 
To plead bad causes down to worse. Prior. 

The shepherd swains, with sure abundance blest, 
On the fat flock and rural dainties feast. Pope. 

DAI'RY, n. t. > From dey, says Lye, an 
DAI'RY-MAID. 5 old word for milk. The 
milk-house, or place where it is managed . A 
dairy-maid and milk-maid, are nearly synony- 
mous. In Gloucestershire, the dairy is still called 
a dey-house. Yet we supply a very early use of 
' dairies.' 

Citees and burghes, castles high and towres, 
Thorpes and barnes, shepenes and dairies, 
This maketh that thir ben no Faeries. 

Chaucer. Cant. Tales. 

Dairies being well housewived, arc exceeding com- 
modious. Bacon. 

Children, in dairy countries, do wax more tall than 
where they feed more upon bread and flesh. Id. 

You have no more worth 
Than the coarse and country fairy, 
That doth haunt the hearth or dairy. BenJcmson. 

She in pens his flocks will fold, 
And then produce her dairy store. Dryden. 

The poorest of the sex have still an itch , 
To know their fortunes, equal to the rich ; 
The duirymaitl enquires if she shall take 
The trusty taylor, and the cook forsake. Id. 

Come up quickly, or we shall conclude that thou 
art in love with one of Sir Roger's dairy-maids. 


DAIRY. -The operations of the dairy are con- 
nected with the domestic comforts of almostevery 
English family. Man is here seen taking that 
useful and honorable direction of the works of 
nature for which he was designed, and his origi- 
nal companion, when a good housewife, is almost 
more than ' a help meet' for him. She is gene- 
rally, and for the great benefit of both parties, en- 
trusted with the practical management of this 
department, even of extensive farming establish- 
ments ; and so large a portion of ' skill, frugality, 
cleanliness, and industry,' is required, as a mo- 
dern author well observes, in hardly any other of 
the duties of a farmer's wife. 

In our articles AGRICULTURE and Bos we have 
entered pretty largely into the natural history 
and peculiarities of the only animal whose milk 
is extensively used in this country ; ve shall, in 
this paper, principally advert, 1. To the selec- 
tion and general management of cows kept for 
the dairy, and by cow-keepers, as they are termed. 
2. To the operations of the regular dairy in our 
cheese and butter counties, particularly the for- 
mer : for in our article BUTTER will be found 
many useful directions with regard to that im- 
portant manufacture. 3. We shall offer a few re- 
marks on the structure of the dairy-house and its 

i. Of the selection and management of cows. 
In and about London the Holderness cows, a 
variety of the short-horned breed, are preferred. 
They have large carcases and yield a great quan- 
tity of milk. They take their name from a dis- 
trict in Yorkshire, where, as well as in the county 
of Durham, they are extensively bred ; but most 
English counties have cultivated die breed in 
some degree. The Edinburgh dairy-men select 
the short-homed cow of Roxburghshire for simi- 
lar reasons. Ayrshire has also a celebrated 
breed. In Lancashire (and in the neighbourhood 
of Liverpool this topic has been well canvassed) 
a native long-horned cow is said to have a ge- 
neral preference. The Guernsey breed is also 
highly valuable for its rich and abundant milk. 
At Caton, in Lancashire, in Mr. Hodgson's 
dairy establishment, a long-ho.ned cow yielded 
eight quarts of milk a day and four pounds of 
butter per week on an average of twelve months, 
during which period one of the short-horned 
breed gave nine quarts per day and four pounds 
and a half of butter per week, both having what 
they chose to take of exactly the same kind of 
food. But the quantity each consumed was not 
noted. Dr. Anderson's strong recommendation 
of the Alderney cows, as affording ' the richest 
milk hitherto known; though there are many 


individuals of different kinds which afford much 
richer milk than others,' as he says, seems long 
to have kept up the public preference for them 
in many districts. 

Cows known to afford milk and butter of the 
best qualities, will of course be selected ; but 
neither size nor breed seems to be a uniform 
criterion. Respectable cow-keepers rarely breed 
cattle, so that actual experience of the animal is 
the only final test; and the quantity of milk 
yielded seems to be, in this case, the sole ground 
of favoritism. Those who supply the metropolis 
with milk generally purchase their cows at from 
three to four years old, and in calf, at Islington, 
or Smithtii'ld. Some of them own several hun- 
dreds. The number scattered in and about 
London is calculated at about 9000. Ten bulls 
are generally allowed to a stock of 300 cows, and 
the calves are sent to Smithfield market at one, 
two, or three days old. The quantity of milk 
given on an average, by each cow, is said to be 
nine quarts a day, or 3285 quarts per annum. 
The weekly expense of their food is estimated 
in the Middlesex Report at 10s. 3d., and the 
other charges about 5. 7s. per annum. 

These cows are often confined in the cow- 
house, or the premises adjoining, during the 
whole time of their being devoted to the pur- 
poses of the cow-keeper ; but respectable esta- 
blishments turn them out to grass in the spring. 
In the night they are turned into their stalls, and 
fed at about three in the morning with half a 
bushel each of grains. From four to half-past 
six or seven they are milked for the retail dealers; 
then they receive a bushel each of green food or 
turnips, and soon after at the rate of a truss ot 
meadow hay to ten cows. They are now turned 
out into the cow-yard, from eight to twelve 
o'clock, and about half-past one to three are 
milked and fed again as in the morning. This 
is the regular plan from September to May at 
least, or during the turnip season. At other 
parts of the year cabbages and tares diversify 
their food until they are turned out to grass 
(where that change of food is supplied to them), 
and now they remain in the field all night ; but 
are frequently fed with grains to increase their 
milk, even at this period. 

The cow-feeders of Edinburgh, according to 
the Supplement of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 
do not find it for their interest to keep their cows 
for more than one year, or even so long, if they can 
be fattened sooner. ' Their object is to have as 
great a quantity of milk as possible in the first 
instance; and when the cows fall off in milking, 
as they almost always do from between four and 
six months after calving, to prepare them spee- 
dily for the butcher. Most of the cows continue 
t^ give a good deal of milk while they are fatten- 
ing, and even until they are sent to the shambles. 
It is expected they should sell to the butcher at 
the price paid by the cow-keeper. Their food 
in summer is brewers' and distillers' grains and 
dreg, wheat shellings or small bran, grass and 
straw ; and in winter the same grains, dreg and 
bran, with turnips and potatoes, and hay instead 
of grass. grains are scarce, cut or chopped 
hay is mixed with them. Some of them are sent 
to pasture in fields near the city, for about two 

months, during the best of the grass season; but 
even then a certain number must be kept in the 
house, for consuming the grains, which are pur- 
chased by contract for a whole year.' 

' With regard to management, the cow-keepers 
begin with grains, dreg, and bran, mixed toge- 
ther, at five o'clock in the morning; feed a se- 
cond time at one o'clock in the afternoon ; and 
a third from seven to eight in theevening. Grass 
in summer, and turnips or potatoes in winter, 
are given at both intervals. A small quantity of 
straw is laid below the grass, which absorbs its 
moisture, and is eaten after the grass; and, in 
winter, straw or hay is given after the turnips. 
Part of the turnips or potatoes are boiled, parti- 
cularly when there is a scarcity of grains, and 
intermixed with them. The expense in summer 
is said to be 2s. lOJd., and in winter 3s. "<'/. 
per day, for each cow. The cows are seldom- 
milked more than twice a-day : for about a month 
after being bought, it is sometimes necessary to 
milk them three times. The common periods of 
milking are six o'clock in the morning, from 
three to four in the afternoon, and, when milked 
a third time, nine in the evening. Their produce 
in milk, when fed as already stated, may average 
about seven Scotch pints, or nearly twelve quarts 
and a half daily, per cow. When the cows are 
smaller, and not so well fed, five pints, or about 
nine quarts, are said to be the average. The price 
of milk in Edinburgh used to be 6d. per pint, 
but of late it has been sometimes lower in sum- 
mer. This is said to be very little more than the 
price of the food. For interest of money, risk, 
expenses of management, and profit, there is the 
dung, worth 3. 10s. for each cow; some savings 
on the cows while at grass, which costs only 1 . 8</. 
per day ; and, probably, a small advance of price 
may be commonly got from the butcher, when 
the cows are skilfully selected and well managed. 
There have been instances of cow-feeders con- 
tracting with others to retail their milk ; but the 
practice is not common. The cow-keepers ge- 
nerally retail it themselves. In one instance a 
guinea a-week *br the milk of each cow was 
paid by retailers to e farmer in the vicinity of 

* Comparing the London and Edinburgh 
dairies,' continues the above writer, ' there seems 
to be a difference in favor of the best of the 
latter of no less than three quarts and a half per 
day. If this be the fact, perhaps it is owing to 
the whole of the Edinburgh cows being always 
in milk ; none of them being kept for years, and 
bred from, as in the London dairies.' 

Dr. Andersons's general aphorisms on the 
subject of the qualities of milk cannot be too 
well impressed on all dairy and cow-keepers. He 
says, 1. Of the milk drawn from a cow at any 
time, that which comes first is always thinnest, 
and continues to increase in thickness to the last 
drop. This is proved by experiment ; and so 
great is the importance of attending to it, that the 
person who, by bad milking of his cows, loses 
but half a pint of his milk, loses, in fact, as much 
cream as would be afforded by six or eivrrit pints 
at the beginning, and loses besides that part of 
the cream which done can give richness and high 
flavor to his butter 2. When milk throws up 



cream to the surface, that portion which rises first 
will be thicker, and of better quality, as well as 
in greater quantity, than that which rises in a se- 
cond equal portion of time. 3. Thick milk throws 
up a smaller quantity of cream to the surface than 
such as is thinner; but that cream is of a richer 
quality. If water be added to that thick milk, it 
will afford a considerably greater quantity of 
cream than before, but its quality is at the same 
time greatly debased. 4. Milk when carried in 
vessels to any distance, so as to suffer considerable 
agitation, never throws up cream so rich, nor in 
such quantity, as if the same had been put into 
the milk-pans without any agitation. From these 
aphorisms, the following corollaries are deducible. 
1. The cows ought always to be milked as near 
the dairy as possible. 2. The milk of different 
cows should be kept by themselves, that the 
good cows may be distinguished from the bad. 
3. For butter of a very fine quality, the first- 
drawn milk ought always to be kept separate 
from the last. 

The Farmers' Magazine, vol. xv. supplies the 
following directions on the subject of feeding 
stalled cows, as those which are practically given 
by a very intelligent dairy-man, to his cow- 
feeder and milkers, at Farnham, in Surrey : 

1. To the feeder. ' Go to the cow-stall at six 
o'clock in the morning, winter and summer; 
give each cow half a bushel of the field-beet, 
carrots, turnips, or potatoes cut; at seven o'clock, 
the hour the dairy-maid comes to milk them, 
give each some hay, and let them feed till they 
are all milked. If any cow refuse hay, give her 
something she will eat, such as grains, carrots, 
&c., during the time she is milking, as it is abso- 
lutely necessary the cow should feed whilst milk- 
ing. As soon as the woman has finished milking 
in the morning, turn the cows into the airing 
ground, and let there be plenty of fresh water in 
the troughs ; at nine o'clock give each cow three 
gallons of a mixture composed of eight gallons of 
grains and four gallons of bran or pollard ; when 
they have eaten that, put some hay into the cribs; 
at twelve o'clock give each three gallons of the 
mixture as before ; if any cow looks for more, 
give her another gallon ; on the contrary, if she 
will not eat what you give her, take it out of the 
manger, never at one time letting a cow have 
more than she will eat up clean. Mind and keep 
your mangers clean, that they do not get sour. 
At two o'clock give each cow half a bushel of 
carrots, field-beet, or turnips ; look the turnips, 
&.C., over well before you give them to the cows, 
as one rotten turnip, &c. will give a bad taste to 
the milk, and most likely spoil a whole dairy of 
butter. At four o'clock put the cows into the 
stall to be milked ; feed them on hay as you did 
at milking time in the morning, ever keeping in 
mind that the cow whilst milking must feed on 
something. At six o'clock give each cow three 
gallons of the mixture as before. Rack them up 
at eight o'clock. Twicejn a week put into each 
cow's feed, at noon, a quart of malt dust.' 

2. To the dairy-maid. ' Go to the cow-stall at 
seven o'clock; take with you cold water and a 
sponge, and wash each cow's udder clean before 
milking ; dowse the udder well with cold water, 
winter and summer, as it braces, and repels heats. 

Keep your hands and arms clean. Milk each 
cow as dry as you can, morning and evening, 
and when you have milked each cow, as you 
suppose, dry, begin again with the cow you first 
milked, and drip them each ; for the principal 
reason of cows failing in their milk is from neg- 
ligence in not milking each cow dry, particularly 
at the time the calf is taken from the cow. Suf- 
fer no one to milk a cow but yourself, and have 
no gossiping in the stall. Every Saturday night 
give in an exact account of the quantity of milk 
each cow has given in the week.' 

' Where butter is the principal object,' says 
Mr. Loudon, ' such cows should always be chosen 
as are known to afford the best and largest quan- 
tity of milk and cream, of whatever breed they 
may be. But the quantity of butter to be made 
from a given number of cows must always de- 
pend on a variety of contingent circumstances ; 
such as the size and goodness of the beasts, the 
kind and quantity of the food, and the distance 
of time from calving. As to the first, it need 
scarcely be mentioned that a large cow will give 
greater store of milk than one of a smaller size ; 
though cows of equal size differ as to the quantity 
of cream produced from the milk of each : it is, 
therefore, on those cows whose milk is not only 
in large abundance, but which, from a peculiar 
inherent richness, yields a thick cream, that the 
butter dairy-man is to place his chief dependence ; 
and where a cow is deficient in either of these, 
she should be parted with, and her place sup- 
plied by one more proper for this use. As to the 
second particular, namely, the kind and quality 
of the food, those who would wish to profit by a 
dairy, ought to provide for their cows hay of a 
superior goodness, to be given them in the depth 
of winter, and this in an unlimited degree, that 
they may always feed till they are perfectly satis- 
fied. And, when the weather will permit, the 
cows should be indulged with an outlet to 
marshes or low meadow-grounds, where they may 
feed on such green vegetables as are present; 
which is far preferable to the practice of con- 
fining them the whole day on dry meat, will en- 
able them to yield greater plenty of milk, and 
will give a fine yellow color to the butter even in 
the winter season.' 

ii. The operations of the regular dairies of the 
cheese and butter counties have been justly stated 
to be very little improved by the application of 
modern science to farming. Dr. Anderson and 
Mr. Marshall are the only scientific writers whose 
attention seems to have been turned to the subject. 
The latter, in his Rural Economy of Gloucester- 
shire, has registered a number of observations on 
the heat of the dairy-room, and of the milk when 
the rennet was applied in cheese-making; on the 
time required for coagulation ; and the heat of 
the whey after : but the chemistry of these arts 
and productions has been wholly neglected at 
present. We cannot therefore do better than 
present the reader with the following popular ac- 
count of the cheeses best known in this country 

Cheshire cheese is prepared in the following 
manner : The evening's milk is not touched till 
the next morning, when the cream is taken off, 
and put to warm in a metal pan heated with 
boiling water. The cows being milked early in 



the morning, the new milk, and that of the pre- 
ceding night, thus prepared, are poured into a 
large tub, together with the cream. A piece of 
rennet, kept in luke-warm water from the pre- 
ceding evening, is put into the tub in order to 
coagulate the milk ; with which, if the cheese is 
intended to be colored, a small quantity of 
arnotto (or of an infusion of marigolds, or carrots,) 
is rubbed fine and mixed ; the whole is then 
stirred together, and, being covered up warm, it 
is allowed to stand about half an hour, when it 
is turned over with a bowl, to separate the whey 
from the curds, and broken soon after into very 
small particles : the whey being separated, by 
standing some time, is taken from the curd, which 
sinks to the bottom, and is then collected into a 
part of the tub provided with a slip, or loose 
board, to cross the diameter of the bottom, for 
the sole purpose of effecting this separation; 
on which a hoard is placed, weighing from sixty 
to 120 pounds, in order to press out the whey. 
As soon as it acquires a greater degree of solidity 
it is cut into slices, and turned over several times, 
to extract all the whey, and again pressed with 
weights. See Coagulum, in CHEMISTRY. 

These operations may consume about an hour 
and a half. It is then taken from the vub and 
broken very small by the hand, salted, and 
put into a cheese-vat, the depth of which is en- 
larged by a tin hoop fitted to the top. The side 
is then strongly pressed, both by hand and with 
a board at top, well weighted ; and wooden 
skewers are placed round the cheese, at the centre, 
which are frequently drawn out. It is then 
shifted out of the vat, a cloth being previously 
put on the top of it, and reversed on the cloth 
into another vat, or again into the same, if well 
scalded before the cheese be returned to it. The 
top, or upper part, is next broken by the hand 
down to the middle, salted, pressed, weighted and 
skewered ai before, till all the whey is extracted. 
This being done, the cheese is again reversed 
into another vat, likewise warmed with a cloth 
under it, and a tin hoop, or binder, put round 
the upper edge of the cheese and within the sides 
of the vat ; the former being previously enclosed 
in a cloth, and its edges put within the vessel. 
These various operations are performed from 
about seven o'clock in the morning till one at 
noon. The pressing of the cheese requires about 
eight hours more, as it must be twice turned in 
the vat, round which thin wire skewers are passed 
and shifted occasionally. The next morning it 
ought to be turned and pressed again, as likewise 
at night, and on the succeeding day, about the 
middle of which it is removed to the salting-room, 
where the outside is salted and a cloth binder 
tied round it. After this process the cheese is 
turned twice daily, for six or seven days ; then 
left two or three weeks to dry, during which lime 
it is turned and cleaned every day ; and at length 
deposited in the common cheese-room, on a 
boarded floor covered with straw, where it is 
turned daily till it acquires a sufficient degree of 
hardness. The room should be of a moderate 
warmth, but no wind, or current of air, must be 
permitted to enter, as this generally cracks the 
cheese. Their outsides, or rinds, are sometimes 
rubbed with butter or oil to give them a coat. 

' A dairy farm of 100 acres,' gays an intelligent 
writer on the agriculture of Cheshire, ' is gene- 
rally divided into the following proportions : 
from ten to fourteen acres of oats, from six to 
eight acres of fallow wheat, and the like quantity 
of summer fallow ; the remainder consists of 
meadow and pasture, the former occupying about 
twelve acres. The good dairy farmer attends 
more to the size, form, and produce of the udder 
of his cow than to any fancied beauty of shape. 
This consideration induces him to be particular 
in the breeding and rearing his calves, and in the 
management of his cows during the winter and 
summer seasons. The annual quantity of cheese 
made from each cow varies from 50 to 500 Ibs. 
and upwards, the produce depending on the 
goodness of the land, the quality of the pasture, 
the seasons, and the manner in which the stock 
are wintered. On the whole, the average pro- 
duce may be estimated at 300 Ibs. from each 
animal. The quantity of milk yielded daily by 
each cow, according to this estimate, will be 
about eight quarts, which it is calculated will 
produce one pound of cheese. 

' On the dairy farms one woman-servant is 
generally kept to every ten cows, who is em- 
ployed in winter in spinning, and other house- 
hold business, but in milking is assisted by al. 
the other servants of the farm. The cheese is 
chiefly sold in London, being exported from 
Chester, Frodsham-bridge, and Warrington. A 
large quantity goes to Liverpool and Bristol, 
some more is disposed of to the Yorkshire 
dealers, and some goes into Scotland. The 
proper season for calving is reckoned to be from 
the beginning of March to the beginning of May; 
and during these months there is more veal fed 
in Cheshire than in any other county in the 
kingdom, though generally killed to spare the 

Gloucester cheese is made of milk immediately 
from the cow ; but which, in summer, is thought 
too hot, and is therefore lowered to the requisite 
degree of heat, before the rennet is added, by 
pouring in skim-milk, or, if that will not answer, 
by the addition of water. As soon as the curd 
' is come,' it is broken with a double cheese- 
knife, and also with the hand, in order to clear it 
from the whey, which is ladled off. The curd, 
being thus freed from the principal part of the 
whey, is put into vats, which are set in the press 
for ten or fifteen minutes, in order to extract all 
the remaining liquid. It is then turned out of 
the vats into the cheese-tubs again ; broken small 
and scalded with a pail-full of water, lowered with 
whey, about three parts water to one of whey ; 
and the whole is briskly agitated, the curd and 
water being equally mixed together. After hav- 
ing stood a few minutes, to let the curd subside, 
the liquor is poured off; and the former collected 
into a vat, the surface of which is, when about 
half full, sprinkled with a little salt, that is worked 
in among the curd. The vat is then filled up, 
and the whole mass turned two or three times in 
it, the edges being pared and the middle rounded 
up at each turning. At length the curd is put 
into a cloth and placed in the press, whence it 
is carried to the shelves, and turned, generally, 
once a day till it has acquired a sufficient degree 



of compactness to enable it to undergo the ope- 
ration of washing. 

Parmesan cheese has long been famous for its 
richness and flavor ; the following mode of ma- 
nutacture is described in the Annales de Chemie . 
The size of these cheeses varies from sixty to 180 
pounds, according to the number of cows in each 
dairy. During the heat of summer cheese is 
made every day, but in the cooler months milk 
will keep longer, and the cheese is made every 
other day. The summer cheese, which is the 
best, is made of the evening milk, after having 
been skimmed in the morning and at noon. 
Both kinds of milk are poured together into a 
caldron capable of holding about 130 gallons, 
of the shape of an inverted bell, and suspended 
on the arm of a lever so as to be moved off and on 
the fire at pleasure. In this caldron the milk is 
gradually heated to the temperature of about 1 20 ; 
it is now removed from the fire, and kept quiet 
for five or six minutes. When all internal mo- 
tion has ceased, the rennet is added ; this sub- 
stance is composed of the stomach of a calf, 
fermented together with wheaten meal and salt ; 
and the method of using it is to tie a piece, of 
the size of a hazel uut, in a piece of line'n cloth, 
and steep it in the milk, squeezing it from time to 
time ; a sufficiency of rennet soon passes through 
the cloth into the milk, which is now to be well 
stirred, and afterwards left to rest that it may 
coagulate. In about an hour the coagulation is 
complete, and then the milk is again put over the 
fire, and raised to a temperature of about 145 

During the time it is heating the mass is 
briskly agitated, till the curd separates in small 
lumps ; part of the whey is then taken out, and 
a small portion of saffron is added to the remain- 
der in order to color it. When the curd is thus 
broken sufficiently small, nearly the whole of the 
whey is taken out and two pailfuls of cold water 
is poured in ; the temperature is thus lowered so 
as to enable the dairyman to collect the curd, by 
passing a cloth underneath it and gathering it 
up at the corners ; the curd is now pressed into 
a frame of wood like a bushel without a bottom, 
placed on a solid table and covered by a round 
piece of wood, having a great stone or weight 
on the top. In the course of the night it cools, 
assumes a firm consistence, and parts with the 
whey ; the next day one side is rubbed with salt, 
and the succeeding day the cheese is turned and 
the other side is rubbed with salt in the same 
manner as before. This alternate salting of each 
side is practised for about forty days ; after this 
period the outer crust of the cheese is pared off, 
and the fresh surface is coated with linseed oil. 
The convex sides are then colored red with ar- 
notto, and the cheese is fit for sale. 

The Stilton cheeses, called the Parmesan of 
England, are usually made in cylindrical vats, 
and weigh from six to twelve pounds each. Im- 
mediately after they are made they should be put 
into boxes made exactly to fit them, as they are 
so extremely rich, that, without this precaution, 
they would be apt to bulge out and break asunder. 
In these boxes they shuu.d be daily turned, and 
kept two years ; they are then fit for sale. Some 
make them in a net like a caboage-net, so that 

they appear when made like an acorn ; but these 
are never so good as the others, having a thicker 
coat, and wanting the rich flavor and mellowness 
of the others. The manufacture oftiese cheeses 
is not confined to Stilton and its neighbourhood ; 
as many other persons in Huntingdonshire, and 
also Rutland and Northampton shires, make a 
similar sort, sell them for the same price, and 
give them the name of Stilton cheeses. It is 
observed by Mr. Hazard, that, though the farm- 
ers about Stilton are remarkable for the cleanli- 
ness of their dairies, they take very little pains 
with the rennet; for if they did they would not 
have so many faulty and unsound cheeses. The 
inhabitants of other countries might make as good 
cheese as that of Stilton if they would adhere to- 
the same plan, which is this : They make a 
cheese every morning, and to this meal of new 
milk they add the cream taken from that which 
was milked the night before. This, and the age 
of their cheeses, it is said, are the only reasons 
why they are preferred to others, their land not 
being in any respect superior to that of other 

In the Bath Papers, Mr. Hazard gives the fol- 
lowing receipt for making rennet. ' When the 
maw-skin is well prepared and fit for the pur- 
pose, three pints or two quarts of soft water, 
clean and sweet, should be mixed with salt, 
wherein should be put sweet-brier, rose-leaves 
and flowers, cinnamon, cloves, mace, and, in 
short, almost every sort of spice and aromatic 
that can be procured ; and if these are put into 
two quarts of water, they must boil gently till the 
liquor is reduced to three pints, and care should 
be taken that this liquid is not smoked ; it should 
be strained clear from the spices, &c., and, when 
not warmer than milk from the cow, it should he 
poured upon the veil or maw ; a lemon may then 
be sliced into it, when it may remain a day or 
two ; after which it should be strained again and 
put into a bottle, where, if well corked, it will 
keep good for twelve months, or more : it will 
smell like a perfume, and a small quantity of it 
will turn the milk, and give the cheese a pleasing 

The method of making green cheese we should 
not, perhaps, omit. In a cheese of this sort, of 
about ten or twelve pounds weight, an infusion 
is made by steeping about two handfuls of sage, 
and one of marigold leaves, with a little parsley, 
after being bruised, one night in a proper quan- 
tity of milk. In the morning the greened milk 
is strained off, and mixed with about one-third of 
the whole quantity to be run. The green and the 
white milks are then run separately, keeping the 
two curds distinct, until they are ready for vat- 
ting. The mixing of them depends on the fancy 
of the maker. In some cases the two are con- 
nected together, blending them in an even and 
intimate manner ; in others, the green curd is 
broken down into irregular fragments, or cut out 
in irregular figures by means of proper tins. In 
the operation of vatting, the fragments or figures 
are placed on the outsides. The bottom of the 
vat is first set with them, crumbling the white or 
yellow curd among them. As the vat fills, 
others are placed at the edges, and the remainder 
buried flush with the top. In the management 


afterwards, the same plan is pursued as those 
which we have already described for common 

A dairy house should have a northern aspect, 
if possible, and good ventilation. The regulation 
of temperature may be accomplished on the plan 
suggested by Dr. Anderson, of having double 
walls and roofs ; or by means of hollow walls ; 
and for common purposes by the walls having a 
vacuity left, of eight or ten inches in width, be- 
tween the lath and plaster. According to the na- 
ture of the business to be carried on in them, 
these buildings will be of course regulated, both 
in regard to their size and the number of their 
conveniences : as whether they are used for but- 
ter, cheese, or milk ; the number of cows which 
are kept, &c. In the Gloucester dairy houses 
twenty feet by sixteen are the usual dimensions 
for forty cows; and thirty feet by forty for 100 

A butter dairy should consist of three rooms, 
or apartments : namely, a milk room, a churning 
room with necessary apparatus, and a room for 
the different utensils, and the cleaning and air- 
ing them in, when it may be requisite. The 
cheese dairy should, in the same manner, be 
composed of three rooms ; one for the reception 
of the milk ; another for the scalding and pres- 
sing of the cheese ; ana a third for the purpose 
of salting it in. In addition, there ought to be 
a room for the stowing of the cheese, which may 
conveniently be a loft made over the dairy. It 
is frequently at a distance, which is inconvenient 
and troublesome. 

The milk dairy only requires two good rooms, 
one for the reception of the milk, and another 
for the purpose of serving it out in, and that of 
scalding, cleaning, and airing the different uten- 

The utensils of a cheese dairy are, the cheese 
tub, in which the curd is broken, and prepared ; 
the cheese-knife, commonly a thin spatula of 
wood or iron, for the purpose of cutting or break- 
ing down the curd ; the cheese-cloth, a piece of 
thin gauze, in which the cheese is placed in the 
press ; a circular cheese-board ; a strong wooden 
vat, and cheese-press. 

The last article is generally constructed with 
a common wooden screw, though sometimes a 
large weight is used. The diagram represents a 

very commodious one. Churns are almost end- 
less in their variety of shapes, and supposed re- 
commendations. Our article CHURN exhibits an 
improved mode of working this important utensil. 
We may add, in conclusion, that Mr. Dicas of 
Liverpool has lately invented a lactometer ' for 
ascertaining the richness of milk from its specific 
gravity, and its degree of warmth taken by a ther- 
mometer, on comparing its specific gravity with 
its warmth.' 

It is a glass tube a foot long, with a funnel at 
top ; the upper two inches being marked in 
small divisions, just under the funnel ; when the 
instrument is filled to the height of one foot with 
milk, the depth of cream it yields is noted by 
the gradations on the upper part. 

An invention of a similar kind has been 
noticed by the Highland Society of Scotland, in 
their Report for 1816 : Mrs. Lovi's aereometric 
beads, by which the specific gravity of the milk 
is tried first when new milked, and again when 
the cream is removed. ' When milk is tried as 
soon as it cools,' observes this Report, ' say to 
60, and again, after it has been thoroughly 
skimmed, it will be found that the skimmed milk 
is of considerably greater gravity ; and as this 
increase depends upon the separation of the 
lighter cream, the amount of the increase, or the 
difference between the specific gravity of the fresh 
and skimmed milk, will bear proportion to, and 
may be employed as a measure of, the relative 
quantities of the oily matter or butter contained 
in different milks.' ' The specific gravity of 
skimmed milk depends both on the quantity of 
the saccharo-saline matters, and of the curd. To 
estimate the relative quantities of curd, and by 
that determine the value of milk for the purpose 
of yielding cheese, it is only required to curdle 
the skim milk, and ascertain the specific gravity 
of the whey. The whey will, of course, be found 
of lower specific gravity than the skimmed milk, 
and the number of degrees of difference affords 
a measure of the relative quantities of the curd. 
According to this hypothesis, the aereometric 
beads may be employed to ascertain the quali- 
ties of milk, relatively both to the manufacture 
of butter and cheese.' But neither of these inven- 
tions, though in themselves ingenious, have been 
extensively used. 

The fixtures of a respectable dairy are, a cop- 
per boiler in the scalding-room ; benches and 
shelves in this room and the cheese-room ; a 
bench or table about two feet wide round the 
milk-room ; and a pump in the centre of the 

The utensils of a butter dairy are, pails; sieves 
of hair cloth, or silver-wire cloth for straining 
the milk ; milk dishes or coolers ; an ivory or 
bone cream-knife, and skimming dishes of willow 
or ivory ; bowls ; barrel, or other milk churns ; 
butter-makers ; and a portable rack for drying 
dishes in the air ; tubs, &c. 

DAIS, in botany, a genus of the monogynia 
order, and decandria class of plants ; natural 
order, ihirtj -first, vepreculse: involucrum tetra- 
phyllous : COR. quadnfid, or quinquefid : FRUIT 
monospermous berry Species three, natives of 
South Sea Isles. 


DAI'SY, n. s. > Sax. 
DAI'SIED, adj. y or, 



day's-eye ; 

as Mr. Thomson conjee- 
tares, dah's, i.e. does-eye. Minsheu says, from 
3ot<i), to divHe, because of the divisions of the 
leaves; but this etymology seems too profound 
for the name of a common flower. 


DALE, n. *. Teut. thaal; Ang.-Saxon, Spa- 
nish, Belgic, and Irish, dal, from dalen,descendere, 
to descend. A valley or low place. 

DALE (Richard), an American naval com- 
mander, was born in Virginia, Nov. 6, 1756. 
At twelve years of age he was sent to sea, and, 
in 1775, he took the command of a merchant 
vessel. In 1776 he entered, as a midshipman, 
on board of the American brig of war Lexington, 
commanded by captain John Barry In her he 
cruised on the British coast the following year, 
and was taken by a British cutter. After a 
confinement of more than a year in Mill prison, 
he effected his escape into France, where he 
joined, in the character of master's mate, the 
celebrated Paul Jones, then commanding the 
American ship Bon Homme Richard. Jones 
soon raised Dale to the rank of his first lieu- 
tenant, in which character he signalized himself 
in the sanguinary and desperate engagement 
between the Bon Homme Richard and the 
English frigate Serapis. He was the first man 
who reached the deck of the latter when she was 
boarded and taken. In 1781 he returned to 
America, and, in June of that year, was ap- 
pointed to the Trumbull frigate, commanded by 
captain James Nicholson, and soon afterwards 
captured. From 1790 to 1794 he served as 
captain in the East India trade. At the end of 
this period the government of the United States 
made him a captain in the navy. In 1801 he 
took tlie command of the American squadron of 
observation, which sailed, in June of that year, 
from Hampton roads to the Mediterranean. His 
broad pendant was hoisted on board the frigate 
President. Efficient protection was given by 
Dale to the American trade and olher interests 
in the Mediterranean. In April, 1802, he 
reached Hampton roads again. lie passed the 
remainder of his life in Philadelphia, in the en- 
joyment of a competent estate, and of the esteem 
of all his fellow-citizens. He died February 24, 
1826. Captain Dale was a thorough, brave and 
intelligent seaman. He was several times se- 
verely wounded in battle. The adventures of 
his early years were of the most romantic and 
perilous cast. No man could lay claim to a 
more honorable and honest character. 

DALEA, in botany, a genus of plants of the 
diadelphia class and decandria order. Stamina 
five or ten, with the wings growing to their co- 
lumn, and united without separate filaments: 
leguminous : SEED one. Species fourteen, na- 
tives of North and South America. 

it has been recently named, is an extensive pro- 
vince of Sweden, bounded on the west by Nor- 
way, on the north by Herjedal, on the east by 
Helsingland, and on the south by Westmann- 
land. It contains nearly 1300 English square 
miles, and about 125,000 inhabitants. Though 
its general aspect is hilly, the mountains are ot 

little elevation, except in the neighbourhood oi 
Norway ; the greater part of the x province is 
finely diversified with hills, dales, and lakes. It 
contains also two large rivers, the Dal and the 
Ljusne. In the south fine rye and barley fields 
meet the eye ; and the potatoe is cultivated with 
some success ; but the perpetual changes of the 
property and badness of the roads have been 
formidable obstacles to improvement. Lime- 
trees, elms, and maples, are found growing here 
nearly under the sixty-second degree of lati- 
tude. Dalecarlia has its chief riches, however, 
in its copper and iron mines, the chief of which 
(of copper) are at Fahlun and Afvestad. At the 
beginning of the present century the iron mines 
employed seventy-two smelting-furnaces, and 
fifty-six forges ; the total annual produce being 
about 113,000 cwt. Sulphur is likewise found; 
and at Elfvedal are quarries of porphyry. The 
chief towns are Fahlun, Hedemora, and Soter. 
The Dalecarlians are of noble make and ap- 
pearance, and have long been celebrated for their 
love of liberty. During the struggles of Gusta- 
vus Vasa for the crown, they obtained their 
chief privileges, and have since distinguished 
themselves on similar occasions. They seem to 
have imbibed from these circumstances much of 
the spirit of faction ; and they have great con- 
tempt for the other Swedes. 

DALECHAMPIA, in botany, a genus of the 
monadelphia order, and monoecia class of plants, 
natural order thirty-eighth, tricoccse. Male in- 
volucrum, common and quadripartite : CAL. hex- 
aphyllous ; COR. none ; nectarium laminated or 
scaly ; the stamina monadelphous or coalited 
at the base, and polyandrous or numerous 
Female involucrum, common and triphyllous ; 
style one : CAPS, tricoccous. Species two, viz. 
1. D. scandens, a native of Jamaica, and a 
climbing plant which rises to a considerable 
height, and is remarkable for nothing but 
having its leaves armed with bristly hairs, which 
sting the hands of those who unwarily touch 
them. 2. D. Gorolata, a native of New Gra- 

DALGARNO (George), a learned Scottish 
writer of the seventeenth century, was born at 
Aberdeen, and projected a plan for a universal 
language, in a work entitled Ars Signorum, 
Vulgo Character Universalis et Lingua Philoso- 
phica, London 1661, 8vo. This exhibits a clas- 
sification, as the author and his admirers state, of 
all possible ideas, and a selection of characters 
adapted to them. He admits only seventeen 
classes of ideas, and uses the letters of the Latin 
alphabet, with two Greek characters. His plan 
resembles that of bishop Wilkins. He was the 
author also of Didascalophus, or the Deaf and 
Dumb Man's Tutor. Oxford, 1680, 8vo. 

DALIN (Olof Von), a Swedish historian and 
poet, born atWinberga in Holland in 1 708, was de- 
signed for the medical profession, which he aban- 
doned. In 1735 he published a weekly paper, 
called The Swedish Argus, which gave great satis- 
faction to the diet, and he was rewarded with 
the situation of librarian at Stockholm. He has 
been termed the father of Swedish poetry. His 
two chief poems are, The Liberty of Sweden; 
and JJrunhilda, a tragedy. In 1744 he was en 




gaged by the diet to write The History of Swe- 
den, and successively raised himself to be pre- 
ceptor to prince Gustavus, counsellor in ordinary 
of the chancery, knight of the northern star, and 
chancellor of the court. He died in 1763. He 
was the author of a Translation of Montesquieu's 
Causes de la Grandeur et de la Decadence des 
Romaines ; and several poems, fables, &c., printed 
in 6 vols. 1767. 

DALKEITH (Gael. i. e. a plain between two 
rivers), a parish of Scotland, in Mid Lothian, 
situated between the south and north Esk, and 
not exceeding two miles in length or breadth. 
The soil is partly light and sandy, partly deep 

DALKEITH, a considerable town in the 
above parish, is six miles south-east of Edin- 
burgh, seated on the north Esk. It contains 
several good streets, and has a weekly market 
on Thursday, reckoned one of the best in Scot- 
land for grain ; which is all sold for ready money, 
and supplies the west country about Glasgow, 
Paisley, Carron, &c., as well as Edinburgh in 
part. It has also markets on Monday and Tues- 
day for meal and cattle, in winter ; and a fair 
the third Tuesday in October. The seat of the 
duke of Buccleuch is the principal ornament of 
the place, and the plantations which surround it 
are laid out with great taste. The house was 
built in the beginning of the eighteenth century 
on the site of Dalkeith castle. ~Long. 2 20' W., 
lat. 55 50' N. 

DALKEITH CASTLE formerly stood at the east 
end of the town of Dalkeith. It was built on a 
perpendicular rock of great height, and inacces- 
sible on all sides, except the east where it was 
defended by a fosse, through which the river is 
said to have run. On the defeat of the Scots at 
the battle of Pinkie, in 1547, James earl of 
Morton, Sir David Wedderburn, and many 
others, fled to this castle; where they were 
besieged for some time by the English, but 
were obliged to surrender at last for want of 
provisions. Here, in 1660, it being the head quar- 
ters of general Monk, the restoration of monarchy, 
by calling home Charles II. was planned. 

DALLA, an important island and district of 
the Delta of the Irrawuddy River, Hindostan. 
It is covered generally with wood, which shelters 
numerous wild beasts, but contains also fine 
pastures, and produces rice and salt in con- 
siderable quantities. During the contest between 
the Birmans and Peguers, in the middle of the 
last century, this district was often overrun by 
both armies. The principal towns are Dalla, 
Cowack, and Gnapee Ghewen. 

DA'LLY, v. a. & n. 1 Ancient Belg. dollen; 

DAL'LIANCE, n.s. > Goth, duella ; Saxon, 

DAL'LIER, n. t. 3 dwolian. To talk fool- 
ishly or idly. Hence both to delay, and to trifle 
in love or otherwise. 

They that would not be reformed by that correction, 
wherein he dallied with them, shall feel a judgment 
worthy of God. Witdom xii. 26. 

A Frere ther was a wanton and a mery, 

A limitour, a full solempne man : 

lu all the ordres foure is non that can 

So moche of duliance and fayre language. 

Chaucer. Prol. to Cant. Talet. 

With faire disport, and courting daUiavnce 
She intcrtaindc her lover all the. way ; 
But when she saw the kni/ht his speare advance, 
Shee soone left off her mirth and wanton play, 
And bad her knight addresse him to the fray, 

Spenser. Faerie Qtteene. 

The daily daUieri, with pleasant words, with smil- 
ing countenances, and with wagers purposed to ho 
lost, be fore they were purposed to be made. Aacluim. 

Not dallying with a brace of courtezans, 
But meditating with two deep divines. Shalupeare. 

She her airie buildeth in the cedar's top, 
And dallies with the wind, and scorns the sun. Id. 

Good lord, you use this dallianve to excuse 
Your breach of promise. Id. 

Nor gentle purpose, nor endearing smiles, 
Wanted ; nor youthful dalliance, as beseems, 
Fair couple linked in happy nuptial league, 
Alone as they. 

He left his cur, and laying hold 
Upon his arms, with courage bold 
Cried out, 'tis now no time to dally, 
The enemy begin to rally. Huflibrax. 

I'll head my people ; 

Then think of dalliance when the danger's o'er : 
My warlike spirits work now another way, 
And my soul's tuned to trumpets. Dryden. 

One hundred thousand pounds must be raised, fo 
there is no dallying with hunger. Swift. 

DALMANUTIIA, in ancient geography, a 
city of Judea, on the east side of the sea of Ti- 
oerias ; either the same with Magdala, or situated 
near it. Hence Mark says, viii. 10, that our 
Saviour and his disciples landed in the parts 
of Dalmanutha: while Matthew, recording the 
same fact, says that they came into the coast 01 

DALMATIA, a country of Europe, in a 
former maritime division of Austria, was bounded 
on the north by Bosnia and Croatia, on the 
east by Servia, and on the south and west by the 
Adriatic. The country is, as it were, strewed 
with mountains and hills, which are not alto- 
gether unfruitful ; olives, vines, myrtles, and a 
great variety of palatable and wholesome vege- 
tables growing amongst them. It has also many 
fertile plains ; and feeds considerable numbers 
of horned cattle and sheep. The rivers of Dal- 
matia have no long course, but are mostly navi- 
gable. The principal are the Cherka and the 
Narenta. The air is temperate and pure. The 
Dalmatians use the Sclavonian language and 
customs, and profess the Roman Catholic re- 

Dalmatia was distinguished as follows : 1 . 
Hungarian Dalmatia, lying on the upper part of the 
Adriatic Sea, containing part of ancient Liburnia, 
and which is more generally called Morlachia. 
2. Venetian Dalmatia, or that part which was 
possessed by fhe Venetians, lying to the south- 
east of Hungarian Dalmatia, and abounds in 
ancient castles and fortresses. The inhabitants 
are estimated at 25,000, and are distinguished 
by different names, as well as diversity of man- 
ners. See MORLACHS, and UHLANS. They 
are warlike, intrepid soldiers, and excellent 
seamen. The nobi'ity and people were well at- 
tached to the republic; mildness made them 
faithful subjects to Venice; their privileges were 




respected, and it was dangerous to offend them. 
The chief towns are Spalatro, the capital, Amissa, 
Narenta, Sebenico, Trau, and Zara. Besides 
what the Venetians possessed on the continent, 
several islands in the Adriatic belong to them, 
which are considered as part of Dalmatia. This 
portion belonging to Austria, is strictly the only 
part to which the name Dalruatia now applies. 
3. Turkish Dalmatia, lying east of Venetian 
Dalmatia. The principal towns are, Herze- 
govina, the capital, Clinova, and Scardova. 4. 
The late republic of Ragusa formed another part 
of Dalmatia. 

DALMATIA, ISLANDS OF. Besides the islands 
ucluded in the above province, Dr. Oppenheim 
mentions other seven islands of the late maritime 
division of Austria, as forming two distinct pro- 
vinces ; viz. the Four islands of Quarnaro, and 
the Three Dalmatian islands, peculiarly so called, 
viz. Brazza, Lesina, and Curtola. 

DALMATIA, LOWER, or ALBANIA, a province 
of the late maritime division of Austria, divided 
from the ci-devant Venetian Dalmatia, by the 
late republic of Ragusa, and a part of Turkish 
Dalmatia. It comprehended the canal, town, 
&c., of Cattaro, the mountains and valleys of 
Buda, and the bailiwic of Past^ovichi. It is 
mountainous, but produces some corn, much oil, 
and fine fruits. The inhabitants have also con- 
siderable trade in the Levant. 

The name of Dalmatia is said to be derived 
from the ancient capital Delmium, or Delmi- 
nium. In the latter ages of the Roman empire 
this country suffered frequently from the in- 
roads of barbarians, and was finally incorpo- 
rated with Hungary in the twelfth century. 
When the Venetians, however, had occupied 
the sea-coast, they succeeded in the fifteenth 
century in conquering the interior, which long 
remained in their possession. By the treaty of 
Campo Formio, in 1797, the whole was ceded to 
Austria ; but after the campaign of 1805 Buona- 
parte claimed it as king of Italy, and afterwards 
united it with the Illyrian provinces. Cattaro, 
and the southern part, were in 1806 seized by the 
Russians ; but delivered up to the French at the 
peace of Tilsit. In the final arrangements of 
1814 the whole was again transferred to Austria. 

DALRYMPLE (Sir David), an eminent and 
learned judge of Scotland, born at Edinburgh, 
Oct. 28th, 1726. He was educated at Eton, 
and from thence went to Utrecht, where he re- 
mained till after the rebellion in 1746. He was 
admitted a member of the Faculty of Advocates, 
Feb. 23rd 1 748. In March, he 1 766, was appointed 
a lord of Session, and in May, 1776, one of the 
lords of Justiciary. During this time he wrote 
several occasional papers, in The World,' the 
Gentleman's Magazine, &c. In 1773 he pub- 
lished his Remarks on the History of Scotland, 
which first displayed his talent for minute and 
accurate enquiry into doubtful points of history. 
This prepared the public mind for his Annals of 
Scotland, of which the first appeared in 1776, 
and the second in 1779, and fully answered the 
hopes he had excited. In 1786 lord Hailes 
evinced his unshaken attachment to religious 
truth, by publishing a 4to. volume, entitled, An 
Knquiry into the Secondary Causes, which Mr. 

Gibbon has assigned for the rapid progress cf 
Christianity. This was the last work he pub- 
lished ; but he attended his duty on the bench 
till within three days of his death, which hap- 
pened Nov. 29th, 1792, in the sixty -sixth year 
of his age. Lord Hailes was twice married ; first 
to the daughter of the late lord Coalston, and 
afterward to the daughter of lord Kilkerran, by 
each of whom he had one daughter. As he left 
no male issue, his nephew succeeded to his title. 
His knowledge of the laws was accurate and 
profound ; and he applied it in judgment with 
the most scrupulous integrity. Affectionate to 
his family and relations, simple and mild in his 
manners, pure and conscientious in his morals, 
enlightened and entertaining in his conversation, 
he left society only to regret that, devoted as he 
was to more important employments, he had so 
little time to spare for intercourse with them. 
His labors in illustration of the history of his 
country, and many other works of profound 
erudition, remain as monuments of his accurate 
and faithful researches for materials, and his 
sound judgment in the selection of them. Besides 
the works above enumerated, lord Hailes pub- 
lished the following : 1. Memorials and Letters 
relating to the History of Great Britain, in the 
reign of James I. 8vo. 1765. 2. The Secret 
Correspondence between Sir Robert Cecil and 
James VI. 12mo. 1766. 3. Accounts of the 
Persecution of Charles II. after the Battle of 
Worcester, 8vo. 1766. 4. Memorials and Let- 
ters relating to the History of Great Britain, in 
the reign of Charles I. 8vo. 1767. 5. Canons 
of the Church of Scotland, drawn up in the pro- 
vincial Synod held at Perth, 1242, 4to- 1769. 
6. Historical Memorials concerning the Provin- 
cial Councils of the Scottish Clergy, 4to. 7. 
Ancient Scottish Poems, from a MS. of George 
Bannatyne, 12mo. 1770. All in 4to. in 1787. 
Lord Hailes has also left many valuable MSS. 

D ALTON (John),D.D. an eminent divine and 
poet, was the son of the Rev. John Dalton, rector 
of Dean in Cumberland, where he was born in 
1709. He was educated at Queen's College, 
Oxford ; and became tutor to lord Beauchamp, 
only son of the earl of Hertford; during which 
time he adapted Milton's mask of Comus to the 
stage, by a judicious insertion of several songs 
and different passages selected from other of 
Milton's works, as well as of several songs and 
other elegant additions of his own, suited to the 
characters and to the manners of the original 
author. During the run of this piece he indus- 
triously sought out a grand-daughter of Milton's, 
oppressed both by age and poverty, and pro- 
cured her a benefit from it, the profits of which 
amounted to a considerable sum. He was pro- 
moted by the king to a prebend of Worcester ; 
where he died on the 2nd of July 1763. Be- 
sides the above, he wrote a descriptive poem, 
addressed to two ladies at their return from 
viewing the coal-mines near Whitehaven ; and 
Remarks on twelve historical designs of Raphael, 
and the Museum Graecum et Egyptiacum. 

DALTON, a market town of Lancashire. It is 
seated on the spring-head of a river in a cham- 
paign country, not far from the sea; and the 
ancient castle is made use of to keep the records, 



and prisoners for debt, in the liberty of Furness. 
The church is an ancient, neat building, and has 
an organ. This town, being in an excellent 
sporting country, is much resorted to during the 
season. The port here is large and commodious ; 
and a light-louse has been erected at the south 
end of the Isle of Walney. A canal has been 
cut from the sea up to this town, one mile and a 
half in length, capable of navigating ships of 
great burden, which is of great advantage to the 
trade and commerce of the place. Market on 
Saturday. This is four miles from Diversion, 
and 275 N.N.W.of London. 

DAM, n. s. \ Fr. dame ; Span, dama ; Ileb. 

DAME, n. s. S and Chald. QK ; Arab, arna ; 
Lat. dama, domina ; which, however, Minsheu 
derives from Heb. nOl> to govern ; Sans, amma ; 
Teut. ama, to which Thomson thinks Sax. dey, or 
die, one that gives milk, has been prefixed. A 
human mother ; a female who has borne young 
animals. Also, a title of honor; a lady; an el- 
derly woman. 

But of hir3 song, it was as loud and yerne 
As any swalow sitting on a berne ; 
Thcrto she coude skip and make a game, 
As any kid or calf folowing his dame. 

Chaucer. Cant. Talet. 

Their dam upstart out of her den eflfraide, 
And rushed forth, hurling her hideous taile 
About her cursed head. Spenser. Faerie Queene. 

This brat is none of mine j 
It is the issue of Polixena : 
Hence with it, and, together with the dam, 
Commit them to the fire. 

Shakspeare. Winter'* Tale. 

The dam rung lowing up and down, 
Looking the way her harmless young one went, 
And can do nought but wail her darling loss. 


Not all these lords do vex me half so much 
As that proud dame, the lord protector's wife. Id. 

Bless you, fair dame ! I am not to you known, 
Though in your state of honor I am perfect. Id. 

Another layeth a well-marked lambe, 
Or spotted kid, or some more forward steere, 
And from the payle doth praise their fertile dam. 
Bp. Hall. Defiance to Envy. 

Who would not repeat that bliss, 
And frequent sight of such a dame 
Buy with the hazard of his fame ? Waller. 

Mother, says a sick kite, let me have your prayers. 
Alas, my child, saya the dam, which of the gods shall 
I go to ? L' Estrange. 

They killed the poor cock ; for, say they, if it were 
not for his waking our dame, she would not wake us 


Birds bring but one morsel of meat at a time, and 
have not fewer, it may be, than seven or eight young 
in the nest together, which, at the return of their dams, 
do all at once, with equal greediness, hold up their 
heads and gape. Ray. 

The word dame originally signified a mistress of a 
family, who was a lady ; and it is used still in the 
English law to signify a lady : but in common use, 
iinw-a-days, it represents a farmer's wife, or a mis- 
tn ss cf a family of the lower rank in the country. 

Wattt't Logick. 


As is the hedghog's. 

Which sucks at midnight from the wholesome dam 
Of the young bull, until the milkmaid finds 
The nipple next day sore and udder dry. Byron. 

No spectre gaunt she saw of bones entwined, 
With scythe wide brandished as to sweep mankind, 
But a plump dame, of pampered aspect sly, 
With fiendlike, scowling merriment of eye. 

Dr. T. Brown. 

DAM, v. a. & n. s. From Gr. ca^a^uj, catena, 
to reduce to quiet, or stillness ; Ang.-Sax. &em- 
man ; Belg. damm. To confine and overcome 
the force of water ; to shut up by moles or banks. 
To stop up an opening. Shakspeare applies it 
to fire, and Milton to light, restrained or con- 

I'll have the current in this place dammed up j 
And here the smug and silver Trent shall run 
In a new channel, fair and evenly. 

SJwktpeare. Henry VI. 
The more thou dammest it up, the more it burns. 


Now will I dam up this thy yawning mouth 
For swallowing the treasure of the realm. Id. 

Moon ! if your influence be quite dammed up 
With black usurping mists, some gentle taper, 
Though a rush-candle from the wicker hole 
Of some clay habitation, visit us 
With thy long levelled rule of streaming light. 


As when the sea breaks o'er its bounds, 
And overflows the level grounds, 
Those banks and dams, that like a skreen 
Did keep it out, now keep it in. Hudibras. 

Home I would go, 

But that my doors are hateful to my eyes, 
Filled and dammed up with gaping creditors, 
Watchful as fowlers when their game will spring. 


Not with so fierce a rage the foaming flood 
Roars, when he finds his rapid course withstood, 
Bears down the dams with unresisted sway, 
And sweeps the cattle and the cots away. 


The inside of the dam must be very smooth and 
straight ; and if it is made very sloping on each side, 
it is the better. Mortimer's Husbandry. 

Tis you must drive that trouble from your soul ; 
As streams, when dammed, forget their ancient current, 
And, wondering at their banks, in other channels flow. 


DAMAGE,!). a., v.n.&n. *. > Fr. damage* 

DAMAGEABLE, adj. \ dommage ; Goth- 

damnage, from Lat. damnum, injury. To injure 
hurt, impair; and the injury, or harm done. 
Damages are an estimated value or supposed, 
reparation of injury done. Damageable goods 
are those readily susceptible of injury. 

His heart exalts him in the harm 

Already done, to have dispeopled heaven, 

My damage fondly deemed! Milton. 

Gross errours and absurdities many commit for want 
of a friend to tell them of them, to the great damage 
both of their fame and fortune. Bacon. 

The bishop demanded restitution cf the spoils taken 
by the Scots, or damages for the same. //. 

Such as were sent from thence did commonly do 
more hurt and damage to the English subjects than to 
the Irish enemies, by their continual cess anJ extortion. 



They believed that they were not able, though they 
should be willing to sell all they have in Ireland, to 
pa/ the damage* which had been sustained by the war. 


DAMAGE-FEASANT. Beasts are said to be 
damage-Peasant, or doing damage, when those of 
one person are found upon the land of another 
without his permission and without his fault; for 
if the owner of a field or enclosure adjoining upon 
another enclosure neglects to repair his fences, and 
the beasts pass through, he cannot seize them as 
damage-feasant. But if the beasts break into a 
close from the highway, where they were wrong- 
fully left to run at large, the owner of the close may 
lake them up, or distrain them as damage-feasant, 
though the fence of the close on the side next the 
highway was defective ; for the owner is not obliged 
to make a fence against beasts where they cannot 
be lawfully left at large. The owner of land has a 
right to sue the owner of the beasts in trespass for 
the damage done by them to his crops, &c., but the 
law gives him also the means of stopping the dam- 
age, for he may distrain and impound the beasts. 

DAMAR, a considerable town and district of 
Arabia, in the country of Yemen. It is well- 
built, and has a large castle and a university of 
the Mussulman sect Zeidi, which, Niebuhr was 
iuformed, contained 500 students. It is said to 
contain 5000 houses. Distant fifty-six miles 
north of Sana, and ninety-four north-east of 

DAMASCENE, Lat. damascenus. From Da- 
mascus; a plum. See PRUNUS. 

In fruits the white commonly is meaner, as in 
pears, plums, and damascenes ; and the choicest plums 
are black. Bacon. 

DAMASCENUS (John), an illustrious father 
of the church in the eighth century, born at Da- 
mascus, where his father, though a Christian, 
enjoyed the office of counsellor of state to the 
Saracen caliph, to which the son succeeded. He 
retired afterwards to the monastery of St. Sabas, 
and spent the remainder of his life in writing 
books of divinity. His works have been often 
printed; but the Paris edition, in 1712, two 
vols. folio, is esteemed the best. 

DAMASCIUS, a celebrated heathen philoso- 
pher, born at Damascus, A. D. 1540, when the 
Goths reigned in Italy. He wrote the life of his 
master, Isidorus, and dedicated it to Theodora, 
a very learned and philosophical lady, who had 
also been a pupil to Isidorus. In this life, 
which was copiously written, he frequently made 
oblique attacks on the Christian religion. We 
have nothing remaining of it but some extracts 
preserved by Photius. Damascius succeeded 
Theon in the rhetorical school, and Isidorus in 
that of philosophy, at Athens. 

DAMASCUS, pttflQI, Heb. ; a very ancient city 
of Syria, in Asia. The ancients supposed it to 
have been built by one Damascus, from whom 
it took its name ; and one of the 
medals of the city represents a 
hind suckling a child, supposed 
to have an allusion to the 
founder of the city, who is 
said to have been brought up 
by dama, a hind, whence his 
name. This city was in being 

in the time of Abraham, Gen. xiv. 15 ; and con- 
sequently may be looked upon as one of the 
most ancient cities in the world. In the time of 
David it seems to have been a very considerable 
place ; as the sacred historian tells us that the 
Syrians of Damascus sent 20,000 men to the 
relief of Iladadezer, king of Zobah. We are 
not informed whether, at that time, it was go- 
verned by kings, or was a republic. Afterwards, 
however, it became a monarchy, and proved 
very hostile to the kingdom of Israel, and would 
have destroyed it entirely, had not the Deity 
miraculously interposed in its behalf. This mo- 
narchy was destroyed by Tiglath Pileser, king of 
Assyria, and Damascus was never afterwards go- 
verned by its own kings. From the Assyrians and 
Babylonians it passed to the Persians, and 
thence to the Greeks, under Alexander the 
Great. After his death it belonged, with the 
rest of Syria, to the Seleucidae, till their empire 
was subdued by the Romans, about A.A.C. 70. 
From them it was taken by the Saracens, A. D. 
633 ; and it is now in the hands of the Turks. 

Notwithstanding the tyranny of the Turkish 
government, Damascus is still a considerable 
place. It is situated in a plain of so great ex- 
tent, that one can but just discern the mountains, 
which compass it on the other side. It stands 
on the west side of the plain, about two miles 
from the head of the river Barrady, which waters 
it. It is of a long, straight figure, extending 
about two miles in length, adorned with mosques 
and steeples, and encompassed with gardens, 
computed to be full thirty miles round. The 
river Barrady, as soon as it issues from the clefts 
of the Antilibanus into the plain, is divided into 
three streams.; the middle one, which is the 
largest, runs directly to Damascus, and is distri- 
buted to all the cisterns and fountains of the 
city. The other two seem to be artificial ; and 
are drawn round, one to the right, and the other 
to the left, on the borders of the gardens, into 
which they are let by little currents, and dispersed 
every where. This river finally flows into a hol- 
low of the south-east desert, called Behairat-el- 
Merdi, the Lake of the Meadow. 

The houses of the city, whose streets are very 
narrow, are all built on the outside, either with 
sun-burnt bricks, or Flemish wall ; and yet it is 
no uncommon thing to see the gates and doors 
adorned with marble portals, carved and inlaid 
with great beauty and variety ; and, within these 
portals, to find Jarge courts, beautified with fra- 
grant trees and marble fountains, and surrounded 
with splendid apartments. In these apartments 
the ceilings are usually richly painted and 
gilded ; their duans, which are a sort of low 
stages, seated in the pleasantest part of the room, 
and elevated about sixteen or eighteen inches 
above the floor, are floored, and adorned on the 
sides with variety of marble, mixed in mosaic 
knots and mazes, spread with carpets, and fur- 
nished all round with bolsters and cushions, to 
the very height of luxury. No city in the world 
has an equal number of fountains, or more 
splendid private houses. The interior of some 
of them is said to contain furniture worth 
5000 or 6000. In this city are shown the 
church of John the Baptist, now converted into 



a famous mosque ; the house of Ananias, which 
is only a small grotto, or cellar, wherein is 
nothing remarkable; and the house of Judas, 
with whom Paul lodged. In this last is an old 
tomb, said to be that of Ananias, which the 
Turks hold in such veneration, that they keep a 
lamp continually burning over it. There is a 
castle belonging to Damascus, which is like a 
little town, having its own streets and houses; 
and here a magazine of the famous Damascus 
steel was formerly kept. The principal public 
building worth notice is the Zekia mosque, re- 
markable for its noble dimensions and general 
architecture. This is of the Corinthian order 
throughout ; it has two minarets, and is of an 
oblong figure, crowned by a large stone cupola, 
supported by four enormous pillars. The gate- 
way is supported by large columns of red gra- 
nite; on the outside is a superb fountain, which 
throws the water twenty feet high. Another, 
with a grove of trees on each side, stands in a 
spacious court within. Numerous columns sup- 
port galleries within, and portions of the walls 
exhibit the remains of mosaic work, with which 
they were once adorned. An hospital for the 
indigent sick is attached. This mosque is said 
to have been originally the cathedral church of 
Damascus. The Christians affirm, that it was 
dedicated to St. John Damascenus, whose body 
reposes here ; but the Turks call it the mosque 
of St. John the Baptist. Another mosque is 
beautifully adorned with all kinds of fine marble, 
like mosaic pavement ; and the tower or mina- 
ret of a third, is entirely cased with pantiles. 
The finest of its numerous hospitals is that con- 
structed by the sultan Selim, consisting of a 
spacious quadrangle, lined by an interior co- 
lonade, which is entirely roofed by forty small 
domes, covered with lead. On the south side 
of the court there is a mosque, with a magnificent 
portico, and two exquisite little minarets, sur- 
mounted by a spacious cupola. The patriarch 
of Anlioch has his see at Damascus, where he 
commonly resides. There is also a Greek, Ma- 
ronite, Syrian, and Armenian church ; and three 
convents of Franciscan monks. There are eight 
Jewish synagogues. 

Damascus was, at one time, noted for its ge- 
neral ill-treatment of Europeans; but, although 
no one can venture to traverse the streets, unless 
in the Oriental costume, without insult, there is 
now little difference between the citizens of Da- 
mascus, and those of other eastern cities. A 
number of persons are generally seen in the 
streets, calling themselves saints, and appearing 
like ideots or madmen. 

The fruit-tree, called the damascene, and the 
flower, called the damask-rose, were transplanted 
from the gardens belonging to this city ; and 
the silks and linens, known by the name of da- 
masks, were first manufactured by its inha- 
bitants. Niebuhr, who has given a plan of this 
city, makes it 3250 toises, or something less than 
a league and a-half in circumference, and it 
probably contains 180,000 inhabitants. The 
greater part of these are Arabs and Turks ; the 
number of Christians is estimated at 20,000. 
Damascus is the rendezvous for all the pilgrims 
who go to Mecca, from the north of Asia, as 

Cairo is for those from Africa. Their number, , 
every year, amounts to from 30,000 to 50,000, 
Many of them repair here for four months before 
the time, but the greatest number only at the end 
of the Ramadan. Damascus then resembles an 
immense fair ; nothing is to be seen but strangers 
from all parts of Turkey, and even Persia; and 
every place is full of camels, horses, mules, and 
merchandise. By means of this caravan, Da- 
mascus is become the centre of a very extensive 
commerce. By Aleppo, the merchants of this 
city correspond with Armenia, Natolia, Diar- 
bekir, and even with Persia. They send cara- 
vans to Cairo, which, following a route frequented 
in the time of the patriarchs, take their course 
by Djesryakoub, Tiberias, Naplous, and Gaza. 
In return, they receive the merchandise of Con- 
stantinople and Europe, by way of Said and 
Bairout. The home consumption is supplied 
by silk and cotton-stuffs, which are manufac- 
tured here in great quantities, and are very well 
made; by the dried fruits, of their own growth, 
and sweetmeats, cakes of roses, apricots, and 
peaches, of which Turkey consumes to the 
amount of about 40,000 Ibs. Tiie remainder, 
paid for by course of exchange, occasions a con- 
siderable circulation of money, in custom-house 
duties, and the commission of the merchants. 
The pachalic of Damascus comprehends neatly 
the whole eastern part of Syria. In this vast 
extent of country, the soil and its productions 
are very various ; but the plains of Hauran, and 
those on the banks of the Orontes, are the most 
fertile; they produce wheat, barley, sesamum, 
doura, and cotton. This city was one of the 
objects of Buonaparte's ambition while in the 
east : a small detachment of his cavalry had de- 
feated the pacha's troops, and he was about to 
proceed to take possession of Damascus, when he 
was checked in his progress, in this direction, by 
British prowess and the disastrous results of the 
siege of Acre. In the year 1811 the city was 
menaced by the Wahabees, but the pacha going 
out to meet them, at the head of 6000 men, they 
retired. Damascus is 190 miles south of An- 
tioch, 136 N.N.E. of Jerusalem, and 276 S.S.W. 
of Diarbekir. 


DAM' ASK, v. a. & n. s. ) Fr. damasquin ; 

DAMASKEN'ING, n. s. > Ital. damaschino. 

DAM'ASK-ROSE,. s. j Damask is a silk, 
first manufactured at Damascus : damaskening 
an operation of cutlery, whereby the blades ot 
swords and locks of pistols are ornamented, as 
at Damascus : and damask-rose, a rose varie- 
gated, after the manner of damask, with red and 
white : hence the damask of a cheek. 

Not any weaver which his work doth boast 
In diaper, damatb, or in lyne. Spenser. 

Damath-roiCf have not been known in England 
above one hundred years, and now are so common. 


And for some deale perplexed was her spirit, 
Her damask late, now changed to purest white. 

Fairfax . 

They sat recline 
On the soft downy bank, danuuked with flowers. 


E 1 


D A M I E T T A. 

Wipe your shoes, for want of a clout, with a damatk 
napkin. Swift's Rules to Servants. 

Around him dance the rosy hours, 
.And df masking the ground with flowers, 
With ambient sweets perfume the morn. Fenton. 
No gradual bloom is wanting from the bud, 
Nor broad carnations, nor gay spotted pinks, 
Nor, showered from every bush, the damask-rose. 


Loud claps the grinning fiend his iron hands, 
Sumps with black hoof, and shouts along the lands ; 
Withers the damask cheek, unnerves the strong, 
And drives with scorpion lash the shrieking throng. 


DAMASK, a silk stuff, with a raised pattern, 
so that the right side of the damask is that 
which has the flowers raised above the ground. 
Damasks should be of dressed silk, both in 
warp and woof. Those made in France are half 
an ell in breadth. 

DAMASK is also a kind of wrought linen, 
made chiefly in Flanders ; so called, because its 
large flowers resemble those of damasks. It is 
chiefly used for tables. 

the mosaic, of engraving, and of carving; like 
the mosaic, it has inlaid work ; like engraving, 
it cuts the metal, representing divers figures; 
and, as in chasing gold and silver, is wrought in 
relievo. There are two ways of damasking ; the 
one, which is the finest, is when the metal is cut 
deep with proper instruments, and inlaid with 
gold and silver wire; the other is superficial 

DAMAUN, a sea-port in the province of 
Aurungabad, Hindostan, 100 miles north from 
Bombay. The Portuguese, who still retain it, 
reduced this place so early as 1531. Its houses 
and churches make a conspicuous figure from 
the sea ; but the commerce is now reduced. 
Ship-building, however, is carried on to a consi- 
derable extent, the teak-forests of the vicinity sup- 
plying excellent timber. A ship, coppered, and 
equipped for sea, in the European style, in 1800, 
cost about 14 sterling per ton, according to 
Mr. Hamilton. The harbour is commodious for 
vessels of a small size. 

DAMIANISTS, in church history, a branch 
of the ancient Acephali Severitag. They agreed 
with the catholics in admitting the sixth council, 
but disowned any distinction of persons in the 
God-head ; and professed one single nature inca- 
pable of distinction ; yet they called God ' the 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.' 

DAMIENS (Robert Francis), a French as- 
sassin, of some notoriety for his attempt on the 
life of Louis XV., and for the tortures inflicted 
on him for that attempt, was born in Artois in 
1715. He was the son of a small farmer ; and 
his character, even in his childhood, procured 
him the name of Robert le Diable. He enlisted, 
when young, for a soldier, deserted, and after- 
wards became the servant of an officer, whom 
He attended to the siege of Philipsburgh. He 
was afterwards a domestic in the Jesuits' Col- 
lege at Paris. He finally left their service in 1738. 
He is accused of having afterwards poisoned one 
of his masters, after which he fled into Flanders. 
On the last day of the year 1756, he returned 

to Paris, whence he proceeded to Versailles ; 
and on the evening of the 5th of January, 1757, 
went to the palace, and, as his majesty was 
about to get into his carriage, to go to Trianon, 
pushing aside the attendants, made his way up 
to the king, and stabbed him in the side. He 
made no effort to escape, but was taken imme- 
diately ; and, after having been interrogated at 
Versailles, was transferred to Paris. On his trial 
he denied having any accomplices, nor did the 
application of the most cruel tortures wring 
from him any probable accusation. On being 
questioned as to the cause of his crime, he said 
he did not mean to kill the king, and that he 
could have done it, if he had thought proper. 
He added, ' What I did was, that God might 
touch the king's heart, and induce him to restore 
order and tranquillity to the nation. The arch- 
bishop of Paris is the sole cause of our troubles.' 
Having been repeatedly tortured, he was sen- 
tenced to be put to death in the same cruel 
manner with Ravaillac, the murderer of Henry 

DAMIETTA, a port-town of Egypt, on the 
east mouth of the Nile, four miles from the sea- 
coast. The present town stands upon a different 
site from the ancient Damietta, so repeatedly 
attacked by the European princes. The latter, 
according to Abulfeda, was ' a town surrounded 
by walls, and situated at the mouth of the eas- 
tern branch of the Nile.' Stephen of Byzan- 
tium informs us, that it was called Thamiatis, 
under the government of the Greeks of the lower 
empire, but that it was then very inconsiderable. 
It increased in importance, in proportion as Pe- 
lusium, which was frequently plundered, lost its 
power. The total ruin of that ancient town, oc- 
casioned the commerce of the eastern parts of 
the Delta to be transferred to this. It was, how- 
ever, no longer a place of strength, when, about 
the year 238 of the Hegira, the emperors of 
Constantinople took possession of it a second 
time. The importance of a harbour, so favorably 
situated, opened the eyes of the caliphs. In 
the year 244 of the Hegira, Elmetouakkel sur- 
rounded it with strong walls. This obstacle did 
not prevent Roger, king of Sicily, from taking it 
from the Mahommedans, in the year 550 of the 
Hegira. He did not, however, long enjoy his 
conquest. Salah Eddin, who about that period 
mounted the throne of Egypt, expelled the Eu- 
ropeans from Damietta. They returned to be- 
siege it fifteen years after ; but the sultan baffled 
all their efforts. Notwithstanding their land 
army was supported by a fleet of 1200 sail, they 
were obliged to make a disgraceful retreat. It 
was the fate of this place to be often besieged. 
In the year 615 of the Hegira, under the reign 
of Eladel, the crusaders attacked it with a very 
considerable force. They landed on the western 
shore of the Nile, and their first care was to sur- 
round their camp with a ditch and pallisadoes. 
The mouth of the river was defended by two 
towers, furnished with numerous garrisons. An 
enormous iron chain, stretching from one side to 
the other, hindered the approach of vessels. 
The crusaders carried, by storm, the tower on 
the same side with their camp, broke the chain, 
and opened the entrance of the river for their 




fleet. Nejm Eddin, the sultan's son, who was 
encamped near Damietta, covered it with an 
army. To stop the enemy's vessels, he threw a 
bridge over the Nile. The Franks overturned 
it, and the prince adopted the measure of chok- 
ing up the mouth of the river, which he rendered 
almost impassable by several large boats he sunk 
there. After alternate successes, many bloody 
battles, and a siege of seventeen months, the 
Christian princes took Damietta by storm. They 
did not, however, long enjoy the fruit of so 
much blood spilt, and of an armament which 
had cost immense sums. Completely invested 
near the canal of Achmoun, by the waters of the 
Nile, and by the Egyptian army, they purchased 
their lives and their liberty by the sacrifice of 
their conquest. Thirty- one years after this de- 
feat, St. Louis carried Damietta without striking 
a stroke. The Arabs, however, soon recovered 
it; but, tired of keeping a place, which conti- 
nually drew upon them the most warlike nations 
of Europe, they totally destroyed it, and built 
another further up in the country. This modern 
Damietta, first called Menchie, as Abulfeda tells 
us, has preserved the memory of its origin, in a 
square still called by that name. Writers, in 
general, have confounded these two towns, as- 
cribing to the one the attributes of the other. 

The present Damietta is of a semicircular 
form, and stands also on the east bank of the 
Nile, seven miles and a-half from its mouth. It 
is reckoned, by Savary, to contain 80,000 souls, 
but this has been thought an excessive estimate. 
It has several squares, the most considerable of 
which has retained the name of Menchie. The 
bazaars are filled with merchants. Spacious 
okals, or khans, collecting under their porticos 
the stuffs of India, the silks of Mount Lebanon, 
sal ammoniac, and pyramids of rice, proclaim its 
commercial respectability. The houses, those in 
particular which are on the banks of the river, 
are very lofty. They have, in general, handsome 
saloons on the top of their terraces, open to every 
wind ; where the Turk, reclining on a sofa, 
passes his life in smoking, or in looking on the 
sea, which bounds the horizon on one side ; on 
the great lake that extends itself on the other ; 
and on the Nile, which, running between them, 
traverses a rich country. Several large mosques, 
adorned.with minarets, are dispersed over the 
town. The public baths, lined with marble, are 
distributed in the same manner as those of 
Grand Cairo, The linen is clean, and the water 
very pure. The heat, and the treatment in 
them, so far from injuring the health, serve to 
strengthen and improve it, if used with modera- 
tion. This custom, founded on experience, is ge- 
neral in Egypt. The port of Damietta is conti- 
nually filled with a multitude of boats and small 
vessels. Those called scherm serve to convey the 
merchandise on board the ships in the road, and 
to unload them : the others carry on the coasting- 
trade. This town carries on a great trade with 
Syria, Cyprus, and Marseilles. The rice, called 
mezelaoui, of the finest quality in Egypt, is cul- 
tivated in the neighbouring plains. The exports of 
it amount, annually, to about six millions of livres. 
Other articles of the produce of the country are 
linens, sal ammoniac, corn, 8cc. The Christians 

of Aleppo and Damascus, settled in this town, 
have, for several ages, carried on its principal 
commerce. The bad state of the port is very 
detrimental to Damietta. The road, where the 
vessels lie, being exposed to every wind, the 
slightest gale obliges the captains to cut their 
cables, and take shelter in Cyprus, or stand off 
to sea. The tongue of land, on which Damietta 
is situated, straitened on one side by the river, 
and on the other by the western extremity of the 
lake Menzale, is only from two to six miles wide 
from east to west. It is intersected by innu- 
merable rivulets in every direction, which render 
it the most fertile spot in Egypt. There are 
many villages around the town, in which are 
manufactures of the most beautiful linens. The 
finest napkins, in particular, are made here, 
fringed with silk. Damietta is 100 miles N. N. E. 
of Cairo.* 1 ' 

DAMN, v. a. 

DAMNED, part. & n. s. 

DAM'NABLE, adj. 


DAM'NABLY, adv. 

Lat. damno ; Old 
Fr. datnner ; which 
Minsheu derives 
from the Ileb. Cl, 
> the shedding of 
' blood in sacrifice 
or punishment. To 
condemn; and the 
state of being con- 

DAM'NATION, n. s. 


DAM'NIFY, v. a. 


demned, temporally or eternally. To curse; to 
disapprove ; to explode. * Indecently used,' also, 
as Johnson says, ' in a ludicrous (and trifling) 

I answeride, that it is not custom to romayns, to 
dampne ony man before that he that is accused haue 
his accuseds present. Wicklif. Dedis. 25. 

And not as we ben blasfemed, and as sum men 
seyn, that we seyn, do we yuele things that goode 
thingis come, whos dampnaciovn is just. 

Id. Romayss, iii. 8. 
For wel thou wost thy selven veraily 

That thou and I be damned to prison 

Perpetual ; us gaincth no rainson. 

Chaucer. Cant. Tale*. 

When now he saw himself so freshly rear, 
As if late fight had nought him damnified, 
He was dismayed, and 'gan his fate to fear. 

Faerie Queene. 
Not in the legions 

Of horrid hell can come a devil more damned 
In evils to top Macbeth. Shakspeare. Macbeth. 

Let not the royal bed of Denmark be 
A couch for luxury and damned incest. Id. Hamlet. 

He's a creature unprepared, unmeet for death ; 
And to transport him in the mind he is 
Were damnable. Id. Measure for Measure. 

It gives him occasion of labouring with greater ear- 
nestness elsewhere, to entangle unwary minds with 
the snares of his damnable opinion. Hooker. 

Whence damned vice is shrouded quite from shame, 
And crowned with virtue's meed, immortal name ! 
Infamy dispossest of native due, 
Ordained of old on looser life to sue. 

Bishop Hall. Prologue to Satires. 

He that hath been affrighted with the fears of hell, 
or remembers how often he hath been spared from 
an horrililc damnation, will not be ready to strangle 
hU brother for a trifle. Taylor's Worthy Communicant. 

He may vow never to return to those sins which he 
hath had such experience of, for the emptiness and 
damningtifss of them, and so think himself a com- 
plete penitent. Hammo*d. 


Now mince the sin, 
And mollify damnation with a phrase : 
Say you consented not to Sancho's death, 
But barely not forbade it. Dryden. 

His own impartial thought 
Will damn, and conscience will record the fault. Id. 

We will propose the question, whether those who 
hold the fundamentals of faith may deny Christ 
damnably, in respect of those consequences that arise 
from them? South' s Sermons. 

He, who has suffered the damage, has a right to 
demand in his own name, and he alone can remit, 
satisfaction : the damnified person has the power of 
appropriating the goods or service of the offender, by 
right of self-preservation. Locke. 

Dare not 

To brand the spotless virtue of my prince 
With falsehoods of most base and damned contrivance. 


As he does not reckon every schism of a damnable 
nature, so he is far from closing with the new opinion 
of those who make it no crime. Swift. 

The more sweets they bestowed upon them, the 
more damnably their conserves stunk. Dennis. 

You are so good a critick, that it is the greatest 
happiness of the modern poets that you do not hear 
their works ; and, next, that you are not so arrant a 
critick as to damn them, like the rest, without hear- 
ing. Pope. 


Rise curling fast beneath me, white and sulphury, 
Like foam from the roused ocean of deep Hell, 
Whose every wave breaks on a living shore, 
Heaped with the damned like pebbles. I am giddy. 


DAMNIT, an ancient people of Britain, who 
inhabited the district situated between the ter- 
ritories of the Selgovae on the south, and the 
Caledonii on the north, now called Clydesdale. 

DAMOCLES, one of the flatterers of Diony- 
sius the elder, of Sicily. He admired the ty- 
rant's wealth, and pronounced him the happiest 
man on earth. Dionysius prevailed upon him 
to undertake, for a while, the charge of royalty, 
and be convinced of the happiness which a so- 
vereign enjoyed. Damocles ascended the throne, 
and while he gazed upon the wealth and splendor 
which surrounded him, he perceived a sword 
hanging over his head by a single hair. This so 
terrified him, that all his imaginary felicity va- 
nished at once, and thus represented to him the 
danger and misery of royal state. 

DAMON AND PYTHIAS, two illustrious friends 
of antiquity, who have immortalised their names 
by the strength and sincerity of their friendship. 
Damon was a Pythagorean philosopher, who, 
having incurred the displeasure of Dionysius, 
tyrant of Syracuse, was condemned to death. 
He asked a short respite, till he should settle 
some domestic business, of the utmost importance 
to his family, but which required his personal 
presence at some distance from Syracuse. Dio- 
nysius agreed to grant his request, upon a con- 
dition, which he supposed impossible to be 
complied with, viz. that Damon should find 
some person who was willing to suffer death in 
his stead, provided he did not return at the 
time appointed. Pythias, to the surprise of the 
tyrant, cheerfully surrendered himself as a 
pledge for his friend Daman : who, after settling 

54 DAM 

his business, astonished the tyrant still more, by 
returning punctually at the hour fixed for his 
execution. Dionysius was so struck with the 
fidelity of these two friends, that he remitted 
the punishment, and entreated them to permit 
him to share their friendship, and enjoy their 

DAMP, v. a., n. s. & adj.\ Sax. and Belg. 
DAMP'NESS, n. s. I damp ; Teutonic, 

DAMP'ISH, adj. \dampf. Sereuius 

DAMP'ISHNESS, n. s. i says from Scyth. 

DAMP'Y, adj. J daa, vapor. To 

wet, moisten, make humid ; foggy, moist, or 
heavy air ; and hence to depress, deject, make 
dull, discourage. Dampish, dampishness, and 
dampy are diminutives of the same signification. 

It has been used by some with great success to 
make their walls thick ; and to put a lay of chalk 
between the bricks, to take away all dampishness. 


A soft body dampeth the sound much more than a 
hard. Id. 

Night j not now, as ere man fell, 
Wholesome and cool, and mild ; but with black air 
Accompanied, with damps and dreadful gloom. 


All these and more came flocking, but with looks 
Downcast and damp : yet such wherein appeared 
Obscure some glimpse of joy. Id. 

Unless an age too late, or cold 
Climate, or years, damp my intended wing 
Depressed. Id. 

The very loss of one pleasure is enough to damp 
the relish of another. L' Estrange. 

Nor need they fear the dampness of the sky 

Should flag their wings, and hinder them to fly ; 

'Twas only water thrown on sails too dry. 


She said no more : the trembling Trojans hear, 
O'erspread with a damp sweat and holy fear. Id. 

This commendable resentment against me, strikes 
a damp upon that spirit in all ranks and corporations 
of men. Swift. 

Even now, while thus I stand blest in thy presence, 
A secret damp of grief comes o'er my thoughts. 


An eternal state he knows and confesses that he 
has made no provision for, that he is undone for ever : 
a prospect enough to cast a damp over his sprighlliest 
hours. Rogers. 

Dread of death hangs over the mere natural man, 
and, like the hand-writing on the wall, damps all his 
jollity. Atterbury. 

The heat of the sun, in the hotter seasons, pene- 
trating the exterior parts of the earth, excites those 
mineral exhalations in subterraneous caverns, which 
are called damps: these seldom happen but in the 
summer-time ; when, the hotter the weather is, the 
more frequent are the damps. Woodward. 

The lords did dispel dampy thoughts, which the 
remembrance of his uncle might raise, by applying 
him with exercises and disports. Hayward. 

Cypress and ivy, weed and wall-flower grown 
Matted and massed together, hillocks heaped 
On what were chambers, arch crushed, column strown 
In fragments, chok'd up vaults, and frescos steeped 
In subterranean damps, where the owl peeped, 
Deeming it midnight. Byron. 

DAMPS, in natural history, from the Saxon 
word damp, signifying vapour, are certain noxi- 



ems exhalations issuing from some parts of the 
earth, chiefly observed in mines and coal-pits: 
hough vapors of the same kind often issue from 
aid lavas of burning mountains, in those countries 
where volcanoes are common. In mines and coal- 
Bits they are chiefly of two kinds, called by the 
miners and colliers the choke and fire-damps. The 
choke-damp is very much of the nature of fixed 
air; and usually infests those places which have 
been formerly worked, but long neglected, and 
are known to the miners by the name of wastes. 
The choke-damp suffocates the miners suddenly, 
with all the appearances found in those suffocated 
by fixed air. Being heavy, it descends towards 
the lowest parts of the workings, and thus is 
dangerous to the miners, who can scarcely avoid 
breathing it. The fire-damp, which seems chiefly 
to be composed of inflammable air, rises to the 
roof of the workings, as being specifically lighter 
than the common atmosphere; and hence, though 
it -will suffocate as well as the other, it seldom 
proves so dangerous in this way as by its in- 
flammable property, by which it often takes fire 
at the candles, and explodes with extreme vio- 
lence. See COAL-MINES. 

Of the formation of these damps we have as yet 
no certain theory; nor, though the experiments 
of aerologists are able to show the composition and 
manner of forming these noxious airs artificially, 
have they yet thrown much light on the method 
by which nature prepares them on a large scale. 
There are two general ways in which we may 
suppose this to be done ; one bv the stagnation of 
atmospherical air in old waste places of mines and 
coal-pits, and its conversion into these mephitic 
exhalations ; the other by their original formation 
from the phlogistic or other materials found in 
the earth, without any interference of the atmo- 

DAMPIER (William), a famous navigator, 
descended from a respectable family in Somer- 
setshire, and born in 1652. Losing his father 
when very young, he went to sea, where he soon 
distinguished himself. His Voyage round the 
World, &c. are well known, and have gone through 
many editions. He appears afterwards to have 
engaged in an expedition concerted by the mer- 
chants of Bristol to the South Sea, commanded 
by captain Woods Rogers; who sailed in 
August 1708, and returned in September 1711 : 
but no further particulars of his life or death 
are recorded. 

DAM'SEL, n. . Goth, damoisell ; Ital. and 
Span, donzella ; i. e. a female don, from Lat. 
dominus. f A gentlewoman, unmarried, being 
not a lady,' says Minsheu ; and ' quasi parvus 
dominus, a little lord or master.' Johnson 
notices its having formerly been applied to both 
sexes, but gives no instance of it in the mascu- 
line. It is now only used in verse. 

He seide go ye awey for the damytel is not deed but 
sleepith, and thei scorneden him. 

ll'idif. Matthew 9. 
At last she has 

A damnel spyde slow-footing her before, 

That on her shoulders sad a pot of water bore. 

Spenser. Faerie Queene. 
With her train of damsel* she was gone 
In shady walks, the scorching heat to shun. 


Kneeling, I my servant's smiles implore, 
And one mud damiel dares dispute my pov.'er. 


DAM'SON, n. s. Corruptly from damascene 
A small black plum. See DAMASCENE. 

My wife desired some datnsmis, 
And made me climb with danger of my life. 


DAN, n. s. From dominus, as now don in 
Spain, and Ital. donna, from domina. The old 
term of honor for men, as we now say master. 
' I know not,' says Dr. Johnson, ' that it was 
ever used in prose, and imagine it to have been 
rather of ludicrous import.' But Spenser uses it 
in serious praise of Chaucer, below. 

Ofd dan Geffrey, in whose gentle spright 
The pure well-head of poetry did dwell 
He whilst he lived was the soveraigne head 
Of shepherds all. Spenser. 

This whimpled, whining, purblind, wayward boy. 
This signor Junto's giant dwarf, dan Cupid. 


Dick, if thif. story pleaseth thee, 
Pray thank dan Pope, who told it me. 

Prior's Alma. 

DAN, JT Heb. i. e. judgment, one of the 
twelve patriarchs, the fifth son of Jacob. Of his 
history nothing is recorded, except that he had 
but one son, named Hushim; though his poste- 
rity was afterwards very numerous. 

DAN, OT the DANITES, one of the twelve tribes 
of Israel, descended from the patriarch Dan. 
Their number, at the emigration from Egypt, 
amounted to 62,700, and they increased in the 
wilderness. After their settlement in Canaan, a 
party of them, who went to take Laish, in their 
way robbed Micah the Ephraimite of his idol, 
which they continued to worship till they were 
carried captive by Tiglath Pileser. Samson, the 
heroic judge of Israel, was of this tribe; and 
28,600 of them attended at David's coronation. 
The Danites appear to have been early acquainted 
with commerce, for they had ships in the time of 
Jabin, king of the Canaanites. See Judges v. 17. 
Their territory extended west of Judah, and was 
terminated by Azotus and Dora on the Mediter- 

DAN, in scripture geography, a city of the 
Danites, situated on the east side of the springs 
of Jordan, on the south of Mount Lebanon. It 
was named Laish or Leshem. Here Jeroboam 
established idolatry by setting up his golden 
calves. This city and Beersheba were the two 
extremities of the kingdom of Israel. Dan was 
taken and pillaged by Benhadad king of Syria; 
notwithstanding which it made some figure after 
the captivity. Some authors say, that it was 
rebuilt by Philip the tetrarch of Galilee, in our 
Saviour's time, and named by him Csesarea Phi- 
lippi. It lay east of Sidon and west of Damas- 
cus. It is thought by sojne to be the Lasha of 
Gen. x. 19. 

DAN, in modern geography, a considerable 
river of the United States in North Carolina, 
which has been rendered navigable for boats a 
great way up. It unites with the Staunton in 
Virginia, and forms the Iloanoke. 



DANAE, in antiquity, a coin somewhat more 
than an obolus, used to be put into the mouths 
of the dead, to 'pay their passage over the river 

DANAE, in fabulous history, the daughter of 
Acrisius, king of Argos, by Eurydice. She was 
confined in a brazen tower by her father, who 
had been told by an oracle that his daughter's 
son would put him to death. But Jupiter, who 
was enamoured of Danae, introduced himself to 
her bed by changing himself into a shower of 
gold. From his embraces Danae had a son, with 
whom she was exposed on the sea by her father. 
The wind drove the bark which carried her to the 
coasts of the island of Seriphus ; where she was 
saved by some fishermen, and carried to Poly- 
dectes king of the place, whose brother, Dictys, 
educated the child, named Perseus, and tenderly 
treated the mother. Polydectes fell in love with 
her; but, being afraid of her son, he sent him to 
conquer the Gorgons, pretending that he wished 
Medusa's head to adorn his nuptials with Hip- 
podamia the daughter of CEnomaus. When Per- 
seus had victoriously finished his expedition, he 
retired to Argos with Danae to the house of 
Acrisius, whom he inadvertently killed. Virgil 
says that Danae after this came to Italy, and 
founded the city of Ardea. Some suppose that 
it was Proctus, the brother of Acrisius, who intro- 
duced himself to Danae in the brazen tower; 
but, whoever was her seducer, the fable of the 
golden shower plainly implies that the keepers 
of the tower were bribed. Against such showers, 
indeed, towers of brass and bars of iron are no 

DANAIDES, in fabulous history, the fifty 
daughters of Danaus king of Argos. When 
their uncle Egyptus came from Egypt with his 
fifty sons, they were promised in marriage to 
their cousins; but before the celebration of their 
nuptials, Danaus, who had been informed by an 
oracle that he was to be killed by the hands of one 
of his sons-in-law, made his daughters solemnly 
promise that they would destroy their husbands. 
They were provided with daggers, and all except 
Hypermnestra proved but too obedient to their 
father's bloody injunctions, as a proof of which 
they presented him with the heads of their mur- 
dered husbands, on the morning after their nup- 
tials. Hypermnestra was summoned to appear 
and answer for her disobedience in suffering her 
husband Lynceus to escape ; but the unanimous 
voice of the people declared her innocent, and 
she dedicated a temple to the goddess of Per- 
suasion. The forty-nine sisters were condemned, 
in hell, to fill with water a vessel full of holes, 
so that their labor was infinite and their punish- 
ment eternal. 

DANAUS, in fabulous history, a son of Belus 
and Anchinoe, who, after his father's death, 
reigned conjointly with his brother ./Egyptus on 
the throue of Egypt. Some time after a differ- 
ence arose between the brothers, and Danaus set 
sail with his fifty daughters in quest of a settle- 
ment. He visited Rhodes, where he consecrated 
a statue to Minerva, and arrived safe on the 
coast of Peloponnesus, where he was hospitably 
received by Gelanor king of Argos. Gelanor 
had lately ascended the throne, and the first years 

of his reign were marked by dissensions with 
his subjects. Danaus took advantage of his un- 
popularity, and obliged him to resign the crown. 
The success of Danaus led the fifty sons of 
Egyptus to embark for Greece. They were 
received with hypocritical kindness by their 
uncle; and soon after all murdered, except Lyn- 
ceus. See DANAIDES. Danaus at first perse- 
cuted Lynceus with unremitted fury; but he 
was afterwards reconciled to him, and acknow- 
ledged him for his son-in-law and successor after 
a reign of fifty years. He began his reign about 
A.A.C. 1586; and after death was honored with 
a splendid monument in Argos, which existed in 
the age of Pausanias. 

DAN BURY, a town of the United States of 
America, in Connecticut, fifty-five miles N.N. E. 
of New York, and 116 south-west of Boston. 
This town was settled in 1687, and, with a great 
quantity of military stores, was burnt by the 
British on the 26th of April, 1777, but has been 
rebuilt since the peace. It lies thirty-three miles 
north-west by west of New Haven. 

DANCE, v. a., v. n. & n. s.~\ Goth. & Belg. 

DANCER, i dans; FT. danse ; 

DANCING. V Ital - danza, from 

DANC-ING-MASTEE, I the Heb. \*"l, to 

DANCING-SCHOOL, J leap, says Min- 

sheu. To step, or move in measure ; to dandle ; 
a motion of one or more musically regulated : 
one who practises such motions is a dancer; he 
who teaches them a dancing-master; and a 
dancing-school the place where they are profes- 
sedly taught. Dancing is also used for any con- 
certed and regular motion or attendance. 

But in the day of eroudis birthe, the daughtir of 
erodias daunside in the myddil and pleside eroude. 
Wiclif. Matt. xiv. 

Now his elder son was in the field, and, as he came 
and drew nigh to the house, he heard music and dan- 
Luke xv. 

In olde dayes of the king Artour, 
The Elf quene with hire joly compagnie 
Danced ful ofte in many a grene mede. 
This was the old opinion as I rede. 

Chaucer. Cant. Tales. 

In pestilences, the malignity of the infecting 
vapour danceth the principal spirits. Bacon. 

The honourablest part of talk is to give the occasion, 
and again to moderate and pass to somewhat else ; 
for then a man leads the dance. Id. 

What say you to young Mr. Fenton ? He capers, 
he dances, he has eyes of youth, he writes verses. 


Thy grandsire loved thee well, 
Many a time he danced thee on his knee. Id. 

He at Philippi kept 

His sword e'en like a dancer, while I strook 
The lean and wrinkled Cassias. Id. 

They bid us to the English dancing-schools, 

And teach lavoltas high, and swift courantos ; 

Saying our grace is only in our heels. Id 

Musicians and dancers ! take some truce 
With these your pleasing labours ; for great use 
As much weariness as perfection brings. Donne. 

Men are sooner weary to dance attendance at the 
gates of foreign lords, than to tarry the good leisure 
of their own magistrates. Raleigh's Essays. 



A certain Egyptian king endowed a dancing-ichool 
for the instruction of apes of quality. L'Kitranye. 

The apes were taught their apes' tricks by a dancing- 
matter. M. 

How I loved, 

Witness yc days and nights, and all ye hours, 
That danced away with down upon your feet, 
As all your business were to count iny passion. 

Dry den. 

It upbraids you, 

To let your father's friend, for three long months, 
Thus dance attendance for a word of audience. 


The legs of a dancing-matter, and the fingers of a 
musician, fall, as it were, naturally, without thought 
or pains, into regular and admirable motions. 

Locke on Understanding. 

Nature, I thought, performed too mean a part, 
Forming her movements to the rules of art ; 
And, vexed, I found that the musician's hand 
Had o'er the dancer'* mind too great command. 


Midnight shout, and revelry, 
Tipsy dance, and jollity. Byron. 

Nor short nor slight the sufferance, when the 


Of fiequent Sin provokes unpitying Fate ; 
But for brief mutiny, in frets begun, 
And half forgotten e'er the dance is done, 
Wild wanderings, more of fancy than of heart, 
As light the treason, light the vcnging smart. 

Dr. T. Brown. 

DANCES, ANCIENT. There is no account of the 
origin of dancing among mankind. It is found 
to exist among the most barbarous and uncivi- 
lised nations, and is too intimately connected 
with the mechanism of the human body to be 
originally derivable from art. The Greeks were 
the first people, however, who reduced it to a 
system. At Athens, it is said, that the dance of 
the Eumenides, or Furies, on the theatre had so 
expressive a character as to strike the spectators 
with irresistible terror; and people imagined 
they saw in earnest the ]>ersonified deities com- 
missioned with the vengeance of heaven to pur- 
sue and punish their crimes. They had also 
martial dances, to keep up the warlike spirit of 
their youth. Plato reduces the dances of the 
ancients to three classes, viz. 

1. Domestic Dances. Of these, some were 
but simply gambols, or sportive exercises, which 
had no character of imitation, and of which the 
greater part exist to this day. The others were 
more complex, more agreeable, figured, and were 
always accompanied with singing. Among the 
first or simple ones was the ascoliasmus; which 
consisted in jumping, with one foot only, on 
bladders filled with air or with wine, and rubbed 
on the outside with oil. The kybestesis was 
what is called in this country the Somerset. Of 
the second kind was that called the wine-press, 
of which there is a description in Longmus, and 
the Ionian dances. 

2. Mediatorial Dances. These were used in 
expiations and sacrifices. Among the ancients 
there were no festivals nor religious assemblies 
but what were accompanied with songs and 
dances. They were looked upon to be so essen- 
tial in these kinds of ceremonies, that to express 

the crime of such as were guilty of revealing the 
sacred mysteries, they employed the word 
kbeistae, 'to be out of the dance.' The most an- 
cient of these religious dances is the Bacchic; 
which was not only consecrated to Bacchus, but 
to all the deities whose festival was celebrated 
with a kind of enthusiasm. The most grave and 
majestic was the hyporchematic; it was executed 
to the lyre, and accompanied with the voice. 
At his return from Crete, Theseus instituted a 
dance at which he himself assisted, at the head of 
a numerous and splendid band of youth, round 
the altar of Apollo. The dance was composed 
of three parts, the strophe, the antistrophe, and 
the stationary. In the strophe the movements 
were from the right to the left; in the antistrophe 
from the left to the right. In the stationary 
they danced before the altar ; so that the station- 
ary did not mean absolute pause or rest, but 
only a more slow or grave movement. Plutarch 
is persuaded that in this dance there is a pro- 
found mystery. He thinks that by the strophe 
is indicated the motion of the world from east to 
west ; by the antistrophe the motion of the pla- 
nets from west to east; and, by the stationary, 
the stability of the earth. To this dance The- 
seus gave the name of geranos, or ' the crane ;' 
because the figures which characterised it bore a 
resemblance to those described by cranes in their 

3. Military Dances, which tended to make 
the body robust, active, and well disposed for all 
the exercises of war. Of these there were two 
sorts ; viz. the gymnopedic, and the pyrrhic. 1. 
The gymnopedic dance, or the dance of children, 
was invented by the Spartans for an early excita- 
tion of courage in their children, and to lead 
them on insensibly to the exercise of the armed 
dance. This dance used to be executed in the 
public place. It was composed of two choirs ; 
the one of grown men, the other of children ; 
whence, being chiefly designed for the latter, it 
took its name. They were both in a state of 
nudity. The choir of the children regulated 
their motions by those of the men, and all danced 
at the same time, singing the poems of Thales, 
Alcman, and Dionysodotus. 

The Pyrrhic, or Enoplian dance, was per- 
formed by young men armed cap-a-pee, who ex- 
ecuted, to the sound of the flute, all the proper 
movements either for attack or for defence. It 
was composed of four parts : 1. The podism or 
footing, which consisted in a quick shifting mo- 
tion of the feet, such as was necessary for over- 
taking a flying enemy, or for getting away from 
him when an overmatch : 2. The xiphism was a 
kind of mock fight, in which the dancers imitated 
all the motions of combatants ; aiming a stroke, 
darting a javelin, or dexterously dodging, parry- 
ing, or avoiding a blow or thrust. 3. The ko- 
mos consisted in very high leaps or vaultings, 
which the dancers frequently repeated, for the 
better using themselves occasionally to leap over 
a ditch, or spring over a wall. 4. The tetracomos 
was the last part ; this was a square figure, exe- 
cuted by slow and majestic movements , but it is 
uncertain whether it was every where executed 
in the same manner. Of all the Greeks, the 
Spartans most cultivated the Pyrrhic dance. 



Athenaeus relates that they had a law by which 
they were obliged to exercise their children at it 
from the age of five years. This warlike people 
constantly retained the custom of accompanying 
their dances with hymns and songs. The follow- 
ing was sung for the dance called trichoria, said 
to be instituted by Lycurgus, and which had its 
name from its being composed of three choirs, 
one of children, another of young men, and the 
third of old. The old men opened the dance, 
saying, ' In time past we were valiant.' The 
yonng men answered, ' We are so at present.' 
' We shall be still more so when our time comes,' 
replied the chorus of children. The Spartans 
never danced but with real arms. In process of 
time, however, other nations came to use only 
weapons of wood on such occasions. Nay, it was 
only so late as the days of Athenaeus, who lived 
in the second century, that the dancers of the 
Pyrrhic, instead of arms, carried only flasks, 
thyrsuses or reeds. But, even in Aristotle's days, 
they had begun to use thyrsuses instead of pikes, 
and lighted torches in lieu of javelins and 
swords. With these torches they executed a 
dance which was called the conflagration of the 

Religious dances were not confined to the 
pagan world. They have been practised both 
by Jews and Christians. Among the ancient 
Jews, it appears to have made a part of religious 
worship on some occasions, as we learn from 
passages in the Psalms, though we do not find 
it enjoined as a divine precept. In the Christian 
churches mentioned in the New Testament, there 
is no account of dancing being introduced as an 
act of worship, though it is certain that it was 
used as such in after ages. 

Theatrical or stage dances. The Greeks were 
the first who united the dance to their tragedies 
and comedies ; not indeed as making part of 
those spectacles, but merely as an accessary. 
The Romans copied after the Greeks ; but in the 
reign of Augustus they left their instructors far 
behind them. Two remarkable men made their 
appearance at that time, who invented a new 
species of entertainment, and carried it to a 
great degree of perfection. These were Pylades 
and Bathylus, who first introduced among the 
Romans what the French call the ballet d'action, 
wherein the performer is both actor and dancer. 
Pylades undertook the task of representing, with 
the assistance of the dance alone, strong and 
pathetic situations. He succeeded perhaps be- 
yond his own expectation, and may be called 
the father of that style of dancing which is known 
to us by the name of grave or serious pantomine. 
Bathylus, an Alexandrian, and a freedman of 
Mecaenas, took upon himself to represent such 
subjects as required a certain liveliness and 
agility. He was handsome in his person ; and 
the two great scourges of Roman follies, Persius 
and Juvenal, speak of him as the gallant of every 
woman in Rome. After their death the art gra- 
dually sunk into obscurity, and became even 
entirely forgotten on the accession of Trajan to 
the empire. Thus buried with the other arts in 
oblivion, dancing remained uncultivated till 
about the fifteenth century, when ballets were 
revived in Italy at a magnificent entertainment 

given by a n'obleman of Lombardy at Tortona on 
account of the marriage between Galeas duke 
of Milan and Isabella of Arragon. At first the 
women had no share in the public or theatrical 
dance ; but, in 1 681, we find the then dauphiness, 
the princess of Conti, and some other ladies of 
the first distinction in the court of Louis XIV. 
performed a ballet with the opera called Le 
Triomphe de 1'Amour. This union of the two 
sexes served to enliven and render the spectacle 
more pleasing and far more brilliant. It was 
received with so much applause, that in the May 
of that year, when the same opera was acted in 
Paris at the theatre of the Palais Royal, it was 
thought indispensable for the success of that 
kind of entertainment to introduce female dan- 
cers, and they have continued ever since to be 
the principal support of the opera. Thus, what 
was at first introduced as a mere accessary to 
the musical performance, became in process of 
time its only support ; and this circumstance ex- 
cited the emulation of several ballet masters. 

Modern dancing is so much the creature of 
change and fashion, that we feel it impossible to 
detail its ever-varying steps in a work of science. 
We must refer our younger readers to the pro- 
fessors of the art ; observing, only, that it seems 
in itself a natural and most innocent mode of 
exercise and graceful motion ; while, on the 
other hand, in crowded assemblies, among the 
suffocating vapors of innumerable lights and 
breaths, the blood becomes often unnaturally 
propelled to the breast and head ; perspiration is 
dangerously checked ; the lungs are expanded, 
and the foundation is too often laid of that fatal 
disease, consumption. 

DANCER (Daniel), an extraordinary miser, 
born near Harrow, in Middlesex, in 1716, of a 
family who possessed a considerable estate in 
that county. He succeeded to the family estate 
in 1736. For upwards of fifty years he led the 
life of a hermit, having no dealings with man- 
kind but what the sale of his hay necessarily 
occasioned ; and was seldom seen, except when 
he was out gathering logs from the common, or 
old iron, or sheep's dung under the hedges. His 
house was at one time robbed, to prevent which, 
he fastened up the door, and, by means of a 
ladder, went in at an upper window, drawing 
the ladder carefully up after him. He had a 
sister who lived with him for a number of years, 
and who left hioi a considerable increase to his 
store, at her death ; on which occasion, to put 
himself in decent mourning, he purchased a 
pair of second-hand worsted stockings. Even 
this was an article of luxury, for he commonly 
wore bands of hay around his legs. He died in 
1794, and left his estates to lady Tempest, who 
had been very charitable to the poor man and 
his sister. 

DANCETTE, in heraldry, an epithet applied 
to the bordure or ordinary, when very deeply in- 
dented, so as to make generally but three points 
in the breadth of the shield, as fig. 1. a fesse 
dancette sable, fig. 2, azure two bars indented 
or. Name James. Double dancette, fig. 3, is 
an epithet belonging peculiarly to the bend, as 
argent a bend double dancette, azure, name Hen- 


rig. 2. 

Fig. 3. 

DAN'DELION, n. s. Fr. dent de lion. A 
plant of the syngenesia class. See LEONTODON. 

For cowslips sweet let dandelions spread, 
For Blouzelinda, blithsome maid, is dead. 


DANDINI (Caesar), an historical painter, was 
born at Florence, and successively studied with 
Cavalier, Curradi, Passignano, and Christopher 
Allori, from whom he acquired a very pleasing 
manner of designing and coloring. He was ex- 
tremely correct in his drawing, and finished his 
pictures highly. Several noble altar-pieces in 
the churches of Florence are of his hand ; and 
one, which is in the chapel 1'Annonciata, is par- 
ticularly admired. 

DANDINI (Peter), an eminent painter, born at 
Florence in 1646. He received his first instruc- 
tions from Valerio Spada, who excelled in small 
drawings with a pen. He afterwards travelled 
through most of the cities of Italy, studying the 
works of those who were most distinguished; 
and resided long at Venice, where he copied the 
paintings of Titian, Tintoretto, Paul Veronese, 
and Correggio. When he returned to Florence 
the grand duke Cosmo III. kept him perpetually 
employed, in painting fresco, as well as in oil ; 
his subjects being taken not only from sacred and 
fabulous history, but from his own fancy, which 
frequently furnished him with whimsical carica- 
tures. He died in 1712. 

DANDIPRAT, n. ., or DODKIN, says Min- 
sheu, ' as little among other money, as a dandi- 
prat or dwarf among other men.' For according 
to Camden, Henry VII. stamped a small coin of 
this name. Dr. Johnson says, ' a fool.' 

A very dandiprat and exceedingly deformed. 

World of Wonder*, 1608. 

DAN'DLE, v. a. \ Fr. dandiner ; Teut. tan- 

DAN'DLER, n. s. J die ; Belg. danden, to trifle. 

To fondle a child ; to lull it, or dance it lightly 

up and down. Also to trifle away time ; to 


And ye shall suck at the breast, 
Ye shall be carried at the side, 
And on the knees shall ye be dandled. 

Isaiah Ixvi. Bishop Lowth'i Translation. 

Captains do so dandle their doings, and dally in the 
service, as if they would not have the enemy subdued. 


Courts are but superficial schools 
To dandle fools. Bacon. 

Their child shall be advanced, 
And be received for the emperor's heir, 
And let the emperor dandle him for his own. 


Sporting the lion ramped, and in his paw 
Dandled the kid. Milton. 

Motion occasions sleep, as we find by the common 
use of rocking froward children in cradles, or dandling 
them in their nurses' arms. Tiilutioo. 

59 DAN 

They have put me in a silk gown, and . gaudy 
fool's cap ; I am ashamed to be dandled thus, and 
cannot look in the glass without blushing, to sec my- 
elf turned into such a little pretty master. 

Addisvn's Guardian. 

DANDOLO (Henry), doge of Venice, was 
born in 1108, and chosen to that office in 1192. 
He was nearly blind at the period of his election, 
but neither that circumstance, nor his age, im- 
paired the vigor of his mind, and the events of 
his government became the principal causes of 
the greatness of his country. Dandolo induced 
the senate to join in the fourth crusade, but di- 
rected the first efforts of the armament to recover 
Zara, which had revolted from its allegiance to 
the republic. He accompanied the expedition 
to Constantinople, and, on the storming of the 
city, was the first who leaped on shore. After 
the various changes with respect to the imperial 
throne, which succeeded the second siege, Dan- 
dolo was nominated emperor, but in consequence 
of his age, and his pressing tics to Venice, the 
choice ultimately fell on Baldwin. But Venice, 
in the sharing of the imperial dominions, ob- 
tained a full moiety, and Damiolo was solemnly 
invested as prince of Romania, lie ended his 
extraordinary life at Constantinople, at the age 
of ninety-seven. 

DANDOLO (Andrew), a learned doge and 
historian of Venice, was born about 1310. He 
rose first to the office of procurator of St. Mark, 
and then to that of doge in 1343. Making war 
against the Turks with considerable success, he 
greatly extended Venetian commerce, and opaned 
her trade with Egypt. Genoa becoming jeal- 
ous of this trade, a powerful Genoese fleet ar- 
rived in the gulf of Venice, and caused so much 
anxiety to the doge, that it brought on an illness 
which terminated his life, September 1354. 
Andrew Dandolo was a correspondent of Pe- 
trarch, and to him is ascribed the compilation of 
the sixth book of the Venetian Laws, and a Chro- 
nicle of Venice, written in Latin, and comprehend- 
ing the History of the Republic, from its com- 
mencement to 1342. It was first published by 
Muratori in his collection of original Italian 

DANEGELT, an ancient annual tax of the 
Anglo-Saxons, first of Is. afterwards of 2s. for 
every hide of land through the realm, and for 
maintaining such a number of forces as were 
thought sufficient to clear the British seas ot 
Danish pirates, who then greatly annoyed our 
coasts. The danegelt was first imposed as a 
standing yearly tax on the whole nation, under 
king Ethelred, A. D. 991. King Stephen, on 
his coronation day, abrogated it for ever. No 
church, or church-land paid the danegelt ; be- 
cause, as it is said in an ancient Saxon law, the 
people of England placed more confidence in 
the prayers of the church than any military de- 
fence they could make ! 

DANG'ER, v. a., & n. t. -> Goth, dunger ; 
DANG'EROUS, adj. I Fr. danger; from 

DANG'EROUSLY, adv. V Latin, damnigcr, 
DANG'ERLESS,<M(/. I bringing or caus- 

DANG'EROUSNESS, n, s. J ing injury : or, says 
Minsheu, from favoc, death; but this seems far- 
fetched. To put to risk, hazard, or peril ; a state 



of risk or hazard. It has beer used in an obso- 
lete sense for custody, as in the old French dan- 
gler. See the first example. 

In danger had he at his owen gise 
The yonge girles of the diocise, 
And knew hir counseil and was of hir rede 
A garland hadde he sette upon his hede. 

Chaucer. Pro/, to Cant. Tales. 
Fareth every knight thus with his wif as ye ? 
Is this the lawe of king Artoure's hous ? 
Is every knight of his thus dangerous 1 

Id. Cant. Tales. 
Our craft is in danger to be set at nought. 

Acts*. 27. 

Pompey's son stands up 

For the main soldier ; whose quality going on, 
The sides o* th' world may danger. Sfiaksptiare. 

He hath writ this to feel my affection to your ho- 
nour, and to no other pretence of danger. Id. 

A sort of naughty persons 
Have practised dangerously against your state, 
Dealing with witches and with conjurors. Id. 

' Wyser Raymundus, in his closet pent, 
Laughs at such daunger and adventurement ; " 
.Vhen halfe his lands are spent in golden smoke, 
And now his second hopeful glasse is broke. 

Bishop Hall's Satires, iv. 3. 

It is just with God te permit those, which think 
they stand so surely, to fall most dangerously. 

Hammond on Fundamentals. 

More danger now from man alone we 6nd, 
Than from the rocks, the billows, and the wind . 


I shall not need to mind you of judging of the 
danrjerousness of diseases, by the mildness of the part 
affected . Boyle. 

Already we have conquered half the war, 
And the less dangerous part is left behind. Dryden. 

He showed no less magnanimity in dangerless de- 
spising, than others in dangerous affecting, the multi- 
pi;, ing of kingdoms. Sidney, 

It is dangerous self-flattery to give soft and smooth- 
ing names to sins in order to disauise. - Mason. 

Wealth heaped on wealth, nor truth nor safety buys, 
The dangers gather as the treasures rise. 

Johnson. Vanity of Human Wishes. 

J)eep in wide raves below the dangerous soil 
Hlue sulphurs flame, imprisoned waters boil. Darwin. 
I'o me, A Imigh'.y, in thy mercy shining. 

Life's dark *nd dangerous portals thou didst ope ; 
And softly en my mother's lap reclining, 

Breathed through my breast the lively soul of hope. 

K. White. 

Thy days of health, and nights of sleep ; thy toils, 
By danger dignified, yet guiltless ; hopes 
Of cheerful old age and a quiet grave, 
With cross and garland over its green turf, 
And thy grand-children's love for epitaph ; 
This do I see and then I look witliin Byron. 

DANGER, ISLES OF, three islands in the Pacific 
Ocean, seen by commodore Byron, in June 
1 765 ; and which he supposed to be the same 
with those seen by Quiros, in the beginning of 
the seventeenth century, and named Solomon's 
Islands. They were very populous, but so sur- 
rounded with rocks on all sides, that it was not 
safe to attempt to land. ' The islands themselves 
had a more fertile and beautiful appearance than 

any we had seen before,' says this navigatoi, 
' and like the rest, swarmed with people, whose 
habitations we saw standing in clusters all along 
the coast. We saw also a large vessel under 
sail at a little distance from the shore ; but to 
our unspeakable regret we were obliged to leave 
the place without further examination, for it was 
surrounded in every direction by rocks and 
breakers, which rendered the hazard more than 
equivalent to every advantage we might procure.' 
Long. 169 28' W., lat. 10 15' S. 

DA'NGLE, v. n. ^ Swed. dingla or dangla, 

DA'NGLER, w. .<!. > seems, as Mr. Todd sug- 

DA'NGLING, adj. j gests, the most probable ety 
mology; but Skinner derives it from Saxon dune, 
down, and hangan, hanging. To hang loose ; to 
hang on and downwards ; to follow. A dangler 
is a follower. 

Go, bind thou up yon dangling apricocks. 


He'd rather on a gibbit dangle, 
Than miss his dear delight to wrangle. Hmlilirus. 

Codrus had but one bed ; so short, to boot, 
That his short wife's short legs hung dangling out. 


But have you not with thought beheld 
The sword hang dangling o'er the shield ? Prior. 

The presbyterians, and other fanaticks that dangle 
after them, are well inclined to pull down the present 
establishment. Swift. 

A dangler is of neither sex. Ralph. 

In faithful memory she records the crimes 
Or real, or fictitious, of the times j 
Laughs at the reputations she has torn, 
And holds them dangling at arm's length on scorn. 

Cotvper. Task. 

DANIEL; VN'y> Heb. ' e - mv judge is 
God ; the fourth of the greater prophets, was 
born in Judea, of the tribe of Judah, about the 
thirteenth year of the reign of Josiah, A. M. 
3376. He was led captive to Babylon, with 
other young Hebrews, after the taking of Jeru- 
salem by Nebuchadnezzar, That prince gave 
them masters to instruct them in the language 
and sciences of the Chaldeans, and ordered them 
to be fed with the most delicate viands; but they 
desired the king's officers to allow them only 
pulse. The wisdom and conduct of Daniel 
pleasing Nebuchadnezzar, that monarch gave 
him several posts of honor. We need not par- 
ticularise them, or the few events of his life : they 
are contained in the prophecies universally attri- 
buted to him. It is believed that Daniel died in 
Chaldea, and did not take advantage of the per- 
mission granted by Cyrus to the Jews of return- 
ing to their own country. St. Epiphanius says 
he died at Babylon. The prophecies of Daniel 
concerning the coming of the Messiah, and the 
other great events of after times, are so clear and 
explicit, that, as St. Jerome tells us, Porphyry 
insisted that those which related to the kings of 
Syria and Egypt, chap, xi., must have been 
written after the times of Antiochus Epiphanes; 
whereas this prophecy was translated into Greek 
100 years before his time, and was in the hands 
of the Egyptians, who had no particular kind- 
ness for the Jews or their religion. Josephus 
says the prophecies foretelling the successes of 
Alexander, chap, viii.5, xi. 3, were shown to him 



by the Jews, in consequence of which they ob- 
tained several privileges from him. Antiq. lib. 
xi. c. 8. The style of Diniel is not so lofty and 
figurative as that of the other prophets ; but it 
is more clear and concise, and his narrations and 
descriptions are simple and natural; in short, he 
writes more like a historian than a prophet. Part 
of his book, viz. from the fourth verse of chapter 
ii. to the end of chapter vii. was originally written 
in Chaldee, all the rest of the book is in Hebrew. 
The first six chapters are a history of the kings 
of Babylon, and what befel the Jews under their 
government. In the last six he is altogether 
prophetic, foretelling not only what should hap- 
pen to his own church and nation, but events in 
which foreign princes and kingdoms were con- 
cerned ; and some of which appear to be even 
yet unfulfilled. 

DANIEL (Gabriel), a celebrated Jesuit, and 
one of the best French historians, was born at 
Rouen in 1649. lie taught polite literature, 
philosophy, and divinity, among the Jesuits; 
and was superior of their house at Paris, where 
he died in 1728. There are a great number of 
his works published in French, of which the prin- 
cipal are : 1. A History of France, of which he 
also wrote an abridgment, in 9 vols. 12mo. 2. A 
History of the French Militia, in 2 vols. 4to. 
3. An Answer to the Provincial Letters. 4. A 
Voyage to the World of Descartes. 5. Letters 
on the Doctrines of the Theorists, and on Pro- 
bability. 6. New Difficulties relating to the 
Knowledge of Brutes : and, 7. A Theological 
Treatise on the Efficacy of Grace. 

DANIEL (Samuel), an eminent poet and his- 
torian, born near Taunton in Somersetshire, in 
1562, and educated at Oxford ; but, leaving that 
University without a degree, he applied himself to 
English history and poetry under the patronage 
of the earl of Pembroke. He was afterwards tutor 
to the lady Ann Clifford ; and, upon the death of 
Spencer, was created poet laureat to queen 
Elizabeth. In king James's reign he was ap- 
pointed gentleman extraordinary, and afterwards 
one of the grooms of the privy chamber to the 
queen consort. He wrote a History of England, 
several dramatic pieces, and some poems, and 
died in 1619. 

DANK, n. s. & adj. \ Swed. dunk ; Germ. 

DA'NKISH. j tunck. Skinner says, from 

the kindred German word tunken. Damp, 
moist, humid; or inclining to that state. Milton 
uses clank as a substantive. 

He her the maiden sleeping found. 
On the dank and dirty ground. Shalttpeare. 

They bound me, bore me thence, 
And in a dark and dankish vault at home 
There left me. Id. 

Yet oft they quit 

The dank, and rising on stiff pinions tour 
The mid aercal sky. Milton. 

Through each thicket dank or dry, 

Like a black mist, low creeping, he held on 

His midnight search. Id. 

To wash the skins of beasts and fowls herewith, 
irould keep them from growing dank in moist weather. 


Each dank steam the reeking marsh exhales, 
Contagious vapours, and volcanic gales. Darwin. 

Along the leagucred wall and bristling bank. 
Of the armed river, while with straggling liirhi 
The stars peep through the vapours dim ami dank. 


DAN'MONII, an ancient British nation, sup- 
posed to have inhabited the tract of country now 
called Cornwall and Devonshire, bounded on the 
south by the British Ocean, on the west by St. 
George's Channel, on the north by the Severn 
Sea, and on the east by the country of the Du- 
rotrkes. Some other British tribes were also 
seated within these limits : as the Cossini anil 
Ostidamnii, which were probably particular clans 
of the Danmonii. Ptolemy names a few places, 
both on the sea-coasts and in the inland parts of 
their country, which were known to the Horn IDS. 
The most considerable of these are the famous 
promontories of Bolerium and Ocrinium, now 
the Landsend and the Lizard; and the towns 
of Isca Danmoniorum and Tamare, now Exeter 
and Saltash. After the departure of the Ko- 
mans kingly government was immediately re- 
vived amongst the Danmonii in the person (if 

DANTE (Aligheri), a most distinguished po.-t 
of Italy, was born at Florence in 1235, of an 
ancient and honor.ible family. Boccaccio, who 
lived in the same period, has left a very curious 
end entertaining treatise, on t'le life, studies, and 
manners of this extraordinary man ; whom he 
regarded as his master, and for whose memory 
he professed the highest veneration. lie relates 
that Dante, before he was ten years old, con- 
ceived a passion for the lady whom he has 
immortalised in his poems. Her age was near 
his own ; and her name was Beatrice, the daughter 
of Folco Portinari, a noble citizen of Florence. 
The passion of Dante, however, seems to have 
been of the platonic kind; but on the death of 
his mistress, at the age of twenty-four, he fell 
into a deep melancholy, from which his friends 
endeavoured to raise him, by persuading him 
to marriage. He followed their advice, but un- 
fortunately made choice of a Xantippe. The 
poet, not possessing the patience of Socrates, 
separated from her, and never afterwards admitted 
her to his presence. In the early part of his 
life he gained some credit in a military character ; 
distinguishing himself by his bravery in an 
action where the Florentines obtained a signal 
victory over the citizens of Arezzo. He became 
still more eminent by the acquisition of civil 
honors ; and at the age of thirty-five rose to be 
one of the chief magistrates of Florence, being 
elected by the suffrages of the people. Italy was 
at that time distracted by the contending factions 
of the Gibellines and the Guelphs : the latter, 
among whom Dante took an active part, were 
again divided into the Blacks and the Whites. 
Dante, says Gravina, exerted all his influence to 
unite these inferior panics; but his efforts were 
ineffectual, and he had the misfortune to be 
unjustly persecuted by those of his own faction. 
A powerful citizen of Florence, named Corso 
Donati, had taken measures to terminate these 
intestine broils, by introducing Charles of Va- 
lois, brother to Philip the Fair, king of France. 
Dante, with great vehemence, opposed this dis- 
graceful project, and obtained the banishment of 



Donati and his partizans. The exiles applied to 
pope Boniface VIII., and by his assistance suc- 
ceeded in their design. Charles ofValois entered 
Florence in triumph, and those who had opposed 
his admission were banished in their turn. Dante 
took refuge at Signa, and afterwards at Arezzo, 
where many of his party were assembled. An 
attempt was made to surprise the city of Florence, 
by a small army which Dante is supposed to have 
attended; but the design miscarried, and our 
poet wandered to various parts of Italy, till he 
found a patron in the great Candella Scala, 
prince of Verona, whom he has celebrated. The 
high spirit of Dante was ill suited to courtly de- 
pendence; and he is said to have lost the favor 
of his Veronese patron by the rough frankness 
of his behaviour. From Verona he retired to 
France, according to Manetti ; and Boccacio 
affirms that he disputed in the theological schools 
of Paris with great reputation. The election of 
Henry count of Luxemburgh to the empire, in 
November, 1308, afforded Dante a prospect of 
being restored to his native city, as he attached 
himself to the interest of the new emperor, in 
whose service he is supposed to have written his 
Latin treatise De Monarchist, in which he asserted 
the rights of the empire against the encroachments 
of ,the papacy. In 1311 he instigated Henry to 
lay siege to Florence ; in which enterprise, how- 
ever, he did not appear in person. The emperor 
was repulsed by the Florentines ; and his death, 
in 1312, deprived Dante of all hope of re- 
establishment in Florence. After this he passed 
some years in Italy, in a state of poverty and 
distress, till he found an establishment atRavenna, 
under the protection of Guido Novello da Polenta, 
the lord of that city, who received this illustrious 
exile with the most endearing liberality, continued 
to protect him through the few remaining years 
of his life, and extended his munificence to his 
ashes. Eloquence was one of the many talents 
which Dante eminently possessed, and on this 
account he was employed on fourteen different 
embassies. Guido sent him to negociate a peace 
with the Venetians, who were preparing to attack 
Ravenna. Manetti asserts that he was unable to 
procure a public audience at Venice, and returned 
to Ravenna by land, from his apprehensions of 
the Venetian fleet ; when the fatigue of his jour- 
ney, and the mortification of failing in the attempt 
to preserve his patron from the impending 
danger, threw him into a fever, which terminated 
in death on the 14th of September, 1321. He 
died in the palace of his friend ; and the affec- 
tionate Guido paid the most tender regard to his 
memory. He commanded the body to be adorned 
with ornaments, and after being carried on a bier 
through the streets of Ravenna, by the most 
illustrious citizens, to be deposited in a marble 
coffin. He himself pronounced the funeral 
oration, and expressed his design of erecting a 
splendid monument in honor of the deceased : 
a design which his subsequent misfortunes 
rendered him unable to accomplish. This was 
afterwards done by Bernard Bembo,the father of 
the cardinal of that name. Boccacio asserts 
that Dante began his Inferno, the work which has 
immortalised his name, and finished seven can- 
tos of it before his exile ; that in the plunder of 

his house, on that event, the beginning of his 
poem was fortunately preserved, but remained 
for some time neglected, till its merit being ac- 
cidentally discovered by an intelligent poet named 
Dino, it was sent to the marquis Malespina, an 
Italian nobleman, by whom Dante was then pro- 
tected The marquis restored these papers to the 
poet, and intreated him to proceed in the work. 
To this incident we are probably indebted for 
this celebrated poem, which Dante must have 
continued under all the disadvantages of an un- 
fortunate and agitated life. It does not appear 
at what time he completed it ; perhaps before he 
quitted Verona, as he dedicated the Paradise to 
his Veronese patron. The very high estimation 
in which this production was held by his coun- 
trymen, appears from a singular institution in 
the republic of Florence; which, in 1373, as- 
signed a public stipend to a person appointed to 
read lectures on it. The critical dissertations 
that have been written on Dante are almost as 
numerous as those to which Homer has given 
birth ; the Italian, like the Grecian bard, having 
been the subject of the highest panegyric, and of 
the grossest invective. Voltaire has spoken of 
him with that precipitate vivacity which so fre- 
quently led him to insult the reputation of the 
best writers. But more temperate and candid 
critics have sufficiently vindicated his claims as 
an original and most captivating poet. There are 
many valuable editions of his works, among 
which it will be sufficient to specify those of 
Conte Zapato, Venice, 1767, 3 vols. 4to. ; and 
Parma, Bodoni, 1796 r 3 vols. folio. There is an 
English translation of his Comedia by the Rev. 
H. Boyd ; and another and much better by the 
Rev. H. F. Carey of Chiswick. 

DANTON (George James), a celebrated 
French politician, who took an active part, during 
the French revolution, in erecting those bloody 
tribunals, and establishing that despotic power, 
to which he himself fell a victim. He was born 
at Arcis sur 1'Aube, in 1760; was bred to the 
law, and became an advocate : with regard to re- 
ligious opinions, he openly avowed himself an 
atheist ; and, in politics, he was a decided re- 
publican : but having differed with Robespierre 
he was accused of monarchical opinions, and, 
being condemned by the revolutionary tribunal, 
was guillotined with eight other deputies at Paris 
on the 5th of April, 1794, in the thirty-fourth year 
of his age. 

DA1NTZIC, or DANTZIG, the capital of West 
Prussia, is seated on a branch of the Vistula, 
about five miles above its embouchure into the 
Baltic. This city is famous in history on several 
accounts, particularly as having been formerly at 
the head of the Hanse towns. It is large, beau- 
tiful, populous, and rich ; its houses being gen- 
erally five stories high, and many of its streets 
planted. It is traversed by two branches of the 
Vistula, and consists properly of three towns: the 
Vorstadt,or Fore-town ; the Aldstadt,or Old-town ; 
and the Rechstadt. The suburbs, called Old and 
New Scotland, are the best built parts of the 
place ; and the Scotch have considerable privi- 
leges here, in consequence, as they tell us, of their 
gallant defence of the town under one of the 
family of Douglas, v/hen it was besieged by the 




Poles. In the time of king Charles II. there were 
about ">3,000 of that nation in the neighbourhood, 
and Sir John Denham and Mr. Killigrew were 
sent to tax them by the poll, with the king of 
Poland's licence ; which liaving obtained, they 
brought home l 0,000 sterling, besides their 
charges in the journey. 

Dantzic has a noble harbour; and is still an 
eminent commercial city, although it seems to 
have past its meridian: which it enjoyed pro- 
bably about the time that the president De Thou 
wrote his Historia sui Temporis, in which he 
speaks so highly of its commerce and grandeur. 
It was then a republic, claiming a small adjacent 
territory, about forty miles round, under the 
protection of the king and republic of Poland. 
Its magistracy and the majority of its inhabitants 
are Lutherans ; although other religious profes- 
sions are tolerated. It has twenty- six parishes, 
with many convents and hospitals; and contains 
four dock-yards for building merchantmen. It 
has an annual fair, called the fair of St. Dominic, 
which begins on the 5th of August. Accounts 
are kept in florins, the value of which is much 
less than that of Holland or Germany, being not 
quite equsl to 9Jd. sterling. The chief public 
buildings are the cathedral, the church of St. 
Catherine, the Jesuits' college, the town-house, 
the arsenal, and the court of the nobles. The 
inhabitants were once computed to amount to 
200,000 ; but later computations, and its memo- 
rable connexion with the late continental wars, 
have reduced them to little above 40,000 or 

The road, or gulf of Dantzic consists of an arm 
of the sea, sheltered from north winds by a 
tongue of land on which stands the small town 
of llela. Its own shipping is numerous, but the 
foreign ships constantly resorting to it are more 
so : of these the British are the most in number, 
particularly when our corn laws admit of the 
importation of that commodity ; Poland being 
the greatest magazine for corn in all Europe, and 
Dantzic the principal port for its exportation. 
Besides which, Dantzic exports considerable 
quantities of naval stores, potash, linen, and am- 
ber. The value of these, and still more that of 
corn, is of course fluctuating, but 1,500,000 
sterling is considered a fair average of the annual 
value of its exports. See our article CORN LAWS. 
It imports, from various parts of Europe, wine, 
oil, groceries, woollens, silk, iron, copper, lead, 
skins, and furs. 

Dr. Busching affirms that, as early as the year 
997, Dantzic was a considerable commercial 
city. The inhabitants have often changed their 
masters, and have been under the protection of 
the English, Dutch, French, and Prussians in 
succession. The city is surrounded with ram- 
parts which mount upwards of 100 brass cannon ; 
and although it could not, through its situation, 
stand a long siege, by the facility it possesses of 
inundating the neighbourhood it has offered, as 
in 1807, an effectual resistance to assailants. In 
1734 the inhabitants discovered a remarkable 
attachment and fidelity towards Stanislaus, king 
of Poland, not only when his enemies the Rus- 
sians were at their gates, but even in possession 
of the city. This city was exempted by Frede- 

rick the Great, king of Prussia, from those claims 
which he made on the neighbouring countries ; 
notwithstanding which, Frederick William II., 
his successor, seized its territories, under pretence 
of their having been formerly part of Polish 
Prussia, and possessed himself of the port-duties. 
In 1784 it was blockaded by his troops, on 
various pretences ; but by the interposition of 
the empress of Russia, and the king of Poland, 
they were withdrawn; and, a compromise having 
taken place, the city was restored to its former 
immunities. In 1793 the king of Prussia seized 
on the city itself with the remainder of the pro- 
vince, which he added to his dominions. Its 
internal government, however, was undisturbed ; 
and thus it remained until 1807, when the French 
entered it after a long siege, and held it until the 
peace of 1814, when it returned to Prussia. It 
was blockaded for a great length of time pre- 
viously, and ably, though not very humanely, 
defended by general Rapp. The German is the 
language in common use here. Dantzic is sixty- 
eight miles W.S.W. of Konigsberg, thirty south- 
east of Marienburg, and 235 north-east of 

DANUBE, the largest and most considerable 
river in Europe, rising in the Black Forest, near 
Zunberg, and running north-east through Suabia, 
by Ulm the capital of that country, then running 
east through Austria, it passes by Ratisbon, Pas- 
sau, Ens. and Vienna. It then enters Huugary, 
and runs south-east from Presburg to Buda, and 
so on to Belgrade ; after which it divides Bulga- 
ria from Morlachia and Moldavia, discharging 
itself by several channels into the Black Sea, in 
the province of Bessarabia. Towards the mouth 
it was called, by the ancients, the Ister ; and it is 
now said that four of the mouths are choked up 
with sand, and that there are only two remain- 
ing. It receives sixty rivers, great and small, in 
its course ; and runs near to, or washes the fol- 
lowing cities and towns : Eschingen, Ulm 
(where it begins to be navigable), Donawert, 
Neuburg, Ingoldstadt, Passau, Lint7,Ips, Stein, 
Vienna, Presburg, Raab or Javarm, Comorn, 
Waitzen, Pest, Buda, Belgrade, &c. &c. It is 
so deep between Buda and Belgrade, that both 
the Turks and Christians have had men of war 
upon it ; and yet it is not navigable to the Black 
Sea, on account of the cataracts. The Danube 
was generally supposed to be the northern boun- 
dary of the Roman empire in Europe. It was 
worshipped as a deity by the Scythians. It 
abounds in fish, and particularly in a large kind 
of sturgeon. 

chief divisions of the kingdom of Bavaria. It 
has on its frontiers the circles of the Rezat, the 
Regen, and the Iser; Tyrol, the lake of Con- 
stance, and Wirtemberg. It contains 4350 square 
miles, and 470,000 inhabitants, mostly Catholics. 
The capital is Eichstadt, and the other chief towns 
are, Neuburg, Nordlingen, Dillingen, Gunzburg, 
Hochstadt, Pappenheim, Donauwerth, and In- 
goldstadt. The surface is in general hilly, diver- 
sified with forests and lakes, particularly in the 
direction of the Suabian Alps : and, besides the 
Danube, it is watered by the Iller and the Lech. 
In the low country, com, hemp, and flax abound, 



but the majority of the peasantry rear cattle. 
Iron, coal, and copper, are the mineral produc- 
tions, and in the towns the manufacture of paper 
and linen is carried on. 

cle of Bavaria, consists of the greater part of 
Lower Bavaria Proper, and the principality of 
Passau. It borders on Bohemia, Upper Austria, 
and the circles of the Iser and Ilegen. Its area 
is 4335 square miles, and its inhabitants amount 
to 396,150. The surface is an alternate succes- 
sion of mountains, valleys, and plains. It is also 
traversed by the Inn, the Ilz, and the Iser. The 
climate is mild except in the north-west ; and the 
tracts on the south side of the Danube are so fer- 
tile in corn as to be accounted the granary of 
Bavaria : they have besides an excellent breed of 
horses. The chief productions are corn, flax, 
and hemp. In the larger towns there are manu- 
factures of linen and other cloths, which, together 
with the natural productions, produce a brisk 
trade in the Danube, the Iser, and the Inn. The 
capital is Passau. 

DANVERS, a township of Massachusetts, in 
Essex county, adjoining Salem on the north-west, 
in which it was formerly comprehended by the 
name of Salem village. It consists of two pa- 
rishes, and was incorporated in 1757. 

DANVILLE, a post town of the United States, 
in Kentucky, situated in a large fertile plain on 
Dick's River. It consists of about eighty houses. 
Thirty-five miles S.S.W. of Lexington, and 830 
from Philadelphia. Also a township in Ver- 

DAP, or DAPE, v. n., probably the same with 
DAB, which see. Dr. Johnson says it is a cor- 
ruption of dip. 

I have taught him how to catch a chub by dapping 
with a grasshopper. Walton. 

DAPAT'ICAL, adj. Lat. dapiteus, sumptuous. 


DAPHNE, in ancient geography, a small dis- 
trict on the lake Samachonites, in the Higher 
Galilee, very pleasant, and plentifully watered 
with springs, which feed theLesser Jordan, whence 
its name seems to arise, probably in imitation of 
that nearAntioch. 

DAPHNE, in botany, spurge laurel ; a genus of 
the monogynia order and octandria class of plants ; 
natural order thirty-first, vepreculse : CAL. none: 
COR. quadrifid and marcescent, enclosing the 
stamina: FRUIT a monospermous berry. Species 
thirty, of which the following are the most re- 
markable . 

1. D. gnidium, the flax-leaved daphne, is a 
low deciduous shrub : native of Italy, Spain, 
and about Montpelier. This species seldom 
grows higher than three feet. The branches 
are very slender, and ornamented with narrow, 
spear-shaped, pointed leaves, much like those 
of the common flax. The flowers are pro-t 
duced in panicles at the ends of the branches : 
they are small, come out in June, but 
are rarely succeeded by seeds in England. 

2. D. laureola, the spurge laurel or evergreen 
daphne; a low evergreen shrub, common in 
some parts of this kingdom, also in Switzerland 
and France. This shrub seldom grows more 
than a yard or four feet high : it sends out many 

branches from the bottom, and these are covered 
with a smooth light-brown bark that is very 
thick. The leaves sit close to the branches, and 
are produced in such plenty, that they have the 
appearance, at a small distance, of clusters at 
the end of the branches. They are spear-shaped, 
shining, smooth, and thick ; their edges are 
entire. These leaves, when growing under the 
drip of trees, spread open, and exhibit their 
green color, pure, and untarnished : when planted 
singly, in exposed places, they naturally turn 
back with a kind of twist, and the natural green 
of the leaf is often alloyed with a brown tinge. 
This shrub is also valuable on account of the 
fragrance of its flowers ; it blows the beginning 
of January, and will continue until the middle 
or latter end of April before the flower falls off. 
They make but little show ; being small, and 
of a greenish yellow. They are succeeded by 
oval berries, which are first green, and after- 
wards black when ripe. 

S.D.mezereum, the mezereon, or spurge olive, is 
a low deciduous shrub. It is a native of Germany, 
and has also been discovered in some woods near 
Andover in Hampshire. Of this elegant plant 
there are four varieties : 1. The white ; 2. The pale 
red ; 3. The crimson; and 4. The purple flowering. 
They are of low growth, seldom arising to more 
than three or four feet in height, and, therefore, 
are proper even for the smallest gardens. They 
will be in bloom in February, nay, sometimes 
in January, when few trees, especially of the 
shrubby tribe, present their honors. Each twig 
has the appearance of a spike of flowers of the 
most consummate lustre; and, whether beheld 
near or at a distance, it has a most enchanting 
appearance, and the air is perfumed with their 
odors to a. considerable distance. Besides the 
beauty of the leaves, which come out after the 
flowers are fallen, and which are of a pleasant 
green color and an oblong figure, it will be full 
of red berries in June, which continue growing 
till the autumn. The root of the mezereon was 
long used in the Lisbon diet-drink, a remedy 
said to be good for several complaints, particu- 
larly nodes and other symptoms resisting the use 
of mercury. The composition of this diet-drink 
is described in the Edinburgh Physical Essays, 
by Dr. Donald Monro. On chewing the root it 
proves very pungent, and its acrimony is accu- 
mulated about the fauces, and is very durable. 
It is employed chiefly under the form of decoc- 
tion ; and enters the decoctum sarsaparillae com- 
positum of the London college; but it has also 
been used in powder combined with some inac- 
tive one, as that of liquorice root. It is often 
usefully combined with mercury. The bark of 
the root, which is the most acrimonious part, is 
recommended, in the Pharmacopoeia Chirurgica, 
to be steeped in vinegar, and applied to pro- 
mote the discharge of issues. Mezereon has 
also been of use in tumors and cutaneous 
eruptions. The whole plant is very corrosive ; 
and six of the berries, it is said, will kill a wolf. 
A woman gave twelve grains of the berries to 
her daughter who had a quartan ague ; she 
vomited blood, and died immediately. 

4. D. villosa, the hairy-leaved daphne, a low 
deciduous shrub ; native of Spain and Portugal. 

DAP 6 

The atalks are ligneous, about two feet high, and 
send forth branches alternately from the sides. 
The leaves are spear-shaped, plane, hairy on 
both sides, anil grow on very short foot-stalks. 
The llowers have very narrow tubes, are small, 
and make no great show ; they come out in 
June, and are not succeeded by ripe seeds in 
England. This shrub, in some situations, re- 
tains its leaves all winter in such beauty as to 
cause it to be ranked among the low-growing 
evergreens ; but in others it is sometimes shat- 
tered with the first black winds. 

' DAPHNE, in the Pagan mythology, daughter 
of the river Peneus by the goddess Terra, of 
whom Apollo became enamoured. This passion 
had been raised by Cupid ; with whom Apollo, 
proud of his late conquest of the serpent Py- 
thon, had disputed the power of his darts. Daphne 
heard with horror his addresses, and endeavoured 
to avoid his importunity by flight. Apollo pur- 
sued her, and Daphne intreated the assistance of 
the gods, who changed her into a laurel. Apollo 
crowned his head with the leaves of the laurel, 
and ordered that that tree should be for ever sa- 
cred to his divinity. 

DAPHNE, a daughter of Tiresias, priestess in 
the temple of Delphi. She was consecrated to 
<he service of Apollo by the Epigoni, or accord- 
ing to others by the goddess Tellus. She was 
called Sibyl on account of the wildness of her 
looks and expressions when she delivered oracles. 
Her oracles were generally in verse ; and Homer, 
according to some, has introduced much of her 
poetry in his compositions. 

DAPHNEPHORIA, a festival in honor ot 
Apollo, celebrated every ninth year by -the Boeo- 
tians. It was then usual to adorn an olive bough 
with garlands of laurel and other flowers, and 
place on the top a brazen globe, on which were 
suspended smaller ones. In the middle were 
placed a number of crowns and a globe of in- 
ferior size, and the bottom was adorned with a 
saffron-colored garment. The globe on the top 
represented the sun or Apollo. That in the 
middle was an emblem of the moon, and the 
other of the stars. The crowns, which were 365 
in number, represented the sun's annual revo- 
lution. This bough was carried in solemn pro- 
cession by a beautiful youth of an illustrious 
family, and whose parents were both living. He 
was called fo^vij^opoc, daphnephorus, laurel- 
bearer ; and at the time executed the office ot 
priest of Apollo. Behind him followed a train 
of virgins with branches in their hands. In this 
order the procession advanced as far as the tem- 
ple of Apollo Ismenius, where supplicatory 
hymns were sung to the gods. 

DAPHNIN, in chemistry, the bitter princi- 
ple of the laurel, first discovered by M. Vau- 
quelin. From the alcoholic infusion of this bark 
the resin was separated by its concentration. 
On diluting the tincture with water, filtering, 
and adding acetate of lead, a yellow daphnate 
of lead fell, from which sulphureted hydrogen 
separated the lead, and left the daphnin in small 
transparent crystals. They are hard, of a 
grayish color, a bitter taste when heated, evapo- 
rate in acrid acid vapors, sparingly soluble in 
cold, but moderately in boiling water. 

> DAR 

DAP'IFER, n. s. Lat. and Old Fr. dupij'tr ; <i 
dish carrrier: formerly an officer of considerable 
rank at our coronations, and those of the- kings ot 
France. See CORONATION. 

In France the barons and great me n gave in like 
manner their attendance at the king's court. Such 
were the dapifer, butler, chamberlain, constable, 
chancellor, and others. Madox't Hiit. of the Eji-lteq. 

DAPPER, adj. > Belg. dapper; Teut. 

DAP'PERUNG, n. s. $ tappir ; which signify 
brave, valiant; and therefore Dr. Johnson thinks 
this word is generally applied in contempt, lint 
Minsheu suggests its possible derivation from 
dapifer (see above), and well defines it, neat ; 
spruce; dainty. Dapperling is a diminutive of 

The dapper diltcis that I won't devise 
To please youths' fancy. 

Spetuer. S/iepherd'g Calender. 

And on the tawny sands and shelves. 
Trip the pert fairies and the dapper elves. Milton. 

A pert dapper spark of a magpie fancied the birds 
would never be governed till himself should sit at the 
helm. L'Ettranye. 

DAP'PLE, v. a. & adj., from apple, as pom- 
mele in the French. To variegate; to streak 
with different colors : that which is so streaked 
or variegated. 

Horses that are dappled turn white ; and old squir. 
rels turn grisly. Bacon. 

But under him a grey steed did he wield, 
Whose sides with dappled circles were endight. 

The gentle day 
Dapple the drowsy east with spots of grey. 


Come, shall we go and kill us venison ? 
And yet it irks me the poor dappled fools, 
Being native burghers of this desert city, 
Should, in their own confines, with forked heads, 
Have their round haunches gored. Id. 

The lark begins his flight, 
From his watch-tower in the skies, 
Till the dappled dawn doth rise. Milton. 

The dappled pink, and blushing rose, 
Deck my charming Chloe's hair. Prior 

The gods, to curse Pamela with her prayers. 
Gave the gilt coach and dappled Flanders marcs. 


DAR, DART, or DACE, n. s., a fish. See 

Persia, in the province of Kerman, surrounded 
by groves of lemon and orange trees, yielding 
such abundance of fruit that the juice is ex- 
ported to every part of Persia. It is watered by 
a copious stream. A - considerable portion of 
the town is in ruins, but it contains a population 
of 10,000 or 15,000, and was formerly very cele- 
brated, being supposed to have been founded 
by the Darius Nothus of ancient historians. It 
was invested by Lootf AH Khan, in the year 
1794, but he was compelled to relinquish the 
siege. Distant 150 miles north-east of Schiias. 
DAR AH, or DRAS, a country of Northern Af- 
rica, bounded on the north by Morocco, Gezula, 
and Tafilet, on the east and the south by the 
Great Desert, and on the west bySuz. It takes 
its name from the river Darah, or Dn.s which 

DAR 66 


passes through it, and is absorbed in the desert. 
The principal produce is indigo and dates. The 
inhabitants are Arabians and Mahommedans, and 
some of the districts of the country are depen- 
dencies of Morocco. It contains a superior 
breed of goats. Copper and antimony are 
found in the mountains, and in the southern 
part, at Atta and Takka, are places of rendezvous 
for the great caravan which passes toTimbuctoo 
from Morocco. 

DARANTASIA, in ancient geography, a town 
of the Centrones, in Gallia Narbonensis, between 
Lemincum and Augusta Pretoria, called Forum 
Claudii by the Romans. It is now called 

DARAPTI, among logicians, one of the modes 
of syllogisms of the third figure, whose premises 
are universal affirmatives, and the conclusion is 
a particular affirmative : thus, 

DAR Every body is divisible ; 

AP- Every body is a substance ; 

TF. Therefore, some substance is divisible. 

DARCET (John), a French physician and 
chemist, was born in 1725, at Douazit in 
Guienne. Being discarded by his father, who 
was a magistrate, for preferring the study of 
medicine to the profession of the law, he was 
obliged, while pursuing his studies, to teach 
Latin for his support, at Bourdeaux. Here he 
became acquainted with Montesquieu, with 
whom he went to Paris in 1742 ; remaining 
with him as a literary assistant till his death. 
He afterwards went with the duke de Laura- 
guais into Germany, and had an opportunity of 
critically examining the Hartz mines, in Hanover. 
At the peace he applied himself to technical 
chemistry, and the improvement of the porce- 
lain manufacture, respecting which he drew up 
several memoirs presented to the Academy of 
Sciences in 1766 and 1768. He also demon- 
strated, about this time, the combustibility of the 
diamond; on which subject he addressed the 
academy in 1770. In 1762 he was made regent 
of the Faculty of Medicine at Paris; in 1771 he 
married the daughter of the chemist Rouelle ; 
and in 1774 travelled over the Pyrenees, to study 
the geology of those mountains. He succeeded 
Macquer as a member of the Academy of 
Sciences, and director of the manufactory of 
Sevres, and became afterwards inspector-general 
of the assay of coins, and of the gobelin manufac- 
tory. His valuable life was preserved during the 
reign of terror, by Fourcroy, who procured the 
obliteration of his name from Robespierre's list ; 
and he died in 1801, a member of the Institute, 
and of the conservative Senate. 

DARDANELLES, two ancient and strong 
castles of Turkey, one of which is in Romania, 
and the other in Natolia, on each side of the 
ancient Hellespont, now the strait of Gallipoli, 
which opens a communication between the Archi- 
pelago, and the Propontis, or sea of Marmora. 
The mouth of the canal is four and a half miles 
over; and the castles which were built in 1659, 
to secure the Turkish fleet from the insults of 
the Venetians, are defended on each side by 
fourteen brass guns with chambers like mortars, 
to receive granite balls. They are twenty-two 
feet long, from twenty-five to twenty-eight inches 

diameter in the bore, and lie on a paved terrace 
near the level of the water. They are called the 
Old Dardanelles, to distinguish them from two 
others built at the entrance of the strait, about 
ten miles to the south-west, one of which stands 
in like manner in Asia, and the other in Europe^ 
and called the New Dardanelles. The ships 
that come from Constantinople are searched at 
the castle on the side of Natolia. The passage 
betwixt both these pairs of castles was forced by 
a British fleet under admiral Duckworth, in 
February, 1807. 

DARDANIA, in ancient geography, 1. A 
district of Mcesia Superior on the south, now 
the south part of Servia, towards the confines of 
Macedonia and Illyricum. 2. A small district 
of Troas, along the Hellespont. 3. The ancient 
name of Samothracia ; from Dardanus, who re- 
moved thither. 

DARDANUS, a son of Jupiter and Electra, 
who, after the death of his brother Jason, left 
Samothrace, his native country, and passed into 
Asia Minor, where he married Batia, the daugh- 
ter of Teucer king of Teucria. After the death 
of his father-in-law, he reigned sixty-two years. 
He built the city of Dardania, and was reckoned 
the founder of the kingdom of Troy. He was 
succeeded by Erichthonius. According to some, 
Corybas, his nephew, accompanied him to 
Teucria, where he introduced the worship of 
Cybele. Dardanus taught his subjects to wor- 
ship Minerva, and he gave them two statues of 
the goddess, one of which is well known by tha 
name of Palladium. According to Virgil, Dar- 
danus was originally an Italian. 

DARE, v. a., v. n. & n. s. ~\ Sax. dearren, 
DAREFUL, adj. I Belg. and Teut. 

DARING, adj. & n. s. \darre,n; Lat. au- 
DARINGLY, adv. idere; probably 

DARINGNESS, n. s. J from the Greek 

Oappeiv, to adventure. To be confident; to be 
prepared or bold for any purpose ; to challenge ; 
to defy. In Shakspeare only do we find dare 
used as a substantive. In Beaumont and Flet- 
cher's Maid Tragedy, it is used for affrighting or 
amazing : and this seems to be the meaning in 
the phrase, to dare a lark or bird. 

Dar ony of ghou that hath a cause aghens a nothir 
be demed at wicked men, and not at hooli men ? 

Wicklif. 1 Cor. \i. 

She was so propre, and swete, and likerous, 
I dare well sain if she had ben a mous 
And he a cat he wolde hire hente anon 

Chaucer. Cant. Talet. 

' Ah ! dame/ quoth he, ' thou temptest me in 


To dare the thing which daily yet I rew ; 
And the old cause of my continued paine 
With like attempt to like end to renew.' 

Spenser, Faerie Queene. 

I dare do all that may become a man ; 
Who dares do more, is none. Sfiaktpeare. 

Sextus Pompeius 

Hath given the dare to Caesar, and commands 
The empire of the sea. Id. 

We might have met them darcfvl, beard to beard. 
And beat them backward home. /ef. 

D A R F U R. 


Shrimps are dipped up in shallow water with little 
round nets, not much unlike that which is used for 
daring larks. Careu,. 

Dare to be true ! Nothing can need a lie, 
The fault that needs it must grow two thereby. 


He had many days come half seas over ; and 
sometimes passing further, came and lay at the mouth 
of the harbour, daring them to fight. Knollet. 

Time ! I dare thee to discover 
Such a youth, and such a lover. Dryden. 

As larks lie dared to shun the hobby's flight. Id. 
Masters of the arts of policy thought that they 
might even defy and dare Providence to the face. 

The song too daring, and the theme too great. 


The last Georgick has many metaphors, but not so 
daring as this : for human passions may be more na- 
turally ascribed to a bee than to an inanimate plant. 


Some of the great principles of religion are every 
day openly and daringly attacked from the Dress. 

A llerbury. 

Your brother, fired with his smccess, 
Too daringly upon the foe did press. Halifax. 

Grieve not, O daring prince, that noble heart. 

He turned not spoke not sunk not fixed his 


And set the anxious frame that lately shook : 
He gazed- how long we gaze despite of pain, 
And know, but dare not own, we gaze in vain! 


But with the breath which fills 
Their mountain-pipe, so fill the mountaineers 
With the fierce native daring which instils 
The stirring memory of a thousand years, 
And Evan's, Donald's fame rings in each clansman's 

ears! Id. 

On that warm sod, uncrossed by wanderer's path, 
Some youthful blushing sweetness daret the bath ; 
Half bold, half trembling, her last vesture thrown, 
Safe from all eyes, yet shrinking from her own. 

Dr. T. Brown. 

DARES, a Phrygian, who lived during the 
Trojan war, in which he was engaged, and of 
which he wrote the history in Greek. This his- 
tory was extant in the time of ./Elian ; the Latin 
translation, now extant, is universally believed 
to be spurious, though it is attributed by some 
to Cornelius Nepos. This translation first made 
its appearance A. D. 1477, at Milan. Homer 
mentions Dares, Iliad, lib. v., ver. 10, & 27. 

DARFUR, DARFOOR, or FUR, a large king- 
dom of Central Africa, between Abyssinia and 
Bornou. We are indebted for all our know- 
ledge of it to Mr. Browne, who resided here 
from 1793 to 1796. According to this writer it 
is bounded on the east by Kordofan, and the 
country of the Shilluks, which separates it from 
Sennaar and Abyssinia ; on the west by Bergoo, 
which divides it from Begherme and Bornou ; 
while the regions to the south are occupied by 
barbarous nations, extending to, and inhabiting 
the Mountains of the Moon, and the rise of the 
Bahr-el-Abiad. It does not seem to contain any 
great river or lake ; during the dry season, there- 
fore, all nature wears a parched and barren 
appearance ; but the rainy season begins in June 

and continues till September. This is the sow- 
ing season, and the king, with his attendants, 
goes out into the fields, and makes, with his own 
hand, the first holes in the ground. Water and 
vegetation are now most abundant. In the 
south the tamarind, plane, and sycamore are 
found. The heglig and the nebbek, having very 
hard wood, are two species peculiar to Darfur. 
A kind of bean and pea, used not for food but 
for being strung in beads, seems also indigenous 
here. Other plants largely produced are the 
mimosa nilotica, yielding a gum which is car- 
ried into Egypt; the water melon, the gourd, 
Cayenne pepper, hemp, and tobacco. But a 
small quantity of wheat is raised ; the principal 
grains are the dokn, a species of millet, and 
another species of larger size, called the kassob. 
The harvest is conducted by women and slaves, 
who break off the ears with their hands, and 
carry it away in baskets ; while the straw is left 
standing. The grain being threshed, is buried 
in the earth to preserve it. It is ground and 
boiled for food, and eaten either w,ith milk or 
the juice of a particular kind of herb, which 
lias a bitter and slightly acid taste. 

The wild animals are the lion, hyena, leopard, 
wild buffalo, wolf, and jackall : herds of the 
jackall and hyena are said to enter the villages 
at night. Here are also found the rhinoceros, the 
elephant, the camelopardalis, the hippopotamus, 
and the crocodile ; and still more abundantly the 
invaluable camel. The horses, asses, and sheep 
are inferior, but goats and horned cattle are nu- 
merous, and their flesh very good. 

Gold is plentiful both to the east and west, 
and very fine copper is brought from the south. 
The rocks consist chiefly of gray granite ; con- 
taining alabaster, various kinds of marble, sul- 
phur, and fossil salt. 

The houses are built of clay, with a coating 
of plaster ; the roofs being flat, and formed of 
light beams of wood, with a clay covering. A 
house containing two dongas, the apartment for 
the stowage of property, two knournacs and 
two sukteias, both sleeping and sitting rooms, is 
considered fit for the accommodation of persons 
of supreme rank. 

Mr. Browne did not conceive that the popu- 
lation could be more than 200,000 souls. 
Cobbe, the capital, contains about 6000; our 
traveller heard only of eight other considerable 
places, Sweini, Kourma, Cubcabia, Ril, Cours, 
Shoba, Gidid, and Gelle ; although a native of 
the country named to Dr. Seetzen more than 
fifty. The capital is wholly occupied by foreign 
merchants, from Egyot and the eastern countries 
of Dongola, Kordofan, and Sennaar. Other 
great towns abound also with Arabs and other 

On the death of the monarch, the crown, which 
is perfectly despotic, descends to the eldest son ; 
or is seized by any stronger or more popular 
member of the royal family. The military hare, 
in this case, the chief influence, and are always 
much courted. The usual residence of the 
sultan is at a village near Cobbe, called El 
Fasher. Mr. Browne, being admitted to an 
audience of state, found the monarch seated 
on his throne, under a lofty canopy, composed 





of various stuffs of Syrian and Indian fabric, 
hung loosely on a light frame of wood, and 
spread with small Turkey carpets. The minis- 
ters, or meleks, were seated at some distance on 
the right and left, and behind them was a line of 
guards, bearing a spear and target, with caps, in 
which a black ostrich feather was stuck. The 
ground in front was filled with spectators and 
petitioners, to the number of 1500. On the 
monarch's left hand stood a person whose em- 
ployment was to sound his praises, and who 
vociferated continually, ' See the buffaloe, the 
offspring of a buffaloe, a bull of bulls, the ele- 
phant of superior strength, the powerful sultan 
Abd-el-rach-man-d-rashid.' His revenue is de- 
rived from various sources, and often coHected 
by troops who march through the territory, and 
seize the cattle until it is paid. The king is also 
an extensive merchant, exporting and importing 
every year a large quantity of goods on his own 

The religion of Mahomet is professed uni- 
versally and zealously. But the people are 
cheerful in their dispositions; and the females 
not immured, nor, unless in the case of the 
great, are their faces veiled. A fermented liquor 
called merise, the same with the bouza of the 
negroes, is universally indulged in, however, and 
by both sexes. The men sometimes sit whole 
days over it. The intercourse of the sexes is 
extremely licentious, and polygamy has no 
bounds. The Furians are also considered as by 
no means conspicuous for honor or even honesty. 
No property is found to be safe out of the sight 
of the owner. 

The grand intercourse of Darfur is with Egypt, 
and is carried on entirely by caravans, whose mo- 
tions from Fur are, however, extremely uncertain, 
and sometimes two or even three years elapse 
without one. The caravan going to Egypt is 
much larger than the one returning, and 
often consists of 2000 camels. The water is 
carried in goat-skins or ox-hides, artificially 
covered to prevent evaporation, and every tenth 
camel is loaded with straw and beans. Among 
the articles sent to Egypt, the most important are 
slaves, taken in the negro countries of the south ; 
ivory, the horns, teeth, and hide of the rhi- 
noceros, the hippopotamus, and the camel. The 
imports comprise beads of all sorts, toys, glass, 
arms, light cloths, Barbary caps, carpets, silks, 
shoes, and writing-paper in large quantities. 
Commerce is transacted entirely by barter. 
There is also a considerable intercourse with 
Mecca, which takes the route by Suakem and 
Jidda, as much shorter than that by Egypt. 

DARIC, in antiquity, a famous gold coin, 
first struck by Darius the Mede, about A.A.C. 
538; probably during his stay at Babylon. 
From thence the darics were dispersed over the 
east, and into Greece ; where they were also 
called stateres, and were the gold coins best 
known in Athens in ancient times. According 
to Dr. Bernard, the daric weighed two grains 
more than our guinea. Plutarch says, they 
bore on one side an archer clothed in a long 
robe, and crowned with a spiked crown, hold- 
ing a bow in his left hand, and an arrow in his 
right; and on the other side the effigies of 
Darius. There were afterwards half darics. 

the northern division of Terra Firma, or Castile 
del Oro, is now a province of Colombia, and is 
bounded on the north by the Spanish Main, 
or Caribbean Sea ; on the east by Carthagena ; 
on the west by Panama ; and on the south by the 
Pacific Ocean, and the province of Choco. 
Darien is one of the largest provinces of Tierra 
Firme : It is about 2 DO miles long, and eighty 

The Gulf of Darien, which is the mouth of 
the Rio Atrato, or rather a large arm of the 
Atlantic, is the most important part of the 
northern coast, and contains several islands of 
considerable size. The rivers are very large, but 
few of them navigable, owing to the shoals, bars, 
and rapids, in which they abound ; most of 
them, however, yield grains of gold. 

The province of Darien is thinly inhabited, 
and almost wholly by native tribes, who amount 
perhaps to 30,000; the unhealthiness of the 
climate and the impenetrable forests preventing 
the formation of European settlements. The 
valleys are so marshy, from the overflowing of 
the rivers, that the natives generally build their 
habitations in the branches of high trees. 

The chief products are cotton and tobacco. 
The mouth of the Atrato, though wide, has 
many shoals ; yet it serves to export much of the 
internal produce of the neighbouring provinces, 
andisanoted smuggling station, where European 
goods are exchanged for the gold of Choco. A 
small fort which protects the gold mines of Cana 
is the principal station on the frontiers of Choco : 
its garrison is sent monthly from Panama. 

Santa Cruz de Cana is the capital, and was 
formerly a considerable place. There were also 
at one time nine other towns or missions, and 
several hamlets; but most of them have been 
abandoned. In this province the Scotch at- 
tempted a settlement in 1699; and for this pro- 
ject a fund was subscribed, amounting to about 
900,000 sterling. The plan, however, com- 
pletely failed, partly, it is said, through the jea- 
lousy of the English, but chiefly from the un- 
healthiness of the climate. Of 1200 individuals 
who embarked for the colony, not above thirty 

DARIEN, a town of the Tjnited States, in Liber- 
ty county, Georgia, on the banks of the North 
Channel of the river Alatamaha, ten miles below 
Fort Barrington. 

DARII, in logic, one of the modes of syllogism 
of the first figure, wherein the major proposition 
is an universal affirmative, and the minor and 
conclusion particular affirmatives : thus, 

DA- Every thing that is moved is moved by 
another ; 

RI- Some body is moved ; 

i, Therefore, some body is moved by another. 


DARK, v. a., n. s. & adj, 
DARK'EN, v. a. & n.s. 
DARK'ENER, n. s. 
DARK'ISII, adj. 
DARK'LING, part. 
DARK'LY, adv. 
DARK'NESS, n. s. 
DARK'SOME, adj. 

Saxon, deorck 
Irish dorch . By 
antiphrasis, from 
fopjcw, to see, says 
Minsheu. To de- 
prive of licrht (one 
of our oldest verbs, 
as Mr. Todd re- 
marks): the state 




of being so deprived : not light; opaque; obscure; 
blind. Hence gloomy, not cheerful ; not of a 
showy or vivid color. To darken is to make, as 
well as to grow, or gradually become, dark. 
Darkish is dusky; that which is approaching a 
black or dark color. Darkling is a poetical par- 
ticiple to express the state of being without 
light. The meaning of the other derivative; 
seems sufficiently obvious. 

And the suunc was derked and the eir, of the smoke 
of the pitt. Wiclif. Apoc. 9. 

Then the priest shall look: and, behold, if the 
bright spots in the skin of their flesh be darkish white. 

Bible. Lev. 14. 

Who hath delivered us from the power of darkness, 
and translated us into the kingdom of his dear Son. 


Ther saw I first the derke imagining 
Of felonie and alle the compassing ; 
The cruel ire, red as any glede, 
The pikepurse, and eke the pule drede. 

Chaucer. Cant. Tale*. 

Fair when that cloud of pride, which oft doth dark 
Her goodly light, with smiles she drives away. 


For light she hated as the deadly bale, 
Ay wont in desert darkness to remaine, 
Where plain none might her face see, nor she see any 
laine. Spenser. Faerie Queene. 

What may seem dark at the first, will afterwards 
be found more plain. Hooker. 

Such was his wisdom, that his confidence did sel- 
dom darken his foresight, especially in things near at 
hand. Bacon. 

You must not look to have an image in any thing 
lightsome ; for even a face in iron, red-hot, will not be 
sren, the light confounding the small differences of 
lightsome and darksome, which shew the figure. Id. 

Come, thick night, 

And pall thee in the dunnest smoke of hell, 
That my keen knife sec not the wound it makes ; 
"Nor heaven peep through the blanket of the dark, 
To cry, hold ! hold ! Shakspeare. Macbeth. 

Fleance, his son, who keeps him company, 
Must embrace the fate of that dark hour. 

Meantime we shall express our darker purpose. 


The instruments of darkness tell us truths ; 
Win us with honest trifles, to betray us 
In deepest consequence. Id. 

Darkling stands 
The varying shore o' the world Id. 

Cloud and ever-during dark 
Surrounds me ! from the cheerful ways of men 
Cut off. Milton. 

He, here with us to be, 
Forsook the courts of everlasting day, 
And chose with us a darksome house of mortal clay. 


The wakeful bird 

Sings darkling, and, in shadiest covert hid, 
Tunes her nocturnal note. Id. 

The age, wherein he lived, was dark ; but he 
Could not want sight, who taught the world to see. 


The lusts and passions of men do sully and darken 
tin ir minds, even by a natural influence. TilloUon. 

Thou wretched daughter of a dark old man, 
Conduct my weary steps. Dryden and Lee's CKdtput. 

For well you know, and can record alone, 
What fame to future times conveys but darkens down. 


Mistaken blessing, which old age they call, 
'Tisalong, nasty, darksome hospital. /</. 

All the light truth has, or can have, is from the 
clearness and validity of those proofs upon which it is 
received ; to talk of any other light iu the under- 
standing, is to put ourselves in the dark ; or in tae 
power of the prince of darkness. Locke. 

Whether the darkened room to muse invite, 
Or whitened wall provoke the skewer to write. Pope. 

All men of dark tempers, according to their degree 
of melancholy or enthusiasm, may tind convents fitted 
to their humours. Addisnn on Italy. 

Foul ministers, dark-working by the force 
Of secret, sapping gold. Thomson. 

Must helpless man, in ignorance sedate, 
Roll darkling down the torrent of his fats ? 
Must no dislike alarm, no wishes rise, 
No cries invoke the mercies of the skies ? 

Johnson. Vanity of Human Wishes. 
Their quickness is owing to their presumption and 
rashness, and not to any hidden irradiation that in a 
moment dispels all darkness from their minds. 


Dark will thy doom be, darker still 
Thine immortality of ill. Byron. Siege of Corinth. 

So do the dark in soul expire, 
Or live like Scorpion girt by fire 
So writhes the mind Remorse hath riven, 
Unfit for earth, undoomed for heaven, 
Darkness above, despair beneath 
Around it flame, within it death ! Byron. 

DAR'LING, adj. & n. s. Sax. deorling, the 
diminutive of dear. Favorite; beloved. One 
much beloved. 

Lo my child whom I have chosen ; my derlyng in 
whom k hath wel plesid to my soul, I schal putte my 
Spirit on hym : and he schal tclle doom to hethene 
men. Wiclif. Matt. 12. 

Young Ferdinand they suppose is drowned, 
And his and my loved darling. Shakspeare. 

In Thames, the ocean's darling, England's pride, 
The pleasing emblem of his reign does glide. 


She became the darling of the princess. 


Have a care lest some beloved notion, or some dar- 
ling science, too far prevail over your mind. Watts. 

And to find out our most beloved sin, let ns con- 
sider what are those worldly objects or amusements 
which give us the highest delight ; this, it is proba- 
ble, will lead us directly to some one of our darling 
iniquities. Mason. 

The text, that sorts not with his darling whim, 
Though plain to others, is obscure to him . 

Coirper. Progress of Error. 
Save me, oh ! save me, from the sword dividing ; 

Give me my darling from the jaws of death ; 

Thee will I praise, and, in thy name confiding, 

Proclaim thy mercies with my latest breath. 

A'. White. 

DARLINGTON, a county of the United 
States, in Cheraws district, South Carolina, 
bounded on the south and south-west by Lynch's 




Creek. It is thirty five miles long, and twenty- 
four broad. 

DARLINGTON, a town of Durham, situated on 
a flat on the river Skerne. It stands on the great 
road from London to Edinburgh. It has a weekly 
market, and, excepting January and February , a 
fair once a fortnight through the year. This 
town carries on linen and woollen manufactures. 
A curious water machine for grinding optical 
glasses, and spinning linen yarn, has been erected 
here ; the invention of a native of the town. It 
is nineteen miles south of Durham, and 247 
north by west of London. 

DARMSTADT, a neat town of Germany, the 
capital of the grand duchy of Hesse. It was 
fortified by a wall in 1330. The town contains 
a regency, a court of appeals, a consistory, and 
criminal court. The prince of Hesse Darmstadt 
entered into the late confederation of the states 
of the Rhine, and, by the treaty of alliance, re- 
ceived the title of grand duke, and royal high- 
ness. The palace of the landgrave Louis VII., 
and the modern residence of the grand duke, 
with its beautiful gardens, are principal objects : 
to which may be added, the town church with 
the tombs of the landgraves; the state house; 
the psedagogium, or academy ; the public library ; 
the library of the grand duke; the cabinet of 
natural history (containing a number of curious 
fossils) ; the military school ; and the building ap- 
propriated to military exercises, an edifice 300 feet 
by 150, and capable of containing 3000 men. It 
is situated on a river of the same name, thirty 
miles north-west of Heidelberg, and contains 
13,000 inhabitants. 

DARN, or DEARNE, v. a. & adj. Ang.-Sax. 
<leorn, secret, or concealed; Arm. and Wei. 
darne, a patch. To sew up, or conceal holes or 
rents by imitating the original texture : solitary ; 

By many ft dearne and painful perch, 
Of Pericles the careful search 
Is made. Shakspeare. Pericles. 

He spent every day ten hours in his closet, in darn- 
ing bis stockings, which he performed to admiration. 

Will she thy linen wash, thy hosen darn ? Gay. 

DAR'NEL, Sax. derren, hurtful. A grass of 
the temulentum species, hurtful to corn. 

But while people were asleep, his enemy came, and 
sowed darnel among the wheat. 

Matt. xiii. 25. Campbell's Translation. 

He was met even now 

Crowned with rank fumiter and furrow-weeds, 
Darnel, and all the idle weeds that grow 
In our sustaining corn. Shakspeare. 

No fruitful crop the sickly fields return ; 
But oats and darnel choak the rising corn. 


DARNLEY'S ISLAND, a beautiful island in the 
Eastern seas, in Torres Strait, between New Hol- 
land and New Guinea. It is about fifteen miles 
in circumference, and varied with hills and 
plains covered with vegetation. The inhabitants 
are stout, and exceed the ordinary size. The 
men go perfectly naked, and the women nearly 
o. They dwell in conical huts, disposed in 
villages, and adorned with two or three human 

skulls, and several strings of hands, five or six 
on a string. Their arms are bows and arrows, 
lances, and long clubs ; and they have handsome 
canoes from fifty to seventy feet in length. They 
are apparently a treacherous race. Long. 142 
59' 15" E., lat. 9 39' 30" S. 

DARRAIN', v.a. Old Fr. desrener. By Ju- 
nius referred to dare. ' It seems to me,' says Dr. 
Johnson, 'more probably deducible from arran- 
ger la battaille.' To prepare, or range troops 
for battle ; to commence single combat. 

And on the morwe, or it were day light, 
Ful prively two harneis hath he dight, 
Both suffisant and mete to darreine 
The bataille in the field betwix him tweine. 

Chaucer. Cant. Tales. 

Therewith they 'gan to hurlen greedily, 
Redoubted battle ready to darraine. Spenser, 

Comes Warwick, backing of the duke of York ; 
Darrain your battle ; for they are at hand. 


The town-boys parted in twain, the one side calling 
themselves Pompeians, the other Cxsarians ; and 
then darraining a kind of battle, but without arms, the 
Caesarians got the over hand. 

Carew's Survey of Cornwall. 

DART, v. a., v. n. & n. s. Fr., Teut. and 
Arm. dard ; Swed. dart ; Ital. dardo ; from Gr. 
fopv. To throw a missile, or short lance ; to 
project any thing offensive ; to emit ; to fly as a 
dart ; to let fly. As a substantive, it is the wea- 
pon thrown or darted. 

In alle thingis take ghe scheeled of fcith in which 
ghe nioun quenche all the fyry dartis of the worste. 

Wiclif. Effesies vi. 
Now, darting Parthia, art thou struck. 


He wets his tusks, and turns, and dares the war ; 
The invader* dart their javelins from afar. Dryden. 
Overwhelmed with darts, which from afar they 

The weapons round his hollow temples ring. Id. 

Pan came, and asked what magick caused my smart j 
Or what ill eyes malignant glances dart. Pope. 

See, prompt to ill, the insiduous foe 
Now couched in secret bend the bow, 
Now to the string adjust the dart 
That thirsts to wound the guiltless heart. 

Mevrich's Psalm*. 

Glad zephyr leads the van, and waves above 
The barbed darts, and blazing torch of love j 
Reverts his smiling face, and pausing flings 
Soft showers of roses from aurelian wings. 


And that sarcastic levity of tongue, 
The stinging of a heart the world hath stung, 
That darts in seeming playfulness around, 
And makes those feel that will not own the wound , 
All these seemed his. Byron. 

DARTFORD, a market town of Kent, in the 
road from London to Canterbury. Here was a 
celebrated nunnery, which Henry VIII. converted 
into a royal palace, and which is now a gen- 
tleman's seat. The river Darent will admit 
boats to bring up goods to the town. The first 
paper-mill in England was erected on this river 
by Sir John Spilman, to whom king Charles I. 
granted a patent with 200 a-year to encourage 
the manufactory. On this river also was the first 

DAS 71 

mill forslitting iron bars to make wire. The town 
was the first that engaged in the rebellion of Wat 
Tyler and Jack Straw : the market on Saturday 
is well supplied with provisions. It is seven 
miles west of Gravesend, fifteen east by south of 

DARTMOOR, an extensive moor and forest 
in Devonshire, reaching from Brent to Oak- 
hampton, twenty miles from south to north, and 
between five and fifteen miles broad from east 
to west. It contains about 80,000 acres, and is 
watered by the river Dart. Many sheep are 
bred here, but of a small kind, and subject to 
the rot. The chief riches of the inhabitants of 
the villages are their black cattle, which thrive 
well on the coarse herbage. Some thousands of 
acres of land have lately been cleared, and plan- 
tations formed ; much barren ground has also 
been converted into tillage, under the direction 
of colonel Tyrwhit, by order of his late majesty, 
when prince of Wales. The French prison, for- 
merly on this moor, is converted into an agri- 
cultural settlement for the poor. 

DARTMOUTH, a sea-port town in Devon- 
shire, seated on the river Dart, near its fall into 
the sea : said to have been formerly called Clif- 
ton. It is an ancient corporation, and a borough 
town, sending one member to parliament. The 
town is large, well built, and populous ; but the 
streets are narrow, though well paved. The har- 
bour is large and safe, capable of containing 500 
ships; and the inhabitants have a considerable 
trade to the south of Europe, and to Newfound- 
land. Dartmouth is esteemed a great nursery 
for seamen, the fishery employing nearly 3000, a 
certain number of which the owners are obliged 
by act of parliament to select from land men. It 
has a weekly market on Friday for corn and pro- 
visions, arid one almost every day for fish. It 
was burnt in the reign of Richard I. by the 
French, and again in the reign of Henry VI. 
They attempted it afterwards, but were repulsed, 
chieHy by the bravery of the women. Beside a 
great slaughter which was made, they took M. 
Castel the French general, three lords, and thirty- 
two knights, prisoners. It lies thirty miles 
S. S. W. of Exeter, and 204 west by south of 

DARTMOUTH, a thriving sea-port town of the 
United States, in Bristol county, Massachusetts, 
situated on the west side of the Accushnet, seventy 
miles south of Boston. It was incorporated in 

DARTMOUTH, a town of the United States, in 
Elbert county, Georgia, situated on the peninsula 
formed by the confluence of Broad and Savan- 
nah rivers, two miles from Fort James Dart- 
mouth. Also a town of the United States, in 
Grafton county, New Hampshire, north-west of the 
foot of the White Mountains : thirty-three miles 
north-east of Haverhill, and eighty-seven north- 
west of Portsmouth. 

DARWAR, also called Nasserabad, a town 
and fortress of the province of Bejapore, Hindus- 
tan. Although not regularly fortified, it is by 
nature very strong, and the ditches are good. The 
town is situated to the south of the fort, and is 
surrounded by ft wall and ditch. In the year 
1685 it was taken from the king of Bejapoie by 


Aurunpzebe, and, soon after t\ie decease of that 
monarch, fell into the hands of tliu Mahruttas, 
from whom it was taken byTippoo in 1784, and 
retained by him till the year 1791, when it was 
retaken by the Mahrattas, assisted by the British, 
after a tedious siege of twenty-nine weeks. It 
has been lately ceded to the British. 

DARWIN (Erasmus), an English physician 
and poet, was born in December, 1731, at Els- 
ton, near Newark. After receiving the early part 
of his education at Chesterfield, he was sent to 
St. John's College, Cambridge, where he studied 
medicine, and took his bachelor's degree in 1755. 
He was elected to one of Lord Chesterfield's 
scholarships, worth about 16 per annum. On 
leaving Cambridge, he attended the lectures of 
Dr. Hunter in London, and afterwards completed 
his medical studies at Edinburgh, where he took 
the degree of M. D. He first settled at Notting- 
ham, as a physician ; but, not meeting with the 
practice he hoped for, he went to Litchfield, 
where his knowledge and acquirements were 
justly appreciated. In 1757 he marrk-d the 
daughter of Charles Howard Esq., who died in 
1770, leaving him three sons. Not long after the 
death of his wife, Dr. Darwin commenced his 
laborious work, the Zoonomia, but which he de- 
clined publishing for above twenty-five years. 
He next wrote his Botanic Garden, and The 
Loves of the Plants. About 1780 Dr. Darwin 
married the widow of colonel Pole, of Radbourne- 
hall, near Derby, who brought him a large for- 
tune ; and he removed, in consequence of this con- 
nexion, to Radbourne, with a view of settling in 
Derby. He continued in fhis neighbourhood till 
February 1802, when he removed to Breadwall 
Priory, about three miles distant, a commodious 
retirement for his age and infirmities, and at 
this place he died in his seventy-first year. The 
literary fame of Dr. Darwin rests on the Botanic 
Garden, with philosophical notes, in two parts ; 
1. The Economy of Vegetation; 2. The Loves 
of the Plants, 2 vols. 8vo. : Zoonomia, or (he 
Laws of Organic Life, 4 vols. 8vo. : Phytologia, 
or the Philosophy of Agriculture and Gardening, 
] vol. 4to. : works which display not only the 
poet, but the botanist and the philosopher; though 
there is frequently too much sacrificed to imagi- 
nation; and the author evinces a contempt for 
all religion, Dr. Darwin was also the author of 
several medical and philosophical papers in the 
Philosophical Transactions, a Treatise on Female 
Education, and a poem published since his death, 
entitled The Temple of Fame. He had likewise 
a principal share in the translation of Linnjcus's 
Systema Vegetabulum, published in the name of 
the Botanical Society of Litchfield. 

DASH, v. a. v. n., n. x. & adv. Goth, and 
Swed. duska ; Scot, dusch. Serenius refers to 
the first as the etymology of our word, which 
Dr. Johnson considers in all its senses ' very 
doubtful.' Minsheu derives it from the Gr. 
Stura, C'HTIU, and defines it ' to bedash, dabble, 
bemire with dust.' This is at any rate not im- 
probable. It is a word variously applied. It 
signifies to throw; to strike; to break to pieces 
by collision ; to besprinkle ; to agitate ; to mingle 
fluids ; to strike off in haste ; to blot ; to con- 
found ; to strike down. As a ueuler verb, to fly 

DAS 72 


off; to rush through, so as to scatter ; to strike, 
as a ship upon a rock. As a noun, it expresses 
collision ; infusion ; a stroke made with the 
pen; a sudden blow, or striking appearance. 
Dryden uses it adverbially to express the sound 
of falling water. 

Happy shall he be, that taketh and dasheth thy 
little ones against the stones. P*. cxxxvii. 9. 

If you dash a stone against a stone in the bottom of 
the water, it makctli a sound. Bacon. 

They that stand high have many blasts to shake 

them , 
And, if they fall, they dash themselves to pieces. 

This tempest, 

Dashing tbe garment of this peace, aboded 
The sudden breach on't. Id. Henry VIII. 

David's throne shall then be like a tree, 
Spreading and overshadowing all the earth ; 
Or as a stone, that shall to pieces dash 
All monarchies besides throughout the world. 

His tongue 

Dropped manna, and could make the worse appear 
The better reason, to perplex and dash 
Matures! councils. Id. 

If a woman once dash upon the rock of reproach, 
she hardly ever recruits her credit. Bp. Taylor. 

Whacum, bred to dash and draw, 
Not wine, but more unwholesome law. 


Nothing dashed the confidence of the mule like the 
braying of the ass, while he was dilating upon his 
genealogy. L'Estrange. 

A man that cuts himself, and tears his own flesh, 
and dashes his head against the stones, docs not act 
so unreasonably as the wicked man. Tillotson. 

At once the blushing oars and brazen prow 
Dash up the sandy waves, and ope the depths below. 


Doeg, though without knowing how or why, 
Spurred boldly on, and dashed thro' thick and thin ; 
Thro' sense and nonsense, never out or in. Id. 

To dash this cavil, read but the practice of Chris- 
tian emperors. South. 

Some stronger power eludes our sickly will ; 
Dashes our rising hope with certain ill. Prior. 

Never was dashed out, at one lucky hit, 

A fool so just a copy of a wit. Pope. 

To dash over this with a line, will deface the whole 
copy extremely, and to a degree that, I fear, may dis- 
please you. Id. 

There is nothing which one regards so much with 
an eye of mirth and pity, as innocence, when it has 
in it a dash of folly. Addison. 

Middling his head, and prone to earth his view, 
With ear* and chest that dash the morning dew. 


Torrents that from yon promontory's head 
Dashed furious down in desperate cascade 
Heard from afar amid the lonely night, 
That oft have led the wanderer right, 
Are silent at the noise. Beattie. 

Here Time's huge fingers grasp his giant mace, 
And daah proud Superstition from her base. 


I should be so, 

Had I a knife even ; but it matters not 
Death hath a thousand gates ; and on the marble, 
Even at the altar foot, whence I look down 
Upon destruction, shall my head be dashed, 
Ere thou ascend it. Byr<rn. 

DASTARD, v. a., n. s. & adj. } From Sax. 
DAS'TARDISE, v. a. [ abar-rpi^an, to 

DAS'TARDLY, adj. & adv. J terrify. To 

affright ; make faint-hearted ; a coward ; pol- 


The cruelty and envy of the people, 
Permitted by our dastard nobles, 
Have suffered me by the voice of slaves to be 
Whooped out of Rome. Shakrpeare. 

Dastard and drunkard, mean and insolent 
Tongue-valiant hero, vaunter of thy might, 
In threats the foremost, but the last in fight. 


He had such things to urge against our marriage, 
As, now declared, would blunt my sword in battle, 
And dastardise my courage. Id. 

Brawl and clamour is so arrant a mark of a dot- 
tardly wretch, that he does as good as call himself so 
that uses it. L' Estrange. 

Bug-bear thoughts, in the minds of children, make 
them dastards, and afraid of the shadow of darkness 
ever after. Locke. 

Curse on their dastard souls, they stand astonished ! 


DASYPUS, the armadillo, or tatou, in 
zoology; a genus of quadrupeds, belonging to 
the order of bruta. The dasypus has neither 
fore-teeth nor dog-teeth ; it is covered with a hard 
bony shell, intersected with distinct moveable 
zones or belts: this shell covers the head, the 
neck, the back, the flanks, and extends even to 
the extremity of the tail ; the only parts to which 
it does not extend, are the throat, the breast, and 
the belly, which are covered with a whitish skin 
of a coarse grain, resembling that of a hen after 
the feathers are pulled off. The shell does not 
consist of one entire piece, like that of the tor- 
toise ; but is divided into separate belts, connected 
with each other by membranes, which enable the 
animal to move it, and even to roll itself up like 
a hedgehog. All the species of this animal are 
originally natives of the western continent, and 
are endowed with the faculty of extending and 
contracting their bodies, and of rolling themselves 
up like a ball, like the hedgehog, though not 
into so complete a sphere. They are very in- 
offensive, excepting when they get into gardens, 
where they devour the melons, potatoes, and 
other roots. They walk quickly ; but can hardly 
be said to run or leap, so that they seldom escape 
the pursuit either of men or dogs. But they dig 
deep holes in the earth, and seldom go very far 
from their subterraneous habitations; or, when at 
a great distance, require but a few moments to 
make one. When taken, they roll themselves up, 
and will not extend their bodies unless they are 
held near a fire. There is no other method of 
making them come out from deep holes, but by 
forcing in smoke or water. The female gene- 
rally brings forth four young ones every month ; 
which is the reason why the species are so nume- 
rous, notwithstanding they are much sought aftet 




on account of the sweetness of their flesh. The 
Indians likewise make baskets, boxes, &c., of the 
shells which cover their heads. Linnams enu- 
merates six species of dasypus, principally dis- 
tinguished by the number of their moveable belts. 
Mr. Kerr, who prefers the arrangement of Buf- 
fon to that of Linnaus, enumerates ten species 
of this genus. 

DATA, among* mathematicians, a term for such 
things or quantities, as are given, or known, in 
order to find other things thereby that are un- 
known. Euclid uses the word data (on which he 
has a particular tract) for such spaces, lines, and 
angles as are given in magnitude, or to which we 
can assign others equal. From the use of this word 
in mathematics, it has been transplanted into 
other arts, as philosophy, medicine, &c. ; where 
it expresses any quantity which, for the sake of a 
present calculation, is taken for granted to be 
such, without requiring an immediate proof for 
its certainty ; called also the given quantity, num- 
ber, or power. 

DATCHET, a town in Buckinghamshire, near 
Windsor, with a bridge over the Thames, built in 
the reign of queen Anne, and noted for its fre- 
quent horse-races. It is situated in a valley sur- 
rounded on every side with steep hills. 

DATE, v. a. & n. s. \ Fr. date, from Ital. 

DATE'LESS, adj. . $ dato ; Lat. datum. To 
note a particular time ; a time noted or appoint- 
ed ; the time and place at which a letter is writ- 

Of later date of wives hath he redde, 
That soin han slain hir husbondes in his bedde. 

Chaucer. Cant. Tola. 
His days and times are past, 
And my reliance on bis fracted dates 
Has smit my credit. Shakspeare. Timon. 

Then raise, 

From the conflagrant mass, purged and refined, 

New heavens, new earth, ages of endless date, 

Founded in righteousness. Milton. 

Could the declining of this fate, O friend, 

Our date to immortality extend ? Denham. 

My father's promise ties me not to time ; 

And bonds without a date, they say, are void. 


What time would spare, from steel receives its 

date ; 
And monuments, like men, submit to fate. Pope. 

The accession of Elizabeth, from which we date the 
golden age of our language. 

Johnson. Plan of Dictionary. 

DATE, is derived from the Latin datum, given, 
and implies the place from whence, as well as 
the time when. Our ancient deeds had no dates, 
but only the month and year, to signify that they 
were not made in haste, or in the space of a day, 
but upon longer and more mature deliberation. 
The king's grants began with these words, pras- 
sentibus et futuris, &c. ; but the grants of pri- 
vate persons, with omnibus praesentes literas in- 
specturis, &c. 

DATE, n. s. | Lat. dadylus. A species 

DATE-TREE, n.s. S of palm. 

Hold, take these keys, and fetch morn spices, nurse, 
They call for data and quinces in the pastry. 

E, in botany. See PHOENIX 

DATE, in law. A deed is good, though it 
mentions no date or has a false, or even an im- 
possible date, as the 30th of February ; provided 
the real day of its being dated or given, that is, 
delivered, can be proved. Blackstone's Com- 
mentary, vol. ii. p. 304. 

DATI (Carlo), professor of polite learning at 
Florence, his native country, and the private 
friend of the poet Milton. The chief work tc 
which Dati applied himself, was Delia Pittur* 
Antica, of which he published an essay in 1G67. 
He died in 1675. 

DATISCA, in botany, a genus of the dode- 
candria order, and dicecia class of plants ; natu- 
ral order thirty-fourth, miscellanea;. Male, CAL. 
pentaphyllous : COR. none : the authere are ses- 
sile, long, and fifteen in number. Female, CAL. 
bidented : the STYLES three : CAP. triangular, 
three-horned, unilocular, pervious, polyspermous, 
inferior. Species two: 1. D. Cannabina, a native 
of Canada with a smooth stem ; 2. D. hirta, u 
native of Pennsylvania with a rough hairy stem. 

DATISI, in logic, a mode of syllogisms in the 
third figure, wherein the major is a universal 
affirmative, and the minor and conclusion par- 
ticular affirmative propositions. Thus, 

DA- All who serve God are kings ; 

TI- Some who serve God are poor ; 

si. Therefore, some who are poor are kings. 

The DATIVE, in Latin and Greek grammar, is 
the third case, and is used to express the state or 
relation of a person or thing to whose advantage 
or disadvantage some" other thing is referred. In 
the English language, which has no dative, this 
relation is expressed by the prepositions to or 
for. In the Greek language, which has no abla- 
tive, the dative is used instead of it. See ABLA- 

DATUM, or DATUS, in ancient geography, 
a town of Thrace, situated between Neapolis 
and the river Nessus, built by a colony of 
Thracians, according to Eustathius ; who places 
it on the sea-coast, near the Strymon, in a rich 
and fruitful soil, famous for ship-building and 
mines of gold ; hence the proverb Aaroc AyaOwv, 
denoting prosperity and plenty. It was taken by 
Philip of Macedon, who changed its name to 
Philippi. It was afterwards famous for the de- 
feat of Brutus and Cassius by Augustus and 

DATURA, the thorn apple, in botany, a ge- 
nus of the monogynia order, and pentandria class 
of plants ; natural order twenty-eighth, luridae : 
con. runnel-shaped, and plaited: CAL. tubular, 
angulated, and deciduous; CAPS, quadrivalved. 
There are seven species. D. stramonium, the 
common thorn-apple, rises about a yard high, 
with an erect, strong, round, hollow, green stalk, 
branching luxuriantly on every side: large, oval, 
irregularly angulated, dark green leaves ; and 
from the divisions of the branches, large white 
flowers singly succeeded by oval, prickly cap- 
sules, growing erect, commonly called thorn 
apples. At night the upper leaves rise up and 
enclose the flowers. The blossoms have some- 
times a tinge of purple or violet. The flowers 
consist of one large, funnel-shaped petal, having 
a long tube, and spreading pentagonal iimh, 
succeeded by large roundish capsules of the siio 




of middling apples, closely beset with sharp 
spines. An ointment prepared from the leaves 
gives ease in external inflammations, and in the 
haemorroids. Cows, horses, sheep, and goats, 
refuse this plant. 

DAVAL (Peter Esq.) F.R.S., an eminent 
English mathematician. He was bred a bar- 
rister at law ; was afterwards master in chancery ; 
and at last accountant general of that court. He 
translated the Memoirs of the Cardinal de Retz, 
printed in 12 mo. 1723. In the dispute con- 
cerning elliptical arches, when Blackfriars 
bridge was built, his opinion was applied for by 
the committee. His answer may be seen in the 
London Magazine for March 1760. He died 
January 8th, 1763. 

DAVALLIA, in botany, a genus of the cryp- 
togamia class, and order filices. Fructification 
in roundish distinct dots near the margin : IN- 
voLucRi'M membranaceous, from the surface 
half-hooded, distinct, somewhat truncate, opening 
towards the margin. Species nineteen. 

DAVANGIRI, a town of the south of 
India, province of Mysore, district of Chittle- 
droog. It consists of 500 houses, with a small 
tort in the centre, and has an extensive manufac- 
ture of blankets. It carries on a good trade with 
the Carnatic and its vicinity. 

DAUB, v. a.v.n.&n.s.-\ Fr. dauber; Belg. 

DAUB'ER, n. s. I dabben ; Irish diob, 

DAUB'ERY, n. $. V (mortar). To smear ; 

DAUB'ING, n. s. i cover with something 

DAUB'Y, adj. J adhesive, and gross, 

as mortar. Hence, to paint coarsely and vilely ; 
to cover with gaudy or showy ornaments ; to 
flatter. As a neuter verb, to play the hypocrite. 
Daubery and daubing are both used in the sense 
of the substantive daub ; and dauby is an adjec- 
tive, signifying viscous, adhesive. 

She took for him an ark of bulrushes, and daubed 
it with slime and with pitch. Exodui. 

When the wall is fallen, shall it not be said unto 
you, Where is the daubing wherewith ye have daubed 
it 7 Ezekiel xiii. 

Since princes will have such things, it is better they 
should be graced with elegancy, than daubed with cost. 


So smooth he daubed his vice with shew of virtue, 
He lived from all attainder of suspect. Shakspeare. 

I cannot daub it further ; 
And yet I must. Id. 

She works by charms, by spells ; and such daubry 
as this is beyond our element. Id. 

They snatched out of his hands a lame imperfect 
piece, rudely daubed over with too little reflection. 

Dry den. 

Let him be daubed with lace, live high, and whore ; 
Sometimes be lousy, but be never poor. Id, 

A sign-post dauber would disdain to paint 
The one-eyed hero on his elephant. Id. 

Not in vain the' industrious kind 
V.'ith dauby wax and liowers the chinks have lined. 


Let every one, therefore, attend the sentence of his 
conscience ; for, he may be sure, it will not daub nor 
natter. South. 

Hasty daubing will but spoil the picture, and make 
it so unnatural as must want false light to set it oil. 

The treacherous tapster, Thomas, 
Hangs a new angel two doors from us, 
As fine as daubers hands can make it. S'dft. 

And did you step in to look at the grand picture in 
your way back? Tis a melancholy daub! my lord ; 
not one principle of the pyramid in any one group ! 


If a picture is daubed with many bright and glaring 
colours, the vulgar admire it as an excellent piece. 


DAUBENTON (Louis-Jean Marie), an emi- 
nent French anatomist and naturalist, born at 
Montbar in Burgundy, on the 29th of May, 
1716. His father designed him for the church; 
but on his death, in 1736, Daubenton relinquished 
that pursuit for the study of physic and natural 
history ; and in three years after took his degree 
at Rheims ; after which he returned to his own 
country with the design of following the practice 
of medicine. But the celebrated Buffon, who 
was also a native of Montbar, having shortly 
before succeeded Dufay in the superintendance 
of the botanic garden, selected Daubei^ton to 
assist him in his improvements and arrange- 
ments. In 1742 Buffon procured for him the 
place of demonstrator of the cabinet of natural 
history, with a salary of only 500 francs, which 
was afterwards raised to 2000. The cabinet of 
natural history, which was of immense service, 
was arranged and in a great measure collected 
by his means. The appearance of the History 
of Quadrupeds, wherein he gave the dissection 
and description of 182 species, gained him a 
very high reputation, but raised the jealousy of 
Reaumur, who then considered himself at the 
head of natural history. About this time Buffon 
was persuaded to separate himself from Dauben- 
ton ; but their intimacy afterwards revived, and 
continued till Buffon's death. Daubenton was 
admitted a member of the Academy of Sciences 
in 1744 ; and contributed many valufvble disser- 
tations on natural history to its memoirs. But 
his service to science was not confined to his 
pen and the press: from 1775 he gave lectures 
on natural history in the college of medicine ; 
and in 1783 on ruial economy. In 1784 he 
published his Instructions to Shepherds, a work 
of great excellence. In 1794, when France vas 
ruled by a lawless rabble, it became a matter of 
necessity with Daubenton to make application to 
the section of Sans-culottes for a certificate of 
civism, to enable him to hold his place in the 
garden of plants. His request was made under 
the title of Shepherd Daubenton ; and it was 
granted to him under that name with the greatest 
facility. At the garden of plants the Convention 
appointed him professor of mineralogy ; and he 
gave lectures during the ephemeral existence of 
the Normal School. He was also the author of 
a Methodical View of Minerals, and a contribu- 
ter to both the French encyclopaedias. In 1799 
he was elected a member of the conservative 
senate; but the first meeting he attended he fell 
from his seat in an apoplectic fit. Speedy as- 
sistance being procured, he was restored to his 
senses, and calmly pointed out, in different parts 
of his body, the progress of the paralysis, which 
terminated his life on the 1st of January 1800, 
in his eighty-third year. 


DAUCUS, the carrot, in botany : a genus of 
the digynia order, and pentandria class of plants ; 
natural order forty-fifth, umbellatae : COR. a little 
radiated, hermaphrodite. The fruit bristly with 
short hairs. There are six species ; but the one 
which chiefly merits attention is the D. carota, 
or common carrot. There are several varieties, 
as the white, the orange, and the purple carrot ; 
but of these the orange is the most esteemed. 
Carrots are propagated by seeds, sown at dif- 
ferent seasons of the year, to afford a supply for 
the table at all times. The season for sowing 
for the earliest crop is soon after Christmas. The 
situation should be open, and in a warm sandy 
light soil, well dug to a good depth, that the 
roots may meet with no obstruction in running 
down, so as to make them forked. The next 
crop should be sown in February, and the third 
in July for autumn ; and lastly in the end of 
August, for those which are to stand the winter. 
These last will be fit for use in March, before any 
of the spring ones; but they are seldom BO 
tender or well tasted. Carrots were first intro- 
duced into England by the Flemings, in the 
reign of qaieen Elizabeth. 

DAVENANT (Charles), LL.D., an eminent 
author and civilian, eldest son of Sir William 
Davenant, was bora in 1656, and educated in 
Cambridge. He wrote several political tracts, 
and some plays. He was in 1685 empowered, 
with the master of the revels, to inspect the plays 
designed for the stage, that no immoralities 
might be presented ; and was also inspector 
general of exports and imports. His Essays on 
Trade were reprinted in 5 vols. 8vo in 1771. 
He died in 1714. 

DAVENAMT (John), bishop of Salisbury, the 
son of an eminent merchant in London, where 
he was born in 1570. He took his degree of 
A.M. in Queen's College, Cambridge, in 1587, 
and that of D. D. in 1609, when he was elected 
professor of divinity, and is chiefly known as 
having been sent by James I. to the synod of 
Dort, in 1618. 

DAVENANT (Sir William), an eminent poet, 
born at Oxford in 1606. After some stay at the 
university, he entered into the service of Frances 
first duchess of Richmond, and afterwards of 
Fulke Greville, lord Brooke. Upon the death of 
Ben Jonson he was created poet laureat. He wrote 
his poem Gondibert at Paris, where he formed a 
design for carrying over a considerable number 
of artificers, especially weavers, to Virginia ; 
but he and his company were seized by some 
parliament ships, and he was carried prisoner 
first to the Isle of Wighj, and then to the Tower 
of London, where, by the mediation of Milton, 
he was allowed to be a prisoner at large. At 
this time tragedies and comedies being pro- 
hibited, he set up an opera, to be performed by 
declamation and music. This Italian opera 
began in Rutland-house in Charter-house yard, 
1656 ; but was afterwards removed to the cock- 
pit in Drury-Lane, and was much frequented for 
many years. His Madagascar, and other poems, 
were printed in 1648. He died in 1668. 

DAVENTRY, an incorporate town of Nor- 
thamptonshire, situated near the sources of the 
Avon and Nen, which flow into opposite seas. 

75 DAV 

It is seventy-two miles N. N.W. from London, 
and ten from Northampton. The manor for- 
merly belonged to John of Gaunt who had a 
castle here. The ancient priory is in ruins, but 
parts of it are inhabited by the poor. On a hill 
in the neighbourhood are some strong entrench- 
rrents occupied by Charles I. before the battl* 
of Naseby. The ground formerly was used as a 
race course. The town is very narrow and badly 
paved, and the church but a poor piece of archi- 
tecture. The affairs of the corporation are 
managed by thirteen burgesses, one of whom is 
annually chosen bailiff, a recorder, town clerk, 
two head wardens, and twenty common council- 
men. The bailiff acts as justice of the peace 
and coroner of the inquest, and the bailiff and 
ex-bailiff, with the recorder, constitute a quorum 
of the corporation, and can attach for debts under 
100, or, in criminal cases, commit the accused 
to the county-gaol. Daventry has a considerable 
manufacture of whips, and a good market for 
provisions on Wednesday. 

DAUGHTER, n. s. a Sax. bohren; Goth. 

DAUGHTERLY, udj. $ dauhtar ; Runick dotter; 
Germ.dohter; Dut.dochter. A female child; the 
wife of a son ; in the plural, the females of a 
country. A female taken into the relation of a 
child, or addressed tenderly. Any female deity 
or imaginary personage. Daughterly is like, or 
behaving with the duty of, a daughter. 

Jacob went out to sec the daughters of the land. 

Genet it. 

Daughter, be of good comfort, thy faith Lath made 
thee whole. Matt. ix. 22. 

A daughter hadden they betwix hem two 
Of twenty yere, withouten any mo, 
Saving a child that was of half yere age 
In cradle it lay and was a propre pag?. 

Chaucer. Cant. Talcs. 

Your wives, your daughters, 
Your matron:), and your maids, could not fill up 
The cistern of my lust. S/takspeare. 

Are you at leisure, holy father, now, 
Or shall I come to you at evening mass ? 
My leisure serves me, pensive daughter, now Id. 

Sir Thomas liked her natural and daughterly affec- 
tion for him. Cavendish's Life of More. 

Now Aurora, daughter of the dawn, 
With rosy lustre purpled o'er the lawn. Pope. 

Commerce, however we may please ourselves with 
the contrary opinion, is one of the daughters of fortune, 
inconstant and deceitful as her mother. 

Johnson. Thoughts on Agriculture. 

Is thy face like thy mother's, my fair child ! 
Ada ! sole daughter of my house and heart ? 
When last I saw thy young blue eyes they smiled, 
And then we parted, not as now we part, 
But with a hope. Byron. 

DAVID, Tn,Heb. i.e. beloved, king of Israel, 
and Hebrew poet, was born at Bethlehem A.A.C. 
1085, and died A.A.C. 1015, after having 
reigned seven years and a half in Hebron, and 
thirty-three in Jerusalem. Wehave acomplete and 
faithful portrait of this great prince and poet of 
the Jews in Scripture ; and while in this portrait 
no friend of revelation will pretend that we can 
exhibit a faultless character, the infidel Bayle 
allows hin. to have been a great and justly distm- 

DAV 76 

guished monarch and poet; and we may refer 
to his Historical and Critical Dictionary, for a 
fall and tolerably impartial disquisition on the 

DAVID ( ), a celebrated modern French 

painter, was born about the middle of the last 
century, and became the pupil of Vien, an artist 
f considerable eminence. He was painter to 
the unfortunate Louis XVI. and in September, 
1790, presented to the legislative body a picture, 
representing his entrance into the national as- 
sembly. He was afterwards a deputy from 
Paris to the national convention, where he voted 
for his royal masters death. With perfect con- 
sistency he became a member of the committee 
of Public Safety during the reign of terror, and 
closely connected himself with Robespierre. In 
January, 1794, he was president of the conven- 
tion. On the fall of Robespierre, he contrived 
to elude the danger for some time ; but at length, 
in May, 1795, he was committed to the Luxem- 
bourg. His professional friends, however, pro- 
cured his liberation ; but during the following 
winter he joined a new society of terrorists, as- 
sembled near the pantheon, and became their 
first president; and in 1799 attempted to re- 
establish the jacobin club. About this time he 
was made a member of the National Institute for 
the class of painting; and Buonaparte, in 1800, 
appointed him painter to the government. 
During the imperial domination, David enjoyed 
his highest reputation as a painter, and exercised 
considerable influence over the measures adopted 
by the government for the cultivation of the fine 
arts. On the restoration of the Bourbons he was 
exiled to Brussels, where he continued to em- 
ploy his talents till the' time of his death, which 
took place December the 29th, 1825. His best 
paintings are The Rape of the Sabines ; The 
Oath of the Horatii ; The Death of Socrates ; 
Napoleon presenting the Imperial Eagles to his 
Troops ; Mars Disarmed by Venus and the 
Graces, a work executed at Brussels ; and The 
Coronation of Napoleon, exhibited in London in 
1822, and said to be the largest painting ever 
made on canvass. David was clearly of a most 
cruel and sanguinary disposition in the height of 
his political career, and it seems to have infected 
at one time the efforts of his genius. The deputy 
Reboul found him, in 1792, in the prison of La 
Force, calmly sketching the prisoners who were 
going to execution : ' What are you about,' said 
Reboul, 'I am catching the last impulses of 
nature in these rascals,' replied David. He will 
be thought by some of our readers a characteris- 
tic painter of Napoleon presenting the Imperial 

DAVID I , king of Scots, succeeded his brother 
Alexander I., A. D. 1124, and died at Carlisle, 
A. D. 1153. See SCOTLAND. 

DAVID II., king of Scots, succeeded his father 
Robert Bruce, A. D. 1320, when only seven 
years of age. His nonage proved disastrous to 
Scotland, and afforded Edward Baliol the oppor- 
tunity of usurping the crown, by the aid of the 

DAVID'S (St.), an episcopal town of South 
Wales, in Pembrokeshire, seated in a barren soil 
on the river lien, not a mile from the sea. It 


was once a considerable place, and had walls, 
which are now demolished. The cathedral is a 
fine structure. The see has a bishop, precentor r 
chancellor, treasurer, four arch-deacons, nineteen 
prebendaries, eight vicars choral, &c. : near the 
church formerly stood a college. St. Nun's 
Well, near this place, is occasionally resorted to 
on account of its medicinal virtues. From the 
cape, near it, there is a prospect into Ireland. 
It is twenty-four miles north-west of Pembroke, 
and 266 west by north of London. 

DAVIDSON, a county of the United States, 
in Mero district, in Tennessee, bounded on the 
north by the state of Kentucky, on the east by 
Sumner, and on the south by the Indian terri- 
tory. Its chief town, Nashville, lies on the 
great bend of Cumberland River. 

DAVIES (Sir John), a distinguished' states- 
man, and poet, born at Tisbury, in Wiltshire, in 
1570, received his academical education at 
Queen's College, Oxford, and removed thence to 
the Middle Temple to study the law ; but, after 
being called to the bar, was expelled from that 
society, for an insult which he publicly offered to 
the recorder of London. He now retired to Ox- 
ford, where he wrote his celebrated Nosce Teip- 
sum, a poem, and courted the patronage of 
queen Elizabeth by writing, under the title of 
Hymns of Astrea, twenty-six acrostics in her 
praise. In 1601 he was restored to the Temple, 
and in the same year was chosen member of 
parliament for Corfe Castle, and took a distin- 
guished part in the suppression of monopolies. 
He was sent to Ireland as solicitor-general, on 
the accession of James I., and became succes- 
sively attorney-general, and justice of the assize; 
was made a sergeant of law, and knighted. In 
1C07 he accompanied the chief justice of Ireland 
on a progress through the counties of Monaghan, 
Fermanagh, and Cavan, and drew up an account 
of the circuit. He soon after visited England, to 
lay before the king an account of that country, in 
which he seems to have exercised his judicial 
function with great impartiality and public spirit ; 
and on his return assiduously recommenced his 
labors. In 1612 he published A Discovery of 
the true Causes why Ireland has never been en- 
tirely subdued and brought under Obedience to 
the Crown of England, until the Beginning of 
His Majesty's happy Reign. During this year 
the first parliament was convoked for Ireland, 
formed by a general representation of Catholics 
and Protestants, and Sir John was chosen speaker 
of the house of commons. He published, in 
1614, A Declaration concerning the title of 
Prince of Wales; and the year following his 
Reports of Cases adjudged in the King's Courts 
in Ireland. Soon after, returning to England, 
he went several circuits as a judge, and was 
elected member for Newcastle-under-Line. He 
was subsequently raised to the office of chief 
justice of England, but almost immediately cut 
off by a fit of apoplexy, in December, 1626. 
His poems were reprinted in 1773, 8vo., and 
form a part of various modern collections. His 
prose works were collected in one vol. 8vo. 1786, 
under the title of Historical Tracts, by Sir John 
Davies. This acute lawyer and politician mar- 
ried a daughter of lord Audley, but was inost 

DAV 77 

unhappy in his family, his son proving an idoot, 
and one of his daughters of a remarkably flighty 
disposition. His second daughter married lord 

DAVILA (Henry Catherine), a celebrated 
historian, the youngest son of Antonio Davila, 
prand constable of Cyprus. He was born in 
1576, at an ancient castle in Padua, but was 
brought early into France. At the age of eigh- 
teen he signalized himself in the military scenes 
of that country; and at the siege of Amiens, 
where he fought under Henry IV., received a 
wound in the knee. After peace was established 
in France, he withdrew into Italy, and entered 
into the service of the Venetians. While at Ve- 
nice, he wrote his admirable History of the Civil 
Wars of France, from the death of Henry II. in 
1559, to the peace of Vervins in 1598. He con- 
tinued to serv.e the republic of Venice with great 
reputation, till he was murdered, in 1631, by a 
brutal Veronese, called II Turco, who entered 
the room of an hotel where he and his family 
were at supper, and, being reprimanded for his 
intrusion by Davila, discharged a pistol at the 
historian, and shot him dead in an instant. His 
eldest son Antonio, a youth of eighteen, revenged 
ihe death of his father by killing the murderer on 
the spot. 

DAVIS (John), a famous navigator in the 
sixteenth century, was born at Sandridge, near 
Dartmouth in Devonshire ; and distinguished 
himself by making three voyages to the northern 
parts of America, in order to find out a north- 
west passage to the East Indies; in which he 
discovered the Straits which bear his name. He 
afterwards performed five voyages to the East 
Indies; in the last of which he was slain in a 
desperate encounter with some Japanese, near 
the coast of Malacca, on the 27th of December, 
1605. He wrote an account of a second voyage 
for the discovery of the north-west passage ; a 
voyage to the East Indies ; and other tracts. 

DAVIS'S STRAIT, a narrow sea, lying between 
the north rnain of America, and the western coast 
of Greenland ; running north-west from Cape 
Farewell. Lat. 60 N. to Baffin's Bay in 80. 
It extends to long. 75 W. communicating 
with Baffin's Bay, which lies to the north of this 
strait, and of the North Main, or James's Island. 

DAVISON (William), a statesman of Scottish 
origin, who became secretary of state to queen 
Elizabeth. His early life is little known, but in 
1575 he was employed on a mission to Brabant 
and Flanders; and commissioned, in a similar 
way, in 1579, to the states of Holland. In 1583 
he was employed confidentially in Scotland ; 
and, acquiring considerable fame as a diploma- 
tist, was made clerk of the council. On his re- 
turn from a second embassy into the Low Coun- 
tries, he was made secretary of state. Camden 
supposes that he was raised to this office in order 
to involve him in the mysterious transaction 
which now proved his ruin. When the com- 
mission was opened to bring Mary queen of Scots 
to trial, the name of secretary Davison was in- 
serted in it, but it does not seem that he was 
present when it was opened, or ever assisted at 
Fotheringay Castle. The unhappy princess's 
death being resolved upon, it only remained to 
decide upon the manner of it, and here Davison 


differed with Walsingham, being of opinion that 
it should be open ; upon which the latter pre- 
tended sickness, which threw the business of 
drawing up the warrant and bringing it to tin.' 
queen for signature, on Davison. If Davison's 
apology, indeed, may be believed, he acted 
throughout under dictation ; but he was tried in 
the Star Chamber for revealing the secrets of the 
queen's council, fined 10,000 marks, and sen- 
tenced to imprisonment during her majesty'* 
pleasure; a copy of the proceedings being sent 
to king James to account for the death of his 
mother. The fine was rigorously levied ; but he 
was assisted from time to time with small sums 
of money, and recommended to king James by 
the friendship of the earl of Essex. His final 
fortunes and time of death ate not known. 

DAVIT, in a ship, a 
long beam of timber, used 
as a crane whereby to hoist 
the flukes of the anchor to 
the top of the bow, without 
injuring the sides of the 
ship as it ascends ; an ope- 
ration which, by mariners, 
is called fishing the anchor. 
The anchors being siluated 
on both the bows, the davit 
may be occasionally shifted, 
so as to project over either 
side of the ship, according 
to the position of that an- 
chor on which it is employ- 
ed. The inner end of the 
davit is secured by being 
fixed in the fore channels 
outer end is hung a large 
which a strong rope traverses, called the fish 
pendent d; to the foremost end of which i; 
fitted a large iron hook e, and to the after end a 
tackle or complication of pullies /"; the former 
of which is called the fish-hook, and the latter 
the fish tackle. The anchor being previously 
raised to the cat head, the fish-hook is fastened 
upon its flukes; and the effort of the tackle 
being transmitted to the hook, by means of the 
fish-pendent, draws up that part of the anchor 
sufficiently high upon the bow to fasten it. 
There is also a davit of a smaller kind occa- 
sionally fixed in the long-boat, and employed to 
weigh the anchor therein. 

DAULE, a large navigable river of Quito, in 
the province of Guayaquil, which, after a course 
of sixty miles, falls into the Guayaquil, in lat. 
2 8' S., on the west side. Its shores are covered 
with estates and gardens belonging to the inha- 
bitants of Guayaquil, and abound in delicious 
fruits. It gives name to a small district. 

DAU NT, v.a. ~\ Fr. domter ; Lat. domiter ; 

DACNT'LESS, adj. >but perhaps more imme- 

DAUNfLESSNESs. ) diately derived to our lan- 
guage from Goth, and Swed. dana, signifying to 
make faint, amazed. To affright, discourage, in- 
timidate. A dauntless man is he who cannot 
readily be intimidated. 

Metellius, the foule cherle, the swine 
That with a staf beraft his wif hire lit", 
For she drank wine, though I had ben his wif, 
Nc shuld he nat have daunted me fra drink. 

Chavccr. Cant. Tula. 

b, and upon th 
block c, through 




DAUPHIN, a title given by 
the court of France to the pre- 
sumptive heir of the crown, on 
account of the province of Dau- 
phine", which in 1349 was given 
to Philip VI. on this condition, 
by Hubert II. dauphin of Vien- 
nois. He is styled the eldest son of France. 
His crown is a circle of gold set round with 
eight fleur-de-lis, closed at the top with four dol- 
phins, whose tails conjoin under a fleur-de-lis. 

DAUPHIN, in geography, a county of Penn- 
sylvania, formerly contained in that of Lancas- 
ter. Its form is triangular; and it is surrounded 
by the counties of Mifflin, Cumberland, York, 
Berks, and Northumberland. 

DAUPHINE', an extensive south-east pro- 
vince of France, containing the three depart- 
ments of 

Population. Chief Towns. 

Isere, 471 ,660, Grenoble. 

Drome, 253,372, Valence. 

Upper Alps, 124,763, Gap. 


Its entire area is about 6700 square miles, the 
surface being very mountainous, and the lower 
division intersected by a ridge of the Alps. 
The pasture is universally good, except where 
the hills are covered with forests. They contain 
mines of copper, iron, and lead. The principal 
rivers are the Isere, the Durance, and the Drome, 
which rise in the Alps, and terminate in the 
Phone. In the higher mountains it is cold and 
sharp, but on the banks of the Rhone the climate 
is warm. The valleys produce corn, flax, and 
olives ; and the sides of the hilli are covered with 
vines. The culture of silk is also prosecuted 
with success, particularly in Valence, Romans, 
Pierrelatte, and Montelimart. Cheese is a prin- 
cipal article of export. The ecclesiastical digni- 
taries are one archbishop (of Vienne), and three 
bishops (Grenoble, Valence, and Gap). 

DAVY (sir Humphrey, bart.), one of the most 
distinguished chemists of the age, was born at 
Penzance, in Cornwall, December 17th, 1779. 
After having received the rudiments of a classical 
education, he was placed with a surgeon and 
apothecary, who pronounced him an ' idle and 
incorrigible boy.' He had, however, already 
distinguished himself at school, and a taste for 
chemistry, which he displayed in some experi- 
ments on the air contained in sea-weed, attracted 
the attention of Mr. Gilbert, afterwards presi- 
dent of the royal society, and of Dr. Beddoes. 
The latter, who had just established a pneumat- 
ical institution at Bristol, offered him the place 
of assistant in his laboratory. Here Davy dis- 
covered the respirabilily and exhilarating effect 
of the nitrous oxide. He published the results 
of his experiments, under the title of Chemical 
and Philosophical Researches, &c., London, 
1800. This work immediately obtained him the 
place of professor of chemistry in the royal in- 
stitution at the age of twenty-two. In 1803 he 
was chosen a member of the Royal Society. 
His lectures at the Royal Institution were at- 
tended by crowded and brilliant audiences, at- 
tracted by the novelty and variety of his experi- 

merits, the eloquence of his manner, and toe 
clearness of his exposition. His discoveries 
with the galvanic battery, his decomposition of 
the earths and alkalies, and ascertaining their 
metallic bases, his demonstration of the simple 
nature of the oxymuriatic acid (to which he 
gave the name of chlorine), &c., obtained him 
an extensive reputation; and, in 1810, he re- 
ceived the prize of the French Institute. In 
1814 he was elected a corresponding member of 
that body. Having been elected professor of 
chemistry to the board of agriculture, he de- 
livered lectures on agricultural chemistry during 
ten successive years, and, in 1813, published his 
valuable Elements of Agricultural Chemistry. 
His next discovery was of no less importance to 
humanity than his former researches had been 
valuable to science. The numerous accidents 
arising from fire-damp in mines led him to enter 
upon a series of experiments on the nature of 
the explosive gas, the result of which was the 
invention of his safety-lamp. In 1818 and 
1819 he visited Italy, and made some unsuc- 
cessful attempts to unrol the Herculaneum ma- 
nuscripts. In 1820 he succeeded sir Joseph 
Banks, as president of the royal society. In 
1824 he visited Norway for the purpose of 
making some scientific investigations. On this 
voyage he proved the efficacy of his plan for 
preserving the copper of ships, by covering 
it in part with a certain quantity of iron. At 
the same time the trigonometrical measurements 
of Denmark and Hanover were connected, under 
his direction, by chronometrical observations, 
with the measurements in England. This dis- 
tinguished philosopher died May 29, 1829, at 
Geneva, whither he had gone for the benefit of 
his health. Besides the works already men- 
tioned, the most important are Electro-Chemical 
Researches ; Elements of Chemical Philosophy, 
vol. i. 1802; Bakerian Lectures, 1807 1811; 
Researches on the Oxymuriatic Acid, 1810; on 
the Fire-Damp, 1816. He also contributed 
some valuable papers to the Philosophical 
Transactions, and the journals of Nicholson and 

DAVY (William), a clergyman, who was edu- 
cated at Baliol College, Oxford, where he took 
the degree of B.D. was curate of Lustleigh, in 
Devonshire, and the editor, printer, and pub- 
lisher of a work entitled, 'A System of Divinity, 
in a course of Sermons on the first Institutes of 
Religion ; on some of the most important articles 
of the Christian Religion in connexion ; and on 
the several Virtues and Vices of Mankind ; with 
occasional Discourses : being a compilation froni 
the best sentiments of the polite writers and emi- 
nent sound divines, both ancient and modern, 
on the same subjects, properly connected, with 
improvements ; particularly adapted for the use 
of chiefs of families and students in divinity, for 
churches, and for the benefit of mankind in gene- 
ral,' 26 vols. 8vo. 1785-1807. The singular history 
of this production is said to be this : ' Mr. Davy, 
having completed his preliminary arrangements, 
issued proposals for publishing his work by sub- 
scription; but, being unpatronised and unknown, 
he had no success. Undaunted by his disap- 
pointment, he determined to become his own 


printer. With a press which he constructed 
himself, and as many worn and cast-off types 
(purchased from a country printing-office) as 
sufficed to set up two pages, he fell to work. 
Performing every operation with the assistance 
of his female domestic only, and working off a 
page at a time, he finished forty copies of the 
first 300 pages. Twenty-six copies he distri- 
buted among the universities, the bishops, the 
royal society, and the reviews, expecting to de- 
rive from some quarter or other that patronage 
and assistance to which he fancied himself en- 
titled. A second time disappointed, he would 
not abandon his project, but contracted his 
views, resolving in future to spare his expenses 
in paper. He had reserved only fourteen copies, 
ana to that number he limited the impression of 
his entire work. After years of unremitting toil, 
he saw it completed in 26 volumes. Disdaining 
to get assistance, for which he could ill afford 
to pay, he put the books in boards with his own 
hands, and then took a journey to London for 
the express purpose of depositing a copy in 
each of the principal public libraries of the me- 
tropolis.' Quarterly Review. 

DAW, n. t. Supposed by Skinner so named 
from its note; by Junius to be corrupted from 
dawl, the Germ, lul, and dot in the Bavarian 
dialect, having the same signification. The 
name of a bird. 

DAWES (Richard), a learned critic of the 
last century, was born in 1708, in Leicestershire. 
He was educated at Market Bosworth, and ad- 
mitted a sizer of Emanuel College, Cambridge, 
of which he became a fellow in 1731, and in 
1733 took the degree of M.A. He distinguished 
himself by his violent asperity towards Bentley, 
and in 1736 published a proposal for printing by 
subscription a translation into Greek verse of 
Milton s Paradise Lost; but the plan did not 
proceed. In 1738 he was appointed master of 
the free grammar-school atNewcastle-upon-Tyne. 
In 1745 he published his Miscellanea Critica, 
intended as a specimen of an intended emenda- 
tory edition of all the Attic poets. But neither 
was this design ever completed; the Miscellanea, 
however, gained the author great reputation, 
and a second edition of it, with additions, was 
published in 1781, by Dr. Burgess, bishop 
of Salisbury. He resigned his schools in 1749, 
and retired to Heworth, where he died in 1766. 

DAWK, v. a. & n. s. Scot. dalk. To mark 
with an incision. A word among workmen for 
a hollow, rupture, or incision, in their stuff. 

DAWN, v. n. & n. *. ) The past partici- 

DAWNINO, n. *. $ pie, according to Mr. 
Tooke (Diversions of Purley, v. ii.), of Anglo- 
Saxon, ^a^ian, to grow light. To becoma day ; 
to grow luminous. Hence to glimmer ; to ap- 
pear obscurely ; to commence. The dawn, or 
dawning is used for the time between the first 
appearance of the sun's light and sun-rise. 

As it began to dawn towards the first day of the 
week, came Mary Magdalene to see the sepulchre. 


All night I slept, oblivious of my pain ; 
Aurora dawned, and Phoebus shinod in vain. Pope, 

These tender circumstances diffuse a dawn of sere- 
nit Dvcr the soul. Id. 

79 DAY 

In such an enterprise to die is lather 
The daumof an eternal day, than death. Jlyron, 

DAX, an old town of trance, in Gascony, 
situated on a plain on the left bank of the Adour, 
a bridge across which unites it to the suburb, 
Sablar. It has a wall flanked with towers, and 
a castle. The place has been long celebrated 
for its mineral waters. In the middle of the 
town is a large and deep spring which throws 
out warm water in large quantities. The sur- 
rounding country is flat and sandy, but produc- 
tive. To the north-west is an immense forest. 
Population 4400. It is twenty-five miles north- 
east of Bayonne, and eighty-five south by west 
of Bourdeaux. 

DAY, n. s. "1 Ang.-Sax. 'DJES; Goth. 
TO-DAY, adv. Swed. and Belg. dag ; Tent. 
DAU.\,adj.&tadv tag ; Icel. dagur ; Lat. dies ; 
DAY-BED, n. s. all probably from Gr. Sat], 
DAY-BOOK, light. Minsheu says from 

DAY-BIIEAK H e b. HK1, to fly ; or from 

DAY-DREAM, the Belg. ducht, i. e. de acht 
DAY-LABOR, ( o f aught, or some value), 

DAY-LABORER, W Belg. nacht, night, is 
DAY-LIGHT, from nic acht, no value. 

DAY-LILY, The last conjecture is cu- 

DAYSMAN, rious, and the coincidence 

DAY-SPRING, remarkable. We leave the 
DAY-STAR, decision of these conflict- 

DAY-TIME, j n g etymologies with the 

DAY-WOMAN learned reader. The time 
DAY-WORK. j between sun-rise and sun- 
set ; from noon to noon ; from one evening to ano- 
ther; or from midnight to midnight ; or between 
any two points marking an artificial division of 
time of this kind ; light, sunshine ; any specified 
or appointed time; particularly a time appointed 
to give judgment, and therefore that judgment 
given; the period of human life; any remark- 
able period ; time in general. To-day appears 
simply to signify on this day. The meaning o 
the compounds is obvious, except perhaps tha 
of daysman, which signifies an umpire or judge" 
Dr. Johnson says , ' a surety.' But the instances 
from Job ix. and Spenser seem to confirm 
the former meaning, which is what Ainsworth 
gives. Wiclif clearly uses it for ' judgment,' in 
1 Cor. iv. 

And to roe it is for the leeste thing that I be 
deemed of ghou or of mannys dai, but neither I demc 
mysilf. Wiclif. 1 Cor. iv. 

I worche a werk in ghoure daies, a werk that ghe 
schulen not bileeue if ony man schal telle it ghou. 


And God called the light day, and the darkness 
he called night. And the evening and the morning 
were the first day. Bible. Gen. i. 5. 

For he is not a man, as I am, that I should an- 
swer him, and we should come together in judgment. 
Neither is there any daysman betwixt us, that might 
lay his hand upon upon us both. Id. Job. ix. 32, 33. 

To-day, if ye will hear his voice, harden not your 
hearts. Ptalm xcv. 7. 

Upon a day he got him more moncie 
Than that the persone gat in monethes twice 
And thus with fained flattering and gapes, 
He made the persone and the people his apes. 

Chaucer. Prul. to Cant. Tola. 




After hitn reigned Gutheiine his heir, 
The justest man and truest in his day*. 

Spenser. Faerie Queene. 
By this the drooping daylight 'gan to fade, 
And yield his room to sad succeeding night. Id. 

For what art thou, 

That makest thyself his daysman, to prolong 
The vengeance prest ? Id. 

Bavaria hath been taught, that merit and service 
doth oblige the Spaniard but from day to day. 


In the daytime Fame sittteth in a watch-tower, and 
flieth most by night ; she minglcth things done with 
things not done, and is a terror to great cities. Id. 

How many hours bring about the day, 
How many days will finish up the year. 


Much are we bound to heaven 
In daily thanks, that gave us such a prince. Id. 

The noble Thanes do bravely in the war ; 
The day almost itself professes yours, 
And little is to do. Id. Macbeth. 

Calling my officers about me, in my branched 
velvet gown ; having come down from a daybcd, 
where I have left Olivia sleeping. 

Id. Twelfth Night. 
Thou shalt buy this dear, 
If ever I thy face by daylight see. 
Now go thy way. Id. 

I meant to make her fair, and free, and wise, 
Of greatest blood, and yet more good than great : 

I meant the daystdr should not brighter rise, 
Nor lend like influence from his lucent seat. 

Ben Jonson. 

True labour in the vineyard of thy lord, 
Ere prime thou hast the' imposed daywork done. 

Or objects new 

Casual discourse draws on, which intermits 
Our day's work. Milton. 

Doth God exact daylabour, light denied, 
I fondly ask ? Id. 

In one night, ere glimpse of morn, 
His shadowy nail hath threshed the corn 
That ten daylabourers could not end. Id. 

The breath of heaven, fresh-blowing, pure and 

With day spring born, here leave me to respire. Id. 

Sunk though he be beneath the wat'ry floor ; 
So sinks the day-star in the ocean bed, 
And yet anon repairs his drooping head. Id. 

I saw you every day, and all the day ; 
And every day was still but as the first : 
So eager was I still to see you more. Dryden. 
Would you the' advantage of the fight delay, 
If, striking first, you were to win the day ? Id. 

Or if my debtors do not keep their day, 
Deny their hands, and then refuse to pay, 
I must with patience all the terms attend. Id. 

I watched the early glories of her eyes, 
As men for daybreak watch the Eastern skies. Id. 
Daylabour was but an hard and a dry kind of live- 
lihood to a man that could get an estate with two or 
three strokes of his pen. South. 

We have, at this time of day, better and more 
certain means of information than they had. 


Yet are we able only to survey 
Dawniags of beams, and promises of day. 


Cease, man of woman born ! to hope relief 
From daily trouble, and continued grief. Id. 

I think, in these days, one honest man is obliged 
to acquaint another who are his friends. Pope. 

If bodies be illuminated by the ordinary prisma- 
tick colours, they will appear neither of their own 
daylight colours, nor of the colour of the light cast on 
them, but of some middle colour between both. 

Newton's Optic.hf. 

Of night impatient, we demand the day 
The day arrives, then for the night we pray. 
The night and day successive come and go, 
Our lasting pains no interruption know. 


My ants never brought out their corn but in the 
night when the moon did shine, and kept it under- 
ground in the daytime. A ddison. 

Tb daily labours of the bee 
Awake my soul to industry ; 
Who can observe the careful ant 
And not provide for future want ? Gay. 

The past is all by death possest, 
And frugal fate, that guards the rest, 

By giving, bids us live to-day. Fenton. 
Are these the questions that raise a flame in the 
minds of men at this day? If ever the church and 
the constitution of England should fall in these islands 
(and they will fall together), it is not presbyterian or 
popish hierarchy that will rise upon their ruins. 


Thus Genius rose and set at ordered times. 
And shot a day-spriiig into distant climes, 
Ennobling every region that he chose ; 
He sunk in Greece, in Italy he rose. 

Cowper's Table Talk. 
Parting day 

Dies like the dolphin, whom each pang imbues 
With a new colour as it gasps away, 
The last still loveliest, till 'tis gone and all is gray. 





DAYS OF GRACE, in commerce, are a cus- 
tomary number of days allowed for the payment 
of a bill of exchange, 8cc., after the same br- 
comes due. Three days of grace are allowed in 
Britain; ten in France andDantzic; eight at 
Naples ; six at Venice, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, 
and Antwerp ; four at Francfort ; five in Leipsic ; 
twelve at Hamburg, &c. In Britain the days of 
grace are given and taken as a matter of course, 
the bill being only paid on the last day : but in 
other countries, where the time is much longer, 
it would be thought dishonorable for a merchant 
to take advantage of it ; bills are therefore paid 
on the very day they fall due. 

DAYS OF GRACE, in law, are those granted 
by the court at the prayer of the defendant or 

DAY (Thomas), a benevolent English writer, 
born in the metropolis, in 1748. While an in- 
fant, he was left heir' to a fortune of 1200 a 
year by the death of his father, who was a col^ 
lector of the customs. He received the first 
part of his education at the Charter-house, and 
was afterwards sent to Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford. Leaving Oxford he entered of the Middle 
Temple, and, having been disappointed iu an 




?ariy affection, took two foundling girls, with 
the intention of modelling their minds and 
manners. The former he placed with a milliner, 
but the latter he took under his own instruction, 
till, finding his scheme fruitless, he gave it up, 
and sent her to a school, lie is principally 
known as the author of the History of Saudford 
and Merton, a tale for youth, bearing no small 
similarity to Rousseau's Emilius. Mr. Day's 
opinions were more theoretical and sentimental 
than adapted to the world as he found it : an 
instance of which occasioned his death. Having 
a foal which he wished to ride, he would not 
suffer it to be previously broke in, by those 
usually employed in the task, but, undertaking 
the management of it himself, was thrown from 
its back, and received a severe kick on the head, 
of which he died, September 8th, 1789. 

DAY-COAL, in natural history, a name given 
by the miners of England, and the people who 
live in coal countries, to that seam or stratum of 
the coal which lies uppermost in the earth. See 

DAZE, v. a. '\ Sax. 'Daejian, to shine. 

DAZZLE, v. a. & v. n. > Mass.-Goth. dagsian ; 

DAZZLEMENT, n. s. j Goth, and Swed. dasa. 
To overpower with light, so as to confuse or 
rtupify : for both daze and dazzle may be regarded 
ns the same active verb. Hence to dazzle is also 
to strike with surprise ; to astonish ; and ' a dazed 
person,' in the North of England, is one of a 
vacant, staring countenance. As a neuter verb, 
to dazzle, is to be overpowered with light; to 
become blind. 

Proud of such glory and advancement vayne, 
While flashing beaincs do daze his feeble eyen, 
He leaves the welkin way most beaten playne ; 
And, wrapt with whirling wheeles, inflames the skyers 
With fire not made to burne, but fayrely for to shyne. 

Spenser. Faerie Queene. 
The crystall glass, which lent mine eyes their light, 

Doth now waxe dym, and daxeled all with dread ; 
My senses all, wyll now forsake me quite, 

And hope of health abandoneth my bead. 


Fears tise to be represented in such an imaginary 
fashion, as they rather daxxle men's eyes than open 
them. Bacon. 

An overlight maketh the eyes daxsle, insomuch as 
perpetual looking against the sun would cause blind- 
ness. 74. 

Daxxle mine eyes ? or do I see three suns ? 

Ar* like the sun, dazxling, yet plain to all eyes. 

Donne. Satires. 

They smote the glistering armies, as they stand, 
With quivering beams, which dazed the wond'ring eye. 


Those heavenly shapes 
Will daxxle now this earthly with their blaze 
Insufferably bright. Milton. 

Poor human kind, all daxed in open day, 
Err after Miss, and blindly miss their way. 


Ah, friend ! to daxxle let the vain design ; 
To raise the thought, or touch the heart, be thine. 


It is with books as with women, where a certain 
plainness of manner and of dress, is more engaging 

than that glare of paint and airs and apparel, which 
may daxzle the eye, but reaches not the affections. 


We gaze and turn away, and know not where, 
Dazzled and drunk with beauty, till the heart 
Reels with its fulness ; there for ever there 
Chained to the onariot of triumphal Art, 
We btand as captives, and wou'J not depart. 


DAZE, in natural history, a name given by 
our miners to a glittering sort of stone, which 
oftens occurs in their works; and, as it is an un- 
profitable substance, is one of those things they 
call weeds. The word is applied by them to 
every stone that is hard and glittering; and there- 
fore comprehends the whole genus of the telangia, 
or stony nodules, which have the flakes of talc in 
their substance. 

DEACON, n. s. ~\ Gr. ftaicovoc. A minis- 

DEACONESS, f ter or official servant of the 

DEACONRY, church, from cia, empha- 

DEACONSHIP. J tic ; and KOVUO, to serve. 
See the following article. Deacon ry is both the 
office of a deacon, and a sort of hospital or re- 
ligious house at Rome. 

Also (it bihoueth) dekenes to be chaast, not double 
tunged. Wiclif. 1 Tymo. iii. 

Likewise roust the deacons be grave, &c. 

Bible. 1 Tim. iii. 

When a contemptuous bold deacon had abused his 
bishop, he complained to S. Cyprian, who was an 
arch-bishop, and indeed S. Cyprian tells him he did 
honour him in the business that he would complain to 
tim. Bp. Taylor. 

Timothy was to prefer those who formerly had been 
employed by the church as deaconesses, and had dis- 
charged that office with faithfulness and propriety. 
Mucknight on 1 Tim. v. 10. 

There were fourteen of these deaconries or hospitals, 
at Rome, which wore reserved to the cardinals. Du 
Cange gives in their names. C/tambers. 

DEACON, in civil polity, the prases of a cor- 
poration, in the royal boroughs of Scotland. 

DEACON, in ecclesiastical polity, ciaeoj/oc, a 
servant, one whose business is to baptize, read 
in the church, and assist at the celebrations of 
the eucharist. Seven deacons were instituted by 
the apostles, Acts vi., which number was retained 
a long time in several churches. Their office was 
to serve in the Agapce, and to distribute the bread 
and wine to the communicants. Another part 
of their office was to be a sort of directors to the 
people in the exercise of their public devotions 
in the church ; for which purpose they used cer- 
tain forms of words, to give notice when each 
part of the service began. Whence they are 
sometimes called eirokerukes, or holy criers of 
the church. Deacons had, by license from the 
bishop, a power to preach, to reconcile penitents, 
to grant absolution, and to represent their 
bishops in general councils. Their office out of 
the church was to take care of orphans, widows, 
prisoners, and all the poor and sick who had any 
title to be maintained out of the revenues of the 
church ; to enquire into the morals of the people, 
and to make their report to the bishop. Whence, 
on account of the variety of business, it was usual 
to have several deacons in the same church. In 
the Romish church, it is the deacon's office to 





incense the officiating priest or prelate ; to lay the administrator for the temporal concerns, called 
corporal on the altar; to receive the patera or the father of the deaconry, who was sometimes 
cup from the subdeacon, and present it to the a priest and sometimes a layman. 

person officiating ; to incense the choir ; to receive 
the pax from the officiating prelate, and carry it 
to the subdeacon ; and at the pontifical mass, 
when the bishop gives the blessing, to put the 
mitre on his head, and to take offtjie archbishop's 
pall and lay it on the altar. In England, the 
form of ordaining deacons, declares that it is 
their office to assist the priest in the distribution 
of the holy communion ; in which, agreeably to 
the practice of the ancient church, they are con- 
fined to the administering wine to the communi- 
cants. A deacon in the Church of England is 
not capable of any ecclesiastical promotion ; yet 

DEAD, v. a. v. n. n. s. & adj.^\ Sax. t>ea& :_ 
DEADEN, v. a. I Goth.andlcel. 

DEADLY, adj. & adv. daud Teut. 

DEAOLINESS, n. s. \ tod. See 


DEAD-BORN, adj. active verbs, 

DEAD-DOING, part. adj. to dead and to 

DEAD-LIFT, n. s. deaden, both 

DEAD-RECKONING, n. s. J signifyto cause 

death, as well as to deprive of power or force ; 
to make vapid or spiritless ; but are nearly obso- 
lete. Lord Bacon uses dead as a neuter verb. 

Dead, the adjective, is, deprived of life ; sense- 
he may be a chaplain to a family, curate to a i ess . without motion ; inactive ; empty ; void ; 
Leneficed clergyman, or lecturer to a parish j ul i . useless; unadorned; flat in taste ; vapid. 

church. He may be ordained at twenty-three ^ a noun> it s i gn ifi es those who have suffered 

years of age, but it is expressly provided, that deatn) and, figuratively, a still or quiet season. 

the bishop shall not ordain the same persona Deadly is, mortal, or like death. Dead-doing is, 

priest and deacon in the same day. The quali- 
fications of a deacon in the primitive church are 

mentioned by the apostle Paul, 1 Tim. iii. 8 13. 
DEACONESS, an order of women who had their 

distinct offices and services in the primitive 

church. This office appears as ancient as the 

apostolical age ; for St. Paul calls Phebe, Siaico- 

vof, a servant of the church of Cenchrea. Ter- 

tullian calls them, viduae, widows, because they 

were commonly chosen out of the widows of the 

church; and Epiphanius, and thfc council of 

Laodicea, call them irptaBvTidac, elderly women, 

because none but such were ordinarily taken 

into this office. For, by some ancient laws, 

these four qualifications were required in every 

on" that was to be admitted into this order : 

t . That she should be a widow. 2 That she 

should be a widow that had borne children. 3. 

A widow that has been but once married. 4. One 

of a considerable age, forty, fifty, or sixty years 

old : though all these rules admitted of excep- 
tions. One part of their office was to assist the 

minister at the baptizing of women. Another 

part was to be private catechists to the female 

catechumens who were preparing for baptism. 

They were likewise to attend the women that 

were sick and in distress; to minister to martyrs 

and confessors in prison ; to attend the women's 
gate in the church ; and, lastly, to assign all 
women their places in the church, regulate their 

.behaviour, and preside over the rest of the 
widows, whence in some canons they are styled 
7rpoKaT0t[itvai, governesses. This order, which 
since the tenth or twelfth century has been wholly 
laid aside, was not abolished at once, but contin- 
ued in the Greek church longer than in the Latin, 
and in some of the Latin churches longer than 
in others. 

DEACONRY, diaconia, is a name given to the 
chapels and oratories in Rome, under the direc- 
tion of the several deacons, in their respective 
regions or quarters. To the deaconries were an- 
nexed a sort of hospitals or boards for the dis- 
tribution of alms governed by the regionary dea- 
cons, called cardinal deacons, of whom there 
were seven answering to the seven regions, their 
chief being called the archdeacon. The hospital 
adjoining to the church of the deaconry had an 

that which is destructive, having the power or 
design to kill. Deadliness is that state or con- 
dition which threatens death ; a dead-lift is 
' hopeless exigence,' says Dr. Johnson ; that is, 
figuratively, for the original idea is the heavy 
mass or ' dead weight' which a lifeless body 
becomes. See the example from Locke. Dead- 
reckoning is a sea phrase, meaning the reckon- 
ing that is kept without observation of the 
heavenly bodies. 

How seyn summen among ghou that the aghen- 
risynge of deede men is not ? and if the aghenrisynge 
of deede men is not, neither crist roos aghen fro deeth. 
Widif. 1 Cor. 15. 

There was not a house where there was not one 
dead. Exod. xii. 30. 

At thy rebuke, O God of Jacob, both the chariot 
and horse are cast into a dead sleep. Psalms. 

. I will break Pharaoh's arms, and he shall groan 
before him with the groanings of a deadly wounded 
man. Ez. xxx. 24. 

Therewith the fire of jalousie up sterte 
Within his brest, and hent him by the herte 
Soo woodly, that he like was to behold 
The box-tree, or the ashen tied an cold, 

Chaucer. Cant. Tales. 

Hold, O dear lord, your dead-doing hand, 
Then loud he cried, I am your humble thrall. 


Loth was that other, and did faint though feare 
To taste the' untried dint of deadly steele ; 
But yet his lady did so well him cheare, 
That hope of new good hap he gan to feelp. 

Id. Faerie Queene. 

That the sound may be extinguished or deaded i>y 
discharging the pent air, before it cometh to the 
mouth of the piece, and to the open air, is not pro- 
bable. Bacon. 

The beer and the wine, as well within water as 
above, have not been palled or deaded at all. Id. 

Anointing of the forehead, neck, feet, and back. 
bone, we know is used for procuring deep sleeps. Id, 

Iron, as soon as it is out of the fire, deadeth strait- 
ways. Id. Natural History. 

She then on Romeo calls As if that name, 
Shot from the deadly level of a gun, 
Did mur'ier her. Shafapear* 




Like dumb statues, or imbreathing stones, 
Stared each on other, and looked deadly pale. 

The queen, my lord, is dead : 
- She should have died hereafter. 

Id. Macbeth. 

The tin sold sometimes higher, and sometimes 
lower, according to the quick vent and abundance, or 
the dead sale and scarcity. Careic. 

But why doth Balbus his deade-doing quill 
Parch in his rusty scabbard ? 

Bishop Hall. Satires, vi. 1. 

Their flight was only deferred until they might 
cover their disorders by the dead darkness of the 
night. Hayward. 

Travelling over Amanus, then covered with deep 
snow, they came in the dead winter to Aleppo. 


And have no power at all, nor shift 
To help itself at a dead-lift. Hudibrat. 

They never care how many others 
They kill, without regard of mothers, 
Or wives, or children, so they can 
Make up some fierce dead-doing man. Id. 

In the dead of the night, when the men and their 
dogs were all fast asleep. L'Eitrange. 

When it (the cavity) was closed up, the bell 
seemed to sound more dead than it did when just be- 
fore it sounded in the open air. . Boyle. 

She either from her hopeless lover fled 
Or with disdainful glances shot him dead. Dryden. 

Jove saw from high, with just disdain, 
The dead inspired with vital life again. Id. 

Nought but a blank remains, a dead void space, 
A step of life, that promised such a race Id. 

At a second sitting, though I alter not the draught, 
I must touch the same features over again, and 
change the dead colouring of the whole. Id. 

Young Arcite heard, and up he ran with haste, 
And asked him why he looked deadly wan ? Id. 

Your gloomy eyes betray a deadneis, 
And inward languishing. Dryden and Lee't (Ediput. 

Mettled schoolboys, set to cuff, 
Will not. confess that they have done enough, 
Though deadly weary. Orrery. 

After this life, to hope for the favours of mercy 
then, is to expect an harvest in the dead of winter. 


They cannot bear the dend weight of unemployed 
time lying upon their hands, nor the uneasiness it is 
to do nothing at all. Locke. 

That the dead shall rise and live again, is beyond 
the discovery of reason, and is purely a matter of 
faith. u. 

This motion would be quickly deadened by counter- 
motions. danville's Scepsis Scientiftca. 

All, all but truth, drops dead-born, from the press, 
Like the last gazette, or like the last address. Pope. 

How cold and dead does a prayer appear, that is 
composed in the most elegant forms of speech, when 
it is not heightened by solemnity of phrase from the 
sacred writings. Addison. 

Our dreams are great instances of that activity 
which is natural to the human soul, and which is not 
in the power of sleep to deaden or abate. Spectator. 

Somewhat is left under dead walls and dry ditches. 


Anodynes are such things as relax the t<-r. sum o: 
the aftected nervous fibres, or destroy the particular 
acrimony which occasions the pain ; or what drt>di-n 
the sensation of the brain, by procuring sleep. 

Id. tin Diet. 

A little rill of scanty stream and bed 
A name of blood from that day's sanguine rain : 
And Sanguinetto tells ye where the dead 
Made the earth wet, and turned the unwilling waters 
red. Byron. 

But, hark! that heavy sound breaks in once 


As if the clouds its echo would repeat, 
And nearer, clearer, deadlier than before ' 
Arm! arm ! it is it is the cannon's opening roar ! 


DEAD-EYE, in maritime affairs, a sort of round 
flattish wooden block, usually encircled with a 
rope, or with an iron band, g, and 
pierced with three holes through the 
flat part, in order to receive a rope 
called the lanyard /, which, corres- 
ponding with three holes in another 
dead-eye i, creates a purchase employed 
for various uses, but chiefly to extend 
the standing rigging. In order to form 
thi5 purchase, one of the dead-eyes is 
fastened in the upper link of each 
chain on the ship's side, which is made 
round to receive and encompass the 
hollowed outer edge of the dead-eye. 
After this the lanyard is passed alter- 
nately through the holes in the upper 
and lower dead-eyes, till it becomes 
six-fold ; and is then drawn tight by 
the application of mechanical powers. 

DEAD-LIGHTS, certain wooden ports, which arc 
made to fasten into the cabin windows, to prevent 
the waves from gushing into the ship in a high 
sea; and, as they are made exactly to fit windows, 
and are strong enough to resist the waves, they 
are always fixed in on the approach of a storm, 
and the glass lights taken out, which must other- 
wise be shattered to pieces by the surges, and 
suffer great quantities of water to enter the 

DEADLY FEUD, in English law-books, a pro- 
fession of irreconcilable enmity, till a person is 
revenged by the death of his enemy. See FECD. 
Such enmity and revenge were allowed by law in 
the time of the Saxons. If any man was killed, 
and a pecuniary satisfaction was not made to the 
kindred, it was lawful for them to take up arms 
and revenge themselves on the murderer: this 
was called deadly feud ; and probably was the 
original of an appeal. 

DEAD SEA, in geography, a lake of Judea, into 
which the river Jordan discharges itself. See 


DEAD WATER, at sea, die eddy water just 
astern of a ship ; so called because it does not pass 
away so swift as the water running by her sides 
does. They say that a ship makes much dead- 
water when she has a great eddy following her 

DEAF, v. a. oc adj.~\ Sax. al>earian, "seap; 

DEAFEN, v. a. f Goth, deif; Dan. doev. 

DEAFLY, adv. l Minsheu says, Tent. 

DEAFNESS, n. s. J daub, from Heb. 3K1. 
weak: and this seems continued by an olu 

G 2 



meaning of the word in our language, i.e. sterile, 
unprofitable. To deprive of hearing ; to stun : 
wanting the sense of hearing, totally or partially ; 
dull ; determined against a request or solicita- 
tion : applied also to sounds heard imperfectly, 
i. e. weakly. It requires to before the thing or 
sound that ought to be heard. 

And by so myche more thci wondriden and s^iden, 
he dide wel alle thingis and he made deefe men to 
here and douinbe men to speke. Wiclif. Mark 7. 

A good wif was ther of beside Bathe, 
But she was some del defe, and that was scathe. 

Chaucer. Prol. to Cunt. Tales. 

Come on my right hand, for this ear is deaf. 


1 will be deaf to pleading and excuses ; 
'Nor tears nor prayers shall purchase out abuses. Id. 

Hearing hath deafed our sailors ; and if they 
Know how to hear, there's none know what to say. 


I found such a deaf nets that no declaration from 
the bishops could take place. King Charles. 

A swarm of their aerial shapes appears, 
And fluttering round his temples, deaft his ears. 


But Salius enters : and, exclaiming loud 
For justice, deafen* and disturbs the crowd. Id. 

Nor silence is within, nor voice express, 
But a deaf noise of sounds that never cease ; 
Confused and chiding like the hollow roar 
Of tides receding from the insulted shore. Id. 

Those who are deaf and dumb, are dumb by conse- 
quence from their deafneu. Holder. 

Whilst virtue courts them ; but, alas, in vain ! 
Fly from her kind embracing arms, 
Deaf to her fondest call, blind to her greatest charms. 


If any sins afflict our life 
With that prime ill, a talking wife, 
Till death shall bring the kind relief, 
We must be patient, or be deaf. Prior. 

Thus you may still be young to me, 
While I can better hear than see : 
Oh ne'er may fortune shew her spite, 
To make me deaf, and mend my sight. Swift. 
Hope, too long with vain delusion fed, 
Deaf to the rumour of fallacious fame, 
Gives to the roll of death his glorious name. 


The Dunciad had never been writ, but at his re- 
quest, and for his deaf nest ; for, had he been able to 
converse with me, do you think I had amused my 
time so ill ? Id. 

From shouting men, and horns, and dogs, he flies, 
Deafened and stunned with their promiscuous cries. 


Wheel in wide circle, form in hollow square, 
And now they front, and now they fly the war, 
Pierce the deaf tempest with lamenting cries. 
Press their parched lips, and close their blood-shot 
eyes. Darwin. 

DEAFNESS arises commonly either from an 
obstruction or a compression of the auditory 
nerve ; from some collection of matter in the 
cavities of the inner ear; from the auditory pas- 
sage bang stopped up by some hardened excre- 
ment ; or lastly, from some excrescence, a swelling 
of the glands, or some foreign body introduced 
within it. 

There are also diseases of the internal ear that 
admit of no distinct classification, and sometimes 
such defects of the auditory nerves, either as a 
whole or in part, as to occasion this unhappy 
peculiarity. The sensibility of these nerves, like 
that of the rest of the body, becomes also weak- 
ened by age and various diseases, so as to 
occasion what is properly called a loss of 

Our object in this paper is to consider deafness 
distinctly, and as a disease. Its unhappy con- 
sequence, in those who are born deaf, DUMBNESS, 
is an entirely different topic : at least in a noso- 
logical point of view. We shall first treat of 
both distinctly, and then, in the latter article, 
give some account of the modern efforts to 
ameliorate the situation of those in whom these 
disorders are hopeless. And, 

1 . Of deafness from deficiency in the auditory 
organs. We are said to possess more accurate 
and detailed descriptions of the anatomy of the 
ear than of any other part of the body : in our 
articles ANATOMY and PHYSIOLOGY we shall be 
seen to avail ourselves of them. But it is re- 
markable that the profession of an aurist is 
almost new to the medical world, and that many 
diseases and deficiencies of the organs of the 
ear are yet to be explained. We have perhaps, 
therefore, less of the just application of know- 
ledge to its diseases than to those of any other 
part. See ACCOUSTIC. 

The office of individual portions of this com- 
plicated organ, for instance, has been but very im- 
perfectly ascertained. Numerous observations 
seem to indicate that considerable injuries and 
deficiencies of the membrana tympani may take 
place without producing much effect upon the 
faculty of hearing. Persons who, by driving 
smoke taken in at the mouth, iu large volumes 
through the ears, indicate a deficiency of this 
kind, are often found acute in the perception of 
sounds ; and Sir Astley Cooper mentions an 
instance in which the membrana tympani of one 
ear being totally destroyed, and that of the other 
nearly so, by disease, it appeared that the deaf- 
ness was inconsiderable, and that sound was 
most readily perceived by the ear in which no 
trace of the membrane could be discovered. In 
the same case, the ear was nicely susceptible of 
musical tones, the individual played well on the 
flute, and sang perfectly in tune. The power of 
accommodating the ear to differing intensity of 
sound was, indeed, lost for some time after the 
destruction of the membrane : it, however, 
gradually returned ; and at the period of exa- 
mination there was no distress arising from that 

Where deafness has followed the accidental 
destruction or continued disease of this mem- 
brane, it would appear to arise more directly, 
therefore, from its effect on neighbouring 01- 
gans, as on the membranes of the fenestra, and 
the fluid of the labyrinth, which seem to be es- 
sential to the distinct conveyance of sound. The 
tympanum is, in fact, only one of the outward 
portals of this mysterious temple, though the last 
of them at which the sound arrives. 

Its functions seem to be analogous with those 
of the pinna, or outward ear, i. e. to regulate 


and direct, only in a more perfect degree, the 
waves and impression* of sound. In the case 
above quoted, after this membrane had been so 
materially injured, the muscles of the external 
ear seemed to acquire a new power of moving 
upward, and backsvards, which was regularly 
exerted in the effort to catch an indistinct sound. 
The whole of the pinna, we need hardly observe, 
has been frequently removed without any abiding 
injury to the hearing. And in cases where the 
auricle has never been formed, the functions of 
the inner ear have been found perfect. Scarpi 
considers the fenestra rotunda as a species of 
second tympanum. So long, therefore, as the 
internal ear is sound and healthy, all the essential 
operations of this organ will proceed. 

One practical remark may be permitted us 
here, on a very common practice. Sir Hans 
Sloane has observed, ' that among the many 
people in England who had applied to him on 
account of deafness, the far greater part were 
thrown into their complaints by too often picking 
their ears, and thereby bringing humors, or ul- 
cerous dispositions, on them.' Phil. Trans. No. 
246, p. 406. 

2. Of diseases of the meatus auditor ius, or ex- 
ternal passage of the ear. In this passage, and 
its secretions, arise the most common impediments 
to hearing. The exact, healthy quantum of ce- 
rumen, or wax, which should be here secreted, 
has never been ascertained. But in a diseased 
state of this part of the ear the cerumen has 
been found completely stopping up the passage, 
and sometimes forming a false tympanum. The 
cerumen hardened and permanently lodged on 
the tympanum is a frequent and uniform cause 
of deafness. The common application of warm 
water for this accumulation has never been im- 
pioved upon. This passage is also subject to 
I'lreration, which produces a great thickening of 
the integuments, and consequent obstruction. 
The ichor, exuding from the ulcerated surface, 
inspissates in the passage, and is accompanied 
with much fcetor. This disease generally yields 
to the application of solutions of the metallic 
salts, as of muriated mercury in lime-water ; or 
of vitriolated zinc ; or to the use of the unguen- 
tum hydrargiri nitratum ; calomel, or other alte- 
ratives being taken at the same time. (Saunders). 
Polypous excrescences and other extraneous 
substances sometimes require to be removed by 
mechanical means from this passage. 

3. Of diseases or obstructions of the Eustachian 
tube. This forms, in fact, the body of the drum, 
if we may be allowed the phrase, of which the 
ear so largely consists. Communicating with 
the back of the palate, it admits a portion of air 
to counterbalance that in the meatus, and assists 
materially, during the vibrations of the tym- 
panum, in perfecting the distinct sensation of 
sounds. Inveterate deafness is therefore often 
produced by the disease or obstruction of this 
organ and its cavity. When air is no longer 
found here, the tympanum is unduly forced and 
stretched inward, and thus cannot vibrate as in 
its perpendicular state. 

Obstructions of this tube arise frequently from 
syphilitic ulcers in the throat, or sloughing in 
the cynanche maligna. The deafness ensues on 

the healing of the ulcers, that is, when the ob- 
struction is complete. The descent of a nasal 
polypus into the pharynx, and enlarged tonsils, 
have also been known to clo^e the tube. Some- 
times the cavity has been found filled with 

The only symptom to which medical men can 
advert in this case is, that when the patient blows, 
with his nose and mouth stopped, he does not 
experience that peculiar sensation, which arises 
from the inflation of the tympanum. He speaks 
only of the loss of sense, and complains of no 
particular symptom. In this respect the deafness 
differs from all other species. 

Sir Astley Cooper has, however, introduced a 
method of relieving this previously incurable 
disease of the ear, by puncturing the tympanum. 
The effect is said to be an instantaneous resto- 
rative to the faculty of hearing. But there is 
some difficulty in keeping open the puncture, 
which is, in point of fact, to become, in this case, 
an artificial Eustachian tube. A large hole 
diminishes the perfection of the returning tension 
sense, and a small one is perpetually closing. 
If the membrane also be much lacerated or de- 
tached at its circumference, the tension will be 
lessened; yet even, in these cases, the patient 
receives an evident benefit. 

The instrument, in this operation, is passed 
through the meatus and the anterior or inferior 
part of the tympanum. The position of the 
manubriura of the malleus demanding this pre- 
caution : a little crack will immediately be heard 
like that which is occasioned in pricking a com- 
mon drum, particularly if the tube be entirely 
closed, as the sound will then be more acute> 
from the rapid entrance of the air. The instru- 
ment must not penetrate far into the tympanum, 
lest it should pierce its vascular lining; and the 
escape of blood injure the operation. 

4. We come now to the more numerous and 
important diseases of the internal ear. It is 
evident that deafness often exists when no ap- 
parent cause or morbid affection appears ; and 
that it arises from a nervous insensibility, in some 
cases, which no surgical aid can remove. The 
tympanum will appear perfect, and exercise^ 
apparently, its usual functions ; and the secretions 
of the meatus seem healthy. In some cases> 
complaint is made of great noises in the head, 
and, as they often correspond with the beating of 
the pulse, this has been traced to a peculiar 
perception of the pulsation of the arteries. The 
organic causes of some of these diseases are even 
traceable to the brain. Where the deafness has 
been preceded by local inflammation in the head > 
evacuants, particularly local ones, are generally 
prescribed ; such as the application of leaches 
and blisters to the neck and behind the ears ; 
and the general antiphlogistic plan should be 
pursued more or less, according to the nature of 
the plerothic symptoms. 

Imperfect circulation, on the other hand, and 
general debility, will sometimes be the cause of 
deafness ; when the usual stimulants of elec- 
tricity and galvanism have been found effec- 
tual, and stimulating liquids may be cautiously 
dropped into the ear. In the swelling, or en- 
largement of neighbouring parts of the head OT 




reck, through scrophulous or syphilitic affections, 
these disorders, of course, must be attended to, as 
the root of the disorganisation. 

Mr. Saunders has described, at some length, 
one of the most common, and important diseases, 
connected both with the external and internal 
ear; and, at the same time, one of the most 
common causes of deafness that occur. We 
mean the puriform discharge, or ' running,' 
as it is popularly called, from the tympanum. 
He considers it under three states or stages: 1. 
A simple puriform discharge. 2. A puriform 
discharge, complicated with fungi and polypi. 
3. A puriform discharge, with a caries of the 
tympanum. The time of transition from one of 
these stages to another is quite uncertain. In 
some instances, years do not affect it ; and, in 
others, it seems to advance, almost at once, to a 
carious state of the bone. 

This puriform discharge from the tympanum, 
he insists, is a local disease, and does not depend 
on any disordered state of the constitution : ge- 
neral remedies are, therefore, inefficacious. But, 
as a bad state of health is unfavorable to the 
healing of any parts, so, in this particular com- 
plaint, any disordered condition of the habit 
should be corrected. The chief dependence is to 
be placed on direct applications to the parts af- 
fected. Injections of vitriolated zinc, acetate of 
lead, &c., are very efficacious in suppressing the 
discharge ; and their effects may be aided by the 
external employment of blisters and setons. The 
fungous and polypous excrescences must be re- 
moved or destroyed by mechanical means ; they 
are only incidental occurrences, and their re- 
moval reduces the disease to the first stage. 

The deafness during the continuance of this 
discharge is sometimes very considerable, when 
the real injury which the organ has sustained is 
trivial. In the first stage, the mere thickening of 
parts, or the collection of the discharge, must 
impede the action of the intervening machinery 
between the external and internal parts of the 
ear; and, in the second, the mechanical obstruc- 
tion of the funguses or polypi excludes the pulses 
of sound. On this account there is often a re- 
markable increase of the power of hearing, when 
the discharge is suppressed in the first and se- 
cond stages. But as the parts are invisible, i* is 
difficult, if not impracticable, to decide a priori, 
how far the power of hearing can be restored. 
This, however, is no valid objection to attempt- 
ing the cure. The sense will not be rendered 
worse by a failure; and if the discharge should be 
stopped, the disease which caused it is removed, 
the organ safe from farther injury, and the pa- 
tient freed from an offensive malady. In the 
last stage, the sense is almost, if not totally, de- 
stroyed ; and although the discharge be stopped, 
the patient's hearing will be very 1 ittle, if at all, 

When this disease is cured, the tympanum is 
exposed to the free ingress and egress of the air, 
and the mucilaginous discharge inspissates, as 
the mucus of the nose, by the exhalation of its 
watery parts. By this accident the patient's 
deafness increases at intervals, for which he often 
s?eks relief. The practitioner, on sounding the 
ear, perceives this hardened matter ; and con- 

ceiving, as is really the case, that it produces the 
augmentation of deafness, is tempted to remove 
it. But nothing stimulative, nor any rude at- 
tempts, can be safe, for there is great danger of 
reproducing the discharge. Having learned that 
a discharge has pre-existed, it will be expedient 
to leave it to spontaneous separation. Suunders's 
Anatomy and Diseases of the Ear. 

This is frequently the disorder of the ear, at- 
tended with violent inflammations of the tympa- 
num, and even with delirium ; remarkably resem- 
bling, in its fluctuations, the tooth-ache, and often 
popularly but most improperly treated with 
similar stimulating applications. Parents and 
individuals who have the care of children cannot 
be too observant of the nature of frequent dis- 
charges from the ear, and should apply early 
for a good medical opinion as to their cause. 

DEAL, T. a., v. n. & n. s. ") Sax. t>sel ; Goth- 

DEAL'ER, n.s. >rfi7; Teut. deil ; 

DEAL'ING, n. s. j Belg. d<elen, from 

Gr. SteXav, says Minsheu, to distribute or divide. 
These are clearly the leading ideas of the word 
in all its various applications. To separate and 
distribute in portions ; to dispose of in parts ; 
to scatter; to give to different persons. As a 
neuter verb, to trade ; to transact business ; and 
hence, to negotiate and mediate an intercourse 
between different parties ; taking various pre- 
positions, as to deal by, deal in, and deal with. 
As a substantive, it expresses the part or quan- 
tity divided or distributed ; the act or practice 
of apportioning out a pack of cards ; a plank of 
fir, divided, split, or sawn out from the tree. A 
dealer is a trader, or distributer of various com- 
modities for profit. Dealing, the practise of 
trading, and hence any kind of business, transac- 
tion, or intercourse. 

Deal thy bread to the hungry, and bring the poor 
that are cast out to thy house, Isaiah Iviii. 7. 

And with the one lamb, a tenth deal of flour min- 
gled with the fourth part of an hin of beaten oil. 

Exod. xxix. 40. 

The treacherous dealer dealeth treacherously, ana. 
the spoiler spoileth. Isaiah xxi. 2. 

He kept his patient a ful great del 
In houres by his magike nature!. 

Chaucer. Prol. to Cant. Tales. - 

Neither can the Irish, nor yet the English lords, 
think themselves wronged, nor hardly dealt frith, to 
have that which is none of their own given to them. 

Spenser's Ireland. 

When men's affections do frame their opinions, 
they are in defence of errour more earnest, a great 
deal, than, for the most part, sound believers in the 
maintenance of truth. Hooker. 

Concerning the dealings of men who administer 
government, and unfto whom the execution of that law 
belongeth, they have their judge, who sitteth iu 
heaven. Id. 

But ibis was neither one pope's fault, nor one 
prince's destiny : he must write a story of the empire, 
that means to tell of all their dealings in this kind. 


Sometimes he that deals between man and man, 
raiseth his own credit with both, by pretending greater 
interest than he hath in either. Bacon, 




It is generally better to deal by speech than by 
letter ; and by a man himself, than by the mediation 
of a third. Id. 

To weep with them that weep, do'.h ease some deal; 
But sorrow flouted at is double death. Shakspeare. 

Two deep enemies, 

Foes to my rest, and my sweet sleep's disturbers, 
Are they that I would have thee deal upon. Id. 

What these are ! 

Whose own hard dealings teach them to suspect 
The thoughts of others. Id. 

What a deal of cold business doth a man mispend 
the better part of life in ' In scattering compliments, 
and tendering visits. Ben Jonson. 

If she hated me, I should know what passion to 
deal with. Sidney. 

Still in the night she weeps, and her tears fall 
Down her cheeks along, and none of all 
Her lovers comfort her. Perfidiously 
Her friends have dealt, and now are enemy. 

Donne. On the Lamentat. of Jeremy. 

Gentlemen were commanded to remain in the 
country, to govern the people, easy to be dealt with 
whilst they stand in fear. Hayward. 

God's gracious dealings with men, are the aids and 
auxiliaries necessary to us in the pursuit of piety. 


Who then shall guide 

His people ? Who defend ? Will they not deal 
Worse with his followers, than with him they dealt ? 


I have also found, .that a piece of deal, far thicker 
than one would easily imagine, being purposely inter- 
posed betwixt my eye, placed in a room, and the 
clearer daylight, was not only somewhat transparent, 
but appeared quite through a lovely red. 

Boyle on Colours. 

God did not only exercise this providence towards 
his own people, but he dealt thus also with other 
nations. Tillotson. 

They buy and sell, they deal and traffic. South. 
Possibly gome never so much as doubted of the 
safety of their spiritual estate ; and, if so, they have 
so much the more reason, a great deal, to doubt of it. 

One with a broken truncheon deals his blows. 

Dry den. 

But I will deal the more civilly with his two poems, 
because nothing ill is to be spoken of the dead. Id. 

*Ceep me from the vengeance of thy darts, 
Which Niobe's devoted issue felt, 
When hissing through the skies the featheied deaths 

were dealt. Id. 

Such an one deals not fairly by his own mind, nor 
conducts his own understanding aright. . Locke. 

With the fond maids in palmistry he deals, 
They tell the secret which he first reveals. Prior. 

Reflect on the merits of the cause, as well as of the 
men who have been thus dealt with by their country. 


How can the muse her aid impart, 
Unskilled in all the terms of art ? 
Or in harmonious numbers put 
The deal, the shuffle, and the cut ? Id. 

I find it common with these small dealers in wit and 
learning, to give themselves a title from their first 
adventure. Id. 

The Scripture forbids even the countenancing a 
poor man in his cause ; which is a popular way of 
preventing justice, that some men have dealt in, 
.though without that success which they proposed to 
themselves. Atterbury, 

Wherever I rind a great deal of gratitude in a poor 
man, I take it for granted there would be as much 
generosity if he were a rich man. Pone. 

You wrote to me with the freedom of a friend, 
dealing plainly with me in the matter of my own 
trifles. /</. 

Among authors, none draw upon themselves more 
displeasure than those who deal in political matters. 


The business of mankind, in this life, being rather 
to act than to know, their portion of knowledge is 
dealt them accordingly. /rf. 

True logick is not that noisy thing that deals all in 
dispute, to which the former ages had debased it. 

Watt is Lotjich. 

How Spain prepares her banners to unfold, 
And Rome deals out her blessings and her gold. 

The nightly mallet deals resounding blows. 


Nature seldom forms an universal genius ; but 
deals out her favours in the present state with a par- 
simonious hand. Mason. 

I do readily admit that a great deal of the wars, 
seditions, and troubles of the world did formerly 
turn upon the contention between interests that went 
by the names of protestant i.nd catholic. Burke. 

The Goth, the Christian, Time, War, Flood, and 


Have dealt upon the seven-hilled city's pride ; 
She saw her glories star by star expire, 
And up the steep barbarian monarchs ride, 
Where the car climbed the capitol. Byron. 

DEAL, in carpentry, a thin kind of fir plank, 
formed by sawing the trunk of a tree into a great 
many longitudinal divisions, of greater or less 
thickness according to the purposes it is in- 
tended to serve. A good method of seasoning 
planks for deal, is to throw them into salt water 
as soon as they are sawed, and keep them there 
three or four days, frequently turning them. In 
this case they will be rendered much harder, by 
drying afterwards in the air and sun; but neither 
this, nor any other method yet known, will pre- 
serve them from shrinking. Rods of deal expand 
laterally, or cross the grain, in moist weather,and 
contract again in dry. 

DEAL, in geography, a market town and sea- 
port of Kent, between Dover and Sandwich, and 
supposed to be the Dola of Nennius, and situa- 
ted on a flat and level coast. The town of Deal, 
except it may be the sea's shrinking a little from 
it, is in much the same condition in which it 
ever was, even from the earliest accounts. Dr. 
Halley has proved, in his Miscellanea Curiosa, 
that Julius Csesar landed here, August 26th, 
A. A. C. 55. The great conveniency of landing 
has been of infinite service to the place ; so that 
it is large and populous, divided into the upper 
and lower towns, adorned with many buildings, 
and is in effect the principal place on the Downs. 
To the south of the town is a castle, surrounded 
by a ditch ; it consists chiefly of a round tower, 
containing apartments for the captain and other 
officers, and a battery. The batteries and mar- 
tello towers, constructed during the late war, 
command from the eminences, every access to the 
shore. Anchors, cables, &e., are always ready to 




supply ships that may need them. It has a very 
commodious market held on Tuesday and Wed- 
nesday, which is well supplied with every kind 
of provision, &c. It lies seven miles south by 
east of Sandwich, and seventy-four east by south 
of London. 

DEALBA'TION, n. s. Lat. dealbatio. The 
act of bleaching or making white. 

411 seed is white in viviparous animals, and such as 
have preparing vessels, wherein it receives a manifold 
dealbation. Browne's Vulgar Errours. 

DEAMBULATION, n. s. > Lat. deambula- 

DEA'MBULATORY, adj. 3 tio. The act, or 
relating to the practice, of walking abroad. See 

DEAMENA, in the mythology, the goddess 
who was supposed to preside over women during 
their menses. 

DEAN, M.S. > Fr. doyen; Lat. decanus- 

DEAN'ERY.W.S. j ' From the Greek word Stica,' 
says Ayliffe, ' in English, ten, because he was 
anciently set over ten canons or prebendaries at 
least in some cathedral church.' 

The dean and canons, or prebends, of cathedral 
churches, were of great use in the church ; they were 
not only to be of counsel with the bishop for his reve- 
nue, but chiefly for government in causes ecclesiasti- 
cal. Use your best means to prefer such to those 
places who are nt for that purpose. Bacon. 

Take her by the hand, away with her to the deanery, 
and dispatch it quickly. Shakspeare. 

He could no longer keep the deanery of the chapel- 
royal. Clarendon. 
Put both deans in one ; or, if that 's too much trou 

Instead of the deans make the deanery double. 


DEAN. As there are two foundations of ca- 
thedral churches in England, the old and the 
new (the new are those which Henry VIII., 
upon suppression of abbeys, transformed from 
abbot or prior, and convent, to dean and chapter), 
so there are two means of creating deans; those 
of the old foundation are appointed to their dig- 
nity, much like bishops, the king first issuing his 
conge" d'elire to the chapter, the chapter then 
choosing, and the bishop confirming, and giving 
his mandate to install them. Those of the new 
foundation are, by a shorter course, installed by 
virtue of the king's letters patent, without elec- 
tion or confirmation. This word is also applied 
to the chief officers of certain peculiar churches 
or chapels ; as the dean of the king's chapel, the 
dean of the arches, the dean of St. George's 
chapel at Windsor, and the dean of Bocking in 
Essex. The dean and chapter are the council of the 
bishop, to assist him with their advice in affairs 
of religion, as well as in the temporal concerns 
of his see. When the rest of the clergy were 
settled in the several parishes of each diocese, 
these were reserved for the celebration of divine 
service in the bishop's own cathedral ; and the 
chief of them, who presided over the rest, obtained 
the name of decanus, or dean, being, probably, at 
first appointed to superintend ten canons or pre- 
bendaries. The chapter, consisting of canons or 
prebendaries, are sometimes appointed by the 
King, sometimes by the bishop, and sometimes 

elected by each other. The dean and chapter 
are the nominal electors of a bishop. The 
bishop is their ordinary and immediate superior; 
and has, generally speaking, the power of visit- 
ing them, and correcting their excesses and enor- 
mities. They had also a check on the bishop at 
common law; for, till the stat. 32, Hen. VIII. 
cap. 28, his grant, or lease, would not have 
bound his successors, unless confirmed by the 
dean and chapter. 

DEAN, in geography, a forest of England, in 
Gloucestershire, between the Severn and the 
county of Monmouth. The forest once con- 
tained 30,000 acres of land, in which were 
twenty-three parishes, and four market towns, 
with great abundance of fine timber. It was 
reckoned the chief support of the English nary ; 
and the Spanish armada, it is said, was ex- 
pressly commissioned to destroy it. The iron 
forges have lessened the quantity of wood, but 
not consumed it, as care is said to be taken in 
cutting it. The hills abound in iron ore 

town in the above forest, with an elegant church 
and handsome spire. Cloth and pins are its 
chief manufactures. It has a market on Mon- 
day, and fairs Easter Monday and October 
10th. It lies twelve miles west of Gloucester, 
fifteen of Monmouth, and 120 south-west of 

DEAN OF GUILD, in Scottun law, the cmef 
judge of a guild-court. The dean of guild in 
Edinburgh, and most of the royal boroughs ol 
Scotland, is a member of, and elected by, the 
town-council; ranks next to the bailies, and con- 
tinues two years in office. 

DEAR,n.s.&ad;'.^v Sax. beon; Belg. dier ; 

DEAR'BOUGHT,O</;. / Swed. dyr ; Isl. dar; Goth. 

DEAR'LING, n. s. \cher ; from Lat. carus, ca- 

DEAR'LY, adv. \reo, to want, as Minsheu 

DEAR'NESS. n. s. J conjectures. One much 
valued or beloved ; valuable ; beloved ; costly ; 

They do feed on nectar, heavenly wise, 
With Hercules and Hebe, and the rest 
Of Venus' dearlings, through her bounty blest. 


The whole senate dedicated an altar to Friendship, 
as to a goddess, in respect of the great dearnett of 
friendship between them two. Bacon, 

" It is rarely bought, and then also bought dearly 
enough with such a fine. Id. 

Your brother Glo'ster hates you. 
Oh, no, he loves me, and he holds me dear. 


My brother holds you well, and in dearnett of heart 
hath holp to effect your ensuing carriage. Id. 

That kiss 

I earned from thee, dear ; and my true lip 
Hath virgined it e'er since. Id. Coriolamu, 

Where life is deare, who cares for coyned drosse? 
That, spent, is counted gaine ; and spared, losse. 

Bp. Hall. Satiret ii. ">. 

O fleeting joys 

Of Paradise, dearbought with lasting woe. Milton. 

He who hates his neighbour mortally, and wisely 
too, must profess all the dearnest of friendship, with 
readiness to serve him. South. 




See, my dear, 
How lavish nature has adorned the year. 

Dry den. 

Turnus shall dearly pay for faith forsworn ; 
And corps, and swords, and shields, on Tyber born. 


Such dearbought blessings happen every day, 
Because we know not for what things to pray. Id. 

These are the pleasing moments, in absence my 
dearest blessing, either to read something from you, 
or be writing something to you ; yet I never do it but 
I am touched with a sensible regret, that I cannot pour 
out in words what my heart is so big with, which is 
much more just to your dear self (in a passionate re- 
turn of love and gratitude) than I can tell you. 

Lady Russel's Letters. 

Landlords prohibit tenants from plowing, which is 
seen in the dearness of corn. Swift. 

What made directors cheat the South-sea year ? 
To feed on ven'son when it sold so dear. Pope. 

And the last joy was dearer than the rest. Id. 

The dear, dear name, she bathes in flowing tears, 
Hangs o'er the tomb. Addison's Ovid,. 

I was, at the time this compliment was paid me, 
and am still, much gratified by it. The approbation of 
such men ever has been, and ever will be, dearer to 
me than the most dignified and lucrative stations in 
the church. Bishop Watson. 

How did I hope to vex a thousand eyes ! 
Oh glorious malice, dearer than the prize ! 

Dr. T. Brown. 

DEAR, adj. Sax. bepe, from bejnan, to injure. 
See DARE. Bitter ; hateful ; grievous. An obso- 
lete word, but frequently used in this sense by 

Three yere in this wise his lif he ledde, 
And bare him so in pees and eke in werre, 
Ther n' as no man that Theseus hath derre. 

Chaucer. Cant. Tales. 

What foolish boldness brought thee to their mercies, 
Whom thou in terms so bloody, and so dear, 
Hast made thine enemies ? 

Shakspeare. Twelfth Night. 
Let us return, 

And strain what other means is left unto us 
Tn our dear peril. Id. Timon. 

Some dear cause 

Will in concealment wrap me up a-while : 
When I am known aright, you shall not grieve 
Lending me this acquaintance. Id. King Lear. 

Would I had met my deafest foe in heaven, 
Or ever I had seen that day. Id. Hamlet. 

The other banished son, with his dear sight 
Struck pale and bloodless. Id. Titu-s Andronicus. 

DEARNLY, adv. Sax. dearn. Secret, or 
deep. See DARN. Here applied to deep and 
bitter mourning. 

At last, as chanced them by a forest side 
To pass, for succour from the scorching ray, 
They heard a rueful voice, that dearnly cried 
With piercing shrieks= Spenser. 

DEARTH, n. s. The third person, according 
to Mr. Tooke, of tertian, to injure. Minsheu 
says from Belg. dier, dear, and tiit, time : a dear 
time. ' Dyrtid, as used with the Goths,' says 
Mr. Thomson, ' a time of dearness.' It is meta- 
phorically applied to the mind. 

In times of dearth, it drained much coin out of the 
kingdom, to furnish us with corn from foreign parts. 


Pity the dearth that I have pined in, 
By longing for that food so long a time. 


Of every tree that in the garden grows, 
Eat freely with glad heart ; fear here no dearth. 


The French have brought on themselves that dearth 
of plot, and narrowness of imagination, which may be 
observed in all their plays. Dryden. 

There have been terrible years dearths of corn, ami 
every place is strewed witli beggars ; but dearths are 
common in better climates, and our evils here lie much 
deeper. Swift. 

DEATH, n. s. ^ Sax. t>ea* ; Belg. dwl ; 
DEATH-BED, Teut. tod, todt, that; from 

DEATH'FUL, adj. Gr. Qavaroc, says Minsheu 
DEATU'LESS, adj. O r the Heb. nn, doth. 
DEATH-LIKE, }>The cessation or extinction 
DEATH'S-DOOR, o f life; the state of the 
DEATH'S-HEAD, dead ; the immediate cause 
DEATH'S-MAN, | or causer of death ; the 
DEATH'-WATCH. J final perdition of wicked 
men. A death's man is a public executioner : 
death's door, a near approach to death. A death- 
watch is an insect making a ticking noise, like a 
watch, and supposed to presage death. The 
other compounds seem to require no explana- 

For the sorrowe that is aftir God worchith penaunce 
into stidefast heelthe, but sorrow of the worlde worchith 
deeth. Wiclif. 2 Cor. vii. 

They cried out, and said, O thou man of God, there 
is death in the pot. 2 Kings iv. 40. 

He is the mediator of the New Testament, that by 
means of death, for the redemption of the transgres- 
sions, they which are called might receive the promise 
of eternal inheritance. Heb. ix. 15. 

Thou shall die the deaths of them that are slain in 
the midst of the seas. Ezekiel xxviii. 8. 

We pray that God will keep us from all sin and 
wickedness, from our ghostly enemy, and from ever- 
lasting death. Church Catechism. 

They were adradde of him as of the deth. 
His wanning was ful fayre upon an heth. 

Chaucer. Prol. to Cant. Tales. 

He answered naught, but in a traunce still lay, 
And on those guileful dazed eyes of his 
The cloude of death did sit. Spenser. Faerie IJueene. 

As in manifesting the sweet influence of his mercy, 
on the severe stroke of his justice ; so in this, not to 
suffer a man of death to live. Bacon. 

Time itself, under the deathful shade of whose 
wings all things wither, bath wasted that lively virtue 
of nature in man, and beasts, and plants. Raleigh. 

In swinish sleep 
Their drenched natures lie, as in a death. 


I had rather be married to a death's head, with a 
bone in his mouth, than to either of these. Id. 

He's dead ; I'm only sorry 
He had no other deathsman. Id* 

Death, a necessary end, 
Will come when it will come. 

Id. Julius Caesar* 


Sweet soul, take lieed, take heed of perjury ; 
Thou art on thy death-bed. Id. Othello. 

Life, by this death abled, shall controll 
Death, whom thy death slew ; nor shall to me 
Fear of first or last death bring miserie, 
If in thy life's book my name thou enroll. 

Donne. Dirine Poems. 

There was a poor young woman, that had brought 
herself even to death's door with grief for her sick 
husband. L' Estrange. 

No blacks, nor soul-bslls, nor death's-heads on our 
rings, nor funeral sermons, nor tombs, nor epitaphs, 
can fix our hearts enough upon our frail and miserable 
condition. Bishop Hall. Sermon 30. 

On seas, on earth, and all that in them dwell, 
A deathlike quiet and deep silence fell. Waller. 

Blood, death, and deathfvl deeds, are in that noise, 
Ruin, destruction at the utmost point. Milton. 

A deathlike sleep ! 
A gentle wafting to immortal life ! Id. 

God hath only immortality, though angels and hu- 
man souls be deathless. Boyle. 

I myself knew a person of great sanctity, who was 
afflicted to death's-door with a vomiting. 

Taylor's Worthy Communicant. 
These are such things as a man shall remember 
with joy upon his death-bed ; such as shall cheer and 
warm his heart, even in that last and bitter agony. 

South's Sermons. 
He must his acts reveal, 
From the first moment of his vital breath, 
To his last hour of unrepenting death. Dryden. 
Then round our death-bed every friend should run, 
And joy us of our conquest early won. Id. Fables. 

Your cruelty was such, as you would spare his life 
for many deathful torments. Sidney. 

Faith and hope themselves shall die, 
While deathless charity remains. Prior. 

A death-bed repentance ought not indeed to be ne- 
glected, because it is the last thing that we can do. 

Oft, as in airy rings they skim the heath, 
The clam'rous lapwings feel the leaden death. Pope. 

Black Melancholy sits, and round her throws 
A death-like slumber, and a dread repose. Id. 

These eyes behold 
The deathfvl scene ; princes on princes rolled. Id. 

Misers are muckworms, silkworms beaus, 
And deathwatches physicians. Id. 

He caught his death the last county-sessions, where 
he would go to see justice done to a poor widow-wo- 
man. Addition. 

The solemn deathwatch clicked the Lour she died. 


We learn to presage approaching deatn in a family 
by ravens, and little worms, which we therefore call 
a deathwatch. Watts. 

Death opens the gate of fame, and shuts the gate 
of envy after it, it unlooses the chain of the captive, 
and puts the bondsman's task into another man's 
hands. Sterne. 

Heavens ! on my sight what sanguine colours 

blaze ! 

Spain's deathless shame ! the crimes of modern days . 
When avarice, shrouded in religion's robe, 
Sailed to the west, and slaughtered half the globe. 


Ever since the passing of the acts, which punish 
with death, the stealing in shops, or houses, or on 
board ships, property of certain stated values, juries 
have, from motives of humanity, been in the habit of 

frequently finding by their verdicts, that the thing* 
stolen were worth much less than had been clearly 
proved. Sir S. Rumilly. 

Horribly beautiful ! but on the verge, 
From side to side, beneath the glittering morn, 
An Iris sits, amidst the infernal surge, 
Like Hope upon a death-bed, and, unworn 
Its steady dyes, while all around is torn 
By the distracted waters. Byron. 

DEATH is generally considered as the separa- 
tion of the soul from the body; in which sense 
it stands opposed to life, which consists in their 
union. Physicians have defined death by a 
total stoppage of the circulation of the blood, 
and a cessation of the animal and vital functions 
consequent thereon, as respiration, sensation, 
&c. The signs of death are in many cases very 
uncertain. If we consult what Win slow or 
Bruchier have said on this subject, we shall be 
convinced, that between life and death the shade 
is so very undistinguishable, that all the powers 
of art can scarcely determine where the one ends 
and the other begins. The color of the visage, 
the warmth of the body, and the suppleness of 
the joints, are but uncertain signs of life still 
subsisting; while, on the contrary, the paleness 
of the complexion, the coldness of the body, the 
stiffness of the extremities, the cessation of all 
motion, and the total insensibility of the parts, 
are but uncertain marks of death begun. In the 
same manner also, with regard to the pulse and 
breathing; these motions are often so small, that 
't is impossible to perceive them. This ought 
to be a caution against hasty burials, especially 
in cases of sudden death, drowning, &c. See 

DEATH, in law. The law makes a distinction 
between natural and civil death. 1. Civil deatli 
takes place, where a-persoh is not actually dead, 
but adjudged so by law. Thus, if any person, 
for whose life an estate is granted, remains be- 
yond sea, or is otherwise absent, seven years, 
and no proof of his being alive, he shall be ac- 
counted naturally dead. 2. Natural death 
means a person actually dead. 

DEATH-WATCH, in natural history, a species 
of fermes, so called on account of an old tradi- 
tion, that its beating or ticking in a sick room, 
is a sure sign of death. See FERMES. 

DEAL) RATE, v. a. frpart. pass. ) Lat. deau- 

DEAURATION, n. s. J ro. To gild; 


And while the twilight and the rowis rede 
Of Phoebus' light were deaurat alike. 

Chaucer. Comp. of Black Knight. 

DEBACCHATION, n.s. Lat. debacchatio. 
A raging ; a madness. 

DEBAR, v. a. From de and bar. See BAR. 
To exclude; to preclude; to shut out from any 
thing ; to hinder. 

The same boats and the same buildings are found 
in countries dcb.irred from all commerce by unpassable 
mountains, lakes, aad deserts. Raleigh's Essays. 

Not so strictly hath our Lord imposed 
Labour, as to debar us when we need 
Refreshment, whether food, or talk between, 
Food of the mind. Milton. 


The thread-bare client's poverty 
JJebarres the attumey of his wonted fee ? 

Bishop Hall's Satires, v. 3. 

Civility, intended to make us easy, is employed in 
laying chains and fetters upon us, in debarring us of 
our wishes, and in crossing our most reasonable de- 
sires. Swift. 
DEBARB, v. a. Lat. from de and barba. 
To deprive of his beard. 

DEBARK, v. a. & n. Fr. debarquer. To dis- 
embark. See EMBARK. Also to strip a tree of 
its bark. 

From hence it appears that the branches of de- 
barked oak-trees produce fewer leaf-buds, and more 
flower-buds, which last circumstance I suppose must 
depend on their being sooner or later debarked in the 
vernal months. Darwin. 

DEBASE',v. a. } Old Fr. debas, from de 
DEBAS'ER, n. s. /and base. See BASE. To 
DEB ASE'MENT. 5 reduce, degrade, adulterate, 
lessen in strength. 

It is a kind of taking God's name in vain, to de- 
base religion with such frivolous disputes. Hooker. 

Words so debased and hard, no stone 
Was hard enough to touch them on. Hudibrat. 

He reformed the coin, which was much adulterated 
and debased in the times and troubles of king Stephec 


Homer intended to teach, that pleasure and sen- 
suality debase men into beasts. Broome on the Odyssey. 

It is a wretched debasement of that sprightly faculty, 
the tongue, thus to be made the interpreter to a goat 
or boar. Government of the Tongue. 

A man of large possessions has not leisure to consi- 
der of every slight expense, and will not debase him- 
self to the management of every trifle. Dryden. 

Restraining others, yet himself not free ; 
Made impotent by power, debased by dignity. Id, 

As much as you raise silver, you debase gold ; for 
they are in the condition of two things put in opposite 
scales ; as much as the one rises, the other falls. 


He ought to he careful of not letting his subjects 
debase his style, and betray him into a meanness of ex- 
pression. Addison. 
DEBATE', v. a., v. n. &n.s.\ Fr. debattre. ; 
DEBATE'ABLE, adj. I Ital. debatire, 
DEBA'TER, > from Lat. ba- 
DEBATE'FUL, I tuo, to beat. 
DEBATE'M ENT. J To controvert, 
dispute, contend for : as a neuter verb to delibe- 
rate (taking on or upon) ; to dispute. Debate- 
able is disputable ; liable or likely to be con- 
tended for : a debate, a formal and personal dis- 
pute, or controversy. 

But God tempride the bodi ghyuynge more wor- 
shipe to it to whom it failide, that debate bo not in the 
bodi. Wiclif. 1 Cor 12. 

Debate thy cause with thy neighbour himself, and 
discover not a secret to another. Proverbs xxv. 9. 

Tho spake our Hoste, A, Sire, ye shuld ben hende, 
And curteis, as a man of your estat, 
la compagnie we will have no debat. 

Chaucer. Cant. Tales. 
Your several suits 
Have been considered and debated on. 


Now, lords, if heaven doth give successful end 
To this debate that bleedeth at our doors, 
We will our youth lead on to higher fields, 
Ar,.l draw no sworJs but what are sanctified. Id. 



Without delmtement further, more or less, 
He should the bearers put to sudden death. Id. 

Have I not vowed for shunning such debate, 
(Pardon ye Satyres), to degenerate ? 
And, wading low in this plebeian lake, 
That no salt wave shall froath upon my backe. 

Bp. Hall. Satires, iv. 4. 

The French requested, that the debatable ground, 
and the Scottish hostages, might be restored to the 
Scots - Hayward. 

He could not debate any thing without some com- 
motion, even when the argument was not of moment. 


'Tis thine to ruin realms, o'erturn a state 
Betwixt the dearest friends to raise debate. Dryden. 

A way that men ordinarily use, to force others to 
submit to their judgments, and receive their opinion 
in debate, is to require the adversary to admit what 
they alledge as a proof, or to assign a better. Locke. 

He presents that great soul debating upon the sub- 
ject of life and death with his intimate friends. 


It is to diffuse a light over the, understanding, in 
our enquiries after truth, and not to furnish the tongue 
with debate and controversy. Watts's Logick. 

It is knowledge and experience that make ^.debater. 


DEBAUCH', v. a. & n. *.") Fr. desbaucher ; 
DEBAUCHEE', n. s. from Lat. debac- 

DEBAUCH'ER, fchor, to offer sa- 

DEBAUCH'ERY, I crifice toBacchus : 

DEBAUCH'MENT. J anciently written 

in our language deboise and debosh. To corrupt; 
to violate ; to vitiate, whether by lewdness or 
intemperance : a fit or habit of intemperance or 
lewdness. Debauchery, the constant practice of 
them. A debauchee is one who is himself de- 
voted to lewdness or excess ; a debaucher, one 
who corrupts others, or seduces them into vice. 
Here do you keep a hundred knights and squires 
Men so disordered, so debauched, and bold, 
That this our court, infected with their manners, 
Shews like a riotous inn. Shakspeare. King Lear. 
Reason once debauched, is worse than brutishness. 
Bp. Hall. Contemplations. 

They told them ancient stories of the ravishment 
of chaste maidens, or the debouchment of nations, or 
the extreme poverty of learned persons. 

Taylor's Rule of Holy Living. 
This it is to counsel things that are unjust ; first, to 
debauch a king to break his laws, and then to seek 
protection. Dryden's Spanish Friar. 

The first physicians by debauch were made ; 
Excess began, and sloth sustains, the trade. 


A man must have got his conscience thoroughly 
debauched and hardened, before he can arrive to the 
height of pin. South. 

Could we but prevail with the greatest debauchees 
among us to change their lives, we should find it no 
very hard matter to change their judgments. Id. 

Oppose vices by their contrary virtues ; hypocrisy 
by sober piety, and debauchery by temperance. 


He will for some time contain himself within the 
hounds of sobriety ; till within a little while he reco- 
vers his former debauch, and is well again, and then 
his appetite returns. Calamy. 

No man's reason did ever dictate to him, that it is 
reasonable for him to debauch himself by intemperance 
and brutish sensuality. Tillotson. 




Debauched from nature, how can we relish her ge- 
nuine productions ? As well might a man distinguish 
objects through the medium of a prism, that presents 
tothing but a variety of colours to the eye, or a maid 
pining in the green sickness prefer a biscuit to a 
finder. SmoUet. 

DEBE'L, v. a. 
DEBE'LLATE, v. a. 

Lat. debello. To con- 

| Lat. debilito, of de 

and habilis, fit, pro- 

' per. To weaken ; make 

I unfit for exertion ; to 

> quer ; to overcome in 
DEBELLA'TION, n. s. J war. Obsolete. 

It doth notably set forth the consent of all nations 
and ages, in the approbation of the extirpating and de- 
bellating of giants, monsters, and foreign tyrants, not 
only as lawful, but as meritorious even of divine ho- 
nour. Bacon's Holy War. 

Him long of old 

Thou didst debel, and down from heaven cast 
With all his army. Milton, 

DEBENTURE, n. s. ^ Lat. debentur, of 
DEBENTURED, part. S debeo, to owe. A 
note of debt, generally now used respecting 
goods entitled to an allowance at tne custom- 

You modern wits, should each man bring his claim, 
Have desperate debentures on your fame ; 
And little would be left you, 'I'm afraid, 
If all your debts to Greece and Rome were paid. 


DEBENTURE is used at the custom-house for 
a kind of certificate, signed by the officers of the 
customs, which entitles a merchant, exporting 
goods, to the receipt of a bounty or draw back. 
The forms of debentures vary according to the 
merchandise exported. 

DEBl'LITATE, v.a. 

DEBI'LE, adj. 


DEBI'LITY. n. s. 
emasculate. Debile is weak, enfeebled. The 
substantives express a confirmed or habitual 
state of weakness. 

I have not washed my nose that bled, 
Or foiled some debile wretch, which without note 
There's many else have done. Shakipeare. 

Methinks I am partaker of thy passion, 
And in thy case do glass mine own debility. 


The weakness cannot return any thing of strength, 
honour, or safety to the head, but a debilitation and 
ruin. King Charles. 

The spirits being rendered languid, are incapable of 
purifying the blood, and debilitated in attracting nu- 
triment. Harvey on Consumptions. 

In the lust of the eye, the lust of the flesh, and the 
pride of life, they seemed as weakly to fail as their 
debilitated posterity ever after. 

Browne's Vulgar Errours. 

Aliment too vaporous or perspirable will subject it 
to the inconveniencies of too strong a perspiration, 
which are debility, faintness, and sometimes sudden 
death. Arbuthnot. 

Thus Conscience pleads her cause within the breast, 
Though long rebelled against, not yet suppressed, 
And calls a creature formed for God alone, 
For Heaven's high purposes, aiid not his own, 
Calls him away from selfish ends and aims, 
From what debilitates and what inflames. 

Cotcper. Retirement. 

DEBIR, in ancient geography, a sacerdotal 
city of Palestine, in the southern part of the 
tribe of Judah, not far from Hebron. It is also 
called Kirjath-sepher, and Kirjath-sannah. See 
Josh. xv. 15, 49. 

DE-BOIS-BLANC, an island of the United 
States, belonging to the north-western territory, 
which was a voluntary gift of the Chippeway 
Indians, at the treaty of peace, concluded by 
general Wayne, at Greenville, in 1795. 

DEB'ONAIR, adj. i Fr. debonnaire, pro- 

DEBOXAIR'LY, adv. \ bably from de ban air. 
Civil; gentle; courteous; well-bred; gay. 

He, in the first flowre of my freshest age, 
Betrothed me unto the only haire 
Of a most mighty king, most rich and sage j 
Was never prince so faithful and so faire, 
Was never crince so meek and debonnaire. 

Spenser. Faerie Queene. 

Crying, let be that lady debonair. Id. 

Zephyr met her once a-maying ; 
Filled her with thee, a daughter fair, 
So buxom, blithe, and debonair. Milton. 

The nature of the one is debonair and accostable ; 
of the other, retired and supercilious ; the one quick 
and sprightful, the other slow and saturnine. 

Howel's Vocal Forest. 

And she thdt was not only passing fair, 
But was withal discreet and debonair, 
Resolved the passive doctrine to fulfil. Dryden. 

DEBORAH, man, Heb.; i.e. a bee; the 
nurse of Rebecca, whom she accompanied from 
Padanaram, and survived. She lived in Jacob's 
family to an advanced age, and died near Bethel, 
where she was buried under an oak. Gen. 
xxiv. 59. xxxv. 8. 

DEBORAH, a prophetess, poetess, and judge of 
Israel, who excited Barak to deliver his country 
from the oppressions of Jabin. See BARAK. 
Her message to Barak, her reproof for his 
cowardice, and her song upon the victory, are 
recorded in Judges iv. & v. She flourished 
about A.M. 2651. 

DEBRUISED, in heraldry, 
a term peculiar to the English, 
by which is intimated the re- 
straint of any animal, debarred 
of its natural freedom, by any 
of the ordinaries being laid _ 
over it. Argent, a lion ram- 
pant; or debruised by a fesse; gules, name 

DEBT, n. s. -\ Old Fr. debte ; Lat. de- 

DEBT'ED, part. 9 bitum, of debeo, to owe. 

DEBT'OR, n. s. & adj. /That which is owed or 

DEBT-ROLL, n. s. 3 due to another ; obliga- 
tion. Debted is used by Shakspeare for our 
modern word indebted. A debtor is he who 
owes money or any other obligation. 

I am debtor both to the Greeks and to the Bar- 
barians, both to the wise and to the unwise. 

Rom. i. 14. 

This worthy man ful wel his wit besette j 
Ther wiste no wight that he was in dette, 
So stedfastly dide he his governance 
With his bargeine* and with his cheersance. 
Chaucer. Prol. Cant. 

D EC 93 

There was one that died greatly in debt: Well, says 
one, if he be gone, then he hath carried five hundred 
ducats of mine with him into the other world. 

bacon's Apothegms. 

Your son, my lord, has paid a soldier's debt ; 
He only lived but till he was a man, 
But like a man he died. Shakspeare. Macbeth. 

Which do amount to three odd ducats more 
Than I stand delited to this gentleman. Shakspeare. 
I'll bring your latter hazard back again, 

And thankfully rest debtor for the first. Id. 

Like to a merchant's debt-role new defac't, 
When some cracked manour crost his books at last. 

Bp. Hall's Satires, iv. 1. 
To this great loss a sea of tears is due ; 
But the whole debt not to be paid by you. 


The fashion of imperial grandeur is imitated by all 
inferior and subordinate sorts of it, as if it were a 
point of honour. They must be cheated of a third 
part of their estates ; two other thirds they must ex- 
pend in vanity ; so that they remain debtors for all tie 
necessary provisions of life, and have no way to sa- 
tisfy those debts, but out of the succours and supplies 
of rapine. Cowley. 

Swift, a thousand pounds in debt, 
Takes horse, and in a mighty fret 
Rides day and night. Swift. 

An atheist is but a mad ridiculous derider of piety ; 
but a hypocrite makes a sober jest of God and reli- 
gion ; he finds it easier to be upon his knees than to 
rise to a good action : like an impuden* debtor, who 
goes every day to. talk familiarly to his creditor, with- 
out ever paying what he owes. Pope. 

When I look upon the debtor side, I find such in- 
numerable articles, that I want arithmetick to cast 
them up : but when I look upon the creditor side, I 
find little more than blank paper. Addison. 

If he his ample palm 
Could haply on ill-fated shoulder lay 
Of debtor, strait his body, to the touch 
Obsequious, as whilom knights were wont, 
To some enchanted castle is conveyed. Philipt. 

Let him who sleeps too much, borrow the pillow of 
& debtor. A Spanish Proverb, quoted by Johnson. 


DEBULLITION, n. s. Lat. debullitio. A 
bubbling or seething over. 

DECACU'MINATED, adj. Lat. decacumi- 
natus. Having the top cut off. 

DECA'DE, n. s. I Gr. &* ac ; Lat. decas. 

DECAGON, n. s. j The sum of ten; a num- 
ber containing ten. A decagon (adding yiavia, 
a corner), is a figure in plane geometry, contain- 
ing ten sides and angles. 

Men were not only out in the number of some 
days, the latitude of a few years, but might be wide 
by whole olympiads, and divers decades of years. 

Browne's Vulgar Errours. 

We make cycles and periods of years ; as, decades 
centuries, and chiliads, chiefly for the use of compu 
tations in history, chronology, and astronomy. 

Holder on Time. 

All ranked by ten ; whole decades, when they dine, 
Must want a Trojan slave to pour the wine. Pope. 

DECA'DENCY,n.. Fr. decadence. Decay; 
fall. See DECAY. 


DECAGYNIA, from Suea, ten, and yvvrj, \\ 
woman, an order in the class decandria, consist- 
ing of plants, whose flowers are furnished witn 
ten stamina, and the same number of styles. See 

DE'CALOGUE, n. s. Gr. fceaXoyoc. The 
ten commandments given by God to Moses. 

The commands of God are clearly revealed both in 
the decalogue and other parts of sacred writ. 

Hammotiil. ' 

DECALOGUE, in theology, the ten command- 
ments, which were engraved by God on two 
tables of stone. The Jews, by way of eminence, 
call these commandments, after Deut. x. 4, the 
ten words, from whence they had afterwards the 
name of decalogue. The church of Rome has, 
in some catechisms, united the second command- 
ment, in an abridged form, with the first; and, 
to make their number complete, has divided the 
tenth into two. The reason is obvious. See 
Stillingfleet's Works, vol. vi. It should, in fair- 
ness, however, be added, that Jews, as well as 
Christians, have divided the commandments dif- 

DECA'MP, v. n. > Fr.decamper. To shift 
DECA'MPMENT, n. s. J the camp; to move off. 
The act of shifting the camp. 

The king of Portugal would decamp on the twenty- 
fourth in order to march upon the enemy. Taller. 
DECA'NT, v. a.~\ Fr. decanter; Lat. de- 
DECA'NTER, n. s. > canto. To pour off gently 
DECANTA'TION. j by inclination. A decanter 
is a vessel made for receiving wine perfectly 

Take aqua fortis and dissolve it in ordinary coined 
silver, and pour the coloured solution into twelve 
times as much fair water, and then decant or filtrate 
the mixture, that it may be very clear. Boyle. 

They attend him daily as their chief, 
Decant his wine, and carve his beef. Swift. 

DECANUS, in Roman antiquity, an officer 
who presided over the ten officers, and was head 
of the contubernium, or serjeant of a file of 

DECA'PITATE, v. a. ? Lat. decapito. To 

DEC/VPITATION. n. s. 3 behead. A behead- 
ing, or DECOLLATION, which see. 

DECAPOLIS, in ancient geography, a dis- 
trict beyond Jordan, almost wholly belonging to 
the half tribe of Manasseh ; before the captivity, 
called Bethsan ; but after, occupied by heathens. 
It comprises, as the name denotes, ten principal 
cities on the other side of the Jordan, except 
Scythopolis, which stood on this side, but its 
territory lay on the other. 

tiquity, officers for gathering the taxes. The de- 
caproti were also obliged to pay for the dead, or 
to answer to the emperor, for the quota parts of 
such as died out of their own estates. 

DECASPERMUM, in botany, a genus of the 
monogynia order and icosandria class of plants: 
CAL. perianth turbinated, quinquefid at the apex : 
COR. five roundish petals. The stamina are 
many filiform filaments, a little shorter than the 
corolla : PERICARP, is a dry, globular, decemlo- 
cular berry, with solitary egg-shaped seeds. 

DECASTYLE, in the ancient architecture, a 
building, with an ordnance of ten columns in 
front, as the temple of Jupiter Olympius was. 




DECA'Y, v. a., & n. & n. s. Jl Fr. decheolr ; 
DECAYER, w. s. j from Lat. de 

and cado. To impair; to make less in value; to 
decline ; to lose excellence ; to be impaired. 

And if thy brother be -waxen poor, and fallen in 
decay with thee, then thou shalt relieve him. 

Levit. xxv. 35. 

Cut off a stock of a tree, and lay that which you 
cut off to putrefy, to see whether it will decay the rest 
of the stock. Bacon. 

Infirmity, that decays the wise, doth ever make 
better the fool. Shakspeare. 

I am the very man 

That, from your first of difference and decay, 
Have followed your sad steps. Id. King Lear. 
Your water is a sore decayer of your whorson dead 
body. Id. Hamlet. 

She has been a fine lady, and paints and hides 
Her decays very well. Ben Jonion. 

And those decays, to speak the naked truth, 
Through the defects of age, were crimes of youth. 


He was of a very small and decayed fortune, and 
of no good education. Clarendon. 

In Spain our springs, like old men's children, be 
Decayed and withered from their infancy. Dryden. 

The monarch oak, 

Three centuries he grows, and three he stays 
Supreme in state, and in three more decays. 


By reason of the tenacity of fluids, and attrition of 
their parts, and the weakness of elasticity in solids, 
motion is much more apt to be lost than got, and is 
always upon the decay, Newton. 

Each may feel increases and decays, 
And see now clearer and now darker days. Pope. 

Now kindred merit fills the sable bier, 
Now lacerated friendship claims a tearj 
Year chases year, decay pursues decay, 
$till drops some joy from withering life away. 

Johnson. Vanity of Human Withes. 
Alas ! the lofty city ! and alas ! 
The trebly hundred triumphs ! and the day 
When Brutus made the dagger's edge surpass 
The conqueror's sword in bearing fame away I 
Alas, for Tully's voice, and Virgil's lay, 
And Livy's pictured page ! but these shall be 
Her resurrection ; all beside decay. Byron 

DECCAN, or the Country of the South, ac 
extensive region of Hindostan, bounded on the 
north by the Narbuddah, and on the south by the 
Krishna, or Kistnah river, extending across the 
peninsula from sea to sea. It was possessed, 
in former times, by the rajah of Telingana, and 
the Hindoo princes, and first invaded by the 
Mahommedans in 1293. They plundered the 
city of Deoghir, now called Dowlatabad, and the 
Tagara of Ptolemy. In the year 1306 the city 
and fortress were taken, and the rajah, Ram Deo, 
carried to Delhi. In 1 323, Warunkul, the ca- 
pital of Telingana, was also taken by the Ma- 
hommedans, and the Hindoo dynasty overthrown. 
For some time the Deccan remained subject to 
Delhi, till the governor having rebelled, laid the 
foundation of an independent state, under the 
title of the Bhamenee sultans, whose capital was 
-Kalberga; this was in 1347. The Bhamenee 
dynasty, consisting of fourteen persons, conti- 
nued till the year 1518. On the dissolution of 
this empire, the DCCCJU T<IS subdivided into the 
five following scales : the Adil Shahy, or Beja- 

pore kingdom ; tne Kootub Shahy, or Golconda 
the Nizam Shahy, or Ahmednagur ; the Um- 
maud Shahy, or Berar; the Beered Shahy, or 

During the reign of Aurungzebe, all these 
states were reduced, and the Deccan again an- 
nexed to the kingdom of Delhi. It was then 
divided into six governments, viz. Khandesh, 
Ahmednagur, Beeder, Golconda, Bejapore, and 
Berar. In subsequent reigns, these governments 
came under the superintendance of the Nizam, 
who, taking advantage of the weak state of the 
court of Delhi, after the Persian invasion in 
1739, threw off his allegiance, became indepen- 
dent, and fixed his court at Hyderabad. The 
Mahrattas, however, were now rising into power, 
and the nizam was obliged to cede to them the 
territorities now constituting the dominions of 
the peishwa. See HINDOSTAN. 

DECEASE, v. n. & n. s. Lat. decedo, decessus, 
from de and cado, to fall. To die ; to quit life : 

He tells us Arthur is deceased to-night. 


Lands arc by human law, in some places, after the 
owner's decease, divided unto all his children; in 
some, all descendeth to the eldest son. Hooker. 

You shall die 
Twice now, where others, that mortality 

In her fair arms holds, shall but once decease. 


His latest victories still thickest came, 
As, near the centre, motion doth increase ; 

Till he, pressed down by his own weighty name, 
Did, like the vestal, under spoils decease. Dryden. 

DECEIT', n.s. ~\ Old Fr. decepte ; Lat. 


deceptus ; of de ami 

DECEIT'FULLY, adv. i capio, captus, to take. 

DECEIT'FULNESS, n. s. J A taking by fraud ; a 
fallacy ; a cheat : deceitful is, fraudulent in any 
degree : deceitfulness, tendency to deceive. 

My lips shall not speak wickedness, nor my tongue 
utter deceit. Job xxvii. 4. 

The care of this world, and the deceitfulness of 
riches, choke the word, and he becometh unfruitful. 

Matt. xii. 22. 
His demand 

Springs not from Edward's well-meant honest love, 
But from deceit, bred by necessity. Shakspeare. 

I grant him bloody, 

Luxurious, avaricious, false, deceitful. Id. 

Exercise of form may be deceitfully dispatched of 
course. Wotton. 

Those, which are plain-hearted in themselves, are 
the bitterest enemies to deceit in others. 

Bp. Hall's Contemplations. 

Outward appearances are deceitful guides to our 
judgment, or affections. Id. 

The lovely young Lavinia once had friends, 
And fortune smiled, deceitfull on her birth. 


Human nature is the same now as it was then : the 
heart as deceitful : and the necessity of watching, 
knowing, and beeping it, the same. Mason. 

He, who still expects deceit, 
Only teaches how to cheat. Johnson's Poems. 

A true artist should put a generous deceit on the 
spectators, and effect the noblest designs by easy me- 
thods. Btirfte. 



French, decevoir ; 

DECEIVE, v. a. ~\ i rench, decevoir ; 

DECEIV'ABLE, adj. i Lat. decipio, from 

DECEJV'ABLESESS, n. s. \deandcapin. See 

DECEIV'ING. mrt. J lude, cheat, deprive 

by fraud ; hence 'to mislead, guide into error, 
whether by design or otherwise. Deceivable is 
used both for fraudulent, and for being liable 
or particularly exposed to fraud. Deceivable- 
ness also expresses both artfulness, and a liable- 
ness to be deceived. 

For synne through occasiouii taken bi the com- 
maundement disseyuyde me, and bi that it slough me. 

Wiclif. Romayns vii. 

Be not borun aboute with ech wynd of techyng in 
the weiwardnesse of men in sutil witt to the disseyu- 
yng of errowr. Id. Effesies 4. 

With all deceivableness of unrighteousness 

2 Tim, ii. 10. 

Sporting themselves -with their own dcceivings, 
while they feast with you. 2 Pet. ii. 13. 

It is no wonder thing though it be so ; 
A lousy jogelour can deceiven thee, 
And parde yet can I more craft than he. 

Chaucer. Cant. Tales. 

Wine is to be forborne in consumptions, for that 
the spirits of the wine prey upon the viscid juice of 
the body intercommon with the spirits of the body, 
and so deceive and rob them of their nourishment. 


It is good to consider of deformity, not as a sign, 
which is more deceivable , but as a cause which seldom 
faileth of the effect. Id. 

As for Perkin's dismission out of France, they in- 
terpreted it not as if he were detected for a counter- 
feit deceiver. Id. 
Sig-h no more, ladies, sigh no more ; 

Men were deceivers ever : 
One foot in sea, and one on shore ; 

To one thing constant never. Shakspeare. 
They are worthy to be deceived that value things as> 
they seem. Bishop Hall. Contemplations. 

He received nothing but fair promises, which 
proved deceivable. Hayward. 

O ever failing trust 

In mortal strength ! and oh, what not in man 
Deceivable and vain? Milton. 

Man was not only deceivable in his integrity, but 
the angels of light in all their clarity. 

Browne's Vulgar Errours. 
How happy he that loves not, lives ! 
Him neither hope nor fear deceives 
To fortune who no hostage gives. Denham. 

They raised a feeble cry with trembling notes, 
But the weak voice deceived their gasping throats. 

Dry den. 

Those voices, actions, or gestures, which men have 
not by any compact agreed to make the instruments of 
conveying their thoughts one to another, are not the 
proper instruments of deceiving, so as to denominate 
the person using them a liar or deceiver. South. 

Some have been deceived into an opinion, that 
there was a divine right of primogeniture to both estate 
and power. Locke. 

Adieu the heart-expanding bowl, 

And all the kind deceivers of the soul. Pope. 

He that has a great patron, has the advantage of 
his negligence and deceivableness. 

Government of the Tongue. 

By thus disguising our motives, we may impose 
upon men ; but at the same time we impose upon our- 
selves : and, whilst we are deceiving others, our own 

hearts deceive us : and, of all impostures, se\f-deccptwn 
is the most dangerous, because least suspected. 

Mason . 

I have not loved the world, nor the world me j 
But let us part fair foes : I do believe, 
Though I have found them not, that there may be 
Words which are things, hopes which will not de- 

And virtues which are merciful, nor weave 
Snares for the failing. Byron. 

DECE'MBER, n. s. Lat. december. The last 
month of the year, named december, or the 
tenth month, when the year began in March. 

What should we speak of 

When we are old as you ? When we shall hear 
The rain and wind beat dark December. Shakspeare. 

Men are April when they woo, and December when 
they wed. Id. As You Like It. 

DECEMBER is the month wherein the sun en- 
ters the tropic of Capricorn, and makes the 
winter solstice. Among the ancient Romans, 
December was under the protection of Vesta. 
Romulus assigned it thirty days, Numa reduced 
it to twenty-nine, which Julius Caesar increased 
to thirty-one. In the reign of Commodus this 
month was called, by way of flattery, Amazonius, 
in honor of a courtezan, whom that prince pas- 
sionately loved, and had painted like an Ama- 
zon; but this name died with that tyrant. At 
the end of December they had the juveniles 
ludi ; and the country people kept the feast of 
the goddess Vacuna in the fields, having then 
gathered in their fruits, and sown their corn; 
whence seems to be derived our popular festival 
called harvest-home. 

DECEMPEDA, SiKairovg, from decent, ten, 
and pes, a foot ; ten-fret rod, an instrument 
used by the ancients in measuring. It was a 
rule, or rod, divided into ten feet ; the foot was 
subdivided into twelve incites, and each inch 
into ten digits. The decempeda was used both 
in measuring land, like the chain among us; and 
by architects, to give the proper dimensions and 
proportions to the parts of their buildings, which 
use it still retains. 

DECE'MPEDAL, adj. Lat. decempeda; from 
Gr. 8tica. Ten feet in length. 

DECEMVIRI, ten magistrates of absolute 
authority among the Romans. The privileges 
of the patricians raised dissatisfaction among the 
plebeians ; who, though freed from the power of 
the Tarquins, still saw that the administration of 
justice depended upon the will and caprice of 
their superiors ; and it was at length agreed, 
that ten new magistrates, called decemviri, 
should be elected from the senate, to put the 
project into execution. Their power was abso- 
lute, all other offices ceased after their election, 
and they presided over the city with regal autho- 
rity. They were invested with the badges of 
the consul, in the enjoyment of which they suc- 
ceeded by turns ; and only one was preceded by 
the fasces, and had the power of assembling the 
senate, and confirming decrees. The first de- 
cemviri were, Appius Claudius, T. Genutius, 
P. Sextus, Sp. Veturius, C. Julius, A. Manlius, 
Ser. Sulpitius, Pluriatius, T. Romulus, and Sp. 
Posthumius; A.U.C. 302. Under them the' 

DEC < 

taws, which had been exposed to public view, 
were publicly approved of as constitutional, and 
ratified by the priests and augurs, in the most 
solemn manner. They were ten in number, and 
were engraved on tables of brass ; two were 
afterwards added, whence they were called the 
laws of the twelve tables, leges XII tabularum, 
and leges decemvirales. The decemviral power, 
which was at first beheld by all ranks of people 
with the greatest satisfaction, was continued ; but 
in the third year after their creation, the decem- 
viri became odious on account of their tyranny; 
and the attempt of Ap. Claudius to ravish Vir- 
ginia totally abolished the office. Consuls were 
again appointed, and tranquillity re-established 
in the state. There were other officers in Rome 
called decemviri, who were originally appointed 
in the absence of the praetor, to administer jus- 
tice. Their appointment became afterwards ne- 
cessary, and they generally assisted at sales, 
called subhastationes, because a spear, hasta, was 
fixed at the door of the place where the goods 
were exposed to sale. They were called decem- 
viri litibus judicandis. The officers, whom Tar- 
quin appointed to guard the Sybilline books, 
were also called decemviri. They were ori- 
ginally two in number, called duumviri, till 
A. U.C. 388, when their number was increased 
to ten, five of whom were chosen from the ple- 
beians and five from the patricians. Sylla in- 
creased their number to fifteen, hence called 

DE'CENCE, or -\ Fr. decence ; Lat. de- 
DE'CENCY, n. s. \tet, it becometh. Pro- 
DE'CENT, adj. i priety of form or man- 

DE'CENTLY. adv. J ner, principally the lat- 
ter; modesty. Decent is, becoming; fit; suit- 
able; and hence sometimes applied to that 
which is grave or formal. 

Come, pensive nun, devout and pure, 
Sober, stedfast, and demure, 
All in a robe of darkest grain 
Flowing with majestick train, 
And sable stole of Cyprus lawn 
O'er the decent shoulders drawn. Milton. 

Those thousand decencies that daily flow 
From all her words and actions. Id. 

They could not decently refuse assistance to a per- 
son, who had punished those who had insulted their 
relation. Broome. 

And must I own, she said, my secret smart, 
What with more decence were in silence kept ? 

Dry den. 

Since there must be ornaments both in painting 
and poetry, if they are not necessary, they must 
at least be decent ; that is, in their due place, and but 
moderately used. Id. 

Past hope of safety, 'twas his latest care, 
Like falling Caesar, decently to die. Id. 

The consideration immediately subsequent to the 
being of a thing, is what agrees or disagrees with that 
thing ; what is suitable nr unsuitable to it ; and from 
this springs the notion of decency of indecency, that 
which becomes or misbecomes. South. 

In good works there may be goodness in the ge- 
neral : but decence and gracefulness can be only in the 
particulars in doing the good. Sprat. 

Immodest words admit of no defence ; 
For want of decency is want of sense. Roscommon. 


Performed what friendship, justice, truth require , 
What could he more, but decently retire ? Swift. 

Were the offices of religion stript of all the external 
decencies of worship, they would not make a due im- 
pression on the minds of those who assist at them. 

A tterbwry. 

She speaks, behaves, and acts just as she ought ; 
But never, never reached one generous thought ; 
Virtue she finds too painful an endeavour, 
Content to dwell in decencies for ever. Pope. 

Sentiments which raise laughter, can very seldom 
he admitted with any decency into an heroick poem. 


Give every bishop income enough, not for display 
of wordly pomp and fashionable luxury, but to ena- 
ble him to maintain works of charity, and to make a 
decent provision for his family. Bishop Watson. 

DECE'NNIAL, adj. From Lat. decennium. 
Continuing for the space of ten years. 

DECENNALIA, ancient Roman festivals, 
celebrated by the emperors every tenth year of 
their reign, with sacrifices, games, and largesses 
for the people. Augustus first instituted these 
solemnities, in which he was imitated by his suc- 

DECENNO'VAL, adj. ) Lat. decem and 

DECENNO'VARY ) novem. Relating 

to the number nineteen. 

Melon, of old, in the time of the Peloponnesian 
war, constituted a decennoval circle, or of nineteen 
years ; the same which we now call the golden num- 
ber. Holder. 

Seven months are retrenched in this whole ilecen- 
novary progress of the epacts, to reduce the accounts 
of her motion and place to those of the sun. Id. 

DECE'PTION. n. s. *} From Lat. deccptio. 


DECE'PTIBLE, adj. ( the act or means of 

DECE'PTIOUS, ( fraud. Deceptibility, 

DECE'PTIVE, , and deceptible, ex- 

DECE'PTORY. J press a liableness to 

imposture ; deceptious and deceptive, the power 

or design of deceiving. Deceptoiy, says Dr. 

Johnson, is, containing means of deceit. 

Yet there is a credence in my heart, 
That doth invert the' attest of eyes and ears ; 
As if those organs had deceptious functions, 
Created only to calumniate. Shakspeare. 

Reason, not impossibly, may meet 
Some spacious object by Ihe foe suborned, 
And fall inlo deception unaware. Milton. 

The first and father cause of common errour, is the 
common infirmity of human nature ; of whose decep- 
tible condition, perhaps, there should not need any 
other eviction, than the frequent errours we shall 
ourselves commit. Browne. 

Being thus divided from truth in themselves, they 
are yet farther removed by advenient deception. Id. 

All deception is a misapplying of those signs, which, 
by compact or institution, were made the means of 
men's signifying or conveying their thoughts. 


Some errours are so fleshed in us, that they main- 
tain interest upon the deceptibility of our decayed 
natures. ' Glanville. 

DECE'RPT, adj. 1 Lat, decerptm. Crop- 
DECE'RPTIELE, adj. / ped ; taken off. That 
DECE'RPTION, n. s. J which may be, or is 
taken off; the act of taking off. 




If our souls are decerptions of our parents, then I 
must have been guilty of all the sins that ever were 
committed by my progenitors ever since Adam. 


DECERTATION, n. s. Lat. decertatio. A 
contention; a striving; a dispute. 

DECE'SSION, n. s. Lat. decessio. A de- 
parture ; a going away. 

DECHA'RM, v. a. Fr. decharmer. To coun- 
teract a charm ; to disenchant. 

Notwithstanding the help of physick, he was sud- 
denly cured by dectiarming the witchcraft. Harvey. 

DECI'DE, v. a. & v. n.^ Fr. decider ; Ital. 

DECI'DEDLY, adv. decidere ; Lat. deci- 

DECI'DER, n. s. do, from de and ca- 

DECIS'ION, ( do, or scindo. To cut 

DECIS'IVE, adj. ( short a controversy, 

DECISIVELY, adv. says Minsheu. To 

DECIS'IVENESS, n. s. fix an event or is- 

DECIS'ORY. J sue ; to determine. 

A decider is a judge of controverted matters. 

Decision, the act or habit of determining, and 

sometimes of determining promptly. Decisory, 

able to determine. 

The time approaches, 
That will with due decision make us know 
What we shall say we have, and what we owe. 

Pleasure and revenge 

Have ears more deaf than adders to the voice 
Of any true decision. Id. 

The day approached, when fortune should decide 
The important enterprise, and give the bride. 


Their arms are to the last decision bent, 
And fortune labours with the vast event. Id. 

In' council oft, and oft in battle tried, 
Betwixt thy master and the world decide. 


The man is no ill decider in common cases of pro- 
perty, where party is out of the question. Swift. 

?uch a reflection, though it carries nothing per- 
fectly decisive in it, yet creates a mighty confidence in 
his breast, and strengthens him much in his opinion. 


War is a direct appeal to God for the decision of 
some dispute, which can by no other means be de- 
termined. Id. 

Who shall decide, when doctors disagree, 
And soundest casuists doubt? Pope. 

I cannot think that a jester or a monkey, a droll 
or a puppet, can be proper judges or deciders of con- 
fovcrsy . . Watts. 

For on the event, 

Decisive of this bloody day, depends 
The fate of kingdoms. Philips. 

1 never troubled myself with answering any argu- 
ments which the opponents in the divinity-schools 
brought against the articles of the church, nor ever 
admitted their authority as decisive of a difficulty ; but 
I used on such occasions to say to them, holding the 
New Testament in my hand, ' En sacrum codicem !' 

Bp. Watson. 

DE'CIDENCE, n. s. Lat. decidentia. The 
quality of being shed, or of falling away ; the 
act of falling away. 

Men observing the decidence of their horn, do fall 
upon the conceit thut it annually rotteth away, and 
successively reneweth again. 

Browne's Vulgar Errouri. 

DECI'DUOUS, adj. ) Lat. dcciduui. Fall- 

DECI'DUOUSNESS, n. s. j ing ; not perennial ; 
not lasting through the year. 

In botany, the perianthium, or calyx, is deciduous, 
with the flower. Quincy. 

DECIL, in astronomy, an aspect or position 
of two planets, when they are distant from each 
other a tenth part of the zodiac. 

DE'CIMAL, adj. Lat. decimus. Numbered 
or multiplied by ten. 

In the way we take now to name numbers by mil- 
lions of millions of millions, it is hard to go beyond 
eighteen, or, at most, four-and-twcnty decimal pro- 
gressions, without confusion. Locke. 

DECIMAL ARITHMETIC, the art of computing 
by decimal fractions. See ARITHMETIC, Index. 
DE'CIMATE, v. a. J Lat. decimus. To 
DECIMA'TION, n. s. $ tithe ; to take the tenth ; 
a tithing ; a selection by lot of every tenth sol- 
dier, in a general mutiny, for punishment. 

By decimation and a tithed death, 
Take thou the destined tenth. Shakspeare. 

A decimation I will strictly make 
Of all who my Charinus did forsake ; 
And of each legion each centurion shall die. 


DECIMATION was a punishment inflicted by 
the ancient Romans, on such soldiers as quitted 
their posts, or behaved themselves cowardly in 
the field. The names of the guilty were put into 
an urn, or helmet, and as many were drawn out 
as made the tenth part of the whole number, 
and those were put to the sword, and the others 
saved. The ancient Roman militia, to punish 
whole legions when they had failed in their duty, 
made the soldiers draw lots, and put every tenth 
man to death for an example. The Romans 
had also the vicesimatio, and even centisimatio, 
when only the twentieth or hundredth man suf- 
fered by lot. 

DECI'PHER, v. a. Fr. dechiffrer, from de 
and cipher. See CIPHER. To explain that 
which is written in ciphers ; hence to unfold; 
to explain; to write out. 

Zelmane, that had the same character in her heart, 
could easily decipher it. Sidney. 

Assurance is writ in a private character, not to be 
read, nor understood, but by the conscience, to which 
the Spirit of God has vouchsafed to decipher it. 

, South. 

Could I give you a lively representation of guilt 
and horrour on this hand, and point out eternal wrath 
and decipher eternal vengeance on the other, then 
might I shew you the condition of a sinner hearing 
himself denied by Christ. Id. 

Then were laws of necessity invented, that so every 
particular subject might find his principal pleasure 
deciphered unto him, in the tables of his laws. 


DECIPHERING, the art of reading or explain- 
ing ciphers. See CIPHER. 

DECIUS (Cn. Mctius), a native of Pannonia, 
sent by the emperor Philip, to appease a sedition 
in Mcesia. Instead of obeying his master's com- 
mand, he assumed the imperial purple, and 
soon after marched against him, and, at his 
death, became the only emperor. He signalised 
himself against the Persians ; but whes he 
marched against the Goths, he pushed his horse 



into a deep marsh, from which he could not ex- 
tricate himself, and perished, with all his army, 
by the darts of the barbarians, A.D. 251, after a 
reign of two years. 

DECIUS Mus, the name of three patriotic Ro- 
mans, viz. 1 . a celebrated consul, who, after many 
glorious exploits, devoted himself to the gods 
manes, for the safety of his country, in a battle 
against the Latins, about 340 years before the 
Augustan age. 2. His son, Decius Mus, imi- 
tated his example and devoted himself, in like 
manner, in his fourth consulship, when fighting 
against the Gauls and Samnites. 3. His grand- 
son also did the same in the war against Pyrrhus 
and the Tarentines. 

DECK, v. a. & n. s. ? Sax. ocean, fcecan ; 

DE'CKER, n. s. y Bel. decken; from Lat. 

tego, tectum. To cover ; to adorn ; ornament ; 
dress. A deck is the covering of a ship's hold. 

His goodly image, liuing eucnuore 
In the diuine resemblaunce of your face, 
Which with your vertues ye embellish more, 
And natiue beauty deck with heuenlie grace. 

Spenser. Sonnets. 

We have also raised our second decks, and given 
more vent thereby to our ordnance, trying on our 
nether overloop. Raleigh. 

Sweet ornament ! that decks a thing divine. 


Long may'st thou live to wail thy children's loss, 
And see another, as I see thee now, 
Decked in thy rights, as thou art stalled in mine. 


Her keel plows hell, 
And deck knocks heaven. Ben Jonson. 

The ruder Satyre should go ragged and bare, 
And show his rougher and his hairy hide, 
Tho' mine be smooth, and dcckt in carelesse pride. 
Bp. Hall. Defiance to Envy. 

Ye mists and exhalations, that now rise 
From hill or steaming lake, dusky or grey, 
Till the sun paint your fleecy skirts with gold ; 
In honour to the world's great Author, rise ! 
Whether to deck with clouds the uncoloured sky, 
Or wet the thirsty earth with falling showers, 
Rising or falling, still advance his praise. Milton. 
How the dew with spangles decked the ground , 
A sweeter spot of earth was never found. Dryden. 

At sun-set to their ship they make return, 
And snore secure on decks till rosy morn. 

Id. Mneid. 

If any, born and bred under deck, had no other in- 
formation but what sense affords, he would be of opi- 
nion that the ship was as stable as a house. 


Besides gems, many other sorts of stones are re- 
gularly figured : the amianthus, of parallel threads, 
as in the pile of velvet ; and the selenites, of parallel 
plates, as in a deck of cards. Grew. 

It was intended by the means of these precepts, not 
to deck the mind with ornaments, but to protect it 
from nakedness ; not to enrich it with affluence, but 
to supply it with necessaries. 

Johmon. Preface to Preceptor. 

DECK, the planked floors of a ship, which 
connect the sides together, and serve as different 
platforms to support the artillery and lodge the 
men ; as also to preserve the cargo from the sea, 
in merchant-vessels. As all ships are broader 
at the lower deck than on the next above it, and 
as the cannon thereof are always heaviest, it is 


necessary that the frame of it should be much 
stronger than that of the others; and, for the 
same reason, the second, or middle-deck, ought 
to be stronger than the upper-deck or forecastle. 
Ships of the first and second rates are furnished 
with three whole decks, reaching from the stem 
to the stern, besides a forecastle and a quarter- 
deck, which extends from the stern to the main- 
mast ; between which and the forecastle, a va- 
cancy is left in the middle, opening to the upper 
deck, and forming what is called the waist. The 
inferior ships of the line-of-battle are equipped 
with two decks and a-half; and frigates, sloops, 
&c. with one gun-deck and a-half, with a spar- 
deck below to lodge the crew. The decks are 
formed and sustained by the beams, the clamps, 
the water-ways, the carlings, the ledges, the knees, 
and two rows of small pillars, called stanchions, 

DECK, FLUSH, implies a continued floor laid 
from stem to stern, upon one line, without any 
stops or intervals. 

DECK, HALF, a space under the quarter-deck 
of a ship of war, contained between the fore- 
most bulk-head of the steerage and the forepart 
of the quarter-deck. In the colliers of North- 
umberland, the steerage itself is called the half- 
deck, and is usually the habitation of the crew. 

DECKENDORF, a town of Bavaria, near 
the Danube. In the year 1633 it was taken by 
the troops of the duke of Saxe-Weimar, and re- 
taken by the Swedes in 1641. It is twenty-eight 
miles north-west of Passau, and thirty-eight 
E.S.E. of Ratisbon. Long. 12 3 55' E., lat. 
46 50' N. 

DECLA'IM, v. a. & n.} Fr. declamer ; Ital . 

DECLA'IMER, n. s. I declamutore ; of Lat. 

DECLAIMING, . s. dedamo, from de and 

DECLAMA'TION, i clamn, to call aloud. 

DECLA'MATORY, adj. J To harangue; to 
speak with formality or vehemence ; to address 
the passions rather than the judgment. Some- 
times a college theme or composition is termed 
particularly, a declamation. 

The cause why declamations prevail so greatly, is, 
for that men suffer themselves to be deluded. 


What are his mischiefs, consul 1 You declaim 
Against his manners, and corrupt your own. 

Ben Jonson, 

This a while suspended his interment, and became 
a declamatory theme amongst the religious men of that 
age. Wotton. 

Thou mayest forgive his anger, while thou makest 
use of the plainness of his declamation. Taylor. 

He has run himself into his own declamatory way, 
and almost forgotten that he was now setting up for 
a moral poet. Dryden. 

The splendid declaiming! of novices and men of heat* 


It is usual for masters to make their boys declaim on 
both sides of an argument. Swift. 

Your salamander is a perpetual declaimer against 
jealousy. Additon. 

Who could, I say, hear this generous declamator, 
without being fired at his noble zeal 1 Tatler. 

Dress up all the virtues in the beauties of ora- 
tory, and declaim aloud on the praise of goodness. 





I every week imposed upon myself a task of com- 
posing a theme or a declamation in Latin or English. 
1 had great pleasure in lately finding among my pa- 
pers two of these declamations ; there is nothing excel- 
lent in either of them, yet I cannot help valuing them, 
& c . Bishop Watson. 

DECLAMATION may be defined a speech made 
in public, in the tone and manner of an oration, 
uniting the expression of action to the propriety 
of pronunciation, in order to give the sentiment 
its full impression upon the mind. See ORA- 
TORY. The word is now principally used in a 
derogatory sense. 

Fr. declarer; Span, 
and Port, dedarar ; 
Lat. dedaro, of de 
and c/arus, clear. 
To make clear, plain, 
'or well known. As 
a neuter verb, with 
for or against, to pub- 
lish an opinion or re- 


DECLARING, part. J solution. That is de- 
clarable which is capable of proof: declaration 
and declarement, the instrument or act of making 
a thing clear or known: declarative is ex- 
planatory : declaratory, in the form of a decla- 
ration : declaratory, affirmative, or that which 
openly expresses a doubtful, obscure sense, or 
law : declaredly, avowedly. Declaring, as a sub- 
stantive, is synonymous with declaration. 

Declare his glory among the heathen. 

1 Chron. xvi. 24. 

Which things, the most part of our old martyrs 
rather than they would doe, or once kneel or offer up 
one crumbe of incence before an image, suffered most 
crewell and terrible deaths, as the histories of them at 
large do declare. 

Homilies. Sermon against Perill of Idolatry. 
And bi three sabotis he declaride to hem of scrip- 
turis, and openyde and schewide, that it bihofte crist 
to suffre, and rise aghen fro deeth. 

Wiclif. Dedi. 17. 

Nought may the woful spirit in myn herte 
Declare o' point of all my sorwes smerte 
To you my lady, that I love most, 
But I bequethe the service of my gost. 

Chaucer. Cant. Tales. 
They on humble knee 
Making obeysaunce, did the cause declare 
Why they were come her roiall state to see, 
To prove the wide report of her great maiest'ie. 

Spenser. Faerie Queene. 

His promises are nothing else but declarations what 
God will do for the good of men. Hooker. 

In Caesar's army somewhat the soldiers would have 
had, yet they would not declare themselves in it, but 
only demanded a discharge. Bacon. 

This is declarable from the best writers. Browne. 
Crystal will calefy into electricity ; that is, into a 
power to attract straws, or light bodies ; and convert 
ihfl needle freely placed, which is a declarement of 
very different parts. Id. 

Andreas Alciatus the civilian, and Franciscus de 
Cordua, have both declaratorily confirmed the same. 
Id. Vulgar Errours. 

To declare this a little, we must assume that the 
suriaccs of su> h bodies are exactly smooth. Boyle. 

"The internal faculties of will and understanding 
d.crttiag and declaring against them. Taylor, 

These blessings are not only declaratory of the good 
pleasure and intention of God towards them, but like- 
wise of the natural tendency of the thing. Tillotson. 

There are no where so plain and full declarations 
of mercy and love to the sons of men, as are made in 
the gospel. Id. 

The sun by certain signs declares, 
Both when the south projects a stormy day, 
And when the clearing north will puff the cloud away. 

Dry den's Virgil. 

God is said not to have left himself without witness 
in the world ; there being something fixed in the na- 
ture of men, that will be sure to testify and declare 
for him . South's Sermons. 

Though wit and learning are certain and habitual 
perfections of the mind, yet the declaration of them, 
which alone brings the repute, is subject to a thousand 
hazards. South. 

To this we may add the vox populi, so declarative 
on the same side. Swift. 

A declared gout is the distemper of a gentleman ; 
whereas, the rheumatism is the distemper of a har.kney- 
coachman or chairman, who are obliged to be out at 
all weathers, and in all hours. Chesterfield. 

I have had and used the opportunities of conversing 
with men of the greatest wisdom and fullest experience 
in those matters, and I do declare to you most solemnly 
and most truly, that on the result of this reading, 
thinking, experience, and communication, I am not 
able to come to au immediate resolution in favour of 
a change of the groundwork of our constitution. 


My declared opposition to the increased and increas- 
ing influence of the Crown had made a great impres- 
sion on His Majesty's mind ; for on the day I did 
homage, he asked the Duke of Rutland if his friend 
the Bishop of Landaff was not a great enemy to the 
influence of the Crown. Bishop Watson. 

DECLINE', v. a.,v. n. &. n s.^ Fr. decll- 

DECLEN'SION, n. s. t ner ; Span. 

DECLIN'ABLE, adj. f and Port. de- 

DECLINA'TION, n. s. [dinar; Ital. 

DECLIN'ATOR, 1 dedinaire ; 

DECLIN'ATORY. J Lat. dedino, 

from deorsum, downwards, and dino, to bind ; 

Gr. eXivw. Minsheu. To bend downwards ; 

to bring down ; to shun; avoid; sink : as a neuter 

verb, to lean or incline downward ; to deviate ; 

to sink ; decay. Decline, as well as declension, 

signifies also the state of decrease, or alteration 

for the worse ; a tendency to a less degree of 

excellence ; descent. Declinable is principally 

a term of grammar, and expresses that quality of 

words whereby they can be traced to their roots. 

Declination, and declinator, are also scientific 

terms, for which see the articles following : 

Neither shalt thou speak in a cause to decline after 
many, to wrest judgment. Exodus xxiii. 2. 

And now fair Phoebus 'gan decline in haste 
His weary waggon to the western vale. Spenser. 

The queen, hearing of the declination of a mo- 
narchy, took it so ill, as she would never after hear 
of his suit. Bacon. 

They'll be by the fire, and presume to know 
What's don i' th' capitol ; who's like to rise, 
Who thrives, and who declines. Shakspeare, 

Sons at perfect age, and fathers declining, the father 
should be as a ward to the son. Id. 





A beauty-waining and distressed widow, 
Even in the afternoon of her best days, 
Seduced the pitch and height of all his thoughts, 
To base declension. Id. Richard III. 

Since the muses do invoke my power, 
I shall no more decline that sacred bower, 
Where Gloriana, their great mistress, lies. Waller. 

Hope waits upon the flow'ry prime ; 
And summer, though it be less gay, 

Yet is not looked on as a time 
Of declination or decay. Id. 

Sometimes nations will decline so low 
From virtue, which is reason, that no wrong, 
But justice, and some fatal curse annexed, 
Deprives them of their outward liberty. Milton. 
And nature, which all acts of life designs, 
Not like ill poets, in the last declines. Denham. 

He had wisely declined that argument, though in 
their common sermons they gave it. Clarendon. 

If it should be said that minute bodies are indis- 
soluble, because it is their nature to be so, that would 
not be to render a reason of the thing proposed, but, 
in effect, to decline rendering any. Boyle. 

That a peccant creature should disapprove and re- 
pent of every declination and violation of the rules of 
just and honest, this right reason, discoursing upon 
the stock of its own principles, could not but infer. 

South's Sermons. 

Thus then my loved Euryalus appears ; 
He looks the prop of my declining years ! Dryden. 

Autumnal warmth declines ; 
Ere heat is quite decayed, or cold begun. Id. 

There is no declination of latitude, nor variation of 
the elevation of the pole, notwithstanding what some 
have asserted. Woodward. 

Thy rise of fortune did I only wed, 
From its decline determined to recede. Prior. 

We may reasonably allow as much for the declen- 
sion of the land from that place to the sea, as for the 
immediate height of the mountain. Burnet's Theory. 

Those fathers lived in the decline of literature. 


Faith and morality are declined among us. Id. 

God, in his wisdom, hath been pleased to load onr 
declining years with many sufferings, with diseases, 
and decays of nature. Id. 

Whatever they judged to be most agreeable or dis- 
agreeable, they would pursue or decline. Atterbury. 

Supposing there were a declination of atoms, yet will 
it not effect what they intend ; for then they do all 
decline, and so there will be no more concourse than 
if they did perpendicularly descend. Ray. 

You decline mnsa, and construe Latin, by the help 
of a tutor, or with some English translation. Watts. 

There are several ways to know the several planes ; 
but the readiest is by an instrument called a declina- 
tory , fitted to the variation of your place. Moxon. 

Declension is only the variation or change of the 
termination of a noun, whilst it continues to signify 
the same thing. Clarke's Latin Grammar. 

And leaves the semblance of a lover, fixt 

In melancholy deep, with head declined, 

And love-dejected eyes. Thomson. 

The surest way to conquer, is sometimes to decline 
a battle ; to weary out the enemy, by keeping him at 
bay. Mason. 

But, though the felon on his back could dare 
The dreadful leap, more rational, his steed 
Declined the death, and wheeling swiftly round , 
Or e'er his hoof had pressed the crumbling verge. 


This praise, O Cheronean sage, is thine ! 

Why should this praise to thee alone belong ? 
All else from Nature's moral path decline, 
Lured by the toys that captivate the throng. 


Statues of glass all shivered the long file 
Of her dead Doges are declined to dust ; 
But where they dwelt, the vast and sumptuous pile 
Bespeaks the pageant of their splendid trust. 


DECLINATION, in astronomy, is either north 
or south, and either true or apparent, accord- 
ing as the real or apparent place of the object is 
considered. See ASTRONOMY. 

DECLIVITY, 7i. s. t Old Fr. decliviti ; 

DECLIVOUS, adj. $ from the Lat. declivis, 
decline. See DECLINE. Descent; obliquity; 
downwards; gradual descent, opposed to ac- 

Rivers will not flow unless upon declivity, and their 
sources be raised above the earth's ordinary surface, 
so that they may run upon a descent. Woodward. 

I found myself within my depth ; and the decli- 
vity was so small, that I walked near a mile before I 
got to the shore. Gulliver's Travels. 

And on thy happy shore a temple still, 
Of small and delicate proportion, keeps, 
Upon a mild declivity of hill, 
Its memory of thee ; beneath it sleeps 
Thy current's calmness. Byron. 

DECOCT, v. a. -\ Fr. decoction; Ital. de- 
DECOCTION, n. s. f coctione ; Span.</ecocion; 
DECOCTIBLE, adj. {from Lat. decoctus, of de 
DECOCTURE, n. s. 3 and coquo, to seethe. To 
extract the virtues of any thing by boiling, or 
heat. Shakspeare uses it, barbarously enough, 
for strengthening by boiling ; decoction is the 
act of boiling to extract the virtue, or the pre- 
paration decocted ; and the latter seems the 
meaning also of decocture. 

Sena loseth its windiness by decocting ; and subtile 
or windy spirits are taken off by incension or evapo- 
ration. Bacon. 

In infusion, the longer it is, the greater is the part 
of the gross body that goeth into the liquor : but in 
decoction, though more goeth forth, yet it either 
purgeth at the top, or settleth at the bottom. Bacon. 

Can sodden water, their barley broth, 
Decoct their cold blood to such valiant heat ? 


They distil their husbands' land 
In decoctions ; and are manned 
With ten empirics, in their chamber 
Lying for the spirit of amber. Ben Junson. 

There she decocts, and doth the food prepare ; 
There she distributes it to every vein; 
There she expels what she may fitly spare. Danes. 

The lineaments of a white lily will remain after 
the strongest decoction. Arbuthnot. 

DECOLLATE, v. a. \ Fr. decoller. From 
DECOLLATION, n. s. S Lat. decollatio, de and 
collum, the neck. To behead ; a beheading, or 
decapitation. Applied also metaphorically 

A fine piece (a painting) of a decollated head of 
St. John the Baptist was shewn to a Turkish Empe- 
ror ; he praised many things, but he observeii that 




the skin did not shrink from the wounded part of the 
neck. Burke on the Sublime. 

He by a decollation of all hope, annihilated his 
mercy ; this, hy an immoderancy thereof, destroyed 
his justice. Brown. 

DE'COMPOSE, v. a. -\ Fr. decomposer ; 

DECOMPOS'ITE, adj. /Lat. decompono, 

DECOMPOSITION, n. s. fdccompositus, of 

DE'COMPOUND, v. a, & adj. s de and compono, 

composui, to COMPOSE, which see. To compound 

a second time, to dissolve (chemically), seem 

alike the meaning of both verbs. Decomposite and 

decompound, as adjectives, mean compounded a 

second time. Decomposition, the actor practice 

of so compounding, or a resolution of the parts 

of things chemically. 

Decomposites of three metals, or more, are too long 
to enquire of, except there be some compositions of 
them already observed. Bacon. 

The pretended salts and sulphur are so far from 
being elementary parts extracted out of the body of 
mercury, that they are rather, to borrow a term of 
the grammarians, decompound bodies, made up of the 
whole metal and the menstruum, or other additaments 
employed to disguise it. Boyle. 

We consider what happens in the compositions and 
decompositions of saline particles. Id. 

No body should use any compound or decompound 
of the substantial verbs. Arbuthnot and Pope. 

When a word stauds for a very complex idea, that 
is compounded and decompounded, it is not easy for 
men to form and retain that idea exactly, Locke. 

If the violet, blue, and' green be intercepted, the 
remaining yellow, orange, and red will compound upon 
the paper an orange ; and then if the intercepted co- 
lours be let pass, they will fall upon this compounded 
orange, and, together with it, decompound a white. 


Bees' wax becomes bleached by exposure to the 
sun and dews in a similar manner as metals become 
calcined or rusty, viz., by the water on their surface 
being decomposed ; and hence the inflammable mate- 
rial which caused the colour becomes united with vital 
air forming a new acid, and is washed away. 


In preparing the salt from the brine, there is a re- 
fuse part, -which is formed by the separation and de- 
composition of the grosser particles from the pure salt. 

Sir T. Barnard. 

DECOMPOSITION, in chemistry, usually signi- 
fies the disunion or separation of the constituent 
parts of bodies. It differs from mere mechanical 
division, in that, when a body is chemically* de- 
composed, the parts into which it is resolved are 
essentially different from the body itself; but 
though a mechanical force is applied to it ever 
so long, or if with ever so much violence, the 
minutest particles into which the body may be 
reduced, still retain their original nature. Thus, 
let nitre be reduced to ever so fine a powder, 
each particle retains the nature of nitre as much 
as the compounded mass ; but, if oil of vitriol is 
applied, a decomposition takes place, and one of 
the largest component parts of the nitre rises in 
the form of a smoking acid spirit, which never 
could have been suspected to lie hid in the neu- 
tral salt. See CHEMISTRY. 

Fr. decorer ; Ilal. de- 

DE'CORATE, a a.\ 

DECOR'AMENT, n. s. {corature ; from Lat. dc- 
DECORA TION, n. s. t coro, ofdecus, honor. To 
DEC'ORATER j adorn, beautify, dress, 

embellish. Decorament seems synonymous wilh 


The ensigns of virtues contribute to the ornament 
of figures ; such as the decorations belonging to the li- 
beral arts, and to war. Dryden. 

After all, to inherit is not to acquire, to decorate is 
not to make. Johnson. 

DE'COROUS, adj. ) Lat. decorus, decel, 
DECO'RUM, n. s. S it becometh. See DE- 

CORATE. Befitting, becoming, proper, suitable 
to character or station ; therefore decorum is be 
coming gravity and seemliness of behaviour. 

If your master 

Would have a queen his beggar, you must tell him 
That majesty, to keep decorum, must 
No less beg than a kingdom. Shakspeare. 

I am far from suspecting simplicity, which is bold 
to trespass in points of decorum. Wotton. 

Every one is a virtuoso, of a higher or lower de- 
gree : every one pursues a Grace, and courts a Venus 
of one kind or another. The venestums, the hones- 
turns, the decorum of things, will force its way. 


Beyond the fixed and settled rules 
Of vice and virtue in the schools, 
The better sort shall set before 'em 
A grace, a manner, a decorum. Prior 

Gentlemen of the army should be, at least, obliged 
to external decorum : a profligate life and character 
should not be a means of advancement. Swift. 

It is not so decorous, in respect of God, that he 
should immediately do all the meanest and triflingest 
things himself, without any inferiour or subordinate 
minister. Ray. 

If the prudence of reserve and decorum dictates si- 
lence in some circumstances, in others prudence of a 
higher order may justify us in speaking our thoughts. 

No band of friends or heirs be there. 

To weep, or wish, the coming blow 
No maiden, with disshevelled hair, 

To feel, or feign, decorous woe. Beattie. 

DECO RTICATE, v. a. ) Lat. decortico. 
DECORTICA'TION, n. s. } To divest of the 

bark or husk ; to husk ; to peel ; to strip. 

Take great barley, drie'l and decorticated, after it is 

well washed, and boil it in water. Arbuthnot. 

DECOY, v. a. & n. s. } From Goth, duck and 
DECOY'-DUCK, n. s. } kui, or Dut- koey, a 

cage. To entrap ducks into a net, or otherwise ; 

and hence to entrap or ensnare generally. The 

decoy-duck is the instrument of lure. Se* 


A fowler had taken a partridge, who offered to de- 
ooy her companions into the snare. L' Estrange. 

These exuberant productions of the earth became a 
continual decoy and snare : they only excited and fo- 
mented lusts. Woodward. 

The Devil could never have had such numbers, had 
he not used some as decoys to ensnare others. 

Government of the Tongue. 

An old dramdrinker is the Devil's decoy. Berkeley 




There is a sort of ducks, called decoy-ducks, that will 
bring whole flights of fowl to their retirements, where 
are conveniences made for catching them. 


Decoyed by the fantastic blaze, 
Now lost, and now renewed, he sinks absorpt, 
Rider and horse. Thornton. 

A stifled smile of stern vindictive joy 
Brightened one moment Edwin's starting tear, 
But why should gold man's feeble mind decoy 
And innocence thus die by doom severe ? Beati'tc. 

DECOY, among fowlers, a place made for catch- 
ing wild fowl. A decoy is generally made where 
there is a large sheet of water surrounded with 
wood, and beyond that a marshy and unculti- 
vated country. As soon as the evening sets in, 
the decoy rises, as they term it, and the wild 
fowl feed during the night. The decoy-ducks 
are fed with hemp-seed, which is thrown over the 
skreens in small quantities, to bring them for- 
wards into the pipes or canals, and to allure the 
wild fowl to follow, as this seed floats. There 
are several pipes, as they are called, which lead 
up a narrow ditch that closes at last with a fun- 
nel net. Over these pipes, which grow nar- 
rower from their first entrance, is a continued 
arch of netting suspended on hoops. It is neces- 
sary to have a pipe or ditch for almost every 
wind that can blow, as upon this circumstance it 
depends which pipe the fowl will take to; and 
the decoy-man always keeps on the leeward side 
of the ducks, to prevent his effluvia reaching their 
sagacious nostrils. All along eacli pipe, at cer- 
tain intervals, are placed skreens made of reeds, 
so situated, that it is impossible the wild-fowl 
should see the decoy-man, before they have 
passed on towards the end of the pipe, where the 
purse-net is placed. The inducement of the 
wild-fowl to go up one of these pipes is, because 
the decoy-ducks trained to this lead the way, 
either after hearing the whistle of the decoy-man, 
or enticed by the hemp-seed : the latter will dive 
under water, whilst the wild-fowV fly on, and are 
taken in the purse net. It often happens, how- 
ever, that the wild-fowl are in such a state of 
sleepiness and dozing, that they will not follow 
the decoy-duck. Use is then generally made of 
a dog, who is taught his lesson ; he passes back- 
wards and forwards between the reed-skreens, in 
which are little holes, both for the decoy-man to 
see, and the dog to pass through; this attracts 
the eye of the wild-fowl, who, not choosing to be 
interrupted, advance towards the small and con- 
temptible animal, that they may drive him away. 
The dog all the time, by the direction ef the 
decoy-man, plays among the screens of reeds, 
nearer and nearer the purse-net ; till at last the 
man appears behind a screen, and the wild-fowl 
not daring to pass by him in return, nor being 
able to escape upwards, on account of the net 
covering, rush on into the net. Sometimes the 
dog will not attract their attention, if a red hand- 
kerchief, or something very singular, is not put 
about him. The general season for catching 
fowls in decoy, is from the end of October till 
February. Decoys are commonly let at a certain 
annual rent, and yield large quantities of ducks, 
wigeons, and teal; but they have been diminished 

in number by the recent drainage of many of the 
fenny parts of England. 

DECREASE,u.a.&n.ccn..?. \ Lat. decresco, 
DE'CREMENT, n.s. >from de, and 

DECRESCENT, adj. j cresco, to in- 

crease. To make less ; diminish : as a neuter 
verb, to grow less ; be diminished. The state or 
act of growing less : decrement is the quantity 
lost in decrease; and decrescent, growing less. 

From the moon is the sign of feasts, a light that de- 
creaseth in her perfection. Eccles. xliii. 7. 

He did dishonourable find 
Those articles, which did our state decrease. 


See "in what time the seeds, set in the increase of 
the moon, come to a certain height, and how they dif- 
fer from those that are set in the decrease of the moon. 


Unto fifty years, as they said, the heart annually 
increaseth the weight of one drachm ; after which, in 
the same proportion, it decreaseth. 

Browne's Vulgar Errours. 

Upon the tropick, and first descension from our sol- 
stice, we are scarce sensible of declination ; but de- 
clining farther, our decrement accelerates : we set 
apace, and in our last days precipitate into our graves. 


Rocks, mountains, and the other elevations of the 
earth, suffer a continual decrement, and grow lower and 
lower. Woodward. 

By weakening toil and hoary age o'ercome, 
See thy decrease, and hasten to thy tomb. Prior. 

Heat increases the fluidity of tenacious liquids, as 
of oil, balsam, and honey , and thereby decreases their 
resistance. Newton. 

When the sun comes to his tropicks, days increase 
and decrease but a very little for a great while together. 


They who are now, like the Baptist, burning and 
shining lights, must like him gradually decrease, while 
others are increasing about them. 

Doddridge's Expositor. 

DECREE', v. a., v. n. & n. s.^ Fr. decret, 



from Lat. decretum ; qu. Gr. Kptvw, to judge. To 
doom or decide formally or publicly ; to make 
an edict; to establish by law; resolve. A de- 
cree is the edict, law, rule, or decision. Decre- 
tal, a book of decrees or laws, and particularly of 
the popes : decretist, he who professedly studies 
or is skilled in the decretals : decretory, judicial, 
decisive, final. 

When he made a decree for the rain, and a way 
for the lightning of the thunder. Job xxviii. 26. 

There went a decree from Caesar Augustus, that al 
the world should be taxed. Luke ii. 1. 

They shall see the end of the wise, and shall not 
understand what God in his counsel hath decreed of 
him. Wisdom iv. 

The second room, whose walls 

Were painted fair with memorable gests 

Of magistrates, of courts, of tribunals, 

Of laws, of judgments, and of decretals. Spenser. 

If you deny me, fie upon your law ! 
There is no force in the decrees of Venice. 


Traditions and decretals were made of equal force, 
and as authentical a the sacred charter Itself. 

Howel's Vocal Forest. 




Father eternal ; thine is to decree ; 
Mine, both in heaven and earth, to do thy will. 


The motions of the moon, supposed to be measured 
by sevens, and the critical or decretory days depend 
on that number. Browne's Vulgar Errours. 

The folly of man, and not the decree of heaven, is 
the cause of human calamity. Broome. 

There are lenitives that friendship will apply, be- 
fore it will be brought to the decretory rigours of a 
condemning sentence. South's Sermons. 

Had heaven decreed that I should life enjoy, 
Heaven had decreed to save unhappy Troy. 

Are we condemn'd by fate's unjust decree, 

No more our houses and our homes to see ? Id. 
The king their father, 

On just and weighty reasons, has decreed 

His sceptre to the younger. Rowe. 

A decretal epistle is that which the pope decrees 
either by himself, or else by the advice of his cardi- 
nals ; and this must be on his being consulted by some 
particular person or persons thereon. 

Ayliffe's Parergon. 

The decretiits had their rise and beginning under 
the reign of the emperor Frederick Barbarossa. Id. 

Whether it be decreed by the authority of reason, 
or the tyranny of ignorance, that, of all the candidates 
for literary praise, the unhappy lexicographer holds 
the lowest place, neither vanity nor interest incited me 
to inquire. Johnion. Plan of Dictionary. 

Here are the ancient editions of the Papal decretals, 
and the commentators on the civil law, the edicts of 
Spain, and the statutes of Venice. 

Id. On the Harleian Library. 

DECREP'ID, or "j Fr. decrepite; Ital. 
DECREP'IT, adj. I and Span, decrepito; 

DECREP'ITATE, v. a. I Lat. decrepitus, crack- 
DECREPITA'TION, n. s. [ling; from the crack- 
DECREP'ITNESS, I ling of a candle or 

DECREP'ITUDE. J lamp when nearly 

out, says Minsheu, after Scaliger. Wasted ; old ; 
weak; in extreme decay. To decrepitate is 
used by Browne for the calcining of salt until 
it ceases to crackle. Decrepitness and decre- 
pitude are man's ' last stage of all.' 

Of men's lives, in this decrepit age of the world, 
many exceed fourscore, and some an hundred years. 


This pope is decrepit, and the bell goeth for him : 
take order that there be chosen a pope of fresh years. 


Decrepit miser ! base, ignoble wretch. Shakspeare. 

If favours out-live one age, they prove decrepit 
and heartless. Bishop Hall. Contemplations. 

And from the north to call 
Decrepit Winter. Milton. 

So will it come to pass in a pot of salt, although 
decrepitated. Browne's Vulgar Errours. 

If true succession from our isle should fail, 
And crowds profane with impious hands prevail, 
Not thou, nor those thy factious arts engage 
Shall reap that harvest of rebellious rage, 
With which thou flatterest thy decrepit age. Dryden. 

Propped on his staff, and stooping as he goes, 
A painted mitre shades his furrowed brows j 
The god, in this decrepit form arrayed, 
The gardens entered, and the fruits surveyed. Pope. 

Mother earth, in this her barrenness and decrepit- 
ness of age, can procreate such swarms of curious 
engines. Bentley. 

The charge of witchcraft inspires people with a 
malevolence towards those poor decrepit parts of our 
species, in whom human nature is defaced by infir- 
mity and dotage. Addison. 

Time in advance behind him hides his wings, 
And seems to creep decrepid with his age. Young. 

The emaciated and decrepid appearance, with the 
ridiculous and idiotic gestures, of the opium-eaters in 
Constantinople, is well described in the Memoirs of 
Baron de Tott. Darwin. 

DECREPITATION, in chemistry, the crackling 
noise which several salts make when suddenly 
heated, accompanied by a violent exfoliation 
of their particles. This phenomenon has been 
ascribed to the ' sudden conversion of the water 
which they contain into steam.' But absolutely 
dry sulphate of barytes decrepitates furiously 
without any possible formation of steam, or any 
loss of weight. The same holds with respect to 
common salt, calcareous spars, and sulphate of 
potash, which contain no water. In fact, it is the 
salts which are anhydrous, or destitute of water, 
which decrepitate most powerfully; those that 
contain water generally enter into tranquil lique- 
faction on being heated. Salts decrepitate, for 
the same reason that glass, quartz, and cast-iron 
crack, with an explosive force, when very sud- 
denly heated ; namely, from the unequal expan- 
sion of the laminae which compose them, in 
consequence of their being imperfect conductors 
of heat. 

DECRESCENT, in heraldry, a term signify- 
ing a representation of the moon when declining 
from the fall to the last quarter, her horns being 
turned to the sinister side of the shield. 

The DECRETALS compose the second part of 
the canon law. The first, acknowledged by all 
the learned as genuine, is a letter of Pope Siri- 
cius, written A. D. 385, to Himerus, bishop of 
Tarragona, in Spain, concerning some disorders 
which had crept into the churches of Spain. 
Gratian published a collection of decretals, con- 
taining all the ordinances made by the popes till 
A.D. 1150. Gregory IX. in 1227, following the 
example of Theodosius and Justinian, formed a 
constitution of his own, collecting into one body 
all the decisions and all the causes which served 
to advance the papal power; which collection of 
decretals was called the pentateuch, because it 
contained five books. 

DECRY', v. a. Fr. decrier, de and cry. See 
CRY. To censure ; to blame clamorously, or 

Malice in criticks reigns so high, 
That for small errours they whole plays decry. 


Quacks and imposters are still cautioning us to 
beware of counterfeits, and decry others' cheats only 
to make more way for their own. Swift. 

Those measures, which are extolled by one half of 
the kingdom, are naturally decried by the other 


Then prompt no more the follies you decry, 
As tvranfs doom ihcir tools of uuili. to die. Johnson. 




DECUMANA, in ancient history and geogra- 
phy, the name of a nation of the iVIarse or Mar- 
comanni. See DECUMATES AGRI. 

DECUMARIA, in botany: a genus of the 
monogynia order, and dodecandria class of plants : 
CAL. decaphyllous, superior; petals ten; CAPS. 
eight or nine cells and polyspermous. Species 
two, both natives of Carolina. 

DECUMATES AGRI, fields granted on a 
tithe, as appears from Tacitus, to the Gauls who 
succeeded the Marcomanni, that had till then 
proved a check to the Roman conquests, on the 
Rhine ; and hence, probably, their name, people 
living on the marches or limits of the empire. 

DECU'MBENCE, n. s.-> Lat. decumbo. 

DECU'MBENCY, >The act of lying 

DECU'MBITURE, j down ; the posture 

of lying down. 

This must come to pass, if we hold opinion they lie 
not down, and enjoy no decumbence at all ; for station 
is properly no rest, but one kind of motion. 

Browne's Vulgar Errours. 

Not considering the ancient manner of decumbency, 
be imputed this gesture of the beloved disciple unto 
rusticity, or an act of incivility. Id. 

If but a mile she travel out of town, 
The planetary hour must first be known, 
And lucky moment : if her eye but akes, 
Or itches, its decumbiture she lakes. Dryden. 

DE'CUPLE, adj. Lat. decuplus, tenfold. The 
same number ten times repeated. 

Man's length, that is, a perpendicular from the 
vertex unto the sole of the foot, is decuple unto his pro- 
fundity ; that is, a direct line between tbe breast and 
the spine. Browne's Vulgar Errours. 

Supposing there be a thousand sorts of insects in this 
island, if the same proportion holds between the in- 
sects of England and of the world, as between plants 
domestick and cxotick, that is, near a decuple, the 
species of insects will amount to ten thousand. Ray. 

DECURIA, or DECURY, among the ancient 
Romans, ten men under one leader, called the 
decurio. The decuria was the third part of a 
turma, or the thirtieth of a legion of horse, which 
consisted of 300 men. The Roman cavalry 
was divided into decuriae, which were subdivi- 
sions of a century, each century containing ten 

DECURIO, a subaltern officer in the Roman 
armies, who commanded a decuria. 

DECU'RION, n. s. Lat. decurio. A com- 
mander over ten ; an officer subordinate to the 

He instituted decurions through both these colonies, 
that is, one over every ten families. Temple. 

in the Roman provinces, who formed a body to 
represent the Roman senates in free and corpo- 
rate towns. They consisted of ten, whence the 
name; and their duty was to watch over the 
interests of their fellow citizens, and to increase 
the revenues of the commonwealth. Their court 
was called curio decurionum and minor senatus ; 
and their decrees, called decreta decurionum, 
were marked D. D. at the top. They generally 
styled themselves civitatum patres curiales, and 
honorati muuieipiorum senatores. They were 
lected witli the same ceremonies as the Roman 

senators; they were to be at least twenry-fivo 
years of age, and to be possessed of ten talents. 

DECU'RSION, n. s. Lat. decurcus, from de 
and cursua. The act of running down. 

What is decayed by that decursion of waters, is sup- 
plied by the terrene faeces which water brings. Hale. 

DECU'SSATE, v . a. \ Lat. decusso. To in- 

DECUSSA'TION, n. s. I tersect at acute angles. 
The act of crossing, or state of being crossed at 
unequal angles. See OPTICS. 

The crucigerous ensign carried this figure not trans- 
versely or rectangularly intersected, but in a decussa- 
tion, after the form of an Andrian or Burgundian 
cross, which answereth this description. Browne. 

This it performs by the action of a notable muscle 
on each side, having the form of the letter X, made 
up of many fibres, decussating one another longways. 


Though there be decwssation of the rays in the pu- 
pil of the eye, and so the image of the object in the 
retina, or bottom of the eye, be inverted ; yet doth no* 
the object appear inverted, but in its right or natu- 
ral posture. Id. 

DECUSSORIUM, an instrument used by sur- 
geons, which, by pressing gently on the dura 
mater, causes an evacuation of the pus collected 
between it and the cranium, through the perfora- 
tion made by the trepan. 

DEDDINGTON, a market-town of Oxford- 
shire, formerly a corporation and borough. The 
Birmingham and Oxford canal passes near this 
place, and is of considerable advantage to it. In 
the neighbourhood are two medicinal springs, 
one of which is highly impregnated with vitriolic 
salt. It has a weekly market on Saturday. It 
is seated on an eminence, seventeen miles north 
of Oxford, and sixty-nine N.N.W. of London. 

DEDE'CORATE, v. a. } Lat. dedecoro. To 

DEDECORA'TION, n. s. disgrace ; to bring a 

DEDECO'ROUS, adj. j reproach upon. The 

act of disgracing ; disgrace. Disgraceful. 

DEDENTIT ION, n. s. Lat. de and dentitio. 
Shedding of teeth. The loss or shedding of the 

Solon divided life into ten septenaries, because in 
every one thereof a man received some sensible muta- 
tion , in the first is dedentition, or falling of teeth. 

Browne' t Vulgar Errours. 

DEDHAM, a town and parish of England, in 
the county of Essex, situated on the river Stour, 
over which is a bridge. It is six miles N.N. E. 
of Colchester, and its church is noted for a fine 
Gothic steeple. Population about 2200. 

DEDHAM, a township of Massachusetts, incor- 
porated in 1637. 

DEDHAM, a town in the above township, the 
capital of Norfolk county, called by the Indians 
Tiot. It lies on the south side of Charles River, 
eleven miles south-west of Boston, and 320 
from Philadelphia. 

DEDICATE, v. a. & adj. ~\ French, dedier ; 

DEDICATION, n. s. ( Port, and Ital. de- 

DEDICATOR. tdicare; Teut. de- 

DEDICATORY, adj. J diciren ; Lat. de- 

dicare, from Deo, dicare, to consecrate to God. To 
devote to some deity, or to some pious or religious 
service ; to resign, appropriate, or inscribe, 
to a particular person or service. Dedication 




is also the act, form, or inscription, used in dedi- 
cating. A dedicator, says Johnson, with more 
temper than accuracy, is one who inscribes his 
work to a patron, with compliment and servility. 

The princes offered for dedicating the altar, in the 
day that it was anointed. Numb. vii. 10. 

A pleasant grove, 

Was shot up high, full of the stately tree, 

That dedicated is to Olympick Jove, 

And to his son Alcides. Spenser. 

Ladies, a general welcome from his grace 

Salutes you all : this night he dedicates 

To fair content and you. Shakspeare. 

Prayers from preserved souls, 

From fasting maids, whose names are dedicate 

To nothing temporal. Id. 

It cannot be laid to many men's charge, that they 
Lave been so curious as to trouble bishops with placing 
the first stone in the churches ; or so scrupulous as, af- 
ter the erection of them, to make any great ado for 
their dedication. Hooker. 

This tenth part, or tithe, being thus assigned unto 
him, becometh as a thing dedicate and appropriate 
onto God. Spelman. 

He compiled ten elegant books, and dedicated them 
to the lord Burghley. Peacham. 

He went to learn the profession of a soldier, to 
which he had dedicated himself. Clarendon. 

Bid her instant wed, 

And quiet dedicate her remnant life, 

To the just duties of an humble wife. Prior; 

He that would make a real progress in knowledge, 
must dedicate his age as well as youth, the latter 
growth, as well as the first fruits, at the altar of truth. 


Thus I should begin my epistle if it were a dedica- 
tory one ; but it is a friendly letter. Pope. 

Proud as Apollo on his forked hill, 
Sat full-blown Bufo, puffed by every quill j 
Fed by soft dedication all day long, 
Horace and he went hand in hand in song. Id. 
Leave dangerous truths to unsuccessful satires ; 

And flattery to fulsome dedicators. Id. 

Among publick solemnities there is none so glorious 
as that under the reign of king Solomon, at the dedi- 
cation of the temple. Addison. 
For growing names the weekly scribbler lies, 

To growing wealth the dedicator flies. 

Johnson. Vanity of Human Wishes. 

DEDICATION, the act of consecrating a temple, 
altar, statue, palace, &c. to the honor of some 
deity. The use of dedications is very ancient 
both among the worshippers of the true God 
and among the heathens : the Hebrews call it 
fU3r\ hhanuchah, ' initiation;' which the Greek 
translators render Eyicaivia, and Eyicaivi<T/ioc, 
* renewing.' In the Scripture we meet with dedi- 
cations of the tabernacle, of altars, of the first 
and second temple, and even of the houses of 
private persons. One of the most solemn on 
record is that of the first temple by Solomon, 
1 Kings viii., 2 Chron. vi. There were also 
dedications of vessels, and of the garments of the 
priests and Levites, as well as of persons them- 
selves. The heathens had also dedications of 
temples, altars, and images of their gods, &c. 
Nebuchadnezzar held a solemn dedication of his 
statue, Dan. iii. 2. Tacitus, Hist. lib. iv. ch. 53, 
mentions the dedication of the capitol, upon 
rebuilding it by Vespasian, &c. In modern 

times dedication is only applied to a church; 
and is properly the consecration of it perrbrmed 
by a bishop, with a number of ceremonies pre- 
scribed by the church. See CONSECRATION. 

DEDITION, . s. Lzt.deditio. The act of 
yielding up any thing ; surrendry. 

It was not a complete conquest, but rather a detition 
upon terms and capitulations agreed between the con- 
queror and the conquered. Hale. 

Fr. deduire ; Span. 
deduzer ; ItsA.didurre ; 
Lat. deduce, deducere, of 
de and duco. To lead or 
f draw. To draw or de- 
rive a conclusion in 
argument ; to trace a 
series of events, or con- 

DEDU'CE, v. a. 


DEDU'CT, v. a. 




catenatious circumstances; to subtract or take 
off; hence to separate, divide. Deducible, and 
deductive, mean consequential, evident to reason. 
Deducive, performing, or drawing a conclusion. 
Deductively, consequentially. Deduction, the 
result of a series of argumentation ; a conse- 
quence, as well as a sum or thing subtracted. 

Having yet, in his deducted spright, 
Some sparks remaining of that heavenly fire. 


Out of scripture such duties may be deduced, by 
some kind of consequence J as by long circuit of de- 
duction it may be that even all truth, out of any truth 
may be concluded. Hooker. 

I will deduce him from his cradle, through the deep 
and lubric waves of state and court, till he was swal- 
lowed in the gulph of fatality. Wotton Buck. 

The condition, although deducible from many 
grounds, yet shall we evidence it but from few. 

Browne's Vulgar Errours. 

There is scarce a popular errour passant in our 
days, which is not either directly expressed, 01 deduc- 
tively contained in this work. Id. 

You have laid the experiments together in such a 
way, and made such deductions from them, as I have 
not hitherto met with. Boyle. 

All cross and distasteful humours are either ex- 
pressly, or by clear consequence and deduction, forbid- 
den in the New Testament. Tillotson. 

So far, therefore, as conscience reports any thing 
agreeable to or deducible from these, it is to be heark- 
ened to. South. 

Praise and prayer are his due worship, and the 
rest of those deducements which I am confident are the 
remote effects of revelation. Dryden. 

The general character of the new earth is paradisai- 
cal , and the particular character, that it hath no sea : 
and both are apparently deducible from its formation. 


Reason is nothing but the faculty of deducing un- 
known truths from principles already known. Locke. 

All properties of a triangle depend on, and are de- 
ducible from, the complex idea of three lines, includ- 
ing a space. Id. 

We deduct from the computation of our years that 
part of our time which is spent in incogitancy of in- 



~-j - 

All knowledge of causes is deductive ; for we know 
none by simple intuition, but through the meditation 

of their effects. 


That by diversity of motions we should spell out 
iues not resembled bv them.we must attribute to soine 

things not resembled by them, we must 




secret deduction ; but what this deduction should be, 
or by what mediums this knowledge is advanced, is 
as dark as ignorance. Id. 

O goddess, say,, shall I deduce my rhimes 
From the dire nation in its early times ? Pope. 

Bring then these blessings to a strict account ; 
Make fair deductions ; see to what they mount. Id. 

A reflection so obvious, that natural instinct seems 
to have suggested it even to those who never much 
attended to the deductions of reason. Rogen. 

Lend me your song, ye nightingales ! oh pour 
The mazy-running soul of melody 
Into my varied verse ! while I deduce, 
From the first note the hollow cuokoo sings, 
The symphony of spring. Thomson. 

Set before you the moral law of God, with such de- 
ductions from it as our Saviour hath drawn, or our 
own reason, well informed, can make. Duppa. 

DEE, a river of England and Wales, which 
rises at the foot of the lofty mountain Arun, in 
the north-west angle of Merionethshire, from 
which it runs through a fine valley in a north- 
east direction to Denbighshire ; visits the north- 
west border of Cheshire, to which it serves as 
a boundary ; then crossing over to Chester, it 
flows thence to the sea, forming a broad sandy 
estuary, which separates Cheshire from Flint- 
shire. This river is navigable from Elsemere, in 
Shropshire, to Chester; but at this city the navi- 
gation is interrupted by a ledge of rocks running 
across the bed of it, and causing a cascade. 
The Dee fells into the Irish Sea, fifteen miles 
below Chester. 

DEE, a river of Scotland, in Aberdeenshire, 
which rises from the hill Breirach, and after run- 
ning through the parishes of Braemar, Crathy, 
and many others, with vast rapidity, falls into 
the German Ocean at Aberdeen, 140 miles from 
its source. It produces, in great plenty, trout, 
pikes, eels, &c., and affords one of the greatest 
salmon-fisheries in Scotland. In passing through 
Braemar, the Dee has a fine cascade, with the 
additional singularity, that for sixty yards it is 
confined between two rocks, within so narrow a 
space, that some persons have ventured to step 
over it. 

DEE (John), a famous mathematician and 
astrologer, born in London, July 1527. In 1542 
he was sent to St. John's College, Cambridge. 
After five years close application to the mathe- 
matics and astronomy, he went to Holland ; and, 
on his return to Cambridge, was elected a fellow 
of Trinity College, then first erected by king 
Henry VIII. In 1548, he took the degree of 
M.A. and left England a second time on ac- 
count of the suspicion attached to his character 
as an astrologer. Upon leaving England, he 
went to the University of Louvain, where he 
took the degree of LL.D. In 1551 he returned 
to England, and obtained the rectory of Upton- 
upon-Severn; but soon after the accession of 
queen Mary, he was accused of practising against 
her life by enchantment. He suffered a tedious 
confinement on this account, and was several 
times examined; till, in 1555, he obtained his 
liberty bv an order of council. In 1564 he 
made another voyage to the continent, to present 
a book he had dedicated to the emperor Maxi- 
milian, lie returned to England; but, in 1571, 

we find him at Lorrain; where, being danger- 
ously ill, the queen sent over two physicians to 
his relief. Having once more returned to Ins 
native country, he settled at Mortlake in Surry, 
where he continued his studies with un remitted 
ardor, and collected a considerable library of 
curious books and MSS. with a variety of in- 
struments, most of which were afterwards destroy- 
ed by the mob. In 1579 queen Elizabeth, being 
desirous of information concerning the recent 
discoveries of her subjects in America, com- 
manded Mr. Dee to furnish her with proper geo- 
graphical descriptions. Accordingly he presented 
her, in three weeks after, with two large rolls, 
on which the new countries were geographically 
described and historically illustrated : these rolls 
are preserved in the Cottonian library. In 1581 
Dee became acquainted with one Edward Kelly, 
by whose assistance he performed various incan- 
tations, and affected, it is said, to maintain a 
frequent intercourse with the spiritual world. 
In 1 583 they were both introduced to a Polish 
nobleman, then in England, named Albert Laski, 
palatine of Siradia, who persuaded them to 
accompany him to his native country ; and they 
visited, successively, Poland, the court of the 
emperor Rodolph II., and Bohemia. In 1595 
they returned to England, and Dee was once 
more graciously received by the queen; who 
made him Warden of Manchester College. In 
1604 he returned to his house at Mortlake, 
where he died in 1608. Queen Elizabeth seems 
to have made use of Dee, occasionally, as a 
political agent: he was evidently a mathemati- 
cian of considerable genius; but his pretensions 
to astrological and alchemical knowledge dis- 
grace his memory. Dr. M. Casaubon published, 
in 1659, ' A true and faithful Relation of what 
passed between Dr. John Dee and some Spirits.' 

DEED, n, s. J Sax. &ae&; Belg. daed; 

DEED'LESS. $ Goth, dad; Lat. from do, dedi, 
says Minsheu ; and this from Gr. StSovat ; to 
give (effect). An action : any thing done or fully 
performed; a completed legal instrument or act; 
fact ; reality. Deedless is, inactive ; wordy, 
without performance of pledges or professions. 

And manye men bileeuydeu, and camen know- 
lechinge and tellynge her dedis. Wiclif. Dedis, xix. 

The same had not consented to the counsel and 
deed. Luke. 

They desire, with strange absurdity, that to the 
same senate it should belong to give full judgment in 
matter of excommunication, and to absolve whom it 
pleased them, clean contrary to their own former 
deeds and oaths. Hooker. 

The solicitor gave an evidence for a deed, which 
was impeached to be fraudulent. Bacon. 

From lowest place when virtuous things proceed, 
The place is dignified by the doer's deed. 


Speaking in deeds, and deedless in his tongue. 


Nor knew I not 
To be with will and deed created free. 


I, on the other side. 

Used no ambition to commend my deeds ; 
The deedt themselves, tho* mute, spoKc loud tne ooer 




T'ae monster nought replied ; for words wore vain, 
And deeds could only deeds unjust maintain. 


We are not secluded from the expectation of re- 
ward for our charitable deeds. Sinalridye's Serm/jns. 

Instant, he cried, your female discord end, 

Ye deedless boasters ! and the song attend. Pope. 
T was where in early youth he wont retire 

To woo sweet Solitude, and taste her charms 
Ere that his bosom caught the martial fire ; 

Ere that his name was great in deeds of arms. 


Roll on, thou deep and dark blue Ocean roll ! 
Ten thousand fleets sweep over thee in vain ; 
Man marks the earth with ruin his control 
Stops with the shore ; upon the watery plain 
The wrecks are all thy deed. Byron. 

DEEG, a celebrated town and fortress of 
Hindostan, in the province of Agra. It was 
taken from the Jauts in the year 1776, by the 
nabob Nujuff Khan, after a siege of twelve 
months, but soon afterwards restored. Here in 
1805 lord Lake defeated the Mahratta army, com- 
manded by Holkar, and, took this supposed im- 
pregnable town by storm. At the peace it was 
restored to the raja Runjeet Sing. 

DEEM, v. a:, v.n. Sc n. s. Sax. *eman ; 
Goth, and Swed. doma; Teut. doeman , Gr. of 
Otywc, justice. To judge; to determine; to 
conclude on consideration : also, as a neuter 
verb, to judge, determine, or imagine. Shak- 
speare uses the substantive for judgment or 

Nyle ye deem that ghe he not demed. For, in what 
doom ye demen, ye schulen be demed; and, in what 
inesure ye meten, it schal be meten agen to you. 

Widif. Matt.l. 

But they that skill not of so hoavenly matter, 
All that they know not, envy, or admire, 

Rather than envy, let them wonder at her, 
But not to deem of her desert aspire. tipenaer. 

Here eke that famous golden apple grew, 
For which the Idean ladies disagreed, 
Till partial Paris dempt it Venus' due. Id. 

So natural is the union of religion with justice, that 
we may boldly deem there is neither, where both are 
not. Hooker. 

Hear me, my love, be thou but true of heart, 
I true ! how now ? what wicked deem is this 1 

He who to be deemed 
A god, leaped fondly into ^Etna's flames. Milton. 

These blessings, friend, a deity nestowed ; 
For never can I deem him less than god. Dryden. 

Nature, disturbed, 
Is deemed vindictive to have changed her course. 

They are gone, 

And others come : so flows the wave on wave 
Of what these creatures call eternity, 
Deeming themselves the breakers of the ocean, 
While they are but its bubbles, ignorant 
That foam is their foundation. Byron. 

How happier she, who in Love's tranquil bower, 
Clasps the sweet prize of conquest, not the power ; 
Who while one gaze her charms to all prefers, 
And one warm heart returns the warmth of hers, 
Heeds not tho' crowds to half her beauty chill, 
Should deem some flirt of fashion fairer still. 

Dr. T. Brown. 

DEEMSTERS, or DEMSTERS. All contro- 
versies in the Isle of Man are decided without 
process, writings, or any charges, by certain 
judges chosen yearly from among themselves, 
called deemsters, there being two for each divi- 
sion of the island : they sit judges in all courts, 
either for life or property ; and, with the advice 
of twenty-four keys, declare what is law in un- 
common emergencies. 

DEEP, adj. &ra.s. ^ Sax. beeb; Goth, and 
DEEP'EN, v. a. & n. Swed. diup; Belg. diep ; 
DEEP'EMNG, n. s. \ old Goth, dy, to which 
DEEP'LY, adv. ^Serenius traces this word. 

DEEP'-MOUTHED, Mr. Tooke says, ' it is 
DEEP'-MUSING, I merely the past partici- 
DEEP'NESS, n.s. j pie of bibban, to dip, or 
dive.' Profound ; having length downwards ; 
depressed ; sunk ; and, because that which is 
deep in the earth is dark, remote, and un- 
disturbed, gloomy; dark-colored; a dark or 
strong shade of any color ; voluminous in sound ; 
quiet; still. Also, in a metaphorical sense, 
gloomy ; remote in meaning ; sagacious ; far- 
penetrating. Deep, as a substantive, expresses 
the still and quiet part of night; an abyss ; and, 
more particularly, the sea. To deepen is, as an 
active verb, to make deep; to sink low or lower ; 
to darken ; becloud ; make gloomy : as a neuter 
verb, to descend slowly, or by degrees. The 
adverb, and other substantives, follow these 

And I saigh an aungel comynge doun fro heucno, 
hauynge the keye of depnesie and a great chayne in 
his hond. Wiclif. Apo'c. 20. 

And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon 
Adam. Genesis ii. 21. 

Deep calleth unto deep at the noise of thy water- 
spouts t all thy waves and thy billows are gone over 
me. Psalm xlii. 7. 

Some fell upon stony places, and they withered, 
because they had no deepness of earth. Mat. xiii. 5. 

Hee was close and secrete, a deep dissimuler, lowlye 
of counteynaunce, arrogant of heart, outwardly coum- 
pinable where he inwardely hated, not letting to kisse 
whom he thoughte to kyll. Sir T. Moore. 

Yet we did lift up our hearts and voices to God 
above, who sheweth his wonders in the deep. Bacon. 

To keep his promise with him, he had deeply of- 
fended both his nobles and people. 

Id. Henry VII. 

He's meditating with two deep divines. 


There want not many that do fear, 
In deep of night, to walk by this Herne's oak. Id. 

This avarice 

Strikes deeper, grows with more pernicious root. 


Behold the English beach 

Pales in the flood with men, with wives and boys, 
Whose shouts and claps outvoice that deep-mouthed sen. 


When I have most need to employ a friend, 
Deep, hollow, treacherous, and full of guile, 
Be he to me. Id. Richard III. 

Klockings so deeply hath sworn ne'er more to coma 
In bawdy-house, that he dares not go home. D<>nne. 




If we co down to the great deep, the womb of 
moisture, the well of fountains, the great pond of the 
world, we know not whether to wonder at the element 
itself, or the guests which it contains. 

Bishop Hall's Contemplations. 
He in my ear 

Vented much policy and projects deep 
Of enemies, of aids, battles, and leagues, 
Plausible to the world, to me worth nought. 


And in the lowest deep, a lower deep, 
Still threatening to devour me opens wide, 
To which the hell I suffer seems a heaven. 

Milton's Paradise Lost. 

For, even in that season of the year, the ways in 
that vale were very deep. Clarendon. 

Fear is a passion that is most deeply rooted in our 
natures, and flows immediately from the principle of 
self-preservation. Tilletson. 

You must deepen your colours so, that the orpiment 
may be the highest. Penckam. 

What earth in her dark bowels could not keep 
From greedy man, lies safer in the deep. Waller. 

Having taken of the deeply red juice of buckthorn 
berries, I let it drop upon white paper. Boyle. 

The gaping gulph low to the centre lies, 
And twice as deep as earth is distant from the skies. 


Thou hast not strength such labours to sustain : 
Drink hellebore, my boy ! drink deep, and scour thy 

brain. Id. 

With deeper brown the grove was overspread. Id. 
Then toils for beasts, and lime for birds were found, 
And deep-mouthed dogs did forest walks surround. 


If the matter be knotty, and the sense lies deep, the 
mind must stop and buckle to it, and stick upon it with 
labour and thought, and close contemplation. Locke. 

Her gloomy presence sad dens all the scene, 
Shades every flower, and darkens every green, 
Deepens the murmurs of the falling floods, 
And breathes a browner horror on the woods. Pope. 

But he deep-musing o'er the mountains strayed, 
Through many thickets of the woodland shade. Id. 

The city of Rome would receive a great advantage 
from the undertaking, as it would raise the banks and 
deepen the bed of the Tiber. Addison. 

Virgin face divine 

Attracts the hapless youth through storms and waves, 
Alone in deep of night. Philips. 

Hills, dales, and forests far behind remain, 
While the warm scent draws on the deep-mouthed train. 


While at the bow the watch Arion keeps, 
To shun what cruisers wander o'er the deeps. 


We have to supply tneans of occupation and sub- 
sistence for those, to whom not only England, but 
Europe is so deeply indebted. Sir T. Bernard. 

Cosmetic succour won a vermeil hue, 
All soft she spreads, and lo ! the rouge is blue ! 
In vain she wipes and washes, frets and scrubs, 
The horrid azure deepens as she rubs. Dr. T. Brown. 
Such wriiings, though they may be lightly passed 
over by many readers, yet if they make a deep im- 
pression on one active mind in a hundred, the effects 
may be considerable. Franklin. 

Her hollow womb, 

Conceiving thunders, through a thousand deeps 
And fiery caverns, roars beneath his foot. 
The hills move lightly, and the mountains smoke, 
f'ft he has touched them. Cowper. 

Me they revile, with many ills molested, 

They bid me seek from thee, my Lord, redress, 
On God, they say, his hope and trust he rested, 
Let God relieve him in his deep distress. 

Kirht White. 

The sweetness of the violet's deep blue eyes, 
Kissed by the breath of heaven, seems coloured by its 
skies. Byron. 

The Convent bells are ringing, 

But mournfully and slow ; 
In the gray square turret swinging, 

With a deep sound, to and fro. Id. 


The struggle ; vain, against the coiling strain 
And gripe, and deepening of the dragon's grasp, 
The old man's clench ; the long envenomed chain 
Rivets the living links, the enormous asp 
Enforces pang on pang, and stifles gasp on gasp. Id. 

DEER, n. s. Sax. *eori; Goth, dyr ; Belg. 
dier; Teut. their ; from Gr. 0qp ; jEolic 0>p. 
and thence probably from Heb. JH3, wild deer. 
Originally signifying any wild animal, though 
now confined to the cervine species. 

You have beaten my men, killed my deer, and 
broke open my lodge. Shahspeare. 

The pale that held my lovely deer. Waller. 

I was a stricken deer that left the herd 
Long since, with many an arrow deep infixed : 
My panting side was charged, when I withdrew 
To seek a tranquil death in distant shades. 

Cowper. Task. 

DEER, in zoology. See CERVUS. Of this use- 
ful animal there are three principal species in 
this country, viz. the stag, C. elaphus; the roe, 
C. capreolus ; and C. dama the fallow deer. By 
castrating the males when newly dropped, says 
Mr. Loudon, which is not in the least dangerous, it 
affords the means of having good venison until 
Christmas, without any other sort of food than 
the common grass; they also fatten more quickly; 
the operation must, however, be performed while 
they are quite young. By stat. 16 Geo. III. 
cap. 30., if any person shall hunt or take in a 
snare, or kill or wound any red or fallow deer in 
any forest, chase, &c., whether enclosed or not; 
or in any closed park, paddock, &c., without the 
consent of the owner, or be aiding in such of- 
fence, they shall forfeit 20 for the first offence ; 
and also 30 for each deer wounded, killed, or 
taken. A game-keeper offending, to forfeit dou- 
ble. For a second offence offenders shall be 
transported for seveo years. By stat. 28 Geo. II. 
cap. 19, destroying goss, furze, and fern, in fo- 
rests arid chases, being the covert for deer, sub- 
jects the offenders to a penalty from 5 to 40s. 
or to three months' imprisonment 

DEER, GREAT, an island of the East Indian 
sea, near the west coast of the island of Celebes. 
Long. 119 35' E., lat. 5 12' S. 

DEER, LITTLE, a rocky islet in the Eastern 
Seas, near the west coast of the island of Celebes. 
Long. 119 35' E., lat. 5 5' S. 

DEER ISLAND, or MULDONFCH, a small island 
of the Hebrides, near that of Barry. 

DEER ISLAN D, a small island of Ireland, in the 
bay of Galway. Long. 9 W., lat. 53 9' N. Also 
an island on the coast of North America, in Pe- 
nobscot Bay, about eighteen miles in circumfer* 




ence. It is 170 miles north-east of Boston. Long. 
68 30' \V., lat.41 10'N.. 

in their meaning. In Wiclif s translation of the 
New Testament, this word is used in the sense of 

DEFACE, v. a. ~) Fr. effacer ; Lat. defa- spreading fame or a report; the de being only an 

.- do, of "de &/n'es, a face, expletive. 

3 To mar, disfigure, ruin, And t }j e yg hen of hem wearcn opened, and Jhe- 
sus thretenyde hem and seide se ye that no man 
wite. But thei gheden out and defameden him 
thorugh al that lond. Wiclif. Matt. 9. 

I heard the defaming of many. Jer. x.\. 10. 


destroy. Defacement is the injury done. De- 
facer, he who performs or accomplishes it. 

But whanne ye fasten nyle be ye maad as ypo- 
crites sorrowful, for thei defasen hem silf to seme fas- 
tynge to men, treuly I seye to you thei han resseyved 
her meede. Wiclif. Matt. 6. 

But what is this image, and how is it defaced ? the 
poor men of Lyons will tell ycu, that the image of 
God is purity, and the defacement sin. Bacon. 

Give me leave to speak as earnestly in truly com- 
mending it, as you have done in untruly and unkindly 
defacing and slandering it. Whitgifte. 

Pay him six thousand, and deface the bond. 


That foul defacer of God's handy work 
Thy womb let loose to chace us to our graves. Id. 

Fatal this marriage, 

Defacing monuments of conquered France, 
Undoing all. Id. 

As man was the image of God, so was that earthly 
paradise an image of heaven ; both the images are 
defaced, both the first patterns are eternal. 

Bishop Hall. Cuntemplaiont. 
Whose statues, freizes, columns broken lie, 
And, though defaced, the wonder of the eye. 


One nobler wretch can only rise, 
'Tis he whose fury shall deface 
The stoick's image in this piece. Prior. 

Thy very weeds are beautiful, thy waste 
More rich than other climes' fertility ; 
Thy wreck a glory, and thy ruin graced 
With an immaculate charm which cannot be defaced. 

Byron . 

DE FACTO, something actually in fact, or 
existing; in contradiction to de jure, where a 
thing is only so in justice : as, a king de facto 
is a person who is actually in possession of a 
crown ; and a king de jure is the person who has 

a just right to the crown. It was a distinction gated, hath been great, 
much in use at the period of the Revolution. 

lure ; miscarriage. Obsolete. 

The affections were the authors of that unhappy 
defaUanae. Glanvilte. 

DEFA'LCATE, v. a. } Fr. defalquer ; from want. 

Many doughty knights he in his days 
Had done to death, 

And hung their conquered arras for rcore defame 
On gallowtrees. Spenser. 

My guilt thy growing virtues did defame ; 
My blackness blotted thy unblemished name. 


Be silent, and beware, if such you see ; 
'Tis defamation but to say, that's he. Id. 

Augustus, conscious to himself of many crimes, 
made an edict against lampoons and satires, and defa- 
matory writings. Id. 

Defamation is the uttering of contumelious language 
of any one, with an intent of raising an ill fame of 
the party ; and this extends to writing, as by defama- 
tory libels ; and to deeds, as reproachful postures, 
signs, and gestures. Ayliffe. 

It may be a useful trial of the patience of the de- 
famed, yet the iefamer has not the less crime. 

Government of the Tongue. 

The most eminent sin is the spreading of defamatory 
reports. Id. 

They live as if they professed Christianity merely 
in spite, to defame it. Decay of Piety. 

Many dark and intricate motives there are to de- 
traction and defamation; and many malicious spies are 
searching into the actions of a great man. Addison. 

DEFAMATION is punishable according to the 
nature of the offence, either by action upon the 
case at common law, or by statute in the eccle- 
siastical court. 

DEFATIGATE, v. a. \ Lat. defatlgo. To 

DEFATIGA'TION, n. s. J weary ; to tire. 

The power of these men's industries, never defati- 

Dr. Maine. 

DEFA'ULT, v. a. & n. s. 3 Old Fr. default; 

DEFA'ULTER, n. s. $ Ital. dtffalta ; Lat. 

defectus, de, privative, and facio, to do. To fail in 
peformance. A default is failure of that which 
ought to be done legally or morally. Defect ; 

DEFALCATION, n. s. }/ar, j'alcis a sickle. 
To cut off; to lop ; to take away part of an al- 

The tea-table is set forth with its accustomary bill of 
fare, and without any defalcation. Addison. 

DEFA'LK, v. a. See DEFALCATE. To cut 
off ; to lop away. 

What he defalks from some insipid sin, is but to 
make some other more gustful. Decay of Piety. 

DEFAME, v. a. & n. *. -v Fr. defamer ; It. 

DEFAMBR, n. s. I diffamare ; Span. 

V Qnrl ~ 

But what man wolde him selfe auise 
His conscience, and nought misuse, 
He male well at the first excuse 
His God, whiche euer stant in one, 
In him there is defaute none. Gower. 

But sith thou mayst not so, give leave a while 
To baser wit, his power therein to spend, 
Whose grosse defaults thy daintic pen may sile 
And unaduised ouer sights amend. 

Spenser. Sonnets. 

Sundrye victories hadde hee, and sommetime ouei- 
throwes, but neuer in defaulte as for his owne par- 

and Port, defamar; gone, cither of hardinesse or polytike order. 

T -"- -" Sir T. More. 

DEFAMING, n. s. sauu r 

DEFAMATION, I Latin, defamare, 

DEFAMATORY, adj. J from Greek, ^pjj, 

fame, and de, privative. To slander, make infamous, 
calumniate, deprive of good fame or honor by 

words or deeds. Defamatory, is libellous ; fend- Ja default O f the king's pay, the forces were laid 
ng to delame. The substantives are obvious upon the snbject. Davids. 

We, that know wha* it is to fast and pray. 
Are penitent for your default to-day. 





f.- 1 ine not iMshlv call in doubt 
Divine prediction : what if all foretold 
Had been fulfilled, but through mine own default, 
Whom have I to complain of but myself 7 Milton. 

Partial judges we are of our own excellencies, and 
other men's default*. Swift. 

Cooks could make artificial birds and fishes, in de- 
fault of the real ones. Arbitthnut on Coins. 

DEFEA'SANCE. 3 Fr. defaisanee; Ital. 

DEFEASIBLE. 5 defaciemento ; Law Lat. 
defeixantia. The act of annulling or abrogating 
any contract or stipulation. 

That hoary king, with all his train, 

Being arrived where that champion stout, 

After his foe's defeasance, did remain, 

Him goodly greets, and fair does entertain. 


He came to the crown by a defeasible title, so was 
never settled. Dark's. 

Defesance is a condition annexed to an act ; as to 
an obligation, a recognizance, or statute, which per- 
formed by the obligee, or the cognizee, the act is dis- 
abled and made void, as if it had never been done. 


DEFEASANCE, or DEFEISANCE. The difference 
between a common condition and a defeasance 
is, that the condition is annexed to, or inserted 
in, the deed ; and the defeasance is a deed by it- 
self, concluded and agreed on between the parties, 
and having relation to another deed. 

DEFEAT, v. a. & n. s. > Old Fr. desfaite, 

DEFEATURE, n s. S from Lat. de, priva- 

tive, and facere, to complete an action. To over- 
throw; to frustrate; undo; mar. Shakspeare 
says, ' defeat thy favor,' meaning disguise thy 
face; and defeatures of the face mean disfigura- 
tions of it. 

They invaded Ireland, and were defeated by the 
lord Mountjoy. Bacon. 

To his accusations 

He pleaded still not guilty, and alledged 
Many sharp reasons to defeat the law. Shakspeare. 

Defeat thy favour with usurped beard. 
Ye gods, ye make the weak most strong. Id. 

Grief hath changed me, 

And careful hours, with time's deformed hand, 
Hath written strange defeatures in my face. Id. 


Then due by sentence when thou didst transgress, 
Defeated of his seizure many days, 
Given thee of grace. Milton. 

He finds himself naturally to dread a superior 
Being, that can defeat all his designs, and disappoint 
all his hopes. Tillotson. 

End Marlborough's work, and finish the defeat. 


Oh, more than all ! untired by time : 
Which, nor defeated hope, nor baffled will, 
Could render sullen were she ne'er to smile, 
Nor rage could fire, nor sickne'ss fret to vent 
On her one murmur of his discontent. Byron. 

DEFECATION, n. s. ? Lat. defaco. From 

DE'FECATE, v. a. & adj. ) de and fax, fads, 
filth. To purge or make clear from lees; to pu- 

This liquor was very defecate, and of a pleasing 
golden colour. Boyle. 

The blood is not sufficiently defecated or clarified, 
but remains muddy, Harvey. 

We defecate the notion from materiality, and ab 
stract quantity, place, and all kind of corporeity from 
it- Glanville. 

Provide a brazen tube 
Inflext ; self-taught and voluntary flies 
The defecated liquor, through the vent 
Ascending ; then, by downward tract coiweyrd, 
Spouts into subject vessels lovely clear. Philips. 

DEFE'CT, n. s. & v. n.^ Fr. dcfaut ; Ital- 
DEFECTION, n. s. defetto Span, de- 

DEFE'CTIVE, adj. fecto ; Lat. defec- 

DEFE'CTIVELY, adv. Wus, from de pr'iva- 
DEFE'CTIVENESS, n. s. tive and facio,fac- 
DEFE'CTIBLE, adj. tus, to do. As a 

DEFECTIBI'LITY, J neuter verb, to be 

deficient; to fall short of ; to fail. Defect, as a 
substantive, is want; insufficiency; failrre of 
that which is proper to a person or thing ; and 
hence injury; mistake; error. Defection is a fall- 
ing away ; an act or course of apostasy ; an 
abandonment: defectible, imperfect; wanting: 
defectibility, a state of deficiency, or imperfection. 
This defection and falling away from God was first 
found in angels, and afterwards in men. Raleigh. 

We had rather follow the perfections of them 
whom we like not, than in defects resemble them 
whom we love. Hooker. 

Neither can this be meant of evil governours or 
tyrants, but of some perverseness and defection in the 
very nation itself. Bacon. 

Oft 'tis seen 

Our mean secures us, and our mere defects 
Prove our commodities. S/ia/tspeare. 

You praise yourself, 

By laying defects of judgment to me. Id. 

Errors have been corrected, and defects supplied. 


He was diverted and drawn from hence by the 
general defection of the whole realm. Id. 

Some lost themselves in attempts above humanity ; 
yet the enquiries of most defected by the way, and 
tired within the sober circumference of knowledge. 

Browne's Vulgar Errours. 

Nor will polished amber, although it send forth a 
gross and corporeal exhalement, be found a long 
time defective upon the exactest scales. Id. 

The extraordinary persons, thus highly favoured, 
were for a great part of their lives in a defect- 
ible condition. Hale. 

The corruption of things corruptible depends upon 
the intrinsical defectibility of the connection or union 
of the parts of things corporal. Id. Origin of Mankind. 

Men, through some defect in the organs, want 
words, yet fail not to express their universal ideas by 
signs. Locke. 

It will ve/y little help to cure my ignorance, that 
this is the best of four or five hypotheses proposed, 
which are all defective. Id. 

If we fall away after tasting of the good word of 
God, how criminal must such a defection be ! 


Trust not yourself ; but, your defects to know, 
Make use of ev'ry friend and ev'ry foe. Pope. 
Had this strange energy been less, 

Defect had been as fatal as excess. Blackmore. 

If it renders us perfect in one accomplishment, it 
generally leaves us defective in another. Addison. 

The lowness often opens the building in breadth, or 
the defectiveness of some other particular makes any 
single part appear in perfection. /</. 

DBF 1 1 1 

There is more evil owing to our original defection 
from God, and the foolish and evil dispositions that 
are found in fallen man. Watti. 

And if youth has less of that prudence which is 
necessary to manage a family, vet the parents and 
elder friends of young married persons are generally 
at hand to afford their advice, which amply supplies 
that defect. Franklin. 

But once achieved though barbarous wreck o'er- 


The sacred fane, and lay its glories low ; 
Yet shall the sculptured ruin rise to day, 
Graced by defect, and worshipped in decay. 



DEPEND, v. a. ~] Fr. defendre ; 

DEFE'NCE, v. a. & n. s. Span, defender ; 

DEFE'NCELESS, adj. Ital. d'ifendere ; 

DEFE'NDABLE, or Lat. defendere, 

DEFE'NDIBLE, defensus, from 

DEFE'NDANT, n. s. & adj. [ fffavSovta, ' to 
DEFE'NDER, ^ fight with a 

DEFENSA/TIVE, n. s. sliug,' as Min- 

DEFENS'IBLE, ad). sheu suggests. 

DEFEN'SIVE, adj. & n. s. To protect; 

DEFEN'SIVELY, adv. shield ; sup- 

DEFE'NST, past part. J port ; make se- 

cure ; vindicate. Henc6 to repel ; keep off, from 
the Latin verb ; and therefore to forbid or beat 
off; to prohibit, from the French. See the examples 
from Chaucer and Milton. To defence, though 
obsolete, is used as an active verb in the received 
translation of the Bible. Defenceless is, without 
protection: defendible, that which may be de- 
fended, as is also defensible : and hence the 
latter likewise signifies justifiable ; right : de- 
fendant is used as an adjective by Shakspeare. 
It and defender seem, in a general sense, syno- 
nymous ; but, legally, the defendant is the party 
to a suit, who is sued or accused, A defensa- 
tive is a guard, or, in surgery, a protecting band- 
age ; a plaster. A defensive is also that which 
serves to defend. The adjective means proper 
for defence, or protection, as distinguished from 
assault^ The adverb and participle explain 

Lo this same thing that ghe ben sorouful aftir god, 
hou mych bisynesse it worchith in ghou, but defend- 
yng, but yndignacioun, but drede, but desier, but !oue, 
but vemaunce. . Wiclif. 2 Cor. vii. 

My defence to hem that axen me, that is whethir we 
han not power to ete and drynke ? Id. 1 Cor. 9. 

Deliver me from mine enemies, O my God : de- 
fend me from them that rise up against me. 

Psalm lix. 1. 

Rehoboam dwelt in Jerusalem, and built cities for 
defence in Judah. 2 Chran. ii. 5. 

Thomas, jeo vous dis, Thomas, Thomas ! 
This maketh the fend, this muste ben amended, 
Ire is a thing that high God hath defended. 

Chaucer. Cant. Tales. 

Wars preventive, upon just fears, are true defen- 
tivet, as well as on actual invasions. Bacon. 

They must make themselves defensible both against 
the natives and against strangers. Id. 

Heaven defend your souls, that you think 

1 will your serious and great business scant. 


Banish your defenders, till at length 
Your ignorance deliver you, 
As most abated captives, to some nation 
That won you without blow*. Id. 

A field, 

Which nothing but the sound of Hotspur's name 
Did seem to make defensible. Id 

Line and new repair our towns of war 
With men of courage, and with means defendant. 


This is the day appointed for the combat, 
And ready are the' appellant and defendant. Id. 
Stout men of arms, and with their guide of power, 
Like Troy's old town defenst with Ilion's tower. 


My unpreparedness for war testifies for me that 
I am set on the defensive part. King Charles. 

O sons ! like one of us man is become, 
To know both good and evil, since his taste 
Of that defended fruit. Milton. 

My sister is not so defenceless left 
As you imagine : she has a hidden strength 
Which you remember not. /,/. 

A village near it was defended by the river. 


His majesty, not at all dismayed, resolved to stand 
upon the defensive only. Id. 

So lawyers, lest the Bear defendant, 
And plaintiff Dog, should make an end on't ; 
Do stave and tail with writs of error, 
Reverse of judgment, and demurrer. Hudibrcu. 

A very unsafe defenmtive it is against the fury of 
the lion, and surely no better than virginity, or blood 
royal, which Pliny doth place in cock-broth. 

Browne's Vulgar Errours. 

Severe defences may be made against wearing any 
linen under a certain breadth. Temple. 

The use of wine is little practised, and in some 
places defended by customs or laws. Id. 

Undoubtedly there is no way so effectual to betray 
the truth, as to procure it a weak defender. South. 

If the bishop has no other defensatives but excom- 
munication, no other power but that of the keys, he 
may surrender up his pastoral staff. Id. 

And here the' access a gloomy grove defends 
And here the' unnavigable lake extends. Dryden. 

Do'st thou not mourn our power employed in vain, 
And the defenders of our city slain ? Id. 

He would not be persuaded by danger to offer any 
offence, but only to stand upon the best defensive 
guard he could. Sidney. 

Let me be foremost to defend the throne, 

And guard my father's glories and my own. 


Having often heard Venice represented as one of 
the most defensible cities in the world, I informed 
myself in what its strength consists. Addison. 

There is nothing so bad which will not admit of 
something to be said in its defence. Sterne. 

Those high towers, out of which the Romans might 
more conveniently fight with the defendants on the 
wall, those also were broken by Archimedes' engines. 
Wilkins's Math. Magic. 

I conceive it very defensible to disarm an adversary, 
and disable him from doing mischief. Collier. 

If I could not avoid his company, why did I not 
arm myself ? Why did I venture defenceless into so 
much danger. Mason. 

The car of victory, the plume, the wreath, 
Defend not from the bolt of fate, the brave. 


DEFENDER OF THE FAITH. Fidei defensor, a 
peculiar title belonging to the king of England ; 
as Catholicus to the king of Spain, and Christian- 



issimus to the king of France, &c. These titles 
were originally given by the popes. That of 
Fidei defensor was first conferred by Leo X. on 
king Henry VIII. for his memorable book against 
Martin Luther; and the bull for it bears date quinto 
idus Octob. 1521. It was afterwards confirmed 
by Clement VII. Chamberlayne says, the title 
belonged to the kings of England before that 
time ; and for proof hereof appeals to several 
charters granted to the university of Oxford : so 
that pope Leo's bull was only a renovation of the 
ancient right. 

DEFE*R, v. a. & v. n. fFr. differer ; Span. 
differir ; Ital. differire ; Lat. dijferre, from de 
and^m), to bear away. To put away for a 
time; to put off; delay; withhold. It is also 
used for refer, and thus becomes the parent of 
the substantive deference. 

The commissioners deferred the matter unto the 
earl of Northumberland, who was the principal man 
of authority in those parts Bacon. 

He will not long defer 
To vindicate the glory of his name 
Against all competition, nor will long 
Endure il. Milton. 

Neither is this a matter to be deferred till a more 
convenient time of peace and leisure. Swift. 

Inure thyself betimes to the love and practice of 
good deeds ; for the longer thou deferrest to be ac- 
quainted with them, the less every day thou wilt 6nd 
thyself disposed to them. Atterbury. 

Defer the promised boon the goddess cries. 


Be wise to-day ; 'tis madness to defer ; 
Next day the fatal precedent will plead ; 
Thus on, till wisdom is pushed out of life. 


DE'FERENCE, n. s. Fr. deference. Re- 
gard ; respect. See DEFER. 

Virgil could have excelled Varius in tragedy, and 
Horace in lyric poetry, but out of deference to his 
friends he attempted neither. Dryden. 

A natural roughness makes a man uncomplaisant 
to others ; so that he has no deference for their in- 
clinations, tempers, or conditions. Locke. 

He may be convinced that he is in an error, by ob- 
serving those persons, for whose wisdom and good- 
ness he has the greatest deference, to be of a contrary 
sentiment. Swift. 

Deference is the most complicate, the most in- 
direct, and the most elegant of all compliments. 


Most of our fellow-subjects are guided either by the 
prejudice of education, or by a deference to the judg- 
ment of those who, perhaps, in their own hearts, dis- 
approve the opinions which they industriously spread 
among the multitude. Addison. 

We ought to show the regard, deference, and honour, 
which belong to superiors ; and the candour, inte- 
grity, and benevolence, we owe to all. Mason. 

DE'FERENT, adj. & n. s. From Lat. de- 
ferens, of defero. See DEFER. That which 
'carries or conveys. That carries up and aown. 

The figures of pipes or concaves, through which 
sounds pass, or of other bodies' deferent, conduce to 
the variety and alteration of the sound. Bacon. 

It is certain, however, it crosses the received opi- 
nion, that sounds may be created without air, though 
air be the most favourable deferent of sounds. Id. 

DEFFAND (Marie du), a Frencn lady, dis- 
tinguished both for her talents and extensive ac- 
quaintance with the literati of the last century, 
was born in 1696, and was the daughter of Gas- 
pard de Vichy, compte de Champ-Rond. She 
received an excellent education, but no care 
seems to have been taken to regulate her temper 
and moral habits, which displayed throughout her 
life a disgusting portion of selfishness. In 1718 
she married J. B. J. du Deffand, marquis de la 
Lande, whose ancestors had signalised themselves 
by their attachment to the dukes of Burgundy. 
Madame du Deffand left no monument of her 
abilities except her Correspondence, which has 
been highly praised by D'Alembert, as affording 
a model of epistolary style. She died in 1780, 
having, during the last thirty years of her life, 
been afflicted with blindness. In 1810 appeared 
Correspondance inedite de Madame du Deffand 
avec D'Alembert, Montesquieu, le president He- 
nault, la Duchesse du Maine ; Mesdames de 
Choiseul, de Stael ; le Marquis d'Argens, le 
Chevalier d'Aydie, &c., 3 vols. 8vo. Her Letters 
to Horace Walpole have also been printed. 
DEFI'CIENCE, or ^ Lat. deficio ; de pri- 
DEFI'CIENCY, n. s. > vative, auidfacio, to 
DEFICIENT, adj. 5 make. Want, imper- 

fection, defect. Deficient ; defective, imperfect. 

Figures are either simple or mixed : the simple be 
either circular or angular ; and of circular, either 
complete, as circles, or deficient, as ovals. Wotton. 

woman ! best of all things as the will 
Of God ordained them : his creating hand 
Nothing imperfect or deficient left. Milton. 

Thou in thyself art perfect, and in thee 
Is no deficience found. Id. 

Scaliger finding a defect in the reason of Aristotle, 
introduced! one of no less deficiency himself. 

Browne's Vulgar Errowrs. 

Neither Virgil nor Homer were deficient in any of 
the former beauties. Dryden, 

The characters of comedy and tragedy are never to 
be made perfect, but always to be drawn with some 
specks of frailty and deficience, such as they have been 
described to us in history. Id. 

Several thoughts of the mind, for which we have 
either none or very deficient names, are diligently to 
be studied. Locke. 

What great deficience is it if we come short of 
others ? Sprat. 

There is no burden laid upon our posterity, nor any 
deficiency to be hereafter made up by ourselves, which 
has been our case in so many other subsidies. 


DEFI'LE, v. a. & n. s.^ Compounded of 
DEFI'LER, n. s. \de and foul. Sax. 

DEFI'LEMENT. 3 apylan. Goth, fyla ; 

Belg. vuyl ; from the Gr. <]>av\ot, vile, unclean. 
Minsheu. To make foul, or unclean ; to pol- 
lute, violate, corrupt, taint ; and hence to calum- 

That which dieth of itself he shall not eat to defil* 
himself therewith. Lev. xxii. 8. 

Forgetfulness of good turns, defiling of souls, ad ul- 
tery, and shameless uncleanness. Wild. xiv. 26. 




There is a thing, Harry, known to many in our 
land oy the name of pitch ; this pitch, as ancient 
writers do repor f , doth defile. Skaltspeare. 


By unchaste looks, loose gestures, and foul talk, 
Lets in defilement to the inward parts. Milton. 

God requires rather that we should die, than defile 
ourselves with impieties. Stillingfteet. 

Every object his offence reviled ; 
The husband murdered, and the wife defiled. Prior. 

He is justly reckoned among the greatest prelates 
of this age, however his character may be defiled by 
mean and dirty hands. Swift. 

Let not any instances of sin defile your requests. 


The unchaste are provoked to see their vice ex- 
posed, and the chaste cannot rake into such filth 
without danger of defilement. Spectator. 

At the last tremendous day, I shall hold forth in 
my arms my much wronged child, and call aloud for 
vengeance on her defiler. Addison. 

Thus when Cambyses led his barbarous hosts 
From Persia's rocks to Egypt's trembling coasts, 
Defiled each hallowed fane, and sacred wood, 
And, drunk with fury, swelled the Nile with blood. 


DEFI'LE, v. n. & n. s. Fr. defile, from file, a 
line of solders, itself derived from Lat. filum, a 
thread. To pass off in files ; a narrow passage ; 
a long narrow pass; a lane. 

There is in Oxford a narrow defile, to use the mi- 
litary term, where the partisans used to encounter. 


It has been mentioned by a writer of military ma- 
noeuvres, that defiling should be performed with rapi- 
dity, &c. James. 

DEFILE, in war, a narrow lane or passage, 
through which a company of horse or foot 
can pass only in file, by making a small front ; 
so that the enemy may take an opportunity to 
stop their march, and to charge them with so 
much the more advantage, as those in front and 
rear cannot reciprocally come to the relief of one 

DEFI'NE, v. a. & v n 


DEFIN'ER,, n.s. 

DEF'INITE, n. s. & adj. 






ter verb, to decide, determine. Definable is, ca- 
pable of being defined. Definer, he who defines ; 
and hence he who explains or describes a thing. 
Definite is, precise; exact; determined; and 
sometimes it is used as a substantive. Definiteness 
is, certainty ; limitedness. Definition, the act or 
form of defining ; the concise description of a 
thm. Definitive is, determinate ; express ; final. 
Definitiveness, decisiveness. 

The unjust judge is the capital remover of land- 
marks, when he defineth amiss of lands and proper- 
ti *. Bacon. 

Idiots in this case of favour, 
Would be wisuiy definite. SJiahtpeare. 

VOL. VII. " 

Fr. and Port, de- 

Jiner ; Spanish, de- 

Jlnir ; lta\.diffinire ; 

Lat. dejtnirc. From 

\do and jinem, to 

I give a limit. To set 

a limit by words or 

I actions ; to mark a 

) bound. As a neu- 

Definitively thus I answer you : 

Your love deserves my thanks ; but my desert, 

Unmeritable, shuns your high request. /</. 

Bellarmine saith, because we think that the body 
of Christ may be in many places at once, locally and 
visibly ; therefore we may say and hold, that the same 
body may be circumspectively and definitively in more 
places at once. Hall. 

Other authors write often dubiously, even in mat- 
ters wherein is expected a strict and definitive truth. 
Browne's Vulgar Errows. 

Definitions do not tell an sit, but quid sit ; the first 
is to be supposed before any definition is to be in- 
quired after. Uishop Taylor. 

The Supreme Nature we cannot otherwise define, 
than by saying it is infinite ; as if infinite were de- 
finable, or infinity a subject for our narrow under- 
standing. Dryden. 

I drew my definition of poetical wit from my parti- 
cular consideration of him ; for propriety of thoughts 
and words is only to be found in him. Id. 

Though defining be thought the proper way to 
make known the proper signification, yet there are 
some words that will not be defined. Locke. 

Whose loss can'st thou mean, 
That dost so well their miseries define ? Sidney. 

Hither to your arbour divers times he repaired, and 
here, by your means, had the sight of the goddess, 
who, in a definite compass, can set forth infinite 
beauty. Id. 

Concerning the time of the end of the world the 
question is, whether that time be definable or 

Burnet's Theory. 

So universally does repetition contribute to our 
pleasure in the fine arts, that beauty itself has been 
defined by some writers to consist in a due combina- 
tion of uniformity and variety. Darwin. 

Your God, forsooth, is found 
Incomprehensible and infinite ; 
But is he therefore found ? Vain searcher . no : 
Let your imperfect definition show, 
That nothing you, the weak definer, know. Prior. 

When the rings appeared only black and white, 
they were very distinct and well defined, and the 
blackness seemed as intense as that of the central 
spot. Newton. 

What is man ? Vot a reasonable animal merely ; 
for that is not an adequate and distinguishing defini- 
tion. Bentley. 

Special bastardy is nothing else but the definition 
of the general ; and the general, again, is nothing 
else but a definite of the special. Ayliffe. 

DEFINITE, in grammar, is applied to an arti- 
cle that has a precise determinate signification ; 
such as the article the in English, le and la in 
French, &c.', which fix and ascertain the noun to 
waich they belong; whereas a, an, un, or une, 
mark nothing particular, and are therefore called 
indefinite. See ARTICLE. 

DEFLA'GRABLE, adj.-\ From Lat. defla- 
DEFLAGRA'TION, n. s. SgT0- Combustibi- 
DEFLAGRABI'LITY, . s- Jlity; the quality of 
taking fire, and burning totally away. 

The true reason why paper is not burned by the 
flame that plays about it, seems to be, that the 
aqueous part of the spirit of wine, being imbibed by 
the paper, keeps it so moist, that the flame of the sul- 
phureous parts of the same spirit cannot fasten on it ; 



and therefore, when the deflagration is over, you shall 
always find the paper moist. Boyle. 

Our chymical oils, supposing that they were ex- 
actly pure, yet they would be, as the best spirit of 
wine is, but the more inflammable and deflagrable. 


We have spent more time than the opinion of the 
ready deflagrability , if I may so speak, of salt petre 
did permit us to imagine. Id. 

DEFLECT', v. n. ~\ From Lat. de and/ec- 
DEFLEC'TION, n. s. >fo, to turn. To turn 
DEFLEX'URE, n. s. j aside; to deviate. 
At some parts of the Azores the needle deflecteth 
not, but lieth in the true meridian: on the other side 
of the Azores, and this side of the equator, the north 
ooint of the needle wheeleth to the west. 

Browne's Vulgar Errours. 

Needles incline to the south on the other side of 
the equator ; and at the very line, or middle circle, 
stand without deflection. Id. 

For, did not some from a straight course deflect, 
They could not meet, they could no world erect. 


As by the cultivation of various sciences, a language 
is amplified, it will be more furnished with words 
deflected from their original sense. 

Johnson. Preface to Dictionary. 

perty which Dr. Hook observed in 1675, and 
read an account of before the Royal Society, 
March 18th, the same year. He says he found it 
different both from reflection and refraction, and 
that it was made towards the surface of the 
opaque body, perpendicularly. This property 
Sir Isaac Newton calls inflection. 

DEFLOUR', v. a. ^ Fr. defiorer ; Span, des- 
DEFLOUR'ER, n. s. \florar; Lat. deflorare; 
DEFLORA'TJON, n. s.j from de privative and 
fioreo, floSjfloris, a flower. To violate a virgin ; 
hence to mar or deface any thing that is beau- 
tiful ; to select the most valuable of a number of 
things. The meaning of the substantives is ob- 

How on a sudden lost, 
Defaced, deflowed, and now to death devote ! 


The laws of Normandy are, in a great measure, 
the defloration of the English laws, and a transcript 
of them. Hale. 

If he died young, he died innocent, and before 
the sweetness of his soul was defioured and ravished 
from him by the flames and follies of a froward age. 


I have often wondered, that those deflourert of in- 
nocence, though dead to all the sentiments of virtue 
and honour, are not restrained by humanity. 


.FLU'X, n. s. ^ 

F'LUVOUS, adj. > 
FLU'XION, n. s. j 

Lat. defluxio, from de, 
and Jluo, to flow. The 
flow of humors down- 

DEFLU'X, n. s. 




Both bodies are clammy, and bridle the deflux of 
humours, without penning them in too much. 


We see that taking cold moveth looseness by con- 
traction of the skin and outward parts ; and su doth 
cold, likewise, cause rheums and dejltixion* from the 
head. Id. 

DE'FLY, adv. From DEFT, which see. Dex- 
terously; skilfully. Obsolete. Properly deftly. 

Lo, how finely the graces can it foot 

To the instrument ; 
They dauncen defly, and singen soote, 

In their merriment. Spenser. 

DE FOE (Daniel), a celebrated miscellaneous 
writer of the last and preceding century. When 
kingWilliam, to allay the dissent of the people, was 
obliged to dimiss his Dutch guards, De Foe ridi- 
culed the enemies of government in a well-known 
poem, called the True-Born Englishman. He 
next wrote a tract, called the Shortest Way with 
the Dissenters, a satire on those who now, having 
the power, wished to retaliate on the Romanists 
and dissenters those persecutions they had loudly 
complained of when inflicted on themselves. For 
this he was sentenced to the pillory, which so little 
intimidated him, that, in defiance of this usage, 
he wrote a Hymn to the Pillory. It is unneces- 
sary to enumerate all his publications : the fol- 
lowing are the principal. The History of the 
Plague in 1665 ; a novel, entitled The History 
of Colonel Jack; a New Voyage Round the 
World by a Company of Merchants, printed for 
Bettesworth, 1725; The History of Roxana; 
Memoirs of a Cavalier ; The History of Moll 
Flanders; a religious romance, entitled Religi- 
ous Courtship ; and The Life and Adventures of 
Robinson Crusoe, a well-known tale, of which 
there have been editions without number. The 
basis of this popular story was afforded by the 
real history of a Scottish sailor, Alexander Selkirk, 
who had been left ashore on the island of Juan 
Fernandez. Selkirk used to relate his adven- 
tures at a coffee-house in London, where money 
was frequently given him by the company, and 
where De Foe so often heard them, that out of 
them he formed the above mentioned history. 
De Foe's malignant enemies have misrepresented 
this to his disadvantage. He died at Islington 
in 1731. 

DEFCEDA'TION, n. s. Lat. from defadus, 
of de zndfasdus, foul. The act of making filthy; 
pollution. This is not an English word ; at least, 
to make it English, it should be written defeda- 
tipn, says Dr. Johnson. 

What native unextingiiishable beauty must be im- 
pressed and instincted through the whole, which the 
defaedation of so many parts by a bad printer, and ~ 
worse 'editor, could not hinder from shining forth. 


DEFORCEMENT, n. s. from force. A with 
holding of lands and tenements by force from 
the right owner. ' It may be grounded,' says 
Blackstone, ' on the disability of the party de- 

DEFORM', v. a. & adj.^\ Fr. deformcr ; Ital. 
DEFORM'ED, part. adj. 1 difformare ; Span. 
DEFORMA'TION, n. s. { desformar ; Lat. de- 
DEFORM'EDLY, adv. fformare ; i. e. demere 
DEFORM'EDNESS, n. s. | formam, to take away 
DEFORM'ITY. j beauty. To disfi- 

gure ; to mar the form of any thing; to dishonor, 
disgrace. Deformation is a defacing, disfiguring. 
Deformity is ugliness, irregularity of *brm; 
hence inordinateness, ridiculousness. 




I did proclaim, 

That whoso killed that monster most deform, 
Should have mir>e only daughter to his dame. 


I that am curtailed of all fair proportion, 
Cheated of feature by dissembling nature, 
Deformed, unfinished, sent before my time 
Into this breathing world, scarce half made up. 


Where sits deformity to mock my body, 
To shape my legs of an unequal size, 
To disproportion me in every part. Id. 

No glory is more to be envied than that of due re- 
forming either church or state, when deformities are 
such, that the perturbation and novelty are not like to 
exceed the benefit of reforming. King Charles. 

Why should not man, 
Retaining still divine similitude 
In part, from such deformities be free, 
4.nd for his Maker's image sake, exempt? 


So spake the grisly terror ; and in shape, 
So speaking and so threatening, grew tenfold 
More dreadful and deform. Id. 

Old men with dust deformed their hoary hair. 


It is well known what strange work there has been 
in the world, under the name and pretence of reforma- 
tion ; how often it has turned out to be, in reality, 
deformation ; or, at best, a tinkering sort of business, 
where, while one hole has been mended, two have 
been made. Biihop Home. 

Affectation is certain deformity ; by forming them- 
selves on fantastic models, the young begin with being 
ridiculous, and often end in being vicious. Blair. 

Had no Power presented me 
The possibility of change, I would 
Have done the best which Spirit may, to make 
Its way, with all Deformity's dull, deadly, 
Discouraging, weight upon me, like a mountain. 


DEFORMITY may be defined, in general, the 
want of uniformity ; though it certainly does not, 
as some have supposed, include the want of that 
perfect degree of uniformity that is necessary to 
constitute beauty. Many are the objects in na- 
ture tha* cannot be said to be beautiful, and yet 
are by no means deformed. Deformity is either 
natural or moral. These are both referred by 
Mr. Hutcheson to an internal sense ; and our 
perceptions of them, as he supposes, arise from 
an original arbitrary structure of our own minds, 
by which certain objects, when observed, are 
rendered the occasions of certain sensations and 
affections. See BEAUTY. 

DEFRAUD, v. a. "\ Fr. defrauder ; Span 
DEFRAUDA'xiON,n.s. \defrauddr; Lat. defrau- 
DEFRAUDER. ) dare, from de and jraus, 

fraudis, deceit. To cheat ; deceive ; beguile of 
something : always taking of before the thing 
gained. Defraudation is privation by deceit or 
guile. Defrauder, he who cheats another of his 

My son, defraud not the poor of his living, and 
make not the needy eyes to wait long. Eccl. iv. 1. 

Churches seem injured and defrauded of their rights, 
when places, not sanctified as they are, prevent them 
unnecessarily in that pre-eminence and honour. 


Their imposture ar worse than any other, de 
luding not only into pecuniary defraudations , but th 
irreparable deceit of death. Bruwne's Vulgar Erroun. 

There they, who brothers better claim disown, 
Expel their parents, and usurp the throne ; 
Defraud their clients, and, to lucre sold, 
Sit brooding on unprofitable gold. Dryden. 

There, is a portion of our lives which every wise man 
may justly reserve for his own particular use, without 
defrauding his native country. Id. 

But now he seized Briseis' heavenly charms, 
And of my valour's prize defrauds my arms. Pope. 

The profligate in morals grows severe, 
Defraitders just, and sycophants sincere. 


DEFRA'Y, v. a. -\ Fr. defrayer, accord- 
DEFRAY'ER, n. s. > ing to Minsheu, from 
DEFRAY'MENT, n. s. 3 the old Fr. fredum, a 
fine. Rather, from de, andfrals, Fr. expense. It 
may, however, be nothing more than a com- 
pound of the English verb, free. To pay expenses ; 
to discharge a charge made ; defrayment is, com- 
pensation ; satisfaction. Defrayer, he who pays 
or discharges an account. 

He would, out of his own revenue, defray the 
charges belonging to the sacrifices. 2 Mac. ix. 16. 

It is easy to lay a charge upon any town ; but to 
foresee how the same may be answered and defrayed, 
is the chief part of good advisement. 

Spenser's State of Ireland. 

It is long since any stranger arrived in this part, 
and therefore take ye no care ; the state will defray 
you all the time you stay ; neither shall you stay one 
day the less for that. Bacon. 

DEFT, adj. Sax. ba-pt. Obsolete. Neat; 
handsome; spruce; fitting. 

You go not the way to examine ; you must call the 

watch that are their accusers. 

Yea, marry, that's the deftest way. 

Come, high or low, 

Thyself and office deftly show. Id. Macbeth. 
Loud fits of laughter seized the guests, to see 
The limping god so deft at his new ministry. 


The wanton calf may skip with many a bound, 
And my cur, Tray, play deftest feats around. Gay. 

Young Colin Clout, a lad of peerless meed, 
Full well could dance, and deftly tune the reed. Id. 

DEFUNCT", n. s. & adj. ) Lat. defunctus, 
DEFUNC'TION, n. s. S of de and fungor, 

to finish. In a state of death ; dead. 
Nature doth abhor to make his couch 
With the defunct, or sleep upon the dead, 

I therefore beg it not 
To please the palate of my appetite ; 
Nor to comply with heat, the young effects 
In me defunct, and proper satisfaction. Id 

Here entity and quiddity, 
The souls of defunct bodies, fly. Hudibras. 
In many cases, the searchers are able to report th 
opinion of the physician who was with the patient, as 
they receive the same from the friends of the defunct. 


DEFY/v. a. & n. s. ) Sax. and Teut. fgan ; 

DEFv'ER,n. s. >Goth. fga; Fr. dcfier ; 

DEFI'ANCE. j Span, desafier; Ital. dis- 

sidere, from Lat. dissidere, to differ: because-, 





says Minsheu, we differ with those whom we 
efy. To dare ; to challenge ; to call to cora- 
oat ; to despise ; to disdain ; to deny. Defy is 
used as a substantive by Drydeu, but not com- 
monly. Defiance is the instrument or mode of 
challenge; any expression of enmity, abhor- 
rence, or contempt. 

I knowe her eke a false dissiinulour, 
For finally fortune I do defie. 

Chaucer. Pro/, to Cant. Tale*. 
As many fools that stand in better place, 
Garnished like him, that for a tricksy word 
Defy the matter. Shakspeare. 

The fiery Tybalt, with his sword prepared, 
Which, as he breathed defiance to my ears, 
He swung about his head. Id. 

I once again 

Defytliee to the trial of mortal fight. Milton. 
How many of us can bid defiance to death, and 
suggest answers to absent temptations, which when 
they come home to us, we fly off, and change our note. 

Bp. Hall's Contemplations. 
Nor shall it e'er be said that wight 
With gantlet blue and bases white, 
And round blunt truncheon by his side 
So great a man at arms defyed. Hudibras. 

Is it not then high time that the laws should pro- 
vide, by the most prudent and effectual means, to 
rurb those bold and insolent defiers of heaven ? 


At this the challenger, with fierce defy, 
His trumpet sounds ; the challenged makes reply : 
With clangour rings the field, resounds the vaulted 
sky. Dry den. 

Nor is it just to bring 

A war without a just defiance made. Id, 

Nobody will so openly bid defiance to common sense, 
as to affirm visible and direct contradictions. Locke. 

Here let the pippin, fretted o'er with gold, 
In fostering straw defy the winter's cold ; 
The hardier russet here will safely keep. 
And dusky rennet, with its crimson cheek. 


And one enormous shout of ' Allah !' rose 
In the same moment, loud as even the roar 
Of war's most mortal engines, to their foes 
Hurling defiance. Byron. 

DEGEN'ERATE,v. n. badj.^ Ttr.degenerer; 
DEGEN'ERACY, n. s. Span, degene- 

DEGEN'ERATENFSS, ( rar ; Ital. de- 

DEGEN'ERATIVE, \generare; La- 

DEGEN'EROUS, adj. \ tin, degenero; 

DEGEN'EROUSLY, adv. J from de and 

genere errare, to wander from its kind. To fall 
off from the virtue or fame of one's ancestors ; 
to decline in station, in kind, or in class : as an 
adjective, unlike or unequal to ancestry ; unwor- 
thy ; base. Degeneracy, degenerateness, and de- 
generation are synonymous, and signify a state 
or act that exhibits degradation from the excel- 
lence or honor of ancestors; an apostasy or de- 
clining from that which is good. Degenerous 
is synonymous with degenerated. 

Most of those fruits that used to be grafted, if they 
JK- net of kernels or stones, degenerate. Bacon. 

Thou art like enough 
To fight against me under Piercy's pay ; 
To oog his heels, and curtsy at his frowns. 
To show how much thou art degenerate. 


Let not the tumultuary violence of some men's im- 
moderate demands ever betray me to that degenerous 
and unmanly slavery ,which should make me strengthen 
them by my consent. King Charles. 

In plants, these transplantations are obvious ; as 
barley into oats, of wheat into darnell; and those 
grains which generally arise among corn, as cockle, 
aracus, oegilops, and other degenerations. 

Browne's Vulgar Emntn. 
So all shall turn degenerate, all depraved ; 

Justice and temperance, truth and faith, forgot ! 

One man except. Milton. 

When wit transgresseth decency, it degenerate* into 
insolence and impiety. Tillotson. 

'Tis true, we have contracted a great deal of weak- 
ness and impotency by our wilful degeneracy from 
goodness ; but that grace, which the gospel offers to 
us for our assistance, is sufficient for us. Id. 

Fair, tall, his limbs with due proportion joined ; 
But of a heavy dull degenerate mind, 
His soul belied the features of his face ; 
Beauty was there, but beauty in disgrace. Dryden. 

Degenerous passion, and for man too base, 
It seats its empire in the female race ; 
There rages, and, to make its blow secure, 
Puts flattery on, until the aim be sure. Id. 

When a man so far becomes degenerate as to qui 
me principles of human nature, and to be a noxious 
creature, there is commonly an injury done some 
person or other. Locke. 

Degenerate from their ancient brood, 
Since first the court allowed them food. 


The ruin of a state is generally preceded by an 
universal degeneracy of manners, and contempt of 
religion, which is entirely our case at present. Id. 

How wounding a spectacle is it to see heroes, like 
Hercules at the distaff, thus degenerously employed 1 

Decay of Piety. 

There is a kind of sluggish lesignation, as well as 
poorness and degeneracy of spirit, in a state of sla- 
very. A ddison. 

When we think of the infinite purity of God, who 
cannot behold iniquity ; and consider the corrupted 
and degenerate state of human nature ; this i apt to 
make us more apprehensive than is reasonable, of the 
difficulty of our duty. Clarke's Sermons. 

Tongues, like governments, have a natural ten- 
dency to degeneration ; we have long preserved our 
constitution, let us make some struggles for our lan- 
guage. Johnson. Preface to Dictionary. 

DEGLUTITION, n. s. Lat. deglutio, of de 
and glutio, from Gr. yXuo>, to swallow. Ains- 
worth. The act or power of swallowing. 

When the deglutition is totally abolished, the patient 
may be nourished by clysters. Arbuthnot on Diet. 
DEGLUTITION, in the animal economy, is 
performed in the first place by means of the 
tongue, driving the aliment into the resophagus 
or gullet, and then, by the contraction of the 
sphincter, and the fleshy fibres of the esophagus, 
which, lessening its aperture, protrude the con- 
tents downward into the stomach. In its course, 
by pressing the glands, the food itself increases 
the mucus required for lubrication, and thus 
easily passes without irritation. 

DEGRADE', v. a. ) Fr. degradir ; Span, 

DEGRADATION, n. s. S degraddr ; Ital. disgra- 

ddrc ; from Lat. de. privative, and gradus a step. 



To deprive of rank or degree ; to reduce from 
a higher to a lower rank or value. Degradation 
is the state of deprivation so effected; dismissal 
from trust or office. 

He should 

Be quite degraded, like a hedgeborn swain. 
That doth presume to boast of gentle blood. 


Nor shall thou, by descending to assume 
Man's nature, lessen or degrade thine own. 


All higher knowledge in her presence falls 
Degraded. Id. 

So deplorable is the degradation of our nature, that 
nhereas before we bors the image of God, we now 
.etainonly the image of men. South. 

The word degradation is commonly used to denote 
a deprivation and removing of a man from his degree. 


Time hath not yet the features fixed, 
But brighter traits with evil mixed ; 
And there are hues not always faded, 
Which speak a mind not all degraded 
Even by the crimes through which it waded. 

Byron. The Giaour. 

DEGRADATION from political rank or station 
was, and is, performed in a different manner in 
the cases of a peer, a priest, a knight, a gentle- 
man, an officer, &c. In the time of Francis I. 
M. Fangel, a French officer, having, in a coward- 
ly manner, given up Fontarabia, whereof he was 
governor, was publicly degraded. On this oc- 
casion twenty or thirty cavaliers were assembled, 
before whom this gentleman was accused of 
treason and breach of faith by a king at arms. 
Two scaffolds were erected, the one for the 
judges, heralds, and pursuivants, and the other 
for the guilty cavalier, who was armed at all 
points, and his shield placed on a stake before 
him, with the point reversed. On one side as- 
sisted twelve priests, in surplices, who sung the 
vigils of the dead. At the close of each psalm 
they made a pause, during which the officers of 
arms stripped the condemned of some piece of 
his armour, beginning with his helmet, and pro- 
ceeding thus till he was quite disarmed ; which 
done, they broke the shield in three pieces with 
a hammer. Then the king at arms emptied a 
basin of hot water on the criminal's head ; and 
the judges, putting on mourning habits, went to 
the church. The degraded was then drawn from 
off the scaffold with a rope tied under his arm- 
pits, laid on a bier, and covered with mortuary 
clothes ; the priests singing some of the prayers 
for the dead ; and then he was delivered to the 
civil judge and the executioner of justice. Sir 
Andrew Harcla, earl of Carlisle, being convicted 
of treason, 18 Edward II. coram rege : after 
judgment was pronounced, his sword was broken 
over his head, and his spurs hewn off his heels ; 
Sir Anthony Lucy, the judge, saying to him : 
' Andrew, now thou art no knight, but a knave.' 
It has been maintained that the king may de- 
grade a peer ; but it appears from later authori- 
ties, that he cannot be degraded but by act of 
parliament. We have an instance of ecclesiasti- 
cal degradation, before condemnation to death, 
in the eighth century, at Constantinople, in the 
person of the patriarch Constantine, whom Con- 

stantine Copronymus caused to be executed. lie 
was made to ascend the ambo ; and thepalnarcn 
Nicetas sent some of his bishops to strip h.u. of 
the pallium, and anathematised him : then they 
made him go out of the church backwards. 
When Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, was 
degraded by order of queen Mary, they dressed 
him in episcopal robes, made only of canvas, put 
the mitre on his head, and the pastoral staff in 
his hand ; and in this attire showed him to the 
people. They then stripped him piece by piece. 
Pope Boniface pronounced that six bishops were 
required to degrade a priest ; but the difficulty 
of assembling so many bishops, rendered the 
punishment frequently impracticable. 

DEGRADED, in heraldry, the 
name of a cross when it has 
steps at each end, as argent, a 
cross, degraded sable. Name 

DEGREE', n. s. FT. degre ; Port, grim ; 
Span, and Ital. grado, from Lat. gradus, a step. 
See DEGRADE. Rank; quality ; order ; place of 
relative merit or precedency ; measure ; propor- 
tion. Variously applied in the sciences: see the 
following articles. By degrees is, gradually ; by 
steps, or graduated progress. 

Surely men of low degree are vanity, and men of 
high degree are a lye : to be laid in the balance, they 
are altogether lighter than vanity. Psalm Ixii. 9. 
Methinkith it accordant to reson, 

To tell you alle the condition 

Of ech of them, so as it semid me, 

A.nd which they werin, and of what degree, 

And eke in what array that they wer in ; 

And at a knight then woll I first begin. 

Chaucer. Prol. to Cant. Tales. 

It was my fortune, common to that age, 
To love a lady fair, of great degree, 

The which was born of noble parentage, 
And set in highest seat of dignity. Spenser. 

I embrace willingly the ancient received course 
and conveniency of that discipline, which teacheth 
inferior degrees and orders in the church of God. 


The book of Wisdom noteth degrees of idolatry, 
making that of worshipping petty and vile idols more 
<;ross than simply the worshipping of the creature. 


Degree being vizarded, 
The unworthiest shews as fairly in the mask. 


How vainly do we hope to be perfect at once ! it is 
well for us, if through many degrees we can rise to 
our consummation. Bishop Hall. Contemplations. 

A strange harmonious inclination 
Of all degrees to reformation. Hudibras. 

In minds and manners, twins opposed we see ; 
In the same sign, almost the same aegree. Dryden. 

If all the parts are equally heard as loud us one 
another, they will stun you to that decree, that you 
will fancy your ears were torn in pieces. 
As if there were degrees in infinite, 
And Heaven itself had rather want perfection 
Than punish to excess. 

Farmers in degree, 
He a good husband, a good housewife she. 





The several degrees of angels may probably have 
larger views, and be endowed with capacities able to 
set before them, as in one picture, all their past know- 
ledge at once. Locke. 


Admits of no degrees ; but must be still 
Sublimely good, or despicably ill. Roscommon. 

But is no rank, no station, no degree, 
From this contagious taint of sorrow free ? Prior. 

Exulting in triumph now swell the bold notes ; 
In broken air, trembling, the wild musick floats 
Till by degrees remote and small, 
The strains decay, 
And melt away, 

In a dying, dying fall. Pope. 

The unusual extension of my muscles on this occa- 
sion, made my face ache on both sides to such a de- 
gree, that nothing but an invincible resolution and 
perseverance could have prevented me from falling 
back to my monosyllables. Spectator. 

A person who is addicted to play or gaming, 
though he took but little delight in it at first, by de- 
greet contracts a strong inclination towards it. 

Id. No. 447. 

Men's prejudices, I was sensible, could only be 
lessened by degrees ; and I was firmly of opinion that 
no change ought ever to be made in quiet times, till 
the utility of the change was generally acknowledged. 

Bishop Watson. 

Without hinting the abolition of the order, [IJ 
strongly insisted on the propriety of obliging them to 
keep exercises in the schools, as the other candidates 
for degrees did. Id. 

How numerous were the instances in which juries 
found a compassionate verdict, in direct contradiction 
to the plain facts clearly established before them, we 
do not know j but hat these evils must all have 
existed to a considerable degree, no man can doubt. 
Sir Samuel Romilly. 

DEGREE, in universities, denotes a quality con- 
ferred on the students or members thereof, as a 
testimony of their proficiency in the arts or 
sciences, and entitling them to certain privi- 



DEHORT, v. a. Lat. dehortor ; of de and 
hortor ; Gr. opw, wprat, to incite. To dissuade. 

One severely deJtorted all his followers from prosti- 
tuting mathematical principles unto common appre- 
hension or practice. Wilkins. 

The apostles vehemently defwrt us from unbelief. 


The author of this epistle, and the rest of the 
apostles, Jo every where vehemently and earnestly 
nehort from unbelief : did they never read these de- 
hortations? Id. on Infidelity. 

DEJANIKA, in fabulous history, daughter of 
Oeneus, king of yttolia, and wife of Hercules. 
The centaur Nessus, endeavouring to ravish her, slain by Hercules with a poisoned arrow. 
\essus, when dying, gave his bloody shirt to De- 
janira ; assuring her that it was a sovereign re- 
medy to cure her husband, if he proved unfaith- 
ful. Some time after, Dejanira, suspecting his 
fidelity, sent him the shirt, which he put on, and 
was seized with the most excruciating torments. 
Being unable to support his pains, he retired to 
Mount Oeta, and erecting a pile of wood set fire 

to it, and threw himself into the flames; upon 
which Dejanira killed herself in despair. 

DE'ICIDE, n. s. From Lat. deus and cttdo 
A barbarism of Prior's, meant, we suppose to 
express the death of Christ as being both God 
and man. Fully believing that such he was, we 
cannot think that a sober theology will warrant 
'his term. 

Explaining how Perfection suffered pain, 
Almighty languished, and Eternal died ; 

How by her patient victor Death was slain, 
And earth profaned, yet blessed with deicide! Prior. 

DEJECT', v. a. & adj. ~\ Old Fr. dejecter ; Lat. 

DEJKCT'EDLY, adv. j dejicere, from de, and 

DEJECT'EDXESS, n. s. > jacio, to cast. To cast 

DEJECT'ION, i or throw down ; de- 

DEJECT'URE. J press ; debase : hence 

to afflict in any way; to mar with grief.v. The 

adjective signifies cast down ; depressed ; low in 

spirits and manner : dejecture, that which is 

thrown down in a particular way. 

No man in that passion doth look strongly, but de- 
jectedly : and that repulsion from the eyes diverteth 
the spirits, and gives heat more to the ears, and the 
parts by them. Bacon. 

I am of ladies most deject and wretched, 
That sucked the honey of his music vows. 


The lowest, most dejectea thing of fortune, 
Stands still in esperance ; lives not in fear ! Id. 

What besides 

Of sorrow, and dejection, and despair, 
Our frailty can sustain, thy tidings bring. 


The liver should continually separate the choler 
from the blood, and empty it into the intestines ; 
where there is good use for it, not only to provoke de- 
jection, but also to attenuate the chyle. 

Ray on the Creation. 

Oh ! If I did but steadfastly believe, I could not be 
dejected ; for I will not injure myself to say, I offer my 
mind any inferior consolation to supply this loss. 

Lady Russell's Letters. 
Eneas here beheld, of form divine, 
A godlike youth in glittering armour shine, 
AVith great Marcellus keeping equal pace, 
But gloomy were his eyes, dejected was his face. 


Nor think to die dejects my lofty mind ; 
All that I dread is leaving you behind ! Pope'. 
The effects of an alkalescent state, in any great de- 
gree, are thirst and a dejection of appetite, which putrid 
things occasion more than any other. 

Arbuthnot on Aliments. 

A disease opposite to spissitude is too great fluidity, 
the symptoms of which are excess of animal secretions ; 
as of perspiration, sweat, urine, liquid dejeztures, lean- 
ness, weakness, and thirst Id. 

Deserted and astonished, he sinks into utter dejec- 
tion ; and even hope itself is swallowed up in despair. 


She was dejected ; she learned an humbler language, 
and seemed, if she did not trust in God, at least to 
have renounced her confidence in herself. 

Cowper. Private Correspoirience. 
Or fondly gay, with unambitious guile, 
Attempt no prize but favouring Beauty's smile ; 
Or bear dejected to the lonely grove 
The soft despair of unyrevailing love. Sheridan 




DEJERATION, n. s. From Lat. dejero. A 
taking of a solemn oath. 

DE IFORM, adj. From Lat. dens and forma. 
Of a godlike form. 

DE'IF Y, v. a. Fr. deifier ; Lat. deus, and Jio to 
be made. To make like God ; to treat as a 
deity ; to praise excessively. 

He did again so extol and deify the pope, as made 
all that he had said in praise of his master and mis- 
tress seem temperate and passable. Bacon. 

Persuade the covetous man not to deify his money, 
and the proud man not to adore himself. South. 

Daphnis, the fields' delight, the shepherds' love, 
Renowned on earth, and deified above. Dryden. 

The seals of Julius Caesar, which we know to be 
antique, have the star of Venus over them, though 
they were all graven after his death, as a note that he 
was deified. Id. 

Half of thee 

1 deified before thy death. Prior, 

Thus by degrees, self-chea*ed of their sound 
And sober judgment, that he is but man, 
They demi-deify and fume him so, 
That in due season he forgets it too. 

Cowper't Task, 

One noble stroke -with a whole life may glow, 
Or deify the cauvass till it shine 
With beauty so surpassing all below, 
That they who kneel to idols so divine 
Break no commandment, for high Heaven is there 
Transfused, transfigurated. Byron. 

DEIGN, v. a. & n. Fr. daigner ; Lat. dignor, 
As a verb active, to vouchsafe ; to think worthy 
(with some condescension). To grant; allow; 

Now Sweno, Norway's king, craves composition ; 
Nor would we deign him burial of his men, 
Till he disbursed ten thousand dollars. Shakspeare. 

Deign to descend now lower, and relate 
What may no less perhaps avail us known. 


O deign to visit our forsaken seats, 
The mossy fountains, and the green retreats. 


Yet nature's care, to all her children just. 
With richer treasures and an ampler state 
Endows at large whatever happy man 
Will deign to use. Akenstde, 

News have I none that I can deign to write, 
Save that it rained prodigiously last night. 

Cowper. Private Correspondence. 

DEI NTEGRATE, v. a. Lat. from de and 
mlegro. To take from the whole ; to spoil ; to 

DE1PHON, in fabulous history, a brother of 
Triptolemus, and son of Celeus and Metanira. 
When Ceres travelled over the world, she stopped 
at his father's court, and undertook to nurse him 
and biing him up. To reward the hospitality of 
Celeus, the goddess, to make his son immortal, 
every evening placed him on burning coals, to 
purify him from his mortal particles. The un- 
common growth of Deiphon astonished Metanira, 
who wished to see what Ceres did to make him 
so vigorous. She was frightened to see her son 
on burning coals ; and her shrieks disturbing the 
mysterious operations of the goddess, Deiphon 
perished in the flames. 

DEISCAL. or DEISHEAL, in the ancient 
British customs, a ceremony originally used in 
the druidical worship. The temples of the an- 
cient Britons were all circular ; and the druids 
in performing the public offices of their religion, 
never neglected to make three turns round the 
altar, frorr east to west, accompanied by all the 
worshippers. This was called the deischal, from 
deas, the right hand, and sul, the sun. 

DE'ISM, 7i. s. ~\ Fr. deisme ; from Lat. 

DE'JST, . s. ydeus, God. See DEITY. 

DEIST'ICAL, adj. J Strictly, a belief in God, 
or one God ; but generally applied to those who, 
professing such a belief, reject Revelation. See 
the following article. 

In the second epistle of St. Peter, certain deists, as 
they seem to have been, have laughed at the pro- 
phecy of the day of judgment. Burnet. 

Deism, or the principles of natural worship, are 
only the faint remnants or dying flames of revealed 
religion in the posterity of Noah. Dryden. 

Weakness does not fa.1. only to the share of Chris- 
tian writers, but to some who have taken the pen in 
hand to support tlie deiitical or auti-christian scheme 
of our days. Watts. 

DEISM may properly be used to denote 
natural religion, as comprehending those truths 
which have a real foundation in reason and 
nature ; and in this sense it is so far from being 
opposite to Christianity, that it is one great 
design of the gospel to illustrate and enforce it. 
In this sense some of the deistical writers have 
affected to use it. But deism popularly signifies 
that system of religion and morals which is sup- 
posed to be derived, by the mere force of reason, 
from the contemplation of the works of nature, 
and which rejects revelation. In the article 
REVELATION, we shall present the reader with a 
complete view of the entire argument on this 
momentous subject. 

DE'ITY, 7i. j. Fr. deite; Span, and Port. 
dietad; Arm. del, from Lat. deltas, deus; Gr. 
Aoc, God. Applied also to fabulous gods, and 
the supposed qualities of a divinity. 


DELACAPEDE (Bernard Germain Stephen 
Laville, count), a French naturalist, of noble 
family, was born at Agen, December 16th, 
1756. He was originally destined for the army, 
and entered while a youth into the Bavarian 
service. But his love of science soon procured 
him the post of keeper, of the cabinets in the 
Jardin du Roi at Paris, for which he abandoned 
the army, and which he held to the period of the 
revolution. He composed, as a continuation of 
the great work of Buffon, the Natural History of 
Oviparous Quadrupeds and Serpents. He much 
improved the royal cabinet ; and in 1798 pub- 
lished the Natural History of Fishes, 5 vols. 
4to. But the events of the revolution now dis- 
tracted his attention. He became a member of 
the department of Paris, and in 1791 one of the 
deputies of that city. He was successively 
secretary and president of the National Assem- 
bly ; and was one of the very few conspicuous 
men who steered in safety through the public 
storms. He was chosen one of the first members 
of the National Institute, and on the ?.()th o>' 



January, 1796, carried up an address from a 
deputation of that body to the council of five 
hundred, declaring its hatred of royalty. Buona- 
parte nominated him in 1799 a member of the 
Conservative Senate; in 1801 he was president 
of that body, in 1803 grand chancellor of the 
legion of honor, and in 1804 senator of Paris. 
He had frequent intercourse with the emperor, 
to whom he manifested much attachment ; but in 
January, 1814, when the power of his master 
was tottering, he assumed a new tone, and at the 
head of the senate recommended peace. At the 
restoration of the Bourbons he returned to his 
studies. His lectures at the Garden of Plants 
were numerously attended. He published several 
tracts, and contributed to theAnnalesdu Muse- 
um d' Histoire Naturelle, and other periodical 
works. His History of Cetaceous Animals, 
which appeared in 1804, was his last work of 
importance. He died of the small-pox, October 
6th, 1825, and his funeral was attended by 
several peers of France, members of the Insti- 
tute, &c. 

DELACERATION, n. s. From Lat. delacero. 
A tearing in pieces. 

DELACRYM A'TION, n.s. Lat. delacrymatio. 
A falling down of the humors ; the waterishness 
of the eyes, or a weeping much. 

DELACT A'TION, n. s. Lat. delactatto. A 
weaning from the breast. 

DELAMBRE, one of the most distinguished 
astronomers of our time, born at Amiens in 
1749, studied under the abbe Delille, who always 
remained his friend. He first applied himself 
to the languages, particularly most of the living 
ones, and made himself one of the best Hellen- 
ists in France. His studies were not directed to 
astronomy until his thirty-sixth year. He en- 
riched the writings of Lalande with a comment- 
ary, and became the friend and pupil of the 
author, who proudly called him his best work. 
In 1 790, eight years after the discovery of Her- 
schel, Delambre published the tables of that 
planet, although in that period it had performed 
but a small part of its eighty years' course. He 
also constructed tables of Jupiter and Saturn, 
and of the satellites of Jupiter, which, with se- 
veral treatises, procured him a reception into the 
National Institute. He was engaged with Me"- 
chain, from 1792 till 1799, in measuring an arc of 
the meridian from Barcelona to Dunkirk for the 
verification of which he measured two bases of 
6000 toises, one near Melun, the other near Per- 
pignan. See his Base du Systeme Metrique 
decimal, ou Mesure de 1' Arc du Meridien com- 
pris entre les Paralleles de Dunkerque et Bar- 
celonne, Paris, 3 vols. 4to. ; and Recueil d' Ob- 
servat. Geodesiques faisant Suite au 3mevol. de 
la Base du Syst. Metr. rdige par Biot et Arago. 
He was made member of the bureau des lon- 
gitudes. In 1802 Napoleon appointed him in- 
specteur-ge'ne'ral des eludes, which post he re- 
signed when chosen perpetual secretary of the 
class of mathematical sciences in 1803. His 
first tables of the sun were published in 1792 ; 
in 1806 appeared his new ones. In 1807 he 
succeeded Lalande in the college de France, and 
wrote his Traite d' Astronomic theorique et pra- 
tique, 3 vols. 4to.l814 ; 1 1 is'oire de 1' Astronomic 

du moyen age, 1819 ; Hist, de 1'Astron. moderne, 
1821, 2 vols.; and Hist, de 1' Astron. du 18me. 
Siecle, 2 vols. ; a collection of works such as no 
other nation can show. Delambre also distin- 
guished himself, as perpetual secretary of the in- 
stitute, by the justice and elegance of his eloges. 
He died in 1822. 

DELAMERE FOREST, a forest of England, 
in Cheshire, north of Chester, near the Weever ; 
abounding with wood on its hills, fine pasture in 
its valleys, and fish in its waters. 

DELANY (Patrick), a learned divine, and 
ingenious author, was born in Ireland about 
1686. He received his education at Trinity 
College, Dublin, which he entered in the charac- 
ter of a siier, and afterwards became a fellow. 
Under the patronage of lord Carteret he obtained 
preferment in the church ; and in 1732 published 
in London a work entitled Revelation Examined 
with Candor. In 1738 he published his Re- 
flections upon Polygamy ; and, not long after, the 
Life of David, king of Israel, a work display- 
ing much ingenuity and labor. In 1743 he 
married a second wife, the widow of a Cornish 
gentleman, and the following year obtained the 
deanery of Downe. In 1754 he published 
Observations on Lord Orrery's Remarks on the 
Life and Writings of Swift, in which there are 
many curious anecdotes of the latter. Dr. 
Delany continued writing for the public till a 
short time before his death ; and his Sermons on 
Social Duties are still in estimation. He died at 
Bath in 1768. 

DELA'PSED, adj. Lat. delapms, with physi- 
cians. Bearing or falling down. It is used in 
speaking of the womb, and the like. 

DELATE', v. a. ) Lat. delutus, dcfero. To 

DELA'TION, n. s. > carry, convey, or spread. 

DELA'TOR, n. s. J Applied both literally, and 
to the carrying intelligence, or an accusation. 
A delator is an accuser ; an informer. 

DELATIN, a market town of Austrian Gal- 
licia, in the circle of Stanislawow. Near this 
town are extensive quarries of alum slate. It is 
twenty-four miles from Stanislawow. 

DELAVAL (Edward Hussey), a chemist and 
natural philosopher, F. R. S. of London and 
Gottingen, was a brother of lord Delaval, and 
died at his house in Parliament-place, Westmin- 
ster, August 14th, 1814, aged eighty-five. He 
particularly directed his studies to the chemistry 
of optics, on which he published many excellent 
papers in the Philosophical Transactions. He 
was the author of an Experimental Enquiry 
into the Cause of the Changes of Colors in 
Opaque and Colored Bodies, with an Historical 
Preface relative to the Parts of Philosophy 
therein examined, and to the several Arts and 
Manufactures dependent on them, 1777, 4to. : a 
work which was translated into French and 

DELAWAR, a town of Virginia, in King 
William's county, situated on the peninsula 
formed by the confluence of the Pamunky and 
Mattapony. Twenty miles north by west of 

DELAWARE, one of the United States of 
North America, situated between 38 29' 30', 
and 39 5V N. lal., and between 75 and 75 4li' 



W. long, being in length ninety miles, and 
in breadth twenty-five, contains 1700 square 
miles, or 1,088,000 acres. It is bounded on the 
north by Pennsylvania, on the south and west 
by Maryland, and on the east by Delaware Bay 
and the Atlantic Ocean. It is divided into three 
counties, Newcastle, Kent, and Sussex ; of which 
the chief towns are Wilmington, Dover, and 
Georgetown. The state of Delaware, the upper 
parts of the county of Newcastle excepted, is 
generally low and level. Large quantities of 
stagnant water, at particular seasons of the year, 
overspreading a great portion of the lan,d, render 
it equally unfit for the purposes of agriculture, 
and injurious to health. The spine, or highest 
ridge of the peninsula, runs through the state of 
Delaware, inclining to the eastern, or Delaware 
side. In Sussex, Kent, and part of the county 
of Newcastle, there is a remarkable chain of 
swamps, from which the waters descend on each 
side, passing on the east to the Delaware, and 
on the west to the Chesapeake. Many of the 
shrubs and plants, growing in these swamps, are 
similar to those found on the highest mountains. 
Delaware is chiefly an agricultural state. It 
includes a very fertile tract of country ; and 
scarcely any part of the United States is better 
adapted to the different purposes of agriculture, 
or in which a greater variety of the most useful 
productions can be conveniently and plentifully 
reared. The soil along the Delaware River, and 
from eight to ten miles into the interior country, 
is generally a rich clay, producing large timber. 
From thence to the swamps above-mentioned, 
the soil is light, sandy, and of an inferior qua- 
lity. The surface of the country is very favor- 
able for cultivation. The heights of Christiana 
are lofty and commanding ; some of the hills of 
Brandywine are rough and stony ; but descend- 
ing from these, and a few others, the lower 
country is so little diversified as almost to form 
one extended plain. In the county of Newcastle 
the soil consists of a strong clay ; in Kent there 
is a considerable mixture of sand ; and in Sussex 
the quantity of sand altogether predominates. 
Wheat is the staple of this state. It grows here 
in such perfection, as not only to be particularly 
sought by the manufacturers of flour throughout 
the Union, but also to be distinguished and pre- 
ferred, for its superior qualities, in foreign 
markets. It possesses an uncommon softness 
and whiteness, very favorable to the manufactu- 
rers of superfine flour, and in other respects far 
exceeds the hard and flinty grains raised in 
general on the higher lands. This state also 
produces plentiful crops of Indian corn, barley, 
rye, oats, flax, buck-wheat, and potatoes. It 
abounds too in natural and artificial meadows. 
Hemp, cotton, and silk, if properly attended to, 
thrive well. 

The county of Essex exports very large 
quantities of lumber, obtained from a swamp, 
called the Indian River, or Cypress Swamp, lying 
partly within this state, and partly in the state 
of Maryland. This morass extends six miles 
from east to west, and nearly twelve from north 
to south, including an area of nearly 50,000 
acres of land. The whole is a high and level 
basin, very wet, though undoubtedly the highest 

land between the sea and the bay, whence the 
Pokomoke descends on the one side, and Indian 
River and St. Martin's on the other. It contains 
a great \ariety of plants, trees, wild beasts, 
birds, and reptiles. 

Few minerals are found in this state, except 
iron; but large quantities of bog iron ore, fit for 
casting, are obtained m Sussex county, among the 
branches of Nanticoke River. 

The coast of this state is indented with a large 
number of creeks, or small rivers, which gene- 
rally have a short course, soft banks, and numer- 
ous shoals ; and are skirted with very extensive 
marshes. In the southern and western parts 
spring the head waters of Pocomoke, Wicomico, 
Nanticoke, Choptank, Chester, Sassafras, and 
Bohemia rivers, all falling into the Chesapeake; 
some of them are navigable twenty or thirty 
miles into the country, for vessels of fifty or sixty 

In the beginning of the seventeenth century, 
the Dutch, under the pretended purchase made 
by Henry Hudson, took, possession of the lands 
on both sides the river Delaware, and as early 
as 1623 built a fort at a place since called Glou- 
cester. In 1627, by the influence of William 
Useling, a respectable merchant in Sweden, a 
colony of Swedes and Finns came over, furnished 
with all the necessaries for beginning a new 
settlement, and landed at Cape Henlopen ; at 
which time the Dutch had wholly quitted the 
country. The latter however returned in 1630, 
and built a fort at Lewistown, called by them 
Hoarkill. The year following, the Swedes built 
a fort near Wilmington, which they called 
Christian, or Christiana. Here also they laid 
out a small town, which was afterwards de- 
molished by the Dutch. The same year they 
erected a fort higher up the river, upon Tenecum 
Island, which they called New Gottenburgh, 
and about the same time built forts at Chester, 
Elsingburgh, and other places. In 1655 the 
Dutch, under the command of Peter Stuyvesant, 
arrived in Delaware River, from New York, then 
called New Amsterdam, in seven vessels, with 
600 or 700 men. They dispossessed the Swedes 
of their forts on the river, and sent the officers 
and principal inhabitants prisoners to Holland. 
The rest submitted to the conquerors, and 
remained in the country. On the 1st of Octo- 
ber, 1664, Sir Robert Carr obtained the submis- 
sion of the Swedes on the Delaware. Four years 
after, colonel Nicholls, governor of New York, 
with his council, on the 21st of April, appointed 
six persons to assist captain Carr in the govern- 
ment of the country. In 1672 the town of 
Newcastle was incorporated by the slate of New 
York, to be governed by a bailiff and six assist- 
ants. They were to have a free trade, without 
being obliged to make entry at New York, as had 
formerly been the practice. Wampum was at 
this time the principal currency of the country. 
In 1674 Charles II., by a second patent, dated 
29th of June, granted to his brother, the duke of 
York, all that country called by the Dutch 
New Netherlands, of which the three counties ot 
Newcastle, Kent, and Sussex were a part. It, 
1683 the duke of York sold to William Penn 
the town of Newcastle, with the whole of the 



territory which, till the revolution, was called 
the Three Lower Counties. These three counties 
were considered as a part of Pennsylvania in 
matters of government. The same governor 
presided over both : but the assembly and courts 
of judicature were different, as to their constituent 
members, though in form nearly the same. At 
the revolution they became a distinct territory, 
called the Delaware State. See AMERICA, 

The population of the three counties of Dela- 
ware, subdivided into hundreds, was thus 
returned, under the last census : 



Population in 185,! 
. 3951 
. 1590 
. 1963 
. 7558 

Duck Creek hundred 
St. Jones hundred 
Little Creek hundred 
Murderhill hundred 
Mispillion hundred 

Brandywine hundred 
Borough of Wilmington . 
Christiana hundred 
Newcastle hundred 
Mill Creek hundred 
White Clay Creek 'hundred 
Red Lion hundred 
Pencader hundred 
St. George's hundred 
Appoquinimink hundred 

Population in 1820. 

Tola, of Kent county 20,793 
Cedar Creek hundred . .2280 
Broad Kiln hundred . .2731 
Lewes and Rehoboth hundred 1657 
Indian River hundred . . 1887 
Nanticoke hundred . . 2335 

North-west Fork hundred . 3456 
Baltimore hundred . . 2057 

Dagsborough hundred . . 2204 
Broad Creek hundred . . 2599 
Little Creek hundred 2851 

Total of Newcastle county 27,899 

Total of Sussex county 24,057 

Grand total 72,749 

The following table shows the population of 
Delaware, at each of the four national enume- 
rations : 


Free blacks 

Total . 





Increase in 
30 years. 

Rate of 






19 per cent. 
232 per cent. 






23 per cent. 

DELAWARE, a river of the United States, 
which rises at two principal heads in the state of 
New York. It runs towards the south, and in 
its course forms the boundary line between 
Pennsylvania, New York, and Jersey ; a few 
miles below Philadelphia it separates the state 
of Delaware from Jersey, and afterwards loses 
itself in Delaware Bay. The bay and river are 
navigable for 155 miles from the sea, up to the 
great or lower falls at Trenton. A seventy-four 
gun ship may ascend to Philadelphia; and 
sloops thirty-five miles further. 

DELAWARE BAY, a large bay or arm of the 
sea, between the Delaware and New Jersey 
states, and formed by the mouth of the Delaware 
river, and several other small ones. The bay is 
about sixty miles long, and thirty miles across 
in the centre. It opens into the Atlantic north- 
west and south-east, between Cape Henlopen 
on the right and Cape May on the left, and its 
mouth is twenty-one miles broad. 

DELAWARE COUNTY, in Pennsylvania, is south- 
west of Philadelphia county, on Delaware River. 
It is about twenty-one miles in length, and 
fifteen in breadth, containing 115,200 acres, and 
subdivided into nineteen townships ; the chief of 
which is Chester. The number of inhabitants is 
9,483. The lands bordering on the Delaware 
a--e low, and afford excellent meadows and pas- 

turage; and are guarded from inundations by 
mounds of earth or dykes. Great numbers of 
cattle are brought here from the western parts of 
Virginia and North Carolina, to be fattened for 
supplying the Philadelphia market. 

DELAWARE COUNTY, a county in the state of 
New York, on the head waters of Delaware 
River, taken from Otsego county. It is bounded 
on the north by Otsego county, cast by Schoha- 
rie and Green counties, south by Ulster and Sul- 
livan counties, and west by the state of Pennsyl- 
vania, by Broome county, and a small part of 
Chenango county. Its greatest length is fifty- 
four miles, its greatest breadth thirty-five; the 
area 1425 square miles, or 912,000 acres; 
between 41 51' and 42 1' north lat. It is 
of a broken and diversified surface, containing 
rugged and lofty mountains, with low plains and 
rich valleys. It sends two members to the house 
of assembly. 

DELA WARES, a nation of North American 
Indians, formerly numerous and powerful, and 
who possessed part of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, 
and New York. This name was given them by 
the Europeans; for they call themselves Lenni- 
lenape, that is, Indian men ; or Woapanachky 
which signifies a people living towards the rising 
sun. They are now, however, much reduced in 




DELAY', v. a., v. n & n. s. } Fr. delayer ; 
DELAY'ER. n. s. S Span, and Port. 

dilatar ; Ital. d'datare ; Lat. delatlo, differre, from 
de and _/^ r o, to put off. To procrastinate ; 
defer; and hence to hinder, frustrate, as well as 
allay; temper ; qualify : as a neuter verb, to stop ; 
cease from action. As a substantive, inactivity ; 
stoppage; stay. A delayer is an habitual pro- 

And when the people saw that Moses delayed to 
come down out of the mount, the people gathered 
themselves together unto Aaron. Exod. xxxii. 1. 

I have learned that fearful commenting 
Is leaden servitor to dull delay ; 
Delay leads impotent and snail-paced beggary. 

Shakrpeare. Richard III. 

That misery which must be is mitigated with speed, 
and aggravated with delay. 

Bp. Hall. Contemplations. 

Delayed thankfulness is not worthy of acceptation. 


Fhyrsis, whose artful strains have oft delayed 
The huddling brook to hear his madrigal. Milton. 
She flies the town, and mixing with the throng 
Of madding matrons, bears the bride along : 
Wandering through woods and wilds, and devious 

And with these arts the Trojan match delays. 

Dry den. 

Cyrus he found, on him his force essayed ; 
For Hector was to the tenth year delayed. Id. t 
There seem to be certain bounds to the quickness 
and slowness of the succession of those ideas one to 
another in our minds, beyond which they can neither 
delay nor hasten. Locke. 

Sullen and a delayer of Justice. 

^wift. Char, of Henry VII. 
Be mindful goddess, of thy promise made ! 
Must sad Ulysses ever be delayed 1 Pope. 

At thirty man suspects himself a fool j 
Knows it at forty and reforms his plan ; 
At fifty chides his infamous delay ; 
In all the magnanimity of thought 
Resolves, and re-resolves, then dies the same. 


DELECTABLE, adj. ~\ Fr. Span, and 
DELECT'ABLENESS, n. s. f Portug. delectable ; 
DELECT'ABLY, adv. t Ital. dilettabile; Lat. 
DELECT A'TION, n. s. J delectabilis ; from 
delecto, (de and lacto, to suckle) to delight. De- 
lightful ; pleasing ; state of being pleasing or 

Out break the tears for joy and delectation. 

Sir T. More. 

Evening now approached : 
For we have also our evening and our morn : 
We ours for change delectable, not need. Milton. 

He brought thee into this delicious prove, 
This garden planted with the trees of God ; 
Delectable both to behold and taste. Id. 

Some of his attributes, and the manifestations 
thereof, are not only highly delectable to the intellec- 
tive faculty, but are suitably and easily conceptible 
by us, because apparent in his works ; as his good- 
ness, beneficence, wisdom, and power. Hale. 

The apple's outward form, 
Delectable, the witless swain beguiles ; 
Till that with writhen mouth, and spattering noise, 
He tastes the bitter morsel. Philips. 

DEL'EGATE, v. a., n.s. &; adj } Span, and 
DELEGATION. $ Portug. dele- 

gar; Fr. deleguer; Lat. deligo ; de and lego ; Gr. 
Xeyw; Ileb. npS; to choose. To appoint ano- 
ther one's representative ; to entrust with power. 
A delegate is the party so commissioned ; a 
vicar. The court of delegates is denned by 
Ayliffe as a court wherein all causes of appeal, 
by way of devolution from either of the arch- 
bishops, are decided. 

If after her 

Any shall live, which dare true good prefer, 
Every such person is her delegate, 
To' accomplish that which should have been her fate. 


As God hath imprinted his authority in several 
parts upon several estates of men, as princes, parents, 
spiritual guides ; so he hath also delegated and com- 
mitted part of his care and providence unto them. 


Princes in judgment, and their delegate judges, 
must judge the causes of all persons uprightly and im- 
partially. Id. 

When bishops divided parishes, and fixt the pres- 
byters upon a cure, so many parishes as they distin- 
guished, so many delegations they made. 

Rp. Taylor. 

Why does he wake the correspondent moon 
And fill her willing lamp with liquid light ; 

Commanding her, with delegated powers, 
To beautify the world, and bless the night ? 


Let the young Austrian then her terrours bear, 
Great as he is, her delegate in war: /</. 

Elect by Jove, his delegate of sway, 
With joyous pride the summons I'd obey. 


As God is the universal monarch, so we have all 
the relation of fellow-subjects to him ; and can pre- 
tend no farther jurisdiction over each other, than 
what he has delegated to us. Decay of Piety. 

The goddess ceased, the delegated throng, 
O'er the wide plains delighted rush along ; 
In dusky squadrons, and in shining groups, 
Hosts follow hosts, and troops succeed to troops. 


DELEGATES, COURT OF, is the great court of 
appeal in all ecclesiastical causes. These dele- 
gates are appointed by the king's commission 
under his great seal, and issuing out of chancery, 
to represent his royal person, and hear all appeals 
to him made by virtue of the statute 25 Henry 
VIII. cap. 19. The commission is usually filled 
with lords, spiritual and temporal, judges of the 
courts at Westminster, and doctors of the civil 

DELENI'FICAL, adj. Lat. delenificus. 
Having virtue to assuage or ease pain. 

DELE'TE, v. a. ~\ Lat. deletus, from deleo, 

DELETE'RIOUS, adj. (de, privative, and lin<> to 

DEL'ETERY, i paint. To blot out; to ob- 

DELE'TION, n. s. * literate : deleterious and 

aeletery signify, destructive; poisonous; deletion 

is razing out or destroying. 

Many things, neither deleterious by substance 01 
quality, are yet destructive by figure, or some occa- 
sional activity. Brown*. 




indeed, if there be a total deletion of every person 
of the opposing party or country, then the victory is 
complete, because none remains to call it in question. 


Composed of two deleteriatu materials, chlorine and 
sodium, the united substance is more beneficial and 
salubrious, than it is in the power of our limited un- 
derstanding to comprehend. Sir T. Bernard. 

Nor doctor epidemick, 
Though stored with deletery medicines, 
Which whosoever took is dead since, 
E'er sent so vast a colony 
To both the under worlds as he. Hudibrat. 

Tis pity wine should be so deleteriout, 
For tea and coffee leave us much more serious. 


DELF, n. s. l From Sax. feelpan, to dig. A 
DELFE. i mine ; a quarry ; a pit dug. 
Also a particular kind of earthenware. See be- 

Yet could not such mines, without great pains and 
charges, if at all, be wrought : the delfi would be so 
flown with waters, that no gins or machines could 
suffice to lay and keep them dry. Ray. 

DELFT WARE is a. kind of pottery of a baked 
earth, covered with an enamel or white glazing, 
which gives it the appearance and neatness of 
porcelain. Some kinds of it differ much from 
others, either in sustaining sudden heat without 
breaking, or in the beauty and regularity of their 
forms, of their enamel, and of the painting with 
which they are ornamented. In general, the fine 
and beautiful enamelled potteries, which approach 
the nearest to porcelain in external appearance, 
are least able to resist a brisk fire. Those which 
best sustain a sudden heat are coarse, and resem- 
ble common pottery. The basis of this pottery 
is clay, which is to be mixed, when too fat, with 
such a quantity of sand, that the earth shall pre- 
serve enough of its ductility to be worked, 
moulded, and turned easily: and yet that its fat- 
ness shall be sufficiently taken from it, that it 
may not crack or shrink too much in drying or 
in baking. Vessels formed of this earth must be 
dried very gently to avoid cracking. They are 
then to be placed in a furnace to receive a slight 
baking, which is only meant to give them a cer- 
tain consistence of hardness. And, lastly, they 
are to be covered with an enamel or glazing; 
which is done by putting upon the vessels thus 
prepared, the enamel, which has been ground 
very fine, and diluted with water. As vessels on 
which the enamel is applied are but slightly 
baked, they readily imbibe the water in which 
the enamel is suspended, and a layer of this 
enamel adheres to their surface: these vessels 
may then be painted with colors composed of 
metallic calces, mixed and ground with a fusible 
glass. When they are become perfectly dry, 
they are to be placed in the furnace, included in 
cases of baked earth called seggars, and exposed 
to a heat capable of fusing uniformly the enamel 
which covers them. This heat, given to fuse 
the enamel, being much stronger than that which 
was applied at first to give some consistence to 
the ware, is also the heat necessary to complete 
the baking of it. The furnace, and the colors 
used for painting this ware, are the same as those 

employed for porcelain, which, in Holland, 
was once exclusively famous for delft ware, but 
its sale has lately been greatly rivalled by the 
potteries of England and Germany. 

DELFT, a fine old town of South Holland, 
once the capital of Delftland, js situated on a 
canal called the Shie, which, after traversing the 
city, joins the Meuse at Schiedam and Delfts- 
haven. Its figure is a parallelogram, about two 
miles in circuit ; the streets are clean, neat, and 
well built, having many handsome houses and 
magnificent edifices, particularly the stadt-house. 
The city holds a third rank in the country ; its 
magistracy is composed of four burgo-masters, 
and seven eschevins, jointly with the vroedschap 
or common council, who name the escout for 
three years, and continue him if they judge pro- 
per. It has an arsenal generally well furnished; 
and the country around it is agreeable, but so 
low, that, if great care were not taken to keep 
the dykes and sluices in good repair, it would 
soon be overwhelmed. The building of this 
city was begun in 1075, by Godfrey le Bossu, 
after he had conquered Holland ; since which it 
has often experienced the calamities of war, as 
well as those of fire. In the fourteenth cen- 
tury, Albert de Bavaria, count of Holland, took 
it after a siege of six weeks, dismantled and 
ruined the castle, and obliged the city to pay 
10,000 crowns. In 1536, it was reduced to 
ashes by a dreadful fire, during which a stork, 
not being able to save her young, was observed 
to precipitate herself into the flames. The city 
was soon after rebuilt with greater magnificence; 
but in 1654 it was again greatlydamaged by fire, 
which destroyed a magazine of gun-powder, and 
above 500 houses; since which the powder-maga- 
zine is built at some distance from the town. Before 
the Reformation, Delft had ten religious houses, 
besides hospitals and chapels. In one of the 
present churches is the tomb of William I. prince 
of Orange, who was assassinated in a house near, 
which is still standing ; and in another that of 
admiral Tromp. The celebrated Hugo Grotius 
was a native of this place. The Doelen inn was 
the scene of many of the councils and prepara- 
tions of the Dutch patriots in their struggles 
against Spain. Delft was formerly much cele- 
brated for beer, of which it exported large quan- 
tities; and also for a peculiar kind of glazed 
earthenware, called delft ware. Here are now 
made several kinds of fine cloth, and carpets. 
Butter and tobacco pipes also are made here in 
considerable quantities. It is nine miles north- 
west of Rotterdam, and thirty south-west of 

DELHI, or DELLI, an extensive province of 
Hindostan, bound on the north by Lahore, and 
several districts in Northern Hindostan, as Bes- 
seer, Dewarcote, and Serinagur; to the south by 
Agra and Ajmeer; to the east it has Oude, and 
various ridges of high hills, which separate it 
from Northern Hindostan ; and to the west 
Ajmeer and Lahore. In length it may be esti- 
mated at 240 miles, by 180 the average breadth. 
The greater part of this province is in the most 
wretched state of barrenness, having been the seat 
of continued war for many years ; and being 
naturally very sterile, though formerly well planted 




with mangoe trees, scarcely one is now to be seen. 
The Cauggar River overflows part of the Hurri- 
anch, during the rainy season, after which the 
pasturage is excellent, and the country tole- 
rably healthy until the desert to the west be- 
comes heated ; and, between the Jumna and 
Sattulege, the soil produces wheat, barley, gram, 
and other grains; but it is but little cultivated. 
Irrigation is necessary to insure any crop, and 
water is found at ten or twelve cubits from the 
surface of the earth; yet wells are seen only near 
towns and villages. This province is, at present, 
occupied in the following manner. The whole 
district to the east of the Jumna and round the city 
of Delhi, with a considerable portion of the 
north-eastern quarter, are possessed by the British, 
and governed by a regular civil establishment. 
The south-west is occupied by the Machery 
rajah of Alvar, the rajah of Bhurtpoor, and other 
native chiefs, who are in alliance with, or under 
the influence of the British. The country to 
the north-west of the Jumna and south of the 
Suttulege is occupied by a number of petty Seik 
chiefs, and other native princes, in dependence 
on the British, who form a barrier to their terri- 
tories in this quarter. The western frontier has 
a natural protection, from the immense extent of 
desert and sterile territory by which it is bounded. 

Except in the country possessed by the British, 
the inhabitants still continue to carry on internal 
warfare ; to which they have been so long accus- 
tomed, that they are extremely expert in the use 
of arms, particularly the lance, sabre, and match- 
lock. The principal towns are Delhi, Sirhind, 
Saharunpore, Buriely, Anoopsheher, Herat, His- 
sar, Seerdhuna, Patteealah, and Budavoon. 

DELHI, a celebrated city, for many years the 
capital of the foregoing province of Ilindos- 
tan, is situated on the banks of the Jumna; and 
during the era of its prosperity, is said to have 
covered a space of twenty miles in length. Its 
ancient name was Indraput, or Inderprest. It 
was taken by the Mahommedans in the year 1 1 93, 
under Cuttubaddeen Khan, who fixed his resi- 
dence here, and made it his capital. Several suc- 
ceeding emperors increased and improved it till 
the beginning of the sixteenth century, when the 
Afghan monarch, Sekunder Lody, made Agra the 
seat of empire, and Delhi was neglected until 
the return of Homayon from Persia in the year 
1554, when he rebuilt the old fort of Inderprest, 
and named it Deenpunnah, or the asylum of 
religion. During the reigns of Akbar and Jehan- 
gire, Delhi was again deserted; but the emperor 
Shan Jehan restored it to its former splendor, 
and expended immense sums of money on the 
present fortress, the cathedral, mosque, &c. 
Superb palaces, mosques, and colleges, in dif- 
ferent parts of the city, were raised by his court 
and followers. The walls which environ the town 
were put into repair, and its seven gates erected 
or beautified. Its noble gardens were also now 
laid out, and the tombs of the saints and deceased 
sovereigns thoroughly repaired. The canal was 
lengthened and deepened, and Delhi was ren- 
dered the glory of Hindostan. One garden alone 
is said to have cost a million sterling. The 
modern city, apportioned into thirty-six divisions, 
*>ach named after some ancient noble family, con- 

tains many good brick houses. The streets are 
narrow, with the exception of two; the first lead- 
ing from the palace to the Delhi Gate, which is 
broad and spacious, and had formerly an aque- 
duct along its whole extent; the second from the 
palace to the Lahore Gate. The bazaars appear 
in a dilapidated state; but in the Chandeny 
Choke, or Silver Square, is a number of well- 
furnished shops. The population has consider- 
ably increased under the British management, and 
every species of property is yearly rising in value. 
The English resident and other gentlemen live 
in the town, while the troops have a distinct 
cantonment. Precious stones of a good quality 
are to be had at Delhi, particularly the large red 
and black cornelian and peerozas; becdree 
hookah bottoms are also manufactured here. 
The cultivation in the neighbourhood is princi- 
pally on the banks of the Jumna, where corn, 
rice, millet, and indigo, are raised. It stands in 
long. 77 19' E., lat. 28 43' N. 

DELIA, in antiquity, a festival celebrated 
every fifth year in the island of Delos, in honor 
of Apollo. It was first instituted by Theseus; 
who, at his return from Crete, placed a statue 
there, which he had received from Ariadne. At 
the celebration they crowned the statue of the 
goddess with garlands, appointed a choir of 
music, and exhibited horse-races. They after- 
wards led a dance, in which they imitated, by 
their motions, the various windings of the Cretan 
labyrinth, from which Theseus had extricated 
himself by Ariadne's assistance. There Was 
another festival of the same name yearly cele- 
brated by the Athenians in Delos. It also was 
instituted by Theseus, who, in going to Crete, 
made a vow, that he would yearly visit the tem- 
ple of Delos The persons employed in this 
annual procession were called Deliastae and 
Theori. The ship, the same which carried The- 
seus, and had been carefully preserved by the 
Athenians, was called Theoria and Delias. When 
the ship was ready for the voyage, the priest of 
Apollo solemnly adorned the stern with gar- 
lands, and a universal lustration was made all 
over the city. The Theori were crowned with 
laurels, and before them proceeded men armed 
with axes, in commemoration of Theseus, who 
had cleared the way from Trcezen to Athens, 
and delivered the country from robbers. When 
the ship arrived at Delos, they offered solemn 
sacrifices to the god of the island, and celebrated 
a festival to his honor. After this they retired 
to their ship and sailed back to Athens, where 
all the people of the city ran in crowds to meet 
them. Every appearance of festivity prevailed 
at their approach, and the citizens opened their 
doors and prostrated themselves before the Deli- 
astae as they walked in procession. During this 
festival it was unlawful to put to death any male- 
factor, and on that account the life of Socrates 
was prolonged for thirty days. 

DELIACUS, among the ancients, denoted a 
poulterer, or a person who sold fowls, fatted 
capons, eggs, &c., because the people of Delos 
first practised this occupation. Cicero, in his 
Academic Questions, lib. iv., Pliny, lib. x. cap. 
30, and Columella, lib. viii. cap. 8, mention the 




DELIBATION, n. s. Lat. delibatio. An 
essay ; a taste. 

DELIB'ERATE, v. a. & n. ~] Fr. ddiberer ; 

DELIB'ERATELY, adv. & adj. I Span, and Por. 

DELIB'ERATENESS, n. s. [ deliberar ; Ital. 

DELIBERATION, [and Lat. detibe- 

DELIBERATIVE, [rare; from de t 

DELIB'ERATIVENESS. J and libra, a ba- 

lance. To weigh in mind ; consider : as a neu- 
ter verb, says Minsheu, to think with a view to 
choose, or decide ; to hesitate. Deliberate is 
circumspect ; wary ; advised. 

Commonly it is for virtuous considerations, that 
wisdom so far prevaileth with men as to make them 
desirous of slow and deliberate death, against the 
stream of their sensual inclination. Hooker. 

Echoes are some more sudden, and chop again as 
soon as the voice is delivered ; others are more deli- 
berate, that is, give more space between the voice and 
the echo, which is caused by the local nearness or 
distance. Bacon. 

In deliberative*, the point is, what is evil ; and. of 
good, what is greater ; and of evil, what is less. Id. 

Most Grave-belly was deliberate, 
Not rash, like his accusers. Shakspeare. Coriolanvi. 

They would not stay the fair production of acts, in 
the order, gravity, and deliberateness befitting a par- 
liament. King Cliarles. 

How should we deliberate in our actions, which arts 
so subiect to imperfection ! since it pleased thine in- 
finite perfection, not out of need, to take leisure. 

Bishop Hall. Contemplation*. 

If mankind had no power to avoid ill or choose 
good by free deliberation, it should never be guilty 
of any thing that was done. 

Hammond's Fumlamentnlt. 

He judges to a hair of little indecencies ; knows 
better than any man what is not to be written ; and 
never hazards himself so far as to fall, but plods on 
deliberately ; and, as a grave man ought, is sure to 
put his staff before him. Dryden. 

When love once pleads admission to our heart, 
In spite of all the virtue we can boast, 
The woman that deliberates is lost. Addison. 

Where men are the most sure and arrogant, they 
are commonly the most mistaken, and have there 
given reins to passion, without that proper deliberation 
and suspense, which can alone secure them from the 
grossest absurdities. Hume. 

DELIBERANDI ANNT;S, in the Scottish law, 
a year allowed to an heir, to deliberate whether 
he will enter as heir or not. 

DELIBERATIVE VOICE, a right to give advice 
and to vote in an assembly. In councils, the 
bishops have deliberative voices ; those beneath 
them have only consultative voices. 

DEL'ICATE, adj.&n. s.-\ Fr. delicat -, Span. 

DEL'ICACY, n. s. i and Port, dclicado ; 

DEL'ICATENESS, \ Ital. delicato; Lat. 

DEL'ICATELY, i delicatus ; from de~ 

DELI'CES, n. s. J licitt, delights. A- 
greeable to the taste, or the senses generally ; 
nice ; of small constituent parts ; felicitous in 
construction ; elegant : and, as agreeableness, 
' sweet, attractive grace,' is peculiarly feminine : 
a delicate is an effeminate, though not an agree- 
able man ; and expresses also inability to bear 
hardships. A delicate is used by the Tatler for 
a nice man :' but the plural substantive, deli- 

cates, expresses, like the old word delices, the 
same as delicacies, i. e. dainties, agreeable 

And kiugis of the erthe and marchauntis of the 
erthe diden fornycacioun with hir, and thei ben maad 
riche of the vertue of delices of hir. 

Wiclif. Apoc. 18. 

The delicate woman among you would not adven- 
ture to set the sole of her foot upon the ground, for 
delicatenest and tenderness. Deut. xxviii. 56. 

Yet was I late promised otherwyse, 
This yere to Hue in welth and delice. 

Sir T. More. 

And now he has poured out his idle mind 
In dainty delices and lavish joys, 

Having his warlike weapons cast behind, 
And flowers in pleasures and vain pleasing toys. 


Tender and delicate persons must needs be oft 
angry, they have so many things to trouble them, 
which more robust natures have little sense of. 


Witness this army, of such mass and charge, 
Led by a delicate and tender prince. Shakspeare. 
Where they most breed and haunt, I have ob- 
The air is delicate. Id. 

The shepherd's homely curds, 
His cold thin drink out of his leather bottle, 
All which secure and sweetly he enjoys, 
Are far beyond a prince's delicate*. Id. 

These delicacies 
I mean of taste, sight, smell, herbs, fruits, and 

Walks, and the melody of birds. Milton. 

Eat not delicately, or nicely ; that is, be not trouble- 
some to thyself or others in the choice of thy meats, 
or the delicacy of thy sauces. Taylor. 

Persons born of families noble and rich, derive a 
weakness of constitution from the ease and luxury of 
their ancestors, and the delica<j of their own educa- 
tion. Temple. 

A man of goodly presence, in whom strong making 
took not away delicacy, nor beauty fierceness. 


Van Dyck has even excelled him in the delicacy 
of his colouring, and in his cabinet pieces. 


That which will distinguish his style from all other 
poets, is the elegance of his words, and the numer- 
ousness of his verse : there is nothing so delicately 
turned in all the Roman language. Id. 

They their appetites not only feed, 

With delicatei of leaves and marshy weed, 

But with thy sickle reap the rankest land. Id. 

Any zealous for promoting the interest of his coun- 
try, must conquer all that tenderness and delicacy, 
which may make him afraid of being spoken ill of. 


You may see into the spirits of them all, and form 
your pen from these general notions and delicacy of 
thought and happy words. Felton. 

And such, I exclaimed, is the pitiless part 

Some act by the delicate mind, 
Regardless of wringing and breaking a heart 

Already to sorrow resigned. Cowper 

But in his delicate form a dream of Love, 
Shaped by some solitary nymph, whose breast 
Longed for a deathless lover from above, 
And maddened in that vision ! Byron. 




DELl'CIOUS, adj. y Fr. delicieux ; Lat. 
DELI'CIOUSLY, adv. ^deliciie, delights. 
DELI'CIOUSNESS, n. s. 7 Sweet ; agreeable ; de- 
licate; charming; grateful to the sense or 

How much she hath glorified herself, and lived 
deliriously, so much torment and sorrow give her. 

Rev. xviii. 7. 
The sweetest honey 
Is loathsome in its own ddiciousness, 
And in the taste confounds the appetite. 


Let no man judge of himself, or of the blessings and 
efficacy of the sacrament itself, by any sensible relish, 
by the gust and deliciousness, which he sometimes 
perceives, and at other times does not perceive. 


And if some nice and likuorous appetite 
Desired more daintie dish of rare dclite, 
They scaled the stored crab with clasped knee, 
Till they had sated their delicious eie. 

Bp. Hall. Satires iii. 1. 

It is highly probable, that upon Adam's disobe- 
dience Almighty God chased him out of Paradise, the 
fairest and most delicious part of the earth, into some 
other the most barren and unpleasant. Woodward. 

Still on that breast enamoured let me lie, 
Still drink delicious poison from thy eye. Pope. 

But since, to make use of your own allusion, the 
cherries began now to crowd the market, and their 
season was almost over, we consulted our future en- 
joyments, and endeavoured to make the exquisite 
pleasure that delicioui fruit gave our taste as lasting as 
we could. Spectator. 

In his last hours his easy wit display : 
Like the rich fruit he sings, delicious in decay. 


DELIGHT', v. a., v. n. & n. s. ~\ Fr. delec- 
DELIGHT'FUL, adj. ter ; Span. 

DELIGHT'FKLLY, adv. and Port, de- 

DELTGHT'FULNESS, n. s. >leytar; It. di- 

DELIGHT'SOME, lettare, from 

DELIGHT'SOMELY, Lat.c/e/ecfare, 


DELEGATE. To please in a high degree ; to nave 
pleasure, followed by in. Delightsome and de- 
lightful are synonymous, as are delightsomely and 
delightfully. Delight is either the satisfaction 
and pleasure felt or the object that affords them. 

Doth my lord, the king, delight in this thing ? 

2 Sam. xxiv. 

Blessed is the man |hat feareth the Lord, that de- 
lighteth greatly in his commandments. Psalm cxii. 1. 

For I delyte togidre to the law of God aftir the yn- 
ner man, but I see a nother law in my membris aghen 
fightynge the law of my soule. Wiclif. Romaym 7. 

To liven in delit was ever his wone, 
For he was Epicures owen sone 
That held opinion that plein delits 
Was veraily felicite partite. 

Chaucer. Prol. to Cant. Tales. 
And though he lyste to see hisladyes grace full sore, 
Such pleasures as delyght his eye, do not his helthe 

restore. 'Surrey. 

The words themselves being so ancient, the knitting 
of them so short and intricate, and the whole periods 
and compass of his speech so delightsome for the 
roundness, and so grave for the Kiningcniss. 


To thee, that art the sommer's nightingale, 

The soucraine goddesses most deare deliqnt, 
Why do I send this rustic madrigale, 

That may thy tunefull care unseason quite. 

Id. Faerie Queenr.. 
Come, sisters, cheer we up his spfights, 
And shew the best of our deliqhts : 
We'll charm the air to give a sound, 
While you perform your antic round. 

O voice ! once heard 
Delightfully, increase and multiply ; 
Now death to hear. Milton. 

If happiness had consisted in doing nothing, man 
had not been employed ; all his ileliyhts could not 
have made him happy in an idle life. 

Bp. Hall. Contemplations. 

The princes delighting their conceits with confirming 
their knowledge, seeing wherein the sea-discipline 
differed from the land service, had pleasing entertain- 
ment. Sidney. 

This indeed shews the excellency of the object, but 
doth not altogether take away the delightfulness of the 
knowledge. Tillotson. 

She was his care, his hope, and his delight, 
Most in his thought, and ever in his sight. 


Poor insects, whereof some are bees, delighted with 
flowers, and their sweetness ; others beetles, delighted 
with other kinds of viands. Locke. 

He heard, he took, and pouring down his throat, 
Delighted, swilled the large luxurious draught. 


No spring,nor summer, on the mountain seen, 
Smiles with gay fruits or with delightful green. 


God has furnished every one with the same means 
of exchanging hunger and thirst for delightsome vigour 

We love 

The king, who loves the law, respects his bounds, 
And reigns content within them : him we serve 
Freely and with delight, who leaves us free. 

Cowper's Task. 

But you will say, it is reasonable to conclude that as 
all your predecessors, in this vale of misery and hor- 
ror, have found themselves delightfully disappointed at 
last, so will you. Id. Private Correspondence. 

When the soft lute iu sweet impassioned strains, 
Of cruel nymphs or broken vows complains, 
As on the breeze the fine vibration floats, 
We drink delighted the melodious notes. Darwin. 

Yes, woman, yes ! Though in his pompous school 
Man proud may learn to think and talk by rule, 
There is the native eloquence, whose grace 
Flows true to every hour and every place 
That with a swain familiar can recal 
Scenes, persons, things, and spread delight on all. 

Dr. T. Brown. 

DELIMA, in botany, a genus of the mono- 
gynia order, and polyandria class of plants : 
COR. none : CAL. five-leaved with a two-seeded 
berry. Species one only, a native of South Ame- 

DELIN'EATE, v. a. } Lat. ddineo ; of dc, 

DELINEA'TION, n. s. >and linea, a line; to 

DELIN'EAMENT, n. s.j make lines. To sketch, 

or make an outline ; hence to paint, and to des- 

cribe : delineation and delineament both express 

the painting or drawing made ; the representa- 





The sun 's a type of that eternal light 

Which we call God, a fair delineament. 

More's Song of the Soul. 

Itfolloweth, to delineate the region in which God 
hist planted his delightful garden. Raleigh. 

The licentia pictoria is very large : with the same 
reason they may delineate old Nestor like Adonis, 
Hecuba with Helen's face, and Time with Absalom's 
head. Browne. 

I have not here time to delineate to you the glories 
of God's heavenly kingdom ; nor, indeed, could I 
tell you, if I had, what the happiness of that place 
and portion is. Wake. 

In the orthographical schemes, there should be 
a true delineation, and the just dimensions. 


DELINQUENT, n.s. > Fr. delinquent; Span. 
DELINQUENCY. $ and Port. delinquento; 

Lat. delinquent, from de, and linquu to leave one's 
duty. One criminally neglectful of duty : neg- 
lect ; failure of duty. 

All ruined, not by war, or any other disaster, but 
by justice and sentence, as delinquents and criminals. 


The next news we heard was, the House of Com- 
mons had drawn up a bill against us, wherein they 
declared us to be delinquents of a very high nature. 

Bp. Hall's Hard Measure. 
Such an envious state, 
That sooner will accuse the magistrate 
Than the delinquent ; and will rather grieve 
The treason is not acted, than believe. 

Ben Jonson. 

They never punish the greatest and most intolerable 
delinquency of the tumults, and their exciters. 

King Charles. 

He had, upon frivolous surmises, been sent for as 
a delinquent, and been brought upon his knees. 


Thy years determine like the age of man, 
That thou should'st my delinquencies enquire, 
And with variety of tortures tire? 

Sandy's Paraphrase of Job. 

A delinquent ought to be cited in the place or juris- 
diction where the delinquency was committed by him. 


Does law, so jealous in the cause of man, 
Denounce no doom on the delinquent ? None. 

Cowper's Task. 

DELIQ'UATE, v. n. & a. ^ Lat. deliquo ; from 

DELIQUA'TION, n. s. de and liquo (lix, 

DELIQUIUM, n. s. 3 liquid) to melt. As 

a verb active, to dissolve into liquid : deligation 
and deliquium both signify a dissolving chemi- 
cally ; and hence fainting or swooning. 

It will be resolved into a liquor very analogous tc 
that which the chymists make of salt of tartar, left in 
moist cellars to deliquate. Boyle. 

Their conscience was not stark dead, but under a 
kind of spiritual deliquium. Leath. 

When salt of tartar flows per deliquium, it is visible 
that the particles of water are moved towards the 
particles of salt. Bp. Berkeley. 

Such an ebullition as we see made by the mixture of 
some chymical liquors, as oil of vitriol and deliquated 
salt of tarter. Cudworth. 

DELIQUESCENCE, in chemistry, the pro- 
perty which certain bodies have of attracting 
moisture from the air, and thereby becoming 
liquid. This property is never found but in 
saline substances, or matters containing them. 

It is caused by the great affinity which tnese 
substances have with water. The more simple 
they are, according to Mr. Macquer, the more 
they incline to deliquescence. Hence, acids, 
and certain alkalis, which are the most simple, 
are also the most deliquescent salts. Many 
neutral salts are deliquescent, chiefly those 
whose bases are not saline substances. Though 
the immediate cause of deliquescence is the at- 
traction of the moisture of the air, yet it remains 
to be discovered, why some salts attract this 
moisture powerfully, and others, though seem- 
ingly equally simple, do not attract it. The 
vegetable alkali, for instance, attracts moisture 
powerfully ; the mineral alkali, though to ap- 
pearance equally simple, does not attract it at 
all. The acid of tartar by itself does not at- 
tract the moisture of the air ; but if mixed with 
borax, which has a little attraction for moisture 
the mixture is extremely deliquescent. See 

DELI'RATE,v.n. ^ Lat. dehro (from 

DELIRA'TION, n. s. I de, and lira a ridge 

DELI'KAMENT, lor furrow); to be 

DELI'RIOUS, adj. f'mad, because a mad 

DELI'RIOUSNESS, n. s. person passes the 

DELI'RIUM. J bounds of reason. 

Ainsworth. To dote talk wildly or idly: de- 

liration is the same with delirium, and the latter 

a more common word, signifying alienation of 

mind; a state of dotage: delirious is light-headed ; 

partaking of delirium. 

The people about him said he had been for some 
hours delirious ; but when I saw him he had his un- 
derstanding as well as ever I knew. Swift. 

On bed 
Delirious flung, sleep from his pillow flies. 


Too great alacrity and promptness in answering, 
especially in persons naturally of another temper, is 
a sign of an approaching delirium ; and in a feverish 
delirium there is a small inflammation of the brain. 

Arbuthnot on Diet. 

On the 6th, he was all day delirious, which he 
mentioned four days afterwards as a sufficient humi- 
liation of the vanity of man. At the intermission of 
his deliriousness, he was always saying something kind 
either of his present or his absent friends. 

Johnson's Life of Pope. 
How profound 

The gulf ! and how the giant element 
From rock to rock leaps with delirious bound, 
Crushing the cliffs, which, downward worn and rent 
With his fierce footsteps, yield in chasms a fearful vent. 


DELIRIUM. When the ideas excited in the 
mind do not correspond to the external objects, 
but are produced by the change induced on the 
common sensorium, the patient is said to be in 
a delirium. See MEDICINE. 

DELITIGATION, n. s. Lat. delitigo; de 
and litigo (lites ago, to raise strife), to quar- 
rel. A striving or contending. See LITIGATION. 

DELI'VER, v. a. & n."\ Fr. delivrer ; Span. 

DELI'VERANCE, n. s. (librdr ; Ital. liberdre; 

DELIVERER, from Lat. libero (a 

DELI'VERY. 3 liber, free). To make 

or set free ; to disburden ; to rescue ; to give up : 
hence to offer; present; exert one's self; utter 
by speech : delivering over and delivering up 
are only forms of delivering, and mean resigning 




to. Deliverance and delivery are the act of de- 
livering; utterance; activity; and the latter has 
a particular application to childbirth. 

Thanne he delyverede to hem Barabas, but he took 
to hem Jhesus, scourgid to be crucified. 

Wiclif. Matt, xxvii. 

Thou shall deliver Pharaoh's cup into his hand, 
after the former manner, when thou wast his butler. 

Gen. xl. 13. 

Deliver me not over unto the will of mine enemies, 
for false witnesses are risen up against me, and such 
as breathe out cruelty. Psalm xxvii. 12. 

Like as a woman with child, thatdraweth near the 
time of her delivery, is in pain, and crieth out. 

Isaiah xxvi. 7. 

He hath sent me to heal the broken-hearted, to 
preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of 
sight to the blind, to set at liberty those that are 
bound. Luke iv. 18. 

He that spared not his own son, but delivered him 
tip for us all, how shall he not, with him also, freely 
give us all things ? Rom. viii. 32. 

We allege what the Scriptures themselves do 
usually speak, for the saving force of the word of 
God ; not with restraint to any certain kind of deli- 
very, but howsoever the same shall chance to he made 
known. Hooker. 

People have a superstitious belief, that in the la- 
bour of women it helpeth to the easy deliverance. 


A mirth-moving jest, 
Which his fair tongue, conceit's expositor, 
Delivers in such apt and gracious words, 
That aged ears play truant at his tales. 


Are the cities, that I got with wounds, 
Delivered up again with peaceful words ? Id. 

The constables have delivered her over to me, and 
she shall have whipping enough, I warrant her. Id. 

He swore, with sobs, 
That he would labour my delivery. Id. 

On her fright and fears, 
She is something before her time delivered. Id. 

DELL, n. s. Goth, dale; Belg. del. See 

DELLILE (Jacques), a celebrated French 
poet, born in 1738, at Clermont in Auvergne, 
and educated at the university of Paris. He 
was early distinguished for the brilliancy of his 
talents, and the extent of his acquirements ; but 
the first work by which he made known his 
name to the public, and laid the foundation of 
his poetical fame, was a translation of Virgil's 
Georgics. This procured him a seat in the 
Academy. His next performance was an original 
work, entitled Les Jardins, which added con- 
siderably to his reputation. About this time, 
M. Le Comte de Choiseul Gouffier, who had 
formerly visited and described the interesting 
shores of Greece, was appointed" ambassador to 
Constantinople, and Dellile was persuaded to 
accompany him to that city. Thence he went to 
Greece, where he remained for several months, 
and finally passed over to Asia Minor, where 
he was first attacked with a distemper in his 
eyes, that after his return deprived him entirely 
of sight. At Constantinople he wrote a consider- 
able portion of his poem on Imagination, and 
on his return published a translation of the 
.fluieid. He continued also to read lectures at 
Paris, till the revolution obliged him to emi- 
grate into Switzerland. He afterwards visited 
Vox.. VII. 

Germany and England. Here, in misfortune 
and banishment, 'muses of melancholy inspira- 
tion,' he composed his poem, Le Malheur et hi 
Pitie, to give vent to his oppressed feeling^. 
While he remained in England he also trans- 
lated the Paradise Lost. After France had be- 
come settled under Napoleon, he returned to his 
native land, where he died in the summer of 
1813. His other works are L' Homme des 
Champs; ou, les Georgiques Fran9;iises, 1808; 
Les Trois Ltegnes de la Nature, 1809 ; and La 
Conversation, 1812, a playful satire. 

DELOLME (John Louis), born at Geneva, 
1740 (according to some in 1745), was a lawyer 
in his native city, and the part which he took in 
its internal commotions by a work entitled 
Examen des trois Points de Droit, obliged him 
to repair to England, where he passed some 
years in great indigence. He wrote for journals, 
frequented low taverns, was devoted to gaming 
and pleasure, and lived in such obscurity, that; 
when he became known by his work on the 
English Constitution, and some people of dis- 
tinction were desirous of relieving him, it was 
impossible to discover his place of residence. 
His pride was gratified by this kind of low in- 
dependence, and he rejected all assistance, ex- 
cepting some aid from the literary fund, to 
enable him to return to lu's country. This was 
probably in 1775, since, from that time, he calls 
himself member of the council of the two hun- 
dred in Geneva. Among his peculiarities was 
this, that, although principally occupied with 
political law, he was never present at a session 
of parliament. At the time of his arrival in 
England, aristocratical arrogance and turbulence 
had reached its highest pitch in Sweden and 
Poland, and it was feared, not without reason, 
in England, that the same evils threatened that 
country. Delolme entered into an investigation 
of this subject. Hence originated his famous 
work, Constitution de 1'Angleterre, ou Etat du 
Gouvernement Anglais compare avec la Forme 
republicaine et avec les autres Monarchies de 
TEurope (Amsterdam, 1771); and a work in 
English, called A Parallel between the English 
Government and the former Government of 
Sweden (London, 1772). In both, his principal 
object was to illustrate the excellence and sta- 
bility of the English constitution. Its character 
of a spirited eulogium is undoubtedly the reason 
that the first politicians of England, lord 
Chatham, the marquis of Camden, and the au- 
thor of the celebrated Letters of Junius, spoke 
so highly of this work of a foreigner. It contains 
much ingenious reflection on the English con- 
stitution, on the energy arising from a happy 
union of royal power with popular liberty, and 
particularly on the value of an independent ju- 
diciary and the freedom of the press, subjected 
to penal laws, but not to a censorship. This 
work, translated by the author himself into 
English, in 1772 (fourth English edition, 1784, 
with observations by doctor Charles Coote), is 
still considered, in England, one of the mosfin- 
genious works on the English constitution. De- 
lolme also published, in English, his History of 
the Flagellants, or Memorials of Human Super- 
stition (1783, 4to.); An Essay on the Union 



with Scotland (London, 1796, 4to.) On the 
occasion of the will of Mr. Thelluson, he wrote 
his Observations on the Power of Individuals to 
prescribe, by testamentary Dispositions, the par- 
ticular future Uses to be made of their Property 
(London, 1798, 4to.) He died in July, 1806, at 
a village in SwiUerland. 

DELOS, an island of the Archipelago, very 
famous in ancient history. Originally it is re- 
ported to have been a floating island, but after- 
wards it became fixed. It was fabled to have 
been the birth-place of Apollo and Diana. It 
was governed by its own kings. Virgil mentions 
Anius a king of Delos, in the time of the Tro- 
jan war, who was afterwards high priest of Apollo, 
and entertained ./Eneas with great kindness. The 
Persians allowed the Delians to enjoy their 
ancient liberties, after they had reduced the rest 
of the Grecian islands. In after ages, the Athe- 
nians made themselves masters of it ; and held 
it till they were driven out by Mithridates, who 
granted the inhabitants many privileges, and ex- 
empted them from all sorts of taxes. Strabo 
and Callimachus tell us that Delos was watered 
by the river Inapus : but Pliny calls it only a 
spring ; and adds, that its waters swelled and 
abated at the same time with those of the Nile. 
At present there is no river in the island, but one 
of the noblest springs in the world, twelve paces 
in diameter, and enclosed partly by rocks, and 
partly by a wall. So sacred was the island of 
Delos held by the ancients, that hostilities were 
suspended by nations at war, when they hap- 
pened to meet in this place. Livy tells us, that 
soTne Roman deputies being obliged to put in at 
Delos, in their voyage to Syria and Egypt, found 
the galleys of Perseus king of Macedon, and 
those of Eumenes king of Pergamus, anchored 
in the same harbour, though these two princes 
were then at war. Hence this island was a ge- 
neral asylum, and protection was extended to all 
living creatures, dogs excepted ; for this reason 
it abounded with hares, no dogs being suffered 
to enter it. No dead body was suffered to be 
buried in it, nor child to be born there; all 
dying persons, and women ready to be delivered, 
were carried over to the neighbouring island of 
Rhenaea. It is now called Sdili. 

DELOS, an extensive city in the above island, 
which occupies a spacious plain, reaching from 
the one coast to the other. It was well peopled, 
and, after the destruction of Corinth, the richest 
city in the Archipelago ; merchants flocking thi- 
ther from all parts, both on account of the im- 
munity they enjoyed, and of its convenient 
situation between Europe and Asia. It contained 
many stately buildings ; as the temple of Apollo, 
Diana, and Latona ; an oval basin, made at an 
immense expense, for the representation of sea- 
fights ; and a most magnificent theatre. The 
temple of Apollo was, according to Plutarch, 
begun by Erisichthon, the son of Cecrops ; but 
afterwards enlarged and embellished at the com- 
mon charge of all the states of Greece. It con- 
tained an altar built with horns of various 
animals, so artificially adapted to one another, 
that they hung together without cement. This 
altar is said to have been a cube ; and the doub- 
ling it was a famous mathematical problem 

among the ancients. This went under the name 
of ProblemaDeliacum, and is said to have been 
proposed by the oracle, to free the country from 
a plague. The trunk of the famous statue of 
Apollo, mentioned by Strabo and Pliny, is still 
an object of great admiration to travellers. It is 
without head, feet, arms, or legs ; but from the 
parts that yet remain it plainly appears, that the 
ancients did not exaggerate when they com- 
mended it as a wonder of art. It was of a 
gigantic size, though cut out of a single block of 
marble ; the shoulders being six feet broad, and 
the thighs nine feet round. Plutarch tells us, 
in his Life of Nicias, that he caused to be set up, 
near the temple of Delos, a huge palm-tree of 
brass, which he consecrated to Apollo ; and 
adds, that a violent storm of wind threw down 
this tree on a Colossean statue raised by the inha- 
bitants of Naxos. Round the temple were mag- 
nificent porticoes built at the charge of various 
princes, as appears from inscriptions which are 
still very plain. 

DELPHI, in ancient geography, a town of 
Phocis situated on the south-west extremity of 
mount Parnassus, famous for a temple and oracle 
of Apollo. A number of goats that were feed- 
ing on mount Parnassus, approached a place 
which had a deep and long perforation. The 
steam which issued from the hole seemed to in- 
spire the goats, and they played and frisked 
about in such an uncommon manner, that the 
goatherd was tempted to lean on the hole, and 
see what mysteries the place contained. He was 
immediately seized with a fit of enthusiasm, and 
his expressions were so wild and extravagant, that 
they passed for prophecies. This circumstance 
was soon known, and many experienced the 
same enthusiastic inspiration. The place was 
revered ; a temple erected to Apollo ; and a 
city built, which became the most illustrious in 
Phocis. The influence of its oracle controlled 
the councils of states, directed the course of 
armies, and decided the fate of kingdoms. 

The temple of Apollo was at first a kind of 
cottage covered with boughs of laurel. An edi- 
fice of stone was next erected by Trophonius 
and Agamedes, which subsisted about 700 years, 
and was burnt in the year 636 after the destruc- 
tion of Troy, and A.A.C. 548. It is mentioned 
in the hymn to Apollo ascribed to Homer. An 
opulent and illustrious Athenian family, called 
Alcmaeonidae, which had fled from the tyrant 
Hippias, raised a new temple, the front of which 
was of Parian marble. The pediments were 
adorned with Diana, Latona, Apollo, Bacchus, 
the setting of the sun, the Muses, and the Thy- 
ades. The architraves were decorated with 
golden armour; bucklers suspended by the 
Athenians after the battle of Marathon ; and 
shields taken from the Gauls under Brennus. 
In the portico were inscribed the celebrated 
maxims of the seven sages of Greece. There 
was an image of Homer, and in the cell was an 
altar of Neptune, with statues of the Fates, and 
of Jupiter and Apollo. Near .the hearth before 
the altar, stood the iron chair of Pindar. In 
the sanctuary was an image of Apollo gilded. 
The enclosure was of great extent, and filled 
with treasures (in which many cities had con- 


secratecl tenths of spoils taken in war), and with 
the public donations of renowned states in va- 
rious ages. 

The oracles were delivered by a priestess called 
Pythia, who received the prophetic influence in 
the following manner. A lofty tripod, decked 
with laurel, was placed over the aperture, whence 
the sacred vapor issued. The priestess, after 
washing her body, and especially her hair, in 
the cold water of Castalia, mounted on it, to re- 
ceive the divine effluvia. She wore a crown of 
laurel, and shook a sacred tree which grew close 
by. Having mounted the tripod, she was 
seized with the most violent paroxysms of frenzy, 
and in that situation delivered her oracular 
responses ; and if she declined acting, they 
dragged her by force to the tripod. The habit 
of her order was that of virgins. The season of 
enquiry was in the spring, during the month 
called Busius; after which Apollo was supposed 
to visit the altars of the Hyperboreans. 

The city of Delphi arose in the form of a 
theatre, upon the winding declivity of Parnassus, 
whose fantastic tops overwhelmed it like a 
canopy on the north, while two immense rocks 
rendered it inaccessible on the east and west, 
and the rugged and shapeless mount Cirphis 
defended it on the south. The foot of Cirphis 
was washed by the rapid Plistus, whose waters 
fell into the sea a few leagues from the city. 
This inaccessible and romantic situation from 
which the place derived the name of Delphi, or 
solitary, was rendered still more striking by the 
innumerable echoes which multiplied every 
sound, and increased the ignorant veneration of 
visitants for the god of the oracle. The prin- 
cipal inhabitants of Delphi, claiming an im- 
mediate relation to Apollo, were entitled to 
officiate in the rites of his sanctuary ; and even 
the inferior ranks were continually employed in 
dances, festivals, processions, and all the gay 
pageantry of an elegant superstition. Delphi, 
lying in the centre of Greece, and, as was then 
imagined, of the universe, was conveniently 
situated for the conflux of votaries. It was cus- 
tomary for those who consulted the oracle to 
make rich presents to the god : his servants and 
priests feasted on the numerous victims which 
were sacrificed to him ; and the rich magnifi- 
cence of his temple had become proverbial even 
in the age of Homer. In aftertimes Croesus, 
the wealthiest of monarchs, was particularly 
munificent in his donations. The sacred re- 
pository was, therefore, often the object of 
plunder. Neoptolemus the son of Achilles was 
slain, while sacrificing, by a priest, on suspicion 
of a design of that kind. Xerxes divided his 
army at Panopeus, and proceeded with the main 
body through Boeotia into Attica, while a part, 
keeping Parnassus on the right, advanced along 
Schiste to Delphi ; but they were seized with a 
panic when near Ilium, and fled. The divine 
hoard was seized by the Phocians under Philo- 
melus, and dissipated in a long war with the 
Amphictyons. The Gauls experienced a recep- 
tion like that of the Persians, and manifested 
similar dismay and superstition. Sylla, more 
wise, wanting money to pay his army, sent to 
borrow from the holy treasury ; and when his 

messenger would have frightened Lm, by rp- 
porting that the sound of a harp had been heard 
from within the sanctuary, he replied, it was a. 
sign that the god was happy to oblige him. But 
the temple, in the time of Strabo, was reduced 
to extreme poverty; and Apollo was silent. 
Nero attempted to drive him, as it were by 
violence, from the cavern ; killing men at the 
mouth, and polluting it with blood. An oracle 
of Apollo at another place informed the con- 
suiters, that he should no more recover the 
power of utterance at Delphi, but enjoined the 
continuance of the accustomed offerings. 

Yet the store appeared inexhaustible ; and the 
robbery of Nero, who removed 500 brazen 
images, was rather regretted than perceived. 
The holy treasuries, though empty, served as 
memorials of the piety and glory of tne cities 
which erected them. The Athenian portico pre- 
served the beaks of ships and the brazen shidds, 
trophies won in the Peloponnesian war; and a 
multitude of curiosities remained untouched. 
Constantine the Great, however, proved a more 
fatal enemy to Apollo and Delphi, than either 
Sylla or Nero. He removed the sacred tripods 
to adorn the Hippodrome of his new city; where 
these, with the Apollo, the statues of the Heli- 
conian muses, and the celebrated Pan, dedicated 
by the Greek cities after the war with the Medes, 
were extant when Sozomen wrote his history. 
Afterwards Julian sent Oribasius to restore the 
temple ; but he was admonished by an oracle to 
represent to the emperor the deplorable condition 
of the place. ' Tell him,' said the oracle, ' that 
the well-built court is fallen to the ground. 
Phoebus has not a cottage, nor the prophetic 
laurel, nor the speaking fountain, Cassotis ; and 
even the beautiful water is extinct.' 

DELPHINIA, a new alkali, procured by the 
action of dilute sulphuric acid, on the bruised 
unshelled seeds of the larkspur. The solution of 
sulphate, thus formed, is precipitated by subcar- 
bonate of potassa. Alcohol separates from this 
precipitate the vegetable alkali in an impure 

Pure delphinia is crystalline while wet, but 
becomes opaque on exposure to air. Its taste is 
bitter and acrid. When heated it melts; and 
on cooling becomes hard and brittle like resin. 
If more highly heated, it blackens and is decom- 
posed. Water dissolves a very small portion of 
it. Alcohol and aether dissolve it very readily. 
The alcoholic solution renders syrup of violets 
green, and restores the blue tint of litmus red- 
dened by an acid. It forms soluble neutral salts 
with acids. Alkalies precipitate the delphinia in 
a white gelatinous state like alumina. 

DELPHINIC ACID. The name of an acid, 
extracted from the oil of the dolphin. It resem- 
bles a volatile oil ; has a light lemon color, and 
a strong aromatic odor, analogous to that of 
rancid butter. Its taste is pungent, and its vapor 
has a sweetened taste of setter. It is slightly 
soluble in water, and very soluble in alcohol. 
The latter solution strongly reddens litmus. 
100 parts of delphinic acid neutralise a quantity 
of base, which contains 9 of oxygen, whence its 
prime equivalent appears to be 11*11. 

DELPHINIUM, dolphin flower, or larkspur: 





in botany, a genus of the trigynia order, and po- 
lyandria class of plants ; natural order twenty- 
sixth, multisiliquae: CAL.none; petals live; necta- 
rium bifid, and horned behind ; siliquae three or 
one. Species fourteen ; two of which are perennial. 
They are herbaceous plants of upright growth, 
rising from eighteen inches to four feet in height, 
garnished with finely divided leaves, and termi- 
nated by long spikes of pentapetalous flowers of 
blue, red, white, or violet colors. One species, 
viz. D. consolida, is found wild in several parts 
of Britain, and grows in corn fields. The seeds 
are acrid and poisonous. When cultivated, the 
blossoms often become double. Sheep and goats 
eat this plant ; horses are not fond of it ; cows 
and swine refuse it. The annual larkspur makes 
a very fine appearance in gardens, and is easily 
propagated by seeds, being so hardy that it 
thrives in any soil or situation. 

DELPHINUS, the dolphin, in zoology, a 
genus of fishes belonging to the 'order of cete. 
There are five species, viz. 1. D. delphis r the 
dolphin. This fish was consecrated to the gods, 
and, celebrated in the earliest time for its fondness 
of the human race, was honored with the title of 
the sacred fish. Arion the musician, when flung 
into the ocean by the pirates, was said to be re- 
ceived and saved by this benevolent fish. Its 
natural shape is almost straight, the back being 
very slightly incurvated, and the body slender; 
the nose long, narrow, and pointed, not much 
unlike the beak of some birds, for which reason 
the French call it 1' oye de iner. It has forty 
teeth ; twenty-one in the upper jaw and nineteen 
in the lower ; a little above an inch long, conic 
at their upper end, sharp-pointed, bending a little 
in. They are placed at small distances from 
each other; so that when the mouth is shut, the 
teeth of both jaws lock into one another. The 
spout-hole is placed in the middle of the head ; 
the tail is ssmilunar; the skin smooth, the color 
of ihe back and sides dusky, the belly whitish : 
it swims with gteat swiftness; and its prey is 
fish. It was formerly reckoned a great delicacy. 
This species of dolphin must not be confounded 
with that to which seamen give the name ; the 
latter being quite another kind of fish, viz. the 
coryphsena hippuris of Linnaeus, and the dorado 
of the Portuguese. 2. D. leucas, a species called 
by the Germans wit-fisch, and by the Russians 
beluga; both signifying white fish: but to this 
the latter add morskaia, ' of the sea,' to distin- 
guish it from a species of sturgeon so named. 
They are numerous in the gulf of St. Lawrence, 
and go with the tide as high as Quebec. 3. D. 
orca, the grampus, is found from the length of 
fifteen feet to that of twenty-five. It is remark- 
ably thick in proportion to its length, one of eigh- 
teen feet being in the thickest part ten feet 
diameter. With reason then did Pliny call this 
' an immense heap of flesh armed with dreadful 
teeth.' It is extremely voracious ; and will not 
even spare the porpoise, a congenerous fish. It 
is said to be a great enemy to the whale. 4. D. 
orca ensidorsatus, the sword fish. The nose is 
truncated ; the teeth, of which there are forty in 
both jaws, are sharp-pointed ; and on the back is 
a very long sword-like spine, or bony fin. It 
inhabits the European seas, the Atlantic, towards 

the Antarctic Pole, and Davis's Straits. It is the 
largest species of the genus, being twenty-four or 
twenty-five feet long, and from ten to thirteen 
feet in diameter where thickest ; the lower jaw is 
much larger than the upper : the spout-hole is on 
the top of the head, and has two orifices. The 
spine on the back is often six feet long. It is 
broadest at the base, and resembles a scimitar or 
bent sword; being, however, covered with the 
common skin of the back. It is a bitter enemy 
to the whale, and carries on a constant war with 
the seals. It also feeds on flounders. 5. D. 
phocaena, the porpoise. This species is found in 
vast multitudes in all parts of the British seas ; 
but in greatest numbers at the time when fish of 
passage appear, such as mackerel, herrings, and 
salmon, which they pursue up the bays. 

DELPHOS, now called Castri, a town, or 
rather village, of Turkey in Asia, in Livadia ; 
occupying part of the site of the ancient Delphi. 
Some vestiges of temples are visible ; and above 
them, in the mountain side, are sepulchres, niches 
with horizontal cavities for the body, uome of 
which are covered with slabs. A monastery is 
erected on the site of the Gymnasium. Strong 
terrace walls and other traces of a large edifice 
remain. The village is at a distance. Castalia 
is on the right hand in ascending to it, the water 
coming from on high and crossing the road ; a 
steep precipice, above which the mountain still 
rises immensely, continuing on in that direction. 
The village consists of a few cottages covering 
the site of the temple and oracle. 

DELTA, a part of Lower Egypt, which occu- 
pies a considerable space of ground between the 
branches of the Nile and the Mediterranean Sea : 
the ancients call it Delta, because it is in the 
form of a triangle, like the Greek A. It is about 
130 miles along the coast from Damietta to Alex- 
andria, and seventy on the sides from the place 
where the Nile begins to divide itself. It is the 
most fertile country in all Egypt, and it rains 
more there than in other parts, but the fertility is 
chiefly owing to the inundation of the Nile. 
The principal towns on the coast are Damietta, 
Rosetta, and Alexandria; but, within land, Me- 
nousia, and Maala or Elmala. See EGYPT. 

DE'LTOIDE, adj. from delta, the fourth I'etter 
of the Greek alphabet ; so called by reason of 
its resembling this letter. An epithet applied to 
a triangular muscle arising from the clavicula, 
and from the process of the same, whose action 
is to raise the arm upward. 

Cut still more of the deltoide muscle, and carry the 
arm backward. Sharp's Surgery. 

DELU'DE, v. a. ^ Ital. and Lat. deludere, 

DELU'DER, n. s. from de, and ludo to de- 

DELU'DABLE, adj. J ceive. To cheat; deceive; 

impose upon : deludable is, easily imposed upon. 

O, give me leave, I have deluded you ; 
'Twas neither Charles, nor yet the duke. 

Shakspeare. Henry VI. 

Not well understanding omniscience, he is not so 
ready to deceive himself, as to falsify unto him whose 
cogitation is no ways deludable. 

Browne's Vulgar Eirovrs. 
Let not the Trojans, with a feigned pretence 
Of proffered peace, delude the Latian prince. 




And thus the sweet 

June their song. 


For when our poor deluded people at Ifome, and 
foreigners abroad, read the poisonous and inflamma- 
tory libels that are daily published with impunity 

they act accordingly. 


Where wavering man, betrayed by venturous pride 
To chase the dreary paths without a guide, 
As treacherous phantoms in the mist delude, 
Shuns fancied ills, or chases airy good. 

Johnson. Vanity of Human Wishes. 

DELVE, v. a. & n. s. ) Sax. -celpan ; Teut. 

DE'LVER, n. s. $ delben ; Be\gicdelven; 

Goth, dalf, a subterranean place. Screnius re- 
fers to this last as the origin of the Saxon be- 
delfan, to bury; and Wiclif confirms this 
etymology by using dalf for delve. See below. 
To dig, and, figuratively, to endeavour to fathom 
the mind. It is used as a substantive by Spenser 
and Jonson, for the pit or place dug : a delver 
is a digger. 

But he that hadde taken oon ghede forthe and dalf 
mto the earthe : and hidde the money of his Lord. 

Wiclif, Matt. xxv. 
When Adam delved, and Eve span, 
Who was then the Gentleman ? Old Ballad. 

He by and by 

His feeble feet directed to the cry ; 
Which to that shady delve him brought at last, 
Where Mammon erst did sun his treasury. 


It shall go hard, 

But I will delve one yard below the mines, 
And blow them at the moon. Sluikspeare. 

What's his name and birth ? 
I cannot delve him to the root : his father 
Was called Sicilius. Id. 

Such a light and mettled dance 
Saw you never yet in France ; 
And by leadmen, for the nonce, 
That turn round like grindle-stones, 
Which they dig out fro' the delves, 
For their bairns' bread, wives, and selves. 

Ben Jonson. 

Delve of convenient depth your thrashing floor, 
With tempered clay, then fill and face it o'er. 


The filthy swine with delving snout 
The rooted forest undermine. Philips. 

DELVING, one of the principal towns of 
Lower Albania, between Joannina and Butrinto. 
It stands on the side of a mountain, on the site 
of the ancient Eleus, between the Paria, or an- 
cient Xanthus, and Pistrini ; and is well de- 
fended by a castle. Population 8000. It is 
fifty miles E. N. E. of Larissa. 

DE'LUGE, n. s. Fr. deluge ; Span. Ital. and 
Portug. diluvio ; Lat. diluvium, from diluo, de 
and luo ; Gr. \v<a, to wash. 

If there had not been so deep a deluge of sin, tnere 
had been none of the waters. 

Bishop Hall Contemplations. 

But if with hays and dams they strive to force 
His channel to a new or narrow course, 
No longer then within his banks he dwells, 
First t-> a torrent, then a deluge, swells. Denham. 

The apostle doth plainly intimate, that the old 
world was subject to perish by a deluge, as this is sub- 
ject to perish by conflagration. Burnet's Theory. 

At length corruption, like a general flood, 
Shall dduye all. Pope, 

Still the battering waves rush in 
Implacable, till deluged by the foam, 
The ship sinks, foundering in the vast abyss. 


The restless flood the land would overflow, 

By which the deluyed earth would useless grow. 


DELUGE. Several deluges are recorded in 
history ; as that of Ogyges, which overflowed 
almost all Attica; and that of Deucalion, which 
drowned all Thessaly in Greece : the most memo- 
rable however was the universal deluge or Noah's 
flood, which overflowed and destroyed the whole 
earth ; and from which only Noah, and those 
with him in the ark, escaped. See ANTEDILU- 
VIAN, an article in which we have entered into 
this subject at some length, and particularly its 
epoch. See also CHROKOLOGY. 

But the deluge is a topic of great interest both 
to science and religion. It has given birth, there- 
fore, to various theories and controversies on 
every point connected with it; and, while we 
cannot devote much space to the review of them 
in this work, some of the principal considerations 
that have been offered respecting its causes and 
effects may be acceptable to the reader. The 
great points in question may be reduced to three : 
1. Was the deluge universal, as is commonly 
supposed, or partial? 2. Was it from natural 
agency only, and if so what natural agency effected 
this mighty convulsion ? 3. What were the 
principal effects and changes resulting? 

1. Isaac Vossius and bishop Stillingfleet are 
amongst the most respectable supporters of an 
opinion that the deluge was but partial. But 
the reasoning of the former upon this subject is 
a little involved in our second question, respect- 
ing the agency employed; for it rests partly upon 
the difficulty there must have been in effecting a 
universal deluge. 'Many miracles,' he says, 
' must have concurred ; but God works no mira- 
cles in vain. What need was there to drown 
those lands where no men lived, or are yet to be 
found ? Although we should believe that part 
of the earth only to have been overflowed by the 
waters which we have mentioned, and which is 
not the hundredth part of the terrestrial globe, 
the deluge will nevertheless be universal (oecu- 
menical), since the destruction was universal, and 
overwhelmed the whole habitable world.' Bishop 
Stillingfleet adopted the same opinion, from a 
persuasion that the earth was by no means fully 
peopled, and therefore there was no necessity for 
the deluge being universal. ' I cannot,' says he, 
' see any urgent necessity from the Scripture to 
assert that the flood did spread itself all over the 
surface of the earth. That all mankind, those in 
the ark excepted, were destroyed by it, is most 
certain according to Scripture. When the Lord 
said that he would destroy man from the face of 
the earth, it could not be any particular deluge of 
so small a country as Palestine, as some have 
ridiculously imagined; for we find a umveisal 



corruption in the earth mentioned as the cause ; 
a universal threatening upon all men for this 
cause ; and afterwards a universal destruction 
expressed as the effect of this flood. So then it 
is evident that the flood was universal with regard 
to mankind ; but from thence follows no neces- 
sity at all of asserting the universality of it as to 
the globe of the earth, unless it be sufficiently 
proved ; and what reason can there be to extend 
the flood beyond the occasion of it, which was the 
corruption of mankind ? The only probability of 
asserting the universality of the flood, as to the 
globe of the earth, is from the destruction of all 
Mving creatures, together with man. Now though 
;nen might not have spread themselves over the 
whole surface of the earth, yet beasts and creep- 
ing things might, which were destroyed with the 
flood ; for it is said that ' all flesh died that 
moved upon the earth, and every man.' To what 
end should there be not only a note of universality 
added, but such a particular enumeration of the 
several kinds of beasts, creeping things, and fowls, 
if they were not all destroyed ? To this I answer ; 
I grant that, as far as the flood extended, all these 
were destroyed ; but see no reason to extend the 
destruction of these beyond that compass and 
space of the earth where men inhabited, because 
the punishment upon the beasts was occasioned 
by, and could not be concomitant with the de- 
struction of man ; but (the occasion of the deluge 
being the sin of man, who was punished in the 
beasts that were destroyed for his sa'ke, as well as 
in himself) where the occasion was not, as 
vhere there were animals and no men, there 
seems no necessity of extending the flood 

The bishop, therefore, thinks it probable that 
this visitation of divine judgment extended 
only to the continent of Asia, and those animals 
only which were immediately connected with 
mankind ; and he thinks the latter a sufficient 
reason for Noah's preserving the pairs of animals 
which he was commanded to take with him into 
the ark. But it is shown, under the article AN- 
TEDILUVIAN, that, according to the most moderate 
computations, the world was probably more full 
of inhabitants than at present ; the expression of 
Scripture is strong, ' that the earth was filled 
with violence :' and if it were admitted that ' the 
earth' means only continental Asia, the supposi- 
tion of a partial deluge involves almost all the 
difficulties, with regard to the agency employed, 
that are supposed to be connected with that of a 
universal one. If the tops of the highest moun- 
tains, in a very considerable part of the earth, 
were covered, the laws of gravity would carry 
the water that must have been thus elevated over 
all the ordinary habitations of men, or it would 
require a miracle to suspend their operation. 
We shall see that nothing strictly miraculous is 
supposed on our hypothesis of a universal de- 

Mr. Bryant, in his Ancient Mythology, adverts 
Ht great length to the traditional traces of the 
fact of a universal deluge in all the early fables 
and histories of the heathen world. He even 
contends that this fact furnished the principal, 
if not the only foundation of ancient idolatry ; 
that the first of all the heathen deities was Noah ; 

that all the ancient nations regarded him as their 
founder ; and that he, his sons, and the first 
patriarchs, are alluded to, in most if not all the 
religious ceremonies. The Egyptian Osiris (he 
says) was the same with Ham the son of Noah ; 
though the name was sometimes bestowed on 
Noah himself. Osiris, according to Diodorus 
Siculus, was wonderfully preserved in an ark, 
and taught the use of the vine ; to build, plant, 
&c. ' We may reasonably suppose,' says Mr. 
Bryant, ' that the particulars of this extraordinary 
event would be gratefully commemorated by the 
patriarch himself, and transmitted to every branch 
of his family ; that they were made the subject 
of domestic converse, where the history was 
often renewed, and ever attended with a reve- 
rential awe and horror, especially in those who 
had been witnesses to the calamity, and had 
experienced the hand of Providence in their 
favor. When there was a falling off from the 
truth, we might farther expect, that a person of so 
high a character as Noah, so particularly dis- 
tinguished by the Deity, could not fail of being 
reverenced by his posterity ; and, when idolatry 
prevailed, that he would be one of the first 
among the sons of men to whom divine honors 
would be paid. Lastly, we might conclude, that 
these memorials would be interwoven in the 
mythology of the Gentile world ; and that there 
would be continual allusions to these ancient 
occurrences, in the rites and mysteries as they 
were practised by the nations of the earth. In 
conformity to these suppositions, I shall endea- 
vor to show that these things did happen ; that 
the history of the deluge was religiously pre- 
served in the first ages ; that every circumstance 
of it is to be met with among the historians and 
mythologists of different countries, and traces of 
it are to be found particularly in the sacred rites 
of Egypt and of Greece.' 

If the success of this author, in this great 
undertaking, was not complete; if his theories 
involve many doubtful points of history, and 
some altogether conjectural assumptions ; he em- 
bodies on the other hand many unquestionably in- 
teresting and important facts, connected with this 
subject, and which the reader who is desirous of 
a complete review of it should not overlook. 
Of Noah, he says, they styled him Prometheus, 
Deucalion, Atlas, Theuth, Zuth, Xuthus, Ina- 
chus, Osiris. When there began to be a tenden- 
cy towards idolatry, and the adoration of the 
sun was introduced by the posterity of Ham, the 
title of Helius, among others, was conferred upon 
him. Noah was the original Zeus and Dios. 
He was the planter of the vine, and inventor of 
fermented liquors : whence he was denominated 
Zeuth, which signifies ferment, rendered Zeus by 
the Greeks. He was also called Dionusus, in- 
terpreted by the Latins Bacchus, but very im- 
properly. Bacchus was Chus the grandson of 
Noah; as Ammon may be esteemed Ham, so 
much reverenced by the Egyptians. Among the 
people of the east, the true name of the patriarch 
was preserved ; they called him Noas, Naus, 
and sometimes contracted Nous ; and many 
places of sanctity, as well as rivers, were deno- 
minated from him. Anaxagoras of Clazomenje 
had obtained some knowledge of him in Egypt 



By him the patriarch was denominated Noas or 
Nous ; and both he and his disciples were sen- 
sible that this was a foreign appellation ; not- 
withstanding which he has acted as if it had 
been a term of the Greek language. Eusebius 
informs us, that the disciples of Anaxagoras say, 
' that Nous is by interpretation, of the deity 
Dis or Dios ; and they likewise esteem Nous the 
same as Prometheus, because he was the re- 
newer of mankind, and was said to have fashion- 
ed them again,' after they had been in a manner 
extinct. Suidas has preserved, from some an- 
cient author, a curious memorial of this won- 
derful personage, whom he affects to distinguish 
from Deucalion, and styles Nannacus. Accord- 
ing to him, this Nannacus was a person of great 
antiquity, and prior to the time of Deucalion. 
He is said to have been a king, who, foreseeing 
the approaching deluge, collected every body 
together, and led them to a temple, where he 
offered up his prayers for them, accompanied 
with many tears.' Other well known traditions, 
mentioned by Stephenson,. speak of the flood of 
Deucalion in which all mankind were destroyed. 
Afterwards, when the surface of the earth began 
to be again dry, Zeus ordered Prometheus and 
Minerva to make images of clay in the form of 
men ; arid, when they were finished, he called 
the winds, and made them breathe into each, and 
rendered them vital.' From these accounts, Mr. 
Bryant concludes : ' However the story may have 
been varied, the principal outlines plainly point 
out the person who is alluded to in these histories. 
It is, I think, manifest, that Annacus, and Nan- 
nacus, and even Inachus, relate to Noachus or 
Noah. And not only these, but the histories of 
Deucalion and Prometheus have a like reference 
to the patriarch ; in the 600th year, and not the 
300th, of whose life the waters prevailed upon 
the earth. He was the father of mankind, who 
were renewed in him. Hence he is represented 
by another author, under the character of Pro- 
metheus, as a great artist, by whom men were 
formed anew, and were instructed in all that was 
good. He seems in the east to have been called 
Noas, Noasis, Nasus, and Nus; and by the 
Greeks his name was compounded Dionusus. 
The Amonians, wherever they came, founded 
cities to his honor ; hence places called Nusa 
often occur, and many of them are mentioned by 
ancient authors. These, though widely distant, 
being situated in countries far removed, yet re- 
tained the same original histories ; and were ge- 
nerally famous for the plantation of the vine. 
Misled by this similarity of traditions, people in 
after times imagined that Dionusus must neces- 
sarily have been where his history occurred ; and 
as it was the turn of the Greeks to place every 
tiling to the account of conquest, they made 
him a great conqueror, who went over the face 
of the whole earth, and taught mankind the 
plantation of the vine. Though the patriarch is 
represented under various titles, and even these 
not always uniformly appropriated; yet there 
continually occur such peculiar circumstances of 
his history, as plainly point out the person re- 
ferred to. The person preserved is always men- 
tioned as preserved in an ark. He is described 
as being in a state of darkness, which is repre- 

sented allegorically as a state of death. He then 
obtains a new life, which is called a second birth ; 
and is said to have his youth renewed. lie is, 
on this account, looked upon as the first born of 
mankind ; and both his antediluvian and postdi- 
luvian states are commemorated, and sometimes 
the intermediate state is also spoken of. Dio- 
dorus calls him Deucalion ; but describes the 
deluge as almost universal.' We have noticed the 
corresponding Chaldean tradition, &c. mentioned 
by Berosus in the article ANTEDILUVIANS. 
While we consider the further range of these tra- 
ditional accounts of the flood over the continent 
of India, and as far as China, has also its weight 
in establishing the Mosaic accounts, we shall 
shortly advert to the present and permanent ef- 
fects of such a visitation, now remaining, as 
another proof both of the fact of a deluge, and 
of its universality. At present we enquire : 

2. What was the nature of the agency employed on 
this occasion ? Dr. Thomas Burnet, in his Telluris 
Theoria Sacra, endeavours to show, that all the 
waters in the ocean are not sufficient to cover the 
earth to the depth assigned by Moses. Sup- 
posing the sea drained quite dry, and all the 
clouds of the atmosphere dissolved into rain, we 
should still want the greatest part of the water 
of a deluge. According to the Dr. no less than 
eight oceans would have been requisite. To get 
clear of this difficulty, he and others have 
adopted Descartes's theory. That philosopher 
will have the antediluvian world to have been 
perfectly round and equal, without mountains 
or valleys. He accounts for its formation on 
mechanical principles, by supposing it at first in 
the condition of a thick turbid fluid replete with 
divers heterogeneous matters ; which, subsiding 
by slow degrees, formed themselves into different 
concentric strata, or beds, by the laws of gravity. 
Dr. Burnet improves on this theory, by sup- 
posing the primitive earth to have been no more 
than a crust investing the water contained in the 
ocean, and in the -central abyss, which he and 
others suppose . to exist in the bowels of the 
earth. See ABYSS. At the time of the flood, 
this outward crust broke in a thousand places ; 
and sunk down among the water, which thus 
spouted up in vast cataracts, and overflowed the 
whole surface. He supposes also, that before 
the flood there was a perfect coincidence of the 
equator with the ecliptic, and consequently that 
the antediluvian world enjoyed a perpetual 
spring ; but that the violence of the shock, by 
which the outer crust was broken, shifted also 
the position of the earth, and produced the pre- 
sent obliquity of the ecliptic. This theory is not 
only equally arbitrary with the former, but di- 
rectly contrary to the words of Moses, who as- 
sures us, that all the high hills were covered ; 
while Burnet affirms that there were no hills 
then in being. Dr. Hook conjectured that the 
shell of earth was subjected at the deluge to a 
compression into a prolate spheroid, thereby 
pressing out the water of an abyss under the 
earth. Dr. Halley ascribes the deluge to the 
shock of a comet, whereby the polar and diurnal 
rotation of the globe was changed ; and the in- 
genious Whiston so far adopted and improved 
upon this hypothesis, that he published a tract 



on the subject entitled, The Cause of the Deluge 

The theories above enumerated, though sanc- 
tioned by those names which entitled them to 
our notice, are, we conceive, one and all, desti- 
tute of any thing amounting to proof. The fol- 
lowing, which endeavours to account for this 
most remarkable event, without doing any vio- 
lence to the established laws of nature, is the 
hypothesis, we believe, of a Mr. James Tytler, a 
chemist of Edinburgh, who contributed largely 
to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, from which 
work we make the extract. 

1 . ' If we consider the quantity of water requi- 
site for the purpose of the deluge, it will not 
appear so very extraordinary as has been com- 
monly represented. The height of the highest 
hills is thought not to be quite four miles. It 
will therefore be deemed a sufficient allowance, 
when we suppose the waters of the deluge to 
have been four miles deep on the surface of the 
ground. Now it is certain, that water, or any 
other matter, when spread out at large upon the 
ground, seems to occupy an immense space in 
comparison of what it does when contained in a 
cubical vessel, or when packed together in a 
cubical form. Suppose we wanted to overflow 
a room sixteen feet every way, or containing 
258 square feet, with water, to the height of one 
foot, it may be nearly done by a cubical vessel of 
six feet filled with water. A cube of eight feet 
will cover it two feet deep, and a cube of ten feet 
will very nearly cover it four feet deep. It 
makes not the least difference whether we sup- 
pose feet or miles to be covered. A cube of ten 
miles of water would very nearly overflow 256 
square miles of plain ground to the height of 
four miles. But if we take into our account the 
vast number of eminences with which the surface 
of the earth abounds, the above-mentioned quan- 
tity of water would do a great deal more. If, 
therefore, we attempt to calculate the quantity 
of water sufficient to deluge 'the earth, we must 
make a very considerable allowance for the bulk 
of all the hills on its surface. To consider this 
matter, however, in its utmost latitude : the sur- 
face of the earth is supposed, by the latest com- 
putations, to contain 199,512,595 square miles. 
To overflow tnis surface to the height of four 
miles, is required a parallelepiped of water six- 
teen miles deep, and containing 49,878,148 
square miles of surface. Now, considering the 
immense thickness of the globe of the earth, it 
can by no means be improbable, that this whole 
quantity of water may be contained in its bowels, 
without the necessity of any remarkable abyss or 
huge collection of water, such as most of our 
theorists suppose to exist in the centre. It is 
certain, that as far as the earth has been dug, it 
has been found not dry, but moist; nor have we 
the least reason to imagine that it is not, at least, 
equally moist all the way down to the centre. 
How moist it really is cannot be known, nor the 
quantity of water requisite to impart to it the 
degree of moisture it has; but we are sure it 
must be immense. The earth is computed to be 
nearly 8000 miles in diameter. The ocean is of 
an unfathomable depth ; but there is no reason 
for supposing it more than a few miles. To 

make all reasonable allowances, however, we 
shall suppose the whole solid matter in the globe 
to be only equal to a cube of 5000 rmles ; and 
even on this supposition we shall find, that all 
the waters of the deluge would not be half suf- 
ficient to moisten it. The above-mentioned 
parallelepiped of water would indeed contain 
798,050,368 cubic miles of that fluid; but the 
cube of earth containing no less than 125,000 
millions of cubic miles, it is evident that the 
quantity assigned for the deluge would be scarcely 
known to moisten it. It could have indeed no 
more effect this way, than a single pound of 
water could have upon 150 times its bulk of dry 
earth. We are persuaded, therefore, that any 
person who will try by experiment how much 
water a given quantity of earth contains, and 
from that experiment will make calculations with 
regard to the whole quantity of water contained 
in the bowels of the earth, must be abundantly 
satisfied, that though all the water of the deluge 
had been thence derived, the diminution of the 
general store would, comparatively speaking, 
have been next to nothing. 2. It was not from 
the bowels of the earth only that the waters were 
discharged, but also from the air; for we are 
assured by Moses, that it rained forty days and 
forty nights. This source of the diluvian waters 
has been considered as of small consequence by 
almost every one who has treated on the subject. 
We shall transcribe the general opinion from the 
Universal History, Vol. I. where it is very fully 
expressed. ' According to the observations made 
of the quantity of water that falls in rain, the 
rains could not afford one ocean, nor half an 
ocean, and would be a very inconsiderable part 
of what was necessary for a deluge. If it rained 
forty days and forty nights throughout the whole 
earth at once, it might be sufficient to lay all the 
lower grounds under water, but it would signify 
very little as to the overflowing of the mountains ; 
so that it has been said, that if the deluge had 
been made by rains only, there would have 
needed not forty days, but forty years, to have 
brought it to pass. And if we suppose the whole 
atmosphere condensed into water, it would not 
all have been sufficient for this effect ; for it is 
certain, that it could not have risen above thirty- 
two feet, the height to which water can be raised 
by the pressure of the atmosphere ; for the weight 
of the whole air, when condensed into water, can 
be no more than equal to its weight in its natural 
state, and must become no less than 800 times 
denser; for that is the difference between the 
weight of the heaviest air and that of water.' 
On this subject we must observe, that there is a 
very general mistake with regard to the air, simi- 
lar to the above-mentioned one regarding the 
earth. Because the earth below our feet appears 
to our senses firm and compact, therefore the 
vast quantity of water, contained even in the 
most solid parts of it, and which will readily 
appear on proper experiment, is overlooked, and 
treated as a non-entity. In like manner, because 
the air does not always deluge with excessive 
rains, it is also imagined that it contains but very 
little water. Because the pressure of the air is 
able to raise only, thirty-two feet of water on the 
surface of the earth, it is therefore supposed we 

DEI. U G E. 


may know to what depth the atmosphere could 
deluge the earth, if it was to let fall the whole 
water contained in it. But daily observations 
show, that the pressure of the atmosphere has 
not the least connexion with the quantity of 
water it contains. Nay, if there is any connex- 
ion, the air seems to be lightest when it contains 
most water. In the course of a long summer's 
drought, for instance, the mercury in the baro- 
meter will stand at thirty inches, or little more. 
If it does so at the beginning of the drought, it 
ought to ascend continually during the time the 
dry weather continues; because the air all the 
while is absorbing water in great quantity from 
the surface of the earth and sea. This, however, 
is known to be contrary to fact. At such times 
the mercury does not ascend, but remains station- 
ary; and what is still more extraordinary, when 
the drought is about to have an end, the air, 
while it yet contains the whole quantity of water 
it absorbed, and has not discharged one single 
drop, becomes suddenly lighter, and the mercury 
will perhaps sink an inch before any rain falls. 
The most surprising phenomenon, however, is 
yet to come. After the atmosphere has been dis- 
charging for a number of days successively a 
quantity of matter 800 times heavier than itself, 
instead of being lightened by the discharge, it 
becomes heavier, nay, specifically heavier than it 
was before. It is also certain, that very dry air, 
provided that it is not at the same time very hot, 
is always heaviest ; and the driest air which we 
are acquainted with, namely, Dr. Priestley's 
dephlogisticated air, is considerably heavier than 
the air we commonly breathe. For these reasons 
we think the quantity of water contained in the 
whole atmosphere ought to be considered as 
indefinite, especially as we know that by what- 
ever agent it is suspended, that agent must 
counteract the force of gravity, otherwise the 
water would immediately descend ; and while the 
force of gravity in any substance is counteracted, 
that substance cannot appear to us to gravitate at 
all. 3. The above considerations render it pro- 
bable, at least, that there is in nature a quantity 
of water sufficient to deluge the world, provided 
it was applied to the purpose. We must next 
consider whether there is any natural agent 
powerful enough to effect this purpose. We 
shall take the phrases used by Moses in their 
most obvious sense. The breaking up of the 
fountains of the deep we may reasonably sup- 
pose to have been the opening of all the passages, 
whether small or great, through which the sub- 
terraneous waters possibly could discharge them- 
selves on the surface of the earth. The opening 
of the windows of heaven we may also suppose 
to be the pouring out the water contained in the 
atmosphere through those invisible passages by 
which it enters in such a manner as totally to 
elude every one of our senses, as when water is 
absorbed by the air in evaporation. As both 
these are said to have been opened at the same 
time, it seems from thence probable, that one 
natural agent was employed to do both. Now it 
is certain, that the industry of modern enquirers 
has discovered an agent unknown to the former 
ages, and whose influence is so great, that with 
regarc to this world it may be said to have a 

kind of omnipotence. The agent we mean in 
electricity. It is certain, that, by means of it r 
immense quantities of water can be raised to a 
great height in the air. This is proved by the 
phenomena of water-spouts. Mr. Forster relates, 
that he happened to see one break very near him, 
and observed a flash of lightning proceed from it 
at the moment of its breaking. The conclusion 
from this is obvious. When the electric matter 
was discharged from the water, it could no lon- 
ger be supported by the atmosphere but immedi- 
ately fell down. Though water-spouts do not 
often appear in this country, yet every one must 
have made an observation somewhat similar to 
Mr. Forster's. In a violent storm of thunder 
and rain after every flash of lightning, or dis- 
charge of electricity from the clouds, the rain 
pours down with increased violence; thus show- 
ing that the cloud, having parted with so much 
of its electricity, cannot longer be supported in 
the form of vapor, but must descend in rain. 
It is not, indeed, yet discovered that electricity 
is the cause of the suspension of water in the 
atmosphere; but it is certain that evaporation is 
promoted by electrifying the fluid to be evapo- 
rated. It may therefore be admitted, as a possi- 
bility, that the electric fluid contained in the air 
is the agent by which it is enabled to suspend 
the water which rises iu vapor. If, therefore, 
the air is deprived of the due proportion of this 
fluid, it is evident that rain must fall in prodi- 
gious quantities. Again : we are assured from 
the most undeniable observations, that electricity 
is able to swell up water on the surface of the 
earth. This we can make it do even in our 
trifling experiments ; and much more must the 
whole force of the fluid be supposed capable of 
doing it, if applied to the waters of the ocean, or 
any others. The agitation of the sea in earth- 
quakes is a sufficient proof of this. .It is certain, 
that at these times there is a discharge of a vast 
quantity of electric matter from the earth into 
the air; and, as soon as this happens, all becomes 
quiet on the surface of the earth. From a mul- 
titude of observations it also appears, that there 
is at all times a passage of electric matter from 
the atmosphere into the earth, and vice versS, 
from the earth into the atmosphere. There is, 
therefore, no absurdity in supposing the Deity 
to have influenced the action of the natural 
powers in such a manner that for forty days and 
nights the electric matter contained in the atmos- 
phere should descend into the bowels of the 
earth ; if, indeed, there is occasion for supposing 
any such immediate influence at all, since it is 
not impossible that there might have been, 
from some natural cause, a descent of this matter 
from the atmosphere for that time. But by 
whatever cause the descent was occasioned, the 
consequence would be, the breaking up of the 
fountains of the deep, and the opening of the 
windows of heaven. The water contained in the 
atmosphere being left without support, would 
descend in impetuous rains; while the waters of 
the ocean, those from which fountains originate, 
and those contained in the solid earth itself, 
would rise from the very centre, and meet the 
waters which descended from above. Thus the 
breaking up of the fountains of the deep, and 



the opening the windows of heaven, would accom- 
pany each other, as Moses tells us they actually 
did ; for, according to him, both happened on 
the same day. In this manner the flood would 
come on quietly and gradually, without that 
violence to the globe which Burnet, Whiston, 
and other theorists, are obliged to suppose. 
The abatement of the waters would ensue on the 
ascent of the electric fluid to where it was before. 
The atmosphere would then absorb the water as 
formerly : that which had ascended through the 
earth would again subside ; and thus every thing 
would return to its pristine state.' 

3. We conclude by noticing some of the alte- 
rations and effects which are supposed to have 
taken place in consequence of the deluge. One 
of these is the much greater quantity of water in 
the present than in the old world. Dr. Keill has, 
indeed, endeavoured to prove, that the present 
extent of the surface of the waters is necessary to 
raise such a quantity of vapors as may supply 
the surface of the earth with rain and with 
springs. In answer to this it is said, that it may 
justly be questioned whether all springs are de- 
rived from the vapors raised by the sun's heat ? 
and, secondly, Whether the primitive earth stood 
in need of such a quantity of rain to render it 
fertile as the present? Dr. Woodward supposes 
the antediluvian seas to have been nearly of the 
same extent with those at present, because ' the 
spoils of the sea, the shells and other marine 
bodies, are left in such prodigious numbers in 
the earth, that they could not have been left in 
such quantities, had not the seas occupied much 
the same space as they do now.' This argument, 
however, is thought by Mr. Cockburn to be in- 
conclusive ; and that the seas in the present earth 
are vastly more extended, and consequently the 
dry land so much less in proportion, may be in- 
ferred, he thinks, from the great multitude of 
islands that lie near the shores of the greater con- 
tinents, &c. To all this it may be replied, that 
the Mosaic account says nothing of the extent of 
the seas either before or after the flood ; but 
simply tells us, that the waters were poured out 
upon the surface of the earth from the windows 
of heaven and the fountains of the deep, and that 
as the flood decreased the waters returned from 
off the face of the earth. That the fish, as well 
as land animals, were more numerous in the an- 
tediluvian world than now when such quantities 
are destroyed by mankind, is also probable, as we 
see they abound to this day ip uninhabited places. 
This may account for the astonishing quantities 
of exuviae to be met with in many different parts 
of the earth ; but from the formation of islands 
nothing can be concluded concerning the antedi- 
luvian world. The late discoveries have shown that 
many islands have a volcanic origin ; that others 
are formed by the growth of coral ; and some by 
an accumulation of sea-weeds and other matters 
floating on the surface of the ocean, and detained 
upon sand-banks and sunk rocks ; while not a 
few of those near the great continent owe their 
origin to the quantities of mud brought down by 
the great rivers which fall into the ocean. The 
inferior fertility of the earth after the deluge is 
much insisted upon by the same author. 

There has been a valuable addition to the spe- 

culations we have noticed above, in a modern 
work of the Rev. Mr. Townsend, entitled, The 
Character of Moses established for Veracity as an 
Historian, recording Events from the Creation to 
the Deluge. It might be said on opening this 
volume, Is it necessary again to take up arms in 
defence of Moses? is not the phalanx of wise 
and good men who have already stood forth in 
his behalf sufficient to secure him from any new 
attack ? It is true, indeed, that the aegis of ce- 
lestial wisdom has often darted its benumbing 
rays on the impious cavillers, but they rise ever 
with new courage from the ruin which had over- 
whelmed them, and rush with blind rage on the 
bulwarks whence they have been so often re- 
pelled. They have begun, of late, to try the 
effect of new methods of assault, and to exult 
in the advantageous display of their resources. 
It was no small triumph over Revelation to have 
proved that the earth was never created, but was 
originally a splinter struck off from the sun by a 
heavy body which happened to impinge upon it. 
But a great Epicurean philosopher recently de- 
funct, has proceeded much further, and has 
finally developed the theory of the animal crea- 
tion. It seems that the primitive world was one 
vast pool, in which all creatures sported in the 
shape of tadpoles, until some of them longing to 
walk on dry knd, legs fitted for that purpose 
spontaneously sprang forth from the hinder quar- 
ters. Some affected hoofs, and gradually became 
horses ; while others, of a more ambitious charac- 
ter, forced their humbler brethren to carry them 
on their backs. A great metaphysician, the pride 
of Scotland, proved, in defiance of Moses, that 
the primitive men wore tails, and that it was 
owing to the friction of tight clothing that their 
posterity have lost so ornamental an appendage. 
We have not heard, indeed, that the Sansculotte 
philosophers have recovered this badge, though 
they are well rid of all other symptoms of huma- 
nity; but it is impossible to say how far their 
perfectibility may reach, and to what new heights 
of dignity and honor they may be destined to 
ascend. It is surprising that the old-fashioned 
tradition has not been rooted out by so many 
improvements in science ; but, as Moses has 
stood his ground so long, there seems a fair 
chance of his holding out to the last. Still it is 
impossible to say what new stratagems may be 
played off; and, as the enemy seems to be flushed 
with victory, we are not displeased to hail a new 
auxiliary. We therefore enter upon some of the 
facts and reasonings of the work before us with 
considerable satisfaction. 

The design of Mr. Townsend is, to compare 
the present state of our knowledge of the history 
of man and of the earth with the relations con- 
tained in the early part of Genesis, and by this 
comparison to establish the character of the his- 
torian as a faithful recorder of events. The first 
part of his work contains a disquisition on the 
similar traditions which were handed down 
among many nations from the most ancient 
times ; but the larger portion of the volume con- 
sists of a geological essay on the proofs that our 
globe has undergone a universal deluge. He 
shows that the creation of the world, and its 
emerging from a state of primitive chaos and 



from a universal ocean, are not only contained 
in the works of the Grecian poet? and philoso- 
phers, but are traced among several more ancient 
nations. In a curious extract from one of the 
Paranas are the following details : ' Of all ob- 
jects in the created world, water existed first. 
The universe was dark. In this primeval water 
did Bhagavat, in a masculine form, repose for the 
space of a thousand ages ; after which, the inten- 
tion of creating other beings, for his own wise 
purposes, became predominant in the mind of 
the Supreme. In the first place, by his will, 
was produced one flower of the lotus ; then the 
form of Brahma, who, emerging from the cup of 
the lotus, looked round and beheld, from the 
eyes of hi-s four heads, an immeasurable expanse 
of water. In this flower he passed 500 years in 
wonder, perplexity, and prayer ; after which he 
produced the four elements, and the genii which 
preside over them. From his right side there 
issued, by the omnipotence of God, a man of 
perfect beauty, Swayambhuva Menu, that is, son 
of the Self-existent ; and from his left side a wo- 
man, named Satarupa.' (P. 43, 44.) To the 
same purpose is a passage in the ancient Edda 
of Saemund, published by Resenius. 

On the subject of the deluge, which occupies 
the principal part of this work, he prefers dwell- 
ing on arguments which are in a great measure 
new, and refers us to other writers for the histo- 
rical testimony. This we approve, while we 
think that the historical part of the question is 
far from being exhausted. The Pralayas or peri- 
odical inundations of the Hindoos, as related in 
the Bhagavat the successive destructions and 
renovations of the world, of which a correspond- 
ing account is given by Saemund in the Runic 
Voluspa, and by Seneca from the representations 
of the Stoics and the similar ceremonies prac- 
tised in celebration of this event in Egypt and in 
Mexico, are facts which deserve a careful eluci- 

The proofs which Mr. Townsend brings for- 
ward of this universal catastrophe are diffused 
through a geological disquisition which occupies 
the larger portion of the volume. He takes a ge- 
neral survey of the surface of the earth, and the 
constitution and order of its strata, as far as they 
have been explored ; in the course of which he 
unfolds to us in a very interesting manner the 
fruits of a diligent investigation, continued, as he 
informs us, during fifty years, and pursued in 
various parts of Europe. We may safely say 
tha-t his volume contains far more information 
than any other work on the same subject. 

In order to lay a foundation for the develop- 
ment of the more general phenomena to which 
he adverts, this author gives a brief view first of the 
geological formation of our own island. We regret 
that we cannot follow him through their details : 
they well prepare the reader to contemplate 
with interest the succession of formations in other 
countries. Under this head our author lias given 
us brief notices afforded by travellers in almost 
every part of the world which has been explored 
by Europeans. They are very general, yet suffi- 
cient to justify the conclusion which Mr. Town- 
spnd has drawn from them. ' Whether we 
exami ie,' he observes, 'Europe, Asia, Africa, or 

America, the same arrangement may be traced ; 
with this exception, that both in our island, and 
over the surface of the globe, in some places, 
the superior strata are deficient, and may be sup- 
posed to have been carried off, after they had 
been deposited in the bosom of the ocean. This 
arrangement, as already stated, includes granite, 
gneiss, slate, and argillaceous schist, mountain 
lime-stone, coal, schist, calcareous rocks, with 
clay, sand, chalk, and its integument of sand and 

The geological theory adopted by Mr. Town- 
send is highly favorable to this part of the Scrip- 
tural History. If, with him, we can trace the 
actual operation of agents sufficiently powerful 
tolevate the continent of South America, (which 
this author conceives to have been those now 
operating in her abundant volcanoes), and other 
such extensive regions from the depths of the 
ocean, it is no longer difficult to conceive, that 
the waters may have covered the highest moun- 
tains, and that great tracts of habitable land may 
have been submerged. 

But absolute and distinct proofs of this event 
are to be found in the dislocations of strata, and 
in the phenomena connected with alluvial depo- 
sitions. There is no part of the earth in which 
the violent dislocations of the regular strata are 
not to be found ; and they are chiefly abundant 
in mountainous tracts, of which no other proof 
need be cited than the vertical position which the 
strata forming high mountains now hold, while 
we are assured that these very strata were origi- 
nally horizontal. But even in the most level coun- 
tries we need not go far for evidences of these 
convulsions. Every river, every brook which 
breaks out under our feet, and every valley 
which diversifies the surface, owes its existence 
to the disruption of strata. All the rock forma- 
tions were at first unbroken and continuous; 
wherever a valley occurs there is now an inter- 
ruption of this continuity. That these hollows 
were not the mere effect of rivers which have 
worn out courses for their waters may be proved 
by a variety of geological facts which we have 
not room to introduce here; but it is put in 
sufficiently strong light by Mr. Townsend's ob- 
servations on springs, which are in a great mea- 
sure new, and of very general interest. Every 
stratum of rock, before it becomes broken up, 
carries with it in its course under the surface a 
stratum of water, which percolates its stony beds, 
and is confined between impervious layers of 
clay. It is only where these subterranean courses 
are disturbed, and the strata are torn asunder 
by some extraneous force, that fountains and 
rivers burst forth. These dislocations and dis- 
turbances of strata can only be attributed to the 
agency of vast torrents every where flowing over 
and disorganising the surface of the earth, and 
such torrents can only be furnished by the incur- 
sions of the ocean. Land floods and rivers are 
the effects of the previous disruption of the 
strata, and therefore cannot be considered the 
efficient causes. 

The production of these phenomena by the 
waters of a deluge is further proved by alluvial 
deposit. The vast extent of alluvions, inde- 
pendently of all other proof, declares that the 



ocean gave them birth. One great accumula- 
tion of debris fills nearly the whole of Flanders 
arid Holland; it reaches across the channel, and 
covers the southern and eastern counties of Eng- 
land, concealing under it, at a great depth, the 
regular strata of these districts. Another allu- 
vion forms Lower Saxony and Holstein. Simi- 
lar appearances occur in all level countries, and 
valleys are generally filled with these accumula- 
tions, through the midst of which the feeble 
streams of the present rivers have opened for 
themselves diminutive channels. That these ac- 
cumulations were affected at once by vast oceanic 
torrents, and not by the gradual influence of rain 
and land floods, appears, Mr. T. observes, from 
the alluvial strata not being mixed or blended 
together, but frequently disposed according to 
their specific gravity. The vast fragments of 
rock which are found scattered over plains and 
mountains, in so many parts of the earth, at great 
distances from their native mountains, lead us 
forcibly to the same inference. 

One of the most important observations which 
relates to these deposits is the following : ' In 
all the alluvial districts here particularly noticed, 
it appears that only one bed of vegetable earth is 
to be seen. Consequently these strata have not 
been produced by land floods, at different and at 
distant periods. They direct our attention to one 
epoch, and most distinctly give us a measure, by 
which to estimate the time which has elapsed 
since either the elevation of our present conti- 
nents, or the depression of the surrounding 

We are assured, that the incursions of the 
ocean over the habitable surface of the earth 
took place at a time since it was actually inha- 
bited by land animals, by the organic remains 
which the alluvions contain ; and this remark 
leads us to our author's disquisition on the inte- 
resting subject of extraneous fossils, with which 
%ve shall close our observations. Mr. Townsend 
is the first who has given us any extensive ac- 
xXmnt of the organic remains, in connexion with 
the strata to which they belong ; and in this re- 
spect he has rendered great service to the public. 
The oldest class of rocks contain no vestiges of 
organised beings, and this fact is sufficient to 
silence the assertion of Hutton, that the world 
exhibits no traces of a beginning. Lithophytes 
and shells occur in the oldest secondary rocks, 
and more complicated beings gradually make 
their appearance. All these, however, and in- 
deed all the organic remains occurring in strata 
which have never been disturbed and disinte- 
grated, may be termed indigenous. It is plain, 
that the creatures of which they are the spoils 
lived and died on the places where they are here 
traced. The shells are found deposited accord- 
ing to families, and confined in a great measure 
each to its own stratum ; and a similar remark 
applies to other animal remains of this depart- 
ment. It is not so with those of alluvial ground. 
These are assembled from all parts of the earth, 
and are thrown together in promiscuous heaps. 
In the same beds are found shells and corals only 
known in the Pacific Ocean, and the bones of 
elephants and rhinoceroses. ' They seem,' says 
Mr. Townsend, ' to have been transported from 

distant climates, and to have been deposited in a 
tumultuous manner by some grand convulsion, 
which blended and buried terrene and submarine 
productions, ancient and recent, in one common 
grave. The direction in which they have been 
conveyed, appears to have been from south-east 
to north-west. Hence, where we have an op- 
portunity of making distinctions respecting their 
natural habitations, as in the Asiatic and African 
elephants, it is remarkable that the former, and not 
the latter, are to be found fossil in the north of 
Europe. Should the latter have been transported 
from their native seats by the same convulsion, 
it is probable that their relics have been deposited 
in the Atlantic Ocean.' 

On the whole, though the arrangment of the 
author's materials might have been improved in 
this work, he has added considerably both to the 
stores of natural history, and to the elucidation 
and confirmation of the details of the sacred vo- 
lume on this subject. 

DELU'SION, n. s. } Lat. delusio. SeeDt- 

DELU'SIVE, adj. S LUDE. A cheat, a false- 

DELU'SORY. 3 hood ; the act of cheating 

or deluding : the adjectives alike mean apt to 


Yea, they have chosen their own ways, and their 
soul delighteth in their abominations. I also will 
chuse their delusions. Bible. Isaiah Ixvi. 

Who therefore seeks in these 
True wisdom, finds her not, or by delusion. 


This confidence is founded on no better foundation 
than a delusory prejudice. Glanville. 

Phaenomena so delusory that it is very hard to es- 
cape imposition and mistake. Woodward. 

I waking, viewed with grief the rising sun, 
And fondly mourned the dear delusion gone. 


While the base and grovelling multitude were 
listening to the delusive deities, those of a more erect 
aspect and exalted spirit separated themselves from 
the rest. Taller. No. 81. 

Why will any man be so impertinently officious as 
to tell me all prospect of a future state is only fancy 
and delusion ? Is there any merit in being the mes- 
senger of ill news 1 If it is a dream, let me enjoy it, 
since it makes me both the happier and better man. 


Unnumbered suppliants crowd preferment's gate, 
Athirst for wealth, and burning to be great ; 
Delusive fortune hears the incessant call, 
They mount, they shine, evaporate, and fall. 

Johnson. Vanity of Human Wishes. 

Can we persist to bid your sonows flow 
For fabled sufferers, and delusive woe ? Sheridan. 

DE'MAGOGUE, n.s. Gr. 5 n/ iaywyo C . A 
ringleader of the rabble ; a popular and factious 

Who were the chief demagogues .and patrons of tu- 
mults, to send for them, to flatter and embolden them 1 

King Charles. 

A plausible, insignificant word, in the mouth of an 
expert demagogue, is a dangerous and dreadful wea- 
pon. South. 

Demosthenes and Cicero, though each of them a 
leader, or, as the Greeks called it, a demagogue, in a 
popular state, yet seem to differ in their practice. 





DEMA'IN, n. s. } Old Fr. demesne ; Fr. do- 
DEME'AN. / maine ; both probably from 

DEME'SNE. 5 Lat. dominus. That land 

which a man holds originally of himself, called 
dominium by the civilians, and opposed to 
feodum or fee, which signifies those that are held 
of a superior lord. It is sometimes used also 
for a distinction between those lands that the 
lord of the manor has in his own hands, or in 
the hands of his lessee, demised or let upon a 
rent for a term of years or life, and such other 
lands appertaining to the said manor as belong 
to free or copyholders. Estate in land, or land 
adjoining a mansion, in which sense demesne 
has been thought to come from old Fr. mesne, 
and Lat. mansio. 

Having now provided 
A gentleman of noble parentage, 
Of fair demesnes, youthful, and nobly allied. 


That earldom indeed had a royal jurisdiction and 
seigniory, though the lands of that county in demesne 
were possessed for the most part by the ancient in- 
heritors. Davits. 

Those acts for planting forest trees have hitherto 
been wholly ineffectual, except about the demetnes of 
a few gentlemen ; and even there, in general, very 
unskilfully made. Swift. 

DEMA'ND, v. a. & n. s.~\ Fr. demander ; 

DEMA'NDABLE, adj. /Span, and Portug. 

DEMA'NDANT, n. s. tdemanddr; Ital. de- 

DEMA'NDER. J mandare ; Lat. de- 

mando, from de and mando (manu do, to give 
with the hand). To claim; ask for as one's own 
previously, or with authority ; hence to question, 
interrogate. As a substantive it is the claim 
made; the amount of it in money; an application 
made for any thing at its price: demandable, 
that which is due : demandant and demander, 
he who requires his alleged due by law or other- 

And when Uriah was come unto him, David de- 
manded of him how Joab.did, and how the people did, 
and how the war prospered. 2 Sam. xi. 7. 

This matter is by the decree of the watchers, and 
the demand by the word of the holy ones. 

Dan. iv. 17. 

All sums demandable, for licence of alienation to be 
made of lands holden in chief, have been stayed in the 
way to the hanaper. Bacon. 

The pound of flesh which I demand of him, 
Is dearly bought ; 'tis mine, and I will have it. 

Young one, 

Inform us of thy fortunes ; for, it seems, 
They crave to be demanded. Id. 

They grow very fast and fat, which also bettereth 
their taste, and delivereth them to the demander'i ready 
use at all seasons. Carew. 

The oracle of Apollo being demanded, when the 
war and misery of Greece should have an end, re- 
plied, When they would double the altar in Delos, 
which was of a cubick form. Peacham on Geometry. 

Giving vent, gives life and strength to our appe- 
tites j and he that has the confidence to turn his 
wishes into demands, will be but a little way from 
thinking he ought to obtain them. Locke. 

My bookseller tells me, the demand for those my 
papers increases daily. Addison. 

One of the witnesses deposed, that dining on a 
Sunday with the demandant, whose wife had sat be- 
low the squire's lady at church, she the said wife- 
dropped some expressions, as if she thought her hus- 
band ought to be knighted. Spectator. 

There are two manners of demands, the one of deed, 
the other in law : in deed, as in every praecipe, there 
is express demand ; in law, as every entry in land dis- 
tress for rent, taking or seizing of goods, and such 
like acts, which may be done without any words, are 
demands in law. Blount. 

But the misery of it is, men will not think ; will 
not employ their thoughts, in good earnest, about the 
things which most of all deserve and demand them. 


Every man has frequent occasion to state a con- 
tract, or demand a debt, or make a narrative of minute 
incidents of common life. Johnson. 

Thus for short sins short hours of penance flow, 
But heavier guilt demands more lasting woe. 

Dr. T. Brown. 

DEMBEA, a large lake of Abyssinia, is in 
the heart of the country, and supposed to be 
about 450 miles in circumference. It contains 
many islands, particularly one of great size, 
which is made a place of confinement. The 
great river Bahr-el-Azrek, so often supposed. to be 
the true Nile, falls into it on the west, and issues 
from it on the south-west : it is said that the 
stream may be distinguished through the whole 
of its passage. Various small streams also fall 
into it. 

DEMBEA, a province of Abyssinia, surrounding 
the great lake of that name. On the north it 
comprehends that fertile tract of which Gondar 
is the capital. On the east it includes Foggora, 
Dara, and Alata ; and, on the west, the lands 
about Waindaga and Dingleber. The whole re- 
gion is fruitful, and finely varied by mountains 
and plains. It is particularly described by Bruce. 
DEMEAN', v. a. & n. s. { Fr. mener ; Ital. 
DEMEANOUR. $ menare ; Norm. Fr. 

demesner ; whence, thinks Mr. Todd, our word 
manage, i. e. conduct, carriage, demeanour : per- 
haps the whole, we might add, from Lat. manus, 
the hand. To behave ; generally to carry one's 
self in a particular way. There seems to be no 
good authority for using it for debase. Dr. John- 
son's instance from Shakspeare, and Mr. Todd's 
from Doddridge, are equivocal ; but the reader 
will judge. 

At his feet with sorrowful demean, 
And deadly hue, an armed corse did lie. 


Now, out of doubt, Antipholis is mad, 
Else he would never so demean himself. 


Angels best like us, when we ?re most like unto them, 
in all parts of decent demeanour. Hooker. 

His gestures fierce 

He marked, and mad demeanour, then alone, 
As he supposed, all unobserved, unseen. 


He was of a courage not to be daunted, which was 
manifested in all his actions, especially in his whole 
demeanour at Rhee, both at the landing and upon the 
retreat. Clarendon. 

Those plain and legible lines of duty requiring us 
to demean ourselves to God humbly and devoutly, to 
our governors obediently, and to our neighbours justly, 
and to ourselves soberly and temperately. South. 


D E M E R A R A. 

Of so insupportable a pride he was, that where his 
deeds might well stir envy, his demeanour did rather 
breed disdain. Sidney. 

A man cannot doubt but that there is a God ; and 
that, according as he demeans himself towards him, 
he will make him happy or miserable for ever. 


Strephon had long perplexed his brains , 
How with so high a nymph he might 
Demean himself the wedding night. Swift. 

That brow in furrowed lines had fixed at last, 
And spake of passions, but of passions past ; 
The pride, but not the fire, of early days, 
Coldness of mean, and carelessness of praise ; 
A high demeanour, and a glance that took 
Their thoughts from others by a single look. Byron. 
Peter vras so affected at his condescending to per- 
form such a mean office, that he says to him, It is a 
thousand times fitter that I should wash thine, nor can 
I bear to see thee thus demean thyself. 

Doddridge's Expositor. 

DEME'NTATE, t>, a. 3 Lat. demento, of de 
DEMENTA'TION, n. s. 3 and mens, the mind. To 
make mad. Making mad, or frantic. 

a colony of Great Britain, in the north-eastern 
part of South America. It is composed of two 
governments, named as above, both which, having 
been finally confirmed to Great Britain by the 
peace of 1814, are now one united colony. They 
form a part of what was originally Dutch Guienne ; 
hut the king of the Netherlands only retains, 
in this part of the world, the colony of Surinam. 
The general features and natural history of this 
country have been described already in our arti- 
cle AMERICA, SOUTH, par. 206 220. Deme- 
rara is bounded on the north by the Atlantic 
Ocean, on the east by a line drawn from the 
mouth of Albany Creek, in a south-east direction, 
dividing it from the British colony of Berbice, 
on the west by the river Pomaron, which divides 
it from Spanish Guiana; its southern boundary 
is undetermined. Staebroek, the only con- 
siderable town, and the seat of government, is in 
lat. 6 46' N., and long. 57 45' W. from Lon- 

The whole country is low and swampy : on the 
coast the tides rise to the height of from sixteen 
to twenty-four feet. The rivers are the Essequibo, 
Demerara, and Canji or Cayonny, the last being 
supposed to communicate with the Oronoco. The 
Demerara River has a bar across its mouth, 
which prevents ships of large burden passing it ; 
but vessels drawing fourteen feet may be loaded 
at Staebroek. Here are convenient wharfs : no 
large vessels, however, can lie near them, on ac- 
count of the declivity of the bank, but are com- 
pelled to load and unload their cargoes in the 
middle of a rapid stream. The Essequibo is 
easily entered by the largest ships, but they 
must also be loaded and unloaded in the stream, 
as the same causes prevent their lying near 

We have also noticed the political history of 
these settlements. It is only necessary to add, 
that while, under the British government, the 
general internal.policy is improved, and the roads, 
drain; ge, &c., have assumed a very different as- 
pect ti> that which they bore in former times, the 

curse of an extensive dependence on slave-culti- 
vation is no where more evident. Coffee, sugar, 
and cotton, are the staple articles of produce, and 
no where on earth is a finer soil presented to the 
hand of man. It has been transported to other 
of our western possessions as manure, and has 
been known to produce thirty crops of rattoon 
canes in snccession, without replanting. Some- 
times it has been cropped two or three years with 
plantains, to reduce its excessive richness, and 
afterwards with sugar canes ; but the first, second, 
and sometimes even the third crop, has been so 
luxuriant as to be only fit to make rum. Each 
estate is intersected with dikes and trenches, 
communicating with the river, by means of which, 
in small flat-bottomed boats, the whole convey- 
ance of the produce is effected from one part of 
the estate to another. Thus they carry the canes 
from the field to the sugar-mill and the still- 
house. The earth removed to form these ditches 
is thrown on beds, which contain the cotton-trees 
planted in rows six feet asunder. The coffee-trees 
are planted in rows from nine to twelve feet 
apart, and the intermediate spaces are filled 
either by plantain-trees, or the bois immortel, 
growing to the height of twelve or fourteen feet, 
and affording a welcome shade to the coffee 

In the colony are from 60,000 to 65,000 slaves 
kept in awe with difficulty, and in no small de- 
gree by the strong aversion that subsists between 
them and the aboriginal Indians of the interior, 
who readily bring back all stragglers to their 
masters, and often assist in suppressing insubor- 
dination. The colony is governed by the 
Dutch laws. The free inhabitants do not exceed 

DEME'RIT, 7i. s. Fr. demerite ; from demeri- 
tus, Lat. of demereor. See MERIT. Blame. 

They should not be able once to stir, or to murmur* 
but it should be known, and they shortened according 
to their demerits. Spenter on Ireland. 

I fetch my life and being 
From men of royal siege ; and my demerits 
May speak, unbonnetting, to as proud a fortune 
As this that I have reached. Shakspeare. Othello. 

Thou livest by me, to me thy breath resign ; 
Mine is the merit; the dement thine. Dry den. 

Whatever they acquire by their industry or inge- 
nuity, should be secure, unless forfeited by any deme- 
rit or offence against the custom of the family. 


I considered the possession of it [a bishopric] as 
a frequent occasion of personal dement ; for I saw the 
generality of the bishops bartering their independence 
and the dignity of their order for the chance of a trans- 
lation, and polluting gospel-humility by the pride of 
prelacy. Bp. Watson. 

DEME'RSED,par. } From demersus, orde- 

DEME'RSION, n. s. S mergo, Lat. Plunged ; 
drowned. A drowning. In chemistry, the put- 
ting any medicine in a dissolving liquor. 


DEMETRIUS I., surnamed Poliorcetes, de- 
stroyer of towns, was the son of Antigonus. At 
the age of twenty-two he was sent by his father 
against Ptolemy, who invaded Syria. He was 
defeated i_; ir Gaza, but soon repaired his loss by 


a victory over one of the generals of the enemy. 
He afterwards sailed with a fleet of 250 ships to 
Athens, and restored the Athenians to liberty, by 
freeing them from the power of Cassander and Pto- 
lemy, and expelling the garrison, which was sta- 
tioned there under Demetrius Phalereus. After this 
successful expedition, he besieged and took Muny- 
chia, and defeated Cassander at Thermopylae. His 
reception at Athens after these victories was at- 
tended witli the most servile flattery ; and the 
Athenians were not ashamed to raise altars to 
him as to a god, and consult his oracles. This 
raised the jealousy of the successors of Alexander ; 
and Seleucus, Cassander, and Lysimachus united 
to destroy Antigonus and his son. Their hostile 
armies met at Ipsus, A. A. C. 301 : Antigonus 
was killed in the battle ; and Demetrius, after a 
severe loss, retired to Ephesus. The Athenians, 
who had lately adored him as a god, refused to 
admit him into their city ; but he soon after ra- 
vaged the territory of Lysimachus, and recon- 
ciled himself to Seleucus, to whom he gave his 
daughter Stratonice in marriage. Athens now 
labored under tyranny, and Demetrius relieved 
it a second time, and pardoned the inhabitants. 
The loss of his possessions in Asia recalled him 
from Greece, and he established himself on the 
throne of Macedonia. Here he was continually at 
war with the neighbouring states, and the superior 
power of his adversaries obliged him to leave Ins 
kingdom, after he had sat on the throne for seven 
years. He passed into Asia, and attacked some 
of the provinces of Lysimachus with various suc- 
cess ; but famine and pestilence having destroyed 
the greatest part of his army, he applied to Se- 
ieucus for assistance. He, at first, met with a kind 
reception, but hostilities were again soon begun ; 
and, though he gained some advantages over his 
son-in-law, he was at last forsaken by his troops, 
and taken prisoner. Though Seleucus kept him 
in confinement, he maintained him like a prince, 
and he passed his time in hunting, and in other 
laborious exercises. His son Antigonus offered 
Seleucus all his possessions, and even his person, 
to procure his father's liberty, but in vain, and 
Demetrius died in the fifty-fourth year of his age, 
after a confinement of three years, A. A. C. 286. 
His remains were given to Antigonus, and ho- 
nored with a splendid funeral at Corinth, and 
thence conveyed to Demetrias. 

DEMETRIUS I., king of Syria, surnamed Soter, 
or Saviour, was son of Seleucus Philopater. 
Being a hostage at Rome, when his father died, 
his uncle, Antiochus Epiphanes, usurped the 
kingdom, and was succeeded by his son Antio- 
chus Eupator. Demetrius at last procured his 
liberty on pretence of going to hunt, and fled to 
Syria, where the troops received him as their law- 
ful sovereign. He put to death Eupator and Lysias, 
but, endeavouring to establish himself on his 
throne by cruelty and oppression, Alexander 
Bala, the pretended son of Antiochus Epiphanes, 
claimed the crown, and defeated Demetrius in a 
cattle, A.A.C. 150. 

DEMETRIUS, the disciple of Apollonius Tya- 
naeus, a cynic philosopher of the age of Caligula. 
The emperor wished to gain him to his interest by 
a large present ; but Demetrius refused it with 
indignation, and said, If Caligula wishes to bribe 

me, let him send me his crown. Vespasian \vas 
displeased with his insolence, and banished him 
to an island. The cynic derided the punishment, 
and satirised the emperor. He died in an ex- 
treme old age ; and Seneca observes, that ' na- 
ture had brought him forth to show mankind, 
that an exalted genius can live securely without 
being corrupted by the vices of the surrounding 

DEMETRIUS PHALEREUS, a celebrated orator 
and peripatetic philosopher, was the scholar of 
Theophrastus. He acquired so much autho- 
rity at Athens, that he governed the city 
for ten years; and he ruled with so much 
wisdom and virtue, that thirty-six statues were 
erected in honor of him. Being obnoxious, how- 
ever, to the aristocratical party, they procured an 
order for his death ; but, he escaped into Egypt, 
and was protected by Ptolemy Lagus. On the 
death of that prince he was banished by his suc- 
cessor. None of the works of this celebrated 
philosopher are extant, except his Rhetoric, 
which is usually printed among the Rhetores 

DEMETRIUS, czar of Russia, commonly called 
the false Demetrius, was, according to most au- 
thors, a native of Jaroslaw, and a novice in a 
monastery, where he was instructed by an old 
monk to personate Demetrius, son of the czar 
John Basilovitz, who had been murdered by Bo- 
ris Gudenov, in 1597. The youth, according to 
his instructions, went under the name of Deme- 
trius, and pretended to have escaped from his 
murderers into Lithuania, where he was taken 
into the service of a nobleman named Wicno- 
vitski, to whom he told his story, and who es- 
poused his cause. When Boris heard of this 
rival, he sent assassins to despatch him ; but his pa- 
tron beingwarned of it conveyed him to Mnieski, 
palatine of Sandomir, who promised to assist him 
in his design on the Russian throne, provided he 
would embrace the Roman Catholic religion, 
which he readily consented to, and was married 
to the palatine's daughter. Assisted by the 
Poles, Demetrius, in 1604, marched into Rus- 
sia, at the head of a small army, and was soon 
joined by a number of Russians and Cossacs. He 
defeated an army sent against him, and an in- 
surrection took place in his favor. On the death 
of Boris, the people strangled his son ; and 
placed Demetrius on the throne ; but his par- 
tiality to the Poles and contempt of the Greek 
religion occasioned an insurrection, and he was 
murdered in 1606, after a short reign of about 
eleven months. Mr. Archdeacon Coxe, contrary 
to the generality of writers, considers him to 
have been the true prince Demetrius. 

DEMI ATTICI, in ancient history, boroughs or 
large villages of Attica. The Athenian tribes 
were distributed into Demi. Homer, in his cata- 
logue, distinguishes the Athenians by the appel- 
non Demos. And when Theseus prevailed on 
them to quit the country of Attica, and settle 
at Athens, they still continued to frequent the 
Demi, and to perform their religious ceremonies 

DEMI-CANNON, n. s. From demi, half, and 
cannon. An ancient piece of artillery, carrying 
a thirty-six pound ball. 




What '. this a sleeve, 'tis like a demi-cannen. 


Ten engines, that shall be of equal force either to a 
cannon or demi-cannon, culverin or demi-culverin, 
may be framed at the same price that one of these will 
amount to. WUkuu. 

DEMI-CULVERIN. An old piece of ord- 
nance carrying a thirteen pound ball. 

They continue a perpetual volley of demi-culverin*. 


The army left two demi-culverint, -and two other good 
guns. Clarendon. 

DEMI-DEVIL. From demi and devil. Par- 
taking of infernal nature ; half a devil. 

Will you, I pray, demand that demi-devil, 

Why he hath thus ensnared my soul and body ? 

Sluikspeare. Othello. 

DEMI-GOD, n. s. From demi and god. 
Partaking of a divine nature ; half a god ; a hero 
produced by the cohabitation of divinities with 
mortals. See HERO. 

He took his leave of them, whose eyes bade him 
farewell with tears, making temples to him as to a demi- 
god. Sidney. 
Be gods, or angels, demi-gods. Milton. 
Transported demi-gods stood round, 
And men grew heroes at the sound, 
Inflamed with glory's charms. Pope. 
Nay, half in heaven, except (what's mighty odd) 
A fit of vapours clouds this demi-god. Id. 

Who is this ? 

Who truly looketh like a demi-god, 
Blooming and bright, with golden hair, and stature, 
If not more high than mortal, yet immortal. 


DEMI-GORGE, in fortification, is that part 
of the polygon which remains after the flank is 
raised, and goes from the curtain to the angle of 
the polygon. It is half of the vacant space or 
entrance into a bastion. 

DEMI-LANCE, n. s. From demi and lance. 
A light lance ; a short spear ; a half pike. 

On their steeled heads their demi-lances wore 
Small pennons, which their ladies colours bore. 


Light demi-lances from afar they throw, 
Fastened with leathern thongs, to gall the foe. 


DEMI-MAN, n. s. From demi and man. 
Half a man; a term of reproach. 

We must adventure this battle, lest we perish by the 
complaints of this barking demi-man. Knolles. 

DEMIS'E, v. a. & n. s. Fr. demis ; Lat. de- 
mitto, demisi, to hand down . (de and mitto, Gr. 
/u0ij/u). Applied to handing down by legacy or 
death : and, as a substantive, to death itself, by 
which the crown of a monarchy is generally 

Inexorable vigour is worse than a lasche demission 
of sovereign authority. L'Estrange. 

About a month before the demise of queen Anne, 
the author retired. Swift. 

My executors shall not have power to demise my 
lands to be purchased. Swift's Last Will. 

DEMISE, in law, is applied to an estate either 
in fee simple, fee-tail, or for a term of life or 
years ; and so it is comraonlv taken in many 

DEMISE, and RE-DEMISE, denote a conveyance 
where there are mutual leases made from one to 
another of the same land, or something out of it. 

DEMI-SEMI-QUAVER, in music, the short- 
est note, two of them being equal to a semi- 

DEMIT, v. a. Lat. de.rn.itto. See DEMISE. 
To depress; to hang down ; to let fall. 

When they are in their pride, that is, advancing 
their train, if tbey decline their neck to the ground, 
they presently demit and let fall the same. 

Browne's Vulgar Errours. 

DEMI-WOLF, n. s. From demi and wolf. 

Half a wolf; a mongrel dog between a dog and 


Spaniels, curs, 

Showgas, water-rugs, and demi-wolves, are 'cleped 
All by the name of dogs. Shakspeare. Macbeth. 

DEMO'CRACY, n. *. ^ Fr. democratic ; 

DEM'OCRAT, > Spanish democracia, 

DEMOCRATIC, n. s. 3 from Gr. ^jj/xoicparia 

(%ioe the people, and rpartw to govern). A 

government by the people at large. A democrat 

is an advocate or partizan of democracy. The 

old word democratic is only more agreeable tc 

the etymology. 

Thence to the famous orators repair, 
Those ancient, whose resistless eloquence 
Wielded at will that fierce democratic, 
Shook the arsenal and fulmined over Greece. 


They are still within the line of vulgarity, and are 
democratical enemies to truth. 

Browne's Vulgar Errours. 

While many of the servants, by industry and vir- 
tue, arrive at riches and esteem, then the nature of 
the government inclines to a democracy. Temple. 

The majority, having the whole power of the com- 
munity, may employ all that power in making laws, 
and executing those laws ; and there the form of the 
government is a perfect democracy. Locke. 

As the government of England has a mixture 01 
democratical in it, so the right is partly in the people. 


DEMOCRITUS, one of the greatest philoso- 
phers of antiquity, was born in Abdera, in 
Thrace, about the 80th Olympiad, or A.A.C. 
466. His father, says Valerius Maximus, was 
able to entertain the army of Xerxes; and Dio- 
genes Laertius adds, that the king, in return, 
presented him with some Magi and Chaldeans. 
From these he received the first part of is edu- 
cation; and, whilst yet a boy, learned theology 
and astronomy. He next applied toLeucippus, 
and learned from him the systems of atoms and 
a vacuum. His father dying, he and his two 
brothers divided the estate. Democritus made 
choice of that part which consisted of money, as 
being, though the least share, the most conve- 
nient for travelling ; and it is said, that his por- 
tion amounted to 100 talents, which is nearly 
20,000 sterling. He now went to visit the 
priests of Egypt, from whom he learned geo- 
metry : and it is said, that he penetrated even 
into India and Ethiopia, to confer with the 
Gymnosophists. In these travels he wasted his 
substance, so that on his return he was main- 
tained by his brother ; notwithstanding which, 
he procured the highest honors of his country, 




which he governed with unlimited sway and 
consummate wisdom. The magistrates of Ab- 
dera made him a present of 500 talents, and 
erected statues to him, even in his lifetime ; but, 
being naturally more inclined to contemplation 
than delighted vvitli public honors and employ- 
ments, he withdrew into solitude and retirement. 
lie incessantly laughed at human life, as a con- 
tinued farce, which made the inhabitants of Ab- 
dera think he was mad, on which they sent for 
Hippocrates to cure him ; but that celebrated 
physician told the Abderians, that those who 
esteemed themselves the most healthy were the 
most distempered. Democritus died, according 
to Diogenes Laertius, aged 100, A. A. C. 361. 
He was the author of many books, which are 
lost; and from these Epicurus borrowed his 

DEMOIVRE (Abraham), an eminent French 
mathematician, F. R.S. London, was a native of 
Vitri, in Champagne, and driven from his native 
country, as a Protestant, by the revocation of 
the edict of Nantes. He settled in London as a 
teacher of mathematics, and was particularly ce- 
lebrated for his skill and accuracy as a calculator, 
for which he is referred to by Pope : 

Sure as Demoivre, without rule or line. 

He died in 1754, at the age of eighty-six. His 
works are, Miscellanea Analytica, 4to. ; The 
Doctrine of Chances, or a Method of Calculating 
the Probabilities of Events at Play, 4to. ; and a 
work on Annuities ; besides papers in the Trans- 
actions of the Royal Society. 

DEMO'LISH, v. a.-) Fr. demolir ; from 

DEMO'LISHER, n. s. ^Lat. demolari, i. e. de 

DEMOLITION. J and molior (moles, a 

mass). To destroy a building ; hence to de- 
stroy generally. 

Notwithstanding which, it is now demolished, and 
all this glory lyeth in the dust, buried in its own 
ruins j there being nothing standing but a few broken 
walls, which seem to mourn their own approaching 
funerals. Fuller. Worthies of Devon. 

I expected the fabrick of my book would long since 
have been demolished, and laid even with the ground. 

Red lightning played along the firmament, 

And their demolished works to pieces rent. 


Two gentlemen should have the direction in the 
demolition of Dunkirk. Swift. 

The damsel led him thro' a spacious hall, 

Where ivy hung the half-demolished wall. Gay 

The first care of the builder of a new system is to 
demolish the fabrics which are standing. Johnson. 

The professor of divinity had been nick-named 
Malleus Haereticorum ; it was thought to be his duty 
to demolish every opinion which militated against 
what is called the orthodoxy of the Church of England. 

Bp. Watson. 

DE'MON, n. s. ^ Fr. demon ; Ital. 

DEMO'NIAC, n. s. & adj. ^from Lat. damon; 

DEMONI'ACAL, adj. i daifitdv, Saiw, San- 

DEMO'NIAN, adj. } puv, knowing. An 

inferior deity; a devil; generally used in a bad 

Demonian spirits now, from the element 

Each of his reign allotted, rightlier called 

Powers of fire, air, water. Milton 


Demoniack phrensy, moping melancholy. Itl. 

I felt him strike, and now I see him fly : 
Cursed demon! O for ever broken lie 
Those fatal shafts, by which I inward bleed ! 


Those lunaticksand de.moniacks that were restored 
to their right mind, were such as sought after him, 
and believed in him. Bentley. 

But ah ! those dreadful yells what soul can hear, 
That owns a carcase, and not quake for fear ? 
Damons produce them doubtless, brazen-clawed, 
And fanged with brass the daemons are abroad. 

I said not 

You were the demon, but that your approach 
Was like one. Byron. 

DEMONA, VAL, a province of Sicily, which 
occupies the north-east portion of the island, ex- 
tending from the strait of Messina to Catania, 
and having the Val de Mazzara to the west, and 
Val de Noto to the south. Its greatest width is 
sixty-five miles, the length 112. To it belong 
the Lipari and other islands. The population 
is about 521,000. It is mountainous and woody, 
being fertile only on the banks of the rivers. 
The chief productions are silk, hemp, flax, 
olives, lemons, oranges, figs, and currants ; but 
sulphur abounds in the neighbourhood of Mount 
./Etna. The atmosphere is here cool and humid. 
The capital is Messina ; the other chief towns 
are Melazzo, Cefalu, and Taormina. 

DEMONO'CRACY, n. s. Aai/xuv and Kpariu. 
The power of the devil. 

DEMONO'LATRY,w.S. Aai>wi/and Xarpa. 
The worship of the devil. 

DEMONO'LOGY, n. s. Aaipuv and \6yo S . 
Discourse of the nature of devils. Thus king 
James entitled his book concerning witches. 

Fr. demonstrer ; 
Span, demostrar, 
dimostrare ; from 
Lat. demonslrare, 
de, and monstro, 
to show. To 
prove with cer- 
tainty ; to exhibit 









facts : demonstrable is that which may be proved 
or exhibited : demonstration, the highest degree 
of proof; indubitable evidence : demonstrative, 
having the power of indubitable proof, or of 
clear expression. Demonstratory, having a ten- 
dency to demonstrate. The other derivatives 
seem plain. 

An argument necessary and demonstrative, is such 
as, being proposed unto any man, and understood, 
the man cannot choose but inwardly yield. Hooker. 

What appeareth to be true by strong and invincible 
deinonstration, such as wherein it is not by any way 
possible to be deceived, thereunto the mind doth ne- 
cessarily yield. Id. 

Where is a probability on one side, and no appear- 
ance of reason to the contrary ; that probability does 
the work of a demonstration. Bishop Taylor. 

He should have compelled his ministers to execute 
the law, in cases that demomtrably concerned the pub- 
lick peace. Clarendon. 

Demonstratively understanding the simplicity of 
perfection, it was not in the power of earth to work 
them from it. Browne. 


We cannot demonstrate these things so as to shew 
that the contrary often involves a contradiction. 


Painting is necessary to all other arts, because of 
the need which they have of demonstrative figures, 
which often give more light to the understanding than 
the clearest discourses. Dryden. 

No man, in matter? of this life, requires an assu- 
rance either of the good which he designs, or of the 
evil which he avoids, from arguments demonstratively 
certain. South. 

Where the agreement or disagreement of any thing 
is plainly and clearly perceived, it is called demonstra- 
tion. Loclte. 

The grand articles of our belief are as demonstrable 
as geometry. Glanville. 

First, I demonstratively prove, 
That feet were only made to move. Prior. 

As for business, the world yet knows nothing of his 
(the Duke of Grafton) talents or resolution ; unless a 
wayvard, wavering inconsistency be a mark of genius, 
and caprice a demonstration of spirit. Junius's Letters. 


DEMOSTHENES, the famous Athenian 
orator, was born at Athens, A. A.C. 381. He 
lost his father at seven years of age, and was 
placed under the conduct of guardians, who 
plundered his property and neglected his educa- 
tion. Demosthenes soon repaired this loss by 
his extraordinary abilities. He became the dis- 
ciple of Isaeus and Plato, and studied the orations 
of Isocrates. At the age of seventeen he gave a 
proof of his eloquence and abilities against his 
guardians, from whom he recovered the greatest 
part of his estate. His rising talents were, how- 
ever, impeded by various natural defects, but 
which he overcame by dint of resolution and un- 
wearied attention. He declaimed by the sea- 
shore, that he might be used to the noise of a 
tumultuous assembly, and with pebbles in his 
mouth, that he might correct a defect in his 
speech. He confined himself in a subterraneous 
cave, to devote himself more closely to study ; 
and, to check all inclination to appear in public, 
he shaved one half of his head. In this solitary 
retirement, by the help of a glimmering lamp, 
he composed the greatest part of those orations 
which have since been the admiration of all 
ages, though his contemporaries and rivals in- 
veighed against them, and observed that they 
smelt of oil. His abilities, as an orator, raised him 
to consequence at Athens, and he soon influenced 
all the decisions of the government. In this ca- 
pacity he roused his countrymen from their 
indolence, and animated them against the en- 
cronchments of Philip of Macedon, In the 
battle of Cheronaea, his eloquence, however, 
could not supply the want of courage, and he 
saved his life by flight. After the death of 
Philip, he declared himself warmly against his 
son Alexander. When the Macedonians de- 
manded of the Athenians their orators, Demos- 
thenes reminded his countrymen of the fable of 
the sheep which delivered up their dogs to the 
wolves. By the prevalence of party, however, 
he was forced to retire to Troezene and ^Egina, 
where, it is said, he lived effeminately. When 
Antipjtter made war against Greece, after the 

146 DEM 

death of Alexander, Demosthenes was publicly 
recalled from his exile, and a galley was sent to 
fetch him from JKgina. His return was attended 
with much splendor, and all the citizens crowded 
at the Pirseus to see him land. But his triumph 
and popularity were short. Anti pater and Cra- 
terus were near Athens, and demanded all the 
orators to be delivered up into their hands. De- 
mosthenes fled to the temple of Neptune, in Ca- 
lauria ; and when he saw no hopes of safety, he 
took a dose of poison, which he always carried 
in a quill, and expired on the day that the Thes- 
mophoria were celebrated, A. A. C. 322. The 
Athenians raised a brazen statue to his honor, 
with an inscription, of which the following is a 
translation : 

Si tibi par menti robur, vir magne, fuisset, 
Graecia non Macedse succubuisset hero. 

Demosthenes has been deservedly called the 
prince of orators, and has often been compared 
with Cicero, whose magnificent eloquence ha 
scarcely the effect of the powerful simplicity of 
his master, as he was accustomed to style him. 
Indeed, no orator had ever a finer field than De- 
mosthenes, in his Olynthiacs and Philippics, 
which are his capital orations. For to the 
greatness of the subject, and to that integrity 
and public spirit which breathe in them, they 
owe the largest portion of their merit. 

DEMOTICA, or DIMOTUC, a town of Euro- 
pean Turkey, in the province of Romania; 
situated near the Maritsch, where a Greek arch- 
bishop resides, and the Christians have two 
churches. This town was the abode of Charles 
II. for some years. It is twelve miles south 
of Adrianople. 

DEMPSTER OF COURT, the name formerly 
given, in Scotland, to the common executioner, 
or hangman. 

DEMULCENT, adj. Lat. demuiceo, from de, 
and mulceo to soften. Softening; mollifying; 

Pease, being deprived of any aromatick parts, are 
mild and demulcent in the highest degree ; . but, being 
full of aerial particles, are flatulent, when dissolved 
by digestion. Arbuthnot. 

DEMULCENTS, among physicians, medicines 
good against acrimonious humors. Such ar<> 
the roots of marshmallows, white lilies, liquorice, 
and viper-grass, the five emollient herbs, &c. 

DEMU'R, v. a. & n. & n. s. ^ Fr. demeurer ; 

DEMUR'RER, > Lat. demorari ; 

DEMUR'RAGE. J from de, and mo- 

ra, delay. To doubt of: as a neuter verb, to delay 
a process ; to pause ; doubt. A demurrer is de- 
fined in the extract from Burns. Demurrage is 
an allowance to masters of ships for delaying 
them in port. 

Upon this rub the English ambassadors thought fit 
to demur, and so sent into England to receive direc- 
tions from the lords of the council. Hay ward. 
The latter I demur; for in their looks 

Much reason, and in their actions, oft appears. 


O progeny of heaven, empyreal thrones ! 
With reason hatb deep silence and demur 
Seized us, though undismayed. Id. 

How can I e'er expect to have her, 
Having demurred unto her favour ? Hudibrax. 



Running mt j demands, they expect from us a 
sudden resolution in things wherein the devil of Del- 
phos would demur, Browne's Vulgar Errourt. 

To this plea the plaintiff demurred. 

Walton's Angler. 

Certainly the highest and dearest concerns of a 
temporal life are infinitely less valuable than those of 
an eternal ; and consequently ought, without any 
demur at all, to be sacrificed to them, whensoever 
they come in competition with them. South. 

There she kept her word : 
But with rejoinders and replies, 
Long bills, and answers stuffed with lies, 
Demur, imparlance, and essoign, 
The parties ne'er could issue join. Swift. 

There is something in our composition that thinks 
and apprehends, and reflects and deliberates, deter- 
mines and doubts, consents and denies ; that wills 
and demurs, and resolves, and chuses, and rejects. 


All my demurs but double his attacks ; 
At last he whispers, Do, and we go snacks. Pope. 
In criminal cases, not capital, if the defendant 
demur to an indictment, &c., whether in abatement 
or otherwise, the court will not give judgment against 
him to answer over, but final judgment. 

Burn's Justice. 

A demurrer signifies an abiding in point of law, 
upon which the defendant joins issue, allowing the 
fact to be true as laid in the indictment. Id. 

DEMURE, adj. & v. n. ") Fr. de bonsmxurs; 
DEMURELY, adv. Vfrom Lat. mores, 

DEMURENESS, n. s. j manners. Of good 
manners. All these words have been used in a 
good sense ; but now commonly mean affected 
modesty or gravity. See the admirable illustra- 
tion from Dryden. Shakspeare uses demure as 
a neuter verb, and demurely for solemnly. 

Lo! two most lovely virgins came in place, 
With countenance demure, and modest grace. 


There be many wise men, that have secret hearts 
and transparent countenances; yet this would be 
done with a demure abasing of your eye sometimes. 


Esop's damsel, turned from a cat to a woman, sat 
very demurely at the board's end, till a mouse ran 
before her. Id. 

After a demure travel of regard, I tell them I 
know my place, as I would they should do theirs. 

Put on a sober habit, 

Talk with respect, and swear but now and then, 
Wear prayer-books in my pocket, look demurely. Id. 
Hark, how the drums demurely wake the sleepers ! 


Your wife Octavia, with her modest eyes, 
And still conclusion, shall acquire no honour, 
Demuring upon me. Id. 

Come, pensive nun, devout and pure, 
Sober, stedfast, and demure. Milton. 

Next stood Hypocrisy with holy leer, 
Soft smiling, and demurely looking down ; 
But hid the dagger underneath the gown. 


A cat lay and looked so demure as if there had 
been neither life nor soul in her. L' Estrange. 

Her eyes having in them such a cheerfulness, as 
nature seemed to smile in them ; though her mouth 

and cheeks obeyed to that pretty demureness, which 
the more one marked, the more one would judge the 
poor soul apt to believe. Sidney. 

Silent when glad ; affectionate though shy ; 
And now his look was most demurely sad ; 
And now he laughed aloud, yet none knew why. 


DEMY, in heraldry, an epi- 
thet for any charge borne half, 
as o** a demy-lion rampant ; gules, 
name Mallory. 

DEN. Sax. ben; Belg. denne ; Teut. den; 
Ital. tanna. A cavern; a low place. As the 
termination of a local name, says Gibson's Cam- 
den, it may signify either a valley or a woody 
place; for the Saxon ben imports both. 

And Jhesus seide to him, foxis han dennet, and 
briddis of hevene han nestis : but manne sone hath 
not where he schal reste his hed. Widif. Matt. 1. 

This is the wandering wood, this Errour's den, 
A monster vile whom God and man does hate ; 
Tnerefore I read beware. Spenser. Faerie Queene. 

They here dispersed, some in the air, some on the 
earth, some in the waters, some amongst the minerals, 
dens, and caves under the earth. Hooker. 

What, shall they seek the lion in his den, 

And fright him there ? Shakspeare 

Whose attempt 

At first against mankind so well had thrived 

In Adam's overthrow; and led their inarch 

From hell's deep-vaulted den to dwell in light. 


'Tis then the shapeless bear his den forsakes ; 
In woods and fields a wide destruction makes. 


DENARIUS, in antiquity, the chief silver 
coin among the Romans, worth, in our money, 
about l\d. at 5s. 2rf. per ounce, or Q\d. when 
bullion is high-priced. It was about the size ot 
a six-pence, but much thicker, and had the em- 
peror's head on the one side ; the figures on the 
reverse were various. In our translation of the 
New Testament, the denarius is called a penny. 
See Matt. xxii. 19. 

DENA'Y, n. s. A word formed between deny 
and nay. Denial; refusal. 

DENBIGH, a borough, market, and fair town 
in the county of Denbigh, North Wales. It 
occupies the side of a steep limestone rock, the 
summit of which is crowned by the ruins of its 
once noble castle, and commands an extensive 
prospect over the admired and fertile vale of the 
Clwyd. The population is returned at 3,786. 
The old town lies at the foot of the rocky pedestal 
on which the castle rests, and the new town ex 
tends down the side of the hill in one long and 
handsome avenue, nearly a length of one mile. 
Here are a chapel of ease, a town hall, a public 
dispensary, an old established banking house, 
and two large inns. The corporation consists of 
an alderman, two bailiffs, a recorder and two 
coroners. Denbigh is contributing with Rhuthyn 
and other places in sending one member to par- 
liament, and derived its charter from king Charles 
II. The parish church, usually called Whit- 
church, lies one mile from the town, and con- 

L 2 


D E N D E R A. 

tains the tombs of Humphrey Llwyd, the antiqua- 
rian, Edwards, the Cambrian Shakspeare, and 
of Richard Myddleton, father of Hugh, who 
brought the New River to London. The castle 
owes its greatness to Henry, earl of Lincoln, 
who also enclosed the town with walls, and, 
after passing through various owners, it was 
granted by Elizabeth to the earl of Leicester. 
This last proprietor raised here the walls of the 
first protestant church erected in Great Britain, 
but neglected to complete his design : the ruins 
stand upon the rock opposite St. Hilary's chapel. 
There is no event in the history of the fine 
castle of Denbigh more worthy of historic 
recollection than the gallant stand it made for 
king Charles, under the command of the brave 
William Salisbury. Near the lower termination 
of the main street, stand the remains of a Car- 
melite church desecrated into a malt-kiln, but 
still in excellent preservation. 

DENBIGHSHIRE, one of six counties into 
which North Wales is divided. It presents a 
front to the Irish Sea on the north, is bounded on 
the east by Flintshire, Cheshire, and Shropshire. 
Merioneth and Montgomery shires enclose it on 
the south, and Caernarvonshire constitutes its 
boundary on the west. Its dimensions are 39 
miles in length, by an average breadth of 23, 
and its area occupies 410,000 acres of land. 
The population is calculated at 83,167. The 
surface is hilly and inclined to a mountainous 
character, but the soil in many places remark- 
ably rich. Two ranges of elevated hills per- 
vade the county, and preserve a parallelism to 
each other during their lengths : one rises from 
the sea, and crossing over near Gwytherin, and 
thence to Cerig-y-druidion, falls in with the 
masses of Merionethshire ; Moel Eiddyn, the 
most elevated summit in the chain, stands 1660 
feet above the level of the sea. The Clwydian 
hills extend a length of thirty, miles and overhang 
the celebrated vale of Clwyd, whence the origin 
of their name. Rising near the sea at St. 
Asaph's, they culminate in Moel Fammau, and 
descend gradually towards the beautiful vale of 
Llangollen. The loftiest point, Moel Fammau, 
attains a height of 1 845 feet above the sea, and this 
has been judiciously selected by the Cambrians 
as the site of a handsome obelisk, erected to 
commemorate the happy accomplishment of 
a fifty years' reign by king George III. The 
vales of Clwyd, Llanrwst, Llangollen, and the 
maritime portion of the county, are both beau- 
tiful and fertile, while the higher grounds, occu- 
pying one-third of the whole surface, are, from 
neglect, in a very unproductive state. The six 
hundreds into which the county is divided are 
called Bromfield, Chirk, Isaled, Isdulas,Yale, and 
Rhuthyn : these are ecclesiastically partitioned 
into fifty parishes, most of which are in the dio- 
cese of St. Asaph. The towns are larger than 
those of the other Welsh counties ; Wrexham 
is the most populous, Denbigh an ancient 
borough, Rhuthyn the assize town, also a con- 
tributing borough, besides Llanrwst, Abergelle, 
and Ruabon, in which weekly markets are 
held. The Dee is the noblest river which 
waters the county, but the Conway is the 
most useful, being navigable for twelve miles 

from its embouchure : the others are the Elwy, 
Aled, Alen, Clwyd.and the Ceiriog, which sepa- 
rates England from Wales in the valley of Chirk. 
The principal lakes are the Elwy, Aled, and 
Conway, in which the .rivers bearing their names 
respectively originate. These all abound in fish, 
but are devojd of the picturesque scenery which 
characterizes the other Welsh pools. The only 
artificial navigation established here is a branch 
of the Ellesmere canal, which is fed by the river 
Dee, crosses the vale of Llangollen by an aque- 
duct of twenty-one arches, called Pont-y-cysylte, 
and passing to Chirk is conducted over the 
Ceiriog by a second aqueduct of nine stone 
arches. Iron is manufactured at Ruabon, where, 
as well as at Chirk, coal of a superior quality is 
worked. The woollen manufacture is spread 
very generally over the county : the slate trade 
exists only on the borders, but agriculture exerts 
a universal dominion here. But few remnants 
of military antiquity are found here : of these the 
castles of Denbigh and Rhuthyn are the most 
interesting ; and, of the few monastic establish- 
ments, the abbeys of Valle - Crucis and the 
fine church at Denbigh, now desecrated into a 
malt-kiln, are the principal. The county returns 
two members to parliament, and the boroughs of 
Wrexham, Holt, Denbigh, and Rhuthyn a 
third. The ancient family of Fielding enjoy 
the earldom of Denbigh. 

DENDERA, a town of Egypt, on the west 
side of the Nile, at the edge of a small but fer- 
tile plain, about half a mile from the river. Near 
the town are remarkably masnificent ruins, sup- 
posed of an ancient temple of Serapis, or Venus. 
The portico contains twenty-four columns, in 
three rows, each above twenty-two feet in cir- 
cumference, thirty-two feet high, and covered 
with hieroglyphics. The great peculiarity con- 
sists in the square capitals, with a front face of 
Isis on each side, the effect of which, though 
singular, is by no means unpleasing. All the 
walls and ceilings of the interior are covered 
with sculptures, which display the highest per- 
fection of Egyptian art. They have originally 
been covered with paint, the brilliant colors of 
which partially remain. The subjects are various ; 
religious ceremonies, priests, offerings, deities, 
and human sacrifices. Isis, with Osiris behind 
her, forms the grand theme of representation. 
There are also numerous astronomical figures on 
the ceilings ; of these two zodiacs have, in a par- 
ticular degree, attracted the attention of the 
learned, who have been much divided as to the 
date when they were formed. De la Laride would 
fix theiv period at 3000 years ago, or 1200 before 
the Christian era; but Mr. Hamilton is disposed 
to consider them as much more modern, and as 
probably formed in the reign of Tiberius. By 
the side of the great temple is a smaller one, 
supposed to have been dedicated toTyphon, whose 
figure is displayed on the capitals ; but the chief 
object of adoration seems to be an infant figure, 
in which may be distinguished the attitude and 
character of the young Harpocrates. Mr. Ha- 
milton is of opinion, that several of those struc- 
tures may have been raised in the time of the 
Ptolemies; and the names of Tiberius and other 
Roman emperors, which he found in the inscrip- 

D E N D E R A. 

tions, prove that repairs were made at that 
period. The whole of these edifices, with the 
exception of one propylon, is contained within a 
square of 1000 feet, surrounded by a brick wall. 
Within the enclosure, a great number of modern 
buildings have been erected, so as often to hide 
them entirely from view. 

Dr. Richardson, one of our latest travellers in 
the east, thus describes this spot : ' The scene of 
ruins is nearly a mile squa re, and consists of houses 
of unburnt brick, that have been repeatedly over- 
turned, and at every restoration, the new houses 
have been built on the top. The first thing that 
attracts the eye of the traveller, on the edge of 
this black field of ruins, is a small square stone 
building, with four columns ; it has an unfinished 
appearance,' and is without hieroglyphics. It is 
difficult to say for what purpose this edifice was 
intended ; it looks like a porter's lodge, or habi- 
tation for the guardian of the precincts of the 
temple : and I should not have mentioned it at 
all, had it not been constructed of the same spe- 
cies of sand-stone with the temple itself; and as 
these must have been brought thither from a 
great distance, and at a great expense, it is pro- 
bable that this insignificant fabric was con- 
nected with it for religious purposes. Advancing 
from this, for several hundred yards among the 
brick ruins, we came to an elegant gateway, or 
propylon, which is also of sand-stone, well hewn, 
and completely covered with sculpture and hie- 
roglyphics, remarkably well cut. Immediately 
over the centre of the doorway is the beautiful 
Egyptian ornament, usually called the globe, 
with serpent and wings, emblematic of the glo- 
rious sun poised in the airy firmament of heaven, 
supported and directed in his course by 
the eternal wisdom of the Deity. The sub- 
lime phraseology of Scripture, ' the sun of 
righteousness shall arise with healing in his 
wings,' could not be more accurately, or more 
emphatically represented to the human eye, than 
by this elegant device. To this succeed re- 
presentations of Osiris, Isis, and their son Horus, 
with processions of priests and people advancing 
to pay their homage, and presenting their offerings 
on their knees. Passing under the gateway, we 
find the principal devices on each side of the 
passage to be the sceptre of Osiris alternating 
with a figure, representing the letter T, suspended 
by a handle ; or, to speak more correctly, with a 
handle attached to it 4- ; it has been called the 
handled cross, the key of the Nile, and is honored 
with other designations.' Vol. i. 185 187. 

Dr. Richardson considers this as the sign, or 
letter Thau, mentioned in the Vulgate Latin 
version of Ezekiel ix. 4 ; and there intimated as 
being the sign of life and salvation to those who 
received it. Some of the female figures are ad- 
mirably executed, and exhibit a remarkable mild- 
ness of feature and expression. The remains of 
three temples still exist. The largest of these is 
in a state of fine preservation, and is emphati- 
cally termed the temple of Dendera. It is 
minutely described by Dr. Richardson, whose 
account, as well as his disquisition on Egyptian 
deities, will not easily admit of abridgment. We 

only remark, that he controverts the commonly 
received opinion, that the splendid sculptures in 
the pro-naos, which have lately arrived at Paris, 
are a zodiac ; and in this opinion he is supporter* 
by some eminent French literati. He had an 
opportunity of comparing the original with parf 
of the great French work on Kgypt; to the ele- 
gant execution of which he gives the just tribute 
of praise, but he announces it to be extremely 
incorrect in every part. It is 242 miles south o"f 
Cairo, and forty-eight S.S. E. of Girge. 

I)ENDERMONDE,a handsome town of the 
Netherlands, with a strong citadel. It is sur- 
rounded by marshes and fine meadows, which 
the inhabitants can lay under water when they 
please, and seated at the conflux of the Dender 
and Scheldt, fourteen miles east of Ghent, and 
nineteen south-west of Antwerp. Inhabitants 
5000. In 1667 the town was besieged by Louis 
XIV. with an army of 50,000 men, but he was 
obliged to retreat with precipitation, the inha- 
bitants having opened the sluices. The vicinity 
is very fertile. 

DENDRACHATES, in natural history, from 
SevSpov, a tree, and a\arri, an agate ; the name 
used by the ancients for an extremely elegant and 
beautiful species of agate, the ground of which is 
whitish, variegated with veins of a brighter 
white. These veins are beautifully disposed in 
a number of various figures; but generally in 
many concentric irregular circles, drawn round 
one or more points. It is common also, in va- 
rious parts of this stone, to find very beautiful 
delineations of trees, mosses, sea plants, and the 
like, so elegantly expressed, that many have er- 
roneously taken them for real plants included 
in the substance of the stone; whence the name. 

DENDRO'LOGY, n. s. AivSpov and Xoyo C . 
The natural history of trees. 

DENDROMETER,from fovfyov, a tree, and 
prpew, to measure ; an instrument so called from 
its use in measuring trees. This instrument 




consists of a semicircle A, divided into two 
quadrants, and graduated from the middle ; 
upon the diameter B there hangs a plummet L 
for fixing the instrument in 'a vertical position ; 
there is also a chord D parallel to the diameter, 
and a radius F., passing at right angles through 
the diameter and chord. From a point on the 
radius hangs an altimeter C, between the chord 
and diameter, to which is fixed a small semi- 
circle G, and a screw, to confine it in any posi- 
tion. The altimeter, which is contrived to form 
the same angle with the radius of the instrument, 
as the tree forms with the horizon, is divided 
from its centre both ways into forty equal parts; 
and these parts are again subdivided into halves 
and quarters. Upon the small semicircle G, on 
which is accounted the quantity of the angle 
made by the altimeter and radius, are expressed 
degrees, and the radius is numbered with the 
same scale of divisions. There is also a nonius 
to the small semicircle, which shows the quantity 
of an angle to every five minutes. There is also 
a groove in the radius, that slides across the 
axis, by means of a screw I, working between 
the chord and semicircle of the instrument ; and 
this screw is turned by the key O. The principal 
use of this instrument is for measuring the length 
and diameter of any tree, perpendicular or 
oblique, to an horizontal plane, or in any situa- 
tion of the plane on which it rests, or of any 
figure, whether regular or irregular, and also the 
length and diameter of the boughs, by mere in- 

DENDROPHORI, from StvSpov, a tree, and 
0pw, to bear ; tree-bearers. In antiquity, priests 
who marched in procession, carrying branches of 
trees in their hands, in honor of some god, as 
Bacchus, Cybele, Sylvanus, Sic. The college of 
the dendrophori is often mentioned in ancient 
marbles ; and we frequently see, in basso relievos, 
the bacchanals, represented as men, carrying little 
shrubs or branches of trees. 

DENHAM (Sir John), an eminent English 
poet, was born in Dublin in 1615; but he re- 
ceived his education in England. In 1641 he 
published a tragedy, called The Sophy, which 
was much admired; and, in 1643, wrote his 
famous poem called Cooper's Hill, which, ac- 
cording to Dryden, will ever be a standard of 
good writing. Denham was sent ambassador 
from Charles II. to the king of Poland ; and at 
the Restoration was made surveyor-general of 
his buildings, and created knight of the Bath. 
On obtaining this post, he is said to have re- 
nounced his poetry for more important studies ; 
though he afterwards wrote a copy of verses on 
the death of Cowley. He died at his office, in 
Whitehall, in 1668. 

DENHAM (Dixon, lieutenant-colonel), eminent 
by his expedition to central Africa, was born at 
London in the year 1786, and, after completing 
his studies at school, was placed with a soli- 
citor; but, in 1811, he entered the army as a 
volunteer, and served in the peninsular wars. 
After the general peace he was reduced to half 
pay, and, in 1819, was admitted to the senior 
department of the Royal Military College at 
Farnham. In 1823-4 he was engaged, in com- 
pany with captain Clapperton and doctor 
Oudney, in exploring the central regions of Af- 

rica. See CLAPPERTON. His courage, address, 
firmness, perseverance and moderation, his frank 
energetic disposition, and his conciliating man- 
ners, peculiarly fitted him for such an under- 
taking. The narrative of the discoveries of these 
travellers was drawn up by Denham. In 1826 
he proceeded to Sierra Leone, as superintendant 
of the liberated Africans, and, in 1828, was ap- 
pointed lieutenant-governor of the colony ; but 
on the ninth of June, in the same year, he was 
attacked by a fever, and died after an illness of a 
few days. 


DENIE'R, n. s. Lat. denarius. It is pro- 
nounced as deneer, in two syllables. A small 
denomination of French money ; the twelfth part 
of a sous. 

You will not pay for the glasses you have burst ? 
No, not a denier, Shakspeare. 

DENIER is a small French copper coin, of 
which twelve make a sol. There are two kinds 
of deniers, the one Tournois, the other Parisois, 
the latter of which is worth a fourth part more 
than the former. Denier is also the name of a 
small weight, used in assaying silver. Like the 
carat, used in trying and expressing the fineness 
of gold, it is rather imaginary than real, as the 
whole mass of silver, whatever be its weight, is 
supposed to be divided into twelve deniers ; and 
as many twelfth parts, as it contains of pure 
silver, it is called silver of so many deniers fine. 
Thus sterling silver, of eleven deniers fine, is a 
mixture, of which eleven parts are pure silver 
and one part copper. Each denier is supposed 
to be divided into twenty-four grains; and thus, 
estimating pure silver at 6s. per oz., an ounce of 
sterling silver is worth 5s. 6d. ; and the fineness 
of any quantity of silver can be calculated with 
the utmost exactness to half a grain in purity, 
or half a farthing in value per oz. The deniers 
and grains, used by the assaymasters for this 
purpose, are real weights, made with the most 
scrupulous exactness in the above proportions to 
each other. 

DE'NIGRATE, v. a. } Lat. denigro, from 
DENIGRA'TION, n. s. } de and niyro. To 
blacken ; to make black. 

DEN'IZEN, or ^ Either, says Minsheu, 

DENizoN,u.a.&w.s. (from old Fr. donaisson, 

DENIZA'TION, n. s. * giving (liberty); or from 

Dane's son, the son of a Dane, according to Dr. 

Johnson, from the Danes being made free by 

Alfred. A freeman ; a stranger made free ; (the 

Welsh is dinasddyn, a man of the city ; and dine- 

sydd, free of the city). To make free. 

Denizen is a British law term, which the Saxons 
and Angles found here and retained. Davies. 

That the mere Irish were reputed aliens, appears 
by the charters of denization, which in all ages were 
purchased by them. Id. 

Pride, lust, covetize, being several 
To these three places, yet all are in all ; 
Mingled thus, their issue is incestuous ; 
Falsehood is denizened, virtue is barbarous. 


DENIZEN, in law, an alien made a subject by 
the king's letters patent; otherwise called do- 
naison, because ' his legitimation proceeds ex 



donatione regis, from the king's gift.' A denizen 
is in a kind of middle state between an alien 
and a natural-born subject, and partakes of both 
of them. He may take lands by purchase or 
devise, which an alien may not ; but cannot take 
by inheritance : for his parent, through whom 
he must claim, being an alien, had no inhe- 
ritable blood ; and, therefore, could convey none 
to the son : ana, upon a like defect of blood, the 
issue of a denizen, born before denization, cannot 
innerit to him ; but his issue, born after, may. 
A denizen is not excused from paying the alien's 
duty, and some other mercantile burdens. And 
no denizen can be ot the pnvy council, or eitner 
house of parliament, or have any office of trust, 
civil or military, or be capable of any grant of 
lands, &c. from the crown. 

DENMAN (Dr. Thomas), an eminent physi- 
cian and medical writer, was bora at Bakewell, in 
Derbyshire, in 173 3, where his father was a respect- 
able apothecary; on whose death, he was, for some 
time, an assistant to his elder brother. He af- 
terwards came to London, and attended at St. 
George's Hospital : he then entered the navy, as 
surgeon's mate, and in 1757, was made surgeon of 
a ship. In 1763 he quitted the navy, after having 
served in the expedition against Belleisle. His first 
publication was in London, An Essay on Puer- 
peral Fever, which was well received ; but his pro- 
fessional prospects were so little satisfactory, that 
he was happy to obtain the situation of surgeon 
to one of the royal yachts, which brought nim in 
a salary of 70 a-year, without interrupting his 
practice. He was shortly after (1770) chosen 
joint-physician and man-midwife to the Middle- 
sex Hospital, and gave lectures on the latter 
branch of practice. He thus slowly emerged 
from obscurity into the most extensive prac- 
tice : was appointed licentiate in midwifery 
of the College of Physicians in 1783, and, six 
years after, an honorary fellow of the Royal So- 
ciety of Edinburgh. After the death of Dr. 
William Hunter, he was considered as the most 
eminent obstetrical practitioner in the metro- 
polis. His great work, is The Introduction to the 
Practice of Midwifery, which, with his Apho- 
risms for the Use of Junior Practitioners, claims 
a place in every medical library. In the decline 
of life, Dr. Denman relinquished the more labo- 
rious part of his practice to his son-in-law, Sir 
Richard Croft, and became a consulting physi- 
cian. His death, which was sudden, took place 
November 26th, 1815. 

DENMARK, one of the most ancient mo- 
narchies in Europe, comprehends the peninsula 
of Jutland, Sleswick, Holstein, and Lauen- 
bnrg, on the continent ; and the islands of Zealand, 
Funen, Langeland, Falster, Laaland, Bornholiu, 
Moen, and several others in the Baltic. Den- 
mark Proper is that part of Scandinavia which 
formerly went by the name of Cimbrica Cher- 
sonesus. It is everywhere bounded by the sea, 
except on its southern frontier in Holstein, and 
stretches northward from about 53 30' to 57 30' 
of lat., i. e. from the right bank of the Elbe, to 
the extreme point of Jutland. This main-land 
tract is divided into three divisions, of which 
Holstein forms the southern, Sleswick the cen- 
tral, and Jutland the northern province, each 

being governed by laws and institutions, occa- 
sionally very dissimilar; and contains, togethe 
with the adjacent islands, a territory of about 
22,000 square miles, and a population of about 
1,635,000 inhabitants, thus distributed : 

Jutland contains 

Zealand (including Copenhagen), 

Funen, and other islands, . 
Sleswick .... 
Holstein .... 







Iceland, the Faroe Islands, and the settlements 
of Denmark in the East and West Indies and 
Africa, are supposed to add about 155,000 more 
to the population in the following proportions : 


Faroe fsles .... 
East and West Indies and Afnca 





The dismemberment of Norway from Denmark, 
which took place in 1814, abstracted full one- 
third of her population and strength, that 
ancient possession of the Danish crown being 
estimated to contain at that period 900,000 in- 
habitants. Denmark received from Sweden, in 
exchange, Swedish Pomerania, which she again 
parted with to Prussia for the duchy of Lauen- 
burgh, and a sum of money. 

Her remaining territory is, however, compact, 
and well situated for commerce. The aspect of 
the continental part is flat and undiversified, 
containing neither mountains nor rivers of any 
magnitude, but it is in an excellent general state 
of cultivation; and, in the character of its cli- 
mate and rich pasturage, very much resembling 
our own country. 

It is largely indented by the sea, and pos- 
sesses numerous creeks and bays, as well as in- 
ternal lakes, but only one canal of importance, 
that of Kiel. This will admit vessels of 120 
tons burden, and extends from the Baltic to the 
Eyder at Rendsburg, where the river becomes 
navigable, thus opening a communication be- 
tween the two seas, or through 105 miles of 
territory. Its length is twenty-two English 
miles. Its breadth at top 100 feet, at bottom 
fifty-four, and depth ten feet. It was begun in 
1777, and completed in 1785, at an expense of 
800,000 sterling. During the late war between 
3000 and 4000 vessels annually passed through 
it, but in time of peace the number is diminished. 
It has much improved the internal trade of 
Sleswick and Holstein. 

The revenue of Denmark fluctuates between 
1,700,000 and 2,000,000, about 120,000 of 
which arises from the dues of the Sound : the 
national debt is nominally 15,000,000. The 
military force somewhat exceeds 20,000 men ; 
the naval force is only 4000 men in service, but 
capable of being increased with great facility, as 
there are between 14,000 and 15,000 registered 
seamen. The seafaring people of the kingdom 
are altogether little short of 50,000. 



Theie are no mineral productions in Den- 
mark of any commercial importance ; salt is 
made in considerable quantities from the lime 
springs of Oldesloe ; and a little coal is found ; 
but turf is the great article of fuel. Both tim- 
ber and salt are imported largely. The agricul- 
tural produce consists of wheat, in small quan- 
tity, barley, oats, beans, peas, and potatoes ; the 
last very largely. Excellent madder also abounds, 
and hops, flax, hemp, and tobacco, are partially 
cultivated. Gardens are seldom seen except in 
Arak, the great kitchen garden of the capital. 
The horned cattle and horses are very superior ; 
in Holstein are some of the best working breeds 
of both, that are known : the exportation of 
horses is said to amount to 1200 or 1500 an- 
nually, valued at from 160,000 to 200,000 
sterling. Milch cattle are also well managed 
here : butter and cheese abound : trie sheep, 
though recently improved by the introduction of 
merino, and other breeds, are still inferior. 
' There are now better meadows, and more 
hedges and walls in Denmark,' says Mr. Lou- 
den, ' than in any country of Germany of the 
same extent.' Here was founded, in 1686, the 
first veterinary school in Germany. 'Artificial 
grasses and herbage plants enter into most rota- 
tions, and rye-grass is perhaps more sown in 
Holstein than any where, excepting in England. 
In a word, considering the disadvantages of 
climate, the agriculture of Denmark is in a more 
advanced state than that of any other kingdom of 
Germany.' Fishing in the bays and creeks is 
conducted on a large scale ; the most important 
branch is the herring fishery ; beds of oysters 
and muscles are not uncommon : and fresh water 
fish abound in several arms of the Baltic, so 
little is that sea impregnated with salt. 

Denmark has pursued a studiously pacific 
policy for more than half a century, and the 
consequence, until nearly the close of the late 
wais of the French revolution, were the uninter- 
rupted improvement and extension of her com- 
merce. In 1800 she possessed above 2000 
merchant men, 20,000 seamen, and 250,000 tons 
of shipping. During our second war with 
France these were in a state of rapid increase, 
but the seizure of her navy in 1807 by Great 
Britain, and the consequent breach between the 
two countries, permitted her no longer to carry 
on a neutral trade, and she has scarcely to the 
present time recovered the blow. The chief 
intercourse of the Danes is with the adjacent 
coasts of the Baltic, with England, Holland, 
France, and the Mediterranean. 

They have found the benefit of a general car- 
rying trade so considerable, that they have 
pushed it with success, both in the Mediterranean 
(where their flag is respected by the Barbary 
states, equally with that of stronger powers), 
and to the most distant parts of the globe. The 
whale fishery, likewise, employs a considerable 
portion of their seamen, and in the West India 
trade they have about seventy sail of merchant- 
men. Their connexion with the Guinea 
and Gold coasts has been in a great measure 
discontinued since their honorable abolition of 
he slave trade in 1803. 

The principal exports from Denmark to Eng- 

land are skins, raw hides, and, when our com 
laws permit, oats. Until lately the most exten- 
sive part of the trade between the two countries 
was timber from Norway. The imports from 
England are manufactured articles., and coionial 
produce. The duties on the importation of 
foreign commodities into Denmark are high, buf 
all kinds of. merchandise, with the exception of 
the following articles, are allowed to be imported ; 
viz. sugar, either raw or refined, coming from 
European ports, porcelain, colored delf, wool- 
cards, roasted coffee, printed calicoes, and some 
kinds of woollen cloth. 

In 1797 the government laid open the trade to 
the East Indies (previously monopolised by a 
Danish East India Company), to all private mer- 
chants. Similar liberal regulations have been 
made with regard to intercourse with their West 
Indian possessions. The Icelandic trade was 
laid open by an ordinance from the king towards 
the close of 1816. The exports of Denmark 
to this distant part of her dominions are grain, 
wine, brandy, tobacco, and spices, together with 
linen and woollen cloths, timber, and hardware. 
The vessels generally sail thither in May and 
June, and return with salt fish, whale oil, coarse 
cloth, woollen stockings, gloves, hides, skins, 
feathers, and Eider-down. All the necessary 
supplies for the Greenland colonies are trans- 
mitted from the parent country ; and oil, whale- 
bone, seal-skins, and other articles, furnished by 
the fisheries in the adjacent seas, are taken in 
return. The manufactures of Denmark are 
confined to the supply of her own most com- 
mon wants : and it is necessary to import hard- 
ware, printed cottons, and linen. The porcelain 
manufacture is carried on by the government. 
A late return of the sugar refineries in Denmark 
makes their number forty-six ; that of paper mills 
twenty-two; iron foundries four. 

The constitution of Denmark was of a free 
Gothic original. The convention of the estates, 
even including the representatives of the boors 
or peasants, elected the king, having still a re- 
gard to the sor of their late monarch, whom, 
however, they made no scruple of setting aside, 
if they deemed him unworthy of the royal dig- 
nity. The convention enacted laws; conferred 
the great offices of state ; debated all affairs re- 
lating to commerce, peace, war, and alliances ; 
and occasionally gave their consent to the im- 
position of necessary taxes. The king was only 
the chief magistrate of the people. His business 
was to see justice administered impartially ; to 
command the army in time of war ; to encourage 
industry, religion, arts, and sciences ; and to 
watch over the interests of his subjects. But, 
by the revolution, in 1660, the constitution was 
new-modelled, and it was declared that ' the 
hereditary kings of Denmark and Norway 
should be in effect, and ought to be esteemed by 
their subjects, the only supreme head upon 
earth; they shall be above all human laws, and 
shall acknowledge, in all ecclesiastical and civil 
affairs, no higher power but God alone. The 
king shall enjoy the right of making and inter- 
preting the laws ; of abrogating, adding to, and 
dispensing with them. He may also annul all 
the laws which either he or his predecessors 



shall have made, excepting this royal law, which 
must remain irrevocable, and be considered as 
the fundamental law of the state. He has the 
power of declaring war, making peace, imposing 
taxes, and levying contributions of all sorts,' 
&c. &c. It is finally added, ' If there is any 
thing further which has not been expressly spe- 
cified, all shall be comprised in the following 
words: The king of Denmark and Norway 
shall be the hereditary monarch, and endued 
with the highest authority; insomuch that all 
that can be said and written to the advantage of 
a Christian, hereditary, and absolute king, shall 
be extended under the most favorable interpreta- 
tion to the hereditary king or queen of Denmark 
and Norway,' &c. To this singular step the 
representatives of the people were urged at that 
time by the tyianny of the nobles. They found 
ahundied tyrants, as a late political bishop said, 
a hundred times worse than one. The nobility 
were obliged to make a similar surrender of 
their peculiar privileges. 

The established religion is the Lutheran and 
Episcopal. The reformation was introduced in 
1536, the crown taking possession at that period 
of the revenues of the church, and depriving 
the bishops of their temporal power : they have 
at present full spiritual jurisdiction, but no votes 
in the legislature ; and there exists a complete 
toleration of dissenters. There is a university 
at Copenhagen on a large scale, and another of 
smaller funds at Kiel. There is also a college 
with four professors at Odensee in Funen ; and 
Danish literature, though not of general preten- 
sions, has yielded in modern times some dis- 
tinguished names. We need only mention those 
of Niebuhr and Le Brun. 

Saxo Grammaticus, the most ancient and best 
of the Danish historians, derives the name of 
Denmark from Dan the son of Humble, the first 
king, and Mark, a word signifying a country, in 
several dialects of the Teutonic; according to 
which etymology, the word Denmark signifies 
the country of Dan. He is said to have flou- 
rished about A.A.C. 1038 or 1050. Almost all 
historians agree that he was the son of Humble, 
a native of Zealand. His possessions and in- 
fluence were very considerable, not only in Zea- 
land, but in the islands of Langeland and Mona. 
It was his courage, however, and skill in the art 
of war, that induced the inhabitants of Den- 
mark to choose him for their king. He was 
called to the assistance of the Jutlanders upon 
an irruption of the Saxons into their territories, 
and promised the sovereignty of the country if 
he drove out the enemy. On this he raised an 
army, gained a complete victory over the Saxons, 
and obliged them to leave the country ; and he 
was accordingly elected king. The history of 
Denmark, for several ages after Dan, is filled 
with fabulous exploits of heroes, encounters 
with giants, dragons, &c. One of their kings 
named Frotho, who reigned about A. A. C. 761, 
is said to have conquered Britain, Sleswick, 
Russia, Pomerania, Holstein, &c. an assertion 
which cannot easily be credited, considering the 
difficulty which succeeding warriors, even the 
greatest in the world, found to subdue the inha- 
bitants of those countries. It is certain, how- 

ever, that anciently the kingdom of Denmark 
made a much more conspicuous figure than it 
does at present. The Danes appeal to have had 
a very considerable naval force almost from the 
foundation of their empire; and the conquests 
they undoubtedly made in our isbnd are cer- 
tain proofs of their valor. Their chief enemies 
were the Swedes, Norwegians, and Saxons ; es- 
pecially the first. With one or other of these 
nations almost perpetual war was carried on. 
The kingdom was also often rent by civil dis- 
sensions, which the neighbouring monarchs did 
not fail to take advantage of, in order to reduce 
the kingdom of Denmark under their subjection. 
As in general, however, neither party came off 
with much advantage, the history of these wars 
affords nothing interesting. 

One of the most illustrious of the kines of 
Denmark was Canute II., the son of Sueno I., 
surnamed the Great, from his wisdom as well as 
his conquests. He was at once king of Den- 
mark, Norway, and England. See CANUTE and 
ENGLAND. He also conquered a great part of 
Sweden. Alstedius ranks him as the sixty-seventh 
monarch of Denmark. Between his son Canute 
III. and Sueno III. there was a succession of 
ten kings of whom little important is recorded. 
One of the greatest of the Danish monarchs, 
after Canute the Great, was Valdemar I. who 
obtained the throne in 1157; having defeated 
and killed the usurper Sueno III. after a civil 
war of ten years. He maintained a long war 
with the Vandals, whose power he at last entirely 
broke, and reduced under his subjection the is- 
land of Rugen. He also proved victorious over 
the Norwegians, so that their king and queen 
came in person to submit to him. In 1165, he 
laid the foundations of the city of Dantzic; 
which, though it has since become a place of 
very great consequence, consisted at first only of 
a few poor fishermen's huts ; but the privileges 
and immunities conferred upon it by this mon- 
arch, soon proved the means of its becoming a 
flourishing city. In 1169, he entirely subdued 
the Courlanders ; and, soon after, was invested 
with the duchy of Holstein by the emperor Fre- 
deric Barbarossa. He is said to have been poi- 
soned by a quack medicine, given with a design 
to recover him from a distemper with which he 
was seized in 1182, after reigning twenty-eight 
years. In 1195, Canute VI., Valdemar's son 
and successor, caused a muster to be made of all 
the men fit to bear arms in his dominions ; and 
ordered each province to fit out its proportion 
of shipping, every way equipped, and ready for 
action. The whole force of Denmark, at that 
time, consisted of 670 ships of war, besides the 
squadrons supplied by vassals, tributary states, 
and allies. The number of the land forces is 
not mentioned. In the reign of this prince, the 
Danish dominions were enlarged by the con- 
quest of Stromar, and the districts of Lubec and 
Hamburgh, formerly Nordalbingia, but now in- 
cluded under the general name of Holstein. He 
died in 1203, and was succeeded by Valdemar 
II. who proved a very warlike prince. In 1211 
he founded the city of Stralsund. He built the 
castle of Droningholm xn memory of his queen, 
that name importing the Queen's Island ; and 



gained in 1218 a victory over the "Livonians 
near the fortress of Valdemar, which was thus 
named from him. The flourishing state in 
which Denmark was at this time, appears 
from an estimate of the revenues of the 
tributary provinces, which is still extant. 
He kept for constant service 1400 great and 
small ships, each of which at a medium carried 
121 soldiers; making the whole of the standing 
forces, besides garrisons, consist of 169,400 fight- 
ing men. In 1223, however, Henry Palatine, 
earl of Swerin, a German prince, having been 
deprived of part of his dominions by Valdemar, 
surprised and carried off the king himself, and 
kept him close prisoner for three years. The 
conditions on which he at last obtained his 
liberty were, that he should pay a large sum of 
money ; relinquish Holstein, Swerin, Hamburgh, 
and all his possessions on the other side of the 
Elbe ; and solemnly swear that he would never 
take any measures to punish Henry or his asso- 
ciates. This treaty was signed on the 25th of 
March 1226. Besides these territories, which 
Valdemar was obliged to cede by treaty, many 
tributary princes took the opportunity of his 
captivity to recover their liberty ; and among the 
rest the inhabitants of Lubec revolted, and entered 
into alliance with Albert, duke of Saxony, against 
him. Valdemar, however was not of a disposi- 
tion to submit tamely to such treatment. He 
obtained a dispensation from the pope to break 
his engagements with Henry, and immediately 
entered Holstein at the head of a numerous army. 
Here he was met by several German princes ; 
and a desperate engagement ensued. Valdemar 
at first had the advantage ; but, being wounded 
in the eye, his troops were at last defeated with 
great slaughter. It does not appear that he was 
ever able to revenge himself, or to recover the 
dominions he had lost. Instead of this he was 
obliged, in 1228, to cede Lauenburg to the duke 
of Saxony, who had already seized on Ratzburg 
and Molna. Soon after his eldest son, Valdemar, 
was accidentally killed as he was hunting, and 
his two other sons married the daughters of his 
two greatest enemies. Abel, the third son, mar- 
ried the daughc. of Adolphus duke of Holstein ; 
and Eric, the sec M, the duke of Saxony's 
daughter. These misfortunes are supposed to 
have hastened his death, which happened in 
April, 1242; and on this the kingdom was 
divided between the two young princes, a war 
commencing the very next year between them. 
A peace was concluded the year following, and 
war renewed the year after. In 1250 Eric paid 
a visit to his brother Abel, entreating his media- 
tion between him and the princes of Holstein, 
with whom he was then at war. Abel received 
him, in appearance, with great kindness, but in 
the mean time laid a plan for murdering him at 
sea : this was effected, and Abel became master 
of the whole kingdom. But he did not long en- 
joy the sovereignty thus wickedly obtained. He 
was tormented by his own conscience, especially 
when he found, among his brother's papers, one 
by which he was left heir to the whole kingdom 
on the decease of Eric, and many kind expres- 
sions with regard to himself. He was at last 
killed in a battle with his own subjects in 1252. 

From this time to 1333 the kingdom of Denmark 
gradually declined. Usurpers established them- 
selves in different provinces ; while the kings of 
Sweden did not fail to avail themselves of the 
distracted state of the Danish affairs. In 1333 
died Christopher II., who possessed only the 
cities of Scanderberg in Jutland and Neoburg in 
Fionia, with some few other inconsiderable 
places, of all the hereditary dominions of 
Denmark. Halland, Holbeck, Calemburg, and 
Samsoe, were held by Canute Porsius ; Schonen, 
Lystre, and Bleking, by the king of Sweden, to 
whom they had been lately sold : John earl of 
Wagna had the jurisdictions of Zealand, Falstre, 
Laaland,and Femerin: Gerhard, those of Jutland 
and Fionia; and Lawrence Jonea those of Lange- 
land and Arras. After the death of Christopher 
an interregnum of seven years, or according to 
Marcel of fifteen, ensued. The first attempt for 
the sovereignty was made by Otho, second son 
to the late king, who tried to drive Gerhard out 
of Jutland, but was taken prisoner, and closely 
confined by Gerhard. The king of Sweden next 
wrote to pope Benedict XIII., beseeching his 
Holiness to confirm to him the provinces of 
Schonen, &c., which he possessed ; and to allow 
him to subdue the rest of the kingdom, which was 
now usurped and rendered miserable by a set of 
petty princes, who knew not how to govern. To 
influence the pope he promised to hold this 
kingdom of him, and to pay him the usual tax 
collected by the church. This request, however, 
was refused. Valdemar of Sleswic, nephew to 
Gerhard, had formerly been elected king ; but, 
on account of the superior influence of Christo- 
pher, had never enjoyed the sovereignty. He 
now, at the instigation of his uncle, resumed his 
ambitious views. Several of the nobility also 
cast their eyes on young Valdemar, Chrislopher's 
son. But, while these two princes were laying 
schemes to aggrandise themselves, the unhappy 
Danes were distressed by exorbitant taxes, famine, 
and pestilence, which destroyed more than half 
of the inhabitants. In the midst of these cala- 
mities Gerhard, sovereign of Jutland, proposed 
to his nephew Valdemar an exchange of territo- 
ries, which he believed would prove favorable to 
the designs of the latter on the crown. A treaty 
for this purpose was actually drawn up and 
signed ; but the inhabitants, notwithstanding 
their distressed situation, so highly resented their 
being disposed of like cattle, from one master to 
another, that they refused to pay the taxes. Ger- 
hard resolved to compel them, and therefore led 
10,000 men, whom he had levied in Germany, 
into the heart of the province. Providence, 
however, now raised up an enemy to this tyrant. 
One Nicholas Norevi, a man greatly esteemed for 
his courage, public spirit, and prudence, beheld 
with sorrow the condition to which Denmark was 
reduced. He had long meditated various pro- 
jects for its relief. Young Valdemar, Christopher's 
son, had a number of adherents in the kingdom , 
his most dangerous enemy was Gerhard ; and, if 
he could be removed, the Jutlsnders would at 
least be free from an oppressor, and might choose 
Valdemar, or any other they thought proper, for 
their sovereign. Collecting, therefore, a body of 
chosen horse he marched in the night to Zander- 


shusen,where Gerhard had fixed his head-quarters; 
and, having forced open the tyrant's apartment, 
immediately put him to death. He then fled with 
the utmost expedition, and, though overtaken by 
a party of the enemy's horse, forced his way 
through them and escaped. Gerhard's sons, 
hearing of their father's death, retired into Hoi- 
stein, leaving the army, composed chiefly of 
Holsteiners, to be cut to pieces by the enraged 
peasants, who fell upon them from every quarter. 
Still, however, the Holsteiners kept possession of 
the citadels and fortified places, from which Ni- 
cholas resolved to dislodge them. He accordingly 
attacked and took Landen, a castle situated on 
the river Scheme : After which he laid siege to 
Albeg ; but the garrison making an obstinate de- 
fence, he turned the siege into a blockade, by 
which they were soon reduced to great extremity. 
The governor sent an express to Gerhard's sons, 
acquainting them with the impossibility of his 
holding out more than a few days, without being 
relieved. They marched to his relief, and came 
up with Nicholas just as the governor was ready 
to surrender, but were defeated ; though Nicho- 
las was unfortunately kHled in the engagement. 
Jutland having thus regained its liberty, the rest 
of the kingdom followed its example. Zealand 
first openly declared itself. Here Henry, Ger- 
hard's son, maintained several garrisons ; and 
resolved to defend his possessions in spite of all 
the power of the inhabitants. For this purpose 
he drew together an army; but in the mean time 
a tumult arose among the peasants, on account of 
a Danish nobleman slain by the Holsteiners. By 
this the people were so irritated that, falling upon 
the Holsteiners, they killed 300 of them, drove 
the rest out of the island, and chose Valdemar III. 
Christopher's son, for their sovereign. The Danes 
now resumed their courage ; the lands were cul- 
tivated, the famine and pestilence ceased, and the 
kingdom began to flourish as formerly. Matters 
continued prosperous till 1373, when Valdemar 
III. died, and was succeeded by his daughter 
Margaret. Marcel ranks his grandson Glaus V. 
as his immediate successor; but he, being an 
infant, can hardly be said to have reigned, and 
therefore Alstedius ranks his mother, who go- 
verned during his infancy, as the successor of 

Margaret raised the kingdom of Denmark to 
its highest pitch of glory. She defeated and de- 
posed Albert king of Sweden, in 1487 ; and partly 
by her address, partly by hereditary right, she 
formed the union of Calmar, by which she was 
acknowledged sovereign of Sweden, Denmark, 
and Norway. She held her dignity with such 
firmness and courage, that she was justly styled 
the Semiramis of the North. Heronly son, Glaus V. 
dying at seven years of age, in 1388, she adopted 
her sister's son, Eric duke of Pomerania, as her 
successor, and died in 1412, after a glorious reign 
of thirty-seven years. Eric IX., her successor, 
being destitute of her great qualifications, the union 
of Calmar fell to nothing : but Norway still con- 
tinued annexed to Denmark. Some say he was 
deposed, but Alstedius states that he resigned the 
crown in 1438, and retired to Pomerania, where 
he died in 1469. Upon his resignation his ne- 
phew, Christopher III. duke of Bavaria, and count 

palatine of the Rhine, was elected. After an in 
glorious reign of ten years, during which Sweden 
was separated from Denmark, he died in 1 448,and 
made way for a new royal race, which still conti- 
nues to reign in Denmark, by the election of Cliris- 
tian,count of Oldenburg. Christian I. was crowned 
king of Denmark in 1448,of Norway in 1450,andof 
Sweden upon the deposition of Charles VIII. in 
1457, who, however, was restored by the Swedes 
in 1464; Christian not having adhered to the 
terms he had made with them. He died in!481, 
and was succeeded by his son John, who had 
frequent wars with the brave Swedish governors, 
Steno and Sweno Sture. John, dying in 1513, 
was succeeded by Christian II. who recovered 
Sweden for a short time on the death of Steno 
Sture; but was expelled for 1 is cruelties, by the 
illustrious Gustavus Vasa, who threw off the 
Danish yoke, and restored the independence of 
his country in 1520. See SWEDEN. 

Christian died in 1559, but was previously de- 
posed, and Frederick I. duke of Holstein elected 
king in 1523. He reigned only ten years; dying 
in 1533, when he was succeeded by his son 
Christian III. a wise and politic prince, by whom, 
in 1536, the protestant religion was established 
in Denmark. He was succeeded in 1559 by his 
son Frederick II. who, after reigning about 
twenty-nine years, left the kingdom to his son 
Christian IV. who, however, was not crowned till 
1596. This monarch twice visited England, in 
compliment to his son-in-law king James I. ; in 
July 16X>6 and 1614. In 1629, he was chosen 
head of the Protestant league formed against the 
house of Austria; but, though personally brave, 
he was in danger of losing his dominions; when 
he was succeeded in that command by the famous 
Gustavus Adolphus king of Sweden. The Dutch 
having obliged Christian, who died in 1648, to 
lower the duties of the Sound, his son Frederic 
III. consented to accept of an annuity of 150,000 
florins for the whole. The Dutch after this per- 
suaded him to declare war against Charles X. king 
of Sweden, which had almost cost him his crown 
in 1657. Charles stormed the fortress of Fre- 
dericstadt; and, in the succeeding winter, he 
marched his army over the ice to the island of 
Funen, where he surprised the Danish troops, 
took Gdensee and Nyburg, and marched over the 
Great Belt to besiege Copenhagen itself. Gliver 
Cromwell- interposed ; and Frederic defended his 
capital with great magnanimity till the peace of 
Roschild ; by which he ceded the provinces of 
Halland, Bleking, and Sconia, the i-sland of Born- 
holm, Bahus, and Drontheim, in Norway, to the 
Swedes. Frederic sought to elude these severe 
terms ; but Charles took Cronenburg, and once 
more besieged Copenhagen by sea and land. The 
steady inteprid conduct of Frederic under these 
misfortunes endeared him to his subjects; and 
the citizens of Copenhagen made an admirable 
defence, till a Dutch fleet arrived in the Baltic, 
and beat the Swedish fleet. The fortune of war 
was now entirely changed in favor of Frederic, 
who showed on every occasion great abilities 
both civil and military : and, having forced Charles 
to raise the siege of Copenhagen, might have 
carried the war into Sweden, had not the English 
fleet under Montague appeared in the Baltic. 


D E 3 M A H K. 

This enabled Charles to besiege Copenhagen a 
third time: but, France and England offering 
their mediation, a peace was concluded in that 
capital : by which the island of Bornholm re- 
turned to the Danes; but the island of Rugen, 
Bleking, Halland, and Schonen, remained with 
the Swedes. 

The year 1660, as we have already intimated, 
affords an instance of a revolution in Denmark, 
unparalleled in the annals of history, viz. that of 
a free people resigning their liberty into the 
hands of their sovereign of their own accord, 
and without the least compulsion rendering him 
despotic. This was in part occasioned by the 
great character which Frederic had acquired by 
his late prudent and valiant conduct. At that 
time he had also taken care to ingratiate himself 
with the commonalty, by obliging the nobility to 
allow them some immunities which they did not 
enjoy before, and permitting them by a special 
edict to possess lands. After the conclusion of 
the treaty with Sweden, a diet was summoned at 
Copenhagen, to take into consideration the state 
of the kingdom, which was now very much ex- 
hausted, by the calamities of war. This distressed 
state of affairs was, by the commons, attributed to 
the nobility ; who, on the other hand, took no 
care to conciliate the affections of the inferior 
classes : but rather increased their discontents by 
their arrogance. They had even the imprudence 
to remonstrate against the immunities above 
mentioned, which had been granted by the king 
during the siege of Copenhagen. In consequence 
of this, the deputies of the commons and clergy 
united against them ; and, being joined by the 
citizens of the capital, formed a very considera- 
ble party. On bringing forward in the assembly 
the sums necessary fpr the national exigencies, a 
general excise was proposed by the nobles on 
every article of consumption ; and they professed 
themselves willing to submit to it, though, by an 
express law, their order was to be exempted from 
taxes. This offer, however, was accompanied 
with a remonstrance to the king; in which they 
endeavoured to reclaim many obsolete privileges, 
and to add fresh immunities, tending to diminish 
the royal prerogative, and check the rising influ- 
ence of the commons and clergy. This proposal 
occasioned great disputes in the diet ; and the 
two inferior orders insisted, that they would not 
admit of any tax which should not be levied 
equally upon all ranks. The nobles not only re- 
fused to comply with this proposal, but even to 
be subject to the present fax for more than three 
years ; pretending that all taxes whatever were 
infringements on their privileges. By way of 
compensation, however, they proposed new du- 
ties upon leather and stamped paper, and at last 
offered to pay a poll tax for their peasants. This 
at first seemed to be agreeable to the two inferior 
estates ; but they suddenly changed their minds, 
and demanded that the fiefs and domains, which the 
nobles had hitherto possessed exclusively, and at 
a very moderate rent, should be let to the highest 
bidder. In the heat of the dispute, one of the 
chief senators having imprudently thrown out 
some reproachful expressions against the com- 
mons, a general ferment ensued, and the assembly 
was broken up in confusion. This gave occasion 

to the interposition of the king's friends ; and the 
idea of rendering the crown hereditary, and en- 
larging the royal prerogative, began to be sug- 
gested as the proper method of humbling the 
nobility. This was first proposed by the bishop 
of Zealand ; an act for rendering the crown he- 
reditary was drawn up ; and the best method of 
publicly producing it taken into consideration. 
All this time the king seemed quite inactive, nor 
could he be prevailed upon to take any part in an 
affair which so nearly concerned him. But this 
indolence was abundantly compensated by the 
alertness and diligence of his queen. On the 
morning of the 8th of October, therefore, the 
bishop of Zealand having obtained tlie consent 
and signatures of the ecclesiastical deputies to 
the new proposal, delivered it to Nausen, burgo- 
master of Copenhagen and speaker of the com- 
mons, whose speech in favor of it had such an 
effect upon the assembly, that they subscribed it 
unanimously ; the nobles being all the while in 
perfect security, and entirely ignorant of the trans- 
action. Next day it was presented to the kingby the 
bishop and Nausen ; and finally to the nobles ; who, 
while they professed their general willingness to 
assent to the declaration, observed to the speaker of 
the commons that it required the most serious dis- 
cussion. Nausen replied, that the other estates had 
already taken their resolution; that they would 
lose no time in debate ; and that, if the nobles 
would not concur with them, they would imme- 
diately repair to the palace by themselves, where 
they had not the least doubt that the king would 
graciously accept their proffer. In the mean 
time the nobles had privately despatched a mes- 
sage to the king, intimating that they were wil- 
ling to render the crown hereditary in the male 
line of his issue, provided it was done with the 
usual formalities. But his majesty stipulated for 
an equal right of succession in the female line, 
lie added, however, that he by no means wished 
to prescribe rules for their conduct; they were 
to follow the dictates of their own judgment, and 
he would owe every thing to their free consent. 
In the interim, the other deputies arrived at the 
palace, and the bishop of Zealand addressed his 
majesty on the resolution taken by the clergy and 
commons, adding, that they were ready to sacri- 
fice their lives in th'e defence of an establishment 
so salutary to the country. His majesty, while he 
assured them of his protection, and promised a 
redress of all grievances, mentioned the con- 
currence of the nobles as a necessary condition ; 
and dismissed them with an exhortation to con- 
tinue their sittings until they should have brought 
their design to a pacific conclusion. The no- 
bles, breaking up without coming to any resolu- 
tion, and preparing, it is said, to leave Copenha- 
gen, the court and the popular party took the 
necessary measures to force them to a concurrence. 
Orders were given to shut the gates of the capi- 
tal, when a message arrived that they were ready 
to concur with the commons, and subscribe to all 
the conditions of the royal pleasure. Nothing 
now remained but to ratify the transaction with 
proper solemnity. Accordingly, on th 1 6th of 
October, the estates annulled in the most s olcma 
manner, the capitulation or charter signed by tne 
king on his accession to the throne ; absolved him 



from all his engagements, and cancelled all the 
limitations imposed upon his sovereignty! The 
whole was concluded by the ceremony of doing 
homage, taking the new oath with great ceremony ; 
after which a new form of government was 
promulgated under the title of The Royal Law 
of Denmark. 

Frederic III. was succeeded, in 1670, by his son 
Christian V., who obliged the duke of Holstein 
Gottorp to renounce the advantages he had gained 
by the treaty of Roschild. He then recovered a 
number of places in Schonen ; but his army 
was defeated in the bloody battle of Lun- 
den by Charles XI. of Sweden. This de- 
feat did not put an end to the war, which 
Christian obstinately continued till he was 
defeated entirely at the battle of Landscroon ; 
and, having exhausted his dominions in his mi- 
litary operations, he was in a manner aban- 
doned by all his allies, and forced to sign a treaty 
on the terms prescribed by France, in 1679. 
Christian, however, did not desist from his mili- 
tary attempts ; and at last became the ally and 
subsidiary of Louis X[V. He died in 1699, and 
was succeeded by Frederic IV., who, like his 
predecessors, maintained his pretensions upon 
Holstein ; and, probably, would have become 
master of that duchy, had not the English and 
Dutch fleets raised the siege of Tonningen ; while 
the young king of Sweden, Charles XII., then 
only sixteen years of age, landed within eight 
miles of Copenhagen, to assist his brother-in-law 
the duke of Holstein. Charles probably would 
have made himself master of Copenhagen, had 
not his Danish majesty agreed to the peace of 
Travendahl, which was entirely in the duke's 
favor. By another treaty concluded with the 
States General, Frederic obliged himself to fur- 
nish a body of troops who were to be paid by 
the confederates ; and who afterwards did great 
service against the French. Notwithstanding 
this peace, Frederic was perpetually engaged in 
wars with the Swedes. While Charles was an 
exile at Bender, he marched through Holstein 
into Swedish Pomerania, and in 1712 into Bre- 
men, and took the city of Stade. His troops, 
however, were totally defeated by the Swedes at 
Gadesbusch, who laid his favorite city of Altona 
in ashes. Frederic revenged himself by seizing 
great part of the ducal Holstein, and forcing the 
Swedish general, count Steinbock, to surrender 
himself prisoner, with all his troops. In 1716 
the success of Frederic was so great, in taking' 
Tonningen and Stralsund, driving the Swedes 
out of Norway, and in reducing Wismar and 
Pomerania, that his allies began to suspect he 
was aiming at the sovereignty of all Scandinavia. 
Upon the return of Charles of Sweden from his 
exile, he renewed the war against Denmark with 
a most embittered spirit ; but upon his death at 
the siege of Fredericshal, Frederic durst not re- 
fuse the offer of his Britannic majesty's mediation 
between him and the crown of Sweden ; in con- 
sequence of which a peace was concluded at 
Stockholm, which left him in possession of the 
duchy of Sleswick. Frederic died in 1730, after 
having seen his capital reduced to ashes by an 
accidental fire, in 1728. His son and successor 
Christian VI. made no other use of his power, 

and the advantages with which lie mounted the 
throne, than to cultivate peace with all his neigh- 
bours, and to promote the happiness of his sub- 
jects, whom he eased of many oppressive taxes. 
In 1734, after guaranteeing the Pragmatic Sanc- 
tion, he sent 6000 men to the assistance of the 
emperor, during the dispute about the succession 
to the crown of Poland. Though he was pacific, 
yet he was jealous of his rights, especially over 
Hamburgh. He obliged the Hamburghers, in 
1736, to call in the mediation of Prussia, to 
abolish their bank, to admit the coin of Denmark 
as current, and to pay him a million of silver 
marks. He had, in 1738, a dispute with king 
George II. about the little lordship of Steinhorst, 
which had been mortgaged to the latter by the 
duke of Holstein Lauenburg, and wnich Christian 
said belonged to him. Some blood was spilt 
during the contest ; in which Christian, it is 
thought, never was in earnest. It brought on, 
however, a treaty, in which he availed himself of 
his Britannic majesty's predilection for his Ger- 
man dominions ; for he agreed to pay Christian 
a subsidy of 70,000 sterling a year on condition 
of keeping in readiness 7000 troops for the pro- 
tection of Hanover : which was a gainful bargain 
for Denmark. And two years after he seized 
some Dutch ships for trading without his leave 
to Iceland : but the difference was made up by 
the mediation of Sweden. Christian had so 
great a party in that kingdom, that it was gene- 
rally thought he would revive the union of Cal- 
mar, by procuring his son to be declared successor 
to his then Swedish majesty. Some steps for 
that purpose were certainly taken : but whatever 
Christian's views might have been, the design 
was frustrated by the jealousy of other powers. 
Christian died in 1746, with the character of 
being an excellent monarch. His son and suc- 
cessor, Frederic V., had, in 1743, married the 
princess Louisa, daughter to king George II. 
He improved upon his father's plans for the hap- 
piness of his people ; but took no concern, ex- 
cept that of a mediator, in the German war. For 
it was by his intervention that the treaty of Clos- 
terseven was concluded between the duke of 
Cumberland and the French general Richelieu. 
Upon the death of queen Louisa, mother to 
the late king, he married a daughter of the duke 
of Brunswick Wolfenbuttel ; and died in 1766. 
He was succeeded by his son Christian VII. 
who married the princess Carolina Matilda of 
England, an alliance which proved unfortunate, 
as is generally stated through the intrigues of 
the queen dowager. The king had displaced 
several of her friends who had for some time had 
a share in the administration ; and the two new 
favorites, Brandt and Struensee, who had now 
appeared, paid great court to the queen. The 
dowager on this took occasion to insinuate, that 
the queen had condescended to an intrigue with 
Struensee. The result is familiar to most of our 
readers. When the plan of removing the existing 
administration was brought 19* maturity, it was 
resolved to surprise the king in the middle of the 
night, and force him instantly to sign an order 
for committing the ministers to separate prisons ; 
to accuse them of high treason in general, and 
particularly with a design to dethrone or poison 



the king. If this could not be properly authen- 
ticated, it was determined to suborn witnesses 
to confirm the report of a criminal correspondence 
between the queen and Struensee. This design 
was executed on the night of the 16th of January, 
1772, when a masked ball was given at the court. 
The queen, after having danced most part of the 
evening with count Struensee, retired to her 
chamber about two in the morning. About four 
the same morning prince Frederic rose, and went 
with the queen dowager to the king's bed-cham- 
ber, accompanied by general Eichstedt and count 
Rantzau. Having ordered his valet de chambre 
10 awake the king, they informed him that the 
queen, with Struensee, his brother, and Brandt, 
were at that moment busy in drawing up an act 
of renunciation of the crown, which they would 
immediately after compel him to sign ; and there 
was therefore a necessity for him to give an order 
for their arrest. Christian is said to have hesi- 
tated for some time, and to have been inclined 
to refuse this scandalous requisition ; but at 
length, through importunity, and, according to 
some accounts, being even threatened into com- 
pliance, he consented to what they required. 
Count Rantzau was despatched, at an untimely 
hour, into the queen's apartments, and immedi- 
ately executed the orders of the king. This un- 
fortunate lady, together with an infant princess, 
was conveyed in one of the king's coaches to the 
castle of Cronenburgh, escorted by a party of 
dragoons. Struensee and Brandt were seized in 
their beds and imprisoned, as well as other mem- 
bers of the administration to the number of eigh- 
teen. The queen dowager and her adherents 
assumed the government, and a total change took 
place in all departments of the state. The prince 
royal, son of queen Carolina Matilda, then in the 
fifth year of his age, was put under the care of a 
lady of quality, who was appointed governess, 
under the superintendency of the queen dowager. 
Struensee and Brandt were put in irons, and 
underwent long and frequent examinations. Stru- 
ensee at last confessed that he had conducted a 
criminal intrigue with the queen. These minis- 
ters were both beheaded on the 28th of April ; 
but many of their partisans were set at liberty. 
Such is one mode of accounting for the revolution 
of 1772. The confession of Struensee is by many 
supposed to have been extorted by fear of the 
torture, and to have no foundation in truth ; but, 
as no means were used by the court of Great 
Britain to clear up the queen's character, the 
affair undoubtedly wears a suspicious aspect. 
At last, however, his Britannic majesty interfered 
so far as to send a small squadron of ships to 
convoy the unhappy princess to Germany. The 
city of Zell was appointed for her residence; and 
in this place she died of a fever on the 10th May, 
1775, aged twenty- three years and ten months. 

Of Struensee as a minister, 'it must not be for- 
gotten,' says an able writer in the Edinburgh 
Review, September 1826, ' that he was the first 
minister of an absolute monarchy who abolished 
the torture, and that he patronised those excellent 
plans for the emancipation of the enslaved 
husbandmen, which were first conceived by Re- 
verdil a Swiss, and of which the adoption by the 
second Bernstorff has justly immortalised that 

statesman. He will be honored by after ages for 
what offended the Lutheran clergy : the free ex- 
ercise of religious worship granted to Calvinists, 
to Moravians, and even to Catholics ; for the 
Danish clergy were ambitious of retaining the 
right to persecute, not only long after it was im- 
possible to exercise it, but even after they had lost 
the disposition to do so; at first to overawe, af- 
terwards to degrade non-conformists; in both 
stages, as a badge of the privileges and honor of 
an established church.' 

The same writer, in a Review of general Fal- 
kenskiold's Memoirs of the Revolution of 1772, 
observes, that the evidence against the queen 
consisted in/ a number of circumstances (none of 
them incapable of an innocent explanation) sworn 
to by her attendants, who were employed as spies 
on her conduct. She owned that she was guilty 
of much imprudence ; but in her dying moments 
she declared to M. Roques, pastor of the French 
church at Zell, that she never had been unfaithful 
to her husband. (Communicated by M. Roques 
to M. Secretan, the editor of Falkenskiold, on 
the 7th of March 1780. Falk. 234.) It is true 
that her own signature affixed to a confession was 
alleged against her. But if general Falkenski- 
old was rightly informed (for he has every mark 
of honest intention), that signature proves nothing 
but the malice and cruelty of her enemies. 
Schack, the counsellor sent to interrogate her at 
Cronenburgh, was received by her with indigna- 
tion when he spoke to her of her connexion with 
Struensee. When he showed Struensee's con- 
fession to her, he artfully intimated that the fallen 
minister would be subjected to a very cruel 
death if he was found to have falsely criminated 
the queen. ' What ! ' she exclaimed, ' do you 
believe that if I was to confirm this declaration, 
I should save the life of that unfortunate man ?' 
Schack answered with a profound bow. The 
queen took a pen, wrote the first syllable of her 
name, and fainted away. Schack completed the 
signature, and carried away the fatal document 
in triumph. Struensee himself, however, had 
confessed his intercourse to the commission- 
ers. It is said that his confession was obtained 
by threats of torture, facilitated by some 
hope of life, and influenced by a knowledge that 
the proceeding against the queen could not be 
carried beyond divorce. But his repeated and 
deliberate avowals to Dr. Munter do not (it must 
be owned) allow of such an explanation. Scarcely 
any supposition favorable to this unhappy prin- 
cess remains, unless it should be thought likely, 
that as Dr. Munter's narrative was published 
under the eye of her oppressors, they mighthave 
caused the confessions of Struensee to be inserted 
in it, by their own agents, without the consent, 
perhaps without the knowledge of Munter, whose 
subsequent life is so little known, that we cannot 
determine whether he ever had the means of ex- 
posing the falsification. It must be confessed, 
however, it is added, that internal evidence does 
not favor this hypothesis; for the passages of the 
narrative, which contain the avowals of Struensee, 
have a striking appearance of genuineness. 

Their treatment of Matilda did not long prove 
advantageous to the queen dowager and her 
party. Another revolution took place in April 




1784, when the queen dowager's friends were 
removed, and a new council was formed tmder 
the sole auspices of the prince royal. After that 
period the king, who from the beginning of his 
reign showed a great degree of incapacity, was 
entirely detached from the government ; and the 
prince, who finally succeeded to the throne in 
1808, conducted with great circumspection and 
ability the whole of the public affairs. The 
Danes took part with the late empress of Russia 
in her war with the Turks, the immediate oppo- 
nent of Denmark being Sweden, and, in 1801, 
acceded to the confederacy formed by the northern 
powers against the naval superiority of Great 
Britain, under the title of a Convention of Neu- 
trality. But this league was quickly dissolved 
by the appearance of Lord Nelson in the Baltic, 
who, in the battle of the 2d April of that year, 
forced the line of defence formed by the Danish 
fleet before Copenhagen, and compelled the Danes 
to agree to a cessation of arms, in order to pre- 
serve their capital. In this short war they lost 
their islands in the West Indies, and the settle- 
ment of Tranquebar, on the coast of Coromandel. 
But the dispute between England and the northern 
powers being soon after amicably adjusted by a 
treaty, their foreign possessions were restored to 
them. We have noticed a second rupture be- 
tween Denmark and Great Britain in 1807, and 
its fatal consequence to the commerce of the for- 
mer. In fact it led also to the still more humilia- 
ting result of the dismemberment of Norway. 
For in the united efforts of the allies to crush the 
power of Buonaparte, this country and Russia 
both came into that arrangement with the crown 
prince of Sweden, which terminated in his tak- 
ing possession of this oid appendage of Den- 

The language of Denmark is a dialect of the 
Teutonic, and bears a strong affinity to that of 
Norway : it is disagreeable to strangers on ac- 
count of the drawiing tone with which it is pro 
nounced. Many words have been borrowed from 
the German, and the Dutch is often used in com- 
mon discourse. French also is well understood, 
and frequently spoken by all classes. 

DENNIS (John), once a critic of celebrity, 
the son of a tradesman in London, was born in 
1657. He received the rudiments of his edu- 
cation at Harrow, and took his degree of A. B 
at Caius College, Cambridge, after which he 
made the tour of Europe. On his return he 
became acquainted with Dryden, Wycherley, 
Congreve, and Southern; whose conversation 
inspiring him with a passion for poetry, and the 
belles lettres, diverted him from the exercise of 
any profession. His zeal, however, for the pro- 
testant succession recommended him to the duke 
of Marlborough, who procured him a place in 
the customs worth 120 per annum; which he 
enjoyed for some years, till, by want, of economy, 
he was obliged to dispose of it to satisfy some 
pressing demands. In 1704 came out his fa- 
vorite tragedy, Liberty Asserted ; in which were 
so many strokes on the French nation, that he 
had worked himself into a persuasion, that the 
king of France would insist on his being delivered 
up, before he would consent to a peace ; and 
when the congress was held at Utrecht, he is said 

to have waited on his patron, the duke of Marl- 
borough, to desire that no such article might be 
stipulated. The duke told him he really had no 
interest with the ministry ; but had made no such 
provision for his own security, though he could 
not help thinking he had aone the French as 
much injury as Mr. Dennis. Dennis, partly 
through a natural petulance of temper, and partly 
to procure the means of subsistence, was con- 
tinually engaged in paper wars with his contem- 
poraries. His attacks on distinguished authors 
were numerous, among whom were Addison, 
Steele, and Pope. In the close of his days a 
play was acted for his benefit, at the little theatre 
in the Hay-market ; when Pope, notwithstanding 
his previous gross abuse of him, even wrote a 
prologue to the play. He died on the 6th of 
January, 1733. As a dramatic author, it was 
justly said of him by a wit, that he was the 
most complete instructor for a dramatic poet, 
since he could teach him to distinguish good 
plays by his precepts, and bad ones by his ex- 

DENOMINATE, v. a.^ Fr. denominer ; 
DENOM'INABLE, adj. I Span. denomindr ; 
DENOMINATION, n.s. Sltal. and Lat. deno- 
DENOM'INATIVE, adj. Lminare; from de 
DENOMINATOR, n. s. J and nomino, nomen, 
a name. To give name to. Denominable sig- 
nifies, that may be named; denomination the 
name given : denominative, that which gives a 
name; characteristic: denominator, the giver of 
a name, or a particular number in the doctrine of 
fractions. See FRACTIONS. 

DENON, Dominique V 7 ivant, baron de, was 
born Feb. 4, 1747, at Chalons-sur-Saone, of a 
noble family. He was destined to study law at 
Paris, where he was favorably received in so- 
ciety ; and his talent and inclination led him to 
devote himself to the arts. A comedy which he 
wrote, called the Good Father, gained him the 
favor of the ladies. His amiable manners made 
him a favorite of Louis XV., who appointed him 
gentilhomme ordinaire about his person. lie was 
afterwards attached to an embassy at St. Peters- 
burg, where Catherine, however, observed him 
with a jealous eye. Subsequently he was in- 
trusted with a diplomatic mission to Switzerland. 
On this occasion, he drew Voltaire's likeness 
(engraved by St. Aubin), and the well known 
picture Le Dejeuner de Ferney. He then oc- 
cupied, during seven years, a place in the French 
embassy at Naples. His residence in this city, 
and repeated visits to Sicily and Malta, gave him 
an opportunity of exercising his talent for draw- 
ing and engraving. Denon had the principal 
direction of the artists engaged in preparing the 
abbe St. Non's Voyage Pittoresque de Naples et 
de Sicile, and the text was chiefly taken from 
his journal. This elegant work appeared at 
Paris in 1788. The remainder of Denon's 
journal, relating to Sicily and Malta, appeared 
separately, in 1788. His career at Naples was 
interrupted by the death of the minister Ver- 
gennes, his patron, or, according to some, by the 
displeasure of the queen, Maria Caroline. But 
still his love for the study of the great masters 
detained him in Italy. He resided at Venice 
during several years, where he shone in the 




circles of the countess Albrizzi, who was dis- 
tinguished for her amiable and intelligent cha- 
racter, and loved to be surrounded by men of 
talent. Denon was not forgotten in her Rittratti, 
where she bestows the greatest praise on his cha- 
racter, his passion for the arts, his cheerfulness, 
and amiable disposition, and excuses the raillery 
with which he attacked the foibles of others. 
The observation a,nd restraint, to which the revo- 
lution subjected Frenchmen in foreign countries, 
compelled him to leave Venice. After a short 
stay in Florence and Switzerland, he was obliged 
to return to France during the reign of terror; 
but he made himself agreeable to Robespierre, 
and was, in consequence, subsequently accused 
of devotion, at that time, to Jacobin principles. 
During this period he exercised himself in en- 
graving. At last, he became acquainted with 
Buonaparte, and immediately united himself 
with him. He accompanied the general in his 
campaigns to Italy and Egypt, and Desaix to 
Upper Egypt. The work which was the result 
of this journey, was an addition to Denon's 
fame, particularly the engravings which orna- 
ment it (Paris, 1802, 2 vojs. fol., and 3 vols. 
12ino., without engravings). Denon, in this, 
has shown himself a very able artist. Nature, 
animate and inanimate, the monuments of cen- 
turies, and the Arabian flying through the de- 
sert, are represented with great fidelity. When 
he returned to Paris with Buonaparte, he was 
appointed general director of the museums, and 
all the works of art executed in honor of the 
French successes monuments, coins, the erec- 
tion of the triumphal pillar in the place de Ven- 
dome, &c. He accompanied Napoleon in all 
his campaigns, and employed himself in draw- 
ing, and in selecting those masterpieces in the 
conquered countries, which were taken to Paris 
as trophies. In 1815, he was compelled to wit- 
ness the restoration of the spoils. After the ab- 
dication of the emperor, he retained his office, 
hut was deprived of it in 1815, in consequence 
of having joined Napoleon on his return from 
Elba. He retained, however, his place in the 
institute. From that time he lived retired, and 
the preparation of engravings and lithographs of 
his splendid collection of works of art, formed 
the occupation of his last years. He died at 
Paris, April 28, 1825. His mind was active to 
the last. Denon much resembled Voltaire in his 
old age. In 1826 appeared at Paris the De- 
scription des Objets d'Art composant le Cabinet 
de feu M. le Bar. V. Denon, in 3 vols. (Monu- 
mens antiques, tableaux et estampes). The 
cabinet was sold by auction. 

DENOTE, v. a. { Lat. denoto, to mark ; 

DENOTATION, n. s. i to be a sign of; to be- 
token ; to show by signs : the act of denoting ; a 

DENOUNCE, v. a. 3 Fr. denoncer ; Span. 

DENOUNC'EK, n. s. Idenunciar ; Ital. denon- 

DENOUNCE'MENT. J dare ; Lat. denunciare, 
from de against, and nuncio, to carry orders. To 
threaten or impugn by public or open proclama- 
tion. Denouncement is the proclamation made. 

DENSE, adj. ) Lat. densus, close ; com- 

DENS'ITY, n. s. i pact ; approaching to so- 

DENSITY, denotes vicinity or closeness of par- 
ticles; but in mechanical science, it is used as a 
term of comparison, expressing the proportion of 
the number of equal moleculae, or the quantity 
of matter in one body to the number of equal 
moleculae in the same bulk of another body. 
Density, therefore, is directly as the quantity of 
matter and inversely as the magnitude of the 
body. Since it may be shown experimentally, 
that the quantities of matter, or the masses in 
different bodies, are proportional to their weights ; 
of consequence the density of any body is directly 
as its weight, and inversely as its magnitude ; or, 
the inverse ratio of the magnitudes of two bodies, 
having equal weights, in the same place, con- 
stitutes the ratio of their densities. 

DE'NSHIRE, v. a. A barbarous term of 

DENTAL, adj. & n. s.^\ From Lat. dentalis, 

DENTI'CULATION, n. s. dens, dentis, a tooth. 

DENTI'CULATED, adj. \ Dental is, relating 

DENT'IFRICE, n. s. J>-to the teeth, and the 

DENT'ISE, v. a. , I name of a small 

DEN I'IST, n. s. \ shell-fish : denticu- 

DENTI'TION. J lated, being set with 

teeth, like a saw: dentifrice, a tooth powder: 

denlise, to renew the teeth ; dentition being the 

corresponding substantive : and dentist, a modern 

word for the profession of healing, preserving, 

and drawing teeth. 

DENTALIUM, in natural history, a shell-fish 
belonging to the order of vermes testacea. The 
shell consists of one tubulous straight valve, open 
at both ends, and not divided into chambers. 
There are twelve species, distinguished by the 
angles, string, &c., of their shells. 

DENTARIA, tooth-wort, or tooth-violet, in 
botany, a genus of the siliquosa order, and te- 
tradynamia class of plants ; natural order, thirti- 
eth, siliquosae. The siliqua parts with a spring, 
and the valvules roll spirally backwards ; the 
stigma is emarginated ; the calyx closing longi- 
tudinally. There are five species, all of them 
hardy perennials ; producing annual stalks 
twelve or eighteen inches high, adorned with 
many lobed leaves, and spikes of quadrupetalous 
cruciform flowers of a red or purple color. They 
delight in shady places, and are propagated 
either by seeds or parting the roots. The seeds 
may be sown in autumn or early in the spring, 
in a shady border of light earth ; and when the 
plants are three inches high, they may be planted 
where they are to remain. The time for parting 
the roots is in October or November, or early in 
the spring. 

DENTATUS (Curius), a renowned Roman 
general, whose virtues render him more memo- 
rable than his victories, flourished A. A. C. 272. 
He was thrice consul ; conquered the Samnites, 
Sabines, and Lucanians ; and gave each citizen 
forty acres of land, allowing himself no more. 
The ambassadors of the Samnites making him a 
visit, found him boiling turnips in a pipkin ; upon 
which they offered him gold to come over to their 
interest : he told them his design was not to grow 
rich, but to command those who were so. He 
defeated Pyrrhus near Tarentum, and received 
the honour of a triumph. 




DENTATUS (Sicinius), a hero of ancient Rome, 
of the plebeian order, who flourished about 
A.U C. 300. When disputes ran high between 
the patricians and plebeians, concerning the Agra- 
rian law, Dentatus addressed the people, and 
expatiated upon his achievements and his hard- 
ships. He had served his country in the wars 
forty years ; he had been an officer thirty ; first 
a centurion and then a tribune ; he had fought 
in 120 battles, and by the force of his single arm 
had saved the lives of a multitude of his fellow 
citizens. He had gained fourteen civic, five 
mural, and eight golden crowns ; besides eighty- 
three chains, sixty bracelets, eighteen gilt spears, 
and twenty-three horse-trappings, of which nine 
were for killing the enemy in single combat: 
and he had received forty-five wounds, all before, 
none behind. These were his honors ; yet not- 
withstanding all this, he had never received any 
share of those lands which were won from the 
enemy, but continued to drag on a life of poverty 
and contempt, whilst others possessed those very 
territories which his valor had won, without any 
merit to deserve them, or ever having contributed 
to the conquest. The people unanimously de- 
manded that the law might be passed, and that 
such high merit should not pass unrewarded. 
Some of the senators attempted to speak, but 
were overpowered by the cries of the people. 
At last a number of resolute young patricians 
rushing furiously amongst the crowd, broke the 
balloting urns, and dispersed the multitude. For 
this riot they were fined by the tribunes, but 
they gained their object for the time, by getting 
the Agrarian law postponed. Such was the 
justice of the Roman patricians, at one of the 
most virtuous periods of that celebrated republic. 

DENTELLA, in botany, a genus of the mo- 
nogynia order, and pentandria class of plants : 
CAL. a five-parted perianth, with small subulated 
leaves ; STAM. five short subulated filaments ; 
ANTH. small ; PERICARP, globular ; CAPS, bilocu- 
lar; SEED, egg shaped, and very numerous. 
Species one only, a native of New Caledonia. 

DENTE'LLT, n. s. Ital. Modillons. 

The modillions, or dentelli, make a noble show by 
graceful projections. Spectator, No. 415. 

DENTILES, or DENTILS, in architecture, an 
ornament in cornices bearing some resemblance 
lo teeth, particularly used in the Ionic and Corin- 
thian orders. 

DENTISCALPRA, in surgery, an instrument 
for scouring yellow, livid, or black teeth ; to 
which being applied, near the gums, it scrapes 
off the foul morbid crust. 


1JEJNU 1JE, v. a. ^ Lat. denude, from de 
DENU'DATE, v. a. Sand nudo (ne and duo 
DENUDA'TION, n. x. j the root of induo to 
clothe). To strip; to make naked. 

Till be has denudated himself of all incumbrances, 
he is unqualified. Decay of Piety. 

Not a treaty can be obtained, unless we would de- 
nude ourselves of all force to defend us. Clarendon. 

If in summer-time you denude a vine-branch of its 
leaves, the grapes will never ceme to maturity. 

Ray on the Creation. 

V<iL. VII. 

DENUNCIATION, n. s. ) Lat. denunaatia. 


The act of denouncing ; the proclamation of a 
threat ; a public menacer. 

In a denunciation or indiction of a war, the war is 
not confined to the place of the quarrel, but is left at 
large. Bacon. 

Christ tells the Jews, that, if they believe not, 
they shall die in their sins ; did they never read those 
denunciations ? Ward. 

Midst of these denunciations, and notwithstanding 
the warning before me, I commit myself to lasting 
durance Congreve. 

The denunciator does not make himself a party in 
judgment as the accuser does. Ayliffe's Parerg. 

DENY', . a. ~\ Fr. nier ; Span, denegar ; 

DENI'AL.TI j. >Ital. and Lat. negare ; from 

DENI'ER, 9 Lat. ne and ago, to refuse to 

do. To refuse ; contradict ; and hence to dis- 
regard j denounce. 

If we denyen he schal denye us ; if we bileeuen not 
he dwellith fcithful he mai not denye himsilff. 

Wiclif, 2 Tymo. 2. 

It shall be therefore a witness unto you, lest you 
deny your God. Joshua xxiv. 27. 

And therfor, though he had thus made a realme, 
holy Scripture denyid to cal hym a kyng. Fortesque. 

The denial of landing, and hasty warning us away, 
troubled us much. Bacon. 

My young boy 

Hath an aspect of intercession, which 
Great nature cries deny not. Shakspeare. 

Here comes your father ; never make denial : 
I must and will have Catherine to my wife. Id. 

It may be I am esteemed by my denier sufficient of 
myself to discharge my duty to God as a priest, though 
not to men as a prince. King Charles. 

How unworthy is he of life, who with the same 
breath that he receives, denies the Giver of it. 

Bishop Hall. Contemplations. 

The negative authority is also deniable by reason. 


Ah, charming fair, said I, 
How long can you my bliss and yours deny ? 


We may deny God in all those acts that are capa- 
ble of being morally good or evil : those are the 
proper scenes in which we act our confessions or de- 
nials of him. South. 

The best sign and fruit of denying ourselves, is 
mercy to others. Spratt. 

Our Saviour assures us, that if a tender mother 
cannot deny the son of her love any reasonable re- 
quest, much less will God deny his Holy Spirit to 
them that ask him. Clarke's Sermons. 

No man more impudent to deny, where proofs 
were not manifest ; no man more ready to confess, 
with a repenting manner of aggravating his own evil, 
where denial would but make the fault fouler. 


By the word Virtue the affirmer intends our 
whole duty to God and man, and the denier by the 
word Virtue means only couiage, or, at most, our 
duty towards our neighbour, without including the 
idea of the duty which we owe to God. Watt*. 

If you had been contented to assist him indirectly, 
without a notorious denial of justice, or openly insult- 
ing the sense of th-; nation, you might have satisfied 
every duty of political friendship. Junivs. 

It has been asserted, that, if you alter her symbols, 
you alter the being of the church of England. This, 
for the sake of the liberty of that church, I must ab- 
solutely deny. 





I have gnashed 

My teeth in darkness till returning morn, 
Then cursed myself till sun-set ; I have prayed 
For madness as a blessing 'tis denied me. Byron. 

DENYS (St.) a town of France, in the depart- 
ment of Paris, famous for a magnificent church, 
built by king Dagobert, in 632; in which were 
the tombs of many of the French kings, of the 
constable Guesclin, and of marshal Turenne. In 
ihe treasury, among other curiosities, were the 
swords of St. Lewis, and the Maid of Orleans, 
and the sceptre of Charlemagne. The abbey of 
the Benedictines, a magnificent piece of modern 
architecture, has more the appearance of a palace 
than a convent. In 1793 the republican popu- 
lace broke into the royal tombs, and greatly 
dilapidated the buildings. In 1806 Bonaparte 
caused them to be repaired, selected the church 
as the burying-place for his own family, and 
founded a chapter here of ten canons, which 
the Bourbons have retained with some modifica- 
tions. The late prince of Conde has been in- 
terred here since the return of Louis XVIII. 
St. Denys is seated on the river Crould, near the 
Seine, five miles north of Paris, and contains 
6000 inhabitants. 

DEOBSTRUCT, v. a. > From de privative, 
which see. To clear away obstacles ; deobstruent 
is, having the power to remove obstructions. 

It is a singular good wound-herb, useful for deob- 
itructimj the pores of the body. 

Morc's Antidote against Atheism. 

Such as carry off the faeces and mucus, deubstruct 
the mouth of the lacteals, so as the chyle may have a 
free passage into the blood. Arbuthnot on Diet. 

All sopes are attenuating and deobstruent, resolving 
viscid substances. Id. on Aliments. 

DE'ODAND, n. s. Lat. Deo