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Index. 



IX. 



INDEX. 



Atifcs of Parliament relating to London 

Government 2 

Accidents in Streets, Number of . . 112 
Aldermen, Borough Councils (sej under 
each Borou;?h) 
„ City Corporation . . .103 
„ Ix>n Ion County Council . .25 
Animals, Diseat'esof . . . .55 
Areas, Ijocal Government . . .8-9 
„ of Parks and Pleasure Grounds . 3j 
„ Municipal, Poor Law, Polic^ and 

Postal London . . . .8-0 

„ Telephone 2)3 

Artistic Crafts, Technical Instruction 

for workmen engaged in . . .77 
Art, Works of. Preservation by London 

County Council G) 

Asylums Committee (L.C.C.) ... 28 

„ Lunatic S) 

Assessment System 2^ 



B 

Baby Farming, L.C.C. Begulations to 

Prevent ....*.. 55 
Band Performances in Parks and Open 

Spaces, L.C.C. Arrangements . . 37 

Banstead Lunatic Asylum . . . 59 

Baths (see under Borough Councils) 

Battersea Borough Council . . .248 

EliBCtric Lighting . . .16) 

„ Housing 137 

Bedford College 8) 

Bermondsey Borough Council . .251 

„ Board of Guardians . . 330 

Electric Light . . . 16J 

Housing . . . .137 

Bethnal Green Borough Council . . 254 



PAOB, 

Bethnal Green Board of Guardians . 332 
Electric Light . . . .158 

Betterment 225 

„ Rate*, where L3vied . . 50 
Batting in Streets, Bye-laws . . 223 
Bsxley Lun itic Asylum . . . .59 

Births and Deiths 222 

Blackwall Tunnel. Description of . .33 
BoatiUii in London Parks, li.C.C 's 

Arrangements for i36 

B »ats. Pleasure, on Thames, Registra- . 

tionof 108 

., (See also Steamboat;^) 

Borough Councils 245 

„ and Regulation of Milk Shops 

and D.iiries . . . .43 

,, The Powers and Duties of .2*5 

Municipal Markets . . .177 

Boundaries of G >verning Bodies . . 8-9 

Bowling Greens in London Parks , . 36 

Bridges over Thaines, Control of . 18, 99 

Bridges, Tunnels, and Ferry . . . 33 

Baildfing Act, District Surveyors . . 243 

Building;*, Hii^toric, Preservation of . 60 

'Bus Drivers, No. of Licences Granted . 112 

Burglaries in Loadoi;, Number of . Ill 

Bye-laws f r Gool Government of 

Lonion 223 



Camberwel I Borough Council. . . 25> 

„ Board of Guirdiais . . 353 

Electric Light . . .159 

,, Housing . . , .137 

Cane Hill Lunatic Asylum . . .59 

Carbide of Calcium, R3gulatlon5 for 

the Sale of 54 

Cass Foundation, Education Scheme 73 74 
Cattle Markets 173-5 



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Index, 



xi. 



PAGE. 

Census Returns 218 

Central Criminal Court . . .114 

Chairmen of L.C.C 19 

Charitable Institutions . 100, 375-376 

Cheapside, Widening of . . . .47 

Chelsea Borough Coum-ii . . .253 

,, Board of Guardians . . .335 

Electric Light . . . .159 

„ Housing 138 

City Aldermen . . . . . .100 

„ asaCounty ani Muuiciyality 97-98 

„ Corporation 95 

„ Chamberlain 104 

„ Comptroller 104 

„ Electric Light 159 

,, Guardians 333 

„ Officers 1C4 

„ Remembrancer . . .104 

„ Police 114 

„ Secondary 1C4 

„ Solicitor 104 

., Serjeant 104 

„ Surveyor 104 

„ Town Clerk 104 

Claybury Lun-^tic AsyUun ... 59 

Clerk, Chief, L.C.t J 31 

Coal, Sale of , L.C.C. Regulations . 5153 
Colney Hatch Lunatic Asylum . . b9 
Commercial Education, L.C.C. . . 82 
Common Council, Court, of . . . 101 
Commons in London, List of . . .36 
Commissioners of Sewerj-', Abolition of . 3 
Committees, Chief, L.C.C. . . 28 30 

Companies. Livery 97 

Conservancy, Lee 109 

„ Thames 108 

Conservative Party Orgauisatious . . 15 
Constables, Number of . . . 113-114 
Continuation Schools (Evening) . . 69 
Contractors and London County Coun- 
cil 40 

Coroners, Duties of. Salaries and Dlr- 

tricts 56-57 

Corporation, City, Constitution and 

Powers % 

Work of % 

„ Members of , . . . .100 

„ Committees of . . . .103 

Chief Officers of . . .104 

„ Health Departmcut . . 107 

Housing 135 

Markets 173 

Cost of London Goveruiiieiit ... 6 
County Courts, Judge^s aud Regi.tiar.s . 116 

Rate 91 

Scholarships .... 83 

Courts Central Criminal. . . .114 

„ Coroners', liist of ... 57 

„ Police, List of . . . .115 

„ London County . . . .116 

„ Petty Sessional . . . .117 

Quarter Sessions . . . .115 

Cowshed Regulations . . . . <5 

Cricket in Parks 36 

Crime, Statistics of Ill 

Cycling in Parks, Regulations . .36 



Dairies, Regulation of . . . .45 

Death Rates, &c 222 

Deptford Borough Council . . .259 
Electric Light . . . .159 
Direct Labour and L.C.C. . . . 38 
Dihtrict SurveyoiB under Building 

Act 243 

Domestic Economy, Instruction in . 83 

Drunkenness. I'roportion to Population 216 

Police Charges . . . .111 

Duties of Borough Couucllo . . .245 



E 

Economics, School of, L.C.C. Grant . 80 

Education 62 

Committee. . . , .87 
Educational Institutions Controlled by 

City Corporation 99 

Election Results, Boroughs . . .247 
„ Returns, Loudon County Couu- * 

cil 19 

,. Parliamentary . . . 10-13 
Electorates, the London . . .13 
Electric Car, First onCo .JuitSyitjm . 122 
Electrical Engineer, L.C.C. ... 31 
Electric Light Supply . . .153 
„ Summaries of Councils' Ac- 
counts 160 

Elementary Education .... 64 
Employment Agencies, Registration, 

&c 56 

Employment of Children Act, 1903 . 56 
Engineer's Department, City Corpora- 
tion 107 

Engineers in Charge, Association of . 371 
Epileptic Colony. Ewell .... 60 
EcLualisation of Rites . . . .231 
Estates Department, The City . . ?8 
Ewell Epileptic Colony .... 60 
Expenditure oa London Govcrnpioir. . 6 
„ of London County Council . 94 
Explosives Act, L.C.C. Regulations . 54 



Fabian Society 373 

Farmfleld Reformatory . . . .217 
Female Shop Assistants, 8 .ii^for . . 55 
Finsbary Borough Council . . .261 
Electric Light . . .159 
Fire Brigade, Work of . . . .40 
„ Appliances . . . 40-42 

Di>tricts 40 

Staff of .... 40-42 
„ iiitations ... .40 

„ Insurance Coiupauica' Contri- 
butions to . . . .43 
Government Contributious to 43 
Flash and Search Lights Bye-Law . 224 
Fleet-street, Widening of . . .47 
Fluctuation of Population since 1801 

219-221 



Xll. 



Index. 



PAOE. 

Fish Markets 176 

Foreign Cattle Market. Statistics . . 175 
Football in Parks. Provision for . . 36 
Freedom of City. How Obtained . . 97 
Freehold Estates of City Corporation . 98 
Fulham Borough Council . . .2^3 
,. Board of Guardians . . . 336 
Electric Light . . . .161 



FAOB. 

Infant Life Protection .... 55 
Inebriates' Home at Horley . . .217 
Inquests, Statutory Requirements as to S6 
Intermediate County Scholarships . 84 
Irish Society (City) . . . .103 
Islington Borough Council . . .275 
„ Board of Guardians . . .346 
Electric Light . . . .163 



Games in P.irk* • 36 

Gas cliarges 171 

., Lightand Coke Company. AH.iirs of 167 

„ Meter Testing 53 

„ Supply. Ilihtory of . 
Golf in Parks, Provision for 
Governing Authorities, Central 
Government. London 

,. Grants to Schools 
Greenwich Boroutrh Council 
„ Board of Guardians 
„ Electric Light . 
„ Tunnel 
Guardians, Boards of 
Guilds (Trade) and Relation to 

Corpo-ations .... 
Gymnasia for Children in Parks 



Judicial Authority, City Corporation as 98 
Junior County Scholarshipi ... 81 



City 



, 167 

36 

, 18 

1 

69 

265 

339 

, 159 

, 33 

. 330 



97 
36 



Hackney Borough Council . . . 267 

„ Board of Guardians . . .340 

Electric Light . . . .161 

Hammersmith Borough Cm lu-il . .269 

,, Board of Guardiaus. . . 342 

Electric Light . . . .162 

„ Housing 1''8 

Hampstead Borough Council . . .271 

„ Board of Guardian.*. . . 343 

Ele/tric Light . . . .162 

Housing 138 

Hanwell Luuatic Asylum . . .60 
Higher Education in liOiidon . . . 72 
Hi^torical fcurvey of London Govern- 
ment 3 

Historic Building?, Pre.-ervation of . 60 

Holborn Borough Council . . .272 

Board of Guardians . . .344 

Electric Light . . . .159 

Horses, Worn-out 45 

llorton Asylum, Ep om . . . .60 

Hornimau Museum and Grounds . . 61 

Householders, Court of Appeal . 45 

Housing, Powers of ixx;al Authorities .• 125 

,, Summary of L.C.C. Work . 127 

„ Analy.'-is of L.C.(^. Accounts 133-135 

The City Corporation and . 135 

„ What the Borough Councils 

are Doiug . . . .137 



Improvements by Metropolitan Board 
of Works 45 



Kensington Bormigh Council . 

Board of Guardians . 

Electric Light . 
King's College .... 
Knacker's Yards, Licensing of 



278 

347 

. 153 

79 

, 45 



Lambeth Borough Council . . .280 

Board of Guardiaus . . 348 

Electric Light . . . .159 

Lamps, Petroleum, Accidents. . . 64 

Tieather-tanniujf Technical School . 75 

liCe Conservancy 109 

Lewisham Borough Council . . . 'JBZ 

,, Board of Guardians. . .350 

Electric Light . . . .159 

Housiog 139 

Library Association .... 373 
liibranes (see under Borough Councils) 
Liberal Party Organisati»ns . . . 15 
Licensing, L.(LC'. Temperance Policy . 216 
Lith(^raphy. School of . . . .75 
Loj il Government Changes in 1937 . 4 
Lojomotion in Loudon — 

Tramways 123 

Lodg'ng Houses (Common), Supervision 

of .... 43 

(Seamen's) . . .46 

Tyondon Areas 8 

London County Council, Co jstitation . 18 
„ Chiirmeuof . . . .19 
„ Ch ef Committees, and Names 

of Chairmen . . . 23-30 

„ Coroners 55 

„ Educar.ion 62 

„ Election Returns . . 19-26 
Eugineer's Department . 32 

,, Finances .... 94 

,, Fire Brigade ... 40 

,, Historic Buildingd . . .60 
„ Housing . . . . 127 

,, luebriates 217 

„ Improvements ... 46 

„ Lun itic Asylums ... 59 
Members' Names and Ad- 
dresses .... 26-28 
„ Parks and Pleiwure Grounds . 33 



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XIV. 



Index. 



PAOB. 

Lfmdon County Council Preservation of 

Historic Buildings . . GO 
„ Public Control Department . 50 
„ Public Health Department . 44 
,, Rate Levied by . , . 92-93 

„ 8taff 31 

,, Stock, Metropolitan Confoli- 

dated 89 

,, Stock, London County Con- 
solidated .... 90 
„ Temperance Policy . . .216 
,. Works Department . . . 38 
London Government, Sketch of . .1 
„ „ Cost of . . .6 
„ Municipal Society . , .371 
Long Grove Asylmn . . . .60 
Lord Mayor : His Powers and Duties . 100 
IjORl Property in Public Conveyances .112 
Ludgate Hill, AVidentngof ... 47 
Lunatic Asylums 58 

M 

Main Drainage System . . . .32 
Metropolitan Af^ylums Board . . 322 

Mauor Asylum 60 

Mansion HouFe Council . . . 373 
Maps— Electric Lighting in London . 154 
„ Gas Companies' Areas . . 169 
„ liondon Areas .... 9 
Port of London . . . .207 
Markets Controlled by Local Authori- 
ties 177 

Business Done at . . 174-176 



Markets, Finances of . . .174 
Medical Officers of Health, Incor- 
porated Society 373 

Metric System 51 

Metropolitan Boroughs Statistics . . 370 
Metropolitan Asylums Board, Institu- 
tions and Staffs . . 321-3 5 
„ Hospitals and Homes . 325-327 
Members of the . 323-324 

Work of the . . .322 

Midwivcs, Supervision of . . .46 
Mile Knd Guardians .... 352 
Milk 6hops, Regulation of . . . <5 
Milk Supply, Regulation of . . .45 
Municiial Corporatons, Association of . 371 
„ Electricity, Position of . 159 

Societies 371 

Music in Parks and Open Spacej . . 37 

N 

National Poor I^aw Officers' Association 373 

,. Teleph' ne Company . . 211 

Navigation on TJiames, Regulation of . 108 

Nor bury Housing (L.C.C.) Scheme . 131 



OffenceF, Indictable and Non-Indict- 
able Ill 

Officers, Chief, City Corporation . .104 
„ lx)ndou County Ctmnfil . . 31 

Overcrowding, I'erceutageof (see under 
Borough Councils). 




SPECIALITIES 

COMPLETE SYSTEM OF CASTIRON DRAINAGE mTINGS 

COMPLETE SYSTEM OF STONEWARE DRAINAGE FITTINGS 

COMPLETE SYSTEM OF CAST IRON IN COMBINATION 
WITH STONEWARE 

i. 



ENQUIRIES SOLICITED 



Index. 



XV. 



PAGE. 

P 

PaddinfiTton Borough Council . . .286 
Board of GuardiLns . . . 3>3 
Electric Light . . . .159 

., Housing 139 

Parks and Pleasure Grounds of 

I^mdon 33,38,99 

Parliament Street, Widening of . .47 
Pathological Laboratory at Claybnry 

Asylum 5i 

Pedlars' Licences 112 

Petroleum Acts, Provisions of. . . 5* 
Petty Sessional Divisions and Courts . 117 
Pianos in Tendon County Schools . . 67 

Police, City 98,114 

„ Metropolitan 112 

„ Courts, List of . . . .115 

Political Party Organisations . 15-17 

London, Election Results. 10-13 

Polytechnics. Work at . . . .73 

Poplar Borough Council . . . .288 

Board of Guardians. . .354 

Electric Light . . .163 

Population, Statistics of . . 218-222 

Poor Law London 320 

Expenditure . . . .321 
„ Oincers' Association, 

National . . . .373 
Ratio of Paupers, &c. . . 320 
School Districts . . 327 
Statistics, 1907 . . .320 
Port of London, Commission . . . 205 
„ Government of . . .208 
„ Government Bill, Text of . 177 
Port Sanitary Authority . ... 99 
Po^tOfflce and Telephone Service . . 2C8 
Preservation of Hibtoric Buildings . 60 
Profits from L.C.C. Tramways . . 125 
Protection of Buildings .... 60 
Public Authorities, List of ... 1 
„ Health Committee of City Cor- 
poration 103 

„ „ London County Council . 44 
„ Conveyances, Licening of .112 
„ Lighting . . . .153, 167 
„ Service Committee of City Cor- 
poration 103 

Purification of River Thames . . 32 



Quarter Sessions, Court of 


. 115 


Quinquennial Valuation . 

R 

Rate, County .... 
Rates Levied in Every Parish 


. 129 


. . 91 
92-93 


Equalisation of. 


. 251 


„ How to Reduce 


. 228 


„ Telephone . 


210-211 


Reform of London Government 


. 3 


„ Union (London) 


. 371 


Refreshments in Parks— Tariff 


. 37 


Residential Schools . 


. 66 



PAC^B. 

8 

St. George -in -the -East Board of 
Guardians 356 

St. George's (Hanover-square) Board of 
Guardians 355 

St. Giles and Bloomsbury Board of 
Guardians 367 



St. Marylebone Borough Council 

Board of Guardians 
Electricity . 
„ Housing . 

St. Pancras Borough Council . 

Board of Guardians . 
„ Electricity . 

„ Housing 

Sanitary Control. Court of Appeal 
„ Inspectors' Association . 
Institute .... 
Secondary and Technical Djiy Schools 



School Attendance 

., Finance .... 
Scnolarship Scheme . . . . 
Science, Royal College of . . . 
Scotland Yard, Chief Officers at . 
Sea-Sand Pits for Cnildren in Parks . 
Senior County Scholarshipj . 
Sessions. Court of Quarter 
Sheriffs, City Corporation 
Shoredltch Borough Council . 

Board of Guardians . 

Electricity . . . . 

Housing 

Shop Hourd and Seats Act, Provisions of 
Sick Asylum Districts . . . ' 
Slaughterhouses, Licensing of 
Sludge Ships and London Sewage . 
Solicitor's Department. City 
Southampton Row, Widening of . 
Southwark Borough Council . 
„ Board of Guardians . 

Electric Light 
Spitting 
Sta 



290 
357 
164 
139 
294 
358 
164 
139 
45 
373 
373 

81-82 

66 

70 

83 

80 

112 

34 

85 

115 

101 

298 

360 

165 

140 

55 

329-330 

. 45 

. 32 

. 104 

. 48 

. 300 

. 361 

. 165 



225 

31 

373 

95 

303 

362 

166 

140 

90 

89 

307 

158 

362 



River Thames, Control of Navigation . 108 



atf of L.C.C. . 
State Children's Association 
Steamboat Service . 
Stepney Borough Council 

Board of Guardians 
Electric Light . 
„ Housing .... 
Stock, London County Consolidated 

„ Metropolitan Consolidated . 
Stoke Newington Borough Council 
„ Electric Lighting 

Strand' Board of Guardians . 

„ Widening 46 

Street Accidents, No. of . . . .112 

„ Betting 223 

„ Improvements, Cost of . 47-50 
„ Noises, Bye-laws . . . .223 



Technical Institutes, Art Schools, and 
Polytechnics .... 77-79 

Telepnoues, London . . . .206 
„ Intercommunication . . 208 
„ Rates ..... 210-ail 



XVI. 



Indeoc. 



Page. 
Temperance Policy, A Municipal . . 216 
Thames Conservancy . . . . loe 
^ ,. Steamboat Service ... 95 
Tootinsr Housing (L.C.C.) Scheme . 131 
Tottenham Housing (L.C.C.) Scheme . 131 
Tramways, Finances . . . .124 

„ L.C.C., Introduction of Elec- 
trical Traction . . .123 

„ Passeneers Carried . . .124 
_ „ Statihtics .... 124-125 
Trade Schools and Classes ... 76 
Training of Teachers ... 81 

Tuberculous Cows ... 45 

Tunnels (Thames) . ..." 33 
Typographical Technical School . . 75 



U 

Unemployed A ct. Central Committee for 

London 212 

University Education . . . . .'79 



Valuation of London . . . .229 
Vauxhall Bridge, Reconstniction of . 33 
Veterinary Inspectors, L.C.C. . .55 
Vehicles, Lights on .... 224 

Vehicular Traffic 224 

Voters, Qualifications of . . . 13-14 



W Page. 

Wandsworth Borough Council . . 3'"9 
Board of Guardians . . . 3e3 
Electric Light .... I5i 
Waste Paper Refu?e, Bye-Law . . 215 
Water Board, Constitution of . . 143 
Area of Supply . . 146 
Charges . . . 149-150 
Financial Provisions . 147 
Members . . . 144-145 
Officials . . . .146 
Sources of Supply . . 151 
Water Stock . . .147 
Water Companies, Undertakings Trans- 
ferred 143 

Weights and Measures, Stamping of . 61 

,, ,, Inspectors . . . 52 

„ „ Inspectors' Association . 373 

Weigh Bridge.^, Provision of Public . 51 

Westminster City Council . . .311 

Board of Guardians . . 366 

Electric Light . . .159 

Housing . . . .140 

Whitechapel Board of Guardians . . 366 

Window Cleaning, «fcc., Bye-Law . . 223 

Women's Local Government Society . 373 

Woolwich Borough Council . . .316 

„ Board of Guardians . . .367 

Electric Light . . . .158 

,,. V , Housing . . . .143 

W orks Department, L.C.C. ... 38 

„ Department, Battersea . . 250 

Workmen's Wage?, L.C.C. Tramways . 124 



Advcrtiseraent . xvii. 



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THE LONDON MANUAL. 



ioutron #obeinment 



The London Government Act of 1899, which established the horou^h 
councils, registered an advance in the reform of local government in tne 
capital. But much yet remains to be done before overlapping and con- 
flicting authorities are abolished, and order and symmetry — carrying with 
them administrative efficiency — are introduced. In the Parliamentary 
Session of 1903 a Bill wsls passed for the abolition of the School Board 
and the transfer of the work of that authority to the London County 
Council, and in December of the previous year a measure was passed 
for the purchase of the London Water Companies' undertakings, and 
their administration by a Water Board. By an Act passed in 1907 the 
114 " parishes and places *' in the City of London were amalgamated into 
one parish, and the duties of the 112 vestries and 114 board? of overseers 
were transferred to the Corporation. The assessment work of the 
guardians was also transferred to the Corporation. 

These reforms still leave upwards of 70 different authorities engaged in 
the work of public administration in London. The following are the 
authorities : — 

London County Council, elected by parochial electors. 

Common Council of the City of London, elected by City voters. 

Twenty-eight Metropolitan Borough Councils, elected by 
parochial electors. 

Commissioners of Metropolitan Police, appointed by the Home 
Office to perform functions which in the City of London and everywhere 
else in England are in the hands of the county or municipal authorities. 

Metropolitan Asylums Board, appointed by the Local Government 
Board and the Boards of Guardians to provide Imbecile Asylums and 
Fever Hospitals. 

Two Sick Asylums Boards, appointed by certain Boards of Guardians 
to make joint provision for Infirmaries. 

Four School District Boards, appointed by certain Boards of 
Guardians to provide joint Poor-law Schools. 

Thirty-one Boards of Guardians, elected by the parochial voters to 
administer the Poor-law. 



IntrodAicUynj . 



Metropolitan Water Board.— Appointed by the County Councils, 
Metropolitan Borough Councils, Muiucipal Corporations, and Urban 
District Councils in the metropolitan water area. 

Thames Conservancy Board. 

Lea Conservancy Board. 

The jurisdiction of the last three bodies and of the police, however, 
extends far beyond the County of London. 

The County Council authority extends over the City for some common 
purposes, but not for all, while the City Corporation has jurisdiction 
within the County of London and beyond for markets and port sanitation, 
and outside the boundaries of London for parks and open spaces. _ The 
Metropolitan Asylums Board maintains asylums for imbeciles, training 
schools for Poor-law children, fever and smallpox hospitals, while 
the County Council maintains asylums for lunatics, elementary, 
industrial and reformatory schools, and is responsible for dealing with 
cholera epidemics. Cholera ships are maintained by the^ City Cor- 
poration which, as the port sanitary authority, has authority over the 
Thames for sanitary purposes, while the Thames Conservancy is re- 
sponsible for the prevention of pollution, and exercises general authority 
over the river for conservancy purposes. 

•Since the passing of the Local Government Act of 1888 more than 
200 measures have bsen plased upon the Statute Book giving further 
powers to the County Council ! 

The Acts relating to London local government are innumerable, and 
consolidation is an absolute necessity if public men are to carry out their 
duties intelligently and efficiently. Here is a list of the principal 
statutes : — 

Baths and Washhouses Acts, 1846 to 1882. 

Burial Acts, 1852 to 1906. 

Education Acts, 1870 to 1903. 

Electric Lighting Acts, 1882 and 1888. 

Electric Lighting (Clauses) Act, 1899. 

Licensing Act, 1904. 

Local Government Acts, 1888 and 1894. 

London Building Acts, 1894 and 1898. 

London Government Act, 1899. 

London Water Acts, 1892. 

London County Tramways Acts. 1896 and 1900. 

Metropolis Management Xcts, 1855 lo 1893. 

Metropolis Water Acts, 1871 to 1902. 

Metropolitan Commons Acts, 1866 to 1878. 

Metropolitan Poor Act, 1867. 

Metropolitan Police Acts, 1829 to 1895. 

Metropolis Management (Thames River Prevention of Floods) 

Amendment Act, 1879. 
Poor-law Amendment Act, 1834. 
Poor-rate Assessments and Collection Act, 186P. 
Public Health (London) Act, 1891 
Public Libraries Act, 1892. 



Introductory. 



Sale of Food and Drugs Acts, 1875 to 1899. 
Superannuation (Metropolis) Act, 1866. 
Tramways Act, 1870. 
Valuation (Metropolis) Act, 1869. 
Water Bate (Definition) Act, 1885. 

Historical Survey. 

Until 1855 there was no well-defined " London " except tlie square-mile 
City. In tlie area now known as London there was no unity whatever. 
But by the Metropolis Management Act of 1855 (an Act of 251 
sections), a comprehensive system of local administration was provided for 
the parishes at that time included in the Metropolitan Bills of Mortality. 
The ratepayers of each parish elected a vestry of from 18 to 120 members, 
to whom were added the rector, churchwardens, and in some parishes the 
district rectors also. In twenty- three cases these bodies were adminis- 
trative vestries (included in Schedule A) which were given direct control 
of the local sewers, roads, sanitation, &c. The remaining parishes were 
grouped into fifteen districts (in Schedule B of the Act) under the adminis- 
tration of district boards appointed by the parish vestries. No powers 
were, however, given to the vestries of Schedule B parishes beyond such 
as they might have obtained formerly under local Acts. 

At the head of the system was the Metropolitan Board of Works. It 
consisted originally of forty-five members, appointed by the City Corpo- 
ration, the twenty-three vestries, and the fifteen district boards. 

In the hands of the Board were placed main drainage, street improve- 
m3nts, street naming, lines of frontage, &c. But to these, other important 
duties were added subsequently — parks, bridges, fire brigades, Thames 
Embankments, artisans' dwellings, &c. 

Between 1855 and 1888 many changes were made in the details of the 
Metropolis management system — changes that have been in the direction 
of direct representation and the constitution of manageable areas. 
Consecjuently the Metropolitan Board at its dissolution consisted of 
fifty-nme members, appointed by the City Corporation, twenty- 
seven vestries, and thirteen district boards. Immediately prior to 
the passing* of the London Grovernment Act there were thirty adminis- 
trative vestries (including Woolwich Local Board), having 2,481 members, 
elected; and forty-four non-administrative vestries, having 1,632 vestrymen, 
who appointad 619 representatives on twelve district boards. The franchise, 
too, was extended to that of parochial voters. 

A step towards unity of administration was made by the Local Govern- 
ment Act, 1894, which authorised the transference of the administration of 
the Baths, Burials, and Libraries Acts from specially appointed Com- 
missioners to the elected vestries. 

The City Corporation and City Commissioners of Sewers were 
left untouched by the system, except in their relation to the Metropolitan 
Board of Works. The City Commissioners of Sewers and their powers 
were, however, transferred to the City Corporation in January, 1898. 

The London Government Act of 1899 abolished the vestries and 
district boards and the parish overseers outside the City, and created the 
metropolitan borough councils. 

The Education (London) Act transferred the powers of the School 
B oard to the London County Council. 



hUrodnclory. 



LOCAL GOVERNMENT CHANGES IN 1907. 

Loo AL Taxation Account.— By the Finance Act, 1907, the Imperial 
contributions to local taxation under what is known as the Goschen 
Scheme, are made a charge on the Consolidated Fund instead of being 
chargeable on specified revenues. [7 Ed. VIL, cap. 13.] 

Probation Officers.— By the Probation of Offenders Act, 1907, 
probation officers may be appointed for petty sessions and metropolitan 
police court divisions to look after offenders. [7 Ed. VII., cap. 17.] 

Advertisements.— By the Advertisements Regulation Act, 1907, local 
authorities {e.g., the London County Council and the City Corporation), 
may make bye-laws for the regulation and control of advertising noardings 
exceeding 12 feet in height, and also for regulating, restricting, or 
preventing the exhibition of advertisements which affect injuriously tho 
amenities of a public park or pleasure promenade, or disfigure the natui-al 
beauty of a landscape— subject to an exemption of five years in favour of 
existing hoardings. [7 Ed. VII., cap. 27.] 

Women Councillors. — By the Qualification of Women (County and 
Borough Councils) Act, 1907, provides that a woman shall not be 
disqualified by sex or marriage from being elected or being a councillor 
or alderman of the council of any county or borough (including a 
metropolitan borough). She may not, however, as chairman or mayor, 
become a Justice of the Peace. [7 Ed. VII., cap. 33.] 

Birth Notification.— By the Notification of Births Act, 1907, local 
authorities (e.g., the City Corporation and Metropolitan Borough Councils) 
may, by adopting this Act, require the father, or person in attendance on 
the mother of a child, to notify the bii-th within 36 hours to the Medical 
Officer of Health. In London a list of the cases notified has to be sent to 
the London County Council by the local medical officer. The Local 
Government Board may declare the Act to be in force in any area, 
although it has not been adopted by the borough council. The majority 
of the Metropolitan Borough Councils have adopted the Act. 

Medical Inspection of Schools, &c.— Tl:e Education (Administra- 
tive Provisions) Act, 1907, places upon the education authority (e.g., the 
London County Council) the duty of providing for the medical inspection 
of children on admission to elementary schools, and on such other 
occasions as the Board of Education direct; also the power to make 
arrangements for attending to the health and physical condition of the 
children, and the power to provide vacation schools and means of recreation. 
The Act grants facilities for the users of lands acquired originally for 
specific purposes; it extends the period of borrowing by county councils 
from 30 to 60 years. The Act abolishes the present register of teachers. 
[7 Ed. VIL, cap. 43.] 



Introductoi'y, 



Lights on Vehicles. — The Lights on Vehicles Act, 1907, makes 
compulsorv the carrying' of lights by vehicles between one hour after 
snnset and one hour before sunrise, subject to the exemption by order of 
the Council (e.g., the London County Council) of vehicles carrying 
inflammable goods. [7 Ed. VII., cap. 45.] 

The Public Health Acts Amendment Act, 1907, is an adoptive Act not 
applicable to London. [7 Ed. VII., cap. 53.] 

Small Holdings.— The Small Holdings and Allotments Act, 1907, 
enables a county council to acquire or hire land compulsorily for small 
holdings, and tne London County Council is given the powers of a 
sanitary authority as regards allotments. The Board of Agriculture is 
required to appomt two Small Holdings Commissioners. [7 Ed. VII., 
cap. 54.] 

Taximeter Cabs. — The London Cab and Stage Carriage Act, 1907, 
authorises the Home Secretary to fix fares within Greater London for 
cabs fitted with taximeters. It abolishes the privilege cab system, 
[7 Ed. VII., cap. 55.] 

Tuberculous Milk.— By the London County Council (General 
Powers) Act, 1907, the medical officer is empowered to take samples of 
milk at railway stations and elsewhere, and to inspect dairies and cows 
therein supplymg milk within London; and if the medical officer is of 
opinion that tuberculosis is likely to be caxised to persons residing in 
London from consumption of the milk, the London County Council is 
empowered to issue an order requiring the dairyman not to supply milk 
from such dairy or a specified cow. The powers run outside the county, 
subject to authority to inspect being first obtained from a local justice. 
[Ss. 24-35.] 

Dirty Children.— By the General Powers Act the medical officar is 
empowered to examine the person and clothing of school children, and if 
found to be verminous or nlthy, to require them to be properly cleansed 
within 24 hours, or if not so cleansed, to cause them to be cleansed in 
suitable premises and with suitable appliances. [S. 36.] 

Similar provisions are applied to inmates of common lodging houses. 
[S. 37.] 

City Parishes.— By the City of London (Union of Parishes) Act, 1908, 
the 112 parishes in the City of London are united ; the City Corporation 
are to act as overseers (except that the Town Clerk is to perform 
registration duties) and to appoint the Assessment Committee. 

Water Charges.— By the Metropolitan Water Board (Charges, <fec.) 
Act, 1908, the water charges over the whole area are made at a uniform 
rate of 5 per cent, on the rateable value, subject to a rebate on premises 
not liable to inhabited house duty. 



Introductory, 



THE COST OF LONDON GOVERNMENT. 

No complete statement of the expenditure of all the local authorities in 
London is regularly published,* but many of the details are included 
throughout the Local Taxation Returns for England and Wales, from 
which, for the most part, the following figures have been compiled for the 
last ye ir for which stiitistics are available : — 







Effect of 


Distribution of 




ture. "* **"• 


transfers 


charge between 


Authority. 


from 
local to 
county 

funds. 


Imperial 
taxation. 


\ 
Rates. 


Ijondoa Coiiuty Council- 


£ £ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


General t'ounty account 


6.634.039 339.910 


+602,336 1,682.872 


5.169,136 


Special county account 


1,295,632 1 846.030 


+ 136 13,901 


488.188 


. Equalisation fund 


— 1 — 


+ 1,026,906 — 


1.026,906 


Metropolitan Asylums Board 


868,571 9 935 


-66.811 ' — 


714,387 


Metropolitan Police 


1.792,831 342.617 


— 


711,787 


746,719 


Local Goveinment Board— Common 










Poor Fund 


748 — 


+1.619,568 




1,619,938 


Metropolitan Water Board 


1.631.974 1.631,974 




— 


— 


Total County Authorities- 


12,223,795 ' 3,170,466 


■1-3,182,135 


2,408,560 


9,765,274 


City Corporation- 






City Police 


136.654 11,321 


— — 


115.437 


Special rate 


6,235 147 


-986 — 


5,169 


Consolidated and ?ewers rates .. 


446.670 48.100 


-5,731 


327 553 


(Jeueral E>ta'e8, &c 


729.893 i 729.892 


-1 - 


— 


Ward rate:! 


7,463 — 


— 


— 


7,053 


Jletropolitan Borough Councils 


4.952.086 1,168,006 


-1,053,541 


— 


3,103,023 


Market Trustees 


8,754 9.472 


— 


— 


— 


(inirdians 


3.679,372 175.927 


-2,116.676 


1210 


1 371.072 


City Overseers 


26.024 220 


— 


1,210 


31.573 


Total Local Authorities 


9,993,152 1 2,W3,085 
i2,2l6.947 1 5,313,551 


-3.182.135 


4.960,880 


Totil 


2,409,770 14.726.1E4* 



• Actual rateo after allowing for balances increased or decreased. 
+ Increase. — Decrease. 

The police expenditure in the above table represents the county's share 
of the total expenditure of the metropolitan police district. The services 
lately performed by the London School Board have since 1st May,^ 1904, 
been performed by the London (county Council, and are included in the 
general county account. 

The total given above does not represent the whole expenditure. 
There must be added the expenditure out of borrowed capital 
amounting to £5,403,381. This gives a gross expenditure of £27,620,328, or 
about £5 19s. per head of population, of which £4 158. 9d. per head is for 
current expenditure. 

• The fullest official compendium of facts and figures relating to London Government 
is the volume entitled " London Statistics." issued annually by the County Council. The 
Council's " Stati.-tical Abstnut for London" is a smaller bojk, covering much the earn© 
grou d in a summarised form. 



Introductory, 



The receipts-in-aid were mainly derived from penalties, payments for 
services (such as those required at public baths and wash-houses), rents 
of property, costs recovered, market tolls, Building Act fees, the con- 
tribution by the fire insurance companies to the cost of the Fire Brigade, 
&c. The licence duties- collected by the Inland Eevenue officers within 
the county are classed by the Local ^Government Board among Imperial 
subventions (as in ihe above table). 

The rates required were raised in no such simple manner as a levy of an 
equal rate in the pound all over the county. Apart from the fact that the 
produce of the rate varies considerably in the different parishes owing to 
cost of collection, no local authority in London ever levies a rate which 
fairly represents its own expenditure. In the first place, certain 
authorities receive some portion of the Imperial subventions; except 
for this the rates levied for the Metropolitan Police may be taken 
to represent the balance of their annual expenditure. But the 
rates of the London County Council are used to raise considerable 
sums not spent by them, but distributed among the various boards 
of guardians by way of equalising expenditure. The County 
Council, moreover, levies the Equalisation Rate, the effect of which is 
to spread a certain portion of borough council's expenditure rateably 
over the whole county. Another equalisation fund, viz., the Common Poor 
Fund — administered by the Local Government Board — performs the same 
function for boards of guardians ; but the grants are distributed for the 
most part according to certified expenditure, and not according to popula- 
tion, ai under the Equalisation Act. The Metropolitaa Asylums Board 
also administers a small equalisation grant. One interesting result of the 
working of these funds is the pooling of a considerable portion of the 
Poor-law expenditure ia London, the principal exceptions being loan 
charges and out-relief. But it is absurd that no less than four methods 
of equalising rates should be in force, when the same, or a better, result 
could be more easily achieved by one. 

The effect of each of these Equalisation Funds on the rates of the 
different parishes is shown in the special section, " Equalisation of Rates." 

The total outstanding loans in March, 1907, amounted to £108,563,194, 
of which £53,196,524 was in respect of services which did n t involve a 
charge on the rates. These figures include £38,443,351 in respect of 
London's proportion of the debt of the Metropolitan Water Board. The 
addition of the City debt of £4,432,303 not secured on the rates brings 
the total London debt to £112,995.497. The annual charge on the rates 
was £3,889,876, and on revenues £2,069,555. (L.C.C. Return " London 
Debt," 1906-7.) 

Most of the loans of London local authorities are borrowed from the 



Inlrodudory. 



London County Council, which thus acts as banker to tlie other public bodies. 
In March, 190o, 19(X), and 11K)7, the loan liabilities of the Council were : — 



Met'cpolitan Consolidated Stock- 
Si per cept. , redeemable 1929 

3 per cent. , redeema Die 1941 

2J per cent. , redeemable 1949 

London County Consolidated Stock— 
2i irer cent . , redeemable at various dat es 
3 percent., „ „ 



1905. 
£ 
16.908,938 
10.845,923 

7,466,090 

6,250.000 
22,431,514 



1906. 

£ 

16.848,938 

10,809.097 

7,290,223 

6.114,442 
25.955.000 



1907. 

£ 

16,823,937 

10.809,097 

7,290,223 

6,083.359 
25.956,000 



£63.902.465 


.. £67.017.700 


...£66.%1,616 


londonCmmtyBills 1.415.294 . 


1,729,120 


.. 3.349.574 


Former Comity Loans 117,980 . 

Consolidated Loans Fund advances 


95,087 


77,103 






to capital accounts and to late 

ScJiooT Board 3,574,677 . 






3,470,948 


.. 4,645,824 


Public Works Loans Commissioners 






part debt of late School Board . . . 2,285,221 . 


2,200,848 


... 2.078,062 


Overdrawn balance 291,538 . 


— 


1,789,467 



£71,587,175 ...£74,513,703 ...£78,801,640 

The assets against this gross debt at March, 1907, w» re as follows : — 
Balances of loans to other local authorities, £'18,770,173; small dwellings 
acquisition, £1,682 ; Mi idlesex adjustment, £46,94(5 ; out county drainage 
contributions, £90,438; value of surplus lands, £6,817,950; advances to 
capital accounts, £4,545,8*24 ; and cash balance, £208,878 ; leaving the 
balance of nett debt, £48,313,749 ; of which £8,791,941 was in respect of 
revenue-producing undertakings. 

LONDON AREAS. 

The name London was formerljr only applicable to the City with an 
area of a little over one square mile, and the outside districts grew up 
without any homogeneity and without a common name until 1855, when 
they became officially known as th« Metropolis. This area became in 1889 
the administrative County of London, 118 square miles in extent, and as 
such includes the City, in which, however, certain services are performed by 
the Corporation which are in the rest of the county performed by the 
County Council. The administrative County of Ijondon had in 1901 
a population of 4,536,541. The changes in boundaries carried out under 
the London Government A ct (1899) involved the inclusion in the county 
of South Homsey and the loss of Penge. 

Greater London or the Metrop)oli8 under the Metro]X)litan and the City 
Police includes the whole of the Counties of London and Middlesex and part 
of the Counties of Kent, Sun-ey, Essex, and Herts. It is made up of all 
parishes of which any part is >vithin eleven miles of Charing Cross, or of 
which the whole is within fifteen miles of Charing Cross. It is 693 square 
miles in extent and contains a population of 6,581,372. 

The Metropolitan water area is 620 square miles in extent. The Metro- 
polis, for criniinal jurisdiction— the district of the Central Criminal 
Court — is not identical with the police area ; it contains an area of 420 
square miles, and a population of 5,300,000. The County Court and 
Police Court areas do not correspond with any of these, nor with each 
other. 

Post Office London has no relation to municipal or any other boundariep. 




^— • - u C K S 






LONDON AREAS. 
The municipal Poor Law» Police, and Postal London. 



:poIiticaI 2.ontro)u 



For Parliamentary purposes London is divided into 58 constituencies, with 
one member each, except the City, which returns two members. The total 
electorate at last election (January, 1906) was 620,424. There were no 
uncontested seats, whereas at the previous Greneral Election (October, 
1900) there were no contests in 12 constituencies. Liberal and Labour 
candidates polled 250,362 votes, and Conservatives 234,216. The results 
of the last and five previous elections in London were as follows : — 

1885. 1886. 1892. 1895. 1900. 1906. 
Conservative . . 36 ... 48 ... 36 ... 51 ... 51 ... 19 
Liberal. ... 23 ... 11 ... 23 ... 8 ... 8 ... 40 



Majority 



»13 



*37 



*13 ... •43 ... *43 
Conservative Majority t Liberal Majority. 
The Liberal Unionists are included in the Conservatives. 



.. t21 



LAST 



7,387 
5,787 



RESULTS OF 
Battersea. 
The Eight Hon. John Bums 
(L), 37, Lavender-gardens, 

S.W 

A. S. Benn (C) . . . 

Bermondsey. 
Dr. G. Cooper (L), 92, South- 

wark Park-road, S.E. . 4,775 
H. J. C. Cust (C) . . 3,016 

Bkthnal Green— North- East. 
Sir E. A. Cornwall (L), 

3, Whitehall-court . . 4,127 
Sir M. M. Bhownaggree (U) 2,130 

Bethnal Green— South- West. 
E. H. Pickersgill (L), 44, 

Fentiman-road, Clapham 3,542 
S. F. Eidley (C) . . . 2,064 

Bow AND Bromley. 
Stopford Brooke (L), 34, De 

V ere-gardens, W. . . 4,596 
Arthur Du Cros (C) . . 3,974 

Camberwell— North. 

Dr. T. J. Macnamara (L), 
Clontarf, Rollscourt - 
avenue, Herne-hill, S.E. . 6,314 

C. H.Hoare(C) . . . 3,497 

Chelsea. 
E. J. ITomiman (L), 13, 

Chelsea-embankment, S.W. 4,660 
C. A. Whitmore (U) . . 4,031 



GENERAL ELECTION. 

City of London. 
Sir E. Clarke, K.C. (U), 2, 

Essex-court, Temple, E.C. 16,019 
Hon. A. 'G. H. Gibbs (U), 

Carlton .... 15,619 
Felix O. Schuster (L) . . 5,313 
Sir J. West Kidgeway (L) . 5,064 

BYE-ELECTION. I 

Vacancy caused by the resignation of.tne 
Hon. A. G. H. Gibbs. Polling February, 
27, 1906. 

Balfour, Right Hon. A. J. (U) ... 15,474 
Bowles, T. G. (F T) .^4,134 

Vacancy caused by retirement of Sir E. 
Clarke, K.C. June 15, 1905. Sir F. G.- 
Banbury, Bt. (U), unopposed. 

Clapham. 
P. H. Thornton (C), Batter- 
sea-rise House, Clapham- 
common . . . . 7,912 
F. Low(L) .... 7,816 
Deptford. 

C. Bowerman (Lab.), 7, St. 
Bride-street, E.C. . . 6,236 

A. H. A. Morton (C) . . 4,977 
H. Yivian (L) . . . 726 

DuLWiCH — Camberwell. 
Dr. Rutherfoord Ha.rris (C), 
101, Mount-street, W. . 6,639 

D. Williamson (L) . . 6,282 

BYE-ELECTION. 

* Vacancy caused by the resignation of 
Dr. Rutherfoord Harris. Polling, May 15, 
1906. 

A. Bonar Law(C), Kintillo, Helens- 
burgh, N.B 6,709 

D. Williamson (L) 5,430 



Political L(nulon. 



11 



FiNSBURY— Central. 
W. C. Steadman (Lab.), 69, 
Thornton - avenue, Tum- 
ham-green, W. . 
E. Goulding (U) . 

Pins BURY— East. 
J. A. Baker (L), 8, Donniner- 
ton-road, Harlesden, N.W. 
Col. A. C. E. Welby (U) . 

FULHAM. 

T. Davies (L)," Pantycelyn," 
East Putney 

W.Hayes Fisher (U) . 
Greenwich. 

R. S. Jackson (L), Stobcross 
Lodge, Crooms - hill, 
Greenwich 

I. H. Benn (C, P) . 

Lord Hugh Cecil (C, F T) . 
Hackney— Central. 

Sir Albert Spicer, Bt. (L), 50, 
Upper Thames-street, E.C. 

A. H. A. Allhusen (C) . 
Hackney— North. 

T. Hart Davies (L), 46, 
Ravensdale - road, Stam- 
ford Hill . . . . 

W. R. Boustield, K.C. (C) . 
Hackney — South. 

H. Bottomley (L), 56a, Pall 
Mall, S.W. 

T. H. Robertson (C) . 

Rev. W. Riley (Ind. L) 
Hampstead. 

J. S. Fletcher (U), Merle- 
wood, Virginia Water 

G. F. Rowe(L) . 
Hammersmith. 

Sir W. J. Bull (C), 414, 
XJxbridge-road, W. . 

G. Blaiklock (L) . 

G. Belt(Soc.) 

HOLBORN. 

J. F. Remnant (C), 4, South 

Eaton-place, S.W 
Dr. S. Miall (L) . 

Islington— East. 
G.H. Radford (L), Chiswick 

House, Ditton Hill . • 
Sir B. L. Cohen (C) . 



3,493 

2,799 



2,461. 
1.772 



8,0:<7 
7,407 



4,906 

a,5()5 

2,356 



3,998 
3,:J82 



4,65ii 
4,431 



6,736 

3,257 

801 



4,931 
4,461 



5,111 

4,562 

885 



3,881 
2,706 



4,477 
3,710 



Islington— North. 
D. S. Waterlow (L), 38, 

Cornwall-gardens, S.W. . 5,284 
Sir G. C. T. Bartley (C) . 4,418 

Islington --South. 
Thos. Wiles (L), 5, Aubrey- 
road, Holland Park, W. . 3,606 
Sir A. Rollit (C, F T) . 1,991 

AV. Hunt (C, P) . . . 870 

Islington— West. 

T. Lough (L), 14, Dean's- 
yard, S.W 4,116 

F. H. Medhurst (U) . . 3,618 
Kensington— North. 

H. Y. Stanger, K.C. (L), 
New-court, Temple, E.C. . 4,416 

W. Hume- Williams, K.C. (U) 3,:)58 
Kensington —South. 

Earl Percy (C), 64, Curzon- 
stroet, W 4,835 

Sir E. O'Malley (L) . .. 1,624 
La: I BETH —Brixton. 

J. H. Seaverns (L), 16, East- 
cheap, E.C. . . . 4,521 

D. Dalziel (C) . . . 4,235 
Lambeth— Kennington. 

Stephen Collins (L), Har- 
bome, St. Anne's Hill, 
S.W 4,639 

Sir F. L. Cook (C) . . 3,054 
Lambeth— Noi-th. 

Horatio Myer (L), 64, 
Maida-vale, W. . . . 2,162 

Major Gastrell (C) . . 1,904 

D. Naoroji (I L) , . . 733 

F. W. Horner (C). . . 108 

Lambeth— Norwood. 

G. S. Bowles (C, F T), 36, 
Connaught Square, Hyde 
Park 5,5t)7 

N. W. Hubbard (L) . . . 4,748 

Lewisham. 
Major E. F. Coates (U), 

Tayle's Hill, Ewell . . 9,689 
F. W. Aveling (L) . . 8,006 

LiMEHOUSE. 

W. Pearce (L), 12, Park- 
crescent, W. . . . 2,981 
Sir H. S Samuel (C) . . 2,007 



12 



Political London. 



London University. 
Sir P. Magrnus (U), 16, 

Gloster-terrace, S.W. 
Sir M. Foster (L) . 

Marylebone— East. 
Lord R. Cecil (C, F T), 25, 

Grove End-road, N.W. . 

A. M. Langdon, K.C. (L) . 

Marylebone— West. 
Sir S. Scott (C), 38, South- 

street, Mayfair, W. . 
Sir Harry Johnstone (L) 

Mile End. 

B. S. Straus (L). 8, Hyde 
Park Mansions, W . 

Hon. Harry Lawson.(U) 

Ne WIN GTON— West . 

Captain Norton (L), 18, 
Barkston-gardens, S.W. . 

R. E. BeHlios (C) . 

Paddington— North. 

L. G. C. Money (L), 3, 
Alexandra - court, Maida- 
vale, W 

A. Straus (U) . . . 

Sir H. Burdett (Ind. U) . 

Paddington— South. 
Sir T. G. Fardell (C), 26, 
Hyde Park-street, W. 

C. W. Milne (L) 

Peckham. 

C. Goddard Clarke (L), 
South Lodge, Champion 
Hill, S.E 

Sir F. C. Banbury (C) . 

BYE- ELECTION. 

Vacancy caused bjr the death 
Goddard Clarke. Polling March 24, 

H. C. Gooch (C) 

T. Gautrey (L) 

Poplar. 
Rt. Hon. Sydney Buxton 

(L), 7, Grosvenor-crescent, 

S.W. . . . 
George O. Borwick (U) 

ROTHERHITHE. 

H. W. Carr Gomm (L), 
10, Westminster-mansions, 
Great Smith-street, W. . 

J. Cumming Macdona (C) . 



1,840 
1,816 



2,827 
2,167 



3,446 
2,791 



2,295 
2,169 



4,446 
2,425 



3,825 

2,419 

817 



2,919 
1,502 



5,903 
3,564 

of c. 

1908. 
6.970 
4,476 



4,546 
2,235 



4,192 
2,821 



St. George's, Hanover 

Square. 

Col. Hon. H. Legge (C), 90, 

Piccadilly, W. . . . 
M. C. Mallik (L) . 



4,264 
2,191 



BYE-ELECTION. 

Vacancy caused by retirement of Col. 
H. C. Legge. June 15, 1906. Bt. Hon. A. 
Lyttleton (U), unopposed. 

St. George's-in-the-East. 
Wedgwood Benn (L), 8, 

Finsbury-square, E.C. . 1,685 
W. H. Halifax Wells (U) . 1,064 

St. Pancras— East. 
H. C. Lea (L), 60, Cadogan- 

place, S.W. . . . 4,208 
Sir T. Wrightson (C). . . 2,327 

St. Pancras— North. 
W. H. Dickinson (L), 51, 
Camjiden Hill - road, 
Kensington . . . 4,094 
E. R. Moon(C) . . . 2,643 

St. Pancras— South. 
P. W. Wilson, (L), 16, Percy- 
circus, W.C. . . . 2,109 
Major Jessel (C). . . . 2,048 

St. Pancras— West. 

Sir W. J. Collins (L), 1, 
Albert - terrace, Regent's 
Park, N.W. . . . 3,230 

H. R. Graham (C) . . 2,545 
Shoreditch— Haggerston. 

Sir W. R. Cremer (L and 
Lab.), 11, Lincoln's Inn 
Fields, W.C. . . . 2,772 

Hon. R. Guinness (C) . . 2,371 
Shoreditch— Hoxton. 

Hon. Claude Hay (C), 5, 
Connaught-square, Hyde 
Park, W 3,489 

Henry Ward (L). . . 2,753 

Stepney. 

Major Sir W. Evans- Gordon 
(C), 4, Chelsea Embank- 
ment, S.W. . . . 2,490 

Durham Stokes (L) . . 1,853 

BYE-ELECTION. 

Vacancy caused by the resignation of 
Sir W. Bvans-Gordon. Polling May 10, 1907. 

Leverton Harris (C) 2,299 

B, Cooper (L) 1,350 



Political London. 



13 



SOUTHWARK— West. 

Et. Hon. R. K. Causton (L), 
12, Devonsliire-place, W. . 

A. Clavell Salter, K.C. (U) . 
Strand. 

Hon. W. F. D. Smith (C), 
3, Grosvenor-place, S.W . 

A. Waldemar Lawrence (L) 
Walworth. 

C. J. O'Donnell (L and 
Lab.), 75, Queen's Gate, 
S.W 

Sir J. Bailey (C) . 
Wandsworth. 

Sir H. Kimber (C ), Albany- 
chambers, York-st., S.W. 

Albert E. Reed (L) . 



3,057 
2,692 



3,935 

1,854 



3,187 
2,418 



12,433 

11,888 



Westminster. 

W. A. B. Burdett - Coutts 
(U), 1, Stratton - street, 
Piccadilly .... 3,167 

Capt. C. V. C. Hobart, 
D.S.O. (L) . . . 2,054. 

Whitechapel. 
Stuart M. Samuel (L), 12, 



Hill- street. May fair. 
D. H. Kyd (C) . 

Woolwich. 

W. Crooks (Lab.), 
Gough- street, Poplar 
Major W. A, Adams (U) 



81, 



1,925 
1,569 



9,026 
6,883 



THE LONDON ELECTORATES. 

There are five electorates in London : (1) the Parliamentary Borough ; 
(2) the Parliamentary County; (3) the County Council; (4) the 
Parochial; and (5) the Common Council; of these only the County 
Council and the Parochial franchises are identical. Until 1901 the 
County Council differed in part from^ the Parochial franchise ; but by 
the London County Council Electors' Qoalification Act, 1900, the two 
electorates were assimilated. The chief alteration was the addition of 
lodger, service, married women, and ownership voters to the County 
Council franchise thereby increasing that electorate. In the following 
table a comparison is made between the four electorates, the qualifications 
for which are most nearly similar in character : — 



Paeliamentaby 

BOBOUOH. 

For Members of Parliament. 



] County Council and 
Parochial. 

1. For County Councillors. 

2. For Guardians. 

3. For Borough Councillors. 



Common Council. 
For members of the City- 
Corporation. 



666,833 
HousBHOLDEB, or £10 
OcctrpiEB 
Males (not being Peers) 



£10 I 



Sebvice. 



816,593 

HOUSEnOLDER, 
OCCUPIEB 

Males (including Peers) 
Spinsters (a) 
Widows (a) 
Married women whose 

husbands are not 

qualified (a) . 
OccupiEB OF Less Than 
£10 (a). 

Males (including Peers) 
Spinsters 
Widows 
Married women whose 

husbands are not 

qualified. 
Sebvice 



24,453 

HOUSEHOLDEB, Or £10 

Occupiee 
Males (including Peer*) 



(a) Land does not qualify in these cases. 



14 



Political London, 



I County Council and 
Parliamentary i Parochial. 

BoRoraii. I 1. For County Councillors. 

For Memberri of Parliament. 2. For Borough Councillors. 
i 3. For (iuardiauis. 



Common Council. 

For members of the City 

Corporation. 



Lodger (£10 unfuruished 

lodgings). 
Livery (City only). 

General Qualifications. 

Householder (and service). 
—Occupation and residence 
for 12 months previous to 
15th July within the 
borough. 

OcMipier. —Occupation 
within the borough for 
12 months to 15th July, 
and residence within 7 
miles of the borough for 
6 months previous to the 
15th July. (For the City 
the residence limit is 25 
miles.) 

Lodger. — Occupation and 
residence for 12 months 
previous to 15th July in 
qualifying rooms in one 
definite house within the 
borough. 

Li vert/.— Upon the livery 
for 12 months before the 
election, and resideuce 
within 25 miles of the 
City for 6 months pre- 
vious to the 15th July. 



Lodger 



Owner 

Householder and Seriice. 
— Occupation and resi- 
dence for 12 months 
previous to 15th July 
within the County. 

Ocnipier.—O ccupation 
within the County for 12 
months to 15th July, and 
residence within 15 miles 
of the County for 12 
months previous to the 
15th July. 



Lodger. — As for Parlia- 
mentary. 



ffouse/iolcter.— Occupation 
and residence for 12 
months previous to 15th 
July within the City. 

Ocmpier.—O ccupation 
within the City for 12 
months previous to the 
15th July or the 1st De- 
cember. No limit as to 
residence. 



(6) Owners vote for Parliamentary county. 



The Parliamentary County voters are the owners who are not qualified by the same pro- 
perty for the Parliameutary Borough franchise. They vote for the ancient counties of 
Middlesex, Surrey, ind Kent. They are Parochial electors also. Total, 8,535. 

General di'iqiia'dfir.ations : Alieni?, convicts, felons, infants, lunatics, paupers, bank- 
rupts, aud persons who hive been convicted of con-upt and illegal practices. Non- 
payment of rates due on the 15th January by the 20th July disqualifies for Household 
and Occupier franchise ; and non-payment of fines disqualifies for Livery franchise. 

Persotis include.l in the franchises :— 

Tenement occupiers (Householders). 

Shop assistants (Service) . 

Lodgers paying 4s. a week for unfurnished, or 5i. a week for furnished, lodgings 
(Lodger J . 

roti/i;;.— ParliaTiientiry elections— one vote in each borough or county, in which quali* 
fletl. County Council elections— one vote in the whole county. Parochial elections — 
one vote in each borough in which qualified. The vote may be exercised only once 
in each division in which qualified. 



Foktical London, 



15 



POLITICAL PARTY ORGANISATIONS. 



District Secretaries and their Addresses. 



Liberal. 

liONDON LtBERAL FEDERATION. 

Chairman— yi . H. Dickinson, m.p. 
Treasurer— Hon. Louis Montagu. 
i/o/i. S3C.— CoRRi a Grant, m.p. 
Ron. Assist. Sec— Robert V. Harcourt 
Assist. Sec— W. G. Rattey. 
0^c68— 41, Parliament-street, S.W. 



Conservative. 
Metropolitan Division op the 
National Union op Conservative anp 
Constitutional Associations. 
President— Lord Llanoattock. 
Chairman— ^iR T. G. Fardell, m.p. 
Secretary- 
Offices— 8t. Stephen's Chambers, West- 
minster, S. W. 



Division. 
Battersea . 



Bkrmondset . • . 
Betiinal Green, N.E. 

S.W. 

Bow and Bromley . 
Brixton 

Camberwell— North 

Chelsea 

City of London . 
Clapham 
Dkptford . 
Dulwich 

FiNSBURY— Central . 
East . 

FULHAM 



Liberal. 
T. C. Waterland, Glenmiiir, 

Brugsels-road, New Wands- 
worth, Hon. Sec. 
A. H. Burn. 457, Battersea 

Park-road, S.W., Reg. Agent. 
John W. Speer, 12, Kintore- 

streot. Ford-road, Bermond- 

sey, S.E., Hon. Sec. 
J. J. Cole, 134, Bishop's-road, 

N.E., Hon. Sec. 
J. W. Cole. 134, Bi-shop's-road, 

N.B., Reg. Agent. 
George Lloyd. 50, Xorah-street, 

Bethual-greon, Hon. Sec. 
Maurice W. Harnett, 84, Bow- 
road, E.,Sec. and Keg. Agent. 
C. T. Bartlett,188, Brixton-road, 

S.W., Hon. Sec. 
H. Herbert, 188, Brixton-road, 

S.W., lleg. Agent. 
J. Shrimpton, 34, Barkworth- 

road, S.E.. Hon. Sec. • 
A. M. Latham, 7, Cheyne- 

gardens, Chelsea, Hon. Sec. 
W. J.Osborne, 182, King's-road. 

Chelsea, Reg. Agent. 
A. Bass, 1 and 2, Queen street, 

Cheapside, Sec. 
W. J. B. Ball, 192. Hish-street. 

Clapham, Sec. 
H. Marshall, 350, New Cross- 

nr.uX, S.E.. Hou. Sec. 

F. F. S(miers, 74, Ejut Dulwich- 
road, S.E. 

P. A. Spong,136, liordship-lane, 

Dulwich, Sec. 
P. Thoms, 41, Spencer-street, 

Clerkenwell, Hon. Sec. 

G. W. Newsam, Hon. Sec. 

F. C. Baum, 117, Old-street, 

E.C., Reg. Agent. 
C. A. Blake. 51. Clonmel-road. 

Fulhum, Hou. Sec. 



Conservative. 
B. Bottomley, 83, Falcon-road, 
Clapham j unction. 



C. G. Storey, 132. Grange-road, 
Bermondscy, S.E. 

E. A. Lufflngham. 248; Bethnal- 
green-road. E. 



W. A. Maxfleld.381,Cambridge. 

road, Cambridge Heath. 
H. F. Smith, 151, Bow-road, E. 

J. G. Albert, 206, Brixton-road, 
S.W. 



Basil Tree, 6,Blucher-road. S.E. 

A. R. Leslie, 191, King's-road, 

Chelsea. 



T. Inkersole, 2. Gresham-build- 
ings. (tuildhall, E.C. 

F. S. Harnett, 5, South Side, 
Clapham-conimon, S.W. 

H. (Garland Wells, 329, New 
Cross-road, S.E. 

G. H. Edwards, 1, Grove- vale, 
Eabt Dulwich. 



E. J. Wilkins, 17, Tysoe-street, 

E.C. 
W. P. Banks, 33, King-square, 

E.C. 

W. A. Milner. 6, Shorrolds-road, 
Wal ham-green, S.W. 

B 



16 



Political London, 



Division. 
Greenwich . 

Hackney- Central 

„ North 

„ South. 

Magoerston 
Hammersmith . 

Hampstead . 



HOXTON . 


. 


HOLBORN 


• • 


ISLINGTON- 


-East 


» 


North 


, 


South 


*> 


West 


Kennington. 



Kensington— North . 

„ South . 

Lambeth— North 
Lewisham . 

Limehouse . 
Mabylebone— East 

„ West , 

Mile End 
Newington— West . 



Liberal. 

Harold Davis, Reform Club 
South-st., Greenwich, Hon.Sec. 

G. PiIbrow,30,St. Philip's-road, 
Dalston, Hon. Sec. 

A. W. Radford, 15, Amhurst- 
road, Reg. Agent. 

B. J. Dann, 182, Stoke Newing- 
ton - road. Sec. and Reg. 
Agent. 

J. McCarthy, 25, Church-road, 

Homerton, Hon. Sec. 
Leonard Harvey, 1, Hows-street, 

Kingsland-road, Hon. Sec. 
R. Cotter, 49a, Sulgrave-road, 

Hammersmith, Hon. Sec. 
G. Sexton, 212, Uxbridge-road, 

W . Sec. 
H. E. a. Cotton, Hon. Sec, J. 

Brown, Sec, Liberal Club, 

Heath-street, Hampstead. 
Joseph Cox, 299, Old-street, 

E.C., Hon. Sec. 

C. W. Garrard, 53, Hunter-st., 
W.C, Hon. Sec. 

A. E. Pettet, 218, Seven Sisters- 
road, Hon. Sec. 

O. Clarke, Sec, and R. J. Allen, 
Hon. Sec, 734, Holloway- 
road. 

D. Thomas, Mornington House, 
Canonbury-lane, Hon. Sec. 

W. Isaac, 314, Caledonian-road, 
N., Hon. Sec. 

J. C. Hatch, Hon. Sec, R. A. 
Cole, Assist. Hon. Sec, 342, 
Kennington-road, S.E., 

A. G. M'Arthur, 28, Linden- 
gardens. W., Hon. Sec. 

H. Lewis, 92, Ladbroke-grove, 
R«g. Agent. 

Mrs. Broadley Reid, 70, West 
Cromwell-road, S. W.,Hon.Sec 

Albert Willis, 121, Kennington- 
road, S.E., Hon. Sec. 

Clifford Smith, 16, Efflngham- 
roai.Lee, Hon. Sec. 

T. AVhite, 133, High - street, 
Lewisham, Reg. Agent. 

W. Anders(m, 715, Commer- 
cial-road, PL, Hon. Sec. 

J. T. Osier, Hon. Sec, E. W. 
Eatwell, Sec, 184, Maryle- 
bone-road. 

W. H. Sands, 25, Harcourt-st., 
Edg ware-road, W., Hon. Sec, 
J. Bellman, Sec. 

Thos. Gould, Hon. Sec. and 
Rag. Agent, 146, Biirdett-rd. E. 

D. T. Denne, 73, Manor-place, 
Newington, Hon. Sec. 

R. Wagner, 7, St. Agnes-place, 
Keuniugton, Hon.' Sec. 

J. Boyd, 19, Lorrimore-road, 
S.E., Hon, Reg. Agent. 



Conservatite. 

J. E. Shaw, 88, London -street, 

Greenwich, E.C. 
H. C. Rawll, 42, Oakfleld road, 

Clapton, N.E. 



W. H. Bishop, 106, StokeNew- 
iugton-road, N. 

C. Jeffries, 10, Lower Clapton- 
road, N.E. 
J. Bye, 258, Kingsland-roid, 

C. H. AUberry, 16. BroaUvay. 
Hammersmith, W. 



C. Atkinson, 4, College-villas, 
Finchley-road, N.W. 

A. C. Hodder, 27, New North- 
road, N. 

F. M. Gillmore, Conservative 
Association, 36, Red Lion-sq., 
W.C. 

A. Carey, 278, %t. Paul's-road, 
Highbury, N. 

Councillor G. W. Didsbury, 623, 
Holloway-road, N. 

S. J. Collingwood, 52, Ronalds- 
road, Highbury, N. 

H. J. Clarke, l.c.c, 355, Cam- 
den-road, N.W. 

J. L. Drewry, 295, Kennington- 
road, S.E. 

C. Swann Sheild, 134, Ladbroke- 
grove, W. 



Col. H. W. Gray, 33, Hogarth- * 
road. Earl's Court, S. W. 

J. G. Graham, 155, Westminster 
Bridge-road, S.E. 

T. Edmondsron, 42, Rushey- 
green, Catford, S.E. 



A. White, 638, Commercial- 
road, E. 



(J. S. Underbill, 64, Baker-st.; 
( W. 



J. Forrest, 169, Mile End rd., E. 

E. E. Brook. 122, Walworth- 
road.S.E. 



Political London. 



17 



Divisioir. 
Norwood 



Paddinoton— North . 
„ South . 

PECi^HAaf 

POPLA-R . . . . 

rotherhithe 

St. George's— East . 

„ Hanover-sq. 
St. Pancras— East 

„ North . 

„ South . 

„ West . 

SouTHWARK— West . 



Stepney. 
Strand . 
Walworth . 

Wandsworth 
Westminster 

Wuwechapel 
Woolwich . 



Liberal. 

G. E. Michael, 333a, Norwood- 
road, S.E., Sec. 

C. W. Meallin, 2, Woodqiiest- 
avenue. Heme Hill, Hon. Sec. 

James Brown, Hon. Sec, 252, 
Harrrow-road, W. 

G. E. Holloway, 16, Edbrooke- 
road, W., Hon. Sec. 

A. Y. May ell, 76a, Westbourne- 
grove, w., Hon. Sec. 

W. A. Keyse, 84, Rye - lane, 
Peckham, Hon. Sec. 

C. E. Theis, 102, East India- 
road, Hon. Sec. 

G. H. Ford, 102, East India- 
road, Hon. Sec. 

F. H. Benson, 9, Union-road, 
Rotherhithe. 

G. C. Revell, 2C3, Cable- street. 
Secretary and Reg. Agent. 

H. F. Thomas, 52, Wilton road, 
Victoria, S.W., Hon. Sec. 

E. White, 62, King's-road, Cam- 
den Town, Sec. 

J. Manus, 7, Prince of Wales- 
road, N.W., Sec. and Reg. 
Agent. 

A. P. Stocken, 21, Endsleigh- 
gardens, N.W., Hon. Sec, 
F. W.Galton. 81, Judd-street, 
W.C., for Outvoters. 

D. ThoniJis, Cob den House, 
144, Hampstead-road, N.W., 
Sec. 

T. Haynes, 166, Scovell-road ; 
S. W. Pascall, 100. Black- 
friars-road, Hon Sees. 

A. H. Heuderson-Liveiey, 166, 
ScoveJl - road, Soutbwark 
Bridge-rd., S»K., Reg. Agent. 

E. D. Forrester, 20, Apsley- 
street, Stepuey, Sec. 

Miss Pocock, 18, Buckingham- 
street, Strand, W.C., Sec. 

G. Vernon, 267, Croxted-road, 
West Dulwich, Hon. Sec. 

B. T. Gregory, 70, East-street, 
Walworth, Reg. Agent. 

J. Upton, 32, FuUerton-road, 
Wandsworth, Hon. Sec. 

T. R. Luke, 9, Parliament- 
chambers.Great Smith -street, 
S.W., Hon. Sec. 

G. T. I^gg, 47, Whitechapel- 
road, E., Reg. Agent. 

E. W. George, 151,Whitechapel- 
road, E., Hon. Sec. 

W. Barefoot, Labour Represen- 
tation Committee, 3, New- 
road, Woolwich.i 



Conservative. 



R. B. Staines, 10, Heme Hill- 
road. S.E. 



B. D. Baraett, 22, Bishop's, 
road, W. 



G. Vicary, 139, High-street 

Peckham, S.E. 
A. Seaman, Constitutional Club, 

Newby-place, Poplar. 



A. J. Bleasdale, 70, Union-road, 

Rotherhithe, S.E. 
G. Stewart, Beaconsfleld House- 

206, Cable-street, E. 
T. Lennox Irwin, 31, Old 

Queen-street, S.W. 
C. H. Ball, 18, Camden-street, 

N.W. 
H. A. Collins, 3, Highgato-road, 

N.W. 

E. Bames, 26, Argyle-sq., W.C. 



A. R. Miles, 8, Stanhope-ter., 
Gloucester Gate, N.W; 

E. A. Trebeck, 86, Borough- 
road, S.E. 



G. W. McMullau, 50, Portland- 
street, Stepney, E. 

T. Lennox Irwin. 31, Old 
Queen-street, S.W. 

S. J. Willis, 147, Walworth- 
road, S.E. 



G. W. Daw. 88, East Hill, 

Wandsworth, S.W. 
F. C. Morgan 64, Victoria-st., 

We>tmiuster, S.W. 
S. Mockett, Imperial Mansions, 

Chariug-cross-road, W.C. 



Stanley C. Abbott, 3, Thomas- 
fctreet, Woolwich. 



B 2 



Cfiitral (gobermng autbontiesf* 



LONDON COUNTY COUNCIL. 



Until eigliteen years ag-o London 
had no central representative Go- 
verning Authority. In 18r>5 the 
Metropolitan Board of Works was 
established, and discharged certain 
central municipal duties. It was 
constituted by members nominated 
by the vestries, the district boards, 
and the City Corporation. Origi- 
nally intended only to look after 
main drainage, and a few minor 
matters, such as street naming and 
lines of frontage, it soon extended 
its duties by taking over the fire 
brigade and the Thames bridges; 
executing street improvements, in- 
cluding the making of the Thames 
Embankment ; acquiring and main- 
taining parks and open spaces ; and 
undertaking other works. Never a 
popular body, because it did not 
come into touch with the people, it 
fell into disgrace just at the time 
that Mr. Kitchie, as President of 
the Local Government Board, was 
reforming the County Government 
in the country. A Parliamentary 
inquiry showed that several officers 
of the board had been guilty of 
corruption, and that some of the 
members were not above suspicion. 
It was opportunely abolished, and 
in its place a really representative 
council created. London was made 
a County, and the jurisdiction exer- 
cised by the county justices of Mid- 
dlesex, Kent, and Surrey, within the 
area governed by the Metropolitan 
Board of Works, ceased. For cer- 
tain purposes the City was absorbed 
into the rest of the Metropolis. 

The Councilconsists of 118 elected 
representatives — two from each Par- 
liamentary division and four from 
the City— and 19 aldermen The 
Council election takes place in 



March , every three years. The alder- 
men are elected by the Council for 
six years -9 retiring at the end of 
one triennial period and 10 at the 
end of the next similar period. 

The Council has a chairman, a 
vice - chairman^ and a deputy- 
chairman. Originally the deputy- 
chairman was a paid official, the 
chief of the staff, although a mem- 
ber of the Council. The clerk of 
the Council now combines the ad- 
ministrative functions of the former 
deputy-chairman with the duties 
of the clerk. 

The first chairman of the Coun- 
cil was Lord Kosebery. He was 
succeeded by Sir John Lubbock. 
Lord Kosebery . returned to the 
chair for a few months after the 
election of the second Council, and. 
was followed by Sir John Hutton, 
who held the position until the elec- 
tion of the tliird Council. 

Sir Arthur Arnold was chairman 
from March 1895 to March 1897. 
Since that date the chairmanship 
of the Council has been an annual 
office, held by Sir W. J. Collins; 
M.P., Mr. T. McKinnon Wood, m.p 
Lord Welby, Mr. W. H. Dickin- 
son, M.P., Mr. A. M. Torrance, M.p., 
Sir John McDougall, Lord Monks- 
well, Mr. J. W. Benri, m.p.. Sir E. A 
Cornwall, m.p., Mr. Evan Spicer, 
Mr. H. P. Harris, and Mr. R. A. 
Robinson, who is the present chair- 
man. The first deputy-chairman 
was the late Mr. Firth, who had 
long been associated with the reform 
of London government. He was 
followed by Alderman Haggis, who 
also died in office. Mr. W. H. Dickin- 
son was the last paid deputy-chair- 
man, and occupied the position four 
years. 



Lo>ido7t County Couiicil. 



19 



The following is a list of the ch&irmen and the periods for which they 
served : — 



First Council. 
March 1889 to July 1891 
July 1891 to March 1892 

Second Council. 
March 1892 to June 1892 
Juue 1892 to March 1895 

Third Couwil. 
March 1895 to March 1896 
March lS96 to March 1897 
March 1897 to March 1898 

Fourth Comicil. 
March 1898 to March 1899 
March 1899 to March 1900 
.March 1900 to March 1901 

Fifth Council. 
March 1901 to .Vfarch 1902 
March 1902 to IMarch 1903 
March 19u3 to March 1904 

Sixth Council. 
March 1504 to March 1906 
March 19C5 to March 1906 
March 1906 to March 1907 

Seventh Council. 
March 1907 to March 1908 

. Blarch 1908 to 



CHAIBMAir. 



YICE-CH1.IBMAN. DEPUTT-CHA IRMAIT 



I rH. B. B. Firth 
I (d. Sept. 1889) 
i A. H. HjifiTKis 
I (d. Nov. 1891) 
LR. M. Beachcroft 
I I 

Earl of Rosebery I Sir John Hottou W. H. Dickinson 
Sir John Hutton ' Charles Harrison I W. H. Dickinson 



Earl of Rosebery 
Sir John Lubbock 



Sir John Lubbock 
Lord Farrer 



Sir Arthur Aniold 
Sir Arthur Arnold 
Dr. W. J. Collins 



T. McK. Wood 
Lord Welby 
W. H. Dickinson 



A. M. Torrance 
Sir J. McDouRall 
Lord Mooksweil 



J. W. Benn 
B. A. Cornwall 
Evan Spicer 



H. P. Harris 
R. A. Robinson 



J. W. Benn W. H. Dickinson 

Dr. W. J. Collins R. M. Beachcroft 
R. M. Beachcroft . A. M. Torrance 



I 



liord Welby 

R. Strong 

A. M. Torrance 



H. P. Harris 
T. L. Corbett 
J. S. Fletcher 



John McDougrall Lt.-Col. A. Rolton 
liOrd Mouksweli Henry Clarke 
E. A. Cornwall i R. A. Robinson 



I E. A. Cornwall 
' Evan Spicer 
Henry Ward 



H. S. Sankey 



F. P. AUiston 
Lt.-Col. Pmbyn 
Dr. Baxter Forman 



Capt. Fitzroy 



W. 



Whitaker 
Thompson 



Hemphill 
A. A Allen, m. 



ELECTION RETURNS. 



There have always been brisk 
contests at the County Council 
elections. The first took place on 
January 17th, 1889, and among the 
members two ladies were elected — 
Lady Sandhurst for Brixton and 
Miss Jane Cobden for Bow. But 
Sir Walter de Souza and Mr. 
Beresford-Hope put the law in 
operation, and had them removed. 
Mr. Beresford-Hope then secured 
Lady Sandhurst's seat at Brixton 
without a contest, and Miss Cons, 
who had bean elected an "alder- 
man," retired as a result of the le^al 
difficulty created. The following 
tave been the positions of the two 





Pro. 


uu. 


Maj. 


45 


... 28 


36 


... 48 


59 




48 


... 22 


31 


... 53 


34 


.. 49 



parties— ^Progressives and Mode- 
rates — on the various Councils : — 
Pro. Mod. 

First election. January, 1889 73. 
Second election, March, 1892 83 
Third election, March, 1895 59 . 
Fourth election, March, 1898 70 . 
Fifth election, March, 1901 84 . 
Sixth election, March, 1904 83 . 

One " Independent " was also elected. 

Mod 
Maj 
Seventh election, March 1907 37 ... 79 ... 4*. 
One "Independent" and one "Labour" 
were also elected. 

The seventh triennial general 
election— of March, 1907— resulted 
for the first time in the history of 
the Council in a victory for the 



20 



Lotidon County Council. 



Moderates. The 118 elected mem- 
bers now consist of 37 Progressives, 
79 Moderates, one Independent and 
one Labour. The contest was 
fought on the old lines of cleavage 
between the Progressive and Mode- 
rate parties, though the latter had 
changed their name to Municipal 
Reformers following the innovati(m 
made at the borough council elec- 
tions in November, 190t>. 

In the following returns P stands 
for Progressive; M, Moderate; I, 
Independent; L, Labour; S, Social- 
ist. An asterisk (*) indicates a 
member of the previous Council. 
Figures in parentneses indicate the 
number of electors. 

BATTERS EA. 

(22,914.) 

»W. Davies (P) . . . 7.250 

A. S. Benn (M) . . . 7.217 
•Aid. J. West (P) . (),H69 
E. Evans (M) . . (),r)91 
W. H. Humphreys (S) 489 

J. Fitzgerald (S) . 98 

H. Jansen-Neuman (S) 42 

1904- Bums, M. p. (P), 5,513; Davies (P), 

5,502; Thomas (M), 2,503. 
1901— Davies (P) . 5,951 ; Bums (P) , 5,906 ; 

Boulter (M), 1,829 ; Dumphreys (M), 1,746. 

BERMONDSEY. 

(15,648.) 

*Dr. A. Salter (P) . .4197 

•A. A. Allen, m.p. (P) . . 4,195 
J. F. V. Fitzgerald (M) 3,474 
J. K. Foster (M) . 3,389 
1904-Cooper (P), 3.221; Allen (P), 3,215; 

Flood (M), 2,153; Amlerton (M), 2,G€5. 

1906 (by-election) : Salter, unopposed. 
1901-Cooper (P), 3,147; Allen (P), 3,096; 

Cox (M), 2,094; Layman (M), 2,026. 

BETHNAL GREEN— NORTH-EAST. 

(11,027.) 

•Sir E. Cornwall (P) . . 3.877 

*E. Smith (P). . . . 3,777 
R. A. Robinson (M) . 1,918 
L. H. Lemon (M) . 1,907 
1904-Snuth (P), 3,265; Comwall (P), 

2,251; McCrae (M), 1,211; Deans (M), 1,163. 
1901— Smith (P), 3,030; Comwall (P), 

2,963 ; Bruce (M), 1,181; Collins (M), 1,169. 



BETHNAL GREEN— SOUTH-WEST. 

(9,708.) 

Rev. S. Headlam (P) . . 2,995 

P. A. Harris (P) . . . 2,762 
R. S. Montefiore (M) 1,774 
F. BrinHley-Harper (M) 1,(>43 
J. H. Harlev (S) . 512 

1904 -Branch (P). 2,490; Wiles (P), 2,458; 

Keeliniff (M), 955; Maconachie (M), 955. 
1901 -Branch ( P) , 2.401 ; Wiles ( P) . 2,353 ; 

Kinnoul (M), 1,358; Coltman (31), 1,329. 

BOW AND BROMLEY. 

(14,745.) 

W. S. M. Kniffht (M) . , 3,285 
H. B. Rowe (M) . . . 3,212 
*W. W. Bruce (P) . 3,019 
*B. Cooper (P) . . 3,019 
A. A. Watts (S) . 786 

J. Stokes (S) . . 783 

S. A. Birtl(l) . . 159 

1904 -Bruce (P) . 3,420 ; Cooper (P), 3.388 ; 
Batchelor (M), 1,600; Lovett (M), 1,569. 

1901- Bruce (P) and Cooper (P) unop- 
posed. 

BRIXTON. 

(13,921.) 

S. J. a. Hoare (M) . . 4,997 

W.Haydon(M) . . . 4,928 
*L. Sharp (P) . 3,546 

L. Earle (P) . . 3,525 
1904 -Sharp (P). 3,170; Dolman (P), 3.420: 

Haydon (M), 2,922; Cresswrell (M), 2.911. 
1901-I)olma.n (P), 3,224; Sharp (P). 

3,226; Bell (M), 2,180; Jerome (M), 2,138. 

CAM BERWELL— NORTH. 

(18,204.) 

»R. Bray(P) . . . 5,499 

•H. R. Taylor (P) . . 5,365 

A. Campbell (M) . 3,545 

W. Edmonds, jun. (M) 3,472 

1904-Taylor (P), 3,670; Bray (P). 3,563; 

Miller (I), 1,229. 

1901— Strong (P) and Taylor (P) unop- 
posed. 

CHELSEA. 
(16,802.) 

T. C. E. Goff (M) . . . 5,877 

R. C. Norman (M) . . 5,779 
*E. J. Horniman,M.P. (P) 3,977 
* J. Jeffery (P) . . 3,915 
1904-Jeffery (P). 4,224; Horniman (P), 

4,143; S.irtorius (M), 3,471; Goff (M), 3,462. 
1901-Joffery (P), 4,582; Horniman (P), 

4.481; Meinertzhagen (M), 2,682; Elliott 

(M), 2,639, 



CITY OP LONDON. 



London County Council, 



21 



(32,399.) 

Aid. F. S. Hanson (M) . 7,603 

N. L. Cohen (M) . . 7 5ly 

W. H. Pownall (M) . . 7.484 

*H.S Sankey(M) . . 7,451 

C. K. Buxton (P) . 1,768 

F. Debenham (P) . 1,766 

G. S. Warmington (P) 1,719 
* W. H. Dickinson (P) 1,646 

, 19W-Alliston (M), 4,907; Brooke-Hitch- 
ing (M), 4,858; Guinness (M). 4,799; San- 
key (M), 4,606; Buxton (P), 2,3 2; Lord 
Sandhurst. (P), 2,298. 



1901-Alli8ton (M), 3,325; Clarke (M), 

^'??2' ,S°^f^ ,iJ!^^> 3'251; Sankey M) 
3.138; WelbyP. 2,341; Spicer (P), 2,327 



CLAPHAM. 

(28,076.) 



J. W. Domoney (M) 
Sir C. J. Cooke (M) 

A.Gleggr(P) . 

J. G. Kipling (P) 



. 10,200 

. 10,155 

7,320 

7,276 

1904-Rotton (M), 5,910; Gaskell (M), 
5.764; Kipling (P), 5,544; Pannett (P), 
5,408. 

1901— fiottton (M), 4,141; Gaskell (M). 
4,058; Hewitt (P). 3.903. 

DEPTPORD. 

(21,549.) 

*S. Webb (P) . . . 6,185 

*B. 0. PhiUimore (P) . . 6,083 

H. G. Wells (M) . 5,979 

W. F. Barrett (M) . 5,899 

E. E. Fairbaim (I) . 182 

1904— Phillimore (P). ^ebb (P), up- 
opposed. 

1901— Webb (P), 5.496; Phillimore (P). 
5.349; T. W. Marchant (M), 2.855; Wayne 
(M), 2,780. 

DULWICH. 

(16,864.) 

H. C. Gooch (M) . . . 6,689 

F. Hall(M) .... ^Ml 

* J. A. Hardy, m.p. (P) 5.020 

A. S. Cohn (P) . . 4,844 

1904-Hardy (P). 5,347; Gantry (P), 
4.275; Mitchell (M), 3,548; Gooch (M), 
3 531. 

1931-Hardy (P), 3,312; Cousins (M), 
2.587 ; Thornh : 11 ( M ), 2,442. 



PINSBURY-CENTRAL. 

(9,733.j 

*Capt. Hon. F. Hemphill (P) 2,806 

*A. B. Eus83ll (P). . .2 791 

♦Capt.G. S. Swinton (M) 2,508 

M. Chapmaa (M) . 2,507 

o T^2^1,"®??P^"A,(P>' 2.361 ; Russell (P). 
a914) ^ (M). 1,935; Wayne (M). 

o}^^~^T^}'}lS^'^' 2.023; Smith (P). 
2,021; Rutland (M), 1,796; Low (M), 1,722. 

Bye-election, November, 1901, on retire- 
ment of Smith (P), MacDonald (P), un- 
opposed. V /. "" 

PIN8BURY— EAST. 

(6.687.) 

Colonel A. CWelby(M) . 2,024 

Jbi. Howes (M) . . 2 014 

;T.Harvey;(P) . '1,918 

F. A. Harrison (P) . 1,988 

1904— Baker (P), 2,336; Harvey fP) 

2,190; Howes (M), 1,772; Smith (M), 1,618.' 

nlSS!^^^^^^ JP^' 2.471; Benson (P), 
2.409; Marcus (M), 870; Porter (M), 870. 



PULHAIM. 

(26,409.) 

*C. Cobb(M) . . .8 413 

E J Easton (M) . . . 8,^301 

W. L. Taylor (P. . 4,774 

J. J. Stephenson (L) . 3.139 

J.E.Wall(S) . '773 

i.}^S/^^^^^ C?^' ^'207; Davies (P). 
W?'' .^h\l!^^^^ <^^' 5.247; Ix)rd Lytton 
U'/-jif^-o *^ (bye-election) -Cobb 
(M), 4,395; Spender (P). 3,970; Clark (L), 

.. JS?^~;,^^^*^s (P)' 5.341; LawFon (P). 
5.259; Easton (M), 3,497; Gull (M), 3,483- 
Cooney (1),645. 

GREENWICH. 

(15,987.) 

J. H. Benn (M) . . . 6,217 

Lord A. J. Thynne (M) . 5 991 

I). McCall(P) . . 3 727 

Eev. J. Wilson (P) . 3,'545 

1904— Jackson (P), Warmington (P) ; 
unopposed. ^ ' ' 

' / J?®!';:^'*^!^?^" ^?]' '♦•242; Warmingtm 
(P), 3.937; Shaw (M), 3,209; I^ii on (M) 
3.178; Ellis (1),615. ' 



22 



London County Council. 



H ACXN EY— CENTRAL. 

(12.809.) 

W. B. Stewart (M) . . 8,(571 

G. Billings (M) . . . ^620 

*A. J. Shepheard (P) 3,608 

*W. B. Yates (P) . 3,591 

E. C. Fairchild (S) . 283 

F. V. Fisher (S) . 265 

1904— Wood (P), 3.534; Shepheard (P). 
3,476; Lord BiDgham (M), 2.120; Cart- 
wright (M), 2,097. 

1901— Wood (P), 3.162; Shepheard (P), 
3.221; Johnston (M), 1,742; Cartwright 
(M), 1,688. 

HACKNEY— NORTH. 

(16,990.) 

W.H.Key(M) . . . 6,205 

W. E. Greene (M) . . 6,153 
*G. Lampard (P) . 4,617 
Aid. E.G.. Price (P) . 4,530 
1904— Lampard (P), 4,372; Sears (P), 

4,189 ; Miller (M), 3.773 ; Key (M), 3,942. 
1901— Lampard (P), 4,458; Sears (P), 

4,257; Forman (M), 2,963; Richmond (M), 

2,819. 

HACKNEY— SOUTH. 

(18,114.) 

T. Chapman (P) . . . 5,225 

W.A. Ca-son (P). . . 5,138 

C. Hinckley (M) . 3,325 

G. K. I^ayior (M) . 3,2^5 
1904 — Browne (F), 4,318; Smth (P), 

4,316 ; Boulter (M). 1.776 ; Craig (M), 1,767. 
1901— Browne (P), 4.231; Smith (P), 
4,169; Wallis (M), 2,117; Oldfleld (M), 
2,068. 

hAggerston. 

(10,233.) 

*Hon. E. Guinness (M) . 3,307 
Hon. G. Johnstone (M) . 3,131 
♦Lord Monkswell (P) 3,085 
Mr. S. Gee (P) . 3,026 

1904- Lord Monkswell (P). 2,479; Stuart 
(P), 2,456; l^tokoe (M), 1,093; Lloyd (M), 
1,030. ' 

1901-Stuart (P). 2,300; Monkswell (P), 
2,251; Bridgemau (M), 1,011; Walker 
(M),968. 



HAmmERsmiTH. 

(17,949.) 




*J. Brandon (M) . 


. 5,850 


*E. CollinR (M) . . 


. 5,839 


N. W. Shairp (P) . 


2.755 


E. Camp (P) . 


2,709 


Dr. Davidpon (S) 


897 


J. T Wtslcott (S) 


737 



1904— Brandon (M), 3.501; Collins (M). 
3,4^: Ritchie (P), 3,483; Whelan (P). 
3,392. 

1901- Collins (M). 3,128; Brandon (M), 
3. 1 10 ; Ix)rd ( P) , 2,885 ; Rawlings ( P) , 2,874. 

HAMPSTEAD. 

(15,012.) 

» J. T. Taylor (M) . . . 5,577 

W. Keynolds (M) . . . 5,508 

G. L. Bruce (P) . 3,894 

C. A. McCurdy (P) . 2,878 

1904-Hanharh (M), 3,252; Taylor (M). 



3,213; Mullens (P), 2,893; Smith (P), 2,737. 
loni wi^*^! — /»cx «\«, "' lins (P) 



1901-Fletcher (M), 2,476; Mull 
2,231; Bond (M), 1,864. 



holborn. 

(12,396.) 

E.E.Wild(M) . . . 4,524 

Hon. H. Lygron (M) .. . 4,030 
H. D. Woodcock (P) . 1,629 
1904— Bliss (M). 2.670; Swinton (M). 

2.649; Ansell (P). 1,241; Goodes (P), 1,169. 
1901— Bliss (M). 2.146; Swinton (M), 

2,135; Cohen (P), 1,464. 

HOXTON. 

(12,019.) 

Dr. J. Davies (M) . .» 3 272 

E. Grey (M) . . . . 31225 
*H. Ward (P) . . 3,112 
*G. Wallis (P) . 3,065 

1904— Wallis (P), 2,436; Ward (P). 2,361 • 
Davies ( M ), 2,281 ; Gates ( M ), 2,124. 

1901— Austin (P), 2.379; Ward ( P), 2.365- 
Davies (M), 1,878; Bird (M), 1,827. 

ISLINGTON— EAST. 

(15,439.) 

C. A. M. Barlow (M) . . 4,430 

P. E. Pilditch (M) . . 4 402 
Aid. E. Smallwood (P) 4.291 
*A. A. Thomas (P) . 4,257 
1904— Torrance (P). 4,413; Thomas (P) 

3,914: Cfi'sar (M), 2.416. 
1901— Torrance (P), 3.992; Laugh land 

(P), 3.751; Mortimer (M), 2,254; Beale 

(M), 2,249. 

ISLINGTON— NORTH. 

(16,775.) 

F. L. Dove (M) . . . 4,924 
C. K. Murchison (M) . . 4,797 

H. G. Chancellor (P) 4,200 

H. J. Glanville (P) . 4,192 
1904— Napier (P), 3,876; Parkinson (P). 

3,868; Tomkins (M), 2,811; Sharp (M). 

2.771. • 

1901— Napier (P), 4,057: ParkinFon (P) 

,075: Clough (M). 2,206; Gedge (M), 2,196. 



London Courdy Cowncil. 



23 



ISLINGTON— SOUTH . 

(11,465.) 

*G. Dew (P) . . . . 2,996 

*H, J. Williams (P) . . 2,929 
S. Lambert (M) . 2,217 

C. MofPatt (M) . . 2,076 
Gr. F. Elliott (1) . 8i50 

E.J. James (I) . 179 

1904-William8 (P), 2,536; Dew (P), 2,437; 

Elliott (I), 1,770; Lambert (1), 1,996; 

Memory (1),356. 
1901— Elliott (I) and Williams (P), 

utiopposed. 

ISLI NCTON— WEST. 

(10,060.) 

I. Salmon (M) 
H. J. Clarke (M) . 

U. C. Lambert (P) 

A. J. Mundella(P) 

1904— Gkwdmau (P), 2.904 



. 3,326 

. 3,;k)0 

2,933 
2,900 
Eadford (P). 
2,874; Adams (M), 1,705; « larke (M), 1,695. 



1901— Goodmau (P), 3,039 



Radford (P), 



3,014; Davies (M), 1,351; Grant (M). 1,2%. 

KBNNINCTON. 

(11,142.) 

*Sir J. W. Benn, M.P. (P) . 3,424 

Rev. E. Denny (P) . . 3,326 
J. F. Budge (M) . 2,718 
8ir W. H. Porter (M) 2,666 
J. G. Butler (S) . 281 

F. Knee(S) . , 235 

1904--Collin8 (P), 3,394 ; Benn (P), 3,388 ; 

Edwards (M),2,4 0. 
1901— Benn (P), 3,505; Collins (P), 3,412; 

Bennet (M). 1,913; Dixon (M), 1,844. 

KENSI NCTON— NORTH. 

(14,770.) 

D. Davis (M) . . . 4,418 

Major C. L. Skinner (31) . 4,382 
*H. L. Jephson (P) . 3,181 
*W. Pope (P) . . 3,170 
1£04-Pope (P), 3,232; Jephson (P), 3,203; 

Thomppon (M), 2,914; Baron de Woniis 

(M), 2,858. 
1901— Pope (P), 2,315; Jephson (P), 

2,233; Thompson (M), 2,179; Morriton 

(M), 2,156. 

KENSINGTON- SOUTH. 

(14,539.) 

*A. R. Robinson (M) . . 5,869 

*Dr. E. B. Forman (M) . 5,KJ4 

V. Aronson (P) . 788 

Hon. W. J. James (P) 770 



1904-Robin8On (M), 3,538; Thesiger (M), 
3,519; Carr (P),682; Norton (P),660. 1905 
(bye-election)— Colvile (M). unopposed. 

1901- Cumpbell (M), 2,264; ItobiuEon 
(M), 2,253; Coumbe (P), 758; Fenneifsy 
(P), 754. 

LAMBETH— NORTH. 

(8,237.) 

*F. Briant(P) . . . 2,360 

F. Smith (L) ... 2,249 

•J. Williams (M) . 2,080 

G. Hinds (M) . . 2,077 

1904-WiBhtman (P). 1,1£0: Williams 
(M), 1,152; Brooks (M), 1,103; Gregory 
(P), 1,028; CJery (I), 422; J. Clarke (I), 
419; W. H. Clarke (L), 265. 1905 (bye- 
election) -Briant (P), 1,549; Hinds (M), 
938. 

1901 -Wightman (P). 1,761; Williams 
(P), 1,677; Williiinus (M), 1,357; Ansell 
(M), 1,329. 

LEWISHAM. 

(28,217.) 

Lord Lewisham (M) . . 11,028 

A. Pownall (M) . . . 10,818 

•J. W. Clelaud, M.P. (P) 7,004 

Hon. N. Primrose (P) 6,893 

A. Gee(L) . . 118 

1904-Cleland (P). 6,297; Statley (P), 

5,946; Fitzgerald (M), 4,557; Hartley (M), 

' 1901-Cleland (P), 3,370: Dodson (M). 
3,235; Williams (M), 3,096. 

LIMEHOUSE. 

(8,022.) 

C. Jackson (M) . .• . 2,141 

J. L. Williams (M) . . 2,026 

*A. L. Leon (P) . 1,957 

T. L. Knight (P) . 1,935 

1S04-Bawn (P), 2,461; I^cn (P), 2,381; 
Elliott (M), 1,517; Gray (M), 1,3%. 

1901— I^on (P), 1,751; Bawn (P), 1,637; 
Hole (M), 1,326; Williams (M), 1,297. 

miLE END. 

(6,839.) 

R. H. Montgomery (M) . 2,023 

E. H. Coumbe (M) . . 2,011 

R. V. Harcourt (P) . 1,988 

Rev. T. Warren (P) . 1,925 

1904- Warren (P), 2,125; Straus (P), 
2,121; Goodrich (M), 1,569; Smith (M) , 
1,368; Baxter (1), 36. 

1901- Straus (P), 1,941; Seager (P), 1,0% 
Flower, m.p. (M), 1,341; Booth (M), 1,341. 

Bye-election, March, K02: A. O. Good- 
rich (M), 1,194; W. Hazell (P), 893. 



24 



London County Gou7ictl. 



N EWI NGTON— WEST. 

(12.483.) 

*E. Spicer(P) . . . 3,778 

•J. D. Gilbert (P). . . 3,759 

H. Jarvis (M) . . 2,700 

A. Waddell (M) . 2,075 

1904— Piggott (P). 3,244; Gilbert (P), 
3.029; Lan:sdale (M), 1.380; Gibbons (M). 
1,356. 

1901— Piggott (P), 4,020; Gilbert (P), 
3,009; LaQsdale (M), 822; Hoare (M),779. 



NORWOOD. 

(16,278.) 

C. U. Fishei- (M) . ... 6,585 

F. St. J. MoiToll (M) . . (),539 

*N. W. Hubbard (P) 4,17J^ 

*G. Shrubsall (P) . 4,120 

1904 -Hubbard (P), 4,323; Shrubsall 
(P), 4,233; Nicholls (M), 3,922; Cliapmau 
(M), 3,887. 

1901— Hubbard (P). 3,770; Shrubsall 
(P), 3,626; Oxley (M), 2,709; Cutler (M), 
2,669. 

PADDINGTON— NORTH. 

(15,664.) 

Hon. W. Guinness (M) . 4.711 

J. H. Hunter (M) . . . 4.597 

J. Fairbanks (P) . 3,(507 

G. C. Moberley (P) . 3,453 

1904-Bea<?hcroffc (M), 3,346; Stepheus 
(M), 2,916; Blackwood (P), 2,393; Turner 
(P), 2,172. 

1901— Beachcr.ft(M), 1,962; Blackwood 
(P). 1,916; Harris (M), 1.853; Warreu (P), 
1,820. 

PADDINGTON— SOUTH. 

(9,582.) 

Sir E. Beachcroft (M) . . 3,763 

*H. P. Harris (M) . . 3,709 

J. S. Holmes (P) . 848 

A. Y. Mayell (P) . 816 

19D4-Harben (M), 2,608; Harris (Vl), 
2.589; Owen (P),937; Kennedy (P). 524. 

1901-Harris (M). 1.618; Harben (M), 
1,611; Paddon (P),524. 

Bye-election, April, 1901— On Sir G. D. 
Harris (M) being elected an alderman Mr. 
H. P. Harris, unopposed. 



PECKHAM. 

(18,538.) 

T. Gautrey(P) . . . 4,659 

W. L. Dowton (M) . . 4,426 
D. C. Preston (M) . 4,379 
K. Steven (P) . . 4,262 
W. T. Kelly (S) . 499 

1904— Clarke (P), 3,935: Verney (P), 

3,871; Somerville (M), 1,779; Fleming, 

(M), 1,666. 
1901-Vemey (P), 3,553; Clarke (P), 

3,546; Scott-Scott (M), 2,138; Rees (M), 

2,000. 

POPLAR. 
(13,263.) 

*W. Crooks, M.p. (P) . . 3,504 

*Sir J. McDougall (P) . 3,476 

Dr. T. H. Clark (M) . 2,778 
Colonel A. Maude (M) 2,579 
1904— Crooks (P), 3.555; McDougall (P), 

3,169; Clarke, 1.891. 
1901— Crooks (P) and McDougall (P), 

unopposed. 

ROTHERHITHE. 
(13,199.) 

*A. Pomeroy (P) . . . 3,693 

*H. J. Glanville (P) . . 3,663 
F. Freemantle (M) . 3,365 

F. E. Eddis (M) . 3,259 
1904— Pomeroy (P). 3,108; Glanville (P), 

3,029; Oake (M), 1,530 ; Tyler (M), 1,448; 

Brown(IM160. 
1901 -Glanville (P), 2,934; Pomeroy (P), 

2.927; Grant (M). 2,302; Pennell (M), 

2,224. 

ST. GEORGE'S, HANOVER SQUARE. 

(13,477.) 

*Lord Cheylesmnre (M) . 5,445 

*H. J. Greenwood (M) . 5,375 

Earl of Craven (P) . 1,384 
T. E. Therris (P) . 1,348 
1904— Greenwood (M), 3,144; Leigh (M). 

3,113; Lord O'Hagan (P), 1,911; Webster 

(P), 1,852; Copp(I),87. 
1901 -Dickson - Poynder (M), 2,395; 

Greenwood (M), 2,365; Chesterfield (P). 

1,414; Saunders (I), 361. 

ST. GEORGE'S-IN-THE-EAST. 

(4,751.) 

*H. Gosling (P) . . . 1,183 

P. C. C. Simmonds (M) . 1,104 

*J. Smith (P) . . 1,035 

T.King (I) . . 952 

W. R. Smith (M) . 881 

J. W. Lynch (I) . 632 



London County Council. 



25 



1904-Go8ling (P), 1.350; Smith (P), 
1,263; Fo.'.ter (M), 1.095; Wells (M), 1,045. 

1901-Suiith (P). 1,123; Fostt-r (M), 1,117; 
Auderton (M), 1,047; Matthews (P), 1.024. 

8T. MARYLE BONE— EAST. 

(9,411.) 

Lord Duncannon (M) . . 3,612 

J. Boyton(M) . . . 3,562 

Dr. F. Little (P) . 2,446 

F. Gill (P) . . . 467 

1904-Lord Ludlow (M), 2.848; Bridge- 
man (M), 2,779; Little (I), 1.762; I^eaf (1). 
1,747. 1»>04 (bye-electiun)— Karl tf Esfex 
(M), 1,822; Wheeler (I), 514. 

1901-Leaf (I), 1,959; Little (I), 1,897; 
Underhill (Itt), 1,896; Brooke-Hitching 
(M), 1,866. 

ST. mARYLEBONE— WEST. 

(12,255.) 

Lord Bentinck (M) . . 4,(583 

Earl of Kerry (M) . . 4,625 

•J. Lewis *(P) . . 2,434 

Dr. J. Searson (P) . 2,:330 

13D4-L3wi9 (P), 2,703; Bailey (M), 2,5C9 
Wh te.(M), 2,450 ; Sands (P), 2.422. 

1901— Farqiihar (M), 2,290; White (M), 
2.193; Sands (P), 2,054; Clay (P), 1,%1. 

Bye-election, July, 1901— On retirement 
of LordFarquhar (M). J. Lewis (P), 2,075; 
Sir Cameron Gall, 1.835. 



ST. 



PANCRAS— EAST. 

(12,470.) 



A. W. Claremont (P) . . 3,482 

Rev. F. Hastings (P) . , 3,410 
E. Barnes (M) . . 3,181 
T. A. Organ (M) . 3,005 
G. Horne(L) . . 2.% 

1904-ldris (P), 2.751 ; Barnes (M), 2,731 ; 

HeunesEey (P). 2,558. 
1901 -Robinson (P). 2.953; Organ (P), 

2,749; Sinclair-Cox (M), 1,525; Angus (M), 

1,499. 
Bye-election. AugUFt, 1902— T. H. W. 

Idris (P). 2,490 ; K. Barnes (M). 1,865. 

ST. PANCRAS— NORTH. 

(12,162.) 

*D. S. Waterlow m.p. (P) . 3,847 

*Dr. Beaton (P) . . . 3,824 

E. J. King(M). . 3,526 

J. A. Pakenham (M) 3,501 



1904-Beaton (P). 3,045; Waterlow (P) 
3,033; Low (M), 1,737; Betterton (M), 1,695. 

1901-W^aterlow (P), 2,791; Wilberforce 
(P), 2,605; Wetenhall (M), 2,051; Willis 
(M), 1,865; Leighton (I), 80. 



ST. PANCRAS— SOUTH. 


(7.972.) 




G. Alexander (M) 
•F. Goldsmith (M) 

Rev. S. Home (P) . 

C. S. Giddins (P) . 

1904-Gii.strell (M), 1,C27; 


. 2,963 
. 2,897 
1,613 
1,583 
Goldsmith 



(M), l,^08; Shaw (P), 1,461; Geary (P). 
1,412. 

1901 -Sheffield (P). 1,750; Somerset (P). 
1,709; Gattrell (M), 1,624; Doll (M), 1,612. 

ST. PANCRAS— WEST. 

(10,913.) 

P. Vosper(M) . . . 3,504 

F. CasselUM) . . . 3,471 

H. Cohen (P) . . 2,461 

J. C. S. Hanham (P) 2,442 

1904-Collin8 (P), 2,889;. Earl Camngton 

(P). 2.769; Buxton (M). 1,352 ; Smith (M), 

1,341; Baker (I), 125. 

1901 -Collins (P), 2.674; Carrington (P). 
2.544; Elcho (M). 1,869; Westacott (M). 
1.869. 



SOUTHWARK— WEST. 


(r,726.) 




*T. Hunter (P) . . 
A. Wilson (P) 

J. Scriven (M) . 

F. Gillett(M) . 

1804-Hunter (P). 2,285; 


. 2,998 
. 2,953 
2,746 
2,649 
Bayley (P). 



2.283; Scriven (M). 1.55J; Judge (M). 1,547. 
1901— Bayley (P) and Hunter (P), un- 
opposed. 



STEPNEY. 

(6,584.) 

*A. O. Goodrich (M) . 
F. L. Harris (M) . 

L. S. Stettaver (P) . 

(\ Watson (P) . 

1904-Steadman (P), 2,004; 
bury (M). 1.950; Kirkwood (M). 1942; 
Spender (P). 1,874. 1905 (bye-election) — 
Goodrich (M), 1,777: Lord Denman (P), 
1.375; Watts (S),lll. 

1901 — Steadman (P), 1,943; Williams 
(M). 1.842; Yates (P), 1,792; Micholls 
(M), 1,774. 



. 2,366 
, 2,292 
1,485 
1,J586 
Lord Malmes- 



London County Connril. 



STRAND. 

(10,475.) 

•Lieut.-(^ol. A. Probyn (M) . ;?,r»80 

Lord Elcho (M) . . . 8,r>r,8 

S. F. H. Lamb (P) . 903 

Sir W. Howell (P) . 89.5 

1904 -Probyn (M). 2.403; Lord Elcho. 

(M), 2.312; Oxford (P), 1.220; Hyder (P). 

1.098. 

1901 -Probyn (M). 2,506; Emrlon (M). 
2.452; Kinnaird (S.Rf.), 1.561; Stamford 
(S.Rf.), 1,484. 

WALWORTH. 
(11.C46.) 

•0. A. Dawes (P) . . . 2,823 
*C. Jesson (P) . . . 2,819 
F. Oklfield (M) . 2,'J:57 

J. H. C. Sproule (M) 2,23:, 
J. Clarke (S) . . 187 

1904-Spokes (P). 2.484; Jephson (P), 
2,425; Youlden (M), 1,754; Smith (M), 
l.t41. 1906 (bye-election) — Dawes (P), 
1,927; Jetscm (P), 1,879; Oldfleld (M), 
1.488; Jjord Henry Bentinck (M). 1.445. 
1901- Spokes (I»). 2.607: Parker (P). 
,566; Willis (M), 1,251; Edgcumbe (M), 
1,29. 

WANDSWORTH. 
(43.269.) 

*Sir J. W. Lancaster (M) . 1,5,700 

*W. Hiiiit(M) . . . 14,r,3r> 
F. G.Kellaway(P) 9,628 

1904 I^ncaster (M). 8,526; Hunt (M), 

8,342; Smith (P), 6,782; Williams (P), 

6.661. 
1901-Mayhew (P). 6,470 ; Ix)ngstaff (M), 

5,606; Hunt (M), 5,138. 



WESTMINSTER. 

(10,664.) 

Hon. W. R. Peel (M) . , 3,419 

*C. Y. Sturge (M) . . 3,392 
W. B. Campbell (P) . 1,299 

E. Herring (P) . 1,298 

1904-(iranville-Smith (M). 2.006; Sturge 

(M). 1.955: Heywood (P). 1,192; Duncan 

(P), 1,169. 
1901— Hayter (M), 1,509: GranviUe- 

Smith (M), 1.489; Heywood (P), 883; 

Chappie (I). 399. 

WHITECHAPEL. 

(5,630.) 

•W. C. Johnson (P) . . 1,7-^6 

*H. H. Gordon (I) , . 1,627 
E. HcKlsoll (M) . 1,211 

C. Wertheimer (M) . 980 

A. W. Elkin (1) . 773 

1904-Gordon (I), 1,616; Johnson (P). 

1,326; Bruce (P), 1,163; Carter (M), 910; 

Hobart (M),710. 
1901— Lawson (P), 1.785; Johnson <P). 

1,701; Munro (M), 1.053; Henderson (iM).892. 

WOOLWICH. 

(22,630.) 

J. Squires (M) . . . 8,904 

E. A. H. Jay (M) . . . 8,677 
*Rov. Jenkins-Jones (P) 7,880 
G. Lansbury (P) . 7,611 

1904 -Jones (P). 6,932; Chambers (P), 

6.H59; Jay (M). 4,437; Dumphreys (M), 

4,097. 
1901 -Squires (M), 3.807; Peel (M), 3,669 ; 

Marsh (P), 3,137, Woodcock (P), 2,784. 



mEMBERS* NAMES AND ADDRESSES. 



Aldermen. 

Anstruther. H. T., Cowley House, We.st- 
min?ter, S.W. 

Buxton, Alfred P., Grange Court, Chigwell, 
Essex. 

Cooper. Benjamin. 60, Exraonth - street. 
Commercial-road, E. 

Fisher, W. Hayes, 13, Buckingham Palace- 
gardens, S.W. 

Goldie. Right Hon. Sir G. D. Taubman. 
Queen Anne's Mansions, St. James's Park, 
S.W.* 

Jephs(m, Henry L., 4, Cornwall-gardens, 
South Kensington, S.W. 

Lidgett, Rev, J. Scott. Bennondsey Settle- 
ment, Famcombe-street, Bennondsey, 
S.E. 

Michelham, Right Hon. Lord. 26. Prince'f- 
gate, South Kensington. S.W\ 

Midleton. Right Hon. Viscount, P.c, d.l., 
M.A., 34, Portland-place. W. 

Mullins, W. E„ 18, Lyndhui-st-gardens, 
Hampst-ead, N.W. 



Xaylor. G. K., 14, Lordship-park, Stoke 
Newi^ngtou. X. 

Sander.^, W. S., 18, Brynmaer-road, Batter- 
sea, S.W. 

Sharp, Lewen. 87, Brook-green, W. 

Shepheard, A. J., 9, Kosslyn -gardens, 
Hampstead, N.W. 

Swiuton, Capt. G. S.C., 2, Hyde Park-st., W. 

Thompson, W. W., 24, Argyll-road. Ken- 
sington, W. 

Ward, Henry, Toynbee Hall, 28, Commer- 
cial-street, E. 

White. Edward, j.p.,20. Upper Berkeleyst. 

Wood, T. McKinnon, ll.d., m.p., d.l., 16, 
Portland-place, W. 

Councillors. 

Alexander, George, 57, Pont-street, Bel- 

grave-sqnaie, S. W. 
Allen, A. A., m.p., 13, Queen's Gate-gardeus, 

South Keusingiou, S.W. 
Barlow, C. A- M., ll.d., m.a., 6, New-court, 

lJnco!n's-inn, W.C. 



London County Council. 



27 



Beachcroft, Sir Melvill, 24, Palace-court, 
Bayswater, W. 

Beaton, R. M., m.b., cm., j.p., 9, Diirt- 
mouth-park-avenne, N.W. 

Benu, A. Shirley, 18, lioltou-gardens. South 
Kensiugton, S.W. 

Beiin, I. Hamilroo, 32, St. John's Park, 
Blackheath, S.E. 

Betin, Sir J. m.p., p.t.., j.p.. The Old 
Knoll. Blackheath. S.K. 

Bentinrk. Ix)rd Henry Caveadlfh, d,l., 
J. p., 53, Grosvenor-striet, \V. 

Billings, Georgt*, j.p.," Arundel," Crescent- 
road, Chingf«»rd, N.E. 

Boyton, JamcF, 2, Park-square West, 
Regent's Park, N.W. 

liraudon. Jocelyn, Seaford IIouFe, 1, Edith - 
road, Kensington. W. 

Bray, Reginald, 10, Addington-square, 
Camberwell. S.E. 

Briant, Frank, Alford Houfe, Lambeth- 
walk, S.E. 

Cassel, P. M., k.c, 51, South -street. Park- 
lane, W. 

Casson, W. A., 2, Spring-terrace, Richmond, 
Sun-ey. 

Chapman, TheoJore, 23, Shore-road, South 
Hackney, N.E. 

Cheylesmore, Right Hon. Lord, c.v.c, 
16, Prince*^'-gate, South Kensington, S.W. 

Claremont.A.W., j.p.,81,Camdeu rd.,N.W. 

Clarke. H. J., 356, Camden-road, N. 

Cobb.Cyril S., 5, Cornwall-terrace, Regent's 
Park, N.W. 

Cohen, N. L., 11, Hyde Park-terrace, W. 

Collins, Edward. 47, TI.\bridge-road, Ealing. 

Coniwall, Sir Edwin, m.p., d.l., j.p., 3, 
Whitehall-court, S.W. 

Coumbe, E. H., 36, Clissold-road. Stoke 
Newineton, N. 

Crooks, Wm., m.p.,81, Gough-st., Poplar. E. 

Davies, John, m.d., j.p., 87, Cambridge- 
gardens, North Kensington, W. 

Davies, William, j.p., 18, Alexandra-avenoe, 
Battersea, S.W. 

Davis, David, 6, Cumberland-house, Ken- 
sington-court, W. 

Dawes, J. Arthur, j.p., 71, Kennington-park- 
road, S.E. 

Denny, Rev. Edward, St. Peter's Vicarage, 
Upper Keunington-laue, S.E. 

Dew. George, 264, Mllkwood-rd., Heme Hill, 
S.E. 

Domoney, J. W., 75, Nightingale-lane, 
BalhHm,S.W. 

Dove, F. L., 56, Crouch-hill, Finsbury 
Park, N. 

Dowton, W. L., J. p.. Park Lodge, 207, Peck- 
ham-rye, S.E. 

Duncaunon, Viscount, 17, Cavendish-fq., W. 

Eastou, E. G., j.p., 38, Edith-road, Weit 
Kensington. 

Elcho, Lord, 62, Cadogan-square, S.W. 

Fisher, C. Urquhart, Bristol House, 19 and 
20, Holbom-viaducr., E.C. 

Forman, E. Baxter, m.d., m.r.c.p., m.r.c.s., 
J.P., 11, Bramham-gardens, South Ken- 
sington, S.W. 

Gautrey^ Thomas, 9, Fleet-: treet, E.C. 



Gilbert, J. D., j.p., 21, Kenniogton-terrace, 

Kenningt'Onpark. S.E. 
Glanville. H. J., j.p., Tressillian House. St. 

Margaret's-road. Brockley, S.E. 
Goff, T. C. E., 53. Hans-road, Chelsea, S.W. 
Goldsmith, Frank, 14. South-Ft.. Park-lane. 
Gooch, H. C, M.P., J.P., 17, Oxford-square, 

Edgware-road, W. 
Goodrich. Alfred O.. J.P., " Fairview," 

Palmerston-road. Buckhurst-hill, Essex. 
Gordon, H. H., 39, ('hester-terrace. Regent's 

I'ark. N.W. 
Gosling, Harry, 2, St. (Jeorge's-buildings, 

fit. (ieorge's-road, S.K. 
Gray, Ernest, 99, (trosvenor-road. S.W. 
Greene, W. Rymond, j.p.. 113, Mount- 
street, W. 
Greenwood, H. J., 23, Buckingham-gate 

Mansions, Buckingham-gate, S. W. 
Guinness, Hon. Rupert. c.m.»., 11, St. 

James's-square, Pall-mall, S.W. 
Guinness, H(m. Walter, m.p., 11, Grosvenor- 

place, S.W. 
Hall, Frederick, "Eastlands," Court-lane, 

Dulwich. S.E. 
Hanifon, F. S., 54, Montagu-square, W. 
Harris, F. Leverton, m.p., 70, (Jrosvenor- 

street, W. 
Harris, H. Percy, 98, (Gloucester-terrace, 

Hyde-park. W. 
Harris, P. A., Percy Lodge. Cam pden-hill, 

Kensington, W. 
Hiistings, Rev. Frederick, 45, Ridgmonnt- 

gardens, (iower-street, W.C. 
Haydon, William, 2, Angell-park-gardens, 

Brixton, S.W. 
Head lam. Rev. Stewart Duckworth, 

" Wavertree," St. Peter's-road, St. Mar- 

garet's-on-Thames. 
Hemphill, Capt. Hon. Fitzroy, 36, Mor- 

peth-mansions, Morpeth-terrace, West- 
minster, S.W. 
Hoare, S. J. G., j.p., 12. Park-Lane, W. 
Howes, Enos, j.p., " Fairview," 121, Be- 

thune-road. Stoke Newington, N, 
Hunt, Willi im, j.p.. Hill Crest, UM^er 

Tooting-park, S.W. 
Hunter, J. H.; 30, Warwick-avenue, Pad- 

dington, W. 
Hunter, Thomas, 82, Cowley-road, Brixton. 
Jackson, Cyril, 16, Cowley-street, West- 
minster, S.W. 
Jay. E. A. H., Tower House, Woolwich. 
Jefsou, Charles, 10a, Kathleen-road, Laven- 
der-hill, S.W. 
Johnson. W. C, j.p.. Park-end, Sydenham- 

park, S.E. 
Johnstone, Hon. Gilbert, The Links, Hook 

Heath, Woking. 
Kerry, Karl of,M.v.o.,D.8.o.,18, Gloicester- 

place. W. 
Key. W. H., 301, Seven Sisters-road, Fins- 
bury Park, N. 
Kiuloch-Cuoke, Sir Clement, 3, Mount-st., 

Grosvenor-s(iuarc, W. 
Knight, W. S. M., 8, Kings Bench-walk. 

Temple, E.C. 
Lancaster, Sir William, "South Lynn." 

49, l»utney-hill, S.W. 



28 



Ixmdon County Council. 



I^wisham. Viscount, 8, Prtnce's-jpitc, South 
Kensiii(?tOD, S.W. 

l^rt- Williams, J. R., 5, Essex-coiirt, Tem- 
ple, E.(\ 

LyKon, Hon. Henry. 41, Eaton-s<iuare. S.W. 

McDoagall. Sir John, Clifton House, Green- 
wich-park, S.E. 

Montgomery, R. H.. 11, I'ancras-lane, 
Queen Victoria-street, E.C. 

Morrow, F. St. John, 3, Dr. Johnson's- 
buildings. Temple, E.C. 

Murchison. C. K., Queen Anne's-mansions, 
St. James's Park, S.W. 

Norman, R. C, 2, Sloane-conrt East, S.W. 

Pannell, W. H., j.p., "Dirleton," West- 
park. Elthnm. 

Peel. Hon. W. R. W., 52. Grosvenor-s^, W. 

Phillimore. R. C, j.p., Battler's-green, 
Aldeiih.am.Watford. 

Pildltch. P. E.. 2, Pall-mall East, Charing- 
croes. S.W. 

Pomeroy, Ambrose, j.p.. Linden Lodge, 
Sidcup, Kelt. 

Pownall, Apsheton, Orchard House, The 
Orchard, Blackheath. S.E. 

Probyn, Lieut.-Col. C, v.d., j.p., 55, Gros- 
venor-street. W. 

Reynolds, Walter. 5, Netherall-gardens, 
Hainpsiead, N.W. 

Robinson. R. A., j.p., 26, Brechin-place, 
South Kensingto.i, S.W. 

Rowe, H. v., 14, Sumner-place, Onslow-fq., 
South Kensington, S.W. 

Russell, Arthur B., 17, Rosslyn-hlU, Hamp- 
stead. N.W. 

Salmon, Isidore, 30, Holland-villas-road, 
Kensington, W. 



Salter. Alfred, m.p.. m.r.c.s., L.R.C.P., j.p.. 
5. Storks-road, Benuondsey, S.E. 

Sankey. Stuart. 35, Queensboroagh-terrace. 
Hyde PJirk. W. 

Simmons, P. C, 29, Ru&sell-square, Blooms- 
bury, W.C. 

Skinner. Maj. Chas., 57. Eccleston-sq., S.W. 

Smith. Edward, j.p., 75, G<»*e-road, South 
Hackney. X.E. 

Smith. P.. 67, Longley-road, Tooting. S.W. 

Spicer. Evan. n.L., j.p., " Belair," Gallery- 
road. Dulwich. S.E. 

Squires, W. J., j.p., 95 and 96, WelliDgton- 
street, Woolwich. 

Stewart. W. Burton, 3, Rut!and-gate, South 
Kensington, S.W. 

Sturge, C. Y., ll.St. Augustine's Mansion ^ 
Vmcent-square. Wcstmins er, S.W. 

Taylor, H. R., j.p., 40, Caulfleld-road, Peck- 
ham. S.E. 

Taylor. John T.. i.s.o., 19, Wcodchurch-rd., 
Hampslead. N.W. 

Thynne. Lord Alexander. 15, Manchester- 
square, W. 

Vosper, Percy, m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p , 112, 
Regent's Park-road, N.W. 

Waterlow, David S., m.p., 33. Comwall- 
gjirdens. South Kensington, S.W. 

Webb, Sidney, 41.Grosvenor-road. S.W. 

Welby. Lieut.-Col. A. C. E., J.P.,26,Sloane- 
court East, S.W. 

Wild, E. E., 7, Russell Mansions, Russell- 
square, Bloomsbury, W^.C. 

Williams, Howell J., J.P., " Penrhyn," 253. 
Camden-road, N. 

Wil on, Albert, " Collycroft," Pendeniiie- 
rojid, Strcatham, S.W. 



CHIEF COMMITTEES OF THE COUNCIL. 

(The Chairman, Vice-Chairman, and Deputy-Chairman are ex^jSHcio 
Members of all Committees and Sub-Committees.) 
Asylums Committee. 

(Meetings : Second Tuesday in the month 
at 11 a.m.) 



Chairman— K. V. Rowe. 

Vice'Chairman—E. G. Easton. 

Members of Committee— Billings, G. 
Buxton, A. P. ; Chapman, T. ; Crooks, W. 
Davies, Dr. J. ; Denny, Rev. E. ; Dew, G. 
Dowton, W. L. ; Easton, E. G. ; Fisher 
C. U. ; Goff, T. C. E.; Goodrich, A. O. 
Greenwood. H. J.; Harris, F. Leverton 
Haydon, W.: Hunter, T. ; Jesson, C. 
Johnson, W\ C. ; Kerry, Earl of ; Knight, 
W. S. M ; Lanc^ter, Sir W. J. ; McDougall, 
Sir J. ; Michelham, Lord ; Montgomery, 
R. H. ; Murchison. C. K. : Naylor. G . K. 
Pownall. A. ; Rowe, H. V. ; Smith. F. S. 
Sturge, C. Y.; Taylor, H. R. ; Vosper, Dr. P. 
White, Edward. 

Bulldlngr Act Committee. 
(Meetings : Mondays at 2 p.m.) 

Chairman— Y. Goldsmith. 

Kice-C/iairma»i— Viscount Duncannon. 

Members of Committee— Barlow, C, A. 



M. ; Cassel, F. M. ; Chapman, T. ; Cheyle?- 
more, Ixjrd ; Davies, W. ; Davis, D. : 
Dowton, W. L. ; Duncannon, Viscount ; 
Goldsmith, F. : Harris, P. A. ; Hemphill. 
Capt. Hon. Fitzroy (ex officio) ; Mont- 
gomery. R. H. ; Norman. R. C. ; Phill»more, 
R. C. ; Taylor; H. R. ; White. Edward. 
Education Committee. 
(Meetings : Wednesday at 2 p.m.) 

Chairma7i—C. Jackson. 

Vice-Chairman— H. C. Gooch. 

Members of Committee— Barlow, C. A. 
M. ; Beaton, Dr. R. M. ; Bentinck, Lord 
H. ; Bray, R. ; Clarke, H. J. ; Cobb, C. S. ; 
Collins, E.: Coumbe.Ti:. H.; Denny, Rev. E. ; 
Dew, G. ; Forman, Dr. E. Baxter; Gautrey, 
T. ; Goldsmith, F. ; Gooch, H. C. ; Gr^y, 
E. ; Guinne.«, Hon. Rupert; Harri*, H. 
Percy ; Headlam, Rev. Stewart ; Hoare, S. 
J. G. ; Jackson, Cyril ; Jay, E. A. H. ; 
Johnstone, Hon. G. ; Key.W. H.; Kinloch- 
Cooke, Sir C. ; Lidgett, Rev. J. Scott; Lygon, 
Hon. H. ; MuUins, W. E. ; Rowe, H. V. ; 
Russell, Arthur B. ; Sanders, W. S. ; Shep- 
heardj A. J, ; Skinner, Major C. ; Taylor. 



London County Council. 



2g 



John T.; Webb, Sidney; Welby, Lieut.- 
Col. A.C. E. 

HemherBoppointedu'nder Clause l of the 
Scheme under See. 17 of the Education 
Act, 1902— /idler, Miss N. ; Anderton, F. R.; 
Bryant, Mrs. S. ; Davison, W. H. : Frere, 
Miss M. ; Gilbert, J. W. ; Lawrence, Miss S. j 
T>eon, A. L. ; Liversidge, H. W. ; St. Helier, 
Lady ; Phipps. Mrs. W. ; Wallas, G. 
Establishment Committee. 

(Meetings: Alternate Thursdays at 2 
p.m.) 

Chairman— R. C. Norman. 

Vice-Chairman— Sir George Goldie. 

Members of Committee— Bray, R.; Dove, 
F. L.; Fisher, W. Hayes; Goldie, Sir 
George ; Norman, R. 0. : Pannell, W. H. ; 
Sharp, Lewen ; Smith, Edward ; Swinton, 
Ciipt. G. S. C: White, Edward. 

Finance Committee. 
(Meetings : Wednesdays at 3 p.m.) 

Chairman— W. Hayes Fisher. 

Vice-chairman— Visconut Midleton. 

Mem^rs of Committee— A ustruther, H. 
T. ; Bonn, I. Hamilton ; Benu, Sir John ; 
Buxton, A. F. ; Cohen, N. L. ; Fisher, W. 
Hayes ; Groldie, Sir George : Harris, F. L. ; 
Han-is, H. P. (ex-oflicio) ; Hemphill, Capt.; 
McDougall. Sir John ; Michelham, Lord ; 
Midleton, Viscount ; Pannell, W. H. ; Peel, 
Hon. W. R. W. ; Spicer, Evan. 

Fire Brierade Committee. 

(Meeting3 : Alternate Thursdayd at 3.30 
p.m.) 

Chairman— %. J. C. Hoara. 

Fice-C^irman— Hon. H. Lygon. 

Jlfem&ers of Com.mittee — Brandon, 
Jocelyn ; Dowcon. W. L. ; Elcho, Lord ; 
Gilbert, J. D. ; (Josling, H. ; Guinness, Hon. 
Rupert ; Hanson, F. S. ; Hoare, S. J. G. ; 
Hunter, J. H. ; Lygon, Hon. H. ; Smith, 
Edward ; Wilson. A. 

Hishways Committee. 

(Meetings: Thursdays at 2.30 p.m.) 
Chairman— yf. Whitaker Thompson. 
Vice-Chairman— k. Shirley Benu. 
Memibers of Com,mittee — Alexander, 

George ; Beachcroft, Sir R. M. ; Benn, A. 

Shirley; Benn, Sir John: Glanville, H. J. ; 

Hall, F. ; Hemphill, Capt., Hon. Fitzroy 

(ex-ofOcio) ; Kerry. Earl of ; Pilditch.P. E.; 

Pownall, A. ; Squires, W. J. ; Stewart, W. 

Burton; Thynne, Lord Alexander; Ward, 

Henry ; Waterlow, D. S.; Williams, 

Howell J. 

HousinsT Of tlie Woricingr Classes 
Committee. 

(Meetings: Wednesdays at 11 a.m.) 
Chairman— KoR. Walter Guinness. 
Vice-Chairman— Vf. Raymond Greeu. 
Members of Committee— T)evf, G. ; Gooch, 
H. C, Gra:5n3, W.Riymond; Guinness, Hon. 



Walter; Harris, P. A. ; Hunter, T. ; Jay, E. 
A. H. ; Lancaster, Sir W. J. : Lewisham. 
Viscount; Lort-Williams, J. R.; Naylor. 
G. K.; Smith, F. 8.; Taylor, John T.; 
Thynne, Lord Alexander; Waterlow, D. S. 

Improvements Committee. 

(Meetings: Wednesdays at 2.15 p.m.) 

C/iairman— Lord Elcho, 

Vice-Chairman— W. Burton Stewart. 

Members of Committee — Davies. W. ; 
Davis, D., Domoney, J. W. ; Easton, E. G. ; 
Elcho, Lord; Gordon, H. H.; Hastings, 
R3V. F.; Hemphill, Capt, Hon. Fitzroy (e*- 
officio) ; Lort-Williams, J. R. ; Murchison, 
C. K. : Norman. R. C. ; ITobyn, Lleut.-Col. 
C; Sharp, l^wen; Stewart, W. Burton; 
Thynne, Lord Alexander ; Ward, Henry. 

Local Government, Records and 
Museums Committee. 

(Meetings : Alternate Fridays at 4 p.m.) 

C/iairma?i— Ernest Gray. 

Vice-Chairman—]?. E. Pilditch. 

Members of Committee — Boyton, J. ; 
Cjissel, F. M. ; Gray, E. ; Guinnes.^ Hon. 
Walter; Harris, H. P. (exofficio) -, Howes, 
Euos ; Johnson, W. C. ; Knight. W. S. M. ; 
PhilUmore, R. C; Pilditch, P. E. ; Sanders. 
W. S.; Sturge, C. Y.; Wilson, A. 

Main Drainage Committee. 

(Meetings: Thursday at 2.15 p.m.) 

Chairman— K. J. Clarke. 

Vice-Chairman— ?. C. Simmons. 

Members of Committee— Casson.W. A.; 
Clarke, H. J. ; Coh3n, N. L. ; Dove. F. L. ; 
Edston, E. G. ; Gosling, H. ; Hunt, W. ; 
Hunter, J. H. ; McDougall, Sir John ; 
Salter, Dr. A.; Simmons, P. C; Ward, 
Heury. 

Parks and Open Spaces Committee. 

(Meetings: Alternate Fridays at 3p.m.) 

Chairman— J. H, Hunter. 

Vice-Chairman—J . W. Domoney. 

Members of Committee— Alexander, G. \ 
Austruther, H. T. ; Bentinck, Lord Henry ; 
Chapman, T. ; Cheylesmore, Lord ; Cooper, 
B. ; Denny. Rev. E. ; Domoney, J. W. ; 
Dove. F. L.; Fisher, C. U.; Hall, F.; 
Hastings, Rev. F. ; Howe^Enos; Huut.W.; 
Hunter, J. H. ; Hunter, T. ; Jesson, C. ; 
Key, W. H. : L«wish im. Viscount ; Phiili- 
more, R. C. ; Pomeroy, Ambrose ; Reynolds. 
W. ; Sanl^ey. Stuart (ex-oMcio) ; Squires. 
W. J.; Sturge, C. Y.; Swinton, Capt. 
G. S. C. 

Parliamentary Committee. 
(Meetings: Thursdays at 4 p.m.) 

CfeairmaM— Felix Cassel. 

Ficc-C/kiirman— Stuart Sankey. 

Members of Committee— Beachcroft, Sir 
R. M. ; Cassel. F. M. ; Clareraont, A. W. ; 
Gray. E. ; Greene, w . Raymond ; Harris, 
H. P. {eeolficio) ; Klulo-h-Co3ie, Sir C. ; 



30 



London County Council. 



Midleton, Vuscount ; Morrow, F. St. John ; 
Peel, Hod. W. R. W.; Pilditch, P. E. ; 
Sankey, Stuart (ex-officio)\ Shephearrl, 

A. J. ; Welby, Lieut. -Col. A. C. E ; Wild, 

B. B. 

And th« following members of the f^efflF- 
latUre :— Allen, A. A.; Benn, Sir John ; 
Cornwall, Sir Kdwin; Guinness, Hon. 
Waltar; Wood, T. McKinnon. 

Public Control Committee. 

(Meetings : Alternate Fridays at 2 33 p.m.) 
• C^irmin— W. Haydon. 

Vice-Cfiairmaa—C. S. Cobb. 

Members of Committee — Cobb, C. 8. ; 
Crook!*, W.; Gofif, T. C. E. ; Greenwood, 
H. J.; Haydon, W. ; Hunt, W.; Johnson, 
W. C. ; Knight, W. S. M. ; Pomcroy, A. ; 
Probyn, Lieut.-Col. C. ; Russell, Arthur B. ; 
Simmons, P. C. 

*' Public Health Committee. 

(Meetings : Alternate Thursdays at 3.30 
p.m.) 

C/mirmaw— Dr. J. Davies. 

Vice-Chairmnn— Hon. G. Johnstone. 

Mem,ber8 of C mmit'ee — Beaton, Dr. 
R. M. ; Billings, G. : Briant, P. ; Davie.^, 
Dr. J. ; Easton, E. G. ; Forman, Dr. E. 
Baxter; Gnrdon, H. H. ; Johnstone. Hon. 
G.; Mullins, W. E. ; Salter. Dr. A.; 
Skinner, Major C. ; Vosper, Dr. P. 

Rivers Committee. 

(Consists of the (6) representatives of the 
Council on the Thames Couservancy 
Board, the (2) representatives of the 
Counjil on the Lee Conservancy Boird, 
and (7) other members added by the 
Council, making 15 members in all.) 
(Meetings : Mondays, when neceseary, at 
4.15 p.m.) 

Cfcairwan— Sir Me'vill Beachcroft. 
Vice Chairman— I. Hamilton Benn. 
Members of Committee— Barlow, C. A. 
M.; Beachcroft, Sir R. M. ; Benn, I. 
H;imilton; Billings, G. ; Cornwall, Sir 
Edwin; Dawes, J. A.; Gilbert, J. D. ; 
Gosling, H. ; Greenwood, H. J. ; Guiunes*!, 
Hon. Rupert: McDougall. Sir John; 
Murchison, C. K. ; Robinson, R. A. ; Sankey, 
Stuart ; Simmons, P. C. ; White, E. 

Small HoldinRS and Allotments 
Committee. 

Ci^airman— Viscount Lewisham, 

Members of the Co wtmitfee- -Hall, F. ; 
Harris, P. A. ; Hunt, W. ; Hunter. J. H. ; 
Jay, B. A. H. : Johnson, W. C. ; Lewisham, 
Viscount; McDougdll, Sir John; Sturge, 
C. Y. 

Stores Committee. 

(Meetings: Alternate Tuesdays at 12.) 

C/iair man— Isidore Salmon. 

Fice-Cfcairman— James Boyton. 

Members of o iWee— Boyton, J.; 



Caiwm, W. A.; Cobb, G. 8.: Collin =«, K.: 
(^ooper, B. ; Goodrich. A. O. ; Haydon. ^^^ : 
Johofron, W. C. ; Salmon, I. ; Vosper, l>r. P. 

Theatres and Music Halle 
Contmittee. 

(Meetings : Wednesdays at 3 p.m.) 
C/iitrwiH— H. J. Greenwood. 
Vlce-Chi.irm.in-'1&. E. Wild. 

Members of Committee — Brandon, 
Joceyu; Briaiit, F.; Daw-s. J. A.; Dun- 
cannon. Viscount; Greenwood, H. J. ; Hau- 
soii, F. S. ; Howes, Enos; Jephson, H. L. ; 
Ix>rt- Williams, J. R.; Reynolds, W. ; Wild, 
E. E. ; Williams, H.iwell, J. 

Works Committee. 

(Meetings : Fridays at 4.15 p.m.) 
Chairman— V . St. John Morrow. 
Vice-Chairman-\^^. Hunt. 

Members of Committee— i^owmbe, E. H. : 
Davies, \V.; Hunt. W. ; Morrow, F. St. 
John; Reynolds, W. ; Salmon, I.; Sharp. 
Lewen; White, Edward. 

Appeal Committee. 

(Summoned whc'i required.) 

Members of Committee— 1Rax\o\i, C. A. M.; 
Casson, W. A. ; D iwes. J. A. ; Hunt. W. ; 
Morr.w, F. St. John ; Murchison, C. K. ; 
PownuU, A. 

nridwlves Act (Special) Committee. 
Chairm m— Dr. P. Vosper. 
Fice-Cftiirm-an— Miss A. S. Gregory. 

Members of the Public Health Com- 
mittee — Beaton, D •. R. M. ; Billings, 
G. ; Briant, F.; Davies, Dr. J.; Easton, 
E. G. ; Forman, Dr. E. Baxter ; G«»rdon, 
H. H. ; Johnstone, Hon. G. ; Mullins, W. E.; 
S liter. Dr. A. ; Skinner^ Major C. ; Voiper, 
Dr. P. 

M''.m,ber8 appointed by the Council 
under the provisions of Sec. 8 of the Mid- 
icives Act, i9:)2— Gregory, Miss A. S. ; Mc 
C ill. Dr. Annie ; Steadman, Mrs. W. 0. 

Officers' (Education) Superannua- 
tion Committee. 

Jackson, Cyril ; Gray, E. ; Shepheard, 
A. J.; Taylor, John T. 

Representatives of the Council on 
the Standing: Joint Committee of 
the Quarter Sessions and the 
London County Council. 

The Chairman of the Council ; the Vice- 
Chairman of the Council ; the Deputy- 
Chairman of the Council ; Claremont, 
A. W. ; Davies, W. ; (ireenwood, H. J. ; 
Kinloch-Cooke, Sir C. ; Normin, R. C; 
Sankey, Stuart. 



Lcnidori County Council. 



31 



THE L.C.C. STAFF. 

Thej organisation of the staff is as follows:—!. Heads of departments 
and their deputies or assistants. 2. Principal assistants, £400 to i^jOO. 
J5. Senior assistants, £'500 to £400. 4. First-class assistants, £2(X), by 
£15 to £"245; £215, by £15 and £*20 to £i300. 5. Second-class assistants, 
£150, by £12 10s. to £*200. 6. Third-class assistants, £100, by £10 to 
£150. 7. Fourth-class assistants, £80, by £5 to £100. 



THE PRINCIPAL OFFICERS. 



... ti nmef 
(V. J. 

...<¥. W, 
(.H.J.> 



Clerk of the Council (Main Building) 

Deputy Clerk of the Council 

Assistant Clerks of the Council 

Comptroller (Main Building) 

Deputy Comptroller 

Assistant Comptroller (Education) 

Assistant Comptroller (Audit) 

Chief Engineer (Main Building) 

Chief Assistant Engineer 

Assistant Engineer (bridges, &c., branch) ... 

District Engineer (main drainage, north) ... 

District Engineer (main drainage, south) ... 
Superintending Architect (Main Building) 

Chief Assistant Architect 

Valuer (9, Spriug-garden.s) 

Senior Assistant Valuer 

Solicitor (Main Building) 

Deputy Solicitor 

Chemist (40, Craven-street) 

Medical Officer of Health (8, St. Martin's-place) 
Medical Officer (General Purposes) 

Assistant MedicalOfficer * 

Medical Officer (Education) 

Assistant Medical Officers (Education) 

( Dr. Ettie Sayer. 
Chief Officer, Public Control Department (31,Spring-garden3) J. Ollis. 



G. L. Gomme. 
James Bird. 

Edwards. 
W. Mackinuey 
. J. Mor daunt (Education) . 
. H. E. Haward. 
.. C. D. Johnson. 
. (t. a tten borough. 
. (f. W.Wood. 
. Maurice Fitzmaurice,c.M.G. 
. C. Elwin. 

. W. C. Copperthwaite. 
. J.E.Worth. 

R. M. Gloyne. 
. W. E. Riley. 
. J. Briggs. 
. Andrew Young. 
. P. W. Cook. 
. Seager Berry. 
. E. Tanner. 
. Prank Clowes, d.sc. 
. Sir Shirley F. Murphy. 
. Dr. W. H. Haraer. 

Dr. W. McC. Wanklyn. 
. Dr. J. Kerr. 
/ Dr. C. J. Thomas. 
I Dr. T. H. C. Stevenson. 
1 Dr. P. M. D. Berry. 



Chief Assistant 
Chief Officer, Parks Department (11, Regent-street) . 

Second Officer 

Statistical Officer (Main Building) 

Assistant Statistical Officer 

Educational Adviser (Victoria Embankment) ... 

Executive Officer (P^duciition) 

Architect (Education) 

Chief Inspector (Education) 

Manager of Works (23, Belvedere-road, Lambeth) 

Assistant Manager of Works 

Works Accomitant 

Chief Officer Fire Brigade (South war k Bridge-road) . 

Divisional Officers 

Manager Tramways (62, Finsbury Pavement, E.G.) .. 

Electrical Engineer 

Traffic Manager 

Housing Manager (23, Cockspur-street ) 

Assistant Housing Manager 

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS OF THE ASYLUMS COmiVIITTEE. 

Clerk of the Committee H. P. Keene. 

Assistant Clerk R. H. Curtis. 

Pathologist Dr. P. W. Mott. 

Engineer ..? W. C. C. Smith. 



W. J. O'Donnell. 

... Lieut.-Col. J. J. Sexby. 

... G. P. Banies. 

... E. J. Harper. 

... J. C. Spensley. 

... W. Garnctt, M.A., D.c.L. 

... R. Blair, m.a. 

... T. J. Bailey. 

... Dr. C. W. Kimmlns. 

... G. W. Humphreys. 

... A. Robertson. 

... H. W. Bundy. 

... Captain James de Courcy 
Hamilton, r.n. (retired). 
( S. G. (Gamble. 
— I Lieut. S. Sladen, r.x. 
... A. L. C. PelL 
... J. H. Rider. 
... J. K. Bruce. 
... S. (i. Burgess. 
... W.J. Berry. 



32 



London County Council. 



THE ENGINEER'S DEPARTMENT. 



County Hall and 42 and 43, Cranbourne Street. 
J9m>ic/ie« :— Bridges, Main Drainage (North and South), Sludge Vessels, 
Highways, Mechanical Engineering, and Parliamentary. 

the Chief Engineer, Mr. Maurice 
Fitzmaurice, c.m.g. A vast or- 
ganisation is constantly employed in 



Main Drainage. 

The Main Drainage work of the 
County Council is one of the most 
important branches oE its multi- 
farious duties. The cost of the 
maintenance of the metropolitan 
main drainage system for the year 
1906-7 amounted to £237,139, while 
the expenditure incurred on capital 
account was £717,829. The sewage 
of Hornsey,Tottenham,Wood Green, 
West Ham, Penge, Upper Norwood, 
and parts of Willesden, Acton, 
Beckenham, East Ham, Ealing, 
Chiswick, and Mitcham are 
delivered, under Parliamentary 
authority, into the metropolitan sys- 
tem, and dealt with by the County 
Council, the total area drained 
being about 140 i square miles. 

The treatment and disposal of 
the sewage of about h\ millions of 
people, carried on by* the Council, 
is a colossal undertaking, and 
necessitates the employment of a 
permanent staff of between 900 and 
1,000 men under the supervision of 



pumping the sewage and precipita- 
ting with the aid of chemicals the 
solids in the sewage until an in- 
nocuous effluent is obtained, which 
flows into the Thames. The residue, 
or sludge, in the precipitation chan- 
nels is shipped fifty miles to sea. 
Six sludge ships are kept constantly 
at work night and day carrying 
away this sludge. The result of 
the many improvements introduced 
in recent years, and the extension 
of the outfall works, has been to 
purify the Thames to the greatest 
possible extent under present cir- 
cumstances. 

The following table shows the 
quantities of crude sewage treated, 
chemicals used m precipitation, and 
sludge sent to sea, together with 
the quantity of refuse intercepted 
at the gratings at each of the 
outfall works at Barking aiid Cross- 
ness during the j^ear 1906-7 : — 



Bjiikiug 



Crossness. 



Total. 



Sewage treated 

Daily average 

Lime used 

Proto-sulphate of iron used 

Sludge sent to sea 

Weekljr average 

Refuse intercepted at gratings... 



48,355,001,257 

132,479,455 

14,658-85 

3,013-65 

1,597,000 

30,711 

3,468 



41,331,581,602 
113,237,210 
9,038-45 
2,116-45 
813,000 
15,635 
1.446-4 



89,686,582,859 gallons. 
245,716,635 gallons. 
23,697-30 tons. 
5,130-10 tons. 
2,410,000 tons. 
46,346 tons. 
4,914*4 tons. 



The length of the main outfall, . 
intercepting, and storm relief sewers 
under the control of the Council is 
about 290 miles, not including the 
new sewers in course of construction. 
The North and South sewerage sys- 
tems are distinct, the sewage coming 
from the North being dealt with at 
Barking outt'all works, and that 



from the South at Crossness. The 
precipitation channels and reser- 
voirs at Barking Creek occupy 18 1 
acres, and those at Crossness 9? 
acres. 

Some years ago the Council was 
obliged to give serious attention to 
the necessity for enlarging the main 
drainage system. The jJresent sys- 



Lmidon County Cmincil. 



33 



tern, in its main features, was adop- 
ted about fifty years ago, but owing 
to the enormous growth which has 
since taken place in the population 
of London, new sewer accooimo- 
dation has become imperative in 
order to reduce the number of 
discharges into the Thames in 
times of rainfall, and reduce the 
liability to flooding of premises. A 
scheme, involving an expenditure of 
approximately £4,000,000, was sub- 
mitted to the Council and partly 
agreed to in December, 1899. The 
scheme provided for the construction 
of several new sewers on each side 
of the Thames, besides other impor- 
tant works, such as the provision of 
additional pumping power. Further 
relief worKs, estimated to cost 
€795,000, are also in course of 
construction. 

Bridges, Tunnels, and Ferry. 

The Blackwall Tunnel, the 
greatest engineering work of the 
kind ever constructed, was opened 
by His Majesty the King (when 
Prince of Wales) in May, 1897. 
It goes from Blackwall on the 
north side to Greenwich on the 
south. It is close upon li miles in 
length from entrance to entrance, 
and 24ft. 3in. in internal diameter. 
The chief feature as an engineering 
work was in boring under the river, 
accomplished by means of a shield 
forced forward by hydraulic pres- 
sure, the excavation being carried 
out under compressed air. Green- 
wich Footway Tunnel was opened to 



the public on August Bank Holi- 
day, 1902, and connects Greenwich 
with Poplar near the Isle of Dogs 
Gardens. It is 1,217ft. in length, 
about 8ft. 9in. in width, and has 
a headway of 81*t. 9in. 

The bridges over the Thames 
except those at Blackf riars, London, 
Southwark, and the Tower, are 
under the control of the Council. 
The Woolwich Free Ferry is also 
under the Engineer's Department. 
The traffic returns show that 
5.892,194 passengers and 697,259 
vehicles used the ferry during the 
year ended 31st December, 1907. 
A new bridge has been constructed 
across the Thames to replace the 
old Vauxhall Bridge, the first iron 
bridge across the river, which had 
become in a dangerous condition, 
was opened in 1906. The designs 
are by the Council's engineer, Mr. 
Maurice Fitzmaurice. 

The present Highgate Archway 
was opened to the public in 1899. 

New Tunnel. 

The Council has constructed a 
tunnel under the Thames below the 
Tower Bridge which gives com- 
munication between Kotherhithe 
and North East London. Here pro- 
vision has been made for pedestrian 
and vehicular traffic. It has in- 
volved an expenditure of about 
£1,720,000. The designs are by 
the Council's chief engineer, Mr. 
Maurice Fitzmaurice, C.M.G., and 
the tunnel will le formally opened 
by the Prince of Wales on June 12. 



PARKS AND PLEASURE GROUNDS. 

Parks Department.- 11, Kegent Street, S.W. 

One of the most interesting features of the work of the London County 
Council, and certainly the one most appreciated by all classes, is the care 
and development of the parks and open spaces of the metropolis. " Our 
wilderness of houses," as Frederic Harrison has it, would l>e a dreary place 
indeed were it not ior the bright green parks and breathing sptvces which 



34 London County Council. 

stud the great and crowded city. The task of providing* " gardens for the 
gardenless " has Ijeen taken up by the London County Council with con- 
siderable enthuH-asm. The old Metropolitan IJoard of Works did much in 
this matter, but the County (Vuncil has done more. The Council was 
<iui<;k to recognise the fact that if the Rowing city was to be kept healthy, 
it would require more ** lungs," especially in the crowded districts. No 
opportunity has })een lost of securing parks for the people, and during the 
last IP years the acreage of London's municipal parks and recreation- 
grounds has been almost doubled. 

But the Council has done more than expand the pleasure grounds. It 
has added fresh delights t • the parks and has made them models both for 
the diversity of the pleasures provided and for the special consideration 
given to the children. 

The Council has only introduced the artificial where artificial was 
needed. It has always wisely left undisturbed, as far as possible, the 
natural beauties of the parks. Bostall Woods^ which the Council secureil 
with the co-oi)eration of the local authority in 1892, needed no eml)ellish- 
ment. Brockwell Park, too, depends for its beauties on its natural park- 
lit e aspect. All the other parks and open spaces enjoy some distinct 
feature, or some interesti* g historic associations. Waterlow Park, the 
gift of Sir Sidney Waterlow, contains a house which has several historic 
connections with notabilities of Charles II.'s time. Finsbury Park, 
centreing on the site of the old Hornsey-wood House, must at one time 
have been part of the Middlesex forest. Tooting Common recalls the 
associations of Dr. Johnson and the Thrale family wdth the spot. The 
gardens on the Chelsea Embankment bring to mind Carlyle and Rossetti, 
and so on through tlie list of municipal ])arks. 

The London municipal i)arks are also noteworthy for the diversity of 
the amusements they provide. A feature which was introduced at the 
suo-gestion of Lord Meath was the exhibition of birds and animals, and 
aviaries are to be found at Battersca, Brockwell, Clissold, Duhvicli, 
Finsbury, Bavenscouit, South wark, Victoria (2), and W^aterlow Parks. 
Deer can be seen at Battersea, Victoria, and Clissold Parks, and Grolder's 
Hill, while at other places goats, storks, swans, squirrels, guinea-pigs, and 
emus are kept. 

Nor are sports neglected. Special gymnasia for children have been 
placed in most of the principal parks, and at Victoria (2), Kennington, and 
Southwark Parks, Peckham Rye, Brickfield, Island, Tunnel and 
Meath Gardens, and Plumstead Common sea-sand pits have been pro- 
vided for the enjoyment of the children. Provision is made for the 
playing of basket-ball, bowls, cricket, croquet, football, hockey, hurling, 
lacrosse, lawn-tennis, quoits, shinty, spiro-pole, and even gofl. In the 
winter months the Council uses every precaution for the securing of good 
skating surt'aces on the lakes, and tobogganning where and when grounds 
are suital)le ; and in the summer time boating and bathing are encourag-ed. 
The Council has also earned considerable popularity by insisting that reason- 
able tariffs shall be charged at all the refreshment-houses in the parks. 

When the Council came into office in 1889 it had under its control 40 
parks and open spaces, with a total of 2,656 acres, and an outdoor permanent 
staff of J533, while at the ])resent time it has control of 78 parks and gardens 
and 83 oi>en s])aces, a tot-il of 111 places, having an area of nearly 5,046 
acres, and a permanent staif of about 900 men, while temporary men 



London Gcmnty Council. 



35 



ranging in number from 100 upwards are employed upon improvement 
works, &c. 

In addition, London enjoys the advantages of ten C/ity commons, the 
forest at Epping", and parks on the outskirts of the metropolis, which are 
main"tained by the City Corporation out of '' City cash,' Besides, there 
are the half-dozen magnificent Royal parks ; while scattered throughout 
Jjondon are numerous small green spots, maintained principally by the 
local authorities. p^^^^ j^^^ Gardens. 



Albert Embankment Gardens 
Albert-square, Stepney . 
Arbour-square, Stepney . 
Archbishop's Park . 
Aske's Garden, Hoxton . 
Avery Hill, Eltham . 
Battersea Park . 
Beaumont-square Garden 
Bethnal Green Gardens . 
Boundary- street Garden . 
Brick Held Gardens, Limehouse 
Brockwell Park, Heme Hill 
Bromley Recreation Ground 
Carlton-square Garden, E. 
Chelsea-embankment Gardens 
Christ Church, Spitalfields 
Clarence Garden, St. Pancras 
C Hssold Park, Stoke Ne wington 
I^eptford Park . 
Dulwich Park . 
Eltham Park 

Faraday Garden, Walworth 
Favonia Playground, Poplar 
Finsbury Park . 
Ford and Sidney Squares, 

Mile-end 
Golder'sHill . 
Highgate Archway, plot 
Highbury Fields 
Holy Trinitv, Rotherhithe 
HornimanGiirdens, Forest Hill 
Hughes Recreation Ground, 

Deptford 
Island Gardens, Poplar . 
Kennington Park , 
Leicester-square Garden . 
Limehouse Churchyard . 
Lincoln's Inn Fields 
Little Dorrit's Playground 
Manor House Gardens, Lee 
Marble Hill, Twickenham 
Marv'on Park, Charlton . 
Ikleath Gardens, Bethnal Green 



Acres. 



u 

'i 
it- 

80 

19^^ 

1 

9 

f 

2i 

127i 

n 
I 
1 
II 

17 

72 

41 J 

1 

lis* 



36 

271 
1 
91 

f 

o 

19i 



6S 

in 



Millbank Garden . ' . 

Mountsfield Park, Lcwisham . 

Munster Square (Regent's Pk.) 

Myatt's Fields, Caml)erwell . 

NelsonRecreation Ground, S. E . 

Nelson S<j[uare, Blackfriars 

Newington Recreation Ground 

Northbrook Park, Lee . 

Peckham Rye Park . 

Pimlico Gardens and Shrub- 
beries 

Putney Shrubbery . . . 

Ranger's House, (jlreenwich 
Park 

Raven scourt Park, Hammer- 
smith 

Red Lion-square Garden , W. . 

Royal Victoria Gardens, N. 
Woolwich .... 

Rusk in Park, Denmark Hill . 

Shandy-street Rec. Ground, E. 

Southwark Park, Bermondsey 

Spii P^ields, Clerkenwell . 

Spa Green . . . . 

Springfield Park, Up. Clapton 

St. Bartholomew's Churchyard 

St. M atthew's Churchyard, 
Be' hnal- green 

St. Paul's, Rotherhithe . 

St. Paul's, Shadwell 

Stepney C>hurch Garden. 

Sydenham Wells Park . 

Telegraph Hill, Hatchara 

Tunnel Gardens, Poplar . 

V ictoriaEmbank nientG ardens 

Victoria Park, E. . 

Walworth Recreation Ground 

Wandsworth Park . 

Wapping Recreation Ground 

Waterlow Park, Highgate 

White field Gardens, Totten 

ham-court-road . 
York-squ.ire, Stepney . 



Acres. 
I 
121 



14i 
f 
f 

7 
481 

11 



2h 

^2i 
h 

10 
24 

n 

63 
II 

n2i 
1 

n 

1 
1 

7 
171 

9h 

2 
10 
217 
I 
20] 

2.J 
26 



36 



London Convty Council. 



Open Spaces and Commons. 

Acres. 
Blackheath .... 267 

Bostall Heath and Woods . VX\\ 

Brook Green . . . . 4f 

Clapham Common . . . 22(Ji 

Clapton Common . . . 7i 

Eaelesfield, Shooter's Hill . 9 

Eel Brook Common. . . 14 

(iarratt Green, S.W. . . 8 

Goose Green . . . . (U 

Hackney Downs . . .4-15 

Hackney Marsh . . . J5l)9 

Hainault Forest, Essex . . 8(V> 

Hampstead Heath . . . tJ'iOa 

Hilly Fields . . . . 4.5i 
Lady well Recreation Ground . 51 h 

London Fields . . . . 2tU 

North Mill Field . . .23^ 

South Mill Field . . .39^ 

Nunhead Green . . .1* 

Parliament Hill . . . 2(>7i 

Parson's Green. . . . /-^^ 

Peckham Rye . . . . t>t 

Plumstead Common . . 103 

Shepherd's Bush Common . 8 

Shoulder of Mutton Green . 5 

Stoke Newington Common . 5] 

Streatham Common . . 6tj] 
Streatham Green ... 1 

Tooting Bee Common . .151' 

Tooting Graveney Common . 05 

Wandsworth Common . . 183 
Well-street Common, South 

Hackney . . . . 2U 

Wormwood Scrubs . . . i93 

Little Wormwood Scrubs . 22 

Games. 

Football is played from 1st Octo- 
ber to 31st March. There are 47 
ponds suitable for skating, with a 
total water area of about 68 acres. 

Golf is played at Blackheath, 
Hampstead Heath, Parliament Hill, 
Tooting, Streatham, and Clapham 
(commons, lacrosse at Clapham 
Common, Parliament Hill, Tooting 
Common, Finsbury Park, Ladywell 
Recreation Ground. Highbury 
Fields, and Hilly Fields. 

There are bowling - greens at 



Battersea, Blackheath (Range^'^ 
Hi>U8e), Brockwell, Clapham Com- 
mon, ClisHold, Dulwich, Finsbury, 
Hilly Fields, Island Gardens, Lady- 
well Recreation-ground, Mounti- 
field Park, Northbrook Park. 
Raven scourt, Ruskin Park, Syden- 
ham Wells, Victoria and Wands- 
worth Parks. 

The following: table indicates the 
extent to which the facilities pr(»- 
vided for the playing of games wen' 
utiliKcd during the year ended 
30th Septemljer, 1907 :— 





i . 1 


« 


Gaines. 




It 








Bowls 


1 

77 1 


21,927 


Cricket 


451 ; 


29,010 


Crotirer- 


25 ' 


1.376 


Football 


237 


15,C57 


Hockey 


43 


2.330* 


IjiUTOSSO 


9 


114 


Lawn Tennis 


468 


97.489 


Quoits 


32 


3,792 



* Including hurling and shinty. 

Boating. 
Boats are kept and let for hire to 
the public at Battersea, Dulwich, 
Victoria, and Finsbury Parks. The 
lake at Soutliwark Park is being 
adapted for boating, and will 
probably bi' available for this pur- 
pose by the 1st July, 1908. The 
charge for boats is M. an hour. 

Cycling. 
Cycling is allowed on all carriage 
roads. Bicycles can be hired at l.s. 
an hour {fid. for all hours after first) 
at Battersea Park. 

Gymnasia. 

The Council has i adults', 15 chil- 
dren's, and 1*2 girls' gymnasia iii its 
parks, &c. 

Adults' gymnasia are open on 



London County Council, 



37 



weekdays at 6 a.m., or in winter as 
soon as the parks open, and closed 
a quarter of an hour after sunset. 
Women and girls are not admitted 
at SLuy time. 

Children's gymnasia are open 
on weekdays from 9 a.m. until a 
quarter of an hour after sunset. No 
male over 10 years of age is admitted. 

Eefreshments. 

There are refreshment-houses at 
the following places under the 
Council's control : — 

A. very Hill, Battersea Park (3) , 
Urockwell Park ; Clapham Common; 
Clissold Park ; Dulwich Park , 
FinsburyPark; holder's Hill; Hack- 
ney Down? ; Hackney Marsh ; Hain- 
ault Forest ; Hilly Fields ; Horniman 
Gardens ; Island Gardens ; Kenning- 
ton Park; Manor House trardens; 
Marble Hill; Mountsfield Park; 
Myatt's Fields ; Parliament Hill ; 
Peckham Rye ; Ravenscourt Park ; 
Ranger's House, Blackheath ; Royal 
Victoria Gardens ; Ruskin Park ; 
Southwark Park ; Springfield Park ; 
Tooting Common; Victoria Em- 
bankment Gardens; Victoria Park 
(5); Waterlow Park; and Worm- 
wood Scrubs. 

The privilege of supplying re- 
freshments is put up to tender, and 
the Council receives in rent about 
£2,000. Contractors are bound to 
adhere strictly to the prices in the 
tariff fixed by the Council. The 
following are a few examples of 
prices : — 
Tea, coffee, or cocoa, in half -pint 

cups, with milk and sugar if 

required, and use of spoon 

and t^aucer . . . .1^. 
Bread and butter, a slice . .id. 
Rolls (usual size), each . . Id. 
Butter, a pat (usual size) . Id. 
Cakes (each) . i(i., id., and Id. 
Milk, a hilf-pint tumbler , Id. 
Hot water, a quart . . .Id. 
Hot water, with use of chairs 

and table, a quart . . 2d. 



Mineral waters (large and 

small) . . . 2d. and Id. 
Lemonade (still), a glass . Id. 

Ginger beer, in stone bottle . Id. 
Ginger beer, on draught, a glass Id. 
Cigars, each, from . . Id. 
Cigarettes, a packet, from . Id. 
Cigarettes, each, from . .id. 
Tobacco, an oz., from . . id. 
Tobacco, a packet, from . . Id. 

The contractor is required to 
charge a deposit of hi. on each 
bottle removed from the refresh- 
ment place to prevent, if possible, 
broken glass. 

Band Performances. 

During the summer of last year 
1,20J> band performances were given 
at Gt) different places. This year the 
band season will commence about 
the middle of May, an'l close at the 
end of August. At some places i)er- 
formanci^H are continued until the 
middle of September. Times of play- 
ing' are between 5.130 to ^.^50 p.m. 
until July and August, when the 
time is altered gradually from 5.30 
to 4.15 p.m. 

Committee Meetings. 

To give some idea of the amount 
of work entailed, it may be interest- 
ing to note that during the year 
ended 31st March, 1907, 98 
meetings of the (Jominittee and 
Sub- Committees were held. 

Park Superintendents. 

Avery Hill and Eltham Park : J. 
Knight; Battersea: J. Rogers; 
Brockii'ell Park: J. White; Clissold 
Park: B. Gibson; Dulwich Park: 
F. Spivey; Finsbury Park: J. Mel- 
ville ; JIampstead Heath, Sec. : G. 
Palmer ; Kennington Park : T. 
Weatherston ; Myatt's Fields : 
(Vacancy); Peckham Rye and 
Park : A. J. Ashmore ; Ravens- 
court Park: W. B. Gingell; Ruskin 
Park: C. J. Warren; Southwark 



38 



hmidon Comity Council. 



Park: D.Carson; S pring fie' d Park 
and Clapton Common : G. T. 
Dodson; Victoria Park: J. W. 
Mooi*man ; Victoria Emhaukment 
Gardens: F. W. Wright; TFater- 
low Park : F. J. Philp. 

Other Parks. 

Open spaces in or near London, 
maintained for the use of the 
pubUc, but not under the control of 
the Council, towards the purchase 
of some of which the Council con- 
tributed : — 

Barnes Common (100 acres), 
under the manag-ement of a body 
of conservators; Bishop's Park, 
Fulham (21 acres), maintained by 
the Borough Council ; Camberwell 
Green (2 a acres), maintained by the 
Borough Council; Fulham Palace- 
road Recreation-ground, maintained 
by the Borough Council, 9 acres ; 
Hammersmith Becruation-ground, 
maintained by the ]3orough Cf)un- 
cil; Highgate Woods (69 acres), 
maintained l.)y the City Corpora- 
tion ; Islington Green, maintained 
by the Borough Council ; Kilburn 
(or Queen's) Park, established and 
rnaintained by the City Corpora- 
tion; Paddington Green (about \h 
acres) and Paddington Becreation- 
ground (26 acres), maintained by 
the Borough Council ; Penge Recrea- 
tion-ground, maintained by the 
Lewisham Borough Council ; 
Poplar Recreation-ground (3 acres), 
maintained by the Poplar Borough 
Council; St. Pancras Recreation- 



ground (7 acres) ; Stepney Green 
Recreation-ground, Borough Coun- 
cil agreeing to maintain it in jDer- 
petuity; Stoke Newington Green , 
maintained by the Islington Borough 
Council ; Sydenham Recreation- 
ground (17a acres) maintained by the 
Lewisham Borough Council; v aux- 
hall Park, maintained by the Lam- 
beth Borough Council, 8 acres ; West 
End Green, purchased by the 
Borough Council in 1885, for £850 ; 
West Ham Park, managed by the 
City Corporation, 77 acres ; Wimble- 
don Common; Wimbledon Green; 
Putney Heath ; and Putney Lower 
Common. The two last-named 
places are entirely within the county 
of London, and the first partly so. 
The total area of gardens, play- 
grounds, churchyai'ds, &c., main- 
tained by the metropolitan borougli 
councils is 266 acres. 

Including the Royal Parks and 
the places maintained by local 
authorities, there are in London 
l,Q?y\% acres of open spaces. But 
there are others which touch the 
county boundary, and which on this 
account may be claimed a^ "Lon- 
don Parks." Of these, Richaoond 
Park (263 acres within the County) 
comprises 2,358 acres; Waltham- 
stow Marshes, 173 acres; Epping 
Forest, 5,559 .j acres ; Bunhill Fields 
Burial Ground, 4 acres; Wao stead 
Park and Higham Park, 212 acres ; 
Bumham Beeches, 375 acres ; Couls- 
don Commons, 347 acres ; West 
Wickham Comm n, 25 acres. 



WORKS DEPARTMENT. 
The Works Depaitment of the London County Council has been in 
existen"e since 1892, the year in which the central authority decided to 
render itself less dependent on contractors, and to undertake, when it 
deemed expedient, by its own staff, the class of building and engineering 
works which had previously been contracted for. The Department has 
built many blocks of artisans' dwellings, asylums, fire- stations, con- 
veniences, bandstands, and sewage pumping stati^ms ; it has constructed 
miles of main sewers, made new streets, and has widened many an 
important London thoroughfare. Since its creation it has completed 



London County Council. 39 

al)out £41,786,000 worth of work. The statements presented to the Council 
of works comijleted during the year ended 31st March, 1907, showed that 
twenty- two estimated works were completed at a total cost of £228,754, 
the certified value being* stated as £242,318. The cost of jobbing works 
completed during the year was £74,705, the schedule value being £81,016. 
The Department is under the control of a Works Committee, who are 
responsible for the execution of all works which the Council may res jlve 
to carry out without the intervention of a contractor. 

The number of workmen employed weekly averaged last year 3,137. 
The totil amount paid in wages was £267,2155, being an average per week 
of £5,139. At the end of March, 1907, there were 41 horses in the stables, 
of a book value of £674. 

The procedure followed with regard to works referred to the Department 
for execution is briefly as follows: — The supervising officer, i.e., the 
architect or the engineer, prepares plans, specihcations, bills of quantities, 
and an estimate of cost of the work proposed to be executed, and presents 
them to the Executive Committee concerned. Should that committee 
decide to recommend the Council to execute the work without the inter- 
vention of a contractor, they refer the estimate, together with the plans, 
&c., to the Works Committee with a view to ascertaining whether that 
committee is prepared to carry out the work for the amount of the estimate. 
If the Works Committee reply that the estimate is sufficient, the Executive 
Committee thereupon recommend the Council to refer the work to the 
Works Committee for execution. If the estimate is considered insufficient 
by the Works Committee, the Executive Committee takes the necessary 
steps for the work to be executed by contractors. The underlying principle 
of the whole organisation is that the Works Committee is regarded by 
the Council as a contractor. The works in process of execution are super- 
vised by the officers under whose direction they were designed. The 
expenses in connection with the formation of the Department were very 
heavy, and, owing to the requirements of the Government auditor, the 
staff is larger than would be the case with a contractor executing a similar 
amount pi work. The capital expenditure for the purposes of the 
Department, up to 31st March, 1907, amounted to £112,728, which is being 
repaid by yearly instalments, the amount repaid to the end of last year 
being £23,753 ; of this amount the sum of £2,071 was paid last year. In 
addition to this sums of £2,551 and £3,354 were charged against the 
Department last year in respect of interest on capital outlay and on work- 
ing capital respectively. These charges are distributed over the cost of 
the various works by means of a percentage added to the prime cost of 
labour and materials. 

Even before the establishment of the Works Department the Council 
had executed works without the intervention of the contractor. But in 
•1892 there came a crisis in the relations between the Council and con- 
tractors, which had for some time past been strained, and the Council, on 
the 22nd November, 1892, resolved to establish a Works Department on a 
permanent basis. The Department began executing work in February, 
1893, and the first list of completed works was reported to the Council on 
February .6th, 1894. The Works Committee consists of eight members, 
of which Mr. F. St. John Morrow is chairman, and Mr. W. Hunt is vice- 
chairman ; the other m9rabers being Messrs. E. H. Coumbe, W. Davics, 
W. Rsynolds, Isidore Salmon, L. Sharp, and Edwanl White. 



40 



Londcni County CounciL 



Contractors employed by the Council on works of c mstmction or 
manufacture withm a radius of 20 miles from Charing" Cross are required 
to pay wages at rates not less, and to observe liours of labour not long-er. 
than are tor the time Ijein*? recognised by associations of employers and 
trade unions and that are in practice obtained in London. With rcg-aiil 
to labour employed outside this radius the rates of wages and hours of 
labour recognised and in practice obtained in the district where the work 
is to be done are required to be observed. In the Council's Works Depart- 
ment no distinction is drawn in the employment of labour between union 
and non-union men. 

The total cost of jobbing worxs executed since the inception of the 
Department, and reported to the Council, up to 30th September, 1907, was 
£488,8^46, and the schedule value, £r;24,:i()0. 

Prior to 1st April, 1895, there was no schedule of prices for com- 
parison, the actual cost of jobbing works execute! to this date being 
£72006. 

THE LONDON FIRE BRIGADE. 

The Fire Brigade is the force constituted by the Fire Brigade Act, 1865, to 
deal with fires in London. It is under the control of the Council, and 
the so-called volunt3er fire brigades — the last of which has, however, now 
ceased to exist — had no conn action with it. The members of the Fire 
Brigade are not allowed under any circumstances to solicit subscriptions. 



Authorised Staff. 
One chief officer, 2 divisional officers, 2 
assistant divisional officers, 1 senior superin- 
tendent, 7 superintendents, 8 district officers, 
91 station officers, % sub-officers, 898 fire- 
men, 36 probationary firemen, 194 coach- 
men, 12 licensed «vatermen for river engines, 
tug-boats, &c. Total 1,348. 

Stations. 
Eighty land fire-stations, of which 
64 are equipped with steam fire-engines and 
horsed escapes, two with a motor fire 
engine and a motor fire-escape, one with a 
motor fire-engine and a manual fire-escape, 

1 with steam fire-engines and manual fire- 
escapes ; 12 with horsed escapes ; 2 sma'l 
stations (without horses) ; 14 permanent 
street stations, where firemen are on duty- 
night and day, with fire-escapes and fire- 
extinguishing appliances ; 15 hand fire- 
escape stations, 1 hose-and-ladder truck 
station, 3 river stations, and 1 repairing 
depot for river craft. 

Appliances. 
Two fire-floats, 3 steam-tugs, 4 steam fire- 
engines on rafts, 3 store &c. b.arges, 84 
land steam fire-engines, including 6 motor 
steam fire-engines, 10 manual fire-engines, 

2 small manual fire-engines known as 
curricles, about 52^ miles of hose, 90 hose- 
carts, 4 hose-and-ladder trucks. 111 vans for 
carrying fire-escapes, hose, coal, and stores, 
77 horsed fire-escapes, 3 motor fire-escapes, 
119 manual fire-escapes, 29 long fire-ladders, 

3 turntable hnig ladders, and 327 horses, 7 



hose-tenders, 1 motor-hose-tender. 81 flrsS 
aid (fire - extinguishing) appliances, 2C0 
hook-ladders, 23 smoke-helmets. 

Districts, Stations, and 
Superintendents. 

HEADQUARTEES : SOUIHWARK BRIDGE 

Road. 

Chief O^-^er— Captain J. d3C. Hamilton, 
R.N. (Retired). 

Divisiomt OJJirers—S. G. Gamble, Lieut. 
S. Sladen, R.N. 

Assist mt Divisional Officer— A.. R. Dyer. 

Senior Superintendent^^ S. Egerton. 

Engineerina Staff— One Electrical and 
Mechanical Engineer, two First Class 
Assistants, and one Assistant Electrical 
Engineer. 

Hydrant Staff— One Pirst-Class Assis- 
tant, and seven Assistants. 

Clerical Staff— 'Sine Clerks. 

Stores and Workshops Staff— One Store 
Officer, one Store Clerk, one Assistant Store- 
keeper, one Junior Stores Assistant, one 
Stores Porter, one Workshops Engineer, one 
Working Foreman, one Workshops Clerk, 
and 42 Mechanics and Labourers. 

Telephone Attendants— Two, 

Watc hmen—T wo. 

Headquarters. 

Chief Station . . . South wark-brHge-rd. 

Theatre and Common LoDaiNo-HotrsE 

Inspection Branch. 

Superintendent— K. G. Ansell. 

District Officer— T. V. Simmons. 
(And six station officers.) 



London County Council. 



41 



A District. 
Superintendent— W. T. Emanuel. 
District OJficer-E. C. Gosling. 
Bayswater .... Pickering-place 
Brompton .... lYafalgar-square 

Chelsea Pavilion-road 

FuUmm Fiil ham-road 

(SMb) . . . North Eud-road 
Hammer smith . . Krook-greeu-road 
Hatnpstead. , . . Heath-street 
Kensington. . . . Clarence -mews, 

High-street 
N. Kensington . . Faraday -road 
Kilburn .... Maida-vale 
Knightsbridge. . . Basil-street 
Mancliester - square 
(Superintendent's 
station) .... East-street 
Notting-hill. . . . Ladbroke-road 
Edtjurare-road . . Edgware-road 
St. John's-wood . , Adelaide-road 
Shepfierd's-bush . Uxbridge-road 
Westm^iiister . , . Greycoat-place, Vic- 
toria-street 
West Hampitead. . West End-lane 

B District. 

Superintendent— Fj. Williams. 

District Ofjicer—J. Pittaway. 
Camden Town. . . Kiug's-road 
Clerkenwell (Super- 
intendent's station) Rosebery-avenue 

EuMon Euston-road 

Great Marlborough- 

street Great Marlboro'-st. 

Highbury .... IJlackstock-road 

Holborn Theobald's-road 

Holloicay .... Seven Sisters-road 
Hornseyrise . . . Calverley-grove 
Islington .... Upper-street 
Kentish Town. . . Willow- walk. High- 
gate road 
Redcross-street . . Redcross-street 

C District. 
Superintendent— J. Robilliard. 
District Officer— Vf. J. May. 



Bethnal Green . 


. Green-street 


Bishopsgate. . 


. Bishopsgate - str et 
Without 


Bow 


. Glebe-road 


Burdett-road , 


. Burdett-road. 


Hackney . . . 


. Bodney-road, Am- 




hurst-road 


Homerton . . 


. . High-street 


Millwall. . . 


. Junction of East and 




West Ferry roads 


King stand . . 


. Kingslaud-road 


Mile End. . . 


. Mile-end-road 


Poplar. . . , 


. West India-dock-rd. 


Stvadioell . . 


. Glamis-road 


Skoreditch . . 


. Tabernacle-street 


Stoke Newington 


. Leswin-roid 



Wapping Red Lion • street. 

High -street 
Whitechapsl (Super- 
intendent's station) Commercial-rd., £. 
D District. 
Superintendent— C. U. Deakiu. 
District Officer—^". M. Martin. 
Blackheath .... Tran:iuil-vale 
Peckhamroad. . . Peckhani-road 

Deptford Evelyn-street 

Dulwich Lordship-lane 

East Greenwich . . Woolwich-road 

Elthim High -street 

Floating Cherry-garden-pier 

Greenwich .... Liudsell-street 
Lee Green .... Eltham-road, Lee 
LewL>iham .... High -street 
Neiv-cross (Superin- 
tendent's station) . Queen's-road 
North Woolwich . . Albert-road 
Pageant's Wtuirf. . Rotherhithe-strcet 
Perry-vale .... WooLstone-road 
Plumstead .... High-street and 
Lakedale-road 
Rotherhithe. . . . Gomm-road 
Rnshey-f/reen . . . Rushey-green 
Shooters' -hill . . , Shooters'-hill 
Woolwich .... Sun-street 
E District. 
Superintendents. Todd. 
District Offt,''er-W. R. Canning. 
Batter sea .... Simpson-street 
Battersea Park-road Battersea Park-roiid 

Brixton G re -ham -road 

Clapham (Superin- 
tendent's station) . Old Town 
Floating . . . 1 . Battersea-bridge 
Heme Hill. . . . Heme Hill 
Kennington . . . Renfrew-road 
Northcoteroad, 

Battersea . . . Northcote-road 
Old Kent-road . . Corner of Thomas- 
street 
Streatham .... Mitcham-lane 
Sydenham .... Crystal Palace- 
parade 

Tooting Trinity-road 

Vauxhall .... Albert Embankment 
Wayidstcorth . . . West-hill 
West Norwood. . . High-street 
F District. 
Saper'ntendent—J. G. Smith. 
District Officer— W. O. Etherden. 
Cannon-street. . . Cannon-street 

Floating Blackfriars- bridge 

„ Charing - cross (Re- 
pairing depot only) 
Srotland-yard. . . Scotland-yard 
Tooley-street . . . Tooley-street 
Waterloo-road. . . Waterloo-road 
Whitefriars (Super- 
intendent's station) Carmelite-street. 



During" the eighteen years that the County Council has been in existence 
it has considerably strengthened and improved the Brigade. 
Stations. — Additional land stations have been established at Dulwich, 



42 lAmdon County Council. 



New Cross, Kingsland, Whitefriars, North End, Fulham, Lewisham, 
8hepherd'8-bush, West Hampstead, East Greenwich, Perry- vale, Homerton, 
Highbury, Vauxhall, Pageant's Wharf, Streatham, Kilbum, Bayswater. 
Eltham, Bnrdett-road, Wapping, Northc jte-road, Battsrsea, Herne-liill, 
Lee-green, Plumstead, and Homsey Rise. New stations have been sub- 
stituted for small and inconvenient buildings at Wandsworth, Shoreditch. 
Fulham, Brompton, Islington, Edgware-road, Redcross- street (City) (in 
place of the Whitecross-street station), Euston-road (in place of the" Port- 
land-road station), Clapham, Mile-end, Deptford, C)ld Kent-roai, Mill- 
wall, Kensington, Westminster, Brix+on, Cannon-street (in place of 
Watling-street), Knightsbridge, and Tooting. The existing stations 
at Kennington, Clerkenwell, Hampstead, Batters ?a, Whitechapel, Green- 
wich, Stoke Newington, Bother hithe, and Bethnal-grean have been 
very considerabljr enlarged. Two small stations without horses have 
been established in Battersea-park-road and at North Woolwich res|x?c- 
tively. A buiLling has been erected at llotherhithe aiid Battersej, 
for tne accommodation of the staff of the river stations at Cherry-garden 
and Battersea. The Battersea river station has been altered to permit of 
a motor escape being placed thereat. 

Of the above-mentioned stations, those at West Hampstead, East 
Greenwich, Perry-vale, Northcote-road, Battersea, Highbury, Homerton, 
Vauxhall, Kilbum, Bayswater, Eltham, Burdett-road, Herne-hill, Lee- 
green, Plumstead, and Hornsey Rise, were erected as part of a com- 
prehensive scheme which was approved by the Council in February, 
1898. This scheme also provides for the erection of a permanent sub- 
station at North End, lulham; also of sub-stations at Caledonian- 
road, Charlton, Brixton-hill, Camberwell New-road, Rushey Green, and 
Roehampton. The Council has also determined to erect new stations in 
substitution for existing inconvenient buildings at HollOwS^V, Shooter's 
Hill, and Waterloo-road, and to considerably extend the chief station 
in South w ark Bridge-road. 

Appliances. — The number of steam fire-engines has been increased 
and the life-saving appliances have been improved. Horsed escapes have 
been introduced, and 7-k stations, i.e., all those large enough to accommo- 
date the apparatus, are now provided with these appliances. This has 
enabled more than 1(X) fire-escape stations in the public streets to be discon- 
tinued, the protection afforded by the horsed escaj^es being much greater 
than obtained with the old appliances. As the alterations determined 
upon at other stations are completed, horsed escipes will be kept at such 
stations. The number of fire-alarms has been trebled, and all the ptosts 
have been adapted to enable firemen to transmit telephonic- messa^-es to 
the fire stations thereby. More than 19,000 additional fire-hydrants 
have been fixed or ordered to be fixed. Two fire floats containing pumping 
and propelling machinery have been built. Six motor fire-engines, 
three motor fire-escapes, and a motor hose tender have been obtained. Fire 
alarm indicators, shaped like a hand, for fixing to lamp-posts, are being 
supplied by the (Council to the Borough Councils which have agreed to fix 
and maintain them. 

Staff. — The staff has been increased from 677 to 1,318, including 33 
men under instruction. Two additional districts have bjon c-;iated, and 
arrangements for more rapidly mobilising men and appliances have been 
made. At every fire-station where there is a horsed ej^cape as well as a 



London County Council. 



43 



steam-engine, an additional pair of horses has been provided, the total 
number of horses hired for the service being now S27 as against 131 
eighteen years ago. 

The following table shows the increase made in the stations, staff, and 
appliances of the Brigade during the eighteen years the Council has been in 
existence : — 



Statious. 



Appliances. 



I Authoristd staff, 
excluding men under 
I iiLstniction. 



11 



a. 2 






aji2 



* 5 


















II 

i S 



l}*t April, 1889 

21st Miirch, 1907 



- I 55 I 7 I - - I 4d - 
3 , 77 I 14 ' 2 I 84 79 



Increase i 3 



2 I 36 i 79 



9 80 358 8,881 b9 1525 67 16 i 677 
32 , 95 1259 28,361 112 994 194 12 1312 



-f- 



23 I 15 I 901 19.480 | 43 j 469 I 127 1-4 635 



A contribution of £10,000 is paid by the Government towards the 
maintenance of the Brigade, and the fire insurance companies contribute 
at the rate of £35 per million of the gross amounts insured by them in 
respect of property in London. The amount received from the companies 
for the year 190(j-7 was £35,929 28. 9d. The difference between these and 
other casual receipts and the total expenditure is borne by the ratepayers. 

This greatly increased strength has necessarily involved additional 
outlay. The increase of expenditure since 18iK) has l:)een gradual, and the 
difference between 1888 and 190(5-7 is shown in the following tiible : — 



Expenditure. 



Raided from tlie Ratepayers. 



Year. 



Maintenance, 
Account Capital 

(including ' Account, 
pentiion?). i 



I £ 

1888 115,425 

Jan. 1 to ! 
Mar. 21, 1889 27,490 
Mar. 21, 

1889, to 1 
Mar.31,1890127.C66 
1890-1891 .. 128,294 



s. d. 
8 4 



16 



s. d. 



1891-1892 
1892-1893 
1893-1894 , 
1894-1895 , 
1895-1896 . 
1896-1897 . 
1897-1698 . 
1898-1899 . 
1899-1900 . 
1900-1901 . 
1901-1902 . 
1902-1903 . 
1903-1904 . 
19M-1905 . 
1905-1906 . 
1906-1907 . 



136.026 
137,193 
151,693 
1168,280 
153,826 
164,726 
1173,662 
,195,123 
198,554 
204.589 
;213,820 
1224,141 
235,078 
239,436 
247,691 
254,436 




For interest 

Fnr mil 11. O"' *"^^ 

tenance ^^ayment I 
of, capital i 

outlay. 

H. dT; £ s,'d. 



Total. 



£ s. d. 



47,631 18 1 163,057 6 5 78,157 8 5! 26,680 104.837 8 5 
13,056 40,546 16 l\ 19,725 7 2 6,685 26,410 7 2 



I 



20,670 
33.072 
22,457 
36,466 
81,368 
66,192 
54,016 
74,521 
30,806 



6 


18 
12 

6 

7 
15 


19 

6 11 38,737 
10 8 81,729 
16 0, 86.958 

8 11 69,296 
12 r 77,258 



8 IC 
12 3 
12 11 

3 



8 147,736 18 
6161,366 
1 158,484 9 
8173,660 7 
4 233,061 18 

4 234,472 13 
207,843 8 

5 239,247 

4 204,471 4 

5 233,860 14 

3 280,283 18 

6 291,547 17 

7 283,116 11 
7 301,399 16 

9 336.776 15 
3316,395 15 

4 339,206 4 



101.698 
76,959 
91,514 
76,502 11 10330,938 12 



11 84,773 1"^ 
8 86.230 19 

3 92.145 6 
IC 93.531 3 

4 106,395 15 
11 123,623 16 

6107.651 9 
10118,904 4 
8 126,704 14 
4 148.012 11 
1 149,688 10 
6155.130 
6163.112 6 
8170.630 2 
7 182,004 19 
6184.974 3 10 
3 193,405 12 
1200,571 6 2 



26,015 

31.380 

29.6C0 

39.450 

38.265 

42,555 

47,165 

47,535 

49,655 

49,470 

50,400 

50.900 

53,088 

55,102 

58.056 17 

59,169 16 

63,421 6 

67.248 10 



0110,788 13 
117,610 19 
C 121.835 6 
0132,981 3 
144,660 16 
O! 166,178 16 
0,154,816 9 
0166,439 4 
176.369 14 
197,482 11 
C 200,088 10 
0206.030 
216.200 6 
225.732 2 
51240,061 16 10 
5 244,144 3 
9 256,824 18 9 
2 267,819 16 4 



44 London County Couticil. 



PUBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENT. 

8, St. Martin's Place, W.O. 
The Public Health Department is the Council's intelligence and executive 
branch in all matters relating to public health. A medical officer was 
appointed in 1889, and the Department was constituted after the passing 
of the Housing of the Working Classes Act and the Public Health 
(London) Act. The medical officer was made the chief officer, and two 
assistant medical officers were appointed. The Council, through the 
Department, watches over the admm.istration of the sanitary authorities, 
and has power to act in supersession of any authority making default in 
the performance of its duty. Under the Public Health Act the Council 
makes bye-laws relating to the construction of sanitary appliances, the 
removal of nuisances, and other matters relating to health. Under the 
Metropolis Management Acts the Council makes bye-laws as to the drainage 
of buildings. These bye-laws are enforced by the sanitary authorities. 

The Council also makes bye-laws for regulating offensive trades, and 
for regulating the removal of the carcases of dead horses through and 
along public streets, and regulations for dairies, milk-shops, &c. It annually 
licenses cow- sheds, slaughterhouses, and knackers* yards. These bye-laws 
and regulations, together with the registration of milk vendors, were for- 
merly administered by the London County Council, but since the London 
Government Act, 1899, came into operation, in November, 1900, this duty 
has devolved upon the borough councils. The Countjr Council has, 
however, been given powers of supersession of any sanitary authority 
making default in the performance of its duty in this respect. The duties 
of sanctioning the establishment or enlargement of premises on which 
a noxious trade is carried on, and administering the provisions of the 
Dairies, Cowsheds, and Milkshops Orders of 1885-6 and 1899, still devolve 
on the County Council, and important powers enabling the Council to 
prohibit the supply of tuberculous milk to the London population are 
conferred upon the Council by the London County Council (Greneral 
Powers) Act, 1907. For the purpose of administering* the Order of 1899, 
which prohibits the sale for human food of the milk of a cow with a 
tuberculous udder, also Part V. of the L.C.C. (General Powers) Act, 1904, 
which provides for the removal and slaughter of cows suspected to be suffering 
from tubercular disease of the udder, the County Council employs a 
veterinary surgeon. For the other duties a staff of inspectors is employed. 

Since 1894 the duty of inspecting and regulating common lodging- 
houses has also devolved upon the Department, having been transferred 
to the Council from the Metropolitan Police. A staff of 14 inspectors 
is employed to carry out this work. Under the L.C.C. (Greneral Powers) 
Act, 1902, the Council annually licenses common lodging-houses. The 
behaviour of infectious disease in London is closely watched, and when 
an outbreak of infectious disease involves more than one district, one 
of the Council's medical officers investigates the circumstances, with 
a view to discovering the cause of the outbreak. Seamen's lodging- 
houses are also now inspected and regulated under bye-laws made in 1901. 
The Council is the local supervising authority for the County of London 
under the Midwives Act, 190i2, and to carry out the work of the Council in 
this connection two lady inspectors with medical qualifications have been 
appointed. The Housing of the Working Classes Act also imposes 
considerable work on the Department. 



London County Council, 



45 



A Court of Appeal to House- 
holders. 
Householders who have com- 
plained to the local sanitary autho- 
rity with respect to insanitary con- 
ditions, and failed to obtain redress, 
appeal to the Council. Many such 
complaints are received, and in- 
spections are made, and communi- 
cations on the subject are addressed 
to the sanitary authority when 
necessary. 

Slaughterhouses. 
There are no fewer than 294 pri- 
vate slaughterhouses in London. 
They are annually licensed by the 
Council. The licensing meeting is 
held in October. Applications for 
renewals must be accompanied by 
a fee of 5»., and a form of notice 
filled up at least fourteen days 
before the licensing meeting, and 
sent to the district sanitary autho- 
rity, which can raise objections if 
considered necessary. The Council 
also licenses the five knackers' 
yards which exist in London for 
the slaughter of horses. 

Disposal of Worn-out Horses. 
Part yill. of the London 
County Council (General Powers) 
Act, 1903, prohibits the use of 
premises in the county for receiving 
or keeping horses for slaughter or 
dead horses without a Hcence, 
which must be obtained annually 
from the Council. The Act also 
enables the Council to make bye- 
laws, enforceable by the local sani- 
tary authorities, with respect to the 
mode of conveying the carcases of 
dead horses through the streets. 

Dairies, Cow-Sheds, and Milk- 
Shops. 
Cow- Sheds are licensed annually 
by the Council. There are 233 
cow - sheds in London, and the 
same procedure in licensing them is 
adopted as in the case of slaughter- 
honsGR. Before a new cow-shed is 



opened, plans must ba submitted 
for the approval of the Council ; 
and similar re(juirements exist with 
regard to dairies. The o})ject is to 
see that the milk is kept in places 
where it is not likely to be con- 
taminated by reason of bad sanitary 
conditions, want of ventilation, or 
other causes. All sellers of milk 
are required to be registered, and 
are liable to a fine of £5 for failing 
to effect registration. The milk- 
seller must give notice to the 
borough council of the district of 
an occurrence of infectious disease 
upon his or her premises. The 
London County Council has in the 
past insisted on the maintenance of 
milk utensils in a cleanly condition 
and the need for due regard being 
given to the sanitary surroundings 
of milk-shops, and a number of pro-, 
secutions have been from time to 
time successfully instituted in 
serious cases of neglect to observe 
proper precautions. The duty of 
registration, and of taking proceed- 
ings now rests with the borough 
councils. 
Tuberculosis of the Udder 

IN Cows. 
The London County Council 
(General Powers) Act, 1904, Part 
v., confers powers upon the Council 
with respect to tuberculosis of the 
udder in cows. This Act provides 
that the Council's veterinary sur- 
geon may cause the removal of any 
cow in the county (outside the City) 
suspected to be suffering from tuber- 
cular disease of the udder, and the 
Council is required, after agreement 
with the owner as to the value, to 
cause the cow so removed to be 
slaughtered, and its carcase to be 
examined by a veterinary surgeon. 

Milk Supply (Tuberculosis). 
The London County Council 
(General Powers) Act, 1907, Part 
ly., empowers the Council to take 
for examination samples of milk 



46 



Lomhm County Council. 



produced or sold, or intended for 
wale within tlie county, and if the 
medical officer is of opinion that 
tuberculoHis is caused, or likely to 
be caused, U) persons residin|»" in the 
county, from the consumption of 
milk 8upj)lied from a dairy either 
within or without the county, the 
Council may make an order jiro- 
hihiting" the supply of such milk 
within the county. 

Common LoDGiNG-Horsp:s. 

The Council took over the work 
of inspecting common lodging- 
houses from the police, and it now 
devolves upon the medical officer 
and his staff. There are in London 
395 of such houses, authorised to 
accommodate 28,651 persons. Any 
one desiring to open a common 
lodging - house must, under the 
new Act of 1902, make application 
to the (.%mncil annually for a 
licence, and he is required to obtain 
certificates of character, and his 
premises must be approved by the 
Council. 

Seamen's Lodgin(j-Hoijsks. 

Bye-laws made by the Council in 
1901 under the Merchant Shipping 
Act have brought all seamen's 
lodging-houses in London under 
its control. The bye-laws provide, 
amongst other thing<s, for the 
licensing, inspection, and sanitary- 
condition of the houses. It is 
optional for a keeper to apply for 
a licence, biit he must, in any case, 

IMPROVEMENTS. 

Thk County Council has carried out a number of improvements and 
has consider(Ml many others. It completed llosebery-avenue, an improve- 
ment begun by the Metropolitan J^oard of Works. It constructed the 
southern approach to BatU^rsea Bridge in 1890, and the southern 
approaches in connection with Woolwich Ferry, and executed a number 
ot small improvements. It constructed Culvert-road Bridge, Canterbury- 
road Bridge, Putney Bridge, and part of Church-street, Fulham. It 
joined with the City Commission of Sewers in widening Sandys-row, and 
in executing the portion of the improvement from Bishopsgate to 
Middlesex-street. The total nott amount voted by the Council for street 
iminovements during tlie IH years commenced March, 1889, and ended in 



comply with the requirements of 
the bye-laws as regards cubic spaoe 
and ."sanitation. Kighty-two houses, 
aoocunmodating 1.550 seamen, are 
now registered under the bye-laws. 
MiDWIVES. 

The London County Council is 
the local supervising authority for 
London under the Mid wives Act. 
1902. It is the duty of every mid- 
wife to give notice to the London 
County Council before holding" her- 
self out to practise in London, and 
to give a similar notice in Januar}' 
of evpry year during which she 
continues to practise. The Council's 
duty is to report to the Central 
Midwives Board any alterations 
that should lie made in the roll of 
midwives, and the names of any 
midwives within the Council's area 
who may be convicted of offences 
to investigate all charges of mal- 
practice, negligence, or misconduct, 
and if necessary to suspend midwives 
from practice. A current copy of 
the roll of midwives must also Ik? 
kept by the Council for public 
inspection at reasonable times. 
Education. 

As the Education Authority, the 
London County Council has the 
supervision of schools in its area, 
and the Education branch of the 
Public Health department takes 
under its cognizance matters affect- 
ing the health of the scholars and 
of those working in the schools. 



London County Council. 



47 



March, 1907, amounted to nearly £8,000,000, which represents an avera^re 
annual vote of about £450,000 nett. The Metropolitan Board, during the 
33 years of its existence, spent upon street improvements, including' the 
Embankment of the Thames, £11,516,974, an average annual expenditure 
of about £349,000. 

The third Council, elected in March, 1895, contributed half the cost of 
widening the last jwrtion of Ludgate-hill (£44,960), undertook half the cost 
of widening Cheapside at the western end (£77,975), and half the cost of 
widening Fleet-street between Ludgate-circus and Salisbury-court 
(£104,750). In May, 1896, it voted £30,000 towards widening the Strand 
opposite the Hotel Cecil. 

The fourth Council, elected in March, 1898, voted the following amounts 
towards the cost of widening thoroughfares : — Fleet-street at the City 
boundary, £20,000; Nine Elms-lane, £23,900 ; Lothbury, £15,000; Par- 
liament-street, £12,000; Lower Thames-street, £50,000 ; Piccadilly, £13,536; 
Mansell-street, £91,100. 

The fifth Council, elected in March, 1901, agreed to contribute £16,800 
towards the cost of widening Blom field-street, and £70,000 towards the 
cost of widening the Strand at Nos. 89 to 94. 

The sixth Council, elected in 1904, sanctioned contributions to local 
improvements as follows : — Fleet-street (£7,760), Church-street, Stoke 
Newington (£10,500), King's-road, Chelsea (£14,256), and Old-street, 
Shorecfitch (£14,134). 

The Council has carried out the following improvements : — 



Evelyn-street to Creek-road, Dept- 
ford, a new street 60 feet wide, 
(£62,000). Greenwich District Board 
contributed one-fourth. 

Wood-lane, Hammersmith, wide- 
ning at Uxbridge-road end to about 
55 to 59 feet (£4,410). Yestry of 
Hammersmith contributed one- 
half. 

B la ck stock- road, Islington, 
widening (£7,550). Yestrv of 
Islington contributed one-half. 

Isle of Dogs bridges — (a) Preston- 
road-bridge (£11,100) ; (b) Lime- 
house Entrance-bridge (£16,200) ; 
(c) City Arms-bridge (£10,050) ; (d) 
South Dock, East Entrance-bridge 
(£11,150). Poplar District Board 
contributed £10,000. 

Ben Jonson - road, Mile - end, 
widening ( £6,140 ). Limehouse 
District Board contributed one- 
fourth, and Mile-end Yestry one- 
fourth, the Council contributing 
the remaining half, not exceeding 
£3,070. 

Tottenham-court -road, widening 



by removal of block of buildings at 
Bozier's-court (£53,860). 

Highjgate-archway, widening and 
improving Archway-road, and 
altering and reconstructing the arch- 
way which carries Hornsey-lane over 
the road. The cost of the con- 
struction was borne by the Ecclesias- 
tical Commissioners, the Ijondon 
County Council, the Middlesex 
County Council, the Yestry of 
Islington, and the Homsey District 
Council. 

Holloway-road (£8,550). Yestry 
of Islington contributed one-half. 

Tower Bridge Southern approach, 
new street, 60 feet wide (£394.000). 

Reconstruction of Old Gravel- 
lane-bridge, St. George-in- the- East 
(£14,000). 

at Hyde-park-corncr 



and Goswell - road 



Piccadilly 
(£13,537). 

Old- street 
(£164,.50q). 

Widening of Albert-embankment, 
Lambeth (£34,000). 

Str-and at Holy well-street by re- 
c 



48 



London County Council. 



moval of buildings between the two 
streets (£569,130). 

St. George's-place, Knightsbridge, 
widening of latter thoroughfare to 
70 feet between William-street and 
Wilton-place (£32,067). West- 
minster City Council contributed 
one-fourth. 

Long - lane and Tabard - street, 
Southwark (£190,400). 

Continuation of Roehampton- 
street, Westminster (£5,700). West- 
minster City Council paid one- 
fourth. 

Reconstruction of Rosemary - 
branch-bridge. Hackney and Shore- 
ditch (£6,800). Shoreditch Borough 
Council paid one-fourth and Hack- 
ney Borough Council £1,000. 

Reconstniction of Cat-and- Mut- 
ton- bridge, Shoreditch (£68,500). 
Hackney Borough Council con- 
tributed £5,000 and Shoreditch 
Borough Council a sum (not ex- 
ceeding £17,000) sufficient with 
the contribution of the Hackney 
Borough Council to make up one- 
third of the nett cost. 

Widening of Wandsworth-road, 
Lambeth (£55,000). 

St. John - street, Clerkenwell 
(£79,400). 

Battersea-rise(£43,900). Battersea 
Borough Council contribut id £7,500. 

Brixton-road, between Cran- 
mer-road and Camberwell New- 
road (£13,200). 

Harleyford-street (£16,900). 

Cambridge-road (£48,600). 
Bethnal Green Borough Council 
contributed one-fourth. 

Southampton-row between Theo- 
bald's-road and High Holborn 
(£195,500). 

Kensington High- street (£81, 000). 
Kensington Borough Council con- 
tributed one-third. 

Mare-street (£576,100). Hackney 
Borough Council contributed one- 
fourth. 

Holborn to Strand street. Kings- 
way and Aldwych (£774,200). 



Southampton-row between Yer- 
non-place and High Holborn 
(£202,350). 

Goswell-road (£209,500). Fins- 
bury Borough Council contributed 
£20,000. 

Archway-road, Islington (£6,000). 

Kentish Town-road (£10,450). 
St. Pancras Borough Council bear 
cost of paving works. 

High-street and Gardener's-lane, 
Putney (£37,430). Wandsworth 
Borough Council contributed half 
cost of widening High- street and 
three-fourths of cost of widening 
Gardener's-lane. 

Sloane-street (£60.000) . Chelsea 
Borough Council contributed £20,000 
and bore cost of paving works. 

Battersea - park - road, between 
■ Simpson-street and Homs-road, in- 
cluding Christ Church railway 
bridge ( £20,430 ). Battersea 
Borough Council contributed one- 
fourth. 
' Widening of York-road. Batter- 
sea and Wandsworth (£80,150). 
Battersea Borough Council to pay 
one-fourth of Battersea jwrtion 
and Wandsworth Borough Council 
one-fourth of jxjrtion in Wands- 
worth. 

Central - street, St. Luke's 
(£84,750). Finsbury Borough 
Council contributed £15,000. 

Red Lion-street, South-street, 
Garratt-lane. Defoe-road, and High- 
street, Tooting (£273.950). Wands- 
worth Borough Council contri- 
buted one-third, not exceeding 
£91,316. 

Denmark-hill, Champion-park, \ 
Grove-lane, Dog Kennel-hill, Grove- 
vale, and Lordship-lane (£114,950). 
Camberwell Borough Council con- \ 
tribute one-third of Camberwell 
portion. 

Queen's-road, Peckham (£6,320). | 
Camberwell Borough Councilcon- 
tributed one-third. 

High Holborn at Nos. 107 to 113 
(£16,650). 



London County Council, 



49 



Hampst sad-road, soutliem end street and the Grreen Park (£45,000). 

(£226,500). St. Pancras Borough Westminster City Council contri- 

CouQcil contributed one-eighth. buted £4,(X)0. 

Piccadilly between Arlington- 
Other improvements to which the Council stands committed are as 

follows : — 



Tower Bridge northern approach, 
Tower - hill to Prescot - street 
(£391,5(X)). First section of improve- 
ment completed ; remainder in hand. 

Thames - embankment extension 
and Westminster improvements 
at Millbank (£586,000). Westminster 
City Council to contribute £100,000 ; 
H.M. G-overnment to give up land 
needed for widening part of Abing- 
don-street, and to surrender part of 
the Victoria Tower garden ; owners 
of property benefited by the im- 
provement to contribute. Negotia- 
tions for the purchase of property 
are proceeding. Some portions of 
improvementg finished. 

Southampton-row, between Ver- 
non-place and Bloomsbury-place, 
and at Nos. 67, 69, 71, 83, 85, and 
87 (£149,000). Negotiations pro- 
ceeding. 

Nine Elms-lane (£160,000). Bat- 
tersea Borough Council to con- 
tribute £15,000. Negotiations for 
the purchase of property are pro- 
C3eding. Paving works in section 
of improvement have been com- 
menced. 

Blackheath - road, Blackheath- 
hill, and New-road (£39,700). 
Negotiations for the piirchase of 
property are proceeding. Widening 
Blackheath-road completed. 

Tooting High-street (£28,000). 
Wandsworth Borough Council to 
contribute one-third. Paving works 
commenced. 

Camberwell New-road (£52,000). 
Gamberwell Borough Council to 
contribute £5,000. Greater part of 
widening completed. 

Falham Pa' ace-road and High- 
street, Fulham, and Queen- street. 
Hammersmith (£92,000). Fiilham 



and Hammersmith Borough 
Council, to contribute one-third. 
Paving. &c., works commenced. 

Queen-street, Hammersmith 
(£4,810). Hammersmith Borough 
Counsil to contribute about one- 
third. 

Wimbledon-road (£5,300). Pav- 
ino- works about to be commenced. 

Brook Green-road and Scrubs- 
lane (£64,200). Hammersmith 
Borough Council to contribute one- 
third. Negotiations for property 
completed. Bridges reconstructed. 
Piccadilly between the Circus and 
Saokville-street (£209,500). West- . 
minster City Council to contribute 
one-fifth, not exceeding £40,0(X). 
Basis of settlement agreed. - Com- 
pletion of improvement will depend 
upon rebuilding operations on the 
site. 

Piccadilly batween St. JaxiteSfl- 
street and Duke-street (£72,500). 
Westminster City Council to con- 
tribute one seventh, not exceeding 
£10,493. Terms agreed for pro- 
perty. 

Piccadilly west of St. Jamea's- 
street (£30,450). Westminster City 
Council to contribute one- seventh. 

Lordship-lane and London-road 
(£21,500). Camberwell and Lewis- 
ham Borough Councils to contri- 
bute one-third. Negotiations for 
property practically concluded. 

Malpas - road, Brockley - road, 
Brockley-rise, and Stanstead road 
(£103,300). DeptfordandLewisham 
Borough Councils to contribute one- 
third. Variation of improvement 
authorised by Act of 1906 which 
will reduce cost. 

Lewisham High-road, Loampit- 
hil^ Loampit-vale, Lee High-road 
c 2 



50. London County Council, 



(£149,300). Lewisliam Borough worth Borough Council to con- 
Council to contribute one-third, tribute one-third. Negotiations for 
Widening of Lewisham High-road property proceeding, 
and Loampit-hill and Vale finished. Falcon-road (£5,900). Battersea 

High-street and Lewisham-roa^l Borough Council to contribate one- 

(£26,050). Lewisham Borough third. Negotiations for property 

Council to contribute one-third, proceeding. 

Negotiations for property proceed- South Lambeth-road (£12,700). 

ihg. Lambeth Borough Council to con- 

Bostall - hill, Basildon'- road, tribute one-third. 

McLeod - road, and Knee - hill Torrington-square to Montague- 

(£16,700) . Woolwich Borough Conn- place (£10,000) . Holbom Borough 

cil to contribute one-third. Council to bear two-fifths of the 

York-road (£19,270). Wands- cost. 

An improvement or betterment rate will ba paid by the owners of pro- 
perty benefited in the case of the Tower Bridge approaches, Holboni-to- 
Strand, Westminster. Hampstead-road, and Central-street improvements. 
In the case of the Tottenham Court-road improvement a betterment charge of 
£285 lOs. a year will be levied on property in Tottenham Court-road and 
Oxford-street improved in value by the execution of the improvement, and 
in the case of the Tower Bridge-road (Tower Bridge southern approach) 
improvement a betterment charge of £358 16«. willbe levied. 

The Council obtained powers in the session of 1907 to widen South 
Lambeth-road, Clapham-road, Stockwell-road, Bnxton-road, Coldharbour- 
lane, Heme-hill-road, Wanless-road, Poplar-walk-road, Lowden-road, 
Milkwood-road, and Norwood-road (£63,(XX)). 

The Council is applying to Parliament in the session of 1908 for 
authority to widen Southampton-road, Hampstead (£7,500), Dalston- 
lane (£840), Woolwich-road^ (£9,200), Lea Bridge-road (£22,100), and 
Streatham High-road (£1,250), and to form a bridge over the Metro- 
politan Railway between Gray's Inn-road and Pentonville-road (£3,500). 

PUBLIC CONTROL DEPARTMENT. 
Offices: 31, Spring Gardens, S.W. 
The Public Control Department of the County Council was created to dis- 
charge some of the duties which the Council took over from the County 
Justices, and to do other work involving regulation and control. The 
Department is purely executive. Of all branches of the Council's work it 
is the one which comes into touch with the public to the greatest extent, 
and in the most varied ways. The diversity of its duties range from the 
inspection of houses in which infants are received for hire to the inspection 
of dynamite and the control of coroners' inquests. Outside the City, it 
inspects and checks all weights and measures ; tests the accuracy of gas- 
meters, the milk-can and the beer-glass ; and ascertains that the coal is of 
correct weight. It protects us from the danger of fire arising from storage of 
inflammable liquids, and has done its best to secure the safety of petroleum 
lamps — the light of the poor. It extends its protective influences to the 
animal world, and stamps out contagious diseases in horses, cattle, and • 
other animals. It carries out the Shop Hours and Seats Acts, 
sees that we get a constant supply of water, and discharges many other 



Lofidon County Gouncit, 



61 



useful duties. Informaticm as to any breaches of the Aots admlnisterel 
by the Department should be sent to the chief officer. 



Weights and Measures. 
Western Office : 211, Harrow-road. 
North- Central Office: 5, Rosebery- 

avenue, Clerkenwell. 
Eastern Office : Calvert - avenue, 

Shoreditch. 
South - Western Office : Nether- 
ford-road, Clapham. 
South-Central Office : Union-road, 

Newington-causeway. 
South-Eastem Office : Lamb-lane, 

Greenwich. 

Every weight, measure, or weigh- 
ing* instrument used for trade must 
be stamped by an inspector of 
weights and measures. "Use for 
trade " includes use for buying or 
selling, for checking weights of 
g'oods when payment is made on 
results of such weighing, or for the 
calculation of wages. There are 14 
inspectors in London, who visit all 
trading premises and street stalls, 
and inspect weighing and measuring 
appliances thereon. Heavy penal- 
ties are imposed for the use of un- 
staimped or unjust appliances. In- 
spectors also attend at the offices at 
the times mentioned below, to verify 
and stamp weights and measures 
and weighing instruments brought 
to them for that purpose. 

Metric System.-^The Weights and 
Measures (Metric System) Act, 
.1897, which came into force on 6 th 
August, 1897, makes lawful the use 
in trade of weights or measures of 
the metric system. 

During a year the Department 
tests about two million weights, 
measures, and weighing instru- 
ments, and rejects nearly 400,000 of 
them. More than 70,000 premises, 
shops, and stalls are visited, and over 
H million articles examined. Fees 
and fines amount to about £5,250 a 
year. 

The Weights and Measures Acts 
do not deal with short vmghtf except 
as regards coal. 



Sale of Coal.— All coal must 
be sold by weight and not by 
measure. Short weight in delivery 
incurs liability to a fine of £5. A 
proper delivery note must be sent 
witn each delivery of coal exceeding 
two hundredweight, and in the 
cases of smaller deliveries each sack 
must have attached thereto a metal 
tablet denoting the quantity. When 
coal is delivered in bulk, the tare 
weight must be marked on the 
vehicle, and the necessarv particu- 
lars must be inserted in the weight 
ticket. 

The Council employs a staff of 
nine officers to inspect vehicles deli- 
vering or hawking coal in London* 
Premises where coal is sold are 
similarly inspected. 

Fees. — ^Verifying and stamping 
fees range from id. for small weighte 
up to di. for weights of iSDlb. 
(avoirdupois) ; from Id. to id, each 
for troy and apothecaries' weights ; 
from 2d, for weighing instruments 
of lib. up. to. 20«. for instruments of 
50 tons. 

Measures of len^h, from Id. to 
Is.; of capacity (dry and liquid), 
from id, to 6d. ; of capacity (apothe- 
caries'), from 2d, to Is. ; milk-chumB, 
from Is, to 2s, 

No fees are charged if the weights 
or measures are rejected as incorrect, 
or because the mode of construction 
is faulty. 

Weigh-Bridges.— For the use of 
the public, weigh-bridges are pro- 
vided at the North Central Offices, 
Rosebery-avenue (7 tons); South 
Central Offices, Qnion-road, New- 
ington-causeway (20 tons) ; plat- 
form weighing machines, capacity 
6001b., are also provided at these two 
offices as well as at the Harrow- 
road and Cal vert-avenue offices. 
The weighing fee is 6i., for which 
a certificate is issued 



52 



London County Oouncil, 



Inspectors op Weights and Measures. 



Districts. 



Name of 
ivspectob. 



Office. 



Times at which Inspec- 
tors WILT, attend at 
Office to Examine 
AND Stamp. 



Hammersmith. Fulham. 
North Kene;iDgton. 

Paddington, Marylebone 
Chelsea (detached). 

Westminster, St. George 
(Hanover-gguare), Chel- 
sea, South Keusiiigton. 

Hampstead, St. Pancras. 



C. A.Tottle.. 
R. K. Reid .. 



H. C. StnigDell . 



R. T. Pearce 



Strand, Holbom, St. C. Bending 

James (Westminster) , 

St. Martin-in-the-Fields, 

Clerkenwell, St. Luke, 

and Islington (south of 

Pentonville and City 
• Roads). I 
Islington, Clerkenwell., T. Elliot 

and St. Luke (north of< 

Pentonville and City G. H. Griffith, 

Roads) Inspector for 

Yeriflcation. 



Shoreditch (south of Re- C. F. Cox 
gent's Canal), Bethnal- 
green (west of Cam- 
bridge-road), White- 
chapel. 

Stoke Newington, Hack- 
ney, Shoreditch (north 
of Regent's Canal), 
Bethnal -green. Mile-end 
and Poplar (east of Cam - 
bridge-road.and north of 
GreatEastem Railway). 

Bethnal-green, Mile-end 
and Poplar (east of Cam-i 
bridge-road and south S. H. Brewer and 
of the Great Easterm A. C. Brown, 
Railway), St. George-| Inspectors for 
in-the-East, Limehouse. Verification. 

Wandsworth, Battersea.lJ. W. Hildreth . 
liambeth (west of Clap- 
ham, Kennington and 
Westminster - bridge 
Roads). 

Lambeth (east of Clap- H. W. Clemson 
ham, Kennington and 
Westminster - bridge 
Roads, and west of Den- 
mark-hill and Heme- 
hill), St. Saviour's, 
St. George-the-Martyr, 
Newington, and Cam 
berwelT (west of South 
wark-bridge, Walworth 
and Camberwell-roads) 



211, Harrow-road. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 



5,Roscbery -avenue , 

Clerkenwell. 

Ditto. 



S. B. Hough 



J. W. Milner 



Ditto. 
Ditto. 



Cal vert-avenue, 
Shoreditch. 



Ditto. 



Ditto. 
Ditto. 



Netherford-road, 
Clapham. 



Union-road, New- 
iugton-causeway. 



Every Monday, 9 to 4. 

Thursday, 9 to 4. 
Every Tnepday, 9 to 4. 

Friday. 9 to 4. 
Every Wednesday, 9 to 4. 

Saturday, 9 to 1. 

Every Tuesday, 9 to 4. 

Friday, 9 to 4. 
Every Monday, 9 to 4. 

Thursday, 9 to 4. 



Every Wednesday. 9 to 4. 

Saturday, 9 to 1. 
Every Monday, Tuesday." 

Wednesday, Thursday. 

and Friday, 9 to 4. 
Every Saturday, 9 to 1. 
Every Wednesday, 9 to 4. 



Every Tuesday, 9 to <t , 
Friday, 9 to 4. 



Every Thursday, 9 to 4. 

Every Monday, Tuesday 
Wednesday, Thursday, 
and Friday, 9 to 4. 

Every Saturday, 9 to 1. 

Every Tuesday, 9 to 4. 
Friday, 2 to 4. 



Every Monday, 9 to 4. 
Thursday, 9 to 4. 



London County GoanciL 



53 



Inspectors of Wkjghts and MKAauRKa— (continued). 



Districts. 



Kotherhithe.Bermondsey, 
St. Olave's, St. Saviour s, 
St. GeorKe-the-Martyr, 
and Newington (east of 
Southwark-bridge and 
Walworth roads), Cam 
berwell (north of Surrey 
Canal). 

Camberwell (south of Sur- 
rey Canal and east of 
Camberwell-road) , Lam- 
beth (east of Denmark 
hill and Herae-hill). 
Greeiiwich (south and 

. west of New-cross-road, 
Lewisham Hizh-roa4, 
Malpas-road and Brock- 

■ ley-road), Lewisham 
(west of Brockley-road, 
Sunderland-road, and 
Mayow-road, to the 
boundary of the 
county;. 

Plumstead,Woolwich,Lee, 
Greenwich (north and 
east of New-cross-road, 
Lewisham High-road, 
Malpas-road, and Brock- 
ley-road), Lewisham 
(east of Brockley-road, 
Sunderland-road, and 
Mayow-road, to the 
boundary of the 
county). 



NA.ME op 
Inspector. 



W. E. Manning.. 



J. Webb 



G. H. Joyce and 

T. P. Longman 

Inspector for 

Verification. 

B, E. Jury 



Ofpick. 



Ditto. 



Ditto. 



Ditto. 



Lamb-lane. Bridge- 
street, Greenwich. 



Times at which Inspec- 
tors WILL attend at 
Office to Examine 
AND Stamp. 

Every Wednesday, 9 to 4. 
Saturday, 9 to 1. 



Every Tuesday, 9 to 4, 
Friday, 9 to 4. 



Every Monday, Tuesday, 
Wednesday, Thursday, 
and Friday, 9 to 4. 

Every Saturday, 9 to 1. 

Every Monday, 9 to 4, 
and Friday, 9 to U. 



Sale of Coal. 



Districts. 



No. 



1, Western. 

2, West Central. 

3, Central. 

4, East Central. 

5, North-Eastern. 

6, Eastern. 

7, South- Western. 



Name op Coal 
Officer. 



E. Harrison. 
J. R. K. Bow. 
C. H. Winter, 
W. Meaney. 
S. Tinworth. 
E. H. Pineles. 
G. Talbot. 



„ 8, South-East Central.; J. V. Nicholls. 
„ 9, South-Eastem. J. Court. 

The following figures indicate the 
results under the sale of coal last 
year: — Inspections of vehicles, 
46,772; inspections of premises, 
1,677 ; infringements of Act re- 
ported, 651. 

Offenders are first cautioned, and 
in ahout one in twenty of the 



cases legal proceedings are taken. 
The convictions, which in 1890 
were 444, were last year 26. 

During last year about 12,000 in- 
spections at bakers' and other pre- 
mises were made by the inspectors, 
20 persons were cautioned in writing 
and 71 prosecuted, and in 70 
cases convictions were obtained and 
penalties imposed. 

Gas Meter Testing. 

Name of Inspector, 
( E.W._Scott. 



Offices. 
St. Ann's-street, 

AVestminster. 
Rosebery-avenue, 

Clerkenwell. 
White Lion - St., 

Spitalflelds. 
Avonmouth - st. 
Newi ng t on 
Causeway, S.E, 






J. L. Barry. 
G. Knott. 
G. Hume. 
W. R. Land. 
J. E. Fenlon. 

A. Camall. 
R. C. Arthur. 



54 



London County Council. 



The fees for testing (with or with- 
out stamping) gas meters are pre- 
scribed by Section 19 of the Sales of 
Gas Act, 1859, and for small meters 
are, approximately, as follows : — 

8.d. 
Wet or dry meters, 1 light . amt. of fee 6 

2 „ . „ 6 

3 „ . „ 6 
5 ,. . .. 6 

10 .. . „ 10 

20 ... „ 10 

Dry meters . 30 .. . ., 10 

. 50 ., . .. 10 

. 60 ,. . „ 1 

Consumers who may desire to 

have their meters tested at one of 

the Council's gas meter testing 

offices should, before removing the' 

meter, give 24 hours' notice in 

writing to the gas company. Meters 

sent to the Council's offices should 

have a label attached, stating clearly 

the consumer's name and address. 

If sent by carrier, the carriage must 

be- prepaid. 

Petroleum & Petroleum Lamps. 

The Petroleum Acts apply to 
liquid mineral products, such as 
naphtha, benzoline, &c., which give 
oft inflammable vapour at a less 
temperature than 73^ Fahr., when 
tested in the manner prescribed. 
Petroleum, under the Acts, can only 
be kept in the County of London 
under a licence of the Council, 
except a certain quantity for 
private use in motor-cars. These 
Acts do not apply to the ordinary 
petroleum oil (frequently called 
paraffin) such as is burnt in 
lamps, as this does not give off 
inflammable vapour below 73^ Fahr. 

In London tnere are about 1,800 
licensed premises. 

Application for licences must be 
made on special forms obtained at 
the Public Control Department, and 
must be accompanied oy a fee of 5s. 
The Council employs seven inspec- 
tors to carry out the Acts. 

Lamps. — For many years past 
great loss of both life and property 
have resulted from lamp accidents. 



and with a view to future legislation 
on the subject, the Council's in- 
spectors have investigated the 
various accidents. A third of the 
deaths at fires in London occur at 
fires caused by lamp accidents. 

Comprehensive reports on the 
subject of the prevention of petro- 
leum lamp accidents have been 
issued by the Council, which re- 
commends that only oil of a flash 
point of over 100^ Fahr. should be 
used in lamps. The Select Committee 
of the House of Commons who 
investigated the subject for several 
sessions also recommend this. 
Petroleum Spirit for use for 
Motor-Cars. 

Petroleum spirit for use for motor- 
cars may be kept without a licence 
if the restrictions laid down in the 
Regrulations of the Secretary of 
State under the Locomotives on 
Highways Act are strictly observed. 

Where these regulations cannot 
be observed, or where it is intended 
to also sell spirit for use for motor- 
cars, a licence is necessary. 
Carbide of Calcium. 

Bv an Order in Council, Carbide 
of Cfalcium (used for the manufac- 
ture of Acetylene) is brought under 
the operation of the Petroleum 
Acts, and quantities exceeding 
281b. can only be kept in London 
under licence granted hy the 
Council. Applications for hcences 
must be made on special forms 
obtained at the Public Control 
Department, and must be accom- 
panied by a fee of 5«. 

Explosives Act. 

The Department controls the 
convevance and sale of gunpowder 
and all other explosives. Premises 
where explosives are manufactured 
or kept are licensed and inspected 
by the Council's officers. 

Application for registration, the 
fee for which is Is., must be made 
on forms to be obtained at the 
Public Control Department. 



London Coiinty GounciL 



55 



Diseases op Animals. 
The Diseases of Animals Acts 
nave for their object the suppres- 
sion of contagious diseases in 
animals, and are enforced bjr the De- 
partment. The diseases which come 
within the scope of the Acts are 
grlanders, episiootic lymphangitis, 
cattle plague, foot - and - mouth 
disease, sheep-pox, pleuro - pneu- 
monia, swine fever, aiithrax, sneep- 
scab, and rabies. The Councils 
outdoor staff consists of three 
veterinary inspectors. . There are 
also two inspectors engaged in con- 
nection with the destruction of the 
carcasses of glandered animals at 
the knacker's yards. Every owner 
of a glandered horse, or one that he 
suspects to be glandered, must at 
once give notice of the fact to the 
p>olice or the Council's local veteri- 
nary inspector, or he is liable to a 
heavy penalty. 

Ybtbrinaby Inspectors. 



Namb. 



District. 



W. Hunting. 
Chief Inspector, 
16, Trafalgar-^q. 
Chelsea, siv 



C. J. Humphrey, 
Inspector, 
30, Stockwell-rd. 
Clapham, %.Vi 



W. F. Shaw, 
44-5, Liverpool-road, 
Highbury, N. 



TheCltyof Westmin- 
ster; the Royal 
Borough of Ken- 
sington ; and the 
Metropolitan 
Boroughs of Pad- 
dington, Chelsea, 
Hammersmith- 
Fulham, Wands, 
worth, and Batter- 
sea. 

The Metropolitan 
Boroughs of Lam- 
beth, South wark, 
Camberwell, Ber- 
mondsey, Deptf ord, 
Lewisham, Green- 
wich, and Wool- 
wich. 

The Metropolitan 
Boroughs of H amp- 
stead, St. Maryle- 
bone, St. Pancras, 
Holborn, Finsbury, 
Islington, Stoke 
Newington, Shore- 
ditch, Stepney, 
Bethnal Green, 
Hackney, and 
Poplar. 



Infant Life Protection. 

An Act which came into force on 
Ist Jan., 1898, forbids the keeping for 
hire of more than one infant xmder 
the ag]e of five years, unless notice 
in writing is given to the local 
authority. This Act is carried out 
by the department. 

The Council employs five inspec- 
tors to carry out the Acts, three of 
whom, women inspectors, are em- 
ployed in the supervision of regis- 
tered cases. 

Shop Hours and Seats Acts. 

The Shop Hours Acts of 1892-6 
provide that no person under the 

Xof eighteen years may be em- 
^ yed in any shop, market, stall, 
warehouse, licensed house or re- 
freshment house for more than 
seventjr-f our hours a week, including 
meal-times. Penalty, £1. A notice" 
setting out the provisions of the 
Acts must also be conspicuously 
exhibited in every shop where any 
young person is employed, subject 
to a penalty of £2. 

The Acts do not apply to a shop 
where the only persons employed 
are members of the same family 
dwelling in the building of which 
the shop forms part, or to which 
the shop is attached, or to members 
of the employer's family so dwel- 
ling, or to any person wholly 
employed as a domestic servant. 
A stalE of eight inspectors has been 
appointed, which makes a shop-to- 
shop inspection throughout London. 

The Seats for Shop Assistants 
Act of 1899 provides that in every 
shop where goods are sold by retail 
and where female assistants are em- 
ployed in such sale, seats for the use 
of such assistants shall be provided 
behind the counter or in some other 
suitable position in the proportion 
of not less than one seat to every 
three female assistants. 



56 



Lrmdon County Council. 



The employment of school child- 
ren in performances at theatres, 
music halls, <fec., for profit is regu- 
lated by the Prevention of Cruelty 
to Children Act, 1904. 

The law as to such employment 
may be briefly summarised : — Below 

10 years of age, illegal ; from 10 to 

11 years of age, permitted under 
magistrate's licence ; from 11 to 14 
years of age, permitted up to 9 p.m. 
and afterwards under the terms of 
a licence granted by a magistrate. 

Information as to infringements 
should be sent to the chief officer 
of the Public Control Department, 
who will cause the matter to be 
investigated. 

Employment Agencies. 

. Power to register and inspect 
agencies or registries for the em- 
ployment of governesses, female 
domestic servants, or other female 
persons in any similar capacity, 
and such theatrical, &c., agencies as 
demand or receive preliminary fees, 
was given to the Council by its 
General Powers Act of 1905. If no 
preliminary fees are taken by regis- 
tered agencies they need only take 
care to gi^e receipts for payments 
made and keep counterfoils of the 
receipts. If, however, preliminary 
fees are demanded or taken the 
agents become subject to the bye- 
laws made by the Council and con- 
firmed by the Home Secretary. 
These bye-laws specify the manner 
in whicifi the books shall be kept 
and the entries to be made therein, 
and are intended to assist in the 
prevention of fraud or immorality 
m the conduct of the agencies. 
Inspectors periodically visit the 
agencies to examine the books and 
see that the Act and bye- laws are 
observed. Penalties are provided 
{a) for non-registration (£50), (6) 
for not giving receipts or keeping 



counterfoils or for obstructing 
inspector (£5). A magistrate may 
on complaint by the Council cancel 
or suspend registration on being 
satisfied that the person registered 
is not a proper person to carry on 
the business, or tnat for any other 
reason it is expedient that the 
registration shall be cancelled or 
suspended. Forms of notice of 
registration and copies of the 
bye-laws may be obtained from the 
Chief Officer, PubUc Control 
Department. 

Coroners and Inquests. 

A coroner must hold an inquest 
on every person whose death has 
been caused by accident or violence. 
He may also hold an inquest where 
foul play is suspected, or where a 
medical certificate cannot be ob- 
tained, as in a case of sudden death. 

In cases of sudden, violent, or acci- 
dental death, the relatives or friends 
of deceased should inform the coro- 
ner or coroner's officer for the district. 
The death should also be registered 
within five days. Neglect to do this 
incurs liability to heavy penalties. 

Subject to any special statutorj- 
exemptions, all must, of whatever 
age, when duly summoned, serve 
upon a coroner's jnry. Failure to 
attend renders a person Hable to a 
penalty of £5. 

When a dead body is found, in- 
formation should at once be given 
to the coroner or coroner's officer 
for the district, or to a poHce con- 
stable. A fee of 5s. for finding a 
body and giving information is paid. 

The cost per annum of coroners' 
inquests in London, of which about 
7,250 are held annually, is about : — 

Coroners' salaries £10,500 

Disbursements at inquests (exclud- 
ing jury fees) 15,000 

Payment of coroners' jurors 3,100 

Rents and maintenance of coroners' 
courts 2,250 

Total £30,850 



London County Council. 



57 




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58 



London County Coujicil. 



.LUNATIC >SYLUMS. 
Asylums Committee : 6, Waterloo Place, S.W. 



The Asylums Committee of the 
County Council is a statutory body. 
It took over the management of the 
asylums from the old County 
Justices, and is armed with large 
statutory powers of its own with 
which the County Council has little 
directly to do. It does not consult 
the County Council upon its expen- 
diture except when a capital outlay 
is involved. It is under the Home 
Secretary and the Lunacy Com- 
missioners with regard to the 
structural arrangements of its asy- 
lums. Its accounts are audited by 
the Local Government Board, and 
it presents an anniial report to the 
County Council, giving an account 
of its work. It has power to ask 
boards of guardians for any amount 
for the maintenance of lunatics up to 
14«. a head per week, and the 
guardians have no power to criti- 
cise or refuse. If the Committee 
only requires 10«. 6d. per head, that 
is due to internal virtues and 
not to external influences. The 

Sayment for keeping the insane 
oes not necessarily come out of the 
rates; the guardians endeavour to 
recover as much as possible from 
the relatives of the mmates. The 
management of ten asylums (one, 
for 2,000 patients, opened as re- 
cently as June, 1907), and the main- 
tenance of over 19,000 inmates, is 
a heavy undertaking, which in- 
volves an annual expenditure of 
nearly £550,000, the wages bill 
alone amounting to over £l67,000, 
and the commissariat departments 
costing nearly £170,000 a year. The 
Committee has earned a great repu- 
tatioafor its kind and considerate 
treatment of the insane and its able 
administration, which is resulting in 
many economies and increased effi- 
ciency. It has revised the dietary, 



and, with advantage, stopped the 
beer allowance. 

The Committee consists of from 
thirty to thirty-five members, and it 
carries on its work through fourteen 
sub-committees. l*he asylums are 
visited in some cases fortnightly 
and in some cases monthly by sub- 
committees. At Claybury Asylum 
a pathological laboratory has been 
erected for studying the pathology 
of insanitv. A separate building 
exists at this asylum for receiving 
private paying male patients. Fe- 
male private patients are received 
at the Manor Asyluna, Epsom. The 
committee has established a work- 
ing colony at Ewell for the treat- 
ment of certified insane epileptic 
?atients (266 males and 60 females), 
'he colonists are for the most part 
selected from the inmates of the 
other London asylums who are 
considered suitable for colony life. 
Private patient*, male and female, 
are also received at this colony. 

The following figures show the in- 
crease of lunacy in London during 
the last ten years, the numbers 
being the certified pauper lunatics 
on the 1st of January every year :— 



1893 12.853 

1897 13,512 

1898 14,032 

1899 14,645 

1900 15,061 

1901 15,274 



1902 16,050 

1903 16,689 

1904 17,130 

1905 17,770 

1906 18,130 

1907 18,415 



The following is the percentage of 
recoveries effected at the asylums 
also during the last nine years : — 

On averasre On total number 
number resident, under treatment. 

1896 10-19 811 

1897 972 7'SS 

1898 8-32 6-80 

1899 8-20 6*50 

1900 902 7-42 



London County Council. 



59 



On average On total number 
number resident, under treatment. 

1901 716 5-93 

1902 7-35 5-92 

1903 8-20 662 

1904 7-60 6-31 

1905 7*56 6-25 

1906 773 6-37 

LONDON COUNTY ASYLUMS STAFF. 

GlerJc of Asylums Committee — 
H. F. Keene. 

Chief Assistant — R. H. Curtis. 

Director of the Pathological Labo- 
ratory and Pathologist— Y. W. Mott, 

M.D., F.R.C,P. F.E.S. 

Engineer— W. C. Clifford Smith, 
M.I.C.B. 

BANSTEAD ASYLUM. 

(Near Sutton, Surrey: L.B.& 
S.C. Railway.) 

Medical Superintendent — D. 
Johnston Jones, M.D. 

First Assistant Medical Officer — 
— J. J. Murphy, M.D. 

Second Assistant Medical Officer 
— S. W. Hanbury, m.r.c.s., ]i.R.c.P. 

Cliaplain—Iiey, H. Whittaker, 
M.D. 

Clerk oftJie Asylum— R. G. Mor- 
gan. 

Storekeeper — F. W. Page. 

YisiTiNG Days. — Sundays, 
Thursdays, and all Bank Holidays, 
from 2 to 4 p.m. 

bexley asylum. 

(Bexley, Kent: S.E. & C. Rly.) 
Medical Superintendent — T E. 

K. Stansfield, M.B. 

First Assistant Medical Officer— 

M. A. Collins, M.D. 

Chaplain — Rev. J. J. Brown hill, 

B.A. 

Clerk of the Asylum— B.. B. ShoU. 

Storekeeper— A. W. P. Randall. 

Visiting Days.— Sundays, Mon- 
days, and all Bank Holidays from 
2.30 to 4.30 p.m. 



CANE HILL ASYLUM, 

(CouLSDON, Surrey : S.E. & C. 

Railway; Stoat's Nest:L.B. 

& S.C. Railway.) 

Medical Superintendent — J. M. 
Moody, M.R.C.S., l.r.c.p. 

First Assistant Medical Officer — 
H. G. Cribb, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 

Second Assistant Medical Officer 
— R. O. Sibley, m.b. 

Chaplain — Rev. J. C. Crawford, 
M.A. 
• Clerk— T. J. E. C. Mynott. 

Steward — J. A. Smith. 

Visiting Days. — Mondays, 
Thursdays, and all Bank Holidays, 
from 2 to 4.30 p.m. 

CLAYBURY ASYLUM. 

(Woodford, Essex : G.E. 
Railway.) 

Medical Superintendent — Robert 
Jones, M.D., F.R.C.P. 

First Assistant Medical Officer — 
C. T. Ewart, M.D. 

Chaplain — Rev. W. G. Boys 
Johnston, M.A. 

Clerk to the Asylum — E. B. S. 
Claxton. 

Steward— J. E. Stephens. 

Visiting Days.— Sundays, from 
2 to 4 p.m. Mondays, and all Bank 
Holidays, from 2 to 4.30. p.m. 

COLNEY HATCH ASYLUM. 

(New Southgatb, Middlesex : 
G.N. Railway.) 

Medical Superintendent — W. J 
Seward, M.B. 

First Assistant Medical Officer — 
S. J. Giiailan, M.B. 

Second Assistant Medical Officer 
— S. Lloyd Jones, m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p. 

Chaplain — Rev. A. L. Parry, 
M.A. 

Clerk of the Asylum — E. Bailey. 

Storekeeper— Y. E. Mallett. 

Visiting Days.— Sundays, Mon- 
days, and all Bank Holidays, from 
2 to 4 p.m. 



CO 



London County Council. 



HANWELL ASYLUM. 

(Hanwell, Middlesex : G.W. 
Railway.) 

Medical Superintendent — V. J. 
Baily, M.B. 

First Assistant Medical Officer— 
— A. W. Daniel, m.d. 

Clmplain—RQY. E. J. Hockley, 

M.A. 

Cleric of the Asylum— J). Neave. 

Storekeeper — S. Milsom. 

Visiting Days— Sundays, Mon- 
days, and all Bank Holidays, from 
2 to 4 p.m. 

HbRTON ASYLUM. 

(Epsom, Surrey: L.B. & S.C. 
and L. & S.W. Railways.) 

Medical Superintendent— J. R. 
Lord, M.B. 

First Assistant Medical Officer 
— D. Ogilvy, M.D. 

Second Assistant Medical Officer 
—S. C. Elgee, L.R.C.S., l.r.c.p. 

CJiaplain—Rev. E. W. Deacon. 

Clerk of the Asylum — A. Y. 
Llewellvn. 

Storekeeper — W. Taylor. 

Visiting Days— Sundays, Mon- 
days, and all Bank Holidays from 
2.30 to 4.30 p.m. 

MANOR ASYLUM. 

(Epsom, Surrey: L.B. & S.C, and 
L. & S.W. Railways.) 

Medical Superintendent — W. I. 
Donaldson, m.d. 

Senior Assistant Medical Officer 
— W. J. Thomas, m.d. 



Chaplain— B^ev. A. E. Taylor 
(temporarily). 

Clerk of Asylum— L. Clarke. 

Storekeeper— J. J. Agar. 

Visiting Days.— Sundays, Mon- 
days, and all Bank Holidays, from 
2 to 4 p.m. 

EPILEPTIC COLONY. 

(EwELL, Surrey: Ewell Station, 
h^ ?'^A ^AII-WAY), or (Epsom. 
L.B. & S.C. and L. & S.W. Rlysj 

Medical Superintendent — P. C. 
Spark, M.R.C.S., l.r.c.p. 

Assistant Medical Officer — T. 
Stratford Logan, L.R.C.P., l.r c s 

D.P.H. 

Chaplain— Rev. E. W. Deacon. 

Clerk and Storekeeper — R. E. 
Dorrell. 

Visiting Days.— Sundays and 
all Bank Holidays; also Mondays 
by previous notification to Medical 
Superintendent. 

LONG GROVE ASYLUIH. 

(Epsom, Surrey: L.B. & S.C and 
L. & S W. Railways.) 

Medical Superintendent — C. H. 
Bond, M.D. 

First Assistant Medical Officer— 
G. F. Barham, M.D. 

Second Assistant Medical Officer 
—G. Clarke, M D. 

Chaplain— Uev. E. Goodcliild. 
B.A. 

Clerk of Asylum— A. J. Gibbs. 

Storekeeper— K. S. Elliot. 



THE PRESERVATION OF HISTORIC BUILDINGS, 
The London County Council in 1898 obtained statutory power to protect 
buildmgrs and places of historic interest, Section 60 of the General Powers 
Act of that year containing the following clause : — 

It shall be lawful for the Council, if it thinks fit, to purchase by am-eement 
buildiiifirs and places of historical or architectural interest or works of Mt or to 
undertake or contribute towards the cost of preserving, maintaining, or man«e-ine 
any such buildings and places, and to erect and maintain, or contribute towards t hi 
provision, erection, and maintenance of works of art in London. 

Additional twwers are conferred by Section 30 of the General Powers 
Act of 1906, of which the Council is enabled to hold, use and maintain anv 
lands or buildings which may be from time to time given to it, and to 
adopt, furnish, equip, maintain a^nd use such buildings for the purpose Qi 



London County Council, 61 

providing for the accommodation, exhibition and preservation of works of 
art in its possession, and to let on lease any building's for the time being 
vested in it, and make charges for admission to such buildings. 

The discharge of these duties is entrusted to the Local Grovemment, 
Records, and Museums Committee, which, in this conection, has control 
over : (a) the Council's library; (6) the Homiman Museum and Library : 
and (c) the preservation of buildings in the county having architectural 
or archasological interest. 

The Homiman Museum and grounds were presented to the public 
through the London County Council by the late Mr. F. J. Homiman, M.P., 
in February, 190L They are situated at Forest Hill, and the old museum 
was for many years a favourite resort. The new building consists of 
two galleries, round each of which runs a balcony, also devoted to the 
display of exhibits. The Ethnological Collections, which are exhibited 
in the lower, or south, gallery, illustrate the arts and crafts of various 
peoples. Tools and weapons, means of transport, basket work, pottery* 
personal ornaments, pipas, musical instruments, religious objects, and 
stone implements are amongst the objects exhibit^. The Natural 
History Collections, occupying the upper, or north, gallery, comprise a 
g*eneral collection of animals, as well as reference collections of birds* eggs, 
shells, and insects, and a special series illustrating the theory of organic 
evolution. The Vivaria and Aquaria contain living specimens of British 
land, fresh water, and marine animals, and there is an observation bee- 
hive, in which the bees may be seen at work from May to October. The 
Library consists in the main of books on subjects represented in the 
Museum Collections. In addition to works in popular language, intended 
for the use of visitors generally, books have been carefully selected for 
systematic study, and as works of reference on the various branches of 
Ethnology and Natural History. The recreation grounds are over five 
acres in extent. 

In connection with its work of preserving buildings of historic 
interest, the Council has purchased and restored No. 17, Fleet-street, 
a buildmg of considerable historical and architectural interest, which 
was built in the reign of James I. for, probably, Henry Prince of 
Wales as an of&ce of the Duchy of Cornwall. The thoroughfare 
has been widened at this point by the setting back of the ground 
floor of the premises ; but the upper floors remain in their previous 
positions, supported on cantilevers, and the old false front, which 
was about twenty inches in advance of the original front, has been 
removed. The most interesting room in the building — " Prince Henry's 
Koom" on the first floor, in which there are a fine carved ceiling and 
some old panelling, is open free to the public on week-days from 10 a.m. to 
2 p.m, and can be hired for meetings after the latter hour. Under the 
Monuments (Metropolis) Apt, 1878, and Section 19 of the London Open 
Spaces Act, 1893, it is the duty of the Coimcil to preserve and maintain 
Cleopatra's Needle, the York Water Gate, and other monuments ou the 
Thames embankments. The Council also has charge of the Shaftesbury 
Memorial and the Gladstone Memorial. Another branch of the 
Council's work in this connection is the indication of houses of 
historical interest in the metropolis by means of memorial tablets. 
This work used to be undertaken by the Society of Arts, which affixed 
memorial tablets on some 34 houses which had been residences of cele- 



62 London County Council, 

brated men and women. The Council has now erected tablets in the 
following instances: — Holly Lodge, Campden Hill (Lord Macaulay) : 
48, Doughty - street (Charles Dickens) ; 4, Whitehall Grardens (Sir 
Robert Peel) ; 56, Devonshire-street, (Sir John Herschel) ; 67, Wim- 
pole-street (Henry Hallam) ; 1, Devonshire-terrace, Marylebone-road 
(Charles Dickens); 22, Theobald's-road (Lord Beaconsfield) ; 14, York- 
place, Portman-square (William Pitt) ; 12, Clarges-street, Piccadilly 
(Edmund Kean) ; 48, Welbeck- street (Thomas Youn^) ; 14, Hertford- 
street, Park-lare (Edward Jenner) ; Holly Lodge, Wimbledon Park-road 
(" George Eliot ") ; 34, Gloucester-square, Hyde Park (Robert Stephenson) ; 
23, Suffolk-street, Pall Mall (Richard Cobden) ; 10, Upper Cheyne-row 
(Leigh Hunt); 12, Savile-row (George Grote); 16, Young-street, Ken- 
sington (W. M. Thackeray) ; 56, Great Queen-street (James Boswell) ; 
6, Frith-street (William Hazlitt) ; 27, Upper Baker-street (Mrs. Siddons) ; 
71, Bemers-street (S. T. Coleridge); 110, Gower-street (Charles Darwin); 
18, Stamford-street, Southwark (John Rennie) ; 110, Hallam-street 
(Dante Gabriel Rossetti) ; 76, Charles-street, Fitzroy-square (John Con- 
stable) ; 14, Doughty-street (Sydney Smith); 31, Baker-street (Lord 
Lytton) ; 144, Kensington High-street (Sir David Wilkie) ; 22, St, 
James's-place (Samuel Rogers); 33, Ampton-street, W.C. (Thomas 
Carlyle) ; 111, Broomwooi-road, Clapham (William Wilberforce) ; 1, Orme- 
square, Bayswater (Sir Rowland Hill) ; 54, Great Marlboroug^h-street 
(Mrs. Siddons) ; 28, Bennett- street, Stamford-street, (John Leech) ; 21, 
Queen - square, Bloomsbury (F. D. Maurice) ; 88, Mile End - road 
(Captain Cook) ; 64, Duncan- terrace, Islington (Charles Lamb) ; 4, Carlton- 
gardens, S. W. (Lord Palmerston) ; 31, Golden-square (John Hunter) ; 28, 
Broad-street, Golden-square (William Blake) ; 39, Rodney-street, Penton- 
ville ( Jimes Mill and John Stuart Mill) ; 18, Kensington-square (John 
Stuart Mill) ; 19, Curz on- street, Mayfair (Lord Beaconsfield). 

Steps are also being taken with a view to the indication of the under- 
mentioned houses :— 73, Harley-street (Sir Charles Lyell and W. E. 
Gladstone) ; 70, Knightsbridge (Charles Reade) ; 23, Great Ormoud-street 
(John Howard) ; 87, Jermyn-street (Sir Isaac Newton) ; 28, Heme-hill 
(John Ruskio) ; 11, Carlton House -terrace (W. E. Gladstone) ; 34. 
Arlington-road (Charle Dibdin) ; 17, Elm Tree-road (Thomas Hood); 
Holly Bush-hill, Hampsteasd (George Romney). 

EDUCATION. 

By the Education (London) Act, 1903, the School Board, which first met 
on the 15th Dacembsr, 1870, was superseded by the London County 
Council as the Local Education Authority for the administrative County 
of London. The date of transfer was Sunday, 1st May, 1904. The 
official change took place on Monday, 2nd May, whsn the Chairmen 
of the Council and the Education Committee attended at the Education 
Offices, Victoria Embankment, W.C, and welcomed the staff, exchanging 
farewells with the Right Hon. Lord Reay, Chairmm of the departing 
School Board. 

On th3 same date the Technical Education Board, which first na3t on 
28th April, 1893, was also abolished, and the combined duties of the School 
Board and the Education Board were undertaken by the Council. 



London County Council. 63 



Education Committee (Scheme). 

The London County Council, on 26th January, 1904, adopted a scheme 
for the establishment of an Education Committee as required by law. 

The General Purposes Committee, which framed the scheme, the key- 
note of which was no co-option, insisted that the Council should bear m 
mind the following two objects in constituting the Education Com- 
mittee : — 

1. That the Committee shall be one which will work harmoniously with 
the Council in developing a complete and well co-ordinated syst-em of 
London education. 

2. That its constitution shall be such as to retain one of the greatest 
public interests under real public control, as far as possible. 

After an experience of two years and a half, the Council decided that 
the Education Committee should be granted enlarged powers. One result 
of this decision is that the committee now has j>ower to spend up to £500 
without the approval of the Council. Another important concession was 
that the meetings of the committee should be held in public. The com- 
mittee met for the first time with open doors on 21st November, 1906. In 
July, 1907, the Council resolved that tiie number of members of the 
Education Committee should be increased by the addition of seven 
co-opted members, making, with the five lady members, a total member- 
ship of 50. The revised scheme has been approved by the Board of 
Education, and is as follows : — 

ScHBUB for the amendment of the scheme for the establishment of an Education 
Committee (hereinafter called "the Committee") made by the London County 
Council (hereinafter called "the Council,") pursuant to section 17 of theEducmtion Act, 
1902, on 25th January, 1934, and approved by the Board of Education on 14th March, 

1. The scheme for the establishment of the Committe?, made by the Council under 
section 17 of the Education Act. 1902, upon the 26th day of January, 1904, and 
approved by the Board of Education upon the 14th day of March, 1904 (hereinafter 
called "the original scheme"), is hereby revoked, and in lieu thereof the provisions 
set out in the schedule hereto shall have effect as from 6th April, 1906 (which date is 
herein referred to as the "commencement of this scheme ") . 

2. The persons who at the commencement of this scheme are in office as memben 
of the Committee appointed under the original scheme, shall, notwithstanding any- 
thing in this scheme, hold office as members of the Committee appointed in accordanc* 
with the schedule to this scheme for thQ same period and upon the same conditions 
as those for and upon which they were originally appointed. 

SCHEDULE. 

(i.) The Committee for the purposes of the Education (London) Act, 1903, shall 
consist of 50 members, and shall include (a) the chairman, vice-chairman, and deputy- 
chairman for the time being of the Council ; (b) 35 persons, who shall be members for 
the time being of the Council ; and (c) 12 other persons, being persons of experience 
in education and persons acqia'nted with the needs of the various kinds of 
schools in the area of the Couuty of Loudon, selected by the Council, of 
whom not less than five are to be women. Persons of experience in education and 
persons acquainted with the needs of the various kinds of schools in the administra- 
tive CJounty of London shall always be included in the Committee. 

(ii.) The members of the Committee shall retire annually in the month of March, 
and shall hold office until the fln-t meeting of their successors ; but in the year in 
which the triennial retirement of county councillors takes place, they shall retire on 
the 8th of March, it being competent to the Council on and after that da^e but before 
the oidinary day of appointment of committees in the said month to appoint a 
provisional Committee consisting of the chairman, the vice-chairman, and the deputy- 
chairman of the Council, other members for the time being of the Council not exceed- 
ing the number of such members of the Council on the Committee as provided by this 
acheme, and not less than two or more than five women members, tne Committee so 
provisionally constituted to hold o5ftce until the first meeting of the Committee consti- 



64 



Lo)idati County Council. 



tuted in accordance with clause (i.) of this scheme on or within 14 days after th? 
ordinary day of appointment of committees. 

(iii.) E?ery member of the committee not beins: a member of the Council shall. 
after appointment or re-appointment, and before being entitled to act as a member of 
the committee, sign a declaration of acceptance of office on a form to be prescribed by 
the Council. 

(vi.) Any member of the Committee who shall notify in writing to the clerk of the 
Council his intention to resign, or who shall (except in case of illness, or for a reason 
approved by the Committee) be for six successive months absent from all meetings ot 
the Committee, or who being, when appointed, a member of the Council, shall cease to 
be a member thereof, or who, not being a member of the Council, shall fail for the 
period of thres calendir months to sign the declaration of acceptance of office, or who 
shall become bankrupt, or shall file in any (^ourt having jurisdiction in bankruptcy a 
declaration of inability to pay debts, shall thereuiwn cease to be a member of the 
Committee. 

(V.) Any caiJual vacancy in the Committee shall be filled up by the Council as soon 
as conveniently may be, the appointment being made only for the remainder of the 
tenn for which the vacating member was appointed. 

(A) ELEIHENTARY EDUCATION. 



According to the returns dated 
31st March, 1907. there were 890,593 
children of the Elementary School 
Class in London, and there was 
accommodation in Council Schools 
for 604,420, and in Voluntary Schools 
for 153,953— total, 758,373. There 
were at that date 539 Council Schools 
open and 382 Voluntary Schools. 
Daring the year under review 2 
additional permanent schools, pro- 
viding accommodation for 2,629 
children, and three enlargements of 
existing schools, accommodating 
893 children, were opened. In 
additi(m, two schools were trans- 
ferred to the Council, and 11 tem- 
porary schools were opened. Also 
three Voluntary Schools were 
opened during the year. The ap- 
proximate number of new places 
sanctioned by the Council but not 
yet provided was 22,927. Tenders 
nave been accepted for seven new 
sell >ols at an average cost per place 
of ,tl9 Is. 9(/., excluding cost of site. 
If there is not room for all the 
children in efficient schools it is 
iucuml>ent upon the Council to pro- 
vide the necessary accommodation. 
When the C\)uncil took over the 
work of educatitm, the accommoda- 
tion for which the elementary 
schools were recognised did not 
represent the ival number for which 
these schools could etfectively pro- 
vide. Many of the older schiwls 



contain rooms accommodating as 
many as 70 and 80, and in some 
cases more children. When it is 
remembered that the Board ot* 
Education has laid down that no 
single class is to contain more than 
60 children, and even this number 
IS considered by present-day stan- 
dards too large, it will be sesn that 
these large rooms nominally ac- 
commodatmg 70 or 80 children do 
not provide effective accommoda- 
tion for more than 60 children. 
The Council has, therefore, initiated 
a scheme for carrying out systematic 
re-division of these .large rooms, 
wherever such re-division is prac- 
ticable and desirable from the point 
of view of organisation. In other 
cases it is intended to write down 
the accommodation of each room 
to 60 places. 

During the year 1906-7, 308 class- 
rooms, with a total accommodation 
of 21,871, or an average of 71 per 
room, have been converted into 40<i 
classrooms, with a total accommo- 
dation of 18,849, or an average of 
46 per room. 

It is intended to carry out further 
instalments of the effective accom- 
modation proposals during the next 
vear or two until the schools aro 
brought more into line with modern 
requirements. 

The method of calculation adopted 
to ascertain the numler of school 



London County Council. 



65 



places required to be provided was 
until recently to deduct 12 ^ per 
cent, from the total number of 
elementary school children sche- 
duled between the ages of three 
and 13, and to add the number of 
children over 13 attending elemen- 
tary schools. The method recently 
approved by the Council for the 
purpose of providing new accommo- 
dation throughout London necessi- 
tated by the survey of the non-pro- 
vided schools is to deduct 14 per 
cent, from the total number of cnil- 
dren scheduled between the ages of 
three and 14, and to add the number 
of children over 14 years of age 
attending school. The extra 1^ per 
cent, will cover approximately the 
number of children of the special 
school class, for whom other ac- 
commodation is provided, but whose 
names have hitherto been included 
in the ordinary schedule, and also 
the number of children who will be 
removed year by year as scholar- 
ship holders to secondary schools. 
On this method of calculation the 
estimated number of children re- 
quiring school places on the sche- 
dule of May, 1907, was 767,457. 
In arriving at the existing effective 
accommodation, an endeavour has 
been made to reckon the accommo- 
dation of all classrooms in senior 
departments on the 10 square feet 
basis, and in infants' classrooms on 
the 9 square feet basis, except 
where the seating has already been 
. settled on a higher basis. 

It has also been calculated that 
for every 100 effective school places 
there should be a roll of 105 for 
boys, a roll of 107 for girls, 106 for 
mixed, and 110 for infants. This is 
c6nsidered to be practicable, as the 
percentage of average attendances 
of boys is 91*6, of girls 89'3, and of 
infants 83-8. 

The results may be summarised 
as follows as on 3l8t March, 1907 :— 



Estimated namber of children 

requiring school places 767,457 

Permanent effective accommoda- 
tion- 
Existing 716.956 

Projected 41,622 

758,578 

Possible average roll based on 
effective accommodation- 
Existing 769,447 

Projected 44,535 

813,982 

showing an excess on existing 
permanent accommodation of 1,990, 
and an excess on existing and pro- 
jected permanent accommodation of 
46,525. 

At Lady Day, 1907, there were on 
the books of L.C.C. Schools 564,583, 
Voluntary Schools 176,087, with 
an average attendance of 504,335 
and 153,014 respectively. The per- 
centage of regularity of attendance 
— that is, the actual number of 
attendances made out of each 100 
possible, was 89, and is the highest 
ever recorded for the Public Ele- 
mentary Schools in London. 

Special Schools. 

In addition to the ordinary schools, 
there were at Lady Day, 1907, 161 
Cookery, 122 Laundry, 26 Com- 
bined, and 39 Housewifery centres, 
at which 49,704 scholars were in 
attendance. There were also 214 
Manual Training centres, with an 
attendance of 63,464 (over 70 per 
cent.) scholars; 81 centres for the 
instruction of Mentally Defective 
children, with a roll of 5,552; also 
25 centres for the instruction of 
Physically Defective children, with 
a roll of 1,801 pupils ; 8 centres for 
the education of the Deaf, with a 
roll of 416; 6 centres for the in- 
struction of the Blind, with a roll of 
177 children. The Council has 9 
Industrial Schools — the Gordon 
House Home at Isleworth, for 70 
girls, Feltham and Mayford, the 
former with a daily average of 547 
and the latter 175; two Truant 



66 



London County Council. 



Schools, one at Homerton, accom- 
modating 1.50 boys ; and another at 
H ighburj', accommodating' *2U( ) boys ; 
a Day Industrial School at Dnirj^- 
lane, with accommodation for 100 ; 
one at Brunswick-road, Poplar, and 
one at Ponton-road, Nine Elms, 
eich with accommodation for 
ir;0 boys and girls ; also an In- 
dustrial Home for little lK)y8 at 
Claphiim, ai.'comm()datin57 W). In 
additicm, the Council has a joint 
management with the county 
borough of Brighton in the Port- 
slade Industrial School, in which 
there are 60 London boys. 

A si^ecial school has been opened 
for the treatment of favus. 

Residential Schools. 

The Council has three Residential 
Schools for elder Deaf boys and 
girls, one at Anerley, accommo- 
dating ()0, one at Homerton, 
accommodating oO; and one at 
Wandsworth. There are also 
three Residential Schools for the 
elder Blind scholars, one at Elm 
Court, Tulse Hill, for girls, accom- 
modating 40, and one at Linden 
Lodge, VV^andsvvurth, for boys, with 
an accommodation of ()0, and one at 
Stormont House for '20. There is 
also a Residential Home for 152 Men- 
tally Defective scholars at Brixton. 
The Elementary Education (Defec- 
tive and Epileptic Children) Act, 
1899, gives the Council ix)wer to 
provide for the education of Epil- 
eptic children, but at present no 
definite action has been taken in 
this direction beyond sending a few 
children to voluntary homes. 

Prizes.- 

Merit Certificates are granted 
in order to stimulate the mterest 
of the scholars. Prizes are given 
to the children in Geography and 
History and Needlework, also 



medals for attendance, and as a 
reward for conduct and industry. 
In addition, scholars passing- the 
examination of the Board of 
Education (South Kensington) are 
awarded prizes in Science and Art. 

Under an arrangement betwetn 
the late Mr. Francis Peek and the 
Religious Tract Society, prizes 
to the value of £r>00 a,re awanled 
annually to the Council's scholars 
and pupil teachers for proficiency 
in Bible knowledge. 

There are eight prizes for dis- 
posal in each year for award to 
pupil teachers wno have passed the 
King's Scholarship examination, 
four of the value of £10 and four 
of about £6 or £7. 

Attendance. 

The instruction in all elementar)' 
8ch(H>ls maintained by the Conncil 
is free, and attendance compulsory. 
The bye-laws state that the age of 
compulsory attendance is between 
five and fourteen. A child between 
twelve and fourteen is not required 
to attend if he or she has passed 
the iS eve nth Standard. What are 
known as *' half-timers " are not 
allowed. No child under 14 can 
be employed unless such child 
has passed the Seventh Standard. 
It is the duty of the School 
Authority to enforce attendance, 
and 357 school attendance officers, 
known as " Visitors," are engaged 
in this work. The regular atten- 
dance of children at school is en- 
forced by a system of sub-committees 
appointed locally for certain areas. 
These sub-committees consider the 
questions of taking action against 
parents who do not send their child- 
ren to school, and of summoning 
before a magistrate the persons re- 
sponsible for the children's atten- 
dance. Last year 13,093 summonses 
were issued, and 10,500 convictions 
obtainel. Parents are fined up te a^ 



London County Council. 



67 



naximum penalty of 20«., and may 
m sent to prison. The number of 
lautionary notices and summonses 
las been consistently decreasing 
inoe the year 1901. 

Features op the Schools. 

School books, apparatus, and 
stationery are suppliel to scholars 
rea of charge ; pianos have been 
provided for each department 
ind are being graiually supplied 
x> voluntary schools. Scholars' 
ending libraries exist at every 
permanent school. Suitable books 
'or children are lent free, to 
;iicoura^3 a love of reading. 
S'ational Home Reading Circles 
lave been formed in classes in 
standard V". and upwards. Thrift 
LS encouraged 49y the establishment 
of penny banks at the schools. 
For the better study of Botany 
arrangements have been male for 
bhe weekly distribution to the 
schools of plants, seeds, leaves, 
&c., from the various parks and 
open spaces belonging to the 
Council. A Reference Library of 
standard books is • supplied to 
each permanent school for the 
use of the teachers in their work. 
The scheme of inter-colonial school 
correspondence, started on the sug. 
gestion of H.M. Colonial Office, for 
the establishment of more intimate 
relations between the schools and 
the school children of thi Colonies 
and those of the Mother Country by 
means of letters written by the 
children, has proved a successful 
feature in the schools. A recent 
innovation has been the exchange 
of flags with cartain schools of 
New South Wales. An Exhibition 
of Handwork, comprising specimens 
of Drawing, Manual Training, 
Cookery, and Scientific Apparatus, 
<fcc., done by the scholars, is held 
triennially. The children pay visits 
under the guidance of the teachers 



to museums, art galleries, and other 
places of educational value,. these 
visits bein^ recognised by the Board 
of Education. Under the new rules 
of the Board, organised games, such 
as cricket, hockey, &c., are now 
taken by selected schools as part of 
the school curriculum. There is a 
medical staff for the purpose of 
examining candidates for the service, 
and also children who should be sent 
to the special schools. In addition 552 
nurses, whose duty it is to examine 
the heads of the children with a 
view to securing greater cleanliness, 
visit the schools in rotation.^ The 
services gf twenty local assistant 
medical officers are temporarily 
engaged in connection with the 
scheme of medical inspection and 
supervision of the children, and the 
teachers have to keep records of 
the results. The passing of the 
Administrative Provisions Act of 
1907 will considerably add to the 
work of the school doctor. A labo- 
ratory has been provided for the 
study of bacteria in connection with 
prevention of infectious diseases in 
schools. A sub-committee has baen 
appointed to supervise the work of 
organising the supply of free meals 
for necessitous children, and an 
appeal for voluntary funds has been 
made by the Council t ) defray the 
cost of the food. Assistance in the 
shape of equipment and service is 
given and paid for out of the rates. 
The weekly average number of meals 
given last year in 263 Council 
Schools was 6t),43t). In the case 
of the schools for cripple children, 
35 horsed ambulances convey the 
scholars from home to the schools. 
The playgrounds of 309 schools are 
opened every Saturday and at 47 
schools every Sunday, for the 
use of the children. Fire drill is 
taught in everry department with 
the object of making the chil- 
dren familiar with a quick and 
orderly means of exit in case of 



68 



London County Council. 



fire. In addition, posters are hung 
in each school giving the position 
of the nearest fire alarm. A 
complete gymnasium has been 
fitted up in a few schools- 
Corporal punishment is only 
allowed in accordance with specific 
instructions. The school holidays, 
as a rule, are as follows: Easter, 
one week; Whitsuntide, one day; 
midsummer, four weets; Christ- 
mas, two weeks. Each per- 
manent school has a lenuLng 
library for the use of scholars 
in Standard III. and upward. 
16«. per annum is allowed to Head 
Teaciiers for the purchase of mate- 
rials for use in Botany, Physiology, 
Science, and object lessons. Ihe 
sum of 10s. is also allowed for the 
purchase of plants and flowers in 
the girls' and infants' schools. 

Miscellaneous. 

London County Council Schools 
are available out of school hours for 
various " letting " purposes, e.g.. 
Lectures, Bands of Hope, Boys' 
Brigades, Social Evenings, <fec., 
and religious meetings, on an 
approved scale of charges. About 
£7,600 a year is received for hire of 
Council schools. The exteriors of 
the schools are painted every five 
years, and the interiors every eight 
years, with an intermediate clean- 
ing every four years. In schedul- 
ing a site for a new school in any 
parish in the metropolis, the Coun- 
cil is responsible for re-housing 
where 30 or more persons have been, 
or are about to be, dispossessed. 
The Council has its own store 
for the reception, storage, and 
despatch of books, stationery, &c., 
to the schools, and a furniture 
warehouse, both of which are 
situated in Clerkenwell, where desks 
and furniture are manufactured, 
received, examined, and dispatched 
to the schools. The greater number 



of the schools are insured a^insl 
fire in a special insurance fund— 
which is managed by the Finance 
Committee of the Council. 

Subjects Taught. 

The subjects taught in the Day- 
schools are those laid down in the 
Code of the Board of Education. 
The subjects of ihstruction include 
Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, His- 
tory, Geography, and Grammar, 
along with Drawing for boys and 
Needlework for girls, and suitable 
occapations for infants. There are 
however, several other subjects, 
scientific and otherwise, that 
may be taken subject to the 
approval of H.M. Inspector. Great 
attention is given to Singing, 
and the standard of attainment 
as evidenced by 'the scholars' 
occasional displays, is now very' 
high. Physical exercises, including 
swimming, receive careful atten- 
tion and encouragement; and a 
wonderful development has been 
witnessed in recent years in all 
that pertains to the health of the 
children. Swimming baths are 
attached to fhree Council Schools ; 
thousands of scholars are taught 
to swim every year, peripatetic 
teachers being employed for the 
purpose. Cookery Work, Laundrj' 
Work, and Household Management 
are taught to the girls, and Manual 
Training in Woodwork and Metal 
Work are taught to the boys. 
In the Council Schools Bible In- 
struction is given according to a 
syllabus approved by the late 
School Board, and now adopted 
by the Council. 

Higher Elementary and 
Higher Grade Schools. 

The Council has 37 Higher Ele- 
mentary Schools and 71 Higher 
Grade Departments, where the 
curriculum is of a more advanced 



London County Cicun':il. 



69 



character. The new course of in- 
struction is arranged for four years, 
and children are admitted after 
examination. 

Teaching Staff. 
At Lady Day, 1907, the Council 
had in its service 1,520 head and 
11,041 assistant teachers, 4,033 
being masters and 8,528 mistresses. 
The numbers in the voluntary 
schools were 829 head and 3,611 
assistant teachers. In addition to 
the adult teachers there were 3,000 
pupil teachers. A scheme has been 
adopted, whereby all promotions of 
teachers in Council schools should 
be made from a specially selected 
list of 225 assistant teachers, of 
whom 75 are men. The final selec- 
tion for a head-teachership is in 
the hands of the Education Com- 
mittee of the Council. In addi- 
tion to the staff mentioned above, 
there were also 409 teachers in the 
Blind Centres, Deaf Centres, Men- 
tally Defective Centres, and in 
the Physically Defective Centres. 
Not included in the above were 
350 instructors and assistants in 
the Manual Training Centres, and 
429 instructresses in the Cookery, 
Laundry, and Domestic Economy 
Centres. The staff at the Technical 
Schools and Schools of Art admin- 
istered by the Council consisted of 
275 men and 72 women. Most of 
the teachers in the service are mem- 
bers of the Grovernment Super- 
annuation Fund, but there are a 
number who elected to remain in 
a former superannuation fund 
formed by the late School 
Board. All new appointments of 
teachers now come under the 
Government Superannuation Act 
for this purpose. 

Government Grants and Cost 
TO THE Rates. 
The total expenditure and cost 
per child for the year 1906-7 was as 



follows: — Council Schools, (gross) 
£6 15«. Irf., (nett) £4 15«. 2d.', 
Voluntary Schools, (gross) £3 lis. 
2d., (nett) £1 8«. 9(7. The Govern- 
ment grants received ix»r child were 
as follows : — Council Schools, £1 
19«. 4c2. ; Voluntary Schools, £2 
0.8. lid. 

Evening Schools. 

Tjast year (1906-7) 326 schools 
were open, and the number of 
students admitted was 125,728. 
The schools are open to all 
tiersons \vho are exempt from the 
legal obligation to attend a da^ 
school. A small sessional fee is 
charged generally to i^ersons over 
16, but in certain schools in poor dis- 
tricts the pupils are admitted free. 
Pupils may select any subject they 
like at these Schools. There are 
34 Commercial and Science and 
Art Evening Sc^hools where in- 
struction is of a special character, 
and a fee of 28. 6rf. or 58. per session 
is charged. 

Growth of Elementary 
Education. 

The following figures show the 
increase of the expsnditure and 
the expansion of public elemeu- 
t.iry education : — The year 1872 
was the first one in which anv 
material expenditure was incurred, 
and during which the schools were 
opened. In that year the amount 
levied on the rates was £40,000. In 
the following year, 1873, the amount 
was £75,000 ; the total receipts, in- 
cluding loans raised and Govern- 
ment grant, £258,705, and the aver- 
a^^e attendance was 31,210. In 1880 
the amount received from the rates 
was £541,129; the total receipts, in- 
cluding loan, fees, and grants, were 
£1,359,662, and the average attend- 
ance 196,844. In 1885 the rating 
authorities contributed £944,270, the 
total expenditure was £2,097,171, 



70 



London County Council . 



and the average attendance 294,203. 
In 1890 contributions from the rates 
amounted to £1,177,044, the total re- 
ceipts £2,140,551, and the attand- 
ance 345,746. 

Finance. 

Ye\r ended 
3l8t March, 1907. 
£ 

Total expenditure (elem3ntary 
edusatiou) 4,'»23.125 

Total net expanditure (element- 
ary edicatioo) 2,845,1:9 

Total maintenance expenditure 
(higher education) 677,323 

Total net maintenance expendi- 
ture (higher education) ... 333,147 

Total maintenanca expenditure 
(elementary and higher 
education) 4,399,646 

Total n?£ maintenance expendi- 
ture (elementary and higher 
education) 3,185,316 

The progress of the Elucation 
rate has been as follows : — 



Year. 



Rate in 

the£. 



1871-2 ... 

1872-3 ... 

1873-4 ... 

1874-5 ... 

1875-6 ... 

1876-7 ... 

1877-8 ... 

1878-9 ... 

1879-80 ... 

1880-1 ... 

1881-2 ... 

1882-3 ... 

1883-4 ... 

1884-5 ... 

1885-6 ... 

1836-7 ... 

1837-8 ... 

1838-9 ... 

1839-90 ... 



d, 
•48 
•89 
•73 
1-75 
3-03 
4-49 
5-23 
515 
5-50 
6-23 
615 
5-93 
6-86 
8-00 
8-64 
8-84 
8-37 
7-97 
8-90 



Year. 



1890-1 

1891-2 

1892-3 

1893-4 

1894-5 

1895-6 

1895-7 . 

1897-8 

1898-9 

1899-1903 

1900-1 

1901-2 

1902-3 . 

1903-4 

1904-5 

1905-6 . 

1905-7 

1907-8 . 

1903-9 



Rate in 

the£. 



d. 

.. 10-70 

.. 1101 

.. 10-45 

.. 10-2D 

.. 10-45 

.. n-5D 

.. 12-34 

.. 12-35 

.. 12-37 

.. 13-37 

.. 13 93 

.. 14-51 

.. 14-65 

.. 15-16 

.. 16-00 

,. 18-00 

,. 190D 

,. 18-03 

. 19-00 



A panny rate under the late 
authority produced £169,000. Under 
the Council this has increased to 
£181,000. The total expenditure 
incurred on capital account on the 
provision of elementary education 
both by the School Board and the 
Council up to 31st March, 1907, 
amounted to £16,452,021. During 



thi year £279,808 went for elemen- 
tary and £243,762 has been spent 
on capital account for higher edu- 
cation. The total capital expendi- 
ture on elucation, both elementary 
and higher, up to 31st March, 1907, 
amounts, therefore, to £16,695,783. 

Organisation of the Educa- 
tion Work op the Council. 

Committees. — Under the old 
Sjho3l Bo-ard there were seven 
standing committees, and about 
thirty-two sub - committees. The 
places of these have now been taken 
by the Education Committee and its 
nine sub-committees, as follows : — 
General Purposes, Books and Appa- 
ratus, Buildings and Attendance, 
Day Schools, Endowments, Higher 
Education, Non-Provided Schools 
Survey, Polytechnics and Evening 
Schools, Special Schools, Teaching 
Staff, Underfed Children. In addi- 
tion there are sections of these sub- 
committees, appointed, from time 
to time, to deal with special ques- 
tions, and what are called Managing 
Committees, which deal particularly 
with the special schools belonging 
to the Council. There is also a 
special committee on ths Medical 
Treatm3nt of Children. The num- 
ber of members on each sub-com- 
mittee does not exceed twelve. Thj 
Education Committee under its 
enlarg d powers deals with all ques- 
tions not involving new departures 
or matters of principle. In routine 
mitters of orii*iary administration 
the committee is emaowjred to 
a^t in th 5 name of the Council. 

Staff. 

The management of the 53^ Lon- 
don County Council schools and 
the 382 non-provided schools is 
carried out by a staif of officials at 
the Education Offices, Victoria 
Embankment, and elsewhere. This 
staff iscDntrollelby various officers. 



London County Gouncil. 



71 



tte chief of whom are .— (i.) Clerk 
of the Council, (ii.) Educational 
adviser, (iii.) Executive officer, ^iv.) 
Architect (education), (v.) Chief 
inspector (education), (vi.) Medical 
Officer (education), (vii.) Comp- 
troller. Admission to the clerical 
establishment is only gained after 
passing the examination for fourth- 
class assistants which is usually held 
in the beginnine' of each year. That 
portion of the education staff which 
served under the late Board con- 
tributes 2 per cent, of its salaries 
into a separate fund under the Lon- 
don School Board (Superannuation) 
Act, 1902, which provides for super- 
annuation and other allowances, 
and the Council contributes equal 
amounts. The remaining members 
are subject to the provisions of the 
Council's Superannuation and 
Provident Fund. 

Local Manaqbmbnt.— L.C.C. 
Schools. 

The Education (London) Act, 
1903, changed the method of ap- 
pK)intment of local managers for 
Council schools. The number of 
managers and the grouping of 
schools is decided by each Metro- 
politan Borough (Council in which 
the schools are situated, in con- 
sultation with the London County 
Council, and with the approval 
of the Board of Education. 
Two - thirds of these managers 
are appointed by the Boroughs 
and the remainingr one-third by the 
County Council. The Council has 
decidea that its schools should be 
arranged in groups containing not 
more than four scnools, the groups 
to be so formed that all schools m 
one group should be within the limits 
of one metropolitan borough council 
area, and also within the limits of 
one county electoral area. It fur- 
ther decided that the number of 
manSj^ers for a group of three or 
four schools should be not more 



than 18, and the number of 
manaorers for a group of two 
schools, or one school, not more 
than twelve. 

VoLUxVTARY Schools. 
The Education Act of 1903 alsc 
provided that the London County 
Council was to share with the 
Metropolitan Borough Councils the 
two representative managers for 
each " non-provided " school. These 
with the four " foundation " mana- 
gers make up the minimum of six 
managers required by the Act for 
each school. 

Statutes. 
The following Acts govern the 
supervision and administration of 
education in Public Elementary 
Schools :— Elementary Education 
Act, 1870 (33 and 34 Vic, c, 75) ; 
Elementary Education Act, 1873 
(36 and 37 Vic, c 86) ; Elementary 
Education Act, 1876 (39 and 40 
Vic, c 79) ; Elementary Education 
(Industrial Schools) Act, 1879 (42 
and 43 Vic, c 48); Elementary 
Education Act, 1880 (43 and 44 
Vic, c 23) : Education Code (1890) 
Act, 1890 (53 and 54 Vic, c 22) ; 
Elementary Education Act, 1891 
(54 and 55 Vic, c 56); Ele- 
mentary Education (Blind and 
Deaf Children) Act, 1893 (56 
and 57 Vic, c 42); Elementary 
Education (School Attendance) 
Act, 1893 (56 and 57 Vic, c. 
51) ; Voluntary Schools Act, 
18^7 (60 Vic, c 5); School 
Board Conference Act, 1897 (60 
and 61 Vic, c 32); Elementary 
School Teachers (Superannuation) 
Act, 1898 (61 and 62 Vic, c 57), 
Elementary Education (School 
Attendance) Act (1893) Amend- 
ment Act, 1899 (62 and 63 Vic, c. 
13) ; Elementary Education (Defec- 
tive and Epileptic Children) Act, 
1899 (62 and 63 Vic, c. 32) ; Board 
of Education Act, 1899 (62 and 63 
Vic, c 33) ; Elementary Education 



72 



London County Council, 



Act, 1903 (63 and 64 Vic, c. 53) 
Education Act, 1902 (2 Edw. VLI. 
c. -3 2) ; Elementary Education 
Amendment Act, 1903 (3 Edw. VII. 
c. 13) ; Education (London) Act, 
1903 (3 Edw. VIL, c. 2i) ; Employ 
ment of Children Act, 1903 (3 
Edw. VIL, c. 45) ; Education (Local 



Authority Default) Act, 1904 (4 
Edw. VIL, c. 18) ; Prevention of 
Cruelty to Children Act, 1904 
(4 Edw. VIL, c. 15); Education 
(Provision of Meals) Act,. 1906 
(6 Edw. VIL, 0. 57) ^ Education 
(Administrative Provisions) Act, 
1907 (7 Edw. VIL, c. 43). 



Statistics. 
The following figures give the progress of Elementary Education in 
London since the establishment of School Boards : — 





Board (now L.C.C.) Schools. 


Voluntary Schools. 




Rate at end 
of each 


School 

places 

provided. 


Number on 


Average 


School 

places 

provided. 


Number on 


1 

' Average 




financial 
year. 


the Roll. 


attendance. 


the Roll. 


attendance. 


i870 





_ 


_ 




, 


__ 


! _ 


1873 


•89 


58.581 


59,606 


40,481 


282.936 


259,543 


195.662 


1876 


3-03 


146,074 


146,031 


114,380 


287,116 


259.436 


' 199.605 


1879 


5-15 


219,291 


233,480 


185.518 


271.314 


235,084 


; 182.728 


1882 


6-15 


280.275 


295,833 


238,205 


263,617 


223,297 


1 174,723 


1885 


800 


367,639 


379,y31 


298.317 


260.597 


212,490 


1 167,242 


1888 


8-37 


407,636 


420,914 


328.573 


262,022 


2(^7,837 


152,349 


1891 


10-70 


423,035 


450,981 


347.857 


258,329 


210,516 


162.525 


1894 


10-20 


468,300 


488,033 


390.812 


257,652 


226,163 


1 177,579 


1897 


12-34 


512,025 


520,887 


421.960 


257,527 


227,560 


1 178.397 


1900 


13 37 


546,4''3 


536,019 


439.744 


220.987 


219.921 


1 174.702 


19D3 


14-66 


572,649 


549,677 


475,150 


217,088 


213,297 


' 177,974 


1904 


15-16 


579.030 


550,329 


485.343 


215,121 


210,141 


, 177.884 


1905 


16-00 


588,703 


554,645 


493,975 


209,119 


202.498 


172,739 


1906 


18-00 


599,407 


557,293 


495.865 


150,868 


195,194 


1 167.505 


1907 


19*00 


604,420 


564.583 


504,335 


153,953 


176,087 


j 153,014 


1908 


18-00 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 — 



(B) HIGHER EDUCATION. 



The Education (London) Act, 
1903, coming into operation on 1st 
May, 1904, the work of the Coun- 
cil's Technical Board was merged 
into that of the new Education 
Committee, and the Board, which 
first met on 28th April, 1903, 
terminated a most successful record 
of eleven years' work in the field 
of higher education in the metro- 
polis. 

. The latest period for which offi- 
cial figures are available is that 
for the vear ending 31st March, 1907. 

By the Education (London) Act, 
1903, the Technical Instruction 
Acts and the educational sections 
of the Local Taxation (Custom and 



Excise) Act, 1890, were repealed, 
and there is now no statutory limit 
placed upon the amount available 
for higher education in London. 

Under the new Act the special 
provisions of the f -rmer Clause 
VII. of the Science and Art Direc- 
tory, which enabled the late Tech- 
nical Education Board to act as 
the local authority for all London, 
are rendered unnecessary, The 
Council being the new local educa- 
tion authority under that Act, is 
made responsible for the provision 
of education "other than elemen- 
tary," which includes university, 
secondary, and technical educa- 
tion. 



London County Council. 



n 



Institutions Subsidised by the 
Council. 
The Council has, during the whole 
of the period from 1893 to 1907, 
adopted the policy of maintaining 
and developing the work of exist- 
ing" institutions ia London before 
creating new institutions under its 
own managemBut. The most im- 
portant of all the educational insti- 
tutions which provide technical 
education are the Polytechnics ; and 
the approved object has been to con- 
solidate, strengthen, and develop the 
v7ork in such a way as to provide 
the greatest possible facilities in 
every district of the metropolis for 
scientific and technological in- 
struction. 

THE POLYTECHNICS. 

It is estimated that the capital 
invested in these institutions ex- 
ceeds £500,000. Daring the year 
the Council contributed £64,867 for 
building, equipment, and main- 
tenance. About £iO,000 is con- 
tributed by the Central Governing 
Body of the City Parochial Chan- 
ties, chiefly under schemes prepared 
by the Charity Commissioners, and 
£20,000, is contributed by City Com- 
panies. 

Ttie Polytechnics provide in- 
struction in all the ordinary branches 
of science and art, in some cases 
with special reference to its appli- 
cation to industry, and in many 
branches of technology, particularly 
the engineering, building, and 
chemical trades. The recognised 
London Polytechnics are : — 

The Battersea Polytechnic, situa- 
ted in Battersea-park-road. Princi- 
pal — ^W. Bawson. Secretary— J. 
Harwood. 

The Borough Polytechnic in the 
Borough-road, Southwark. Prin- 
cipal— C. T. Millis. Secretary — 
W. M. Richardson. 

Birkbeck College, in Bream*s- 
buildings. Chancery-lane. Principal 



— Gr. Armitage- Smith, m.a. Secre- 
tary — W. H. Congreve. 

City of London College, in White- 
street, Moorfields. J^rincipal— Sid- 
ney Humphries, B.A., LL.B. Secre- 
tary— J). Savage. 

Northampton Institute, in St. 
John - street - road, Clerkenwell. 
Principal— B>. M. Walmsley, D.SC. 
Secretary — Sydney Axford. 

The East London Technical Col- 
lege (People's Palace) in the Mile 
End-road. Principal— J. L. S. Hat- 
ton, M.A. Secretary— C. Brandon. 

The Northern Polytechnic, Hollo- 
way-road. Priiicipal — R. S. Clay, 
D.SC. Secretary— W. M. Macbeth. 

The Regent-street Polytichnic. 
Director of Education — Robert 
Mitchell. 

The Sir John Cass's Aldgate In- 
stitute, in Jewrv-street, E.G. Prin^ 
cipal—C. A. Kohn, M.sc, PH.D. 
Secretary — V^. H. Davison, M.A. 
, The South- Western Polytechnic, 
Manresa-road, Chelssa. Prin^cipal 
— H. Tomlinson, B.A., P.R.S. Secre- 
tary -H. B. Harper. 

The Woolwich Polytechnic, in 
William-street, Woolwich. Princi- 
pal— W. Gannon, M.A. Secretary— 
A. J. Naylor. 

The Goldsmiths' Company having 
decided that, as the Council had 
become the education authority for 
all gn'ades of education, they would 
not continue the Goldsmiths' Insti- 
tute at New Cross as a Polytechnic, 
the buildinofs were generously 
ofEered to and accepted by the Uni- 
versity of London. Arrangements 
have been completed between 
the University and the London, 
Kent, Middlesex, and Surrey 
County Councils, with a view to 
utilising the Institute for the 
purpose of a Training College for 
Teachers. In addition, the Univer- 
sity will make use of the organisa- 
tion for University teaching. 



74 



Jjondon County Council, 



The Work op the Polytechnics. 

Although there are now twelve 
Polytechnics in various parts of the 
Metropolis, it is not possible to assign 
a particular district to any Poly- 
technic for all purposes. South 
London is approximately divided 
into four distinct Polytechnic areas. 
There is the Woolwich Polytechnic, 
serving the Charlton, Woolwich and 
Plumstead area, The central por- 
tion of South London is served by 
the Borough Polytechnic and the 
western portion by the Battersea 
Polytechnic, except in so far as 
the Wandsworth Technical Insti- 
tute provides for the extreme south- 
west district. 

These rough territorial divisions 
serve sufficiently to indicate the dis- 
tricts of the Polytechnics with re- 
spect to those subjects which, like 
geometry, building construction, 
mathematics, modern languages, 
<fec., are common to all such insti- 
tutes. 

The Battersea Polytechnic, how- 
ever, provides, in addition, the 
principal training school for domestic 
economv teaching, and is the only 
Polytechnic which is specialising in 
paper manufacture, and provides 
classes for motor-car drivers. A 
speciality is also made of the 
chemistry of oils and colours. 

The Borough Polytechnic com- 
prises the National School for 
Bakers and Confectioners, and is the 
only school in London for varnish 
manufacturers. 

In North London, the Regent- 
street Polytechnic draws its students 
from the whole of the metropolis, 
and is the only Polytechnic the 
students of which enjoy a reduction 
in fares at the hands of the principal 
railway companies. The School of 
Photography at Regent-street is 
probably unique. The other North 
London Polytechnics are more local 
in character. The physical training 
classes of the South- Western Poly- 



technic attract students from the 
whole county, and the opportunities 
for research m physics and mechanics 
also induce pupils to attend from a 
wide area. 

The Birkbeck College, and the 
City of London College, and the 
the Cass Institute at Aldgate are 
centrally situated in the City, to 
which circumstance they owe their 
large attendances. 

The Northampton Institute in 
Clerkenwell has a distinct local 
character, as seen in its watch and 
clock making classes and its elec- 
trical engineering workshops. 

The Northern Polytechnic at 
Holloway specially caters for the 
Borough of Islington, while the 
East London Technical College, 
with its branch at Bow and Bromley, 
is the only first-class technical insti- 
tute between Islington and West 
Ham. 

As proof of the high character of 
much of the instruction, it may be 
remarked that under the re- 
organised Universitjr of London 
many of the courses m polytechnics 
have been recognised by the Senate 
of the University as courses suit- 
able for students intending to take 
their degrees as internal students of 
the University, 

TECHNICAL INSTITUTES. 

Side by side with the poly- 
technics, a considerable number of 
technical institutes have grown up 
in recent years, which, although not 
included under the original schemes 
of the Charity Commissioners, pro- 
vide organised courses of technical 
instruction for districts which would 
otherwise be left, without adequate 
provision. Some account of the 
more important institutions is 
given below. 

The Hackney Institute (which 
has been transferred to the^ Coun- 
cil) consists of a central institu- 
tion at Hackney Downs and of a 



London County Council. 



75 



branch institution (with an endow- 
ment under the Cass scheme) at 
Cassland-road. .The central insti- 
tation provides^ instructioa in 
chemistry, physics, engineering:, 
art, and commercial subjects. The 
branch institution provides trade 
classes^ in carpentry and joinery, 
plnmbing, plastering, bricklaying, 
painters' and decorators' work, &c. 
The principal of both institutions 
is Mr. Percy R. Kink, M.A. 

The L.C.C. Paddington Technical 
Institute, at Saltram-crescent, has 
taken over the work formerly 
carried on at Queen's-park College 
and Westboame-park Institute, and 
has, in addition, provided for exten- 
sive work in engineering. Fully- 
equipped workshops for engineering 
and laboratories for physics and 
cheniistry have been provided, and 
provision has also been made for 
art and domestic economy. Prin- 
cipal, A. G. Cooke, m.a. 

The L.C.C. Brixtm School of 
Building in Ferndale-road was estab- 
lished by the late Technical Educa- 
tion Board for the purpose of provid- 
ing complete courses of instruction 
in all branches of the building trade. 
It is under the direct management of 
the Council, and the principal is Mr. 
H. W. Richards, formerly head of 
the Building Trade Department of 
the Northern Polytechnic. 

The L.C.C. Shoreditch Technical 
Institute, Pitfield-street, Hoxton, 
provides theoretical and practical 
instruction in all branches of the 
furniture and cabinet - making 
industries, and is provided with 
numerous well-equipped workshops. 
It also possesses a technical day 
school for boys, where the instruc- 
tion is specially adapted to boys 
who intend to enter the furniture 
and wood-working trades, and a 
domestic economy school for girls. 
The principal is Mr. S. Hicks. 

The L.C.C. Westminster Tech- 
nical Institute, which has bsen 



conveyed to the Council by the late 
Baroness Burdett-Coutts, provides 
mainly for those who are engaged 
in the building trade. The West- 
minster School of Art has also been 
accommodated in the same institu- 
tion. New premises are being 
erected adjoining the existing in- 
stitute, owing to the great increase 
of students. 

All these institutes are under the 
management of the Council. 

MONOTECHNIC INSTITUTIONS. 

There are other institut?s which 
are specially devoted to the teaching 
of one particular craft, and may be 
styled ** monotechnic " institutions. 

Among the most typical of these 
institutions is the L.C.(y. School of 
Photo-engraving and Lithography 
(formerly known as the Bolt Court 
Technical School), which is managed 
and maintained entirely by the 
Council, and devotes itself to train- 
ing craftsmen in the most modern 
developmiuts of photo-process work 
and in lithography. The principal 
is Mr. A. J. Newton. 

The L.C.C. School of Carriage 
Building in Baldertou-street, which 
is carried on in connection with 
Regent-street Polytechnic, provides 
both day and evening courses for 
those engaged in the carriage 
building trade. The scope of the 
institution is to be materially en- 
larged by the provision of organised 
courses on the construction of 
motor-cars. 

The Leather-tanning and Lea- 
ther-dyeing School at Bermondsey 
in connection with Herold's In- 
stitute gives a complete course of 
training for persons engaged in the 
leather trades. It is maintained 
partly by the Council and partly by 
the Leathersellers' Company, and 
is worked as a branch of the 
Borough Polytechnic. 

The St. Bride Foundation Insti- 
tute, Bride-lane, Fleat-street, is the 



76. 



London County Council. 



main centre of technical instruction 
fn typographic work, and is fitted 
with the most modem appliances. 

There are other institutions 
where technical instruction is 
provided, not only for workers in 
jne special industry, ^ but in 
several branches of industrial 
work. Among these may be men- 
tioned the Wandsworth Technical 
Institute, now an important c autre 
of education ; the Working Men's 
College, Great Ormond- street (the 
pioneer institution of London) ; the 
Craft School, Globe - road. Mile 
End ; the Morley Memorial College 
in Waterloo - road ; and the Nor- 
wood Technical Institute, which is 
now under the direct control of the 
Council. The latest Technical In- 
stitutes are those established at 
Poplar and Sydenham. At Poplar 
special attention is devoted to 
marine engineering, and at Syden- 
ham to domestic economy. Plans 
have been approved for the erection 
of an institute at Hammersmith. 

The total amount of the contracts 
for erection, fitting, and altering of 
eight L.CC. Technical Institutes, 
inclading the Central Schools of 
Arts and Crafts, the Hammer- 
smith Technical Institute, the 
Westminster Institute, the Poplar 
School of Engineering and Kavi- 

fition, and the Brixton School of 
uilding, reached the huge sum of 
£228,806 is. 6rf. 

TRADE SCHOOLS. 

The Council is conducting day 
Trade Preparatory Schools for the 
training of boys and girls after they 
leave the Elementary or Secondary 
School. 

The Trade Preparatory School for 
boys provides a two years' course of 
technical instruction involving prin- 
ciples of science applicable to par- 
ticular trac^les or industries. The 
course of training is not intended 
to supersede apprenticeship, but to 



provide instruction supplementary^ 
to workshop practice. It is antici- 
pated that boys who complete this 
course satisfactorily before entering 
workshops will be better fitted to 
fill higher positions than those who 
enter workshops immediately on 
leaving school. The course of 
training lor girls is intended to be 
an apprenticeship, and it is hoped 
that tne pupih who have satisfac- 
torily taken a course of two years* 
instruction will be able to obtain 
good positions at least as improvers. 

In regard to Trade Schools for bo» h 
boys and p-irls the Council takes no 
responsibility for its scholars at the 
end of their training. 

The Trade Schools already estab- 
lished are as follows : — 

Central School of Arts and 
Crafts, 31(5, Regent Street, W.— 
Silversmithing trades for boys. 

Trade. School for Girls, Tempo- 
rary Premises, Morley College, 
Waterloo Road, S.E.— Trade dress- 
making, ladies' tailoring and corset 
making for girls. (Additional trade 
cLaases will be opened in April, 1908, 
in photography and millinery). 

Paddington Technical Institute. 
Saltram Crescent, W. — Engineering 
for boys. Trade dressmaking* for 
girls. 

School of Engineering and Navi- 

fation. High Street, Poplar, E. — 
Ingineerin^ for boys. 

Shoreditcn Technical Institute, 
Pitfield Street, N.— Furniture and 
woodworking trades for boys. De- 
signing and making of ready-naade 
clothing, and upholstery for girls. 

The Council has also aided in 
the establishment of the following 
trade classes : — 

Boroagh Polytechnic, Borough 
Road, S.E. —Trade school for girls 
in dressmaking, upholstery, ^ and 
waistcoat making. (Additional 
trade classes in laundry work and 
ladies' tailoring may be opened in 
April, 1908.) 



London County Council, 



77 



Woolwich Polytechnic, Wool- 
^ch, S.E. — Trade school for girls 
ill dressmaking. 

Fee. — The general fee for admis- 
sion to the Council's schools is £1 
lt)s. per annum, or 10«. a term of 
three months. The fee for the En- 
gineering School at Paddington 
Technical Institute is £2 5s. per 
annum, or 15s. a term. The fee for 
the Engineering School of L.C.C. 
School of Engineering and Naviga- 
tion is £1. lOa. a term. There will 
be no charge for materials except 
for those taken away from the 
school by the pupils as finished 
work. 

Training. — The schools are open 
on five days a week, and about one- 
half of that time is devoted to in- 
struction under a skilled trade 
teacher in the trade chosen by the 
pupil, and the other half is given to 
the improvement of the general 
education of the pui)il, with special 
reference to the requirements of the 
particular trade. 

In connection with these schools 
the Council has'established scholar- 
ships, 

art teaching. 
Schools of Arts and 

CRAFTS. 

In the vear 1896-7 the L.C.C. 
Central School of Arts and Crafts 
was opened. This school is 
intended to provide for the 
artisans of London who are en- 
gi ^ed in industries for which 
artistic training is needed such in- 
struction in decorative design as 
can be made directly applicable to 
their work. No teaching is given 
in the school which does not bear 
directlv nnon the actual work of 
the student, and admission is con- 
fined to those who are engaged in 
some specific industry. The trades 
f6r ^ which provision has been 
specially made at the school are 
tnose which are directly or ia- 



directly associated with the build- 
ing trades, such as decorators, 
stone-carvers, metal-workers, 
stained - glass - workers, furniture- 
designers, cabinet-makers, designers 
of wall-papers, and embroidresses. 
Special provision is also made for 
goldsmiths and silversmiths ; while 
successful classes in book-binding 
have baen conducted under Mr. 
Douglas Cockerell. Recant addi- 
tions to the work of the school 
are classes in woodcuts for colours 
and in carving and gilding (for 
picture framers), writing and illu- 
mination, and day classes for silver- 
smiths. The school is at present 
conducted in temporary premises at 
316, Regent - street, immediately 
opposite the Regent-street Poly- 
technic; but the Council has now 
set aside a permanent site for the 
school on land acquired under the 
new improvement scheme . in 
Southampton- row, and the erection 
of the new buildings is being carried 
out by the Works Committee of the 
Council. The school is under the 

feneral direction of Mr. W R. 
lethaby. Art adviser under the 
Council, and Mr. C. W. Beckett is 
the curator. 

The success of the L.C.C. Central 
School led to the establishment of 
the Camberwell School of Arts 
and Crafts in Peckham-road, in a 
building which was erected through 
the munificence of Mr. Passmore 
Edwards, and presented by him to 
the Camberwell Borough Council. 
At the request of the Borough 
Council, the late Technical Educa- 
tion Board took over the manage- 
ment of the school, and it is 
at present administered with the 
aid of an Advisory Sub - Com- 
mittee. Special trade-classes have 
been established for masons, plas- 
terers, house-painters and decora- 
tors, and cabinet-makers. Classes 
are held in general drawing and 
design, in " art needlework, in 



78 



London County GounciL 



lettering-, and in bookbinding. In 
order to meet the increasing- 
demands for admission to the 
school, and for the development of 
the instruction, the school is being 
extended by the erection of a new 
wing. The Borough Council of 
Camberwell is co-operating in the 
scheme. The completion of the new 
building has enabled a considerable 
exteD«:'i:*n to take place in the school 
work. The school is under the direc- 
tion of the headmaster, Mr. W. B. 
I)alton, and Mr. C. H. Johnson is 
the secretary. 

Technical Institutes and 
Schools of Art. 

The following is a list of institu- 
tions entirely under the control of 
the Council: — 

Camberwell School of Arts and 
Crafts, Peckham-road, S. E. Draw- 
ing, design, illustration, building 
trade subjects, ironwork, silver- 
smithing, bookbinding, embroidery, 
lithography, cabinet work, dress 
design, typography, enamelling, 
potteiy, &c. 

Camden School of Art, Dalmeny- 
avenue, Camden-road, N. Draw- 
ing, design, modelling; courses for 
training Art teachers ; bookbinding, 
dress fashion design, lithography, 
needlework, &c. 

Central School of Arts and 
Crafts, 316, Regent-street, W. Pro- 
vides instruction in those branches 
of design and manipulation which 
directly bear on the more artistic 
trades, including china painting, 
carpet and linoleum design, and 
design for monumental masons. 

Clapbam School of Art, 6, Edge- 
ley-road, Clapham, S.W. Classes 
intended to train students in the 
various branches of drawing, paint- 
ing, book illustration, design, 
modelling, carving, and embroidery. 

Hammersmith School of Arts 
and Crafts, Lime-grove, Shepherd's 
Bush, W. Instruction in pictorial. 



technical and applied art for archi- 
tects, modellers, decorators, desig-n- 
ers in w.U papers, textiles and 
furniture, embroiderers, illustrators, 
carvers, metal workers, dressmak- 
ing, dress design, etching, mezzotint 
engraving, cabinet-making, paint- 
ino" and decorating, &c. 

I^orwood Technical Institute, 
Knight's-hill, S.E. Science and 
Art and Commerce, Domestic Eco- 
mony Day School. 

Paddington Technical Institute, 
Saltram-crescent, W. Classes in 
civil, electrical, and mechanical 
engineering, motor-car construction, 
many building trade subjects. Art, 
chemistry, natural and physical 
sciences, Ac. 

Putney School of Art, Oxford- 
road, Putney, S.W. Drawing and 
design, painting, modelling, &c. 

School of Building, Ferndale- 
road, Clapham, S.W. Established 
for those engaged in architecture 
and the building trades to enable 
them to acquire an intimate know- 
ledge of the principles which under- 
lie their work. 

School of Engineering and Navi- 
gation, High-street, Poplar, B. For 
those engaged in engineering and 
shipping industries, classes in 
physics, chemistry, mathematics, 
electrical and marine engineering, 
navigation, and nautical astronomy, 
naval architecture, &c. 

School of Photo- Engraving and 
Lithography, 6, Bolt-court, Fleet- 
street, E.C. Classes in the most 
important photo-mechanical pro- 
cesses, lithography, &c. Art classes. 
Students can see their work in all 
stages of re-production. 

Shoreditch Technical Institute, 
Pitfield-street, N. Classes suitable 
for all engaged in the cabinet- 
making, upholstery, and allied 
trades. There is a Special Tech- 
nical Day School for boys who 
intend to enter the woodwork or 
furniture trades. 



London County Council. 



79 



Westminster Technical Institute, 
Vincent-square, S.W. Architec- 
tural design, building construction, 
masonry, carpentry, cabinet-mak- 
ing", modelling, painting and deco- 
rating, plumbing, quantity survey- 
ing", &c. Day and Evening Art 
Classes. 

The general fee charged for 
evening classes in the above schools 
is 10«. per session, which tee en- 
titles the students to attend all or 
any of the classes, with few excep- 
tions. In certain cases those earn- 
ing less than 308. per week are 
admitted for 48. 6d. per session. 
Apprentices, trade learners, and 
improvers under 21 years of age are 
usually admitted free. 

Other Technical Art Schools. 

Besides the above schools, there 
are in London eleven Schools of Art 
which are directly aided by the 
Council. These schools provide 
both day and evening instruction 
in Art. They include : — 

Blackheath, Lee, and Lewiisham 
School of Art, Lee-road, Black- 
heath. 

Clapton and Stamford Hill School 
of Art, 81, Clapton-common. 

Lambeth School of Art, St. 
Oswald's-place, Upper Kennington- 
lane. 

St. Martin's School of Art, 
Castle-street, Endell-street, Long 

The Royal Female School of Art, 
Queen's-square, Bloomsbury. 

Boyal School of Art Needlework, 
Exhibition-road, S.W. 

UNIVERSITY EDUCATION. 

The development of Higher Edu- 
cation in London has received con- 
siderable stimulus through the 
creation of the new University of 
London under the provisions of the 
University of London Act, 1898. 
The new University has established 
separate faculties for (a) engineer- 



ing, and (6) economics and politi- 
cal science (including Commerce 
and industry). The late Board 
voted £2,500 a year for the mainte- 
nance of each of these faculties, 
as well as a sum of £2,r»00 a year 
towards the faculty of science and 
the same sum towards the faculty 
of arts, and for the present these 
grants are continued by the Council. 
These grants have been allocated 
by the Senate of London University 
in accordance with a scheme ap- 
proved by the Board towards the 
provision of increased facilities for 
advanced instruction in science, 
engineering, economics, and 
German. 

In addition to the above grants to 
the Senate of London University, 
the Council also makes grants to 
University College, King's (College, 
Bedford College, and the London 
Sch(X)l of Economics, requiring in 
return the provision of a certain 
number of free places for nominees 
of the Council. Grants are also 
made to individual students. The 
following are a few particulars with 
regard to these institutions : — 

(a) University Collkge, Gower 
Street, W.C. 
This College supplies University 
instruction in Arts, law, science, 
and medicine, and is provided with 
exceedingly well-equipped labora- 
tories for mechanical and electrical 
engineering. A scheme is under 
consideration for the complete 
incorporation of this college in the 
University of London. 

(6) King's College, Strand. 

W.C. 
Among the more technical de- 
partments of this College may bo 
mentioned mechanical engineering, 
electrical engineering, architec- 
ture, and sanitary science. The 
women's department of King's 
College is situated in Kensington- 

D 



80 



London County Council, 



square, and is attended by several 
01 the Council's scholars. 

(c) Bedford College, York 
Place, W. 

This College, which is open to 
women onljr, possesses laboratories 
for chemistry, physics, and 
biologry, and, m addition to pro- 
viding efficient courses of instruc- 
tion of University character in 
these subjects and in language 
and literature, conducts a spjecial 
course of training in sanitary 
science. It also possesses a training 
department for secondary teachers. 

(d) London School op Econo- 
mics AND Political Science, 
Clare Market, W.C. 

This institution was established 
in Adelphi- terrace in 1895, and 
now occupies a building in Clare 
Market, wnich was erected mainly 
through the munificence of Mr. 
Passmore Edwards. The school 
already occupies a position of 
great importance as the chief 
centre in London for advanced 
instruction in economics, statistics, 
social and Dolitical science, palaso- 
graphy, ana the history of trade 
and commerce. A considerable 
amount of research work is done by 
the students, and the institution 
possesses an extensive library. In- 
struction is carried on mainly by 
special classes arranged in courses 
of two or three years' duration. 
These classes are supplemented by 
numerous courses of lectures by 
experts. Complete courses have 
recently been organised in prepara- 
tion for the new University degree 
in economics arid political science 
(including commerce and industry). 

London's " Charlottenburo " 
Scheme. 

In July, 1903, the County Coun- 
cil considered the handsome offer 



made through Lord Rosebery for 
the establishment of further pro- 
vision here for advanced techno- 
logical teaching and research. ^ The 
Council then recorded ite opinion 
that a sum of £20,000 per annam 
from the " whiskey " money would 
be well spent towards this object. 

Since that date the work of initia- 
ting a scheme has progressed 
steadily, and bids fair to develop into 
an imperial college of technology. 
The final re^rt of the Depart- 
mental Committee has been issued, 
and the President of the Board of 
Education has announced his in- 
tention of proceeding with the 
steps for a Royal Charter to 
establish such an institution. The 
whole scheme is estimated to cost 
£1,000,000. 

The principal higher institu- 
tions not aided by the Council 
are : — 

(a) The Central Technical 
College. 

The Central Technical CoUegre of 
the City and Guilds of London 
Institute, iil Exhibition-road, South 
Kensing[ton, may be termed the 
University College for Technical 
Instruction, and provides a very 
complete course of study in mecha- 
nical and electrical engineering, 
chemistry, physics, and applied 
mechanics. 

(&) The Royal College of 

Science. 
The Royal College of Science pro- 
vides a very advanced course of 
instruction for ite regular day 
studente in chemistry, physics, 
mechanics, geology, biology, metal- 
lurgy, and other subjecte, and 
special courses for science teachers. 

(c) Westpield College, West 
Hampstead. 
This institution is almost entirely 
a. residential college, and devotes 



London County GonnciL 



81 



itself to preparlnpr women students 
for the degree i of London Univer- 
sity. 

AH the above institutions have 
been recognised by the Senate of 
London University as "schools of 
the University," their students 
being "internal" students of the 
University. 

TAAININC or TKACHKRS. 

The powers now possessed by the 
Council as the Education Authority 
have inspired the Education Com- 
mittee with activity in the direc- 
tion of supplying adequate accom- 
modation for the traming of ele- 
mentary taachsrs within the county. 
It has been computed that the 
Council requires yearly over 1,500 
certificatsd trained teachers for the 
public elementary schools. 

The Council has already estab- 
lished or assisted to establish the 
following colleges :— 

(a) The London Day Training 
College, which makes provision for 
students who are qualified to study 
for the degree of the University of 
London, while at the same time 
preparing for their teachers' cer- 
tificate. The college is now carried 
on in Southampton • row, where 
accommodation is available for 300 
students (men and women). 

(6) The Goldsmiths* Training 
College at New Cross, which is con- 
ducted by a delegacy appointed by 
the University of London. The 
college provides accommodation for 
500 students (men and women) ; 
186 places are reserved for nominees 
of the Loudon County Council, the 
other places being allocated to 
students nominatea by adjoining 
County Coimcils. 

(c) The Graystoke -place Day 
Training College for Women, with 
accommodation for 140 women 
students. This collegre has been 
developed out of the training classes 



established by the School Board of 
London to provide half-time in- 
struction for students who were 
unable to go to college. 

(d) The Avery Hill Residential 
and Day Training College, with 
accommodation for 290 woman 
students. This college has been 
established in the mansion which 
stands in Avery Hill Park, and was 
formeily the property of the late 
Colonel North. 

(4) In addition to these colleger, 
the Council has recentlv open^ a 
college for two-year students in the 
builnings of the Finsbury pupil 
teacher centre to accommodate ^5 
students. 

The Council is also contemplating 
the erection of colleges in the North- 
eskst. North-west and South-west of 
London. When these three new 
colleges are established, it is anti- 
cipated that the Council's scheme 
for the provision of training college 
accommodation will oe complete. 

8KCONDARY EDUCATION. 

It has often been stated that one 
of the principal weaknesses in the 
educational system of this country 
has been the inadequate supply of 
secondary schools. The great public 
schools for boys and the high 
schools for girls have provided for 
the needs of those who can afford 
to pay fairly high fees, but there 
has been no national system of 
secondary education adequate to 
meet the needs of all classes of the 
population. The Royal Commission 
on Secondary Education in 1895 
called public attention to this need, 
and advocated the establishment of 
local authorities which would be 
empowered to provide secondary 
education. It was not, however, 
until the passing of the Acte of 
19x^ and 1903 that such authorities 
were created. 

D 2 



82 



London County Council. 



It was not possible fot the Coun- 
cil, when it first entered upon its 
new responsibilities, to make an 
exhaustive survey of the whole field 
of secondary education in London 
and draw up a complete scheme for 
providing" for the needs of each dis- 
trict. It was thought advisable in 
the first instance to deal with the 
question by means of scholarships 
and the Council, in February, 1905, 
adopted a comprehensive scheme, 
which was an expansion of a smaller 
scheme which the Council had 
originated in 1893, and had been in 
force since. Full particulars of this 
scheme are to be found in the later 
pages of this section. 

In order to find school places for 
the scholarship holders, the Council 
has made annual grants to 51 
secondary schools conducted under 
schemes of the Charity Commis- 
sioners, the fees of which vary from 
£25 to £2 8s. a year. The total 
maintenance grant made to the 
schools by the Council last year 
was £74,275. There are also 36 
other public secondary schools in 
London which do not receive 
financial assistance from the Coun- 
cil, but do receive its scholars. 

In spite of the assistance derived 
from the above schools, the Council 
has had to establish its own 
secondary schools, of which it now 
has 16. These schools are situated 
as follows, being for girls, except 
where otherwise shown: — Soutn- 
wark, Stockwell, Fulham, Hackney 
Downs (boys), Kingsland, Hackney, 
Camden, Brockley, Manor Mount, 
Lewisham, Sydenham, Peckham, 
St. Pancras, Kentish Town, Pad- 
dington (mixed), Wandsworth, and 
Eltham. The total accommodation 
provided is 3,953. 

Steps are already being taken for 
the erection of a secondary school 
for boys in Hoiloway, of secondary 
schools for girls in Chelsea, Dul- 
wich, and Bethnal Green, and of a 



permanent school in Fulham to 
take the place of the school at 
present located in temporary build- 
ings. In addition to these schools 
the Council has recentljr decided, in 
order to meet the requirements of 
the scholarship scheme, to take 
steps for the erection of 12 addi- 
tional schools, six for boys and six 
for girls, which will provide accom- 
modation for about 5,000 pupils. 
When all these projected schools 
have been erected, the Council v^rill 
have under its control about 30 
secondary schools with accommoda- 
tion for about 10,000 pui)ils. To 
these must be added the 88 aided and 
non-aided schools, with an estimated 
accommodation of 25,000. The total 
public secondary school accommo- 
dation of London may therefore be 
taken as likely to amount, in the 
near future, to about 35,000 places. 
This will give an average of 7'7 per 
1,000 in the County of London, for 
whom secondary education in 
schools of a public character is 
provided. In 1895, when an inquiry 
was made by the Council into the 
provision of secondary education, it 
was found that only about 19,(XX), 
representing 47 per 1,000 of the 
population, were attending public 
secondary schools. The recent 
action of the Council, therefore, 
represents a great advance in 
secondary education, although it 
cannot be regarded as mating 
quite adequate provision for the 
needs of the metropolis. 

COMMERCIAL EDUCATION. 

The late Technical Education 
Board a few years ago made ex- 
haustive inquiries into the ques- 
tion of commercial education, and 
appointed a special sub-committee 
for the purpose. The report of the 
sub-committee, which was presented 
to the Council in March, 1899, 
advocated the extensive develop- 
ment of commercial departments in 



London County Comicil. 



83 



existing secondary schools and the 
correlation of the work of thcHe 
schools with institutions of Uni- 
versity rank. The London School 
of Economics receives assistance 
from the Council with the special 
object of developing courses in con- 
nection with the new commercial 
degree of London University, and 
the Council has taken measures to 
secure the development of the 
teaching of foreign languages and 
other subjects useful for commercial 
training in some of the other insti- 
tutions and schools that receive its 
grants. One of the most important 
steps for the development of com- 
mercial education nas been the 
establishment of the Commercial 
Department of University College 
School, since removed from Gower- 
street to Hampstead. The Council 
sends twenty scholars to the school 
each year, and it is satisfactory to 
learn that the scholars who have 
been through the three years* 
course have acquitted themselves 
with credit in the intermediate ex- 
amination in Science (Economics) 
under the University of London. 

INSTRUCTION IN DOMESTIC 
ECONOMY. 

For the provision of instruction 
in domestic economy two separate 
courses have been adopted. To 
meet the requirements of young 
women and girls at work durine' 
the day the Council has appointea 
a staff of lecturers in the various 
branches of domestic economy, 
whose services are offered to any 
local committee willing to orga- 
nise a class and undertake the 
local arrangements. During the 
winter, courses of instruction have 
been given by these teachers in 
over 100 centres in various parts of 
London, the subjects of instruction 
including practical cookery, prac- 
tical dressmaking, practical laun- 
dry-work, domestic hygiene, sick 



nursing, and the care of infants. 
The more highly organised work in 
connection with domestic economy 
has consisted in the establishment of 
domestic ecoDomy schools, generally 
an branches of the Polytechnics. 
In these schools complete courses 
of practical instruction, extending 
over a year, are given to girls who 
have passed the seventh standard 
of a public elementary school, or 
have attained the age of fourteen, 
and the training includes all 
ordinary branches of housework. 
For the purposes of these schools 
kitchens, laundries, and dressmaking 
rooms have been fully equipped with 
all necessary appliances. There are 
now 14 of these schools at work. 

With the aid of the governing 
body of the Battersea Polytechnic, 
a training school for teachers of 
domestic economy has been esta- 
blished at that institution. The 
course of training extends over two 
years and three months. 

THE SCHOLARSHIP SCHEME. 

Since the Council became the 
local authority for all branches of 
education within the county of 
London, it has revised and enlarged 
its scheme of scholarships. 

All scholarships (excepting a few 
formerly awarded by the late School 
Board) offered by the Council are 
confined to candidates resident 
in the administrative County of 
London, and, except where other- 
wise stated, are open to candidates 
of either sex. 

The scholarships may be divided 
into two classes : — 

(1) The County Scholarships. 

(2) Technical, Industrial, and 
other Scholarships. 

1. The County Scholarships. 
The County Scholarships pro- 
vide a complete scheme under which 
a boy or girl may proceed by various 



B\ 



London County Council. 



stag'es from the public elementary 
school to the highest grades of 
education, whether at a university, 
technical college, or other institu- 
tion providing advanced training 
for a professional career. The 
scholarships consist of — 

(a) The Junior County Scholar- 
sMps (with which may be asso- 
ciated the Probationer Scholar- 
ships). 

(h) The Intermediate County 
Scholarships. 

(c) The Senior County Scholar- 
ships and Exhibitions. 

(a) The Junior County ScholarahipB 
and the Probationer Scholar- 
ships. 

The Junior County Scholarships 
are open to all boys and girls ' esident 
in London who are in attendance 
at public elementary schools, pro- 
vided that they are between 11 and 
12 years of age on 81st July in the 
year of the competition, and that 
they have reached a standard of 
proficiency which will entitle them 
to nomination. 

The Junior County Scholarships 
are also open to London boys and 
girls of the prescribed age who are 
not in attendance at public ele- 
mentary schools, provided that the 
incomes of the parents do not exceed 
£160 a year. 

Associated with the Junior County 
Scholarships are the Probationer 
Scholarships, which arc open to 
boys and girls who are between the 
ages of 13 and 1() on 31 st July in the 
year of the competition. They are 
confined to candidates who promise 
to become pupil teachers. Pro- 
bationer scnolars are required 
to qualify for admission as pupil 
teacners, bursars, or student 
teachers, before the termination of 
their scholarships. 

The Council has undertaken to 
award Junior County Scholar- 



ships to all candidates who reach 
scholarship standard. The num- 
ber awarded in 1907 was 1,900. 
Approximately two-thirds of the 
scholarships are awarded to girls. 
The numoer of the Probationer 
Scholarships to be awarded in 1908 
is 800, and may be less. 

The scholarships offer free educa- 
tion at approved secondary schools, 
the Junior Scholarships for a period 
of five years, and the Probationer 
Scholarships for a period of two 
years. 

The following maintenance grrants 
are provided for junior county 
scholars in addition to free educa- 
tion : — 

PirstSyw. Last2yrs. 
For candidates whoste (11-14) (14-16) 

parenrs* incomes do 

not exceed £160 a 

yeai* £6 a year. £15 a year. 

For candidates whose 

parents' incomes ex- 

exreed £160 a year, 

but do not exceed 

£300 Nil. £10 a year. 

Those junior county scholars, 
whose parents' incomes exceed £300 
a year do not receive any mainte- 
nance grant. 

The same maintenance grants are 
paid to boys and gfirls. 

Not less than two-thirds of the 
total number of Junior County 
Scholarships are i*eserved for those 
candidates whose parents' incouLea 
do not exceed £160 a year. 

The Probationer Scholarships 
carry with them a maintenance 
grant of £15 a year both for boys 
and girls during the two years of 
tenure, whatever the incomes of 
the parents, who must, however, 
be resident within the administrar- 
tive county of London. 

(b) The Intermediate County 
Scholarships. 

The Intermediate County Scholar- 
ships are open to boys and girls 
who are between the ages of 15 



London County Council, 



65 



and 17 on Slst July in the year 
of the competition, provided that 
their parents are m receipt of 
incomes not exceeding £400 a year. 
(Note. — The Council reserves the 
right to award one-half of the 
scholarships to candidates whose 
parents' incomes do not exceed £250 
a year.) 

The Council at present offers 
100 scholarships for competition 
each year. 

There is no restriction as to the 
nature of the school at which can- 
didates have been in attendance. 

The scholarships are, as a rule, 
tenable until the end of the school 
year in which the scholar attains 
the age of 18, but may be renewed 
for a further year, under c^irtain 
conditions, in the case of scholars 
who are competing for open scholar- 
ships at the universities. 

The scholarships provide free 
education at approved secondary 
schools or technical colleges. They 
also xjarry with them maintenance 
grg^nts on the following scale : — 

To scholars who are not less 
tha»- lo and less than 16 years of 
age on Slst July, £25; 16 and 
less than 17, £30. The grant is 
increased to £35 a year for scholars 
who are not less than 17 and not 
more than 18 on the preceding 
Slst Jul jr. In the event of the 
scholarship being renewal for a 
further year, the maintenance grant 
is continued at £35 for the addi- 
tional year. 

The scholarships are awarded on 
the results of a competitive exami- 
nation conducted each summer by 
the Council. 

(c) r/i'? Senior County Scholar- 
ships and Exhibitions. 

The Senior County Scholarships 
and exhibitions are intendel to 
assist candidates to proceed to uni- 
versities, university colleges, or tech- 
nical colleges and institutions of 



university rank. Candidates must, 
as a rule, be less than 22 years 
of age on 31st July in the year of 
the competition. The scholarships 
and exhibitions are confined to 
candidates whose parents' incomes 
do not exceed £400 a year. The 
scholarships may be held in con- 
junction with other scholarships or 
exhibitions. 

The Council awards annually not 
more than 50 senior county scholar- 
ships and exhibitions. The scholar- 
ships and exhibitions vary in amount 
according to the needs and qualifi- 
cat ons of the candidates, the maxi- 
mum amount provided by a scholar- 
ship being a maintenance grant of 
£60 a year, together with a grant of 
£30 a year towards the payment of 
fees and other expenses in«:idental 
to the scholar's course of study, 

The scholarships are tenable 
in the ordinary course for three 
years. 

The scholarships and exhibitions 
are not awarded on the results of a 
competitive examination, although 
the Council reserves to itself the 
right to hold an examinatior,if it 
thin? fit. The awards are made to 
candidates who are selected by the 
Council as being the most deserving 
of scholarships, regard being had 
to their past achievements, their 
financial requirements, and the re- 
commendations of the tei,chers 
under whom they have worked. 

II.— Technical, Industrial, and 
OTHER Scholarships. 

In addition to the scholarships 
which are included in the " County 
Scholarship" scheme, the Council 
awards annually a number of other 
scholarships and exhibitions which 
are intended to encourage students 
to devote themselves to special 
branches of technical or industrial 
work. All these are confined to 
candidates who reside within the 



86 



London County Council. 



administrative county of London, 
and in all cases certain restrictions 
are laid down with regard to the 
incomes of the parents. The follow- 
ing is a bri*»f summary of these 
scnolarships and exhibitions: — 

(a) 60 Art Scholarships, 20 of the 
value of £20 a year, and 40 of the 
value of £10 a year, tenable for two, 
or in some cases three years, for 
students and young artisans who 
intend to study art at some ap- 
proved technical institute or school 
of art, special regard being paid to 
the application of art to industrial 
processes. 

(6) 120 Evening Art Exhibitions, 
of the value of £5 a year, tenable 
for two years, for students and 
young artisans who desire to attend 
courses of art study in the evening. 

(c) 250 Evening Exhibitions in 
Science and Technology of the value 
of £5 a year, tenable for two years, 
for students and artisans who desire 
to attend scientific, industrial, or 
technical courses at polytechnics 
and technical institutes. 

(d) 25 Technical Day Scholarships 
for boys, tenable at the Shoreditch 
Technical Institute Day School, 
providing free education and main- 
tenance grants, varying from £10 
a year to £20 a year, the scholarships 
being intended for boys who desire 
to enter the cabinet-making, furni- 
ture, or other woodwork industry. 

(e) 3 Junior Scholarships in 
Practical Grardening for boys, pro- 
viding free education for three years 
at the Royal Botanic Society's 
School of Practical Grardening in 
Regent's-park, together with a 
maintenance grant of £20 a year, 
intended for boys who desire to 
become gardeners. 

(/) 400 Junior Domestic Economy 
Scholarshij)S for girls, providing 
free education for one year at the 
schools of domestic economy at- 



tached to polytechnics and other 
institutes, together with a main- 
tenance grant of £3 a year. 

(g) 9 Domestic Economy Train- 
ing Scholarships, providmo" a free 
course of training in domestic 
economy for two years and a term, 
at the training schools attached to 
polytechnics, open to young women 
D it ween the ages of 18 and 30. 

(h) AboutSO Cookery Scholarships 
for domestic servants, providing" 
free instruction for 12 weeks at the 
National Training School of Cook- 
ery in Buckingham Palace-road, 
together with a payment of £5 
towards travelling and incidental 
expen 5es. 

(i) 26 Scholarships for blind, 
deaf, and crippled children, pro- 
viding free education and training- 
at some approved institution for a 
period not exceeding four years, 
together with a maintenance g^rant 
not exceeding £20 a year, or in the 
case of residential institutions £30 
a year. 

(j) 80 Industrial Scholarships for 
girJs, tenable for two years at 
various polytechnics and technical 
institutes, intended to provide in- 
dustrial training for girls between 
14 and 16 years of age. Free 
tuition and maintenance grant of 
£8 to £12. 

(/c) 30 Trade Scholarships for boys 
providing trainiug in engineering 
or silversmithing for boys between 
the ages of 14 and 16. Free tuition 
and maintenance grant of £10 
to £15. 

(/) 20 Borough Polytechnic Insti- 
tute Scholarships for boys between 
12 and 13, providing technical train- 
ing for three years. Maintenance 
grants £6 to £15. 

(m) 12 Midwifery Scholarships, 
tenable for six months, open to 
women between 24 and 40. Value. 
£25. 



London County Council. 



87 



(n) 30 Silversmiths* Bursaries to 
enable apprentices to attend Satur- 
day morninof classes at the Central 
School of Arts and Crafts. Free 
tuition and Sd an hour. 

(o) Bursaries for apprentices in 
typography and lithography to 
enable apprentices to attend day 
classes at the Camberwell School of 
Arts and Crafts. 

6 



(p) . 
chitectural 



prizes for drawings of 
architectural or museum studies. 
Value £5. £10, and £15. 

( 9 ) 60 grants for Foreign Holiday 
Courses to enable teachers of 
foreign languages in London schools 
to attend such courses during the 
summer vacation. Value £10. 

(r) 12 Nature Study Holiday 
Course Grants for enabling teachers 
of nature study in London Schools 
to attend a course at the Horticul- 
tural College, Swanley. 

(») 10 Free Places (for Evening 
Students) at the London School of 
Economics to enable students to 
attend evening classes in economics. 



(/) Nomination of Boy Artificers 
in the Royal Navy, oi)en to can- 
didates betweiMi the ages of 15 
and Iti. 

(«) Scholarships for Teachers of 
the Deaf, open to "two-year" 
studt»nts of the Council's training 
colleges, and providing one years 
sppc al training in the teaching of 
the deaf. 

In addiii:)n to the above scholar- 
ships, the Council has at its dis- 
posal some 40 scholarships formerly 
awarded by the late Scnool Board, 
upwards of 20 of which are tenable 
at Christ*s Hospital and give free 
education, board and lodging at 
that school (estimated at the value 
of £70 per annum), whilst the 
other scholarships are of values 
varying from £15 to £30 per annum 
for periods of two, three, or four 
years. Candidates for these scholar- 
ships must have attended public 
elementary schools in London for 
periods varying, acconling to each 
particular scholarship, from three to 
four years. 



LIST OP MEMBERS OP THE EDUCATION COMMITTEE (130)). 

Chairman— Mr. Cyi-il Jackson. 

Vicb-Chairman— Mr. H. C. Gooch, m.p., j.p. 

Chairman of the Council— Mr. R. A. Robinson, j.p. 

Vice-Chairman of the Council— Mr. W. W. Thompson. 

Deputy-Chairman of the CouNCiL-Mr. A. A. Allen, m.p. 



Name. 
B.irlow, C. A. M., ll.d. 
Beaton, Dr. R. M. ... 

Bentinck, TiOrd H., d.l.. 
J.p. 

Bray, R 

Clarke, H.J 

Cobb.C. S 

Collins, Edward 

Coumbe, E. H 

Denny, Re?. E. 



I.— Members of the Council. 
Electoral Division. 
East Islington 



Address. 
6, New-court, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 
St. Pancras (N.) ... 9, Dartmouth Park-avenue, Kentish Town, 

N.W. 
West Marylebone. . . 53, Grosvenor-street, W. 

Camberwell (N.) ... 10, Addington-square, Camberwell, S.E. 
West Islington ... 356, Camdeu-road, N. 

Pulham 5, Cornwall-terrace, Regent's Park, N.W. 

Hammersmith ... 47, Uxbridge-road, Ealing, W. 

Mile End 35, Clissold -road. Stoke Newington, N. 

Kennington ... St. Peter's Vicarage, Upper Kennington- 

lane. S.E. 



83 



London County Council. 



Name. 

Dew, George 

Forman, E. Baxter, j.p. 
Gautrey, Thomas 
Goldsmith, Frank 
Gooch, H. C, J.p. 

Gray. Ernest 

Guinness. The Hon. R. 

Harris. H.P 

Headlam.Rev. S. D. ... 

Hoare. S. J. G., J.p. ... 

Jackson, Cyril 

Johnstone, Hon. G. ... 

Jay. E. A. H 

Key. W. H 

Kinloch - Cooke, Sir 

Clement 
Lidgett.Rev.J. Scott... 

Lygon, Hon. H. 

Mullins.W. E 

Rowe, H. V 

Russell, Arthur B. 

Sanders, W.S 

Shepheard, A. J. 
Skinner, Major C. 

Taylor, J. T 

Webb, Sidney 

Welby.Lt.Col.A.C.E. 



Electoral Division. Address. 

South Islington ... 264, Milkwood-road, Heme-hill, S.E. 

South Kensington... 11, Bramham-gardens, S. Kensington, S.W. 

Peck ham 9, Fleet-street, E.G. 

South S^ . Pancras ... 14, South-street, Park-lane, W. 

Dulwich 17, Oxfgrd-square, Edgware-road. W. 

Hoxton 99, Grosvenor-road, 8.W. 

Haggerston 11. St. James'-square, Pall Mall. 

South Paddington.. 98, Gloncester-terrace, Hyde Park, S.W, 

South-west Bethnal- " Wavertree." St. Peter's-rd.. St. Margarets. 
^reen. 

Brixton South Hertford-street, May fair, W. 

Limehouse " Ballard Shaw," Limpsfleld, Surrey. 

Haggerston ... The Links, Hook Heath. Woking. 

Woolwich Tower House, Woolwich. 

North Hackney ... 301, Seven Sisters-road, Finsbury Park, N. 

Clapham 3, Mount-street, Grosvenor-square, W. 

Alderman till 1910 Bermondsey Settlement, Fanicombe-street, 

Bermondsey, S.E. 

Holbom 41, Eaton-square, S.W. 

Alderman till 1910 18, Lyndhurst-gardens, N.W. 

Bow and Bromley... 14, Sumner-place. Onslow-sqnare, South 

Kensington, S.W. 

Central Finsbury . . 17, Rosslyn Hill, Hampstead, N.W. 

Alderman till 1910 18, Brynmaer-road. Batt«rsea, S.W. 

Alderman till 1910 9, Rossi yn-gardens, Hampstead, N.W. 

North Kensington... 57, Ecclfston-square, S.W. 

Hampstead 19, Woodchurch-road, Hampstead, N.W. 

Deptford 41, Grosvenor-road, S.W. 

East Finsbury ... 26, Sloane-court East, S.E. 



Name. 
Adler, Miss Nettie 

Anderton, F. R. 

Bryant, Mrs. Sophie, d.sc. 
Davison, W. H.. M.A. ... 

Frere, Miss M 

Gilbert. J. W 

Lawrence, Miss Susan ... 
l^eon, A. L., j.p 

Liversidge, H. W.. m.a. 
Phipps. Mrs. Wilton ... 

St. Heiier. Lady 

Wallas, G 



II.— Co-opted Me)ibers. 



Address. 



6. Craven-hill. Hyde Park. W. 

1, Mitre-eourt Buildings, E.G. 

6, Eldon-road, Hampstead. N.W. 

37. Kensington Park-gardens. W. 

8. Susf ex-place. Hyde Park, W. 

55, Penrosestreet, S.E. 

44, Westbourne-terrace, W. 

5, Hanover House, High-street, St. John's 

Wood, W. 
Library Chambers, Temple, E.G. 
3. Culford-gardens, Chelsea, S.W. 
52, Portland-place, W. 
27. Royal Crescent, Holland Park-avenue, W. 



CHIEF OFFICERS OF EDUCATION COMmiTTEB. 

Clerk of the Council 

Educational Adviser 

Assistant to „ 

Executive Officer 

Assistant to Executive Officer ... 
Medical Officer (Education) ... 

Chief Inspector 

Chief Clerk 

Clerk to the Education Committee 



G. L. Gomme 


£2.000 


Dr. W. Gamett 


1,500 


Dr. F.Rose 


700 


R. Blair, m.a 


1,250 


B. M. Allen, M.A 


703 


Dr. Kerr ... . 


1,000 


Dr. Kimmins 


1,000 


H.J. Mordaunt, M.A. 


800 


M. H.Cox. i^.B 


530 



London County Council. 



M 



METROPOLITAN CONSOLIDATED STOCK. 

Three and a half per cent. Stock. 

Redeemable 6th October, 1929. 

Dividends payable 5tli January, April, July, and October. 



Date of Issue. 


^rX7l{S?r Amount of Stock. 


Sum rairad. 


1869, Nov. 


£94 14 10 ; £2,638,673 4 


£2,500,000 


1871, Aug. 


96 6 6 934,304 19 10 


900,000 


1873, March 


95 11 10 


l,8a3.033 14 4 


1,800,000 


1874, Feb. 


94 10 


2,600,000 


2,4.'>7,000 


1876, May 


100 2 2 


l,a50,000 


l,a''>l,483 8 


1877, May 


100 3 2 


1,2.'30,000 


1,251,989 6 


1878, April 


100 17 7 


2,500,000 


2.521,952 7 


1879, May 


101 9 3 2,150,000 


2.181,451 1 6 


1880, April 


102 2 7 1 1,750,000 


1,787,282 16 




* 


£17,056,011 14 6 


£16,751,158 13 



* Of this amount £94,374 Oa. 7d. has been purchased and cancelled, 

Three per cent. Stock. 

Rzdsemdhh Ist February^ 1941. 

Dividends payable 1st February, May, August, and November. 



Date of I<«ue. 



1831, March 

1882, July 

1883, July 

1884, May 
188-^, May 
1886, May 
18S7, Nov. 



Average price per 
£100 of Stock. 



Amount of Stock. 



I 



Sum raised. 



£94 19 4 


£2,4^,000 


97 2 7 


1,650,000 


95 16 7 


1,250,000 


100 9 


1,900,000 


97 13 11 


1,750,000 


99 12 2 


1,250,000 


100 6 4 


600,000 




£10,850,000 



£2,326,688 16 6 

1,602,654 4 6 

1,197,892 10 6 

1,908,535 19 6 

1,709,713 9 

1,245,146 18 6 

601,909 10 



£10,592,541 8 6 



Two AND A HALF PER CENT. STOCK. 

Rodeemable on Gomicil giving one years notice after 30 years from 

date of issue, or on Ist Septeynber, 1949. 

Dividends payable 1st March, June, September, and December. 



Date of Issue. 



1839, Nov. 

1892, May 

1893, July 

1894, May 

1895, July 

1896, June 



Average price per 
£100 of Stock. 



Amount of Stock. 



Sum raised. 



£91 12 

89 3 

90 1 
94 18 

102 7 
104 9 



5 

1 
4 
5 

7 


£1,000,000 
1,200,000 
1,500,000 
2,000,000 
1,000,000 
1,000,000 




£7,700,000 



£916,015 4 
1,070,076 13 
1,350,859 
1,898,336 14 
1,023,711 12 
1,044,795 13 



6 

3 
6 
0' 


£7,303,794 17 


3 



do 



LoncUm County Council, 



LONDON COUNTY CONSOLIDATED STOCK. 

B'edeemahle at the option of the Council at par at any time after 

19th March, 1920, on a year 8 notice being given. 

Dividends payable Ist March, June, September, and December. 

Two AND A HALF PER CENT. StOCK. 



Date of IsBue. 


Average price per 
£100 of Stock. 


Amount of Stock. 


Sum raised. 


1897, July 

1898, July 

1899, July 


£100 9 8 
95 14 5 
92 4 10 


£2,500,000 
2,000,000 
1,750,000 


£2,512,145 6 9 
1,914,395 12 2 
1,614,276 19 11 






£6,250,000 


£6,040,817 18 10 



Three per cent. Stock. 
Issued at a fixed price. 



Date of Issue. 


Fixed price per 
£100 of Stock. 


Amount of S'ock. 


Sum raised. 


1900, June 

1901, May 

1902, Jan. 

1903, April 

1904, April 


£97 10 
98 
98 10 
95 10 
90 


£5,000,000 
2,000.000 
3,000,000 
5,000,000 
5,000,000 


£4,875,000 
1,960,000 
2,955,000 
4,775,000 
4,500,000 




£20,000,000 


£19,065,000 



Three per cent. Stock. 
Issued by tender. 



Date of Issue. 


Average price of 
Stock. 


Amount of Stock. 


Sum raised. 


1902, Kov. 
1905, March ... 
1905, Dec. 


£98 8 7 
97 10 9 
93 10 9 


£2,000.000 
2,500;000 
1,500,000 • 


£1,968,567 
2,438,472 
1,403,056 




£6,000,000 


£5,810,095 



Three and a half per cent. Stock. 
Issued at a fixed price. 




Date of Issue. 


Fixed price per 
£100 of Stock. 


Amount of Stock. 


Sum raised. 


1907, April ... 

1908, AprU ... 


£97 £5.000,000 
£100 £2,750,000 


£4,850,000 



London County Council, 



91 



the county rate. 

Bates Levied by the County Council prom 1889-90 to 1906-7. 
The rates made by the County Council have been as follows : — 





For General For Special 


Total 




Year. 


County County 


Old County 


Education. 




PurpoBos. Purposes. 


Services. 






d. d. 


d. 


d. 


1889-90 


10-63 1-90 


12-53 




1890-91 


11-125 2-125 


13-25 1 


_« 


1891-92 


9-5 
10-42 


> 2-25 


11-75 1 


— 


Three years' average 


1 2-00 


1261 
12-50 


— 


1892-93 


10-1 1 2-4 


__ 


1893-94 


10-7 1 2-3 


13-00 1 


.^ 


1894-95 


11-65 


2-35 
2-36 


14-00 j 


— 


Three years' average 


n-ita 


1317 


— 


Six years' average 


10-62 2-22 


12-84 1 


— 


1895-95 


12-6 2-4 


15-00 1 





1896-97 


12-7 .2-3 


15-00 


m^ 


1897-98 


11-75 1 2-25 


14-00 


— 


Three years' average 


12-36 1 '2-32 


14-67 





Nine years' average 


11-20 2-24 
11*6 2-4 


13-46 


— 


1898-99 


1400 





1899-1900 


11-5 2-0 


13-50 1 





1900-01 


12-25 1 2.25 


. 14-50 1 


_ 


Three years' average 


11-7H 


2-22 


1400 ! 





Twelve years' average 


11-26 


2-26 


1360 


— 


1901-2 ...... 


12-375 


2-625 ^ 


1500 , 


— 


1902-3 1 


12-875 


2-625 


15-53 


— . 


1903-4 


14-125 
13 126 


2-625 
2-ti25 


16-75 ' 


— 


Three years' average 


15-7o 





Fifteen years' average 


11-7 


2 32 


1402 





1904-5 1 


14-5 


3-25 


17-75 


160 


1905-6 1 


14-00 


3-00 


1700 1 


180 


1906-7 ' 


14-25 


2-75 


17-00 . 


19-0 


Three years' average 


14-'25 


3UU 


1725 1 


17? 


Eighteen years* average 


12-12 


2 43 


14-65 ' 




1907-8 


14-00 


3-00 1 


17-uu 1 


18-0 


1*^08-9 


14-50 


2-50 


17-00 


19-0 



* Special County Purposes " refer to those servicei which do not extend to the City. 



92 



London County Council. 



THE JRATES OF LONDON. 

The rates of London are, under the London Government Act, 1899, 
collected by the metropolitan borough councils as one rate, known as the 
general rate. But although there are no separate authorities for the 
parishes within the boroughs, and although nearly all the expenses are 
borne ratably throughout the borough, the borough councils are required 
to levy separate rates in each parish. 

Total Rates Levied in every Parish in London during the 
Last Eight Years. 



Borough and Parish. 


igC0-l'l901-2 


1002^ 


1906-41004-5 

1 


1005-6 


1006-7 


19..7-8 




8. d. 


8. d. 


8. d. 


8. d. 


8. d. 


8. d. 


8. d. 


8. d. 


Battebsba .... 


6 10 


7 6 


8 


7 9 


8 2 


8 4 


8 4 


8 4 


Bbrmondsey— 


















Bermondsey .... 


8 5 


8 8 


9 4 


8 11 


9 7 


9 4 


9 4 




Horselydown 
Rotherhithe. . . . 


7 3 


8 8 


8 5 


8 8 


9 4 


9 3 


9 3 


8 9h 


8 8 


9 5 


9 3 


9 9 


9 5 


9 5 


•8 


St.-01ave and St. Thomaf . 


8 6i 


8 3 


8 9 


8 9 


9 7 


9 3 


9 3 


Average 


8 fir 


8 7 


9 2 


8 Hi 


» 7 


9 ^ 


9 df 


. 


Bethval Gbebn . 


7 11 


7 10 


8 3 


7 11 


8 1 


8 2 


8 2 


8 


Cambbrwell .... 


7 4 


7 6 


8 2 


8 1 


8 IJ 


9 


8 11 


8 3 


Chblbea 


6 6i 


6 8 


7 


7 


6 11 


7 


7 


7 


Deptpobd .... 


6 4 


6 8 


7 5 


7 2 


7 6 


8 


7 5 


7 3 


FlHSBUBT— 


















CharterhoQse. 


5 4 


7 8 


7 1 


7 8 


7 3 


8 4 


7 11 


7 10 


Clerkenwell .... 


6 7 


7 1 


6 9 


6 9 


6 8 


7 1 


7 1 


6 11 


Glasshouse Yard . 


6 6 


5 9 


7 1 


7 11 


7 1 


7 4 


7 4 


7 3 


St. Luke 


6 4 


6 8 


6 7 


6 7 


6 11 


7 2 


7 3 


7 


St. Sepulchre 
Average 


7 2 


7 2 


7 1 


7 3 


6 11 


7 4 


7 3 


7 3 


6 6 


6 JOi 


8i 


9 


9i 


7 tfi 


7 4) 61193 


Fttlham 


6 11 


7 4 


7 4 


7 4 


7 4 


7 6 


7 9 


7 6 


Greenwich— 


















Charlton and 

Kidbrooke .... 


7 5^ 
6 4t 


6 9 


7 2 


7 3 


6 9 


7 9 


7 2 


7 2 


Deptford, St. Nicholas 


5 10 


6 7 


7 6 


8 5 


8 2 


8 


7 10 


7 


Greenwich .... 


5 9 


6 8 


7 6 


8 4 


8 


8 3 


7 7 7 


Average 


6 6i 


8 


7 5 


8 1 


7 9 


8 


7 Ok 7 '49 


Hackney .... 


7 6 


7 4 


8 2 


7 2 


7 2 


7 11 


8 7 8 


Hammersmith 


6 9 


6 10 


6 11 


6 10 


7 4 


7 7 


7 8 8 1 


Hampstead .... 


6 3 


6 4 


6 10 


6 10 


7 


7 2 


7 2 7 5 


HOLBOBN— 
















Fumival's Inn . 


— 


7 2 


7 9J 


5 3 


7 3 


7 


6 4 6 7 


Gray's Inn . . . . 


— 


7 4 


8 4 


7 8 


7 1 


7 


7 1 6 3 


Lincoln's Inn (Villes). . 


— 


6 7 


9 3 


9 1 


8 4 


8 3 


9 0,75 


„ (added parts) 
Saffron-hill .... 


— 


7 1 


8 2 


8 5 


7 8 


7 7 


6 6 7 5 


6 9 


l^ 


7 7§ 


7 8 


7 3 


7 3 


7 4 1 7 5 


St. Andrew and St. George. 


6 1 


7 6 


7 4 


6 11 


6 11 


7 4 7 1 


St. Giles and St. George . 


7 


6 9 


7 6i 


7 4 


6 11 


6 11 


7 


6 9 


Staple Inn . . . . 


— 


7 6 


8 8 


7 11 


7 3 


7 4 


7 2 


7 5 


Average . 


6 8 


7 3 


7 7 


7 fi 


7 


7 3J 


7 Ǥ 


61136 


ISLINOTOir .... 


in 


6 7J 


7 2i 


7 (^ 


7 4 


7 3 


7 8 


m 


Kbnsinotok .... 


6 3 


6 4 


6 6 


6 6 


6 7 


6 8 


Lambeth 


6 8 


6 8 


7 1 


7 1 


7 5 


7 8 


7 5 


7 3 


Lbwisham— 


















Lee 


7 2 


7 


7 4 


7 8 


7 7 


7 6 


' 




Lewisham .... 


6 6 


6 8 


7 


T 4 


7 6 


7 6 


>7 10 7 8 


Average 


6 7J 


6 «i 


7 Oi 


7 4^ 


7 


7 


3 1 



London 


County Council 










93 


Borough and Parish. 


1900-1 


1031-21002-8 


1908-4 

8. d. 


1904r5'l905-6|l906-7 


1907-8 




8. d. 


8. d. 8. a. 


8. d. 


8. 


d. 


8. d. 


8. d. 


PADDIVOTOir .... 


5 11 


6 1 


6 6 


6 7 


6 8 


6 


65 


6 8 


6 9 


POFI.AR— 




. 
















Bow 


9 5 


9 1 


9 10 


9 8 


10 1 


12 





11 7 


al0 5 


Bromley- .... 


9 


9 2 


9 9 


9 8 


10 2 


12 





11 10 


al0 7 


Poplar 


9 4i 


9 2 


9 9 


9 8 


10 1 


12 





11 7 


al0 3 


Average . 


9 3 


9 2 


9 9 


9 8 


10 15 


12 





11 8 


a 10 484 


St. Martlbbonb . 


6 7 


6 9 


6 95 


6 9 


6 11 


6 


85 


7 05 


6 11 


St. Paitcbas .... 


6 1 


6 7 


7 1 


7 


7 1 


7 


1 


7 3 


7 1 


Shobbditch .... 


6 8 


7 3 


7 4 


7 8 


7 7 


8 


1 


8 1 


8 


Southward— 




















Christchurch 


6 2 


6 4 


8 6 


7 5 


7 6 


7 


8 


7 10 


7 9 


Newiogton .... 


6 4 


6 4 


6 10 


6 10 


7 1 


7 


6 


7 5 


7 1 


St. George-the-Martyr. 


6 4 


6 4 


8 


7 2 


7 2 


7 


4 


7 6 


7 7 


St. Saviour .... 


6 2 


6 4 


7 11 


7 


7 


6 


8 


6 10 


7 1 


Aver<iBe 


6 3i 


4 


7 fl5 


7 


7 «5 


7 


3J 


7 4| 


7 8'40 


Stbpfbt— 




















Aldeate 

Christchurch, Spitalflelds . 


7 5 


7 6 


7 4 


7 10 


8 1 


8 


1 


8 3 


8 


7 6 


7 2 


6 10 


7 8 


7 9 


8 


1 


8 5 


7 11 


Limehonse .... 


8 


8 4 


7 11 


9 3 


8 11 


9 


2 


9 4 


8 8 


Mile End New Town . . 


6 1 


7 2 


7 1 


7 6 


7 2 


7 11 


8 


7 10 


Mile End Old Town . 


6 10 


7 7 


8 2 


8 4 


8 8 


9 


6 


9 5 


8 10 


Norton Folgate . . 


6 3 


7 4 


7 2 


7 7 


7 10 


8 


4 


8 


7 11 


Old Artillery Ground . . 


6 8 


7 3 


7 5 


8 2 


7 9 


7 


9 


8 9 


9 


Katcliff 


7 4 


8 


8 10 


9 8 


9 2 


9 


2 


9 5 


8 10 


St. George-in the-East. 
Sbadwell .... 


6 11 


8 


8 8 


9 2 


8 10 


9 


3 


9 4 


8 10 


7U 


8 1 


8 7 


9 10 


8 11 


9 


4 


9 6 


9 4 


Wapping .... 
Whitechapel. 


7 3 


8 1 


8 5 


9 4 


8 5 


9 


4 


9 7 


8 11 


6 


7 5 


7 3 


7 8 


8 


8 


3 


8 2 


7 10 


Average 


6 8 


7 SJ 


7i/5 


8 6 


8 55 


8 


?* 


a iO| 


8 6-22 


STOKB NBWIKOTOir. 


6 1 


6 4 


6 9 


6 8 


7 


7 


3 






Stoke NewingtoQ wards 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




— 


7 6 


7 3 


South Homsey ward . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 






7 3 


7 


Average . 


— . 


— 


— 


— 


— 






7 5'OS 


7 2*05 


Waitdswobth— 




















Clapham .... 


6 9 


7 1 


7 2 


7 5 


7 1 


7 


5 


•7 4 




Putney 

Streatham 


7 li 


7 1 


7 1 


7 3 


7 2 


7 


5 




6 5 


7 2 


7 


7 6 


7 3 


7 


5 


7 


Tooting Graveney 


4 11 


6 11 


6 10 


6 8 


7 5 


7 


5 


1 




Wandsworth. 


7 1 


7 3J 


7 5 


7 4 


.7 


7 


5 






Average . . 


6 10 


7 a 


7 » 


7 45 


7 i5 


7 


6 


J 




Wbstmiitsteb (CltY)— 




















Eolls . ... . 


6 8 


6 11 


6 8 


6 10 


6 10 


6 


8 


7 1 


7 


St. Anne .... 


5 8 


5 11 


6 1 


6 1 


6 6 


6 


5 


6 7 


6 3 


St. Clement Danes 


6 7 


6 8 


7 9 


7 6 


6 5 


5 11 


6 8 


6 10 


St. George, Hanover-square. 


5 5i 


5 9 


6 7 


7 


6 10 


6 10 


6 8 


6 7 


St. James .... 


5 4 


5 m 


6 3 


6 7 


6 2 


6 


6 


6 6 


6 3 


St. Margaret and St. John . 
St. MarTm-ln'the-Fields . 


5 6 


5 8 


6 5 


6 11 


6 6 


6 


8 


6 9 


6 7 


6 1 


6 2 


6 9 


6 8 


7 


6 


8 


6 10 


7 


St. Mary-le-Strand . . 


6 11 


6 9 


8 5 


7 7 


6 9 


7 





6 


7 . 


St. Paul, Covent-garden . 


6 6i 


6 3 


6 11 


6 8 


6 10 


6 


8 


6 7 


6 7 


St. Peter .... 


5 6 


5 5 


6 5 


7 6 


6 11 


6 


8 


6 5 


6 5 


Savoy 


5 10 


6 
5 10 


6 11 


6 7 


7 


7 


4 


7 8 


6 10 


Average , . 


5 75 


6 7 


6 Z(^ 


fl 8 


6 


s\ 


fl 85 


6 7'01» 


"Woolwich— 




















Eltham , . . . . 


7 2 


7 


7 


6 8 


7 6 


7 10 


8 


8 4 


Plumstead .... 


6 8 


6 8 


7 6 


7 6 


7 6 


7 


6 


7 8 


8 11 


Woolwich 


7 6 


7 


8 2 


8 3 


8 3 


8 


1 


8 4 


9 3 


Average . 


7 IJ 


i05 


7 95 


7 95 


7 105 


7 


95 


8 


9 0^00 


County of Londok exclud- 




















ing City of London (average) 


6 5-8 


6 8*3 


7 1-6 


71*4 


7 2-6 


7 


5 


7 6-47 


7 4*44 



a— Average, 



94 



London County Council, 



COUNTY COUNCIL HNANCES. 
Abstract op Total Estimated Receipts and Expenditure on 
Rate Accounts (Estimate approved by Council on 7th and 
14th May, 1907.) 



Estimated Receipts. 



1. Actual balance on 

April Ist, 1907, out 
of which the out- 
standing net liabili- 
ties of the previous 
year have to be met 

2. Receipts in aid of ex- 

penditure- 
Exchequer contri- 
bution—local taxa- 
tion licences and es- 
tate duty (less pay- 
ment for police and 
revisinsr barristers). 
Beer & spirit duties 



1907-8. 



1,190,578 



324,396 
180,000 



504,396 

Government grrants 
in aid of education 1,463,467 

Interest on loans ad- 
vanced to local 
authorities ... 643,000 

Rents 135,275 

Sundry contribu- 
tions, fees, fines. 
&c 280,577 



3. Contributions from 

revenue producing 
undertakings for 
interest and repay- 
ment of debt charge- 
able thereto 

4. Contributions from 

works account for 
interest and repay- 
ment of debt and 
interest on working 
capital (charged as 
part of cost of works 
executed) 

5. Grant from local tax- 

ation account under 

the Agricultural 

Rates Act, 1896 ... 
6« County contributions 

required to be 

raised- 
General County— 

For purposes other 
than Education- 
equal to a rate of 
14d 

For education- 
equal to a rate of 
led 



3,026,715 



574,935 



8,095 



1,633 



2,569,122 



3,290,296 
5.849.420 



Estimated Expenditure. 



1907-8. 



Debt^ 

Dividends on Stock 
(less tax) 

Interest on sundry 
liabilities 

Redemption 

Income tax 

Management of 
stock, stamp duty 
and rent draw- 
backs 



2,053,400 

208,651 

1,374,087 

47,576 



73,565 



2. Grants— 




To Guardians for in- 




door paupers ... 


328,027 


To Guardians and 




others out of the 




Exchequer contri- 




bution 


301,922 


Registration of 




electors 


15,435 


Main roads 


289 



3,757,279 



3. Pensions (including 

Superannuation and 
Provident Fund and 
prison and asylum 
pensions) .... ... 

4. Establishment Char- 

ges (other than 
charged to particu- 
lar services) 

5. Judicial Expenses ... 

6. Services- 

Main Drainage ... 269,420 

Fire Brigade ... 261,740 
Parks and Open 

Spaces 135,175 

Bridges, Tunnels, 

and Ferry 53,060 

Embankments ... 12,570 

Pauper Lunatics ... 95,570 
Feltham and May- 

ford Industrial 

Schools 30.445 

Inebriates Act ... 12,300 

Coroners 31,010 

Weights an4 

Measures ... ... 15,935 

Gas Meter and Gas 

Testing 13,275 

Building Acts ... 27,950 
Diseases of Animal 

Acts 12,695 

Miscellaneous ... 46,015 

1,017,060 



645,673 



68,065 



233.285 

47,570 



Thames Stean 


ihoat Serricps. 




95 


Estimated Receipts. 1907-8. 


Estimated Expenditu 


BE. 


1907-8. 


o . , £ £ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


Special county — 


Education- 






equal to a rate of 

3d 481,218 


Elemen- 






tary 4,317.614 






rm * 1 . . n 6,330,638 


Higher 838,312 






[Total rate 2s. lid.] 


5,156,925 
Leas Debt 
Charges 
included 
under 
Headl... 758,741 










4,397,185 










5,414,245 




7. Parliamentary Ex- 








penses. Inquiries, 
Bating, Appeals, 














Ac 


- 


36,860 
10,201,967 




8. Deficiencies of 








revenue producing 








undertakings to be 








raised by rate- 








Working class dwell- 








lings 


6,519 






Steamboats 


42,889 


49,408 
10,251,366 




9. Estimated Balance 








on 3l8t March, 1906, 








out of which the lia- 








bilities when out* 








standing have to be 








met 

Total 


£ 


881.229 


Total receipts £11,132,594 


11,132,594 



THAMES STEAMBOAT SERVICE. 

From the earliest times until within a cMnparatively recent i^eriod the 
river Thames was the chief highway of London. By the beginning of the 
19th century the river had lapsed into comparative disuse for this purpose, 
but a revival came about with the establishment of steamboat services in 
1816 and subsequent years. For many years the services, which were run 
by individual or company enterprise, were successful and well patronised; 
but after 1878 they became unsatisfactory, spasmodic, and quite anworthy 
of the river and of the metropolis. There was talk from time to time 
of the establishment of a municipal service, and the first practical 
step in this direction was taken in 1894 when the London County 
Council instructed its Bivers Committee to consider the question 
of providing London with ** an efficient steamboat service. The 
matter dragged on for ten years, in the course of which the Council 
promoted three Bills to obtain power to establish a municipal service 
The third was passed into law in 1904. By the middle of June 
in the following year a service of 30 boats, which had been built to the 
Council's order, was inaugurated. Each boat has accommodation for 
500 passengers. The attainable speed is 13 miles an hour in still 
water, so as to enable the boats to maintain a speed of eight miles an 



96 



Corporation of the City of London, 



hour against the current. The draught of the boats was limited to 2ft. lOin. 
by the shallowness of the river at low water above London Bridge. Under 
its Act the Council, in addition to providing the steamboats, acquired and 
improved a large number of piers, constructed new piisrs, and purchased 
and fitted up coal hulks. The capital expended upon the undertaking 
up to 31st March, 1907, amounted to about £301,000. The revenue account 
for the year ended 31st March, 1906, was as follows : — 





Boats. 
£ 8. d. 


Piers. 
£ s. d. 


Total. 
£ s. d. 


Receipts 

Working expenses 


36.628 3 10 . 
48,231 10 9 


4,042 3 9 
. 10,854 12 3 . 


40,670 7 7 
. 59.086 3 


Deficiency on working 

Debt charges- 
Interest 

Repayment 


11,603 6 11 . 

6,902 1 5 
8,699 16 7 . 


6,812 8 6 . 

2.967 16 4 . 
3,534 4 2 . 


18,415 15 5 

9.869 17 9 
12.234 9 


Le88— Interest on deposit ... 




13,314 9 . 
146 8 2 . 


. 40,519 13 11 
146 8 2 



Total Deficiency for 1906-7 27,205 4 11 ... 13,168 10 ... 40,373 5 9 

From the opening of the service in June, 1905, to 2nd October, 1906, 
during which period a service of steamboats was in operation, the number 
of passengers carried was 7,390,473. On 2nd October, 1906, the service 
was suspended for the winter, being resumed on 15th May, 1907. From 
this date until 3l8t October, 1907, when the boats ceased running, 2,392,643 
passengers were carried. On 18th February, 1908, the Council decided to 
^ve authority for negotiations to be opened for the sale or chartering of 
its steamboats. 



CORPORATION OF THE CITY OF LONDON. 



The City Corporation is unique 
among the municipalities of the 
world, alike for its historical record, 
its exceptional powers, and its pre- 
sent constitution. The Court of 
Common Council is not, like the 
town and county councils, merely a 
deliberative body ; it is also a legis- 
lative assembly, and is able to re- 
model its own constitution. The 
jurisdiction of the Corporation ex- 
tends beyond the City boundaries, 
and for some things it is a Metro- 
politan Authority. It has always 
been a county in itself, and was not 
united to the Metroi)Dlis for any 
municipal purpose until 1855, when, 
with other London districts, it 
sent representatives to the Board of 
Works. The connection with what 
was formerly called Great London 
has been maintained, but the City 



has not been completely united to 
the new County of London, as in 
several matters the jurisdiction of 
the County Council stops at the 
City boundaries. For municipal 
purposes the City— which contains 
an area of 650 acres, with a resident 
night population of 37,705, a daily 
resident population of over 300,000, 
while over a million people enter 
and leave every 24 hours, and an 
electorate of 30,000— is divided into 
25 Wards. Its 112 parishes were 
consolidated into one parish by an 
Act of 1907. 

The legal definition of the body 
generally described as the City Cor- 
poration is "The Mayor, Com- 
monalty, and Citizens of the City of 
London," which consists of the Lord 
Mayor. 25 Aldermen, and 206 Com- 
mon Councillors, The CoiQnioii 



Corporation of the City of London. 



97 



Council is in its constitution, and 
in principle, the most democratic 
assembly in the world, as the 
whole of the members are re-elected 
annually by the ratepayers, and the 
majority of its principal officials are 
re-appointed every year. 

In close association with the 
municipal life of the City of London 
are the ancient and historic Trade 
Guilds or Mysteries. It is they, or 
their representatives, in fact, who 
nominate the Lord Mayor and elect 
the ^ two Sheriffs and certain 
officials. From the beginning' of 
civic history in the City they have 
exercised a curious and a weighty 
influence upon the doings of the 
Corporation. No ordinary person 
can become a Liveryman. In order 
to attain that distinction, and to be 
placed upon the Register of Voters, 
it is necessary (1) to be a Freeman 
and Liveryman of a company, and 
a Freeman of the City of London 
twelve calendar months previous to 
the 15th July of any year; and (2) 
to have resided within 25 miles of 
the City six calendar months prior 
to the same date. The Freedom of 
the City may be obtained by one 
of four metliods. It may be 
secured by servitude, i.e., having 
been bound to a Freeman as 
apprentice; by patrimony — as the 
son or daughter of a Freeman ; by 
gift of the City (that is the 
Honorary Freedom) ; and by re- 
demption or purchase. 

Of the Livery Companies, twelve 
— called the Great Companies — 
take precedence of all others. The 
first is the Mercers' Company, 
whose records may be traced as far 
back as the reign of Heniy II. One 
of its members is said to nave been 
the father of Thomas a Becket, and 
the first two Mayors of London 
certainly belonged to the organisa- 
tion. Its earliest known Charter 
was conferred by Richard II. Next 
in order of precedence comes the 



Grocers' Company, founded as the 
" Company of tepperers, of Soper's- 
lane," whose ordinances for Govern- 
ment existed as early as 1315. Of 
the other "great companies," the 
most notable are perhaps those of 
the Drapers' whose beginnings are 
lost in antiquity ; the Fishmongers' 
the Goldsmiths', and the Skinners'. 
Then there are those of the Mer- 
chant Taylors', the Haberdashers', 
the Salters, the Ironmongers', the 
Vintners', and the Cloth workers'. 
The minor companies are 67 in 
number, and include such varied 
interests as those of Armourers' 
and Braziers', Barbers,* Bowyers', 
Broderers', Cooks', Cordwainers', 
Fan Makers', Glass Sellers', Hor- 
ners', Makers of Playing Cards', 
Paviors', Tallow Chandlers', Up- 
holders', Wheelwrights', and Wool- 
men. 

The City as a County. 

As a County the City extends its 
authority over Southwark,inasmuch 
as the Lord Mayor and the Aldermen 
who have passed the chair are jus- 
tices of Southwark ; and until 1888 
the City also exercised a certain suze- 
rainty over Middlesex, by appoint- 
ing the Sheriff of that County. Two 
Sheriffs are now elected by the Uvery- 
menin the City on Midsummer Day. 
Their duties are multifarious, but 
beyond helping the Lord Mayor in 
the discharge of his official functions, 
and themselves discharging shrieval 
duties at the Sessions Souse, Old 
Bailey, they are mainlv confined to 
duties of a ceremonial kind. The 
Under- Sheriffs and Secondary assist 
them. The Sheriffs are not paid, but 
their position involves considerable 
private outlay. County Government 
is seen also in the City in its Com- 
mission of Lieutenancy, its Justices, 
its Courts, its Coroner — for the Lord 
Mayor is, among other things. 
Coroner of the City, doing this duty 
by deputy — and in other matters. 



G8 



Corporation of tlie Oily of London. 



As A Judicial Authority. 

1. The Central Criminal Court in 
the Old Bailey is under the City- 
Corporation. The jurisdiction of the 
Court extends over part of Greater 
London and the Counties of London 
(including for this purpose the City 
of London), Middlesex, Essex, and 
Surrey defray the salaries and 
officers' expenses of the Court, but 
the Corporation provides the build- 
ing and maintains it. 

2. The City has its Quarter Ses- 
sions, and formerly used to hold 
Quarter Sessions in Southwark. 
The latter are still held, but the 
proceedings are purely formal. 
The Recorder is still High Steward 
of Southwark. 

3. The Lord Mayor and Aldermen 
have heavy judicial and magisterial 
duties to discharge in connection 
with the Mansion House and Guild- 
hall Justice Rooms, and the Central 
Criminal Court, and they are also, 
nominally, judges of the Mayor's 
Court — a kind of Commercial Court, 
hearing cases which, outside the 
City, would fall to the King's 
Bench Division of the High Couit. 

4. There are also the City of 
London Court (which is the 
County Court of the City, though 
with larg-er scope, including Ad- 
miralty jurisdiction, than an ordi- 
nary County Court) ; the Court of 
Husting, for the enrolment of deeds 
and wills,"* and the Court Leet of 
the Borough of Southwark (the 
latter now practically obsolete) ; 
and the judicial powers of the 
City Chamberlain m disputes be- 
tween Masters and Apprentices. 

As A Municipality. 

Much of the purely municipal 
work falling on the Corporation 
was formerly delegated to the Com- 
mission of Sewers — but this body 
has been abolished, and the work 



is carried on by the Corporation. 
The Corporation has power to levy 
a rate for municipal or other 
purposes, but has nitherto con- 
fined this privilege to the making 
of a Police rate and a small Warn 
rate for purely Ward charges. By 
the City of London (Union of 
Parishes) Act, 1907, its powers in 
this respectare extended, the .City, 
except for educational or charitable 
purposes, having now become one 
parish, of which the Corporation 
are the overseers. They are em- 
powered to levjr a General Rate 
(in which are included the Con- 
solidated, Sewer, Police, Ward, and 
County Rates, and the Trophy 
Tax), and a Poor Rate, and. to 
appoint an Assessment Committee 
a duty hitherto discharged by the 
guardians of the City of London 
Union. 

1. The City Estaies.-^The major 
portion of the Corporation's revenue 
comes from its Freehold Estate in 
the City, the Conduit Mead Estate 
in St. George's, Hanover-square, and 
property elsewhere. The Corpora- 
tion holds the Bridge House Estate 
in trust, for the purpose of main- 
taining London Bridge and other 
bridges between the City and South- 
wark. The money can only be ap- 
plied to this purpose. It was with 
this fund that the new Tower Bridge 
was built. The Corporation and the 
Mercers' Company are Trustees of 
tlie Gresham Estate, which provides 
funds in connection with the main- 
tenance of the Royal Exchange, for 
educational purposes at Gresham 
College, and also the maintenance 
of almshouses, almsfolk, &c. The 
CoriK)ration income also comes from 
markets, fines, dues, &c. More- 
over, it can do with its revenue just 
what it likes, but invariably employs 
it for public purposes extendinf?" be- 
yond its own area. 

2. Tlie City PoZice.— The City's 



Gorporalion of the City of Loiuion. 



police is the only really municipal 
police force in the country, as it is 
independent of the Home Office. A 
fourth of the expense (amounting 
to over £40,000 a year) comes from 
the City's Corporate Revenue, the 
rest being raised by a rate. The 
Police Committee manages an 
electric motor street ambulance ser- 
vice, inaugurated in May, 1907. 

3. Bridaea. — London, Blackfriars, 
and Southwark Bridges, as well as 
the Tower Bridge, are under the 
control and mamtenance of the 
Corporation, and the expenses con- 
nected with the building and main- 
tenance of these Bridges, together 
with St. Michael's Bridge and Peg's 
Hole Bridge, have fallen upon the 
revenues of the Bridge House 
Estates, of which the Corporation is 
Trustee. It is estimated that about 
197,000 persons make use of the 
London, Blackfriars, and South- 
wark Bridget daily, or 8,000 persons 
more than five times the wnole of 
the popidation of the City, and 
nearly two-thirds of the entire day 
population. Moreover, nearly 25,000 
veliicles enter the City daily by the 
three Bridges mentioned. 

4. Hie Markets, — The Corporation 
is the Market Authority for London 
and owns the principal markets. 
Full particulars will be found in the 
article on " London Markets." 

5. Parks and Pleasure Grounds — 
The Corporation owns, manages, and 
maintains the following parks and 
open spaces outside its boundary: 
Bunhill - fields Burial Ground (4 
acres) ; West Ham Park (77 acres) ; 
Epping Forest (5,400 acres) ; Wan- 
stead Park and Higham Park (212 
acres); Bumham Beeches (375 acres); 
Coulsdon Commons (347 acres) ; 
Highgate Wood, Queen's Park, Kil- 
bum. West Wickham Common 
(124 acres), and Shiplake Island in 
the Thames. These magnificent 
pleasure grounds have been ac- 



quired under various conditions, 
largely with the grain dues — or 
money raised on them —which Par- 
liament allowed the Corporation to 
levy, for^ a term of years now 
expired, in the palace of certain 
chartered dues, which it voluntarily 
resigned. The maintenance now 
falls as a charge on the City's cash. 

6. Educational Institutions. — The 
Corporation is a great Educational 
Authority, It maintains the City 
of London School for Boys; the 
(xuildhall School of Music; the 
Freemen's Orphan School, partly 
maintained by fees on the admis- 
sion of persons to the Freedom of 
of the City, but mainly by the 
Corporation ; and the City of Lon- 
don School for Girls (founded by 
William Ward). There is also the 
Guildhall Library and Reading 
Room, free to all, the Guildhall 
Mnseum, and the Cori>oration Art 
Gallery. The Corporation also has 
certain powers under the various 
Education Acts. 

7. Port Sanitary Authority. — The 
Corporation had, until 1857, the 
charge of the whole Conservancy of 
the Thames, and is still represented 
on the Conservancy Board by six 
Conservators. It is the Port Sani- 
tary Authority, exercising the sani- 
tary rights over the whole Port of 
London from Teddington Lock to 
about three miles beyond the Nore, 
maintaining a medical officer, staff 
of inspectors, a hospital, &c., entirely 
out of its own funds. 

8. County Purposes. — The County 
Purposes Committee of the Corpora- 
tion does duties which are very much 
akin to those of the Public Control 
Department of the London County 
Council. It'carries out the Weights 
and Measures Acts, the Explosives 
Act, the Petroleum Acts, the Shop 
Hours Act, and the Gas and Water 
Acts (testing gas, &c.), and other 
Acts. 



100 



Corporation of the City of London, 



9. Lunacy AccommoAation.—^he 
City of London Lunatic Asylum, 
is situated at Stone, near Dart- 
ford, Kent, and is under the man- 
agement of a Committee of Visitors. 
Tne Asylum was erected by the 
Corporation at its own expense, 
and not out of rates, and has been 
considerably enlarged,and is in every 
way in a flourishinsr condition. 

10. Charitable Inatitutiona. — The 
Corporation has an extensive con- 
nection with hospitals and chari- 
table institutions. It appoints 
Governors to St. Thomas s. St 
Bartholomew's, Bridewell and Beth- 
lehem, and Christ's Hospitals, and 
the Lord Majror is the head of the 
Eoyal Hospitals (except Christ's 
Hospital), the Lon Ion Almshouses 
at Brixton, and a lar^^e number of 
almshouses and chanties. He was 
also head of Emanuel Hospital, 
Westminster, but that bui'ding has 
been lately demolished, and 60 out- 
pea sions substitute! for the alms- 
houses. Vacancies on the Com- 
mittee of Management of Morden 
College, Blackheath, are filled iip 
from the Court of A.ldermen. it 
has generously contributed to the 
support of charitable institutions 
(no less than £1,214,587 out of the 
City's cash during the past cen' ury), 
although its funds for that purpose 
are now less than formerly. 

The Lord Mayor. 

The Lord Mayor of London re- 
ceives an allowance of £10,000 a year, 
but invariably expends from his pri- 
vate means considerably more. 
The way to the Mayoralty is by the 
Aldermanic Bench. Every Alder- 
man becomes in due time Lord 
Mayor unless he previously dies, or 
resigTis his position, or fails to secure 
election by nis aldermanic brethren. 
First elected an Alderman by the 
ratepayers of his Ward, then by the 
Liverymen (members of the various 



City Companies), in Common Hall, 
as Sheriff ; and on his nomination as 
Lord Mayor by the Liverymen, the 
final choice of the Lord Mayor is 
made by the Court of Aldermen, to 
whom two names are submitted. 
They almost invariably endorse the 
selection of the Liverymen, and it is 
the senior Alderman, who has not 
passed the Chair, who is usually 
elected. 

The Lord Mayor and 
Aldermen. 

The Wards after the following names 
represent the Wards the respective Alder- 
men now sit for, and the date gives the 
year each Alderman uoa^ elected Lord 
Idayor, 

Lord Ma.yor. 

Bight Hon. Sir John Charles Bell, Knt. 
(Coleman-street), Mansion House. 

. Aldermen. 

Sir J. Whittaker Ellis, Bart. (Broad Street. 

1881). 18. Old Brojid-street. 
Sir Henry Edmund Knight (Cripplegate. 

1882). 75, Aldermanbury. 
Sir Joseph Savory, Bart. (Bridge Without, 

1890). 31. Lombard-street. 
Sir Walter Wilkin, k.c.scg. (Lime Street, 

1895).47, St. Mary-axe. 
Sir George F. Faudel-Phillips. Bart.. 

o.c.i.E. (Farringdon Within, 1896), 40, 

Newgate street. 
Lieut.-Ool. Sir H. Davies, K.c.ic.o. (Bishops- 
gate. 1897) . 23, Great St. Helen's. 
Sir Alfred James Newton. Bart.. (Bassi- 

shaw. 1839), 3, New-square, Lmcoln's-inn, 

W.C. 
Sir Marcus Samuel, But. (Portsoken, 1902), 

19 and 21. Billiter-street, B.C. 
Sir James Thomson Ritchie, Bart. (Tower. 

19X5), 6. Lime-street, E.G. 
Sir John Pound. Bart. (Aldgate, 1892), 84, 

Leadinhall-street. E.G. 
Sir Walter Vaughau Morgan. Bart. (Cord- 

wainer. 1892) , 42, Gannon-street, B.C. 
Sir William P. Treloar, Bart. (Farringdon 

Without, 1903), 68-70, Ludgate hill. E.G. 

The following have not passed the 
Ghair :— 

F. P. Alliston (Bread-street), 45, Friday-sk. 

Sir T. V. Bowa^er. Knt. (Gastle Baynard). 
159, Queen Victoria-street, E.G. 

Dj.vid Burnett (Gaadlewick), 15, Nicholas- 
lane. 

Sir T. B. Grosby, Knt., m.d. (Langbourn), 
135, Penchurch-street. 

W. .\t. Guthrie (Cornhill),9, Idol-lane. 

F. S. Hanson (Billingsgate), 47, Botolph- 
lane, E.G. 



Corporation of the City of Lmidon. 



101 



F. Howse, (Walbrook), 3, Baiters' Hall- 
court, B.C. 
C. Johnstone (Aldersgate). 17 and 18, 

Aldensgate-street. 
Sir John Knill, Bart. (Bridge). Fresh 

Wharf, London-bridge. 
W. C. Simmons (Vintry), Hill-street, Fins- 

bury, B.C. 
Sir H. G. Smallman, Knt. (Cheap), 8. 

Queen-street. 
Sir T. V. Strong, Knt. (Queenhithe), 196 

and 197. Upper Thames-street. 
Sir G. W. Truscott, Knt. (Dowgate). 3, 

Suffolk-lane. 

Sheriffs. 
Alderman D. Burnett. 15, Nicholas- lane. 
C. C. Wakefield, 27, Cannon-street. 

Unoeb Sheriffs. 
C. G. Algar, 17, Abchurch-lane. 
J. D. Langton, 2, Paper-buildings, Temple. 

The Deputies awd Common Council 
OF THE Several Wards. 

Aldersgate. 
Ellis, T. H., Dep., 90, Aldersgate-street. 
Goodinge, J. W.,Dep., f.r.o.s., 16, Alders- 
gate-street. 
Green, R., 81. Aldersgate-street. 
Haydon, D., 21. Noble-street. 
Janes, T. M.. lui, Aluersgate-street. 
Smvth, K... 133, Aldersgate-street. 
Stollery, R. N., 88. Aldersgate-street. 
Wild, 6. L., 3, Barbican. 

Aldgate. 
Wurhara, C 14, Aldgate. 
KUia. T..23, llilliti?r'dtreet. 
Hammond, J. ii.,Tl, Mark Iniic. 
HAy*Mmi> O,. 109» Fenclnirelii-^tt'tH'L 
JeuTiinga. G. V. H..69, l^aiJeuhftll s^triMi. 
MelUws, P, G.,9i Ft'Ui'biirL-li b liliJtiitfB 
Homacm, P., Dep., &a» Lisadeuliull ^EiLit. 
I'utinil, J. L,. 04, l^eudi^ohuM silm^r, 

Baasishaio. 

Beard, W. J. W., 10, Basinghall-street. 

Lee, E., Dep., 1. Gresham-buildings. 

Pittman, J. B., 17 and 18, Basinghall-street. 

Preen, H. E., f.c.a., 17 and 18, Basinghall- 
street. 

Billingsgate, 

Ansted, £., 19, Eastcheap. 

Bird, H., F.8.8., St. Magnus House, 7, Monu- 
ment-street. 

HoweU, J. G., 69 and 105, Billinsrsgate 
Market. 

Miller. T. H.. 6, Rood-lane. 

Morris, S. W.. 6 and 8, Eastcheap. 

Russell, H. W.. 7, Coal Exchange. 

Sayer, J. L., Dep., 27, Monument-street. 

Seaman, £., 14, St. Mary-at-Hill. 

Bishopsgate, 
Ardley, E., 15, Great St. Helen's. 
Bamberger. L., 9, Liverpool-street. 
Bull, W., 5 and 6, Bishopsgate-st. Without. 
Dimn, Sir W. H., Knt., j.p., 11, St. Helen's- 
place. 



Elkan, J., 35, Liverpool-street. 
Fitch. E. F.. 66. Bishopfigate-street Within. 
Freeman. T.. 187. Palmerrton House. 
Greenaway. D.. Dep., 30. Camomile-street. 
RobiiiFon. J. S..8S. Bishoppgatest. Without. 
Robiuson, T., 119, Bishopsgate- st. Without. 
Taylor. G.. 131, Bishopsgate-st. Without. 
Thf.mas. C. J., 202. Blshopsga^e-street 

Without. 
Tollworthy. J.. 3a. Broad-street House. 
Wagstaff. A.. Dep., 48, Bishopsgate-street 

Within. 

Bread-street. 
Alliston, P.. 46. Friday-Street. 
Coates. 8. D.. Dep., 15. Friday-street. 
Selinconrt. W. de. 16 and 18. Cannon-street. 
Scott. J. A.. 11. Distaff-lane. 
Smith, A. B.. 43, Friday-street. 
Steinberg. G. H.. 38. Bread-street. 
Wakefield. C. C. 27, Cannon-f-treet. 
Worskett, S. A., 45a. Cheapside. 

Bridge, 
Barnes, W. G., Dep., Fishmongers' Hall 

Offices, Upper Thames-street. 
Bowles, F. D., j.p., 3, Adelaide-place, 

London-bridge. 
Deighton. T. H.. 44. King William-street. 
Hacker. W., 4. Arthur-street East. 
Roll, J.. 3. Adelaide-place. London-bridge. 
PepysSquire, H., 38a. King William street. 
Timbrell. A. W.. 44. Kina William-street. 
Williamson. W. H., Monument House, 

Monument-square. 

Broad-street. 
Brown. W. H.. 2a, Copthall-court. 
Davies, R., j.p.. 10 and 11, Austinfriars. 
Edwards. R. W.. Dep., 1. Drapers' -gardens. 
Hale, W. W.. 15. Austinfriars. 
Hartridge, C, 24. Austinfriars. 
Marcus. Capt. L. G., 28, Austinfriars. 
Neal. W. P., 4. Pinner s Hall, Old Broad- 
Thompson, Lt.-Col. J. S., 7, Copthall-court. 
Candlewick. 

Algar, C. G., Dep,, 17. Abchurch-lane. 

Dennis, W., 143. Cannon-street. 

Wlis, G. E., F.R.MET.8., 63, King William- 
street. 

Game, C, 16 and 17, Nicholas-lane. 

Gill, A., 1, Arthur-street West. 

Lamb, E. H., a.i.e.e., m.p., 37, King 
Williato-street. 

Castle Baynard. 
Brough, J. R., 29-32, Warwick-lane. 
Callard, T. B., 75, St. Paul's-chnrchyard. 
Clemeutl-Smith. the Rev. P., m.a., St. 

Andrew's Rectory. St. Andrew's-hill. 
Evans, J. L., 29, Knightrider-street. 
Hudson, A. B., f.s.i., Dep., 16, Godliman- 

Hunter, C. V., a.r.i.b.a.. Wardrobe-cham- 
bers, Queen Victoria-street. 
Waun, J ., 161 and 153, Queeu Victoria-street. 
Wither. C. M., 17, Old Change. 



102 



Corporation of the City of London. 



Cheap, 
Anning. E. J., v.b.8., 78, CheapRide. 
Beningfleld, Col. J. W., 17, King-street. 
Newton, L. A.. 109, Cheapeide. 
Pakeman, J. R., 11, Ironmonger- lane. 
Pamwell, S., Dep., 1, Queen-street. 
Read, A. W., 94 and 95, Cheapside. 
Thomas, W. H., 18, Ironmonger-lane. 
Tickle, J., 2, Crown-conrt, Cheapside. 

Coleman-street, 

Brinsley-Harper, F., 15, Old Jewry-cham- 
bers. 

Cambden, W., 9, Finsbury-pavement. 

Dove, H. S., 2, Tokenhonse-buildings. 

Gunton, J., Finsbury House, Blomflcld- 
street. 

Painter, F. G., 19, Coleman-street. 

Wallington, Major C, p.c.a., 4, Tokenhonse- 
buildings. 

Woodman, Sir G. J.,Knt., J.P., Bep., Jewry 
House, 27 and 28, Old Jewry. 

Williams, J. H., 46 and 47, London-wall. 

Cordwainer. 
Bennet, J. F., 82, Queen-street. 
Dean, F., 40, Bow-lane. 
Edwards, G., Dep.,F.R.i.B.A.,52, Cannon-st. 
Hepburn, H. F., 8, Pancras-lane. 
Hughes, E., 12, Well-court, Bow-lane. 
Whiteley, C. P., 82, Queen-street. 

Cornhill, 
Atkins, C. E., 6, Cowper's-court, Cornhill. 
Goldney, T., 4, Castle-court. 
Sewill, M. R., 4, Castle-court. 
Stopher, J., 48, Cornhill. 
Summers, H. A., 38, Cornhill. 
Wilkinson, M., Dep., 3, St. Michael's-alley. 

Cripplegate Within. 
Briggs, G., 2, Little Love- lane. 
Oatley, W., 25, Aldermanbury. 
Palmer, A. E., 15 and 16, Aldermanbury. 
Rider, T. F., 25, Gutter-lane. 
Rogers, Sir R. H., Knt., Dep., 11, Addle-st. 
Stapley, R., 128, London- wall. 
Time, A., 19, Addle-street. 
Wye, T. H., 35, Milk-street. 

Cripplegate Without 
Baddeley, J. J., j.p., Dep., Chapel Works, 

Moor-lane. 
Double, A., P.8.8., 91, Fore-street. 
Dyas, R., 63, Fore-street. 
Tiake, J., 31 and 32, Fore-street. 
Peters, L. B., 41 and 43, Moorflelds. 
Swinstead, B. T., 15, Well-street. 
Tranter, G. T. S., 6, 7. 8, 9, and 21, Bridge- 

water-square. 
Westerby, J., 59, Redcross-street. 

Dowgate, 
Berridge, G. J., 174, Upper Thames-street. 
Corbould-Ellis, C. F., 14, Clement's-lane. 
Haywood, E. H., 95, Upper Thames-street. 
Mathews, J. D., f.b.i.b.a.., F.s.i.,Dep.,ll, 

Dowgate-hill. 
Sluzenger. R., 10, Ducksfoot-lane. 
btanham, G. G., 26 and 27, Bush-lone. 



Farringdon Within. 
North Side. 
Collins, D. G.. 118, Newgate-street. 
Crawford, T., m.b.a.a., f.b.a.s., 35, Lndgate- 

hill. 
Cuthbertson. C. J., Dep., 28. Lndgate-hilL 
Fletcher, B. F., 29, New-bridge-street. 
Pitman, W. H., 30, Newgate-street. 
Peachey, R., 2 and 3, Warwick-lane. 
Wild, J. B., 34-40, Ludgate-hill. 

South Side. 
Brinsley, H. G. W., 30 & 31, New Bridge-st, 
Brooke-Hitching, Sir T., Knt., 29, Lud- 
gate-hill. 
Dor6e, H. J., 104, Newgate-street. 
Grossmith, J. L., Dep., 29, Newgate-street. 
Sandle, S. J., 54 to 57, Paternoster-row. 
Whitaker, C. W., 12, Warwick-lane. 
Wells, H. H., 17, Patemceter-row. 

Farringdon Without. 

North Side. 

Cooper, W., 26 and 27, London Central Meat 

Market. 
Hentschel, C, 182. 183, 184, Fleet-street. 
Key, W. H., 262, London Central Meat 

Market. 
Lile, J. H., J.P., 4, Ludgate-circus. 
Lavington, G., 68 and 69, Old Bailey. 
Link, F., j.f., 210, London Central Meat 

Market. 
Marshall, Sir H. B., Knt., j.p., m.a., I.L.D., 

Temple House, Temple-avenue. 
Turner, B., Dep., 50, Bartholomew-close. 

South Side. 

Alderton, S., 96, Cheapside. 

Barnes, H., j.p., 149, Fleet-street. 

Bower, A. L., 160, Fleet-street. 

Fortescue, N., j.p.. Block A., Dean-street, 
Fetter-lane. 

Jerrold-Nathan, A., 17, Farringdon-avenne. 

Morton, A. C, m.p., Dep., 124, Chancery- 
lane. 

Wilkinson, C, 5, East Harding-street. 

Woodbridge, T. A., 5, Serjeant's-inn, 
Fleet-street. , 

Langhoum. 

Cloudsley, J., j.p., 13, Cullnm-street. 
Cross, W; M., 1. Change-alley. 
Domoney, J. W., 155, Fenchurch-street. 
Harris, C. T., j.p., Dep., 39, Fenchurch-st. 
Kimber, H. D., 79, Lombard-street. 
Layton, J., 3, Mincing- lane. 
Liversidge, W. H., Ship Tavern-] 

Leadenhall Market. 
Rnntz, Sir J. J., Knt., j.p., 33, Nicholas 

Lime-street. 

Barrett, J.. Dep., 7, Leadenhall-street. 
Brown, J. K., 29, Leadenhall Market. 
Moojen, H. E., 140, Leadenhall-street. 
Singer, H. D., 47, St. Mary Axe. 

Portaoken, 
Aarons, B., 46, Houndsditch. 
Barber, A. H., 93, Minories. 



Corpc/ration of the City of London, 



103 



Fraenkel, S.. 129, Houtdsditch. 
Harris, J., j.p., 146, Minories. 
Hollington. A. J.. 9, Middlesex-street. 
Metcalfe, P. S., 15, Minories. 
Myers, L. M., Dep„ 147, Minories. 
Redding, J. J., 89. Minories. 

Queenhttke. 
Bond, E. E., 22, Great St. Helen's. 
Pimm, T., 12, Garlick-hill. 
PoUitzer, S., 29, Upper Thrime^-street. 
Pryke, W. R., Dep., 40 and 41, Upper 

'L'hames-street. 
Ten ten, C. A., 221, Upper Thames-street. 
Todd, C. J., 18, Bread-street-hill. 

Tot€er, 
Adams. T., 91, Great Tower-street. 
Paman, P., 9, Mincing- lane. 
Green, W. W., 147, Fenchurch-street. 
Hall, Captain B. G., D.L., Commercial Sale 
Booms, Mark-lane. 



Heath, H. H., j.p., Dep., 39, Great Tower 

street. 
Hamphenr* Major J., 8, Great Tower-street. 
Perkins, J., f.b.o.s.. 90, Lower Thames-st. 
Smith, C. E., 11, Jewry -street, Aldgate. 

Vintry, 
Dray. F. G., 23, College-hill. 
Duufee, Lieut.-Col. V., 23, Queen-street. 
Monckton. A., 189, Upper Thames-street. 
Spencer, S.. a.i.c.b.. 14, Great St. Thomas 

Apostle. 
T ppett4. W. J. B.. 11, Maiden-lane. 
Wallace, M.. j.p., Dep., 181a, 

Thames-street. 

Walbrook, 
Green, E. H.. 17, St. Swithin's-lane. 
Heilbuth, G. H., 15, Walbrook. 
Jennings, C. F. J., 27. Walbrook. 
King. W. P., 15, Walbrook. 
Luck. J. R. W., Dep,, 23, Walbrook. 
Monckton, H. P., 32. Walbrook. 



Upper 



COMMITTEES OP THE CORPORATION. 

( Days of Monthly Meetings except in the Month of August.) 



Irish Society 



. Fourth Tuesday (except in the months 
of February, August, and September). 
&c. 

, Second Wednesday. 
. Third Monday. 
. Third Tuesday. 



Estates, 

City Lands Committee 

Bridge House Estates Committee 

Coal and Corn and Finance Committee ... 

Public Health. 

Improvements and Finance Committee Second Friday. 

Streets Conmiittee Fortnightly meetings 

Third Tuesdays. 
Sauitary Committee Pourtii Tuesday. 

Public Service. 

Police Committee Last Wednesday. 

Port of London Sanit:iry Committee First Tuesday. 

County Purposes Committee Fourth Monday. 

Markets : 

Central Markets Committee First Wednesday. 

Cattle Markets Committee Third Wednesday. 

Billingsgate and Leadenhall Markets Committee Third Friday. 
Educational : 

Library Committee First Monday. 

City of London Schools Committee First Wednesday. 

Orphan School Committee Second Tuesday. 

Music Committee Third Monday. 

Domestic : 

General Purposes Committee Third Wednesday. 

Officers and Clerks Committee Fourth Monday. 

Law and City Courts Committee Second Monday. 

Additional : 

Gresham Committee 

Eppiug Forest Committee 

West Ham Park Committee 

Accounts Committee (Public Health) 
Visiting Committee City of London Asylum 



First and 



Special (Port of London) Committee 
linementary Education Committee 

Special Committee 

Distress Committee 



No fixed day. 

Second Monday. 

Thursdays, when necessary. 

First Tuesday. 

Alternate Thursday s with the'Court of 

Common Council. 
No fixed day. 



104 



Corporation of the City of London. 



Chief Officers of the 
Corporation. 

Ebcorder. — The Recorder is the 
senior law officer of the Corporation. 
He is elected for life by the Court 
of Aldermen, but is subject to the 
approval of His Majesty before exer- 
cising judicial functions. He advises 
the Lord Mayor and Aldermen in all 
matters relating to law, appearing, 
if required, as the advocate of t"he 
Corporation, presides over the 
Mayor's Court, sits as a Judge at 
the Central Criminal Court, and as 
Legal Assessor at the Court of 
Quarter Sessions, and attends the 
Courts of Aldermen and Common 
Council, &c. 

The City Chamberlain is the 
Corporation's treasurer and banker. 
He keeps the freeman's roll, and has 
jurisdiction over apprentices in the 
City. " The Chamber of London " 
has been a department of great im- 
portance in the development of 
City government, and was formerly 
vested in the Crown. 

Town Clerk.— The Town Clerk 
is the centre of the Corporation and 
Committee work, attending all 
meetings and advising on all points 
of procedure, &c. 

Common Serjeant.— A Judge 
at the Central Criminal Court and 
the Mayor's Court, a law officer of 
the Corporation — ^^acting in the ab- 
sence of the Recorder— and attend- 
ing the Lord Mayor on public and 
ceremonial occasions. 

Comptroller.— The Conveyan- 
cing Officer of the Corporation and 
one of its Law Officers. He acts as 
Agent of its Estates, including those 
of the Bridge House, and is custodian 
of its Title Deeds, Leases, etc. He 
is also the Vice- Chamberlain, and 
ajts for the Chamberlain in his 
absence, or during a vacancy in the 
office. 



City Rbmembrincer. — Thi^ 
official arranges the cerem.onial 
duties connected with the Corpora- 
tion, and acts as Parliamentar}^ 
agent, aiid is also a law officer. 

The City Solicitor conducts 
legal proceedings and prosecatioii8 
on behalf of the Corporation, pre- 
pares Acts of Common Council. 
Bye-laws, &c., and performs a large 
amount of le^al duties in connection 
with the various Committees and 
Departments of the Corporation and 
its property. He is a law officer of 
the Corporation, and the City 
Bailiff. He also acts as Legal 
Assessor to the City Justices, as the 
Lord Mayor's Legal Adviser at 
Municipal Elections, and as Legal 
Adviser to the Commissioner of 
City l*olice. 

The Secondary is the executive 
officer under the Sheriffs, and exer- 
cises judicial functions in connection 
with Writs of Enquiry, makes up 
the register, and superintends elec- 
tions, both in London and South- 
wark. 

The City Surveyor is respon- 
sible for makiitg surveys and valua- 
tions of all corporate estates. 
whether Trust property or otherwise, 
and advises as to letting of pro- 
perty, &c. 

CITY OFFICERS. 

Those marked (•) are of His Majesty's Com- 
mission of Lieutenancy for the City of 
London. 

A In the Appointment of the Court of 

Aldermen. 
B In the Appointment of the Court of 

Commoti Council. 
C In the Approval of the Court of 

Comm,on Council. 
D In the Appointment of the Livery. 
E In the ^Appointment of the Library 

Committee. 
F In the Appointment of the Police 

Committee. 
6 In the Appointment of the Cattle 

Markets Committee. 
H In the Appointment of the County 

Purposes Committee. 
I In the appointmerU of the Crotcu, 



Oorporation of the City of London. 



105 



Elected. 

A 1900 *itecorder— Sir Forrest Fulton. Knt., 

K.C., £4,000. 
I> 1902 *Chamberlain—Rt. Hon. Sir J. C. 

D.msdale. Bart, K.c.y.o., £3,000. 
B 1902 *Town Clerk— J&mes Bell, £2,500. 
I 1930 *Common Serjeant — Sir F. A- 

Bosinquet, Knt., K.c, j.p., 

£3.OD0. 
I 1901 Judges of the City of London Court 

— •Lumley Smith. k.c., £2^». 

James Alexander Kenton I, ll.d., 

K.C.. £2.000. 
B 1901 Judge of the SherifT 8 Court, holdffn 

for the PoiUtry Compter— 
•Lnmley Smith, k .c. 
B 1901 Judge of the Sheriffs* Court, 

holden for the Gilttpur-etreet 

Compter — James Alexander 

Rentonl, ll.d., k.c. 
C 1900 Aasiatant Judge of the Mayor's 

Court~Y. S. Jackson, £1,500. 
B 1902 Commissioner of the City Police— 

Captain J. W. Nott Bower, £1,250. 
B 1898 Comptroller of the Chamber and 

of the Bridge House Estates— 

•E. A. Baylis, £2.000. 
B 1903 Remembrancer —Jl, D. W. Pol- 
lock. £1,500. 
B IMS Solicitor— *Sir Homewood Craw- 
ford, Knt., £2,500. 
B 1905 Secondary and High Bailiff of 

Southwark—W. Hayes b.a.. 
B 1901 MedicalOtncerof Health— Willmm 

CoUinfcridge, m.a., h.d., ll.m. 
B 1901 Coroner for London and South- 

wark—V. J. Waldo, m.a., m.d. 
A 1900 Steward of Southwark—Hii Forrest 

Fulton, Knt., k.c. 
B 1895 Clerk of the Peace— AUred Read, 

£500. 
B 1905 CitySurreyor— 8. Perks., P.R.I. B. A.. 
B 1905 Engineer and Surveyor (P.H.D.) 

^F. Sumner, m.i.c.b. 
B 1906 Head Master of the City of 

London School— tiev. A. Chilton, 

D.D., M.A., £1,000. 
B 1890 Head Master of the Freemen's 

Orphan School— K. E. Mon- 
tage, M.A.. £500. 
B 1894 Head Mistress of the City of 

London School for Girls— Miss 

Alice Eiiza Blagrrave, b.a. 
B 1900 Registrar of the Mayor's Cmirt— 

David Harrison, £750. 
B 1907 Sword Bearer — Lieut-Col. J. C. 

Ker-Fox, m.a 
1907 Common Cryer and Serjeant-at- 
Arms— Lieut.-CoL T. J. Keams. 

£300. 
R W88 Librarian—^. M. Borrajo. 
B 1886 Director of the Art Gallery— K, 

G. Temple, ¥.s.a. 
B 1890 Second Master of the City of 

Londxm School— ¥, W. Hill, 

M.A.. £600. 
P 1885 Surgeon of Police Force— F. G. 

Brown, m.r.c.s.eho.. £600. 



Elected. 

B 1901 Medical Officer of Health of the 

Port of London— H.Williams.M.D. 
B 1901 Public Analyst— Vmnk L. Teed. 

0.8C. (London), f.i.c. 
1887 Medical Superintendent City of 

London Asylum — R, H. Steen, 

M.D. 

A 1837 Clerk to the Lord Mayor— C, 6. 

Douglas, £1,150. 
A 1887 Clerk to the Sitting Justices— 

H. G. Savill, £1,000. 
B 1889 Registrar of the City of London 

Court— J. A. Wild, £1,700. 
B 1892 High Bailiff of the City of Lon- 
don Court— J, B. Sly, £600. 
B 1892 Gas Examiner— Vrot V. B. Lewes. 

F.C.S., F.I.C, F.P.8.. £400. 
F 1885 Police Receiver— J, W. Carlyon- 

Hughes, £700. 
A 1837 Assistant Clerk to Lord Mayor— 

J. G. Trotter, £650. 
A 1888 Assistant Clerk to Sitting 

Justices, Gui£d/uiU— S.Bichards. 

£500. 
A 1893 Clerk and Cashier at Justice 

Room, Mansion House— R. A. 

Warren. 
A 1895 Cashier and Accountant at Chiild- 

hall Justice Room — J. H. 

Major. £250. 
B — Clerk of the Coal Market — 

[Vacant]. 
B 1880 Keeper of Guildhall— J. Gannon, 



B 1907 Marshal-A. E. Wood, £300. 

B 1887 Clerk and Superintendent of 
Leadenhall Market — H. G. 
Price, £250. 

B 1904 Clerk and Superintendent of 
Metropolitan Cattle Market, 
and Veterinary Inspector to 
the Corporation— J. King, £603. 

G 1871 Clerk and Superintendent of 
Foreign Cattle Market— G. Phil- 
cox, £900. 

B 1904 Clerk and Superintendent of Lon- 
don Central Meat and Poultry 
and Pro vision Markets— H . W. G. 
Millman. £535. 

B 1906 Clerk and Superintendent of 
Billingsgate Market — James 
O'Neill. 

B 1883 Deputy Gauger—T, Moody. 

B 1903 Serjeantat-Mace—n. Fitch. 

B 1908 Deputy Serjeant - at • Mace — 
[Vacant]. 

B 1896 Assistant to the Registrar, City of 
London Court— E. B. Tattershall, 
Clerks in City of Lond(m Court— 

B 1867 B. T. Jackson. 

B 1871 G. E. Cooper. 

B 18 3 W. J.Betteildire. 

B 1883 H. E. Maynard. 

B 1885 W. Taylor. 

B 1888 J. T. Mattison. 



IC6 



Corporation of the City of London. 



Elected. 

B 1889 H. W. Lake. 
B 1890 S. Benjamin. 
B 1893 H. A. Ince. 
B 1890 J. C. Bonus. 
B 1895 A. Phillips. 
B 1895 R. E. Claridge. 
B 1900 S. A. Crabb. 
B 1900 R. A. Woodhead. 
B 1900 A. A. Jarvis. 
B 1900 H. C. Hughes. 
B 1904 P. Lacey. 

(and others). 
B 1834 Official Shorthand Writer, City of 

London Court— H.. A. Grover. 
Bailiffs of City of London Court-w 
B 1862 G. Hurdle. 
B 1874 W. B. Marnham. 
B 1884 E. H. Watson. 
B 1890 T. Gyatt. 
B 1892 J. S. Murdoch. 
B 1894 R. Saunders. 
B 1895 F. K. Rowe. 
B 1895 R. A. Linden. 
B 1902 Clerk and Usher to City of London 

Court—B., Bedggood. 
B 1899 Usher to City of London Court— 

E. F. Ford. 
B 1880 First Assistant to Keeper of 

Quildhall—K. J. Glasspool. 
B 1907 Keeper of the Central Criminal 

Court— H. Harrison. 
Inspectors of Weights and Measures— 
H 1890 A. J. Street (Chief Inspector). 
H 1891 H. Dawkes. 
H 1891 J. Kyle. 
H 1891 T. AUchin. 

1886 Oas Meters Inspector— 3. Stratford. 
Inspector under Explosives and Petro- 
leum Acts — 
B 1906 E. H. Winny. 
B 1893 Inspector under Shop Hours Act 

— E. Jones. 
Sanitary Inspectors of the Port of 
London— 
B 1882 H. Spadaccini. 
B 1888 W. Anderson. 
B 1890 T. W. Bailey. 
B 1893 W. Romeril. 
B 1894 A. Garland. 
B 1899 W. S. Wetjen. 
B 1899 W. W. Burr. 
B 1899 H. R. Hopkins. 
B 1900 P. R. Lamb. 
B 1901 J. H. Rolfe. 

Bridge Masters— 
D 1902 C. F. Crawford. 
D 1903 C. Norris. 
Auditors of the City atid Bridge House 
AcAioiints— 
D 1906 Col. E. T. R. Wilde 
D 1906 H. Pratt. 
D 1907 A. J. Apthorp?. 
1907 A. S. A. Dodson. 



Elected. 

Guildhall School of Music. 
B 1896 Principal— W, H. Cummings, Mus. 

Doc, P.8.A., £1,000. 
B 1901 Secretary— Henry Saxe Wyndham, 

£360. 
B 1881 Lady Superintendent— Mvs. C. P. 

Smith, £200. 

In the Gift of the Court of Common 
Council. 

1901 Rectory of St. Peter, Cornhill— 
Rev. George Bell Doughty, b.a. 

1507 Rectory of St. Maraaret Pattens 
and St. Gabriel Fenchurch 
{alternate icith the Crown). 
—Rev. St. B. S. Sladen. m.a. 
(presented by the Corporation). 

1895 Rectory of St. James, Ihike's- 
pUice, and St. Catherine Cree 
{alternate with Magdalene Col- 
lege, Cambridge)— B^v. J. Miles, 
M.A. (presented by Magdalene 
College). 

1886 Vicarage of St. Bartholomsw, 

Bethnal-green—B/dY. A. R. Cle- 
mens, M.A. 

1887 Vicarage of St. Mark, Victoria 

Docks— Rev. S. S. Smsrth, a.k.c. 

1897 Rectory of St. George-the-Martyr, 
Southwark {once m every three 
by Corporation, other two by 
Lord Chancellor)— Rev. W. J. 
Sommerville, b.a., a.jk:.c. (pre- 
sented by the Coi-poration). 

1901 Vicarage of St. Cyprian, Lewis- 
ham {twice in every three by 
Corporation ; other hy Lord 
Chancellor)— Rev, W. V. Mason. 
M.A. (presented by Corporation). 

1903 Vicarage of St. Peter, Bethnal- 
green— Rev. W. H. Maynard, m.a. 
Vicarage of St. Mark, Clerken- 
well, and Vicarage of St, Osicald, 
Fulham— The vicars of these 
were not appointed by the Cor- 
poration. 

Clerks In the Several Corporation 
Offices at Guildhall. 

Chamberlaiit's Office. — Principal 
Clerk— G. A. Pickering. Chief Cashier 
— G. H. Payne. Rent Cashier~W, S. 
Singer. Clerks— J. Payne, A. P. Lloyd, 
P. O. Pickering, J. A. Cherry, H. V. 
Hudson. A. J. C. Holder, U. J. Baker, 
L. C. Middlemore, and F. D. Jewson. 

Officers' Pension Fund Cierfc— E. Pugh. 

Towir Clerk's Office (Gbiteral Dk- 
PARTMES^T).— Principal Clerk— H. C. 
Overall. Committee Clerks— A. Saun- 
ders, A. M. Nortier, T. H. Hull, and W. 
Bates. Assistant Clerks— T, L. Sayer. 
H. S. Smith, A. V. Cox, F. J. Craker, 
and F. C. Bune. Markets Department— 
F. J. Pullan, J. R. LeveringtoQ. jun. 
and R. J. Haworth. 

Recdrds Clerk— R, R. Sharpe, d.c.i,. 



Corporation of the City of Lotidun, 



107 



Comptroller's Office,— Chief Clerk-' 

T. <^. Hancock. Cierfcs— V. P. Crowther- 

Smith, E. Na«h,C. N. G. Hyem, J. E. W. 

Harley. C. F. Porter. A. G. HoUingiim, 

H. V. Smith, and C. Newman. 

ELkmbmbr ANGER'S OppiCB. — Principal 
Clerk— J. D. Taylor. Clerks— J. Windsor. 
O. Jagged, E. F. Price, and others. 

Solicitor's Oppicb.— Priwcipat Clerk 
find, AsaiatarU Solicitor— T. u. Vickery. 
Clerks— A. Stanier, P. 8. Towell, H. 8. 
RiisseU. H. 8. Towell. W. N. Barle, W. A. 
Oakshott. and C. H. Feldon. 

Surveyor's Oppicbs. —Principai Clerk 
—A. L. Gosling. Clerks— if, H. Wil- 
liajns, A.R.I.B.A., T. B. W. Mossman, 
S. J. Crosskey, F. C. Read. R. Milnes, 
J. H. Willett, H. Richard, J. West, 8. 
Poole, J. P. Scriven, H. J. Lawes, R. 
Knowles, and others. 

Accountant Auditor.— J. A. Nicol. As- 
sistants— G. J. Lungley. C. G. Kelly, 
H. C. Roberts, F. R. Formoy, and T. V, 
Holt. 



Public Health Department. 

The Public Health Department 
carries on the work of the City 
Commission of Sewers, which was 
constituted in 1848 for the purpose 
of maintaining the streets and 
drains in the City. Its duties are to 
maintain, pave, and clean the streets 
within the City. The cleansing 
of the City involves the employ- 
ment of a large staff. It makes its 
own plant, carts, barrows, etc., in its 
own workshops, and has its own 
stud. The execution of the Health 
Acts devolves upon it, including 
the inspection of slaughterhouses 
and meat, and the clearance of in- 
sanitary areas. It is responsible for 
public lighting in the City, and for 
the execution of street improve- 
ments (to which the County Council 
may contribute when the improve- 
ment is of a metropolitan cha- 
racter), and for the inspection of 
factories and workshops. The 
Department maintains the City 
Cemetery, and artisans' dwellings, 
inhabited by 1,189 persons. (See 
the article on " The Housing of the 
Working Classes.") Recsntly the 
Department has taken over sewer 



cleansing, repairing, &c., formerly 
given out to contract. 

Town Clerk's OFPicB.—Pruicipat Clerk— 
H. M. Bates. Clerks— \u P. Hummers. 
W. P. Jiicknell, F. J. C. Helder, H. B. 
Healey, F. H. B. Ferris. J. B. Oxenham, 
W. V. L. Mallett, and J. G. Bland. 

Electrical Enghieer and Inspector— A. 

A. Voysey. Clerks— A. Roberts. A. J. 

8ale. 
Superintendent of City Cemetery—A, Bell. 
Medical Officer of Health's Office. 
Sanitary Clerk — H. B. Turner, f.i.c. 

Cierfcs— G. H. King, G. Lowe. 

Chief Inspector of Slaughterhouses and 

Meat and Sanitary Inspector— W, P. 

Terrett. 
Inspectors of Slaughterhouses and Meat 

atid Sanitary Inspectors — O. 8harp, 
W. E. Djwn, W. E. Kelland, H. Mettam, 
and T. L. Davies. 
Inspectors of Slaughterhouses and Meat 

— H. Jenkins and W. Elgin. 
Sanitary Inspectors and Inspectors 

under the Sale of Food and Drugs Acts 

—A. R. Hills, W. H. J. Gathercole, W. 

H. May. E. J. 8immoni«, F. J. Bobbins, 

W. H. Ralph, James Dunworth, ^nd 

Arthur Wheaton. 
Female Sanitary Inspectors— TAiaa A. J. 

Saflord and Miss M. M. Pole. 

Engineer's Office. 
Chief Assistant — J. G. Garthwaite, 

A.M.I.C.E. 

Second Assistant— W, A. Champion. 
Draughtsman— H, K. Blake, a.m.i.c.b. 
Correspondence Clerks— W, C. Ireland 

and L. R. Bradford. 
Measuring Clerk— ¥. W. Girven. 
Bill Cierfc— [Vacant]. 
Clerks— E. Clayton, and W. H. Noble. 
Architectural Draghtsman—J. G. Bune. 
Inspectors of Pavemejits—^. C. Gibbs, T. 

F. Oliver, and F. R. Bond. 
Inspector of Seicers—E. J. Winsborrow. 
Inspector of Gas Lightiiig, Siibways, and 

Overhead Wires— W. J. Liberty. 
Super imendent of Cleansing. — W. J. 

Heavey. 

In addition the Public Health Depart- 
ment has a large staff of weekly servants. 

Valuation and Rates Department— 
Principal Clerk— G. C. James. Rating 
Surveyor— V. C. Ryde. Clerks— L. V. 
Cockell, T. H. Strong, F. A. Woolls. 
W. B. Jones, H. H. Davey, C. G. Gould. 
J. Bedford, A. Berwick, H. R. Maynard, 
A. B. Bryan. 

OMce Rate Collectors— V, C. Brown, A. T. 
Pannell, M. F. Blake, T. G. McCheane, 
J. How, and W. J. A. Nichols. 



108 



Thames Conseroaficy. 



THAMES CONSERVANCY. 

Offices: Victoria Embankment, E.G. 

Meetings : Fortnightly on Mondays, at 11.30 a.ni. 



The Thames Conservancy is a cen- 
tral anthority whose jnrisdiction ex- 
tends from X antlet, m the estuary 
of the Thames in Kent, to thesonrce 
of the river in Gloucestershire. It 
has manifold duties to discharge. 
As a harbour authority it regulates 
the navigation of the greatest port 
in the world. It keeps the water- 
way clear for craft, provides moor- 
ings for ships and barges, has to 
remove all wrecka^'e, and pre- 
vent obstruction. It is charged 
with the prevention of pollution 
of the river and its tributaries 
from every cause, and in this de- 
partment has a staff of inspectors 
at work over the whole water- 
shed of the Thames, an area 
of 3,800 square miles. While 
the Conservancy looks after the 
interests of navigation on the river 
through its course from London 
to the sea, it also controls the plea- 
sure craft in the upper portion of 
the river. It builds and maintains 
locks and weirs, registers house-boats 
and all varieties of pleasure-boats. 
It discharges the duties of a Fisherv 
Board, and is an authority for deal- 
ing with explosives, which, until 
discharged, are under the super- 
vision of the Conservancy. The 
trade in explosives in the Port of 
London is probably the largest in 
the kingdom. 

The income of the Board is ob- 
tained from various tolls, fees, rents, 
licences, dues, and payments from 
the Metropolitan Water Board and 
Canal Companies. In 1906 the 
Water Boam and Canal Com- 

Einies paid £4,226 towards the 
ower Navigation Fund, and 
£33,002 towards the Upper Navi- 
gation Fund. £21,482 was re- 
ceived in tolls, and £28,150 in 



rents, dues, licences, &c. Tonnage 
dues on the Lower River amounted 
to £134,917. The income from the 
registration of house-boats, plea- 
sure-boats, &c., came to £2,851. 
These sums formed the receipts 
from all sources of revenue. 

The principal items ot expenditure 
were: establishment and working 
expenses, £44,312 ; repair and main- 
tenance, £17,975; ana for dredging 
and other purposes, £119,348. 

Under tne Thames Conservancy 
Act, 1905, the tonnage dues have 
been doubled for three years, from 
1st January, 1906, for the purpose 
of special dredging. 

The following is a list of the mem- 
bers of the Board, showing the 
method of appointment, or election: 
Cliavrman. — The Lord Desborougk 

of Taplow. 

Appointed by : — 
Admiralty. — Admiral Gr. S. Bosan- 

quet and Vice-Admiral R. W. 

Craigie. 
Board of Trade. — Lord Desborough 

and Hon. N. M. Farrer. 
Trinity House. — Bear- Admiral H. 

B. Stewart and Captain A. E. Bell. 
Gloucester and Wiltshire County 

Councils. — C. E. Hobhouse, M.P. 
Qjrfordshire County Council,— i. 

Darell-Blount. 
Qjcford City and County Borough.— 

Sir R. Buckell. 
Berks. County Council, — H. W. 

Bussell. 
Beading County Borough, — C. G. 

Field. 
Bucks. County Council, — ^A. Gilbey. 
Herts. County Council, — B»t. Hon. 

T. F. Halsey. 
Surrey County Council,— ^C Burt. 
Middlesex County Council, — J. Big- 
wood. 



Lee Gmiseroancy, 



109 



London County Council. — Sir J. 
McDoagall, Sir Edwin Cornwall, 
M.P., J. D. Gilbert, R. A. Robinson, 
S. Sankey, and E. White. 

Corporation qf London. — ^Alder- 
man Sir W. Wilkin, K.c.M.G., 
Alderman Sir J. T. Ritchie, Bart., 
W. Cooper, A. C. Morton, M.P., J. 
J. Baddeley, and J. W. Domoney. 

Essex County Council. — W. W. 
Glenny. 

West Hani County Borough. — W. 
Ivey. 

Kent County Council. — ^A. Tolhurst. 

Metropolitan Water 5oard.— E. B. 
Barnard, M.P. 

Elected by ;— 

SJiipowners. — Sir C. F. Cory- 
Wright, Bart., Sir T. V. S. Angier, 
and C. E. Brightman. 

Owners of sailing barges^ lighters, 
and steam tugs. — ^W. V. Williams 
and T. W. Jacobs, jun. 

DocJeowners. — S. E. Bates. 

Wharfingers. — J. A. Hnmphery. 

Meetings and Committees. 

The Board holds meetings fort- 
nightly on Mondajs at 11.30. a.m., 
apd largely carries on its work 
through committees, which meet 
weekly or fortnightly. The follow- 



ing are the chairmen of the stand- 
ing committees : — 
Lower River. — W. V. Williams. 
Finance Committee. — W. W. 

Glenny. 
U^per River. — J. Darell-Blount. 
River Purification.— Hit R. Buckell. 
Parliamentary. — C. Burt. 
General Purposes. — S. E. Bates. 

Chief Officers. 
Secretary. — R. Philipson. 
Engineer. —Charles J. More. 
Solicitor.— W. S. Bunting. 
Harlxmr Masters. — London, Captain 
R. S. Pasley ; Gravesend, Captain 
F. W. Kershaw ; and a staff of 513 
inspectors, boatmen, and other 
employees engaged on the river. 
The Board emplovs 14 inspectors, 
river keepers, toll collectors, and lock 
keepers from Teddington to Batter- 
sea Bridge. Eighteen innpectorH are 
employed on the River Purification 
service. A staff of 67 inspectors, 
lock keepers, and weir keeix;rs is 
engaged in connection with the 
Upper River, from Cricklade to 
Teddington. Under the engineer is 
employed a large staff of officers and 
workmen, engaged in works of con- 
struction and maintenance of exist- 
ing works. 



LEE CONSERVANCY. 

Offices : 12, Finsbury Circus, E.C. 

Meetings : Every Friday Fortnight, at 2.30 p.m. 



In addition to the powers of main- 
taining the navigation, the Lee 
Conservancy Board is charged 
with the duty of preventing the pol- 
lution of the water of the river ana its 
tributaries, extending over an area of 
about 600 square miles. The naviga- 
tion from London to Hertford is 29 
miles, with eighteen locks. 

The tolls charged come to about 
£15,000 a year, and other rents and 
licences £2,000. Rents are received 
from the Metropolitan Water Board 
amounting to &,000. The debt of 
the Board amounts to £184,032 
4 per cent. Perpetual Debenture 



Stock, and £20,550 3^ per cent. 
Redeemable Debenture Stock. 

In consequence of the pollution 
of the river Dy sewage from Totten- 
ham, the Lee Purification Act of 
1886 was passed, followed by the 
Tottenham and Wood Green Sewage 
Act of 1891, under the powers of 
which the London County Council 
now receives, in consideration of a 
certain payment, the whole of the 
sewage of Tottenham and district 
into the Metropolitan sewers. The 
same has also been done with the 
sewage of West Ham. 

Chairman — R. B. Croft. 



110 Police and Grime in LoncU)::, 

Appointed Members (10). Elected Members (6). 

Bedfordsliire County Council — Local Authorities in Hertfordshire— 

Edwin Oakley, J.P. Edmund Broughton Barnard, m.p. 

Hertfordshire County Council — Essex— Frederic Chaplin Edwards. 

Richard Benyon Croft (Chair- Middlesex— WHHfim Delhi Cornish, 

man), j.p., d.l. J-P- 
Essex County Council— Christopher Hackney, Poplar, and Stepney- 
George Musgi-ave, J.P. Job Bellsham. 
Middlesex County Oouncii— Herbert Parge - owners — Thomas Gardner, 

Nield, M.P. J-P- Officers 

London County Council - G. ^.;,^;, ^f ^^, Board^S. R. Hobday, 

Billmgs, J.P., and P. C. Simmons. Barrister-at-law. 

Corporation of London— Wilha.m Assis'ant Clerk (f the Board— 

Robert Pryke. Fredk. Dovey. 

Corporationof West Ham— 'RichsLrd Engineer and Manager— C. K. 

White, J.P. Tween, m.i.g.e. 

Metropolitan Water Board. — John Chief Collector— A. Glass. 

Sheehan, j.p., and Dr. R. M. Consulting and Analytical Gliemisi 

Beaton, j.p. — W. G. Young, F.i.c, F.c.s. 

POLICE AND CRIME IN LONDON. 
The jurisdiction of the Metropolitan Police Force (which was established 
in 1829 to supersede the old ** Charlies") extends over an area of 699 42 
square miles, and includes all districts within a fiftesn miles radius 
of Charing Cross, with the exception of the City of Lond -n, where 
a separate force is maintained. The mean rateable value of the 
police area for police purposes is nearly 63 millions (£52,911,670), but 
of the enormous actual value of pr-operty iti charge of the police 
it is impossible to form any estimate. For administrative purposes 
the area is divided into twenty-one divisions, each being under 
the immediate charge of a superintendent, and the sub-divisions under 
that of inspectors. The supreme control of the force is vested in a Chief 
Commissioner (appointed hy and actinoc under the control of the Home 
Office), who is assisted in his task by tnree Assistant C»mmissioners and 
five Chief Constables. The strength of the force on 23rd February, 1908, 
was 32 superintendents, 567 inspectors, 2,350 sergeants, and 15,010 con- 
stables, giving a total of 17,959 ; but of these nearly 2,000 were retained b}' 
the Government for service at the dockyards, military stations, and other 
State establishments. Under the existing system 60 per cent, of the force 
available for duty in the streets is required for night duty. Nearly 300 
mounted men patrol the more distant parts of the area, and assist in the 
inner divisions during processions and large meetings. A number of men, 
too, drawn principally irom the Navy, are engaged in policeing the River 
Thames by means of boats and steam launches. The cost of maintaining 
this huge organisation is over a million and three-quarters sterling, and the 
revenue is derived from the proceeds of a hd. rate (which in the year 1906 
brought in £1,097,574) and from a Government grant equal to a 4rf. 
rate. The pay of the force alone, including all ranks, was £1,526,685. 
Financial administration is under the control of a receiver, appointed by 
the Crown, who is responsible for the managemerjt and erection of police 
buildings, the making of contracts, and, in fact, all matters outside the 
preservation of law and order. 



Felice and Grime in London. 



lil 



During 1906» 110,897 persons were apprehended in London by the police, 
but of these only 14,037 were charged with "principal " or serious offences. 
As regards felonies relating to property, the proportion of such crime to 
the population was 2"391 per 1,000, the lowest yet recortled. The estimated 
value of the property stolen was £147,9t)3, a decrease ot £^{^{,055 on the 
previous year. 'I here were 445 burglaries and 1,459 housebreakings 
during the year, booty being secured to the value of £20,22*2, of which 
£4,421 was recovered. The murders nu ml Hired 17, and in two cases the 
trials resulted in capital sentences being passeil. The following tables set 
out the offences under their various heads : — 

Indictable Offences j 



Offence. 



Arrests, 



UiKharged g„„^rt,y ConTictad 



1. OFPEVCBSAaAIirST THE PERSON, such 

as murder, manslaaehter, assault, ' 
cruelty to children, &c ' Wi 

2. Offences against pbopbbtt with 

VIOLENCE, including burglary, 
robbery and a>saulr, Ac 1,092 

3. Offences against property with- 

out VIOLENCE, includtng larceny, 

embezzlement, false pretence^, , 

fraud 11,346 

4. Malicious injury to property . 79 

5. Purobry and offences against I 

the currency 175 

6. Other offences, including perjury, I 

libel, attempted suicide, habitual . 
drimkenness 920 



No n -Indictable Offences. 



226 


7 


472 


123 


25 


872 


2,450 
9 


6.7.9 
4 


1.794 
S7 


18 


- 


131 


508 


301 


94 



Offence. 



Drunkenness, <bc , 

Adulteration of food and drugd 

Assaults 

Betting and gaming 

Cruelty to children 

Cruelty to animals 

Offences against Klementary l<!ducation Acts 

Offences against Labour Laws 

Malicious damage to animiUs, trees, Ac. 



Offences against Merchant Shipping Act 
Offences against Military and Naval Laws . 



Offences in parks and open spaces 

Offences against Pawnbrokers' Acts 

f )ffences against Police Regulations 

Offences against the Poor* Law 

Prevention of Crimes Acts 

Prostitution 

Offences in relation to railways 

Offences against Revenue Laws 

Offences against Stage and Hackney Carriiige Regulations 

Stealing animals, trees, fruit, &c 

Offences against Tramway Act . 

Offences against Vagrancy Acts 10,398 

Offences against Highways Acts 



Arrests. 



< Summarily 
' convicted. 



55.515 


50,418 


5 


5 


6.392 


4,432 


165 


122 


82 


53 


2,378 


1,470 


17 


15 


5 


2 


1,102 


936 


46 


39 


1,498 


1,332 


243 


225 


71 


67 


17,072 


13,432 


2,560 


2.248 


263 


552 


3,903 


3.668 


240 


195 


41 


33 


14 


13 


622 


439 


8 


6 


10,398 


7,634 


400 


299 



112 Police and Grime in London. 

The Licensing of Public Conveyaneas, &c. 

In addition to ordinary police duties the police force is the authority for 
the licensing of public carriages, drivers and conductors, pedlars, chimney- 
sweeps, &c. During 1906, licences were issued in respect of the following 
vehicles : — 

6,648 two-wheeled hackney carriageB. 
3,844 four-wheeled ,, „ 

96 „ „ „ (mechanical power). 

2,964 omnibuses (animal power). 
783 „ (mechanical power). 

905 tramcars (animal power). 
1,3S6 „ (mechanical power). 

16.636 

Amongst these vehicles there were 1,394 new carriages. Of the total 
number of omnibuses licensed during 1906, 783 were entirely propelled by 
mechanical power, as were also 1,396 tramway cars. An inspecting stafE is 
regularly employed in visiting the premises of the proprietors of public 
vehicles. Hackney carriage standings provide for the accommodation 
of 7,131 carriages, irrespective of the accommodation provided in the City 
and at the railway stations. During 1906, licences were issued to 12,467 cab 
drivers, 9,464 stage drivers, and 10,658 conductors. Of these numbers 124 
hackney drivers and 4,148 stage drivers were licensed to drive vehicles pro- 
pelled by mechanical power. Convictions for drunkenness were obtained 
against 883 licensed hackney drivers. 1,358 of the drivers of public 
conveyances are over sixty years of age, and 248 are over seventy years. 

Lost Property and Street Accidents. 

A a enormous amount of work is thrown upon the police by absent- 
minded passengers in public conveyances. During 1906, 56,754 articles 
(including 25,073 umbrellas, and cases of jewellery and valuable dressing 
bags) were deposited at t^-e Lost Property Office, and 25,882 of them were 
restored to their owners, the unclaimed residue being, after three months, 
returned to the drivers and c inductors who deposited them with the police. 
The awards paid to drivers and conductors during 1906 amounted to £'4,213. 
and included 9 payments at £5 each, three at £6, one at £9, one at £11, 
one at £12, one at £14, one at £16, and one at £20. Thousands of personal 
applications were made at the office during the year, and, as showing the 
efforts made by the police to trace lost property and to obtain the where- 
abouts of the owners of property recovered, 99,675 communications were 
sent out by the Department. 

The police return relating to street accidents shows that 212 persons 
met their death by being knocked down by vehicles, while 14,060 receiveil 
injuries more or less severe. 222 policemen were commended by the 
Commissioner for stopping or attempting to stop runaway horses. 

METROPOLITAN POLICE FORCE. 

New Scotland Yard, S.W. 

Commissioner — Sir E. R. Henry, A. C. Bruce, £1,350 ; Major E. F. 

K.C.V.O., C.S.T., £2,500. PHvateSec- Wodehouse, £1,200; Sir M. L. 

rotary— Gr. H. Edwards, £100. Macnaghten, £1,200. 

Assistant Commissioners — Sir 0/iief OZerfc— C.L.Bathurst,£900. 



Police aiid Crime in London, 



113 



Senior Clerics— A. W. Hallward, 
W. H. Kendall, £650 to £700; G. H. 
Gardner, F. H. Underwood, £500 to 
£600. 

First Class ClerJcs-'D. H. North, 
£500; G. H. Edwards, B. T. Earle, 
W. S. Mylius, £350 to £450. 

Superintendent of the Registry— 
H. Ravenscroft, £300 to £400. 

Second Class Clerks — C. Annesley, 
Capt. E. Napier, G. H. Atkinson, 
C. Macartney-Filgate, M. B. Frere, 
Major the Hon. E. R. Thesiger, 
£100 to £350; F. C. Barchard, J. E. 
Simpson, H. A. Tripp, G. J. Ball, 
£90 to £300. 

Assistant Clerics— W. Raw, E. S. 
Power, H. W. Staples, W. G. Galley, 
H. a. Gilbert, E. B. Parrett, F. J. 
Payne, M. Longley, E. A. Rix, W. P. 
King, S. W. Richards, W. A. E. 
Harris, £70 to £200. 

Surgeon-in-Chief — Clinton T. 
Dent, F.R.C.S., £800. 

Solicitors to the Commissioner — 
Wontner and Sons. 

Chief Constables — Lieut.- Col. B. 
J. A. Monsell, Captain G. H. Dean, 
F. S. Bullock, C.I.E., Major E.H.T. 
Parsons, Col. A. H. M. Edwards, 
C.B., M.V.O., £600 to £800. 

Sii'Perintoident of the E,mcutive 
and Statistical Branch — T. Moore. 

Superintendents of the Criminal 
Investigation Department — F. 
Froest, F. Kirchner, P. Quinn, 
M.V.O., W. G. Warner. 

Superintendent of Public Carriage 
Bra-nch — A. Bassom. 

Stiperintendents of Divisions — 
A (Whitehall)— C. Wells. 
B (Chelsea)— A. Isaac. 
C (St. James's)— J. Mann. 
D (Marylbbone)— H.Bantick. 
E (Holborn)— T. Cole. 
F (Paddington)— D. Mclntyre. 
G (Finsbury)— W. Hammond. 
H (Whitechapel)— J. Mulvany. 



J (Hackney)— C. Pearn. 

K (Bow)— J. Cameron, 

L (Lambeth)— H. Noviss. 

M (Soutuwark)— D. Waters. 

N (Islington)— W. Jenkins. 

P (Camberwell)— E. Glayzer. 

R (Greenwich)— O. Wakeford. 

S (Hampstead)— T. Williams. 

T (Hammersmith)— J. Powell. 

V (Wandsworth) — W. Robinson. 
W (Clapham)— C. Doyle. 

X (Kilburn)— J. Olive. 

Y (Highgate)— L. Vedy. 

Thames — W. French. Wool- 
wich— J. Devine. Portsmouth— 
J. Last. Devonport — G. Dixson. 
Chatham— W.Smith. Pembroke 
Dock— W. Tett (Chief Inspector). 

Police Force on 23rd February^ 
1903— '^'2 Superintendents, 5(57 In- 
spectors, 2,)5t50 Sergeants, and 15,010 
Constables. Total, 17,959. Horses, 
306. 

Office of the Receiver for the Metro- 
politan Police District. 

Receiver — A. R. Pennefather, 
C.B., £1,200 to £1,500. 

Chief Clerk— B.. A. Everest, £650 
to £800. 

Clerks — Ist Class (Ist Section) : 
M. H. Festing, £5W to £600. {2ad 
Section) : J. P. Mann, F. J. Hose, 
£iOO to £500. (Accountant) : W. J. 
Wilby, £500 to £600. 

Clerks — 2nd Class (1st Section) i 
G. H. Pryce, C. E. Gipps, E. Eraut, 
£;}60 to £400; G. H. Lufkin, A. 
Flower, £:300 to £360. (2nd Sec- 
tion) : H. de L. Anderson, H. ^I. 
Comyn, R. K. O'Neill, C. A. Palmer, 
£90 to £300. 

Assistant Clerks — G. A. Bracey, 
W. T. Brattle, J. B. Reynolds, R. J. 
Hayward, D. McG. Guthrie, E. W. 
Petty, H. Day, E. Hennig, W. E. 
Taylor, R. B. Burgess, F. Whitehorn, 
£70 to £190. 

b2 



114 



Central Criminal Court. 



Solicitors— IRWia and Ellis, 5, 
Delahay-street, S.W. 

Surveyor — J. Dixon Butler, £600 
to £750. 

2nA Surveyor— ¥, King, £360 to 
£500. 

Assistant Surveyors — S. A. Braam, 
O. Bower, £210 to £300. 



Clerks of the WorJcs-^. Bater, 
J. E. Mlntosh, £150 to £220. 

Storekeeper—^. H. Hinson, £250 
to £300. 

Inspector of Clothing and Equip- 
ments — G. Bnrton, £275. 

Draughtsmen— A. Howell, £310 1«) 
£400; C. Battie, £150 to £250. 



THE CITY POLICE. 

Chief Office: 26, Old Jewry, E.G. 

The City of London enjoys the distinction of possessing the only 
purely municipal police force in the country. The Corporation maintains 
a force of 1,001 men, comprising 48 inspectors of various grades, S6 
sergeants, and 865 constables. ' The force is under the control of a Com- 
missioner, who is appointed by the Corporation subject to the approval of 
the Sovereign. The total cost of the force is about £113,000 per annum, 
one-fourth of which is paid from the City's Cash, and the remainder by a 
rate of bhd. on the assessable rental of the City. About 214 men are daily 
engaged in the task of regulating traffic. 



Commissioner — Captain J. W. 
Nott Bower. 

Assistant Commissioner — Captain 
D. Bremner. 

Surgeon — F. Gordon Brown, 
M.R.C.S. 

Receiver — John W. Carlyon- 
Hughes. 

Superintendent of the Encecutive 
Department — Julius Fitzgerald. 

Superintendent and Chief Clerk 
—Frank Francis. 

Superintendent (Detective) — John 
Stark. 



Central District. 

Cloak-lane and Moor-lane sta- 
tions. 

Chief Inspector — A. J. Nichols. 

Western District 

Snow-hill and Bridewell-place 
stations. 

Chief Inspector — W. Marshall. 

Eastern District. 

Bishopsgate and Minories sta- 
tions. 

Chief Inspector — D. Hayes. 



CENTRAL CRIMINAL COURT. 
Old Bailey, E.G. 

The Court has jurisdiction over all treasons, murders, felonies, and misde- 
meanours committed within the City of London and counties of London 
and Middlesex and certain portions of the counties of Essex, Kent, and 
Surrey. Offences committed on the high seas within the jurisdiction 
of the Admiralty Court are also tried at this court. The Justices in the 
Commission are -the Lord Mayor of the City of London, the Lord 
Chancellor, the Lord Chief Justice of England, the Judges of his Majesty's 



Lofidon Police Courts. 



115 



Hiofh Court of Justice, the Dean of the Arches, the Ahlermen, Recorder, 
and Common- Serjeant of the City of London, and the Judges of the City 
of Loudon Court. 

Glerh of the Court — H. K. Avory. Deputy-Clerk — H. A. Read. 



COUNTY OF LONDON QUARTER SESSIONS. 

All cases arising on the north side of the Thames are tried at the 
Sessions House, Clerkenwell Green ; and cases on the south side at the 
Sessions House, Newington Causeway. 



Chairman of the County Quarter 
Sessions — Robert Wallace, K.C. 

Deputy-Chairman — R. Loveland- 
Loveland, K.C, D.L. 

Clerk of Peace for the County of 
London — Sir Rich. Nicholson. P.S.A., 



Sessions House, Clerkenwell, B.C., 
and Sessions House, Newington, 
S.E. 

I>e/)tt/y— J. Dix, Sessions House, 
Clerkenwell, E.C., and Sessions 
House, Newington, S.E. 



POLICE COURTS. 



BOW STREET. 

CovENT Garden. 

Jfagris^raies— Sir AlbertdeRutzen, 
£1.800; R. H. B. Marsham, £1,500; 
H. Curtis Bennett, £1,500. 

Chief Clerk-B.. P. Newton, £470 
to £700. 

CLERKENWELL. 

King's Ctoss Road. 

Magistrates — J. R. W. Bros, 
£1,500; E. C. T. dEyncourt,£l,500. 

Chief Clerk— O. Wheeler, £420 to 
£t>50. 

GREENWICH AND WOOLWICH. 

Mojqifitrates — A. II. Hutton> 
£:,r>00, A. Gill, £1,500. 

Chief Clerk— Z. Nixon, £420 to 
£650. 

guildhall. 
(City Corporation.) 

Magistrate — An Alderman, in 
rotation. 

Chief CUrk—n. G. Savill, £1,000. 

Assistant Clerk — S. Richards, 
£650. 

Cashier— J. H. Major, £^250. 

Clerk of Special Sessionsi — C. F. 
Monckton. 



Assistant Clerk of Special Sessions 
— C. Fitch. 

LAMBETH. 

Lower Kennington Lane. 

Magistrates — A. A. Hopkins, 
£1,500; C. M. Chapman, £1,500. 

Chief Clerk Henry Withington, 
B.A., £420 to £650. 

mansion house justice room. 

(City Corporation.) 
Magistrate —The Lord Mayor, or 

one of the Aldermen. 

67ue/'67erfc-C.G.Douglas,£l,150. 
Assistant Clerk — J. G. Trotter, 

£650. 

Cashier-B. A. Warren, £350. 

MARLBOROUGH STREET. 

Magistrates — Frederick Mead, 
£1,500; G. L. Denman, £1,500. 
Chief Clerk— 8. Savill, £650. 

marylebone. 

Seymour Place. 

Magistrates — A. C. Plowden, 
£1,500; G. Paul Taylor, £1,500. 

Chief Clerk— W. Crow, £420 to 
£650. 



116 



Laiid&ih County Courts. 



north london. 

Stoke Newington Road. 
Magistrate — E. S. Fordham, 
£1.500. 

Chief Clerk— F. G. Nott Bower, 
£420 to £650. 

OLD STREET. 

Magistrates— A. R. Cluer, £1,500; 
H. C. Biron, £1,500. 

Chief Clerk— B.. Whitfield Coates, 
£420 to £650. 

south-western. 
Lavender Hill, S.W. 

Magistrate— The Hon. J. de Grey, 
£1,500. 

Chief Clerk— G. S. Halle, £420 to 
£650. 

THAMES. 

East Arbour Street, Stepney. 

Ma gistrates — J. Dickinson, 
£1,500; Chester Jones, £1,500. 

Chief Clerk-¥. H. GlanviUe, 
£420 to £650. 



TOWER BRIDGE. 

Borough High Street. 

Magistrates— J. Rose, £1,500 ; E. 
Baggallay. £1,500. 

Chief Clerk— B:. Nairn, £420 to 
£650. 

WEST HAM. 

West Ham Lane, Stratford. 

Magistrate — R. A. Gillespie, 
£1,000. 

Chief Clerk — J. H. Jackson, 
£1,050. 

west london. 
Vernon St., West Kensington. 

Magistrates— B>. 0. B. Lane, K.C., 
£1,500; E. W. Garrett, £1,500. 

Chief Clerk— F. E. Lowris, LL.B., 
£6r:0. 

westminster. 

Vincent Square. 

Magistrates — Horace Smith, 
£1,500; C. K. Francis, £1,500. 

Chief Clerk -n. Titterton, £420 
to £650. 



LONDON COUNTY COURTS. 
Office Hours: Daily, 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. : Saturdays, 10a.m. to 1 p.m. 

BLOOmSBURY. 

Great Portland Street, 
Regent's Park, W. 



CITY OF LONDON^ 

See " City Corporation.'* 



Judge^'—F. H. Bacon, £1,500. 
Registrar — E. Huelin. 
High Bailiff — James Bacon. 

BOW. 

Bow Road, Bow, E. 
Judge* — His Honour Judge W. 
Cecil Smyly, K.C., £1,500. 
Registrar— F. W. R. Hore. 
High Bailiff— C. J. R. Tijou. 

BROmPTON. 

17, Whitehead's Grove, Chelsea 
Judge*— Sir W. Lucius Selfe, 

£1,500. 
Registrar — E. K. Taylor. 
High Bailiff— S. W. Merry. 



clerkenwell. 

33, Duncan Terrace, Islington. 
Judge— J. B. Edge, £1,500. 
Registrar— B. U. Eddis. 
High Bailiff— W. Y. Huclis. 

GREENWICH. 

BuRNEY Street, Greenwich, S.E, 
Judge*— Wm.Winis, K.c, £1,500. 
Registrar and High Bailiff— 

C. Pitt-Taylor. 

LAnriBETH. 

Camberwell New Road, S.E. 
Judge— Jl, Emden, £1,500. 
Registrar and Acting High 
Bailiff— W. B. Pritchard. 



• Sits iu other Courts ; inclusive salary. 



London Petty Sessional Divisions and Courts. 



117 



niARYLEBONK. 

179, Marylebonb Road, N.W. 

Judge* — Sir W. Lucius Selfe, 
£1,500. 

Registrar — James Curtis. 
High Bailiff— J. S. Francis. 

8HORKDITCH. 

221, Old Street, E.G. 
J^idge*~W. Cecil Smyly, K.C., 
£1,500. 

Registrar— E. E. Wickham. 
High Bailiff— K. Grimsdall. 

80UTHWARK. 

Swan St., Trinity St., Borough. 
Judge*— W. WilHs, K.C., £1,500. 
Registrar — T. K. Bros. 
High Bailiff- G. J. K. Richards. 
wandsworth. 
South Street. 
Joint Judges — E. Harinfirton, 
£1.500 and E. Bray, £1,500. 

* Sits in other Courts 



Registrar and High Bailiff — 
W. A. WiUoughby. 

westminstbr. 

34, Lincoln's Inn Fjelds, W.C. 
Judge— n, Woodfall, £1,500. 
Registrars— C. R. Cuff and C. E. 
Cuff. 

High i?ai7i#— Stanley L. Giffard. 
whitechapel. 

Great Prescot Street, E. 
Judge* — His Honour Judge 
Bacon, £1,500. 
Registrar— M. R. Webb, j.p. 
High Bailiff— F. White. 

woolwich. 

Town Hall, Woolwich, S.E. 

Jud^e*—W. Willis, k.c, £1,500. 

Registrar and High Bailiff— 
C. Pitt-Taylor. 
; inclusive Salary. 



PETTY SESSIONAL DIVISIONS AND COURTS. 

There are about 300 Justices of the Peace in London, and 17 Petty 
Sessional Divisions where courts are held by magistrates for the transaction 
of various business. Their duties are of various kinds — to license public- 
houses, beer-houses, refreshment-houses, billiard-rooms, to grant off- 
licences and gume-licences. In most Divisions they hear summonses taken 
out under the following Acts :— Weights and Measures, Bread, Explosives, 
Infant Life Protection, Food and Drugs, Public Health, Industrial 
Schools, Metropolitan Local Management, and, in some cases, rate- 
summonses. They hear appeals under the Valuation Act, revise the Jury 
List, hear cases under the Lunacy Act, appoint overseers, etc. Probably 
in no two instances is the exact scope of business of the courts the same. 



blackheath. 

The Town Hall, Greenwich. 

(Offices: 52, Croom's Hill, 
Greenwich.) 

CZerfc— J.Batchelor, £5a3. 

Business Transacted, — Licensing: 
Public - houses. Beer -houses. Off- 
licences, Billiards, Game, Appeals 
under Valuation (Metropolis) Act, 
1869, and A^cultural Rates Act, 
1896. Revision of Jury Lists. 
Summonses : Weights and Mea- 
sures Acts. 



FIN8BURY. 

Sessions House, Clerkenwell. 

(Offices : 2^, Gordon Street, 

Gordon Square, W.C.) 

Glerk-U. P. Bodkin, £496. 

Business Transacted. — Licensing • 
Public -houses, Beer -houses, Off- 
licences, Game, Billiards. Appeals 
under Valuation (Metropolis) Act, 
1869. Revision of Jury Lists. Pav- 
ing Cases (IsHngton). Summonses : 



118 London Petty Sessional Divisions and Courts. 



Weights and Measures Act, Bread 
Act. 

HAMPSTEAD. 

In the Holborn PbttySessional 

Division. 
Police Station, Rosslyn Hill 
(Offices : Town Hall, Haver- 
stock Hill, N.W.) 

Clerk— K, E. Bridger. 

Business Transacted— Takes the 
same business as an ordinary Police 
Court for that portion of Hamp- 
stead north of St. Stephen's Parish 
Church. The licensing of Public- 
houses, Ac, for Hampstead is 
carried out by the Justices sitting 
at Holborn. 

hanover square. 

St. Giorge's (Hanover Square) 

Hall, Mount Street, W. 
(Offices : 7, Savile Place, W.) 
Clerk— W. Hitchins. 
Business Transacted. — Licensing • 
Public - houses, Beer -houses. Off- 
licences, Billiards, Game, Assess- 
ment Appeals, &c. 

HOLBORN. 

Holborn Town Hall, Gray's 

Inn Road. 

(Offices: 23, Gordon Street, 

Gordon Square, W.C.) 

Clerk—W. Scadding, £236. 

Business Transacted — Licensing; 
Public-houses, Beer-houses, Off- 
licences, Billiards, Game. Appeals 
under Valuation (Metropolis) Act, 
1869. Bevision of Jury Lists. Sum- 
monses: Weights and Measures 
Acts, Bread Act. 

kensington. 

Town Hall, Kensington. 

(Offices : 159, Holland Koad.) 

Clerk— J. Pearce, £600. 

Business Transacted — Licensing: 
Public - houses, Beer -houses. Off- 
licences, Billiards, Game, Refresh- 
ment-houses. Cases under Lunacy 
Acts. Summonses : Weights and 



Measures Acts, Bread Act, Explo- 
sives Acts, Infant Life Protection 
Acts, Food and Drugs Acts, Public 
Health (*91) Acts, Metropolitan 
Local Management Acts, and Ele- 
mentary Education Act. 

nbwincton. 

Sessions House, Newington 

Causeway. 

(Offices: Town Hall 

Chambers, Borough, S.E.) 

Clerk— G. C. WHteley, £1,258. 

Business Transacted. — Licensing: 
Public - houses. Beer -houses, OS- 
licenoes. Billiards, Game, Appeals 
under Valuation (Metropolis) Act. 
1869. Agricultural Rates Act. 
Revision of Juiy Lists. Sum- 
monses: Weights and Measures 
Acts, Bread Act 

faddington. 

Town Hall, Harrow Road. 

(Offices: Sessions House, 
Clerkbnwell.) 

Clerk— K W. Beal, £113. 

Business Transa^cted. — Licensing: 
Public -houses, Beer-houses, Wine- 
houses, Off - licences, Billiards. 
Game, and occasional licences, 
The reduction of licences under the 
Compensation Provisions of the 
Act of 1904. Appeals under Valua- 
tion (Metropolis) Act 1869, and the 
Agricultural Rates Act, 1896. Re- 
vision ot Jury Lists. Stopping* up 
Highways under Michael Angelo 
Taylor's Act. Revising Parliamen- 
tary Polling Districts. Sum- 
monses: Weights and Measures 
Acts, Bread Act. 

8t. james. westminster. 

Vestry Hall, Piccadilly. 
(Offices : 17, Carlisle Street, 

SoHO Square.) 
Clerk— J, R. C. Rotton, £180. 
Business Transacted — Granting 
Licences for Public -houses, Beer- 



London Petty Sessional Divisions^ and Gourts, 



119 



houses. Off-licences, Billiards, Game 
dealers. Appeals under Valuation 
(Metropolis) Act, 1869. Revision 
of Jury Lists. 

st. margaret, westminster. 

Caxton Hall, Gaxton Street. 

(Offices : 23, Abingdon Street* 

Westminster.) 

ClerJc—Jj, H. Winckwortb, £95. 

Jittfiness Transacted. — Licensing: 
Public -houses, Beer -houses, Off- 
licences, Billiards, Game. 

st. marylebone. 

Town Hall, Marylebone Lane. 
(Offices: Town Hall.) 

Clerk— E. E. Greenwell. 

Business Transacted: — Licensing : 
Public- houses, Beer -houses, Otf- 
licences. Billiards, Game. Appeals 
under Valuation (Metropolis) Act 
1869. Revision of Jury Lists. 
Summonses : Weights and Measures 
Acts, Bre&d Act. 

st. pancras. 

St. Pancras Town Hall, 

Pancras Road, N.W. 

(Offices: 23, Gordon Street, 

Gordon Square, W.C.) 

Clerk— W. Scadding, £354. 

BtLsiness Transacted. — Licensing : 
Public -houses, Beer -houses, Off- 
licences, BilHards, Game. Appeals 
under Valuation (Metropolis) Act, 
1869. Revision of Jury Lists. Sum- 
monses : Weights and Measures 
Acts, Bread Act. 

STOKE NEWINGTON. 

St. Mary's Church Rooms, 
Defoe Road. 

(Offices: Waltham Abbey.) 

Clerk— B^. Gough, £30. 

Business Transacted. — Licensing : 
Public -houses, Beer -houses, Otf- 
liceuces. Game. Appeals under 
Valuation (Metropohs) Act, 1869. 
Revision of Jury Lists. 



STRAND. 

Westminster City Hall, Char- 
ing Cross Road, W.C. 
(Offices : 8, New Inn, Ald- 
wych, W.C.) 

Clerk— C. Isaacson, £128. 

Business Transacted. — Licensing: 
Pubhc- houses, Beer -houses, On- 
licences, Game, Billiards, Refresh- 
ment-houses. Appeals under Valu- 
ation (Metropolis) Act, 1869. Revi- 
sion of Jury Lists. 

TOWER. 

Shoreditch Town Hall, Old 
Street, E.C. 

(Offices: Tower ('hambers, 
Moorgate, E.C.) 

Clerk-E. W. Real, £1.201. 

Business Transacted. - Licensing: 
Public-houses, Beer-houses. Wine- 
houses, Off-licences, Billiards, Game 
and occasional lic^ences. Appeals 
under Valuation (Metropolis) Act, 
1869, Agricultural Rates Act, 1896. 
Revision of Jury Lists. Stopping 
up Highways under Michael Angelo 
Taylor's Act. Summonses : Weights 
and Measures Acts, Bread Act. 
Petty Sessions. 

Summonses under the Elementary 
Education Acts are heard at Petty 
Sessions held at the Town Hall, 
Hackney, N.E.; Vestry Hall. St. 
George's, E. ; Guardians offices, 
Mile End, E., Town Hall, Poplar, E. 

WANDSWORTH. 

County Court, South Street, 

Wandsworth. 

(Offices: 64, East Hill.) 

Clerk— B.. N. CorselHs, £230. 

Business Transacted. — Licensing: 
PubHc - houses, Beer - houses, Off- 
licences, Billiards, Game. Revi- 
sion of Jury Lists. Appeals 
under Valuation (Metropolis) Act, 
1869. Summonses : Weights and 
Measures Acts, Bread Act, Rates. 
Hearing, &c. Rate Summonses. 



(Btbtv Central ^tihitts. 



.LONDON TRAMWAYS. 



All legislation relating to the improvement of the transit facilities in 
London was " hung up " during the earlier part of the sitting of a Royal 
Commission, appointed in March, 1903. The Commissioners were : — Sir 
David M. Barbour, k.c.m.g. (chairman), Viscount CobhanL, Lord 
Ribblesdale, Sir Joseph Dimsdale, M.P., Sir John Poynder Dickson- 
Poynder, M.P., Sir Robert T. Reid, M.P., Sir F. J. S. Hopwood (Permanent 
Secretary to the Board of Trade), Sir John Wolfe Barry, F.R.S., Sir S. G. 
Trout Bartley, M.P., Messrs. C. S. Murdoch, F. Schuster, and G. S. Gibb. 
The Secretary to the Commission was Mr. L. L. Macassey. 
The terms of reference were as follows : — 

(a) To report as to the measures which they deem most eifectual for the improTe- 
ment .... by the development and inter-connection of railways and tram- 
ways on or below the surface, by increasing the facilities for other forms of 
mechanical locomotion by better provision for the organisation and regulation of 
vehicular and pedestrian traffic or otherwise ;. and 

(b) As to the desirability of establishing some authority or tribunal to which all 
schemes of railway or tramway construction of a local character should be referred, 
and the powers which it would be advisable to confer upon such a body. 

The evidence before the Commission was productive of the following 
facts : — 

(1) The differences between the various authorities, and in some 
cases direct action by Parliament, are chiefly responsible for the poor 
tramway accommodation in London as compared with provincial towns. 

(2) The powers of control by local authorities over railway companies 
should be considerably strengthened, and in all matters affecting public 
streets such control should be absolute. 

(3) A transformation from residential to business occupation is rapidly 
going on in all districts adjacent to the city. This is resulting in the 
whole of the business population havina- to travel considerable distances ; 
but unless the fares charged to the workmen are such as they can afford to 
pay they will endeavour to live near their employment, overcrowding and 
unhealthy surroundings resulting. 

(4) The present evils arising from the continual breaking-up of streets 
are due in a large degree to the practice which has been adopted by Parlia- 
ment in giving to private companies powers which, in effect, go behind 
legislation on this subject. No fewer than 42 different authorities, without 
taking into account all the tube railway companies and the borough 
councils, have statutory power to break up streets, and the restrictions 
regulating the exercise of such powers are very inconsistent. 

The report of the Commission was issued towards the end of June, 1905. 
The Commissioners took into consideration not merely the County of 



London Tramways, 121 



London but a " Greater London *' 692 nqaare miles in extent, and having 
at the 1901 census 64 million inhabitants. For the purpose of relieving 
overcrowding' in the central portion they indicat»»d the necessity of means 
for taking the population in and out of London in many directions at 
rapid spee ', frequent internals, and cheap rates. What thev suggested as 
an ideal scheme was the construction of railways in London lor the purpose 
of 1 mg-distance urban traffic, and of railways radiiting to the suburbs for 
purposes of suburban traffic, the railways in both urban and suburban 
localities being connected with tramways for short-distance distribution, 
the widening of existing and provision of new streets for local urban 
traffic, the reopilation of street traffic to prevent or reduce congestion, 
and the provision of complete facilities for passenger interchange. 

This section of the report was followed by the recommendation of a 
system of street improvements to I e carried out upon a carefully thought- 
out plan, and the construction " forthwith " of certain main avenues l40ft. 
wide, first-class interval streets, 100ft. wide, second, third, and fourth-class 
streets, respectively 80, 60, and 40 or 50ft. wide. 

In considering tranaway facilities comment was made on the absence of 
through communication, but the Commissioners thought that on suitable 
routes tramways will continue to be the most efficient and the cheapest 
means of street conveyance, and could not recommend the p<^stponement 
of tramway extension in London on the ground of any visible prospect of 
the supersession of tramways by motor omnibuses. Then they went on to 
say that they were so convinced of the urgent necessity for tramway 
accommodation in London that tramways should be laid down in several 
important thoroughfares not now served in this way. They even recom- 
mended surface tramways in the city where practicable, and emphasised 
the need of through-running powers over the various systems. They also 
urged the need of consolidatmg tramway and light railway leg'slation, and 
in order to be quit of the haphazard manner in which questions connected 
with the means of locomotion and transport in London have hitherto been 
dealt with, they recommended the establishment of a Traffic Board, as a 
permanent authority, possessed of special knowledge and experienca, and 
giving continuous attention to all questions affecting locomotion and 
transport in London. Its most important function would be the pre- 
liminary examination before consideration by Parliament of Bills seeking 
statutory powers for the construction or extension of works a ff editing the 
means of locomotion and transport in Greater London. In ra iking their 
concrete proposals the Commissioners had the assistance of an Advisory 
Board of Engineers. 

The following were the views expressed by the London County Coimcil 
regarding the proposed special tribunal : — 

That a permanent Tribunal be established -(a) to consider all tube and other 
railway schemes of a local character which may be proposed ; (6) to consider and 
suggest alternative schemes, or extensions of such schemes, so as to bring all 
schemes into conformity with some uniform and comprehensive plan of transit 
throng a out London ; and (c) with power to Issue Provlsumal Orders to be subject 
to conllrniation by Parliament. 

That the Tribunal be empowered to ia^rb clauses in Provisional Orders. That 
it be empowered, after an imiulry, and upon the application of a public authority 
or p iblic authorities, to issue such Order or Orders revising the terms and con- 
ditions under which an undertaking is worked or reciuiring further facilities to 



122 London Tramways, 



meet public requirements to be provided, and to submit such Order or Orders to 
Parliament for confirmation. 

That the powers of the London County Council as the local tramway authority 
shall not come within the jurisdiction of the Tribunal ; the Council being recognised 
as the sole authority for the construction of all tramways, whether surface or under- 
ground, in London, and retaining its present power to promote Bills dealing with 
the same without being obliged to obtain the consen*; of the road authorities to the 
introduction of such Bills. 

Kxlstlitflr Tramways. 

Of the 122 miles of tramways now constructed in London, the London 
County Council on Slst March, 1907, owned 116f miles, of which three 
furlongs double line is worked by the Metropolitan Electric Tramways, 
Limited, on the overhead trolley system. On the north of the river 4S 
mOes, till recently leased to the Metropolitan Electric Tramways, Limited, 
have now been taken over and are being worked by the Council. This 
northern system is now Veing converted to electric traction. The exten. 
sions or reconstructions for electrical traction completed during the year 
comprised the following, viz , Lewisham to Rushey Green ; Tunnel- 
avenue ; Black wall Tunnel ; Yauxhall to Victoria ; Grarratt-lane ; Angel, 
Islington, to Highbury; Denmark-hill and Lordship-lane; Poplar to 
Whitechapel; St. Thomas's Hospital to John Carpenter-street (Victoria- 
embankment) ; Clapham Junction to Westminster Bridge and Plough- 
road, Battersea, to Hop Exchange, Boroogh; Whitechapel to Blooms- 
bury ; Stamford-hill to Shoreditch ; Shoreditch to Moorgute-street ; 
Whitechapel to London Docks ; and Whitechq,pel to Ald^ate. The City 
Corporation early in 1907 commenced the wort of widening Blackfriars 
Bridge in order that it may carry the Council's tramways. 

The Council's first electric tramcar was driven from Westminster Bridge 
to Tooting on 15th May, 1908, by the Prince of Wales. 

The cost of the Westminster to Tooting lines was as follows : — 





Total. 


Bate per mile. 


Hails and road work 


£224,020 


£13,660 


Cars (6'1 to the mile) 


72.500 


4,420 


Vower station and cables 


74,000 


4,510 


Sub-stations 


20,600 


1,255 


Car sheds and workshops 


34,000 


2.075 


Incidentals, including consultin 


J engineer's commission 
Council's olftcers ... 15,000 




and proportion of salaries of 


915 



£440 120 £26.835 

The principal contractors for this work were Messrs. J. G. White and 
Co., Limited, Messrs. Walter Scott, and Messrs. Dick, Kerr and Co., 
Limited. 

Both double-deck cars on bogies, and single-deck cars are employed. 
" Top-covers " have been largely introduced. The roof -covered cars are 
much appreciated by the public, and it has been noticed that the falling 
off of receipts during wet weather is not nearly so great as it was before 
the introduction of roof covers. The total length of the cars varies 
from 30ft. to 33ft., according to the type. Each car holds about twenty- 
six or twenty-eight passengers seated inside, and about thirty-six or 
thirty-eight passengers seated on the top deck, or fifty-six to sixty-four in 
all. Each car carries two independent motors of the geared type, one on 
each bogie, both motors being started and controlled from the front 



London Tramways. 123 



platform of the car. These motors are of .'55 h.-p. each, sufficient to 
propel the car at a speed of twelve miles an hour. By way of experiment 
the Council introduced in "Febniarj', 1908, cars for women only between 
TootiDg" and Charing Cross in the early morning. Increasing use is maiie 
of the facilities offered to workmen. Thus the number, of workmen 
carried daring the past year on the southern section was 10,585,985, as 
comparad with 1,449,358 in 1980-1. 

Practically all the lines in tlie county of London have been acquired by 
the Council. The only exceptions are four miles belonging to the London 
United Tramways Company, and the Harrow-road and Paddington lines, 
two miles in length, which the Council has decided to purchase from the 
Metropolitan Electric Tramways, Limited. 

Electric Traction. 

About 58 route miles of the Councirs tramways are worked by elec- 
tricity, of which about 28 miles have been opened since 1st April, 1906, 
while several miles on the north of the Thames are in course or electrifi- 
cation. 

The Council's electricity generating- station is situated on the river at 
East Greenwich The first portion of the station, having a capacity of 
14,000 kilowatts, was opened in May, 190t), and has enabled the use of 
certain temporary stations to be dispensed with. The erecticm and equip- 
ment of the second portion of the station, which will have a greater 
capacity, is now being proceeded with. Car-sheds for electric cars have 
been built at New Cross, Clapham, Caml)erwell, Streatham, and Wands- 
worth on the south side, and at Poplar and Stamford-hill on the north 
side of the Thames. Sub-stations have be*»n erected at fllephant and 
elastic, Clapham, Brixton, New Cross. Camberwell, Greenwich, St-eatham, 
Wands woiiih, and Battersea on the south side of the Thames, while others 
have been or are being built at Limehouse. Shoreditch, Mildmay Park, 
and Holbom on the north side of the Thames. The electrification ol 
extensive further lines is in contemplation. An experimental line on the 
G.B. surfac -contact principle has been laid from High-street, White- 
chapel, to Bow Bridge. 

Wtoat tlic Council has Done.! 

The effect of the ownership of London's traTJways by London's Council 
has been to benefit not only the general body of ratepayers, but also the 
tramway employees. Both th-^ services and the status of the workmen, 
have been improved. A brief enumeration of the advantages conferred 
ujxjn London iq both these directions is as follows : 

(1) The relief of rates from the profits of the undertaklnff. i 

(2) The Instltutien of all-night car services. 

(3) The runnlnflT of workmen's cars at reduced fares. 

(4> Reduced fares for ordinary passengers on many of the prin- 
cipal routes. 

(5) The removal of advertisements from the windows of the cars. 

<6) The institution of a ten -hours day (or sixty hours per week) 
for all tramway employees. 

(7) The recoernition of the principle of "one day's rest in seven.** 

<8) Increased wages for employees. 

(i> Provision of unirorm9 for drivers and onductora. 



124 London Tramways. 



[ Workmen's Wagrcs. 

The Tramways Department employs about 8,200 persons on weekly or 
daily wages, and a large number on yearly salaries or fixed wages. The 
regulators are paid 42«. to 448. weekly, ana the rates of pay to motormen, 
car-drivers and conductors are 58. to 68. 'Sd. per day. Motormen on passing 
an examination as to efficiency can attain to Qa. 6d. per day. Each man is 
allowed a uniform coat, an overcoat, and two cap« per year. The district 
inspectors are paid 458. per week; the ticket inspectors 428. per week ; the 
night inspectors, 328. to 458. ; the deputy night inspectors, 398. ; track 
cleaners, 258. ; trace boys, 148. to 188. ; point shifters, 248. ; and shifters. 
208. to 258. 

Finances. 

The capital expended upon the undertaking up to the 31st March, 1907> 

was £6.946,310. The outstanding debt on the 31st March, 1907, amounteil 

to £0,108,906, the sum of £()03,173 having been repaid out of revenue, and 

£209,573 out of the proceeds of sales. £ g ^j^ 

The total receipts on revenue account for the year amounted to ... 1.414,603 18 2 

And the working expenses amounted to 1,075,116 6 4 

Leaving a sum of £339,487 1110 

to be carried to the nett revenue account as the profit on working*. Interest 
on cash balances (£3,795 l8. 9d.) and interest on temporary investments 
(£628 198. 2d.) brought the total net revenue up to £343,911 128. lOd. 

The debt charges for the year amounted to £324,(556 10«. 2d. After 
meeting these charges, providing for income tax, interest on i)urohai«e 
money, expenses of temporary investments, parliamentary expenses, and 
a small transfer to housing account, there remained a net surplus of 
£9,673 15s. carried to appropriation account. 

mileagre, &.c. 

^The cars on the whole system ran 30,130,457 miles during the year 
1906-7, the mileage being apportioned as follows: — Southern electric 
tramways, 15,232,793 miles; Korthem electric tramways, 1,034.786 miles 
total electric, 16,267,579 miles; Southern horse tramways, 2,6C9,407 miles; 
Northern horse tramways, 11,253,471 miles — total horse, 13.862,878 miles. 
The number of passengers carried amounted to 314,227,090, being 
apportioned as follows :— Southern electric tramways, 171,230,360 passen- 
gers; Northern electric tramways, 11,831,703 passengers — total electric, 
183,062,063 i)assengers; Southern horse tramways, 30,484,800 passengers; 
Northern horse tramways, 1(X),680,227 passengers — total horse, 131,1^,027 
passengers. 

The following tables show the total receipts, passengers earned, mileage, 
&c., as compared with the three previous years : — 



17a i>a 


1903-1904. 


1904-1905. 


1905-1906. 


1906-1907. 


rare. 


Passengers. 


p.c. 


Passengers. 


p.c. 


Passengers, p.c. 


Passengers. 


p.c. 


§d. 


... 49,434,8% . 


. 37-13 . 


..59,271,654.. 


. 35-97 . 


.. 61,540.107 ... 33-53 . 


. 63,231.526. 


.20-12 


Id. 


.. 64,310.117 . 


.48-30. 


..77,630.645.. 


47-10 . 


.. 89.003,353 ... 48-50 . 


. 195,714,863 . 


.62-29 


lid. 


.. 11.336.303 . 


. 8-51. 


.. 15.036,988 .. 


9-12 . 


. 16.6%,824 ... 9-10 . 


. 27,585.846. 


. 8-78 


2d. 


.. 6.215,478. 


. 4-67. 


.. 8,261,892.. 


5-01 . 


. 10,346,028 ... 5-64 . 


. 19.538.040. 


. 6-22 


2id. 


193.147 .. 


. 0-15. 


.. 1,946,256.. 


1-18 . 


. 2,844,447 ... 1-55 . 


. 4.321.813 . 


. 1-38 


3d. 


.. 1.649.144. 


. 1-24. 


.. 2,671,125.. 


1-62 . 


. 3,081,662 ... 1-68 . 


3,403,415 . 


. 1-08 


3Jd. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— ... — . 


297.852. 


-09 


4a. 


— 


100-00 


— 


— •• 


— ... — . 


133,705 . 
314,227.090 


. -04 




133,139,085 


164,818,560 


100-00 


183,512.421 100-00 


lOOOO 



London Tramivayit, 



125 



1903-1904. 

Total receipts £536.239 

Traffic receipts £516,487 

Passengers carried 133.139,085 

Mileage run 11,536,534 

Receipts per pas- 
senger •93d. 

Total receipts per car- 
mile (horse) 10*51d. 

Total receipts per car- 
mile (electric) ... 12'16d. 



1904-1905. 


1905-1905. 


1906-1907. 


£682.095 . 


£782,210 ... 


£1,414,604 


... £663,922 . 


£758.926 


£1,378,014 


... 164,818,560 . 


. 183.512,421 ... 


314,227.090 


... 14,031,397 . 


. 15,578.793 ... 


30,130,297 



•97d. 
10-19d. 



1204d. 



•99d. 
10'91d. 



12-37d. 



105d. 
1013d. 



12-23d. 



The capital expenditure for the year ended Slst March, 1P07, amounted 
to £2,117,061 48., made up as follows: — Acquisition of undertaking's, 
£*383,589 12s. 7d.; additional works, horse tramways, £170 10«.; generating 
stations and sub-stations, £J5ii5,197 58. 2d. ; construction (permanent-way, 
cables, depots, cars, &c.), £1.307,624 128. lOd.; street improvements, 
£38,039 38. lOd.; re-housing obligation, £78 188. 6(1; transfer to Con- 
solidated Loans Fund for proceed of sales applied in repayment of debt, 
£52,361 18. Id. 

The following table summarises the tramways accounts from 1894-5 to 
1906-7:— 



Total ' Nett Surplus ( + ) '^... (c) 
Surplus charges or Deaciency (-) C^me^d to Carried 

working, surpuson , Total rS^^J? R«liefof 

working Year 8 (i^ci'ding Account. ^^^ 
(b). . K^suitJ. balance).. i 



Year. 



1894-5 
1895-6 
1896-7 
1897-8 
18 8-9 ( 
'99-1900) 
1900-1 
1901-2 
1902-3 
1903-4 
1904-5 
1905-6 
19067 



Balance 
brought 
forward. 



1.121 
3,780 
1,682 

22,208 

21,674 
216 
182 
9,869 
18.565 
29,989 
31,249 



£ 
1,121 
3.265 
5.548 
74,808(a) 

268,193 

147,595 
141.450 
137,601 
163,553 
267,109 
285,497 
339.488 



606 
7,646 
5,282 

150,827 

93,053 
87.484 
%.914 
154,857 
220,685 
249.237 
334,212 



i £ £ 

+ 1,121 + 1.121 

+ 2.659 + 3.780 

- 2,098 + 1.682 

+ 69.526 + 71,208 

+ 117,366 +139.574 



£ £ 

— 49,00D 



54.542 + 76.216 

53,966 + 54,182 

40,697 + 40,869 

8,696 + 18.555 

46,424 + 64,989 

36.260 + 66,249 

9,674 -I- 40,923 



110.592 
69.000 



7,308 

7,0W 

9,000 45,000 
11,000 20,000 

35,000 , — 
35,000 — 

35,000 , — 



Balance 
carried 
f 01 ward. 



£ 

1,121 

3,780 

1,682 

22,208 

21,674 

216 
182 
9,869 
18,565 
29,989 
31,249 
5,923 



(a) Including adjustment of rent due on grant of lease as from Midsummer, 1896. 

(b) Including income-tax, parliamentary expenses, and debt charges. 

(c) In some cases the actual transfer to relief of rate was not made until the following 
year. 



126 Housing the Working Classes. 



HOUSING THE WORKING CLASSES. 

The central and local authorities of London, excluding the City 
Corporation, carry out their housing work under the provisions of the 
Housing of the Working Classes Act, 1890. For administrative purposes 
this measure is divided into three parts. 

Part I. places upon the London County Council the duty of preparing and carrying 
into effect (after sanction by the Local Government Bjard and Parliament) schemes 
for the improvement of insanitary areas which are of such a size as to be of general 
importance to the whole county. In any scheme it is essential that dwellings should 
be provided on the area dealt with for at least half the persons displaced. 

Part II., by sections 32, 33, and 34, enables the borough councils to take proceed- 
ings before a magi;itrdte for the closing and demolition of single houses which are 
unfit for human habitation. Sections 39 and 46 enable the borough councils and 
the County Council, either in conjunction or otherwise, to undertake schemes for 
the improvement of areas which are too small to be of general importance to the 
whole county. In any such scheme it is not essential that dwelling accommodation 
for the persons displaced should be provided. By section 38 the borough cooncils 
also have power to purchase and demolish obstructive buildings, i.e., buildings 
which, by reason of their proximity to or contact with other buildings stop ventila- 
tion or prevent measures being carried out to remedy nuisance in respect of such 
other buildings. 

Part III. enables the County Council to purchase by agreement, or (with the con- 
sent of the liocal Government Board and Parliament) by compulsion, houses for the 
accommodation of persons of the working class, or land for the erection of such 
houses. 

Besides the power which the borough councils have under the Housing 
of the Working Classes Act, 1890, of obtaining closing and demolition 
orders against the owners of unhealthy houses, a power of obtaining 
closing orders only is also conferred upon them by the Public Health 
(London) Act, 1891. 

The housing agitations of the last few years induced the Government to 
introduce and pass, in the Session of 1900, a Housing Amendment Act, the 
principal provisions of which, so far as they affect London, were : — 

Power to all councils, except rural district councils, to purchase or aceiuire land 
outside the areas of their jurisdictions for the purposes of Part III. of the principal 
Act. 

Powers to borough councils for the purpose of bDrrowing money under Part III. of 
the principal Act. 

Powers to councils, with the consent of a Government Department, to lease land 
acquired for the purposes of Part III. of the principal Act. 

Suggestions made by the London County Council and other bodies— 
(1) That the sinking fund period for buildings be extended from a 
maximum of 60 years to a maximum of 100 years, and (2) that land be 
reckoned as an asset against debt, i.e., to exclude the value of land from the 
sinking fund— were not adoptei. The question, however, was further 



Housing the Wm^king Classes. 127 



advanced by the report of the Select Committee on the repayment of 
k>ans (1903), anl the report of the Joint Se'ect Committee of both 
Soases on Standing Orders rehiting to houses occupied by persons of the 
laibouring class. 

Some of the conclusions arrived at by the two Select ( -ommittees were 
embodied in the Housing of the WorUng Classes Act, 1903, the principal 
provisions of which are as follows : — 

(a) With regard to the Hox^eing Act— 

(i) The extension of the maximnm period for n'hich money maybe borrowed 
to 80 year.^. (Sec. 1.) 

(ii) Provision for the transference by Order in Council of powers and duties 
under the Housing AcU from tiie Secretary of State to tlie L(K*al Govern- 
ment Board. (Sec. 2.) 

(iii) P€>wer given to confirming authority after ininiry to order a local authority 
to make and carry out a scheme under Tart I. or II. of the principal Act. 
(Sec. 4.) 

(iv) Power given to acquire "neighbouring" lands under Part II. of the 
principal Act.. (Sec. 7.) 

(v) Power to the local authority to build sliop.^ on e.-tates acquired under 
Part III. of the principal Act. (Sec. 11.) 

(vi) "Contracting out" of provisions of Section 75 of the principal Act pro- 
hibited. (Sec. 12.) 

(b) With regard to re-Housing in connection with Irnproi^emenls. {^ee Scliedule.) 

(i) Substitution of " 30 or more rerFona " for 20 liouFe?, as the minimum amount 
of disturbance, necessitating a re-housing scheme, and undertakers pro- 
hibited from entering on any dwellings occupied by such persons without 
formal approval of scheme being first obtained, unlets scheme decided to 
be unnecessary by confirming authority. ( I*ara. 1 . ) 

(ii.) Number of persons of working-cla«ses displaced in previous five years to be 
considered when fixing number to be re-housed under a scheme. (Para. 2.) 

(iii) Lands acquired under a housing scheme to be appropriated for the purpose 
of dwellings for the working-classes for a period of 25 years unless otherwise 
determined by the Local (rovernment Board. (Para. 4.) 

As regards the period allowed for the repayment of loans the extension 
to 80 years is confined to the cost of the sites, and does not apply to money 
oorrowed for the erection of dwelling-?, which will, as hitherto, have to be 
repaid in a period not exceeding 60 years. 

I.-L.C.C. KOUSINQ. 

The London County Council has from the first taken a prominent pai-t in 
connection with the housing question in London, and the work developed 
to such an extent that in November, 1900, a Housing Department was 
formed to undertake the control and management of the working class 
dwellings provided by the Council. In February, 1901, Mr. Samuel 
George Burgess was appointed housing n>anager. Vp to 31st March, 
1907, accommodation for 41,602 persons, calculated on the basis of two per- 
sons ijer room, had been provided by the Council in 7,474 tenements of one 
to six rooms each in block dwellings and cottages, and 1,845 cubi«'les in 
lodging-houses. The gross rental value of the dwellings completed and 
opened was approximately £166,950 per annum. 



128 



Hovsing the Working Glasses. 



Action Under Parts I and II. 

The London County Council has completed or is carrying* into effect 
the following schemes under Parts I. and II. of the Act of 1890 : — 

PART 1. 



No. of I 
persons of ^^,. 
the work-;^P^»^ 
iDgclass^'2°^ 

'If t\r ^-- 

Council. ! 



Names of scheme and of buildings in 

which re-housing accommodation has 

been provided. 



Schemes completed. 
Boundary-street, Bethnal Green and Shore 
ditch, 1890— 

Boundary-street estate 

Goldsmith -row cottages 

II Brook-street, Limehouse, 1883— 

Beachcroft building and Cranford cottages 
Burford's-court, Tucker's-conrt and Favonia 
street. Poplar, 1889— 
Pi-estonVroad estate (iWithB), Bafftn and 

Ottawa buildings 

llCable-street, Shadwell, 1886— 

Bewley, Chancery, Dellow and Lowood 

buildings 

Churchway, St. Pancras, 189&— 

Seymour, Somerset and Wellesley build 

ings 

Clare-market, Strand, 1896— 

Duke's-court estate (SJths) — Beaumont 

buildings and Fletcher buildings 
Millbank estate (Hi'ths)— Millals, nor- 
land. Reynolds, Rossetti and Buskin 

buildings 

Russel-court estate— Siddons and Stirling 

buildings 

IIHughes-flelds, Deptford, 1884— 

cottages 

Nightingale-street, St. Marylebone, 1889 
llShelton-street, St. Giles, 1886— 

Aldwych, Cotterell, Lindsay, Powys, and 

Wimbledon buildings 

•Parker-street, house 

IITench-street, St. George-in-the-East, 1883 
1 1 Trafalgar-road, Greenwich. 1883— 

Hardy cottages 

Schemes in progress. 
Aylesbury-place, Clerkenwell and Union 
buildings, Holborn, 1899— 

Mallory and Union building 

Garden-row, Roby-street, Baltic-street, and 
Honduras-street, St. Luke, 1899— 

Chadworth and Wenlake buildings 

Providence-place, Poplar, 1901 

"Webber-row and Wellington-place and Bench - 
walk, Southwark, 1899— 
Algar, Dauncy, Lelarch, Mawdeley, and 
Overy buildings 

Total 



Size 

of 

Areas 



Acres. 
14-85 



1-00 



•89 



1-50 



1-96 



5-23 



4-50 



1-20 



2-50 
•75 



2^76 



2*62 
•87 



5-16 



lip 




Persons. 
5,719 



269 



1,095 



3,172 



576 
180 



Persons, Persons 
4,700 



281 
269 



I 5,380 
144 

308 



580 
2,250 



893 



576 

6oe 



X 
190 



1,402 1,414 



274 

800 

832 

360 

1,536 
390 

666 

t 



284 
345 

__x 

306 



1,414 



1,193 
361 



497 



I 



1,193 
I — I 1,216 

i § § 



903 



£ 
282,607 

19,807 

11,299 

41,235 

34,502 

76,916 



83,896 



t 
68,419 



51,991 

174,069 

103,853 
11,461 
90,720 



1,143 I 



46-69 ! 14,964 I 14.342 i 15,398 1.068,451 



• Parker-street house was built and is managed under Part IlL of the Act, but is 
reckoned as accommodation provided under the Shelton-street scheme. 

t The cost of the scheme has been borne by Lord Portman, who has provided the 
re:iuired new accommodation. 

X Obligation to re-house removed by Parliament. 

§ The Local Government Board has agreed to dispense with the re-housing obligation. 

II Schemes commenced by the late Metropolitan Board of Works and completed by the 
Council. 



Housing the Wo7'Mng Classes. 



129 





PART II. 


















Net 








No. of 






capital 








pei-sous 






expen- 


Amount 


Name of Scheme and of 


Size 

of 

Areas. 


of the 


Obliga- 


Accommoda- 
tion pro- 
vided for. 


diture 


of 


buildings in which re-housing 


work- 


tion 


on 


contribu- 


accommodation has been 


ing 


tore- 


clear- 


tion 


provided. 


class 


house. 


ance to 


from local 






dis- 






31st 


authority 






placed. 






March, 
1907.' 






Acres. 


Persons Persons 


Persons. 


£ 


£ 


Schemes completed. 














Ann-street, Poplar, 1893— 


•75 


261 


180 


— 


4.354 


4.400 


Adelaide, Melbourne, and 














Sydney buildings 

Brooke's-market, Holborn, 1891— 


— 


— 


— 


630 


.— 


— 


•54 


55 


60 


— 


5,072 


3.000 


Cranley buildings 






— 


60 




— 


Falcon-court, Borough, 1895— 


1^9 


824 


500 


— 


34,748 


7.750 


Borough-road buildings ... 








400 






Cobham buildings, Pocock- 














street 


— 


— 


— 


280 


— 


— 


Mill-lane, Deptford, 1892— 


r98 


715 


550 


— 


9,166 


10,478 


tCarrington House 


— 


— 




802 


— 


— 


Sylva cottages 


— 


— 


— 


144 


— 


— 


Total 


4-76 


1.866 


1,290 


2,316 


53.340 


25,628 



* Excluding amount of contribution from local authority. 

t Carrington House was built and is managed under Part III. of the Act, but is 
reckoned as accommodation provided under the Mill-lane scheme. 

Combined Action Under Part II. 

The schemes that follow hive been undertaken by local authorities, 
with contributions from the County Council, under Part II. of the Act: — 



[Name of Scheme. 


Number 

of 

persons 

displaced 


Otliga- 

tion to 

re- house. 


Estimated 
nett cost. 


Council's 
contribu- 
tion. 


Amount 

paid up to 

3l6t March, 

1905. 


Schemes completed. 


Persons. 


Person*. 


£ 


£ 


£ 


London (Green-street, South- 












wark) Improvement Scheme, 












1891 


128 


72 


2,058 


670 


670 ) 


Jx)udon (Gun-street, South- 










wark) Improvement Scheme, 










899 ) 


1891 


246 


144 


2,747 


899 


London (Norfolk-square, Is- 












1 i n g 1 n ) Improvement 












Scheme, 1892 


214 


Nil. 


8.000 


3,937 


3.987 


London (Queen Catherine- 












court, Ratclilf) Improvement 












Scheme, 1893 


133 


108 


5.574 


2,787 


2,787 


London (London-terrace, St. 












George-in-the-East) Improve- 












ment Scheme, 1893 


100 


Nil. 


3,306 


682 


682 


London (Moira - place and 












Plumber's-plice, Shoreditch) 












Improvement Scheme, 1893 
Schemss in Progress. 


533 


520 


52,221 


27.500 


27.500 












London (King John's-court, 












Limehouse ) Improvement 












Scheme, 1897 


49 


5') 


15.300 


8.150* 


5.800 



Oue-half of the actual nett cost ox a sum not exceeding this amount. 



130 



Housiwf tlie Working Classes. 



Number 
Name of Scheme. ^^u^ 
j displaced 


?iS! to' ' Estimated 
re!hSu^..; ^^^^^^' 


Council's 
contribu- 
tion. 


Amount 

paid up to 

31st March, 

1905. 


Schemes in Progrena—contd. 

London (Fulford-street and 
firaddon-street, Botherhithe) 
Improvement Scheme, 1897 

London (Bran tome-place, St. 
Pancras) Improvement 
Scheme, 1896 

London (Prospect- terrace, St. 
Pancras) Ifnpro v e m e n t 
Scheme. 18% 

London (Chapel-grove, St. Pan- 
cras) Improvement Scheme, 
1893, Amendment Scheme, 1901 

London (Kastuor-place, St. Pan- 
cras) Improvement Scheme, 
1893, Amendment Scheme,1901 


Persons. 
736 
719 \ 
581 j 
531 
189 


Persons. 
930 

8% 

400 
100 


£ 
29,120 

j ""'"^ \ 

{ 11.273 j 
32,970 \ 
9,224 j 


£ 
14,560* 

Oue-halff- 
One-thirdt 


£ 
13,500 

11,759 


Total 


4,129 


3,276 


£189,'W3 


£37.406 


£57.575 



One half of the actual nett cost or a sum not exceeding this amount, 
t Not fixed, but proposed by Secretary of State. 



Action Under Part 111. 

The extent of the Councirs operations un ler Part III. of the Housing 
of the Workinof Classes Act, 1890. as extended by the Act of 1900, togrether 
with the position of the development of each estate up to 30th November, 
1907, will be seen from the following- table : — 



ESTi-TE. 



I I Accom- Appon, 

' Accom- niodation „.^^^«,?1„ 
niodation in course ! '"°*^*hA^° 

Provi^_^^L_„oL„ipr^^vided 
for 



for 



Dufferin-street dwellings, St. Luke . 
Green-street and Gun-street dwell- I 

ings,Southwark— Albury.Clandon, I 

Merrow and Ripley buildings ' 

Hughes Fields Estate, Deptford— 

Benbow and Raleigh buildings ... 
Millbank 1^'state, Westminster— Mul- 

ready buildings 

Southwark-street Estate, Holmwood 

buildings 

Bourne Esta'e (unappropriated 

portion^ 

Wedmore - street Estate. Upper 

HoUoway— Wessex buildings 
Caledonian Estate, HoUoway — 

Bums, Bnice, Knox, Scott, and 

Wallace buildings 

Brixtou-hill Estate, Lambeth — 

Briscoe buildings 

Norbury Estate, Croydon— Cottages 
Totterdown Fields Estates, Tooting 

—Cottages 

White Hart - lane Estate, Wood 

Green— Cottages 

Old Oak Common - lane Estate, 

Hammersmith— Cottjiges 

Total 



Ac. 



Persons, 
i 174 



! i 



, ^^1 



I 1 ' 

j 381 
225^ 

I 54 , 



418 
440 
230 
72 
69 
1,060 

1,384 

718 
768 

5,074 

1,936 



erection 
for 



i^^l Total 
^§•^1 cost of 
^|g land and 
oB- buildings 



Persons. Persons. Pers. ' Actual. 
— — 174; £6,615 



418 24,935 
440, 17,375 
230 11,845 



424 

72 

455 



4,303 

3,286 

40,053 

9,200 



3537,1 12,383 I 952 56,852 70,1871 3,235.606 



72 

69 

1,050. 



5.228 



Estimat'd 
58,372 



I 
1,384' 73,8% 



36,500 
250.000 



718 
5,500 



8.432 400.238 

I 

42,500 1.90D,602 

9.200 450,000 



Housing the Working Classes. 131 

Especially since the passage of the Amendment Act of 19(K) has the 
County Council been active under Part 111. oi the principal Housinif 
Statute. This will be readily seen from the table which giwvH particulars 
of sites acquired for the purpose of Part III. of the Act, apart from any 
rehousing obligation. 

The Tooting or Totterdown Fields Estate. — This estates 
when completed, will provide accommcxlatiou for 8,*i52 persons in cottages 
at rentals varying from 6s. t > l»)8. M. jxjr week. The total cost of the 
scheme is estimated at i>400,238. It is being carried out in thrw 8t»ctions, 
of which Section A contains about 9^ acres. Section B al)out 1 fiacres, and 
Section C about 16 acres. The construction of the roads and sewers on 
Sections A and B has been completed, and up to 81 «t March, 19()7, 
Gl)5 cottages, accommodating 5,074 persons, were in occupation. Of these 
cottages, six are on section C. This Section is now being developed, tlie 
roads and sewers having been completed. 

The Norbury Estate —An estate at Norbury was the first to be 
purchased by the Council under the provisions of the Act of liXX), which 
allowed operations to be conducted beyond the limits of the county boundary. 
The site is about 29^ acres in extent, and lies about a quarter of a mile from 
the county boundary. It is the same distance from the station of the 
London, Brighton, and South Coas*. Railway, but the tramway service 
of the Croydon Corporation ^ves direct access to Thorntoii Heath and 
other parts of Croj^don. It is estimated that acconimodation for .5,8(K) 
persons can be provided on the estate. The roads and sewers on about 17 
acres of the estate have already ])een formed, ami 9',l cottages, with accom- 
modation for 7(58 persons, have been completed. 

Ths Wood Green and Tottenham Estate.— This estate, pur- 
chased under the provisions of the Act of 1900, is situated in the parishes 
of Tottenham, Wood Green, and Edmonton, and comprises altogether 225 
acres. It consists of two detached portions, of which the larger, or southern 
portion, of about 178 acres, lies between Lordship-lane (which is a main 
thoroughfare from High-road, Tottenham, to Green-lanes, Wood Green) 
on the south, and White Hart-lane on the north, and the smaller, or 
northern portion, of about 47 acres, is some quarter of a mile distant, and 
is approached from White Hart-lane. It is estimated that accommodiition 
for 42,500 persons in cottages and in tenements over shops can be provided 
on the estate. The cottages, which will be two storeys in height, will 
contain from three to five rooms each, and each will have its own garden. 
The northern portion of the estate is not yet ripe for development, and 
building operations are at present confined to the southern portion. The 
carriageways and footways on about 5 acres of the estate have been com- 
pleted, and sewers have been constructed and roads with temporal y surfaces 
formed on a further 15i acres, and up to 31st March, 1907, 263 cottages with 
accommodation for 1,986 persons had been completed. In 1903 the Council 
accepted a generous offer of £10,000, made by Sir Samuel Montagu (now 
Lord Swaythling), for the development of about 25 acres of the estate. 
The principal condition of the gift is that the tenancies in the cottages to 
be erected on the site are to be offered in the first instance, and from time 
to time as vacancies occur, to residents of Whitechapel of not less than 



132 Housing the Working Glasses, 

three years* standing', without distinction of race or creed. Contracts have 
been entered into for the erection on the Tower Gardens section, which has 
been allocated for the purpose of the gift, 122 cottages, the majority of 
which have already been completed. It is estimated that 568 cottag>es in 
aU, and a large garden of about three acres can be provided on the 
section. 

Old Oak Common-lane Estate, Hammersmith.— The Council 

has purchased from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners a site of 54 acres 
of flat land at Old Oak Common-lane, Hammersmith, at the price of 
£550 per acre. It is proposed to develop the estate so as to provide for 
about 9,200 persons in 1,250 cottages of four different classes. According 
to the estimates of the cost of such a scheme, it would appear that the 
cottages could be let at reasonable rents, and that the nett income would 
be sufficient to enable the Council X/o pay the price of the land and to 
comply with all the financial requirements. A portion of the estate is 
required by the Great Western Railway Company for the purposes of 
constructing a branch line of railway, and the development oi the estate 
has for this reason been delayed. 

Hughes Fields Surplus Lands, Deptford.— The Council has 
utilised three plots of surplus land acquired in connection with the 
Hughes Fields scheme (Part I.) by the erection of three blocks of working- 
class dwellings, named Di*ake. ftaleigh, and Benbow Building's. The 
three blocks contain accommodation for 660 persons. 

The other schemes undertaken and completed by the Council under 
Paj-t III. comprise the Millbank scheme ; Green-street and Gun-street, 
Southwark; Wessex Buildings and Caledonian Estate, Islington; Dufferin- 
street Dwellings, St. Luke's; Briscoe Buildings, Brixton; Holm wood 
Buildings, Southwark ; Bounie Estate or Beid's Brewery site, Holbom ; 
and the Parker-street Lodging-house, Drury-lane ; and Carrington House, 
Deptford. 

In addition to schemes carried out by the Council under the Housing 
Acts, the Council also has to provide re-housing accommodation for per- 
sons of the working-class displaced by it in connection with the construc- 
tion of tunnels and the widening of streets. The number of persons so 
displaced up to 31st March, 1906, was 12,244, and dwellings capable of 
re-housing 12,116 persons have been completed, the principal improvement 
and the number of persons provided for up to 31st March, 1907, being 
as follow: — Blackwall Tunnel, 1,464; Kingsway and Aldwych, 3,788; 
Rotherhithe Tunnel, 1,610; Thames Embankment Extension and West- 
minster Improvements, 2,368; Long-lane and Tabard-street (Bermondsey), 
400; Mare-street, Hackney, 606- York-road, Battersea-rise, Garratt-lane, 
and Merton-road, 536; ^STine Elms-lane, 238; Fulham Palace-road and 
High-street, Fulham, 220 ; and Greenwich Generating Station, 220. 



Housing the Working Classes. 



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136 Housing the Working Classes, 

ll.-HOUSING IN THE CITY. 

The City Corporation has not erected any artisans* dwelling's under the 
Housing of the Working Classes Act, 1890, but it has put up four blocks 
of dwellings, one under the provisions of the Artisans* and Labourers' 
Dwellings Act of 1875, one under the Holbom Valley Improvement Act, 
one under the Tower Bridge Act, and one voluntaiily, the last- 
mentioned being paid for out of the City's fund. 

The buildings erected under the Artisans' and Labourers* Dwellings 
Act are situation a site in Stoney-lane, Middlesex-street, which was cleared 
between 1877-1879. The site covers 79,198ft., or nearly two acres, and 
five separate blocks of dwellings have been erected, at a total cost of £201,415, 
the plans beinff prepared by the late Mr. William Haywood, M.i.C.E., p.r.i.b.a. 
Each of the blocks is five storeys high, counting the gfround floor, and 
altogether they contain 241 tenements — 43 three-room tenements, 174 
two-rooms, ana 24 one-room. Under three of the blocks are 36 shops, with 
34 rooms at the rear, and this brings the total number of habitable 
rooms, exclusive of the shops, up to 535. The rents are as follows : — 
Large shop, with one room, 288. per week ; shop, with two rooms, 25«. ; 
small shop, with one room, 16«. ; shop and basement, 13«. ; small shop and 
basement, 10«. ; three-room tenements, 88. 6d. to 98. per week ; two-room 
tenements, from 6s. to 78. 6d. per week ; and one-room tenements, 4«. per 
week. The sums received by way of rentals in 1906 amounted to £5,965. 
Against this there was an expenditure of £5,842, including £2,190 interest 
on loan. There was thus a balance of £123 in favour of the account. 

Of the two schemes referred to as being erected under special 
Acts, the Tower Bridge buildings are situated in Dookhead, and 
were taken on lease by the Corporation for 25 years. They 
are of the model dwelling style, and comprise basement, gn^tind, 
and four floors. The area of the site is approximately 6,830 square 
feet, the buildings covering about 4,720 square feet. Excluding 
the shops on the ground floor, the dwellings consist of 70 rooms, 
divided mto 31 suites of one, two, and three rooms, providing accommo- 
dation for about 30 families. The weekly rents range from 98. 6d. to 38. 6d. 
The total sum received by way of rents for the year 1906 amounted to 
£839 98. 6d., the outgoings for the same period totalling £1,099 Qs. lld.j 
leaving a deficit of £169 178. 6d. to be made up from the funds 
of the Bridge House Estates. These are atx)ut the average 
figures. The Viaduct Buildings, erected under the Holbom Valley 
Improvement Act, stand on a site which, with a covered yard, is 
approximately 8,4<X) square feet. They are four floors high, including 
the ground floor, and contain 40 dwellings, each with parlour, FcuUery, 
w.c, &c., and one bedroom. The number of persons occupying the 
dwellings is 178. The total rentals for 1906 amounted to £793, the 
rents cnarged ranging from 88. 6d. to Qs. per week. 

The dwellings erected voluntarily by the Corporation are situated in 
Farringdon-road. They were built in 1865 at a cost of £54,568, and 
extended in 1880, at a cost of £5,199. The area of the site is about 
26,800ft. super. The buildings are six floors high, including ground 
floor, and contain twelve shops, each with parlour, scullery, w.c, &c.. and 
two bedrooms ; 84 dwellings, each with parlour, scullery, w.c, &c., and two 
bedrooms ; and 84 dwellings, each with parlour, scullery, w.c, &c.. and one 
bedroom. The total number of persons accommodated is 833. The rents 



Housing the Working Classes, 



137 



per set of rooms range from 4«. 6d. to 7«. Qd, per week, and the total 
rentals for 1906 amounted to £3,850. 

^Ill.-WHAT THE BOKOUGH COUNCILS ARE DOING. 



Battersea.— The Council has 
adopted Part III. of the Act of 
1890, and has built by direct 
labour, 28 five - roomed houses, 
69 houses containing two three- 
roomed tenements each, 73 houses 
containing two four-roomed tene- 
ments each, one four-roomed house, 
and two three-roomed houses, on 
the Latchmere- Estate, to accom- 
modate 315 families of the work- 
ing classes. Each house or tene- 
ment is self-contained, is wired 
for electric light, and is provided 
with patent combined kitchen range, 
copper, bath arrangements, and back 
garden. The rents are : Five-roomed 
houses, lis. 6d. per week; Three- 
roomea tenements each, 78. 6d. per 
week ; Four-roomed tenements each, 
108. and 108. 6d. per week. The 173 
houses are divided into three distinct 
types, viz. : four-roomed tenements, 
tnree-roomed tenements, and five- 
roomed houses. The height of all 
rooms is 8ft. 9in. clear, and each 
tenement has its own separate 
entrance and back garden. 

The Council has also built on the 
Town Hall Estate 14 houses con- 
taining two three-roomed tenements 
each, and 4 houses containing two 
two-roomed tenements each, and 
fitted up similarly to those on the 
Latchmere Estate to accommodate 
36 families. Wood block flooring, 
however, is provided on the ground 
floors. The rents are: two-roomed 
tenements, 68. 6d. per week ; three- 
roomed tenements, Ss. bd. per week. 

Bermondsey. — The Borough 
Council, in pursuance of a scheme 
prepared under Part II. of the 
Housing of the Working Classes 
Act, 1890, has erected four blocks 
of model dwellings capable of ac- 
commodating 980 persons in 490 
rooms, made up of 25 one-room 



tenements, 165 two-room tenements, 
and 45 three-room tenements, on 
the site known as the Fulford- 
street and Braddon-street area, from 
the design of Messrs. Brocklesbury, 
Marchment and East, of 116, 
Jermyn-street, W., who were the 
successful competitors in the com- 
petition invited by the Council for 
the best design. The estimated 
cost of the erection of the buildings 
was £42,827, and the lowest tender 
was that of Messrs. Walter Law- 
rence and Son, of Canal Works, 
Waltham-cross, N., amounting to 
£40,960, which was accepted by the 
Council. Mr. John Slater, f.r.i.b.a., 
Vice-President of the Royal Insti- 
tute of British Architects, adju- 
dicated upon the competitive 
designs. Building operations were 
commenced in August, 1903, and 
the buildings were completed in 
July, 1905. The rents of the 
tenements are as follow: — One- 
room tenement — 38. Qd. per week ; 
two-room tenement — top floor, 
58. i5I. ; first, second, and third 
floors, 58. 9d. ; ground floor, 63. ; 
three - room tenement — top floor, 
78. 6d.; first, second, and third 
floors, 78. 9d. ; ground floor, 88. All 
with separate scullery, w.c, &c. 

Camberwell. — Two schemes are 
being carried out by the Council, 
one of which is particularly inter- 
esting. In the district known as the 
HoUington- street area, which con- 
tains approximately 571 houses, the 
Council has acquired an interest in 
303, and receives the rack rents from 
nearly all of them, overhauling them 
and putting them into a satisfactory 
condition, letting them at the same 
rents to about 800 tenants. It is 
calculated that the undertaking 
will be self-supporting if not 
remunerative, and whilst prevent- 



1^8 



Housing the Working Classes. 



ing t|je increase of the rents of 
similar houses in the locality 
inhabited by the very poor, anil 
decreasing overcrowding, the fre- 
quent cleansing of the Council's 
nouses is effecting a marked im- 
provement on the occupiers, and 
setting an example to adjoining 
owners. The Council has also 
widened the footways of Crown, Pit- 
man, HoUington, and Sultan streets, 
tiken up the old York paving of 
the footways, and substituted 
asphalte, asphalted the roadways, 
and planted trees along the foot- 
paths. Beckett-streeti'* now widened 
throughout by the demolition of 
some insanitary hovels and building 
to a new line of frontage. Baily- 
street, a new 40ft. road is nearly 
CDmpleted, and will open up the 
neignbourhoNod. The site of some 
demolished insanitary cottages in 
Toulon-street has been tar paved, 
and as a much needed playground 
for the swarms of children is well 
appreciated. The other scheme 
of the Council is at Grove-vale. 
There a plot of land, about 8 acres 
in extent, has been purchased for 
£5,4()0. After setting aside a pro- 
portion for public improvements, 
94 houses hive bj3n erected 
to accommodate about 181 tene- 
ments. The scheme is completed, 
and the total cost of the site and 
houses is over £60,000. This estate 
is quite self- supjjor ting, after repay- 
ing principal and interest and 
setting- aside a liberal proportion 
for maintenance, as required by the 
London County Council as a con- 
dition of the loan. 

Chelsea. — In Pond-place the 
Council has acquired four blocks of 
three-storeyed dwellings (known as 
Onslow Dwellings), containing 108 
tenements and housing 450 persons, 
to prevent the site being pur- 
chased for any other purpose than 
that of housing. There are 6J5 three- 
room tenements let at 5«. t>d. and 



6«. per week, and 45 two-room tene- 
ments let at 48. tyd. and 5a. per week. 
In Beaufort-street, near Battersea 
Bridge, the Council has erectal 
artisans' dwellings, which consist of 
five blocks of six-storeyed houses, 
known as Sir Thomas More Build- 
ings, and contain 261 tenements, 
capable of housing over 90O persons. 
In 1905-6 the Council erected Pond 
House ujton the site of 21-23, Pond- 

Elace. This is a four-storeyed 
uilding, and contains eight two- 
room tenements and 24 three-room 
tenements, and is capable of housing 
140 people. The rents are 7«. (5d. a 
week for two-room tenements, and 
lOs. and 98. (yd. for three-room 
tenements. 

Hammersmith. — Part HI. of 
the Act (1890) has been adopted, 
and in Xoveml:)er, 190o, three blocks 
of eight tenements for 24 families 
were opened in Yeldham - road, 
near the borou/h electricity works. 
There are 12 four-roomed and a 
similar number of three-roomed 
fiats, the larger containing two 
bedrooms, living-room, scullery, and 
w.c. The rooms are lighted by 
electricity from the adjacent works. 
The buildings, the total cost of 
which was £5,500, were built on 
vacant land. The chief cx)ntractors 
were Messrs. Sims and Woods, 
Gray's Inn-road. 

Hampstead. — Among the earliest 
acts of the new council was the 
adoption of Part III. of the Act 
(1890). A site was acquired at 
the comer of Lower Cross-road 
and Upper Park-road, and three 
blocks of dwellings, to accommodate 
about 250 persons, have been erected 
thereon. There are in all 42 tene- 
ments, viz: — 10 fonr-roomed, 20 
three-roomed, and 12 two-roomed. 
Each tenement is provided with a 
scullery containing a sin V and a coal- 
bunker and a water-closet placed as 
far as possible from the living rooms, 
with a ventilated lobby between. The 



Housing the Working Glasses. 



139 



rents are: — foiir-roomed tenements 
Ws. 6c?. per week; three-roomed tene- 
ments 98. per week ; two-roomed tene- 
ments 6«. 6(i. and Gs. M. 

Lewisham. — Part III. of the 
Housing of the Working Classes 
Act, 1890, has been adopted. 

Paddington.— Part III. of the 
Housing Act (1890) has been 
adopted, but nothing tangible has 
been done. 

St. Marylebone.— Plans were 
prepared in 1901 by Mr. H. B. 
Measures, now Director of Barrack 
Construction for the War Office, for 
the carrying out of a housing 
scheme on a site in John-street. 
The site cost £7,000, but the London 
County Council sanctioned a loan 
of only £5,200. The Borough 
Council determined to go on with 
the scheme, although there would 
be a charge on the rates, and ac- 
cepted a lender for £11,591 for the 
erection of the buildings, which 
comprise 18 one-room tenements, 24 
two-room tenements, and 10 thre3- 
room tenements. The London 
County Council sanctioned a loan 
of £12,265 for the buildings on 
the condition that the Borough 
Council set aside £103 a year as a 
repairs fund. The buildings were 
completed in 1905, with the exception 
of tenements wliich have remained 
unfinished owing to litigation with 
regard to the party-wall. It is 
hoped, however, that this matter 
will very shortly be closed, and the 
dwellings entirely completed. For 
the building's there were very many 
more applicants than tenements, 
and they have continued to let well. 
Apart from the contribution from 
the general rate of £2,183 Qs. \d. 
towards the purchase of the site, 
the dwellings have involved a charge 
on the rates during the first two 
years of £401 2s. 6^7. on capital 
account, and £541 48. hd. on revenue 
account. Ill the late autumn of 
1902 the Improvements and Housing 



Committees subm'tted a much more 
important scheme, proposed to be 
carried out under Part II. It is in 
relation to an area known as the 
Devonshire-place area (comprising 
houses in Devonshire-place, Devon- 
shire-street, and Salisbury-street). 
The London County Council con- 
sidered that the area was not of 
sufficient importance to the coanty 
of London to be dealt with under 
the provisions of l*art I., and that 
it should be dealt with imder Part 
II. To avoid arbitration the Borough 
Council, on the 14th May, 1903, 
passed a resolution that itself deal 
with the improvement and recon- 
struction on the condition that the 
London County Council would pay 
half the nett cost. Olwing to various 
circumstances the scheme has not 
been proceeded with. 

St. Pancras. — There arc two or 
three insanitary areas in St. Pan- 
eras, and the question of dealing 
with them has been under con- 
sideration for a number of years. 
The London County Council has 
cleared the area known as Church - 
way, and erected model dwellings 
theretm. The Borough Council under 
Part II., proposes to deal with four 
other areas the Bran tome-place. 
Prospect-terrace, Chapel-grove, and 
Eastnor - place areas. Brautxmie- 
place area, which included Crescent 
Mews North, has recently been 
demolished, and self - contained 
tenements are now in course of 
erection, the contracts amounting 
to £20,473. Prospect-terrace area, 
which comprises Prosj^ect-terrace, 
Derry-street, and Wellington-place, 
has been demolished, and advertise- 
ments have been issued for tenders. 
It is proposed to erect niodel dwell- 
ings in both areas, which will re- 
house 520 persons —320 in Brantome- 
place and 200 in Prospect- terrace. 
This, however, will not re-house 
the whole of those displaced, and to 
provide for the surplus the Coundl 



140 



Housing the Working Glasses. 



has erected working-class dwellings 
(Groldington buildings) in Great 
College-street. The site extends 
to 15,404ft., and the buildings 
accommodate 332 persons. There 
are three tenements of four 
rooms each, 48 sets of three rooms, 
two sets of two rooms, and two 
sets of one room. Each tene- 
ment is self-contained, having its 
own wash-house, copper, and sani- 
tary conveniences, and a small 
covered balcony on which a dust- 
bin stands. The contract for the 
erection of the building's amounted 
to £17,734, but to this must be 
added the cost of the site — viz., 
£6,500. Model dwellings are also 
proposed to be constructed on 
Chapel-grove ^and Eastnor-place 
areas. In the 'first case accommo- 
dation will be provided for 400 
persons in the place of 501, who 
will be displaced by the execution 
of the scheme, while in the latter 
case, 100 persons will be re-housed. 
189 being displaced. 

Shoreditch. — The Shoreditch 
Vestry cleared a large insanitary 
area in Moira-place, displacing 533 
persons. Artisans' dwellings were 
erected in 1899, capable of rehousing 
400 people in 25 tenements of two 
rooms and 50 tenements of three 
rooms each. Further blocks of 
dwellings, with shops, have been 
erected on the site, giving accommo- 
dation for another 148 persons. 
Under Part III. of the Act the 
Council has also purchased an 
estate at Haggerston, and intends 
developing it for housing purposes. 

Stp]PNEY.— The Stepney Borough 
Council has now completed two 
schemes under Part II. of the 
Housing of the Working Classes 
Act. These schemes were inaugu- 
rated by the late Limehouse Board 
of Works, the sites being practically 
cleared before the Council came into 
existence. The first scheme — the 
Queen Catherine - court scheme — 



was prepared in 1891, and sanc- 
tioned by the Local Grovemment 
Board at the end of 1893. The 
number of persons displaced was 
133. The area of the whole site is 
about 9,000 super, feet, and a block 
of dwellings ('* Edward Mann Build- 
ings ") has been erected oa 6,000 
super, feet, and the remainder of 
the site has been let as a store. 
These dwellings accommodate 128 
persons. The Council has also pur- 
chased under the provisions of 
Part III. of the Housing of the 
Working Classes Act, 1890, seven 
private lioues adjoining the area 
in Dorset street and Brunswick- 
place, which the Council now 
lets as workmen's dwellings. The 
second scheme provided for the 
clearing of an insanitary area 
in Three Colt-street, Limehouse, 
known as King John's - court 
area. The area cleared consisted 
of 8,500 super, feet, and dwellings 
have been erected thereon, which 
accommodate 132 persons. .This 
site was cleared under the provisions 
of Part I r. of the Housing Act, but, 
as it was found that dwellings could 
be erected on the land to accommo- 
date 132 persons instead of only 56 
as provided by the scheme, the site 
was, with the sanction of the Local 
Government Board, appropriated by 
the Council for the purposes of 
Part III. of the Act. The cost of 
the erection of the dwellings, which 
are known as " Potter " Dwellings 
(named arfter a former mayor of the 
borough), was £5,974. 

Westminster. — An extensive 
housing scheme has been carried 
out. The City of Westminster 
dwellings have been erected by the 
City Council upon a site purchased 
from the Ecclesiastical Conjrais- 
sioners, with a frontage to Regency- 
street of 305 feet, to Page-street of 
175 feet, and to Vincent- street of 
228 feet, containing a superficial 
area of nearly 11 acres. They con- 



Housing the Working Classes. 



141 



sist of three parallel blocks, known 
as Norfolk House, Probyn House, 
and Jessel House, and are six 
storeys in height, including half- 
basement and attic storeys. There 
are two roadways, or playgrounds, 
40 feet wide between the blocks, at 
the ends of which arcading has been 
constructed to connect the buildings, 
so as to form continuous and artistic 
frontages. The buildings house 
about 1,800 persons, there being 793 
rooms divided into 343 tenements 
as follows : — 45 one-room tenements, 
weekly rents from 3«. to 4«. 3c2., 
159 two-room tenements, 6«. to 78. ; 
126 three-room tenements, 8«. Qd. 
to 98. 6i. ; 13 four-room tenements, 
lis. 6fi. to \2s. Qd. according to 
position. These rents include chim- 
ney-sweeping and the free use of 
Venetian blinds, baths and hot- 
water supplies, and drying-room. 
In considering the above rents, it 
should, perhaps, be noted that the 
cost of the land, as compared with 
that less centrally situated in the 
Metropolitan area, although appre- 
ciably lower than market value, was 
extremely high, whilst the refusal 
of the Treasury to allow a longer 
period than 60 years for the recoup- 
ment of outlay on buildings of this 
character has necessitated a higher 
charge than would otherwise have 
been practicable. But the rents 
charged are considerably under 
those ruling in the neighbourhood 
for tenements with rooms of a much 
smaller area and not nearly so well 
fitted up with cupboards and other 
conveniences. In order that the 
rents should be as low as possible, 
the one, two, and three room tene- 
ments have been built on the " asso- 
ciated " principle, i.e., the sanitary 
accommodation and laundries are 
shared by the tenants, on each 
floor ; but the four-room tenements 
are seK-contained, each having a 
separate scullery and w.c. The 
living rooms have an average 
area of 154 feet. The bedrooms of 



the two-roomed tenements have an 
average area of 113 feet; the two 
bedrooms of the three-roomed tene- 
ments an area oi 124 feet and 98 
feet; the three bedrooms of the 
four-roomed tenements an area of 
110 feet, 98 feet, and 94 feet respec- 
tively. The cost of the land and 
buildings has been approximately 
£95,000, or about £5,000 less than 
the architects' original estimate, 
and the rents have Ijeen adjusted to 
a scale that will, after providing for 
a sinking fund to repay the total 
outlay on the buildings m 60 years 
and on the land in 80 years, give a 
net return on the expenditure of 3t 
per cent, per annum. The scheme 
IS therefore self-supporting, ample 
provision having been made for all 
outgoings. The dwellings are occu- 
pied only by memljers of the work- 
ing classes principally employed, at 
low wages, within the City of 
Westminster. 

In July, 1906, there were opened 
the City of Westminster Dwellings, 
Marshall-street, Golden-square, W. 
The building, erected on a site 
already the Council's property, 
is five storeys in height, and con- 
tains 10 three-room teneinents and 
10 two-room tenements— a total of 
20 tenements, containing 50 rooms, 
which will house about 100 persons. 
The rents are — three-room tene- 
ments, 11«. to ll8. 6c?. per week; 
two-room tenements, 8«. to 8«. 6d. 
per week; according to position, 
and they include the free use of 
Venetian blinds. Compared with 
the Regency-street Dwellings, these 
rents are somewhat higher, owing 
to the increased value of the land. 
The cost of the buildings (exclusive 
of the cost of the site) is about 
£4,600, and the rents have been 
adjusted to a scale that will, after 
providing for a sinking fund to 
repay total outlay on the buildings 
in 60 years, give a nett return on the 
expenditure of about 3i per cent, per 
annum. 



142 * Advertise men Is, 



HYDRAULIC POWER 

For LIFTS, CRANES, PRESSES, FIRE EXTIMC- 
TION, and PROTECTION FROM FLOOD and DIRT. 

For LIFTING purposes HYDRAULIC Power is peculiarly adapted. 
' HYDRAULIC POWER acts directly on the LIFTING RAMS. 

It is the only sy^em of power supply for Lifts that cau be applied with Direct 
Action. Other lifting systems are of the nature of Winding Machines. 

HYDRAULIC Apparatus is the simplest, s ifest, cheapest, and moa!} efficient. 

Complicated and delicate machinery and attachments must mean gri'eater first oo.-t 
and heavier expenditure on reaewals cand repairs. 

The Direct Acting Hydraulic Ram Lift ha^ recently oomo greatly into favcnr in 
the United States, where tne efficiency of the Lift service is the first consideration. 

Everyone interested should read 

'<HYDR4UUC POWER v. ELECTRIC POWER FOR LIFTS/* 2nd Edition, 

published by the Londox Hydraulic Power Co., and sent free on application to 
The Secretary, Palace Chambers, 9, Bridge Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 



THE LONDON HYDRAULIC POWER COMPANY 

(System Inaug>upated 1882), 

supplies motive power in London day and night throughout the 
year at a pressure of 700 lbs. to the square inch. 

The Progress of the Company is illustrated by the number of gallons of Water 
Power delivered and machines at work. 

Gallons delivered per week in 1935 18,000,000 

Number of machine?, 5,801. 

Gallons delivered per week in 1936 19,000,000 

Number of machines, 6,000. 

Gallons delivered per week in 1937 20,000,000 

Number of machines, 6,187. 

PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE. 

Injector Hydrants connected to the London Hydraulic Power Company's Mains and 
to the Water Works supply will produce at any moment of the day or night, and at 
any height above the pavement, jets of water eriuil in volume and strength to those given 
by Steam Fire Engines. When desired thee jet.s can b3 made to work automatically, 
can be connected to sprinklers or water curtains, and a considerable number are now 
installed at Public Offices and Buildings. 

PROTECTION FROM FLOOD and DIRT. 

Hydraulic Ejectors connected with the Power Company's mains are an inexpensive, 
simple, and most efficient appiiratus for keeping cellars or basements free from flood ; 
they can be arranged to work at will by opening a stop-valve or connected to a float 
to work automatically. Can be made to deil with any required quantity of water or 
liquid mud. Hydraulic Ejectors work the Hydraulic Suction Cleaner. The cheapest 
and most efficient on the market. All dirt passes away with exhau. t water. 

Full particulars as to Terms and Conditions of Supply can be obtained on application 
to the Secretary, 

LONDON HYDRAULIC POWER COMPANY, 

Palaot OhamlMfs, 8, Bridge Straet, Westminster, S.W. 



London's Water Supply. 



143 



Woolwich. — Twenty - five cot- 
tage dwellings have been erected 
by the Coancil in Bargehouse- 
road and the Manor- way, North 
Woolwich, under the provisions of 
Part III. of the 1890 Housing 
Act. The whole scheme has cost 
£8,481 7«. 9rf., exclusive of the site, 
which was previously in the posses- 



sion of the Council. Each building 
contains a large living room, with a 
scullery at the rear on the ground- 
floor, and three good-sized bed- 
rooms upstairs. There are two 
houses at lOs. per week (also 
containing a bath-room), seven 
at 98., nine at 88. 6(i., and seven 
at 88. 



METROPOLITAN WATER BOARD. 

The Metropolitan Water Board, which was created by the Metropolis 
Water Act, passed December 18, 1902, held its first meeting on* April 2, 
1903. The offices of the Board are at Savoy Court, Strand, W.C, and it 
meets on alternate Fridays at the offices of the Metropolitan Asylums 
Board, Embankment, E.C.- The chairman of the Board is Sir R. Melvill 
Be chcroft, L.C.C., and the vice chairman, Mr. E. B. Barnard, M.P. The 
clerk is Mr. A. B. Pilling, who was formerly Town Clerk of Devonport. 

On October 26, 1903, the arbitrators appointed under the Act, Sir 
Edward Fry (President), Sir High Owen, and Sir J. Wolfe Barry, com- 
menced their investigations into the claims made by the Water (Com- 
panies for the purchase of their undertakings. The following table shows 
(1) the amounts claimed at the arbitration by the various companies ; (2) 
the amount of the awards in cash ; (3) the debentures taken over by the 
Board on the appointed day :— 



Company. 


Amount of 
Claim. 

(1) 


Amount of 

Award 

in Cash. 

(2) 


Debentures 

on appointed 

day. 

(3) 


East London 

New River 

GrandJunction 

West Middlesex 

Lambeth 

Soathwark and Vauxhall 

Chelsea 

Kent 

Staines Heservoirs Joint Com- 
mittees 


£ 
7,204,144 
13,260,144 
4,830.000 
4,200,24^J 
5.511.342 
5,674,140 
4,750,000 
3,715,614 


£ 

3,900.000 

5,967,123* 

3,349,500 

3,524,000 

4,301,000t 

3.603,000 

3,305,700 

2,712,000 


£ 

2,251,166 

2,758,000 

500,250 

772,000 

1,045,753 

2,487,982 

249,217 

333.880 

1,226,700 


5 per cent, on claims other than 
New River Company^ 


49,145,624 
1.793.574 


— 


— 


Total 


£50,939,198 


£30,662,323 


£11,624,948 



• Note.— The award in the case of the New River Company amounts to £6,534,000 
Water Stock, but the figure of £5,957,123 is the cash e(iuivalent, taking as the basis of 
calculation the price at which the agreement to take stock in lieu of cash was arrived at 
with the other companies. 

t Note.— Under the Award the Lambeth Company had to pay the Board the sum of 
£42,678 in respect of the repair of a culvert. 

t Note.— Except in the case of the New River Company, each of the companies 
claimed in addition a sum equal to 5 per cent, of its claim, or the amount of the Award 
for possible loss of interest pending re-investmen land for the costs of re-investment. In 
each of such cases, the Award included a certain amount in respect of this claim. 

F 



144 



London's Water Supply. 



The Board is composed of representatives nominated by the constituent 
authorities of the water area, as follows : — 



M Em ems -OP thb boaiid. 



Name of Member. 
AndersoB, F. B. ... 



Baker, Charles £. 



Baniard« £. B., m.p. 

Beachcroft. Sir R. Melvill 
Beaton, B. M., m.b., j.p. 

Bethell, Alfred 

BilUngs, G. 

Brandon, Jocelyn 

Bums, W. I 

Burrell, W... 

Burt, Charles, j.p* 

Clarke, S. A 

Cole, B. G 



Colviie, Lieut. - Colonel 

Charles F. 
Cornish, W. D., j.p. 

Damley, the Right Hon. 
the ]!<arl of 

I)ew, George 

Doll, C. FitzRoy, 

P.E.I.B.A., F.S.I. 

Dove, F.L 

Kaston, E. G 

EUiottJ.G. S., j.p. 
Emden, T. W. L., j.p. ... 
Farr, G. C, j.p 



Fisher, C. U. 

Fox, C. E., j.p. ... 

Gates Edward, j.p. 

Glanville, H.J.,J.p. 

Glass, John 

Gordon, W. E. ... 
Harris, C. T., j.p.... 

Hearson, C. E. 



Constituent Authokitt. 
Southwark Boro' Council... 

Bromley Borough Council 
and fieckenham, Chisle* 
huriit, Penge, Bexley, 
Dartford, Erith, and 
Foots Cray Urban Dis- 
trict Councils 

Hertfordshire County Coun- 
cil 

London County Council ... 

Loudon County Council . . . 

East Ham Borough Conneil 

London County Counci 1 ... 

London County Council . . . 

Hammersmith Borough 

Council 
Lewisham Bororgh Council 

Surrey Count y Council 

Waltham-tow Urban Dis- 
trict Council . 

Homsey Borough and Wood 
Green Urban District 
Councils 

Ro^al Borough of Ken- 
sington Council 

liCe Conservancy Board ... 

Kent County Council 

London County Council ... 
Holborn Borough Council... 

Ix)ndon County Council ... 
London County Council ... 

Lslington Borough Council. 

Westminster City Council... 

Ealing Borough Council 
and Acton and Chiswiek 
Urban District Councils 

London County Council ... 

Bethnal Green Borough 

Council. 
Shoreditch Boro' Council... 

London County Council . . . 

Stoke Kewington Borough 
Council. 

Chelsea Borough Council ... 

Common Council of the 
City of London. 

Camberwell Borough Coun- 
cil 



Address. 

" DomingtoD." Sandford-rd., 
Bromley, Kent. 

54. Parliament-street, R.W., 
and Park Hill Lodge, Short- 
lauds. 



The Fair Green House, Saw- 

bridgewoi th> Herts. 
24, Palace-court, W. 
9, Dartmouth Park-avenue, 

N.W. 
Inns of Court Hotel, Hi«h 

Holborn, W.C. 
" Arundel," Crescent - road, 

Chingford, N.B. 
Seaford House, Edith-road, 

Kensington, W. 
170, Hammersmith-road, W. 

Orchardleigh. 21, Slaith- 

waite-road, Lewisham. 
Hill Side House, Richmond, 

Surrey. 
29, Prospect-hill, Wultham- 

stow. 
Glencalm» 82, Pellatt-grove, 

Wood Green, Middlesex. 

45. Emperor's Gate, South 

Kensington, S.W. 
Warren Lodge, Bui-y-street, 

EdmoBton. • 
Cobham Hall, Gravrsend. 

264. Milkwood-rd.,Herne.hill 

5, ^'outhBmpton•8t., Blooaui> 
bury, W.C. 

56, Crouch-hill, N. 

38, Edith-road, West Ken- 
sington, W. 

14, Upper-s'reet, Islington, N. 

2, Lancaster-plaice, Strand. 

'• Ballygunge," Kent Gar- 
dens, Ealing. 

Bristol House, 19 and 20, 
Holborn Viaduct, E.C, 

109 and 111, Bethnal Green- 
road. E. 

" Ranelagh.** 222, Willesden- 
lane. N.W. 

Tresillian House, St. Mar- 
garet 's-rd., Brockley, S.E. 

4, Lordship Park, Stoke 
Newington, N. 

42, Oakley-street, Chelsea. 
Holly Lodge, Denmaik Hill, 

5, Teinplar-street, Camber 
well, S.E. 



London's- Water Supply. 



145 



Xamb of Member. 
KuggetU E. P., J.p. 

Jobnon, Edw^ird ... 
Karftlake. J. B. P. 
Kettle, John 

-•Langmain, Wm 

Lawrenee, G. W. ... 

Lawton.J. H.S 



Lay^m^u, Arthur ... 
Le»-Smith, John ... 

Lidlard, John 

Lyne, Thomas, j.p. 



Malone, P. B., j.p. 

Mann, Sir £., Bart., j.p. . 

Mussn*ave, C. 6., j.p. ... 

Norris, H. G 

Parker, E 

Pinkham, Charles, j.p.... 

Pritchard, C. Fleetwood.. 

Reynolds, W.H 

BottOD, Lieut. .Col. A. ... 
Russell. H. W 

Sanders, John H 

Sheehan, J., j.p 

SjHratt, Leslie W., j.p. ... 

Stone, J. M 

Strong. Sir T. Vezey . . . 

. Syer, H. S 

Thompson, W. W. 
Tozer, A. H 



Tripp. K. H 

Ward, Henry 

Watts, William 

Welby, the Right Hon. 

the Lord, 0.c.b. 
White, Edward, j.p. ... 
White. P. A 



COWSTITUEITT AUTHOBITT. 

Middlesex County Council 

Lambeth Borough Council 
Paddington Boro' Council 
West Ham County Borough 

Council 
Essex County £!oimcil 

Westmiiwtdr City Couhcil 

Brentford. Hampton. 
Hampton Wick, Hanwell, 
Heston and Isleworth, 
Sunbury, Teddiogton, 
and Twickenham Urban 
District Cmincils 

Bermondsey Boro' Council 

St. Marylebon6 Borough 
Council 

Wandsworth Borough Coun- 
cil 

Kingston and Wimbledon. 
Borough Councils, and 
' East and West Molesey, 
Esher and the Dittons, 
Ham. Surbiton, Barnes, 
the Maidens and Coombe 
Urban District Councils. 

Tottenham Urban District 
Council 

Stepney Borough Council... 

Leyton Urban District 

Council 
Fulham Borough Council... 
St. Pancias Boro' Council 
Willesden Urban District 

Council 
Hanmstead Boro' Council... 
Deptiord Borough Council.. 
London County Council ... 
Thames Conservancy 

Edmonton, Enfield, and 

Southgate U.D. Councils 

Hackney Borough Council . 

West Ham County Borough 

Council 
Greenwich Boro' Council... 

Common Council of the 

City of London 
W^oolwich Borough Council 

London County Council . . . 

Buckhurst Hill.Chingford, 
Loughton, Waltham Holy 
Cross, Wanst«ad, aud 
Woodford U. D. Councils. 

Pinsbury Borough Council 

London County Council ... 

Battersea Borough Council. 
London County Council , . . 

London County Council . . . 
Poplar Borough Council ... 



Address. 

91, Philip-lane, South Tot- 
tenham. N. 

49, Gresham-rd., Brixtoa-rd. 

11. Sottthwick-orescent, W. 

53, Woodgrange-road, Poorest 

Gate, £. 
. Hanover House, Woodford 
Wells. Essex. 

29. York-terxace, Regent's 
Park. N.W. 

7, Holmesdale>road, Kew, 
Surrey. 



4, Dulwich Wood-park,. S.E. 
41, Bryanston-square, W. 

Guildford House, 4, Elms- 
road. Olapham, S.W. 

" Ridgeland^," Upper Park 
road, Kingston-on-Thames. 



40, Belmont - road", Totten- 
ham, N. 

Thelveton Hall, Scolfl, Nor- 
folk. 

" Mosborough," Lemnorioad, 
Leytonstone, E. 

Sirron Lodge, Riehampton. 

5,Albert^road,N.W. 

7, Winchester-avenue, Bron- 
deebury.N.W. 

3, Temple Gardens. Temple. 

" TheLillies,"Woodside,S.E. 

51, Onslow Gard. ns, S.W. 

OlMy Lodge, Furze Piatt. 
Maidenhead. 

Cedar House. E<sex - road. 
Enfield. 

110, Mortimer-road, Kings- 
land, N. 

Tylney House, Eagle-lane, 
Snaresbrook. 

5, St. German's-place, Black- 
heath, S.E. 

196, Upper Thames-street, 
E.G. 

45, Plumsteid Common-road. 
Plumstead. 

24, Argyll-road, Kensington. 

84, Fcnchurch-street, E.C. 



17, Amwell-st.. ClerkenwelL 

Toynbee Hall. Commercial - 
street. E. 

45, Kyrle-rd., Battersea, S.W. 

11, Stratton - street, Picca- 
dilly, W. 

20. Upper Berkeley -street. W. 

40. Brunswick-rd., Bromley.E. 
F 2 



146 



London 8 Water Supply. 



CHIEF OFFICIALS. 



Clebk op the Board— A. B. Pilling, 

F.C.I.8. 

Assistant Clkrk op the Board— W. 
J. G. Norris. 
Supervisor— F. W. Drake. 
Estate Clerk— C. J. Howell Thomas, 

F.S.I. 



Chief Ekoinber — Wm. B. Bryan, 

M.I.C.E. 

Deputy Chief Engineer — J. W. 
Restler, m.i.c.e. 
Accountant— Arthur Newton. 
Chief Revenue Officer— J. Wilson. 
Solicitor— Walter Moon. 



Director of Water Examinations— Dr. A. C. Houston, m.b., d.sc. 

The Board came into existence early in 1903, and the date of the 
general transfer of the undertakings was 24th June, 1904, save as regards 
the New Eiver Company's undertaking, which was transferred a month 
later. 

Members appointed by a constituent authority consisting of the councils 
of more than one urban district, are to be appointed by the councils acting 
through a joint committee. If a member of the Water Board ceases to 
be a member of the authority which appointed him, he is, after two 
months, to vacate his seat. 

The term of office of chairman, vice-chairman, and members is three 
years. They went out of office on Ist June, 1907, and will do so on 1st June 
every third year thereafter. The rules for the conduct of business are 
those generally observed on public bodies, and the Board may similarly 
delegate its business to committees. 

Limits of Supply. 

The area of supply is described as " the parishes and places in which, 
at the date of the passing of this Act, any of the metropolitan water 
companies are authorised to supply water, and the parishes of Sunbury and 
Chessington." The extent and division of the area appear from the 
following statement : — 





Area (Approximate). 




County. 
(1) 


Acres. 

(2) 


(3) 


Population 
(1901). 

(4) 


London 

Essex* { 

Hertford 

Kent 

Middlesex 

Surreyt 


74,839 
(a) 62,226 
(5) 47,337 

14,636 
100,924 

61,060 

30,273 


116 599 
97 146 
73 617 
22 556 

157 444 
95 260 
47 193 


4,536,541 
680,783 
615,021 
10,656 
207,710 
653.744 
153,574 


Total { 


(a) 343,958 

(b) 329,069 


537 278 
514 109 


6,243,008 
6,177,246 



* (a) Including, (b) excluding Barking. Romford, and part of Ilford Urban Districts. 
Although these urban districts were within the stitutory area of the Ea^t London Com- 
pany, the whole of the first-named districts and the greater part of Ilford were and are 
supplied by the South Essex Company. The saving in the Act of 1902 (Sec. 35) is confined 
to restricting the Board from extending its supply to so much of the Romford Rural 
]»istrict as is comprised within the statutory limits of the South Essex Company. The 
whole of that rural district is within the limits of the South Essex (company, but only 
Dagenham parish therein is within the East London limits. The effect is to retain only 
a small corner of the Dagenham parish with sixteen supplies and an area of 246 acres out 
of 6,556. Barking, Romford, and Ilford Urban Distric's remain within the Board's 
statutory area, in the two former of which the Board has not a single supply. Out of an 
aggregate acreage of 17,929 and population (Census 1901) of 76,437 the Board supplies only 
3,C40 acres and 10,675 population respectively. 

t In addition parts of Croydon and Richmtnd are supplied in bulk. 



London's Water Supply, 147 

A considerable part of this area is as yet unbuilt upon, so that the 
statutorjr area is not conterminous with the area of actual supply, which 
is being increased by building operations almost week by week. 

Special provisions are inserted in the terms of transfer. 

Substitution of Water Stock for irredeemable Debenture Stock. 

Within two yean from the appointed day all irredeemable debenture stock shall 
be eztin^ished, and the Water Board shall issue to the holders thereof in sobstitation 
therefor the amoant of water stock to which they are severally entitled under this 
section. 

The amount of water stock to be so issued to a holder of debenture stock shall be 
such an amount as is sufQclent to produce the same sum by way of income as the 
debenture stock in substitution for which it is issued. 

As soon as the Water Board resolve to issue water stock in substitution for any 
debenture stock under thij section, they shall give notice of their intention to do so 
by advertising it once in the " London Gazette" and in two or more London daily 
newspapers, and by sending notice by post to each of the holders of that debenture 
stock, to his registered address, and the notice shall specify the plac« and the time, 
not being less than three months from the date of the notice, at which the issue of 
water stock will be made 

Before water stock is' issued under this section in substitation for any debenture 
stock the certificate of that stock shall be produced and delivered to the Water 
Board: Provided that the Water Board shall dispense with the production and 
delivery of any certificate upon receiving such indemnity as may be reasonably 
required. 

As from the time fixed by the notice for the issue of water stock in substitution for 
any debenture stock, that debenture stock shall be cancelled and extinguished, and 
no interest shall after that time accrue due in respect thereof, but the water stock 
issued in substitution therefor shall carry ioterest as from the time so fixed. 

Water stock issued under and for the purposes of this section shall not be redeem- 
able until after the expiration of sixty years from the thirty-first day of March one 
thousand nine hundred and three. 

Redemption of Stock. 

The Water Board shall within one hundred years from the thirty-first day of 
March, one thousand nine hundred and three, purchase or redeem, and pay off, all 
redeemable debenture stock and all mortgage debts, and any stock so purchased or 
redeemed by the Board shall, as from the date of the purchase or redemption, be 
extinguished and cancelled. 

The holder of any such debenture stock or mortgage debt, whether or not he is a 
trustee or under any disability, may agree with the Water Board to accept water 
stock in lieu of money in consideration for his debenture stock or mortgage debt. 

Nothing in this section shall be construed as authorising the Water Board to redeem 
debenture stock otherwise than in accordance with the conditions as to redemption 
applicable to the stock. 

Special provisions are inserted excluding any " landed estate, houses, or 
property," Ac, not connected with its water supply, from the transfer. 

Financial Provlslone. 

There shall be established a water fund, and all receipts of the Water Board shall 
be carried to that fund, and all payments by the Board shall be made out of that 
fund. 

Any sum required to meet any deficiency in the water fund, whether for satisfying 
past or future liabilities, in any financial year, shall be apportioned amongst the City 
of London and the metropolitan boroughs in the County of London and the municipal 
boroughsi and urban districts outride London, the councils of which are for the time 
being entitled to be represented on the Water Board, in proportion to the rateable 
value appearing in tbe valuation lists in force on the preceding sixth day of April of 
the hereditaments at that date supplied with water by ttie Water Board or any 
metropolitan water company or the council of the urban district of Tottenham or 
Enfield in the City and each such borough and district. 

The Water Board shall issue precepts for the sums apportioned to the City and the 
several boroughs and districts liable— 

(a) in the case of the City of London, to the common council ; 



148 London's Water Supply. 

(b) in the case of a metiopolitan borongh to the council of that borough ; 

(c) in the cause of a municipal borough or urban district to the council thereof ; 
and the council phall pay to the Water Board the amount specified in the precept. 

The amount required by any such precept shall be paid— 

(a) in the case of the City, out of the consolidated rate ; 

(b) in the case of a metropolitan borough as part of the expenses incurred by the 
council thereof 

(c) in the case of a municipal borough or urban district, out of the fund or rate out 
of which the expenses of the council thereof incurred in the execution of tbe Public 
Health Acts are payable. 

A demand note for any rate levied for defraying any expenses of the Water Board, 
together with other expenses, shall state as a separate item the amount to be paid for 
defraying the expemes of that Board. 

The Water Board shall not, until Parliament otherwise determine, reduce the rates 
charged for the supply of water below those in force during the quarter ending 
the twenty-fourth day of June one thousand nine hundred and two, unless the 
Board are satisfied that such a reduction would not came a deficiency in the water 
fund ; but the Water Board shall, within three years after the appointed day, intro- 
duce into Parliament a Bill providing for uniform scales of charges applicable 
throughout the limits of supply. 

Within three years after the appointed day the Water Board may prepare and 
publish in the " London Gazette " a scheme enabling their charges for the supply of 
water to be collated together with any local rate. 

Any local or rating authority within the limits of supply may transmit to the Local 
Government Board their objections to any such scheme within forty days after the 
scheme is published in the London Gazette. 

Borrowlns Powers. 

The Water Board may borrow money for the purpose of — 

(a) paying any money (other than money payable by way of interest on purchase 
money) payable under this Act by the Water Board to a metropolitan water 
company and 

(b) paying any money payable to the council of the urban district of Tottenham 
and Enfield; and 

(c) purchasing, redeeming, or paying off any debenture stock or mortgage debt ; and 

(d) executing any work authorised by the Acts relating to any of the metropolitan 
water companies, so that the amount does not exceed the amounts which were imme- 
diately before the appointed day under those Acts authorised to be raided for that 
purpose, but have not been raised before that date ; and 

(e) paying any compensation payable under this Act (otherwise than by way of 
annuity) : 

and. wiih the consent of the Local Government Board, for the purpose of s^jiy pay- 
ment by the Water Board or of any permanent work or other thing which the Water 
Board are authorised to execute or do, and which or the cost of which ought, in the 
opinion of the Local Government Board, to bespread over a term of years. 

All moneys borrowed under this section shall be raised by means of the 
issue of water stock under this Act, unless the Local Government Board consent to 
^me other mode of raising the money, and where the Local Government Board 
so consent, any money raised and the interest thereon shall be charged on the water 
fund or on such property or revenues of the Water Board, and in such mauter as the 
Local Governmeut Board may sanction. 

Any money borrowed under this Act shall, if borrowed for the purpose of making 
any payment to a metropolitan water company or to the council of the urban district 
of Tottenham cr Enfield, or of redeeming, purchasing, or paying off any debenture 
stock or mortgage debt, be repaid within the period of one hundred years from the 
thirty-first day of March, one thousand nine hundred and three, and, if borrowed for 
anv other purpose, within such period not exceeding sixty years from the date of the 
borrowing as the Water Beard, with the consent of the Local Government Board, may 

VOTth^e purpose of paying off a loan raised under this Act, the Water Board shall 
have the like powers of reborrowing as a county council have under section sixty- 
nine of the Local Government Act, 1888, and the provisions of that section so far as 
they relate to reborrowing shall apply as if chey were herein re-enacted and in 
terns made applicable to the Water Board and to the security on which that Board 
are bv or under this Act authorised to borrow. ., ^ j, ^ *. 

So much of any Local Act as relates to the method of borrowing money by a 
metropolitan water company shall as from the appointed day be repealed. 



London* s Water Supply. 149 



Water Stock. 

In accordance with regulations of the Local Government Board, the 
Board up to the present has issued £34,110,226 of Metropohtan Water (B) 
Stock, which is now quoted in the Official Lists of the London and 
Liverpool Stock Exchanges. 

A Chronolofflcal Reeord. 

The following is a chronological record of the various stages in the 
work accomplished: — 

1851.— Government Bill to control the companies. Not passed. 

1852.— Lord John Rassell's Bill enforcing filtration and reducing charges. Xot passed. 

1853.— Lord Derby's Government passed Metropolis Management Act fixing companies, 

dividends at 10 per cent. 
1857.— Royal Commission appointed (Duke of Richmond, chairman). 
1869.— Royal Commission recommended that •*the future control of the Water 

Supply should be entrusted to a responsible public body." 
1871.— Metropolis Water Act, providing for consbanc supply and official aualydis, passed. 

[Constant supply not obtained until 1902 by D.C.C.]. 
1878.— Metropolitan Board of Works introduced Bills for purchase and for introduction 

of extra supply from chalk strata round London. Bills abandoned. 
1879.— Government introduced Bill to create a Water Trust. 
1830.- Committee inquired into Bill and recommended that "in the absence of any single 

municipal body " a water authority be created. Bill abandoned. 
1839.— London County Council began attack on the water companies. 
1391. — City Corporation introduced a Bill to secura an alternxtive supply and aciuire the 

companies. Vestries had a Bill to establish a water authority for same purpose. 
18}!.— Royal Commission to inquire into efficiency and quality of existing supply. 

Recommended additional re^rvoirs, &c. 
1892. — Sir Matthew White Ridley's Committee rejected both Bills, and recommended that 

the County Council, either by itself or in conjunction with the City Corporation, 

was the proper authority, and that the Council get power to inveitigate . the 

question, which it did. 
1835.— County Council introduce i Bills to buy out the companies and introduce new 

supply. Passed second reading. 
1896.— County Council Bill defeated. 

1893.— Lord Jatnes introduced a Government ^ill to create a Water Trust. Abandoned. 
1897. — County Council Bill thrown out. 
1898.— Royal Commission (Lord Llandaff's) appointed. 

1899. — Commission issued interim report in favour of intercommunication between com- 
panies. Bill giving this power passed. 
1900.— Commission reported in favour of purchase, and recommended an authority of not 

more than thirty members, with paid chairman and vice-chairman appointed by 

the Local Government Board. 
1901.— County Council Rirchase Bill defeated. 
19D2.— County Council Bill defeated. Government Bill creating a Water Trust passed. 

Metropolitan Water Aot (1902) creating Metropolitan Water Board passed. 
1904.— Transfer of the undertakings of the Metropolitan Water Companies to the Board. 
1907.— Board's Act for equalising the water rate throughout the whole of its area passed. 
1908.— Equalised water rate brought into operation. 

The Board's principal offices have been consolidated into one Central 
Office, three district offices, five receiving offices, five engineering district 
offices, and one laboratory. 

The five engineering districts are known as New Eiver, representing 
209,219 supplies; Eastern, 237,683; Southern, 275,436; Western, 216,297 ; 
and Kent, 115,442. For each of these districts there is a district engineer 
(responsible to the Chief Engineer of the Board) and staff of assistants, 
draughtsmen, foremen, mechanics, &c. 

CHARGES FOR DOMESTIC SUPPLY IN THE SEVERAL DISTRICTS. 

The charges imposed by the Board for water for domestic purposes 
from the time of its succeeding to the business of the companies until 



150 London's Water Supply. 

31st March, 1908, were substantially the same as those imposed by the 
companies which varied with the varidus districts as follows : — 

Chelsea, Grand Junction, New River, and West Mlddfesex. 

Supply — On houses up to £200 annual value, 4 per cent. ; on houses 
over £200, 3 per cent. (1 per cent, in addition for all service given at an 
elevation of more than 160 feet above Trinity high-water mark in respect 
of the New River district, and 200 feet in respect of the West Middlesex). 

Extras — Houses from £31 value and upwards, for first w.c, bath, or 
high service (i.e., 10 feet from pavement), scale ranging from 48. to 12s., 
according to value of house ; for second, and every additional w.c, bath, 
or high service, scale ranging from 28. to 68.^ the charge increasing with 
the value in either case. 

Southwark and Vauxhall. 

Supply — 5 per cent, on all houses. 

Exiro.8 — Same as in the case of Chelsaa, Ac, as above. 

East London. 

Supply — 5 per cent, on all houses. 

Extras— ¥oT every bath or w.c, scale ranging from 48. to 88., according 
to value of house ; for high service above 20 feet, 25 per cent., in addition 
to foregoing rates, in respect of both supply and extras. 

Lambeth. 

Supply— ScBle from 7i to 5 per cent., in inverse proportion to value of 
house. 

Extras - Single w.c, scale 10«. to 208., increasing with the value of the 
house ; extra w.c, 68. to 108. Baths on agreed terms. No high service 
charge. 

Kent. 

Supply and one w.c. — Scale ranging from 88. per annum for house not 
exceeding annual value of £7 to £3 168. for house not exceeding £95; 
above £95, 4 per cent. 

Extras — Scale ranging from 6s. to 128. for one bath, 5s. to lOs. for 
second w.c ; for every additional bath and every additional w.c. beyond 
these there are uniform charges of 68. and 58. respectively. For high 
pressure (height exceeding 400 feet above sea-level) add 25 per cent, to 
all charges. 

The New Water Rate. 

As from 1st April, 1908, the Board's charges for water are governed by 
the Metropolitan Water Board (Charges) Act, 1907. This provides that 
the rate for domestic purposes shall not exceed 5 per cent, per annum on 
the rateable value of the premises suppliejd. The charge includes a 
supply for water-closets and baths not exceeding 80 gallons capacity, but 
does not include water for gardens from any outside tap or any hose, &c. 

For any house or building occupied solely for the purposes of trade or 
business or any profession, and occupied as a separate tenement assessed 
to the Poor Rate in a sum exceeding £300 per annum, and not charged 
with inhabited house duty, the Board has to give a rebate or dis'^ount of 
not less than 20 and not more than »30 per cent. 

Supply from the Several Sources. 

The following table shows the volume of water supplied from the 
-^veral sources under the Board's control; the average daily quantity 



London's Water Supply. 



151 



and the relative percentage of water derived from each source during the 
year 1906-7:— 



SOUBCE. 



Total volume 
during the year. 



Average ' Percentag 

daily quantity I of total 

supplied. I supply. 





Gallons. 


Gallons. 


Percent. 


1. Thames (a) 


47,027.583.446 


12<).842,695 


' 57*263 


2. Lee ... 


16.114.855.984 


44.150,290 


1 19-622 


3. M'ells and Springs in Lee Vallty ... 


10.808,325,029 


29.611,849 


13-161 


4. Wells in Kent 


7.398.533.812 


20.270,093 


9009 


5. Streatham, Honor Oak. and Selhurst 






1 


WelN 


537.957.120 


1.473.855 


-655 


6. 1\ auworth Springs 

7. Harapstead and Highgate Ponds (6) 


205.862,956 


564.008 


•251 


32.081.000 


87.893 


•039 


Total 1 


82,125,249,347 


225,000.683 


100 



(a) Including gravel water. 



(5) For non-domestic use. 



Authority to Abstract Water from the Thames. 

The Board possesses as the successor of the Metropolitan Water Com- 
panies authority to abstract water from the river Thames for distribution 
to the sevea districts wholly or partly dep3ndent upon such source to the 
amount of 1«50 million gallons a day. Other bodies are entitled to seven 
million gallons, making a total daily draught of 137 million galkms. 
Subject to certain restrictions, the maximum quantity that may be taken 
in any one day is 445 million gallons, of which the Water Board may 
claim 435^ million gallons, excluding gravel water. 

District Distribution of Supply. 

The total volume of water suppHed, the average daily supply, and the 
percentage of the total supply in each district during the year 190(5-7 are 
shown in the following table : — 



District. 


' Total quantity 
1 supplied. 


Average 

daily quantity 

supplied.* 


Percentage 
of total 
supply. 




Gallons. 


Gallons. 


Per cent. 


Eastern (East London) 


15.349,450.944 


42,053,290 


18 690 


Kent 

New River 


7.398,583,812 


20.270,093 


9009 


15,867,392.000 


43.472,306 


19-321 


Southern 


23.252.016.773 


63,704,156 


28-313! 


Lambeth 


...| ll,9i:i,0fi7,316 


32,638,541 


14506 


Southwark and Vauxhall 


ll,H:iS,949,4nfi 


31,065,615 


13-807 a 


"^^estem 


20.257,805,818 


55,503.838 


24-667 


Chelsea 


...1 4.505,731,001 


12,691,044 


5-5081 


Grand Junction 


6,540,582.426 


17,919,404 


7-964 IJ 


West Middlesex 


9,121,492,392 


24,990,390 


11-107 


Toal 


82,125,249,347 


225.000,683 


100 



* The Water Examiner divides the ayerage daily supply between (i.) for domestic 
purpo.'e3 only, estimated at 80 psr cent., and (ii.) for all purposes except domestic, esti- 
mated at 20 per cent. 

Population Supplied. 

The estimated population supplied in the eight districts on the 
31st March, 1907, the average estimated population supplied, the average 



152 



London s Water Supply. 



daily snpply per head during* the year, and the percentage in each district 
of the total estimated population supplied, were as follows : — 



DiSTKICT. 


Estimated 

population 

supplied on 31st 

March, 1?06. 


Average 

estimated 

population 

supplied 

during the year. 


Average 

supply per 

head per 

day 

during 

the year. 


Percentage 
distribu- 
tion 
of 
population. 


Eastern 

Kent 

New River 

Southern 

Lambeth 

Southwark and Vauxhall 
Western 

Chelsea 

Grand Junction 

West Hiddleeex 


1,544,421 
680.980 

1,385,729 

1,771,505 
863,715 
907,793 

1,511,145 
314,170 
510,083 
686,892 


1,538,013 
675,605 

1.379,198 

1,756,262 
854,282 
901,980 

1.501,967 
314,088 
502,-65 
685,014 


Gallons. 
27-34 
3000 
31-52 
36-27 
38-21 
38-44 
36-95 
40-09 
35-63 
36-48 


22-449 

9-862 

20-131 

25-635 

12-469 

13-166 

21-923 

4-584 

7340 

9 999 


Whole area 


6.893.780 


6.851.045 


32-84 


100 



Constant Supply. 

The Board distributes water within the limits of its area on both the 
intermittent and constant service systems. Under the latter the service 
pipes are constantly charge! un ler pressure, but under the former the 
water is supplied to the service m lins for a llmibed period only during 
each twenty-four hours. The Metropolis Water Act, 1871, Sec. 7, pre- 
scribes that every company shall, when required so to do in manner 
directed by the Act, provid3 ani ke3p throughout their water limits, or 
throughout such parts of such limits as they may be required, a constant 
supply of pure and wholesome water sufficient for the domestic purposes 
of tlie inhabitants within such water limits, constantly laid on at such 

Pressure as will make such water reach the top storey of the highest 
ouses within such limits, but not exceeding the level prescribed by the 
Special Act. In the Chelsea, East London, Grand Junction, South- 
wark and Vauxhall, and West Middlesex Districts constant supply is 
maintained. In the Kent District constant supply is given throughout 
with the exception of some 300 services on Shooter's Hill, and this will 
be remedied by the water tower proposed to be erected on the summit, 
to hold 100,000 gallons, for the purpose of maintaining a conslant supply 
in this district. In the remaining districts the percentage of constant 
supply services is as follows : — Lambeth. 81*12 ; New River, 94*1. 
Assessment of Board's UnderKaklng; In County of London. 
The following statement shows the assessment of the water undertaking 
as appearing in the valuation lists in force on the 30th April, 1906 : — 

Gross Rateable 

value. value. 

Administrative County of London. £ £ s. d. 

Metropolitan Boroughs and City of Westminster ... 787,974 617,577 

City of London 84.394 56,193 



Total County and City £872,368 

Outside County of London. 
Boroughs and Urban and Rural Districts in Bucks, 
Middlesex, Essex, Hertford, Kent, and Surrey ... 605,335 



Grand Total , 



..£1,477,703 



... £673,770 

487,010 17 6 
... £1,160,780 17 6 



LondoviS Light. 



153 



Rat««blc Valu« of BoHrd's Area. 

The foUowingf statement shows approximately the tota^ rateable value 
of the various boroughs and parishes within the Board' s*area of supply 
(including the rateable value of the whole parish where part only is 
within the statutory area), as appearing- in the rate books in 1898, 1902, 
19041906, and 1907:— 



County. 


1898. • 


1902. 


1904. 


1906. 


1907. 


London • 

Essex 

Hertford 

Kent 

Middlesex 
Surrey 


£ 

35,584.961 

1,992.722 

50.073 

1,143.476 

2,699,929 

976,511 


£ 
40.201,010 
2.198,553 
63,656 
1,445,368 
3,736,744 
1,472,640 


£ 
41,086.974 
3.279,501 
65,715 
1,610,939 
4,478,493 
1,595,569 

52,118,191 


£ 
*43,486,436 
3,298,251 
142,322 
1,595,102 
5,154,097 
1,653,011 


£ 
43.878,970 
3,741,869 
192,143 
1,647,298 
5,042,049 
1,768,643 


Total ... 


43,446,692 


49,817,971 


55,339,219 


56,270,972 



* Quinq[uennial valuation. 

ELECTRICITY SUPPLY. 
The supply of electricity, both by municipalities and companies, exeepK> 
in the case of undertakings authorised by Electric Power Acts, is regu- 
lated by the Electric Lighting Acts of 1882 and 1888, and the Electric 
Lightinff (Clauses) Act, 1899. 

The Electric Lighting (Clauses) Act of 1899 simplified the procedure 
of obtaining Provisional Orders, and embodied in one Act the clauses 
usually inserted in Orders, but it was expressly excluded from having force 
in the administrative County of London, although it could be made to apply 
by special clauses inserted in any new Order granted within the county. 

Under the Act of 1882 local authorities were enabled either to obtain 
Provisional Orders themselves, or to purchase any electricity supply 
undertakings established by private enterprise under the Act in their, 
respective dip'tricts at the expiration of 21 years, or of any subsequent 
period of seven years, at " the fair market value at the time of purchase 
. . . . without any addition in respect of compulsory purchase or 
goodiwilL" The 21 years' limit, however, acted as a check to the intro 
duct on and development of electricity supply by private enterprise, and, 
as a consequence, tne Electric Lighting Act, 1888, was passed, which pro- 
vided that the power of compulsory purchase by local authorities should 
not come into operation until after the expiration of 42 years, or of any 
subsequent period of 10 years. This Act further provided that the 
Board- of Trade should have power in any Provisional Order, to vary tihe 
terms under which the local authority might require the undertakers to 
sell their undertaking ; and, as a matter of fact, in a few of the Provisional 
Orders which have been granted relating to London, provisions are 
embodied enabling the local authority to purchase at any time before the 
expiration of the statutory period, due compensation in respect of com- 
pulsory purchase and goodwill being payable. In all the Orders relating 
to London granted to companies since 1889, it has Ijeeii provided that the 
local authorities shall have power to purchase at the expiration of a period 
of 42 years from the 26th August, 1889, instead of from the dates of the 
respective Orders. 



London* 8 Light, 155 



Division of Supply Areas. 

The present divisions which exist between the different areas of supply- 
in the metropolis were originated by the large number of applications 
made for statutory powers after the passing of the second Electric Lighting 
Act. To ascertam the proposals of the various applicants an enquiry was 
held by the Board of Trade in Westminster Town Hall early in 1889 
wh n witnesses were examined and a broad policy formulated. It was 
decided that uncontrolled rivalry was injudicious, and that if powers 
were to be granted to more than one applicant the supply should be given 
by each on a different system to the other, and the metropolis was par- 
titioned between the successful competitors. Certain changes in designa- 
tion and addition of less important areas have taken place in the inter- 
vening years, but the arrangement then made remains m its broad outlines 
substantially unaltered. Enquiries have at various dates been held as to 
changes of pressure and.to other matters connect^ed with London's electricity. 

After applying four times to Parliament for an Act to enable it to 
readjust the areas of supply of electricity within the administrative 
County of London, or any parts detached therefrom, under the London 
Government Act, 1899, so as to make the boundaries of those areas 
coterminous, so far as may be, with the areas of Local Grovemment fixed 
by the latter Act, the County Council succeeded in a Bill which came into 
operation in January, 1905. The previous electric lighting boundaries were 
those fixed by the Provisional Orders. The areas in which mains had 
been laid down prior to January, 1904, were transferred only by agree- 
ment and on terms and conditions which received the approval of the 
Board of Trad,e. 

The principal provisions of the Act are as follows : — Where any area, 
bein^ part of the area of supply of a corporation, had become situate 
outside a borough, such area was transferred to the area of any cor- 
poration or company authorised to supply electricity within the borough 
m which such area had become situate provided the area of supply of such 
corporation or company adjoined the transferred area. And similarly 
where any area, being part of the area of supply of a company, or 
bein^ an area in which there was no authorised supply, had become situate 
witibm a borough in which the corporation was authorised to supply elec- 
tricity, such area was transferred to the wrea of supply of the corporation, 
provided its area of supply adjoined the transferred area. 

Of the twenty-seven borough councils (and the City of Westminster) in 
London no fewer than sixteen hold electric lighting powers, and in 
fifteen cases municipal undertakings are in actual operation. The 
greatest enterprise was at first shown it the boroughs on the north side of 
the Thames, but those on the south side afterwards took vigorous action. 
Only four boroughs on the south side— Battersea, Southwark, Woolwich, 
and Bermondsey — have works in operation. Fulham, Hackney, Ham- 
mersmith, Hampstead, Islington, Marylebone, Poplar, St. Pancras, 
Shoreditch, Stepney, and Stoke Newington Councils are supplying 
current for whole or poi-tions of their respective boroughs ; only Bethnal 
Green has left its powers .unfulfilled. 



Bulk Supply Schemes. 

inations formed in the 
of electricity in bulk was the Central Electric Company, Limite< 



One of the first combinations formed in the Metropolis for the supply 

imited, 



156 ' Lwidcni's Light. 



which was created bv & special Act id 1899 for the purpose of augmenting 
the power available by the companies supplying the Westminsto^ and St. 
James' areas by giving to them respectively electri<*ity in bulk from a works 
in Grove-road to the west of Ke^ent's Park. The first portioD of tbe 
works was completed in time to give some assistance to the contributing 
companies at Christmas, 1902. The Kensington and Notting Bill com- 
panies have also combined to operate a joint bulk station at Wood-lane. 
These are however merely joint undertakings to assist the undertakings- 
alreadv at work, which were unable to extend their worrs sufficiently 
to deal with the increased demand. 

The rich area afforded by the Metropolis for electricity supply purposes 
has attracted the attention of financiers who have i)romoted milk supply 
companies, with the ostensible object of supplying cheap power for 
industrial purposes. 

The most important event during 1905 with respect to the supply of 
electricity in the metropolitan area was the attack made by the Adminis- 
trative County of London Company upon the whole of the existing under- 
takings with the view of obtaining the sanction of Parliament to a scheme 
which embraced a power and bulk supply over an area including most of 
the county, and, in addition, some of the richer districts contiguous to it. 
When the project came before Parliament it was strongly opposed, and 
although the preamble was held to have been proved, it did not, owing to 
lapse of time, reach its final reading, and in consequence fell through. 

The Metropolitan Company was however successful in obtaining powers 
to deal with a large area in the west and north-west portion of the Metro- 
polis under a Bulk Supply or Power Act. 

The principal result of the Administrative Company 's abortive attempt to 
secure such broad powers as were sought was tD awaken the local authorities 
to the importance of catering for motive power, and by reductions in the 
price charg^ for this and other purposes to extend their range of usefulness. 
As a consequence many of the undertakings are now supplying motive 
power at rates as low as \d. per unit without any restrictions either as to 
amount taken or as to hours during which the supply can be used. 

The London County Council had on more than one previous occasion 
introduced a Bill into Parliament for the purpose of obtaining powers to 
purchase bulk supply undertakings so that the Council could act as suppliers 
to the Borough Councils, but success did not attend its efforts. 

London County Couneil. 

The London County Council is the authority charged with the duty of 
lighting the embankments, and has in operation a small central station 
for the purpose of supplying the arc lamps lining the River Thames 
frontage of the Victoria Embankment. Amongst its duties are those of 
the sanctioning of loans for capital expenditure on electricity undertakings 
of the Borough Councils, and of acting, through its " Electric Inspectors," 
as the testing and certifying authority in disputes as to the correctness 
of electric meters used to register consumption. It also has the right to 
establish testing stations for the purpose of ascertaining that the declared 
pressure of supply is maintained in the mains of the various undertakings. 
Eor the testing and calibrating of meters and other instruments retjuired 

"^^. discharge of these functions it has an electrical testing stetion, or 
tory, in Cranbourne-street, W.C. 



lAhidons Light. 157 



The London County Council has from time to time promoted legislation 
of great advantage to the municipal supply of electricity in London. For 
example, powers were sought and panted enabling the Borough Councils, 
acting as undertakers, to wire and instal fittings and to enter upon ** free 
wiring " agreements, hire out motors and like purposes connected with 
their undertakings. 

The London County Council has, also erected a generating station in 
Greenwich for the supply to its tramway system, this being one of the 
larg-est and best equipped generating stations in the kingdom. 
It IS the existence of tne Grreenwich generating station that was one of 
the principal arguments in favour of the Bill which the Council pro- 
moted in the 1906 session of Parliament to enable it to supply authorised 
undertakers and others with electricitjr in bulk. The area scheduled in the 
Bill was a large one, and was not confined to the County of London. The 
basis of the Bill was that the current req[uired bjr the Borough Councils and 
other undertakers over and beyond the capacity of their present plant 
should be supplied by the London County CouncU from generating stations 
at Greenwich and Battersea. Two other Bills were promoted in the same 
session by the Administrative and Additional Companies respectively, 
but on second reading they were rejected, on the understanding that the 
rival promoters should have a locus standi before the Select Committee 
presided over by Mr. Luke H. White, to which the Council's Bill was 
referred. The Committee was further instnicted to report generally 
upon the best means of providing for the supply of electricsu energy 
in bulk, and for power and motive purposes in London and neighbour- 
hood. For the Cfouncil evidence was given in the early part of the 
proceedings by Mr. T. McKinnon Wood, M.P., L.o.c, Mr. J. H. Rider, 
the Council's electrical engineer, and Mr. Robert Hammond, the well-known 
consulting engineer. Many of the Borough Councils supported the Bill 
on the understanding that their existing interests would be safeguarded, 
a guarantee which the London County Council was prepared to give. 

The London Coanty Council Electricity Supply Bill was referred in 
■ March, 1906, to a Select Committ3e of the Rouse of Commons, which 
reported in Jun3, expressing the opinion that th3 bast means of providing 
for the supply of electricity is by one large and inclusive scheme extending 
not only over the entire County of London, but also to adjoining boroughs 
and districts, and that after giving full consideration to the various other 
proposals which, had been placed before the Committee they were of 
opinion that the London County Council should be the authority, pro- 
vided that obligations were placed upon the Council to carry into effect 
the powers sought by the Bill, and that under fair and reasonable con- 
ditions any authorised distributor should have the power to require a bulk 
supply. As these proposals altered the scope and intention of the Bill, 
the Committee reported to Parliament that the Preamble was not proved. 

Various reports were presented to the Council by its Highways and 
Finance Committees in the autumn of 1906 respecting the proposal to 
reintroduce a Bill in the 1907 session of Parliament. A Bill was duly 
drafted and presented to Parliament, but the new Council decided to 
proceed with it only on the understanding that the powers should be 
leased to a private compaivy for a period of years. These conditions 
however were not favourably regarded by the Select Committee of the 
House of Commons which, after a short hearing, disposed of the Bill, 



156 L(mdo7is Light. 



whicli was created bv a special Act in 1899 for the purpose of augmenting 
the power available by the companies supplying the Westminst^ and St. 
James' areas by giving to them respectively eiectri<*i1y in bulk from a works 
in Grove-road to the west of Regent's Park. The first portion of the 
works was completed in time to give some assistance to the contributing 
companies at Christmas, 1902. The Kensington and Notting Hill com- 
panies have also combined to operate a joint bulk station at Wood-lane. 
These are however merely joint undertakings to assist the undertakings 
alreadv at work, which were unable to extend their wori-s sufficiently 
to deal with the increased demand. 

The rich area afforded by the Metropoli* for electricity supply purposes 
has attracted the attention of financiers who have jjromoted bulk supply 
companies, with the ostensible object of supplying cheap power for 
industrial purposes. 

The most important event Suring 1905 with respect to the supply of 
electricity in the metropolitan area was the attack made by the Adminis- 
trative County of London Company upon the whole of the existing under- 
takings with the view of obtainmg the sanction of Parliament to a scheme 
which embraced a power and bulk supply over an area including most of 
the county, and, in addition, some of the richer districts contiguous to it. 
When the project came before Parliament it was strongly opposed, and 
although the preamble was held to have been proved, it did not, owing to 
lapse of time, reach its final reading, and in consequence fell through. 

The Metropolitan Company was however successful in obtaining powers 
to deal with a large area m the west and north-west portion of the Metro- 
polis under a Bulk Supply or Power Act. 

The principal result of the Administrative Company *s abortive attempt to 
secure such broad powers as were sought was to awaken the local authorities 
to the importance of catering for motive f ower, and by reductions in the- 
price charg^ed for this and other purposes to extend their range of usefulness. 
As a consequence many of the undertakings are now supplying motive 
power at rates as low as Id. per unit without any restrictions either as to 
amount taken or as to hours during which the supply can be used. 

The London County Council had on more than one previous occasion 
introduced a Bill into Parliament for the purpose of obtaining powers to 
purchase bulk supply undertakings so that the Council could act as suppliers 
to the Borough Councils, but success did not attend its efforts. 

London County Council. 

The London County Council is the authority charged with the duty of 
lighting the embankments, and has in operation a small central station 
for the purpose of supplying the arc lamps lining" the River Thames 
frontage of the Victoria Embankment. Amongst its duties are those of 
the sanctioning of loans for capital expenditure on electricity undertakings 
of the Borough Councils, and of acting, through its " Jlilectric Inspectors," 
as the testing and certifying authority in disputes as to the correctness 
of electric meters used to register consumption. It also has the right to 
establish testing stations for the purpose of ascertaining that the declared 
pressure of supply is maintained in the mains of the various undertakings. 
For the testing and calibrating of meters and other instruments recjuired 
in the discharge of these functions it has an electrical testing station, or 
laboratory, in C ran bourne-street, W.C. 



London 8 Light. 157 



The London Conhty Council has from time to time promoted legislation 
of great advantage to the municipal supply of electricity in London. For 
example, powers were sought and panted enabling the Borough Councils, 
acting as undertakers, to wire and instal fittings and to enter upon ** free 
wiring " agreements, hire out motors and like purposes connected with 
their undertakings. 

The London County Council has, also erected a generating station in 
Greenwich for the supply to its tramway system, this being one of the 
larg-est and best equipped generating stations in the kingdom. 
It IS the existence of tne Greenwich generating station that was one of 
the principal arguments in favour of the Bill which the Council pro- 
moted in the 1906 session of Parliament to enable it to supply authorised 
undertakers and others with electricity in bulk. The area scheduled in the 
Bill was a large one, and was not confined to the County of London. The 
basis of the Bill was that the current required b)r the Borough Councils and 
other undertakers over and beyond the capacity of their present plant 
should be supplied by the London County Council from generating stations 
at Greenwicn and Battersea. Two other Bills were promoted in the same 
session by the Administrative and Additional Companies respectively, 
but on second reading they were rejected, on the understanding that the 
rival promoters should have a locus standi before the Select Committee 
presided over by Mr. Luke H. White, to which the Council's Bill was 
referred. The Committee was further instructed to report generally 
upon the best means of providing for the supply of electrical energy 
in bulk, and for power and motive purposes in London and neighbour- 
hood. For the Council evidence was given in the early part of the 
proceedings by Mr. T. McKinnon Wood, M.P., L.c.c, Mr. J. H. Rider, 
the Council's electrical engineer, and Mr. Robert Hammond, the well-known 
consulting engineer. Many of the Borough Councils supported the Bill 
on the understanding that their existing interests would be safeguarded, 
a guarii.ntee which the London County Council was prepared to give. 

The London County Counoil Eleetricitv Supply Bill was referred in 
March, 1908, to a Select Committ3e of the Rouse of Commons, which 
reported in Jun3, expressing the opinion that tha bast means of providing 
for the supply of electricity is by one large and inclusive scheme extending 
not only over the entire County of London, but also to adjoining boroughs 
and districts, and that after giving full consideration to the various other 
proposals which, had been placed before the Committee they were of 
opinion that the London County Council should be the authority, pro- 
vided that obligations were placed upon the Council to carry into effect 
the powers sought by the Bill, and that under fair and reasonable con- 
ditions any aufliorised distributor should have the power to require a bulk 
supply. As these proposals altered the scope nivl intt'Tjti'ni of ilie BilL 
the Committee reported to Parliament that thi^ rreai!il>k' v^" '^L 

Various reports were presented to the Council by ib 
Finance Committees in the autumn of 1906 respecting 
reintroduce a Bill in the 1907 session of Piirliameut. 
drafted and presented to Parliament, but ihe new Cc 
proceed with it only on the understandim? that the- 
leased to a private compai^y for a period of years, 
however were not favourably regarded by the Select 
House of Commons which, after a short hejiriMtf. dii^poPC! 



\ 



158 London s Light. 



Refuse Destructor Combined Works. 

Shoreditch was the first authority in the country to utilise the heat 
raised from a dust-destructor for generating electricity, and the experiment 
was considered so successful that its essential features have been embodied 
in a large number of electrical undertakings since 1897, when the Shore- 
ditch undertaking was established. Shoreditch has now several imitators 
in London, combined electricity and dust-destructor works having been 
established by the Borough Councils of Fulham, Hackney, Bermondsey, 
and Stepney. "With increase of load the advantages of a destructor became 
less important and most of these works now raise the greater portion of 
their steam by burning coal in the usual way. 

The increase in the number of electrical generating stations in the 
County of London led to His Majesty's Commissioners of Works issuing 
a Memorandum in May, 1906, calUng attention to the possible injury to 
the trees, plants, and flowers in the royal gardens and parks by the emis- 
sion of smoke and fumes from the chimneys of such works. They further 
pointed out that the national treasures in picture galleries and museums 
might suffer from the same cause. With a view to obviate such risks 
they recommended that effectual means should be taken to secure con- 
sumption of smoke by careful choice of coal and by burning with it such 
chemicals as would absorb any sulphurous compounds, while the use of 
dust destructor refuse as fuel should be entirely prohibited. 

Systems and Pressure of Supply. 

Battersea — Direct current three wire ; 230 and 460 volts. 

Bermondsey — Direct current three wire ; 240 and 480 volt&. 

Bethnal Green— Supply not yet given. 

Fulham — Alternating 50 periods ; 2 phase 200 volts. 

Hackney — Direct current three wire ; 240 and 480 volts. 

Hammersmith— Alternating 50 periods ; 1 phase 110 and 220 volts. 

Hampstead— Alternating 90 periods j 1 phase 105 and 210 volts. 

Islington— Alternating 50 periods ; 1 phase 100, 200, and 400 volts. 

Poplar — Direct current three wire ; 230 and 460 volts (high tension 
alternating transmission to sub-stations). 

St. Marylebone— Direct current three wire ; 240 and 480 volts. 

St. Pancras— Direct current three wire ; 110, 220, and 440 volts (high 
tension alternating transmission to sub-stations). 

Shoreditch — Direct current two wire and three wire system; 240 
and 480 volts (high tension continuous transmission to sub- 
stations). 

Southwark — Direct current three wire ; 220 and 440 volts. 

Stepney — Direct current three wire, 240 and 480 volts. 

Stoke Newington— Bulk supply high pressure alternating, con- 
verted by Council to direct current ; 240 volts. 
Woolwich — Direct current three wire ; 210 and 420 volts (high 
tension alternating transmission to sub-stations). 

The Position of Elcctrleify Su0ply In the Metropolis. 

Statutory powers are held within the County of London by sixteen 
local authorities and thirteen companies, 



LmidorCs Light. 169 



The position of municipal electricity in London is as follows: — 



Battersea (works in operation). 
Bermondsey (works in operation). 
Bethnal Green (no supply yet 

given). 
Fulham (works in operation). 
Hackney (wt)rk8 in operation). 
Hammers rnith (worts in operation). 
Hampstead (works in operation). 
Islington (works in operation). 



Poplar (works in operation). ^ 
Marylebone (works in operation). 
St. Pancras (works in operation). 
Shoreditch (works in operation). 
Southwark (works in operation). 
Stepney (works in operation). 
Stoke Newington (distributing 

system in operation). 
Woolwich (works in operation). 



The City of London, and the City of Westminster, and the following- 
boroughs in the County of London, are supplied by companies as under, 
the powers in some cases, however, covering only parts of the boroughs : — 
Camberwell. — County of London Electric Supply Company, Limited; 
l.ondon Electric Supply Corporation, Limited; South Metropolitan 
Electric Light and Power Company, Limited. 
Chelsea. — Chelsea Electricity Supply Company, Limited; London Electric 

Supply Corporation, Limited. 
Deptford. — London Electric Supply Corporation, Limited. 
Finsbury. — Counter of London Electric Supply Company, Limited ; 

London Electric Supply Corporation, Limited. 
Greenwich. — South Metropolitan Electric Light and Power Company, 

Limited ; London Electric Supply Corporation, Limited. 
Holbom.— Charing Cross (West- end and City) Electricity Supply Com- 
pany, Limited; Metropolitan Electric Supply Company, Limited; 
County of London Electric Supply Company, Limited. 
Kensington. — Notting Hill Electric Lighting Company, Limited ; Bromp- 
ton and Kensington Electricity Supply Company, Limited; Ken- 
sington and Knightsbridge Electric Lighting Company, Limited. 
Lambeth. — South London Electric Supply Corporat'on, Limited ; County 
of London Electric Supply Company, Limited; London Electric 
Supply Corporation, Limited; South Metropolitan Electric Light 
and Power Cfompany, Limited. 
Lewisham.— South Metropolitan Electric Light and Power Company, 

Limited. 
Paddington. — Metropolitan Electric Supply Company, Limited. 
Wandsworth. — County of London Electric Supply Company, Limited. 
Westminster (City). — Charing Cross (West-end and City) Electricity 
Supply Company, Limited; Westminster Electric Supply Corpora- 
tion, Limited ; St. James' and Pall Mall Electric Lighting Company, 
Limited; Kensington and Knightsbridge Electric Lighting Company, 
Limited; London Electric Supply Corporation, Limited ; Metropolitan 
Electric Supply Company, Limited. 
City of London. — The City of London Electric Lighting Company, 
Limited; Charing Cross (West-end and City) Electricity Supply 
Company, Limited. 
In certain portions of these boroughs some of the companies are 
supplying in competition. 



162 



London's Light. 



Hammersmith. 



Hampstead. 



1 Population 

2 Date works opened 

3 System 

4 Stand ird voltage ...j 
Results of icoraing 

5 Capital outiay .. 

6 Number of consu 

mers 

7 Number of 8 c.p 

lamps 

8 B.O.T. units sup 

plied :— 
Lighting and 

power 

Public lighting ... 

Tramways 

Total units 

9 Gross receipts 

from:— 
Lighting and 

power 

Public lighting*... 

Tramways 

Meter rents and 

sundries 

Total receipts 

10 Working expen 

ses* 

11 Percentage to re 

ceipts 

12 Nett receipts .. 

13 Percentage to 

capital 

14 I nterest an d, 
special chargesj 

15 Repayment I 

charges ...i 

16 Surplus ( + ) or 

loss(-) ... 

17 Depreciation I 

and reserve . 

18 Contribution to rate 

fund 

19 Average prices per 

unit :— I 

Lighting and 

power 

Public lighting*... I 

Tramways 

Total I 

20 Working expenses 

per unit* 

21 Charges to private 

consumers :— 
Lighting : 

M.D. System... 

Flat rat* 
Power : j 

M.D. System... 

Flat rate 



114,200 

June, 1897. 

Alternating. 

110,220 

1906-7. 1906-6. 

£275.195 £260,670 



1,935 
132,833 



3.657.610 

563.125 

nil 

4,220,736 



£30.597 

£3,115 

nil 

£824 
£34.536 

£18,900 

55% 
£15,636 

5-68% 

£7,793 

£7.829 

+ £14 

t£347 

t£l,000 



201d. 
l-33d. 
nil 
l-92d. 

107d. 



nil 
3d. 

nil 
lid. to Id. 



1,818 
118,257 



3,149,353 

494,793 

nil 

3,644,146 



£30,509 

£2,525 

nil 

£286 
£33,320 

£16.620 

50% 
£16,700 

6-41% 

£7.610 

£6,459 

+ £2,631 



t£3,000 



2-32d. 
1226. 
nil 
2-18:1. 

109d. 



nil 
3d. 

nil 
IJd. to Id. 



88,500 

October, 1894. 

AUernating. 

105, 210 

19067. 1906-6. 

£390,930 £382,643 



5,850 
291,872 



4,055.809 

249.956 

nil 

4,303,765 



£57.453 

£2,564 

nil 

£4.491 
£64,508 

£31,812 

49% 
£32,696 

8-36% 

£11,554 

£17,459 

+ £3,683 



£2,113 



lT7d. 



5,407 
276,531 



3,728,398 

249,612 

nil 

3,978,010 



£62,961 

£2,631 

nil 

£3.964 
£69,596 

£29,002 

42% 
£40,594 

10-61% 

£11,097 

£16,676 

+ £12,821 

£7,000 

£2,030 



3-40d. 4-05d. 

2-46d. 2-53d. 

nil nil 

3-35d. 3-%d. 



l-75d. 



,ed. 2 hrs. 1 Jd. af . 6d. 1 hr lid. af . 

I 4.1. 4d. 



nil 
IJd. to Id. 



nil 
IJd. to Id. 



* Exclusive of carbons, attendance and maintenance of public lamps. 
t Balance brought forward accounts for part of contribution. 



Lmidon's Light. 



163 



1 Population 

2 Date works opened 

3 System 

4 Standard Toltase ... 
Results of loorking 

5 Capital outlay.. 

6 Number of con^u 

mers 

7 Number of 8 c.p. 

lamps ... 

8 B.O.T. units sup- 

plied :— 
Lig^hting and 

power :— 
Public lighting ... 

Tramways 

Total units 

9 Gross receipts 

from : — 
Lighting and 

power 

Public lighting*... 

Tramways 

Meter rents and 

sundries 

Total receipts 

10 Worlting expen- 

ses* 

11 Percentage to re- 

ceipts 

12 Nett receipts ... 

13 Percentage to 

capital 

14 Interest and 
special charges 

15 Repayment 

charges 

16 Surplus ( + ) or 

loss!-) 

17 Depreciation 

and reserve... 

18 Contribution to rate 

fund 

19 Average prices per 

unit :— 
Lighting and 

power 

Public lighting*... 

Tramways 

Total 

20 Working expenses 

per unit* 

21 Charges to private 

consumers : — 
Lighting : 

M.D. System... 

Flat rate 
Power: 

M.D. System... 

Flat rate 



Islington. 



361.000. 

January, 1896.. 

Alternating. 

100, 200, 400 

1906-7. 1906-6. 

£m,$EB £428.813 



1,547 
163,162 



2,688,091 
1,141,559 

nil 
3^829,660 



£31,097 

£15,734 

nil 

£385 
£47,216 

£26,028 

55% 
£21,188 

4-72% 

£13,233 

£6,395 

+ £1,560 



l-63d. 



nil 
3id. 

nil 
Id. and Id. 



1,482 
139,065 



2,309,522 
1,088.578 

nil 
3,398,100 



£37,434 

£15,734 

nil 

£295 
£53,463 

£25,928 



£27,535 
6-42% 
£12,620 
£5,869 
+ £9,066 



l'83d. 



7d. Ihr. 4d. aft. 
5d. 



nil 
2d. to Id. 



Poplar. 



168,800 

October, 1900. 

Direct and Alternating. 

230,460 

190li-7. 1905-6. 

£252,339 £247,386 



491 
188,(56 



3,353,276 

865.026 

nil 

4,208,302 



£25.073 

£5,344 

nil 

£421 
£30,838 

£16,090 

52% 
£14,748 

5-84% 
£8,627 
£5,486 
+ £635 

£636 



474 
138,939 



2,197,060 

844,060 

nil 

3,041,100 



£20,063 

£5.275 

nil 

£322 
£25,660 

£12,587 

49% 
£13,073 

5-2&% 

£7,968 

£4,485 

+ £€00 

t£2,232 



2-78d. 


3-89d. 


l-79d. 


2-19d 


3-31d. 


3-47d. 


l-50d. 


l-50d 


nil 


nil 


nil 


nil 


2'93d. 


3-75d. 


l-73d. 


2-OOd 



•92d. 



5d. 1 hr. 3d. aft. 

4d. 

£3 per ann. per 
k.w. + •8d. 

IJd. 



•99d. 



5d. 1 hr. 3d. aft. 

4d. 
£3 per ann. per 
■ V. + -Sd. 



k.w. 



lid. 



* Exclusive of carbons, attendance and maintenance of public lamps, 
t Balance brought forward accounts for part of contribution. 



164 


London's Light. 








St. Marylebone. 


St. Pan eras. 


1 Population 

2 Date works opened 


133,300 


235,300 




August, 1905. 


November, 


1891. 


3 System 


Direct. 


Direct 




4 Standard Yoltaee... 
Re8^dt8 of working 


240. 480 


110, 220, 


140 


l{i06-7. 


1906-7. 


1905-6. 


5 Capital outlay... 


£1,966,605 


£506.782 


£496,027 


6 Number of consu- 








mers 


6,516 


2,921 


2,763 


7 Number of 8 c.p. 








lamps 


482,965 


318,347 


313,587 


8 B.O.T. units sup- 








plied :- 
Lighting and 














power 


7.935.510 


5,558,828 


5,047.974 


Public lighting ... 


66.426 


1.717,386 


1,607,800 


Tramways 


nil 


nil 


nil 


Total uuits 


8,001,936 


7.276.214 


6,655,774 


9 Gross receipts 








fi-om :— 








Lighting and 








power 


£150,277 


£61,377 


£59.998 


Public lighting*... 


£•348 


£10.733 


£10,048 


Tramways 


nil 


nil 


Lil 


Meter rents and 








sundries 


£6,434 


£700 


£723 


Total receipts 


£157,059 


£72,810 


£70,769 


10 Workingexpen- 








„ ses* 


£48,452 


£41,672 


£37,824 


11 Percentage to re- 








ceipts 


31% 


57% 


53% 


12 Nett receipts .. 


£106,607 


£31,138 


£32,945 


13 Percentage to 








capital 


5-52% 


6-14% 


6-61% 


14 1 nterest an d 








special charges 
15 Repayment 
charges 


£76,001 


£15.842 


£15,326 


£10,579 


£8,801 


£8,178 


16 Surplus (H-) or 








lo^s (-) ... 


+£22,027 


+ £6,495 


+£9,441 


17 Deprectatlon 








and reserve 


— 


— 


£4,522 


18 Contribution to rate 








fund 


— 


— 


£5,000 


19 Average prices per 








unit :— 








Lighting and 








power 


4-54d. 


2-65d. 


2-85d. 


Public lighting*... 


l-26d. 


l-50d. 


rsod. 


Tramways 


nil 


nil 


nil 


Total 


4-52d. 


2'38d. 


2-53d. 


20 Working expenses 








per unit* 


r45d. 


l-37d. 


l-36d. 


21 Charges to private 








consumer^ :— 
Lighting: 

M.D. System ... 








8d. IJhi-s. Id. after. 


3d. Ihr. IJd. aft. 6d. Ihr. lid. aft. 


Plat rate ... 


2d. (bajemeuts, &c.) 


4d. 


4d. 


Power : 








M.D, System. . 


2d. l^hrs. Id. after. 


nil 


nil 


Flat rate ... 


nil 


Id. 


Id. 



* Exclusive of carbons, attendance and niiintenance of public lamps. 



London's Light, 



165 





' Shoreditch. 


Southwark. 


1 Population 


118.700 


121,900 




2 Date works opened 


June, 1897. 


July, 1 
Dir( 


L899 




5 System 

4 Standard voltaee ... 
Results of toorking 


Direct. 


JCt. 




150,340 


,480 


220, 


440 




1006-7, 


1905-6, 


1906-7. 




190S-6. 


'5 Capital outlay .. 


£338,136 


• £323,128 


£88,499 




£81,740 


6 Number of consu- 












mers 


913 


850 


350 




307 


7 Number of 8 c.p. 












lamps 


— 





46,694 




42.718 


8 B,O.T. units sup- 












plied :— 












Lighting and 












power 


3,386.054 


2,880,839 


850.068 




696,501 


Public lighting ... 


832.520 


821.618 


347,296 




307,352 


Tramways 


nil 


nil 


nil 




nil 


Total units 


4,218,574 


3,702,457 


1,197,364 




1,003,853 


9 Gross receipts 












from:— 












Lighting and 












power 


£33,954 


£31.103 


£9.549 




£9,437 


Public lighting*... 


£7,815 


£8.047 


£2,764 




£2,854 


Tramways 


nil 


nil 


nil 




nil 


Meter rents and 












sundries 


£151 . 


£53 


£553 




£312 


Total receipts 


£41,920 


£39,203 


£12.871 




£12,603 


10 Working expen- 












ses* 


£25,270 


- £23,671 


£7.994 




£7,564 


11 Percentage to re- 












receipts 


60% 


60% 


J^ 




60% 


12 Nett receipts .. 


£16,650 


£15,532 


£5,277 




£5,039 


13 Percentage to 












capital 


4-92% 


4-81% 


5-%% 




5-96% 


14 Interest and 












special charges 


£10,037 


£10,252 


£2,465 




£2»447 


15 Repayment 












charges 


£4,806 


- £4.575 . 


£2,339 




£2,197 


16 Surplus ( + ) or 












loss (-) ... 


+£1,757 


+£705 


+£473 




+£395 


17 Depreciation 












and reserve .. 


— 


— 


£473 




£395 


18 Contribution to rate 












fund 


— 


— 


— : 




— 


19 Average prices per 












unit :— 












Lighting and 












power 


2-41d. 


2-59d. 


2-70d. 




3-25d. 


Public lighting*.. 


2-25d. 


2-35d. 


l-91d. 




2-23d. 


Tramways 


nil 


nil 


nil 




nil 


Total 


2-38d. 


2-54d. 


2-47d. 




2-94d. 


20 Working expenses 












per unit* 


l-44d. 


l-53d-. 


l-52d. 




l-81d. 


21 Charges to private 












consumers :— 
Lighting: • 

M.D. System.. 












5d. lihrs. 2d. af . 


5d. IJhrs. 2d. af 


.6d.ljhrs.,ld af. 


6d.ljhrs.,ld.af. 


Flat rate 
Power : 

M.D. System.. 


4d. 


4d. 


4id. 




4id. 


£3 per ann.per E. £3 per ann.per E 


.3d.lhr.,id.aft. 


3d.lhr.,ld.aft. 




H.P.H-ld.prunit. 


H.P.+3d.pruni 


fc 






Flat rate 


.| Id. (heat). 


Id. (heat). 


2id. 




2id. 



* Exclusive of carbons, attendance and maintenance of public lamps. 



166 



London's Light. 



Stepney. 



1 Popalation 

» 2 Date works opened 

3 System 

4 Standard voltage 

Results of working 

5 Capital outlay 

6 Number of consumers 

7 Number of 8 c.p. lamps 

8 B.O.T. units supplied :— 

Lighting and power 

Public lighting 

Tramways 

Total units 

9 Gross receipts from:— 

Lighting and power 

Public lighting* 

Tramways 

Meter rents and sundries 

Total receipts 

10 Working expenses* 

11 Percentage to receipts 

12 Nett receipts 

13 Percentage to capital 

14 Interest and special charges 

15 Repayment charges 

16 Surplus ( + ) or loss (-) 

17 Depreciation and reserve ... 

18 Contribution to rate fund 

19 Average prices per unit:— 

Lighting and power 

Public lighting* 

Tramways 

Total 

20 Working expenses per unit* 

21 Charges to private consumers:— 

Lighting: M.D. System 

Flat rate 

Power: M.D. System 

Plat rate 



296,600 
December, 1899. 
Direct. 
240, 480 
1906-7. 19056. 

£257,273 £243,962 

— 783 

187,133 154,364 



3,757.228 
993,954 
nil 
4,751,182 



3,052,679 

993,526 

nil 

4,046,205 



£29,710 


£25,847 


£5,323 


£5,695 


nil 


nil 


£605 


£457 


£34,998 


£31,999 


£19,331 


£17,007 


£15,C^ 


53% 
£14,992 


6-09% 


6-14% 


£8.605 


£9,547 


£4,936 


£3,457 


+£2,126 


•1- £1,988 


£1,866 


£1,045 


l-86d. 


2"03d. 


l-29d. 


l-38d. 


nil 


nil 


l-74d. 


l*87d. 


•98d. 


1-Old. 


8d. and Id. 


8d. and Id. 


nil 


nil 


nil 


nil 


Id. 


Id. 



* Exclusive of carbons, attendance and maintenance of public lamps. ' 

The undermentioned undertakings in the County of London have been 
acquired by the Municipalities after being established by companies : — 



Woolwich Borough Council ... 
St. Marylebone Borough Council 





Age of 


Capital 




Year of 


Undertajting 


Expenditure 


Purchase 


Purchase. 


when 


when 


Price. 




Purchased. 


Purchased. 






Years. 


£ 


£ 


1902 


9 


47,817 


%.170 


1904 


15 


549,449 


1,212,000 



London^ s Light. 167 



LONDON'S GAS SUPPLY. 

Prior to 1870, what is now known as the Administrative County of 
London was supplied with gas by no fewer than 15 gas companies. 
Edch had its own area allotted to it, and each was regulated by its own 
special Acts of Parliament. In 1870 the process of amalgamation began 
by which the number has been reduced to three. Between 1870 and 1883 
the Gras Light and Coke Company absorbed seven companies. The last 
company which it absorbed was the London Company, which had a dis- 
trict on the south side of the river. Prior to this amalgamation, which 
took place in 1883, the Gas Light and Coke Company's operations had 
been confined to the north side of the Thames. 

From this time dates the curious anomaly that this company charges 
more for gas on the north side of the river than it does on the south side. 
The reason for this is that one of the conditions upon which absorption 
of the London Company was allowed was that the Gas Light and Coke 
Company should at no time charge more for gas on the south side of the 
Thames than the South Metropolitan Company charges. At that time 
the charges of the South Metropolitan were less than those of the Gas 
Light and Coke Company,, and they have always remained so. But the 
latter company is compelled to follow the charge of the South Metropo- 
litan so far as its area south of the Thames is concerned, irrespective 
of the price charged on the north side. 

Again, as all the companies are bound to charge the public lighting 

• at not more than the lowest price charged to a private consumer, it 

follows that the Gas Light and Coke Company is regulated in this regard 

by the prices of the South Metropolitan Company, not only on the south 

side but also on the north side. 

Since 1901, however, the Gas Light and Coke Company has been 
allowed to charge 2d. more tlian the South Metropolitan Company on 
the south side, and also for public lighting, for the reason that while the 
South MetropoHtan Company is now authorised to supply 14-candle gas 
the Gas Light and Coke Company is still bound to supply not less than 
16-candle gas. 

With respect to the South Metropolitan Company, between 1879 and 
1885 it absorbed four companies. The Commercial Company absorbed the 
Ratcliff Company in 1875. Now these three companies supply practically 
the whole of the administrative county, the only exceptions being a small 
part in the north-west supplied by the Brentford Company, a small part 



168 London's Light. 



in the south-west supplied by the Wandsworth and Putney Company, and 
a small part in the south supplied by the South Suburban Company. 

Up till July, 1901, all three companies were bound to supply gas of not less 
than 16-candle power, as tested by gas examiners appointed by the County 
Council and the City Corporation at 23 fixed testing stations distributed 
throughout the county. This provision stiU applies to the Gas Light 
and Coke Company, but the South Metropolitan Company and the 
Commercial Company are now bound to supply gas of 14 candle- 
power only. In return for this concession the South Metropolitan 
Company consented to a reduction of the standard price for the sliding 
scale by 2d. and the Commercial Company to a reduction of 3d. 
The Gras Light and Coke Company maintained that it could supply 
lt)-candle gas on better terms to the consumer than it could 14- 
candle gas; and, therefore, while, as mentioned later, it agreed to a 
reduction of its standard price from 38. 9d. to 38. 4(Z., it did not ask for a 
reduction in the illuminating- power, probably because had it done so 
the County Council would have insisted upon a still further reduction in 
the standard price. 

The sliding-scale was first introduced in an Act obtained by the 
Commercial Company in 1875. By this it was provided that when the 
price of gas was 38. 9d. per thousand cubic feet the company might pay a 
dividend on the ordinary stock at the rate of 10 p t cent., and that for 
every penny below 38. 9^. at which gas was sold the dividend might be 
increased by i per cent., and for every penny above 38. 9i. it must be 
reduced by i per cent. In the following year both the Gas Light and 
Coke Company and the South Metropolitan Company came under similar 
legislation; but in the case of th3 last-namyl the sfcindard pric3 was fixed 
at 38. 6 i, instead of 38. 9^. as in the cases of the two other com- 
panies. By the legislation of 1876 it was also provided that all new 
capital issued must be offered to the public, either by auction or tender, 
and allotted to tha highest bidder, and any premiums arising from such 
sale were to hd applied by the companies as capital, but n >t to bear any 
dividend. Under these Acts the Gas Light and Coke Company has 
obtained premiums to the amount oP £1,586,807, and the South Metro- 
politan Company to the amount of iJ855,146. Although under its 
Act of 1875 the Commercial Gas Company retained the right to issue 
stock at par, it did not exercise this right throughout, but issued some 
of its new stock to the highest bidder. By an Act obtained in 1902, this 
company is now under the same regulations as the others in regard 
to the issue of capital by auction or tender. Its premium capital now 
stands at £56,385. Both the South Metropolitan and the Com- 
mercial have now Parliamentary authority to make the first 
offer of new stock to their employees and their gas consumers 
at about the average Stock Exchange price for the time being, 



London's Light. 



169 




il 



170 London's Light, 



and this is now largely taken advantage of by both employees and 
consumers. 

In 1896 the South Metropolitan Company, under powers obtained by 
Act, converted its ordinary stock into an equivalent amount bearing 
a standard dividend of 4 per cent.j and the increment or decrement of 
dividend per penny reduction or increase in the price of gas was fixed at 
2d. per ceat., which is the equivalent of the former Ss. In 1898 
the Gas Light and Coke Company did likewise, and the Com- 
mercial Company followed in 1902. 

The effect of these conversions is that for every £100 of stock entitled 
to a standard dividend of 10 per cent., £250 of stock entitled to a standard 
dividend of 4 per cent, was created. In other words, the nominal capital 
of the companies was multiplied by 2i, and the standard dividend was 
divided by 2^, so that the return to the shareholder remains unaffected. 
Prior to these conversions, when new stock was issued it commanded a 
high premium in the market, and the whole of the premium was placed to 
the credit of the capital account, but was not entitled to any dividend. 
Now, of course, there is not so much premium obtained ; indeed, the Gas 
Light and Coke Company has had to issue some stock at below par. 
The main effect of the conversions was to bring the nominal value of the 
stocks somewhere near the market value. 

In 1899 a Select Committee of the House of Commons recommended 
that the standard price for all three companies should be reduced to a 
uniform Ss. Sd. per thousand cubic feet, and, farther, that for every com- 
plete 3^. below or above the standard price the dividend should be increased 
or reduced by another 2s. per cent. The following year the South Metro- 
politan Company accepted this, with the modification that instead of 
waiting for a complete 3^. the dividend varies 28. Sd. for every penny 
change in the price of gas. The company also, as already mentioned, 
gave up 2d. more of the standard price for the privilege of supplying 
14-canale gas, which, it is asserted, ^ves better value to the consumer. 
The Commercial Company reduced its standard price for 14-candle 

fas to 38. Sd., as agamst the former 38. 9d. for 16-candle gas. The 
ividend on its ordinary 4 per cent, stock now varies by 28. Sd. per 
cent, for every penny change in the selling price of gas, as in the case 
of the South Metropolitan. The Select Committee also recommended 
that the Gas Light and Coke Company's area on the south side of 
the Thames should be transferred to the South Metropolitan Com- 
pany, so as to get rid of the anomaly of one company charging 
two prices, and in 1901 the South Metropolitan Company obtained 
powers to buy this area subject to the Gas Light and Coke Company 
c »ming to Parliament in 1902 to have the sale confirmed. The latter 
company did not do so, and the powers have now lapsed, an 
application by the South Metropolitan Company to Parliament 
in 1902 for an extension of time not having been entertained. The 
Gas Light and Coke Company was before Parliament in 1899, 1900, 
and 1901 asking for powers to raise more capital, but in each cane the 
Bill was opposed by the County Council, City Corporation, and 
the local authorities, and rejected on the ground that no willingness had 
been shown to comply with any of the recommendations of the Select 
Committee of 1899. In 1903 tne Company again applied to Parliament. 



LoTidon^s Light. 



171 



It was at first opposed by the London Counter Council, but ultimately a 
settlement was arrived at, the result of which is that the company is 
empowered to raise £750,000 of capital in second debenture stock bearing 
interest at the rate of 3 per cent, per annum. The standard price is reduced 
from 38. 9^. to 38. M., but in other respects the sliding scale of the company 
is brought into accordance with the scales of the other companies, as 
already explained. Provision is made for a certain proportion of the com- 
pany's profits being set aside for the redemption of capital that has become 
obsolete, up to a total amoimt of £1,000,000. Up to Slst December, 1907, 
£60,610 of capital was redeemed under this provision. 

Prior to 1895 meter rents were charged by all three companies, excepting 
in the City, where the Gas Li^ht and Coke Company nad no power to 
charge these rents. In 1895 this Company discontinued meters rents 
throughout the whole of its district, but in September, 1907, the meter 
rents were re-imposed, with the consent of the County Council The 
stipulation was made, however, that in future the dividend the Company 
is entitled to pay shall be calculated as if the price of gas was a penny 
higher than what is actually charged for the time being ; which is tanta- 
mount to a deduction of a penny in the standard price. 

For a number of years there was a difference of opinion between 
the gas companies and th^ County Council as to the manner of testing 
the gas for illuminating power, and as to the standard of puritv to be 
maintained. In 1903 a Cfommittee was appointed by the Board of Trade 
to inquire into this matter, and also into tne request of the companies to 
be relieved from purifying the gas from what are known as sulphur 
compounds. The Committee recommended that a particular method 
of testing for illuminating power should be adopted, and that purification 
from "sulphur compounds" should not be compulsory^ and in 1905 
an Act was passed, at the instance of the County Council, giving effect to 
these recommendations. 

Charges Made by London and Suburban Gas Companies 
During the past 14 Years. 

In each case the price is given as it stood in December of the respective years. 



Company. 

Um Li||ht imd rtilte— 

North of Thames 

8o*ith of Thuiiieff 

SiyRth Metropolitan 

St>iithgate iiiifl llistrii"! . 

romruftdiil .. , 

Suiith KuburbiLn 

Wnml^ worth ,,.,, 

Kri'titfonl _,.,..„.-,.,, ,.. 

lluni^oy .,,— 

Ndrtli Middloso3c. . 

Richmfiind _. 

W*?st Haul ,„, 

Tritt^nhjim ,,,>,,.. 

Croydon ...„,, i 

Bromlej ... ...,,,. .. 

L ea BridigH^— .....^. . .... 



1^. d. 
2 10 

Z 4 



?.d, 
2 10 
2 3 



3 

6 
7 
2 4 

2 11 

3 2 

4 9 

2 10 

3 
3 



3 3 

4 6 |4 a 



18961897 



1 — ' 

?. il. *), ll 

2 1012 10 
2 32 3 

2 32 3 

3 10 3 10 
2 62 6 
2 72 7 
2 4i3 2 



2 11 

3 2 



2 II 

3 2 



3 03 

4 DiJ 10 



I : I 1 1 1 

1896 1899-1900 1901: 1 902 1903 



g. (iAs. d« 
3 2 n 
2 32 1 

2 312 

3 10|3 
2 6'2 

7:2 
212 

11 12 11 
2'3 1 

0:4 

0,3 
03 
3 

2 B 
Sland 

|3 5 



s.rl 



53 
3 2 
i2 
3 
02 



1904 190519061907 



6 2 1012 

2 6 

2 11 

3 



1 
2 4 

2 11 

3 


2 



(l.j?. d,,fl. 
0'3 03 
5 2 5 2 
3 2 3 2 
93 10,3 
2 82 

2 7l2 

3 42 
2 112 

2 11 2 11 

3 10 '3 9 
1 02 10 

3 02 :i 



a. A 
i2 11 

2 



2 112 112 10 
2 22 2 2 5 



43 
43 
, 03 0!3 2 10 

2 102 10 2 82 3 
und land land I n.nd 

3 7l3 7:3 S3 S 



3 03 03 4|3 2i3 03 a ll 
3 10' 3 81 1D:3 L0I3 103 8 3 B 



2 11 

;3 8 
2 10 
'2 11 
2 10 

2 8 

' and 

3 2 
2 11 
3 



02 

ai 

52 
52 
02 
92 



02 
93 
52 
52 
02 
92 



I2 U 2 lli2 11 
3 8 3 8^3 8 



2 10 2 10 

2 10 2 10 

2 10 2 8 

2 8;2 8 
and and 
13 11 3 4 
i2 11 2 11J3 

3 g'3 m 



2 10 
2 9 
2 & 

2 10 
and 

3 4 
3 
6 



172 



London's Light. 



DETAILS RELATING TO THE THREE PRINCIPAL GAS 
COMPANIES IN THE METROPOLIS 

FOR THE YEAR ENDED 3l8T DEOBMBER. 1937. 



Gas Light and 
Coke Company. 



South Metropoli- 
tan. 



Commercial Gas 
Company. 



-up 



Capital Authorised- 
Stock 

Loan 

Capital paid up- 
Stock 

Loan 

Premiums 

Reserved Funds 

Percentage on Paid 
Capital 

Revenue from Gas 

„ Meters 

„ Stoves& fittings 

„ Coke 

„ Tar 

„ Ammoniacal 
Liquor 

Total Revenue 

Gross Profit 

Capital Charges 

Per 1,000 Cubic Feet 

Rate of Dividend on Ordi- 
nary Stock 

Net Cost of Gas per 1.000 
Cubic Feet sold (exclusive 
of capital charges) 

Price of Gas in December, 
1907 

Charge for Public Lamps (per 
1.000 Cubic Feet) 

Candle Power of Gas 

Coal Carbonised 

Gas Made 

Per Ton of Coal 

Ga« Sold— 

Private Lighting, &c 

Public Lighting 

Total 

Gas Unaccounted for 

Miles of Main Pipes 

Number of (Consumers 

Per Mile of Main 

Number of Public Lamps 

Per Mile of Main 

Coke Sold 

Per Ton of Coal 

Average Price 

Tar Made 

Per Ton of Coal 

Average Price 

Ammoniacal Liquor Made ... 

Per Ton of Coal 

Average Price 



£21,582,455 
£5,073,975 

£21,582.455 

£4,323,975 

£1,586,807 

£586,186 

2-1 
£3.087.491 

£14.560 
£197,321 
£598,128 

£92,647 

£175,751 
£4,175,672 
£1,218,406 
£1,057.100 
ir52d. 

4S 



Is. 10-79d. 

2s. lOd. & 2s. 5d. 

2s. 5d. 

16 

2,161^9 tons.* 

23,646,698.000 c. ft. 

10.941 c. ft. 

21,077.748.000 c. ft. 

936.349,000 c. ft. 

22,014,097.000 eft. 

5'7 per cent. 

2.158 

504,708 

234 

49,135 

23 

969,627 ton?. 

11-3 cwts. 

12s. 4d. per ton. 

17,461,800 gals. 

10'2gals. 

£1 Is. 2id. per ton. 

49,502.664 gals. 

28'9 gals. 

15s. 7'4id. per ton. 



£6.761.224 
£2,048,994 

£6.429.895 

£1.895.445 

£855.146 

£310,486 

3-4 
£1.299.579 
£71.426 
£57,212 
£377,048 
£69,572 

£125.091 
£2,003,593 
£415.964 
£415,065 
7-96d. 

£5 8s. 4d. 



Is. 7-47d. 

2s. 3d. 

2s. 3d. 

15 

1,215,456 tons. 

13,081,119,000 eft. 

10,762 c. ft. 

12,191,141.000 c. ft. 

329,314,000 c. ft. 

12,520.455,000 C ft. 

29 per cent. 

1.208 

328,619 

272 

23.480 

19 

635,788 tons. 

10*4 cwts. 

lis. lO^d. per ton. 

11,594,166 gals. 

9'5 gals. 

£1 4s. Od. per ton. 

46,596,708 gals. 

38*3 gals. 
Us. 93d. per ton. 



£2,235.000 
£550.000 

£2,063,280 

£475.000 

£56,385 

£94.663 

3-7 

£380.835 

£5.746 

£39,141 

£71,410 

£14.463 

£20.283 
£533,018 
£129,844 
£122.953 

9-25d. 

5\ and 5 



Is. 10'66d. 

2s. 6d. 

2s. 6d. 

15 

308,586 tons.* 

3,436,908,000 c. ft. 

11,137 c. ft. 

3,108.233,000 C. ft. 

80,315,000 C. ft. 

3,188,548,000 C. ft. 

5*7 per cent. 

287 

86.502 

301 

4,015 

14 

127,419 tons. 

12*3 cwts. 

Us. 2^d. per ton. 

2,218,651 eals. 

107 gals. 

£1 3s. 3id. per ton. 

5,694.105 gals. 

27*7 gals. 
15s. 8d. per ton. 



* These figures include oil used in the manufacture of carburetted water gas. 



London 'Markets. 173 



LONDON MARKETS. 

. There is a market muddle in London which aids to the confusion in other 
branches of the public services. We have proprietary markets including 
the great Covent Garden, which bslonga to the Duke of Bedford; Cumber- 
land iiarket (hay); and the Portland Market at Marylebone, re opened 
at the b3ginning of 1901 by Yiacoilnt Portman. 

The City Corporation has for many centuries been the market authority 
for London, but the London County Council, whilst agreeing that the great 
ceatral mirkets which supply^ the whole of London should be under central 
control, contends that the smaller retail markets should be established and 
looked after by the various local authorities. As a step in this direction 
the London County Council, under its General Powers Act (1903), ob- 
tained powers for the local authorities to promote shelters for street 
traders^ and the local authorities are authorised to make a small charge 
for the accommodation. The local authorities will bear the whole cost 
of these structures. 

THE CITY niARKETS. 

Markets have been in existence in the City for more than a thousand 
years. By a Charter of the first year of Edward III., dated 6th March, 
1326, exclusive market r'ghts and privileges within seven miles from the 
City, which already existed, were set out and confirmed to the citizens of 
London. These rights have since been from time to time recognised and 
confirmed by Acts of Parliament and decisions of the High Courts of 
Justice. 

As population increased, and the suburbs of the City grew, applications 
have from time to time been ma le by private individuals, for licences to set 
up markets. In some cases these were opposed by the Corporation, as 
being derogatory to its Charter rights. In other cases, the City has 
waived its claims. The' Corporation markets at present are : — 

London Centbai^ Markets Wholesale for meat, poultry, and 

provisions, with sections for the 
sale of vegetables and fish, both 
wholesale and retail. 

Metropolitan Cattle Market... For the sale and slaughter of 

cattle, sheep, pigs, &c. 

Foreign Cattle Market For the landing, sale, and slaughter 

of foreign animals. 

Billingsgate Market Wholesale for fish. 

Leadenhall Market Wholesale and retail for the sale 

of poultry, meat, game, &c. 

Smithfield Hay Market For the sale of hay. 

Shadwell Market For the sale of fish, &c. 

The Metropolitan Cattle Market, the Forei^ Cattle Market, and the 
Shadwell Market are all situated outside the City area. 



17^ h.ytiS.y Ma'rkti^^ 

iWKsM.^ .^t 1 V :; -7^^.^V ;^;^ .tILtk *^= ^- liitm itself work the 

A.^t »^ >^\;AX'.t^:W |.xteS.'K^M:»T^ .T^..^?a5v.jMi 

VV vV^v^'v^r W^ «. -^^ J^r.^ 1;^%^ .a.xruf.^ like benefit 

.vvw>.wH tv^v^v -x-^ v^ ._.-:-/ .. .-s T- iiv-t 3i_T^ ilx^i a «pital 

y.x^tv^ ^^^^x^-fc.^ V -^ ;.. ^ ^^^ — ^^ ^^ lail :..iL-Er:C of the 

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London Markets. 



175 



Metropolitan Cattle market. 

This market was formerly held at Smithfield, on part of the site where 
the London Central Markets now stand. The present market for live 
cattle and sheep was opened on the 13th June, 1855. At that time the 
market and lairage covered an area of about 75 acres, of which the market 
occupied about 15. In recent years the additional area beyond the market 
proper has been considerably reduced. 

Up till 1869 cattle from foreign countries were received at the market 
without restriction, but in that year the Government, with a view to the 
prevention of the introduction into Great Britain of contagious diseases 
amongst animals, passed an Act restricting the landing of animals from 
certain scheduled countries to duly authorised foreign animal wharves, 
where they were to be sold and slaughtered. The effect of this measure, 
while tending to largely increase the foreign cattle trade, seriously affected 
the suppHes to the Metropolitan Cattle Market, and at the present time 
there is a considerable excess of expenditure over receipts. Outbreaks of 
foot and mouth disease in various parts of England, and the necessary 
stringent precautions required by the Board of Agriculture as regards the 
removal of animals from infected areas, have naturally prejudicially 
affected the supplies, while the constantly increasing importation of chilled 
and frozen meat and foreign animals also operate to diminish the trade of 
the market. Public slaughterhouses, the first in London, were last year 
opened by the Lord Mayor at the market, and all private slaughterhouses 
in the market area are to be closed down forthwith. The supplies for the 
last three years have been : — 



1905. 1906. 1907. 

Beasts 63,468 58,085 57,534 

Sheep 490,786 459,043 357,522 

Calves 2,260 2,239 2,092 



1905. 1906. 1907. 

Pigs 959 263 149 

Other animals ... 5.159 9,667 7,628 



Total 



562,632 529,297 464,925 



Mondays and Thursdays are market days, but the lairs are open for the 
reception of animals at all hours day or night. 

Forelsn Cattle Market, Deptford. 

Following the passing of the Contagious Diseases of Animals Act in 
1869, the Corporation was made the exclusive local authority as regards 
forei^^n animals in and for the Metropolis, subject to its providing and 
opening for public use a market by the Ifct January, 1872. On that day 
the market was opened. It stands upon the site of the old Admiralty 
iJockyard. The market has been from time to time enlarged, and now 
covers an ar^a of upwards of 30 acres, the lairage space being 
capable of accommodating 8,500 cattle and 20,000 sheep. Every animal 
received is inspected by veterinary oflBcers on arrival, and slaughtered in 
the market within a period often days. Diseased animals are at once coii- 
signed to a " digester," and reduced to ashes. There are 6Q slaughterhouses 
in the market, most of the meat from which goes to the London Central 
Markets. Chill rooms were constructed to chill 450 sides of beef, and 
were opened for use in August, 1889, since which date further accommo- 
dation has been provided to chill 3,950 sides. From the opening of the 
chill rooms to the end of 1907, 2,1-24, 181 sides of beef and 5,483 carcasses of 
mutton have been chilled. 

G 



174 



London Markets. 



To this list, however, must now be added the Spitalfields Market for 
the sale of fruit, vegetables, and flowers. The Corporation is already the 
freeholder of the interests of the Market, and under the terms of a new 
Act is acquiring the leaseholders' interests, and will then itself work the 
market. 

The Corporation has, as the owner and market authority, provided, 
maintained, and mana^fed all the markets under its control for the benefit 
of the whole Metropolis, without any rate being levied upon the inhabi- 
tants of the City or the Metropolitan dista-ict beyond, and has raised the 
necessary funds for construction upon the securitj' of its own estates and 
revenues generally. Altogether the markets have involved a capital 
expenditure of upwards of £3,500,000. The supervision and control of the 
markets are vested in committees, which consider all applications for 
space, and take action as may be necessary to enforce tlu bye-laws 
regulating the markets. 

Central Markets, Smlthfleld. 

These markets cover part of the site of Old Smithfie'd Market, which 
was founded as far back as 1614 for the sale of live stock. A dead meat 
market, called Newgate Market, was also can-ied on in the immediate 
neighbourhood until the opening of the first portion of the New Central 
Markets in 1868. The markets nave been linilt under the authority of the 
various Acts of Parliament conferring powers for the raising of money, for 
the purchase of lands, and regulating the use and government of the 
various markets comprised in the group. The meat, poultry, and provision 
markets are strictly wholesale, eicept on Saturday afternoons, when the 
*' People's Market " is held, and attended by thousands of the poorer classes 
from all parts of London, and a large business is carried on. The entire 
range of the markets covers an area of iiea.rly eight acres. The following 
figures will give some idea of the vast trade : — 





Gross delivery in 






6ro5s delivery in 


Year. 


floancial year. 
Tons. cwts. qrs. 


Year. 




financial year. 
Tons. cwts. qrs. 


1869 first year 


127,981 11 2 


1901... 




... 414,633 11 


1874 


157,628 18 2 


1902 .. 




... 403,812 18, 3 


1879 


212,987 14 


1903... 




... 415,863 1 3 


1884 


230,873 1 1 


1904 .. 




... 418,199 5 


1889 


276,429 4 2 


1905... 




... 417,281 


1894 


340,956 16 2 


1936... 




... 423,896 


1899 


405,456 9 2 


1907... 




... 423,755 


1900 


408,601 14 2 








The receipt 


s from all sources dur 


ing the last five 


years have been as 


follows : — 










Year. 


£ s. d. 


Year. 




£ 8. d. 


1903 ... 


134,602 19 1 


1906 




... 138.009 15 4 


1904 (531 


weeks) ... 136,757 6 


1907 




... 139,230 8 9 


1905 ... 


137,138 6 2 








As compa 


red with 1906 there 


was a 


net increase of 4,859 tons. 



The growth of foreigo and colonial supplies is emphasised in the authority's 
returns, and the aggregate increase in the tonnage of produce entering the 
central markets is not proportionate to the ever-increasing population of 
the metropolis and district. The falling off in the supplies, though 
comparatively small, is an indication of the changes that are taking 
place in the distribution by the large importers of chilled and frozen 
meat. 



London Markets. 



175 



metropolitan Cattle Maricet. 

This market was formerly held at Smithfield, on part of the site where 
the London Central Martets now stand. The present market for live 
cattle and sheep was opened on the 13th June, 1855. At that time the 
market and lairage covered an area of about 75 acres, of which the market 
occupied about 15. In recent years the additional area beyond the market 
proper has been considerably reduced. 

Up till 1869 cattle from foreign countries were received at the market 
without restriction, but in that year the Government, with a view to the 
prevention of the introduction into Great Britain of contagious diseases 
amongst animals, passed an Act restricting the landing of ^ animals from 
certain scheduled countries to duly authorised foreign animal wharves, 
where they were to be sold and slaughtered. The effect of this measure, 
while tending to largely increase the foreign cattle trade, seriously affected 
the supplies to the Metropolitan Cattle Market, and at the present time 
there is a considerable excess of expenditure over receipts. Outbreaks of 
foot and mouth disease in various parts of England, and the necessary 
stringent precautions required by the Board of Agriculture as regards the 
removal of animals from infected areas, have naturally prejudicially 
affected the .supplies, while the constantly increasing importation of chilled 
and frozen meat and foreign animals also operate to diminish the trade of 
the market. Public slaughterhouses, the first in London, were last year 
opened by the Lord Mayor at the market, and all private slaughterhouses 
in the market area are to be closed down forthwitn. The supplies for the 
last three years have been : — 





1905. 


1906. 


1907. 




1905. 


1906. 


1907. 


Beasts ... 


63.468 


58.085 


57,534 


Other animals ... 


959 


263 


149 


Sheep ... 


... 490.786 


459.043 


387,522 


5,159 


9,667 


7,628 


Calves ... 


2,260 


2,239 


2,092 











Total 



562,632 529,297 454,925 



Mondays and Thursdays are market days, but the lairs are open for the 
reception of animals at all hours day or night. 

Foreign Cattle Market, Deptford. 

Following the passing of the Contagious Diseases of Animals Act in 
1869, the Corporation was made the exclusive local authority as regards 
foreijgfn animals in and for the Metropolis, subject to its providing and 
opening for public use a market by the l&t January, 1872. On that day 
the market was opened. It stands upon the site of the old Admiralty 
jJockyard. The market has been from time to time enlarged, and now 
covers an aroa of upwards of 30 acres, the lairage space being 
capable of accommodating 8,500 cattle and 20,000 sheep. Every animal 
received is inspected by veterinary officers on arrival, and slaughtered in 
the market within a period of ten days. Diseased animals are at once coii- 
signed to a " digester," and reduced to ashes. There are 66 slaughterhouses 
in the market, most of the meat from which goes to the London Central 
Markets. Chill rooms were constructed to chill 450 sides of beef, and 
were opened for use in August, 1889, since which date further accommo- 
dation has been provided to chill 3,950 sides. From the opening of the 
chill rooms to the end of 1907, 2,124,184 sides of beaf and 5,483 carcasses of 
mutton have been chilled. 

a 



176 



London Marhets. 



The following table shows the number of animals landed at the market 
during recent years from the United States of America, the Argentine 
Republic, and Canada : — 



Cattle. 



United States- 

Year 1904 ... 

„ 1905 ... 

„ 1906 ... 

„ 1907 ... 


Argentina— 
Year 1902*... 
„ 1903 ... 


i;anada— 

Year 1904 ... 
„ 1905 ... 
„ 1906 ... 
.. 1907 ... 



135,391 
145,210 
139,831 
127,550 

None. 
19,643 

41,968 
51.977 
61,072 
57,421 



Sheep. 



30,188 

1,819 

None. 

None. 

None. 
65,493 

32,987 

12,675 

2,373 

4,950 



* In April, 1900, the importation of animals from Argentina was prohibited by the 
Board of Agriculture (England) in consequence of an outbreak of foot and mouth disease. 
It was re-opened in February, 1903, and closed in June of the same year, and is ftillcloeed. 

For the purposes of the transhipment of cattle from large vessels dis- 
cha^'ging at points lower down the river three steam vessels are employed 
by the Corporation. About 400 steamers discharged animals at the 
market during 1907. 

Bllllnerserate Market. 

r Billingsgate is the most ancient market belonging to the Corporation, 
dating from time immemorial, Documentary evidence exists in the shape 
of a Proclamation, dated 1297, making mention of the "Market at 
Billingsgate." The market is for the wholesale and retail sale of all sorts 
of fish. The supplies arrive both by land and water, the proportion being 
two- thirds by land to one-third by water, the latter both from British and 
foreign seas. The average weiglit of fish received per week is about 2,500 
tons, or upwards of 400 tons daily, the average toll charged being under 
^d» per cwt. The following were the supplies for the four years ended 
December, 1907 : — 





1904. 


1905. 


1906. 


1907. 


By land 

By water 


Tons. 
113,388 
61,218 


Tons. 
108,532 
48,803 


Tons. 
108,381 
57,219 


Tons. 
102.717 
71.615 


Totals 


174,606 


157,335 


165,600 174,332 



Water-borne fish, caught mainly in ihe North Sea, is collected fr. ra the 
various fishing fleets hy steam vessels, known as steam carriers, which 
deliver at the quay at billingsgate. The principal part of the water-borne 



The Port of London. 17/ 

fish is brought by four fish carrying companies. It is disposed of bv 
auction by the companies themselves. The land-borne fish is that whicn 
is caught all round the coast of Great Britain and Ireland. 

The Leadenhall Market has existed from very early times, and was an 
ancient prescriptive market for the sale of meat, poultry, game, and pro- 
visions. The present market was opened in 1881, and the business is both 
wholesale and retail. No record of supplies is kept; no tolls being levied, 
weights are not obtainable. 

The Smithfield Hay Market, which existed at Smithfield long prior to 
the establishment of the Metropolitan Cattle Market, has practically fallen 
into disuse, very little business having been done during recent years. 
However, an open space continues to be preserved at Smithfield for the 
sale of hay and straw. 

MARKETS CONTROLLED BY LOCAL AUTHORITIES. 

At present there are only three minor markets in London — the White- 
chapel Hay Market, the Borough Market for the sale of fruit and 
vegetables, and the Woolwich Market. This number will most probably 
be considerably increased as the result of the powers referred to at the 
commencement of this section which have been conferred on the Borough 
Councils. The three markets are at present directly or indirectly 
controlled by tne local authorities, and the surplus profits go to the relief 
of the rates. 

THE PORT UF LONDON. 

On April 2, 1908, Mr. Lloyd> George, then President of the Board of 
Trade, introduced his Bill '* to provide for the improvement and better 
administration of the Port of London and for purposes incidental thereto." 
The Bill was at once favourably received by all parties, and it passed 
second reading in the House of Commons on May 6th, being then referred 
to a Joint Committee of the Lords and Commons. The full text is as 
follows : — 

BE it enacted by the King's most Excellent Majesty, by and with the 
advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, 
in this present Parliament assembled, and by the Authority of the same, 
as follows : — 

Establishment ot Port of London Authority. 

1.— (1) An authority (in this Act referred to as "the Port Authority.") 
shall be established for the purpose of administering, preserving, and 
improving the Port of London and otherwise for the purposes of this Act. 

(2) The Port Authority shall be a body corporate by the name of the 
Port of London Authority, with a common seal, having power to acquire 
and hold land for the purposss of this Act without licence in mortmain. 

(3) The Port Authority shall consist of a chairman and vice-chairman 
and other members elected and appointed in manner provided by this Act. 

(4) Subject to the provisions of this section, the chairman and vice- 
chairman shall be appointed by the Port Authority; the person to be 
appointed to either such office may, but need not, be an elected or 
appointed member. 

G 2 



178 The Port of Lmid(m, 

(5) Subject to the provisions of this Act, the number of elected 
members shall be fourteen, and they shall be electe 1 by payers of dues, 
wharfing-ers, and owners of river craft. 

(6) The number of the appointed members shall be ten, appointed as 
follows : — 

By the Admiralty 1 

By the Board of Trade ... ... 2 

By the London County Council (being members of 

the Council) ^ 3 

By the London County Council (not being members 

of the Council) 2 

By the Corporation ; 1 

By the Trinity House 1 

(7) Until the time fixed by this Act for the first retirement of members, 
two at least of the members of the Port Authority shall be persons of 
experience in dock management. 

(8) Subject to the provisions of this section, the Port Authority may 
pay to the chairman, vice-chairman, and chairman of any committee, or 
to any of them, such salaries or salary as the Port Authority may 
determine. 

(9) Subject to the provisions of this section, the provisions contained 
in the First Schedule to this Act shall have effect with respect to the 
constitution and proceedings of the Port Authority and the election and 
appointment of members. 

(10) The first elected members, instead of being elected as provided by 
this Act, shall be appointed by the Board of Trade after consultation with 
such persons and bodies having knowledge and experience of trade or 
shipping in the Port of London as the Board may think fit, and the first 
chairman shall, if the Board think fit, be appointed by the Board, and 
shall, if appointed by the Board, be paid such salary (if any) as the Board 
may determine. 

Powers and Duties of Port Authority as to Accommoifation 
and Faciiities. 

2. — (1) It shall be the duty of the Port Authority, as soon as may be 
after the appointed day, to take into consideration the stale of the river 
and the accommodation and facilities afforded in the Port of London, 
and, subject to the provisions of this Act, to take such steps as tliey may 
consider necessary for the improvement thereof. 

(2) For the pui-poses aforesaid the Port Authority may, subject to the 
provisions of this Act, do all or any of the following things ; — 

(a) carry on the undertaking of any dock company transfeiTed to the 

Port Authority by this Act ; 
(5) construct, equip, maintain, or manage any docks, quays, wharves, 
jetties, or piers, and buildings, railways, and other works in 
connection therewith ; 
(c) exercise any other powers conferred on or transferred to the Port 
Authority under this Act. 

3. — (1) As from the appointed day the undertakings of the London 
and India Docks Company, the Surrey Commercial Dock Companies, and 



The Port of London. 179 

the Mill wall Dock Company (which companies are in this Act referred to 
as do»k companies) shall be transferred to and vest in the Port Authority, 
and the Port Authority shall issue to those companies, or as they may 
direct, as consideration for their undertakings the following amount of 
port stock created under this Act — 

(a) in the case of the London and India Dock Company, seven 
million nine hundred and seventy-eight thousand eight hun- 
dred and seventy-six pounds of A port stock and nine million 
eight hundred and ninety-three thousand eight hundred and 
thirty-five pounds of B port stock : 

(?>) in the. case of the Surrey Commercial Dock Company, five 
hundred and twenty-two thousand pounds of A port stock and 
two million three hundred and eighty-eight thousand four 
hundred and eighty- five pounds of B port stock : 

(r) in the case of the Millwall Dock Company, six hundred and fifty- 
one thousand two hundred and seventy-six pounds of A port 
ptock and nine hundred and twenty-eight thousand five hun- 
dred and four pounds of B port stock. 

(2) The stocks so issued shall be substituted for the existing stocks of 
the dock companies in accordance with the provisions of the Second 
Schedule to this Act, and on such substitutions being effected the 
existing stocks of those companies shall be cancelled : 

Provided that no interest shall accrue due on any such existing stock in 
respect of any period after the appointed day but the port stock issued in 
substitution therefor shall carry interest as from the appointed day. 

(3) Subject to the provisions of this Act and of any Order of the Board 
of Trade made under this section, on the transfer of any such undertaking 
the Port Authority shall hold the undertaking, and may exercise all the 
rights, powers, duties, and privileges of the company, and shall, to the 
exclusion of the company, be subject to all the duties, obligations, a!id 
liabilities of the company (other than those in respect of the debenture 
sto^k of th3 company) under the Acts, whether local or general, and other 
provisions relating to or affecting the company, in like manner as if they 
were the company. 

(4) Tiie Board of Trade may make such orders as may be necessary for 
the purpose of enabling the transfers to be effected and enabling the Port 
Authority to carry on the undertakings when transferred, and any such 
order may, amongst other things, provide for adapting to the Port 
Authority, subject to the necessary modifications, the provisions of any 
Act relating to an undertaking so transferred. 

4. Where the Port Authority propose to construct, equip, maintain, 
or manage any works, and the works proposed to be constructed are such 
that they cannot be constructed without statutory authority, or are such 
that in the opin-on of the Board of Trade they ought not to be con- 
structed except under the authority of such an order as is hereinafter 
mentioned, or compulsory powers are required for the acquisition of land, 
or it is sought to impose any charges not previously authorised in respect 
of the use of any works when constructed, the Port Authority may apply 
to the Board of Trade, and thereupon the Board of Trade may, subject to 



180 The Pcrrt of Lcmdon, 

and in accordance with the provisions of the Third Schedule to this Act, 
make an order — * 

(a) authorising the construction and equipment of such docks, quays, 
wharves, jetties, or piers, and buildings, railways, and other 
works in connection therewith as may be specified in the order ; 

(h) authorising the purchase and taking otherwise than by agree- 
ment of such land as may be specified in the order ; 

(r) authorising the imposition, levying, collection, and recovery of 
such dues, rates, tolls, and other charges in respect of the use 
of any works proposed to be constructed, and conferring such 
jwwers of management of those works, as may be specitied in 
the order ; 

(r/) authorising the Port Authority to charge i>o capital as part of the 
cost of construction of any work authorised by the order, the 
interest on any money raised to defray the expenses of con- 
struction of any such work, and the acquisition of land for the 
purpose, for such period and subject to such restrictions as may 
be mentioned in the order : 

Provided that — 

(a) no land shall be authorised by an order under this section to be 
acquired compulsorily which is situate to the westward of an 
imaginary straight line drawn from Barking Creek to Mar- 
garet Ness ; and 

{h) an oixlcr authorising the construction of new works shall impose 
on the Port Authority an obligation to provide such housing 
accommodation for the persons to be employed at the new 
works when constructed as the Board of Trade may from time 
to time consider requisite. 

Provisions as to the Thames Conservancy. 

5.— (1) Subject to the provisions of this Act, as from the appointed 
day there shall be transferred to the Port Authority all rights, powers, 
and duties of the Conservators of the Eiver Thames (in this Act referred 
to as the Conservators) in respect of the River Thames below the landward 
limit of the Port of London, and there shall also be transferred from the 
Conservators to the Port Authority the lower navigation fund and all 
liabilities in resjxjct of, and any sinking fund applicable to the redemption 
of, the Thames Conservancy redeemable A debenture stock, and all pro- 
perty and liabilities of the Consei*vators held, acquired, or incurred in 
respect of the Thames below the landward limit of the Port of London. 

(2) All enactments relating to the Conservators (except those regulating 
the funds and accounts of and borrowing by the Conservators) shall, so 
far as not repealed by this Act and so far as they relate to the rights, 
powers, duties, property, and liabilities transferred, have effect as if 
references to the Port Authority were substituted for references to the 
Conservators : 

Provided that — 

(a) in any such enactments references to the Port of London shall be 
construed as references to the Port of London as defined by 
this Act ; and 



The Port of London. 181 



(h) in any such enactments references to the River Thames above and 
below Tedding^on Lock shall be construed as references to the 
the River Thames above and below the landward limit of the 
Port of London ; and 

(c) in the definition of " the Thames " in section three of the Thames 

Conservancy Act, 1894, for " an imaginary straight line drawn 
" from the entrance to Yantlet Creek in the County of Kent to 
" the city stone opposite to Canvey Island in tne county of 
" Essex, ' there shall be substituted " the seaward limit of the 
" Port of London " ; and 

(d) for the proviso to subsection (1) of section eighty-three of the 

Thames Conservancy Act, 1894 (which relates to the area 
within which the powers of dredging are exerciseable), there 
shall be substituted, " Provided that the Board of Trade may 
"by Provisional Order extend the area within which the 
"powers under this subsection may be exercised so as to 
" include so much of the estuary of the River Thames and the 
"shores thereof to the eastward of the seaward limit of the 
" Port of London as is westward of such line as may be fixed 
" by the Provisional Order " ; and 

(e) so much of the Thames Conservancy Act, 1894, as exempts from 

duties of tonnage vessels for passengers only shall be repealed ; 
and 
(/) so much of the Thames Conservancy Act, 1905, as limits the 
period during which the increased duties of tonnage authorised 
by that Act may be demanded and received shall be repealed ; 
and 
(g) enactments relating to powers and duties as to steam-launches, 
house-boats, and pleasure boats shall not apply to the Port 
and in any such enactments for references to steam launches 
navigating above Kew Bridge there shall be substituted refer- 
ences to steam launches navigating above the landward limit 
of the Port of London ; and 
{h) the powers and duties of the Port Authority and their officers 
with respect to fishing boats, fish, and fishing, shall, unless and 
until such an order as is hereinafter mentioned is made, extend 
to the line drawn from Yantlet Creek to the city stone opposite 
to Canvey Island but not eastward of that line, but the Board 
of Agriculture and Fisheries may, with the consent of the 
Board of Trade, make an order either — 

. (i) excluding from the Kent and Essex sea fisheries dis- 
district such part of the Port of London as is included 
therein, and extending the said powers and duties of the 
Port Authority and their officers to the part of the Port of 
London eastward of the said line ; or 

(ii) extending the Kent and Essex sea fisheries district to 
such part of the Port of London westward of the said line as 
may be specified in the order, and excluding such part from 
the area within which the said powers and duties of the Port 
Authority and their officers may be exercised and performed ; 



182 The Port of London. 

and any order made for that purpose shall have effect as if it 
was an amending Order made under the Sea Fisheries Regula- 
tion Act, 1888 ; and 

(i) subsection (4) of section one hundred and ninety-three of the 
Thames Conservancy Act, 1894, relating to the publication of 
alterations in and additions to byelaws shall not apply. 

(2) Nothing in this section shall be construed as conferring on the 
Port Authority any right or interest in or to the shore or bed of the River 
Thames eastward of the said line drawn from Yantlet Creek to the city 
stone opposite to Canvey Island, or as authorising the Port Authority, 
except with the consent of the Board of Trade or the Commissioners of 
Woods, to take, use, or in any manner interfere with, or to authorise any 
person to take, use, or interfere with any portion of the bed or shore of 
the Thames eastward of the said line, tiie management whereof is vested 
in the Board of Trade or the Commissioners of Woods, and sections one 
hundred and sixteen and two hundred and thirty-nine of the Thames 
Conservancy Act, 1894, shall not apply with respect to the Thames feast- 
ward of the said line ; but the Board of Trade and the Commissioners of 
Woods may transfer to the Port Authority upon such terms as may be 
respectively agreed on between them and the Port Authority any interest 
or right of His Majesty in right of His Crown in or to any portion of the 
shore or bed of the Thames between the said line and the line drawn from 
Warden Point to the entrance of Havengore Creek the management 
whereof is vested in them respectively, 

6. — (1) As from the appointed day the number of Conservators shall 
be seventeen, who shall be appointed by the authorities and iu the manner 
set forth in the Fourth Schedule to this Act. 

(2) As from the appointed day all moneys received by the Conservators 
shall be paid into, and all expenses incurred by the Conservators shall 
be paid out of, and all moneys borrowed by tne Conservators shall be 
charged on the upper navigation fund, whether received, incurred, or 
borrowed in respect of the Thames above or below the City Stcme above 
Staines Bridge, and in sections two hundred and forty-one to two hundred 
and eighty-seven of the Thames Conservancy Act, 1894 (being provisions 
regulating the funds and accounts of, and borrowing by, the Conservators), 
references to the Thames above the landward limit of the Port of London 
shall be substituted for references to the Thames above Staines Bridge. 

(3) All moneys payable to the Conservators by the Metropolitan Water 
Board, the West Surrey Water Company, the South West Suburban 
Water Company, and the Woking Water and Gas Company, whether in 
pursuance of the Thames Conserv'ancy Act, 1894, or otherwise, shall be 
paid to the Conservators, and no part thereof shall be paid to the Port 
Authority. 

(4) So much of section thirty-three of the Thames Conservancy Act, 
1894, as enables the Conservators to set apart a sum for the payment of 
the Conservators other than the chairman shall as from the appointed 
day be repealed : 

Provided that nothing in this repeal shall prevent the Conservators 
paying any reasonable expenses incurred by individual Conservators in 



The Po7't of Londmi, 183 

attending" meetings of the Board of Conservators and committees thereof 
or otherwise in the execution of their duties as Conservators. 

(6) The right of the Conservators to appoint a member of the Metro- 
politan Water Board shall be retained by tlie Conservators and shall not 
be transferred to the Port Authority. 

(6) The Board of Trade may by Provisional Order make such amend- 
ments, modifications, and repeals of the enactments relating to the Con- 
servators, so far as they continue to ajjply to the Conservators after the 
appointed day, as the Board may consider to be necessary in consequence 
of the passing of this Act, and in particular any such Provisional Order 
may contain provisions for — 

(a) regulating the term of office and rotation of the Conservators : 
(6) revising the tolls, fees, and other charges leviable by the 
Conservators. 

7. — (1) Within one year from the appointed day all the Thames Con- 
servancy redeemable A debenture stock shall be extinguished, and the 
Port Authority shall issue to the holder of any such stock in substitution 
therefor an equal amount of A port stock created under this Act. 

(2) As soon as the Port Authority resolve to issue port stock in 
substitution for any debenture stock in accordance with this section they 
shall give notice of their intention to do so by advertising it once in the 
" London Gazette " and in two or more London daily newspapers, and by 
sending notice by post to each of the holders of the debenture stock to his 
registered address, and the notice shall specify the place and the time, not 
being less than three months from the date of the notice, at which the 
issue of the port stock will be made. 

(3) Before port stock is issued under this section in substitution for any 
debenture stock the certificate of that stock shall be produced and delivered 
to the Port Authority. Provided that the Port Authority shall dispense 
with the production and delivery of a certificate upon receiving such 
indemnity as may be reasonably required. 

(4) As from the time fixed by the notice for the issue of port stock in 
substitution for any debenture stock, that debenture stock shall be 
cancelled and extinguished and no interest shall after that time accrue 
due in respect thereof, but the port stock issued in substitution therefor 
shall carry interest as from the time so fixed. 

Provisions as to the Watermen's Company, &,c. 

8 — (1) Subject to the provisions of this Act, as from the appointed day 
there shall be transferred to the Port Authority all powers and dutieg of 
the Master, Wardens, and Commonalty of Watermen and Lightermen of 
the River 'J'hames (in this Act referred to as " the Watermen's Company") 
and of the Court of Master, Wardens, and Assistants of the Watermen's 
Company (in this Act referred to as "the Court of the Watermen's 
Company ") with respect to — 

{a) the registration and licensing of craft and boats ; 
(h) the licensing of lightermen and watermen ; and 
(c) the government, regulation, and control of lightermen and water- 
men (including the appointment of plying places and of 
inspectors) ; 



184 The Part of London. 

and there shall also be transferred * from the Company to the Port 
Authority all property and liabilities of the Company held acquired or 
incurred by the Company in connexion with the powers and duties so 
transferred : 

Provided that nothing" in this section shall be construed as transferring 
to the Port Authority Watermen's Hall, or the sum of six thousand seven 
hundred and forty-one jjounds nine shillings Consolidated two-and-a-half 
per cent, stock standing in the name of the Company, or any debt of the 
Company outstanding at the appointed day to the discharge of which such 
stock as aforesaid or the pr« iceeds thereof -could legally be applied, or the 
freehold property known as Nos. 16 and 17, St. Mary-at-Hill, in the parish 
of Billingsgate, in the City of LondDn, or any property held for charitable 
purposes. 

(2) All enactments relating to the Watermen's Company and the Court 
of the Watermen's Company shall, so far as not repealed by this Act, and 
so far as they relate to the powers and duties transferred, have effect as if 
references to the Port Authority were substituted for references to the 
Company and to the Court : 

Provided that — 

(a) the limits of the Watermen's and Lightermen's Amendment Act, 
1859, and the Thames Watermen's and Lightermen's Act, 1893, 
shall, except for the purposes of sections fifty-four sixty-six and 
sixty-seven of the first-mentioned Act, be the limits of the Port 
of London as defined by this Act ; and 

(6) the Port Authority mav by byelaw vary the provisions of sections 
fifty-six to sixty of the Watermen's and Lightermen's Amend- 
ment Act, 1859, and Part VI. of the Tnames Conservancy 
Act, 1894, with respect to the qualifications to be possessed by 
applicants for lightermen's and watermen's liences and certifi- 
cates and the conditions on which such licences or certificates 
are to be granted or renewed, and as from the date on which any 
such byelaw comes into operation those provisions shall be 
repealed to such extent as may be specified in the byelaw ; but 
no such byelaw shall so vary^ those provisions as to authorise 
the grant of a licence or certificate to a person who has not for 
a peri d of at least two years been engaged in working on a 
craft or boat in the Port of London ; and 

(c) an appeal shall not lie to a court of summary jurisdiction against 

a refusal by the Port Authority to register any craft or boat, or 
against the revocation by the Port Authority of any certificate 
or licence relating to any craft or boat ; and 

(d) at the end of section three hundred and eleven of the Thames 

Conservancy Act, 1894 (which exempts certain craft from the 
provisions of sections fifty-four and sixty-six of the Watermen's 
and Lightermen's Amendment Act, 1859), there shall be added 
the words, " or lighters on a voyag-e commencing or ending at 
" any place eastward or westward of the limits of that Act, 
" whether or not goods are in the course of the voyage taken in 
" or discharged at any place within those limits," and the 
expression " limits of that Act," as used in that section as so 



The Part of Lcndmi. 185 

amended, means the limits of that Act for the purposes of the 
said sections fifty-four and sixty-six ; and 
(e) so much of any such enactment as limits the fees which may be 
imposed in respect of the registration or licensinc" of craft and 
boats, shall be repealed, but the fees so imposed shall not exceed 
such as may be allowed by any order made for the purpose by 
the Board of Trade ; and 
(/) the provisions of the Thames Watermen's and Lightermen's Act, 
1893, as amended by this Act — 

(i) so far as they relate to crafts, shall extend to all lighters, 
barges, and other Uke craft for carrying goods, and to steam- 
tugs ; and 

(ii) so far as they relate to boats, shall extend to all boats, 
wherries, and other such vessels (including river steamboats) 
let for hire for carrying persons, 
navigating either wholly or partly within the limits of that Act 
as so amended, except such as are expressly exempted from 
those provisions or as are emplojred solely in voyages extending 
entirely through those limits without taking in or discharcfing 
goods or embarking or disembarking passengers within tSiose 
limits ; but section seven of that Act, as so amended, shall not 
apply to a craft navigating occasionally^ or exceptionally only 
within those limits, and where a certificate has been granted 
under the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894, as to the number of 
passengers which any river steamboat is fit to carrv, that 
number shall be the number of persons which she snail be 
licensed to carry under the said Act as so amended ; and 
(g) in considering the fitness of a craft or boat for carrying goods or 
persons for the purposes of section sixteen of the Thames 
Watermen's and Lightermen's Act, 1893, the Port Authority 
shall take into consideration the condition as respects accommo- 
dation and otherwise of the craft or boat having regard to the 
purposes for which the craft or boat is intended to be employed. 

9 — (1) Every person possessing such qualifications as the Court of the 
Watermen's Company may by byelaw prescribe shall, as from the 
appointed day be qualified to be elected a freeman of the Company. 

(2) So much of the Watermen's and Lightermen's Amendment Act, 
1859, as relates to Sunday ferries and the appointment and licensing of 
watermen or lightermen to ply on Sundays, snail as from the appointed 
day be repealed, and the rort Authority shall pay to the Watermen's 
Company in respect of any Sunday ferry established under that Act, and 
existing at the passing of this Act, such sum as, in default of agreement, 
may be determined by an arbitrator appointed by the Board of Trade. 

^ (3) Penalties and forfeitures paid to the Port Authority under section 
ninety of the Watermen's and Lightermen's Amendment Act, 1859, as 
applied by this Act, shall be applied by the Port Authority as part of their 
general funds, and the Port Authority shall pay to the Watermen's 
Company in respect of the loss of such penalties and forfeitures such sum 
as, failing agreement, may be determined by an arbitrator appointed by the 
Board of Trade. 



186 Tlie Tort of Loiidcm, 



(4) The sums to be so paid to the Watermen's Company shall be paid 
into and form part of and be held on the trusts affecting" the Poor's Fund 
of this Watermen's Company. 

(5) If the Charity Commissioners are at any time of opinion that by 
reason of any alteration in the constitution or nature of the Watermen's 
Company or the qualifications to be possessed by freemen, the trusts 
affecting- the Poors' Fund of the Company require to be modified, the 
Charity Commissioners may, either on the application of the Watermen's 
Company or without any such application, establish a scheme under the 
Charitable Trusts Acts, 1853 to 1894, regulating the application and 
administration of the Poors' Fund, regard bein^ had to the purposes to 
which that fund is at the passing of this Act applicable. 

Financial Provisions. 

10.-— (1) As from snch day as may be fixed by the Board of Trade all 
goods imported from parts beyond the seas or coastwise into the Port of 
J ondon or exported to parts lieyond the seas or coastwise from that ^ort, 
shall, subject to any exemptions or rebates which may be contained in a 
Provisional Order under this section or allowed by the Port Authority, be 
liable to such rates as the Port Authority may fix, not exceeding such rates 
as may be specified in any such Provisional Order, but the rates charged 
by the Port Authority shall at all times be charged equally to all persons 
in respect of the same descriptions of gootls under the like circumstances. 

(2) Within six months after the appointed day or such fui*ther time as 
the Boanl of Trade may allow for the purpose, the Port Authority shall 
submit to the Board of Trade a schedule of maximum rates on go<Kls, and 
the Board of Trade shall embody the schedule in a Provisional Order made 
for the purposes of this section, either without modifications or with such 
modifications as the Board think fit, and if the Poi*t Authority fail within 
such period as aforesaid to submit to the Board of Trade such a schedule, 
the Board shall themselves prepare and embody in such a Provisional 
Order a schedule of maximum rates on ""oods : 

Provided that the rates specified in the Schedule shall be such that, in 
the opinion of the Board of Trade, the amount of revenue produced thereby 
will, with the other receipts on revenue account of the Port Authority, be 
sufficient to meet the expenditure of the Port Authority on revenue 
account. 

(3) For the purpose of the collection and recoveiy of rates on goods 
imposed under this section, the provisions of the Harbours, Docks, and 
Piers Clauses Act, 1847, with respect to the collection and recovery of 
rates are, so far as they relate to rates on goods, incorporated with this 
Act, but in the event of the owner or consignee of any goods liable to pay 
any rates to which those goods are subject under this secticm not having 
paid those rates by the time when the goods are ready to be discharged, 
the owner or master of the vessel in which the goods are carried may 
himself pay such rates, and thereupon shall have a Tien on the goods and 
all the rights and powers in respect of the same as he would have under 
Part Vll. of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894, in respect of unpaid freight 
or other charges. 

(4) For the purpose of this section goods shall not be treated as having 
been importeil or exported coastwise unless impoi-ted from or exported 



The Port of Lmidon. 187 

to a place seaward of a line drawn from Reculvers Towers to Colne Point, 
being" a line determined by the Treasury in pursuance of the power con- 
ferred upon them by section one hundred and forty of the Customs 
Consolidation Act, 187<>, or any line that may be substituted therefor by 
the Treasury in pursuance of such power as aforesaid : 

Prov ded that this provision shall not apply to goods originally imported 
from a place seaward of the said line to a place westward of the said line 
and thence imported into the Port of London or to goods exported from 
the Port of London to a place westwartl of the said laie and thence 
exported to a place seaward of the said line, but in any such case the 
authority having jurisdiction in the port of such intermediate place shall, 
if so required by the Port Authority, collect and pay over to the Port 
Authority the rates to which the goods would have been liable had they 
been imported direct to or exported direct from the Port of London, and 
for that purpose shall have all such powers of collecting rates as are by 
this section conferred on the Port Authority. 

1 1 The provisions contained in the enactments relating to the London 
and India Docks Company conferring on that company power to demand 
and take rates, rents, and sums in respect of vessels entering, lying in, or 
departing from the docks, basins, cuts, or entrances of that company, or 
granting any exceptions or immunities from any such rates, rents, or sums, 
shall appl^ not only in respect of vessels entering, lying in, departing from, 
or otherwise using the docks, basins, cuts, or entrances of that company 
transferred to the Port Authority by this Act, but also in respect of 
v^essels entering, lying in, departing from, or otherwise using docks, basins, 
cuts, or entrances constructed by the l^ort Authority under this Act, or 
transferred from any other dock company to the Port Authority by this 
Act, and shall as respects docks, basins, cuts, or entrances so transferred 
be substituted for the provisions as to rates and other charges contained in 
the enactments relating to the companies whose undertakings have been 
so transferred : 

Provided that, in the case of the undertaking of the Surrey Commercial 
Dock ( 'Ompany, this provision shall not apply to vessels passing along the 
canal of that company, and not otherwise using the docks of that company 
when transferred. 

12. There shall be established a j>ort fund, and all receipts of the Port 
Authority shall be carried to that fund, and all payments by the Port 
Authority shall be made out of that fund. 

13. — (1) As from the appointed day any debentures, debenture stock, 
mortgage debts, or other charges, the liability for which is by or under 
this Act transferred to the Port Authority, secured on the whole or any 
part of the undertaking or revenue of a dock company, or on the lower 
navigation fund or any revenue of the Conservators, shall, with interest 
thereon, bo, by virtue of this enactment, secured in like manner on the 
port fund ; and any debentures, debenture stock, mortgage debts, or other 
charges secured on any speciHc property of any such company or the 
Conservators, the liability for which is so transferred, shall remain charged 
on that property ; and any debenture holder, holder of debenture stock, 
mortgagee or other person secured, shall have the same rights and 
remedit^s, as nearly as may be, against the Port Authority, and against 



188 The Port of Londmi. 

the port fund or any specific property charged, as he would have had 
against the company or the Conservators, and against the undertaking, 
lower navigation fund, or revenue, or the specific property charged, if this 
Act had not been passed. 

(2) Subject to the provisions of this Act with respect to the substitution 
of A port stock for Thames Conservancy A debenture stock, the Port 
Authority may agree with the holder of any such debentures, mortgagee, 
or other person secured for the substitution of such amount of port stock 
of such class as may be agreed for the debentures, mortgage, or other 
security. 

t^ — (1) The Port Authority may borrow money for the purpose of— 
^/t) raising any money payable in respect of the transfer of the 

undertaking of any dock company under this Act ; 
{h) purchasing, redeeming, or paying off any debentures, mortgage 
debt, or other charge the liability for which is transferred to the 
Port Authority by or under this Act ; 
(c) dredging and otherwise improving the river ; 
{d) constructing works for improving the accommodation and facilities 

of the Port of London, or acquiring land for any such work ; 
(e) paying any compensation payable under this Act otherwise than 
by way of annuity ; 
and, with the consent of the Board of Trade, for the purpose of any pay- 
ment by the Port Authority or of any work or other thirg which the Porh 
Authority are authorised to execute or do, and which or the cost of which 
ought, in the opinion of the Board of Trade, to be spread over a term of 
years. 

(2) Money borrowed under this section may be borrowed in sjich manner 
as the Board of Trade may by order direct, and such money and the 
interest thereon shall be charged on the port fund or on such property or 
revenues of the Port Authority, and in such manner as the Board of Trade 
may sanction. 

(3) Any money borrowed under this Act, if borrowed for the purpose of — 
(a) raising any money payable in respect of the transfer of the under- 
taking of any dock company under this Act; or 

(&) purchasing, redeeming, or paying off any debentures, mortgage 

debt, or other charge ; or 
{c) constructing any works for improving the accommodation and 
facilities of the Port of London (other than dredging) or 
acquiring land for any such work ; 
shall be repaid within such period not exceeding ninety years, and, if 
borrowed for any other purpose, shall be repaid within such period not 
exceeding sixty years, from the date of the borrowing as the Port Authority 
with the consent of the Board of Trade may, having regard to the circum- 
stances of each particular case, determine. 

(4) For the purpose of paving off a loan raised under this Act, the Port 
Authority shall have the lite powers of re-borrowing as a county council 
have under section sixty-nine of the Local Grovemment Act, 1888, and the 
provisions of that section so far as they relate t^o re-borro^^ing shall apply^ 



The Part of Loiidmi 189 

as it" they were herein re-enacted and in terms made applicable to the Port 
Authority and to the security on which the Port Authority are by or 
under this Act authorised to borrow. 

15. — (1) For the purpose of enabling the Port Authority to raise 
money which they are authorised to borrow, and to issue any port stock 
which, by or under the provisions or this Act, is to be, or may be, issued, 
the Port Authority may ceate stock, to be called Port of London Stock, 
and in this Act referred to as port stock. 

(2) The port stock so created shall consist of A port stock bearing 
interest at 8 per cent., and B port stock bearing interest at four per cent, 
per annum, and if the Port Authority so determine, of other classes of 
port stock ranking pari passu with B port stock and bearing interest at 
such rate as the Port Authority, with the consent of the Board of Trade 
and after consultation with the Governor of the Bank of England, may 
resolve. 

(3) A port stock and the interest thereon, and subject thereto all other 
port stock and the interest thereon, shall be charged on the port fund and 
on all the revenues of the Port Authority. 

(4) Subject to the provisions of this Act, the provisions of section 
fifty-two of the Public Health Acts Amendment Act, 1890, which relates 
to the issue of stock by local authorities, shall apply to port stock as if it 
were stock created under, and the Port Authority were an authority 
mentioned in, that section and as if references to the Board of Trade were 
substituted for references to the Local Government Board : 

Provided that the regulations made under that Act as so applied— 

(a) shall authorise the holder of any port stock to apply to the High 

Court for the appointment of a receiver in the event of the 

Port Author itjr making default for a period of twenty- one days 

in paying any interest due on port stock ; and 

(h) shall not make A port stock or B port stock redeemable before 

the expiration of twenty j^ears from the appointed day ; and 
(c) shall require at least six months' notice of intention to redeem 
port stock to be given. 

(5) The total amount of port stock created under this Act and for the 
time being outstanding shall not, unless Parliament otherwise determines, 
exceed by more than five million pounds the amount of port stock issued 
as the consideration for or in connection with the transfer of the under- 
takings of the dock companies. 

IG.— (1) The Port Authority shall, in accordance with regulations 
made by the Board of Trade, by the creation of one or more sinking or 
redemption funds or otherwise, make provision for — 

(a) the redemption within a period of ninety years from the date of 
the transfer of the undertaking of any dock company of the 
amount of any port stock issued by the Port Authority as 
consideration for or in connection with that transfer or issued 
by the Port Authority in substitution for any debentures, 
mortgages, or other securities of the company the liability for 
whicA is transferred to the Port Authority by this Act ; and 



190 The Poit of London, 

(b) the redemption within a period of sixty years from the date of 
the substitution, of any port stock issued under this Act by the 
Port Authority in substitution for any I'hames Conservancy A 
debenture stock ; and 
(r) the repayment within the periods within which they are under 
this Act to be repaid of any sums borrowed by the Port 
Authority under this Act : 
Provided that as respects any stock issued or money borrowed the 
period for the redemption or repayment of which is or may be ninety 
years, the Port Authority shall not, during the first ten years of the 
period allowed for redemption or repayment, be required to make any 
payments into any sinking or redemption fund for or otherwise towards 
the redemption or repayment of the stock or loan. 

(2) The Board of Trade may make regulations under this section, and 
the regulations so made — 

(a) if they relate to the redemption of port stock, shall be made 

under section fifty -two of the Public Health Acts Amendment 
Act, 1890, as applied by this Act; and 

(b) if they relate to the repayment of any loans may apply, with or 

without modifications, any enactments of the Local Loans Act, 

1875, and the Acts amending that Act, 
and may contain such other provisions as app>ear to the Board of Trade 
necessary or proper for the purpose of the regulations, and shall have 
effect as if they were enacted in this A ct. 

17. The receipts of the Port Authority on revenue account in any year 
shall be applied to the following purposes in the following order : — 

(.1) The payment of working and establisLment expenses and the 
cost of the maintenance of the port, and of the execution and 
performance of the powers and duties of the Port Authority 
properly chargeable to revenue account : 

(2) The payment of interest on A port stock and any arrears thei'eof : 

(3) The payment of interest on other classes of port stock and any 

arrears thereof : 

(4) The payment of interest on any loan raised by the Port Authority 

otherwise than by the issue of i:>ort stock : 

(5) The payment of any sums required under this Act to be paid into 

any sinking or redemption fund, or otherwise towards the 

discharge of any capital liability : 
(o) The payment into the reserve fund created under this Act of any 

sums required by this Act to be paid into that fund ; 
and the balance, if any, shall be applicable to such purposes and in such 
manner, for the benefit of the port, as the Port Authority may determine : 

Provided that— 

(a) The Port Authority shall be entitled at the end of the year to 
carry forward such sum as may be reasonably necessaiy for 
meeting current expenses ; and 

(6) The payment of interest on any debentures, debenture stock, 

moitgage debts, and other charges, the liability for which is by 



The Port of Londmu 191 

this Act transferred to the Port Authority, and the payment of 
interest on and the repayment of such temporary advances as 
the Port Authority are by this Act authorised to obtain with a 
view to supplying funds immediately on and for five years 
after entering on the undertakings of the dock companies shall, 
so long as payable, rank before the payment of interest on A 
port stock ; 

(c) If the Board of Trade so direct, the payment of interest on a 

temporary loan, repayable in a period not exceeding two years 
(other than such a temporary advance as last aforesaid) shall 
rank pari passu with the payment of interest on any class of 
port stock ; and 

(d) The certificate of the auditor of the accounts of the Port 

Authority, subject to such variations as the Board of Trade 
may allow, shall be conclusive as to the amount available for 
any of the purposes aforesaid. 

18, — ^1) The Port Authority shall carry to a reserve fund such part of 
the receipts on revenue account as are applicable to the purpose until the 
fund amounts to one million pounds, and if the fund is subsequently 
reduced below that amount, the Port Authority shall carry to the fund 
so much of any such receipts as is required to restore the fund to that 
amount and is available for the purpose. 

(2) The reserve fund so formed shall be applicable only towards 
meeting any deficiency on revenue account in any year. Provided that if 
it is proved to the satisfaction of the Board of Trade that it is expedient 
to apply any part of it to any other purpose, the Board may by order 
authorise the Port Authority to apply so much thereof as may be 
specified in the order to such other i)urpose, subject, however, to such 
conditions (if any) as may be specified in the order. 

(3) The sums paid into the reserve fund shall be invested in the 
prescribed manner. 

19. — (1) The Port Authority shall at the beffinning of every financial 
year of the Port Authority submit to the Board of Trade an estimate of 
the receipts and expenditure of the Port Authority during that financial 
year, whether on accouot of property, dues, loans, or otherwise. 

(2) If the Board of Trade are satisfied that the receipts of the Port 
Authority on revenue account in any year are likely to be insufficient to meet 
the charges payable out of revenue in that year the Board may mate an 
order requiring the Port Authority to levy any additional or increase any 
existing dues which they are authoiised to levy to such extent and for such 
period as the Board may specify in the order, and the Port Authority 
shall complv with the order so made, so however that neither the addi- 
tional nor the increased dues shall exceed the maxima allowed by law. 

. 20— (1) As soon as may be after the end of each financial year of the 
Port Authority the accounts of the Port Authority, and any committee 
appointed by them, and of their ofiicers, shall be made up to the end of 
that year and shall be in such fonn and contain such particulars as may 
for the time being be prescribed by the Board of Trade, and shall be 
audited by an auditor appointed by tne Beard of Trade. 



192 The Port of Lmdoii. 

(2) The Port Authority shall give to the auditor access to such books 
and documents as are necessary for the purposes of the audit, and shall 
when required famish to him all vouchers and information requisite for 
that purpose, and shall afford to him all facilities for the proper execution 
of his duty. 

(3) If the auditor reports to the Board of Trade that the Port Authority 
have declined or neglected to comply with any of his recommendations or 
requirements, the Board may, if they think fit, after griving the Port 
Authority an opportunity of being heanl, make an order directing the 
Port Authority to comply with such recommendations and requirements, 
with or without modification, as may be specified in the order. 

(4) Within fourteen days after com{)letion of the audit the Port 
Authority shall publisii an abstract of the accounts, together with any 
report of the auditor thereon, in some one or more London newspai^ers. 

(5) The remuneration of the auditor shall be such as the Board of 
Trade direct, and that remuneration and all expenses incurred by him in 
or about the execution of his duties, to such ah amount as the Board of 
Trade approve, shall be paid by the Port Authority. 

21. If the Board of Trade at any time consider it desirable that 
estimates should be submitted, and the accounts of the Port Authority 
made up and audited, more than once a year, the Boai-d nmy make an 
order to that effect, and may by the order make such modifications in the 
provisions of this Act relating to the submission of estimates and the 
making up and auditing of the accounts of the Port Authority as may be 
necessary to give effect to the order. 

Miscellaneous. 

22 — (1) The Port Authority shall, for the purposes of their powers 
and duties under this Act, or otherwise with respect to the administration, 
preservation or improvement of the Port of London, have power— 

(a) to manage, alter, remove, or enlarge any building, and to alienate 
any laud or buildings transferred to the Port Authority under 
this Act (-r otherwise vested in them ; and 
(h) to acquire, hire, erect, and furnish such buildings and ofiices as 

they may require ; and 
(r) to acquire, purchase, or take on hire, or exchange land ; and 

(d) to appoint a chirk or secretary, treasurer, and such other officers 

as they may require ; and 

(e) to promote or oppose any Bill in Parliament, and prosecute or 

defend legal proceedings. . 
Provided that nothing in this section shall be construed as conferring 
on the Port Authority power — 

(i.) in the case of any land or buildings transferred to the Port 
Authority by this Act or otherwise vested in them subject to 
to any right or interest therein of any other person or to the 
performance of any obligation in force at the dat-e of alienation 
and to be performed by the Port Authority under any Act, 
deed, agreement, or other instrument, to alienate such land or 
buildiup^s otherwise than subject to such right, interest, or 
obligation ; or 



llic Port of London. 193 



(ii.) in the case of land or buildings vested in them subject to any 
restriction on alienation, to alienate the land or buildings in 
contravention of that restriction. 

(2) For the purposes of this section, sections one hundred and seventy- 
six and one hundred and seventy-eight of the Public Health Act, 1875, 
shall, except so far as they relate to the acquisition of land otherwise than 
by agreement, apply as if they were herein re-enacted, with the substitu- 
tion of the Port Authority for a local authority. 

(3) The clerk or secretary of the Port Authority, or any officer or 
member thereof acting under a general or special resolution of the Port 
Authority, majr authorise the institution and carrying on or the defence 
of any proceeding which the Port Authority are authorised to institute, 
carry on, or defend. Any information or complaint under the provisions 
of this Act or any other Act, whether local or general, applying to the 
Port Authority, or amr bye-laws or regulations made thereunder, may be 
laid or made by an officer or member of the Port Authority or by the clerk 
or secretary. 

(4) The Superannuation (Metropolis) Act, 1866, shall apply to the 
Port Authority as if the Port Authority were an authority mentioned in 
that Act. 

23. — (1) The Port Authority shall take into consideration the existing 
methods and conditions of engagement of workmen employed in dock, 
riverside, and warehouse labour in connection with the Port of London, 
and shall, either bv themselves or in co-operation with other bodies or 
persons, by establisning or maintaining or assisting in the establishment 
or maintenance of offices, waiting rooms, and employment registers, and 
and by the collection and communication of information and otherwise, 
take such steps as they thin'< best calculated to diminish the evils of 
casual employment, and to promote the more convenient and regular 
engagement of such workmen or any class thereof. 

(2) The Port Authority may make bye-laws with respect to admission 
to, and the maintenance of order in, such offices and waitmg rooms, and 
otherwise for the purpose of carrying this section into effect. 

24. — (1) The Port authority may, with the consent of the Secretary of 
State, provide accommodation for the reception of a ien passengers con- 
ditionally disembarked for the pirpose of inspection, appeals, or otherwise, 
under the Aliens Act, 1905. 

(2) If the Port Authority provide such accommodation they may, with 
the like consent, make bye-laws imposing on immigrant ships' within the 
meaning of that Act entering the Port of London tolls for covering the 
cost of providing such accommodation, and requiring the conditional 
disembarkation at the place so provided of such alien passengers from 
immigrant ships as the Secretary of State may by order direct, either 
generally or as regards any special ships. 

25. The Port Authority shall as soon as may be after the appointed 
day take into consideration the then existing surveys of the bed and shore 
of the river and tidal waters within the Port of London, and if in any 
respect the surveys are defective they shall, after consultation with the 
Admiralty and the Board of Trade, take such steps as may be necessary 



194 The Pcni of London. 

for the purpose of remedying such defects, and the Port A^uthority shall 
publish and keep on sale at a reasonable price copies of any such existing 
surveys as may be considered sufficient and of the surveys so made. 

26, Any lines and sidings forming part of any dock undertaking 
belonging to the Port Authority shall be deemed to be railways, and the 
the Port Authority shall be deemed to be a railway company, for the pur- 
purposes of such of the provisions of the Railway and Canal Traffic Acts, 
1854 to 1888, as relate to through rates : 

Provided that the Railway and Canal Commission shall not fix such a 
through rate in any case in which it appears to them either on account of 
insufficient facilities for exchange of traffic or otherwise that it would be 
unjust or inexpedient to do so. 

27. — (1) The port stock under this Act substituted for any stock shall 
be held in the same rights, on the same trusts, and subject to the same 
powers, provisions, charges, and liabilities as those in, on, or to which the 
stock was held immediately before the substitution, and so as to give eifect 
to, and not to revoke, any deed, will, or other instrument or testamentarv 
or other disposition disposing of or affecting the stock, and every such 
deed, will, instrument, or disposition shall take effect with reference to the 
whole or a proportionate part, as the case may be, of the substituted port 
stock. 

(2) Trustees, executors and all other hoLJers in. any representative or 
fiduciary capacity of any existing stock for which port stock is substi- 
tuted under this Act shall accept the port stock issued in substitution 
therefor under this Act, and may hold, dispose of, or otherwase deal with 
the substitute*! stock in all res])c^cts as they might have held, disposed of, 
or otherwise iealt with tlie stock for which it was substituted. 

28. — (l'^ The Board of Trade may make such Provisional Orders as 
may be required for the purposes of this Act, and with respect to such 
Provisional Orders the provisions set out in the Fifth Schedule to this 
Act shall have effect. 

(2) Any order, other than a Provisional Order, made by the Board of 
Trade under this Act shall, whilst in force, have effect as if enacted in 
this Act, but any such order made by the Board of Trade may be varied 
by a subsequent order made in the like manner and subject to the like 
conditions as the original order. 

(3) The Board of Trade, subject to the consent of the Treasury, may 
fix the fees to be payable in respect of Provisional Orders, and orders 
made by the Board under this Act, and such fees shall be paid by such 
authorities and persons as the Board of Trade may determine. 

29. — (1) The provisions of sections one hundred and ninety-three, one 
hundred and ninety four, one hundred and ninety-five, and two hundred 
of the Thames Conservancy Act, 1894, as applied to the Port Authority 
by this Act, shall extend to all bye-laws made by the Port Authority, 
whether made in exercise of their powers as successors of the Conserva- 
tors, or of any dock company, or of the Watermen's Company or the 
court of that company, or otherwise. 

(2) Sections fifty- five and one hundred and ninety-one of the Thames 
Conservancy Act, 18 Dt, so far as they relate to complaints of the opera- 



The Fort of London, 195 

tion of byelaws shall apply to all byelaws made by the Port Authority or 
their predecessors whether made under that Act or otherwise. 

30. The Port Authority shall m-ike to the Board of Trade an annual 
report of their proceeding's, and this report shall be laid annually before 
Parliament by the Board of Trade, and shall at the same time be on sale 
at a reasonable charge to the public at the offices of the Port Authority. 
The Port Authority shall also give to the Board of Trade such returns, 
statistics, and information, with respect to the exercise of the powers of 
the Port Authority, as the Board of Trade may require. 

31 A justice of the peace shall not be incapable of acting in any case 
in which the Port Authority are a party by reason only that as a payer 
of dues or the holder of port stock, or as one of any other class of persons, 
he is liable to contribute to or to be benefited by the port fund. 

32— (1) The Board of Trade Arbitrations, &c.. Act, 1874. shall apply 
as if this Act were a special Act within the meaning of the first-mentioned 
Act. 

(2) All things required or authorised under this Act to be done by, to, 
or before the Board of Trade, may be done by, to, or before the President 
or a secretary of the Board, or any person authorised in that behalf by 
the President of the Board. 

(3) All documents purporting to be orders made by the Board of Trade 
and to l)e sealed with the seal of the Board, or to be signed by a secretary 
of the Board, or by any person authorised in that behalf by the Presi- 
d(?nt of the Board, shall be received in evidence, and shall be deemed to be 
such ord(»rs without further proof, unless the contrary is shown. 

(4) A certificate, signed by the President of the Board of Trade, that 
any order made or act done is the order or act of the Board, shall be con- 
clusive evidence of the fact so certified. 

Savings. 

33. Nothing in this Act shall aifect the right of any council or 
other authority rej^resented on the Port Authority to be heard against 
any Bill or Provisional Order promoted or applied for by the Port 
Authority. 

34. Nothing in this Act shall affect the limits of the Port of London 
for Custom purposes, or abridge or affect in any way the powers of the 
Treasury in respect of the port under the Customs Consolidation Act, 1870. 

35. Nothing in this Act shall prejudice or affect any rights, powers, or 
privileges of the Admiralty or the King's harbour-master or other officer 
of the Admiralty within the limits for the time being of any dockyanl port.. 

36. Nothing in this act shall be construed as imposing any dues on 
any vessel or any goods carried therein by reason only that the vessel 
passes through any part of the Port of London on a voyage between 
places situate on the River Medway or the River Swale and not within 
the Port of London and any other places not within that port. 

37.— (1) The Port Authority shall make compensation to all persons 
whose i)roperty or works arc damaged by or in cons3qucnce of any 



196 The Port of London. 



oi^erations of the Port Authority in connection with dredging or other- 
wise deepening and improving the channels of the river within the Port 
of London, in any case where snch persons would have been entitled to 
damages if the operations had been executed otherwise than in pursuance 
of statutory powers. 

(2) Any works of dredging and deepening carried out under the 
powers of this Act which are within fifty yards of any part of any tunnel, 
bridge, pier, sewage outfall, or other property of the London County 
Council shall be executed under the supervision and to the reasonable 
satisfaction of the engineer of the said Council. 

(3> Any works of dredging and deepening carried out under the powers 
of this Act which are within fifty yards of any part of any bridge 
belonging to the Corporation shall be executed under the supjervision and 
to the reasonable satisfaction of the engineer of the Corporation. 

(4) Any works of dredging and deepening carried out under the powers 
of this Act which are within one hundred and fifty yards of any part of 
the Thames Tunnel shall be executed under the supervision and to the 
reasonable satisfaction of the engineer of the East London Railway 
Company. 

(5) Any dispute or difference arising under this section shall be settled 
by an arbitrator appointed by the Board of Trade. 

38. — (1) Notwithstandingr anything contained in this Act, the pro- 
visions of sections ninety -three, ninety-four, ninety-nine, one hundred, one 
hundred and nine, to one hundred and seventeen, one hundred and nine- 
teen to one hundred and thirty- four, and so much of sections one 
hundTed and ninety and one hundred and ninety-one as relates to the 
regulation of bathing and the fixing of the hours during which persons 
may bathe, of the Thames Conservancy Act, 1894. shall not apply in 
any area comprised in the borough of Southend-on-Soa or between that 
borough and a straight line drawn from the West Shoobury Buoy to the 
most easterly point of Canvey ] sland. 

(2) Nothing in this act or in the Thames Conservancy Act, 1894, shall 
prejudice, lessen, affect, or interfere with any powers, rights, authorities, 
privileges, or property of the mayor, aldermen, and burgesses of the 
borough of Southend-on-Sea under any Act now in force. 

(3) Nothing in this section shall be construed as a recognition of any 
right or interest of the said mayor, aldermen, or burgesses in any part of 
the bed or shore of the Thames. 

Definitions, Repeal, &c. 

39. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires — 

The expression " Port of London " means the Port within the 

limits described in the Sixth Schedule of this Act : 
The expression " appointed day " means the first day of January, 
one thousand nine hundred and nine, or such later day as the 
Board of Trade majr appoint, either generally or with reference to 
any particular provision of this Act, and different days may be 
appointed for different purposes and different provisions of this 
Act, whether contained in the same section or in different sec- 
tions, and for different companies and authorities : 



The Port of London. 197 

The expression "undertaking" includes, in the case of an 
undertaking transferred by this Act, all such property, real and 
personal, including cash C)alance8, reserve funds, investments, 
and all other interest and rights in, to, and out of the property, 
real and personal, and obligations and things in action, as may 
be in the possession of the company, or belonging to them, 
immediately before the date of transfer, and all books, accounts, 
and documents relating thereto-; but discharged and freed from 
any charge for securing any debenture stock of the company and 
from any liabilities in respect of such stock ; 

The expression "the Corporation'' means the Mayor, Aldermen, 
and Commons of the City of London in Common Council 
assembled ; 

The expression " the Trinity House" means the n? aster, wardens, 
and assistants of the giiild, fraternity, or brotherhood of the 
most glorious and undivided Trinity, and of St. Clement in the 
in the parish of Deptford Strond, in the county of Kent, com- 
monly called the Corporation of the Trinity House of Deptford 
Strond : 

The expression " goods " includes live stock, minerals, and mer- 
chandise of all descriptions : 

The expression " dues " includes all duties of tonnage, rates on 
goods, registration fees, and other tolls, charges, and dues pay- 
able to the Port Authority, whether in respect of ships, goods, 
river craft, or otherwise ; 

The expression "prescribed" means prescribed by regulations 
made by the Board of Trade. 

40. The enactments mentioned in the Seventh Schedule to this Act 
shall as from the appointed day be repealed to the extent specified in the 
third column to that schedule, 

41- This Act may be cited as the Port of London Act, 1908. 

Transitory Provisions. 

42. Such adjustments as may be required for the puiposes of this Act 
shall be made between the Port Autnority and the Conservators and 
between the Port Authority and the Watermen's Company, and section 
sixty-eight of the Local Government Act, 1894, shall apply to such adjust- 
ments in like manner as it applies to adjustments required for the pur- 
poses of that Act. 

Provided that references to the Board of Trade shall be substituted for 
references to the Local Government Board, and that the provisions as to 
borrowing and the application of capital sums shall not apply to the 
Watermen's Company. 

43.— (1) Until the appointed day the undertakings of the several dock 
companies shall be maintained and carried on as heretofore in the 
ordinary course of business in as efficient a condition as usual, but the 
amount distributed by way of dividend on the stocks other than deben- 
ture stocks of any such company for the year nineteen hundred and 



198 The P(/rt of Lomlwu 

eight shall not exceed the amount of one year's interest on the amount of 
the port stock to be substituted under this Act for those stocks. 

(2) If the Port Authority think that any contract with respect to any 
matter connected with the undertaking* of any such company made by 
the company subsequently to the date of the first publication of the 
notice of the Bill for this Act was not reasonably necessary in the 
ordinary course of the business of the company, they may give notice in 
writing to the company to thij,t effect within three months after the 
appointed day, 

(3) If the Port Authority give any such notice, it shall be referred to 
an arbitrator appointed by the Board of Trade to determine whether or 
not the contract was reasonably necessary in the ordinary course of the 
business of the company, and the arbitrator shall determine whether, and 
to what extent, as between the Port Authority and the company, any 
liability arismg thereunder is to be transferred to the Port Authority, or 
is to continue as a liability of the company. 

(4) Until the appointed day a dock company shall not, without the 
previous consent in writing of the Board of Trade — 

(a) sell, dispose of, or let for a longer period than one year, any of its 
lands or buildings ; 

(/>) apply any of its depreciation or renewal funds otherwise than for 
the purposes for which those funds were created and have 
hitherto been used, or make any distribution out of any such 
fund or any reserve for bad and doubtful debts among its 
stockholders or any class thereof, nnless legally compelled to 
do so for the purpose of paying interest on any debenture 
stock ; 

(c) enter into any contract of any kind with shipowners, merchants, 

or others, extending in date beyond the thirty-first of December 
nineteen hundred and nine ; 

(d) raise any fresh capital, either directly or, in case of the Mi'lwall 

Dock Company, indirectly, by means of any arrangement with 
the Millwall Dock Equipment Company, Limited. 

(e) undertake any expenditure on any new works. 

(5) The accounts and balance sheet of each dock company for the year 
nineteen hundred and eight, and also, if the appointed day is lat3r than 
the first day of Januar}-, nineteen hundrel and nine, for the period 
between that date and the appointed day, shall be audited by an auditor 
appointed by the Board of Trade and no sums shall be distributed by the 
company by way of dividend except such as are certified by that auditor 
to be so distributable ; and in any case where the audit is not completed 
until after the appointed day, the Port Authority shall pay to the com- 
pany such an amount as may be certified by the auditor to be the 
balance representing profits earned in respect of the period to which the 
audit relates and available for immediate distribution as dividend : 

Provided that the amount so paid to any company shall not exceed the 
amount of interest which would accrue on the amount of port stock to 
be issued in substitution for the stocks other than debenture stocks of the 
company for that period. 



The Port of London. 199 



(6) Tf, bv reason of the expenses incnrred by a dock company in 
respect of tne negotiations with the Board of Trade for the transfer of 
its undertaking" or in connection with the passing of the Bill for this Act, 
the amount certified by the auditor appointed by the Board of Trade as 
available for distribution as dividend among the stockholders of the dock 
company for the year nineteen hundred and eight is less than one year's 
interest on the amount of port stock to be subst:tuted for the various 
stocks, other than debenture stocks, of the company, the Port Authority 
shall pay to the company a sum equal to the deficiency, but not 
exceeding — 

(a) in the case of the London and India Docks Company, five 

thousand pounds ; 
(h) in the case of the Surrey Commercial Dock Company, three 

thousand pounds ; 
(c) in the case of the Mill wall Dock Company, two thousand pounds. 

(7) Any expenses incurred by the Board of Trade under this section 
shall be paid by the Port Authority. 

44. — (1) As soon as the port stock to be issued as compensation for the 
transfer of the undertaking of a dock company has been issued in 
accordance with this Act, the company shall enter upon the liquidation of 
its aifairs, and upon the conclusion thereof shall be dissolved in manner 
provided with respect to the company in the Second Schedule to this Act. 

(2) The several provisions and powers contained in the several special 
Acts of the dock compan'es shall remain and ]je of full force as regards 
the dock companies respectively, so far as the same are necessary or 
required for the purposes of the company, up to and until the dissolution 
thereof : 

Provided that it shall not be obligatory to fill up any vacancy in the 
office of director occurring after the appointed day, and it shall be lawful 
for the continuing directors for the time being of each company to 
exercise all powers of directors up to and until the dissolution of the 
company. 

(3) For the purpose of winding up its affairs any such company may, after 
the appointed day, temporarily retain for its own use such omces, books, 
accounts, and documents, and the services of such officers and servants, 
as majr be agreed upon between the Port Authority and the company, 
or, failing agreement, may be determined by the Board of Trade. 

(4) Any costs certified by the auditor appointed by the Board of 
Trade to have been properly incurred by a dock company in winding up 
the affairs of the company for the purposes of the dissolution thereof 
shall be paid to the company by the Port Authority. 

45. — (1) Any person wLo at the passing of this Act and at the 
the appointed day holds a licence as a licensed lighterman or waterman or 
qualified apprentice or a certificate under section three hundred and 
three of the Thames Conservancy Act, 1894, shall be entitled to receive a 
licence oi certificate from the Port Authority, tenable on the like terms 
and conditions as the licence or certificate so held. 

(2) N^othing in this Act shall vacate or affect any indenture of 
apprenticeship existing at the passing of this Act. 



200 The Port of London, 

46. — (1) With a view of supplying funds to the Port Authority imme- 
diately on and for five years after entering- on the undertakinffs of the 
dock companies the Port Authority may obtain advances of such sums of 
money as they may require for meeting their obligations and carrying on 
their business : Provided that the total amount so ^obtained and for the 
time being outstanding shall not at any time exceed five hundred 
thousand pounds, and the sums so advanced shall be charged on the port 
fund, but it shall be the duty of the Port Authoritjr to repay any 
advance obtained under this section, together with all interest thereon, 
within five years from the date of obtaining the advance. 

(2) The provisions of this Act as to borrowing and the repayment of 
money shall not apply to advances under this section. 

47. Subject to the provisions of this Act — 

(a) if on the appointed day any proceeding or any cause of action is 
pending or existing by or against the Conservators, a dock 
company, or the Watermen's company, the same shall not 
abate, be discontinued, or be in any way prejudicially affected 
by reason of anything in this Act, but the proceeding or cause 
of action may be continued, prosecuted, and enforced by or 
against the Port Authority as it niig[ht have been by or against 
the Conservators or the company if this Act had not been 
passed, but not further or otherwise ; and 
(6) all contracts, deeds, bonds, agreements, and other instruments, 
and all working arrangements subsisting immediately before 
the appointed day, and affecting the Conservators, a dock 
company, or the Watermen's Company, shall be of as full force 
and effect against or in favour of the Port Authority, and may 
be enforced as fully and effectually as if, instead of the Con- 
servators or the company, the Port Aathority had been a party 
thereto : 
Provided that nothing in this section shall affect any proceeding, cause 
of action, contract, deed, bond, agreement, or other instrument relating 
solely to any powers, duties, property, or liabilities of the Conservators or 
of tne Watermen's Company not transferred to the Port Authority by 
or under this Act. 

48. All byelaws, rules, regulations, and dues made or enforceable by 
the Conservators, a dock company, or the Watermen's Company, or the 
Court of the Watermen's Company, shall so far as they are not inconsistent 
with the provisions of this Act, and until repealed, altered, or superseded, 
remain in force in like manner and to the like extent as if this Act had not 
been passed : 

Provided that any byelaws, rules, regulations, or dues made or imposed 
in pursuance of any power by this Act transferred from the Conservators 
or the Watermen's Company or the Court thereof to the Port Authority, 
shall, subject to any order made by the Board of Trade, extend throughout 
the area within which the power in pursuance of which they were made or 
imposed is for the time being exercisable by the Port Authority. 

49. — (1) The Port Authority shall issue by way of compnsation for the 
loss of office sustained by such of the directors of tne several dock 



The Port of London. 201 



companies as were in office both at the date of the publication of the 
notice of the Bill for this Act and on the appointed day, the following 
amounts of A poA stock : — 

(a) to the London and India Docks Company sixty seven thousand 
six hundred pounds ; 

(6) to the Surrey Commercial Dock Company forty thousand pounds ; 

(r) to the Millwall Dock Company twenty thousand p>ounds ; 
and the stock so issued shall be distributed amongst the directors entitled 
to compensation in such proportions as those d&ectors or a majority of 
them deteiiine. 

(2) If any such director becomes entitled to a salary as chairman, vice- 
chairman, or chairman of a committee of the Port Authority a sum equal 
to the amount of the interest on the port stock allotted to him as compen- 
sation under this section shall, whilst he holds the office to which the 
salary is attached, be deducted from the salary which would otherwise be 
payable to him. 

50. — (1) Subject to the provisions of this Act— 

(a) every officer and servant of the Conservators, unless he is 
immediately before the appointed day employed solely or 
mainly in connexion with the powers and duties of the Con- 
servators not transferred by tbis Act to the Port Authority ; 
and 
(h) every officer and servant of the several dock companies ; and 
{(•) every officer and servant of the Watermen's Company immediately 
before the appointed day employed solely or mainly in connexion 
with the powers and duties of the Watermen's Company or the 
court of ijhat company by this Act transferred to the Port 
Authority, 
(all which officers and servants are in this Act referred to as existing 
officers and servants), shall, as from the appointed day, become an officer 
or servant of the Port Authority, and shall hold his office or situation by 
the same tenure and upon like terms and conditions, (including all 
conditions regarding pension or other superannuation allowance) under 
the Port Authority as he would have held the same under the body from 
whom he is transferred if this Act had not been passed, and while 
performing the same duties shall receive not less salary, wages, or pay 
than he would have been entitled to if this Act had not been passed. 

(2) Every existing officer and servant shall perform such duties as he 
may be required to perform by the Port Authority. 

(3) The Port Authority may abolish the office or situation of any 
existing officer or servant which they deem unnecessary, and any existing 
officer or servant required to perform duties such as are not analogous, or 
which are an unreasonable addition to those which as an officer or servant 
of the body from whom he is transferred he was required to perform, may 
relinquish his office or service, and every existing officer or servant whose 
office is so abolished or who so relinquishss his office or service as aforesaid 
or who otherwise suffers any direct pecuniary loss in consequence of this 
Act, shall be entitled to be paid by the Port Authority compensation for 
such pecuniary loss, regard being had to the conditions on which his 



202 The Port of Jjondon. 

appointment was made, the nature of his office or employment, the 
duration of his service, and any other circumstances affecting the case. 

(4) Subject to the provisions of this section ; the provisions contained 
in section one hundred and twenty of the Local Government Act, 1888, 
relating to compensation to existing officers, shall apply to any claim for 
compensation by an existing officer or servant with the substitution of 
references to the Port Authority and port fund for references to the County 
Council and county fund. 

(5) If within a period of five years after the appointed day the services 
of any existing officer or servant are dispensed with by the Port Authority 
because his services are not required, and not on account of misconduct or 
incapacity, or the salary to any such officer or servant is reduced on the 
ground that his duties have been diminished in consequence of the pro- 
visions of this Act, the officer or servant shall h\i deemed to have suffered 
direct pecuniary loss in consequence of this Act, 

(6) Any person formerly in the emplovment of the Conservators, or of 
any dock company, or the Watermen s Company, who on the appointed 
day is, though not legally entitled thereto, in receipt of a pension or other 
superannuation allowance from the Conservators, or of any dock company, 
or the Watermen's Company, shall continue to receive from the Port 
Authority the same pension or allowance unless he is guilty of grave mis- 
conduct, and any questior whether he has been guilty of such misconduct 
shall, in case of difference be determined by the Board of Ti*ade : 

Provided that this provision shall not ai)ply in the case of a person in 
receipt of a pension or superannuation allowance from the Conservators or 
the Watermen's Company unless the employment of the person whilst in 
the employ of the Conservators or Watennen's Company was of such a 
nature that, in the opinion oi the Board of Trade, he would have been 
transferred to Port Authority had he been in that employment at the 
appointed day. 

(7) In computing the time of service of any existing officer or servant 
for the purpose of determining the compensation to which he is entitled 
under tnis section, or of any annual allowance that may be awarded him 
by the Port Authority under the provisions of the Superannuation 
(Metropolis) Act, 18(5t), as applied by this Act, or the London and Indi-i 
Docks Pension Scheme, the period dui-ing which he has been in the service 
of the Conservators, the dock company, or the Watermen's Company shall 
be included. 

(8) Every existing officer or servant not entitled to compensation under 
this section, and not otherwise legally entitled to any pension or super- 
annuation allowance, who becomes incapable of discharging the duties of 
his office with efficiency by reason of permanent infirmity of mind or bo<.ly, 
or who has attained the age of sixty years, or who having been in the 
service of the Conservators, or a dock company, or the Watermen's 
Company for a period of not less than five years, is dismissed by the Port 
Authority on any ^ound other than misconduct shall, ujwn his resigning 
or otherwise ceasing to hold office, be entitled to a superannuation 
allowance upon the terms and conditions and according to the scale 
specified in the Superannuation (Metropolis) Act, i86t), as appjied by this 
Act. 



The Fort* of London. 203 

(9) If the Porb Authority think— 

(a) that any appointment to any office or service of the Conservators 
a dock company or the Watermen's Company, or any alteration 
in the rate of salary, wages, or pay of any anv existing officer or 
servant, made subsequently to the date of the first publication 
of the notice of the Bill for this Act, was not reasonably 
necessary in the ordinary course of the business of the Conser- 
vators or the Company ; or 
(&) that any gi'ant or alteration of a pension or superannuation 
allowance, or of any right thereto, made by the Conservators, a 
dock company or the Watermen's Company subsequently to 
that date was not in accordance with the usual practice of the 
Conservators or the Company with respect to granting or 
altering pensions or allowances, 
the Port Authority may give notice in writing to the Conservators the 
dock company or the Watermen's Company to that effect within three 
months after the appointed day, and if the Port Authority give such a 
notice it shall be referred to an arbitrator appointed by the Board of Trade 
to determine whether or not the appointment, alteration or grant was 
reasonably necessary in the ordinary course of the business, or was in 
accordance with the usual practice of the Conservators or the Company, 
and the arbitrator shall determinie whether, arid to what extent, as between 
the Port Authority and the Conservators or the Company any liability 
arising in respect thereto is to be transferred to the Port Authority or is 
to continue as a liability of the Conservators or the Company. 

(10) Nothing in this Act shall predudice or affect the rights or interests 
of any person under the indenture herein-after mentioned who on or 
immediately Ixifore the appointed day i« a member of the staff of the 
London and India Docks Company, or be entitled to a superannuation, 
allowance of and in the pension fund or other fund formed by and under 
the provisions of an indenture made on the seventeenth day of September 
one thousand eight hundred and ninety, and made between the London 
and India Docks Joint Committee of the first part ; Heury Willey Williams 
and Edward Henry Baily, of the Dock House, Leadenhall-street, London, 
joint managers of the London and India Docks Joint Committee, and 
others, of the second part; and Rodolph Alexander Hankey, of No. 7, 
Mincing-lane, London, and others, of the third part ; but all the provisions 
of such deed in favour of or affecting the members of the staff of the 
London and India Docks Company jahall remain in full force and effect, 
and the Port Authority shall, as from the appointed day, be entitled to all 
the benefits and interests, and. be subject to all the liabilities of the 
London and India Docks Joint Committee under such indenture. 

(11) If any question arises as to whether an officer or servant is trans- 
ferred to the Port Authority under this section, the question shall be 
determined by the Board of Trade. 

51. — (1) If any difficulty arises with respect to the establishment of the 
Port Authority, or the reconstitution of the Conservators, or to the 
appointment of the first members, or to the first meeting of the Port 
Authority or of the Conservators as reconstituted, the Board of Trade may 
by order make any appointment or do anything which appears to them to 



204 The Port of Lixndon. 



be necessary or expedient for the proix?r establishment of the Port 
Authority, or the reconstitution of the Conservators, and the proper 
holding of the first meeting. 

(2) Amr such order may modify the provisions of this Act and the 
Thames Conservancy Act, 189-4, so far as may appear to the Board of 
Trade necessaiy or expedient for carrjing the order into effect. 

52. All costs, charges, and expenses preliminary to and of and incidental 
to the preparing, applying for, obtaining, and p>assing of this Act incurred 
by the Board of Trade shall be repaid to that Board by the Port Authority 
when established under this Act. 

Tn« New Stock. 

The financial clauses of the Bill may be summarised as follows : — 

The stock issued to the transferred companies will be of two classes, A 
and B. The " A " stock will bear interest at 3 per cent, and the " B " 
stock at 4 per cent., and the " A " stock will be a prior stock both as to 
interest and capital. The largest companj^ is, of course, the London and 
India Company, the present capital of which is £365,650 mortgage deben- 
tures, £2,805,291 3 per cent. ** A " debenture stock, £3,259,254 3 per cent. 
" B " debenture stock, £1,814,331 3 per cent. " C " debenture stock, 
£1,986,423 4 per cent preference non-cumulative stock, £1,438,723 4 per 
cent, non-cumulative "B" preference stock, £2,866,548 4 per cent, pre- 
ferred ordinary stock, and £4,802,855 4 per cent deferred ordinary stock. 

The manner in which these various stocks wiU be dealt with is shown in 
the following list : — 

Present Holding in Dock Stock. New Holding in Port Stock. 

'A" Debenture Stock ... ICO per cent. "A" Stock 



"B" Debenture Stock 
" C " Debenture Stock 
" A " Preference Stock 
" B " Preference Stock 
Preferred Ordinary Stock 
Deferred Ordinary Stock 



100 per cent. "A" Stock 
100 per cent. " A " Stock 
100 per cent. " B " Stock 
100 per cent. " B " Stock 
100 per cent. "B" Stock 
75 per cent. "B" Stock 



The various stocks of the Millwall Company are to be dealt with in the 
following manner : — 

fc*t3Ck. Rate of Exchange in Port Stock. 

5 per cent. Perpetual Debenture Stock {^£25^' ^^' 4 per Snt.' " B " 

? £100 3 Der cent ** A " 

4 per cent. Perpetual Debenture Stock | £25 4 pg^ ^ent! " B " 

5 per cant. Perpetual Preference Stock £100 4 per cent. " B " 

4J p3r cent. Preference Stock £45 4 per cent. *• B " 

New 5 per cent. Perpetual Preference Stock ... £35 4 per cent. " B " 

Ordinary Stock £20 4 per cent. "B" 

The arrangement with the Surrey Commercial Company is as follows : — 

Preseat Holding In Dock Sto3k. New Holding in Port Stock. 

£100— 4i per cent. Debenture Stock £150 3 per cent. *' A " Stock 

100—" A " Prefererx3 Stock 112 10s. 3 per cent. " B " Stock 

(4 per cent, minimum) (to produce 4J per cent) 

100—" B " Preference Stock 5 per cent. ... 125 4 per cent. " B " Stock 

100— "C" „ „ ... Iii5 4 per cent. ,. 

100— "D" „ „ ... 125 4 per cent. „ 

100— "E" „ „ ... 125 4 per cent. „ 

100— "F" „ „ ... 125 4perceut. ., 

100— Ordinary Stock 95 4 per cent. „ 



The Port of London. 205 



The nominal fixed capital issued by the three companies at the end of 
last year was £23,702,686, and the Port stocks to be issued for this capital 
aro : — 

In 'A" Stock (3 per cent.) £9.152.152 

In ' B" Stock (4pjrcent.) £13,210,824 

The annual interest charges falling on the Port Authority in respect of 
these issues amount to £802,998. 

The following sum nary gives information concerning the constitution 
of other port authorities : — 

Liverpool. — Mersey Docks and Harbour Board, consisting of twenty- 
eight members, four being nominated by Mersey Commissioners and 
twenty-four elected by payers of dock dues. 

Manchester. — Manchester Ship Canal Company, consisting of 
twenty-one director?, eleven being nominated by Manchester Corpora- 
tion and ten by other shareholders. 

Southampton. — London and South- Western Railway Company owns 
all docks except Towq Quay, belonging to Southampton Harbour Board. 

Cardiff. — The docks belong to the Cardiff Railway Company. 

Barry. — The docks are the property of the Barry Railway Company. 

Bristol. — Bristol Corporation. 

AvoNMOUTH.— Bristol Corporation. 

Antwerp. — Communal Council of City, consisting of Burgomaster 
appointed by King, and thirty-nine elected Councillors. Of these, five 
are aldermen elected by City Council from its number. 

Rotterdam. — Municipal Council, consisting of Burgomaster appointed 
by Queen, and forty-five elected Councillors. Of these four are aldermen 
appointed by Council from its number. 

Bremen and Bremerhaven.— State of Bremen, consisting of (1) 
Burgerschaft of one hundred and fifty members elected for certain 
number of years ; (2) Senate of sixteen members elected for life. 

Hamburg. — State of Hamburg, consisting of (1) Burgerschaft of one 
hundred and sixty members, of whom eighty are elected by all male tax- 
payers, forty by State "Notables,"* forty by. householders (one hundred 
and sixty)) ; (2) Senate of eighteen members elected by Burgerschaft 
(nine must be lawyers). 

History of the Question. 

Various proposals have been put forward for municipalising the Port of 
London or for putting it under public control. " The last Crovernment's 
Port of London Bill, which provided for the transfer of the undertakings 
of the Dock Companies to a new body to be called the Port of London 
Commission, was before Parliament in the Session 1903. The measure, 
after the second realingin the House of Commons, was referred to a 
Joint Committee of both Houses. 

* "Notables" are porsoin who have been in public offices, judges, or niembeis of 
(1j )u\it:oiis. to nm s.'io is, or coarls cf law. 



206 



The Port of London. 



When Parliament re-assembled it was announced that there was no 
intention of proceeding with the Government measure ; and under these 
circumstances the London County Council promoted another Bill, which, 
in its main principles, followed the lines of the Government proposals. It 
differed, however, in regard to the membership of the Council on the 
proposed Port Commission. 

The Commission was to be appointed as follows : — 

By the London County Council 

By the Corporation 

By the Admiralty 

By the Board of Trade 

By the Trinity House 

The elected commissioners were to be elected as follows : — 

By payers of dues on ships trading to the docks 7 

By payers of dues on ships trading to the river 3 

By traders 2 

The second reading of this Bill was rejected on April 13th, 1905, by a 
majority of 68. 

On the 28th March, 1906, Mr. Dickinson moved in the new House of 
Commons the following resolution, which was adopted without a division : 
— " That this House is of opinion that the conditiou of the Port and Docks 
of London urgently demands attention with a view to the management 
thereof being forthwith placed in the hands of a public authority." 

The following was the constitution of the Port Commission proposed in 
the late Government's Bill : — 



Elected. 
By payers of dues on ships 

By traders 

By Wliarfingers 

By owners of river craft 

Total 



10 

10 

4 

2 

40 



Appointed. 

By the London County Council 8 
By the Common Council of the 

City 2 

By the Admiralty 1 

By the Board of Trade ... 1 

By the Trinity House ... ... 1 

By the Railway Companies 

Association 1 

For comparative purposes the recommendations of the Royal Commis- 
sion as to the constitution of the authority are appended : — 

Nominated. 

By the London County Council 11 

By the City Corporation 3 

By the Admiralty 1 

By the Board of Trade 1 

By the Trinity House 1 

By the Kent County Council 1 

By the Essex County Council 1 

By the London Chamber of Commerce 2 
By the Governors of the Bank of 

England 5 



Elected. 

By oversea (or ocean) trading ship- 
owners 

By the short-sea trading shipowners ... 

By wharfingers and owners of private 
warehou.«5es on the river 

By owners of lightiers, barges, and 
river craft, including river passenger 
steamers 

By railway companies connecting with 
docks 



14 



208 



London Telephone Systems. 



The authority was to purchase the undertakings of — 

1. The Lonilon and India Dock Company; 

2. The Surrey (■ommercial Dock (V)mpany; and 

3. The Millwall Dock Company. 

The following" are tlij doiks comprised in this enumeration : — 



Dock. 


Water 
Area. 


Depth. 


Quayage 
Length. 


Made. 


East India 


Acres. 
31-48 
9714 
lO-iS 
38-72 
87-97 
84-45 
69-08 
36-41 
157-61 


Ft. 
24-8 

26-5 (import dock) 
24 (neap tide on sill) 
24 
32 
21-5 

38 (Trinity high- water mark) 
25-5 (neap tide on sill) 
Various 


Ft. 

6,200 
20,400 

4.550 
14,150 
17,250 
22.000 
14,450 

8.800 
27,420 


1805 


West India 


1802 


St. Katherine 

Ijondon 

Royal Albert 

Royal Victoria 

Tilbury 

Millwall 

Surrey Commercial 


1828 
1805 
1880 
1856 
1868 
1886 
1807 



Port Authorities. 

The authorities now coucerued in th'i gfovernmeat of the P»)rt omprids 
thirteen Grovernmental Dapartmonts. two C mservaaoy authorities the 
eig^ht dock companies, seven municipal authorities, four legal and judicial 
authorities, ten railway companies, and eight miscellaneous bodi s. The 
principal are : — 

I. Thames Conservancy. — For conservancy purposes, regulation 
of navigation, removal of obstruction, dredging, &c. The area 
of its jurisdiction differs in limits for various purposes. 
II. City Corporation. — Port sanitary purposes from Teddington 
Lock seawards. 

III. Trinity House.— Pilotage, lighting, and buoying from London 

Bridge seawards. 

IV. The Watermen's and Lightermen's Company. 

The others include the county council, the Board of Trade, the 
Admiralty, and the police. 

LONDON POST OFFICE TELEPHONES. 
Under the provisions of the Telegraph Act of 1890 the Post Office has 
provided a telephone system for London. The Select Committee of 
the il(mae of ('ommons appointed in 181)8 reporteil in the following year 
in favour of "general, immediate, and effective competition by either the 
Post Office or the local authority " against the National 'J'elephone Com- 
pany. In Londcm the (Government decided that the authority to iustal 
and conduct the undertaking should be the Post Office. 

The Post Office has entered into an agreement with the company for 
intercommunication with equality of rates. 

The Telephone Area. 

The London telephone area descri])es an irregular circle, which includes 
Ealing on the west, whence, sweeping northward, it reaches Harrow and 
Barnet. In the north-:* ist Waltham Abbey is embra-ccil, while due east 
the furthest limit is liomford. On the soutli the circle is very Avide going 



London Telephone Systems. 209 

as far into Surrey as Reigate, the whole area comprehending' 640 square 
miles. 

For telegraphic and telephonic engineering purposes this area is divided 
into three districts — the Central Metropolitan, the South Metropolitan, 
and the North Metropolitan — and these three districts are controlled by- 
three distinct staffs. The Central Metropolitan, naturally the most im- 
portant, includes the whole of the City, and extends eastward to about 
Bow, southward to the Elephant and Castle, westward to Westminster 
and Paddington, and northward to Islington. 

The South Metropolitan district embraces Kensington, Richmond, 
Wimbledon, Epsom, Balham, Streatham, Croydon, Sydenham, Bromley, 
Dartford, Redhill, Sutton, and Reigate. The North Metropolitan district 
includes Hammersmith, Ealing, Harlesden, Harrow, Finchley, Bamet, 
Tottenham, Dalston, Enfield, Walthamstow, Stratford, Tilbury, Romf(5rd, 
and Barking. The population estimated to be residing in the London 
telephone area is 6,000,000. 

The agreement provides : — 

(a) For the purchase of the company's plant in London on the expiration of the 
licence in 1911. 

(b) For full and free intercommunication between the two systems, and for the 
company's subscribers having all facilities which may be afforded to the Po&t 
Office subscribers, and on the same terms. 

It also contains provisions under which the company will be able to obtain the 
use of underground wires in the London area upon reasonable terms. 

The real and underlying principle of the agreement seems to be that for 
the future there is to be mutual co-operation between the Post Office and 
the company in the development of the telephone system in London so as 
to make it as convenient as possible for the subscribers to both systems, 
and to confine the competition between the Post Office and the company 
to the efficiency of the service and the convenience of the public. In other 
words, it will be " competition " as regards quality of service and 
'* co-operation " as regards working arrangements. 
The Telephone "System.'* 

The Post Office " Central" is at G. P. 0. (South), Carter-lane, and was 
opened on February 24th, 1902. At 29th February, 1908, 34,910 
exchange lines were working. Exchanges have been opened at Victoria, 
Kensington (Western), Mayfair, Hampstead, Putney, Wimbledon, 
Kingston-on-Thames, Richmond, Chiswick, Croydon, Epsom, Ealing, 
Sutton, Hounslow, Harrow, Wembley, Maiden, Esher, Southall, Homsey, 
and a second exchange in the City, known as the " City " exchange. The 
total number of subscribers' telephones working on the Department's 
exchanges at 29th February, 1908, was 47,568. Other exchanges, viz., 
Barnet, Mitcham, Finchley, and Willesden are now in course of construc- 
tion, and it is anticipated that the two first-named will soon be ready for 
opening. Subscribers do not have to call the exchange by a generator. 
That is done automatically by the taking down of the telephone from its 
hook, and by restoring it to its hook it automatically "clears " the line. 

Instead of the " call " being effected by " drop indicators," to be seen in 
most exchanges, small electric glow lamps have been substituted. These 
lamps glow automatically by the mere removal of the subscriber's 
telephone from its hook, and they are extinguished by its being hung up 
again, thus giving the " call " and " clear " without further effort on the 
art of the subscriber. One great advantage of the automatic method 

H 2 



210 



London Telepho9ie Systems. 



of Hignalling is the fact that the line is uiid(^r a constant test; for should 

a fault arise in the wire at any time, the lamp signals give warning of 

the fact A linesman is at once dispatched to remedy the defect before 
the subscriber has learned that anything is wrong. 

The charges for the Post Office system are as follows :— 

I.— Ordinary Message 9&te III.— Unlimited Service. 

% ervice ^* 

,-.,,.. , ■ - r> A Annual payment for connection 

Annual Instolliition charge for £ s. d. ^^^^ any exchange within two 

connetipn with an exchange 0,11^8 of the subscriber's pre- 

withiu two miles of the sub- ^^^^ together with an un- 

subscnber s premises- limited number of calls— 

isrouts^Se^rj^ctis?'^? ' ° ° 'f/;'^'*'«r^H":- ,.•••" " ° 

London 4 (^) ^^^ ^^^^ additional line 

•M^ J.T!, to'II" connecting any premises 

Message Fees. of the same rabscriber 

For each call made by a sub- with an exchange 14 

scriber on an exchange in the it# #> 1, ^« ,- 

County of London for a sub- IV.— Call-OtTlce Fee. 

scriber on any exchange in the For any call from a call office to 

county, or by a subscriber on any subscriber in the London 

an exchange outside the county area C 2 

for a subscriber on the same ,, ^^_..^, . . . ^. 

exchange 1 V.— Additional Annual Charges. 

For each call made by a sub- (a) Where the premises of 
scriber on any exchange in the ^^y subscriber at the 
County of London for a sub- ordinary message rate, 
scribier on an exchange outside or at the unlimited ser- 
the county, or by a subscriber vice rate, are more than 
on an exchange outside the two miles from the ex- 
county for a subscriber on any change, for every addl- 

other exchange 2 tijnal quarter of a mile 1 15 

The minimum yearly amount (^) Where the main circuit of 

payable by each subscriber a party line exceeds two 

for message fees shall be 110 niilesin length, for each 

.. « ^ . , .. « X additional quarter of a 

II.— Party- Line Message Rate mile, for each subscriber 10 

Se rvi ce . Where the spur circuit of a 

. ...,,.- u * i s. a. party line exceeds 220 

Annual installation charge fo-- y.^r^ls in length, for each 

(a) Connection with an ex- additional ciuarter of a 

change by means of a mile, or part thereof 1 15 

line used by not more , ^ -t^ w i. • ^■ 

than two subscribers 3 (c) >or each extension line 

(b) Connection with an ex- connecting two, parts of 

change by means of a <'^e same premises of a 

party -line used by more subscriber, where the 

than two and not more liLe is not more than 110 

than ten subscribers 2 yards m length 1 10 

Subscriptions at party-line rates (d) For each additional 110 

cannot be accepted from sub- yards of such a line 10 

scribers on the Central Ex- (g) p^jr each extension line 
change, or at the lower party- connecting separate pre- 
line rate from subscribers on misea of the same sub- 
any exchange in the County of scriber, and not more 
Ijondon. . . i. , than a quarter of a mile 
Message fees for calls originated in length 4 

by party-line subscribers will ,cx -o ^ ij-'i'- V 

be the Kime as for calls origi- (0 For each additional quar- 

nated by other message rate fer of a mile of such a 

subscribers, but the minimum "°6 11^ " 

yearly amount payable for VI.— Agreements are usually for one 

message fees by each party-line year, and are terminable thereafter by 

subscriber shall be 3 three months' notice. 



London Telephone Systems. 211 

NATIONAL TELEPHONE COMPANY'S TELEPHONES. 

Exchange Service Metropolitan Telephone Area. — The Metropolitan 
Offices of the Company are situite at Salisbury House, London Wall, E.U. 
The Company has now in operation throughout the area 58 exchanges, 
to which are directly connected, in round figures, 95,000 stations. The 
Company was, of course, the pioneer of telephony in London, and its 
system is still the most generally used throughout the area. 

The newest automatic system of operating has been installed at many of 
the metropolitan exchanges, all of which will, in due course, be equipped 
in a like manner. Under this system the action of lifting the telephone 
from its rest calls the exchange, audits replacement operates a signal for 
disconnection, thus adding to the simplicity, accuracy, and rapidity of the 
service. A continuous service night and day is provided on weekdays, 
holidiys, and Sundays. 2,900 call offices are scattered throughout 
the area, and a list showing the addresses of these can be procured at any 
time on application. 

TARIFFS. 

The tariffs for exchange service, wh'ch are identical with those of the 
Post Office within the area, are as follows : — 

Unlimited Service Rate. 

First connection, £17 per annum. Second connection, £14 per annum. 

These subscriptions confer the right to make an unlimited number of 
calls within the area fVee of charge. 

Messaere Rate. 

Within the County of London. Outside the County of London. 

£5 per annum, with a fee of one penny £4 per annum, with a fee of one penny 

for each message to a subscriber within for each message to a subscriber on the 

the county, ana a fee of twopence for each same exchaoge, and a fee of twopence for 

messq,^ to a pub.-criber outside the county, eath messiige to a subscriber on any other 

but within the Metropolitan Area. exchange in the metropolitan area. 

The subscrkber to guarantee that the The subscriber to guarantee that the 

amount payable for fees shall be at least amount payable for fees shall be at least 

30s. per anuum. 30s. per annum. 

Party Line Service. 

This is a service where two or more share one main line, each subscriber 
having a separate telephone, which is connected with the main line by a 
spur or loop line, oyer which he will be able to ring up or be rung up bj 
any of the subscribers on the company's exchange system. No fee is 
charged for receiving calls. 

Party Line Rate. 

Within the County of London. Outside the County of London. 

(2-Party Lines.) (2-Party Lines.) 

£3 per annum per subscriber, with a fee ^ Per annum per subscriber, with a fee 
of one penny for each message to a sub- ' ^ o^e penny for each message to a sub- 
scriber on an exchange within the county, scriber on the same exchange, and a fee of 
and a fee of twopence for each message to twopence for each message to a sub- 
a subscriber on an exchange outside the scriber on any exchange in the metropoli- 
county. tan area. 

Bach subscriber to guarantee that the ^v^h subscriber to guarantee that the 

amount payable for fees shall be at least amount payable for fees shall be at least 

£3 per annum. £3 per annum. 

(10-Party Lines.) (10-Party Lines.) 

^^^* £2 per annum per subscriber, with fees 

10-party lines are not supplied within and guarantees as above. 
the county of London. 



212 Central {Unemphryed) Body for London. 

No party line order can be accepted within the City district, and no 
10-party line order within the County of London. 

Extension Lines. 

These lines are extensions from the main telephone instrument t ) an 
outer room or officj, or to another address in cases where the extensi-^n is 
required to g) outside the buildiuTf. Int3rn*il extensions, that is from 
room to room and within the same buildiug", are found to be extremely 
useful where a subscriber does not wish to be troubled with unimport-Jint 
calls which can be answered by a clerk or attendant in an outer office or 
room. The charges are as follows : — 

Internal exteimion line and instruments £1 10.s. per annum (minimum). 

External extension line an 1 instruments ... £4 per auuum „ 

Extra mileage charges are payable on all the services if the lines 
exceed the prescribed distances. 

I ntercom mu nicatlon . 

The above charges include intercommunication between all subscribers 
to the Company's and the Post Otfice telephone systems throughout the 
metropolitan telephone area, the Company's subscribers being allowed all 
such trunk line and other postal, telegraphic, and telephonic facilities 
within the United Kingdom as are given to Post Office subscribers at the 
same rates. 

CENTR/lL (UNEMPLOYED) BODY FOR LONDON. 

Thk Central (Unemployed) Hody for London, which was created pursuant 
to the provisions of the Unemployed Workmen Act, 1905, held its ik^ 
meeting on 2i5rd November, 1905. The offices of the Central Body are 
at 165, Temple Chambers, I'emple-aveime, K.C., and it meets on the first 
and third Fridays in each month at the Guildhall. The Chairman of the 
Central Body is the Rev. H. Russell Wakefield, the Vice-chairman is Mr. 
James P. B. Lyell, and the clerk is Mr. Fred. E. Johnson. 

The Central Body is composed of 58 representatives of "Distress 
Committees " esta])lishe(l m ai'cordance with the Unemployed Workmen 
Act in the various metropolitan boroughs, four representa-tives of the 
Lond(m County C\)uncil, four each of the Distress Committees of the 
(^ity Corporation and the City of Westminster, members nominated by the 
Local Government Board, and additional members co-opted by the body, 
and at present numbers 77. 

The Distress (Committees are comi)osed partly of members of the 
Borough Councils or of the C\)mmon Council, as the case may be; partly 
of members of Boards of Guardians; and partly of piirsons experienced in 
the relief of distre.ss appointol by th^ coimcils from outside their own 
members. 

The names of the member.^ of the Central Body, elected, nominated 
and co-optid, with their addresses and the bodies they represent, are as 
follows : — 



Central (Unemployed) Body for London. 



213 



Selected by Distress Committees. 



Committee. 

Battereea 

Bermondfey 
Bethnal Green ... 

Camberwell 

Chelsea 

Deptford 

Finsbury 

Fulham 

Greenwich 

Haclcney 

Hammersmith ... 

Hampstead 

Holbom 

Islington 

Kensington 

Lambeth 

Lewisham 

Paddingtou 

Poplar 

St. Marylebcne.. 

St. Pancras 

Shoreditch 

Soathwark 

Stepney 



Namji. 

Ashcroft, W. A 

Rines, W 

Blake. W 

Shearring, W 

Edmunds, G 

Watts-Ditchfleld, Rev. J. E. 

Buckland, J 

Ford, W. B. .. 

Cook.C. F 

Dunn-Gardner, Mrs 

Soper, R 

Wells, H.G 

Garrity, E 

Phillips, L 

Birch, W.C 

Henniker, Miss E. M . 
Williams, E.P 

Freeman , Rev. G 

Mustard, J. E. T 

Chapman, D 

Pascall.C 

Lyell,J. P. R 

Candler, H 

Baker, Miss I. M 

Hazell,W 

Elliott, G.S 

Saint, T.W 

Rickards, A. G.... 

Gates, P. G 

Denny, Rev. E 

Howlett. G 

Morris, Rev. J. C 

Weeks, A. O 

Mavrojani, S 

Munford, J 

Mosley, Rev. H 

Lansbury, G 

Morris, F. 

Wakefield, Rev. Pre])endary 

H. R 

Harley,J. H 

Gladstone, G. E 

Bibb3^J.T 

Bumell, T 

Devereux, J. O. 

Norman, E. H 

Brown, J 

Ker^^'in, E. H 



AUDKESS. 

1, Petworth-road, Battersea, S.W. 

39, Ingelow-road, Bitttersea, S.W. 
145, Jamaica-road, S.E. 

111, Alscott-road, Berroondsey, S.E. 
466, Hfvckney - road, Bethnal 

Green, N.E. 
The Vicarage, St. James' - road, 

Victoria Park, N.E. 
175, Peckham Rye, S.E. 
311. Camberwell-road, S.E. 
16,Cornwall-man3ions.Chelsea.S.W. 

13, Burton-court, Chel?ea, S.W. 
208, Lewihham High-road, S.B. 

20, Hilly Fields-crescent, Brockley, 

S.E. 
220, Goswell-road, N. 
44, Exmouth-st., Clerkenwell, E.C. 
22, Glazbury-rd.. West Kensington, 

40, Comeragh-road, W. Kensington. 
" Elmhur**:," Westcombe-park-rd., 

BlHCkheath, S.B. 
25, Cowley-road, South Hackney. 
8l,Mildenhall-roa4, CUpton, N.E. 
Wheatshe if Hotel, 163, Goldhawk- 

road. Shepherd's Bush, W. 
46, Bridge-roal, Hammersmith, W, 

51, Dowushire - hill, Hampstead, 
N.W. 

112, Greencroft - gardens, Hamp- 
stead. N.W. 

37, Brooke-street. E.C. 

52, liOog Acre, W.C. 

14, Upper-Street, Islington. N. 
Park House, ToUiugton-park. N. 
20, Southwell-garden?, S.W. 

5, Mansion-place, South Kensing- 
ton, S.W. 

St. Peter's Vicarage, Upper Ken- 
uington lane, S.E. 

193, Clapham-road, S.W. 

St. Mark's Vicarage, Clarendon- 
road, Lewisham, S.E. 

54, Algernon-road, lewisham, S.B. 

34. Hyde Park-gardens, W. 

143, Queen's-road, W. 

The Rectory. Poplar. E. 

103, St. Stephen's-road, Bow, E. 

41, St John's Wood-park, N.W. 
86, Gloucester-pla.e, W. 

S.Kingston Hou8e,0amden-st.,N.W. 

PaFsmore Edwards Settlement, 
Tavistock-place, W.(/. 

" Beechcroft," Colney Hatch-lane, 
Muswell-hill, N. 

3, Darnlev - road, Holland - park- 
avenue. Nottiug Hill, W. 

20, Neb on - square, Blackf riars- 
rcad, S.E. 

179, Manor-pla^-e, Walworth-road, 
S.E. 

5, Kent - terrace. Regent's Park, 
N.W. 

Greiit Assembly Hall, Mile End- 
road, E. 



214 



Central (Unemployed) Body for London, 



Committee. 
Stoke Newington 

Wandsworth ... 

Woolwich 



Common Council 
of City of Lon- 
don 

City of West- 
minster 



Name. 

Allardyc«, H. L 

Brough, J. R 

Anderson, Rev. J. H 

Rees, P 

Davidson, J 

In^am. Dr. T. A 

Bnnsley- Harper, P 

Cohen, N. L 

McKee, Miss E. C 

Wilkinson, M 

Evans, Mri". M. M 

Myers, Brig. Surg. lit.-Col. 
A. B. 

Wallop, Hon. G 

Wallis,J. P 



Adcbbsb. 

43, AUerton-rd., Stoke Newington,N. 

29, Alexandra - villas. Finsbury 
Park, N. 

The Rectory, Tooting. S.W. 

*' Worlabye," 377, Upper Rich- 
mond-road, Putney, S.W. 

43, Pederation-road, Abbey-wood, 
Kent. 

160, Herbert-road, Woolwich, S.E. 

15, Old Jewry-chambers, E.C. 

11, Hyde Park-terrace, W. 

12, Tavistock-square, W.C. 

3, St. Michael's-alley, Cornhill, E.C. 
20, Buckingham-st., Strand, W.O. 
43, Gloucester-street, S.W. 

33, South Audley-street, W. 
359, Oxford-street, W. 



Selected by London County Council. 

Cooke, Sir C. K., 3, Mount-street, Grosvenor- Kerry, Earl of, 18, Gloucester-place, W. 
square, W. 

Nominated by Local Government Board. 



Booth, Right. Hon. C, 24, Great Cumber- 
land-place, W. 

Cohen, C. W., 11, Hyde Park-terrar*e, W. 

Harben, H. D., 3, Strathmore-gardens, 
Kensington, W. 

Co-opted iVIembers 



Reiss, G. E., 3, Stone-buildings, Lincoln's- 

inn, W.C. 
Stepney, Bishop of, 2, Amen-comer, E.C. 
Tennant, Mrs. H. J., 33, Bruton-street, W. 



Harvey, T. E.. Toynbee Hall, 23, Commer- 
cial-street, E. 

Marshall, Miss M. E., 52, High-street, 
Whitechapel. E. 

Whinney, F., 32, Old Jewry, E.C. 



Bailward, W. A., 64, Victoria-street. S.W. 
Beveridge, W. H., 21, Park-mansions, 

South Lambeth-road, S.W. 
Bussey, J., 177, Roraford-road, Stratford, E. 
Buxton, Noel, 2. Priuce's-gate, S.W. 
Cohen, L. L., 27, Sussex-sci., Hyde-pk., W. 

The following are the clauses of the Organisation Establishment Order 
relating to the establishment of the Central Body : — ■ 

Article VI.— (1) There shall be established a Central Body for the Administrative 
County of London. 

The Central Body shall be a body corporate by the name of "The Central 
(Unemployed) Body for London," with perpetual succession, and a common seal, and 
with power to sue and be sued in that name, and to hold lands without any licence in 
mortmain for the purposes of the Act. 

(2) The Central Body shall comprise— 

Four members selected from their own body by the County Council : 

Four members selected in each case from their own body by the Distress Com- 
mittee of the Common Council and by the Distress Committee of the Council of the 
Metropolitan Borough of Westminster : 

Two members selected in each case from their own body by the Distress Com- 
mittee of every other Borough Council : 

Such number of members (not exceeding eight) as may be nominated by us (the 
Local Government Board) : and 

Eight persons (of whom one at least shall be a woman) co-opted to be additional 
members of the Cientral Body by the members selected and nominated as aforesaid. 

No member may hold any paid office under the authority or be con- 
cerned in any bargain or contract held under its authority ; but it is pro- 
vided that a person shall not be disqualified by being a member by reason 
of being interested : — 

(a) In the sale or lease of any lands, or in any loan of money to the Central Body, 
or in any contract with the Central Boiy for the fupply from land, of which he is 
owner or occupier, of stone, gravel, or other materials for making or repairing high- 



Central (Unemployed) Body for London. 215 



ways or bridges, or in the transport of materials for the repair of roads or bridges 
in his own immediate neighbourhood ; or 

(b) In any newspaper in which any advertisement relating to the affairs of the 
Central Body is inserted ; or 

(c) In any contract with the Central Body as a shareholder in any joint stock 
company ; out he shall not vote at any meeting of the Central Body on any quebtion 
in which buch company are interested, except that in the case of a water company 
or other company established for the carrying on of works of a like public nature 
the prohibition may be dispensed with by the Central Body. 

A member of the Central Body who has been selected by the London 
County Council or by a Distress Committee shall continue in office until 
he dies, or resigns, or goes out of office as a member of the Council or 
Distress Committee, or until he becomes disqualified by law. 

The miles for the conduct of business are those generally observed on 
public bodies, and the Central Body may similarly delegate its business 
to committees. 

Financial Powers. 

The expenses of the Central Body and of the Distress Committees are 
defrayed out of a central fund partly supplied by voluntary subscriptions 
and by Grants from the Imperial Exchequer, and partly by a metroi)olitan 
rate which must not exceed id., or, with the consent of the Local Govern- 
ment Board, Id. in the £. The rate fund must be used exclusively for 
establishment charges and the expenses of employment exchanges, 
emigration, migration, and the purchase of land for farm colonies. All 
other expenses, including the payment of wages and allowances to me a 
employed, must be met out of the voluntary or Exchequer Funds. 

The following are the financial provisions of the Act : — 

(6) Any expenses of the Central Body under this Act, and such of the expenses of 
the DibtreFs Committees under this Act as are incuiTcd with the consent of the Central 
Body, fhall be defrayed out of a central fund, under the management of theCenlral 
Body, which shall be supplied by voluntary contributions given for the purpose, and by 
contributions made on the demand of the Central Body by the council of each metro- 
politan borough in proportion to the rateable value of the borough and paid a£ part of the 
expenses of the council : 

Provided that— 

(a) A separate account Fhall be kept of all sums supplied by contributions made 
by the councils of the metropolitan boroughs, and no expenses, except— 

(i.) Ei^tablishmeut charges of the Central Body and the Distre^s Committees, 
including the expenses incurred by them in respect of labour exchanges and 
ejiploymeut registers, and in the collection of information; and 

(il.) The expenses incurred by the Central Body in aiding the emigration or 
removal to another area of an unemployed person and of any of his depen- 
dents ; and 

(iii.) The expenses incurred by the Central Body in relation to the acquisi- 
tion, with the consent of the Local Government Board, of land for the purposes 
of the act ; 
shall be paid out of that account. 

(6) No such contribution by a council shall in any year exceed the amount 
which would be produced by a rate of one halfpenny in the pound calculated 
on the whole rateable value of the borough, or such higher rate, not exceeding 
one penny, as the Local Government Board may approve. 

In accordance with Sec. 4 (3) (b) of the Act, the Central Body may 
also, subject to the consent of the Local Government Board, borrow 
money, upon the security of the rate contributions, for the purpose of the 
purchase of land. 



216 Municipal Temperance Policy. 

Miscellaneous. 

Other duties and powers of tlie Central Body and of the Distress 
Committees may be summarised as follows : — 

It is the duty of the Distress Committees to make themselves acquainted 
with the conditions of labour within their area, and, when so required hy 
the Central Body, to receive, inquire into, and discriminate between appli- 
cations from persons unemploj'ed who have resided in London for twelve 
months. The Distress Committee may endeavour to obtain work for 
selected applicants, or may recommend them to the Central Body, but 
they have no power to provide work. 

It is the duty of the Central Body to superintend and co-ordinate the 
work of the Distress Committees, and to assist them by establishing 
Employment Exchanges, and by collecting information. 

The Central Body may also assist unemployed persons referred to 
them by Distress Committees by aiding their e migration or removal to 
another area, or by providing or contributing towards the provision of 
temporary work. The Central Body can do this, amongst other ways, by 
the establishment of farm colonies, and they have the power, subject to 
the sanction of the Local G overnment Board, to purchase land for this 
purpose, and to provide temporary accommodation ff^'- Hxich colonies, or for 
other work uix)n the land. 

A MUNICIPAL TEMPERANCE POLICY. 

Licensing and temperance questions are fast becoming municipal con- 
cerns of the first importance, and recent agitations in various quarters have 
not been without their effect on the local governing bodies of London. The 
London County Council has now an acknowledged " Temperance policy," the 
chief principle of which is the abandonment of licences acquired in 
connection with street improvements, housing schemes or the con- 
struction of bridges and tunnels. Up to the present time the Council 
has allowed to lapse one hundred and thirty-eight licences, the approximate 
premium value attaching to the sites by reason of the licences being 
estimated at £344,550. There is generally a marked difference between 
the licence values put forward by the holders and the awards eventually 
made. This remark applies also to all claims for compensation in 
resj^ect of property or trade with which the Council has to deal. The 
estimated value of the licence is by no means a fair asset valuation. 
Its renewal could be obtained by means of an application — before 
the premises were pulled down — for a removal to another site, or 
as a new licence at the annual licensing meeting. In either case it is 
doubtful whether the consent would be obtained. The following cases ' 
will serve as an illustration : — The claims of " The Two Brewers ' were : 
Mortgagee, £7,606 ; Worthington and Co., brewers, £8,761 16s. 7d. ; Lion 
Brewery Company, £4,427 6s. ; total, £20,795 2s. 7d. The sum awarded 
was £9,240. In "The Crown," in the Holbom-to- Strand improvement 
the claims were £2,475 and £47,886— total, £50,361. The sums paid 
amounted to £38,956 14s. The objectors to this "abandonment 
principle" hold that the expenditure does not reduce the amount of 
drinking, but enriches neighbouring houses at the expense of the rates. 
Other " planks " in the Council's temperance policy may be broadly stated 
as follows : — 

(1 ) The abolition of alcoholic drink from the dietaiy of the inmates of 



Municipal Temperance Policy. 217 

the lunatic and imbecile asylums, and the giving of money in lieu of a beer 
allowance to the officers. 

(2) The provision of mortuaries, &c., accommodation in other places 
than public-houses for the holding of inquests. 

(3) The prohibition of the sale of drink in the auditorium of music- 
halls, and entire prohibition in new music-halls. 

(4) The provision of free dressing-rooms in the public parks, thus 
reiuoying the necessity of cricketers, footballers, and others usmg licensed 
premises for that purpose 

(5) The refusal to allow intoxicating drink to be sold in the parks and 
open spaces, and the provision that all refreshments shall be of the besl 
quality, and sold at the lowest possible tariif . 

(6) The provision of tea and coffee, &c., for firemen when engaged at 
fires. 

(7) The lessees of the Council's surplus land shall not, without the 
licence of the Council being first obtained, apply for or allow any applica- 
tion to be made for a licence for the sale of bier, wine, spirits, &c., to be 
drunk in premises erected on the land, or use or allow to be used such land 
for the carrying on of the trade of a publican or licensed victualler. 

L.C.C. AND INEBRIATES. 

The County Council has established at Farmfield a reformatory for 
female inebriates, which is under the supervision of the Public Control 
Committee. The Act came into forcy in 1899, and steps were at once 
taken to put its provisions into operation. The Farmfield Estate is situated 
near Horley, in Surrey, about midway between London and Brighton. It 
consists of 374 acres, and cost about £13,000, and upon it buildings have 
been erected, at a cost of about £22,900, to accommodate 113 patients and 
requisite staff. The reformatory stands in a picturesque flower-garden, 
which also contains a lawn and lake. At the rear is a large vegetable 
garden, which both supplies and occupies the inmates. At the home farm 
18 a model dairy, where the better-behaved are instructed in butter-making, 
&c., and a fruit farm is worked largely by the inmates. Poultrj^, bees, 
and other details of farm life are not forgotten, and everything, in fact, 
is done to take the patients back to a simple, natural life. Special 
attention is given to graduating the inmates for the purpose of applying 
the appropriate motives, restrictions, and mental and moral treatment 
to the several phases ana types of the patients. So far, the results have 
been hardly satisfactory. Consideration has also been given to the 
question of providing accommodation for male inebriates. In view of the 
small number of convictions of ma'es it has not been thought wise to incur 
expenditure in making permanent provision for the treatment of this 
class, but arrangements have been made with the National Institutions 
for Inebriates to receive at their reformatories a limited number of cases. 

Farmfield, Hookwood, Horley, Surrey. 

Superintendent — Mips E. Forsyth. Visiting Chaplain — Rev. H. T. 

Lewis, 
ABsisiant Superintendent — Miss Visiting Medical Officer — C. F. 

M. L. McMuUen, Williamson, M,D, 



213 



Statistics of Population. 



STATISTICS OF POPULATION. 

TABLE I. 

"Inner" or "Municipal London." 



Metropolitan Borough. 


Population. 


Movement of Population per 
cent, between 1891 and 1901. 




1891. 


1901. 


Increase. 


Decrease. 


Cily of [x)ndon 


37,702 
150,166 
136,014 
128.929 
233.706 

72,954 
101.770 
109,981 

91,790 

78,493 
199,606 

97,283 

68.126 

66.781 
319.155 
170,071 
278,393 

88,933 
135,955 
166,880 
144,083 
234,749 
124.727 
202.479 
285.116 

47.9£8 
155,524 
201. %9 

98,994 


26,923 
168.907 
130.760 
129,680 
259.339 

73,842 
110,398 
101,463 
137,289 

95.T70 
219,272 
112,239 

81,942 

59,405 
334,991 
176,628 
301,895 
127,495 
143.996 
168.822 
133,301 
235,317 
118,637 
206,180 
298,600 

51.247 
232,034 
183,011 
117,178 


12^ 

-58 
10-97 
1-22 
8-47 

49-57 
22-01 
9-35 
15 37 
20-28 

4-96 
3-85 
8-44 
43-36 
5-89 
1-16 

•24 

1-82 

4-73 

6-79 

49-19 

18-36 


28-59 


Uaitcrwa 




Bcnnoiulsey 


3-86 


Bolhnal Green 




Cauiborwell 




ChclFoa 





DrptfuM 





Fhisbnry 


7-74 


Pulhanj 




G reeiiwi'^ii 





Hitckuoy 





H'immorpiiiith 

H\mp9tead 

Holbovj 


11*05 


Islln,'Jtt«';n 




Ketisingtou 

Laiubel.h 


— 


LeivlGh-iin . . .... 





Paddine'toii 

PoplaT 

8t. Maiylcbone 

St. P:iiicr'»a 


7^8 


Shoreditcli 

Soufchwark 

8tepuey 

Sboko Newiugton 


4-88 


Wandsworth 





AVestminster (City of) 


9-39 


Woolwich 








Total administrative County 
of London 


1 4,228,317 

] - 


4.536.541 


1106 


8-26 


Nett increase of population 
between 1891 and 1901 


- 


7-29 


- 



TABLE II. 

' Greater " or " Metropolitan London." 



Police Districts. 


i>^,^»iof s/^n 1 Movement of Population. 
Population. 1 i,etween 1891 and 1901. 




1891. 


1901. 1 Increase. 


Decrease. 


County of London ..... 


4,190,615 
542,894 
295,759 
117,121 
413,679 
36.036 
37,702 


4.509.618 1 319,003 
792.316 ' 249.442 
384.529 88.770 
151,066 , 33,945 
672,184 258,505 
44,736 8.700 
26,925 - 


_ 


60 Parit^lies in Middlesex 





39 Parishes in Sun-ey 





19 Parishes in Kent 


__ 


15 Parishes in Essex 




16 Parishes in Herts 





City of London 


10,779 






Total : " Greater London " ... 


5.633,806 


6.581,372 , 958.345 


10.779 


Nett increase of population 
betreen 1891 and 1901 


} - 


- 1 947.566 


- 



Statistics of Population. 



219 



TABLE III. 



Districts in "Greater London," which show a remarkable increase of 
population since 1861 : — 





1861. 


1871. 


1881. 


1891. 


1901. 


Increase 
of Popu- 
lation 
since 1891. 


Acton 


6,443 
5.591 
5,466 
13,026 
13.968 
8,341 
6,50S 
37,093 
, 13,180 
2,264 
10,930 
12,424 
8,281 
6.538 
7,374 
4,544 
. 11,082 
5,405 
18,112 
12,665 
7,289 
13,240 
8,077 
7,137 
3,897 
4,644 


12,683 

6,576 

7,752 
19,566 
20.279 
13,523 

8.508 
71,309 
16,466 

4.334 
13.860 
16,054 
11,493 
10.185 
10,869 

6,972 
19,357 

5,947 
27,489 
16,829 

9.860 
22.869 
10,533 
15.301 
15.869 

9,087 


22,859 
9.155 
10,071 
24,137 
27,649 
21,114 
15,975 
101,234 
22,239 
9.815 
23,463 
19,119 
17,616 
13,538 
12,982 
10,484 
37,061 
7,645 
36,345 
21,301 
11,684 
45,441 
12,479 
28.839 
27,397 
15,947 


30,945 
14,301 
14,152 
30,590 
37,777 
26,108 
21,963 
128,699 
26,843 
32,713 
36,351 
31.536 
25.820 
18,252 
15,715 
15,843 
44,523 
10,913 
33,566 
25,389 
13,671 
97,174 
16.027 
57,370 
61.265 
25,777 


48,873 
21,547 
17.970 
46,445 
48,330 
32,997 
29,809 

164,526 
36,172 
95,999 
61,892 
42,738 
33,692 
23,456 
25,552 
22,450 
72,056 
41,240 
42,067 
28,871 
18,682 

136,774 
20.991 

108,929 

114.815 
41,604 


17,928 


Barking Town 


7,246 


Baruet 


3,818 


Bexley 


15,855 


Brentford 


10,553 


Carslialton 


6,889 


Chiswiclt 


7,846 


Croydon 


35,827 


Dartford 


9,339 


East Ham 


63,286 


Edmonton 


25,541 


Enfield 


11,202 


Pinchley 


7,872 


Hampton 


5,204 


Han*ow 


9,807 


Hendon » 


6,607 


Hornsey 


27.533 


Ilford 


30,327 


Kingston 


8,501 


Richmond 


3,482 


Smibiiry 


5,011 


Tottenham 


39,600 


Twiclcenliam 


4.964 


Walthamstow 


51,559 


Willesden 


53.550 


Wimbledon 


15,827 



TABLE IV. 



Sliowing fluctuations in the number of persons per house in 14 parishes 
in the County of London from 1801 to 1901. These parishes were 
chosen because the character of the population has remained about 
the same. 



Persons per House. 



Parish. 



1801. 


1851. 


1881. 


1891. 


5-4 


6-8 


7-8 


7*5 


6-2 


6-7 


7-6 


7-8 


7-0 


8-9 


9-7 


10*4 


61 


7-0 


8-3 


8-4 


5-8 


6-8 


7-1 


7-1 


60 


6-3 


7-5 


7-6 


51 


6-1 


7-7 


8-7 


61 


6-3 


7-4 


7-4 


5-2 


7-8 


8-1 


8-6 


5-8 


7-4 


8-4 


8-5 


7-6 


8-9 


9-5 


9-5 


61 


7-1 


8-3 


9-0 


6-7 


8-1 


8-6 


9-7 


7-3 


8-7 


7-5 


7-7 



1901. 



Bermondsey 

Bethnal Green 

Clerlienwell 

Islington 

Lambeth 

Mile End Old Town .... 

Newington 

Rotherliithe 

St. George-in-the East . 
St. George, Southwark 

St. Pancras 

Shoreditch 

Whitecliapel 

Woolwich 



8-4 
9-2 

10-6 
8-6 
7-2 
8-2 
9-2 
75 
9-7 

10*1 
99 

9-3 
13-9 
7-6 



220 



Statistics of Population. 



TABLE V. 

Fluctuation in the population of the parishes within the area of the 
County of London between 18()1 ami 19()1 :— 



Fariab. 



1801. 



County of LonJon— 

Aldfirate 

1iatters€«i 

Bermondsey 

Bethnal Green 

Bow 

Bromlpy 

Camberwell 

Charlton and Kidbi coke . 

Chart«*r house 

Chehea 

Christchurch, South wark . 

Chriatchurch, Spitalfielda . 

Clapham 

Clerkenwell 

Deptford St. Nicholas 

Dnptford St. Paul 

F.lfham 

■ Fulham 

Furnivars inn 

Glaaahouse Yard 

Gray'alnn 

Greenwich 

Hackney 

Hammersmith 

Hampstead 

Horselydown 

Islington 

iCensing.on 

Lambeth 

[Lancaster Duchy of] 

Lee 

Lt^wisham 

Limehouse 

Lincoln's Inn 

Mile End New Town 

Mile End Old Town 

Newinjrton 

Norton Folgate 

Old Artillery Ground 

P/iddington 

Plumstead 

Poplar 

Putney 

Ratcliff 

Rolls 

Rotherhithe 

Saffron Hill 



6,153 
3,365 
17,169 
22.310 
2,101 
1.684 
7,059 
805 
249 
11,604 
9,933 
15.C91 
3,864 
23,396 
6,933 
11,349 
1,627 
4,428 
80 
1,221 
289 
14,339 
12,730 
5,600 
4,343 
8.892 
10,212 
8,556 
27,985 
474 
376 
4,007 
4,678 
179 
5,253 
9,848 
14,847 
1,752 
1,428 
1,881 
1,166 
4,493 
2,428 
5,666 
2.409 
10,296 
7,781 



1851. 




6,453 
10.560 
48,128 
90,193 
6,989 
11,789 
54,667 
5,278 
277 
56,185 
16,022 
20,960 
16,290 
64.778 
7.071 
24,899 
2,437 
11,886 
164 
1,476 
366 
35,028 
53,589 
17,760 
11,986 
11.360 
95.329 
44.053 
139,325 
a 
3,552 
15,064 
22,782 
79 
10,183 
56,602 
64,816 
1,771 
1,972 
46.305 
8,373 
28,384 
5,280 
15.212 
2.567 
17,805 
8.728 



4,148 


4.086 


3.906^ 


107,262 


150,558 


168,907 


86,652 


84.682 


82,483 


126.961 


129,132 


129,680 


37,074 


40 365 


41.989 


64,359 


70,000 


68.319 


186 593 


235.344 


259,329 


10,930 


14,040 


21.134 


161 


136 


140 


88,128 


96,253 


73 842 


13,663 


13,264 


11.263 


21,340 


22,859 


24 208 


36,380 


43.698 


61,361 


69.076 


66.216 


63.704 


7,901 


6 887 


7.321 


76,752 


101.286 


110.398 


5,048 


5,682 


7.226 


42,900 


91,639 


137,298 


155 


121 


n 1 


931 


779 741 


328 


253 232 


46,580 


57.240 67.315 


163.681 


198.606 ; 219.272 


71,939 


97,239 


112,239 


45.452 


68,416 


81,942 


8,928 


9.812 


7,769 


282.865 


319,143 


334,991 


163,151 


166,308 


176.^28 


253,699 


275,203 


301.895 


a 


a 


a 


14.435 


16,381 


18.649 


53,065 


72.272 


108.846 


32,041 


32,202 


32,369 


16 


27 


61 


10,673 


11,303 


13,259 


105.613 


107,592 


112,827 


107.850 


115,804 


121.863 


1,528 


1,449 


1.663 


2,516 


2.138 


2,098 


107,058 


117.846 


143.976 


33,250 


52.436 


68.327 


55,077 


56.383 


58 514 


13,235 


17,771 


24.139 


16,107 


14,928 


14.810 


546 


421 


252 


36,024 


39.255 1 38,460 


3,980 


4.506 


2,561 



Statistics of Population. 



221 



Table Y. — continued. 



Parish. 



1801, 



1851. 



1881. 



1891. 



1901. 



St. Andrew and St. George .., 

S t. Anne, Westmi nater 

St. Clement Danes 

St. George-in-the-East 

St. George, Hanover-square ... 

S t. George, South wark 

St. Giles and St. George 

St. James, Westminster 

[St. James and Whitehall, Verge 

of the Palaces of] 

St. Luke 

St. Margaret and St. John ... 

S 6. Mar tin- in-the-Fields 

St. Marylebone 

St. Mary-le Strand 

St. Olave and St. Thomas 

St. Pancras 

St. Paul, Co vent-garden 

St. Peter, Westminster 

St. Saviour, Southwark 

St. Sepulchre 

Savoy.. 

Shadwell 

Shoreditch 

Staple Inn 

Stoke Newington 

Streatham 

'J'ooting Graveney 

Wandsworth 

Wapping 

Whitechapel 

Woolwich 

Total County of London... 



22,205 
11,637 
13,001 
21,170 
38.440 
22,293 
36.502 
34,462 

1,685 
26.881 
25,883 
25,752 
63.982 

a,704 

31.779 
4,992 

15.596 

3,768 

320 

8,828 

34,766 
67 
1,462 
2.357 
1,189 
4,445 
5,889 

23,666 
9,826 



816,876 



32,118 
17,335 
15,692 
48.376 
73,583 
51,824 
54,214 
36,406 

h 

54,055 

65 237 

24,640 

157,696 

2,517 

8.015 

166.956 

5.810 

372 

19,709 

4,832 

372 

11,702 

109,257 

57 

4,840 

6,901 

2.122 

9.611 

4,477 

38,420 

32,367 



2,235,455 



28,874 
16.608 
10,280 
47,157 
89,573 
58,652 
45.277 
29,941 

h 

46,849 

59,926 

17,508 

154.910 

1,989 

3,028 

236,363 

2,919 

249 

14,999 

2,392 

245 

8,170 

126.591 

38 

22,781 

21,611 

3.942 

28,004 

2,225 

31,158 

36,665 



26.228 
12;317 
8,492 
45,795 
78,364 
59,712 
39,782 
24,995 

h 

42.440 

55,539 

14,616 

142,404 

1,549 

2.911 

234,379 

2,142 

235 

13,913 

1,972 

201 

8,123 

124,009 

21 

30,627 

42,972 

5.784 

46,717 

2,123 

32,326 

40,843 



3,783.625 



4,194,482 



25,103 
11,493 
6,090 
9,068 
76,957 
60,998 
31,436 
21,588 

h 

35,375 

51,068 

12,980 

133,301 

494 

2,048c 

235,317 

1,692 

231 

12,056 

1,503 

166 

8,633 

118,637 

12 

51,247 

71,658 

16,473 

68,403 

2.125 

33,634(Z 

41,627 



4,509,618 



Admiuistrative County of I | 

London (including theCit}) 958,788 |2,363,274 ^3,834,194 4,232,118 



4,536,541 



* The parishes of Old Tower Without and St. Katherine were united with Aldgate in 
1895. a The population of the Duchy of Lanciister was included in that of the parishes 
of St. Clement Danes, Savoy, and St. Mary-le-Strand after 1831. b The Verge of the 
Palaces of St. James and Whitehall was included in St. Martin-in-the-Fields, St. George, 
Hsmover-sqnare. and St. Margaret, Westminster, after 1831. Privy Gardens and White- 
hnll were included in the Verge of the Palaces in 1801 and 1821. c The parishes of St. 
Olave and St. Thomas were united in 1896 as' "St. Olave and St. Thomas. Southwark." 
d The parish of the Minories was united with Whitechapel in 1895. 



2'.2 



Deaths in Lmidon. 



BIRTHS AND DEATHS IN LONDON. 

Estimated Population, Deaths, and Death Kates, Births and 
Birth Rates in every Borough for 1906. 





Estimated 




Death 


Deaths 
under 




Birth 




Population 


Number 


rate 


Number 


rate 


Borough. 


ill the 


of 


per 


1 year 


of 


per 




i middle of 


Deaths. 


1.000 


per 


Births. 


1,000 




1906. 


1906. 


living. 


1,000 
births. 




living. 


Battersea 


1 179,622 


2,:595 


14-4 


126 


4,688 


26-2 


BermoiidKey 


1 128,()29 


2,559 


20-2 


1,5:5 


4,075 


31-8 


Bethnal Green . 


i:j(),t)09 


2.502 


191 


le% 


4,488 


34-5 


Camberwell . 


274,i;52 


4,0:57 


151 


i:50 


7,020 


257 


Chelsea 


74,672 


1,170 


16-3 


1:53 


1,593 


21-4 


Deptford 


iir,,49r> 


1,875 


16-9 


14:3 


3,292 


28-6 


Finsbury 


97,466 


2,02f) 


21-4 


160 


2,9:58 


302 


Fulham 


161,965 


2 224 


14-3 


1:54 


4,853 


;^00 


Greeuwicli . 


, io.5,;?r)0 


i;4:58 


13-8 


119 


2,672 


25-4 


Hackney 


2:]o:72i 


:5,ioi 


1:59 


119 


5,694 


247 


Hammersmith 


120,679 


1,786 


15-4 


1:58 


3,112 


25*9 


Hampstead . 


89,():53 


843 


10-6 


77 


1,473 


16-5 


Holbom 


' r).5,805 


999 


19-4 


120 


1,2:59 


223 


Islington 


1314,987 


5,116 


15-3 


124 


8,767 


255 


Kensin^n . 


180,952 


2,511 


14-9 


1:52 


3,457 


192 


Lambeth 


815,774 


4,764 


15-5 


1:51 


8,270 


263 


Lewisham . 


148,46:5 


1,797 


12-5 


113 


3,4(56 


2:r4 


London ((Htyof) . 


21 ,:',67 


:574 


19-0 


101 


:555 


167 


Paddingfton . 


148,91:} 


1,874 


13:5 


105 


3,375 


227 


Poplar . . . . 


; 170,67:5 


:5,018 


18-2 


152 


5,:58t 


316 


St. Marylebone . 


128,580 


1,942 


15-9 


117 


2,718 


21-2 


St. Pancras . 


2:5t),455 


3,781 


16-6 


12:5 


6,122 


260 


Shoreditch . 


116,108 


2.296 


20-6 


163 


3,963 


:34-2 


Southwark . 


i 209,14:5 


3,802 


18-9 


144 


6,225 


29-8 


Stepney 

Stoke Newington 


307,176 


5,49:5 


18-5 


1:54 


10,811 


a5-3 


5:5,217 


620 


120 


102 


1,105 


20-8 


Wandsworth 


27:5,:58l 


3,518 


1:5-5 


121 


7,199 


264 


Westminster (City of) . 


17:5.1K)5 


2,2<)0 


14-5 


110 


2,977 


17-2 


Woolwich . 


127,:545 


1,689 


140 


109 


3,549 


27-9 


Administrative County 
























of London, 1906 


, 4,721,217 


71,813 


15-9 


131 


124,880 


26-5 


190n . 


; 4,6S4,794 


70,442 


151 


129 


126.620 


271 



London s Bye-Laws, 



223 



"FOR GOOD GOVERNMENT." 

BYE-LAWS— AND HOW TO ENFORCE THEIH. 



It is easy to put the law into 
force regurding certain public nui- 
sances. " For the good rule and 
government" of London the County 
Council has passed a series of regu- 
lations about which citizens should 
know much more than they do. The 
following are the chief of them : — 

Steam Organs. Shooting Qalleries, 
Roundabouts, &,c. 

No person shall in any street or on 
any land adjoining or near thereto, 
use or play, or cause to be used or 
played, any steam organ or other 
musical instrument worked by 
mechanical means to the annoyance 
or disturbance of residents or pas- 
sengers. No person shall in any 
street or oq any land adjoining or 
near thereto, keep or manage, or 
cause to be kept or managed, a 
shooting gallery, swing-boat, round- 
about, or any other constiuction of 
a like character, so as to cause 
obstruction or danger to the traffic 
of any such street. 

Noisy Animals. 

No person shall keep within any 
house,building,or premises any noisjr 
animal which shall be or cause a seri- 
ous nuisance to residents in the 
neighbourhood. Provided that no 
proceedings shall be taken against 
any person for an ofPence against this 
bye-law until after the expiration of 
a fortnight from the date of the 
service on such person of a notice 
alleging a nuisance, signed by not 
bss than three householders resid- 
ing within hearing of the animal. 

Street Betting. 

No person shall frequent and use 
any street or other |)ublic place on 
behalf, either of himself or of any 
other person, for the purpose of book- ■ 
making or betting, or wagering, or 



agreeing to bet or wager, with any 
person, or paying, or receiving, or 
settling bets, or for the purpose of 
offering for sale, selling, or distri- 
buting any paper or written or 
printed matter devoted wholly or 
mainly to giving information as to 
the probable result of any race, 
steeplechase, or other competition. 

Penalty. — Any person who shall 
offend against any of the fore- 
going bye-laws shall be liable 
for every such offence to a fine not 
exceeding forty shillings, except in 
the case of the bye-law relating to 
street betting, the fine for the 
breach of which shall bean amount 
not exceeding £5. 

Street Shouting. 

No person shall, for the purpose 
of hawking, selling, or advertising 
any newspaper, call or shout in any 
street so as to cause annoyance to 
the inhabitants of the neighbour- 
hood. 

Penalty.^ Any person who shall 
offend against the foregoing bye- 
law shall be lial^le for every such 
offence to a fine not exceeding forty 
shillings. 

Window Cleaning, Painting, &.c. 

Every person who in any street, 
to the obstruction, annoyance, or 
danger of residents or passengers, 
orders or permits any person in his 
service to stand on the sill of any 
window for the purpose of clean- 
ing or painting such window, or for 
any other purpose whatsoever, such 
sill being more than six feet in 
height from the level of the ground 
immediately below it, without sup- 
port sufficient to prevent such per- 
son from falling, shall for every 
such offence forfeit and pay a sum 
not exceeding £5. 



224 



Loiiilmis Bye-Laws. 



Every person who in any street, 
to the oustruction, annoyance, or 
danger of residents or passengers, 
stands on the sill of any window 
for the purpose of cleaning or 
painting such window, or for any 
other purpose whatsoever, such sill 
being more than six feet in height 
from the level of the ground imme- 
diately below it, without support 
suflficient to prevent such person 
from falling, shall for every such 
offence forfeit and pay a sum not 
exceeding twenty shdlings. 

Flash and Search Lights. 

No person shall exhibit any flash 
light so as to be visible from any 
street and to cause danger to the 
traffic therein, nor shall any owner 
or occupier of premises permit or 
suffer any flash light to be so 
exhibited on such premises. 

The expression "flash light" 
means and includes any light used 
for the purpose of illuminating, 
lighting, or exhibiting any word, 
letter, model, sign, device, or repre- 
sentation in the nature of an 
advertisement, announcement, c-r 
direction which alters suddcidy 
either in intensity, colour, (.r 
directirjn. 

No pers'-'U shall exhn)it any 
search light so as to be visible from 
any street and to cause dan^^cr to 
the traflic therein, nor shall any 
owner or i ccupier of premises 
permit or suffer any search liglit to 
be so exhibited on such premises. 

The expression " search liglit " 
means and includes any light ex- 
ceeding r)()0-candle p- wer, whether 
in one lamp or lantern or in a 
series of lamps or lanterns used 
together and projected as one con- 
centrated light, and which alters 
either in intensity, colour, or direc- 
tion. 

In these bye-laws the expression 
" street " includes any highway and 
any road, bridge, lane, mews, foot- 
way, square, court, alley, passage, 



whether a thoroughfare or not, and 
a part of any such highway, road, 
bridge, lane, mews, footway, square, 
court, alley, or passage. 

Penalty. —Any person who shall 
offend against any of the foregoing 
bye-laws shall be liable for every 
such offence to a fine not exceeding 
£•5. 

Lights to Vehicles. 

The owner of every vehicle which 
shall be driven or be upon any high- 
way during the period between one 
hour after sunset and one hour before 
sunrise shall cause to be fixed out- 
side such vehicle and on the right 
or off-side tliert»of a lamp, which 
shall be so constructed and placed 
as to exhibit a white light visible 
in the direction in which the vehicle 
is proceeding, and sufficient to 
afford adequate means of signalling 
the approach or position of the 
vehicle, and the person in charge of 
such vehicle shall, during the said 
period, keep such lamp properly 
lighted, provided that tne light to 
be exhibited as aforesaid on any 
tramcar may be white or any other 
colour except red. 

This bye-law shall not apply to 
an}' vehicle which is by any statutoiy 
enactment, or by any rule, ivgula- 
ti(m, or order made under any 
statutoiy enactment and for the 
time being in force r« quin d to 
carry a lamp outside such vehicle. 

Penalty. — Any j^erson who shall 
olfend against this bye-law shall lie 
liable for every such offence to a 
fine not exceeding forty shillings. 
Vehicular Trafflc. 

No owner of a vehicle shall drive 
such vehicle, or permit the same to 
})e driven or to be upon any high- 
way, unless it be so constructed that 
the driver thereof shall have a full 
and uninterrupted view of the 
traffic on such highway in front 
and abreast of him on each side, 
and no person who shall be driving 
any vehicle upon any highway shall 



Betfcrmcnt. 



225 



occupy such a position as will pre- 
vent or interfere with his having" 
auch full and uninterrupted view 
as aforesaid. 

Waste Paper, Refuse, flee* 

No person shall (1) sweep or other- 
wise remove from any shop, house, 
or vehicle into any street any waste 
paper, shaving's, or other refuse, or, 
beino" a costermonger, newsvendor, 
or other street trader, throw down 
and leave in any street any waste 
paper, shavings, or other refuse; 
(2) throw down and leave in any 
street for the purpose of adver- 
tising* any bill, placard, or other 
substance ; (3) throw down and 
leave in any street any bill, placard, 
or other paper which shall have 
be3n torn off or removed from any 
bill-posting station. 

No person shall deposit in any 
street or public place to the danger 
of any passenger the rind of any 
orange, banana, or other fruit, or 
the leaves or refuse of any 
vegetable. 
. No pers m shall throw, place, or 
leave any bottle or any broken glass, 
nail, or other sharp substance (not 
being road material) on or in any 
street or public place in such a 
position* as to be likely to cause 
injury to passengers or animals or 
damage to property. 



In these bye- laws the expression 
" street " includes any highway, 
and any road, bridge, lane, path, 
footway, mews, square, court, alley 
or pissage, to which the public 
have access for the time being. 

Penalty. — Any person who shall 
offend against any of these bye-laws 
shall be liable for each offence t ) a 
fine not exceeding forty shillings. 
Spitting. 

No person shall spit on the floor, 
side, or wall of any public carriage, 
or of any public hall, public waiting 
room, or place of public entertain- 
ment, whether admission thereto be 
obtained upon payment or not. 

Penalty. — Any person who shall 
offend against this bye-law shall be 
liable for each offence to a fine not 
exceeding forty shillings. 

Pubiic Decency. 
Every person who in anjr street 
or in any open space to which the 
public have access for the time 
being shall commit or attempt to 
commit any act of indecency with 
any other person, or shall to the 
ann yance of residents or passen- 
gers commit any act of indecency 
which is not already pijnishable in 
a summary manner by virtue of any 
Act of Parliament in force through- 
out the County of London, shall be 
liable to a fine not exceeding £5. 



• This repeals the bye-laws of 12th May, 1903. 



BETTERMENT. 

" Betterment " is a term commonly applied to the system of taxation 
(called an ''improvement charge") by means of whi*h the local authority 
bearing the gross cost of an improvement intercepts a proportion of the 
special benefit derived from the improvement by particular properties in 
its immediate vicinity. 

Historically the principle of "assessment according to benefit" is an 
ancient canon of taxation ; but the particul ir form is modern, having been 
first sanctioned by Parliament in 1894<-5, after five years' contest. The 
chief incidents in tha battle may be stated briefly : — 



226 Betterment. 



1889 (November). Kesoluti^n in favour of the application of the principle 
of betterment to London improvements passed by the London 
County Council led by the late Mr. Charles Harrison. 

1890. Betterment clause embodied in the London Streets (Strand Im- 
provements) Bill, rejected by Select Committee of the Commons; 
Bill dropped by the Council. 

1892. Betterment clause embodied in the London County Council General 

Powers Bill (Cromwell -road Bridge Improvement), rejected by 
Select Committee of the Commons by one vote ; improvement 
dropped by the Council. 

1893. Betterment clause eml>odied in London Improvements Bill (Tower 

Bridge Southern Approach, and Wood-lane, Hammersmith, 
Improvements); passed by the Commons; objected to by the 
Lords, 55 to J5G; Lords' amendment disagreed with by the 
Commons, 221 to 88; Lords adhered to objection, 50 to 27, but 
offered to appoint Joint Select Committee; Bill dropped by the 
London County Council. 

1894. Betterment clause embodied in Tower Bridge Southern Approach 

Bill ; passed by the Commons ; Lords appointed Select Com- 
mittee, which recognised the general principle ; Lords amended 
the clause ; Bill dropped by the liondon County Council, 

1895. Betterment clause, as passed by Commons, again embodied in the 

Tower Bridge Southern Approach Bill, but amended as a com- 
promise. Comjjromise altered by Select Committee, but restored 
l)y the Commons, 180 to 1 14>, and passed by the Lords. 

The Betterment clause has been incorporated in Bills sanctioning seven 
London improvements since 1895, while it has been adoi)ted in the case ot 
other municipalities since 1891, when Manchester reaped the firstfruits of 
London's enterprise. 

The procedure in assessing the improvement charge provide<l for in the 
Betterment clause is set out shortly below : — t 

1. Before the impr »vement is begun the London County Council 

schedules the properties it intends to assess. 

2. An Arbitrator appointed by the Local Government Board hears 

the parties and fixes an " initial valuation "of each of the interests 
in the properties before improvement. 

3. Within a period of from one to three years after the completion of 

the improvement, the London County Council declares the incre- 
ment of capital value and assesses an inipr»>vement chaige at 
3 per cent, per annum on one-half of that increment. 

4. The owner assessed may, within three months of the assessment, 

require the London County (Council to buy his interest at the 
initial valuation or to abandon the charge ; or, 

5. He ma7 object to the assessment, and the Council may amend the 

charge or apply for the appointment of an arbitrator. A " worse - 
ment " may oe set off against a " l)etterment " accruing to the 
same owner. 



Betterment. 



227 



6. The London County Council has to pay the i easonable costs of all 
parties to the initial valuation; m the case of objections to 
the assessment, however, the costs will follow the award. 

The costs are heavy — in the Ho' bom- Strand improvement the initial 
valuation cost over £5,000— they are thus only justified in the case of 
improvements where the land values are high and the property large. 

The following table is a list of London Improvements subject to 
betterment : — 





Date 


Date 


Date of com- 


Date of 
Assessment. 


Total 


Improvement. 


of 


of Initial 


pletion of 


Enhancement 




Act. 


Valuation. 


Improvement. 


of Vjilue. 


Tower Bridge Southern 












Approach 


1895 ; Jan. 1897 


12thMarch,1902 


7th March, 1905 


£23,920 


Tower Bridge Northern 


i 








Approach 


1897 Jan. 1901 


— . 


— . 


— 


Strand at Holy well-street 
Bozier's - court, Totten- 


1897 


Jan. 1899 


— 


— 


— 


ham Court-road 


1897 


Dec. 1898 


3rd Aug. 1900 


28th July, 1903 


£18.996 


Holborn to Strand 


1899 


May 1900 


— 


— . 


— 


Thames l^mbankmeut. 












Westminster 


1900 


May 1902 


— 








High-street and Gar- 












dener's-lane. Putney . . . 


1900 


Dec. 1901 


17th July, 1905 


— 


— 


Central-street, Pinsbury 


1901 


Dec. 1902 


— 


— 


— 


Hampstead-road 


1902 


May 1904 


16th Feb.. 1907 


— 


— 



The assessment for the Bozier's Court improvement, was made on the 
28th July, 1908, and is sufficiently interesting as being the first case to 
be set out in some detail. The initial valuation of the six properties 
affected amounted to £88,540, while the enhancement of value was 
assessed at £21,386. Objection was, however, made to some of these 
assessments, and the Arbitrator issued his award in July, 1904, for 
£18,996. 

The cost of the improvement was £53,860, the cost of the initial valua- 
tion being £2,747, and of the assessment £2,144; the value of the pro- 
perties in the immediate neighbourhood was enhanced by at least 
£18,996, of which the owners retain one-half, while the municipality 
intercepts the other half by means of an improvement charge at 3 per 
cent, per annum, amounting to £285 108., redeemable at 33 years' pur- 
chase. The improvement was therefore not a large one, and the better- 
ment area was very limited in extent ; moreover, the case was an early 
one, and the cost of the initial valuation was increased in consequence of 
two appeals to the High Court. But even with these adverse conditions 
the betterment charge realised £4,530 nett, sufficient to defray 84 per cent, 
of the cost of the improvement. 



128 



The Assessment System. 



THE ASSESSMENT SYSTEM. 

HOW TO REDUCE YOUR RATES. 



It is of the utmost importance that 
every ratepayer should see that his 
assessment is correct. The assess- 
ment law is defective in many- 
respects, and there is a lack of 
uniformity in different districts in 
the way it is administered. More 
harmonious action has been brought 
about latelv by means of the con- 
ferences which have taken place 
b^'tween the County Council and 
the assessment authorities. These 
have resulted not only in pro- 
curing greater uniformity of practice 
but also in coming to some agree- 
ment as to the revision that is 
needed in the i^stem. The Royal 
Commission on Local Taxation, too, 
had the valuation system under 
its consideration, and made it 
the subject of its first report. 
Briefly, it recommended a County 
Valuation Authority (viz., the 
County Council), working by means 
of local committees, on which the 
local boards of guardians and 
borough councils should be repi-e- 
scnted, these local committees taking 
the place of the overseers, and the 
County Council taking the place of 
the Assessment Committee. The 
Government Bill introduced into 
Parliament in 1904 to carry into 
effect these recommendations was, 
however, dropped. 

How TO Check your As- 
sessment. 

If your landlord does repairs and 
you pay rates, then your rent is the 
" gross value," ani the " rateable 
value " is found as follows : — 

If the rent is under £20, deduct 
one-fourth to find the proper rate- 
able value. • • 

If £20 and under £40, deduct 
one-fifth. 

If £40 or more, deduct one-sixth. 



N.B. — The practice is to disregard 
shillings and pence altogether — ^not 
to take the nearest pound. 

If you do internal repairs you 
must add 5 per cent, to your rent 
to arrive at the "gross value.'* If 
you do internal and external repairs 
you must add 10 per cent, to your 
rent to arrive at the "gross value."- 

Then apply the scale of deductions 
as above to ascertain the " rateable 
value." 

Examples. 

A pays £30 per annum on an 
ordinary yearly tenancy. His rates 
are charged on a rateable value of 
£27. A IS entitled to deduct one- 
fifth (£6) from his rent, leaving 
£24 as the correct rateable value. 
A should object. 

B pays £30 per annum on a re- 
pairing lease and is charged on £27 
rateable value. B must first add 
10 per cent, to his rent, making £33 
gross value; then deduct one-fifth 
(£6, disregarding odd shillings), 
leaving £27. Thus B's rateable 
value is correct. 

If you find that the rateable value 
on the demand-note is too high you 
should at once communicate, in 
writing, with the borough council. 
The best channel is usually the 
rate-collector, whose address is on 
the demand-note. State the nature 
of your tenancy, the date of its 
commencement, the amount of the 
rent,* and all other facts bearing on 
the value of the premises, and con- 
chide by requesting that, as the 
rateable value is too^ high, your 
house may be inserted in a " Provi- 
sional Valuation List " at a reduced 
assessment. Should this not have 
the desired effect, application might 
well be made to the clerk of the 
Assessment Committee for your 
district. 



The Valuation of London. 229 



General Procedure. council where the borougfh area 

At present, the borough councils ^^^P??" ^""^H Poor Law areas, 

,. ^ • xT_ /! X and by the guardians where there IS 

actmg as overseers in the first ^^ore than one borough or part of a 

instance make out the valua- borough in one Poor Law union, 

tion list, which is afterwards An appeal from the decision of 

revised by an Assessment Com- the Assessment Committee lies to 

mittee, appointed by th^ borough Quarter Sessions. 



THE VALUATION OF LONDON. 

The valuation of London is made under conditions differing in many 
respects from those obtaining in the country generally. Since 1870, when 
. the total rateable value was under 20 millions, a complete revaluation 
has taken place every five years, while a supplemental valuation in each 
of the intervening years has brought new properties into rating. This 
procedure has undoubtedly resulted in keeping the valuation of London at 
a high level. In 1901 the total valuation was £39,643,618 ; in 1906 it was 
£43,486,437, an increase of £3,842,819 in the quinquennium. Between 
1901 and 1905 the average of the supplemental lists, which may be 
taken as the average annual value of new property, was £503,362. 
The increase of the re-valuation of 1906 over the 1905 valuation was, 
however, £1,829,371, and the excess of this over the av-erage annual 
value of new .property may be taken as representing the increase 
in the general value of property in London, and as indicating to 
some extent the "unearned increment" of five years. It amounted 
to £1,326,000. Included in the quinquennial valuation of 1906 are 
the rateable values of the following special properties: — Railways, 
£2,351,354; tramways (including, L.C.C.), £159,685; gas, £896,390; 
electricity, £379,196; water, £679,691; canals, £19,593; docks, £217,750; 
hydraulic, £38,061 ; telephones and telegraphs, £60,320— Total, £4,802,040 
In 1901 there were, in all, 703,119 assessments, of which no less than 
309,568 were below £20, the valuation below which the owner instead of 
the occupier may be made responsible for the rates. Of the very high 
values there were 92 between £10,000 and £20,000, 38 between £20,000 
and £30,000, 15 between £30,000 and £40,000, 10 between £40,000 and 
£50,000, and six above £50,000, the highest individual assessment in a 
single parish bein^ the L. and N.W. Railway assessment in St. Pancras 
of £107,300. No information similar to this is available for a later year 
than 1901. The rateable value in force for the year 1908-9 is £44,351,400, 
The valuation now used for many of the rates is not the rateable value, 
but what is known as the assessable value, under the Agricultural Rates 
Acts, 1896 to 1905. The total assessable value for the year 1908-9 is 
£44,343,601, which is made up of the rateable value of houses, £41,335,801, 
together with one-half the rateable value of agricultural land, £15,599. 
The total gross value (used in the case of ordinary properties for King's 
taxes) for 1907-8 was £53,404,124 ; but as there is no gross valuation put 



230 



The Valuation of London. 



upon Grovernment Property, the total gross value of London corresponding 
to the total rateable value cannot be given. On the basis of the known 
values, however, the gross rental value of London may be put at £54,133,000, 
gross value being on an average 23 per cent, higher than rateable 
value. The assessable values of each borough and parish for the years 
1907-8 and 1908-9 are given in the following table : — 



Metropolitan Boroughs 
and Parishes. 


Assessable Value, 1907-3. 




Assessable Val e, 1908-9 






£ 


s. 


d. £ s. 


d. 


£ s. 


d. £ s. 


d. 


City of London 






5,373,276 







5.451.820 





Battersea 






1.064.738 







1,066,804 





Bermondsey 






945.951 







949,086 





Bethual Green 






549,967 







549,863 





Camberwell 






1.363.074 10 







1,373,497 10 





Chelsea 






915,931 10 







9^4.698 





Ddptford— 
















Parish of St. Paul 






641,274 10 







647,031 10 





Fiusbury— 
















Charterhouse 


14,329 










14,329 







Clerkenwell 


457.429 










457.876 







Glasshouse-yard 


16,725 










16.702 







St. Luke 


473.104 


7 


6 




480,210 7 


6 




St. Sepulchre 


66,084 







1 (yyj f^r\ n 


6 



66.251 



1 nvi -jftQ 7 


6 

•0 


Fulham 






897,448 




910,163 


Greenwich- 
















Charlton and Kidbrooke 


139,392 










140.336 







Greenwich 


442,609 10 







465,036 







St. Nicholas, Deptford... 


68,097 












68.124 




(in A ACX. C\ 






Hackney 






— oou.uyo lu 
1,227,%1 10 




1,234.667 10 


Hammersmith 






809,345 







822,952 





Hampstead 






1,092,194 







1,093.529 





Holbom— 
















Furnival's-inn 


7,423 










7.429 







Gray's-inn 


17,074 










17,398 







Lincoln's-inn 


34,195 










34,108 







Safifron-hill 


120,547 










122,977 







St. Andrew-above-Bars .. 


251,581 










251,041 







St. George-the-Murtyr. . . 


74,097 










73,737 







Sc. George, Bloom bury 


235,318 










240,849 







St. Gilesi-iu-the- Fields... 


304.765 










302,101 







Staple-inn 


3,877 










3.877 













,— 1 ndw 9SK!k n 








1 rvsj. CI 7 n 






Islington 






—— l,U'W,OoO u 

1,953,325 




1,966,692 


Kensington- 
Royal Borough 




















2,389,105 10 







2,413,168 





Lambeth 






1.956,988 10 







1.930,155 





Lewi ham 






1,054,937 10 







1,073,953 





Paddington 






1,549,909 10 







1,549,898 10 





Poplar 






841,022 17 


6 




837,794 7 


6 


St. Mai-ylebone 






1,944,217 







1,9:5,300 





St. Pancras 






1,805,609 10 







1,799,839 10 





Shoreditch 






809,201 







811,137 





South wark— 
















Christchurch,Southwark 


136.107 










135,342 







Newington 


543,699 










547.128 







St. George-the-Martyr... 


341,075 










341,299 







St. Saviour 


286,749 










289,271 













1 Trvj t -in A 


° 




1 X14 ndn n 











X,OUf,<XjU U 




l,01*t,U*fU u 





Equalisation of 


Bates. 




231 


Metropolitan Boroughs 
and Paxishes. 


AFsessable Value, 1907-8. ■ 


AsEessable Value, 1906-9. 




£ 


s. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d. £ 8. 


d. 


Stepney- 
Aldgate 






















63,555 














63.802 










Chrisf church, Spital- 






















flelds 


112.389 














111,900 










Limehouse 


148,205 














148.590 










Mile-end New-town 


45.079 














44,986 










Mile-end Old-town 


444.109 














446.787 










Norton Folgate 


14,908 














14.778 










Old Artillery-ground . . . 


11,868 














11.794 










Ratcliflf 


76.861 














76,015 










St. George-in-the-East .. 


212.487 














211,259 










Shadwell 


51.825 














49.758 










Wapping 


54.921 














54.906 










Whitechapel 


265,575 














271.519 


















1,501,782 
353,724 10 










1 Rfifi nax n 






Stoke Newington 












354,497 10 


Wandsworth— 






















Parish of Wandsworth 






















Borough 








2.002,996 












2,058,618 10 





Westminster City— 






















Rolls 


57,548 














57,669 










St. Anne 


217,502 














223,130 










St. Clement Danes 


270.551 














290,068 










St. George, Hanover-sq. 


2,294,028 














2.343.056 










St. James, Westminster 


1.049,434 














1,079,177 










St. Margaret, We.^tmin- 


1 1,198,435 




















ster 














1,224,538 










St. John-the- Evangelist 




















St. Mar in-in-the-Fields 


729.303 














732.824 










St. Mary-le-Strand .. 
St. Paul, Covent-garden 


55.391 














55,861 










133.437 














135.956 










St. Peter, Westminster .. 


4.340 














4.394 










. Savoy 


30.600 








6,040,630 








30.931 






fi ifi7 find 





Woolwich- 












U,l.Df ,fXrt U 


Eltham 


88,745 10 











93.044 10 







Plumstead 


338.989 10 











341.994 










Woolwich 


350,923 10 











352.009 10 













4 


778,658 10 









787,048 











44,343,601 5 


Total 


13,897,571 


5 









The only boroughs in which there is agricultural land are the following : — 
Camberwell, £373; Deptford, £133; Fulham, £372; Greenwich, £1,084; 
Hackney, £95; Hammersmith, £466; Hampstead, £224; Kensington, £4; 
Lambet"!!, £468; Jicwisham, £2,918; Paddmgton, £1; Poplar, £24; St. 
Pancras, £375; Stoke Newington, £75; Wandsworth, £4,153; and 
Woolwich, £4,834 ; a total of £15,599. 



EQUALISATION OF RATES. 

The rates of different districts in London are equalised for certain pur- 
poses in three different ways. First, on the Metropolitan Common Poor 
Fund, established in 1867, and administered by the Local Grovernment 
Board, is thrown part of the expenditure of Poor Law guardians on indoor 
paupers, insane poor, vagrants, school fees for outdoor pauper children, 
medical relief. Poor Law officers, registration of births and deaths, and 



232 



Equalisation of Uates^ 



vaccination ; and of the Metropolitan Asylums Board on small-ix>x, fever, 
and diphtheria patients and ambulance expenses. The expenditure thrown 
on the fund in 1905-f) was £1,620,316, equal to a rate of 9\d, \u 
the £, an amount of £390,597 being collected from the richer parishes, 
and handed over to the poorer parishes in aid of their Poor-law expenditure. 
Secondly, on Exchequer Contributions and on the General County Kate of 
the London County Council is thrown part of the expenditure of Poor Law 
guardians (in addition to that borne by the Metropolitan Common Poor 
Fund) on indoor paupers, pauper lunatics, Poor Law medical expenses, 
teachers in Poor Law schools. Union officers, and registration of births and 
deaths ; and of borough councils on sanitary officers and registration of 
electors, amounting in all to £611,940, equad to a rate of 3^d. in the £, 
(of which VQ^d. is met out of exchequer contributions). Thirdly, 
through the Equalisation Fund, established by the London (Equalisation 
of Rates) Act, 1894, and administered by the London County Coun- 
cil, relief to the amount of £287,014 is ^iven to the poorer districts for the 
purpose of supporting Public Health, lighting and streets, at the expense 
of the richer districts. A M. rate (which produces £1,041,145) is 
levied^ all round, and is redistributed on the basis of population; 
that is to say, a poor district, with a dense population and a low 
rateable value, may receive 7d. or 8(i. back over and above its 6fZ., whilst 
another district, with a thinner population, but heavier rateable value, may 
be credited with less than Id. out of its ^. and have to pay more than 
bd. into the fund. The following figures show the operation of the various 
equalisation funds and their influence in London in 1905-6. 

Apart from the effect on rates shown in this table, Exchequer Contribu- 
tions effected a reduction of rates amounting to 7'7Zd. (outside the 
city); 608cZ. being in relief of Metropolitan Police and county rates; 
and VQhd. being in relief of county grants to local bodies. 



- 


County 

Grants. 


Equalisa- 
tion Fund. 


Common 
Poor 
Fund. 


Total 
effect 


Rate 
actually 
levied. 




d. 


d. 


d. 


8. d. 


F. d. 


Battersea 


+ 1-05 


— 2-95 


+ 1-79 


— -11 


8 4 
,9 3 
[ to 
^9 6 

8 2 


Berraondsey 


- 2-04 


— 1-52 


—10-35 


—1 1-91 


Bethnal Green 


— 6-50 


— 6-98 


-17-30 


-2 6-78 


Camberwell 


- -91 


-4-87 


-4-70 


— 10-48 


9 


Chelsea 


— -85 


+ 1-36 


- -78 


- -27 


7 


Deptford 


— 1-53 


— 3-82 


— 4-88 


— 10-23 


8 


Finsbury— 








— 4'62 


7 1-90 


Charterhouse 


— 2-52 


+ 5-43 


— 2-60 


+ -31 


8- 4 


Clerkenwell 


— 2-52 


— 1-08 


-2-60 


— 6-20 


7 1 


Glasshouse Yard 


-2-52 


+ 3-01 


-2-60 


- 211 


7 4 


St. Luke 


— 2-52 


+ 1-01 


— 2-60 


- 4-11 


7 2 


St. Sepulchre 


— 2-52 


+ 4-71 


-2-60 


— -41 


7 4 


Fulham 


+ -69 


— 3-78 


- -93 


— 4-02 


7 6 


Greenwich- 








— 8-26 


8 1-37 


Charlton and Kidbrooke ... 


- -19 


— 2-96 


- -95 


— 4-10 


7 9 


Deptford St. Nicholas ... 


— 1-49 


— 2-38 


— 4-88 


— 8*75 


8 


Greenwich 


— 1-49 


— 318 


-4-88 


— 9-55 


8 3 


Hackney 


— 1"10 


— 4-02 


— 3-62 


— 8-74 


7 11 



Equalisation of Bates. 



233 



1 


County 
Gmuts. 


Equalisa- 
tion Fund. 


Common 
Poor 
Fund. 


Total 
effect. 


Rate 

actually 

levied. 




d. 


1 
d. 


8. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


Hammersmith 


+ -98 


— 2*39 


+ 2-63 


+ 1-22 


7 7 


Hampptead 


+ 2-38 


+ 1-52 


+ 6-52 


+ 10-42 


7 2 


Holboni- 








+ -90 


6 trsa 


FuruivarK Inn 


— 2-37 


+ 6-01 


— 2-60 


+ 104 


7 


C^ray's Inn 


— 2-37 


-1- 5-22 


— 2-tO 


+ -25 


7 


Saflron Hill 


— 2-37 


+ 4-72 


— 2-60 


- -25 


7 3 


Kt. Andrew and St. George.. 


— 2-37 


+ 1*68 


— 2-60 


— 3-29 


6 11 


St. Giles and St. George ... 


- -83 


+ 2-89 


+ -54 


+ 260 


6 11 


Staple Inn 


-2-37 


-1- 5-74 


-.2-60 


+ -77 


7 4 


Islington ; 


— -08 


- 3-33 


— -55 


- 3-% 


7 3 


Kensington 


+ -99 


+ 1-75 


+ 3-19 


+ 5-93 


6 7 


Lambeth 


— -73 


— 2-64 


— -89 


— 4-26 


7 8 


I^wisham 


+ 1-14 


-•2-37 


+ 1-94 


+ -71 


7 6 


Paddingtoq 


+ 1-48 


+ 0-76 


+ 3-68 


+ 5-92 


6 6-5 


Poplar- 
Bow 








— i 8'7U 


12 


-2-85 


-5-34 


-12-80 


-1 899 


12 


Bromley 


— 2-85 


— 606 


—12-80 


—1 9-71 


12 


Poplar 

St. Marylebone 


-2-85 


— 4-29 


—12-80 


-1 7-94 


12 


— -38 


+ 2-07 


+ -40 


+ 2-09 


6 8-5 


St. Pancras 


- 1-58 


— -93 


— 2-78 


— 5-29 


7 1 


Shoreditch 


-261 


— 1-99 


-5-40 


- 10-00 


8 1 


South wark- 








—1 V22 


7 3-00 


Chrislchurch, Sou'hwark... 


-3-65 


-1-23 


— 7-19 


—1 0-07 


7 8 


Newington 


— 3*65 


-3-35 


-7-19 


-1 219 


7 6 


St. George. Southwark . . . 


— 3-65 


— 2-65 


— 7-19 


—1 1-49 


7 4 


St. Saviour, Southwark ... 


-3-65 


— -64 


-7-19 


— 11-48 


6 8 


Stepney- 
Aldgato 








—2 0-38 


8 11-41 


-3-55 


— 1-44 


—10-20 


—1 319 


8 1 


Chri^tchurch, Spitalflelds. . . 


-3-55 


-5-41 


—10-20 


-1 716 


8 1 


Limehouse 


— 4-49 


— 6-49 


-16-18 


—2 2-16 


9 2 


Mile End New Town 


-3-55 


— 7-52 


—10-20 


—1 9-27 


7 11 


Mile End Old Town 


-510 


-6-32 


— H-84 


-1 11-26 


9 6 


Norton Pol gate 


- 3-55 


— 2-93 


-10-a) 


—1 4-68 


8 4 


Old Artillery Ground 


-3-55 


-4-52 


—10-20 


—1 6-27 


T 9 


Ratcliff 


— 4-49 


-4-58 


■-16-18 


-2 1-25 


9 2 


St. George-in-the-East ... 


-11-26 


— 5-68 


—25-32 


—3 6-26 


9 3 


Shadwell 


— 4-49 


— 3-98 


—16-18 


—2 0-65 


9 4 


Wapping 


— 4-49 


— -95 


—1618 


—1 9-62 


9 4 


Whitechapel 


-3-55 


— 3-10 


—10-20 


-1 4-85 


8 3 


Stoke Newington— 












Stoke Newington wards ... 
South Hornney ward 


1 — 1-27 


— 2-00 


-3-62 


- 6-89 


(7 3 
17 


Wandsworth 


+ 1-16 


— 2-55 


' + 1-79 


+ -40 


7 5 


Westminster (City)— 


1 






+ 10-76 


6 804 


Rolls 


+ 1-49 


-*- 5-75 


+ 3-23- 


+ 10-47 


6 8 


St. Anne 


+ 1-85 


+ 298 


+ 5-28 


+ 10-11 


, 6 5 


St. Clement Danes 


+ 1-49 


+ 5-27 


-1- 3-23 


+ 9-99 


' 5 11 


St. George, Hanover-square 


i + 1-91 


+ 412 


-*- 4-87 


+ 10-90 


, 6 10 


St. James 


' + 1-85 


+ 4-81 


+ 5-28 


+ 11-94 


6 6 


St. Margaret and St. John.. 


+ 1-91 


+ 3-72 


-1- 4-87 


+ 10-50 


6 8 


St. Martin-in-the- Fields ... 


+ 1-49 


+ 4-98 


+ 3-23 


+ 9-70 


1 6 8 


St. Mary-IeStrrtnd 

St. Paul , Covent-garden . . . 


+ 1-49 


+ 5-73 


-*- 3-23 


-1- 10-45 


7 


+ 1-49 


+ 5-30 


+ 3-23 


+ 10-02 


1 6 8 


St. Peter 


, + 1-91 


+ 3-49 


+ 4.87 


+ 10-27 


1 6 8 


Savoy 


+ 1-49 


+ 5-67 


+ 3-23 


+ 10-39 


7 4 


Woolwich- 








— 4'79 


7 9-62 


Eltham 


, + 1-04 


— 3-68 


1 + 1-94 


— -70 


\ 7 10 


Plumstead 


_ -22 


r-5-49 


- -95 


- 6-66 


' 7 6 


Woolwich 


. - -22 


— 2-77 


— -95 


- 3-94 


8 1 


City of London 


! + 2-79 

1 


1 -1- 5-73 


+ 7-46 

1 


+ 1 3-98 


1 6 9.5 



234 Registration of Births, Deaths, and Marriages. 



The parish gaining most by the Common Poor Fund is St. George-in 
the-Eastwhi'jh gains 28. lid.; the same parish gains most by the county 

f'ants, ll|(i. ; Mile End New Town gains most by the Equalisaton 
und, viz., 7hd. ; and St. George-in-tne-East gains most by all the 
funds, namely 3.s. 6\d. Bethnal Green comes second in each of the three 
funds and in the total. Of the places that lose (excluding the Inns of 
Court) the City comes first with a loss of 7'46f?. by th'i Common Poor 
Fund, 2'79d. by the county grants, and 573 i. by the Equalisation Fund, 
or Is. 4i. in all. The general result of the funds is to relume the range 
of the rates from a maximum of VSs. 9id. (Bromley), and a minimum of 
58. 5^^. (City of London), a difference of Ss. Md. .to a maximum of 
128. (Poplar Borouffh), and a minimum of (is. Hid. (Paddington), a 
difference of 58. 5 ad. 



REGISTRATION OF BIRTHS. 

The registration of births, deaths, 
and maniages is carried on under 
the direction of the Registrar- Gene- 
ral at Somerset House, but the 
boards of guardians are charged 
directly with the work. The clerk 
to the guardians is frequently the 
district superintendent registrar, 
and he appoints one or more depu- 
ties to act under him. 

Following are the names and ad- 
dresses of the registrars, at whose 
offices births and deaths should be 
registered, and marriage a,rrange- 
nients made. The superintendent's 
hours are, as a rule, from 10 to 4. 
The offices are closed on Sundays. 

BETHNAL GREEN. 

Superintendent Begistrar — D. 
Thomas, (Barrister-at Law), Regis- 
ter Office, Bishop's-road, Victoria 
Park. Depuiy—V. P. Jones. 
Registrars of Births and Deaths. 

N.E. District.— Captain W. H. 
Hamilton, 274, Cambridge-road, 
N.E. Deputy — Miss M. Peters. 

S.W. District.— J. Williams, 
»347, Bethnal Green - road, E. 
Deputy — Miss D. McNeil. 

Registrar of Marriages. 

P. B. Hancock, Register Office, 
Bishop's-road, N.E. Deputy — D. 
Stephens. 

camberWell. 

Superintendent Registrar— C. S. 



DEATHS, AND MARRIAGES. 

Stevens, Guardians' Offices.. Deputy 
— H. E. Mott. 

Registrars of Births and Deaths. 

Camberwell (North).— a. E. 
Baker, 34, Brunswick-square, Peck- 
ham-road. Daily, except Saturday, 
12 to 4 ; Saturday, 12 to 2 ; Mo:*day, 
Wednesday, and Friday evenings, 
6 to 8. 

Camberwell (South).— W. L. 
Churchill, 8, Glengarry-road. East 
Dulwich-grove, S.E. Daily, except 
Saturday, 12 to 4 ; Saturday, 12 to 
2'; Monday, Wednesday, and Friday 
evenings, 6 to 8. 

Peckham (North).— a. Lucas, 
26, Camden-grove, Peckham. Mon- 
day, Wednesday, and Friday, 12 to 
4 and 6 to 8; Tuesday, Thm*sday, 
and Saturday, 10 to 12. 

Peckham (South).— A. J. Quaif, 
20, Linden-grove, Nunhead - lane,- 
Peckham Kye. Monday, Wednes- 
day, and Friday, 12 to 4 and 6 to 8 ; 
.Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, 
10 to 12. 

St. George's.— C. FoUowes, 84, 
Trafalgar-road, Old Kent-road. 
Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, 
12 to 4 and 6 to 8 ; Tuesday, Thurs- 
day, and Saturday, 10 to 12. 

DuLWiCH.— A. H. Bartlett, High- 
street, Dulwich. Mondays, Wed- 
nesdays, and Fridays, 9 to 10 a.m. 
and *3 to 8 p.m. 



Registration of Births, Deaths, and Marriages. 



235 



Begistrars of Marriages. 
A. E. Baker, 34, Brunswick* 
square, Peckham-road ; G. Gooding, 
43, Denman-road, Peckham. 

CHELSEA. 

Superintendent Registrar — Chas. 
W. Shepherd, 250, King's - road. 
Deputy — Arthur F. Coombes. 

Registrars of Births and Deaths. 
S. District. — Miss H. L. 
Mowels, 36, Ashburnham Mansions. 
Tuesday, 1'hursday, and Saturday, 
9 to 11 a.m. ; Monday, Wednesday, 
and Friday, 6 to 8 p.m 

N. District.— J. W. Facey, 411, 
Fulham-road. Tuesday, Thursday, 
and Saturday, 9 to 11 a.m. ; Mon- 
day, Wednesday, and Friday, 6 to 
8 p.m. 

Registrar of Marriages. 
A. E. FoUit, 208, King's-road. 

CITY OF LONDON. 

Superintendent Registrar— 'E. R. 
Woodward, 61, Bartholomew Close. 
Deputtj—B. Ware. 

Registrars of Births and Deaths. 
St. Botolph, Broad Street, 
AND Cripplegate.— F. H. PuUen, 
21, Great Winchester-street. Deputy 
— G. Tucker. 

All Hallows Barking, 
Castle Baynard,Christchurch, 

QUEENHITHE, St. SEPULCHRE, AND 

St. Bride. — Miss A. J. Kemm, 
Myddleton House, 42, Farringdon- 
street. Deputy — A. Sayer, 36, 
Farringdon-street. 

Regis' rar of Marriages. 
Rodolph Nicholls, 61, Bartholo- 
mew-close. Deputy — J. Bedford. 

FULHAM. 

Superintendent Registrar — T. 
Aplin Marsh, 129, Fulham-palace- 
road, W. 



Registrars of Births and Deaths. 

North Hammersmith. — R. 
Popham, 54a, Goldhawk - road. 
Shepherds Bush, W. 

South Hammersmith.— F. P. 
Branner, 3, The Grove, Hammer- 
smith, W. 

North- West Fulh am. —Alfred 
Busby, 240, Dawes-road, Fulham 
S.W. 

North-East Fulham.— H. D. 
Shopland, 152, Halford-road, North 
End-road, Fulham, S.W. 

South Fulham.— Henry Wil- 
liams, ^y New King*s-road, Fulham, 
S.W. 

Registrars of Marriages. 

L. Liversidge, 129, Fulham Palace- 
road, Hammersmith, W. F. P. 
Branner, 3, The Grove, Hammer- 
smith, W. Alfred Busby, 240, 
Dawes-road, Fulham, S.W. 

GREENWICH. 

Superintendent Registrar — S. 
Saw, Bank-buildings, 183, Trafalgar- 
road. Deputy — Samuel Saw, jun. 

Registrars of Births and 'beaths. 

Greenwich. — E. District .- 
H. K. Lewis, 203a, Trafalgar-road. 
Deputy -V. C. Wates. W. Dis- 
trict : J. E. AVates, 53, Devonshire- 
road. Deputy — H. J. Baymond. 

Deptford.— N. District : E. J. 
White, 326, Evelyn-street. Deputy — 
M . A . White. Central District : 
H. J. Dixon, L.R.C.S., 27, Nettleton- 
road. Deputy — C. E. Seaman. S. 
District: J. B. Chapman, 52, 
Florence-road. Deputy — W. A. 
Brumfield. 

Registrars of Marriages. , 
H. K. Lewis, 203a, Trafalgar-road, 
Greenwich. W. A. Brumfield, 52, 
Florence-road, Deptford. 



HACKNEY. 



Superintendent Registar - 
Hosgood, The Old Town 
Hackney, N.E. 



-Tom 
HaU, 



236 Registration of Births^ Deaths^ and Marriages. 



Ilegiatrara of Births and Deaths. 

Central Hackney. — E. L. 
Crane, 75, Lower Clapton-rjad, 
N.E. Daily, 10 a.m. to 12 no«^n 
and Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, 
and Friday, 6 to 8 p.m. 

North Hackney. — A. Jones, 
8, Narford-road, Upper Clapton, 
N.E. Daily, 9 to 11 a.m., and 4 to 
7 p.m. ; Saturdays, 9 to 11 a.m. only. 

South-East Hackney.— W. K. 
Jeff ray, 115, Vict()ria-})ark-road, 
South Hackney, N.P]. Daily, 10 
a.m. to 1 p.m., and 6 to 7 p.m. ; 
Saturdays, 10 a.m. t) 1 p.m. only. 

South-West Hackney. ^— C. 
Haynes, 55, Sandringliam - road, 
Dalston, N.E. Daily, 10 a.m. to 
1 p.m.; Monday, Tuesday, Wed- 
nesday, and Friday, 6 to 8 p.m. 

Stoke Newington. — H. K. 
Cone, 171, Church-street, N. Daily, 8 
to 10 a.m. ; Mondays, Tuesdays, Wed- 
nesdays and Fridays, 6 to 8 p.m. 

Beistrars of Marriages. 
A. Jones. 8, Narford-road, Upper 
Clapton, N.E. S. F. Snewin, (56, 
Amhurst-road, Hackney, N.E. 

HAMPSTEAD. 

Superintendent Registrar — E,. 
Bridger, Town Hall, Haverstock- 
hiU, N.W. 

Registrar of Births and Deaths. 

F. V. Bridger. Daily, 10 a.m. to 1 

p.m., at Town Hall, Haver stock -hill; 

also at 199, West End-lane, Kilburn, 

on Tuesdays and Fridays, 7 to 8 p.m. 

Reg ist ra r of Ma rriages. 

H. E. Bridger, Town Hall, Haver- 
stock-hill. I 

HOLBORN 

Superintendent Registrar— A. W. 
Hill, the Registry Office, Clerken- 
well-road, E.C. Daily, 10 to 4, 
Saturdays 10 to 2. 

Registrars of Births and Deaths. 

HoLBORN. — E. J. Comfort, 12 
Harpur - street, Theobalds - road. 
Every day, 10 to 12 a.m. ; Mondays 
and Fridays, 6 to 8 p.m. 



Clerkenwell. — R. O. H. 
Griffith, 11, Upper Charles-street, 
G OS well-road. 

FiNSBURY.— F. M. Bilby, 312, 
City-road. Daily, 10 to 12; Tues- 
days and Fridays, 6 to 8 p.m. 

Registrars of Marriages. 
F. M. Bilby, 312, City - road. 
Daily, 10 to 12 a.m. ; Tuesdays and 
Fridavs, (MoH p.m. F. H. Shaix^.ott, 
3, Ely-place. Daily, 10 a.m. to 4 
p.m. ; Saturdays, 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. 

ISLINGTON. 

Superintendent Registra r — Alex. 

5. McAulitfe, Islington Register 
Office, 279 a, Liverpool-road, N. 
Daily, 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. ; Saturdays, 
10 a.m. to 2 p.m. 

Registrars of Births and Deaijis. 

Upper HoLLOWAY.— A. J. Bodi- 
meade, 2o, St. John's- villas, Upp)er 
HoUoway, N. Mondays, Wednes- 
days, and Fridays, 3 to 6 p.m. ; 
Tuesdays and Thursdays, 10 a.m. 
to 1 p.m., and Saturdays, 12 to 2. 
Tuesdays and Fridays, 7 to 9 p.m. 

TuFNELL.— Mrs. A. H. Trounce, 

6, Pemberton-gardcns, Upper Hollo- 
way. Same as Upper HoUoway. 

ToLLiN(JTON.— Mr. J. Dunne, 13o> 
C.^orbyn - street, ToUington - park, 
N. Mondays, Wednesdays, and 
Fridays, from 3 to 6 p.m. Tuesdays, 
Thursdays, and Saturdays, from 10 
a.m. to 1 p.m. Tuesdays, 7 to 9 p. tn. 

Lower Holloway.— Miss F. M. 
Townley, A Block, Morgan Man- 
sions, Palmer's-place, HoUoway- 
road. Same as L pper Holloway. 

Barnsuury. — F. Wilcox, 2o, 
Bichmond - crescent, Bamsbur>'. 
Daily, 3 to t) p.m. ; Tuesdays and 
Fridays, 7 to 9 p.m. ; Saturdays, 12 
noon to 2 p.m. 

South- East Islington. — J. 
Lamb, 5, Islington-green, N. Daily, 
3 to 0. Tuesdays and Fridays, 8 to 
9 p.m. ; Saturdays, 11 to 1. 



'Rerjistratioii of Births, Deaths, and Marriages. 237 



Highbury.— J. Y. Perry, 48, 
Lucerne-rd., Highbury-park. Daily 
same as lTpi)er llollovvay. 

Regintrara of Marriages. 

C. Sharp, at the Islington Kegister 
Office, Liverpool-road (corner of 
Bamsbury - street), between the 
hours of 11 a.m. and 4 p.m. daily; or 
at 2, Hoi me wood, Anson - road, 
Tufnell-park, N., from 7 to 10 p.m. 
H. Tice, 754, Holloway-road, between 
the hours of 9 and 11 a.m. (Saturdays 
from 7 to 10 p.m.), and at 5, Islington- 
green, from 5 to 6 p.m. (except 
Saturdays). And the Superinten- 
dent Registrar as above. 

KENSINGTON. 

Super Infendent Registrar — W. R. 
Stephens, Register Office, 28, Mar- 
loes-road. Deputy— ¥. W. Turner. 

Registrars of Births and Deaths. 

Kensington Town. — C. R. 
Barnes Deputy — E. W. Barnes, 
67, Church - street, Kensington. 
Mondays, 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. ; Tues- 
days, 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. ; Wednesdays, 
8 to 11 a.m. ; Thursdays, 8 a.m. to 
4 p.m. ; Fridays, 8 a.m. to 11 a.m. ; 
and Saturdays, 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. ; 
also at 128, Ladbroke-grove, North 
Kensington, opposite Notting-hill 
Station. Tuesdays, Thursdays, and 
Saturdays, from 5 to 8 p.m. 

Brompton.— A. J. Turner, 23, 
Earl's- court-gardens. Mondays to 
Fridays, 12 noon to l.t30 p.m. ; Mon- 
days, Wednesdays, and Fridays, 6 
to 8 p.m.; Saturdays, 10 a.m. to 2 
p.m. Deputy — ^W. il. Holland. 

Uegistrar of Marriages. 
. C. R. Barnes. Deputy— ¥\ W. 
Barnes, 67, Church- street, Ken- 
sington. 

LAMBETH. 

Superintendent Uegistrar — E. D. 
L. Wilmot, Register Office, 220, 
Brixton-road, S.W. Office hours, 
9.30 a'.m. to 5 p.m. ; Satunlays, 9.30 
a.m. to 2 p.m. Deputy — J. .F. Bar- 
wick, 23(>, Brixton-road, S.W. 



Registrars of Births and Deaths, 
Waterloo Road.— W. Lake, 
40, Roupell-Htreet,CornwalI-rd., S.E. 
Mondays, Tuesdays, Fridays, and 
Saturdays, 10 a.m. to 1 p.m. ; Wed- 
nesdays and Thursdays, 6 to 9 p.m. 
Lambeth Church.— P. W.Ayers, 
29, Lambeth - palace - road, S.E. 
M ondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, 

5 to 8 p.m. ; Tuesdays, Thursdays, 
and Saturdays, 9 to 11 a.m. 

Kennington. — W. B. Smith, 
56, Upper Kennington-lane, S.E. 
Mondays, Tuesdajrs, Wednesdays, 
Thursdays, and Fridays, 6 to 9 p.m. ; 
.Tuesda,ys and Fridays, 9 to 11 a.m. ; 
Saturdays, 1 to 2 p.m. 

Stockwell.— W. H. Edwards, 
6, Guildford-road, South Lambeth, 
S.W. Mondays, Tuesdays, Wed- 
nesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, 

6 to 9 p.m.; Monday ••, Tuesdays, 
Thursdays, and Saturdays, 9 to 
11 a.m. 

Brixton. — R. Greenwood, 46, 
Gresham-rd., Brixton, S.W. Mon- 
days, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, 
Thursdays, and Fridays, 6 to 9 p.m. ; 
Mondays, Tuesdays, Thursdays, 
and Saturdays, 9 to 11 a.m. 

Norwood.— A. Thompson, Head 
Office, 100, High-street, West Nor- 
wood, S.E. Mondays, Tuesdays, 
Thursdays and Fridays, 2 to 4 p.m. ; 
Wednesdays and Saturdays, 6 to 
8 p.m. Registration Station; 150, 
Brixton-hill, S.W. Mondays, Tues- 
days, Thursdays, and Fridays, 6 to 

8 p.m. Wednesdays and Saturdays, 

9 to 11 a.m. 

Registrars of Marriages. 
N. Charsley, 222, Stockwell-road, 
S.W.; and J. Wallis, 220, Brixton- 
road, S.W. 

LEWISHAIW. 

Superintendent Registrar — H. C. 
Mott, Union Offices. 
Registrars of Births and Deaths. 

M. J. Martin, 8a, Dartmouth- 
road, Forest-hill: Daily, 9 to 11 a.m.; 



238 



Registrahon of Births^ Deaths, and Marriages. 



Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, 
5 to 7 p.m. T. A. Belcham, 222, 
High-street, Lewisham. Daily, 10 to 
11 a.m. ; Mondays, Wednesdays, 
and Fridays, 5 to 7 p.m. T. A. 
Davies, next railway station, 
Lee. Daily, 10 a.m. to 12 noon; 
Tuesdays and Fridays, 6 to 8 p.m. 
J. R. S. Murphy, 7, Park-place, 
Eltham : Mondays and Fridays, 9 to 
11 a.m. ; Wednesdays, 5 to 7 p.m. 

MARYLEBONE. 

Superintendent Registrar — H. T. 
Dudman, 21, Marylebone - road. 
Deputy — A. J. Read. Daily, 10 
a.m. to 4 p.m. ; Saturdays, 10 a.m. 
to 1 p.m. 
Registrars of Births and Deaths. 

All Souls. — J. Claxton. At 
the Guardians' Offices, Northum- 
herland-street. Daily, 12 to 1 p.m., 
at 93, Hallam-street, Portland- 
place ; Mondays, Wednesdays, and 
Fridays, 6 to 8 p.m. 

St. Mary. — T. Epton HadwicV, 
Guardians' Offices, Northumber- 
land-street, W. Daily, 12 to 2 p.m.; 
and Monday, Wednesday, and 
Friday, 6 to 8 p.m. 

Christ Church.— F. Stokes, 49, 
Upper Baker -street, Marylebone- 
road. Mondays, 9 to 11 a.m., and 
2 to 4 p.m. ; Tuesdays and Thurs- 
days, 5 tD 7 p.m.; Wednesdays and 
Saturdays, 9 to 11 a.m. ; Fridays, 
2 to 4 p.m. ISr.T. 2336 Pad. 

St. John. — A. J. W. Sivyer, 
16, Queen's-teiTace, Finchley-road, 
St. John's- wood, N.W. Tuesdays, 
Thursdays, and Saturdays, 9 to 11 
a.m.; Mondays, Wednesdays, and 
Fridays, 6 to 8 p.m. 

Registrar of Marriages 

F. Stokes, 49, Upper Baker- 
street, Marylebone-road. 

MILE END. 

Superintendent Registrar — W. 
Thacker, Guardians' Offices, Ban- 
croft-road. 

Registrars of Births and Deaths. 
S.W. D [STRICT. - Thomas A. 



Macve, 40, Mile End-road. Mon- 
days, 4 to 8 ; Tuesdays, 10 to 1 ; 
Wednesdays, 10 to 1 and 5 to 8; 
Thursdays, 10 to 1 ; Fridays, 4 to 8; 
Saturdays, 10 to 1. 

N.E. District.— Robert M. Ash- 
ton, Guardians' Offices, Bancroft- 
road. Mondays, 4 to 8 ; Tuesdays, 
10 to 1 ; Wednesdays, 5 to 8 ; 
Thursdays, 10 to 1 ; Fridays, 4 to 8 ; 
Saturdays, 10 to 1. 

Registrar of Marriages. 

W. Bartlett, 157, Commercial- 
road, E. 

PADDINGTON. 

Superintendent Registrar — H. F. 
Aveling, Register Office, 313-319, 
Harrow-road, W. Daily, 9.30 a.m. 
to 5 p.m. ; Saturdays, 9.30 a.ni. to 
1 p.m. 

Registrars of Births and Deaths. 

Paddington (North). — A. F. 
Coombes, the Register Office, 313- 
319, Harrow-road, Mondays, Tues- 
days, Wednesdays, ThursOays, and 
Fridays, 9.30 a.m. to 12 noon and 
3 to 5 p.m. ; Saturdays, 9.30 a.m. to 
12 noon ; Fridays, 7 to 9 p.m. 

Paddington (Central). — W. 
H. Cook, the Register Office, 313- 
319, Harrow-road. Mondays, Tues- 
days, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and 
Fridays, 9.30 a.m. to 12 noon, and 
3 to f5 p.m. ; Saturdays, 9!30 a.m, to 
12 noon ; Fridays, 7 to 9 p.m. 

Paddington (South).— F. J. J. 
House, the Register Office, 313-319, 
Harrow-road. Mondays, Tuesdays, 
Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Fri- 
days, 9.30 a.m. to 12 noon, and 3 to 
5 p.m.; Saturdays, 9.30 a.m. to 12 
noon. Mr. House also attends at 
28, Star- street, on Mondays and 
Wednesdays, 1 to 2 p.m. ; Fridaj^s, 
5.30 to 6.30 p.m. 

Registrar of Marriages, 

W. Kirk, 313-310, Harrov/-road, 
W. 



Registration of Births^ Deaths, and Marriages, 



239 



Sivperintendent Registrar — A . 
Sheffield, 114, Gough-street, PopJar. 
Daily, 10 a.in. to 4 p.m. ; Saturdays, 
10 a.m. to 1 p.m. 
Usgistrars of Births and Deaths. 

Poplar.— K. O. Hobday, 206, 
East India Dock-road, Poplar. 
Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, 
6 to 9 p.m. ; Tuesdays, Thursdays, 
and Saturdays, 3 to 6 p.m. 

Bromley. — F. Butler, 72, 
Bow - road, Bromley. Mondays, 
Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Fri- 
days, 3 to 7 p.m. ; Thursdays and 
Saturdays, 10 to 12. 

Bow.— H. Wilkins, Addington- 
road. Bow. Daily, 6 to 8 p.m. 
Registrars of Marriages. 

J. Bellsham, 161, Abbott-road 
Bromley. Daily, 6 to 8 p.m. K. G. 
Hobday, 205, East India Dock-road, 
Poplar. 

ST. GEORGE. HANOVER SQUARE. 

Superintendent Registrar — T. 
Worlock, Register Office, Prince's- 
row, Buckingham Palace-road, S. W. 
Registrars of Births and Deaths. 

Mayfair and Knightsbridge. 
H. T. Hamilton, St. George's 
(Hanover - square) Hall, Mount- 
street. Daily, 10 a.m. to 11.30 a.m. ; 
and Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and 
Thursdays, 3 to 4 p.m.; and at 
Brompton Schools, Knightsbridge, 
Mondays and Thursdays, 5 to 8p.m. 

Bklgravb.— Louis C. Mount- 
stephen, 174, Warwick-street,Ebury- 
bridge, S.W. Daily, 10 a.m. to 1 
p.m., and on Tuesdays and Fridays 
d p.m. to 8 p.m. 

St. Margaret and St. John. 
— C. 0. Elkerton, 4, Bessborough- 
street, S.W. Tuesdays, Thursdays, 
and Saturdays, 9 to 11 a.m. ; Mon- 
days, Wednesdays, and Fridays, 6 
to 8 p.m. 

Registrars of Marriages. 

H. T. Hamilton, St. George's 
(Hanover- square) Hall, Mount- 



street. W.; C. E. Johnson, 13, 
Ranelagh - grove, S.W. ; W. H. 
Fieldinp:, 43, Old Queen - street, 
Westminster, S.W. 

8T. GEORGE- IN-THB EAST. 

Superintendent Registrar — R. M, 
Lochner, Register Office, Raine- 
street, Old Gravel-lane. 

Registrar of Births and Deaths. 
C. Barratt, 218, Cable-street, B. 

ST. GILES. 

Superintendent Registrar — J. 
Appleton, Guardians' Offices, 67, 
Bro id-street, W.C. 

Registrar of Births and Deaths. 

St. Giles and Bloomsbury. 
— S. Ashley, Guardians* Offices, 67, 
Broad-street, W.d Daily, 11 a.m. 
to 1 p.m., and on Wednesdays from 
5 to 6 p.m. 

Registrar of Marriages. 
E. A. Newbery, Guardians' Offices, 
57, Broad-street, W.C. 

Sr. CLAVE. BERHIONOSEY. 

Superintendent Registrar — E. 
Pitts Fenton, Union Offices, 283, 
Tooley-street, S.E. 

Registrars of Births and Deaths. 

St. Olavb.— W. Clark. 6, Maze- 
pond-terrace, St. Thomas-street, 
S.E. 

Bermondsby.— C. H. Hurst, 25 
Upper Grange-road, Bermondsey, 
S.E. 

Rotherhithe. — Francis H. 
Thomas, 84, Lower-road, Rother- 
hithe, S.E. 

ST. PANCRA8. 

Superintendent Registrar — Alfred 
A. Millward, Town Hall, Pancras- 
road. 
Registrars of Births and Deaths, 
North St. Pancras. — W. 
Wheatley, 48, Highgate - road, 
Kentish Town. 9 a.m. to 12 noon, 
and 6 p.m. to 8 p.m.; Thursdays 
and Saturdays, 9 a.m. to 12 noon 
only. 



240 



Registration of Births, Deaths, and Marriages. 



East St. Pancras. — W. H. 
Culpin, 64, Camden-square. 9 a.m. 
to 12 noon, and 6 p.m. to 8 p.m. 
daily; Thursdays and Saturdays, 
9 a.m. to 12 noon only. 

West St. Panobas. — T. W. 
Parkin, 65, Gloucester - crescent, 
Reeent's Park. 9 a.m. to 12 noon, 
and from 6 p.m. to 8 p.m. ; Thurs- 
days and Saturdays, 9 a.m. to 12 
noon only. 

South St. Pancras. — R. C. 
Cowie, 38, Argyle-square, W.C. 
9 a.m. to 12 noon, and 6 p.m. to 

8 p.m. ; Thursdays and Saturdays, 

9 a.m. to 12 noon only. 

Registrars of Marriages. 

John E. Stevens, 62, Highgate- 
road, Kentish Town. 3 p.m. to 9 

E.m., and at any other time when at 
ome; Edwin Stevens, 9, Caver- 
sham- road, any time when at home. 

SHOREDITCH. 

Superintendent Registrar — R. 
Clay, Register Office, 213, Kings- 
land - road, N.E. Deputy — B. 
Roberts. 

Registrars of Births and Deaths. 

Shoreditch, South. — F. J. 
Lockyer, 2, Great Chart-st. Deputy 
— E. *W. Cranston. 

Shoreditch, North West. — 
C. H. Waterer, 94, New North-road. 
Deputy — Miss Davis. 

Shoreditch, North East.— 
E. J. Sibley, 58, Queen's - road, 
Dalston. Deputy — Miss Sibley. 

Each of the above Registrars 
attends at his office as follows: — 
Daily from 10 a.m. to 1 p.m. ; Mon- 
days and Wednesdays from 6 to 

p.m. 

Registrar of Marriages. 

J, C. Clay, 213, Kingsland-road. 

Deputy — W. H. Williams, i^tten- 

dance as required. Notice of 

Marriage, where either or both the 



parties reside within the district, 
should be ^iven to the Superin- 
tendent Registrar. 



SOUTH WAR K. 

Superintendent Registrar — 
Howard C. Jones, 85, Blackfriars- 
road. 

Registrars of Births and Deaths. 

Christ Church and St. 
Saviour. — F. Drewett, Public 
Library, 44a, Southwark-bridge- 
road. Deputy— J. J. Millington. 
Daily from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m. ; 
Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, 
6 to 8 p.m. 

Kent Road.— J. C. Mather, 216, 
New Kent-road. Deputy — Mrs. 
Mary Symmons. Mondays, Wed- 
nesdays, Fridays, and Saturdays, 
10 a.m. to 12 noon; Tuesdays and 
Thursdays, 5 to 7 p.m. 

St. - George - the - Martyr, 
West.— Thomas Haynes, 39, West- 
square. Deputy— J, W. Ward. 
Daily, from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m. ; and 
daily (except Wednesdays and 
Saturdays), from 6 to 8 p.m. 

Newington, North. — T. J. 
Washford, 06, Falmouth-road, New 
Kent-road. Deputy — J. S. Beck- 
with, 94, Newington Butts. Daily, 
from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m. ; and daily 
(except Saturdays), from 6 to 8 p.m. 

Newington, South. — T. H. 
Baker, 61, Lorrimore-road, WaU 
worth-road. Deputy-- Albert Wad- 
dell, 35, Lorrimore-road, Walworth. 
Daily from 10 a.m. to 1 p.m. ; and 
daily (except Saturdays), from 6 to 
8 p.m. 

Registrars of Marriages, 

T. J. Washford, 66, Falmouth- 
road. Deputy—^. S. Beckwith, 94 
Newington Butts. T. H. Baker, 
61, Lorrimore-road. Deputy — A.' 
Waddell, 35, Lorrimore road. 



Registration of Births, Deaths, and Marriages, 241 

Tuesdays,Wednesdays, and Fridays, 
5.30 to 7.30 p.m. 

S.-W. Battersea.— W. Griffin, 
jun., 47, Lavender-gardens, Laven- 
der-hill, S.W. Mondays, Wednes- 
days, and Fridays, 2 to 4 p.m. ; 
Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Satur- 
days, 10 a.m. to|12 noon. And at 69, 
Bridge-road-west, Battersea, Tues- 
days and Fridays, 7 to 8 p.m. 

Clapham.— W. G. Pinhorn, 115, 
High-stre t, Clapham. Mondays, 
Wednesdays, and Fridays, 5 to 7 
p.m. ; Tuesdays and Thursdays, 9 to 
11 a.m. and 3 to 5 p.m. Saturdays, 
9 to 11 a.m. 

Putney.— Mrs. A. Hudson, 54, 
Disraeli-road, Putney. Mondays, 
Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Satur- 
days, 10 a.m. to 12 noon. Tuesdays 
and Fridays, 6 to 8 p.m. 

Streatham.— C. T. Smith, 45, 
Mitcham-lane, Streatham : Daily, 

9 to 11 a.m. ; Tuesdays and Thurs- 
days, 6 to 8 p.m. ; and at 338, Balham 
High-road, S.W. Mondays, Wed- 
nesdays, and Fridays, 5 to 8 p.m.; 
and Tuesdays and Thursdays, 2 to 

5 p.m. 

Wandsworth, Springfield. 
— F. Howick, 140, Earls field-road, 
Wandsworth. Mondays and 'I'hurs- 

6 to 8 p.m. ; Tuesdays and Satur- 
days, 9 to 11 a.m.; Wednesdays and 
Fridays, 3 to 5 p.m. 

Wandsworth (Southfields). 
— W. Y. Minter, 14, Putney Bridge- 
road, Wandsworth. Mondays, Wed- 
nesdays, Thursdays, and Satu days, 

10 a.m. to 12 noon; Tuesdays and 
Fridays, 6 p.m. to 8 p.m. 

Begistrars of Marriages. 

W. Griffin, jun., 47, Lavender- 
gardens, Lavender - hill ; or 69, 
Brid^e-road-west, Battersea. W. 
G. Pmhom, 115, High- street, Clap- 
ham. C. T. Smith, 45, Mitcham- 
lane, Streatham, or 338, Balham 
I 2 



STEPNEY. 

Superintendent Registrar — T. G. 
Stacey, Guardians' Offices, Barnes-" 
street, Ratcliff. 

Registrars of Births and Deaths. 
Limehouse.— J. S. Capes, 272, 
Burdett-road. 

Eatcliffe, Shadwell, and 
Wapping.— F. (irout, Guardians' 
Offices, Barnes-street. 

Registrar of Marriages. 
A. J. Smith, Guardians' Offices, 
Barnes-street. 



Superintendent Registrar — A. H. 
Maddocks, 15, Henrietta - street, 
W.C. Deputy— W. D. Parkhouse. 

Registrar of Births and Deaths. 

Strand (including St. Mar- 
tin-in-the-Fields, St. Clement 
Danes, St. Mary-le-Strand, St. 
Paul, Covent Garden Liberty 
OF THE3 Rolls, and Precinct of 
the Savoy).-- J. F. Pink, 1, Bed- 
fordbury, W.C. Deputy — John 
Benner. 

Registrar of Marriages. 
T. Cradduck, 15, Henrietta-street, 
W.C. Peputy—W. C. Hasted. 

WANDSWORTH. 

Superintendent Registrar — A. N. 
Henderson, Barrister -at -Law, 47, 
Lavender- gardens, S.W. Deputy — 
W. A. de Jong, 47, Lavender- 
gardens, S.W. 

Registrars of Births and Deaths, 
E. Battersea.— W. T. L. Bray, 
292, Queen's-road, Battersea - park, 
S.W. Mondays, Thursdays, and 
Fridays, 3 to 7 p.m. Tuesdays, 
Wednesdays, Fridays, and Satur- 
days, 10 a.m. to 1 p.m. 

K-W. Battersea.— F. H. Baker, 
16, Ingrave-street, Battersea, S.W. 
Every week day, 10 a.m. to 12 noon. 



242 



Registration of Births^ Deaths^ and Marriages, 



High-road, Uppr Tooting. F. 
Howick, \¥), Earlsfield-road, Wands- 
worth; or Northiield Lodge, Putney- 
bridge-road. F. Udall, 144, Upper 
Kicmnond, Putney. 

WESTMINSTER. 

Superintendent Registrar — W. 
Lee, 49, Poland-street, W. Deputy 
— W. G. CoUard. 

Registrar of Births and Deaths. 

Dr. Percy J. Edmunds, o, Great 
Marlborough-street. Deputy — F. 
M. Matheson. 

Registrar of Marriages. 

Joseph P Bond, 49, Poland-street, 
W. Deputy— E. A. H. Jenkins, 
49, Poland-street, W. 

WHITECHAPEL/ 

Superintendent Registrar — F. J. 
Tootell, Register-office, 74, Vallance- 
road, N.E. 

Registrars of Birihs and Deaths. 

Spitalfields.— A. F. Brady, 
18, Steward-street, E. Daily, 9 to 
10 a.m. and (except Wednesdays 
and Saturdays) 5 to 7 p.m. 

Mile End New Town.— J. E. 
Brown, 150, Whitechapel-road, E. 
Daily, 10 to 12 a.m. ; Mondays, 
Wecmesdays, and Fridays, 5 to 
7 p.m. 

Goodman's Fields. — W. F. 
Grace, 1, Leman-street, E. Tues- 
days, Thursdays, and Saturdays, 
10 to 12 a.m. ; Mondays, Wednes- 
days, and Fridays, 5 to 7 p.m. 



Begistra.rs of Marriages. 
W. F. Grace. 1, Leman-street, E.; 
E. Bacon, Register-office, 74, Yal- 
lance-road, N.E. 

WOOLWICH. 

Superintendent Registrar — T. 
Cutter, Barrister-at-Law, 30, Rec- 
tory-place. Deputy— J. W. Court, 
61, Ueathwood-gardens, Charlton. 

Registrars of Births and Deaths. 

Charlton (including Kid- 
brooke).— J. Wilson, 121, Church- 
lane. Deputy — Miss Wilson. Tues- 
days, Wednesdays, and Thursdays, 
8.30 to 10.30 a.m.; Mondays and 
Fridays, 6 1 > 8 p.m. 

Woolwich. — D. Stewart, 68, 
Brewer-street, Woolwich. Deputy 
—J. E. Hanson. Daily, 9 to 11 
a.m., and Mondays, Wednesdays, 
and Fridays, 6 to 8 p.m.; Tues- 
days and Thursdays, 2 to 4 p.m. 

East Plumstead. — W. T. Vin- 
cent, 189, Burrage-road. Deputy — 
Mrs. Vincent. At Burrag«-road 
(daily), 8.30 to 9.30 a.ni. ; Tuesdays, 
5 to 6.3() p.m. At Dispensary, 47, 
Parkdale-road, Mondays, 10 a.m. to 
noon ; Thursdays, 5.30 to 7.30 p.m. 

West Plumstead.— Miss Isabel 
Anderson, 44, Bloomfield-road, . 
Plumstead. Deputy, E. W. Carter. 
Mondays and Fridays, 6 to 8 p.m. ; 
Thiesdays and Thursdays, 10 a.m. 
to noon. 

Registrar of Marriages. 

C, H. L. James, .Register Office, 
Rectory - place. Deputy — Edwin 
Kirkby, 24, Victoria-road, Charlton. 



District Surveyors. 



243 



DISTRICT SURVEYORS UNDER THE LONDON BUILDING 
ACT, 1894. 

The district stirveyors administer the London Building Acts (1894 to 
1905), under the County Council. They are the officials to whom notice 
should be given and plans submitted of all building operations or altera- 
tions to buildings, and they are paid by fees. Office hours, from 10 to 4, 
except when otherwise stated. 



Batterssa. — Central : W. J. Hard- 
castle, 73, Mamey-road. Souths and 
part of Wandsworth : H. Cheston, 
35, Belleville-road, Wandsworth- 
common. North : See " Lambeth." 

Bermondsey. — V. J. Grose, 13, 
Railway-approach, London-bridge. 

Bethncd Green, East, and South 
Bow—'K. Street, 109, Bow-road. 
West: B. P. Notley, 11, Paradise- 
row, Bethnal Green-road. 

Bromley St. Lemard. — E. Street 
(Interim D.S.), 109, Bow-road, E. 

CamlterwelL—'Sl. Marsland, 244, 
Camberwell-road, 9.30 to 5. 

Catford. — B. D. Hansom, 39, 
Culverley-road, Catford, S.E., 9.30 
to 5. 

Charlton, Kidhrooke, and I/ee. — 
A. A. FiUary (Interim D.S.), 5, 
Lee-road and 83, Belmont-hill, Lee, 
S.B.,9.30to5. 

Clielsea. — T. E. Mundy, 6, Lincoln- 
street, King's-road, 9.30 to 5. 

City of London.— East : J. Todd, 
Hamilton House, 149. Bishopsgat^- 
street Without, E.C., 9.30 to 5. 
South: E. Power, 97, Queen Victoria- 
street, 9.30 to 3.45. West: C. W. 
Surrey, 134, Fleet-street, E.G., 9.30 
to 5. 



Cktpham. — W. Grellier, 188, 
High-street, Clapham. 

Dep*ford. — East and Greenwich : 
B. Tabberer, Borough Hall. Royal- 
hill, Greenwich. 

Finslniry.—^. Carritt, 20, Wil- 
mington-square, Clerkenwell. 

^Fulham.—North : A. P. Stokes, 
Broadway House, Walham-green, 
9.30 to 5. South : J. A. G. Knight, 
mi, Pulham-road, 8.W., 9.30 to 5. 

Hackney. — North -East : H. A. 
Legge, 360, Mare-street, 9.30 to 5. 
South-East and North Bow : A. 
Payne, 10, St. Thomas'-square. 
West : H. A. Legge, 360, Mar.- 
street, 9.30 to 5. 

Hammersmith. — A. H. W. 
Glasson, 3, The Grove, 9.30 to 5. 

Hampstead. — F. Hammond, 305, 
Finchley-road, 9.30 to 5. 

Holhorn. — W. G. Perkins, 6, 
Raymond - buildings. Grays Inn, 
W.C, 9.30 to-5. 

Islington. — North and St. Fan- 
cras North : J. Goodchild, Bank 
Chambers, Parkhurst-road, Hollo- 
way, 9.30 to 5. South and Shore- 
ditch : H. Lovegrove, 169, Shoreditch 
High-street, 9.30 to 5. 



244 



Distmct Surveyors. 



Kensington—^. F. Clarkson, 17a, 
Vicara^e-gute, Kensing1x)n, 9.tJ0 to 5. 

Lambeth. — Central and Isonh 
Battersea : C. T. Coffgin, dO, Ken- 
nington Oval, 9.30 to .5. tlonth : 
P. Hunter, 53, Clapham-road, S.W., 
9.;}0 to 5. 

Lewisham — East: E. W. Lees, 
3, Lewisham-bridge, Loampit-vale, 
S.E., 9.30 to r>. 

Leu'isliam — West: W. R Davidge, 
301 A, Brockley-road, S.E., 9.30 to 5. 

Mile End and Lhnehouse — H. N. 
Kerr, 13, Graf ton-street, E. 9.30 to 
^• 

Newington and pa rt of St. George 
the Martyr, Soiithwark — B. J. 
Dicksee, 14 and 16, JN'ew Kent-road, 
9.30 t J 5. 

Norwood : West — A. G. Morrice, 
(Interim D.S.), 8, Knight's-hill, S.E., 
9.30 to 5. 

Paddington. — F. W. Hamilton, 
195, Edgware-rodd, W., 9.30 to 5. 

Plnmstead and Eltham. — T. Bat- 
t«;rbury, 97, Griffin-road, Flumstead, 
and Park House, Court - roa<l, 
Eltham. 

Poplar. All Sa'uit8.—3. Clarkson, 
136, High- street. Poplar. 

l*utney and Poehanipion. — T. W. 
Willis, 9, Hotham-road, Putney, 
9U)5. 

Potherhifhe. Hatcham, and St. 
George-hi'the-East.—A. W. Tanner, 
114, Lo\> 3r-road, Rotherhithe, and 
334, Commercial-road East, 9.30 to 5. 

St. George, IfanTer Square. — 
Xortli : T. H. Watson, 9, C^onduit- 
streot, 9 to 5. >S7. George. Ilanorer- 
siiiare, Belgrave and Pinilico : 8. F. 



Monier - Williams, 83a, Chester- 
square, 9.JiO to 5. 

St. Janies, Westmmster. — L. R. 
Ford, 60, Haymarket, S. W., 9.30 to 
5. 

St. Margaret, St. John, and Sf. 
Peter, Westminster.— E. D. Drurj', 
25, Queen Anne's-gate, 10 to 5. 

.S7. Marylebone. — A. Ashbridge, 
17, York-place, Portman- square, 
W., 9.30 to 5. 

St.^ Pancras.— South : F. Wallen, 
96. Gower-street, 10 to 5. 

St. Sariours, part of St. George, 
and Christ Church, Southicark, 
and Xorth Lambeth.— 'K. R. Hewitt, 
182, Black friars-road. . 

Stoke Xewington. — J. D.Mathews, 
171, Church-street. 

Strand.— O. C. Hills, 60, Hay- 
market, S.W., 9.30 to 5. 

Streatham — East, and Ttdse 
Hill— A. G. Morrice, 71,^ Christ- 
church-road, Tulse-hill. West : W. 
H. Stevens, 186, Balham-high-road, 

8.W., y.:J0to5. 

Sydenham.— (x. Tolley, 4. Dart- 
mouth-road. Forest-hill, 9.30 to 5. 

Wandsa-orih — East and Tooting 
Grareney — G. Aitchison, R.A., 12-5, 
Trinity-road, Upper Tooting. West : 
R. E. Smith, Bank Chambers, High- 
street, Wandsworth, 9.30 to 5. 

Whitechapel, Spitalfields, Mile 
Endyeii' Town, and Tower Liberty. 
— A. Crow, Hamilton House, 149, 
Bishopsgate- street Without, E.G., 
9.30 to 5. 

Woolwich. -A. Conder, 21, AVil- 
liam-street. 



2.ocal ^obermitg: autborittes* 



METROPOLITAN BOROUQH' COUNCILS. 

The London Government Act, 1899, which came into operation on 9th 
November, 1900, abolished the vestries and district boards, and provided 
for the division of the Administrative County of London (exclusive of the 
City of London) into 28 metropolitan boroughs, and for the incorporation 
oE councils for such boroughs, each to consist of a mayor and not more 
than 10 aldermen and 60 councillors. As the result of the alterations 
made under the Act in the county boundary the area of the County of 
London was reduced by 619 acres. 

The borough councils have had transferred to them all the powers, 
duties, property, and liabilities (other than those relating to the affairs of 
the Church) of the old local authorities ; the powers of the London County 
Council under Sections 84, 134, and 199 of the London Building Act, 1894, 
relating to the licensing of wooden structures, the removal of sky signs, 
and obstructions in streets respectively ; the power under Section 28 of the 
Public Health Act, 1891, of registering dairymen; the maintenance of 
roads which at the passing of the Act were main roads ; the maintenance, . 
if required by the County Council, of roadways and footways of bridges 
embankments, etc., and the enforcement of bye-laws and regulations with 
respect to dairies and milk-shops, slaughterhouses, knackers' yards, and 
offensive businesses. 

The borough councils have, concurrently with the London County 
Council, powers under Sections 170 and 197 of the London Building Act, 
l'!94, relating respectively to the demolition of buildings erected in con- 
travention of the Act, and the taking of proceedings in respect of the 
illegal stacking of timber; under Sections 17 to 25 of the Metropolis 
Water Act, 1871, with respect to the regulations of water companies; 
under Section 7 of the Eailway and Canal Traffic Act, 1888, to make com- 
plaints or appear in opposition to complaints before the Eailway and 
Canal Commissioners ; under Section 65 of the Local Government Act, 
1888, relatin<f to the acquisition of land ; under Part III. of the Housing 
of the Working Classes Act, 1890 ; and under Section 23 of the Municipal 
Corporations Act, 1882, as applied by Sec. 16 of the Local Government 
Act, 1888, to make bye-laws for the good rule and government of the 
borough. 

Further powers may be transferred from the London County Council to 
the br»rouffh councils, or vice-versa, by Provisional Order of the Local 



246 Borough Councils. 



Government Board, on the application of the London County Conncil and 
of the majority of the borough councils. The Local Government Board 
may also, on joint application by the London County Council and the 
Corporation of the City of London, make a Provisional Order transferring 
any power from the London County Council to the Common Council, or 
from the Common Council to the London County Council. 

The sanction of the London County Council under Section 84 of the 
Metropolis Management Amendment Act, 1862, is not necessary before 
the closing or stopping up of streets by borough councils; and the 
borough councils are given a right of appeal to the Local Government 
Board in the event of the refusal of the London County Council to 
sanction loans, against the conditions of such sanction, or if the loan is not 
sanctioned within six months after application has been made. 

Subject to the consent of the Local Government Board, the borough 
councils may alienate land vested in them, other than any recreation 
ground or open space dedicated to the use of the public or land held on 
trusts which prohibit building thereon. 

The borough councils are the authorities for adopting and administering 
the Adoptive Acts, i.e., the Baths and Washhouses Acts, 1846 to 1896 ; 
the Burial Acts, 1852 to 1885 ; and the Public Libraries Acts, 1^2 and 
1893 ; and have the same powers of promoting and opposing Bills in Par- 
liament, and of prosecuting or defending any legal proceedmgs necessary 
for the promotion or protection of the interests of the inhabitants of their 
boroughs, as are conferred on borough councils outside London by the 
Borough Funds Act, 1872. 

The council of each borough is the overseer of every parish within 
its borough, and the town clerk has the powers, duties, and liabilities 
of overseer with respect to the preparation of the lists of voters and of 
jury lists, and is the town clerk within the meaning of the Acts relating 
to the registration of electors. 

Under the Act great changes have been made in the system of London 
rating. As from 1st April, 1901, the sepaiate sewers and lighting rates 
have Deen discontinued, and all the expenses of the borough councus paid 
out of one rate, termed the general rate. Where a borough comprises 
more than one parish, the amount to be raised to meet the expenses of the 
borough council, or other sums payable as part of those expenses, is, 
subject to any provision required for the adiustment of loc^ burdens, 
divided between the parishes in proportion to tneir rateable value. Where 
any of the adoptive Acts or any local or other Act does not extend to the 
whole borough, any rate required to meet ihe expenses of such Act is 
raised as an additional item of the general rate over the area to which the 
Act extends. As between landlord and tenant, every tenant who, if the 
Act had not been passed, would have been entitled to deduct against or to 
be repaid by his landlord any sum paid by the tenant on account of the 
sewers rate, is in like manner entitled to deduct against or to be repaid by 
his landlord such pjortion of the general rate as represents the sewers rate. 
All rates collected in a metropolitan borough by the borough council are, 
as far as is practicable, to be levied upon one demand note, which is to be 
in a form approved by the Local Government Board, and to contain 
certain particulars prescribed by the Act. Where the whole of a poor-law 
union is within one borough, the Assessment Committee is appointed by the 
V)orough council instead of by the board of guardians, and, where the 



Borough Councils. 



247 



borongh comprises the whole of two or more unions, the borough council 
appoints only one Assessment Committee for those unions. 

Every borough council must appoint a Finance Committee for regulating 
and controlling its finances, and no order for payment of any sam may be 
made by a borough council except in prarsuance of a resolution of the 
council passed on the recommendation of its Finance Committee ; and any 
cost, debt, or liability exceedinff fifty pounds may not be incurred except, 
upon a resolution of the council passed on an estimate submitted by the 
Finance Committee. The accounts of the borough councils are made up 
annually to 31st March, and are audited by the Local Government Board 
in the same way as the accounts of the London County Council. 



ELECriaN RE8JLT8. 

Elections for the Borough Councils take place triennially — ^an arrange- 
ment that was made upon the almost unanimous request of the Borough 
Councils. The results at the three elections —1900, 1903, and 1906— have 
been as follows : — 





f 


-i9oa- 


Ind. ' 


f 


-1908. X 

Ind. 


/ — 


-1006. 


lod.^ 


Name of Borough. 


Progs. 


Mods. 


&Lab. 


Progs. 


Mods. & Lab. 




Mods. 


&Lab. 


Battersea ... 


.. 37 .. 


. 17 ... 


— 


.. 33 


... 16 ... — .. 


. 29 . 


.. 25 . 


~ 


Bennondsey 


.. 25 .. 


. 27 ... 


2 


.. 24 


... 28 ... 2 .. 


. 23 . 


.. 31 . 


.. — 


Bethnal Green 


.. 22 ... 


. 8 ... 


— 


.. 27 


... 3 ... — .. 


. 30 . 


.. — . 


.. — 


Camberwell 


.. 33 .. 


. 23 ... 


4 . 


.. 46 


... 9 ... 6 .. 


. 10 . 


.. 36 . 


.. 16 


Chelsea 


.. 15 .. 


. 21 ... 


— . 


.. 15 


... 21 ... — .. 


. 2 . 


.. 34 . 


_ 


Deptford ... 


.. 16 .. 


. 20 ... 


— , 


.. 18 


... 17 ... 1 .. 


. 1 . 


.. 23 . 


.. 12 


Finsbury ... 


.. 13 .. 


. 15 .. 


26 . 


.. 32 


... 19 ... 3 .. 


. 16 . 


.. 32 . 


6 


Fulham ... . 


.. 21 .. 


. 14 ... 


1 . 


.. 18 


... 16 ... 2 .. 


— 


.. .36 . 


— 


Greenwich... 


.. 12 .. 


. 18 ... 


— 


.. 14 


... 14 ... 2 .. 


. 9 . 


.. 2) . 


.. 1 


Hackney ... 


.. 22 .. 


. 37 ... 


2 


.. 49 


... 11 ... — .. 


. 22 . 


.. 23 . 


.. 15 


Hammersmith 


.. 8 .. 


. 26 ... 


2 . 


9 


... 23 ... 4 .. 


— 


.. 15 . 


.. 21 


Hampstead... 


.. 13 ... 


23 ... 


6 


.. — 


... - ... 42 .. 


. 13 ., 


,. 29 . 


,. — 


Holbom ... 


.. 3 ... 


39 ... 


— 


4 


... 37 ... 1 .. 


. 4 . 


.. 35 . 


.. 3 


Islington ... 


.. 10 .., 


, 48 ... 


2 . 


.. 34 


... 26 ... — .. 


. — 


.. 59 . 


1 


Kensington... 


.. 10 ... 


, 49 ... 


1 


.. 15 


... 45 ... - .. 


. 5 ., 


.. 48 . 


.. 7 


Lambeth ... 


.. 25 ... 


. 35 ... 


— 


.. 25 


... 34 ... — .. 


. 4 .. 


. 55 . 


.. 1 


LeWisham ... 


.. 7 ... 


, 35 ... 


— 


.. 34 


... 6 ... 2 .. 


— 


. 42 . 





Paddington... 


.. 10 ... 


43 ... 


7 


.. 24 


... 36 .. - .. 


. 8 .'. 


. 49 . 


3 


Poplar 


.. 20 ... 


21 ... 


1 . 


.. 18 


... 15 ... 9 .. 


. 9 .. 


. 23 . 


.. 10 


St. Marylebone . 


.. 13 ... 


47 ... 


— . 


.. 23 


... 37 ... - .. 


. 6 .. 


. 53 ., 


.. 1 


St. Pancras ... 


.. 21 .. 


. 39 ... 


— 


.. 40 


... 20 ... — .. 


. 12 .. 


. 48 . 


.. — 


Shoreditch ... 


.. 28 ... 


13 ... 


1 


.. 16 


... 26 ... - .. 


. 12 .. 


. 30 .. 


„ — 


Soothwark ... 


. 14 ... 


15 ... 


1 


.. 39 


... 21 ... — .. 


. 27 .. 


. 32 ., 


.. 1 


Stepney 


. 25 ... 


31 ... 


4 . 


.. 23 


... 21 . 16 .. 


. 14 .. 


. 42 . 


.. 4 


•Stoke Newington.. 


. — ... 


— ... 


30 . 


.. — 


... — ... 30 .. 


. — .. 


-. — .. 


.. 30 


Wandfiworth 


,. 2 ... 


57 ... 


1 


.. 18 


... 42 ... - .. 


. — 


. 58 .. 


.. 2 


Westminster 


8 ... 


49 ... 


3 


.. 17 


... 43 ... - .. 


1 .. 


. 56 .. 


.. 3 


Woolwich ... . 


.. 10 ... 


, 24 ... 


2 . 


.. — 


... 8 ... 28 .. 


. 13 .. 


. 22 .. 


.. 1 




♦ Not fought on the 


u:ual party liue^. 









248 



Borough Councils. 



BATTERSEA. 

Town Hall; Battersea, S.W. 



(Meetings : Second and 



fourth Wednesdays 
August, at 7 p.m.) 



in the month, except 



The borough of Battersea practi- 
cally comprises the area of the parish 
of Battersea. For Poor Law pur- 
poses Battersea forms part of 
the Wandsworth Union; for 
electoral purposes it torms part 
of the Parliamentary borough of 
Battersea and Clapham — namely, 
the whole of the Battersea division 
and part of the Clapham division. 
It contains an area of about three 
and a-half square miles. It 
was not until 184.5, when it had a 
population of 7,500, that Battersea 
obtained a local Act for elementary 
local government administration. 
In 1855, with a population of 140,000, 
it was only of sufficient importance 
to be added to five other parishes 
to form the Wandsworth District ; 
but after 1861 its progress was rapid. 
From a population of less than 
20,000 in 1861 it grew to 54,016 
in 1871, 107,262 in 1881, 150,558 
in 1891, 165,115 in 1896, and 
168,907 in 1901. The estimated 
population for 1908 is 183,873. 
In 1888 it obtained local govern- 
ment independence, and has con- 
sistently taken advantage of 
every provision for local efficiency. 
The council has now under its 
own control baths, cemeteries, and 
libraries, as well as electricity 
supply, and the Municipal Build- 
ings on Lavender-hill are among 
the finest in London. 

The borough is very fully deve- 
loped : on the area available for 
building it contains 85 persons 
to the acre, thus leaving but a 
small margin for an increased 
population in healthy conditions. 
There is in the borough a rather 
large proportion of small houses, 
ai-d Itncn-cnls cf Ihiee cr lot.r 



rooms form 37J per cent, of all the 
tenements in the borough. This is 
not accompanied by a large pro- 
portion of overcrowding; the pro- 
portion of overcrowding in Battersea 
baiiigonly 14^ per cent., as compared 
with 19 ff per cent, for London at 
large and -10 per cent, in the East 
End. 

In open spaces Battersea is 
fortunate in having Battersea Park 
and large parts of Clapham Com- 
mon and Wandsworth Common, be- 
sides small public gardens contain- 
ing in all some 400 acres, or one-fifth 
of the area of the whole borough. 

It is not surprising, then, to find 
that the borough is healthy. The 
death rate in 1907 was only 13*3 
per 1,000 persons living. 

The Council has erected a mor- 
tuary and coroner's court, disinfect- 
ing stat on, and established the 
fir t nietropolitan municipal milk 
depot. The number of children 
fed on the milk during 1907 was 
618. 

The rateable value of the 

borough is £1,061,978. 

The borough council consists of 
9 aldermen and 54 councillors. The 
borough is divided into 9 wards. 

Baths and Wash-Houses. 

(Latchmere-road.) 

Last year the number of bathers 
and washers was 253,907. Charges : 
Private baths : warm, 6d. and 2d. ; 
cold, 3d. and Id. ; swimming baths, 
'id., 2d., 3d., and 6d. Charges for 
swimming bath during winter sea- 
tcu; Aduile, Zd.; cLiluicn, Id. The 



Borough Councils. 



249 



baths are opan in summer from 6 
a.m. to 9.30 p.m. (Sundays from 
6 a.m. to 9.30 a.m.), and in winter as 
under : Sundays, from 8 a.m. to 9.30 
a.m. ; Monday to Thursday, from 12 
noon to 8.45 p.m. ; Friday and Satur- 
day, 9 a.m. to 8.45 p.m. The first- 
class bath is fitted up and used as 
a gymnasium during the winter 
months. The gymnasium is open 
daily (Sundays excepted), for males 
only, from 12 noon to 10 p.m. In- 
struction is free, and the tsrms of 
admission are : 2d. adults. Id. boys ; 
weekly tickets, 8c?. and 4d., including 
use of shoes. '1 he second-class swim- 
ming* bath is fitted up and used 
as a recreation-room during the 
winter months. The times of open- 
ing are as f oUows : — M- »nday to 
Friday, 6 to 10 p.m. ; Saturday, 2 
to 10 p.m. The charges for admis- 
sion are: 1^., and 4>d. for weekly 
ticket. JJse of billiard tables : two 
persons, 20 minutes, 2d. ; four per- 
sons, 40 minutes, 4d. Bagatelle, 
chess, draughts, and other games 
are also provided. The wash-houses 
are open on week-days from b a.m. 
to 8 p.m. Charges : l^d. per hour, 
including use of all machines, &c. 

(Nine Elms.) 

Number of bathers and washers 
for the year, 124,637. Charges : 
Private baths, warm, 4d. and 2d ; 
c 'Id, 2d. and Id. ; swimming bath 
(males only), 3d. and 2^. adults, Id. 
boys. The baths are open in sum- 
mer from 6 a.m. t » 9.30 p.m. (Sun- 
days, 6 a.m. to 9.30 a.m.). Private 
baths only during winter: Sun- 
days, 8 a.m. to 9.30 a.m. ; Monday 
to Thur.-»day, 12 noon to 8.45 p.m. ; 
Fridays and Saturdays, 9 a.m. to 
8.45 p.m. The swimming bath is 
fitted up as a hall during the winter, 
and is available for meetings, &c. 
Thewash-h »uses are open on week- 
days from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. Charge: 
Iffoi. per hour including use of all 
machines, &c. 



(Plough-road.) 
Attached to tl^ Plough-road 
Museum and Recreation Rooms, 
opened in September, 1906, are 
private baths for men and women. 
There are four first class baths for 
m-n and four for women; seven 
second cla^js for men and five for 
women. Charges : First class, 4<i. 
warm, 2d. cold ; second class, 2d. warm 
and Id. cold. The men's baths are 
open throughout the year as fol- 
lows : Monday to Friday, 2 to 9,30 
p.m. ; Saturday, 9 a.m. to 9.30 p.m. ; 
Sunday, 8 to 9.30 a.m. The women's 
baths are open daily, Sundays ex- 
cepted, from 2 to 9,30 p.m. throughout 
the year. 

Free Public Libraries. 

Established 1887. The number 
of books issued last year was 
419.215 ; number in stock is 55,233. 
Ceniral library : Lavender-hill, 
S.W. Branch libraries: Lurline- 
gardens, and Lammas Hall, Bridge- 
road West. The libraries are 
open from 8 a.m. to 10 p.m., and on 
Sundays from 3 p.m. to 9 p.m. The 
lending library is open until 9 
p.m., excepting Thursdays, when it 
IS open until 1 p.m. There is a 
reading room for children at each 
library. 

Librariaji -hsiwrence Inkster. 

Social Institute. 

In the autumn of 1906 a composite 
institution of a social character 
was opened in the Plough-road. It 
consists of a museum, gymnasium, 
recreation room, and children's 
reading room. At the back of the 
block are the private baths already 
referred to. The museum is open 
on week days from 12.30 to 9 p.m., 
and on Sundays from 3 to 9 p.m. 
Admission is free. The reading 
room is open free daily from 8 a.m. 
till 10 p m.; on Simdays, 3 to 9 p.m. 
The gymnasium is open daily from 
2 to 10 p.m. The charges for 



250 



Borough Councils. 



admission are : for adults, "M. ; boys 
between 14 and 16, \d. Boys under 
14 are not admitted. The recreation 
room is open daily from 2 to 10 
p.m. A charge of \d. is made for 
admission. Billiards may be played, 
the charts for the use of the 
tables being 2d. for two persons 
for twenty minutes, and \d. f«.r 
four persons for forty minutes. 
Boys under 16 years of age are not 
admitted. The children's reading 
room, to which admission is free, is 
open from Monday to Friday in- 
clusive from 12.30 to 1.30 p.m., and 
5 to 9 p.m.; on Saturdays and 
school holidays from lO a.m. to 
9 p.m. ; and on Sundays from 3 to 
9 p.m. 

Electric Light. 
The borough has electric lighting 
works. (See Electric Light section.) 

Worlcs Department. 

The council's Works Depart- 
ment, which has been in existence 
ten years, si ill continues to 
work successfu ly. The workshops 
are situated in the Battersea-park- 
road. and are equipped with all 
modern machinery for executing 
carpenters', joiners', wheelwrights', 
smiths', and other work. During 
the past year a number of large 
works have been carried out and 
completed. 

Housing. 

The council has adopted the 
Housing of the Working Classes • 
Acts, and has carried out a scheme. 
(See Housing of the Working 
Classes section.) 

Officers. 

Town Cleric — W. Marcus Wilkins. 

Assistant Toivn Clerk — Edwin 
Austin, Barrister-at-Law. 

Accountant — W. H. Ward, A.s.A.A. 

Borough Surveyor — T. W. A. 
Hayward, A.M.I.C.E., &c. 

Solicitor — Paul Caudwell, B.A., 
109, St. John's-hill, S,W. 



Medical Officer of Health — 
G. Q. Lennane, F.R.C.S., &c. 

Public Amilyst—C E. Cassal, 
F.I.C. 

Electrical Engineer — F. A. Bond, 

A.M.I.B.E. 

Chief Sanitary Inspectot — I. 
Young, P.S.I.A., M.R.S.I. 

Sanitary Lupectors — H. Mar- 
rable, A. E. Pumell, A, OdeU, J. 
Herrin, J. Lawrence, H. H. Maj , 
J. T. Baxter, W. E. Benjamin. J. J. 
Burgess, Miss A. Moss, and Miss 
L. M. Fairbairn. 

Foods and Drugs Inspector — A. 
Chuter. 

Rate - Collecting Clerks — District 
1: H. a. Brocking. District 2: 
W. J. Mayes. DistHct 3: F. E. 
Lawrence. District 4 : A. B. Cole. 
District B: F. Schofield. Districts: 
W. T. Franks. DistHct 7: A. J. 
Woodruff. District 8: F. Cathie. 
Office : Town Hall, Battersea, S. W. 
Times of Attendance: Monday, 
Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday 
10 a.m. till 12 noon, and 2 to 4 p.m. ; 
Friday, 10 a.m. to 12 noon, 2 to 4 p.m., 
and 5 to 8 p.m.; Saturday, 10 a.m. 
to 12 noon. 

Matob. 

Alderman F. W. Worthy, j.p., 

170, Battersea Park- road. 

A'LDBRMEir. 

t Evans, W. A.. 157, Broomwood-road. 
♦Joselin, J. E., 81, Beiinerley-roftd. 
tMelville, W., 45, latch mere-grove. 
•Simmons, T. W., 16, Wroughton-road. 
♦Simonds, W. N., 16, Palmerston-street. 
•Waterland, T. C, 4, Brussels-road, 
t Watts, Vi„ 45, Kyrle-ioid. 
tWest, W. J., 30, urayshott-road. 

• Retire in 1909. fUetire in 1912. 

COUNCILLORJ. 

Abel, R. 55, Darien-road. 
Adams, W. A., 52, Kyrle-road. 
AllDutt, J., 16. Biufleld Road, Clapham 
Andrews, W. A„ 24, Matthew's-street. 
Archer, J. R., 55, Erynmaer-iOJ,d. 
Baker, S., 10, Foxmore street. 
Bell. H. 0..3, Highfleld, 42, Northside, 
Wandsworth -common. 



Borough Councils. 



251 



Bean, A. S., 18, Bolton-gardeas, South 
Kenein^ton. 

Bigden, H. C, 229, St. John's-hill. 

Brogan, T. P., 102, York-road. 

Brolly, P., 71, Silverthorne-road 

Brown, J. H., j.p., 110, Castle-street. 

Cassidy, J. J., 41, Mysore-road. 

Chown, J. C, 24, Home-road. 

Clarke, W. P., 5, Chivalry-road. 

Clist, A., 41. Reform-street. 

Cornwall, H. V., 27, Norfolk-mansions. 

Crowe, W., 112, Tyne ham-road. . 

Davies, W., j.p., l.c.c, 18, Alexandra- 
avenue. 

Knit^ry, A.. 11. Uiliivl-gtreet. 
Hritllru H.,54. 1 [ it; h street, 
KiiythomthwiLitt*, I*. P,, 7^, CTapham- 

ifiuiioorj. West HI do, 
Hoyk*. \V.,4, M<>s bury tnafl. 
Hurley, J., BS, Uridgie Kmd'Weftv 
.leffery, J. B., 13. Afbert Bridge roajL 
If ecus. A, 1j.. 98, Kyrk rijjitL 
KetUtjy, G. T., 131. TsvybrldBtvroful. 
Liiua, J. F., 42. L4>iv^ht*age-f!tret?t, 
Light ruijt. R. S., 78, Eectos^ro'id. 



McManus, Dr. L. S., 25, Speacer-paark. 
Macrory, Dr. L. G. F., "Clifton House." 

Cambridge-road. 
Mann, C. J., 25, Verona-street. 
Marsh, S., 52, Mantua-street. 
Moore, W. J., 109, Thurleigh-road. 
Murphy, P., 55, Sabine-road. 
N'ewman. L. 14&, MiKh-Jrtroet, 
XoMfiiiJiii. W., 270, Bj-tttT^^ji Piirk-road. 
Petjria, W. H., 4a, Brux i-ih-mud* 
Prleei, U. T., 5, Loiivaim^ mnii. 
RuiiSoli. .f..&i. Rit¥eii-!ku-rt):if!. 
tt lymotid, \\\, IS, 4*iiU:c!tt roid. 
Iteeti, G. L. K. 90, KyriEJ-rotii, 
Hiwe'i. W., 31, Sii5?d6ii-mj,d. 
Ji^jf^eviiip ti., Ifi. L>ijihlhigLtin'Krove. 
Uiifj^fis. J. W., 123, WiehL-ra ley road. 
ItinjiM'kleit. A, i:,,63, Kyrle-iro'id, 
Smith. H. J., 35. Mort>llrtm.uLt 
Sr,i»rki?y, j;, 123. Uulvert rouL 
Taylor, E. tr., 1L5, N'Ei?-mad* 
T^tyliH'. .L J., 101, Altanburjs eimlsns. 
Whitmt'Ls S,, 279, YorK nnj-d. 
wniitt, W.. 207,*. LiitLbciiere-rciad* 
Wmfli'icl, A., 37. KiiUE»eQ ruLid, 



BERMOND8EY. 

Town Hall: Spa Road, S.E. 



( greeting's : First and third 
The borough is "the area con- 
sisting of the parishes of Rother- 
hithe and Bermondsey, and the dis- 
trict of the St. Olave Board of 
Works " (comprising the parishes of 
Horselydown and St. Olave and St. 
Thonaas, South wark). It is coter- 
minous with the Bermondsey Poor 
Law Parish,but not with the Parlia- 
mentary divisions. It includes the 
whole of the Rotherhithe division 
of the Parliamentary borough of 
Southwark (consisting of Horsely- 
down, St. Olave and Thomas, 
Rotherhitlie, and part of Bermond- 
sey), a Ml the greater portion of the 
Bermondsej' division, a small por- 
tion situate within the boroughs of 
Southwark and Cq^mberwel'. 

In area the borough is 2| square 
miles in extent. It has been 
thickly inhabited since the 70's. 
At the beginning of last century 
the population was 46,281; it 
rose by about 5,000 a decennium 
until 1841, when it was 68,701 ; then 
by 16.500 for two decennia; then by 
20,000 to 1871; between 1871 and 



Tuesdays in each month.) 
1881 it increased less rapidly; in 
1881. it was 134,632, in 1891 136,660, 
in 1895 137,585, and in 1901 130/186. 
As in Southwark, the increasing 
population of more recent years 
has had fewer houses to live in — 
in 1896 a population of 137,585 had 
practically the same number of in- 
habited houses (16,586) as the 1871 
population of 122,398, and 1,112 
fewer than in 1891. In 1891 the 
proportion of overcrowding in 
Rotherhithe was 20*3 per cent., in 
Bermondsey 23'3, and in the St. 
Olave district 27'6 per cent. 
Within the borough there are 
10 open spaces, chief among 
them being Southwark Park; the 
total acreage is 75 out of a total 
acreage of the borough of 1,506. 
The 1907 death rate of the 
borouo-h wa& 18'3. 

Under the Adoptive Acts scheme, 
the Baths and Libraries Acts are 
in force, but the Burial Acts in no 
part of the borough. 

The borough council has 9 alder- 
men and 54 councillors. The local 



252 



Borough Councils. 



bodies which have been superseded 

had a total membership of *^o. The 

boroufifh is divided into 12 wards. 

Electric Lighting. 

The borough council has esta- 
blished an electric lightingr under- 
taking under the powers obtained 
by the old VeRtry of Bermondsey, 
tne only local authority, by the 
way, to which such authority has 
been granted where a con»pany has 
powers to supply electricity in the 
same area. The order only applied 
to the parish of Bermondsey, and 
the borough council accordingly 
obtained an Order which was con- 
firmed by Parliamimt extending 
its powers over the parish of 
Rotherhithe. The site of the works 
adjoins the Town Hall, baths and 
wash-houses, and public library 
in Spa road. A destructor is also 
erected in connection with tlie 
works. The Council has also 
erected stables, workshops, flag- 
making plant, &c., and owns the 
most complete set of municipal 
undertakings in London. The elec- 
tric lightwas switched on in January', 
190*2. (See Electric Light section.) 

The rateable value of the 
borough is £949,08(i; there is no 
agricultural land. 

Public Baths and Wash-Houses. 

(Spa-road.) 

In 1906-7 the total number of 
bathers was 136,561. and washers 
18,594. Charges: Private baths, 
2<T. and 4d.; swimming baths, 2d. 
and id. (children under 14 when 
accompanied by parent or guardian 
2d. first class) ; Winter, first class, 
M.; ticket books of 12 each, 28.; 
Schools, Id. Chutes and new div- 
ing boards added, and baths re- 
decorated. 

(Lower-road.) 

The number of bathers in 1906-7 
was 112,103, and washers 15,236. 
Charges: Same as at Spa-road. 

Superintendent— Thomsis Fey. 



Public Libraries and Museum. 

Central Library (Spa-road). 

Bermondsey adopted the Public 
Libraries Act in 1^7. A large 
and handsome building in the Re- 
naissance style was erected in Spa- 
road, a centrally situated position, 
and was opened for public use in 
January, 1892. The special features 
of the work carried on are (1) the 
library, consisting of 18,620 vols. ; 
circulation (1906-7) 90,570 vols., 
averaging per day 337; open from 
9 a.m. to 9 p.m., Wednesdays 9 to 
1 ; <2) the advertisement pages of 
the daily newspapers are displaj^ed 
at 8 a.m. each morning for the 
convenience of persons seeking 
employment ; (3) the reading- 
rooms, open daily from 9 a.m. to 
9.30 p.m. — daily average atten lane* 
1,652; ( 1) ladies' room, open daily. 

Public Museum. 

The museum, opened in May. 1 9D8 
is located in the former Council 
( Hiamlx^r of the Rotherhithe Town 
Hall, it contains oil paintings of 
local celebrities, a fine colletion of 
Neolithic flint impliments, numis- 
matic collection, large exhibit illus- 
trating leather and tanning in- 
dustry, and antiquities collected in 
and relating to Bermondsey. 

Chief Librarian and Curaioi — 
John F.owde. 

(Lower-road.) 

The fiublic library for the Bother- 
hithe district was opened in October. 
1890, and contains 10,746 volumes. 
Issues(1906-7) 57,725, a daily averag-e 
of 211 ; news-room, ladies' reading-- 
room, and boys' room, open 9 a.m. 
to 9.30 p.m. 

Librarian — L. Hobbs. 

(Tooley-street.) 
The public library for the St. 
Olave di«tr*ct was opened in July, 
1902, and contains 8,639 voluni^s. 



Borough Councils, 



253 



Issues, 190o-7, 34,732, a daily average 
of 129; news-room, ladies' room, 
and boys' room, open 9 a.m. to 9.30 
p.m. 
Librarian -F. E. Eidmans. 

Housing. 

(See Housing section.) 

Ofncers. 

Town Cleric— Fredk. Ryall. 

Assistant Town Clerk — E. Carr 
Olivier. 

First Assistant ClerJc—T. Knott. 

Second Assistant Cleric— B. Gr. 
Clark. 

Borough Treasurer — J. Buckman. 

Surveyor — R. J. Angel. 

Medical Officer— J)t. R. K. 
Brown. 

Public Analyst — R. Bodmer. 

Electrical Engineer — W. E. J. 
Heenan. 

Matoe. 

Alderman H. Harbord, j.p., 
82, Jeniipgham-roid, New Cross, S.E. 

ALDEBVEir. 

Hawkins J. D., 192, New Cross-road, S.E. 
Millson, H., 4, Maze-pond-terrace, St. 

Thoma .'-street, S.E. 
Parkinson, W. W., 107, Wooiside-green, 

South Norwood. 
Storey, C. G.,132, Grange-rd,, BermonJ-ey. 
Talbot, F. T.,20. St. James'. New Cross, S.E. 
Tyler, W. W., j.p., 185, Denmark-hill, S.K. 
Vezey, H., 682, Rotherhithe-street, S.E. 
Wilkinson, J. H., 87, Muirkirk-rd., Catford. 

COUNCILLOES. 

Aldridge, H., 38, Albion-street, Rother- 
hithe, S.E. 

Andenou, J. B., 33, Bromley -common, 
Kent. 

Betfell, W. C, 186, Tooley-street, S.E. 

Bird, G., 47, Bush-road, Rotherhithe, S.E. 

Blake, W., 145, Jamaxa-road, Bermondsey. 

Brenner, G., 184, Long-laue, Bermondsey. 

Briue, E. W., 150, Ardgowan-road, Hither- 
giean, S.E. 

Brown, J., 151, Rotherhithe New-road, S.E. 

Bulmer, J. H., " Nayland," 8, Erlanger- 
road. New-cross, S. E. 

Bu8tin» W. C, 126, Jamaica - road, Ber- 
mondsey, S.E. 

Clark, A. B. B., 24, Guy-st., Bermondsey. 

Day, J., 19, Rebecca-terrace, Gomm-road. 
Rotherhithe, S.E. 

Dean, G. R., 56, Flockton-street, Ber- 
mondsey, S.E. 



Delderfleld, W. J., 29, Reverdy-road, Ber 

mondsev, S.E. 
Dhonau, J., 82, Keeton's-road, Bermondsey. 
Dumphreys, J. M. T., 76, Southwark 

Park-road, Bermondsey, S.E. 
Dunn, Rev. W. K., b.a., 24, Galleywall 

road, Bermondsey, S.E 
Eddis. P. E., "Rayd»n House," Potters 

fields, Tooley-street, S.E. 
Fells, J. E., 38, Barry-road, East Dul 

wich, S.E. 
Fells, R., 3, Eynella-road, Dulwich, S.E. 
Fogden, J., 194, Denmirk-hill.S.E. 
Foster, F., 11, West-lane, Rotherhithe, S.E. 
Gardiner, H., 114, Alscot-road, Bermond- 

Fey, S.E. 

Gardiner, H. N., 161, Lower-road, Rother- 
hithe, S.E. 
Garnar, J. W., " PAlshaw," Catorroad, 

Sydenham. 
Gatrer, J. B., 11, Havover • buildingSi 

Tooley-street, S.E. 
Gorrie, W., 269, Rotherhithe-street, S.E. 
Goulding, F. S., 1, Breakspears-road 

Brock ley, S.E. 
Hart, J. H., 42, Keeton's^oad, Bermond^ 

sey, S.E. 
Hitchcock, A., 79, Tower Bridge road, S.E. 
Hood, W., 239, Southwark Park-road, Ber- 
mondsey, S.E. 
Ingj<, P., Wellington Restaurant, UxbridgO' 

road. Shepherds Bush. 
Johns, F. H. P., 89, Union-road, Rother- 

hithe, S.E. 
Lawrence, G., 86, Rotherhifhe New-rd., S.E. 
Layman, A., 4, Dulwich Wood - park, 

Upper Norwood, S.E. 
Lee, Rev. E. M. O'Hara, b.a., 92, Eugenia- 

road, Rotherhithe, S.E. 
Lilly white, J. C, 144, Sprirgbank-roadj 

Hither-green, S.E. 
Marriott, \V. G., 2, Redriff-road, Rother 

hithe, S.E. 
Martin, J. R., "Grange Villa," 7, Thor 

burn-squire, Bermondsey, S.E. 
Morriss, H. P., Hi, Lower-road, Rother- 
hithe, S.E. 
Oake, J. W., 39, Tooley-street, S.E. 
Peeke, G., " Hillside," Marischal - road 

Lee, S.E. 
Pridmore, F. T., 36, Upper Grange-road, 

Bermondsey, S.E. 
Renwick. J. A., 91, Tooley-stree^ S.E. 
Richmond, B. A., m.d., 28, Lower-roadj 

Rotherhithe, S.E. 
Shearring, W., Ill, Alscot-road, Bermond- 

gey, S.E. 
Shepherd, G. H., 9, Tanuer-street, Bir 

mondsey, S.E. 
Stickland, E., 207, London-road, Thornton 

Heath. 
Tovey,E., 132, Spa-roid, Bermondsey, S.E 
Trott, H. a.. 57, Oxley st., Beroaondsey.S.E 
W^iddows, J., 133, Abbey-streec, Barmond 

&ey, S.E. 
Williams, D., 6, Thorburn-square, Ber- 
mondsey, S. f&. 



264 



Borough Councils. 



BETHNAL GREEN. 

Town Hall: Church Row, KE. 

Public Health Offices: 2, Paradise Row, Cambridge Road, N.E. 

(Meetings : First and third Thursdays each month, except during* Augfust, 

at 6 p.m.) 



The borough of Bethnal Green is 
the parish area, uniform for Poor 
Law and local government purpoFes. 
It is practically the same as the 
Parliamentary oorou^h, which is 
divided into two divisions, North- 
East and South- West, Bethnal 
Green. In area it is among the 
smallest of the London boroughs, 
being only 1^ square miles in extent 
(759 acres). 

For some years past the borough 
has been fully populated— in 1871 
the population had reached 
120,104, in 1881 it was r2<),961, in 
1891 it was 129.132, and at the last 
census it was 129,(381. The Kegis- 
trar-General estimates the popula- 
tion of the borough in the middle 
of the year 1907 at V\i),Si\\. A large 
proportion of the inhabitants live 
in small tenements. 

The borough contains within its 
boundaries Bethnal Green Gardens 
and Poor's Land, Meath Gardens 
and five other small oj)en spaces 
besides 70 acrei' ct Victoria Park, 
making in all 100 acres of oi)en 
space. The rateable value of 
the borough is £549,8<>3. 

The borough council consists of 
a mayor, 5 aldermen, and 80 coun- 
cillors, who have taken the place 
of 60 members of one extinct local 
body. The borough is divided 
into four wards. 

Baths and Wash-Houses. 

The Baths and Wash-houses 
Acts are the only optional Acts 
that have been adopted in the 
borough. 

The Baths and Wash-houses ai-e 
situated in Cheshire- street. 



Libraries. 

A voluntary free library exists in 
the borough. There is also a 
branch of the South Kensingrton 
Museum, which is open free every 
day, including Sundays. 

Electric LiRht. 

Bethnal-green obtained an Elec- 
tric Lighting Order in 1899. (See 
Electric Light section.) 

Council's De^ot — Digby-street. 

Dust Screening Plant — Marian- 
square. 

Officers. 

Town Clerk and Solicitor^ and 
( ^lerk t ) the Assessm ^at Comniitiee — 
Kobert Voss. 

Depuiy Toiim CUrJc-V. G. E. 
Fie cti. r, Barrister-at-law. 

Borough Accountant and Trea- 
surer — Wm. H. Ashmole, a.s.a.a. 

Medical Officer of Health— Gr. P. 
Bate, M.D. 

Borough Engineer and Sureeyor 
— E E. Fin-jb, A M.I.C.E. 

Public Analyst— A. W. StD'res, 

P C.S., F.I 0. 

Chief Samifary Inspector — J. 
Foot. 

Sanitary Inspectors — E. Ainley, 
F. T. Bare, E. Q. Bilham, H. F. 
B ridel, A. S. Henley, I. B. Jones, 
E. Richards, W. Kowsell, J. G. 
Weeks, and one Female Inspector — 
Miss A. K. Harris. 

Rate-Collectors — South Division : 
W. H. Bust. East Division: 
R. D. Quy. West Division : S. P. 
Cole. North Division : W. Good- 
win. 

Superintendent and Matron of 
Baths and TFa«/i-feott«e8— William 
Billings and Frances E. Billings. 



Borough Councils, 



255 



Mayor. 
Councillor Garnham EdmoDds, j.p., 
456, Hackney-road. 
Aldermen. 
Pleming, J. J., 342, Old Ford-road. 
Lamb, C., 164, Grove-road. 
Merison, J., " Llantrissant," Mount 
Pleasant-road, Bruce-grove, South Tot- 
tenham. 
Read, F. J., 28, St. James'-road. 
Roberts, E., 343, Cambridge-road. 

Councillors. 
Barnard, A. F., 88, Columbia-road. 
Bayley, G., 61, Granby-street. 
Brooks, T., 263, Brick-lane. 
Clark, W. H., 493-495. Hackney-road. 
Davey, J. C, 43, Cambridge-road. 
Dean. T. A., 63, Approoch-roid. 
Durell, J., 306. Old Ford-road. 
Felton, F. T., 307, Wilmot-street. 



Fox, C. E,, IQi-lll, Bathnal Green-road* 
Hall, J.; 113. n refill-street. 
Hardy. F, n.. 211-213, Globe roid. 
Hay don. J., 127. Hl^Lo^'fi-rtJUd, 
Hobney, J. T.. 2^, Turiu-gtreet* 
How, J. \> .. 28, Hiiritsley-iffreet^ 
Lark ins. \l.. 19. ,\rhpi\v"-iTiid. 
Lewis. A., H. ('.ine] nvui, peirfi^: GiitP* 
Lewis, W. J. Ji St. l\'rfi-*trt«L 
Ling, W. II , 12. Thlrtlewrviti ra.,Clfip':oil- 
Neate, J. <^., 3^5, H.'i!iH:i.! Crri^eii-ruai* 
Phipps, J., 24 ^ i>id Fosd-rLind. 
Pulleu, J., 197, Green-Street. 
Rawles, W., 477, Cambridgetroad. 
Salmo ', T. F., 122. Gossett-street. 
Slide, E. A., 290. Haokney-road. 
Sw€etmau, W., 64. S^uirries-sttcjet. 
Wjird, J. W.. 41, Church-street. 
Wood. C, "The Oak." Chase Orojs, 
Romford. E:S3X. 

(Two vacancies.) 



CAMBERWELL. 

Town Hall: Peckham Eoad, S.E. 



(Meetings : Alternate 

The borough of Camberwell is 
almost identical with the old local 
government parish area and with 
the Poor Law area. It differs from 
the Parliamentary borough of Cam- 
berwell (containing the divisions of 
North (iamberwell, Peckham, and 
Dulwich) by the exclusion of Penge, 
which forms part of the Dulwich 
division. Under the Act of 1899, 
Camberwell received a fringe of the 
detached part of Streatham, and 
exchanges of areas (with a view of 
straightening the boundaries of the 
borough) were made with Lambeth, 
Lewisnam, Deptford, Rotherhithe, 
Newington, and Bermondsey. 

Camberwell is one of the larger 
boroughs. It is nearly seven 
square miles in extent (4,480 
acres), its greatest width east to 
west being 2h miles, and its ex- 
treme length 5 miles. It is develop- 
ing rapidly. Its population in 
18dl was 71,488, in 1871 111,306, in 
1881 186,593, in 1891 235,344, and 
in 1901 259,339, thus having an 
average of nearly 58 persons to 
the acre. But the population is 
unevenly distributed, the density in 
the North division being 133 to the 



Wednesdays, 6.30 p.m.) 

acre, in the Peckham division 73 » 
while in the Dulwich division, where 
there is still a considerable area 
of land unbuilt upon, there are 
only, on an average, 28 persons to 
the acre. Thus there is room for an 
increased population. Taking as 
120 the number of persons who can 
be housed on those parts of the 
borough that are available for 
building, CamberweU could accom- 
modate a population of 500,000. 

The borough is fortunate in pos- 
sessing two large open spaces 
within its area, viz. : Peckham Rye 
aifd Parli (99| acres) and Dulwich 
Park (72 acres). To the former an 
extension, containing 13 acres, is 
about to be thrown open to the 
public. These, together with Groose 
Green (61 acres) and Nunhead Green 
(Is acres) iuside the borough, and 
Brockwell Park (127i acres), Ruskin 
Park (24 acres), Myatt's Fields (14^ 
acres), Homiman Museum and Gar- 
dens (9^ acres), and Telegraph Hill 
(9^ acres) immediat?]y adjoining the 
borough boundary, are under the 
control of the London County 
Council. The Borough Council pos- 
S23333 foir 5:3311 open spaces, with a 



256 



Unrinujh Conncih. 



total area of 26 a acres. The mo«*t 
important are One Tree Hill (7 a 
acres), Brunswick Park (4 acres), 
Camberwell (Jreen ('2^ acres), and 
Leyton Square (\\ acres). There 
is but little overcrowding (ll'l per 
cent.), and the death rate in 1906 
wa.s 148 per 1,000. 

The rateable value on 3rd 
April, 1JH)8, was £1,377,456, of 
which £373 was the valuation of 
asrricultural land, <fec. Expenditure 
for borough purposes other than 
from loans, 1906-7, £20(),961, and 
£63.800 out of loans; debt, £r>19,908. 
£414,8fK) was raised to meet precepts 
levied by other authorities, and 
representing expenditure over which 
the Borough C^ouncil has no ccmtrol. 
Greneral rate, Ss. lie?. 

All three Adoptive Acts are in 
operation in the borough, but the 
electric lighting is in the hands 
of the London, the County of 
London, and the Crystal Palace 
Companies. The Council has an 
extensive works depot at Grove- vale. 

The Borough Council consists of 
10 aldermen and 60 councillors, 
who have taken the place of 120 
members of the old ^ vestr>'. The 
borough is divided into 20 three- 
member wards. 

Baths and Wash-Houses. 

Super uif e iideiit— ^ . McCandie. 
Church-street (1892). 

Last year these Baths were patro- 
nised by 165,315 persons. ( -h a rges : 
Private baths, Id. to (yd.; swim- 
ming baths, Id. to 6d. The use of 
the laundry is charged at the rate of 
lid. per hour. 

DuLWiCH Baths, Goose Green 
(1892). 

Attendance last year 134,372. 
Same charges. No laundry. 
North Camberwell Baths, 
Wells-street (1903). 

Private baths and public wash- 
houses. No swimming baths. 
Attc:idan3_^ list j'car 10,114. 



Old Kent-road Baths (1905). 

Swimming, warm, Turkish, and 
Bussian baths, and public wash- 
houses. Attendance last year 138, 162. 
Public Libraries. 

The Libraries Act-* were adopted 
in Camberwell in 1889, and tnere 
are now six libraries, which 
(together with the Art Gal- 
lery) are administered by a com- 
mittee of the Borough Council, 
with a sub-committee of manage- 
ment, compK)sed of membsrs of the 
main committee, for each institution. 

Central Library (1890),Peckham- 
road: Lending department, 17,151 
vols. ; reference department, 11,114 
vols.; issues, 186,280 vols. Librarian 
— W. Gr. Snowsill. Dulwich Library 
(1891), Lordship - lane : Lending 
department, 12,232 vols. ; reference 
department, 833 vols. ; issues, 
147,753 vols. Librarian — L. Hur- 
don. Liveaey lAbrary (1890), Old 
Kent-road : Lending department, 
8,910 vols. ; reference department, 
1,510 vols. ; issues, 78,541 vols. 
Librarian— Q. R. S. Philp. ^un- 
liead Library (1896), Goraon-road ; 
Lending department, 7,583 vols. ; 
reference department, 181 vols.; 
issues, 79,047 vols. Librarian — W. 
J. Vellenoweth. North Camber- 
well Library (1903), Wells-street : 
Lending department, 6,476 vols. ; 
reference department, 45 vols. ; 
issues, 59,449 vols. lAbrarian — 
C. ¥. Newcombe. Minet Library 
(1890) — Joint with Lambeth— 
KnatchbuU - road : Lending de- 
partment, 13,776 vols. ; refer- 
ence department, 3,609 vols. ; 
.juvenile department, 1,500 vols. ; 
issues, 129,334 vols. Librarian — 
C. J. Courtney. The figures are 
for year ended 31st March, 1907. 

Hours of opening news-rooms, 
9 a.m. to 10 p.m. ; magazine and 
reference rooms, 10 a.m. to 10 p.m. ; 
lending department, 10.30 a.ni. to 
9 p.m.; closed on Tuesdays. Minet 
Libraiy h3ur3 sli^-hV.y different. 



Boi'ough Councils. 



257 



Cannberwell School of Arts and 
Crafts. Art Gallery and Museum. 

The South London Art Gallery, 
Peckham-road, is under the control 
of the borough council. This fine 
art g-allery is open daily from 2 p.m. 
to 10 p.m. ; Sundays, 3p.m. to 9 p.m. 
The school is held in a sp3cial 
building adjoining, belonging to 
the council, and is conducted by the 
London County Council. The 
original building owes its existence 
chiefly to the generosity of Mr. 
Passmore Edwards. 

Principal— W. B. Dalton, A.R.C.A. 
(Lond.). 

Secretary— C. H. Johnson, B.A. 

Housing. 
Two important schemes for the 
housing of the poor are being 
caiTied out by the borough council, 
one of which is unique. For par 
ticulars see the section on the 
Housing of the Working Classes 
Act. 

Chief Officers. 

roini Clerk— C. William Tagg. 

Solicitor— iJr. W. Marsden. 

Borough Engineer — William 
Oxtoby, M.INST.C.E. 

Medical Officer of Health — F. 
Stevens, M.A., m.d. 

Borough Accountant — Arthur 
Griffiths. 

Assistant Town Clerk — A. Ran- 
Tiey Bryant. 

Assistant Borough Engineer — 
F. J. Slater. 

Public Analyst-Y. L. Teed, D.Sc, 

F.C.S., F.T.C. 

Bacteriologist — E. C. Bousfield, 

L.R.C.P., M.R.C.8. 

Food and Drugs and Smoke 
Nuisance, Sec, Inspector — W. E. 
Groom. 

Sanitary Inspectors — District 1: 
W. Malins. District 2 : G. T. 
Dewey. District .S : C. H. Kers- 
lake. District 4: E. Homer. Dis- 
trict 5: J. H. Heath. District^: 
a, W. Scuda:iio"e. Vk!rict 7 ; W. 



Eagle. District 8 : J. S. Pointon. 
District 9: W. R. Farmer. District 
10 : G. G. Morley. District 11 : E. 
R, Collins. 

Female Sanitary Inspector — MisB 
G. D. Bevan. 

Bate Collectors — District A: R. 
Maltby, 4J5, Warner-road. District 
B : a; Griffiths, Town Hall. Dis- 
trict C: J. B. Maltby, 111, Cam 
berwell-road. District D : H. H 
Hooper, 14, Addington - square 
District E: F. Belshaw, 51, Avon 
dale square. DisfrictF: J.Mitchell 
865, Old Kent-road. Di strict G: J 
Borland, 34, Queen's-road. District 
H : A.N. Watton,Rail way-approach, 
Rve-lane. District I: A. Perram, 
62, Al})ert-road. District J : W. H. 
Webb, 19, Linden-grove. District 
K: E. Bickerton, 79, Lyndhurst- 
road. District L : S. P. Fisher, 29, 
Amott-road. District M : M. A. 
O'Connell, 29, Tintafjel-crescent. 
District N : J. C. Jones, 32, Wood- 
warJe-road. District O : G. Blun- 
den, 531, Lordship-lane. 

Mayor. 

Coimcillor J. A. Markillie, J. p., 31, Blen- 
heim-grow, Pdckhim. 

Aldermen. 

Dunn, F., 32, St. Mary's road, Pe^kham. 

Gautrey, T., l.c.c, 2\ Elm - grove, 
Peckham. 

George, J., 109, Camberwoll-grove. 

Hearson, C. E., 5, Templar-street, Camber- 
well. 

Hichissou, J. G.. 9. Bdlmont-park, Lee. 

Mitc'lu'll, W. Lane, 107, Eist Dulwich- 
g ove. 

St. Cedd, W., 14, Love-walk, Dinmark- 
hill. 

SomprviUe, J., 37, The Garden-, Peckham 
Rye. 

William-, A. H., " SL Merryn," Flodden- 
roal. 

(One vaciincy.) 

Councillors. 

Alwin. W. R., 209. Peckham Ry^. 

Aus in, (t., 193, Peckham Rye. 

Ayers, E., ^6\, Stond.m-pirk, Fo-est-hill. 

Ball, G. H.. 3, Bowles-road, OLl Kant-rd. 

Barnes, R3v. S., "Cos.^y Nook," Perry- 
green, Hadhani. Herts. 

Bott. H. D., 193, CrortQd-road, West Dul- 
\vi jli, S. K, 



258 



Borough Councils. 



Brenchley, W., 16, Dagmar-road, Peck- 

ham-road, S.£. 
Brookes, S., 44, Camberwell-green. 
Cane, R. C, 186, East Dulwich-ijrove, S.R. 
Cooper, J. H., " Worcester Lodge," 191, 

East Dulwich-grove, 
Ciirram, A. R., 15, Eynella-road. 
de la Court, T. W., 133, Verney-road. 
Dent, W., 163, Brixton-ro>id. 
Doughty, J. A., 71, Park-road, West Dul- 

wu-h, 8.E. 
Edmonds. H., 99, Talfourd-road, Peckham- 

road. 8.E. 
Plorcy, T. J., 19, Aspin-^ll-road. Brockley. 
Ford. W. B..311,Camberwell-road. 
Forrest. J., 185. Camdeu-grove North. 
Pudge, W., 12, Camben^ell green. 
Gray, W. J.. 3, Morua-r<<a'i, Cambrt-well. 
Hartley, C. W., 133, Avondale-square, Old 

Kent road, 8. E. 
Hobill, S., 16, Peckbam road, S.E. 
Jackson, W., " Reigate Lodge," 90, Wood- 
vale, Forest -hill, S.B, 
Jennings, Rev. H. E., St. Clement's 

Parsonage, Manor House, Barry-ruad, 

East Dulwich. 
Johnston, Rev. S .A., 22, St. Mary's-road. 
Killboutn, C. J., 115, Dunstan's-road. 
Knights, H. N., 8. Wellington-road. 
I^wrence, E., 227, Rye-lane. 
Lomer, E. E.. 254. Barry-rd., East Dulwich. 
Lonnon. F., 77, liemnark-hill, S.K. 
Ma*-( Earthy, W., 48a, Forest Hill-road, 

Honor Oak. 
Martin, W. S. T., " Sunnyside," Peckham 

Rye. 



Molony, G. J., " Listowel," 5a, East Dul- 

wich-road. 
Monks, W.. 162, Peckham Rye, S.K. 
Morris, A. G., 126. East Dulwich - road, 

Peckham Rye, S.E. 
Moss, A., 42, Ansdell-road. 
Newton, C. E., 10, Alleyn-road, West Dul- 
wich. S.E. 
Parker, J.. 219. Underbill - road. East 

Dulwich, S.E. 
Pillgrem, J. W., 95, Evelina-rd., Nanhead. 
Raimdnt, H. J., 47, Commercial-road. 
Rftwllngs, F. A.. 32, Rye-hill-p.irk. 
Rayment, T. R., 55, Bellenden-ro.id, Ean 

Dulwich. 
Bobinsoo, A. W., 10, Harder's-road. 
Robinson. J. E., 94. Hill-»tree^ 
R<x)ksby, W., 33, Linden-grove. 
Rose, O. M., 9, Linden-grove, Nunhead. 
Bayer. 6., 302, Southampton-street. 
Scott, G., 14, High-street, Peckham. 
Serjeant, Dr. D. M., 27, Peckham -road. 
Shrimpton, J., 34, Barkworth-rd.. Rother- 

hithe. 
Snoxell, F., 109, Bellenden-road. Peckham. 
Tavener. J., 91. Barry -road. 
Thomhill, Major J. A., 54. Lyndharst-gprovo. 

Lyudhurst-road, 8. E. 
Tuite, M., 184, Peckham Rye. S.E. 
Veazey, Rev. H. G., 93, Oobourg-road, 

S.E. 
Warman, G., 41, Bromley Common, Kent. 
M'hitehead, F., 7, Elcot-aveaue, Peckham. 
Windus, A. J , 4, M lude-roa i. 
Wint, F., " Atherton," Calton - road. 

Dulwich. 



CHELSEA. 

Chelsea Town Hall, S.W. 
(Meetitififs : Alternate Wednesdays, at 5.30 p.m.) 



The borough of Chelsea has a 
population of 73,842 (Census 
1901), a rateable value of 

£921,698 (subject to appeals), with 
an area of 659 6 acres, just 
over one square mile. 

The death rate in 1906 was 
157 per 1.000. 

The Baths and Libraries Acts are 
adopted in Chelsea. The council 
has carried out throe schemes under 
the Housing" of the Working Classes 
Acts. Pond House, the most recent 
scheme, was completed early in 
September, 1906, and consists of 8 
two-room and 24 three-room tene- 
ments (32 in all). The rents are 
7«. 6f/. per week for two rooms, and 
Cs. 6d. and 10s. for 3 rooms. Other 



particulars are given in the section 
on the Housing of the Working 
Classes Act. The electric lighting 
is in the hands of the Chelsea and 
the London Companies. 

The Borough Council consists of 6 
aldermen and 36 councillore. The 
borough is divided into 5 wards. 

Free Public Library. 
(Manresa-road.) 

The Acts were adopted in May, 
1887. There are 46,412 volumes m 
the library, and 223,079 volumes 
were issued last year. There are 
three members of the Libraries 
Committee who are not on the 
borough council. 

Librarian — J. Henry Quinn, 



Borough Councils. 



259 



Public Baths. 

(Manor-street.) 

The public baths in Manor- street 
have recently been reconstructed. 

Officers. 

Town Cleric— T. Holland. 
Assistant Clerk— J. T. Jefferys. 
Medical Officer of Health— horns 
C. Parkes, M.D., d.p.h. 
Food Anidijst — S. Rideal, 

D.SC, &C. 

Surveyor— T, W. E. Higgens, 
A.M.INST.C.E. 

Assistant Surveyor — W. R. Man- 
ning. 

Borough Treasurer— T. Tatter- 
sall, A.S.A.A. 

Chief Sanitary Inspector — A. 
Grant. 

Mayor. 

Alderman The Hon. William Sidney, j.p., 

107, Sloaue-street. 

Aldermex. 

Cadogan, The Right Hon. Earl, k.o., 
**ChelBea House," Cadogan-place. 

Latham, A. M., 7,0heyne-gardens. 

Monkswell, The Right Hon. Jjovd, " Monks- 
well Houi^e." Chels-ea-embankment. 

Norman, R. C, l.c.c, 2, Sloane-court East. 

Snowden. H. (1., 80, Elm-park-gardens. 

COCXCILLORS. 

Andrews, R. M., 131, Church-street. 



Cadozan, The Hon. E. C. G., "Chelsea 
House," Cadogan-place. 

Cook, C. F., 16. Cornwall-mansions, Ash- 
bumham-road. 

l>e Maid, W., 21, Tetcott-road. 

Doll, Major R. S. E., v.d., 79, Sloane -street. 

Proome, C. B., 45. Ovington-street. 

Gamble, Rev. H. R., m.a.,141, Sloane-street. 

Golf, T. C. E., L.C.C., 45, Pout-street. 

Gordon, W. E., 42, Oakley-street. 

Harwood, E. W., l.d.s., d.d.s., 97, Sloane- 
street. 

Head, C, 7, Wyndham House, Sloane- 
suuare. 

Hodgson, B. T., j.p., 26, Draycott-place. 

Hughes, J. F., 4, Cheyne-gardens. 

Jeffery, J., j.p., 37. College-street. 

Jeffery, J., jim., 17, Glebe-place. 

Johnson, B. V., 73, Elm-park-gardens. 

McFarlane, Dr. A. R., 27, Milner-street. 

Meinertzhagen, E. L.,j.p.,4, Cheyne-walk. 

Mulvey, W. J., 116. Kinar's-road. 

Norton, W., 42, Sydney -street. 

Pickworth, W. J., 10, Whitehead's-grove. 

Ramsden, Dr. H. K., 21, Elm-park-road. 

Robinfou, P. A., 25, Halsey-street. 

R')binsou, T. J., 230, King s-road. 

Ruthven-Stuart, A. W., 35, Sio:ine-gardem». 

Salisbury, R., 25, Milner-street. 

Sartorius, Major-General E. H., v.c, c.b., 
'• Old Swan House," 17, Chelsea-embaak- 
meat. 

Smith, G., 8, Ashburuham-road. 

Stone, E. V., 25, Cremorne-road. 

Synge, F. J., 30, Sloane-court West. 

Thnipp, G. H., 59, Cadogan-sqnare. 

Welch, F. J., Christ Church Schools, 
Chelsea. 

White, G., 530, King's-road. 

Woods, Major W. F., j.p., 31, Rossetti 
Garden- mansions. 

Wright, H. J., 3, Durham-place, and 
" Holly dale," Keston, Kent. 

Wynter, R.. 14, Argyll-mansioLS, Beau- 
fort-street. 



DEPTFORD. 



Town Hall.- New 
(Meetings: Alternate 
ThK metropolitan borough is 
practically coterminous with the 
Parliamentary borough of Deptford, 
and coincides with the parish of 
St. Paul, Deptford, which forms 
part of the Greenwich Union for 
Poor Law administration, and was 
part of the Greenwich District for 
local government purposes. It is 
2i square miles in area, and has 
a population, according to the 
last cansus returns, of 110,398, 



Cross Road, S.E. 

Tuesdays, at 7 p.m.) 
an average of 70 persons to an 
acre. The parish of St. Paul had in 
1861 a population of 37,8o4! ; it is now 
upwards of 115,000. The borough 
has only a small area of open spaces — 
Deptford Park (11 acres) and Tele- 
graph Hill (9i acres) being the 
only ones of importance. Tliere is 
another open space (a very small 
one) known as the iiavensboume 
Kecreatioh Ground. The borough 
also cxitributed towards the pur- 



260 



Borough Councils. 



chase of the Hilly Fields (45^ 
acres) which immediately adjoin 
the south-eastern boundary of the 
oorough. althoug'h not within it. 
The rateable value is £635,541, 
of which £391 is the valuation of 
agricultural land. The d e a t h r a t e 
in 1903 was 169. 

Deptford has baths and a ceme- 
tery. The electric lighting powers 
are in the hands of the London 
CompanJ^ 

The borough council consists of the 
mayor, 6 aldermen and 36 councillors, 
who have taken the p'ace of over 
200 members of extinct bodies. The 
borough is divided into 6 wards. 

Baths and Wash-Houses. 

Public baths and wash-houses 
were opened on 20th i\pril, 1898. 
They are situated in Laurie - 
grove. New Cross-road, and include 
two swimming baths, numerous 
slipper baths, and public wash- 
houses, containing thii-ty-foar 
separate cubicles, also ironing 
rooms, &c. An independent water 
supply was provided by sinking a 
well, which yields an ample supply. 

Free Public Libraries Act. 

The Act was adopted by the 
Council on 26th April, 1904. Three 
ballots were previously taken, 
but the Act not adopted. In 1890, 
majority against, 6i}6 ; 1893, ma- 
jority against, 237 ; 1894, majority 
against, 1.2l>6. A temporarj^ 1 brary 
has been opened at 221, New Cross- 
road, S.E. 

Officers. 

Toini Clerl---Y. Orchard. 

Medical Officer of Health— J)t. 
H. W. Eobei-ts. 

Borough Surveyor — T. Corfield. 

Borough Accountant — T. E. 
Cbarles. 



Assistant Town Cleric — A. 
Parkis. 

Rate-Collectors—S.E. Ward : J. 
W. Shingler, 5, Albert-road, St. 
John's. S. Ward : W. S. Morley, 
78, Manor - road, Brockley. E. 
Ward : H. T. Siggins, 419, IS^ew 
Cross-road. N.W. Ward: M. 
Farris, 163, New Cross - road. 
S.W. Ward: J. Warcup, 114 
New Cross-road. N. Ward : H. 
Stone, 180, Eveljni-street, Deptford. 



Mayor. 

Councillor E. G. Simmonds, j.p., 
62, ErlaDger-road. 

Aldermeit. 

Dickson, A. 82, Tyrwhitt-road. 

Garland- Wjellp, H.,20, Hilly-flelds crescent. 

Hines, D., 83, Wickham-road. 

Knight, E. J., 86, Manor-road. 

Telling. J. T., 6, St. Nicholas-street, Tan- 

ner's-hill. 
Wise, W., 37, Leu'isham High-road. 
• 

Councillors. 

Aucutt, W. R., 80, Tre?illian-road. 
Rix. E. G. G..45, llo-enthal-road, Catford. 
Brain, J. H.. 11, Wickham-road. 
Brooks, \V. H., 10, Hilly-flelds-crescent. 
Collins, G., 82, Wickham-road. 
Cooper, W. H. W., 68, Tanner'e-hill. 
Edwards, A., 42, Campliu-s-trcet. 
Falkner, W.. 30. Srafford-road, Waddon. 
Fenner, A., 93, Waller-joad. 
Ga lehawk. C, 276, Evelyn-street. 
Heald, F. W.,21. Breakspears-road. 
Howell, .1. G., " Casella House,"Cafella-rd. 
Jacob. B. J., J.P., 29, Pepys-ioad. 
Jone', D. J., 44, Lewisham High-roid. 
Kerslake, J. C. M., 114, Lewisham High- 

road. 
liOndon, E. C. T.. 59, Tressillian-road. 
Lockyer, J. E.. 244. Evelyn-street. 
Male-, G. F., 20. The Broadway. 
Middleton, F., 169, Trundley's-road. 
Nash. W., 25, Tyrwhitt-road. 
Quail, J.. 66, Pepys-road. 
llobinson. T., 325, New Cro^s-road. 
Soper, R.. 238, Lewisham Hiirh-road. 
Stanley, J. J., 66, Lewisham High-road. 
Thomas, J. G., 83, Wickham-road. 
T homas, K . .J . , 86. Brea k- pea rs-road . 
Vohmann. H. A., 91, Evelyn-stree*^. 
Waterworth. J. H., 385. Queen's-road. 
Webb.C, 60, Pepy^-road. 
Webster, J.. 38, Wickham-road. 
Wedderbnrn, F. W., 467, New Cross-road. 
Weston. J., 7, Amer?ham-vale. 
Willis. W. A., 7, The Broadway. 
Yonge, J. v., 23, Manor-ro:id. 



Boromjh Oouucils. 



261 



FINSBURY. 

Town Hall: Eosebbry Avenue, E.G. 
(Meetings: First and third Thursdays, at 6 p.m.) 



The borough of Finsbury is the 
area of the Central and East 
divisions of the Parliamentary 
borough of Finsbury. It consists 
of the greater part of the Holborn 
Union. The settlement of this 
borough was probably one of the 
hardest tasks set the Commis- 
sioners by the London Government 
Act, involving as it did tinansial 
adjustments between many exist- 
ing districts, as well as the rectifica- 
tion of areas betwean county and 
county. The creation of Finsbury 
meant the amalgamation of the 
whole of two existing local govern- 
ment districts, viz. : the parishes of 
Clerksnwell and St. Luke, a small 
part of the Holborn district, (the 
parish of St. Sepulchre and the 
liberty of Glasshouse -yard), and 
the extra parochial place of the 
Charterhouse. The liberty of Glass- 
house - yard formed part of the 
parish of St. Botolph without 
Aldersgate, the main part of the 
parish being in the City of London, 
but Glasshouse-yard is without the 
City. 

Another difficult question of 
areas arose in connection with 
the detached part of Clerkenwell, 
situated more than four miles 
from the main part of the parish 
and one-and-a-half miles beyond 
the county boundary. This outlying 
part, only 64 acres in extent, had 
already caused much trouble to 
London. It had been embraced 
in the London building area and 
drainage questions became acute. 
It was physically impossible 
to drain Muswell Hill into the 
mjtropoljtaii m liii drainage area. 



and none of the neighbouring 
districts were anxious to take the 
responsibility. Subsequently Friern 
Barnet took the drainage for the 
consideration of a Is. 3rf. rate pay- 
able for thirty years bv the London 
County Council which itself levied 
on Clerkenwell a rate of only 
Is. Hd. for all purposes. The 
Commissioners added Muswell 
Hill to the parish of Hornsey. 
Besides these questions, important 
financial matters were involved 
in the amalgamation of areas 
with loans of such varying magni- 
tude as those of St. Luke, Clerken- 
well, and Holborn, and with such 
diiferent criteria of local efficiency. 
Holborn district had libraries and 
a Town Hall (situated however in 
the Holborn borough); Clerken- 
well also had libraries and a Town 
Hall; St. Luke had a convenient 
Vestry Hall in City-road and the 
right to use the library of the 
Cripplegate Institute, which is 
situated, in the City of London. In 
size the borough is the smallest in 
London save Holborn, being only 
588 acres in extent. Its rate- 
able value is very high, viz., 
£1,027,671, and it is still increasing. 
Its population in 1901 \yas 
101,463. Its estimated population 
in 1906 was 97,466. It reached its 
climax in 1861 (129,031), and is 
now declining but not nearly at so 
great a rate as is the area avail- 
atie for residence, which is be- 
coming more and more limited by 
the increase of business premises. 
The district is an example of the 
effect of the encroachment of the 
central business area on the area 
occupied by working class popula- 
tions living in the immediate neigh- 
boui'liood of their work. 



262 



Borough Councils. 



In general character the different 
parte of the borough are not greatly 
aissimilar. They are all fully built 
upon and densely populated, the 
persons per acre for the whole 
borough Deing 165, as compared 
with 64 for all London. There 
is much overcrowding. The pro- 
portion of tenements with less 
than five rooms averages 85 per 
cent., and 77 per cent, of the popu- 
lation live in such tenemente. In 
open spaces Finsbury is very defi- 
cient, there being only sixteen acres 
of breathing space for a population of 
97,466. The average death rate for 
the borough in 1906 was 207, 
the metropolitan average for that 
year being 1506. 

Under the Adoptive Acts scheme 
the Baths and Burial Acts are to 
be in force in no part of the 
borough, the Libraries Acts only in 
Clerkenwell, St. Sepulchre, and 
Glasshouse-yard, and not in St. 
Luke or Charterhouse, but the first 
mentioned Acts have since been 
adopted for the whole borough. 

The electricity supply for the 
borough is mainly in the hands 
of the County of London and Brush 
Provincial Electric Lighting Com- 
pany. A Horsfall Dust Destructor 
IS in operation. 

The borough council consiste of 
9 aldermen and 54 councillors (re- 
tiring trienniallv), who have taken 
the place of aoout 214 members 
of extinct bodies. The borough is 
divided into 11 wards. 

Public Libraries. 

The Public Libraries Acts are, 
as already stated, in force in 
Clerkenwell, 8t. Sepulchre, and 
Glasshouse - yard. The central 
library is in Skinner - street, 
Clerkenwell, and there are 
branches at Penton-street, Penton- 
ville, and 43, St. John - stivet. 



The total number of volumes in 
the library exceeds 30,300. The 
issue of books in 1906 was 174,000 
volumes (an increase of about 
4,000 over the previous years, 
which are exclusive of refer- 
ences to directories and some 
hundreds of encyclopasdias, dic- 
tionaries, and similar works in 
the open reference library). This 
library adopted the open access 
system of lending books in 1894, 
and in 1900 the principle was ex- 
tended to a selection of books in 
the reference library. The institu- 
tion also^ has a special juvenile 
library. News-room open from 8 a.m. 
to 10 p.m. Reading room open on 
Sundays from 3 to 9. 

OfTlcers. 

Town Clerk— Or. W. Preston. 

Borough Accountant — E. J. Hay- 
thomthwaite. 

Borough Surceyor—T. G. Killick. 
May be seen at the Town Hall 
daily, from 10 to 11.30 a.m., when 
and where all applications for 
licences, hoardings, house drainage. 
(fee, must be made. 

Borough Medical Officer qf Health 
—Charles Porter, M.D. (Edin.), B.SC. 
(Public Health), Town Hall. 

Chief Sanitary Inspector — Wm, 
Green. 

Meat Inspector— G. T. Billing. 

Public Analyst — J. Kear Colwell, 
F.T.C., F.C.S., Town Hall. 

Superintendent of Cleansing — 
A. May. 

Rate - Collectors — J. T. Kid- 
man, J. H. Pickup, G. A. Potter, 
E. J. Sans, and H. Taylor. 

Borough Librarian and Clerk to 
the Public Libra/ries Committee — 
Harry G. T. Cannons. 



Borough Councils. 



263 



Mayob. 
Coancillor Bev. Prebendary G. H. Perry, 
M.i.., J.P., St. Luke's Ractory, Helmet- 
row, Old-street, B.C. 

ALDEBMEir. 

Crowle-Smith, J., j.p., 25, Lloyd-square, 

W.C. 
Gibson, J., 45, Penton-street, N. 
Howes, B., J.P., L.C.C., " Palrview." 121, 

Bethune-road. Stamford-hill, N. 
Howes, W., " Brama," 85, Amhurst-park, 

Stamford-hill, N. 
Miller, E.. 25, Regent's Park-road, V.W. 
Penny, B. J.. " Pernsbury," Muswell- 

roid, Muswell-hill, N. 
Pond, A., J.P., 106-108, Old-street. B.C. 
Tripp, E. H., 17, Amwell-street, B.C. 
Wildbore, T., 165, Parringdon-road, B.C. 

Councillors. 

Abrahams, W. F.. 65, Rosoman - street, 
and 30, Cloude.sley-square. 

Barnes, H. G., 98, Parringdon-road. B.C. 

Barton, H. B., 22. Mildmay-park. N., and 
20, Bath-street, St. Luke. B.C. 

Bassett, G., 32, Cumming-street, Penton- 
vUle, N. 

Beard, G., 34, Cranboume-road, Muswell- 
hill, N., and 22, Green-terrace. 

Bond, B., 145, Old-ttreet, B.C. 

Bore, C J., 6, Amwell-street, B.C. 

Brown, W. S., 37, Charterhouse-square, B.C. 

Brust, C. P., 53, Amwell-street, B.C. 

Ca'Sidy, G., 47, Northampton-street, B.C. 

Chapman, M., 2, Charterhouse-buildings. 

ColesfV. G.. 6, Myddleton-street, B.C. 

Cooksey, D., 52, Amwell-street, B.C. 

Cor He, W. B., 27 and 28, Northamptoa-sq. 

Cornish, R., 5 and 7, Central-street, B.C. 

Davey, J., 20, Ironmonger-street, B.C. 

Deighton, W. T., 54, Great Percy-street. 

Dingle, W. A., m.d.,46, Finsbury-sq.,B.C. 

Evans, G., 103, Mountview-road, Stroud 
Green, N. 



Garrity, E.,4, HaU-street. B.C. 

Gibson, C. G., 17a, Barnsbury-park, N. 

Gorrod, W., 173, Central-street. B.C. 

Gower, W., 11, Windsor-terrace, City-road, 
N. 

Grey. A. B., 20, Canonbury- villas, Canon- 
bury-road, N. 

Hull, J., 27, Cumming-street, Pentonville. 

King. B. H.. 3, Northampton- square, B.C. 

Lemming, W., 138, St. John's-street, B.C. 

Millwara, A., 2, Albemarle-street, B.C. 

Page, W. T.. M.B.C.8., 74, Compton-st..E.C. 

Paine, R..17, H Block, Peabody-building.^, 
Dufferin-street, B.C. 

Patterson, C, 2, President-street, B.C. 

Phillips, L., 44, Ezmouth-st., Clerkenwell. 

Randall, C, 6, Cumming-st., Pentonville, N. 

Ratcliffe, R. S., 167, Whitecra^s-street, B.C. 

Reason, W., 33, Baker-streer, W.C. 

Richards, O. M., 13, White Conduit-street. 

Roach, W., 95, Central-street. B.C. 

Robinson, J., 8, Lloyd-square, W.C. 

Shaw, R., 33, Pemberton-road, Harringay, 
and 60, Spencer-strest, B.C. 

Sherry, J. J. A., l.b.c.p., 329, Goswell- 
road, B.C. 

Small, B., 185, St. John-street. 

Smith, Rev. G., St. Paul's Vicarage, Bun- 
hill-row, B.C. 

Smith, W., "Bversfleld," Shoot-up-hill, 
Brondesbnry, N.W. 

Standriug. G.. 31, St. Paul-stieet, N., and 
7-9, Pinsbary-street, B.C. 

Stern, G., 21, King-square, B.C. 

St )w, H., 9, Cumberland-terrace, . Great 
Percy-street. W.C. 

Trewby, H.. 64, St. John-street, B.C. 

Trott, B., 46, Sekforde-st, Clerkenwell. 

Walton, J., 7, Upper Charles-street, B.C. 

Wilkes, G. T., 262, Goswell-road, B.C. 

Wilkias, J., 241 and 243, St. John-street, 
B.C. 

Williams, D., 69, Great Percy-street, W.C. 

Wood, T. W.. 59, Red Lion-street, Clerken- 
well. 



FULHAM. 

Town Hall: Walham Green, S.W. 
(Meetings: Alternate Wednesdays, at 7 p.m.) 



The metropolitan borough is the 
parish of Fulham, and is coincident 
with the Parliamentary division 
and the old local government area. 
The Poor Law area also is now 
coterminous with the borough, 
the Fulham Union (comprising 
Fulham and Hammersmith) ha^dng 
been dissolved on the 25th March, 
1899, following the precedent of the 
dissolution of the Fulham District 
Board in 1886. Fulham i^ one of 



the eight metrojwlitan boroughs 
that are autonomous for all purposes. 
In area Fulham is below the 
average. It is two and two- 
thirds square miles in extent, 
as compared with an average of a 
little over four square miles. Out 
of its 1,701 acres, only 68 are open 
spaces, made up of five small places — 
a proportion of only 4 per cent, as 
compared with a proportion for all 
London of 8'2 per C3at. In 1891 



264 



BoroHfjh Councils, 



14i per cent, of the population 
lived in overcrowded conditions. 
The death rate in 1906 was 
lf3 per 1,000. In popula- 
tion Fulham has been in- 
creasing very rapidly. Until the 
middle of the past century it 
had a population of leas than 
10,000, in 1881 it had increased to 
42.900. in 1891 to 91,639, while in 
1896 it had reached 113,781, equal 
to an average of 67 persons per acre. 
At the last census tlie figures were 
137,289; estimated now at 160,000. 

In municipal enterprise Fulham 
is advanced. It has adopted the 
Baths Acts, the Burials Acts, and 
the Libraries Acts; and the Council 
has laid down a very large plant 
lor the supply of electric energy in 
the borough. In combination with 
the electric lighting scheme are 
worked a dust destructor, disin- 
fector, and brick and flag-making 
plant. 

The rateable value is about 
£-920,000, of which £709 is the valua- 
tion of agricultural land. 

The borough council consists of 
6 aldermen and 36 councillors, who 
have taken the place of 97 members 
of extinct bodies. The borough is 
divided into 8 wards. 

Public .Libraries. 

The parish adopted the Act in 
188(). The library contains over 
15,100 vols., and is open on Sundays. 
('Itiof TAhrary : ,592, Fulham-road. 
South Branch Lihrary: 132, Wands- 
wort li Bridge-road. Xorih Branch 
J J i bra ry : Lillie-road . 

Chief Librarian— ^V. S. C. B.ae. 

Baths and Wash-Houses. 

The Act has been adopted, and 
baths and wash-houses, erected on 
a site in Alelmoth-place, in the 
centre of the borough, were opened 



on 10th April, 1902. The establish- 
ment has three swimming ponds, 
private baths for ladies and men. 
douche baths, &c., and a commodious 
public wash-house. The wash- house 
contains stalls for ^6 washers, and a 
large ironing room. 'J'he whole 
establishment cost over £80,000, the 
architect being Mr. H. Dighton 
Pearson, A.R.I.B A., of Chancery- 
lane, W.C. 

Superintendent — A. A. Baker. 

Electric Lighting. 

The supply was inaugurated in 
January, 1901, the generating 
station being worked in conjunc- 
tion with a r2-cell Horsfall destruc- 
tor situated near Wandsworth 
Bridge. Particulars of the scheme 
are given in the Electric Tiight 
section. 

Borough Electrical Engineer.— 
A. J. Fuller. 

Officers. 

Town Clerk J. Percy Shuter. 
Deputy Toivn Clerk and Solicitor 
— R. M. H. Humphrey. 
S nrveyor — Francis Wood, 

M.INST.C.E. 

Medical Officer of Health — J. C. 
Jackson, D.P.H., Camb. 

Borough Treasurer — R. H. Meyer, 
F.S.A.A. 

FuUic Analyst— C, H. Cribb, 
B.SC, F.I.C, F.C.S., &C. 

Sanitary Inspectors— C. B. Jones, 
W. II. Grigg, C. B. Lloyd, F. 
Manning, H. J, Gentry, A. E. 
Clutterbuck, and A. J. Parsons. 

Bate - Collectors — W. Barrett, 
94, E<lith-road, W. ; E. Warren, 43, 
North End-road, W. ; P. Law son, 
87, Finlay-street ; J. Nicholson, lO, 
Dancer-road; J. Parker, 11, Par- 
son's-green-lane ; J. C. F. Rainger, 
18, Chipstead-street ; W. Dell, 534, 
Fulham Palace-road. 



Borough Ccmncils, 



265 



Mayor. 

Councillor E. G. Easton, j.p., 

38, Edith-road, West Kensington. 

Aldermen. 

Atkin-on, W., 70, Margravine - garden?. 

West Kensington, W. 
Eennett-s, W. 1'., 35, llingmer-avenue, Ful- 

hara, S.W, 
Clarke, J., 59, Oarvm-rd., Hammer.'mith. 
Davidson, A. T , 25, Napier-avenue, Ful- 

ham, S.W. 
Hunt, J., 19, Donaraile-street, Fulham. 
Parfltt, A., 51,Chaldon-road, Fulham, S.W. 

Councillors. 
Andrew, E., "Milicent," 21, Elmstone-rd, 

Fulham, S.W. 
Bavin, J., 24, Yarrell-maneions, Queen's 

Club-gardens, W. 
Birch, W. C, m.a.., 22, Glazbury-road, 

West Kensington, W. 
Boyton, F. A., 23, Lebanon-park, Twicken- 
ham. 
Brddban, W. R., 175, Munster-rd., Fulham. 
Clark, G. F., " Nascot," 718, Fulham-road, 

Fulham, S.W. 
Cook, A., 86, Margiavine-gardens, Ham- 

mer?mith, \V. 
Corbin, W. R., 37, Doneraile-st., Fulham. 
Crew, H. G., 85, Wandsworth Bridge-road, 

Fulham, S.W. 
Crouin, P., 103, Rylston-road. Fulham.S.W. 
Dodimead, H., 9, Broomhouse-rd., Fulham. 
Evans, T. H. R., 137, New King's-road, 

Fulham, S.W. 



Fleche, G. A.. 106, Kenilworth - court. 

Putney, S.W. 
Guttridge, A., 67, St. Dun tan's - road, 

Hammersmith, W. 
Harris, R., 50, Edith-road, W. Kensington. 
Heathman, J. H., 4, Fulham-park-gardena. 
Hovel), C. J., 226, North Eud-ro.id, West 

Kensington, W. 
Jannaway, H., 9, 3Iontserrat-rd., Putney. 
Jones,Dr.H.J.,30,LilUe-rd.,Fulham, S.W. 
Keen, G. A., 74, May-st., W. Keusing;;on. 
Little boy, J. M., 8, Fulham-park-gardens. 
Meyer, J. H., *' The Cottage," 21, Colehill- 

lane, Fulham, S.W. 
Norman, A. F., 92, Lillie-roid, Fulham. 
Norris, H. G., " Sirron Lodge," Roe- 

hampton. 
Peachey, G. W., " Roe Villa." Fulham 

park-road, S.W. 
Pendlebury, C., m-.a.. 40, Glazbury-road, 

West Kensington, W. 
Sadler, A. H.. 797, Fulham-road, Fulham. 
Saiusbury, E. J., b.a., 33, Cloninel-road, 

Fulham. 
Shaw, F. J., 45, Cjnigerroad,Fulham,S.W. 
Sop3r, W. C, 333, Fulham Palace-road, 

S.W. 
Varge, E., 91, Bt. Dunstan's-road, Ham- 
mersmith, W. 
Walborn, J., 169, North End-road, West 

Kensington, W. 
Waldron, W. J., 28, Redcliffe - square. 

South Kensington, S.W. 
Wiufleld, F., "Balfour Cottage," 233-240 

Dfiwes-road, Fulham, S.W. 
WhiDty, Rev. W. J. S., m.a., Sc. Matthew's 

Vicarage, Clancarty-road, Fulham, S.W. 



GREENWICH. 

Town Hall: Greenwich Road, S.E. 
(Meetings : Every third Wednesday, at 7.30 p.m.) 



The metropolitan borough of 
Greenwich is the area of the Parlia- 
mentary borough of Greenwich, 
but it conflicts with every other 
area of administration. It com- 
prises part of the Greenwich Poor 
Law Union, and part of the Wool- 
wich Union ; and its constitution 
necessitated the division and 
arrangement of two local govern- 
ment districts— viz., Greenwich Dis- 
trict, from which it took two 
parishes, St. Nicholas Deptford 
and Greenwich, and Lee District, 
from which it took Charlton and 



Kidbrooke, two parishes which were 
united by the Charlton and Kid- 
brooke Order, 1900. 

It is six square miles in 
area, and contains within its 
boundaries several important open 
spaces — Greenwich Park, parts of 
Blackheath and Woolwich Com- 
mon, and many smaller spaces, to 
an extent of 390 acres in all. 

The borough is still but thinly 
inhabited; the estimated popula^ 
tion is 109,110— an average of 2t)'87 
persons to the acre, ranging from 
8511 in West Greenwich to 11.47 in 



266 



Borough Councils. 



Coarlfcon and Kidbrooke. There 
is thus room tor a greatly increased 
population. At a proportion of 
120 persons to each acre available 
for building, the borough has a 
capacity for 408,000 inhabitants. 

The rateable value is £650,654, 
of which £1,111 is the value of 
agricultural land. 

With regard to local services, the 
Baths Acts, Burial Acts, and 




GREENWICH CHAIN AND BADGE. 
Manufactured by the Goldsmiths' 

and Silversmiths' Company. 

Libraries Acts are in force through- 
out the borough. 

Electric lighting is in the hands 
of the London and the South 
Metropolitm Companies. 

The borough council consists of 5 
aldermen and 30 councillors, who 
have taken the place of about 290 
members of extinct bodies. The 
borough is divided into 8 wards. 



Baths and Wash-Houses. 

Established 1851. Last year 
85,597 persons used the baths, and 
4,166 washers ; total, 89,763. Char- 
ges : Private baths, Id. to 6c2. 
Open in summer from 6 a.m. to 8.30 
p.m. Saturdays, 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. 
Sundays, 7 to 9.30 a.m. Winter, 
7 a.m. till dusk. Sundays, 8 to 
9 a.m. 

Offlcers. 

Town Cleric and Solicitor — Fran- 
cis Robinson. 

Deputy Town Clerk— F. J. Simp- 
son. 

Medical Officer of Health — Ernest 
G. Annis, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., D.P.H. 

Jiorough Engineer and Surveyor 
— E. J. Heward, F.S.I. 

Public Analyst — R. H. Harland. 

Borough Accountant — Wm. C. 
Chaffey, F.S.A.A. 

Borough Treasurer — H. Wright. 

Borough Librarian — W. E. 
Barnes. 

Sanitary Inspectors— C T. Wil- 
son, A. E. Bache, C. W. Nettleton, 
T. Clark, E.Martin. 

Mayor. 
Alflerman Doii:lld McCall. j.p., 
9, Humber-roid, Blackheath. 

Aldermen. 
Bingham, V. C, 12, Sonth-st., Greeuwich. 
Burnett, Allan, 40, Shootere'-hill-road. 
Soames, W. K.. "Maze- hill House," 17, 

Maze-hill, Greenwich, S.E. 
Tyroe, J., " Colwyn," Weatcombe-park- 

road, Blackheath. 

Councillors. 

Ashby, J., 4, Nelson-street, Greenwich. 

Batchelor, J. W. A , 11, Vanbragh-park- 
road West, Blackheath. 

Catt, G. B., 14, Ruth inroad, Westcombe- 
park. 

Charlton, W. T., "Mansfield," Mycenae- 
road, Blackheath. 

Cooney, B. W., 43, London-street, Green- 
wich. 

Danuatt, T. W., " The Croft," Coleraine- 
road, Blackheath. 

De Havilland, H. C, 32, Vanbrugh-park , 
Blackheath. 

Dixon, J., 37, Delafleld-road, Charlton. 

Hayter, H. G., 42. Vanbrugh-hill. 

Lovibond, Major A. E., 169, Greeawicli rd., 
Greenwich. 



Borough Councils. 



267 



Luckett, A. H., Laagdale Hoase, 136, 

Greenwich-road, Greenwich. 
Meers, G., 15, Hervey-road, Kidbrooke. 
Newbery, C, J. p., 32, Annandale-road, 

Greenwich. 
Newington, H. A. H., 33, Kidbrooke-park- 

road, Black heath. 
Nicholas, W. H., 29, The Village, Old 

Charlton. 
Nixon, C, 23, Westcombe-hill, Blackheath. 
Parker, J. G., d.sc, ** Scotscraig," Beacons- 

fleld-road. Blackheath. 
Perou, W., Mid Kent Tavern, Lewisham. 
Richardfon, W., 60, Annandale-roid, 

Greenwich. 



ku-.-j, J., 21, BU£H8eU'$tri!«t, Ure<;nwii-h. 
s, irr.W. S ,3, luf^lpidrfe groce. Hhrkli«^th 
s h , * w . J . K . , S8 , Urn don s treot, (ircenwio h. 
SkittiiH-, H. S., IJ, Albtjry-at., D.nJtrurd. 
SkiiiHtT, T., 10, ^wallow^acJdrd,. C burlttm. 
SoMiiifi^, W. F.. L2; St, GL'riiiinr&-pliit:p, 

UtnrkhMth, 
Si one, U., 6.V»Hhnijjh'terr,±ce, Blntkhetitb. 
■SEiiue, J, M.. 3, Sltuie buU'Jhig^. LijKoliir 

inn. 
Watson, H. M., "K«ld nan," Coleraine- 

ro;id, Westcombe-park. 
Wild, R.. 39, Trafalgar-road, Greenwich. 
Williams, E. P., j.p., " Elmhurst," Wet- 

combe-park-road, Blackheath. 



HACKNEY. 

Town Hall : Mare Street, ^.E. 
(Meetings : Second and fourth Thursdays in the month at 7 p.m.) 



The borough is the payish, con- 
terminous with the local govern- 
ment district, but only part of the 
Hackney Poor Law Union, which 
com prises Stoke Newington as well 
as Hackney. The Parliamentary 
borough of Hackney ,too,differs from 
the municipal borough by reason of 
Stoke Newington bein^ part of the 
North Division, the divisions wholly 
in the borough being Central and 
South Hackney. 

In area Hackney holds the third 
place among single-parish boroughs, 
being nearly bi square miles in 
extent. Of its 3,299 acres, 618 
acres are open space — a proportion 
of 187 per cent. The estimated 
population is 230,000, consider- 
ably over three times what it 
was in 1861 ; and in 1901 it was 
219,^. The density of popula- 
tion is 65, or on the area available 
for building about 80' Thus, if 
Hackney becomes as thickly popu- 
lated as Marylebone, say, there is 
room for 120,000 more people, or 
335,000 in all. The rateable 
value of the borough is £1,2138,129, 
of which £297 is the valuation of 
agricultural land. 

Hacknev has adopted the Baths 
and Wash-houses Act, and the 
electricity supply is under muni- 
cipal control. 



The borough council consists of 
10 aldermen aad 60 councillors, who 
have taken the place of about 150 
members of extinct bodies. The 
borough is divided into 8 wards. 

Public Baths. 

The public baths are situated in 
Lower Clapton - road, and were 
opened in February, 1897. Prices : 
Swimming baths — Men's 1st Class 
(with use of two towels, &c.), 6d. ; 
Men's 2nd Class (with use of towel, 
&c.), 2f/. Women's 1st Class (with 
use of two towels and costume), 6r/.; 
Women's 2nd Class (with use of 
one towel and costume), 2d. Private 
Baths — Men's 1st Class (with use of 
two towels and soap), ^d.; Men's 
2nd Class, warm (one towel and 
soap), 2d.; cold, (with use of towel, 
soap id.), Id. Women's 1st Class 
(with use of two towels and soap), 
6d.; Women's 2nd Class, warm 
(one towel and soap), 21.; cold 
(with use of one towel, soap id.). 
Id. First Class only — Book of 12 
tickets (Male or Female), Private 
or Swimming, 5s. Schools— Book 
of 100 tickets, 1st Class Swimming 
only, 258.: 2nd Class Swimming 
only, 128. iyd. Clubs, M. each 
member. During the year ended 
Lady Day, 1907, the number of per- 
sons who used the baths was 3^39,765 



268 



Borough Councils. 



There are no wash-houses on the 
establishment. 

Public Library. 

The borongh council has adopted 
the Public Libraries Acts and has 
accepted a gift of £'25,000 from Mr. 
Andrew Carnegie for the erection of 
one central and two branch libraries. 
'I'he Central Library was com- 
pleted in May, 1908, and sites have 
baen secured for the two branch 
libraries. 

Electric Light. 

Electricity works were established 
in conjunction with a refuse destruc- 
tor, and the supply was inaugurated 
on 31st October, 1901. For financial 
and other particulars of the scheme 
see the section on Electric Light. 

Officers. 

Town Clerk and Solicitor— W. A. 
Williams. 

Boroujh Treasurer — Andrew 
Millie. 

Borough Engineer and Snrcsyor 
— Norman Scorgie, M.i.c.E. 

Medical Officer of Health — J. 
King-Warry, M.D., D.P.H., &c. 

Jioroagh Electrical Engineer — 
L. L. llobinson, M.i.E.E., m.i.m.e. 

Borough Accountant— J. A. Jen- 
kins. 

Public Analyst — Leo Taylor, 
F.I.C., &c. 

Assistant Town Clerk — F. E. 
Lampard. 

Mayor. 

Alderman George Billings, f.a.i., 

"Arnndel" Crescent-road, Chin^'ord. 

Aldermex 

Beurle. W. L., 331, Victoria Park-road, 

South Hackney, N.E. 
Corby, T., m.r.c.v.s., 184, Evering-road, 

Clapton, N.E. 
Feesey.R.,!!^, Downham-roAd, Kingsland. 
Holmes, G. B., J. p., 84, King Edward-road, 

South Hackney, N.E. 
Miller, F. M., J.P., l.r.c.p. (Lond.), 

M.R.C.8., L.8.A., "Northolme," 135, 

Upper Clapton-road, N.E. 



Rawll. H. C, 42, Oakfleld-rd., Clapton, N.E. 
Reynolds, E., 120. Clapton-common, N.E. 
Sheehan, J., 110, Mortlmer-rd., Kingsland. 
Whitemore, L., 248, Millflelds-rd., Clapton. 

CorjfcrLLORS. 

Barley, J. R., 97, Claptoa-common, N. 

Barlow, R. N., 132, Shacklewell-lane, N.E. 

Beadle, E. J., 66. Alberr-rd.. Dalston, N.E. 

Bennett, H., 52, Lower Clapton-road., N.E. 

Bishop, W. H., 150. Stoke Newingtoa-roil 

Brown, E. C.,80, Alberb-rd., Dalston, N.E. 

Bunch, J. B., 116, Clapton-common, N.E. 

Butler, A. S., 68, Piley-aveuue, N. 

Carr, G., '• Elm Villa," 123, Upper Clapton- 
road. N.E. 

Ca-e, P. M., 34. Horton-road, Dalston, N.E. 

Chapman, T., 23, Shore-road, N.E. 

Clarke, R.. 11, Pletching-road, N.E. 

Cornish, M\, 34, Gore-road, N.E. 

Davenport, H. E., 4, Linthorpe - road, 
Stamford-hill, N. 

Day, C. F., 241, Lower Clapton-road, N.E. 

Eihott, J. R. R.. 62, Mount Pleasant- 
lane, N.E. 

Evans, D. H., 235, Victoria-park-road, N.E. 

Farmer. E., 172, Richmond-road, N.E. 

Fenton-Jones, W. F., 12, King Edward-rd. 

Frye, F. E., 60, Shacklewell-lane. N.E. 

Garnham, R. J., 93, Greenwood - road, 
Dalston, N.E. 

Grant, H., 33, Elderfield-road, N.E. 

Greenwood, F., 230, Amhurst-road, N.E. 

Hammer. W., 98, Rendlesham-road, Clap- 
ton, N.E. 

Hasemer, G. A., 30, Cawley-road, N.E. 

Hiilman, J., 51, St. Thomas' -road, N.E. 

Holmes, G. J . , 135, Victoria Park-road, N. E. 

Holmes, J., 178, Graham -road, N.E. 

Ho-»good, T., 84, Osbaldeston-road, N. 

Inkpen, J., 35, Blackhorse-road, Walthain 
stow. 

Johnson, L, S., 17, Linthorpe-road, Stam- 
ford-hill. N. 

Jones, G. W. H., 33, Darenth-road, Stam- 
ford-hill, N. 

Juniper, J. T., 18, Brooksby's-walk, N.E. 

King, A., 48, Bodney road, N.E. 

King, C. A., 212, Mare-street, N.E. 

KiDg, F. W., 127, Kyverdale-ruad, Stoke 
Newington, N. 

Larter, G. W., il54, Cawley-road, South 
Hackney, N.E. 

Lashm-ir, W. A. L., 255, Mare-street, N.E. 

Leigh, V. S., 313, Mare-street, N.E. 

Lewis, W. G., 40, Amhurst-road, N.E. 

Lockie, J. J., 72, London-road, N. K. 

Lockyer, F. J., 60, Graham-road, N.E. 

Margetts, L. A. T., 23, Warwick-road, N.E. 

Morpole. D. W.,4, Surton-place, Homerton. 

McCanu, F., 522, Kingsland-road, N.E. 

McCl?llaud, J. J., 263, Victoria Park -road. 

Meredith, M. T., 55, Mortimer-road, Kings- 
land, N. 

Munro, C, 47, Rushmore-road, N.E 

Pengelly, W., 6, Mildenhall-road, N.E. 

Pitt, T. R., 49, Cawley-road, N.E. 



Borough Councils. 



269 



Ridgway, W. G., 18, Lower Clapton-road. 
Rushbrooke. T., 93, Stamford-hill, N. 
Shaw, C. J., 81, Londoa-road, N.E. 
Simpson, E., 11, Chamock - road. Lower 

Clapton, N.E. 
Smith, C. G., 15, Portland-avenue, N, 



Southerton, G. R.,25,Meynell-cre9cent,N.E. 
Staple ton, W. J., 47, Brooke-roal, Stoke 

Newington, N. 
Ptowers, H., 29, Myrtle-st., Dalston, N.E. 
Walsh, R. F., 161, Lower Olapton-rd., N.E. 
Watford, J. F., 80, Chatsworth-road, N.E. 



HAMMERSMITH. 

Town Hall: Broadway, Hammersmith. 



(Meetings : Alternate 
Hammersmith, like Fulham, is 
an area autonomous for all pur- 
poses. It was formerly joined to 
Fulham for municipal and for Poor 
Law purposes, but it is now sepa- 
rated from the parish for both pur- 
poses. In size ift is near the averag'e, 
being three and a half square 
miles in extent, 10? per cent, of 
which is open space (242 acres out 
of 2,286). The population has 
increased very rapidly during the 
last few years. A village of 5,600 
inhabitants at the beginning of last 
century became a district of 17,(XK) 
inhabitants by the middle of the 
century, of 71,939 in 1881, 97,239 in 
1891, and 112,233 in 1901. It is still 
increasing, and the density of 56*61 
persons to the acre leaves a wide 
margin for expansion. The borough 
contains a large proportion of small 
properties, and in 1891 there was a 
proportion of 13*44 per cent, of the 
population living more than two in 
a room— a rather large proportion in 
comparison with the thin population 
of the district. The death rate in 
1906, 14*7 per 1,000, was *6 less than 
the average of all London. The 
rateable value is £828,411, of 
which £399 is the value of agricul- 
tural land. 

Hammersmith has adopted the 
Burial, the Public Baths and Wash- 
houses, and the Libraries Acts. The 
borough cemetery, which was ac- 
quired in 1869, is situate in Margra- 
vin3-road, and additional land for 



Wednesdays, 6.30 p.m.) 

the same purposes has been 
secured at Mortlake. The Central 
Public Library, which is in Brook 
(xreen-road,was provided by the mu- 
nificence of Mr. Andrew Carnegie, 
and there are other libraries at 
RavenscourtPark and at Uxbridge- 
road, the latter being erected on 
land gfiven by the Ecclesiastical 
Commissioners, the building itself 
being the gift of Mr. Passmore 
Edwards, whose name it bears. 
There is also a public reading-room 
in Waldo - road, College - park. 
Public Baths and Wash-houses 
have recently been erected in Lime 
Grove. A municipal supply of 
electric lighting was inaugurated 
in June, 1897, for financial details 
of which see our Electric Light sec- 
tion. The handsome Town Hall, 
which was opened in 1897 by his 
Grace the Duke of Fife, is situate 
in the Broadway. 

The borough council consists of 
6 aldermen and 36 councillors, who 
have taken the place of 81 mem- 
bers of extinct bodies. The borough 
is divided into 7 wards. 

Expenditure 1906-7; £190,537 
excluding amounts paid on the pre- 
cepts of central autnorities. Debt : 
£462,698. 

Officers. 

Town Clerk — H. Thompson. 

Treasurer— i, F. Long. 

Borough Surveyor — H. Mair, 
m.i.c.e. 

Medical Officer of Health— N. C. 
Collier, L.R.C.P., L.s.A. 



270 



Borough Councils. 



Public Analyst — P. A. Richards, 

F.I.C., F.C.S. 

Electrical Engineer— G. G. Bell. 

Chief Librarian— S. Martin. 

Accountant — ^A. G. Keen. 

Assistant Town Clerk — T, C. 
Jarvis. 

Assistant Surveyor— J. Gair. 




HAMMERSMITH CHAIN AND BADGE. 

Manufactured by the Goldsmiths' 

and Silversmiths' Com,pany. 

Chief Clerk, Rating Department 
— G. Mnssared. 

Superintendent of Roach, S:c. — • 
E. Mitchell. 

Sanitary Inspectors — S. Addison, 
W. Brown, J. S. Cromack, J. Cosson, 
C. Gee, S. H. Brown, H. Neighbour, 
C. V. Nutley, and H. Oatley. 

Rate- Collector 8— Qc. Dexter, 27, . 
Bloemfontein - roiid, Shepherd's - 



bush; H.E.Rogrers, 33, St Stephen's- 
avenue; F. Jeffery, 21, West wick - 
gardens ; T. Hanks, 44, Glenthome- 
road. Hammersmith; J. A. Beak, 
12, Ehn-gardens ; C. F. Chatfield, 
45, Bridge-avenu'^. 

Mayoe. 

Councillor S. Bewsher, 

*' Colet Court," 138, Hammersmith-road. 

Aldermen. 
Apsey, J. L.,4, Godolphin-road,Shepherd's- 

bush, W. 
Chnmberlen, T., j.p., 24, Rivercourt-road, 

•Hammersmith. 
Hunter, W. P., 50, Mall-rd., Hammersmith. 
Mulholland, J. B., King's Theatre. 
Phillips, A., "Acton Lodge," London-road, 

Isleworth. 
Smythies, Major R. H. ^., 20, Addison 

court-gardens, W. 

Councillors. 

Atkin?on, A., 29, Lonsdale-road, Barnes 

S.W. 
Bevan, Dr. R., 31, Girdler'?-road. 
Boyle, J., 58, Bassein-park-road. 
Burns, W. I., 170, Hammersmith-road. 
Carter, Dr. A. J., 75, Shepherd's-bush-road. 
Cockerel I, A., 43, Rowan-road. 
Cracknell, A. R., 5, Devonp .^^road. 
Davidson, Dr. W. A., 235, Uxbridge-road. 
Davies. Lt.-Col. T. W., 49, Ashchurch- 

grove. 
Davies, W. P., 261, Goldhawk-road. 
Ebbs, A., 183, The Grove. 
Fletcher, J. F., 75, Goldh iwk-road. 
Gillies, W. A., 31, Pennard-road. 
Gilham, A.. 57, Blomfleld-road. 
Green, J. J. R., " Clyde House," Spring- 
grove, Isleworth. 
Hodgson, T. G., 41, Bassoin-park-road. 
Hooper, H. R. D.. " Pavilion Hotel." North 

Pole-road. 
Hunt, J. W., "Coniston," Holland-road, 

Sutton. 
Johnson, H. T., 28, Eyot-gardens. 
Keogh, C. G. N., 12, Girdler'sroad. 
Levy, J. M., 28, Rivercourt-road. 
JiCwis, J. J., 174, Uxb ridge-road. 
May, H. J., 164, Percy-road. 
Mayle, F., 15, Amherr^t-avenue, Ealing. 
Morris, T., 33, Cambridge-road. 
Pascall, C, 52, Digby-iiian«ions. 
Ratcliffe, P. A., 9, Netherwoodroad. 
RawliDgs, E. C, 6, Gunnertbury-avenue, 

Ealing-common, W. 
Tomes, W., 29, Bath-road. Bedford-park. 
Walker, Rev. R. J., m.a., " Little HoUand 

House," 6, Melbury-r.«ad, Ken^ington. 
Wallace, R. B., 55. Shaftesbury-road. 
White, H. W., 13, Sinclair-gaidens. 
White, J.. 10, Hargreive villas, Tartswooi 

road. 
Wright, H., 177, Dalling-road. 



Borough Councils. 



271 



HAMPSTEAD. 

Town Hall: Haverstock Hill, KW. 
(Meetings: Alternate Thursdays, at 8 p.m.) 



The borouffh is nearly coter- 
minous with the parish, the old local 
government district, the Poor Law 
area and the Parliamentary borough. 
It is three and a half square 
miles in extent, and contains 350 
acres of open space (15t p|er cent, 
of the whole area), including the 
finest open space in London. The 
{population has increased con- 
siderably of late years: it was 
12,000 in 1851, 45,452 in 1881, 68,416 
in 1891, 75,449 in 1896, and at 
Census 1901, 81,942. In character 
the borough is almost wholly resi- 
dential, and the averag3 rateable 
value of the houses is high. 
There is very little overcrowding, 
and the death rate for 1907 was 
9 per 1,000, being the lowest rate 
ever recorded for Hampstead, and 
the lowest in London. 

The rateable value of the 
borough is £1,091,611, of which £224 
is the valuation of agricultural land. 

The parish has adopted the Baths, 
the Burial, and the Library Acts, 
and the municipal electric fighting 
undertaking is in a flourishing con- 
dition. 

The borough council consists of 
the mayor, 7 aldermen, and 42 
councillors, who have taken tiie 
place of 89 members of previously 
existing bodies. The borough is 
divided into 7 wards. 

Public Baths. 

(175, Finchloy-road.) 

The baths were opened in June, 
1888, and consist of four swimming 
baths and about 50 private baths. 
The three largest swimming baths 
are floored over for the winter season, 
two being used as gymnasia, and 
the third for indoor cricket. 

Superintendent— 'C. W. Biggs. 



Free Public Libraries. 

Public libraries have been estab- 
lished. The central library building 
cost about £5,000, which was pre- 
sented by Sir Henry Harben, j.p. (ex- 
Mayor), then chairman of the vestry. 
The site of this library, one of tne 
best in London, is at the comer of 
Finchley-road and Arkwright-road. 
It contains a reference library, 
lending department, news - room, 
and magazine - room. There are 
also branch libraries at Worsley- 
road (Town), Antrim-street (Bel- 
size), Westbere-road (West End), 
and Cotleigh-road (Kilbum). 

Chief Librarian — W. E. Double- 
day. 

Electric Lighting. 

Municipal electric lighting was 
established in 1894. See section on 
Electric Light. 

Officers. 

Town Clerk — A. P. Johnson, m.a 

Borough Engineer and Surveyor 
— Oliver E. Winter, M.l.c.B. 

Electrical Engineer — Gr. H. Cot- 
tam, M.i.B.E. 

Medical Officer of Health — Greo. 
F. McCleiiy, M.B., M.D., d.p.h. 

Public Analyst — A. W. Stokes, 

F.C.S., F.I.C. 

Borough Accountant — Chas. E. 
Moon, F.S.A.A. 

Mayor. 

Councillor Ernest E. Lake, 
" East Heath Lodge," East Heath-road. 

Aldermex. 

tAndrew-s, E. C, 110, Finchley-road. 
•Bousfleld, J. K., 9, Parsifal-road. 
tHanhart, N., 35, Fellows-road. 
tMcMillan, D., 12, Willoughby-road. 
♦Pitt, W. A., 1, Cantley-mansions, 68, Fair- 
hazel -gardens, 
♦Pritchard, C. F., 17, Maresfleld-gardens. 
•Randall, T. G., 42, England' s-lane. 



Retire in tl909. 



t Retire in 1912. 
K 



272 



Borough Councils, 



Councillors. 
Ashenden, T. E., 46, Lowfleld-road. 
Balkwill, Miss M. E., 16, Ellerdale-road. 

Hampstead, N.W. 
Blessley, A. W., S9. Hillfleld-road. 
Buckle, G., 61, Heath-street. 
Candler, H., 112, Greencroft-gardens. 
Cleaver, J. D.. 7, Quex-road. 
Cunnington, C. W., 88, West End-lane. 
Dougrall, K. J., 37, Belsize-park-gardens. 
Farmer, L., 13, Mortimer-crescent. 
Fraser, J. 1., 25, Kingdon-road. 
Gadsby, C. H.. 6, Minster-road. 
Green, C. T.. 45, Arkwright-road. 
OrppTll^^^^ T 7, Tanza-road. 
ti unary . J., i;8, Adelaide-road, 
HiilJ.C..3e. I airfax-road. 
Hainiltou, \\\ R., 25, Fairfax-road. 
Hyudricfc, (\. 41, Parkhill-road. 
Holtmpffpl, <\. W., 83, King Henry's-road. 
Hnllf;, i\ Hr. 10, Dennington-pk.-mansions, 

\icst€nd'liine. 
Mulls, H. >L, 279, West End-lane. 



Jupp, C. L., 219, Belsize-road. 

King, C. B., 65, Frognal. 

Lawrence, Miss R. E., 37, Belsizc- 

avenue. 
Lloyd, W. E., 44, Holmdale-road. 
Lyell, J. P. R., 51, Dowushire-hill. 
Neave, F. G., 19, Stanley -gardens. 
Nunn, T. H.,11, Rosslyn-hill. 
Osier, J. T., 4, Akenside-road. 
Parker, A. G., 75, Alexandra-road. 
Payne, E. S., 46, Rosslyn-hill. 
Pocock, W., 58, Fla<k-walk. 
Rider, W. R., 143. Haverstock-hill. 
Spriggs, W. J., 16, Parsifal-road. 
Swinburne-Hanham, J. C. 106, Goldhurst- 

Symmon.^, f. A.. 55, Sherriff-road. 
Taylor, B. C, 18, Rosslyn-hill. 
Taylor. J. G , 5, Lindfleld-gardens. 
Todd, E., 67, Belsize-park-gaidens. 
Turner. G. H., 35, Rosslyn-hill. 
Woodward, W., 10, Church-row. 
Wrentmore, J. H., 1, John-street. 



HOLBORN. 

Municipal Offices: 197, High Holborn. 

Inn Eoad. 



Town Hall : Gray's 



(Meetings : Second and fourth Wednesdays, at 5 p.m.) 



The Metropolitan Borough of 
Holbom consists principally of the 
area of the Holborn Division of the 
Parliamentary Borough of Finsbury , 
but certain portions of the Holborn 
Division have, by virtue of the 
London Goverpment Act, 1899, 
become parts of the City of West- 
minster and of the Metropolitan 
Boroughs of Finsbury and St. Pan- 
eras. The borough consists of the 
united Parishes of St. Giles-in-the- 
Fields and St. George, Bloomsbury, 
St. Andrew, Holbom-above-the- 
Bars, and St. George-the-Martyr, 
and the Liberty of Saffron Hill, 
with Lincoln's Inn, Gray's Inn, 
Staple Inn, and so much of Fur- 
nival's Inn as is outside the City of 
London. 

For Poor Law purposes the 
borough is divided between two 
Unions, i.e , St. Giles-in-the- Fields 
and St. George, Bloomsbury, and 
the Horbom Union; but Lincoln's 



Inn is not in any Poor Law Union. 
For assessment purposes, the 
parishes of St. Giles-in-the-Fields 
and St. George, Bloomsbury, Lin- 
coln's Inn, and Gray's Inn are 
dealt with by the Assessment Com- 
mittee appointed by the council, 
and the remaining parishes are 
dealt with by the Assessment Com- 
mittee appointed by the Guardians 
of the Holbom Union. 

The superficial area of the 
borough is 405 acres, and the rate- 
able value on the 6th April, 1907, 
was £1,048,883. 

The population, according to 
the census taken on the 31st March, 
1901, was 59,405, but at the middle 
of the year 1905 it was estimated 
at 56,522. The total number of 
parochial electors. is 11,499. 

The borough is divided into nine 
wards, and the council consists of 
seven aldermen and 42 councillors. 

Since the council came into 
power the Public Libraries Acts, 



Advertisement, 



273 



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riie following are amongst the many purchasers 
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51^ mOORGATE STREET, E.G. 



K 2 



274 



Borough CounnU. 



whicli were only in force in parts of 
the borouerh, nave been adopted 
over the whole of the borough with- 
out limit of rate. 

The Bathe and Wash houses Acts 
are also in force in the whole 
borough, but the Burial Acts are 
not in force in any parts of the area. 

Powers to supply electricity are 
possessed by tne Metropolitan. 
Electric Supply Company, the 
Charing Cross, West End and City 
Electricity Supply Co., and the 
County of London Electric Supply 
Company. 

Public Libraries. 
(198, High Holbom, and 10, John- 
street, Bedford-row.) 

Borough Librarian — W. A. 
Taylor. 

Baths and Wash -H puses. 

(EndeU-street and Broad-street.) 
Superintendent — G.W. Simmons. 

Officers. 
Town Cleric, Solicitor and Par- 
liamentary Agent — Lionel WaKord. 
Borough Surveyor — E. Spurrell. 

Medical Officer of Health— W. A. 
Bond, M.A., M.D. 

Public Analyst — J. K. Col well. 

P.I.C, F.C.S. 

Sanitary Lispectors — Messrg. 
Bennett, Clarke, Larard, and Miss 
E. Orange. 

Borough Accountant — Bernard 

G. Pocock, A.S.A.A., F.S.S., &c. 

Matoe. 

Aldernian Lt.-Col. Lacy W. Bidge, j.p., 

5, Verulam Buildings, Gray's-inn, W.C. 

Aldebmeit. 

*Dlbdin, C, 33, Woburn-square, W.C. 
tDibdin, R. W., 56, RusseH-sq.. W.C. 
*I>oll, C. FitzRoy, 5, Southampton-street, 
Bloomsbury, W.C. 



tGlave, N., 80, New Oxford-street. 
•Rawlins, W. D., K.c, 1, New-square, Lin- 
. coln's-inn, W.C. 

♦Willoughby, G. P., j.p.,4, Bedford-square. 
W.C. 

• Retire in 1909. t Retire in 1912. 



COUNCILLOES. 



Angel, E., 12, Howard-road, Cricklewooi. 
Baddeley. W., 37 and 38, High Holborn. 
Buer. J. B., 78, Tulse-hill, 8.E. 



Canney, Rev. E., The Rectory, Cross-street, 
Saffioti-hill, E.C. 

Chai)uian, A., 8, Warwick-court, Gray's 
Inn. W.C. 

Clarke, M., 4, Queen-square, W.C. 

Coleman, E. J., 12, Woburn-square, W.C*. 

Coxen, W. G., 21, Hart-street, W.C. 

Davies, R., 59-60, Chancery-lane, W.C. 

Gammon, V. E., 94 and 96, Lamb's Conduit- 
street W^ C 

(^ii^ii. C. E..''\9. Hiittou prden, E.G. 

lljuJy, H. I]., 66, Latt broke gro re* Niftllng- 
hill. W. 

HiLSiell, \V,. J.P., 82, fedford'r'rE-inaiiBloiis. 

Heek«htr, E. J,, 11, New -set., Linculu's-iiui. 

HilJ. J. H,. yt.li., 2, Bedford -sqiiare. W,C. 

Jt'wt'll, H.. U2, lli«b Holborn. W.a 

Kt'iit, W. O.J " Southiimptiiu Villa.'* 
TwJckenUam. 

^tniTif?, T, E.» S7. Great Ortijood -street* 

Mntioti^ J. i4., 42. ISl'iinisjbury-sqmire^ W, 

Mmo, R. J.,7. Xtw>i|Luiro, Linculn'slnn. 

O'Hari?, A., JO, Vrk-yk :5tiH.'r, WX\ 

Furker. 0, I*.. 15. Hl(.y.msbiiry-=t., W.C. 

Parker, T.. fJ, Little :V ml r^w street. WX'* 

Pill tt? 11, C. W., 55, fireiit Oi-moud-st.. W.C. 

Porri'i', H.^ 16, auhsell sftuure. W.C. 

I'lilh yu. E., 96, Turnplke-lfine, MoniBer, 

Pyke, E. L., 116, Charing Cross-road, W.C. 

Reilly, J.. 29, Betterton-street, W.C. 

Sheam, W. B., 5, Torrington-plac«, W.C. 

Shoppee, C. H.,41,Mecklenburgh-sq.,W.C. 

Simmons, P. C. j,p., 29, Russell-square, 

Smith, J., 15, Great Russell-street, W.C. 

Smith, W. R., m.d.. j.p., 74, Gt. Rassell- 
street, W.C. 

Tacon, J. W., 277, High Holborn, W.C. 

Talker, H. P., 2, John-st., Bedford-row. 

ToUinton, Rev. R. B., 19, Woburn-square. 

Wagstaff, W. H., 371, London-road, Thorn- 
ton Heath, Surrey. 

Warner, G.,7, King's Bench-walk, Temple. 

Wheatley, W. M., 15 and 16, Brook-street, 
Holbom, E.C. 

Wilkinson, P. A., " Craven House," Kings- 
way. 

Williams. G. C. W. f.r.c.s., 20, Bedford- 
square, W.C. 

Wrentmore, J. H., 29, Bedford-row. 



Borough Councils. 



275 



ISLINGTON. 

Town Hall: Upper Street, N. 
(Meeting's: First and third Fridays in the month, at 7 p.m.) 



The borough is the parish of 
Islingrton, a unit of local govern- 
ment and of Poor Law administra- 
tion, and a Parliamentaij borough 
containing the four divisions of 
North, East, West, and South 
Islington. The area is over four 
and three - quarter square 
miles and it is very nearly built 
over. The population has been 
increasing rapidly: in 1801 it was 
10,212 ; it rose fifty per cent, each 
decennium till 1841, when it was 
55,690; forty years later it was 
282,865 ; in 1891 it was 319,143 ; 
in 1896, 336,764; and in 1901, 
334,991. Islington is not well off as 
regards open spaces. Highbury 
Fields, the most important, occu- 
pies only 27i acres and all of the 
open spaces together only make up 
40 acres, a very small proportion of 
the total of 3,092 acres, and in re- 
lation to the population providing 
only one acre to every 8,375 persons. 
The proportion of overcrowding in 
1891 was 2,025, a percentage a little 
above the average of all London. 
The death rate in 1907 was 146 
per 1,000. The borough has baths 
and a cemeter;^, and public libraries. 
(See Public Libraries.) 

It has an electric lighting under- 
taking, upon which it has spent 
over £448,368, the gross re venae 
from which amounted during the 
year 1906-7 to over £50,125. 

Income from rates for the year 
1906-7, £712,226; income from all 
sources for the year 1906-7. £817,313 ; 
expenditure, £825,786; debt 31st 
March, 1907, £687,028 (including 
electric lighting, baths and wash- 
houses, conveniences, public lib- 
raries, and cemetery) ; rateable 
value at Xmas, 1907, £1,959,544. 

The old vestry had all the local 



services in its own hands, and was 
the only body superseded by the 
borough council. It had a mem- 
bership of 123. The council consists 
of 10 aldermen and 60 councillors. 
The borough is divided into 11 
wards. 

Public Baths and Wash-Houses. 

There are three establishments, 
situated in Caledonian-road, Hom- 
sey-road, and Essex-road, which 
were respectively opened to the 
public in May, 1892, July, 1892, and 
April, 1895. Duiing the year ended 
31st March, 1906, the number of 
bathers at the Caledonian-road 
establishment was 224,284 ; at 
Hornsey-road, 294,421 ; and at 
Essex-road, 217,997, or a grand total 
of 736,702. Cfiarges: Swimming 
baths, 1st class, 6d., or books of 
12 tickets for 4s. 6d. ; 2nd class, 
2d. Private baths : 1st class, 
warm, Qd. ; 1st class, cold, 
3^^. ; 2nd class, warm, 2d. ; cold, Id. 
Baths open as follows :— Week- 
days (except Saturdays), Novem- 
ber to March (inclusive), 8 a.m. to 
9 p.m. ; April and October, 7 a.m. to 

9 p.m.; May to September (inclu- 
sive), 7 a.m. to 9.30 p.m. Satur- 
days, at 9 p.m., with the exception 
of the months of April and October, 
when the baths are closed at 
9.30 p.m. Sundays, November to 
March (inclusive), 8 a.m. to 

10 a.m. April to October (inclu- 
sive), 7 a.m. to 9.30 a.m. 

The number of washers last year 
at Caledonian-road was 22,586; at 
Homsey-road, 27,705 ; and at Essex- 
road, 45,271; or a grand total of 
95,562. Charges: l^d. per hour. 
Open daily, from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m., 
Sunday excepted. 

Superintendent of Baths— F. A . 



276 



Boiough Councils, 



iisey 



Horusey-roaf 

Public Libraries. 

Three polls have been taken — the 
first in 1887, when the voting was — 
for 10,152, against 15,774 ; in 1891, 
when 7,542 voted for and 10,912 
against; and the last in January, 
1898, when 11,344 voted for and 
14,413 against the adoption of the 
Acts, but on the 29th July, 1904, the 
Council, acting under the powers 
conferred upon them by the London 
Government Act, adopted the 
Public Libraries Acts, 1892 and 
1893. The Northern Libraiy was 
opened in September, lH(J6, the West 
Library in July, 1907, and the Cen- 
tral Library in October, 11 07. Two 
further branch libraries are con- 
templated. Mr. Carnegie has pro- 
mised £40.000 towards the cost of 
the erection of these. libraries. 

Electric Light. 

The. supply of electricity was 
commenced in 1890. (Se? Electric 
Light section.) 

Officers. 

Town Clerk— Wm. F. Dewey. 

Assis'ant Town Clerk — D. Mc- 
Monnies. 

^fc(lical Officer of Health— A. E. 
Harris. 

J til rough Trc(t surer and Accouni- 
unt (j. If. ^leakin. 

.t** isf(n)t rorodgh Arcounfant — 
Joseph Kao. 

]ii.r)vgh Enqineer and Surveyor 
— J. Patten Barber. 

Assistant Borough Engineers and 
Surveyors — N. District: J, E. 
Cooke. S.'E. District : P. A. Moss. 
S.-W. District : W. Gallon. 

Electrical Engineer — Albert Gay. 



Chief Assistant Engineer — Alex. 
P. Mac A lister. 

Solicitor to the Council — A. M. 
Bramall, East India-chambers, 23, 
Leadenhall-street, E.C. 

Public Analyst— F. L. Teed, 9, 
MinciQg-lan©, E.C. 

Chief Librarian— J, T>. Brown. 

Superintendent of Public Health 
Department and Chief Sanitary 
Inspector — J. 11. Leggatt. 

Superintendent of Horse and 
Depot Department — J. W. Wroot. 

Superintendent of Baths and 
WashJioiises - F. A. Burch. 

Superintendent of Cemetery — 
Alfred King. 

Inspector of Meat—rL. Wilkin- 
son. 

Inspector of Food and Drugs — 
W. W. Ward. 

Inspector of Workshops and 
BakeltousL'S — G. West. 

Inspectors of Houses Let in L ^dg- 
ings G. J. Bridel and T. H. Han- 
cock. 

Ins]}ectors of Factories, Worlc^ 
shops, &c., in tvhich females are 
employed— Miss J. J. Brown and 
and Mrs. A. Catherine Young. 

Sanitary Inspectors — District 1 : 
W.Cook. District 2 : H. J. Bicknell: 
District 3: A. Bagshaw. District 4 .• 
C. T. Bacon. District 5: W. H. 
Flood. District 6 : C. E. Horsman. 
Disirirt 7: E.L Fortune. District S: 
J. Metcalf. District 9: W. Irving- 
District 10: H. J. J. Watson. Dw- 
trict 11 : T. L. Burrell. District 12 .• 
T. W. Agar. District 13: J. J. 
Jordan. Dis^n'cf 14: H. Callow. 

Bate- Collectors — Ward No. 1 : 
J. Williams, 34, Harberton-road ; j[ 
Chisnell, 44, Mercers'-road, Hollo- 
way-road. Ward No. 2: J. WiU 
Hams, 34, Harberton-road; E. F. 



Borough GounciU, 



rn 



Baker, 19, St. John's-villas, Upper 
HoUoway. Ward No. 3 : J. 
Williams, 34, Harberton - road; 
A. E. Hitchin, 229, Seven Sisters- 
road ; T. Rust, 25, Hanley-road, 
Horasey-rise. Ward No. 4 : C. R. 
Butcher, 484, Caledonian-road; J. T. 
Baker, 17, Richmond - crescent, 
Bamsbury ; J. Chisnell, 44, Mercer's- 
road, HoUoway-road ; J. Tucker, 
67, Cross - street. Upper - street. 
Ward No. 5 : A. E. Hitchin, 
229, Seven Sisters - road ; John 
Moffat, 20, Aubert-park. Ward 
No. 6 : F. W. Saffery, 20, Newing- 
ton-green; J. Moffat, 20, Aubert- 
park; O. Hill, 82, Ockenden-road. 
Ward No. 7: S. F. Strong, Public 
Baths, Caledonian-road; J. T. 
Baker, 17, Richmond - crescent, 
Barnsbury. Ward No. 8: J. T. 
Baker, 17, Richmond - crescent, 
Bamsbury. Ward No. 9 : J. Tucker, 
Q7, Cross - street. Upper - street ; 
A. Y. Davis, Public Baths, Green- 
mau-street. Ward No. 10: 0. Hill, 
82, Ockenden-road ; J. Tucker, Q7, 
Cross-street, Upper - street. Ward 
No. 11 : A. V. Davis, Public Baths, 
Greenman-street. 

Mayor. 

Alderman George Samuel Elliott, J. p., 

14, Upper-street, N. 

Aldermen. 

Dryden, G., 51, Medina-rd., Seven Sisters-rd. 

Eggett, H. G., J. p., 41, St. James's-ro^d, N. 

Mills, H., J. p., 33, W ray -crescent, N. 

Motfat, C, 20, Canoubury-park South, N. 

Myers, A., 39, Highbury Xew-park. N. 

Saint, T. W., 81, Tollin^rton-park, N. 

Small wood, E., j.p., 135, Highbury-quad- 
rant, N. 

Walkley, A., 17, Cromar tie-road, Hornsey- 
rise, ^l . 

Wyllie, A. G., 424, Camden-road, N. 

Councillors. 

Aldridge, W., 21, Highbury-terrace, N. 
Andrew- Marshall, G., 42, Canonbury-park 

South. 
Aubar, G., 13, Highbury-park, N. 
Baker, J. G., 62, Kichmond-rd., Islington. 
Batty, J., 60, Canoabury-park South, N. 



Bdnnett, S. J., 12, Penn - road - villas, 

HoUoway. 
Biddle, J. W., 379, Camden-road. N. 
Box, H. A., 287, Caledonian-road. N. 
Bradbear, W. M.,102, St. Paul's-roid, N. 
Bumberry, T. W., " Hepple Lodge," Holly- 
park, N. 
Case, S. E., "Rokesley House," Middle- 
lane, Horusey, N. 
Clarke. A. O., 189. HoUoway-roid, N. 
Clarke, H. J., 355, Camden-roai, N. 
Cooksey, W. T., 266, Upper-street, N. 
Cornell. W. H., 83, Yor^-road, N. 
Cowling, J. W., 98, Carleton-road, Tufnell- 

park, N. 
Crole-Rees, C, " Tnglewood," 21, High- 
bury-quadrant, N. 
Davis, E. W., 104, St. Paul's-ro id. Canon- 
bury, N. 
Dey, T. H., 93, Amhurst-park, N. 
Didsbury, G. W., 4, Dresden-roal, N. 
Edis, J. W., 24, Richmond-road, N. 
Elliott, W., 14. Upper-street. N. 
Elmes, A. E., 60; Marquees-road, N. 
Essex, J., 95, Seven Sist3rs-roid, N. 
Freeman, H. S., 279, New North-road, N. 
Grundy, H. H., 390a, City-road, K.C. 
Guttridge, G., 29, Yonge-park, N. 
Harper, S. C, 80, Mercers-road, N. 
Harper, T. W., 493, Hornsey-road, N. 
Harwood, T. L., 61, Highbury-park, N. 
Hill, A. G., 84, Adelaide-Foad, N.W. 
Hind, A. R., 449, Hollo way-road, N. 
Keeves, J. H, T., " The Grove," Bush-hill, 

Winchmore-hill, N. 
Kingston, H. M., 297, Caledoniau-road, N. 
Limbert, S., j.p., 125, Barnsbury-road. N. 
Lander, J. B., 132, Fairbridge roii, N. 
Lander, M. T., 2, Ashbrook-roa 1, Upper 

HoUoway. 
Loomes, R., 83, Carleton-rd., Tufuell-pk. 
Madgett, T. B., 25, Cheverton-road, S. 
Manchester, W. E., 23, Preegrove-road, N. 
Mar'kham, A. G., 26, Thornhill-creiceut, N. 
Markham, W. E., 79, Es^ex-road, N. 
Merrington, W. J., 147, Upper-street, N. 
Monk, A., 29lA, Camden-road, N. 
Nutter, J., 38, Highbury -grove, S. 
Palmer, J. B., 194, Brecknock-road, N. 
Pratt, E. W., 27, Liberia-road, N. 
Prior, W., 38, Darham-road, N. 
Seal, W., 243, Camden-road, N. 
Seaman, W. M., 116, York-road, N. 
Smith, W. J., 311, Hornsey-road, N. 
Snare, R., " Springvale," Village - road, 

Enfield. 
Sparke^i, T., 24, Quadrant-road, N. 
Spiller, J., 2, St. Mary's-road, Canaubury. 
Vorley, H. B., 54. Highbury New-park, N. 
Waghoru, P.. "Haddon," Queei Anne's 

Drive, Prittlewell, Essex. 
Wenborn, F. M., "Braywick House," 139, 

Green-lanes. N. 
Whittard, A. J., 95, Carleton-road, Tnfnell- 

park. 
Williams, A. L., 18, Highbury-terrace, N. 
Wilson, C. H., 29, Thomhill-road, N. 



278 



Sorough Councils. 



KENSINGTON. 

Town Hall : Kensington High Street, W. 
(Meetings : Alternate Tuesdays, 8 p.m.) 



The Royal borough is the parish 
of Kensington, hitherto an au- 
tonomous area for local govern- 
ment. Poor Law, and electoral pur- 
poses, the Parliamentary borough 
being divided into the J^orth and 
South divisions. 

A special provision in the Act 
of 1899 allowed Kensington Palace 
to be transferred from Westminster 
to Kensington. The latter also 
received the part of Chelsea detached 
(Kensal Town) lying to the south or 
west of a line running along the 
south side of Grand Junction Canal, 
and the centre of Wedlake-street 
and Ken sal-road. These additions 
caused considerable difference be- 
tween the borough and the county 
and Parliamentary electoral areas. 

The area of the borough is a little 
over three and a half square 
mil es, nearly all of which is occu- 
pied. The population in 1901 was 
176,623, an increase of about 10,000 
upon the population of 1891. The 
period of greatest increase was 
between 1861, when it was 70,108, 
and 1881, when it had reached 
163,151— an addition of 93,000 in 
twenty years. There is but little 
open space in the borough, some 
twelve acres in all, but on the 
eastern boundary lie Kensington- 
gardens and the succession of parks 
stretching three miles to the river. 
The death rate in 1907 was 13*9 
per 1,000; the rateable value 
in November, 1907, was £2,425,976, 
of which £4 was the valuation of 
agricultural land. The Baths, 
Burials, and Library Acts have 
been adopted in the borough, 
and the Town Hall is one of 
the finest in London. The elec- 
tric lighting IS in the hands of 
three companies — the Notting 
Eill, the Brompton and Kensing- 



ton, and the Kensington and 
Knightsbridge. 

The borough council consists of 
10 aldermen and 60 councillors, 
who have taken the place of local 
bodies having a membership of 152. 
The borough is divided into nine 
wards. 

Baths and Wash- Houses. 

(Lancaster-road, Notting-hill.) 

These were opened in 1888. The 
number of bathers during 1906-7 
was 131,410, and persons using the 
laundry, 72,198. Charges : Men's 
tickets : cold, first class, 3c?. ; second 
class, 1 d. Warm, first class^ %d, ; 
second class, 2d. Swimming, first 
class, 6^. ; second class, 3c2. ; third 
class, 2d. 10 first class (transfer- 
able), 4s. 2d. ; second class (transfer- 
able), 2s. 6c?. 50 first-class (trans- 
ferable), 16s. 8c?. 100 second class 
(transferable), £1 . Women's tickets ; 
Cold, first class, 3c?. ; second class. 
Id. Warm, first class, 6c?. ; second 
class, 2d. Swimming, first class, 
M. 10 first class (transferable), 
4s. 2c?. 50 first class (transferable), 
Us.M. 

Instruction in swimming is given 
at the baths at a moderate fee. 

There are 60 separate washing 
compartments, with an unlimited 
supply of hot and cold water, and 
steam for boiling, steam wringers 
and niangles, with drying chambers, 
coDtaining 60 horses, and ironing 
room with stoves, tables, and 
blankets. Open on week days 
throughout the year from 8 a.m. to 
8 p.m. Each person is famished 
with a separate washing compart- 
ment, and the use of a dryine-- 
horse, mangles, tables, pails, scrub- 
bing boards, flat irons for ironing, 
&c., at the charge of l^c^. per hour. 



Borough Councils. 



279 



Public Libraries. 

The parish adopted the Public 
Libraries Act in 1887. Central 
library : Kensington High-street, 
W. North Kensington branch: 
108, Ladbroke-grove, W. Bramp- 
ton branch : Old Brompton-road, 
S.W. There are at present 60,054 
books in the libraries, and in the 
year ended September, 1907, the 
total issues numbered 178,728. 

Ofncers. 

Town Clerk — Wm. Chambers 
Leete. 

Chief Assistant Clerk — Horace 
Rapson. 

Borough Treasurer— ^dwa.rd A. 
Coombs, F.S.A.A. 

Borough Engineer and Surveyor 
A. R. Finch, A.M.i.c.B. 

Borough Medical Officer of Health 
— T. Orme Dudfield, m.d. 

Public A}ialy8t — Col. C. E. 
Oassal, F.i.c. 

Lighting Engineer— V. Monson, 

M.I.B.E. 

diief Librarian — Herbert Jones. 

Rate - Collectors — Percy Hunt, 
Town Hall, Kensington; C. Man- 
chester, Town Hall, Kensington; 
L. W. Westwood, 33, Alfred-place 
West, Brompton; J. H. Roberts, 
10, Wetherby-b3rr^ce, Earl's Court, 
S. W. ; A. V. Parkhouse, Campden 
Institute, Lancaster-road, Notbing- 
hill, W.; T. S. VYare, Campden 
Institute, Lancaster-road, Notting- 
hill, W. ; H. Hume, Town Hall, Ken- 
sington; Gr. King, 10, Wetherby- 
terrace, Earl's Court, S.W. ; F. 
Chadwick, Campden Technical 
Institute, Lancaster-road, Notting- 
hill, W. ; J. Hunt, Campden 
Institute, Lancaster-roal, Notting- 
hiU, W. 

Sanitary Inspectors and Lispec- 
tors of Nuisances— Gr. M. Pettit 
(Chief Sanitary Inspector), A. E. 
Friend, H. Dawes, J. Steward, N. 
Males, C. G, Sexton, J. Cutting, J. 



R. Bagshaw, E. J. Bennett, J. 
H. Fowles, and G. W. McQuinn. 
Women Inspectors (appointed by 
the council to inspect workshops, 
workplaces, &c., where women are 
employed)— Miss N. T. F. de Chau- 
mont and Miss G. A. Looker. 
Health Fis i^or— Miss A. Gauntlett. 

Mayor. 

Councillor Colonel W. F. Cavaye, j.p., 

40, Egerton-crescent. 

Aldermen. 

•Bennett, H. Curtip, j.p., 118, Lexham- 

gardens, Kensington, W. 
tClay, Sir A., Bart., j.p., 19, Hyde Park- 
gate. 
•Prye, F. C, j.p., 25, Amndel-gardens, 

Notting-hill. W. 
fGates. P. G., 5, Manson-place, South Ken- 
sington, S.W. 
tisaacs. Major L. H., 3, Pembridge-square, 

Bayswater, W. 
♦Pennefather, Rev. Preb. S. E.,d.d., The 

Vicarage, Kensing:x)n, W. 
tPhillimore, The Hon. Sir W. G. F. Bart., 

Cam House, Campdeu-hill, W. 
tPope, W., 3, St. Auu's-villas, Notting-hill. 
*Robson, Sir H., j.p., "Aubrey Lodge," 

Aubrey-road. 
•Trevor, Sir C, c.b., m.a., 23, Bramham- 
gardena. South Kensington, S.W. 
* Retire in 1TO9. t Retire in 1912. 

Councillors. 

Alderson, F. H., m.b., m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p., 
21. Queen's Gate-terrace, S.W. 

Anderson, J., 4, Chireville-grove, South 
Kensiugton, S.W. 

Armirage, T. Liddall,43, Blenheim-crescent, 
Notting-hill, W. 

Bawcombe, W. J., 11, Archer - street, 
Notting-hill, W. 

Baxter, R. 1)., 18, Stanley-crescent, Not- 
ting-hill, W. 

Betts, C. E., 86, Kensington High-st., W. 

Brooke-Little, J., 28, Lansdowne-cre.cent, 
Notting-hill, W. 

Bruce, Col. E. A., 38, Dray ton-gardens, S.W. 

Bruce-Johnston, G., 30, Aldridge-road- 
villas, Notting-hill, W. 

Burton, A. E.,6, Leonard-place, Kensington. 

Butler, J. D.. New Scotland Yard, S.W. 

Carroll, D., 25, West-row, North Kensington. 

Col vile, A. G., ll.b., 45, Emperor'ci-gate, 
S.W. 

Colvile, Lt.-Col. C. F., 45, Emperor's-ga-te. 

Corry, H., 15, Ledbury-road, Notting-hill. 

Craies, W. F., m.a.,33, Holland-villas-road, 
Kensington, W. 

Cuffe, Surgeon-General Sir C. McD., k.c.b., 
51, Keusington-mansions, Trebovir-road. 

Davis, D., 6, Cumberland House, Kensing- 
ton-court, W. 



280 



Borough Councils. 



Davison, W. H., 37. KensinfirtoQ Park- 
gardens, XoUinc-hill, W. 

Dennis, C.,17, Silchester-rd.,K Kensinf^ton. 

Douglas. J., 1, Langhammansii IIS, Pearl's 
Court-square, S.W. 

Ellis. H. D.. 7. Roland-gardens. South Ken- 
sington, S.W. 

Forster, H., 54, Acklam rd., N. Kensington. 

Freyberg, H., 4, Woodville-rd., Ealing, VT. 

Fripp, J., 177. Ladbroke - grove, North 
Kensington. W. 

Godwin, C, 53, High-street, Notting-hlll- 
gate. W. 

Hatt. C. «., 82. Kensington High -street. W. 

Jarrett, W. J,, 66, Bevington-road, North 
Ken"*ington. W. 

Key, W. T.. 15, West Cromwell-road, Earl's- 
court, S.W. 

Kitchingman, J. E., 112, Fulhanird., S.W. 

Langford, P. P.," Ken.'ington Park Hotel," 
139, Lad broke-grove. North Kensington. 

Langnian, Lieut.-Col. A. W. P., 22, St. 
James'-square, Nolting-hill. W. 

Lansdown, G. A., 10, Russell road, Ken- 
sington, W. 

Leach, F.. i.s.c, 7. Stanford- road, Ken- 
sington, W. 

Lewi"*, H., 245. Lancaster-road, Notting-hill. 

Lockwood, C. J., 42-44, Silchester-road, 
North Kensington. W. 

Lyell, Capt. F. H.. 2. Elva^ston-place, S.W. 

MfArthur, A. G., m.a.. 28, Linden-gardens, 
Notting-hill-gate, M'. 

Malkin, H. (;., m.a., j.p., 46, Philiimore- 
gardens. Kensington. W. 

Marler, W. H.. " Kenilworth," 2, Chats- 
worth-gardens, Acton-hill, W. 



Morley, G. W., 23, Lancaster-road, Notting- 
hill, W. 

Noel- Walker. SirE.,K.c.M.G., 52, Warwick- 
road, Earl's-conrt, S.W. 

O'Dell, G. E., 21, Highlever-road, North 
Kensington, W. 

Reade, Rev. C. D., m.a., j.p.. 83, Holland- 
road, Kensington, W. 

Rice-Oxley, A. J., m.a., m.d.,5. Kensington- 
square, W. 

Rubinttein, J. S., 76, Addison-road, Ken- 
sington, W. 

Sheoherd, C, 4*, Hewer-strest, North 
Kensington, W. 

Squire, F., 168, Lancaster-rd., Notting-hill. 

Stainforth, Col. W., 13. Albert-place, Ken- 
sington. W. 

Symonds, Capt. R. J., R.ir., 26. Langham- 
mansious. Earl's Court- quare, S.^ . 

Tanner, A. W., a.r.i.d.a.. 29, Pelham- 
place. South Kensington, S.W. 

Tisdall, A., 25. Kidderpore-avenue, Hamp- 
stead. N.W. 

Vesey- Fitzgerald, J. V., k.c, j.p., 9, Camp- 
den-hill-road, Kensington. W. 

Vinrace, D., m.r.c.s.,83a, Torrington-place, 
Gower-street, W.C. 

Webb, Col. R. F., j.p., d.l.. 6, West Crom- 
well-road, Earl's-court. S.W. 

Wilkimon, C. 65, Holland-park, W. 

Williams, F. E., 89, Drayton-gardenF, 
South Kensington, S.W. 

Woolf, E. P., 12, Colville-terrace. Nottlng- 
hill, W. 

Woolland, M., 69. Evelyn-gardens, South 
Kensington, S.W. 



LAMBETH. 

Town Hall: Brixton Hill, S.W. 
(Meetings: Alternate Thursdays, at 6.30 p.m.) 



The borough is the parish of 
Lambeth — the old Local Govern- 
ment district, Poor Law area, and 
Parliamentary borough. The last 
is divided into North Laml)eth, 
Kenniftgton, Brixton, and Nor- 
wood, for electoral purposes. The 
area of the borough is six and 
a half square miles, the whole 
of which is not yet built upon. 

The population in 1901 was 
301,895, inl89t5 it was 295,033, an in- 
crease of nearly 20,000 on that of 
1891. which was itself double that 
of 1851. The borough has 20S1 
acres of open space, including 127i 
acres of Brock well Park, 19 i acres 
of Kennington Park, 8 acres 
of Vauxhall Park, 9f acres of Arch- 
bishop's Park, 24 acres of Buskin 



Park, and 14^ acres of Myatt's 
Fields. These supply one acre 
to 1,451 people. The death rate 
in year ended 1906 was 15'5 per 1,000. 

The rateable value at 6th 
Ai)ril, 1907, was £1,956,137. The 
Baths, Burial, and Libraries Acts 
have all been adopted in the borong-h. 
The electric lighting is in the 
hands of three companies — the 
London, the Crystal Palace, and 
the South London. 

The borough council consists of 10 
aldermen and 60 councillors. The 
borough is divided into nine wards. 
The ^ old offices of the council 
at Kennington Green which were 
erected in 1852, having been found 
wholly inadequate for the efficient 
discharge of the business of the 



Borough Councils. 



281 



borough, a new set of offices with 
council chamber and committee 
rooms has been erected, from the 
designs of Messrs. Warwick and 
Hall, A.A.R.I.B.A., at the joactioa of 
Brixton-hill and Acre-lane, and was 
opened by the Prince of Wales in 
April, 1908. 

Baths. 

Act adopted in 1890. A splen- 
did set of baths, designed by 
Mr. A. Hessell Tiltman, f.r.i.b.a., 
was opened by his Majesty the 
King, then th? Prince of Wales, 
on 9th July, 1897. They are situated 
q.t the corner of Lambeth and Ken- 
nington road-*, the site alone costing 
£'14,350. There are three swimming 
baths (one of which during the 
summer is set apart entirely for 
ladies), 98 slipper baths, and a large 
public wash-house accommodating 
55 washers. A special feature has 
been made of the chief swimming 
bath, the pond of which is 132 feet 
by 40 feet; it is provided with a 
commodious gallery, being specially 
suitable for swimming entertain- 
ments, while in winter it is adapted 
for the purpose of holding dances,' 
Concerts, and public meetings. The 
total number of bathers for the year 
ended 31st March, 1907, was 21(5,410, 
and the total number of washers 
was 16,494. 

Superintendent — H. T. Hancock. 

Public Libraries. 
Act adopted in 1886. Central 
Library : Tate Library, Brixton- 
oval. Branch Libraries: West 
Norwood Library, Knights - hill - 
road; Burning Library, Kenning- 
ton- cross ; Tate Library, South 
Lambeth - road ; North Lambeth 
Library, Lower Marsh ; Minet 
(joint) Library, Knatchbull-road, 
Camberwell ; Uppjr Norwood 
(joint) Library, AV estow-hill. Mr. 
Andrew Carnegie gave £12,500 
for the establishment of a further 
Branch Library at Herne-hill, which 



has been erected in Herne-hill- 
road. There is a fine p-eneral refer- 
ence library at the Brixton (Neutral 
Library, and an exhaustive special 
collection of books relating to 
Surrey at the Minet Library. 

Chief fAbrari *ri — F. J. Burgoyne, 
Tate Library, Brixton-oval. 

Officers. 

Town Clerk — Henry J. Smith. 

Accountant— J. A. Inglis, F.s.A.A. 

Medical Officer of Health — J. 
Priestley, B.A., M.D., D.P.H. 

Boroujh Engineer and Surveyor 
— H. C. J. Edwards, a.m.i.c.e. 

Public Analystc—^. Muter, PH.D., 
F.R.S.B., F.I.C., South London Labo- 
ratory, 325, Kennington-road, S.E., 

Sanitary Inspectors — W. R. Bott, 
F. E. Baxter, J. S. Smith, J. M. 
Jones, J. Barfoot, G. Gavin, W. 
Wallis, T. H. Hooper, T. H. Jack- 
son, W. J. Perrin, W. W. Howes, 
J. M. Scorrer, and J. S. Clements, 
Miss E. G. Gamble, and Miss L. M. 
H. Pearson. 

Female Health Fisj/or— Miss H. 
H. Lawrence. 

Smoke Inspector and Inspector 
under Food and Drugs Act^W. J. 
Perrin. 

Rate-Collecfors -District 1 : H. W. 
Baxter, 172, Lambeth-road, S.E. 
District 2: T. Giles, 166, Lambeth- 
road, S.E. District 3: F. Phil- 
pot, 170, Clapham - road, S.W. 
District 4<: J. W. Henley, 57, Ken- 
nington-oval, S.E. District 5 : W. 
F. Marchant, 292, South Lam- 
beth - road, S.W. District 6 : 
J. T. King, 101, Clapham-road, S.W. 
District 7: T. Mills, 9, Kellett-road, 
Brixton, S.W. Districts iW.DoUe, 
253a, Milkwood - road. Herne-hill, 
S.E. District 9 : P. W. Hosking, 22, 
Jjoughborough-road, Brixton, S.W. 
District 10 : J. Squires, 1, Belgrave- 
terrace, Stockwell-road, S.W. Dis- 
trict 11: F. Foat, 44, Bonham- 
road, Brixton-hill, S.W. District 



282 



borough Oouncits. 



12: W. J. Hill, 68, Rosendale-road, 
West Dulwich, S.E. District 13: 
S. Smith, 27, Alexandra - road, 
Gipsy-hill, S.E. District 14: A. 
Wills, Town Hall, Kennin^n- 
firreen, S.E. 

Arrears Collectors — Districts 1 
to 6, and part of 10, T. A. Wille, 
170a, K-nnington-park-road, S.E. 
Districts 7 to 9, part of 10, and 11 
to 13, R. W. Moore, 4, Shakespeare- 
road, Herne-hill, S.E. 

Mayor. 

Councillor C. H. Gibbs, j.p., 

20a, Herbert-road, Stot'kwell-road. 

Aldermen. 

Andrew, Capt. C. W., j.p., " Rutland 

House," 5, Kenningtou- terrace, Kenuing- 

ton-park, S.E. 
Cor ben, H., 4, Trigon-road, Clapham-road. 
Dean, G., 49, Brixton-hill. S.W. 
Howlett, G., 193, Clapham-road, S.W. 
Huut, S. C, •• Hillside," Gubyon-avenue, 

Herne-hill, S.E. 
Johnson, E.. 49, Gresham-road, Brixton-rd. 
Newton, A. J., 140, Stockwell-road, S.W. 
Partington, C. F., ' The Highlands," 70, 

Christchurch-road, Streatham, S.W. 
Powell, F. A., F.R.I. B.A., 344, Kenning- 

ton-road, S.E. 
WooUey, C, f.r.g.s.. "Vernlam," 35, Dul- 

wich-road, Herne-hill, S.E. 

CODNCfLLORS. 

Ausell, C, 90, Thornlaw-road, W. Norwood. 
Arter, W., 24, Upper Kennington-laue.S.E. 
Ayles, P. A., 44, Union-road, Clapham.S. W. 
Baldwin, H., 93,Loughborough-rd., Brixton. 
Blyton, C. D., 102, Upper Kennington-laue. 
Bott, J., 64, Herne-hill, S.E. 
Bowes, S. J., 14, St. John's rd., Brixton-rd. 
Bragg, W. L., 60, Harrington- rd., Brixton. 
Briaut, F., l.c.c, 10, I^mbeth-walk, S.E. 
Brittain, G., 247, Kenningtoo-rjad, S.E. 
Brittan, H. W., 20, Thurlby-rojid, West 

Norwood, S.E. 
Broadbent, W., 90, Stamford-st., Lambeth. 
Brock, C, 3, Lorn-road, Brixton, S.W. 
Budge, F., 23, Albert-square, Clapham-rd. 
Capon, J., 68, Lower Keuuington-iaue, S.E. 
Carter, C, 176, 176a, and 173, Waudsworth- 

road, S.W. 



Chapman, C. E., 233, South Lambeth-road. 

Chapman. J. J., 113, Vassall-rd., Brixton-rd. 

Clark, E. E.,110, I'hornlaw-rd., W.Norwood. 

Clark, J. E. L., 415 and 417, Brixton-road. 

Cox, J., 7, Crozier-street, Lambeth. S.E. 

Ddvey, W. J., 22, Overton-road, Brixton. 

Davies, A. W., 223, Coldharbour-lane. S.W. 

Davis W. A., 61, York-road, Lambeth, 8.B. 

Day, G. W., 27. Carlisle-at., Westminster 
Bndge-road, S.E. 

Dunkin, J. H., 132, Westminster ^fidge-rd. 

Evans, J. F., 25, Hainthorpe-road, >^est 
Norwood, S.E. 

Farmer, P. C, "Cambrian House," York- 
road. West Norwood, S.E. 

Faulds, A.. 9, Binfleld-road, Clapham. S.E. 

Fielder, F., 152, Knighfs-hill, West Nor- 
wood, S.E. 

Hale, C. E., 5. Kellett-road, Brixton, S.W. 

H'tmblm, G. W.,4, Haycroft-road, Brixton- 
hill, S.W. 

Hawkey, J. F., 75, Arlingford-rd., Brixtoo. 

Hinds, G.,27, Becmea de-avenue, Streatham. 

Hopkins, J., 36, Ryde Vale-road, Balham. 

Hunt, G., 39, Hanover-gardens, Kenning- 
ton-park-road, S.E. 

Hutchens. E. C, 36, Lower Kennington-lane. 

Hutson, A. J., 54, Holland-roid, Brixton. 

Hyslop, A. v., 13, Binfleld-rd., Clapham. 

Iremonger, C, 19, Kenchester-street, Soatti 
Lambeth, S.W. 

Kent, J. R., 3, Horace-st., Wandsworth -rd. 

Knight. J. J. F. W., 7, Auckland-hill, 
West Norwood, S.E. 

Lang-Sims, R., 16, Hayter-rd., Brixton -hill. 

Leaning, A. R. S., f.s.i., 22, Helix-road, 
Brixton. 

Masters, G..23, Rhodesia-road, Stockwell. 

Mills. E. A., 27, Herbert-road, Stockwell- 
road. 

Newman, H.W.,2.Milkwood-rd.. Herne-hill. 

Noon, E. E., 12, Windmill-row. S.E. 

Orrom. A., 1. Carctoa-roid, West Dulwich. 

Parker, A. J., 8, Herne-hill, S.E. 

Slack, Capt. C. f.r.cj.s., 45, Medora-road, 
Brixton. 

Thompson, G. A., 60, Knolly^ • road, 
Streatham, S.W. 

Towue.^end, J. P., 105, St. Julian's Farm-rd., 
West Norwood, S.E. 

Turner, G. H.,2, Arodene-road, Brixton-hill. 

White. H., 33, Stockwell-park-road, S.W. 

Williams, J., 204, Limbeth-road, S.E. 

Williams, J., 33, Dalberg-rd., Brixtou.S.W. 

Wood, F. B., 100, Leander-road, Brixton. 

Wood, J. E., 232, Lambeth-road, S.E. 



LEWISHAM. 

Town Hall: Catford, S.E. 
(Meetings ; Alternate Wednesdays, at 6.30 p.m.) 



The metropolitan borough is 
*'th.e area of the Parliamentary 
borough of Lewisham," consists 
of the parish of Lewisham. 
In the Lewisham Poor Liw anion 



there is in addition the parinh of 
Eltham ; while for local govern- 
ment purposes Eltham is part of 
the Woolwich district. The area 
is very large, eleven square 



Advertisement. 



283 



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284 



Advertisement. 




Borough Councils. 



285 



miles, the third larg-est of all, 
and more than seventeen times 
as large as Holborn. At present 
the area is only thinly populated 
by about 14 persons to an acre. 
The population estimated to 
middle of 1907 was 152,532. The 
rateable value is £1,085,102, of 
which £3,069 is for agricultural 
land. 

The borough contains 144i acres 
of Blackheath, 46} acres in Lady. 




LEWISHAM CHAIN AND BADGE. 

Manufactured by the Goldamitha* 
and Silversmitha* Company. 

well recreation ground, and 45 i 
acres in Hilly Fields, besides other 
open spaces maintained by local 
bodies, comprising in all 266 acres. 
There is very little overcrowding in 
the borough, and the death rate is 
low: in Lewisham it was in 1907 
12-65 per 1,000. 

Under the Adoptive Acts scheme, 
the Baths and Burial Acts and 
the Libraries Acts are in force 



throughout the boroucch. The 
electric lighting is in the hands 
of the South Metropolitan Electric 
Supply Company, Limited. (See 
Electric Light section.) 

The borough council consists of 7 
aldermen and 42 councillors. Local 
bodies with a membership of 
more than 250 were superseded by 
the borough council. There are 10 
borough wards. 

Public Baths and Wash-Houses. 

(Ladywell and Porest-hUl.) 

Opened 1^85. Number of bathers 
1907 wei^ — Ladywell, 90,656; 
Porest-hill, 46,742. 

Free Public Libraries. 

Lewisham adopted the Free 
Public Libraries Act in 1890, levy- 
ing a rate at first of only a half- 
penny in the pound. Libraries : 
High-street, Lewisham, Dartmouth- 
road, Forest-hill, Sydenham-road, 
Brockley-road, Manor House, Lee, 
and Torridon-road, Hither-gi'een ; 
open from 10.30 a.m. to 9 p.m. 
News Rooms : open from 8.30 a.m 
to 9 p.m. 

Officers. 

Town Clerk— B. Wriorht. 

Deputy — E. H. Oxennam. 

Medical Officer of Health and 
Public Anali/st—Br. A. Wellesley 
Harris, M.R.C.S., D.P.H. 

Surveyor — E. van Putten. 

Accountant — Henry P. Hall. 
Mayor. 
Councillor Rev. E. C. B. Philpolt, b.a., j.p., 
293, Brownh ill-road, Catford. 

Aldermen. 

Brown, W., " Garthmyl," New Church 
road. Hove." 

Carman. H., " Brunswick House," South- 
road, Forest hill, S.E. 

Gar.4de, A., 20, St. Margaret's - road, 
Brockley. S.E. 

Luck, M. S., 93, Lewisham-rd., Lewisham. 

Stebbing, H. P., J. p., " Inglemere House," 
Inglemere-road, Forest- hill, S.E. 

Thomson, T., 20, Lewisham-rojui, Lewis- 
ham, S.E. 

Warmington, G. S., 146, Burnt Ash-hill, 
Lee, S.E. 



286 



Borough Councils. 



C0UNCILLOE8. 

Adams, H., "The Cedars," Brockley 
View, Forest-hill. 

Anderson, G. B., 23, Bishopsthorpe-road, 
Sydenham. 

Ball, £.; S7, Lewi sham-hill, Lewisham. 

Balsdon, J., 96, High-ioad, Lee. 

Barnett, A. C, "Suffleld," Addlngton- 
grove, Sydenham. 

Btirrow, Lieut.-Col. P. E.. b.a.m.c, 50, 
Nelgarde-road, Catford. 

Baxter, H. A., 3, St. German's-rd., Forest- 
hill. 

BevaD,W. G., 10, Sydenham-rd., Sydenham. 

Burrell, W., 21, Slaithwaite-rd., Lewisham. 

Chambei-s, G. F., j.p., "Lethen Grange," 
Lawrie-park-avenue, Sydenham. 

Childs, C, " Falrholm," 48, Bushey -green, 
Catford. 

Clayton, J., "Hough Villa," 27, Baring- 
road, Lee. <i 

Cooke, C. J., 194, Lewi^ham-rd., Lewisham. 

Croft, Major A. W. W., 5, Belitha- villas, 
Southend-lane, Lower Sydenham. 

Dewes, H. W., 23, Lee-terrace, Lee. 

Fenner, H. A., 6, Eliot-hill, Lewisham. 

Fisk, T., 115b, Rushey-green, Catford. 

Fitzgibbons, A. J., 309, Brockley - road, 
Brockley. 

Good, J. A., 10, St. Margaret's - road, 
Brockley. 

Higson, Dr. J. B., " Oakmere," Honor Oak- 
park, Forest-hill. 



Howes, J. J., 345, Brockley-rd., Brockley. 

Ilsley, G. W., 10, North brook-road, Lee. 

Jackson, B., 24, Muntem-road, Forest- 
hill. 

Lee, W. H., 22, Southbrook-road, Lee. 

Mellor, T. H.,296, Stanstead-road, Forest- 
hill. 

M.rley, W., 325, Brownhill-road, Catf«rd. 

Morr^ll, H. H., 21, Venner-rd., Sydenham. 

Morris, Bev. J. C, m.a., 41, Clarendon-rd., 
Lewisham. S.E. 

Obee, W., 25, High-road, Lee. 

Parry, W. P., "Woodville," Inglemere- 
road, Forest-hijl. 

Parsons, J. C, 11, Slaithwaite-rd., Lewis- 
ham, S.E. 

Penfold, P., 8, Sydenham-park, Syden- 
ham. 

Boss, W.. 75, Broadfleld-road, Catford. 

Bandall, A. F., " Pen Caeder," Lowther- 
hill. Forest-hill. 

Bevill, Capt. W. C. B., 4, Dacre-gardens, 

Saunders, A., 7, Queensthorpe-road, Syden- 
ham. 

Sweet, W. G., 157, Burnt Ash-hill, Lee. 

Trenchard, A. H. B., 1, Walerand-road, 
Lewisham hill. 

Turpin, J. J., 156, High-road. Lee. 

Weeks, A. •)., 54, Algernon-rd., Lewisham. 

West, Major T., " The Elms," Southend, 
Catford. 



PADDINGTON. 

Town Hall: Harbow Koad, W. 
(Meetings : First and third Tuesdays in the month.) 



The Metropolitan borough is the 
parish of Paddington which was 
previously the PoorLaw and local 
government area and the Parlia- 
mentary borough consisting of the 
north and south divisions. The 
area of the borough is nearly 
two square miles, containing a 
slightly increasing population, 
estimated at middle of 1906 at 
148,913. In 1871 the population 
was 96,813, in 1841 it was 25,173, in 
1801 it was 1,881. Of the total area 
of 1,354 acres, 132 are open spaces ; 
102 acres are in Kensington Gardens. 
The proportion of overcrowd- 
ing in 1901 was 13'56 per cent. 
The estimated rateable value 
of the borouffh on 31st March. 1908, 
was £1,442,983. The part of Chelsea 



detached (Kensal Town) which has 
been added to Paddington lies to 
the north and east of a line 
drawn along the southern boun- 
dary of the Grand Junction Oanal, 
and the centre of Wedlake-street 
and KensaUroad. The Baths and 
Burial Acts are in force throug-h- 
out the borough, but not the 
Libraries Act. In Queen's Park 
Ward, however, there is a library 
founded by Chelsea, which costs 
more than the maximum rate of 
Id. in the pound on that ward 
alone will produce, and a special 
scheme has been prepared for 
the settlement of this ^ difficulty. 
The baths and library in Kensal 
Town are transferred to Paddington 
under Sec. 2 of the Adoptive Acts 
scheme. 
The electric lighting powers 1^ 






Bwoufjh Councils. 



287 



in the hands of the Metropolitan 
Electric Supply Company, Limited. 
The borough council consists of 
10 aldermen and 60 couacillors, 
who took the place of the vestry 
with 72 members. There are 8 
wards. 

Public Baths and Wash-Houses. 

A public baths institution was 
estabhshed in Queen' s-road, Bays- 
water, in 1874, and another in 
Kensal-road, Kensal Town, in 1893. 
Charges : Private baths, Id. to 
&d. ; swimming baths, Id. (for school 
children) to 6c?. 

Free Public Libraries Act. 
Act not adopted in the old portion 
of the borough. Ballot taken in 
1887, when there voted— For 1,652, 
and against 5,845; and in 1891, 
when the figures were — For 1,590, 
against 4,5&. There is a free 
pubHc library in the transferred 
area of Chelsea detached (Queen's 
Park Ward), and it contains about 
10,900 volumes. A free library exists 
in the borough, supported by 
voluntary subscriptions. 

Officers. 

Town a^erA; — Arthur W. J. 
Russell. 

Deputy Town Clerk — Percy H. 
Gray, Barrister-at-Law. 

Borough Accountant — John B. 
Carrington, P.S.A.A., F.S.S. 

Borough Surveyor — E. B. B. 
Newton, A.M.i.c.E., F.s.i. 

Medical Officer of Health — R. 

Dudfield, M.A., M.B., D.P.H., F.S.8. 

Borough Public Analyst — A. W. 
Stokes, F.C.S., F.i.c. 

Inspector of Lighting and Over- 
head Wires— ^. H. Cox. 

Sanitary Inspectors — C. J. Biom, 
E. J. Potter, J. W. Webster, E. 
Anthony, Jun., T. Mitchell, G-. J. 
Miners, C. S. Wansbrough, C. 
Lawrence, S. W. Wingfield, E. J. 
(^rivell. Miss Nicolas, Miss O'K^eU, 



Inspector under the Sale of Food 
and Drugs Act — T. A. Parker. 

Rate- Collectors — Harrow Road 
Ward : W. H. Mitchinson, 4, Corn- 
wall-road. Maida Vale Ward : 
J. E. Walker, 33, Castellain-road. 
Church Ward : A. J. Croxford, 12, 
Oakington - road. Queens Park 
Ward (West): C. A. Birtles, 
148, Fernhead-road. Queens Park 
Ward (East) and Westhoume Ward 
(North) : A. W. Davison, 148, 
Fernhead-road. Westhourne Wo^rd 
(South) : A. Sales, 5, Rundell-road. 
Lancaster Oate Ward : .1. M. 
Huish, 98, Ledbury-road. Hyde 
Park Ward: A, J. White, 5, 
Oakington-road. 

Mayor. 

Councillor Lt.-Gen. John Wimburn Laurie, 
C.B., J.P., D.C.L., 47, Porchester -terrace, W. 

Aldermen. 
Blcker-Caarten, A. G., 9,UpperWest bourne- 

Blair, Col. H. F., r.e., 21, Norfolk Crescent, 

Hyde-park, W. 
Cole, S. J., " Fernleigh," 123, Perahead- 

road, W. 
Handover, H. G.. 3, Oxford-gardens, North 

Kensington, W. 
Lidiard, H., 114, Westboume - terrace, 

Hyde-park, W. 
Kenyon, H. H., 45, Edg ware-road, W. 
Shaw-Stewart, Maj.-Gen. J., r.e., 7, Inver- ' 

ness-terrace, Hyde Park, W. 
Urquhart, W., 107, Portsdown-road, W. 
Whur, R. P., 42, Elgin-avenue. 
Williams, J., J. p., 235, Elgin-avenue. 

Councillors. 

Angus, Dr. J. A., 53, Cambridge-street, W. 
Appleton, H. J., 24, Cambridge-street, W. 
Armstrong, P. C, 507, Harrow-road, W. 
Bannerman, Col. P. W., 8, Somers-place, 

Hyde-park, W. 
Banni^ter, E., 11, Harrow-road, W. 
Bates, S. E., m.a., j.p.. 23, HydePark-sq. 
Bean, A. W. T., c.e.,52, Porchester-terrace, 

Hyde Park, W. 
Bell, W., 57, Hampden-street, W. 
Bevan, C. M., m.a., 38,Orsett-terrace, Hyde 

Park, W. 
Beverly, M. P., 98, Mai da-vale, W. 
Blackwood, J., 505, Harrow-road, W. 
Broughton, H. W., 39, Cambridgj terrace. 
Butt, C. T., 17, Chichester-street, W. 
Chappell, W., 243, Elgin-avenue, Maida- 

vale, W, 



288 



Borough Councils. 



Chatterton, Dr. E., 2, Upper Wefcttcurne- 

terraco, W. 
Cobb. F., 18. Weetbourne erardens. W. 
Cole. S., 29, Sutherland-place, Bayswater. 
Corrie. £. K.. m. a., 45, liein ter-gardens, W. 
Cox, Rev. J. M., 108. Shirland-ioad, W. 
Crosland, B., 1, Rudolph-road, N.W. 
!)ench, F. H., 212, (iloncester-tenuce, W. 
Dobby, J., 10. St. Stepheu's-road, W. 
Dundas, Major M. J. R., 1, Albion-street, 

Hyde Park, \V. 
Evaiw, (\ I)., 138, Portnall-road, W. 
Fairbank, J., 5, Ambei ley-wharves, Maida- 

vale. W. 
Faucourt, Col. St. J. F. M.. c.b., j.p., 21, St. 

Peter? burjfb -place, W. 
Fardell. S r Geo., m.p., j.p., 25, Hyde Park- 
street. W. 
Fuller. H. H., 31. Palac?-court, W. 
Guf CDtt. J.,226, Kilburn-lane, Oueen's-park. 
Hart, M'. A., m.v.c, 23, Westbourne-park- 

villa«, W. 
Jones, Dr. J. T., 103, Sutherland- avenue, W. 
Joplin, G.,166,rheveuing-rd., Broudesbury. 
Karslake, J. B. P., m.a., 11, Southwick- 

crescent, W. 
Lewi8-j^rned. Major H. B., 3, Sugeex- 

Fquare, W. 
Luker, C. H., 133a, Queen's-road, M'. # 
Marshall, Col. C. H. T., 6, Chester-place, W. 



McKenzie, J., 80, Sutherland-avenue, W. 
Mead. Col, H. R., r.e.. 161, Gloucester- 
terrace, Hyde Park, W. 
Morrell, G. H., 119. Blgin-avenne, ^V. 
Munford, J.. 25, St. Stephen'F-square, W. 
Muzzell, T. W., 7, Harrow-road, W. 
Nolan, Dr. W. J., j.p., 20, Talbot-road, W. 
Norman, A. C. 71, Mof cow-road, W. 
Perowne, E. S. M.. f.s.a., 20, Randolph-rd. 
Rickardi>, C. F., 12, Spring-street, W. 
Salt well, H. G.. 16. A^ rent ham -avenue, 

KeusalRise, N.W. 
Smith, Chancellor P. V., ll.d., 116, West- 

boume-terrace, W. 
Smith-Rose, W.,39, Park-place, Bayswater. 
Sutton, H.. 2, Formosa-street, W. 
Swift, H. H., M.A., J.P.. 45, Westbourne- 

terrace, W. 
Tapling, A. J., 10, Monmouth-road, W. 
Thoi-pe, J., 262, Kilburn-lane. W. 
Tumham, T. B., 10, Praed-street, W. 
Urquhart, A., 107, Portsdown-road, Maida- 

vale, W. 
Wall. G., 2. Church-place, Paddington- 

green, W. 
Waycott. J. F.. 10, Wharves, South Side, 

Paddinston. 
Whyte, J. M., 51, Marylands-road, Pad- 

dington, W. 
Wilkin.G., M.A.,l30,Westbourne-terrace.W. 



POPLAR. 

Council Chamber: High Street, Poplar. 
(Meetings : Alternate Thursdays, at 7 o'clock p.m.) 



Thk boroupli is the district of the 
late I'oplar lioard of Works, and con- 
sisted of the parishes of St. Mary, 
Stratford - le - liow, St. Leonard, 
Bromley, and All Saints, Poplar, 
which, under an Order in Council, 
which were amalgamated in one 
parish from 1st April, 1907, is 
known as the Parish of Poplar 
Borough. It is conterminous with 
the area of the l^oplar Board of 
Guardians and with the Bow and 
Bromley and the Poplar divisions 
of the Parliamentary Borough of 
Tower Hamlets. 

In area it is a little over three 
and a half square miles, all 
of which is fully occupied. The 
population is stationary ; in 1896 
it was lt)9,-2t)7, in 1891, lt)6,88q; 
between 1851 and 1881, however, it 
increased from 47,1()2 to 156,510. 
In 1901 it was l()8,82-2. The open 



spaces include the Island Gardens. 
Tunnel Gardens, and Bromley Rec- 
reation Ground, maintained by tlie 
London Connty Council, a recrea- 
tion ground, and two public gurdens 
maintained by the borough council; 
arrangements have also been com- 
pleted for the acquisition of an 
open space at Grove Hall, Bow, at 
a cost of £9,000, one half the cost 
being met by the London County 
Council and the other half in equal 
amounts by the borough council 
and by voluntary contributions. 
72^ acres of Victoria Park are also 
within the borough. The death 
rate of the borough in 1907 was 
16*84, and the rateable value is 
£837,807. 

Under the Adoi)tive Acts echeuie 
the Baths and Libraries Acts are 
in force throughout the boroug'h, 
but the Burial Acts in no part. 



Borough Councils. 



289 



Poplar has a town hall, a public 
hall, and a swimming bath is 
floored and let during the winter 
months. 

The borough has the electric 
lighting powers in its own hands, 
and supply was commenced in 
October, lyOO. (See Section on 
Electric Light.) 

The borough council consists of 
7 aldermen and 42 councillors, and 
has superseded bodies having a 
membership of over 400. There are 
14 three-member wards. 

Baths and Wash-Houses. 

(241, Roman-road, Bow.) 

Baths and wash-houses were 
established here in 1892. Charges : 
1st class swimming baths iyd.; 
2nd class, 2d. Private baths (for 
men and women), Id. to 1«. 
Laundry, lid. per hour. 

(East India Dock-road, Poplar.) 

Established 1852. Charges : 
Baths, Id. to Is.; laundry, l^d. 
per hour. 

(Glengall-road, Mill wall.) 

Established 1900. ( 'harges : 
Swimming Baths, ^d. and 6d.; 
private baths. Id. to iSd. 

Season tickets issued, and re- 
duced charges for school children 
at all the baths. 

Total bathers and washers last 
year was 346,287. 

Free Public Libraries. 

Poplar : High - street (1892) ; 
Strattondale - street, Cubitt Town 
(1904). Bow: Roman-road (1900). 
Bromley : Brunswick-road (1895), 
transferred to new building 1906. 
Volumes issued last year, 250,096. 

Borough Librarian — H. Rowlatt. 
Office re. 

Town Clerk — Leonard Potts. 

Assistant Clerk — Charles H, Shil- 
linglaw. 

Borough Accountant — W. M. 
Mead. 



Clerk for Valuation and Bating 
—J. B. Skeggs. 

Medical Officer of Health— V. W. 
Alexander. 

Public Analyst— W. C. Young. 

Borough Surveyor— Kaxley fleck- 
ford, A.M.I.".E. 

Electrical Engineer— J. Horace 
Bowden, a.m.i.e.e., m.i.m.e.A. 

Borough Sanitary Inspectors — 
Poplar, N. Division : J. Bullock. 
S. Division : C. Foad. Bromley, 
N. Division: H. J. Langley. S. Divi- 
sion: R. E. Miners. Bow, E. Divi- 
sion : A. J. Field. W. Division : W. 
Boyce. 

Fenude Sanitary Inspector — Miss 
Alice Tattersall. 

Lady Henlth Visitor— Mi^^ A. E. 
Hall. 

Rate - Collectors— District 1 : J. 
Mc Donald. District 2 : A. G. Terdre. 
District 3 : J. P. Burohell. District 
4: W. H. PuUinger. District 5: 
A. As .ton. District 6: T. D. Burt. 
District 7: H. J. Chattertjn. Dis- 
rict 8 : G. H. Mayhew. 

Matoe. 

Councillor H. R. Barge, J. p., 

4, Woodstock-road, Poplar, E, 

Aluermew. 

Banks, J. H., 6, Campbell-rd., Bromley, E. 

Dalton. M., j.p., 340 and 520b, Old Ford- 
road, Bow. 

Haiket, J. P., 135, East India Dock rd., E. 

Sumner, C. E.,61, Kuapp-road, Bromley, B. 

Tnorp, A. E., Bryant and May, Fair- 
fleid-road. Bow, E. 

White, P. A., 40, Bnmwick-rd., Bromley. 

Williams, L., 8, Woodslock-rd., Poplar, B. 

COCNCILLORS. 

Aldrick, E. J., 53, Alpha-road, MillwaU, E. 
Bassett, F. H., 17, Cardigan-row, Bow, E. 
BelLsham, J.,164, Abbott-road. B.omljy, B. 
Brown, R., 29, Abbott-ro.i(i,«Brom.e/, E. 
Cahill, J. Z., J. p.. West India L»ocksi, 

Poplar, E. 
Crabb, a. J , 45, Gliingall-rd., Cubitt Town 
Darby, A. H., 49, tiough-titrect, Poplar, E. 
Diamond, B., 48, 8t. .SiepheuVrd., Bjw, B. 
Durant, R. H., 39, (Tjuga-street. Poplar, E. 
Fisher, W. A., 22 J, Abbott-rd., Bromley, E. 
Foxou, L. T., Coal Depot, Preston 's-road. 

Poplar, E. 
Girton, H. C, 47, Mostyn-road, Bow, E. 
Green, R. H., j.p., Blackwall Yard. 

Popljir, E. 



290 



Borough Councils. 



Hayes, Rev. D., 10, Harley-street, Bow, E. 
Hubbard, D. W., 223, Manchester-road, 

Cubitt Town. 
Hunt, A. E.. 8, Knapp-road, Bromley, E. 
James, A., 20, Beachy-road, Bow, E. 
Jones, W. H., 179, St. Leonard's-road, 

Bromley, E. 
Jungblut, H., 43, "Upper North-st., Poplar. 
Lansbury, O., 103, St. Stephen's-road, Bow. 
Le Manquais, J. E., 13, Tomlins-fln^ve, 

Bow-road, £. 
March. S., 9, Upper North-street, Poplar. 
Mitchell, D., 239, Old Ford-road, Bow. 
Munro, A., 56, Bow-road, E. 
Partridge, A., 233, Old Ford-rd., Bow, E. 
Phillips, A., 8, Botolph-road, Bromley, E. 
Riddall, J. C, 154, High-street, Poplar, E. 
Sambridge, R. J., 101, Fairfleld-rd., Bow. 



Sedgwick, F., 36, West Perry-road, Mill 

wall, E. 
Smith, A. G., 109, Armagh-road, Bow, E. 
Sopwith, J., Bridge House, New-rd., Poplar. 
Stephens, J., 41, Alpha-road, Mi Iwall, K. 
Stewart, H. J., 688, Old Ford-road, Bow. E. 
Suckling, W. C 10, Mamer-st., Bromley, E. 
Taylor, C, 46, Rothbury-rd., Homerton, E. 
Thome, F., 122, East Ferry-road, Cubiti 

Town, E. 
Warren, A. H., 64, East India l>ock-road. 

Poplar, E. 
West, J. H., 89, Hewlett-road, Bow, E. 
Willmer, A., 19, Hepscott-rd., Homerton, E. 
Wrigglesworth, A. V., 357, East India 

Dock-road, E. 
Yeo, A. W., J.P., 86 & 88, St. Leonard's 

road, E. 



ST. MARYLEBONE. 

Town Hall: Marylebone Lane, Oxford Street, W. 



(Meetings : Alternate 

The borough is the parish of St. 
Marylebone, which is conterminous 
with the old local government 
district and the Poor Law area, but 
differs slightly because of the 
adjustment of boundaries under the 
London G-ovemment Act, from the 
Parliamentary borough of Mary- 
lebone (containing the east and 
west divisions). The area is two 
and one-third square niiles. 
with a population in 1896 of 
141,1H8— 20,000 less than the popu- 
ation of 1861. At the 1901 census 
the population was 133,301. The 
number of inhabited houses has 
shown a con-esponding decrease 
from 16,357 in 1861 to 13,53^ . in 
1901, the uninhabited houses having 
increased by- 1,596 in the same 
period, an indication of the con- 
version of dwelling houses into 
business premises, principally no 
doubt along the main thorough- 
fares — Oxford-street, Regent-street, 
Edgware-road, &c. 

The borough is fortunate in 
having about 362 acres of Regent's 
Park, besides small spaces, making 
in all 372 acres of open space-— one- 
fourth of the whole area of the 
borough. This ^ves one acre to 
every 379 inhabitants. In adjust- 



Thursdays at 5 p.m.) 

ment of boundaries St. Mai'ylebone 
lost its portion of Primrose Hill, 
but gained an addition in tlie park. 
The death rate in 1906 was 15 
per 1,000. The rateable value 
IS £1,960,924 The Baths and Burial 
Acts are adopted in the borough, 
but not the Libraries Acts. 

The Borough Council, after much 
litigation, and after promotiiiia^ a 
Bill in Parliament in the Session 
of 1904, obtained fresh statutory 
powers to enable it to complete the 
purchase of the undertaking' of the 
Metropolitan Electric Supp^ Com- 
pany, Limited, in accordance with 
the award of the umpire in the 
arbitration proceedings between the 
Council and the company. 

The Council formally completed 
the purchase of the undertaking* on 
the 5th July, 1904, and at once pro- 
ceeded with the erection of a new 
generating station and other works 
for a self-contained system of elec- 
tricity supply in the borough, the 
generating station of the company 
being outside the borough, anil 
used to supply other areas. These 
works and the " change-over ** of 
the current from an alternating to 
a continuous supply of 240 volts 
have now been completed, and the 



borough Councils. 



291 



Council is now supplying the 
whole of the borougli. The old 
consumers at present have the 
option of continuing' at the old 
rates of charge or of being charged 
according to the maximum demand 
system on the new tariff recently 
adopted by the Council. 

The borough council consists of 
mayor, 10 aldermen, and 60 coun- 
cillors. The number of wards is 9. 
Public Baths and Wash-Houses. 
(181, Marylebone-road.) 

St. Marylebone has possessed 
public baths and wash-houses in 
Marylebone-road since 1848. New 
buildings have been recently erected, 
with a handsome fronta^-e facing 
Marylebone-road. Cliarges: 
Private baths for men and women, 
Id. to 6cl. ; swimming baths. Id., 
Sd.fSJidGd. The private baths for 
men are open from 7 a.m. to 8.45 
p.m. in the summer months, and 
from 8 a.m. to 7.45 p.m. in the 
winter ; open on Sunday mornings, 
in summer, from 7 to 8.45, and on 
Saturday nights till 9.15 through- 
out the year. Women's baths are 
open at 7 a.m. in the summer 
months and at 8 a.m. in the winter, 
closing at 8.45 p.m. in the summer 
and 7.45 p.m. in the winter ; Satur- 
days, 9.15 p.m. The wash-houses 
are open from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. 
Each person is provided with 
separate washing and dr3dng rooms, 
the use of table, iron, and ironing 
blankets, at the charge of Id. for 
for first hour, 2d. second hour, lid. 
each for third and fourth hours, 
and 6d. for every hour after. 

In the winter the first - class 
swimming bath is used as a 
gymnasium at popular prices. 

Superintendent — O. L. Marchant. 

Matron — Mrs. O. L. Marchant. 

Under the Cleansiag of Persons 
Act free hot baths and disinfection 
of clothing are provided by the 
council in a building adjoining the 



council's depot, Eichmond-street, 
Edgware-road. 

Public Libraries Act. 

There have been five ballots in St. 
Marylebone, but on each occasion 
there was a majority against adopt- 
ing the Act. At the poll in 1895 
5,&6 voted " no " and 1,632 "yes." 
A poll was taken in May, 1898; 
result — against the proposal, 4,617 ; 




ST. MARYLEBONE CHAIN AND 
BADGE. 

Manufactured by the Goldsmiths' 

and Silversmiths' Company. 

for the proposal, 4,214. Majority 
against, 376. The result of two votes 
taken at council meetings was 
also adverse to the adoption of the 
Acta. The last one took place in 
1902, when the Council had before, 
it an offer from Mr. Carnegie 
of £30,000 for the erection of one 
central and four branch establish- 
ments for the borough. The off^jr 
was not accepted. 



292 



Borough Councils. 



Offlcers. 

Town Clerk — JameH Wilson . 

Borough Surveyor — J. Paget 
Waddmgton, M.I.C.E. 

Borough Accountant — T. H. 
Puzey, F.s.A.A. 

Chief Clerk -A. W\\^^xi. 

Rdfitig Siiperi n iendent — E. 
Sheriff. 

Medical Offi-er of Health — 
Meretlith Young*. M.D., D.P.H. Hours 
of Aiieu'lauce (at JJ, Upper Glouces- 
ter-place, N.W.) : P.^iO a.m. to 5 
p.m.; Saturdays, O.'K) a.m. to 2 p.m. 

Vuhlic Analyst -A. W. Blyth, 

M.R.C.S., F.C'.S., F.I.C. 

Consulting Electrical Engineer — 
A. Wricrht. 

Resident Electrical Engineer — F. 
A. Wilkinson, A.M.I.E.E., M.I.M.E., 
19 and 2'0, York-place, W. 

Mayor. 

AUemiau Edward Thomas Fowler, j.p., 
47, Avenue-road, N.W. 

ALDEBMEy. 

Auglim, J., 17. Should ham -street, W. 

Dennis, W., '* Ifleld House," Carshalton, 
Surrey. 

ElgooJ. G. J., J. p., 98, Wimpole-street, \V. 

Hopkins, A. J., 78, Oxford Gardens, 
Notting-hill, W. 

Michel!, J. A., j.p., 9, Market-place, W. 

Morris, M., "Oaklands," Wembley, 
Middlesex. 

Thomas, J., 74, Wigmore-street, W. 

Wakefield^ Rev. H. 11., 86. Gloucester- 
place, \\ . 

Watson, J., 41, Fellows-road, South Harap- 
stead, N.W. 

CoUXCILLORS. 

Bacon, E. G., 276-278, Edgware-road, W. 
Be:Hmiont, Rev. J. A., m.a., ^t. John's Par- 

toujge, St. John's Wood-road. N.W. 
Bokenham, T. J., m.r.c.p., l.r.c.p., 10, 

Devonshire-street, Port laud-place, W. 
Briusley- Harper, F., 6e, Bickeuhall-man- 

sious W. 
Buckingham, J. W., 1, Henstridgevillas, 

N.W. 
Bushuell, E. J., 23, St. Christopher's- 
* place, W. 

Capon, H. J., m.d., 40, Upper George-st., W. 
Uobb, T., 39, Finchley-road, N.W. 



Cooper, E. L., 112, Crawford-street, W. 
Crichton, A. M. M., 17a, GrexL Cumber- 
land-place, W. 
Da ben ham, E. R., 8, Addison-road, Ken- 
sington, W. 
Djmpsey. M., 53, Davonsh ire-street, Lisson- 

grove, N.W. 
DuDU, H. A., 41, Hamilton -gardens, N.W. 
Fettes, J., Sm, Hyde-park-mansions. N.W. 
Powler, G., 97, Gt. Portland-street, W. 
Fuelling, T., 93b., High-street. W. 
Garronld, A. H., 150-160, Edgware-road, W. 
Grois. W., B.A.,49, Upper Gloucester-place. 
Hartneli, H. B., 12, Daysbrook - road, 

Streatham-hill, S.W. 
Harvey, A. G., 50, Church-street, N.W. 
Head, (i. H., 5n, Portman mansions. W. 
Helsdon, H. J., f.e i.b.a., a.r.s.i., 14. 

St. Edmund's-terrace.N.W. 
Hey wood, J., 42, Queen Anne-street, W. 
Isau's, D. L.,79, Portl ind-place, W. 
Jennings, E. J., lOi; Orawfo d-street, W. 
Johnston, D., 57, Cambridge-street. W. 
Kelaart, E. F., 4w., Bicken hall- mansions, 

W. 
K I' ij I p t uTi , C. , 9^ , M fjrl i c iiei -!-i r t i.' i: , W. 
Ki(e. -I,, 167, (rreat Tilthfleid'Strr-t,, W. 
Kiiitfhtji. J.,4a2. Hil^w.irf road. W. 
hut^y, V, l-l, 16, Kim TrLW-nad, S.W. 
Lu.njrridgL". R. 4,. 39a, Kj£etei-strt*t':, N.W. 
Irfiadu P., 4, High St. W. 
J.M Stiutli, J., 41, Bryatislons^iuariH, W. 
Li^WJ-:. .r., "Spwlitti Tower." Wei?t Heath, 

Hsniip^tLMiL N.W. 
LiihTi'Liii'ekL J., 15, HDlhind'parlv uirenue. 
LiUk'< J, 1\, J,F., 3j,iJ,. 125, Hdtley-st., W. 
Margetson, R. G., 76, Gt. Portland -St.. W. 
Miude,Lieut.-Col. A. M.,50,8eymour-8t.,W. 
Midwinter. Rev. E. A., m.a., 8 Roesiuore- 

road, N.W. 
Moody, Major-Gen. Sir J. M., 29, Upp?r 

Berkeley-street, W. 
New, H. F., 9, Great Woodstock-street, W. 
Nouweiler, A. H. D., 54, Sutherland- 
• avenue, Paddington, W. 
Paxton, G., 40, Primrose-iiill-road, N.W. 
Peutou, E., jun., 2, Cambridge-terra.e, 

Regeut's-park, N.W, 
Phillips, B., 36, Thayer-st., W. 
Redman, J., 128, Henry-street. N.W. 
Richards, T., 45, Queen's-road, St. John's 

Wood-park, N.W. 
Seymour, L., 188, Alexandra-road, N.W. 
S:orey, E. H., 42, Caitle-street East, W. 
Svvantou, J. H„ m.d., 40, Hariey-stre t, W. 
Sykes, H. T., 33, Gieat Castle-screet, W. 
Vandersluis, B.,2, Mowbray-road, Broudes- 

bury, N.vv^. 
Walford, H. J., 47, Hamilton-terrace, N.W. 
Warren, C, 225, Porisdown-rd., Paddington. 
White, E., J. P., 20, Upper Berkeley-st., W. 
Wiliett, H. B., i6, Kent-terrace, N.W. 
Williams, H. S., 50, Hamiltou-Kajrdeas, 

N.W. 
Wooder, W. W., 153, Great Portland-st., W. 



MALCOLM MACLEOD I CO. 

(ESTABLISHED 1869). 

85, GRACECHURCH STREET, E.G. 

Telephone No. G082 Avenue. 

GRANITIC STONE PAYING LAID "iN SiTU'' 

Suitable for Footpaths, Floors of Stables, Coach- 
houses, Dairies, I aundries. Breweries, Warehouses, 



FIREPROOF CONCRETE STAIRCASES A SPECIALITY. 



Manufacturers of '* Patent? Stone Paving Flags, Steps, Coping, 
Cills, &c., &c. 

TERRAZZO AND ROMAN MOSAIC 

WOOD BLOCK FLOORING 
In Maple, Teak, Pitch Pine, Oak, Yellow Deals, &c. 

PRICES AND PARTICULARS ON APPLICATION. 



SECOND-HAND 

BOOKS at Half Prices ! ! 

NEW BOOKS AT 25% DISCOUNT! 

BOOKS on Architecture, Building Construction, Sanitation, 

Local Government, Medical, Law, ALL other 

Subjects, and for ALL Examinations supplied. 

SIATi W iNJS. tEND FOR LIJT8. BOOKS SENT ON APPROVAL. 

Books Bought. Best Prices Given, 

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LONDON, W.C. 

(i Minute from Oxford Street) 



Ep n CnVI C 135, Cliaring Cros9 
. & n. rUTLt:., london, w.c. 



•f 



294 



Borough Councils, 



ST. PANCRAS. 

Town Hall : Pancbas Road, N.W. 
(Meetings: Every third Wednesday at 6. p.m.) 



The borongh is the parish of St. 
Pancras, the boundaries of which 
have been altered by Order in Coun- 
cil, and is conterminous with the 
Poor Law area, but is not con- 
terminous with the Parliamentary 
borough (containing the north, east, 
west, and south divisions) . It is one 
of the lar^e single-parish boroughs, 
being a little over four square 
miles. The whole area is now 

f Tactically built upon. The popu- 
ation in 1891 was 234,379, and in 
1901 235,317. In 1801 the population 
wa8 31,779,in 1811 it was 46,333, from 
which date it increased in each ten 
years by 25, 32, 26, 37, 33, 23, and 
15 thousand, reaching 235,317 in 
1901. The estimated population 
in the middle of 1906 was 236,455. 

The borough has numerous open 
spaces — 194 acres of Parliament 
Hill, 29 acres of Waterlow Park, 
72h acres of Eegent's Park, together 
with several smaller areas under local 
administration, making up a total 
of about 350 acres. Overcrowding 
is prevalent in the southern parts, 
particularly in Somers Town, and 
27'6 per cent, of the population of the 
whole to rough in 1891 lived in small 
tenements more than two in a room. 
Th3 death rate in 1906 was 158 
per 1,000, and the birth rate was 301 
per 1,000. The rateable value 
for 1908-9 was £1,800,027. 

The Baths, Burial, and Public 
Libraries Acts have been adopted 
in the borough. Schemes are also 
being carried out by the Council 
ander the Housing Acts, and, in 
connection therewith, buildings have 
already been erected to accommo- 
date a considerable number of 



peoge. 



.e borough council consists of 



10 aldermen and 60 coTincillors, 
who took the place of local bodies 
with a membership of about ItiO. 
There are eight wards. 

Expenditure, 1906-7: Bate ac- 
counts, £648,410 ; electric light 
account, £80,362; burial account. 
£7,600 ; baths and wash-houses. 
£19,463; pubhc libraries, £4,023; 
capital account, £19,560 ; loans out- 
standing, £861,026, including elec- 
tric lighting, baths, and cemeterj- ; 
rateable value, £1,800,027 ; general 
rate, including rehef of the poor, 
County Council, and Police, in 
1906-7, was 7«. Sd. in the £. 

The amount received by the coun- 
cil under the Ecjualisation of Hates 
Act. 1894, during the year ended 
31st March, 1907, was £8,740. 

The council during the year ended 
31st March, 1907, paid under precept 
to the London County Council and 
for Education purposes £270,534; 
Metropolitan Police, £37,555 ; and 
Guardians of the Poor (including 
the Metropolitan Asylums Board). 
£147,000. 

Cemetery Department. 

Chkf Clerk— W. E. Brown. 

Ce'inetery — East Finchley. 

Superintendent of Cemetery— 
T. Buckerfield. 

Baths and Wash-Houeee. 

Clerk— ¥. Y. Creed. 

Prince of Wales-road Baths: 
Superintendent — Edward Akroyd. 
Matron — Mary Akroyd. 

Whitfield-street Baths : Superin- 
tendent — Thomas Barrett. Matron 
— Marion Barrett. 

King-street Baths, Camden Town: 
Superintendent — Thomas Barrett 
(acting). Matron — Mrs. Annie M. 
George (acting). 



Borough Councils. 



295 



The baths are open as follows: 
From April to September from 
7 a.m. to 9.30 p.m. except Fridays 
and Saturdays, when the time of 
closing will be 10 p.m. ; from October 
to March from 8 a.m. to 8.30 p.m. 
except Saturdays, when the baths 
close at 10 p.m. 

Tepid swimming baths, for ladies' 




ST. PANCRAS CHAIN AND BADGE. 
Manufactured by the Goldsmiths* 

and Silversmiths' Company, 

use, as follows: — Prince of Wales- 
road: First and second-class (two 
baths specially resei*ved for ladies) ; 
King-street, on Thursdays. Whit- 
tield-street: Wednesdays, 1st class, 
mtil 11 a.m., 2nd class from 11 a.m. 
mtil the time of closing. 

The wash - houses are open 
throughout the year from 8 a.m. to 
3 p.m. 

Public Libraries Act. 

The Acts were adopted by the 
Uouncil on the 23rd November, 



1904, and it was decided to erect one 
Central and four Branch Libraries, 
and to levy a rate not exceeding Id. 
in the £ for the financial year. Mr. 
Andrew Carnegie has promised to 
contribute £40,000 towards the 
erection of these Libraries. The 
Duke of Bedford has contributed 
£500, which has been expended in 
purchasing the site for the Branch 
Library which has been erected and 
opened in the Highgate district. 
Competitive designs for the Central 
Public Library, to be erected on a 
site which has been purchased in 
Prince of Wales'-road, h*ve been 
received, and, acting upon the ad- 
vice 'of Mr. John Belcher, the 
President of the Royal Institute 
of British Architects, who acted 
as Assessor, the Council accepted 
the design of Messrs. Russell and 
Cooper, of Gray's Inn-square, W.C. 
The Council has not yet settled 
sites for the other Branch Libraries. 
Borough lAhrarian — Henry Bond. 

Electric Light. 

St. Pancras was the pioneer in 
electric lighting among the London 
Local Authorities : the capital cost 
has been £507,114, and the gross 
revenue is £74,513. (See section on 
Electric Light.) 

Housing. 

The Council has cleared the 
insanitary areas in Brantome-place 
and Prospect-terrace, and is taking 
steps to erect dwellings to re-house 
about 850 persons. For details of 
the scheme see the Housing of the 
Working Classes section. 

Offlcers. 

Town Clerk— C H. F. Barrett. 

Deputy Town Clerk — B.. T. 
Richards. 

Borough Treasurer and Account- 
ant— W. H. Booth. 

Assessm nt and Valuation Clerk 
—A. H. Conford. 



296 



Borough Councils. 



Eiite-CoJleciors— District No. 1 
iXorth) : C. H. Clare, 117, Fortess- 
road, N.W. ; Mondays and Thurs- 
days, 10 a,m. to 2 p.m. ; Mondays, 6 
to 8.J}0p.m. Disirirt iVo. 1 (South) : 
F. D. Price (acting). 20, Allcroft- 
road, N.W. ; Mondays and Thurs- 
days 10 a.m. to 3 p.m., Monday 
eveninffs 6 to 8.'50, District Xo. 2 : 
(jr. W. Kiile, (>5, Prince of Wales-road, 
N.W. ; Mondays and Thursdays, 
10 a.m. to 2 p.m. ; Monday evening's, 
6 to 8.30 p.m. District Xo.^: W. H. 
Clisbv, 1(5, Patshull-road, N.W. ; 
Mondays and Fridays, 10 a.m. to 4 
p.m., and Wednesdays 6 to 8.30 p.m. 
District Xo.-i: R. G. Robinson, 7, 
Rutland - street; Tuesdays and 
Thursdays, 10 a.m. to 3 p.m., and 
Tuesdays 6 to 8.30 p.m. District 
No. 5 : W. Crane, 24, Robert-street, 
N.W. Mondays and Thursdays, 10 
a.m. to 3 p.m., and Mondays 6 to 8.»}0 
p.m. District Xo. 6 : S. T. Beaves 
(acting), 144, Seymour-street; Mon- 
days and Thursdays, 10 a.m. to 2 
p.m., and Mondays 6 to 8.*K) p.m. 
District No. 7 : A. (Jr. Edwards 
(acting), 22, Ciower -place, W.C.; 
Mondays and Thurs(Tays, 11 a.m. 
to 2 p.m. ; and Mondays 6 to 
8.:30 p.m. Disirict Xo. 8: R. E. 
Dingle, 130, Jiidd-street, W.C\ ; 
Mondays and Fridays, 10 a.m. to 2 •« 
p.m., and Wednesdays 6 to 8.30 p.m. 

Arrears li ate- (^ol lector and In- 
quiring and Collecting Officer — 
F. C. Moss (acting), 144, Seymour- 
street, N.W. ; Tuesdays and Fri- 
days, 2 to 4 p.m. 

Works Department. — Borough 
Engineer and Surceyor—W. Nisbet 
Blair, M.INST.C.B. Deputy Engiiieers 
and Surveyors (Western District) — 
a. F. Ellis. (Eastern District)— 
A. N. Hawtrey, A.M.i.c.E. 

ChieJ Clerk-A. R. W. Mills. 

Public Health Department — 
Medical Officer of Health— J. F. J. 
Sykes, M.D., D.sc. Public Analyst — 
Sir T. Stevenson, M.D. Oh ief Clerk 
— A. P. Coke. Sanitary Inspectors — 



J. Osborne, H. G. West, J. Landen 
J. I. Lonnon, W. L. Browu, H. R. 
Child, C. H. Johnston, W. G. 
Auger, {Jr. Rackham. A. H. Wal.er. 
G. VV. Adkins, H. E. Janies, E. G. 
Holmes, and E. J. Dillon ; Miv 
Mary E. Bibby and Miss BlaucLc 
Gardiner. 

Electricity and Publ- 
Lighting Department.— Offii-: 
r>7, Pratt-street, N.W. — ('/n> 
Electrical Engineer — Sydney ^V 
liLiynes, M.I.E.E., &c. llesiclent a;/-' 
Superrising Engineer^ I{egen*> 
Park and King's Road Stations 
J. T. Baron, m.i.e.e. Dlstrihutiir, 
Engineer — Wm. Anderson Brown 
(.'hief (Herh of the Depart me nt- 
Albert E. Pycraft. 

Dusting and Refuse De- 
structor Department — Depot. 
G eorgiana-stre ii : Superintendent. 
John C. Scoble. 

MA.TOE. 

Councillor Alfred Mills, J.P.. 2, Bertsfor.i 
road, Harriugay, N. 

ALUER\IKir. 

Cox -Sinclair, E., J. p., 25, Camdeu-sciuar. 

N.W. 
Davie.s D., 11, Woburn buildings, Duke^ 

road, W.C. 
(i.iimtletr. J.,23, Dirtmuuth-pk.-hill, N.M 
Hennessey," D., J. P., 106, Weedington-ni 

N.W. 
Knight. W. S M., l.c.c, 8, King's Bern 

walk, Temple, E.C. 
Lanible, S. R., 15, Queenswood-avenu- 

Muswell-hill, N. 
Mc(iregor, D.,76, Tottenh3,m-court-ro:id. 
Matthew.-'.W. H.,275, Gray's-iuu-rd. , W.i 
May, J.. 8, Howland-treet. W. 
Regnart, Sir H. G., J. p., 29, Gordon-squir 

Councillors. 
Atkinson, G. T., 120, Tollington-park, N. 
Avant, F. W., 60, Onslow-gardeusi, M•l^ 

well-hill, N. 
B mgo, J., 7, Camden-square. N.W. 
Blount, (t., 6, Ijady Margaret-road. N.W. 
Brown, H. J., 63, Maldeu-ro.id. N.W. 
Browu, H., 141, llampstead-roai, N.W, 
Bryan, J., 257, Camden-roid, N. 
Buiningham, C, 55, Georglaua-st., N.W. 
CogKcin, C. A., 32, Croftdown roid, N.W. 
Collins, T. A., 11, Frederick-street, W.C. 
CousiiLs, A., Stables, Purchese-street. N.V 
Croak, W., 34, Cnarrin^bon--tre3t, N.W. 
Do.vdle, T., 134, Ossalstoa-streefc, N.W. 
Fisher, U. ()., 105, Charlot!»-s treat, Vitzruy 

square, W. 



Advertisement, 297 



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Give your horses 3 lbs. of Molassine Meal 
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Full particulars can he obtained from — 

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2^8 



Borough Councils. 



Forbes, Dr. J., 4. Hurd wick-place, Hamp- 

stead-road, N. W. 
Groom, H.. 213 and 215, (iray's lan-rd., W.C. 
Harley, Rev. J. H.. 8, Kingston House, 

Camden-street. N.W. 
Heron. E. T.. Maxclif, St. Alban'f-road, 

Highgate. N. 
Hewitt. J. W., 29. St. Augusttne's-rd.. N.W. 
Hickling, G.. j.p., 16. Willes-road. N.W. 
Hiscox, J.. 64, Bartholomew-road, N.W. 
Ingram, H. W., 74, Oseney -crescent, N.W. 
Ives. W.. 222. Camdenroad, N.W. 
James, H., 44, Park-street. N.W. 
Jennens, H. H., 56. Pemberton-gardens, N. 
King, L. R., The Elms, Fitzroy-pirk, 

Highgate, N. 
Lloyd-Taylor, W., 6, Albert-terrace, N.W. 
Lucag, B. P., Clinton House. Palace-road, 

Streatham. S.W. 
Maycock. J., 7, Seaton-street, N.W. 
McClune. J. F., 124, Hewett-road, Harrin- 

gay. N. 
Mitchell, J. H., Langley Park. Mill-hill. 
Myers, H. S.. 19, Edward-street, N.W. 
Paramore, Dr. R., 2, Gordon-square, W.C. 
Parker, E., 5. Albert-road, N.W. 
Paterson, D. R.. University Hotel, Ends- 

leigh-gardens, W.C. 
Pettitt, R. J., 400. Caledonian-road, N. 
Ramage. Dr. J., 6, Gloucester-road, N.W. 
Raveushaw, J., 10, West-hill, Highgate. 



Robinson, Rev. A. B. C, 22, R.obert-streer. 
N.W. 

Robins, W., 7. Marsden-street. N.W. 
Russell, Rev. T. H., St. Martin's Vicarage, 

Vicar's-road, N.W. 
Sanderson, H. E.. 14, North-villas, Cam- 

den-square. N.W. 
Shearing, A. G., Oak-lodge, Highgate- 

avenue, N. 
Smallwood, R. H., 44, Argyle-sq^uare, W.C. 
Smith, G. A., 37, Dartmouth-park-avenne. 
Soloman, A., 46, Woodsome-road. X.W. 
Stoney, Rev. R. S., 30, Mesklenborgh 

square, W.C. 
Swift, M. J.. 6, Aylestone-avenue. Bronde - 

bury-park, N.W. 
Tapping, D., 30, Tottenham-court-road, W. 
Thomas. A. J.. 14, Caversham-road. N.W. 
Trill, H., 131, High-street, Camden Town, 

N.W. 
Viveash, F. R., 69, Park-street, N.W. 
Vosper, Dr. P., l.c.c, 112, Re^nt's-park- 

road, N.W. 
Wames, Dr. G., 291, Camden-road, N. 
Whish, Rev. A. E.,29, Caversham-rd.,N.V. 
Widdicombe, H. D., 80, High-street, Cam- 
den Town, N.W. 
Williams, C, 179. High-st.. Camden Town 
Wills, J.. 119, Holland-road, W. 
Wofifendale, Rev. Z. B., " White House," 

Dartmouth-park-avenue, N.W. 



SHOREDITCH. 

Town Hall : Old Street, E.G. 
(Meeting's : First and third Tuesdays in the Month at 6.30 p.m.) 



The borough is, with some adjust- 
ments of boundaries, the parish of 
Shoreditch, which is identical with 
the Poor Law area and with the 
Parliamentary borough (comprising 
the divisions of Hoxton and Hagg-er- 
ston). The old local government 
district was slightly less than the 
new borough — a small portion of 
the parish m the neighbourhood of 
Broad Street Station formerly 
within the City sanitary area being 
now in Shoreditch. This fringre is 
less than an acre in extent; it is 
occupied by three houses and ten 
people, and has a rateable value of 
£7,969. 

In size Shoreditch is the smallest 
of all the boroughs, except Holborn 
and Finsbury; it is just one 
square mile in area (664 acres). 
It is fully built upon, and has a 
population of 189 to the acre. The 
population reached its climax in 



1861, when it was 129,364; since 
then it has decreased at each census 
until in 1901 it was 118,705. T}ii> 
decline in the population has been 
accompanied by a decrease in the 
number of inhabited houses from 
17,072 in 1861 to 12,743 in 1901, t- 
an even greater degree — the number 
of persons per house having in- 
creased from 7'6 in 1861 to 9"3 ui 
1901. There is some overcrowd- 
ing in the borough, the propor- 
tion in 1891 being 33*7 per cent. 
There are but few open spaces, 
and the total acreage is only 6^ acre?. 
The death rate in 1907 was 20-6- 
the proportion of deaths of infant-j 
being unduly large. The rate- 
able value of the whole borough 
at the present time is £812,3r>i 
There is no agricultural land. Thr 
borough has municipal electno 
lighting works, which, combint^i 
with a dust destructor, have beet 



Borough Councils. 



299 



completed, and are working satis- 
factorily. Baths and wash-houses 
form part of the scheme, while a 
central library is also included in 
this g'roup of building's. Another 
lightmg station has been opened, 
situate at Whiston-street, where 
two up-to-date turbine generators 
of the highest efficiency have been 
installed in order to supply the 
Haggerston division of Shoreditch. 
The Free Public Libraries Act was 
adopted in 1891. The Housing of 
the Working Classes Acts have also 
been adopted, and two schemes 
have been carried out. Several 
other important schemes have been 
carried out, including the restora- 
tion of the Town Hall, consequent 
upon a disastrous fire. Alone of 
all the boroughs in London, Shore- 
ditch has municipal costers' stalls 
let at rentals. 

The local government services 
have been concentrated .in the 
borough council, with a member- 
ship of 49. The borough council 
consists of 7 aldermen and 42 
3ouncillors. There are 8 borough 
wards. 

Free Public Libraries. 

[ Kingsland-road and Pitfield- street.) 

Libraries open on Sundays during 
winter months from 6 to 9 p.m. 
The library for Hoxton, in Pit- 
field Street, was opened 2()th April, 
1898. 

Chief Librarian — W. 0. Plant. 

Baths and Wash- Houses. 

[Pitfield-street and Mansfield-street, 
Haggerston.) 
Baths and wash-houses were 
)pened in Pitfield-street in March, 
[899. A notable feature is that no 
:>oilers are used either in the baths 
>r wash-houses, the heat being 'sup- 
plied by condensers fed by the ex- 
laust steam from the adjoining 
jlectric lighting station. Baths and 
V ash-houses were also opened in 



Mansfield-street, Haggerston, in 
June, 1904, the swimming bath 
being built on the Roman amphi- 
theatre principle, enabling specta- 
tors to see every part of the pond 
during swimming entertainments. 

Electric Light. 

Shorediteh was the first borough 
in the world to combine a dust- 
destructor with an electricity gene- 
rating station for a town's supply 
of electricity. (See Electric Light- 
ing section.) 

Housing. 

The Shorediteh Yestry cleared a 
large insanitary areainMoira-place, 
displacing 533 persons. Artisans' 
dwelHngs were erected in 1899, 
capable of rehousing 400 people in 
25 tenements of two rooms and 50 
tenements of three rooms each. 
Further blocks of dwellings, with 
shops, have been erected on the site, 
giving accommodation for another 
148 persons. Under Part III. 
of the Act the Council has also 
purchased the Stonebridge estate 
at Haggerston, and intends de- 
veloping it for housing purposes 
by overhauling and restoring the 
existing houses so as to put them in 
thorough repair as cottage resi- 
dences. (See section on the 
Housing of the Working Classes.) 

Ofncers. 

Ihwn Clerk and Solicitor — H. 
Mansfield Eobinson, LL.D. 

Deputy Town Clerk — J. A. D. 
Milne. 

Assistant Solicitor— ¥. J. Sparks. 

Borough Treasurer and Ac- 
countant — E. A. R. Adams, f.s.a.a. 

Deputy Treasurer — J. W. Phillips, 

Medical Officer of Health—L. T. F. 
Bryett, M.D., d.p.h. 

Borough Surveyor — T. L. Hustler. 

Assistant Surveyor-^'E, H. Dean. 

Lighting Engineer — C. H. 
Doughty. 



300 



Borough Councils. 



Sanitary Inspectors — H. Alex- 
ander, J. W. Lear, W. Firth, E. T. D. 
Jordan, C. Langftone, and J. H. 
Pearson. 
Fublw Analyst— Sir T. Stevenson, 

M.D. 

Electrical Engineer — C. N. Rus- 
sell, A.M.I.C.E. 

Rate - Collectors Moorfields and 
Church District N'o. 1 : H. L. Loly. 
Church District Xo. 2: E. Cranston. 
Hoifton Ward: W. Studd. Wen- 
lock Ward : D Burton. Whitmore 
and Kingsland Ward-i : W. Gr. 
Sheale. Haggerston and Acton 
Wards : F. JS. Case. 
Mayor. 
Councillor H. B. Bird, J. p., 211, Hoxton- 
street, N. 

AlDEEMEIf. 

Kldridge. E. G.. 88, Shepherdess- walk, N. 
Elsdon.W.C, ' Medoute," Aldershot-Yoad, 

Flee^ Hants. 
Francis, T. W., j.p., Dowlais-rd, Wanstead. 
Hunt, T. J., " Hainault House," 237, Hain- 

aultroid, Leytonstone, Kssex. 
Kershaw, H. E., The Cedars, South Park. 

Eeigate. 
Pearce. E. T., 12, Albany, Picradilly. \V. 
Timmin-, J., 271, Hackney -road, N.K. 

Councillors. 
Adair.s, W. W., 4°, Murray-street, N. 
Bailey, G. W., 11, Bookham street, Hox- 

ton, N. 
Baker, J. S., 2, Mid Jletou-road, Kingsland, 

N.E. 
Bibby, J. T., " Beechcroft," Colney Hatch, 

lane, Muswell-hill, N. 
Burnell, T., 3, Darnley-road, Holland-park- 
avenue, W. 
Bye, J.. M.A.B., 258, Kingsland-road, N.E. 



Cook, T. W., 166, Kingaland-road, N.F. 
Darby, E., 50, Howi'rl - road. ChortL 

street, Walthamstow. 
Davies, Dr. J., J.P., l.c.c, 87, Cambridge 

flrardene, Kensinjirton, W. 
Dawes-White, J., 56, Prince George-road, X. 
Dixon, T. W., 259. Hackney-road, N.E. 
Donovan, W. H., 55, New North-road, N. 
Douglas, D. S.. 22, lorrington-road,Hiiher 

green. S.E. 
Emmett, H. G., 41. Hoxton-street, N. 
Evdns, E., 2, Mount Pleas mt-l .ne, Clspton. 
Gates. B.. j.p., m.w.b.. "Ranelagh." 222. 

Willesden-lane, Brondesbury. N.W. 
Girling, W. H., 50, Newton street, Hox't.n. 
Harwood, J. E., "Lyndhurst," Harlesden 

road, N.W. 
Hodder, A. C, 27, New North-road, N 
Howletr, G. W., 93, Clifton-.street, E.C 
King, M., 25, Church-road, Southg te-roiA 
Knight, E. H., 68, Howe-^-st., Haggerston. 
Knowland, P., 18, Murray-street, New 

North-road, N. 
Lewis, C. G., 123, Kingsland-road, N. 
Martin, W. E., 12, Church-road, SSouthgit«- 

road, N. 
Matthews, C. P., 31, Osbaldeston-road. 

Stoke Newingtou, N. 
Merritt. F., 52, Northbrook-gardens. IlfonL 
Moseley, E. H., 62, New North-road, N. 
Morton, L., 46, Clarissast., H^ggersiou 
Parker, W. J., 43. Haberd.sher-street, 

Hoxton, N. 
Penney, A. E., 69, New North-road, N 
Porter, S. G., j.p.,49, Shrubl*ind-rd., Ddlsfon. 
Robinson, A. E., 3, Elm-court, Temple. E < . 
Sherratr, H., 5, Bevcnden-street, Hoxtoo 
Smith, J. W„ 3, Upion road, DownhaiL 

rojd, N. 
Styman, J., 56, Brunswick-place, City-ro ifl. 
Such, S. W., 28, Cropley- street. New NortL 

road. N. 
Warden, W. , 60, Pownall-roa i , D i' s' on, 
Wheatley, H. W., 64, Buckland-street Xt^^r 

North-road, N. 
Wills, Rev. P., M. A., 42-44, Sun-street, E ( 
Wilton, C, 18, Eajtle Wharf -road, \ef 

North ro.d, N. 



SOUTHWARK. 

Town Hall : Walworth Koad, S.E. 
(Meeting's : Alternate Wednesdays, at 6.30 p.m.) 



The borougli is " the area con- 
sisting of tiie parishes of St. George- 
the-Martyr, Southwark, and New- 
ingtc)n, and the district of the St. 
Saviour's Board of Works " (com- 
prising the parishes of St. Saviour 
and Christ Church, Southwark). It 
is coterminous with the South- 
wark Poor Law Union, but not with 
Parliamentary divisions. It in- 



cludes practically the whole of tl- 
borough of Newington, with its tw 
divisions of West Newington an. 
Walworth, and part of the borou^li 
of Southwark. namely, the Wts: 
Southwark division (which consist* 
of the parishes of St. Saviour an<: 
Christ Church, and two-thirds or 
St. Greorge-the-Martyr), and part 
of the Bermondsey division, namely 



Bwough Councils. 



301 



the remainder of St. Greorge-the- 
Martyr. 

In size it is among the smaller 
boroughs, being only one and 
four-fifths square miles in 
extent; but its rateable value 
is high, £1,310.478. 

The borough has been fully occu- 
pied at least since 1831. ^t the 
beginning of the century it con- 
tained 11,151 houses ; in 1831 
there were 20,226; and in 1896 there 
were 22,970; a slight decrease on 
the numbers in 1891 and 1881, 
which were 24,680 and 25,251 re- 
spectiveljr. The population, how- 
ever, during these same years has 
been increasinjgr continuousl^y. There 
were 62,669 inhabitants m 1801, 
116,006 in 1831, 195,164 in 1881, 
202,693 in 1891, 203,582 in 1896, and 
206,180 in 1901, which, spread over 
an area of 1,165 acres, gives a density 
of 1769 to the acre. Of this area 
only 11 acres are open space, made 
up of thirteen small gardens — thus 
there is only one acre to every 
18,743 persons; and there are no 
large open spaces near the borough, 
except Kennington Park at the 
south end. There is a great deal 
of overcrowding: in 1891 22'3 per 
cent, in Newington, 32'4 per cent, 
in St. Saviours district, and 33"6 
per cent, of the population of St. 
George-the-Martyr lived in small 
tenements crowded more than two 
to a room. 

The death rate in 1907 for the 
whole borough was 180 and the 
birth rate 287. 

With regard to local services, 
the Public Libraries and Baths and 
Wash-houses Acts are in force 
throughout the borough, while the 
Burial Acts are in force in the 
district comprising the parishes 
of St. Saviour and St. Mary, 
Newington. 

St. Saviour has also a market 
tmdef the management of the 
Borough Market trustees, from 



which about £5,000 per annum is 
appropriated to the relief of local 
rates, while Newington possesses 
the Walworth Common Estate, 
which produces about £8,000 a year 
in relief of poor rate. 

Newington Yestry alone of the old 
local authorities had electric light- 
ing powers within the borough, the 
Loudon, the County of London, 
and the City of London Companies 
having powers of supply in the 
rest of the borough. 

The borough council consists of 
10 aldermen and 60 councillors. 
The number of nlembers of local 
bodies whose powers have been 
taken over by the borough council 
was 275. 

There are 10 wards, 5 for Newing- 
ton, 3 for St. Greorge-the- Martyr, 
and 1 each for Christ Church and 
St. Saviour. 

Baths and Wash -Houses. 

( Lavington-street. ) 

Opened 1895. Open during the 
summer months from 7 a.m. to 
9.30 p.m., and on Sundays from 6.30 . 
a.m. to 9.30 a.m. Charges: Private 
baths, \d. to 6c2. ; swimming baths, 
2d. to ^d. ; laundry, \hd. per hour. 

(Manor-place, Newington.) 

These baths were opened in 
March, 1898. They cost £65,000, 
and are amongst the finest in Lon- 
don. Charges : First-class bathsj 
6^.; second-class, 2d. First-class 
swimming, 4(£.; second-class swim- 
ming, 2d. 

Electric Light. 

(See Section.) 

Free Public Libraries and 
Museum. 

Special features: Open access 
system, lectures, nights with popu- 
lar composers, readings to children, 
and adults, juvenile libraries, 
ladies' rooms occasional exhibi- 



302 



Borough Councils, 



tions. Museum and reading rooms 
open on Sundays from 6 to 9 p.m. 

Central Library and Cuming 

Museum. 

(Walworth Road, adjoining Town 

Hall.) 

Act adopted 1890. Library opened 
1893, The library is open from 9 
a.m. to 10 p.m. 39,745 volumes, 
o*" which 19,156 are in the Beference 
Department. 159,337 volumes issued 
last year ; 6,276 borrowers ; average 
daily attendance, 3,000. 

Borough-road (Passmore Edwards) 
District Library. 
Opened in 1899. Library con- 
tains 12,009 volumes. Issues last 
year, 100,638. Attendance in news- 
room, about 1,000 per day. 

Southwark Bridge-road District 
Library. 

Act adopted in St. Saviour's 
parish in 1891. Library opened 1894. 
Contains 17,304 volumes ; 46,708 
issued last year for houie reading. 
Average week-day attendance, 1,500. 

Blackfriars-road District Library. 
Opened in 1889. The library 
contains 5,516 volumes. The total 
issue for last year was 18,553. 

Old Kent Road District Library. 

This library opened early in 
1908, the site having been given by 
Lord Llangattock and his son 
(Hon. J. Rolls) and the structure 
by Mr. Carnegie. It contains 4,000 
volumes. 

Officers. 

Town Clerk — J. A. Johnson 
F.C.I.S., Solicitor. 

Boroiigh Tieasurer and Accoun- 
tclnt—^y. E. Houghton, a.s.a.a. 

Borough Engineer and Surveyor 
— Arthur Harrison, M.i.c.E. 

Medical Officer of Health — Cf. 
Millson, L.R.C.P., M.R.C.S. 

Public Analyst — William Scott 
Tebb, M.D., F.i.c. 



Solicitor {for Prosecutions and 
Actions in the Courts) — O. C Top- 
ham, 19, Borough High-street. 

Chief Librarian and Curator— , 
Richard W. Mould, F.S.A. (Scot.). 

Sanitary Inspectors — A. Long, J. i 
Weatheritt, J. E. Rugg, G. Fisher. 

E. Howes, J. Sweeney, R. H. 
Goodfellow, P. David, A. A. Grist 

F. Jenkinson, J. C. Nicholson, S. 
Bowers, J. A. Robinson. 

Women Inspectors — Misses A. 
EUiott (Chief), M. R. Burrows. 
H. Blackwell. 

Cashier and Collector — F. O. 
Wnght. 

Rate-Collectors— U. J. H. Eccles. 
W. T. P. Montgomery, F. Mac- 
kenzie, T. Brown, J. Beale, H. J. 
Metcher, E. O. Jones, W. A. Block. 

Mayor. 

Mr. AiifiTustus George Grantham, j.p., 

49, Blackfriars-road, S.E. 

Deputy Mayor. 

Councillor E. E. Attenborough, 

41, Old Kent-road. 

Alderhen. 

Boyd, J., 19, Lorrimore-road, Walworth. 

Cook, G. H.,65, Rodenhurst-road, Clapham- 
park. S.W. 

Hewett, T. E., 2, St. Agnes-place, Kenning- 
ton-park, S.E. 

Oldfleld, Dr. P.. The Cottage, Dulwich 
Village, S.E. 

Owles, L., 9. Merrick-square, Trinity -street. 

Spouder, W. H., 17, Lugard-rd., Peckham. 

Tonsley, A. G.. 25, Old Kent-road, S.E. 

Vernon, G., " Mayville," 267, Croxted-road, 
Dulwich, S.E. 

Wellard, L., 9, Bedford-street, Walworth. 

Winkley, F. J.. 4. Southwark-street, S.E. 
Councillors. 

Anderron, F. B., "Domington," §andford- 
road, Bromley. 

Anton,G. J., 54, Beresford-street, Walworth. 

Baguley, H., 30, Holland-street, South- 
wark-street, S.E. 

Barker, F. H., 215-221. Borough High-st. 

Barrett, A. G., 16, Meymott-street. Black- 
friars road, S.E. 

Bellamy, J., 77, Inville-road, Walworth. 

Bird, F., 49, Merrow-st., Walworth, S.E. 

Bird, W. T., 151, Hither Green-lane, l^ewis- 
ham.S.E. 

Bowers, R. W., 89, Blackfriars-road, S.E, 

Brotherwood, T., 27, Park-st., Southwark. 

Bunyard, H. R., 92, Wal worth-road. S.E. 

Cloake, W. J., 81, Union-street, Southwark, 

Corder, J. G„ 13, Gleugall-rd.. Old Kent-rd. 

Cuthbert, R. S., 11, Southwark Bridge-road. 



Borough Councils. 



303 



Davis, R. C..7, Falmouth -road, S.E. 

Dawes, J. A..b.c.l., m.a., j.p., l.c.c, 71i 
Kemiingtou-p ilk-road. S.E. 

Djvenny, D., 108, New Kent-roid, S.E. 

Djvereux, J. O., 20, Xelsou-sciuare, BUck- 
friars-road, S.E. 

Djck. G., 322, Old Keat-roid. S.E. 

Edward. A. H., 45, Peurose-st., Wal^PorHi. 

Field, W. H., 105, Blaokfriars-roail, S.E. 

Gill. T. E., High-road. Chiswick. 

Green, H., 46, Doddington-grove, Keuuiii' 
ton, S.E. 

Hall, E. J., 257, Borough High-stre.^', S.E. 

Hirmer. W.. 61, Greit Dover-st., S.E.. 

H iworth, W. H., 14, Berryfleld-rd., Wal- 
worth, S.E. 

Haynes, T., j.p., 23, Grosvenor - street, 
Camberwell-roid, S.E. 

Hugau, J., 62, Borough-road, S.E. 

Horsley, R3v. ('anon J.W., m.a.. The Rae- 
tory, Liverpool-street, Walworth, S.E. 

Israol. D., 11. West-sciuare. Southw irk, S.E. 

Jarvis, H., 29, Trinity-square, S.E. 

Jephson, R3v. Canon A. W., m.a., St. John's 
Vicarage, 18. Larco:u-street, S. E. 

J0I13S. J., 5J7. Old Ke it-rail S.E. 

Judge, Dr. E. M., 8, GreatSuffolk-st., S.E. 

Kirke. G. W^.91. Fahuoath-roid. S.E. 

Missie, Dr. T., 197, Sauthwa-k Brid j>j-rd. 

M-Djuaell, P. M., 38, Surr^y-^rove, Wal- 
worth. 



Morton, W. J., 64, Camberwell-road, S.E. 

No:!k, H., The (ie-or^e Hotel, Trinity- 
sriuare. Tower-hill, E.G. 

Norman, E. H.,179, Mauor-placc.Walworth. 

O^hren-?, F. T..5, Hampton Hou.se, Himp- 
toa-street, Walworth-road, S.E. 

Phillips, J. H., 43. Hare-street, Woolwich. 

Pickett, T. H., 21, Park-.street. Southwark. 

Rider. F. P., 181, Union-street, Southwark. 

Savage, W., 171-173, Southwark Bridge- 
road. 

Scriven, J. T., 7, Southwark Bridge-road. 

Smith. Dr. F. J. P., 103, East-street, Wal- 
worth. S.E. 

Somerville. Rev. W. J., b.a., St. G^^orge's 
R3ctory, 15, Paragon, New Kcnt-roatl. 

Such, W. C. 183. Union-street. Borough. 

Terry, W., 6, Nelsou-sciuare, Blajkfriar.s-rd, 

Tliomas, M. J., 23, Trinity-sciuare, S.E. 

Westcott, W., 33, Lorrimore-square, Wal- 
worth, S.E. 

Williams B. W., 6 and 7, Blucher-.street, 
Boresford sti-eet, S.E. 

Williams W. C, 3. Sutherland-street, Wal- 
worth. S.E. 

Wills, G. L., 5 J, C imberwell-roil.S.E. 

Wilson, A.. 13 & 15, Uuiou-st.. Borough, S.E. 

Youldon, J., 2. Orb-street, Walw>)rth. S.E. 

Young, T. G., 33, Nelson-s^uaro, Black- 
Iriars-road, S.E. 



STEPNEY. 

Municipal Offices: 15, (J-reat Alie Street, E. 
(Meetings: Alternate Wednesdays, at 4.30 p.m.) 



The borough is "the area con- 
sisting of the Hamlet of Mile End 
Old Town, the Parish of 8t. Greorge- 
in-the-East and the districts of the 
Limehouse and Whitechapel Boards 
of Works." It includes the rating 
areas of Mile End Old Town, 8t. 
G Jorge-in-the-East, Limehouse, Rat- 
clilfe. Shad well, Wapping, White- 
chapel, Norton Eolgate, Old Artil- 
lery Ground, Christchurch, Middle- 
sex, Mile End New Town, and St 
Botolph (Without), Aldgate, and 
comprises the whole of the Parlia- 
mentary borough of Tower Hamlets, 
except the Poplar and the Bow and 
Bromley divisions ; the five electoral 
divisions comprised in the Ijoroagh 
being Mile End, Stepney, Lmie- 
house, St. George, and VVhite chapel. 
The Poor Law areas within the 
borough are Mile End Old Town, 
St. George - in - the - East, the 
Stepney Union, and the whole 



of the Whitechapel Union. But 
the Whitechapel Union includes 
the whole of the parish of White- 
chapel, whereas the borough ex- 
cludes that part of the parish in the 
Portsoken Ward of the City. This 
anomaly was corrected as from the 
2ath March, 1901. The Towor of 
London is within the area of the 
borough. 

The area of the borough is two 
and three - quarter square 
miles, and is balow the average ; 
but the population is 298,(50 J, only 
two boroughs having a higher 
population. As a consequence; the 
density of population is very great - 
over 170 per acre. The borough is 
unfortunate in having very few open 
spaces, and these exceedingly small. 
The churchyard of St. DunsLan's, 
Stepney, seven acres in extent, is 
the largest, and the total acreage 
is only 48. Tliero are 6,490 personi^ 

L 



304 



Bm'ough Councils. 



to each aero of open space. The 
death rate is high: in 1906 it 
was 16'5 in Mile End, 160 in 
Whitechapel, 21*0 in Limehouse, 
and 191 in St. George, the average 
being 17*6. 

The population is increasing, 
yet the building area has been filled 
up for many years, and the expan- 
sion of business neighbourhoods 
has taken up much of the space 
formerly available for residence. 
Stated in statistics, the population 
in 1891 was 285,225, in 1896 it was 
295,547 or 10,322 more ; the number 
of inhabited houses in 1891 was 
33,866, in 1896 it was 32,445, in 
1901 the number had decreased tc 
31,462. Thus between 1896 and 
1901 the population increased by 
13,423, while the number of inhabi- 
ted houses available for the popu- 
lation was 2,404 less. Of tnis 
decrease part was no doubt due 
to the substitution of one block of 
dwellings for several houses ; but 
business requirements accounted 
for at least 153 houses, and rail- 
way extensions were responsible for 
others. 

The Libraries and Baths and 
Wash -houses Acts have been 
adopted throughout the borough. 
The Borough Council is the under- 
taker for electric lighting through- 
out the borough, the area of the 
Whitechapel District Electric 
Lighting Order, 1892, having been 
extended by the provisions of 63 
and 64 Vict, ch. ccvii. Part III. of 
the Housing of the Working Classes 
Act, 1890, has also been adopted. 

The rateable value of the 
borough, according to supplemental 
lists which came into force on 6tli 
April, 1908, is £1,506,093. 

The borough council consists of 
the Mayor, 10 aldermen and 60 
councillors, and superseded local 
bodies having a membership of 
nearly 800. There are 19 borough 
wards. 



Baths and Wash-Houses. 

The Batlis and Washhouses Acts 
are in force throughout the borough. 
Whitechapel. 
Private baths were opened in 
Whitechapel in 1878, and there are 
also three swimming baths, one of 
which is reserved for ladies. The 
1st and 2nd class men's swiaoming 
baths were opened in the year 1886, 
and the ladies* swimming bath in 
1896. The dimensions of the swim- 
ming baths a'e— 1st class men's, 
100ft. by 33ft.; 2nd class men's 
80ft. by 30ft. ; and ladies' bath, 65ft. 
by 27ft. 

The private bathing accommoda- 
tion now provided consists of 40 
first class slipper baths, 31 for men 
and 9 for women ; 78 second class 
slipper baths: 60 for men and 18 
for women. 

St. George-in-the-East. 
The pubUc baths at St. George- 
in-the-East were opened in 1^8, 
and as a result of private munifi- 
cence public wash-houses were added 
to the baths and opened in 1890. 
The buildings contain a swimming 
bath, 73ift. bv 30ft., 13 first class 
and 19 second class private baths 
for men, and 5 first class and 6 
second class private baths for women. 
Ratcliffb. 
These baths, which have recently 
been extended, consist of 13 private 
baths for women, and 15 private 
baths for men. The cost of the site 
was subscribed by private donors, 
and the cost of the additions 
has been borne by Mr. F. C. 
Mills, J.P. 

Libraries. 
The Public Libraries Acts are in 
force throughout the borough. All 
official communications to be 
addressed to Mr. A. Cawthorne, 
the Borough Librarian, Stepney 
Reference Library, Bancroft-road, 
Mile End, E. The most recently 
established library is the Borough 
Reference Library, Bancroft-road. 



Advertisement. 305 



THE MOST .^ BEST 
FOR THE LEAST! 

IS WHAT EVERYONE WANTS. 

Every good business man wants the most of the 

best light for the least money, because he knows 

that good lighting always means 

GOOD BUSINESS. 

Customers are attracted by and like to make 
their purchases in a shop illuminated by a 
bright, well-diffused, and steady light. Work- 
men can turn out better work and more of it 
in an efiBciently-lighted factory; In lighting, 

tho most of the host for the least 

can only be obtained by using incandescent gas 

burners and having them maintained at a low 

cost by 

THE GAS LIGHT & COKE COMPANY, 

HORSE FERRY ROAD, S.W. 

Up-to-date Lamps fitted on Approval. Estimates free. 



Consumeps have installed Gas in place 

of ElectPic Light, which only g^ave 

them the least fer the mest. 



L 2 



306 



Borough Councils. 



Open weekdays, 9 a.m. to 10 p.m. 

Established 190t). Stock, 0,rx)5 
volumes. Volumes issued year 
ending JHst March, 11KJ7, 13,t)ir). 

WniTKCHAPEL. 

Open weekdays 9 a.m. to 10 p.m. ; 
Sundays, 11.80 a.m. to 10 p.m. ; and 
Bank Holidays, 3 p.m. to 10 p.m. 
Established 1892. Stock, 2(>,977 
volumes. Daily attendance at the 
reading" rooms 2,9.*}7, and Bank 
Holidays 2,159. Last year's issues 
109,07t^ volumes. 

St. George-tn-the-East. 

Open weekdays 9 a.m. to 10 p.m. 
Established 1898. Stock, 10,208 
volumes. Daily attendance at the 
readingr-rooms, 711. Last year's 
issues, 98,249 volumes. 

LiMEHOUSE. 

Open weekdays 9 a.m. to 10 p.m. 
Established 1901. Stock, 10,410 
volumes. Daily attendance at the 
reading--r()onis, 947. Last year's 
issues, 91,814 volumes. 
Mile End. 

Open weekdays 9 a.m. to 10 p.m. 
Established 1902. Stock, 12,424 
volumes. Daily attendance at the 
reading-rooms, 1,198. Last year's 
issues, 7(5,209 volumes. 
Museums. 

The Borough Museum is located 
in the Whitechapel Public Library, 
and is open \yeekdays, 12 noon to 9 
p.m., excepting Saturdays, when 
it is open from 10 a.m to 9 p.m.; 
Sundays, 3 p.m. to 9 p.m. Geologi- 
cal, mineralogical, anthropological, 
ethnologic til, zoological, and other 
collecti(ms. There is also a branch 
museum devoted to nature study in 
the Recreation Ground, St. George's - 
in-the-East. 

Borough Curator. — Miss K. M. 
Hall, F.L.S., F.z.s. Office, the 
Museum, Whitechapel Public 
Library, London, E. 

Electric Light. 

The Whitechapel Board of Works 
commenced supply in its area in 



1900, and the boroug^h council is 
now extending the scheme through- 
out the whole of the borough 
Most of the main thoroughfares 
are electrically lit. (See Electrio 
Light section.) 

Housing. 
Under the powers of the Housinsr 
Acts the borough council hiis 
erected the " Edward Mann 
Dwellings" on an area in the 
hamlet of Ratcliffe, and the "Potter 
Dwellings " in the parish of Lime- 
house. Particulars are g"iven in 
the Housing of the Working- Classes 
section. 

Officers. 
To w n ChrJc — George Wi Uiam 
Clarke, A.K.C.. Barrister-at-Law. 

Assistant Town Cleric — J". G. 
Parker. 

Borough Engineer — M. W. 
JamesoQ, A.M.l.c.E. 

Medical Officer of Health — Daniel 
Lewis Thomas, m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p., 
D.P.H. (London), Barrister-at-Law. 
Borough Treasv/rer and Accoiui- 
/a?if— Hugh Carter, F.S.A.A. 

Assistant Accountant — E. G. 
Pilkington. 

Borough Electrical Engiyieer 
and Manager— W. C. P. Tapper, 
A.M.I.E.E. 

Borongh Librarian--^.. Caw- 
thome. 

Curator Borough Museums — Miss 
K. M. Hall, F.L.S., F.z.s. 

Mayor. 
The Hon. H. L. W. Lawson, j.p., m.a., 
37, Grosvenor-square, W. 
Aldermen. 
Barker, W. J., 8, East Pier, Wapping, E. 
Brady, G. F., 8, Spital-sqaare. E. 
Chidgey, H. T. A., Grove Cottage, George- 
lane, Wanstead, Essex. 
Harris, J., j.p., c.c, 38, Gordon-square. M' C 
Hirst, R.. 237, Mile End-road, E. 
Jones, W. H., 28, Old Gravel-lane, St. 

George's, E. 
Kearsey, R. A., 77, Amhiirst-park, N. 
Musto, J. J.. 17, Cottage-grove, E. 
Potter, H , 60, 62, Artillery-lane, E. 
Warren, G. J., j.p., 20, Rhodeswell-road, E. 

Councillors. 
Algar, J., 177, Burdett-road, E. 



Borough Gouncils. 



307 



Anderson, J. T., 59, Newick-road, Clapton, 
N E 

Anderson, W. O. C, 15, South Block, Pea- 
body-buildings, Shadwell, E. 

Archer, W. R., The Elms, Aldboroagh- 
road, Ilford, Essex. 

Atkinson, S. B., J. p., 4, Ewlng-st., Bow, E. 

Bacon, J. E., 66, Buxton-stre'it, E. 

Barber, A., 240, Romford-road, Forest Gate, 
Essex. 

Belcher, W., 220, C ible-streefc, E. 

Berriflger, P., 62, Heath -street, E. 

Birley, M., 2 and 27, Toynbee Hall, 28, 
Commercial-street, E. 

Boiteux, W,, "Lichfield," Cranbrook-rd., 
Ilford, Essex. 

Boustred, G. Il,.83. CLirk .^troL^L l-^ 

Brennan, E. , ^, Nf(^in?iin1 ?trfet, H, 

Chappell, J.. 15. Musmt :;it,.Wnit>M^Ufipi!L 11* 

Collins, J., 53, i 'rii^iMn >frLVt, E. 

Daniel, W. r. 1;, 373, ( iiblt^-^stneE,. K. 

Daniels, J., 4;^, lliyh stroL^t, KhiislMf^^n, K. 

Da vies, O., itis, riiiTi]iief<iiil-rofifl, I!. 

Delevante,G. '\\J% Lichitnrt r<wL Haw. IL 

Dingwall, I, I ,. 92, Ditwus IVrk rutiK 
Clapton, 'S.K. 

Evans. T. J., 424, Mile End-road, E. 

Friead, B. J., 11, Morgan-street, Bow, E. 

Garner, A. E., 119, Rhodeswell-road, E. 

Gibbs, J., 229 231, Cable-street, E. 

Gilder, S., 37, New-road, Whitechapel, E. 

Gordon, H. H., l.c.c, 39, Chester-ter- 
race, N.W. 

Gould, T., 146, Burdett-road, E. 

Grimes, C. A., 5, Bridge-street, E. 

Groves, W. B., 146, High-st., Shadwell. E. 

Hargrave, H. T., 34, White Horse-street, E. 



Harper, J. W., 85, Gill-street, E. 

Healey, T., 28, Ar boar-square, E. 

Higgins, W., 556. Commercial-road, E. 

HodsoU, S. P., "Free School Prejs," Lam 
beth-street, E. 

Holland, J., 9, Exmouth-street, E. 

Hook, J., 47, Leatherdale-street, E. 

Jackson, E., Rectory Works, White Horse- 
lane, K. 

Jone.^, W. E., 3, Poumier-street, E. 

Jones, W. H., 63, Cranhursiroad, Crickle- 
wood, N.W. 

Kay, H. W., 425, Mile End-road, E. 

Kosky, H., 36, Whitechapel-rqad, E. 

Larnder, G. A., 9. Bramley-street, E. 

Loftus, J. E., 8, Mile End-road, E. 

Newell, J. E.,2lA, Lee-st, Thoma«-st., E. 

PrLfrr. K?^. P. G.. S^., V-'iVs ViMrMgi', 

Peterkijw, H. G.. 61, Tbrt?o Colt^ntreefc. E. 
Plov>l^l^. V. J, H.. 176. Mtk^ Enil Rjiiii, K. 
Jl^'iily. rT, J., 314, CommerLiali^wd, E, 
Ktfilly, P, ,L, 263, (MbJii-sstrocl. K, 
liLobini^ii. J. n,, 21, i^t&pni^y-greoii, E. 
S.-smdrert. K^v. J,, The Rwlory, 57. Higli. 

street, Wappinjf, K. 
Si hripr, E.,3^, I'lillj^jiirue-^itroet, K. 
8ljt,inuiir, f !. K.. 507, <'i>iniiieiTiul mad. E, 
Sciisf h. G. T., 25"*, Btirdeu-ri':wl, E.^ 
StertiMif I. il, I, Albert-^Mnrt. f^, Kt'ii:«iii»?Ti*fi. 
Videiit.iiiL*, A., 'M, iKjck f'fret't, K. 
Wjfiuwrwhl, Kfv. L. 1?^.. St. r.aer'H Clertry 

HfMi^p/6S, (Hd 1^. ix.i.i .i.. I), 
White, J., lb, U\..:^.v,ow &Hi»'t'0. E. 
W'lllott. J., 143, Leman-street, E. 
Woolf, E., 29, Whitechapel High-street, 

E. 



STOKE NEWINGTON. 

Town Ef all : Milton Road, N. 



( Meetings : Th ird T ue sday 

The borough is "the area con- 
sisting of the parish of Stoke New- 
ington and of the urban district 
of South Hornsey or so much 
thereof as may be incorporated 
with the County of London." At 
the last census the population 
was 53,045. 

South Hornsey detached con- 
sisted of two separate islands sur- 
rounded by the County of London 
— the smaller one is a tongue of 
land consisting of little more than 
the west side of Albion-road, and 
containing 71 houses, with a popu- 
lation of 417 persons; the larger 
one is in the form of two squares, 
one ly^g to the north-east of the 
other, but joined by a short extent 



in each month, at 7.30 p.m.) 

of common boundary. The north- 
east square contains 569 houses 
and 4,034 inhabitants, while the 
south - west square contains 545 
houses and 5,653 inhabitants; in 
the latter are situated the offices 
,of the late district council. The 
remainder of South Hornsey was 
a wedge-shaped area jutting into 
the County of London Ixitween 
Stoke Newington and Islington, 
more than two-tliirds of its boun- 
dary touching these two parishes 
and the rest of its boundary being 
the boundary of Finsbury Park, 
a London park. South Hornsey 
was in a peculiarly advantageous 
situation as regards open spaces, 
for besides the proximity of Fins- 



308 



Borough Councils. 



bury Park, 115 acres in extent, there 
are within its area 32 acres of Clissold 
Park, of which the remainingr 25 
acres are in Stoke Newington. Both 
of these parks are maintained by 
the London County Council. 

The decision of the Commis- 
sioners, which was embodied in 
Orders in Council, was that the 
whole of South Hornsey should be 
incorporated in the County of 
London. 

South Hornsey is part of the 
Hornsey division of the Parliamen- 
tary county of Middlesex; Stoke 
Newington is part of the North 
division of tne Parliamentary 
borough of Hackney. The London 
Government Act provided for the 
addition of the transferred area to 
the appropriate county electoral 
division, and South Hornsey will 
vote in the London ('ounty Council 
elections as part of the North Divi- 
sion of Hackney; but it specially 
forbade an alteration of the Parlia- 
mentary division, and South Horn- 
sey will still vote in Middlesex for 
Parliamentary elections. 

South Hornsey was transferred 
from the Edmonton Union to the 
Hackney Poor Law Union as from 
the 26th March, 1900. It is added 
to the Finsbury School Board 
Electoral Division. 

With regard to the general charac- 
ter of the borough, South Hornsey 
is fully built upon ; in Stoke New- 
ington there is still room for a 
slight increase. The valuation of 
agricultural land in Stoke Newing- 
ton is £97 ; there is no agricultural 
land in South Hornsey. 

The density of population in 
Stoke Newington is 52 per acre, or 
Tvithout the open spaces, 62 ^ 4 in 
South Hornsey it is 74 and 88 per 
acre respectively. In neither is there 
any great amount of overcrowding. 

The death rate in Stoke New- 
ington in 1906 was 12. 



The rateable value for 1906-7 
was £352,976. In rateable value and 
in population the borough is the 
smallest in London. 

Under the Adoptive Acts scheme 
the Burial, Libraries, and Baths 
Acts are in force throughout the 
borough. The Council buys elec- 
tricity in bulk from the North 
Metropolitan Electric Power Com- 
pany and distributes it. 

The borough council consists of 
5 aldermen and 30 councillore for 
the 6 wards of the borough. There 
were 72 members on the old bodies 
in the parish of Stoke Newing-ton, 
whose powers have been taken over. 
Public Library. 
(Church Street.) 

The Public Libraries Act was 
adopted in 1890, the library opened 
in 1892, and considerably^ enlargeil 
in 1904 by the munificence of 
Mr. Andrew Carnegie and Mr. 
Alderman Wm. Eve. News-rooms 
open daily on week-days from 9.J^.> 
a.m. to 10 p.m. Lending librarj' 
open on Wednesdays from 11 a.m. 
to 1 p.m. ; other week-days, 11 a.m. 
to 9 p.m. Volumes in stock, 23,962, 
Number of issues, 143,232. 

Librarian — G. Preece. 
Offlcers. 

Town Clerk— Gr. Webb. 

Borough Accountant — Geo. T, J. 
Willis. 

Borouoh Medical Officer of Health 
and Public Analyst — Professor H. 
K. Kenwood, M.B., L.R.C.P. 

Borough ISurveyor — W. F. Love- 
day. 

Sanitary Inspectors — D. W. Mat- 
thews, H. Cox, and W. J. Emerton. 

Bate-Collectors— J. D. Hankey, 
A. W. Banies, P. Hemingway, Town 
Hall, Milton-road. 

Matoe. 

Councillor William Stoper Wright, j.p., 

192. Albiou-road. 

Aldermen. 

Brough, J. B.., 29, Alexandra-Tillas, Seven 

Sister's-road. 



Borough Councils. 



309 



Eve, W., 195, Albion-road. 

Page, J., 52, Clissold-road. 

Savery, W. H., 22, Woodberry-down. 

Trick, W. B., 6fi, Queen Elizabeth's-walk. 

Councillors. 
Alcock, G. W., 18, Hawksley-road. 
Andrews, C. J., 28, Bethune-road. 
Beavis, H. I., 13, Woodberry Down. 
Blower, T., 64, Milton-road. 
Boyd, J. A., 20, Palatine-r >ad. 
Broad bridge, G. G., 86, Wilberforce-road. 
Carmichael, W. S., 23, Brownswood-park. 
Coumba, E. H., 33, Clissold-road. 
Cowle.s. C. H., 54, Park-lane. 
Dee, G. J., 95, Fairholt-road. 



Ernst-Champness, A. H., 43. Park-lane. 
Hargrawe, W. H„ TJpfleld-bush,Hill-road, 

Winchmore-hill. 
Hildreth, W. G., 23, Alexandra-road. 
Jackson, V. C, 3, Hay ling-road. 
Moore, T. H. G., 75, Church-street. 
Ormond, H. J., 147A-149, High-street. 
Ostlere, R., 47, Stoke Newington-road. 
Runtz, Sir J. J., 131, Lordship-road. 
Sheffield, J. L., 112, Manor-road. 
Thatcher, W., 70, Clissold-road. 
Turner, H. P., 42, Allerton-road. 
White, S., 133, Lordship-road. 
Williams, J., 6, Allen-road. 
Winckworth, G. B., 1, Alexandra-road. 
Young, C. v., Hadley Wood. 



WANDSWORTH. 

Council House : East Hill, Wandsworth. 
(Me^tin^rs: Alternate' Wednesdays, at 4 p.m.) 



Thk boroiig-h is "the district of 
the AVandsworth Board of Works," 
consisting of the parishes of Clap- 
ham, Putney, Streatham, Tooting 
Graveney, and Wandsworth ; it 
comprises the Wandsworth Poor 
Law Union, with the exception 
of the parish of Battersea, and 
it includes the Wandsworth Par- 
liamentary borough, together with 
part of the Clapham division of the 
Parliamentary borough of Battersea 
and Clapham (namely, the ancient 
parish of Clapham). 

The Wandsworth district at the 
time of the passing of the Act of 
1855 contained the parish of Batter- 
sea : the area was 18 square miles, 
the population only 60,000. The 
district grew rapidly until in 1871 it 
contained 125,050 inhabitants, which 
increased by 1881 to 210,434. In 
1888, when the population had 
reached 275,000, Battersea separated 
from the district and obtained inde- 
pendent local government, leaving 
the area of the district fourteen 
and a half square miles. Con- 
sequently at tne census of 1891 the 
population of the new Wands- 
worth District was only 156,931, 
which increased in the next five 
years to 187,264. At the last 



census the numbers were 232,034* 
The estimated population in April' 
190/, for the purposes of the Equali- 
sation of Bates Act was 308,663. 
This population is spread over a 
large area, for the borough is the 
largest in London, and there is 
room for a greatly increased popu- 
lation, since at present there is 
an average of only 33'47 persons to 
the acre. A density five times as 
great as this is not an impossible 
contingency, and a prospective 
population of one million would 
not be an extravagant estimate of 
the capacity of the borough of 
Wandsworfcn. 

The borough is fortunate in 
having many large open spaces. 
Tooting Common, Putney Heath, 
and Streatham Common, and parts 
of Wandsworth and Clapham Com- 
mons and Richmond Park are all 
situated in Wandsworth borough, 
the total area of open spaces reach- 
ing 1,163 acres, or one acre to every 
265 inhabitants. 

There is very little overcrowding 
(4'43 per cent.), and the death 
rate is one of the lowest in London 
(viz., 10-67 per 1.000 in 1907). 

The rateable value of the 
borough for 1908 is £2,060,695, of 



310 



Borough Councils. 



which £4,1 Tvi is the vahiatioii of 
agricultural land. 

The Baths, Burials, and Libraries 
Acts are in force in the whole of the 
borough. . 

The powers of supplying elec- 
tricity within the Ix^rough are m the 
hands of the County of London 
Company. The refuse disposal is 
carried out by the council, which 
has a line destructor (Messrs. Mel- 
drum Brothers' patent). 

The borough council consists 
of the mayor, 10 aldermen, and t)0 
councillors. The membership of 
local bodies which were superseded 
by the borough conned was 4^)0. 
There are 9 wards—:? for Wands- 
worth, 2 each for Clajdmrn and 
Streatham, and 1 each for Putney 
and Tooting. 

Libraries. 
(1 North-side, Clapham-comm(m.) 
Act adopted July, 1HH7. Nunil>er 
of volumes, 14,:i8(). 

Librarian— J. Beed Welch. 
(Disraeli-road, Putney.) 
Act lulopted March, liS^i?. Num- 
ber of volumes, lO.yb"). 

Tjihrarian-in-Charge — W . i. 

Bradlev. , ^ ., 

(Streatham : Central Lil»rarv, 
Streatham - high - road ; Braneh 
Library, Bamsden-road, Balham.) 
Act adopted December, imK 

( Mitcham-road, Tooting.) 
Act adopted November, 1901. 

Number of volumes, li-i.SHl;. 
Librarian— T. Everatt. 

(Wandsworth : Central Libraiy, 
West-hill; Branch Libraiy, All- 
farthing-lane; and Branch for 
exchange of books, Earlstield.) 
Act ailopted Jidv, 18^^. Number 

of volumes, 20,0a). . . 

7>t6rant( /I— Cecil T. Davis. 

Baths. 

The baths in High-street, AVands- 
woi-th, were opened in July, 1901. 
They cost £o9,800 (including well, 
tank, &c.). 



New baths at Tooting Hi^h- 
street were opened on the 24th 
June, 1907. They cost £6,6¥) (ex- 
clusive of site). 




WANDSWORTH CHAIN AND xiADGE. 

Manufactured by the Goldsmiths' 

and Silversmiths' Coirtpauy. 

OfOcers. 

ToiniClerk-U.G.mWs. 

Borough Accountant — C. F. 
Bichards. 

Bornngli En^jine-^r and Survoijor 
- P. Dodd, 215', Balham Higli-road. 
8.W. 

Medical Officer of ITealth — V. 
Caldw.ll Smith, M.A., M.D., Hu- 
gueuot-pl a- -e, Wandsworth. 

Solicitor— W. W. Young:. 

PnhJic Analyst— J. Mut-r, ;VJ.\ 
Keunington-road. 

({(jiccs: Council House, Wands- 
worth, and (Bating Department 

Tuwii ^I:\ll, Wandsworth. 



Borough Councils. 



311 



Mayoe. 

Alderman J.W. Lorden, j.p., 45, Earlsfleld- 

road, Wandsworth. 

Aldermen. 

Bulcraig, H., Stanley House, 127, Roden- 
hurst-road, Clapham-park. 

Ennis, G., j.p., Piatt Grange, Borough- 
green, Kent. 

Hewett, W. J., 1, Kirkstall-rd., Streatham. 

Hunt, W., J.P., L.C.C., " Hillcrest," Upper 
Tooting-park. 

Kipling, J. G., " Primrose Lodge," King's- 
avenue, Clapham-park. 

Parker, J. E., 14, Atuey-rd., Putney. 

Peufold, W. F., Burwood House, 54, Upper 
Tooting-rd. 

R<)binson, M., 79, East-hill, Wandsworth. 

Riu'ker, J. M., j.p., 95, West-hill, Putney. 

Councillors. 
Anderson, Rev. J. H., m.a.. The Rectory, 

Tooting. 
Baines, T., 5, Thornton-avenue, Streat ham- 
hill. 
Bates, W. P., 304, Balham High-road. 
Blunt, G., " Magnolia Lawn," (Jarrads-rd., 

Streatham. 
Buchanan, W. E., "Oriel," Magdalen-road. 

Wandsworth. 
Bulstrode. F., " Down I»dge," Merton- 

road. South flejds. 
Campbell, Rear-Adm. H. J. F., c.b., "Beech 

Lodge." Park-side, Wimbledou-comnion. 
Carter, J. E. V.. 118, Putney-bridge-road. 
Comins, T. E., *' Croxteth," 1, Rodenhur^t- 

road, Clapham-park. 
Cooke, V. C, 1, Deauvi lie-mansions, Deau- 

ville-road, Clapham. 
Couzens, E., 47, Allfarthing-lane, Wands- 
worth-common. 
Cresswell, 8., " Viewfleld," Viewfleld-road, 

Wandsworth. 
Cundall, J. W., 3, Orlando-road, Clapham. 
Danielli, G. P., 10, Colinette-road, Putney. 
Dawnay, A. D., 4, Cedars-road, Clapham. 
Downer, H. G., 39, Elms-road. Clapham. 
Eiustwood, H. P., 155, Chipham-park-road. 
Eaton, F., 78, Trinity-road, Upper Tooting. 
Pletcher, F., 60, Elmeleigh-road, East-hill, 

Wandsworth. 
Garrett, J., jun., 85, Balham-hill, Balham. 
Harrison, W. J., 17, Patten-rd.,Wandyworth- 

common. 
Hickman, E. H., 24, Veronica-rd., Balham. 
Hobbs, E., 11, Kirkstall-road, Streatham- 

hill. 
Hoile, E. C, 24, Egliston-road, Putney. 



Jackson, D., 29, Carlton-road, Putney. 

Laceby, C, 2, Greyhound-lane, Streatham. 

Lance, Lieut.-Gen. F., c.b.. The Laurels, 
Alton-road, Roehampton. 

Law, W. E., 1, Offerton-road, Clapham. 

Lidiard, J., "Guildford House, ' 4, Elms- 
road, Clapham. 

Lindsey, J., 105, High-street, Putney. 

Lucas, F. W., 169, Trinity-road, Upper 
Tooting. 

Mason, A. E., " Wentworth House," 2, 
Killieser-avenue. Streatham- hill. 

Mathias, A. W., 12, Gwendolen-av., Putney. 

Mellhui^h, W. P., 22, Totterdown-slreet, 
Tooting. 

Monday, W. H., 40, Albion-road, Clapham. 

Muut, E., 6, Spencer-park, Wand* worth- 
common. 

Ninuis, B., " Brockeuhui-st," 50, Aldring- 
tou-road, Streatham. 

Nutting, J., •' Fairlawn," 17, Temperley- 
road, Balham. 

Palmer, E. , 20. West-hill-road,Wandsworth . 

Pasfleld, S. G., 34, Kingscliffe-gardeus, 
Souihflelds. 

Phillips, R.. 64, Culverden-road, Balham. 

Radford, J. C, "Cranleigh," Howards-lane, 
Putney. 

Richardson, W. S., 148, Abbeville-road, 
Clapham. 

Roberts, J. A., 42, Ritherdon-road. Balham. 

Robertson, T. A., 43, Abbeville-road, Clap- 
ham. 

Robinson, A. D., 21, Streatham High-i-oad, 
Streatham. 

Robinson, J. A., 8, We^tover-road, Wands- 
worth. 

Rogers, C. 288, Balham High-rd., Balham. 

Shillington, D. F.,31, Spencer-park, Wauds- 
worth-common. 

Simmons, J., 647, Wandsworth -road. 

Swain, (\ H., "Feinlea,"7, Pretoria-road, 
Strejithani. 

Taylor, J. V. E., 84, Xorth Side, Wands- 
worth-common. 

Tunibull, J. O., 18, St. Nicholas-road, 
Upper Tooting. 

Walker, J., " Maryfleld," 19, St. Johns- 
road, Putney. 

Wallis, A. J., 62, Endlesham-road, Balham. 

M'ebster- Jones, A. W., "St. Margaret's," 
33, Lyttou-grove, Putney. 

Welton, T. A., 20, Copthall-avenuo, E.C. 

Wise, J., 20, Earlsfleld-road, Wandsworth. 

Yeowell, G., 44, Poyuder's-road, Clapham- 
park. 

Young, T., "Clovelly," 36, Union-road, 
Clapham. 



WESTMINSTER CITY. 

City Hall : Charing Cross Koad, W.C. 

(Meetings : Alternate Thursdays at o o'clock.) 

The city is the "area of the parishes of St. Margaret and St. 
ancient Parliamentar>^ lK>r(mgh of J ohn Westminster, the parish of St. 
Westminster, comprising the (jeorge Hanover Sq^uare, the parish 



312 



Bai'ough Councils. 



of St. James Westminster, the 
parish of St. Martin-in-the- Fields, 
and the district of the Strand Board 
of Works, and including the Close 
of the collegiate church of St. 
Peter Westminster." The Strand 
district comprises the Liberty of 
the Rolls, the parishes of St. Anne, 
Soho, St. Clement Danes, St. Paul 
Covent Ganlen, and St. Mary-le- 
Strand, and the Royal precinct of 
the Savoy. The city council is the 
successor of the ancient Court of 
Burgesses, commonly called the 
Corporation of Westminster, esta- 
blished in the reign of (jueen Eliza- 
beth, under the auspices of Lord 
Burleigh, the first Lord High- 
Steward, and the title of City was 
granted by Royal Charter of Queen 
Victoria m the last year of her 
reign. The city comprises three 
Poor Law areas, St. George's 
Union, Westminster Union, and 
the Strand Union. It includes 
the three Parliamentaiy boroughs 
of St. George's Hanover Square, 
Westminster, and the Strand. The 
area is nearly four square 
miles (2,5()27 statute acres), the 
rateable value £U'211,4:]7, and 
the population 18;U)ll. The 
population is decreasing : in 18()1 it 
was at its highest. 257,2)52, nearly 
64,000 more than it was thirty- 
five years later. 

The city contains the finest parks 
in London — Hyde Park, Kensing 
ton Gardens, Green Park, and St. 
James's Park, ^s well as the 
Thames Embankment and Gardens. 
In all, the area of open spaces is 
723 acres, 28 per cent, of the whole 
city. The city also contains most 
of the Government arid official 
buildings. Buckingham and St. 
James's Palaces, the Houses of 
Parliament, the Whitehall and 
Pall Mall offices; the South Ken- 
sington Museum, as welj as practi- 
cally the whole of fashionable town, 
are within the city of Westmin- 



ster ; but pai'ts contain much 
poverty. The death rate for 

the city was, in 1901, 16'6 per 1,000 
persons, in 1902 160 per 1,000, in 
1903 13-5, in 1904 13-4, m 1905 13*3, 
in 1906 14-5 and in 1907 12-9 per 
1,000. 

The city council found, on 
coming into office, that the various 
districts differed^ considerably in 
municipal services: St. Margaret 
and St. John and St. George Han- 
over Square had adopted the three 
optional Acts ; St. Martin hai baths 
and libraries, St. James had baths, 
but in the Strand district, with the 
exception of the Burial Acts in St. 
Anne's and Library Acts in St. 
Paul's, none of the Acts had been 
adopted. The Adoptive Acts have 
been adopted for the whole of the city, 
whilst two schemes have been carrietl 
out under the Housing of the Work- 
ing Classes Acts. St. Margaret and 
St. Mai-tin had town halls. The latter 
has been reconstructed, and is 
the permanent headquarters of the 
council. Financially, too, the dis- 
tricts showed great variation — the 
rates in St. James were consistently 
below 58., in other parishes they were 
above i^s. ; the debt of St. James 
was 97i per cent, of its rateable 
value, the debt of St. Margaret was 
IIO4 per cent, and of St. Martin 
117 per cent. The rates in the £ for 
31st March, 1907, to Slst March, 
1908, were as follows : St. Georg'e, 
68. 7d. ; St. Margaret and St. John, 
68. 7il; St. Peter, 68. 6d.; St. 
James, 68. 'Sd. ; St. Anne, 68. 3^. ; 
St. Martin, 78. Od.; St. Clement 
Danes, 68. lOd. ; St. Paul, 68. 7d. ; 
St. Mary - le - Strand, 68. ; the 
Rolls, 7s. Id ; the Savoy, 68. lOd. 

The electric lighting is in the 
hands of companies — viz., the Lon- 
don, the Westminster, the St. James 
and Pall Mall, the Kensington and 
Knightsbridge, the Oharmg Cross 
and Strand, and the Metropo- 
litan. 



B 



ENSON'S EVERUSTim 

"EMPIRE" PLATE 



SPOONS, FORKS, & CUTLERY 



IN 
CASES. 




y.o. 7358. THB "COTTAGE" 
CANTEEN. SOLID OAK CASE, 
with Lift-out Tray, containing 62 articles 
of Best A Quality ''Empire" Plate and 
Cutlery. Service for 6 persons. £8 . 10, 

ff SYSTEM 
OF 



MONTHLY 



PAYMENTS 

18 AVAILABLE. 

BENSON'S do not charge extra 
for buying this way. 

''Empire'' Plate, 

Spoons and Forks 
from 1 7/- per dozen. 




Brilliants, £8 108< 



BENSON'S ^, 

SELECTED GEM RINGS. ^ 



Brilliant &nd Rubies or 
Sapphires, £2 16Si 




Ruhips and Sapphirp, and Amethysts Diamond Amethysts and Pearls 
Brilliants. «8 6a. Fuints. £5 lOs. £4 15a. 



Brilliants, £4 4s. 




**^ht %Xmte'' SYSTEM OF 

MONTHLY PAYMENTS 



opals & Brilliants, £1 3 is AVAILABLK. 

Benson's do not charge extra 

for purchasing this way. 
ILLUSTRATED BOOKS FREJB. 

No. I, of Watches, Chains, and Jewe lery. 
No. 2, of Clocks. '* Empire " Plate, Bags, and 
Silver Articles. 
Bri 'Hants & Rubies, «1 3 Mention London Manual, 




Brilliants and Rubies 
or Sapphires, £1 8 1 83. 



62 & 64, LUDGATE HILL, E.G. 



314 



Borough Councils. 



A Horsfall Dust Destructor is in 
operation. 

The city council consists of 10 
aldermen and 60 councillors. There 
are 14 wards. 

The city council has appointed 
Hhe following standing* committt'es : 
Finance Committt^e, General Pur- 
poses Committee, Works Committee, 
Highways Committee, Valuation 
Committee, Assessment (V)m- 
mittee. Public Health Committee, 
Improvements CommitttH', Baths 
and Wash - Houses C-ommittee. 
Public Libraries CommitttHs Hous- 
ing Committee, Tjaw and Parlia- 
mentary Committee, Watch Com- 
mittee. 

Public Baths and Wash-Houses. 

The old vestries now comprised 
in the City of Westminster were 
among the first to establish baths 
and wash-houses. The city council 
now has five establishments : — (1) 
Buckingham Palace-road (erected 
in 1889-90), and (2) Davies-street, 
Berkeley - square (erected in 18V2). 
(3) Great Smith-street (erected in 
1893). (4) Marshall-street (erected 
in 18.M), (5) Orange - street, 
Leicester- square (erecte<l in l8l-t)-7). 
General Superintendent — Mr. C. 
Newman. The l)atli8 are open 
in November, December, Janu- 
ary, Feln'uary, and March from 
8 a.m. to 8 p.m., and in Aj)ril, 
May, June, July, August, Sep- 
tember, and Octob<M* from 7 a.m. 
to 9 p.m. Sunday during the sum- 
mer months from 7 to 9.30 a.m. The 
following are the charges :- Sunni- 
mhig Bdths-ijenilQmen, 1st class, 
6'/., 2nd class. 2il. ; ladies, 07. ; 
children, 'Ad. Clubs, 1st class, 4r/., 
2nd clas.' , li^?. Schools 1st class, 3/. 
2nd class, Id. Prirate ./^r?///s— Men 
and women, 1st class warm, i^d., 
ditto cold 3^/. ; second class warm 
2cZ., ditto cold Id. ; children, 1st class 
warm, 3^. ; 2nd class 1^. ; shower V>d. 
Laundries — First four hours, lid. 



per hour; every subsequent hour, 
6d. per hour. 

Public Libraries. 
Westminster was the first London 
district to adopt (19th May, 1856) 
the Free Public Libraries Act of 
1855. The following are the present 
establishments in tiie City : — 

Buckingham Pala^^e-road— 'Refer- 
ence library, 12,500 vols.; lending 
library, 21,4J0vols. (South AuLdley- 
street — Reference library, 1,725 
vols.; lending library, 12,500 vols. 
Great Smith-street — Reference 
library, (i, 575 vols. ; lending library, 
2(),:«)(J vols. 

St.' Martins - lanem — Reference 
library, 21,450 vols. ; lending librarj% 
13,500 vols. 

The reading rooms are open to 
the public every day (except 
Good Friday, Christmas Day, 
and Bank Holidays) fr>m 9 
a.m. to 10 p.m. The reference 
departments (except that at the 
Public Library in South Audley- 
strt^et, which is closed at 9 p.m.) and 
the magazine rooms are open from 
10 a.m. to 10 p.m. on weekdays, and 
Buckingham Palace-road and St. 
Martin's-lane Libraries are open on 
Sunday evenings from 6 to 9.30 
p.m. from 1st October to 31st 
Marih, unless closed by order of 
the Public Libraries iDommittoe, 
and the lending libranes are 
open for the issue and receipt 
of books every day except WihI- 
nesdays, Sundays, Good Friday, 
Christmas Day. and Bank Holidays, 
from 10 a.m, till 9 p.m. On Wed- 
ne days the lending libraries are 
open from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. 
( 7/ ief TAhrarian — F. Pacy. 

l-lousing. 
A large scheme has been carried 
out })y the city council under the 
Housing of the Working Classes 
Acts. A site was acquired in 
Regency- street, and three blocks 
of dwellings, which contivin 344 



Borough Councils. 



315 



tenements, have been erected. A 
further scheme has been carried 
out in Marshall - street, Golden- 
square, and one block of dwelling's 
containing" 20 tenements has been 
erected. 

Officers. 

Town OZer/fc— John Hunt, Bar- 
rister-at-Law. 

Assistant Town Clerk— T. H. 
Muxisey. 

City Comptroller — Lisu<jr Wood- 
house, A.C.A. 

City Engineer — J. W. Bradley, 

M.I.C.E. 

ValaaHon Surveyor — J. W. 
Marsh. 

Medictd Officer of lTealih—¥. J. 
Allan, M.D., D.P.H., F.R.S.B. 

Mayor. 
Councillor John William Dennis, j.p. 

Aldermew. 
tAutrobus. R. C, j.p., 3, Wilton-st., S.W. 
•Berkeley, G. A.. 72, Belgrave-road., S.W. 
tCheylesmore, Major-Ueu. J-.ord, c.v.o., 

L.c.c, 16, Prince's Gate, S.W. 
•Coleman. G., "Fernlea," New PArk-ro:id. 
♦Egerton, Hon. A. de T., 9, Ssamore-place, 

Mayfair, W. 
♦Emdeu.T. W, L., j.p., 2, Lancaster-place, 

.Strand, W.C. 
•Everibt, W., j.p,, 87, Pimlico-road, S.W. 
fProbyn, Lieut.-Col. C, d.l. (('o. L^nd.), 

J. p., Jf.D., L.c.c, 55, Grosvenor-street, W. 
tSpencer-Smith, C, 51, Palace-street, S.W. 
t Walden, R. W., j.p., *' Bella Vista," Upper 

Warlingham, Surrey. 
• Retire in 1909. f Retire in 1912. 

Councillors. 

Abady, J., 16, Nassington-road, Hampstead 

heath. N.W. 
Ba.rnes, P., 1, Charles - street. Knights 

bridge, S.W. 
Birton, W., 12, Iddesleigh-mansions, S.W 
Bitten, J. H., 39, Victoria-street, S.W. 
Bayley, F. C, 34, Strand, W.C. 
Bennett, J. F. C, 58, Ashley-gardens, S.W. 
Bingham, F. H., 46, Dulwich-rodd, S.K. 
Brown-Mutin, J., 36, Victoria-street. S.W 
Catterall, J. L., 270, Vaiixhall-bridg'-roul 
('i)cks, E. L. S., 47, Wilton-crescent, S.W. 
Conway, P., 9, V^incent-square-mansioU"*. 



Cook, C. H., 8, Clifford-street. W. 

Courtney, W. D., 34, Great Chapel-street. 

Cox. G., 264, Strand, W.C. 

Cox, H., 64, Eaton -square, S.W. 

Crake, W. C, 305 and 397, Oxford-street. 

Davis, W. S. E.,34, Regent's-park-rd., N.W. 

Dawson-Green, H.. 109, Eaton-square. S.W. 

Doueraile, The Right Hon. The Viscount, 
91, Victoria-street, S.W. 

Draper, H., 49, Bel grave-road. S.W. 

Dutch, H., M.D.. 8, Berkeley -street, W. 

Flint, Albert, 14, Hanover-square, W. 

Frost, R., 68-70, Wardour-street. W. 

Gatti, J. M., 4, Cambridge Gate, Regent's- 
park. N.W. 

Ghickstein, S., 199, Piccadilly, W, 

Granville-Smith, R. W.. j.p., 27, Ashley- 
place, S.W. 

Gray, H., 26, Buckingham Palace-road. 

Greenwood, H. J., l.c.c, 26, Buckingham- 
gate-mansious, 31, Buckingham-gate. 

Griffith, Godfrey de G., Eaton Chambers, 
50, Buckingham Pahice-road. 

Hall, L. D., D.L., j.p., 15, Grosveuor-place. 

Heming, George Booth, 28, Conduit-street, 
W. 

Hexamer, J., 160, Ebury-street. 

Hill. R. C, 65, Poland-street, W. 

Hillersdon. Rev. F. H., m.a., 20, Tavittm- 
street, Gordon-square. W.C. 

Home, W. E., 8, Delahay-street, S.W. 

Humphreys, Col. J. C, 203, Knightsbridge, 
S.W. 

James, Lieut.-Col. W. H., j.p., 7, Lowades-st. 

Jessel, Capt. H. M., j.p., 50, Mouut-st., W. 

Jones, E. S., 19, St. Stephen's-square, Bays- 
water, W. 

Lawrence, G. W., 29, York-terrace, Regent's 
park, N.W. 

Lee-Wamer, Edward, 67, St. George's- 
square, S.W. 

Lyon, H. T., 34, St. James'-streot, S.W. 

Offer, A. J., 81, Elizabeth-street, Eaton- 
square. S.W. 

Payne, W., 23, Monut-street, W. 

Phillips, W. L., 134, Sutherland-avenue, W. 

Pilditch, P. E., 2, Pall Mall East, S.W. 

Russell, Horatio Charles, 2 to 12, Wardour- 

Simner.'p. il. O. A., 137, Victor! i-st., S.W. 
Smith, G. W., 55, St. George's-sq., S.W. 
Spicer, G. B., 12, Bloomfleld-terrace, S.W. 
Tallents, G. W., 49, Warwick-square, S.W. 
Tozer, H., " Brookdene," Ravensbourne- 

park, Catford. 
Twining, H. H., 222, Strand, W.C. 
Van Raalte, E., 2, Ghisshouse-street, W. 
Vere, the The Very Rev. Canon L. G., 21a, 

Soho-square, W. 
Wall, T., "Blythewood," Worcester- road, 

Sutton. 
Wallis, J. P., 359. Oxford-street. W. 
Watts, E. H., Coburg Hotel. W. 
Wilson, H., 5, Little Newport - street, 

Leicester-square, W.C. 



?16 



Borough Councils. 



WOOLWICH. 

Town Hall: Wellington Street. 
(Meetings : Every third Thursday, at 7 p.m.) 



The metropolitan borough is " the 
a-ea of the Parliamentarjr borough 
of "Woolwich." It comprises three 
parishes, Woolwich, Blumstead, and 
Eltham. As regards Poor Law ad- 
ministration, Woolwich and Plum- 
stead are two of the four parishes 
in the Woolwich Union, while 
Eltham is one of the three parishes 
in the Lewisham Union. The former 
local government administration 
was in the hands of the Woolwich 
Local Board, the Plumstead Vestry, 
and the Lee District Board (for 
Eltham). The Woolwich local 
board was unique in being the 
only Local Board of Health in the 
kingdom. Constituted a Local 
Board by an order under the Public 
Health Act, 1848, Woolwich was 
incorporated in the Metropolis 
Management Act of 1855, not as 
a vestry in Schedule A, but as 
a local Board, and as such it had 
powers beyond those possessed by 
vestries — it administered the Burial 
Acts itself, it managed a local 
market, and contributed to the 
Woolwich Polytechnic under the 
Technical Instruction Acts, and so 
on. In 1894 all the other local 
boards ia the kingdom became 
district councils, and Woolwich 
was left alone. Now it is included 
in the metropolitan borough. Plum - 
stead, also, was a parish which had 
some claims on autonomy; by a 
special Act passed in 1893 — along 
with Hackney and Stoke Newing- 
ton— it obtained separation from 
a district in Schedule B and con- 
stitution as an independent parish 
in Schedule A. In size Woolwich 
borough takes the second place 
among the boroughs, being no less 
than 13 square miles in 
extent, more than twenty times 



as big as the smallest borongh. 
Of its 8,986 acres 355 are open 
space, including 100 acres on Plum- 
stead Common 133 acres in Hostal 
Heath and Woods, 50 acres on 
Eltham Common and G-reen, and 
55 acres of Woolwich Common. 

Ihe population in 1891 was 
98,966, in 1896 it was 106,477, and 
in 1901 117,178, now estimated at 
129,336. I he borough is still only 
thinly inhabited, the avei^ore being 
14*6 persons per acre. There is thus 
room for a greatly increased popu- 
lation; with a density of popula- 
tion equal to that of Battersea 
or Lambeth, Woolwich would have 
625,000 inhabitants ; with the density 
of Chelsea it would have a million. 

There is little overcrowdings in 
the borough : in Woolwich there 
was 145 per cent, in 1891, aud in 
the Plumstead and Lee district 
only 6'4 per cent. The death rate 
in Woolwich last year was 14*6, in 
Plumstead, 11*9, and in Eltham 
100, an average of 12*5 for the 
whole borough. 

The rateable value for 1901-2 
was £645,032, of which £5,613 was 
the value of agricultural land, for 
1904-5 £740,470, for 1905-6 £782,901, 
and for 1907-8 £793,626. 

With regard to optional sendees 
the borough is advanced, both 
Woolwich and Plumstead having 
adopted the Baths, Libraries, and 
Burial Acts, and Eltham the Baths 
and Libraries Acts. 

'i he electric lighting powers are 
under municipal control through- 
out the borough, the council 
having bought out the Woolwich 
and the Blackheath and Greenwich 
Companies. (See section on Elec- 
tric Light.) The councU also has 



1 



Borough Councils. 



317 



a splendid refuse destructor (12 
cells, on Messrs. Meldrum Bros.' 
desiffn) for burning the refuse of 
the borough. 

The borough council consists of 
6 aldermen and 36 councillors, the 
membership of local bodies super- 
seded being 182. There are 11 wards. 

Public Baths. 

Public baths were erected at 
Woolwich in 1894 at a cost of 
£25,000, and at Plumstead, baths 
costing about £50,000 have been 
opened. 

Public Libraries. 

The Public Libraries Act has 
been adopted throughout the 
borough. At Woolwich the build- 
ings were opened on the 8th 
November, 1901, at Plumstead the 
library was opened in 1905, and at 
Eltham a branch library, erected 
by direct labour, was opened in 
October, 1906. Mr. Carnegie has 
presented £15,000 to the borough 
for library purposes. 

Cemeteries. 

The council owns two cemeteries 
— at Woolwich and Plumstead re- 
spectively. 

Markets. 

The council owns a municipal 
market at Woolwich, which yields 
a profit of about £600 a-year, and 
has obtained Parliamentary powers 
for the extension of the Woolwich 
market rights to the remainder of 
the borough. 

Technical Education. 

The sum of £500 is contributed 
by Woolwich parish annually to the 
Woolwich Polytechnic for the pur- 
poses of technical education. 

Electric Light. 

A Provisional Order for the 
whol^ of th^ borough is in force. 



Mains are laid, and a station and 
plant, which cost £81,000, has been 
erected at Plumstead. The Council 
has^ an electric lig-ht station in the 
parish of Woolwich, and three sub- 
stations have been erected by direct 
labour. 

Housing. 

Part III. of the Housing of the 
Working Classes Act has been 
adopted by the borough council, 
and a block of 25 dwellings has been 
erected on land belonging to the 
council at North Woolwich. 

Milk Depot. 

The Council in 1906 opened a 
milk depot for the sale of sterilised 
milk for infants under two years of 
age, under the control of the Medi- 
cal Officer of Health, Miss Bagshaw 
being the manageress. 

Officers. 

Town Clerk's Department. 

Town Cleric and Soli-citor — 
Arthur B. Bryceson. Assiatant 
Town Clerk — Frederick Ferni- 
hough. Legal Assistant — D. LI. 
Griffiths. Clerk to Baths, Markets, 
and Cemeteries (^ommittee — J. W. 
Eccles. (Jlerk to Rating and Valu- 
ation Committee — J. A. Arnold. 
Clerks — H. W. Tansloy, G. K. 
Harris, A. M. Colban, W. H. Davis, 
H. Eley,E. H. Austin, H. T. Clark, 
T. B. Williams, H. Cooke, and W. R. 
Pankhurst. 

Treasurer's Department. 
Borough Treasurer— A. Thomas. 
Assistant Borough Treasurer — 
J. Gronow, A.S.AA. Cashier — 
W. G. Watson. Chief Book-keeper 
— H. T. Goldswoi-thy. Clerks — 
J. D. Munro, 0. E. Napper, E. H. 
Cage, B. H. Chamberlain, R. J. 
Evans, J. H. Edmonds, A. F. Hill, 
C. H. JoUey, A. J. Dobson, K. 
Au'lerson, H. H. Morgan, C. A. 
Randall, W. E. Smith, E. Riding, 
A. G. Brazier, E. Y. Hancock and 
C. F. Buckeridge. 



318 



Borough Cintncils, 



Engineer and Surveyor's 
Department. 

Borough Enghieer and Surveyor 
—J. R. Dixon, A.M.i.c.E. Chief As- 
sistant Engineer and Surveyor — 
R. E. Waldram. Assistant Engineer 
and Surveyor— Vi. Findlay. Sur- 
veyors Assistants—a . Muudy, W 
T. Schlund, P. E. Weeks, F. Dike,* 
W. H. Butler, and T. J. Miller. 
Drainage Assistantn — A. N. 
Hudswell and E. Hall. Chief 
Architect nral Assistant — H. iv. 
Horswill. Temporary Architec- 
tural Assistants — TI. H. (lold- 
ing and C. Oldrey. Chief Clerk 
— A. Batchelor. Works Com- 
mittee Clerk— V. J. Killick. Clerks 
H. Fletcher, GT. D. Koe, J. Skipper. 
W. Grrayson, A. C. Martyn, F. 
Smith, H. Smith, F. J. Mande, and 
A. Harris. 

Electrical Department. 

Uornngh Electrical Engineer — 
G.AV. Keats. Draughtsman — (■. E. 
Trayte. Distrihnfion Engineer — 
S. H. Pennino". Shtii(tn Engineer — 
F. U. Edwards. Charge Enqiiterrs 
— H. H. CUare, C. O. Eley,T. W. 
Bunco, and U. Ben-inoi:{m. Chief 
Clerk and Clerk to Electricity Com- 
mittee— Y. Kershaw. Clerks - J. W. 
Giles, Miss A. E. Redwood, Miss 
L. Miles, R. H. Vickers, and G. R. 
Smith. 

Public Health Department. 

Medical Officer of Health -Vir. 
S. Davies. Borough. Analyst— Vrot 
W. R. Smith. Chief Sanitary 
Inspector— A. G. l^uck. Sanitari/ 
Inspectors — W. Woolley, J. W. 
Ranee, W. Little, W. Wood, A. G. 
Potter, W. Tedham, F. J^owell, 
Miss A. M. Middlehrooke, and Miss 
M. Fitzgerald.' Commiitee Clerk— 
0. Ellis. Clerks -A. Britter, G. H. 
Triggs, and U. M. Collyer. 



Public Libraries. 

Borough Librarian—^. A. Baker. 
M.A., d.lit. Lihrarians-in- Charge 
-P. 0. Bursill, W. G. Chambers, and 
E. Luke. Assistants— W. H. Parker 
W. H. Shawcross, C. P. Jackson, 
V. Usherwood, J. H. Wale, A. D 
Carlisle, A. W. Lockyear, E. Bishop, 
A. Kidd, C. H. Bird, A. G. Beaven 
and F. Silver. 

Baths and Markets. 
Superintendent of JVoolwirh 
Baths— W. Frost. Matron — Mrs. 
C. Frost.^ Market Inspector and 
Market Toll Collector— A. Allen. 

Cemeteries. 

Superintendent of Wooltmch 
Cemetery— W. Homer. Superin- 
tendent of Plumstead Cemetery — 
G. E. Lsmay. 

Mayor. 

Councillor William James Squires, j p 

95 and 96, AVelliDgton-street, Woolwich. 

» AlDKRMEN. 

*RrouRhton, J., 10, Whitworth road. Phmi 

stead, 
truff S. H., " Rlmslie/'Court-rd.. Eltham 
tHiighes, Col. E. T., c.b., 239, Burrage-road* 

Plumstead. 
•Macnamara, T., 42, Wilmonnt-street, Wool- 
wich. 
tMessent, J. J., 5, Thomas-st., Woolwich 
•Tynemoiitli, A. M., 25, GreenVale-road 
Eltham. 

* Retire in 1909. f Retire in 1912. 
Councillors. 

Berry H., 7. Paget-terrace, Plumstead. 

Bull, \^. J., 280, Phimstead-common-road 
Plumstead. 

Campbell, R., 1, Vicarage-park, Plumstead 

C hambers,F.,33, McLeod-road, Phimstead* 

( owie. J., 18, Miriam-road, Plumstead. 

Dawson, W. H., 187, Eglinton-road, Plum- 
stead. 

Feimoll. E. T., 5 and 6, Church-street 
v\ oolwich. 

Fmucis. W. J., 4 and 5. Green's-end. 
\> oolwich. 

Hall. A., Ill, Maxey-road, Plumstead. 

Harper, J., 18, St. Margaret's-road, Plum- 
stead. 

Hodgin, J. H., 45, Thomas-st., Woolwich 

Home, J., 4, Greenholm-road, Eltham. 

lllidge. J., 36, Federatiou-road, Plumstead 



Borough Councils, 



319 



Ingram, Dr. T. A., 160, Herbert-road, 
Plumstead. 

73, Wellington - street. 



Ingram, W. B., 

Woolwich. 
Jackson, W. P. 

Woolwich. 
Jones, Rev. L. J 



7, Woolwich-common, 



. ' Broomhill," fthrewa- 
bury-lane, Plumstead. 

Mahony, J. J., 67, Beresford-s^., Woolwich. 

Mitchell. H. R., Sales' Wharf, Globe-lane, 
Woolwich. 

Moors, T. N., 56. Vemham-rd., Plumstead. 

Mutimer, M., 53, Wrottesley-rd., Plumstead. 

Newman, J., 75. Heavitree-rd., Plumstead. 

Pitt, Major J.. 179, Eglinton-roud, Plum- 
stead. 

Raven, W.. 72, Samuel-street, Woolwich. 

Ross, W. H., 6, Cant well-road, Plumstead. 



Sheppard, J. T., 1, Havelock-place, 
Woolwich. 

Somers, D. K., 233, Eglinton-road, Plum- 
stead. 

Syer, H. S., 45, Plumstead-common-road, 
Plumstead. 

Tumbull, J. A., 11, Bostall-laiie, Plum- 
stead. 

Turner, W., 306, Plumstead-common-road, 
Plumstead. 

Wakelen, R. B. B., 102, Greenvale-road, 
Eltham. 

Wale, R. R., 20, McLeod-road, Plumstead. 

Walters, R. A. M., 16, Craigton-road, 
Eltham. 

Widger. J. ()., 113, Chesnut-rd.. Plumstead. 

Woodford. W., 15, Nightingale - place, 
Woolwich. 



XHE 



MUNICIPAL JOURNAL. 

A Journal for Ratepayers^ Councillorey Guardians, 
Officials^ Contractors. 

READABLE! NEWSY! UP TO DATE! 

SPECIAL ARTICLES BY EXPERTS. 

Illustrated Articles on Municipal Enterprise. 
POOR LAW PROGRESS. 



THE MUNK^IPAL JOURNAL is thoroughly representative of every 
phase of Municipal and Poor Law activity. It is invaluable to Councillors 
and Poor Law Guardians, keeping* them informed of the doings of the 
Public Authorities throughout the country, providing them with valuable 
suggestions and new ideas, and enabling them to profit by the results 
of experiments elsewhere. 

THE MUNKHPAL JOURNAL is of the greatest interest to Rate- 

f>ayers. It is a budget of information upon all Local (Jiovernment matters, 
t gives a record of the latest Municipal Developments and presents the 
facts and figures of Local Administration in a readable form. 



916 per annum Post Free. Twopence Weekly. 



London: EDWARD LLOYD, Ltd,, 12, Salisbury Square, E.C, 



$oor i:ab) 2;ontion. 



Poor Law administration in London is carried on by thirtv-one boards of 
guardians, four boards of managers of school districts, and two boardi? of 
managers of sick asylum districts. These boards of managers are practi • 
cally joint committees representing two or more boards of guardians, but 
they enjoy a separate constitution. The Metropolitan As5rlums Board is 
also a Poor Law body, though some of its institutions are used for non- 
pauper cases. 

During the half-year ended Lady Day, 1907, the actual amount ex- 
pended on poor relief in the metropolis was higher than in any previous 
half-year, save the half-years ended Lady Day, 1905, and Lady Day, 

1906. The amount (£765,102) was equivalent to a rate per head on esti- 
mated population (4,721,217) of 38. 3d. This rate has not varied greatly 
since 1901 for the winter half-years having been 3«. 2^d. at the lowest 
and 38. 4|f7. at the highest. 

The number of persons chargeable to metropolitan unions or parishes 
in receipt of relief on 9tn May, 1P08, was as follows :■ — Indoor 
poor, 78,474; outdoor poor, 43,977 (including 800 children boarded out 
beyond tlie unions or parishes, and 13,316 other children under 16 years of 
age), giving a total of 122,451, or an excess of 5,913 over the figures for 
the corresponding' date in 1907. This rejiresented a rate per 1,000 of the 
population of 25'57. in addition to these there were, on the eame day, 
1,174 perscms (including 220 women and five children under the age of 
16) in the metropolitan casual wards, 3,062 persons in receipt of medical 
relief only, J>,653 patients in the Metropolitan Asylums Board's fever 
hospitals, and several thousand pauper mmates in asylums and licensed 
houses. The last available tiguie relating to these were in respect of 
1st January, 1908, when the number was 18,384. 

In the following table, relating to the cost of in-maintenance and out- 
door relief, the figurt s as regards London and the rest of England and 
Wales are shown side by side in respect of the half-year ended Lady Day, 

1907. It should be noted that the expenditure on in-maintenance m 
workhouses and in other establishments under the control of Poor Law- 
guardians comprises all the expenses incurred in and about the mainten- 
ance, treatment, and relief of the paupers and patients, exclusive of the 
cost of repairs and furniture, and of the salaries and other remuneration, 
rations, and superannuation allowances of the officers and servants, but 
inclusive of charges for apprentice fees, outfits, burials, and the necessarj^ 
expenses incurred in warming, cleansing, and lightino" the workhouses 
and other establishments, and otherwise keeping them fit for daily use. 

As regards the establishments not under tne control of guardians of the 
poor, the expenditure shown in the returns represents the full cost of the 
maintenance of the paupers with which the guardians are charged. 

The expenditure on out-door relief comprises the charges for all out- 
relief, whether afforded in money or in kind, and other expenses incurred 
with respect to paupers not relieved in workhouses or other institi\tions, 
exclusive of the salaries of officers and the cost of reUef stations. 



Toor Law London. 



321 



Class of Belief. 



I.— In-maintenance : 

In establishments under the control of 

Guardians of the Poor :— 
Workhouses,* exclusive of casual wards... 

Infirmaries or sick asylums 

Casual wardst 

Separate and district schools 

Cottage, scattered, and small homes for 

children 

Homes for aged poorf 

Institutions belon^fing to the managers 
of the Metropolitan Asylum District, 
other than fever and small-pox hos- 
pitals :— 

Imbecile asylums 

Training Ship 

Other institutions 

Other establishments 

In establishments not under the control 

of Guardians of the Poor :— 
Institutions for blind, deaf and dumb, 

epileptics, idiots, &c 

Hospitals and Convalescent Homes for the 

sick 

Training Ship 

Training and Industrial Homes and Schools 

not included under previous headings ... 
Other Institutions 

Total 

II.— Out-door relief : 

Other than that of children boarded out 
and casual paupers :— 

In money 

In kind 

To children boarded out (512 Unions) :— 

Within the Union 

Beyond the Union 

Belief of casual paupers otherwise than in 

workhouses or casual wards (78 Unions) 
Belief byway of meals to underfed school 

children (31 Unions) 

Total 

Grand Total 



Expenditure in Unions 
and Parishes. 



In London. 



I 



Outside 
LondoD. 



Total. 



234,443 

163,897 

4.508 

47,895 

24,450 
5,611 



30,074 
2,038 

67,070 
1,308 



4,131 



7,006 
35 



27,873 



117,081 
21,601 



9)7,219 

17,939 
25,429 

59,193 
2,786 



2.220 
1,290 
4,010 



36.117 

11,742 
3.739 

39.600 
211 



£620,340 '£1,181,495 



I 



1,395,559 

22,447 
73,325 

83,643 
8,397 



30,C74 
4,258 

68,360 
5,318 



20.248 



18,748 
3,774 



67,473 
211 



£1,801,835 



1,318.505 
94.963 

35 3=5 
7,884 

729 

246 



1,435,586 
116,554 

35.385 
13,964 

72) 

246 



£144.762 I £1,457,712 £1,602,474 



£765,102 £2,639,207 £3,404,309 



* In the majority of cases the expenditure on the maintenance of persons, relieved in 
casual wards in unions and parishes outside Londoa is approximate, and ia some cases it 
is also stated that only the cost of provisions Eupplied is included in the sum entered 
under this head. 

t In one case the expenditure on in-maintonance in homes for aged poor is included 
in that shown in respect of workhouses, it not being found possible tu state the amount 
separately. 

Tlie total expenditure (other than out of loans) of Boards of Guar- 
dians connected with the relief of the poor during the half-j-ear ended 
Lady Day, 1907, was returned by the Local Government Board as 



322 



Metropolitan Asylums Board. 



£1,968,15.'^, made up as follows : — Maintenance of indoor paupers. 
£620.340; out- relief, £144,762; maintenance of lunatics in asylums, <feo„ 
£272,810; salaries, etc., and superannuation allowances of union offieei-s 
and servants. * £4*^,643 ; loan charges (principal repaid and interest). 
t£253,288. Other expenditure connected with relief, :£'290,b74. Deduc- 
tion in respect of transfers between certain accounts (farm, &c., and in- 
maintenance, £44,8(34. 

METROPOLITAN ASYLUMS BOARD. 
Office: Embankment, E.G. 



The MetroiK)litan Asylums Board 
is a central authority created by the 
Metropolitan Poor Act of 1867, to 
provide accommodation for the 
infectious sick and the harmless 
insane. There are 7»5 managrers, 55 
of whom are elected by the boards 
of gTiardians from among their 
members as a rule, and 18 are 
nominated by the Local Government 
Board. Before the Board was esta- 
blished there was no suitable pro- 
vision for the poor who were stricken 
with fever or small-pox, or for the 
imbecile ; they were kept in work- 
houses, or in workhouse infirmaries. 
The nature and sc<)})e of the work 
entrusted to the Asylums Board 
has greatly expanded, and it now 
owns and manages twelve fever 
hospitals (including two con- 
valescent hospitals), with accom- 
modation for over 6,800 patients', 
rive imbecile asylums with accom- 
niodation for about 7,000 patients, 
including a school where imbecile 
children are taught as far as their 
undeveloped intellects will permit, 
three hospitals (including tem- 
porary buildings) at Dartford for 
the treatment of about 2,040 small- 
pox cases. The Board maintains 
an ambulance service for the 
whole of London. Besides being a 
hospital and asylum authority, the 
Board maintains a training ship. 



the Eicmouthf where 600 boys from 
workhouses are educated and trained 
for the Navy, the mercantile marine, 
and the Army ; and home« and 
schools for certain classes of Poor 
Law children, to wit — (a) those 
suJffering from ophtlialmia or other 
contagious diseases of the eye ; 
(h) those suffering from conta^oiis 
diseases of the skin or scalji; 
{(') those requiring either special 
treatment during convalescence, or 
the benefit of seaside air ; (d) those 
who by reason of defect of intellect 
or physical infirmity cannot pro- 
perly be trained in association with 
children in ordinary schools ; (r) 
those who are ordered hj two 
justices or a magistrate to be taken 
under the Industrial Schools Act, 
1866, or by the Youthful Offenders 
Act, 1901, to a workhouse or 
an asylum of the district. To 
further indicate the magnitude of 
the work which devolves upon 
the asylum managers, it may In* 
mentioned that the board an<l its 
various committees held 236 meet- 
ings during las't year, at which 
4,5)2 attendances were made, in 
addition to 5,199 attendances at 
meetings of sub-committees an<l 
visits to institutions. 

Since 1890 the Board has had to 
provide hospital accommodation for 
other than pauper patients, as fever 



* Excluding registrars of births an