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THS X,0Wi5O,S 

" ~~ " >-OE If.:::!. ^ " ^ 

:^l^« SriJmat,^orri. T 


ill the varicnxs hraufhes of 



•nvam yommtasam 










((Original CTommunicationjS 






l^actical iile^anicsi* 

— « » m 

^}> <VJ^\voL. IV. 

^^— LONDON: 




J, and C. ADLARD, Printers, 
as, Bartholomew Cio$0, 


* • • . 

• • 

I • •••»■.• • 

• • i 


Tke Proprietobs of the London Journal of Arts 
cannot close their fourth volume without ataiUng themselves of 
the opportunity to express their thanks for the very liberal and 
increasing support which their exertions have received during 
the present year. 

They have ever felt persuaded that a Journal like thisj exhim 
biting fAe ear/^s^ improvements in /i^ Arts a»d Manufac- 
tures, must be a valuable repository of useful knowledge; 
andf as such, their labours have been received. 

Confident that a faithful and impartud report of ev^y 
invention has been given^ they here again pledge themselves to 
a strict adherence to the same plan, spirit^ and exeriianSf which 
have marked their progress from the commencement. 

NOVBMBBB 30TH> )822. 


I. £cksteiD*8 Portable Kitchen ; Deurbroucq's Distilling Ap- 
paratus ; and Winter's Machine for sewing Gloves. 
II. Grimshaw's Rope-making Machinery; and Gordon's 
'" III. Newman's Blow-pipe ; and Macnamara's Paving-stones). 
IV. Applegiath*s Printing Apparatus; and Hawking' Anchors. 
V. Coles' Chronometer ; and Brown's Improved Boiler. 
VI. Martin and Grafton's Lamp-black Apparatus. 
VII. Christopher's Substitute for Anchors. 
VIII. Gladstone's Mode of Strengthening Timbers ; Tomlinson's 

improved Rafters ; and Holdsworth's Roofs. 
"^ IX. Cochrane'g Lamps ; and Motley's Candlesticks. 
X. Gladstone's improved Mode of Propelling Vessels; 
Gordon's Steam-Packets ; and Bill's Improvements in 
Iron Masts. 
XI. W^s Smelting Furnaces. 

XII. Yardle/s Glue-making Apparatus; Gordon's Kettle; and 
Postan and Jeakes*s Cooking Plate. 

XIII. Erard's Piano-forte ; and Gardner's Stays. 

XIV. Gauntlet's Vapour-bath. 

XV. Chabanne's Fishing-trap ; Smith's Apparatus for Dressing 

Piece Goods; and Hobday's Umbrella. 
XVL Fatton's Astronomical Watch; and Roxby's improved 



Wi'nftr/'.y, Machine J'or 

,^'cwi?ij/ C'lovrs. //t-iir/'n'iii/'.'. JH.'tilfui'/ ^ippunidt.'. 




No. XIX 

metent 9atent0« 

To GsoROB FaBDRic BcKSTBiN, of High Holbam, 
London^ far certain improvements in CookiT$g Appa^ 

Thb improvements proposed in this patent consist of 
a combination of implements or utensils for cookings, 
f^faich are capable, of being packed together in so small 
a compass m to become perfectly par table: the grata 
and fuel, with all the necessary articles for roasting, 
boiling, baking, frying, broiling, stewing, and steaming, 
being contained in a box something less than two feet 
square ; the apparatus being thus rendered of easy trans« 
portation, is peculiarly convenient for the use of ther 
camp or the traveller. 

The external appearance of the case containing th& 
whole of Che cooking articles in a travelling state, if 

VOL. iir. A 

• A§cmi Patents. 

merely that of a square chest with two handles. On 
the lid being unlocked, its sides may be thrown open by 
withdrawing certain pins or bolts, passed through staples, 
which hold the sides and ends together. The two ends 
and lid of the box having been removed, the sides, 
which fold upon hinges, are laid down level with the 
bottom, forming a flat board ; into ' this, six legs are 
screwed ; after which the band is inverted, and thus a 
dining table is produced of about six feet long by two 
wide. The lid of the box, with four legs screwed into 
it, forms a stand, upon which the apparatus is to be 
placed for the purpose of cooking, as seen in oack 
and front views, Plate I. figs. 1 and 2. 

Fig. 1, exhibits the side and front of the portable 
kitchen in operation. It is externally formed by two 
cases or screens made of sheet iron or copper, enclosing 
a fire grate and oven ; a joint of meat is seen roasting, 
and also a kettle on the top for boiling or steaming. 
Fig. 2, represents the other side and back of the appa- 
ratus with the oven door open, into which a small kettle 
may be partially introduced, as shewn, and also a stew- 
ing stove with a sauce-pan over it. The fire-place is 
made of cast and wrought iron, and is intended to burn 
charcoal; but when sea-coal, coke, or wood is employed, 
it may be found necessary to suffer the smoke to dis- 
charge itself through a pipe, seen in fig. 2. passing over 
the oven. 

If this apparatus be used in a dwelling, and fuel be 
einplpyed w^ich emits smoke, the pipe must be placed 
near to, or in the chimney ; and if used in the open air 
it must be so situated that the mouth of the pipe cannot 
be choaked by the wind. The heat emitted from the 
gjrate with a small fire will be found sufficient for cook« 
ing with tatefa)>le expedition: that is to roast in front, 



r ] LOKN FO IJ N D A T F' > N -S 


Chrimahaw'si for Flat Aope^. 41 

to bake behiiid, and, at the same time^ to boil a kettl0» 
and saucepans above. 

The fuel is to be supplied through an opening on ibm 
top of the screen, and the heat may be regulated by 
shutters. A box jack is shewn in fig. 2, to which the 
spit may be attached, so as to keep the meat turning. 
There are about ten sauce-pans and kettles of various 
sizes suited to different culinary purposes, the whole of 
which pack together with the apparatus as above, and 
the screens slide into each other. 

This apparatus is principally designed to form part of 
the equipage of a camp, the employment of which, how* 
ever, in time of peace, must be extremely limited ; for 
travellers on expeditions of discovery, it might be 
found convenient and useful ; or, also, for what are 
termed gypsying parties. We have much pleasure io 
stating from pur personal knowledge, the complete 
effect of its operation, having, upon one occasion, formed 
part of a company of six, when a military officer and 
his servant cooked for us, in this portable kitchen, a very 
excellent and abundant meal of roast, baked, and 
boiled meats and vegetables. 

InroUedy November, 1821. 

To J OHN Grimsha w, of Bishopwearmouth^ in the County 
of Durhamyfor an invention of a new and improved 
method of Stitching y Lacing y or Mantifacturing qf 
Flat Ropes by means of certain Machinery connected 
with and Wrought by a Steam-enginCy or other Rok^ 
tive Power, 

For the better understanding of this improvement, the 
patentee describes the modes usually employed in the 
a4tachment of several ropes together, for the purpose of 

4 Mmmt P^sUait. 

iAftkuig flat ropes, qr rope baods^ sucb at are employed 
in drawing weights up tbe shafts of paines^ &c. See 
ffarvey*s patent for improvements in the manufacture 
9/ ropes and belts. Vol. II. page 6. of this Journal. 

Flat ropes are made by placing several round or ordi- 
nary ropes side by side, in a parallel direction, and fas- 
tening them together by a small cord passing through 
tbe ropes, (called lacing), which is generally done in a 
diagonal direction, cross and cross. For this purpose 
the several ropes called the strand are confined in a pipe 
or case, and being there perforated by a needle^ the 
lacing cords are passed through and drawn tight. 

This is sometimes done by manual labour, but more 
frequently by a sort of engine in which the strand of 
eords is passed step by step a short distance forward, 
and the piercers or needles, on opposite sides alternately 
forced through the several cords by levers worked by 
toothed wheels; after which, the lacing is introduced 
by band, and then drawn tight, so as to effect, the 
attachment by successive diagonal stitches until the 
whole length of the strand is united. 

There are various ways of performing the three ope- 
rations of piercing the holes, drawing the lacings through, 
and measuring the distance of the stitches ; but all of 
them have been, as the patentee conceives, heretofore 
effected by manual labour, tbe distances of the stitches 
Irom eaeb other, and the drawing of the lacing being 
left entirely to tbe discretion of the workman. 

Tbe particular object of this patent is to perform the 
above operations by the power of a steam-engine, or 
other first mover, which shall communicate a rotatory 
motion to certain toothed wheels of a machine, and thus, 
advance the strand of ropes progressively, and regularly, 
by which the distances of the lacing boles will b« 


GrimahMf^t for Flat Ropes. f 

•qvalksed. Plate 11. fig. 1, is ahorizootel view" of Ihf 
piercing part of the apparatus ; a, represents four rouod 
or common ropes, called the strand ; which round ropes 
are separately coiled upon distinct reels, as fig. 2. These 
reels» instead of being mounted so as to turn upon axles 
or pivots, have wheels fixed at their ends, the periphd« 
ries of which slide in curved grooves, g, g, so as X6 
produce sufficient friction to retard the reels, and keep 
all the ropes of the strand distended, and with a uniform 
tension upon each rope. This forms an important part 
of the improvement : for, ^' as the strand is drawn off 
from the reel, in like proportion the friction of the re^ 
upon the curved bearing is lessened by its becoming 
lighter, and thus, its retardation is equalized throughout 
the whole length of the rope." 

The box for holding the strand of ropes firmly to- 
gether while the hole is pierced, is capable of variatic^ 
in it» construction, and is not claimed as a new inven* 
tion ; nor are the needles or piercers as shewn at by bp 
fig. 1. These are moved by racks and toothed wheels; 
but the novelty claimed in this part of the machine 
consists in applying the power of a steam-engine, or 
oUier first mover, so as to produce a rotatory motion of 
tlie shaft of c, and hence, by means of the pinion c/, the 
cranks, e, e, e, e and connecting rods, /, /, to give 4 
uniform alternating motion to the piercers,, instead of 
working them by manual labour. 

The cord^ for lacing are to be passed through the 
apertures thus made in the ropes by means of needles by 
band ; and are each of them caught on the opposite Side 
bj a book connected to a roller, which is worked by a 
baild passing frpm the first mover ; ikte detail of which, 
at destsfibed in the specifieation, we do not clearly eOm* 

ft Recent PaterUs. 

prebend, therefore shall describe it in the words of. the 

** I insert the lacing in the ordinary way by a needle 
with two eyes ; the lacing is attached to one eye of this 
needle, and the needle, when put into the hole made 
through tt^e strand, is caught by the workman with a 
hook, 07, fig. 3, on the other side of the rope, by the 
other eye. This hook is fastened to the end of a cord, 
Vy and this cord fastened by its other end to a roller, Wy' 
and this roller connected by another cord to y, and my 
improvement* consists in connecting this same roller, y, 
to the principle rotative movement by means of a strap 
or belt, Zy z ; and this strap or belt is loaded, as shewn 
in the fig. 3, with any determinate weight at U sa as to 
keep the said strap, or belt, of one uniform tightness to 
such extent as the workman thinks proper, for drawing 
the lacing of the same exact tightness at every stitch. 
This is a very important improvement for drawing the 
lacing of tbe same uniform tension, as the strap or belt, 
tbus laden, slides upon the drums or pullies y, u. The 
moment that the lacing is drawn tight, the strand of 
ropes is advanced by means of the rollers Xr, t. A, fig. 
4, by which it is firmly held. A purchase is obtained' 
upon these rollers by cogged wheels and pinions, as 
shewn in the figure in the exact ratio of one revolution 
of the quickest pinion n, to the length of the stitch re- 

'* Upon the axle of the pinion 72, a pulley, o, is fixed 
of about two feet diameter, and about six inches broad,- 
with ledges to protect its strap, or belt, from sliding oflF; 
and directly under this pulley there must be a drum, 
9, constantly revolving, the periphery of which is going 
at the rftte of about four feet per second." The pulley, o,- 

Grimshaw*^, fof Flat Ropea. T 

and tlruiA, ?, ate connected by an endlegs dtrap or belt p, 
which hangs upon the pulley and passes under the dram, 
but is not sufficiently tight to cause the pulley to be turned 
by it. A jockey pulley or rider is mounted in the frame, 
r, for the purpose of being pressed against the strap, p, 
in order to make the strap adhere io the pulley, o, an4 
drum, 9, and, by that means, cause the pulley to revolve 
with the drum, and thus draw the strand of ropes for* 
war^/' The frame with the jockey-pulley, or rider, r, is 
made to press against the strap, />, by meansof the catch, 
8y until the pulley, o, has made one revolution, when a 
small pin, on the side of (he pulley, comes in contact with 
the catch, s, and lifts it up, and the rider, with its frame, 
r, falls back upon its pivot, by the action of the weight, 
which relieves the belt and the work stops ; thus, one 
stitch is measured of the length regulated by the work- 

** The barrel of A, is three feet six inches diameter ; 
the cogged wheel upon its axle has 104 teeth. The bar- 
rel of e, is one foot diameter, and the cogged wheel 
upon one end of its axle has 30 teeth ; that upon the 
other end 54. The pinion m^ taking into it, has 13 teeth, 
and the wheel 2, upon the same axle, 78 teeth. There is 
likewise another barrel of fifteen inches diameter, press- 
ing against the rope on the opposite side of the one foot 
barrel, and which carries a wheel of 4&< cogs, taking 
into that of 30 : this is to keep the rope from slipping 
when drawn forward. The pinion n, with 24 cogs 
makes a stitch, by this train, of about six inches in 
length. To lengthen the stitch the pinion must have a 
greater number of teeth, to shorten it a lesser number.** 
. By means of the apparatus for drawing • forward the 
ttrand, mathematical accuracy in the length of the stitch 
is eflfected ; by means of the sliding strap uniform!^ .ifi 

.8 RecMt Patmt9* 

ilie tigti tness of the lacing is effected ; and by the oaryiea 
under the reel wheels, aaeqaal degree of tension upptt 
each strand. Tbtts« by the combinatioii of this machioery, 
flat ropes are more perfectly made than by any other 
method now in use; and, by the application of the crank 
motion for piercing the holes through the strands, as well 
as the mode of drawing the stitches, the whole is re- 
duced to a regular rotative motion, and is capable of 
being worked by a steam-engine or other mechanical 

Inrolledy JunCy 1823. 

To Richard Summers Harford^ qf Ebbw Vale Iron 
Works, Aberyatwithy Monmouthshire , for an Imr 
provement in that Department of the Manufacture of 
Iron commonly called Puddling. 

The patentee states that he has experienced much in- 
convenience and difficulty in the employment of cast 
iron bottoms or floors, as usually applied to pud- 
dling furnaces, from the circumstance of their rapid 
decay, owing to the severe action of the heat that must 
necessarily be applied to that class of furnaces ; and, in 
consequence, he has adopted a mode of rendering them 
durable. *' Having found, (he says), when such bot- 
toms or floors are covered in the ordinary way with iron 
(dag, scoria, or sand, that either of these substances 
form, not only very imperfectly, the means of defending 
(he bottoms of floors from the injury that occurs when 
they are exposed to the intense heat necessary in the 
puddling proce^, but that either of these impart or engen- 
der impurities greatly injurious to the formation of 
good iron.** 

HaTfoT(V8yf(yr Improvements in Puddling, 9 

In consequence of these discoveries be has been in- 
duced to investigate the nature and properties of such 
other materials as appeared suitable for the purpose, and 
has found out certain substances which will completely 
prevent the bad effects above mentioned in the employ- 
ment of slag, scoria, or sand. He has also observed 
when the cast iron bottoms, or floors, of puddling fur- 
naces^ are covered with sand, slag, or scoria, thai por- 
tions of the siliceous matter, contained in these substances, 
become intimately united and intermixed with the iron 
which is undergoing the process of puddling, and, of 
consequence, a great portion of these impurities are im- 
parted, and the iron rendered very inferior in quality 
to iron which has been operated upon by the improved 

In order to prevent the inconvenience above described, 
the cast iron bottoms of the puddling Furnaces are to be 
spread over with a quantity of charcoal, either in the state 
in which it is obtained from the manufacturer, or reduced 
to powder, the latter of which is preferred : for, " as the 
charcoal in either state is a non-conductor of heat, it 
answers the purpose of protecting the ca^t iron bottoms, 
or floors, from the injurious effects of intense heat better 
than any substance, or material, hitherto used for the pre- 
servation of cast iron bottoms or floors.'" 

Although the Patentee prefers to employ charcoal in the 
way above described, yet the same beneficial effects may 
be obtained by using chips or sbavipgs of wood, saw-dust, 
peat-turf, the spent bark from tan-pits, plumbago, old 
leather, leather shavings, soot, and many other animal and 
vegetable substances, from which, when heat is applied, a 
sufficiently durable charcoal may be obtained for the 
above purpose. 
^ The specification concludes by saying, " I do hereby 


1 Rtcmt PoitmiitiK 

farther declare, that mj said ioventioa consiatoianotciDlj 
baiviiig dis^Qvefed the. benefit of using varioiu substances 
ior t)ie better preservation of the cast iron bottoms and 
-floors of puddling furnaces, but for the substitution of suek 
substances for those of slag, scoria, or sand, which impart, 
laud engender impurities verj injurious to tke fornrntioa 
-of good iron ; but which mj invention totally obviatea^ 
and thereby produces a superior iron, and thus effects 
an important improvement in that department of the 
manufacture of iron commonly called puddling.'^ 

On a perusal of the specifioation of this patent we 
cannot avoid observing the manifest advantages which 
are to. be obtained by a knowledge and careful applica* 
tion of the principles of chemistry to the useful arts. 
Primd facie f no person unacquainted with chemical pria* 
ciples would have taken powdered charcoal for the pur- 
poses to which it is applied in this specification : we ca9* 
not therefore too much press upon the attention of e%^fj 
one devoted to the arts, the great utility oi chemical 
knowledge, and tiie necessity of its study to form a pro* 
fici^nt artist. 

Inrolled^ May, I82S. 

To Richard Magna mara, Esq. of Canterbury Buitd- 
ingSy Lambeth, Surrey, for the Invention of an Im- 
provement in Paving, Pitching, and Covering 
Streets, Roads, and other Places, 

The patentee states that he has observed much 
culty and repeated failures take place in attempts made 
to render the present mode of paving streets aad roada 
permanent for any reasonable length of time ; this he 
considers to arise from the unconnected manner in which 

MacnamartL^^,, f&r Pa&ing Hoods. 1 1 

tbe nrdidarj pavhig stanes are placed. H«. bBs Uso 
observed, that it frequtently happens onis or mote stooet 
fitlik partially when great weights pads over them ; the 
conseqaeace of thii^ is, an accnrauiatioli of water takes 
p4ace in those hollows^ which ultimatieLy lodseas tbe 
fbondation of ell the irarrottudiog stones, and so mneh 
injures the roiad a& to caase a oontinnal expense iXk r<B- 

Tbe improvements propoiled, consist in formii^ tb^ 
sides of the paving stones with such angles to thek 
b^risbntal barfaces as i^ail enable them mdtually to sop* 
port each other, and thereby prevent the Itabfiity of oa^ 
or more stones sinking partially, and producing hollows 
in the road, which improvement will obviate the evil 
oonieqtiences above-mentioned, and preserve the road 
ia B, sound and level state,- fDr a long time^ withont repa*- 

Plate III. fig* &, cepresents thie uppe^ surface of 4 
portion of pavi^ about eight feet s()aare, cotnposai of 
twelve blocks of stone placed in cootact, the edgeis of 
which are bevelled at angles alternately, aeuie or obtUs^ 
to the (ylane of the upper surface. Fig. 9, is an edge 
view of several blockis in which the fcevels of the sides 
of the blocks are shewn. The object of thus forming 
the contrary edges of the blocks at contrary inclinations, 
is that the two obtud^ sides, d, ^, of each block, as 
B and D, shall be made to support the acute sides, 6, 6, of 
th6 blocks, A and C, adjoining, or in l&teral C6tttk6t ; 
l/V'hile the trtasverse ehds of the blocks, B hhd D, being 
^at6, Witt rest upon, ^nd h^ suj)j?6rted by the oblbse 
did^s 6f th6 blocks placed behind and befdre them. 
Thus it will be seeii, that, by cutting the transveri^e edges 
of the blocks as above directed, the whole mass of pav- 
ing will lo5k log^th^r, and ^ch block fiiutu&lly ^up^ori 
thbsig placed text to it. 



Recent Patents. 

These blocks may be made of auy convenient size, aS 
this particular form of the block will oqiially apply to 
any dimensions ; the principal object to be attended to 
is, to make the boundary lines on the upper surface at 
right angles, and to keep the faces of the bevelled sides 
as perfect as the nature of the stone will permit. When 
blocks of large dimensions are employed ft-r paving 
stones, it will be proper to cut grooves at certain dis- 
tances upon their upper surfaces, corresponding in shape 
and size to the division between ordinary paving stones, 
for the purpose of affording a secure foot-hold to the 
horses in travelling over them. 

There can be no doubt that the adoption of the 
method proposed by the patentee will obviate, in some 
degree at least, the present inconveniences attendant on 
paved roads; but we fear the expense of hewing the 
stones to the shape will be an insuperable bar to its in- 
troduction. A still further improvement in the pave- 
ment of the streets of London, and other towns, wonld, 
perhaps, be to form them in a segment of a circle, and 
let each stone be a part of an arch; this would remove 
much of the pressure from the Substratum to the sides. 
Rut the expense, in this case, would be of course great. 1 
Inrolled, May, 1822. 1 

ToJ AHEsWisTER, of Stoke-tmder-Hamdan,iniheCounfy 
of Somerset, for certain Improvements in a Machine 
for Sewing and Pointing Leather Gloves with Neat- 
ness and Strength, much superior to that which is 
effected by Manual Labour. 

This invention is an improvement upon a former 
machine for sewing and pointing leather gloves, for 

Winter^Syfor Sewing Leather Gloves. 18 

which' a patent was granted to the same person ; in J ^7. 
Plate I. fig. 4, represents a pedestal, upon which the 
instmment, called the jaws, is to be placed. Fig. 5, 
shews the jaws, which instead of opening and closing 
by a circular .movement upon a joint, as described in 
the former specification, , are now made to open and 
shut, by a parallel, horizontal movement, effected by a 
slider and screw ; a, a, is. the fixed jaw, made of one 
piece, on the under side of which is a tenon to be inserted 
into, the top of the pedestal. By means of this tenon 
the jaws^may be readily displaced, and another similar 
pair, of jaws placed in their stead, w;hich affords the adr 
vantage, of expediting the operation by enabling one 
perjson to prepare the work whilst another is sewing ; 
by by is the moveable jaw, made of one piece. The two 
jaws being placed together in the manner she w;n at fig. &, 
the moveable jaw; traverses backwards and forwards 
upon two guide-bars, c, which *are made to pass through 
holes exactly fitted to them in the lower parts of the 
jaws. At the upper part of the jaws are, what are called, 
the indej{;es, d^ dy which are pressed tightly together by 
a spring, shewn at fig. 6, and intended to be introduced 
between the perpendicular ribs of the jaws at e. At /, 
is a thumb-screw passing through the ribs for the pur- 
pose of tightening the jaws, and holding the leather fast 
between the indexes while being sewn ; this screw, 
however, will seldom, if ever, be necessary if the spring 
is sufficiently strong ; gy is an eye or ring fixed to the 
moveable jaw, through which the end of a lever. A, 
passes ; this lever is connected by a spring to a treadle, 
iy dii the base of the pedestal, and by the pressure of 
the right foot upon this treadle, the moveable jaw is 
withdrawn, so that the person employed in sewing may 
shift t^e leather, and place another part of the glove be- 

14 Recent Pnt^U. 

twisen the jatrs. The pit?^ed, cftlled iiidielt^il^ ate co2l^ 
Hected to the upper part of the jatr# by iscreWs ))ai^ag; 
through elongated hclei^, whi6h render them t^pitbte 
of adjustment* 

The pat^tee states, that in addieiiin to ttie indest d^ 
scribed in his fottiler patent, vrhieh is applicable to wbiit 
is called round-seam sewing ontj, and which |>erf]Mis 
the leather to expand but in one direction trhfei^ thd 
needle is passed through it, namely upwards; he now 
mukes two indexes of different Construction, dne of 
which he calls the receding index, tod the other thelongi^ 
tttdinall^ grooved index. Fig. 7^ represents an end vi^w» 
d.nd ig. 8, a top view of the receding index, which is 
particularly adapts for What are called <^ dt&wn sewings 
land pritk-seafti sewing ;" this index^ instead of biting td 
the top, is so rounded off in the inside fro^m the bottbM 
of th^ cros^ grooves, as to permit thi^ needles, by being 
passed backward^ tad forwatdtir, to j^arry th^ silk ^tt 
eftch side bf the leHther without passing over it. fig. 
9, repredeni* an e6d vi^w 6f the longitudinally grooved 
IndeXj partly oprt, to shew the section of the grootr^ 
more distinctly, and fig. 10, represents an inside view of 

one side of th^ same index in Wbich the longitudiMt 
groove is ^hewn passing from k to L This index iHs 
mori^ particularly adapted to, round-seam sewing, 
and permits the leather id expand in every direction 
when the needle i^ passed through it, by Which th^ 
leather is less strained, and the sewing, c6nse<^ently, 
rendered mtich stronger. 

It ift obvious that th6 pat^ltel horizontal movement 
may be effected by other mechanical means than thotst 
which I have adopted, as at present appearing to me 
the most contenienf; and the chief novelty which 1 
claim with respect to that movement, is iti^ applicatiofl 

Deurbroucq\ for Jlmprovim^^iU in Fermentation, l^ 


" to, tbe pMr{K>^ of cftrrying tbe inde:^ used in sewing i^nd 
|K>iiatiDg h^tticir glav^. 

IwroUed, February ^ 1822. 

 ■I ii. i/i. ' ' >^ ■^' 

Tq Poahniq,dr Pibrr^ Deurbroucq, q^ King street^ 
SghOf J^mdon, in con^eqttence of a Communication by a 
certain ForeignCTy^resuient abroad; for an apparatus 
fo^ the purpose of Condensing the Alcoholic Streams 
QXising, from Spirituous LiquorSy such as Wine^ 
JBramiyy Beer 9 Cyder ^ ^c. during their I^ermentation. 

TmA appi^ratujs Qoasist$ of a vessel or head, which is 
constructed so as to be capable of attachment to, and 
conuounication with the Back or Vat, in which the pro- 
0^9^ of fermentatioa is carrying on in thet production of 
^ilie,^ Bxeindjy Beer, Gyder, or any other liquor which 
ixiay ri^^uire the process of the vkious fermentation 
during apy $iage of it^ manufacture. The back or vat i^ 
tobe Qlpsed on all sides air-tight, except an opening on 
the top which ponxmunicates with the head above-men- 
tjpiijed* T^,hi8 bead 13 to be surrounded by a vessel of 
fold waiter, or other rejGrigJirating mediuQQ, in order that 
tk^ alK^obolic vapours, which are evolved during the 
proce^s^ may, <wx ri^ng up into the head, become conr 
^ dei^s^ a94 tl^en, trickle down t^^ inside of tjie vessel 
9fid d^&qej94 into t}ia vat. 

It ia cpjisidered, that, by the employment of this appa- 
ratus, a certain portion of the alcohol which has hitherto 
heeQ; suffered to escape with th/e non-condensable gaj^es,- 
19 ^]j^ foi>p of ^team* will be condensed and returned into 
tbeVqup^, while the ox^n-condensable parts will be carried 
^ tl^'Qpg^ ^ pipe» as wUl b^ described- 

M «**'*"" Becent Falenls. 

Plate T. fig. 3, is a represenlalion of this improved apl 
paratus, the vat and the cold water reservoir being 
shewn io section ; a, is the vat Rontainiog the fermeDting 
liquor, in the top of which is an aperture communicating 
with the interior of the conical formed vessel, 6 ; the lower 
part of this vessel is made cylindrical and passes through 
a circular plate, on which the supporters rest ; c, is the 
reservoir of cold water, surrounding the couical vessel, 
which maj be supplied by a running stream ; </, is a 
worm or pipe communicating with the interior of the 
vessel, b, and, passing off throug-h the side of the reservoir, 
descends into another vessel of water, e ; /, is a small pipe 
which proceeds from the lower part of the vessel, 6, and 
descends through the fermenting liquor nearly to the bot- 
tom of the vat. 

The gas and alcohol which rise from the liquor in 
the vat ascend into the .conical head, b, and coming 
in contact with the cold sides of the vessel, a condensa- 
tion of the alcohol is produced, which runs down the 
sides of the cone into the circular channel, g-, at its base, 
from whence the alcohol passes by the pipe,/, into the 
vat below ; while the non-condensable gases pass out 
through the worm-pipe, cf, and, finally, escape by bubbling 
up through the water in the vessel, e. If any portion of 
alcohol should pass up the worm-pipe it will become con- 
densed in its progress, and, by the position of the worm, 
will be enabled to run back again and pass into the vat. 
A small cock, h, is placed at the bottoin of the cone, for 
the purpose of trying the strength of the condensed 

The apparatus may be removed from its present situa- 
tion to another fermenting vat, by drawing off the water, 
and disengaging the head, A, from its place. Theplaleis 
furnished with circular wedges round the circumference, 

Gordon" 8^ for Improved Wheel Carriages. 17 

as seen at i, i, made to act beneath hooks, the apparatus, 
being turned round by the handles in a horizontal direc- 
tion, becomes fixed in its place, having, between the plate 
and head, a ring of thick leather to prevent the escape of 
tb^ gas. 

The sole object and novelty proposed in this invention 
is to condense the alcoholic streams which arise from the 
fermentation of spirituous liquors in general, and to return 
the condensed alcohol into the liquor again. 

That much alcohol is lost in the usual process of fer- 
menting liquors in open vats, there can be no question ; 
whether the mode recommended by the patentee, for its 
perservation will be effectual, experience only can deter- 
mine. At all events, the idea is ingenious, and deserving ^ 
the attention of those persons whom the vinous fermenta- 
tion more immediately concerns. 

InroUedy March, 1822. 

To David Gordon, Esq. of Edinhurghj for certain 
Improvements in the Construction of Wheeled Car^ 

These improvements consist in placing each wheel 
of the carriage between two horizontal bearings, (as in 
the ordinary wheel-barrow), so that the wheel may turn 
upon pivots, instead of a lengthened axle, wbich 
usually passes across beneath the body of the carriage* 
Plate ^11. fig. 5, exhibits the contrivance of a plane or- 
horizontal view of a four-wheeled carriage ; but a car- 
riage upon two wheels may be, constructed on the same 
principle, the ordinary shafts being made as a continua- 
tion, either of the outside or inside rail, atf.dotted in the 
figure, a, a, are the wheels ; by 6, is the frame work 

VOL. IV. c 

18 Recent Patents. 

of the carriage, in which spaces are formed to receive 
the wheels, and for them to revolve in the side rails, 
being the bearings of the pivots. The wheels have short 
axles, the pivots of which are held in boxes attached to 
the under side of the rails ; and the boxes are fixed to 
the frame-work by bolts, screws, and nuts, or by any 
other convenient mode of attachment. 

This construction of carriages has been commonly 
used in the East Indies for ages ; and, if we mistake not, 
has been within the last three years employed in carry- 
ing a tank for watering the roads near Vauxhall ; yet 
the patentee claims as his invention, this mode' of " fix- 
ing each of the wheels upon separate axles^ to be 
aitpported between bearers, and thereby leaving the 
Wh^d independent of each other, so as to allow of the 
load being suspended near the ground between the 
wheels, below the level of the axles/* 

The advantages proposed by this contrivance are, 
that it furnishes the means of placing the ax;les of the 
wheels horizontally or parallel to the ground, and 
Gmehj obviates the necessity of dishing the wheels ; 
and also renders their action upon the road less injurious 
by rolling over the ground instead of grinding. The rail, 
which extends on the outside of the wheel, protects it 
(torn blows or shocks, which might be caused by other 
terriages running against it ; and also prevents the pos- 
«^ility of carriages becoming locked by the wheel of 
any other carriage in passing, obtruding itself between 
tte wheel and body of the improved carriage. By this 
contrivance, as the axle does not extend across the 
ftame, a Itirge space is obtained, in which heavy mer- 
chandise may be suspended near the ground^ thereby 
pteyeatiug tWfisk of overturning, and from which con- 
Mvance, wheels of larger diameter may be attached to 

On Spade Husbandry, 19 

this carriage, than are or . can be usually employed 
upcm the ordinary construction, which will enable the 
improved carriage to travel with greater facility over 
rough roads. It is farther considered, that the proposed 
mode of mounting the wheels, will be found of great 
advantage in carriages intended to be propelled by tbe 
power of steam, or any other first mover. 

A second improvement is claimed in this patent, wbidi 
<^ consists in tbe application of an additional wheel (to a 
two, three or four wheeled carriage), formed like a 
hollow roller or drum, which may be made to roll aloi^ 
tbe road, in order to advance the carriage . forward, 
by having a steam-engine placed within it in such 
manner, that the engine would tend to advance or climb 
up the inside of the drum, and so, by its gravity, io turn 
the drum round in the manner of those wheels, called 
walking wheels, used on tram roads/' A cogged wheel 
is proposed to be fixed to the axle of this hollow roller, 
which is intended to take into the teeth of a rack fixed 
to the ground, and the carriage to be advanced by those 
means. In order to enaUe the carriage to turn angles 
or perform curves, it is intended that the hollow rotter, 
or drum, should be^formed like a, barrel bulging in the 
middle, by wbi^h a dimunitioa of frictioli will be 

JnroUe^y F&bruaryi 18^. 

iSdStoat (Communications. 

On Spade Httubandry. 
To the JEkliiar of the Journal qf' ArUj S^c. 

As tbe subject of agriculture is one on which the 
Jdurnal of Afts professedly treatir, I request insertiXDin' for 
this letter. 

20 Original Communications. 

Whatever may be the speculative opinion of Mr. Ovren 
of New Lanark, no one having attended the detail can 
doubt the utility, and practicability of many parts of his 
plans which have been laid before the ptiblic, and which 
have been indeed in considerable practical operation, 
under the immediate direction of this gentleman himself 
at Lanark. There is, I believe, very little doubt that 
they will now be adopted, in part at least, in order to avert 
the calamities, under which the poor are labouring, both 
iu this, as well as our sister island, and that such adoption 
will reduce, if not ultimately annihilate, that bane of our 
country, the poor-rate. The recent establishment too, 
of the: British and Foreign Phitanthropic Society, 
supported by the Earls of Blessington, and Lonsdale, 
Viscount Torrington, Viscount Exmouth, Lords Nugent, 
and Archibald Hamilton, and a host of M; P. 's, and other 
gentlemen, of all parties, promise much in furtherance of 
tiose. plans for promoting the well-being, order, and com- 
forts of the poor. ' 

To what, however, I desire more immediately to call 
your readers' attention, is the essential superiority of the 
spade over the plough husbandry. It appears by a 
letter of Mr. Fall A, dated Gateshead, Newcastle upon 
Tyne, Nov. 13 th, 1820, and published by Mr. Owen in his 
" Report to the County of Lanark, of a Plan for relieving 
Public Distress and removing Discontent, by giving per- 
piauent productive Employment to the Poor and Work- 
ing Classes," that he has been, for between thirty and forty 
years past, occupied in the cultivation of land chiefly for 
the raising of trees, and seeds for sale ; that, finding a 
difficulty some years since, of procuring a sufficient num- 
ber of men to work the land with the spade, he substi- 
tnted the plough in working those parts, where a coh- 
IBiderabl^e quantity of vacant ground happened to lie 

On Spade Husbandry:^ 21 

together ; and he fancied that, besides getting through the 
work- with more facility and convenience, the work v^as 
done in a manner equal to that done with the spade. 
The effect of the first use of the plough, was not of so 
much bad consequences as when repeated : the treading 
oi the sub-soil by the horses' feet, together with the action 


of the iron bottom of the plough, not having, at first, the 
miserable effect of making the bottom of the worked 
ground hard and firm like a turnpike road. The con- 
tinued successive use of the plough, however, soon 
shewed the bad effect, in the diminished health and 
vigour of the trees. Fortunately this effect was discover- 
ed by Mr. Falla, when men for spade work were more 
easily to be obtained than at the period when the use of 
the plough was adopted ; this last practice has, in conse- 
quence, been by him entirely laid. aside. 

In the use of the spade, Mr. Falla produces a depth of 
well-worked earth of nine or ten inches, which is mor<^ 
than twice that of the plough, as u^d in [the counties of 
Durham and Northumberland ; and^ instead of the har- 
dened level bottom not easily if at all penetrable in strong 
clayey sub-soils, by either superfluous moisture, or the 
roots of plants, he obtains a loose broken bottom, which 
is esteemed a particularly favourable circumstance, in 
such soils. 

Mr. Falla was still further stimulated to make experi- 
ments in the spade culture, in consequence of an experi- 
ment in wheat, with this method, which had been made 
ftt Nottingham many years ago, having' been mentioned 
to him as productive beyond example. The Nottingham 
experiment having been made with plants of wlieat raised' 
upon garden beds, and thence transplanted into lines, 
Mr. F. began with the same method. He sowed the 
wheat beds in the month of August, and transplanted the 

83 Original ComtntmiccUiims. 

same ia September and October ; the distance of the lines 
from eadi - other was, in one experiment, nine, and in 
another twelve inches, the plants in both cases being 
twelve in each yard* These experiments were made 
two years successively ; the least produce was fifty-two, 
and the greatest sixty-two btuAels, Winchester measure, 
per acre. The qna^ntity of land under these experiments 
was one half an acre each year ; a quantity sufficiently 
large for experiment. The digging, at Mr. Falla's com- 
mon nufsery price, cost fourpence per rood, of forty- 
nine square yards ; or thirty-three shillings p«r acre ; the 
transplanting fourpence halfpenny per tiiousand. There 
is, by this method, a great saving of seed ; from one to 
two pecks of wheai producing as many plants as are 
sufficient to plant an acre ; whereas, the usual quantify 
for plough cultivation, sown broadcast, is two bushels. 

The following, on these data^ is the expense of culti- 
vating one B€re, the lines being nine inches apart. 

Digging •••••• •••• £] 13 

Transplanting 232,323 plants at 4i per 1000 4 7 1( 
Half a bushel of seed wheat • •• • 4 6 

£6 4 7* 

During the time of making these experimetits, it se- 
cured to Mr. Falla, that the increase in the produce of 
wheat arose more from the deep working of the land by 
the spade, than from transplantation. He, therefor^, 
made other experiments with wheat, sown both in driUs 
and broad cast, the land being, in all cases, worked in 
the same manner by the spade. The following are the 

Ofi^ Spade Husbandry. 2S 

Crop 1819. 

Bushels per acre. 
No. 1, transpl. from the seed-bed into 6 inch lines, produced 62i. 

2, ....ditto 9 ditto 56} 

3, ditto 12 ditto 61 

4, sown in drills r . . .9 ditto 65} 

5, Sown broadcast ditto 58} 

Crop 1820. 

No. 1, transpL from the seed-bed into 6 inch lineS; produced 68^ 
2, ditto 9 ditto 684 

3, ditto.;.. 12 ditto 60{ 

4, Sown in drills • • . . 9 ditto 73j 

6y Sown broadcast ditto 76| 

A portion of Na. 4^ in the last experimezits, was laid 
down wet when in flower, and proved very abortive^ 
or Mr. F. thinks it would have exceeded, as in the 
former year, No. 6. Much of Nos. I, 2, and 3, was 

shaken out by wind, and destroyed by birds. 

^ -  ^ . 

The expense of broadcast will stand thus : — digging • •£] 13 
Seed wheat two bushels per acre ••.,•••....« 18 

£2 11 
if 80?m broadcast, and the seed harrowed in by a horse, 
say 2s. per acre ; if raked in with a garden rake, it 
will cost •••.•••.•••.^•••••. ••••••,•••• 4 

£2 15 

If QowB in ddllsy made with a garden hoe, it will cost 
4». per iM^remore; but a larger saving than that expense 
will be made in the quantity of seed compared with the 
broad cast metbod. 

Z4 Original Communications. 

The expense of cultivating an acre of land by the plough, admit- 
ting one digging to be equal to three ploughings and harrowings, 
will be thus. 

, Three ploughings and harrowings, at 10s £l 10 

Seed wheat two bushels r 18 

H^rowing the. seed in 2 

£Z 10 

Thus it appears that the cultivation of an acre of wheat 
by the spade costs only five shillings more than by the 
plough. ; 

In respect to wheat transplanted and sown on land 
worked by the spade, Mr. F. has no doubt ihsit sowing 
is the best system ; and that the advantage over the plough 
is from the deep and otherwise superior working of the 
land by the spade. 

# ' * 

•The average value of the produce of spade and plough culture 
.will be therefore found as follows. * 

By the spade 68f bushels per acre at 8s. £'27 S 

By the plough 38 bushels per acre ; this quantity 

being a fair average on land better than that on 

which Mr. F's. experiments were made, at ds. 15 4 

The diflference is £12 4 

Being the advantage gained by the extra expense of 
five shillings. 

Mr. F. being desirous of ascertaining how far and at 
what expense it may be practicable to work land by the 
spade by women, boys, girls, and feeble old men, he 
made an experiment for the purpose. The land was 
dug by girls, in two short spits, each of about five or 

Buubjff Hydraulic Orrery. if^ 

six inchei^ deep, die one FolIowiDg ttie other, and more 
tedectually tban by men at' one spit of nine or ten inb&e4 
d^ep. The wa^es paid these girls were I Od! per dfty. 
The cost, however, by the girls was p(er acre £2. 4^. 4a. 
that is lis. 4d. per aore more than by men ; but Mr. 
F. is satisfied that the superiority of the girls^ work was 
worth the difference. The girls being unpractised in the 
use of the spade, was most probably the chief cause of 
the difference in the price. The spades thi^y used Were 
itiade fb'r the purpose, being 9| inches long, ^ hidieii 
wide, and weighing, with the handle, about 4} lbs. tir* 
F. states that 4|f acres of land, such as that on #hich his 
expMmeiils were made, are necessary to stipport a 
tlorsi! ; which quantity, under the husbandry 6f th^ 
ftough, will support nine persons, on the supposition of 
a dbinnioti proportion of ihen, women, arid cbildreii , 
by the spade cultivation, the same land #iH prbdticii 
sikbsistence for more than tWelte persons. TBe^arelm* 
poftant fslcts. I am. Sir, yours, Ac. 


'HivlbA Inbemftrtii. 

Hydrdl^He Orrery. 

Mr. Busby has devised a new and ingeiiibdi^ metbod of 
exhibiting .the Solar system iii motion upon aresetvbir of 
water. T*he motive impulse is given to the difltefeiil* placets 
and their satellites by^ the re-action of sdveral j^ts of wAer, 
issuing from syphons, by which' means a silent aiid appa- 
rently spontaneous movement is produced, which ^bi- 
bits the phenomena of the revolving orbs in a very siilipla 
and pleasing manner. 

It is proposlBd by the inventor to construct bis HT]m;AV« 
Lie ORRjStT'as a scientific ornament upon «oy pod of 


^ Novel Inventiona. 

■tilt w&ter, io a park or pleasure ground. Models of 
the contrivaDCe are now publicly exbibitiog id the Strand, 
London, and the Society of Arts have adjudged Mr. 
Busby their gold Vutcau Medal for the inveutiou. 

Method of Analysing Vegelahle Bodies. By A. B. 
Granville, M. D.* 

The f rst steps to be taken consist ia examiuing the 
ye^tabX^ hoAj physically ; and next as to its chemical 

The colour, taste, flavour, smell, exleroal appearance, 
botanical and physiological characters, state of aggrega- 
tion, density, &c. belong to the former inquiry ; while 
the experiments made with various tests on the infusion, 
decoction, extract, tincture of the bark, root, &c. under 
examination, belong to the latter. 

In describing the substance and giving an account of 
the chemical experiments made with it, tbe same method 
should be adopted which has been followed during its 
analysis; and that method may be thus enunciated iu 
the shape of general and aphoristic forinulse. 

Physical Characters. V 

1. Colour of the bark, root, &c. ' 

2 Nature of its epidermis. 

3. Thicknessof tfaebarkand the epidermis, individually. 

4. Mode in which they adhere together. 

6. Whether any of the woody fibres adhere to the 

6. Smell, flavour, perfume, taste, permanent or evan- 

• From (liB Lundoii Mfilical Journal for June. 1822. 

Method of AnatyHng Vegetable Bodies. 89 


' 7; H ak the epidermis the same character with the ^f&er.' 
8.- Is the bark easily powdered ? 

9. Does it readily attract moistaie wbeo exposed to 
the air? 

10. Specific gravity of the bark, ^ 

1 1. Specific gravity when powdered. 

Chemical Charactbrs. 

a, Infueion. 

1. A. given quantity of the bark, coarsely powdered^ 
infused in a sufficient quantity of cold water for a given 
number of hours. 

2. Filter, Weigh the filtered infusion and the dry re- 
siduum on the filter. Examine ^the * smell, taste, ooloor, 
and flavour of the infusion. 

5. The filtred infusion should now be tried by 

a. Isinglass. h. Sulphate of Copper. 

6. Tartarized Antimony. t. Oxalate of Ammonia. 

c. Prussiate of Potash. k. Gallic Acid. 

d. Nitrate of Bafy tes. L Lime-water. 

e. Oxalic Acfd. ni. Tincture of Gall. 
/. Sulphate of Iron. n. Turmeric Paper, 
g. Supersulphateof Alumine. o. Litmus Paper. 

4. Mark in writing the result of each experiment, and 
of every precipitate that follows : dry the latter, weig^ 
them, and keep them for further examination. 

6. Decoction. 

1. A given weight of thel>ark or root, coarsely pow- 
dered, boiled in a sufficient quantity of distilled water to 
the reduction of one-third. 

2. Filter th^ decoction, mark its colour, taste, flavour, 
and perfume. 

9. Test it with the same re-agents, and note the results ; 

and whcifaftr oraoi they tie«iiiiilaf to tbote obtaifed ia 
treating the infusion. . . 

1. The same quantity of bark, root, or plant, eoarseHy 
powdered, is to be 8ttl\jieeted to ihe action Qi boiUng 
water several succtmye tiinea. . The different deooctipns 
added together are to be slowly evaporated in large ves- 
sels, to ^the consistence of extract. The extract to be 
weighed, the colour, ta^ie, 4cc. nplbed. 

2. ^f^er^in how iQ^ph pf the ex^act is dissolved in 
j^l^^ol. ^9ix\ the ta^te, colour, a^^ll pf the re$uUi^ 

. 3,^ Jest the tinctare by 
^, ft-: JPi?tWp4 water. 

b. Emetine, gelatine, litmus, and turmieFic |>aper^ oxa- 
lic acid, carbonate pf potash ; and write down 4he 

c. jSMlphf^ta of iron. 

d. Nitr^ pf bary tes. 

e. I<}itxate of mercury. 
/. Nitr^ 9f s^ver. 

gf PT«»wate of potash. 
5. If any fesidiji^m be left after treating the extract 
Vfitb f^)GoI)ol, subject '\i to the action of distilled water, 
^pp;ung it to a gently heat at th^ same time, apd trying 
the solution, if afiy with the ^bove te^t$. 

d. Alcoholic Infusion. 

1. A given weight of the bark, root, dec. coarsely pow- 
dered, is to be infused into a known quantity of alcohol 
for a given number of days. 

2. The smell, colour, taste, perfume, Ac. of the result- 
ing infusion are to be noted. 

S The infusion to be tested with ^ 

a. Distilled water. 


THE NE/»' WM:. 


.ASTOR, LENOX a v ;: j 

. i. 


\^wma/us\ Blow I'ipe. 





ritj. 'J. 

Fia. S. 









DeMcriptionk qf Hcwnuik^n Blow-pipe. U 

6. <3«lUc Aci4; 
^ SMlptnajte of Irw. 
4 The r^i4f|U9, itfter filterisg the i^lcofaoUc mfi}«mg 
M Ip ^ weiglped a,9d f^^amined. 

. ^, BmUM Twdwre. 
}, T|if Wo(9lip(i^ ^i9tio& fikw\^ be pepu diitUIed ja <t 
glui^i retort 

tbe 4i9tyi§tipA. 

3. The result of the distillaiioa filH>ul4 be tested with 
a. Distilled watef. 
6, Prvsmte of ppta3bf 
p. Solphitte of iron, 
4« P^ tj^ re^duum ; weigh it, note its. colour m4 
leppmteoQ]^, aftd wbethiBff it attrapts oioistare. 
$. !l^ it sokble ifi wa^r ? 

6, l^ \i soluble in »}cphol^ sather, oil of turpentine, caim* 
$ic. alli^aUpp iplM^Qi^ ? 
7 Ii» pitfaer ciu»9 try thp solutiop with the usuj^ re- 

pescription of Brooke's or Newman'^s BUm-pipe. By 
Mt^. Children.* 

. Stt^nX^r NiewfUAu'^Blipw-pipe^althaii^ notcel- 
mMM (ef-niwererlpgical pa^perian^ts, ia others is highly 
iiieiek lQdeed» w^¥» Wf 4 with atiPOH^herio air, it may 
W applied 4o a22 n^aer^logipfl purposefi, though stJU 
iritk Ifse adTeiDtec9 tbm the Ppmmop blow-japp iv shM* 
fttt Ittpds. But wheo filled with a pondepsed miitture of 
dEyseH ted bp4^ogeft ge^es u^ the proportion reqiiisite to 

t f f09( 9enH)li*^ 9n tli« Blow-.p^^ trflmliM<4 irqm tbe |>«ncli, 
by J, aOulilKS, 

so Jfovel Inoerdixms. 

form water, one essential cbaracter, the fusibility or in* 
fusibility of difEerent substahce9 as detefmined by the 
common blow-pipe, disappears before the intense beat 
produced by this, which -levels all bodies to one general 
class of fusible substances; though v^ry evident dlffe* 
rences are still observable in the facility with which 
different bodies are reduced to the state of fusion. In re- 
turn too for the character which is thiis lost, we gain a 
new one in the appearance of the otherwise infusible 
body after it has been melted. 

This apparatus was first made at the desire of Mr. 
Brooke, by Mr. Newman of Lisle-street An accident 
that occurred to Dr. Clarke, by the explosion of the re- 
servoir, occasioned several attempts at its improvement. 
The most perfect of which is represented in Plate III. fig; 
4. It was suggested by Mr. Professor Gumming, of Cam- 
bridge, a, fig. i, is the reservoir made of sheet copper, 
5^ inches long, 3 inches wide, and S inches high; i, a 
syringe connected by a couple of stop-cocks, c, to thereser-^ 
voir ; d, is the bead of the trough (or safety apparatus) 
fitting in its place by a screw, perfectly air tight : the 
trough is inserted in the reservoir in the direction of the 
dotted lines^and descends to the bottom : it is represented 
on a large scale at fig. 4 ; e, a stop-cock proceeding from 
the head cf^and/, its jet fixed to it by the ball and sodtet; 
joint, g. When the instrument is used, its parts are to 
be put together as in fig 1, and the reservoir exhausted by 
working the piston of the syringe b. The stop-cocka 
must then be closed, the syringe with the upper stop-cook 
taken off, and the syringe alone placed in the upright 
position shewn at fig. 2. The bladder, A, containing the 
gases, must then be connected by the screw socket, it, and 
its stop-cock with the syringe. The syringe stop-cocks 
are now to be opened, when the gases will issue from the 

De9cripti(m of NewmcaCa Blow-pipe. Si 

Uadder, and fill the resertoir. The head of the trough' 
18 then to be unscrewed by the key, (fig. 3), and oil poqr- 
ed in, to about' half an inch above the lower dereen of 
wire ganxe (see fig. 4.) and the head again screwed tigbl 
in its place. The gases are next to be condensed into the 
rese^oir, by working the piston of the syringe as before, 
and all the stopcocks being now shut, the apparatus is 
r«Euly for use. 

^ During the whole time the get is burning, the oil will 
be heard to play in the trougB. If the current be in- 
flamed, and the instrument abandoned to itself, the jet 
will'go on burning until the expansive force of the at- 
mosphere within the box is no longer su(Bc^t to propel 
a 'stream with the required rapidity through the tube; at 
Ibis time the inflammation will pass backwards, unless the 
tube be very .fine, and will fire the small quantity of mix- 
tare in the upper part of the trough, and then its effects 
will ceasp, the atmosphere in the reservoir remaining as 
before. When, however, the regular use of the instru* 
ment is required, it is better to shut the jet-cock before 
the atmosphere is quite out, and,cond»ise in a fresh por- 
tion of gas. 

> AttcDtioii should be paid to the quantity of oil in the 
trough: it should cover the gauze, but not to too great 
ahfe^bt; if there be too much oil, it is possible that 
the agitatiiHi caused by the passage of the gas through 
it, may throw a drop or two through the gauze above; 
ag^nst the inner orifice of the jet tube, which would 
dause a sputtering in the flame. 

The oil should -be emptied out from the trough whea 
the apparatus is laid by. Fig. 4 is a section of the trough 
and part of the reservoir drawn, on a large scale, in order 
tA reader its construction more distinct. 

32 Novel Invettliojiw. 

A.A.A. Is the reservoir. B.B. a brass lube ((he troufli) 
dosed at the bottom, and fixed air-tight into the reaer. 
toir. C. is a small tube in the interior of the reeerToir ; 
its upper orifice is covered with fine wire ganze, aod 
reaches nearly to the top of the reservoir ; its lower ori- 
fice is inserted inlo the bottom of the trough ; four boles 
are made from the trough into the tulM, and open a com- 
municatioD to the gases in the reservoir ; a circular flat 
VAive, D, lined with oiled silk or leather, and moveable 
on a central pin, E, covers tbeae holes, and prevents the 
passage of any thing from the trough into the reservoir. 
F, a fine wire gauze intersecting the trough. The head 
of the trough (if. Fig. 1.) contains a small chamber, G, 
commuaicBtiDg by a fine tube with the interior of the 
trough, just below the orifice of which is a second piece 
of very Bse wire gauze, NI. The stop-cock, H. connects 
the head with the jet, having a circular motion by the 
ball and socket joint, 1, to which various tubes, as K, 
may be adapted. The fine at L, marks the height to 
which the oil should rise in the trough. For further se- 
curity, Mr. Newman mfottna me tli&t he puts several 
pieces, to the number of twenty or thirty, of very fine 
wire gauze between the stop cock, H. and the ball and 
socket joint, 1, and the end of the reservoir, nearest the 
syringe, is made weaker than aoy other part, bo that if as 
explosioa ahould happen in the reservoir, it will yield ia 
that part rather than any other. With these precautions, 
the instrument may be considered, provided there be no 
fault in its construction, and every thing in good order, 
perfectly secure. 

Lino Stereo Tablets. 

We did not expect fo have occasion lo speak of Mr. 
Steart^s Li no-Stereo -Tab lets again, farther than to in- 

ferm .QUr i^ad^irs where they m$f be obtaioed in town, 
wbicb we now do : tix. at Mr. Newnkalri's, Soho^uare ; 
Meftita. Smith and Waaler's, PieoadiUj; or at Mr. Jkcker- 
mano's, in the Straad. l^ni Mr. SteiUi has gent us a 
letter, which our observations on his invention by no 
means warrant: we have neither imputed tobim>* fidse- 
hood" nor " deceit ;" we use the word " suspect" only. 

.Mr. Steart lays oonsidi^rable slretH oq the opinion of 
the Society of Arts ; but he should be told, or reminded, 
tbi^t the Society^ as a bq(ly, are not responsible/or any 
cpmUm or rq^resenfation of facts contained in their 
7Va;Mac^ion« : and that, wlien artiste become authors, 
which they in fact do by haying the 4escriptibns of their 
inventions printed in the Society's Transactions, they ne- 
pessarily subject themselves to. the ordeal of public opi* 
i{iipp the same as other writers. Thus we always consider 
tbemj find the circumstance of their papers being piib* 
Ijisl^ed in the Transactions of^ the Sodety of Arts, in- 

fkienq6 us no further than to examine them with more 

• •  • * '■ " •  ' • • .  . •.•'''■ •■ • 

care and scrutiny ; because^ it sometime^ happens, that the 
name of the Society of Arts is a passport which prevents 
^ ^qpiry into pretensions, which would be otherwise 
instantly iqstituted. In this course we conceive the pub- 
lie are materially interested and beneffted; ietnd although 
we hav/e suffered, and may, perhaps, occasionally suflkr, 
some contemptible abuse for our determined and straight- 
forward. conduct, we shall nevertheless persevere. 

We see uq reason whatever to alter our statement re- 
lative to the Lino-Stereo-Tablet. If we had iiot'codi^- 
dered it an improvement, an account of it would not 
have appeared in our Joi^mal. It is rather too mucb f6r 
artists to expect, thai we shall coincide in opinion tHtb 
them on every point connected with their ipventibM. 
However, as it is but foir that Mr. Sleart should be hetihl 

VOL. IV. £ 

S4 Rtview of New Publicatians. .. 

for himself^ we iosert that part of his letter which appears 
to us relevant : ^M can only, in conclusion, aver, that 
the account of my manufacture, furnished to the Society 
of ArtSj is perfectly and strictly correct.^' 


ISMtfo of Vftfu ^bI(cat(ons. 

A New and Compreheksive System of Modern Geography^ 
Mathematical^ Physical^ Political and Commercial^ 

, comprising a Perspicuous Delineation of the Present 
State of the Globe^ with its Inhabitants and Produc- 
tion, preceded by the History of the Science ; inter- 
spersed with Statistical and Synoptical Tables ; and 
accompanied with a series of coloured Mdpsy a great 
variety of appropriate Views^ and numerotis other 
Engravings illustrative of the Manners^ Customs^ 
and Costumes of Nations. By Thomas Mters^ A.M. 
In two volumes^ 4ito. pp. 1986. 


This work, to which we alluded in our first volume, is 
now completed^ One of the first intellectual desires of 
man, when he has advanced to a certain point in civiliza- 
tion, is to learn the condition of his species, and of the 
regions which they inhabit beyond the contracted range 
of his own immediate observation. In a few instances 
jthis desire is satisfied by an adventurous spirit of travel, 
which roams through distant climes to read the living 
book of nature, whether in its primitive simplicity and 
grandeur, or .modifi.ed and improved, though often dis- 
figured by human contrivance. It cannot, however, be 
the lot of many to gaze upon the Ganges or the Nile, to 

Myeti System of Modem Cfeography. 95 

tread the wilds of Siberia, to behold the Variegated scenery 
of the western world, or even the groves, of Italy* 
The great balk of mankind must be contented with the 
detail of others, for the knowledge which they possess of 
foreign and remote regions, and to the patient toils of 
the geographer, for laying before them an . arcaogement 
of the facts which are obtained from actual observation. 

The province of the geographer is, therefore, an impor- 
tant one. We augured well of the Geography of Mr. 
Myers at its outset ; but were we to content ourselves 
with the opinion which we then expressed, we should 
by no means do justice to the value and importance of 
the work. It is completed in a manner far superior even 
to the expectations which we then formed of the under- 
taking. In fact, it is such a valuable and correct delinea- 
tion of the present state of geographical knowledge as is 
no where else to be found. For whilst the Author has 
neglected no source of information, worthy of being con- 
sulted, he has also spared no pains in compressing his 
voluminous materials into such a form, as will not only 
fully answer the purposes of the general reader, but repay, 
with interest, the perusal of the man whose liberal range 
of knowledge would turn with indifference from superfi- 
cial detail. 

The Introductory matter^ containing the history of 
geography and a general view of the science considered 
mathematically, physically, and politically, is not one of 
the least interesting portions of the work ; nor are the 
Observations on the influence of Missionary Establish- 
ment^ on the advancement of Geography^ prefixed to the 
second volume, less deserving attention. The majps which 
accompany these volumes are forty-nine in number ; the 
other pla^ explanatory of the work, containing views 
of the principal cities, mountains, natural curiosities, drc. 

iko. ttinofittt to ^gisty. The pHoting and pitiper are of ibe 
first quality, in a irtrord it has uot often liappened that 
a work basiallen und^r our notice which we can recom- 
'tdend to oinr readers with sucfh bordial and compieiie 
tetisfaction. Chir limits only prevent «s from giving a 
specimen: the styte is perspicuous and unaffected, ttie 
'Kntogement'Olear,- the information copious. The wJiole 
idaes gfeart cfsdit to tlie taleot 'and assiduity of .Mr* 
'Myeft, tad ^)s a valuable acoeission to our nirtionail lltera- 


' »  I 


4>n JSnyfejqpeediaofOardenin^y oopipriaing the Tb^oTy, 
and Practice jq/ Horticulture^ FtorictUfurey Arhori- 
QuUuTe^ Qfid Landscape Gardenings including q,ll 
the latest Improvements ; a General History x^ Gfur^ 
deningin aU Countries ; and a Statisticfll View qf.iis 
present state f. with suggestions for itsfutweprogress^ 
in He British isles. By J. C. LoupoN. Illustrated 
with nearly six hundred engravii^gs on wood. t&vo. 
p|p. J488. 

This is a very useful, valuable, and necessary worjk ; 
although, .pj^rhaps, much originality cap hardly be ex- 
pected qn j^ub^cts so beaten, ,as maay of them of course 
are, conc^ming which Mr. I^pudon treats; yet, be 
•hasarrapged his materials with popsiderable skill, and 
brqwght together a mit^s of iQformi^tio& to be found m 
no other vc^Mme with which w^ jEtre f^qquainted. Whilst 
it is a woBk of considerable ulformation, as well as 
of utility, it is, at the .same time, ope of much 
amusement ; and, we doubt no,t, wjU iSnd a place 
in the library of every intelligwt person in ;^he 

empire, it is pte9«in|( Jftlsoto be itbl^ to stat^ jth^ lAr. 
JjDudojQ has availed bioiseif of the be^t a^d ' jiaWi^t 
soarqes of informajtion on the various subjects pai^erii- 
ing which he tcoatey wd tiiiat moderp science a^d (iiscrj- 
xDJloatiog judgiiiie9t,|are Jhere properly and ii^mp^f^ 

•Although a cyclopi^dia, it is not alpbabetlcalljr 
arrapged; and, indeed,: the alphabetical arr^pge^^t 
would bj no means suit the nature of the SQb}^tf ^9^ 
the mAlteyials here brought toother. We, therefore, 
cannot bu.t;high\]r Apprpve the arrfii^emept which tj^e 
fiutbor has adopted. 

Th^^r«^part ii;eats ot gardpdng ^cop^^idered ifi rff- 
fft$ct to itfi origin, progrefiM,, and present jst^tp amnfg 
di0^9Tmt nationsy govemmenf^j anfl climaUsj rthj^ js 
subdivided into the history qf ggrdenir^ among ^noj^t 
and modem nations ; and gardening considered tfe to 
itfirprqgrees and present state under different iX)fi^iq(U 
and geqgrapHcal circumstances. — The mooif^ j^ 
treats of gardening considered as a science : thiJB is 
subdivided into the /9<fM^ qf tie veg^iobip kingdom; of 
the natural agents of vegetable growth and culture; 
mechamcalqgents en^loyed in ,gar((ening.~J[^e third 
^ppuft treats of gardening as .practised in.Sifitgin^.f!^ 
•ip ;5qbdivided into Morticulture, JEloricuUurfff Arbot^ 
euUure .or jfulanting ; and Landscape .gardw^*"^Jik^ 
Jburthffiotconmts qf ihe^tatisiics (f JSrifff^h ^c^rffi^ 
4>n^ : these^are subdivided into the present stfit^ .^[gqr- 
\deiifiipg4» 4^ British hle»; an^ o»,^Jutifp pXQgvi^s 
[Cf gardening in Briiain. Tpih^ ^e^adde^ ft kol^^ 
darial and a general indfi^* 

The woodecits by ^rw^ton f^re .fiseful ,iwd:,^i|p]ana- 
^^\ mwj of them ai^ priMup^tal : .thcgr ipu(^ ^^- 
.hi^ce ihe ^vajlne of .the volume^ Jbe jpraotical articles 

S8 Review of New Publicatians. 

for the professor, as well as the gentleman gardener, are at 
oncse numerous and ui^eful ; for these we must refer the 
reader to the work itself. We might, indeed, have pre* 
sented our readers with the articles inarching^ grafting, 
buddingy 4r<^., as samples of the work, which are clear and 
explicit ; but must deny ourselves that pleasure to make 
room for another on the joroce^^ of vegetable nutrition, 
which we recommend to the diligent perusal of a quon^ 
dam friend of ours, who is fond of talking on the sub- 
ject, as well as, also, to the attentive consideration of bur 
readers. The articles inarching, grafting, &c., are elu- 
cidated with woodcuts very explanatory of the diflTerent 
processes. Mr. L. tells us that shield budding reoeraed, 
^ X9 is DOW generally considered exploded. We confess 
that this news surprizes us. We ask, with due submis- 
sion, how long has it been so, and by whom ? 

If we have any complaint to make of Mr. Loudon's 
work, it is, that it is rather too technical ; but it is difficult 
to please rekderi of every taste and degree of knowledge. 

Proce98 of Vegetable Nutrition, 

*^ Elaboration of Oxygen It has been already shown 
that the leaves of plants abstract oxygen from confined 
atmospheres ; at least, when placed in the shade, though 
they do not inhale all the oygen which disappears;' and it 
has been further proved, from experiment, that the leaves 
of plants do also evolve a gas in the sun. From a great 
variety of experiments relative to the action and influ- 
ence of oxygen on the plant, and the contrary, the fol- 
lowing is the sum of the results. 

" The green parts of plants, but especially the leaves, 
v^hen exposed in atmospheric air to the successive infiu* 
ence of the light and shade, inhale and evolve alter- 

PrtHHm of FBgetable Nutrition. 89 

nately a portion of oxygen ga6 mixed with carbonic 
a.cid. But the oxygen is not immediately assimilated to* 
the vegetable substance ; it is first converted into car- 
bonic acid, by means of combining with the carbon of 
the plant, which withers if the process is prevented by 
the application of lime or potass. The leaves of aqua- 
tics, succulent plants and evergreens consume, in equal 
circumstances, less oxygen than the leaves of other 
plants. The roots, wood, and petals, and in short, all 
parts not green, with the exception of some coloured 
kaves, do not affect the successive and alternatejnhala- 
tion and extrication of oxygen ; they inhale it indeed, 
though they do not give it out or assimilate it immedi-. 
ately ; but convey it under the form of carbonic acid 
to the leaves, where it - is decomposed. Oxygen is 
indeed assimilated to the plant, but not directly, and 
only by means of the decomposition of carbonic acid ; 
when part of it, though in a very small proportion, is 
retain^^d also, and assimilated along with the carbon. 
Hence the most obvious influence of oxygen as applied 
to the leaves, is that of forming carbonic acid gas, and 
thus presenting to the plant elements which it may 
assimilate ; and, perhaps, the carbon of the extractive 
juices absorbed by the root, is not assimilated to the plant, 
till it is converted, by means of oxygen, into carbonic 
acid.^ ' But as an atnK>sphere, composed of nitrogen and 
carbonic aqid gas only, is not favourable to vegetation. It 
is probable that oxygen performs also some other function 
beyond that of merely presenting to the plant, under the 
modification of carbonic acid, elements which it may 
assimilate. It may effect also the disengagement of 
caloric by its union with the carbon of the vegetable, 
which is the necessary result of such union. But oxygen 
is also beneficial to the plant from its action on the soil : 

Beviem of Nem PubHcations, 

fbf when the extractive juices, contained iu the soil, have 
become exhausted, the oxygen of the atmosphere, by 
peneti^tiDg into the earth and abstracting from it a portion 
of its carbon, forms a new extract to replace the first. 
Hence we may account for a. number of facts observed 
by the earlier phytologists, but not well explained. 
Da Harael remarked that the lateral roots of plants are 
always the more vigorous, the nearer they are to the Buf- 
face ; but, it now appears, that they are the most vigorous 
at the surface, because they have then the easiest access 
to the oxygen of the atmosphere, or to (he extract 
which it may form. It was observed, also by the same 
phytologtst that perpendicular roots do not thrive so 
well, other circumstances being the same, in a stiff and 
wet soil, as in a friable and dry soil ; while plants, with 
slender and divided roots, thrive equally well in both: 
but this is uo doubt owing to the obstacles that pr^ent 
themselres to the passage of the oxygen in the former 
case, on account of the greater depth and smaller sur- 
face of the root. It was further observed, that roots 
wbich penetrate into dung, or into pipes conducting 
water, divide into immense numbers of fibres, and form 
what ia called, the fox-tail root ; but it is, because they 
cannot continue to vegetate, except by increasing tbeir 
points of contact, with the small quantity of oxygen 
found in such mediums. Lastly, it was observed, that 
plants, whose roots are suddenly overflowed with wafer, 
remaining afterwards- stagnant, suffer sooner than if the 
accident had happened by means of a continued current. 
It is, becaase, in the former case, the oxygen contained 
in the water is soon exhausted, while, in the latter, it is not 
exhausted at all. And hence, also, we may account 
for the phenomenon exhibited by plants vegetating in 
distilled water, under a receiver filled with atmospheric 

Society of Aria. '41 

aiir, which having no proper soil to supply the root with 
nourishment, effect the developement of their parts only 
at the expense of their own proper substance ; the inte- 
rior of the stem, or a portion of the root, or the lower 
leaves decaying, and giving up tbdr esctractive juices, to 
the other parts. 

Thus it appears that oxygen gas, or that constituent 
part of th6 atmospheric air, which has been found in* 
diftpensable to the life of animals, is also indispensable 
to the life of vegetables. But altbougfi the presrence and 
action of oxygen is absolutely necessary to the process 
6^ vegetation, plants do not thrive so well In an atmos- 
phere of pure oxygen, as* in an isitmosphere of pure and 
comnl^on air. Whence it follows, thai oxygen, tho^gli 
the principal agent in the process of vegetation, is D6t 
yet the only agent necessary to the health and growth 
of fhe^lant ; and that the proportion of the constituent 
parts of the atmospheric air, is well adapted for the pur- 
poses both of vegetable and animal life.'^ 

^oIstEcj^nic anlK Sbttoitific intiHigcnce. 

Great Britain. 

Society of Arts. 

Public exhibitions are the order of the day. To thii&, 
however, we have no kind of objection, provided they 
tend to some beneficial purpose. The rooms of the 
Society of Arts, being inconvenient for the appropriate 
distribution, before a numerous audiende, of the medals 
and premiums adjudged during the year, it was thought 
disirable to obtain the use of Drury-Iane Theatre fot 
the purpose. And on Wednesday^ the S9th of May, the 


42 Polytechnic and Scientific Intelligence, 

Society, with bis Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex at 
their head, proceeded, on the stage of the theatre, to disr 
tribute the various medals, d;c. to the several successful 

A great chair v^as placed behind a little table for the 
President, the Duke of Sussex ; on seats on the stage sat 
the male and female dignitaries who were to witness the 
ceremonies: on one side the female candidatea sat on 
raised steps ; and on the other the successful male aspir 
rat)tJ3 for the honours of the Society, By noon the house 
was filled throughout— the coup dC ceil was charining. 

Mr. Aikin addressed the audience in a sensible and in- 
telligent* discourse, which he elucidated in a manner that 
did honour to this respected individual. After which 
the delivery of the medals commenced. 

In the class Agriculture^ a representative of Messrs. 
Cowley and Staines' of Windsor, Bucks, received a large 
gold medal, and a gold Ceres medal, for drawing turnips 
in November, and preserving them in a sound state to 
April ; and for the cultivation of the white poppy, whence 
they extracted 601bs. of opium, equal to Turkey opium. 

Mr. Peart was rewarded for redeeming fifty-six acres 
of waste moor-land. 

In the Polite Arts sixty-nine medals were awarded ; 
some to works of high promise ; some to mere school- 

In Manufactures perhaps the most important improve- 
ment which was rewarded, was that on the silk ribbon 
loom, by Mn J. Thomson, Jun. of Coventry. 

A silver medal and twenty guineas were announced to 
Mrs. Wells of Connecticut, America, for a new material 
for plat in imitation of Leghorn. We once more call the 
Society's attention to the Bent growing so plentifully oq 

Edinburgh School of Arts. 43 

tbe sand hills on our shores, as an article every way likely 
to be beneficially manufactured into bonnets, &c. See 
p. 207 of our second volume. 

In Chemistry only two rewards were bestowed ; these 
v^ere; one to Mr. H. W. Reveley, King-street, Bryanstone 
Square, for his communication respecting the nature and 
preparation of the stones used in Tuscany for grinding 
flour ; the large silver medal. 

The other to J. Meigh, Esq. Shelton, Staffordshire, for 
the discovery of a glaze, for vessels of common red 
earthenware, not prejudicial to the health of those who 
make use of them ; the large gold medal. 

The remainder of the proceedings we have it not iu our 
power to report ; the remaining classes of Mechanics, and 
Colonies, and Trade, must therefore be left for the So- 
ciety's Transactions. 

It appears that no facilities for being accurately in^? 
formed were accorded to any of those powerful engines 
which lend their impetus to such escapements. This, as 
we have again and again repeated, is not judicious, nor 
at all worthy of the age, nor the Society. — The French 
savans know better how to arrange these things — ^how to 
make echoes, more powerful than the original wounds 
spread their doings over the world. But we bave faer&- 
tofore said enough on this subject. Aasodaied iKdig* A» 
not often improve by age. 

Edinburgh School qf Arts. 

On the 24th of April, the first session of tke ^siuyu -i 
Arts was closed. After Dr, Fyffe had tmA \ ^ \ t aia ^^ 
ture, Mr. L. Homer, gave an accoant of 4^ irv«*<;acai 
of the session. The success of this scka«b iuM ^j^ »ir. 
passed the expectations of its ttkemim, wtL 'nxn 

44 TolyUchmc 9>nd Sckntific InieUigence. 

Nearly 400 individuate^ obiefly mechanics, have tiered 
as students. The principal clasps have been well at*- 
tended ; and among many whq distinguished themselves 
by scientific exercises* may be mentioned three indivi^ 
duals from the blind asylum. Why haye we not such 
a school or schools in the metropolis ? 

Irish Academy. 

Ths artists of Ireland have been incorporated into a 
Society, similar to the Royal Academy in this country. 
A council of fourteen Academicians has been chosen, aj)d 
ten Associates are to be elected next year from the exbi* 
bitors of Irish art. 

Royal Society. 

The following papers have been read at this Sociefy 
since our last. 

April 86. On the Mebhanism of the Spioe^ by Mr. Earle. 

Observations on the Eclipse of August, 1831^ by Mr. 

May 2. On the Nerves which associate the Muscles of 
the Chest in the actions of Breathing, Speaking and Ex- 
pression, by Charles Bell, Esq. 

A short account of some Appearances in the Mooo, on 
the S4th of April, by Mr. Lawson. 

May 9. Experiments and ObservatioBft on tbaNewvy 
Pitch^stone, and on the artificial formation of Pumice, 
by the Right Hon. J. Knox. 

May 16. On the Changes which the Bgg undergoes 
daring Incubation, by Sir E« Home, Bart. 

May 23. On the Mathematical Laws of £lect]!o**flMig>* 
oetism, by P. Barlow, Esq. 

On the Height of Plaoesin the Trigonometrical Sufvey;. 
ij B. Bevan, Esq, 

• 4&. ........ ^ 

fforticuttural Society. 

(Gwdiidtd fiom oni Itft.) 

. Account qfsome standard Fig-irdea, atSompting near 
Wbrthingj Su8ae:iP. By J. Sabikb, Esq. 

Notices of new and remarkable varieties of Fruits 
ripened in the Summer arid Autumn of the j/ear 1820, 
vfhich were exhibited at the meeting of the Horticultural 

Strawberries ; — flie Hostock Vernon^ or Bostock; a 
haadsame fruit and^very abundant bearer. The Mathvtn 
Castle Strawberry; fruit large, mucb knobbed, the fairest 
specimens resemble the Pine ; a vivid scarlet all over ; 
flesh very soft, bright red throughout ; flavour resem^ 
bling the old scarlet ; bears abundantly in the light ; 
ripens eiMrly in Jane, and ecmtinues bearing till the end 
of July, or beginning of August. 

Cherries § — The Early Black Cherry y described In a 
farmer volume of the Transactions ; a valuable addition 
to our fruits. The Waterloo Cherry has also been noticed 
in a former volnixie* Cerise quatre t la livre is a tree 
received from Frances the name given from the gigan- 
tic character of the leaf; fruit small. Except, however^as 
aa ornamental tre^, which its large foliage and vigorous 
growth entitle it to be considered^ it will scarcely be 
fdlowed a place in the garden. 

PcacAc^.— The Flat Peach of China. This peach is 
cultivated in China, and is well known at Canton, 
where it is esteemed a good fruit. An exquisite drawing 
accompaaies the description of this plant. — ^The Std- 
hamstead Peachy a seedling variety raised at Sutham- 
stead, near Reading, is a fine new variety. The ito- 
9<mn€ Peach heetts in our climate as a standard; the 
imitia small, but ripens well, and has a rich highfla^o^t^ 

46 Polytechnic and Scientific Intelligence. 

Mekma ; — The Greeu'fleshed Egyptian is one of great 
excellence. The Levant Melon is also an excellent one. 

Grapes } — The Black Corinth Grape, is the variety so 
well known, in its dried state, as the currant, (or rather 
Corinth^ of the shops. The vine was first introduced 
into this country in the year 1817, when Prince CoR- 
NETO sent twenty-one plants and some cuttings packed 
up in earth from Zante to Sir Herbert Taylor, for the 
Queen. Directions were sent by Prince Corneto for its 
cultivation, which were given, with a plant, to Sir Joseph 
Banks. It was planted in the hot-house at Spring 
Grove, where it has grown luxuriantly, and ripened its 
fruit well. High temperature, however, does not ap* 
pear to be necessary to it : for it has been also planted 
agaiiist a south wall at Fangreve, near Chertsey ; and 
bas thriven well, borne plentifully, and ripened the 
fruit somewhat earlier than other sorts in the same situa- 
tion, though all the berries on the branch have uot ripened 
equally well. The fruit must be protected from birds 
^nd flies, which seem particularly fond of it. 

Th^ Wortley ffall Grape is a seedling similar in its iip- 
pearance to the Black Hamburgh. The bunch exhibited 
weighed upwards of two pounds. The Poonah Grape is , 
a yery handsome variety received from Bombay. Colour 
of the fruit when fully exposed to t)ie sun, dark red ; the, 
vine a fr^e bearer ; the fruit keeps for a considerable 
time after it is ripe. 

Walnuts ;^T he Highflyer Walnut is by far the best 
walnut grown. 

Pears ; — Kneveifs Pear is long, somewhat fig-shaped ; 
skin dull green, covered on the exposed side jwitb brown-^. 
ish red and sprinkled with minute brown spots. Flesh, 
white, firm, yet meltipg, very sweet with a bergamot per-, 
fume. Ripens toward the end of September. This is. 

Horticultural Sgciety. • 47 

the same pear as the Poire Figure^ or Poire PistoUtte. 
The Marie Louise Pear has already been noticed in the 
transactions ; it has far exceeded the highest expectations 
which had been formed of it. The accompanying draw- 
ing conveys a very perfect idea of this excellent and 
beautiful pear. It ripens from the middle of October, to 
the middle of November, according to the place of its 
growth. It sometimes weighs eight ounces. We can 
merely name the Seckle Pear^ the Charles dC Autriche 
Pear^ and the TiUingion. 

Apples; — The Red Astrachan Apple^ imported from 
Sweden, but now growing here, is one of the very best 
early apples : its fruit ripens about the middle of August. 
The Revelstone Pippin. The Gravenstein Appky is 
a fine fruit, and a first rate autumnal apple ripening in 
the end of October, but does not keep well beyond the 
end of November. It has been obtained from Germany 
and Sweden. The Golden Noble^ MoUetVs Guernsey 
Pippin J the Alexander Apple tree, Hunts Duke of Glou^ 
cester, and the Petit Jean Apple^ are varieties which 
we can only name. The Sweeny Nonpareil is a seed- 
ling, raised by Mr, Parker, at Sweeny, in Shropshire. 
It is considerably larger than the nonpareil, and is an 
excellent fruit for culinary purposes. It is fit for gather- 
ing about the middle of November, and some may be kept 
till late in the Spring. The tree is* an abundant bearer ; 
some of the apples weigh seven ounces and a half each» 
or more. The Bossom AppU^ is a baodfome, large 
and useful apple; the Bayfordbury Pippin \ the WeU 
lingtan, the Royal Reinette, and the Pinner Seedlings 
we simply mention. 

On Forcing Plumsy by J. T. AlTOM, End. 

Notice of a Pit for Fruiting Pines and Melons, ^^^ 

48 Polytechnic and Soimiifio Intelligence. 

Obaervationa on the Production of Seeds of Pine Apples. 
Bj Mr. W. Back. 

Account of the Ctdtivation qf the Water cress ^ aspracr 
tised by Mr. W. Bradbert, at West Hyde, near Rick- 
ma^iswbrthf Herts^ by H. Bbllendem Kbr, Esq. 

This paper is deserving the attention of those who are 
admirers of water cresses, but we have no room for an 

On the Cultivation of the Pine Apple^ by J. A. 
Knight, Esq. 

Notice relative to the Flowering qf JjiUum Japonicum^ 
by Mr. S. Brookes. 

Notices of communiccUions to the Horticultural So^ 
ciety^ between August Isty 1820, and May istj 1821, qf 
which separate accounts have not been published in its 
Transactions. Extracted from the mintUe books and pch 
pers of the Society. 

These contain an account of treatmg some Pineapple 
plants which had grown to unusual size^ by Mr. W. 
Hoea. A notice 6f the Dwarf Carnation ; a notice on 
Production Ringing and Maturation Ringing, which 
is deserving the attention of the Horticulturist. On a 
method qf growing Cape BroccM, by Mr. D. Macleod. 
A notice of two Specimens of a Cucumber ; another of 
seven beari9ig plantSf vines in pots; another of Speci- 
mens qf the Scarlet Nonpareil from ringed and unriiig- 
ed brcm/ohes on a standard tree. On the advantages qf a 
span-roofed Glass-house for forcing peaches. A notice of 
some fruit of the Trapa Natans; another of some dried 
figs; Observations on the subject (^ Ringing, by T. 
Hunt, Esq. On the sorts of stocks to be used with 
fruit-trees in different soils, by M. Duereuil, director 
of the Botanic Garden at Rouen. This is a subject 

Glover*8 Exhibition. 4^ 

which has attracted but little atteotion amoDgst gar: ; 
deners in England^ and is highly deserving of enquiry. 
A Plan of exposing the Branches of Vines growing 
in a Stove to the external Air^ by S» G ALTON, Esq. 

Notes on Horticultural subiects, hj Mr. J. BuscH. 
On a new method of fastening fruit tr^s to walls, by 
C. HoLFORD, Esq. consists chiefly in arranging copper . 
wires from the top to the bottom of the wall in a per- 
pendicular direction, two iron staples being driven into 
the wall at equal distances ; to keep the wires close to 
the wall, they are secured at top and bottom with 
hooks. The branches and shoots are . fastened by this 
twine, which is first tied to the wire with a single knot. 

On the cultivation of Chinese Chrysanthemums ^ by Mr. 
J. Wells. 

The Plates which accompany this part are. — Steam 
Pits in the Garden of the Taurida Palace. — Flat 
Peach of China. — Marie Louise Pear. — The Grav- 
enstein Apple. --Pit for Fruiting Pines and Melons. 

Mr, Glover^s Exhibition of Oil and Water-colour 


We now redeem our promise of looking after Mr. 
Glover. Whatever we may feel at the abstraction of 
any portion of the best efforts of art from the annual 
ExbibttrcH^ of Somerset House, we should not do our 
duty did we^ not say that a visit to this gentleman^s gallery 
has convinced us, that we ought to be well contented with 
the course w)iich he has adopted. It is true we did not find 
the squeeze at this place so ardent as at the Royal Aca- 
demy, but we found what is much more desirable ; — room 
and opportunityfor a proper contemplation and enjoyment 
of the various pieces here brought together. The whole 
collection consists of eighty-nine subjects, most of them 


60 Polytechnic <ind Sdentific Intelligence. 

landscapes, this being the walk in which Mr. Glover 
excels. A few <>f this number are done by Mr. Williarti 
GloveVy and Mr. £. Price; two by Wilson^ and two 
also by Claude Lorrain. The rest are the efforts of the 
genius of G lover y and were he never to paint another 
picture, he has done enough to insure him a niche in 
that tern pie to which every artist ought to aspire. 

T9 the lovers of nature, and of landscape, we know 
not in the whole round of metropolitan exhibition, at the 
present moment, a more delightful treat than these paint- 
ings afTord. Many of them have, it is true, appeared in 
former exhibitions at the Royal academy, but though 
old acquaintances they lose nothing of their first effect by 
a farther intimacy ; on the contrary they will bear study- 
ing well. Although landscape is the chief, it is not the 
only attraction here. The Lions at Exeter Change ; the 
CroTsm Pigeon from the East Indies : the Family of 
Monkies ; the King Duck from Melville Island^ North 
PolCy and a few others^ which we cannot enumerate, are 
deserving attention. 

But' we cannot avoid directing the notice of our 
readers to a few of the landscapes. With Ulswater 
and Patterdale, Mr. Glover is absolutely enamoured. 

He has given us six different views of Ulswater and 
its neighbourhood, and three of Patterdale. Of these. 
No. 42, Ulswater from the Mountains above Gobray 
Park^ and 62, Ulswater^ strike us as the best ; but each 
has its peculiar attractions. 

No. 60, Mill at VaUombrosa^ Italy; the views of 
Tivoliy No. 68, and 75 ; the Campo VaccifiOy Rome. — 
the Temples of Concord^ Jupiter Tonans, ^c. at 
Rome, No. 71, will, among others of similar charac- 
ter, be contemplated with considerate satisfaction* 

Glover* 9 Exhibition. 61 

tVirksworth near MAilock^ Derbyshire. — Mornings 
No. 59, is a well executed work ; the cattle more espe- 
cially demand our commendatioD. No. 44, the Junc' 
iion of the Rivers Conway and MachnOy North Wales j 
is one oi those mountain scenes which never can be con- 
templated without delight. No. 25, Interior of T^intem 
Abbej/y near Chepstow^ Monmouthshirey has been, we 
believe, painted before by other hands ; we think never 

Loch Katrine and Benn Venuey Scotlandy No. 85, have 
been consecrated by the muse of Sir Walter Scott. Mr. 
Glover has certainly done his part to convey the scenes 
to those who have not the opportunity of a personal 
inspection of the classic spot. 

But we cannot . proceed farther in our enumeration. 
Before, however, we take our leave of Mr. Glover's paint< 
ings, we would not have our readers to conclude that we 
consider them, in the mass, as faultless ; We certainly do 
not. There is an' indistinctness of outline, particularly in 
the back ground of som^ of them, which we should be 
happy to see avoided. This artist seems peculiarly fond of 
the sprieiy of water, and of mists and clouds ; these are all, 
of course appropriate^when introduced upon suitable ooca* 
sions ; but, in our judgment, they are sometimes introduced 
unnecessarily, and tend occasionally to injure the eflfect of 
on, otherwise, excellent picture. The light too is not 
always exactly as we could wish to see it. We are, 
notwithstanding, highly gratified to witness the collected 
efforts of this meritorious individual, and most cordially 


advise him to persevere. 

Polytechnic and Scientific Imelligem 
Dr.' Hof£land has published a little p&mpfalet at 
BerEin, shewing the geat i a convenience from the circum- 
stance of different nations having adopted in their respec- 
tive pharmacopoeias different denominations for the same 
article or preparation in the materia medica. Prussia, 
France, Russia, England, Austria, &c. possess each their 
pharmaceutical nomenclature, and a druggist residing in 
a large capital where foreigners resort in great numhers, 
is obliged, if he would understand every prescription 
which is sent to him, to collect alt the pharmacopoaias of 
those nations, in order that he may consult them when 
occasion may require. This is a great evil ; and it is ex- 
traordinary that, vrilh the increased and superior know- 
ledge of chemistry, and indeed every branch of know- 
ledge allied to medicine, that the physicians of Europe 
can suffer such discrepancies to exist. Even in the British 
Empire we have three pharmacopoeias, the London, the 
EdinhuTgh,auAtlie Dublin, between which considerable 
difference in the names and compounds still exists. Calo- 
mel for example is called in the Austrian Pharmacopoeia 
Murias HydTargyH mitis — in the Russian Murias Hy- 
drargyri Oarydulatua Preparaius — in the Edinburgh and 
London sub murias Hydrargyri — in the French Muriaa 
Hydrargyri Dlucis, or Protochlorureium Hydrargyri. 
The rage for new names is not less injurious to science 
now, than the pertinacity with which old and unmeaning 
ones were formerly retained. A committee of the medico- 
chemical savans of Europe might surely obviate these in- 

New PaleniSi Sealed in 1821B. 53 

Quadrature of the Circle, 

M. Scamarella, a Venetian Geometrician, annoances 
that he has solved the problem of the quadrature of the 
circle, and that he is ready to demonstrate it incontrover- 
tibly to all the mathematicians in the world. According 
to M. Scamarella^ the superfices of a circle is equal to 
three-fourths of the same diameter. It is also equal to 
the square of the circumference multiplied by half the 
radius, estimating their ratio as 7 to 21 and not 7 to 22, 
as Archimedes taught. 


Conducting Power of Tin-plate. 

At a late meeting of the Helvetic Society of Natural 
Sciences at Bdle^ M. Pictet gave a detailed report 
of a remarkable descent of lightning upon a house at 
Geneva, which had no conducting apparatus : but the 
roof of which was covered with tin plates, and provided 
with gutters and pipes of the same metal in communica- 
tion with the earth. The event proved the great im- 
portance and preservative property of the metallic cover- 
ing used in the construction of the houses at Geneva. It is 
without doubt to this circumstance that can be specially 
attributed, the rarity of accidents which are produced 
by lightning in that city. 

To Robert Knight, of Foster-lane, London, irooman* 
ger, cmd Rupert Kirk, of Osborne-place, Wbitechapely 
Middlesex, dyer, for their process for more rapid cbrjf- 
talization, and for the evaporation of fluids at a compara* 
tively low tempefature.^-Sealed May 9tb.'— 2 months for 

54 New Patents^ Sealed in 1822. 

To Henry Septimus Hyde Wollaston, of Clapton in the 
county of Middlesex, merchant, for a bolt or fastening, 
particularly applicable as a night bolt. — Sealed June 4th. 
— 2 months for Inrolment. 

To William Huxham, of Exeter in the county of De- 
von, ironfounder, for certain improvements in the con- 
struction of roofs. — Sealed June 4th. — 6 months for In- 

To Henry Colebank, of Broughton in Furness, in the 
Parish of Kirkley, Ireleth, in the county of Lancaster, 
tallow-chandler, for a new and useful engine lately con- 
structed by the deponent, and now in his possession, for 
the purpose of cutting, twisting and spreading of wic^, 
used in the making of candles, by which a great saving 
of manual labour is accomplished. — Sealed June 4th. — 
2 months for Inrolment. 

To William Feetham, of Ludgate-hill in the City of 
London, stove-maker, and furnishing ironmonger, for cer- 
tain improvements on shower baths. — Sealed June ISth, 
— 6 months for Inrolment. 

To Denny^ Gardner, of Edmund-place, Aldersgate- 
street, in the city of London, manufacturer, for a stay 
particularly applicable to supporting the body nnder 
spinal weaknesses, and correcting deformity of shape. — 
Sealed June 13th. — 2 months for Inrolment. 

To Joseph Wass, of Lea Wharf, in the parish of Ash- 
over, in the county of Derby, millwright and lead smelter, 
for an improvement which prevents the ill effects to vege- 
tative and animal life that has hitherto been occasioned 
by the noxious fumes and particles that arise from smelt- 
ing' or calcining lead ore, and other pernicious minerals. 
— Sealed June 15th.-— 6 months for Inrolment. 



Liierarg notisei of works in haud should rea^h us by tho hDenty-secondof the 

month at latest. 

A Nbw Part of the Transactions of the 
Geological Society is in the press and is 
expected to appear in a few weeks. Tlie 
price of the Geological Transactions will 
in liiture be considerably reduced, the So- 
dety having recently taken upon itself the 
expense and risk of the publication, and 
consulted economy by the adoption of a 
fuller page and the substitution of litho- 
graphic plates for engravings! on copper. 
We trust, howevei, that the lithographic 
eubstitutes will do more credit to tiie arts 
tiian some which have latterly come under 
our notice. 

Mr. James Patersom, road-surveyor, 
Montrose, is about to publish a supplement 
to his Treatise on Roads, consisting of a 
series of letters and communications ad- 
dressed to the Select Committee of the 
House of Commons on the Highways of 
the Kingdom ; and containing an enquiry 
into the nature and excellencies of what 
is called Mr, M' Adam's system of road^ 
making ; — ^how far he is entitled to the 
merit that he arrogates to himself, and 
whidi is generally attributed to him in re- 
gard to it, — ^his errors and defects pointed 
out, as also to what merit he is really en- 

The thud part of Mr» Rhodbs^s Peak 
Scenery, or Excursions in Derbyshire, is, 
we understand, on the eve of publication. 
These Excursions are illustrated with a 
series of btiauUful engravings by Mr. 
Cooke, from drawings recently made by 
Mr. Chantret, R. A. 

Canova, the celebrated Italian Sculptor 
has, it is said, just finished an admirable 
group, of Mars and Venus, which is de- 
signed for his Majesty George the Fourth. 

It being at length decided that London 
Bridge shall be taken down, it is proposed 
that the new bridge be erected as near 
as posnble to, and not exceeding 170 feet 
from the west side of the present bridge, 
and to afford a clear water way of not 
less than 090 feet. It is to be faced with 
granite and to consist of five arches ; the 
central aroh to rise 23 feet above high 
water mark at an average spring tide. 
The acclivity of the roadway to and over 
the bridge is not to be steeper than one 
foot in 26 feet. It is designed that this 
bridge shall be worthy of the Metropolis 
and the present cultivated state of science ; 
due regard being had at the same time to 
economy and convenience. As little sa- 
crifice of property as possible at both ends 
of the bridge for the formation of (he ne- 
cessary approaches, will be made consist- 

ent with the character of so important all 
entrance to the city of London. 

Inland Navigation, — It is said tint 
above 30,000 men are now employed vip<m 
the grand canal fh)m the Texel through 
North Holland to Amsterdam. The 
marshy soil under the water is removed 
by means of nets, and above 1000 smaU 
vessels are daily employed in carrying 
it away. The depth of the canal is fixed 
at twenty-five feet, that the largest East 
and West India men may be able to reach 
Amsterdam without unloading any part of 
their cargo in the Texel. This canal will 
be above fifty miles in length ; and will 
probably cost 100 millions of Dutch florins. 

An engraving by C. Heath, from West's 
painting of C&ist Healing the sick, is 
just fin^hed. The reports of connoisseurs 
inform us that it is a credit to the arts. 

The Horticultural Society held its an- 
niversar}' dinner on the 4th of June, at the 
Freemasons' Tavern, before which nearly 
1000 persons were admitted to viewthie 
dessert, which was arranged in a separate 
room, and was of the most splendid de- 
scription. Among the delicacies, the straw- 
berries raised by Mr. Keen of Isleworth, 
called the Charlotte and the NeW'Seed- 
ling were greatly noticed for their size 
and beauty. The flavour of these are 
also, it is said, truly delicious. 

New Compass, — ^Mr. William Clark 
of Chatham, has invented a compass on 
an entirely new principle. The needle 
consists of four arms or poles placed at 
right angles and uniting in one commcm 
centre. Two northern poles are secured 
to the N. W. and N. £., and the two 
southern poles to the S. E. and S. W. 
points of the card, which places the four 
cardinal points right between the angles 
of the needle, and allows the card to point 
north and south as heretofore, the cards 
now in use answering the purpose. This 
compass lias, it is said, been tried under 
different circumstances, and as far as can 
be ascertained by the experiments already 
made, is allowed to possess the principles 
of polarity and stability beyond those of 
any compass now in use. 

We learn from Naples, that M. Pepb, 
has discovered a method of preserving 
metals, such as iron, copper, &c. from 
the effects of both air and water, by cover- 
ing them with a metallic coating, which 
cannot be removed without the file, and 
which, when polished, becomes as white 
and as brilliant as silver. M. Pepe is 
printing a tract on this important discovery. 

TrtF Ni.rV ..^.•,} 




Appl^^alA'.r.A'intir^ Jpparatas. 

V t 





No. XX. 

To Augustus Applegath, of Duke Street^ LetV$ 
Towfiy Lambethy Surrey ^ for certain Improvements in 
Printing Machines. 

Under ibis patent tbere are two imppovements ; the 
first of which consists in supplying the printing* ink ta 
the form of types, stereotype plates, or blockS| by two 
sets of inking rollers, acting partly on one side of the 
.pressing cylinder, and partly on the other; by which 
means, as the form passes to and fro, it receives its sup- 
pi]^ of ink without being carried out to a considerable 
distance, as is the case in other printing machines, 
where the form is inked entirely on one side of the 
pressing cylinder, and where it must be made to travel 
with considerable speed in order to pass entirely under 
the inking rollers. By this improvement, the foim 
traverses a g&orter distance than usual, and, hence^ the 

VOL, i^, H 




58 Recent Pulenls. 

number of impressions, produced in any given time, may 
be increased in the same ratio as the traversing distance 
of the form is diminished, by which a saving of time will 
be effected in the operation of printing. 

The second improvement consists in the adapting and 
combining two paper-feeders with a printing cylinder, 
which revolves and prints in one direction only. This 
contrivance will be seen by reference to the diagram 
Plate IV, fig. 1. ^j is the pressing cylinder which gives 
the impression ; B, is the form of types passing to and 
fro under it ; a, and b, are two light cylinders or drums, 
whicli are only half the diameter of the pressing cylinder ; 
i,is connected, by means of toothed wheels and pinions, to 
thepressingcylindcr;andahasalsoa toothed wheel upon 
its axle, which connects it with b. On the spindle of £, is a 
pinion, c, one-fourth the diameter of the drum, b. The 
toothed wheeljrf, is loose upon its axis, and is driven by tlie 
pinion c, by which means it makes one revolution while 
the printing cylinder makes two : e, is a small stud or pin 
on the edge of the wheel, d, which is intended to strike 
alternately upon the arra3,yand g-, of two brass pulleys, 
h, h, 30 as to turn them partly round. These pulleys. A, h, 
are connected by bands to the web rollers i, i, to which 
the endless feeding tapes, h. A, are fastened ; (, i, being 
check straps to limit the action of i, i. 

By means of the stud or pin, e, the pulleys, A, h, are 
alternately moved, and the sheets of paper, p, p, laid 
upon the feeding tapes from the heaps, s, s, are thus 
brought forward towards the drums, a, or b and enter 
at E, so as to be conveyed by the tapes down to 
the pressing cylinder, A, round the periphery of which 
they move, and become printed by passing over, B, 
the form of types below, and, thence proceeding on the 
tape over the roller, g, are discharged at r. When the 


Applegath'Syfor Imj^iroements in Printing Machines. 58 

stud or pin, e, leaves the arm, fy or g", its pulley, /i, 
and web roller^ t, are carried )>ack to tbeir former posi- 
Uon by the gravity of the weight, w* l^ ?, are two small 
web rollers, over which the feeding tapes, ky ky pass. At 
2, 2, are placed several small thin bars of steel fixed to 
the web-boards between the int^rir^^ pf ^b® feeding 
tapes, and which extend to the dcun^. TJiese b^rs are 
uttende^to support jtb|^ sheets pf paper ^ their progress 
between the feeders apd the drums* niy is an angulaj: 
guide bar of metal or wood, placc^ so as to guide th^ 
paper ^own between tjie drums whe^ the upper or short 
sfts of endiess ti^pc^, n^ n^ leave it. Tbe small rpUer^, 
/p, o, jwj^c^ guide, the ^tap^ n^ n^ upwards are proove^ 
in the intervals between the tapes to allpw room for thii^ 
metal hoops to be bent round the. roEers^ p, and guide- 
Jbar,' my to prevent the sheets of paper from (botching 
agnuist |;h^ (B^^ pf the bar. 

^^ Py this second invention, the prlntii^g cylinder can 
be supplied with naore sheets o^ paper in any given time, 
jthan wl^n one f<^er onlj is used ; and thus adyoiitage 
floay be takep of the increasjed rate of printing, which js 
iobtained by means of my first improvement.'' 
r To avoid «»^ion the whole of U»e pitting machine 
^s nojt £d^o^n in the fig^ure, but oi^ly siich parts as are 
jnecessary to elucidate this invention; and it is no)b ^eant 
;to daim under this pfitent siny of the various parts of 
4hpse macbinses already knowp or in upe; ^^but S dp 
rfagereby claim as jny invention the inking the ^rm of 
types, plates, or blocks, partly on one s^de anid partly 
on the other side pf the pjressing or printing cylinder; 
and the combination of two paper feeders with a printing 
i^linder which prints in on0 direction only." 

Inrolledy May^ 1822. 

60 Receni Patenis* 

iTo Richard Francis Hawkins, of Plumstead^ Kent, 
for an Invention of certain Improvements in the Con^ 
struction of Anchors. 

These improvements consist, first, in the construction 
of anchors differing in form from those in general use; 
and, secondly, in certain adaptations to anchors of the old 
construction. In Plate lY. figs. 3 and, 3, are different 
Views of an anchor upon the first plan. Fig. 4, skews 
one of them in the holding position. The anchor consists 
of a shank, a, and arms or fluk^, &, A, with palms, c, 
and what is termed a crown-piece, rf, attached to the 
arms or flukes; also a toggle^ e, with the apparatus to 
fksten them together: shewn at fig. 7. . 

The shank is formed so as to consist of two parts 
towards the crown, with apertures or eyes in each, 
through whidi the arms or flukes may pass, and Work 
freely, the crown-piece turning with the arms.- '^ The 
interior of the crown-piece, or that part which is turned 
to the square of the shank, niust be so adjusted that the 
crown-piece may freely revolve and pass through the 
throat when the toggle is not in it.'' The crown-piece 
has an aperture perforated through it, seen at dy fig. 9y 
into which the long thick piece of iron, e, (called the tog- 
gle,) is inserted. This toggle is. fastened in its place, so 
as to project equally on both sides, and, by stopping 
against or meeting the throat of the shank,, as at fig. % 
prevents the crown-piece and the arms from passing 
round, by which they are held at an angle of about fifty 
degrees from the shank. 

When this anchor is let go, one of the ends of the 
toggle must come in contact with the ground which puts 
the flukes in a position to enter ; and, when the strain is 

ffuwkins'Sf for the construction of Anchors. 61 

exerted upon the cable, that end of the toggle which is 
tipwards comes in contact with the throat of the shank, 
and sets the anchor in the holding position, as fig. 4. 
The advantages of this mode of constructing ancluNrs su« 
that they hold by both the flukes at once, and tfaerefibre 
the weight of metal may be diminished, aiid yet an equal 
if not greater effect be obtained: added to which, there is 
inore probability of this anchor holding securely into the 
ground than those of the ordinary construction ; and 
there being no stock to this improved anchor, reduces 
the probability of fouling, which can rarely if ever ^ap? 
pen; hence^ it may be ^^ catted, fished, and stowed, with 
greater fiu^ility and safety than, a common anchor." 

'' The crown-piece should be the firat part maide, as, 
by it, the mechanic is more readily guided with respect 
to the distance between the eyes or loops of the shank, 
and the proportion of the depth of the throat. The 
diameter of the crown-piece may be determined by what- 
ever is the largest size or part of the arms which is the 
square to fit therein : the bole must be calculated, leaving 
a sufficient substance at the sides of the same. The hole, 
at <^posate angles intended for the toggle, is ascertained 
by the crown-piece itself,, the size of which is fixed by 
-whatever is that of the square part of the arms, deducting 
for substance that you may have round the; hole one way, 
and giving it the other way the additiop of about thr^e- 
tenths more, as that being opposed to the strain more 
Aeeessarily requires it. Let there be a boleor ring in 
the crown, end, for the better bending-to of the buoy 

" The arms may be next made, which may be laid up 
with flat bars of iron and faggotted, or otherwise form- 
ing a square. One palm can be put on or formed,, the 
ipther mi|st be done after it is rove through the eyes aad 

62 Hecenl PtUenls. 

rrown-piece. The arms are bent to their form IJie last 
thing ; in doing which care must be taken to ttct them to 
the form at first determined upon, as any alteration 
afterwards may endanger the parts bent." 

The slrank may also be made by iiiggotting with flat 
iron, so aa to produce a substance suflicient for half its 
thickness, in which one eye or loop is to be formed. Two 
of these sides may then be welded together, so as to com' 
plete the shank. It is best to make the shanks in whole 
lengths of iron, as that will prevent the risk of tractures 
from the scarfing. 

" The crown-piece is so called because it forms the 
crown of the anchor, and which may be wrought or 
caet. The arms and the crown-piece may he fixed in 
various ways ; but the plan which I find to succeed best 
is by what I call a cUp and a wedge, the hole in the 
crown-piece being square or squarish, and that part of 
the arms which is to be festened being also squarish, 
with a clip on one aide, and a wedge driven in on the 
opposite aide, by which it is made perfectly tight. The 
toggle may be fastened in its place by various ways ; but 
the mode I use is by the clip and wedge above stated. 
Its length must be such as to make it firmly bear against 
the throat, and it serves the purpose of a stock, which 
is therefore not necessary for this sort of anchors." 

The improvements upon anchors constructed similar 
in form to those now in use will be seen at fig. 5. 
The arms, a, a, of the anchor are proposed to be made 
in one piece or length, with a sufficient substance of 
iron in the middle to admit of a large hole through it. 
The crown of the shank, 6, is to be formed with a throat 
something similar to that above described, having eyes 
or loops, between which the middle part of the arms is 
placed, and there secured firmly to the shank by a strong 


1 PUBLIC L'.BPAi- '' ' 

Cotef'^, Chronometer. 

Jirawn^- .Itnprovfil Hoiler. 



' Cole's, for Improvements in Chronometers. 



bolt, c, passing through the loops and the arms. The 
object of tbia is to make the crown part of the anchor 
stronger, to avoid the risk of breaking, which exists 
in tboee anchors united by scar£}. 

The stock is constructed so as to consist of two pieces 
of timber or iron, which, when the anchor is not in use, 
may fold down as d, by means of a joint on each side of 
the shank ; and, when required for use, these pieces may 
be extended as e, and secured in a cap or case of iron, 
so as to fasten them in their intended position. Various 
other modes mfty, however, be resorted to for the purpose 
of fixing the stock when used, which will readily occur 
to practical men, according to circumstances and conve- 
nience, depending in some cases on the size of the anchor. 
A bolt passing through the iron case and the stock 
would be sufBcient for small anchors; but in large ones, 
where the stock is of wood, a hoop and a wedge would 
answer better. 

The iron stock, fig. 6, possesses the same advantages 
as those of wood; and the ends may be enlarged by wooden 
blocks, so as to prevent their sticking in the ground. Thin 
accident frequently happens in ordinary anchors, and 
prevents them from canting, from which circumstance 
the anchor is often rendered ineffective. 

InroUed, March, 1822. 

To James Fehguion Cole, late of Hans Place, 
CheheOy but now of Park Streel^ Grosvenor-sguarej 
London, Jbr an Invention of certain Improvements 
in Chronometers. 

The first improvement proposed under this patent 
consists in the application of a safely pin to a detent 


Tieceiif P lite Ills. 


with pivots ; a locking plate to the balance axis ; and tTie 
return or unlocking spring in a rcvereed position, the es- 
capement of the chronometer being a detached one. Plate 
V. fig. 1, shews the detent, a light bent bar, in the middle 
of which is an axis or pivot, a. On the upper surface of 
this bar a small alud, 6, projects, which is acted upon 
by an angular notch, c, cut in the edge of a circular 
plate, d. This plate ia attached by a screw, J] to the 
upper surface of the flanch or main pallet, e, or fitted 
friction tight on the pipe or neck. The flanch, or pallet, 
is firmly fixed on the balance axis, at g. The circular 
plate, dy is termed the locking plate, the outer edges of 
which extend a little beyond the extreme acting part of 
the main pellet, e. 

At /t, in the detent bar, the locking pallet is fixed, 
wMch retains the escape wheel during the excm-sion of 
the balance. When this pallet is adjusted to ita proper 
depth in the escape wheel, the position of the safety pin, 
b, may be determined ; aa its place in the detent bar must 
be such as to allow freedom between itself, the extreme 
passage of the escape-wheel teeth, and the edge of the 
locking plate, d, on the balance wheel. 

On the under aide, and near the extremity of the 
detent bar, a stud, k, projects, into which the return 
or unlocking spring, I, is fixed. The depth which the 
lifting pallet, i, takes on the acting end of this spring is 
determined by its counter-pin in its acting end at /, 
which pin rests against the nose, ni, of the detent bar, 
and is shown by dots, because the locking plate and 
flanch would hide it. The end of the unlocking spring 
is hooked, and has motion nearly in a right line between 
the axis of the balance and the detent, which last-men- 
tioned, with ita appendage, must be accurately poised 
upon its pivot. 

Cole^S) for ImproDemeiOs in Chronometers. 65 

When tke deep part of the Dotcfi, e, is id a jj^osHion 
between the balance centre and the safety pin, b^ the 
lockings pallet, A, wiU be withdrawn from the repose 
too A of the escape wheel by the lifting pallet, t, and 
the impellent-tooth c^ the escape wheel wiU be at liberty 
to fall on the acting part of the flanch or main pallet, e, 
to which the locking plate is attached. Both these are 
adTaiiced together by the wheel's force, and befinre that 
impelleiit-tooth of the escape wheel has quitted the 
pallet, e, the locking pallet, A, will be again ^replaced and 
^teured by the locking plate. 

This method of locking is applicaUe to a wheel of the 
duplex kmd, as shewn in tke figure ; aiid is also appli- 
cable to a wheel of the kind generally used in detached 
escapements ; but, when the latter kind of escape wheel 
is used^ the locking may be performed without the plate, 
d; as the angle for throwing the safety-pin, &, is, in that 
case, fcnrmed by the notch, c, which is cut in the edge of 
the flanch, e, forming the fiice or pallet agamst which 
the escape wheel aets in giving impulse* 

The balance in this chronometer is constructed without 
arm, adjusting weights, screw, cavity, or projection, so 
that the atmospheric air cannot aflfect its circular move^ 
ment. This balance is, in form, a circular plate, flat on 
one side, and on the oj^site turned hollow, so as to 
leave no more substance than is absolutely necessary to 
support the rim. 

The effect of heat and cold on this chronometer is 
compensated by a curb actuated by a compensator, the 
motion of which increases in one direction,and dimiiiishes, 
in the other, the acting length of .the balance spring; 
Tins curb and compensator are connected with the ba« 
lance-cock and apparatus for adjustment in the following 

VOL, iv. 1 

GQ Recent Patents. 

On the upper surtacc of the balaiice-cock, at a, Hf^'. £ 
is fixed a tumoi) collet, on the undercut neck of which 
is fitted, with a spring-clip, the moveable time -regulating 
piece, b, b. The shoulder of the collet, a, on which the 
time-regulating piece bears, projects as much above tlie 
upper surface of the balance cock as the thickness of the 
toothed rack attached to the under surface of b, and is 
acted upon by the tanfjpnt screw, c. This screw is sup- 
ported by two cocks, rf, d, secured to the foot of the 
balance^cock. Through the piece, b, b, is a long slit 
or groove, into which is fitted Ihe tenon of the sliding 
nut, y; The compensator or expansion-piece, g, g, g, 
is of a circular form, (but this may be varied;) the foot 
and outer part is of steel, the inner part of brass, the 
foot of which is firmly attached to the tenon of the 
sliding nut, f. On the upper surface of the sliding nul 
is the piece, h, having a hole tapped to receive the 
micrometer screw, (' ; in this is a turned groove, receiving* 
the head of the guide, m, which is secured to the upper 
surface of the time-regulating piece, and prevents the 
micrometer screw from moving longitudinally. 

By the revolution of the micrometer screw, the sliding 
nut, y, may be gradually moved along the groove, so os 
to regulate the rate of compensation necessary, according 
to the variations of heat and cold. On the circular part 
of b, two ears project, to which the bridge, w, is attached. 
Through this bridge, in a position nearly opposite to the 
centre of motion, an axis, p, is screwed; and on this 
axis, beneath the bridge, a moveable socketj g, ts fitted. 
To this socket, the arm, r, and curb, s, is fixed. In 
the acting end of the compensator, g, is a stud, v, which 
forms a connection between the curb and compensator, 
by its action against the inner cdgeof the arm, r; which 
arm is kept in contact with the stud, v, by a springs 

_ 9 

Cole^s^ for Improvements in Chronometers. 61 

^ fixed to the end of the compensator. The contact of 
the arm and stud is made by forming the piece, r, as a 
\ioA oi two prongs, one of wliich operates as a spring 
t«^mfi>lii9»sttid,v, held betweeo. them ^ On the circular 
part of the arm, r, surrounding the socket, 9, projects the 
time-regulating curb, 5 ; on the under side of which are^ 
t^o' pins^ projecting for the purpose of checking the 
balance spring, which, is held between them : x, is. that 
part of the balance spring acted upon. 

The operation of the regulator will now be seen. By 
turning the tangent screw, c, the regulating piece, com- 
pensator, curbs, index, and other parts, wi^U be moved, and 
the acting length of the balance spring, thereby increased 
or diminished, according to the direction in which the tan- 
gent screw, c, is turned. The secondary curb, f, is fitted 
to the socket on the undercut edge ; and on the step of 
this curb is screwed two pieces, 2;, ». In each of these 
is a small pin, (similar to those Df the curb, 5,) which 
admits of. being moved separately nearer to, or &rf her 
from, the curb's centre of motion. These pins are 
intended to check the balance spring in the same manner 
as those of the curb, s ; and their effects, when adjusted, 
are intended to compensate for the difference of propor- 
tion which th^ escape wheel's influence, and continuity of 
action, bear to the long and short vibrations of* the ba- 
lance. Both the curbs, s and ty move in a circle corres- 
ponding to the curved form of the balsuice spring, x ; 
whether actuated by the compensator or expansion piece, 
g, or by the motion of- the tangent screw, c. To the 
extreme end of the arm,* r, is fixed a needle, or index, 
pointing to the graduated scale. 

Inrolkdy March^ 182^, 


To Henby Bhown, of Derbif, for Improvements ia 
the Construction of Boilers, whereby a considerable 
saving of Fuel is effected, and Sinoke rapidly con- 

This iavention consists in the introduction of an ad- 
ditional tube to be filled with water by means of pipes 
passing from the boiler, which tube, by being carried 
thi'ougb the furnace under the boiler, causes an increased 
surface of water to be presented to the action of the fire, 
and thus effects an economy in the consumption of 
fuel ; beside which, by causing an interruption to the 
direct draught of the fire, and thereby turning the flame, 
the smoke and gas emitted become consumed, and pro- 
duce a more intense heat than would be otherwise oc- 
casioned by the ordinary combustion of the fuel, when the 
■moke and gas are suffered to escape. 

This improvement is stated to be applicable to what 
is termed Wolfe's boiler, and is reju-esented in section, 
in Plate V. fig, 3. The patentee does not, however, 
confine himself in the adaptation pf his improvement to 
this particular sort of boiler alone, nor to the precise 
form of the additional tube or vessel, as it may be round 
or oval. The contrivance represented in the figure, at 
a, is a cylindrical vessel, extending across the furnace 
and through the brick work, to which water is supplied 
by the lateral pipes, b, b, issuing from the boiler, 
and shewn by dots; or it may be injected by means of a 
pump through the pipe, c; or a column of water, de- 
scending from a reservoir, may be made to supply it. 
The situation of the additional tube, a, in the furnace, is 
such, that it will stop the progress of the (lame, and 
cause it to descend; by which the smoke and gas are made 

Smiih\ for Qtopping Woollen Goths. 09 

to pass into t}te fire^ and hence become tonsmned, at 
the same time increasipg the heat of the fiirnace. 

The same contrivance is ap{^ad>fe also to waggon^^ 
shaped ^l^rp, and 19^ be wade to pass under them in 
a Similar rn^Wi^ to that above described. It is also 
Anther proposed to contract the fire-place by construct- 
ing a case to contain water which shall surround the 
fire, leaving a small aperture at the lower part of the 
back communicating witih the fines, by which the uncon^ 
sumed sQidiLe and vapour may pass into the fines and 
round the boiler as usuaL It is particularly observed, 
that the fuel should not be conducted to the back part of 
the furnace until its gas is fiiUy consumed. 

Inrolkdy Julj/y 18SL 

To James Smith, of Hackney^ for Improvements in 
the Machinery employed for Shearing or Cropping 
Woollen Cloth. 

This invention purports to be an improvement in the 
jform of the revolving cutters, attached to a certain de- 
ecription of machines employed for shearing or creeping 
wopU^ cloths, where the cutters are made to c^perate by 
acting as they revolve against the edges of ledg^-blades. 
The improvement is effected by winding several cutting 
blades round a cylinder parallel to each other, with such 
an obHqnity to the axis that they may each form a suit- 
able shearing angle with the ledger-blades, against 
which they are intended to be brought, successively, by 
the rotatory motion given to the cylinder. 

Three ^rutting bars are suggested as the most desirable 
number to be twisted round a cylinder of two inches 

70 ReceiH Patents. 

diameter, and three feet long. They are t^o be so inclined 
to the axis that one-sixth of the' whole length of the bar 
shall be brought into action in one revolution of the 
cylinder. In order to form these cutting bars with per- 
fect accuracy, it is proposed that six bars of steel shall 
•be wound round a cylinder, and there operated upon by 
turning or grinding until they have acquired a truly con- 
centric or circular periphery'^ they are then to be removed 
and hardened. The three bars not intended to be em- 
ployed may be reserved to supply the place of any one 
injured by accident. 

\ The patentee states that his ^^ invention consists only 
in the improved make, form, or structure, of the said 
cutting bars, and does not embrace or require any altera- 
tion in th^ ledger-blades, or in any other parts of the 
various machines in use for shearing or cropping. • The 
revolving steel cutters of the improved form may be used 
as substitutes for the rotatory cutters employed in machines 

in comqion us^.'' 

Jnrolled, October^ 1821. 

To RoBEBT FoBD, \ of Abingdofi^row^ Goswell-street* 
road) MiddleseXj for his Discovery of a chemical 
Ldquidj or Solution of Atmotta. 

Annottj, or Annatto, (a term derived, we believe, 
from a Spanish word implying to mark) is qbtained from 
the red pulp which covers the seeds of the Bixa orellana^ 
Roucoh or Annatto-tree, a native of South America. 
Annatto is found in commerce under various forms and 
names ; such as Jlag annatlOy because brought to this 
poiintry enveloped in flags ; Spanish annattoy which is iii 

ForcTs^ for a Solution ofAnnotia. 71 

cylindrical rolls ; and occasionally also in the shape of 
®" ®ffff» hence called egg annaito. But the annatto 
most known to the British public, generally, is a compo- 
sition of the imported annatto, turmeric, an alkaline 
salt, and some common colouring earth, such as Venetian 
red or Spanish brown. It is made up in cakes of about 
four ounces each, and is used chiefly by the farmers in 
the dairy counties for coloaHBg their cheese. The 
quantity sold annuaUy in England is incredibly great : 
fortunes of do small amomit liaTe been made by the ma- 
nufacture and sale of aJx aamiio. The imported 
annatto is used » a dyeing material tar giving orange, 
or colours iiorderin^ on the orange, to varioiB clods. 

The pat^itee proposee. in order to make twenty gal* 
Ions of the chemical liqnad or solntni of annotta, to take 
°^"' «A^ -•- jmamy ^ amotla, and icdoce U with 

warm water; then to pmm it tkoogh a fiae siere, and 
suffer it to stand at least serm dbyiL To this he then 
adds the leys of sub-carboonted polnah in a ^waOciaH 
quantity to produce the coloor raqwred ;'' bat alate^ 
that other suitable articles may be enplojed fcr the wne 
purpose, the quantity and slraa^ beiag re:pilated 
according: to the colour intended to be pmd«nfd| and 
also according to the quality oC tbe anana. To tke 
aboFe ingredients are now to be added abont n& pnitj» of 
the aqua lixivum caustic^ and 19S oonces of ak o Wl ; tW«; 
whole of which are to be mticed together, keepisi; ' 
closed vessel ; and, in 

that as my invention consists in prodadag 
solution of annatto, Ca» article I bdieie to be «.tirfr\^ 
new,) I shall consider any similar ^in im ^mm m Uei 
from different articles or variations sf fWrt ity r^f- 
aforesaid articles, or by wbat in rani tktfmtt prrj^ 
as an infringement on my *'— ^ ^ 

Recent Patents. 

must be aware tlial there are ingredients other than those 
mentioned above, which may with oflect be made to sup- 
ply their or either of their places," 

This is not one of the least extraordinary patents whicl* 
are from time to time enrolled. In the first place, the 
AiniJof annatto is not mentioned ; the quantity of water is 
not mentioned ; the quantity of the leys of sub-carbonated 
potash is not mentioned ; — and, by the way, what are 
the leys of sub-carbonated potash i are they a solution to 
saturation in water of sub-carbonate of potasli ? or — but 
we really do not understand. What, too, is aqua lixivum 
caustic? (a precious sample this of the patentee's latinity !> 
We suppose, however, that he means the liquor potassat 
of the London Pharmacopceia, or, in the language of 
the last century, soap leys.* But the great discovery — 
a liquid or solution of annallo — remains to be told. A 
solution of annatto! Gentle reader, if thou hast ever 
been so fortunate as to wear those very extraordinary 
and scarcely heard-of articles, yclept nankin trowsers or 
pantaloons, and thou wilt make inquiry of any wise and 
ingenious washerwoman, thou wilt find, to thy no small 
delight doubtless, that an article called nankin dye 
(a solution of annatto in water by means of an alkaline 
salt) has been in common use by their ladyships, the 
washerwomen, for, at least, one quarter of a century; 
nay, we are not sure that some of the more grave and 
learned of that body were not acquainted with it fifty 
years ago ; and, if thou desire to obtain this delectable 
liquid, we suppose it may be found at almost any oil shop 
or at the dyer's. However, if thou shouldst demand 
printed proof of such solutions, wc refer thee at once to 

* Aqva lixivia taiutica. Vida Pharm> Ediu, I793.— Does (he patenle* 

. iH:. i,r.vv vopr , 

^' . \, . 

74 ReeetU PaietUi. 

about Bixty gallona of tke rough iini^ilir^ tar ; to whidk 
an equal quantity of Ume water 10 to be added, and then 
agitated by machinery or ipanm} labour ^ntil the lime- 
water is completely milled wijkh the tar. The vessels 
should then be suffered to rest for about six hours,, hj 
which time the tar will settle at the bottom of the cads, 
and the water m^y be drawn offl The casks containing 
the tar should then be filled with hot water, which may 
be supplied, from the boiler of a steam engine, and the 
whole again agitated as befcnre. This process may be 
repeated three times, suffering the tar to subside between 
each; and twelve hours should be allowed for settling 
from the last water, so that the whole of the tar and 
water may become separated, the water rising to the 
top of the cask, and the tar left at bottom, in a pure 

But, as some of the water will yet remain mechanically 
combined with ^the tar, it is proposed that the tar should 
be 8ut{jf;cted to the process of distillation. For thb 
purpose, a still, capable of holding one hundred and 
twenty gallons, may bp employed, in which about fifty 
gallons at one time may be operated upon, when, by a 
gentle heat, the water, and other impurities which the 
tar may have retained, will be driven off. As soQP as 
the water appears to have evaporated, and the spirit 
runs fine and clear, the process of distillation should be 
stopped, and, when cold, the pure tar may be drawn oi^ 
and set apart for the purpose of being employed as con- 
templated in the patent. 

The tar thus purified may be now converted into 
black ; or it may be subjected to fiirtJier rectification to 
divest it of the mineral pitch or asphaltum which is ccmi- 
bined with the oil and spirit : the latter is to be preferred ; 
because the mineral pitch, or asphaltum, is only inflam- 

Martin and QriifiiiM/C$y for a Spirit Black. It 

mable at a biigh tenpettitilr^ uddch renders it more 
troiiblesOTue to oae in tli0 {Mrocecb here ^ontem'pliited^'and 
also woidd cause tire appartttus to require freqiMnt 
eleaaing fitiin the dorbenuBed pitiA d^poeitdd. la Mder^ 
therefore, id get rid of tli^ nrinerld f&loh olr aB]^haflitilmf 
forty gaUoA)^ of thfe tnr are to be introduced kitb i(«(tU^^ 
as before; and, iitet^ad of.stoj^k^ the operMion a^ 
so(m as the sj[iirit beg^ to i^ome o^rer, the dMtiU&tion 4^ 
c<mtin}»d with a stl-ong Ifeat^ s'o^ as to fetce oyer ihe 
whole of the oil aiid spirit, learmg €he residilum -^tf 
aspfaaHum in the stifl : this process,' however^ is kllorWii 
to every chemist^ and need 4iot bie further explained* 

Id Pfade YI. is exhibited, at %. 1. a rude represmita- 
tion of Ihe apparatus employed in preparing and collect- 
ingthejlne ligki spirit blacky produced by the combUstioA 
of the oil and spirit of coal*tar after its^ti 
pui^ified as above described, a, i^ the 'bridcworiL Whieh 
supjports a number of bui^ners issuing fit>m k tube^ 'ij^, 
within, and here sbe^h by dots, its passing alottj^ its 
whole Migth. Fig, 9 is a section of the brkkwofb^ with 
the tube^ burii«r^ and receiver^ as will be described 
hereafter. The t^be may be called the taJr main, as it is 
Intended to be filled ^th tar : it i^ constrifcted of w^t? 
iron, and from it issues several (!li tht^ figure twenty- 
four) jets or burners, c^CyCi any other number may be 
empfeyed. d, is a fiirnace undiar tihe tar mmn, the fue 
of Which extends alon^, fer the purj^ose of heating the 
tar to the boQing point, in drdcfr to feeilitatf tfaepi^ocess. 
FVom the nndn, i, the tar flbw^ into the jets, c ; wicks 
are intrc^uced into the jets, lu^dj idien set Haeio by a 
red hot atick^ will btam and emit a^efy considerable 
quantity of smoke ; which it is the objetotof this apparatus 
to conduct through many passages, for the purpose of 
collecting its sooty particles. 

There are a number of hoods, e, e, e, or bonnets, as 

76 Recent Patents. 

they are termed, all of which, through their pipes, h&wff- 
communication with, or lead into, a main chimney, /^ J], 
Into these hoods or bonnet?, the smolic of the burners 
ascends, and from thence passes into the main chimney,^ 
and thence through the smoke tubes into the box, g; : 
here the heaviest particles of the black deposit themselves ; 
but, as the smoke passes on through the farther pipes, a 
deposition of the second, or finer, particles of black takee 
place in the box, h. From hence the smoke proceeds 
through other pipes into a series of canvas bags, i, i, i, 
which are proposed to be about eighteen feet long, and 
three feet diameter. These bags are connected together 
at top and bottom alternately, and through the whole 
series the smoke passes up one bag and down the next, 
depositing the line black, called spirit black, upon the 
sides of the canvas. After the jets have continued burn- 
ing for several days, the bags are to be beaten with a 
stick, 80 that the black may fell to the bottom; and, when 
a sufficient quantity has accumulated, the bags may be 
emptied and swept out. Thus, seventy or eighty bags* 
may be employed ; so that the smoke should pass through 
a length of about four hundred yards, the farthest of 
which will be found to contain the finest black. The 
last bag should be left open, in order to allow the vapour 
to escape into the open air. 

The main tar tube will require to be emptied every 
four or five days, in order to clear it from the pitchy 
matter that may have subsided from the burners, and 
they also will require to be frequently poked with a wire, 
to clear off the black which forms upon their edges, and 
to drive down the carbonized tar which attaches itself ta , 
the upper pert of the jets. 

Inrolled, December, '. 



ii^riginal <!^ommttiticatiom(. 

On the Reduction of any Volume of Gas ai one Tern.-* 
perature^ to its Volume at another. 

Ad it ia important, in experimental chemistry, par- 
ticularly where subsequent comparison is required, to 
obtain every possible accuracy in the reduction of any 
volume or quantity of gas at one temperature, to its 
volume or quantity at another, I have constructed a 
table for this purpose on different principles to those 
usually met with. 

Without entering largely on the subject, I shall 
proceed to describe the mode by which the table sub- 
joined is calculated, leaving it afterwards to the judg- 
ment of others to discover the errors of the customary 
method, as applied to the same purpose. 

If the assertion be true that all gaseous fluids have the 
property of maintaining a regular irate of expansion 
when submitted to heat, there is no other mode by which 
it can be uniform than by the increment of any individual 
degree being a proportional part of the volume at that 
degree of heat next preceding, and of no other. It will 
therefore be a series in geometrical progression ; wher^ 
calling the volume V , the ratio R, and placing T for 
one degree of temperature, the following terms are pro- 
duced : V, VRT^ VR^, VR«T, VR4T, &c. &c. When 
only in possession of the first and last terms, and the 
number of degrees of temperature, and being required 
to ascertain all the intermediate terms, it is necessary to 


find the ratio ; therefore — ^ — , &^. zz W , the root of 

which power being extracted, the number sought for is 
procured. , 

The method here represented has been the one attended 

Original Communications, 

to in forming the new table ; and, having assumed, on the 
authorily of M. Gay Lussac, that 1-0000, &c. measure of 
gas, at 32" Fah. hecomea 1-375 at 212° Fah. the common 

rectly in multiplying; decimals 1-0017704. Now, if uoity 
be 6xed at 60° Fah. as a common standard to which the 
temperature of the gases are to be reduced, all the terms 
for the temperatures above this number will increase pro- 
gressively in the proportion just named ; and the respec- 
tive results when obtained, being transposed, or placed 
opposite to degrees of heat equally distant in number 
below 60', as the former are above, they become multi- 
pliers for any definite quantity of gaseous matter of the 
temperature which is there expressed. 

But if the ratio bv which any terra increases be rrrr, if 

■' ' 003' 

the first term be I, the second is 1 + t^:?, = r7^\ it is 
5bo' ooo ' 

therefore manifest that the ratio of decrease is t-— or 

as before, decimally, 1-0017G69, Therefore, multiplying 
a quantity of any temperature by this number, gives the 
decrement for the next preceding degree. Thus, all the 
respective volumes belonging to each temperature having 
been ascertained, supposing as before unity at 60°, they 
are placed in the table equidistant above this number, 
and are multipliers for the temperatures opposite to 
which they stand, giving volumes at 60°. This com> 
pletes the table, which is confined to a range of from 
20° Fah. to 100" Fah. 

There is little occasion to remark that a table com- 
puted after this manner will give a different result to one 

■\ though, 

,On the Reduction of the Volumes of Gas. 19 

' even allowing this to be correct, no notice is taken of 
the progresBive increments or decrements, nor of the 
ratio in which the terms should decrease. 

Being employed upon the subject with which I have 
juat concluded, it occurred to me that it might also be 
serviceable to construct a table of the expansion of mer- 
cury by heat, more especially for the purpose of correct- 
ing barometrical observations. It is true that the varia< 
tioD of the barometer from temperature, as applicable to 
meteorology, is perhaps unimportant ; but, in estimating 
the heights of mountains, &c. whose summits are usually 
cold, arangeof 10° Fah. with the barometer at 30 inch, 
would occasion an error of 37 or more feet. 

I have accordingly annexed a table, the first column 
of which determines the simple expansion of mercury. 
The second is the corrected expansion of the same, sup- 
posing the scale of the barometer to be formed in its 
whole length of cast brass, and to be attached, or to 
coincide, at the point zero only. 

As a general observation, relating to whatever error 
may arise from the elongation of the scale, it will be 
irregular when fixed either at the upper part of the baro- 
meter, centrally, in its whole length, or if but partially 
metallic ; but, when fixed as belbre described at Zero, 
the metal of which it is composed, dilating in the same 
direction as the mercury, its gradations enlarge uniformly 
from the same point, and may therefore be allowed for 
with greater facility. 

Though perfection in any instrument where delicacy 
is required is perhaps impracticable ; and though errors 
arising from the dimensions of the scale varying by heat 
may be very minute, yet it is desirable to approach as 
near to truth as the difficulties with which we contend 
will admit. The improbability of procuring a scale divi- 
ded with accuracy, may be urged as an objection to notice 



Original Communications. 

the diilerence caused by expansion, being said that, at the 
time when marked off, it was under the influence of no 
particular temperature. In opposition to this, it will be 
sufficient to observe, that if, originally, the dividing in.-; 
strument itself was formed of the same metal as the scali 
and likewise divided at the temperature of 32" F. the 
divisions formed thereby would still be correct. 

But, previously to the rendering any table indicating 
the expansion of mercury available for the purpose of 
correcting barometrical observations, it will be necessary 
to take into consideration another source of error, inde- 
pendent of the foregoing, and yet more important. This 
is occasioned by the subsidence and rising of the mer- 
cury in the reservoir of the barometer, in proportion as 
the atmoeperical pressure from its variation causes it to 
enter or quit the glass tube ; which will he as the respect 
tive areas of the surface in the one, is to that in the 
other; consequently, causing any fixed point from which 
the height of the column of mercury is reckoned, either 
too much above, or too much beneath, its surface in the 
reservoir, at which level zero should be placed. To ob- 
viate this inconstancy, a regulator, formed of a screw and 
a plug, might be so adapted, that, by turning the screw, 
it would cause the plug, by submersion or emersion in the 
mercury contained in the reservoir, to displace a sufficient 
quantity, until its surface coincided with zero ; or, other- 
wise, the scale itself might be constructed so as to be 
moveable, only requiring afterwards to be properly ad- 

It will be unnecessary to remark, that any alteradoi^ 
by heat, of the figure or capacity of the glass tube 
taining the column of mercury, will have no influence' 
onitsheight,asintbe thermometer, being in this instance' 
inversely as the atmospherical pressure on the one hand, 
and as the density of the mercury on the other. 

'On the Reduction of the Volumes of Gas. 




The table here following is formed on the principle of 
progressive proportion, as perhaps being nearest truth ; 
and the numbers, for convenience of calculation, are 
placed as already described, in the table for the expan> 
sion of gases. 

The scale is supposed to be fixed at zero, as before 
observed, being mbre uniform in its elongation from this 

The expansion of mercury is that demonstrated by 
MM. Dulong and Petit, and that of the cast brass, which 
is supposed to form the scale, is taken from Smeaton. 
By increase in volume of the first metal from the tem- 
perature of 32° Fah. to 212° Fah., 1-000, &c. becomes 
1-0180180; and, by the elongation of the latter from and 
to the same temperature, 1-000, &c. becomes 1-00187500; 
which is deducted or added in the proper proportion, as 
observed in the second column. 

To reduce the height of a column of mercury, in a baro- 
meter constructed on the foregoing principles to the stand- 
ard temperature of 60°. the scale, or the surface ofthe mer- 
cury in the reset-voir, is to be so adjusted as to coincide 
precisely at zero ; then, let the observed height in inches, 
&c. ofthe column of mercury be multiplied by the num- 
ber found opposite the temperature at which the obser- 
vation is made, and its required height, at 60° Fah. is 

1 should remark, that the use ofthe table just named, 
and also of the accompanying observations, are only 
strictly applicable to the correction of the barometer it- 
self, as there are other circumstances which materially 
influence barometric measurement of heights ; so that the 
column of mercury does not always sink by like distances 
for equal altitudes : this will be found to vary firom the 
operation of three causes. 

TOI.. IV. L 

83 Original Communications. » 

1st. Prom the density of the air originating in, and 
modified by, the superincumbent pressure of its own 
column. Sdly. The temperature of the air, which either 
diminishes or increases the specific gravity of the inter- 
cepted portion of atmogpherical column, the subject of 
observation. 3dly. The degree of aqueous vapour which 
exists in the atmosphere, dependent on the quantity to 
which it has been exposed, and also with which it is sus- 
ceptible of combining at certain temperatures; decreas' 
tng specific gravity. The effects produced by the agency 
of these influencing causes, I intend shortly to submit 
for general use in a concise tabular form ; on the princi- 
ple, that for eijual descents in the barometer the corre- 
sponding atmospherical heights observe a geometrical 
progression, whose ratio is varied by either of the causes 
just enumerated. 

The lessened disposition to gravitation of atmospheri- 
cal matter from increased distances from the surface of 
the earth, and from centrifugal force, although giving 
rise to trifling errors, requires consideration at the same 

Before 1 conclude this subject, I take the opportu- 
nity of suggesting a method by which the moan tempera- 
ture, or atmospherical pressure, of any particular situa- 
tion may be ascertained. This might be effected by 
means of a clock, the pendulum of which should have 
the greatest possible variation of its centre of oscillation 
communicated to it, by the influence of a column of 
mercury acted upon as required, either by change of 
temperature, or weight of the atmosphere. The rate of 
time kept by a clock, thus constructed, being ascertained 
in all the variations of the height of the mercury, by 
comparison with real time at any future period, the 
mean temperature, or atmospherical pressure, would be 


A Table for the Reduction of Gas to its Volume 

at 60» Fahrenheit. 



20'' 1 


61 • 


21 ] 




22 ] 




23. J 




24 ] 




25 ] 

i -0638654 



S6 1 




27 ] 




26: ] 




29 1 




90 1 




31 ] 




32 1 




33 1 


74 . 


34 ] 




35 ] 




36 ] 




37 ] 




38 i 




39 1 




40 ] 




41 ] 




42 ] 




43 ] 




44 ] 




45 1 




4a ] 




47 ] 

[ 0292612 



48 ] 




49 ] 




50 ] 




51 ] 




52 ] 




53 ] 




54 ] 




65 ] 




56 ] 




57 ] 




58 ] 

1-0036439 • 



59 ] 




60 ] 



W ' 

■'. 1 


Original Communications. 

A TxBLEfoT the Reduction of Mercury to its 


ai 60* Fahrenheit. 







Mfrcwy. inB 


1 '0039762 














1 -0037770 















1 ■0032029 






































1 0026683 













I 0034900 


































































1 -0010879 















































1 0007996 















































1 -0000902 








1. H. R. 



Mr. Macnamara on Pofoing. 85 

To the Editor of the Journal of Arts. 


Since I obtained the patent for the new method of 
paving streets, &c. noticed in your number for July, 
1823, I have adopted a considerable improvement upon 
my principle, namely, by reducing the size of the stones 
to 16 inches by 14, or 14 by 12, which greatly reduces 
the expense, fewer grooves being necessary : at the same 
time, the stones may be laid with greater fiicility, being 
much lighter to handle. This will, of course, tend very 
materially to reduce the price, an object of the greatest 

When it is considered that, in ttiy pavement, the stones 
are nearly in contact with each other, it must appear 
evident that, compared with the common pavement, 
more materials are used, at least one-fourth, in any 
given space, than in ordinary pavement, that being 
occupied by a considerable quantity of dirt between the 
stones. I consider these few remarks due to my invention, 
becauiseyour observations are calculated to impress an 
idea that this kind of pavement would be more expensive 
than common paving, which is not the i»se when the 
quantity of material is compared^ durability and other 
advantages, noticed in my prospectus,, being also taken 
into the account. 

lam, Sir, your^s, &c. 

RicHARix Macnamara. 

Londim^ July 17, 1822. 

Kobcl JPnbeiuton^. 

On the Plans for Hit Prevention of Forgery. 

TuE execution of another uDfortunatc criminal for 
(lassing forged Bank of England iioteB has again excited 
tlie alletitioii of the public to this subject. We intended 
to have made some further remarks on the comparative 
merits of Messrs. Perkins and Fairinan's, and Sir W. 
Congreve's, Plans; but, as we are in expectation of 
communications from some of the parties immediately 
interested in this business, we defer what we have to say 
till a future opportunity. 

At present, we cannot avoid calling our readers' at- 
tention to some observations of Mr. Pearse (a bank 
director, we believe,) made in the House of Commons, 
on the 8th of July, which are deserving of serious consi- 

Mr. Pearse said, according to the report of the Times 
Newspaper, " that the Bank could have no other motive 
or desire than to iasue the best note they could for the 
security of the public. The utmost care had been taken 
by the directors; commissioners, appointedto inquire into 
the subject, had sat long, and the result of the investiga- 
tion, which was close and accurate, was, that it was 
impossible to fmd any other plan of note which was not 
more easily imitable than the present one- The bank 
engraver had imitated all the plans submitted by the 
commissioners, and, after the utmost exertions were used 
to devise difficulties in the execution of copies, from all 
kinds laid before them, they were all found imitable, 
and the scheme of iniit^tiou more easily practicable than 
that of their present note. Such was the fact up to the 


On the Plans for the Preventiofi of Forgery. 8T 

present hour." Subsequently, Mr. Pearse explained 
that " the utmost pains had been taken." 

Of this statement, although we confess it appears to ua 
most extraordinary, we have no right to com plain, because 
we cannot doubt the facts. But we must, nevertheless, 
be permitted to say, that we think, by some means or 
another, the IJank has been grossly misled and imposed 
upon : and that the public will think so too, we cannot 
for a moment permit ourselves to doubt. What ! after 
the superior styles of engraving offered to the public by 
Messrs. Perkins and Fairman, and others, and after Sir 
William Congreve's "Compound Plate" to boot, is it 
come to this ? — That the Bank engraver has more genius 
than any other engraver in England to imitate more 
easily all these than the note now in circulation, — that is, 
his own note ! Has any other engraver beside the Bank 
engraver been set to imitate tliese notes S Yes, Mr. 
Branston has, we know, imitated some of Messrs. 
Perkins and Co.'s speeimens : with what success may be 
learnt from our first volume. 

That there has been, in a certain quarter, a prejudice 
against Messrs. Perkins and Fairman's style of engraving 
we know ; but we are astounded at the rejection of the 
compound plate^ — at the rejection of every plan hitherto 
offered to the Bank, as a succedaneum for their present 
easily imitable note ; for that the present note is and has 
been easily and effectually imitated, is proved by the nu- 
merous convictions for forgery which have taken place. 

Now, taking the fact on the Bank's own shewing, we ' 
do think that a public company supported by public 
opinion ought, nevertheless, to adopt another style of 
engraving in their note in compliance with that public 
opinian, so often and so strongly as it has been cxpri-fetied 
' on this subject. Nor can we see any impropriety. 



^ovel Inventions. 

if doubts exist, as to whether Measrg. Perkins and 
Fairman's, or Sir W. Congreve's, be the better plan, in 
their bein^ both tried siutultaneousl)' or otherwise, as 
may be thought best. 

Whilst we make these observations, we cannot avoid 
observing, also, that to find an engraved note which may 
not be, by talent and labour, successfully imitated, is 
what must not be expected. All wu can desire or hope 
is, that a note more didiciilt to be imitated with success 
than the present one should be found ; indeed, that it 
may be obtained by somo of the processes of Messrs. 
Perkuis and Fairman, there does not appear any reason 
to doubt. What the public expect, and what they have 
a right to expect, is, that the Bank will adopt the best 
means for the prevention of the forgery of their notes 
which human science can devise. This we do not, nor 
does the public generally, believe that the Bank has 
hitherto done. 

We have, ourselves, during the last twenty years, 
compared very numerous forged Bank of England notes 
with genuine notes ; and we have generally found, on 
minute comparison, that the forged note is commonly 
deficient in the shape or turn of the letters in the body 
of the bill ; whilst others, and those a few only, have 
been so well executed as to dety detection by common 
means. Whatever may be said by the Bank of the 
present execution of their notes, we are decidedly of 
opinion that the country bank-notes generally are murA 
better executed than the Bank of England notes, and 
therefore more difficultly imitable. The paper, too, on 
which the Bank of England note is printed, is, perhaps, 
another objection to it. Some paper appears to receive 
engraving more readily than others. It appears, also, 
that combining different styles of engraving in the same 

The Rev. Mr. James on certain Schools of Painting. 89 

note must add to the difficulty of the forger ; and, if some 
of the words are engraved in large roman letters^ as well 
as in the written character, we cannot avoid thinking 
that this would be an additional security. What is 
wanted above all things in a Bank-of-England note is 
such a characteristic as may strike the most common 
observer, and not such a nicety of which nine-tenths of 
mankind will take no notice. On this subject, we fear 
engravers generally, as well as the Bank, think too 
mechanically and too artist-like. 

. . We cannot take our leave of this subject without 
sincerely lamenting that interest from any quarter should 
prevent our obtaining a less easily iraitable Bank-of- 
England note than the one now in circulation : for that 
it is some interest we entertain no doubt. At the same 
time, we acquit the Bank directors, as a body, from any 
participation in this traly unfortunate state of their paper 
circulation. Where the fault lies, it is not our business 
to inquire. 

3&ebiefD of Kcfo ]P[u&Ucations[. 

The Flemish^ Dutch, and German Schools of Painting; 
by the Rev. J. T. James. 8vo. pp. 413. 

It would appear flrom the sentiments which, are inci- 
dentally promulgated by a certain class of writers in this 
country, some of whom mistake bluntness for wit, and 
impertinence for sagacity, that, had they the direction of 
the public mind, the encouragement and study of the fine 
arts would be set aside ; that natural history is an al- 
most useless study ; and, as for the splendid collections, 


so Rctiew of New PubUcalions, 

animal, mineral, and sculptural, at the British Museum, 
these would be consigned to mend the roads around the 
metropolis, or heaped on the dunghill to produce manure 
for our gardens and our fields. Where would these na- 
tives of our island stop J Having amerced us of the fine 
arts, many of the useful ones would, we suppose, also 
be decreed impertinent, and our nails ultimately obliged 
to perform the office of the spade and the hoe. 

These sage politicians have argued, it appears, simply 
from the abuse of these arts and sciences ; and, because a 
late presidentofthe Royal Society devoted, unfortunately, 
more of liia attention to butterflies ttian became the head 
of eo grave and learned a body, one of these writers 
to whom we allude has lately attempted to throw unde- 
served ridicule on such subjects altogether. Nothing 
surely can be more puerile or preposterous! Thescience 
of entomology ia, unquestionably, a useful study, and, to 
those who have a taste for such studies, as agreeable as 
useful ; — whoshall say how ioon, by a pursuit of this study, 
we may obtain a knowledge of obviating not only the mis- 
chiefs arising from one species of fly, but the myriads 
of mischiefs which beset the vegetable world from the 
various insect tribes ? But this science, like many others, 
when it engrosses an undue attention, and engages us 
about petty inconsequents, is then only to be deprecated. 
So also the delightful art of painting when exercised op 
unworthy and improper object may become censurable. 
But surely, when this art is exercised on subjects which 
delight and which instruct, it deserves our warmest com- 
mendation ; added to which, that no nation has hitherto 
existed which has arrived at a high degree of piviliza- 
lion, in which the fine arts, and painting among the rest, 
have not obtained considerable pre-eminence. The en- 
couragement of the line arts is, therefore, one of the 

The Rev. Mr. James on certain Schools of Painting. 91 

objects which ought to be strongly pressed upon the at-* 
tention of every civilized community. Their study and 
practice tends to elevate the mind, to improve the habits, 
and purify the, morals. The contemplation of a fine 
picture furnishes one of the most agreeable excitements 
incident to our being; and, provided. the subject be a 
proper one, it. may 'become also impressively instructive* 
The work before us is well calculated to excite and to 
im{»*Qve a taste for painting; it furnishes also, at the 
same time, agreeable information concerning those schools 
from whicharose some of the brightest luminaries of the 
pictorial ai*t. It contains, first, A Catalogue of the Fle^ 
mish and Dutch Schools of Painters /--the History of 
the seme School. A Catalogue of the German School qf 
Painters ; and a History of the same Scfioot. We can- 
not perhaps do better for the Rev. author and for our 
readers, than to give the following extracts : 

^' Roger de Weyde is said by Jan Mander to have 
much improved the taste of the school, and labout*ed 
more than perhaps any of his predecessors to produce H 
correct expression of passion and' feeling. One of hie 
pictures in the Hotel de Ville at Brussels is a peculiarly 
happy instance of his own powers in this respec^, though 
indeed the story he has chosen is replete with interest. 
Count Erchenbaldus de Burban is represented %y the 
Jiistorians as the most inflexible judge that <haB e:^^ 
since the day of Brutus ; and; as a subject connected with 
the administration of justice was required for this edifice, 
certainly was not ill fitted for the painter's purpose^ 
The count is represented as lying on a bed lingering in 
the last stage of a fatal disease : upon information, how* 
ever, being brought that one of his edicts had been trans- 
gressed by his nephew, who had made an attempt on the 

92 Review of New Puhlicalions. 

chastity of a young woman, his vigour was roused^ ahd^ 
sacrificing his natural ties of consanguinity to his deter- 
piinate love of justice, he directed that he should in- 
stantly be punished with the death prescribed by law« 
Those who received the order, pitying the youth of the 
offender, and imagining that Erchenbaldus had but a 
few days to live, neglected this command^ and merely 
recommended the . young man to keep himself carefully 
concealed firom the eye of his uncle : in the mean time 
.they made their regular official report, and recorded the 
execution of the sentence* Five days had scarcely 
elapsed when the liephew, imagining his uncle's anger 
to h^ve subsided, ventured froni his place of retirement^ 
and somewhat unadvisedly seated himself at the count's 
bed-side. His appearance was sujficient to discover the 
impositioEi that had been used ; but the sick man, show* 
ing no displeasure, made a, niotion to his nephew to ap- 
proaeh him, and quietly stretched forth his arms as if to 
embrace him: having come near enough^ he raised him- 
self, and putting one arm round his neck, seized a knife 
with tli^other j which he pitilessly plunged into his breast^ 
aiif thus became^ in this last moments, the terrible execu^ 
tion^r of his own sentence of condemnation on another. 
This is Use moment chosen by the artist." 

Hie following observations are deserving the s^ioud 
attention of tl^ painter. Although it is desirable that 
the artist should have an opportunity of beholding so- 
ciety under various forms, and also to contemplate the 
best specimens of the art^ yet it should never be forgot- 
ten that nature ought to be his constant directress, and to 
whom, ill every difficulty^ he must ultimately refer. 

^' Pettr Breughel was the son of a peasant at a village 

The Rev, Mr. James on certain Schooh df Painting. ^S 

tdi that name near Breda. He was admitted to the 
academy at Antwerp in the year 1551, and was for A con- 
siderable time engaged chiefly in painting for a merchant 
named Frankhert. It was in his company that he made 
it his practice to haunt the village fairs and festivals, or 
kermesses as they are called, and to introduce himself 
generally in disguise, to the marriages and revelries, of 
every description^ that took place among the rustic part 
of the population. These were the scenes which he af- 
terwards workled up so skilfully with his pencil. He 
noted them just as his master, P. Koeck, did the man- 
ners and habits of the Turks, selecting such characterise 
tic marks as he thought were best suited to the canvass; 
and shewing that a saga:cious mind will often discovefi> 
even in the circle of its own neighbourhood, as much 
food for curiosity and inquiry as half the world will do 
from the most extensive foreign travel.'* 

On the art of painting on glass ^ Mr. James' has the 
following passage : 

^ Of the profession of glass painters frequent mention 
has been already made, and it appears to have been an art 
that was carried to greater perfection by the inhabitants of 
the low countries than those of any other. Many indeed 
of their best artists were engaged in furnishing designs 
ibr this purpose: and some names of those on whom 
contemporary writers are lavish in their praise, have no 
other works handed down to our times except their pro- 
ductions in thi3 line. The art of painting on glass had 
been for many ages practiced both at Venice and Flo- 
rence ; at the latter place even Lorenzo Ghiberti and 
Donatello were found sometimes to have engaged in the 


94 Review of New PubUcaHont. . 

empToyment; But it was not till tli0. beginning of ttte 
sixteenth century that the staining glass with enamel 
colours (called by the French apprest) was discovered % 
an art which alone could give any projoiise of durability 
to^their labours. The mer^t of the invention has been 
sometimes claimed for the Flemings ; but it appear* 
most probable, from various testimonies, (though there 
is still some uncertainty On the subject,) that it was orii^ 
ginally practised by ^leGulielmod^M^ciUa, or William 
of Marseilles, a Frenchmafi, wha passed his life in Italy^ 
and whose works may .y?t be seen in existence at Arezz^ 
ajid at other places in that country*" 

We must now take our leave of Mr. James's work 
with a hearty recommendation of it, not oidy to the pain* 
ter and tibe lover of painting, but to the geiieral reader. 
Whilst we say this,^ our critical duty compels us also to 
observe, that the style in which this history is written 
does not always display that elegance which the fine arts 
demand ; and, should the work arrive at a second edi^^ 
tion, which we dare say it will, the Rev. author must 
retouch some of his sketches ; they are vigorous enough 
in outline, but they want the delicacy of finish. 


Table Talk^ or Original Essays ; 6y William Hazlitti 

Vol. 11. pp. 402. 

Alt HOUGH this volume does not, as a whole, come 
within the range of that criticism to which we have in 
general confined ourselves, some of these Essays are of 
too much importance to the arts to be passed over. The 


HazlUVs Table talk. 95 

tact of Mr. Hazlitt as an essayist is too well kiiown to 
stand in need of ^ur commendation, and therefore in 
passing our opinion on the second volume of the Table 
Talk, it may be sufficient to say, that it is no disgrace to 
that which has preceded' it. There are^ however, two 
Essays in particular, among the seventeen of which this 
work ccmsists, to which we desire to direct the attention 
of' our r^tders. The first is^ On a Landscape of Nicko^ 
tas Pousstn. In this the painter will find much mental 
gratification and many elucidations of his art deserving 
his best attention 

" A life," says Mr. Hazlitt, *^ passed amon^ pictures^ 
in the study and love of art, is a happy noiseless dream ; 
or, rather, 4t is to dream and to be^ awake at the same 
time ; for it has all ^ the sober certainty of waking 
bliss* with the romantic voluptuousness of a visionary 
and abstracted being. They are the bright consum- 
mate essences of things, and he who knows of these 
delights to taste and interpose them oft is not un« 

The sixteenth Essay is, On the Picturesque 
and^ Idtjol, which is also well worthy of the painter's 

We-cannot close this brief notice of a work of merit, 
without recommending to the general reader the fifth 
Essay, On the Aristocracy of Letters : Mr. Hazlitt's 
views are here in complete unison with our own; 


Great Britain. 
Royal Society of Literature, 

We observe, by atl advertisement ia the Literary 
Gazette^ihAi this Society is in a state of vegetation; most 
certainly not of afitmation. By this advertisement, we 
learn that Dissertations on Homer, Essays on the,Greek 
Language, and Poems on the Fall of Constantinople^ 
have been referred to a committee; that the decision of 
the several prizes is postponed until the 23d of Marcb^ 
.1833 ; and that the competition is still open to candidate^ 
for the premiums, which are as follow : ' 
. !• The Kin^s premium of one hundred guineas for 
the best Dissertation on tlie Age of Homer, his Writings 
and Genius; and on the State of Religion, Society, 
Ijeaming,.and the Arts, durkig that Period, collected 
from the Writings of Homer. 

II. The. Society's Premium, of Fifty Guineas for the 
best Essay on the History of th^ Greek I^anguage; com- 
prehending the present Language of Greece, especially 
the Ionian Islands ; and the Differences between Ancient 
and Modern Greek. 

III. The Society's Premium of Fifty Guineas 'fox ih,e 
best Poem on the Fall of Constantinople! in tl\e Fiftee^tl|,| 

Surrey Institution. 

A select committee of gentlemen has been for soma 
time sedulously engaged in remodelling this Institution, 
whose funds have been gradually exhausting; the present 
^lablibhnient closing in March, 1823. A Prospectus 


Surrej/ Institution — Ro^al Society. 97 

has jnat been issued by this committee of a New Surrey 
Imtilution, avoiding the errors of the old one, and which^ 
if supported with the Bpirit such an Inatitution deserves, 
will obtain a permanence to which it is every way en- 
titled. This literary academy has already done much 
towards the creation of a taste for science and the arta in 
that part of the metropolis to which it is more imme- 
diately contiguous ; and we hope that the New Surrey 
Institution will contribute, by its better and more effec- 
tual arrangements, still more to the diffusion of useful 
science and the useful arts, as ivell as to the general 
advancement of universal literature : for it is undeniably 
true that even the artSy without literature for their hand- 
maid, are very slowly progreseive. Whether a School of 
Arts, similar to those lately established at Glasgow and 
Edinburgh might not be a suitable appendage to this 
Institution is for the consideration of gentlemen more 
immediately connected with it. 

Boyal Society. 

The following papers have been read at this Society 
since our last report. 

JuneG. On the Binomial Theorem; by John Walsh, 

A paper by Dr. Daw was also read, entitled Obser- 
vations on Corrosive Sublimate. It is known that the 
liquor hydrargyri oxymurlatis of the London Pharma- 
copceia, on exposure to light, slowly undergoes decom- 
position ; and it has been asserted that light has a similar 
effect on corrosive sublimate itself. Dr. Davy relates 
a number of experiments made to investigate these points. 
He finds that corrosive sublimate remains unaltered on 

98 Polytechnic and Scientific Intelligence. 


exposfire 16 light ; that it remains unaltered when ex^ 
posed in solution in media, having a strong affinity for 
it, as alcohol, ether, muriatic acid, &c. ; and that decom* 
position takes'pHce only under circumstances of compli- 
cated affinities, as in: the instance of the liquor hydrargyri 
oxymuriatis^ and in the aqueous Solution, when calomel 
and muriatic acid appear to be fermed, and oxygen 
evolved. [Dr. Davy's experiments on corrosive sublimate 
were made with alcohol, ether, several oils, muriatic 
and other mineral acids, many of the muriates, &c« In- 
every instance that an oil,*' whether volatile or fixed, was 
heated with corrosive sublimate, mutual [decomposition, 
took place, charcoal wad evolved, and muriatic acid an4 
calomel formed. When oil of turpentine was used, some 
traces of artificial ^camphor appeared; when the oil of 
cloves and peppermint,- a- purple com'pound distilled 
over, consisting of the oil employed and muriatic acid. 
With tnuriatic acid, common salt, and some other 
muriates, corrosive sublimate formed definite compounds, 
remarkable for their solubility. 

. June 13. On the State of Water and Aeriform Matter 
in the Cavities of certain Crystals; by Sie Humphry 

June SO. Some tlxperimenjts on, the Changes^ which 
take place in the fxed principles of the Egg during Incu* 
batiQTi; by W. Prout, M.D. 

• Dr. Prout found the specific gravity of new laid^ggs 
to vary from 1080 to 1090. Eggs, however, as is well- 
known, on being kept some time, become specifically 
lighter than water, owing to the substitution of air for a 
portion of the water which escapes. Thus it was stated 
that an egg, exposed for two years to ordinary circum- 
stances, lost neieirly two-thirds of its weight. To ascertain 
the relative weight of the shell, albumen, and yolk, 

Royal Society, 99 


eggs were boiled hard in dtfitilled water, and the different 
parts weighed in their mot^/ state. ThQ average often 
experiments gave for the shell 106:9, albumen^604*2, 
and yolk388'9, on the supposition that each egg originaUy 
weighed 1000 grains; to which • standard all the. eggs 
were reduced. These experiments show that the relative 
weights of these different portions of the egg.diflfer very 
considerably^ particularly the shells, the weight of which 
were found to vary for 77*6 to 108, -on the supposition 
that the original weights of the two eggs were equal. 
An egg, when boiled and cooled in the air, alvrays lost 
considerably in weight; and the water was found to con- 
tain traces of most of the saline contents of the egg. 

After relating the results of an analysis of the egg at 
the end of the first, second, and third week of incuba- 
tion. Dr. Prout arrived at conqlusioQs of which the 
following is/ an outline : 

An egg loses about one*sixth of its weight during in« 
cubation, a quantity amounting to eight times 'as much 
as it loses, in the same time^ under ordinary circum- 

In the earlier stages of incubation an interchange of 
principles takes place, apparently, between the yolk 
and a portion of albumen ; that this interchange is con- 
fined on the part of the yolk to a portion of" its oily 
matter, which is found mixed with a portion of the above- 
mentioned albumen. That -this portion of albumen 
undergoes some remarkable changes, and is converted 
into a substance analogous in its appearance, as well as 
some of its properties, to the curd of milk ; and, lastly, 
that a portion of the watery parts of the albumen is found 
mixed with the yolk, which becomes thus Ttpparently 
increased in size. 

As incubation proceeds, the saline and watery matters 

100 Polytechnic and Sdentific Intelligence. 

again appear to quit the yolk, which is thus reduced to 
its original bulk, or even becomes less than natural ; and 
that, in the last week of the process, the greater portion 
of the phosphorus quits the yolk likewise, and is found 
chiefly in the animal, where it exists as phosphoric acid, 
and in union with lime, constituting its bony skeleton ; 
which lime, amounting to about three grains, does not pre' 
exist in the receni egg, but makes its appearance in some 
unaccountable manner during the process. 

On the source of earthy matter in the egg, the doctor 
draws no positive conclusion, but leaves this point to be 
determined by future observation. 


Royal Academy of Music. 

An inatitution bearing the above title, and having his 
Majesty for Patron, has been recently organized. Its 
objects are to promote the cultivation of the science of 
music, and to afford &cilities for attaining perfection in 
it, by assisting, with general instruction, the natives of 
this country, and thus enable those who pursue this de- 
lightful branch of the fine arts, to enter into competition 
witb, and rival the natives of other countries, and to 
provide for themselves the means of an honourable and 
comfortable livelihood. To this end it is proposed to 
provide for the maintenance and general instruction in 
music of a certain number of pupils, not exceeding at 
present forty males and forty females. No student to 
be admitted at an earlier age than ten years, nor later 
than tifleen. Each student to pay ten guineas to the 
funds of the establishment at his or her entry, and after- 
wards five guineas per annum during the lime he or she 
shall remain in the academy: the children of professors 

Rojfdl Societjf qf Edinburgh. tOl 



in music to be admitted at half the above prices* Np 
student to remain in the academy, at the charge of^ the 
institution beyond the age of eighteen. The Duke of 
York is Vice Patron. The Duke of Devonshire Presi- 
dent. The direction consists of an Archbishop, Didoes, 
Marquisses^ Earls, &c» Dr. Crotch has been named 
the Principal, and arrangements! are making for procu- 
ring the assistance of the most eminent Professors of the 
country to conduct the education of the pupils^ 

Royal Society of Edinburgh. 

We have not latterly ^aid so much attention to the 
Proceedings of this Society as it is our duty to do : we 
will endeavour in future to be more regular. 
. Our last report (vol. ij. page 930) was dated the 5th 
of March, 18S1 ; we shall give an abstract of what has 
been done of importance, seriatim^ from that period. 

March 16 — A paper by Dr. Duncan, jun..was read. 
On the Distribution of the Muscular Fibres of the Veniri" 
cles of the Heart , illustrated by cs^ts and drawings.: — A 
Description of a New and Universal Balance^ by Dr« D yc jb« 
— O/i Electro'Magnetism^ by Mr. John Murray. 

April 2. — Observations on the Method of sinking Wells 
at Madras^ by Dr. Berry. — On the Formation of the 
Chalk Strata^ by Mr. T. Allan. — A magnificent speci- 
men of coral from the Island of Bermuda was presented 
to the Society by the Marchioness of Huntley. — An 
Account of Fishing for Corals in, the Island of Bermuda^ 
by Sir David Milne, bart. They are found in great 
abundance round this island in about three-feet water at 
low tide. They are attached principally to the edge of 
coral-reefe, where the water suddenly deepens to ten or 

lOS Poljfiechnic and Scientific Intelligence. 

eighteen feet. They are fixed to the reeft by a kind of 
stalk, and run of all sizes, from two inchiee to several 
feet in diameter, growing in clusters, like mushrooms. 
When first taken out of the water they are of a light 
brown, or snuff colour ; but, after a few weeks' expo- 
sure to the sun, they become perfectly white. — Observa- 
tions on Terrestrial Rejractiony by Mr. Mark at. 

April 16. — Thejirstpart of an Account of the Life and 
Writings of Dr. Cullen^ 6y Dr. John Thomson. 

April SO. — The concluding part of the Biographical 
Account of Mr. Home^ with Critical Remarks on the later 
Poets of Great Britainy by IMt-Henrt Mackenzie. — 
An Account of a Descent in a Diving Belly by Dr. 


May 7. — The continuation of an Account of the Life 
and Writings of Dr. Cullen, byHr.J. Thomson. — A 
Notice^ by Mr. John Ramage, respecting a Stickleback 
found with a Ijcech in its Intestines. — A Noticejtespecting 
large balls of Clay Iron-stone in North America^ by Mr. 
James F;^int. 

May 21. — A Comparative View of the state of Society 
about seventy Years ago, and at the present time^ by the 
Rev. Dr. Somerville. 

June 4. — On the Influence of Chemical Laws on the 
phenomena of Physiology^ by Dr. Dewar. — On the 
combined action of the Salts of Copper and of the Fixed 
Alkalies on Gelatine and Albumen^ by Benjamin Bell, 

June 18. — Notices regarding the Plants of various 
parts of India^ and concerning the Sanscrita names of 
those Regions^ by Dr. F. Hamilton. — On Hydrocya-^ 
nic Acid and Opium^ in reference to their Counter-poi" 
sons^ 6y Mr. John Murray. — On the application of 
the Magnet to the decomposition of Bodies^ by the same. 

Astronomical Society of London. 103^ 

— Abstract of Experiments on various Optical Subjects, 
by Dr. Bjiewster. 

Adjourned to the bth of No^oember, 

. Nov. 5, — A Description of a new Instrument, the 
EiDOGRdPHj for copying Drawings, either on an en- 
larged or a reduced Scale, by Professor Wallace. — An 
account of Cleopatra^s Needle, and of the method pro^ 
posed to remove it to England, by Capt. Bos well, 

Nov. IB.'^Observations on In and Off-shore Tides^ by 
Robert Stephenson, esq. — On Vision through Co* 
loured Glasses, and on the application of Telescopes and 
Microscopes of great magnitude, by Dr. Brewster. 
. Dec. 3. — On the method employed by the Natives of 
India in quarrying, transporting, and raising a granite 
Obelisk^ about seventy feet high, and erected at Seringa^ 
patam to the memory of Josiah Webbe, esq. hy 
Colonel Wilkes. — On the distribution of Silex in the 
Equisetum hiemqle^ and other siliceous grasses, by Dr. 

Dec. 17. — On some peculiarity in Vision, by Dr. M ac- 
BON ALD. — Account of a new and extraordinary structure 
in Faroe Apophyllite, by Dr. Brewster. -^0« some 
new ElectrO'Magnetic experiments, by Professor Moll* 

To be Continued. 

Astronomical Society of Liondon. 

A paper by Mr. Babbagjb was read at this Society on 
the 14th of June, relative to a new invention in machi- 
nery, by which not only the usual logarithms, but also 
various other mathematical and astronomical tables might 

104 Polijlechnic and Scienlifw InteUigence. 

be formed, and the t^KS thereof set up without the pos- 
sibility of an error throughout the whole process. This 
discovery is, by some of our connoisseurs, considered as 
one of the finest of modern times; and, like the inven- 
tion of the steam-engine, in its application to the arts, 
bids fair to open a neiv era to science. The engine is 
very simple in its construction, and may be put in motion 
by a child. Mr. Babbage composed in the presence of 
the Editor of the Philosophical Magazine a long series 
of square numbers ; and likewise the first forty terms 
of the series of numbers depending on the formula 
(x*-l-a:-l-41); all of which are ^c/)n«, and which were 
formed as expeditiously as a person could write them 
down. The numerous errors to which all tables are lia- 
ble, not only in their original computation, but also in 
composing them for the press, and the various accidents 
to which the type is exposed in passing through the faandu 
of the various workmen, are, by this machine, completelj/ 
obviated. We shall be glad to have it in our power to 
communicate further particulars of this ingenious inven- 

On the same day Mr. Haroy exhibited a time-piece 
for determining very small portions of time : it shewed 
the y^eth part of a second of time. — M. Fatton exhi- 
bited also a new species of chronometer, which, by 
means of a mechanical contrivance annexed to the se- 
conds hand, marked on the dial-plate the fractional part 
of a second ; thereby ailbrding to observers an opportu- 
nity of regulating, during an observation, the precise 
moment at which any phenomenon may occur.— Mr. 
Robinson likewise exhibited his micrometer with two 
fixed spider-lines and one moveable line : which, for 
economy and accuracy, is worthy the attention of every 
practical astronomer. 

NMve NiMiit ^Soia. |pQ 

Lampic Acid. 

It appears^ by a notice in the AfUMls qf PlUlosophjf^ 
that what has been denominated the Lampic Acid, is, in 
fact, the acetic, but combined . with a substance of a 
highly disoxygenizing nature^ different from ether, 
and of a resinous quality, iind whidi Mr* Daniell coasi- 
detrsa dom]pound o£ by4rog^i) tMcygen^ aadaaoAe* He 
has Bamed it hydroi-car buret of azote. It appears to 
ikNisist nearly of feui* atoms 4}f carbon, 30*0 ; one atom 
of aaU>te^ 1 7*5 ; eleven atoms of hydrogen, 14^5. . 

TA€ Quantity of Copper raised in Great Britain amd 


• For one year, ending June, 1831, is as foUows : 

tons. cwts. qn»« lbs* 

. ComwaU--— — — - — -. 7764 15 1 11 

. Aoglesea, about-— —r 600 

Devota ^-^ ......^..— ...... ^IQ 

. Ireland, Wales, Stalfordslure, Seot- 

land,&c. .^ r- 740 2 2 16 

9480 17 3 27 


, The price of copper £lb7 &. per ton. 

Native Nitrate qf Soda. 

A bed of nitrate of soda, several feet thid^ and 
than forty leagues in length, has been diseoverai 
Tarapaca, a district of Peru. In some plaoei 
appears at tlie surface ; it is sometimes in a 
(^te, but most frequently mixed with clay md tmUt; it 
is deliquescent, and suffers the same cl 
as nitrate of potash* The place where k 'm' 
days' journey from Conception^ a port 

, VOt. IV. »• • o 

106 Polylechmc and Scientific Intelligetice, 

Iquiqui, another port, situate in the southern part of 
I Peru. More than 60,000 quintals have been already 
I 'brought there for sale, 

\ On Cadmium, and whence it may be procured in quantity. 

• Mr. Herapath has found cadmium in the sublimed 
[ products of the zinc gmelting-bouse, in which it exists in 
»uch larger quantity than it has hitherto been obtained, 
varying from 12 to 20 per cent, being six times more 
plentiful than in the richest substances examined by 

Zinc is reduced from the ore by a sort of distillation, 
the calamine, with small coal as a flux, being introduced 
into a pot closely covered on the top, but having a tube 
leading from its bottom into a vault below ; just under 
this, a vessel of water is placed, and a moveable tube is 
kept long enough to reach from the short tube nearly to 
the surface of the water. The workmen are not in the 
babit of connecting the two tubes until what they call 
the "brown blaze" is over, and the "blue blaze" 
begun : this brown flame is owing to cadmium absorbing 
oxygen ; it sublimes, and is attached to the roof of the 
vault, but in the greatest quantity immediately over the 
orifice trom which it issues; it is mixed with soot, sul- 
phuret of cadmium, and oxide of zinc. The colour is a 
, compound of brown, yellow, black, and white, varying 
[ with the qualities of the different substances which enter 
^ into the mixture. 

To obtain the metal Mr. Herapath uses the following 

I process : add to the sublimate an excess of muriatic acid; 

ilter and wash the residue; add the washings to the 

lllUquid ; evaporate to dryness to get rid of the excess of 

^id ; re-dissolve in as little water as possible ; filter 


I Ugaia to Beparate the insoluble part ; introduce a plate of 
zinc, and the cadniium will be precipitalot 



I the form 

oT small ^aves. It ii^ dillicult to reduce these to a mass 
without loss, in consequence of the volatile nature of the 
metal, &c. The best method is thus : put the spongy 
precipitate into a black glass tube, closed at one eud^ 
together with a little lamp-black or wax; keep the end 
containing the metal in the red heat of a common fire- 
grate, until the whole oftbe cadmium is sublimed into a 
part of the tube very near where it is red hot. After 
throwing out what remains in the bottom, (which may 
be effected without danger of losing any of the sublimate, 
ae that adheres very firmly to the glass,) introduce soiiic 
wax, and heat it gently : while the wax is in the act of 
burning, the metal will melt, and form a button, if 
assisted with slight agitation : it should be allowed to 
Cool before it is taken out. Its colour is somewhat lik6 
silver; but, when compared with that metal, it has a 
blue cast. The bottom and sides of the button are co- 
vered with facets, having exactly the appearance it would 
assume if it had been struck, in every part of the surface, 
with a small hammer. When examined with a strong 
lens, the superficial crystals resemble stars, each having 
a^nucleus, from which six spicula; radiate. The specific 
gravity of cadmium thus obtained Mr. Herapath finds to 
be at G2° 8-677. 

The best mode of procuring it in sufficient quantityto 
be useful in the arts, Mr. H. thinks the following -. 
' As the cadmium rises earlier than the zinc, the first 
products of the distillation must contain more than the 
last : if the tube were put up immediately on the pot 
being charged, and the first few pounds of zinc k^pt 
separate, the zinc smelter would find in it enough to pay 
his expenses in subliming it ; in fact, the additional 
expense would be very trifling, as the zinc is not sold in 




108 Polt/lechiiic and Xcienltfic Jntdligeticf. 

the crude state in which it is found after distillation, but 
always melted into lumps ; this is done in an iron pot, by 
putting an air-tight top to it, aud increasing the heat 
perhaps 200", which may be done with little fuel : thus, 
the new metal may be vended at a price very little higher 
than that of zinc. 

These experiments were made fay Mr. Herapath on 
the products of a zinc smelting-houee, in the neighbour- 
hood of Bristol. 

Annals of Philosophy. 

Oil for Clocks and Watcher, 
Colonel BEAt!rov,in the last number of the Annals 
of Philosophy states that if olive oil be exposed to tho 
rays of the sun fot a considerable length of time, one or 
two years, it becomes coloitrless, limpid, free from muci- 
lage, and not easily congealabls. The bottle should be 
opened occasionally to allow the gas to escape- Chrono- 
mcl^'-makers would do well to attend to this. We believe, 
however, that oil of almonds, when pure, will be found 
very superior to any olive oil whatever for the machinery^ 
of clocks and watches; oil of almonds never congealing 
in the coldest temperature of this country. 

Royal Academt/ of Sciences. 

This Academy, persuaded 4hat the theory of heat is 
one of the most interesting objects to which mafhenuaia. 
can be applied, has proposed the following queation for 
a prize of a gold medal, value 3000 francs. The Esaaj-a 
to be transmitted before the 1st of January, 1S94. 

1. What is the density, as proved by experiraents,- 
which liquids, especially mercury, water, alcohol, and 
sulphuric ether, acquire by degrees of compression equw*. 
vatenttothe weight of so many atmospheres! 



[ Nm Patents sealed in 1832, 109 

• S. How to measure the edecbj of the heat produced by 
these compreiistons ? 

In meciianics, the Academy oSeia a gold medal of the 
value of 1500 franca to the person who shall have shows 
the greatest merit in inventing, or in improving, instru- 
ments useful to the progress of agriculture, mechanical 
arts, and sciences. The prize will only be given to ma* 
chines, the description and the plans or models of which, 
sufficiently detailed, shall have been submitted to the 
Academy eitlier separately or in some printed work 
transmitted to the Academy. 

Ktto ISatrnts SeaUO in 1822. 

To John Barton, deputy comptroller of the mint, Lon- 
don, for a certain pi-ocess for the application of prismatic 
colours to the surface of steel and other metals, and 
using the same in the manufacture of various ornaments. 
Sealed 4th June.— 2 months for inrolment. 

To James Frost, of Pinchley, Middlesex, builder, 
for a new cement, or artificial stone. Sealed 11th June. 
— 2 months for inrolment. 

To William Brunton, of Birmingham, in the county 
of Warwick, engineer, for certain improvements upon 
fire gi-atea and the means of introducing coal thereon. 
Sealed S6th of June.— 6 months for inrolment. 

To Marc Isambard Brunei, of Chelsea, in the county 
ofMiddlesex, engineer, forcertainimprovementsonsteam- 
engines. Sealed 26th of June. — 6 months for inrolment. 

To Thomas Postans, of Charles Street, in the parish 
of Saint James, gentleman, and William Jeakes of 
Great Russel Street, Bloomsbury, ironmonger, for an 
improvement on cooking apparatus. Sealed 26th June. 
—2 months for inrolment. 

To Louis Bernard Rabaut, of Skinner Street, Snow 
Hill, in the city of London, gentleman, for an improved 


New Piitaits staled in 1833. 

apparatus for the preparation of coiTee or tea. SedleJ 
SCJtIi June. — 6 luontlts for inrolment. 

To ThoniQB Gaantlett, of Batli, in the county of So- 
merset, surgeon's instrument maker, for certain improve- 
ments on vapour baths by which the heat is better regu- 
lated anil tlie baths rendered more portable. Sealed 2Cth 
June.-:-2 months for inrolment. 

To Joseph Smith, of Sheffield, in the county of York, 
book-keeper, fur an improvement of, or in, the steam- 
engine boiler. Sealed Ith July. — G months for inrolment. 

To George Smart, of Pedlar'a Acre, Lambeth, in 
the county of Surrey, civil engineer, for an improvement 
ill the manufacture of chains, whicli he denominates ma- 
thematical chains. Sealed 4tb July. — 6 months for in- 
rolment. 1 

To JoJin Bold, of West Street, Nelson Street, Long 
Lane, Bermondsey, printer, for certain improvementa 
in printing. Sealed 4th July. — 6 months for inrolment. 

To Sir Anthony Pcrrier, of the city of Cork, knight, 
for certain improvements in the apparatus for distilling^ 
boiling, and concentrating by evaporation various sorts 
of liquids and fluids. Seated 27th July. — G months for 

To John Stanlay, of Chorlton Row, within the paiish 
of Manchester, in the county of Lancaster, smith, for 
certain machinery calculated for a more eflicacious mode 
of fuelling, or supplying of furnaces in general with 
.fuel, whereby a considerable reduction in the consump- 
tion of fuel, the appearance of smoke, and of labour is 
effected Sealed 27th July. — 6 months for enrolment. 

To John Pearse, of Tavistock, in the county of 
Devon, ironmonger and clock and watch maker, for 
certain improvements in the construction and manulac- 
ture of spring jacks, nnil their connexion with roasting 
apparatus. SeulediJ7lh July.— 6 monlh)- for eniulment. 



5 O Jl cclipied vixibl?. TW 

tine as computed for 

- Orerawich. 

10 57 34 Beginning, 

13 «S 9 Ecliptic oppiKition. O 

Fnll moon. 

13 S9 44 Middle. 

14 1 54 End of erItpK. Tbe d)(iU 

is darknesi, 9* S'on tiie 

4 IJ at bisgresteit donga- 

6 13 ft 1» V-"* Id SaUeclipscd, 

8 ^ in bia descending node, 

lonit. 6< 14°. 

9 IJ in hii ascendinf node, 

long. 4< 0° 
9 4 SO ( in conj. with \ , long. 
!• 10" 15', Dilf.ofdec. 
T^W. |[19°Sl'N. k 

9l6ti O (io quadrature entering 

the last qnarter. 
10 21 S5 0.{ in coi(T, with V, long. 

S«3°.^8'. Diflf.ufdec; 

19» 55' N. 
It O ff fnPeiigTP, 
IS 6 $ incolij.<tilh0H,lDDg. 

t* W 5". Dift of dec. 

59". ffw-affN. Bh 


13 !3 58 ( in conj. with 9 , long. 

3" 18" 45'. Dift; of dec. 
S'sy (I!4''S3'N. 5 
11" 4* N. 

14 O If fai Peribclion. 

14 13 44 31 V-'i iBt Sat. eclipsed. 
13 l!f 17 { in conj. with b , long, 
4'9»58'. Diff.ofdec. 

SB', c ie"i9'N. a 

18" 57' N. 
N.B. All the above calcilletiont 
The waxing Moon, ])- 

ecUpMil, iaiitible at 
Greenwich. Q will be 
centrally edtpMi), ia 
hug. 176°)!' 41* weat, 
and ia Uliludc 35° 59' 

16 11 tl Ecliptic coirjnDctioB, or 
Nev Hoon. 

16 18 13 ' ~ 

1° i3' J ll" J7' N.  O 
IP SO' N. 
IB 9 illni&inated 10 dig, on 
her Ea*leTii edge, app, 
diam. 13* 

30 13 35 J in conj with g ton-. 

6'«"35'. DHT-ofdec. 
4=36'. JtS^n'S. g 
II 11 35 48 i^'i 3d Sat. will energa 

31 IS 3S 4 VslatSat.eclipanl. 

3S O (> Vita<><">>'aDg. I'lOoiO*. 
tS O Q in her aaceoding node, 


*S 6 3fl © enlera IJ. 
34 -} in Apogee. 
34 §incoiti-wi1h>£(,Ion|!. 

4' 3fi' J 
1" 33'. 

. Diff.o 

i" li' N. 

36= 1' S. 

38 13 99 7 U'i.sdSat. ecKiiKed. 
33 15 35 56 Tfl Si Sat. vrill emerge 

from its ihadnw. 
30 11 59 59 V's iBt. Sal. eflipsed. 
30 13 4 57 n'l 3d Sal. will emerge 

from it«sliidow. 
ire made to Mean or Clock Time, 
'the wauing Moon, ( . 



„„, ■'■"-""■ 





+ 1 - 


°^-"'\m,.l..«.l + 










75"! 46° 








7S 51 






65 At 






71 50 

+ ,10 






n 41 








b5 4i 








69 51 










71 57 

— ,ia 






66 SO 








70 .'J 




+ .09 



66 60 

+ .37 .... 






+ .02 



68 S6 
7a 55 

.... _^B 
+ .01 .... 


44' .... 

— ,!■» 







b. AU 



whtth we tavnot inierl. 
u icorkt noticed in mr 
' re'iueiiled, la Meiin. 

StveralMlietiitf H'orka rtcatllg pubtuktdlitrretieeii mi 

Aalhoi > md psblalieri rrha iliiire (0 Jte Mirir pfj 
' JoumiU mat said copiei aj sueh uorka, tuwe hai 

Skencvxl and Co., Paternolter Rom. 

Wu. P. W. Watson, of Hull bas a iiact botb on Uie (ilonglieil and dug 
bpenengagediothevicinityof Loniloii, bring drilled with ibc gnrdcn boe. 
siuce Ihe aiiring of lii^O, in rollpctiiig The whole wax reaped tlit; same day ; 
iiatelials lor a Dtudntngia Biilamtica, and, being tlirasbEd out, Ihe Avg, winii 

or treei aud ibriiln that will live ii; 
open air of litllain dnring llie wholi 
year, to be illustiaced by original dei 
criptiani Hnd colonred platesfroni liv- 
ing plants. One hundred a ' 

broadcast, was lo Ihe ploughed, i 
broadcast us fifly-five lo forty-two. 
Til e dug and drilled was as twenty and 
a quarter to twelie and a quarter upon 
tliB ploughed and drilled. Besides Ihe 
a drawings by eminent additional quantity ofgrain, Iticre wa.s 
artists, witli occaaional miniile dissec- also more straw, aud tlie laud was free 
tioni arc already completed of incli from weeds. 

liardytreesandehritbsashavenot.arefT Dr. Zimmbrman, professorof rbe- 
e xcp pled, been Gguied by recent res- mialry in (lie university of Giesseu, lias 
pectable bolaniata. discovered Dial all the Bqiieous atmos- 

A new aocieif i> about to be formed plierical precipitates or deposiis, as 
under Iiii;h1f suapicioiis circumetauecs dew, snow, rain, and hail, conlain inf- 
I'or liie encDuragemeiit and promotion learic inm, nsually combined in the 
of the ecUme of entmniihgy. sanie manner as meteoric stouea with 

Gemi, principally from ihe antique, nickel. Most of the rains examined 
nithier^ illastratlDns by the Rev'. G. contained commoD sail, and a new or- 
(.'R<jLv, M.A. drawn and etched by ganic snbsiance composed of hydro 

ti. Daclei, are preparing for publica- 

Mr. Pont 
al Orn 

a Praclic 

c of IbB 

lypen, and cavbon ; this tbc Dr. 
calls J^yriM. Baiii-walcr was ofien 
funnd also to contain various kinds 
of earth). From contemporary obser- 

r of the 

tcience from well-know] 

pies, will appear in Ihe __ 

present month. thai the stony meieuni; idiusimi are ui 

Mr. J. G.. Walker bu jnat pub- telluric. and not of cosmic origin, 
lished a print of Mr, Slotlianl'ii ctle- A forrespondent in ibe Atmak of 

brnled picture of Ihe trnior scholars Phili'iopliy will be obliged by any ob- 

<if Christ's Hospital rieliveiing their jection to the lollawinf> definition of a 

orations on St. Maltbew's day; report sttaight line, A straight tint is mchia 

B|icnks liiglily of this engraving, being diiidtd or produced (o any cxlmt 

' M,8ll!i!EH is about 10 publish in 1 
tolnmes, octavo, an Account of bis 
Visit 10 ibe Island of Crete, with platei 
and maps. 

Spndi Unsbandn/. — ByanexpeiinienC 
lalely made to ascertain the differenre 
between the use of the i<pade and the 
plDoeh, the a ' " " "' 

tlili directed loicdi'ds Ihe some points. 
We do not desire to make this juornal 
an arena of cnnlrovcray, but we Slink 
this gentlemau, upon a little reflection, 
must see that the definiliDn is by no 
means so simple or explicit as could be 
desired. What has a lino's being divi- 

Ofa field which was In beaus last year from Dr. Johnson downwards, is, that 

and oats the year before, two ridjies they forget that definitiDns are wanted 

were dugaud IwoploitKhedalleruatel}; chiefly for the simple and unlearned, 
the whole was sown un Ibe same day ) 

' ERRATA.— In Ihe Celestial Phcmmena fur July 1G33, line t8th, 1st coliunii, 
insert If. before VJ" j N, III tho BlittiirvliigUal Jeiimal of last month, insert 
S0.93. bar. cuL 






Ill < ii n jiili t ■« l i « 

No. XXI. 

Hf cent )Mttiti$* 


JTb John Christophers, o^ New Broad-street^ jLq^. ' 
doHy for certain improvemefUs oh^ or a substitute or 
substitutes for J Anchors. 

TkiisB' iiB{ftl(yreiiieiits^ consist ki the eonstnictiofi bf 
cerimn pecoliaiiy foifm^d aiicHbr», or substitutes for an« 
obors^ represented in Plate VIL Fig. 1 and'2, are di& 
ferentmeifs of an anchor^ sligbtly varied* in fonn from 
tli^ common anchor ; a, a^ is the shank consisting of 
1^^ efiptical bars, set at an ongl^ ta each other, bat 
which are united, and square at the upper part where 
theshaclde is introduced; by fr, are the armi$ tb^which the 
kfwer parts of the sfeank bftii» are riveted,' bolted, oi^" 
t^i^rwise secured ; CyCy are the palms of the anchor ot 
mbe ordinary' fimrmf but are recopmiended^tcr be circular 
«lr their back partas dk>tted; «l,d, is the stock of witouglitjt 

Vt)li. IV. p 

114 Recent Paienls. 

iron, or it may be of wood, as usual ; which is intended 
occasionally to be introduced through the hole f^ in the 
middle of the arms b. This anchor, with the branching 
shank, is considered to be much stronger in proportion 
to its weight than a common anchor, and is better cal- 
culated to resist, during the operation of tearing or 
wrenching the anchor out of the ground, as the two 
branches of the shank mutually support each other; and 
also the arms, or flukes, are less liable to be broken, 
in consequence of the shank being connected thereto 
nearer to the point of the palms, than in the common 

Fig. 3, 4, and 5, exhibit different views of another 
formed anchor, which is proposed as a substitute for the 
common anchor. It is furnished with two double palms, 
connected by a cross bar ; a, is the shank, divided as be- 
fore ; 6, is the burved cross bar, or arm, to which the 
ends of the shank a are riveted or bolted ; c, c, are the 
double flukes, or palms of an oval form, connected. liy 
the curved cross bar, or arm b. This form of anchor 
possesses considerable advantage over the ordinary 
anchor, as it requires no stock, and is capaUe of taking 
very firm hold of the ground, by having two of its pialms 
in operation at once. It is also superior to the commoD 
anchor in strength, as it will sustain a very great lateral 
strain, as the ship swings about when riding at single 
anchor, and is less liable to foul or entangle with |^ 

Fig. 6 and 7 are representations of another formed 
anchor, which may be called a mushrpom anchor ; it is 
chiefly made of cast-iron, a, a, a, are three branching 
bars of wrought-iron, arranged in a triangular position ; 
t|ley are united, and form a square at the top. where the 
shackle passes through, and, at their lower ends, enter 

Christophers', Jwr Substiiuies for Anchors* 115 

the cast-iron block i^, into which they are bolted^ or 
otherwise secured. The block b is formed as a star, 
with six points, having a round hole through the middle 
of the block, for the purpose of allowing the sand and 
water to escape in raising the anchor, or for attaching a 
buoy rope. This form of anchor is very strong ; and 
some of the points of the star would be certain 0( holir 
ing into the ground, in whatever position it might hap- 
pen to fall. 

Fig. 8 is a side view of another sort of anchor, the 
head, or holding part, b^ of cast-iron, the particular form 
of which head is more clearly shewn at fig. 9. ^ It is cast 
hollow, as shewn by the dots, and has a round hole, as 
described in fig. 7, to allow the sand and water to pass 
during its rising ; the two prominent beaks, c, c, are 
intended to enter the ground. The shank of this an- 
chor's divided into two branches, whic^ are bolted into 
the head ; but the branches are united at the shackle ; 
J^fy are two bars of wrought iron, which pass through 
holes in the head, and are there intended to slide, die 
object of which is to prevent the cable from becoming 
entangled with the head. When the anchor stands 
with one of its beaks upon the ground, the bars fy fi 
slide downward and touch the ground, as shewn in 
fig. 9, by which the cable is prevented from getting 
under the anchor near the beak. If the a.nchor falls in 
the position shewn by the dots in fig. 9, the bars will 
also have slidden out and protected the beak from the 
approach of the cable ; the same would happen in what- 
ever position this anchor might happen to lie. 

The form of anchor represented at fig. 10 and 11, is 
particularly calculated for moorings ; tliye head is of cast- 
iron, of an oval shape, with indentations so as to form 
three points or beaks on each side, for the purpose of 


Rfcent Patentt. 

holding into the ground. This head is also cart hollo*, 
and has a large hole for the passage of tbe sand and 
water, and four small holes for the attachment of the 
buoy rope; the shank of wrought iron is divided into 
four branches, bolted to the block ; and, at the reverse 
end, is welded together into a square form, as before 

Having concluded the description of these improved 
forms of anchors, the patentee adds, " I confine my 
claim to the following particulars: — First, to the divid- 
ing or branching of the shanks of anchors into two, 
three, four, or more parts, as herein before described, 
thereby obtaining a greater degree of strength, (in pro- 
portion to the weight of metal employed,) than has hi- 
therto been effected by the usual method of making the 
shank in one solid mass. Secondly, 1 make claim to the 
improved form of anchor, described by the figs. 3, 4, 
and 5, in tbe annexed drawings, which I propose to sub- 
stitute for the comr)ion ship's anchor. And, lastly, I 
make claim to the application and combination of the 
branching shank, (above mentioned,) with the various 
forms of anchors described by the figs. 1, 9, 6, 7, 8, 
9, 10, and 11, in the annexed drawing, and which I 
employ occasionally as substitutes for common anchors; 
but 1 do not claim the forms themselves. All other parts 
which are described or mentioned in this specification 
are introduced merely to illustrate the nature of my in- 
vention. The sizes and proportions of the various parts 
may be varied according to the discretion of the work- 
man, or to the use for which the anchor is intended." 

Irtrolled, April, 1828. 


MiWsjfor the ComtrucHon of Boats and Barges. HI 

To Robert Bill, of NeUfnian Strtety in the Parish ttf 
Saint Mdrt/4a''bonney Middtesex^ for an ImproceHttfU 

' in the Construction of certain Descriptions of Boats 
and Barges. 

The subject of this patent is the construction of boats 
and barges with wooden bottoms and iroii sides. It 
appears that three objects are proposed by the construc- 
tion of iron vessels, viz. cheapness, lightness, and dura- 
bility. (See Iron Boat, vol. i. p. 2S5 of this Journal, 
and also Dickinson's Patent for Iron Ships, vol. iii. 
p. 113.) 

The mode of construction proposed in this specification 
applies to canal boats, which are stated as being gene- 
rally seventy feet long, seven feet wide, and four feet 
deep. The bottom is to be made according to any of 
the ordinary modes now in use. If the several planks 
are grooved and tongued, thin slips of iron are proposed 
to be used between each plank, instead of laths, which 
is the ordinary mode. Instead of raising the sides with 
planks, iron plates are employed, whose weight is about 
nine pounds to the superficial foot. Tliese plates should 
iibt exceed two feet ten inches in width, and in length 
an allowance of three or four inches must be made for 
the rivets, so as to effectually secure the plates to tte 

Iron ribbed knees are then to be placed at such dis- 
tances from each other as to receive the edges of t^e 
plates upon the middle of the knees; boles, at proper 
instances, are to be made on each side of the middle rib 
of the knee, and corresponding boles in the plates : the 
whole is then to be riveted together in the usual manner, 
so that the vessel may be water-tight. It may be de- 
sirable to countersink the rivets into the plates, to pre- 
serve an even surface. The feet of the knees are to 

be made of sufficient strength to allow of their being 
secured by rivets to the boat's bottoni. The stem and 
stern post may be constructed in the usual way, or in 
any other manner that the purposes of the boat may 

" I also claim, as new, the use of knees made of any 
iron, whether the rib be on the middle or the side, when 
they are applied for the purposes of connecting the plates 
which form the sides of the boat, barge, or vessel, with 
each other, and connecting or securing them to the 
bottom of the vessel, boat, or barge." 

It is proposed to strengthen the sides by riveting along 
the upper edge or gunwale of the boat " angle irons," 
thin bars, or narrow plates of iron, turned over at right 
angles, the section of which would be nearly represented 
by the letter (L), which will preserve the form, and aid 
in resisting the blows to which boats are liable : this 
part, however, is not claimed as new. Similar "angle 
irons" may he also introduced diagonally between the 
knees, so as to add strength to the sides of the boat, if 
that should be required. 

In certain formed vessels,aBinthe London coal barges, 
the bottoms of the fore and after parts of the vessel are 
greatly exposed to the alternations of wet and dry, and 
these, when constructed of wood, such aa elm, ash, beech, 
&c, will very soon decay. It is therefore proposed, in 
order to render the wood bottoms of such vessels more 
durable, to impregnate them with varnish, which may 
be effected in the following manner, and "which I, be- 
lieve to be new, and, if so, claim the invention." 

" I boil the timber, or planks, in a mixture of pitch 
or tar, raising the heat to 350° and upwards ; this heat 
is continued from six to twelve or fourteen hours, accord- 
ing to the substance of the timber. Any other material 


Bill' Sy for the Construction of Boats and Barges. I If 

which would bear the required heat would answer the 
purpose, but I prefer coal pitch and tar. I then rapidly 
draw off the hot stuff, and immediately cover the timber 
with thin varnish. I take care that little heat escapes 
during the change, for as the moisture and air contained 
in the timber are greatly expanded by the heat, so, as the 
heat decreases, the air and moisture will collapse and 
leave room for the thin varnish to enter the timber. 
The heat is discontinued when the varnish is added, and 
the timber remains until it becomes cool. One part of 
coal tar and five or six parts of spirit of coal tar make a 
good varnish, which I have used with full effect." 

^^The manufacture of such iron as I use for knees is 
entirely my invention; and I claim the application 
for the constructing of knees^ the object of which is to 
increase the strength of a bar by the least possible addi- 
tional weight where, the bar is to sustain pressure by its 
flat bearing, and is thus effected : I take a bar of a 
proper size for the boat's knee, four inches broad and 
three eighths thick ; another bar, called the rib, two 
inches broad, three eighths or four eighths tidck. This 
rib is placed on the middle of the fore bar ; they are then 
heated in a proper furnace to a welding heat, then passed 
through a pair of rolls with a proper groove in the lower 
one, and receiving sufficient pressure, the union of the 
two bars will be effected. Bars of any required size 
may be produced by the same process, by a proper adap- 
tation of the machinery and the substance of the bars. 
But I find for the boats described before, if the face bar 
be from three to four inches broad and three eighths thick, 
the rib two inches broad and three eighths thick, the 
knees, when bent, will be sufficient." 

Inrolkd^ June^ 1822. 

2 . 

To William Ravensckoft, of Serle-slreel, . 
Inn, London, for the irwention of a Forensic Wig, Ike 
curls whereof are constructed upon a principle to super' 
tede the necessitj/ of frizzing, curling, or using hard 
pomatums, and for forming the Curls tn a way not to be 
uncurled; and also for the Tails of the Wig not to re- 
quire tying in dressing; and, further, the impossibility 
of any person untying them. 

This invention applies to wigs which are formed with 
many ornamental curls ; as those worn by gentlemen at 
the bar, whence tbey are denominated, Forensic Wigs. 
The curls are produced by a particular mode of weaving 
the hair, so as to render their forms permanent, a de- 
scription of which process is particularly set out in thd 
specification, but we question whether it will be found 
intelligible to the general reader. 

The caul, lining, and top of the wig, are made as in 
the common bar wig; but those parts which are usually 
covered with curls are, in tlie present improved wig, first 
covered by a common weft of short snap hair, which 
forms a bed for the newly invented curls. The upper 
curls, which bang horizontally round the back and sides 
of the wig, are made in the following manner : — " By a 
common frame of six threads of silk, commencing by 
passing the hair double from the middle round the 
fourth thread from the top downwards, then separating 
or dividing the fifth and sixth threads ; and thence" (we 
presume passing the distinct hairs intended to form the 
curl,) " regularly round a pipe or roller, consisting of 
three separate pieces formed as a slide : that is, for the 
purpose of more conveniently withdrawing the block or 
pipe upon which the curl is formed. The hair is then 
fastened, by uniting and iltferweaviDg both ends of i^- 


Rcroenstvoft^s^ for a forensic JVig* 1^1 

Witk all the other threads. When these curls are formed^ 
the ends of the hait, which would otherwise form the 
shank, are cut off, whereby the curl becomes a rQW of 
circular hairs, to be fixed to the caul and lining of the 
wig, upon the said bed of short snap hair, and when so 
fixed, spaces are cut by the scissars so as to divest it of 
formality, and give it the appearance of separate curls. 

The lower ranges of curls are formed in the same 
manner as the above, with the difference only of "leav- 
i|ig the shank on, instead of cutting it off; and the shanks 
to these lower curls are made by bringing the sapie hair^ 
.immediately after, the formation of the curl, down to a 
separate set of three silk threads, on the same frame^ 
(placed at a given distance fi*om the other threads,) and 
't)y interweaving them so as to make a secure finish^ 
which affords a root by which it is affixed to the caul 
and lining, upon the short snap hair, already described.'* 

All the curls are made of grizzle, or grey hair, and 
are woven double, and passed once only round the pipe, 
tube, or cone, on which they are formed. 

The side curls which hang perpendicularly are formed 
in the same manner as the horizontal one«^ and are se- 
parately attached to the wig. ^^The ties, ^r tails, are 
made of three distinct sorts of weft ; the first, by inter- 
weaving short curled hair, about six inches in length, 
with three silk threads; the second, by long straight 
hair, sixteen inches in length, woven in six silk thr4Bflid«, 
with the points and roots downwards; the third, by 
wearing the saome sort of hair as the second, but with the 
roots upwards and the points downwards; Ae two last 
mentioned are then united by sewing them toother at 
the weft, longitudinally. They are then separately tied 
about three inches from the sioid joint, and the parts so 
tied are, then brought together to form the bow of 


122 Recent Patents. 

the taH, leaving that- part where they have been sown io^ 
gether near the bottom of the bow; they are then uniteq 
with the first described part, and that junction is con- 
cealed by passing the two last round the whole by a 
common knot, which leaves the short curled hair tp 
form the curl, as issuing from the middle of the knot. 
The extreme ends of the two latter parts are theyi united 
by a common weft on three silk threads, which leaves it 
ready to be attached to the wig when required." 

Inrolledy March^ 1822. 

To James Gladstone, of Liverpool^ for his Method of 
increasing the strength of Timber. 

The object ef this invention is to increase the strength 
of timber beams and rafters, intended to be employed in 
the erection of bridges, roofs, and other buildings, which 
is to be effected by trussing and combining them to- 
gether* When these beams are appropriated to the 
construction of bridges* they are proposed to be united 
by m^ans of iron &stening8, -as shewn in Plate YIIT. 
fig. 1, a section, and fig. 2, an external view of the mode 
of coupling. As many pijeces of timber as will be ne- 
cessary to reach from one abutment or pier to another, 
are thus united, and the ends being properly secured 
the whole is drawn to the tension or tightness desired, 
thereby ^' forming a catenarian curve between the piers 
or abutments;!' that is, as a distended rope or chain 
would hang. - Several beams or lengths of timber are 
described as being placed longitudinally and joined to- 
gether by means of the iron fastenii^gs ; but the further 
description of the process not being perfectly clear to 
, our comprehension, we ^lust follow the words of the 
' };aten<ee himself, who, after stating that the lengths are 


Gladstones, Mode of Sh^cn^thefiing Tbnhers. 



J r L_— J r i_j 







Tomlinsons. Improved Rafter. 



tSmarts. Bow & Stririff Rafter. 





-^ Fi^.13 ^ 

_ iL — 


d d 

r v_ 




— ' 1 

'^•Newton, del. 

HoZdsworths , Roofs 



"^' '." ',. 

Gladstone's^ for increasing the Strength of Timber. 123 

stretched over the piers or abutment as above, says, that 
he extends them to the width of the road, or way, he 
desires to make. '^ I place as many of these combined 
timbers parallel to each other, and on the same plane as 
I think necessary; and from the joints of such timber, so 
connected, I suspend other timbers of various lengths, to 
the lowar ends of which I secure horizontal timbers, in 
•order to form the roadway." 

' ^' For the purpose of constructing, beams, rafters, and 
other parts of buildings, I take three pieces of timber of 
the required length, atid scantlings, and place them either 
close together side by side, or a little distance apart ; 
and at the ends of the two uppermost (see a, a^) I cut 
•dovetails to fit into corresponding mortices, 6, 6, cut into 
and near the ends of two short cross pieces c, as shewn 
at fig. 3. Through the middle of each a powerful screw', 
^having been placed, I then subtend" [suspend ?~\ ^^the 
middle timber by means of the screws acting on the ends 
(previously prepared with iron,) of the middle timber, as 
shewn ^t z, fig. 4, which causes the two end pieces to 
belly and press upon the ends of the two outside timbers, 
thereby causing them to rise or camber upwards in the 
middle; I then wedge up the ends of the middle timber, 
(or the screws may be left in,) and I proceed to brace the 
three timbers in their place, as shewn in the sections 
fig. 5 and 6." 

" In fig. 1 and 2 are represented plates of iron, «, a, 
properly secured to the ends of each longitudinal timber, 
having such a corresponding hole through them to re- 
ceive the. pin, 6, so as to form a joint; likewise, in fig.^ 1 
and 2. is represented the perpendicular, or suspended 
timber, c, destined to supportits part of the road by 
having at the lower end a mortice to receive the cross 
timbers to form the road." 

. Inrolledy March^ 1822. 

1M Reteni Pdi^ids 

To Richard Jones Tomlinson, of Bristol, fifr ah 
Jmention of an improved Rafter for Rooft^r Bedmiy 
and for other purposes. 

This invention is a new mode of combining certain 
ourved and straight bars of iron^ so as to form an iron 
roof of ai)y required span, without the intervention of 
props, its support being in a lateral direction, and coni» 
fined by brace bars. Plate VIII. fig. 7, represents the 
side of a beam or rafter ; a is the centre plate of cast 
iron ; b and c, jwo box joints, also of tast iron. Theis^ 
boxes form the lateral supports to the curves or ardies^ 
having sockets cast in tl^em to receive the encb of th^e 
curved or arched bars : b is termed a single box joints 
at which the beam terminates : c is a double box joint, 
from the opposite side of which the beam may be elongated) 
These curved bars, r, r, are of wrought iron, thr^ 
inches deep, and three-eighths thick : d is the.deteotipii 
bar, with dove-tailed, ends, which fit into eorrespc^ding 
dove-tailed recesses in the box joints, b and e. 

In putting the parts of this beam together, the centre 
plate, ii, and the two box joints, b and c, are to be 
placed upon a level, at proper distances ; the straight 
detention bar, d, is then to be fixed, and over it the 
arched bars, r, r, which should be formed as segments 
of a circle. At the back of these the filling pieces, f f 
are to be introduced, which are broad bars of wrought 
iron, three-eighths of an inch in thickness and nine and 
a-half inches broad, with wedge pieces at the ends. 
Small lips or projections, e, e, are formed upon t&e 
edges of the box joints, b and c, for the purpose of pre- 
venting the rising of the bars, and the indined planes; 
formed on the sides of the boxes prevent their sinking. 

The beam, in thi$ stage of preparation, being tamiid 

Barton's, for ornamenting Steely S^c. ^ I9lr 

over^ as shewn at fig. 8, the curved bar^ gy gj may be 
introduced, the ends of which will be received in sockets, 
formed in the back of the centre plate, a, and also in 
the box joints, b and c. All the bars, boxes, and plates, 
may now be bolted, pinned, or screwed together, which 
renders the l>eam complete. 

It will be selBn from the above that a regular succession 
of these bars may be continued by means of the' box 
joints and centre plates, so as to form a beam of any re^ 
quired length. There are sockets, 5, «, in* the plate 
and box joiilts for the purpose of receiving bars to answer 
the purpose of joists, which is [the mode proposed of 
connecting the beams together, so as to form a fi^me of 
the intended roof. Fig. 9, 10, 11, are sections of those 
box joints and centre plates under which they are respect 
lively placed. The patentee claims the privilege of 
making this description of beam in any other material 
besides iron, and of any dimensions that may be found 

InroUedy November^ 1821. 

To John Barton, Deputy-Comptrollfr of the Mtntj 
Londonyfor a certain Process for the application of 
Prismatic Colours to the Surface of Steel and other 
Metals, and using the same in the manufacture of 
various Ornaments. 

Th£ subject of this patent cannot be properly called 
either an invention or a discovery, being merely the 
employment of a known process, to produce a known 
effect. The specification, states that it " consists in the 
property of decomposing light, that belongs to lines 

426 Recent Pidenis. 

drawn upon the surface of metal, but more particularly 
extremely fine parallel lines; for example, from fiVe 
hundred to ten thousand in an inch, drawn 'lipon the 
8urfiu» of hardened polished steel, with a diamond, ' or 
any other point sufficiently hard ; and thereby producing 
upon the surface of such steel, or other metal, primitive 
or prismatic colours. Which lines may be transferred, 
by pressure, from such hard polished steel or other sub- 
stance, and so produce similar prismatic colours on the 
substance to which the lines are transferred." 


The patentee wishes it to be clearly understood that his 
^^ invention consists in the application of these lines or 
colours, by way of ornament, as the skill and fancy of 
the workman may suggest, and not in the engine xnc 
implement by which the operation is performed." 

We do not exactly understand what the patentee pro- 
poses to claim under this specification. The property 
which belongs to fine lines drawn upon metal of decom- 
posing rays of light, so as to produce prismatic coloura, 
is not an invention, but a known principle in optics. The 
process of cutting lines upon metal, so as to produce 
such efiects, has no novelty : hence, we presume that it 
is to be understood the invention consists in the applica- 
tion of these prismatic lines, by way of omamenL OSlU 
such a patent as this be maintained ? 

Jnrolled, August^ 1822. 

To Robert Paul, of Starston^ Norfolk^ and Samuel 
Haet, of Reienhall^ with Harleston^ in th& same 
County J for a certain Improvement in Springs^ appU* 
cable to various descriptions of Carriages. 

The subject of this patent is the construction of car- 
riage springs of wood, instead of steel, as usual. The 

Paul and IlarVsyfor Carriage Springs. 127 

form of spripg described herein differs but slightly, if at 
all, from that straight formed spring usually attached 
to gigs, or deunet gigs, as they are called in the specifi-^ 
cation. They are proposed to be made of lance wood^ 
(though^some other softs of wood will answer nearly as 
well) cut into thin slips or plates, several of which slips 
orv plates are to be attached together by means ^of iron 
clasps wrapped round them, the centre of the plate 
being secured by a strong bolt passing through the whole ; 
or the several slips may be connected together by pins, 
with stops, much in the same manner as similarly formed 
steel springs are connected. Their centres are proposed 
to be attached to blocks, which may rest either upon the 
frame of the carriage or support the body ; the extremi- 
ties of the longest plate or slip being shod with iron 
ends, for the purpose of suspending the body to the 
spring, or the spring to thie frame. From two to five 
slips or plates of wood are to form the spring, according 
40 the strength required ; and it is proposed to place the 
longest slips uppermost, in order to prevent wei from 
.getting in between them, so as to swell the wood and 
create friction. A composition of mastic varnish and 
:black lead is to be put upon the faces of these plates, 
•which, when dry, must be rubbed smooth; and when put 
together, a composition of soap, black-lead, and oil, isi 
to be introduced between each two of the plates, as an 
antirattrition medium. 

We believe that not only lance wood, but many other 

.8oi*ts .of wood, have, been used for carriage«springs. 

 Whether the cutting,of lance wood plates,' and applying 

irit tp such purposes, be new, is a question which we do 

not pretend to decide. 

Inrolled. November^ 1821. 

Original <2^dmmunicatfott)$# 

On JamitsotCs Ctkstid Atlas. 

To the Editor of the Journal of Arts ^ Sfc^^ 

Sib, " . 

: As. you have not reviewed a work which has been* 
good deal puffed in the metropolis, I request permission 
,to occupy a page of your Journal concerning it. 

Being a frequent observer of the heavenly bodies, I 
was induced, by the opinions of the public prints, to pur^ 
chase A Celestial Atlas; comprising a systematic Display 
of the Heavens^ in a Series of thirty MapSy illustrated by 
icientific Descriptions qf their Contents^ and accompanied 
by Catalogues qf the Stars^ and Astronomical Exercises. 
JS^'Alexander Jamibson, A.M. 

In the preface Mr. J. tells us that several years have 
' ;elapsed sipce he first undertook the construction of this 
Atlas ; and that were he now to obey the feelings excited 
by its' completion, the pre&ce he should have to offiar 
would be a history of its progress from beginning to end. 
This history, however,, is. very soon told. Mr. J. goes . 
on to say that/^ It remains only to be seen whether a work 
that is unique in matter and form will be considered as 
.filling iip a desideratum by the astronomical student and 
those wJio profess ^ to be the patrons of genius^ or the 
guardians of science. My labours are now within the 
pale of public criticism ; but, unluckily for their author, 
great number of those whom accident or necessity has 
placed over the periodical reviews, are but little versed 
in the imiversal canons of the art whereby tliis Atlaf has 
been brought into being.'^ . • . ;. 

Now what will be thought of the originality and genius 
of this production when the reader is informed that the 

^^1 On JamietonU Celestial Atht. 11^ j 

tEirty maps in Mr. J.'s work are, without the slightest 
alteration in size or linear projection, copied from a French , i 
work, with the following title : Atlas Celeste, deFlamstied; 
publiie en 1776, par 3.YoR7\ti,Ingenieur'Mechdmcien, \ 
pour les Globes et SpMres. Troisiime Edition, revue et 
corrigeCf et augmentee par M.M. Delalande el Michain. 
A Paris, ckez Detamarche, Rue du Jardtnet, No. 13,' ] 
(quartier St, Andre des Arcs.) m.dcc.^cv. The pro-' 
jection, too, b one of the worst for this purpose that 
could have been devised. The misshaped appearances 
intended to repreBent stars are also copied. Some feiv I 
of the seventh and eighth magnitude are, indeed, added,' 1 
but with very little attention to truth. ] 

The utility of a celestial atlas upon a scale so small as 
the one in question, even if the exact positions, magni- 
tude, and number of stars, had been carefully attended 
to, is extremely questionable; detached portions of the 
heavens, exhibiting one or two constellations only, are ^ 
not the best means of leading the student to a familiarl 
acquaintance with the actual situation of the fixed stars.' 
The delineation of a considerable portion of the sphere 
in piano upon any projection but the stereographic, will 
produce distortion, and destroy the resemblance between 1 
the map and the heavens. 

It is with reluctance th; 
but a publication like this, sent into the world with o* 1 
ordinary pretensions, and dedicated, by permission. (• ] 
the King, demanded them. 

In conclusion, I would just add, thatifMr.J.a 
competent person, will lay down the zodiacal 9 
a larger scale, and send the work into the w 
the judicious remarks of a Herschel oraWiAaln. ^ 


150 Original CoinmtmiCations. 

will perform a useful sei-vice, and be, no doubt, rewarded 
for bis labour. — I am, &c. 

A Star-Gazer. 

Ltnieit; Anguit S3, ISM. 

We give place to the above letter because we think the 
statements in it are substantially correct. But, although 
there appears little doubt that Mr. Jamieson must have 
seen and copied, as faf as it goes, the French work above 
quoted, or some copt/Jrom it, we yet are, in justice, com- 
pelled to say that Mr. Jamieson has added to his Atlas 
numerous small stars which are not in that work. How 
Mr. Jamieson will get over the chargeof plagiarism, it is 
not for us to divine; but we do think the public is entitled 
to an explanation in this affair. 

The original French work is now before us. By the 
Discours Priliminairej it appears that the Celestial Atlas 
of Flamstead, (to which Mr. J. slightly alludes in hia 
work,) was published at London in 1729. This Atlas 
consisted of twenty-eight maps. But these maps, from 
their size and their expense, could only be obtained by 
the opulent. In 1776, J. Fortin undertook to reduce 
Flainstead's maps to one-third of their size. It is added, 
that foreigTiera have felt the utility of the undertaking, 
for this work has been copied in London. 

In this reduction the editors of 1795 say that they 
perceive the most careful attention to preserve all the 
resemblance of the original. The only difference consists 
in the positions of the stars, which, in the second edition 
given by Fortin, were fixed for the year 1780; whereas 
Flamstead had placed them for the year 1690, the peri 
of his observations. — Editor. 

)0, the perjo^^ 

On Gordon's Jmproved Wheel Carriages. 131 

■fWlgilst we are happy Id affbrrfmg Mr. Gordon tlie opporlumty of 
exphuDiiig or correcting what tvc bavo said in oiir accoont of his 
specifl cation, wo regret tlial hh error of llie kind mentioned id his Rrst 
parBgrBpli sliould, by anj means, bave escaped our notice. Rotatite 
to tliB second paragrapb it will be temembered, (Eiat we spoke doubt- 
ingl; upon tije Bubject ; but we oao state diatioctiy, tbat two wheels 
without a cofilinued a&le were employed in the wator-oart to which 
w* allndeil, and between tbe wheels of wbioh cart ll)e lank was 
jDspciu) ed. — Editor. J 


To the Editor of the Jourtiai of Aits. 

I WAS extremely sorry to observe, that, in page 19 of 
jour Journal for July, you have made an error \a de- 
scribing the additional wheel which I proposed for car- 
riages to be propelled by steam, &c. Besides §ome 
difference of phraseology, you describe the said wheel 
as being similar to the "wheels used on tram-roads;" 
whereas, in my Specification, it is described as similar 
to the *' wheel used in what are termed walking 
cranes, &c." 

I also observe, that, in page 18, you state, " This con- 
struction of carriages has been commonly used in the 
East Indies for ages ; and, if we mistake not, has been, 
within the last three yeara, employed in carrying a tank 
for watering the roads near Vauxhall." Now, I have 
made the most diligent enquiry, and 1 cannot find that 
any carriage similar to mine, either in principle, con- 
'Btruction, or effect, has been ever used on any road near 
Vauxhall, or any where else in these kingdoms ; and I 
think it extremely unlikely that there ever was: for, 
before my Specification was drawn, two of the best in- 
formed engineers in London were so good as to examine 
ibr nie all the publications of which they knew on the 


13i N4?vel IttvenlioMs. 

and Helsenburgh Baths, eatabliahed by him or an e^ 
tensive scale. The success of this experiment led to the 
constructing of several steam boats by other persons, of 
larger dimensions and with greater steaming power. 
These having superseded Mv. Bell's small boat on the 
Clyde, it was enlarged and established as a regular 
packet between Glasgow and the western cud of tlie 
Caledonian canal, at Fort William, by way of tlie 
Crinan canal, in Argylesbire. Mr. Bell, about the 
same time, constructed the Stirling Castle steam boat, 
and employed her on the river Forth, between Leitli 
and Stirling : he afterwards took her to Inverness, where 
she has been, for two years, plying between that town and 
Fort Augustus, Many otber boats were successfully 
established about this time on the Forth and Clyde, and 
several on the rivers Tay, Thames, Mersey, Humber, 
and between Houthampton and the Isle of Wight; but 
it was not until the year 1818 that a steam boat was 
made use of to perform a tegular voyage at sea. In this 
year, the Rob Roy, of ninety tons, built by Mr. Denny, 
of Dumbarton, and with an engine of thirty-horse 
power, made by Mr. Napier, of Glasgow, plied regu- 
larly between Greenock and Belfast ; and proved the 
practicability of extending the use of the steam-engine to 
sea navigation. In the year 1819, the Talbot, of 150 
tons, built by Messrs. Wood, with two thirty-horse 
engines, made by Mr. Napier, plied daily between 
Holyhead and Dublin, throughout the whole sunimec 
and autumn, and successively encountered many severe 
gales. In the year 1820, the Ivanhoe, of 1 TO tons, built 
by Mr. J. Scott, with two thirty-horse engines, made by 
Mr. Napier, was established on the same station ; and, in 
1821, the postmasters- general introduced steam boats at 
Holyhead and Dover, for the conveyance of the mails. 
During the last three years, various steam boat^ of large 

On Steam NxevigaHon. fS& 

tonniigie were donstructed, hsiv'mg engines of great power^ 
for conteying passengers betwechs Ordenock and B^fiut 
ahd Liverpool; iNBrtween ijiverpool And Dublin; and 
between Liverpool and Bagik^iif Flintriii^e. AU tbese 
vessels, excej^t twp^ were bath in the Clyde;. In 18$1, 
two steam- yeiMels were establisheii ter go belwieeii London 
and Lefth. And in the present yearj Mre beeii^ afareildy 
filled for 86a two at Liverpooi * anotber for the Leith 
and London station ; anothc^r be^een Brighton anid 
Dieppe ; two^i)etwein Dover and Calais ; and one to go 
regilarl^ between London Bridge and Cadaig; Twelve 
mor^ ate in luUld, and wiQ be coinpleted durinfg the 
present siunnMAr* Ferry boats, propeHed by steanf, stiffi- 
<5lently doiAitfodioos to canry carriages, horses, and cattle^ 
Have been established,^ with great public utility, tm the 
Tay, between Dandee and Fifesbire-; at the Qoeen^a 
Ferry, in Scotland ; on the Sievem, the Mersey, tlie 
Humber, and at other ferries* 

We may alw ^d that sfeam boats now go regularly 
from Bristol to Cork, Dublin, and Liverpool, calling 
^ Ilfiracoitnbe and Tenby. 

The eicperienee of what steam-boats have perfisrmedy 
is (blly sufficient to place beyond all doubt their safiitf 
#yen in the most tempestuons weather. The JRob Rojf 
I^Med two winters: between Greeniocls and Bellkst, and 
liu»l wbter betweien D>6ver and Calais ; the Eclipse plied 
ttie^ wb^ef oi kfit winter betw^n Glasgow amd Beltet, 
afid tho CiitT^ftt^ betweeii Liverpopol atid Bagttt A 
iltmtxi^hakt hM p\i&Si tegtlSffy through all seasons be« 
areetf New Ydfir, thc^\Ei^Yaiinab, and New OlrleaMt 
fttt Ad oihAf stWMi^boais Winch tm& been tuied nt ism 
isi^ titneh «:t{idsed to iiugi^irofis severe gales. Bnl the 
tti^l which tlMf Hdlyhi^ steam-bouts went througib, 
dftfiiilg the ]M;e leM]tedttiMB winter, from the nature of 

« > 


Novel Imeniiont. 

the service, requiring theiu to go to sea at a Sxed hoi^' 
every day, proves that atcani'boats, when properly con- 
structed, are able to c;o to sea when sailing vessels could, 
not ; and that, in some respects, they possess, in very 
had weather, advantages over sailing vessels. 

The detail of Captain Rogers'H evidence proves the 
truth of the conclusions above drawn; and the evidence 
of the Holyhead captains corroborate the statements of 
Captain Rogers, The testimony of these gentlemen is 
not. only extremely important, in consequence of the 
performance of the steam packets during the last winter, 
but, also, because it is to be recollected that, even after 
f the Talbol and Ivaiilwe had been on the station, it waa 
I ^eir opinion that no vessel could perform the winter 
I service with safety but sailing cutters, such as the old 
I Holyhead packets. But the trial of last winter having 
induced them to change their opinion, this circumstance 
[ supplies all which was wanting to establish, upon the 
L'lKst authority, the safety and superiority of steam-boats 
I for this service- 
Notwithstanding the great number of steam-boats 
Kj*faichhave been constantly in use during the last ten 
years, very few accidents have occurred — and these have 
been chiefly owing to the novelty of the experiment; — so 
many precautions are now taken, that there is no reason 
to apprehend the recurrence of any serious accidents. 
The general use of low-pressure boilers, made of wrought 
' iron or copper, has removed the possibility of accidents 
from their bursting. If one of these boilers give way, 
. the materials do not fly, but are rent asunder. In 
respect to the furnaces, they are so constructed that there 
. B no danger from lire, because there is water all round 
them. The coals are kept in iron eases, so as to prevent 
all communication with the fires; and if, in addition to 

•«k A-< 

Oh^Sieam Naofgattdn. 


\liese precautions, vessels are supplied with extinguuihiDg 
fire engines, there is no (danger of accidents from fii^« 
. The Report then suggests that steam vessels should 
be compelled to carry a certain number of boats, accord-^ 
ing to their tonnage, but deprecates^ in other respects, 
all legislative restrictions; individual security being suf* 
fiplently provided for by the competition which is excited 
among the different proprietors; Besides, however, this 
jurecaution of boats, the committee recommend that every 
steam lioat ought to have for the perusal of the passen- 
gers a certificate of some experienced engineer, testifying 
t4ie strength of the boilers, the sufficiency of the valves^ 
the safety of the furnace, and the general good condition 
of the vessel and machinery. 

The average length of the voyages of the Holyhead 
packets, from the 1st of June, 1821, to the 1st pf June^ 
1^32, has been ^bout seven hours and a-half: the average 
of the sailing packets was fifteen hours* The jBTero, a. 
l^ondon and Margate steam packet^ generally makes the 
passage in seven hours and a-half, the distance being 
eighty-four miles. iThe Edinburgh Castle has gone from 
Lfondon to Leith in fifty-eight hours, a distance of four 
hundred miles ; but the James Watt - is a &ster vessel, 
her speed being ten miles an hour through still water, 
independent of wind and tide. Theilfa/e^^'c has per- 
formed the voyage from Greenock to Liverpool, ^ 
di3taace of two hundred and forty miles in twenty-two 
hours; the Saird Patrick came from Dublin to Liverpool, 
one hundred and thirty miles, in thirteen hours and 
a-half, .against a stiff breeze from the east. The Lord 
Melville goes from London Bridge to Calais in eleven or 
twelve hours. • The great speed with which voyages are 
tuade in steam-boats adds considerably to their superiority 
over other veissels, in point of safeil^: for, the less time 

VOL. IV. 8 


Novel I-tiTctitions. 

is occupied in performing a voyage, the leas are the risk' 
and danger to which passengers are exposed. 

It is now evident that the failure of all early attempts 
to apply steam to sea boats was owing to their being 
built too square ; to their want of strength, and to the 
want of a sufficient quantity of steaming power. 

It may bo collected from the evidence that the greater 
part of the breakages which liave occurred of diSerent 
parts of the machinery in steam-boats has been owing to 
the negligence of the engine keepers. Starting the en- 
gine without clearing the water which is formed on the 
top of the piston from condensed steam, is one cause of 
fractures ; other accidents have arisen from suffeiing the 
bearings upon which the shails work, and the links con- 
necting the piston with the beam, to get loose; and, in 
some cases, from making them eo tight that the bearings 
heat ; and also from not attending carefully to the steam 
valve, when the vessel ia exposed to a heavy sea. Mr. 
Watt says, " With the experience now obtained, we 
make no doubt but that we shall be able to construct 
machinery less liable to accidents : but much must always 
depend upon the vigilance and experience of the men 
who work the engines." And Mr. James Brown, being 
asked what were the causes of accidents to the machinerj, 
replied, *' They depend more on the engine keepers than 
anything else," 

The evidence is decidedly in favour of copper boilers. 
Mr. Donkin and Mr. T. Bramab are of opinion that all 
boilers are now made too large, and that the same 
quantity of steaming power might be obtained with a 
smaller body of water, if the surface of the boiler exposed 
to the Qre were sulBciently large. In adapting the quan- 
tity of steaming power, the object, as yet, seems to have 
been to obtain a great degi-ee of speed in smooth water. 
But this i^iriuciple, in respect to sea vessels, the committee 


On Steam Naoigalion. 139 

condemns as erroneous ; since the proper object is not so 
much having ^cat speed ttrough smootli water as a cer- 
tain progress, even at a very moderate rate, against a 
head sea in a heavy gale of wind. 

Although the committee state that there is no proba- 
bility at present of employing sails to steam-boats in a 
more effectual way than they are at present, yet they 
observe that, " Notwithstanding the great and rapid 
l^o^ss which Bteara navigation has made, it is still 
considered by the ablest engineers to be onli/ in its infancy. 
Experience suggests, iii every new vessel and engine, 
tome improvements to be made, or some defects to be 

It appears by the evidence that attempts are now 
making by very ingenious individuals to remove some 
of those defects which belong to the engines now in use. 

Mr. Brunei is engaged on a plan for making the engine 
more compact and more simple, and, at the same time, 
stronger ; and to enable it, by certain mechanical com* 
binations, to adapt and accommodate itself to all exi' 
geocies, and all the perturbations incident to its peculiar 
eer vices. 

Mr. Galloway and Mr. Perkins feel confident that 
high-pressure boilers may be so contrived as to be used 
with the greatest advantage. Mr. Perkins, in his answers 
to the circular queries, gives such strong evidence in 
&vour of them, from the actual use of them in 150 
American steam-boats, as to go far towards removing 
the prevailing objections to them. 

Mr. Donkin is of opinion that a rotatory furnace, on 
Mr. Brunton's principle, may be applied to steam 

the Bank of Ireland, has invented a 

See BrunloB's Patents, toI. I, page 87 and 4()&. 


lib Novel Inventions. - ^ 

plan of KEvoLViNG PADDLES, to avoid the defects of 
the fixed paddles now used.* 

The evidence of Charles Williams, Esq. ehowa that 
steam vessels will live on aa heavy a sea as the witness 
ever saw in the Channel ; and that the invention of the 
revolving paddles ia exceeded in importance only by the 
application of eteam to the propelling of vessels. These 
paddles, instead of being fixed as in a common wheel, 
revolve with a continuous motion on their own centres ; the 
result is, that they always enter and rise out of the water 
with a soft easy motion, no matter what their immer- 
sions may be. The culvantages of the revolving paddles 
are thus stated : 

1st. The violent action of the paddles of commoa 
wheels in striking the water in a rough sea, which shakes 
and strains both the vessel and the machinery, is entirely 
removed by the use of revolving paddles, as they enter 
and rise out of the water with a peculiarly soft and easy 

2dly. The revolving paddles cause the engines to work 
as smoothly and as efficiently in rough weather as in a 
calm. When a vessel, with fixed paddle wheels, rolls, 
and the paddles become deeply and suddenly immersed 
in the water, the engines do not make onerhalf or one- 
fourth their required number of strokes per minute ; not 
un frequently they are then so overloaded as (o stop altoger 
ther. The paddles thus become a source of great danger, 
and check the vessel's way at the moment when their 
propelling power is most required* 

3dly. When a vessel is carrying sail with a side wind, 
\t often becomes necessary to take in the sails, and sacri- 
fice all the advantages and speed derivable from the 
frtnd, otherwise the leeward wlieel (in consequence of 

 Sco Oldliam's Palcut, vol. I. i>»gc 3o2t 

On Steam Navigatwn. 141 

the voBBcl lying over) would bo so deeply iminersGd as to 
work to great disadvantage, and even to impede her 
way. Thia very serioua inconvenience is entirely obviated 
by the revolving paddles, 'which work equally well when 
axle deep in the water as when the vessel is upright. 

4tbiy. In bringing the head of the veescl about in a 
narrow tide-way, or when the sails are making stack by a 
sudden shift of the wind, the revolving paddles afford the 
greatest assistance. In such cases, the paddles on one 
side the vessel may, instantaneously, by any ordinary 
seaman, and without stopping the engines, be placed 
edgeways to the action of the water : tlie entire power of 
the engines then acting on the other aide, causes the head 
of the vessel instantly to come about. This is effected 
without tl^e smallest Tiolence to cither the vessel or the 


5thly. As it is indilfereDt to the action of the revolving 
paddles how deeply they may be immersed i[i the water, 
vessels furnished with them are enabled to carry a heavier 
freight than if appointed with common wheels, as the 
latter cannot work to advantage if immersed more than 
twenty inches or two feet. 

6lhly. In case of accident to any part of the engines or 
bpilers >vlien at sea, the revolving paddles may be pla,ced 
edgeways; and, by thus presenting no impediment in tlic 
vessel's way, she is enabled to use her sails to the greatest 
advantage. Sliould the wind be then on the beam, the 
paddles have an additional advantage as lee boards. 

7thly. As the revolving paddles cause no loss of powe^ 
in striking the water, as they enter or rise out of it, 
vessels appointed with them go much faster than if fur- 
nished with common wheels. 

Sthly. The revolving paddles do not require so large 
an external projection as common wheels do. When the 
engines are above thirty-horse power, the projeclion lor 

conimon wlieeLt is so great, as inaterially to aSect iho 
case and Bafety of a vessel in a rough sea. 

9thly. Vessels with revolving paddles are enabled to 
employ to advantage engines of a much greater power, 
and with commensurate speed, than if fitted with com- 
mon wheels. Vessels with common fixed paddle wheels, 
like the post-office packet at Holyhead, when running 
before the wind in a gale and a heavy sea^ cannot employ 
the full power of tlieir engines with safety, the wheels 
then running two or three times round without touching 
the water between the trough of the sea, and then being 
brought up all at once, are in great danger of causing 
some part to give way. 

The use of these revolving paddles has been already 
sdopted in the Waterloo steam vessel, plying between 
Dublin and Jjiverpool ; and in the Havre de Grace, iron 
steam vessel, now on the Thames, 

We have thus given the outlines of this truly important 
and valuable paper. In some of our future numbers we 
shall most probably give some of the more mechanical 

The Trmd-MiU. 
Although we are not in the number of those who 
think that labour itself, and more especially what has been 
teimed hard labour, can or will effectually and completely 
reform the evil dispositions of the criminal (believing, as 
we do, that a higher and more intellectual power must 
be in operation before all which we desire in the refor- 
mation of the criminal will be effected), yet as tlie 
Tread-Mill offers more humane means than have been 
hitherto practised in our criminal jurisprudence and 
management, we give place to a description of it, trusting, 
at the same time, that this evident afflcudmcnt in prison 


Novel Inventions, 

The wood-cut exhibits a party of prisoners iS 
the act of working one of the tread-wheels of the disci- 
pline mill invented by Mr. CubJtt,; of Ipswich, and re- 
cently erected at the House of Correction for the county 
of Surrey, at Brixton. The view is taken from a corner 
of one of the ten airing yards of the prison, all of which 
radiate from the g;overuor's house in the centre ; so that 
from the window of hia room he commands a complete 
view into all the yards. A building; behind the tread- 
wheel ia the mill-house, containing the necessary ma- 
chinery for grinding corn and dressing the flour ; also 
rooms for storing it, &c. On the right eidc of this 
building a pipe passes up to the roof, on which is a lai-gc 
cast-iron reservoir, capable of holding some thousand 
gallons of water, for the use of the prison. This reser- 
voir is filled by means of forcing pump machinery below, 
connected with the principal axis which works the ma- 
chinery of the mill. This axis, or shaft, passes under 
the pavement of the several yards, and working by means 
r of universal joints, at every turn, communicates with the 

^H ^ tread-whcet of each class. 

^B This wheel, represented in the cut, is exactly similar' 

^r fo a common water-wheel ; the tread-boards upon its 

B circumference are, however, of considerable length ; so 

V' as, to allow sufEicient standing room for a row of from 

 ten fo twenty persons upon the wheel. Their weighty 

 the first moving power of the machine, produces the 
I greatest effect when applied upon the circumference of 
I the wheel at or near the level of its axle. To secure, 
I therefore, this mechanical advantage, a screen of boards 
L is fixed up, in an inclined position, above the wheel, in 
^h order to prevent the prisoners from climbing or stepping 
^H lip higher than the level required, A hand-rail is seen 
^p fixed upon this screen, by holding tvtiich they retain 

OtLthc Tread-Mill. 145 


their upright position upon the revolving wheel ; the 
nearest side of which is exposed to view in the plate, in 
order more distinctly to represent itjthan could otherwise 
have been done* In the original, however^ both sides 
are closely boarded up^ so tliat the prisoners have no 
access to the interior of the wheel, and all risk of injury 
is prevented. 

By means of steps the gangs of prisoners ascend at orfe 
end, smd when the requisite nuinber range themselves 
upon the wheeL it commences its revolution. The effect 
then to every individual is simply that of ascending ah 
etfdless flight of steps, their combined weight acting upon 
every successive stepping board, precisely as a stream of 
water upon the float-boards of a water-wheel. 

During this operation, each prisoner gradually ad- 
vances from the end at which he mounted towards tl^ 
opposite end of the whei^l^ whence the last man, taking 
his turn', descends for rest ; another prisoner immediately 
mounting, as before, to fill up the number required, 
without stopping tfte machine. 'The intervi^l of rest may 
then be portioned to each man by regulating the number 
of those required to work the wheel tvith the whole num^- 
ber of the gang. . Thus^ if twenty out of twenty-four 
are obliged to be upon the wheel,, it will give to eac& 
man intervals of rest amounting to twelve minuted iii 
every hour of labour. Again, by varying the number of 
men upon^ the wheel^ or the work inside the mill, s5 as 
to increase or diminish its velocity, the degree of hard 
labour or exercise to the prisoner may al^o be regulated* 
At Brixton,, the diameter of the wheel being five feet, 
and revolving twice in a minute, the space stepped over 
by each man is 2193 feet, or 731 yards, per hour. 

The wheels erected at the House of Correction at 
Coldbath-fields are each capable of containing forty or 



Novel ItKtntiont. 

more prisonei-s, and ttie joint force of the priaoners U 
expended in giving motion to a regulating fly, wMchj by 
I '.expanding of itself in proportion to the power, will keep 
1 ',iuiy number of men, from twenty to three hundred and 
1 ^twenty, at the same degree of hard labour- 
To provide regular and suitable employment for pri- 
i doners sentenced to hard labour haa been attended with 
I '^considerable difficulty, which the invention of the disci- 
I ,pline mill will completely obviate ; and it is presumed 
I .that, when its advantages and effects are better known, 
iit will be universally introduced into our Houses of Cor- 
[ 'rection. This labour is remarkable for its simplicity. 
\ I It requires no previotB instruction ; no taskmaster is 
^ necessary to watch over the work of the prisoners; 
I .neither are materials or instruments put into their hands 
tat are liable to waste or misapplication, or subject to 
P Srear and tear : the internal machinery of the mill, being 
Inaccessible to the priaoners, is placed under the manage' 
mcnt of skilful and proper persons, one or two at most 
being required to attend a process which keeps in steady 
and constant employment from ten to two hundi'ed or 
more prisoners at one and the same time, which can be 
suspended and renewed as often as the regulations of the 
prison render it necessai^, and which imposes equality 
of labour on every individual employed, no one upon 
the wheel being able, in the least degree, to avoid hia 

As the mechanism of the tread-mill is not of a compli" 
cated nature, the regular employment which it aflbrda 
is not likely to be frequently suspended by the repairs in 
the machinery ; and should the supply of com, &c. at 
any time, fall off, it is not necessary that the labour of 
the prisoners should be suspended; nor can they he 
aware of the circumstance. 


On the Tread-Mill. U7 

Tke Mpense of aucb machines ia, it !b admitted, rather 
heavy, but the subsequent advantages in point of econo- 
my are by no means inconsiderable ; when it b consi- 
dered, too, that this discipline has, by the reports already 
given of its effects, been salutary in diminishing the 
number of persons-committed to prisons where it has been 
. tarried inter effect, we cannot hesitate in recommend* 

As a corrective punishment the discipline of the step- 
ping-mill has bad the most salutary eHects upon the 
prisoners, and will not be easily forgotten ; while it by no 
means interferes with, nor lessens the value of, those pri- 
son regulations which provide for the moral and religious 
improvement of the criminal. 

It may be added, that lyhen the machinery of the mill 
has attained its proper speed, certain balls rise by their 
Centrifugal force, so as to draw a box below the reach 
of a bell handle, which will then cease to ring a bell, 
placed in some convenient situation for the purpose. 
But, should the men at the wheels cease to keep up the 
requbite speed in the mill-work, the balb will descend, 
and a projecting pin on the box striking the handle, 
placed in the proper situation for that purpose, will con-* 
tinue to ring the bell till they go on again properly 
Thus, a certain check is kept on the laboureri, and the 
governor or task-master apprized, even at a distance, 
that the full work is not performed. 

The substance of this report is taken from a pamphlet 
publbhed by the committee of the Soctciy Jbr improving 
frison Discipline. 

1 48 Napcl Inventions., - 

Smart's liow and String' Hdftef, a>i3 H6X»p\rollHrH's 
improved Method of constructing Itoqft. 

Ix our report oif Patents this month mtUI be found 
Tomlinson'syfor an improved Rafter for Roofs or Beams; 
and Gladstone's J for a Method of increasing th^ Strengil^ 
of Timbers; to these it may be useful to add the two fol- 
lowing Inventions. 

Mr. Smart, of Westminster Bridge Road, having 
been long convinced of the great convenience of flat 
roofe in London, and other great towns, where space 
is valuable, considered tliat their principal bisection 
arose from the necessity of very strong bearings, which 
were necessarily weighty and expensive. To obviate 
this he devised the Bow and String Rafter^ which is ccm- 
striicted in the following manner : — 

Take a square spar of the usual size for a raft^j and' 
by means of a circular saw. make an incision in it« 
presented .at &, h, Plate VIII. fig. 12. Then niakea 
cut^ c, at right angles in the middle of the rafter iQtQ 
the cut, ^9 and after that cut out two thin wedge pieces,^ 
dj d. This being done, raise up the pieces, a^ 0^ to an 
angle of. 10 !* or 12% with the piece, £, 6, auctip^oduoe 
.the key wedge, e, of seasoned oak, forming a rafter^ aa 
shewn at fiar. 13. 

It is obvious that a weight pressing on the key wedge^ 
• pf this rafter (if the ends be properly supported) will he 
sustained till either the fibres of the wood forming the 
siring .are drawn as^under, or till the lateral cohesion oC 
the wood forming the butt ends of the rafter is destroyed s 
at the same time, there is no lateral pressure on the wall, 
or other support. The Society of Arts gave Mr. Smart 
their silver medal for this invention. See vol. 37 of 
their Transactions. 

^n Holds worthy of Dartmotttk^ constructed a roof of 
timbers' which covered a bnilding one hundred &et long 
by thirty-seven feet ^de, in which a omsideraUe saying 
of materials waa effected, as well as a large clear sjMaMse 
obtained Jn the. rppfi which- afforded room for stowage^ 
T^he mode adopted is represented in, Plate Vlll.^fig. 14 ; 
a^ Of are the aide walls; b. one of the timbers of the 
uppermost floor resting on sleepers. Two pieces of 
wood,; dy dy are put upon the top of the wall, resting 
also on sleepers. The principals, c, c, forming each pair 
of rafters, are then sepured, at bottom, to the pieces, dj d^ 
and are fi^tened to each other, at top, by iron pins. Each 
pair of principals are supported by two arched pieces,.e, c; 
these pieces are in their grairiy and bent on the plan pro- 
posed by Mr. Hookey, of Woolwich Dock Yard. They 
are cut lengthwise by a screw into three pieces to within 
one foot of the end, as ^ffyf* They are then placed in 
a stealm Idln, and boiled until they bend freely; thea 
attached to a beht mbuld, and left to cool to the required 
fortn ; after which a feVr wooden pins are driven through 
to kee{i th^ pieces so cut from starting open* 
. ThesQ ai<chied pieces, e, are to be let into the beams, 
by and pinned to them : at their upper endsthey-cross 
each other, and butt against the opposite principal. They 
are also secured by iron straps to the' short pieces^ d*, dy 
which are, hence, prevented from giving way or forcing 
out, the wall: and the whole, thus put together, forms a 
atiff and complete framing, on which the. longitudinal 
rafters, g, g, and transverse pieces, A, hy are &stened*in 
the usual manner. In the middle of the building, where 
f^or ptincip41s and as many arched pieces meet, and conse- 
quently cannot cross each other, a sort of hing-^post is- 
i)leeifted, in which the ends meet, and are secured, as at 
%. 45. 

IfiO Review of New Publicatioiu. 

In the roof of a hay-lofl or cottage, the same advaq- 
tages may be obtained, by letting the principals rest 
upon short pieces of wood, which may, as before de- 
scribed, be attached by a strap of iron, to another piece 
going from the beam of the floor to the middle of the 
principal, immediately under the couple beam, where it 
may be secured. It may be made of straight timber; 
but in the country, where there is always crooked timber 
enough about a farm of no use for house work, this will 
be employed to greater advantage, as it will save what 
is of more value to the carpenter. The Society of Arts 
presented to Mr. Holdsworth their silver medal for this 
invention. See vol. 38 of their Transactions. 


a^cbteb) of Ketu publications. 

Bulleliii de La Soci&ti d" Emouragement pour rindustrie 
Nalionale, torn, xix. Or, Bulletin of the Sociely far 

. the Encouragement of National Industry. Vol. xix. 
quarto, pp. 3S0, with 16 plates; published with the 
approbation of the minister of the interior. Printed 
at Paiis, 

fWe are inilcbteil for the substsnce of tlie notice of tbia bdiI tti* 
following work to the RevurEncgclepediguc ait\tea6nolice» contain 
Diformatiou of inporlauce to Uie arts, ne are pleased in havins an 
■>p]i<iTtuiiily(>r laying them bBfor* our readers. We think, loo, that 
aomt of our own associatetl bodies may profit by the hints here thrown 
aul. I'hey ortlersome things in France, moil certainly, better than we 
do in England .J 

The Society for the Encouragement of National 
Industry, animated with an indefatigable zeal, conti- 
nues to carry the flambeau of truth into every branch of 
our manufactures. It is to its cares and sacri&ccs that 


SodOjf fifth JBaCQiitagemeni ofN4aiM9l Induitry. ISi 

.ire owe the prosperity of ibe industrid^^cria in France^ 
It neglects nothing to excite in our artists a siqperiority 
oyer our neighbours which may dispense with our pay* 
ing a tribute to foreigners for an infinity of objects, which 
we obtain. at a great expense from their mani^u^tures. 
A new machine, a new process, invented either in 
France or in any neighbouring nation, is no sooner madf» 
Jmown to some mmnber of the society than the council 
of administration causes*it to be examined with care, and 
very often to be constructed or exemplified at the ex* 
2>ense of the society, in order to be assured of the truth of 
the fiicts. As soon as its utility is acknowledged, the 
invention is inserted in the Bulletin of the Society, and 
made public by the press* 

This valuable collection Contains nothing but what 
has received the sanction of experience ; and the reader 
may be assured of the exactness of the processes and of 
ihe goodness of the machines, of which it contains a 
description. It is, without contradiction, a most useM 
work for the Intelligent manufacturer who is anxious to 
learn all which may interest him, and desirous of per* 
&cting the manu&cture in which he is engaged. 

This collection has been for a long time justly 
^esteemed, not only by the number of things which it 
contains, but also by the spirit with which it is edited, 
and the low price at which it is sold. The present volume 
is n quarto of 380 pages j with sixteen plates^ three of 
which are fiur fild; two^ three fold ; six double^ aHd 
five single J the whole being equal to thirty-five ordinary 
plates; and the price^ nine francs^ or seven shillings and 
ien^penee half-penny sterling; a novelty in book-making 


^ Wo bftveito Englith word corresponding to thi8^ iodostriel arts^ 
su» tliosp j^oduccd by indiutry. 

ite ' jReciinb cfjfew FtMcaHoni " ' '^ 

and science! ^h^soeiety, to its imtmv^ does not fijiake 
this work an object of speculation ; it merely desires to 
cover its expenses. It is well convinced, that, to arrive 
at perfection in the arts, means must be given to all 
those who exercise them of acquiring instruction easily, 
and with the least possible expense. To attain tlds 
object no sacrifice impedes it; it neither reckons the 
number of the plates nor the perfection with which they 
are executed, in order to render the machines more ea- 
sily understood. 

. The letter-press contains also much matter, in a pica 
type. All the pages are full, and the articles succeed 
6ne another without any blank. 


I  . . . . 

JOescription des Machines et ProcSdes specifi6s dans les 
brevets d^Invention^ de Perfectionnement^ et d^ import 
tationy dont la dur&e est expirie: publicS d'apres les 
ordres du ministre deVintSrieur; par M. Christian. 
directeur du Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers. Paris. 
Tom. iv. un volume de, 348 pages f et 32 planches. 
Prdx 25 francs. — Or^ a Description qf Machines and 
Processes specified in breviets of Invention^ oflmpvoDC- 
mentj and of Importation^ the duration of which has 
expired. Publi^hed by the ord6r of the minister of 
the interior, by M. Christian, director of the Con- 
servatory of Arts and Trades. Volume the fourth. 

This work is printed by the order and at the expense 
of the French government, in consequence of the articles 
15 and 16 of the law of the 27th of January, 1791, The 
i5th article decrees, that at the expiration of every pa- 
tent the discovery or invention shall belong to sooietyat 
large j that the description of it shall be made public and 


tliot Msa of lit be p»mitt0d tbrDugboiijI the Ung^kMB^io 
orcter that everj^eitiae]^ miiy freely excimse a^desjay it» 

The 18ih aitMc^ decrees that the deacriptioa of the 
(^bsooyery' flecbredin the [lateiit^aiUhe, al6o,iiii the^same 
way^ jsiadepub^e;aii4'the iiseof 1|iemeeii9aiid^^K>eem» 
relative to suoh discovery shall be also d^lared flmi 
Aroughout the kiiigdo»> when the pat»t right i^Ml 
have ejEpired. 

The law^ imperiously orders that: every patentji withw 
out exception) shall be published immediately altei^ its 
exfttraticMi, except in particular oases. To the present 
"time, howevar, it appears that no exeeptioti hash?ei| 
dedared, aad there, tbei^for^ cannot e^ii^t aay^piroper 
reason to. justify the suppressioa of one brevet cif^^ 

Three vaJLopnes of diese patenti^ hatve b0en puhli^hfiA 
previously to thait of which we now treeK^ M^ Moktdf 
fonnerly director of the Consei^atory of t^ts aAd Traded 
superintended the printing of the fiiBt volnme, whidi 
was done, in esiaet owformi^ to the law. It must' l>0 
admitted^ however, that there are in that volume a>gireat 
mmy insignificant patents. But M. MokrdwelX late^ 
th^Et, in the arts, a thing may appear v^ insigniffiiQattt 
whi<^ may yM exeite in the mind of an artisi, having a 
tortile knagination^ ideas which he would not have had 
till, by these means, the germd had been unfolded; aind 
thus he enriches bis country with valuable and it^w 

M. Motard tods eai« to add very infltructivef notcQ to 
these i^tentS) whenev^ he feuad it necessaiy. In <^n* 
seq^Bce, the first volume had bee» soug^ aft^v uriith 
const4ecablie eagevness. Mi GhvistUnf on ^ eontm^^ 
in the. sahsequciat volume whieh> haver bomk pHntoA 
under Us directipn^ iafbnua ua that,. b^i^desrsMia mf^- 



IfioXSttttnit aitH ^Eitntific KntelUgmce* '^ 

Great Beitain. 

Roi/tU Society. 

The first part of the Transactions of this Society for 
1&92 has just been published. It consists of various 
papers, some of considerable interest and importance. 
That by the president on the electrical phenomena exhi- 
bited in vacuo, proves that the activity of bis mind, and 
his disposition for experimental research, are still un- 

The papers contained in this part are as follow : 

The Bakerian Lettttre. An account of Experiment! 
to determine the amount of the Dip of the Magnetic 
Needle in London^ in August, It^l, with remarks on the 
Instruments employed in such determination. By Caft. 
E. Sabine. 

"70° 03" may be considered as the mean dip of the 
needle towards the north in the Regent's Park, in 
August and September, 1821, withiu four hours of noon, 
being the limit within which all the experiments were 

In referring to the obgervations made on this subject 
by Mr. Naikne, in 1772; and Mr. Cavendish, in 
1776, and comparing their mean amount 73° 35' in 
1774, with the dip in the year above determined, we 
obtain 3'. 03 as a mean annual rate of diminution between 
1774 and 1821 ; which is leas by two-fifUis than the mean 
annual diminution at Paris, between the years 1796 aad 
1814, as deduced from the observations of MeE^s. 
Humboldt, Gay LuiSAc, and AaAco; whence it 
might be inferred, if snOicient dependance could be 

Xiramaciwns qf ihe Rojfal Xoeiei^. i67 

placed on the accural^ of the observations, that the an- 
nual variation of the dip in this part of the world is 
greater now than it was thirty or forty years since. 

It is a curious coiNideraticn, that takingMr. Whiston's 
determination as the dip in 1720, 76^ lO, we obtain, be- 
tween the years 1720 and 1774, an annual diminution of 
9S)5y which diffsrs only three hundredths of a minute 
from the rate which has now been £>und for the sue- 
ceeding forty-seven years." 

Some Positions respecting the Influence of the Voltaic 
Baiter^ y in ibroiating the Effects cf the Dvoision of the 
M^^hth Pair of Nerves. By A. P. Wimion PhiIiIp,M.D. 

On some AhAne Secretions found in the Colon of a 
Young Man after Death. By J. G. Children, esq* 
(See our third volume, page 1450 
. On the Concentric Adjustment of a Triple Olye^ 
Glass. By W. H. Wollastok, IXD. 

On anew Species of Rhinoceros j found in the Interior 
of Africa. By Sir E. Home. (See some account of this 
animal in our second volome, page 466.) 

Observations on a Comet seen at Valparaiso. By 
Capt. Ba/Sil Hali«. 

Elements of Capt. Basil Hall'^ Comet. By J. 
Baxnk, esq. D.D. 

Oh the Electrical Phenomena exhibited in Vacuo. By 
Sir Humphry Davy. 

^^ Is electricity a subtile elastic fluid? or are electrical 
efects 'Aderely the ejdiibition of tlie attractive powers of 
the particles of bodies? Are heat and light ^lemepis of 
electricity, or merely the eflects of its action? Is mag^ 
netism identical with electricity, or an indep^ident agent 
put in motion or activity by electricity ? Queries of this 
kind might be considerably multiplied, and stated in 
mopefyreeise and various forms : the solution of them, tt 


Pofytnhnic aad Saeatific Intelligence. 

the coacludom drawn from the same. By JoBV 


Account of an Assemblage of Fossil Teeth and Bones 
of Elephants, Rhinoceros, Hippopotamus^ Bear, Tiger, 
Si/csna, and sixteen other Animals, discovered at a CaoB 
in Yorkshire in 18S1, with a comparative viem office 
similar caverns in various parts of England, and others 
on the Continent. By the Rev. W. Bbckiand. (See 
our third volume, page 209.) 

On a curious Appearance lately/ observed upon the 
Moon. By the Rev. F, Fellows. 

On Ike difference in the Appearance of the Teeth and 
the Shape of the Skull, in different species of Seals. By 
Sir E. Home. 

Royal Society of Edinburgh. T^H 

1822. Jan. 7. — Account of a new species of Double 
Refraction, by Dr. Brewster. — An account of a sin- 
gular Case of Uterine Irritation, and its effect upon the 
Mind, by Dr. Dyce. 

Jan. 21. Biographical Sketches of some of the earliest 
Scottish Lawyers, preceded by a view of the political con- 
dition of Scotland during Ike latter part of the sixteenth 
century, by Mr. P. F. Tvtler. 

Feb. 18. — On the specific heat of the Gases, by Mr. 
Haycraft. From the experiments detailed, it appean 
that the specific heat of all the gases enumerated is the 
same when they are freed from moisture ; and that, when 
they are combined with water, they have their capacities 
affected in certain regularly ascending ratios, as, 1, 3, S, 
and 4, dependent, it appears, on the proportion of water 
whh which they are combined. 

lioyal Society of Edinburgh. 



March 4. — Notice relative to some Surgical Instruments 
foundat Pompeii, 6^ Dr. Borthwick. — OnthestruC' 
ture and properties of a vegetable membrane known hy the 
name of Rice Paper, by Dr. Brewsteb. — A notice of 
Mr. Barlow's disccnieries respecting the Magnetism qf red- 
hot Iron. 

March 18. — A continuation of Mr. Tylkr's Biogra- 
phical Sketches of some of the earliest Scottish Lawyen. . 

April 1. — ^n inquiry into the nature of Atmospheric 
Pressure, by R. Sausiahez, esq. 

April 15. — Description of a Monochromatic Lampt 
teilA Observalions on the Composition of different Flames^ 
as modified by Reflexion, Refraction, and Combustion, by 
Dr. BttEWSTEH- By illuminating microscopic objects 
with this lamp, a distinctness and perfection of vision is 
obtained, which extends widely the power of the micro- 
Bcope, so that delicate structures and minute organiza- 
tions, which are beyond the reach of observation when 
common light ia employed, may be readily cxamined.-*- 
Obiervatiam on the Errors in the Sea-rate of Chroname-- 
iers, arising fiomtlte Magnetism of their Balances / teith 
suggestions for removing this source of error, 6y Capt. 
ScoRESBY, jun. Three means are hero suggested to 
lessen or obviate the anomalous action of llie balance. 
1, To employ a substance in the construction of the ba- 
lance without raagnetical properties. 2. To free the 
tKilance from any magnetism accidentally acquired. 3. 
To prevent the unequal action of the magnetic influence 
by giving to the chronometer a fixed position, as regards 
the magnetic meridian.— To apply the first method it is 
proposed to make the balance of platinum; to accomplish 
the second object it is proposed, that the flat surfece of 
the balance be ground and polished in the plane of the 
magnetic equator; to effect the third object, the chro- 



Poli/lechiiic and Scienlific Jnteliigencc. 
i made 

nometei' is made to traverse upon tbe plate of a ccdn- 
passiieeille : Capt. S. haH found this contrivance quite 
practicable, the magnet which directs the plate being at 
such a distance as not to affect the chronometer. 

May 6. — Account of a Series of Electro- Magnetic Ex- 
periments, by Dr. Tbaill and Capt. W. Scoresbv. 

May 20, — An Account of the Analysisof (lie Faroe Apo- 
pht/llile and other Minerals, hy M. BEitZEi.iU8. — Obser- 
vtUions oti litis Paper, and on the Optical Analysis of Mi- 
nerals, by Dr. Brewster. 

June 3. — Hints on the Suhject of Dreaming^ and on 
the Operation of the Mind in Dreaming, by H. Mack.en- 
ziE, esq. 

The Nursery and Hot- Houses j^H 

Of Messrs. Loddige's, at Hackney, contain Bome"4V 
the moat valuable plants and flowerB from every part of 
the world. Among; the curiosities of this tropical and 
enotic garden, is one of many extensive glass hot-houses, 
in which some of the trees rise in the ignited air of the 
place to the height of forty feet. Among them is a 
species of the palm, with its stately stem and wide pen- 
dant branches, filling the memory with classical recol- 
lections, and the imagination with its beauty. In ad- 
dition to this novelty the enchanting nature of the scene 
is increased, when, at the instant it is desired, by touch- 
ing a spring, water is heard and seen showering over 
the plants through the hot-house, pattering upon, and 
dripping from the leaves like a sudden rain in a grove 
on a calm summer day. It is from this grand nursery 
that the selection b made, from which Mr. G. Cooke has 
engraved, and is engraving, the flowers for the beautiful 
monthly publication, called the "Botanical Cabinet.'VJ 


Copper raised in Greal Brilaiti, Sfc. 163 

Damp in Walls. 
Thin sheet lead, weighing from four to eight ounces 
the square fool, has been lately used to prevent the 
effects of damp walls upon paper, in rooms. It is fastened 
to the walls with copper nails, which, not being subject 
lo rust, are very durable, and the whole may be imme- 
diatelv covered with paper. 

Specific Gravity. 
Mr. Creighton, in the Journal of the Royal Insti- 
tution, recommends a very and ingenious instrument for 
determining the specific gravities of solid bodies. It 
consists of two cages of wire, which are suspended the 
one imder the other to a. sensitive spiral spring. The 
lower cage being immersed in water, the weight of the 
body in air wilt first be indicated by the tension of the 
spring when it is placed in the upper cage ; by then re^ 
moving it to the lower one, its weight, in water, will be 
pointed out on the graduated scale. Mr. 0. gives a 
formula for ascertaining the specific gravity from these 
two observations without recurring to the usual tedious 

Quantit}/ of Capper raised in Great Britain and Ireland. 

For one year ending June, 1822, 


Cornwall 9140 

Ireland, and sundry parts of England, sold at 

Swansea .-__ 

Devon 532 

Sundry ores, purchased by private contract -- 18* 
Anglesea (probably) 600 

Produce of the ores 8| per cent. 
Average price of copper 108^. 15s. per ton. 

164 Potj/leckpic and Scientific Intelligence. 
Breaking Stones by Steam. 

Os a new tine of road, between Bury and Bolton, 
{I patent rotatory steam-engine is attaclied to a machine 
similar to a bone-mill, but conBiderably stronger, which 
breaks the stones to cover the road at the astonishing rate 
of seventy or eighty tons in ten hours. The engine is 
mounted on wheels, so that it can be removed to any part 
of the road without being taken to pieces. 


Curious Knife. 

The knife presented to Prince Leopold by the corp«> 
ration of the town of Sheffield contains fifty instruments, 
moving on twenty springs and twenty-five joints, mounted 
& gold, and mother-of-pearl handle. It employed the 
workman thirty-six days of close application ; weighs 
four pennyweights and a-half, and is only five-eighths of 
an inch in length. 

Steam Vessels on Canals. 

t An experiment has been lately made with a steam- 

■^ twat on the Union Canal, at Edinburgh. This boat 

was twenty-eight feet long, and constructed with an 

internal movement. It had twenty-six persons on-board; 

' andj although drawing fifteen inches of water, she was 

\ propelled by only four men, at the rate of between four 

^nd five miles an hour, the agitation of the water being 

entirely confined to the centre of the canal. ^^M 


The profeBBors Oersted, Hornemann, and Reinhardt, 

have, in conjunction with Dr. Bredsdorf, determined 

upon the publication of a Journal of the Natural 



Onike Presermiion of the Potato. M* 

Sciences, six numbers of wbich will appear every year. 
Each numbdr will contain from eiglit to ten sbeets* 
'i?!!^ ' ndttqeji of dieee^ gentlemen are a certain gmaradittee 
oif tlio ii^ajt of the work* 


. Tk^SMietyfor the Promotioa afihe Arts^ at Geneva, 
\imy^ iasiied by their epminittee of tbe Class of AgricuV 
lm*e^ a notice cDneerning the potato^ whi^ is deserving 
o£attentioA» . 

. 'X^W committee say, that convince^ of the advantages^ 
which the cultivation of the potato affords, whether for 
the perf^etfiis of a|pri0iiltui:ie, or 33 an efficacious means 
Qi prpvigiog,. ii[i times of plestty, an impcnrtant resource 
in j^ara of scarcity ; they Iiave' desired to mnltiply tiie 
ipeflna of increa^ii^g agricultural produce, and at the 
aanie time to eneoiurage the li^e of this tuberous root. 
Its conv^^on into a substance capl^ble of being nie4e 
ihta hrefid, and of being preserved for a long tim^,. is^ 
bajBondadoubt, an important obj.ect'« 

ioTlie eoHdmitfe^ called upon to.record the benevolent 
views of the government, has published, at two differept 
times, instructive information, designed to promote the 
grSlhig of potatoes, and the condition^ on which it will 
purchase them when grated; conditions which give for 
ftkB potato, thus employed, a value very superior to 
wkat it ja sold fi>f in the market, and which gives to 
growers and ^peculatora A c^siderable advantage, 
ISIottrithstanding these encours^ements, n very email 
nuuber of the sellers of potatoe gratings has yet ap* 
penp^d* \tL searching for the cause of this indifference 
for a speculation as useful to the grater himself as to 
Ihe i;epublic, the committee beHeves that it consists 

46$ New Patents teakd in 18S2, 


chiefly, in the difficulty of drying the gratliigs, a diffi- 
culty, among others, which hinders small proprietor 
from pursuing an employment which would p«y themf 
well for their labour. In consequence of thesa eonai? 
derations, the committee has thought it a duty to propose 
|i special rewaM to him who shall point out the best and 
most economical processes for simplifying, abridging, and 
fiicilitating. the desiccation of the gratings of potatoes. 
The committee desire that the methods pcnnted out may 
be supported by exact experiments; and that they may 
be of a nature to be applied to great and to small un« 
dertakings; and that they may be used in variona 

. The competitors must send^ with their memoirs, sam* 
pies of the gratings which they have obtained by the 
means which they describe; and, aI)ove all, an e%$sA 
account of the expense of the procedure. In partieid«r, 
the cost of the implements, &c. are necessary, aa well as . 
the time which the desiccation has required; The reward 
will consist in a medal of the value of five hundred*, 
florins, (about 231 francs). The memoirs must be srai 
to the Committee of Agrfcidture before the Itft bf 
November, 1882. 

XefD ll^\xm {(eaUZi (tt 1822. 

To William Mitchell, of the city of Glasgow, silver-r 
smith, for the discovery of a process whereby gold and 
silver plate, and other plate formed of ductile metab^ 
may be manufactured in a more perfect and expe;cUtioii8 
mtoner than by any process which has hitherto' been 
employed in such manufacture.— ^Sealed August S^tL^^ra 
Six months for Incoln^nt. 

CELESTIAL PHEIfOMENA, Septekbeii, 1833. 

X H 
5 9 59 

6 13 7 
'6 HM 
» * 43 

7S1 fO 

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10= «3'N. 

ihe lut qnarter. 
J inhiideicendiiisnode, 

IS 15 44 
U(19 46 

4« If.*! td S*t. eclipsed. 

67 v'*l>tdiiro, ditto. 

Ecliptic coi^oDclieUj or 

New Hood. 

I. AUtbe ibove cilcalBtioni 

113 33 Qinconi.w!tLaOJolU. 
Vis's:. DiSVder. 
bOf Q 13>4U'N. aSt. 

16 5 40 Dill conj.Kith^, loni. 

e'S'itf. Diff.ofdec. 

4" 0". J 7' 11' S. » 

3" It's. 
18 SI 39 D in conj. witli 3 loan. 

7"6''3u'. Diff.afdec. 

4" 41'. J W" BO'S. > 

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made to Hemn or Clock Time. 

THh waxing Hoon, ])^4Iie waning Uoon, ( . 

IBETEOROLOGICAL journal, 1822. 










+ — 

Higl. Lu«. 









+.06 .... 












+ ,01 

























,05 ' 














































'stall, [pry 




















+ ,0M 












+ .04 




41 .... 







That elegant work the Horticultunl 
JReponioryj containing DeUneation«, ac- 
cording to nature^ ot the best varieties 
of English Fruit, by Mr. G. Brook- 
9HAW, is annonoccd for completion in 
the present automn. Ten Parts are 
already pnblished. It is expected that 
the whole work will make about 

fine Arts in India, — Among the fine 
Arts of India its arcliitectnral monu- 
ments, erected when its Mohamedan 
conqiierbrs Were in the zenith of their 
power, deserve es|)ecial mention : and 
of these the Tauj of Agra is one of 
the most splendid. Of this many ex- 
quisitely beantiful and accurate draw- 
ings have been made' But the Taoj 
lias, beside its sise, a character of 
beautiful simplicity^ both in nnity of 
its design, and the purity and richness 
of materials, which it is ntteriy impoi- 
alble to represent in a drawing* A 
Biodtrl of this nmjestic pile, in ivory, on 
• scale of tliree inches to ten feet, was 
begun at Delhi, by the late Capt. 
Fordyce, but has been chiefly eae- 
cnted and completed by Cant G. 
Hutchinson. This splendid and accu- 
rate work of art bas arrived at Calcutta, 
previous to its being sent to England, 
where it will take the lead of aU similar 
works, and be considered, as It is, the 
Tenr first and most beantifnl model of 
ercnitectnral skill, as well as of the 
skill, taste, and patient labour of those 
who have done themselves and their 
country honour bv snch work. The 
forming of this model occupied a period 
of twelve years, about die same time 
«s that in which the original was con- 

Travels through the Holy Land and 
Egypt, illustrated with engravings, are 
preparuig for the press, by W, R, 
Wilson, Eiiq. 

The chrf (Tetuvre of Rnbens, the ce- 
lebrated Ckapeau de Paille^ has recently 
been sold at Antwerp, for the immense 
sum of 76,000 francs, or S19K. 13s. 4d. 
sterling! It was pnrchased by Mr. 
Smith, of London ; it is supposed, for 
the Marquis of Stafford's gallery. 

Sir W. Cengrete$ Paietd fir dotnf^ 
SMg Whale*, — It appears tha^ in Fe- 
bmary, I77f > *' a tr&l was made, under 
the inspection of a conmittee of Ae 
Society of Arts, opposite the Orchard 
House, near Blackwall, by discbaigiDg 
a harpoon at an artificial fore-part of a 
whale, constrocted witb hbopa, canvii, 
&c. from a svfivel gnn, at the distance 
of forty yards. The first charge wai 
only with half an onace of powder, 
which proved too weak to throw the 
instrument home. The next proof was 
with an ounce charge, which eanied 
the harpoon efiectimJly through the 
work, which, in a real whale, mast 
have done the Intended execution." In 
what, therefore, does the oii^uiality of 
Sir W.*^ patent comiat ? 

A work on mineralogy is abonttobe 
published in Germany, by Professor 
MuHS, of Freyberg* It will contiia 
the terminology, the mles of the con* 
structions of Mr, Moh*s system, awl 
the nomenclature^ the characterlrtle 
and the descriptive part of natord 
history. Tlie whole will be comprised 
in two voUmies, 8vo. with plates. Aa 
English translation will appear at the 
same time, made under the iospectiM 
of the author, by Mr. Haidinger. 

Dupatth t» Frtaiinir* — ^The new no- 
vel, the Forluaa t\f Nigel j opwacdsef 
500 pages, duodecimo, was put ta 
press in New York on Thnrsday mor» 
ing, completed the next di^, and ready 
for sale on Saturday morning, at eight 
o'clock, by the differeot btkokaellcit^ 
New Y&rk Poit^ July 18. 

France, — ^The CoqviUt^ commaDdei 
by Lieut. Dujperry, sailed fromToaloa 
on the 11th of August, on a Yoyage of 
discovery round Uie world. She wH 
proceed first to the Cape of Good 
Hope; thence she visits the weslera 
part of New Holland, and then tht 
great Archipelago of Ajiia ; and return 
to France by donbling Cape Hofa» 
She Is fitted up with every necessary 
aud convt^Hf ence for so long and ardih 
ous a voyage. Interesting results mi^ 
be expected from this ondertaking. 

Erratum.— At page 127 of the prescnl number, in line 3 from the bottomi 
for KQod pUUee read umd into plale^* 


- .liVj* 

^onK I 

TOwrclmi"^, ! 


Cochrane^. Improved, Lamps 

^MptUyif. CattdU^-tiek. 

Fuf. 7. 


^  -T 

t. \ 


I Journal OF arts and sciences. 


. . .' 


To the Hon. Willi ah Ebskikk Cochsane^ of 
Somerset Street^ Portman Square^ London^ for certain 
Improvements in the Construction of JLamps^ txiher^jf 
thejf are rendered capable of burning concrete Oib^ 

Animal Fai^ and other sindldr in^ammable SubstaMt$. 

• » .  , 

The chief degign id these improved lamps is to burn 
fallow instead of oil ;. the tallow being made fluid by 
means of metallic bars or rods, which conduct the heat 
from ihe flame of the lamp through the ineial down to 
the tallow in tlie rescarvoir. t'late IX; fig. 1, represents 
the section of a lamp constructed according to the iai^ 
proved principle, so ais to be capaible of burning concrete 
pil or tallow. This lamp is similar in form to those 
called Sinumbra or t^rehch lamps, wh^e the reserv<Mr b 
made in the fbrm.of a hoop surrc|(mding the burner, but 
so as to obstruct the rays of light as little as possible^ 

VOL. lY. Y 

!70 Recent Patents. 

Fig. 2, shews a section of another form of lamp with its 
parts arranged so as to burn concrete oil or tallow ; this 
form is denominated the fountain lamp, having its re- 
servoir above the level of the flame, so as to furnish a 
regular supply of oil, or other inflammable matter, to 
the wick, as fast as it is consumed. Fig. 3, exhibits a 
section of another sort of lamp, with the iinprovemeniB 
for burning tallow ; this may be considered as one branch 
of a circle of burners, as a chandelier. The particular 
construction of these improved lamps will be seen by the 
following description. 

Fig. 1, a, is the circular wick, or cotton burner, com- 
monly called an argand wick, which is contained in a 
circular channel between two tubes, leaving the space 
formed by the inner tube for a current of air to pass 
through the middle of the wick to supply the flame, as 
shewn by tlie arrow. The cotton may be raised or de- 
pre^ed by turning the small handle projecting from the 
burners; b, b, are sectional parts of the ring, or hoop 
reservoir, which contains the tallow; c, c, is the tube or 
channel crossing from the circular reservoir, through 
which, by the small apertures, d, d, the tallow passes to 
the burner. 

The melted fat is to be poured into the reservoir 
through the hole, e,- but as the height of the channel, or 
tube, c, c, is greater than that of the circular reservoir, 
a small space will be left above the tallow, which is in- 
tended to be filled with lamp-oil through the aperture, 
J"; which oil, by flowing to the wick, enables the cotton 
to burn for a few minutes on first lighting the lamp : 
g, g, are two bent bars of metal, which, by passing over 
the flame of the iamg, become heated. This heat is 
thence conducted through the metal bars to a circular 
rod passing round the reservoir, which circular rod is 


Cochrane' s, for a nem Lump. 171 

shewn in sections at the ends, /i, A, ajid thus becoming 
heated by meaoB of the conductiiig bars, g, g, causes the 
tallow to melt immediately after the lamp is lighted ; 
and the talloiv, or other inflammable matter, being thus 
brought to a fluid state, flows thi-ough the tubes, c, c, to 
the burner, as long as any remains in the reservoir. 

The external wick-tube has a conical enlargement, 
if i, formed upon it at the part where the tube, c, joins 
it; this is intended to contain a quantity of tallow, 
which] being very near the flame, soon becomes melted, 
and supplies the burner until the whole of the tallow in \ 
the reservoir is melted. The upper part of the lamp 13 * 
Eurrounded by a ground glass, as usual, which rests 
upon the external surface of the circular reservoir. 

In fig. S, the fountain-lamp, (the same letters as be- 
fore,) refer to the parts which have a similar object, or 
operation; a, a, are the cotton-burnei's ; i, the fountain, 
or reservoir of an oval form, containing the tallow or 
concrete oil ; c, the tubes which conduct the oleaginous 
matter to the burners; d, d, are sliders, or sluices, by 
which the admission of the melted fat to the burners is 
regulated. The supply of oU for the purpose of first 
lighting the wick is introduced by the tube, _^ whence 
it {lows through a valve, at bottom, round between the 
double case of the reservoir into the tubes, c, c, and 
over the congealed tallow to tho burner ; g, g-, are the 
metallic conductors, the tops of which become lieated by 
standing over the flame, and being inserted in tubes, oa 
the sides of the reservoir, conduct the heat down to the 
bottom, and there convert the tallow into a fluid. The 
tallow is proposed to be introduced into this fountain- 
lamp in a hard lump, by taking oQ* the bottom of the 
reservoir, which is, accordingly, made so as to be ca- 
pable of removal. 



172 Jieeetit Patentu 

Fig. 3, shews tfie mode of applying the metallic con- 
ductor to a circle of lamps suspended as a chandelier ; 
fl, is the wick; 6, the reservoir; c, the tube, or passage 
for conducting the flow of tallow to the wick; f, the 
aperture for introducing the small portion of oil for 
lighting the lamp ; g, the metal bar, or rod, for con- 
ducting the heat down to the circular rod, A, inserted 
in the tallow reservoirj in order to render it fluid by a 
communication of its heat. 

The specification concludes as follows: — ''Having 
described the manner of carrying my improvements into 
effect, it remains for rae to state what I consider as con- 
stituting my invention. I confine my claim to the mode 
of rendering and keeping concrete oils, tallow, or other 
similar inflammable substance in a fluid state, in lamps 
of every description, by means of metallic conductors, 
applied in such manner aa to conduct or transmit a suf- 
ficient degree of heat from the flame of the lamp to 
concrete oil, tallow, or other similar inflammable sub- 
stance contained in the reservoir of supply, so as to 
effect a regular flow of inflammable matter to the wick, 
in order to maintain the flame of the lamp. I also claim 
the apparatus described for supplying the wicks with a 
small quantity of fluid oil, for the purpose of lighting 
the lamp, and keeping it burning a sufBcient length of 
time to operate upon the metallic conductor for the ob- 
ject before mentioned. All other parts, described in the 
specification, are only introduced to explain the appli- 
cation of my invention to lamps of various descriptions. 
The form and proportions of the parts nay be varied at 
the discretion of the workman." 

Inrolled, August, 1832. 



} * 


Gladstone^.bnp*mode of Bropellin^V^seiF. 

/>*</. 3. 









rut. 1. 

BilU .Jl})iprove7nents inlr^nliia^tir. 


ria. 8. 


Gi>rd0nef.I?np7'ovfd Stemn Facketf. 

Fitj. o. 


Gladstone" Sj fair Steam^Vessels. 173 

To John Gladstone, of Castle Douglaiy in the Coftnij/ 
fif Galloway y North j^ritffinyfar an Improvement or 
Impracements in the Comtruptioafff.^Steam-'Vessels^ 
and Mode ofPrppelling ^uch f^essiels bjf the.applicatio^ 

These Improvements in the pFopellIng of vessels oi| < 
«rater, consist in the employment of trains of paddles 
suspended by endless chains on the sides of the vessel^ 
or one train passing through the middle between two 
vessds Connected together. The specification states^ 
that among various modes which may be adopted for 
applying the principle whereon this patent is founded, 
the foHowf ng is considered to be the best. 

Plate X«'fl[g. 1, represents thesid^ of a steapi-vessel 
intended to be propelled by paddles upoti the improved 
construction. Axles, or shafts, are made to pass through 
the sides of ihe vessel, to ivhich a moving power is pro- 
posed, to be communicated in the usual way, by means 
of a steam-engine ; or it may be efiected by any other first 
inoven Upon the ends of each shaft, drums, or wheels, 
with two rows of spurs, or studs,' are 'fixed ; see fig. 2: 
avei* each pair of drums two ehdlesis chaihs pass ; that is, 
twa chains on each side of the vessel, which are held by 
the ^uds falling in between their VtUksi and, hence, the 
cJiains are drawn forward by the revolution of the drums. 
The chains are suspended with but little tension, in 
order to hang in a catenarian curve, and bag coi^sider* 
ably into the water. Between each pair of chains, see 
fig. 3, float-boards, or paddles, o, a, are fixed at suitabjie 
distances by any convenient inode of attachment to the 
links,, but perpendicularly to the length of the chains,, 
which are braced together by the rod, 6, b. These 
^oat-boards, or paddles, being drawn through the water 

17* Receta Patents. 

l)y the revolution of the spur-wheels, act against tie 
resisting (luid, and propel the vessel forward. 

The patentee observes, " I claim as my invention the 
application of the floats, or paddles, fixed to the chains, 
and applying them either on the outside of single vessels, 
or between double vessels, for the purpose of navigation, 
as circumstances may permit. The endless chains, put 
in motion by the rotation of the wheels, or cylinders, 
round which they pass. The mode of fixing the floats, 
or paddles, so that the greatest number of them in con- 
tact with the water shall be perpendicular to the ho- 
rizon ; a circumstance which entirely obviates that loss 
or waite of power arising from the oblique position of 
the paddles in the common paddle-wheel, both as it 
enters and leaves the water. And also the methods by 
which the chains steadily maintain their position, not- 
withstanding the resistance of the water and the cur- 
vature of the chains and paddles between the wheels." 
InroUcd, June, 1822, 

To David Gobdon, late of Edinburgh, but mobb of 
Oxford-court^ Cannon-street, London, for certain Itn- 
provcmetits and Additions to Steam-Packets and other 
Vessels, part of which Jmprovemenls are applicable to 
other Naval and Marine Purposes. 

These improvements consist first in a mode of boxing 
in the paddle-wheels of such vessels as are propelled by 
tlieir agency. Plate X. fig. 4, is a side view of a vessel 
in which the paddle-wheel is enclosed within a case, but 
the side of the case is removed in this figure, in order to 
shew the wheel within. The case is intended to fit the 

Gardon% fir Steam^ackeU. Vf6 

00 as to leaTe^.rerjr smatt space round it suffi- 
cient only for its freedom of aetion. The wheel is iti-* 
-dosed by the case on its side^ aldo abo>re -and in .frimt, or 
towtards the bow of the vMsel^ witb the etoepUon of a 
miftU apel^ut^ 0, which is i^ooaimetoded to be ostirely 
-under the^ lev^I c^ the water's sv^ce. That part erf the 
hW which-hi iiuldediately beheatftt the wheel fe enclosed 
|yy^ boardiiii^, b^ leaving tii6 hinder pttrt open for the 
escape of t^ tail-water.'* Bf thns enclosing the wheel 
within a boX) and leayingcMdy the snoall apertnre in 
'fiMMnt,- and the <^pening behind^ the watef" cannot escape 
Ifobi the paddles either laterally or downwards, but is 
<)|diged to enter at the aperture, itj andbe fistiiSy driven 
out behind the paddle-wheel. 

By these means it is considered that the most eflfective 
^operatioB of the paddle- wheek will be obtained, and 
liencie theTesset propelled ^ward with an increased 
piewer ; and also that the wheels will be protected from 
esttemal injury^ and be less impeded by back water. 
The revolution of the paddles may be effected by means 
of a steam-engine, or any other power which does not 
form a part of this invention ; and the wheels may be 
jAsiced in any part of the vessel. 

Fig. 5 shews another sort of vessel, more particula,rly 
adapiied fi>r inland navigation^ in which the paddle- 
%i%eda are placed at die stem; or only one paddle* 
whe^ may be employed in this situation, the enclosure 
being provided as above described. A channel is pro- 
posed to be formed along the bottom of the vessd, like 
an inverted trough, extending from the bow to the en^ 
trsnci into the* box. This^ vessel is intended to be 
steered' by two rudders, one placed on each side of the 

ai . - -■ --■- . . . - - -- 

• See Lambert's Patent. Vol. l,p. 34^.. 

yj6 liecetil Palrnll!. 

wbeel, and both connected by Jointed rode, so : 
' noved by one lever or tiller. 

I - The patentee says, " I do not make claim to the in- 
t'Tention of placing paddle-wheels at the stern of the 
f jessel, or to the employment of a longitudinal channel 
' .tbrough the vessel to conduct the water to the paddle- 
wheels : but I confine my claim to the enclosing of pad- 
dle-wheels in cases where the water is only sufTered t<> 
enter through an aperture in front, and with the case or 
boarding extending underneath the paddle-wheels, as 
near as may be, not to impede their action, at the same 
time thai the hindermost part of the paddle-wheel case 
I left (inite open to allow (he back water to escape 
* freely." 

The aperture, a, is proposed to be guarded by a gfat- 
ing, or bars of metal placed edgeways to prevent any 
floating substances from driving against the paddles; and 
also a sluice, or shutter, is proposed to be provided 
so as to regulate the aperture according to the velocity 
of the wheel, or the roughness of the water in which the 
Tcesel is navigated. 

A second improvement is proposed as applicable to 
sailing vessels as well as steam-packets, which is de- 
signed for the purpose of balancing the vessel, or keep- 
ing it erect in the water. This consists in the employ- 
ment of a tank, or a number of tiuiks, to be suspended 
over the weather-side of the ship at a considerable dis- 
tance from the side. The lank is to be suspended so as 
to be capable of lowering down into the sea, and there 
filling with water, which, on being drawn up, will ope- 
rate as a balance and counteract the effects of the wind 
bearing on the vessel's side, and hence keep her erect; 
which is of great importance, particularly in steam- 
vessels propelled by paddle-wheels. These tanks may ba 

Gordon%Jbr St^m^Packets. 177 

t^ wrought Irony or of Itrred couiTas, disteHded by boops^ 
ix of any other suitable material^ wUch^ when em- 
ployed^ miist be fdmtshed with suitable tadde for sos^ 
penaion^ md £nr tumiag out the water when no loRgpw 

A third MBprovemeitt is described as applicable to 
sleam^paeketa and other vessels^ whidi isy ta siurrouad 
tfaa shsp at the height of the gutiwatewith ^^a chevaux<* 
de^fiise^^ dp line of railng^ whkb is to bo Ti»y thiddy 
set with pike% (likea hedge-hog^ bach ;) and^ toprofieaJl- 
anj- aeoidaoLt firom odo^ects jBsUing ap«m the difltrp pooitsy 
inm rods and ad irornietting might be {daeed round Ifaei 
Aevaux-de-ftiger Tfaivl^&eivvttx-db'firiii^, or assesiUage' 
of I»ke3) might be made in a namber of separate pieca^^ 
so^^os t<^ be bolted^ or othsKwise fixed, on the odt^de of 
t^ shi|^ wiLea< it w««t tdi sea.; By tUtf meand im» scKioaa 
iiig«ry wiridd be don^. by^Iarg^ wsres conHtig ooMboavd^ 
Qt the 'iriiip wduM not b0 ia daaiger of bciiig pooped^ 
idtbongh aio deadJighta weie employed^' at the same 
time it worid be a safichnit pvotectioiB to ^dabio^ wis-' 
dows, for it is only when wator is kep^ itt m compact 
be^ that it iS' Tery powerfal ; the insteat thai its par- 
tiMbs ace separated mid iEnteimixed with air^ which is 
a eompressible substance, its great pow^ m destroy0d•^ 
Ihe^ principle here mentioned may be applied to ain 
imsaense variety of M/val impnpremenleu" 

^^ I da not confi^ myself to wsf partiodar mode of 
affixing oi^enolosiiig tfie cheln|U3^die•frise, or assemblage 
of pikes, but intend to claim generally the nse of vu 

* Planting chevaux-de-frise io impede the progress of the waves 
18 certainly new!!! We hope Mr. 6. will find our qaotation this 
time perfectly correct. 


IW jRecent PaienUi ' 

ohevaiix-d^fiise, or other similarly constituted fenc^ 
applied to vessels for the purpose of separating the par^^ 
tides of tvater, and thereby jjrotecting the whole, <«r 
aCny part, of a ship, from the violence of the waves. It iff 
this third part of my improvements which I consider appli-t 
cable to other naval and marine purposes, and with that 
intention I propose that a triangular, or other shapec^ 
frame of wood, and which in some cases may be con- 
structed with the spars of a ship, shall be fitted with a 
chevaux-de-frise, or system of pikes, very thickly! set 
upon the frame, presenting a.sur&ce like a hedge*hog'j» 
back, (as- above mentioned,) and that the frame tliu& 
prepared shall be made iise of to float upon the surfiftce* 
of the water, in order to protect a ship when at aackqr^ 
when lying to, or when scudding through, a heavy sea*. 
In the two fiorst instances I recommend, that the floating^ 
&nce should be anchored at a sufficient distance from; 
tjie bow of the ship;' and in the third instance^ by being 
towed by a cable at a sufficient distance from the stem^ 
to prevent any accident from the yfsve throwing it 
against the ship. I also propose to adapt and affix a 
similar chevaux-de-frise to a floating break-<water, and 
in this way I am convinced that a safe harbour might be 
made in any place where the sea was not too deep, and 
where the break- water could be anchored securely. .1 
do not hereby claim the invention of floating break-* 
waters, but only the application of chevaux-de-frise, or 
system of pikes, arranged, as aforesaid, to floating^ 
break- waters." 

Inrolkdy Jult/^ 1822. 


' BiWs, far MeUdHc Tubfis^ Masts, Casks, 8fC. VJ9 

To Robert ^iiuhyOf Newman Street, St Mari/'la-Bone, 
Middlesex, for Ms improved Method of manufacturing 
Metallic Tubes, Cylinders, Cones, or other Forihs 
adapted to the Construction^ and for the Construction 
of Masts, Yo^Tds, Bowsprits^ or Casks, or for any other 
Purpose to phich they may be applicable^ 

The subject of this patent appears to be ah improve^ 
ment in the manufacture of iron masts, &c. described in 
a specification of the same patentee; inrolled July,1820» 
See Vol. I. page dST of this Journal. 

The present improvement consists in the introduction 
of interior circular braces or hoops of iron, at certain 
distances, for the purpose of disttodiiig and givitig sta- 
bility to the iron plates of which the cylinders or cones 
are constructed. These hoops are farmed of what ifc 
termed ^^ gunwhale iron or angle iron." Plate X". 
fig. 6, shows a piece of this gunwale iron, 6r angle iron, 
which is to be welded into the form of a hdop, as fig. ^, 
or into any portion of a circle, as fig. 8 ; in which last 
case two or more pieces are to form the hoop. These 
hoops are to be introduced and fixed by means of boltd 
pr rivets, at about seven or eight inches apart, throughout 
the whole length of the mast, yard, bowsprit, or cask- 5 
their sizes, of course, being suited to its internal dia- 

For constructing casks intended to hold sixty or 
seventy gallons, sheet-iron is to be employed, of about 
27| lb. to the superficial foot; the plates being firmly 
riveted together, so as to form the vessel of its required 
capacity ; the hoops are then introduced and bolted, or 
otherwise affixed to the sides of the cask at about seven 
^ches apart, as above said* The ends or heads of the 

180 Recent Paietas. 

cask ate to be secured in a similar manner, by rivetion;^ 
into the fece of the boop and round its circumference. 

Tbe same mode is adopted ii^ the construction of 
masts, yards, Sec, where strength and tightness are re- 
quired; that is, by forming the tubes, cylinders, or 
cones, of plate^iron riveted together, and distending 
and strengthening them by these circular hoops. 
* When maste are constructed upon this plan, it will be 
lUBcessiury to supp<Nrt them by means of chains instead of 
jofpes, which ar^ proposed to be formed in the following 
manner : ^^ For su[^portii^ tiro masts of a frigate I era** 
ph>y luifcs of rolled bar^ircHi, <me inch broad ai^l half ai^ 
Uch thick, and eight or ten inches long, with sweUs fM; 
their ends/' In each link a hole is formed for the 
{rarpoae of re^eivin^ a*bolt to connect it with the next 
link, which is formed by two shorter pieces ^^ about five 
inches long, tWiO inches wide, and five-eighths thick*^ 
Th^se are called coupling .bars, and are placed on each 
side of the former link, but leaving a freedom of action, 
so that the joints of the chain may move. In order that 
the chains may not be confined in their action, each of 
the links is twisted half round while hot in the welding,» 
the^form of which is shown at fig. 9. By this precaution 
it is considered that the chain will not be liable to break 
by any twisting, force, or lateral strain, which would be 
the case if the links were all in one direction. 
-^The specification describes the particular claim of 
invention in these words: ^^ Though I have herein 
described several things necessary to the adaptation of 
my invention, yet 1 wish it to be understood that I con- 
fine my claim to the improved mode of supporting and 
strengthening the tubes, cylinders, or cones, by the 
means above described; the other parts forming the 
substance of xny former patent for an improved mode of 

Thompson' Sy f^ fmptffUd Girriage- Springs. Ifii 

eoRstriteling befttfirs^ fiiastfi^ yardb^bqvBptite^'&c* grafted 
to me in May, 1890. 

Jnroiled, August^ X822, 

To John Thompson, of Regent StreetySi. Jame§\ 
for a certain Imprtycemeni in the Method of forming 
or preparing Steel for the Manujbcture of Springs for 
Carriages, but principally applicable to ail those deno* 
minaied Coach- Springs: 

This inventioii purport^ to be an ^^ improved metbod 
of rolling and preparing steel for the manu&cture of 
carriage-swings, but more especially for coach'^springS) 
by which not only a coftsidernble ppr^ipi^ of Jabour is 
saved, but the quality of the steel much improved^ 
thereby {Hiodudng m betiJier aad cheaper spring than has 
hitherto been raade.'V 

The patentee obsenres that^ notwithstanding this 
•variety of forms into which carjriage-springs have beep 
heretofore fashioned, the genei^ practice has been to 
constract their component parts of bars or plates of a 
wedge form, attached together, one upon the other. 
The pieces of steel prepared for spring«makers have 
usually been parallel bars, which are brought into their 
desired shapes by the application of the hammer* This 
operation being attended with great labour, and conse- 
quently with considerable expense, besides some degrep 
of uncertainty, it is the object of this improved process 
to supersede these inconveniences* Instead, therefore, 
•of preparing bars of steel,, and forming them into the 
shape of wedges by the hammer, this form is produced 
by a new method of rolling. 

19B Recem Put^iU. 

A pair of roller^ eadi of dte same diameters^ are t^ 
be mounted in a frame in a ipanner eimilfir to the prdir 
nary rolling mills, the axles of the rollers carrying cog- 
ged wheels, which take into eacli other, so as to cause the 
rollers to revolve together. The first part of the opera- 
tion is performed by a pair of rollers, called pointing rol- 
lers, which have several flat parts formed on their peri- 
phery, .The rollers being so adjusted, that their flat 
parts ahall come exactly opposite each other, the barsr 
aro to be introduced in a red-hot state ; and^ by the 
turning of the rollers, they will be pressed at their ex- 
tremities, so as to reduce their points, or ends. By these 
means, they may be readily introduced between the tapler- 
ing rollers next to be employed. 

' Another pair of rollers are now to be adopted, the 
axle of one of which is to be excentrio to its periphery, 
«o that, in revolving, \t shall approach to, or recede 
from, the other ; and, by that mieans, compress the b»r 
operated upon, into a wedge form. These rollers ^' must 
be formed of such capacity of eurcumference, as ^all be 
not only equal to the length of any required bar that is 
to be tapered, for any spring i but also of a flat or dor^ 
mant roller (as to pressure), which will allow the bar to 
be withdrawn or discharged from between the rollers, as 
may be found necessary, when any bar or plate is tapered 
iufiiciently long.'* 

The tapering roller, acting against the plain roller, 
may be formed with any ^number of groove85 suited to the 
dimensions of the bar or plate, both in width and thick- 
ness, according to the required form of any particular 
sort of carriage*spriilg ; or two rollers, both grooved, 
may be etn ployed instead of one grooved and one plain. 
The grooved roller may be placed either above or below 
a plain roller, with cog-wheels, tc put them in motion, 

Thompson^Sy for Improved Carriage Springs. 188r 

the axle of one of which must commimieate with a mov- 
ing power. 

These rollers will, by their eccentric revolution, pro- 
duce a bar, or plate, of a wedge forni, varying in thick* 
ness, but corresponding to the excentricity of the rollers^ 
The operation has beeii directed to be performed w|ien 
the bar is red-hot ; but it is fou^d desirable also to roll 
the bars again, after the steel has become cold ; which 
method will be highly beneficial, as it thereby becomes 
hardened, and its surface is made smooth by disengaging 
the scales. 

This invention also embraces the employment of plain 
rollers, the extreme surfaces of which are excentric to . 
their axles ; observing^ that the parts of each roljer 
which are most distant,. from its centre, in,ust be placed 
immediately opposite to each other, and that the rollers 
are to be of equal diameta:B. 

^^ I am enabled^'' pays the patentee, ^* by my plan of 
rolling taper plates, or bars, to form my grooves in such 
a manner as shall not pnly tape;r any particular part of 
ihe plate, leaving the rest of the bar perfectly parallel;; 
but I can taper the bar, or plate, from th^ middle to each 
^nd, or I can leave any part of the middle parallel, as 
occasion may require." 

Inrolledf March, 18S3. 

To Thomas Motley, of the Strand^ London, fi^r certain 
Improvements in the Construction of Candlesticks or 
LampSyandin Candles to be burned therein* 

This invention consists of an apparatus for burning 
tallow, cocoa-nut oil, palm oil, or a mixture of these or 
other concrete oleaginous' substance, for the purposes of 

l8l Rtcent Patents. 

illumination ; which, by the use of this apparatus, ynaj 
be employed with the same facility as the fluid oils, aB<i 
at a much higher temperature than it obtains when 
formed into candles, anddther mode of burning, hereto^ 
jfbre in use. This increase of temperatnre is obtained by 
co;itinaaIIy bringing up the oli^ginoui? substance to the 
point of ignition, instead of allowing it to recede, a? in 
the common candle. Plate IX. fig.. 4, represents a per* 
pendicular section of the improved apparatus, caUed an 
Albion CANi)L£STjCK ; a is the wick-holder, closed at 
bottom, to prevent the cotton from being floated up, 
when the melted grease is raised to the point of igni- 
tion ; bj 6, is a cylinder, also closed at its bottom, c. This 
cylinder has a shoulder, or hoop, J, cf^ encompassing it ; 
e,e, is a collar acting against the shoulder, which screws 
on to the top of the stand, y^/*; and^ thoogbpreyentnig' 
the Cylinder from rising, yet allows it to turn round 
freely : g", is a rod, having a dcrew thread round it, which 
rod is fixed into the base of the candlestick, and passe? 
up through the middle of the cylinder : A, k a stage, form- 
ed of a piece of thick leather, between two plates of 
brass, riveted together. The centre of this stage, A, is 
tapped with a screw, answering to the thread of the 
rod, g- ; f, a small rib, soldered to the side of the cylinder, 
which fits into a notch ia the ^tage,. A; and, as the cylin- 
der is turned, carries the stage up or down. The wick- 
holder, a, being unscrewed, and the stage passed to the bot- 
tom, a cylindrical easting^ with a hole through its centre, 
83 fig. 5, made of any ccmcrf te oleaginous matter^ is 
introduced, into the cylisdjer, ^nd there i-ests upon the 
stage A, with the rod, g*, passing through it. The wick- 
holder, d, is now screwed xntb its place, the lower part 
of it descending into the cavity, or sKt, prepared^ in the 
cast taHow, for that purpose. A common flat lamp-^tck 

Motley* s^ Jbr m In^(y6ed Cdndkstich 185 

is theiiput into ihe wicJJL'^holder ; Aiid, by 1^ri^% tlie 
tylinder yrkh the^finger and thuml), the stage raises the 
iallow cast up to the bunier^ when Ihe'i^itton ia now to 
W lighted. By the heat of thi Aamie^' the tallows famhe- 
diately begins to melt, and supplies the wick. . ^ Byocca^^ 
sionally turiiiQ^ .the cylinder^ the ^supt of tallow |s iRlised 
up to the j^int of igniti<Hi» the heat of tUe bnroii^r l^p- 
in^ it in ^ ftuid «tate. 

The moiddiniBfhichcthese casts of tallow ate proposed 
to be made^ consists pf two half cylinders, kepi together 
by flsmges, and pins or buttons, with caps at top and> 
bottom, fitting on ^o as to f<mn the ends of the mould, 
and a cdre running through the middle cprresponding to 
the rod. / The -material of which these moulds are di- 
rected to be made, is pewter;, and the core shoiUd be 
drawn out of the mould before the cast is quite cold. 

Fig. 6j is a section of another description of AteioK 
Candlestick. In this apparatus the candlestick is di- 
Vrded intb fhie upper arid lower <^hambers, a and 6; a 
cylinder of tallow, or ether oleagmous matter, in a con* 
erete state, is. introduced into .the tower chamber, i, and 
there resting upon a stage, is supported by the worm- 
spring, c, which always keeps the tallow, as it melts away, 
up to the top of the chamber. The stage and the cylin- 
der which forms it, should be bound round with some 
sort of material, a$ lustu^ng, so as to preclude the melted 
tallow from running down* into the lower part of the 
chamber. Iri^ the upper chadEb'er, a, a Boat is 'placed, 
shewn in perspective at fig. 7. This float is pierced with 
an elongated slit, through whic;h the bottom of tl^e wick- 
h9lderj is iixt ended to pass. Across the lower part of the 
flpat, a bar extend% which supports a ,8mall pjin,iWijth a 
fioniical pjl^g ; the use of this will presently be seen. 
When the tallow begins to melt at top, the conical plug 

VOL. IV. A a 

18fi Origittal Commtmicationi, 

will sink, and the float descend, allowing the talloff ttf 
How into the chamber, a, until it has so far occupied the 
chamber as to raise the float; thus bringing the conical 
plug up into the hole at the top of the chamber, b^ and 
preventing the further flow of tallow into the upper 
chamber, a. 

The cylindrical stage being at the top of the candle- 
stick when the mould is consumed, in order to introduce 
another mould, a long screw rod, as fig. 8, is to be em- 
ployed. This rod is to be passed up, from the bottom of 
the candlestick, through the spring, and screwed, by the 
small thread at its end, into the block, c; the sliding nut, 
or thumb-screwj d, is then turned upon its larger thread, 
by which the long screw-rod is drawn out; and, with it, 
the stage, c, is brought to the bottom. The upper cap is 
now removed, and another mould introduced into the 
cylinder ; when, by replacing the burner, the (:andle is 
ready for lighting. 

Fig. 9, represents a heater, which is to be applied to 
the top of the candlestick before lighting, in order to 
make the tallow flow : this, however, is only necessary at 
first lighting a fresh wick. 

Inrolled, May, 1822. 

^vfsinal CCommunfcattoniEr. 

To the Editor of the Journal of Arts, Sfc. 


Is the letter which I sent you on the subject of The 

JoTJRNAL OF SCIENCE vtrsus Dr. Thohson, published 

in your third volume, page 130, 1 had no other motive in 

calling public attentioii to the latter gentleman than 


leman than ^^ 


Journal of Science versus Dr. Tko> 



sense of that literary justice to which I felt that he was, 
in consequence of the illiberal vituperation of the Journal 
of Science, strictly entitled ; and I am still quite satisfied 
with having written that paper, although by no means 
satisfied with either of the parties to whom I then ad< 
verted. I am not pleased with Dr. Thomson, because 
in the Annals of Philosophy for April he has published 
an elaborate reply to the Journal of Science, and has not 
even hinted that he had seen my paper in your Journal ; 
whereas it appears to me a moral certainty that he must 
have seen it, and that he wrote bis reply in consequence 
ofwhatlsaid; and if he did so, which I cannotavtrid 
believing', it is, In my judgment, disingenuous. This is 
all the fault I find with Dr. Thomson, to whose literary 
and scientific merit I am happy to find that a writer in 
Blackwood's Magazine bears ample testimony. Of the 
Journal of Science I do not desire to say more than that, 
by its rejoinder to Dr. Thomson, it has fully proved that 
, it is below the level of our trading reviews, and justifies 
me in the opinion I formerly expressed of it. 
I aiUj Sir, yours, &c. 

ViiRBi/u Sat. 

Nortkanpton Sgnare ; Sept. It, lSi3. 

[^Our correspondent feels somewhat sore that these 
literary combatants should avail themselves, without ac- 
knowledgment, of the suggestions which are thrown in 
their way. To us this is nothing new : the matter of 
the Journal of Arts is constantly copied without acknow- 
ledgment, for which, much as we desire publicity of 
facts in the arts, we do not thank any literary pilferer. 
— EniTon.] 


188 Original Commumcations^ 

# . . ;i 

An Atcourii cf\tite^jMti AiteMpt made in Spmn to 
ikiUfidiie and dmieUkatfi (hi VipviiAj (Canielm 
Vicugna/) the Altavo^ (CaHikekm PacoOM^ ik^ 
l^Aiijk/cCamelus GUtmq;) id whichior^ added^ smiM 
ob9eiii)i^ihn$ (^ ihe Wodl af these Anim ByM. F; 

A J 

A30UT the cpnuiiejiiceQi^nt of the present century, the 
Kiqg of j S|Kain,. Charles the Fourth, at the soficitation 
of the then Frepch g<^er^ent| ordered the viceroys 
of LiB(M^ lind ;BiieOos Ayr^. to collect, many male and 
fem^ individuals of the Vit^mu the Lama^ and the 
AlpacOj.wA to send them to Europe. This waa di- 
rected, -not: only to satisfy the demands of the French 
government, but also to make an attempt to naturalize 
these animals in Spain. , . 

The animab collected by the order, of the viceroy of 
Buenos Ayres vrepre brought a^cross. the country in wi^ 
gons: they all perbhed during the journey. firom the 
Andes to the place wh^e the} were to have been ship- 
ped. The viceroy of Lima succeeded better, because 
he took diJOTerent means in accomplishing the same ob- 
ject. Tp obtain and convey these animals, he chose a 
captain' in the army, an intelligent man, who performed 
his mission with success. The captain, conceiving that 
his little col<my would be best managed by men accuse 
tomed to them, employed herdsmen who superin- 
tended the flocks of the Lamas and die Alpacos, on the 
Andes. The flock was transported froih CaUao to 

* Translated from the Revue Encyclopediqu^, purposely for this 

Atlempl made in Spain to naluralize the Yicuna^Sfc. 189 

Conception^ 1>y sea; and thence, travelling by short 
stages, and from pasturage. to pasturage; the whole of 
the troop arrived- at Buenos Ayres after a jpurney of 
fivQ hundred. Uagpei^ 

The events of war,* and ihe taking of Buenos Ayces 
by the English, delayed the embarkation of thes^ ^niqosds 
for Europe; but,- when. peajce was re*established between 
Franee and Bnglan^r DvFrancisde Saayerda^ minister 
of die ceiitral «lu9^ of Seville^ who governed the king^- 
dom dufing tha French occupation, ordered the flock to 
be embarked for Cadizj and charged me to receive it 
jointly with D. Sinvpn de Tqjas Clemente, professor of 
natural history in* the garden for natiiralizatiou at 

The frigate which contained the animals was attacked 
during its voyage, and obliged to fight. Id consequence 
the flock suffered much, for a part of their provision^ 
was thrown into the sea. They were afterward^ fed 
with potatoes, ears of i»aize, hay, and bran. While they 
had potatoes they did very well ; but, a$ soon as this food 
was no, longer to be l^ad^ they became diseased, and 
many of them died. Of thirty-six animals which were 
embarked, eleven only were landed at Cadiz, two of 
which were very ill and died a few days afterwards. 
We received then only nine individuals at the garden of 
San-Lucar; that is -to say, one female lamaj big with 
yonng, by crossiiig wit{i the alpaco ; two female vicunasy 
one of- which was also with young by crossihg with the 
alpaco; three females, obtained by crossing, from an 
alpaco and a vicuna, to which we gave the name of alpO'-^ 
vicuna ; and three male alpacos. 

No male lama, nor male vicuna, arrived at the garden 
of San-Lucar ; . nor any female alpaco ; and we had not 
therefore the means of continuing the experiments al- 

lOO Original Communications. 

. teady begun at Buenos Ayres, upon crossing the fhree 
f q)ecics in a domestic state. The attempt which was 
f teade, however, proves that it is possible to dtHnesticate 
I the vicunas, the special object of the undertaking ; that 
I in tame these animals in their native country, it is neces- 
Vary to take them very young, and to suckle them by 
"female alpacos] that it depends upon the manner of con- 
ducting them from Lima and Chili to Buenos Ayres; 
they may also be brought by the way of the Gulph of 
Mexico to a port where they may be embarked for Spain. 
That it depends, also, upon their having the most proper 
food to keep them in good health when at sea; and that 
the pasturages should furnish a sufficient nourishment 
during their travelling by land. That the vicun[» may 
be crossed in a domestic state with the alpacos, and the 
alpaco with the lama. That the wool of the vicuna, 
crossed with the alpaco, or with the alpa-vicuna, is very 
plentiful, and of a superior quality. These crossings 
may be varied at will, as the captain affirmed, the mon- 
grels obtained from the crossing being fruitful, A thing 
probable enough, seeing that these animals are only 
varieties of a species belonging to the genus Camel, am 
cording to many naturalists. 


The vicunas are scattered over the whole chain of the 
Andes, the highest mountains in America ; they are found 
principally near the perpetual snow which covers the 
summit of some of these mountains. These animals are 
still in. a wild state. They are hunted for their fleece, 
and about 80,000 of them must be killed to obtain live 
hundred quintals of their wool, which is annually sent to 
Europe. t?uch a great destruction produces no apparent 


Observation^ m the Vicuna^ Alpaca^ S^c. 191 

dimiaution of their nwiibers : the hunting for these ani*? 
mals is as productive g» it was when first undertaken. 
^ The vicunas are easily taken. Nets, three or four 
feet lu|^.ar^ stretclM^ across many narrow places to« 
wards wlpch they are hunted; to these nets are attached 
pieces, j^doth of a brilliant colour* The Animals, such 
is their excessive timidity, suffer themselves to be killed . 
rather than l^ap over midi a weak barrier* The wool 
of the vicuna is ofthe same/quality, lirom whatever part 
of the Andes it is coUeded; 4mt it becomes whiter, in. 
proportion as we approach the austral pole.* As, to 
tiie wool of. the alpaco, it varies a good deal in the dLf<« 
ferent parts. of South America; what is sent from 
Busies Ayres is sold only for four reals, (a franc,) in 
the market at Cadi;E; while that whiph is obtained fix>m 
lima, yields twenty tiqies as much. 

Of the three iimle aipacos, received at the garden of 
San Lucar, on^ only. had fine wool; it came firomthe 
province of i^onca-Yelica, whore thia kind is, accordipg 
to the captain,' very plenty. , We may apply to the 
alpacos of Sotith America the observation made upon 
the sheep of Europe: the wool passes through all de« 
fprees of fineness and value, firom the coarsest to that 
obtained from the best Merinos; but that it does not 
vary. at all in the several districts, where, from time im- 
memorial, the flocks have been preserved without mix- 
ture j and without crossing of the race. 

The wool of the alpa-vicuna, obtained from this ex* 


* Tbift obsenration coincides with that which we have already 
made refattive to the Chishmere goat, and to the camel of Bacharia, 
wlib two banches. It i^peara certaio, that cold temperatures favour 
the production of down, increase the whiteness of it, and contribute 
to tbe h?alth of these animals. 

18f2 Original Communications. 

petinient, w^s as fine as that from the vicuna, 'but 
longer; that of the vicuna being «o ehertthat it is wUh 
flffficalty spun, and is used x>rdinarily for the woof; 
w&ile for: the warp, recourse is had to Merino weeL 
Another very important observation's, thattfae^fleece-of 
the alpa*>vicuna is at -least six times more abundant than 
that of the vicuna* This new kind of wool may supply 
fhe place of far in the manufoctnre of hats ; I have, mj' 
B^f; made ah experiment with it: a hat, which was 
ijiftade with it for me at * San*Lucar, I found of an ex- 


cellent quality. 

We have not been able to make any observation upon 
the mongrel from the lama, because the only female of 
this species which we had at San-Lucar died, with all 
the symptoms of nmdness, just as it was about io pri^oec^ 
young. The foetus, which was extracted, wa& deadlri^so* 
One of-thealpacos died; a few .days afier^ of the saine 
disease, with the fiame symptoms. These facts- oiJght 
tiot to be neglected by those who desire to continue these 
experiments, or to make others relative to these animals. 

If we consider that Buenos Ayres is in M"* 35' of doo^ 
latitude, and San Lucar de Barrameda in 37"^ !& of 
north latitude, and at the level of the sea, we shall coa« 
elude, without trouble, that the nearer the vicunas ap- 
proach the pole, the more they will find that which 
characterizes their native country, at- least to the sixtieth 
degree of latitude : for we know, that at equal heights 
and latitudes, the temperature \^ 'iniare elevated in the 
austral hemisphere than in that which is opposed 
to it. 

The flesh of the alpaco and of the vicuna serves foi? 
food for the Peruvians : they say, that it is wholesome^ 
and of an agreeable flavour. 

After the experiment which I have here detailed, and 

On the Vicuna^ Alpacoj SfC. }93 

t^Uch deserves to be reported upon a larger scale, I am 
coimnced that the acquisition of the vicuna, as a do- 
mestic animal, will be one of the most interesting con- 
quests vfrhich industry has made over the animal creation. 
I have confined myself to a simple and true exposition 
of what I have seen, without repeating any thing which 
D. Ulloa, Buffon, and other naturalists, have written on 
the subject. 

To the preceding Paper the following Note has been 
added in the Revue Encyclopediqve, 

It is probable that the diseases uiider Which these 
animals laboured at San-JLucar were caused by heat. 
The place was not well chosen for the experiments. 
Much more convenient situations may be found in the 
mountains of Lieon or Grenada. Animals, obtained 
from the heights of the Andes, could not be placed more 
disadVantageously than in a sea-port. If we desire to 
^ naturalize, them in France, we shall certainly not fall 
into such a serious error; those anitnals which have been 
just landed ought to be sent, at least during the summer, 
to the mountains of the southern departments; at the 
approach of winter they, may be brought down to the 
plains, or perhaps be made to move from the plains to 
the mountains, as the Merinos of Spain, or the flocks of 
the high alps. Towards the dummit of the Andes,* the 
native place of the vicuna, the temperature is constantly 
low and varies little. In Europe the variation of tem- 
perature, or the distance between the extremes of tem- 
perature, increases in the same degree as we ascend in 
latitude. Towards the middle of France it is about 30° 
of Reaumur ; near the polar circle it is beyond 70^ of 

VOL, IV. fib 

Reaumur* These obeervatio|i9 ought not to bfi| neg^'r 
lected, in conudering the me^ans of accuatoming aiumal9t> 
which appear txk fear equally both heat and cold^ to the, 
climate ctf Europe. 


Nobel Inbentien«(« 

» V 

On the Analysis of Sea Watery and its Effects on Steam- 

boilers; 6y Mr. Faraday.* 

"With regard to the composition of sea-water y the foh 
lowing numbers are veiy nearly correct and' accord 
with th^ best analysis. Its specific gravity varies ;a little 
ip different parts of the ocean, from the vicinity of the 
mou]th^ of fivers, ice, evaporation, and other causes, but 
m^y be estimated as a mean at 1037, pure water being 
loop. When of a specific gravity of 1027*2, being such as 
I v^^d in piy e:!iperiment8,; one cubic foot of it weighs 
16S6*365 ounces avoirdupois, and contains 


Comtoon Salt - 25-762 

Muriate of magnesia :-- 3'282 

Sulphate of magnesia 2-212 

Sulphate of lime — 1-013 


besides small quantitiei^ of some other salts, which, how»< 
ever, are in proportions too minute to be of any conse- 

When any of these salts, in their pure and separate 

* From the fifth Report of the Committee of the House of Commomr 
coDGcrniog the Holyhead roads. 

Mr. Faraday on the Anah/ni of Sea Water. 195 

ftete^ are dis^oli^ed in water^ aiM left in contact mth 
mm, or are boiled with wroagbt iroii in a dose veg^l 
snalagouB to a steam-boiler, conMion df the iron takes 
place, and an oxide of the metal is formed. The ^ifect 
ctvim takes place at common temperatures, and is B&tch 
Bicreased by the free access of air. In consequence of 
this power of corrosion,' which bdoaogs also to the.aolu« 
tions when mixed as tiiey are in sea water, all iron 
boilers in which sea water is used will be subjected to a 
mmdi more destructive process than when fresh water is 
used -in them, notwithstanding any degree of care Uiat 
may be giv^n to them ; and^ if care is not given, then other 
serious causes of irffurj/ arise, which greatly add to the 
had effects necessartty attendant on the use of sea water* 

With regard to the prevention of the corrosive and 
injurious effects. of sea water in such circumstances, I am 
not aware of any means that can be o£Eered for the pur-* 
pose which wiH embrace the whole ;. but,. from the ex pe* 
riments made. in the laboratory, a part of the evil appears 
to be more manageaUe and capable of a remedy ; and 
fliough, perhaps, the engineer may not find the means 
available, or the advantages, so important, as to make it 
worth while applying this. remedy in. the large way, yet 
it is important that his attention sjiould be directed to 
it, {that a true estimate maybe formed of the circumstances 
OMmected with it. 

Of the salts contained in sea water the muriate of 
mi^esia is that which acts most powerfully on the iron 
of the boiler. I boiled clean metallic iron' in solutions 
of muriate of soda, or common salt, muriate of lime, 
muriate of magnesia, and sulphate of magnesia, for about 
an hour : corrosion of the metal in all the solutions had 
taken place, and oxide of iron had been deposited ; but 
the portion deposited in the muriate of magnesia was by 

196 Novel Ifroentions.. . 

fiir the greatest; and further, when the solution 
filtered, it was found to hold a portion of iron even m 
solution, an effect which was not produced by any of the 
other salts, 

Hende it is evident that tiie muriate of magnesia is a 
much more injurious salt than any of the others existing 
in sea water. At the same time, I am not able to say 


what i^rtioh of the whole injury, arising to a boil^r by* 
the use of sea water in it, is due to this salt. It willl)e 
seen from the table of salts given, that its quantity is only 
about one-eighth part of that of the common salt ; ao' 
that, though its powers are great, they wiU, in part, be 
restrained by the smallness of its proportion. One thing' 
however, is Worthy attention ; namely, that the coriro^ 
sive effect due to this salt may be prevented ; whereas, 
the others, as fer as I know, are intractable in thiff re»« 
pect. The muriate of magnesia is a salt composed ef 
muriatic acid and magnesia ; find it owes much of itt 
corrosive power over the iron to the weakness of thid , 
affinity existing between its elements. This, however, 
enables other bodies to decompose it, producing suh- 
stances that, comparatively, are inert on the iron. If, 
for instance, lime, or potash, or soda, be added to 
muriate of magnesia, a muriate of lime, or potash, or 
soda, is formed, aU pf which are fotind, by experiment^ 
to have less action on the metal than the magnesian salt, 
and magnesia is deposited. Hence, as regards the 
muriate of magnesia, the excess of corrosive power ilue 
to it above the other salts may be destroyed ; but it is 
for the practical engineer to state by experience, either 
already in his possession, or to be had by observation, 
whether it. may be done advantageously. The pmnts 
for considieration I presume are — what quantity of* cor- 
rosive power, compared with the whole quantity due to 

On the. AnalyiU of Sea Water. 1§7 

Ike sea water, would be destroyed ? would any injury 
arise from the deposition of the magnesia that would 
moTQ than counterbalance the advantage ? caii the cor- 
rective agent be introduced with fecility into the water I 
would any inconvenience or injury, at present unknown 
or unforeseen, arise from the use of it ? 

I have ventured to put more stress on the effect of the 
muriate of magnesia when in solution, and on the means 
of correcting it, thap it may, perhaps, seem to deserve; 
but I thought it my duty, when called upon for informa- 
tion, to give all I could ; and I think the attention will 
not be misapplied that may be given to determine the 
quantity of effect due to this salt, and the possibility of 
correcting it. 

The quantity of muriate of magnesia in a cubic foot of 
sea water being S*28 oz. the following are the equivalent 
quantities of the other substances concerned. It would 
require 1*64 oz. of dry quick-lime, or S*78 oz. of pure 
potash, or 4*1 oz. of dry pearl-ash, to decompose it; with 
the two first substances i«14 oz. of magnesia would be 
deposited, ^nd with the third 2*43 oz. of carbonate of 

When copper is substituted for iron in the above expe- 
riments, the injurious effects are very much diminished ; 
and it would probably be found, ultimately, that copper 
boilers were the most economical^ and certainly the least 
troublesome. It must, however, be constantly remem- 
bered that aU mixture of copper and iron, (by which I 
mean the use of copper and iron in contact with each 
other,) or indeed, of any two different metals, — as of 
iron or brass, or even copper and brass, — should be 
aooided as much as possible in those parts to which the 
salt water has access. When two dissimilar tnetals are 
in contact with each other, and also with sea-water, a 
voltaic Effect is produced, which occasions rapid corro- 

108 . Novel Invcniiotts. 

man of the most oxidable metal at the point cff covitact, 
as well as a lesser effect over its whole mass; and ^be 
action will be stronger from the circumstanice of 4hd 
temperature being high. Hence, in the pumps or tubes 
ccameeted with them, and with the boiler, and ih ev^ery 
part where the salt water passes, such eombinatioss of 
dissimilar metala should^ as much as possible^ be av^nded. 

The Heliotrope. 

When Professor Gaup was engaged in 1820,. at- 
Luneburg, in trigonometrical observations to combine 
the Hanoverian with the Danish triangles, he perceived 
that, when he directed his telescope towards the steeple 
of Saint Michael's church^ at Hamburgh, which was 
seven German (thirty-two English) miles distant, the 
little round window in the upper part of it reflected the 
image of the sun towards him, and thus impeded him in 
his operations* This gave him the idea of using the ^un's 
light for signals, by catching it with a mirror, an4 
reflecting it to the place to which a signal was to be 
given. He made a calculation of the strength of the^ 
sun's light, and of the diminution which it suffers in the 
atmosphere ; from which it appeared that a small mirror 
only two or three inches in diameter was sufficient to 
reflect the sun's image to the distance of ten or more 
German miles. This is the Heliotrope which is 
described to be of great importance in the measuring of 
large triangles, and as likely to supersede the methods 
hitherto employed* The use of this instrument is not 
confined to such operations. It is said to excel greatly 
the telegraph for giving signals, and in time will proba* 
bly succeed it. It can only, however^ be used in bright 


Velocipede.'-Ckurjthes^ Printing Apparatus. 199 

A New Velocipede 

Has been exhibited in yarious parts of the metropolis 
during the month of September^ which promises to be of • 
positive utility. , Its inventor is a shoemaker, a native 
of Newark-on*Trenty in Nottinghamshire, but whose 
name we have not been yet enabled to obtain. The- 
machine consists of three wheels; one behind, about 
three feet in diameter, over which the inventor sits; 
and two lower ones before. It is worked by the 
hands, with two short handles, (without apparently 
any great exertion,)* which set two whedb in mo- 
tion ;' these operate upon two levers, which set the ma- 
chine going at the rate of six miles or more per hour. 
It is by far the most complete apparatus of the kind 
which has been yet invented, and must become, we 
think, a really useful vehicle. The inventor^ has tra- 
velled in fine weather with it sixty miles a day. He 
has two iron stirrups, in which he places his feet; they 
keep him steady on t&e seat. We have ourselves seen 
the vehicle in operation. The ease with which it is im-^ 
pelled and turned round in every direction is admirable. 
We shall endeavoUr to procure a drawing of it for a 
future number of our Journal ; and we hope that the 
inventor himself will not be forgotten by aliberial and 
intelligent public. 

Printing Apparatus* 

In our Number for February last. Vol. Ill, p. 57, we 
described Churches^ Patent Printing Pressy which is 
now in operation in several printing-offices, particularly 
at Messrs. Luke Hansard and Co. ; and we have great 
pleasure in saying, it fully answers our anticipation. 

200 Novel Inventions. 


T^e same gentleman has just completed a series of ap« 
paratus, for printing, which displays a vien of ingenuity 
and mechanical knowledge, such as we rarely, if ever^ 
witnessed in the specification of one patent. 

He commences his operations by casting the types in a 
machine, which, though simple in structure, gives n va-> 
riety of motions, by which the types are founde(f, finished^ 
and distributed, in order, in the cases ready for the comr 
positor. The second part of the apparatus is a machine 
for composing, or collecting, the. individual types toge- 
ther into words, lines, and sentences ; which is effected 
by jacks and keys, to be played upon in the manner of a 
harpsichord. The third, is a printing press, the princi- 
ples of which are very different from that above alluded 
to, but equally good, and more expeditious. After the 
types in the form have given the desired number of im- 
pressions, they are returned .to the melting-pot, and re- 
cast, and distributed mechanically ; which is more expe- 
ditiously performed than by the old process of breaking 
up the form, and distributing the letters by hand. The 
whole of the mechanism is worked, with perfect ease, by 
manual labour. 

In many branches of bur manu&ctures, • the reduction 
of labour, and the consequent cheapness of the articles, 
may be attended with partial inconvenience ; but, in the 
production of books, the more we multiply them, and the 
cheaper they are made, the more we extend human 
knowledge and happiness, and, consequently, benefit the 
community. Any mis^takei;! policy, that would impede 
the means of expediting printing, would also argue in 
favour of ^carrying us back to the period before that art 
was invented, when books were produced by the tedious 
operation of writing. Cicero devoted his estates to the 
purchase of a 9mall library from Atticus ; so scarce and 

Boring for Water. 201 

valuable were books at that period: now, with a few 
pence, which may be occasionally spared from' our super- 
fluitieSy every person may collect a valuable library. 

We shall give the particulars of this important inven-^ 
tion as early as possible, in our future Numbers. 

Boring for Water. 

Among the various improvements of the present day, 
none appears to be more important, or to promise more 
extensive usefulness, than the new mode o( boring for 
the purpose of obtaining spring water. We have endea- 
voured to make ourselves acquainted with the process by 
which this object is accomplished ; but there are certain 
parts of the operation which the inventor thinks proper 
to conceal, 

' The process of boring the earth for spring water, ,has 
of late been practised, with great success, in various parts 
of the kingdom, by a person named Good, residing, we 
believe, at Huntingdon. In the neighbourhood of Lon* 
don, many fountains of pure spring-water have lately 
been obtained by these means ; we may particularly 
name those at Tottenham, Middlesex, and Mitcham, 
Surrey, both of which afford a continuous and abundant 
flow of water, equal to about eight gallons per minute. 

The boring is effected by means of an auger, 
similar to the instrument employed in boring for coal. 
The auger is connected to an iron rod, about four or 
five feet long, which is introduced into the ground in a 
perpendicular direction, a slight power being exerted on 

.the top : it is turned by manual labour. When the au- 
ger jbas descended as far as the length of the rod will 
permit, by cutting its way through the ground, it is then 

> dr^wn up by a shaft and windlass ; and the earth, which 
' VOJ> IV . cc 

£04 Heview of New Puhlkaiions. 

ivbere water is not at present found, are incalculaWcf j 
the cost very small, and the operation easy and expedi^ 
tious. Within one week, the operation of boring for the 
spring at Tottenham, was begun and finished, a depth of 
one hundred and five feet ! 

I 11 t * 

t&tbieiD of KefD 39tti^llcatioft«(« 


Memotri of Benoenuto Celliniy a Florentine Artist^ writ'' 
ten hy himself ^ containing a varielt/ of information 
respecting the ArtSy and the History of the Sixteenth 
Century • A new Edition^ corrected and enlarged from 
' the last Milan Edition ; mth the Notes and ObservG". 
iions ofQ. P. CarpAni. Now first translated by 
Thomas Roscob, Esq, S volumes, 8vo. pp. 836. 

"CfiLLiHi,** says HoliAc^^ WalpoLe, '^ was one of 
the motft extraordinary men in an extraordinary age ; 
his life, written by himself, is more amusing than, any 
novel which I know." Notwithstanding this liigh re- 
commendation of the work before us, we cannot permit 
it to pass before us suh silentio. It is a production 
with whi'iih every artist and every lover of the arts ought 
to be acquainted. 

The following is a specimen of this interesting auto-* 

** About 'this time there came a sculptor to Florence, 
named Pietro Torrigiani, who was just arrived from Eng- 
land, where he had resided several years ; and, as he was 
an intimate friend of my master's, he every day came to 
see him. This artist, having seen my drawings and my 
workmanship, said to me thus : < I am come to Florence 


Mtf^vin qf Bervoenuto Cett^i. SOS 

t^ invite as many young persons- 3:s I can to England f 
and, having a great work in hand, I should be glad of the' 
a^istance of my fellow-citizens of Florence - 1 perceive 
that your manner of working and your designs ^re rather 
those, of a sculptor than of a goldsmith : now- 1 have^ 
considerable undertakings in bronze; so ^hat, if you 
will go with me to England j i will' at onccJ make yoiir 
fortune.' This Torrigiani was a handsome roan, but 
of consummate assurance, having rather the. air of a 
bravo than of a sculptor: above aH, his strange ges- 
tures and his sonorous voice, with a manner of knitting 
his brows, enough to frighten every roan that saw him, 
gave him a roost tremendous appearance; and he was 
continually talking of his great feats among those bear» 
of Englishmen. His conversation one day happened to 
turn upon Michel-Angelo Buonarroti ; and a drawing 
of mine taken from one of the cartoons of that divine 
artist was what gave rise to this discourse. 

*' This cartoon was the first in which Michel-^Angelo 
displayed his extraordinary abilities, «ls he made this and 
another, which were to adoi*n the hall of the palace where 
the senators assembled, in emulation of Lionardo da 
Vinci : they represented the taking of Pisa: by the Flo- 
rentines. The admirable Lionardo had chosen for his 
subject a battle fought by cavalry, with the taking of 
certain standards, in which he acquitted himself with a 
force of genius that cannot be surpassed by conception « 
Michel-Angelo Buonarroti, in his cartoon, exhibited a 
considerable body of foot, who were bathing in summer 
time in the river Arno ; at this very instant^ he represents 
an alarm of battle, and all the naked soldiers rushing to 
arms, with gestures so admirably expressive that lid 
ancient or modern performance was ever known to attain 
to so high a degree of perfection ; and, as I have already 


9D6 Review cfNem PubticatUmi. 

observed, that of thegreat Lionardo was also a workof 
extraoi^dinaiy beauty. These two cartoons stood, one of 
them in the Palace of the Medici, the other in the pope's 
halL So long as they remained there, they wer^ the 
school of the world;* and, though the divine Michel 
Angelo painted the great chapel of Pope Julius, he 
never again rose to that pitch ofexcellence : his genius 
could not reach the force of those first essays. 
- ^ Lietus now returnto Pietro Torrigiani; who, holding 
the above-mentioned drawing of mine inf his hand, spoke 
thus: 'This Buonarroti and I went, when we werd 
boys, to learn to draw at the chapel of Masaccio, in the 
church of the Carmelites; and it was customary with 
Buonarroti to rally all those who were learning io draw 
there. One day, amongst others, a sarcasm of his having 
stung me to the quick, I was provoked to an uncommon 
degree; and, having doubled my fist, I gave him so violent 
a blow upon the nose that I felt the bone and cartilage 
yield tindeir my hand as if they had been made of paste, 
and the mark I then gave him he will carry to his grave.' 
This rodomontade raised in me such an aversion to the 
fellow, because I had seen the works of the divine Michel 
Angelo, that far from having any inclination to go with 
Mil to England, the very sight of him gave me oflence.*'t 

* These are now lost That by Boonanoti was eiignnred by 
Marc Antonio Ruimondi. Some pari of Liomurdo's designs appeared 
in a pablication entitled the Etruria Pktriee. 

t Torrigiani began to study designs in bis own coontry, as we Vmft 
already seen, under the name of Bcrtoldo. He soon became famons 
in scolptare, and works of plaster and bronze, bat was oTsacfa an 
eoYioos and bangfaty disposition that he actnally destroyed f be pro- 
ductions of his feilow-stodeDts, when he thooght they sorpased Mm 
own. From this cansc, and for giving Micbel-Aiq^lo a violeot.tloiir 


^lUtetbttic aiily Scientific SttteUigerue. 

• • • ■. 



Surrey Institution. 

,, The following courses of Lectures will be delivered* 
til the ensuing season, at this literary academy :• — 
* On the History and Utility cf lAierary Institutions^ 
by James Jennings, Esq. on Friday, Nov. 1, at seven 
o'clock in the evening. — On Chemistry^ by GoiiDSWoR- 
l-HY Gurney, Esq. in the course of November. — On 
MusiCy by W. Crotch, Mus. Dr. Professor of Music in 
the University of Oxford. — And on Pneumatics and Elec' 
tricityy by Charles Woodward, Esq. early in 1823. . 

We understand, that the Prospectus issued by the^ 
eoiiamittee appointed to re-organize this Institution, had 
been very generally approved; and that many gentlemen 
halve already enrolled their names as patrons and sup- 
porter^ of this useful and important establishment. 

in the face, which occasioned the remarkable depression in that great 
man's nose, he was obliged to leave Florence. He then worked at 
Rome, for Alexander YI. and soon after entered the army of Duko 
Valentine, Paolo Yitelli, and Pietro do Medici, the last of whom he 
saw drowned in the Garglhino. Returning to his studies, he passed 
over into England, where he acquired great reputation as a sculptor ; 
and unfortunately proceeded thence to Spain, whore he was employed 
by a grandee in modelling a statue of the Virgin. Not receiving the 
promised reward, in a fit of passion he dashed his work io pieces ; for 
which he was basely denounced by the disappointed Spaniard to the 
Inquisition. In order to escape being burnt alive for heresy, he 
starved himself to death in the dungeons of the Inquisition, 1522. 
Some remnants of t}ic fatal statue are still to be seen in Spain, in par- 
ticular a hand, which d^Lbibits a perfect model. 

SOS Polytechnic and Sdent^ Intelligence. 

West's Gatleri/. 

We have been highly pleased by a recent visit to this 
Exhibition, now open at No.. 14, Newman-street, Ox- 
ford-street. The relations of the amiable man, and ex- 
cellent painter, Benjamin West, who succeeded Sir 
Joshua Reynolds as president of .the Royal Academy, 
. the chair of which he filled with so much credit to.hiogi-* 
self, and to the arts, of which he was so splendid an orna- 
ment, have acted wisely in thus bringing together, 90 
many of the works of this accomplished, artist ; a^d the 
public, we are sure, will ultimately compensate them, for 
the trouble and expense in thus contributing to the gene- 
X^ gratification. The large room in which the pictures 
are exhibited, is built upon the garden which belonged 
to the painter himself; and. of course, excites, firom such 
a circumstance, recollections at once pleasing and 

The pictures here exhibited consist of one hundred anid 
forty distinct subjects, among which have been lately in« 
troduced the Death of Lord Nelson^ the Death of Gene-- 
ral Wolfe^the Battle of La Hogue^ the Rescue of a 
wounded French Officer from the Tomahawk of a North 
American Indian^ &c. ; all good in their kind : but the 
chief attraction of these extraordinary and various pro-> 
ductions of one artist, will^ we apprehend, ever be the 
three pictures of Christ Rejected^ Death on the Pale 
Horse^ and Moses receiving the Laws. And, if the late 
president had painted no other pictures than these, his 
fame as an artist must have stood pre-eminently high. 
Death on the Pale Ilorse^ and Christ Rejected, have 
been so frequently spoken of by the public journals, that 
it may seem superfluous I0 mention them again here; 
but He do not thjuk that Moses receiving the Lawsy has 

Dennises Improi^tneHi (^ihe Misrchatd' Sea Se^ d09* 

obtained by any means so much notice, as a chefd^txttwt 
of painting, it so ricUy deserves t we cannot avoid con* 
sideling it the best ex^uted of all the various woriis of 
this master. The figure? have all the fr^hness and vi« 
gour of life, and are standing out, as it were, with lAwe, 
Srotik the canvass, overwhelmed with the sublimity of tlie 
snljeet and the light. 

li^o. 124, ii the first picture painted byMr. West when 
a child; and No. 1S5^ <Boys and Grapes,) the last ^ and, 
as the Jirst and last painted of his pictures, are, and always 
will be, considered ciiiiosities ; but they do not demand 
any other particular remark, 

Mr. West must always be considered one of the first, 
if not the very first, of our historical painters ; but, al- 
though we say this, we are also obliged to say, that we. 
think many of his sulrjects by np means happily chosen. 

Dennises Plan Jbr the ImproDement of the Merchant Sea 


In our second volume we noticed the plan proposed by 
Mr. Dennis ; since which time a fou/th edition of the 
prospectus has been in circulation, and, as we are in- 
formed, seven hundred and forty-five names subscribed, 
from among whom a committee of management is to be 
ajppoipted immediately for carrying the plan into execu- 
tion. TI|e great advantages which would accrue from 
stich an arrangement of the merchant sea service are 
self-evident, and have our best wishes ; but its policy in 
general is a subject which does not fell within our limits. 
One fepiture, however, we may notice, vi^* that of limit- 
ing the command of vessels to persons of scientific know- 

In traversing the ocean a variety of singular pheno- 

VOL. IV. D d 

SlO Polj/technic and Scientific JnlelUgence* 

Tnena occasionally present themselvesi^ of whicl^ wen^yfsr 
hear ; or, if told by the seamen, are generally so mucli^ 
invested with the marvellous, as to fui^ish no datarfinr 
the philosopher. The map of science observes with Af- 
ferent eyes; and is,, above all, careful of being iQialed 
by appearances. If such men were the officera of <oar 
merchant ships, much valuable information and = man; 
iasulf^ted fiicts would be constantly npted^ and thus 
greatly contribute to our mass of knowledge, 


' On the Composition of Verdisms. 

It appears, by the experiments detailed in the Annals 
of Philosopht/ by Mr. R. Phillips, that crystallized 
verdigris, improperly called distilled verdigris, consists 
of two atoms of acetic acid, one of peroxide of coppex^ 
and three of water ; or, in other words, of one atom of 
binaeetate of copper combined with three atoms of water 
of crystallization . 

On a careful examination of common verdigrt9y Mr. 
Phillips found that it contains small crystals,,, which, 
instead of being distinctjly formed, and of a green colour^ 
as is the case with the binaeetate, are acicular, of a light 
blue colour, and silky lustre. 

In the state in which this compound is usually met 
with, it is very difficult, on account of its extreme com- 
pactness, to determine whether it consists principally of. 
these blue crystals, or whether they are merely mixed 
with some other acetate or hydrate of copper. 

Having obtained some of the crystals of common verdi- 
gris from Mr. Badams, of Birmingham, (a manufacturer 
of l^oth kinds df verdigris,) which had not been subjected 
to pressure by being put into bags, Mr. Phillips found 
that, although these blue crystals appeared to be un« 

On the Composition of Verdigris » . SU 

lyroken, their size was too minute to allow of their form 
being determitied ; they are unalterable by exposure to 
air^ and so very'light'that 100 grains, when not pressed 
together^ oicciipy the space of an oimce of water. When 
a smairquantity of water is added to these crystals, thcry 
absorb it, precisely as common verdigris does. To deV 
terihine the action of a large quantity of wat^, 100 
grains of ther crystals wfere put into a pint of it, and after 
occasionally agitating the mixture, the clear solution was 
poured off. To the insoluble residuum half a pint of 
water was added ; it gradually became brown, and at 
the expiration of three days it had the appearance ^f 
being completely decomposed. It appears, then, that 
the blue crystals are separable by water into a solable 
acetate, and one which is insoluble ; and that the latte^ 
is decomposed even by cold water. , , 

According to Dr. Thomson's latest experiments, the 
number representing hydrogen being 1^ that of acetic 
acid is 50, and carbonate of lime being also 50, the 
quantity obtained in Mr. Phillips's experiments will 
indicate that of the acetic acid in 100 parts of the blue 
crystals, or 28*3 per cent. ; whichy being added to 43-25 of 
peroxide of copper, will give, as the composition of the$e 

Acetic acid — 28-30 

Peroxide of copper ------ 43 '§5, leaving for 

Water — - 2848 


The effect? of water upon the blue crystals pif verdigris 
have b^n stated above, but they require more particular 
notice. When a small quantity of water was added to 
100 grains of the crystal, the whole became a pulpy 


:)9iS Piilgtcchnie and Scientific InMligence. 

jaims. When th? water w^ itiicreased Co a pint, a blue 
^solution was obtained, and a greenish precipitate thrown 
down. Tfa^ blue solution consisted of binacetate of 
;€opper, and the green precipitate of subacetate, compose^ 
of one atom of acid and two atoms of oxide* It ss, 
.therefore, evident that, in addition to the acetate and 
binacetate of copper already described, there exists a 
subacetate^ composed of 

One atom of acetic acid — .«------ 60 

Two atoms of peroude of copper 80 X Sj 1^ 


The composition of French verdigris Mr. Phillips has 
ascertained to be as follows : 

Acetic acid — ...... ... S9*3 

Peroxide of copper — 43*5 

Water 25-2 

Insoluble matter -...».... — 2*0 



That this is the true composition of commcm verdigris, 
and that it is essentially composed of the crystals already 
described, is furdier proved by having subjected the ver- 
digris of Mr. Badhan^, in its compressed state, to a 
similar examination. This was found to consist of 

Acetic acid ..---— .^.i 29*62 

Peroxide of copper .- — . — 44 -25 

Water 25-51 

Insoluble matter - -62 


Inslrwnentfor P^emming CampressioH df Water. SIS 

r The action of watj^v upon* both these speoim^iB of 
.yerdigris is |)erfeetly similar to that upon the Uae cry»- 
iab of ^icetate of copper ; indeed, firom the following v 
comparative statemeait, it will appear, except ift con^ 
teining less water, occasioned by artificial drying, that, 
.when deprived of insoluble matter, tl^ thrde substances 
resemble each other as perfectly as could be expected. 

Verdigris by 
Bltfe Crystals. FrenchVerdigris* Tyrrel and 


Acetic Acid - 28-30 29-3 29-62 

Peroxide of copper 43«25' 43*5 44*25 

Water ^ 28-4& 25-2 25*51 

Impurities —- ^ 00 20 0.62 

10000 100 100-00 

We congratulate our countrymen and the arts that the 
manufacture of verdigris has at length arrived at such 
perfection in this country. 

Instrument for measuring the Compression of Water ^ 

Professor Oersted uses a very simple instrument for 
measuring the compression of water. He fills a cylinder 
of glass with water, which has been deprived of its air ; 
the cylinder has, on its upper end, an air-tight cover of 
brass, through which a screw passes, with a small por- 
tion of brass on its lower end, which {uresses on the 
water. In the cylinder is a thermometer tube, filled 
with the same water as the cylinder, and having, on its 
upper open end, a small column of mercury, which, the 
tube being very narrow, remains there without sinking 
into the bulb. The water being pressed in the cylinder 
by screwing down the piston, this pressure will act equally 

S14 , Poli/technic and Scientific InlelUgence^ 

powerful on the open end of the tube, as on the outside 
of the liiilb ; so that, the pressure being equal on the iri^ 
terior aiid on the* exterior side of the glass bulb; nieithei* 
expansion nor contraction 4)f its walls can take place; 
the state of the mercury above the watcir in the glass tube 
will therefore immediately ifidicate the comprei^sionf/ 
The capacity of the bulb aiid the ttibe may be previously 
ascertained, by weighing the mercury which they were 
able to hold, • The pressure exefted by the screw on 
the Vater, was measured by another tube, filled with air^ 
likewi&l^ inclosed in the cylinder. , Thus the result^ that 
the compressibility of water diminishes very quickly with 
the increase of pressure ; and the meap compressibility^ 

at a pressure of S to 4 atmospheres, is iq/wv)q for each 

atmosphere; which agrees pretty well with the experi- 
ments of Canton. . 


W£ mentioned, in our third volume, p. 15§, that a 
steam carriage was constructing, for the conveyance of 
goods and passengers ; and we see, in the last Monthly 
Magazine^ an account of Mr. Griffith's Patent Steam 
Carriage, which, of course^ we shall more particularly 
notice, under the head of Recent Patents. In the mean 
time, as we" have not yet seen this carriage in operation^ 
we must merely content ourselves with calling the public 
attention to the fact of such a patent having been ob- . 
tained, without passing any judgment on the merits of 
the invention. 

 * . . \ . 

Poisoning by Opium. 

 * - 

It appears, by an extract from the minutes of the ^ 

Hawkinses Anchor.--^ Andy sis of Hops. 216 

liondon Medical Society, that many individuals, suSTer- 
ing uiider the influence of opium, have Iieen roused frpqi 
the stupor, by dashing,: suddenly and repeatedly, upon^ 
the head, basins-full of cold water. . The patients were, 
by these means, enabled to .swallow emetics ; and thus- 
the poison was removed from the stomach. 

Hawkins'* s Anchor. 

It gives us great pleasure to be able to speak, from 
expeipipient, of the usefulness of anj invention which may 
have passed under our notice. We extract the follow- 
ing quotation from a letter of Capt. Payton, of the ship 
Pilot ^ to his owners, Messrs. T. Daniels and Son^ 

Dated off Ltmdy Island, Ang. 8, 1822. 

^^ After leaving Cumberland Bason, we anchored be- 
tween Scilly Island and the Wolves Stoney Bottom (hard 
ground,) and your ship was brought up with «ase^ the 
anchor taking hold immediately, and held, during that 
tide^ with a smart breeze from W. N. W. and a flood tide 
running at the rate of Jhe knots. May I ever have such 
an anchor, when my ship, and the lives of my' crew, are 
depending on it!" • ^ 

■' The anchor is upon trial in-his Majesty's service, and 
we have seen a most &vourable testimony of approbation 
from the officers on board, but are not at liberty to recite 
names and particulars at present. 

Analysis of Hops. . 

M. M. PaIten and Chevalier have recently made 
some experiments, in order to an analysis of the hop ; 


21(i Po/j/lechmc and Scieniyic InleUigence. 

the three active ingredients of which, it appears, comls^ 
of an esaential oil, which Dr. Ives (see our second vo- 
lume, p. 141) could not detect; a resin, and the bitter 
principle which resides in the brilliant yellow grains scat- 
tered over the calicinal scales of the cones, which serve 
as a lliin envelope. These grains are called by Dr. Ivea, 
lupvlin: 300 grammes of this substance being put into a 
retort with 300 grammes of distilled water, the mixture 
was subjected to distillation, and afforded water and oil 
of an odour entirely similar to that of tliis yellow matter, 
but much more penetrating, narcotic, and very acid in 
the throat. It was not easy to determine the weight of 
this essential oil, although it was in considerable quan- 
tity, because it is very volatile, soluble in a great mea- 
sure in water, and adhering to the sides of the globular 
receiver. However, upon the most accurate estimate, 
tlie total amount of the oil was four granlmes, or two per 
cent, of tlie yellow matter employed ; and, as this yellow 
matter is contained in the hop in the proportion of ^'^jth, 
it follows, that the hop contains about O'O02 of essential 
oil. The water over which the oil floated, had the same 
flavour as the oil itself, but less strong. After drawing 
it off, and leaving it for a few days, it became alkaline, 
and its acrimony disappeared. They found that the 
alkaline propeiiiea were owing to subacetate of ammonia. 
The following are the ingredients, which they extracted 
from the 200 grammes of this yellow substance : — water; 
essential oil; carbonic acid; subacetate of ammonia; 
traces of osmazome; traces of fatty matter; gum; malic 
acid ; nitrate of lime ; bitter matter, S5 grammes ; a well 
characterized resin, 105 grammes; silica; traces of car- 
bonate, muriate, and sulphate of potash ; carbonate and 
pho!?phate of lime ; oxide of iron ; and traces of sul> 


\ Extnbition df Paintings at Paris. 2IT . 

The prospectus of a new work has been circulated at 
Paris, entitled Annates deF Industrie Nationaleet Etran^ 
g^re, ou Mecufb Technologique. These annals will be 
divided into two parts ; one to contain a description of 
the collection of the productionof French industry, ex« 
hibited at the Louvre in 1819, and a comparison of them 
with the works of foreigners ; and the opinions of the 
neighbouring nations on the productions of French in- 
dustry. Not only will the articles be analyzed and e^u- 
merated, but it is designed to lay open the means em- 
ployed in their fabrication, devoid of technical language, 
so that they may be universally coinprehended. The 
second part of the publication will contain memoirs on 
arts and measures, manufactures, commerce, agriculture, 
and every branch of human industry ; together with ac- 
counts of machinery, &c. Five or six plates are to be 
given in each number; of the merit and usefulness of 
which, to the public, no doubt can be entertained. To 
such an undertaking, if cotiducted with spirit and talent, 
we cannot but wish every possible success. 

Exhibition of Paintings ^ 8fc. 

The Exhibition of Paintingis, &c. this year contained 
1715 articles.; of which 1372 were landscapes^ portraits, 
&c.; 158 statues, busts, and bas-reliefi ; 171 engravings 
and designs ; 14 plans and architectural models. The 
minister of the royal household ordered fifty paintings, 
twelve statues or bas-reliefs, and three engravings ; the 
Duke of Orleans, two ; the minister of the interior, 
eighteen paintings, nineteen statues or busts, and two 
models ; the prefect of the Seine, twelve paintings, and 
AsL statues. 

The king of France has given 150,000 iranct for the 
zodiac of Denderah. Before its proprietors parted with 

VOL. IV. E e 

1^8 . Polytechnic iand Scientific IhteJtigence. 

ik^ tliey engaged 'M. Gau to make correct drawings 'of 
all the figiir^g that are yet discernible on the stone, 
FVoni these drawings an j^ngraving is to be executed^ 
which ^illaSbrd a-^thfttl index of the astronomical 
isighs of the ancient Egyptians. 


_ A, M. Malapeau has obtained a patent for a lithogra- 
phic process^ by means of which oil paintings may be 
printed off; since which numerous applications of the 
process have been made, all of which have, it is said, 
perfectly succeeded. 


Prussic Acid. 

« A SERIES of experiments has been made, by a com* 
pany of associated physicians, sufgeoiis^ and naturalists, 
at Florence, to determine the best state of the hydro- 
cyanic, or pfussic acid, for medicinal purposes. The 
«xperimepts were^ made oii rabbits, and these scientific 
.geipitlemen draw the following conclusions : — That the 
^es^pntial oil of the prunus lauro-cerasusis to be preferred, 
.in medical practice, to all other preparations which con- 
tain hydro-cyanic acid : for, unlike the distilled water of 
tl^pla^.t, and pure prussic acid, it contains the same 
power, whether recently prepared or old, whether made 
;in one place or another, after exposure to the air, to 
Jight, or to heat. That the oil of olives, or of almond^, 
is the most proper vehicle, in the proportion of an ounce 
Ap twelve drops of the essence, or in a smaller dose, when 
.employed by friction externally. 

Machincrjf for preparing. Dough. . 219 

• . » •• -  •■ 


Machinery/ fir preparing Dough. 

. A machine has been lately introduced at Lausanne for 
the fermentation of the dough for bread, conaiift^ii^g siitic- 
jply of a deal box, one foot in breadth and height, bbd 
two in length. It has supports, on which it is tUtiied by 
a handle like the cylinder used for roa3ting coffee. 
Oi^e side of the box opens with a hinge to admit the 
dough. The time requisite to produce the fermentation 
depends on the temperature of the air, the quickness of 
the turning, and other circumstances. But when the 
operation is performed it is known by the shrill hissing of 
the air making its escape, which generally happens in 
half an hour. The dough by these means is always 
well raised. The labour is slight ; for such a machine 
as here described may be turnetl by a child. No hooks, 
points, cross-bars, nor any other contri^Yance, is wanted 
within the box to break or separate the mass of doughy 
this operation being sufficiently effected by the adhesion 
of ^he dough to the sides of the box. 

One advantage amongst others in this^ process of fer- 
mentation is its cleanliness. We are not, however, told 
whether the flour be mixed only with water in this ope- 
ration, or whether yeast be added to it: if without 
yeas^ this must be, on many accounts, advantagieous 
and deserving of attentive consideration, as an econo- 
mical process. The mode of mixing the flour with the 

water is not stated. Is all the flour added at once to the 


water ; or is a thin pap or paste first made and agita.te4 
in the box, which we suppose it should be, till the fer- 
mentation is excited, and afterwards more flour added? 

2S0 Poljfiechnic and Scientific IrUeUijgehce, 


Tke Academy of Arts and Sciences at Boston has 
published a series of observations, of great interest, in 
Meteorology. They are the results of thirty-three years, 
made from 1786 to 1818, at Salem, iil Massachusets ; by 
ivhich the difference of the temperature of the old and 
new world is ascertained. 

Lat. Mean temp. 

Old world Rome ikV 53'-— 60* 44' 

New world - Salem '42 33 48 6S 

* . 

Difference - 11^ 36' 

' Russian Voyage of Disccroery. 

Lieut. Chramtschenko discovered, . on .his voyage 
in 1821, a small uninhabited island in 59 « 28' 28" N. lat. ; 
and 164* 66' Sf Ion. from Greenwich. Capt. Wassi- 
liiEU, of the ship Discoroeri/^ has also discovered, in 
60« 59' 57'' N. lat. ; tod 193^ 17' ^2' Ion. from Greenwich, 
(it is not stated whether east or west,) an inhabited, and 
hitherto unknown, island, forty Italian miles in length. 
It may be presumed, that the inhabitants are the same 
race as the Aleutians; for Capt. W. conversed with them 
by the Aleutian Interpreter on-board. The natives call 
the island, Nuniweh; Capt. W. called it Discovery* 
Capt. W.' sailed, on the first of February, in the preced- 
ing year, from the harbour of San Francisco, and had 
reached 71° 7' N. latitude ; that is, nineteen minutes far- 
ther than Cook. He kept constantly along the north- 
west coast of America, and discovered two capes ; to 
which he gave the names of the celebrated navigators, 
Golownin and Ricord. 


KeiD l^attntisf HtAiti in 1822. 

To Jonas Hobson, and John Hobson, of Mythom 
Bridge, Kirkburton, Yorkshire, woollen manu&cturers 
and merchants^ for a new series of machinery for the 
better^ more effectual, and expeditious mode of shearing, 

cutting, and finishing woollen cloths, kerseymeres, and 


all other descriptions of cloths and piece goods, which 
require the use of the shears. — Sealed July 27th.-— 
2 months for Inrolment. 

To Robert Benton Roxby, of Arbour-square, Step- 
ney, Middlesex, gent., for certain improvements on, or 
additions to, the astronomical instrument, known by the 
name of the Quadrant. — Sealed JulySlst. — 2 months for 

To William Cleland, of Glasgow, North Britain, 
gent., for an improved apparatus for the purpose of eva- 
porating liquids.-r-Sealed August 17th.— 4 months for 

To Robert Vazie, of Chasewater Mine, in the parish 
of Kenwyn, in the county of Cornwall, civil engineer, 
for an improvement in the compounding of different spe- 
cies of metals. — Sealed September 3d.— 6 months for 

To Henry Burgess, of Miles-lane, Cannon-street,- in 
the city of London, merchant, for certain improvements 
on wheeled carriages. — SealedSeptember3d. — 6 months 
for Inrolment. 

To William Goodman, of the city of Coventry, and 
the borough of Warwick, hatter, for certain improve- 
ments in looms. — Sealed September 27th. — 6 months for 

To Benjamin Boothby, of the Iron Works, Chester- 
field, in the county of Derby, iron-master, for an im- 
proved method of manufiicturing cannon-shot, by wbiefc 
a superior shot is produced in the solidity and wumik^ 

922 New Patents sealed in 1822. 

ness of its external sur&ce. — -Sealed September 27th. — - 
3 months for Inrolinent. 

. To Thomas Timothy JSeningfield, of High-street, 
Whitechapel^ in the county of Middlesex, tobacco-manii-* 
factur^r, and Joshua Taylor Beale, of Christian-street, 
St. George's in the East, cabinet-maker, for certain im.- 
provements in steam-engines. — Sealed September 27tlu " 
r^~^6 months for Inrolment. ' 

To John Bourdieu, of Lime-street, in the city of Lon- 
don, Esq., for a communication, from a certain foreigner, 
residing abroad, of a method or means of improving^ the 
preparation of coloiirsfor printing wove cloths.-— Sealed 
September 27th. — 4 months for Inrolment. 

To John Dowell Moxon, of Liverpool, in the county 
of Lancaster, merchant and ship-owner, and James Fra- 
ser, : of King-street, Commercial-road, in the c6unty of 
Middlesex, engineer, for certain improvements in ships' 
cabooses, or liearths ; and also for apparatus to be occa- 
sionally connected therewith, for the purposes qf evapo- 
rating and condensing water.--Sealed September 27th. 
-^ months for Inrolment. > 

To Frederick Louis Fatton, of New Bond-Street, in the 
county of Middlesex, watch-maker, for certain improve- 
ments on, or additions to, watches or chronometers in 
fgeneral, whereby they may be rendered capable of mark- 
ing or indicating the precise moment of any desired ob- 
servation, or rapid succession of observations, and with- 
out the necessity of stopping the regular movement of 
the watch, as in ordinary stop-watches. — Sealed Septem- 
ber 27th. — 2 months for Inrolment. 

To Samuel Pratt, of Bond-street, in the county of 
Middlesex, trunk and camp-equipage manufacturer, for 
certain improved straps or bands, to be usHed for securing 
luggage upon chaises or coaches, or for securing pro- 
perty (geneir ally) when placed in exposed situations;-^ 
Sealed September 27th. -r-C months for Inrolment.; 

CELESTIAL PHENOMENA, September, 1892. 

O IS 17 Tt'sSdSBt.eclipMd. 

5 n C '■< Perigee. 

3 9 KG 57 %'l M Sat. eclipied. 

3 11 36 17 V-'* 3i) Sar. will emerge 

from idphadaw. 

4 IS 56 <[ in conj. with % , long. 

3* 6° 13'. Djff.ofdec. 

5" 32". 4J5" brv. % 

SO" 35' N. 
'5 11 47 { incoDJ. with/StJ long. 
ViO-itf. Dif. ofdec. 
I'lS". |IS7"H'N B 

V «8° tru. 

6 15 S6 V'a litSat.eclipsed. 

7 3 56 ll in qitadrature enleriog 

the la'^t qnarter. 

8 10 34 13 ^'^ 4(t 9aL eclipied. 
8 IS 55 It V'a Sd Sat. eclipaed. 

10 9 IS (incoiu.Trilh<iO,1oiig. 
4'27=28', Diff.ofdec. 
H tl« td" N. 

10 13 36 to V" 3d Sat. eclipied. 

V'B 3d Sat. eclipi 
10 15 36 45 V*! Sd Sat. will emerge 

IVom its iliadow. 

If at his greatest elongaf. 

1 11 q[ IP COM. with 2 , long. 
6' t9 (?. Uiff. of dec. 
4'" 40" 44" 4' N. 5 

oogff N. 
13 46 Ecliptic conjanctiou, oi 
^ New Moon. 
N.B. All the above calculations 
The waxing Mooil, Jl' 

V'a IbI. Sal. pclipied, 
U-'aSri Sat. eclipied. 
Ilin coaj. with O, lonff. 
rM7''54'. Diff.ofdec, 
^'ff. B 31- SB'S. 8 
17 IT 36 35 lCB3dSat-eclip8ed. 
17 tS 15 j in conj. with g long. 
S'i'-SS'. Diff.ofdec. 

3" 53'. jas'^irs. J 
SI* la's. 

Dincoi^. with sTIl,. long; 
8'7°ai'. Diff.ofdec. 
1'. J 86" 3' S. • m 


5 in Apogee. 

32 1* 11 53 It's 1st Sal. eclip6*i 

SS e 3 P Firnt Qoaner. 

It 18 9 59 3('a 2d Sat. ecllpred. 

23 11 38 O enters TSJ. 

14 V>latian,luDg.7>S0°9l/, 

Si 8 40 SI V-'i Ist Sat. eclipsed. 

36 7 t8 8 viiSdSaL eclipsed. 

3!) 16 5 45 It's 1st Sat. eclipsed. 

49 31 S7 Ecliptic opposition. Q " 

39 3t 31 

Fall n 
tf in conj. with ^ , long.' 

I'T'itf. Diff.ofdec. 

7" 34'. ( 18° 36" N. 

h 11° If N. 
O '■< o))position to %i , 
(fin conj. with jf, long. 

Diff. of dee. 
3" Iff a*3»ia'N. u 

30° 5' N. 
31 lU 34 17 It's IstSat ectipwd. - 
e made to Mean or Clock Time. 
.|he waning Mood, { , 





Knin 1 'iiiprmo. 1 Barometer. 


hV^i". i«w. 




'|H[nt.|Lrjw.| + 











46^' +,0S 









42 1 +.04 




+ ,04 

— ,oa 



39 +.01 









+ ,01 

— ,19 















— ,os 









+ ,07 






+ ,04 



+ ,06 



















+ ,0l 















43 ' +.01 

.52 1 ...- 



68] 4.1 1 •■-• 













No. XXIIi 

To Joseph Wass, of Lea Wharf ^ Ash&oer^ in the Qmniy 
of Derby ^ for an Impracement which prevents the Hi 
Effects toVegetaiive and Animal Life that have hitherto 
been occasioned btf the noxious Fumes and Particles 
which arise from smelting or calcining Lead Ore and 
other pernicious Minerals. - 

This improvement consists in a new mode of venti- 
lating the flues and chimneys of furnaces employed in the 
smelting and calcining of lead ores, and also in a mode 
of arresting the heavy particles of matter usually emitted 
in this process, which, when allowed to pass into the atmos- 
phere, are found extremely noxious and injurious to ani- 
mal and vegetable life. By this contrivance these heavy 
particles are precipitated and depoftited below, while the 
lighter, or mere vapour is conducted into the atmosphere 
at a sufficient height, and under such circumstances, as 

VOL. IV. Gg 

286 Recent Patents. 

will cause it to rise and mix with the air, so as to pro- 
duce no deleterious effects. 

These objects, it is stated, will be fully accomplished 
by a contrivance similar to thkt shewn at Plate XI. 
Fig. 1 is a plan, or horizontal section, of a building, 
wherein four smelting furnaces, a, a, a, a, are erected. 
In the centre of the building the horizontal flues, from 
the several furnaces, are intended to meet and pass into 
a circular tower. Fig. 2 is a vertical section of the 
tower, taken through the middle, and in which two of 
the smelting furnaces are shewn, with their flues passing 
into the tower. In the construction of the furnaces them- 
selves no improvement is claimed ; but the combining of 
several together in the manner shewn is considered tabe 

a^ Uj are the external walls of the tower, which must 
be lofty and capacious; its suitable dimensions depending 
upon the nilmberbf furnaces and flues intended to be 
connected thereto. When the flues of four furnaces 
lead into the tower, as shewn at fig. 1, its internal 
diameter may be about thirteen feet, and its height 
(commencing at . the top of the ordinary chimney, 
at about thirty-six feet from the ground,) not less than 
twenty-four feet ; but its being higher would answer 
better. The flues passing from the furnaces may dis- 
charge themselves into the central passages of the 
chimney at any desired height, as shewn by the dotted 

It is found that smelting furnaces in general consume 
the greater part of their smoke, (except at the first igniting, 
before the furnace has arrived at a smelting heat) ; but, 
from the powerfyl draught, many of the noxious and 
pernicious particles pass through the flues, and escape 
into the air. To prevent this, the cap, 6, is suspended 

Wass^Sy for ImprMemetds in Smelting Furnaces^ 8S9[ 

oveyr the throat o£ thefchtmney, Cy by which the greatei 
part of the heavy particles of the effluvia are impeded, in 
tiieir progress^, and prevented from passmg up the tower. 
The cap, 6^ thus restraining the free progress of the va<» 
pour from tl^ flues, enables the flames from the furnaces 
to act with increased ^ect upon it in tfa^ dumney below 
the cap, by which the carbcmaceous matter becomes more 
completely consumed, and the metallic particles preci- 
pitated, d, dy is called the lodge floor, upon which such 
eS the heavy particles deposit themselves as do not fidl 
down to the bottom of the tower. The cap, 6, is sus* 
pended by a perpendicular rod, e, which passes up the 
centre of the tower. This rod is supported by a sort of 
stirrup-iron, j^ attached to a cross beam, g, fixed into 
the walls of the tower. At the upper end of the 
rod, 6, there is a screw nut for adjusting the height 
of the cap, b ; above the throat of the chimney, Cy 
and A, A, are three, or more, upright standards passing 
through mcNTtice holes in the cap, upon which, by meana 
of bolts or pins, it is supported^ The cap havings by 
these means, become a fixture, in order to regulate the 
width of the opening or passages between it and the 
throat of the chimney,'a broad ring or hoop, i, is attached 
to the cap, which is made capable of being raised or 
lowered by screws, so as to construct the passage to any 
desired dimensions. 

' The lighter particles of the vapour, which pass through 
this opening from the flues, ^cend into the upper part of 
the tower, the top of which is covered by a flat roof, 
which assists in driving back any of the smoke or dense 
vapour that may liave jUassed the cap> and also excludes 
the rain, hail, or snow, from the chimney. Through this 
roof, the shaft, Ar, of a vane passes, its pivot resting upon the 

228 Recent Patents. 

croBs beam, g. A number of openings or vent-holes, t, /, /, 
ore made through the walls of the tower, at its upper part, 
for the purpose of allowing the vapour to escape from the 
inside, and to exclude the wind, which would otherwise 
drive back the smoke into the flues, and obstruct the free 
passage of the vapour into the atmosphere : all the holes 
on the side of the tower on which the wind Mows ace kept 
continually closed by a semicircular shutter, m. This 
shutter is supported by arms attached to the shaft, ft ; on 
the top of the shal\, on the outside of the lower, is affixed 
the vane, n, which, being acted upon by the wind, swings 
aa the wind changes, and turns the shaft round, carrying 
with it the semicircular shutter ; by which contrivance, 
from whatever point the wind blows, the vent-holes, on 
that side of the tower next the wind, become closed by 
the shutter ; and, the holes on the other side being unob- 
structed, the vapour from the smoke and steam, which is 
lighter than the common atmospheric air, will then escape, 
leaving the grosser and more pernicious particles depo- 
sited either in the chimney below or on the lodge tloor, 
as above described. 

Beside preventing the nuisance occasioned by smelting 
furnaces of the old construction to the neighbourhood in 
which they may be erected, the heavy particles, thus re- 
tained, are said, bythe patentee, to be extremely valuable; 
from which circumstance, when the deposition has sufli< 
ciently accumulated, it is to be removed from the lodge 
floor, and carried to a roasting furnace. This is done 
at a time when the smelting furnaces are not at work, by 
a man entering the chimney at the door below, and pass- 
ing up the winding staircase seen in the plan, fig. 1, which 
conducts to the lodge floor above ; where, by a shovel, 
the depofiited matter is thrown down the well of the 
chimney, and thence drawn off" by barrows to be roasted. 


Wass'Sffor Improvements in Smelting Furnaces. S29 

The flues of the furnaces must be supplied each with a 
damper or shutter, as shewn at o, o, fig. 2, in order to 

>ahut offita communication with the chimney when, at any 
time, the furnace shall be unemployed. 
" By the employment of this improved apparatus, 
smelting and calcining furnaces are divested of their per- ^h 
nicious eSects, and such works may, in future, be erected ^^M 
in any convenient situation, either near to dwelling houses, ^KL 
or by the side of public roads, or on the banks of navigable 
rivers or canals ; and thus, in many cases, produce a very 
great economy in the expense of carriage. The saving 

t effected by this apparatus in preserving a quantity of 
valuable matter, which would otherwise, as heretofore, 
escape, to the injury of the neighbourhood, would of 
itself amount in one year, where four furnaces are em-' 
ployed, as described in the plan, to a sum equal to the 
entire cost of the improved apparatus : that is, the upper 
part of the tower, with its roof, cap, vane, shutter, and 

Among other advantages arising out of this plan of 
combining several furnaces, the patentee purposes a 
saving of expense in the production of sheet-lead and 
pigs, which is to be effected by making the tapping sides 
of the furnaces opposite to each other, so that, when 
required, the hot lead from the cast-iron pans of both 
furnaces may be run into pigs, or conveyed into one 
receiver, and thence into a mould, so as to be formed into 
thick sheets, ready for milling or rolling. By these means 
a great saving of labour and expense will be obtained, 
and the trouble and waste of re-melting the lead avoided. 
Further, the smelting work, when arranged as in the plan 
proposed, will be perfectly healthy and convenient to 
the workmen: the spaces between the angles of the 
several flues, which meet in the lower part of the tower, 


SaO Reeeta PaU$Ut, 

may ha UfitefuUy occupied by small furnaces for tests and 

The specification concludes by saying ^^I have^forthe 
better understanding of my improvement, deEknibed many 
parts (as the furnaces) which are not new ; but I wish it 
to beclearly understood that my invention consists simply 
of the apparatus described as placed above the ordinary 
chimney of the smelting furnace ; which apparatus I 
believe to be perfectly new, as applied to that object^ 
and therefcnre claim, under this my patent, the sole and 
exclusive right of employing the same." 

Inrolkd, October^ IS22. 

To PiERBB Ehard, of Great Marlborough Street^, 
London^ for cei'fain Imprcroements on Piano^fortes and 
other ket/ed Musical Instruments; being Communica^ 
tions from a Foreigner* 


Thes^ improvements consist of several variations 
from the ordinary construction of a piano">forte^ the first 
of which is called '' a new and improved application of 
piechanism for that species of action known under the 
denomination of the escapement. < Common {>iano-fortes, 
without an escapement in their action, or where the 
stic]Ler, or riser, (this being the nafne applied to that 
piece of wood or metal which communicates the motion 
from the key, when pressed, to the hammer that strikes 
the wire,) is immoveable, possess the advantage of a great 
flexibility to the tou^h ; but, on the other hand, they 
are defective, on account of the liability of the hammer to 
rebound or fly up to the string after it has struck it, which 
prevents its free vibration, and is often destructive of its 

Erard\Sj for Impfccfoemenis in Piano'fortesj Sfc» 331 

tone* In order to remedy si»^h defect, an escapemetit 
has be^i contrived and used in the sticker to let the 
hammer fall away fiN>m the stringy after it has struck it ; 
but the advantage which such escaping sticker, or riser, 
has over that whidi is without escapement, renders the . 
performer subject to a very great inconvenience ; namely, 
that of being always obliged to raise up the finger, so that 
the key may rise to the level of die other keys before it 
will speak or repeat its note again.: for without such 
elevation of the key, the sticker cannot get again ^under 
the hammer to repeat its action/' 

These difficulties are proposed to be obviated by the 
present invention, which embraces four objects connected 
with the action of the key. The first of these is ^^ the ap- 
plication of a spring for the purpose of supporting the 
weight of the hammer after it has made its blow, and has 
escaped from its suppcni; upon the sticker. The second 
is a contact which is brought about between the hammer, 
near the centre upon which it moves, apd the spring or 
lever, connected and supported by sucjb spring, in order to 
prepare the fell of the hammer when its escapement 
takes place. The third is a lever, which, by moving on 
its centre, eflects the escapement of the sticker from 
under the hammer. The fourth is a piece so contrived, 
with an adjusting screw, as to catch the hammer in its 
fall, and to stop or hold it as long as the key is .kept 
entirely down, so as to prevent the possibility of its 
rebounding to the wires again, while it releases it by 
the smallest rise of the finger end of the key." 

Plate XIII. fig. 1, exhibits the arrangement of the 
mechanism of one key of a piano-forte upon the improved 
plan; the key being, in this figure, at rest. Pig, g 
represents the same parts in action ; that is, the key being 
depressed, and the hammer thrown up, the respective 


232 Hccent PatenU. 

letters refemng to the same parts in both figures { a, n 
the key ; b, is the hammer to which motion is communi- 
cated from an intermediate lever, c, by means of the 
piece, (/, called the sticker, which moves upon a joint 
at bottom. A staple at e is fixed under the tail of the 
hammer, and the hammer is also supported by a spring 
connected to the piece, f, with a screw to regulate its 
tension. The sticker, acting against the tail of the ham- 
mer, raises it every time the key is depressed, as shown 
at fig. 3, and, by that means, causes it to strike the string. 
While this operation is performing, the extremity of the 
lever, f, conies in contact with the tail of the hammer, 
very near its pivot ; and, in consequence, the hammer, 
having now more power to descend, falls, by its own 
weight, and forces down tbe piece, /, in opposition to 
the spring. In that situatioh the spring has no power 
or eOect upon the hammer, which is supported by the 
sticker resting against it. The projecting tail, g, of 
the sticker now cornea in contact with the adjustable stop, 
A, and, by pressing against which, is forced down, and the 
sticker is made to escape from under the staple. At the 
same moment, the hammer falls past the wedge-formed 
point of the adjustable piece, i, which prevents it from 
flying up again to the string, and is there kept secure as 
long as the key remains down. 

Connected to the above mechanism is a newly con- 
trived damper, which possesses considerable advantage 
over those heretofore in use ; namely, that of stopping 
short the vibration of the wire, by means of a spring: 
k and I are two small levers, moving upon the same cen- 
tre, which are kept at a proper distance apart by a spring, 
and the small book, in. At the extremity of the lever, 
h, the rod, n, is attached, which carries the damper up 
to the string : «, is a rod affixed to the lever, c, and moving. 

, and movingj^^H 

Erard^Sj for Impro^nifints inJPiano'fortes, S^c. !?33 

If ith it, which sujqpiorts the damper.  When the key i^ 
depressed) the daipper cpmes down and allows the string 
to vibrate. To produce the forte with the pedal, or to 
taj^e off the damfiers from the strings, a piece, p, is in- 
troduced, which, by the ordinary contrivance of the 
pedal mochanism, is made to come do^n upon the levers, 
A:, and to depress the dampers : the small spring between 
the levers allows k to descend without disturbing the 
other parts of the mechanism. In order to admit of 
adjusting the position of the hammers under the strings, 
ai sliding piece, j, forms the hinge joint of the hammer, 
which is attached to the rail by a screw, so as to be capa- 
ble of adjustment. The centre of action of the, lever, c, 
is constructed with a similar work of adjustment. 

Fig. 3 represents two new modes of holding the strings 
ypon the bridge, which are used at one end instead of the 
common bridge near the rest pins, as r, fig. 1. These 
contrivances may be used for two, three, or more strings ; 
but for the large strings, the pulley, as r, is to be preferred. 

It is of great importance to prevent the case and sound- 
ing board of the instrument from being distorted, or drawn 
out of its original shape by the tension of the strings ; to 
prevent which the following contrivance is proposed : a, 
fig. 4, is one of a series of metal arches, which are em- 
ployed as stays to connect the rest-pin-block and the hin- 
der part, or framing of the instrument, at the place which 
is left for the hammer to come up to the strings* These 
arches are attached to the rest-pin-blocks, at one end, by 
a screw, b ; but, instead of the other ends of the arches 
being fixed upon a bar extending across the case as usual, 
they are mounted by plates which are screwed to a sort 
of comb-formed rails, c, with open spaces between each, 
which are fixed at their hinder parts to the case of the 
instrument. All these rails, c, rest upon the transverse 

VOIi. IV. • H h 

934 Hec^ni Patents. 


bar, df from which rise pieces, dr blocks, e, shewn id 
dots which intervene between the rails, c, and support 
the sounding board, jT; by these means the pieces are 
free from each other, neither the blocks nor the sound- 
ing board touching the rails, c,'and, hence, the tension of 
the string cannot strain the sounding board. 

Fig. 5 is a new sort of framing to be applied to the 
curved part of the caseof a piano-forte between the bridge, 
g*, and the case, h. It is composed of two pieces of wood, 
i, I, glued to each side of the sounding boatd, J^ and 
likewise to the case. A, by which the sounding board is 
allowed to vibrate freely. These are bound together near 
the bridge, g, by screws,^, with pipes which pass through 
apertures in the sounding board. 

Fig. 6 represents an additional stop to be moved by a 
pedal for producing a new effect in the tone and vibration 
of the instrument. This is contrived to act by a series of 
levers to be placed, at convenient distances from each 
other, upon the sounding board, in the space between the 
bridge, g, and the external case, k. Two of these 
levers, ky A:, are shewn moving upon centres, at /, /, 
their opposite ends pressing against the bridge, g, when 
acted upon by the pedals by means of the links or rods, 
nty m, m, thereto connected. These levers. When at 
rest, are retained in the position of the dotted lines, by 
means of springs or weights applied to any convenient 
part of the apparatus ; but when brought into action, 
their friction rollers press against the bridge, as shown ; 
but the effect to be produced thereby is not described in 
the specification. 

InroUedy June, 1822. 

ConwdVs^ for a purgative Vegetable Oil. 335 

To William Eugene Edward Conwell, late of 
Madrasy^ in the East Indiesp hut now of Ratcliffe 
Highwai/y Middlesex n for an Improvement in the Pre^ 
paration and Application of a certain purgative Vege* 
table OiL 

This cathartic is extracted from the Croton Tiglium 
Nuts^ which are to be carefully selected, rejecting those 
which are bad or decayed^ The nats ar^ to be boiled in 
clear water, and the kernels carefully denuded of their 
envelopes, still rejecting the bad or decayed parts : after 
which they are washed in lime water, and then bruised 
or ground. The bruised nuts are now to be enclosed in 
a hair cloth or other substance of an open texture, and 
placed in a clean vessel, which must be put into a hot 
bath, and thoroughly heated ; the envelope containing 
the croton seeds is to be operated upon by a press, and 
the oil expressed, which is afterwards filtered through 
paper, and preserved in bottles for use. 

This oil may be prepared by other processes, but the 
claim rests in ^'having directed the application of it to 
internal use.'* 

Inrolledf September^ 1822. 

If the reader will have the goodness to refer to our 
third volume, page 259, he will find an account of this 
*^ certain purgative vegetable oil." and the dose necessary 
to be taken. But why a patent should have been taken 
out for the preparation and application of this oil we 
really are at a loss to understand ; for neither itd prepa- 
ration nor internal adminbtration is new. ^' They yield 
upcm expression a considerable quantity of oil, impreg- 

936 Hecent Patents. 


nated more or less with the taste and the purgative qua- 
lity of the seeds : of the oil of the grana tiglia (eroton 
tiglium of Linnsus.) Geofiroy limits the dose to one 
grain, which is probably an error of the press for one 
dram. That of the Barbadoes nut is said to be taken in 
America in large quantities, and to purge without 
much inconvenience/' — Lems^s Materia Medica^ vol.ii. 
page 272. Edit. 1791. 

It appears that Geoflfroy was right in the dose. Surely 
after the lapse of time, during which this medicine has 
been in th^ materia medica, it is neither necessary nor 
proper that any one should come forward, on its re-intro- 
duction, with the right and pretensions of a patent. 
Geofiroy was a Parisian physician, and died in 1731. 

■- 1 


To Charles .Yardley, of Camberwell^ Surrey^ for 
a new Method of manufacturing Glue from Bonesy by 
means of Steam. 

The method proposed in this , patent for obtaining 
gelatine from bones, is, by the employment of steam at 
a high pressure, which is conveyed into a closed globular 
vessel, cpntaining a quantity of bones, by the action of 
the steam on which the gelatine is extracted, which is 
afterwards clarified, evaporated, and dried upon nets in 
the ordinary manner, so as to become the glue of com- 

Plate XII. fig. 1, represents that part of the appa- 
ratus which is the subject of the present patent : a, is a 
section of the globular viessel, or extractor, made of cast 
or wrought iron, or copper, but of considerable substance 
and strength ; which is suspended upon poles, b and <r, 


ISirdt^'f. Gitte ^paratiu. 











I -ryv ^r\w y.^^y^ J 

•'■'■Ik-'  • -^ "^ 



Yardiei/s^ for mamtfaduring Glue 8ST 

and thereby enabled to revolve. A, erne of the poles, is~ 
made hollow, through which the steam passes, by a pip^, 
from the boiler, d, is the cock, by which steam from 
the boiler is admitted to the extractor ; the pipe through 
which it passes being properly provided with regulating 
and safety valves, e, e, is a bent tube which conducts 
the steam from the pipe, 6, down below a grating or 
perforated bottom,/, /, at the lower part of the globular 
extractor, g*, is a stuffing box, by which the revolving 
pole, ft, is coupled to the stationary steam-pipe. 

A quantity of bones being collected, they are to be 
immersed in a pit, similar to a tan pit, filled with fresh 
water, and there allowed to remain for about twelve 
hours ; the water is then to be drawn ofi*, and the pit 
again filled with fresh water, which may be repeated 
several times, until the bones are perfectly firee from 
dirt. After this, a solution of lime is prepared, about 
one bushel to five hundred gallons of water, which is to 
, be poured into the pit, and the bones allowed to re- 
main therein for the space of about three days. The 
lime water may be then drawn off, and the bones, toeing 
well washed with clean water, are ready for use. 

The clarified bones are now introduced into the 
extractor, through the eliptical man-hole, k ; and when 
the vessel is filled, the eover of the man-hole is slipped 
in, and made fast by a screw-nut, which draws it up 
tight against the inner surface of the globular extractor, 
and the edges luted, so as to be perfectly air-tights 

The steam in the boiler, having been sufficiently Raised, 
is now to be admitted, by the cock, d^ into the extracif^, 
at a pressure equal to about fifteen pounds upon tlhe 
square inch: previously, however, to the steam beiig 
admitted, the air-cock, t, must be opened, in or^fir to 
allow the steam to blow through; but it must be closed as 


SS8 Hcceni Patents. 

soon aB the air is expelled. The steam now passing 
through the tube, e, is conducted to the lower part of the 
extractor, and thence rising through the grating,^ or 
perforated bottom, fy insinuates itself among the bones 
in the vessel, a, above. 

The bones having remained about an hour under the 
operation of the steam, a quantity of condensed liquid 
will have collected in the bottom of the extractor, which, 
when the steam is shut off, and the air-cock opened, may 
be drawn from the vessel by the cock, A:, into a tube or 
other convenient receptacle^ As soon as the condensed 
liquor is discharged, the steam is to be again introdu- 
ced into the extractor, as before, there to operate for 
another hour upon the same mass of bones, when a 
second portion of condensed liquor will be obtained, 
which must be drawn off, as above. 

The gelatinous matter having settled, and become 
cool, the grefise which has risen upon its surface must be 
carefully skimmed o^, when the two portions of the 
liquid are to be returned into the extractor, by means of 
a funnel introduced at the air-cock, t. The steam is 
now to be again introduced, and allowed to operate 
upon the extract of the bones for about an hour, in the 
coutse of which time the globular extractor is made to 
revolve slowly four or five times, by means of the winch, 
pinion, and toothed wheel, connected to the pole, c, and 
turned by manual labour. After this, the liquor is again 
drawn off, as before, and conducted into evaporating 
vessels, where the gelatinous -matter is, heated by steam 
pipes, until it lias arrived at a proper consistence to form 
glue. This gelatinous matter, having been clarified with 
alum, is now discharged firom the evaporating vessels 
into backs, or coolers ; and, having settled and cooled, 

Yardley$j for manufacturing Glue, S99 

is to be cut into square cakes, and dried upon nets, as in 
the ordinary process of glue making. 

It is observed in the specification that ^^the boiler 
should be proved at one hundred and fifty pounds to the 
square inch, as it is worked at about one hundred* The 
extractor, also, made of cast or wrought metal, should 
be proved at fifty pounds to the square inch, as it is 
worked at fifteen. The forcing supply pump, and other 
details of the boiler, forming no part of my invention, I 
have omitted." 

InroUedy Mat/, 1822. 

At the premises, in Camberwell, where this apparatus 
was erected, an unfortunate accident occurred, on the 
29th of September last: the boiler of- the engine ex- 
ploded ; two persons were killed, several severely hurt, 
and the buildings shattered into a heap of renins. This 
explosion appears to be attributable to two causes; first, 
the injudicious form of the boiler (which was waggon* 
shaped), and, secondly, the badness of its manufecture* 
Waggon-shaped boilers, which generally prevail, are 
extremely injudicioqs, because a volume of steam, ex- 
^ panding equally on all sides, always tends to press the 
vessel which contains it into the form of a globe, or of 
a cylinder with spherical ends. The bottom of a waggon- 
formed boiler usually protrudes inwards, forming an 
arch over the fire, against which convexity the steam in 
the inside exerts a force, tending to press the boiler into 
the reverse form; hence the angular parts at bottom 
experience the greatest strain. 

The bottom of the boiler in question was attached to 
the sides by a single row of stout rivets, the perforations 
for which were so exceedingly close to each other, that 

9H0 Recent Patents. 

more than half the subfitance of the metal at the met 
holes was removed, and the upper and lower parts of 
the boil^i united only by the intervening pieces, of less 

than ha)f fin inch in breadth. The fractiire took place 
at, pne end of the boiler, in th^ line pf the fivets, and 
the force of the steam rent it in that weak part from end 
to end, leaving the bottom stationary, and carrying 
i^way the upper part of the boiler, in an oblique direction 
through the walls of the building, to a distance of forty 
or fifty feet. 

The mode by which this boiler appears to have been 
proved is a very inaccurate one ; cold water was forced 
into it so as to produce a pressure equal to about seventy- 
five pounds upon every square inch of its surfiu^e; and, 
when the force exceeded thai sum, a valve was to rise 
and'aUow vent. This valve, however, was fprqied of. 
the frustum of a cone inverted^ and it was presumed that 
the smaller section of the frustum, against which the 
column of water acted, represented the surface (say 
pqual to a square half inch)^ upon which the pressure 
was exerted ; but by the water insinuating itself into the 
seat of the valve, under the whole sur^ce of the cone, 
the pressure exerted yf^,h upon an area equal to the 
surface of the broadest part of the frustupti, (say equal to 
a square inch,) so that the boiler was only proved at about 
one quarter the pressure calculated. 

There is another circumstance, which, though of minor 
importance, seems to indicate that proving by cold water 
pressure is not perfectly conclusive; the particles c^ 
metal, under the temperature of cold water are held 
together by a certain attraction of cohesion ; but when 
the metal becomes heated, these particles are farther 
removed from each other, the attraction is weakened^ 
and, consequently, the vessel is not so strong. 

Gafdnet\«. Sfn\^. 

Gardner's^ for a Stay to eortect Deformity/ of Shape. 24 1 

To Denny Gardner, of Edmund PlacCy Aldersgaie 
Streeij London^ for a Staj/^ particularly applicable to. 
supporting the body under Spinal Weakness^ and eor- 
recting Deformity of Shape. 

This invention is a jointed, lateral steel stay, one of 
which is proposed to be placed under each arm of the 
patient, and may be attached to the shape or body, of 
ordinary stays for a female, as shewn by dots, Plate 
XIII. fig. 7; or to a riding» or body belt for a male 
patient. This improved stay is composed of steel, with 
joints, as shewn at fig. 8 ; and is intended to be secured 
' to the ordinary body of a woman's stays, by means of 
flaps and lappets, tied or laced tightly to the shape. The 
ends of each steel support is to be formed as a crutch 
head, and covered with leather, or other soft material ; 
the upper crutch to sit. close under the arm; and the 
lower crutch to rest upon the hip, the requisite length 
being adjustable by means of screws, so as to suit the 
size and circumstances of the wearer. 

Fig. 8, shews one of these improved supports, removed 
from the body of the stays. Circular holes, 6, are made 
in the upper crutch piece, which are tapped and intended 
to receive screws ; a, and 6, are elongated holes in the 
upper adjusting plate, through which these screws are 
to pass ; c, is another screw, which is to form the pivot^ 
or joint, upon which the crutch shall be enabled to move 
a short distance, backward or forward ; e, e, e, are seveial 
holes, into which screws, d and f are to be introduoedy 
by which the length of the stay is to be regulated, i, «r 
y, may either of them forma pivot, or joint, 
the middle part of the stay to move ; which may liei 
desirable, cither in addition to, or as a substitiiie 

VOL. IV. . 1 i 

242 RcctM Ptilenls. 

joint, at c. Tlie pivot of the lower crutch piece 13 formed 
by a screw, at g; ft, and i, are elongated holes, with 
screws paBsing through them, into the lower crutch piece, 
as a, and 6, are to the upper crutch piece, limiting the 
extent of action at the joint, g. It will be readily seen 
that, by shifting the acrewa, the action of the joints may 
be transposed or fixed. This ia contrived for the purpose 
of enabling the stay to be suited to a variety of cases ; or 
as the necessities and comfort of the patient may require. 

It is proposed, when these supports are first used by a 
patient who is deformed, in the manner commonly called 
crooked, to fix all the joints of the steel stay by the intro- 
duction of stop screws; or, if required, any of the joints 
may be set, at any particular angle, so as to suit the 
circumstance of the patient, by causing the screw-heads, 
n, b, d, f, h, i, to press hard upon the plates, and prevent 
the action of the joints. When the patient has acquired 
sufficient strength, to allow the action of the joints, the 
stop-screws may be withdrawn from the top and bottom 
crutch pieces ; or, these remaining fixed, the stop screw 
may be removed from the joint in the middle adjusting 

The patentee states, that, having described the parts 
and purposes of these lateral supports, he has to add, 
that, though he proposes to make them of steel, yet any 
other sorts of metal, or wood, whalebone, horn, and a 
variety of other substances, may be substituted. The 
back parts of the steel supports are proposed to be covered 
with leather, or other soft material. " I have here 
described ray supports with such joints as will enable the 
patient to move with ease and grace, and to allow the 
body all its proper actions in walking, sitting, stooping, 
and dancing; but, under some circumstances, as above- 
mentioned, it may be necessary to use the supports with 

Poslansis and Jeakeis^ for a Cooking Apparatus. 243 

fixed joints, or iBven without jointa; I, therefore, claim 
thefig^ht of making my supports each ill one piece, ad- 
hering to the shape and position, as* well as the situation 
and pui^pose, for which they ate to be employed." 

^^ The body or shape of the stay may be made to lace 
behind or before, as the state of the patient shall require ; 
but it will be necessary to introduce two steels lips in the 
frontof the stay, and in the back part; one steel slip tb 
assist in supporting the spine. I further propose to make 
the shape or body of the stay of a material known by the 
name of hunting-belt web, which, from its te^xture aitd 
substance, is better calculated for the support of the 
body than any other material ; such a substance beiii^ 
necessar^y stiff, and better suited to the purposes of iby 
invention. Having described the adaptation of my in- 
ventidn to women's stays, I further declare that th^ 
same sort of steel supports may be used by gentlemen, 
and may be attached to a riding or hunting belt, assisted 
l)y such straps or braces, as the circumstances of the 
patient may require." 

Inrolledy August^ 182S. 

To Thomas Postans, of Charles Street^ St. James^Sj 
and William Jeakes, of Great Russel Street^ 
Bloomsburi/j both in the County of Middlesex ; for 
an improved Cooking Apparatus. 

This improved cooking apparatus is a cqver or frame, 
to be placed upon an ordinary hot plate. The object 
of this cover is to detain the heat of the hot plate, and 
prevent it from being cooled by the surrounding atmo- 
sphere. In Plate XI. fig. 3 represents the upper surr 

fiskce of the frame, having sundry apertures, each . of 
which is intended .to receive a stewing^ vessel, or sauce- 
pan ; but, in this view, all tho^ apertures are ctoi^ 
by lids. Fig* 4 showa a section, taken vertically,, through 
the middle of the frame and hot plate; a, is the. -hot 
plate upon which the edges of the frame, by by rest; 
this plate may be heated by a furnace under it, as usual. 
€, Cj c, • are the apertures above-mentioned, into which 
the saucepans, or stewing vessels, are placed, so as. to 
reiceiye the heat of the hot plate beneath. When the 
fipertures are not occupied by saucepans, or stewing 
vessels, they are to be closed by lids, d, dj is the sec- 
tion of a partition made of fire stone, which is supported 
J^y a thin plate of iron riveted to the sides of the frame. 
Between the upper surface of the fire stone and the top 
of the frame, a small space is left, which should be filled 
with pounded charcoal, or t>ther imperfect conductor 
of heat. " . 

When the heat from the hot plate, a, is ascendii^g^ it 
is stopped by the fire^tone partition, and again by the 
non-conducting materials above it ;^ by which means, the 
upper surface of the frame remains nearly in a cold 
state, and the heat of the hot plate is retained for the 
purpose of working, without being subjected to the 
action of the cold atmospheric air* It may, however, 
be sometimes convenient to have the upper part of the 
frame warm : this would be the case if the non-conduct- 
ing medium oif charcoal were removed, and still the 
heat of the hot plate would be sufficiently retained for 
the purposes of cocdiing, being enclosed from the action 
of the atmosphere by the frame, with its fire-stone pap- 

The specification concludes by saying, "We do not 
mean to limit ourselves to any particular dimensions, 

A.andD. Gordon%/or Impraoemenls in Lamps. S4t5 

to any precise number of ajpertures, or to the vaetals of 
which this frame may be constructed. Th^ ordinary 
dimensions df those frumes we prefer, to be about thirty^ 
inches by- twenty-seven, and about five inches high, the 
frame being half an inch thick, of cast-iron." 

JnroUedy August^ 1822/ 

To Alexander Gordon, of London^ and David 
G ORJ} ON y late of Edinburgh^ but now of Oxford Courts 
Cannon . Street^ London ; for an Invention of certain 
Improvements and Additions in the Construction of 
Lamps; and of Compositions and Materials to be 
burned in the said Lamps; and which may also be 
burned in other Lamps. 

The object of these improvements and additions to 
lamps, is, to render them capable of burning alcohol, 
(spirit of wine,) a liquor obtained from wood, common* 
ly called naphtha, the essential oils, or compositions of 
any of the above spirits, with any of the essential oils that 
may be found easily soluble therein ; and also for the 
burning of all combustible fluids that are inflammable at a 
low temperature, and do not require combustible wicks 
to raise their temperature to a point at which inflamma* 
tion would take place, and be continued. 

These improvements consist, first, in the employment 
of wicks, made of metal, or glass, instead of cotton, or 
any sudi substance, usually termed combustible; for 
which purpose,^platina, gold, 8ilver,'copper, or glass, is to 
be drawn or spun into very fine threads, which are to be 
collected together into bundles, and bound round with a 
wire, in a spiral direction, or metallic gauze, of a fine 


846 Recent Pulails. 

texture. By these, or any similar means, wicka of metal 
or glass are formed, consisting of a number of capillary 
tubes, or interstices, by which capillary attraction may 
be preserved sufficiently to raise the combustible fluid 
up to the point of ignition. The wicks, thus constructed, 
are inserted into the combustible fluid, through a pipe 
or tube, in the same manner as the cotton wicks of com- 
mon lamps. It is recommended that when the lamp is 
not burning, the top of the wick may be covered by a 
cap, in order to preveQt the evaporation of the fluid, 
and to exclude ilust. 

As the substances intended to be burned in these lamps 
are extremely volatile and inflammable, it is directed 
that the orifice, through which the lamp ia to be filled 
with the inflammable fluid, may be placed as far distant 
from the wick as possible. An air hole is also directed 
to be made at the greatest convenient distance from the 
wick: both these orifices are to be closely stopped, 
when the lamp is not in use, by caps screwing down 
upon shoulders. The cap of the air-hole may be 
perforated in a lateral direction through the thread of 
the screw, so that, by giving the cap about two turns, 
the vent-hole will become opened without taking the 
cap off. 

The composition, or materials, to be burned in these 
lamps, which form the second part of these improve- 
ments, are composed of alcohol, with a mixture of oil 
of juniper, camphire, the essentia! oil of tar, and such 
other of the essential oils as are most soluble in alcohol; 
the relative proportions of the materials being regulated 
according to the kind of lamp employed, oi* to the use to 
which it may be appropriated. But, in a general way, 
the quantities may be five, six, or seven, parts of alcohol 
lo one of the esbciitial oil. The proportiona, however, 

. A. and D. GordorCsjpr Impfcmements in Lamps. 247 

are to be ve^ried according to circumstances. Alcohol, 
being nearly pure hydrogen, when burning alone gives 
only a pale blue light. The essential oils afford a strong* 
light, but produce much 3moke, and a considerable de- 
position of carbonaceous matter upon the wick ; but the 
composition here proposed will give a considerable light, 
without any sensible smoke, and leaves little, if any, 
deposit upon the wick. • 

Another composition to be burned in lamps of the 
above construction is made firom the fluid called naphtha, 
which is to be combined with the essential oils, in about 
the same proportions as above-mentioned, where alcohol 
is employed. As this invention does not consist in any 
particular form of construction, but merely in the em- 
ployment of certain materials, no drawings accompany 
the specification ; but the advantage of the improvement 
is set forth in the following words : 

^' We conceive that our improved lamps, with incom** 
bustible wicks, will be found economical, and have many 
advantages over spirit lamps, as hitherto constructed^ 
from the durability of the wick, and the equability of the 
flame. Nearly the same advantages will be found in 
the lamps, when burning the essential oils, provided the 
lamps (besides having metallic or glass wicks,) are doh<« 
9tructed according to any of the present known improved 
methods for consuming, as much as possible, the snioke; 
and our improved lamps, when supplied with the com* 
positions above described, may be kept burning for a 
great length of time, without any attention being paid^ 
fo them, except to maintain the supply of combustible 
composition ; which we conceive will render the lamp 
peculiarly valuable in many situations, particularly for 
sea-lights on places frequently inaccessible: and thus, by 
having lighted beacons, the Swin and Yarmouth Roads, 

34B SeeefU Patents. 

&c. might be lighted by rows of lamps, like a road, on 
land. The beacon on the Car Rock, &;c. &c. might alsoi 
be lighted in a similar manner.'' 

Jnrolledy Jult/y 1822, 

We are favoured with the following observations by. 
the patentees ; —  

The beauty, economy, and convenience, of these 
lamps, are only required to be known to be universally 

As the lamp never requires trimming, it is always 
ready for use ; and is economical from the durability o£ 
the wick, and from there being no evaporation of the 
spirit when the lamp is not in .use. 

Antique lamps, made of gold, silver, bronze^ earthen- 
ware^ or glass, fire extremely ornamental and useful on 
a chimney-piece, writing table, or d^k, fqt sealing; 

These lamps are peculiarly economical^ when placed 
on stands, under tea-urns, kettles, and coffee-biggens ;, 
so much so, that, when applied to our improved kettle^ 
Plate XI. fig. 2, two quarts of water may be boiled in 
:fifteen minutes, for one penny or three-halfpence, with 
naphtha ; and for seven-pence with spirit of wine. The 
lamp, of course, must be very convenient and ecor 
nomical for boiling a kettle in the summer mornings 
and evenings in small families, in gentlemen's lodg- 
ings or chambers, in camp or barracks; outboard 
ships, or on boat-service ; on shooting or fishing, or 
similar excursions. To the same, or similar lalnps and 
stands, soap kettles, sauce and frying pans, and gentle* 
men's shaving pots, are fitted. And, in i^t, the lampr 

St. Barbels Sketches in a Voyage to Tromso. 249 

may be applied economically and conveniently to almost 
every domestic or culinary purpose. 

The lamp is peculiarly useful inVarm climates ; and 
to chemists, artists, and mechanics, from the safety, 
clearness, and equability of the flame. 

Gordon's improved Kettle* 

Plate XII. fig. 2, The outer case is made to come 
fully an inch below the bottom of the kettle, where the 
water is contained, and the distance between the outer 
and inner case is about one-third of an inch. 

From there being little circulation, the plate of air 
gets intensely hot ; so much so, that the outside case 
of a tin kettle of that construction is very quickly 

This plan of surrounding boilers, &c. and even 
intersecting them with an intensely heated plate of air, 
might be advantageously introduced, in many circum« 
stances ; and, where fuel which^ gives much smoke is 
used, the cavity to contain the plate of heated air might 
be closed below, all but at one narrow orifice, to admit 
a pipe passing through the hottest part of the fire. 

Sketches in a Vot/age from Sdten Fiord in Norway^ 
lot. 67^ 10', N, to Tromsoy in Lapmark, lot. 70°, N, 
By K. St. Babbe, Esq. 

(Continued frmn Vol. HI. page 189.) 

The fishermen'^s houses, although looking well at a 
distance, will not bear examination ; as they are rather 
VOL. IT. k: k 

S60 Original Communications. 

dirty, but their inhabitants are all alike hospitable. 
These houses, called log-houses, are built of square 
timber, one plank being let into another, convex and 
concave, and filled between with moss ; the ends are 
dovetailed into each other : this process altogether ren- 
dering these houses warm and strong. The tops are 
covered with sods ; so that they look like gardens, with 
all kinds of field flowers and grass growing on them. 
The timber with which they are built is fir, in logs, and 
about twenty feet long, which will square twelve inches. 
'This timber is delivered, where it is wanted, perhaps 
from Fiords, twenty or thirty miles distant, for about 
two shillings, English, per load, of fifty cubic feet. 
Every person here builds his own house, as well as per- 
forms all other necessary mechanical operations. Even 
their own fiddles are made at home ; not a fisherman 
is to be seen without one or more of these instru- 
ments, as they are very fond of music and dancing, which, 
in such a climate, used moderately, must be a very 
healthy and agreeable exercise. 

During my stay at Tromso, which is a very pretty 
island, about seven miles long, and three or four broad, 
i traversed great part of it. It is moderately elevated, 
the highest part being, I think, about six hundred feet 
above the level of the sea. It is beautifully cloathed 
with birch, which is used for fuel; and with various kinds 
of shrubs, between which you may walk without any 
annoyance from bushes or brambles, which 1 never saw 
in any part of the country which I visited* But this, 
island is boggy, owing to the continual accumulation of 
moss. Notwithstanding, the whole is capable of being 
cultivated in a high degree, were it drained; but the 
inhabitants never think of tilling any part of it, except 
that which is within a short distance of the water-side* 

St. Barbe^s^ Sketches in a Voyage to Tromso, 251 

% • • - » 

Cattle are here in great abundance ; ^heep, goats, cows, 
,pig3) and horses : the last, very pretty animals, are about 
thirteen hands and a half high ; they have beautiful 
lieads, and handsome short and strong necks; they go 
easily, and very fest. The sheep are small and hand- 
some, and their wool thick and soft. All these animals 
are housed in the wintef ; their houses are built the same 
as those of the inhabitants, and are as warm ; but great 
difficulty is often experienced to support them through 
the i^hole of the long winter ; and hence, many of them 
are of necessity killed, or otherwise they die before vege- 
tation again makes its appearance in the late and tardy 
spring. This is more especially the case if the hay harvest 
of the summer has been bad. These animals are occa* 
sionally fed also on fish, fish-bones, cods* heads, &c. 
which they will always eat, even when grass is plentiful. 
The grass is very fine, no coarse kinds being mixed with 
it, but a fine clover; upon both which the cattle feed 
and become fat. Although I have enlarged in my de- 
scriptipn of the island of Tromso, there are, among the 
numerous islands in these latitudes, many as finey and, 
perhaps, even more so; some are also of greater extent, 
All the islands lying in the interior of the country, (may 
I be permitted such an expression ?) are all fine and very 
fertile, till we pass the TOth degree of latitude. And, 
if the summer were four instead of two months only, it 
would be a most delightful country to live in. As it is, 
I could live in it very contentedly. You are not here 
plagued with the quarter-day callers, tax-gatherers, &c. 
so annoying to an Englishman. Here you would be 
secure from the servant's ejaculation^^" Lord, mistress, 
^lere's the tax-gatherer !" The mistress, mejantime, is 
terrified, and, perhaps, goes into fits, whispering, at the 
same time, that she has no money ; what must she do f 

252 Origin Communications. 

^' La ! ma*am> this is the £fUi time of his calling, and h^ 
said, the last time be called, as how he would put an 
execution in the house/' This is the terror with which 
i^any worthy persons have to contend with in !l^gland : 
give me, therefore, Tromso in preference, gnder such 

I saw few small birds in this country ^ the thrush, 
maiiy wheatears, and water- wagtails, only. Of game, I 
found the ptarmagan, Norway cock, and golden plover. 
Sea fowl were of all kinds, and veiry numerous. Of the 
testaceous tribe of fishes, I observed the winkle and 
jnuscle only. Whales, or finners, were plenty; a kind 
jof large shark is also here, the liver of which will some- 
times produce many barrels of oil ; cod, haddock, cole 
fish, hollibet, and a kind of red bream, make up the 
chief fishes in these seas. Of land quadrupeds, bears, 
foxes, hares, wolves, rein-deer, rats, and other small 
animals, may be enumerated. The insects here are few, 
flies and musquitoes ^xcept^d^ which are numerous in 
the summer, and very tjroublesome ; the musquitoes are 
large, and their punctures paore painful than those in 
warmer latitudes, my hand being, sore with them, which 
I never experienced in the West Indies. Butterflies are 
numerous. I saw few pf the beetle tribe ; a few frogs ; 
no reptiles ; at least, I saw none. 

I made inquiries relative to the Kraken, mentioned in 
history as having been seen on the coast of Norway; and 
also concerning the Norway worm, said to be two hun- 
dred fathoms long ; of both which animals nothing is 
known, and, therefore, probably, never did exist. 

It was my intention to have visited Hammerfesty which 
is about 40 leagues to the E.N.E. of Tromso; but my 
boat's crew refused to take me there, in consequence of 
the hay harvest, every one being interested in it, havin 


Sl Barbe*^ Sketches in a Vojfage to Tromso. 253 

cattle to provide for during their long winter. Boatmen 
and peasantry hpre are one and the same people . 

Whilst at Tromso, I learnt that a bear had frequented 
a neigbouring inland for thirty years past, and that he often 
swims from island to island, and to the continent : he is 
a very large animal, and a terror to the inhabitants. He 
has killed four men, and great numbers of cattle, parti- 
cularly horses, which are not confined, as cows and 
sheep, but left to roam about, with a heavy clog on 
their feet. A premium of two hundred dollars has been 
offered for the destruction of this pest. 

My return from Tromso was equally agreeable with 
my voyage to it. The nights were uncommonly pleasant : 
the sea frequently as smooth as glass ; sometimes a whale 
would disturb the surrounding stillness and calm, by 
rising near our boat, and giving us a sprinkling; and, 
occasionally, a seal would shew itself sportive in its 
watery element. 

On my return to Mr. Christianson's, at Santor, I 
found the Amtman (governor,) sndSerron Scriver (judge 
of the province,) and their retinue, making their annual 
round t() collect taxes, &c. I supped with these gentle-, 
men, and had some conver^tion with the Amtman, 
through the medium of an interpreter, our host, who 
spoke some English. The Amtman appeared a gentle;* 
man and well-informed. This company travelled in a 
barge, having a round-hotise, with a fire-place in it, witk 
other conveniences: the whole was well fitted up; 
somewhat similar to the barges belonging to the dtj€{ 

I observed, as we passed among the imu 
islands, sheep and goats feeding. Many of ibe k 
were covered with wild fowl; geese, diidk% 
ducks, cormorants, divers of various fcindfl, 

254 \ Original Communicalions. 

and small gulls ; the Norway parrot^ a black and white 
bird, with a red beak, was in great plenty; all clamorous. 
They usually remained till our boat came close to them, 
when some flew away, while others tumbled into the wa- 
ter, as if dead, to our no small amusement. 

One night, during my return from Tromso, soon after 
we had left the numerous islands, and were again in open 
sea^ I observed my people were preparing for something 
extraordinary, by putting on their leathern trowsers and 
frocks, which make them as light as an Esquimaux. 
This proceeding was preparatory to a blow from the 
mountains to the S. E* of us, although I saw no signs of 
it ; but they know when to expect such salutes. 

The master stands in the middle of the boat, .with the 
tiller, which is, perhaps, twenty feet long, in his hand; 
this serves instead of having yoke lines (as in Gravesend, 
fish, or short ferry boats :) this they push backwards and 
forwards, it being fixed into a kind of yoke, by which 
means they attend the sail, which is placed ratner before 
the middle of the boat. The master attends the steering 
and sheet; one man the halyards, which are never 
belayed when there is any wind ; another attends the 
maintack, which is done by a i^hifting chestfee in each 
bow of the boat ; the fourth man is stationed at the 
pump (alias baling). At two, a.m. the expected and 
prepared-for gust came on, which lasted two' horn's, 
during which we suffered the volleys of a thousand winds 
arfd a boiling sea. We escaped, however : for, although 
*these boats have little' stability, twisting almost like a 
wicker basket, they sail fast, and the very good inanage- 
ment of these sailors insures their safety. 

I shall conclude these Sketches with a description of 

(To he concluded in our next,) 


ImproDemenU in Mezzotinto Engrimng. 

Inferior as mezzotinto is to line or chalk engraving', 
It is capable of affording much tasteful satisfaction; and 
the quickness with which it is pf oduced gives it the ad- 
vantage of placing good prints, from valuable paintings^ 
in the hands of those who cannot afford, comparatively, 
large sums for prints from the more elaborate processes 
of line and chalk. Thus, a small engraving from Sir 
Joshua Reynolds's very attractive picture of a child 
praying, called "Samuel," is just now published for 
half that it would cost in the other styles; a sum that 
bears but a fractional proportion of expense to the 
elegant gratification it produces, as a lovely feature of 
pictured humanity. Mr. Lupton has so well exer- 
cised his talents in its completion, as to render it all that 
can be effected by this branch of engraving ; so that 
Reynolds's favourite^ artificial but agreeable single 
light, bright in the midst of deep shade,-^his no very 
select but pleasing forms, embued as they are with 
sentiment, ivith tender or earnest passion, and with the 
spontaneous, and, therefore, graceful movements, which 
such sentiments and passions produce, — the engraver 
has rendered with crispness of outline and clearness of 
tone, the want of which beauties has been complained 
of in mezzotinto. These beauties are here suitable 
vehicles of the higher qualities of the figure — of inno- 
cence, and the newly-born but active thought, reveren- 
tially communing with the inscrutable, infinite, and all- 
animating Spirit of the Universe. This little work has' 
been executed on steel instead of copper, as formerly ; 

256 Novel Inventions. 

a mode of mezzotinto scraping recently invented by Mr. 


The Society of Arts, at the last distribution of their 
prizes^ honoured the inventor with a gold m^dal 'for the 
portrait of Mr. Mu nd en, from Mr. Clint's able painting 
(his first and very successful work in this mode) not only 
for its merit, but for the great advantage of durability 
gained to the mezzotinto plate ; so that, instead of less 
than a hundred fine impressions given by the copper- 
plate, no less than a thousand can be supplied from the 
QteeL So considerable a multiplication, enabling the 
publisher to supply a large demand at a diminished ex- 
pence, is, on every account, a great advantage to the 
arts and to the public, and particularly to the pecuniary- 
i^trictedbut painful purchaser of prints* HadEARLOM^s 
and some other beautiful mezzotinto impressions, been 
from steel, they would not have been nearly confined to 
the possession and enjoyment of thie rich. Had steel 
engraving been an earlier practice, how much more 
widely would have been the works of Woollet,^ Sh a n pe, 
LiANDSEER, G. and W. B. Cooke, and other eminent 
engravers of different styles, diffused. To Mr. Lu pt ojt, 
then, for so well applying to mezzotinto a practice that had 
recently been applied to the line and chalk, our acknow- 
ledgments are made with a feeling proportioned to the 
conviction that every good is valuable, in proportion to 
its extended enjoyment. 

Sugar an excellent Preservative of Animal Food. 

. Dr. M^CuLLocH has ascertained that the antiseptic 
quality of sugar is sufficient to preserve fish in the most 
excellent condition. He states, that this substance is so^ 
active, that fish may be preserved in a dry state, and 


Sugar a Preservative of Animal Food. 257 

perfectly fresh, by means of sugar alone, end even witli 
a very small quantity of it. He ha» thus kept salmon, 
whiting, and cod, for an indefinite length of time; and, 
by this simple means, fresh iish may be kept in that 
state some days, so as to be as good, when boiled, as 
when just caught. It is added, that, if dried and kept 
free from mouldiness, there seems no limit to their pre- 
servation; and they are much better this way, than when 
.^Ited. The augar gives no disagreeable taste. 

Thia process is particularly valuable in making what 
is called kippered saliuon : and the fish, preserved in 
this manner, are far superior in quality and flavour to 
those which are salted or smoked. If desired, as muci) 
salt may be used as will give the taste that may be 
required ; but this "does not conduce to their preser- 

The mode of using the sugar is to open the fish, and 
apply it to the muscular part, placing it in a horizontal 
position for two or three days, that the sugar may pene- 
trate ; after which it may be dried ; and it is only fur- 
ther necessary to wipe and ventilate it occasionally, to 
prevent mouldiness. A table spoonful of brown sUgar 
is sufficient, in this manner, for a salmon of five or six 
pounds weight; if salt be desired, a tea-spoonful, or 
more, may be added ; and, if it be desired to make the 
kipper hard, saltpetre may be used instead of the salt. 

This antiseptic property of sugar has been, however, 
long known to many persons. We knew a grocer, who 
often buried a leg of mutton in a cask of sugar to pre- 
serve it fresh. It is, notwithstanding, an important fact : 
for, if animal food can be thus preserved, without the 
intervention of salt, the advantages of provisions thus 
preserved, on sea voyages in particular, may be incalcu- 
lable. The chief obstacle to the general introduction 



ibS Novel Inventions. 

of sug^r instead of salt, for preserving 'animal fbod^ 
appears to be its expense. It is^ greatly to be desired, 
that experiments on the comparative advantages of salt 
and sugar in the preservation of animal food should be 
tried; and it will be also of great importance to ascertain 
wbethet any and what alteration animal food, wheii 
preserved with sugar, undergoes; and whether its nutri- 
tFve properties be in any way changed or deteriorated ? 

• * 

On. the Formation of Flexible Elastic Tubes^ 
by Mr. T, Skidmore* 

After having tried various substances for the forma- 
tion of elastic tubes, applicable to Harems compound 
blowpipe, Mr. Skidmore has found that Indian rubber 
offers the best material for such purpose. In making 
such tubes he coiled a small iron wire spirally around a 
cylindrical rod of iron, as close as it could be laid^ of the 
length, in one instance, of twelve feet. The extremi- 
ties of this spiral coil were made fast to the rod, after 
having been once loosened from it ; so that, in the sub- 
sequent operations, the convolutions of the wire should 
remain in contact with each other. Over this spiral coil 
was wound, in a similar manner, a covering of tape, 
ferreting, or other fabric, so as to completely invert it, 
and to prevent the intrusion of the gum to be used into 
the cavity of the spiral coil above-mentioned. 

The Indian rubber, such as is found in commerce in the 
form of bottles, is then to be cut into long narrow slips, 
which is best effected by cutting the bottle into two equal 
parts, and then reducing it, as near as may be, into the 
shape of a circular plate, with a pair of sharp tailor's 
shears. The strips are then f o be wound over the cover- 
^ng of the tape or ferreting above mentioned, in a spiral 

•* * 

Mr. Partington's Account of the Steam-engine. 259 

manner, from one end of the coil to the other; and this 
must be generally twice repeated, eare .being taken to 
lay, as far as practicable, the .fresh-cut surfaces in contact 
with each other, drawing them so tightly as to cause 
them, from their elasticity, to stretch to two, three, or 
four times their ordinary length. When this is done, 
aijiother covering of strong tape (linen is to be preferred,) 
is to be laid likewise spirally over, or around, the same, 
from end to end ; and secured upon it by very strong 
twine, laid as closely as can be done, and drawn as tightly 
as the material will permit. The rod of iron is now to 
be withdrawn ; and the recently formed tube must be so 
far bent into a circular form, as to be placed in a vessel 
of water, in which it must be boiled, for an hour or two ; 
yflxen it is taken out, the external covering is to be taken 
off, and the Jnternal wire and tape withdrawn* 

The latter operation gave Mr. Skidmore some trou- 
ble, in consequence of the stiffness of the, wire; but, by 
annealing the wire, previously to the operation, this in- 
convenience is obviated. — SilUmafis Journal. 

An Historical and Descriptive Account of the Steant' 
Engine J comprising a general View of the 'various 
Modes of employing Elastic Vapour as a prjime Mover 
in Mechanics ; with an Appendix of Patents^ and 
Parliamentary Papers i:onnectcd with the subject. By 
Chables Frederic Partington^ of the London 
Institution. Illustrated hy thirteen Engravings and 
Diagrams. 8vo. pp. 294. 

In the investigation and display of philosophical truth, 
t^iere appear to be two orders of mind. One is generally 

860 Review o/Nod Publicatiom. 

enga^d in il» dit^covery, and the other in its history nnda 
application. To the first order belong Sir Is a acNewtoi(1 
and Sir Humphky Davy ; to the latter, Mr. BrandvJ 
and Mr. Partington, And, although it must be i 
mittcd that the discoverer of philosophical truths is ( 
titled to our warmest commendation, he who makes thoi 
truths comprehensible and practicable, is deserving i 
mean share of our approbation. To speak and write t 
the apprehension of the many, is often an ingloriousj htim 
nevertheless an useful and a necessary, task. A 
present time, when nothing can long pass current, i 
bearing the stamp of UTir.i TV on its forehead, such a task 
13 peculiarly important. To get rid of the trammels of 
system and technicality, — to be at once simple, intelli- 
gent, and expressive, — requires a tact, which, although 
occasionally met with, is somewhat rare, and not sufli- 
ciently cultivated to be a common qualification. We 
have, heretofore, paid a just and merited tribute to Mr. 
IIrandb, for his luminous simplicity. It is our present 
business to do the same for Mr, Parti ngton. 

The work before us consists of an Inlroductioit, six 
chapters, and an Appendix. The Jirsl cliaptor treats of 
the nature of steam ; the application of it as a moving 
power; and of the various persous, from Ltrancas and 
the Marquis of Worcester, to Savery, Newcomen, and 
others, who projected or improved the steam-engine. 
The second chapter details the improvements, effected by 
Watt and others, down to the present time. The third 
chapter treats of steam navigation. The Jburtk contains 
abstracts of the evidence, before a select committee of 
the House of Commons, on steam navigation. The_^A 
chapter contains an examination of the separate parts of 
the steam-engine, and the progressive improvements 
L rffeclcd in each. The si.ith chapter contains a gcneral^^^| 

11 jj 

Mr. Patiinf^U^s^Ahc(mnij)fJheMeda^engine, SKI 

description' of Shi^eTy^s eln^ne) imprdved liy Pofatifex ; 
the atmiD»pheric engine ; the sih^le-acting engine^ by 
Bouhon arfd Watt^ Mdrrayaiiid Wood's Angina;' high'- 
pressure' eiigihe;' Wooirs doublewcyliiider expansion 
engine; Mandslay's portable engine; MastennaB^sTo* 
tatory engine ;' Smoke^onsumkig furnaces^ ' .....: 
I As a specimen of the work, we select the following 
from the introdUctiokr: 

^' From the most accurate observations, itappearB that 
the physieal powers of the hiiman race differ very widely, 
not only in yaripns inditiduals^ but also in difibrent cH^ 
mates; the value of a man^ thel^efore, as a working 
machine^ will not be so great beneath the torrid £one as 
in the more ^temperate climate of Europe* Tins will 
serve to illustrate the great- advantage which iMireolo^ 
nists, particularly in the West Indies, would derive 
from the more general employment of inanimate forces 
the day-labour of a negro, in the sugar countries, 
amounting to little more than one-third of that performed 
by an European mechanic. 

- '^ A labourer, working ten hours per day, can raise in 
one minute a weight equivalent to 3750 pounds one foot 
high, or about sixty cubic feet of water in the same time; 
while the power of a horse, working eight hours per day^ 
«aay be correctly averaged at S0,000 pounds. Smeaton 
states, that this animal, by means of pumps, can raise 
two hundred and fifty hogsheads of water ten feet high in 
an hour. It is a well-known fact, also, that men, when 
^trained to running, are able, on the average of several 
days being taken, to outstrip the fleetest horse ; and yet 
it will be seen, ft-om the above statement, that his force, 
. if properly applied, is at least six times that of the most 
powerful man. 

^' The use of water as an impelling power^ both for 
the t.urning of machinery and other purposes connected 

SB2 Review of New Publications. . 

with the useful arts, appears to have been kno^irh at a 
very, early period. Vitruvius describes a variety of ma- 
chines; for this purpose, the earliest of which were em<^ 
ployed merely to raise a portion of the fluid by which 
they were impelled. The most simple method of em* 
ploying this element as a mechanical agent, evidcfntly 
consisted in the constructk)n of awheel, the periphery of 
which was composed of a number: of float'boards. This, 
on being exposed to the action of a running stream, was 
afterwards employed to giVe motion to a variety of 
mills, and is, at the present time, employed in almost 
every species of machinery. 

'^ Among the most celebrated hydraulic machines, we 
may enumerate the machine of Marly; This, when first . 
constructed, appears to have produced one-eighth of the 
power expended; so that seven-eighths of its power were 
usually lost.. This misapplied power has been injurious 
to the engine; i^nd the wear it has Occasioned, has re* 
duced the mechanical effect very materidlly. But this, 
may be considered as an extreme case*; and we select it 
merely as an instance of that total ignorance of the first 
principles of mechanics, which characterized some fo^ 
reign engineers of the last century, 

\^ It may, however, be advisaUe to examine the ratio 
of power expended, in comparison with that of the effect 
produced in some of the most simple hydraulic machines ; 
and, by this calculation, the amount of friction, &c. may 
be accurately ascertained* 

Power Effect 

," Undershot water-wheel 9=z=3 

"Overshot do. — — 10 = 8 

" Hydraulic Ram, (this machine will make 
from 20 to 100 strokes per minute,) .--- 10 = 6 

" Large machine at Chremnitz, (each stroke 
occupying about three minptes,) .......... 9 =;= S 

Mr. PartingtotCs Account of the Stemi-engine. 263 

^^ But the water-milL which is the usual machine em* 
ployed, even in its most improved fonn, is far front being 
beneficial either to. the agriculturist or the manu&c- 
turer. The former is injured by the laws which prohibit 
the draining of mill-streams for the purposes of irriga- 
tion, by. which much imprqvement is kept back that 
would otherwise take place: while the health of the 
latter, in the immediate neighbourhood <^ manu&cturing 
districts, is much injured by the stagnant condition of the 
water which is thus unnecessarily dammed up. 

^^ Wind, which we may consider as the next substitute 
for animal power, appears to have been first employed 
to give motion to machinery in the beginning of the sixth 
century. The use of this species of mechanic force is^ 
however^ principally limited to the grinding of corn, the 
pressing of §eed, and other simple manipulations; the 
great irregularity of this element precluding its appli- 
cation to those processes which require a continued 

^^ A windmiU with four sails, measuring seventy feet 
from the extremity of one sail to that of the opposite 
one, each being six feet and an half in width, is capable 
of raising 926 pounds, two hundred and thirty-two feet, 
in a minute ; and of working, on an average, eight hours 
per day. This is equivalent to the work of thirty-four 
men ; twenty-five square feet of canvas performing the 
average work df a day-labourer. A mill of this magni- 
tude seldom requires the attention of more than two 
men ; and it will thus be seen, that, making allowance 
for its irregularity, wind possesses a decided superiority 
over ^very species of animal labour. 

^^ To shew, however, the great advantage the steam* 
engine, even in its rudest state, possesses over mere 
pneumatic or hydraulic machinery, we will now examine 

264 Keviesa of New Publkaliom. 

its effective force when employed in the working of 
pumps. It has been already stated, that the machine of 
Marley, formerly considered the most powerful engine 
in the world, when lirst erected, lo^t seven-eighths of its 
power from friction, and other causes ; while the over- 
shot water-wheel, which can act only in fevourable 
situations, produces nearly eight-tonths of the force 
employed. Now it is stated by Dr. Desaguliers, that 
the atmospboric engine working at Griff-mine, nearly a 
century back, produced full two-thirds of effective force 
for the power employed ; and this, too, at a compara- 
tively moderate expense. We find, farther, that a 
hundred-weight of coals, burned in an engine on tho' 
old construction, would raise at least twenty thousand 
cubic feet of water twenty-four feet high; an engine 
with a twenty-four inch cylinder doing the work of 
seventy-four horses. From this it will be seen that a 
bushel of coals is. equal to two borseg, and that every 
inch of the cylinder performs nearly the work of a 

" An engine upon Captain Savery's plan, constructed 
by Mr. Kcir, has been found to raise nearly three mil- 
lions of pounds of water one foot high with a single 
bushel of coals ; while the best engine, on Newcomen's 
principle, will raise ten millions, and Mr, Watt's engine 
upwards of thirty millions of pounds, the same height. 
If we add to the advantage gained by the employment of 
so cheap a prime mover, the vast concentration of force 
thus brought into immediate action, its value may easily 
be appreciated. 

" One of the largest engines yet constructed, is now 
in action at the United Mine in Cornwall: it raises 
eighty thousand pounds one hundred feet in height per 
minute; and, tu effect this enormous labour, it only re- 

Mr* Partington's jtccoUnt of the Steam-engine. , S65 

quires about tbirty pounds of coal fbr tlie same period 
of time. 

*^To the mining interests, this valuable present of 
science to the arts has been peculiarly acceptable; as d. 
large portion of our now most productive mineral dis- 
tricts must have long ere this been abandoned, had not 
the steam-engine been employed as lin active auxiliary 
in those stupendous works. In draining of fens and 
marsh lands, this machine is in the highest degree valu- 
able; and in England, particularly, it might be rendered 
still more generally useful. In practice, it has been 
ascertained that an engine of six-horse power will drain 
more than eight thousand acres, raising the water six 
feet in height ; while the cost of erection for an engine 
for this species of work, including the pumps, will not 
exceed seven hundred pounds. This is more than ten 
windmills can perform, at an annual expenditure of se- 
veral hundred pounds ; while, in the former case, the 
outgoings will not exceed one hundred and fifty pounds 
per annum." 

The Appendix contains 

^^ A lAst cf Patents for the Steam-engine; with an anor 
, Ij/ticdl Account of those more immediately connected with 

its Improvement^ and general Application to the usefid 


i ^^ A complete list of the patent-right inventions con- 
nected with this branch of our manufactures, has long 
been a desideratum ; while a reference to the chronolo- 
gical arrangement will shew the progressive improve- 
ments that have been effected in its construction. In 
addition to this, the future experimentalist may derive 
considerable benefit fiK)m the labours of his predecessors, 
thus, at one view, presented to his notice. It is scarcely 

VOL. IV. Mm 

266 Meoiew of New Publications. 

necessary to add, that a large portion of these exclusive 
monopolies are of little value, beyond that of swelling 
the fees of the patent-office; many of them being pre- 
cisely the same, in both principle and application*" 

To' the engineer, these analyses are of gireat in^ort- 
ance. We can only give a list of the patents referred to 
and analyzed. Those who desire more information, 
will, of course, refer to Mr. Partington's work/ 

T.Saveiy, London, Jaly 25, ledS*. G. F. Qiieiroz, Waltham Green, 

(This is the first on record, in Middlesex, Sept.1798*- ' • 

which steam was employed as J. Wilkinson, Rotherhithey Jply 

a prime mover.) 1799. 

T. Newcomen and J. Cawley, M. Murray^ Leeds, Julyl6, 1799. 

1705. W. Murdoch, Redruth, Aug. 29; 

J. Hull, London, Dec. 21, 1736. 1799. 

Jas. Brindley, Lannashire, 1759. J. Bishop, Covcnt Garden^ Sept. 

Blakey, 1766. 23, 1799. 

J. Watt> Birmingham, Jan. 6, P. Crowther, NewcasUis^apon- 

1769. Tyne, Feb. 28, 1800. . 

«f. Stewart, 1769. J. and J. Robertson, Birminghan^, 

M. Wastiborough, Bristol, 1778. August 13, 1800. 

J. Steed, Lancashire, 1781. £. Cartwright» St. Mary-|e-bonc, 

i. Hornblower, Penryn, July 31, Feb. 5, 1801. 

1781. W. Hase, Saxthorpe, Norfolk, 
J. Watt, Birmingham, March 12, May 14, 1801. 

1782. M. Murray, Leeds, Aug. 4, 1801. 
J.Walt, Birmingham, June 14, J.Bramal],Pimiico,Nov.28^180l. 

1785. W.Symington, Kinnaird, Stir- 

T. Burgess, June 9, 1789. lingshire, Oct. 14, 1801. 

Bramah and Dickinson, Jan. 15, J. Sharper, Bath, Jan. 28, 1802. ' 

1790. , R. Trevithick and A. .ViV|an, 

J. Sadler, Oxford, June JO, 1791. . Camborne, Cornwall, March 

Francis Thompson, 1793. 24, 1802. . * ^ 

R. Street, Christehurch, Surrey, M. Murray, Leeds, June 28, 1802. 

' May 2, 1794. T. Saint, Bristol, Dec. 21, 1802. 

J. Strong, Bingham, Notts, May M. Billingsley, Dec. 22, 1802. 

31, 1796. J. Leach, Merton Abbey, April 

W. Baity, Manchester, June 28, 7, 1803. 

1796. A. Wooir, Wood-street, Spa- 

£ Cartwright, Middlesex, Nov. fields,: July 29, 1803. ^ 

11, 1797. B. Donkin, Dartford, Angqst 3, 

T. Rowntree, Blackfriars, May 1, 1803. 

1798. W. Freemantle, Hoxton, Nov. 17, 

J. Hornblower, Penryn, Juno 8, 1803. 

1798. R.Willcox, Bristol, April 30,1804. 

J.Dickson, Dockhead, July 14, A. . Woolf, Wood-street, • Spa- 

1798. ^ fields, June 7, 1804. 

1 . Riipozo, Lisbon, Ang. 29, J. Rider, Belfast, March 26, 1805. 

Mr. Partington's Account of the Steam-engine. S67 

1. Hiomblbweri Penryo, March W. ChapDaan, Martcm Hoaaey 

^, 1805. Darham, Dec.dO, 1812. 

W. Earlq, Liverpool, March S6, W. Branton, Bntterley, Derby- 

1806. • abire. May 5K8, 1813. 

J. C. Stevens, May 31, 1805. ^ R. Dunkin, Penzance, Jan. 30, 

A.Brodie, May 31, 1805. 1813. 

James Boaz, Glasg^ow, July. 2, R. Witty, Kingston-upon-HuIl, 

1805. June 5, 1813. 

A. Woolf, Spa-fields, July 2, J. Barton, Tufton-street, West- 

1805. . minster, Nov. 1, 1813. 
W. Deverell, Blackwall, Aojfust J. Whke, Leeds, Dec. 14, 1814. 
. 2, 1805. W. A. NoblejRUey-street,€be^- 
S. Miller, St. Pancras» Oct. 30, aea, March 23, 1814. 

1805. J. U. Rasiriok, Bridgnorth, April 

J: Trotter, Soho-square, Nov. 14, 1, 1814. 

1805. T. Tindall, York, June 18, 1814, 
A. Flint, Northampton-street, R. Dodd and 6. Stephenson, 

Nov. 16, 1805. Killinswortb, Northumberland, 

R^ Willcox, Lambeth, May 21, • Feb. &, 1815. , 

1806. W. Losh, NortbumbetlaBd, April 
R. Dodd, Chaogo-alley, London, 8, 1815. 

June 6,~ 1806. M. Billiugsley, Bradford, York- 

W. Nicholson, Soho-square, Nov. shire, AprU 20, 1815. 

22, 1806. R. Trevithick, Camborne, Corn- 

H. Maodsley, Margaret-street, wall^ June 6, 1815. 

Cavendish •square, June 13, J. T. Dawes, Brdmwicb, Stafford- 

1807. shire, Feb. 6, 1816. 

T. Preston, Tooley-street, Bo- G.F.Muntz,Birmiiigham, March 

rough, January 26, 1808. 2, 1816. 

T.Smith, Bilston, Staffordshire, A.Rogers, Halifax^ March 23, 

June 3, 1808. 1816. 

T. Price, Bilston. Aug. 24, 1808. W. Stien^son, Coleford, April 9, 

T. Mead, Yorkshire, August 24, 1816. 

1808. G, Bodley, Exeter, April 27,4816. 
J. P. Fesenmeyer, St. Clement J. Neville, Northampton-square, 

Danes, June 15, 1809. August 14, 1816. 

£• Lane, Shelton, Staffordshire, W. Losli, Newcastlo-upon-Tyne, 

August 9, 1809. Sept. 30, 1816.. 

Vf, C. English, Twickenham, G. Mainwaring, Marsh-place, 

November 28, 1809. Lambeth, May 22. 1817. 

W. Noble, Battersea, December John Oldham, Dublin, October 

14, 1609. 10, 1817. 

S. Clegg, Manchester, July 26, Mo^es Poole, LincoUi's Inn, Dec. 

1809. * 15, 1B17. 

R, Wittv, Kingston-upon.Hnll, William Moult, Bedford-square, 

Feb. 12, 1810. January 15, 1818. 

A. Woolf, Lambeth, June9, 1810, John Scott, Pengo-place, Surrey, 

R. Witty, Kingston-upon-HuU, January 23, 1818. 

October 30, 1811. ' John Muuro, Finsbury-place, 

C- Broderip, Great Poland-street, Middlesex, Feb. 12, 1818-. 

.November 2, 1811. ^ Joshua Roullpdgc, Bol(on-k- 

R. W. Foxand J. Lean, Budock, JVloor, Lancashire, Fcbruajry 

4iear Falmouth, Dec. 10, 1812. 27, 1818. 



268. Mevitmlif Nisw Pliblkidivm. 

W. Chu'rob, CJIftoBHifreet, Fingi W. Brnnton, Birmingltaiii, 182(^ 

bory.8qaore» April 8^ 1618^ Job Rider, Belfast, JiUySO, 19^. 

T. Jones and CPIimley^ Bir- John Motite^ Bristol; DecemberlKi 

minsrham. May 7, 1818. 1820. 

fohn Malani) Marshatn- street; W. Pritchar4> lieedsi Dec* 9^ 

Westminster^ Aag.5, 1918. 182Q. 

Sir W. Congreve, CeciUstreet; W^ Alderiey, Homerton, MM- 

October 19, 1818. dlesex, Febraary 3, 1821. 

Jametf Fraser, Long Acre, Lon« T^oma^MastermadyBfdad-stree^ 

don, Nov. 12, 1818. Ratcliffe, February 10, 1821. 

Riokard Wiigbt, Tokenhovse- Robert 8 teUi,WaIcot-p(aoe,La|il« 

yard, London, Nov. 14, 1818. beth, Febraary 10, 1821. 

John Pontlfex, 3hoe-.1ane, Lqn- Henry P^pneck, Pepztinoe, feb.' 

don, Janaary?, 1819. 27, 1821. 

John Seaward, Kent-road, Lon* Henry Brown, Derby, March 16 j^ 

don, April 3, 1819. 1821. 

W. Branton, Birmingbani| Janc^ Aaron Manby,HorsiEflpy, Stafford- 

29, 1819. shire, May 9, .1821. . 

John Oldham, South Cumberland- Tlioma^ BeUnet, Bewdley, Au^ 

sb«et, January 15, 1820. 4, 1821. 

John Barton, Falcon-square, Lou- F.. A. Egells, Britantiia-terracej,- 

don. May 15, 1820. City-roftd, Nciv.9, 1821. 

John Hague, Grei^t Penrl-street, Charles Broderit), London, Dec.^ 

Spitalgelds, June 3, 1820. 5, 1821. 

Jf»hii "Wakefield, Ancott's place,. Jnliun Griffiths, Brompton Pres-x 

Manchester, June 6, 1820. cent, D£c.20, 1821. 

. Resides thia analytical Ust^ the' Appendix contains, 
also, Abstract of Evidence and Reports made by a Sie- . 
lect Committee of the House of Commons, ofl Steam-; 
engines and Furnaces ; and a Chronological Catalogue . 
of Works descriptive of the Steam-engine. 

In estimating ihe value of a work like the present, we 
must be guided rather by the useful factis detailed, than « 
by the quantity of letter-press, A. work of so much 
practical importance required the historian's severe 
castigation. Much of the labour, therefore, bestowied 
on such a work, must bie wholly unknown, except to 
those who are more immediately conversant with histor 
rical research, and correct mechanical detail. The poets 
tell us, that there is a pleasure in poetic pains, which 
only poets know. So it may, with truth, be said, there 
is a labour in the historian's researches, Avhich only his- 
torians can know : days, nay weeks, are sometimes 

North-west Expedition. S69. 

eonsumed in ascertaining a date, or verifying a fact 
Mr; Partingtoii appears to have spared no paids to reiir 
der his work Ivhat he, doubtless, designed it .to be, and 
which, in truth^ it is, a fair epitome of what is hnown 
relative to that stupendous machine, the steam-^rt^gineM 
It is a work, therefore, which ought to be in the library 
of ev^ry practical mechanic and scientific person in the 

The plates and diagrams are well executed, and add 
considerably to the value of the volume. 

We mentioned Mr, Partington's lectures at the Surrey 
Institution, in our third volume, page 146, We under- 
stand that he is about to give philosophical lectures^ on- 
an enlarged plan, at the London Institution. We wish- 
him dvery success. 

39ol||tcc]^nic anHf Scientific intelligence. 

North-west Land'Expedition, to explore the unknovm 
Regions of North America, in the higher Latitudes. 

This expedition, consisting of Captain Franklin 
other gentlemen, which was fitted out in the s 
of 1819, has just returned to England. The s 
the mission does not appear, by any means, eq 
hazard and sufiering which these enterprising 
h&ve endured ; and we really think, that 
money, and enterprise, may be much more 
beneficially employed, than in exploring tte 
gions, for objects of^ indeed, very domUfil 

It appears, that the expedition 
course of the year 1830, by a liberal 


S70 Polj/technic and Scientific Intelligence. 

ment from the North-west Company, to advance to the 
shores of the Great Bear Lake, which is, according :to, in about lat. 65, N. and long. 130, W. from 
Greenwich, where it encamped and wintered. In the 
ensuing spring, it approached the Coppermine River, 
which it descended until it fell into the ocean, according 
to Hearne, in about lat. 69, N. and long. 118, W. 
Hitherto, the expedition was accompanied by Mr. 
Wintzel, a clerk to, the North-west Company, with ten 
of their best Indian hunters; but the wide aiidopeai sea, 
which appeared at the confluence of the river witb the 
ocean, elated the expedition so much witiiv the hope of 
ultimate success, that it was thought proper to dispense 
with the farther attendance of Mr. Wintzel and his 
hunters ; who, accordingly, i^turned up the river, leav- 
ing the expedition to proceed, in two canoes, to explore 
the coast of the polar (or supposed polar) sea, eastward, 
from the mouth of the Coppermine River, towards 
Hudson's Bay. But, in consequence of the approach of 
winter, so early as the latter end of August, the expedi- 
tion was, unfortunately, prevented from accomplishing 
its end, farther than by exploring about five hundred 
miles of the coast, to the north-east of the Coppermine 
River ; and ascertaining, as &r as the eye could reach, 
that the sea before them was quite open, and perfectly 
free from ice. 

As the expedition returned, its wants and exigencies 
became alarming, in the extreme , and it soon required 
the utmost courage and exertion^ to brave the hardships 
of the inclement climate. In approaching that part of 
the Coppermine River from which it set out, it was ne^ 
cessary to double an immense point of land, which would 
occupy a greater length of time than its emergencies 
would admit of; and it was, therefore, deemed necessary 

North-west Expedition. S71 

' < - 

to set the canoes adrift, and take a direct course over- 

land to the Coppermine River. When the . travellers 

arrived on the banks of the river, they were obliged to 

construct a canoe with the skins of elks, which they 

had killed, in which they crossed ; but this difficulty was 

no sooner overcome, than others, more distressing, 

awaited them. In. forcing their way through the wilds 

between the Coppermine River and the Great Bear 

Lake, their provisions became exhausted, and they were, 

for many days, obliged to live upon sea^-weeds, and a' 

powder, obtained by pounding the withered bones of the 

food which they had before consumed. In this struggle 

between the love of life and the dread of death, Lieut. 

Hood was assassinated by one of the Canadians, eight of 

whom died of hunger in this distressing expedition. 

The - survivors, by almost superhuman efforts, reached 

the Great Bear Lake, after being obliged to feed upon 

the tattered remnants of their shoes, and, it is feared, 

more forbidding and unpalatable fare* Here they 

found the heads and the bleached bones of the animals, 

which had served them for the last winter's provisions : 

these afforded them ^he only means of support, until 

their arrival at a post belonging to the Hudson's Bay 


It is said that, upon the arrival of the surviving party 
at the Slave Lake, the Canadians there were very nigh 
breaking forth into some alarming outrage, when they 
found that so many of their comrades bad been lost. No 
serious injury, however, occurred in consequence of this 
very natural disappointment. 

Thus has terminated an expedition, of a similar one 
to which we hope we shall not soon again hear. It is 
exceedingly to be regretted, that men will not confine 
their curiosity to probable and more certain enterprises, 

67S Polytechnic anif Scientific Intelligence* 

and utility ; the fields (w which are open^ obvious, and 

Th^ public 18, of course, anxiously desirous to learn 
the progress.of 4he disco^erynidiips, now in tliose regions, 
undejr Captain Parry; and we sincerely hope, 4ihat no 
such disasters,' as those which besot the land-expedition, 
have bc^n ^ncoimtered by oxur brave and ^nterprisiiig 
eountrymen. But, whatever be the ey^t of the arduous 
Yoyago, we can see no probable object likely to be ac- 
complished, commensurate withth^ lisk of 4l|e under- 
taking: for^ as to a northrwest passiiage to tiie Padfie^ 
supposing it may be effected, by the aid of an extraordi- 
narily niild season, once in a century ^ wliat then t. 

When man shall have acquired the knowledge which 
will enable him to defy c<M, frost, and the seasons, be 
may "venture into^uch r^g^ons; l>at,,till then, it is his 
duty to forbear : above all, such kind-expeditions must be 

Recent Information relative to Greenland. 

Captain Scoresbt, the intrepid navigator, has re- 
cently returned from a fishing-voyage to the Arctic 
regions. His ship, the Bafiin, of Liverpool, .obtained 
her cargo, nine whales, producing 195 tons of blubber, 
near the east coast of Older, West Greenland, whichbas 
also been named Lost Greenland, from the long period 
it was invisible to Europeans. Captain Scoresby re- 
mained within sight t>f this interesting country for three 
months, and, in the intervals of the fishery, employed 
himself in making observations on the geography and 
natural history of this hitherto unexplored region. The 
result has been a real survey of the coast, from lat. 75% 
N. down to 69", comprising an extent, reckoning the 

Ram tttfbymiiliSH relatitc to Greeiilattd. SYS 

indentations and sinuosities •bserved, of about eight 
hundred miles. The coast visited by Captain Scorestty 
is a continuation, towards the north, of that on which 
wefe planted the ancient colonies from Iceland^ the fate 
of which is still veiled in such deep obacurity. From 
tiie number atui extent of Ae inlets on this coast, some 
of which Gaplain S. penetrated, at least sixty miles 
tttthin the general outline of the coast, —from their di- 
Feclion, and apparent want of termination, — and from 
the many inlands lying along the coast, — it is conjectured 
tlittt the whole country is a vast assemblage of islands ; 
and that, probably, aome of the inlets are passages com- 
tnunicating wHh BatBn's Bay. 

The general form of the land was found to be so very 
unlike its representation on our charts, that only three 
places laid down could be recognized; and the e 
the longitude of them, according to most of the charts, 
4^as no less than fifteen degrees. 

Captain Scoresby landed 6n variotis' jtarts offh^^oa^t, 
a!nd in some of the bays: on each visit to fhfe shcrt^, ftfe 
discovered tracts of inhabitants ; sotMe 6f thfem appb* 
rently recent. In one of them, he met Witli a crtlfeider- 
Blble hamlet of deserted huta, among which were tdtUfy 
graves. About this place, he obtained many fragments 
6? the domestic and fishing utensils of the ihtiabitanta. 
'Though tile weather, at sea, was generally ctAA, thb 
ffiermometer being about 38° or 40" bf Fahrenheit ; oti 
flic hills near this hamlet it was hot and sultry, artd fht 
aSr swarmed with musquitos. Captain S. has made a 
XElt-ge collection of plants and minei^U, especially of 
AKks. He has also brought home some zoologital spe- 
ifiinens. Animals of the higher orders were rare; but 
lie shot a white hare, and caught an animal of the g 
tejS, willi a short iail.— Literary Oazette. 

VOL. IV. Nn 


S74 Polytechnic and Scienli/k Intelligence. 

JV«8 Umbrella, 

Mn. RuBSEL, of Downing-street, has exhibited 
improTcd umbrella and parasol, which are put together 
without wires, which always, when used in the common 
way, render them liable to be out of repair. The very 
simple construction of the parts includes three distinct 
principles ; viz. hook and eye, beam and groove, ball 
and socket, or cup and ball. Each rib and stretcher 
acta by itself, and independently of each other ; so that, 
in case of any accident occurring to one or more of the 
parts, the others remain firm, and the umbrella is not 
thereby rendered useless, as is the case in those joined 
by wires. 

' - On the Strength of Cast-Iron. 

FnoB the increasing use of cast-iron in the building 
of houses, it becomes important to learn the best method 
of ascertaining its strength: for, notwithstanding it is 
iron, it nevertheless varies extremely in quality. Mr. 
Tredgold*u treatise, which we shall notice in a future 
number, may be consulted. In the meantime it may be 
observed, that cast-iron varies considerably in itsstrength 
chiefly in consequence of air bubbles, the temperature 
of the moulds, and the time allowed for cooling, which, 
when it takes place slowly, the iron becomes much 
tougher than when it is cooled rapidly. Cast-iron, too, 
ought always to be annealed. One of the best tests of 
the quality of such iron is to strike the edge of it with 
a hammer: if it make a slight impression, denoting 
some degree of malleability, the iron is of a good qua- 
lity; but, ifitfly olf in fragments, without any sensible 
indentation, it is hard and brittle, and not to be relied 


Bronze Statue in Ili/de Park. S75 

on. In a large beam of iron it must be remembered, 
that different parts will be often of different qualities, 
depending upon their situation in the mould. 

Sir H. Davy's Experiments on the MSS. of 
Have closed without producing any marked result. 
Iodine and chlorine separated the rolls without injuring 
the ink, which is of charcoal, on which these agents 
have no action ; but the papyrus itself, containing much 
undecompouoded vegetable matter, baffled the investi- 
gation. Of the original 1696 MSS., 431 have been 
submitted to experiment, or given to foreign govern- 
ments by the King of Naples: about lOOof those which 
remain appear to he in a state to encourage the expecta- 
tion of their being restored, even by the chemical means 
already known. In general, the writing is only on one 
side, and the MSS. are rolled round sticks like the webs 
of our silk mercere. The stick is invariably carbonized, 
and resembles a bit of charcoal. Sir H. Davy suggests, 
from the nature of the ink of these MSS. and the silence 
of Pliny, that up to this period, the Romans never used 
galls and iron as a writing ink; and, probably, that this 
invention was contemporary with the use of parchment ; 
of which the earliest MSS. at present known are the 
Codices Rescripti, discovered ^at Rome and Milan, by 
M. Mai, including the books of Cicero de Republican 
supposed to be of the second or third'century. 

We have forborne to mention 

The Bronne Statue, 
lately erected in Hyde Park, to which we alluded in a 
former number of our Journal, (see Vol. iii. page 980,) 




S76 Polytechnic, and Scienti^ In(elligfnee. 

becauae, after what we then said, much notice does not 
appear to be necessary. The puUic journals have nq- 
ticed this work of art in a yery unceremonious way, in- 
deed ; and ridicule and vituperation have been most 
unmercifully thrown on the labours of Westhacott, 
who has certainly proved himself, in the execution, an 
accomplished artist. The statue was cast in parts, which 
have been exceedingly well united. 

Of the taste of those who have chosen to erect this 
statue in honour of the Dute of Wellington, we have 
nothing whatever to say ; but we cannot avoid thinking 
that, as a work of art, it will be contemplated, when the 
victories of the noble general are dim in the distance; 
and, as such, it will be nltimdtely, we doubt not, and ge- 
nerally considered as a splendid monument of the arts 
in England, during the first quarter of the nineteenth 
«»tury, _j 

Gebhany. 1^1 

The imperial government has lately offered a thou- 
sand ducats, in gold, to the author of the best work oq 
the construction of windmiUs, whether he be a native or 
foreigner. J 

Amehica. *^% 

The union of the American Liakes with the Atlantic 
Ocean, by a canal from Hudson's River, proceeds ra- 
pidly towards completion. In a few months, the Grand 
Western Canal, 315 miles in length, will cause the in- 
land seas and the ocean to mingle their mighty wat^rrs. 
Ten thousand men have been for some time employed 
in this vast enterprise, which is the offspring of the bold 
policy of the chief magistrate of New York. 


New Patents sealed in 1822. 

mtt mttm& HtsHt'O in 1822. 

To David Mushet, ofColeford, Gloucestershire, iron- 
niiikcr, for an improvement, or improvements, in thp 
making or manufacturing of iron trom certain slags or 
cinders, produced in the working or making of that me- 
tal. — Sealed August 20. — 6 months for inrolment. 

To Thomas Sowerby, of Bishop wear mouth, in the 
county of Durham, merchant, for a chain, upon a new 
and improved principle, suitable for ships' cables, and 
other purposes. — Sealed August 29. — 2 months for in- 

To Uriah Lane, the younger, of Lamb's Conduit- 
street, in the united parishes of St. Andrew's, Holborn, 
and St. Cieorge the Martyr, in the county of Middlesex, 
straw-hat manufacturer, for an improvement in the plat- 
ting of straw, and manufacturing bonnets and other 
articles therefrom,— Sealed October 18th. — 2 months 
for inrolment. 

To William Jones, of the parish of Bedwellty, in the 
county of Monmouth, engineer, for certain improvements 
in the manufacturing of iron, — Sealed October 18th. — 
2 months for inrolment. 

To Samuel Francis Lomes, of Broad-street, Ratclifie, 
in the county of Middlesex, ship-owner, for an improve- 
ment in the coostruction of anchors.— Sealed October 
18th. — 6 months for inrolment. 

To J ohn Williams, of Cornhill, in the city of Lond(Hi, 
stationer, for a method to prevent the frequent removal 
of the pavement and carriage- paths, for laying down and 
taking up pipes, and for other purposes, in streets, roads, 
and public ways. — Sealed October 18th. — 2 months for 



New Paietat staled in 1823. 

To Tbomag Binns and Jonas BJims, both of Totten- 
ham Court-road, in the connty of Middlesex, engineers, 
for certain improvements in propelling vessel^ tuid in 
the construction of steam-engines and boilers, applicable 
to propelling vesseb and other purposes.— Sealed Octo- 
ber 18th. — 6 months for inrolment. 

To Stephen Wilson, of Streatham, in the county of 
Surrey, ^q. for a new manu&cture of worsted. — Sealed 
October 18th. — 3 months for inrolment. 

ToTh<HnasI<each,of Blue Boar-court, Fnday-gtreef, 
Cheapside, in the city of London, merchant, for an im- 
provement in steam-engines, by the application of the 
steam immediately to a wheel, instead of the nsnal pro- 
cess. — Sealed October SSth.^ — 4 m6ntb9 for inrolment. 



Tbernio., IS»ro».i>t<:r. 





HW.|Ww.| + 









59° 43o 
















— ,10 




+ .0S 














54 141 

+ ,03 




51 35 


— ,oa 


+ ,10 

— ,07 












— ,0« 



45 ' +.06 




+ ,ll 

.. J 




D. H. 



1 19 


2 10 




( in Perigee. 


in coq}. with X5 loQS* 
««190 52'. Dif.ofdec. 
1»30'. (r26«57'N. & 

27 2^*^ 2d Sat ecUfwed. 
{} in coDJ. with « :S; long. 
7« 13^^50'. Diffiofdec. 
1»23'. 5 16** 39' S. « 
£h 159 16'. S. 
transit of 1} over the sun, 
invbible at Greenwich. 
The time aa coqipated 
for Greenwich. 
13 59 47 Beginning. 

D. U« M. S. 


14 1 56 Conjunction. 

15 46 3 End of transit. At the 

beginningof the transit, 
g is 15^1" S. of 0*» 
centre, at the end 12' 
38* S. of Q's centre. 
5 {} in its ascending node, 

long. 7« 11° 5a, 

5 12 20 ( in quadrature entering 
the last quarter. 

5 17.59 47 }^'s 1st Sat. eclipsed. 

7 J2 28 20 >^'s 1st Sat. eclipsed. 

8 7 39 32 2^'s 3d Sat. wiU emerge 

from its shadow. 
'9 $ in conj. with Q » lo^S* 
• 7«70/. Diff.ofDec. 

30'. » 12" 49' S. 2 

* 9 6 56 50 3^ 's 1st Sat. eclipsed. 

9 12 42 4S %*s 2d Sat. eclipsed. 

11 22 69 (i in conj. with Q , long. 

7«4*56'. Diff.ofdec. 
6»17'. <17«51'S. 5 
11* 34' »• 

12 8 29 ( in conj. with 9 » long- 

7*993ty. Diffiofdec 
5^25' <19*»23'8. J 
13° SB'S. 

13 6 to Ecliptic conjanctiou, or 

New moon. - 

14 $ station, long. 7t40 58'. 
14 9 hi conj. with A £v, long. 

6> 2° 40^. DiS. of dec 

14 14 22 31 
14 15 21 

15 9 27.14 
15 11 40 2$ 



16 8 51 3 
16 15 19 59 
21 11 10 

21 16 16 49 

22 7 35 
22 13 27 1 
22 15 40 52 

23 10 45 24 

23 17 57 15 
23 18 2 
25 7 21 45 


7 17 


9 51 12 

27 23 18 


7 30 



5 29 

30 14 47 43 

15a 31'. 9 14* «6'a 

« £&:l5o 16^8* 
2^'s ist Sat. eclipsed. 
]) in coBJ. wi0i a Xtl* long. 

8* 6° 59'. Diff.ofdec* 

9^. ])250 53'S. «tl| 

26° 2' 8. 
2^*8 3d Sat. eclipsed. 
2^'s 3d Sat. will emerge 

from its shadow. 
T^ in Apogee* 
1^ in coqj. with d , long. 

71 5^ 21'. Diff.ofdec. 

16« 49'. D 26» 55'* 8. 

5 ll» e^ti. 
VbIU Sat. eclipsed. . 
%*B 2d Sat. eclipsed. 
1> Furst Quarter. 
2^'s 1st Sat. eclipsed. 
enters J^ . 
3^'s 3d Sat eclipsed. 
2^*s 3d Sat. will emerge 

from its shadow. 
H.*$ 2d Sat eclipsed. 
in opposition to If.* 
2^'s 1st will emerge from 

its shadow. 
) in cooj. with h , long. 

1*5° 19'. Diff.ofdec 

7° 27'. > 18° 1' N. 

3^'s 2d Sat will emerge 

from its shadow* 
) in conj. with 1^, long* 

r(P4fit. Diff.ofdce. 

5° 27* Pt^52'N. % 

9° 25' N. 
Ecliptic opposition. Q 

Full moon. 
( in Perigee. 
( in conj. with fi t5'loB8* 

2' 20° 25'. Dift-ofdec. 

1« 38'. 4 26»49' N. 

e O 28° 27' N. 
2^'s ist will emerge from 

its shadow. 

N.B. All the above calculations are made to Mean or Clock Time. 
The waxing Mooo, )<— the waning Moon, ( . 



Timb'i . . 

piiblishcd.a.* usual, with ihc AlmanBC>i 
on Ihe ISth (rf Novenhicr. It consisCs 
oranciplanation af Sainti' Days and 
HoRdayi, wiiN Eketcties or cotitcrnpo- 
larf biography and comjiaralive chra- 
noRigy ] astrononical occurreiicci in 
every moiith, with remaiki on india- 
pcDsable aslronomical initnitncals ; 
and tlic saturalial'i diary, pKplalning 
the various apiwaraiicea in Ihc BDimal 
and vvgelabta kingdonu. To wliicli 
will be prefixed au iMrodaelion on 
Brithh iliaeclai illHSIrated by a co- 
loared plate. 

Aninceniona laatmmentloTaiccrlaiii- 
ing ike /angUadt lias been, it is said. 
Invented by Mr. Hahlet, of the Cbain 
Pier, at Trinity, wtiicli' liaa been aub* 
mitled 10 (he inspt-eiion ofeoinG naval 
officGtB, wlio Guncur in apiuion that it 
will answer ila Intendi^ nurposc on 
laod, or at nea in calm weatlier. 

/ Mr, Clissoed, of London, baa 
la SDcnded to tiie snmmit of fflent 
Bi ' He set out from ttiB Hotel de 
I'Union, on Ihe 19tli oF AngnsI, with six 
enfdes. He passed tho niglit at the 
Roelier Rougt, at an elevation of 2300 
toises : liere the thcrmonieter fell to 
six degrees below Zero^ and Hermi- 
tage wine froie in a r^rked bottle. Hs 
reached Ihe sninmit of the mountain 
the next morning, about six o'clock. 
At balf-paat, tlie weather being very 
fine, the thermoinefcFwasal 17°. The 
traveller, with his guides, deaci^ndcd 
without any accident, and arrived at 
Cbamouii the tame evening. On tbc 
game day, two English ladies, Mrs. 
and Miss Campbell, crosied the Col dc 
Giant, having ascended the Buel on the 
pieceding day.i 

An account of Columbia, with pot- 
trails of -some of the leading men iu 
that new State, is announced for pub- 

A SuipeuiiM Pier, at Brigblon, is 
now ere c tin j;, under Ibe direction of 
Capt. BnowN, the architect of the 
suspension tton bridge over the Tweed. 
Tbc principle uf the Pici is similar to 

that brid^. The plateau is siupendeif 
from chains, whidi hang from pier to 
pier, and the piers llicinselves, cod- 
sistiug of separated iron bars, are, of 
course, as sncb, exposed to a very stijht 
action of the waief. This pier wit), 
doubtle.ts, be a great convenience awl 
advantage to Itie town of Brigbtali. 
Bnl w« hope care han been taken thai 
tbe ii'on which comes in immediate con- 
tact with the water vnerimglii, not cast. 
If the latter male rlaf, the stnicture of 
this pier with such a decaj^ng metal i) 
most unwise. See ouT third volnm.. 
page 159 ; and jENNiHas's FmtUs 
Cyclapiedia, article BllIDne. 

II is said Hint Ihe celebrated Frcnrb 
painter, D*tid, isfircparing to exbibil 
one of his cA^d'oruBrci in London. II ii 
a targe picture, ContaiDing several hun- 
dred portraits of tbe moat dieUoguished 
persons of tJie Reiolntion.and Ibc com t 
of Napoleon. M. D*vid now resides, 
we nnderatand, at Brussels, where he 
pursues his studies Willi HDsbatetl 

Fifty lithographic prints, illnslraltte^ 
of a tour in Prance, Switzerland, antt 
Italy, during tlie year^ 1819, SO, antfc 
SI, from original drawings taken in 
Italy, the Alps, and the Pyrenees, by 
Marianme ColstoM, in octavo, ue- 
preparing for publication. 

It is said diat lilbograpby is making 
rapid progress in Russia : a series of 
porlrails of celebrated living ebaraclrrs 
has been commenced by a youug artist 

A prospeclns has appeared in the 
Bamtaif Courier, lijt' publishing, by lal*- 
srtiption, a Senn of twenty naa in llt^ 
Province of Kumaon, exhibiting the clU' 
racier of the foliage, style of hnitdiog. 
mode of cultivating, he- in that iduD' 
tainona pdrt of the world, taken by an 
officer employed in the Hetachnient 
under Ihe command of Col. NicboUs- 
The views will, in the first iuslauce, be 
painled in oil coloors, and then placed 
in the hands uf an able artist, to be ei- 
eculcd in the beat style of colonred 
engravings i each plate to be not less 
than St by 16 inches. 

ERRATA.— Ill out lasl Number, page ti3, for Seplcmlier mad Oclohtr, la 
page 238, liue i, for tubt, read Uli ; M3, bottom line, for Plate XI. t«ad Pl<de 

-^"^^ -^ ^--n^ 


' 'i^-'ci^i 

I 4 



No. XXIV. 

To TnoHAfif GAUNTX.ETT, of Bathy Somersetshire^ f&r 
certain Infpratements. on Vapour BathSf hj/ which the 
Heat is better reguHated, and the Baths rendered more^ 

This invention consists of a portable apparatus to be 
employed as a vapour bath, by means of wluch steam 
may be conducted to any particular limb of the patient, 
or to the whole surface of the body. Plate XIY. fig. 
ly exhibits the apparatus as it would appear when in 
action, a^ is a small boiler, calculated to hold about a 
gallon of water, to be placed upon the ordinary fire of 
the chamber ; 6, is a bent tube passing fi*om the top of 
the boiler to a receiver, c, which is a vessel about the 
size of a smftU tea^^ot j through this the steam passes^ 
and is emitted firpm it to the bath. This vessel may con'* 

* MaDufaetufcd bj Moody »od Co. Batb. 
VOL, IV. t) o 

282 Recent Patenls. 

tain a email quantity of any volatile matter, whicli, being 
acted upon by tlie steam as it passes, will be discharged 
therewith in the form of vapour, through the spout and 
other passages of the receiver, the emission of which is 
regulated by the handle, rf, to be turned by the patient 
or an assistant, e, is a standard intended to suspend a 
sort of bell'formed hood or marquee made of flannel or 
canvass, and distended with a hoop and cords. This 
hood, which is shown by dots, is intended to enclose the 
patient, who is to be seated upon a sort of camp stool 
within. But, as the top, aiid some other parts, of the 
hood, are furnished with openings, the head may be 
excluded from the action of the vapour, or any particular 
limb only may be introduced within the hood. 

Fig. 2 is a section of the cover of the boiler, n, shew- 
ing the construction of the safety valve and the pipe for 
emitting the steam. To this, another pipe, of any 
desired length, may be coupled, as shewn at fig. 1, 

Fig. 3 is a section of the receiver, c, in which is seen 
the screw plug for regulating the emission of the vapour. 
The steam passing into this receiver, through the pipe, 
6, proceeds up the hollow screw plug, y, and escapes 
at the small holes into the space round the plug, and 
thence discharging itself, as shown by the radiant dots, 
fills the interior of the bell or hood ; the width of 
the opening being regulated by the ascent or descent of 
the screw-plug, turned by the handle and universal 
joint, g. 

In order to direct a current of steam to the feet of the 
patient, which is sometimes particularly desirable, a 
channel is cut round the plug, in a winding direction, so 
as to be always opposite to the jet, k ; by which means, 
a volume of steam is always discharged through the jet, 
whether the discharging space above be opened, wide or 

Gau»tlelt's,/or Improvements in Vapour Baths. 283 

nearly closed. The receiver, c, is placed in a tin disb, 
for the purpose of catching the water which may fall by 
the partial condensation of the steam. 

The standard, e, is put together with screw-joints, for 
the convenience of packing; and the whole of the appa- 
ratus may be conveyed from place to place, with perfect 
ease, in a small case. The materials of which this 
apparatus may be made, can be varied at pleasure, and 
its proportions and dimensions are perfectly unim- 

" A portable apparatus, by means of which steam 
may be conveyed for the purposes of a vapour bath, in 
two or more directions at the same time, and by the 
same movement, one of the said directions being under 
or immediately about the feet, and the other upwards, 
generally, into a casing or dress, suspended by a portable 
frame over the patient ; and also such an arrangement of 
the said apparatus as will admit of the said two, or more, 
different directions being given to the steam, and of the 
steam being regulated either by the patient or an assis- 
tant, by means of a handle and universal joint, being, to 
the best of my knowledge and belief, entirely new, and 
never before used in these kingdoms, I, hereby, declare 
this to be my specification of the same ; believing the 
said specification, iu all respects, fully, and without re- 
serve or disguise, to comply with the proviso in my said 
hereinbefore in part recited Letters Patent contained, 
and intending hereby to maintain my exclusive right and 
privilege to my said invention." 

InrolUd, August, 1828. 


To Richard Scmmerb Harfohd, ofEbbw Vale Ird^ 
Works, in the Parish of Aber^strulh, in the Counts/ (j 
Monmouth, for an Improvement in tlte Heating 1 
cesses in the Manufacture of Bar, Rod, Sheet, 
other Description of Malleable Iron, whether the sam 
may have been previousli/ prepared by Puddling i 
other modes of Refining. 

The patentee states that he has experienced much 
inconvenience and ditGculty in manufacturing "blooms, 
piled iron, scrap iron, sheet, hoop, and rod iron, and 
all other kinds of malleable iron ; whether the same he 
forhammering,rolling, or slitting, owing to the impurities 
that adhere to its surface when placed upon the bottom 
of balling, heating, or annealing furnaces, these bot- 
toms being usually constructed or covered with sand, 
gravel, scoria, or any vitreous substance, most difficult to 
be fused." And he farther states, that he has most com- 
pletely proved that no substance, hitherto found out, 
would prevent the evil consequences that are produced 
by particles ofsilicious matter adhering to the surface 
of the iron, when placed upon the hottomB of such 
balling, heating, or annealing furnaces, so constructed 
and covered : for, when such iron is either hammered, 
rolled, or wrought out into bars, plates, hoops, or any 
other shape or form, it is found that vevy deep indenta- 
tions and imperfections are made upon the surface, and, 
more or less, throughout the whole mass ; and when iron, 
so manufactured, is wrought out into thin sheets, or 
plates, holes will be found completely through, which 
imperfections render such sheets, or plates, useless. 

In order to prevent these inconveniences, cast-iron 
floors have been employed, for the purpose of placing 
L the piles or pieces of malleable iron upon; but the^^H 

Harforisjfor an Impr&oemeni in heating of Iran. fl8S 

great difficulty of preventing them from being burned or 
nelted, has hitherto rendered ^ch floors of tittle ad^mn- 
tage. The present improvement 4n the heating pro- 
cesses in the raanufineture of bar, rod, Aeet, and other 
desoriptions of malleable iron (^irhether 4he same may 
have been ppevjously prepared by puddling, or ollher 
Modes of refining,) consists in covering the cast^rc^ 
floors or bottoms of such fonMices with charcoal^ or 
any animal or vegetable matter tiiat may, by theappU* 
cation of heat, be converted into a sufficiently durable 
charcoal, such as peat, turf, the spent bark of tan pits, 
shavings of wood or leather, sawfdust, chips, socxt, or 

Any of these substances being spread over the cast^ 
iron bottoms of the furnaces previously >to placing the 
pi^es pf iron on them, will effectually prevent either the 
burning or melting of the bottoms, by the intense heat 
that is necessarily employed in the processes above 
mentioned. These advantages result, in a great degree, 
from the known quality of charcoal as a bad conductor 
of heat : but a still further advantage arises from this 
mode of employing of charcoal ; as the iron is thereby 
kept pure, and not subject to come in contact with 
stones, gravel, or other silicious matter, above aUuded 
to ; besides which, the iron is found to be muck im« 


proved in toughness, and thereby 4he ojudatiqn of the 
metal is, in a great degree, prevented. 

The specification concludes, by saying, '^ In order to 
identify, more distinctly, the nature of my improvement 
in the heating processes in the mannfecture of bar, rod, 
sheet, and other description of malleable iron, whether 
the same may have been previously prepared by the 
puddling or other modes of refining, 1 hereby further 
declare, that it coilinsts entirely in substitutoig and 

366 Recent Patents. 

covering the iron bottoms of balling, heating, or 
annealing furnaces, with charcoal, either animal or 
vegetable, which may be used in the state in which it is 
manufactured or reduced in any degree, even to powder; 
or the said bottoms may be covered with the shavings or 
chips of wood, sawdust, peat, turf, the spent bark of tan 
pits, leather shavings, soot, plumbago, or any animal or 
vegetable matters or substances that will formasufH- 
ciently durable charcoal for the purpose ; by the substi- 
tution and use of which the impurities that usually 
adhere to iron, manufactured in furnaces with earthen 
or silicious bottoms, will be entirely prevented, and, 
consequently, the value of the iron will be greatly 
enhanced. And I, hereby, further declare that I do not, 
in thb patent, extend the use of ray improvement to pud- 
dling furnaces, but to bulling, heating, or annealing 
furnaces, only."  

Jmolled, Julif, 1822. *■ 

See Harford's Patent " for an improvement in that 
department of the manufacture of iron commonly called 
Puddling," page 8 of our present volume. 


To Jean Frederick MAnams dg Chabanves, of 
Russel Place, Filzroi/square, London, for a new 
Method and Apparatus for attracting and catching of 

The peculiar method of catching fish, proposed by 
the patentee, is by means of a lighted lamp, to be sunk 
under the surfece of the water, to any depth that may 
be necessary ; the case of the lamp having one or more 
openings in its top, to which pipes are attached that 

» . _ 


Mar^tus dc Chabannes.mods of Catckin^ Tish. 






h c 

^-    -\ 




Ifobdit^s, Improved Umbrella. 






Jmithi^ m/?de of DreCfvrt^ ^iece Goods. 



'• T!J-; KcV' VJNi. 


Mar. de Chabannes, for a Method o/ catching Fish. 287 

lead above the water's sur&ce, for the purpose of ad- 
mitting air to tbe lamp, and drawing off the smoke. 
The object of thus placing a light in the water is in 
order to attract the fishes ; and, for which purpose, 
B box containing mirrors is connected to the lamp ; 
shewn in Plate XV. fig. I and S. Behind these are 
traps, or nets, into which the fishes are intended to be 
allured by the mirrors. It h also proposed to place 
IiTing fishes surrounded by glass, in or about the nets as 
decoys. * 

No particular form or construction of lamp is pro- 
posed, but the lamp preferred is shewn attached to 
the box, at a, Fig. 9. The general form of the box 
is represented in the horizontal section, Fig. 1, over 
the top of which the lamp is to be placed in its 
glass enclosure, as at Fig. S. The box is intended to 
be a mere frame of wood or metal, containing mirrors, 
J, 6, Cf r, of any suitable form, which, being illuminated 
from abave> reflect and multiply the images of the fishes 
which approach them : d, d, are the apertures of the 
box where the fishes enter, with flaps or valves encl6sing 
the bos in front, which give way to the fishes on entering 
but shut them in. (The material of which these flaps 
are made is not mentioned ; they are probably intended 
to be of netting or wire worlf, that the fishes may see 
through.) e, is the passage into the net or pouch, g, 
behind the mirrors;^ is a contracted passage of netting, 
which gives way to the fishes on entering, but closes 
against their return. In this pouch tbe fishes collect, 
and are taken out by the fishermen when the box 
is drawn up, 

It is proposed to cover tbe outside of the box with 
weeds, cloth, or any other material, so a^ to conceal it 
as much as possible from the observation of the fishes, in 


998 Recent PaienU. 

i^der to f^reveBt them &om heiug alarmed ; and it h 
dif ee^ed tiiat the bottoi^ of tke box may be covered wHb 


Inrolkdy Febrmryy 1882. 

Toion^ Frestbricil Smith^ Esq, of Dmstan Hmll^ 
Chegterfieldy DevhysMrey fot tke Invention of dm 
Imprtneement in Dressing of Piece Goods made Ji*om 
Silk or Worsted, or of both these Materials. 

It isrecommended^in the first plac6, that piece goods^ 
when they consist of worsted, yarn, or thread, (by what- 
ever name they may be designated,) or when they consist 
of worsted and silk woven together, should be fulled or 
milled, by bestting or kneading them in warm water, in 
which a quantity of soap has been previously dissolved^ 
in a similar manner to the ordinary operation of fulling. 
But, although this process has not, to the knowledge of 
the patentee, been heretofore applied to bombazines, 
stuffs, serges, and the like manufactures of worsted, ot 
silk and worsted combined, he does not claim it as a 
part of this patent, though it greatly improves the 
febric to which it is applied, both in durability and ap- 

Whether the piece goods have been so fulled and pre- 
pared or not^ it is proposed, after they have been singed 
by hot cylinders or flames in the usual way, to dress and 
finish them by means of friction and pressure with rub- 
bers covered with silk, which rubbers are made to move 
with different degrees of velocity, and thus produce 
an improved effect upon the fabric. 

These rubbers maybe differently forn^ed and disposed; 
but the arrangement shewn at Plate XV. Fig. 3, is one 


SmitVs^/or an Improvement in dressing Piece Goods. S80 

that has been found to answer the intended purpose. It 
.consists of a frame, a, upon which a cylinder, b, is 
tBdounted, of about two or three indies diameter; round 
this cylinder the length of piece goods is to be coiled. ^ 
Several of these cylinders, with iron pivots, must be pro- 
vided, in order that many lengths of the febric may be 
preparing, bq as .to remove one and plaoe another in the 
machine as often as requisite. In general, four lengths 
of the piece goods are stitched together at th^ir ends, 
and in that manner rolled round the pyUndersb) for the 
purpose of expedition in the ftiture operation of dressing ; 
4t is likewise necessary tl^at about four yards of any 
description of. cloth ^hoqid be sewed to the extremities 
of the piece, in order to permit the whole of the 
fiibric, intended to be opiated upon, to.pass forward 
under the rubbers. The cylinder, ft, with the fiibric 
tightly and evenly rolled upqn it, is to be placed. in a 
standard, J, of the frame, a, as shewn, and a heavy 
roller, c, is also placed so as to press upon its peripheiy, 
the object of which is to keep the piece goods sufficiently 
distended by its friction 3 • thi6, however, might be 
effected by several other contrivances. The pi^e goods 
ivill be delivered either from the upper or under side of 
the cylinder, according to the .'direction in wfaith it 
has been ccnled, whence it passes between the feeding 
rollers,/, the upper one of which is kept in contact with 
the fiibric by means of springs or weights. These feed- 
ing rollers are to be perfectly cylindrical, of about three 
inches diameter, so as to hold the piece goods equally 
and evenly from one selvage to the other, and their 
peripheries are to be covered with woollen cloth, either 
pasted or sewed evenly. 

From these feeding rollers the fiibric passes under 
jand over three, four, or more rubbing cylinders, w, x, 

VOL. IV. p p 

290 Recent Patents. 

y, z, pluced cither horizontally, or according "to any 
other convenient disposition, whence it passes to the 
drawing rollers. These cylinders are formed of beech 
or other hard wood, with iron pivots or axles, and 
they may be all of the same diameter, although thia is 
not material : about eight inches in diameter has been 
tound eligible; they are to be covered with woollen 
cloth, pasted or sewed, and over this a covering of stout 
wove Bilk, or lutestring, is to be stitched, bo as to lie 
perfectly smooth. 

When the fabric to be dressed is entirely of silk, the 
covering of tlie rubbing cylinders must be of silk also ; 
but when other fabrics are to be dressed, the cylinders 
.may be covered with a material made of worsted, cotton, 
llax, or silk, or any mixture of these articles. After 
passing between the drawing rollers, the fabric is re- 
ceived, ultimately, into the cylinder, fi, which is the 
same, in every respect, as the cylinder, b, except, that in 
drawing the fabric, instead of a pressing cylinder above, 
as at c, a roller, i, is placed below, upon which the 
weight of the fabric and the cylinder, A, press, and, by 
ihat means, produce the required tension. 

In order to give motion to this machinery, the power 
^f steam, water, wind, animal or manual labour, may 
*be employed, in any of the ordinary ways ; and, by the 
intervention of cogged or toothed wheels, riggers, pul- 
lies, and bands, or such other contrivance, the whole 
is put in action. The piece goods being distended from 
the cylinder, 6, through the feeding rollers, and over 
and under the rubbers to the drawing rollers, and the 
■cylinder. A, motion is communicated, which cause^t the 
feeding rollers to revolve with a speed capable of 
drawing off, at least, thirty yards trom 6, in the space of 
one minute; at the same lime the drawing rollers, g, 

Stnith^Sffqr an Improfvement in dresring Piece Goods, 991 

are ma4e to revolve with a velocity rather greater, in 
order that they may keep the fabric properly stretched. 
All the rubbing cylinders, w^ x^ y^ z^ are made to move 
in the same direction as the piece goods, but with an 
increased velocity ; Wy to move with twice the rapidity ; 
4r, about twice aad a-half ; y, about three times as fast; 
and Zy aI]!out three and a^half times, and so, in like pro- 
gressive velocity, for any greater number of rubbing 
cylinders that may be employed. By these means the 
fabric becomes polished on both sides. 

This increased velocity of the rubbing cylinders, as 
they become more distant from the feeding rollers, is 
produced by bevel cogged wheels, fixed at the ends 
of their axles, which are duly proportioned in their 
sizes, and arie acted upon by other bevel wheels 
fixed upon the long shaft or axle, A:, to which the 
moving power is to be applied. This shaft also 
gives motion to the roller, «, which being covered 
.with woollen, and turned with considerable speed, by 
its friction against the cylinder, A, causes that cylinder 
to revolve, and thus receive the fabric as delivered from 
the drawing rollers. It will be very evident that a 
similar movement of machinery may be effected by band 
wheels, which is also contemplated by the patentee, but 
he does not describe such motion, as a mode of producing 
it would obviously present itself to every mechanic, the 
invention consisting solely in a method of dressing piece 
goods by means of rubbers, as above described. 

This process is to be repeated as often as may be 
thought necessary ; but, in genei*al, it will be found a4- 
vantageous for the fabric to pass the rubbers at two 
different periods of the dressing; fii*st, immediately after 
having been singed before dyeing, and, secondly? after 
being dyed; for, by these means, the fabri(f becomes 

» \ 

S92 Recent PaienHt. 

» - 

softened and opened, and fendei^ed tnnch more fit for the 
reception of the dye, which it will then take more 
equably and evenly; and, after dyeing, the operation of 
the rubbera will free the goods from dust or dirt, and 
leave a beautiful gloss, lustre, and softness r under 
which circumstances, if the goods are well dyed, they 
will be found to soil very little in the wear. It is stated 
that this process obviates the necessity of using any gums 
or stiffening ingredients, as heretofore invariably em* 
ployed in the dressing and finishing of bombazines, 
crapes, and other varieties of piece goods ; and, hence, the 
goods operated upon as above, will be not only superioriii 
their appearance, but will be less liable to crack, crease, 
or get out of condition; and, if fulled or milled in the 
first instance, (which is recommended whenever it can 
be done,) will be more durable, and not subject to fray 
or separate in the texture. 

' The cylinders, b and hy are made of the same size, 
and may be changed the one for the other; so that, if 
after the piece of fabric has been once passed over the 
rubbers, and delivered entirely on to the receiving 
cylinder, if a ^second operation is to be performed, k 
may be placed in the situation of by and the fabric be 
drawn off from it, as above described, all these cyKn- 
ders being covered with woollen cloth, to facilitate their 
rolling. It is found that the appearance of the fabric is 
considerably improved by permitting it, after it has been 
operated upon, t6 remain rolled upon the cylinder, for, 
at least, forty-eight hours. 

The specification concludes thus: "I claim every 
shape, form, and modification of arrangement by which 
rubbers covered with woven silk, cotton, flax, woolj or 
any mixture of these materials, can be applied to the 


_ I 

Roxby\ Jbr Impr&oemeiiUs ok the Quadrant. 293 

dressiiig, polishing^ and finishing) of piece goods, as 
aibressiid, bs a part of my aforesaid invention.^' 

Inrolledy JuriCy 1822. 

To Robert Bentox Roxbt, of Arbour-squarey 
Stepney y Middlesex^ for certain Iniprovements on^ or 
Additions to, the Astronomical Instrument known by 
the name of the Quadrant. 

. The principal improvement here proposed is the 
adaptation of an sirtificial horizon, to be employed 
in the taking of celestial altitudes at times when the 
horizon is obscured by fogs or vapour. The patentee 
observes, it frequently happens at sea, that, when a view 
of the sun can be obtained on the meridian, no use can 
be made of the opportunity, because the horizon is 
invisible. This unfortunate circumstance frequently 
occurs when a knowledge of the ship'd actual situation 
is of the utmost importance to the safety of the vessel 
and the lives of ,the crew, Various attempts have bee^ 
made to construct an artificial horizon, which might be 
employed in place of the natural or sensible horizon ; 
but up to the time of inventing the present improvement^ 
no' effectual mode has been made known. 

The plan suggested, which is extremely simple 
and ingenious, appears to be capable of supplying 
an artificial horizon with sufiicient accuracy for most 
liautical purposes. Plate XVI. Pig. 4, is a perspective 
representation of a quadrant, with the improvements 
attached. The radius of the quadrant is proposed .to be 
nine inches ; its general form and construction the same 
as heretofore used: a is the eye-piece, b the horizon 

S94 Recent Palenls. 

glaRS, both placed lower than usual ; c, a small 6xeS 
guide (shewn detached, in another position, at Fig. 5;) 
</, a croBs piece, called the finder, attached to the top 
of a swinging lever, e, (shewn, detached, at Fig. G.) 
This lever swings loosely upon a pin as a fulcrum, and 
U inclosed within a box, g-, glazed at top to admit ligbt^ 
but to exclude the weather. When the quadrant is 
held by the handle, J] the lower part of the lever being 
heavy, always hangs in such a position as to place the 
upper part, or neck of the lever, perpendicular. To the 
top of this nech, the arm, with the director or finder, is 
attached, and, according to the position in which the 
quadrant is held, so will the finder stand above or below 
the line of sight, shewn by dots. It is, therefore, only 
necessary to move the quadrant vertically through a 
small space, unlil the top of the finder stands exactly 
level with the line of sij^ht, which will then be coincident 
with the plain of the true horizon. 

The artificial horizon, thus produced, may then be em- 
ployed in the same manner as the real or sensible horizon 
would be, if visible ; by moving the limb of the instrtt- 
ment, with its reflector, and bringing the sun, or other 
celestial body, down into the horizon glass, which there, 
being made to coincide with the artificial horizon, will 
give the altitude of the sun, or other celestial body, the 
degrees and minutes of which are shewn by the 
noniusupon the graduated arch of the instrument. The 
piece which supports the guide is made to slide in a 
socket, 80 as to be adjusted to its proper height ; which 
is recommended to be done at the first favourable oppor- 
tunity after getting out to sea. ft shews the box of a 
mariner's compass attached to the lower part of the 
quadrant, which contains a swinging compass card liung 
upon gimbals, go as to float freely. By means of this 

lioxBj/'Sy for Impr&oements on the Quadrant. S95 

compass, azimuths and amplitudes may be taken, and 
also the exact variation of the needle ascertained. When 
the observation is made by the qtiadrant ; that is, the 
sun, moon, planet, or a star, brought down into the 
horizon glass, the thumb is to be applied to the stud, f , 
on the side of the compass box, which, being suddenly 
projected inwards, strikes the floating card up, and fixes 
it against a projecting piece within the box, which, 
having an index, shews the point of the compass, and 
the degree whereon the vertical arch of observation 

It has been observed by the patentee that great incon- 
venience is experienced by mariners, in using Hadley's 
quadrant, upon the ordinary construction, in conse- 
quence of a liability, when adjusting the limb, of its 
moving by starts and jumps, which is particularly the 
ease in damp weather, so as to render an obsei:vation 
extremely difficult ; and, under such circumstances, 
almost invariably incorrect, because the index so fre- 
quently overshoots the precise place at which it ought 
to stop. To remedy this inconvenience, a tangent 
screw has been employed, by which the adjustment of 
the nonius is very accurately made; but, in this case, the 
index is to be brought by the hand as near as possible 
to the desired position, and then the tangent screw is to 
be clamped on. This, however, is found inconvenient 
in nautical practice, as, perhaps, the very moment in 
which the observation ought to be taken, is unavoidably 
occupied in clamping on the tangent screw, and, hence, 
the opportunity of seeing the sun or stars upon the me- 
ridian is frequently lost. In order to remedy this incon* 
venience, a rack and pinion, turned by a thumb-screw, 
are proposed to be employed, for the purpose of moving 
the limb of the instrument, by which means, the adjust- 

296 Recent PaienU. - 

ment 6f the index is obtained with the greatest celeritjr 
and exactness. 

The specification concludes, by saying, ^ My inven- 
rtion and improvemehts consist entirely, 1st, in substi- 
tuting a rack and pinion in lieu of the tangeni; screw ; 
by which means, I am enabled to take an accurate ob- 
servation with a quadrant, having such an appendstge 
.in less time, and, consequently, with greater certainty 
than by any other means hitherto known or made use of. 
Sdly, In constructing, combining, and applying, certain 
parts herein set forth and explained, and which I call a 
finder or director; and also a part which I call a guidcy 
by the use of which, in the manner and way I hayo 
described, a lAore certain and effectual artificial horizoa 
wiU be obtained, than wiis ever before known (x made 
use of.'* 

In rolled^ September^ 1822. 

To Frederick LotJis S'atton, of New Bond Street^ 
London^ for an Invention (in part communicated to 
him by a Foreigner residing abroad^) of an Astrono^ 
micul Instrument^ or Watch^ by which the Time of the 
Xfay, ike Progress of the Celestial Bodies^ as well as 
of Carriages, Horses, arid other Animals, maybecor* 
rectly ascertained* 

This invention is a sort of repeating watch, designed 
to mark extremely minute divisions of time, for the 
purposes of astronomical observation. By the new part 
of the mechanism of this watch a small point is made to 
strike, successively, upon a. revolving dial-plate, any 
required number of slight blows, in a second of time ; 

•* ^ AKvv foyc^^ 


•V w *VI 

I ASTOJ^, I-ENox AN D ' 
:' TIL i>ft V rr. UN r>Arwj ; • 

lattan's.^^sfyvnomical Watch. 

Hoxby'^.I/nprovg-d QiuidraiU. 


Fallon's, for an Astronomical Insirumenl or Watch. SQ*^ I 

Tvhich mechanism being instantaneously put in action b^ 1 
the pressure of the finger, produces marks upon the 1 
piato corresponding to Ihe minute divisiona of time^i 
which marks may be referred to atlcr the observationa,! 
are completed, and, by that means, a transit, occultatio 
or other celestial appearance, may be observed 
recorded with a greater degree of exactness than by a 
other time-piece heretofore made. 

Plate XVI. Fig. 1, represents the external<!| 
ance of the instrument, and Fig. S the same as it woul 
be seen if the dial plate were removed : Fig. 3 s 
(upon an enlarged scale) a vertical section of the same* 
aupposing the ordinary spring barrel, fusee, escap 
ment, and other known parts of the watch, remove 
the letters referring to the same parts, respectively, i 
each figure. The situation of the escapement wheel it' 
shewn by dots, at e, having, upon its arbour, a pinion^/ 
which engages into the teeth of the wheel, 6, the axIiT 
of which carries a revolving dial plate, c, fig. 1 : thisi 
wheel revolves in one minute, and indicates seconds a 
time. Upon the axle of the wheel, i, is a pinion oF| 
eight teeth, taking into a wheel, d, of seventy-tw 
teeth, immediately under the wheel, e, seen at Fig. t 
At the upper part of the axle of rf, is the wheel, e, < 
sixty teeth, taking into the small wlieel, /", of thirt 
teeth, which has, upon its arbour, a pinion of two j 
leaves engaging in the teeth of the wheel, g; of ona I 
hundred and twenty teeth. The axle of this last wheel,! 
carries the hour hand, as seen at Fig. 1, and makes o 
revolution in five hours. The teeth of the small whe 
f, also takes into the wheel, h, of sixty teeth, whici 
carries the minute band, and makes one revolution u^ 
ten minutes. 

tJpon the arbour of the wheel, A, there is a snail aetingf 

298 Recent Patents. 

ag;aiiist the beak or projecting part of the sliding pla 
i ; which plate moves upon a pivot, atj, afid is pressed 
against the periphery of the snail by the force of a spring, 
A. On the sliding plate, i, there is affixed a small forked 
standard, which, by means of screw pivots, carries the 
lever, I : under the shorter arm of this lever, which is a 
detent, there is a spring, x, raising it, and causing the 
longer arm to be depressed. At the axis, also, of the 
lever, there is a small detent, s, projecting downwards, 
nearly at right angles, to the lever. The lower end of 
this detent is acted upon by the points of the star wheel, 
m, which turns upon a pivot fixed into the plate, t, and 
is kept with its points always in one direction, by means 
of a small spring carrying a double inclined plane or 
wedge piece, n, that falls in between the points of the 
star wheel. This star wheel is moved round, one tooth 
at a time, by the bent lever, o, which turns upon a pivotj 
at p. The short arm of this bent lever is in contact with 
the end of a stud, q, placed on the outside of the case 
for the finger to act upon it, 

When the stud, 7, is pressed by the finger of the per- 
son who Iiolds the watch, the end of the stud is forced 
against the short arm of the bent lever, a, and, by that 
means, causes the reverse end of the lever, o, to advance, 
which, bearing against one of the points of the star 
wheel, niovcB it forward one point, or tooth. An oppo- 
site point of the star wheel in contact with the detent, s, 
by this action of the lever, 0, causes the detent, s, to 
advance and raise the longer arm of the lever, I, until 
the point, or tooth, of the star wheel has escaped 
from the detent, z ; when the spring, x, instantly exerts 
itself, and forces the long arm of the lever suddenly 
down, by the impetus of which, its nib strikes against 
the revolving dial. The wedge piece, n, now falls in 

Fatton'i^ for an AsMmcmkal Imtrumeni or Watch. 899 

faetween the points of the star^ and places it in a proper 
position, ready to repeat the action. The action of the 
mechanism thus described is so sudden, that a person 
may cause the nib to strike the revolving dia) five or 
six distinct blows in each secopd 6f time^ if required for 
^ rapid succession of observaticma. 

In order to prepare the instrument for action, the main 
SfHing must be wound up, but its motion may be sus- 
pended by means of a stop, as in ordinary stop watches. 
After this the arm, or lever, /, should be raised up, and 
a minute quantity of colouring matter introduced by a 
camel-hair pencil into the nib, r, which is connected by 
a spring to the lever, L This colouring matter may 
be prepared by grinding tripoli, or any other colouring 
niatter, with olive oil. When this is done^ the lever is 
left at liberty, and the spring prevents the nib from 
touching the revolving dial«plate, e, until acted upon by 
Uke stud and levers, as above described. 

The minute hand of the small dial-plate should be 
placedat I0,and the revolving dial-plate, c, turned round, 
until the number 60 be brought opposite the (pnd of the 
lever. See fig. 1. In this situation the nib containing 
the colouring matter will be near the outer cirdumference 
of the revolving dial-plate. Now, suppose it be re- ' 
quired to regist^, by this instrument, the precise instant 
of tim^ to the fractional part of a second, at which one 
body or olgect passes another. fHrst, observe the time 
of day by any good watch, and then, by liberating the 
stop, put this improved watch in action at a kiiowu 
determinate time, holding the instrument in the hwd, 
with the end of the forefinger bearing slightly against 
the stud, q. While the instrument is in action, the 
divisions upon the face of the revolving dial-i^te pass 
regularly under the nib, r, of the lever, f, but without 


300 Recenl Palrnis. 

being touched by the nib, and the miniile hand advances 
one division during un entire revolution of the dial-plate, 
r. When the instant arrives^t which it is necessary to note 
an observation, the stud, q, is pressed by a sudden mo- 
tion of the fore-finger, which causes the lever, /, to rise 
and fall instantaneously by the operation of the star wheel, 
as above described. This action, having caused the nib 
to strike slightly upon the surface of the revolving dial- 
plate, a small dot of the colouring matter is then depo- 
sited, but as the nib instantly rises, and tlie plate keeps 
revolving, any number of dots may be thus made to note 
a succession of observations, without the necessity of 
referring to the watch until after the whole of the ob- 
servations are completed. 

This instrument is capable of marking distinctly, upon 
the revolving dial-plate, a serieaof observations during 
ten minutes, without interruption or danger of one 
mark or dot interfering with another ; for, as the dial 
plate revolves, the dots are arranged in a spiral direc- 
tion. This is effected by the lever, b, (which carries 
the marking nib,) and advancing as the movement of 
the watch goes on, by means of the snail upon the axle 
of the minute wheel, h, acting against tlie sliding piece, 
i. So that the dots arrange themselves in a spiral curve, 
commencing from the circumference, and approaching 
towards the centre of the plate in the course of the ten 
revolutions of the minulehand, in each of which revolu- 
tion the minute is known by discerning the number of 
curves from the circumference, upon the revolving plate, 
r, and the second is known by the radiant lines, between 
or upon which the dots of colour fall : at the end often 
minutes, the beak, at the end of the sliding plate, drops 
from the larger to the smaller part of the snail, ready 
for another operation, the winding-up of the inslrumeu^J 
continuing its motion live hours. 

Falton'Sffor an Astronomical Jititrumcnl or Watch. 301 

When it is required to conamciice a new series of ob- 
servations, the dots, or marks, previously made, are to be 
cleaned off the surface of the revolving dial. A sort of 
temporary dial-plate may be employed, h hich should be 
made of a soft metal, and, instead of colour, the point 
of the nib may be employed to make permanent dots 
' upon the surface of the metal. These plates, of which 
a number may be furnished, one for every scries of ob- 
servation, are intended to be kept with the register of 
observations, as marked upon them. A modification of 
the ^bove mechanism is proposed to be adapted to ordi- 
nary watches, but tlic limits of its action are confined to 
one minute. 

The specification concludes, by saying, " It remains 
for me to state what 1 consider as constituting my claim, 
for 1 hereby declare that i do not t^aim the separate use 
of springs, star, wheels, levers, or any other parts 
herein described or mentioned, but only as combined anil 
applied in such manner as to form a new astronomical 
instrument, or watch, which possesses the property of 
ascertaining and recording the precise moment of any 
desired observation or series of observations, by means 
of marks or dots imprinted upon a dial-plate, whether 
the same be eftected by the dial-plate revolving, and the 
marking point remaining stationary ; or by the marking 
point revolving, and the dial-plate remaining stationary. 
The spring barrel, wheel work, and escapement for the 
instrument may be made in any way that may be thought 
advisable, as I do not make claim to any of the watch 
or timekeeper's movements. The form and proportion 
of the parts may also be varied at the discretion of the 

Inrolkd, April, 1822. 




Recent Patents. 

To Samuei. Hocdat, of Birmingham, Warwickshire, 
for his new and improved method or principle ofmanu' 
facturing the Furniture for Umbrellas and Parasoltf j 
and of uniting the same together.  

Tilts improvement consists in a metliod or methods of 
forming the joints of umbrellas iind parasols. The 
ordinary mode offormingthe joints of umbrella rods haa 
been, by passing a wire through the ends of the ribs and J 
stretchers, and binding them together round the sticlE^ 
but, as the wet generally rusts the wire, it soon breaks^^ 
and the umbrella falls to pieces. The improved mannw 
of forming these joints will be seen by reference to the 
figures shewn in Plate XV. 

Fig. 4 is a metallic box to be aiBxed to that part of 
the stick at which the joint of the rib is to be formed. 
Fig. 5 is the end of one rib, to which a metallic crutch 
piece is attached. These crutch pieces (eight in number) 
are to be introduced into the mortice holes of the box, 
Fig. i ; after which, a plate, or other contrivance, is to 
be fastened to the under side of the box, so as to prevent 
the crutch pieces Irom slipping out of the mortices, and 
thereby the joints of the eight ribs, so formed, are 
secured. Fig. 6 is the top of the sliding tube, which 
carries thesti^tcbei's; in this tube, similar mortice holes 
to those in Fig. 4 are formed, and the ends of the 
stretchers have crutch pieces, like Fig. 5, When (he 
crutches at tlie lower parts of the stretchers are intro* 
duced as above described, the socket. Fig, 7, is place 
in the slider, which secures the joint. 

Another contrivance proposed for forming umbrella 
joints consists of a sort of ball and socket Fig. 8 is a 
ring or plate, into which spherical recesses are cut; and 
Fig. 9 is the end of a rib, with a spherical knob. The 

Hobday^ s, for Imprbfoemmiitin UmbteUas. 303 

knobs of these ribs are intended to be introduced into 
the recesses of the plate^ Fig. ^ in the some nannev na 
the orulch pieces above described, and they are secured 
firom billing out of the recesses by a cap, Fig. 10. , A 
similar contrivance is pn^[>osed for forming the joints of 
Ae stretcher at the top of the sliding tube. 

A third method of forming umbrella joints is descri bed 
which consists of a sort of hook to be introduced into 
recesses, through which a wire passes, as shown a4 
Fig. 11 Mid 13 : this, however, appears to differ but 
riighfly from tiie old mode, and is probably introduced 
into the specification merely to prevent any thing like 
a piracy, by modifying the improvement, so as to appear 
very much like the old mode* This sort of precaution, 
however, is far from being prudent, as, by such means, 
the elementary principles of an invention often become 
confounded ; and it^ should be remembered, that the 
daiming of any pdrt of a plan or process, which can be 
proved to have been employed before, vitiates the 

JnroUed^ December^ 1831. 

To John CoiAsWO^y of Lambeth^ for an inoention\of 
an Imprcfvement in Cast-iron Rollers^ for Sugar Mills^ 
hy more 'pemumenily fixing them to their Gudgeons. 

The patentee states that there is great difficulty in 
fixing the cast-iron cylinders of sugar mills to their axles ; 
the ordidary mode of doing which has, hitherto, been by 
means of iron wedges driven in at the ends of the cylin- 
ders, so as to confine the axles, and keep them firm 
within the roller. But, in the course of time, these 

304 Secent Paletits. 

wedges become pinched, and thereby lose their 1 
causing the revolution of the cylinders to become eccen- 
tric, which totally destroys their effect, as crushing 

In the West Indies, where sugar mills are principally 
employed, these defects are irreparable, as the only mode 
which can there be adopted of fastening the cylinders^ 
which have become loose on their a\lcs, i3 by driving 
other wedges in to replace the faulty ones, by which 
excentricity is almost inevitable, and frequently the 
ca!4t-iron cylinder, by the sudden pressure, becomes 
split or partially broken. 

The intention of the present invention is to remove 
these objections, by prejiaring the axles of wrought iron, 
and, when properly tbrmed, introducing the axles into 
the mould of the cylinder, when, by allowing the fluid 
metal to attach itself round the wrought iron axle, or 
shall, they become connected together, and, on the 
cooling of the cast-iron, the cylinder and its axle will be 
found so firmly united, as to render any farther security 
perfectly unnecessary. The wrought iron axles, with 
their cast-iron casings, arc then placed in a lathe, and 
turned to the true cylindrical figure; by which means, 
the rollers of sugar mills are more perfectly made than 
by any other means heretofore employed. 

Inrolled, December, 1821. 'M 

To John Pbederick AitciinoLU, Esq. of SergeanCs 
Jmiy Fled Street, Londorty for his modeof'oerUilaling 
close Carriages, 

The inconvenience of close travelling carriages, 
ticularly in hot weatlier, scarcely roquii 



ArchboliTsy for his mode of tentilaiing Carriages, S0& 

thoQgh the patentee has pre&ced his specification by a 
dissertation upon the subject, and the vast advantages 
of his mode of ventilation. He proposes to place pipes, 
the mouths of which open to the interior of the carriages, 
and to conduct these pipes through the roof to the ordi- 
nary lamps, or to other lamps placed in a suitable situa* 
ti'on^ The air of the extremities of the pipes becoming 
rarified by the heat of the lamps, when ignited, a con- 
tinued exhausting process will be carried on, by which 
the confined air within the carriage will be gradually 
drawn oflp. 

In order to supply fresh cool air, in place of, that 
which is withdrawn, other pipes, leading from without, 
are arranged, opening into the carriage. These pipes 
are proposed to be flat, so as to be concealed behind the 
lining: their outward extremities are to be supplied 
with ventilators of the ordinary construction, which may 
be placed in ihe sides, top, firont, back, or bottom of the 
carriage, as may be found most convenient. The form of 
the pipes, however, is not limited, nor their disposition ; 
the invention consisting in any suitable arrangements of 
the pipes, &c. upon the principles above described. ' 

InroUedy December^ 1831. 

This contrivance appears to be precisely the same in 
principle as that proposed by Mr. Tyer, for ventilating 
hospitals, ships, mines, &c. >rhich is exceedingly effica- 
cious. See our first volume, page 61. 


FOR 182L 

The Specification of every patent^ inroUed during the year 
1821, taill be found reported either in this^ or one qf the 

VOL. IV. R r 

306 Originat Comnmnications. 

preceding volumes of our zs>ork; but^ upon compming tkt$e 
reports with the list of item patents sealed^ it will appear 
that the specifkations of four patents are wanting : these 
have not been enrolled agreeablt/ to the proviso. Whether 
this omission has arisen from accident or design it is not 
our business to enquire / but the patent rigfds haoe^ in 
consequence^ become forfeited. 

<!^rf Sinai Ctommnnf cations. 

An Account of Bodoe in Norway. By K. St. Bar be, 


JBoDOE lies on the N.E. side of Salten Fiord fsed 
our third volume, page 86], near its entrance. It has 
a good church, and many hamlets. The priest^s house 
is a very large one; and the priest himself is said to be 
very rich. The grounds about this house are laid out 
in a very pretty manner. . The surface of the land in 
the neighbourhood, for many miles round, is moderately 
high ; a great part of it is moor, apd, from the absence 
of draining, boggy. The place of trade in this district 
is called Jleenholm, where reside two merchants with 
large establishments: there are, besides, about thirty 
houses, inhabited chiefly by boatman and fishermen. 
On an island called Neyholm, or New Island, is a for-? 
tress, containing sixteen guns : here the commandant 
and one lieutenant, only, reside, without any soldiers : 
this is the only fortress in the country. All the people 
are militia, and are mustered annually on a Sunday in 
the summer season. On this island are the warehouses 
belonging to the English establishment. The priest, or 
prost, of this pllaCiB is the strchdeacon of the whole pro- 
vince of Nordland, and mttkes his annual tour through 

St. Barbe's Account of Bodoe^ in Norway. 3q7 

it^ in a fine boat, commodiously fitted up. In this 
hospitable country, his house, a very large one, is open 
to all strangers. The Amtman, or Governor, lives at 
Lot Bodocy about four miles distant : and his house is 
also open to all strangers, wbo.are received with hospi- 
tality. The house of the Sorenskriver, or judge of tl^e 
district, is about ten miles from Bodoe ; it is also a 
hospitable mansion for every stranger. 

Society in this northern region is much paore agreeab](e 
than is generally imagined. In the summer, ^little tra- 
velling parties are often made up: the mode of travelling 
then is either on horseback or in little chaises. I was 
agreeably charmed with the manner? of many of the 
.young ladies, who are very cheerful, and possess much 
vivacity : music, dancing, and singing, form, however, 
,the chief of their amusements. 

The custom-house laws are very strict, and the officers 
are always upon the look-out to discover the least infor* 
mality, in order to avail themselves of it. The necessity, 
therefore, of being quite correct in mercantile transac- 
tions, with these people, is evident; for any illicit com- 
merce, if discovered, is visited with much lpS9. 

In conclusion of this desultory nairative, I may ju^t 
mention that I made a second voyage from Bpdoe to 
Tromso, during the same summer. I set oJBT on this 
second voyage on the thirty-first of August. The scenery 
had undergone considerable change. *The snow was, 
in great measure, melted; and the cascades were neither 
so numerous, nor so grand. The vegetation, too, had 
assumed a very different hue. I quitted Tromso, for 
the second time, on the 12th of September. * The Laps 
had now left the coast for the interior ; so that I had, of 
course, no opportunity of seeing them on this secofid 

308 Original Communications. 

In my second voyage to Troniso, during wbicli we 
took a diSbrcnt course from tlie former one, [ was intro- 
duced, on an island at which we halted, to two young 
ladies, whose persona, manners, dress, and behaviour, 
were enchanting ; both of whom, as well as their mo- 
ther, behaved aa if they had been educated in the Itrst 

I may juet add, that, in navigating among these nu- 
merous islands of the western coast of Norway, ihefe 
are many places for anchoring ; these are pointed out 
by stones, piled about ten feet high, in the mo^t conspi- 
cuous places, for ships ; and much lower ones for small 
craft. At most'of these anchoring places arc iron rings 
flxed to the rocks, for making fast. But, notwithstand- 
ing, it generally requires a pilot to proceed, with safety, 
between these innumerable islands. In fact, a pilot 
ought always to be procured, when any stranger is 
about to enter these seas, so bestudded with rocky 

I saw nothing like the feudal system in this country. 
Every person appeared to be free and acting for himself 
and family. They live in their own houses, with lands 
attached to them. Their boats, cattle, &c. are their 
own. In summer, almost sufficient butter and cheese 
are made to last them, with the aid of sheep and pigs, 
through the winter. They have plenty of meal, which 
is supplied by the Russians so cheap, that the quartern 
loaf is considerably under three-pence ; and even the 
-' old woman will push her boat off, and catch fish. The 
land produces rye and barley, and some vegetables fof 
the table, as well as, of course, fodder for the cattle. 

Their drink, in summer, is, generally, milk and 
water, with spirits, which they have very cheap. Fuel is 
fearer, as they are obliged to bring it from some distance 

Time's Telescope. 309 

in the interior ; but, it is, nevertheless, not scarce. 
Upon the whole, these people are as independent as any 
class in Europe. 

The bear, which I mentioned in a former part of my 
narrative, was killed during my continuance in 

IXcbietD of KetD 3^i^licationi$. 

Time's Telescope^ for 1823 / or, a complete Guide to the 
Almanack; containing an Explanation of Saints' Days 
and HoUdays ; with Illustrations of British History 
and Antiquities^ Notices of obsolete Rites and Customs^ 
Sketches of comparative Chronology and contemporary 
Biography. Astronomical Occurrences in every Month; 
comprising Remarks on the Phenomena of the Celestial 
Bodies y xdth an Account of indispensable Astronomical 
Instruments ; and the Naturalist's Diary ^ explaining 
the various Appearances in the vegetable and animal 
Kingdoms* To which are prefixed^ an Introduction on 
the Habits, Economy, and Uses of British Insects ; 
and an Ode to Time^ by Bernard Barton, pp. 4^92. 

TiMB^s Telescope has certainly been furnished this 
year witKan additional number of lenses, bright, clear, 
and achromatic ; so that, we are enabled to view, with 
distinctness and pleasure, the various objects which are 
set before us. Of the ito/irro/ pictures here held up to 
view we can scarcely speak in too warm terms of com- 
mendation. The introduction on the habits, eomomy, 
and uses of British insects, is original and amusing ; and 
the descripticm of astronomical instruments concise and 
dear. With the Ode to Tjm^ by Mr. Barton, we have 

910 Seview of New Publications* 

been greatly pleased ; and, indeed, the whole volume 
18 one which we can cordially recommend. The editor 
is entitled to the highest praise for his laborious collec* 
ticms in poetry, biography^ And the facts of natural his- 
tory ; this last is, at all times, a pleasing and delightful 
study, and which cannot be too much pressed upon the 
attention of youth. In a word, this is the best volume 
df Time's Telescope which has yet appeared. 

A Treatise on the Utility of Sangui'Suetiofiy or Leech 
Bleedings in the Treatment of a great variety of 
Diseases ; including the Opinions of eminent Practi^ 
tionerSy ancient and modern^ wijth Instructions for the 
process of Leeching, And an Appendix delineating 
the characteristic Distinction of true Leeches^ with 
Directions for their Management and Preservation. 
By Rees PmcE, M.D. Surgeon, pp. 1S2. ISmo. 

TuEAE appears to he sl fashion in medicine, as i^ell 
OS in, almost, ev^y thing else. Thirty or forty years ago 
many of our physicians, influenced, very probably, by 
the doctrines about that period promulgated by Dr. 
John Brown, considered venaesection, in by far the 
greater number of cases, except, indeed, those deci- 
dedly and evidently inflammatory, as an operation of 
dubious or even injurious tendency. And, hence, the 
Jancet was, perhaps, often laid aside, when, by a timely 
intervention of the operation of venous depletion, many 
ja tedious and troublesome disease might have been cut 
short. It admits, we think, of little question that sthenic 
diathesis is more frequently to be found in the human 
constitution than Dr. Brown and his immediate followers 
belieyed; and, from this opinion gaining ground, tliye 

- / 

Price's Treatise on Leech Bleeding. 3H 

practice of venisection and san^ui-Buction has, forsome 
years past, been on the increase in this country. But we 
are now, we fear, advancing, if we have not already 
advanced, to the opposite extreme: we have good reason 
for believing that both venssection and sangui-suction 
are too indiscriminately had recourse to; and that they 
are, in consequence, both occasionally mischievous. 
We are led into these remarks, somewhat, it is true, out 
of our usual course, in consequence of the appearance 
of the work, the title page of which forms the preface 
to this article. 

Dr. Price is a strenuous advocate for leech bleeding ; 
and has here brought together a mass of evidence in 
favour of its good effects in a great number of conipHaints. 
But, we think that it is deserving the serious considera- 
tion of the doctor, as well as of our readers, whether 
sangui-suction has not been pughed, not only in this 
manual, but, also, in the general practice of our medical 
advisers, to an excess which might be very welPabated, 
without any injury to those processes adopted for the 
restoration of health, or for the prevention of disease. 

Whilst we say thi?, we are disposed, nevertheless, to 
recommend this work of Dr. Price not only to the medi- 
cal, but the general, reader, as containing many impor- 
tant facts and directions concerning the leech, its mode 
of application, its natural history, &c. which .will be 
found extremely useful. As a specimen of tlie work, we 
present our readers with an account of the 

" Different Species of the iLeech. 

**0f the genus kirudo there appears to be several 
Species ; of these there are but two kinds, which are pro- 
perly adapted for our purpose, viz. the hirudo medicinalis, 

312 Review of New PuhUcalions. 

or the medicinal leech; and tbe AiVutZa /roclina, ortfitf 
trout leech. 

" The medicinal or striped keck has a small head, flat 
shining body, of a blackish or dull olive-green colour; 
six yellow lines running down theback^ the belly varie- 
gated with ash'Coloured and black spots ; length about 
three inches. Is an inhabitant of rivulets, Etagnant 
waters, and shallow muddy ponds. 

" The trout leech) so called from its resemblance, as 
it regards its coloured rings or spots, to the trout. 
Colour brown, studded on the back with black spots, 
surrounded liy golden-coloured rings : the sides of a yel- 
lowish hue, the belly a jellowish green, with black 
spots. Inhabits the sides or banks of muddy ponds. 

*' It is to be observed that the yellow lines or spots oti 
this and the last species grow very faint in some leeches, 
at certain seasons of the year. The ground colour, also, 
much depends upon the colour>of the soil producing 
them ; and the belly of the continental leech is more 
uniform in its colour, than streaked, as the English. 

"The horse-leech, hirudo sanguisuga; skin smooth 
and glossy; the body is depressed; the back is dusky, 
with brown and green stripes ; the belly a yellowish 
green. It wants the yellow stripes and variegated spots 
of the two former species ; but still it approaches nearer 
in likeness to them than any others do. Inhabits stag- 
nant waters and running streams. Dr. Johnson de- 
scribes the three species just mentioned as possessing ten 

The common leech, hirudo vulgaris : yellow belly, and 
black lines on the back. This species is said to possess 
only eight eyes. It is found in ditches, &c. and is of no 
use for medical purposes, as it will not perform the office 
of sangui'suction. Is usually small in size. 

Prict^4 Treatise on jbsech BhseSing* 813 

^ For a description of the other various species of the '^ 
leech, with a detailof their anatomy and naturaljbistory, 
I refer the curious reader to the excellent work, ^ Tvea^ 
Use on the Medicinal Leech. By Jahbs Rawlins 
Johnson, of Bristol, M.D. published iH London in 

^' A German author diflfers with Dr. Johnson, respect^ 
ing the leech possessing eyes. But, as far as my own 
microscopical observations have enabled me to judge, I 
have no doubt of the leech possessing eyes. The i^edi** 
cinal and trout leeches are, therefore, th^ only ones 
proper for application to the human sldn.^' 

^^ Preservation of Leeches. 

^' The number of leedhes every day used for the pur- 
pose of local bleeding is very considerable,^ even in 
.England. Thete are four principal importers of leeches 
in London alone, whose average imports are said to be 
130,000 per month each; making a total of 600,000, oi* 
seven millions two hundred thousand^ in one year. On 
the continent, where they are obtained at a mtich 
cheaper rate, the numbers employed are enormous. 

^^ In winter the leech resorts to deep water, and, in 
severe weather, retires to great depth in the ground^ 
leaving A small aperture to its subterranean habitation* 
It begins to make its appearance in March or April. 
Water, alone, is not the natural element of leeches, as 
it is supposed, but conjointly with ground or mud. 

^' The iisttal food of the medicinal and .trout leech is 
tferivetf from the suction of the spawn offish ; and leeches- 
Will n6t unfrequently be found adhering to the fish 
themselves; but frogs (cirm the most considerable portion 
of their food. Hence, the best leeches are found in 
waters muteh inhabited by these animals. . • ^ > 

VOL, IV. s 8 ' 

314 Review of New PubHcatioi/ls. 

' " The medicinal and trout' leech do not, I conceite, 
like the horse-leech, takfe any solid food ; nor have they 
the like propensity to destroy their own, or any other 
species of the genus 5 but these the hoi*se-leech will not 
hesitate to devour. 

" Leeches should be kept in large stone jars, which 
iill*e unglazed ;Uhe iead^ which is employed for this pur- 
pose, proving !delet6rious .to this animal. 
i \^ Wooden vessels are equally proper : indeed, leeches 
ai*e now usually imported in small casks, the •size of an 
oyster-barrel, each containing about 2000, instead of iii 
bags, as formerly. These are peculiarly convenient f<Mr 
the purpose, having a head made of stout canvass, affixed 
to a hoop, which is screwed on, and removed at pleasure, 
thus admitting air to the leeches. 

I ' ". Pond or river water is the most proper for the pre- 
servation of leeches. lit should not reach beyond the 
height of one half of the vessel; by which means, suffi- 
eient room is left for them to ascend from the water, 
whenever they are disposed so to do. The wholesale 
dealers prefer water which has been standing for a fort- 
night tor three weeks ; giving, as a reason, that the 
animalcula generated in it are necessary for their sup- 
port^ that, if the leeches be put into freshwater, they, 
receive no nourishment until these animalcula are pro- 
duced, and, in consequence, often become weak and 
unhealthy, through want of food. Water from ponds 
ought^ therefore, to be preferred. ; . 

f ' The vessels used for leeches must be large and capa- 
cious.- > luto, one holding a gall6n, fifty leeches are the, 
ytinost NW^ich it is proper ta put into a vessel of this 
^ze^ intendetl to preserve them even for a short time, 
"^hen a greater nuoiber is put in, the larger and stronger, 
ones sometimes d^stroy^ although they do not eat, the. 

Price* s Treatise on Leech Bleeding. 315 

smaller and weaker. When the winter beconvcn of n 
greenish hue, with the presence of a good deal of oxcro« 
mentitious matter aiihering to the sides of the vchhc^I^.U 
is a sure sign of the healthy condition of the h^echoH coii- 
fined in it. It is not necessary or proper, therefore^ to 
change the water in the vessel so often, as is covumohly 
done; cmce in every two months in winter, jancjlevfDcy 
month in summer, is often enough, except under pvcu- 
jliar circumstances ; as in very hot weather, when it niay be 
changed once or twice a week ; or upon the water turi^ 
ing bloody, an indication of disease i^mong the hiechent 
A little clean sand should also be thrown into the water* 

^' The vessels containing leeches should be placed in 
a situation secluded from all kinds of seen ti^ and afHuym ; 
and so chosen as to preserve^ as much as poMiblif^ af| 
equality of temperature in all seasons* 
. <^ When it is wished to preserve leeches for any length 
<^tinie, they dMMild beconiin^ in small nuwiM^n^^ not 
exceeding four or m together^ in earthen pi#ls^ htpUHnff 
about half a galloiu Eodi of these diouki contain ati^fii 
oae pound of gfairel^ a quart of water^ and be tied <rv«r 
with stroag canvass; the more auiimaknla^ small fi4i^^# 
whick inhabit tlie waler^ the better* liat^ in tme of 
defideaey of these^ a sonll quantity of the tfetik M4Mjd4tt 
iniiky m % stale of coagola^ may be oecaMinally 
tkrora inlo the vcsaeW 

We caaaoi take a«r leave of Dr. Priced fi<«k II itlM«t 
again jecoaMKnding it to the finr«»nrable aUenlion 44 
amr wnim . To the htads of finnilk» the ikttMMk 
tar the appiication and pr«»enrati/i«i of k<dh»^ ar^ m^^ 
InaUeu Bat we are M^nry to oJMerve a mt^^ifg^swj^ 0A 
i^le and aKuiy vevlol erfOf% whidi mm^t not »> af^^nar 
in a m^A ef this natnre. We bife the? nul W cor^ 


Nobtl Snijetitfonif. 

Kem Method of extracting Opium Jrom the Stomach, hy 
Mr. JuKCS. 

Mr. E. Jukbb, a surgeon in Westminster, has pub- 
lisbed, in the London Medical Journal, an account of a 
new method of extmcting opium from the stomach, when 
taken inadvertently, as in the late unfortunate ca^e of 
the Primate of Ireland, or as a poison. 

Mr. Jubes's motives for having recourse to this new 
method were that, when the vitality of the Btoinach, in 
auch caaes, has been so far reduced by the narcotic drug, 
so that that organ is insusceptible to the stimulus of an 
emetic, or is so enfeebled as to be incapable of assuming 
the actions necessary to vomiting, then it is incumbent 
on the Burgeon to resort to mechanical means for dislodg- 
ing the poison from the stomach. For this purpose, he 
used the apparatus which we are now about to describe. 
Isf, Take a hoUow flexible tube of elastic gum, about 
twenty-five inches in length, and half an inch in diame- 
ter, having three equidistant longitudinal grooves, of an 
inch and a half in length around its extremity. Within 
each groove, three holes, which perforate the tube, of 
one-eigbth of an inch diameter (though, perhaps, it 
might be as well to make them oblong, like the eye of a 
catheter,) and rather less than half an inch asunder. 
The opposite extremity of the tube to be fitted with a 
small screw, to be adapted to the other part of the appa-* 

2d. An elastic bottle, capable of holding a quart in 
measure, armed with a short pipe and stop-cock, similar 
to a hydrocele bottle, the extremity of which may bo 
screwPil into the end of the tube above mentioned. 

Method ofextraciwg Opium from the Stomach. SIT 

With such a simple apparatus, Mr. Jukes conceived 
that the stoaiach might be emptied when emetics have 
been tried in vain : and he proposed to use it in the foL> 
lowing manner: 

The tube having been carefully • passed down to the 
greater eur vature of the stomach, the elastic bottle being 
£lle4 with w^ter of the temperature of 150'' of Fahren« 
iieit's theiwometer, is to he screwed into it ; and the 
8top?cock being opened, the contents of the bottle is to 
be gently urged throu^ the tube into the stoinach, by 
the surgeoin, or an assistant, compressing the bottle 
between his hands. By removing this pressure, the 
bottle^ by its elasticity, recovers its original form and 
dimensions, and, consequently, performs the office of an 
exhausting pump, by which means the fluid is agaia 
drawn back into it, and, of course, removed from the 

' Mr. Jukes advises the water to be used of the high 
degree of temperature mentioned^ with the view of ob* 
faining some effects from its stimulus. It is well-known 
that there is no stimulant capable of rousing the sub« 
pended functions of animal bodies so certainly as heat. 
But, besides this, distending the stomach with water is 
mcure likely to mix the poison with that liquid, and 
thereby render it more easily abstracted. 

It is proper to remark, that it will not be necessary to 
inject the stomach in this manner, except in those in- 
stances where the patient has become comatose; if he 
remain sensible, he should be directed to drink copiously 
of hot water previously to the introduction of the tube 
into the stomach. 

Since this method was first projected in May last, Mr. 
Jukes has performed many experiments on dogs ; and, 
^Iso, by experiments on himself and others,- has satisfac- 

4 * 



318 Polytechnic and Scicnlj/lc JntelHgence. 

torily proved that tho apparatus is fully coiapctetit ta^ 
the purpuae of drawing off the contenta of the stomaeh [ 
eafely and effectively. 

The apparatus which he now uses consists of an elastic.] 
bollow tube, a quarter of an inch in diameter, and two'l 
feet and a half in length, having alBxed at one extremity 4 
a small globe of ivorj', with several perforations ; the J 
other extremity is adapted, either by a screw or plug, (tho'-l 
latter is preferable,) to an elastic boUle of suIBcient size i 
io contain, at least, a quart of liquid, having agtop-cock j 
fitted to it, similar to a hydrocele bottle ; or, instead of J 
the boUle, a pewter syringe of an equal capacity, adapted J 
to the flexible tube in the same manner. The operation I 
by the syringe is performed more quickly, and niay,perhaps^ 
therefore, by some be preferred. In cases where a 
surgeon has neither bottle nor syringe, the tube alone 
might he made to answer the purpose, by the operator 
applying his mouth to its extremity, and thereby instl^ 
tuting the office of a syphon. ^ 

In using the instruuient, Mr. Jukes places the patient ' 
on the left side, and having passed the tube either by 
the mouth or nostril into the stomach, he injects from 
the bottle a quart of the water, heated as before men- 
tioned, and withdraws it in the manner above stated. - 

Great Bihtain. | 

Surrey InslHuHon, ' 

The lectures for the season began at this Institution 
on the 1st of November, aa announced in a former num- 
ber: on which day Mr. Jgnninus delivered a longondi 

long and I ^H 

Mr. Jennings* sLectute at the Surrejf Institution. 319 

_ I 

laboured discourse on The History and UTiLiTr 
OF LiTEAARY Institutions, to a crowded and vejry 
respectable audience. As the public prints have, during 
the month,' done ample justice to this intefresting lee-, 
lure, we give the outlines of it to. pur readers, in prefe- 
rence to any disquisition, on its merits ; -and this we are 
enabled to do by immediate communicati0ns from Mr« 
Jennin^ss himself. 

' The Lecture was divided into two sections ; namely, 
HjSTORY and Utility. 

^ Mantis the only being upon the earth which has the 
power of communicating, what has been called, aggrcf: 
gate existence f thereby imparting his {knowledge to his, 
contemporaries and to posterity; hence, he is a pro- 
gressive being* Man is also a being eminently social 
and imitative : 

** The sphere for action is the sphere for man." 

The disposition to impart knowledge seems almost in« 
stinctive; but is, neyertheless, in some minds, almost 
quiescent: imparting the knowledge >ve have acquired 
should be, therefore, insisted on as a Duty. Literature 
is necessary to our effectual happiness : proofs may be 
found of this truth, in Turkey^ Abyssinia^ ^Sl/Ph 
Ireland^ and Scotland. Ldterary Institutions ought to. 
embrace the whole circle of useful knowledge: useful 
knowledge is that which, whether directly or indirectly,; 
contributes to our well-being and happiness : hence, in. 
Literature, much knowledge may be directly amusing 
only^ and yet, indirectly, extremely useful, by giving i^ 
proper relaxation, or direction, and tone, to the mind. . 
The most ancient book is the Bible ; it deserves bur 
marked and respectful attention, even as a specimen V)f 
the earliest literature.* The Jews had their historians. 

3^ Polj/technic and Scientific InteUigenec, 

their chroniclers, their prophets, and poets. TW 
Effyptians made also, in an early period of the world, 
gi-eat progress ia aome of the sciences ; but it was re- 
served for Greece, under the auspices of Plato and other 
Mges, to evince the progress which philosophy and lite- 
inture had made. It was in Greece that academies were 
first instituted. Rome followed the example of Greece, 
in establishing academies and It/ceums, 

To the declension of the literature of Greece and 
Rome, succeeded a long night of gothic and monkish 
ignorance, without mind and without knowledge. The 
scarcity of books, and their dearness, in the dark ages, 'la 
almost incredible. The Literary Institutions of the pre- 
sent day, the cheapest of all the known methods ofdif- 
Aising knowledge. 

The art of printing (in the fifteenth century,) assisted 
in untblding a series of novel and important dramas. 
The Italians first established academies. The family of 
the Medici, in the fifteenth century, contributed greatly 
to Ihcditfusion of a taste for letters. Of the academy of 
the Z,i/)ieei, Galileo was a member. The Academic 
Jran^aise was established, in France, in 1635. The 
Jiot/al Academj/ of Sciences, in 1666. FontEnelle wag 
secretary to this Academy forty-two years. The Imli- 
/K(e of France was established in 1795. 

After noticing the Royal Spanish Academi/, instituted 
in 1713, and the ^(Ae/KEwm, in 1890, a brief view of the 
chief Ulerary Institutions of this country was given. 
Tlie Universities obtained only a passing notice; the 
Royal Society, the Royal Academy of Painting, and the 
Society of Arts^ were also briefly mentioned ; but onr 
IiTSTiTPTioNB, emphatically so called, demanded and 
obtained more minute detail. 

The Literary Institutions of Liverpool required par- 

Mr. Jennings's Lecture at the Surrey Institution. 321 

ticular iiotice^ not only as there the first improvement in 
fHir literary societies was made; but as that town itself 
contains, at the present moment, Societies, and chiefly 
the Royal lAverpool Imtitutiony which are deserving our 
peculiar regard* The Aihenceum was established vk 
the year 1798.. It unites a good library with a coflfee* 
room, aiid affords admissioa to five hundred young men 
to read the books. The Lyceum was established in 1802^ 
The books of this institution circulate among the mem- 
bers, /which is not .the case wjth the books of the 
Athenaeum. The Royal Liverpool Institution, esta- 
blished in 1817, has more the character of a university 
than a literary academy. It has professors in the d^f* 
ferent sciences, and schools for the classics and the 
mathematics, with masters to each ; there is also a sepa- 
rate master for the Italian, the French, and the Spanish 
languages. It also contains an academy of arts, and 
exhibition rooms for sculpture, painting, &c. These 
literary Establishments owe much to the persevering 
genius of Mr. Roscoe, who is at the present time pre- 
sident of the Royal Liverpool Institution. Dr. Currie, 
who died in 1805, was also a zealous promoter of science 
in that town. 

Of the four institutions of the metropolis, the Royal 
InstitutioUy the London Institution, and the Russel In' 
stitutionj were concisely, but correctly noticed; but on 
the Surrey Institution, as it is about to close, Mr. 
JENNrNGs expatiated more at large, naming its peculiar 
advantages, and the scientific and literary lectures 
which have, from time to time, been given here by some 
of the first men of the age. '^ I have said," exclaimed 
Mr. Jennings, ^^that this Institution must close; but 
surely the intelligence of the age, of this enlightened and 
liberal metropolis will not permit this avenue of know- 

▼OL. IV. T t 

322 Polj/techmc and Scientific Inlelligence. 

ledge to be shut up. Surely, such an InKtitution, thus 
established, and thus conducted, amidst so much intellect 
and wisdom, will not be permitted to expire. It cannot, 
it must not be. Forbid it science ; forbid it benevo- 
lence ; forbid it, ye who desire to see knowledge, and 
happiness, the offspring of knowledge, abundantly flou- 
rish ; ye who desire that their seeds should be borne oti 
evei7 wind, and that our children may become partakers 
of those fountains of instruction and delight, at which 
we have had an opportunity of drinking, and which it is 
our duty to endeavour to make perennial." 

The Royal Socielj/ of Literature, and the Schools of 
Arts, at Glasgow and Edinburgh, were then briefly 
mentioned ; and also, in a cumpeDdious way, the Insti- 
tutions of America. 

" On a comparative view of the academies and other 
associated literary bodiea, of the last and previous cen- 
turies, and the Literary Institutions of the present time, 
we cannot avoid being struck with the manifest supe- 
riority of these last. Their being so easily and at all 
times accessible; and this, too, at comparatively a very 
trifling expense, is not among the least of their many 
important and valuable recommendations." 

In the SECOND section, Mr. Jennings began by dc" 
fining KNOWLEDGE, whicli may be either useful or luxu- 
rious, or it may be neither. The safest course, in our 
pursuit of knoiv ledge, is its certain .or probable utility. 
An indiscriminate attempt at the acquisition of all kinds 
of knowledge, whether useful, useless, or luxurious, is 
not only unwise, but preposterous. An election, there- 
fore, of the books which we read, and of the company 
with whom we associate, is indispensable, if we desire to 
obtain the greatest portion of happiness. 

Irquiriy and discussion, the only certain means of ar* i 

eans or ar^-^^H 

Mr. Jennin^s^s Ledure at the Surrejf In$titution. 9S3 

riving at Truth. Man, admitted a progressive beings no 
limit should ever be set to such inquiry by tmp^riou» 
dtetOj on any subject, or in any case. Think for your^ 
selves^ should be constantly pressed upon the attention of 
youth, and become their daily lesson. 

Language not thought, but the medium by which 
thought is conveyed. Lectures on the origin and struc- 
ture of language, on grammar, and style, ought to be 
givMi at these Institutions. The Greek, Latin, French, 
Italian, and German languages, most likely to repay 
with interest and pleasure the labours of those who 
choose to devote their time to their acquirement. 
Learnings however, must be estimated by its utility. 

The study of the English language, above all others, 
desirable for an Englishman. The necessity of under- 
standing one language at least well, cannot, on every 
account, be too much insisted on. 

The utility of a Literary Institution for improving 
the mind, and profitably engaging it, after the period 
at which youth is most commonly removed from school 
to mingle in the scenes of active life, is great and im- 
portant. The opinion that, when a young lady or 
gentleman leaves school, the education is finished, is an 
erroneous one, — all men are, and ever ought to be^ 

The utility of Institutions in promoting the practice 
6f the science ofmoralsy by lectures divested, as much as 
possible, of speculative opinion, was strongly insisted 
upon. The existence of a Deity, and the sublime mo* 
rality of the New Testament, ought to be specifically 
enforced; but controversial divinity niust be wholly 

" The utility of Institutions in diffusing, generally, a 
knowledge of the arts and sciences, was also pointed out; 

534 Poli/iechnic and Scientific JnUUigeitce, 

and a knowledge of medicine, particulailv that which 
relates to diet and regimen, recommended to be taught 
generally in all our Ini^titutions. Lectures ought also to 
be given on the means of obviating the numerous acci- 
,dents to which human life is continually exposed; such 
aa those from the various poisons, from drowning, Jire, 
and a tremendous et cmlera. Here many will listen, who 
will not take the trouble to read. 

Lectures on History, both universal and particular ; 
as well aa on Xaay, Jurisprudence, the British Constitu- 
tion, and Political Economy, ought also to bo given at 
these Institutions. Principles, rather than events and 
persons, ought to he dwelt upon, and invariably kept in 
view. With care, such highly e^icitiug subjects may be 
discussed calmly, and thus become useful and superla- 
tively interesting. 

The utility oMhese Institutions in promoting the fine 
arts, was also pointed out; and some exquisite s^ieci- 
mens of poetry, from Akenside, Bowles, and Byron, 
were recited ; but we can merely notice these. 

The utility of Institutions in promoting a taste for, and 
a knowledge of, the Belles Leltres, generally, was also 
mentioned, and more frequent lectures in this elegant 
department of literature recommended. 

The crowd of periodical publications and novelties, 
under which the tables of these Institutions even labour, 
was emphatically noticed : from tlie grave essay to the 
pungent repartee ; from the slightest scintillation to the 
strongest cor uscant flash of wit and of intelligence! 

An Institution ought also to teach eloquence; which, 
nevertheless, is exceedingly liable to be abused. The 
more exact method of giving lectures from written memO' 
randa, to be preferred, however, to spontaneous elo- 
quence for instructing mankind. The lectures of ^ 

ectures of ^J^^_ 

Mr, Jennings^s Lecture at the Surrey fnstitution. SS5 

Institution form a prominent attraction, and ought to 
be extended to other subjects here mentioned. 

The advantages of an Institution, which permits the 
boohs to circulate among its members, were forcibly 
pointed out ; chiefly by supplying th^ ladies with literary 
amusement and information. The Surrey Institution 
an example of these features. 

The. desire for novelty not to be repressed, but Only 
properly directed. The distinguished ladies of the last 
fifty years were honourably mentioned ; and encou- 
ragement to the giving of gratuitous lectures recom- 
mended. Mr. Jennings also strongly advised the intro* 
duction of music before the copimencement, in the mid- 
die, and at the conclusion of every lecture, given at these 
Institutions, when the lecture itself is not a musical one: 
for, if we desire to make these Institutions most effectually 
instructive, we must make them also attractive and 

The following is the peroration of this elaborate dis- 
course, and of which the preceding is a very inadequate 
sketch: — " On a review of what has been said, and of 
the extraordinary progress of Literature, and the march 
of events during the last fifty years in the^civilized wopld, 
it is obvious that a power is in operation in society of 
which, although known to our forefathers, the extent 
and force could neither be calculated nor foreseen* That 
power is knowxedge; to attempt to impede the pro- 
gress of which is not only useless, but erroneously mis- 
chievous. I can have no doubt that many of the evils 
which society has endured for some years past, and is 
still enduring, arise from the attempts, unwise as futile, 
to prevent the rushing of these mighty waters. Men 
should remember that we are progressive beings ; that 
irbat suits one period of society is often totally unfit for 

3S6 PoljfUehnic and S«ienli/k JnlelSigence. 

another, and a new one; that, at certain periods, man is 
more rapidly progressive than at others ; that the period 
of the last fifty years has been one of rapid progression, 
H'hich has led to a new and extraordinary era ; and that 
true wisdom, insteai^ of attempting to retain, or to restore, 
the old order of things, will be employed in arranging the 
new, so as to make it most benelicial for the general good. 
That, instead of opposing the rolling torrent, we must 
go along with it; and, though we may, indeed, regulate 
its impetuosity, we cannot, nor ought ive, to attempt to 
stop its course. And, as a hearty well-wisher to the 
diffusion of knowledge, I rejoice that it is thus triumph- 
ant; because I am persuaded that nothing but £^i)ofi!/frfg;e 
can improve our moral and social well-being. In this 
good work, our Literary Institutions stand pre-eminently 
(brward; and I trust that they will continue to assist, to 
impel, and to direct, the mighty operation." 

" The lecture," (wc copy from the public journals,) 
" exhibited very considerable research, as well as much 
taste and judgment. It was delivered in an eloquent 
manner, and has left an impression on the minds of the 
auditors, which will not, easily, be obliterated. Al- 
though it continued for more than two hours, not the 
least symptom of impatience was manifested; but, on 
the contrarj', the lecturer was frequently cheered during 
the evening ; and, at the close of the discourse, was 
received with reiterated bursts of applause. We trust 
that the lecture will be immediately printed, as it de- 
serves an attentive perusal by every friend to literature, 
the arts, and the dissemination of useful knowledge," 

With this desire, we are informed by Mr, Jennings, 
he is about to comply. The lecture is to be j 

I be priote^^^H 



Society of Arts. 

This Society commenced their sittings, for &e present 
season, on Wednesday, the 6th of Norember ; but no 
rewards for new inventions have yet been determined. 

The ConfMTTTEE of Mechanics has been occupied in 
considering the merits of various inventions. Among 
these, however, are the following: A double door hinge. 
This appearing to be the same contrivance as one for 
which a member of the society, last year, received the 
sHver vulcan medal, and that he had then imposed on 
Uie Society, by pirating another person's invention, 
it WHS determined to recall the medal, and expel the 
individual as an unworthy member. — A machine for 


cleaning mndowsy to be secured by a screw and winch, 
instead of iron pins; also, b, step-laddery connected to 
the machine, and a screen to prevent persons from fall- 
ing. — A method of preventing the mischief occasioned by 
Hke overturning of stage-coaches ; the body is proposed 
to be suspended on pivots, which rest upon the back and 
front of the carriage ; and, in the event of the vehi-i 
ele going over, the swinging body, by its gravity, pre- 
serves its erect position in the descent. — A method of 
preventing children from being lostj when strayed, by a 
small painted medal, suspended round the neck, describ- 
ing Ahe place of the child's residence : it may be desira- 
ble to know that, in X^ondon, a description of lo^ and 
found children is often to be seen posted at the south 
gate of the Royal Exchange.—^ mode of extinguishing 
JareSy by closing the doors and windows with wet blan^ 
fcetor carpets, so as to exclude air. — An iron for smooth^ 
ing linen; a box-iron, heated by being filled with boil- 
ing water.— '-4 mangle; the alternating motion produced 

SS8 Polytechnic and Scientific Intelligence. 

by a crank connected to a quadrant. — A thermometrical 
compensation for timc'pieces ; formed by arches of circles 
composed of two dissimilar metals united and attached, 
at one end, to the arms of the balance ; so that, by the 
expansion of the metal, which would cause its speed to- 
slacken, the circles become contracted, and, hence, the 
velocity is increased to a compensation.. — A Jlush holt 
and catch; the bolt is withdrawn by raising a small lever, 
instead of sliding it back.— ^ method of propelling vessels; 
by a horizontal windmill: — another, by the power of 
the capstan :— another, by a towing rope attached to an 
anchor or mooring block a-bead of the vessel, the rope 
being coiled in by the power of a ^team engine. — A 
mndmillfof grinding corn; to be driven by horizontal 
vaneSk * ^ . . 

While it is to be regretted that many trifling subjects 
are constantly brought under the consideration of this 
society, it must be satisfactory to know that their merits: 
obtain a thorough investigation; and that, therefore, 
the efibrts of inyentive genius in the arts are here sure 
of reward. 

lRarry*s Patent Carriage. 

An experiment has, we understand, been made with 
the patent carriage, invented by Mr. Barry, and described 
in our third vol. page 281, in order to ascertain its ad- 
vantages, compared with a carriage upon the old con- 
struction. On the 25th of November, a cart, built 
upon this improved plan, and loaded with brick, was 
drawn by one horse, accompanied by an ordinary cart, 


Borry'i PtUent Carriage, 

[ually loaded with bricks, and drawn by two horses. 
They proceeded from 

5 Cannon -street Road, to the Commercial Roftd, 
2 and through the turnpike, to Turner Street. 

Ktu) Gravel, (about 
andmud mllocbt. ' 

Through Turner Street, into the Whitechapel 



SDown Whilchaprl Road, throogh the Tampike, 
(o the weigh-bridge. 
Here llie two carls wore weighed : 
Tbw. Cu>l. 
Patent cart, drawn by one horse .... 2 10 
Common cart, drawn b; two horses . . 3 8 
Proceeded from the weigh-bridge, down the 
Wiiilcchapel Road, to the first laoe on the left 

Ditpmudandruti. J Down the lane, to a meadow, belonging to Mr. 

Soft meadow land. J Turned into the meadow, and went ronnd 

Returned by the same route home. 

The experiment was made to ascertain the advantages 
of draft obtained by the improved carriage ; and the 
result was that a load of two tons ten hundred-weight, 
was easily drawn, by one horse, in the patent carriage, 
without any extraordinary labour, even on soft, muddy, 
and gravelly roads ; while the two horses, with two hun- 
dred-weight less, laboured considerably, and with diffi- 
culty kept up to the first. The horses were frequently 
exchanged, in order to ascertain whether any superior 
animal strength produced the difference ; but that was 
not the cause: the advantages of the patent carriage 
were evident to all who witnessed the experiment, which 
was exhibited publicly, in the middle of the day, before 
many hundred people. 


Keto mttntfi sfeaUtt ivt 1822. 

To John Collier, of Compton-street, Brunswick- 
nqyare, Middlesex, engineer, for certain improvements 
upon Machines for shearing cloth. — Sealed September 
27th.— 2 montha for inrolment. 

To John Whitcher, of Helmet-row, St. Luke's, Mid^ 
dlesex, mechanic ; Matthew Pickford, of Wood-street, 
London, common carrier ; and James Whitbourn, of 
G OS well-street, Middlesex, coach-smith,, for certain im- 
provements in the construction of the- wheels of all 
wheeled carnages, and of all other vertical wheels of a 
certain size. — Sealed September 27th.— 2 months for 

To James Frost, of Finchjey, Middlesex, for a new 
method of casting or constructing foundations, piers, 
walls, ceilings, arches, columns, pilasters, mouldings, 
and other enrichments to buildings.* — Sealed September 
27th. — 2 months for inrolment. 

To Joseph Brindley, of Frinsbury, near Rochester, 
Kent, ship-builder, for certain improvements in the con- 
struction and building pf ships, boats, barges, and other 
vessels for navigation. — Sealed October loth — 6 months 
for inrolment. 

To John Jekylt, of Roundhill-house, in the parish of 
Wiiicanton, in the county of Somerse]4 captain in the 
royal navy, for certain improvements in steam or vapour 
baths, to render the same more portable and convenient 
than those in present use.— ^Sealed November 9th. — 2 
months fdr inrolment. 

To Francis Deakin,.^of Birmingham, in the county o£ 
Warwick, sword manufacturer and wire drawer, for an 
improvement in the manufacture of holster cases, car- 
touch boxes, and certain other description of cases.*^ 
Sealed November 9th. — 2 months for inrolment. 

To Henry Ibbotson, of Sheffield, in the county of 
York, fender manufacturer, for a fender capable of 
being extended or contracted in length, so as to fit fire- 
places of diflerent dimensions. — Sealed November 28th. 
• — 2 months for inrolment. 

To John Dixon, of Wolverhampton, in the county 
of Stafibrd, brass-founder, for certain improvements on 
cocks, such as are used for drawing ofi^ liquids. — Sealed 
November 28th. — 2 months for inrolment. 



( J 

incanj. wilhU, loDf!. 
J'6''(r. Diff. ofpec. 

S 21' i4' S. „ 

t 9 16 25 IT'S 1st Sat. will emerge 

froia itiahadaw. 
4 is 18 14 n'tti Sat. nil! emerge 
Trom ill ihadow. 
idrature ej 
St qHarter. 

> fj ID ctmj.nith SnPIon);. 
efiyst. DLffafdec. 

19« 40'. S. 
I dinconj.wilbanl.loag. 
a- 6° SB". Diff. of dec. 
13'. ntlfi iVS. oti; 

se" B' s. 

> ll in conj. vilh U , long. 
B'B'eg". Difr. oFdec. 
4" 31". H 26" S" S. y 
SI" 3S' S. 

> ( in conj. with Q , long. 
a- le- 21". Uitf,'of dec. 
2° 57' (la6°48'S. 5 
23= f--' 


ta descending node, 
long. B' 18=31'. 

13 1 (4 Ecliptic conjnncliau, or 

# New moon. 

14 ^ ipiUdesceodingnode, 

, long. B" in" 51', 

15 3 10 J) in coiy. wiib 3 , long. 

9«ia''J9'. Diff. of dec. 
Sff. j 34" J7'- S, 
81° 37' S. 

2 14 

5 29 
11 20 18 

25 9 30 
J6 17 3 

12 l^'s 1st Sat. willpioerge 

from it^ shadow. 
56 Vntt Sit. will emerge 
fVoiii iiBsliadow. 
It Pint Quartpr. 
41 »'s3dSat. fclipsed. 
OQ enters VJ. 
in snperiorconj, witli 

9 long. 9' 1" 23. 
} in conj. wilh ii , long. 
1'3°20'. Diff. of dec. 

7° It. > 17° atf N. 

ii iCie^N. 

n a inAphelJDO. 

]) in conj. with % , leng. 

U (7»43'. Diff. of dec. 

5° 35' ]Jf4''*S'N. n 

18° 4B' N. 
5 V's 1st Sat. will emerge 

from its sliadow. 
> in conj. with 1$ lang. 

2" 20= 4'. Diff. of dec. 

1"S7'. Bse^Si/N. d 

y H8" 27' N. 

37 18 

2B 9 30 2 

9 in conj. with ^, long. 
9* 7" 3iy. Diff. of dec. 
1" 21'. ii" 54' S. 
^23° SB'S. 
' in Perigee. 



iTliermo. harceti.,. 



Tliermu. | Batu 



'^'^'-Ihw. Lo™. + 


Hl<,.bo,..| + 










53=1 59b 







50 37 













48 i39 








48 1 29 

+ ,06 




+ ,05 




4B 37 

+ ,23 















+ ,'5 



54. 37 

+ ,12 

■« . 




+ ,15 


54 1 37 









+ .<>3 










+ ,22 











iO +,0B 






40 1 .... 






— ,U 



43 .... 






w £ #1- Aimfimt^ The Narrative of a Joarney from tl# 

Jk camefUenee of the duttn^ shorS of Hadwn'* Bay to the Maotb 

ruUhed anmrobatian Ufith which of tiie Copper-mine River, &c. by 

* ^ *» T Capt. Frankwh, which was under* 

the Leetwre of Mr. Jennings jai^^n mider the direction and aathonty 

AjiM h^^ received, a report of of the Earl of Bathorst, one of his Mt- 

MU Oeen recetveay a rcpurt vj ^ principal secretaries of stste, 

^Mdk is given in another part of and of which a sketch was given in oar 

. f •* • -^.- i- #Jh^ last nmnber, is annoonced for pnbhcs- 

&wr Joftmal, tt m notr t« tne ..^^ ^ ^^^ iUnstrated vnth charts 

jn^, and Witt be shortfy ready ^ VSiXu^u SStHooi """' 

for puUieaiian, together with ^ BRooirt 

Note8anda?KEVACE,containing jJ^j^JidirS A^^ 

Ohservaiions on the unwarrant' ments of Arch«ologr, ^^/^"^^^ 

-. . kind ever edited m England, win, veiy 

abk Misrepresentattons to which speedily, he poblished. 

file delivery of this Lecture has The arte m France reap great benefit 

^ven rise from the practice of tiie government in 

given TiK. purchasing pictures and works of 

Speedily will be published, in crown sculpture,and distributing them throngh- 

8vo.Ontiiiies of Character; consisting out the chief cities of the kmgdom. 

of the great character— the Enslisfa The minister of the interior hu lately 

character— characteristic classes in presented the marWe statue of ilruj*- 

lehition to happiness— the gentleman— demusai the Tomb of hia Ddmghier, by 

MKtemal indications of character— era- M. Ban, to the city of Donai; that of 

niology— the poet— the oratoi^-literary the ChaneeUor VBoptial, by M. Dbbat, 

character— the periodical critic— the to Aigueperse, in the Pay de Dome; 

inan of genius. By a Member of the that of P. ComtiUef by fill. Cor^ot, to 

Philomatiiic Institution. Rouen ; and that of Im FamU^^ by 

M.Laitie, toChateavTliKevrie. The 

A Journal of a Horticultural Tour marble bust of IVmcif /. by M.0ayii>, 

through Flanders, Holland, and the y^^ i^een sent to Havre ; the bnst of 

north of France, by a Deputation of j^^ji ^^^ by m. Pujol, to Dunkirk ;[ 

the Caledonian Horticultural Society, i^e bust of Jewu Hachette^ by M. 

will appear early next month. Guersbul, to Beauvais ; and, lasUy, 

Mr. Westall's iUn.t«tio». of th« ^tJX."^ '^'mlcltJ^Vs'y,^ 

•teei, by Mr. i^barles hbat?. ^^^ .^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ 

An officer in his Majesty's service adorned them. This is a noble way» 

has nearly ready for publication, Fif- doubtless, to excite in their inhabitants 

teen Years in India; or, Sketches of a the love of good and great actions, 

Soldier's Life ; being an attempt to de- since it shows them that virtnous and 

fcribe persons and things in various usefnl citizens do not escape the grat^t 

ptrta or Hmdostati. fal remembrance of posteiity. 

^^^j^H ^^^1 


H AcADBHT of Arts of Ireland - 44 

H Auchori.Hawkiiu'a patent • 60 

facts relative to tlie - 55 

 CbrEslopbert - 113 

Deurbroncq'a patent - 15 

ingwhales.nDliceconceraing ICB 
Church's patent printing appa- 

K patent - 396 

^K Aruiatta,solBtioDof,Ford>«pat. 70 

ratus, account of - - 199 

Cooking apparatus, Eckstein's 

V Babbnge, Mr. accoaiit of Lis 

patent - - - 1 

 Invention of a micbEne for 

oonstrQctiag tables of lofta- 

J eakes' patent - - S4S 

rilhnu, &c. nnerringi; - 103 

Copper, quantity of, raised in 
Great Britain in tbe year, 105, 165 

Barometer, exlraordinary de- 

prEuioPoftbe,in Dec.lSSl 159 

Croton oil, mode of extracting. 

_ Barry, hia patent carriage, ex- 

Conwell's patent - - S3i 

^ perimentfi wilb - - SiQ 

 Black for printing ink, HarUn 

 and Graflon'a patent - 73 

Damp in walls, method of ob- 

viating - - - 16S 

■^ Blow-piue,Newnian'B,deaerlp- 

Davy, Dr. on corrosive sobK- 

tion ot, by Mr. ChUdren . 29 

mate - - '97 

Boats acd barges, Bell's patent 1 17 

Dennis's plan for improvement 

Bodoe, in Norway, accouul of. 

of tbe merchant service - S09 

byMr.Sf. Barbe -306 

Dip of tbe needle, account of 

Boilers, Brown's palenl - 68 

the  - • 156 

m , defective form, and 

Dongh, machinery for preparing «9 

H mode of improving -239 

H Boring for water, method de- 

H scribed - £0I 

deH:ribed by Sir H. Davy . i j7 

^K Breaking stones by iteam, ac- 

 count of - 161 

Fatton's cliranoineter, some 

H Bridge, Ibe new Londoa, some 

iu:cDDnt of - - 104 

 account of . 56 

Fine Arts in India - • 168 


Frth, improved mode of catcb- 

Carriages, wheeled, improve 

iug, Chabanne's patent - 235 

menls on, Gordon's patent - 17 

Forgery, on tbe plans for the 

Cadminm, some acconnt of - 106 

prevention of - - B6 

Canal, the grand Weatern, in 

Gas, on tbe redaction of a vo- 

America, some aceonnl of - !76 

another - - 77 

Cast-iron, on the strenglh of -874 

Gases, on the heat of the - 160 

Glover's Exhibition of Paint- 

2*3, 27B, 331 

ings, account of - - 49 

_ Atlas, Jamieson's - ise 

Gloves, machine for sewing and 

L Chranometers, method of less- 

pointing. Winter's patent - 13 

 euing the «rrara of, at sea - 161 

Glue mauufaclured from bones, 
Yardley's patent - - 236 

^1 ""■ ^ Coles patent 63 

 Compau, a new, some account 

Gordon, Mr. in explanation of 

 of . ' . .56 

his patent for wheel-carriages l3l 

H Compreulon of water, instru- 

Granville, Dr. his method of 

^1 ;ncnlforthe . sis 

analyring vegetables - H 



Oreenlaiicly recent information 

concerning - - 373 

Griffith's steam-carriage - 214 

Hawkins's anchor, testimonial 

relative to - - 215 

Heliotrope, account of the - J 98 
Herapath, Mr. on Cadmiam - 106 
Herculauenm MSS., Sir H. 

Davy's ezptriments on the 275 
Hops, analysis of - - 215 

Horticnltoral Society, pro- 
ceedings of the • 45, ^6 
Hydraulic orrery, Mr. Busby's 25 

Kettle, Gordon's improved - 249 
Knife, curious account of a - 164 

Iron, improvements in the pro- 
cess of puddling - 

i«-«>», malleable, improvements 
in the manufacture of, Har- 
ford's patent 


- 284 

Jamieson's Celestial Atlas, some 

account of • • 128 
, note 

of the Editor on • - ISO 

* Jennings, Mr. report of his Lec- 
. ture at the Surrey Institution S18 
Journal of Natural Sciences, 

Denmark - - 165 

—  " Science versus Dr. 

Thomson - . 187 

Lamps, improved, Cochrane's 
patent - - - 169 

I , and the 
composition to be burned 
therein, Gordon's patent - 245 
liamp, monochromatic, descrip- 
tion of, by Dr. Brewster - 161 
X<ampic acid - - 105 

Land Expedition in the North- 
west of America - - 269 
Leeches, on the preservation of 314 
Lino-stereo tablets, Stearf s - S2 
LiTEUARY Notices, &c. 56, 112, 

168, 224, 280, 332 
Lithography, notice concerning 218 
Loddige's nursery and. hot- 
houses, description of the - 162 

Macnamara, Mr. explanatory 
of his patent for paving • 85 

Masts and casks, metallic, 
Biirs patent - - 179 

111, 167, 21^3, 278, 331 


MezzGtinto engraving,improve. 

ments in, by Mr. Lupton - 255 
Mont Blanc, ascent to the 

summit of - r 280 

Nitrate of soda, native, some 

account of a bed of, in Peru 105 
Nomenclature, obserrations on 52 

Oil for flocks and watches - 108 
Opium, new method of extract- 
ing, from the atomach, by 
IVlr. Jukes - • 316 

Pai^ng-stones,Macnamara*8pa. 10 
Faulting on glass, some account 

of - . -93 

Paintings, Sic, at Paris, ac- 
count of the exhibition of - 217 
Patents, list oe the, seav- 
EO 1822, 53, 109, 166, 221, 29^7, 

II . for the 

Steam-engines - - 265 

, NEW, granted to 
Applegath, A. for improve- 
ments in printing machines 57 
Archbold, J. F. for 

ventilating close carriages - 305 
Barton, John, for a 

process for ornamenting the 
surface of steel and other 
metals - - -125 

BUI, R. for improve- 

ments in the c<^truction of 
boats - - - 117 

' for an im- 

proved method of manufac- 
turing metallic tubes, cylin- 
ders, &c. adapted to the 
construction of masts, yards, 
&c. - - - 179 

Brown, H. for im- 

provements in boilers, by 
which fuel is saved and smoke 
consumed - - 68 

Chabannes, J. F. 

Marquis de, for a new me- 
thod of catching fish . - 286 
Christopher, J. for 

improvements on, and a sub- 
stitute for, anchors - 113 
Cochrane, Hon. W. 

£. for improvement^ in the 
construction of lamps - 169 

Cole, J. F. for im* 

provemenls in chronometer 63 

' ColUnge, J» for r^ 
en for sugar^imUa - SOS 



Patent to ConweU, W. E. C. 
for a purgative yegetabie oil 235 

— Denrbroucq, D. P. 
for an improved apparatus in 
fermeutation - - 15 

Eckstein, G. F. for 

improvements in cooking 
apparatus - • 1 

Errard, Pierre, for 

improvements on piano- 
fortes and other keyed mu- 
sical instruments - - 230 

• ■*• Fatton, F. L. for an 
astronomical watch - 297 

Ford, W. for a solu- * 

tion of annatto - - 70 

Gardner, D. for a 

stay to correct deformity of 
shape - -- - 241 

Gauntlett, Thomas, 

for improvements on vapour 
baths - - - 281 

Gladstone, James, 

for increasing the strength 
of timber - - 122 

-, John, for 

improvements in the con- 
struction of steam-vessels - 173 
Gordon, D. for im- 

provements in the construc- 
tion of wheeled carriages - 17 

-, for im- 

provements and additions to 
- steam-packets - - 174 

' Gordon, A. and Gor- 

don, D. for improvements in 
lamps . - . 245 

 Grimshaw, J. for flat 

ropes • - - 3 

Harford, R. S. for 

improvements in puddling 
iron - - - 8 

1 for 

improvements in the manu- 
facture of bar, rod, and sheet 
iron - - - 284 

Hawkins, R. F. for 

improvements in the con« 
struction of anchors - 60 

Hobday, S. for im- 

provements in umbrellas - 303 
Macnamara, for im- 

provements in paving streets, 
roads, &c. - . - 10 

— — Martin, T. and Graf- 
ton, C. for a spirit black - 73 
Motley, T. for im- 

provements iii lamps and 
catidlesiicks • - 183 


Patent to Paul, R. and Hart, S. ^ 
for improvements in carriage 
springs , - - 126 

 — Postans, F. and 
J^kes, W. for a cooking 
apparatus - - - 243 

-^— Ravenscroft, W. for 
a forensic wig - - 120 

 Roxby, R. B. for an 
astronomical quadrant - 293 

Smith, J. for im- 

provements in machinery for 
cropping woollen cloths - 69 
Smith, J, F. for dress- 
ing piece goods - • 288 
Thompson, J. for an 

improvement in forming steel 
for carriage springs - 181 

Tomlinson, R.'J. for 

an improved rafter for roofs, 
beams, and other purposes 124 
Wass, J. for improve- 

ments in smelting furnaces - 225 
Winter, J. for im« 

provements in sewing leather 
gloves - - - 12 

Yardley,C. for a new 

method of obtaining glue 
from bones by steam - 236 

Patents, notice relative to spe- 
cifications of -^ - 305 

Piano-fortes, Erard's patent - 230 

Piece goods, improvements in 
dressing, Smith's patent - 288 

Pier of suspension at Brighton, 
account of tlie - - 280 

Poisoning by opium, method 
of treating - • 214 

Potatoes, on the gnting and 
drying of •? - 165 

Printing, extraordinary dis- 
patch in - - 168 

  improved machine, 
Applegath's patent - 57 

 apparatus, notice of 
Church's - - 199 

Prout, Dr. on the changes in 
the principles of the egg - 98 

Prussic acid, some accoimt of, 
and the best mode of its ad- 
ministration - - 218 

Prismatic colours on steel, 
Barton's patent - - 125 

.Quadrant, Hadley's improve- 
ment ouj Roxby's patent • 299 
Quadrature of the circle - 53 




tUften te rooliiyTaiiiUnaoB's 

patent • • • if4 

———ybow and string, Smart's 148 
Hbvibw of New Public a- 
HaiUtt*s Table^Talk;,Vol. 11. 94 
Hortos Anglicus, or modem 

English Garden • 155 

James on the Flemish and 

Datdi Schools of Pamting 89 
London's Cyclopsdia of Gar- 
dening • -96 
Machines and Processes spe* 
cified in expired Patents 
in France - - 152 
Myer*s System of Modem 

Geography - •34 

Partington on the Steam- 
engine - - 259 
Price on the Leech • 310 
Roacoe's Memoirs of Benve- 

BOtoCallini - - S04 

Society for the Enconrage- 
ment of National lodastiy 
in France, Bulletin of the 151 
Time's .Telescope - 309 

Roofsy Holdsworth's plan for 

constracting - • 149 

Ropes, flat, Grimshaw's patent 3 
Royal Academy of Music, ac- 
eoontof the • * loO 

  Sciences in 

Fhmce, proceedings of the 108 
*  Society of London, pro- 
ceedings of the 44, 97, 156 
  of Literature, 
proceedings of the - 96 
of Edinbargb, 

proceedings of the - loi, 160 

Sea-water, analytis of, by Mr. 

Faraday - - 194 

 its effects on steam- 

boilers - - ib. 

Shearing woollen cloth, Smith*s 

patent - • - 69 

Smart's bow and spring rafter 148^ 
Smelting famace,Was8's patent 235 
Society of Arts, proceedhigs of 

the . - 41, 327 

Spade-hasbandry, Mr. Falla on 19 

_—« experiments on 112 

Specific gravity, instrument for 

determining - - 163 

Springs for carriages, Paul's 

and Hart's patent - 126 

»   , improved 

preparation of, Thompson's 
patent • • • 181 

Statue^ the bronie,inHyde-paric S75 
Stays for deformity, Gardner^ 

patent - . - 24i 

Steam-engine,listof the patents 

for the'- . -265 

Steam navigation, JReport of 

the Committee of the Honse 

of Commons on « - 132 

Steam-vessel on a canal, ezpe« 

riment with a - - 164 

Steam-vessels, Gladstone's pat. 173 
 , Gordon's patent 174 
Sugar an excellent preservative 

of animal food - -256 

— - mills, improved rollers for. 

Colli nge's patent • 303 

Surrey Institution^ proceedings 

ofthe - - -97 

 , Lectures at 

the - - 207, 318 

Tauj agra, some account ofthe 165 
Temperature of the Old and 

New World, comparative 

view ofthe - • 22d 

Timbers,increasing thestrength 

of, GVadstone's patent - 122 

Tread-mill, description of the, 

at Brixton • • .142 

Tubes, elastic flexible, by Mr. 

Skidmore • - 258 

Umbrella, description of a new 274 
— — , improvement in, 
Hobday's patent - - 302 

Vapour-bath, Gauntlet's patent 281 

Ventilation of close carriages, 
Arcbbold's patent - d05 

Velocipede, new, some account 
of a - - • 199 

Verdegris, account and analy- 
sis of, by Mr. R. Phillips - 210 

Vienna, Alpaca, &c, account 
of attempting to domesticate 
the, in Spain - - 188 

Voyage or discovery by the 
Russians - • %9o 

 from Salten Fiord to 
Tromso, by Mr. St.Barbe, 249,306 

Watch, astronomical, Fatten's 

patent - - • 206 

West's Gallery of Paintings, 

account of - - 208 

Wig, the forensic, Ravenscroft's 

patent - - 120 

Wmdmills, premium for the 

constraction of, in'Auslria ^ 27d 

PtiDtsd b^ J. and 0. A4Ur4, 39, BarthtlMatir Cloie. 




taken from the Building