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For Roadway and Footway Paving, 
Roofs, Floors, Corridors, Basements, 
Stables, Warehouses, Breweries, 
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Every information 
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VAL DE TRAVERS 
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LIMITED. 

Sole Proprietors of the celebrated 
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MANUFACTURERS OF REFINED BITUMEN. 



TWO FACTS . . 

for tho consideration of 

TOWN CLERKS. 

1. 

An advertisement of an " Appointment Vacant " 
was inserted in several papers, including the 
"Municipal Journal." The Official who received 
the replies, states that the applications through 
the "Municipal Journal" were 6 times as 
numerous as those from all the other service 
papers combined*. 

2. 

The Town Clerk of an important municipal borough 
states that he receives 10 times as many 
replies to "Tenders" and "Appointments" 
'advertisements in the "Municipal Journal/' as 
til the other service weeklies combined* 



1HE LONDON 

MANUAL, 

1007. 



CO 



, on 



Joy. *'*: 



Cf'-tf 



The MUNICIPAL YEAR 
BOOK, 1907. 

Greatly Improved and Extended. 

Handsomely bound in cloth, 
gilt lettered, 
3s. 6d. ; post free, 4s. 



The MUNICIPAL JOURNAL, 

Illustrated. (Established as 

" London. 11 ) 
The Leading Municipal Paper. 
Fifteenth Year of Issue. 
Weekly, Twopence. 



LONDON : EDWARD LLOYD, LIMITED, 
12, SALISBURY SQUARE, E.C. 



• m z *•• • • • • •••••_• 

*• • *■■ • * • • • * * . • 

• I ••• ! •• •• •*■ • 




Mr. H. PERCY HARRIS, Chairman London County Council. 
Alderman Sir WILLIAM TRELOAR, Sir MELVILL BEACHCROFT, 

Lord Mayor. Chairman Metropolitan Water Board. 

Mr. J. T. HELBY, Chairman Metropolitan Asylums Board. 



THE 



LONDON MANUAL 

FOli 

1907. 

(ELEVENTH YEAR OF PUBLICATION/. 



EDITED BY 

ROBERT DONALD, 

EDITOR OF "THE MUNICIPAL JOURNAL" AND "THE MUNICIPAL YEAR BOOK." 



INFORMATION CONCERNING TTJBLIC BODIES 

OBTAINED FROM 

OFFICIAL SOURCES OR OFFICIALLY REVISED. 



LONDON: 
EDWARD LLOYD, LIMITED. 

SALISBURY SQUARE. 
MDCCCCVII. 



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Index, 



xi. 



INDEX. 



Acts of Parliament relating to London 

Government 

Accidents in Streets, Number of . 
Aldermen, Borough Councils (see under 
each Borough) 
„ City Corporation ... 
„ London County Council . 
Animals, Diseases of .... 
Areas, Local Government 
-^ „ of Parks, and Pleasure Grounds . 
.„ Municipal, Poor Law, Police, and 

Postal London 

Area, Telephone 

Artistic Crafts, Technical Instruction 

for workmen engaged in 
Art Schools Transferred to L.C.O. . 
Art, Works of, Preservation by London 

County Council - . 

Asylums Committee (L.C.C.) . 

„ Lunatic „ . ... . .57 

Assessment System . . .' 216 



2 
112 



98 
25 
54 
7-8 
32 

7-8 
196 

76 
77 

60 
27 



Baby Farming, L.C.C. Begulations to 
Prevent ....*.. 54 

Band Performances in Parks and Open 
Spaces, L.C.C. Arrangements . . 35 

Banstead Lunatic Asylum ... 58 

ttb6 -(see under Borough Councils) 
ttqreea Rorough Council , . .236 
Electric Lighting . . 171, 174 
,, Housing . . . . .142 

Bedford College 78 

Bermondsey Borough Council . .239 

„ .J iBoard: of "Guardians. . .317 

Electric Light . . 171, 174 



PAOB 

Bothnal Green Borough Council . . 242 

Board of Guardians . .319 

Electric Light . . . .174 

Bettermeut . . .. ~ .-. ,213 

Rates, where Levied . .- % 49 

Betting in Streets, Bye-laws . » .211 

Bexlcy Lunatic Asylum * . 58 

Births, Deaths, and Marriages . 210, 222 

Blackwall Tunnel, Description of . .32 

Board of Trade, Representation on 

Thames Conservancy . . . .108 
Boating in London Parks, L.C.C. 's 

Arrangements f or . . . . ,35 
Bjats, Pleasure, on Thames, Registra- 
tion of 108 

(See also Steamboats) 
Borongh Councils . . . . ,227 
„ and Regulation of Milk Shops 

And Dairies .... 43 

The Powers and Duties of . 233 

Municipal Markets . , .189 

Boundaries of Governing Bodies . .8 

Bowling Greens in London Parks . . 35 

Bridges over Thames, Control of . 17, 97 

Building Act, District Surveyors . . 230 

Buildings. Historic, Preservation of . 60 

'Bus Drivers, No. of licences Granted , 112 

Burglaries in London, Number of . Ill 

Bye-laws fir Good Government of 

London .211 



Camberwell Borough Council . . .243 

Board of Guardians . , 320 

Electric Light . . .175 

,, Housing . . . .142 

' Cane Hill Lunatic Asylum . ,58 

Carbide of Calcium, R3«?ulations for 



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Index, 



xin, 



PAOB. 

Cass Foundation, Education Scheme 72, 74 

Cattle Markets 189 

Census Returns 206 

Central Criminal Court . . . .114 

ChairmePofL.C.C.- 18 

Charitable Institutions . 98, 363-364 

Cheapside, Widening of . . . .45 

Chelsea Borough Council . . .246 

„ Board of Guardians . . .323 

„ Housing 143 

City Aldermen .98 

„ as a County and Municipality . % 

„ Corporation 95 

„ Chamberlain 102 

„ Comptroller 102 

„ Officers 102 

„ Remembrancer . . . .102 

„ Finances 106 

„ Police 114 

„ Secondary 102 

„ Solicitor 102 

., Serjeant 102 

„ Surveyor 102 

„ Town Clerk 102 

„ Guardians 324 

Claybury Lunatic Asylum ... 58 

Clerk, Chief. L.C.C 30 

Coal, Sale of, L.C.C. Regulations . . 50 
Colney Hatch Lunatic Asylum . . 59 
Commercial Education, L.C.C. . . 82 
Common Council, Court of . .99 

„ Serjeant, City of London . 102 
Commons in London, List of . . .35 
Commissioners of Sewers, Abolition of . 3 
Committees, Chief , L.C.C. ... 27 

Companies, Livery 95 

Conservancy, Lee 109 

Thames 108 

Conservative Party Organisations . . 14 
Constables, Number of . . . 113-114 
Continuation Schools (Evening) . . 68 
Contractors and London County Counci 1 38 
Coroners, Duties of and Salaries Paid 55-56 
Corporation, City, Constitution and 

Powers 95 

Work of 95 

„ • Members of . . . .98 

„ Committees of . . . .101 

Chief Officers of . . .102 

„ Finances of . . . .106 

„ Health Department . . 105 

„ Housing and the . . .141 

,, Markets of the . . . .189 

Cost of London Government . . . 5 

. County Courts, Judges and Registrars . 116 

Rate 90 

„ Scholarships .... 82 
Courts, Ceutral Criminal. . . .114 
„ Coroners', List of . . . 56. 
„ Police, List of . . . .115 
„ London County . . . .116 
Petty Sessional . . . .117 

Quarter Sessions 115 

Cowshed Regulations .... 44 

Cricket in Parks 35 

. Crime, Statistics of . . . . . Ill 
• Cycling in Parks, Regulations . . 35 



Dairies, Regulation of . . . .44 

Death Rates. &c 210 

Deptford Borough Council . . .247 
Direct Labour and L.C.C. . . 37 

District Surveyors under Building 

Act 230 

Domestic Economy, Instruction in . 82 

Drunkenness, Proportion to Population 204 

., . Police Charges . . . .111 

Duties of Borough Councils . . .233 



E 

Economics, School of, L.C.C. Grant . 78 

Education 62 

„ Committee. , . 86 

Educational Institutions Controlled by 

City Corporation 97 

Election Results Boroughs . . .235 
Returns, London County Conn' * 

cil 18 

,, Parliamentary .... 9 
Electorates, the London .... 12 
Electric Car, First on Conduit System . 122 
Electrical Englueer. L.C.C. ... 30 
Electric Light Supply . . . .161 
Summaries of Councils' Ac- 
counts . • . . . .171 
Elementary Education .... 63 
Employment of Children Act, 1903 . 55 
Engineer's Department; City Corpora- 
tion 105 

Epileptic Colony. Ewell, Epsom . . 59 
Equalisation of Rates .... 219 
Estates Department, The City . . 97 
Ewell Epileptic Colony .... 59 
Expenditure on London Government . 5 
„ of London County Council . 93 
„ of City Corporation . . 106 
Explosives Act, L.C.C. Regulations . 53 



Fabian Society 561 

Farmfield Reformatory . . . 205 

Female Shop Assistants, Seats f or . .54 
Finances, City Corporation . . .106 
Finsbury Borough Council . . .249 
Fire Brigade, Work of . . . .39 

,, Districts 39 

Staff of . . . .39,40 

„ Stations 39 

„ Insurance Companies, Contri- 
butions to . . . .42 

„ Government Contributions to 42 
Flash and Search Lights Bye-Law . 212 
Fleet-street, Widening of . . .45 
Fluctuation of Population since 1801 . 207 

Fish Markets 192 

Foreign Cattle Market, Statistics . . 191 
Footbafll mTnrks. Provision for . . .'5 
Freedom of City, How Obtained . , 95 
Freehold Estates of City Corporation-. 97 



XIV. 



Index. 



Pulham Borough Council 

Board of Guardians 
„ Electric Light . 



PAGE. 

. 251 

. 325 

171, 175 



Games in Parks 
Gas charges . 
„ Light and Coke Company, 
Meter Testing 



,',' Supply, History of . 
Golf in Parks, Provision for 



ijou in j-ax*», jTiuviDiuii iv» . 
Governing Authorities, Central 
Government, London 

„ Grants to Schools 
Greenwich Borough Council 

„ Poor Law Union 

„ Tunnel 
Guardians, Boards of ... 
Guilds (Trade) and Relation to City 

Corporations 95 

• Gymnasia for Children in Parks . . 35 



35 
. . . 187 
Affairs of 183 
52 
183 
35 
17 
1 
68 
253 
326 
32 
317 



Intermediate County Scholarships 
Irish Society (City) 
Islington Borough Council 

Board of Guardians 

Electric Light . 
„ Housing . 



PAGE. 

. 84 
. 101 
. 263 
. 333 
172, 176 
. 136 



Judicial Authority, CityCorporation as % 
Junior County Scholarships ... 83 



Kensington Borough Council . . .266 
„ Board of Guardians . . .334 
King's College and Technical Educa- 
tion Board 78 

Knacker's Yards, Licensing of . .44 



H 

Hackney Borough Council . . .255 
„ Board of Guardians . . .328 
„ Electric Light . . . 171, 175 
„ Housing. . . . .143 
Hammersmith Borough Council . . 257 
,, Board of Guardians. . . 329 
„ Electric Light . . . .171 
Housing . . . .136,143 
Hampstead Borough Council . . .259 
„ Board of Guardians. . . 330 
Electric Light. . . 171,176 
„ Housing . . . . .143 
Hanwell Lunatic Asylum ... 59 
Higher Education in London . . 71 
Historical Survey of London Govern- 
ment 3 

Historic Buildings, Preservation of . 60 

Holborn Borough Council . . .260 

„ Board of Guardians . . .332 

Holloway Housing . . . .136 

Horses, "Worn-out 44 

Horton Asylum, Epsom .... 59 

Horniman Museum and Grounds . . 60 

Householders, Court of Appeal . 44 

Householders' league, The Women's . 362 

Housing, Powers of Local Authorities . 130 

Summary of L.C.C. Work . 131 

„ Analysis of L.C.C. Accounts 137-139 

„ The City Corporation and . 141 

„ What the Borough Councils 

are Doing . . . .142 



I 

Improvements by Metropolitan Board 

ofWorks 45 

Infant Life Protection .... 54 
Inebriates' Home at Horley . . .205 
Inquests, Statutory Requirements as to 55 



Lambeth Borough Council . . .268 

„ Board of Guardians . . 335 

„ Housing . . . .136 

Lamps, Petroleum, Accidents. . . 53 

Leather-tanning Technical School . 75 

Lee Conservancy 109 

Lewisham Borough Council . . .270 

„ Board of Guardians. . .323 

Electric Light . . . .176 

„ Housing 144 

Library Association . . . .362 
Libraries (see under Borough Councils) 
Liberal Party Organisations ... 14 
Licensing, L.C.C. Temperance Policy . 204 
Light Railways, Schemes in Middle- 
sex 129 

Lithography, School of . . . .74 
Locomotion in London- 
Tramways 120 

Suburban Tramways . . 127 
Lodging Houses (Common), Supervision 

of .... 44 

„ (Seamen's) . . . 45 

London Areas 7 

London County Council, Constitution . 17 
„ Chairmeuof .... 18 
„ Chief Committees, and Names 

of Chairmen .... 27 
„ Coroners '. .... 56 
„ Education . . . . . 62 
Election Returns . . 18-25 
,, Engineer's Department . 31 

* „ Finances .... 93 

„ Fire Brigade ... 39 

„ Historic Buildings ... 60 
„ . Housing . . . 131 

„ Inebriates 205 

,, Improvements . . .45 

„ Lunatic Asylums ... 57 



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XV. 



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XVI. 



Index. 



PAGE. 

London County Council Members' 

Names and Addresses . 25-27 
„ Parks and Pleasure Grounds . 32 
„ Public Control Department . 49 
„ Public Health Department . 42 
„ RateLeviedby . . .90 

„ Staff .30 

Stock, Metropolitan Consoli- . 

dated 88 

„ Stock, London County Con- 
solidated .... 89 
„ Temperance Policy . . .204 
„ Works Department ... 37 
London Government, Sketch of » 1 

Municipal Society . y .361 
Long Grove Asylum . . . .59 
Lord Mayor : His Powers and Duties . 98 
Lost Property in Public Conveyances . 112 
Ludgate Hill, Widening of ... 45 
Lunatic Asylums . . . . .57 



M 

Main Drainage System . . .31 

Metropolitan Asylums Board . . 309 
Manor Asylum . . . . .59 

Mansion House Council . . .362 

Maps— Electric Lighting in London . 162 
„ Gas Companies' Areas . . 185 
„ London Areas .... 8 
'V • Port of London . . •. .195 
Markets Controlled by Local Authori- 
ties . ' .' . „'..". 193 



PAGE. 

Markets, Business Done at . . 190-192 
Finances of . . . .190 
Medical Officers of Health, Incor- 
porated Society 362 

Metric System 50 

Metropolitan Boroughs Statistics . . 353 
Metropolitan Asylums Board, Institu- 
tions and Staffs . . .311 
„ Hospitals and Homes . . 312 
„ Members of the . . .310 
„ Work of the . . . .309 
Mile End Guardians . . . .339 
Municipal Corporations, Association of. 36L 
„ Electricity, Position of . 169 

„ Societies 361 

Music in Parks and Open Spaces . . 36 



N 

National Poor Law Officers' Association 362 
„ Telephone Company . . 199 
Navigation on Thames, Regulation of . 108 
Non-Indictable Offences, Number of . Ill 
Norbury Housing (L.C.C.) Scheme . 135 



Offences' Indictable, &c. Ill 

Officers, Chief, City Corporation . .102 
„ London County Council . . 30 
Overcrowding, Percentage of (see under 
Borough Councils). 



Tbe most Readable, Informative, and Up-to-Date Paper, 
dealing with Local Government affairs, is unquestionably 

THE MUNICIPAL JOURNAL. 

With Special Articles by Experts, and Illustrated 
Descriptions of Municipal Enterprises, it forms a Com- 
plete Civic Chronicle. Every phase of Municipal and Poor 
Law activity is dealt with, and a feature of great interest 
and. value, is the NotCS and AtlSWCTS Section, 
conducted by a Barrister. 



The Municipal Journal will be sent post free to any 
address in the United Kingdom for 9S . 6d . per annum. 



Publishing Office : 12, Salisbury Square, London, E.C. 



Index. 



xvii. 



PAGE. 

P 

Paddington Borough Council . . .274 
„ Board of Guardi&ns. .. .339 

„ Housing 144 

Parks and Pleasure Grounds of 

London 32, 97 

Parliament Street, Widening of . .46 
Pathological Laboratory at Claybury 

Asylum 57 

Pedlars' Licences 112 

Petroleum Acts, Provisions of. . .53 
Petty Sessional Divisions and Courts . 117 
Pianos in London County Schools . . 66 

Police, City 97,114 

„ Metropolitan 112 

;, Courts, List of . . . .115 

Political Party Organisations . . 14 

London, Election Results. .9-12 

Polytechnics, Work at . . . .72 

Poplar Borough Council . . . .276 

„ Board of Guardians. . .340 

Electric Light . , 172, 176 

Population, Statistics of ... 206 

Poor Law London 307 

„ Expenditure . . . .308 
„ Officers' Association, 

National ... .362 
„ Ratio of Paupers, &c. . . 307 
School Districts . . 314 
Statistics, 1905-6 . . .307 
Port of London, Commission . . .193 
„ Government of . . 196 
Port Sanitary Authority .... 98 
Post Office and Telephone Service . . 196 
Preservation of Historic Buildings . 60 
.ProfltsfromL.C.C. Tramways . .127 
Protection of Buildiugs .... 60 
Public Authorities, List of . . .1 
„ Health Committee of City Cor- 
poration 101 

„ „ London County Council . 43 
„ Conveyances, Licensing of . 112 
„ Lighting . . .161, 180, 183 
„ Service Committee of City Cor- 
poration 101 

Purification of River Thames . . 31 



Quarter Sessions, Court of 
Quinquennial Valuation . 



115 
, 217 



Rate, County 90 

Rates Levied in Every Parish . . 91 
„ . Equalisation of. 219 

„ How to Reduce . . .216 

Telephone 198 

Reform of London Government . . 3 
„ Union (London) . */ T. 361 
Refreshments in Parks— Tariff / . 3C 
Residential Schools. . . \ " .65*; 
River Thames, Control of Navigation . 108 



S 

8t. George -in -the -East Board of 

Guardians 344 

St. George's (Hanover-square) Board of 

Guardians 341 

St. Giles and Bloomsbury Board of 

Guardians 344 

St. Marylebone Borough Council . . 278 

„ Board of Guardians . 345 

Electricity . . 172,176 

„ Housing . . . . 144 « 

St. Pancras Borough Council . . .282 

Electricity . . .172, 176 

„ Board of Guardians . . 346 

„ Housing . . . .144 

Sanitary Control, Court of Appeal . 44 

„ Inspectors' Association . . 362 

Institute 362 

Secondary and Technical Day Schools . 80 
School Attendance .... 65 

„ Finance 69 

Scholarship Scheme .... 82 
Science, Royal College of ... 79 
Scotland Yard, Chief Officers at . .112 
Sea-Sand Pits for Children in Parks . 33 
Senior County Scholarships . . . 84 
Sessions, Court of Quarter . . .115 
Shallow Underground Tramways . . 122 
Sheriffs, City Corporation ... 99 
Shoreditch Borough Council . . .285 
Electricity . . . 172,177 
Board of Guardians . . 347 

„ • Housing 145 

Shop Hours and Seats Act, Provisions of 54 
Sick Asylum Districts . . . .316 
Slaughterhouses, Licensing of .44 

Sludge Ships and London Sewage . . 31 
Solicitor's Department, City . 102 
Southampton Row, Widening of . .47 
Southwark Borough Council . . .287 
„ Board of Guardians . . 348 
Electric Light . . 173,177 

Spitting 213 

StatfofL.C.C 30 

State Children's Association . . .362 

Steamboat Service 94 

Stepney Borough Council . . .290 
Electric Light . . 173, 177 

„ Housing 145 

„ Board of Guardians . . .349 

Stock, Metropolitan Consolidated . . 88 

Stoke Newington Borough Couucil . 294 

Electric Lighting . 177 

Strand Board of Guardians . . .350 

„ Widening 45 

Street Accidents, No. of . . . .112 

„ Betting 211 

,, Improvements, Cost of . 45-48 
„ Noises, Bye-laws . . . .211 



Technical Institutes, Art Schools, and 
Pcjy'^erhnit^ ..... 74 

Telephonies. </>adon .... 196 
..' - irlejcr>miiiunication . . 196 
\\ Rates ..... 198-199 



XV111. 



Index. 



Page. 



W 



Pagb 



Temperance Policy, A Municipal . 
Thames Conservancy . . . . 

Steamboat Service . 
Tooting Housing (L.C.C.) Scheme 
Tottenham Housing (L.C.C.) Scheme . 
Tramways, Finances .... 
„ Suburban . 

L.C.C., Introduction of Elec- 
trical Traction . 
„ Passengers Carried . 
„ Shallow Underground 
Statistics . 
Trade, Schools, and Classes . 

„ of Port of London 
Training of Teachers 
Tunnels (Thames) . 
Typographical Technical School 



204 
108 
94 
134 
135 
124 
127 



122 
. 125 
. 122 
123-127 
. 72 
. 184 
. 79 
. 32 
. 75 



Underground Tramways. . . .122 
Unemployed Act, Central Committee for 

London 200 

University Education .... 77 



Valuation of London . . . .217 
Vauxhall Bridge, Reconstruction of . 32 
Veterinary Inspectors, L.C.C. . . 54 
Vehicles, Lights on . . . .212 

Vehicular Traffic 212 

Voters, Qualifications of . . . .12 



Wandsworth Borough Council . . 296 
,, Board of Guardians . . .352' 
Waste Paper, Refuse Bye-Law . . 213 
Water Board, Constitution of . . 149 
Area of Supply . . 153 
Charges, . . . .157 
Committees . . .152 
Financial Provisions . 154 
Members . . . .150 
Officials . . . .152 
Organisation, &c. . 156 
Sources of Supply . . 158 
Water Stock . . .155 
Water Companies, Undertakings Trans- 
ferred 149 

Weights and Measures, Stamping of . 50 

Inspectors . . 51 

Weigh Bridges, Provision of Public . 50 

Westminster City Council . . .298 

„ Board of Guardians . . 353 

„ Housing . . . .145 

Whitechapel Board of Guardians . . 354 

Window Cleaning, &c, Bye-Law . . 211 

Women's Local Government Society . 362 

Woolwich Borough Council . . . 303 

,, Board of Guardians . . . 355 

„ Electric Light . . . .177 

Housing .... 146 

Works Department, L.C.C. . .37 

„ Department, Battersea . . 238 

Workmen's Wages, L.C.C. Tramways . 124 

Workshop Classes at Polytechnics . 75 



» •• • *« • 



• • •*• • 4.. «• 

* , • ••• « w 4. V 






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THE LONDON MANUAL^ 



iontron &obmtmntt» 



The London Government Act of 1899, which established the borough 
councils, registered an advance in the reform of local government in the 
capital. But much yet remains to be done before overlapping and con- 
flicting authorities are abolished, and order and symmetry— carrying with 
them administrative efficiency — are introduced. In the Parliamentary 
Session of 1903 a Bill was passed for the abolition of the School Board 
and the transfer of the work of that authority to the London County 
Council, and in December of the previous year a measure was passed 
for the purchase of the London Water Companies' undertakings, and 
their administration by a Water Board. 

The reform of 1899 still left nearly 300 different authorities engaged in 
the work of public administration in London. The following are the 
authorities : — 

London County Council, elected by parochial electors. 

Common Council of the City of London, elected by City voters. 

Twenty-bight Metropolitan Borough Councils, elected by 
parochial electors. 

Commissioners of Metropolitan Police, appointed by the Home 
Office to perform functions which in the City of London and everywhere 
else in England are in the hands of the county or municipal authorities. 

Metropolitan Asylums Board, appointed by the Local Government 
Board and the Boards of Guardians to provide Imbecile Asylums and 
Fever Hospitals. 

Two Sick Asylums Boards, appointed by certain Boards of Guardians 
to make joint provision for Infirmaries. 

Four School District Boards, appointed by certain Boards of 
Guardians to provide joint Poor-law Schools. 

Thirty-one Boards of Guardians, elected by the parochial voters to 
administer the Poor-law. 

One Hundred and Twelve Vestries of City Parishes, 



■tf 



Introductory. 



One: •ED%$>RED2 # AtoD Fourteen Boards of Overseers of City 
PARitfi»»; ••••••• : 

^Itof 8,ofioijrc^N:^VAyER Board.— Appointed by the County Councils, 
Me$ro^liianVl&rC>aglt Councils, Municipal Corporations, and Urban 
District Councils" in* the metropolitan water area. 

Thames Conservancy Board. 

Lea Conservancy Board. 

The jurisdiction of the last three bodies and of the police, however 
extends far beyond the County of London. 

The County Council authority extends over the City for some common 
purposes, but not for all, while the City Corporation has jurisdiction 
within the County of London and beyond for markets and port sanitation, 
and outside the boundaries of London for parks and open spaces. The 
Metropolitan Asylums Board maintains asylums for imbeciles, training 
schools for Poor-law children, fever and smallpox hospitals, while 
the County Council maintains asylums for lunatics, elementary, 
industrial and reformatory schools, and is responsible for dealing with 
cholera epidemics. Cholera ships are maintained by the City Cor- 
poration which, as the port sanitary authority, has authority over the 
Thames for sanitary purposes, while the Thames Conservancy is re- 
sponsible for the prevention of pollution, and exercises general authority 
over the river for conservancy purposes. 

Since the passing of the Local Government Act of 1888 more than 
200 measures have been placed upon the Statute Book giving further 
powers to the County Council ! 

The Acts relating to London local government are innumerable, and 
consolidation is an absolute necessity if public men are to carry out their 
duties intelligently and efficiently. Here is a list of the principal 
statutes : — 

Baths and Washhouses Acts, 1846 to 1882. 

Burial Acts, 1852 to 1906. 

Education Acts, 1870 to 1903. 

Electric Lighting Acts, 1882 and 1888. 

Electric Lighting (Clauses) Act, 1899. 

Licensing Act, 1904. 

Local Government Acts, 1888 and 1894. 

London Building Acts, 1894 and 1898. 

London Government Act, 1899. 

London Water Acts, 1892. ,,**;, 

London County Tramways Acts, 1896 and 1900. 

Metropolis Management Acts, 1855 to 1893. 

Metropolis Water Acts, 1871 to 1902. 

Metropolitan Commons Acts, 1866 to 1878. 

Metropolitan Poor Act, 1867. 

Metropolitan Police Acts, 1829 to 1895. 

Metropolis Management (Thames River Prevention of Floods) 
Amendment Act, 1879. 

Poor-law Amendment Act, 1834. 

Poor-rate Assessments and Collection Act, 1869. 

Public Health (London) Act 1891 

Public Libraries Act, 1892. 



Introductory. 



Sale of Food and Drugs Acts, 1875 to 1899. 
Superannuation (Metropolis) Act, 1866. 
Tramways Act, 1870. 
Valuation (Metropolis) Act, 1869. 
Water Rate (Definition) Act, 1885. 

Historical Survey. 

Until 1855 there was no well-defined " London " except the square-mile 
City. In the area now known as London there was no unity whatever. 
But by the Metropolis Management Act of 1855 (an Act of 251 
sections), a comprehensive system of local administration was provided for 
the parishes at that time included in the Metroi>olitaii Bills of Mortality. 
The ratepayers of each parish elevated a vestry of from 18 to 120 members, 
to whom were added the rector, churchwardens, and in some parishes the 
district rectors also. In twenty-three cases these b nlies were adminis- 
trative vestries (included in Schedule A) which were given direct control 
of the local sewers, roads, sanitation, &c. The remaining parishes were 
grouped into fifteen districts (in Schedule Bof the Act) under the adminis- 
tration of district boards appointed by the parish vestries. No powers 
were, however, given to the vestries of Schedule B parishes beyond such 
as they might have obtained formerly under local Acts. 

At the head of the system was the Metropolitan Board of Works. It 
consisted originally of forty-five members, appointed by the City Corpo- 
ration, the twenty-three vestries, and the fifteen district lx>ards. 

In the hands of the Board were placed main drainage, street improve- 
ments, street naming, lines of frontage, &c. But to these, other important 
duties were added subsequently — parks, bridges, fire brigades, Thames 
Embankments, artisans' dwellings, &c. 

Between 1855 and 1888 many changes were made in the details of the 
Metropolis management system —changes that have been in the direction 
of direct representation and the constitution of manageable areas. 
Consequently the Metropolitan Board at its dissolution consisted of 
fifty-nine members, appointed by the City Corporation, twenty- 
seven vestries, and thirteen district boards. Immediately prior to 
the passing" of the London Government Act there were thirty adminis- 
trative vestries (including Woolwich Local Board), having 2,481 members, 
elected ; and forty-four non-administrative vestries, having 1,6:52 vestrymen, 
who appointed 619 representatives on twelve district boards. The franchise, 
too, was extended to that of parochial voters. 

. A step towards unity of administration was made by the Local Govern- 
ment Act, 1894, which authorised the transference of the administration of* 
the Baths, Burials, and Libraries Acts from specially appointed Com- 
missioners to the elected vestries. 

The City Corporation and City Commissioners of Sewers were 
left untouched by the system, except in their relation to the Metropolitan 
Board of Works. The City Commissioners of Sewers and their powers 
were, however, transferred to the City Corjwjration in January, 1898. 

The London Government Act of 1899 abolished the vestries and 
district boards and the parish overseers outside the City, and created the 
metropolitan borough councils. 

The Education (London) Act transferred the powers of the School 
Board to the London County Council. 



Introductory, 



LOCAL GOVERNMENT CHANGES IN 1906. 
School Canteens. — The Elementary Education Authority (the 
London County Council) may assist in the provision of meals for chilr 
dren in attendance at public elementary schools by appointing 
School Canteen Committees, or by providing buildings, furniture and 
apparatus, and such officers and servants as may be necessary for 
the organisation, preparation, and service of the meals, but they 
may not incur any expense in the purchase of food. The cost is to 
be borne by the parents, or, especially in the case of poor persons, 
by means of voluntary contributions, or, with the sanction of the* 
Board of Education, by resort to the rates. The total charge is limited to 
the produce of a halfpenny rate. [Education (Provision of Meals) Act>, 

1906, 6 Ed. YIL, cap. 57.] 

Qualification of Justices and Land Tax Commissioners.— The^ 
estate qualification of county justices of Ihe peace is removed by the 
Justices of the Peace Act, 1906 [6 Ed. VII., cap. 16], and of Land Tax 
Commissioners by the Land Tax Commissioners Act, 1906. [6 Ed. VII., 
cap. 52.] 

Open Spaces. — The statutes relating to open spaces are consolidated 
by the Open Spaces Act, 1906. [6 Ed. VII., cap. 25.] 

Loans. — The Local Government Board will in future exercise as regards 
every local authority in England (except the London County Council) any 1 
power conferred on the Treasury by the Baths, Burial, or any Local Acts 
as respects dealings with property, loans, and matters connected there- 
with. [Local Authorities (Treasury Powers) Act, 1906, 6 Ed. VII.» 
cap. 33.] 

Supply of Electrical Fittings.— Metropolitan borough councils 
authorised to supply electricity may now supply (but not manufacture) 
electrical fittings, motors, and apparatus, and may wire and fit consumers! 
premises. The cost may be the subject of loans under the Electric 
Lighting Acts, and the charges to the consumer must be stated separately 
on the demand note. [London County Council (General Powers) Act, 
1906 (Part V.). 6 Ed. VII., cap. cl] 

Poplar Union of Parishes*. — The parishes of Bow, Bromley, and 
Poplar have been united for Poor Law purposes as from the 26th March - 

1907, and for all other purposes from the 1st April, 1907, under the name 
of the " Parish of Poplar Borough." [Poplar (Union of Parishes) 
Scheme, 1907.] 



Introductory. 



THE COST OF LONDON GOVERNMENT. 

No complete statement of the expenditure of all the local authorities in 
London is regularly published,* but many of the details are included 
throughout the Local Taxation Returns for England and Wales, from 
which, for the most part, the following figures have been compiled for the 
last year for which statistics are available : — 



Authority. 


Total 
expendi- 
ture. 


Receipts 
in aid. 


Effect of 
transfers 

from 
local to 
county 
funds. 


Distrit 
charge 

Imperial 
taxation. 


ration of 
between 

Rates. 


London County Council- 
General county account 

Special county account 

Equalisation fond 

Xiondon School Board 

Metropolitan Asylums Board 

Metropolitan Police 

Local Government Board— Common 
Poor Fund 


£ 

2,599,705 
1,139,243 

3,372,203 

895,284 

1,818,470 

601 


£ 
296,868 
705,916 

20,340 

10,068 

345,725 


£ 
+595,589 
+240 
+1,015,200 

-68,157 
+ 1,577,089 


£ 

531,729 

12,660 

842,439 

707,100 


£ 

2,389,432 

389,746 

1,015,200 

2,542,539 

872,229 

742,494 

1,578,154 


. Total County Authorities- 


9,825,506 


1,378,917 


+3,119,961 


2,093,918 


9,529,794 


City Corporation- 
City Police 

Special rate 

Consolidated and sewers rates ... 

Other accounts 

Ward rates 

Metropolitan Borough Councils 

Market Trustees 

Guardians 

City Overseers 


134,819 

32,409 

427,887 

711,881 

7,257 

4,610,661 

6,025 

3,599,757 

26,993 


15,770 

51,741 
711,500 

1,066,166 

10,156 

171,895 

213 


-5,951 
-381 

-1,045,062 

-2,068,767 


1,210 


114,494 

40,736 

300,734 

8,047 
2,534,632 

1,436,577 
33,955 


Total Local Authorities 


8,243,436 


1,238,420 


-3,113,829 


1,210 


4,005,164 


Total 


19,383,195 


3,396,348 


+6,131 


2,095,128 


13,998,959* 



* Actual rates after allowing for balances increased or decreased. 
+ Increase. - Decrease. 

The police expenditure in the above table represents the county's share 
of the total expenditure of the metropolitan police district. The services 
lately performed by the London School Board have since 1st May, 1904 
been performed by the London County Council. 

^The total given above does not represent the whole expenditure 
Tbere must be added the expenditure out of borrowed capital 
amounting (in the same year) to £6,199,301. This gives a gross expenditure 
of £25,682,496, or about £5 10«. per head of population, of which £4 4a. per 
head is for current expenditure. 

4 The fullest official compendium of facts and figures relating to London Government 
is the volume entitled " London Statistics," issued annually by the County Council. The 
Council's "Statistical Abstract for Londoa" is a pmallerbook, covering much the same 
ground in a summarised form. 



6 Introductory. 



The receipts-in-aid were mainly derived from penalties, payments for 
services (such as those required at public baths and wash-houses), rents 
of property, costs recovered, market tolls, Building Act fees, the con- 
tribution by the lire insurance companies to the cost of the Fire Brigade, 
&c. The licence duties collected by the Inland Revenue officers within 
the county are classed by the Local Government Board among Imperial 
subventions (as in the above table) ; but this is incorrect, as licence duties 
are distinctly local taxation, and the fact that, until recently, they were 
diverted to the national Exchequer has no real bearing on the point. 

The rates required were raised in no such simple manner as a levy of an 
equal rate in the pound all over the county. Apart from the fact that the 
produce of the rate varies considerably in the different parishes owing to 
cost of collection, no local authority in London ever levies a rate which 
fairly represents its own expenditure. In the first place, certain authori- 
ties receive some portion of the Imperial subventions ; except for this the 
rates levied for the late London School Board and the Metropolitan Police 
may be taken to represent the balance of their annual expenditure. But 
the rates of the London County Council are used to . raise considerable 
sums not spent by them,' but distributed among the various boards 
of guardians by way of equalising expenditure. The County 
Council, moreover, levies the Equalisation Rate, the effect of which is 
bo spread a certain portion of sanitary authorities' expenditure rateably 
over the whole county. The Metropolitan Asylums Board also administers 
a small equalisation grant. Another equalisation fund, viz., the Common 
Poor Fond — administered by the Local Government Board — performs the 
same functions for boards of guardians ; but the grants are distributed for 
the most part according to certified expenditure, and not according to 
population, as under the Equalisation Act. One interesting result of the 
working of these funds is the pooling of a considerable portion of the 
Poor-law expenditure in London, the principal exceptions being loan 
charges and out-relief. But it is absurd that no less than four methods 
of equalising rates should be in force, when the same, or a better, result 
could be more easily achieved by one. 

The effect of each of these Equalisation Funds on the rates of the 
different parishes is shown in the special section, " Equalisation of Rates." 

The total outstanding loans in March, 1906, amounted to £105,602,301, 
of which £50,808,431 was in respect of services which did not involve a 
charge on the rates. These figures include £38,575,517 in respect of 
London's proportion of the debt of the Metropolitan Water Board. The 
addition of the City debt of £4,326,245 not secured on the rates brings 
the total London debt to £109,928.546. The annual charge on the rates 
was £3,883,446. (L.C.C. Return " London Debt," 1905-6.) 

Most of the loans of London local authoriticn arc borrowed from the 



Introductory* "'":,/: :/^ 

London County Council, which thus acts as banker to theotlrej-Bublic boo it+f. 
In March, 1905, 1906, and 1907, the loan liabilities of th£ Contfctf-ivrfre :t- 

1905. 19061 " " 1907. 

Metropolitan Consolidated Stock— £ £ £ 

35 per cent., redeemable 1929 16.908,938 ... 16,848,938 ... 16,823,937 

3 per cent., redeemable 1941 10,845,923 ... 10,809,097 ... 10,809,097 

2J per cent., redeemable 1949 7,465,090 ... 7,290,223 ... 7,290,223 

London County Consolidated Stock— 

2J per cent., redeemable at various dates 6,250.000 ... 6,114,442 ... 6,083,359 

3 percent., „ „ „ 22,431,514 ... 25,955,000 ... 25,955,000 

£63,902,465 ... £67,017,700 ...£66.961,616 

London County Bills 1,415,294 ... 1,729,120 ... 3,349,574 

Former County Loans 117,980 ... 95,087 ... 77,103 

Consolidated Loans Fund advances 

to capital accounts and to late 

School Board 3,574,677 ... 3,470,948 ... 4,545,824 

Public Works Loans Commissioners 

part debt of late School Board... 2,285,221 ... 2,200,848 ... 2,078,062 

Overdrawn balance 291,538 ... — ... 1,789,461 



£71,587,175 ...£74,513,703 ...£78,801,640 

The assets against this gross debt at March, 1907, were as follows : — 
Balances of loans to other local authorities, £18,776,173 ; small dwellings 
acquisition, £1,082 ; Middlesex adjustment, £46,946 ; out county drainage 
contributions, £90,438; value of surplus lands, £6,817,950; advances to 
capital accounts, £4,545,824 ; and cash balance, £208,878 ; leaving the 
balance of nett debt, £48,313,749 ; of which £8,791,941 was in respect of 
revenue-producing undertakings. 

LONDON AREAS. 

The name London was formerly only applicable to the City with an 
area of a little over one square mile, and the outside districts grew up 
without any homogeneity and without a common name until 1855, when 
they became officially known as the Metropolis. This area became in 1889 
the administrative County of London, 118 square miles in extent, and as 
such includes the City, in which, however, certain services are performed by 
the Corporation which are in the rest of the county performed by the 
County Council. The administrative County of London had in 1901 
a population of 4,536,541. The changes in boundaries carried out under 
the London Government j^ct (1899) involved the inclusion in the county 
of South Hornsey and the loss of Penge. 

Greater London or the Metropolis under the Metropolitan and the City 
Police includes the whole of the Counties of London and Middlesex and part 
of the Counties of Kent, KSurrey, Essex, and Herts. It is made up of all 
parishes of which any part is within eleven miles of Charing Cross, or of 
which the whole is within fifteen miles of Charing Cross. It is 693 square 
miles in extent and contains a population of 6,581,372. 

The Metropolitan water area is 620 square miles in extent. The Metro- 
polis, for criminal jurisdiction — the district of the Central Criminal 
Court — is not identical with the police area - f it contains an area of 420 
square miles, and a population of 5,5300,000. The County Court and 
Police Court areas do not correspond with any of these, nor with each 
other. 

Post Office London has no relation to municipal or any other boundaries. 




v> 






J -"tf C K S 



LONDON AREAS. 
The municipal, Poor Law, Police, and Postal on don. 



political fcoirtom 



Foe Parliamentary purposes London is divided into 58 constituencies, with 
one member each, except the City, which returns two members. The total 
electorate at last election (January, 1906) was 620,424. There were no 
uncontested seats, whereas at the previous General Election (October, 
1900) there were no contests in 12 constituencies. Liberal and Labour 
candidates polled 250,362 votes, and Conservatives 234,216. The results 
of the last and five previous elections in London were as follows : — 

1885. 1886. 1892. 1895. 1900. 1906. 
Conservative . . 36 ... 48 ... 36 ... 51 ... 51 ... 19 
Liberal. . . . 23 ... 11 ... 23 ... 8 ... 8 ... 40 



Majority 



*13 



*37 



*13 ... *43 ... *43 
Conservative Majority t Liberal Majority. 
The Liberal Unionists are included in the Conservatives. 

RESULTS OF LAST GENERAL ELECTION. 



t21 



7,387 
5,787 



4,775 
3,016 



Battersea. 
The Right Hon. John Burns 

(L), 108, Lavender - hill, 

S,W. . . 
A. S.Benn(C) . . 
Bermondsey. 
. Dr/G. Cooper (L), 92, South- 
^ ^wark Park-road, S.E. 
H. J. C. Cust (C) . . 

Bethnal Green— North-East. 
Sir E. A. Cornwall (L), 

3, Whitehall-court . . 4,127 
Sir M. M. Bhownaggree (U) 2,130 

Bethnal Green— South- West. 
E, H. Pickersgill (L), 238, 

Amherst-road, Hackney . 
S. F. Ridley (C) . . 

Bow and Bromley. 
Stopford Brooke (L), 34, De 

tf ere-gardens, W. 
Arthur Du Cros (C) . 

Camberwell— North. 
D*. T. J. Macnamara (L), 

Clontarf, Rollscourt - 

.avenue, Herne-hill, S.E. . 
CLH.H©are(C) . 

Chelsea. 
E. J. Horniman (L), 74, Elm 

Park-road, S.W. 
C A. Whitmbre (U) . 



City op London. 
Sir E. Clarke, K.C. (U), 2, 

Essex-court, Temple, E.C. 16,019 
Hon. A. G. H. Gibbs (U), 

Carlton .... 15,619 
Felix O. Schuster (L) . . 5,313 
Sir J. West Ridgeway (L) . 5;064 

BYE-ELECTION. 

Vacancy caused by the resignation of the 
Hon. A. G. H. Gibbs. Polling February 



27, 1906. 

Balfour, Bight Hon. A. J. (U) 

Bowles, T. G. (F '"" 



15,474 
4,134 



3,542 

2,064 



4,596 
3,974 



6,314 
3,497 



4,660 
4,031 



Clapham. 

P. M. Thornton (C), Batter- 

sea-rise House, Clapham- 

common .... 

F. Low (L) .... 

Deptford. 

C. Bowerman (Lab.), 7, St. 
Bride-street, E.C. 

A. H. A. Morton (C) . 
H. Vivian (L) . . . 

Dulwich— Camberwell. 
Dr. Rutherfoord Harris (C), 
101, Mount-street, W. . 6,639 

D. Williamson (L) . . 6,282 

BYE- ELECTION. 

Vacancy caused by the resignation of 

Dr. Rutherfoord Harris. Polling, May 15, 

1906. 

A. Bonar Law(C), Kintillo, Helens- 
burgh, N.B. ... .., 6,709 

D. Williamson (L) 5,430 



7,912 

7,816 



6,236 

4,977 

726 



10 



Political London. 



Finsbury— Central 
W. C. Steadman (Lab.), 49, 
Rectory - square, Stepney, 
"FT 

E. Goulding (U) ! ! ! 

Finsbury— East. 
J. A. Baker (L), 8, Donning- 
ton-road, Harlesden, N.W. 
Col. A. C. E. Welby (U) . 

FlJLHAM. 
T. Davies (L), " Pantycelyn," 

East Putney 
W. Hayes Fisher (U) . 

Greenwich. 
R. S. Jackson (L), Stobcross 

Lodge, Crooms - hill, 

Greenwich 
I. H. Benn (C, P) . 
Lord Hugh Cecil (C,FT) . 

Hackney— Central. 
Sir Albert Spicer, Bt. (L), 50, 
Upper Thames-street, E.C. 
A. H. A. Allhusen (C) . 

Hackney— North. 

T. Hart Davies (L), 46, 
Ravensdale - road, Stam- 
ford Hill . 

W. R. Bousfield, K.C. (C) . 

Hackney— South. 

H. Bottomley (L), Carlisle 
Mansions, Victoria- street, 
S.W 

T. H. Robertson (C) . 

Rev. W. Riley (Ind. L) 

Hampstead. 
J. S. Fletcher (U), Merle- 
wood, Virginia Water 
G. F. Rowe(L) . 

Hammersmith. 
Sir W. J. Bull (C), 414, 

Uxbridge-road, W. . 
G. Blaiklock (L) . 
G.Belt(Soc) 

HOLBORN. 

J. F. Remnant (C), 4, South 

Eaton-place, S.W 
Dr. S. MiaU (L) . 



3,493 
2,799 



2,461 
1,772 



8,0*7 
7,407 



4,906 
3,565 
2,356 



3,998 
3,382 



4,655 
4,431 



6,736 

3,257 

804 



4,934 
4,461 



5,111 
4,562 

885 



3,881 
2,706 



Islington— East. 
G.H. Radford (L), Chiswick 

House, Ditton Hill . . 4,477 
Sir B. L. Cohen (C) . . 3,710 

Islington— North. 
D. S. Waterlow (L), 29, 

Chesham-place, S.W. . 5,284 
Sir G. C. T. Bartley (C) . 4,418 

Islington— South. 
Thos. Wiles (L), 5, Aubrey- 
road, Holland Park, W. . 3,606 
Sir A. Rollit (C, F T) . 1,991 

W.Hunt(C,P) ... 870 

Islington— West. 

T. Lough (L), 14, Dean s- 
yard, S.W 4,116 

F. H. Medhurst (U) . . 3,618 
Kensington— North. 

H. Y. Stanger, K.C. (L), 
New-court, Temple, E.C. . 4,416 

W. Hume-Williams, K.C. (U) 3,358 
Kensin gton— South. 

Earl Percy (C), 64, Curzon- 
street, W 4,835 

Sir E. O'Malley (L) . . 1,624 
Lambeth— Brixton. 

J. H. Seaverns (L), 16, East- 
cheap, E.C. . . . 4,521 

D. Dalziel(C) . . . 4,235 
Lambeth — Kennington. 

Stephen Collins (L), Har- 
borne, St. Anne's Hill, 
S.W 4,639 

Sir F. L. Cook (C) . . 3,054 
Lambeth — North. 

Horatio Myer (L), 64, 
Maida-vale, W. . . . 2,162 

Major Gastrell (C) . . 1,904 

D. Naoroji (I L) . . . 733 

F. W. Horner (C). . . 108 

Lambeth— Norwood. 

G. S. Bowles (C, F T), 36, 
Connaught Square, Hyde 
Park 5,567 

N. W. Hubbard (L) . . . 4,748 



Lewisham. 
Major E. F. Coates 
Tayle's Hill, Ewell , 
F. W. Aveling (L) 



(U), 



9,689 
8,006 



Political London. 



11 



LlMEHOXJSE. 

W. Pearce (L), 12, Park- 

crescent, W. 
Sir H. S. Samuel (C) . 

London University. 
Sir P. Magnus (U), 16, 

Gloster-terrace, S.W. 
Sir M. Foster (L) . 

Marylebone— East. 
Lord R. Cecil (C, F T), 25, 

Grove End-road, N.W. . 

A. M. Langdon, K.C. (L) . 

Marylebone— West. 
Sir S. Scott (C), 38, South- 
street, Mayfair, W. . 
Sir Harry Johnstone (L) 

Mile End. 

B. S. Straus (L), 8, Hyde 
Park Mansions, W . 

Hon. Harry Lawson.(U) 

Ne win gton— West. 
Captain Norton (L), 18, 
Barkston-gardens, S.W. . 
R. E. Belilios (C) . . . 

Paddington— North. 

L. G. C. Money (L), Casa 
Cara, Oatlands, Wey- 
bridge 

A. Straus (U) 

Sir H. Burdett (Ind. U) . 

Paddington— South. 
Sir T. G. Fardell (C), 26, 
Hyde Park-street, W. 

C. W. Milne (L) 

Peckham. 

C. Goddard Clarke (L), 
South Lodge, Champion 
Hill, S.E 

Sir F. C. Banbury (C) . 

Poplar. 
Rt. Hon. Sydney Buxton 

(L), 7, Grosvenor-crescent, 

S.W. . . . • 
George O. Borwick (U) 

Rotherhithe. 
H. W. Carr Gomm (L), 

The Chase, Farnham 

Royal, Bucks. . 
J. Cumming Macdona (C) . 



2,981 
2,007 



1,840 
1,816 



2,827 
2,167 



3,446 
2,791 



2,295 
2,169 



4,446 
2,425 



3,825 

2,419 

817 



2,919 
1,502 



5,903 
3,564 



4,546 
2,235 



4,192 

2,821 



St. George's, Hanover 

Square. 

Col. Hon. H. Legge (C), 90, 

Piccadilly, W. . 
M. C. Mallik (L) . 

St. George's-in-the-East. 
Wedgwood Benn (L), 8, 

Finsbury-square, E.C. 
W. H. Halifax Wells (U) . 

St. Pancras— East. 
H. C. Lea (L), 60, Cadogan- 

place, S.W. 
Sir T. Wrightson (C). . 

St. Pancras— North. 
W. H. Dickinson (L), 51, 

Campden Hill - road, 

Kensington 
E. R. Moon(C) . 

St. Pancras— South. 
P. W. Wilson, (L), 16, Percy- 
circus, W.C. 
Major Jessel (C). . 

St. Pancras— West. 
Sir W. J. Collins (L), 1, 

Albert - terrace, Regent's 

Park, N.W. 
H. R. Graham (C) 

S hore ditch— Haggerston. 

W. R. Cremer (L and Lab.), 
11, Lincoln's Inn Fields, 
W.C. ..... 

Hon. R. Guinness (C) . 

Shoreditch— Hoxton. 
Hon. Claude Hay (C), 5, 

Connaught-square, Hyde 

Park, W. . . . 
Henry Ward (L). 

Stepney. 

Major Sir W. Evans- Gordon 
(C), 4, Chelsea Embank- 
ment, S.W. 

Durham Stokes (L) 

BYE-ELECTION. 

Vacancy caused by the resignation of 
Sir W. Evans-Gordon. Polling May 10, 1907. 

Leverton Harris (C) 2,299 

B. Cooper (L) ' 1,350 



4,264 
2,191 



1,685 
1,064 



4,208 
2,327 



4,094 
2,643 



2,109 
2,048 



3,230 
2,545 



2,772 
2,371 



3,489 
2,753 



2,490 
1,853 



12 



Political London. 



SOUTHWARK— West. 
Rt. Hon. R. K. Causton (L), 
12, Devonshire-place, W. . 
A. Clayell Salter, K.C. (U) . 

Strand. 
Hon. W. F. D. Smith (C), 
3, Grosvenor-place, S.W . 
A. Waldemar Lawrence (L) 

Walworth. 
C. J. O'Donnell (L and 
Lab.), 75, Queen's Gate, 

S.W 

Sir J. Bailey (C) . 

Wandsworth. 
Sir H. Kimber (C ), Albany- 

chambers, York-st., S.W. 
Albert E. Reed (L) . 



3,057 
2,592 



3,935 
1,854 



3,187 
2,418 



12,433 

11,888 



Westminster. 

W. A. B. Burdett - Contts 
(U), 1, Stratton - street, 
Piccadilly .... 3,167 

Capt. C. V. C. Hobart, 
D.S.O. (L) . . . 2,054 

Whitechapel. 

Stuart M. Samuel (L), 12, 

Hill-street, Mayfair. . . 1,925 
D.H.Kyd(C) . . . 1,569 

Woolwich. 

W. Crooks (Lab.), 81, 

Gough-street, Poplar . 9,026 
Major W. A. Adams (U) . 6,883 



THE LONDON ELECTORATES. 

There are five electorates in London : (1) the Parliamentary Borough ; 
(2) the Parliamentary County; (3) the County Council; (4) the 
Parochial; and (5) the Common Council; of these only the County 
Council and the Parochial franchises are identical. Until 1901 the 
County Council differed in part from the Parochial franchise ; but by 
the London County Council Electors' Qualification Act, 1900, the two 
electorates were assimilated. The chief alteration was the addition of 
lodger service, married women, and ownership -voters to the County 
Council franchise thereby increasing that electorate. In the following 
table a comparison is made between the four electorates, the qualifications 
for which are most nearly similar in character : — 





County Council and 




Parliamentary 


Parochial. 


Common Council. 


Borough. 


1. For County Councillors. 


For members of the City 


For Members of Parliament. 


2. For Guardians. 

3. For Borough Councillors. 


Corporation. 


621,180 


742,397 


25,418 


Householder, or £10 


Householder, or £10 


Householder, or £10 


Occupier 


Occupier 


Occupier 


Males (not being Peers) 


Males (including Peers) 


Males (including Peers) 


— 


Spinsters (a) 
"Widows (a) 


— 


— 


— . 




Married women whose 
husbands are not 
qualified (a). 






Occupier op Less Than 
£10 (a). 

Males (including Peers) 
Spinsters 
Widows 
Married women whose 

husbands are not 

qualified. 




Service. 


Service 


— 



{a) I/.rul floe.- not qualify in these cases. 



Political London. 



13 



Parliamentary 

Borough. 

For Members of Parliament. 



County Council and 
Parochial. 

1. For County Councillors. 

2. For Borough Councillors. 

3. For Guardians. 



Common Council. 

For members of the City 

Corporation. 



Lodger (£10 unfurnished 

lodgings). 
Livery (City only). 

General Qualifications. 

Householder (and service). 
—Occupation and residence 
for 12 months previous to 
15th July within the 
borough. 

Occupier. —Occupation 
within the borough for 
12 months to 15th July, 
and residence within 7 
miles of the borough for 
6 months previous to the 
15th July. (For the City 
the residence limit is 25 
miles.) 

Lodger. — Occupation and 
residence for 12 months 
previous to 15th July in 

aualifying rooms in one 
eflnite house within the 
borough. 
Livery.— Upon the livery 
for 12 months before the 
election, and residence 
within 25 miles of the 
City for 6 months pre- 
vious to the 15th July. 



Lodger 



Owner 

Householder and Service. 
— Occupation and resi- 
dence for 12 months 
previous to 15th July 
within the County. 

Or cupier.— O c c u p a t i o n 
within the County for 12 
months to 15th July, and 
residence within 15 miles 
of the County for 12 
months previous to the 
15th July. 



Lodger. — As for Parlia- 
mentary. 



House holder.— Occupation 
and residence for 12 
months previous to 15th 
July within the City. 

Occupier.— O c c u p a t i o n 
within the City for 12 
months previous to the 
15th July or the 1st De- 
cember. No limit as to 
residence. 



(b) Owners vote for Parliamentary county. 



The Parliamentary County voters are the owners who are not qualified by the same pro- 
perty for the Parliamentary Borough franchise. They vote for the ancient counties of 
Middlesex, Surrey, and Kent. They are Parochial electors also. Total, 8,535. 

General disqualifications : Aliens, convicts, felons, infants, lunatics, paupers, bank- 
rupts, and persons who have been convicted of corrupt and illegal practices. Non- 
payment of rates due on the 15th January by the 20th July disqualifies for Household 
and Occupier franchise ; and non-payment of fines disqualifies for Livery franchise. 

Persons included in the franchises -.— 

Tenement occupiers (Householders). 

Shop assistants (Service). 

Lodgers paying 4s. a week for unfurnished, or 5s. a week for furnished, lodgings 
(Lodger). 

Voting.— Parliamentary elections— one vote in each borough or county, in which quali- 
fied. County Council elections— one vote in the whole county. Parochial elections- 
one vote in each borough in which qualified. The vote may be exercised only once 
in each division in which qualified. 



14 



Political London. 



POLITICAL PARTY ORGANISATIONS. 



District Secretaries and their Addresses. 
Liberal. Conservative. 



London Liberal Federation. 
President.— Sir H. Campbell-Banner- 

MAN, G.C.B., M.P. 

Chairman— Vt r . H \ Dickinson, m.p. 
Treasurer — Sir -Samuel Montagu, 

Bart. 
Hon. Sec— Corrie Grant, k.c, m.p. 
Assist. Sec— W. G. Rattey. 
Offices— 41, Parliament-street, S.W. 



Metropolitan Division op the 
National Union op Conservative and 
Constitutional Associations. 
President— Lord Llangattock. 
Chairman— Sir T. G. Fardell, m.p. 
Secretary— A. E. South all. 
Offices— St. Stephen's Chambers, "West- 
minster, S.W. 



Division. 
Batters e a . 



Bermondset 
Bethnal Green, N.E. 

„ S.W. 
Bow and Bromley . 
Brixton . . 

Camberwell— North 

CnELSEA 

City of London. 
Clapham 
Deptford 
Dulwich 



Finsbury— Central . 
„ East . 



Fulham 



Liberal. 
T. C. Waterland, Glenmuir, 

Brupsels-road, New Wands- 
worth, Hon. Sec. 
A. H. Burn, 457, Battersea- 

park-road, S.W., Reg. Agent. 
G. Oliver, 2, Welsford - street, 

Bermondsey, S.E., Hon. Sec. 
J. J. Cole, 134, Bishop's-road, 

N.E., Hon. Sec. 
J. W. Cole, 134, Bishop's-road, 

N.E., Reg. Agent. 
W. J. Lewis, 42, Pollards-row, 

Bethnal-green, Hon. Sec. 
C. W. Hovell, 84, Bow-road, E., 

Sec. and Reg. Agent. 
C. T. Bartlett,188, Brixton-road, 

S.W.,Hon. Sec. 
H. Herbert, 188, Brixton-road, 

S.W., Reg. Agent. 
A. Cathie, 9, Church-street. 
Camberwell-green, Reg. Agent. 
A. M. Latham, 7, Cheyne- 

gardens, Chelsea, Hon. Sec. 
W. J.Osborne, 182, King's-road, 

Chelsea, Reg. Agent. 
A. Bass, 1 and 2, Queen street, 

Cheapside, Sec. 
W. J. B. Ball, 192, High-street, 

Clapham, Sec. 
H. Marshall, 350, New Cross- 
road, S.E.. Hon. Sec. 
S. Coward, 79, Underhill-road, 

Dulwich; H. S. Cadle, 

3, Alleyn-road, Dulwich, Hon, 

Sees. 
P. A. Spong,136, Lordship-lane, 

Dulwich, Sec. 

F. Thorns, 41, Spencer-street, 
Clerkenwell, Hon. Sec. 

G. W. Newsam, Hon. Sec. 

F. C. .Baum, 117, Old-street, 

E.CReg. Agent. 
C. E. Blake, 51, Clonmel-road, 

Fulham, Hon. Sec. 
A. 'Allgdod, 14, Harwood-road, 

Reg* Agent. 



Conservative. 

B. Bottomley, 83, Falcon-road, 
Clapham -junction. 



C. G. Storey, 132, Grange-road, 

Bermondsey, S.E. 
E. A. Lufflngham, 248, Bethnal- 

green-road. E. 



J. A. Pitman, 343, Bethnal- 

green-road, E. 
H. F. Smith, 151, Bow-road, E. 

J. G. Albert, 206, Brixton-road, 
S.W. 

Ba-ilTree,l, Brunswick-square, 
S E 

Arthur H. Smith, 191, King's- 
road, Chelsea. 



T. Inkersole, 2, Gresham-build- 

ings, Guildhall, E.C. 
F. S. Harnett, 5, South Side, 

Clapham-common, S.W. 
H. Garland Wells, 329, New 

Cross-road, S.E. 
T. Cox, 1, Grove-vale, East 

Dulwich. 



LP. G. Beard, 22. Green-ter- 
race, Rosebery-avonue, E.C. 



<r. 



A. Milner, 6, Shorrolds-road, 
Walham-green, S.W* 



Political London. 



15 



Division. 
Greenwich . 

Hackney— Central . 

North 
„ South. 

Haggerston 
Hammersmith . 

hamp8tead . 

HOXTON. 
HOLBORN 

Islington— East 

„ North . 

„ South 

„ West 

Kennington. 

Kensington— North , 

„ South 

Lambeth— North 
Lewisham . 

Limehousb . 
Marylebone— East 
, ; West 

Mile End . 
Newington— West 



Liberal. 

W. J. Purver, Reform Club, 
South-st., Greenwich, Hon. Sec. 

G. Pilbrow,30, St. Philip'e-road, 
Dalston, Hon. Sec. 

A. W. Radford, 15, Amhurst- 
road, Reg. Agent. 

W. H. Baldwin, 182, Stoke New- 
ington-road, Hon. Sec. ; B. J. 
Dann, Sec. and Reg. Agent. 

W. Cornish, 25, Church-road, 
Homerton, Hon. Sec. 

G. R. Southerton, 25, Church- 
road, Homerton, Reg. Agent. 

Louis Abbott, 336, Hackney- 
road, Sec. 

R. Cotter, 49a, Sulgrave-road, 
Hammersmith, Hon. Sec. 

G. Sexton, 212, Uxbridge-road, 
W.,Sec. 

Harold Baily, Liberal Club, 
Heath-street, Ham pstead.Sec 

Joseph Cox, 299, Old-street, 
E.C., Hon. Sec. 

C. W. Garrard, 31, Lamb's-con- 
duit-st., W.C., Hon. Sec. 

A. E. Pettet, 218, Seven Sisters- 
road, Hon. Sec. 
O. Clarke, Sec, and W. T. 
Sawyer, Hon. Sec, 734. Hol- 
loway-road. 
. D. Thomas, Mornington House, 
Canonbury-lane, Hon. Sec 
W. Isaac, 314, Caledonian-road, 
N., Hon. Sec. 
, J. C. Hatch, 342, Kennington- 
road, S.E., Hon. Sec 
A. G. M'Arthur, 28, Linden- 
gardens. W., Hon. Sec. 
H. Lewis, 92, Ladbroke-grove, 
Reg. Agent. 
, Mrs. Broadley Reid, 70, West 
Cromwell-road, S.W.,Hon.Sec 
Miss C. Jolly, 30, High-street, 
Marylebone, Sec. 
. W. Tillsou-Friehold, 197a, West- 
minster Bridge-road, S.E., 
Hon. Sec. 
. Clifford Smith, 16, Effingham- 
road, Lee, Hon. Sec. 
T. White, 133, High - street, 

Lewisham, Reg. Agent. 
T. R. Garnham, 715, Commer- 
cial-road, E., Hon. Sec. 
. J. T. Osier, Hon. Sec, 184, 

Marylebone-roa1. 

. W. H. Sands, 25, Harcourt-st., 

Edgware-road , W., Hon. Sec. 

. Thos. Gould, Hon. Sec. and 

• -Reg. Agent, 146, Burdett-rd. E. 

. D. T. Denne, 73, Manor-place, 

Newington, Hon. Sec 

R. Wagner, 7, St. Agnes-place, 

Kennington, Hon. Sec. 
J. Boyd, 19, Lorrimore-road, 
S.E., Reg. Agent. 



Conservative. 



J. E. Shaw, 88, London-street, 

Greenwich, E.C. 
H. C. Rawll, 42, Oakfleld-road, 

Clapton, N.E. 



W. H. Bishop, 150, Stoke New- 
ington-road, N. 

C. Jeffries. 10, Lower Clapton- 
road, N.E. 



J. Bye, 
N.E. 



258, Kingsland-road, 



C. H. Allberry, 16, Broadway, 
Hammersmith, W. 



C. Atkinson, 4, College-villas, 
Finchley-road, N.W. 

A. C. Hodder, 27, New North- 
road, N. 

F. M. Gillmore, Conservative 
Association, 36, Red Lion-^q., 
W.C. 

A. Carey, 278, St. Paul's-road, 
Highbury, N. 

Councillor G. W. Didsbury, 623, 
Holloway-road, N. 

S. J. Collingwood, 52, Ronalds- 
road, Highbury, N. 

H. T. Clarke, 356, Cumden-road, 
N.W. 

W. R. Grover. 295, Kennington- 
road. S.E. 

C. Swann Shield, 134, Ladbroke- 
grove, W. 



Col. H. W. Gray, 33, Hogarth- 
road, Earl's Court, S.W. 



I. G. Graham, 156, Westminster 
Bridge-road, S.E. 

T. Edmondston, 6, LimeV- 
grove, High-s-t., Lewisham. 



A. White, 638, Commercial- 
road, E. 

(j. S. Uuderhill, 64, Baker-st.; 

i w - 

J. Forrest, 169, Mile,Eud-rd., E. 

E. E. Brook. 140, Walworth - 
road.S.E. 



B 2 



16 



Political London. 



Division. 
Norwood 



Paddington— North . 

„ South . 

Peckham 
Poplar . 

rotherhithe 

St. George's— East . 

„ hanover-8q. 

St. Pancras— East . 

„ North . 

„ South . 

„ West . 

southwark— we8t . 



Stepney. 

Strand . 

University of Lon- 
don . 
Walworth . 



Wandsworth 
Westminster 



Whitechapel 



Woolwich 



Liberal. 

G. E. Michael, 333a, Norwood- 
road, S.E., Sec. 

C. W. Meallin, 2, Woodquest- 
avenue, Heme Hill, Hon. Sec. 

W. Jacob, 252, Harrrow-road, 
W. Sec. 

G. E.'Holioway, 16,Edbrooke- 
road, W., Hon. Sec. 

H. A. Baker, 59, Palace-court, 
Bayswater, Hon. Sec. 

W. A. Keyse, 84, Rye - lane, 
Peckham, Hon. Sec. 

C. E. Theis, 102, East India- 
road, Hon. Sec. 

G. H. Ford, 102, East India- 
road, Hon. Sec. 

F. H. Benson, 3, St. James's- 
road, Bermondsey. 

Charles Gover, 45, Watney- 
street, E., Hon. Sec. 

G. C. Revell, 203, Cable-street, 
Secretary and Reg. Agent. 

A. W. Lawrence.. 1a, Semley- 
place, Ebury-street, Hon. Sec. 

J. Brown, 62, King's-road, Cam- 
den Town, Sec. 

J. Manus, 7, Prince of Wales- 
road, N.W., Sec. and Reg. 
Agent. 

A. P. Stocken, 21, Endsleigh- 
gardens, N.W., Hon. Sec, 
pro. tern. 

H. Blanchard, Cobden House, 
144, Hampstead-road, N.W., 
Hon. Sec. 

T. Haynes, 166, Scovell-road ; 
S. W. Pascall, 100, Black- 
friars-road, Hon Sees. 

E. C. Middleditch, 166, Scovell- 
road, Southwark Bridge-road, 
S.E., Reg. Agent. 

E. D. Forrester, 20, Apsley- 
street, Stepney, Sec. 

Miss Pocock, 18, Buckingham- 
street, Strand, W.C., Sec. 

W. Addington Willis, 1, King's 
Bench-walk,Temple,Hon.Sec. 

G. Vernon, 267, Croxted-road, 
West Dulwich, Hon. Sec. 

B. T. Gregory, 70, East-street, 
Walworth, Reg. Agent. 

J. Upton, 32, Fullerton-road, 

Wandsworth, Hon. Sec. 
T. R. Luke, Hon. Sec. 

C. F. Headford, 9, Parliament- 
chambers, Great Smith-st., 
S.W., Sec. 

G. T. Legg, 47, Whitechapel- 
road, E., Reg. Agent. 

E. W. George, 151,Whitechapel- 
road, E., Hon. Sec. 

W. Barefoot, Labour Represen- 
tation Committee, 3, New- 
road, Woolwich. 



Conservative. 

R. B, Staines, 10, Heme Hill- 
road, S.E. 



I B. D. Barnett, 22, Bishop's- 
* road,W. 



W. H. Mayo, Conservative 
Club, Hanover Park, S.E. 

G. Vickery, Constitutional Clnb, 
Newby -place, Poplar. 



A. J. Tyler, 70, Union - road, 

Rotherhithe, S.E. 
L. Davis, Beaconsfleld House, 

206, Cable-street, E. 



T. Lennox Irwin, 31, Old 

Queen-street, S.W. 
C. H. Ball, 18, Camden-street, 

N.W. 
H. A. Collins, 3, High gate- road, 

N.W. 

E. Barnes, 26, Argyle-sq., W.C. 



A. R. Miles, 8, Stanhope-tor., 
Gloucester Gate, N.W. 

Gerald H.Edwards,86, Borough - 
road, S.E. 



G. W. McMullan, 50, Portland 

street, Stepney, E. 
T. Lennox Irwin, 31, Old 

Queen-street, S.W. 



S. J. Willis, 140, Walworth- 
road, S.E. 



G. W. Daw, 88, East Hill, 

Wandsworth, S.W. 
F. C. Morgan 64, Victoria-st., 

Westminster, S.W. 



S. Mockett, Imperial Mansions 
Charing-cross-road, W.C. 



Stanley C. Abbott, 3, Thomas- 
street, Woolwich. 



Central goternfng Kutftorftfe** 



LONDON COUNTY COUNCIL. 



Until eighteen years ago London 
had no central representatite Go- 
verning Authority. In 1865 the 
Metropolitan Board of Works was 
established, and discharged certain 
central municipal duties. It was 
constituted by members nominated 
by the vestries, the district boards, 
and the City Corporation. Origi- 
nally intended only to look after 
main drainage, and a few minor 
matters, such as street naming and 
lines of frontage, it soon extended 
its duties by taking over the fire 
brigade and the Thames bridges ; 
executing street improvements, in- 
cluding the making of the Thames 
Embankment ; acquiring and main- 
taining parks and open spaces ; and 
undertaking other works. Never a 
popular body, because it did not 
come into touch with the people, it 
fell into disjgrace just at the time 
that Mr. Ritchie, as President of 
the Local G-overnment Board, was 
reforming the County Government 
in the country. A Parliamentary 
inquiry showed that several officers 
of the board had been guilty of 
corruption, and that some of the 
members were not above suspicion. 
It was opportunely abolished, and 
in its place a really representative 
council created. London was made 
a County, and the jurisdiction exer- 
cised by the county justices of Mid- 
dlesex, Kent, and Surrey, within the 
area governed by the Metropolitan 
Board of Works, ceased. For cer- 
tain purposes the City was absorbed 
with the rest of the Metropolis. 

The Council consists of 118 elected 
representatives—two from each Par- 
liamentary division and four from 
the City — and 19 aldermen. The 



Council election takes place in 
March, every three years. The alder- 
men are elected by the Council for 
six years— 9 retiring at the end of 
one triennial period and 10 at the 
end of the next similar period. 

The Council has a chairman, a 
vice-chairman, and a deputy- 
chairman. Originally the deputy- 
chairman was a paid official, the 
chief of the staff, although a mem- 
ber of the Council. The clerk of 
the Council now combines the ad- 
ministrative functions of the former 
deputy-chairman with the duties 
of the clerk. 

The first chairman of the Coun- 
cil was Lord Rosebery. He was 
succeeded by Sir John Lubbock. 
Lord Rosebery returned to the 
chair for a few months after the 
election of the second Council, and 
was followed by Sir John Hutton, 
who held the position until the elec- 
tion of the third Council. 

Sir Arthur Arnold was chairman 
from March 1895 to March 1897. 
Since that date the chairmanship 
of the Council has been an annual 
office, held by Sir W. J. Collins, 
M.P., Mr. T. McKinnon Wood, M.P., 
Lord Welby, Mr. W. H. Dickin- 
son, M.P., Mr. A. M. Torrance, M.P., 
Sir John McDougall, Lord Monks- 
well, Mr. J. W. Benn, M.P., Sir E. A. 
Cornwall, M.P., Mr. Evan Spicer, and 
Mr. H. P. Harris, who is the present 
chairman. The first deputy-chair- 
man was the late Mr. Firth, who had 
long been associated with the reform 
of London government. He was 
followed by Alderman Haggis, who 
also died in office. Mr. W. H. Dickin- 
son was the last paid deputy-chair- 
man, and occupied the position four 
years. 



18 



London Oounty Council. 



The following is a list of the chairmen and the periods for which they 
served : — : 



First Council. 
March 1889 to July 1891 
July 1891 to March 1892 

Second Council. 
March 1892 to June 1892 
June 1892 to March 1895 

Third Council. 
March 1895 to March 1896 
March 18% to March 1897 
March 1897 to March 1898 

Fourth Council. 
March 1898 to March 1899 
March 1899 to March 1900 
March 1900 to March 1901 

Fifth Council. 
March 1901 to March 1902 
March 1902 to March 1903 
March 1903 to March 1904 

Sixth Council. 
March 1904 to March 1905 
March 1905 to March 1906 
March 1906 to March 1907 

Seventh Council. 
March 1907 



Earl of Rosebery 
Sir John Lubbock 



Earl of Rosebery 
Sir John Hutton 



Sir Arthur Arnold 
Sir Arthur Arnold 
Dr. W. J. Collins 



T. McK. Wood 
Lord Welby 
W. H. Dickinson 



A. M. Torrance 
Sir J. McDougall 
Lord Monkswell 



J. W. Benn 
E. A. Cornwall 
Evan Spicer 



H. P. Harris 



VICE-CHAIRMAN. 



Sir John Lubbock 
Lord Farrer 



Sir John Hutton 
Charles Harrison 



J. W. Benn 

Dr. W. J. Collins 

R. M. Beachcroft 



Lord Welby 

R. Strong 

A. M. Torrance 



John McDougall 
Lord Monkswell 
E. A. Cornwall 



E. A. Cornwall 
Evan Spicer 
Henry Ward 



H. S. Sankey 



DEPUTT-CHA IBM AN 



rH. B. B. Firth 
(d. Sept. 1889) 

I A. H. Haggis 
(d. Nov. 1891) 

LR. M. Beachcroft 

W. H. Dickinson 
W. H. Dickinson 



W. H. Dickinson 
R. M. Beachcroft 
A. M. Torrance 



H. P. Harris 
T. L. Corbett 
J. S. Fletcher 



Lt.-Col. A. Rotton 
Henry Clarke 
R. A. Robinson 



F. P. Alliston 
Lt.-Col. Probyn 
Dr. Baxter Forman 



Capt. Fiteroy 
Hemphill 



ELECTION RETURNS. 



There have always been brisk 
contests at the County Council 
elections. The first took place on 
January 17th, 1889, and among the 
members two ladies were elected — 
Lady Sandhurst for Brixton and 
Miss Jane Cobden for Bow. But 
Sir Walter de Souza and Mr. 
Beresford-Hope put the law in 
operation, and had them removed. 
Mr. Beresford-Hope then secured 
Lady Sandhurst's seat at Brixton 
without a contest, and Miss Cons, 
who had been elected an "alder- 
man," retired as a result of the legal 
difficulty created. # The following 
have been the positions of the two 



parties — Progressives and Mode- 
rates — on the various Councils : — 



Pro. Mod. ^; 

45 ... 28 
35 ... 48 
59 ... — 
48 ... 22 
31 ... 53 
34 



First election, January, 1889 73 
Second election, March, 1892 83 
Third election, March, 1895 59 
Fourth election, March, 1898 70 
Fifth election, March, 1901 84 
Sixth election, March, 1904 83 

One " Independent " was also elected. 

Mod. 
Maj. 
Seventh election, March 1907 37 ... 79 ... 42 
One " Independent " and one " Labour " 
were also elected. 

The seventh triennial general 
election— of March, 1907— resulted 
for the first time in the history of 
the Council in a victory for the 



London County Council. 



19 



Moderates. The 118 elected mem- 
bers now consist of 37 Progressives, 
79 Moderates, one Independent and 
one Labour. The contest was 
fought on the old lines of cleavaee 
between the Progressive and Mode- 
rate parties, though the latter had 
changed their name to Municipal 
Reformers following the innovation 
made at the borough council elec- 
tions in November, 1906. 

In the following returns P stands 
for Progressive ; M, Moderate ; I, 
Independent; L, Labour; S, Social- 
ist. An asterisk (*) indicates a 
member of the previous Council. 
Figures in parentheses indicate the 
number of electors. 

BATTERSEA. 

(22,914.) 

*W. Davies (P) . 7,250 

A. S. Benn (M) . 7,217 

•Aid. J. West (P) . 6,669 
E. Evans (M) . . 6,591 
W. H. Humphreys (S) 489 

J. Fitzgerald (S) . 98 

H.Jan sen- Neuman (S) 42 

1904-Burns, m.p. (P), 5,513; Davies (P)» 

5,502 ; Thomas (M), 2,503. 
1901— Davies. (P) , 5,951 ; Burns (P) , 5,906 ; 

Boulter (M), 1,829; Dumphreys (M), 1,746. 

BERMONDSEY. 

(15,648.) 

*Dr. A. Salter (P) . . 4197 

*A. A. Allen, m.p. (P) . . 4,195 

J. F. V. Fitzgerald (M) 3,474 

J. K. Foster (M) . 3,389 

1904—Cooper (P), 3,221; Allen (P), 3,215; 

Flood (M), 2,153; Anderton (M), 2,065. 

1906 (by-election) : Salter, unopposed. 

1901-Cooper (P), 3,147; Allen (P), 3,096; 
Cox (M), 2,094; Layman (M), 2,026. 

BETHNAL GREEN— NORTH-EAST* 

(11,027.) 

•Sir E. Cornwall (P) . . 3.877 

*E. Smith (P>. . . . 3,777 
R. A. Robinson (M) . 1,918 
L. H. Lemon (M) . 1,907 
1904-Smith (P), 3,265; Cornwall (P), 

2,251; McCrae (M), 1,211: Deans (M), 1,163. 
1901— Smith (P), 3,030; Cornwall (P), 

2,963 ; Bruce (M), 1,181; Collins (M), 1,169. 



BETHNAL GREEN— SOUTH-WEST. 

(9,708.) . 

Rev. S. Headlam (P) . . 2,995 

P. A. Harris (P) . . . 2,762 
R. S. Montetiore (M) 1,774 
F. Brinsley-Harper (M) 1,(543 
J. H. Harley (S) . 512 

1904-Branch (P), 2,490; Wiles (P), 2,458; 

Keeling (M), 955; Maconachie (M), 955. 
1901 -Branch (P), 2,401; Wiles (P), 2,358; 

Kinnoul (M), 1,358; Coltman (M), 1,329. 

BOW AND BRONILEY. 

(14,745.) 

W. S. M. Knight (M) . . 3,285 
H. B. Rowe (M) . . . 3,212 
*W. W. Bruce (P) . 3,019 
*B. Cooper (P) . . 3,019 
A. A. Watts (S) . 786 

J. Stokes (S) . . 783 

S. A. Bird (I) . . 159 

1904-Bruce (P) , 3,420 ; Cooper (P) , 3,388 ; 
Batchelor (M), 1,600; Levett (M), 1,569. 

1901— Bruce (P) and Cooper (P) unop- 
posed. 

BRIXTON. 

(13,921.) 

S. J. G. Hoare (M) . . 4,997 

W.Haydon(M) . . . 4,928 

*L. Sharp (P) . 3,546 

L. Earle(P) . . 3,525 

1904-Sharp (P), 3,170; Dolman (P), 3.420: 

Haydon (M), 2,922; Cresswell (M), 2,911. 

1901-Dolman (P), 3,224; Sharp (P), 
3,226; Bell (M), 2,180; Jerome (M), 2,138. 

CAM BERWELL— NORTH. 

(18,204.) 

*R. Bray(P) . . . 5,499 

*H. R. Taylor (P) . . 5,365 

A. Campbell (M) . 3,545 

W. Edmonds, jun. (M) 3,472 

1904— Taylor (P), 3,670; Bray (P), 3,563; 

Miller (I), 1,229. 

1901— Strong (P) and Taylor (P) unop- 
posed. 

CHELSEA. 
(16,802.) 

T. C. E. Goff (M) . . . 5,877 

R. C. Norman (M) . . 5,779 
*E. J. Horniman,M.P. (P) 3,977 
* J. Jeffery (P) . . 3,915 
1904-Jeffery (P), 4,224; Horniman (P), 

4,143; S.irtorius (M), 3,471: Goff (M), 3,462. 
1901-Jeffery (P), 4,582; Horniman (P). 

4.481: Meinertzhagen (M), 2,682; Elliott 

(M), 2,639. 



20 



London County Council. 



CITY OF LONDON. 

(32,399.) 

Aid. F. S. Hanson (M) . 7,603 
N.L. Cohen (M) . . . 7,519 
W. H. Pownall (M) . . 7,484 
*H. S. Sankey(M) . . 7,451 
C. R. Buxton (P) . 1,768 

F. Debenham (P) . 1,766 

G. S. Warmington (P) 1,719 
*W. H. Dickinson (P) 1,646 
1904— Alliston (M), 4,907; Brooke-Hitch- 
ing (M), 4,858; Gitinness (M), 4,799; San- 
key (M), 4,606; Buxton (P), 2,3*2; Lord 



Sandhurst (P), 2,298. 
1901-Alliston (M), 3,325 



, Clarke (M), 

3,251; .Sankey JM), 



3,290; Cohen (M), ~, — , ~„ v — ,, 

3,138; Welby(P), 2,341; Spicer (P), 2,327. 

CLAPHANI. 

(28,076.) 

J. W. Domoney (M) . . 10,200 

Sir C. J. Cooke (M) . . 10,155 

A.Glegg(P) . . 7,320 

J. G. Ruling (P) . 7,276 

1904— Rotton (M), 5,910; Gaskell (M), 
5,764; Kipling (P), 5,544; Pannett (P), 
5,408. 

1901— Rottton (M), 4,141; Gaskell (M), ' 
4,058; Hewitt (P), 3,903. 

DEPTFORD. 

(21,549.) 

*S. Webb (P) . • • 6,185 
*R. C. Phillimore (P) . . 6,083 
H. G. Wells (M) . 5,979 
W. F. Barrett (M) . 5,899 
R. R. Fairbairn (I) . 182 

1904— Phillimore (P), Webb (P), up- 
opposed. 

1901— Webb (P), 5,496; Phillimore (P), 
5 349 ; T. W. Marchant (M) , 2,655 ; Wayne 
(M), 2,780. 

DULWICH. 

(16,864.) 

H.C,Goocb(M) . . . 6,689 

F. Hall(M) .... 6,641 
* J. A. Hardy, M.P. (P) 5.020 
A. S. Cohn(P) . . 4,844 
1904— Hardy (P), 5,347; Gautry (P), 

4,275; Mitchell (M), 3,548; Gooch (M), 

3,531. 
1901— Hardy (P), 3,312; Cousins (M), 

2,587; Thornhiit (M), 2,442. 



F1N8BURY— CENTRAL. 

(9,733J 

♦Capt. Hon. F. Hemphill (P) 2,806 

*A. B. Russell (P). . . 2,791 

*Capt.G.S.Swinton(M) 2,508 

M. Chapman (M) . 2,507 

1904-Hemphill (P), 2,361; Russell (P), 
2,338; Hoskins (M), 1,935; Wayne (M), 
(1,914). 

1901— Hemphill (P), 2,023; Smith (P), 
2,021; Rutland (M), 1,796; Low (M), 1,722. 

Bye-election, November, 1901, on retire- 
ment of Smith (P), MacDonald (P), un- 
opposed. 

F1N8BURY— EAST. 

(6,687.) 

Colonel A. C.Welby(M) . 2,024 

E. Howes (M) . . . 2,014 

•T. Harvey (P) . 1,988 

F. A. Harrison (P) . 1,988 

1904— Baker (P), 2,336; Harvey (P), 
2,190; Howes (M), 1,772; Smith (M), 1,618. 

1901-Baker (P), 2,471; Benson (P) 
2,409; Marcus (M), 870; Porter (M), 870. 

FULHANI. 

(26,409.) 

*C. Cobb(M) . . . 8,413 

E. J. Easton (M) . . . 8,301 

W. L. Taylor (P. . 4,774 

J. J. Stephenson(L) . 3,139 

J. R. Wall (S) . 773 

1904-Lawson (P), 6,207; Davies (P), 
6,179; Skinner (M), 5,247; Lord Lytton 
(M), 5,157. 1905 (bye-election) — Cobb 
(M), 4,395; Spender (P), 3,970; Clark (L), 
425. 

1901— Davies (P), 5,341; Lawson (P), 
5,259; Easton (M), 3,497; Gull (M), 3,483: 
Cooney (I), 645. 

GREENWICH. 

(15,987.) 

J.H.Benn(M) . . . 6,217 

Lord A. J. Thynne (M) . 5,991 
D.McCall(P) . . 3,727 
Rev. J. Wilson (P) . 3,545 
1904— Jackson (P), Warmington (P) ; 

unopposed. 
1901— Jackson (P), 4,242; Warmington 

(P), 3,937 s Shaw (M), 3,209; Lemon (M), 

3,178; Ellis (I), 615. 



London County Council. 



21 



HACKN EY— CENTRAL. 

(12,809.) 

W. B. Stewart (M) . . 3,671 

G. Billings (M) . . . 3,620 

*A. J. Shepheard (P) 3,608 

*W. B. Yates (P) . 3,591 

E. C. Fairchild (S) . 283 

F. V. Fisher (S) . 265 

1904— Wood (P), 3,534; Shepheard (P), 
3,476; Lord Bingham (M), 2,120; Cart- 
wright (M), 2,097. 

1901— Wood (P), 3.162; Shepheard (P), 
3,221; Johnston (M), 1,742; Cartwright 
(M), 1,688. 

HACKN EY— NORTH . 

(16,990.) 

W.H. Key(M) . . . 6,205 

W. B,. Greene (M) . . 6,153 
*G. Lampard (P) . 4,617 
Aid. E. C. Price (P) . 4,530 
1&04— Lampard (P), 4,372; Sears (P), 

4,189 ; Miller (M), 3,773 ; Key (M), 3,942. 
1901— Lampard (P), 4,458; Sears (P), 

4,257; Forman (M), 2,963; Richmond ( 

2,819. 

HACKNEY— SOUTH. 

(18,114.) 

T. Chapman (P) . . . 5,225 

W.A. Ca«son(P). . . 5,138 

C. Hinckley (M) . 3,325 

G. K. Naylor (M) . 3,285 
1904 -Browne (P), 4,318; Smith (P), 

4,316: Boulter (M), 1,776; Craig (M), 1,767. 
1901— Browne (P), 4,231; Smith (P), 
4,169; Wallis (M), 2,117; Oldfield (M), 
2,068. 

HAGGER8TON. 

(10,233.) 

•Hon. R. Guinness (M) . 3,307 

Hon. G. Johnstone (M) . 3,131 
♦Lord Monkswell (P) 3,085 
Mr. S. Gee (P) . 3,026 

1904— Lord Monkswell (P), 2,479; Stuart 

(P), 2,456; Stokoe (M), 1,093; Lloyd (M), 

1,030. 
1901— Stuart (P), 2,300; Monkswell (P), 

2,251; Bridgeman (M), 1,011; Walker 

(M),968. 

HAMMERSmiTH. 

(17,949.) 

* J. Brandon (M) . . , 5,850 

*E. Collins (M) . . . 5,839 

N. W. Shairp (P) . 2,755 

E. Camp(P) . . 2,709 

Dr. Davidson (S) . 897 

J. T. Westcott (S) . 737 



1904— Brandon (M), 3,501; Collins (M), 
3,494; Ritchie (P), 3,483; Whelan (P), 
3,392. 

1901-Collins (M), 3,128; Brandon (M), 
3,110; Lord (P), 2,885; Rawlings (P),2£74. 

HAMP8TEAD. 

(15,012.) 

* J. T. Taylor (M) . . . 5,577 
W. Reynolds (M) . . . 5,508 
G. L. Bruce (P) . 3,894 
C. A. McCurdy (P) . 2,878 
1904-Hanhart (M), 3,252; Taylor (M), 
3,213; Mullens (P), 2,893; Smith (P), 2,737. 
1901— Fletcher (M), 2,476; Mullins (P), 
2,231; Bond (M), 1,864. 

HOLBORN. 

(12,396.) 

E. E. Wild (M) . 4,524 

Hon. H. Lygon (M) . . 4,030 

H. D. Woodcock (P) . 1,629 

1904— Bliss (M), 2,670; Swinton (M), 

2.649; Ansell (P), 1,241 ; Goodes (P), 1,169. 

mm 1901— Bliss (M), 2,146; Swinton (M), 

l j£J; 2,135; Cohen (P), 1,464. 

HOXTON. 

(12,019.) 

Dr. J. Davies (M) . . 3,272 

E. Grey (M) . . . . 3,225 

*H.Ward(P) . . 3,112 

*G. Wallis (P) . 3,065 

1904- Wallis (P), 2,436 ; Ward (P), 2,361 ; 



Davies (M), 2,281; Gates (M), 2,124. 

1901-Austin (P), 2,379; Ward (P), 2,366; 
Davies (M), 1,878; Bird (M), 1,827. 

ISLINGTON— EAST. 

(15,439.) 

C. A. M. Barlow (M) . . 4,430 

P. E. Pilditch (M) . . 4,402 
Aid. E. Smallwood (P) 4,291 
*A. A. Thomas (P) . 4,257 
1904— Torrance (P), 4,413; Thomas (P), 

3,914: Caesar (M), 2,416. 
1901— Torrance (P), 3,992; Laughland 

P), 3,751; Mortimer (M), 2,254; Beale 

"), 2,249. 

ISLINGTON— NORTH. 
(16,775.) 

F. L. Dove(M) . . . 4,924 

C. K. Murchison (M) . . 4,797 
H. G. Chancellor (P) 4,200 

H. J. Glanville (P) . 4,192 
1904-Napier (P), 3,876; Parkinson (P), 

3,858; Tomkins (M), 2,811; Sharp (W), 

2,771. 
1901— Napier (P), 4,097; Parkinson (P), 

4,075; Clough(M). 2,206; Gedge (M), 2,196. 



ffi 



22 



London County Council. 



ISLINGTON— SOUTH. 

(11,465.) 

*G. Dew (P) . . . . 2,996 

*H. J. Williams (P) . . 2,929 
S. Lambert (M) . 2,217 
C. Moffatt (M) . . 2,076 
G. F. Elliott (I) . a50 

E.J. James (I) . 179 

1904— Williams (P), 2,536; Dew (P), 2,437; 

EUiott (I), 1,770; Lambert (I), 1,596; 

Memory (I), 356. 
1901— Elliott (I) and Williams (P), 

unopposed. 

ISLINGTON— WEST. 

(10,060.) 

I. Salmon (M) 3,326 

H. J. Clarke (M) . . . 3,300 
R. C. Lambert (P) . 2,933 
A. J. Mundella (P) . 2,900 
1904— Goodman (P), 2,904; Radford (P), 

2,874; Adams (M), 1,705; Clarke (M), 1,695. 
1901— Goodman (P), 3,039; Radford (P), 

3,014; Davies (M), 1,351 ; Grant (M), 1,296. 

KENNINGTON. 

(11,842.) 

•Sir J. W. Benn, m.p. (P) . 3,424 

Rev. E. Denny (P) . . 3,326 
J. P. Budge (M) . 2,718 
Sir W. H. Porter (M) 2,666 
J. G-. Butler (S) . 281 

F. Knee(S) . , 235 

1904-Collins (P), 3,394 ; Benn (P), 3,388 ; 

Edwards (M), 2,450. 
1901-Benn (P), 3,505; Collins (P), 3,412; 

Bennet (M), 1,913; Dixon (M), 1,844. 

KENSINGTON— NORTH. 

(14,770.) 

D. Davis (M) ... 4,418 

Major C. L. Skinner (M) . 4,382 
*H. L. Jephson (P) . 3,181 
*W. Pope (P) . . 3,170 

m 1904-Pope (P), 3,232; Jephson (P), 3,203; 

Thompson (M), 2,914; Baron de Worms 

(M), 2,858. 
1901 — Pope (P), 2,315; Jephson (P), 

2,233; Thompson (M), 2,179; Morrison 

(M), 2,156. 

KENSINGTON— SOUTH. 

(14,539.) 

*A. K. Robinson (M) . . 5,869 

*Dr. E. B. Forman (M) . 5,834 

V. Aronson (P) . 788 

Hon. W. J. James (P) 770 



1904— Robinson (M), 3,538; Thesiger (M), 
3,519; Carr (P),682; Norton (P),660. 1905 
(bye-election)— Colvile (M). unopposed. 

1901— Campbell (M), 2,264; Robinson 
(M), 2,253; Coumbe (P), 758; Fennessy 
(P),754. 

LAMBETH— NORTH. 

(8,237.) 

*F. Briant(P) . . . 2,360 
F. Smith (L) . . . 2,249 
*J. Williams (M) . 2,080 
G. Hinds (M) . . 2,077 
1904-Wightman (P), 1,180; Williams 
(M), 1,152; Brooks (M), 1,103; Gregory 
(P), 1,028; Clery (l), 422; J. Clarke (I), 
419; W. H. Clarke (L), 265. 1905 (bye- 
election)— Briant (P), 1,549; Hinds (M), 

1901 -Wightman (P), 1,761; Williams 
(P), 1,677; Williams (M), 1,357; Ansell 
(M), 1,329. 

LEWI SH Am. 

(28,217.) 

Lord Lewisham (M) . . 11,028 
A. Pownall (M) . 10,818 

*J. W. Cleland, m.p. (P) 7,004 
Hon. N. Primrose (P) 6,893 
A. Gee (L) . . 118 

1904— Cleland (P), 6,297; Stanley (P), 
5,946; Fitzgerald (M), 4,557; Hartley (M), 

' 1901— Cleland (P), 3,370; Dodson (M), 
3,235; Williams (M), 3,096. 

LIMEHOUSE. 

(8,022.) 

C. Jackson (M) . . . 2,141 

J. L. Williams (M) . . 2,026 
*A. L. Leon (P) . 1,957 
T. L. Knight (P) . 1,935 
1904-Bawn (P), 2,461; Leon (P), 2,381; 

Elliott (M), 1,517; Gray (M), 1,3%. 
1901— Leon (P), 1,751; Bawn (P), 1,637; 

Hole (M), 1,326; Williams (M), 1,297. 

MILE END. 

(6,839.) 

R. H. Montgomery (M) . 2,023 

E. H. Coumbe (M) . . 2,011 

R. V. Harcourt (P) . 1,988 

Rev. T. Warren (P) . 1,925 

1904-Warren (P), 2,125; Straus (P), 
2,121; Goodrich (M), 1,569; Smith (M), 
1,368: Baxter (I), 36. 

1901-Straus (P), 1,941 ; Seager (P), 1,0%; 
Flower, m.p. (M), 1,341; Booth (M), 1,341. 

Bye-election, March, 1902: A. O. Good- 
rich (M), 1,194; W. Hazell (P), 893. 



London County Council. 



23 



NEWINGTON— WEST. 

(12,483.) 

*E. Spicer(P) . . . 3,778 

* J. D. Gilbert (P). . . 3,759 

H.Jarvis(M) . . 2,700 

A. Waddell (M) . 2,075 

1904-Piggott (P), 3,244; Gilbert (P), 
3,029; Lansdale (M), 1,380; Gibbons (M), 
1,356. 

1901-Piggott (P), 4,020; Gilbert (P), 
3,009 ; Lansdale (M), 822 ; Hoare (M),779. 

NORWOOD. 

(16,278.) 

C. U. Fisher (M) . . . 6,585 

F. St. J. Morroli (M) . . 6,539 

*N. W. Hubbard (P) 4,174 

*G. Shrubsall (P) . 4,120 

1904-Hubbard (P), 4,328; Shrubsall 
(P), 4,233; Nicholls (M), 3,922; Chapman 
(M), 3,887. 

1901— Hubbard (P), 3,770; Shrubsall 
(P), 3,626; Oxley (M), 2,709; Cutler. (M), 
2,669. 

PADD1NGTON— NORTH. 

(15,664.) 

Hon. W. Guinness (M) . 4,711 

J. H. Hunter (M) . . . 4,597 

J. Fairbanks (P) . 3,607 

G. C. Moberley (P) . 3,453 

1904-Beachcroft (M), 3,346; Stephens 
(M), 2,916; Blackwood (P), 2,393; Turner 
(P), 2,172. 

1901-Beachcroft(M), 1,962; Blackwood 
(P). 1,916 ; Harris (M), 1,858; Warren (P), 
1,820. 

PADDINGTON— SOUTH. 

(9,582.) 

Sir R. Beachcroft (M) . . 3,763 

*H. P. Harris (M) . . 3,709 

J. S. Holmes (P) . 848 

A. Y. Mayell (P) . 816 

1904-Harben (M), 2,608; Harris (M), 
2,589; Owen (P), 937; Kennedy (P), 524. 

1901-Harris (M), 1,618; Harben (M), 
1,611; Paddon (P),524. 

Bye-election, April, 1901— On Sir G. D. 
Harris (M) being elected an alderman Mr. 
H. P. Harris, unopposed. 



PECKHAIYI. 

(18,538.) 

T. Gautrey(P) . . . 4,659 

W. L. Dowton (M) . . 4,426 
D. C. Preston (M) . 4,379 
R. Steven (P) . . 4,262 
W. T. Kelly (S) . 499 

1904-Clarke (P), 3,936: Verney (P), 

3,871; Somerville (M), 1,779; Fleming. 

(M), 1,666. 
1901-Verney (P), 3,563; Clarke (P), 

3,546; Scott-Scott (M), 2,138; Roes (M), 

2,000. 

POPLAR. 
(13,263.) 

*W. Crooks, m.p. (P) . . 3,504 

•Sir J. McDougall (P) . 3,476 

Dr. T. H. Clark (M) . 2,778 
Colonel A. Maude (M) 2,579 
1904-Crooks (P). 3,565; McDougall (P), 

3,169 : Clarke, 1,891. 
1901-Crooks (P) and McDougall (P), 

unopposed. 

ROTHERHITHE. 
(13,199.) 

*A. Pomeroy (P) . . . 3,693 
*H. J. GlanviUe (P) . . 3,663 
. F. Freemantle (M) . 3,365 
F. E. Eddis (M) . 3,259 
1904-Pomeroy (P), 3,108; GlanviUe (P), 
3,029; Oake (M), 1,530 ; Tyler (M), .1,448; 
Brown (I), 1160. 

1901-Glanville (P), 2,934; Pomeroy (P), 
2,927; Grant (M), 2,302; Pennell (M), 
2,224. 

8T. GEORGE'S, HANOVER SQUARE. 

(13,477.) 

♦Lord Cheylesmore (M) . 5,445 

*H. J. Greenwood (M) . 5.375 

Earl of Craven (P) . 1,384 

T. E. Therris (P) . 1,348 
1904-Greenwood (M), 3,144; Leigh (M), 

3,113; Lord O'Hagan (P), 1,911; Webster 

(P), 1,852: Copp(I),87. 
1901— Dickson - Poynder (M), 2,395 ; 

Greenwood (M), 2,365; Chesterfield (P), 

1,414; Saunders (I), 361. 

ST. GEORGE'S-IN-THE-EAST. 

(4,751.) 

*H. Gosling (P) . . . 1,183 

P. C. C. Simmonds (M) . 1,104 

*J. Smith (P) . . 1,035 

T. King(l) . . 952 

W. R. Smith (M) . 881 

J. W. Lynch (I) . 632 



24 



London County Council. 



1904-Gosling (P), 1,350; Smith (P), 
1,263; Poster (M), 1,095; Wells (M), 1,045. 

1901— Smith (P), 1,123; Poster (M), 1,117: 
Anderton (M), 1,047; Matthews (P), 1,024. 

ST. mARYLE BONE— EAST. 

(9,411.) 

Lord Duncannon (M) . . 3,612 

J. Boyton(M) . . . 3,662 

Dr. F. Little (P) . 2,446 

F. Gill(P). . . 467 

1904— Lord Ludlow (M), 2,848; Bridge- 
man (M), 2,779; Little (I), 1,762: Leaf (I), 
1,747. 1904 Jbye-election)— Earl of Essex 
(M), 1,822; Wheeler (I), 514. 

1901-Leaf (I), 1,959; Little (I), 1,897; 
Underhill (M), 1,896; Brooke-Hitching 
(M), 1,866. 

ST. IVIARYLEBONE— WEST. 

(12,255.) 

Lord Bentinck (M) . . 4,683 

Earl of Kerry (M) . . 4,625 

*J. Lewis (P) . . 2.434 

Dr. J. Searson (P) . 2,330 

1904— Lewis (P), 2,708; Bailey (M), 2,509 
White (M), 2,450; Sands (P), 2,422. 

1901— Farquhar (M), 2,290; White (M), 
2,198; Sands (P), 2,054; Clay (P), 1,961. 

Bye-election, July, 1901— On retirement 
of Lord Farquhar (M), J. Lewis (P), 2,075 ; 
Sir Cameron Gull, 1,835. 

ST. PANCRAS— EAST. 

(12,470.) 

A. W. Claremont (P) . . 3,482 

Eev. F. Hastings (P) . . 3,410 

E. Barnes (M) . . 3,181 

T. A. Organ (M) . 3,005 

G. Home (L) . . 295 
1904-Idris (P), 2,751; Barnes (M), 2,731 ; 

Hennessey (P), 2,558. 

1901— Robinson (P), 2,958; Organ (P), 
2,749; Sinclair-Cox (M), 1,525; Angus (M), 
1,499. 

Bye-election, August, 1902— T. H. W. 
Idris (P), 2,490 ; E. Barnes (M), 1,865. 

ST. PANCRAS— NORTH. 

(12,162.) 

*D. S. Waterlow m.p. (P) . 3,847 

* Dr. Beaton (P) . . . 3,824 

E. J. King (M) . . 3,526 

J. A. Pakenham (M) 3,501 



1904-Beaton (P), 3,045; Waterlow (P), 
3,023; Low (M), 1,737; Betterton (M), 1,695. 

1901-Waterlow (P), 2,791; Wilberforce 
(P), 2,605; Wetenhall (M), 2,051; Willis 
(M), 1,885; Leighton (I), 80. 

ST. PANCRAS— SOUTH. 

(7,972.) 

G. Alexander (M) . . 2,963 

*F. Goldsmith (M) . . 2,897 

Rev. S. Home (P) . 1,613 

C. S. Giddins (P) . 1,583 

,,1904— Gastrell (M), 1,927; Goldsmith 

(M), 1,808; Shaw (P), 1,461; Geary (P), 
1,412. 

1901-Sheffleld (P), 1,750 L Somerset (P), 
1,709; Gastrell (M), 1,624; Doll (M), 1,612. 

ST. PANCRAS— WEST. 

(10,913.) 

P. Vosper(M) . . . 3,504 
F. Cassell(M) . . . 3,471 
H. Cohen (P) . . 2,461 
J. C. S. Hanham (P) 2,442 
. 1904— Collins (P), 2,889; Earl Carrington 
(P), 2,769; Buxton (M), 1,352 ; Smith (M), 
1,341; Baker (I), 125. 

1901— Collins (P), 2,674; Carrington (P), 
2,544; Elcho (M), 1,869; Westacott (M), 
1,869. ' 

SOUTHWARK— WEST. 

(10,726.) 

*T. Hunter (P) . . . 2,998 
A. Wilson (P) 2,953 

J. Scriven (M) . . 2,746 
F. Gillett (M) . . 2,649 
1904— Hunter (P), 2,285; Bayley (P). 
2,283; Scriven (M), 1,553; Judge (M), 1,547. 
1901— Bayley (P) and Hunter (P), un- 
opposed. 

STEPNEY. 

(6,584.) 

*A. O. Goodrich (M) . . 2,366 

F. L. Harris (M) . . . 2,292 
L. S. Stettaver (P) . 1,485 
C. Watson (P) . . 1,386 
1904— Steadman (P), 2,004 ; Lord Malmes- 

bury (M), 1,960; Kirkwood (M), 1942; 

Spender (P), 1,874. 1905 (bye-election)— 

Goodrich (M), 1,777; Lord Denman (P), 

1,375; Watts (S), 111. 
1901 — Steadman (P), 1,943; Williams 

(M), 1,842; Yates (P), 1,792; Micholls 

(M), 1,774. 



London County Council. 



25 



STRAND. 

(10,475.) 

•Lieut-Col. A. Probyn (M) . 3,580 

LordElcho(M) . . . 3,558 

S. F. H. Lamb (P) . 903 

Sir W. Howell (P) . 895 

1904— Probyn (M), 2,403; Lord Elcho, 
(M), 2,312; Oxford (P), 1,220; Hyder (P), 
1,098. 

1901— Probyn (M), 2,506; Kmden (M), 
2,452; Kinnaird (S.Rf.), 1,561; Stamford 
(S.Rf.), 1,484. 

WALWORTH. 

(11,046.) 

•O. A. Dawes (P) . . . 2,823 

*C. Jesson(P) . . . 2,819 

F. Oldfield (M) . 2,337 

J. H. C. Sproule (M) 2,235 

J. Clarke (S) . . 187 

1904-Spokes (P), 2,484; Jephson (P), 

2,425; Youlden (M), 1,754; Smith (M), 

1,641. 1906 (bye-election) — Dawes (P), 

1,927; Jesson (P), 1,879; Oldfleld (M), 

1,488; Lord Henry Bentinck (M), 1.445. 

1901— Spokes (P), 2,607; Parker (P), 
2,566; Willis (M), 1,251; Edgcumbe (M), 
1,239. 

WANDSWORTH. 

(43,269.) 

•Sir J. W. Lancaster (M) . 15,700 

•W. Hunt(M) . . . 14,535 
F. G.Kellaway(P) 9,628 

1904-Lancaster (M), 8,526; Hunt (M), 

8,342; Smith (P), 6,782; Williams (P), 

6,661. 
1901— Mayhew (P), 6,470 ; LongstaiT (M), 

5,606; Hunt (M), 5,138. 



WESTMINSTER. 

(10,664.) 

Hon. W. R. Peel (M) . . 3,419 

*C. Y. Sturge (M) . . 3,392 

W. B. Campl>ell (P) . 1,299 

E. Herring (P) . 1,298 

1904-Granville-Smith (M), 2,006; Sturge 

(M), 1,955; Heywood (P), 1,192; Duncan 

(P), 1,169. 

1901-Hayter (M), 1,509; Granville- 
Smith (M), 1,489; Heywood (P), 883; 
Chappie (I), 399. 

WHITECHAPEL. 

(5,630.) 

*W. C. Johnson (P) . . 1,756 

*H. H. Gordon (I) . . 1,627 

B. Hodsoll (M) . 1,211 

C. Wertheimer (M) . 980 
A. W. Blkin (I) . 773 

1904— Gordon (I). 1.616; Johnson (P), 
1,326; Bruce (P), 1,163; Carter (M), 910; 
Hobart(M),710. 

1901-Lawson (P), 1,785; Johnson (P), 
1,701; Munro (M), 1,053; Henderson (M),892. 

WOOLWICH. 

(22,830.) 

J. Squires (M) . 8,904 

E. A. H. Jay (M) . . . 8,677 

•Rev. Jenkins-Jones (P) 7,880 

G. Lansbury (P) . 7,611 

1904— Jones (P), 6,982; Chambers (P), 
6,869; Jay (M), 4,437; Dumphreys (M), 
4,097. 

1901-Squires (M), 3,807; Peel (M), 3,669; 
Marsh (P), 3,137, Woodcock (P), 2,784. 



MEMBERS' 

Aldermex. 



N ARIES AND ADDRESSES. 



Anstruther, H. T., Cowley House, West- 
minster, S.W. 

Buxton, Alfred F., 32, Great Cumberland- 
place, W. 

Caillard, Sir Viacent, Mayfair Chambers, 
42, Half Moon-street, Piccadilly, W. 

Fisher, W. Hayes, 13, Buckingham Palace- 
gardens, S.W. 

Lidgett, Rev. J. Scott, Bermondsey Settle- 
ment, Farncombe-st., Bermondsey, S.E. 

Michelham, Bight Hon. Lord, 26, Prince's- 
gate, South Kensington, S.W. 

Midleton, The Right Hon. Lord, p.c, d.l„ 
m.a., 34, Portland-place, W. 

Mitchell, Isaac, "Lyndean," Voltaire- 
street, Clapham, 8.W. 

Mowatt, Right Hon. Sir Francis, p.c, 
tt.c.B., i.s.o., 41, Sloane-gardens, S.W. 



Mullins, W. E,, 18, Lyndhurst-gardens, 
Hampstead, N.W. 

Naylor, G. K., 14, Lordship-park, Stoke 
Newington, N. 

Sander?, W. S., 18, Brynmaer-road, Batter- 
sea, S.W. 

Sandhurst, Rt. Hon. Lord,G.c.8.i.,G.c.i.E., 
60, Eaton-square, S.W. 

Shepheard, A. J., 9, Rosslyn - gardens, 
Hampstead, N.W. 

Swinton, Capt. G. S. C, 36, Pont-street, Bel- 
grave-square, S.W. 

Thompson, W. W., 24, Argyll-road, Ken- 
sington, W. 

Ward, Henry, Toynbee Hall, 28, Commer- 
cial-street, E. 

White, Edward, J. p., 20, Upper Berkeley- 
street W 

Wood, T. McKinnon, ll.d., d.l„ m.p., 16. 
Portland-place, W. 



26 



London County Council. 



Councillors. 

Alexander, George, 57, Pont-street, Bel- 
grave-square, S.W. 

Allen, A. A., m.p., 47, Onslow-square, South 
Kensington. 

Barlow, C. A. M., ll.d., m.a., 6, New-court, 
Lincoln's-inn, W.C. 

Be\chcroft, Sir Melvill, 24, Palace-court, 
Bayswater, W. 

Beaton, R. M., m.b., cm., j.p., 9, Dart- 
mouth-park-a venue, N.W. 

Benn, A. Shirley, 18, Bolton-gardens, South 
Kensington, S.W. 

Benn, I. Hamilton, 32, St. John's-park, 
Black heath, S.E. 

Benn, Sir J. m.p., d.l., j.p., The Old 
Knoll, Blackheath, S.E. 

Bentinck, Lord Henry Cavendish, d.l m 
j.p., 53, Grosveuor-street, W. 

Billings, George, " Arundel," Crescont- 
road, Chingford, N.E. 

Boytou, James, 2, Park-square, Regent's- 
park, N.W. 

Brandon, Jocelj r n, Seaford House, 1, Edith- 
road, Kensington, W. 

Bray, Reginald, 10, Adaington-square, 
Camberwell, S.E. 

B riant, Frank, Alford House, Lambeth- 
walk. 

Cassel, F. M., k.c, 51, South-street, Park- 
1 tne, W. 

Carson, W. A., 2, Spring terrace, Richmond, 
Surrey. 

Chapman, Theodore, 23, Shore-road, Hack- 
n *y, N. E. 

Cheylesmore, Right Hon. Lord, c.v.o., 
15, Prince's-gate, South Kensington, S.W. 

Claremont, A. W., j.p., 81, CamdeQ road, 

01 wki\ II. J,. 356, Piimrleii-roriiL \. 
0bbb.OyrllB.. SjCurowall-temuv. \u%^\ '*■ 

pirk, \,W. 
Cfjhea, N, L,, 11 5 HyrU'-pitrk -terr.uv, W, 
Colllua, Ed w-iril, 47. 1 Abridge -mud, Idling. 
Cornwall, Sir Edwin, M.r., it.L,, j,r., 3, 

Whitt?hull-i'niirL..v\\ 
Coumb(S t E. H,. 35. CLi^uld-road, Stokf 

NVwiughm, X, 
CnhjLs William, »+£,. 81, Gungh-sttCL't, 

Poplur, L, 
Davies. Ji>Jin, m.d., JVP., 87, Cuuihririge- 

g*rder» + North Kensiugton, \\\ 
D . i\ led , W i 1 HiiTu . .t . i ' . , la, A I L'XiLiidniHTLvemie , 

BaIMtma, 8,w\ 
Davis, David, 40, Ludbioko-grove. Nuttiiiw- 

hill, W, 
l'.i .vc.i.J. Arthurs. p., 71, Konuingtou-piLrk- 

roud. s.K. 
Ildtmy. Rev. Edward. St. ivter^ Viuirage, 

I'pper Ki'uiiijigtoivlaue, 8.J3. 
Dew. Giiurge f 264 ± MilkniKKlnL, Hunu. 1 Hill, 

S.E. 
D.mioney, J. W., 75, Nightingale-lane, 

Ballum, S.W. 
Dove, F. L., 55, Crouch-hill, Finsbury- 

park. N. 
Dowtou, W. L., J. p., Park Lodge, 207, Peck- 
ham-rye, S.E. 



Duncannon, Viscount, 17, Cavendish-sq., W. 

Easton, E. G., 38, Edith-road, Fulham, S.W. 

Elcho, Lord, 62, Cadogan-square, S.W. 

Fisher, C. Urquhart, Bristol House, 19 and 
20, Holborn-viaduct, E.C. 

Forman, E. Baxter, m.d., m.r.c.p., m.r.c.s., 
j.p., 11, Bramham-gardens, South Ken- 
sington, S.W. 

Gautrey, Thomas, 9, Fleet-street, E.C. 

Gilbert, J. D., 21, Kennington-terrace, Ken- 
nington-park, S.E. 

Glanville, H. J., j.p., Tressillian House, St. 
Margaret's-road, Brockley, S.E. 

Goff, T. C. E., 46, Pont-st., Belgrave-sq., S.W. 

Goldsmith, Frank, 14, South -street, Park- 
lane, W. 

Gooch, H. C, j.p., 17, Oxford-square, Edg- 
ware-road, W. 

Goodrich, Alfred O., j.p., "Fairview," 
Palmerston-road, Buckhurst-hill, Essex. 

Gordon, H. H., 80, Leman-street, E. 

Gosling, Harry, 22, West-sq., Southwark, 
S.E. 

Gray, Ernest, 99, Grosvenor-road, S.W. 

Greene, W. Raymond, j.p., 113, Mount- 
street, W. 

Greenwood, H. J., 26, Buckingham-gate 
Mansions, Buckingham-gate, S.W. 

Guinness, The Hon. Rupert, c.m.g., 11, St. 
James's-square, Pall-mall, S.W. 

Guinness, The Hon. Walter, 11, Grosvenor- 
place, S.W. 

Hall, Frederick, "Eastlmds," Court-lane, 
Dulwich, S.E. 

Hanson, F. S., 54, Montagu-square, W. 

Harris, F. Leverton, 70, Grosvenor-street, W. 

Harris, H. Percy, j.p., 98, Gloucester-ter- 
race, Hyde-park, W. 

Harris, P. A., Percy Lodge, Campden-hill, 
Kensington, W. 

Hastings, Rev. Frederick, 45, Ridgmount- 
gardens, Gower-street, W.C. 

Haydon, William, 2, Angell-park-gardens, 
Brixton, S.W. 

Head lam, Rev. Stewart Duckworth, 
" Wavertree," St. Peter's-road, St. Mar- 
garet's-on-Thames. 

Hemphill, Capt. the Hon. Fitzroy, 36, Mor- 
peth-mansions, Morpeth-terrace, West- 
minster, S.W. 

Hoare, S. J. G., 5, Hertford-st., Mayfair, W. 

Howes, Enos, j.p., " Fairview," 121, Be- 
th une-road, Stoke Newingtou, N, 

Hunt, Willi im, j.p., Hill Crest, Upper 
Tooting-park, S.W. 

Hunter, J, H., 30, Warwick-avenue, Pad- 
dington, W. 

Hunter, Thomas, 82, Cowley -road, Brixton. 

Jackson, Cyril, "Ballard Shaw," Limps- 
field, Surrey. 

Jay, E. A. H., Tower House, Woolwich. 

Jesson, Charles, 37, Freedom street, Batter- 
sea, S.W. 

Johnson, W. C, j.p., Park-end, Sydenham- 
park, S.E. 

Johnstone, The Hon. Gilbert, 43, Wilton- 
crescent, Belgrave-square. S.W. 

Kerry, Rt. Hon. The Earl of, m.v.o., d.s.o., 
18, Gloucester-place, W. 



London County Council. 



27 



Key, W. H., 301, Seven Sisters-road, Fins- 
bury-park, N. 

Kinloch-Cooke, Sir Clement, 3, Mount-st., 
Grosvenor-square, W. 

Knight, W. S. M., 53, New Cavendish-st., W- 

Lancaster, SirWilliam.j.p., " South Lynn," 
49, Putney-hill, S.W. 

Lewisham, The Viscount, 33, Dover-street, 
Mayfair, W. 

Lort- Williams, J. R„ 5, Essex-court, Tem- 
ple, E.C. 

Lygon, Hon. Henry, 41, Eaton-square, S.W. 

McDougall, Sir John, Clifton House, Green- 
wich-park, S.E. 

Montgomery, R. H„ 11, Pancras-lane, 
Queen Victoria-street, E.C. 

Morrow, F. St. John, 3, Dr. Johnson's- 
buildings, Temple, E.C. 

Murchison, C. K., Queen Anne's-mansions, 
St. James's-park, S.W. 

Norman, R. C, 2, Sloane-court East, S.W. 

Pannell, W. H., j.p., " Dirleton," West- 
park, Eltham. 

Peel, Hon. R. W. R., 52, Grosvenor-s'., W. 

Phillimore, R. C, Battler's-green, Alden- 
ham, Watford. 

Pilditch, P. E., 2, Pall-mall East, Charing- 
tross. S.W. 

Pomeroy, Ambrose, j.p., Linden Lodge, 
Sidcup, Kent. 

Pownall, Assheton, Orchard House, The 
Orchard, Blackheath, S.E. 

Probyn, Lieut.-Col. C, v.d., j.p., 55, Gros- 
venor-street, W. 

Reynolds, Walter. 5, Netherall-gardens, 
Hampscead, N.W. 

Robinson, R. A., j.p., 26, Brechin-place, 
Gloucester-road, S.W. 

Rowe, H. V., 14, Sumner-place, Onslow-sq., 
South Kensington, S.W. 



Russell. Arthur B., 17, Rosslynhill, Hamp- 
stead, N.W. 

Salmon, Isidore, 30, Holland-vi 11a- -road, 
Kensington, W. 

Salter, Alfred, m.i>., m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p„ j.p., 
5, Storks-road. Bermondsey, S.E. 

Sankey, Stuart, 35, Queensborough-terrace, 
Hyde-park, W. 

Simmons, P. C, 29, Russell-square, Blooms- 
bury. W.C. 

Skinner, Major Charles, 57, Eccleston-su., 
S.W. 

Smith, Edward, j.p., 75, Gore-road, South 
Hackney, N.E. 

Smith, F.S., 10, Clifford's-inn, Fleet -st., E.C. 

Spicer, Evan, j.p., " Belair," Gallery-road, 
Dulwich.S.E. 

Squires, W. J., j.p., 95 aud 96, Wellington - 
street, Woolwich. 

Stewart, W. Burton, 84, Jerniyn -street, St. 
James's, S.W. 

Sturge, C. Y., 11, St. Augustine's Mausion*, 
V lucent -square, Westminster, S.W. 

Taylor, H. R„ j.p., 40,Caulfleld-road, Peck- 
ham, S.E. 

Taylor, John T., i.s.o., 19, Woodchurch-rd., 
Hampstead, N.W. 

Thynne, Lord Alexander. 15, Manchester- 
square, W. 

Vosper, Percy, m.r.c.8., l.r.c.p , 1, St. 
(ieorge's-square, Regent's-park, N.W. 

Waterlow, David S., m.p., 38. Cornwall- 
gardens, South Kensington, S.W. 

^ebb, Sidney, 41,Grosvenor-road, S.W. 

Welby. Lieut.-Col. A. C. E., j.p., 26, Sloane- 
court East, S.W. 

Wild, E. E., 7, Russell Mansions, Russell- 
square, Bloomsbury, W.C. 

Williams, Howell J., j.p., «• Penrhyn," 263, 
Camdenroad. N. 

Wil>on, Albert, " Collycroft," Pendeunis- 



road, Strcatham 



uollyc 
.S.W. 



CHIEF COMMITTEES OF THE COUNCIL. 

(The Chairman, Vice-Chairman, and Deputy-Chaii man are ex-officio 
Members of all Committees and Sub-Committees.) 



Asylums Committee. 

(Meetings : Second Tuesday in the month 
at 11 a.m.) 

Chairman— A. O. Goodrich. 

Vice-Chairman— H. R. Taylor. 

Members of Committee— Billings, G. ; 
Buxton, A. P. ; Chapman, T. ; Crooks, W. ; 
Davies, Dr. J. ; Denny, Rev. E. ; Dew, G. ; 
Dove, P. L. ; Dowton, W. L. ; Easton,. 
E.G.; Greenwood, H. J.; Haydon, W.; 
Hunter, T. ; Jay, E. A. H. ; Jesson, C. ; 
Johnson, W. C; Kerry, Earl of; Lewis- 
ham, Viscount; McDougall, Sir John; 
Montgomery, R. H. ; Murchison. C. K. : 
Naylor, G. K. ; Pownall, A.; Reynolds, 
W. ; Rowe, H. V. : Salmon, I.; Smith, F.: 
Thompson, W. Whitaker ; Thynne, Lord 
Alexander; Vosper, P.: White, Edward. 



Building Act Committee. 

(Meetings: Mondays at 2 p.m.) 
Chairman- Frank Gold-mith. 
Vice-Cliairman— Lord Duucannon. 
Members of Committee— Cas-sel, F. M. ; 

Chapman, T. ; Davies, W. ; Davis, D. ; 

Dowton, W. L. ; Easton. E. G. ; Greene, 

W. R. ; Johnson, W. C. ; Lygon, Hon. H. ; 

Norman, R. C. ; Phillimore, R. C. ; Taylor, 

H. R. ; White, Edward. 

Education Committee. 

(Meetings : Wednesday at 2 p.m.) 

Chairman John T. Taylor. 

Vice-chairman Dr. E. Hixter Forman. 

Members of Committee -Allen, A. A.; 
Barlow, C. A. M. ; Beaton, Dr. R. M. ; 
Bentinck, Lord Henry; Clarke, H. J,; 



28 



London County Council. 



BSSSLft&iPffft s-j_<*«** ? ^ 



^ s^T' J 10 "' ^ ll ^ n i Headland 
t?.; Jsvy t h* A. H. ; Key. W. H ■ Kin 

\> ebb, Mduey ; ti»by, Lkut. Cnl< A, 

*Jh%H: her8 ? lec ted under Clause 1 of the 

A^iSn^X Sec ™ 17 of the Education 
Act, 1008-Adler, Miss N. ; Bryant, Mrs. 

Establishment Committee. 

Meetings: Alternate Thursdays at 2 

Chairman— U. A. Robinson. 

Vice-Chairman— W. Hayes Fisher. 

Members of Committee— Allen, A. A • 
$ m X' HR 0V %7- L - Howes * E. ; Norman; 
p ' ^h mifc ^ Edw , ard; Sainton, Capt. G. S 
U; White, Edward. 

Finance Committee. 

(Meetings : Wednesdays at 3 p.m.) 

Chairman— Buxton, A. F. 

Vice-Chairman— Midleton, Lord. 

Members of Committee— Anstruther, H. 
i.; Benn I Hamilton; Benn, Sir John; 
dullard, Sir Vincent ; Cohen, N. L. s Fisher 
W Hayes : Harris, F. L. ; McDougall, Sir 
John; Michelham, Lord ; Mowatt, Sir Fran- 
cis; Pannell, W. H. ; Peel, Hon. W. R. W. • 
Spicer, Evan (ex-offlcio) ; Webb, Sidney. 

Fire Brigade Committee. 

(Meetings : Alternate Thursdays at 3.30 
p.m.) 

Chairman— Hon. Rupert Guinness. 

Vice-Chairman— Y. S. Hanson. 

Members of Committee — Brandon 
Jocelyn; Dowton, W. L. ; Gilbert, J. D. 
Hoare, S. J. G. ; Hunter, J. H.; Lygon 

F ?*\. H x,i> Fowna £; A -5 Sandhurst, Lord; 
Smith, Edward ; Wilson. A. 

Highways Committee. 

(Meetings : Thursdays at 2.30 p.m.) 

Chairman- W. Whitaker Thompson. 

Vice-Chairman— A. Shirley Benn. 

Members of Committee — Alexander, 
George ; Beachcroft, Sir R. M. ; Benn, Sir 
John ; Hall, F. ; Kerry, Earl of ; Mitchell, 
Isaac; Montgomery, R. H. ; Pilditch, 
P. E. ; Stewart, JJ. B. ; Thymic, Lord Alex- 
ander; Ward, Henry; Waterlow, D. S.; 
Williams, Howell J. 



Housing of the Working Classes 
Committee. 

(Meetings: Wednesdays at 11 a.m.) 
Chairman-Sir William Lancaster. 
Vtce-Chairman-Hon. Walter Guinness. 
Members of Committee-Dew, G. ; Goff, 
L 0, S' ; 9™*™> W - R - s Har ris. F. Lever' 
ton ; Harris, P. A. ; Hunter, T. • Lewisham 
Viscount ; . Lort-WiHiams? J. R. ; Nay!™' 
&& ; A? mitl !i F * ; Taylor, John T; Thynn£ 
Lord Alexander ; Waterlow, D. S. 

Improvements Committee. 

(Meetings: Wednesdays at 2.15 p.m.) 

Chairman— Lord Elcho. 

Vice-Chairman— K. C. Norman. 

Members of Committee — Davies, W. 
Domoney, J. w. ; Easton, E. G. ; Fisher, 
OIJ. ; Hastings, Rev. F. ; Murchison, C. K. ; 
Probyn, Lieut.-Col. C. ; Sandhurst, Lord- 
lier, Evan; Squires, W. J. ; Stewart 
W. B. ; Thompson, W. Whitaker; Ward, 

Local Government, Records anc^, 
Museums Committee. 

(Meetings : Alternate Fridays at 4 p.m. ) 

Chairman— Ernest Gray. 

Vice-Chairman— V. E. Pilditch. 

Members of Committee — Boyton, J. • 
Cassel F. ; Guinness, Hon. Walter ; John- 
w 11 ^^ C 'L Jo J nnst °ne, Hon. G. ; Knight, 
W.S.M.; Sanders, W. S.; Sturge, C. Y. 
Wilson, A. ' 

Main Drainage Committee. 

(Meetings: Thursday at 2.15 p.m.) 

Chairman— William Hunt. 

Vice-Chairman— H. J. Clarke. 

Members of Committee— Cohen. N. L • 
Casson.W A. ; Gosling, H. ; Guinness, Hon! 
Walter; Hoare, S. J. G.; Jackson, C • 
McDougall, Sir John; Pannell, W. H* • 
Salter, Dr. A.; Simmons, P. C.; Ward' 
Henry (ex-offlcio). 

Parks and Open Spaces Committee, 

(Meetings : Alternate Fridays at 3 p.m.) 

Chairman— W. J. Squires. 

Vice-Chairman— Ambrose Pomeroy. 

Mt'tubtira of Committee— BentSnA Lord 
Hen JliJliu^ G. i t'hupmim. T. : Cfaey- 
lesmor,' U.rd: Cb^iiHint, A.W. ; TJavi^D.- 
Den»y Rvv, b. ; Dnmoney, J W, ; 1*,^; 
F. L. : Bk- Jn i. Lord j Filler, C. U. ; Halt, F, * 
Hastugtr, Ee^F.; Howt-E.i Himter. J.' 
H.; Hnutei T. r JaWTOlLO t i Key. W. U 
Lewi* mi. J*i«5tmttt| rhillnuiirV. K. c! ' 
JteyiMtrift. Jfpj Star**. C. J.: Mwlntouj 



London County Council. 



29 



■ Parliamentary Committee. 

(Meetings: Thursdays at 4 p.m.) 
Chairman— Hon. W. R. W. Peel. 
Vice-chairman— Felix Cassel, K.C. 

Members of Committee— Beachcroft, Sir 
R. M.; Clareiuont, A. W.; Gray, E. ; 
Greene, W. R.; Kinloch-Cooke, Sir C; 
' Midleton, Lord; Morrow, F. St. Jphn; 
Robinson, R. A. ; Shepheard, A. J. ; Welby, 
Lieut-Col. A. ; Wild, B. E. 

And the following members of the Legis- 
lature :— Allen, A. A.; Benn, Sir John; 
Cheylesmore, Lord ; Cornwall, Sir Edwin ; 
Wood, T. McKinnon. 

Public Control Committee. 

(Meetings : Alternate Fridays at 2.30 p.m.) 
Chairman— fl. T. Anstruther. 
Vice-Chairman— H. J. Greenwood. 

Members of Committee — Bray, R.; 
Cobb, C. 8. ; Crooks, W. ; Gooch, H. C. ; 
Haydon, W. ; Knight, W. S. M. ; Pomeroy, 
A. ; Probyn, Lieut. - Col. C. ; Russell, 
Arthur B. ; 8immons, P. C. 

Public Health Committee. 

(Meetings : Alternate Thursdays at 3.30 
p.m.) 

Chairman— Dr. E. Baxter Forman. 
Vice-Chairman— Dr. J. Davies. 

Members of Committee — Beaton, Dr. 
R. M. ; Billings, G. ; Briaut, F. ; Easton, 
E. G. ; Gordon, H. H. ; Johnstone, Hon. 
G.j Mullins, W. E. ; SalteY, Dr. A.; 
Skinner, Major C. ; Vosper, P. 

Rivers Committee. 

(6 representatives of the Council on the 
Thames Conservancy Board, the (2) re- 
presentatives of the Council on the Lee 
Conservancy Board, and other members 
added by the Council, making 15 members 
in all.) 

(Meetings : Mondays, when necessary, at 
4.15 p.m.) 

Chairman— Sir R. Melvill Beachcroft. 

Members of Committee— Alexander, G. ; 
Benn, I. Hamilton ; Cornwall, Sir Edwin ; 
Dawes, J; A. ; Gilbert, J. D. ; Greenwood, 
H. J.; Gosling, H. ; Guinness, Hon. 
Rupert ; McDougall. Sir John ; Murchison, 
C. K. ; Peel, Hon. W. R. W. ; Robinson, 
R. A. ; Simmons, P. C. ; White, Ed. 

Stores Committee. 

(Meetings : Alternate Tuesdays at 12.) 

Chairman— Edward Collins. 

Vice-Chairman— Isidore Salmon. 

Members of Committee — Benn, A. 
Shirley; Casson, W. A.; Cobb, C. S. ; 
Goodrich, A. O. ; Gosling, H.; Haydon, 
W. ; Johnson, W. C. ; Vosper, P. 



Theatres and Music Halle 
Committee. 

(Meetings : Wednesdays at 3 p.m.) 
Chairman— H. J. Greenwood. 
Vice-Chairman— Jocelyn Brandon. 

Members of Committee — Briant, F. ; 
Dawas, J. A. ; Duncannon, Viscount ; Han- 
son, F. S. ; Howes, E. ; Lort - Williams, 
J. R.; Mitchell, Isaac: Reynolds, W. ; 
Wild, E. E. ; Williams, Howell, J. 

Worke Committee. 

(Meetings : Fridays at 4.15 p.m.) 

Chairman— Edward White. 

Vice-Chairman— ¥. St. John Morrow. 

Members of Committee— Coumbe, E. H. ; 
Daviee, W. ; Hunt, W. ; Salmon, I. ; Smith, 
E.; Thompson, W.Whitaker; Ward, Henry; 
(ex-ofllcio) . 

Appeal Committee. 

(Summoned when required.) 
Members of Committee— Harlow, C. A. M.; 
Casson, W. A.; Hunt, W.; Morr.iw, F. 
St. John; Murchison, C. K. ; Pownall, 
A. ; Sandhurst, Lord. 

Mid wives Act (Special) Committee. 

(Consisting of all the members of the 

Public Health Committee, and of women. 

not exceeding three in number, appointed 

by the Council.) 

Chairman— Dr. E. Baxter Forman. 

Vice-Chairman— Dr. P. Vosper. 

Members of the Public Health Com- 
mittee — Beaton, Dr. R. M. ; Billings, 
G.; Briant, F. ; Davies, Dr. J.; Easton, 
E. G. ; Gordon, H. H. ; Johnstone, Hon. 
G. ; Mullins, W. E. ; Salter, Dr. A.; 
Skinner, Major C. 

Members appointed by the Council 
under the provisions of Sec. 8 of the Mid- 
wives Act, 1908— Alexander, Miss A. M. ; 
McCaII, Dr. Aunie ; Steadman, Mrs. W. C. 

Officers' (education) Superannua- 
tion Committee. 

Fisher, W. Hayes: Gray, E. ; Shep- 
heard, A. J. ; Taylor, John T. 

Teachers' Superannuation Com- 
mittee. 

Fisher, W. Hayes; Gray, F.; Shep- 
heard, A. J. ; Taylor, John T. 

Representatives of the Council on 
the Standing; Joint Committee of 
the Quarter Sessions and the 
London County Council. 

The Chairman of the Council : the Vice- 
Chairman of the Council ; the Deputy- 
Chairman of the Council ; Clareniont, 
A. W. ; Davies, W.; Goldsmith. F. ; 
Kinloch-Cooke, Sir C. ; Norman, R. C. ; 
Thompson, W. Whitaker. 



30 



London County Council. 



THE L.C.C. STAFF. 

The organisation of the staff is as follows: — 1. Heads of departments. 
2. Principal assistants, £400 to £500. 3. Senior assistants, £300 to £400. 
4. First-class assistants, £200, by £15 to £245; £245, by £15 and 
£20 to £300. 5. Second-class assistants, £150, by £12 10s. t> £200. 
6. Third-class assistants, £100, by £10 to £150. 7. Fourth-class assistants, 
£80, by £5 to £100. 



THE PRINCIPAL OFFICERS. 



Clerk of the Council (Main Building) 

Deputy Clerk of the Council 

Assistant Clerks of the Council 

Oomptrtillar (MnU] BuiLdlng) 

Deputy Comptroller 

Assist uni Comptroller (ftduciLtfcitij 

AaristHUt Comptroller (AuiJit) ,„ .„ 

Chief Butftueer (Main Building} 

Clik'f AssL&tADt Engineer 

A^etetaut Kngin^r (bridge*. .v<\. brunch) 

District Engineer (main rlmm-iifti. uortn) 

District Enjfi nwr iTiuiiu ilmiiiiigp. smith j 

SuponiitciiLliiix Ar^liiti'i-L lMjlui tlnihluitfl 

< lucf Assistant Architect 

Valuer (9, Bprtug-eardflns) .*, . 1H 

Senior AjeiaSuit Valuer 

Solicitor iMmu JJriMimri ... ... „. 

Deputy BuliciMir 

Chemist (4o, ei*?<m-strret) , ... 

OhieJ Assistant ... 

Medical officer of Health (8, St. MartiuV-pkce) 

M edicuL ( Juicer (GeuerAl Purposes} 

Ajsustdinl Medical ojilrci- , T +*. 

Medical OJ!1cl'1 (Education) . 

Assistant Medical Officers (Education) 

Chief Officer, Pub lie Control Department (31,Spring-garden5) 

Chief Assistant 

Chief Officer, Parks Department (11, Regent-street) 

Second Officer 

Statistical Officer (Main Building) 

Assistant Statistical Officer 

Clerk of the Asylums Committee (6, Waterloo-place) 

Educational Adviser (Victoria Embankment) 

Executive Officer (Education) 

Architect (Education) 

Chief Inspector (Education) 

Manager of Works (23, Belvedere-road, Lambeth) 

Assistant Manager of Works 

Works Accountant 

Chief Officer Fire Brigade (Southwark Bridge-road) 

Divisional Officers 

Manager Tramways (62, Finsbury Pavement, E.C.) 

Electrical Engineer 

Traffic Manager 

Housing Manager (23, Cockspur-street) 

Assistant Mousing Manager 



G. L. Gomme. 

Jas. Bird. 

P. J. Edwards. 

F. W. Mackiuuey. 

. H.J. Mordaunt( Education ) . 
H. E. Haward. 
C. D. Johnson. 

G. Attenborough. 
G. W. Wood. 

Maurice Fitzmaurice,c.M.o. 

C. Elwin. 

W. C. Copperthwaite. 

J. E. Worth. 

R. M. Gloyne. 

W. E. Riley. 

J. Briggs. 

Andrew Young. 

F. W. Cook. 
Seager Berry. 
E. Tanner. 

Frank Clowes, d.sc. 
R. Grimwood. 
Sir Shirley F. Murphy. 
Dr. W. H. Hamer. 
Dr. W. McC. Wanklyn. 
Dr. J. Kerr. 
Dr. C. J. Thomas. 
Dr. T. H. C. Stevenson. 
Dr. F. M. D. Berry. 
Dr. Ettie Sayer. 
J. Ollis. 

W. J. ODonnell. 
Lieut.-Col. J. J. Sexby. 

G. F. Barnes. 
E. J. Harper. 
J. C. Spensley. 
H. F. Keene. 

W. Garnett, m.a., d.c.l. 

R. Blair, m.a. 

T. J. Bailey. 

Dr. C. W. Kimmins. 

G. W. Humphreys. 

A. Robertsou. 

H. W. Bundy. 

Captain James de Courcy 
Hamilton, e.n. (retired). 
fS. G. Gamble. 
I Lieut. S. Sladen, r.n. 

A. L. C. Fell. 

J. H. Rider. 

J. K. Bruce. 

S. G. Burgess. 

W. J. Berry. 



London County Council. 



31 



THE ENGINEER'S DEPARTMENT. 

County Hall, 15 and 31, Spring Gardens, 17, Pall Mall East, and 
42 and 43, Cr an bourne Street. 
Branches:— Bridges, Main Drainage (North and South), Sludge Vessels, 
Highways, Mechanical Engineering, and Parliamentary. 

Main Drainage. the Chief Engineer, Mr. Maurice 

The Main Drainage work of the Fitzmaurice, c.M.G. A vast or- 



County Council is the most im- 
portant and expensive branch of its 
multifarious duties. The cost of the 
maintenance of the metropolitan 
main drainage system for the year 
1905-6 amounted to £2*35,405, while 
the expenditure incurred on capital 
account was £533,346. The sewage 
of Hornsey, Tottenham, Wood Green, 
West Ham, Penge, and parts of 
Willesden, Acton, Beckenham, East 
Ham, and Croydon are delivered, 
under Parliamentary authority, into 
the metropolitan system, and dealt 
with by the County Council, the 
total area drained being about 140$ 
square miles. 

The treatment and disposal of 
the sewage of about 5i millions of 
people, carried on by the Council, 
is a colossal undertaking, and 
necessitates the employment of a 
permanent staff of between 900 and 
1,000 men under the supervision of 



ganisation is constantly employed in 
pumping and precipitating" with the 
aid of cnemicals the solids in the 
sewage until it is transformed either 
into a clear innocuous effluent, 
which flows into the Thames, or 
into sludge, which is shipped fifty 
miles to sea. Six sludge snips are 
kept constantly at work night and 
day carrying away this sludge. The 
result of the many improvements 
introduced in recent years, and the 
extension of the outfall works, has 
been to purify the Thames to the 
greatest possible extent under pre- 
sent circumstances. 

The following table shows the 
quantities of crude sewage treated, 
cnemicals used m precipitation, and 
sludge sent to sea, together with 
the quantity of refuse intercepted 
at tne gratings at each of the 
outfall works at Barking and Cross- 
ness during the year 1905-6 : — 



Barking 



Crossness. 



Total. 



Sewage treated 

Daily average 

Lime used 

Proto-sulphate of iron used .... 

Sludge sent to sea 

Weekly average 

Refuse intercepted at gratings. 



55,130,200,799 
151,041,646 
14,773-5 
3,280*5 
1,745,000 
33,558 
4,241 



39,682,472,290 
108,719,102 
8,740-6 
2,362*5 
821,000 
15,788 
1,473-2 



94,812,673,089 gallons. 
259,760,748 gallons. 
23,514-1 tons. 
5,643 tons. 
2,566,000 tons. 
49,346 tons. 
5,714-2 tons. 



The length of the main outfall, 
intercepting, and storm relief sewers 
under the control of the Council is 
about 290 miles, not including the 
new sewers in course of construction. 
The North and South sewerage sys- 
tems are distinct, the sewage coming 
from the North using dealt with at 
Barking outfall works, and that 



from the South at Crossness. The 
precipitation channels and reser- 
voirs at Barking Creek occupy 18$ 
acres, and those at Crossness 9J 
acres. 

Six years ago the Council di- 
rected its attention to the necessity 
for enlarging the main drainage 
system. The present system, in its 



32 



London County Council. 



main features, was adopted over 
forty years ago, but owing to 
the enormous growth which has 
since taken place in the population 
of London, new sewer accommo- 
dation has become imperative in 
order to reduce the number of 
discharges into the Thames in 
times of rainfall, and reduce the 
liability to flooding of premises. A 
scheme, involving an expenditure of 
approximately £4,000,000, was sub- 
mitted to the Council and partly 
agreed to in December, 1899. The 
scheme provided for the construction 
of several new sewers on each side 
of the Thames, besides other impor- 
tant works, such as the provision of 
additional pumping power. Further 
relief works, estimated to cost 
€795,000, are also in course of 
construction. 

Bridges, Tunnels, and Ferry. 

The Blackwall Tunnel, the 
greatest engineering work of the 
kind ever constructed, was opened 
by His Majesty the King (when 
Prince of Wales) in May, 1897. 
It goes from Blackwall on the 
north side to Greenwich on the 
south. It is close upon H miles in 
length from entrance to entrance, 
and 24ft. 3in. in internal diameter. 
The chief feature as an engineering 
work was in boring under the river, 
accomplished by means of a shield 
forced forward by hydraulic pres- 
sure, the excavation being carried 
out under compressed air. The 
total cost of the tunnel was 
£1,281,211, of which £355,000 was 
for the acquisition of property, 



and £82,141 for rehousing persons 
displaced by the scheme. Greenwich 
Footway Tunnel was opened to 
the public on August Bank Holi- 
day, 1902, and connects Greenwich 
with Poplar near the Isle of Doffs 
Gardens. It is 1,217ft. in length, 
8ft. in width, and has a headway 
of 8ft. 9in. The cost of the engineer- 
ing works has amounted to about 
£113,000. 

The bridges over the Thames, 
except those at Blackfriars, London, 
Southwark, and the Tower, are 
under the control of the Council. 
The Woolwich Free Ferry is also 
under the Engineer's Department. 
The traffic returns show that 
5,339,632 passengers and 501,089 
vehicles used the ferry during the 
year ended 31st December, 1904. 
A new bridge has been constructed 
across the Thames to replace the 
old Vauxhall Bridge, the first iron 
bridge across the river, which had 
become in a dangerous condition, 
was opened in 1906. The designs 
are by the Council's engineer, Mr. 
Fitzmaurice, and the cost will be 
about £400,000. 

The Highgate Archway, recon- 
structed at a cost of over £30,000, 
was opened to the public in 1899. 

New Tunnels. 

The Council is constructing a 
tunnel under the Thames below the 
Tower Bridge which will give com- 
munication between Rotherhithe 
and North East London. Here pro- 
vision will be made for pedestrian 
and vehicular traffic. It will in- 
volve an expenditure of £2,246,000. 



PARKS AND PLEASURE GROUNDS. 
Parks Department: 11, Regent Street, S.W. 

One of the most interesting features of the work of the London County 
Council, and certainly the one most appreciated by all classes, is the care 
and development of the parks and open spaces of the metropolis. " Our 
wilderness of houses," as Frederic Harrison has it, would be a dreary place 
indeed were it not for the bright green parks and breathing spaces which 



London County Council. 33 



stud the great and crowded city. The task of providing " gardens for the 
gurdenless " has been taken up by the London County Council with con- 
siderable enthusiasm. The ola Metropolitan Board of Works did much in 
this matter, but the County Council has done more. The Council was quick 
to recognise the fact that if the growing city was to be kept healthy, it 
would require more " lungs," especially in the crowded districts. No oppor- 
tunity has been lost of securing parks for the people, and during the last 
18 yeais the acreage of London's municipal parks and recreation-grounds 
has been almost doubled. 

But the Council has done more than expand the pleasure grounds. It 
has added fresh delights to the parks and has made them models both for 
the diversity of the pleasures provided and for the special consideration 
given to the children. 

The Council has only introduced the artificial where artificial was 
needed. It has always wisely left undisturbed, as far as possible, the 
natural beauties of the parks. Bostall Woods, which the Council secured 
with the co-operation of the local authority in 1892, needed no embellish- 
ment. Brockwell Park, too, depends for its beauties on its natural park- 
like aspect. All the other parks and open spaces enjoy some distinct 
feature, or some interesting historic associations. Waterlow Park, the 
gift of Sir Sidney Waterlow, contains a house which has several historic 
connections with notabilities of Charles II.'s time. Finsbury Park, 
centreing on the site of the old Hornsey-wood House, must at one time 
have been part of the Middlesex forest. Tooting Common recalls the 
associations of Dr. Johnson and the Thrale family with the spot. The 
gardens on the Chelsea Embankment bring to mind Carlyle and Rossetti, 
and so on through the list of municipal parks. 

The London municipal parks are also noteworthy for the diversity of 
the amusements they provide. A feature which was introduced at the 
suggestion of Lord Meath was the exhibition of birds and animals, and 
aviaries are to be found at Battersea, Brockwell, Clissold, Dulwich, 
Finsbury, Ravenscourt, Southwark, Victoria (2), and Waterlow Parks. 
Deer can be seen at Battersea, Victoria, and Clissold Parks, and Golder's 
Hill, while at other places goats, storks, swans, squirrels, guinea-pigs, 
emus, <fcc, are kept. 

Nor are sports neglected. Special gymnasia for children have been 
placed in most of the principal parks, and at Victoria (2), Kennington, and 
Southwark Parks, Peckham Rye, Brickfield, Island, Tunnel and 
Meath Gardens, and Plumstead Common sea-sand pits have been pro- 
vided for the enjovment of the children. Provision is made for the 
playing of basket ball, bowls, cricket, croquet, football, hockey, hurling, 
lacrosse, lawn-tennis, quoits, shinty, spiro-pole, and even golf. In the 
winter months the Council uses every precaution for the securing of good 
skating surfaces on the lakes, and tobogganing where and when grounds 
are suitable ; and in the summer time boating and bathing are encouraged. 
The Council has also earned considerable popularity by insisting that 
reasonable tariffs shall be charged at all the refreshment-houses in the parks. 

When the Council came into office in 1889 it had under its control 40 
parks and open spaces, with a total of 2,656 acres, and an outdoor per- 
manent statt of 333, while at the present time it has control of 78 parks 
and gardens and 33 open spaces, a total of 111 places, having an area of 
5,057i acres, and a permanent staff of about 900 men, while temporary men 



34 



London County Council. 



varying in number from 100 upwards are employed upon improvement 
works, &c. 

In addition, London enjoys the advantages of ten City commons, the 
forest at Epping, and parks on the outskirts of the metropolis, which are 
maintained by the City Corporation out of " City cash. Besides, there 
are the half-dozen magnificent Eoyal parks ; while scattered throughout 
London are numerous small green spots, maintained principally by the 
. local authorities. 



Albert Embankment Gardens 
Albert-square, Stepney 
Arbour-square, Stepney 
Archbishop's Park . 
Aske's Garden, Hoxton 
Avery Hill, Eltham . 
Battersea Park . 
Beaumont-square Garden 
Bethnal Green Gardens 
Boundary-street Garden 
Brickfield Gardens, Limehouse 
Brockwell Park, Heme Hill 
Bromley Recreation Ground 
Carlton-square Garden, E. 
Chelsea-embankment Gardens 
Christ Church, Spitalfields 
Clarence Garden, St. Pancras 
Clissold Park, Stoke Newington 
Deptford Park .... 
Dulwich Park .... 
Eltham Park 

Faraday Garden, Walworth . 
Favonia Playground, Poplar . 
Finsbury Park .... 
Ford and Sidney Squares, 

Mile-end .... 
Golder'sHill . 
Higheute Archway, plot 
Highbury Fields . . 
Holy Trinity, Rotherhithe 
Horniman Gardens, Forest Hill 
Hughes Recreation Ground, 

Deptford 
Island Gardens, Poplar 
Kennington Park . 
Leicester-square Garden 
Limehouse Churchyard 
Lincoln's Inn Fields 
Little Dorrit's Playground 
Manor House Gardens, Lee 
Marble Hill, Twickenham 
Maryon Park, Charlton . 
Meath Gardens, Bethnal Green 



Parks and Gardens. 
Acres. 



1* 
t 
t 

i 
80 
199* 
1 
9 
t 
2* 
127* 
H 
t 
1 

H 
* 

54* 
17 
72 
41* 
1 

115* 



36 

27$ 

1 

9* 

t 
3 

19* 
* 
3 
f 

81 
W 
11* 

9* 



Millbank Garden . . 

Mountsfield Park, Lewisham . 

Munster Square (Regent's Pk.) 

Myatt's Fields, Camberwell . 

NelsonRecreationGround, S.E. 

Nelson Square, Blackfriars . 

Newington Recreation Ground 

Northbrook Park, Lee . 

Peckham Rye Park . 

Pimlico Gardens and Shrub- 
beries . . . . . 

Putney Shrubbery . . . 

Ranger's House, Greenwich 
Park 

Ravenscourt Park, Hammer- 
smith 

Red Lion-square Garden, W.C. 

Royal Victoria Gardens, N. 
Woolwich .... 

Ruskin Park, Denmark Hill . 

Shandy-street Rec. Ground, E. 

Southwark Park, Bermondsey 

Spa Fields, Clerkenwell . 

Spa Green .... 

Springfield Park, Up. Clapton 

St. Bartholomew's Churchyard 

St. Matthew's Churchyard, 
Bethnal-green 

St. Paul's, Rotherhithe . 

St. Paul's, Shadwell 

Stepney Church Garden . 

Sydenham Wells Park . 

Telegraph Hill, Hatcham 

Tunnel Gardens, Poplar . 

VlctoriaEmbankmentGardens 

Victoria Park, E. . 

Walworth Recreation- Ground 

Wandsworth Park . 

Wapping Recreation Ground . 

Waterlow Park, Highgate 

Whitefield Gardens, Totten- 
ham-court-road . 

York-square, Stepney . 



Acres. 

12* 

14* 
t 
* 
3 

7 
48f 

If 
* 

2* 

32* 
* 

10 
24 

1* 
63 

It 

t 

32* 

1 

It 

1 

1 

7 
17f 

9* 

2 
10 
217 
t 
20* 

2* 
26 

* 



London County Council. 



35 



Open Spaces and Commons. 



Acres. 

Blackheath . . . .267 

Bostall Heath and Woods . 133| 
Brook Green 4f 

Clapham Common . . . 220£ 
Clapton Common 7£ 

Eel Brook Common . . .14 

Garratt Green, S.W. . . 8 
Goose Green* 6* 

Hackney Downs . . . 41$ 

Hackney Marsh . . . 339 

Hainault Forest, Essex . . 805 

Hamp8tead Heath . . . 320 £ 

Hilly Fields . 45* 
Lady well Recreation Ground. 51 h 

London Fields . . . . 26J 

North Mill Field . . . 23* 

South Mill Field . . .39* 

Nunhead Green . . . li 

Games. 

The following table indicates the 
extent to which the facilities pro- 
vided for the playing of games were 
utilised during the year ended 
30th September, 1906 :— 





8 • 


S 


Games. 


■5 «J»d 


Is 




*S5 


°A 






o w 




o o 


fc 


Bowls 


74 


24,749 


Cricket 


452 


28,904 


Croquet 

Football 


31 


1,535 


231 


16,228 


Hockey 

Lawn Tennis 


39 


2,246* 


476 


102,649 


Quoits 


36 


2,063 



* Including hurling and shinty. 

Football is played from 1st Octo- 
ber to 31st March. There are 47 
ponds suitable for skating, with a 
total water area of about 68 acres. 

Golf is played at Blackheath, 
Hampstead Heath, Parliament Hill, 
Tooting, Streatham, and Clapham 
Commons, lacrosse at Clapham 



Parliament Hill 
Parson's Green. 
Peckham Eye . . . . 
Plumstead Common 
Shepherd's Bush Common 
Shoulder of Mutton Green 
Stoke Newington Common . 
Streatham Common 
Streatham Green . 
Tooting Bee Common 
Tooting Graveney Common . 
Wandsworth Common . 
Well-street Common, South 

Hackney . . . . 
Wormwood Scrubs . 
Little Wormwood Scrubs 
Land at Eaglesfield, Shooter's 

Hill 



Acres. 

2m 

21 
64 
103 
8 
5 
5* 

m 

i 

154* 

183 

21* 
205 
22 

9 



Common, Parliament Hill, Tooting 
Common, Finsbury Park, and Lady- 
well Recreation Ground. 

There are bowling - greens at 
Battersea, Blackheath (Ranger's 
House), Brock well, Clapham Com- 
mon, Olissold, Finsbury, Dulwich, 
Hilly Fields, Island Gardens, Lady- 
well Recreation-ground, Ndrthbrook 
Park, Ravenscourt, Sydenham 
Wells, Victoria and Wandsworth 
Parks. 

Boating. 

Boats are kept and let for hire to 
the public at Battersea, Dulwich, 
Victoria, and Finsbury Parks. The 
charge for boats is 6d. an hour. 
Bicycling. 

Cycling is allowed on all carriage 
roads. Bicycles can be hired at Is. 
an hour (6ct. for all hours after first) 
at Battersea Park. 

Gymnasia. 

The Council has 5 adults' and 42 
children's gymnasia in its parks. 

Adults' gymnasia are open on 
weekdays at 6 a.m., or in winter as 
soon as the parks open, and closed 
a quarter of an hour after sunset. 



36 



London County Council, 



Women and girls are not admitted 
at any time. 

Children's gymnasia are open 
on weekdays from 9 a.m. until a 
quarter of an hour after sunset. No 
male over 10 years of age is admitted. 

Ebpreshments. 

There are refreshment-houses at 
the following places under the 
Council's control : — 

Avery Hill, Battersea Park (3) ; 
BrockwellPark; Clapham Common; 
Clissold Park ; Dulwich Park ; 
FinsburyPark; Golder's Hill; Hack- 
ney Downs; Hackney Marsh; Hilly 
Fields ; Horniman Gardens; Ken- 
nington Park; Manor House Gar- 
dens ; Marble Hill ; Millfields (tent) ; 
Myatt's Fields; Parliament Hill; 
Peckham Rye ; Ravenscourt Park ; 
Ranger's House, Blackheath; Royal 
Victoria Gardens; Ruskin Park; 
SouthwarkPark; Tooting Common; 
Victoria Embankment Gardens ; 
Victoria Park (5) ; Waterlow Park; 
and Wormwood Scrubs. 

The privilege of supplying re- 
freshments is put up to tender, and 
the Council receives in rent about 
£1,900. Contractors are bound to 
adhere strictly to the prices in the 
tariff fixed by the Council. The 
following are a few examples of 
prices : — 

Tea, coffee, or cocoa, in half -pint 
cups, with milk and sugar if 
required, and use of spoon 
and saucer . . . .Id. 

Bread and butter, a slice . . %d. 

Rolls (usual size), each . . Id. 

Butter, a pat (usual size) . Id. 

Cakes (each) . ±d., \d., and Id. 

Milk, a half -pint tumbler . Id. 

Hot water, a quart . . .Id. 

Hot water, with use of chairs 
and table, a quart . . 2d. 

Mineral waters (large and 
small) . . 2d. and Id. 

Lemonade (still), a glass . Id. 

Ginger beer, in stone bottle . Id. 

Ginger beer, on draught, a glass Id. 



Cigars, each, from . . Id. 

Cigarettes, a packet, from . 3d. 

Cigarettes, each, from . . id. 

Tobacco, an oz., from . . 4d. 

Tobacco, a packet, from . . Id. 

The contractor is required to 
charge a deposit of Id. on each 
bottle removed from the refresh- 
ment place to prevent', if possible, 
broken glass. 

Band Performances. 

During the summer of last year 
1,204 band performances were given 
at 69 different places. This year the 
band season will commence about 
the middle of May, and close at the 
end of August. At some places per- 
formances are continued until the 
middle of September. Times of play- 
ing are between 5.30 to 8.30 p.m. 
until July and August, when the 
time is altered gradually from 5.30 
to 4.15 p.m. 

Committee Meetings. 

To give some idea of the amount 
of work entailed, it may be interest- 
ing to note that during the year 
ended 31st March, 1906, 111 
meetings of the Committee and 
Sub- Committees were held. 

Park Superintendents. 

Avery Hill and Eltham Park : J. 
Knight; Battersea: J. Rogers; 
Brockivell Park : J. White ; Clissold 
Park : E. Gibson ; Dulwich Park : 
F. Spivey; FinsburyPark : J. Mel- 
ville; Hanipstead Heath, Sec: G. 
Palmer; Kennington Park: T. 
Weatherston ; Myatt's Fields : 
(Vacancy); Peckham Bye and 
Park : A. J. Ashmore ; Bavens- 
court Park: W. B. Gingell; Soutli- 
wark Park : D. Carson ; Springfield 
Park and Clapton Common; G. 
Dodson; Victoria Park: J. W. 
Moorman ; Victoria Embankment 
Gardens: F. W. Wright; Water- 
low Park : F. J. Philp. 



London County Council. 



37 



Other Parks. 

Open spaces in or near London, 
maintained for the use of the 
public, but not under the control of 
the Council, towards the purchase 
of some of which the Council con- 
tributed : — 

Barnes Common (100 acres), 
under the management of a body 
of conservators; Bishop's Park, 
Fulham (21 acres), maintained by 
the Borough Council ; Camberwell 
Green (2± acres), maintained by the 
Borough Council; Fulham Palace- 
road Recreation-ground, maintained 
by the Borough Council, 9 acres ; 
Hammersmith Recreation-ground, 
maintained by the Borough Coun- 
cil; Highgate Woods (69 acres), 
maintained by the City Corpora- 
tion : Islington Green, maintained 
by tne Borough Council; Kilburn 
(or Queen's) Park, established and 
maintained by Ahe City Corpora- 
tion; Paddington Green (about H 
acres) and Paddington Recreation- 
ground (26 acres), maintained by 
tne Borough Council; Penge Recrea- 
tion -ground, maintained^ by the 
Lewisnam Borough Council ; 
Poplar Recreation-ground (3 acres), 
maintained by the Poplar Borough 
Council; St. Pancras Recreation- 
ground (7 acres) ; Stepney Green 
Recreation-ground, Borough Coun- 



cil agreeing to maintain it in per- 
petuity; Stoke Newington Green, 
maintained by the Islington Borough 
Council, 171 acres; Sydenham Re- 
creation-ground ; Vauxhall Park, 
maintained by the Lambeth Borough 
Council, 8 acres ; West End Green, 
purchased by the Borough Council 
m 1885, for £850; West Ham Park, 
managed by the City Corporation, 
77 acres; Wimbledon Common; 
Wimbledon Green ; Putney Heath ; 
and Putney Lower Common. The 
two last-named places are entirely 
within the county of London, and 
the first partly so. The total 
area of gardens, playgrounds, 
churchyards, <fec, maintained bv the 
metropolitan borough councils is 
265 acres. 

Including the half-dozen Royal 
Parks, there are in London 6,403 
acres of open spaces. But there 
aie others which touch the county 
boundary, and which on this 
account may be claimed as "Lon- 
don Parks." Of these, Richmond 
Park comprises 2,358 acres; Wal- 
thamstow Marshes, 173 acres ; Epp- 
ing Forest, 5,5591 acres; Bunnill 
Fields Burial Ground, 4 acres ; Wan- 
stead Park and Higham Park, 212 
acres ; Burnham Beeches, 375 acres ; 
Coulsdon Commons, 347 acres ; West 
Wickham Common, 25 acres; and 
Stamford Brook, 2 acres. 



WORKS DEPARTMENT. 

The Works Department of the London Coun'y Council has been in 
existence since 1892, the year in which the central authority decided to 
render itself less dependent on contractors, and to undertake, when it 
deemed expedient, by its own staff, the class of building and engineering 
works which had previously been contracted for. The Department has 
built many blocks of artisans' dwellings, asylums, fire-stations, con- 
veniences, bandstands, and sewage pumping stations ; it has constructed 
miles of main sewers, made new streets, and has widened many an 
important London thoroughfare. Since its creation it has completed 
about £4,448,000 worth of work, and at the present time is busily occupied 
with a variety of undertakings. The statements presented to the Council 
of works completed during the year ended 31st March, 1906, showed that 
thirty estimated works were completed at a total cost of £522,966, 



38 London County Council. 

the certified value being stated as £603,343. The cost of jobbing works 
completed during the year was £49,377, the schedule value"being £53,120. 
The Department is under the control of a Works Committee, who are 
responsible for the execution of all works which the Council may res -lve 
to carry out without the intervention of a contractor. 

The number of workmen employed weekly averaged last year 3,330. 
The totil amount paid in wages was £276,505, being an average per week 
of £5,317. At the end of March, 1906, there were 44 horses in the stables, 
of a book value of £940. 

The procedure followed with regard to works referred to the Department 
for execution is briefly as follows: — The supervising officer, i.e., the 
architect or the engineer, prepares plans, specifications, bills of quantities, 
and an estimate of cost of the work proposed to be executed, and presents 
them to the Executive Committee concerned. Should that committee 
decide to recommend the Council to execute the work without the inter- 
vention of a contractor, they refer the estimate, together with the plans, 
&c, to the Works Committee with a view to ascertaining whether that 
committee is prepared to carry out the work for the amount of the estimate. 
If the Works Committee reply that the estimate is sufficient, the Executive 
Committee thereupon recommend the Council to refer the work to the 
Works Committee for execution. If the estimate is considered insufficient 
by the Works Committee, the Executive Committee takes the necessary 
steps for the work to be executed by contractors. The underlying principle 
of the whole organisation is that the Works Committee is regarded by 
the Council as a contractor. The works in process of execution are super- 
vised by the officers under whose direction they were designed. The 
expenses in connection with the formation of the Department were very 
heavy, and, owing to the requirements of the Government auditor, the 
staff is larger than would be the case with a contractor executing a similar 
amount of work. The capital expenditure for the purposes of the 
Department, up to 31st March, 1906, amounted to £112,728, which is being 
repaid by yearly instalments, the amount repaid to the end of last year 
being £21,681 ; of this amount the sum of £2,068 was paid last year. In 
addition to this sums of £2,602 and £2,809 were charged against the 
Department last year in respect of interest on capital outlay and on work- 
ing capital respectively. These charges are distributed over the cost of 
the various works by means of a percentage added to the prime cost of 
labour and materials. 

Even before the establishment of the Works Department the Council 
had executed works without the intervention of the contractor. But in 
1892 there came a crisis in the relations between the Council and con- 
tractors, which had for some time past been strained, and the Council, on 
the 22nd November, 1892, resolved to establish a Works Department on a 
permanent basis. The Department began executing work in February, 
1893, and the first list of. completed works was reported to the Council on 
February 6th, 1894. The Works Committee consists of seven members, 
of which Mr. Edward White is chairman, and Mr. F. H. J. Morrow is vice- 
chairman ; the other members being Messrs. W. Davies, E. H. Coumbe, 
W. Hunt, I. Salmon, E. Smith, W. W. Thompson, and H. Ward. 

Contractors employed by the Council on works of onstruction or 
manufacture within a radius of 20 miles from Charing Cross are required 
to pay wages at rates not less, and to observe hours of labour not longer, 



London Oounty Council. 



39 



than are for the time being recognised by associations of employers and 
trade unions and that are in practice obtained in London. With regard 
to labour employed outside this radius the rates of wages and hours of 
labour recognised and in practice obtained in the district where the work 
is to be done are required to be observed. In the Council's Works Depart- 
ment no distinction is drawn in the employment of labour between union 
and non-union men. 

The total cost of jobbing works executed since the inception of the 
Department, and reported to the Council, up to 30th September, 1906, was 
£436,569, and the schedule value, £466,854. 

Prior to 1st April, 1895, there was no schedule of prices for com- 
parison, the actual cost of jobbing works executed to this date being 
£72,006. 

THE LONDON FIRE BRIGADE. 
The Fire Brigade is the force constituted by the Fire Brigade Act, 1865, to 
deal with fires in London. It is under the control of the Council, and 
the so-called volunteer fire brigades — the last of which has, however, now 
ceased to exist— had no connection with it. The members of the Fire 
Brigade are not allowed under any circumstances to solicit subscriptions. 

Authorised Staff. 

One chief officer, 2 divisional officers, 1 
assistant divisional officer, 1 senior superin- 
tendent, 7 superintendents, £ district officers, 
90 station officers, 988 flrejnen, 36 proba- 
tionary firemen, 190 coachmen, 12 licensed 
watermen for river engines, tug-boats, &c. 
Total 1,336. 

Stations. 

Seventy -eight land fire-stations, of which 
64 are equipped with steam fire-engines and 
horsed escapes, one with a motor fire 
engine and a motor fire-escape, one with a 
motor fire-engine and a manual fire-escape ; 
2 with steam fire-engines and manual fire- 
escapes ; 10 with horsed escapes ; 2 small 
stations (without horses) ; 14 permanent 
street stations, where firemen are on duty 
night and day, with fire-escapes and fire- 
extinguishing appliances; 14 fire-escape 
stations, 1 hose-and-ladder truck station, 3 
river stations, and 1 repairing depot for 
river craft. 

Appliances. 

Two fire-floats, 3 steam-tugs, 4 steam fire- 
engines on rafts, 3 store &c. barges, 82 
land steam fire-engines, including 5 motor 
steam fire-engines, 9 manual fire-engines, 

2 small manual fire-engines known as 
curricles, about 50 miles of ihose, 90 hose- 
carts, 5 hose-and-ladder trucks, 109 vans for 
carrying fire-escapes, hose, coal, and stores, 
77 horsed fire-escapes, 2 motor fire-escapes, 
111 manual fire-escapes, 29 long fire-ladders, 

3 turntaWft ong ladders, and 318 horses. 



Districts, Stations, and 

Superintendents. 

Headquarters: Southwark Bridge 

Road. 
Chief Officer— Captain J. de C. Hamilton, 
R.N. (Retired). 

Divisional Officers— S. G. Gamble, Lieut. 
S. Sladen, R.N. 
A88i8t ant Divisional Officer— A. R. Dyer. 
Senior Superintendent— €. 8. Egerton. 

Engineering Staff— One Electrical and 
Mechanical Engineer, two First Class 
Assistants, and one Assistant Electrical 
Engineer. 

Hydrant Staff — One Fint-Class Assis- 
tant, one Draughtsman, three Office Assis- 
tants, and three Inspectors. 

Clerical Staff— Nine Clerks. 

Stores and Workshops Staff— One Store 
Officer, one Store Clerk, one Assistant Store- 
keeper, one Junior Stores Assistant, one 
Stores Porter, one Workshops Engineer, one 
"Working Foreman, one Workshops Clerk, 
and 42 Mechanics and Labourers. 

Telephone Attendant— One. 

Watchmen— Two. 

Headquarters. 
Chief Station . . . Southwark-briJge-rd # 

Theatre and Common Lodging-House 
Inspection Branch. 
Superintendent— H. G. Ansell. 
District Officer— T. V. Simmons. 
(And six station officers.) 



40 



London County Council. 



A DISTRICT. 
Superintendent— W. T. Emanuel. 
District Officer— E. C. Gosling. 



Bayswater . . 
Brompton . . 
Chelsea . . . 
Fulham . . . 
(8Mb) . 
Hammersmith 
Hampstead. . 

N. Kensington 
Kilburn . . 
Knightsbridge. 



Manchester - sgware 
(Superintendent's 
station) . . . . 

Notting-hill. . . . 

Edgware-road . . 

St. John's-wood . . 

S/wp/ierd'8-5t*8fe . 

Westminster . . . 

West Hampstead. . 



Pickering-place 

Trafalgar-square 

Pavilion-road 

Fulham-road 

North End-road 

Brook-green-road 

Heath-street 

Clarence-mews, 

High-street 
Faraday-road 
Mai da- vale 
Relton-mews, Bromp- 

ton-road 



East-street 
Ladbroke-road 
Edgware-road 
Adelaide-road 
Uxbridge-road 
Greycoat-place, Vic- 
toria-street 
West End-lane 



B District. 
Superintendent— E. Williams. 
District Officer— J. G. Smith. 



Camden Town. . . 
Clerkenioell (Super- 
intendent's station) 

Euston 

Qreat Marlborough- 

street 

Highbury .... 

Holbom 

Hollo way .... 
Islington .... 
Kentish Town. . . 

Redcross-street . . 



King's-road 

Rosebery-avenue 
Euston-road 

Great Marlboro'-st. 
Blackstock-road 
Theobald's-road 
Seven Sisters-road 
Upper-street 
Willow-walk, High- 
gate-road 
Redcross-street 



C District. 
Superintendent— J. Robilliard. 
District Officers. Todd. 



Bethnal Green . 


. Green-street 


Bishopsgate. . 


. Bishopsgate • street 
Without 


Bow 


. Glebe-road 


Burdett-road . 


. Burdett-road. 


Hackney . . . . 


. Bodney-road, Am- 




hurst-road 


Homerton . . 


. . High-street 


Millwall. . . 


. Junctiou of East and 




West Ferry roads 


Kingsland . . 


. Kingsland-road 


Mile End. . . 


. Mile-end-road 


Poplar. . . . 


. West India-dock-rd. 


Shadicell . . 


. Glamis-road 


Shoreditch . . , 


. Tabernacle-street 



Stoke Newington . . Leswin-nud 

Wapping Red Lion • street, 

High-street 
Whitechapel (Super- 
intendent's station) Commercial-rd., E. 

D District. 
Superintendent— C. U. Deakin. 
District Officer— Vf. M. Martin. 

Blackheath .... Tranquil-vale 

Peckham-road. . . Peckham-road 

Deptford Evelyn-street 

Dulwich Lordship-lane 

East Greenwich . . Woolwich-road 

Eltham High-street 

Floatinq Cherry-garden-pier 

Greenwich .... Lindsell-street 
Lee Green .... Eltham-road, Lee 
Lewisham .... High-street 
New-cross (Superin- 
tendent's station) . Queen's-road 
North Woolwich . . Albert-road 
Pageant's Wharf. . Rotherhithe-street 
Perry-vale .... Woolstone-road 
Rotherhithe. . . . Gomm-road 
Rushey-green . . . Rushey-green 
Shooters' -hill . . . Shootere'-hill 
Woolwich .... Sun-street 

E District. 
Superintendent— S. Riddle. 
District Officer— W. R. Canning. 

Battersea .... Simpson-street 

Battersea-park-road Battersea-park-road 

Brixton Gresham-road 

Clapham (Superin- 
tendent's station) . Old Town 

Floating Battersea-bridge 

Heme Hill. . . . Heme Hill 

Kennington . . . Renfrew-road 
Northcote-road, 

Battersea . . . Northcote-road 

Old Kent Road . . Corner of Thomas 

street 

Streatham .... Mitcham-lane 

Sydenham .... Crystal Palace- 
parade 

Tooting Balham-road and 

Trinity-road 

Vauxhall .... Albert Embankment 

Wandsworth . . . West-hill 

West Norwood. . . High-street 

F District. 
Superintendent— F. J. Smith. 
District Officer— W.O. Etherden. 

Cannon-street. . . Cannon-street 

Floating Blackfriars-bridge 

,» Charing - cross (Re- 
pairing depot only) 
Scotland-yard. . . Scotland-yard 
Tooley-street . . . Tooley-street 
Waterloo-road. . . Waterloo-road 
Whitefriars (Super- 
intendent's station) Carmelite-street. 



London County Ootmcil. 41 

During the eighteen years that the County Council has been in existence 
it has considerably strengthened and improved the Brigade. 

Stations. — Additional land stations have been established at Dulwich, 
New Cross, Kingsland, Whitefriars, North End, Fulham, Lewisham, 
Shepherd's-bush, West Hampstead, East Greenwich, Perry- vale, Homerton, 
Highbury, Vauxhall, Pageant's Wharf, Streatham, Kilburn, Bayswater, 
Eltham, Bnrdett-road, Wapping, Northcote-road, Battersea, Herne-hill, 
and Lee-green. . New stations have been substituted for small and incon- 
venient buildings at Wandsworth, Shoreditch, Fulham, Brompton, 
Islington, Paddington, Redcross-street (City) (in place of the Whitecross- 
street station), Euston-road (in place of the Portland-road station), Clap- 
ham, Mile-end, Deptf6rd, Old Kent-road, Millwall, Kensington, West- 
minster, Brix+on, and Cannon-street (in place of Watling-street). The 
existing stations at Kennington, Clerkenwell, Hampstead, Battersea, 
Whitechapel, Greenwich, Stoke Newington, Rotherhithe, and Bethnal- 
green have been very considerably enlarged. Two small stations without 
horses have been established in Battersea-park-road and at North Woolwich 
respectively. A building has been erected at Rotherhithe for the 
accommodation of the stall at Cherry-garden pier. An additional river- 
station has been established at Battersea, and a building has been erected 
there for the accommodation of the staff of the station. 

Of the above-mentioned stations, those at West Hampstead, East 
Greenwich, Perry-vale, Northcote-road, Battersea, Highbury, Homerton, 
Vauxhall, Kilburn, Bayswater, Eltham, Burdett-roaa, Herne-hill, and 
Lee-green were erected as part of a comprehensive scheme which was 
approved by the Council in February, 1898. This scheme also provides 
for the erection of a permanent sub-station at North End, Fulham; 
also of sub-stations at Plumstead, Upper Holloway, Caledonian-road, 
Charlton, Brixton-hill, Camberwell New-road, Rushey Green, and Roe- 
hampton. The Council has also determined to erect new stations in sub- 
stitution for existing inconvenient buildings at Tooting, Holloway, 
Knightsbridge, Shooter's Hill, and Waterloo-road, and to considerably 
extend the chief station in Southwark Bridge-road. 

Appliances.— The number of steam fire-engines has been increased, 
and the life-saving appliances have been improved. Horsed escapes have 
been introduced, ana 75 stations, i.e., all those large enough to accommo- 
date the apparatus, are now provided with these appliances. This has 
enabled more than 100 fire-escape stations in the public streets to be discon- 
tinued, the protection afforded by the horsed escapes being much greater 
than obtained with the old appliances. As the alterations determined 
upon at other stations are completed, horsed escapes will be kept at such 
stations. The number of fire-alarms has been trebled, and all the posts 
have been adapted to enable firemen to transmit telephonic messages to 
the fire stations thereby. More than 19,000 additional fire-hyarants 
have been fixed or ordered to be fixed. Two fire floats containing pumping 
and propelling machinery have been built. Five motor fire-engines, 
two motor fire-escapes t and a motor hose tender have been obtained. Fire 
alarm indicators, snaped like a hand, for fixing to lamp-posts, are being 
supplied by the Council to those Borough Councils, all except Paddington, 
which have agreed to fix and maintain them. 

Staff.— -The staff has been increased from 677 to 1,336, including 36 
men under instruction. Two additional districts have been created, and 



42 



London County Council. 



arrangements for more rapidly mobilising men and appliances have been 
made. At every fire-station where there is a horsed escape as well as a 
steam-engine, an additional pair of horses has been provided, the total 
number of horses hired for the service being now 318 as against 131 
eighteen years ago. 

The following table shows the increase made in the stations, staff, and 
appliances of the Brigade during the eighteen years the Council has been in 
existence : — 





Stations. 


Appliances. 


Authorised staff, 

excluding men under 

instruction. 




GQ 

g 


co 
C 
_o . 

I! 

3 


a 2 


to en 

3 5 

— 1 3 


M 


Q<c8 

a p. 

p 


i 

•a 

o3 

i 
I 


W42 


CO 

.22 

2 


•a 

II 
Is 

'd m 


! 

1 

o 


I 


a 
B 
3 

o 


o 


,-4 

1 


1st April, 1889 * 


2 


55 
76 


7 
14 


2 


48 
83 


— 9 80 '358 


8,807 
28,340 


69 
109 


525 
985 


67 
190 


16 
12 


677 


31st March, 1907 ... 


75 32 95 

i 1 


1230 


1296 


Increase 


2 


21 


7 


?, 


35 


75 23 15 


872 


19,533 


40 


460 


133 


-4 


619 










. 










1 







A contribution of £10,000 is paid by the Government towards the 
maintenance of the Brigade, and the fire insurance companies contribute 
at the rate of £35 per million of the gross amounts insured by them in 
respect of property in London. The amount received from the companies 
for the year 1904-5 was £35,076 0s. Id. The difference between these and 
other casual receipts and the total expenditure is borne by the ratepayers. 

This greatly increased strength has necessarily involved additional 
outlay. The increase of expenditure since 1890 has been gradual, and the 
difference between 1888 and 1904-5 is shown in the following table : — 





Expenditure. 


Raised from the Ratepayers. 


Year. 


Maintenance 
Account. 


Capital 
Account. 


Total. 


For main- l 1 "*^!?? 


Total. 


1888 

1890-1 

1898-9 

1899-1900 ... 
1900-1901 ... 
1901-1902 ... 
1902-1903 ... 
1903-1904 ... 
1904-1905 ... 


£ s. d.l £ s. d. 
115,425 8 4 47,631 18 1 

128,294 2 33,072 6 

I 
195,123 6 11 38,737 7 5 
198,554 10 8 81,729 8 3 
204,589 16 86,958 1 6 
213,820 8 11 69,2% 2 7 
224,141 12 1 77,258 4 7 
235,078 8 10 101,698 6 9 
239,436 12 3 76,959 3 3 


£ s.d. 
163,057 6 5 

161,366 8 

233,860 14 4 
280,283 18 11 
291,547 17 6 
283,116 11 6 
301,399 16 8 
33;,775 15 7 
316,395 15 6 


£ s.d. 
78,157 8 5 

86,230 19 4 

148,012 11 8 
149,688 10 4 
155,130 1 
163,112 6 1 
170,630 2 
182,004 19 5 
184,974 3 10 


£ s.d. 
26,680 

31,380 

49,470 
50,400 
50,900 
53,088 
55,102 
58,057 
63,000 


£ s.d. 
104,837 8 5 

117,610 19 4 

197,482 11 8 
200,088 10 4 
206,030 1 
216,200 6 1 
225,732 2 
240,061 19 
247,974 3 10 



London County Council. 43 

PUBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENT. 
8, St. Martin's Place, W.C. 

The Public Health Department is the Council's intelligence and executive 
branch in all matters relating to public health. A medical officer was 
appointed in 1889, and the Department was constituted after the passing 
of the Housing of the Working Classes Act and the Public Health 
(London) Act. The medical officer was made the chief officer, and two 
assistant medical officers were appointed. The Council, through the 
Department, watches over the administration of the sanitary authorities, 
and has power to act in supersession of any authority making default in 
the performance of its duty. Under the Public Health Act the Council 
makes bye-laws relating to the construction of sanitary appliances, the 
removal of nuisances, and other matters relating to healtn. Under the 
Metropolis Management Acts the Council makes bye-laws as to the 
drainage of buildings. These bye-laws are enforced by the sanitary 
authorities. 

The Council also makes bye-laws for regulating offensive trades, and 
for regulating the removal of the carcasses of dead horses through and 
along public streets, and regulations for dairies, milk-shops, &c. It annually 
licenses cow-sheds, slaughterhouses, and knackers' yards. These bye-laws 
and regulations, together with the registration of milk vendors, were for- 
merly administered by the London County Council, but since the London 
Government Act, 1899, came into operation, in November, 1900, this duty 
has devolved upon the borough councils. The County Council has, 
however, been ^iven powers of supersession of any sanitary authority 
making default m the performance of its duty in this respect. The duties 
of preventing the establishment or enlargement, without the sanction of 
the Council, of premises on which a noxious trade is carried on, and 
administering the provisions of the Dairies, Cowsheds, and Milkshops 
Orders of 1885-6 and 1899, still devolve on the County Council. For 
the purpose of administering the Order of 1899, which prohibits the sale 
for human food of the milk of a cow with a tuberculous udder, also 
Part V. of the L.C.C. (General Powers) Act, 1904, which provides for the 
removal and slaughter of cows suspected to be suffering from tubercular 
disease of the udder, the County Council employs a veterinary surgeon 
and an assistant. For the other duties a staff of inspectors is employed. 

Since 1894 the duty of inspecting and regulating common lodging- 
houses has also devolved upon the Department, having been transferred 
to the Council from the Metropolitan Police. A staff of 14 inspectors 
is employed to carry out this work. Under the L.C.C. (General Powers) 
Act, 1902, the Council annually licenses common lodging-houses. The 
bahaviour of infectious disease in London is closely watcned, and when 
an outbreak of infectious disease involves more than one district, one 
of the Council's medical officers investigates the circumstances, with 
a view to discovering the cause of the outbreak. Seamen's lodging- 
houses are also now inspected and regulated under bye-laws made in 1901. 
The Council is the local supervising authority for the County of London 
under the Midwives Act, 1902, and to carry out the work of the Council in 
this connection two lady inspectors with medical qualifications have been 
appointed. The Housing of the Working Classes Act also imposes, 
considerable work on the Department. 



44 



London County Council. 



A Court of Appeal to House- 
holders. 

Householders who have com- 
plained to the local sanitary autho- 
rity with respect to insanitary con- 
ditions, and failed to obtain redress, 
appeal to the Council. Many such 
complaints are received, and in- 
spections are made, and communi- 
cations on the subject are addressed 
to the sanitary authority when 
necessary. 

Slaughterhouses. 

There are no fewer than 308 pri- 
vate slaughterhouses in London. 
They are anuually licensed by the 
Council. The licensing meeting is 
held in October. Applications for 
renewals must be accompanied by 
a fee of 5«., and a form of notice 
filled up at least fourteen days 
before the licensing meeting, and 
sent to the district sanitary autho- 
rity, which can raise objections if 
considered necessary. The Council 
also licenses the five knackers' 
yards which exist in London for 
the slaughter of horses. 

Disposal of Worn-out Horses. 
Part VIII. of the London 
County Council (General Powers) 
Act, 1903, prohibits the use of 
premises in the county for receiving 
or keeping horses for slaughter or 
dead norses without a licence, 
which must be obtained annually 
from the Council. The Act also 
enables the Council to make bye- 
laws, enforceable by the local sani- 
tary authorities, with respect to the 
mode of conveying the carcasses of 
dead horses through the streets. 

Dairies, . Cow-Sheds, and Milk- 
Shops. 
Cow- Sheds are licensed annually 
by the Council. There are 240 
cow - sheds in London, and the 
same procedure in licensing them is 
adopted as in the case of slaughter- 
houses» Before a new cow-shed is 



opened, plans must be submitted 
for the approval of the Council; 
and similar requirements exist with 
regard to dairies. The object is to 
see that the milk is kept in places 
where it is not likely to be con- 
taminated by reason of bad sanitary 
conditions, want of ventilation, or 
other causes. All sellers of milk 
are required to be registered, and 
are liable to a fine of £5 for failing 
to effect registration. The milk- 
seller must give notice to the 
borough council of the district of 
an occurrence of infectious disease 
upon his or her premises. The 
London County Council has in the 
past insisted on the maintenance of 
milk utensils in a cleanly condition 
and the need for due regard being 
given to the sanitary surroundings 
of milk-shops, and a number of pro- 
secutions have been from time to 
time successfully instituted in 
serious cases of neglect to observe 
proper precautions. The duty of 
registration and of taking proceed- 
ings now rests with the borough 
councils. 

Tuberculosis of the Udder 

in Cows. 
The London County Council 
(General Powers) Act, 1904, Part 
V ., confers powers upon the Council 
with respect to tuberculosis of the 
udder in cows. This Act provides 
that the Council's veterinary sur- 
geon may cause the removal of any 
cow in the county (outside the city) 
suspected to be suffering from tuber- 
cular disease of the udder, and the 
Council is required, after agreement 
with the owner as to the value, to 
cause the cow so removed to be 
slaughtered, and its carcass to be 
examined by a veterinary surgeon. 

Common Lodging-Houses. 

The Council took over the work 

of inspecting common lodgings 

houses from the police, and it now 

devolves upon the medical officer" 



London County Council. 



45 



and his staff. There are in London 
402 of such houses, authorised to 
accommodate 28,074 persons. Any 
one desiring to open a common 
lodging - house must, under the 
new Act of 1902, make application 
to the Council annually for a 
licence, and he is required to obtain 
certificates of character, and his 
premises must be approved by the 
Council. 

Seamen's Lodging-Houses. 

Bye-laws made by the Council in 
1901 under the Merchant Shipping 
Act have brought all seamen's 
lodging-houses in London under 
its control. The bye-laws provide, 
amongst other things, for the 
licensing, inspection, and sanitary 
condition of the houses. It is 
optional for a keeper to apply for 
a licence, but he must, in any case, 
comply with the requirements of 
the bye-laws as regards cubic space 
and sanitation. Eighty - three 
houses, accommodating 1,559 sea- 
men, are now registered under the 
bye-laws. 

Midwives. 

The London County Council is 
the local supervising authority for 



London under the Midwives Act, 
1902. It is the duty of every mid- 
wife to give notice to the London 
County Council before holding her- 
self out to practise in London, and 
to give a similar notice in January 
of every year during which she 
continues to practise. The Council's 
duty is to report to the Central 
Midwives Board any alterations 
that should be made in the roll of 
midwives, and the names of any 
midwives within the Council's area 
who may be convicted of offences 
to investigate all charges of mal- 
practice, negligence, or misconduct, 
and if necessary to suspend midwives 
from practice. A current copy of 
the roll of midwives must also l>e 
kept by the Council for public 
instruction at reasonable times. 

Education. 

As the Education Authority, the 
London County Council has the 
supervision of schools in its area, 
and the Education branch of the 
Public Health department takes 
under its cognizance matters affect- 
ing the health of the scholars and 
of those working in the schools. 



IMPROVEMENTS. 
The County Council has carried out a number of improvements and 
considered many others. It completed Rosebery-avenue, an improve- 
ment begun by the Metropolitan Board of Works. It constructed the 
southern approach to Battersea Bridge in 1890, and the southern 
approaches in connection with Woolwich Ferry, and executed a number 
of small improvements. It constructed Culvert-road Bridge, Canterbury- 
road Bridge, Putney Bridge, and part of Church-street, Fulham. It 
joined with the City Commission of Sewers in widening Sandys-row, and 
in executing the portion of the improvement from Bishopsgate to 
Middlesex-street. The total nett amount voted by the Council for street 
improvements during the 17 years commenced March, 1889, and ended in 
March, 1906, amounted to about £8,000,000, which represents an average 
annual vote of about £470,000 nett. The Metropolitan Board, during the 
33 years of its existence, spent upon street improvements, including the 
Embankment of the Thames, £11,516,974, an average annual expenditure 
of about £349,000. „ , 

The third Council, elected in March, 1895, contributed half the cost of 
widening the last portion of Ludgate-hill (£4i,960), undertook half the cost 



46 



London County Council. 



of widening Oheapside at the western end (£77,975), and half the cost of 
widening Fleet-street between Ludgate-circus and Salisbury-court 
(£104,750). In May, 1896, it voted £30,000 towards widening the Strand 
opposite the Hotel Cecil. 

The fourth Council, elected in March, 1898, voted the following amounts 
towards the cost of widening thoroughfares : — Fleet-street at the City 
boundary, £20,000; Nine Elms-lane, £23,900 ; Lothbury, £15,000; Par- 
liament-street, £12,000; Lower Thames-street, £50,000; Piccadilly, £13,536; 
Mansell-street, £91,100. 

The fifth Council, elected in March, 1901, agreed to contribute £16,800 
towards the cost of widening Blomfield-street, and £70,000 towards the 
cost of widening the Strand at Nos. 89 to 94. The sixth Council, elected in 
1904, sanctioned contributions to local improvements as follows : — Fleet- 
street (£7,750), Church-street, Stoke Newington (£10,500), King's-road, 
Chelsea (£7,128). 

The Council has earned out the following improvements : — 



Evelyn-street to Creek-road, Dept- 
ford, a new street 60 feet wide, 
(£62,000). Greenwich District Board 
contributed one-fourth. 

Wood-lane, Hammersmith, wide- 
ning at Uxbridge-road end to about 
55 to 59 feet (£4,410). Vestry of 
Hammersmith contributed one- 
half. 

B la ck stock- road, Islington , 
widening (£7,550). Vestry of 
Islington contributed one-half. 

Isle of Dogs bridges (a) Preston- 
road-bridge (£1 1,100) ; (b) Lime- 
house Entrance-bridge (i'l 6,200) ; 
(c) City Arms-bridge (£10.050) ; (d) 
South Dock. East Entrance-bridge 
(£11,150). Poplar District Board 
contributed £10,000. 

Ben Jonson- road, Mile - end, 
widening ( £6,140 ). Limehouse 
District Board contributed one- 
fourth, and Mile-end Vestry one- 
fourth, the Council contributing 
the remaining half, not exceeding 
£3.070. 

Tottenham-court - road, widening 
by removal of block of buildings at 
Boziers-eourt (£53.860). 

Highgate-archway, widening and 
improving Archway-road. and 
altering and reconstruetingthc arch- 
way which carries Hornsey-laiie over 
the road. The cost of the con- 
struction was l>orne by the Ecclesias- 



tical Commissioners, the London 
County Council, the Middlesex 
County Council, the Vestry of 
Islington, and the Hornsey District 
Council. 

Holloway-road (£8,550). Vestry 
of Islington contributed one-half. 

Tower Bridge Southern approach, 
new street, 60 feet wide (£394,000). 

Reconstruction of Old Gravel- 
lane-bridge, St. George-in-the-East 
(£14,000). 

at Hyde-park-corner 



and Goswell - road 



Piccadilly 
(£13,537). 

Old-street 
(£164,500). 

Widening of Albert-embankment. 
Lambeth (£34,000). 

Strand at Holy well-street by re- 
moval of buildings between the two 
streets (£569,130). 

St. Georges-place, Knightsbridge, 
widening of latter thoroughfare to 
70 feet l>etween William-street and 
Wilton-place ( £32,067). West- 
minster City Council contributed 
one-fourth. 

Long - lane and Tabard - street, 
Southwark (£190,400). 

Continuation of Roehampton- 
street, Westminster (£5.700). West- 
minster City Council paid one- 
fourth. 

Reconstruction" of Rosemary , 
branch-bridge, Hackney and Short- 



London County Council. 



47 



ditch (£6,800). Shoreditch Borough 
Council paid one-fourth and Hack 
ney* Borough Council £1,000. 

feeconstruction of Cat-and- Mut- 
ton - bridge, Shoreditch (£68,500). 
Hackney Borough Council con- 
tributed £5,00<) and Shoreditch 
Borough Council a sum (not ex- 
ceeding £17,000) sufficient with 
the contribution of the Hackney 
Borough Council to make up one- 
third of the nett cost. 

Widening of Wandsworth-road, 
Lambeth (£55,000). 

St. John - street, Clerkenwell 
(£79,400). 

Battersea-rise(£43,900). Battersea 
Borough Council contributed £7,500. 

Brixton-road, between Cran- 
mer-road and Camberwell New- 
road (£13,200). 

Harleyford-street (£16,900). 

Cambridge-road (£48,600). 
Bethnal Green Borough Council 
contributed one-fourth. 

Southampton-row between Theo- 



bald's-road and High Holborn 
(£195,500). 

Kensington High-street (£81,000). 
Kensington Borough Council con- 
tributed one-third. 

Mare-street (£576,100). Hackney 
Borough Council contributed one- 
fourth. 

Holborn to Strand street. Kings- 
way and Aldwych (£774.200). 

Goswell-road (£209,500). Fins- 
bury Borough Council contributed 
£20,000. 

Archway-road, Islington (£6,000). 

Kentish Town-road (£10,450). 
St. Pancras Borough Council bear 
cost of paving works. 

High-street and Gardener's-lane, 
Putney (£37,430). Wandsworth 
Borough Council contributed half 
cost of widening High-street and 
three-fourths of cost of widening 
Gardener's-lane. 

Sloane-street (£60,000). Chelsea 
Borough Council contributed £20,000 
and bore cost of paving works. 



Other improvements to which the Council stands committed are as 
follows : — 



Tower Bridge Northern approach, 
Tower - hill to Prescot - street 
(£391,500). First Section of improve- 
ment completed; remainder in 
hand. 

Battersea - park - road, between 
Simpson-street and Home-road, in- 
cluding Christ Church railway 
bridge (£20,430). Battersea 
Borough Council contributes one- 
fourth. Permanent paving works 
practically completed. 

Widening of York-road, Batter- 
sea and Wandsworth (£80,150). 
Battersea Borough Council to pay 
one-fourth of Battersea portion 
and Wandsworth Borough Council 
one-fourth of portion in Wands- 
worth. Paving works practically 
completed. 

Thames - embankment extension 
and "Westminster improvements 
at Millbank (£586,000). Westminster 



City Council to contribute £100,000 ; 
H.M. Government to give up land 
needed for widening part of Abing- 
don-street, and to surrender part of 
the Victoria Tower garden ; owners 
of property benefited by the im- 
provement to contribute. Negotia- 
tions for the purchase of property 
are proceeding. Some portions of 
improvements finished. 

Southampton-row, between Ver- 
non-place and Bloomsbury-place, 
and at Nos. 67, 69, 71, 83, 85, and 
87 (£149,000). Negotiations pro- 
ceeding. 

Nine Elms-lane (£160,000). Bat- 
tersea Borough Council to con- 
tribute £15,000. Negotiations for 
the purchase of property are pro- 
ceeding. Paving works in section 
of improvement have been com- 
menced. 

Blackheath - road, Blackheath- 
C 2 



48 



London County Council. 



hill, and New-road (£39,700). 
Negotiations for the purchase of 
property are proceeding. Widening 
Blackheath-road completed. 

Central - street, St. Luke's 
(£84,750). Finsbury Borough 
Council to contribute £15,000. 
Paving works practically com- 
pleted. 

Red Lion-street, South-street, 
Garratt-lane, Defoe-road, and High- 
street, Tooting (£273,950). Wands- 
worth Borough Council to contri- 
bute one-third, not exceeding' 
£91,316. Paving works completed. 

Tooting High-sfcreet (£28,000). 
Wandsworth Borough Council to 
contribute one-third. Paving works 
commenced. 

Camberwell New-road (£52,000). 
Camberwell Borough Council to 
contribute £5,000. Greater part of 
widening completed. 

Fulham Palace-road and High- 
street, Fulham, and Queen- street, 
Hammersmith (£92,000). Fulham 
and Hammersmith Borough 
Council to contribute one-third. 
Paving, &c, works commenced. 

Denmark-hill, Champion-park, 
Grove-lane, Dog Kennel-hill, Grove- 
vale, and Lordship-lane (£114,950). 
Camberwell Borough Council to 
contribute one-third of Camberwell 
portion. Paving works practically 
completed. 

Queen's-road Peckham (£29,500) 
Camberwell and Deptford Borough 
Councils to contribute one-third. 
Camberwell portion finished. 

High Holborn at Nos. 107 to 113 
(£16,650). Paving works have 
been completed. 

Hampstead-road, southern end 
(£226,500). St. Pancras Borough 
Council to contribute one-eighth. 
Improvement practically finished. 

Queen-street, Hammersmith 
(£4,810). Hammersmith Borough 
Council to contribute about one- 
third. 



Wimbledon-road (£5,300). Pav- 
ing works about to be commenced. 

Brook Green-road and Scrubs- 
lane (£64,200). Hammersmith 
Borough Council to contribute one- 
third. Negotiations for property 
completed. Arrangements made 
for reconstruction of bridges. 

Piccadilly between Arlington- 
street and the Green-park (£45,000) . 
Westminster City Council to con- 
tribute £4,000. Paving works com- 
pleted. 

Piccadilly between the Circus and 
Sackville-street (£209,500). West- 
minster City Council to contribute 
one-fifth, not exceeding £40,000. 
Basis of settlement agreed. Com- 
pletion of improvement will depend 
upon rebuilding operations on the 
site. 

Piccadilly between St. James's- 
street and Duke-street (£72,500). 
Westminster City Council to con- 
tribute one seventh, not exceeding 
£10,493. Terms agreed for pro- 
perty. 

Lordship-lane and London-road 
(£21,500). Camberwell and Lewis- 
ham Borough Councils to contri- 
bute one-third. JJegotiations for 
property practically concluded. 

Malpas - road, Brockley - road, 
Brockley-rise, and Stanstead-road 
(£103,300). Deptford and Lewisham 
Borough Councils to contribute one- 
third. Variation of improvement 
authorised by Act of 1906 which 
will reduce cost. 

Lewisham High-road, Loampit- 
hill, Loampit-vale, Lee High-road 
(£149,300). Lewisham Borough 
Council to contribute one-third. 
Widening of Lewisham High-road 
and Loampit-hill and Vale finished. 

High-street and Lewisham-road 
(£26,050). Lewisham Borough 
Council to contribute one-third. 
Negotiations for property proceed- 
ing. 



London County Council. 49 

• Bostall - hill, Basildon - road, tribute one-third. Negotiations for 
McLeod - road, and Knee - hill property proceeding. 
(£16,700). Woolwich Borough Coun- Falcon-road (£5,900). Battersea 
cil to contribute one-third. ' Borough Council to contribute one- 
York-road (£19,270). Wands- third. Negotiations for property 
worth Borough Council to con- proce3ding. 

An improvement or betterment rate will b3 paid by the owners of pro- 
perty benefited in the case of the Tower Bridge approaches, Holbom-to- 
Strand, Westminster. Hampstead-road, and Central-street improvements. 
In the case of the Tottenham Court-road improvement a betterment charge of 
£285 10s. a year will be levied on property in Tottenham Court-road and 
Oxford-street improved in value by the execution of the improvement, and 
in the case of the Tower Bridge-road (Tower Bridge southern approach) 
improvement a betterment charge of £358 16s. will be levied. 

The Council obtained powers in the session of 1806 to widen Catford 
Bridge (£57,500), Mitchani-road (£28,200), York-road (£19,270), and 
Falcon-road (£5,900), and to vary the Malpas-road to Stanstead-road 
improvement. 



PUBLIC CONTROL DEPARTMENT. 
Offices: 31, Spring Gardens, S.W. 

The Public Control Department of the County Council was created to dis- 
charge some of the duties which the Council took over from the County 
Justices, and to do other work involving regulation and control. The 
Department is purely executive. Of all branches of the Council's work it 
is the one which comes into touch with the public to the greatest extent, 
and in the most varied ways. The diversity of its duties range from the 
inspection of houses in which infants are received for hire to the inspection 
of dynamite and the control of coroners' inquests. Outside the City, it 
inspects and checks all weights and measures ; tests the accuracy of gas- 
meters, the milk-can and the beer-glass ; and ascertains that the coal is of 
correct weight. It protects us from the danger of fire arising from storage of 
inflammable liquids, and has done its best to secure the safety of petroleum 
lamps — the light of the poor. It extends its protective influences to the 
animal world,' and stamps out contagious diseases in horses, cattle, and 
other animals. It carries out the Shop Hours and Seats Acts, Acts 
dealing with the employment of children, sees that we get a constant 
supply of water, and discharges many other useful duties. Information 
as to any breaches of the Acts administered by the Department should 
be sent to the chief officer. 



50 



London County Council. 



Weights and Measures. 
Western Office : 211, Harrow -road. 
North-Central Office: 5, Rosebery- 

avenue, Clerkenwell. 
Eastern Office : Calvert - avenue, 

Shoreditch. 
South- Western Office: Nether- 
ford-road, Clapham. 
South-Central Office : Union-road, 

Newingtoh-causeway. 
South-Eastern Office : Lamb-lane, 

Greenwich. 

Every weight, measure, or weigh- 
ing instrument used for trade must 
be stamped by an inspector of 
weights and measures. " Use for 
trade " includes use for buying or 
selling, for checking weights of 
goods when payment is made on 
results of such weighing, or for the 
calculation of wages. There are 14 
inspectors in London, who visit all 
trading premises and street stalls, 
and inspect weighing and measuring 
appliances thereon. Heavy penal- 
ties are imposed for the use of un- 
stamped or unjust appliances. In- 
spectors also attend at the offices at 
the times mentioned below, to verify 
" and stamp weights and measures 
and weighing instruments brought 
to them for that purpose. 

Metric System.— The Weights and 
Measures (Metric System) Act, 
1897, which came into force on 6th 
August, 1897, makes lawful the use 
in trade of weights or measures of 
the metric system. 

During a year the Department 
tests about two million weights, 
measures, and weighing instru- 
ments, and rejects nearly 400,000 of 
them. More than 70,000 premises, 
shops, and stalls are visited, and over 
li million articles examined. Fees 
and fines amount to about £5,250 a 

The Weights and Measures Acts 
do not deal with short weight, except 
as regards coal. 



Sale of Coal.— All coal must 
be sold by weight and not by 
measure. Short weight in delivery 
incurs liability to a fine of £5. A 
proper delivery note must be sent 
with each delivery of coal exceeding 
two hundredweight, and in the 
cases of smaller deliveries each sack 
must have attached thereto a metal 
tablet denoting the quantity. When 
coal is delivered in bulk, the tare 
weight must be marked on the 
vehicle, and the necessary particu- 
lars must be inserted in the weight 
ticket. 

The Council employs a staff of 
nine officers to inspect vehicles deli- 
vering or hawking coal in London. 
Premises where coal is sold are 
similarly inspected. 

Fees. — Verifying and stamping 
fees vary from \d. for small weights 
up to 4cL for weights of 1001b. 
(avoirdupois) ; from Id. to 4d. each 
for troy and apothecaries' weights ; 
from 2d. for weighing instruments 
of lib. up to 20«. for instruments of 
25 tons or more. 

Measures of length, from Id. to 
Is.; of capacity (dry and liquid), 
from id. to 6d. ; of capacity (apothe- 
caries'), from $d. to Is. ; milk-churns, 
from Is. to 2s. 

No fees are charged if the weights 
or measures are rejected as incorrect, 
or because the mode of construction 
is faulty. 

Weigh-Bridges— For the use of 
the public, weigh-bridges are pro- 
vided at the North Central Offices, 
Rosebery-avenue (7 tons); South 
Central Offices, Union-road, New- 
ington-causeway (20 tons) ; plat- 
form weighing machines, capacity 
6001b., are also provided at these two 
offices as well as at the Harrow- 
road and Calvert-avenue offices. 
The weighing fee is 67i, for which 
a certificate is issued. 



London County Council. 



51 



Inspectors op Weights and Measures. 



di8tbict8. 



Name op 
Inspector. 



Opfice. 



Times at^which Inspbo 
i tors will attend at* 
I Office to Examine 
: and Stamp. 



Hammersmith, Fulham.C. A. Tottle 211, Harrow-road. 

North Kensington. ' 
Paddington, Marylebone, R. K. Reid 1 Ditto. 

Chelsea (detached). 1 

Westminster, St. George H. C. St rugae 11.. Ditto. 

(Hanover-square), Chel-j 

sea, South Kensington. 



Every Monday, 9 to 4. 

Thursday, 9 to 4, 
Every Tuesday, 9 to 4. 

Friday, 9 to 4. 
Every Wednesday, 9 to 4* 

Saturday, 9 to 1. 



Hampstead, St. Pancras. 

Strand, Hoi bom. St, 
James (Westminster), 
St. Martin-in-the-Fields, 
Clerkenwell, St. Luke, 
and Islington (south of 
Pentonville and City 
Roads). 

Islington, Clerkenwell, 
and St. Luke (north of 
Pentonville and City 
Roads) 



C. Bending . 



R. T. Pearce ! 5,Rosobery -avenue,. Every Tuesday, 9 to 4. 

~* J Friday, 9 to 4. 

Every Monday, 9 to 4. 
Thursday, 9 to 4- 



I 



Clerkenwell. 
Ditto. 



T. Elliot . 



X R. Newlands &l 
G. H. Griffith, j 
Inspectors for 
• 1 Verification. 

Shoreditch (south of Re- C. F. Cox 

gent's Canal), Bethnal 

green (west of Cam- 
bridge-road), White 

chapel. 
Stoke Newington, Hack- S. B. Hough 

ney, Shoreditch (north 

of Regent's Canal), 

Bethnal -green, Mile-end 

and Poplar (east of Cam- 

b ridge-road, and north of 

GreatEastern Railway).! 
Bethnal-green, Mile-end J. W. Milner 

and Poplar (east of Cam-i j 

bridge-road and south .S. H. Brewer and' 

of the Great Eastern) A. C. Brown, j 

Railway), St. George- 1 Inspectors for 

in-the-East, Limehouse. Verification. ' 
Wandsworth, Battersea,! J. W. Hildreth 

Lambeth (west of Clap-, I 

ham, Kennington and' j 

Westminster - bridge I 

Roads). I I 

Lambeth (east of Clap-H. W. Clemson ... 

ham, Kennington and] 

Westminster - bridge 

Roads, and west of Den- 1 1 

mark-hill and Heme- 

hill), St. Saviour's,! 

St. George-the-Martyr,' 

Newington, and Cam-, 

berweli (west of South-' 1 

wark-bridge, Walworth, 

and Camberwell-roads).! 



Ditto. 
Ditto. 



Cal vert-avenue, 
Shoreditch. 



Ditto. 



Ditto. 
Ditto. 



Netherford-road, 
Clapham. 



Union-road, New- 
ingtou -cause wa y . 



I 



' Every Wednesday, 9 to 4V 
j Saturday, 9 to 1. 

Every Monday, Tuesday, 
I Wednesday, Thursday, 

and Friday, 9 to 4. 
I Every Saturday, 9 to 1. 
.Every Wednesdays to 4, 



I Every Tuesday, 9 to 4. 
I Friday, 9 to 4. 



I Every Thursday, 9 to 4'.- 

, Every Monday, Tuesday,. 

Wednesday, Thursday,. 

and Friday, 9 to 4. 
Every Saturday, 9 to 1. 
Every Tuesday, 9 to 4. 
Friday, 2 to 4. 



Every Monday, 9 to 4. 
Thursday, 9 to 4.. 



52 



London County Council. 



Inspectors of Weights and Measures— (continued). 



Districts. 



Rotherhithe,Berinondsey, 
St. Olave's, St. Saviour's, 
St. George-the-Martyr, 
and Newington (east of 
Southwark-bridge and 
Walworth roads), Cam- 
•berwell (north of Surrey 
Canal). 

Camberwell (south of Sur- 
rey Canal and east of 
Camberwell-road) , Lam- 
beth (east of Denmark- 
hill and Herne-hill),, 
Greenwich (south and 
west of New-cross-road, 
Lewisham High-road, 
Malpas-road and Brock- 
ley -road ) , Lewisham 
(west of Brockley-road, 
Sunderland-road, and 
Mayow-road, to the 
boundary of the 
county;. 

Plumstead .Woolwich , Lee , 
Greenwich (north and 
east of New-cross-road, 
Lewisham High-road, 
Malpas-road, and Brock- 
ley-road), Lewisham 
{east of Brockley-road, 
Sunderland-road, and 
Mayow-road, to the 
boundary of the 
county). 



NA.ME OP 

Inspector. 



W. E. Manning . 



J. Webb 



G. H. Joyce and 

T. P. Longman 

Inspectors for 

Verification. 

E. E. Jury 



Office. 



Ditto. 



Ditto. 



Times at which Inspec- 
tors will attend at 
Office to Examine 
and Stamp. 

Every Wednesday, 9 to 4. 
Saturday, 9 to 1. 



Every Tuesday, 9 to 4. 
Friday, 9 to 4. 



Ditto. 



Lamb-lane, Bridge- 
street, Greenwich. 



Every Monday, Tuesday, 
Wednesday, Thursday, 
and Friday, 9 to 4. 

Every Saturday, 9 to 1. 

Every Monday, 9 to 4/ 
and Friday, 9 to 11. 



Sale of Coal. 



Districts. 



NoT 



1, Western. 

2, W r est Central. 

3, Central. 

4, East Central. 

5, North-Eastern. 

6, Eastern. 

7, South-Western. 

8, South -West Central 

9, South-East Central. 
10. South- Eastern. 



Name of Coal 
Officer. 

E. Harrison. 

J. R. K. Bow. 

C. H. Winter. 

W. Meaney. 

S. Tinworth. 

E. H. Piueles. 

G. Talbot. 
. Vacant. 
, J. V. Nicholls. 
I J. Court. 



The following" figures indicate the 
results under the sale of coal last 
year : — Inspections of vehicles, 
47,44*5; inspections of premises, 
1,051 ; infringements of Act re- 
ported, 51)0. 

Offenders are first cautioned, and 
11 about one in twenty of the 



cases legal proceeding's are taken. 
The convictions, which in 1890 
were 444, were last year 25. 

During last year about 12,000 in- 
spections at bakers' and other pre- 
mises were made by the inspectors, 
39 persons were cautioned in writing 
and 106 prosecuted, and in 103 
cases convictions were obtained and 
penalties imposed. 

GrAS Meter Testing. 



Offices. 
St. Aun's-street, 

Westminster. 

Rosebery -avenue, 

Clerkenwell. 

White Lion -st., 

Spitalflelds. 

Avonmouth - St., 

Newington 

Causeway, S.E. 



Name of Inspector. 

< E. W. Scott. 
X J. L. Barry. 

< G. Knott. 
I G. Hume. 

$ W. R. Land. 

(. J. E. Feulon. 



A. Carnall. 
R. C. Arthur. 



London County Council. 



53 



The fees for testing (with or with- 
out stamping 1 ) gas meters are pre- 
scribed by Section 19 of the Sales of 
Gas Act, 1859, and for small meters 
are, approximately, as follows : — 

8. d. 
Wet or dry meters, 1 light . amt. of fee 6 

2 „ . ., 6 

3 „ . „ 6 
5 „ . „ 6 

10 „ . „ 10 

20 „ . 10 

Dry meters . 30 „ . „ 10 

. 50 „ . 10 

. 60 „ . „ 1 

Consumers who may desire to 

have their meters tested at one of 

the Council's gas meter testing 

offices should, before removing the 

meter, give 24 hours' notice in 

writing to the gas company. Meters 

sent to the Council's offices should 

have a label attached, stating clearly 

the consumer's name and address. 

If sent by carrier, the carriage must 

be prepaid. 

Petroleum and Petroleum 
Lamps. 

The Petroleum Acts apply to 
liquid mineral products, such as 
naphtha, benzoline, <fec, which give 
off inflammable vapour at a less 
temperature than 73° Fahr,, when 
tested in the manner prescribed. 
Petroleum, under the Acts, can only 
be kept in the County of London 
under a licence of the Council. 
These Acts do not apply to the 
ordinary petroleum oil (frequently 
called paraffin) such as is burnt in 
lamps, as this does not give off 
inflammable vapour below 73° Fahr. 

In London there are about 1,800 
licensed premises. 

Application for licences must be 
made on special forms obtained at 
the Public Control Department, and 
must be accompanied oy a fee of 5s. 
The Council employs six inspectors 
to carry out the Acts. 

Lamps. — For many years past 
great loss of both life and property 
nave resulted from lamp accidents, 
and with a view to future legislation 



on the subject, the Council's in- 
sj>eetors have investigated the 
various accidents. A third of the 
deaths at fires iu London occur at 
fires caused by lamp accidents. 

ComprehensrYe reports on the 
subject of the prevention of petro- 
leum lamp accidents have l>een 
issued by the Council, which re- 
commends that only oil of a flash 
point of over 100° Fahr. should be 
used in lamps. The Select Committee 
of the House of Commons who 
investigated the subject for several 
sessions also recommend this. 

Petroleum Spirit for use for 
Motor-Cars. 

Petroleum spirit for use for motor- 
cars may be kept without a licence 
if the restrictions laid down in the 
Regulations of the Secretary of 
State under the Locomotives on 
Highways Act are strictly observed. 

Where these regulations cannot 
be observed, or where it is intended 
to also sell spirit for use for motor- 
cars, a licence is necessary. 

Carbide of Calcium. 

By an Order in Council, Carbide 
of (Jalcium (used for the manufac- 
ture of Acetylene) is brought under 
the operation of the Petroleum 
Acts, and quantities t exceeding 
281b. can only be kept in London 
under licence granted by the 
Council. Applications for licences 
must be made on special forms 
obtained at the Public Control 
Department, and must be accom- 
panied by a fee of 58. 

Explosives Act. 

The Department controls the 
conveyance and sale of gunpowder 
and all other explosives. Premises 
where explosives are manufactured 
or kept are licensed and inspected 
by the Council's officers. 

Application for registration, the 
fee ror which is Is., must be made 
on forms to be obtained at the . 
Public Control Department. 



54 



London County Council. 



Diseases op Animals. 
The Diseases of Animals Acts 
have for their object the suppres- 
sion of contagious diseases in 
animals, and is enforced by the De- 
partment. The diseases which come 
within the scope of the Acts are 
glanders, epizootic lymphangitis, 
cattle plague, foot - and - mouth 
disease, sheep-pox, pleuro - pneu- 
monia, swine fever, anthrax, sneep- 
scab, and rabies. The Councils 
outdoor staff consists of three 
veterinary inspectors. There are 
also two inspectors engaged in con- 
nection with the destruction of the 
carcasses of glandered animals at 
the knackers yards. Every owner 
of a glandered horse, or one that he 
suspects to be glandered, must at 
once give notice of the fact to the 
police or the Council's local veteri- 
nary inspector, or he is liable to a 
heavy penalty. 

Veterinary Inspectors. 



Name. 



District. 



W. Hunting. 
Chief Inspector, 
16, Trafalgar-Fa., 
Chelsea, S.W. 



C. J. Humphrey, 
Inspector, 
30, Sto'kwell-rd., 
Clapham, S.W. 



W. F. Shaw, 
443, Liverpool-road, 
Highbury, N. 



The City of Westmin- 
ster: the Royal 
Borough of Ken- 
sington; and the 
Metropolitan 

1 Boroughs of Pad- 
dington, Chelsea, 
Hammersmith- 
Fulham, Wands, 
worth, and Batter- 
sea. 

The Metropolitan 
Boroughs of Lam- 
beth, Southwark, 
Camberwell, Ber- 
mondsey, Deptford, 
Lewisham, Green- 
wich, and Wool- 
wich. 

The Metropolitan 
Boroughs of H amp- 
stead, St. Maryle- 

! bone, St. Pancras, 

I Holborn, Finsbury, 

I Islington, Stoke 
Newington, Shore- 
ditch, Stepney, 
Bethnal Green, 
Hackney, and 

J Poplar. 



Infant Life Protection. 

An Act which came into force on 
1st Jan., 1898, forbids the keeping for 
hire of more than one infant under 
the ag]e of five years, unless notice 
in writing is given to the local 
authority. This Act is carried out 
by the department. 

The Council employs five inspec- 
tors to carry out the Acts, three of 
whom, women inspectors, are em- 
ployed in the supervision of regis- 
tered houses. 

Shop Hours and Seats Acts. 
The Shop Hours Acts of 1892-5 
provide that no person under the 

Xof eighteen years may be em- 
m yed in any shop, market, stall, 
warehouse, licensed house or re- 
freshment house for more than 
seventy-four hours a week, including 
meal-times. Penalty, £1. A notice- 
card setting out the provisions of 
the Acts must also be conspicuously 
exhibited in every shop where any 
young person is employed, subject 
to a penalty of £2. 

The Acts do not apply to a shop 
where the only persons employed 
are members of the same family 
dwelling in the building of which 
the shop forms part, or to which 
the shop is attached, or to members 
of the employer's family so dwel- 
ling, or to any person wholly 
employed as a domestic servant. 
A staff of nine inspectors has been 
appointed, which makes a shop-to- 
shop inspection throughout London. 

The Seats for Shop Assistants 
Act of 1899 provides that in every 
shop where goods are sold by retail 
ana where female assistants are em- 
ployed in such sale, seats for the use 
of such assistants shall be provided 
behind the counter or in some other 
suitable position in the proportion 
of not less than one seat to every 
three female assistants. 



London County Council. 



65 



Employment op Children Act, 
1903. 

This Act imposes restrictions on 
the employment of school children 
as follows : — 

A child (i.e., under 14 years) must 
not be employed after 9 p.m. or 
before 6 a.m. 

A child under 11 years of age must 
not be employed in street trading. 

A child employed half-time under 
the Factory Act must not be em- 
ployed in any other occupation. 

A child must not be employed to 
lift, carry, or move anything so neayy 
as to be likely to be injurious to its 
life, limb, health, or education, hav- 
ing regard to its physical condition. 

Bye-laws further regulating the 
employment of school children have 
been made by the Council and ap- 
proved by the Home Secretary, and 
a copy of such bye-laws, which came 
into operation on 4th October, 1906, 
may be obtained on application to 
the Chief Officer, Public Control 
Department. 

The employment of school child- 
ren in performances at theatres, 
music halls. <fcc. for profit is regu- 
lated by the Prevention of Cruelty 
to Children Act, 1904. 

The law as to such employment 
may be briefly summarised :— Below 

10 years of age, illegal ; from 10 to 

11 years of age, permitted under 
magistrate's licence ; from 11 to 14 
years of age, permitted up to 9 p.m. 
and afterwards under the terms of 
a licence granted by a magistrate. 

Information as to infringements 
of these Acts should be sent to the 
chief officer of the Public Control 
Department, ^ who ^ will cause the 
matter to be investigated. 



Employment Agencies. 

Power to register and inspect 

S agencies or registries for the em- 
foyment of governesses, female 
omestic servants, or other female 
persons in any similar capacity, 
and such theatrical, <fcc., agencies as 
demand or receive preliminary fees, 
was given to the Council by their 
General Powers Act of 1905. If no 
preliminary fees are taken by regis- 
tered agencies they need only take 
care to give receipts for payments 
made and keep counterfoils of the 
receipts. If, however, preliminary 
fees are demanded or taken the 
agents become subject to the bye- 
laws made by the Council and con- 
firmed by the Home Secretary. 
These bye-laws specify the manner 
in which the books shall be kept 
and the entries to be made therein, 
and are intended to assist in the 
prevention of fraud or immorality 
m the conduct of the agencies. 
Inspectors periodically visit the 
agencies to examine the books and 
see that the Act and bye-laws are 
observed. Penalties are provided 
(a) for non-registration (£50), (b) 
for not giving receipts or keeping 
counterfoils or for obstructing 
inspector (£5). A magistrate may 
on complaint by the Council cancel 
or suspend registration on > being 
satisfied that the person registered 
is not a proper person to carry on 
the business, or that for any other 
reason it is expedient that the 
registration shall be cancelled or 
suspended. Forms of application 
for registration and copies of the 
bye-laws may be obtained from the 
Chief Officer, Public Control 
Department. 

Coroners and Inquests. 
A coroner must hold an inquest 
on every person whose death has 
been caused by accident or violence. 
He may also hold an inquest where 
foul play is suspected, or where a 



so 



London County Council. 









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London County Council. 



57 



medical certificate cannot be ob- 
tained, as in a case of sadden death. 

In cases of sudden, violent, or acci- 
dental death, the relatives or friends 
of deceased should inform the coro- 
ner or coroner's officer for the district. 
The death should also be registered 
within five days. Neglect to do this 
incurs liability to heavy penalties. 

Subject to any special statutory 
exemptions, all must, of whatever 
age, when duly summoned, serve 
upon a coroner's jury. Failure to 
attend renders a person liable to a 
penalty of £5. 



When a • dead body is found, in- 
formation should at once be given 
to the coroner or coroner's officer 
for the district, or to a police con- 
stable. A fee of 5s. for finding a 
body and giving information is paid. 
The cost per annum of coroners' 
inquests in London, of which about 
7,250 are held annually, is about : — 

Coroners* salaries £10,500 

Disbursements at inquests (exclud- 
ing jury fees) 15,000 

Payment of coroners' jurors 3,100 

Rents and maintenance of coroners' 
courts 2,250 

Total £30,850 



LUNATIC ASYLUMS. 
Asylums Committee : 6, Waterloo Place, S.W. 



The Asylums Committee of the 
County Council is a statutory body. 
It took over the management of the 
asylums from the old County 
Justices, and is armed with large 
statutory powers of its own with 
which the County Council has little 
directly to do. It does not consult 
the County Council upon its expen- 
diture except when a capital outlay 
is involved. It is under the Home 
Secretary and the Lunacy Com- 
missioners with regard to the 
structural arrangements of its asy- 
lums. Its accounts are audited by 
the Local Government Board, ana 
it presents an annual report to the 
County Council, giving an account 
of its work. It has power to ask 
boards of guardians for any amount 
for the maintenance of lunatics up to 
14$. a head per week, and the 
guardians have no power to criti- 
cise or refuse. If the Committee 
only requires 10s. 9 id. per head, that 
is due to internal virtues and 
not to external influences. The 
payment for keeping the insane does 
not necessarily come out of the rates ; 
the guardians endeavour to recover 
as much as possible from the re- 
latives of the inmates. The manage- 
ment of nine asylums, and the main- 



tenance of over 17,000 inmates, is 
a heavy undertaking, which in- 
volves an annual expenditure of 
nearly £500,000, the Wages bill 
alone amounting to over £165,000, 
and the commissariat departments 
costing nearly £180,000 a year. The 
Committee has earned a great repu- 
tation for its kind and considerate 
treatment of the insane and its able 
administration, which is resulting in 
many economies and increased effi- 
ciency. It has revised the dietary, 
and, with advantage, stopped the 
beer allowance. 

The Committee consists of from 
thirty to thirty-five members, and it 
carries on its work through fourteen 
sub-committees. Every asylum is 
visited by a sub-committee or by 
members every fortnight. At Clay- 
bury Asylum a pathological labora- 
tory has been erected for studying 
the pathology of insanity. A sepa- 
rate building exists at this asylum 
for receiving private paying male 
patients. Female private patients 
are received at the Manor Asylum, 
Epsom. The committee has estab- 
lished a working colony at Ewell 
for the treatment of certified insane 
epileptic patients (266 males and 
60 females). The colonists are 



58 



London County Council. 



selected from the inmates of the 
other London Asylums who are 
considered suitable for colony life. 
Private patient*, male and female, 
are also received at this colony. 

The following figures show the in- 
crease of lunacy in London during 
the last ten years, the numbers 
being the certified pauper lunatics 
on the 1st of January every year : — 

1896 12,853 1902 16,050 

1897 13,512 1903 16,689 

1898. 14,032 1904 17,130 

1899 14,645 1905 17,770 

1900 15,061 1906 18,130 

1901 15,274 

The following is the percentage of 
recoveries effected at the asyluins 
also during the last nine years : — 

On average On total number 
number resident, under treatment. 



1896.. 
1897.. 
1898.. 
1899.. 
1900.. 
1901.. 
1902.. 
1903.., 
1904.. 
1905.. 



10-19 
972 
8-32 
8-20 
9*03 
716 
7-36 
8-20 
7-60 
7.55 



8-00 
7-85 
670 
6*41 
7*33 
5'86 
5'84 
6'48 
6*25 
6.20 



LONDON COUNTY ASYLUMS STAFF. 

Clerk of Asylums Committee — 
H. F. Keene. 

Chief Assistant— H. H. Curtis. 

Director of the Pathological Labo- 
ratory and Pathologist— F. W. Mott, 

"VI D FRCP F T? ^ 

Engineer--W. C." Clifford Smith, 

A.M.I.C.E. 

BANSTEAD ASYLUM. 

(Near Sutton, Surrey : London, 

Brighton, & South Coast 

Eailway.) 

Medical Superintendent — D. 
Johnston Jones, m.d. 

First Assistant Medical Officer— 
— J. J. Murphy, m.d. 

Second Assistant Medical Officer 
— S. W. Hanbury, M.R.C.S., L.R.c.P. 



Chaplain— Eev. H. Whittaker. 
Clerk of the Asylum — E.G. Mor- 
gan. 

Storekeeper — F. W. Page. 

Visiting Days. — Sundays* 
Thursdays, and all Bank Holidays, 
from 2 to 4 p.m. 

BEXLEY ASYLUM. 

(Bexley, Kent .- S.E. & C. Ely.) 
Medical Superintendent — T E. 
K. Stansfield, m.b. 

First Assistant Medical Officer — 
M. A. Collins, m.d. 

Chaplain — Eev. J. J. Brownhill. 
Clerk of the Asylum — H. B. Sholl- 
Storekeeper — A. W. P. Eandall. 
Visiting Days.— Sundays, Mon- 
days, and all Bank Holidays from 
2.30 to 4.30 p.m. 

cane hill asylum, 

(Coulsdon, Surrey : South 
Eastern and Chatham Eail- 
way; Stoat's Nest: L.B. 
and S.C.E.) 

Medical Superintendent — J. M. 
Moody, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 

First Assistant Medical Officer — 
H. Gr. Cribb, M.R.C.S., l.r.C.p. 

Second Assistant Medical Officer 
— E. O. Sibley, m.b. 

Chaplain — Eev. J. C. Crawford. 

Clerk- -T. J. E. C. Mynoth. 

Steward — J. A. Smith. 

Visiting Days. — Mondays, 
Thursdays, and all Bank Holidays, 
from 2 to 4.30 p.m. 

claybury asylum. 

(Woodford, Essex .- Great 
Eastern Eailway.) 

Medical Superintendent — Eobert 
Jones, M.D., M.R.C.P. 

First Assistant Medical Officer — 
C. T. Ewart, M.D. 

Chaplain — Eev. W. Gr. Boys 
Johnston. 



London County Council. 



59 



Clerk to the Asylum— JZ. B. 8. 
Claxton. 

Steward— J. E. Stephens. 

Visiting Days.— Sundays, from 
2 to 4 p.m. Mondays, and all Bank 
Holidays, from 2 to 4.30. p.m. 

colney hatch asylum. 

(New Southgate, Middlesex : 

Great Northern Railway). 

Medical Superintendent — W. J. 
Seward, m.b. 

First Assistant Medical Officer — 
S. J. Gilfillan, m.b. 

Second Assistant Medical Officer 
— S. Lloyd Jones, m.R.c.s., l.r.c.p. 

Chaplain — Rev. A. L. Parry. 

Clerk of Oie Asylum— E. Bailey. 

Storekeeper— V. E. Mallett. 

Visiting Days.— Sundays, Mon- 
days, and all Bank Holidays, from 
2 to 4 p.m. 

HAN WELL ASYLUM. 

(Hanwell, Middlesex : Great 
Western Railway.) 

Medical Superintendent — P. J. 
Baily, m.b. 

First Assistant Medical Officer — 
—A. W. Daniel, m.d. 

Chaplain— Kqy . G. Williams. 

Clerk of the Asylum — D. Neave. 

Storekeeper — S. Milsom. 

Visiting Days.— Sundays, Mon- 
days, and all Bank Holidays, from 
2 to 4 p.m. 

HORTON ASYLUM. 

(Epsom, Surrey: L.B. & S.C. 
and L. & S.W. Railways.) 

Medical Superintendent — J. R. 
Lord, M.B. 

First Assistant Medical Officer 
— D. Ogilvy, m.d. 

Secmd Assistant Medical Officer 
— S. C. Elgee, l.r.c.s., l.r.c.p. 

Chaplain — Rev. E. W. Deacon. 

Clerk of the Astjlum — A. V. 
Llewellyn. 

Storekeeper — W. Taylor. 



Visiting Days -Sundays, Mon- 
days, and all Bank Holidays from 
2.:30 to 4.:30 p.m. 

MANOR ASYLUM. 

(Epsom, Surrey: L.B. & S.C, and 
L. & S.W. Railways.) 

Medical Superintendent — W. I. 
Donaldson, m.d. 

Senior Assistant Medical Officer 
— W. J. Thomas, m.d. 

Chaplain— Rev. A. E. Taylor 
(temporarily). 

Clerk of Asylum— L. Clarke. 

Storekeeper-- J. J. Agar. 

Visiting Days.— Sundays, Mon- 
days, and all Bank Holidays, from 
2 to 4 p.m. 

EPILEPTIC COLONY. 

(Ewell, Surrey: Ewell Station, 
L. & S.W. Railway), or (Epsom, 
L.B. & S.C. and L. & S.W. Rlys.) 

Medical Superintendent — P. C. 
Spark, M.R.c.s., l.r.c.p. 

Assistant Medical Officer — T. 
Stratford Logan, l.r.c.p., l.r.c.s., 
D.P.H. 

Chaplain — Rev. E. W. Deacon. 

Clerk and Storekeeper — R. E. 
Dorrell. 

Visiting Days.— Sundays and 
all Bank Holidays ; also Mondays 
by previous notification to Medical 
Superintendent. 

LONG GROVE ASYLUM. 

(Epsom, Surrey: L.B. & S.C. and 
L. & S.W. Railways.) 

Medical Superintendent— C. H. 
Bond, m.b. 

First Assistant Medical Officer — 
Gr. F. Barham, m.d. 

Clerk of Asylum— A. J. Gibbs. 

Storekeeper— -H. S. Elliot. 



London County Council. 



THE PRESERVATION OF HISTORIC BUILDINGS. 

In conjunction with numerous learned and archaeological societies, the 
London County Council is taking steps to prevent the unnecessary destruc- 
tion of historic buildings within its area. The action of the central autho- 
rity has not come a moment too soon, for every one of the last six years has 
witnessed the loss of volumes of history in stone. The Rolls Chapel, 
with its Torrigiano monument and mediaeval chancel arch ; three of 
Wren's City churches on ancient foundations; the " Old Bell" Inn, 
the last galleried inn in London on the Middlesex side of the water; 
No. 4, Coleman-street, with its cedar room of early seventeenth century 
date ; the thirteenth century crypt at No. 4, Laurence Pountney-hill ; 
Dick's Coffee House in Fleet-street, famous in the literature of the 
eighteenth century ; Bullingham House and garden, Kensington, where 
Sir Isaac Newton died ; Sir Francis Drake's house in Basinghall-street ; 
Rokeby House, where now stands a Stratford music hall ; Ivy Lodge, 
Plaistow, of Elizabethan date; the Abbey Wall, West Ham; the Old 
Palace of Bromley, and many other historical object-lessons — all have 
gone. Many threatened buildings have been saved by the action of 
the Survey Committee of the Memorials of Greater London ; but greater 
success is anticipated now that the County Council has joined m the 
movement. 

The Council in 1898 obtained statutory power to protect buildings and 
places of historic interest, Section 60 of the General Powers Act of that 
year containing the following clause : — 

It shall be lawful for the Council, if it thinks fit, to purchase by agreement 
buildings and places of historical or architectural interest or works of art, or to 
undertake or contribute towards the cost of preserving, maintaining, or managing 
any such buildings and places, and to erect and maintain, or contribute towards the 
provision, erection, and maintenance of works of art in London. 

The discharge of these duties is entrusted to the Local Government, 
Records, and Museums Committee, which, in this conection, has control 
over : (a) the Council's library; (b) the Horniman Museum and Library ; 
and (c) the preservation of buildings in the county having architectural 
or archaeological interest. 

The Horniman Museum and grounds were presented to the public 
through the London County Council by the late Mr. F. J. Horniman, M.P., 
in February, 1901. They are situated at Forest Hill, and the old museum 
was for many years a favourite resort. The new building consists of 
two galleries, round each of which runs a balcony, also devoted to the 
display of exhibits. The Ethnological Collections, which are exhibited 
in the lower, or south, gallery, illustrate the arts and crafts of various 
peoples. Tools and weapons, means of transport, basket work, pottery, 
personal ornaments, pipes, musical instruments, religious objects, and 
stone implements are amongst the objects exhibited. The Natural 
History Collections, occupying the upper, or north, gallery, comprise a 
general collection of animals, as well as reference collections of birds' eggs, 
shells, and insects, and a special series illustrating the theory of organic 
evolution. The Vivaria and Aquaria contain living specimens of British 
land, fresh water, and marine animals, and there is an observation bee- 
hive, in which the bees may be seen at work from May to October. The 
Library consists in the main of books on subjects represented in the 
Museum Collections. In addition to works in popular language, intended 



London County Council. 61 



for the use of visitors generally, books have been carefully selected for 
systematic study, and as works of reference on the various branches of 
Ethnology and Natural History. The recreation grounds are over five 
acres in extent. 

In connection with its work of preserving buildings of historic 
interest, the Council has purchased and restored No. 17, Fleet-street, 
a building of considerable historical and architectural interest, which 
was built in the reign of James I. for, probably, Henry Prince of 
Wales as an office of the Duchy of Cornwall. The thoroughfare 
has been widened at this point by the setting back of the ground 
floor of the premises ; but the upper floors remain in their previous 
positions, supported on cantilevers, and the old false front, which 
was about twenty inches in advance of the original front, has l>een 
removed. The most interesting room in the building the "Council 
Chamber " on the first floor, in which there are a fine carved ceiling and 
some old panelling, is open free to the public on week-days from 10 a.m. to 
2 p.m, and can be hired for meetings after the latter hour. Another branch 
of the committee's work in this connection is the indication of houses 
of historical interest in the metropolis by means of memorial tablets. 
This work used to be undertaken by the Society of Arts, which affiled 
memorial tablets on some 34 houses which had been residences of cele- 
brated mei and women. The Council has now erected tablets in the 
following instances :— Holly Lodge, Campden Hill (Lord Macaulay) ; 
48, Dougaty - street (Charles Dickens) ; 4, Whitehall Gardens (Sir 
Robert reel) ; 56, Devonshire-street, (Sir John Herschel) ; 67, Wim- 
pole-street (Henry Hallam) ; 1, Devonshire-terrace, Marylebone-road 
(Charles Dickens) ; 22, Theobald' s-road (Lord Beaconsfield) ; 14, York- 
place, Portman-square (William Pitt) ; 12, Clarges-street, Piccadilly 
(Edmund Kean) ; 48, Welbeck-street (Thomas Young) ; 14, Hertford- 
street, Park-lane (Edward Jenner); Holly Lodge, Wimbledon Park-road 
(" George Eliot") ; 34, Gloucester- square, Hyde Park (Robert Stephenson) ; 
23, Suffolk-street, Pall Mall (Richard Cobden) ; 10, Upper Cheyne-row 
(Leigh Hunt) ; 12, Savile-row (George Grote) ; 16, Young-street, Ken- 
sington (W. M. Thackeray) ; 56, Great Queen-street (James Boswell) ; 
6, Frith-street (William Hazlitt) ; 27, Upper Baker-street (Mrs. Siddons) ; 
71, Berners-street (S. T. Coleridge); 110, Gower-street (Charles Darwin) ; 
18, Stamford-street, Southwark (John Rennie) ; 110, Hallam-street 
(Dante Gabriel Rossetti) ; 76, Charles-street, Fitzroy-square (John Con- 
stable) ; 14, Doughty-street (Sydney Smith) ; 31, Baker-street (Lord 
Lytton) ; 144, Kensington High-street (Sir David Wilkie) ; 22, St. 
James's-place (Samuel Rogers) ; 33, Ampton-street, W.C. (Thomas 
Carlyle) ; 111, Broom wooi-road, Clapham (William Wilberforce). Steps are 
(also being taken with a view to the indication of the undermentioned 
houses : — 1, Orme's-square, Bays water (Sir Rowland Hill) ; 64, Duncan- 
terrace, Islington (Charles Lamb) ; 4, Carlton-gardens, S.W. (Lord Palmer- 
ston) ; 21, Queen-square, Bloomsbury (Rev. F. D. Maurice) ; 31, Golden- 
square (John Hunter) ; 28, Broad-street, Soho (William Blake) ; 70, Knights- 
bridge (Charles Reade) ; 73, Harley-street (Sir Charles Lyell and W. E. 
Gladstone) ; 88, Mile End-road (Captain James Cook) ; 54, Great Marl- 
borough-street (Mrs. Siddons); 28, Bennett-street, Southwark (John 
Leech) ; 18, Kensington-square (John Stuart Mill). 



62 London County Council. 

EDUCATION. 

By the Education (Loudon) Act, 1903, the School Board, which first met 
on the 15th December, 1870, was superseded by the London County 
Council as the Local Education Authority for the County of London. The 
date of transfer was Sunday, 1st May, 1904. The official change took 
place on Monday, 2nd May, when the Chairmen of the Council and the 
Education Committee attended at the Education Offices, Victoria 
Embankment, W.C., and welcomed the staff, exchanging farewells with 
the Right Hon. Lord Reay, Chairman of the departing School Board. 

On the same date the Technical Education Board, which first met on 
28th April, 1893, was also abolished, and the combined duties of the 
School Board and the Education Board were undertaken by the 
Council. 

Education Committee (Scheme). 

The London County Council, on 26th January, 1904, adopted a scheme 
for the establishment of an Education- Committee as required by law. 

The General Purposes Committee, which framed the scheme, insisted 
that the Council snould bear in mind the following two objects in con- 
stituting the Education Committee : — 

1. That the Committee shall be one which will work harmoniously with 
the Council in developing a complete and well co-ordinated system of 
London education. 

2. That its constitution shall be such as to retain one of the greatest 
public interests under real public control, as far as possible. 

The scheme, the key-note of which is no co-option, is as follows : — 

1. The London County Council (hereinafter called "the Council") shall establish 
for the purposes of the Education (London) Act, 1903, an Education Committee (here- 
inafter called "the Committee"), which Committee shall consist of forty-three 
members, and shall include (a) the chairman, vice-chairman, and deputy-chairman 
for the time being of the Council ; (b) thirty -five persons, who shall be members for 
the time being of the Council ; and (c) five women selected by the Council. Persons 
of experience in education and persons acquainted with the needs of the various kinds 
of schools in the administrative County of London, shall always be included in the 
committee. 

2. In addition to the said 43 members, the Council may appoint, as members of the 
first committee, members of the London School Board not exceeding five in number. 

3. The first members of the committee, other than the chairman, vice-chairman, and 
deputy -chairman of the Council, shall be appointed by the Council at a meeting of the 
Council to be held on the 22nd day of March, 1904, and shall hold office until the 
ordinary day of election of committees of the Council in the month of March, in the 
year 1906. 

4. Except as provided by Clause 3, the members of the committee shall retire 
annually and shall hold office until the first meeting of their successors ; but in the 
year in which the triennial retirement of county councillors takes place, they shall 
retire on the 7th of March. 

5. Every member of the committee not being a member of the Council shall, after 
appointment or re-appointinent, and before being entitled to act as a member of the 
committee, sign a declaration of acceptance of office on a form to be prescribed by the 
Council. 

6. Any member of the committee who shall notify in writing to the clerk of the 
Council his intention to resign, or who shall (except in case of illness, or for a reason 
approved by the committee) be for six successive months absent from all meetings of 
the committee, or who being, when appointed, a member of the Council, shall cease to 
be a member thereof, or who, not being a member of the Council, shall fail for the 
period of three calendar months to sign the declaration of acceptance of office, or who 



London County Council. 



63 



shall become bankrupt, or shall file in any Court having jurisdiction in bankruptcy a 
declaration of inability to pay debts, shall thereupon cease to be a member of the 
committee. • 

7. Any casual vacancy in the committee shall be filled up by the Council as soon as 
conveniently may be, the appointment being made only for the remainder of the term 
for which the vacating member was appointed. 

After an experience of two years and a half, the Council decided that 
the Education Committee should be granted enlarged powers. One result 
of this decision is that the committee now has power to spend up to £500 
without the approval of the Council. Another important concession was 
that the meetings of the committee should be held in public. The com- 
mittee met for the first time with open doors on 21st November, 1906. 

(A) ELEMENTARY EDUCATION. 



According to the returns dated 
31st March, 1906, there were 893,344 
children of the Elementary School 
Class in London, and there was 
accommodation in Council Schools 
for 599,407, and in Voluntary Schools 
for 150,868— total, 750,275. There 
were at that date 532 Council Schools 
open and 435 Voluntary Schools. 
During the year under review 11 
additional schools, providing accom- 
modation for 12,035 children, and 
eight enlargements of existing 
schools, accommodating 1,975 chil- 
dren, were opened. The approxi- 
mate number of new places sanc- 
tioned by the Council but not yet 
provided was 32,478. If there is not 
room for all the children in efficient 
schools it is incumbent upon the 
Council to provide the necessary 
accommodation. 

When the Council took over the 
work of education, the accommoda- 
tion for which the elementary 
schools were recognised did not 
represent the real number for which 
these schools could effectively pro- 
vide. Many of the older schools 
contain rooms accommodating as 
many as 70 and 80, and in some 
cases more children. When it is 
remembered that the Board of 
Education has laid down that no 
single class is to contain more than 
60 children, and even this number 



is considered by present-day stan- 
dards too large, it will be seen that 
these large rooms nominally ac- 
commodating 70 or 80 children do 
not provide effective accommoda- 
tion for more than 60 children. 
The Council has, therefore, initiated 
a scheme for carrying out systematic 
re-division of these large rooms, 
wherever such re-division is prac- 
ticable and desirable from the point 
of view of organisation. In other 
cases it is intended to write down 
the accommodation of each room 
to 60 places. 

During the year 1905-6, 160 
classrooms, accommodating on an 
average 73 children each, were re- 
divided so as to form 241 class- 
rooms accommodating on an average 
43 children each, and 76 classrooms, 
previously accommodating on an 
average 75 children each, were 
written down so as to accommodate 
only 60 children each. Adding 
these re-divisions and reductions 
together, 236 classrooms, previously 
accommodating on an average 74 
children each, nave been converted 
into 317 classrooms, accommodating 
on an average 47 children. 

It is intended to carry out further 
instalments of the effective accom- 
modation proposals during the next 
year or two until the schools are 
brought more into line with modern 
requirements. 

The method of calculation adopted 
to ascertain the number of school 



64 



London County Council. 



places required to be provided was 
until recently to deduct 12i per 
cent, from the total number of 
elementary school children sche- 
duled between the ages of three 
and 13, and to add the number of 
children over 13 attending elemen- * 
tary schools. The method recently 
approved by the Council for the 
purpose of providing new accommo- 
dation throughout London necessi- 
tated by the survey of the non-pro- 
vided schools is to deduct 14 per 
cent, from the total number of chil- 
dren scheduled between the ages of 
three and 14, and to add the number 
of children over 14 years of age 
attending school. The extra 1$ per 
cent, will cover approximately the 
number of children of the special 
school class, for whom other ac- 
commodation is provided, but whose 
names have hitherto been included 
in the ordinary schedule, and also 
the number of children who will be 
removed year by year as scholar- 
ship holders to secondary schools. 
On this method of calculation the 
estimated number of children re- 
quiring school places on the sche- 
dule of May, 1906, was 769,693. 
In arriving at the existing effective 
accommodation, an endeavour has 
been made to reckon the- accommo- 
dation of all classrooms in senior 
departments on the 10 square feet 
basis, and in infants' classrooms on 
the 9 square feet basis, except 
where the seating has already been 
settled on a higher basis. 

It has also been calculated that 
for every 100 effective school places 
there should be a roll of 105 for 
boys, a roll of 107 for girls, 106 for 
mixed, and 110 for infants. This is 
considered to be practicable, as the 
f percentage • of average attendances 
of boys is 91 '6, of girls 89'3, and of 
infants 83.8. 

The results may be summarised 
as follows as on 31st March, 1906:— 



Estimated number of children 

requiring school places 769,690 

Permanent effective accommoda- 
tion- 
Existing 707,776 

Projected 26,482 

734,258 

Possible average roll based on 
effective accommodation- 
Existing 759,657 

Projected 28,335 

787,992 

showing a deficiency on existing 
permanent accommodation of 10,033, 
and an excess on existing and pro- 
jected permanent accommodation of 
18,302. 

At Lady Day, 1906, there were on 
the books of L.C.C. Schools 557,293, 
Voluntary Schools 195,194, with 
an average attendance of 495,866 
and 167,505 respectively. The per- m 
centage of regularity of attendance 
— that is, the actual number of 
attendances made out of each 100 
possible, was 89, and is the highest 
ever recorded for the Public Ele- 
mentary Schools in London. Since 
1871, 164 Voluntary Schools, accom- 
modating 56,619, have been con- 
verted into what are now Council 
Schools. 

Special Schools. 
In addition to the ordinary schools, 
there were at Lady Day, 1906, 344 
Domestic Economy centres, a.t 
which 49,386 scholars were in attend- 
ance at the end of March, 1906. 
There were also 205 Manual Train- 
ing centres, with an attendance of 
57,248 scholars; 83 centres for the 
instruction of Mentally Defective 
children, with a roll of 5,498 ; also 
25 centres for the instruction of 
Physically Defective children, with 
a roll of 1,782 pupils ; 11 centres for 
the education of the Deaf, with an 
attendance of 623; 9 centres for 
the instruction of the Blind, with 
a roll of 280 children. The Council 
has 10 Industrial Schools— the 
Gordon House Home at Isleworth, 
for 70 girls, Feltham and Mayford, 
the former with a daily average 



London County Council. 



65 



of 547 and the latter 175. There 
are two Truant Schools, one at 
Homerton, accommodating 150 
boys; and another at Highbury, 
accommodating 200 boys. There is 
a Day Industrial School at Drury- 
lane, with accommodation for 100, 
one at Brunswick-road, Poplar, and 
one at Ponton-road, Nine Elms, each 
with accommodation for 150 boys 
and girls. There is also an In- 
dustrial Home for little boys at 
Clapham accommodating 30. In 
addition, the Council has a joint 
management with the county 
borough of Brighton in the Port- 
slade Industrial School, in which 
there are 60 London boys. 

Residential Schools. 

The Council has three Residential 
Schools for elder Deaf boys and 
girls, one at Anerley, accommo- 
dating 60, one at Homerton, 
accommodating 50; and one at 
Wandsworth. There are also 
three Residential Schools for the 
elder Blind scholars, one at Elm 
Court, Tulse Hill, for girls, accom- 
modating 40, and one at Linden 
Lodge, Wandsworth, for boys, with 
an accommodation of 30, and one at 
Stormont House for 20. There is 
also a Residential Home for 32 Men- 
tally Defective scholars at Brixton. 
Five Custodial Homes for Mentally 
Defective children who are unsuit- 
able for instruction in the special 
schools have been established. The 
Elementary Education (Defective 
and Epileptic Children) Act, 1899, 
gives the Council power to provide 
for the education of Epileptic chil- 
dren, but at present no definite 
action has been taken in this direc- 
tion. 

Prizes. 

Merit Certificates are granted 
in order to stimulate the interest 
of the scholars. Prizes and 
medals are given to the children 



in Geography and History and 
Needlework, also for attendance, 
and as a reward for conduct and 
industry. In addition, scholars 
passing the examination of the 
Board of Education (South Ken- 
sington) are awarded prizes in 
Science and Art. 

Under an arrangement between 
the late Mr. Francis Peek and the 
Religious Tract Society, prizes 
to the value of £500 are awarded 
annually to the Council's scholars 
and pupil teachers for proficiency 
in Bible knowledge. 

There are eight prizes for dis- 
posal in each year for award 
to pupil teachers who have 
passed the King's Scholarship 
examination, four of the value 
of £10 and four of about £6 or 
£7. 

Attendance. 

The instruction in all London 
County Council Schools is free, and 
attendance compulsory. The bye- 
laws state that the age of com- 
pulsory attendance is between five 
and fourteen. A child between 
twelve and fourteen is not required 
to attend if he or she has passed 
the Seventh Standard. What are 
known as " half-timers " are not 
allowed. No child under 14 can 
be employed unless such child 
has passed, the Seventh Standard. 
It is the duty of the School 
Authority to enforce attendance, 
and 361 school attendance officers, 
known as " Visitors," are engaged 
in this work. The regular atten- 
dance of children at school is en- 
forced by a system of sub-committees 
appointed locally for certain areas. 
These sub-committees consider the 
questions of taking action against 
parents who do not send their child- 
ren to school, and of summoning 
before a magistrate the persons re- 
sponsible for the children's atten- 
dance. Last year 14,365 summonses 



66 



London County Council. 



were issued, and 11,570 convictions 
obtained. Parents are fined up to a 
maximum penalty of 20a., and may 
be sent to prison. The number 
of cautionary notices and sum- 
monses has been consistently 
decreasing since the year 1901. 

Features of the Schools. 

School books, apparatus, and 
stationery are supplied to scholars 
free of charge ; pianos have been 
provided for each department 
and are being gradually supplied 
to voluntary schools. Scholars' 
lending libraries exist at every 
permanent school. Suitable books 
for children are lent free, to 
encourage a love of reading. 
National Home Reading Circles 
have been formed in classes in 
Standard V. and upwards. Thrift 
is encouraged by the establishment 
of penny banks at the schools. 
For the better study of Botany 
arrangements have been made for 
the weekly distribution to the 
schools of plants, seeds, leaves, 
&c, from the various parks and 
open spaces belonging to the 
Council. A Reference Library of 
standard books is supplied to 
each permanent school for the 
use of the teachers in their work. 
In the Higher Grade Schools in- 
struction is continued for half an 
hour longer in the afternoons, i.e., 
to 5 p.m., in order that the more 
extended courses of instruction may 
be given to the senior scholars. 
The Board of Education has ap- 
proved the practice of hanging on the 
walls of the schools the names and 
records of former scholars who may 
have distinguished themselves by 
acts of heroism or self-sacrifice, or 
who have in other ways earned a 
high place in their country's regard. 
The scheme of inter-colonial school 
correspondence, started on the sug- 
gestion of H.M. Colonial Office, for 
the establishment of more intimate 



relations between the schools and 
the school children of the Colonies 
and those of the Mother Country by 
means of letters written by the 
children, has proved a successful 
feature in the schools. An Ex- 
hibition of Handwork, comprising 
specimens of Drawing, Manual 
Training, Cookery, and Scientific 
Apparatus, &c, done by the 
scholars, is held triennially. The 
children pay visits under the 
guidance of the teachers to mu- 
seums, art galleries, and other 
places of educational value, these 
visits being- recognised by the Board 
of Education. The recognition of 
the great need for the health of 
the children has caused the ap- 
pointment of a medical staff for 
the purpose of examining can- 
didates for the service, and 
also children who should be sent 
to the special schools. In ad- 
dition thirty-two nurses, whose 
duty it is to examine the heads 
of the children with a view 
to securing greater cleanliness, 
visit the schools in rotation. The 
services of twenty local assistant 
medical officers are temporarily 
engaged in connection with the 
scheme of medical inspection 
and supervision of the children, 
and the teachers have to keep 
records of the results. A labora- 
tory has been provided for the 
study of bacteria in connection 
with prevention of infectious 
diseases in schools. There is a joint 
committee, consisting of four coun- 
cillors and representatives of various 
voluntary societies, whose duty it is 
to supervise the work of organising 
relief for under-fed children. The 
weekly average number of meals 
given last year in 264 Council 
Schools was 72,714. In the 
case of the schools for cripple 
children, horsed ambulances con- 
vey the scholars from home to 
the schools. The playgrounds of 



London County Council. 



67 



three-fourths of the schools are 
opened every Saturday for the 
use of the children. Fire drill is 
taught in every department with 
the object of making the chil- 
dren familiar with a guick and 
orderly means of exit in case of 
fire. In addition, posters are hung 
in each school giving the position 
of the nearest tire alarm. A 
complete gymnasium has been 
fitted up in a few schools- 
Corporal punishment is only 
allowed in accordance with specific 
instructions. The school holidays, 
as a rule, are as follows: Easter, 
one week; Whitsuntide, one day; 
midsummer, four weeks; Christ- 
mas, two weeks. Each per- 
manent school has a lending 
library for the use of scholars 
in Standard III. and upward. 
16a. per annum is allowed to Head 
Teachers for the purchase of mate- 
rials for use in Botany, Physiology, 
Science, and object lessons. The 
sum of 10*. is also allowed for the 
purchase of plants and flowers in 
the girls' and infante' schools. 

Miscellaneous. 

London County Council Schools 
are available out of school hours for 
various "letting" purposes, e.g., 
Lectures, Bands of Hope, Boys' 
Brigades, Social Evenings, &c, 
and religious meetings, on an 
approved scale of charges. The 
exteriors of the schools are painted 
every five years, and the interiors 
every eight years, with an inter- 
mediate cleaning every four years. 
In scheduling a site for a new school 
in any parish in the metrojxdis, the 
Council is responsible for re-housing, 
where 30 or more persons have been, 
or are about to be, dispossessed. 
The Council has its own store 
for the reception, storage, and 
despatch of books, stationery, &c, 
to the schools, and a furniture 
warehouse, both of which are 



situated in Clerkenwell, where desks 
and furniture are manufactured, 
received, examined, and dispatched 
to the schools. The greater number 
of the schools are insured againsl 
fire in a special insurance fund— 
which is managed by the Finance 
Committee of the Council. 

Subjects Taught. 
The subjects taught in the Dav- 
schools are those laid down in the 
Code of the Board of Education. 
The subjects of instruction include 
Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, His- 
tory, Geography, and Grammar, 
along with Drawing for boys and 
Needlework for girls, and suitable 
occupations for infants. There are 
however, several other subjects, 
scientific and otherwise, that 
may be taken subject to the 
approval of H.M. Inspector. Great 
attention is given to Singing, 
and the standard of attainment 
as evidenced by the scholars' 
occasional displays, is now very 
high. Physical exercises, including 
swimming, receive careful atten- 
tion and encouragement; and a 
wonderful development has been 
witnessed in recent years in all 
that pertains to the health of the 
children. Swimming baths are 
attached to three Council Schools ; 
thousands of scholars are taught 
to swim every year, peripatetic 
teachers being employed for the 
purpose. Cookery Work, Laundry 
Work, and Household Management 
are taught to the girls, and Manual 
Training in Woodwork and Metal 
Work are taught to the boys. 
In the Council Schools Bible In- 
struction is given according to a 
syllabus approved by the late 
School Board, and provisionally 
adopted by the Council. 

Higher Elementary and 

Higher Grade Schools. 
The Council has 33 Higher Ele- 
mentary Departments and 45 Higher 



6fr 



London County Council. 



Grade Departments, where the 
curriculum is of a more advanced 
character. The course of instruc- 
tion is arranged for three years, and 
no child must he less than 10 years 
old on admission. 

Teaching Staff. 

At Lady Day, 1906, the Council 
had in its service 1,512 head and 
11,237 assistant teachers, 3,989 
being masters and 8,760 mistresses. 
The numbers in the voluntary 
schools were 936 head and 3,715 
assistant teachers. In addition to 
the adult teachers there were 2,000 
pupil teachers — indentured or on 
probation — making a total teaching 
staff of 19,400 at Lady Day, 1906. 
A scheme has been adopted, 
whereby all promotions of teachers 
in Council schools should be made 
from a specially selected list of 
225 assistant teachers, of whom 
75 are. men. The final selection 
for a head-teachership is in the 
hands of the Education Com- 
mittee of the Council. In addi- 
tion to the staff mentioned above, 
there were also 409 teachers in the 
Blind Centres, Deaf Centres, Men- 
tally Defective Centres, and in 
the Physically Defective Centres. 
Not included in the above were 
350 instructors and assistants in 
the Manual Training Centres, 
and 429 instructresses in the 
Cookery, Laundry, and Domestic 
Economy Centres. Most of the 
teachers in the service are mem- 
bers of the Government Super- 
annuation Fund, but there are a 
number who elected to remain in 
a former superannuation fund 
formed by the late School 
Board. All new appointments of 
teachers now come under the 
Government Superannuation Act 
for this purpose. 

Government Grants and Cost 
to the Rates. 

The average annual cost of 



maintenance per child was as 
follows : — (a) Gross cost per child, 
Council Schools, £4 16s. bd. 9 
Voluntary Schools, £2 19s. 3d. ; 
(b) Income per child (excluding* 
Aid grant), Council Schools, 
£1 lis. 2d., Voluntary Schools, 
£1 9s. 6d. ; (c) Income per child 
for all day schools, including 
Aid grant, £1 18s. bd.; (d) Net 
cost per child for all day schools, 
including Aid grant, £2 8s. 9d. 

Evening Continuation 
Schools. 

Evening Continuation Schools 
were first started by the late 
authority in 1882. Last year (1905- 
6) 354 schools were open, and the 
number of students admitted was 
153,379. The schools are open to all 
persons who are exempt from the 
legal obligation to attend a day 
school. A small sessional fee is 
charged generally to persons over 
16, but in certain schools in poor dis- 
tricts the pupils are admitted free. 
Pupils may select any subject they 
like at these Continuation Schools. . 
There are 34 Commercial and 
Science and Art Evening Schools 
where instruction is of a special 
character, and a fee of 2s. 6d. per 
session is charged. 

Growth of Elementary 

Education. 
The following figures show the 
increase of the expenditure and 
the expansion of public elemen- 
tary education : — The year 1872 
was the first one in which any 
material expenditure was incurred, 
and during which the schools were 
opened. In that year the amount 
levied on the rates was £40,000. In 
the following year, 1873, the amount 
was £75,000 ; the total receipts, in- 
cluding loans raised and Govern^, 
ment grant, £258,705, and the aver- , 
age; attendance was 31,240. In 1880 



London County Council. 



69 



the amount received from the rates 
was £541,129 ; the total receipts, in- 
cluding" loan, fees, and grants, were 
£1,359,662, and the average attend- 
ance 196,844. In 1885 the rating 
authorities contributed £94 1,270, the 
total expenditure was £2,097,171, 
and the average attendance 294,208. 
In 1890 contributions from the rates 
amounted to £1,177,044, the total re- 
ceipts £2,140,551, and the attend- 
ance 345,746. 



Finance. 



Total expenditure (elemen- 
tary education) 

Total net expenditure (ele- 
mentary education) 

Total maintenance expen- 
diture (higher education) 

Total net maintenance ex- 
penditure (higher educa- 
tion) 

Total maintenance expen- 
diture (elemeutary and 
higher education ) 

Total net maintenance ex- 
penditure (elementary 
and higher education) ... 



Yeir ended 
31st March, 1906. 



ii 8. d. 

4,027,859 11 5 

2,708,590 8 2 

656,113 9 



336,413 2 2 



4,633,982 12 2 



3,045,003 10 4 



The progress of the Education 
rate has been as follows : — 




A penny rate under the late 
authority produced £ 169,000. Under 
the Council this has increased to 
£181,000. The total expenditure 



incurred on capital account on the 
provision of elementary education 
both by the School Board and the 
Council amounted to £16,214,873. 
In addition £119,579 has been spent 
on capital account for higher edu- 
cation. The total capital expendi- 
ture on education, both elementary 
and higher, up to 31st March, 1906, 
amounts, therefore, to £16,334,452. 

Organisation of the Educa- 
tion Work of the Council. 

Committees. — Under the old 
School Hoard there were seven 
standing' committees, and alxmt 
thirty-two sub - committees. The 
places of these have now been taken 
by the Education Committee and its 
nine sub-committees, as follows : - 
General Purposes. Books and Appa- 
ratus, Building's and Attendance, 
Day Schools, Higher Education, 
Non-Provided Schools Survey, 
Polytechnics and Evening Schools, 
Special Schools, Teaching Staff, 
In addition there are several sec- 
tions of these sub-committees, 
appointed, from time to time, to 
deal with special questions, and 
what are called Managing Com- 
mittees, which deal particularly 
with the special schools belonging 
to the Council. The number of 
members on each sub-committee 
does not exceed twelve. Ths 
Education Committee under its 
enlarged powers deals with all ques- 
tions not involving new departures 
or matters of principle. In routine 
matters of ordinary administration 
the committee is empowered to 
act in the name of the Council. 

Staff. 

The management of the 532 Lon- 
don County Council schools and 
the 435 non-provided schools is 
carried out by a staff of officials at 
the Education Offices, Victoria 
Embankment, and elsewhere. This 
staff is controlled by various officers, 



70 



London County Council. 



the chief of whom are : — (i.) Clerk 
of the Council, (ii.) Educational 
adviser, (iii.) Executive officer, (iv.) 
Architect (education), (v.) Chief 
inspector (education), (vi.) Medical 
Officer (education), (vii.) Comp- 
troller. Admission to the clerical 
establishment is only gained after 
passing the examination for fourth- 
class assistants which is usually held 
in the beginning of each year. That 
portion of the education staff which 
served under the late Board con- 
tributes 2 per cent, of its salaries 
into a separate fund under the Lon- 
don School Board (Superannuation) 
Act, 1902, which provides for super- 
annuation and other allowances, 
and the Council contributes equal 
amounts. The remaining members 
are subject to the provisions of the 
Council's Superannuation and 
Provident Fund. 

Local Management. — L.C.C. 
Schools. 

The Education (London) Act, 
1903, changed the method of ap- 
pointment of local managers for 
Council schools. The number of 
managers and .the grouping of 
schools is decided by each Metro- 
politan Borough Council in which 
the schools are situated, in con- 
sultation with the London County 
Council, and with the approval 
of the Board of Education. 
Two - thirds of these managers 
are appointed by the Boroughs 
and the remaining one-third by the 
County Council. The Council has 
decided that its schools should be 
arranged in groups containing not 
more than four schools, the groups 
to be so formed that all schools in 
one group should be within the limits 
of one metropolitan borough council 
area, and also within the limits of 
one county electoral area. It fur- 
ther decided that the number of 
managers for a group of three or 
four schools should be not more 



than 18, and the number of 
managers for a group of two 
schools, or one school, not more 
than twelve. 

Voluntary Schools. 

The Education Act of 1903 also 
provided that the London County 
Council was to share with the 
Metropolitan Borough Councils the 
two representative managers for 
each " non-provided " school. These 
with the four " foundation " mana- 
gers make up the minimum of six 
managers required by the Act for 
each school. 

Statutes. 

The following Acts govern the 
supervision and administration of 
education in Public Elementary 
Schools : — Elementary Education 
Act, 1870 (33 and 34 Vic, c. 75) ; 
Elementary Education Act, 1873 
(36 and 37 Vic, c 8b) ; Elementary 
Education Act, 1876 (39 and 40 
Vic, c. 79) ; Elementary Education 
(Industrial Schools) Act, 1879 (42 
and 43 Vic, c 48) ; Elementary 
Education Act, 1880 (43 and 44 
Vic, c 23) ; Education Code (1890) 
Act, 1890 (53 and 54 Vic, c 22) ; 
Elementary Education Act, 1891 
(54 and 55 Vic, c 56); Ele- 
mentary Education (Blind and 
Deaf Children) Act, 1893 (56 
and 57 Vic, c 42); Elementary 
Education (School Attendance) 
Act, 1893 (56 and 57 Vic, c 
51) ; Voluntary Schools Act, 
1&97 (60 Vic, c 5); School 
Board Conference Act, 1897 (60 
and 61 Vic, c 32); Elementary 
School Teachers (Superannuation) 
Act, 1898 (61 and 62 Vic, c 57), 
Elementary Education (School 
Attendance) Act (1893) Amend- 
ment Act, 1899 (62 and 63 Vic, c 
13); Elementary Education (Defec- 
tive and Epileptic Children) Act,. 
1899 (62 and 63 Vic. c 32) ; Board 
of Education Act, 1899 (62 and 63 
Vic, c 33) ; Elementary Education 



London County Council. 



71 



Act, 1900 (63 and 64 Vic, c. 53) ; 
Education Act, 1902 (2 Edw. VII., 
c. 42) ; Elementary Education, 
Amendment Act, 1903 (3 Edw. VII., 
c. 13) ; Education (London) Act, 
1903 (3 Edw. VII., c. 24) ; Employ- 
ment of Children Act, 1903 (3 



Edw. Vir., c. 45) ; Education (Local 
Authority Default) Act, 1904 (4 
Edw. VII., c. 18) ; Prevention of 
Cruelty to Children Act, 1904 
(4 Edw. VII., c. 15) ; Education 
(Provision of Meals) Act, 1906, 
(6 Edw. VII., c. 57). 



Statistics. 
. The following figures give the progress of Elementary Education in 
London since the establishment of School Boards : - 





Board (now L.C.C.) Schools. 


VOLC 


NT ART Sen 

Number on 
the Roll. 


OOLS. 




Rate at end 
of each 
Triennial 
Period. 


School 

places 

provided. 


Number on 
the Boll. 


Average 
attendance. 


School 

places 

provided. 


Average 
attendance. 


x870 


_ 











_ 


_ 


— 


1873 


•89 


58,581 


59,606 


40,481 


282,936 


259,543 


195,662 


1876 


3*03 


146.074 


146,031 


114,380 


287,116 


259,436 


199,605 


1879 


5-15 


219,291 


233,480 


185,518 


271,314 


235,084 


182,728 


1882 


6*15 


280,275 


295,833 


238,205 


263,617 


223,297 


174,723 


1885 


800 


367,639 


379,931 


298,317 


260,597 


212,490 


167,242 


1888 


837 


407,636 


420,914 


328,578 


262,022 


207,887 


162,349 


1891 


1070 


428,035 


450,981 


347,857 


258,329 


210,516 


162,525 


1894 


10*20 


468,300 


488,038 


390,812 


257,652 


226,163 


177,579 


1897 


1234 


512,025 


520,887 


421,960 


257,527 


227,560 


178,397 


1900 


13-37 


546,483 


536,019 


439,744 


220,987 


219,921 


174,702 


1903 


14*66 


572,649 


549,677 


475,150 


217,088 


213,297 


177,974 


1904 


15-16 


579,030 


550,329 


485,343 


215,121 


210,141 


177,884 


1905 


16-00 


588,703 


554,645 


493,975 


209,119 


202,498 


172,739 


1906 


18-00 


599,407 


557,293 


495,866 


150,868 


195,194 


167,505 


1907 


1900 


— 


— 


— 




— 


_ 



(B) HIGHER EDUCATION. 



The Education (London) Act, 
1903, coming into operation on 1st 
May, 1904, the work of the Coun- 
cil's Technical Board was merged 
into that of the new Education 
Committee, and the Board, which 
first met on 28th April, 1903, 
terminated a most successful record 
of eleven years' work in the field 
of higher education in the metro- 
polis. 

The latest period for which offi- 
cial figures are available is that 
for the vear ending 31st March, 1906. 

By the Education (London) Act, 
1903, the Technical Instruction 
Acts and the educational sections 
of the Local Taxation (Custom and 



Excise) Act, 1890, were repealed, 
and there is now no statutory limit 
placed upon the amount available 
for higher education in the case of 
London. 

Under the new Act the special 
provisions of the former Clause 
VII. of the Science and Art Direc- 
tory, which enabled the late Tech- 
nical Education Board to act as 
the local authority for all London, 
are rendered unnecessary, The 
Council being the new local educa-' 
tion authority under that Act, is 
made responsible for the provision 
of education "other than elemen- 
tary," which includes university, 
secondary, and technical educa- 
tion. 



72 



London County Council. 



Institutions Subsidised by the 
Council. 

The Council has, during the whole 
of the period from 1893 to 1906, 
adopted the policy of maintaining 
and developing the work of exist- 
ing institutions i.i London before 
creating new institutions under its 
own management. The most im- 
portant of all the educational insti- 
tutions which provide technical 
education are the Polytechnics ; and 
the approved object has been to con- 
solidate, strengthen, and develop the 
work in such a way as to provide 
the greatest possible facilities in 
every district of the metropolis for 
scientific and technological in- 
struction. 

THE POLYTECHNICS. 

It is estimated that the capital 
invested in these institutions ex- 
ceeds £500,000. During the year 
the Council contributed £87,000 for 
building, equipment, and main- 
tenance. About £4*0,000 is con- 
tributed by the Central Governing 
Body of the City Parochial Chari- 
ties, chiefly under schemes prepared 
by the Charity Commissioners, and 
£20,000, is contributed by City Com- 
panies. 

The Polytechnics provide in- 
struction in all the ordinary branches 
of science and art, in some cases 
with special reference to its appli- 
cation to industry, and in many 
branches of technology, particularly 
the engineering, ouilding, and 
chemical trades. The recognised 
London Polytechnics are : — 

The Battersea Polytechnic, situa- 
ted in Battersea-park-road. Princi- 
pal — (Vacant). Secretary — J. 
Harwood. 

The Borough-road Polytechnic 
in the Borough-road, Southwark. 
Principal— C. T. Millis.. Secretary 
— W. M. Richardson. 



The City' Polytechnic, which com- 
prises three separate Institutions, 
namely : — 
Birkbeck College, in Bream's- 
buildings, Chancery-lane. Prin- 
cipal — G. Armitage-Smith,M.A. 
Secretary — W. H. Congreve. 
City of London College, in White- 
street, Moorfields. Principal — 
Sidney Humphries, B.A., LL.B 
Secretary — D. Savage. 
Northampton Institute, in St. 
John-street-road, Clerkenwell. 
Principal — R. M. Walmsley, 
D.sc. Secretary — Sydney Ax- 
ford. 
The. East London Technical Col- 
lege (People's Palace) in the Mile 
End-road. Principal — J. L. S. Hat- 
ton, m.a. Secretary — C. Brandon. 

The Northern Polytechnic, Hollo- 
way-road. Principal — R. S. Clay, 
D.sc. Secretary— W. M. Macbeth. 

The Regent-street Polytechnic. 
Director of Education — Robert 
Mitchell. 

The Sir John Cass's Aldgate In- 
stitute, in Jewry-street, E.C. Prin- 
cipal— C. A. Kohn, M.SC, PH.D. 
Secretary — W. H. Davison, M.A. 

The South- Western Polytechnic, 
Manresa-road, Chelsea. Principal 
— H. Tomlinson, B.A., F.R.S. Secre- 
tary— H. B. Harper. 

The Woolwich Polytechnic, in 
William-street, Woolwich. Princi- 
pal— W. Gannon, m.a. Secretary— 
A. J. Nay lor. 

Altogether there are now twelve 
of these institutions in London, the 
Sir John Cass's Institute, at Aid- 
gate, having been recently erected 
under a scheme dealing with the 
Cass Foundation. 

The Goldsmiths' Company having 
decided that, as the Council had 
become the education authority for 
all grades of education, they would 
not continue the Goldsmiths' Insti- 
tute at New Cross as a Polytechnic, 



London County Council. 



73 



the buildings were generously 
offered to and accepted by the Uni- 
versity of London. Arrangements 
have been completed between 
the University and the London, 
Kent, Middlesex, and Surrey 
County Councils, with a view to 
utilising the Institute for the 
purpose of a Training College for 
Teachers. In addition, the Univer- 
sity will make use of the organisa- 
tion for University teaching. 

The North- Western Polytechnic 
is the only one of those contem- 
plated in the original schemes of the 
Charity Commissioners which has 
not yet been opened. 

The Work of the Polytechnics. 

Although there are now twelve 
Polytechnics in various parts of the 
Metropolis, it is not possible to assign 
a particular district to any Poly- 
technic for all purposes. South 
London is approximately divided 
into four distinct Polytechnic areas. 
There is the Woolwicn Polytechnic, 
serving the Charlton, Woolwich and 
Plumstead area, The central por- 
tion of South London is served by 
the Borough Polytechnic and the 
western rjortion by the Battersea 
Polytechnic, except in so far as 
the Wandsworth Technical Insti- 
tute provides for the extreme south- 
west district. 

These rough territorial divisions 
serve sufficiently to indicate the dis- 
tricts of the Polytechnics with re- 
spect to 'those subjects which, like 
geometry, building construction, 
mathematics, modern languages, 
&c, are common to all such insti- 
tutes. 

The Battersea Polytechnic, how- 
ever, provides, in addition, the 
principal training school for domestic 
economy teaching, and is the only 
Polytechnic which is specialising in 
paper manufacture, and provides 
classes for motor-car drivers, A 



speciality is also made of the 
chemistry of oils and colours. 

The Borough Polytechnic com- 
prises the National School for 
Bakers and Confectioners, and is the 
only school in London for varnish 
manufacturers. 

In North London, the Regent- 
street Polytechnic draws its students 
from the whole of the metropolis, 
and is the only Polytechnic the 
students of which enjoy a reduction 
*n fares at the hands of the principal 
railway companies. The School of 
Photography at Regent-street is 
probably unique. The other North 
London Polytechnics are more local 
in character. The physical training 
classes of the South- Western Poly- 
technic attract students from tne 
whole county, and the opportunities 
for research m physics and mechanics 
also induce pupils to attend from a 
wide area. 

The Birkbeck College, and the 
City of London College, and the 
the Cass Institute at Aldgate are 
centrally situated in the City, to 
which circumstance they owe their 
large attendances. 

The Northampton Institute in 
Clerkenwell has a distinct local 
character, as seen in its watch and 
clock making classes and its elec- 
trical engineering workshops. 

The Northern Polytechnic at 
Holloway specially caters for the 
Borough of Islington, while the 
East • London Technical College, 
with its branch at Bow and Bromley, 
is the only first-class technical insti- 
tute between Islington and West 
Ham. 

As proof of the high character of 
much of the instruction, it may be 
remarked that under the re- 
organised University of London 
many of the courses in polytechnics 
have been recognised by the Senate 
of the University as courses suit- 



74 



London County Council. 



able for students intending to take 
their degrees as internal students of 
the University. 

TECHNICAL INSTITUTES. 

Side by side with the poly- 
technics, a considerable number of 
technical institutes have grown up 
in recent years, which, although not 
included under the original schemes 
of the Charity Commissioners, pro- 
vide organised courses of technical 
instruction for districts which would 
otherwise be left without adequate 
provision. Some account of the 
more important institutions is 
given below. 

The Hackney Institute (which 
it is proposed to transfer to the 
Council) consists of a central insti- 
tution at Hackney Downs and of a 
branch institution (with an endow- 
ment under the Cass scheme) at 
Cassland-road. The central insti- 
tution provides instructiou in 
chemistry, physics, engineering, 
art, and commercial subjects. The 
branch institution provides trade 
classes in carpentry and joinery, 
plumbing, plastering, bricklaying, 
painters' and decorators' work, &c. 
The principal of both institutions 
is Mr. Percy R. Kink, M.A. 

The L.C.C. Paddington Technical 
Institute, at Saltram-crescent, has 
taken over the work formerly 
carried on at Queen's-park College 
and Westbourne-park Institute, and 
has, in addition, provided for exten- 
sive work in engineering. Fully- 
equipped workshops for engineering 
and laboratories for physics and 
chemistry have been provided, and 
provision has also been made for 
art and domestic economy. Prin- 
cipal, A. Gr. Cooke, M.A. 

The L.C.C. Brixtn School of 
Building in Ferndale-road was estab- 
lished by the late Technical Educa- 
tion Board for the purpose of provid- 
ing complete courses of instruction 
in all branches of the building trade. 



It is under the direct management of 
the Council, and the principal is Mr. 
H. W. Richards, formerly head of 
the Building Trade Department of 
the Northern Polytechnic. 

The L.C.C. Shoreditch Technical 
Institute, Pitfield-street, Hoxton, 
provides theoretical and practical 
instruction in all branches of the 
furniture and cabinet - making 
industries, and is provided with 
numerous well -equipped workshops. 
It also possesses a technical day 
school for boys, where the instruc- 
tion is specially adapted to boys 
who intend to enter the furniture 
and wood-working trades, and a 
domestic economy school for girls. 
The principal is Mr. S. Hicks. 

The L.C.C. Westminster Tech- 
nical Institute, which has been 
conveyed to the Council by the late 
Baroness Burdett-Coutts, provides 
mainly for those who are engaged 
in the building trade. The West- 
minster School of Art has also been 
accommodated in the same institu- 
tion. New premises are being 
erected adjoining the existing in- 
stitute, owing to the great increase 
of students. 

All these institutes are under the 
management of the Council. 

MONOTECHNIC INSTITUTIONS. 

There are other institutes which 
are specially devoted to the teaching 
of one particular craft, and may be 
styled " monotechnic " institutions. 

Among the most typical of these 
institutions is the L.C.C. School of 
Photo-engraving and Lithography 
(formerly known as the Bolt Court 
Technical School), which is managed 
and maintained entirely by the 
Council, and devotes itself to train- 
ing craftsmen in the most modern 
developments of photo-process work 
and in lithography. The principal 
is Mr. A. J. Newton. 

The L.C.C. School of Carriage 
Building in Balderton-street, which 



London County Council. 



15 



is carried on in connection with 
Regent-street Polytechnic, provides 
both day and evening courses for 
those; engaged in the carriage 
building trade. The scope of the 
institution is to be materially en- 
larged by the provision of organised 
courses on the construction of 
motor-cars. 

The Leather-tanning and Lea- 
ther-dyeing School at Bermondsey 
in connection with Herold's In- 
stitute gives a complete course of 
training for persons engaged in the 
leather trades. It is maintained 
partly by the Council and partly by 
the Leathersellers' Company, and 
is worked as a branch of the 
Borough Polytechnic. 

The St. Bride Foundation Insti- 
tute, Bride-lane, Fleet-street, is the 
main centre of technical instruction 
in typographic work, and is fitted 
with the most modern appliances. 

There are other institutions 
where technical instruction is 
provided, not only for workers in 
one special industry, but in 
several branches of industrial 
work. Among these may be men- 
tioned the Wandsworth Technical 
Institute, now an important centre 
of education ; the Working Men's 
College, Great Ormond-street (the 
pioneer institution of London) ; the 
Craft School, Globe - road, Mile 
End ; the Morley Memorial College 
in Waterloo - road ; and the Nor- 
wood Technical Institute, which is 
now under the direct control of the 
Council. The latest Technical In- 
stitutes are those established at 
Poplar and Sydenham. At Poplar 
special attention is devoted to 
marine engineering, and at Syden- 
ham to domestic economy. Plans 
have been approved for the erection 
of an institute at Hammersmith. 

The total amount of the contracts 
for erection, fitting, and altering of 
eight L.C.C. Technical Institutes, 



including the Central Schools of 
Arts and Crafts, the Hammer- 
smith Technical Institute, the 
Westminster Institute, the Poplar 
School of Engineering and Navi- 
gation, and the Brixton School of 
Building, reached the huge sum of 
£228,805 4s. 6U 

TRADE AND WORKSHOP CLASS IS. 

The provision made for the 
various trades by the trade classes 
in polytechnics and cognate institu- 
tions may be gathered from the fol- 
lowing brief summary : — 

For the building, trades practical 
instruction is given in bricklaying 
and brickcutting at 12 centres, in 
carpentry and joinery at 20 centres, 
in plumbing at 15 centres, in 
painters' and decorators' work at 12 
centres, and in plasterers' work at 9 
centres, while in building construc- 
tion and drawing classes are held 
at 28 centres. For the workers 
in engineering and metal trades 
practical instruction is given in 
mechanical engineering at 24 cen- 
tres, whilst admirable facilities are 
offered by the well-equipped labora- 
tories at the East London Technical 
College (People's Palace), the Bat- 
tersea Polytechnic, the South- 
western Polytechnic, the North- 
ampton Institute, Woolwich Poly- 
technic, and other similar institu- 
tions. At the Northampton Insti- 
tute, the South- Western Polytech- 
nic, and Battersea Polytechnic a 
special feature is made of electrical 
engineering, there being graduated 
laboratory courses from elementary 
to the most advanced work. There 
are 16 centres for practical in- 
struction in electrical engineering. 
At the Northern Polytechnic, 
situated in Hollo way, and the 
Brixton School of Building, special 
attention is given to the building 
trades ; and at Battersea courses 
have been organised in electric 
traction. 



76 



London County Council. 



ART TEACHING. 

(a) Schools of Arts and 
Crafts. 

In the year 1896-7 the L.C.C. 
Central School of Arts and Crafts 
was opened. This school is 
intended to provide for the 
artisans of London who are en- 
gaged in industries for which 
artistic training' is needed such in- 
struction in decorative design as 
can be made directly applicable to 
their work. No teaching is given 
in the school which does not bear 
directlv unon the actual* work of 
the student, and admission is con- 
fined to those who are engaged in 
some specific industry. The trades 
for which provision has been 
specially made at the school are 
those which are directly or in- 
directly associated with the build- 
ing trades, such as decorators, 
stone-carvers, metal-workers, 
stained - glass - workers, furniture- 
designers, cabinet-makers, designers 
of wall-papers, and embroidresses. 
Special provision is also made for 
goldsmiths and silversmiths ; while 
successful classes in book-binding 
have been conducted under Mr. 
Douglas Cockerell. Recent addi- 
tions to the work of the school 
are classes in woodcuts for colours 
and in carving and gilding (for 
picture framers), writing and illu- 
mination, and day classes for silver- 
smiths. The school is at present 
conducted in temporary premises at 
316, Regent - street, immediately 
opposite the Regent- street Poly- 
technic; but the Council has now 
set aside a permanent site for the 
school on land acquired under the 
new improvement scheme in' 
Southampton- row, and the erection 
of the new buildings is being carried 
out by the AVorks Committee of the 
Council. The school is under the 
general direction of Mr. W. R. 
Lethaby, Art adviser under the 



Council, and Mr. C. W. Beckett is 
the curator. 

The success of the L.C.C. Central 
School led to the establishment of 
the Camberwell School of Arts 
and Crafts in Peckham-road, in a 
building which was erected through 
the munificence of Mr. Passmore 
Edwards, and presented by him to 
the Camberwell Borough Council. 
At the request of the Borough 
Council, the late Technical Educa- 
tion Board took over the manage- 
ment of the school, and it is 
at present administered with the 
aid of an Advisory Sub - Com- 
mittee. Special trade-classes have 
been established for masons, plas- 
terers, house-painters and decora- 
tors, and cabinet-makers. Classes 
are held in general drawing and 
design, in art needlework, in 
lettering, and in bookbinding. In 
order to meet the increasing 
demands for admission to the 
school, and for the development of 
the instruction, the school is being 
extended by the erection of a new 
wing. The Borough Council of 
Camberwell is co-operating in the 
scheme. The completion of the new 
building has enabled a considerable 
extension to take place in the school 
work. The school is under the direc. 
tion of the headmaster, Mr. W. B. 
Dalton, and Mr. C. H. Johnson is 
the secretary. 

(6) Art Schools Associated 
with Polytechnics. 

Ten of the -Polytechnics have 
Art Schools where special attention 
is^given to the technical side of Art. 
: At the Art School at the Battersea 
| Polytechnic Art Needlework has 
been highly developed, and a 
special feature has been made of 
sgraffitto work; and in all the 
Polytechnic Institutes an endeavour 
is made to associate the Art teach- 
ing with the practical requirements 
of the workers in different industries. 



London County Council. 



77 



(c) Art Schools Transferred 
to the Council. 

A policy has been consistently- 
followed under which schools of art, 
which have hitherto been carried on 
by separate governing bodies, have 
been encouraged to transfer them- 
selves to the County Council. In 
accordance with this policy four 
Schools of Art have been trans- 
ferred to the Council, viz., the 
Clapham School of Art, Vernon- 
road, High-street, Clapham; the 
Hammersmith School of Art, 
Dunsany-road. Brook-green ; the 
Putney School of Art, Oxford-road, 
Putney ; and the Camden School o£ 
Art, Dalmeny-avenue, Camden- 
road. The Westminster School of 
Art, has been incorporated in the 
L CO. Westminster Technical In- 
stitute, (new buildings for which 
are in course of erection), and the 
North London and Borough of 
Hackney School of Art has been 
incorporated in the Hackney In- 
stitute, which is about to be trans- 
ferred to the Council. 

(d) Other Technical Art 
Schools. 

Besides the above schools, there 
are in London eleven Schools of Art 
which are directly aided by the 
Council. These schools provide 
both day and evening instruction 
in Art. They include : — 

Blackheath, Lee, and Lewisham 
School of Art, Lee-road, Black- 
heath. 

Clapton and Stamford Hill School 
of Art, 81, Clapton-common. 

Lambeth School of Art, Millers- 
Jane, Upper Kennington-lane. 

St. Martin's School of Art, 
Castle-street, Endell-street, Long 
Acre. 

The Royal Female School of Art, 
Queen's-square, Bloomsbury. 



Among other Schools of Art, 
which, however, are unaided by the 
Council may be mentioned : — 

Royal Academy School of Art, 
Burlington-gardens. 

Royal College of Art, South 
Kensington. 

Slade School of Art, University 
College, Gower-street. 

South London Technical Art 
School of the City and Guilds of 
London Institute, 122, Kennington 
Park-road. 

The Art Department of the Fins- 
bury Technical College of the City 
and Guilds of London Institute, 
Leonard-street, Finsbury. 

UNIVERSITY EDUCATION. 

The development of Higher Edu- 
cation in London has received con- 
siderable stimulus through the 
creation of the new University of 
London under the provisions of the 
University of London Act, 1898. 
The new University has established 
separate faculties for (a) engineer- 
ing, and (6) economics and politi- 
cal science (including Commerce 
and industry). The late Board 
voted £2,500 a year for the mainte- 
nance of each of these faculties, 
as well as a sum of £2,500 a year 
towards the faculty of science and 
the same sum towards the faculty 
of arts, and for the present these 

f*ants are continued by the Council, 
hese grants have been allocated 
by the Senate of London University 
in accordance with a scheme ap- 
proved by the Board towards the 
provision of increased facilities for 
advanced instruction in science, 
engineering, economics, and 
German. x 

In addition to the above grants to 
the Senate of London University, 
the Council also makes grants to 
University College, King's College, 
Bedford College, and the London 

D 



78 



London County Council. 



School of Economics, requiring in 
return the provision of a certain 
number of free places for nominees 
of the Council. Grants are also 
made to individual students. The 
following: are a few particulars with 
regard to these institutions : — 

(a) University College, Gower 
Street, W.C. 
This College supplies University 
instruction in Arts, law, science, 
and medicine, and is provided with 
exceedingly well-equipped labora- 
tories for mechanical and electrical 
engineering. A scheme is under 
consideration for the complete 
incorporation of this college in the 
University of London. 

(b) King's College, Strand, 

W.C. 
Among the more technical de- 
partments of this College may be 
mentioned mechanical engineering, 
electrical engineering, architec- 
ture, and sanitary science. The 
women's department of King's 
College is situated in Kensington- 
square, and is attended by several 
of the Council's scholars. 

(c) Bedford College, York 

Place, W. 

This College, which is open to 
women only, possesses laboratories 
for chemistry, physics, and 
* biology, and, in addition to pro- 
viding efficient courses of instruc- 
tion of University character in 
these subjects and in language 
and literature, conducts a special 
course of training in sanitary 
science. It also possesses a training 
department for secondary teachers. 

(d) London School of Econo- 
mics and Political Science, 
Clare Market, W.C. 

This institution was established 
in Adelphi-terrace in 1895, and 



now occupies a building in Clare 
Market, which was erected mainly 
through the munificence of Mr. 
Passmore Edwards. The school 
already occupies a position of 
great importance as the chief 
centre in London for advanced 
instruction in economics, statistics, 
social and political science, palaeo- 
graphy, and the history of trade 
and commerce. A considerable 
amount of research work is done by 
the students, and the institution 
possesses an extensive library. In- 
struction is carried on mainly by 
special classes arranged in courses 
of two or three years' duration. 
These classes are supplemented by 
numerous courses of lectures by 
experts. Complete courses have 
recently been organised in prepara- 
tion for the new University degree 
in economics and political science 
(including commerce and industry). 

London's " Charlottenburg " 
Scheme. 

In July, 1903, the County Coun- 
cil considered the handsome offer 
made through Lord Rosebery for 
the establishment of further pro- 
vision here for advanced techno- 
logical teaching and research. The 
Council then recorded its opinion 
that a sum of £20,000 per annum 
from the " whiskey " money would 
be well spent towards this object. 

Since that date the work of initia- 
ting a scheme has progressed 
steadily, and bids fair to develop into 
an imperial college of technology. 
The final report of the Depart- 
mental Committee has been issued, 
and the President of the Board of 
Education has announced his in- 
tention of proceeding with the 
steps for a Royal Charter . to 
establish such an institution. The 
whole scheme is estimated to cost 
£1,000,000. 

The principal higher institau 



London County Council. 



79 



tions not aided by the Council 
are: — 

(a) The Central Technical 
College. 

The Central Technical College of 
the City and Guilds of London 
Institute, in Exhibition-road, South 
Kensington, may be termed the 
University College for Technical 
Instruction, and provides a very 
complete course of study in mecha- 
nical and electrical engineering, 
chemistry, physics, and applied 
mechanics. 

(6) The Royal College op 

Science. 
The Royal College of Science pro- 
vides a very advanced course of 
instruction for its regular day 
students in chemistry, physics, 
mechanics, geology, biology, metal- 
lurgy, and other subjects, and 
special courses for science teachers. 



(c) Westfield College, 
Hampstead. 



West 



This institution is almost entirely 
a residential college, and devotes 
rtpelf to preparing women students 
fax the degrees of London Univer- 
sity. 

All the above institutions have 
been recognised by the Senate of 
. London University as " schools of 
the University," their students 
being "internal" students of the 
University. 

TRAINING OP TEACHERS. 

The powers now possessed by the 
Council as the Education Authority 
have inspired the Education Com- 
mittee with activity in the direc- 
tion of supplying adequate accom- 
modation for the training of ele- 
mentary teachers within the county. 
It has been computed that the 
Council requires yearly over 1,200 
certificated trained teachers for the 
public elementary schools. 

The Council has already estab- 



lished or assisted to establish the 
following colleges :— 

(a) The London Day Training 
College, which makes provision for 
students who are qualified to study 
for the degree of tne University of 
London, while at the same time 
preparing for their teachers' cer- 
tificate. The college is at present 
carried on in temporary premises, 
but will be transferred in Sep- 
tember, 1907, to a permanent build- 
ing in Southampton-row, where 
accommodation will be available 
for 300 students (men and women). 
In 1905, 20 students from the Lon- 
don Day Training College have 
taken their degrees at the Univer- 
sity of London in Arts and Sc enca, 
and 36 have, since 1904, taken the 
diploma of the University in the 
theory and practice of .teaching. 
This year 62 students have entered 
for degrees and 12 for diplomas. 

(b) The Goldsmiths' Training 
College at New Cross, which is con- 
ducted by a delegacy appointed by 
the University of London. The 
college provides accommodation for 
500 students (men and women) ; 
186 places are reserved for nominees 
of the London County Council, the 
other places being allocated to 
students nominated by adjoining 
County Councils. 

(c) The Graystoke - place Day 
Training College for Women, with 
accommodation for 140 women 
students. This college has been 
developed out of the training classes 
established by the School Board of 
London to provide half-time in- 
struction for students who were 
unable to go to college. 

(d) The Avery Hill Residential 
and Day Training College, with 
accommodation for 290 woman 
students. This college has been 
established in the mansion which 
stands in Avery Hill Park, and was 

D 2 



80 



London County Council. 



formeily the property of the late 
Colonel North. 

(e) In addition to these colleges, 
the Council has recently opened a 
college for two-year students in the 
buildings of the Finsbury pupil 
teacher centre, 215 students having 
been admitted in October, 1906. 

The Council is also contemplating 
the erection of colleges in the North- 
east, North-west and South-west of 
London. When these three new 
colleges are established, it is anti- 
cipated that the Council's scheme 
for the provision of training college 
accommodation will be complete. 

In addition to providing training 
for intending teachers, the Council 
has also organised 118 courses for 
teachers who are already working 
in the schools. Twenty-three of 
these courses have been established 
in connection with the schools of 
the University, and are intended to 
afford to teachers an opportunity of 
coming into contact witn professors 
and lecturers who have made a spe- 
ciality of a certain subject, and are 
atJfe to present it to students in its 
wider aspects. Their object is to 
stimulate the minds of the teachers, 
and to encourage them to think and 
study for themselves, rather than 
to prepare them for any definite 
examination. 

SECONDARY EDUCATION. 

It has often been stated that one 
of the principal weaknesses in the 
educational system of this country 
has been the inadequate supply of 
secondary schools. The great public 
schools for boys and the high 
schools for girls have provided for 
the needs of those who can afford 
to pay fairly high fees, but there 
has Been no national system of 
secondary education adequate to 
meet the needs of all classes of the 
population. The Royal Commission 
on Secondary Education in 1895 
called public attention to this need, 



and advocated the establishment of 
local authorities which would be 
empowered to provide secondary 
education. It was not, however, 
until the passing of the Acts oi 
1902 and 1903 that such authorities 
were created. 

It was not rjossible for the Coun- 
cil, when it nrst entered upon its 
new responsibilities, to make an 
exhaustive survey of the whole field 
of secondary education in London 
and draw up a complete scheme for 
providing for the needs of each dis- 
trict. It was thought advisable in 
the first instance to deal with the 
question by means of scholarships, 
and the Council, in February, 1905, 
adopted a comprehensive scheme, 
which was an expansion of a smaller 
scheme which the Council had 
originated in 1893, and had been in 
force since. Full particulars of this 
scheme are to be found in the later 
pages of this section. 

In order to find school places for 
the scholarship holders, the Council 
has made annual grants to 52 
secondary schools conducted under 
schemes of the Charity Commis- 
sioners, the fees of which vary from 
£25 to £2 8s. a year. During the 
year 1905-6, 3,498 Council scholars 
were in attendance at these schools. 
The total maintenance grant made 
to the schools by the Council last 
year was £62,850. Building and 
equipment grants amounting to 
£22,900 were also paid. There are 
also 36 other public secondary 
schools in London which do not 
receive financial assistance from 
the Council, but do receive its 
scholars. 

In spite of the assistance derived 
from the above schools, the Council 
has had to establish its own 
secondary sohools, of which it now 
has 12. In four cases schools have 
been handed over to the Council by 
the owners, viz., the L.C.C. Hackney 
Downs School for boys, which was 



London County Council. 



81 



formerly conducted by the Grocers' 
Company, the L.C.C. Paddington 
Technical Institute Day School for 
boys and girls, which was formerly 
carried on by a Committee of 
Managers in a separate building in 
Queens Park, the L.C.C. Manor 
Mount School for girls at Forest 
Hill, which was formerly carried on 
as a private school, and the L.C.C. 
Kingsland Secondary School for 
Girls, which was formerly carried 
on as one of the "Birkbeck" schools 
under a body of trustees. In four 
cases the Council has converted 
into secondary schools for girls 
pupil teacher centres which nad 
been established by the late au- 
thority, viz., the Marylebone, Peck- 
ham, Southwark, and Stockwell 
centres. In one case, viz., the 
L.C.C. Hackney Secondary School 
for girls at Cassland - road, the 
Council has established a secondary 
school in a building originally 
erected for the purposes of a nigher 
grade school, and nas incorporated 
in the school a large proportion of 
the girls who attended the higher 
grade school. In the three remain- 
ing cases, viz., the schools for girls 
at Eltham, Fulham, and Sydenham, 
the Council has opened new schools 
in premises which it has provided. 
The schools are carried on in 
accordance with the Board of Edu- 
cation's regulations for secondary 
schools. The school formerly known 
as the Grocers' School, where the 
freehold site and building was 
handed over by the company to the 
Council free of charge, is carried on 
in accordance with a scheme drawn 
up by the Board of Education, 
wnich recognises the Higher Edu- 
cation Sub-Committee of the Coun- 
cil's Education Committee as the 
Governors of the school. The re- 
maining schools are not regulated 
by any scheme, but the same sub- 
committee act as the governors, 
and the administration of the 



schools is similar to that ordinarily 
adopted in secondary schools of a 
public character. The appointment 
of the staff is in the hands of the 
Council, but the head master or 
head mistress enjoys the right of 
being consulted whenever appoint- 
ments are made. The fees fixed 
by the Council are usually £6 60. a 
year, but in special cases they are 
fixed at amounts above or below 
this figure. 

The total accommodation pro- 
vided by the 12 secondary schools 
enumerated above is reckoned at 
about 3,300. 

Steps are already being taken for 
the erection of a' secondary school 
for boys in Hoiloway, of secondary 
schools for girls in Chelsea, Dul- 
wich, and Bethnal Green, and of a 
permanent school in Fulham to 
take the place of the school at 
present located in temporary build- 
ings. In addition to these schools 
the Council has recently decided, in 
order to meet the requirements of 
the scholarship scheme, to take 
steps for the erection of 12 addi- 
tional schools, six for boys and six 
for girls, which will provide accom- 
modation for about 5,000 pupils. 
When all these projected schools 
have been erected, the Council will 
have under its control about 30 
secondary schools with accommoda- 
tion for about 10,000 pupils. To 
these must be added the 88 aided and 
non-aided schools, with an estimated 
accommodation of 25,000. The total 
public secondary school accommo- 
dation of London may therefore be 
taken as likely to amount, in the 
near future, to about 35,000 places. 
This will give an average of 77 per 
1,000 in the County of London, for 
whom secondary education in 
schools of a public character is 
provided. In 1895, when an enquiry 
was made by the Council into the 
provision of secondary education, it 
was found that only about 19,000, 



82 



London County Council. 



representing 1 47 per 1,000 of the 
population, were attending public 
secondary schools. The recent 
scheme of the Council, therefore, 
represents a great advance in 
secondary education, although it 
cannot be regarded as making 
really adequate provision for the 
needs of the metropolis. 

COMMERCIAL EDUCATION. 

The late Technical Education 
Board a few years ago made ex- 
haustive inquiries into the ques- 
tion of commercial education, and 
appointed a special sub-committee 
for the purpose. The report of the 
sub-committee, which was presented 
to the Council in March, 1899, 
advocated the extensive develop- 
ment of commercial departments in 
existing secondary schools and the 
correlation of the work of these 
schools with institutions of Uni- 
versity rank. The London School 
of Economics receives assistance 
from the Council with the special 
object of developing courses in con- 
nection with the new commercial 
degree of London University, and 
the Council has taken measures to 
secure the development of the 
teaching of foreign languages and 
other subjects useful for commercial 
training in some of the other insti- 
tutions and schools that receive its 
grants. One of the most important 
steps for the development of com- 
mercial education nas been the 
establishment of the Commercial 
Department of University College 
School, since removed from Gower- 
street to Hampstead. The Council 
sends twenty scholars to the school 
each year, and it is satisfactory to 
learn that the scholars who have 
been through the three years' 
course have acquitted themselves 
with credit in the intermediate ex- 
amination in Science (Economics) 
under the University of London. 



INSTRUCTION IN DOMESTIC 
ECONOMY. 

For the provision of instruction 
in domestic economy two separate 
courses have been adopted. To 
meet the requirements of young 
women and girls at work during 
the day the Council has appointea 
a staff of lecturers in the various 
branches of domestic economy, 
whose services are offered to any 
local committee willing to orga- 
nise a class and undertake the 
local arrangements. During the 
winter, courses of instruction have 
been given by these teachers in 
over 100 centres in various parts of 
London, the subjects of instruction 
including practical cookery, prac- 
tical dressmaking, practical laun- 
dry-work, domestic hygiene, sick 
nursing, and the care of infants. 
The more highly organised work in 
connection with domestic economy 
has consisted in the establishment of 
domestic economy schools, generally 
as branches of the Polytechnics. 
In these schools complete courses 
of practical instruction, extending 
over a year, are given to girls who 
have passed the seventh standard 
of a public elementary school, or 
have attained the age of fourteen, 
and the training includes all 
ordinary branches of housework. 
For the purposes of these schools 
kitchens, laundries, and dressmaking 
rooms have been fully equipped with 
all necessary appliances. There are 
now 14 of these schools at work. 

With the aid of the governing 
body of the Battersea Polytechnic, 
a training school for teachers of 
domestic economy has been esta- 
blished at that institution. The 
course of training extends over two 
years and three months. 

THE SCHOLARSHIP SCHEME. 

Since the Council became the 
local authority for all branches of 
education within the county of 



London County Council. 



83 



London, it has revised and enlarged 
its scheme of scholarships. 

All scholarships (excepting a few . 
formerly awarded by the late School 
Board) offered by the Council are 
confined to candidates resident 
in the administrative County of 
London. 

The scholarships may be divided 
into two classes : — 

. (1) The County Scholarships. 

(2) Technical, Industrial, and 
other Scholarships. 

1. The County Scholarships. 

The County Scholarships pro- 
vide a complete scheme under which 
a boy or girl may proceed by various 
stages from the public elementary 
school to the highest grades of 
education, whether at a university, 
technical college, or other institu- 
tion providing advanced training 
for a professional career. The 
scholarships consist of — 

(a) The Junior County Scholar- 
ships (with which may be asso- 
ciated the Probationer Scholar- 
ships). 

(6) The Intermediate County 
Scholarships. 

(r) The Senior County Scholar- 
ships and Exhibitions. 

(a) The Junior County Scholarships 
and the Probationer Scholar- 
ships. 

The Junior County Scholarships 
are open to all boys and girls resident 
in London who are in attendance 
at public elementary schools, pro- 
vided that they are not less than 11 
and not more than 12 years of 
age on 31st July in the year when 
the competition is held, and that 
they have reached a standard of 
proficiency which will entitle them 
to nomination. 

The regulations of the Council 
provide that every head master and 
head mistress of a public elemen- 



tary school (whether L.C.C. school 
or non- provided school) which con- 
tains children eligible to compete 
for scholarships, must nominate 
all candidates of the prescribed age 
who are working in the sixth or 
higher standards in the case of 
boys, and in the fifth or higher 
standards in the case of girls, and 
may further nominate any candi- 
dates of the prescribed age whom 
they may consider likely to attain 
to scholarship standard. 

The Junior County Scholarships 
are also open to London boys an.d 
girls of the prescribed age who are 
not in attendance at public ele- 
mentary schools, provided that the 
incomes of the parents do not exceed 
£160 a year. 

Associated with the Junior County 
Scholarships are the Probationer 
Scholarships, which are open to 
boys and girls who are not less than 
14 and not more than 16 years of 
age on 31st July in the year of 
the competition. They are con- 
fined to candidates who promise 
to become pupil teachers. Pro- 
bationer scholars are required 
to qualify for admission as pupil 
teachers before the termination of 
their scholarships. 

The Council nas undertaken to 
award Junior County Scholar- 
ships to all candidates who reach 
scholarship standard. The num- 
ber awarded in 1906 was 2,000. 
Approximately two-thirds of the 
scholarships are awarded to girls. 
The numt>er of the Probationer 
Scholarships to be awarded is fixed 
at 1,200 each year; they are open 
to candidates without restriction 
as to income or previous schooling. 

The scholarships offer free educa- 
tion at approved secondary schools, 
the junior scholarships for a period 
of 6.ve years, and the probationer 
scholarships for a period of two 
years. The junior scholarships are 
renewable after the first three years 



84 



London County Council. 



if the scholar is satisfactory alike in 
conduct and attainments. In all 
cases the continuance of the scholar- 
ships is subject to satisfactory re- 
ports being received from the schools 
at which scholars are in attendance. 

The following 1 maintenance grants 
are provided for junior county 
scholars in addition to free educa- 
tion : — 

First3yrs. Last2yrs. 
For candidates whose (11-14) (14-16) 

parents' incomes do 

not exceed £160 a 

year £6 a year. £15 a year. 

For candidates whose 

parents' incomes ex- 
exceed £160 a year, 

but do not exceed 

£300 Nil. £10 a year. 

Those junior county scholars, 
whose parents' incomes exceed £300 
a year do not receive any mainte- 
nance grant. 

The same maintenance grants are 
paid to boys and girls. 

Not less than two-thirds of the 
total number of Junior County 
Scholarships are reserved for those 
candidates whose parents* incomes 
do not exceed £160 a year. 

The Probationer Scholarships 
carry with them a maintenance 
grant of £15 a year both for boys 
and girls during the two years of 
tenure, whatever the incomes of 
the parents, who must, however, 
be resident within the administra* 
tive county of London. 

(b) The Intermediate County 
Scholarships. 

The intermediate county scholar- 
ships are open to boys and girls who 
are not less than 15 years of age 
and not more than 17 years of age 
on 31st July in the year of the 
competition, provided that their 
parents are in receipt of incomes not 
exceeding £400 a year. 

(Note. — The Council reserves the 
riffht to award one-half of the 
scholarships to candidates whose 



parents' incomes do not exceed £250 
a year.) 

The Council at present offers 
100 scholarships for competition 
each year. 

There is no restriction as to the 
nature of the school at which can- 
didates have been in attendance. 

The scholarships are, as a rule, 
tenable until the end of the school 
year in which the scholar attains 
the age of 18, but may be renewed 
for a further year, under certain 
conditions, in the case of scholars 
who are competing for open scholar- 
ships at the universities. 

The scholarships provide free 
education at approved secondary 
schools or technical colleges. They 
also carry with them maintenance 
grants on the following scale ':— 

To scholars who are not less than 
15 and not more than 16 years of 
age on 31st July, £25 ; 16 and not 
more than 17, £30. The grant is 
increased to £35 a year for scholars 
who are not less than 17 and not 
more than 18 on the preceding 
31st July. In the event of the 
scholarship being renewed for a 
further year, the maintenance grant 
is continued at £35 for the addi- 
tional year. 

The scholarships are awarded on 
the results of a competitive exami- 
nation conducted each summer by 
the Council. 

(C) Tlie Senior County Scholar- 
ships and Exhibitions. 

The senior county scholarships 
and exhibitions are intended to 
assist candidates to proceed to uni- 
versities, university colleges, or tech- 
nical colleges and institutions of 
university rank. Candidates must, 
as a rule, be not more than 22 years 
of age on 31st July in the year of 
the competition. The scholarships 
and exhibitions are confined to 
candidates whose parents' incomes 
do not exceed £400 a year. The 



London County Council . 



85 



scholarships may be held in con- 
junction with, other scholarships or 
exhibitions. 

The Council awards annually not 
more than 50 senior county scholar- 
ships and exhibitions. The scholar- 
ships and exhibitions vary in amount 
according to the needs and qualifi- 
cations of the candidates, the maxi- 
mum amount provided by a scholar- 
ship being a maintenance grant of 
£60 a year, together with a grant of 
£30 a year towards the payment of 
fees and other expenses incidental 
to the scholar's course of study, 

The scholarships are tenable 
in the ordinary course for three 
years. 

The scholarships and exhibitions 
are not awarded on the results of a 
competitive examination, although 
the Council reserves to itself tne 
right to hold an examination, if it 
think fit. The awards are made to 
candidates who are selected by the 
Council as being the most deserving 
of scholarships, regard being had 
to their past achievements, their 
financial requirements, and the re- 
commendations of the teachers 
under whom they have worked. 

II.— Technical, Industrial, and 
other Scholarships. 

In addition to the scholarships 
which are included in the " County 
Scholarship" scheme, the Council 
awards annually a number of other 
scholarships and exhibitions which 
are intended to encourage students 
to devote themselves to special 
branches of technical or industrial 
work. All these are confined to 
candidates who reside within the 
administrative county of London, 
and in all cases certain restrictions 
are laid down with regard to the 
incomes of the parents. The follow- 
ing is a brief summary of these 
scholarships and exhibitions: — 

(a) 60 Art Scholarships, 20 of the 
value of £20 a year, and 40 of the 



value of £10 a year, tenable for two, 
or in some cases three years, for 
students and young artisans who 
intend to study art at some ap- 
proved technical institute or school 
of art, special regard being paid to 
the application of arb to industrial 
processes ; 

(b) 100 Evening Art Exhibitions, 
of the value of £5 a year, tenable 
for two years, for students and 
young artisans who desire to attend 
courses of art study in the evening ; 

(c) 250 Evening Exhibitions in 
Science and Technology of the value 
of £5 a year, tenable for two years, 
for students and artisans who desire 
to attend scientific, industrial, or 
technical courses at polytechnics 
and technical institutes ; 

(d) 25 Technical Day Scholarships 
for boys, tenable at the Shoreditch 
Technical Institute Day School, 
providing free education and main- 
tenance grants, varying from £10 
a year to £20 a year, the scholarships 
being intended for boys who desire 
to enter the cabinet-making, furni- 
ture, or other woodwork industry ; 

(e) 7 Junior Scholarships in 
Practical Gardening for boys, pro- 
viding free education for three years 
at the Royal Botanic Society's 
School of Practical Gardening in 
Re^ent's-park, together with a 
maintenance grant of £20 a year, 
intended for ooys who desire to 
become gardeners ; 

(/) 1 Swanley Horticultural 
Scholarship, giving free board and 
tuition (equivalent to £60 a year) 
for two years at the Swanley Horti- 
cultural College, open to young 
women between the ages of 16 and 
20. 

(a) 450 Domestic Economy 
Scholarships for girls, providing 
free education for one year at the 
schools of domestic economy at- 
tached to polytechnics and other 
institutes, together with a main- 
tenance grant of £3 a year. 



London County Council. 



(h) 9 Domestic Economy Train- 
ing Scholarships, providing a free 
course of training in domestic 
economy for two years and a term, 
at the training schools attached to 
polytechnics, open to young women 
between the ages of 18 and 30. 

(t) About 50 cookery scholarships 
for domestic servants, providing 
free instruction for 12 weeks at the 
National Training School of Cook- 
ery in Buckingham Palace-road, 
together with a payment of £5 
towards travelling and incidental 
expenses. 

(k) 26 scholarships for blind, 
deaf, and crippled children, pro- 
viding free education and training 
at some approved institution for a 
period . not exceeding four years, 
together with a maintenance grant 
not exceeding £20 a year, or in the 
case of residential institutions £30 
a year. 

(0 80 industrial scholarships for 
girls, tenable for two years at 
various polytechnics and technical 
institutes, intended to provide in- 
dustrial training for girls between 
14 and 16 years of age. Free 
tuition and maintenance grant of 
£8 to £12. 

(m) 12 Midwifery Scholarships, 



tenable for six months, open to 
women between 24 and 40. Value, 
£25. 

(n) 60 Silversmiths' Bursaries to 
enable apprentices to attend Satur- 
day morning classes at the Central 
School of Arts and Crafts. Free 
tuition and 8d an hour. 
- (o) 6 prizes for drawings of 
architectural or museum studies. 
Yalue £5, £10, and £15. 

(p) 60 grants for Foreign Holiday 
Courses to enable teachers of 
foreign languages in London schools 
to attend such courses during the 
summer vacation. Value £10. 

In addition to the above scholar- 
ships, the Council has at its dis- 
posal some 40 scholarships formerly 
awarded by the late School Board, 
upwards of 20 of which are tenable 
at Christ's Hospital and give free 
education, board and lodging at 
that school (estimated at the value 
of £70 per annum), whilst the 
other scholarships are of values 
varying from £15 to £30 per -annum 
for periods of two, three, or four 
years. Candidates for these scholar- 
ships must have attended public 
elementary schools in London for 
periods varying", according to each 
particular scholarship, from three to 
four years. 



LIST OF MEMBERS OF THE EDUCATION COMMITTEE (1907). 

Chairman— Mr. J. T. Taylor, i.s.o. 

Vice-Chairman— Dr. E. B. Forman. 

Chairman of the Council— Mr. H. P. Harris, j.p. 

Vice-Chairman of the Council— Mr. Stuart Sankey. 

Deputy-Chairman of the Council -Captain Fitzroy Hemphill. 



I.— Members of the Council. 



Electoral Division. 

Bermondsey 
East Islington 



Name. 

Allen, A. A.,m.p. 
Barlow, C. A. M., ll.d. 
Beaton, Dr. R. M. .. 

Bentinck, Lord H., d.l., West Marylebone. . 

j.p. 
Clarke, H.. J West Islington .. 



Address. 



47, Onslow-square, South Kensington, S.W. 

6, New-court, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 

9, Dartmouth Park-avenue, Kentish Town, 

N.W. 
53, Grosvenor-stroet, W. 

356, Camden-road, N. 



London County Council. 



87 



Name. 


Electoral Division. 


Cobb, C. S 

Collins, Edward 
Cornwall, Sir Edwin, 


Fulham 

Hammersmith 
North-east Bettanal- 


M.P. 

Coumbe, E. H 

Dew, George 

Forman, E. Baxter, j.p. 
Gautrey, Thomas 
Goldsmith, Frank 
Gooch, H. C, j.p. 

Gray, Ernest 

Guinness, The Hon. R. 
Headlam, Rev. S. D. ... 


green. 

Mile End 

South Islington ... 
South Kensington... 

Peckham 

South St. Pancras... 

Dulwich 

Hoxton 

Haggerston 

South-west Bethnal- 


Hoare, S. J. G., j.p. ... 

Jackson, Cyril 

Jay, E. A.H 

Key, W. H 

Kinloch - Cooke, Sir 

Clement 
Lancaster, Sir W. J. ... 
Lidgett, Rev. J. Scott ... 


jjreen. 

Brixton 

Limehouse 

Woolwich 

North Hackney ... 
Clapham 

Wandsworth 
Alderman till 1910 


Lygon, Hon. H. 

Mullins. W. E 

Rowe, H. V 


Holborn 

Alderman till 1910 
Bow and Bromley... 


Russell, Arthur B. 

Sanders, W. S 

Shepheard, A. J. 
Skinner, Major C. 
Sturge, C. Y 


Central Finsbury ... 
Alderman till 1910 
Alderman till 1910 
North Kensington... 
Westminster 


Taylor, J. T 

Webb, Sidney 

Welby.Lt.-Col.A.C.E. 


Hampstead 

Deptrord 

East Finsbury ... 



Address. 

5, Cornwall-terrace, Regent's-park, N.W. 
47, Uxbridge-road, Ealing, WT 
3, Whitehall-court, S.W. 

36, Clissold-road, Stoke Newington, N. 

264, Milkwood-road, Herne-hill, S.E. 

11, Bramham-gardens, S. Kensington, S.W. 

9, Fleet-street, E.C. 

14, South-street, Park-lane, W. 

17, Oxford-square, Edgware-road, W. 
99, Grosvenor-road, S.W. 

11, St. James'-square, Pall Mall. 

" Wavertree," St. Peter's-rd., St. Margarets. 

South Hertford-street, Mayfair, W. 

" Ballard Shaw," Limpsfleld, Surrey. 

Tower House, Woolwich. 

301, Seven Sisters-road, Finsbury -park, N. 

3, Mount-street, Grosvenor-square, w. 

South Lynn, 49, Putney-hill, S.W. 
Bermondsey Settlement, Farncombe-street, 

Bermondsey, S.E. 
41, Eaton-square, S.W. 

18, Lyndhurst -gardens, N.W. 

14, Sumner-place, Onslow-square, South 
Kensington, S.W. 

17, Rosslyn Hill, Hampstead, N.W. 

18, Brynmaer-road, Battersea, S.W. 

9, Rosslyn-gardens, Hampstead, N.W. 
57, Eccleston-square, S.W. 
11, St. Augustine's - mansions, Vincent- 
square, S.W. 

19, Woodchurch-road, Hampstead, N.W. 
41, Grosvenor-road, S.W. 

26, Sloane-court East, S.E. 



II.— Lady Members. 



Name. 
Adler, Miss Nettie 
Bryant, Mrs. Sophie, d.sc. 

Frere, Miss M 

Lawrence, Miss Susan ... 
Phipps, Mrs. Wilton ... 



Address. 
6, Craven-hill, Hyde-park, W. 
6, Eldon-road, Hampstead, N.W. 
8, Sussex-place, Hyde-park, W. 
44, Westbourne-terrace, W. 
3, Culford-gardens, Chelsea, S.W. 



CHIEF OFFICERS OF EDUCATION COMMITTEE. 



Clerk of the Council 

Educational Adviser 

Assistant to „ 

Executive Officer 

Assistant to Executive Officer ... 

Chief Inspector 

Chief Clerk 

Clerk to the Education Committee 



G. L. Gomme 


£2,000 


Dr. W. Garnett 


1,500 


Dr. F. Rose 


700 


R. Blair, m.a 


1,250 


B. M. Allen, m.a 


700 


Dr. Kimmins 


800 


H.J. Mordaunt, m.a. 


800 


M. H. Cox, LL.B 


500 



86 



London County Council. 



METROPOLITAN CONSOLIDATED STOCK. 

Three and a half per cent. Stock. 

Redeemable 6th October, 1929. 

Dividends payable 5th January, April, July, and October. 

Sum raised. 



Date of Issue. 


Average price per 
£100 of Stock. 


■ Amount of Stock. 


1869, Nov. 


£94 14 10 


£2,638,673 4 


1871, Aug. 


96 6 6 


934,304 19 10 


1873, March 


95 11 10 


1,883,033 14 4 


1874, Feb. 


94 10 


2,600,000 


1876, May 


100 2 2 


1,350,000 


1877, May 


100 3 2 


1,250,000 


1878, April 

1879, May 


100 17 7 


2,500,000 


101 9 3 


2,150,000 


1880, April 


102 2 7 

* 


1,750,000 




£17,056,011 14 6 



£2,500,000 

900,000 

1,800,000 

2,457,000 

1,351,483 8 

1,251,989 6 

2,521,952 7 

2,181,451 1 6 

1,787,282 16 0^ 

£16,751,158 13 - <T 



* Of this amount £94,374 0s. 7d. has been purchased and cancelled. 

Three per cent. Stock. 

Redeemable 1st February, 1941. 

Dividends payable 1st February, May, August, and November. 



Date of Issue. 


Average price per 
£100 of Stock. 


Amount of Stock. 


Sum raised. 


1831, March 

1882, July . 

1883, July 

1884, May 

1885, May 

1886, May 
18S7, Nov. 


£94 19 4 
97 2 7 
95 16 7 

100 9 
97 13 11 
99 12 2 

100 6 4 


£2,450,000 
1,650,000 
1,250,000 
1,900,000 
1,750,000 
1,250,000 
600,000 

£10,850,000 


£2;326,688 16 6 
1,602,654 4 6 
1,197,892 10 6 
1,908,535 19 6 
1,709,713 9 
1,245,146 18 6 
601,909 10 




£10,592,541 8 6 



TWO AND A HALF PER CENT. STOCK. 

Redeemable on Council giving one year's notice after 30 years from 

date of issue, or on 1st September, 1949. 

Dividends payable 1st March, June, September, and December. 



Daw of Issue. 



1889, Nov. 

1892, May 

1893, July 

1894, May 

1895, July 

1896, June 



Average price per 
£100 of Stock. 



Amount of Stock. 



Sum raised. 



£91 12 

89 3 5 

90 1 1 
94 18 4 

102 7 5 

104 9 7 



£1,000,000 


' £916,015 4 





1,200,000 


I 1,070,076 13 


6 


1,500,000 


; 1,350,859 





2,000,000 


i 1,898,336 14 


3 


1,000,000 


1,023,711 12 


6 


1,000,000 ' 


1,044,795 13 






... £7,700,000 | £7,303,794 17 3 



London County Council. 



LONDON COUNTY CONSOLIDATED STOCK. 

Redeemable at the option of the Council at par at any time after 

19th March, 1920, on a years notice being given. 
Dividends payable 1st March, June, September, and December. 

TWO AND A HALF PER CENT. STOCK. 



Date of Issue. 


Average price per 
£100 of Stock. 


Amount of Stock. 


Sum raised. 


1897, July 

1898, July 

1899, July 


£100 9 8 
95 14 5 
92 4 10 


£2,500,000 
2,000,000 
1,750,000 


£2,512,145 6 9 
1,914,395 12 2 
1,614,276 19 11 




£6,250,000 


£6,040,817 18 10 



Three per cent. Stock. 
Issued at a fixed price. 



Date of Issue. 


Fixed price per 
£100 of Stock. 


Amount of Stock. 


Sum raised. 


1900, June 

1901, May 

1902, Jan. 

1903, April 

1904, April 


£97 10 
98 
98 10 
95 10 
90 


£5,000,000 

2,000,000 

• 3,000,000 

5,000,000 

5,000,000 


£4,875,000 

• 1,960,000 

2,955,000 

4,775,000 

4,500,000 




£20,000,000 


£19,065,000 



Three per cent. Stock. 
Issued by tender. 



Date of Issue. 


Average price of 
Stock. 


Amount of Stock. 


Sum raised. 


1902, Nov. 
1905, March ... 
1905, Dec. 


£98 8 7 
97 10 9 
93 10 9 


£2,000,000 
2,500,000 
1,500,000 


£1,968,567 
2,438,472 
1,403,056 




£6,000,000 


£5,810,095 



Three and a half per cent. Stock. 
Issued at a fixed price. 




Date of Issue. 


Fixed price per 
£100 of Stock. 


Amount of Stock. 


Sum raised. 


1907, April ... 


£97 


£5,000,000 


— 



90 



London County Council. 



the county rate. 

Bates Levied by the County Council from 1889-90 to 1906-7. 
The rates made by the County Council have been as follows :— 



Year. 


For General 
County- 
Purposes. 


For Special 

County 
Purposes. 


Total 

Old County 

Services. 


Education. 


1889-90 

1890-91 

1891-92 


d. 
10*63 
11-125 

95 


d. 
1-90 
2*125 
225 


d. 
12*53 
13-25 
11-75 


d. 


Three years' average 


10-42 


209 


1251 


— 


1892-93 

1893-94 

1894-95 


101 
10*7 
11-65 


2-4 
23 
235 


12-50 
13*00 
14-00 


- 


Last three years' average 
Six years' average 


10S2 
1062 


235 
2'22 


13-17 
12-84 


— 


||| 


126 

12-7 

11-75 

12-35 

11-20 


2-4 
2-3 
2*25 


15-00 
15*00 
14*00 


- 


Last three years' average 
Nine years' average 


2-32 
2'24 


14-67 
1345 


— 


1898-99 

1899-1900 

1900-01 


11*6 

115 

12*25 

11-78 

11-25 


2-4 
2*0 
2.25 


14-00 
13-50 
14-50 


- 


Last three years' average 
Twelve years' average 


2-22 
225 


1400 
1350 
15-00 
15-50 
1675 


— 


1901-2 

1902-3 

1903-4 


12-375 
12875 
14-125 
13125 
1V7 


2-625 
2-625 
2*625 


- 


Last three years' average 
Fifteen yews' average 


2S25 
232 


1575 
1402 


— 


1904-5 

1905-6 

1906-7 


14-5 

14-00 

14-25 


3-25 
3-00 
2*75 


17*75 
17-00 
17*00 


16*0 
18*0 
19-0 


Last three years' averagt 
Eighteen years' average 


1425 
12-12 


300 
243 


17*25 
1455 


J7*7 ^, 



'* Special County Purposes " refer to those services which do not extend to the City. 

The following statement shows how the rates are distributed among* the 
services of the Council : — The Council Debt absorbs more than half, viz: 
8'46d. ; Main Drainage requires l'35d. ; Parks, 0'QSd. ; Fire Brigade, 
l'26d.; Lunacy, 0'71d.; Salaries and Wages, Office Charges, Elections, 
Parliamentary Expenses, and Miscellaneous, VS2d.; Judicial, including 
Coroners, 0'4Qd. ; Bridges, Woolwich Ferry, &c., Q'32rf. ; and other Services 
Bin iller amounts. 



London County Council. 



91 



THE RATES OF LONDON. 

The rates of London are, under the London Government Act, 1899, 
collected by the metropolitan borough councils as one rate, known as the 
general rate. But although there are no separate authorities for the 
parishes within the boroughs, and although nearly all the expenses are 
borne ratably throughout the borough, the borough councils are 
required to levy separate rates in each parish. It will be seen that in 
spite of the Metropolitan Common Poor Fund and the Equalisation Fund 
tnere is still a difference of 5«. in the rates, between 6s. Sd. in 
Paddington and Kensington, and lis. 8d. in Poplar. 

Total Rates Levied in every Parish in London during the 
Last Eight Years. 



Borough and Parish. 


1899- 
19G0 


19C0-1 


1901-2 


1902-8 


1908-4 




8. d. 8. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


«. d. 


BATTER8BA .... 


6 10 1 6 10 


7 6 


8 


7 9 


Bermondsby— 










Bermondsey .... 


7 9 | 8 5 


8 8 


9 4 


8 11 


Horselydown 
Rotherhithe .... 


7 4 j 7 3 


8 8 


8 5 


8 8 


8 8 8 94 
7 7J 1 8 6j 


8 8 


9 5 


9 3 


St. Olave and St. Thomas . 


8 3 


8 9 


8 9 


Average 


— 8 5 


8 7 


2 


8 Uk 


Bbthnal Green . 


7 1 


7 11 


7 10 


8 3 


7 11 


Cambbrwell .... 


7 


7 4 


7 6 


8 2 


8 1 


Chelsea . . . . . 


6 25 


6 65 


6 8 


7 


7 


Deptpord, St. Paul . 


6 1 


6 4 


6 8 


7 5 


7 2 


FlNSBURY— 












Charterhouse. 


5 3 


5 4 


7 8 


7 1 


7 8 


Clerkenwell .... 


6 1 


6 7 


7 1 


6 9 


6 9 


Glasshouse Yard . 


5 1 


6 6 


5 9 


7 1 


7 11 


St. Luke 


6 


6 4 


6 8 


6 7 


6 7 


St. Sepulchre 
Average 


7 2J 


7 2 


7 2 


7 1 


7 3 


— j 6 5 


6 1<* 


6 85 


9 


Fulham 


6 7 611 


7 4 


7 4 


7 4 


Greenwich— 










Charlton and 

Kidbrooke .... 


7 1 

5 10 


7 51 
6 4t 


6 9 


7 2 


7 3 


Doptford, St. Nicholas 


5 10 


5 10 


6 7 


7 6 


8 5 


Greenwich .... 


6 4 


5 9 


6 8 


7 6 


8 4 


Average 




65 


8 


7 5 


8 I 


Hackney .... 


6 8 


7 6 


7 4 


8 2 


7 2 


Hammersmith 


6 4 


6 9 


6 10 


6 11 


6 10 


Hampstead .... 


6 2 


6 3 


6 4 


6 10 


6 10 


Holborn— 












Furnival's Inn 


— 


— 


7 2 


7 95 


5 3 


Gray's Inn .... 


— 


— 


7 4 


8 4 


7 8 


Lincoln's Inn (Ville) . 

,, (added parts) 
Saffron-hill .... 


— 


— 


6 7 


9 3 


9 1 


— 


— 


7 1 


8 2 


8 5 


6 4 


6 9 


7 7i 

8 o{ 


7 75 


7 8 


St. Andrew and St. George. 


6 1 


6 1 


7 6 


7 4 


St. Giles and St. George . 


6 9 


7 


6 9 


7 65 


7 4 


Staple Inn .... 


— 


— 


7 6 


8 8 


7 11 


Average . 


— 


6 8 


7 3 


7 7 


7 5 


Islington .... 


6 


6 4i 


6 75 


7 25 


7 05 


KBN8INOTON .... 


5 95 


6 lj 


6 3 


6 4 


6 5 


Lambeth 


6 7 


6 8 


6 8 


7 1 


7 1 


LEWI8HAM-T 












Lee 


6 11 


7 2 


7 


7 4 


7 8 


Lewisham .... 


6 1 


6 6 


6 8 


7 


7 4 


Average 


— 


ft 75 


6 85 


7 05 


7 45 



8. d. 
8 2 



8 1 
8 15 

6 11 

7 6 

7 3 

6 8 

7 1 
6 11 
6 11 

6 95 

7 4 



6 9 



6 11 

6 11 

7 3 



7 7 
7 6 

7 « 



8. d. 
8 4 



9 3J 
" 2 



1908-7 



a. d. 
8 4 



7 9 

8 
8 3 
8 
7 11 
7 7 
7 2 



6 11 

6 11 

7 4 



7 6 
7 6 

7 « 



8 2 
8 11 
7 
7 5 

7 11 
7 1 



7 2 

7 10 

7 7 

7 6* 

8 
7 8 
7 2 



•7 10 



92 London 


County Council 










Borough and Parish. 


1899- 
1903. 


1900-1 


1901-2 


1902-3 


1908-4 


1904-5 


1905-6 


1906-7 




s. d. 


8. d. 


8. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


8. d. 


s. d. 


8. d. 


Paddington .... 


5 8 


5 11 


6 1 


6 6 


6 7 


6 8 


6 65 


6 8 


Poplar- 


















Bow 


8 10 


9 5 


9 1 


9 10 


9 8 


10 1 


12 


11 7 


Bromley .... 


8 6 


9 


9 2 


9 9 


9 8 


10 2 


12 


11 10 


Poplar . . 


8 9 


9 4J 


9 2 


9 9 


9 8 


10 1 


12 


11 7 


Average 


— 


9 3 


9 2 


9 9 


9 8 


10 1\ 


12 O 


11 8 


St. Marylebone . 


6 04 
6 0| 


6 7 


6 9 


6 95 


6 9 


6 11 


6 85 


7 05 


St. Pancras .... 


6 1 


6 7 


7 1 


7 


7 1 


7 1 


7 3 


Shoreditch .... 


6 5 


6 8 


7 3 


7 4 


7 8 


7 7 


8 1 


8 1 


SOUTHWARK— ' 


















Christchurch 


6 1 


6 2 


6 4 


8 6 


7 5 


7 6 


7 8 


7 10 


Newington .... 


6 4 


6 4 


6 4 


6 10 


6 10 


7 1 


7 6 


7 5 


St. George-the-Martyr. 


6 2 


6 4 


6 4 


8 


7 2 


7 2 


7 4 


7 6 


St. Saviour .... 


6 4 


6 2 


6 4 


7 11 


7 


7 


6 8 


6 10 


Average 


— 


6 3J 


6 4 


7 65 


7 


7 £5 


7 35 


7 4f 


Stepney— 


















Ald^ate 


6 2 


7 5 


7 6 


7 4 


7 10 


8 1 


8 1 


8 3 


Christchurch, Spitalflelds . 


6 5 


7 6 


7 2 


6 10 


7 8 


7 9 


8 1 


8 5 


Limehouse .... 


7 1 


8 


8 4 


7 11 


9 3 


8 11 


9 2 


9 4 


Mile End New Town . 


6 1 


6 1 


7 2 


7 1 


7 6 


7 2 


7 11 


8 


Mile End Old Town . 


6 7 


6 10 


7 7 


8 2 


' 8 4 


8 8 


9 6 


9 5 


Norton Folgate . 


6 3 


6 3 


7 4 


7 2 


7 7 


7 10 


8 4 


8 


Old Artillery Ground . 


5 9 


6 8 


7 3 


7 5 


8 2 


7 9 


7 9 


8 9 


Ratcliff 


6 7 


7 4 


8 


8 10 


9 8 


9 2 


9 2 


9 5 


St. George-in-the-East. 


6 3 


6 11 


8 


8 8 


9 2 


8 10 


9 3 


9 4 


Shadwell .... 


7 6 


7 11 


8 1 


8 7 


9 10 


8 11 


9 4 


9 6 


Wapping .... 


6 8 


7 3 


8 1 


8 5 


9 4 


8 5 


9 4 


9 7 


Whitechapel. 


6 


6 


7 5 


7 3 


7 8 


8 


8 3 


8 2 


Average 


— 


6 8 


7 85 


7 115 


8 6 


8 55 


8 8$ 


8 10* 


Stoke Newington. 


e o 


6 1 


6 4 


6 9 


6 8 


7 


7 3 


— 


Stoke Newington wards . 














— 


7 6 


South Hornsey ward . 
















7 3 


Wandsworth— 


















Clapham .... 


6 5 


6 9 


7 1 


7 2 


7 5 


7 1 


7 5 


1 


Putney 

Streatnam 


6 10 


7 li 


7 1 


7 1 


7 3 


7 2 


7 5 




6 2 


6 5 


7 2 


7 


7 6 


7 3 


7 5 


r 


Tooting Graveney 


6 3 


4 11 


6 11 


6 10 


6 8 


7 5 


7 5 


Wandsworth. 


6 85 


7 1 


7 35 


7 5 


7 4 


7 


7 5 


. 


Average 


— 


6 10 


7 2 


7 2 


7 45 


7 15 


7, 5 


J 


Westminster (City)— 


















Rolls 


6 


6 8 


6 IS 


6 8 


6 10 


6 10 


6 8 


7 1 


St. Anne .... 


5 7 


5 8 


5 11} 


6 1 


6 1 


6 6 


6 5 


6 7 


St. Clement Danes 


6 4 


6 7 


6 85 


7 9 


7 6 


6 5 


5 11 


6 8 


St. George, Hanover-square. 


5 8 


5 5J 


5 9 


6 7 


7 


6 10 


6 10 


6 8 


St. James .... 


5 4 


5 4 


5 83 


6 3 


6 7 


6 2 


6 6 


6 6 


St. Margaret and St. John . 


5 55 


5 6 


5 8§ 


6 5 


6 11 


6 6 


6 8 


6 9 


St. Martin-in-the-Fields . 


6 


6 1 


6 2a 


6 9 


6 8 


7 


6 8 


6 10 


St. Mary-le-Strand 


6 1 


6 11 


6 9§ 


8 5 


7 7 


6 9 


7 


6 


St. Paul, Covent-garden 


6 1 


6 65 


6 35 


6 11 


6 8 


6 10 


6 8 


6 7 


St. Peter .... 


5 6 


5 6 


5 51 


6 5 


7 6 


6 11 


6 8 


6 5 


Savoy 


5 6 


5 10 


6 05 


6 11 


6 7 


7 


7 4 


7 8 


Average 


— 


5 7J 


6 lo\ 


6 7 


6 265 


6 8 


6 #5 


6 85 


Woolwich— 


















Eltham ..... 


7 


7 2 


7 


7 


6 8 


7 6 


7 10 


8 


Plumstead .... 


6 2 


6 8 


6 8 


7 6 


7 6 


7 6 


7 6 


7 8 


Woolwich 


7 


7 6 


7 


8 2 


8 3 


8 3 


8 1 


8 4 


Average 




7 15 


6 105 


7 »5 


7 94 
6 35 


7 105 
6 65 


7 95 
6 95 


8 O 


City of London (average) . 


5 95 


6 C 


6 1 


6 5 


6 95 
7 6-47 


Average for County . . ) 


6 27 


6 5*8 


6 8*3 


7 1*6 


71*4 


7 2'6 


7 5 



Note.— The parishes on which compulsory church rates were levied in 1904-1905 are— 
Christchurch, Southwark, \d.\ Horselydown, Id. ; St. Mary-le-Strand, nil; SUOlave, I5d. ; 
St. Paul, Covent-garden, 5d. ; Shadwell, l|d. ; and Wapping, Id. 

In addition to these rates there are garden rates, estate rates, and other special 
rates levied in-certain parishes ; in some cases on parts of parishes, in others on whole 
parishes. 



London County Council. 



93 



COUNTY COUNCIL FINANCES. 

Total Receipts and Expenditure on Accounts Affecting the 
County Rate 1905-6. 



receipts. 

Cash Balance at beginning ol 
year 

Receipts in aid of expenditure— 

Exchequer Contribution 

Government Education Grants . 

Interest on loans advanced, on 
cash balances, &c. . 

Interest and repayment transfers 
from tramway and other re 
venue accounts .... 

Interest, &c, transfers from 
works account . 

Rents 

Sundry contributions, fees, 
fines, &c 

Transfer of Surplus on parks, 
boating 

Grant from Local Taxation Ac 
count under the Agricultural 
Rates Act, 18% . 

County contributions required to 
be raised— 

For General County purposes 
other than Education— equal 
to a rate of 14d. 

For Education equal to a rate of 
18d. ..... . 

For Special County purposes- 
equal to a rate or 3d. 

[Total rate, including educa- 
tion, 2s. lid.] 



1905-6. 

£877,824 

532,234 
1,390,547 

596,064 

328,069 

7,480 
129,331 

270,001 

2,500 

1,633 



2,429,426 

3.123,548 

456,752 



£•10,145,459 



EXPENDITURE. 

1. Debt- 
Redemption .... 
Dividends on Stock (less tax) 
Interest on sundry liabilities 
Income tax (including arrears) 
Management of stock, Ac. 

2. Grants— 

To Guardians for indoor paupers, 
To Guardians arid others out of 

the Exchequer contribution 
Registration of electors 
Mam roads (arrears) . 

3. Pensions (including Super- 
annuation and Provident Fund 
and prison and asylum pen 



4. Establishment Charges (other 
than those charged to particu 
lar services) 

5. Judicial Expenses . 

6. Services- 
Main Drainage 
Fire Brigade .... 
Parks and Open Spaces 
Bridges, Tunnel, and Ferry 
Embankments 
Pauper Lunatics . 

Coroners 

Weights and Measures 
Miscellaneous. 
Education- 
Elementary .... 
Higher 



Less Debt Charges included 
under Head 1, above . 



7. Parliamentary Expenses, In- 
quiries, Rating Appeals, Elec- 
tion of Counciflors, &c. . 

8. Deficiencies- 
Dwellings, Part III 

Estates in course of development 
Less Surplus on Dwellings, Part 



1905-6. 

£1,191,246 

1,901,825 

133,390 

53,226 

61,910 

330,064 

279,814 

13,195 

289 



61,215 



224,849 
46,023 

256,488 
227,333 
132,132 
41,833 
11,935 
102,575 
30,?61 
14,119 
116,790 

4,000,400 
655,062 

4,655,462 

745,229 

3,910,233 

38,236 

5,659 
8,444 



8,000 



Steamboats 

Total Expenditure . 
9. Cash Balance at end of year . 



6,103 
51,419 

9,241,502 
903,957 



£10,145,459 



94 Thames Steamboat Services. 

THAMES STEAMBOAT SERVICES. 
From the earliest times until within a comparatively recent period the 
river Thames was the chief highway of London. By the beginning of the 
19th century the river had lapsed into comparative disuse for this purpose, 
but a revival came about witn the establishment of steamboat services in 
1816 and subsequent years. For many years the services, which were run 
by individual or company enterprise, were successful and well patronised; 
but after 1878 they became unsatisfactory, spasmodic, and quite unworthy 
of the river and of the metropolis. There was talk from time to time 
of the establishment of a municipal service, and the first practical 
step in this direction was taken in 1894 when the London County 
Council instructed its Rivers Committee to consider the question 
of providing London with " an efficient steamboat service. The 
matter dragged on for ten years, in the course of which the Council 
promoted three Bills to obtain power to establish a municipal service 
The third was passed into law in 1904. By the middle of June : 
in the following year a service of 30 boats, which had been built to the 
Council's order, was inaugurated. Each boat has accommodation for 
500 passengers. The attainable speed is 13 miles an hour in still 
water, so as to enable the boats to maintain a speed of eight miles an 
hour against the current. The draught of the boats was limited to 2ft. lOin. 
by the shallowness of the river at low water above London Bridge. Under 
its Act the Council, in addition to providing the steamboats, acquired and 
improved a large number of piers, constructed new piers, and purchased 
and fitted up coal hulks. The capital expended upon the undertaking 
amounted to about £305,000. The revenue account for the year ended 
31st March, 1906, was as follows .— 

Revenue Account. 

The total receipts on revenue account for the 

period amounted to. 

And the working expenses amounted to 

Leaving a deficiency on working of 

The debt charges amounted to 

Interest on purchase money for piers acquired 
from companies 

Total deficit for 1905-6 37,483 8 12,612 8 1 50,095 16 1 

From the opening of the service in June, 1905, to the end of the 
financial year on 31st March, 1906, 3,683,792 passengers were carried. 
The scale on which the table of single fares was framed ranged from 
Id. for a distance not exceeding three miles to 5d. for any distance 
exceeding 11 miles. Return tickets were abolished after a short trial 
# except those available for return by the Council's tramcars. 

The financial result of the second year's operations was a loss of £43,400, 
The number of passengers carried during trie five months, May to Sep- 
tember, 1906, inclusive, was 3,357,655. 

In 1906 an arrangement was come to between the Council and the 
Thames Steamboats Company, whereby the former should confine its 
operations to that portion of the river between Chelsea and Greenwich, 
the company taking from Chelsea upwards. The arrangement was not 
renewed in 1907. 



Boats. 
£ s. d. 


Piers. 
£ s. d. 


Total. 
£ s. d. 


38,692 3 
62,794 11 3 


2,623 12 4 
9,671 11 7 


41,315 12 7 
72,466 2 10 


24,102 11 
13,380 17 


7,047 19 3 
4,076 18 6 


31,150 10 3 
17,457 15 6 


- 


1,487 10 4 


1,487 10 4 



Corporation of the City of London. 
CORPORATION OF THE CITY OF LONDON. 



95 



The City Corporation is unique 
among 1 the municipalities of the 
world, alike for its historical record, 
its exceptional powers, and its pre- 
sent constitution. The Court of 
Common Council is not, like the 
town and county councils, merely a 
deliberative body ; it is also a legis- 
lative assembly, and is able to re- 
model its own constitution. The 
jurisdiction of the Corporation ex- 
tends beyond the City boundaries, 
and for some things it is a Metro- 
politan Authority. It has always 
been a county in itself, and was not 
united to the Metropolis for any 
municipal purpose until 1855, when, 
with other London districts, it 
sent representatives to the Board of 
Works. The connection with what 
was formerly called Great London 
has been maintained, but the City 
has not been completely united to 
the new County of London, as in 
several matters the jurisdiction of 
the County Council stops at the 
City boundaries. For municipal 
purposes the City— which contains 
an area of 650 acres, with a resident 
night population of 37,705, a daily 
resident population of over 300,000, 
while over a million people enter 
and leave every 24 hours, and an 
electorate of 30,000— is divided into 
25 Wards and 112 Parishes. The 
old parochial units still remain, and 
every parish has its vestry clerk. 
The legal definition of the body 
generally described as the City Cor- 
poration is "The Mayor, Com- 
monalty, and Citizens of the City of 
London," which consists of the Lord 
Mayor, 25 Aldermen, and 206 Com- 
mon Councillors. The Common 
Council is in its constitution, and 
in principle, the most democratic 
assembly in the world, as the 
whole of the members are re-elected 
annually by the ratepayers, and the 
majority of its principal officials are 
re-appointed every year, 



• In close association with the 
municipal life of the City of London 
are the ancient and historic Trade 
Guilds or Mysteries. It is they, or 
their representatives, in fact, who 
nominate the Lord Mayor and elect 
the two Sheriffs and certain 
officials. From the beginning' of 
civic history in the City they have 
exercised a curious and a weighty 
influence upon the doings of the 
Corporation. No ordinary person 
can oecome a Liveryman. In order 
to attain that distinction, and to be 
placed upon the Register of Voters, 
it is necessary (1) to be a Freeman 
and Liveryman of a company, and 
a Freeman of the City of London 
twelve calendar months previous to 
the 15th July of any year ; and (2) 
to have resided within 25 miles of 
the City six calendar months prior 
to the same date. The Freedom of 
the City may be obtained by one 
of four methods. It may be 
secured by servitude, i.e., having 
been bound to a Freeman as 
apprentice; by patrimony — as the 
son or daughter of a Freeman ; by 
gift of the City (that is the 
Honorary Freedom) ; and by re- 
demption or purchase. 

Of the Livery Companies, twelve 
— called the Great Companies — 
take precedence of all others. The 
first is the Mercers' Company, 
whose records may be traced as far 
back as the reig/n of Henry II. One 
of its members is said to nave been 
the father of Thomas a Becket, and 
the first two Mayors of London 
certainly belonged to the organisa- 
tion. Its earliest known Charter 
was conferred by Richard II. Next 
in order of precedence comes the 
Grocers' Company, founded as the 
" Company of Pepperers, of Soper's* 
lane," whose ordinances for Govern- 
ment existed as early as 1315. Of 
the other "great companies," the 
most notable are perhaps those of 



96 



Corporation of the City of London. 



the Drapers', whose beginnings are 
lost in antiquity ; the Fishmongers', 
the Goldsmiths', and the Skinners'. 
Then there are those of the Mer- 
chant Taylors', the Haberdashers', 
the Salters', the Ironmongers', the 
Yintners', and the Clothworkers*. 
The minor companies are 67 in 
number, and include such varied 
interests as those of Armourers' and 
Braziers', Barbers', Bowyers', 
Broderers', Cooks', Cordwainers', 
Fan Makers', Glass Sellers', Hor- 
ners', Makers of Playing Cards', 
Parish Clerks', Paviors', Tallow 
Chandlers', Upholders', Wheel- 
wrights', and Woolmen. 

The City as a County. 
As a County the City extends its 
authority over Southwark, inasmuch 
as the Lord Mayor and the Aldermen 
who have passed the chair are justi- 
ces of Southwark ; and until 1888 
the City also exercised a certain suze- 
rainty over Middlesex, by appoint- 
ing the Sheriff of that County. Two 
Sheriffs are now elected by the livery- 
men in the City on Midsummer day. 
Their duties are multifarious, but 
beyond helping the Lord Mayor in 
the discharge of his official functions, 
and themselves discharging shrieval 
duties at the Sessions House, Old 
Bailey, they are mainly confined to 
duties of a ceremonial kind. The 
Under- Sheriffs and Secondary assist 
them. The Sheriffs are not paid, but 
their position involves considerable 
private outlay. County Government 
is seen also in the City in its Com- 
mission of Lieutenancy, its Justices, 
its Courts, its Coroner — f or the Lord 
Mayor is, among other things, 
Coroner of the City, doing this duty 
oy deputy — and in other matters. 

As a Judicial Authority. 

1. The Central Criminal Court in 
the Old Bailey is under the City 
Corporation. The jurisdiction of the 
Court extends over part of Greater 
London, and the Counties of London 



(including for this purpose the City 
of London), Middlesex, Essex, ana 
Surrey defray the salaries and 
officers' expenses of the Court, but 
the Corporation provides the build- 
ing and maintains it. 

\ The City has its Quarter Ses- 
sions, and formerly used to hold 
Quarter Sessions in Southwark. 
They are still held, but the proceed- 
ings are purely formal. The Re- 
corder is still High Steward of 
Southwark. 

3. The Lord Mayor and Aldermen 
have heavy judicial and magisterial 
duties to discharge in connection 
with the Mansion House and Guild- 
hall Justice B^oms, and the Central 
Criminal Court, and they are also, 
nominally, judges of the Mayor's 
Court — a kind of Commercial Court, 
hearing cases which, outside the 
City, would fall to the King's 
Bench division of the High Court, 

4. There are also the City of Lon- 
don Court (which is the County Court 
of the city, though with larger scope, 
including Admiralty jurisdiction, 
than an ordinary County Court) ; 
the Court of Husting, for the enrol- 
ment of deeds and wills, and the 
Court Leet of the Borough of South- 
wark (the latter now practically ob- 
solete); the judicial powers of the 
City Chamberlain in disputes be- 
tween Masters and Apprentices ; and 
the London Chamber of Arbitration 
(now London Court of Arbitration), 
established in 1892, for settling 
business disputes. 

As a Municipality. 
Much of the purely municipal 
work falling on the Corporation was 
formerly delegated to the Com- 
mission of Sewers — but this body 
has been abolished, and the work is 
carried on by the Corporation. 
The Corporation has power to 
levy a rate for municii)al or 
other purposes, but has hitherto 
confined this privilege to the making 
of a Police rate and a small Ward 



Corporation of the City of London. 



S7 



rate for purely Ward charges. More- 
over, it can do with its revenue just 
what it likes, but invariably employs 
it for public purposes extending be- 
yond its own area. 

1. The City Estates—The major 
portion of the Corporation's revenue 
comes from its Freehold Estate in 
the City, the Conduit Mead Estate 
in St. George's, Hanover-square, and 
property elsewhere. The Corpora- 
tion holds the Bridge House Estate 
in trust, for the purpose of main- 
taining London Bridge and other 
bridges between the City and South- 
ward. The money can only be ap- 
plied to this purpose. It was with 
this fund that the new Tower Bridge 
was built. The Corporation and the 
Mercers' Company are Trustees of 
the Gresham Estate, which provides 
funds in connection with the main- 
tenance of the Royal Exchange, for 
educational purposes at Gresham 
College, and also the maintenance 
of almshouses, almsfolk, &c. The 
Corporation income also comes from 
markets, fines, dues, <fcc. 

2. The City Police— The City's 
police is the only really municipal 
police force in the country, as it is 
independent of the Home Office. A 
fourth of the expense (amounting 
to over £40,000 a year) comes from 
the City's Corporate Revenue, the 
rest being raised by a rate. The 
Police Committee manages an 
electric motor street ambulance ser- 
vice, inaugurated in May, 1907. 

3. Bridges. — London, Blackfriars, 
and Southwark Bridges, as well as 
the Tower Bridge, are under the 
control and maintenance of the 
Corporation, and the expenses con- 
nected with the building and main- 
tenance of these Bridges, together 
with St. Michael's Bridge and Peer's 
Hole Bridge, have fallen upon the 
revenues of the Bridge House 
Estates, of which the Corporation is 
Trustee. It is estimated that about 
197,000 persons make use of the 



London, Blackfriars, and South, 
wark Bridges daily, or 8,000 persons 
more than five times the wnole of 
the population of the City, and 
nearly two-thirds of the entire day 
population. Moreover, nearly 25,000 
vehicles enter the City daily by the 
three Bridges mentioned. 
• 4. The Markets. — The Corporation 
is the Market Authority for London 
and owns the principal markets. 
Full particulars in the article on 
"London Markets." 

5. Parks and Pleasure Grounds — 
The Corporation owns, manages, and 
maintains the following parks and 
open spaces outside its boundary : 
Bunhill - fields Burial Ground (4 
acres) ; West Ham Park (77 acres) ; 
Epping Forest (5,400 acres) ; Wan- 
stead Park and Higham Park (212 
acres); Burnham Beeches (375 acres); 
Coulsdon Commons (347 acres) ; 
Highgate Wood, Queen's Park, Kil- 
burn, West Wickham Common 
(124 acres), and Shiplake Island in 
the Thames. These magnificent 
pleasure grounds have been ac- 
quired under various conditions, 
largely with the grain dues — or 
money raised on them — which Par- 
liament allowed the Corporation to 
levy in the place of certain chartered 
dues, which it voluntarily resigned. 
The maintenance falls as a charge 
on the City's cash. 

6. Educational Institutions— The 
Corporation is a great Educational 
Authority. It maintains the City 
of London School for Boys, partly 
out of the John Carpenter Estate ; 
the Guildhall School of Music ; the 
Freemen's Orphan School, partly 
maintained by fees on the admis- 
sion of persons to the Freedom of 
of the City, but mainly by the 
Corporation; the City of London 
School for Girls (founded by 
William Ward). There is also the 
Guildhall Library and Reading 
Room, free to all, the Guildhall 
Museum, and the Corporation Art 



98 



Corporation of the City of London. 



Gallery. The Corporation also has 
certain powers under the various 
Education Acts. 

7. Port Sanitary Authority \ — The 
Corporation had, until 1857, the 
charge of the whole Conservancy of 
the Thames, and is still represented 
on the Conservancy Board by six 
Conservators. It is the Port Sani- 
tary Authority, exercising the sani- 
tary rights over the whole Port of 
London from Teddington Lock to 
about three miles beyond the Nore, 
maintaining a medical officer, staff 
of inspectors, a hospital, &c, entirely 
out of its own funds. 

8. County Purposes. — The County 
Purposes Committee of the Corpora- 
tion does duties which are very much 
akin to those of the Public Control 
Department of the London County 
Council. It carries out the Weights 
and Measures Acts, the Explosives 
Act, the Petroleum Acts, the Shop 
Hours Act, and the Gas and Water 
Acts (testing gas, &c), and other 
Acts. 

9. Lunacy Accommodation. — The 
City of London Lunatic Asylum 
is situated at Stone, near Dart- 
ford, Kent, and is under the man- 
agement of a Committee of Visitors. 
Tne Asylum was erected by the 
Corporation at its own expense, 
and not out of rates, and has been 
considerably enlarged,andisin every 
way in a nourishing condition. 

10. Charitable Institutions. — The 
Corporation has an extensive con- 
nection with hospitals and chari- 
table institutions. It appoints 
Governors to St. Thomas s, St 
Bartholomew's, Bridewell and Beth- 
lehem, and Christ's Hospitals, and 
the Lord Mayor is the head of the 
Royal Hospitals (except Christ's 
Hospital), the London Almshouses 
at Brixton, and a lar^e number of 
almshouses and charities. He was 
also head of Emmanuel Hospital, 
Westminster, but that building has 
been lately demolished, and 60 out- 



pensions substituted for the alms- 
houses. Vacancies on the Com- 
mittee of Management of Morden 
College, Blackheath, are filled up 
from the Court of Aldermen. It 
has generously contributed to the 
support of charitable institutions 
(no less than £1,176,559 out of the 
City's cash during the past century), 
although its funds for that purpose 
are now less than formerly. 
The Lord Mayor. 
The Lord Mayor of London re- 
ceives an allowance of £10,000 a year, 
but invariably expends from his pri- 
vate means considerably more. 
The way to the Mayoralty is by the 
Aldermanic Bench. Every Alder- 
man becomes in due time Lord 
Mayor unless he previously dies, or 
resigns his position, or fails to secure 
election by nis aldermanic brethren. 
First elected an Alderman by the 
ratepayers of his Ward, then by the 
Liverymen (members of the various 
City Companies), in Common Hall, 
as Sheriff ; and on his nomination as 
Lord Mayor by the Liverymen, the 
final choice of the Lord Mayor is 
made by the Court of Aldermen, to 
whom two names are submitted. 
They almost invariably endorse the 
selection of the Liverymen, and it is 
the senior Alderman, who has not 
passed the Chair, who is usually 
elected. 

The Lord Mayor and 
Aldermen. 

The Wards after the followirig names 
represent the Wards tfw respective Alder- 
men now sit for, and the date gives the 
year each Alderman was elected Lord 
Mayor. 

Lord Mayor. 
Right Hon. Sir Wm. Piirdie Treloar, Knt. 

Farringdon Without.— Mansion House. 

Aldermen. 

Sir J. Whittaker Ellis, Bart. (Broad Street 

1881), 18, Old Broad-street. 
Sir Henry Edmund Knight (Cripplegate, 

1882), 75, Aldernianbury. 
Sir Joseph Savory, Bart. (Bridge Without, 

1890), 31, Lombard-street. 
Sir David Evans, k.c.m.o. (Castle-Baynard, 

1891), 24, Watling-street. 



Corporation of the City of London. 



99 



Sir Joseph Renals, Bart. (Aldersgate. 1894), 

The Poplars, Bickley, Kent. 
Sir Walter Wilkin, k.c.m.g. (Lime Street, 

1896), 47, St. Mary-axe. 
Sir George F. Faudel-Phillips, Bart., 

o.c.i.b. (Farringdon Within, 1896), 40, 

Newgate-street. 
Lieut.-Col. Sir Horatio David Davies, 

k.c.m.g. (Bishopsgate, 1897), 23, Great 

St. Helen's. 
Sir Alfred James Newton, Bart., (Bassi- 

shaw, 1899), 17, Cumberland-terrace, 

Regent's Park. N.W. 
Sir Marcus Samuel, Bart. (Portsoken, 1902), 

19 and 21, Billiter-street, E.C. 
Sir James Thomson Ritchie, Bart. (Port- 
soken, 1903), 6, Lime-street, E.C. 
Sir John Pound, Bart. (Aldgate, 1904), 84, 

Leadenhall-street, E.C. 
Sir Walter Vaughan Morgan, Bart. (Cord- 

wainer) , 42, Cannon-street, E.C. 
Sir Forrest Fulton, Knt., k.c, Recorder, 

Recorder's Chambers, Guildhall. 

The following have not passed the 
Chair :— 
Sir J C, Bell, Kdl (Coleman (street). 95, 

HsL-lniiy-jKiVl-tluMll. 

Sir G. W, Tnwcott, Kdt. (Duwgtito), 3, 
SuiTulk-knu. 

F, p. Alliston fBread-stroctl 46. rriiluy *(, 

8ir John Kni J I, Kurt. (Briil^-i. l-V^li 
Wharf, LamJuu- bridge. 

Sir T V. Strong, KnU, [QuwuliitheJ, 1% 
and 197, Upper Thumee-KLrrat. 

H. G. Sniallnuiu (Cheap), 8, QueeiMstretft, 

T. H. rroshy. M,r». \ |.;ititflj<nmi i, 136, f.-ti- 
vh inch street. 

David Burnett (Caudle wick), 15, Nicholas- 
lane. 

W. C. Simmons (Vintry), Hill-street, Fins- 
bury, E.C. 

W. M. Guthrie (Cornhill), 9, Idol-lane. 

F. S. Hanson (Billingsgate), 47, Botolph- 
lane, E.C. 

F. Howse, Esq., (Walbrook), 3, Salters* 
Hall-court, E.C. 

Shertpfa 

T. Boor Crosby, m.d.. Alderman, 136, Fen- 
church-street, E.C. 

W. H. Dunn, Esq., 11, St. Helen 's-place, E.C. 
Under Sheriffs. 

H. R. Greenhill, Esq., 4, Cullum-street, E.C. 

A. W. Timbrill, Esq., 44, King William- 
street, E.C. 

Tub Deputies and Common Council 

of the Several Wards. 

Alder spate. 

Goodingo, .1. W.« Dcp„ j.ilo.b., ig, Alduis- 
gate-Btreet. 

EWy T T. H.. Dep., 90, Aldei^gate-tfreet. 

Longman, V. r. R. t 17, Oiwhani-atroet. 

Johnston, Q.j 17 mill IB. Aliler.^uk" -strict. 
Smyth, it., 133, A hirsute* treeL 
Hay don, D.,2l t Noble *lr<3et. 
Jaacs, T. M. t 10). Alder^le street, 
Crura, R. . 81 , A I der*»n te-atrert . , ; , 

Aldgate, ] "/*,,. 

Momsoii. I 1 ., Dep., 68, Leiidrti hall-street., 



Barham, C, 14, Aldgate. 

Pound, J. L., 84, Leadenhall-street. 

Burdick, J., 34, St. Mary Axe. 

Haysom, G., 109, Fenchurch-street. 

Hammond, J. G.,77, Mark-lane, 

Jennings, G. C. H., 69, Leadenhall-street. 

Ellis, T., 23, Billiter-street. 
Bassiahaw. 

Pannell, W. H., Dep., j.p., f.c.a., f.s.s., 13 
and 14, Basinghall-street. 

Lee, E., 1, Gresham-buildings. 

Pittman, J. B., 17 and 18, Basinghall-street. 

Preen, H. E., f.c.a., 17 and 18, Basinghall- 
street. 

Billingsgate. 

Saver, J. L., Dep., 27, Monument-street. 

Miller, T. H., 6, Rood-lane. 

Seaman, E., 14, St. Mary-at-Hill. 

Ansted, E., 19, Eastcheap. 

Russell, H. W., 7, Coal Exchange. 

Bird, H., f.s.s., St. Magnus House, 7, Monu- 
ment-street. 

Morris, S. W., 6 and 8, Eastcheap. 

Howell, J. G., 69 and 105, Billingsgate 
Market. 

Biahopsgate. 

Greenaway, D„ Dep., 30, Camomile-street. 

Taylor, G., 131, Bishopsgate-st. Without. 

Pridmore, A. E., f.s.i., m.s.a., 2, Broad- 
street-buildings. 

Birchall, G., 85, Gracechurch -street. 

Robinson, J. S. , 85, Bishopsgate-st. Without. 

Robinson, T., 119, Bishopsgate-st. Without. 

Bamberger, L., 9, Liverpool-street. 

Wagstaff, A., Dep., 48, Bishopsgate-street 

Fitch, E.F., 66, Bishopsgate-street Within. 
Bull, W., 5 and 6, Bishopsgate-st. Without. 
Tollworthy, J., 3a, Broad-street House. 
Thomas, C. J., 202, Bishopsgate-street 

Without. 
Ardley, E., 15, Great St. Helen's. 
Dunn, W. H., 11, St, Helen's-place, 

Bread-street. 
Coates, S. D., Dep., 15, Friday-street. 
Scott, J. A., 11, Distaff-lane. 
Steinberg, G. H., 38, Bread-street. 
Smith, A. B., 43, Friday-street. 
Alliston, P., 46, Friday -street. 
Wakefield, C.C., 27, Cannon-street. 
Selincourt, W. de, 16 & 18, Cannon-street. 
Worskett, S. A., 45a, Cheapside. 

Bridge. 
Barnes, W. G., Dep., Fishmongers' Hall. 

Offices, Upper Thames-street. 
Williamson, W. H„ Monument House, 

Monument-square, 
Timbrell, A. W., 44, King William-street. 
Hacker, W., 4, Arthur-street East. 
Deighton, T. H., 44. King William-street. 
Roll, J., 3, Adelaide-place, London-bridge. 
Bowles, F. D., j.p., 3, Adelaide-place, 

London-bridge. 
$qr.ir&, H. J*., 39a, King William-street. 

'*• \Rr,o<?d-street. 
Fdwarqs, %*W' L^apers' -gardens. 
Thompson, Lt.-Col. J. S., 7, Copthall-court. 



o 



Ti^C 



041 



100 



Corporation of the City of London. 



Neal, W. P., 4, Pinner's Hall, Old Broad- 
street. 
Hartridge, C, 24, Austinfriars. 
Ive, T. J., 28, Throgmortou -street. 
Davies, R., j.p., 10 and 11, Austinfriars. 
Marcos. Capt. L. 6., 28, Austinfriars. 
Brown, W. H., 2a, Copthall-court. 
Candlewick. 

Algar, C. G., Dep., 17, Abchurch-lane. 

Game, C, 16 and 17, Nicholas-lane. 

Dennis, W., 143, Cannon-street. 

Kllis, G. B., f.r.met.8., 63, King William- 
street. 

Lamb, E. H., a.i.e.e., m.p., 37, King 
William-street. 

Gill, A., 1, Arthur-street West. 
Castle Baynard. 

Hudson. A. B., f,s.l, ft«p., 16, Godlimau- 
street. 

Hunter, ft \\, a,r.t.b.a. p WardrobcHchn.uj- 
bcrs, Qneeu Victoria-street. 

Briwgti. J. R. p 29 32 t Wurwiekiane* 

Oailard, T. H-, 75, St. Piiiil's-rhurchyurd. 

Waun. .I.J 61 nad 163 T Qiiei'ii VirUiriit street r 

Clement l-Smith. R*v. P., St, Andrews 
Rectory* 

Wither, C. McC'iiig. 17, Old etiiiutfe, 

Thornton, H. 5L. 152, Queen Victoria street. 
Cheap. 

Pa rn well, S, p Hep., l h Queen street. 

Tickle, J., 2, Crown-court, Cheapride* 

Read, A. W i( 94 aud95 r Cheapside, 

Aiming E. J., f,h,s„ 78, Cheapjiide. 

Thomas*. W. H., 18, Irouuioutfer-luue. 

FnkeuHM, J* R. T 11, Iroumonger-luue, 

BeniugfleR Col. J t W., 17, King-street, 

Newton, L, A.. 109. Cheapside. 
CotefiH]u-.^rEwt, 

Woodman, 8« G. J.,KuL. J.i'..Di'ji.. Jewry 
House, 27 and 38, Old Jewry. 

Walliugton, Major C, *.c. a,,4, Tokeu house- 
buildings. 

Painter, P. G., 19, Coleman-street. 

Dove, H. S., 2, Tokenhouse- buildings. 

Williams, J. H., 46 and 47, London-wall. 

Brinsley-Harper, F., 15, Old Jewry-cham- 
bers. 

Cambden, W., 9, Finsbury-pavement. 

Gunton, J ., Finsbury House, Blomfleld-st. 
Cordwainer. 

Edwards, G., Dep., f.r.i.b. a., 52, Cannon-st. 

Horncastle, W. R., 52, Bow- lane. 

Bennet, J. F., 82, Queen-street. 

Hepburn, H. F., 8. Pancras-lane. 

Hushes, K.. 12, Well -court. Bow-lane. 

Whitelcy, QL t\, 82. Queen-street. 
Cornhill. 

WiJkiuwu. M„ Dep., X flt. Michael's-alley. 

Summers. H, A.. J8. Cornhill, 

Atkins, C- E t , 6, Cowper'^conrt, Coruhill. 

Sewill, M. R., 4, Castle court, 

Ooiduey, T,.4, Castle-court, 

Stopner, J +i 48, Corn hi II. 

Criitpieatite Wtthm. 

Rogers. Sir R. H\, Knt... Den,, 11, AoVlle-st, 

Stapley. R> T 138, LuuUoMwdi: 1 ' t « - - 

BHggs. ti. T 2, Little Love^&ie. >■ V %.\ 

Uatley ( W . . 3S t Al deraiah bury £ * - 

Tillie, A„19, Addle-Ftrect. « . . .--* 



Wye, T. H., 35, Milk-street. 

Palmer, A. E., 15 and 16, Aldermanbury. . 

Rider, T. P., 25, Gutter-lane. 

Cripplegate Without. 

Baddeley, J. J., Dap., Chapel Works, 
Moor-lane. 

Double, A., F.s.8., 91, Fore-street. 

Tranter, G. T. 8., 6, 7, 8,9, and 21, Bridge- 
water-square. 

Westerby, J., 59, Redcross-street. 

Lake, J., 31 and 32, Fore-street. 

Dyas, R., 63, Fore-street. 

Swinstead, B. T., 15, Well-street. 

Peters, L. B., 41 to 43, Moorfields. 
Dow gate. 

Mathews, J. D., p.r.i.b.a., p.s.i., Dep., 11, 
Dowgate-hill. 

Warrick, R. B., 7, Old Swan-lane. 

Corbould-Ellis, C. F., 14, Clement's-lane. 

Slazenger, R., 10, Ducksfoot-laoe. 

Berridge, G. J., 174, Upper Thames-street. 

Haywood, E. H., 95, Upper Thames-street. 

Farringdon Within. 

North Side. 

Cuthbertson, C. J., Dep., 28, Ludgate-hill, 

Pitman, W. H., 30, Newgate-street. 

Peachey, R., 2 and 3, Warwick-lane. 

Collins, D. G., 118, Newgate-street. 

Wild, J. B., 34-40, Ludgate-hill. 

Crawford, T., m.b.a.a., f.r.a.s., 35, Lud- 
gate-hill. 

Downes, W. J., 19, Je win-street. 
South Side. 

Rome, W., j.p., f.s.a., f.l.s., 158 and 159, 
Cheapside. 

Brooke-Hitching, Sir T., Knt., 29, Lud- 
gate-hill. 

Grossmith, J. L., 29, Newgate-street. 

Sandle, S. J., 54 to 57, Paternoster-row. 

Whitaker, C. W., 12, Warwick-lane. 

Brinsley, H. G. W.,30 & 31,NewBridge-st. 

Wells, H. H., 17, Paternoster-row. 
Farringdon Without. 
North Side. 

Turner, B., Dep., 50, Bartholomew-close. 

Lile, J. H., j.p., 4, Ludgate-circus. 

Cooper, W., 26 and 27, London Central Meat 
Market. 

Key, W. H„ 262, London Central Meat 
Market. 

Marshall, Sir H. B., Knt., j.p., m.a., ll.d., 
Temple House, Temple-avenue. 

Hentschel, C, 182, 183, 184, Fleet-street. 

Lavington, G., 68 and 69, Old Bailey. 

Link, F., j.p., 210, London Ceot'al Meat 
Market. 

South Side. 

Weingott, S., Dep., 74, Fleet-street. 

Morton, A. C, m.p., 124, Chancery-lane. 

Woodbridge, T. A., 5, Serjeant's-inn, 

Fleet-street. 
Fortescue, N., j.p., Block A., Dean-street, 
.fetter; lane. 

- Bower ^A. L., 160, Fleet-street. 
; Alter^ofi, S., 98, Cheapside. 
Nartjhan, A. J., 17, Farringdon-avenue. 

. Earnes, H., j.p., 149, Fleet-street. 



Corporation of the Gity of London. 



101 



Lunahount. 
Hurris}, *.\ T, p j.p„ Dtp., 39, Petit- hurrli *(, 
LivronlgL', W. H., Ship TuYiTii-piissag*', 

Leaden hull Murkrt. 
Oloudsley, J. t j,p. r 13. Oil Hum street. 
Lnyt OM,, 3, Mi nr i ug Lane, 
I'riws, W t M. f L lliHiige-fiUey. 
LMimnH<y H J t W. T 155, Feiuhureh street, 
ltniitz. Sir J. J lh Kut., t j.i\, 33, fflt&ola* 

lane. 
Kimber, H. D., 79, Lombard-street. 

Lime-street. 
Barrett, J., Dep., 7, Leadenhall-street. 
Moojen, H. E., 140, Leadenhall-street. 
Brown, J. K., 29, Leadenhall Market. 
Singer, H. D., 47, St. Mary Axe. 

r...rN.,/.v..,. 

Myers, L, M., Dep,* 147. KiaoriflK 
Hatrte, .f ri J A'.. 146, Miuories, 
Barber, A. H,,93, MiiinritM. 
Aaron*. B.,fl6, HoiiridHliU h, 
Redding. J. J u 89. Minority 
Boll, K., 8 H Aldratt! High-*T.iwt, 
Frueuk el , 8. . 129 t II in m d *d i te h . 
HnUingtim. A. J<, 9, Middlesex-street.. 

Queenhithe. 
Pryke, W. R., Dep., 40 and 41, Upper 

Thames-street. 
Todd/C. J., 18, Bread-street-hill. 
Bond, E. E., 22, Great St. Helen's, 



Teuton, C. A., 221, Upper Thames-street. 

Pimm, T., 12, Garlick-hill. 

Pollitzer, 8., 29, Upper Thame3-street. 
Tower. 

Heath, H. H„ j.p., Dep., 39, Great Tower- 
street. 

Perkins, X T f.p,*i.b„ 90. Lower Tlutmi> ■■*. 

Adams* T,, 91, Great Towrr-meel 

Parnftu, F r . 9, Mlneing-hmo, 

! I .. i I . ( tept&ta ft> Q 4l ii. l.. Cotnineirml Sitle 
Rooms Murk-lane, 

Smith, C, i:.. 11. ftwry-rtnet, Aldfjato. 

Green. W. W. p 147, Penchurcrj street. 

Humjihery. Major J, , S h <ireat Tower*ftre*t, 
Vintry. 

Wallace, M., j.p., Dep., 181a, Upper 
Thames-street. 

Dnnfee, Lieut. -Col. V.. 28, Queen-street. 

Spencer, S., a.i.c.e., 14, Great St. Thomas 
Apostle. 

Dray, F. G., 23, College-hill. 

Bowater, T. V., Sheriff, 28, Queen-street. 

T.ppetts W. J. B„ 11, Maiden-lane. 

Walbrook. 
Luck, J. R. W., Dep., 23, Walbrook. 
Batty, J. H., 15, Walbrook. 
Heilbuth, G. H., 15, Walbrook. 
Jennings, C. F. J.. 27, Walbrook. 
Green, E. H., 17, St. Swithin's-lane. 
Monckton, H. P., 32, Walbrook. 



COMMITTEES OF THE CORPORATION. 

(Days of Monthly Meetings except in the Month of August.) 

Irish Society Fourth Tuesday (except in the months 

of February, August, and September). 
&c. 

, Second Wednesday. 
Third Monday. 
Third Tuesday. 



Estates, 

City Lands Committee 

Bridge House Estates Committee 

Coal and Corn and Finance Committee ... 

Public Health 

Improvements and Finance Committee Second Friday. 

Streets Committee Fortnightly meetings 

Third Tuesdays. 
Sanitary Committee ... Fourth Tuesday. 

Public Service 



F«ret and 



Police Committee 

Port of London Sanitary Committee 

County Purposes Committee 

Markets : 

Central Markets Committee 

Cattle Markets Committee 

Billingsgate and Leadenhall Markets Committee 

Educational : 

Library Committee 

City of London Schools Committee 

Orphan School Committee 

Music Committee 

Domestic : 

General Purposes Committee 

Officers and Clerks Committee 

Law and City Courts Committee 

Additional : 

Gresham Committee 

Epping Forest Committee 

West Ham Park Committee 

Accounts Committee (Public Health) 

Visiting Committee City of London Asylum 



Last Wednesday. 
First Tuesday. 
Fourth Monday. 

First Wednesday. 
Third Wednesday. 
Third Friday. 

First Monday. 
First Wednesday. 
Second Tuesday. 
Third Monday. 

Third Wednesday. 
Fourth Monday. 
Second Monday. 

No fixed day. 
Second Monday. 
Thursdays, when necessary. 
First Tuesday. 

Alternate Thursdays with the Court of 
Common Council, 



102 



Corporation of the City of London. 



Chief Officers of the 
Corporation. 

Recorder. — The Recorder is the 
senior law officer of the Corporation. 
He is elected for life by the Court 
of Aldermen, but is subject to the 
approval of His Majesty before exer- 
cising judicial functions. He advises 
the Lord Mayor and Aldermen in all 
matters relating to law, appearing, 
if required, as the advocate of the 
Corporation, presides over the 
Mayor's Court, sits as a Judge at 
the Central Criminal Court, and as 
Legal Assessor at the Court of 
Quarter Sessions, and attends the 
Courts of Aldermen and Common 
Council, &c. 

The City Chamberlain is the 
Corporation's treasurer and banker. 
He keeps the freeman's roll, and has 
jurisdiction over apprentices in the 
City. "The Chamber of London" 
has been a department of great im- 
portance in the development of 
City government, and was formerly 
vested in the Crown. 

Town Clerk— The Town Clerk 
is the centre of the Corporation and 
Committee work, attending all 
meetings and advising on all points 
of procedure, &c. 

Common Serjeant. — A Judge 
at the Central Criminal Court and 
the Mayor's Court, a law officer of 
the Corporation — acting in the ab- 
sence of the Recorder— and attend- 
ing the Lord Mayor on public and 
ceremonial occasions. 

Comptroller. — The Conveyan- 
cing Officer of the Corporation and 
one of its Law Officers. He acts as 
Agent of its Estates, including those 
of the Bridge House, and is custodian 
of its Title Deeds, Leases, etc. He 
is also the Vice- Chamberlain, and 
acts for the Chamberlain in. his 
absence, or during a vacancy in the 
offico. 



City Remembrancer. — This 
official arranges the ceremonial 
duties connected with the Corpora- 
tion, and acts as Parliamentary 
agent, and is also a law officer. 

The City Solicitor conducts 
legal proceedings and prosecutions 
on behalf of the Corporation, pre- 
pares Acts of Common Council, 
Bye-laws, &c, and performs a large 
amount of legal duties in connection 
with the various Committees and 
Departments of the Corporation and 
its property. He is a law officer of 
the Corporation, and the City 
Bailiff. He also acts as Legal 
Assessor to the City Justices, as the 
Lord Mayor's Legal Adviser at 
Municipal Elections, and as Legal 
Adviser to the Commissioner of 
City Police. 

The Secondary is the executive 
officer under the Sheriffs, and exer- 
cises judicial functions in connection 
with Writs of Enquiry, makes up 
the register, and superintends elec- 
tions, both in London and South- 
ward 

The City Surveyor is respon- 
sible for making surveys and valua- 
tions of all corporate estates, 
whether Trust property or otherwise, 
and advises as to letting of pro- 
perty, &c. 

CITY OFFICERS. 

Those marked (*) are of His Majesty's Com- 
mission of. Lieutenancy for the City of 
London. 

A In the Appointment of the Court of 

Aldermen. 
B In the Appointment of the Court of 

Common Council. 
C In the Approval of the Court of 

Common Council, 
D In the Appointment of the Livery. 
E In the ^Appointment of the Library 

Committee. 
F In the Appointment of the Police 

Committee. 
G In the Appointment of the Cattle 

Markets Committee. 
H In the Appointment of the County 

Purposes Committee. 
I In the appointment of the Crown, 



Corporation of the City of London. 



103 



Elected. 

A 1900 *Recorder— Sir Forrest Fulton, Knt, 

k.c, £4,000. 
D 1902 * Chamberlain— Rt. Hon. Sir J. CL 

Dimsdale, Bart, k.c.y.o., £2,5007 
B 1902 *Town Clerk— James Bell, £2,000. 
I 1900 *Common Serjeant— F.A.Bosanquet, 

K.c, j.p., £2,500. 
I 1901 Judges of the City of London Court 

— *Lumley Smith, k.c, £2,500. 

James Alexandar Rentoul, ll.d.. 

K.C, £2,000. 
B 1901 Judge of the Sheriffs Court, holden 

for the Poultry Compter— 
•Lumley Smith, k.c 
B 1901 Judge of the Sheriffs' Court, 

holden for the Qiltspur street 

Compter — James Alexandar 

Rentoul, ll.d., k.c 
JJ 1900 Assistant Judge of the Mayor's 

Court— ¥. S. Jackson, £1,250. 
B 1902 Commissioner of the City Police— 

Captain J. W. Nott Bower, £1,250. 
B 1898 Comptroller of the Chamber and 

of the Bridge House Estates— 

*E. A. Baylis, £2,000. 
B 1903 Remembrancer — A. D. W. Pol- 
lock, £1,500. 
B 1885 So£icitor--*Sir Homewood Craw- 
ford, Knt., £2,500. 
B 1905 Secondary and High Bailiff of 

Southwark—W. Hayes; b.a* 
B 1901 Medical Officer of Healths- William 

Collingridge, m.a., m.d., ll.m. 
B 1901 Coroner for London and South- 

wark—Y. J. Waldo, m.a., m.d. 
A 1900 Steward of Southwark— Sir Forrest 

• Fulton, Knt., k.c. 

B 1895 Clerk of the Peace- Alfred Read, 

£300. 
1 12S? WtV Surveyor— S. Perks., p.r.i.b.a. 
B 1905 Engineer and Surveyor (P.H.D.) 
-» ,,>«,. ~~~ p> Summer, m.i.c.e. 
B 1905 Head Master of the City of 

London School— Rqy. A. Chilton, 

D.D., m.a., £1,250. 
B 1890 Head Master of the Freemen's 

Orphan School— R. E. Mon- 

• tague, m.a., £500. 

B 1894 Head Mistress of the City of 

London School for Girls— Miss 
,» *~^ n A * ice Eliza Blagrave, b.a. 
B 1900 Registrar of the Mayor's Court— 
_, M „ David Harrison. 
B 1874 Sword Bearer— [Vacant.] 

1901 Common Cryer and Serjeant-at 
■*. ™ r Arms— Major J. C. Ker-Fox, m.a 
B 1888 Librarian— E. M. Borrajo. 
E 1886 Director of the Art Gallery— A. 

G. Temple, f.s.a. 
B 1890 Second Master of the City of 

London School— F. W. Hill, 

m.a., £600. 
F 1885 Surgeon of Police Force— F. G. 

Brown, m.r.c.s.eng., £600. 



Elected. 

B 1901 Medical Officer of Health of the 

Port of London— H. Williams.M.D. 
B 1901 Public Analyst— Frank L. Teed, 

d.8c (London), f.i.c 
1887 Medical Superintendent City of 

London Asylum— E. White, 

m.b. Lond., M.E.C.P. 
A 1887 Clerk to the Lord Mayor- C. G. 

Douglas, £1,150. 
A 1887 Clerk to the Sitting Justices— 

H. G. Savill, £1,000. 
B 1889 Registrar of the City of London 

Court— J. A. Wild, £1,700. 
B 1892 High Bailiff of tfie City of Lon- 
don Court— J. E. Sly, £600. 
B 1892 Gas Examiner— Prof. V. B. Lewes. 

P.C.8., F.I.C, P.P.8., £400. 
F 1885 Police Receiver— J. W. Carlyon- 

Hughes, £700. 
A 1887 Assistant Clerk to Lord Mayor— 

J. G. Trotter, £650. 
A 1888 Assistant Clerk to Sitting 

Justices, Guildhall— S.Richards, 

£500. 
A 1893 Clerk and Cashier at Justice 

Room, Mansion House— R. A. 

Warren. 
A 1895 Cashier and Accountant at Guild- 
hall Justice Room — J. H. 

Major, £250. 
B 1883 Clerk of the Coal Market— J. B. 

Scott. 
B 1880 Keeper of Guildhall— J. Gannon, 

B 1904 Marshal— Lieut-Col. T. J. Kearns. 

B 1887 Clerk and Superiiitendent of 
Leadenhall Market — H. G. 
Price, £250. 

B 1904 Clerk and Superintendent of 
Metropolitan Cattle Market, 
and Veterinary Inspector to 
the Corporation— J. King, £500. 

G 1871 Clerk and Superintendent of 
Foreign Cattle Market— G. Phil- 
cox, £900. 

B 1904 Clerk and Superintendent of Lon- 
don Central Meat and Poultry 
andProvision Markets— H.W.G. 
Millman. 

B 1906 Clerk and Superintendent of 
Billingsgate Market — James 
O'Neill. 

B 1883 Deputy Ganger— T. Moody. 

B 1901 Serjeant-at-Mace—J. Fitch. 

B 1901 Deputy Serjeant - at - Mace — H. 

B 18% Assistant to the Registrar, City of 
London Court— E. B. Tattershall. 
Clerks in City of London Court- 
is 1867 E. T. Jackson. 
B 1871 G. E. Cooper. 
B 1893 W. J. Betteridge. 
B 1883 H. E. Maynard. 
B 1885 W. Taylor. 
B 1888 J. T. Mattison. 



104 



Corporation of the Oity of London. 



Elected. 

B 1889 H. W. Lake. 
B 1890 S. Benjamin. 
B 1893 H. A. Ince. 
B 1890 J. C. Bonus. 
B 1895 A. Phillips. 
B 1895 R. E. Claridge. 
B 1900 8. A. Crabb. 
B 1900 R. A. Woodhead. 
B 1900 A. A. Jarvis. 
B 1900 H. C. Hughes. 
B 1904 F. Lacey. 

B 1894 Official Shorthand Writer, City of 
London Court— H. A. Grover. 
Bailiff 8 of City of London Court— 
B 1862 G. Hurdle. 
B 1874 W. B. Marnham. 
B 1884 E. H. Watson. 
B 1890 T. Gyatt. 
B 1892 J. S. Murdoch. 
B 1894 R. Saunders. 
B 1895 F. K. Rowe. 
B 1895 R. A. Linden. 

B 1902 Clerk and Usher to City of London 
Court— H. Bedggood. 

B 1899 Usher to City of London Court— 

E. F. Ford. 
B 1880 First Assistant to Keeper of 

Guildhall— A. J. Glasspool. 
B 1893 Housekeeper at Sessions House— 

G. Peacock. 
Inspectors of Weights and Measures— 
H 1890 A. J. Street (Chief Inspector). 
H 1891 H. Dawkes. 
H 1891 J. Kyle. 
H 1891 T. Allchin. 

1886 Gas Meters Inspector— J. Stratford 
Inspector under Explosives and Petro- 
leum Acts— 
B 1906 E. H. Winny. 
B 1893 Inspector under Shop Hours Act 

— E. Jones. 
Sanitary Inspectors of the Port of 
London— 
B 1882 H. Spadaccini. 
B 1888 W. Anderson. 
B 1890 T. W. Bailey. 
B 1893 W. Romeril. 
B 1894 A. Garland. 
B 1899 W.S. Wetjen. 
B 1899 W. W. Burr. 
B 1899 H. R. Hopkins. 
B 1900 P. R. Lamb. 
B 1901 J. H. Rolfe. 

Bridge Masters— 
D 1902 C. F. Crawford. 
D 1903 C. Norris. 
Auditorsof the City and Bridge House 
Accounts— 
D 1905 R. W. Saker. 
D 1906 H. L. Bedford. 
D 1906 Col. Wilde 
D 1906 H. J. Pratt. 



Elected. 

Guildhall School of Music. 

B 1896 Principal— W. H. Cummings, Mus. 

Doc., F.S.A. 
B 1901 Secretary— Henry Saxe Wyndham. 
B 1881 Lady Superintendent— Mrs. C. P. 
Smith. 
In the Gift of the Court of Common 

Council, 
1901 Rectory of St. Peter, Cornhill— 
Rev. George Bell Doughty, b.a. 
1866 Rectory of St. Margaret Pattens 
and St. Gabriel Fenchurch 
(alternate with the Crown). 
1895 Rectory of St. James, Duke's- 
place, and St. Catherine Cree 
(alternate with Magdalene Col- 
lege, Cambridge)— Rev. J. Mills, 
m.a. (presented by Magdalene 
College). 

1886 Vicarage of St. Bartholomew, 

Bethnal-green—Rev. A. R. Cle- 
mens, M.A. 

1887 Vicarage of St. Mark, Victoria 

Docks—Rev. S. S. Smyth, a.k.c. 

1897 Rectory of St. Qeorge-the-Martyr , 
Southwark (once %n every three 
by Corporation, other two by 
Lord Chancellor)— Bay. W. J. 
Sommerville, b.a., a.k.c. (pre- 
sented by the Corporation). 

1901 Vicarage of St. Cyprian, Lewis- 
)iam (twice in every three by 
Corporation ; other by Lord 
Chancellor)— Rev. W. V. Mason. 
m.a. (presented by Corporation). 

15Q3 Vicarage of St. Peter, Bethnal- 

1 green— Rev.W.H.Maynard,M.A. 

Vicarage of St. Mark, Clerken- 
well, and Vicarage of St. Oswald, 
Fulham—The Vicars of these 
were not appointed by the Cor- 
poration. 

Clerks In the Several Corporation 
Offices at Guildhall. 

Chamberlain's Office. — Principal 
Clerk— G. A. Pickering. Chief Cashier. 
— G. H. Payne. Rent Cashier— V?. S. 
Singer. Clerks— J. Payne, A. P. Lloyd, 
P. O. Pickering, J. A. Cherry, H. W. 
Hudson, and A. J. C. Helder. 

Officers' Pension Fund Clerk— E. Pugh. 

Town Clerk's Office (General De- 
partment).— Principal Clerk— H. C. 
Overall. Committee Clerks— A. Saun- 
ders, A. M. Nortier, T. H. Hull, and W. 
Bates. Assistant Clerks— T. L. Sayer, 
H. S. Smith, A. V. Cox, F. J. Craker, 
and F. C. Bune. Markets Department— 
F. J. Pullan, A. J. Cooper, and J. R. 
Levering ton, jun. 

Records Clerk— R. R. Sharpe, d.cl. 



Corporation, of the City of Lotidon. 



105 



Comptroller's Office.— Chief Clerk— 
T. G. Hancock. Clerks— V. F. Crowther- 
Smith, E. Nash, C. N. G. Hyem.A. G. 
Hollingum, C. P. Porter, J. E. W. 
Harley, and H. V. Smith. 

Remembrancer' s Officr. — Frincipal 
Clerk— J. D. Taylor. Clerks— J. Windsor, 
G. Jagged, E. F. Price, and H. R. May- 
nard. 

Solicitor's Office.— Principal Clerk 
and Assistant Solicitor— T. G. Vickery. 
Clerks— A. Stanier, P. S. Towell, H. 3. 
Russell, H. S. Towell, W. N. Earle, W. A. 
Oakshott, and C. H. Feldon, 

Surveyor's Offices.— Principal Clerk 
—A. L. Gosling. Clerks-Y. H. Wil- 
liams, a.r.i.b.a., T. R. W. Mossman, 
S. J. Crosskey, F. C. Read, R. Milnes, 
J. H. Willett, H. Richard, J. West, S. 
Poole, J. P. Scriven, H. J. Lawes, and 
R. Knowles. 

Accountant Auditor.— J. A. Nicol. As 
sistants—C. J. Lungley, C. G. Kelly 
H. C. Roberts, F. R. Formoy, and T. V. 
Holt. 

Public Health Department. 

The Public Health Department 
carries on the work of the City 
Commission of Sewers, which was 
constituted in 1848 for the purpose 
of maintaining" the streets and 
drains in the City. Its duties are to 
maintain, pave, and clean the streets 
within the City. The cleansing 
of the City involves the employ- 
ment of a large staff. It makes its 
own plant, carts, barrows, etc., in its 
own workshops, and has its own 
stud. The execution of the Health 
Acts devolves upon it, including 
the inspection of slaughterhouses 
and meat, and the clearance of in- 
sanitary areas. It is responsible for 
public fighting in the City, and for 
the execution of street improve- 
ments (to which the County Gouncil 
may contribute when the improve- 
ment is of a metropolitan cha- 
racter), and for the inspection of 
factories and workshops. The 
Department maintains the City 
Cemetery, and artisans' dwellings, 
inhabited by 1,189 persons. (See 
the article on " The Housing of the 
Working Classes.") Recently the 
Department has taken over sewer 



cleansing, repairing, <fcc, formerly 
given out to contract. 

Town Clerk's Office. —Principal Clerk— 

H. M. Bates. Clerks— L. P. Summers, 

W. P. Bicknell, F. J. C. Helder, L. V. 

Cockell, H. E. Healey, F. H. E. Ferris, 

J. B. Oxenham, F. A. Woolls, W. V. L. 

Mallett, A. B. Bryant, and J. G. Bland. 
Assessment and Rates Clerk— G. C. James. 
Offl'e Rate Collectors— V. C. Brown, A. T. 

Pannell, M. F. Blake, H. C. Daniel, and 

T. G. McCheane. 
Electrical Engineer and Inspector— A, 

A..Voysey. Clerks— A. Roberts, A. J. 

Sale. 
Superintendent of City Cemetery— A. Bell. 
Superin endent of Cleansing, Ac.— W. J. 

Heavey. 
Assistant Superintendent of Cleansing, 

Ac.— A. J. Eager. 

Medical Officer of Health's Office. 
Sanitary Clerk — H. B. Turner, f.i.c. 

Clerks— G. H. King, G. Lowe. 
Chief Inspector of Slaughterhouses and 

Meat and Sanitary Inspector— W. P. 

Terrett. 
Inspectors of Slaughterhouses and Meat 

and Sanitary Inspectors — O. Sharp, 
W. E. Down, W. E. Kelland, H. Mettam, 
and T. L. Davies. 
Inspectors of Slaughterhouses and Meat 

— H. Jenkins and W. Elgin. 
Sanitary Inspectors and Inspectors 

under the Sale of Food and Drugs Acts 

—A. R. Hills, W. H. J. Gathercole, W. 

H. May, E. J. Simmons, F. J. Rob bins. 

W. H. Ralph, James Dunworth, and 

Arthur Wheaton. 
Female Sanitary Inspectors— Miss A. J. 

Safford and Miss M. M. Pole. 
Engineer's Office. 
Chief Assistant— 11. E. Stacey, a.m.i.c.b. 
Principal Draughtsman— J . G. Garth- 

waite, a.m.i.c.b. 
Improvements Assistant— W. A. Cham- 
pion. 
Draughtsman— H. K. Blake, a.m.i.c.b. 
Correspondence Clerk and Cashier— -C. M. 

Morris. 
Measuring Clerk— W. E. Pearman. 
Bill Clerk— J. S. Milbourne, p.a.s.i. 
Clerks-U. Clayton, W. H. Noble, and S. C. 

Walton. 
Inspectors of Pavements— 8. C. Gibbs, T. 

F. Oliver, W. F. W. Brumell, and F. R. 

Bond. 
Inspector of Sewers— E. J. Winsborrow. 
Inspector of Gas Lighting— W. J. Liberty, 
Inspector of Overhead Wires— Vacant. 

In addition the Public Health Depart" 
ment has a large staff of weekly servants' 



106 



Corporation of the City of London 



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108 



Thames Conservancy. 



THAMES CONSERVANCY. 

Offices: Victoria Embankment, E.C. 

Meetings: Fortnightly on Mondays, at 11.30 a.m. 



The Thames Conservancy is a cen- 
tral authority whose jurisdiction ex- 
tends from Y antlet, in the estuary 
of the Thames in Kent, to the source 
of the river in Gloucestershire. It 
has manifold duties to discharge. 
As a harbour authority it regulates 
the navigation of the greatest port 
in the world. It keeps the water- 
way clear for craft, provides moor- 
ings for ships and targes, has to 
remove all wreckage, and pre- 
vent obstruction. It is charged 
with the prevention of pollution 
of the river and its tributaries 
from every cause, and in this de- 
partment has a staff of inspectors 
at work over the whole water- 
shed of the Thames, an area 
of 3,800 square miles. While 
the Conservancy looks after the 
interests of navigation on the river 
through its course from London 
to the sea, it also controls the plea- 
sure craft in the upper portion of 
the river. It builds and maintains 
locks and weirs, registers house-boats 
and all varieties of pleasure-boats. 
It discharges the duties of a Fishery 
Board, and is an authority for deal- 
ing with explosives, which, until 
discharged, are under the super- 
vision of the Conservancy. The 
trade in explosives in the Port of 
London is probably the largest in 
the kingdom. 

The income of the Board is ob- 
tained from various tolls, fees, rents, 
licences, dues, and payments from 
the Metropolitan Water Board and 
Canal Companies. In 1905 the 
Water Board and Canal Com- 
panies paid £3,500 towards the 
Lower Navigation Fund, and 
£31,077, towards the Upper Navi- 
gation Fund. £18,728 was re- 
ceived in tolls, and £21,030 in 



rents, dues, licences, &c. Tonnage 
dues on the Lower River amounted 
to £65,199. The income from the 
registration of house-boats, plea- 
sure-boats, &c, came to £2,612. 
These sums formed the receipts 
from all sources of revenue. 

The principal items ot expenditure 
were: establishment and working 
expenses, £43.690 ; repair and main- 
tenance, £22,219 ; and for dredging 
and other purposes, £59,341. 

The following is a list of the mem- 
bers of the Board, showing the 
method of appointment, or election : 
Chairman. — The Lord Desborough 

of Taplow. 

Appointed by : — 

Admiralty. — Admiral G. S. Bosan- 
quet and Vice- Admiral R. W. 
Craigie. 

Board of Trade. — Lord Desborough 
and Hon. N. M. Farrer. 

Trinity House. — Rear- Admiral H. 
B. Stewart and Captain A. E. Bell. 

Gloucester and Wiltshire County 
Councils. — C. E. Hobhouse, M.P. 

Oxfordshire County Council. — J. 
Darell-Blount. 

Oxford City and County Borough. — 
R. Buckell. 

Berks. County Council— -H. W. 
Russell. 

Beading County Borough. — C. G. 
Field. 

Bucks. County Council. — A. Gilbey. 

Herts. County Council. — Rt. Hon. 
T. F; Halsey. 

Surrey County Council. — C. Burt. 

Middlesex County Council— J. Big- 
wood. 

London County Council. — Sir J. 
McDougall, R. Strong, Sir Edwin 
Cornwall, M.P., J; D. Gilbert, 
R, A. Robinson, and B. Cooper, 



Corporation of London— Alder- 
man Sir W. Wilkin, k.c.m.g., 
Alderman Sir D. Evans, k.c.m.g., 
W. H. Pannell. W. Cooper, A. C. 
Morton, M.P., and J. J. Baddeley. 

Essex County Council— W. W. 
Glenny. 

West Ham County Borough. — W. 
Ivey. 

Kent County Council.— A. Tolhurst. 

Metropolitan Water Board— E.B. 
Barnard, m.p. 

Elected by : — 
Shipowners— Gc. Butler Paul, Sir 

C. F. Cory- Wright, Bart., and 

Sir T. V. S. Angier. 
Owners of sailing barges, lighters, 

and steam tugs.—W. V. Williams 

and T. W. Jacobs, jun. 
Dockowners. — S. E. Bates. 
Wharfingers. — J. A. Humphery. 

The Board holds meetings fort- 
nightly on Mondays at 11.30. a.m., 
and largely carries on its work 
through committees, which meet 
weekly or fortnightly. The follow- 
ing are the chairmen of the stand- 
ing committees : — 
Lower River— G. Butler Paul. 



Lee Conservancy, 



109 



Finance Committee. — W. W. 

Glenny. 
TJ^per River.— J. Darell-Blount 
River Purification.— R. Buckell. 
Parliamentary. — C. Burt. 
General Purposes.— W. V. Williams. 

Chief Officers. 
Secretary. — R. Philipson. 
Engineer.— Charles J. More. 
Solicitor— W. S. Bunting. 
Harbour Masters.— London, Captain 
R. S. Pasley ; Gravesend, Captain 
F. W. Kershaw ; and a staff of 54 
inspectors, boatmen, and other 
employees engaged on the river. 
The Board emplovs 14 inspectors, 
river keepers, toll collectors, and lock 
keepers from Teddington to Batter- 
sea Bridge. Eighteen inspectors are 
employed on the River Purification 
service. A staff of 67 inspectors, 
lock keepers, and weir keepers is 
engaged in connection with the 
Upper River, from Cricklade to 
Teddington. Under the engineer is 
employed a large staff of officers and 
workmen, engaged in works of con- 
struction ana maintenance of exist- 
ing works. 



LEE CONSERVANCY. 

Offices : 12, Finsbury Circus, E.C. 

Meetings : Every Friday Fortnight, at 2.30 p.m. 



In addition to the powers of main- 
taining the navigation, the. Lee 
Conservancy Board is charged 
with the duty of preventing the 
pollution of the water of the river 
and its tributaries, extending over 
an area of about 600 square miles, 
The navigation from London to 
Hertford is 29 miles, with eighteen 
locks. 

The tolls charged come to about 
£16,000 a year, and other rents and 
licences £1,500. Rents are received 
from the Metropolitan Water Board 
amounting to £8,000. The debt of 
the Board amounts to £185,932 



4 per cent. Perpetual Debenture 
Stock, and £20,550 3* per cent. 
Redeemable Debenture Stock. 

In consequence of the pollution 
of the river oy sewage from Totten- 
ham, the Lee Purification Act of 
1886 was passed, followed by the 
Tottenham and Wood Green Sewage 
Act of 1891, under the powers of 
which the London County Council 
now receives, in consideration of a 
certain payment, the whole of the 
sewage of Tottenham and district 
into the Metropolitan sewers. The 
same has also been done with the 
sewage of West Ham. 

Chairman — R. B. Croft. 



110 Police and Orime in London. 

Appointed Members (10). Elected Members (5). 

Bedfordshire County Council — Local Authorities in Hertfordshire 

Edwin Oakley. — Edmund Broughton Barnard, 

Hertfordshire County Council — M.P. 

Richard Benyon Croft (Chair- Essex — Frederic Chaplin Edwards. 

man). Middlesex — William Delhi Cornish. 

Essex County Council — Christopher Hackney \ Poplar, and Stepney — 

George Musgrave. John Sheehan. 

Middlesex County Council — Herbert Barge-owners — Thomas Gardner. 

Nield, M.P. ^ 

London County Council— William Officers. 

Wallace Bruce and the Earl of Clerk of the Board — S. R. Hobday. 

Essex. Assistant Clerk of the Board — 
corporation of London — William Fredk. Dovey. 

Kobert Pryke. Engineer and Manager^-C. N. 
Corporation of West Ham — Richard Tween, m.i.c.e. 

White. Chief Collector— A. Glass. 

Metropolitan Water Board. — John Consulting and Analytical Cliemist 

Glass and Leslie William Spratt. — W. G. Young, f.i.c, F.C.S. 

POLICE AND* CRIME IN LONDON. 
The jurisdiction of the Metropolitan Police Force (which was established 
in 1829 to supersede the old "Charlies") extends over an area of 699 42 
square miles, and includes all districts within a fifteen miles radius 
of Charing Cross, with the exception of the City of London, where 
a separate force is maintained. The mean rateable value of the 
police area for police purposes is nearly 51 millions (£50,959,879), but 
of the enormous actual value of property in charge of the police 
xc is impossible to form any estimate. For administrative purposes 
the area is divided into twenty-one divisions, each being under 
the immediate charge of a superintendent, and the sub-divisions under 
that of inspectors. The supreme control of the force is vested in a Chief 
Commissioner (appointed by and acting under the control of the Home 
Office), who is assisted in his task by three Assistant Commissioners and 
five Chief Constables. The strength of the force at the beginning of 1907, 
was 32 superintendents, 556 inspectors, 2,325 sergeants, and 14,866 con- 
stables, giving a total of 17,779 ; out of these nearly 2,000 were retained by 
the Government for service at the- dockyards, military stations, and other 
State establishments. Under the existing system 60 per cent, of the force 
available for duty in the streets is required for night duty. Nearly 300 
mounted men patrol the more distant parts of the area, and assist in the 
inner divisions during processions and large meetings. A number of men, 
too, drawn principally from the Navy, are engaged in policeing the River 
Thames by means of boats and steam launches. The cost of maintaining 
this huge organisation is over a million and three-quarters'sterling, and the 
revenue is derived from the proceeds of a hd. rate (which in the year 1905 
brought in £1,064,726) and from a Government grant equal to a id. 
rate. The pay of the force alone, including all ranks, was £1.483,676 
Financial administration is under the control of a receiver, appointed by 
the Crown, who is responsible for the management and erection of police 
buildings, the making of contracts, and, in fact, all matters outside the 
preservation of law and order. 



Police and Grime in London. 



Ill 



During 1905, 127,317 persons were apprehended in London by the police, 
but of these only 14,497 were charged with " principal" or serious offences. 
As regards felonies relating to property, the proportion of such crime to 
the population was 2*613 per 1,000, which shows a slight decrease as com- 
pared with the figures of the two previous years. The estimated value 
of the property stolen was £181,018, an increase ot £17,142 on the previous 
year. There were 512 burglaries and 1,522 housebreakings during the 
year, booty being secured to the value of £25,810, of which £7,895 was 
recovered. The murders numbered 21, and in eleven cases the trials resulted 
in capital sentences being passed. The following tables set out the offences 
under their various heads : — 

Indictable Offences. 



Offence. 


Arrests. 


Discharged 

by 
magistrate. 


Summarily 
convicted. 


Convicted 

at 

trial. 


1. Offences against the person, such 

as murder, manslaughter, assault, 
cruelty to children, &c 

2. Offences against property with 

violence, including burglary, 
robbery and assault, &c 

3. Offences against property with- 

out violence, including larceny, 
embezzlement, false pretences, 
fraud 


741 
954 

11,912 
72 

194 
949 


192 
77 

2,491 
4 

35 
463 


6 
38 

7,315 
8 

2 
351 


390 
741 

1,744 
51 

133 
117 


4. Malicious injury to property . 

5. Forgery and offences against 

the currency 

6. Other offences, including perjury, 

libel, attempted suicide, habitual 
drunkenness 



Non- Indictable Offences. 



Offence. 



Summarily 
convicted. 




Drunkenness, Ac , 

Adulteration of food and drugs 

Assaults 

Betting and gaming 

Cruelty to children 

Cruelty to animals 

Offences against Elementary Education Acts 

Offences against Labour Laws 

Malicious damage to animals, trees, &c 

Offences against Merchant Shipping Act 

Offences against Military and Naval Laws 

Offences in parks and open spaces 

Offences against Pawnbrokers' Acts 

Offences against Police Regulations 

Offences against the Poor-Law 

Prevention of Crimes Acts 

Prostitution 

Offences in relation to railways 

Offences against Revenue Laws 

Offences against Stage and Hackney Carriage Regulations 

Stealing animals, trees, fruit, &c 

Offences against Tramway Act 

Offences against Vagrancy Acts 

Offences against Highways Acts 



7,847 
422 

E 2 



1 1 2 Police and Grime in London. 



The Licensing of Public Conveyance*, Sec. 

In addition to ordinary police duties the police force is the authority for 
the licensing" of public carriages, drivers and conductors, pedlars, chimney- 
sweeps, &c. During 1905, licences were issued in respect of the following 
vehicles : — 

6,9% two-wheeled hackney carriages. 
3,935 four-wheeled „ „ 

19 „ „ „ (mechanical power). 

3,484 omnibuses (animal power). 
241 „ (mechanical power). 
786 tramcars (animal power). 
1,124 „ (mechanical power). 

16.585 

Amongst these vehicles thsre were 1,095 new carriages. Of the total 
number of omnibuses licensed during 1905, 241 were entirely prope led by 
mechanical power, as were also 1,124 tramway cars. An inspecting staff is 
regularly employed in visiting the premises of the proprietors of public 
venicles. Hackney carriage standings provide for the accommodation 
of 7,024 carriages, irrespective of the accommodation provided in the City 
and at the railway stations. During 1905, licences were issued to 12,686 cab 
drivers, 8,643 stage drivers, and 10,084 conductor*. Of these numbers 23 
hackney drivers and 2,474 stage drivers were licensed to drive vehicles pro- 
pelled by mechanical power. Convictions for drunkenness were obtained 
against 865 licensed hackney drivers. 1,358 of the drivers of public 
conveyances are over sixty years of age, and 264 are over seventy years. 

Lost Property and Street Accidents. 

A a enormous amount of work is thrown upon the police by absent* 
minded passengers in public conveyances. During 1905, 57,820 articles 
(including 25,337 umbrellas, many purses containing over £10, bank-notes, 
and cases of jewellery and valuable dressing bags) were deposited at the 
Lost Property Office, and 26,770 of them were restored to their owners, the 
unclaimed residue being, after three months, returned to the drivers and 
c nductors who deposited them with the police. The awards paid to drivers 
and conductors during 1905 amounted to £3,509 12s. 9$d., and included 13 
payments of £5 each, five of £6, oi.e of £7, four of £8, three of £10, one of 
£25, one of £30, and one of £100. Thousands of personal applications 
were made at the office during the year, and, as showing the efforts made 
by the police to trace lost property and to obtain the whereabouts of the 
owners of property recovered, 100,171 communications were sent out by 
the Department. 

The rjolice return relating to street accidents shows that 172 persons 
met their death by being knocked down by vehicles, while 11,688 received 
injuries more or les3 severe. 206 policemen were commended by the 
Commissioner for stopping or attempting to stop runaway horses. 

METROPOLITAN POLICE FORCE. 

New Scotland Yard, S.W. 

Commissioner— Sir E. R. Henry, A. C. Bruce, £1,350; Major E. F 

K.c.v.o.,c.s.i., £2,000. Private Sec- Wodehouse, £1,200; M. L. Mac- 

retary— G. H. Edwards. naghten, £1,200. 

Assistant Commissioners — Sir Chief Cleric— C.L,Bathurst,£850 



Police and Grime in London. 



113 



. Surgeon-in-Chief — Clinton T. 
Dent, f.r.c.s., £800. 

Clerk of Accounts— A. W. Hall- 
ward, £600. 

Clerks— 1st Class : W. H. Ken- 
dall, G, H. Gardner, £500 to £600. 

Clerks— 1st Class (2nd Section) : 
EH. Underwood, D. H. North, 
£400 to £500. 

Staff Officers— B. T. Earle, S. 
Mylius, £300 to £400. 

^Clerks— 2nd Class (1st Section): 
G. H. Edwards, H. Kavenscroft, 
C. Annesley, £300 to £360. (2nd 
Section) : E. Napier, G. H. Atkin- 
son, C. Macartney-Filgate, F. C 
Barchard, M. B. Frere, Hon. Eric 
K. Thesiger, J. E. Simpson, H. A. 
Tripp, G. J. Ball, £90 to £300. 

Solicitors to the Commissioner— 
Wontner and Sons. 

Chief Constables— Lieut.-Co\. B. 
J. A. Monsell, Captain G. H. Dean, 
F. S. Bullock, C.I.E., Major E. H T 
Parsons, Col. A. H. M. Edwards! 
C.B., M.v.o., £600 to £800. 

Superintendent of the Executive 
and Statistical Branch — T. Moore. 

Superintendents of the Criminal 
Investigation Department — F 
Froest, F. Kirchner, P. Quinn, A* 
Leach. 

Superintendent of Public Carriage 
Branch— A. Bassom. 

Superintendents of Divisions— 
A (Whitehall)— C Wells. 
B (Chelsea 1 *— A. Isaac. . ^ 

C (St. James's)— J. Mann. 
D (Marylebone)— H.Bantick.' 
E (Holborn)— T. Cole. 
F (Paddington)— D. Mclntyre. 
G (Finsbury)— W. Hammond. 
H (Whitechapel)— J. Mulvany. 
J (Hackney)— C. Pearn. 



K (Bow)— J. Cameron, 
L (Lambeth)— H. Noviss. 
M (Southwark)— D. Waters. 
N (Islington)— W. Jenkins. 
P (Camberwell)— G. Carr. . 
R (Greenwich)— O. Wakeford. 
S (HaMpstead)-T. Williams. 
T (Hammersmith)— J. Powell. 

V (Wandsworth)-W. Robinson. 
W (Clapham)— C. Doyle. 

X (Kilburn)— J. Olive. 

Y (Highgate)— L. Vedy. 
Thames — W. French. Wool- 

WI ?^A Devlne - Portsmouth 
— J . W. Carter, m.v.o. Devonport 
—J. Last. Chatham— W. Smith. 
Pembroke Dock - G. Dixon 
(Chief Inspector). 

i£F% o° rce - on 24th February, 
1907- 32 Superintendents, 556 In- 
spectors 2,325 Sergeants, and 14,866 
Constables. Total, 17,779. Hordes, 

Office of the Receiver for the Metro- 
politan Police District. 

o£S& tol& Pennefather ^ 
to £8ojf Glerk ~ K ' A ' Everest, £650 

Ckrks-lst Class (1st Section) : 
M .H.Festing,£500to£600. (2nd 

^S to ^9?- (Accountant) : W. J 
Wilby, £500 to £600. 

CUrks-2nd Class (1st Section) : 
%>£?' Prvce » 0. E. Gipps, E. Eraut 
£3 « I to ,£400; A. E. Sail, b.a?g: 
H. Luf km £3Q0 to £360. (2nd 
Section): A. Flower, H. de L 
Anderson, H. H. Comyn, E K* 
O Neill, C. A. Palmer, £90 to £30o! 

Assistant Clerks— O. Bower G A 
Bracey, W. T. Brattle, J. B.' Rey- 
nolds, R. J. Hay ward, D. McG. 
Guthrie, X W. Petty, H. Day 
E. Hennig, W. E. Taylor, R. fi 
Burgess, £70 to £190. 



114 



Gentral Criminal Court. 



Solicitors— Ellis and Ellis, 5, 
Delahay-street, S.W. 

Surveyor— J. Dixon Butler, £600 
to £750. 

2nd Surveyor— F. King, £360 to 
£500. 

Assistant Surveyors — A. Howell, 
S. A. Braam, £210 to £300. 

Clerks of the Works— N. Baker, 



T. Longstreeth, J. R. M'Intosh> 
J. S. Ham, £150 to £220. 

Storekeeper— Hi. H. Hinson, £250 
to £300. 

Inspector of Clothing and Equip- 
ments— G. Burton, £275. 

Draughtsmen — A. Hodges, A. 
Ferris, J. Tharp, C. Battie, £150 to 
£210. 



THE CITY POLICE. 

Chief Office: 26, Old Jewry, E.C. 

The City of London enjoys the distinction of possessing the only 
purely municipal police force in the country. The Corporation maintains 
a force of 1,001 men, comprising 48 inspectors of various grades, 86 
sergeants, and 865 constables. The force is under the control of a Com- 
missioner, who is appointed by the Corporation subject to the approval of 
the Sovereign. The total cost of the force "is about £113,000 per annum* 
one-fourth of which is paid from the City's Cash, and the remainder by a 
rate of 5£d. on the assessable rental of the City. About 214 men are daily 
engaged in the task of regulating traffic. 

Commissioner — Captain J. W. Central District. 

Nott Bower. Cloak-lane and Moor-lane sta- 

Assistant Commissioner — Captain tions. 



D. Bremner. 
Surgeon — F. Gordon Brown, 

M.R.C.S. 

Receiver — John W. Carlyon- 
Hughes. 

Superintendent of the Executive 
Department— Julius Fitzgerald. 

Superintendent and Chief Clerk 
— Frank Francis. 

Superintendent (Detective)— John 
Stark. 



Chief Inspector— A. J. Nicholls. 
Western District. 

Snow-hill and Bridewell-place 
stations. 

Chief Inspector— W. Marshall. 

Eastern District. 

Bishopsgate and Minories sta- 
tions. 

Chief Inspector— D. Hayes. 



CENTRAL CRIMINAL COURT. 
Old Bailey, E.C. 

The Court has jurisdiction over all treasons, murders, felonies, and misde- 
meanours committed within the City of London and counties of London 
and Middlesex and certain portions of the counties of Essex, Kent, and 
Surrey. Offences committed on the high seas within the jurisdiction 
of the Admiralty Court'are also tried at this court. The Justices in the 
Commission are the Lord Mayor of the City of London, the Lord 
Chancellor, the Lord Chief Justice of England, the Judges of his Majesty s 



London Police Courts. 



115 



High Court of Justice, the Dean of the Arches, the Aldermen, Recorder, 
and Common Serjeant of the City of London, and the Judges of the City 
of London Court. 

Clerk of the Court— R. K. Avory. Deputy-Clerk — H. A. Bead. 



COUNTY OF LONDON QUARTER SESSIONS. 

All cases arising on the north side of the Thames are tried at the 
Sessions House, ulerkenwell Green ; and cases on the south side at the 
Sessions House, Newington Causeway. 



Chairman of the County Quarter 
Sessions— Robert Wallace, K.o. 

Deputy-Chairman — R. Loveland- 
Loveland, K.c, d.l. 

Clerk cf Peace for the County of 
London — Sir Rich. Nicholson, p.s.a., 



Sessions House, Clerkenwell, E.C. 
and Sessions House, Newington, 
S.E. 

Deputy— J. Dix, Sessions House, 
Clerkenwell, E.C, and Sessions 
House, Newington, S.E. 



POLICE COURTS. 



bow street. 

Covent Garden. 
Magistrates— Sir Albert deRutzen, 
£1,800; R. H. B. Marsham, £1,500; 
E. N. F. Fenwick, £1,500. 

Chief Clerk— H. P. Newton, £470 
to £700. 

clerkenwell. 

King's Cross Road. 

Magistrates — J. R. W. Bros, 
£1,500; E. C. T. d'Eyncourt,£l,500. 

Chief Clerk- O. Wheeler, £420 to 
£650. 

GREENWICH AND WOOLWICH. 

Magistrates — E. Baggallayi 
£1,500 A. H. Hutton, £1,500. 
Chief Clerk— J. Nixon, £420 to 

£650. 

guildhall. 

(City Corporation.) 

Magistrate — An Alderman, in 
rotation. 

Chief Clerk- H. G. Savill, £1,000. 

Assistant Clerk— S. Richards, 
£650. 

Cashier— J. H. Major, £250. 

Clerk of Special Sessions— C. F. 
Monckton. 



Assistant Clerk of Special Sessions 
-C. Fitch. 

LAMBETH. 

Lower Kennington Lane. 

Magistrates — A. A. Hopkins, 
£1,500; C. K. Francis, £1,500. 

Chief Clerk- T. C. Martin, £420 
to £650. 

mansion house justice room. 

(City Corporation.) 

Magistrate — The Lord Mayor, or 
one of the Aldermen. 

a/uefG7erfc-C.G.Douglas,£l,150. 

Assistant Clerk— J. G. Trotter, 
&'50. 

uashier— R. A. Warren, £350. 

MARLBOROUGH STREET. 

Magistrates — G. G. Kennedy, 
£1,500; S. L. Denman, £1,500. 

Chief Clerk— S. Savill, £420 to 
£650. 

marylebone. 
Seymour Place. 

Magistrates — A. C. Plowden, 
£1,500; G. Paul Taylor, £1,500. 

Chief Clerk— W. Crow, £420 to 
£650. 



116 



London County Courts. 



north london. 

Stoke Newington Eoad. 
Magistrate — E. S. Fordham, 
£1,500. 

Chief Clerk— F. G. Nott Bower, 
£420 to £650. 

OLD STREET. 

Magistrates— A. R. Cluer, £1,500; 
H. C. Biron, £1,500. 

Chief Clerk— A. B. Halle, £420 
to £650. 

SOUTH -WESTERN . 

Lavender Hill, S.W. 

Magistrate— The Hon. J. de Grey, 
£1 500. 

Chief Clerk- G. A. Bird, £420 to 
£650. 

THAMES. 

East Arbour Street, Stepney. 

Magistrates— F. Mead, £1,500; J. 
Dickinson, £1,500. 

Chief Clerk-F. H. Glanville, 
£420 to £650. 



TOWER BRIDGE. 

Borough High Street. 

Magistrates — J. Rose, £1,500 ; 0. 
M. Chapman, £1,500. 

Chief Clerk— H. Nairn, £420 to 
£650. 

WEST HAHI. 

West Ham Lane, Stratford. 
Magistrate — R. A. Gillespie, 
£1,000. 
Chief Clerk— W. H. Fowler, £900. 

WEST LONDON. 

Vernon St., West Kensington. 

Magistrates — R. O. B. Lane, K.C., 
£1,500; E. W. Garrett, £1,500. 

Chief Clerk— F. E. Lowris, LL.B., 
£420 to £650. 

westminster. 

Vincent Square. 

Magistrates— H. Curtis Bennett, 
£1,500; Horace Smith, £1,500. 

Chief Clerk-FL. Titterton, £420 
to £650. 



LONDON COUNTY COURTS. 
Office Hours: Daily, 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. : Saturdays, 10a.m. to 1 p.m. 
bloohisbury. 
Great Portland Street, 
Regent's Park, W. 



CITY OF LONDON. 

See " City Corporation." 



Judge*— F. H. Bacon, £1,500. 
Registrar— E. Huelin. 
High Bailiff— James Bacon. 

BOW. 

Bow Road, Bow, E. 

Judge*— His Honour Judge W. 
Cecil Smyly, K.c. 

Registrar— F. W. R. Hore. 

High Bailiff— C. J. R. Tijou. 
broripton. 
17, Whitehead's Grove, Chelsea 

Judge* — Sir W. Lucius Selfe. 

Registrar— F. K. Taylor. 

High Bailiff— S. W. Merry. 

* Sits in other Courts 



CLERKENWELL. 

33, Duncan Terrace, Islington. 
Judge— J. B. Edge, £1,500. 
Registrar— B. TJ. Eddis. 
High Bailiff— W. Y. Hucts. 

GREENWICH. 

Burney Street, Greenwich, S.E. 

Judge*— Wm.Willis, K.c, £1,500. 

Registrar and High Bailiff — 
C. Pitt-Taylor. 

LAMBETH. 

Camberwell New Road, S.E. 
Judge— A. Emden, £1,500. 
Registrar and Acting High 
Bailiff— W. B. Pritchard. 
; inclusive salary. 



London Petty Sessional Divisions and Courts. 



11? 



HIARYLEBONE. 

179, Marylebone Eoad, N.W. 
Judge* -r Sir W. Lucius Selfe, 
£1,600. 
Registrar — James Curtis. 
High Bailiff— J. S. Francis. 

SHOREDITCH. 

221, Old Street, E.C. 
Judge*— W. Cecil Smyly, K.c. 
Registrar— E. E. Wickham. 
High Bailiff— H. Grimsdall. 
south war k. 
Swan St., Trinity St., Borough. 
Judge*— W. Willis, K.c, £1,500. 
Registrar— T. K. Bros. 
High Bailiff— G. J. K. Richards. 

WANDSWORTH. 

South Street. 
Judge* — Hon. Arthur Bussell, 
£1,500. 



Registrar and High Bailiff — 
W. A. Willoughby. 

WESTMINSTER. 

34, Lincoln's Inn Fields, W.C. 
Judge— E. Woodfall, £1,500. 
Registrars— C. B. Cuff and C. E. 
Cuff. 
High Bailiff— Stanley L. Giffard. 

WHITECHAPEL. 

Great Prescot Street, E. 
Judge* — His Honour Judge 
Bacon, £1,500. 
Registrar— M. B. Webb, J.P. 
High Bailiff— F. White. 



WOOLWICH. 

Town Hall, Woolwich, S.E. 
Judge*— W. Willis, K.c, £1,500. 
Registrar and High Bailiff — 
C. Pitt-Taylor. 

Site in other Courts ; inclusive Salary. 



PETTY SESSIONAL DIVISIONS AND COURTS. 

There are about 300 Justices of the Peace in London, and 17 Petty 
Sessional Divisions where courts are held by magistrates for the transaction 
of various business. Their duties are of various kinds — to license public- 
houses, beer-houses, refreshment-houses, billiard-rooms, to grant off- 
licences and game-licences. In most Divisions they hear summonses taken 
out under the following Acts : — Weights and Measures, Bread, Explosives, 
Infant Life Protection* Food and Drugs, Public Health, Industrial 
Schools, Metropolitan Local Management, and, in some cases, rate- 
summonses. Tney hear appeals under the Valuation Act, revise the Jury 
List, hear cases under the Lunacy Act, appoint overseers, etc. Probably 
in no two instances is the exact scope of business of the courts the same. 



BLACKHEATH. 

The Town Hall, Greenwich. 

(Offices: 52, Croom's Hill, 
Greenwich.) 

Cleric— J.Batchelor, £533. 

Business Transacted. — Licensing : 
Public - houses, Beer -houses, Off. 
licences, Billiards, Game, Appeals 
under Valuation (Metropolis; Act, 
1869. Bevision of Jury Lists. 
Summonses; Weights and Mea- 
sures Acts, 



FINSBURY. 

Sessions House, Clerkenwell. 
(Offices: 23, Gordon Street, 
Gordon Square, W.C.) 
Clerk— K. P. Bodkin, £496. 

Business Transacted.— Licensing: 
Public - houses, Beer - houses, Off* 
licences, Game, Billiards. Appeals 
under Valuation (Metropolis) Act, 
1§69. Revision of Jury Lists. Pav- 
ing Cases (Islington), _ Summonses; 



118 



London Petty Sessional Divisions and Courts. 



Weights and Measures Act, Bread 
Act. 

hampstead. 
In the Holborn PettySessional 

Division. 
Police Station, Rosslyn Hill 
(Offices : Town Hall, Haver- 
stock Hill,.N.W.) 
Clerk— H. E. Bridger. 
Business Transacted—Takes the 
same business as an ordinary Police 
Court for that portion of Hamp- 
stead north of St. Stephen's Parish 
Church. The licensing of Public- 
houses, <fcc, for Hampstead is 
carried out by the Justices sitting 
at Holborn. 

hanover square. 

St. George's (Hanover Square) 

Hall, Mount Street, W. 
(Offices : 7, Savile Place, W.) 
Clerk— W. Hitchins. 
Business Transacted. — Licensing : 
Public - houses, Beer -houses, On- 
licences, Billiards, Game, Assess- 
ment Appeals, &c. 

HOLBORN. 

Town Hall, Holbcrn. 
(Offices: 23, Gordon Street, 

Gordon Square, W.C.) 
Clerk— W. Scadding, £236. 
Business Transacted. — Licensing : 
Public-houses, Beer-houses, Off- 
licences, Billiards, Game. Appeals 
under Valuation (Metropolis) Act, 
1869. Revision of Jury Lists. Sum- 
monses : Weights and Measures 
Acts, Bread Act. 

kensington. 

Town Hall, Kensington. 
(Offices : 159, Holland Road.) 

Clerk— J. Pearce, £600. 

Business Transacted. — Licensing: 
Public - houses, Beer -houses, Off- 
licences, Billiards, Game, Refresh- 
ment-houses. Cases under Lunacy 
Acts. Summonses : Weights ana 



Measures Acts, Bread Act, Explo- 
sives Acts, Infant Life Protection 
Acts, Food and Drugs Acts, Public 
Health ('91) Acts, Metropolitan 
Local Management Acts, and Ele- 
mentary Education Act. 

NEWINGTON. 

Sessions House, Newington 

Causeway. 

(Offices: Town Hall 

Chambers, Borough, S.E.) 

Clerk— G. C. Whiteley, £1,258. 

Business Transacted. — Licensing: 
Public - houses, Beer -houses, Off- 
licences, Billiards, Game, Appeals 
under Valuation (Metropolis) Act, 
1869. Agricultural Rates Act. 
Revision of Jury Lists. Sum- 
monses: Weights and Measures 
Acts, Bread Act. 

paddington. 

Town Hall, Harrow Road. 

(Offices: Sessions House, 
Clerkenwell.) 

Clerk— E. W. Beal, £113. 

Business Transacted. — Licensing: 
Public -houses, Beer-houses, Wine- 
houses, Off - licences, Billiards, 
Game, and occasional licences, 
The reduction of licences under the 
Compensation Provisions of the 
Act of 1904. Appeals under Valua- 
tion (Metropolis) Act 1869, and the 
Agricultural Rates Act, 1896. Re- 
vision of Jury Lists. Stopping up 
Highways under Michael Angelo 
Taylor's Act. Revising Parliamen- 
tary Polling Districts. Sum- 
monses: Weights and Measures 
Acts, Bread Act. 

st. james, westminster. 

Vestry Hall, Piccadilly. 
(Offices : 17, Carlisle Street, 

Soho Square.) 
Clerk— J. R. C. Rotton, £180. 
Business Transacted. — Granting 
Licences for Public -houses, Beer- 



London Petty Sessional Divisions and (hurts. 



119 



houses, Off-licences, Billiards, Game 
dealers. Appeals under Valuation 
(Metropolis) Act, 1869. Revision 
of Jury Lists. 

st. margaret, westminster. 

Caxton Hall, Caxton Street. 

(Offices : 23, Abingdon Street, 

Westminster.) 

Clerk— L. H. Wiockworth, £95. 

Business Transacted. — Licensing: 
Public -houses, Beer -houses, On- 
licences, Billiards, Game. 

st. hiarylebone. 

Town Hall, Marylebone Lane. 
(Offices: Town Hall.) 

Clerk— E. E. Greenwell. 

Business Transacted. — Licensing : 
Public -houses, Beer -houses, Off- 
licences, Billiards, Game. Appeals 
under Valuation (Metropolis) Act 
1869. Revision of Jury Lists. 
Summonses : Weights and Measures 
Acts, Bread Act, and General 
Rates. 

st. pancras. 

St. Pancras Town Hall, 

Pancras Road, N.W. 

(Offices: 23, Gordon Street, 

Gordon Square, W.C.) 

Clerk- W. Scadding, £354. 

Business Transacted. — Licensing : 
Public- houses, Beer -houses, Off- 
licences, Billiards, Game. Appeals 
under Valuation (Metropolis) Act, 
1869. Revision of Jury Lists. Sum- 
monses : Weights and Measures 
Acts, Bread Act. 

STOKE NEWINCTON. 

St. Mary's Church Rooms, 
Defoe Road. 

(Offices.- Waltham Abbey.) 

Clerk- H. Gough, £30. 

Business Transacted. — Licensing : 
Public- houses, Beer -houses, Off- 
licences, Game. Appeals under 
Valuation (Metropolis) Act, 1869, 
Revision of Jury Lists. 



STRAND. 

Westminster City Hall, Char- 
ing Cross Road, W.C. 
(Offices : 8, New Inn, Ald- 
wych, W.C.) 

Clerk— C. Isaacson, £128. 

Business Transacted. — Licensing: 
Public - houses, Beer - houses, Off- 
licences, Game, Billiards, Refresh- 
ment-houses. Appeals under Valu- 
ation (Metropolis) Act, 1869. Revi- 
sion of Jury Lists. 

TOWER. 

Shoreditch Town Hall, Old 
Street, E.C. 

(Offices: Tower Chambers, 
Moorgate, E.C.) 

Clerk-K W. Beal, £1,201. 

Business Transacted. — Licensing : 
Public-houses, Beer-houses, Wine- 
houses, Off-licences, Billiards, Game 
and occasional licences. Appeals 
under Valuation (Metropolis) Act, 
1869, Agricultural Rates Act, 1896. 
Revision of Jury Lists. Stopping 
up Highways under Michael Angelo 
Taylor's Act. Summonses : Weights 
and Measures Acts, Bread Act 
Petty Sessions. 

Summonses under the Elementary 
Education Acts are heard at Petty 
Sessions held at the Town Hall, 
Hackney, N.E.* Vestry Hall, St. 
George's, E. ; Guardians offices, 
Mile End, E., Town Hall, Poplar, E. 

wandsworth. 

County Court, South Street, 

Wandsworth. 

(Offices: 64, East Hill.) 

Clerk— H. N. Corsellis, £253. 

Business Transacted.— Licensing: 
Public - houses, Beer -houses, Off- 
licences, Billiards, Game. Revi- 
sion of Jury Lists. Appeals 
under Valuation (Metrojjolis) Act, 
1869. Summonses : Weights and 
Measures Acts, Bread Act, Rates. 
Hearing, Ac. Rate Summonses. 



$tfrer Central #rirfjftt& 



LONDON TRAMWAYS.; 

All legislation relating to the improvement of the. transit facilities in 
London was " hung up " during the earlier part of the sitting of a Eoyal 
Commission, appointed in March, 1903. The Commissioners were :— Sir 
David M. Barbour, K.C.M.G. (chairman), Viscount Cobham, Lord 
Bibblesdale, Sir Joseph Dimsdale, M.P., Sir John Poynder Dickson- 
Poynder, M.P., Sir Eobert T. Reid, M.P., Sir F. J. S. Sopwood (Permanent 
Secretary to the Board of Trade), Sir John Wolfe Barry, F.R.S., Sir S. C. 
Trout Bartley, M.P., Messrs. C. S. Murdoch, F. Schuster, and S. Gibb. 
The Secretary to the Commission is Mr. L. L. Macassey. 
The terms of reference were as follows : — 

(a) To report as to the measures which they deem most effectual for the improve- 
ment .... by the development and inter-connection of railways and tram- 
ways on or below the surface, by increasing the facilities for other forms of 
mechanical locomotion by better provision for the organisation and regulation of 
vehicular and pedestrian traffic or otherwise ; and 

(6) As to the desirability of establishing some authority or tribunal to which all 
schemes of railway or tramway construction of a local character should be referred, 
and the powers which it would be advisable to confer upon such a body. 

The evidence before the Commission has been productive of the following 
facts : — 

(1) The differences between the various authorities, and in some 
cases direct action by Parliament, are chiefly responsible for the poor 
tramway accommodation in London as compared with provincial towns. 

(2) The powers of control by local authorities over railway companies 
should be considerably strengthened, and in all matters affecting public 
streets such control snould be absolute. 

(3) A transformation from residential to business occupation is rapidly 
going on in all districts adjacent to the city. This is resulting in the 
whole of the business population having to travel considerable distances ; 
but unless the fares charged to the workmen are such as they can afford to 
pay they will endeavour to live near their employment, overcrowding and 
unhealthy surroundings resulting. 

(4) The present evils arising from the continual breaking-up of streets 
are due in a large decree to the practice which has been adopted by Parlia- 
ment in giving to private companies powers which, in effect, go behind 
legislation on this subject. No less than 42 different authorities, without 
taking- into account all the tube railway companies and the borough 
councils, have statutory power to break up streets, and the restrictions 
regulating the exercise of such powers are very inconsistent. 

The report of the Commission was issued towards the end of June, 1905. 
The Commissioners took into consideration not merely the County of 



London Tramways. 1 2 1 



London but a " Greater London," 692 square miles in extent, and having 
at the 1901 census 6i m Uion inhabitants. For the purpose of relieving 
overcrowding in the central portion they indicate the necessity of means 
for taking the population in and out of London in manv directions at 
rapid speel, frequent internals, and cheap rates. What they suggest as 
an ideal scheme is the construction of railways in London for the purpose 
of long-distance urban traffic, and of railways radiating to the suburbs for 

{mrposes of suburban traffic, the railways in both urban and suburban 
ocaiities being connected with tramways for short-distance distribution, 
the widening of existing and provision of new streets for local urban 
traffic, the regulation of street traffic to prevent or reduce congestion, 
and the provision of complete facilities for passenger interchange. 

This section of the report is followed by the recommsndation of a system 
of street improvements to be carried out upon a carefully thought-out 
plan, and the construction "forthwith" of certain main avenues 140ft. 
wide, first-class interval streets, 100ft. wide, second, third, and fourth-class 
streets, respectively 80, 60, and 40 or 50ft. wide. 

In considering tramway facilities comment is made on the absence of 
through communication, but the Commissioners think that on suitable routes 
tramways will continue to be the most efficient and the cheape *t means 
of street conveyance, and cannot recommend the postponement of 
tramway extension in London on the ground of any visible prospect of 
the supersession of tramways by motor omnibuses. Then they go on to 
say that they are so convinced of the urgent necessity for tramway 
accommodation in London that tramways should be laid down in several 
important thoroughfares not now served in this way. They even recom- 
mend surface tramways in the city where practicable, and emphasise the 
need of through-running powers over the various systems. They also 
urge the need of consolidating tramway and light railway legislation, and 
in order to be quit of the haphazard manner in which questions connected 
with the means of locomotion and transport in London have hitherto been 
dealt with, they recommend the establishment of a Traffic Board, as a 
permanent authority, possessed of special knowledge and experience, and 
giving continuous attention to all questions affecting locomotion and 
transport in London. Its mo3t important function would be the pre- 
liminary examination before consideration by Parliament of Bills seeking 
statutory powers for the construction or extension of works affecting the 
means of locomotion and transport in Greater London. In making their 
concrete proposals the Commissioners had the assistance of an Advisory 
Board of Engineers. 

The following were the views expressed by the London County Council 
regarding the proposed special tribunal : — 

That a permanent Tribunal ba established -(a) to conudar all tuba and other 
railway schemes of a local character which may ba proposed ; (6) to consider and 
guggest alternative schemes, or extensions of such schemes, so as to brin? all 
schemes into conformity with some uniform and comprehensive plan of traiwt 
throughout London; and (c) with power to issue Provisional Orders to ba subject 
to confirmation by Parliament. 

That the Tribunal be empowered to insert clauses in Provisional Orders. That 
it be empowered, after an inquiry, and upon the application of a public authority 
or pnblfc Authorities, to issue such Order or Orders revising the terms and con- 
ditions under which an undertaking is worked or requiring furthor f-nilit'us to 



122 London Tramways. 



meet public requirements to be provided, and to submit such Order or Orders to 
Parliament for confirmation. 

That the powers of the London County Council as the local tramway authority 
shall not come within the jurisdiction of the Tribunal ; the Council being recognised 
as the sole authority for the construction of all tramways, whether surface or under- 
ground, in London, and retaining its present power to promote Bills dealing with 
the same without being obliged to obtain the consent of the road authorities to the 
introduction of such Bills. m 

Existing Tramways. 

Of the 128* miles of tramways now constructed in London, the London 
County Council owns 119 miles. On the north of the river 48 miles, till 
recently leased to the Metropolitan Electric Tramways, Limited, 
have now been taken over and are being worked by the Council. 
This northern system is now being converted to electric traction. The 
Council opened last year a short length of shallow underground tram- 
way from the southern end of Aldwych to Southampton Row, with a 
connection to the northern system via Theobald's-road to the Angel, 
Islington, the whole section being electrified. South of the Thames the 
Council owns and works upwards of 60 miles. The first " over-bridge " 
trams were those from Victoria to various parts of South London, via 
the new Yauxhall Bridge. The bridge was opened in June, 1906, and the 
tramways some weeks later. Westminster Bridge was crossed by tram- 
ways for the first time by the public on 15th December, 1906, on the opening 
of the Embankment route. The City Corporation early in 1907 com- 
menced the work of widening Blackfriars Bridge in order that it may 
carry the Council's tramways. 

The Council's first electric tramcar was driven from Westminster Bridge 
to Tooting on 15th May, 1903, by the Prince of Wales. 

The cost of the Westminster to Tooting lines was as follows : — 

Rails and road work 

Cars (6'1 to the mile) 

Power station and cables 

Sub-stations 

Car sheds and workshops 

Incidentals, including consulting engineer's commission 
and proportion of salaries of Council's officers 

£440 110 £26,836 

The principal contractors for this work were Messrs. J. Gr. White 
and Co., Limited, Messrs. Walter Scott, and Messrs. Dick, Kerr 
and Co., Limited. 

Both double-deck cars on bogies, and single-deck cars are employed- 
" Top-covers " have been largely introduced. The total length of the cars 
varies from 30ft. to 33ft., according to the type. Each car holds about 
twenty- six or twenty-eight passengers seated inside, and about thirty-six 
or thirty-eight passengers seated on the roof, or fifty-six to sixty-four in 
all. Each car carries two independent motors of the geared type, one on 
each bogie, both motors being started and controlled from the front 
platform of the car. These motors are of 35 h.-p. each, sufficient to 
propel the car at a speed of twelve miles an hour. 

Practically all the lines in the county of London have been acquired by 
the Council. The only exceptions are four miles belonging to the London 



Total. 


Bate per mile. 


£224,020 


£13,660 


72,500 


4,420 


74,000 


4,510 


20,600 


1,255 


34,000 


2,075 


15,000 


915 



London Tramways, 123 



United Tramways Company, and the Harrow-road and Paddington lines, 
two miles in length, the lease of which expires in 1907. 

Electric Traction. 

About 51 route miles of the Council's tramways are worked by elec- 
tricity, of which about 21 miles have been openea since 1st April, 1906, 
while about eight miles on the north of the Thames, and one mile on the 
south of the Thames are in course of electrification. 

The electric lines on the Southern system consist of about 45£ miles, and 
the lines opened since 1st April, 1906, both new and reconstructed tramways 
are as follows: — 

Miles. 
Vauxhall Station, via Vauxhall Bridge and Vauxhall Bridge-road, to Victoria 
Station lj 

Greenwich Terminus to Blackwall Tunnel 1 

Greenwich Terminus, via Woolwich -road, to Tunnel Avenue J 

New Cross-road to Obelisk, Lewisham (opened 30th January, 1906) 1J 

Obelisk, Lewisham, to Catford 1| 

Tooting, via Garratt-lane, to Wandsworth 2| 

Wandsworth, via York-road, Battersea Park-road, and Albert Embankment, 

to Westminster, including lines in Falcon-road to Clapham Junction, and 

in Lambeth-road to St. George's-circus 6 

Camberwell-green, via Dog Kennel-hill, Grove-vale and Lordship-lane, to the 

Dulwich Library 2i 

Westminster, via Westminster Bridge and Victoria-embankment, to John 

Carpenter-street, near Blackfriars Bridge 1 

The electric lines on the Northern system consist of about 5$ miles, and 
are as follows : — 

Miles. 
Aldwych, via the Tramway Subway, &c., to the Angel, Islington, opened in 

February, 1906 1| 

Angel, Islington, to Highbury Railway Station 1 

Aldgate, via Commercial-road and East India Dock-road 3 

The Council's electricity generating-station is situated on the river at 
East Greenwich. The first portion of the station, having a capacity of 
14,000 kilowatts, was opened in May, 1906, and has enabled the use of 
certain temporary stations to be dispensed with. The erection and equip- 
ment of the second portion of the station, which will have a greatei 
capacity, is now being proceeded with, Car-sheds for electric cars have 
been built at New Cross, Clapham, Camberwell, Streatham, and Wands- 
worth on the south side, and at Poplar and Stamford Hill on the north 
side of the Thames. Sub-stations have been erected at Elephant and 
Castle, Clapham, Brixton, New Cross, Camberwell, Greenwich, Streatham, 
Wandsworth, and Battersea on the south side of the Thames, while others 
have been or are being built at Limehouse, Shoreditch, Mildmay Park, 
and Holborn on the north side of the Thames. The electrification of 4 
extensive further lines is in contemplation. 

What the Council has Done. 

The effect of the ownership of London's tramways by London's Council 
has been to benefit not only the general body of ratepayers, but also the 
tramway employees. Both the services and the status of the workmen 



124 London Tramways, 



have been improved. A brief enumeration of the advantages conferred 
upon London in both these directions is as follows : 

(1) The relief of rates from the profits of the undertaking. 

(2) The Institution of all-night car services. 

(3) The running of workmen's cars at reduced fares 

(4) Reduced fares for ordinary passengers on many of the prin- 
cipal routes. 

(5) The removal of advertisements from the windows of the cars. 

(6) The Institution of a ten -hours day (or sixty hours per week) 
for all tramway employees. 

(7) The recognition of the principle of "one day's rest In seven." 

(8) Increased wages for employees. 

O) Provision of uniforms for drivers and conductors. 

Workmen's Wages. 

The Tramways Department employs about 7,250 persons on weekly or 
daily wages, and a large number on yearly salaries or fixed wages. The 
regulators are paid 42s. to 44s. weekly, ana the rates of pay to motormen, 
car-drivers and conductors are 4s. 9d. to 6s. 6d. per day. Each man is 
allowed a uniform coat, an overcoat, and two caps per year. The district 
inspectors are paid 45s. per week ; the ticket inspectors 428. per week ; the 
nignt inspectors, 32s. to 45s. ; the deputy night inspectors, 39s. ; track 
cleaners, 25s. ; trace boys, 14s. to 18s. ; point shifters, 24s. ; and shifters. 
20s. to 25s. 

Finances. 

Southern System. — The capital expended upon the undertaking 
up to the 31st March, 1906, which then consisted of 53| miles, was 
£3,226,427 7s, Id. The outstanding debt on the 31st March, 1906, amounted 
to £2,768,635 10s. Id., the sum of £302,193 4s. 4>d. having been repaid out 
of revenue. 

£ s. d. 
The total receipts on revenue account for the year amounted to ... 782,210 5 2 
And the working expenses amounted to 561,755 17 2 

Leaving a sum of £220,454 8. 

to be carried to the nett revenue account as the profit on working. 

The debt charges for the year amount to £174,863 14*. 4d., and in 
addition a sum of £270 16s. 8a. was written off the special outlay account 
(London. Camberwell and Dulwich lines). After meeting these charges, 
providing a sum of £8,000 for income tax, and transferring £35,000 to the 
renewals and reserve fund, there remained a net surplus of £2,319 17s. 
carried to the appropriation account. 

Northern System.— The capital expended on the Northern system 
up to 31st March, 1906, was £1,118,166 3s. 3d., of which £239,259 16s. Id. 
represents the expenditure in connection with electric traction. The out- 
standing debt on 31st March, 1906, amounted to £983,282 4s. 10d., the sum 
of £134,833 18s. hd. having been repaid out of revenue. 

Separate revenue accounts have oeen prepared for (a) the lines leased 
to the North Metropolitan Tramways Company, and the electric lines in 
Archway-road (| mile), worked since December, 1905, by the Metropolitan 
Electric Tramways, Limited, under licence fiom the Council, and (b) the 
Aid wych- Angel electric lines (If miles), which were opened on 24th 
February, 1905, and are worked by the Council. 



London Tramways. 



125 



As regards the lines not worked by the Council, the receipts by way of 
rent were as follows : — 

£ s. d. 

From the North Metropolitan Tramways Company 61,740 17 4 

From the Metropolitan Electric Tramways, Limited 371 17 4 

From tenants of property in Parkhurst-road 29868 

£62,411 1 4 
The expenditure, including £587 12s. 8d. for doubling lines and lay- 
ing new crossovers, and £253 lis. Id. in connection with assess- 
ment appeals, amounted to ... 1,458 17 7 

Leaving a surplus balance of £60,952 3 9 

The debt charges for the year amounted to £35,695 9a. 6d. t leaving a 
surplus balance carried to Appropriation Account of £25,255 148. 3d. 

In the year 1904, when only the lines leased to the North Metropolitan 
Tramways 0( znpany were in operation, the gross surplus was £58,938 
16*. 5d., and the nett surplus £22,836 la. Id. 

As regards the Aldwych- Angel line, which up to 31st March, 1906, was 
working for five weeks only, the receipts amounted to £2,393 lis. 4d., and 
the working expenses to £2,075 19s. 10d., leaving a surplus on working of 
£317 11*. (yd. The proportion of debt charges for the period amounted to 
£1,060, resulting in a net deficiency of £742 8$. Qi. 

MI lease, &c. 

The cars on the Southern tramways ran 15,578, 793 miles, and the number 
of passengers carried amounted to 183,512,421, the division between horse 
and electric traction being as follows : — 

1903-4. 1904-5. 1905-6. 

Horse trac^ on 79,787,245 ... 38,563,280 ... 41,666,866 

Electric traction 53,351,840 ... 126,255,280 ... 141,845,555 

133,139,085 164,818,560 183,512,421 

The following tables show the total receipts, passengers carried, mileage, 
<fec, as compared with the three previous years : — 

v . rp 19021903.., 1903-1904. 1904-1905. 1905-1906. 

aie * Passengers, p.c. Passengers, p.c. Passengers, p.c. Passengers, p.c. 

id. ... 38,941,062... 36*00 ...49,434,896... 37*13 ...59,271,654 ...35*97 ... 61,540,107 ... 3353 

Id. ... 55,111,157 ... 50*00 ... 64,310,117 ... 48-30 ... 77,630,645 ... 4710 ... 89,003,353 ... 48*50 

lid.... 9,384,133... 8*00 ... 11,336,303 ... 8*51 ... 15,036,988 ... 9*12 ...16,696,824 ... 910 

2d. ... 5,028,995 ... 5'00 ... 6,215,478 ... 4*67 ... 8,261,892 ... 5*01 ... 10,346,028 ... 5*64 

2|d. ... — ... — ... 193,147... 0-15... 1,946,256... 1*18 ... 2,844,447 ... 1*55 

3d. ... 1,150,149 ... TOO ... 1,649,144 ... 1'24 ... 2,671,125 ... 1*62 ... 3,081,661 ... 1*68 

109,615,496 100-00 133,139,085 100*00 164,818,560 10000 183.512,421 100*00 

1902-1903. 1903-1904. 1904-1905. 1905-1906. 

Total receipts £444,698 ... £536,239 ... £682,095 ... £782,210 

Traffic receipts 425,895 ... 516,487 ... 663,922 ... 758,926 

Passengers carried ... 109,615,496 ... 133.139,085 ... 164,818,560 ... 183,512,421 

Mileage run 10,110,940 ... 11,536,534 ... 14,081,397 ... 15,578,793 

Receipts per passenger *93d. ... *93d. ... -97d. ... *99d. 
Total receipts per car- 
mile (horse) 10*55d. ... 10'51d. ... 10.19d. ... 10*91d. 

Total receipts per car- 
mile (electric) — ... 1216d. ... 12"04d. ... 12*37d. 

On the general account the capital expenditure on 31st March, 1906, 
amounted to' £54 4,018 5a. Id. for generating stations, &c. The expenses 
on reyenue account and the debt charges on the capital expenditure, less 



126 



Advertisement. 




London Tramways. 



127 



miscellaneous receipts, leave a nett charge of £25,573 8a. to be carried to 
the appropriation account. 

Capital expenditure of £85,399 4a. Id., £29,505 7a. 5d, and £38,100, or a 
total of £153,004 11*. 6d., has up to 31st March, 1906, been charged to the 
Southern tramways system, Northern system, and General Account respec- 
tively. Most of these improvements are not yet completed. 

The appropriation account summarises the nett results for the year 
1905-6, which compare with those of 1904-5 as follows : — 



Balance from previous year 
Results- 
Southern system 

Northern system- 
Leased and licensed lines 
Aldwych-Angel line 
General account 

Surplus balance carried 



1905-6. 

Surplus ( + ) 

or deficiency ( - ) . 

£ s. d. 
+29,988 12 2 

+2,319 17 

. +25,256 14 3 

-742 8 6 

. -25,573 8 

. £31,249 6 11 



1904-5. 
Surplus ( + ) 
or deficiency (-). 

£ s. d. 
+ 18,565 7 

+7,054 9 10 

+ 22,836 1 1 

-18,466 19 4 

£29,988 12 2 



Financial Record. 

The following is a financial record of the Council's tramways since their 
commencement : — 







Year's Results. 








Tear. 


Balance 
brought 
forward. 


Surplus (+) or Deficiency (-). 


Total 
(incl'ding 
balance). 


Carried 

to 

Relief of 

Rate. 


Balance 
carried 
forward. 






South. 


North. General. 


Total. 










£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


1894-5 ... 


— 


— 


+ 1,121 


— 


+ 1,121 


1,121 


— 


1,121 


1895-6 ... 


1,121 


— 


+ 2,659 


— 


+ 2,659 


3,780 


— 


3,780 


1896-7 ... 


3,780 


— 


- 2,098 


— 


- 2,098 


1,682 


— 


1,682 


1897-8 ... 


1,682 


— • 


+ 69,526 


— 


+ 69,526 


71,208 


49,000 


22,208 


1898-9 ... 


22,208 


5,592* 


- 14,781 


— 


- 9,189 


13,0W 


— 


13,019 


1899-0 ... 


13,019 


+ 54,487t 


+ 66,315 


- 1,915 


+ 119,247 


132.266 


110,592 


21,674 


1900-1 ... 


21,674 


+ 14,326 


+ 40,152 ! - 6,936 


+ 47,542 


69.216 


69,000 


216 


1901-2 ... 


216 


+ 9,062 


+ 39,156 - 3,252 


+ 44,966 


45,1*2 


45,000 


182 


1902-3 ... 


182 


- 2,251 


+ 37,794 


- 5,856 


+ 29,687 


2 '..■'■ 99 


20,000 


9,869 


1903-4 ... 


9,869 


- 8,283 


+ 27,657 


- 10,678 


+ 8,696 


18.5&6 


— 


18,565 


1904-5 ... 


18,565 


+ 7,055 


+ 22,836 


- 18,467 


+ 11,424 


39,963 


— 


29,989 


1905-6 ... 


29,989 


+ 2,320 [ 


+25,257} 
- 743J 


- 25,573 


+ 1,261 


31,249 


— 


31,249 


Totals 





£82,308 £314,851 


£72,677 


£324,842 


- 


£293,592 


— 



* Proportion of profits of company's working from 10th April, 1897, to 31st December, 1898- 
t Include3 the three months to 31st IVIarch, 1899. 

SUBURBAN TRAMWAYS. 

With the provision of improved and increasing travelling facilities in 
the county of London, a notable development is taking place in the 
suburbs in connecting up the county with the outlying areas. Par- 
ticularly notable is the activity on the Middlesex boundaries. There, 
in the early months of 1901, the London United Tramways Company 



128 London Tramways. 

opened what was the first electric tramway in London. The line ran 
from Shepherd's Bush to Acton and Ealing. From the first it proved 
an unqualified success, and the company at once set about extending 
the system. It now has 37 miles of line in operation, but several 
extensions are under construction. Altogether it has authority to extend 
the length of its existing lines by 43 miles, but even this does not embrace 
the whole of its ambitions, as further important extensions are contem- 
plated. The present position of the scheme is as follows : — 

Lines in operation— Miles. 

Electric traction 53J 

Horse „ 1| 

Lines authorised '. 24 

Total mileage 79J 

The London United lines commence at Shepherd's Bush, where the 
Central London Railway — more popularly known as the " Twopenny- 
Tube " — has its terminus. The Metropolitan Railway, the District Rail- 
way, and the " Piccadilly and Bromrjton " Tube have stations at Hammer- 
smith, where there is another terminus of the London United trams, and 
connecting up as they do the whole of the centre of London, including the 
City, with the tramway system, they naturally serve as feeders of great 
importance. Bv means of the systems passengers can now travel from 
the heart of the City right away to Ealing, Hanwell, Southall, and 
Uxbridge, to Chiswick, Brentford, and Houn«lo.v, to Hamoton Court and 
Kington, and to Richmond and Kew, and over Kingston Bridge to 
Surbiton, Maiden, Raynes Park, Wimbledon, and Tooting. Important 
extensions have been authorised, and when these are carried out, the 
lines will extend to Hanworth, Sunbury, Cranford, and Staines. 

The power for the system is supplied from a generating station 
at Chiswick through sub-stations at Hounslow, Teddington, Hanwell, 
Hayes, Kingston, and Wimbledon. The power for the Surrey extension 
is supplied through the two last-named >-ub-stations from the generating 
station of the Underground Electric Railways Company at Chelsea. 
The cars hold 69 persons each, and are excellentlv appointed. The 
service is frequent and the fare9 are low, and the public appreciation of 
these combined advantages has been shown in a rapid development of 
traffic, espec : ally in the morning and evening, on holidays, and on Satur- 
days and Sundays, when even the ompany's ample resources are fully 
employed in coping with the very large numbers of passengers. 

Sir J. Clifton Robinson, m.i.b.b., A.r.c.E , is the managing director and 
engineer of the company, and it is very largely owing to his energy 
and his close attention alike to matters of general policy and matters 
of detail that the company finis itself in a very satisfactory position 
and the public with snch a fine service of trams. The company has 
recently inaugurated with the District Railway and the Piccadilly Tube 
a system of through booking, by which passengers can travel from any 
part of the tramway system to any station on either of the two railways 
on the same ticket, which also gives a reduction on the price of two 
separate tickets. 



London Tramways. 129 



Th« Position In North Middlesex. 

The Middlesex County Council has effected agreements with companies 
for tramways and light railways purposes. The county has been divided 
at a point commencing oh the east at a short distance to the south of 
Willesdeh Junction station, and terminating on the West at Uxbridge, 
Southwards the London United Tramways Company has unrestricted 
running powers until 1919, and northwards the light railways constructed 
by the Middlesex County Council have been leased to the Metropolitan 
Electric Tramways, Limited, upon terms, the chief of which are:— 

The company to purchase the lines of the North Metropolitan Tram- 
ways Company, in the county of Middlesex ; to reconstruct them for elec- 
tric traction purposes ; and to work them in connection with the light rail- 
ways belonging to the County Council. The profits are to be appropriated 
as under : — 

. (a) In payment of interest at 6} per rent, on the expenditure incurred by the 
company in the purchase, reconstruction, and electrical equipment of the tramways. 
Any sinking fund which the company may see fit to set apart to be provided out of 
the 6} per cent, interest. 

(6) The balance of the nett profits to be divided between the County Council and 
the company in the proportion of 45 per cent, to the County Council and 56 per cent, 
to the company. 

The lease, expiring on 31st December, 1930, to include (a) all the County 
Council lines at present sanctioned by the Light Railway Commissioners ; 
(b) lmes applied for by the County Council in November, 1901; (c) lines 
applied for by the County Council in May, 1902 ; and (d) lines included 
in the Waltham Cross and Entield Light Railway Order. 

At 31st March, 1907, the Company was operating upwards of 17 miles 
of light railway constructed by the Middlesex County Council in connec- 
tion with its own system, and another 10i miles were under construction 
by the Council. 

In consideration of an extra five years' extension of lease the receipts 
from certain tramways in the northern part of the county owned by the 
North Metropolitan Electric Tramways, Limited, are pooled with the 
traffic receipts accruing from the Council's scheme, and in this connection 
the County Council will receive its full share of the nett profits from the 
tramways, which are yielding very good returns, although the traffic 
facilities are not so great at this stage as they will eventually be when 
the county scheme is fully completed. 



130 Homing the Working Glasses. 



HOUSING THE WORKING CLASSES. 

The central and local authorities of London, excluding the City 
Corporation, carry out their housing work under the provisions of the 
Housing of the Working Classes Act, 1890. For administrative purposes 
this measure is divided into three parts. 

Part I. places upon the London County Council the duty of preparing and carrying 
into effect (after sanction by the Local Government Board and Parliament) schemes 
for the improvement of insanitary areas which are of Puch a size as to be of general 
importance to the whole county. In any scheme it is essential that dwellings should 
be provided on the area dealt with for at least half the persons displaced. 

Part II., by sections 32, 33, and 34, enables the borough councils to take proceed- 
ings before a magistrate for the closing and demolition Of single houses which are 
unfit for human habitation. Sections 39 and 46 enable the borough councils and 
the County Council, either in conjunction or otherwise, to undertake schemes for 
the improvement of areas which are too small to be of general importance to the 
whole county. In any such scheme it is not essential that dwelling accommodation 
for the persons displaced should be provided. By section 38 the borough councils 
also have power to purchase and demolish obstructive buildings, i.e., buildings 
which, by reason of their proximity to or contact with other buildings stop ventila- 
tion or prevent measures being carried out to remedy nuisance in respect of such 
other buildings. 

Part III. enables the County Council to purchase by agreement, or (with the con- 
sent of the Local Government Board and Parliament) by compulsion, houses for the 
accommodation of persons of the working class, or land for the erection of such 
houses. 

Besides the power which the borough councils have under the Housing 
of the Working Classes Act, 1890, of obtaining closing and demolition 
orders against the owners of unhealthy houses, a power of obtaining 
closing orders only is also conferred upon them by the Public Health 
(London) Act, 1891. 

The housing agitations of the last few years induced the Government to 
introduce and pass, in the Session of 1900, a Housing Amendment Act, the 
principal provisions of which, so far as they affect London, were : — 

Power to all councils, except rural district councils, to purchase or acquire land 
outside the areas of their jurisdictions for the purposes of Part III. of the principal 
Act, 

Powers to borough councils for the purpose of borrowing money under Part III. of 
the principal Act. 

Powers to councils, with the consent of a Government Department, to lease land 
acquired for the purposes of Part III. of the principal Act. 

Suggestions made by the London County Council and other bodies — 
(1) That the sinking fund period for buildings be extended from a 
maximum of 60 years to a maximum of 100 years, and (2) that land be 
reckoned as an asset against debt, i.e., to exclude the value of land from the 
sinking fund— were not adopted. The question, however, was further 



Housing the Working Glasses. 131 



advanced by the report of the Select Committee on the repayment of 
loans (1903), and the report of the Joint Select Committee of both 
Houses on Standing Orders relating to houses occupied by persons of the 
labouring class. 

Some of the conclusions arrived at by the two Select Committees were 
embodied in the Housing of the Working Classes Act, 1903, the principal 
provisions of which are as follows : — 

(a) With regard to the Housing Act— 

(i) The extension of the maximum period for which money maybe borrowed 
to 80 years. (Sec. 1.) 

(ii) Provision for the transference by Order in Council of powers and duties 
under the Housing: Acts from the Secretary of State to the Local Govern- 
ment Board. (Sec. 2.) 

(iii) Power given to confirming authority after inquiry to order a local authority 
to make and carry out a scheme under Part I. or II. of the principal Act. 
(Sec. 4.) 

(iv) Power given to acquire "neighbouring" lands under Part II. of the 
principal Act. (Sec. 7.) 

(v) Power to the local authority to build shops on estates acquired under 
Part III. of the principal Act. (Sec. 11.) 

(vi) "Contracting out" of provisions of Section 75 of the principal Act pro- 
hibited. (Sec. 12.) 

(b) With regard to re-Housing in connection with Improvements. (See Schedule.) 

(i) Substitution of " 30 or more persons " for 20 houses, as the minimum amount 
of disturbance, necessitating a re-housing scheme, and undertakers pro- 
hibited from entering pn any dwellings occupied by such persons without 
formal approval of scheme being first obtained, unless scheme decided to 
be unnecessary by confirming authority. ( Para. 1 . ) 

(ii.) Number of persons of working-classes displaced in previous five years to be 
considered when fixing number to be re- housed under a scheme. (Para. 2.) 

(iii) Lands acquired under a housing scheme to be appropriated for the purpose 
of dwellings for the working-classes for a period of 25 years unless otherwise 
determined by the Local Government Board. (Para. 4.) 

As regards the period allowed for the repayment of loans the extension 
to 80 years is confined to the cost of the sites, and does not apply to money 
borrowed for the erection of dwellings, which will, as hitherto, have to be 
repaid in 60 years. 

1.-L.C.C. HOUSING. 

The. London County Council has from the first taken a prominent part in 
connection with the housing question in London, and the work developed 
to such an extent that in November, 1900, a Housing Department was 
formed to undertake the control and management of the working class 
dwellings provided by the Council. In February, 1901, Mr. Samuel 
George Burgess was appointed housing manager. Up to 31st March, 
1906, accommodation for 33,853 persons, calculated on the basis of two per- 
sons per room, had. been provided by the Council in 6,326 tenements of one 
to six rooms each in block dwellings and cottages, and 1,147 cubicles in 
lodging-houses. The gross rental value of the dwellings completed and 
opened was approximately £136,000 per annum. 



132 



Housing the Working Glasses. 



Action Under Parts I. and II. 

The London County Council has undertaken the following schemes 
under Parts I. and II. of the Act of 1890 :— 

PART I. 





Size 


No. 


Obliga- 


Accommodation. 


Estimated 




tion 
to re- 
house. 






Name of Scheme. 


of 
Areas. 


dis- 
placed. 


Provided 
for. 


Proposed 
for. 


cost of 
scheme. 


Schemes completed. 


Acres. 


Persons 


Persons 


Persons. 


Persons. 


£ 


London (Boundary-street, Beth- 














n a 1 - g r e e n ) Improvement 














Scheme, 1890 


14-85 


5,719 


4,700 


5,524 


, — 


282,607 


London (Churchway, St. Pan- 
eras) Improvement Scheme, 


























1895 


1*98 


1,095 


580 


832 


— 


34,502 


London (Glare-market, Strand) 














Improvement Scheme, 1895 ... 


5*23 


3,172 


2,250 


2,286 


— 


69,554 


London (Burford's - court, 














Tucker's-court and Favonia- 














street, Poplar) Improvement 














Scheme, 1899 


•89 


269 


269 


274 


— 


10,891 


London (Nightingale • street, 














St. Marylebone) Improvement 














Scheme, 1899 


•88 


576 


576 


630 , 


— 


6,000* 


Schemes in Progress. 














London (Garden-row, Roby- 














street, Baltic-street, and Hon- 














duras-street, St. Luke) Im- 
• provement Scheme, 1899 














2*62 


1,193 


1,193 


496 


720 


144,850 


London (Webber-row, and Wel- 














lington-place and King's 














Bench-walk, Southwark) Im- 














provement Scheme, 1899 


5*16 


997 


903 


— 


1,130 


152,950 


London (Aylesbury-place.Clerk- 














enwell, and Union-buildings, 














Holborn) Improvement 














Scheme, 1899 


2*76 


1,402 


1,414 


— 


1,414 


189,800 


London (Providence - place, 
Poplar) Improvement Scheme, 


























1901 


•87 


361 


400 


_ 


400 


17,100 



PART II. 





.Size 


No. 


Obliga- 
tion 
tore- 
house. 


Accommoda- 


Total 


Local 


Name of Scheme. 


of 


dis- 


tion pro- 


nett 


contribu- 




Areas. 


placed. 


vided for. 


cost .* 


tion. 




Acres. 


Persons 


Persons 


Persons. 


£ 


£ 


London (Brooke's-market, Hol- 
born) Improvement Scheme, 


























1891 


0-54 


55 


60 


60 


5,072 


3,000 


London (Mill-lane, Deptford) 














Improvement Scheme, 1892 ... 


1*98 


715 


550 


946 


9,166 


10,478 


London (Ann-street, Poplar) 














1 mprovement Scheme, 1893 . . . 
London (Falcon-court, Borough) 


0*75 


261 


180 


630 


4,354 


4,400 














Improvement Scheme, 1895 ... 


1*49 


824 


500 


680 


34,747 


7,750 



* After deducting amount of local contribution. 



Housing the Working Classes. 



133 



Combined Action Under Part II. 

The schemes that follow have been undertaken by local authorities, 
with contributions from the County Council, under Part II. of the Act : — 



Name of Scheme. 


Extent of 

displaced 

only. 


Obliga- 
tion to 
re-house. 

i 


Estimated 
nett cost. 


Council's 
contribu- 
tion. 


Amount 

paid up to 

3l8t March, 

1905. 


Schemes completed. 


Persons. 


Persons. 


£ 


£ 


£ 


London (Green-street, South- 












wark) Improvement Scheme, 












1891 


128 


72 


£2,058 


670 


670 \ 


London (Gun-street, .South- 










wark) Improvement Scheme, 










899 j 


1891 


246 


144 


2,747 


899 


London (Queen Catherine- 












court, Ratcliff) Improvement 












Scheme, 1893 


133 


108 


5,574 


2,787 


2,787 


London (London-terrace, St. 












George-in-the-East) Improve- 












ment Scheme, 1893 


100 


Nil. 


1,364 


682 


682 


Schemes in Progress. 
London (Moira - place and 
Plumber's-place, Shoreditch) 
































Improvement Scheme, 1893 


533 


520 


52,221 


27,500 


27,500 


London (Norfolk-square, Is- 












1 i n g t o n ) Improvement 












Scheme, 1892 


214 


Nil. ' 


6,748 


4,000* 


3,048 


London (King John's-court, 












Limehouse ) Improvement 












Scheme, 1897 


49 


56 


16,300 


8,150* 


5,800 


London (Fulford-street and 












Braddon-street, Botherhithe) 












Improvement Scheme, 1897 


736 


980 


29,120 


14,560* 


13,500 


London (Brantome-place, St. 












Pancras) Impr o v e m e n t 












Scheme, 1896 


719 ) 




( 16,940 ) 






London (Prospect-terrace, St. 
Pancras) Impro v e m e n t 




896 




One-halff 


11,750 


Scheme, 1896 


581 ) 




( 11,273 ) 






London (Chapel-grove, St. Pan- 












cras) Improvement Scheme, 












1896, Amendment Scheme, 1901 


501 


400 


32,970 \ 






London (Eastnor-place, St. Pan- 
cras) Improvement Scheme, 






One-thirdt 








9,224 ) 




1898, Amendment Scheme,1901 


189 


100 






Total 


4,129 


3,156 


£193,430 


£87,890 


£65,204 



♦One-half or sum not exceeding this amount. tNot fixed but proposed by Secretary of State. 



134 



Housing the Working Classes. 



Action Under Part III, 

The extent of the Council's operations under Part III. of the Housing 
of the Working Classes Act, 1890, as extended by the Act of 1900, together 
with the position of the development of each estate up to 30th November, 
1905, will be seen from the following table :— 



Estati. 



Ac. 



Dufferin-street dwellings, St. Luke... 
Green-street and Gun-street dwell- 

ings,Southwark— Albury.Clandon, 

Merrow and Ripley buildings 
Hughes Fields Estate. Deptford— 

Benbow and Raleigh buildings ... 
Millbank Estate, Westminster—Mul- 

ready-buildings 

South wark-street Estate, Holmwood- 

buildings 

Bourne Estate (unappropriated 

portion; 

Caledonian Estate, Holloway — 

Burns, Bruce, Knox, Scott, and 

Wallace buildings 

Brixton-hill Estate, Lambeth — 

Briscoe-buildings 

Wedmore - street Estate, Upper 

Holloway— Wessex-buildings ... \\ 
Norbury Estate, Croydon— Cottages 31 
Totterdown Fields Estates, Tooting 

—Cottages 38* 

White Hart-laue Estate, Wood 

Green— Cottages 225J 

Old Oak Common - lane Estate, 

Hammersmith— Cottages I 54 



Accom- 
modation 
provided 
for. 



Persons. 
174 



418 
440 



230 



Total 



... 354J 



72 
69 



1,050 
388 

4,815 

1,495 



Accom- 
modation 
in course 

of 

erection 

for 



Persons. 



Accom- 
modation 

to be 

provided 

for 



Persons. 



6 

If 

"»!2 



718 

344 
298 
948 



5,516 



6,035 



Pers. 

174 



418 
440 
230 
72 
69 



Total es- 
timated 
cost of 
land and 
buildings 



£ 
6,615 

24,935 
17,072 
12,319 
5,228 



5,068 

3,319 

40,057 

9,200 



58,873 



1,388 73,896 
718 36,500 



1,050 
5,800 

8,432 

42,500 

9,200 



70,424 



60,137 
283,000 

400,238 

1,972,602 

450,000 



3,343,934 



Especially since the passage of the Amendment Act of 1900 has the 
County Council been active under Part III. of the principa Housing 
Statute. This will be readily seen from the table which gives particulars 
of sites acquired for the purpose of Part III. of the Act, apart from any 
rehousing obligation. 

The Tooting or Totterdown Fields Estate. — This estate, 
when completed, will provide accommodation for 8,432 persons in cottages 
of four classes, and the rentals vary from 6a. to 13s. per week. The 
total cost of the scheme is estimated at £400,238. It is being carried 
out in three sections, of which Section A contains about 9 acres, Section 
B about 14 acres, and Section C about 15 acres. The construction of 
the roads and sewers on Sections A and B has been completed, and 
686 cottages, accommodating 4,815 persons, are in occupation. Of these 



• 



Housing the Working Classes. 135 

cottages, six are on section C. This Section will be developed at an early 
date, the roads and sewers having been completed, 

The Norbury Estate.— An estate at Norbury was the first to be 
purchased by the Council under the provisions of the Act of 1900, which 
allowed operations to be conducted beyond the limits of the county boundary. 
The site is about 31 acres in extent, and lies about a quarter of a mile from 
the county boundary. It is the same distance from the station of the 
London, Brighton, and South Coast Railway, but the tramway service 
of the Croydon Corporation gives direct access to Thornton Heath and 
Croydon. It is estimated that accommodation for 5,800 persons can 
be provided on the estate. The roads and sewers on Sections A and B 
of the estate, consisting of about eight and eleven acres respectively, have 
already been formed. Five blocks containing 52 cottages with accom- 
modation for 388 persons have been completed, and 43 additional cottages 
will shortly be finished. 

The Wood Green and Tottenham Estate.— This estate, pur- 
chased under the provisions of the Act of 1900, is situated in the parishes 
of Tottenham, Wood Green, and Edmonton, and comprises altogether 225 
acres. It consists of two detached portions, of which the larger, or southern 
portion, of about 178 acres, lies between Lordship-lane (which is a main 
thoroughfare from Hieh-road, Tottenham, to Green-lanes, Wood Green) 
on the south, and White Hart-lane on the north, and the smaller, or 
northern portion, of about 47 acres, is some quarter of a mile distant, and 
is approached from White Hart-lane. It is estimated that accommodation 
for 4z,500 persons in cottages and in tenements over shops can be provided 
on the estate. The cottages, which will be two storeys in height, will 
contain from three to five rooms each, and each will have its own eurden. 
It is proposed to take advantage of the river Moselle, which runs through 
the eastern portion of the estate, and some slightly-rising ground upon 
its bank, which is difficult to build upon, to arrange a public garden of 
about two acres and a quarter, with the river flowing through it. Four 
other smaller gardens will be arranged on other parts of the site, which 
will help to preserve the healthiness of the estate. The northern portion 
of the estate is not yet ripe for development, and building operations are 
at present confined to the southern portion. Section A, consisting of 
about five acres, has already been developed by the erection of 141 cot- 
tages, providing accommodation for 1,006 persons. * These cottages have 
been completed, and let. On Section B, which comprises about 15i acres, 
the roads and sewers have been constructed, and 60 cottages have been 
built. In 1903 the Council accepted a generous offer of £10,000, made by 
Sir Samuel Montagu, for the development of about 25 acres of the estate. 
The principal condition of the gift is that the tenancies in the cottages to 
be erected on the site are to be offered in the first instance, and from time 
to time as vacancies occur, to residents of Whitechapel of not less than 
three years' standing, without distinction of race or creed. On the Tower- 
gardens section, which has been allocated for the purpose of the gift, 
122 cottages are now being built. It is estimated that 568 cottages and a 
large garden of about three acres can be provided on the section allocated 
for tho purpose of the gift. 



136 Housing the Working Glasses. 



Wed more -street, Upper Hoi I oway.— A site has been purchased 
for £11,650, and blocks of dwellings containing accommodation for 1,050 
persons, in five one-room tenements, 140 two-room tenements, and 80 three- 
room tenements, have been erected thereon. The buildings have been 
named Wessex Buildings. 

Old Oak Common-lane Estate, Hammersmith.— The Council 

has purchased from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners a site of 54 acres 
of flat land at Old Oak Common-lane, Hammersmith, at the p>rice of 
£550 per acre. It is proposed to develop the estate so as to provide for 
about 9,200 persons in 1,250 cottages of four different classes. According 
to the estimates of the cost of such a scheme, it would appear that the 
cottages could be let at reasonable rents, and that the nett income would 
be sufficient to enable the Council t>o pay the price of the land and to 
comply with all the financial requirements. A portion of the estate is 
required by the Great Western Railway Company for the purposes of 
constructing a branch line of railway, and the development of the estate 
has for this reason been delayed. 

• Caledonian Estate, Islington.— Purchased for £16,000, and dwell- 
ings for the accommodation of 1,388 persons in tenements of one to five 
rooms each have been provided. 

. Brixton-hill Site, Lambeth.— Purchased for £7,000, and will 
accommodate 718 persons in tenements of two, three, and four rooms 
each. The dwellings, which will be named Briscoe Buildings, are being 
erected. 

Hughes Fields Surplus Lands, Deptford.— The Council has 
utilised three plots of surplus land acquired in connection with the 
Hughes Fields scheme (Part I.) by the erection of three blocks of working- 
class dwellings, named Drake. Raleigh, and Benbow Buildings. The 
three blocks contain accommodation for 660 persons. 

The other schemes undertaken and completed by the Council under 
Part III. include the Millbank scheme ; Green-street and Gun-street, 
South wark; Murphy, Hunter, and Gardiner Buildings, Southward; 
Cobham Buildings, Southwark; Sheridan, Beaumont, and Fletcher 
Buildings, Duke's-court, Drury-lane ; Siddons and Stirling Buildings 
Russell-court, Drury-lane; Bourne Estate or Reid's Brewery site* 
Holborn ; and the Parker-street Lodging-house, Drury-lane ; and C airing* 
ton House, Deptford. 

In addition to schemes carried out by the Council under the Housing 
Acts, the Council also has to provide re-housing accommodation for per- 
sons of the working-class displaced by it in connection with the construc- 
tion of tunnels and the widening of streets. The number of persons so 
displaced up to 31st March, 1906, was 10,988, and dwellings capable of 
re-housing 11,198 persons have been completed, the principal improvement 
and the number of persons provided for being as follow: — Blackwall 
Tunnel, 1,464; Kingsway and Aldwych, 3,090 ; Rotherhithe Tunnel, 1,610 ; 
Thames b'mb;nkment Extension and Westminster Improvements, 2,368 ; 
Long-lane and Tabard-street (Bermondsey), 400; Mare-street, Hf» rt kney, 
606 ; York-road, Battersea-rise, Garratt-lane, and Merton-road, 536 ; Nine 
Elms lane, 238 ; and Greenwich Generating Station, 220. 



Housing the Working Classes. 



137 



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Housing the Working Classes. 



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Housing the Working Glasses. 



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Housing the Working Glasses t 141 

ll.-HOUSING IN THE CITY. 

The City Corporation has not erected any artisans' dwellings under the 
Housing of the Working Classes Act, 1890, but it has put up four blocks 
of dwellings, one under the provisions of the Artisans' and Labourers' 
Dwellings Act of 1875, one under the Holborn Valley Improvement Act, 
one under t^he Tower Bridge Act, and one voluntarily, the last- 
mentioned being paid for out of the City's fund. 

The buildings erected under the Artisans' and Labourers' Dwellings 
Act are situated on a site in Stoney-lane, Middlesex-street, which was cleared 
between 1877-1879. The site covers 79,198ft., or nearly two acres, and 
five separate blocks of dwellings have been erected, at a total cost of £201,415, 
the plans being" prepared by the late Mr. "William Haywood, m.i.o.b., f.r.i.b.a. 
Each of the blocks is five storeys high, counting the ground floor, and 
altoget^r thev contain 241 tenements — 43 three-room tenements, 174 
two-rooms, ana 24 one-room. Under three of the blocks are 36 shops, with 
34 rooms at the rear, and this brings the total number of habitable 
rooms, exclusive of the shops, up to 535. The rente are as follows : — 
Large shop, with one room, 28a. per week ; shop, with two rooms, 25a. ; 
small shop, with one room, 16a. ; shop and basement, 13a. ; small shop and 
basement, 10a. ; three-room tenements, 8a. 6d. to 9a. per week ; two-room 
tenements, from 6s. to 7s. 6d. per week ; and one-room tenements, 4a. per 
week. The earns received by way of rentals in 1905 amounted to £5,930. 
Against this there was an expenditure of £5,124, including £2,588 interest 
on loan. There was thus a balance of £806 in favour of the account. 

Of the two schemes referred to as being erected under special 
Acts, the Tower Bridge buildings are situated in Doskhead, and 
were taken on lease by the Corporation for 25 years. They 
are of the model dwelling style, and comprise basement, ground, 
and four floors. The area of the site is approximately 6,830 square 
~eett, the buildings covering about 4,720 square feet. Excluding 
he; shops on the ground floor, the dwellings consist of 70 rooms, 
Elided into 31 suites of one, two, and three rooms, providing accommo- 
Vtion for about 30 families. The weekly rents range from 9a. 6d. to 3a. 6d. 
be total sum received by way of rents for the year 1905 amounted to 
j£75 9a. 6d., the outgoings for the same period totalling £1,100 10a. 9d. 9 
__aving a deficit of £225 la. 3d. to be made up from the funds 
of the Bridge House Estates. These are about the average 
figures. The Viaduct Buildings, erected under the Holborn VaUej 
Improvement Act, stand on a site which, with a covered yard, is 
approximately 8,400 square feet. They are four floors high, including 
the ground floor, and contain 40 dwellings, each with parlour, pcullery, 
w.c, <fec, and one bedroom. The number of persons occupying the 
dwellings is 178. The total rentals for 1905 amounted to £784, the 
rents charged ranging from 8a. 6d. to 6a. per week. 

The dwellings erected voluntarily by the Corporation are situated in 
Farringdon-road. They were built in 1865 at a cost of £54,568, and 
extended in 1880, at a cost of £5,199. The area of the site is about 
26,800ft. super. The buildings are six floors high, including ground 
floor, and contain twelve shops, each with parlour, scullery, w.c, &c. and 
two bedrooms ; 84 dwellings, each with parlour, scullery, w.c, &c, and two 
bedrooms; and 84 dwellings, each with parlour, scullery, w.c, &c, and one 
bedroom. The total number of persons accommodated is 833. The rents 



1421 



Honsihcf the 'Workvrig Glasses. 



per set of rooms range* from 4?* 6d> to 7s. * 
rental* far- 1905 amoiitfted to £3,892/ 



per week, and the total 



I II. -WHAT THE BOROUGH 

<Battersea.— The "Council has 
adopted Part III. of the Act of 
1890, and has built already, by 
direct labour,' 28 five-roomed houses, 
69 houses containing two three- 
rdomed tenements each, 73 houses 
containing two four-roomed tene- 
ments' eachr one four-roomed house, 
aid two three-roomed houses, on 
the Latchmere Estate, to accom- 
modate 315 families of the work- 
ing * classes. Each house or tene- 
ment is self-contained, is wired 
fomelectric light, and is. provided 
withpatent combined kitchen range, 
capper, batharrangements, and back 

garden. The rents are : Five-roomed • 
duses, lis. -6d. per week; Three- 
roomed tenements each, 7s. 6d. per 
week ; Four-roomed tenements each, 
10s. and 10*. 6U per week. The 173 
hduses are divided into three distinct 
types, viz..: four-roomed tenements, 
three-roomed tenements, and five- 
roomed houses. The height of all 
ropms is 8ft. 9in. clear, and each 
tenement has its own separate * 
entrance and* back garden. 

.The Council has also built on the 
Town Hall Estate 14 houses con- 
taining twothree-roomed tenements 
each, ! and 4 houses containing two' 
two-roomed tenements each, and 
fitted up similarly to those On the 
Latchmere Estate to -accommodate 
o^faniilies. .Wood block flooring, 
however, is provided on the ground 
floors. 'The. rents are: two-roomed 
tenements, 6s. 6d. per week ; three- 
roomed tenements, 8s. hd. per week. 
BEkatoxbSEY. — The Borough 
Council, in pursuance of a scheme 
prepared under Part II. of the 
Housing of the Working Classes 
Act, 1890, has erected four blocks 
of «model dwellings capable of ac- 
commodating 980 persons in 490 
rooms, made up of 25 one-room 



COUNCILS ARE DOING. 

tenements, 165 two-room tenements, 
and 45 three-room tenements, on 
the site known as the Fulford- 
street and Braddon-street area, from^ 
the design of Messrs.' Brocklesbury/ 
Marchment and . East, of 116, _• 
Jermyn-street, W., who were the 
successful competitors in the com- • 
petition invited by the Council - for 
the best design. The estimated ' 
cost of the erection of the buildings- ' 
was £42,827, and the lowest tender 
was that of Messrs. Walter Law- 
rence and Son, of Canal Works, 
Waltham-cross, N., amounting to 
£40,960, which was accepted by the 
Council. Mr. John Slater, f.R.i.b.a,, 
Vice-President of the Royal Insti- -* 
tute of British Architects, adju- . 
dicated upon the competitive 
designs. Building operations were 
commenced in August, 1903, an<L\ 
the buildings were completed in - 
July, 1905. All the tenement? 
are let at rents as follow : — One- 
room tenement — 3s. 6d. per week ; 
two-room tenement — top floor, 
5s. 6d. ; first, second, and third 
floors, 5s.. 9d. ; ground floor, 6s. ; 
three -room tenement — top floor, 
7s. 6d.; first, second, and third 
floors, 7s. 9d. ; ground floor, 8s. All . 
with separate scullery, w.c, &c. 

Camberwell. — Two schemes are 
being carried out by the Council, 
one of which is particularly inter- 
esting. In the district known as the 
Hollington-street area, which con- 
tains approximately 571 houses, the 
Council has acquired or possesses 
an interest in 303, and receives the 
rack rents from nearly all of them, 
overhauling them and putting them 
into a thoroughly satisfactory con- 
dition, afterwards letting them at 
the same rents to about 800 tenants. 
It is calculated that the under- 
taking will be self-supporting if not 



Housing • the Working Classes. 



443 



remunerative, and whilst prevent- 
ing the increase of the rents of 
similar houses in the locality 
inhabited by the very poor, the 
frequent cleansing is effecting a 
marked improvement on the occu- 
piers, and setting an example to ad- 
joining 1 owners. The Council has 
also widened the footways of Crown, 
Hollington, and Sultan streets, taken 
up the old York paving of the foot- 
ways, and substituted asphalte, 
also asphalted the roadways, and 
planted trees along the footpaths. 
Beckett-street is now widened 
throughout by the demolition of 
some insanitary hovels and building 
to a new line of frontage. Bailev- 
street, a new 40ft. road, is nearly 
completed, and will open up the 
neighbourhood. The other scheme 
of the Council is at Grove-vale. 
There a plot of land, about 8 acres 
in extent, has been purchased for 
£5,400, after setting aside a pro- 
portion for public improvements. 
.Ninety-five houses have been erected 
to accommodate about 183 tene- 
ments. The scheme is completed, 
and the total cost of the site and 
houses is over £60,000. This estate 
is o^uite self-supporting, after setting 
aside the liberal proportion for 
maintenance, as required by the 
' London County Council. 

Chelsea. — In Pond-place the 
Council has acquired four blocks of 
three-storeyed dwellings (known as 
Onslow Dwellings), containing 108 
tenements and housing 460 persons, 
to prevent the site being pur- 
chased for any other purpose than 
that of housing. There are 63 three- 
room tenements let at 5a. 6d. and 
6«. per week, and 45 two-room tene- 
ments let at 4$. 6d. and 5s. per week. 
In Beaufort-street, near Battersea 
Bridge, ? the Council has erected 
artisans' dwellings, which consist of 
five blocks of six-storeyed houses, 
known as Sir Thomas More Build- 
ings, and contain 261. tenements, 



capable of housing over 900 persons. 
In 1905-6 the Council erected Pond 
House upon the site of 21-23, -Pond- 
place. This is a foiir-storeyed 
building, and contains eight two- 
room tenements and 24 three-room 
tenements, and is capable of housing 
140 people. The rents are 7a. 6d. a 
week for two-room tenements, and 
10a. and 9s. 6d. for three-room 
tenements. 

Hackney.— The Housing of t the 
Working Classes Acts have tiepn 
adopted here; a scheme has been 
sanctioned by the Council for the 
erection of tenement dwellings in 
Urswick-road at an estimated cost 
of £21,000, and the plans are being 
prepared. > „ * j 

Hammersmith. — Part III. of 
the Act (1890) has been adopted, 
and in November, 1903, three blocks 
. of eight tenements for 24 .families 
were opened in Yeldham - jroajl, 
near the borough electricity worip. 
There are 12 four-roomed and a 
similar number of three-roomed 
houses, the larger containing two 
bedrooms, living-room, scullery, jmd 
w.c. .The rooms , are lighted l}y 
electricity from the adjacent works. 
The buudings, the total cost *£>f 
which was £5,500, were built cm 
vacant land. The chief contractors 
were Messrs. Sims and Woods, 
Gray's Inn-road. 

;. Hampstead.— Among the earliest 
acts of the new council was- tKe 
adoption of Part III. of the Act 
(1890). A site was acquired at 
the corner of Lower Cross-road 
and Upper Park-road, and three 
blocks of dwellings, to accommodate 
about 250 persons, have been ereeted 
thereon. There are in all 42 tene- 
ments, viz : — 10 four-roonied, £0 
three-roomed, and 12 two-roomc-a. 
Each tenement is provided wltfyli 
scullery containing a sink and a coal- 
bunker and a water-closet, placod.'jJLS 
far as possible from the living rooms 
with a ventilated lobby between!" T^e 



144 



Housing the Working Glasses. 



rents are: — four-roomed tenements 
11*. 6d. per week; three-roomed tene- 
ments 9*. per week ; two-roomed tene- 
ments 68. 6d. and 6s. 9d. 

Lbwisham. — Part III. of the 
Housing 1 of the Working Classes 
Act, 1890, has been adopted. 

Paddington— Part III. of the 
Housing Act (1890) has been 
adopted, but nothing tangible has 
been done. 

St. Marylkbonb.— Plans were 
prepared in 1901 by Mr. H. B. 
Measures, now Director of Barrack 
Construction for the War Office, for 
the carrying out of a housing 
scheme on a site in John-street. 
The site cost £7,000, but the London 
County Council sanctioned a loan 
of only £5,200. The Borough 
Council determined to go on with 
the scheme, although there will be 
a charge on the rates, and ac- 
cepted a tender for £11,591 for the 
erection of the buildings, which 
comprise 18 one-room tenements, 24 
two-room tenements, and 10 three- 
room tenements. The London 
County Council sanctioned a loan 
of £12,265 for the buildings on 
the condition that the Borough 
Council set aside £103 a year as a 
repairs fund. The buildings were 
completed in 1905. For the buildings 
there were very many more appli- 
cants than tenements. In the late 
autumn of 1902 the Improvements 
and Housing Committees submitted 
a much more important scheme, 

froposed to be carried out under 
'art II. It is in relation to an area 
known as the Devonshire - place 
area (comprising houses in Devon- 
shire-place, Devonshire-street, and 
Salisbury • street). The London 
County Council considers that the 
area is not of sufficient importance 
to the county of London to be dealt 
with under the provisions of Part I., 
and that it should be dealt with 
under Part II. To avoid arbitration 
the Borough Council, on the 14th 



May, 1903, passed a resolution that 
itself deal with the improvement 
and reconstruction on the condition 
that the London County Council 
would pay half the nett cost. The 
latter body will co-operate in this 
scheme, but owing to various cir- 
cumstances the scheme has not yet 
been proceeded with. 

St. Pancras— There are two or 
three insanitary areas in St. Pan- 
eras, and the question of dealing 
with them has been under con- 
sideration for a number of years. 
The London County Council has 
cleared the area known as Church - 
way, and erected model dwellings 
thereon. The Borough Council under 
Part II., proposes to deal with four 
other areas — the Brantome-place, 
Prospect-terrace, Chapel-grove, and 
Eastnor - place areas. Brantome- 

Slace area, which included Crescent 
lews North, has recently been 
demolished, and self - contained 
tenements are about to be erected 
thereon. Prospect - terrace area, 
which comprises Prospect-terrace, 
Derry-street, and Wellington-place, 
is about to be demolished. It is 
proposed to erect model dwellings 
in both areas, which will re-house 
520 persons — 320 in Brantome- 
place and 200 in Prospect-terrace. 
This, however, will not re-house 
the whole of those displaced, and to 

Erovide for the surplus the Council 
as erected working-class dwellings 
in Great College-street. The site 
extends to 15,404ft., and the build- 
ings accommodate 332 persons. 
There are three tenements of 
four rooms each, 48 sets of three 
rooms, two sets of two rooms, and 
two sets of one room. Each tene- 
ment is self-contained, having its 
own wash-house, copper, and sani- 
tary conveniences, and a small 
covered balcony on which a dust- 
bin stands. The contract for the 
erection of the buildings amounted 
to £17,734, but to this must be 



Housing the Working Classes. 



145 



added the cost of the site — viz., 
£6",500. Model dwelling's are also 
proposed to be constructed on 
Chapel-grove and Eastnor-place 
areas. In the first case accommo- 
dation will be provided for 400 
persons in the place of 501, who 
will be displaced by the execution 
of the scheme, while in the latter 
case, 100 persons will be re-housed. 
189 being displaced. 

Shoreditch. — The Shoreditch 
Yestry cleared a large insanitary 
area in Moira-place, displacing 533 
persons. Artisans' dwellings were 
erected in 1899, capable of rehousing 
400 people in 25 tenements of two 
rooms and 50 tenements of three 
rooms each. Further blocks of 
dwellings, with shops, have been 
erected on the site, giving accommo- 
dation for another 148 persons. 
Under Part ILL of the Act the 
Council has also purchased an 
estate at Haggerston, and intends 
developing it for housing purposes. 

Stepney.— The Stepney Borough 
Council has now completed two 
schemes under Part II. of the 
Housing of the Working Classes 
Act. These schemes were inaugu- 
rated by the late Limehouse Board 
of Works, the sites being practically 
cleared before the Council came into 
existence. The first scheme — the 
Queen Catherine - court scheme — 
was prepared in 1891, and sanc- 
tioned by the Local Government 
Board at the end of 1893. The 
number of persons displaced was 
133. The area of the whole site is 
about 9,000 super, feet, and a block 
of dwellings (** Edward Mann Build- 
ings ") has been erected on 6,000 
super, feet, and the remainder of 
the site has been let as a store. 
These dwellings accommodate 128 
persons. The Council has also pur- 
chased under the provisions of 
Part III. of the Housing of the 
Working Classes Act, 1890, seven 
private nouses adjoining the area 



in Dorset-street and Brunswick- 
place, which the Council now 
lets as workmen's dwellings. The 
second scheme provided for the 
clearing of an insanitary area 
in Three Colt-street, Limehouse, 
knowa as King John's - court 
area. The area cleared consisted 
of 8,500 super, feet, and dwellings 
have been erected thereon, which 
accommodate 132 persons. This 
site was cleared under the provisions 
of Part IL of the Housing Act, but, 
as it was found that dwellings could 
be erected on the land to accommo- 
date 132 persons instead of only 56 
as provided by the scheme, the site 
was, with the sanction of the Local 
Government Board, appropriated by 
the Council for the purposes of 
Part in. of the Act. The cost of 
the erection of the dwellings, which 
are known as "Potter" Dwellings 
(named after a former mayor of .the 
borough), was £5,974. 

Westminster. — An extensive 
housing scheme has been carried 
out. The City of Westminster 
dwellings have been erected by the 
City Council upon a site purchased 
from the Ecclesiastical Commis- 
sioners, with a frontage to Begency- 
street of 305 feet, to Page- street of 
175 feet, and to Vincent-street of 
228 feet, containing a superficial 
area of nearly 1£ acres. They con- 
sist of three parallel blocks, known 
as Norfolk House, Probyn House, 
and Jessel House, and are six 
6toreys in height, including half- 
basement and attic storeys. There 
are two roadways, or playgrounds, 
40 feet wide between the blocks, at 
the ends of which arcading has been 
constructed to connect the buildings, 
so as to form continuous and artistic 
frontages. The buildings house 
about 1,600 persons, there being 793 
rooms divided into 342 tenements 
as follows : — 44 one-room tenements 
weekly rents from 38. to 4s. 3d. 
according to position j 159 two-room 



146 



Housing the Working Glasses, 



tenements, 6a. to 7s. ; 12 three- 
room tenements, 8s. 6d. to 9s. 6d. ; 
14 four-room tenements, lis. (yd. to 
12s. 6d. These rents include chim- 
ney-sweeping and the free use of 
Venetian blinds, baths and hot- 
water supplies, and drying-room. 
In considering the above rents, it 
should, perhaps, be noted that the 
cost of the land, as compared with 
that less centrally situated in the 
Metropolitan area, although appre- 
ciably lower than market value, was 
extremely high, whilst the refusal 
of the Treasury to allow a longer 
period than 60 years for the recoup- 
ment of outlay on buildings of this 
character has necessitated a higher 
charge than would otherwise nave 
been practicable. But the rents 
charged are considerably under 
those ruling in the neighbourhood 
for tenements with rooms of a much 
smaller area and not nearly so well 
fitted up with cupboards and other 
conveniences. In order that the 
rents should be as low as possible, 
the one, two, and three room tene- 
ments have been bui]t on the " asso- 
ciated " principle, i.e., the sanitary 
accommodation and laundries are 
shared by the tenants, on each 
floor ; but the four-room tenements 
are self-contained, each having a 
separate scullery and w.c. The 
living rooms have an average 
area of 154 feet. The bedrooms of 
the two- roomed tenements have an 
average area of 113 feet; the two 
bedrooms of the three-roomed tene- 
ments an area of 124 feet and 98 
feet; the three bedrooms of the 
four-roomed tenements an area of 
110 feet, 98 feet, and 94 feet respec- 
tively. The cost of the land and 
buildings has been approximately 
£95,000, or about £5,000 less than 
the architects' original estimate, 
and the rents have been adjusted to 
a scale that will, after providing for 
a sinking fund to repay the total 
outlay on the buildings in 60 years 



and on the land in 80 years, give a 
net return on the expenditure of 3| 
per cent, per annum. The scheme 
is therefore self-supporting, ample 
provision having been made for all 
outgoings. The dwellings are occu- 
pied only by members of the work- 
ing classes principally employed, at 
limited wages, within the City pf 
Westminster. 

In July, 1906, there were opened 
the City of Westminster Buildings, 
Marshall-street, Golden-square, W. 
The building is five storeys in 
height, and contains 10 three-room 
tenements and 10 two-room tene- 
ments—a total of 20 tenements, 
containing 50 rooms, which will 
house about 100 persons. The 
rents are — three-room tenements, 
118. to lis. 6d. per week ; two-room 
tenements, Ss. to Ss. 6d. per week ; 
and they include chimney sweeping 
and the free use of Venetian blinds. 
Compared with the Kegency-street 
Dwellings, these rents are some- 
what higher, owing to the increased 
value of the land. The cost of the 
buildings is about £4,600, and the 
rents have been adjusted to a scale 
- that will, after providing f pr a 
sinking fund to repay total outlay 
on the buildings in 60 years, give 
a nett return on the expenditure of 
about 3£ per cent, per annum. 

Woolwich. — Twenty - five cot- 
tage dwellings have been erected 
by the Council in Bargehouse- 
road and the Manor-way, North 
Woolwich, under the provisions of 
Part III. of the 1890 Housing 
Act. The whole scheme has cost 
£8,481 78. 9d., exclusive of the site, 
which was previously in the posses- 
sion of the Council. Each building 
contains a large living room, with a 
scullery at the rear on the ground- 
floor, and three £ood-sized bed- 
rooms upstairs. There are two 
houses at lis. per week (also con- 
taining a bath-room), seven at 108., 
nine at Ss. 6d tf and seven at 8a. 



A.CtoGTvi&6lrt& Hv8t 



147 



Water 
Supply. 

Tramways. 

Housing. 

Motor 
Services. 

Telephones. 

Education. 

Cemeteries. 

Local 
Taxation. 

Gas Supply. 

Electricity 
Supply. 

Markets. 

Allotments. 

Baths and 
Washhouses. 

Public 
Libraries. 

Refuse and 
Sewage 
Disposal. 

Municipal 
Trading. 



" Truth "— " An Indispensable Reference Ifcok." 

— — r 

. . The ■ ■ 

Municipal 
Year Book 

1907. 

Upwards of 700 large pages. Demy 8vo, cloth, gilt, 
3/6 net (by post, 4/-). 



A COMPREHENSIVE 
ENCYCLOPAEDIA 

OF THE 

MUNICIPAL AFFAIRS 

OF THE 

UNITED KINGDOM. 

CRAMMED WITH MUNICIPAL FACTS 
AND FIGURES. 



It gives a Description, including valuable Tables of 
Statistics, of — 

London Municipal Government, 
Municipal Government in 

England and Wales, 

Municipal Government in 

Scotland, 

Local Government in Iroland. 



London: EDWARD LLOYD, Ltd., 12, Salisbury Square, E.C. 



l4o* Advertisements. 



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The Progress of the Company is illustrated by the number of gallons of Water 
Power delivered and machines at work. 

Gallons delivered per week in 1904 17,000,000 

Number of machines, 5,548. 

Gallons delivered per week in 1905 18,000,000 

Number of machines, 5,801. 

Gallons delivered per week in 1906 19,000,000 

Number of machines, 6,000. 

PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE. 

Injector Hydrants connected to the London Hydraulic Power Company's Mains and 
to the Water Works supply will produce at any moment of the day or night, and at 
any height above the pavement, jets of water equal in volume and strength to those given 
by Steam Fire Engines. When desired these jets can be made to work automatically, 
can be couuected to sprinklers or water curtains, and a considerable number are now 
installed at Public Offices and Buildings. 

PROTECTION FROM FLOOD and DIRT. 

Hydraulic Ejectors connected with the Power Company's mains are an inexpensive, 
simple, and most efficient apparatus for keeping cellars or basements free from flood: 
tbey can be arranged to work at will by opening a stop-valve or connected to a float 
to work automatically. Can be made to deal witn any required quantity of water or 
liquid mud. Hydraulic Ejectors work the Simplex Vacuum Cleaner. The cheapest and 
most efficient on the market. All dirt passes away with exhaust water. 

Full particulars as to Terms and Conditions of Supply can be obtained on application 
to the Secretary, 

LONDON HYDRAULIC POWER COMPANY, 

Pataos Ohambsrs, 9, Bridge Street, Westminster, S.W. 



London's Water Supply. 



149 



METROPOLITAN WATER BOARD. 



The Metropolitan Water Board, which was created by the Metropolis 
Water Act, passed December 18, 1902, held its first meeting on April 2, 
1903. The offices of the Board are at Savoy Court, Strand, W.C., and it 
meets on alternate Fridays at the offices of the Metropolitan Asylums 
Board, Embankment, E.C. The chairman of the Board is Sir E. Melvill 
Beichcroft, L.C.C., and the vice-chairman, Mr. John Glass. The clerk 
is Mr. A. B. Pilling, who was formerly Town Clerk of Devonport. 

On October 26, 1903, the arbitrators appointed under the Act, Sir 
Edward Fry (President), Sir Hugh Owen, and Sir J. Wolfe Barry, com- 
menced their investigations into the claims made by the Water Com- 
panies for the purchase of their undertakings. The following table shows 
(1) the amounts claimed at the arbitration by the various companies ; (2) 
the amount of the awards in cash; (3) the debentures taken over by the 
Board on the appointed day : — 



Company. 


Amount of 
Claim. 

(1) 


Amount of 
Award 
in Cash. 

(2) 


Debentures 

on appointed 

day. 

(3) 


East London 

New River 

GrandJunction 

West Middlesex 

Lambeth 

Southwark an d Vauxhall 

Chelsea 

Kent 

Staines Reservoirs Joint Com- 
mittees 


£ 
7,204,144 
13,260,144 
4,830,000 
4,200,240 
5,511,342 
5,674,140 
4,750,000 
3,715,614 


£ 
3,900,000 
5,967,123* 
3,349,500 
3,524,000 
4,301,000t 
3,603,000 
3,305,700 
2,712,000 


£ 

2,251,166 

2,758,000 

500,250 

772,000 

1,045,753 

2,487,982 

249,217 

333,880 

1,226,700 


5 per cent, on claims other than 
New River Company J 


49,145,624 
1,793,574 


— 


— 


Total 


£50,939,198 


£30,662,323 


£11,624,948 



* Note.— The award in the case of the New River Company amounts to £6,534,000 
Water Stock, but the figure of £5,957,123 is the cash equivalent, taking as the basis o 
calculation the price at which the agreement to take stock in lieu of cash was arrived at 
with the other companies. 

t Note.— Under the Award the Lambeth Company had to pay the Board the sum of 
£42,678 in respect of the repair of a culvert. 

t Note.— Except in the case of the New River Company, each of the companies 
claimed in addition a sum equal to 5 per cent, of its claim, or the amount of the Award 
for possible loss of interest pending re-investment and for the costs of re-investment. In 
each of such cases* the Award included a certain amount in respect of this claim, 



150 



London' 8 Water Supply. 



The Board is composed of representatives* nominated by the constituent 
authorities of the water area, as follows it- 



members OP THE BOARD. 



Name op Member. 
Anderson, F. B. ... 

Baker, Charle3 E. 



Barnard, E. B.,m.p. 

Beachcroft, Sir R. Melvill 
Beaton, R. M., m.b., j.p. 

Bethell, Alfred 

Bradford, H. W., j.p. ... 
Burt, Charles, j.p. 

Chamberlen, Thomas, j.p. 

Cole, E. G 



CoMle. Lieut. - Colonel 

Charles F. 
Courthope, G. J. . 

Croft, Richard B. 
Dew, George 
Doll, C. FitzRoy, 

F.R.I.B.A., F.S.I. 

Easton, E. G. 

Elliott, G. S. 
Emden, T. W. L., 

Gates, E. J. P. . 

Glanville, H.J. . 

Glass, John... 

Goodman, W. 

Harris, C. T., j.p.. 

Hearson, C. E. 

Hickling, George, 

Howes, Enos 
Huggett, E. P., j.p, 

Johnson, Edward 

Karslake, J. B. P. 

Kettle, John, j.p. 

King, Arthur W.W., j.p. 



Constituent Authority. 
Southwark Boro* Council... 

Bromley Borough Council 
and Beckenham, Chisle- 
hurst, Penge, Bexley, 
Dartford, Erith, and 
Foots Cray Urban Dis- 
trict Councils 

Hertfordshire County Coun- 

London County Council ... 
London County Council ... 

East Ham Borough Council 

Westminster City Council... 



ityC 
Com 



Surrey County Council 

Hammersmith Borough 
Council 

Hornsey Borough and Wood 
Green Urban District 
Councils 

Royal Borough of Ken- 
sington Council 

Kent County Council 

Lee Conservancy Board ... 
London County Council ... 
Holborn Borongh Council... 

Fulham Borough Council ... 

Islington Borough Council.. 
Westminster City Council. . . 

Shoreditch Boro' Council... 

London County Council ... 

Stoke Newington Borough 

Council. 
London County Council . . . 

Common Council of the 
City of London. 

Camberwell Borough Coun- 
cil 

St. Pancras Borough Coun- 
cil 

Finsbury Borough Council 

Middlesex County Council . 

Lambeth Borough Council 

Paddington Borough Coun- 
cil 

West Ham County Borough 
Council 

Ealing Borough Council 
and Acton and Chiswick 
Urban.Dietrict Councils 



Address. 

" Dornington," Sandf ord-rd., 
Bromley, Kent. 

54, Parliament-street, S.W., 
and Park Hill Lodge, Short- 
lands. 



The Fair Green House, Saw- 

bridgeworth, Herts. 
24, Palace-court, W. 
9, Dartmouth Park-avenue, 

N.W. 
Inns of Court Hotel, High 

Holborn, W.C. 
86, Eccleston-square. S.W. 
Hill Side House, Richmond, 

Surrey. 
182, Hammersmith - road, 

Hammersmith, W. 
Glencairn, 82, Pellatt-grove, 

Wood Green, Middlesex. 

45, Emperor's Gate, South 
Kensington, S.W. 

"Whiligh," Wadhurst Sta- 
tion-road, S.O., Sussex. 

Fan hams Hall, Ware. 

264, Milkwood-rd.,Herne-hill 

5, Houthampton-st., Blooms- 
bury, W.C. 

38, Edith-road, West Ken- 
sington, W. 

14, Upper-street, Islington, N. 

2, Lancaster-place, Strand, 

w c 

" Ranelagh," 222, Willesden- 

lane, N.W. 
Tresillian House, St. Mar- 

garet's-rd., Brockley, S.E. 

4, Lordship Park, Stoke 
Newington, N. 

"Grasmere," St. Peter's-rd., 
St. Margaret*s-on-Thames. 

Holly Lodge, Denmark Hill, 
S.E. 

5, Templar-street, Camber- 
well. S.E. 

16,Willes-road,KentishTown, 
N.W. 

60, Tabernacle-street, E.C. 

91, Philip-lane, South Tot- 
tenham, N. 

49, Gresham-road, Brixton- 
road, S.W. 

11. Southwick-crescent, W. 

58, Woodgrange-road, Forest 

Gate, E. 
"Oulart," South Parade, 

Bedford Park, W. 



London's Water Supply. 



151 



Name of Member. 
Langman, Wm. ... 

Latham, A. M. ... 
Lawton, J. H. S. ... 



Layman, Arthur ... 
Lea-Smith, John ... 

Lidiard, John 

Lyne, Thomas, j.p. 



Malone, P. B., j.p. 

Mann, Sir If., Bart., J.p. . 

McDougall, Sir John . . . 

Musgrave, C. G., j.p. ... 

Parkinson. W. C. . 

P ckersgill, E. H., m.p.... 

Pi'nkham, Charles, j.p.... 

Pritchard, C. Fleetwood.. 

Reynolds, W.H 

Rotton, Ljent.-Col. A. ... 
Russell, H. W 

Sanders, John H 

Sheehan, J 

Spratt, Leslie W., j.p. ... 

Strong, Sir T. Vezey 

Syer, H. S. ... 

Taylor, H. R. 

Thompson, W. W. 
Tozer, A. H 

Ward, Henry 

Warjmington, G. S., j.p. . 

Watts, William 

Welby, the Right Hon. 

the Lord, o.c.b. 
White, Edward, j.p. ... 

White, P. A 

Wilkinson, C. T M 



Constituent Authority. 
i County Council 



Chelsea Borough Council ... 

Brentford, Hampton, 
Hampton Wick, Han well, 
He-ton and Isle worth, 
Sunbury, Teddiogton, 
and Twickenham Urban 
District Councils 

Bermondsey Boro' Council 

St. Marylebone Borough 
Council 

Wandsworth Borough Coun- 
cil 

Kingston Borough Council, 
and East and West 
Molesey, Esher and the 
Dittons, Ham, Surbiton, 
Barnes, the Maidens and 
Coombe Urban District 
Councils,, and Wimble- 
don Borough Council 

Tottenham Urban District 
Council 

Stepney Borough Council . . . 

London County Council ... 

Leyton Urban District 

Council 
London County Council ... 

Bethnal Green Borough 

Council 
Willesden Urban District 

Council 
Hamp.*tead Boro' Council .. 
Deptford Borough Council.. 
London County Council ... 
Thames Conservancy 

Edmonton, Enfield, and 
Southgate Urban Dis- 
trict Councils 

Hackney Borough Council . 

West Ham County Borough 

Council 
Common Council of the 

City of London 
Woolwich Borough Council 

London County Connci 1 ... 

London County Counci 1 ... 

Buckhurst Hill,Chiugford, 
Loughton, Waltham Holy 
Cross, Wanstead, and 
Woodford U. D. Councils. 

London County Council ... 

Lewisham Borough Council 
Battersea Borough Council. 
London County Council ... 

London County Council . . . 
Poplar Borough Council ... 
Walthamstow Urban Dis- 
trict Counci] 



Address. 
Hanover House, Woodford 

Wells, Essex. 
7, Cheyne Gardens, Chelsea. 
7, Holmesdale-road. Kew, 

Surrey. 



115, Pepy8-road, New Cross. 
41, Bryanston-square, W. 

Guildford House, 4, Elms- 
road, Clapham, S.W. 

" Oakdene," Richmond-road, 
Kingston-on-Thames. 



Belmont House, Harringay 
road, Harringay, N. 

Thelveton Hall, Scole, Nor- 
folk. 

Clifton House, Greenwich 
Park, S.E. 

" Mosborough," Lemna-road, 
Leytonstone, E. 

Carleton House, Hillfleld- 
avenue, Hornsey, N. 

2, Essex Court, Temple, E.C. 

7, Winchester-avenue, Bron- 
desbury, N.W. 

3, Temple Gardens, Temple. 
" TheLillies,"Woodside,S.E. 
61, Onslow Gardens, S.W. 
Olney Lodge, Furze Piatt, 

Maidenhead. 
Cedar House, Essex - road 
Enfield. 

110, Mortimer-road, Kings- 
land, N. 

Tylney House, Eagle-lane, 
Snaresbrook. 

196, Upper Thames-street 
E.C. 

45, Plumstead Common-road. 
Plumstead. 

40, Caulfleld-road, Peckham. 

24, Argyll-road, Kensington. 

84, Fenchurch-street, E.C. 



Toynbee Hall, Commercial- 
street, E. 

146, Burnt Ash-hill, Lee. 

45, Kyrle-rd., Battersea, S.W. 

11, Stratum - street, Picca- 
dilly, W. 

20, Upper Berkeley-street, W. 

40, Brunswick-rd., Bromley. E 

293, Hoe -street, Waltham- 
stow, E. 



152 



London's Water Supply. 



LIST OP COMRIITTEES. 

As at 31st March, 1906. 



Note.— The Chairman and Vice-Chairman 
Committees and Sub-Committees; and 
Committee are also ex-ofllcio Members 
Committee. 
Appeal and Assessment Committee. 
(12 Members.) 
Chairman— G. S. Elliott. 
Vice-Chairman— C. G. Musgrave. 
Members of Committee— E. B. Barnard, 
m.p., H. W. Bradford, j.p., Charles Burt, 
j.p., Thos. Chamberlen, j.p., B. G. Cole, 
W. Goodman, Arthur Layman, Frederick 
Redman, W. W. Thompson, P. A. White. 

Finance Committee. 

(12 Members.) 
Chair man— Lord Welby, g.c.b. 
Vice-Chairman— C. Fleetwood Pritchard 
Members of Committee— T. Chamberlen, 
j.p., Lieut.-Col. C. F. Colvile, C. T. Harris, 
E. P. Huggett, j.p., W. Langman, J. Lea- 
Smith, Sir John McDougall, C. B. Malone, 
j.p., C. T. Wilkinson. (One vacancy.) 

General Purposes Committee. 

(16 Members'.) 

Chairman— C. G. Musgrave, j.p. (Appeal 
and Assessment Committee). 

Vice-Chairman— A. H. Tozer. 

Members of Committee— E. B. Barnard, 
j.p. (Works and Stores Committee), A. 
Bethell (Water Examination Committee), 
H.J. Butter, T. Chamberlen, j.p. (Finance 
Committee), E. G. Cole (Appeal and 
Assessment Committee), J. B. P. Karslake 

iLaw and Parliamentary Committee), J. 
[ettle, j. p., John Lidiard, Sir Edward 
Mann, Bart., E. H. Pickersgill (Law and 
Parliamentary Committee), Lieut.-Col. A. 
Rotton, Leslie W. Spratt, j.p. (Water 
Examination Committee), Lord Welby, 
g.c.b. (Finance Committee) ; Edward 
White, j.p. (Works and Stores Committee). 

Law and Parliamentary Com- 
mittee. 

(12 Members.) 
Chairman— J. B. P. Karslake. 
Vice-Chairman— A. M. Latham. 



of the Board are ex-officio Members of all 

the Chairman and Vice-Chairman of a 

of all Sub-Committees appointed by that 

Members of Committee— C. E. Baker, 
I. H. Benn, H. W. Bradford, j.p., Charles 
Burt, j.p., A. W r . W. King, j.p., E. H. 
Pickersgill, m.p., T. M. Richards, ll.b., 
W. R. Sayer, G. S. Warmington, j.p., (One 
vacancy.) 

Water Examination Committee. 

(7 Members.) 
Chairman— Dr. R. M. Beaton, j.p. 
Vice-Chairman— C. E. Hearson. 

Members of Committee— Barnard, E. B. 
m.p., Bethell, A., Butter, H. J., Spratt* 
Leslie, W., j.p., White, P. A. 

Works and Stores Committee. 

(27 Member?.) 
Chairman— E. B. Barnard, m.p. 
Vice-Chairman— Edward White, m.p. 

Members of Committee— T. Chamberlen, 
j. p., E. G. Cole.R. B. Croft, C. FitzRoy Doll, 
f.r.i.b.a., f.s.i., G. S. Elliott, j.p., C. E. 
Hearson, Enos Howes, j.p., A. W. W. King, 
j.p., J. H. S. Lawton, John Lea-Smith, J. 
Lidiard, Thomas Lyne, j.p., P. B. Malone, 
j.p., C. G. Mustrrave, j.p., Chas. Pinkham, 
j. p., W. H. Reynolds, J. H. Sanders, 
H. T. Sawell, J. Sheehan, A. H. Tozer, 
Henry Ward, William Watts, P. A. White. 
(Two vacancies.) 

Special Arbitration Committee. 

(9 Members.) 

Chairman— The Chairman of the Board. 

Members of Committee -E. B. Barnard, 
m.p., H. W. Bradford, j.p., Chas. Burt, 
j.p., E. H. Pickersgill, m.p., the Vice-Chair- 
man of the Board, the Chairman of the 
Finance Committee, the Chairman of the 
General Purposes Committee, the Chair- 
man of the Law and Parliamentary Com- 
mittee.' 



CHIEF OFFICIALS. 



Engineer —J. W. 



Clerk of the Board— A. B. Pilling. 
Assistant Clerk of the Board— W. 
J. G. Norris. 
Supervisor— F. W. Drake. 
Estate Clerk— C. J. Howell Thomas. 
Chief Engineer— Wm. B. Bryan. 

The Board came into existence early in 1903, and the date of the 
general transfer of the undertakings was 24th June, 1904, save as regards 
the New Eiver Company's undertaking, which was transferred a month 
later. 



Deputy Chief 

Comptroller and Registrar of De- 
benture Stocks— Fred E. Harris. 
Deputy Comptroller— Arthur Newton. 
CniEF Revenue Officer.— J. Wilson. 
Solicitor.— Walter Moon. 



London's Water Supply. 



153 



Members appointed by a constituent authority consisting of the councils 
of more than one urban district, are to be appointed by the councils acting 
through a joint committee. If a member of the Water Board ceases to 
be a member of the authority which appointed him, he is, after two 
months, to vacate his seat. 

The term of office of chairman, vice-chairman, and members is three 
years, and they will go out of office on 1st June, 1907, and on 1st June 
every third year thereafter. The rules for the conduct of business are 
those generally observed on public bodies, and the Board may similarly 
delegate its business to committees. 

The Water Board may appoint, oat of their own body, such and so many committees 
either of a general or special nature, and consisting of such number of persons as they 
think fit for any purposes which, in the opinion of the Board, would be better regu- 
lated and managed by means of committees, and may delegate, with or without any 
restrictions or conditions, as they may think fit. any of their powers or duties, except 
any power of raising money, to any committee of the Board so appointed, and the 
provisions of section eighty-two of the Local Government Act, 1888. witfi respect to 
proceedings of committees of county councils, shall apply to committees so appointed, 
as if they were committees of a county council. 

Limits of Supply. 

The area of supply is described as " the parishes and places in which, 
at the date of tne passing of this Act, any of the metropolitan water 
companies are authorised to supply water, and the parishes of Sunbury and 
Chessington." The extent and division of the area appear from the 
following statement : — 







Area (Approximate). 


Population 
(1901). 

(4) 


County. 
(l) 


Acres. 
(2) 


Mifcs. Acre8 ' 
(3) 


London.. 

Essex* 

Hertford 

Kent 

Middlesex 

Surreyt 


'■■■{ 


74.839 
(a) 62,226 
(6) 47,337 

14,636 
100,924 

61.060 

30.273 


116 599 
97 146 
73 617 
22 556 

157 444 
96 260 
47 193 


4,536,541 
680.783 
615,021 
10.666 
207,710 
653,744 
153,574 


Total 


(a) 343,958 
(6)329,069 


537 278 
514 109 


6,243,008 
6,177.246 



* (a) Including, (6) excluding Barking. Romford, and part of Ilford Urban Districts. 
Although these urban districts were within the statutory area of the East London Com- 
pany, the whole of the first-named districts and the greater part of Ilford were and are 
supplied by the 8outh Essex Company. The saving in the Act of 1902 (Sec. 36) is confined 
to restricting the Board from extending its supply to so much of the Romford Rural 
district as is comprised within the statutory limits of the South Essex Company. The 
whole of that rural district is within the limits of the South Essex Company, but only 
Dagenham parish therein is within the East London limits. The effect is to retain only 
a small corner of the Dagenham parish with sixteen supplies and an area of 246 acres out 
of 6.556. Barking. Romford, and Ilford Urban Districts remain within the Board's 
statutory area, in the two former of which the Board has not a single supply. Out of an 
aggregate acreage of 17,929 and population (Census 1901) of 76,437 the Board supplies only 
3,040 acres and 10,675 population respectively. 

t In addition parts of Croydon and Richmond are supplied in bulk. 

A considerable part of this area is as yet unbuilt upon, so that the 
statutory area is not conterminous with the area of actual supply, which 
is being increased by building operations almost week by week. 



15&. LwidorCs Water Supply. 

Special provisions are inserted in the terms of transfer. 

Substitution of Water Stock for Irredeemable Debenture Stock. 

' Within two years from the appointed day all irredeemable debenture stock shall 
be extinguished, and the Water Board shall issue to the holders thereof in substitution 
therefor the amount of water stock to which .they are severally entitled under this 
section. 

The amount of water stock to be so issued to a holder of debenture stock shall be 
such an amount as is sufficient to produce the same sum by way of income as the 

•debenture stock in substitution for which it is issued. 

. As soon as the Water Board resolve to issue water stock in substitution for any 
debenture stock under thij section, they shall give notice of their intention to do so 
by advertising it once in the " London Gazette " and in two or more London daily 
newspapers, and by sending notice by post to each of the holders of that debenture 

.stock, to his registered address, and the notice shall specify the place and the time, 
not being less than three months from the date of the notice, at which the issue of 

' water stock will be made. 

Before water stock is issued under this section in substitution for any debenture 
stock the certificate of that stock shall be produced And delivered to the Water 

'Board: Provided that the Water Boarcl shall dispense with the production and 
delivery of -any certificate upon receiving such indemnity as may be reasonably 
Tequired. • • * ■ ^ 

As "from the time fixed by the notice 'for the issue of water stock in substitution for 
any debenture stock, that debenture stock shall be cancelled and extinguished, and 
no interest shall after that time accrue due in respect thereof," but the water stock 

•issued in substitution therefor shall carry interest as from the time so fixed. 

Water stock issued under and for the purposes of this section shall not be redeem- 
able until after the expiration of sixty years from the thirty-first day of March one 
thousand nine hundred and three. 

Redemption of Stock. 

The Water Board shall within one hundred years from the thirty -first day of 
March, one thousand nine hundred and three, purchase or redeem, and pay off, all 
redeemable debenture stock and all mortgage debts, and any stock so purchased or 
redeemed by the Board shall, as from the date of t}ie purchase or redemption, be 
extinguished and cancelled. • j 

The holder of any such debenture stock or mortgage debt, whether or not he is a 
trustee 'or under any disability, may agree with the Water Board to accept water 
stock in lieu of money in consideration for his debenture stock or mortgage debt. 

Nothing in this section shall be construed as authorising the Water Board to redeem 
debenture stock otherwise than in accordance with the conditions as to redemption 
applicable to the stock. 

Special provisions are inserted excluding any " landed estate, nouses, or 
property," &c, not connected with its water supply, from the transfer. 

■ Financial Provisions. 

There shal be established a water fund, and all receipts of the Water Board shall 
be carried to that fund, and all payments by the Board shall be made out of that 
fund. 

Any sum required to meet any deficiency in the water fund, whether for satisfying 
past or future liabilities, in any financial year, shall be apportioned amoDgst the City 
of London and the metropolitan boroughs in the County of London and the municipal 
boroughs and urban districts outside London, the councils of which are for the time *. 
being entitled to be represented on the Water Board, in proportion to the rateable 
value appearing in the valuation lists in force on the preceding sixth day of April of 
the hereditaments at that date supplied with water by the Water Board or any 
metropolitan water company or the council of the urban district of Tottenham or 
Enfield in the City and each such borough and district. 

'■The Water Board shall issue precepts fot the sums apportioned to the City and the 
several boroughs and districts liable^- 

' (a) in,' the case of the City of London, to the common council ; 
"« (b) in the case of a metropolitan borougn to the, council of that borough ; 

(c) in the case of a municipal borough or urban district to the council thereof : 
and the council shall- pay to the Water Board the amount specified in the precept. 
The amount required by any such precept shall be paid- 
fa) in the case of the City, out of the consolidated rate ; 
' (6) m<the case of a metropolitan' borough as part of the expenses incurred by the 
council thereof ' . 



London's Water - Sujyphy. J?5 

(c) in the case of a municipal borough on urban-4i s fricfc> out of the fund or rate out 
of which the expenses of the council thereof incurred in the execution of the Public 
Health Acts are payable. ■' w ■ .,.»:•»!.-. 

A demand note for any rate levied for defraying any expenses .of the Water itoaad, 
together with other expenses, shall state as a separate item the amount to be paid for 
defraying the expensed of that Board. , •■ . , : . , .^ t , t 

The Water Board shall not, until Parliament- otherwise determinft,Tediicq the\rapes 
charged for the supply of water below those in force during the quarter, ending 
the twenty -fourth day of June one thousand nine hundred and two, unless the 
Board are satisfied that such a reduction would not cause a. deficiency in the water 
fund ; but the Water Board shall, within three years after the appointed day, intro- 
duce into Parliament a Bill providing for uniform scales of charges applicable 
throughout the limits of supply. , • .- 

Within three years after the appointed day the Water Board may prepare and 
publish in the " London Gazette " a scheme enabling their charges for the ^supply of 
water to be collected together with any local rate. 

Any local or rating authority within the limits of supply may transmit to the Local 
Government Board their objections to any such scheme within forty days after tfae 
scheme is published in the London Gazette. 

Borrowing Powers. 

The Water Board may borrow money for the purpose of— 

(a) paying any money (other. than money payable by way of interest on purchase 
money) payable under this Act by the Water Board to a metropolitan water 
company and . [ 

(6) paving any money payable to the council of the urban district of Tottenham 
and Enfield ; and . 

(c) purchasing, redeeming, or paying off any debenture stock or mortgage debt ; and 

(d) executing any work authorised by the Acts relating to any of the metropolitan 
water companies, so that the amount does not exceed the amounts which were imme- 
diately before the appointed day under those Acts authorised to be raised for that 
purpose, but have not been raised before that date ; and 

(e) paying any compensation payable under this Act (otherwise than by way of 
annuity) ; 

and, with the consent of the Local Government Board, for the purpose of any pay- 
ment by the Water Board or of any permanent work or other thing which the Water 
Board are authorised to execute or do, and which or the cost of which ought, in the 
opinion of the Local Government Board, to be spread over a term of years. 

All moneys borrowed under this section shall be raised by means of the 
issue of water stock under this Act, unless the Local Government Board consent to 
some other mode of raising the money, and where the Local Government Board 
so consent,;any money raised and the interest thereon shall be charged on the water 
fund or on such property or revenues of the Water Board, and in such manner as- the 
Local Government Board may sanction. „ 

Any money borrowed under this Act shall, if borrowed for the purposa of making 
any payment to a metropolitan water company or to the council of the urban district 
of Tottenham ©r Enfield, or- of redeeming, purchasing, or- pacing off any debenture 
stock or mortgage debt, be repaid within the period of one hundred years from the 
thirty-first day of March, one thousand nine hundred and three, and, if borrowed for 
any other purpose, within such period. not exceeding sixty years from the date of the 
borrowing as the Water Board, with the consent of .the Local Government Board, .may 
determine. 

For the purpose of paying off a loan raised under this Act, the Water Board shall 
have the like powers of reborrowing as a county council have under section sixty- 
nine of the Local Govemmenjb Act, 1888, and the provisions of that section so far as 
they relate to reborrowing shall apply as if chey were herein re-enacted and in 
terms made applicable to tne Water Board and to the security on Which that Board 
are by or under this Act authorised to borrow. ... *; 

So much of any Local Act as relates to the method of borrowing money by a 
metropolitan water company shall as from the appointed day be repealed, • ; 

Water Stock. 

In accordance with regulations of the Local Government Board, the 
Board up to the present has issued £34,318,609 of Metropolitan Abater (B) 
Stock, which is now quoted in, the Official/ Lists of ,the l^ndon <;a"iid 
Liverpool Stpck Exchanges^ , ... (l , . _ ; • ... / , w ;',:,-. : -/. .. 



156 London's Water Supply. 



A Chronological Record. 

The following is a chronological record of the various stages in the 
work accomplished :— 

1851.— Government Bill to control the companies. Not passed. 

1852.— Lord John Russell's Mil enforcing filtration and reducing charges. Not passed. 

1865.— Lord Derby's Government passed Metropolis Management Act fixing companies 

dividends at 10 per cent. 
18(77.— Royal Commission appointed (Duke of Richmond, chairman). 
1869.— Royal Commission recommended that "the future control of the Water 

Supply should be entrusted to a responsible public body." 
1871.— Metropolis Water Act, providing for constant supply and official analysis, passed. 

[Constant supply not obtained until 1902 by L.C.C.]. 
1878.— Metropolitan Board of Works introduced Bills for purchase and for introduction 

of extra supply from chalk strata round London. Bills abandoned. 
1879.— Government introduced Bill to create a Water Trust. 
1880.— Committee inquired into Bill and recommended that " in the absence of any single 

municipal body " a water authority be created. Bill abandoned. 
1889.— London County Council began attack on the water companies. 
1891.— City Corporation introduced a Bill to secure an alternative supply and acquire the 

companies. Vestries had a Bill to establish a water authority for same purpose. 
1891.— Royal Commission to inquire into efficiency and quality of existing supply. 

Recommended additional reservoirs, &c. 
1892.— sir Matthew White Ridley's Committee rejected both Bills, and recommended that 

the County Council, either by itself or in conjunction with the City Corporation, 

was the proper authority, and that the Council get power to investigate the 

question, which it did. 
1895.— County Council introduced Bills to buy out the companies and introduce new 

supply. Passed second reading. 
1896.— County Council Bill defeated. 

1896.— Lord James introduced a Government Bill to create a Water Trust. Abandoned. 
1897.— County Council Bill thrown out. 
1898.— Royal Commission (Lord Llandafl's) appointed. 

1899.— Commission issued interim report in favour of intercommunication between com- 
panies. Bill giving this power passed. 
1900.— Commission reported: in favour of purchase, and recommended an authority of not 

more than thirty members, with paid chairman and vice-chairman appointed by 

the Local Government Board. 
1901.— County Council Purchase Bill defeated. 
1902.— County Council Bill defeated. Government Bill creating a Water Trust passed. 

Metropolitan Water Act (1902) creating Metropolitan Water Board passed. 
1904.— Transfer of the undertakings of the Metropolitan Water Companies to the Board. 
1907.— Bill promoted by the Board for equalising the water rate throughout the whole 

of* its area. 

ORGANISATION AND ADMINISTRATION. 

The main characteristic of the work of the Board during' the year 1905-6 
was the gradual completion of the organisation of the transferred under- 
takings under one administration. A Solicitor's Department has been 
established; the district secretarial organisation has completely dis- 
appeared, having been consolidated under the Clerk of the Board at the 
Central Offices, Savoy-court; and, similarly, in the Comptroller's Depart- 
ment, after an interim system of financial control under district revenue 
officers who succeeded the district secretaries, much of the work has now 
been concentrated at Savoy-court. 

The offices of the East London Waterworks Company at St. Helen's 
Place were vacated as from 31st March, 1905, the local revenue staff being 
located at the New Eiver Office, Eosebery-avenue ; and a City receiving 
office for the convenience of the consumers in that important locality has 
been established at 6, Broad-street-place, E.C. The Western District 
Engineering Department, embracing the areas of the Chelsea, Grand 
Junction, and West Middlesex Water Companies, has been consolidated 



London's Water Supply. 157 

at the former offices of the Chelsea Water Works Company in the Com- 
mercial-road, Pimlico. Parts of the offices of the West Middlesex Company 
in Marylebone-road have been converted into a laboratory for the accom- 
modation of the Director of Water Examinations ; and the Lambeth 
revenue staff has been consolidated with that of the Southwark and Vaux- 
hall District at the offices of the Southwark Company in Southwark- 
bridge-road ; whilst at each of these three offices a room is used for the 
purpose of a district revenue office. 

The Board's principal offices, therefore, have been consolidated into one 
Central Office, three district offices, five receiving offices, five engineering" 
district offices, and one laboratory. 

The five engineering districts are known as New Eiver, representing 
204,308 supplies; Eastern, 231,636; Southern, 266,208; Western, 210,141; 
.and Kent, 111,815. For each of these districts there is a district engineer 
(responsible to the Chief Engineer of the Board) and staff of assistants, 
draughtsmen, foremen, mechanics, &c. 

CHARGES FOR DOMESTIC SUPPLY IN THE SEVERAL DISTRICTS. 
Chelsea, Grand Junction, New River, and West Rllddlesex. 

Supply — On houses up to £200 annual value, 4 per cent. ; on houses 
ov«r £200, 3 per cent. (1 per cent, in addition for all service given at an 
elevation of more than 160 feet above Trinity high- water mart in respect 
of the New River district, and 200 feet in respect of the West Middlesex). 

Extras — Houses from £31 value and upwards, for first w.c, bath, or 
high service {i.e., 10 feet from pavement), scale ranging from 4s. to 12s., 
according to value of house ; for second, and every additional w.c, bath, 
or high service, scale ranging from 2s. to 6s., the charge increasing with 
the value in either case. 

Southwark and Vauxhall. 

Supply — 6 per cent, on all houses. 

Extras — Same as in the case of Chelsea, &c, as above. 
East London. 

Supply — 6 per cent, on all houses. 

Extras — For every bath or w.c., scale ranging from 4s. to 8s., according 
to value of house ; for high service above 20 feet, 26 per cent., in addition 
to foregoing rates, in respect of both supply and extras. 

Lambeth. 

Supply— Scale from 7£ to 6 per cent., in inverse proportion to value of 
house. 

Extras — Single w.c, scale 10s. to 20s., increasing with the value of the 
house ; extra w.c, 6s. to 10s. Baths on agreed terms. No high service 
charge. 

Kent. 

Supply and one w.c. — Scale ranging from 8s. per annum for house not 
exceeding annual value of £7 to £3 16s. for house not exceeding £95; 
above £96, 4 per cent. 

Extras — Scale ranging from 6s. to 12s. for one bath, 5s. to 10s. for 
second w.c. ; for every additional bath and every additional w.c bevond 
these there are uniform charges of 6s. and 6s. respectively. For nigh 
pressure (height exceeding* 400 feet above sea-level) add 25 per cent, to 
all charges. 



158 London* 8 Water Supply. 

Revenue from Water Rates and Meter Charges. 

For the year ended Michaelmas, 1905 — the most recent year for which ■ 
figures are available — the total gross revenue of the Board in respect of 
water charges under the existing scales amounted to £2,756,888. The 
revenue from these main sources may be divided into three classes, 
namely — 

(a) Domestic supplies, for which payment is made by a percentage 
upon rateable or annual value of premises ; (6) Combined meter supplies 
for domestic and non-domestic purposes where charges are based in part 
upon rateable or annual value ; and (c) Supplies for other than domestic 
purposes charged by meter or by fixed amounts. 

Class (a) includes all supplies charged according to the statutory scales 
under the Acts of the several companies, and, in addition, extra charges 
allowed by the Acts for high service, baths, &c. The total number of 
such supplies, according to the rental ledgers, was 966,790, of which 
745,701, or 77 per cent., were charged 5 per cent, or under ; and the total 
annual value upon which the statutory scales operated amounted to 
£36,568,713. The revenue derived from domestic supplies amounted to 
£1,889,877, of which amount £1,550,190 represented the percentage charge, 
£299,406 the extras, ancfr £40,279 certain agreed or farmed rates. The 
percentage charge above stated represented 4.23 per cent, of the total 
annual value of £36,565,713. 

Class (6) embraces domestic supplies combined with supplies to gardens 
and stables, or for trade and manufacture, and supplies to clubs, theatres, 
hotels, &c. These combined supplies are usually charged at minimum 
rates calculated on the annual value of the premises (amounting to . 
£2,940,227), and produced £170,102. Included in this class are also certain 
domestic supplies by meter to model dwellings, workhouses and other 
institutions which yielded £108,827 in addition. 

As regards Class (c) there are statutory scales of charge by meter in 
five of the districts, but none in Chelsea, Kent, and Lambeth, where meter 
supplies are furnished according to scales which had been adopted by the 
several companies as a matter of practice. The total revenue derived from 
water supplied for non-domestic and public purposes was £577,965, of 
which £415,939 was by measure, and £162,026 by fixed payments. 

The number of collectors and assistant collectors employed as at 
1st July, 1906, was 153, and the amount paid in commission and salaries 
was £52,318. Whenever a suitable opportunity occurs payment by 
commission is abolished and an inclusive salary substituted. 

Supply from the Several Sources. 

The following ' table shows the volume of water supplied from the 
several sources under the Board's control ; the average daily quantity, 



London? 8 Water Supply. 



159 



and the relative percentage of water derived from each source during the 
year 1905-6 :— 



Source. 


Total volume 
during the year. 


Average 

daily quantity 

supplied. 


Percentage 
of total 
supply. 


1. Thames (a) 

2. Lee, ' 

3. Wells and Springs in Lee Valley ... 

4. Wells in Kent 

5. Streatham, Honor Oak, and Selhnrst 

Wells ... 

6. Hanworth Springs 

7. Hampstead and Highgate Ponds (b) 


Gallons. 
44,904,174,854 
16,208,504,541 
10.500,859,835 
6,879,678,065 

607,994,175 

434,050,480 

37,308,294 


Gallons. 
123,025,136 
44,406,862 
28,769,479 
18,848,433 

1,665,738 

1,189,179 

102,214 


Per cent. 
56-432 
20*369 
13197 
8'646 

764 
•545 
•047 


Total 


• 79,572,570,244 


218,007,041 


100*000 



* . (a) Including gravel water. (6) For non-domestic use. 

Authority to Abstract Water from the Thames. 

The Board possesses as the successor of the Metropolitan Water Com- 
panies authority to abstract water from the river Thames for distribution 
to the seven districts wholly or partly dependent upon such source to the 
amount of 130 million gallons a day. Other bodies are entitled to seven 
million gallons, making a total daily draught of 137 million gallons. 
Subject to certain restrictions, the maximum quantity that may be taken 
in any one day is 445 million gallons, of which the Water Board may 
claim 435* million gallons, excluding gravel water. 

District Distribution of Supply. 

The total volume of water supplied, the average daily supply, and the 
percentage of the total supply in each district during the year 1905-6 are 
shown in the following table : — 



District. 


Total quantity 
supplied. 


Average 

daily quantity 

supplied.* 


Percentage 
of total 
supply. 




fJalTous, 


Gallons. 


Per cent. 


Eastern (East London) 


15.529 h 540 ,546 


42,546,960 


19 516 


Kent 


6.879.678.065 


18,848,433 . 


8*646 


NewBiver 


15.079.223,961 


41,312,942 


18-950 


Southern 


22,578,5*0.126 


61,859,124 


28*375 


Lambeth 


ll l 4.yHJSlJ26 


31,305,647 


14-401 


Southwark and Vauxhall 


llJIHj<i& r tXX) 


30,463,477 


14974 


"Western 


19.506.447,f46 


53,439,582 


24*513 


Chelsea 


4 i 4tK,<»i' i J>72 


12,224,849 


5-608 


Grand Junction 


G n £is,4m,(fm 


17,091.696 


7-840 


West Middlesex 


8,ffltJiQHj98 


24,123,037 


11-065 


Total 


79,572,570,244 


218,007.041 


100 



* The Water Examiner divides the average daily supply between (i.) for domestic 
purposes only, estimated at 80 per cent. , and {li.) for all purposes except domestic, esti- 
mated at 20 per cent. 

Population Supplied. 

The estimated population supplied in the eight districts on the 
31st March, 1906, the average estimated population supplied, the average 



160 



London 8 Water Supply. 



daily supply per head daring the year, and the percentage in each district 
of the total estimated population supplied, were as follows : — 



District. 


Estimated 

population 

supplied on 31st 

March, 1906. 


Average 

estimated 

population 

supplied 

during the year. 


Average 

supply per 

head per 

day 

during 

the year. 


Percentage 
distribu- 
tion 
of 
population. 


Eastern 

Kent 

New River 

(Southern 

Lambeth 

Southwark and VauxhaU 
Western 

Chelsea 

Grand Junction 

West Middlesex 


1,528,676 
668.266 

1,368,953 

1,735,005 
840 t 745 
894,260 

1,490,292 
313,923 
492,605 
683,759 


1,520,848 
662,097 

1,362,539 

1,720,141 
830,719 
889,422 

1,481,571 
314,239 
485,4'6 
681,846 


Gallons. 
27*98 
2847 

• 3032 
3596 
37-79 
34-25 
36*07 
3890 
3521 
3538 


22-541 
9813 
20194 
25-494 
12-312 
13T182 
21*958 
4657 
7-195 
10106 


Whole area > 


6,791,192 


6,747,196 1 


32.31 


100* 



Constant Supply. 

The Board distributes water within the limits of its area on both the 
intermittent and constant service systems. Under the latter the service 
pipes are constantly charged under pressure, but under the former the 
water is supplied to the service mains for a limited period only during 
each twenty-four hours. The Metropolis Water Act, 1871, Sec. 7, pre- 
scribes that every company shall, when required so to do in manner 
directed by the Act, provide and keep throughout their water limits, or 
throughout such parts of such limits as they may be required, a constant 
supply of pure and wholesome water sufficient for the domestic purposes 
of the inhabitants within such water limits, constantly laid on at such 
pressure as will make such water reach the top storey of the highest 
nouses within such limits, but not exceeding the level prescribed by the 
Special Act. In the Chelsea, East London, Grand Junction, South- 
wark and Vauxhall, and West Middlesex Districts constant supply is 
maintained. In the Kent District constant supply is given throughout 
with the exception of some 300 services on Shooter's Hill, and this will 
be remedied by the water tower proposed to be erected on the summit, 
to hold 100,000 gallons, for the purpose of maintaining a constant supply 
in this district. In the remaining districts the percentage of constant 
supply services is as follows : — Lambeth. 77*15 ; New River, 91*91. 
Assessment of Board's Undertaking; In County of London. 

The following statement shows the assessment of the water undertaking 
as appearing in the valuation lists in force on the 30th April, 1906 : — 

Gross Rateable 

value. value. 

Administrative County of London. £ £ s. d. 

Metropolitan Boroughs and City of Westminster ... 787,974 617,577 

City of London 84,394 56,193 



Total County and City £872,368 

Outside County of London. 
Boroughs and Urban and Rural Districts in Bucks, 
Middlesex, Essex, Hertford, Kent, and Surrey ... 605,335 



Grand Total 



...£1,477,703 



... £673,770 

... 487,010 17 6 
...£1,160.780 17 6 



London's Light. 



161 



Rateable Value of Board's Area. 



The following statement shows approximately the total rateable value 
of the various boroughs and parishes within the Board's area of supply 
(including the rateable value of the whole parish where part only is 
within the statutory area), as appearing in the rate books in 1898, 1902, 
1904 and 1906:- 



County. 


1898. 


1902. 


1904. 


1906. 


London 

Essex 

Hertford 

Kent 

Middlesex 
Surrey 


£ 

36,584,981 

1,992,722 

50.073 

1,143,476 

2,699,929 

976.511 


£ 
40,201,010 
2,698,553 
63,656 
1,445,368 
3,736,744 
1,472,640 


£ 
41,086.974 
3,279,501 
66,715 
1,610,939 
4,478,493 
1,595,569 


£ 

•43,486,436 
3,298,251 
142,322 
1.595,102 
5,154,097 
1,663,011 


Total ... 


43,446,692 


49,817,971 


52,118,191 


55,339,219 



* Quinquennial valuation. 

The amount paid in rates and taxes by the Water Board approximates 
to £382,000 per annum, or about 137 per cent, of the total income. 

HYDRAULIC POWER SERVICE. 

The London Hydraulic Power Company (under special Acts of Parlia- 
ment 1871 to 190o) has since 1882 installed and maintained a system of 
hydraulic power distribution at a pressure of 7001b. to the square inch. 
Tnere are six pumping stations, and about 160 miles of mains have been 
laid in the principal business areas of the metropolis, from Limehouse to 
Kensington on the north side and Kotherhithe and Vauxhall Bridge on 
the south side of the Thames. About 6,000 cranes and lifts within this 
area are worked from this service. 

ELECTRICITY SUPPLY AND STREET LIGHTING. 

Under the Electric Lighting Acts 1882 and 1888, the Board of Trade 
grants Provisional Orders for the supply of electricity. These Orders 
are then confirmed by Parliament. Companies when once installed 
cannot be bought out except by friendly agreement until after forty-two 
years. They are entitled to receive the " then value " of their under- 
takings without any addition in respect of compulsory sale or goodwill. 
Preference is given as a general rule to the applications of municipal 
authorities. Tlie Electric Lighting Clauses Act of 1899 simplified the 
procedure of obtaining and the form in which Provisional Orders are 

f ranted, and embodied in one Act the clauses usually inserted in Orders, 
ut it was expressly excluded from havinqr force in the administrative 
County of London, although it could be made to apply by special clauses 
inserted in any new Order granted within the county. 

Division of Supply Altai. 

The present divisions which exist between the different areas of supply 
in the metropolis were originated by the large number of applications 
made for statutory powers after the passing of the second Electric Lighting 
Act. To ascertain the proposals of the various applicants an enquiry was 



London's Light. 163 



held by the Board of Trade in Westminster Town Hall early in 1889 
wh»n witnesses were examined and a broad policy formulated. It was 
decided that uncontrolled rivalry was injudicious, and that if powers 
were to be granted to more than one applicant the supply should be given 
by each on a different system to the otner, and the metropolis was par- 
titioned between the successful competitors. Certain changes in designa- 
tion and addition of less important areas have taken place in the inter- 
vening years, but the arrangement then made remains in its broad out- 
lines substantially unaltered. Enquiries have at various dates been held 
as to changes of pressure and to otter matters connected with London's 
electricity. 

After applying four times to Parliament for an Act to enable it to 
readjust tne areas of supply of electricity within the administrative 
County of London, or any parts detached therefrom, under the London 
Government Act, 1899, so as to make the boundaries of those areas 
coterminous, so far as may be, with the areas of Local Government fjLxed 
by the latter Act, the County Council succeeded in a Bill which came into 
operation in January, 1905. The previous electric lighting boundaries were 
those fixed by the Provisional Orders. The areas in which mains had 
been laid down prior to January, 1904, were transferred only by agree- 
ment and on terms and conditions which received the approval of the 
Board of Trade. 

The principal provisions of the Act are as follows :— : Where any area# 
bein^ part of tne area of supply of a corporation, had become situate 
outside a borough, such area was transferred to the area of any cor- 
poration or company authorised to supply electricity within the borough 
in which such area nad become situate provided the area of supply of such 
corporation or company adjoined the transferred area. And similarly 
where any area, being part of the area of supply of a company, or 
being- an area in which there was no authorised supply, had become situate 
within a borough in which the corporation was authorised to supply elec- 
tricity, such area was transferred to the area of supply of the corporation, 
provided its area of supply adjoined the transferred area. 

Of the twenty-seven borough councils (and the City of Westminster) in 
London no fewer than eighteen have taken steps at different times to 
become the owners of electricity supply systems, and in thirteen cases the 
municipal undertakings have been in actual operation, for some years. 
In a fourteenth a new system has been put down recently, while in another 
the mains are owned but supply-is purchased. The greatest enterprise was 
at first shown in the boroughs on the north side of the Thames, but those 
on the south side afterwards took vigorous action. Only four boroughs on 
the south side— Battersea, Southwark, Woolwich, and Bermondsey — have 
works in operation. Fulham, Hackney, Hammersmith, Hampstead, Isling- 
ton Poplar, St. Pancras, Shoreditch, and Stepney Councils are supplying 
•current for whole or portions of their respective boroughs ; Bethnal Green 
is taking steps to put its Provisional Order into operation, although little 
progress was made for some time ; Marylebone has purchased the former 
company's undertaking in the borough, and Stoke Newington is taking 
current in bulk from the North Metropolitan Power Company under an 
agreement, and has powers to do so if desired from the Hackney and 
Islington Boroughp. 



164 



London's Light. 



Growth of Electricity Undertaking*. 

In the statistical tables issued by the London County Council figures 
are given showing the loans raised by the Borough Councils for electrical 
purposes. In 1900-1 the sum was £563,512. The aggregate results of 
the eight larger undertakings in London, municipally owned, for the 
year 1902-3, were:— Total expenditure, £1,965,650; revenue, £248,090; 
expenditure, £136,797— gross profit, £111,293; capital charges, £84,327; 
surplus, £26,966. These have rapidly increased, as shown below. 

At the end of 1904 the financial position was generally that for 
fifteen metropolitan electric supply companies and ten metropolitan local 
authorities the — 

Local Authorities. Companies. 

Capital invested was £2,391,000 £10,363,000 

Average cost per kilowatt of plant ... 103 Ill 

And separating them into systems :— 

Continuous cui rent 104 92 

Alternating current 102 119 

Operating both systems None ... 122 

The capital expended annually upon electricity uL.."Li i::kings in the 
Metropolis amounted to : — 



In Year. 
December, 1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 



Companies. 



£ 
1,168,524 
1,425,114 
1,208,761 

80,607 
472,158 



Local Authorities, 
In Year. 

March, 1902 

1903 

1904 

1905 

„ 1906 



£ 

590,362 
528,037 
259,389 
1,774,316 
582,854 



Total to December, 1905 ... 12,718,534 Total to March, 1906 ...5,450,000 

The capacity of plant installed is about 122,500 kilowatts in companies' 
works and 60,000 kilowatts in municipal works. 

The cost of the different municipal undertakings in the metropolis 
varies greatly. The following table shows the amount expended, the 
plant installed, and the sum required to cover interest, repayments and 
sinking fund, together with the capital cost jjer kilowatt of plant, and the 
burden for use or capital carried by each unit sold, compiled from returns 
for the year 1905-6, and the statutory accounts. As the capital includes 
expenditure on mains, the figures must be regarded as having reference 
to the size and class of the borough or length of frontage supplied, while 
the load-factor and the provision made for early liquidation of loans in 
like manner has a bearing upon the annual financial charges :- 



Metropolitan 


Capital 


Kilowatts 


Capital 


Maximum 


Capital 


Capital 


BftROTTftTl 


Expendi- 


of Plant 


per 


Load in 


Charges in 


Charges per 
Unit Sold. 


x? u»y \j ix jx . 


ture. 


Installed. 


Kilowtft. 


Killowatts. 


1905-6. 




£ 




£ 




£ 


d. 


Battersea 


235,957 


2,743 


86 


1,515 


15,948 


1*77 


Bermondsey 


121,449 


975 


123 


682 


4,247 


•66 


Fulham ... 


240,859 


2,250 


106 


1,250 


10,021 


1*08 


Hackney 


280,185 


3,372 


83 


1,902 


16,480 


1-36 


Hammersmith ... 


265,285 


4,500 


58 


3,297 


13,218 


•88 


Hampstead 


398,956 


4,990 


76 


3,306* 


27,328 


1-65 


Islington 


429,330 


5,100 


84 


2,642 


18,479 


1-30 


Poplar 


253,242 


3,400 


73 


1,520 


12,491 


•98 


St. Marylebone ... 


1,832,643 


10,000 


182 


5,680 


55,202 


3*63 


St. Pancras 


526,562 


6,390 


78 


3,660 


23,010 


•83 


Shoreditch 


328,351 


3,055 


105 


2,250 


14,826 


•96 


Southwark 


84,968 


1,212 


70 


700 


4,659 


1*12 


Stepney 

Stoke Newington 


251,687 


3,720 


66 


2,012 


11,613 


•69 


14,687 


94 


— 


110 


220 


•46 


Woolwich 


256,087 


2,450 


104 


1,037 


12,238 


2*80 



London's Light. 165 



An Electrical Exhibition, held at Olympia in October, 1905, was largely 
attended by the public, and attracted mucn attention to the improvements 
which had been made in the utilisation of electricity for lighting and 
power purposes. At this exhibition the public were first made acquainted 
as a whole with the metallic or semi-metallic filament lamps of the Osmi 
and Tantalum types, which give the same light for half the consumption 
of ordinary carbon-filament lamps, the special high efficiency lamps with 
carbon filaments, such as the Meridian, Wytelite, liadidlite, and others, 
the mercury vapour tube lamps of Cooper-Hewitt and Bastian, the golden- 
flame arc lamps, which are proving so effective for street lighting, and 
many other novelties, as well as such things as the Nernst lamp of older 
date. Local exhibitions were also held earlier by Shoreditcn and by 
several of the companies with a view to extending the knowledge of the 
capabilities of electricity. 

There seems to be no assignable limit to the increase in consumption 
of electricity in London. Notwithstanding the residue of premises be- 
coming smaller, as ooe after another is connected, the number of lamps 
added is proceeding at a more or less steady rate on the law applicable to 
all commodities, that the luxuries of one year become the necessities of 
the next. At the same time the increase in lighting cannot be reckoned 
on as being indefinitely maintained in areas alreaay well covered with 
mains, and which have therefore become more or less filled up, and the 
future rate of demand for this purpose alone may not be as great as it has 
been in the past. With an increase in the standard of living steadily 
rising, and a call for improved and increased lighting universal, the 
development of the supply, business is sure and steady, especially as the 
cost of electricity has been and is being largely reduced, cheapening in 
the cost of production, through greater output, being followed by and 
making possible lower charges. 

Bulk Supply Schemes. 

One of the first combinations formed in the Metropolis for the bulk 
production of electricity was the Central Electric Company, Limited, 
which was created by a special Act in 1899 for the purpose of augmenting 
the power available by the companies supplving the Westminster and St. 
James' areas by giving to them respectively electricity in bulk from a works 
in Grove-road to the west of Regent's Park. The first portion of the 
works was completed in time to give some assistance to the contributing 
companies at Christmas, 1902. The Kensington and Notting Hill com- 
panies have also combined to operate a joint bulk station at Wood-lane. 
These are however merely joint undertakings to assist the undertakings 
already at work, which were unable to extend their worts sufficiently 
to deal with the increased demand. 

The rich area afforded by the Metropolis for electricity supply purposes 
has attracted the attention of financiers who formed new bulk supply 
companies, which stated their intention to supply power in bulk at rates not 
not exceeding lid. per unit or on a sliding scale of £1 per quarter per kilowatt 
and id. per unit consumed. Several of the Borough Councils are now sup- 
plying at rates even more favourable than these, e.g., Poplar and Stepney. 

The most important event during 1905 with respect to the supply of 
electricity in the metropolitan area was the attack made by the Adminis- 
trative County of London Company upon the whole of the existing under- 



166 London's Light.' 



takings with a view to obtain the sanction of Parliament to a scheme 
which embraced a power and bulk supply over an area including most of 
the county, and, in addition, some of tne richer districts contiguous to it. 
When the project came before Parliament it was strongly opposed, and 
although the preamble was held to have been proved, it did not, owing to 
lapse of time, reach its final reading, and in consequence fell through. 

The Metropolitan Company was however successful in obtaining powers 
to deal with a large area in the west and north-west portion of the Metro- 
polis under a Bulk Supply or Power Act. 

The principal result of the Administrative Company's abortive attempt 
to secure such broad powers as were sought was to awaken the local 
authorities to the importance of catering for motive power, and by reduc- 
tions in the price charged for this and other purposes to extend their range 
of usefulness. As a consequence most of the undertakings are now 
supplying motive power at a uniform rate of Id. per unit without any 
restrictions either as to amount taken or as to hours during which the 
supply can be used. In the face of competition the borough of Hammer- 
smith led the way by reducing its lighting charge for a sliding scale with 
an initial rate of 63. and a follow-on one of 3d. to a flat rate of 3d., while 
Islington abandoned its sliding scale of 7d. and 4>d. or a flat rate of hd. for 
the more favourable uniform charge of 3%d. per unit. 

The London County Council had on more than one previous occasion 
introduced a Bill into Parliament for the purpose of obtaining powers to 
purchase bulk supply undertakings so that the Council could act as suppliers 
to the Borough Councils as authorised distributors, but success did not 
attend its efforts. 

London County Council. 

The London County Council is the authority charged with the duty of 
lighting the embankments, and has in operation a small central station 
for the purpose of supplying the arc lamps lining the River Thames 
frontage of the Victoria Embankment. Amongst its duties are those of 
the sanctioning of loans for capital expenditure on electricity extensions 
by the Borough Councils, and of acting, through its " Electric Inspectors," 
as the testing and certifying authority in disputes as to the correctaess 
of electric meters used to register consumption. It also has the right to 
establish testing stations for the purpose of ascertaining that the declared 
pressure of supply is maintained in the mains of the various authorities. 
For the testing and calibrating of meters and other instruments required 
in the discharge of these functions it has an electrical testing station, or 
laboratory, in Cranbourne-street, W.C. The London County Council 
has also erected and recently opened a very large generating station in 
Greenwich for the supply to its tramway system. The County Council 
has from time to time promoted legislation of great advantage to the muni- 
cipal supply of electricity in London. For example, powers were sought 
and granted enabling the Borough Councils, acting as undertakers, to wire 
and mstai fittings and to enter upon " free wiring " agreements, hire out 
motors and like purposes connected with their undertakings. 

£t is the existence of the Greenwich generating station that was one of 
the principal arguments in favour of the Bill which the Council pro- 
moted in the 1906 session of Parliament to enable it to supply authorised 
undertakers and others with electricity in bulk. The area scheduled in the 
Bill was a large one, and was not confined to the County of London. The 



London's Light. 167 



basis of the Bill was that the current required by the Borough Councils and 
other undertakers over and beyond the capacity of their present plant 
should be supplied by the London County Council from generating stations 
at Greenwich and Batter sea. Two other Bills were promoted in the same 
session by ' the Administrative and Additional Companies respectively, 
but on second reading they were rejected, on the understanding that tne 
rival promoters should have a locus standi before the Select Committee 
presided over by Mr. Luke H. White, to which the Council's Bill was 
referred in April. 1906. The Committee was further instructed to report 
generally upon the best means of providing for the supply of electrical 
energy m bulk, and for power and motive purposes in London and neigh- 
bourhood. For the Council evidence was given in the early part of the 
proceedings by Mr. T. McKinnon Wood, M.P., L.c.c, Mr. J. H. Rider, 
the Council's electrical engineer, and Mr. Robert Hammond, the well-known, 
consulting engineer. Many of the Borough Councils supported the Bill 
on the understanding that their existing interests would be safeguarded, 
a guarantee which the London County Council was prepared to give. 

The London County Council Electricity Supply Bill was referred in 
March, 1906, to a Select Committee of the House of Commons, which 
reported in June, expressing the opinion that the best means of providing 
for the supply of electricity is by one large and inclusive scheme extending 
not only over the entire County of London, but also to adjoining boroughs 
and districts, and that after giving full consideration to the various otner 
proposals which had l>een placed before the Committee they were of . 
opinion that the London County Council should be the authority, pro- 
vided that obligations were placed upon the Council to carry into effect 
the powers sought by the Bill, and that under fair and reasonable con- 
ditions any authorised distributor should have the power to require a bulk 
supply. As these proposals altered the whole scope and intention of the 
Bill, the Committee reported to Parliament that the Preamble was not 
proved. 

Various reports were presented to the Council by its Highways and 
Finance Committees in the autumn of 1906 respecting the proposal to 
reintroduce a Bill in the 1907 session of Parliament, and consultations 
were obtained with Mr. H. F. Parshall, Mr. Robert Hammond, and Mr. 
J. F. C. Snell as experts. The Bill at the time of issue of this edition of 
the Manual is before Parliament, the new Council having decided to 
proceed with it on the understanding that the powers will be leased to a 
private company for a period of years. I n addition there are the following : — 

Administrative County of London and District Electric Power Bill, 

London and District Electric Power Bill, 

I ondon Electric Supply Bill, 

North Metropolitan Electric Power Supply Bill. 

Refuse Destructor Combined Works. 

Shoreditch was the first authority in the country to utilise the heat 
raised from a dust-destructor for generating electricity, and the experiment 
was considered so successtul that its essential features have been embodied 
in a large number of electrical undertakings since 1897, when the Shore- 
ditch undertaking was established. Shoreditch has now several imitators 
in London, combined electricity and dust-destructor works having been 
established by the Borough Councils of Fulham, Hackney, Bennondsey 



168 LoiidorCs Light. 



Stepney, &c. With increase of load the advantages of a destructor became 
less important and most of these works now raise the greater portion of 
their steam by burning coal in the usual, way.. 

The increase in the number of electrical generating stations in the 
County of London led to His Majesty's Commissioners of Works issuing 
a Memorandum in May, 1906, calling attention to the possible injury to 
the trees, plants, and flowers in the royal gardens and parks by the emis- 
sion of smoke and fumes from the chimneys of such works. Tney further 
pointed out that the national treasures in picture galleries and museums 
might suffer from the same cause. With a view to obviate such risks 
they recommended that effectual means should be taken to secure con- 
sumption of smoke by careful choice of coal and by burning with it such 
chemicals as would absorb any sulphurous compounds, while the use of 
dust destructor refuse as fuel should be entirely prohibited. 

Systems of Supply. 

The systems ot supply under the management of the borough councils 
include all the variations possible. The older undertakings, such as 
Hampstead, Islington, and Hammersmith, are single-phase alternating 
current, and only provide the consumer with this kind of supply ; Fulham 
has a two-phase alternating system ; Shoreditch is high-tension continuous 
for purposes of transmission ; the others are continous current, low-pressure, 
three-wire, with auxiliary extra-high-tension alternating transmission in 
the cases of St. Pancras (above referred to), Poplar, and Woolwich. 
Stoke Newington possesses the only example of a transforming station 
within the area of supply taking current from a generating station 
outside the same. 

Important extensions have taken place in the central stations owned oy 
the Metropolitan Borough Councils, as well as those operated by com- 
panies. The principal ooject in view in most of these has been to save 
space and to reduce cost, both in the outlay of capital and in running 
cnarges, by the adoption of steam turbo-genera ors, which average about 
1,500 kilowatts in size. This change in the class of prime-mover has been 
largely brought about by the larger units called for, and the putting down of 
vertical engines, and still more certainly the horizontal types, has been 
relegated to the past. The addition of condensing, economising and 
superheating auxiliary plants, together with mechanical stoking and con- 
veying of both fuel and ashes, forced and induced draught, hot-feed with 
" Stage heating " and thermal storage have all contributed to a marked 
reduction in the fuel costs, while the improvement in the load factor due 
to growth of motive power supply, and the greater general use accompanying 
a cheaper supply, have brought about a large saving in the standing 
expenses and capital charges per unit. 

The costs of the whole of London supply have come down rapidly as 
is shown below : — 



Year. 


1896. 


1898. 


1904. 


Works costs per uuit ... 


... 2'21d. ... 


... 2'27d. ... 


... l*49d. 


Total costs per unit . . . 


... 3*32d. ... 


... 3*24d. ... 


... 215d. 



The changes which have taken place in the technical details connected 
with the distribution of electricity are many, the general tendency being 
towards higher pressures of supply to the consumer and extra high 
pressure for the transmission portion of a system. Thus Shoreditch 



London's Light. 



169 



started with the supply pressure of 150 volts on a two- wire system, 
and, as the load increased, found it necessary to change over to a 
three- wire system at 240 volts on either side. St. Pancras commenced 
with a pressure of 110 volts on either side of a three- wire system, and 
shortly after the Board of Trade, in 1895, authorised the taking of 220 
volts into a consumer's premises it doubled the pressure throughout. 
This met the requirements of the district for some years, but again, some 
three years ago, it was found that a direct low-pressure system could not 
meet the conditions which were brought about by a rapidly-increasing 
load, and a three-phase extra-high-tension plant was added to extend and 
assist the continuous current-distributing plant. 

Pressure of Supply, Sec, to Consumers. 

Battersea— Direct current three wire ; 230 and 460 volts. 

Bermondsey — Direct current three wire; 240 and 480 volts. 

Fulham -Alternating 50 periods ; 2 phase 200 volts. 

Hackney— Direct current three wire ; 240 and 480 volts. 

Hammersmith— Alternating 50 periods; 1 phase 110 and 220 volts. 

Hampstead— Alternating 90 periods ; 1 phase 105 and 210 volts. 

Islington— Alternating 50 periods ; 1 phase 100, 200, and 400 volts. 

Poplar — Direct current three wire ; 230 and 460 volts (high tension 
alternating transmission to sub- stations also). 

St. Pancras— Direct current three wire ; 110, 220, and 440 volts (high 
tension alternating transmissi m to sub-stations also). 

Shoreditch — Direct current, changing over from two to three wire 
(high tension continuous transmission to sub-stations for whole 
supply ; former pressure of supply 150 volts, now 240 and 480 volts). 

Southwark — Direct current three wire ; 220 and 440 volts. 

Stepney — Direct current three wire, 240 and 480 volts. 

Woolwich— Direct current three wire; 210 and 420 volts (high 
tension alternating transmission to sub-stations also) ; Plum- 
stead, 230 and 460 volts. 



The Position of Electricity in the metropolis. 

Statutory rjowers are held within the County of London by sixteen 
local authorities and thirteen companies. 

The position of municipal electricity in London is as follows : — 



Battersea (works in operation). 
Bermondsey (works iQ operation). 
Bethnal Green (scheme in progress). 
Fulham (works in operation). 
Hackney (works in operation). 
Hammersmith (works in operation). 
Hampstead (works in operation). 
Islington (works in operation). 
Poplar (works in operation), 



Marylebone (scheme in progress ; 

altering system purchased). 
St. Pancras (works in operation). 
Shoreditch (works in operation). 
Southwark (works in operation). 
Stepney (works in operation). 
Stoke Newington (distributing 

system in operation). 
Woolwich (works in operation). 



170 London's Light. 



The boroughs in the County of London, the City of London, and the 
City of Westminster are supplied by the following companies, where the 
local authorities do not possess powers to supply themselves : — 

Camberwell. — County of London Electric Lighting Company, Limited ; 
London Electric Supply Corporation, Limited; South Metropolitan 
Electric Light and Power Company, Limited. 

Chelsea. — Chelsea Electricity Supply Company, Limited. 

Deptford. — London Electric Supply Corporation, Limited. 

Finsbury. — County of London Electric Supply Company, Limited. 

Greenwich. — South Metropolitan Electric Light and Power Company, 
Limited. 

Holborn. — County of London Electric Supply Company, Limited. 

Kensington. — Notting Hill Electric Lighting Company, Limited ; Bromp- 
ton and Kensington Electricity Supply Company, Limited ; Ken- 
sington and Knightsbridge Electric Lighting Company, Limited. 

Lambeth. — South London Electric Supply Corporat r on, Limited. 

Lewisham.-- South Metropolitan Electric Light and Power Company, 
Limited. 

Paddington. — Metropolitan Electric Supply Company, Limited. 

Wandsworth. — County of London Electric Supply Company, Limited. 

Westminster (City).— Charing Cross and Strand Electricity Supply 
Company, Limited; Westminster Electric Supply Corporation, 
Limited; St. James' and Pall Mall Electric Lighting Company, 
Limited; Charing Cross (West-end and City) Electricity Supply 
Company, Limited. 

City of London. — The City of London Electric Lighting Company, 
Limited; Charing Cross (West-end and City) Electricity Supply 
Company, Limited. 

In certain portions of these boroughs several companies are in com- 
petition. 

The South Metropolitan Company, Limited, was formed in 1896 for the 
supply to Greenwich, lilackheatn, and neighbouring districts. It adopted 
its present title in 1904, and supplies in Lewisham, Pehge, the Crystal 
Palace district, &c, from the River Thames to Beckenham, and Bromley 
in the south. 

The following are summaries of the results of Municipal Electricity 
supply in the Metropolis for the year 1905-6 for the more important 
undertakings. These tables may be compared with those results of earlier 
years set out in previous issues of the Manual, 



London's ' Lights 



171 





Battersea. 

1905-6. 


Bermondsey. 

1905-6. 


Fulham. 

1905-6. 


Private supply .". 


Amount. Per unit 

£ . d. 

18,470 2*947 

7,694 2817 

26,164 2*908 
97 'Oil 
231 '025 

26,492 2*944 
14,948 1*661 

11,544 1*283 
15,948 1-772 

4^04 '489 
Units. 

1,504,280 
655 593 

2,159,873 
140,841 

2,300,714 
299,851 

2,600,565 
1,514 k.w. 
16-28 p.c. 


Amount. Per unit 

£ d. 

11,102 2-215 

5,090 3*378 

16,192 2'484 
150 *023 
140 '021 


Amount.Per unit 

£ d. 

14,907 2*666 


Public lighting ...; ;.; 


5,542 1*532 


Total 


20,449 2*219 


Meter rentals 


68 *007 


Sundry receipts '. 


659 '072 






Gross total 


16,482 2'528 
8,715 1*337 


21,176 2298 


Less working expenses 


11,602 1*259 






Leaves gross profit 


7,767 1*191 
4,119 -632 


9,574 1*039 


Less capital charges 


10,299 1*117 






Gross surplus far year 


3,648 '559 

Units. 

1,202,800 

361,662 

1,554.462 
106,962 

1,671,424 
95,565 

1,766,989 

682 k.W. 
26*19 p.c. 





Gross deficiency for year...... 

Units sold private 


725 '078 
Units. 
1,343,754 


Units sold public... 


868,105 


Total '.. 


2,211,859 




288,118 


Total accounted for 


2,499,977 


Utilised on distribution 


300,920 


. Total generated 


2,800,897 


Maximum load k.w 

Load factor 


1,250 k.w. 
20-23 p.c. 





Hackney. 

1905-6. 


Hammer- 
smith. 

1905-6. 


Hampstead. 

1905-6. 


Private supply 


Amount. Per unit 

£ d. 

24,960 2*749 

5,971 2*014 

30,931 2*568 

343 -028 

59 -005 

• 31,333 2-601 
11,531 -957 

19,802 1-644 
16,707 1*387 

3,095 '257 

~" Units." 

2,179,349 

711,547 

2,890,896 
260,829 

3,151,725 
194,110 

3,345,835 

1.9D2 k.w. 
1735 p.c. 


Amount. Per unit 

£ d. 

30,328 2-311 

4,399 2-134 

34,727 2*287 

95 -006 

2,010 '132 

36,832 2 T 425 
21,035 1*385 

15,797 1*040 
13,166 -867 

2,631 ^173 

Units. 

3,149,353 

494,793 

3,644,146 
648,703 

4,292,849 
63,493 

4,356,342 
3,297 k.W, 
12*62 p.c. 


Amount. Per unit 

£ d. 

62,981 4.054 


Public lighting 


3,154 3-033 


Total 


66,135 3*980 


Meter rentals 


3.550 -214 


Sundry receipts < 


"■ 433 -028 






Gross total 


70,118 4232 
29,990 1*809 

40,128 2423 


Less working expenses ......... 

Leaves gross profit 


Less capital charges 


27,328 1*649 


Gross surplus for year 

Gross deficiency for year 

Units sold private 


12,820 -774 

""Units. 
3,728,398 


Units sold public 


249,612 


Total 


3,978,010 


Units used on works 


101,442 


Total accounted for 


4,079,452 


Utilised on distribution 


1,318.767 


Total generated 


5,398,219 


Maximum load k.w ;.... 

Load factor 


3.306 k.w. 
13*74 p.c. 



172 


London's Light. 






Islington.* 

1905-6. 


Marylebone. 

1905-6. 


Poplar. 
1905-6. 


Private supply 


Amount. Per unit 

£ d. 

37,252 3'«71 

18,207 4*014 

55,459 3*917 
162 -Oil 
133 -010 


Amount. Per unit 
£ d. 

82,143 5.354 
3J,035 1.958 

52,108 3.396 
39,667 2.585 

12,441 Till 

Units. 
3,682,841 

1,014,312 

4,697,153 
935,285 

5,632,438 
5,678 k.W. 


Amount. Per unit 

£ d. 

20,063 2-191 


Public lighting 


5,275 1'500 


Total....:. 


25,338 2'000 


Meter rentals 


6 -001 


Sundry receipts....' 


296 '003 






Gross total 


55,754 3 938 
28,220 1*993 

27334 1*945 
18,478 1*305 


25,640 2*024 


Leas working expenses 

Leaves gross profit 


12,587 -994 
13,053 1'030 


Less capital charges 


12,453 '983 






Gross surplus for year 


9,056 '640 

"Units. ~~ 

2,309,522 

1,088,578 

3,398,100 
109,743 

3,507,843 
569,376 

4,077,219 
2,641 k.w. 
14*69 p.c. 


600 '047 


Gross deficiency for year 

Units sold private 


Units. 

2,197,050 

844,050 


Units sold public 




3,041,100 


Units used on works 


522,603 


Total accounted for... 


3,563,703 


Utilised on distribution 


369,228 


Total generated 


3,932,931 


Maximum load k.w 


1,520 k.w. 


Load factor 


22*84 p.c. 



St. Pan eras. 

1905-6. 



Shoredltch. 

1905-6. 



Private supply . 
Public lighting 



Total 

Meter rentals .... 
Sundry receipts . 



Gross total 

Less working expenses 



Leaves gross profit 

Less capital charges 



Gross surplus for year 

Gross deficiency for year.. 



Units sold private.. 
Units sold public .. 



Total 

Units used on works .. 



Total accounted for . 
Utilised on distribution . 



Total generated . 
Maximum load k.w. . 



Amounts -. i Per unit 

£ . ,. d. 

59,597 2*834 

10,049 1-500 



69,646 

196 

1,844 

71,686 

39,235 

32,451 
23.010 

9,441 



2*512 
•007 
•066 

1-415 

1*170 
•830 

•340 



Load factor . 



Units. 
5,047,974 
1,607,800 

6,655,774 
378,337 

7,034,111 
991,442 

8,025,553 
3,660 k.w. 
20-76 p.c. 



Amount. Per unit 

£ d. 

30,911 2*575 

8,047 2-351 



38,958 

9 

1,318 

40,285 

24,754 

15,531 
14,826 

705 



2*525 
•001 
•085 

2-611 
1-605 

1-006 
•961 



Units 

2,880,839 

821,618 

3,702,457 
221,766 

3,924,223 
751,508 

4,675,731 
2,250 k.w. 
1878 p.c. 



London's Light. 


173 




Southwark. 

1905-6. 


Stepney. 

19C5-6. 


Private supply 


Amount. Per unit . 

£ d. 

9,437 3-252 

3,597 2-809 

13,034 3-116 
193 -046 
233 -056 


Amount. Per unit. 

£ d. 

25,847 2*032 


Public lighting 


7,474 1-805 


Total 


33,321 1.976 


Meter rentals 


297 '018 


Sundry receipts 


335 .020 






Gross total 


13,460 3*218 
8,307 1-986 


33,953 2014 


Less working expenses 


19,789 1-174 






Leaves gross profit 


5,153 1-232 
4,659 1-114 

~~~494 ~18 

Units. 
696,501 
307,352 

1,003,853 
40,227 

1,044,080 
62,220 

1,106,300 

700 k.W. 
1637 p.c. 


14,164 '840 


Less capital charges 


11.6G2 '638 


Gross surplus for year 


2,562 -152 


Gross deficiency for year 




Units sold private 


Units. 
3,052.679 


Units sold public 


993,526 


Total 


4,046,205 


Units used on works 


125,899 


Total accounted for 


4,172,104 


Utilised on distribution 


185,483 


Total generated 


4,357.587 


Maximum load k. w 


2,012 k.W. 


Load factor 


22.96 p.c. 



Summary of Capital Accounts 1905-6. 



1 Batter- 

1 SEA. 


Bermond- 

SEY. 


FULHAM. 


Hackney. 


Lands 

Buildings 

Machinery 

Accumulators 

Mains and services 

Meters 

Transformers, motors, and sub-stations.. 

Electrical instruments 

Various aud not allocated 


£22,991 
65,626 
55,650 

2,597 
74,592 

4,401 

471 
12,444 


£6,108 
15,008 
30,158 

2,256 
61,528 

2,315 
359 

1.883 

1,280 


] £56.082 [ 
85,670 

84,528 
7,181 

201 
5,514 


£3,127 
39,267 
72,877 

8,075 
143,214 

6,301 

7,051* 
1,071 


Total expended 


£238,772 


£120,895 


£239,176 


£280,983 





Hammer-- 
smith. 


Hamp- 

8TEAD. 


Islington., Poplar. 


Lands 

Buildings 

Machinery 

Accumulators 

Mains and services 

Meters 

Transformers, motors, and sub-stations.. 

Electrical instruments 

Various and not allocated 


£3,224 
38,596 
108,898 

80,655 

13,798 

14,417 

697 

384 


£12,500 
62,128 
133,826 

122,188 

30,820 

20,053 

1,128 


£18,289 i > £4 , R54 
78,631 ) **1,554 
114,449 ( 85,773 

176,422 | 115,418 

10,504 ' 2,793 

22,476 | — 

6,365 3,565 

1,677 | 1,770 


Total expended 


£260,670 


£382,643 


£428,813 | £250,873 



174 



London's Light. 



Summary of Capital Accounts 1905-6— (continued) 



Lands 

Buildings 

Machinery 

Accumulators ;. 

Mains and services 

Meters 

Transformers, motors, and sub -stations.. 

Electrical instruments 

Various and not allocated 

Total expended 



St. 
Pancras. 



£41,747 

63,548 

139,293 

225,366 
24,967 

1,445 
1,930 



£498,296 



Shore- 
ditch. 



£31,247 

51,696 

80,407 

1,716 

109,757 

8,437 

25,973 

9,532 

4,363 



£323,128 



South 
wark. 



£1,105 
14,949 
33,629 
952 
27,050 
3,223 

3,832 



£84,740 



Stepneyv 



£22,650 
55,455 
50,111 
2,565 
103,524 
5,952 

2,474 
1,251 



£243,962 



Including switchboard. 



Further particulars and notes showing: how the various metropolitan 
districts have arrived at the present condition of lighting and power supply- 
are given in the following sections. 



BATTERS EA. 

Provisional Order granted in 
1896 to the then Vestry. Supply 
inaugurated September 28th, 1901. 
Capital expenditure to 31st March, 
1902, £155,122; 31st March, 1903, 
£178,445; 31st March, 1904, £195,345; 
31st March, 1905, £216,723 ; and end 
of March, 1906, £238,772. Gene- 
rating station, situate at junction 
of Lombard and Holm an roads, 
cl ose to river. Continuous cunent 
three-wire system adopted on the 
advice of the consulting engiueers, 
Messrs. Kennedy and JenkiD, v/ith 
constant pressure of 460 volts across 
the outer conductors of the mains, 
and supply given at 230 volts for 
lighting and sjnall motors and 460 
volts for large motors. Mains were 
laid sufficient to supply current to 
over 100,000 lamps of eight-candle 
power, and have since been largely 
extended. Plant capacity 2,740 
kilowatts ; private lamps connected, 
about 80,000. Plant recently in- 
stalled, three Babcock - Wilcox 
boilers, two 750 kilowatt Parsons 
turbo - generator, one high-speed 
Belliss engine, and Mather and 
Piatt generator of about same size, 
and Green's economiser. Electrical 



Engineer was W. A. Kemm in 

1905, but he resigned in March, 

1906, and F. A. Bond, (formerly at 
Heston and Isleworth) was ap- 
pointed and remains in office, 

BERMONDSEYi 

An Electric Lighting Order was 
obtained by the late Bermondsey 
Vestry in 1899, and electricity works 
in conjunction with adust destructor 
were opened in January, 1902. At 
first the borough council supplied 
the parish of Bermondsey only, but 
a Provisional Order was obtained 
in 1902 authorising an extension of 
the system to the other portions of 
the borough, t.e., Rotherhithe and 
St. Olaves. Supply on the three- 
wire continuous current system at 
480 and 240 volts ; capacity of plant 
1,480 k.w. Electrical Engineer, 
W. J. Heenan. 

BETHNAL GREEN. 

It is proposed to erect electricity 
works in conjunction with refuse 
destructor works, and to employ 
the heat generated by the destruc- 
tors for raising steam for driving 
the generators. The capital cost of 
the combined works, as estimated 
by Mr, Robert Hammond, consult. 



London? 8 Light. 



175 



ing engineer, will amount to about 
£100,000. The low-pressure direct 
current system of electricity will be 
adopted. A Provisional Order was 
granted in August, 1899, giving the 
necessary powers, but great diffi- 
culty was experienced in obtaining 
a suitable site for generating works, 
and this has caused delay, but the 
scheme is being proceeded with, 
and a site for the works was taken 
up in 1904. Plans had been pre- 
pared for more than one suggested 
site. Owing to the number of 
proposals for dealing with bulk 
supply in London slow progress is 
being made in this district. 

CAMBERWELL. 

The borough council agreed to 
accept an offer of the London 
Electric Supply Corporation to sell 
for £25,000 the Order granted for 
part of its district. This arrange- 
ment was not, however, carried 
through, although the agreement 
was signed, as the Board of Trade 
would only grant an Order on con- 
dition that the borough bought out 
all the* electric supply companies, 
one -of' which, the County of London 
Com^pany, obtained powers in 1896 
for 'a portion of the district. The 
London and South Metropolitan 
Companies also supply parts of 
the area. The application was 
therefore dropped. 

FULHAm. 

Provisional Order granted in 1897. 
Public lighting was inaugurated 
on May 1st and private supply on 
June 1st, 1901. Generating station 
worked in conjunction with dust 
destructor, situated near Wands- 
worth Bridge. Capital expenditure, 
about £239,176. Plant capable of 
delivering an output of current 
equal to 28,000 eight-candle power 
lamps was first put down and has 
since been greatly modified. One 
of^ the few stations originally 
laid out with horizontal engines. 



System, 2 phase 3,000 volts 50 period 
alternating'. Later engines, Belliss 
high-speed vertical, and Stirling 
boilers. Large extensions have 
recently been made. The present 
capacity of the plant is nearly 
3,000 kilowatts. Dust destructor 
is capable of destroying refuse 
to the extent of 100 tons during 
24 hours with ten cells at most, 
and 120 tons with twelve cells. 
There were 1,430 customers receiv- 
ing current at March, 1905, and 
1,865,052 units were sold. For 1904-5, 
according to published statistics, 
1,865,008 units had been sold, with 
an income of £19,757, and costs of 
£10,030, while capital charges took 
£9,448, and the surplus amounted 
to £221. The maximum load was 
1,008 kilowatts. 51,830 lamps were 
connected on private consumers' 
premises, the gross connections 
being" 71,645 lamps. A frontage of 
19 miles was supplied. 241,054 units 
were sold for motive power, bring- 
ing in just over £1,000. Such par- 
ticulars as are obtainable are given 
in preceding tables for 1905-6. 
Engineer, A. J. Fuller. 

HACKNEY. 

Order granted in 1893. Supply 
inaugurated 31st October, 1901. 
Electricity works in conjunction 
with dust destructor. System, low 
pressure continuous current direct 
supply at constant pressure on the 
three-wire method, the standard 
pressure of supply being 240 volts 
at consumers' terminals. The four 
sets of generating plant originally 
erected in the engine-house, amount- 
ing to 3,000 h.p., were sufficient with 
the accumulators to supply electric 
current for about 75,000 eight -candle 
power lamps connected to the mains, 
after allowing for an ample amount 
of reserve plant. For the period 
of eleven months ended 30th 
September, 1902, the total capital 
invested was £207,921, the revenue 
G 2 



176 



London's Light. 



£11,606, and the working expen- 
diture £4,969, with a gross profit of 
£'6,637. As the interest amounted 
to £5,606, and the repayments to 
£1,104, there was a deficiency of 
£73. Engineer, L. L. Robinson. 

HAMPSTEAD. 

Provisional Order granted in 1892. 
Supply commenced in October, 1894. 
Has since taken over the Hainp- 
stead Electric Supply Company, 
Limited. Works in Council's Yard, 
Lithos-road, Finchley-road, N.W. 
System, single-phase high-tension 
alternating. Engineer, Gr. H. 
Cottam. 

ISLINGTON. 

Provisional Order granted in 1893. 
System originally laid out with 
horizontal engines and slow-speed 
alternators, 2,000 volts 50 periods 
single phase. Willans, Dick, Kerr 
turbine, set 1,200 k.w., recently 
installed. Supply commenced 
January, 1896, and works opened 
in March, 1896, in Eden-grove, 
Holloway, on Great Northern Rail- 
way. Engineer, Albert Gray. 

LEWISHAM. 

An Order was granted for a por- 
tion of the district to the late Board 
of Works, but the borough council 
has allowed the South Metropolitan 
Electric Light and Power Company, 
Limited, to acquire the powers and 
to cover the whole area. 

MARYLEBONE. 

The Borough Council purchased 
the Marylebone portion of the 
Metropolitan Electric Supply Com- 
pany's undertaking. The Borough 
Council bought the undertaking in 
July, 1904, and commenced supply 
in August, 1905, and has gradually 
converted over from alternating to 
the direct current system. £ 1 ,212,000 
was paid for purchase of the under- 
taking from the Metropolitan Com- 
pany out of a loan granted by the 



County Council for £1,41^000. 
The powers for this were obtained 
in 1901, but a second Act in 1904 
enabled the Council to complete 
the purchase and erect its own 
generating station in St. John's 
Wood, with a frontage to the 
Regent's Canal. The system 
adopted for permanent supply by 
the Council is direct current three 
wire at 2 JO and 480 volts, with 
Parsons steam turbines of about 
12,000 kilowatts as generators, 
and the Council has been supply- 
ing the whole of the area from their 
own plant from the end of March, 
1906. The scheme was prepared 
by Mr. Arthur Wright as consult- 
ing expert. Capital expended about 
£1,850,000. Engineer, F. A. Wil- 
kinson. 

POPLAR. 

A Provisional Order was obtained 
in 1893, and put into effect by the 
late Poplar Board of Works, com- 
mencing supply in the winter of 
1900, and the Borough Council is 
engaged in extending the system 
throughout its area. The generat- 
ing works are situate at Grlaucus- 
street, Bromley-by-Bow, and about 
£251,000 has been expended upon 
the installation. Although the 
original scheme laid down by the 
then engineer, A. Blackman, was 
for continuous current only, the 
extensions southwards to the Isle 
of Dogs area have necessitated 
high tension transmission plant 
with motor generator. Engineer, 
J. H. Bowden. 

ST. PANCRAS. 

Order granted in 1883. The first 
local authority to start electricity 
supply in the metropolis. The 
Regent's Park works opened in 
November, 1891, and these were fol- 
lowed in 1894 by the King's-road 
combined electricity and olestructor 
station. Lately high tension alter- 



London's' Light. 



177 



nating transmission has been added. 
Parsons turbo-generators recently 
installed. Extensive additions 
have been made in public light- 
ing by erection of arc lamps in 
the Gray's Inn-road and King's- 
cross districts and elsewhere. 
Engineer, Sydney Baynes. 

SHOREDITCH. 

Originally started works in 
Coronet-street on high tension con- 
tinuous current system, with Wil- 
lans engines, taking steam from a 
Manlove AlHott refuse destructor, 
with Druitt Halpin hot feed storage, 
Belliss sets added as extensions, 
and laterput down new extra 
works in Wniston-street, installing 
two vertical Walls - End Corliss 
engines, with Westinghouse gene- 
rators of 800 k.w. each. Engineer, 
C, Newton Bussell. 

SOUTHWARK. 

Order granted to Newington Ves- 
try in 1897; current first supplied 
in July, 1899. Figures for 1900-1; 
Capital expenditure, £57,313 ; inte- 
rest on loans, £1,796 ; income, £7,326 ; 
expenditure, £5,568; deficit, £38; 
number of lamps connected, 18,539 ; 
number of units sold, 484,431. The 
Council has on more than one occa- 
sion threatened to offer to sell the 
undertaking. So far, wiser counsels 
have prevailed. Engineer, D. M. 
Kinghorn. 

STEPNEY. 

Order was obtained by White- 
chapel Board of Works in 1892, 
and current first supplied from a 
temporary station in January, 1900, 
in which year further powers were 
obtained. Central station, in con- 
junction with dust destructor, 
Osborn - street. The mains are 
being extended throughout the 
whole Borough of Stepney. Two 
Parsons turbo-generators of 1,000 



k.w. each recently installed. Engi- 
neer, W. C. P. Tapper. 

STOKE NBWINGTON. 

In 1902 the Borough Council 
obtained r>owers to supply, elec- 
tricity within the area, and a supply 
was taken from Hackney. After 
. negptiations with that borough and 
Islington, powers were included in 
Act of 1903 for mutual supply by 
agreement. Having considered 
terms offered, a bulk supply from 
the North Metropolitan Company 
was accepted, and the Council laid 
down transforming station, whjch 
was opened in April, 1906. This is 
the only case in the metropolis of a 
borough council taking bulk supply 
from a company and distributing it 
to consumers within their area. 

WOOLWICH. 

The Order for electric lighting 
was originally obtained by the 
Woolwich Local Board of Health, 
but it was transferred by it in 
1891 to a private company. The 
company had made a capital expen- 
diture of about £48,000. The 
Borough Council entered into an 
agreement to purchase for £80,000. 
plus all additional capital expen- 
diture from 1st January, 1901, 
the powers, works, plant, <fcc, of the 
Woolwich District Electric Light- 
ing Company. The Borough Coun- 
cil has now powers for the supply 
of electricity in the whole of 
the borough, haying obtained an 
additional Provisional Order in 
1901-2. Before the amalgamation 
of Woolwich, Plumstead, and 
Eltham, the Plumstead Vestry 
had also obtained powers to supply 
electricity in Plumstead, and these 
powers the Woolwich Borough 
Council inherited, and a tender 
was accepted for the erection 
of a dust destructor and electricity 
works for £40,574. In the parish 
of Eltham the council purchased 



178 



London 1 s Light. 



by agreement the undertaking of 
the Blackheathand Greenwich Dis- 
trict Electric Light Company, so 
far as related to that district, com- 
pleting the purchase in January, 
1903. A large generating station was 
erected in Plumstead, and that with 



the existing works in Woolwich sup- 
plies the whole of the borough. 
The systems adopted are 3-phase 
extra high tension, at 6,600 voltfe, 
50 cycles, and direct current, with 
420 volts on the outers. Engineer 
(pro. tern.), G. W. Keats. ; 



BLSCTRietTY CHARGES OT BOROUGH COUNCILS IN METROPOLIS. 

Metropolitan Borough Councils' rates of charge for electricity supply 
(applying to accounts 1905-6, or arranged since time of issue of such 
accounts; : — 



Lighting. 



Power. 



Bat'tersea ... 
Bermondsey 
Putnam ... 

Hackney ... 
Hammersmith 

Hampstead 

Islington ... 
, Marylebone 
v Poplar 
* fct. Pancras 

Stepney ... 

Shoreditch 
Sonthwark 



Inside 3§d., outside 2id. per unit. 

6d. find 2d., or 3fd. flat. 

3Jd. per unit, less 5 % over £5, and.2J 

% £2 and under. 

6d.andld.,or3id.flat. 

3d. per unit. 

6d. (two hours) and lid. or 4d. 

Sd. per unit. 
. maximum demand. 
5d. (one hour daily) and 3d. or 4d. flat. 

6a. (one hour) and l£d. or 4d. flat. 

8d. X300 hours per annum) and Id. ; or 

6d. (300 hours per annum) and 0'9d. 

5d. (li hours daily) and 2d. 

6d. (one hour) and Id. or 4Jd. flat. 



Id. per unit. 
| lid. and Id. > 

> Id. per unit. 

£1 per k.w. per cp.& }d.per unit, 
lid. per unit with discounts to 

£1 per k.w. per quarter and Id. 

or l}d. per unit. 

Id. per unit. 

2d. and Id. max. demand. 

lid. or £3 and *8d. or £4 & 5d. 

Id. per unit. 
Id. per unit or £4 per k.w. per 

annum and id. per unit. > r 
2d. or £3 per E.H.P. and |d. 
per unit 
2id. to Id. per unit. 



In some cases churches and chapels receive special terms : 



Granting Special Terms. 

iJermondsev (3d. per unit). 
Hackney (4d. per unit and 10 per 

cent, cash discount over £10). 
Islington (4d. per unit). 
Poplar (4d. per unit). 
St. Pancras (4d. per unit). 
Sonthwark (4£d. per unit). 



No Special Terms. 

Battersea. 

Fulham. 

Hammersmith. 

Hampstead. 

Shoreditch. 

Stepney. 

Woolwich. 



As a rule the boroughs not giving preferential treatment charge very 
low rates, thus rendering special ones unnecessary. 

Some of the foregoing rates have since been modified, changes are 
taking place frequently in view of the potential competition of the power 
companies, and in many cases special classes of customers receive 
separate treatment without the terms being made public. 

Motive power supply is being" taken up at a rate which is increasing a» 
reductions are made in the prices charged for this class of service. The 
following figures give the approximate number of motors and their horse" 
power about the time of issue of the various account* for 190&6 \— 





London's Light, 


179 


Metropolitan 


Number of 


Total 


Bates Charged. 


Borough. 


Motors. 


Horse-power. 


Baitersea ... 


_ 


1,108 


Id. per unit. 


Fulbam 


Over 256 


779 


Id. per unit. 


Hackney' 


Over 223 


Over 797 


£1 qr. rental and Jd. per unit, 
lid., with discounts to 33 % 


Hammersmith 


229 


1,420 


Hampetead 


64 


298 


Demand scale at 2$d. per unit. 


Islington 


200 


1.200 


Id. per unit. 


Poplar 


430 


4,702 


1 jd. maximum, or £3 per k.w, 
and 0'8d. or £4 and 0'5d. 


St. Pancras 


S46 


2368 


Id. per unit. 


Shoreditch 


582 


2,990 


2d, per unit with discounts. 


Southwark 


60 


630 


2id. to Id. per unit. 
Id. flat rate, or £4 per k.w. per 


Stepney 


360 


2,330 








annum and id. per unit. 


Woolwich 


Over 41 


Over 233 


2d. per unit and discount, 



A general comparison of the output and costs of the London Councils 
and Companies for the year 1905-6 or 1905, the latest for which returns are 
available for all, is given in the table below. For that year the average 
works cost over the whole tabulated was Id. and for total cost lid. per unit 
sold. The rapid decrease that is baing effected in the fuel item is shown 
by the next table, which applies to Hammersmith : — 



Tear. 



To Marc* 31st, 1902 

= 1$ 

, „ „ 1905 
„ „ ,. 1906 



Cost of Coal. 



£ 
4,778 
5,062 
5,060 
4,916 
5,593 



Cost per 
Unit Sold. 



Tons of Coal. 



d. 
•784 
•702 
•546 
•400 
'360 



4,908 
6.623 

-as 

7,726 



Pounds of Coal 
per Unit Sold. 



7*50 
7*20 
5*34 
4*99 
4*77 



GENERAL TABLE OP OUTPUTS AND COSTS OP MErROPOUTAN 
ELECTRICITY UNDERTAKINGS. 





Year of 


No of 




Works costs 


Total cost 


Borough. 


working. 


units sold. 


Load factor. 


per unit 
sold. 


per unit 
sold. 








Percent, 


d. 


d. 


Battersea 


4th 


2.159373 


16-28 


1-18 


1-65 


Bermondsey 


4th 


1,564,462 


26*19 


«3 


1*36 


Fulham 


4th 


ZM* <747 


2022 


1-00 


1-53J 


Hackney 


4th 


2,390,8% 


17*35 


•57 


•96 


Hammersmith 


8th 


3,644,146 


12*62 


•80 


1*21 


Hampstead 


llth 


3,we,oio; 


13*74 


111 


1-77 


Islington 


10th 


3,398,100 


1469 


1-38 


1-99 


Poplar 


5th 


3,041,100 


22*84 


-71 


119 


St. Marylebone 


1st 


3£52,fl2S 


— ■ 


•98 


1-49 


St. Pancras 


14th 


6,656 + 774 


20-77 


106 


1-44 


Shoreditoh 


8th 


3,702.457 


18*78 


125 


1-59 


Southwark 


6th 


l,003 s ft53 


16*38 


1.42 


1-95 


Stepney 

Stoke Newington ... 


6th 


4,046,305 


22*96 


•77 


111 


1st 


114,662 


11-90 


3*31 


3*60 


Woolwich 


5th 


1,048,495 


11-54 


2*07 


3*50 



180 



London's Light. 



General Table of Outputs and Costs of Metropolitan Electricity 
Undertakings- (continued) . 





Year of 
working. 


No, of 
units sold. 




Works costs . 


Total cost 


Borough. 


Load factor. 


per unit 
fold. 


per unit 
sold. 








Per cent. 


d. 


d. : 


• Companies. 












Brompton 


17th 


2,634.330 


15*01 


1-26 


2*01 . 


Charing Cross 


14th 


15 ,483 J 87 


15*81 


— 


— : 


Chelsea 


ieth 


3.232,038 


1540 


1-23 


1-73 


City of London 


14th 


20,957,648 


14*94 


•81 


1*20 


County of London . . . 


9th 


8.614,187 


14*35 


1-01 


1-53 - 


Kensington 


18th 


4,807,321 


14*35 


1-36 


2*26 


London 


20th 


13.042,932 


2482 


•72 


•95 


Metropolitan 


17th 


14,079,160 


13*96 


1-13 


1*84 


NottingHill 


14th 


1.711.965 


1426 


•98 


2-05 


St. James' 


15th 


7.815,545 


1690 


r& 


213 


South London 


8th 


10,144,995 


29*32 


•91 


1-04 


South Metropolitan ... 


6th 


2,144,316 


13*83 


•96 


1*49 


Westminster 


15th 


14,893,170 


1986 


1-49 


2*01 



PUBLIC AND STREET ELECTRIC LIGHTING. 

The late Mr. J. F. B. Firth, M.P., in an essay upon London Govern- 
ment has stated that 300 years ago, on the threat of a Spanish invasion, 
every London householder was bound to have a light before his door aft 
night under penalty of death by the common hangman. One hundred 
and thirty years later the omission to supply such a light was punished, by 
a fine. After the Eestoration candles or lights were directed to be hung out 
from dusk to 9= p.m. between Michaelmas and Lady Day by every house- 
holder. Macaulay records that in 1685 letters patent were granted to one 
Edmund Hemming conferring upon him the lighting of London by means 
of lanterns, and one of these was placed in front of every tenth house on 
each side of a thoroughfare. The Lighting and Watching Acts subse- 
quently passed made it obligatory upon local authorities to light the 
street at night time, although the amount and duration of such lighting is 
left entirely to their discretion. The first great improvement occurred in 
or about 1823 when gas was introduced, and by the Metropolis Manage- 
ment Act of 1855 the Metropolitan Board of Works was instituted, 
together with the vestries, to be again revised by the Act of 1899 con-, 
stituting the Metropolitan Borough Councils. 

Public electric lighting in the metropolis was first started on permanent 
lines by the St. Pancras Vestry, and is being* rapidly extended; Islington* 
for example, is engaged in erecting 275 additional arc lamps, and Oxford 
street, from Tottenham Court-road to the Marble Arch, has been lighted 
by pairs of "Flame" arc lamps (87 in number) suspended from centre 
standards. Piccadilly and Regent-street have for many years been lighted 
in this way, but the lamps are of the open arc type, current being supplied 
by the St, James' Company, while the Westminster Company in recent 
years have found the City Council a. customer for a very extensive area 
lighted by their current by means of arc lamps. The approximate number 
of lamps, or posts carrying lamps, in use by the borough councils was 
as follows :— 







London?* Light. 




181 




Winter, 1900-1. 


Autumn, 1904, 


-Autumn, 1906* 




Arc 


Incan- 


Arc 


Incan- 


Arc 


Incan- 




Lamps. 


descent. 


Lamps. 


descent. 


Lamps. 


descent. ; 


St. Pancras 


416 


755 





792 


22 


Islington 


398 


— 


. 486 


— 


516 


— 


Hackney .» 
Shoreditch 


320 


— 


, 293 


— 


482 


49 


320 


— _ 


, 260 


— 


322 


— 


Poplar 


190 


530 


\ 320 . 


491 


•344 


555 


Hammersmith ... 


164 


■ — 


t 227 


. . — 


198 


108 


Hampstead 


94 


— 


j 122 


41 


122 


— 


Southwark 


90 


180 


i 90 


361 


98 


156 


Pulham 


86 


172 


270 


80 


273 ••• 


& 


Stepney 


7Q 


5 


95 


• • 5 • 


376 • 


Battersea 


— 


— 


366 


4 


381 


213 


Woolwich 


— 


— 


— 


• — 


127 


61 


JBermondsey 


■— 


— 


~^ 


— 


168 


247 



Some further particulars of public electric lighting in London are given 
below : — 



Metropolitan 


Length of Streets 


Inclusive Charge per Lamp 


Borough. 


Electrically Lighted. 


per Annum.* 


Battersea ... 





Arcs £18 & £10 p.a. ; incts. £6 A £5. 


Ttalham ... 

Packney 


19 miles f 


According to total works costs, plus 
capital charges, maintenance, and 
repairs.^ 


Hammersmith 


8$ miles 


£20 p.a arc. ; £4 p.a. incandescent* 


Hampstead 


6J to 7j miles 


£24 each approx. 


Islington 


20 miles (about) 


£36 12*. 8d.t 


Marylebone 

Poplar 


1§ miles approx. 


£20 13s. 7d. p.a. 


32 miles 


lid. per unit.? 
l|d. per unit.? 
6d. (300 p.a.) &0'9d. per unit after.tll 


St. Pancras 


63,360 yards* 


Stepney 

Shoreditch 


15 miles 


13 miles . 


24 per unit.t 

2*84a. per unit.t 

5d. per unit including maintenance. 


~Southwark... ..." ..: 


■— . 


Woolwich 


— * 



* Generally applying to 1905-6 accounts. t 3jd. per unit for current only, t Main- 
tenance extra. § In 1904-5 £25 and £3 10s. 4d. for incandescents. || In 1904-6 average 
was l*55d. per unit for current only. 

The cost of carbons, trimming, and maintenance is in some cases borne 
by the rates directly ; in others it is included in the charge made for 
current. In all cases, however, the district auditors have held that the 
provision of lamps and standards is not a capital charge on the electricity 
undertaking but must be paid for by the local rates under the Metropolis 
Management Acts. Hence these charges do not bear any proportion for 
the cost of the columns as is the case with most provincial local authorities. 

The tendency in the Metropolis is to do away with electric incandescent 
lamps, and to use arc (especially " Flame " or "Golden Sunshine ") lamps 
for main thoroughfares and incandescent gas mantles for the side streets. 
Evidence of a steady increase in the use of electricity is, however, shown 
by the changes :— 

Incandescents. 



Increases 1904-5 to 1905-6. 
Battersea 200 to 213 



Fulham 
Poplar... 
Stepney 
St. Pancras 



200 to 404 

463 to 553 

114 to 116 

6 to 22 



Decreases 1904-5 to 1906 6. 

Southwark 484 to 156 

Woolwich 201 to 61 



182 



London's Light. 





Extin- 




guishing. 


3.30 


7.37 


4.17 


. 7.11 


5.8 


. 6.16 


6*2 


5.6 


6.52 


4.2 


7.36 


3.19 





- Lighting. 


Extin- 
guishing. 


July 


7.49 


3.18 


August 


7.17 


3£6 


September 
October 


6.16 


4.44 


5.7 


5.32 


November 


4.2 


6.2$ 


December 


3.22 


7.17 



The average lighting hours in the metropolis can be ascertained from 
the lighting tables, of which we take that of the Borough of Finsbury as 
an example. Lighting and extinguishing to commence at the hour given 
on the 1st of each month, and to occupy about one hour : — 



January ... 

February ... 

March 

April 

May 

June 

From an extended series of tests in the City of Westminster reliable 
average figures as to the light obtained and expense were made available. 
They relate, however, to open type arc lamps only, and no such data has 
been published respecting the more modern "Flame" lamps. In 
that city at the time of these tests there were : St. George's district, 953 arcs, 
costing £21,046, and 217 incandescents costing £868; St. Martin's district, 
100 arc lamps ; St. James* district, 60 arc lamps ; Buckingham Palace- 
road, for a length of 780 yards, is lighted electrically by 16 columns, costing 
£352 annually each, giving an average of 683-candle power, at the rate of 
£795 per mile ; while Victoria-street is lighted by gas for a length of 1,QQQ 
yards with 55 columns, costing £242 annually, giving an average of 6J> 
candle power, at the rate of £426 per mile. 

Some valuable results, taken from these actual tests of gas and electric 
street lighting, have been published by the City Engineer of Westminster, 
and these form a good standard by which to measure improvements. The 
figures given are the latest available from that source : — 





Electric Arcs. 


Incandescent Gas Mantles. 






Q 






It 




36 

s 




■Sfi 


tit 

Sal 


Capital cost per 




















lamp 


£40 


£45 


— 


£15 


£15 


£6 


— 


£6 


£8 


Total coet per lamp 
per annum 


)£30 


£34 


£22 


£13 6 6 


£9 13 9 


£518 2 


- 


£3 10 


f £6 7 2 

I £5 18 2 


Hours of burning 




















pet annum 


3,940 


3,879 


3,940 


3,940 


3,940 


3,940 


— 


3,940 


3,940 


Average c.p. in 




















quarter— 




















September, 1902 ... 


512c.p. 


688cp. 


675c.p. 


153cp. 


— 


— 


— 


55c.p. 


62C.P. 


December, 1902 ... 


937c.p. 


598c.p. 


691c.p. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


62c.p. 


61c.p. 


March, 1903 


764c.p. 


547e.p. 


664c.p. 


65c.p. 


— 


— 


— 


38c.p. 


57c.p. 


Jane, 1903 


590c.p. 


368c.p. 


576cp. 


96c.p. 


— 


— 


— 


34c.p. 


57c.p. 


September, 1903 ... 


554c.p. 


585c.p. 563c.p. 


113c.p. 


107c.p. 


77c.p. 


68c.p. 


49c.p. 


58c.p. 


December. 1903 ... 
Average total cost 


670c.p. 


474c.p. 606c.p. 


113c.p. 


— 


— 


— 


42c.p. 


51cp. 




1 














per c.p. per an- 
num of all tests... 


ll*49d. 


15'ld. 8'7d. 


30"7d. 


2173d. 


18'4d. 





18*42d. 


25'65dC 


Number of lamps 
of each class In 






































the City of West- 




















minster 


100 60 


945 


12 


— 


— .rr 


1.241 


35 . 



London's £»***> 183 



LONDON'S GAS SUPPLY. 

Prior to 1870, what is now known as the Administrative County ol 
London was supplied with gas by no fewer than 15 gas companies. 
Each had its own area allotted to it, and each was regulated by its own 
special Acts of Parliament In 1870 the process of amalgamation began 
by which the number has been reduced to three. Between 1870 and 1883 
the Gras Light and Coke Company absorbed seven companies. The last- 
company which it* absorbed was the London Company, which had a dis- 
trict on the south side of the river. Prior to this amalgamation, which 
took place in 1883, the Gras Light and Coke Company's operations had 
been confined to the north side of the Thames. 

From this time dates the curious anomaly that this company charges 
more for gas on the north side oi the river than it does on the south side. 
The reason for this is that one of the conditions upon which absorption 
of the London Company was allowed was that the Gras Light and Coke 
Company should at no time charge more for gas on the south side of the 
Thames than the South Metropolitan Company charges. At that time 
the charges of the South Metropolitan were less than those, of the Gras 
Light and Coke Company, and they have always remained so. But the 
latter company is compelled to follow the charge of the South Metropo- 
litan so far as its area- south of the Thames is concerned, irrespective 
of the price charged on the north side. 

Again, as all the companies are bound to charge the public lighting 
at not more than the lowest price charged to a private consumer, it 
follows that the Gras Light and Coke Company is regulated in this regard* 
by the price* of the South Metropolitan Company, not only on the south 
side but also on the north side* 

Since 1901, however^ the Gras Light and Coke Company has been 
allowed to charge 2d. more than the South Metropolitan Company on 
the south side, and also for public lighting, for the reason that white the 
South Metropolitan Company now supply 14-candle gas the Gas Light 
and Coke Company still supply 16-candle gas. 

With respect to the South Metropolitan Company, between 1879 and 
1885 it absorbed four companies. The Commercial Company absorbed the 
Ratcliff Company in 1875. Now these three companies supply practically 
the whole of the administrative county, the only exceptions being a small 
part in the north* west supplied by the Brentford Company, a small part 



1W London 9 8 Light. 



in the south-west supplied by the Wandsworth and Putney Company, and 
a small part in the south supplied by the South Suburban Company.*' 

Up till July, 1901, all three companies were bound to supply gas of not less 
than 16-candle power, as tested by gas examiners appointed by the County 
Council and the City Corporation at 23 fixed testing stations distributed 
throughout the county. This provision still applies to the Gas Light 
and Coke Company, but the South Metropolitan Company and the - 
Commercial Company are now bound to supply 'gas of 14 candle* 
power only.- f In. return for this ! concession the South Jfetropolitan/ 
Company consented to a reduction of the standard price for the > Sliding 
scale by 2d.' and the Commercial Company to a reduction, of 3d. 
The Gas Light and Coke Company maintains that it can supply 
16Vcandle gas on better terms to the consumer than it could 14- 
candle gas; and, therefore, while, as mentioned later, it has agreed to a 
reduction of its standard price from 3s. 9d. to 3s. 4d., it did not ask. for a 
reduction in the illuminating power, probably because had it done so 
the County Council would have insisted upon a still further reduction in , 
the standard price. 

The sliding-scale was first introduced in an Act obtained by the 
Commercial Company in 1875. By this it was provided that when the ■ 
price of gas was 3«. 9d. per thousand cubic feet the company might pay a 
dividend on the ordinary stock at the rate of 10 per cent., and that for l 
every penny below 3a. 9d. at which gas was sold the dividend might be 
increased by £ per cent., and for every penny above 3«. 9d. it must be 
reduced by £ per cent. In the following year both the Gas Light and i 
Coke Company and the South Metropolitan Company came under similar 
legislation ; but in the case of the last-named the standard price was fixed 
at 3*. 6d., instead of 3s. 9d. as in the cases of the two other com- 
panies. By the legislation of 1876 it was also provided that all new 
capital issued must be offered to the public, either by auction or tender,: 
and allotted to the highest bidder, and any premiums arising from such 
sale were to be applied by the companies as capital, but not to bear any 
dividend. Under these Acts the Gas Light and Coke Company has 
obtained premiums to the amount of £l,586,807 r and the South Metro- 
politan Company to the amount of £832,775. Although under its 
Act of 1875 the Commercial Gas Company retained the right to issue 
stock at par, it did not exercise this right throughout, but issued some 
of its new stock to the highest bidder. By an Act obtained in 1902, this 
company is now under the "same regulations as the others in regard 
to the issue of capital by auction or tender. Its premium capital now 
stands at £54,638. Both the South Metropolitan and the Com- 
mercial have now Parliamentary authority to make the first 
offer of new stock to their employees and their gas consumers 
at about the average Stook Exchange price for the time being, 



186 London' 8 Light. 



and this is now largely taken advantage of by both employees and 
consumers. 

In 1896 the South Metropolitan Company, under powers obtained by 
Act, converted its ordinary stock into an equivalent amount bearing 
a standard dividend of 4 per cent., and the increment or decrement of 
dividend per penny reduction or increase in the price of gas was fixed at 
28. per cent., which is the equivalent of the former 58. In 1898 
the Gas Light and Coke Company did likewise, and the Com- 
mercial Company followed in 1902. 

The effect of these conversions is that for every £100 of stock entitled 
to a standard dividend of 10 per cent., £250 of stock entitled to a standard 
dividend of 4 per cent, was created. In other words, the nominal capital 
of the companies was multiplied by 2£, and the standard dividend was 
divided by 2£, so that the return to the shareholder remains unaffected. 
Prior to these conversions, when new stock was issued it commanded a 
high premium in the market, and the whole of the premium was placed to 
the credit of the capital account, but was not, entitled to any dividend. 
Now, of course, there is not so much premium obtained ; indeed, the Gas 
Light and Coke Company has had to issue some stock at below par. 
The main effect of the conversions was to bring the nominal value of the 
stocks somewhere near the market value. 

In 1899 a Select Committee of the House of Commons recommended 
that the standard price for all three companies should be reduced to a 
uniform 3s. 3d. per thousand cubic feet, and, farther, that for every com- 
plete 3d. below or above the standard price the dividend should be increased 
or reduced by another 2s. per cent. The following year the South Metro- 
politan Company accepted this, with the modification that instead of 
waiting for a complete 3d. the dividend varies 28. Sd. for every penny 
change in the price of gas. The company also, as already mentioned, 
gave up 2d. more of the standard price for the privilege of supplying 
14-candle gas, which, it is asse rted, gives better value to the consumer 
The Commef cial Company reduced its standard price for 14-candle gas to 
38. 3d., as against the former 3s. 9d. for 16-candle gas. Its dividend will now 
vary by 28. Sd. per cent, for every penny change in the selling price of gas, as 
in tns case of the South Metropolitan. The Select Committee also recom- 
mended that the Gas Light and Coke Company's area on the south side of 
the Thames should be transferred to the South Metropolitan Com- 
pany, so as to get rid of the anomaly of one company charging 
two prices, and in 1901 the South Metropolitan Company obtained 
powers to buy this area subject to the Gas Light and Coke Company 
coming to Parliament in 1902 to have the sale confirmed. The latter 
company did not do so, and the powers have now lapsed, an 
application by the South Metropolitan Company to Parliament 
in 1902 for an extension of time not having been entertained. The 
Gas Light and Coke Company was before Parliament in 1899, 1900, 
and 1901 asking for powers to raise more capital, but in each cane the 



London's Light, 



187 



Bill was opposed by the County Council, City Corporation, and 
the local authorities, and rejected on the ground that no willingness had 
been shown to comply with any of the recommendations of the Select 
Committee of 1899. In 1903 the Company again applied to Parliament. 
It was at first opposed by the London County Council, but ultimately a 
settlement was arrived at, the result of which is that the company is 
empowered to raise £750,000 of capital in second debenture stock bearing 
interest at the rate of 3 per cent, per annum. The standard price is reduced 
from 38. 9d. to 3s. id., but in other respects the sliding scale of the company 
is brought into accordance with the scales of the other companies, as 
already explained. Provision is made for a certain proportion of the com- 
pany's profits being set aside for the redemption of capital that has become 
obsolete, up to a total amount of £1,000,000. Up to 31st December, 1906, 
£40,090 of capital was redeemed under this provision. 

For a number of years there was a difference of opinion between 
the gas companies and thp County Council as to the manner of testing 
the gas for illuminating power, and as to the standard of purity to be 
maintained. In 1903 a Committee was appointed by the Board of Trade 
to inquire into this matter, and also into tne request of the companies to 
bs relieved from purifying the gas from what are known as sulphur 
compounds. The Committee recommended that a particular method 
of testing for illuminating power should be adopted, and that purification 
from "sulphur compounds" should not be compulsory j and in 1905 
an Act was passed, at the instance of the County Council, giving effect to 
these recommendations. 

Charges Made by London and Suburban G-as Companies 

During the past 14 Years. 

In each case the price is given as it stood in December of the respective year?. 



Company. 

Qua Light suid Cake — 
Jfonh of Thames, ... 
South of Thfl.me^ ,,..,. 

South Metropolitan 

HcKithgste awl District . 

(JoiuTDcrcisil . ,.„„..„ 

South Subnrb;iD 

Wiiuibwcirth 

Brentford. 

Hotn&ey 

North Middlesex „ 

Richmond 

Wt-st Hum 

Tuttttuhtuii 

Croydon ,4 

Bromley ,...- 

Lea Bridge 




188 



London's Light. 



DETAILS RELATING TO THE THREE PRINCIPAL GAS 
COMPANIES IN THE METROPOLIS 

FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31st DECEMBER, 1906. 



Gas Light and 
Coke Company. 



South Metropoli- 
tan. 



Commercial Gas 
Company. 



Capital Authorised — 

Stock 

Loan 

• Capital paid up- 
Stock 

Loan 

Premiums 

Reserved Funds 

Percentage on Paid - up 

Capital. 

Revenue from Gas 

„ „ Meters 

,. Stoves 

„ Coke 

„ Tar 

„ „ Ammoniacal 

Liquor 

Total Revenue 

Gross Profit 

Capital Charges 

Per 1,000 Cubic Feet 

Rate of Dividend on Ordi- 
nary Stock 

Net Cost of Gas per 1,000 

Cubic Feet (sold exclusive 

of capital charges) 

Price of Gas in December, 

1906 

Charge for Public Lamps (per 

1,000 Cubic Feet) 

Candle Power of Gas 

Coal Carbonised 

Gas Made 

Per Ton of Coal 

Gas Sold— 

Private Lighting, &c 

Public Lighting 

Total 

Gas Unaccounted for 

Miles of Main Pipes 

Number of Consumers 

Per Mile of Main 

Number of Public Lamps 

Per Mile of Main 

Coke Sold 

Per Ton of Coal 

Average Price 

Tar Made 

Per Ton of Coal 

Average Price 

Ammoniacal Liquor Made ... 

Per Ton of Coal 

Average Price 



£21,602,975 
£5,073,975 

£21.602,975 

£4,323,975 

£1,586,807 

£445,996 

17 
£3,022,839 
free 

£75,299 
£456,714 

£99,447 

£178,605 
£3,842,549 
£1,132,089 
£1,079,935 
12"03d. 

4§ 

Is. 9'06d. 

2s. lid. & 2s. 2d. 

2s. 2d. 

16 

2,148,166 tons.* 

23,015,409 c. ft. 

10,714 c. ft. 

20,605,843.000 c. ft. 

941,036,000 c. ft. 

21,546,879,000 c. ft. 

5'2 per cent. 

2.144- 

502,892 

234 

49,5% 

23 

974,372 tons. 

11*6 cwts. 

9s. 4*5d. per ton. 

16,406,637 gals. 

89 gals. 

£1 4s. 2"9d. per ton. 

51,895,836 gals. 

30-9 gals. 

15s. l'7d. per ton. 



£6,761,224 
£2,048,994 

£6,350,000 

£1,895,445 

£832,775 

£301,103 

36 
£1,208,213 
£68,062 
£54,781 
£312,975 
£66,331 

£108,184 
£1,824,502 
£399,163 
£413,910 
8.08d. 

5J 

Is. 5'13d. 
2s. 



14 

1,181,239 tons. 

12,945,718,000 c. ft. 

10,959 C ft. 

11,893,755,000 c. ft. 

397,354,000 C ft. 

12,291,109,000 c. ft. 

3"8 per cent. 

1,185 

316,862 

267 

23,128 

19 

626,428 tons. 

10'6 cwts. 

9s. ll'9d. per ton. 

11,599,046 gals. 

9"8 gals. 

£12s.l0.5d. per ton. 

40,524,624 gals. 

34-3 gals, 
lis. 8'9d. per ton. 



£2,235,000 
£550,000 

£2,003,280 

£475,000 

£54,638 

£88,713 

3'6 

£366,229 
£26,911 
£13,855 
£61,600 
£13,762 

£21,619 
£505,021 
£126,838 
£121,365 

9"31d. 

5 \ and 5 



Is. 8*44d. 

2s. 5d, 

2s. 4d. 

14 

312,036 tons.* 

3,354,962,000 c. ft. 

10,752 c. ft. 

3,043,511,000 c. ft. 

83,730,000 eft. 

3,127,241,000 c. ft. 

5'3 per cent. 

286 

80,023 

280 

4,080 

14 

127,771 tons. 

11*7 cwts. 

9s. 7'7d. per ton. 

2,531,734 gals. ' 

106 gals. 

£1 Is. 8'9d. per ton. 

5,944,752 gals. 

27-3 gals. 

16s. 0"0d. per ton. 



* These figures include oil used in the manufacture of carburetted water gas. 



London Markets. 189 



LONDON MARKETS. 

There is a market muddle in London which adds to the confusion in other 
branches of the public services. We have proprietary markets including 
the great Covent Garden, which belongs to the Duke of Bedford ; Cumber- 
land Market (hay) ; and the Portland Market at Marylebone, re-opened 
at the beginning of 1901 by Yiscount Portman. 

The City Corporation has for many centuries been the market authority 
for London, but the London County Council, whilst agreeing that the great 
central markets which supply the whole of London should be under central 
control, contends that the smaller retail markets should be established and 
looked after by the various local authorities. As a step in this direction 
the London County Council, under its General Powers . Act (1903), ob- 
tained powers for the local authorities to promote shelters for street 
traders, and the local authorities are authorised to make a small charge 
for the accommodation. The local authorities will bear the whole cost 
of these structures. 

THE CITY MARKETS. 

Markets have been in existence in the City for more than a thousand 
years. By a Charter of the first year of Edward III., dated 6th March, 
1326, exclusive market rights and privileges within seven miles from the 
City, which already existed, were set out and confirmed to the citizens of 
London. These rights have since been from time to time recognised and 
confirmed by Acts of Parliament and decisions of the High Courts of 
Justice. 

As population increased, and the suburbs of the City grew, applications 
have from time to time been made by private individuals, for licences to set 
up markets. In some cases these were opposed by the Corporation, as 
being derogatory to its Charter rights. In other cases, the City has 
waived its claims. The Corporation markets at present are.: — 

London Central Markets Wholesale for meat, poultry, and 

provisions, with sections for the 
sale of vegetables and fish, both 
wholesale and retail. 

Metropolitan Cattle Market... For the sale of cattle, sheep, 

pigs, &c. 

Foreign Cattle Market For the landing, sale, and slaughter 

of foreign animals. 

Billingsgate Market Wholesale for fish. 

Leadenhall Market Wholesale and retail for the sale 

of poultry, meat, game, &c. 

Smithfield Hay Market For the sale of hay. 

Shadwell Market For the sale of fish, &c. 

The Metropolitan Cattle Market, the Foreign Cattle Market, and the 
Shadwell Market are all situated outside the City area. 



190 



London Markets. 



To this list, however, must now be added the Spitalfields Market for 
the sale of fruit, vegetables, and flowers. The Corporation is already the 
freeholder of the interests of the Market, and under the terms of a new 
Act is acquiring the leaseholders' interests, and will then itself work the 
market. 

The Corporation has, as the owner and market authority,* provided, 
maintained, and managed all the markets under its control for the benefit 
of the whole Metropolis, without any rate being levied upon the inhabi- 
tants of the City or the Metropolitan district beyond, and has raised the 
necessary funds for construction upon the security of its own estates and 
revenues generally. Altogether the markets have involved a capital 
expenditure of upwards of £3,500,000. The supervision and control of the 
markets are vested in committees, which consider all applications for 
space, and take action as may be necessary to enforce thj bye-laws 
regulating the markets. 

Central Markets, Smlthfleld. 

These markets cover part of the site of Old SmithfiVd Market, which 
was founded as far back as 1614 for the sale of live stock. A dead meat 
market, called Newgate Market, was also carried on in the immediate 
neighbourhood until the opening of the first portion of the New Central 
Markets in 1868. The markets have been built under the authority of the 
various Acts of Parliament conferring 1 powers for the raising of money, for 
the purchase of lands, and regulating the use and government of the 
various markets comprised in the group. The meat, poultry, and provision 
markets are strictly^ wholesale, except on Saturday afternoons, when the 
*' People's Market " is held, and attended by thousands of the poorer classes 
from all parts of London, and a large business is carried on. The entire 
range of the markets covers an area of nearly eight acres. The following 
figures will give some idea of the vast trade : — 



Year. 

1869 first year 

1874... 

1879... 

1884... 

1889... 

1894... 

1899. 



Gross delivery in 

financial year. 

Tons. cwts. qrs. 



127,981 
157,628 
212,987 
230,873 
276,429 
340,956 
405,456 



11 
18 
14 
1 
4 
16 
9 



Year. 

1900... 
1901... 
1902... 
1903... 
1904... 
1905... 
1906. 



Gross delivery in ' 

financial year. 

Tons. cwts. qrs. 



408,601 
414,638 
403,812 
415,863 
418,199 
417,281 
423,896 



14 
11 
18 
1 
5 





The receipts from all sources during the last five years have been as 
follows : — 

Year. £ s. d. Year. £ s. d. 

1902 134,539 1 4 1905 137,138 6 2 

1903 134,602 19 1 1906 138,009 15 4 

1904 (53 weeks) ... 136,757 6 

As compared with 1905 there was a net increase of 6,615 tons. 
The growth of foreign and colonial supplies is emphasised in the authority's 
returns, but the aggregate increase in the tonnage of produce entering the 
central markets is not proportionate to the ever-increasing population of 
the metropolis and district. A larger rate of decrease for the past year in 
supplies from the United Kingdom is attributed partly to a more strict 
classification of produce on arrival at the markets, also to the minute 
inspection made under the Public Health Acts. 



London Marhets. 191> 



Metropolitan Cattle Market. 

This market was formerly held at Smithfield, on part of the site where 
the London Central Markets now stand. The present market for live 
cattle and sheep was opened on the 13th June, 1855. At that time the 
market and lairage covered an area of about 75 acres, of which the market 
occupied about 15. In'recent years the additional area beyond the market 
proper has been considerably reduced. 

Up till 1869 cattle from foreign countries were received at the marked 
without restriction, but in that year the Government, with a view to the. 
prevention of the introduction into Great Britain of contagious diseases 
amongst animals, passed an Act restricting the landing of animals from 
certain scheduled countries to duly authorised foreign animal wharves, 
where they were to be sold and slaughtered. The effect of this measure, 
while tending to largely increase the foreign cattle trade, seriously affected 
the supplies to the Metropolitan Cattle Market, and at the present time 
there is a considerable excess of expenditure over receipts. Outbreaks of 
foot and mouth disease in various parts of England, and the necessary 
stringent precautions required by the Board of Agriculture as regards the 
removal of animals from infected areas, have naturally prejudicially 
affected the supplies, while the constantly increasing importation of chilled 
and frozen meat and foreign animals also operate to diminish the trade of 
the market. In the summer of 1906 a scheme for reconstructing the 
slaughterhouse accommodation to bring it into line with present-day 
requirements was approved by the Court of Common Council. The 
horse trade in the market has shown a decided improvement, and the 
numbers have increased from 3,476 in 1905 to 8,226 in 1903. The supplies 
to the market for the last three years have been :— 



1904. 1905. 1906. 

Beasts 68,866 63,468 58,086 

Sheep 528,965 490,786 459,043 

Calves 1,972 2,260 2,239 



1904. 1905. 1906. 

Pigs 1,403 959 263 

Other animals ... 4,973 5,159 9,667 

Total ... 606,179 562,632 529,297 

Mondays and Thursdays are market days, but the lairs are open for the 
reception of animals at all hours day or night. 

Foreign Cattle market, Deptford. 

Following the passing of the Contagious Diseases of Animals Act in 
1869, the Corporation was made the exclusive local authority as regards 
foreign animals in and for the Metropolis, subject to its providing and 
opening for public use a market by the l&t January, 1872. On that day 
the market was opened. It stands upon the site of the old Admiralty 
Dockyard. The market has been from time to time enlarged, and now 
covers an area of upwards of 30 acres, the lairage space being 
capable of accommodating 8,500 cattle and 20,000 sheep. Every animal 
received is inspected by veterinary officers on arrival, and slaughtered in 
the market within a period of ten days. Diseased animals are at once con- 
signed to a ** digester," and reduced to ashes. There are 66 slaughterhouses 
in the market, most of the meat from which goes to the London Central 
Markets. Chill rooms were constructed to chill 450 sides of beef, and 
were opened for use in August, 1889, since which date further accommo- 
dation has been provided to chill 3,950 sides. From the opening of the 



192 



London Markets. 



chill rooms to the end of 1906 1,931,915 sides of beef and 5,053 carcasses of 
mutton have been chilled. 

The following table shows the number of animals landed at the market 
during recent years from the United States of America, the Argentine 
Bepublic, and Canada : — 



- 


Cattle. 


Sheep. 




United States— 

Year 1904 

„ 1906 

„ 1906 


135,391 
145,210 
139,831 


30,188 

1,819 

None. 




Argentina— 

Year 1902* 

.. 1903 


None. 
19,643 


None. 
65,493 




Canada— 

Year 1904 

,, 1905 

„ 1906 


41,968 
51,977 
61,072 


32,987 
12,675 
2,373 





* In April, 1900, the importation of animals from Argentina was prohibited by the • 
Board of Agriculture (England) in consequence of an outbreak of foot and mouth disease. , 
It was re-opened in February, 1903, and closed in June of the same year, and is still closed. 

Four hundred and thirty-two steamers have discharged animals at the 
market during 1906. 

For the purposes of the transhipment of cattle from large vessels dis- 
charging at points lower down the river three steam vessels are employed ,. 
by the Corporation. } 



Bliilnerserate market. 

Billingsgate is the most ancient market belonging to the Corporation, 
dating from time immemorial, Documentary evidence exists in the shape 
of a Proclamation, dated 1297, making mention of the "Market at- 
Billingsgate." The market is for the wholesale and retail sale of all sorts 
of fish. The supplies arrive both by land and water, the proportion being 
two-thirds by land to one-third by water, the latter both from British ana 
foreign seas. The average weigrit of fish received per week is about 2,500 
tons, or upwards of 400 tons daily, the average toll charged being under 
id. per cwt. Jhe following were the supplies for the four years ended 
December, 1906 : — 





1903. 


1904. 


1905. 


1906. 


! Tons. 

By land ; 103,577 

By water | 60,320 


Tons. 
113,388 
61,218 


Tons. 

108,532 

48,803 


Tons. 
108,381 
57,219 


Totals I 163,897 


. 174,606 


157,335 


165,600 



Water-borne fish, caught mainly in the North Sea, is collected from the 
various fishing fleets by steam vessels, known as steam carriers, which 
deliver at the quay at Billingsgate. The principal part of the water-borne 



The Port of London. 193 



fish is brought by four fish carrying companies. It is disposed of by 
auction by the companies themselves. The land-borne fish is that which 
is caught all round the coast of Great Britain and Ireland. 

The Leadenhall Market has existed from very early times, and was an 
ancient prescriptive market for the sale of meat, poultry, game, and pro- 
visions. The present market was opened in 1881, and the business is both 
wholesale and retail. No record of supplies is kept ; no tolls being levied, 
weights are not obtainable. 

The Smithfield Hay Market, which existed at Smithfield lone- prior to 
the establishment of the Metropolitan Gattle Market, has practically fallen 
into disuse, very little business having been done during recent years. 
However, an open space continues to be preserved at Smithfield for the 
sale of hay and straw. 

'•-. MARKETS CONTROLLED BY LOCAL AUTHORITIES. 

At present, there are only three minor markets in London — the White- 
chapel Hay Market, the Borough Market for the sale of fruit and 
vegetables, and the Woolwich Market. This numl^er will, most probably 
be considerably increased as the result of the powers referred to at the 
commencement of this section which have been conferred on the Borough 
Councils. The three markets are at present directly or indirectly 
controlled by the local authorities, and the surplus profits go to the relief 
of the rates. 

THE PORT OF LQNDQN. . 

Various proposals have been put forward for municipalising the Port of 
London or for putting it under public control. • The late Grovernment's 
Port of London Bill, which provided for the transfer of the undertakings 
of the Dock Companies to a new body to be called the Port of London 
Commission, was before Parliament in the Session 1903. The measure, 
after the second reading in the House of Commons, was referred to a 
Joint Committee of both Houses. 

When Parliament re-assembled it was announced that there was no 
intention of proceeding with the Government measure ; and under these 
circumstances the London County Council promoted another Bill, which, 
in its main principles, followed the lines of the Governmentproposals. It 
differed, however, in regard to the membership of the Council on the 
proposed Port Commission. 

The Commission was to be appointed as follows : — 

By the London County Council- -,, -24 - 

By the Corporation 1 

By the Admiralty ... 1 

By the Board of Trade 1 

By the Trinity House 1 

The elected commissioners were to be elected as follows : — 

By payers of dues on ships trading to the docks 7 

By payers of dues on ships trading to the river 3 

- • By traders ♦.. ..♦ • 2 



194 



The Pert of London 



The second reading of this Bill was rejected on April 13th, 1905, hf a 3 
majority of 68. " I 

On the 28th March, 1906, Mr. Dickinson moved in the new House *>f J 
Commons the following resolution, which was adopted without a division : i 
— " That this House is of opinion that the condition of the Port and Docks , 
of London urgently demands attention with a view to the management - 
thereof being forthwith placed in the hands of a public authority." 

The following was the constitution of the Port Commission proposed irj^ 
the late Government's Bill :— 



Elected. 
By payers of dues on ships 

By traders 

By Wharfingers 

By owners of river craft 

Total 



10 
10* 

- 4- 

2i 



Appointed. 

By the London County Council 8 
By the Common Council of the 

City ... 2 

By the Admiralty 1 

By the Board of Trade ... 1 

By the Trinity House ... ... 1 Total 40 ; 

By the Railway Companies 

Association 

For comparative purposes the recommendations of the Royal Commis - 
sion as to the constitution of the authority are appended : — 

Nominated. 

By the London County Council 11 

By the City Corporation 3 

By the Admiralty 1 

By the Board of Trade ... ... •... 1 

By the Trinity House 1 

By the Kent County Council 1 

By the Essex County Council 1 

By the London Chamber of Commerce 2 
By the Governors of the Bank of 

England 5 



26 



Elected. 

By oversea (or ocean) trading ship- 
owners 

By the short-sea trading shipowners ... 

By wharfingers and owners of private 
warehouses on the river 

By owners of lighters, barges, and 
river craft, including river passenger 
steamers 

By railway companies connecting with 
docks 



5 

2 ! 

I 

— i 
14* 



The authority was to purchase the undertakings of — 

1. The London and India Doek Company ; 

2. The Surrey Commercial Dock Company; and 

3. The Millwall Dock Company. 

The following are the docks comprised in this enumeration : — 



Dock. 


"Water 
Area. 


Depth. 


Quayage 
Length. 


Mad*,. }. 


East India 


Acres. . 
31*48 
97*14 
10*35 • 
3872 
87-97 
84-46 
69-08 
36-41 
157*61 


Ft 

24*8 

26*5 (import dock) 
24 (neap tide on sill) 
24 
32 
21*5 

33 (Trinity high-water mark) 
255 (neap tide on sill) 
Various 


Ft. 

6,200 
20,400 

4,550 
14,150 
17,250 
22,000 
14,450 

8,800 
27,420 


1806 


West India 


1802 


St. Katherine 

London 

Royal Albert 


1828 
1805 
1880 


Royal Victoria 

Tilbury '.. 

Millwall 

Surrey Commercial 


1856 
1868 
1886 
1807 



196 London Telephone Systems. 

Port Authorities. 

The authorities now concerned in the government of the Port comprise 
thirteen Governmental Departments, two Conservancy authorities, the 
eight dock companies, seven municipal authorities, four legal and judicial 

i 1 Authorities, ten railway companies, and eight miscellaneous bodies. The 

' principal are; — 

y : L Thames Conservancy. — For conservancy purposes, regulation 
of navigation, removal of obstruction, dredging, &c. . The arei 
of its jurisdiction differs in limits for various purposes. v \ 

II. City Corporation.— Port sanitary' purposes from Teddingtoh 
Lock seawards. 

III. Trinity House. — Pilotage, lighting, and buoying from London 

Bridge seawards. - 

IV. The Watermen's and Lightermen's Company. 

The others include the county council, the Board of Trade, the 
Admiralty, and the police. 

Trade of the Port. 

The immense importance of the Port of London may be gathered from 
the fact that the total tonnage entered in 1904 was 1 7,073,852 tons. Liverr 
pool, which ranks next in the United Kingdom in the quantity and import- 
ance of its shipping, had a tonnage entered of 11,083,856 tons. Of Con- 
tinental ports Hamburg comes first with 9,611,732 tons, which is. equal to 
56*3 per cent, of London's total. Then follow Antwerp with 9,400,335 
tons, or 55 per cent., and Rotterdam with a total of 7,657,907 tons, 
equivalent to 44*7 per cent, of that of London. In 1890 the shipping of 
Hamburg was 39*6 of that of London, while Antwerp's was 34*4 per cent., 
and Rotterdam's 222 per cent. ..» 

LONDON POST OFFICE TELEPHONES. 

Under the provisions of the Telegraph Act of 1899 the Post Office is 
providing a telephone system for London. The Select Committee of 
the House of Commons appointed in 1898 reported in the following yeaj: 
in favour of " general, immediate, and effective competition by either the 
Post Office or the local authority " against the National Telephone Com- 
pany. In London the Government decided that the authority to instal 
and conduct the undertaking should be the Post Office. 

The Post Office has entered into an agreement with the company for 
intercommunication with equality of rates. 

The Telephone Area. 

The London telephone area describes an irregular circle, which included 
Ealing on the west, whence, sweeping northward, it reaches Harrow ans 
Barnet. In the north-east Waltham Abbey is embraced, while due east 
the furthest limit is Romford. On the south the circle is very wide, going 
as far into Surrey as Reigate, the whole area comprehending 640 square 
miles. 

For telegraphic and telephonic engineering purposes this area is divided 
. into three districts— the Central Metropolitan, the South Metropolitan, 



London Telephone Systems. W7 

and the North Metropolitan^— and these three districts are controlled by 
l&ree distinct staffs. The Central Metropolitan, naturally the most im- 

gartant, includes the whole of the City, and extends eastward to about 
ow, southward to the Elephant and Castle, westward to Westminster 
and Regent's Park, and nortnward to Islington. 

The South Metropolitan district embraces Kensington, Richmond, 
Wimbledon, Epsom, Balham, Streatham, Croydon, Sydenham, Bromley, 
Dartford, Rednill, Sutton, and Reigate. The North Metropolitan district 
includes Hammersmith, Ealing, Harlesden, Harrow, Finchley, Barnet, 
Tottenham, Dalston, Enfield, Walthamstow, Stratford, Tilbury, Romford, 
and Barking. The population estimated to be residing in the London 
telephone area is 6,000,000. 

The agreement provides : — 

(a) For the purchase of the company's plant in London on the expiration of the 
licence in 1911. 

(6) For full and free intercommunication between the two systems, and for the 
company's subscribers having all facilities which may be afforded to the Post 
Office subscribers, and on the same terms. 

It also contains provisions under which the company will be able to obtain the 
use of underground wires in the London area upon reasonable terms. 

. The real and underlying principle of the agreement seems to be that for 
the future there is to be mutual co-operation between the Post Office and 
the company in the development of the telephone system in London so as 
to make it as convenient as possible for the subscribers to both systems, 
and to confine the competition between the Post Office and the company 
to the efficiency of the service and the convenience of the public. In other 
words, it will be " competition " as regards quality of service and 
'* co-operation " as regards working arrangements. 

The Telephone "System.** 

The Post Office " Central" is at Gr. P. O. (South), Carter-lane, and was 
opened on February 24th, 1902. At 31st March, 1907, 20,603 subscribers' 
telephones were working. Exchanges have been opened at Victoria, 
Kensington (Western), Mayfair, Hampstead, Putney, Wimbledon, 
Kingston-on-Thames, Richmond, Chiswick, Croydon, Epsom, Ealing, 
Sutton, Hounslow, Harrow, Wembley, Maiden and Esher. The total 
number of subscribers' telephones working on all the Department's 
exchanges at 31st March, 1907, was 41,236. Other exchanges, viz., City, 
Hornsey, Finchley, Barnet, and Willesden are now in course of construc- 
tion, and it is anticipated that the first named will soon be ready for 
opening. Subscribers do not have to call the exchange. That is done 
automatically by the taking down of the telephone from its hook, and by 
restoring it to its hook it automatically "clears " the line. 

Instead of the " call " being* effected by " drop indicators," to be seen in 
most exchanges, small electric glow lamps have been substituted. These 
lamps glow automatically by the mere removal of the subscriber's 
telephone from its hook, and they are extinguished by its being hung up 
again, thus giving the " call " and " clear " without further effort on the 
part of the subscriber. One ffreat advantage of the automatic method 
of signalling is the fact that the line is under a constant test j for should 



1W London Telephone Systems. 

a fault arise in the wire at any time, the signals give warning of the fact by 
indicating a call to which no answer can be obtained. A linesman is at 
once dispatched to remedy the defect before the subscriber has learned 
that anything is wrong. 

The charges for the Post Office system are as follows :— 

l.-Ordlnary Message Rate Ill.-Unllmlted Service. 

Service. £ s. & 

Annual Installation charge for £ s. d Annual payment for connection 
connection with an exchange " wifcn xnY exchange within two 
within two miles of the sub- miles of the subscriber's pre- 
subscriber's premises— mises, together with an un- 
fa) In the County of London 5 limited number of calls- 

(b) Outside the County of (a) For the first line .....17 

I*>ndon 4 (b) For each additional line 

Message Fees. connecting any premises 

For each call made by a sub- 2JLJ*® ™5£«£ b8crib0r ™ n « 

scriber on an exchange in the with an exchange 14 

County of London for a sub- IV.— Call -Office Fee. 

scriber on any exchange in the For any call from a call office to » 

£ ~&™J?L^ b ^ nber ? n an y subscriber in the London 

an exchange outside the county area ' o b 2 

for a subscriber on the same ' 

exchange M 1 V.-Addltlonal Annual Charges. 

For each call made by a sub- (a) Where the premises of 
scriber on any exchange in the any subscriber at the 
County of London for a sub- ordinary message rate, 
scriber on an exchange outside or at the unlimited ser- 
the county, or by a subscriber vice rate, are more than 
on an exchange outside the two miles from the ex- 
county for a subscriber on any change, for every addi- 
other exchange 2 tional quarter of a mile 1 15 

The minimum yearly amount (b) Where the main circuit of 

payable by each subscriber a party line exceeds two 

for message fees shall be 1 10 miles in length, for each 

II — Partvvl in« M As . affo p**<» additional quarter of a 

ii. rarty Line message Rate mile, for each subscriber 10 6 

£ g d Where the spur circuit of a 

Annual installation charge tor— ' * party line exceeds 220 

(a) Connection with an ex- yards in length, for each 

change by means of a additional quarter of a 

line used by not more mile, or part thereof 115 O 

than two subscribers 3 (c) For each extension line 

(b) Connection with an ex- connecting two parts of 

change by means of a the same premises of a 

party -line used by more subscriber, where the 

than two and not more li^e is not more than 110 

than ten subscribers 2 yards in length 1 10 

Subscriptions at party-line rates (d) For each additional 110 

cannot be accepted from sub- yards of such a line 10 

scnbers on the Central Ex- /«% -a ». . . «. 

change, or at the lower party- (e) For •*<*. e*™*™ ^ne 

line, rate from subscribers on connecting separate pre- 

any exchange in the County of mi ?S* of tn S same swb " 

London ^uuuujr u* scriber, and not more 

Message fees for calls originated than a quarter of a mile 

by party-line subscribers will m length 4 

be the same as for calls origi- (f) For each additional quar- 

nated by other message rate ter of a mile of- such a 

subscribers, but the minimum line 1 15 

yearly amount payable for VI. -Agreements are usually for one 

25ESKi ea i b E P 4 * P^y- 1 * 116 year, and are terminable thereafter by 

subscriber shall be 3 three months' notice. 



London Telephone Systems, 199 

NATIONAL TELEPHONE COMPANY'S TELEPHONES. 

Exchange Service Metropolitan Telephone Area. — The Metropolitan 
Offices of the Company are situate at Salisbury House, London Wall, E.O. 
The Company has now in operation throughout the area 54 exchanges, 
to which are directly connected, in round figures, 93,000 stations. The 
Company was, of course, the pioneer of telephony in London, and its 
system is still the most generally used throughout the area. 

The newest automatic system of operating has been installed at many of 
the metropolitan exchanges, all of which will, in due course, be equipped 
in a like manner. Under this system the action of lifting the telephone 
from its rest calls the exchange, and its replacement operates a signal for 
disconnection, thus adding to the simplicity, accuracy, and rapidity of the 
service. A continuous service night and day is provided on weekdays, 
holidays, and Sundays. 22,000 call offices are scattered throughout 
the area, and a list showing the addresses of these can be procured at any 
time on application. 

TARIFFS. 

The tariffs for exchange service, which are identical with those of the 
Post Office within the area, are as follows : — 

Unlimited Service Rate. 
First connection, £17 per annum. Second connection, £14 per annum. 

These subscriptions confer the right to make an unlimited number of 
calls within the area free of charge. 

Meeeage Rate* 

Within the County op London. Outside the County op London. 

£5 per annum, with a fee of one penny £4 per annum, with a fee of one penny 

for each message to a subscriber within for each message to a subscriber on the 

the county, and a fee of twopence for each same exchange, and a f ee of twopence for 

message to a subscriber outside the county, each message to a subscriber on any other 

but within the Metropolitan Area. exchange in the metropolitan area. 

The subscriber to guarantee that the The subscriber to guarantee that the 

amount payable for fees shall be at least amount payable for fees shall be at least 

30s. per annum. 30s. per annum. 

Party Line Service. 

This is a service where two or more share one main line, each subscriber 
having a separate telephone, which is connected with the main line by a 
spur or loop line, over which he will be able to ring up or be rung up by 
any of the subscribers on the company's exchange system. ]No fee is 
charged for receiving calls. 

Party Line Rate. 

"Within the County op London. Outside the County op London. 

(2-Party Lines.) ^ (2-Party Lines.) 

£3 per annum per subscriber, with a fee ^^^^^^S^iJ!^ u % '?? 
of onepenny foreach message to a sub- of ?£ e V°™}y 'or each message to a sub- 
KribeYon ai exchange withmthe county, f nber on ^ same exchange, and a fee of 
and a f ftf Tof twonence f or each mowfura to twopence for each message to a sub- 
Tm^^on^rJcL^e £3dft£ Efta* any exchange in the metropoli- 
countv are*. 

itarfi MihurrihAr *n mmnui^ fhnt thp. Bacn subscriber to guarantee that the 

*£& Mdh tor ^ISanSeTi^? SS? "ffiSJ 16 for ,eei sha11 be at leait 

£3 per annum. ** ver annum - 

(10-Party Lines.) (10-Party Lines.) 

Nil. £2 per annum per subscriber, with f dc» 

10-party lines are not supplied within and guarantees as above. 

the county of London. 



200 Oent?al {Unemployed) Body for London. 

No party line order can be accepted within the City district, and no 
10-party line order within the County of London. 

Extension Lines. 

These lines are extensions from the main telephone instrument to an 
outer room or*office, or to another address in cases where the extension is 
required to go outside the building. Internal extensions, that is from 
room to room and within the same building, are found to be extremely 
useful where a subscriber does not wish to be troubled with unimportant 
calls which can be answered by a clerk or attendant in an outer office or 
room. The charges are as follows : — 

Internal extension line and instruments £1 10s. per annum (minimum). 

External extension line and instruments . ... £4 per annum „ 

Extra mileage charges are payable on all the services If the lines 
exceed the prescribed distances. 

Intercommunication. 

The above charges include intercommunication between all subscribers 
to the Company's and the Post Office telephone systems throughout the 
metropolitan telephone area, the Company's subscribers being allowed all 
such trunk line and other postal, telegraphic, and telephonic facilities 
within the United Kingdom as are given to Post Office subscribers at the 
same rates. 

CENTRAL (UNEMPLOYED) BODY FOR LONDON. 

The Central (Unemployed) Body for London, which was created pursuant 
to the provisions of the Unemployed Workmen Act, 1905, held its first 
meeting on 23rd November, 1905. The offices of the Central Body are 
at 165, Temple Chambers, Temple-avenue, E.O^ and it meets on the first 
and third Fridays in each month at the Guildhall. The chairman of the 
Centra] Body is the Rev. H. Russell Wakefield, and the clerk is Mr. W. T. 
Stutchbury. 

The Central Body is composed of 58 representatives of "Distress 
Committees " established in accordance with tne Unemployed Workmen 
Act in the various metropolitan boroughs, four representatives of the 
London County Council, four each of the Distress Committees of the 
City Corporation and the City of Westminster, members nominated by the 
Local Government Board, and additional members co-opted by the body 
and at present numbers 77. 

The Distress Committees are composed partly of members of the 
Borough Councils or of the Common Council, as the case may be ; partly 
of members of Boards of Guardians ; and partly of persons experienced in 
the relief of distress appointed by the councils from outside their own 
members. 

The names of the members of the Central Body, elected, nominated 
and co-opted, with their addresses and the bodies they represent, are as 
follows : — 



Central (Unemployed) Body for London. 



201 



Selected by Distress Committees. 



COMMITTBB. 

Battersea... 
Bermondsey 
Bethnal Green 

Camberwell 
Chelsea ... 
Deptford ... 
Finsbury ... 
Fulham ... 
Greenwich 

Hackney ... 

Hammersmith 

Hampstead 

Holborn ... 
Islington ... 
Kensington 

Lambeth ... 

Lewisham 

Paddington 
Poplar ... 
St. Marylebone 
St. Pancras 
Shoreditch 

Southwark 
Stepney ... 



Namb. 

Rines, W. 

Worthy, Mrs. J. A. ... 

Blake, W. 

Shearring, W 

Edmunds, G 

Watts-Ditchfleld, Rev. J. E 

Johnston, Rev. S. A. ... 

Gunning, J 

Cook, C. F 

Dunn-Gardner, Mrs. ... 

Super, R 

Wells, H. G 

Bolton, T.J 

Phillips, L 

Bennetts, W. P. 
Henuiker. Miss E. M. 
Carteret, Rev. G. F.C. de 

Williams, E. P 

Dunn, Rev. C 

Mustard, J. E. T. 
Chapman, D 

Pascall.C. 

Lyell,J. P. R 

Nunn,T. H 

Baker, Miss I. M. 

Hazell,W 

Elliott, G. S 

Saint, T. W 

Fleming, Sir F, k.c.m.g. 
Gates, P. G 

Denny, Rev. E 

Howlett, G 

Morris, Rev. J. C. 

Weeks, A. O 

Mavrojani, S 

Munford, J. ... • ... 

Bussey, J. 

Lausbury, G 

Morris, F. 

Wakefield, Rev. H. R. 

Harley,J. H 

Hennessey, D 

Bibby,J.T 

Davies, Dr. J 

Devereux, J. O 

Norman, E. H 

Brown, J 

Kerwin, E. H 



ADDRB8S. 

39, Ingelow-road, Battersea, S.W. 
170, Battersea-park-road, S.W. 
145, Jamaica-road, S.E. 

Ill, Alscott-road, Bermondsey, S.E. 
466, Hackney - road, Bethnal- 

green, N.E. 
The Vicarage. St. Jitfsi' - ro.id, 

Victoria IVrk, N.E. 
St. Mary's Vicarage. Pr-rkbtim^.E. 
n.Ukvly-riiiul. iVt klium, S,J£. 
lb A NMTltflili niii li.-ibirn.^l'lii-l^ii ,S. \V . 

13, Burtou-cotirt, ctiMsea, S H W, 
70S, L*wUfl*m Htgli-rtiHd.S.B. 
60 H Tn^iilLmi -rood, St. JalinVtS.K. 

v\> Little James-street, w.t: t 

44, M.\Liifniih-^t., ITterkcuwi'll. I.i , 

30. Slugmer-aveatie^, FuIIluil. 8.W. 

40, Comtiragh-rotid, W. Kensington, 
The YituijiKi', WeutcoaibiJ - piatk- 

roftd, ltl;irkJUMth..S h i: t 
" Blmbttfts-V 1 Wi'^teumlj^-park-nL, 
i;uivktuMnj.,s + B, 

Tin- I ■ n ■=* t >y iv ly , Ha 1 htnw - ro ji d , 

IfdlillTttiT], Sf+B, 

Bi, Mihloiihall -road. Cl&iituti, NJ, 
U • -.-., i - h. ,i i 1 1. ■■.,. 1 . 163, i ..il-ili.i wk 

road, Shepherd \s Bush. W. 
46, Bridg*4md, Hauuiierttiiitli, W. 
61, iiinvu^hiri! hill. HFiiupAteari, 

N.W. 
Rr^slyii-jcrove, RustelyiMiill, llanip- 

stead, X t VV. 
37, Brooke -sirei .-t, K.C. 
52. l4>ug Acre, W.C, 

14, I'ppeir-atreet, Islington, X. 
Park Some. Ttdtiu^loii -park* X. 
l ), Nyrltinj -pl;Ui\ HnuupTrju, S.W. 
5, MauaLoU'iiku'i', Nuut 1l K.t'ij«iiig 

tun, S. VV. 

St. Peter's Vicarage, Upper Ken- 
nington lane, S.E. 

193, Clapham-road, S.W. 

St. Mark's Vicarage, Clarendon- 
road, Lewisham, S.E. 

54, Algernon-road, Lewisham, S.E. 

34, Hyde Park-gardens, W. 

143, Queen's-road, W. 

177, Romford-road, Stratford, E. 

103, St. 8tephen*s-road, Bow, E. 

41, St. John's Wood-park, N.W. 

86, Gloucester-place, W. 

8, Kingston House,Camden-st.,N.W 
105, Weedington-road, N.W. 
** Beechcroft," Colney Hatch-lane, 
Muswell-hill, N. 

87, Cambridge-gardens, W. 
20, Nelson • square, Blackfriars- 

road, S.E. 
179, Manor-place, Walworth-road, 

S.E. 
5, Kent - terrace, Regent's Park, 

N.W. 
Ureat Assembly Hall, Mile-end 

road, E. 



202 



Central (Unemployed) Body for London, 



Committee. 
Stoke Newington 

Wandsworth ... 



Woolwich 

Common Council 
of City of Lon- 
don 

City # of West- 
minster 



Name. 

Allardyce, H. L 

Brough, J. R 

Anderson, Rev. J. H 

Rees,P 

Davidson, J 

Ingram, Dr. T. A 

Brinsley-Harper, F 

Cohen, N. L 

McKee, Miss E. C 

Wilkinson, M 

Evans, Mm. M. M 

Myers, Brig. Surg. Lt.-Col. 

A. B. 
Walden, R. W 

Walters, J. P 



Adebess. 

43, Allerton-rd., Stoke Newington,N. 

29, Alexandra - villas, Finsbury 
Park, N. 

The Rectory, Tooting, S.W. 

"Worlabye," 3/7, Upper Rich- 
mond-road, Putney, S.w. 

202, Burrage-road, Plumstead, S.E. 

160, Herbert-road, Woolwich, S.E. 

15, Old Jewry-chambers, E.C. 

11, Hyde Park-terrace, W. 

12, Tavistock-square, W.C. 

3, St. Michael's-alley, Cornhill, E.C. 
20, Buckingham-st., Strand, W.C. 
43, Gloucester-street, S.W. 

"Bella Vista," Upper Warling- 

ham, Surrey. 
359, Oxford-street, W. 



Harvey, T. E., Toynbee Hall, 28, Commer- 
cial-street, E. 



Selected by London County Council. 

Mitchell, J. H., 168-170, Temple Chambers 
E.C. 

Nominated by Local Government Board. 

Booth, Right. Hon. C, 24, Great Cumber- Macdonald, J. R, m.p., 3, Lincoln's-inn- 

land-plaee, W. field*, W.C. 

Cohen, C. W„ 11, Hyde Park-terrace, W. Stepney, Bishop of, 2, Amen-corner, E.C. 

Tennant, Mrs. H. J., 33, Bruton-street, W. 

Co-opted Members. 



Bailward, W. A., 64, Victoria-street, S.W. 
Beveridge; W. H., 21, Park-mansions, 

South Lambeth-road, S.W. 
Buxton, Noel, 2, Prince's-gate, S.W. 
Bussey, J„ 177, Romford-road, Stratford, E. 



Cohen, L. L„ 77, Sussex-sq., Hyde-pk„ W. 
Fairchild, G. C, 13, Clifden-road, Clapton. 
Sharpley, Miss M. McN., 44, Nelson-square, 

South wark, S.E. 
Whinuey, F„ 32, Old Jewry, E.C. 



The following are the clauses of the Organisation Establishment Order 
relating to the establishment of the Central Body : — 

Article VI.— (1) There shall be established a Central Body for the Administrative 
County of London. 

* The Central Body shall be a body corporate by the name of "The Central 
(Unemployed) Body for London," with perpetual succession, and a common seal, and 
with power to sue and be sued in that name, and to hold lands without any licence in 
mortmain for the purposes of the Act. 

(2) The Central Body shall comprise— 

Four members selected from their own body by the County Council : 

Four members selected in each case from their own body by the Distress Com- 
mittee of the Common Council and by the Distress Committee oi the Council of the 
Metropolitan Borough of Westminster : 

Two members selected in each case from their own body by the Distress Com- 
mittee of every other Borough Coimcil : 

Such number of members (not exceeding eight) as may be nominated by us (the 
Local Government Board) : and 

Bight persons (of whom one at least shall be a woman) co-opted to be additional 
members of the Central Body by the members selected and nominated as aforesaid. 

No member may hold any paid office under the authority or be con- 
cerned in any bargain or contract held under its authority ; but it is pro- 
vided that a person shall not be disqualified by being a member by reason 
of being interested : — 

(a) In the sale or lease of any lands, or in any loin of money to the Central Body, 
or in any contract with the Central Body for the supply from land, of which he is 
owner or occupier, of stone, gravel, or other materials for making or repairing high* 



Central ( Unemployed) Body for London. 203 

ways or bridges, or in the transport of materials for the repair of roads or bridges 
in his own immediate neighbourhood ; or 

(b) In any newspaper in which any advertisement relating to the affairs of the 
Central Body is inserted ; or 

(c) In any contract with the Central Body as a shareholder in any joint stock 
company ; but he shall not vote at any meeting of the Central Body on any question 
in which such company are interested, except that in the case of a water company 
or other company established for the carrying on of works of a like public nature 
the prohibition may be dispensed with by the Central Body, 

A member of the Central Body who has been selected by the London 
County Council or by a Distress Committee shall continue in office until 
he dies, or resigns, or goes out of office as a member of the Council or 
Distress Committee, or until he becomes disqualified by law. 

The rules for the conduct of business are those generally observed on 
public bodies, and the Central Body may similarly delegate its business 
to committees. 

Financial Powers. 

The expenses of the Central Body and of the Distress Committees are 
defrayed out of a central fund partly supplied by voluntary subscriptions 
and partly by a metropolitan rate which must not exceed id., or, with the 
consent of the Local Government Board, Id. in the £. The rate fund 
must be used exclusively for establishment charges and the expenses of 
employment exchanges, emigration, migration, and the purchase of land 
for farm colonies. All other expenses, including the payment of wages 
and allowances to men employed, must be met out of the voluntary fund* 

The following are the financial provisions of the Act : — 

(6) Any expenses of the Central Body under this Act, and such of the expenses of 
the Distress Committees under this Act as are incurred with the consent of the Central 
Body, shall be defrayed out of a central fund, under the management of the Central 
Body, which shall be supplied by voluntary contributions given for the purpose, and by 
contributions made on the demand of the Central Body by the council of each metro- 
politan borough in proportion to the rateable value of the borough and paid as part of the 
expenses of the council : 

Provided that— 

(a) A separate account shall be kept of all sums supplied by contributions made 
by the councils of the metropolitan boroughs, and no expenses, except— 

(i.) Establishment charges of the Central Body and the Distress Committees, 
including the expenses incurred by them in respect of labour exchanges and 
employment registers, and in the collection of information ; and 

(ii.) The expenses incurred by the Central Body in aiding the emigration or 
removal to another area of an unemployed person and of any of his depen- 
dents ; and 

(iii.) The expenses incurred by the Central Body in relation to the acquisi- 
tion, with the consent of the Local Government Board, of land for the purposes 
of the act ; 
shall be paid out of that account. 

(6) No such contribution by a council shall in any year exceed the amount 
which would be produced by a rate of one halfpenny in the pound calculated 
on the whole rateable value of the borough, or such higher rate, not exceeding 
one penny, as the Local Government Board may approve. 

In accordance with Sec. 4 (3) (6) of the Act, the Central Body may 
also, subject to the consent of the Local Government Board, borrow 
money, upon the security of the rate contributions, for the purpose of the 
purchase of land, 



204 Municipal Temperance Policy. 

m Miscellaneous. 

Other duties and powers of the Central Body and of the Distress 
Committees may be summarised as follows : — 

It is the duty of the Distress Committees to make themselves acquainted 
with the conditions of labour within their area, and, when so required by 
the Central Body, to receive, inquire into, and discriminate between appli- 
cations from persons unemployed who have resided in London for twelve 
months. The Distress Committee may endeavour to obtain work for 
selected applicants, or may recommend them to the Central Body, but 
they have no power to provide work. 

It is the duty of the Central Body to superintend and co-ordinate the 
work of the Distress Committees, and to assist them by establishing 
Employment Exchanges, and by collecting information. 

The Central Body may also assist unemployed persons referred to 
them by Distress Committees by aiding their emigration or removal to 
another area, or by providing or contributing towards the provision of 
temporary work. The Central Body can do this, amongst other ways, by 
the establishment of farm colonies, and they have the power, subject to 
the sanction of the Local Government Board, to purchase land for this 
purpose, and to provide temporary accommodation for $uich colonies, or for 
other work upon the land. 

A MUNICIPAL TEMPERANCE POLICY. 

Licensing and temperance questions are fast becoming municipal con 
cerns of the first importance, and recent agitations in various quarters have 
not been without their effect on the local governing bodies of London. The 
London County Council has now an acknowledged " Temperance policy," the- 
chief principle of which is the abandonment of licences acquired in 
connection with street improvements, housing schemes or the con- 
struction of bridges and tunnels. Up to the present time the Council 
has allowed to lapse one hundred and thirty-eight licences, the approximate 
premium value of which is estimated at £344,550. There is generally a 
marked difference between the licence values put forward by the holders 
and the awards eventually made. The estimated value of the licence is by no 
means a fair asset valuation. Its renewal could be obtained by means of an 
application — before the premises were pulled down — for a removal to another 
site, or as a new licence at the annual licensing meeting. In either case it 
is doubtful whether the consent would be obtained. The following cases 
will serve as an illustration : — The claims of " The Two Brewers were : 
Mortgagee, £7,606 ; Worthington and Co., brewers, £8,761 16s. 7d. ; Lion 
Brewery Company, £4,427 6s. ; total, £20,795 2s. 7d. The sum awarded 
was £9,240. In "The Crown," in the Holborn-to- Strand improvement 
the claims were £2.475 and £47,886— total, £50,361. The sums paid 
amounted to £38,956 14%. The objectors to this "abandonment 
principle" hold that the expenditure does not reduce the amount of 
drinking, but enriches neighbouring houses at the expense of the rates. 
Other " planks " in the Council's temperance policy may be broadly stated 
as follows : — 

(1) The abolition of alcoholic drink from the dietaiy of the inmates of 
the lunatic *and imbecile asylums, and the giving of money in lieu of a beer 
allowance to the officers. 



Municipal Temperance Policy. 205 

(2) The provision of mortuaries, <fec, accommodation in other places 
than public-houses for the holding of inquests. 

(3) The abolition of promenades in music-halls, and the prohibition of 
the sale of drink in the auditoriums, and the entire prohibition in new 
music-halls, theatres, &c. 

(4) The provision of free dressing-room 3 in the public parks, thus 
removing the necessity of cricketers, footballers, and others usmg licensed 
premises for that purpose 

(5) The refusal to allow intoxicating drink to be sold in the parks and 
open spaces, and the provision that all refreshments shall be of the best 
quality, and sold at the lowest possible tariff. 

(6) The provision of tea and coffee, &c, for firemen when engaged at 
fires. 

(7) The lessees of the Council's surplus land shall not, without the 
licence of the Council being first obtained, apply for or allow any applica- 
tion to be made for a licence for the sale of beer, wine, spirits, &c, to be 
drunk in premises erected on the land, or use or allow to be used such land 
for the carrying on of the trade of a publican or licensed victualler. 

L.C.C. AND INEBRIATES. 

The County Council has established at Farmfield a reformatory for 
female inebriates, which is under the supervision . of the Public Control 
Committee. The Act came into fore 3 in 1899, and steps were at once 
taken to put its provisions into operation. The Farmfield Estate is situated 
near Horley, in Surrey, about midway between London and Brighton. It 
consists of 374 acres, and cost about £13,000, and upon it buildings have 
been erected, at a cost of about £22,900, to accommodate 113 patients and 
requisite staff. The reformatory stands in a picturesque flower-garden, 
wWoh also contains a lawn and lake. At the rear is a large vegetable 
JOTtUn, which both supplies and occupies the inmates. At the home farm 
14 a model dairy, where the better-behaved are instructed in butter-making, 
<fec.i and a fruit farm is worked largely by the inmates. Poultry, bees, 
and other details of farm life are not forgotten, and everything, in fact, 
is done to take the patients back to a simple, natural life. Special 
attention is given to graduating the inmates for the purpose of applying 
the appropriate motives, restrictions, and mental and moral treatment 
to the several phases ana types of the patients. So far, the results have 
been entirely satisfactory. Consideration has also been given to the 
question of providing accommodation for male iuebriates. In view of the 
small number of convictions of ma'es it has not been thought wise to incur 
expenditure in making permanent provision for the treatment of this 
class. Arrangements have been made with the National Institutions 
for Inebriates to receive at their reformatories cases without limitation as 
to religious opinion. Under this arrangement there were on 31st March, 
1906, at these reformatories 61 male and 266 female inebriates. There 
were also three female inebriates at St. Joseph's Reformatory, Ashford. 

Farmfield, Hookwood, Horley, Surrey. 



Superintendent — Miss E. Forayth. 

Assistant Superintendent — Miss 
M. L. McMullen. 



Visiting Chaplain — Rev. H. T. 
Lewis, 

Visiting Medical Officer^-C. F. 
Williamson, M.D. 

H 



206 



Statistics of Population. 



STATISTICS OF POPULATION. 

TABLE I. 

"Inner" or "Municipal London.' 



Metropolitan Borough. 


Population. 


Movement of Population per 
cent, between 1891 and 1901. 





1891. 


1901. 


Increase. 


Decrease. 


City of London 


37,702 
150,166 
136,014 
128,929 
233,706 

72,954 
101,770 
109.981 

91,790 

78,493 
199,606 

97,283 

68,126 

66,781 
319,155 
170,071 
278,393 

88,933 
135,955 
166,880 
144,083 
234.749 
124,727 
202,479 
285,116 

47,988 
155,524 
201,969 

98,994 


26,923 
168,907 
130,760 
129,680 
259,339 

73,842 
110,398 
101,463 
137,289 

95,770 
219,272 
112,239 

81,942 

59,405 
334,991 
176,628 
301,895 
127,495 
143,9% 
168,822 
133,301 
235,317 
118,637 
206,180 
298,600 

51,247 
232,034 
183,011 
117,178 


12-48 

•58 
10-97 
1-22 
847 

49*57 
22-01 
935 
15 37 
20'28 

4-96 
3*85 
8*44 
43*36 
5-89 
1-16 

•24 

1*82 

4-73 

6*79 

49*19 

18-36 


28*59 


Battersea 




Bermondsey 


3*86 


Bethnal Green 




Camberwell 





Chelsea 





Deptford 





Finsbury 


7*74 


Fulham 




Greenwich 





Hackney 





Hammersmith 





Hampstead 





Holborn 


11*05 


Islington , 




Kensington 





Lambeth .' 





Lewisham 





Paddington 


■ 


Poplar 





St. Marylebone 


7*48 


St. Pancras 




Shoreditch 


4*88 


Southwark 




Stepney 





Stoke Newington 





Wandsworth 





Westminster (City of) 


9*39 


Woolwich 








Total administrative County 
of London 


] 4,228,317 


4,536,541 


11-06 


8*26 


Nett increase of population 
between 1891 and 1901 


}■ - 


- 


7*29 


- 



' Greater ' 



TABLE II. 

or "Metropolitan London." 



Police Districts. 


Population. 


Movement of Population, 
between 1891 and 1901, 




1891. 


1901. 


Increase. 


Decrease. 


County of London 


4,190,615 
542,894 
295,759 
117,121 
413,679 
36,036 
37,702 


4,509,618 
792,316 
384,529 
151,066 
672,184 
44,736 
26,923 


319,003 

249,442 

88,770 

33,945 

258,505 

8,700- 





60 Parishes in Middlesex 





39 Parishes in Surrey 


___ 


19 Parishes in Kent 





15 Parishes in Essex 





16 Parishes in Herts 





City of London 


10,779 






Total : " Greater London "... 


5,633,806 


6,581,372 | 958,345 


10,779 


Nett increase of population 
betreen 1891 and 1901 


} - 


- 


947,566 


- 



Statistics of Population. 



207 



TABLE' III. 

Districts in "Greater London," which show a remarkable increase of 
population since 1861 : — 





1881. 


1891. 


1901. 


22,859 


30,945 


4fl.ff73 


9,155 


RJ01 


21,547 


10,071 


14,152 


17,970 


24,137 


3Q,i90 


4 5 


27,649 


37,777 


48.i30 


21,114 


26.108 


32,997 


15,975 


21.963 


2 J 


101.234 


12B.699 


1W.E26 


22,239 


26,343 


3 . 2 


9,815 


32,713 


9L,„9 


23,463 


36,351 


61,892 


19,119 


31,536 


42,738 


17,616 


25.820 


33,692 


13,538 


lfl.252 


23,456 


12,982 


15JJ5 


25,552 


10,484 


15, £43 


22,450 


37,061 


44,523 


72,056 


7,645 


10.913 


41,240 


36,345 


33.666 


42,067 


21,301 


25.369 


28,871 


11,684 


13.1,71 


18,682 


46,441 


97.174 


136,774 


12,479 


lb,027 


20,991 


28,839 


67,370 


108,929 


27,397 


61,265 


114,815 


15,947 


25 r 777 


41,604 



Increase 
of Popu- 
lation 
since 1891. 



Acton 

Barking Town 

Barnet 

Bexley 

Brentford 

Carshalton 

Chiswick 

Croydon 

Dartford 

East Ham 

Edmonton 

Enfield 

Finchley 

Hampton 

Harrow 

Hendon 

Hornsey 

Ilford 

Kingston 

Richmond 

Sunbury 

Tottenham ... 

Twickenham 

Walthamstow 

Willesden 

Wimbledon ... 



6,443 

5.591 

5,466 
13,026 
13,958 

8,341 

6,505 
37,093 I 
13,180 ; 

2,264 ! 
10,930 
12,424 

8,281 

6,538 

7.374 

4,544 
11,082 

5,405 
18,112 
12,665 

7,289 
13,240 

8,077 

7,137 

3,897 

4,644 



12,683 

6,576 

7,752 
19,566 
20,279 
13,523 

8,508 
71,309 
16,466 

4,334 
13,860 
16,054 
11,493 
10,185 
10,869 

6,972 
19,357 

5,947 
27.489 
16,829 

9,860 
22,869 
10,533 
15,301 
15,869 

9,087 



17,928 

7,246 

3,818 

15,855 

10,553 

6,889 

7.846 

35,827 

9.339 

63,286 

25,541 

11,202 

7,872 

5,204 

9,807 

6,607 

27,533 

30,327 

8,501 

3,482 

5,011 

39,600 

4,964 

51,559 

53,550 

15.827 



TABLE IV. 



Showing fluctuations in the number of persons per house in 14 parishes 
in the County of London from 1801 to 1901. These parishes were 
chosen because the character of the population has remained about 
the same. 



Persons per House. 



Parish. 


1801. 


1851. 


1881. 


1891. 


1901. 


Bermondsey 


5*4 
6'2 
7*0 
6*1 
5*8 
6*0 
51 
6*1 
5*2 
5*8 
7*6 
6-1 
6*7 
7*3 


6*8 
6-7 
8*9 
7*0 
6*8 
6'3 
61 
6'3 
7-8 
7'4 
89 
71 
81 
87 


7*8 
7*6 
9*7 
8'3 
7*1 
7'5 
7'7 
7'4 
8"1 
8'4 
9'5 
83 
8-6 
7'5 


7*5 
7'8 
10*4 
8*4 
7*1 
7'6 
8'7 
7*4 
86 
8'5 
95 
9*0 
9*7 
7*7 


8*4 


Bethnal Green 


92 


Clerkenwell 


10"6 


Islington 


8*6 


Lambeth 


7'2 


Mile End Old Town 


82 


Newington 


9*2 


Rothernithe 


75 


St. George-in-the East 


9'7 


St. George, Southwark 


10*1 


St. Pancras 


9.9 


Shoreditch 

Whitechapel 


9'3 
13*9 


Woolwich 


7*6 



H 2 



208 



Statistics of Population. 



TABLE V. 

Fluctuation in the population of the parishes within the area of the 
County of London between 1801 and 1901 : — 



Parish. 



1801. 1851 



1881. 1891. 



1901. 



County of London— 

Aldgate 

Battersea 

Bermondsey 

BethnalGreen 

Bow 

Bromley 

Camberwell 

Charlton and Kidbrooke 
Charterhouse 

Christchurch, Southwark 
Christchurch, Spitalhelds 

Clapham 

Clerkenwell 

Deptf ord St. Nicholas 

Deptford St. Paul 

Eltham 

Fulham 

Furnival'e Inn 

Glasshouse Yard 

Gray's Inn 

Greenwich 

Hackney 

Hammersmith 

Hamp8tead .~ 

Horselydown 

Islington 

J£ensing,on 

Lambeth 

[Lancaster Duchy of] 

Jjee • 

Lewisham 

Limehouse 

Lincoln's Inn 

Mile End New Town 

Mile End Old Town 

Newinjrton 

Norton Folgate 

Old Artillery Ground 

Paddington 

Plumstead 

Poplar 

Putney 

Ratcliff 

Rolls 

Kotherhithe 

Saffron Hill 



6,153 
3,365 

17,169 

22,310 

2,101 

1,684 

7,059 

805 

249 

11,604 
9,933 

15,091 
3,864 

23,3% 
6,933 

11,349 

1,627 

4,428 

80 

1,221 

289 

14,339 

12,730 
5,600 
4,343 
8,892 

10,212 
8,556 

27,985 

474 

376 

4,007 

4,678 

179 

5,253 

9,848 

14,847 
1,752 
1,428 
1,881 
1,166 
4,493 
2,428 
5,666 
2,409 

10,296 
7,781 



6,453 
10,560 
48,128 
90,193 

6,989 
11,789 
54,667 

5,278 
277 
56,185 
16,022 
20,960 
16,290 
64,778 

7,071 
24,899 

2,437 

11,886 

164 

1,476 

366 

35,028 

53,589 

17,760 

11,986 

11,360 

95,329 

44,053 

139,325 

a 

3,552 
15,064 
22,782 
79 
10,183 
56,602 
64,816 

1,771 

1,972 
46,305 

8,373 
28,384 

5,280 
15,212 

2,567 
17,805 

8,728 



4,148 

107,262 

86,652 

126,961 

37,074 

64,359 

186,593 

10,930 

161 

88,128 

13,663 

21,340 

36,380 

69,076 

7,901 

76,752 

5,048 

42,900 

155 

931 

328 

46,580 

163,681 

71,939 

45,452 

8,928 

282,865 

163,151 

253,699 

a 

14,435 

53,065 

32,041 

16 

10,673 

105,613 

107,850 

1,528 

2,516 

107,058 

33,250 

55,077 

13,235 

16,107 

546 

36,024 

3,980 



4,086 

150,558 

84,682 

129,132 

40,365 

70,000 

235,344 

14,040 

136 

96,253 

13,264 

22,859 

43,698 

66,216 

6,887 

101,286 

5,682 

91,639 

121 

779 

253 

57,240 

198,606 

97,239 

68,416 

9,812 

319,143 

166,308 

275,203 

16,381 

72,272 

32,202 

27 

11,303 

107,592 

115,804 

1,449 

2,138 

117,846 

52,436 

56,383 

17,771 

14,928 

421 

39,255 

4,506 



3,906* 

168,907 

82,483 

129,680 

41,989 

68,319 

259,329 

21,134 

140 

73,842 

11,263 

24,208 

51,361 

63,704 

7,321 

110,398 

7,226 

137,298 

nil 

741 

232 

67,315 

219,272 

112,239 

81,942 

7,769 

334,991 

176,628 

301,895 

18,649 

108,846 

32,369 

61 

13,259 

112,827 

121,863 

1,663 

2,098 

143,976 

68,327 

58,514 

24,139 

14,810 

252 

38,460 

2,561 



Statistics of Population. 



209 



Table V. — continued. 



Parish. 



1801, 



1851. 



1881. 



1891. 



1901. 



St. Andrew and St. George ... 

St. Anne, Westminster 

St. Clement Danes 

St. George-in-the-East 

St. George, Hanover-square ... 

St. George, South wark 

St. Giles and St. George 

St. James, Westminster 

fSt. James and Whitehall, Verge 

of the Palaces of ] 

St. Luke 

St. Margaret and St. John ... 

St. Martin- in-the-Fields 

St. Marylebone 

St. Mary-le Strand 

St. Olave and St. Thomas 

St. Pancras 

St. Paul, Co vent-garden 

St. Peter, Westminster 

St. Saviour, Southwark 

St. Sepulchre 

Savoy 

Shadwell 

Shoreditch 

Staple Inn 

Stoke Newington ...; 

Streatham 

Tooting Graveney 

Wandsworth 

Wapping 

Whitechapel 

Woolwich 

Total County of London.. 



22,205 
11,637 
13,001. 
21,170 
38,440 
22,293 
36,502 
34,462 

1,685 
26,S81 
25,883 
25,752 
63,982 

1,704 

ZlfH9 
4,992 

15,5% 

3,768 

320 

8,828 

34,766 
67 
1,462 
2,357 
1,189 
4,445 
5,889 

23,666 
9,826 



32,118 
17,335 
15,692 
48,376 
73,583 
51,824 
54,214 
36,406 

b 

54,055 

65,237 

24,640 

157,696 

2,517 

8.015 

166,956 

5,810 

372 

19,709 

4,832 

372 

11,702 

109,257 

57 

4,840 

6,901 

2,122 

9,611 

4,477 

38,420 

32,367 



816,876 



2,235,455 



28,874 
16,608 
, 10,280 
47,157 
89,575 
58,652 
45.277 
29,941 

b 

46,849 

59,926 

17,508 

154,910 

1,989 

3,028 

236,363 

2,919 

249 

14,999 

2,392 

245 

8,170 

126,591 

38 

22,781 

21,611 

3,942 

28,004 

2,225 

31,158 

36,665 



26.228 
12)317 
8,492 
,45,795 
78,364 
59,712 
39,782 
24,995 

b 

42,440 

55,539 

14,616 

142,404 

1,549 

2,911 

234,379 

2,142 

235 

13,913 

1,972 

201 

8,123 

124,009 

21 

30,627 

42,972 

5,784 

46,717 

2,123 

32,326 

40,848 



3,783,625 



4,194,482 



25,103 
11,493 
6,090 
9,068 
76,957 
60,998 
31,436 
21,588 

b 

35,375 

51,068 

12,980 

133,301 

494 

2,048c 

235,317 

1,692 

231 

12,056 

1,503 

166 

8,633 

118,637 

12 

51,247 

71,658 

16,473 

68,403 

2,125 

33,6344 

41,627 



4,509,618 



Administrative County of 
London (including the City) 



958,788 2,363,274 



3,834,194 



4,232,118 



4,536,541 



* The parishes of Old Tower Without and St. Katherine were united with Aldgate in 
1895. a The population of the Duchy of Lancaster was included in that of the parishes 
of St. Clement Danes, Savoy, and St. Mary-le-Strand after 1831. o The Verge of the 
Palaces of St. James and Whitehall was included in St. Martin-in-the-Fields, St. George, 
Hanover-square, and St. Margaret, Westminster, after 1831. Privy Gardens and White- 
hall were included in the Verge of the Palaces in 1801 and 1821. c The parishes of St. 
Olave and St. Thomas were united in 1896 as " St. Olave and St. Thomas. Southwark," 
d The parish of the Minories was united with Whitechapel in 1895, 



210 



Deaths in London. 



BIRTHS AND DEATHS IN LONDON. 

Estimated Population, Deaths, and Death Kates, Births and 
Birth Rates in every Borough for 1905. 





Estimated 




Death 


Deaths 




Birth 




i Population 


Number 


rate 


under 


Number 


rate 


Borough. 


1 in the 


of 


per 


1 year 


of 


per 




middle of 


Deaths. 


1,000 


per 


Births. 


1,000 




1906. 

i 


1906. 


living. 


i 1,000 
[births. 




living. 


Battersea 


177,532 


2,567 


14*5 


131 


4,843 


274 


Bermondsey 


129,006 


2,408 


187 


! 148 


4,289 


333 


Bethnal Green . 


130,401 


2,418 


18*6 


, 151 


4,321 


33*2 


Camberwell . 


271,240 


3,705 


137 


124 


6,937 


25*6 


Chelsea 


74,496 


1,100 


14*8 


, H7 


1,583 


21-3 


Deptford 


114,495 


1,631 


143 


122 


3,289 


28.8 


Finsbury 


98,207 


1,863 


190 


• 127 


3,398 


347 


Fulham 


157,210 


2,364 


151 


• 145 


4,760 


30*4 


Greenwich . 


103,493 


1,383 


134 


119 


2,376 


259 


Hackney 


228,479 


3,201 


140 


129 


5,884 


25-8 


Hammersmith 


119,037 


1,647 


139 


135 


3,110 


262 


Hampstead . 


88,142 


821 


93 


94 


1,421 


16-2 


Holborn 


56,481 


985 


175 


92 


1,603 


28*5 


Islington 
Kensington . 
Lambeth 


342,994 


4,960 


14*5 


125 


8,604 


25-2 


180,083 


2,515 


14*0 


144 


3,458 


19*3 


313,045 


4,646 


14*9 


115 


8,838 


28*3 


Lewisham . 


144,420 


1,682 


117 


92 


3,633 


252 


London (City of) . 


22,425 


390 


174 


149 


302 


13.5 


Paddington . 


147,935 


1,964 


133 


123 


3,185 


21*6 


Poplar .... 


170,280 


2,992 


176 


153 


5,449 


321 


St. Marylebone . 


129,453 


2,000 


155 


88 


3,879 


301 


St. Pancras . 


236,183 


3,713 


158 


135 


5,811 


247 


Shoreditch . 


116,565 


2.286 


197 


167 


3,897 


335 


Southwark . 


208,528 


3,848 


185 


148 


6,250 


301. 


Stepney 

Stoke Newington 


305,466 


5,381 


177 


141 


10,744 


35.3 


52,828 


679 


12*9 


122 


1,078 


205 


Wandsworth 


265,392 


3,331 


126 


119 


6,§92 


260 


Westminster (City of) . 


175,606 


2,358 


135 


114 


2,940 


168 


Woolwich . 


125,372 


1,604 


12*8 


102 


3,546 


28.4 


Administrative County 


t 
























of London, 1905 


4,684,794 


70,442 


151 


129 


126,620 


271 


1904 . 


4,648,950 


74,555 


161 


144 


129,335 


279 



London's Bye-Zaws. 



211 



"FOR GOOD GOVERNMENT." 

BYE-LAWS— AND HOW TO ENFORCE THEM. 



It is easy to put the law into 
force regarding certain public nui- 
sances. "For the good rule and 
government" of London the County 
Council has passed a series of regu- 
lations about which citizens should 
know much more than they do. The 
following are the chief of them : — 

Steam Organs, Shooting Galleries, 
Roundabouts, &c. 

No person shall in any street or on 
any land adjoining or near thereto, 
use or play, or cause to be used or 
played, any steam organ or other 
musical instrument worked by 
mechanical means to the annoyance 
or disturbance of residents or pas- 
sengers. No person shall in any 
street or on any land adjoining or 
near thereto, keep or manage, or 
cause to be kept or managed, a 
shooting gallery, swing-boat, round- 
about, or any other construction of 
a like character, so as to cause 
obstruction or danger to the traffic 
of any such street. 

Noisy Animals. 

No person shall keep within any 
house,buildrag,or premises any noisy 
animal which shall be or cause a seri- 
ous nuisance to residents in the 
neighbourhood. Provided that no 
proceedings shall be taken against 
any person for an offence against this 
bye-law until after the expiration of 
a fortnight from the date of the 
service on such person of a notice 
alleging a nuisance, signed by not 
less than three householders resid- 
ing within hearing of the animal. 

Street Betting. 

No person shall frequent and use 
any street or other public place on 
behalf, either of himself or of any 
other person, for the purpose of book- 
making or betting, or wagering, or 



agreeing to bet or wager, with any 
person, or paying, or receiving, or 
settling bets, or for the purpose of 
offering for sale, selling, or distri- 
buting any paper or written or 
printed matter devoted wholly or 
mainly to giving information as to 
the probable result of any race, 
steeplechase, or other competition. 

Penalty. —Any person who shall 
offend against any of the fore- 
going bye-laws shall be liable 
for every such offence to a fine not 
exceeding forty shillings, except in 
the case of the bye-law relating to 
street betting, the fine for the 
breach of which shall be an amount 
not exceeding £5. 

Street Shouting. 

No person shall, for the .purpose 
of hawking, selling, or advertising 
any newspaper, call or shout in any 
street so as to cause annoyance to 
the inhabitants of the neighbour- 
hood. 

Penalty. —Any person who shall 
offend against the foregoing bye- 
law shall be liable for every such 
offence to a fine not exceeding forty 
shillings. 

Window Cleaning, Painting, &c. 
Every person who in any street, 
to the obstruction, annoyance, or 
danger of residents or passengers, 
orders or permits any person in his 
service to stand on the sill of any 
window for the purpose of clean- 
ing or painting such window, or for 
any other purpose whatsoever, such 
sill being more than six feet in 
height from the level of the ground 
immediately below it, without sup- 
port sufficient to prevent such per- 
son from falling, shall for every 
such offence forfeit and pay a sum 
not exceeding £5. 



212 



London's Bye-Zaws. 



Every person who in any street, 
to the obstruction, annoyance, or 
danger of residents or passengers, 
stands on. the sill of any window 
for the purpose of cleaning or 
painting such window, or for any 
other purpose whatsoever, such sill 
being more than six feet in height 
from the level of the ground imme- 
diately below it, witnout support 
sufficient to prevent such person 
from falling, shall for every such 
offence forfeit and pay a sum not 
exceeding twenty shillings. 

Flash and Search Lights. 

No person shall exhibit any flash 
light so as to be visible from any 
street and to cause danger to the 
traffic therein, nor shall any owner 
or occupier of premises permit or 
suffer any flash light to be so 
exhibited on such premises. 
L The expression "flash light" 
means and includes any light used 
fpr the purpose of illuminating, 
lighting, or . exhibiting any word, 
letter, model, siffn, device, or repre- 
sentation in tne nature of an 
advertisement, announcement, or 
direction which alters suddenly 
either in intensity, colour, or 
direction. 

No person shall exhibit any 
search light so as to be visible from 
any street and to cause danger to 
the traffic therein, nor shall any 
owner or cccupier of premises 
permit or suffer any search light to 
fee so exhibited on such premises. 

The expression "search light" 
means and includes any light ex- 
ceeding 500-candle power, whether 
in one lamp or lantern or in a 
series of lamps or lanterns used 
together and projected as one con- 
centrated light, and which alters 
either in intensity, colour, or direc- 
tion. 

In these bye-laws the expression 
" street " includes any highway and 
any road, bridge, lane, mews, foot- 
way, square, court, alley, passage, 



whether a thoroughfare or not, and 
a part of any such highway, road, 
bridge, lane, mews, footway, square, 
court, alley, or passage. 

Penalty— Any person who shall 
offend against any of the foregoing 
bye-laws shall be liable for every 
such offence to a fine not exceeding 
£5. 

Lights to Vehicles. 

The owner of every vehicle which 
shall be driven or be upon any high- 
way during the period between one 
hour after sunset and one hour before 
sunrise shall cause to be fixed out- 
side such vehicle and on the right 
or off-side thereof a lamp, which 
shall be so constructed and placed 
as to exhibit a white light visible 
in the direction in which the vehicle 
is proceeding, and sufficient to 
afford adequate means of signalling 
the approach or position of the 
vehicle, and the person in charge of 
such vehicle shall, during the said 
period, keep such lamp properly 
lighted, provided that the lignt to 
be exhibited as aforesaid on JOT 
tramcar may be white or, any otner 
colour except red. 

This bye-law shall not apply to 
any vehicle which is by any statutory 
enactment, or by any rule, regula- 
tion, or order made under any 
statutory enactment and for the 
time being in force required to 
carry a lamp outside such vehicle. 

Penalty. — Any person who shall 
offend against this bye-law shall be 
liable for every such offence to a 
fine not exceeding forty shillings. 
Vehicular Traffic. 

No owner of a vehicle shall drive 
such vehicle, or permit the same to 
be driven or to Tbe upon any high- 
way, unless it be so constructed that 
the driver thereof shall have a full 
and uninterrupted view of the 
traffic on such highway in front 
and abreast of him on each side, 
and no person who shall be driving 
any vehicle upon any highway shall 



Betterment. 



213 



occupy such a position as will pre- 
vent or interfere with his having 
such full and uninterrupted view 
as aforesaid. 

Waste Paper, Refuse, &c* 
No person shall (1) sweep or other- 
wise remove from any shop, house, 
or vehicle into any street any waste 
paper, shavings, or other refuse, or, 
being' a costermonger, newsvendor, 
or other street trader, throw down 
and leave in any street any waste 
paper, shavings, or other refuse; 
(2) throw down and leave in any 
street for the purpose of adver- 
tising any bill, placard, or other 
substance ; (3) throw down and 
leave in any street any bill, placard, 
or other paper which shall have 
been torn off or removed from any 
bill-posting station. 

No person shall deposit in any 
street or public place to the danger 
of any passenger the rind of any 
orange, banana, or other fruit, cr 
the leaves or refuse of any 
vegetable. 

No person shall throw, place, or 
leave any bottle or any broken glass, 
naiJ, or other sharp substance (not 
being road material) on or in any 
street or public place in such a 
position as to be likely to cause 
injury to passengers or animals or 
damage to property. 

* This repeals the bye- 



In these bye-laws the expression 
"street" includes any highway, 
and any road, bridge, Ipne, path, 
footway, mews, square, court, alley 
or passage, to which the public 
have access for the time being. 

Penalty— Any person who shall 
offend against any of these bye-laws 
shall be liable for each offence t> a 
fine not exceeding forty shillings. 
Spitting. 

No person shall spit on the floor, 
side, or wall of any public carriage, 
or of any public hall, public waiting 
room, or place of public entertain- 
ment, whether admission thereto be 
obtained upon payment or not. 

Penalty— Any person who shall 
offend against this bye-law shall be 
liable for each offence to a fine not 
exceeding forty shillings. 

Public Decency. 

Every person who in any street 
or in any open space to which tl^e 
public have access for the time 
being shall commit or attempt to 
commit any act of indecency with 
any other person, or shall to the 
annoyance of residents or passen- 
gers commit any act of indecency 
which is not already punishable in 
a summary manner by virtue of any 
Act of Parliament in force through- 
out the County of London, shall be 
liable to a fine not exceeding £5. 
laws of 12th May, 1903. 



BETTERMENT. 

" Betterment " is a term commonly applied to the system of taxation 
(called an " improvement charge ") by means of whioh the local authority 
bearing the ^ross cost of an improvement intercepts a proportion of the 
special benefit derived from the improvement by particular properties in 
its immediate vicinity. 

Historically the principle of " assessment according to benefit " is an 
ancient canon of taxation; but the particular form is modern, having been 
first sanctioned by Parliament in 1894-5, after five years' contest. The 
chief incidents in the battle may be statedjbriefly ;— 



214 Betterment. 



1889 (November). Resolution in favour of the application of the principle 
of betterment to London improvements passed by the London 
County Council led by the late Mr. Charles Harrison. 

1890. Betterment clause embodied in the London Streets (Strand Im- 
provements) Bill, rejected by Select Committee of the Commons ; 
Bill dropped by the Council. 

1892. Betterment clause embodied in the London County Council General 

Powers Bill (Cromwell-road Bridge Improvement), rejected by 
Select Committee of the Commons by one vote ; improvement 
dropped by the Council. 

1893. Betterment clause embodied in London Improvements Bill (Tower 

Bridge Southern Approach, and Wood-lane, Hammersmith, 
Improvements) ; passed by the Commons ; objected to by the 
Lords, 55 to 36; Lords' amendment disagreed with by the 
Commons, 221 to 88 ; Lords adhered to objection, 50 to 27, but 
offered to appoint Joint Select Committee; Bill dropped by the 
London County Council. 

1894. Betterment clause embodied in Tower Bridge Southern Approach 

?ill; passed by the Commons ; Lords appointed Select Com- 
mittee, which recognised the general principle ; Lords amended 
the clause ; Bill dropped by the London County Council, 

1895. Betterment clause, as passed by Commons, again embodied in the 

Tower Bridge Southern Approach Bill, but amended as a com- 
promise. Compromise altered by Select Committee, but restored 
by the Commons, 186 to 143, and passed by the Lords. 

The Betterment clause has been incorporated in Bills sanctioning seven 
London improvements since 1895, while it has been adopted in the case or 
other municipalities since 1894, when Manchester reaped the firstf ruits of 
London's enterprise. 

The procedure in assessing the improvement charge provided for in the 
Betterment clause is set out shortly below : — 

1. Before the improvement is begun the London County Council 

schedules the properties it intends to assess. 

2. An Arbitrator appointed by the Local Government Board hears 

the parties and fixes an " initial valuation " of each of the interests 
in the properties before improvement. 

3. Within a period of from one to three years after the completion of 

the improvement, the London County Council declares the incre- 
ment of capital value and assesses an improvement charge at 
3 per cent, per annum on one-half of that increment. 

4 The owner assessed may, within three months of the assessment, 
require the London County Council to bay his interest at the 
initial valuation or to abandon the charge ; or, 

5. He may object to the assessment, and the Council may amend the 
charge or apply for the appointment of an arbitrator. A " worse - 
ment " may De set off against a " betterment " accruing to the 
same owner. 



Betterment. 



215 



i 6. The London County Council has to pay the reasonable costs of all 
parties to the initial valuation; in the case of objections to 
the assessment, however, the costs will follow the award. 

The costs are heavy— in the Ho 1 born- Strand improvement the initial 
valuation cost over £'5,000— they are thus only justified in the case of 
improvements where the land values are high and the property large. 

The following table gives the essential particulars relating to the 
London Improvements subject to betterment : — 



Improvement. 



Date 

of 
Act. 



Date 
of Initial 
Valuation, 



Date of com- 
pletion of 
Improvement. 



Date of 
Assessment. 



Total 

Enhancement 

of Value. 



Tower Bridge Southern 

Approach 

Tower Bridge Northern 

Approach 

Strand at Holywell-street 
Bozier's - court, Totteu 

ham Court-road 
Holborn to Strand 
Thames Embankment, 

Westminster 

High-street and Gar- 

dener's-lane, Putney ... 
Central-street, Finsbury 
Hampstead-road 



1895 

1897 
1897 

1897 
1899 

1900 

1900 
1901 
1902 



Jan. 1897 

Jan. 1901 
Jan. 1899 

Dec. 1898 
May 1900 

May 1902 

Dec. 1901 
Dec. 1902 
May 1904 



12th March ,1902 7th March, 1906 



3rd Aug. 1900 



17th July, 1906 



28th July, 1903 



£23,920 



£18,996 



The assessment for the Bozier's Court improvement, the only one which 
has given final results, was made on the 28tn July, 1903, and is sufficiently 
interesting as being the first case to be set out in some detail. The 
initial valuation of the six properties affected amounted to £88,540, while 
the enhancement of value was assessed at £21,386. Objection was, how- 
ever, made to some of these assessments, and the Arbitrator issued his 
award in July, 1904, for £18,996. 

The cost of the improvement was £53,860, the cost of the initial valua- 
tion being £2,747, and of the assessment £2,144; the value of the pro- 
perties in the immediate neighbourhood was enhanced by at least 
©18,996, of which the owners retain one-half, while the municipality 
intercepts the other half by means of an improvement charge at 3 per 
cent, per annum, amounting to £285 10«., redeemable at 33 years' pur- 
chase. The improvement was therefore not a large one, and the better- 
ment area was very limited in extent ; moreover, the case was an early 
one, and the cost of the initial valuation was increased in consequence of 
two appeals to the High Court. But even with these adverse conditions 
the betterment charge realised £4,530 nett, sufficient to defray 8k per cent, 
of the cost of the improvement. 



216 



The Assessment System. 



THE ASSESSMENT SYSTEM. 

HOW TO REDUCE YOUR RATES. 



It is of the utmost importance that 
every ratepayer should see that his 
assessment is correct. The assess- 
ment law is defective in many 
respects, and there is a lack of 
uniformity in different districts in 
the way it is administered. More 
harmonious action has been brought 
about lately by means of the con- 
ferences which have taken place 
between the County Council and 
the assessment authorities. These 
have resulted not only in pro- 
curing greater uniformity "of practice 
but also in coming to some agree- 
ment as to the revision that is 
needed in the system. The Royal 
Commission on Local Taxation, too, 
had the valuation system under 
its consideration, and made it 
the subject of its first report. 
Briefly, it recommended a County 
Valuation Authority (viz., the 
County Council), working by means 
of local committees, on which the 
local boards of guardians and 
borough councils should be repre- 
sented, these local committees taking 
the place of the overseers, and the 
County Council taking the place of 
the Assessment Committee. The 
Government Bill introduced into 
Parliament in 1904 to carry into 
effect these recommendations was, 
however, dropped. 

How to Check your As- 
sessment. 

If your landlord does repairs and 
you pay rates, then your rent is the 
"gross value," and the "rateable 
value " is found as follows : — 

If the rent is under £20, deduct 
one-fourth to find the proper rate- 
able value. 

If £20 and under £40, deduct 
one-fifth. 

If £40 or more, deduct one-sixth : 



N.B. — The practice is to disregard 
shillings and pence altogether — not 
to take the nearest pound. 

If you do internal repairs you 
must add 5 per cent, to your rent 
to arrive at the "ctoss value." If 
you do internal ana external repairs 
you must add 10 per cent, to your 
rent to arrive at the " gross va'ue." 

Then apply the scale of deductions 
as above to ascertain the " rateable 
value." 

Examples. 

A pays £30 per annum on an 
ordinary yearly tenancy. His rates 
are charged on a rateable value of 
£27. A is entitled to deduct one- 
fifth (£6) from his rent, leaving 
£24 as the correct rateable value. 
A should object. 

B pays £30 per annum on a re- 
pairing lease and is charged on £27 
rateable value. B must first add 
10 per cent to his rent, making £33 
gross value; then deduct one-fifth 
(£6, disregarding' odd shillings), 
leaving £27. Thus B's rateable 
value is correct. 

If you find that the rateable value 
on the demand-note is too high you 
should at once communicate, in 
writing, with the borough council. 
The best channel is usually the 
rate-collector, whose address is on 
the demand-note. State the nature 
of your tenancy, the date of its 
commencement, the amount of the 
rent, and all other facts bearing on 
the value of the premises, and con- 
clude by requesting that, as the 
rateable value is too high, your 
house may be inserted in a " Provi- 
sional Valuation List " at a reduced 
assessment. Should this not have 
the desired effect, application might 
well be made to the clerk of the 
Assessment Committee for your 
district. 



The Valuation of London. 217 

General Procedure. council where the borough area 

At present, the borough councils con ?P ri ?? s entir ?. Poor Law areas, 

,. r . ° , , n , and by the guardians where there is 

acting as overseers m the first mor e than one borough or part of a 

instance make out the valua- borough in one Poor Law union, 

tion list, which is afterwards An appeal from the decision of 

revised by an Assessment Com- the Assessment Committee lies to 

mittee, appointed by the borough Quarter Sessions. 

THE VALUATION OF LONDON. 

The valuation of London is made under conditions differing in many 
respects from those obtaining in the country generally. Since 1870, when 
the total rateable value was under 20 millions, a complete revaluation 
has taken place every five years, while a supplemental valuation in each 
of the intervening years has brought new properties into rating. This 
procedure has undoubtedly resulted in keeping the valuation of London at 
a high level. In 1901 the total valuation was £39,643,618 ; in 1906 it was 
£43,486,437, an increase of £3,842,819 in the quinquennium. Between 
1901 and 1905 the average of the supplemental lists, which may be 
taken as the average annual value of new ^property, was £503,36 
The increase of the re- valuation of 1906 over the 1905 valuation was, 
however, £1,829,371, and the excess of this over the average annual 
value of new property may be taken as representing the increase 
in the general value of property in London, and as indicating to 
some extent the "unearned increment" of five years. It amounted 
to £1,326,000. Included in the quinquennial valuation of 1906 are 
the rateable values of the following special properties : — Eailways, 
£2,351,354; tramways (including, L.C.C.), £159,685; gas, £896,390; 
electricity, £379,196; water, £679,691; canals, £19,593; docks, £217,750; 
hydraulic, £38,061 ; telephones and telegraphs, £60,320— Total, £4,802,040 
In 1901 there were, in all, 703,119 assessments, of which no less than 
309,568 were below £20, the valuation below which the owner instead of 
the occupier may be made responsible for the rates. Of the very high 
values there were 92 between £10,000 and £20,000, 38 between £20,000 
and £30,000, 15 between £30,000 and £40,000, 10 between £40,000 and 
£50,000, and six above £50,000, the highest individual assessment in a 
single parish bein^ the L. and N.W. Railway assessment in St. Pancras 
of £107,300. No information similar to this is available for a later year 
than 1901. The rateable value in force for the year 1907-8 is £43,905,962. 
The valuation now used for many of the rates is not the rateable value, 
but what is known as the assessable value, under the Agricultural Rates 
Acts, 1896 to 1905. The total assessable value for the year 1907-8 is 
£43,897,571, which is made up of the rateable value of houses, £43,889,181, 
together with one-half the rateable value of agricultural land, £16,781. 
The total gross value (used in the case of ordinary properties for King's 
taxes) is £53,404,124 ; but as there is no gross valuation put upon Govern- 



218 



The Valuation of London. 



ment Property, the total gross value of London corresponding to the total 
rateable value cannot be given. On the basis of the known values, however, 
the gross rental value of London may be put at £54,133,000, gross value 
being on an average 23 per cent, higher than rateable value. The 
assessable values of each borough and parish for the years 1906-7 and 
1907-8 are given in the following table:— 



Metropolitan Boroughs 
and Parishes. 


Assessable Value, 1906-7. 


Assessable Value, 1907-8. 




£ S. 


d. £ s. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d. £ s. 


d. 


City of London 




5,360,197 









5,373,276 





-Battersea 




1,056,615 









1,064,738 . 





Bermondsey 




941,427 


6 






945,951 





Bethnal Green 




548,359 









549,987 





Camberwell 




1,355,981 10 









1,363,074 10 





Chelsea 




888,101 10 









915,931 10 





Deptford— 
Parish of St. Paul 


















635,639 10 









641,274 10 





Finsbury— 
















Charterhouse 


14,229 







14,329 










Clerkenwell 


455,959 







457,429 










Glasshouse-yard 


16,687 







16,725 










St. Luke 


469,153 7 


6 




473,104 


7 


6 




St. Sepulchre 


66,274 




1 090 VY> T 


6 


66,084 







1 00*7 ATI T 


6 






X,UZ2,OUZ / 








Fulham 

Greenwich- 




883,182 









897,448 





Charlton and Kidbrooke 


137,642 . 







139,392 










Greenwich 


438,089 







442,609 10 







St. Nicholas, Deptford... 


67,109 









68,097 







AGrt OQfl in 






Hackney 




1,214,607 10 






1,227,% I 10 


Hammersmith 




797,217 









809,345 





Hampstead 




1,076,065 









1,092,194 





Holborn— 
















Furnival's-inn 


7,429 







7,429 










Gray's-inn 


17,119 







17,074 










Lincoln's-inn 


34,234 







34,195 










Saffron-hill 


119,787 







120,547 










St. Andrew-above-Bar ) 
St. George-the- Martyr) 


324,671 







C 251,581 
\ 74,097 




















St. George, Bloomsbury 


231,708 







235,318 










St. Giles-in-the- Fields ... 


298,885 







304,765 










Staple-inn 


3,877 




l (W7 Tin n 






3,877 







i ndfi rot n 






Islington 




1,950,142 






1,953,325 


Kensington- 
















Royal Borough 




2,362,619 









2,389,105 10 





Lambeth 




1,947,404 









1,956,988 10 





Lewisham 




1,030,063 









1,054,937 10 





Paddington 




1,540,141 10 









1,549,909 10 





Poplar- 
Bow 
















— 






202,289 










Bromley 


— 






285,212 10 







Poplar 


— 






353,521 


7 


6 

QA\ 022 17 


6 




St. Marylebone 




1,917,673 









1,944,217 


St. Pancras ... 




1,803,560 10 









1,805,609 10 





Shoreditch 




807,334 









809,201 





Southwark— 
















Christchurch,Southwark 


135,504 







136.107 










Newington 


542,431 







543,699 










St. George-the-Martyr... 


339,916 







341,075 










St. Saviour 


281,690 







286,749 














— 1,300,541 









— 1,307,630 








Equalisation of Rates. 




219 


Metropolitan Boroughs 
and Parishes. 


Assessable Value,1906-7. 


Assessable Value, 1907-8. 




£ s. 


d. 


£ s. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d. £ s. 


d. 


Stepney— 
Aldgate 


61,295 









63,555 










Christchurch, Spital- 


















flelds 


119,226 









112,389 










Limehotise 


147,667 









148,205 










Mile-end New-town 


44,919 









45,079 










Mile-end Old-town 


442,655 









444,109 










Norton Folgate 


14,642 









14,908 










Old Artillery-ground . . . 


11,710 









11,868 










Ratcliff 


76,909 









76,861 










St. George-in-the-East... 
Shadwell 


211,943 









212,487 










52,011 









51,825 










Wapping . 


54,541 









54,921 










Whitechapel 


265,127 





1,505.650 
354,775 10 






265,575 






_ i wvi too n 






Stoke Newington 










353,724 10 


Wandsworth— 


















Parish of Wandsworth 


















Borough 






— 








2,002,996 





Westminster City- 


















Rolls 


57,375 









57,548 










St. Anne 


214,193 









217,502 










St. Clement Danes 


262,531 









270,561 










St. George, Hanover-sq. 


2,273,520 









2,294,028 










St. James, Westminster 


1,038,573 









1,049,484 










St. Margaret,. Westmin- 


1 1,195,456 
















ster 









1,198,436 










St. John-the-Evangelist 
. St. Martin-in-the-Fields 
















716,110 









729,303 










St. Mary-le-Strand 

St. Paul, Covent-garden 


48,886 









55,391 










128,550 









133,437 










St. Peter, Westminster... 


4,340 









4,340 










Savoy 


30,565 





5,950,099 





30,600 







ft fw» AVi n 















0,lrHJ,0>3\J u 


Woolwich— 


















Eltham 


85,091 10 









88,745 10 







Plumstead 


332,722 10 









338,989 10 







Woolwich 


347,107 10 









350,923 10 













764,921 10 


1 




— 778,658 10 











Total 




43,477,771 15 









43,897,571 5 






The only boroughs in which there is agricultural land are the following" : — 
Camberwell, £427; Chelsea, £63; Deptford, £133; Fulham, £372; 
Greenwich, £1,111; Hackney, £175; Hammersmith, £448; Hampstead, 
£224; Kensington, £7; Lambeth, £475; Lewisham, £3,087; Paddington, 
£3; Poplar, £43; St. Pancras, £375 ; Stoke Newington, £75; Wands- 
worth, £4,702; and Woolwich, £5,061 ; a total of £16,781. 

EQUALISATION OF RATES. 
The rates of different districts in London are equalised for certain pur- 
poses in three different ways. First, on the Metropolitan Common Poor 
Fund, established in 1867, and administered by the Local Government 
Board, is thrown part of the expenditure of Poor Law guardians on indoor 
paupers, insane poor, vagrants, school fees for outdoor pauper children, 
medical relief, Poor Law officers, registration of births and deaths, and 
vaccination ; and of the Metropolitan Asylums Board on small-pox. fever, 
and diphtheria patients and ambulance expenses. The expenditure thrown 
on the fund in 1904-5 was £1,577,089, equal to a rate of 9£d. in 



220 



Equalisation of Bates. 



the £, an amount of £375,015 being collected from the richer parishes, 
and handed over to the poorer parishes in aid of their Poor-law expenditure. 
Secondly, on Exchequer Contributions and on the General County Bate of 
the London County Council is thrown part of the expenditure of Poor Law 
guardians (in addition to that borne by the Metropolitan Common Poor 
Fund) on indoor paupers, pauper lunatics, Poor Law medical expenses, 
teachers in Poor Law schools, Union officers, and registration of births and 
deaths ; and of borough councils on sanitary officers and registration of 
electors, amounting in all to £602,472, equal to a rate of 3kd. in the £. 
Thirdly, through the Equalisation Fund, established by the London (Equal- 
isation of Rates) Act, 1894, and administered by the London County Coun- 
cil, relief to the amount of £281,064 is g-iven to the poorer districts for the 
purpose of supporting Public Health, lighting and streets, at the expense 
of the richer districts. A 6d. rate (which produces £1,026,906) is 
levied all round, and is redistributed on the basis of population ; 
that is to say, a poor district, with a dense population and a low 
rateable value, may receive Id. or Sd. back over and above its 6d., whilst 
another district, with a thinner population, but heavier rateable value, may 
be credited with less than Id. out of its 6d. and have to pay more than 
hd. into the fund. The following figures show the operation of the various 
equalisation funds and their influence in London in 1904-5. 

The rates which would have been levied had there been no equalisation 
funds and Exchequer contributions are set out in the first column of the 
following table (taken from London Statistics, vol. xvi.), the increases (+) 
or decreases (— ) in the rates caused by each of the funds are set out in 
the next columns, and the resulting rates actually levied are set out in the 
last column. 



- 


Rate 
without 
Equalisa- 
tion. 


County 
Grants. 


Equalisa- 
tion Fund. 


Common 
Poor 
Fund. 


Rate 
actually 
levied. 




s. <L 


d. 


A 


s. d. 


s. d. 


City of London 


5 5-60 


+ 1-44 


+ 5-72 


+0 7*34 


6 6'5 


Battersea 


8 9*27 


+ 1-04 


— 2*86 


+0 2*19 


8 2 


Bermondsey— 












Bermondsey 


11 4.15 


) 




( 


9 7 


Horselvdown 

Rotherhithe 


11 1*15 
11 6*15 


-1,1 


-1*48 


—0 9*% \ 


9 4 
9 9 


St. Olave and St. Thomas... 


11 4*15 


) 




( 


9 7 


Bethnal Green 


11 3*20 


— 3-94 


— 7-07 


—0 16-95 


8 1 


Camberwell 


9 7-39 


— -21 


— 4-86 


-0 4-53 


8 1-5 


Chelsea 


7 7*15 


— -97 


+ 1-38 


—0 0*92 


6 11 


Deptford 


8 10*91 


— -92 


— 3*72 


—0 4*10 


7 6 


P insbury— 












Charterhouse 


7 10*41 


— 2-04 


+ 5*43 


—0 2-72 


7 3 


Clerkenwell 


7 9.92 


— 2-04 


— 1-08 


-O 2*72 


6 8 


Glasshouse Yard 


7 10*83 


— 2-04 


+ 3*01 


—0 2*72 


7 1 


St. Luke 


7 10-71 


— 2-04 


+ 1-13 


-O 2-72 


6 11 


St. Sepulchre 


7 7*12 


— 2*04 


+ 4*72 


—0 2-72 


6 11 


Fulham 


8 3-58 


+ -91 


— 3*65 


-0 1-00 


7 4 


Greenwich — 












Charlton and Kidbrooke ... 


9 6-23 


— -92 


— 3-06 


-0 4-10 


8 2 


Deptford St. Nicholas 


7 8-88 


— -18 


— 2*86 


-0 1*07 


6 9 


Greenwich 


9 3*46 


— -92 


— 2-29 


—0 4*10 


8 


Hackney 


8 6*01 


+ -09 


— 3*92 


-0 344 


7 2 


Hammersmith 


7 10*61 


+ -84 


— 2*52 


+0 2*61 


7 4 


Hampstead 


6 9*40 


+ 1-41 


+ 1*46 


+0 6*44 


7 


Holbora— 












Furnival's Inn 


7 9-69 


— 2-04 


+ 6*01 


-0 2*72 


7 3 


Gray's Inn 


7 8-45 


— 2-04 


+ 5-24 


—0 2*72 


7 1 



Equalisation of Rates. 






221 


\ 


Rate 
without 


County 


Equalisa- 


Common 
Poor 


Rate 
actually 
levied. 




Equalisa- 
tion. 


Grants. 


tion Fund. 


Fund. 




s. d. 


d. 


d. 


s. 


d. 


s. d< 


Lincoln's Inn {X»] e edpai ^ 
Saffron Hill 


7 5*18 > 
6 9*18 * 


+ 1*91 


+ 5-90 


+0 


9*22 


C8 4 
17 8 


7 10-98' 


— 2-04 


+ 4*72 


—0 


2*72 


7 3 


St. Andrew and St. George.. 


7 10*11 


— 2-04 


+ 1*59 


—0 


2-72 


6 11 


St. Giles and St. George ... 


7 4-31 


— 1-26 


+ 2*79 


+0 


0-43 


6 U 


Staple Inn ... 


7 9-91 


— 2-04 


+ 5-79 


—0 


272 


7 3 


Islington 

Kensington 


8 3-57 


+ -33 


— 3-30 


-0 


0-55 


7 4 


6 7*97 


+ 6'7 


+ 1-80 


+0 


2-93 


6 6 


Lambeth 


8 4*73 


— *37 


— 2-55 


—0 


0-83 


7 5 


Lewisham— 














Lee 


8 1-73 


+ '97 


— 1-91 


+0. 


1-77 


7 7 


Lewisham 


8 1-21 


+ '97 


— 2*39 


+0 


1-77 


7 6 


Paddington 


6 10-20 


+ -97 


+ -54 


+0 


3-48 


6 8 


Poplar- 
Bow 














12 4-87 


— 1-19 


— 5-30 


—1 


0*23 


10 1 


Bromley 


12 6*52 


— 1-19 


— 5*95 


—1 


0-23 


10 2 


Poplar 

St. Marylebone 


12 3*76 


— 1*19 


— 4-19 


—1 


0-23 


10 1 


7 4*85 


— '66 


+ 2-00 


+0 


0-26 


6 11 


St. Pancras 


8 1*83 


— 1*09 


— -90 


-0 


2'70 


7 1 


Shoreditch 


9 0*33 


— 1*51 


— 1*94 


-0 


5*13 


7 7 


Southwark— 














Christchurch, Southwark... 


9 1*75 


— 2-18 


— 1-30 


—0 


7-12 


7 6 


Newington 


8 11-06 


— 2-18 


— 3*61 


—0 


7*12 


7 1 


St. George, Southwark 


8 1128 


— 2*18 


— 2-83 


—0 


7*12 


7 2 


St. Saviour, Southwark ... 


8 7*14 


— 218 


— 69 


—0 


7*12 


7 


Stepney— 
Aldgate— 














9 11*44 


— 1*90 


— 1*42 


-0 


9*64 


8 1 


Christchurch, Spitalflelds. . . 


9 11*34 


— 1-90 


— 5-32 


-0 


9*64 


7 9 


Limehouse 


11 7*86 


— 2-73 


— 5-41 


—1 


3*45 


8 11 


Mile End New Town 


9 682 


- 190 


— 7-80 


—0 


964 


7 2 


Mile End Old Town 


HI 2-56 


— 2*79 


— 6-24 


-0 11-62 


8 8 


Norton Folgate 


9 9*89 


— 1-90 


— 2-87 


—0 


9-64 


7 10 


Old Artillery Ground 


9 10-56 


— 1-90 


— 4-54 


—0 


9*64 


7 9 


Ratcliff 


11 10-01 


— 2-73 


— 456 


—1 


3-45 


9 2 


St. George-in-the-East 
Shadwell 


12 10*22 


— 8*79 


— 5*66 


—1 11-77 


8 10 


11 6*31 


— 2*73 


— 3-86 


— 1 


3*45 


8 11 


Wapping 


10 9*43 


— 2-73 


— -98 


— 1 


3*45 


8 5 


Whitechapel 


10 0-07 


— 1-90 


— 3-04 


— 


9-64 


8 


Stoke Newington— 














. Stoke Newington wards ... 
South Hornsey ward 


8 2-00") 
7 11*00 J 


- -lr- 


— 2-02 


-0 


3*44 


("7 
16 9 


Wandsworth— 














Clapham 


7 7*87^| 










f 7 1 


Putney ... • 

Streatnam 


7 8*87 










7 2 


7 987 f 


+ 1-04 


— 256 


+0 


2*19 


i 7 3 


Tooting Graveney 


7 11-87 










7 5 


Wandsworth 


7 6-87J 










L7 


Westminster (City)— 














Rolls 


6 7-35 


+ *68 


+ 5-77 


+0 


3-09 


6 10 


St. Anne 


6 3*52 


+ *86 


+ 295 


+0 


5-36 


6 6 


St. Clement Danes 


6 2-89 


+ *68 


+ 5-23 


+0 


3-09 


6 5 


St. George, Hanover-square 


6 712 


+ -88 


+ 4-12 


+0 


4'53 


6 10 


St. James 


5 9*68 


+ '86 


+ 4*79 


+0 


536 


6 2 


St. Margaret and St. John.. 


6 3-56 


+ -88 


+ 3'68 


+0 


4*53 


6 6 


St. Martin-in-the-Fields ... 


6 10*13 


+ -68 


+ 4-99 


+0 


3-09 


7 


St. Mary-le-Strand 

St. Paul, Covent-garden ... 


6 639 


+ '68 


+ 5*73 


+0 


3-09 


6 9 


6 7-81 


+ -68 


+ 5-31* 


+0 


3*09 


6 10 


St. Peter 


6 8-74 


+ '88 


+ 3*50 


+0 


4*53 


6 11 


Savoy 

Woolwich— 


6 9-44 


+ '68 


+ 5-68 


+0 


3-09 


7 














Eltham 


8 2*55 


+ *97 


— 3-63 


+0 


1*77 


7 6 


Plumstead 


8 8-96 


— '18 


— 5-93 


— 


1-07 


7 6 


Woolwich ( 


9 2*87 


— -18 


— 2*84 


— 


1-07 


8 3 



222 



Registration of Births, Deaths, and Marriages. 



The parish paining most by the Common Poor Fund is St. George-in- 
the-East which gains Is. Ufa.; the same parish gains most by the county 
grants, S'79d.; Mile End New Town gains most by the Equalisat : on 
Fund, viz., 7'Sd.; and St. George-in-the-East gains most by all the 
funds. Bethnal Green comes second in each of the three funds 
and in the total. Of the places that lose (excluding the Inns of 
Court) the City comes first with a loss of 7'34>d. by the Common Poor 
Fund, l'4>4>d. by the county grants, and 5'73i. by the Equalisation Fund, 
or la. 2'51d. in all. The general result of the funds is to reduce the range 
of the rates from a maximum of 12s. lOd. (St. George-in-the-East), and 
a minimum of 5s. 6d. (City of London), a difference of 7s. id., to a 
maximum of 10s. 2d. and a minimum of 6s. 2d., a difference of 4s. 



REGISTRATION OF BIRTHS, DEATHS, AND MARRIAGES. 



The registration of births, deaths, 
and marriages is carried on under 
the direction of the Registrar-Gene- 
ral at Somerset House, but the 
boards of guardians are charged 
directly with the work. The clerk 
to the guardians is generally the 
district superintendent registrar, 
and he appoints one or more depu- 
ties to act under him. 

Following are the names and ad- 
dresses of the registrars, at whose 
offices births and deaths should be 
registered, and marriage arrange- 
ments made. Note is made of the 
registrars who attend to the mar- 
riage business. When no reference 
is made to ma-rriages, applications 
should be addressed to the super- 
intendent. The superintendent's 
hours are, as a rule, from 10 to 4. 
The offices are closed on Sundays. 

BETHNAL GREEN. 

Superintendent — D. Thomas, 
(Barrister-at Law), Register Office, 
Bishop's - road, Victoria - park. 
Deputy — C. F. Jones. 

N.E. District.— Captain W. H. 
Hamilton, 274, Cambridge-road, 
N.E. Deputy—?. B. Hancock. 

S.W. District.— J. Williams, 
347, Bethnal Gr«en - road, E. 
Deputy— C. W. Chinery. 

Marriages. — P. B. Hancock. 
Register Office, Bishop' s-road, N.E. 
Deputy — H. Sedgwick. 



CAMBERWELL. 

Superintendent — C. S. Stevens, 
Guardians' Offices. Deputy — H. E. 
Mott. 

Camberwell (North).— A. E. 
Baker, 34, Brunswick-square, Peck- 
ham-road. Daily, except Saturday, 
12 to 4 ; Saturday, 12 to 2 ; Monday, 
Wednesday, and Friday evenings, 
6 to 8. 

Camberwell (South).— W. L. 
Churchill, 8, Glengarry-road, East 
Dulwich-grove, S.E. Daily, except 
Saturday, 12 to 4 ; Saturday, 12 to 
2 ; Monday, Wednesday, and Friday 
evenings, 6 to 8. 

Peckham (North). — A. Lucas, 
26, Camden-grove, Peckham. Daily, 
except Saturday, 12 to 4 ; Saturday, 
12 to 2 ; Monday, Wednesday, and 
Friday evenings, 6 to 8! 

Peckham (South).— A. J. Quaif, 
20, Linden-grove, Nunhead - lane, 
Peckham Rye. Daily, except Satur- 
day, 12 to 4; Saturday, 12 to 2; 
Monday, Wednesday, and Friday 
evenings, 6 to 8. 

St. George's.— C. Followes, 84, 
Trafalgar-road, Old Kent-road. 
Daily, except Saturday, 12 to 4; 
Saturday, 12 to 2 ; Monday, Wed- 
nesday, and Friday evenings, 6 to 8. 

Dulwich. — A, H, Bartlett, High- 



Registration of Births, Deaths, and Marriages. 



223 



street, Dulwich. Mondays, Wed- 
nesdays, and Fridays, 9 to 10 a,m. 
and 6 to 8 p.m. 

Marriages.— A. E. Baker, 34, 
Brunswick-square, Peckham-road ; 
Gk pooding, 43, Denman - road, 
Peckham. 

CHELSEA. 

Superintendent Registrar — J. 
Dowling, 250, Kings-road. 

S. District. — Miss H. L. 
Mowels, 36, Ashburnham Mansions. 
Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, 
9 to 11 a.m. ; Monday, Wednesday, 
and Friday, 6 to 8 p.m 

N. District— J. W. Facey, 411, 
Fulham-road. Tuesday, Thursday, 
and Saturday, 9 to 11 a.m. ; Mon- 
day, Wednesday, and Friday, 6 to 
8 p.m. 

" Marriages.— A. E. Follit, 208, 
King's-road. 

CITY OF LONDON. 

Superintendent — E. R. Wood- 
ward, 61, Bartholomew Close. De- 
puty — B. Ware. 

St. Botolph, Broad Street, 
and Cripplegate— F. H. Pullen, 
21, Great Winchester-street. Deputy 
—a. Tucker. 

All Hallows, Barking, 
Castle Baynard,Christchurch, 
queenhithe, st. sepulchre, and 
St. Bride. — Miss A. J. Kemm, 
Myddleton House, 42, Farringdon- 
street. Deputy — A. Sayer, 36, 
Farringdon-street. 

Marriages.— Rodolph Nicholls, 
61, Bartholomew-close. Deputy — 
J. Bedford. 

FULHAM. 

Superintendent— T. Aplin Marsh, 
129, Fulham-palace-road, W. 

North Hammersmith. — R. 
Popham, 89a, Goldhawk - road, 
Shepherds Bush, W. 

South Hammersmith.— F. P. 



Branner (M), 3, The Grove, Ham- 
mersmith, W. 

North- West Fulh am.— Alfred 
Busby (M), 240, Dawes-road, Ful- 
ham, S.W. 

North-East Fulham.— H. D. 
Shopland, 152, Halford-road, North 
End-road, Fulham, S.W. 

South Fulham.— Henry Wil- 
liams, 66, New King's-road, Fulham, 
S.W. 

Marriages— L. Liversidge, 129, 
Fulham Palace - road, Hammer- 
smith, W. 

Note —Those Eegistrars of Births 
and Deaths marked (M) are also 
Registrars of Marriages. 

GREENWICH. 

Superintendents. Saw, Bank- 
buildings, 183, Trafalgar - road. 
Deputy— R. P. Hellyar. 

Greenwich. — E. District : 
H. K. Lewis, 203a, Trafalgar-road. 
Deputy—?. C. Wates. W. Dis- 
trict : J. E. Wates, 53, Devonshire- 
road. Deputy — H. J. Raymond. 

Marriages.— H. K. Lewis, 203a, 
Trafalgar-road. 

Deptford.— N. District .- E. J. 
White, 326, Evelyn-street. Deputy— 
M . A . White. Central District : 
H. J. Dixon, L.R.C.S., 27, Nettleton- 
road. Deputy — C. E. Seaman. S. 
District: J. B. Chapman, 52, 
Florence-road. Deputy — W. A. 
Brumfield. 

Marriages. — J. B. Chapman, 
52, Florence-road, Deptford. 

HACKNEY. 

Superintendent — Tom Hosgood, 
The Old Town Hall, Hackney, N.E. 

Central Hackney. — E. L. 
Crane, 75, Lower Clapton-r^ad, 
N.E. Daily, 10 a.m. to 12 no< n, 
and Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, 
and Friday, 6 to 8 p.m. 

North Hackney. — A. Jones, 
8, Narford-road, Upper Clapton, 



224 



Registration of Births, Deaths, and Marriages. 



KE. Daily, 9 to 11 a.m., and 4 to 
7 p.m. ; Saturdays, 9 to 11 a.m. only. 

South-East Hackney.— W. E. 
Jeffray, 115, Victoria-park-road, 
South Hackney, KB. Daily, 10 
a.m. to 1 p.m., and 6 to 7 p.m.; 
Saturdays, 10 a.m. to 1 p.m. only. 

South- West Hackney. — G. 
Haynes, 65, Sandringham - road, 
Dalston, KB. Daily, 10 a.m. to 
1 p.m.; Monday, Tuesday, Wed- 
nesday, and Friday, 6 to 8 p.m. 

Stoke Newington. — H. K. 
Cone, 171, Church-street, K Daily, 8 
to 10 a.m. ; Mondays, Tuesdays, Wed- 
nesdays and Fridays, 6 to 8 p.m. 

Marriages.— A. Jones, 8, Nar- 
ford-road, Upper Clapton, KE. 
S. F. Snewin, §§, Amhurst-road, 
Hackney, KE. 

HAMPSTEAD. 

Superintendent — R. Bridger, 
Town Hall, Haverstock-hill, KE. 

Births and Deaths. — F. V. 
Bridger. Daily, 10 a.m. to 1 p,m., 
at Town Hall, Haverstock-hill ; also 
at 199, West End-lane, Kilburn, on 
Tuesdays and Fridays, 7 to 8 p.m. 

Marriages. — H. E. Bridger, 
Town Hall, Haverstock-hill. 

HOLBORN. 

Superintendent Registrar — A. W. 
Hill, the Registry Office, Clerken- 
well-road, E.C. Daily, 10 to 4, 
Saturdays 10 to 2. 

Holborn. — E. J. Comfort, 12, 
Harpur - street, Theobalds - road. 
Every day, 10 to 12 a.m. ; Mondays 
and Fridays, 6 to 8 p.m. 

North Clerkenwell. — F. 
Tupper, 49, Amwell-street, Myddel- 
ton-square. Daily, 9 to 11 a.m. ; 
Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, 
6 to 8 p.m. 

South Clerkenwell.— R.O.H. 

Griffith, 11, Upper Charles-street, 

Groswell-road. Every morning, 

9 to 11 a.m.; Mondays, Wednes- 

days, and Fridays, 6 to 8 p.m. 



Finsbury— F. M. Bilby, 312, 
City-road. Daily, 10 to 12; Tues- 
days and Fridays, 6 to 8 p.m. 

Marriages (Clerkenwell, 
Holborn, and St. Luke).— F. 
Tupper, 49, Amwell-street, Myddel- 
ton-square. Daily, 9 to 11 a.m. ; 
Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fri- 
days, 6 to 8 p.m. F. H. Shapcott, 
3, Ely-place. Daily, 10 a.m. to 4 
p.m. ; Saturdays, 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. 

ISLINGTON. 

Superintendent — Alex. S. Mc- 
Auliffe, Islington Register Office, 
Liverpool-road, N. Daily, 11 a.m. to 
4 p.m. ; Saturdays, 11 a.m. to 2 p.m. 

Upper Holloway.— A. J. Bodi- 
meade, 25, St. John's-villas, Upper 
Holloway, N. Mondays, Wednes- 
days, and Fridays, 3 to 6 pan. ; 
Tuesdays and Thursdays, 10 a.m. 
to 1 p.m., and Saturdays, 12 to 2. 
Tuesaays and Fridays, 7 to 9 p.m. 

Tufnell— Mrs. A. H. Trounce, 
6, Pemberton-gardens, Upper Hollo- 
way. Same as Upper Holloway. 

Tollington — Vacant, 5, Bir- 
nam-road, Tollington-park. Mon- 
day8,Wednesday s,and Fridays, from 
3 to 6 p.m. Tuesaays, Thursdays, and 
Saturdays, from 10 a.m. to 1 p.m. 
Tuesday and Friday evenings, 7 to 9. 

Lower Holloway.— Miss F. M. 
Townley, A Block, Morgan Man- 
sions, Palmer's-place, Holloway- 
road. Same as Tollington. 

Barnsbury. — F. Wilcox, 23, 
Richmond - crescent, Barnsbury. 
Daily, 3 to 6 p.m. ; Tuesdays and 
Fridays, 7 to 9 p.m. ; Saturdays, 12 
noon to 2 p.m. 

South-East Islington. — J. 
Lamb, 5, Islington-green, N. Daily, 
3 to 6. Tuesdays and Fridays, 8 to 
9 p.m.; Saturdays, 11 to 1. 

Highbury.— J. V. Perry, 48, 
Lucerne-rd., Highbury-park. Daily 
same as Tollington. 

Marriages.— C. Sharp, at the 
Islinsrton Register Office, Liverpool- 



Registration of Births, Deaths, and Marriages. 



225 



road (corner of Barnsbury-street), 
between the hours of 11 a.m. and 
4 p.m. daily ; or at 2, Holmewood, 
Anson-road, Tufnell-park, N., from 

7 to 10p.m. H. Tice, 754, Holloway- 
road, between the hours of 9 and 11 
a.m. (Saturdays from 7 to 10 p.m.), 
and at 5, Islington-green, from 5 to 
6 p.m. (except Saturdays). 

KENSINGTON. 

Superintendent — W. E. Stephens, 
Register Office, 28, Marloes-road. 
Deputy— F. W. Turner. 

Kensington Town. — C. R. 
Barnes (Births, Deaths, and Mar- 
riages). Deputy — E. W. Barnes, 
67, Church - street, Kensington. 
Mondays, 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. ; Tues- 
days, 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. ; Wednesdays, 

8 to 11 a.m. ; Thursdays, 8 a.m. to 
4 p.m. ; Fridays, 8 a.m. to 11 a.m. ; 
and Saturdays, 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. ; 
also at 128, Ladbroke-grove, North 
Kensington, opposite Notting-hill 
Station. Tuesdays, Thursdays, and 
Saturdays, from 5 to 8 p.m. 

Brompton.— A. J. Turner (Births 
and Deaths only), 23, Earl's-court- 
gardens. Mondays to Fridays. 12 
noon to 1.30 p.m. ; Mondays, Wed- 
nesdays, and Fridays, 6 to 8 p.m. ; 
Saturdays, 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. 
Deputy— W. H. Holland. 

Marriages. — 0. R. Barnes 
(Kensington Town and Brompton 
Districts). Deputy — E. W. Barnes. 

LAMBETH. 

Superintendent — E. D. L. Wilmot, 
Register Office, 220, Brixton-road. 
S.W. Office hours, 9.30 a.m. to 5 
p.m. ; Saturdays, 9.30 a.m. to 2 p.m. 
Deputy — J. J. Barwick, 236, Brix- 
ton-road, S.W. 

Waterloo Road.— W. Lake, 
40, Roupell-street,Cornwall-rd., S.E. 
Mondays, Tuesdays, Fridays, and 
Saturdays, 10 a.m. to 1 p.m. ; Wed- 
nesdays and Thursdays, 6 to 9 p.m. 



Lambeth Church.— P. W.Ayres, 
29, Lambeth - palace - road, S.E. 
Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, 

5 to 8 p.m. • Tuesdays, Thursdays, 
and Saturdays, 9 to 11 a.m. 

Kennington. — W. B. Smith, 
130, Kennington-road, S.E. (tem- 
porary) . M onday s, Tuesdays, Wed- 
nesdays, and Fridays, 6 to 9 p.m. ; 
Tuesdays and Fridays, 9 to 11 a.m. ; 
Saturdays, 1 to 2 p.m. 

Stockwell— W. H. Edwards, 
6, Guildford-road, South Lambeth, 
S.W. Mondays, Tuesdays, Wed- 
nesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, 

6 to 9 p.m.; Mondays, Tuesdays, 
Thursdays, and Saturdays, 9 to 
11 a.m. 

Brixton. — R. Greenwood, 46, 
Gresham-rd*. Brixton, S.W. Mon- 
days, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, 
Thursdays, and Fridays, 6 to 9 p.m. ; 
Mondays, Tuesdays, Thursdays, 
and Saturdays, 9 to 11 a.m. 

Norwood.— A. Thompson, Head 
Office, 100, High-street, West Nor- 
wood, S.E. Mondays, Tuesdays, 
Thursdays and Fridays, 2 to 4 p.m. ; 
Wednesdays and Saturdays, 6 to 
8 jD.m. Registration Station; 150, 
Brixton-hill,.S.W. Mondays, Tues- 
days, Thursdays, and Fridays, 6 to 

8 p.m. Wednesdays and Saturdays, 

9 to 11 a.m. 

LE WISH AM. 

Superintendent — H. C. Mott, 
Union Offices. 

M. J. Martin, 8a, Dartmouth- 
road, Forest-hill: Daily,9toll a.m.; 
Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, 
5 to 7 p.m. T. A. Belcham, 222, 
High-street, Lewisham. Daily, 10 to 
11 a.m. ; Mondays, Wednesdays, 
and Fridays, 5 to 7 p.m. T. A. 
Davies, next railway station, 
Lee. Daily, 10 a.m. to 12 noon; 
Tuesdays and Fridays, 6 to 8 p.m. 
J. R. S. Murphy, 7, Park-place, 
Eltham : Mondays and Fridays, 9 to 
11 a.m. ; Wednesdays, 5 to 7 p.m. 



226 



Registration of Births. Deaths, and Marriages. 



MARYLEBONE. 

Superintendent— H. T. Dudman, 
21, Marylebone-road. Deputy— A. J. 
Read. Daily, 10 a.m. to 4 p.m.; 
Saturdays, 10 a.ni. to 1 p.m. 

All Souls.— J. Claxton. At 
the Guardians' Offices, Northum- 
berland-street. Daily, 12 to 1 p.m., 
at 93, Hallam-street, Portland- 

flace ; Mondays, Wednesdays, and 
'ridays, 6 to 8 p.m. 

St. Mary.— T\ Epton HadwicV, 
Guardians' Offices, Northumber- 
land-street, W. Daily, 12 to 2 p.m.; 
and Monday, Wednesday, and 
Friday, 6 to 8 p.m. 

Christ Church.— F. Stokes, 49, 
Upper Baker -street, Marylebone- 
road. Mondays, 9 to 11 a.m., and 
2 to 4 p.m. ; Tuesdays and Thurs- 
days, 5 to 7 p.m. ; Wednesdays and 
Saturdays, 9 to 11 a.m.; Fridays, 
2 to 4 p.m. N.T. 2336 Pad. 

St. John. — T. R. Stanbra, 
16, Queen's-terrace, Finchley-road, 
St. Johns-wood, N.W. Tuesdays, 
Thursdays, and Saturdays, 9 to 11 
a.m.; Mondays, Wednesdays, and 
Fridays, 6 to 8 p.m. 

Marriages. — F. Stokes, 49, 
Upper Baker - street, Marylebone- 
roaa. 

MILE END. 

Superintendent — W. Thacker, 
Guardians' Offices, Bancroft-road. 

S.W. District. — Thomas A. 
Macve, 40, Mile End-road. Mon- 
days, 4 to 8; Tuesdays, 10 to 1; 
Wednesdays, 10 to 1 and 5 to 8; 
Thursdays, 10 to 1 ; Fridays, 4 to 8; 
Saturdays, 10 to 1. 

N.E. District.— Robert M. Ash- 
ton, Guardians' Offices, Bancroft- 
road. Mondays, 4 to 8 ; Tuesdays, 
10 to 1; Wednesdays, 5 to *8 ; 
Thursdays, 10 to 1 ; Fridays, 4 to 8 ; 
Saturdays, 10 to 1. 

Marriages.— W. Bartlett, 157, 
Commercial-road, E. 



PADDINGTON. 

Superintendent — H. F. Aveling, 
Register Office, 313-319, Harrow- 
road, W. Daily, 9.30 a.m.to 5 p.m. ; 
Saturdays, 9.30 a.m. to 1 p.m. 

St. Mary— W. Kirk, the Regis- 
ter Office, 313-319, Harrow -road, 
Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, 
Thursdays, and Fridays, 9.30 a.m. 
to 12 noon and 3 to 5 p.m. ; Satur- 
days, 9.30 a.m. to 12 noon; Tues- 
days and Fridays, 6 to 8 p.m. 

St. John. — M. B. Cranstone, 
35, Spring-street, Sussex-gardens. 
Mondays, Tuesdays, Thursdays, 
and Fridays, 8 to 10 a.m. and 1 to 
2 p.m. ; Fridays, 6 to 7 p.m. ; Satur- 
days, 8 to 10 a.m. 

North West.— A. F. Coombes, 
120, Ilbert-street, Queen's-park. 
Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, 
from 7 to 9 p.m.; Tuesdays and 
Thursdays, from 8 to 9.30 a.m. 

Marriages— W. Kirk, 313-819, 
Harrow-road, W. 

POPLAR. 

Stiperintendent Registrar — A . 
Sheffield, 114, Gough-street, Poplar. 
Daily, 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. ; Saturdays, 
10 a.m. to 1 p.m. 

Poplar. — A. Purdy, 205, East 
India Dock-road, Poplar. Mondays, 
Wednesdays, and Fridays, 6 to 9 
p.m. ; Tuesdays, Thursdays, and 
Saturdays, 3 to 6 p.m. 

Bromley. — F. Butler, 72, 
Bow - road, Bromley. Mondays, 
Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Fri- 
days, 3 to 7 p.m. ; Thursdays and 
Saturdays, 10 to 12. 

Bow.— H. Wilkins, Addington- 
road, Bow. Daily, 6 to 8 p.m. 

Marriages.— J. Bellsham, 164, 
Abbott - road, Bromley. Daily, 
6 to 8 p.m. 

8T. GEORGE, HANOVER SQUARE. 

Superintendent — T. Worlock, 
Register Office, St. George's (Han- 
over-square) Hall, Mount-street. 



Registration Of Birthe, Deathe^ and Marriages, 



227 



Maypair and Knightsbbidgb. 
H. T. Hamilton, St. George's 
(Hanover - square) Hall, Mount- 
street. Daily, 10 a.m. to 1 p.m., 
and at 3, Trevor-square, Knights- 
bridge, Mondays and Thursdays, 5 
to 8 p.m. 

Belgrave— Louis C. Mount- 
stephen, 174, Warwick-street,Ebury- 
bridge, S.W. Daily, 10 a.m. to 1 
p.m., and on Tuesdays and Fridays 
o p.m. to 8 p.m. 

St. Margaret and St. John. 
— C. 0. Elkerton, 4, Bessborough- 
street, S.W. Tuesdays, Thursdays, 
and Saturdays, 9 to 11 a.m. ; Mon- 
days, Wednesdays, and Fridays, 6 
to 8 p.m. 

Marriages.— H. T. Hamilton, St. 
George's (Hanover-square) Hall, 
Mount-street, W. ; H. G. Smith, 
45, Cambridge-street, S.W. ; W. H. 
Fielding, 43, Old Queen - street, 
Westminster, S.W. 

ST. GEORGE-IN-THE BAST. 

Superintendent — R. M. Lochner, 
Register Office, Raine-street, Old 
Gravel-lane. 

C. Barratt, 218, Cable-street, E. 

ST. GILES. 

Superintendent — J. Appleton, 
Guardians' Offices, 57, Broad-street, 
W.C. 

St. Giles and Bloomsbury. 
— S. Ashley, Guardians' Offices, 57, 
Broad-street, W.C. Daily, 11 a.m. 
to 1 p.m., and on Wednesdays from 
5 to 6 p.m. 

Marriages.— E. A. Newbery, 
Guardians' Offices, 57, Broad-street, 
W.C. 

ST. OLAVE, BERMONDSEY. 

Superintendent — E. Pitts Fenton, 
Union Offices, 283, Tooley-street, 
S.E. 

St. Olave— W. Clark. 6, Maze- 
pond-terrace, St. Thomas-street, 



Bermondsey.— C. H. Hurst, 25, 
Upper Grange-road, Bermondsey, 

Rotherhithe. — Francis H. 
Thomas, 84, Lower-road, Rother- 
hithe, S.E. 

ST. PANCRA8. 

Superintendent — Alfred A. Mill- 
ward, Town Hall, Pancras-road. 

North St. Pancras. — W. 
Wheatley, 48, Highgate - road, 
Kentish Town. 9 a.m. to 12 noon, 
and 6 p.m. to 8 p.m.; Thursdays 
and Saturdays, 9 a.m. to 12 noon 
only. 

East St. Pancras. — W. H. 
Culpin, 64, Camden-square. 9 a.m. 
to 12 noon, and 6 p.m. to 8 p.m. 
daily; Thursdays and Saturdays, 
9 a.m. to 12 noon only. 

West St. Pancras.— T. W. 
Parkin, 65, Gloucester - crescent, 
Regent's Park. 9 a.m. to 12 noon, 
and from 6 p.m. to 8 p.m. ; Thurs- 
days and Saturdays, 9 a.m. to 12 
noon only. 

South St. Pancras. — R. C. 
Cowie, 9, Gower - place, Gordon- 
street. 9 a.m. to 12 noon, and 
6 p.m. to 8 p.m.; Thursdays and 
Saturdays, 9 a.m. to 12 noon only. 

Marriages.— John E. Stevens, 
52, Highgate-road, Kentish Town. 
3 p.m. to 9 p.m., and at any other 
time when at home ; Edwin Stevens, 
9, Caversham road, any time when 
at home. 

SHOREDITCH. 

Superintendent — R. Clay, Re- 
gister Office, 213, Kingsland-road, 
JN.E. Deputy— B. Roberts. 

Shoreditch, South. — F. J. 
Lockyer, 2, Great Chart-st. Deputy 
— E. *W. Cranston. 

Shoreditch, North West — 
C. H. Waterer, 94, New North-road. 
Deputy — Miss Davis. 

Shoreditch, North East.— 
E. J. Sibley, 58, Queen's - road, 
Dalston. Deputy — Miss Sibley. 



228 



'Registration of Births, Deaths, and Marriages, 



Each of the above Registrars 
attends at his office as follows: — 
Daily from 10 a.m. to 1 p.m. ; Mon- 
days and Wednesdays from 6 to 
8 p.m. 

Marriages.— J. C. Clay, 213, 
Kingsland-road. Deputy — W. H. 
Williams. -Attendance as required. 
Notice of Marriage, where either or 
both the parties reside within the 
district, should be given to the 
Superintendent Registrar. 



Beckwith, 94, Newington Butts. 
T. H. Baker, 61, Lorrimore-road. 
Deputy — A. Waddell, 35, Lorri- 
more-road. 



SOUTH WAR K. 



c. 



Superintendent — Howard 
Jones, 85, Blackfriars-road. 

Christ Church and St. 
Saviour.— F. Drewett, 51, Borough 
High-street. Deputy — J. J. Mil- 
lington. Daily from 11 a.m. to 1 
p.m. ; Mondays, Wednesdays, and 
Fridays, 6 to 8 p.m. 

Kent Road.— J. C Mather, 216, 
New Kent-road. Deputy — Mrs. 
Mary Symmons. . Mondays, Wed- 
nesdays, Fridays, and Saturdays, 
10 a.m. to 12 noon; Tuesdays and 
Thursdays, 5 to 7 p.m. 

St. - George - the - Martyr, 
West.— Thomas Haynes, 39, West- 
square. Deputy — A. Attewill. 
Daily, from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m. ; and 
daily (except Saturdays), from 6 to 
8 p.m. 

Newington, North. — T. J. 
Washford, 06, Falmouth-road, New 
Kent-road. Deputy — J. S. Beck- 
with, 94, Newington Butts. Daily, 
from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m. ; and daily 
(except Saturdays), from 6 to 8 p.m. 

Newington, South. — T. H. 
Baker, 61, Lorrimore-road, Wal- 
worth-road. Deputy — Albert Wad- 
dell, 35, Lorrimore-road, Walworth. 
Daily from 10 a.m. to 1 p.m. ; and 
daily (except Saturdays), from 6 to 
8 p.m. 

Marriages.— T. J, Washford, 66, 
Falmouth-road. Deputy— -J., S. 



STEPNEY. 



Superintendent — T. G. , Stacey, 
Guardians' Offices, Barneys-street, 
Batcliff. 

Limehouse— J. S. Capes, 272, 
Burdett-road. 

Ratcliffe, Shadwell, and 
Wapping.— F. Grout, Guardians' 
Offices, Barnes-street. 

Marriages. — A. J. Smith, 
Guardians' Offices, Barnes-street. 

STRAND. 

Superintendent — A. if. Mad- 
docks, 15, Henrietta-street, W.C. 
Deputy— W. D. Parkhouse. 

Strand (including St. Mar- 
tin-in-the-Fields, St. Clement 
Danes, St. Mary-le-Strand, St. 
Paul, Covent Garden Liberty 
of the Kolls, and Precinct op 
the Savoy).— J. F. Pink, 1, Bed- 
fordbury, W.C. Deputy — John 
Benner. 

Marriages.— J. L. Goldspink, 
15, Henrietta-street, W.C. Deputy 
— T. Cradduck. 

WANDSWORTH. 

Superintendent — A. N. Hender- 
son, Barrister-at-Law, 47, Lavender- 
gardens, S.W. 

Deputy Superintendent Registrar 
W. A. de Jong, 47, Lavender- 
gardens, S.W. 

E. Battersea.— W. T. L. Bray, 
292, Queen's-road, Battersea : park, 
S.W. Mondays, Thursdays, and 
Fridays, 3 to 7 p.m. Tuesdays, 
Wednesdays, Fridays, and Satur- 
days, 10 a.m. to 1 p.m. 

N.-W. Battersea. — F. H. 
Baker, 56, Falcon-road, Battersea, 
S.W. Every week day (except 



Registration of Births, Deaths, and Marriages. 



229 



Thursdays) from 10 a.m. to 12 
noon. Thursdays, 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. 
Tuesday s,Wednesdays, and Fridays, 

5 to 8 p.m. 

S-W Battersea (and Mar- 
riages).-^, griffin, iun47,Lav- 
ender-gardens, Lavender-hill, b.W. 
Mondays, Wednesdays, and ±Yi- 
days, 2 to 4 p.m. ; Tuesdays, Thurs- 
days, and Saturdays, 10 a.m. to 12 
noon; and at 69, Bridge-road-west, 
Battersea. Tuesdays and Fridays, 
from 7 to 8 p.m. 

Clapham (and Marriages).-- 
W G Pinhorn, 115, Hiffh-street, 
Clapham. Mondays, Wednesdays, 
and Fridays, 5 to 7 p.m.; Tues- 
days and Thursdays, 9 to 11 a.m. 
and 3 to 5 p.m. Saturdays, 9 to 11 

Putney.— Mrs. A. Hudson, 54, 
Disraeli-road, Putney. Mondays, 
Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Satur- 
days, 10 a.m. to 12 noon. Tuesdays 
and Fridays, 6 to 8 p.m. f 

Marriages-F. Udall, Hipper 
Richmond-road, Putney. Daily, 10 
to 11 a.m. ^ r 

Streatham (and Marriages). 
— C. T. Smith, 45, Mitcham-lane, 
Streatham : Daily, 9 to 11 a.m. ; 
Tuesdays and Thursdays, 6 to 8 
pm.; and at 338, Balham High- 
road, S.W. Mondays, Wednesdays, 
and Fridays, 5 to 8 p.m. ; and Tues- 
days and Thursdays, 2 to 5 p.m. 

Wandsworth, Springfield, 
(Marriages). — P. Howick, 9, 
Westbourne - ten-ace, Garratt - Jane, 
Earlsfield. Wednesdays and Fri- 
days, 3 to 5 p.m. ; Mondays, 6 to 8 
p.m.; and at 198, Trinity-road, 
Wandsworth. Tuesdays and Satur- 
days, 10 a.m. to 12 noon ; Thursdays, 

6 to 8 p.m. 

Wandsworth (Southfields). 
t-W. Y. Minter, 138, High-street, 
Wandsworth. Mondays, Wednes- 
days, Thursdays, and Saturdays, 
from 10 a.m. to 12 noon; Tuesdays 
and Fridays, from 6 p.m. to 8 p.m. 



WESTMINSTER. 

Superintendent — W. Lee, 49 
Poland-street, W. Deputy— W G 
Collard. 

St. James and St. Anne Sub- 
District.— Dr. Percy J. Edmunds, 
5, Great Marlborough-street. De- 
puty— F. M. Matheson. 

Marriages.— Joseph P. Bond, 
49, Poland-street, W. Deputy— 
E. A. H. Jenkins, 49, Poland- 
street, W. 

WH1TECHAPEL. 

Superintendent- -F. J. Tootell, 
Register-office, 74, Vallance-road, 
N.E. 

Spitalfields— A. F- Brady, 
18, Steward-street, E. Daily, 9 to 
10 a.m. and (except Wednesdays 
and Saturdays) 5 to 7 p.m. 

Mile End New Town.— J. E. 
Brown, 150, Whitechapel-road, E. 
Daily, 10 to 12 a.m.; Mondays, 
Wednesdays, and Fridays, 5 to 
7 p.m. 

Goodman's Fields. — W. F. 
Grace, 1, Leman-street, E. Tues- 
days, Thursdays, and Saturdays, 
10 to 12 a.m.; Mondays, Wednes- 
days, and Fridays, 5 to 7 p.m. 

Marriages.— W. F. Grace, 1, 
Leman-street, E. ; E. Bacon, Repis- 
ter-office, 74, Vallance-road, N.E. 

WOOLWICH. 

Superintendent- -T. Cutter, Bar- 
rister-at-Law, 30, Rectory^lace. 
Deputy— J. W. Court, 61, Heath- 
wood-gardens, Charlton. 

Charlton (including Kid- 
brooke).— J. Wilson, 121, Church- 
lane. Deputy— Miss Wilson. Tues- 
days, Wednesdays, and Thursdays, 
8.30 to 10.30 a.m.; Mondays and 
Fridays, 6 to 8 p;m. 

Woolwich. — D. Stewart, 68, 
Brewer-street, Woolwich. Deputy 
—J. B. Hanson. Daily, 9 to 11 



230 



District Surveyors. 



a.m., and Mondays, Wednesdays, 
and Fridays, 6 to 8 p.m.; Tues- 
days and Thursdays, 2 to 4 p.m. 

East Plumstead.— W. T. Vin- 
cent, 189, Burrage-road. Deputy — 
Mrs. Vincent. At Burrage-road 
(daily), 8.30 to 9.30 a.m. ; Tuesdays, 
5 to 6.30 p.m. At Dispensary, 47, 
Parkdale-road, Mondays, 10 a.m. to 
12 noon ; Thursdays, 5.30 to 7.30 p.m. 



West Plumstead.— Miss Isabel 
Anderson, 44, Bloomfield-road, 
Plumstead. Deputy, E. W. Carter. 
Mondays and Fridays, 6 to 8 p.m. ; 
Tuesdays and Thursdays, 10 a.m. 
to 12 noon. 

Marriages. — C. H. L. James, 
Register Office, Rectory - place. 
Deputy — Edwin Kirkby, 24, Vic* 
toria-road, Charlton. 



DISTRICT SURVEYORS UNDER THE LONDON BUILDING 

ACT, 1894. 

The district surveyors administer the London Building Acts (1894 to 
1905), under the County Council. They are the officials to whom notice 
should be given and plans submitted of all building operations or altera- 
tions to buildings, and they are paid by fees. Office hours, from 10 to 4, 
except when otherwise stated. During 1906 the boundaries of some of 
the district surveyor's districts have been readjusted. 



Battersea. — Central : W. J. Hard- 
castle, 73, Marney-road. South, and 
part of Wandsworth : H. Cheston, 
35, Belleville-road, Wandsworth- 
common. North : See " Lambeth." 

Bermondsey.—V. J. Grose, 13, 
Railway-approach, London-bridge. 

Bethnal Green, East, and South 
• Bow— E. Street, 109, Bow-road. 
West: R. P. Notley, 11, Paradise- 
row, Bethnal Green-road. 

Bromley St. Leonard. — E. Street 
(Interim D.S.), 109, Bow-road, E. 

Camberwell.—E. Marsland, 244, 
Camberwell-road, 9.30 to 5. 
^ Gatford. — R. D. Hansom, 39, 
Culverley-road, Catford, S.E., 9.30 
to 5. 

Charlton, Kidbrooke, and Lee. — 
f • A. Fillary (Interim D.S.), 5, 
-^ee-road. 

Chelsea.— T. fi. Mundy, 6, Lincoln- 
street, King's-road, 9.30 to 5. 

rrQJty °f London.— East : 0. C. 
-^Us (Interim D.S.), Hamilton 



House, 139. Bishopsgate - street 
Without, E.C. South : E. Power, 97, 
Queen Victoria-street, 10.30 to 3.45. 
West: E. R.Hewitt (Interim D.S.), 
22, Bride-lane, Fleet-street, E.C. 

Clapham. — W. Grellier, 188, 
High-street, Clapham. 

Deptford. — East and Greenwich : 
B. Tabberer, Lecture Hall, Royal- 
hill, Greenwich. 

Finsbury— E. Carritt, 20, Wil* 
mington-square, Clerkenwell. 

Fulham— North : F. W. Hamil- 
ton, Broadway House, Walham- 
feen, 9.30 to 5. South: J. A. G. 
night, Broadway House, Walham- 
green, 9.30 to 5. 

Hackney.— North -East : O. C. 
Hills, 360, Mare-street, 9.30 to 5. 
South-East and North Bow : A. 
Payne, 10, St. Thomas'-square. 
West : W. G. Perkins, 360, Mare- 
street, 9.30 to 5. 

Hammersmith. — W. H. Stevens 
(Interim D.S.), 3, The Grove, 9.30 
to 5. 



District Surveyors. 



231 



Hampstead. — F. Hammond, 150, 
Finchley-road, 9.30 to 5. 

Holborn.—W. H. Lees, 35, Meck- 
lenburgh-square, W.C., 9 to 5. 

Islington. — North and St. Pan- 
eras North: J. Goodchild, Bank 
Chambers, Parkhurst-road, Hollo- 
way, 9.30 to 5. South and Shore- 
ditch : H. Lovegrove, 169, Shoreditch 
High-street, 9.30 to 5. 

Kensington — S. F. Clarkson, 17a, 
Vicarage-gate, Kensington. 

Lambeth. — Central and Norih 
Battersea : C. T. Coggin, 69, Ken- 
nington Oval, 9.30 to 5. South : 
P. Hunter, 53, Clapham-road, S.W., 
9.30 to 5. 

Lewisham — East: E. W. Lees 
(Interim D.S.), 3, Lewisham-bridge. 

Lewisliam — West: A. P. Stokes 
(Interim D.S.), 301a, Brockley- 
road, S.B.' 

Limehouse, Wapping, St. Kath- 
arine and Ratciiff. — G. Tollev 
(Interim D.S.), 586, Commercial- 
road East, E. 

Mile End Old Town. — H. JL 
Legge (Interim D.S.), 13, Grafton- 
streefc. 

Newington and part of St. George, 
Southwark — B. J. Dicksee, 14 & 16, 
New Kent-road, 9.30 to 5. 

Norwood : West — A . H. W. Gla*son 
29, Wolfington-road, Knight's-hill- 
road, S.E., 9.30 to 5. 

Paddington. — A. Ashbridge 
(Interim D.S.), 17, York-place, 
Portman-square. 

Plumstead and Eltham. — T. Bat- 
terbury, 97, Griffin-road, Plumstead, 
and Park House, Court -road, 
Eltham. 

Poplar. All Saints. — J. Clarkson, 
136, High-street, Poplar. 

Putney and Roehampton. — T. W. 
Willis, 9> Hotham-road, Putney, 
9 to 5. 

Rotherhithe, Hatcham, and St. 
George-in-the-East—A. W. Tanner, 



114, Lower-road, Rotherhithe, and 
334, Commercial-road East, 9.30 to 5. 

St. George, Hanover Square. — 
North : T. H. Watson, 9, Conduit- 
street, 9 to 5. Belgrave and Pimlico : 
T.E. Mundes (Interim D.S.), 83a, 
Chester-square, 10 to 5. 

St. James, Westminster. — H. N. 
Kerr (Interim D.S.), 13a, Great 
Marlborough- street. 

St. Margaret, St. John, and St. 
Peter, Westminster. — E. D. Drury, 
25, Queen Anne's-gate, 10 to 5. 

St. Marylebone. — A. Ashbridge, 
17, York-place, Portman-square, 
W., 9.30 to 5. 

St. Pancras. — South : F, Wallen, 
96. Gower-street, 10 to 5. 

St. Saviour 8. part of St. George, 
and Christ Cmwch, Southwark, 
and North Lambeth. — E. R. Hewitt, 
182, Blackfriars-road. 

Stoke Newington. — J. D.Mathews, 
171, Church-street. 

Strand. — A. B. Hay ward (In- 
terim D. S.), 50, Great Russell-street, 
9.30 to 5. 

Streatham — East, and Tulse 
Hill— J. S. Quilter, 71, Christ- 
church-road, Tulse-hill. West : 3, 
Bank Buildings, Station - road, 
Balham. 

Sydenham. — S. F. Monier- Wil- 
liams, 4, Dartmouth-road, Forest- 
hill, 9.30 to 5. 

Wandsworth — East and Tooting 
Graveney—Gr. Aitchison, r.a., 125, 
Trinity-road, Upper Tooting. West : 
L. R. Ford, Bank Chambers, High- 
street, Wandsworth, 9.30 to 5. 

Whitechapel, Spitalfields, Mile 
End New Town, and Toiver IAberty. 
— A. Crow, Hamilton House, 149, 
Bishopsgate-street Without, E.C., 
9.30 to 5. 

Woolwich. — A. Conder, 21, Wil- 
liam-street* 



232 Advertisement. 



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SPECIAL ATTENTION GIVEN TO 
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As an Advertising Medium it has 
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The DAILY 
CHRONICLE 

ONE HALFPENNY. 



local (gobmtmgr authorities* 



METROPOLITAN BOROUGH COUNCILS. 

The London Government Act, 1899, which came into operation on 9th 
November, 1900, abolished the vestries and district boards, and provided 
for the division of the Administrative County of London (exclusive of the 
City of London) into 28 metropolitan boroughs, and for the incorporation 
of councils for such boroughs, each to consist of a mayor and not more 
than 10 aldermen and 60 councillors. As the result of the alterations 
made under the Act in the county boundary the area of the County of 
London was reduced by 619 acres. 

The borough councils have had transferred to them all the powers, 
duties, property, and liabilities (othtr than those relating to the affairs of 
the Church) of the old local authorities ; the powers of the London County 
Council under Sections 84, 134, and 199 of the London Building Act, 1894, 
relating to the licensing of wooden structures, the removal of sky signs, 
and obstructions in streets respectively ; the power under Section 28 of the 
Public Health Act, 1891, of registering dairymen; the maintenance of 
roads which at the passing of the Act were main roads ; the maintenance, 
if required by the County Council, of roadways and footways of bridges 
embankments, etc., and the enforcement of bye-laws and regulations with 
respect to dairies and milk-shops, slaughterhouses, knackers' yards, and 
offensive businesses. 

The borough councils have, concurrently with the London County 
Council, powers under Sections 170 and 197 of the London Building Act, 
1894, relating respectively to the demolition of buildings erected in con- 
travention of the Act, and the taking of proceedings in respect of the 
illegal stacking of timber; under Sections 17 to 25 of the Metropolis 
Water Act, 1871, with respect to the regulations of water companies ; 
under Section 7 of the Railway and Canal Traffic Act, 1888, to make com- 
plaints or appear in opposition to complaints before the Railway and 
Canal Commissioners ; under Section 65 of the Local Government Act, 
1888, relating to the acquisition of land ; under Part III. of the Housing 
of the Working Classes Act, 1890 ; and under Section 23 of the Municipal 
Corporations Act, 1882, as applied by Sec. 16 of the Local Government 
Act, 1888, to make bye-laws for the good rule and government of the 
borough. 

Further powers may be transferred from the London County Council to 
the borough councils, or vice-versa, by Provisional Order of the Local 



234 Borough Councils. 



Government Board, on the application of the London County Council and 
of the majority; of the borough councils. The Local Government Board 
may also, on joint application by the London County Council and the 
Corporation of the City of London, make a Provisional Order transferring 1 
any power from the London County Council to the Common Council, or 
from the Common Council to the London County Council. 

The sanction of the London County Council under Section 84 of the 
Metropolis Management Amendment Act, 1862, is not necessary before 
the closing or stopping up of streets by borough councils ; and the 
borough councils are given a right of appeal to the Local Government 
BoarcT in the event of the refusal of the London County Council to 
sanction loans, against the conditions of such sanction, or if tne loan is not 
sanctioned within six months after application has been made. 

Subject to the consent of the Local Government Board, the borough 
councils may alienate land vested in them, other than any recreation 
ground or open space dedicated to the use of the public or land held on 
trusts which prohibit building thereon. 

The borough councils are the authorities for adopting and administering 
the Adoptive Acts, i.e., the Baths and Washhouses Acts, 1846 to 1896 ; 
the Burial Acts, 1852 to 1885 ; and the Public Libraries Acts, 1892 and 
1893 ; and have the same powers of promoting and opposing Bills in Par- 
liament, and of prosecuting or defending any legal proceedings necessary 
for the promotion or protection of the interests of the inhabitants of their 
boroughs, as are conferred on borough councils outside London by the 
Borough Funds Act, 1872. 

The council of each borough is the overseer of every parish within 
its borough, and the town clerk has the powers, duties, and liabilities 
of overseer with respect to the preparation of the lists, of voters and of 
jury lists, and is the town clerk within the meaning of the Acts relating 
to the registration of electors. 

Under the Act great changes have been made in the system of London 
rating. As from 1st April, 1901, the sepaiate sewers and lighting rates 
have Deen discontinued, and all the expenses of the borough councils paid 
out of one rate, termed the general rate. Where a borough comprises 
more than one parish, the amount to be raised to meet the expenses of the 
borough council, or other sums payable as part of those expenses, is, 
subject to any provision required for the adjustment of local burdens, 
divided between the parishes in proportion to their rateable value. Where 
any of the adoptive Acts or any local or other Act does not extend to the 
whole borough, any rate required to meet the expenses of such Act is 
raised as an additional item of the general rate over the area to which the 
Act extends. As between landlord and tenant, every tenant who, if the 
Act had not been passed, would have been entitled to deduct against or to 
be repaid by his landlord any sum paid by the tenant on account of the 
sewers rate, is in like manner entitled to deduct against or to be repaid by 
his landlord such portion of the general rate as represents the sewers rate. 
All rates collected in a metropolitan borough by the borough council are, 
as far as is practicable, to be levied upon one demand note, which is to be 
in a form approved by the Local Government Board, and to contain 
certain particulars prescribed by the Act. Where the whole of a poor-law 
union is within one borough, the Assessment Committee is appointed by the 
borough couucil instead of by the board of guardians, and, where the 



Borough Councils. 235 



borough comprises the whole of two or more unions, the borough council 
appoints only one Assessment Committee for those unions. 

Every borough council must appoint a Finance Committee for regulating 
and controlling its finances, and no order for payment of any sum may be 
made by a borough council except in pursuance of a resolution of the 
council passed on the recommendation of its Finance Committee ; and any 
costs, debt, or liability exceeding fifty rounds may not be incurred except 
upon a resolution of the council passed on an estimate submitted by the 
Finance Committee. The accounts of the borough councils are made up 
annually to 31st March, and are audited by the Local Government Boara 
in the same way as the accounts of the London County Council. 



ELECTION RESULTS. 

Elections for the Borough Councils take place triennially — an arrange- 
ment that was made upon the almost unanimous request of the Borough 
Councils. The results at the three elections— 1900, 1903, and 1906— have 
been as follows : — 





r 


-1900. 


IndT^ 


( 


-1008. 


Ind. ' 


t 


-1906. 


Ind. 


Name of Borough. 


Progs. 


Mods. 


ALab. 


Progs. 


Mods. 


&Lab. 


Progs. 


Mods. 


ALat 


Battersea ... 


.. 37 .. 


. 17 .. 


— 


... 38 


... 16 . 


.. — .. 


. 29 . 


.. 25 


.. — 


Bermondsey 


.. 25 .. 


. 27 .. 


2 


... 24 


... 28 . 


.. 2 . 


. 23 . 


.. 31 


.. — 


Bethnal Green 


.. 22 .. 


. 8 .. 


— 


... 27 


... 3 . 


.. — . 


. 30 . 


.. — 


.. — 


Camberwell 


.. 33 .. 


. 23 .. 


4 


... 45 


... 9 . 


.. 6 . 


. 10 . 


.. 36 


.. 15 


Chelsea 


.. 15 .. 


. 21 .. 


, — 


... 15 


... 21 . 


.. — . 


. 2 . 


.. 34 


.. — 


Deptford ... 


.. 16 .. 


. 20 .. 


— 


... 18 


... 17 . 


.. 1 . 


1 . 


.. 23 


.. 12 


Finsbury ... 


.. 13 .. 


. 15 .. 


26 


... 32 


... 19 . 


.. 3 . 


. 16 . 


.. 32 


.. 6 


Fulham 


.. 21 .. 


. 14 .. 


1 


... 18 


... 16 . 


.. 2 . 


. — . 


.. 36 


., — 


Greenwich... 


.. 12 .. 


. 18 .. 


. — 


... 14 


... 14 . 


.. 2 . 


. 9 . 


.. 2) 


.. 1 


Hackney ... 


.. 22 . 


. 37 .. 


2 


... 49 


... 11 . 


.. — . 


.' 22 


.. 23 


.. 15 


Hammersmith 


.. 8 .. 


. 26 .. 


2 


... 9 


... 23 . 


.. 4 . 


, — . 


.. 15 


.. 21 


Hampstead... 


. 13 .. 


. 23 .. 


6 


... — 


... — . 


.. 42 . 


. 13 . 


.. 29 


,. _ 


Holborn 


.. 3 .. 


. 39 .. 


— 


... 4 


... 37 . 


.. 1 . 


4 . 


.. 35 


... 3 


Islington ... 


.. 10 . 


. 48 .. 


2 


... 34 


... 26 . 


.. — . 


. — 


.. 59 


... 1 


Kensington... 


.. 10 .. 


. 49 .. 


1 


... 15 


... 45 . 


.. — . 


. 5 


.. 48 


... 7 


Lambeth ... 


.. 25 .. 


. 35 .. 


. — 


... 26 


... 34 . 


.. — . 


. 4 


.. 55 


.. 1 


Lewisham ... 


.. 7 .. 


. 35 .. 


. — 


... 34 


... 6 . 


.. 2 . 


. — 


.. 42 


.. — 


Paddington... 


.. 10 .. 


. 43 .. 


. 7 


... 24 


... 36 . 


.. — . 


. 8 


.. 49 


... 3 


Poplar 


.. 20 .. 


. 21 .. 


1 


... 18 


... 15 . 


.. 9 . 


. 9 


.. 23 


... 10 


St. Marylebone 


.. 13 .. 


. 47 .. 


. — 


... 23 


... 37 . 


.. — . 


. 6 


.. 53 


... 1 


St. Pancras ... 


.. 21 .. 


. 39 .. 


— 


... 40 


... 20 . 


.. — . 


. 12 


.. 48 


... — 


Shoreditch ... 


.. 28 .. 


. 13 .. 


1 


... 16 


... 26 


.. — . 


.. 12 


.. 30 


... — 


South wark ... 


.. 44 .. 


. 15 .. 


1 


... 39 


... 21 . 


.. — . 


. 27 


.. 32 


... 1 


Stepney 


.. 25 .. 


. 31 .. 


4 


... 23 


... 21 


.. 16 . 


. 14 


.. 42 


... 4 


•Stoke Newington . 


.. — .. 


. — .. 


30 


... — 


... — 


.. 30 . 


.. — 


.. — 


... 30 


Wandsworth 


.. 2 .. 


. 57 .. 


1 


... 18 


... 42 


.. — . 


. — 


.. 58 


... 2 


Westminster 


.. 8 .. 


. 49 .. 


3 


... 17 


... 43 


.. — . 


1 


.. 56 


... 3 


Woolwich ... 


.. 10 .. 


. 24 .. 


2 


... — 


... 8 


.. 28 . 


.. 13 


.. 22 


... 1 



* Not fought on the usual party lines. 



236 



Borough Councils. 



BATTERSEA. 

Town Hall: Battersea, S.W. 



(Meetings : Second and 



The borough of Battersea practi- 
cally comprises the area of the parish 
of Battersea. For Poor Law pur- 
poses Battersea forms part of 
the Wandsworth Union; for 
electoral purposes it forms part 
of the Parliamentary borough of 
Battersea and Clapham— namely, 
the whole of the Battersea division 
and part of the Clapham division. 
It contains an area of about three 
and a-half square miles. It 
was not until 1845, when it had a 
population of 7,500, that Battersea 
obtained a local Act for elementary 
local government administration. 
In 1855,with a population of 140,000, 
it was only of sufficient importance 
to be added to five other parishes 
to form the Wandsworth District ; 
but after 1861 its progress was rapid. 
From a population of less than 
20,000 in 1861 it grew to 54,016 
in 1871, 107,262 in 1881, 150,558 
in 1891, 165,115 in 1896, and 
168,907 in 1901. The estimated 
population for 1907 is 181,736. 
In 1888 it obtained local govern- 
ment independence, and has con- 
sistently taken advantage of 
every provision for local efficiency. 
The council has now under its 
own control baths, cemeteries, and 
libraries, as well as electricity 
supply, and the Municipal Build- 
ings on Lavender-hill are among 
•the finest in London. 

The borough is very fullv deve- 
loped: on the area available for 
building it contains 85 persons 
to the acre, thus leaving but a 
small margin for an increased 
population in healthy conditions. 
There is in the borough a rather 
large proportion of small houses, 
and tenements of three or four 



fourth Wednesdays in the month, except 
August, at 7 p.m.) 

rooms form 37i per cent, of all the 
tenements in the borough. This is 
not accompanied by a large pro- 
portion of overcrowding; the pro- 
portion of overcrowding in Battersea 
being only 14± per cent., as compared 
with 19* per cent, for London at 
large and 10 per cent, in the East 
End. 

In open spaces Battersea is 
fortunate in having Battersea Park 
and large parts of Clapham Com- 
mon and Wandsworth Common, be- 
sides small public gardens contain- 
ing in all some 400 acres, or one-fifth 
of the area of the whole borough. 

It is not surprising, then, to find 
that the borough is healthy. The 
death rate in 1906 was 13*3 per 
1,000 persons living, as compared 
with a death rate for all Loudon 
of 147. 

The Council has erected a mor- 
tuary and coroner's court, disinfect- 
ing stat on, and established the 
fir vt metropolitan municipal milk 
depot. The number of children 
fed on the milk during 1906 was 
617. 

The rateable value of the 
borough is £1,046,695. 

The borough council consists of 
9 aldermen and 54 councillors. The 
borough is divided into 9 wards. 



Baths and Wash-Houses. 

(Latchmere-road.) 

Last year the number of bathers 
was 239,6i9. Charges: Private 
baths : warm, 6d. and 2d. ; cold, 
3d. and Id.; swimming baths, Id., 2d., 
3d., and 6d. Charges for swimming 
bath during winter season : Adults, 
3d.; children, Id. The baths are 



Borough Councils. 



237 



open in summer from 6 a.m. to 
9.30 p.m. (Sundays from 6 a.m. to 
9.30 a.m.), and in winter as under : 
Sundays, from 8 a.m. to 9.30 a.m. ; 
Monday to Thursday, from 12 noon 
to 8.45 p.m.; Friday and Saturday, 
9 a.m. to 8.45 p.m. The first-class 
bath is fitted up and used as a 
gymnasium during the winter 
months. The gymnasium is open 
daily (Sundays excepted), for males 
only, from 12 noon to 10 p.m. In- 
struction is free, and the terms of 
admission are : 2d. adults, Id. boys ; 
weekly tickets, Sd. and 4d., including 
use of shoes. The second-class swim- 
ming bath is fitted up and used 
as a recreation-room during the 
winter months. The times of open- 
ing are as follows: — Monday to 
Friday, 6 to 10 p.m. ; Saturday, 2 
to 10 p.m. The charges for admis- 
sion are: Id., and 4>d. for weekly 
ticket. Use of billiard tables : two 
persons, 20 minutes, 2d. ; four per- 
sons, 40 minutes, 4d. Bagatelle, 
chess, draughts, and other games 
are also provided. 

(Nine Elms.) 
Number of bathers and washers 
for the year, 125,822. Charges : 
Private baths, warm, 4d. and 2d ; 
cold, 2d. and Id. ; swimming bath 
(males only), 3d. and 2d. adults, \d. 
boys. The baths are open in sum- 
mer from 6 a.m. to 9.30 p.m. (Sun- 
days, 6 a.m. to 9.30 a.m.). Private 
baths only during winter: Sun- 
days, 8 a.m. to. 9.30 a.m. ; Monday 
to Thursday, 12 noon to 8.45 p.m. ; 
Fridays and Saturdays, 9 a.m. to 
8.45 p.m. The swimming bath is 
fitted up as a hall during the winter, 
and is available for meetings, &c. 
The wash-houses are open on week- 
days from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. Charge$ 
lid. per hour* including use of all 
plant, &c. 

(Plough-road.) 
Attached to the Plough-road 
Museum and Eecreation Booms, 



opened in September, 1906, are 
private baths for men and women. 
There are four first class baths for 
men and four for women; seven 
second class for men and five for 
women. Charges : First class, 4d. 
warm, 2d. cold; second class, 2d. warm 
and Id. cold. The men's baths are 
open in the summer from 8 a.m. to 
9.30 p.m. on weekdays, and 7 a.m. 
to 9.30 a.m. on Sundays. In the 
winter the Sunday time for opening 
is 8*30 a.m. The women's baths 
are open daily, Sundays excepted, 
from 8 a.m. to 9.30 p.m. throughout 
the year. 

Free Public Libraries. 

Established 1887. The number 
of books issued last year was 
408,572; number in stock is 54,300. 
Central library : Lavender-hill, 
S.W. Branch libraries : Lurline- 
gardens, and Lammas Hall, Bridge- 
road West. The libraries are 
open from 8 a.m. to 10 p.m., and on 
Sundays from 3 p.m. to 9 p.m. The 
lending library is open until 9 
p.m., excepting Thursdays, when it 
is open until 1 p.m. There is a 
reading room for children at each 
library. The free library system 
in the borough is to be consider- 
ably extended, as Mr. Carnegie 
has offered to provide three addi- 
tional branch establishments. 

Librarian— Lawrence Inkster. 

Social Institute. 

In the autumn of 1906 a composite 
institution of a social character 
was opened in the Plough-road. It 
consists of a museum, gymnasium, 
recreation room, and children's 
reading room. At the back of the 
block are the private baths already 
referred to. The museum is open 
on week days from 12.30 to 9 p.m., 
and on Sundays from 3 to 9 p.m. 
Admission is free. The gymnasium 
is open daily from 1.150 to 4.30 p.m., 
and 5 to 10 p.m. The charges for 

I 



238 



Borough Councils. 



admission are : for adults, 2d. ; boys 
between 14 and 16, Id. Boys under 
14 are not admitted. The recreation 
room is open daily as a reading 
room from 8 a.m. to 1 p.m., free of 
charge. From 1 to 10 p.m. a charge 
of la. is made for admission, and 
between these hours billiards may 
be played, the charges for the use 
of tne tables being 2d. for two per- 
sons for twenty minutes, and 4d. 
for four persons for forty minutes. 
Boys under 16 years of age are not 
admitted. The children s readinjg 
room, to which admission is free, is 
open from Monday to Friday in- 
clusive from 12.30 to 1.30 p.m., and 
5 to 9 p.m.; on Saturdays and 
school holidays from 10 a.m. to 
9 p.ml ; and on Sundays from 3 to 
9 p.m. 

Electric Light. 
The borough has electric lighting 
works. (See Electric Light section.) 
Works Department. 
The council's Works Depart- 
ment, which has been in existence 
nine years, still continues to 
work successfully. The workshops 
are situated in the Battersea-park- 
road, and are equipped with all 
modern machinery for executing 

earpenters', joiners', wheelwrights, 

smiths', and other work. During 
the past year a number of large 
works have been carried out and 
completed. 

Housing. 
The council has adopted the 
Housing of the ^forking Classes 
Acts, and has carried out a scheme. 
(See Housing of the Working 
Classes section.) 

Officers. 
Town Cleric — W. Marcus Wilkins. 
Assistant Town Clerk — Edwin 
Austin, Barrister-at-Law. 
Accountant— W. H. Ward, A.S.A.A. 
Borough Surveyor — T. W. A. 



Borough surveyor — 
Bayward, A.M.I.C.E., &c. 



Solicitor — Paul Caudwell, B.A., 
109, St. John's-hill, S.W. 

Medical Officer of Health — 
Gr. Q. Lennane, F.R.C.S., &c. 

Public Analyst — C. E. Cassal, 
F.I.C. 

Electrical Engineer — F. A. Bond. 

Chief Sanitary Inspector — I. 
Young. 

Sanitary Inspectors — H„ Mar- 
rable, A. E. Purnell, A. Odell, J. 
Herrin, J. Lawrence, H. H. May, 
J. T. Baxter, W. E. Benjamin, J. J. 
Burgess, and Miss E. Dawson. 

Foods and Drugs Inspector. — A. 
Chuter. 

Bate - Collecting Clerks — District 
1: H. G. Brockmg. District 2: 
W. J. Mayes. District 3: F. E. 
Lawrence. District 4 : A. B. Cole. 
District 5 : F. A. G. Pratt. District 6 : 
W. T. Franks. District 7: A. J. 
Woodruff. District 8: F. Cathie. 
Office: Town Hall, Battersea, S.W. 
Times of Attendance: Monday, 
Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, 
10 a.m. till 12 noon, and 2 to 4 p.m. ; 
Friday, 10 a.m. to 12 noon, 2 to 4 p.m., 
and 5 to 8 p.m. ; Saturday, 10 a.m. 
to 12 noon. 

Mayor. 
Councillor J. H. Brown, j.p. 

Aldermen. 
tEvans, W. A., 157, Broomwood-road. 
♦Joselin, J. E., 81, Bennerley-road. 
tMelyille, W., 45, Latchmere-grove. 
♦Simmons, T. W., 16, Wroughton-road. 
♦Simonds, W. N., 92, Warrjner-gardens. 
♦Waterland, T. C, 4, Brussels-road. 
tWatte, W., 45, Kyrle-road. 
t West, W. J., 112, Lavender-hill. 
♦Worthy, F. W., 170, Battersea-park-road 
* Retire in 1909. tRetire in 1912. 

Councillors. 
Abel, R. 55, Darien-road. 
Adams, W. A., 52, Kyrle-road. 
Allnutt, J., 16, Binfleld Road, Clapham. 
Andrews, W. A., 24, Matthew's-street. 
Archer, J. R., 55, Brynmaer-road. 
Baker, S„ 10, Foxmore-street. 
Bell, H. 0..3, Highfleld, 42, Northside, 
Wandsworth-common, 



Borough Councils. 



23d 



Benn, A. S„ 18, Bol ton-gardens, South 

Kensington. 
Bigden, H. C„ 229, St. John's-hill. 
Brogan, T. P., 102, York-road. 
Brolly, P., 71, Silverthorne-road 
Brown, J. H., j.p., 110, Castle-street. 
Cassidy, J. J., 9, Albert-bridge-road. 
Chown, J. C, 24, Home-road. 
Clarke, W. P., 5, Chivalry-roid. 
Clist, A., 41, Reform-street. 
Cornwall, H. V„ 27. Norfolk-mansions. 
Crowe, W.. 112, Tyneham-road. 
Dairies, W,. J. p.. i,.c.c\. 18. Mc tundra- 

avemie. 
Dibdin, J. G. T 14, Matthew* -strut) t. 
Emery, A., 11 Qrbel-strtfet, 
(Jriffln, H..54, Hi^h street, 
Haythomthwaite, P, P ti 79, Clapham- 

comiuou, M u*t Shle. 
Hoyh\ W lt 145, Lavender- hi 11. 
Hurley, J. , 8B, Bridie-road -west. 
Jetfery, .f. B.. 13, Albert Bridge roirt. 
Keen, A. L„ 96, Kyde-ruAd. 
Kettley, G. 1\, 131, Tiiybridge-nvrd. 
Lam?, J, F., 42, Lous hedge-street, 
Ligatfo^ R. 8p, 78, Bcdes-toad, 



MeMauus, Pr, L. B., 25, Spencfr-iwrk. 
Mricrory, Dr. L, (i, F„ "Clifton House,' 

('a m bridge* road. 
Maun, i\ J,, 25, Verona -street. 
Mar?n, S,, 52, Mantua street, 
Monro, W, J T1 109. Thtitleigh-tfjiid. 
Murphy, P., 55, Sabine-mad. 
Xewiiun. I„ 145, High -street. 
Newm Lri t W rT 373 T H ttters'i-pjirkroai, 
Peiinu, W. H,. 42, Brosi-h-raid, 
PrtCBj B. T.,5, Lou vain a road, 
R lti^ou. J,, 69, Riven sle a-ro id, 
itiymoud, W.. ib, Sateottrixail. 
Rees, fl. Ij. IJ.,90, Kyrle-roati. 
Kim.'-, W. d 39 h lu^ekjw-r^.ul. 
Rogers, (t l , 16, Doddington-grove, 
Rogers J, W r , 133, Wkker.i ley- road. 
Raueekles, A. E.,6EJ h Ivy r I inroad. 
Zenith, H. J.. 25, Morel la -r.^.L 
Btorkey , J. , 12S, Cillvert-roid. 
Taylor, K. U,, 113, Nuwroad. 
Taylor, J, J., 101, ,\ I teub u r*r gardens 
WhitniL*p, S.. 279, York -mad. 
Willie, W„ 2i)7A, Latch more -road. 
Win field, A*, 37, Kanseti-roud, 



BERMONDSEY. 

Town Hall: Spa Road, S.E. 
(Meetings : First and third Tuesdays in each month.) 



The borough is "the area con- 
sisting of the parishes of Rother- 
hithe and Bermondsey, and the dis- 
trict of the St. Olave Board of 
Works " (comprising the parishes of 
Iforselydowu and St. Olave and St. 
Thomas, Southwark). It is coter- 
minous with the Bermondsey Poor 
Law Parish,but not with the Parlia- 
mentary divisions. It includes the 
whole of the Rotherhithe division 
of the Parliamentary borough of 
Southwark (consisting of Horsely- 
down, St. Olave and Thomas, 
Rotherhithe, and part of Bermond- 
sey), aid the greater portion of the 
Bermondsey division, a small por- 
tion situate within the boroughs of 
Southwark and CamberweU. 

In area the borough is 2f square 
miles in extent. It has been 
thickly inhabited since the 70's. 
.At the beginning of last century 
the population was 46,281; it 
rose by about 5,000 a decennium 
until 1841, when it was 68,701; then 
by 16,500 for two decennia; then by 
20,000 to 1871; between 1871 and 



1881 it increased less rapidly; in 
1881 it was 134,632, in 1891 136,660, 
in 1895 137,585, and in 1901 130,486. 
As in Southwark, the increasing 
population of more recent years 
has had fewer houses to live in — 
in 1896 a population of 137,585 had 

Eractically the same number of in- 
abited houses (16,586) as the 1871 
population of 122,398, and 1,112 
fewer than in 1891. In 1891 the 
proportion of overcrowding in 
Rotherhithe was 20'3 per cent., in 
Bermondsey 23*3, and in the St. 
Olave district 276 per cent. 
Within the borough there are 
10 open spaces, chief among 
them being Southwark Park; the 
total acreage is 75 out of a total 
acreage of the borough of 1,506. 
The 1906 death rate of the 
borough was 19' 7. 

Under the Adoptive Acts scheme, 
the Baths and Libraries Acts are 
in force, but the Burial Acts in no 
part of the borough. 

The borough council has 9 alder- 
men and 54 councillors. The local 
I 2 



240 



Borough Councils. 



bodies which have been superseded 

had a total membership of 305. The 

borough is divided into 12 wards. 

Electric Lighting. 

The borough council has esta- 
blished an electric lighting under- 
taking under the powers obtained 
by the old Vestry of Bermondsey, 
the only local authority, by the 
way, to which such authority has 
been granted where a company has 
powers to supply electricity in the 
same area. The order only applied 
to the parish of Bermondsey, and 
the borough council accordingly 
obtained an Order which was con- 
firmed by Parliament extending 
its powers over the parish of 
Rotherhithe. The site of the worts 
adjoins the Town Hall, baths and 
wash-houses, and public library 
in Spa- road. A destructor is also 
erected in connection with the 
works. The Council has also 
erected stables, workshops, flag- 
making plant, &c, and owns the 
most complete set of municipal 
undertakings in London. The elec- 
tric lightwas switched on in January, 
1902. (See Electric Light section.) 

The rateable value of the 
borough is £945,951; there is no, 
agricultural land. 

Public Baths and Wash-Houses. 

(Spa-road.) 
In 1905-6 the total number of 
bathers was 132,958, and washers 
17,824. Charges: Private baths, 
2d. and 4(7. ; swimming baths, 2d, 
and 4c?. (children under 14 when 
accompanied by parent or guardian 
2d. first class) ; Winter, first class, 
3d.; ticket books of 12 each, 2s.; 
Schools, Id. Chutes and new div- 
ing boards added, and baths re- 
decorated. 

(Lower-road.) 

The number of bathers in 1905-6 
was 92,940, and washers 15,998. 
Charges : Same as at Spa-road. 

Superintendent— Thomas Fey. 



Free Public Libraries. 

Central Library (Spa-road). 

Bermondsey adopted the Public 
Libraries Act in 1887. A large 
and handsome building in the Re- 
naissance style was erected in Spa- 
road, a centrally situated position, 
and was opened for public use in 
January, 1892. The special features 
of the work carried on are (1) the 
library, consisting of 18,620 vols.; 
circulation (1906-7) 90,570 vols., 
averaging per day 337; open from 
9 a.m. to 9 p.m., Wednesdays 9 to 
1; (2) the advertisement pages of 
the daily newspapers are displayed 
at 8 a.m. each morning for the 
convenience of persons seeking 
employment ; (3) the reading- 
rooms, open daily from 9 a.m. to 
9.30 p.m. — daily average attendance 
1,652 ; (4) ladies' room, open daily. 

Chief Librarian — John Frowde. 
(Lower-road.) 

The public library for the Rother- 
hithe district was opened in October, 
1890, and contains 10,746 volumes. 
Issues(1906-7) 57,725, a daily average 
of 211 ; news-room, ladies' reading- 
room, and boys' room, open 9 a.m. 
to 9.30 p.m. A public museum is in 
course of formation. Mr. John 
Frowde has been appointed curator. 

Librarian — L. Hobbs. 

(Tooley-street.) 

The public library for the St. 
Olave district was opened in July. 
1902, and contains 8,639 volumes, 
Issues, 1906-7, 34,732, a daily average 
of 129; news-room, ladies' room, 
and boys' room, open 9 a.m. to 9.30 
p.m. 

Librarian— F. E. Eidmans. 
Housing. 

(See Housing section.) 
Officers. 

Town Cleric— Fredk. Ryall. 

Assistant Town Cleric— E. Carr 
Olivier. 



Borough Councils. 



241 



First A88i8tcmt Clerk— T. Knott. 

Second Assistant Clerk — B. Gr. 
Clark. 

Borough Treasurer — J. Buckman. 

Surveyor— R. J. Angel. 

Medical Officer— Dr. R. K. 
Brown. 

Ohief Sanitary Inspector — H. 
Thomas. 

Public Analyst — R. Bodmer. 

Electrical Engineer — W. E. J. 
Heenan. 

Mayor. 
Councillor John Molesworth Thomas Dum- 



phreys, j.p. 



Aldermen. 



Harbord, H.,82, Jerningham-road, New- 
cross, 8.E. , _ 

Hinton, H. O., 119, Pepys - road, New- 
cross, S.E. 

Millson, H., 4, Maze-pond-terrace, St. 
Thomas' -street, S.E. 

Parkinson, W. W., Workhouse, Tanner- 
street, Bermondsey, S.E. 

Storey, C. G., 132, Grange-road, Bermond- 
sey, S.E. 

Talbot, F. T.,20, St. James', New-cross.S.E. 

Tyler, W. W., j.p., 186, Denmark-hill, S.E. 

Wilkinson, J. H., 129, Jamaica - road, 
Bermondsey, S.E. 

Councillors. 

Aldridge, H., 38, Albion-street, Rother- 
hithe, S.E. 

Anderson, J. B., 33, Bromley - common, 
Kent. 

Bessell, W. C, 186, Tooley-street, S.E. 

Bird, G., 47, Bush-road, Rotherhithe, S.E. 

Blake, W., 145, Jamaica-road, Bermondsey, 
S F 

Brenner, G., 184, Long-lane, Bermondsey, 
8 E 

Brine, F. W., 150, Ardgowan-road, Hither- 
green, S.E. 

Brown, J., 151, Rotherhithe New-road, S.E. 

Bulmer, J. H., " Nayland," 8, Erlanger- 
road, New-cross, S.E. 

Bustin,' W. C, 126, Jamaica - road, Ber- 
mondsey, S.E. 

Clark, A. B. B., 24, Guy-street, Bermond- 
sey, S.E. 

Day, J., 19, Rebecca-terrace, Gomm-road, 
Rotherhithe, S.E. 

Dean, G. R., 56, Flockton-street, Ber- 
mondsey, S.E. 

Delderfleld, W. J., 29, Reverdy-road, Ber- 
mondsey, S.E. 



Dhonau, J., 82, Keeton's-road, Bermond- 
sey, S.E. 

Dumphreys, J. M. T., j.p., 76, Southwark- 
park-road, Bermondsey, S.E. 

Dunn, Rev. W. K.» b.a., 24, Galley wall- 
road, Bermondsey, 8.E 

Eddis, F. E., "Ray don House," Potters- 
flelds, Tooley-street, S.E. 

Fells, J. E., 38, Barry-road, East Dul- 
wich, S.E. 

Fells, R., 3, Eynella-road, Dulwich, S.E. 

Fogden, J., 194. Denmark-hill, S.E. 

Foster, F., 11, West-lane, Rotherhithe, S.E. 

Gardiner, H., 114, Alscot-road, Bermond- 
sey, S.E. 

Gardiner, H. N., 114, Alscot-road, Ber- 
mondssy, S.E. 

Garnar, J. W., " Falshaw," Cator-road, 
Sydenham. 

Gatter, J. B., 8, Needfull-buildings, Vine- 
street, Tooley-street, S.E. 

Gorrie, W., 269, Rotherhithe-street, S.E. 

Goulding, F. S., 1, Breakspearc-road, 
Brockley, S.E. 

Hart, J. H., 42, Keeton's-road, Bermond- 
sey, S.E. 

Hitchcock, A., 79, Tower Bridge road. S.E. 

Hood, W., 239, Southwark-park-road, Ber- 
mondsey, S.E. 

Ingj», P., 48, St. Thomas'-street, S.E. 

Johns, F. H. P., 89, Union-road, Rother- 
hithe, S.E. 

Lawrence, G., 86, Rotherhithe New-rd., S.E 

Layman, A., 115, Pepys-rd„ New-cross, S.E 

Lee, Rev. E. M. O'Hara, b.a., 92, Eugenia- 
road, Rotherhithe, S.E. 

Lilly white, J. C, 144, Springbank-road, 
Hither-green, S.E. 

Marriott, W. G., 2, Redriff-road, Rother- 
hithe, S.E. 

Martin, J. R., "Grange Villa*' 7, Thor- 
burn-square, Bermondsey, S.E. 

Morriss, H. F., 112, Lower-road, Rother- 
hithe, S.E. 

Oake, J. W., 39, Tooley-street, S.E. 

Peeke, Gf "Hillside," Marischal • road, 
Lee, S.E. 

Pridmore, F. T., 36, Upper Grange-road, 
Bermondsey, S.E. 

Renwick. J. A., 91, Tooley-street, S.E. 

Richmond, B. A., m.b., 28, Lower-road, 
Rotherhithe, S.E. 

Shand, Augustus, "The Hollies," Black- 
heath, S.E. 

Shearring, W., Ill, Alscot-road, Bermond- 
sey, sTe. 

Shepherd, G. H., 9, Tanuer-street, Ber- 
mondsey, S.E. 

8tickland, E., 207, London-road, Thornton 
Heath. 

Tovey, E., 132, Spa-road, Bermondsey, g.E. 

Trott, H. R., 57, Oxley- street, Bermond- 
sey, S.E. 

Vezey, H. J., 682, Rotherhithe-street, S.E. 

Widdows, J., 138, Abbey-street, Bermond- 
tey, S.E. 

Williams, D„ 6, Thorburn-square, Ber- 
mondsey, S.E. 



242 



Borough Councils. 



BETHNAL GREEN. 

Town Hall: Church Row, N.E. 

Public Health Offices: 2, Paradise Row, Cambridge Road, N.E. 

(Meetings : First and third Thursdays each month, except during August, 

at 6 p.m.) 



The borough of Bethnal Green is 
the parish area, uniform for Poor 
Law and local government purposes. 
It is practically the same as the 
Parliamentary borough, which is 
divided into two divisions, North- 
East and South- West, Bethnal 
Green. In area it is among the 
smallest of the London boroughs, 
being only 1 J square miles in extent 
(759 acres). 

For some years past the borough 
has been fully populated — in 1871 
the population had reached 
120,104, in 1881 it was 126,961, in 
1891 it was 129,132, and at the last 
census it was 129,681. The Regis- 
trar-General estimates the popula- 
tion of the borough in the middle 
of the year 1906 at 130,609. A large 
proportion of the inhabitants live 
in small tenements. 

The borough contains within its 
boundaries Bethnal Green Gardens 
and Poor's Land, Meath Gardens 
and five other small open spaces 
besides 70 acres cf Victoria Park, 
making in all 100 acres of open 
space. The rateable value of 
the borough is £649,987. 

The borough council consists of 
a mayor, 5 aldermen, and 30 coun- 
cillors, who have taken the place 
of 60 members of one extinct local 
body. The borough is divided 
into four wards. 

Baths and Wash-Houses. 

The Baths and Wash-houses 
Acts are the only optional Acts 
that have been adopted in the 
borough. 

The Baths and Wash-houses are 
situated in Cheshire-street. 



Libraries. 
A voluntary free library exists in 
the borough. There is also' a 
branch of the South Kensington 
Museum, which is open free every 
day, including Sundays. 

Electric Liffht. 

Bethnal-green obtained an Elec- 
tric Lighting Order in 1899. (See 
Electric Light section.) 

Council's Depot— Digby-street. 

Dust Screening Plant — Marian- 
square. 

Officers. 

Town Clerk and Solicitor — 
Robert Voss. 

Deputy Town Clerk— G. G. E. 
Fletcher. , - , f 

Borough Accountant, and trea- 
surer— Wm. H. Ashmole, A,S.4.£. 

Medical Officer of Health— G. P. 
Bate, M.D. 

Borougli Engineer and Surveyor 
— E. E. Finch, a.m.i.cb. 

Public Analyst — A. W. Stokes, 
F.C.S., F.i.c. 

Chief Sanitary Inspector — J. 
Foot. 

Sanitary Inspectors — E. Ainley, 
F. T. Bare, E. Q. Bilham, H. F. 
Bridel, A. S. Henley, I. R. Jones, 
E. Richards, W. Rowsell, J. G. 
Weeks, and one Female Inspector— 
Miss A. Harris. 

Rate- Collectors — South Division : 
W. H. Rust. East Division: 
R. D. Quy. West Division : S. P. 
Cole. North Division: W. Good- 
win. 

Superintendent and Matron of 
Baths and Wash-houses— William 
Billings and Frances E. Billings. 



Borough Councils. 



243 



Mayor. 

Councillor Charles Edward Fox, j.p. 

Aldermen. 

Fleming. J. J.. 342, Old Ford-road. 

Merison, J., " Llantrissant," Mount 
Pleasant-road, Bruce-grove, South Tot- 
tenham. 

Norris, J., 220, Cambridge-road. 

Read, F. J., 28, St. James' -road. 

Roberts, E., 343, Cambridge-road. 

Councillors. 

Barnard p A. F-. H&, Columbia -road. 
Hay ley, G. T 61, firanby-rtrt'oi. 
Brooks, T.. 263, Krkk -lane, 
Clark. W. H„ 493496, Huekuey road. 
BaYey, J, C, 43, Cambridge- road, 
I Van, T. A., 63, Approach-™ wL 
DiwelL. J., 306, Old Kurd -road. 
Ertmuuita, il., 455, H Orkney -road. 
Feltuu, W. T. # 307, Wiluiot street. 



Fox, C. E., j.p., 109-111, Bethnal-green- 

rond» 
Hall. J^, 113, Gro*n**fcrwt. 
Hardy, E. G., 211 213, filuluMmd, 
Hay 1 1 on, J., 127, His ho a'* road, 
llubiii y. J, T,, 25, Toriu-street. 
How, J. \Y., 28, lljini^lfly^triwt. 
liArkiiv. R>, 19. Arbery-Miil 
Lewi*, A. b I7 t Capel roid, Forest Gate. 
LewU. W. J,, 3% St. tVter-atreet. 
Ling. W\ H , 12, Thistlewnlto-rd.. Qfftpta* 
Neate, J, ({.. 33S, KjEhn-il-grcPij-nn!!. 
l , hipp^J.,2*2, Old Ford-road, 
PiiJJeu, 4,» 197. Greeu -street. 
KawLea, W., 477, Cambridge- road, 
Nnlmoa, T. *\, 122, tfuvwtt- street. 
Saunders, F,> 309, BtsUmrH-gretMi-road. 
Klade, 15, A., 293. Haikuey-rotd, 
Sweeten an, W\, 64, Siuirnis-Htraet. 
TJmrning, N.,477, Hethnal tfie^u road. 
Ward, J. W,. 41, Church *tr*eL 
Wood, C. "The Oak,: T Cbaso Cnus, 

Ruoifurd. tissex* 



CAMBERWELL. 

Town Hall: Peckham Road, S.E. 



(Meetings : Alternate 

The borough of Camberwell is 
almost identical with the old local 
government parish area and with 
the Poor Law area. It differs from 
the Parliamentary borough of Cam- 
berwell (containing the divisions of 
North Camberwell, Peckham, and 
Dnlwich) by the exclusion of Pen^e, 
which forms part of the Dulwich 
division. Under the Act, Camber- 
well received a small fringe of the 
detached part of Streatham, and 
exchanges of areas (with a view of 
straightening the boundaries of the 
borough) were made with Lambeth, 
Lewisham, Deptford, Rotherhithe, 
Newington, ana Benmondsey. 

Camberwell is one of the larger 
boroughs ; it is, in fact, the 
largest borough which consists 
of a single parish. It is nearly 7 
square miles in extent (4,480 
acres), its greatest width east to 
west being 2i miles, and its ex- 
treme length 5 miles. It is develop- 
ing rapidly. Its population in 
1861 was 71,488, in 1871 111,306, in 
1881 186,593, in 1891 235,344, and 
in 1901 259,339, thus having an 



Wednesdays, 6.30 p.m.) 

average of nearly 58 persons to 
the acre. But the population is 
unevenly distributed, the density in 
the North division being 133 to the 
acre, in the Peckham division 73, 
while in the Dulwich division, where 
there is still a considerable area 
of land unbuilt 'upon, there are 
only, on an average, 28 persons to 
the acre. Thus there is room for an 
increased population. Taking as 
120 the number of persons who can 
be housed on those parts of the 
borough that are available for 
building, Camberwell could accom- 
modate a population of 500,000. 

The borough is fortunate in pos- 
sessing two large open spaces, 
Peckham Rye and Park, with au 
area of 112} acres, and Dulwich 
Park, 72 acres, as well as several 
smaller ppaces, making in all 205£ 
acres out of a total of 4,480. There 
is but little overcrowding (11*1 per 
cent.), and the death rate in 1901 
wan 1634 per 1,000. 

The rateable value on 5th 
October, 1906, was £1,364,397, of 
which £427 was the valuation of 



244 



Borough Councils. 



ajrricultural land, &c. Expenditure 
for borough purposes other than 
from loans, 1903-4, £137,644, and 
£121,150 out of loans ; debt, 
£421,383. £360,800 was raised to 
meet precepts levied by other 
authorities, and representing expen- 
diture over which the Borough 
Council has no control. General 
rate, 8*. lid. 

All three Adoptive Acts are in 
operation in the borough, but the 
electric lighting is in the hands 
of the London, the County of 
London, and the Crystal Palace 
Companies. The Council has an 
extensive works depot at Grove- 
vale. 

The Borough Council consists of 
10 aldermen and 60 councillors, 
who have taken the place of 120 
members of the old vestry. The 
borough is divided into 20 three- 
member wards. 

Baths and Wash -Houses. 

Superintendent — J. McCandie. 
Church Street. 

Last year these Baths were patro- 
nised by 181 ,704 persons. Charges : 
Private baths, Id. to 6d. ; swim- 
ming baths, Id. to 6d. The use of 
the laundry is charged at the rate of 
l$d. per hour. 

Dulwich Baths, Goose Green. 

Attendance last year 126,266. 
Same charges. No laundry. 

North Camberwell Baths, 
Wells-street. 

1st and 2nd class slipper - baths 
and public wash-houses. No swim- 
ming baths. Opened May, 1903. 
Attendance last year 53,398. 

Old Kent Road Baths. 

Swimming, warm, Turkish, and 
Russian baths, and public wash- 
houses. Attendance from 4th 



November, 1905, ti 31st March, 
1906, 19,426. 



Public Libraries. 

The Libraries Act* were adopted 
in Camberwell in 1889, and there 
are now six libraries, which 
(together with the Art Gal- 
lery) are administered by a com- 
mittee of the Borough Council, 
with a sub-committee of manage- 
ment, composed of members of the 
main committee, for each institu- 
tion. 

Central Library (1890), Peckham- 
road: Lending department, 16,451 
vols. ; reference department, 10,500 
vols.; issues, 192, 143 vols. Librarian 
— W. G. Snowsill. Dulwich Library 
(1891), Lordship - lane : Lending 
department, 11,034 vols.; reference 
department, 831 vols. ; issues, 
145,726 vols. Librarian— L. Hur- 
don. Livesey Library (1890), Old 
Kent-road: Lending department, 
8,069 vols. ; reference department, 
1,192 vols. ; issues, 75,473 vols, 
Librarian— C. R. S. Philp. Nun- 
head Library (1896», Gordon-road 
Lending department, 7,251 vols, 
reference department, 124 vols, 
issues, 78,043 vols. Librarian— W, 
J. Vellenoweth. North Camber- 
well Library (1903), Wells-street 
Lending department, 5,820 vols, 
reference department, 20 vols, 
issues, 59,472 vols. Librarian— 
C. F. Newcombe. Minet Library 
(1890) — Joint with Lambeth— 
Knatchbull - road : Lending de- 
partment, 15,891 vols. ; refer- 
ence department, 3,425 vols. ; 
juvenile department, 1,447 vols. ; 
issues, 165,344 vols. Librarian — 
C. J. Courtney. The figures are 
for year ending 31st March, 1906. 

Hours of opening news-rooms, 
9 a.m. to 10 p.m.; magazine and 
reference rooms, 10 a.m. to 10 p.m. ; 
lending department, 10.30 a.m. to 
9 p.m. ; closed on Tuesdays. Minet 
Library hours slightly different. 



Borough Councils. 



245 



Camberwell School of Arts and 
Crafts, Art Gallery and Museum. 

The South London Art Gallery, 
Peckham-road, is under the control 
of the borough council. This fine 
art gallery is open daily from 2 p.m. 
to 10 p.m. ; Sundays, 3 p.m. to 9 p.m. 
The school is held in a special 
building adjoining, belonging to 
the council, and is conducted by the 
London County Council. The 
original building owes its existence 
chiefly to the generosity of Mr. 
Passmore Edwards. 

Principal— W. B. Dalton, A.R.C.A. 
(Lond.). 

Secretary— C. H. Johnson, B.A. 

Housing. - 
Two important schemes for the 
housing of the poor are being 
carried out by the borough council, 
one of which is unique. For par- 
ticulars see the section on the 
Housing of the Working Classes 
Act. 

Chief Officers. 

Town Clerk— C. William Tagg. 

Assistant Town Clerk — A. J&an- 
ney Bryant. 

Solicitor— G. W. Marsden. 

Borough Engineer — William 
Oxtoby, M.INST.C.E. 

Assistant Borough Engineer — 
P. J. Slater. 

Medical Officer of Health — P. 
Stevens, M.A., M.D. 

Borough Accountant — Arthur 
Griffiths. 

Public Analyst— Y. L. Teed, D.sc, 
F.C.S., F.I.C. 

Bacteriologist— E. C. Bousfield, 
L.R.C.P., M.R.C.S. 

Food and Drugs and Smoke 
Nuisance, &c, Inspector— W. E. 
Groom. 

Sanitary Inspectors— District 1: 
W. Malins. District 2 : G. T. 
Dewey. District 3 : C. H. Kers- 
lake. District 4: E. Homer. Dis- 
trict 5: J. H. Heath. District 6: 
G. W. Scudamore. District 7 : W. 



Eagle. District 8 ; J. S. Pointon. 
District 9 : W. R. Farmer. District 
10 : G. G. Morley. District 11: E. 
R. Collins. 

Female Sanitary Inspector — Miss 
G. D. Bevan. 

Rate Collectors — District A : R. 
Maltby, 43, Warner-road. District 
B : W E. Wooldridge, 55, Church- 
street. District C : J. B. Maltbv, 
111, Camberwell-road. District D : 
H. H. Hooper, 14, Addington-square. 
District E : F. Belshaw, 51, Avon- 
dale square. District F : J. Mitchell, 
865, Old Kent-road. District G: J. 
Borland, 34, Queen's-road. District 
H : A.N.Watton,Railway-approach, 
Rye-lane. District I : A. Perram, 
62, Albert-road. District J : W. H. 
Webb, 19, Linden-grove. District 
K: E. Bickerton, 79, Lyndhurst- 
road. District L : S. P. Fisher, 29, 
Amott-road. District M : M. A. 
O'Connell, 29, Tintagel-crescent. 
District^: J. C. Jones, 311, Crystal 
Palace-road. District O : G. Blun- 
den, 531, Lordship-lane. 

Mayor. 

Councillor W. Lane Mitchell, j.p. 

Aldermen. 

Clarke, Goddard, j.p., "South Lodge," 
Champion-hill. 

Dunn, ¥., 32, St. Mary's-road, Peckham. 

Gautrey, T., l.c.c, 20, Elm - grove, 
Peckham. 

George, J., 109, Camberwell-grove. 

Hearson, C. E., 5, Templar-street, Camber- 
well. 

Hichisson, J. G., 9, Belmont-park, Lee. 

St. Cedd, W., 14, Love-walk, Denmark- 
hill. 

Smith, E. R., " Elm hurst," Peckham Bye. 

Somerville, J., 37, The Gardens, Peckham 
Rye. 

Williams, A. H., 276, Camberwell New- 
road. 

Councillors. 

Austin, G., 196, Peckham Rye. 

Ayers, E., 46a, Stondon-park, Forest-hill. 

Ball, G. H., 3, Bowles-road, Old Kent-rd. 

Barnes, Rev. S., " The Manse," Lordship- 
lane. 

Bott. H. D., 190, Croxted-road, West Dul- 
wich, S.B. 

Brenchley, W., 15, Dagmar-road, Peck 
ham-road* S.E. *ua 



246 



Borough Councils. 



Brooks, S., 44, Camberwell-green. 

Cane, R. C, 185, East Dulwich-grove, S.B. 

Cooper, J. H., "Worcester Lodge," 191, 
East Dulwich-grove, 

Curram, A. R., 351, Lordship-lane, S.E. 

De la Court, T. W., 133, Verney-road. 

Dent, W., 302, Camberwell-road. 

Doughty, J. A., 71, Park-road, West Dul- 
wich 8 E 

Edmonds', H., 99, Talfourd-road, Peckham- 
road, S.E. 

Hurcy* T. J. H 19. Aifpiiial^imrt, JiivK'kJey. 

ToifL W. B.. 31 L CwnberweU -rottl 

Forrest , J. h IBS, CiLinden-grtire Nnrih 

Fudge, W.. 17, WuU'rloo-strt.'rt. 

fSruy, W. J., 3. Morun rna*i, L'aviberweTL 

Gregory J. E. T 16, Woods-mad., PetkJiaui. 

Hartley. G. W,, 133, A von <1 ale-square, OJfl- 
Kcnt- road, S.E. 

HobHl, S> T 16, Peck ham* rottd, 8,E. 

JiU-kFou, W M " Keigate Lodge/' 90 t Wood- 
vale. Forest hi il.S r K. 

Jcnnim**, IV v. H, E., St. Ck' incut's 
Vicarage, MattK House, Barry - road, 
East Dul wich. 

Johnston, Rev. 8. A., 22, St. Mary's-road. 

Jordan, D. J., 344a, Old Kent-road, S.E. 

Killbourn, C. J., 115, Dunstan's-road. 

Lawrence, E., 227, Rye-lane. 

Lomer, E. E., 264,Barry-rd., EastDulwich. 

Lonnon, F., 77, Denmark-hill, S.E. 

MaeCarthy, W., 48a, Forest - hill - road, 
Honor Oak. 

Markillie, J. A., 31, Blenheim-grove, Peck- 
ham. 

Martin, W. S. T., " Sunnyside," Peckham 
Rye. 

Mitchell, W. L„ j.p., 107, East Dulwich- 
grove. 



Molony, G. J., *' Listowel," 5a, East Dul- 
wich-road, 

Monks, W., 162, Peckham Rye, S.E. 

Morris, A. G„ 126, East Dulwich - road, 
Peckham Rye, S.E. 

Moss, A., 46, Credon-road, Rotherhithe 
. New-road, S.E. 

Newton, C. E., 10, Alleyn-road, West Dul- 
wich, S.E. 

Parker, J., 219, Underhill - road, East 
Dulwich, S.E. 

Pillgrem, J. W., 96, Evelina-rd., Nunhead. 

Preston, D. C, "The Hall," Dulwich 
Village. 

Raiment, H. J., 47, Commercial-road. 

Rawlings, F. R., 21, Rye-hill-park. 

Rayment, T. R., 56, Bellenden-road, East 
Dulwich. 

RoMtisoD. A. W tJ 10, Harder '^road, 

Kobiuain. J. K. r 94., Hill ->tr*ft. 

Hmk^hy. W lh 33, Linden -grove. 

Rnse r O. M..9 t Liiirk'n-grove. Nnnhead, 

Sayer t K., 302, Scut -hamplou street. 

Scott, U, h 14. HiM-ii-Mter-t. I 're k hum, 

SerjfiiTit, l>r. IK M. P 27. iVikhiim rourL 

sjji -ijjjuton, J., 34. liiirkwurth-rrL, Kothcr- 

lllUif, 

Snoxell, F., 109, Bellenden-road, Peckham. 
Thornhill, J. A., 54, Lyndhurst - grove, 

Lyndhurst-road, S.E. 
Tuite, M., 184, Peckham Rye, S.E. 
Veazey, Rev. H. G., 93, Coburg-road, S.E. 
Warman, C, 129, Queen's-road. 
Whitehead, F., 7, Elcot-avenue, Peckham. 
Windus, A. J., 175, Camberwell-grove. 
Wmt, F. A., "Atherton," Calton-road, 

Dulwich. 



CHELSEA. 

Chelsea Town Hall, S.W. 
(Meetings : Alternate Wednesdays, at 5.30. p.m.) 



The borough of Chelsea has a 
population of 73,842 (Census 
1901), a rateable value of 
£888,133 (subject to appeals), with 
an area of 659 '6 acres, just 
over one square mile. 

The death rate in 1905 was 
14*9 per 1,000. 

The Baths and Libraries Acts are 
adopted in Chelsea. The council 
has carried out two schemes under 
the Housing of the Working Classes 
Acts, particulars of which are given 
in the section on the Housing of the 
Working Classes Act. The electric 
lighting is in the hands of the 



Chelsea and the London Com- 
panies. 

The borough council consists of 6 
aldermen ana 36 councillors. The 
borough is divided into 5 wards. 

Free Public Library. 
(Manresa-road.) 

The Acts were adopted in May, 
1887. There are 44,341 volumes in 
the library, and 208,188 volumes 
were issued last year. There are 
three members of the Libraries 
Committee who are not on the 
^borough council. 

Librarian— J. Henry Quinn. 



Borough Councils. 



247 



Public Baths. 

(Manor-street.) 

The public baths in Manor-street 
have been reconstructed in the past 
year. 

Officers. 

Town Cleric— T. Holland. 

Assistant Cleric — J. T. Jefferys. 

Medical Officer of Health. — Louis 
C. Parkes, M.D., d.p.h. 

Food Analyst. — S. Rideal, 
D.SC, &c. 

Surveyor— T. W. E. Higgens, 
A.M.INST.C.E. 

Assistant Surveyor — W. R. Man- 
ning. 

Borough Treasurer. T. Tatter- 

sall, A.S.A.A. 

Chief Sanitary Inspector — A. 
Grant. 

Mayor. 

Alderman The Hon. William Sidney, j.p. 
Aldermen. 

Cadogan, The Right Hon, Earl, e.g., 
" Chelsea House, Cadogan-place. 

Latham, A. M., 7, Cheyne-gardens. 

Monkswell, The Right Hon. Lord, " Monks- 
well House," Chelsea-embankment. 

Norman, R. C, 2, Sloane-court East. 

Sidney, The Hon. W., j.p., 107, Sloane-st. 

Snowden, H. G., 80, Elm-park-gardens. 

Councillors. 

Andrews, R. M., 51, Smith-street, and 131, 
Church-street. 



Cadogan, The Hon. E. C. G., "Chelsea 

House," Cadogan-place. 
Cook, C. F., 16, Cornwall-mansions, Ash- 

burnham-road. 
lie Maid, W., 21, Tetcott-road. 
Doll, Major R. S. E., y.d., 79, Sloane-street. 
Froome, C. B„ 45, Ovington-street. 
Gamble, Rev. H. R.,m.a.,141, Sloane-street. 
Goff, T. C. E., 46, Pont-street. 
Gordon, ff, E.,42* Oiikley-ritrNt. 
Hiirw!iod 4 K* W. t l.h.ei., p.d.s., 97, Sloan*** 

rtrcuL 
Hfiid, D M 66, Cadogan phvoc. 
Kddgsoa, li. T», j,i\, 36, llruyci it t- place. 
iln^Jit'S, J, \\, 4. *!ht<yiu?nardiiiis. 
Ji-Jt'ery. J. p j,iv, 37. College- street 
Jeffery, J,, jim. P n, Glebe-plaoo. 
J^lmsim. II, V +1 7B t Elm-pi±rk -gardens. 
Mi Tiirkme, Dr, A. R. t 27, Milupr-irtriffit. 
Mi'iiiri-uhuijren, b). 1,.,j.p,,4. Cneyae-wulk. 

Mithvy, W. J., 29. il'^'ul-iivvinii 1 . 

Norton, \\~ . , 42, 8ydney-rt wet 
Pi i" k wort h, W. J., io, W \\ ite hfa4 ' sgrove. 
JLuhhIi'Ik j)r, ll„ K., 21, IvEin -park ro-id, 
Kobinsou. 1*. A., 25, Hu I i*?y -street, 
Robinson, T. J., 28Q T King VroarL 
Kii^ivetiStiiart, A. W Pr 35, Sloan e-gardeus, 
Salisbury, R. ± 25, Miiner-street. 
iSiirtorluF, Mnjor^Genurul E. If.'p-T.Ci. C.&., 

" Old Swan House/' 17, Chebeu-embLiok* 

ment. 
Smith, G., 8, Ashburnham-road. ' - 

Stone, E. V., 25, Cremorne-road. '♦ 

Synge, F. J., 30, Sloane-court West. 
Thrupp, G. H., 59, Cadogan-square. 
Welch, F. J., Christ Church Schools, 

Chelsea. 



White, G., 530, King's-road, 
Woods, Major W. FT, 31, ~ 
mansions, 



Rossetti Garden- 



Wright, H. J., 3, Durham-place, and 
" Hollydale," Keston, Kent. 

Wjnter, R., 14, Argyll-mansions, Beau- 
fort-street. 



DEPTFORD. 

Town Hall: New Cross Road, S.E. 
(Meetings : Alternate Tuesdays, at 7 p.m.) 



The metropolitan borough is the 
Parliamentary borough of Dept- 
ford, and agrees with the parish of 
St. Paul, Deptford, which forms 
part of the Greenwich Union for 
Poor Law administration, and was 
part of the Greenwich District for 
local government purposes. It is 
2& square miles in area, and has 
a population, according to the 
last census returns, of 110,398, 
an average of 70 persons to an 



acre. The parish of St. Paul had in 
1861 a population of 37,834 ; it is now 
110,398. The borough contains only 
a small area of open spaces — 
Deptford Park (11 acres) and Tele- 
graph Hill (9 J- acres) being the 
only ones of importance. There is 
Another open space (a very small 
one) known as the Ravensbourne 
Recreation Ground. The borough 
also contributed towards the pur- 
chase of the Hilly Fields (45* 



248 



Borough Councils, 



acres) which immediately adjoin 
the south-eastern boundary of the 
borough, although not within it. 
The rateable value is £629,695, 
of which £391 is the valuation of 
agricultural land. The deat h rate 
in 1903 was 154 per 1,000. 

Deptford has baths and a ceme- 
tery. The electric lighting powers 
are in the hands of the London 
Company. 

The borough council consists of the 
mayor,6 aldermen and 36 councillors, 
who have taken the place of over 
200 members of extinct bodies. The 
borough is divided into 6 wards. 

Baths and Wash-Houses. 

Public baths and wash-houses 
were opened on 20th April, 1898. 
They are situated in Laurie- 
grove, New Cross-road, and include 
two swimming baths, numerous 
slipper baths, and public wash- 
houses, containing thirty-four 
separate cubicles, also ironing 
rooms, &c. An independent water 
supply was provided by sinking a 
well, which yields an ample supply. 

Free Public Libraries Act. 
The Act was adopted by the 
Council on 26th April, 1904. Three 
ballots were previously taken, 
but the Act not adopted. In 1890, 
majority against, 606; 1893, ma- 
jority against, 237 ; 1894, majority 
against, 1,236. A temporary library 
has been opened at 221, New Cross- 
road, S.E. 

Officers. 

Town Clerk— V. Orchard. 

Medical Officer of Health.— Br. 
H. W. Eoberts. 

Borough Surveyor— T. Corfield. 

Borough Accountant. — T. E. 
Charles. 



Assistant Town Clerk. — A. 
Purkis. 

Rate-Collectors— S.E. Ward: J. 
W. Shingler, 5, Albert-road, St. 
John's. 8. Ward : W. S. Morley,. 
78, Manor - road, Brockley. E. 
Ward: (Vacant). N.W. Ward: 
M. Farris, 163, New Cross-road. 
8.W. Ward : J. Warcup, 114, 
New Cross-road. N. Ward : H. 
Stone, 180, Evelyn-street. 

Mayor. 
Mr. Je3se Jacob, j.p., 60, Wickham-road. 

Aldermen. 

Dickson, A, 82, Tyrwhitt-road. 
Garland- Wells, H.,20, Hilly-flelds-crescent. 
Hines, D., 83, Wickham-road. 
Knight, E. J., 86, Manor-road. 
Telling, J. T., 6, St. Nicholas-street, Tan- 
ner' s-hill. 
Wise, W., 37, Lewisham High-road. 

Councillors. 

Aucutt, W. R., 80, Tresillian-road. 
Bax, E. G. G., 45, Rosenthal-road, Catford. 
Brain, J. H., 11, Wickham-road. 
Brooks, W. H., 10, Hilly-flelds-crescent. 
Collins, G., 82, Wickham-road. 
Cooper, W. H. W., 68, Tanner's-hill. 
Edwards, A., 42, Camplin-street. 
Falkner, W., 30, Stafford-road, Waddon. 
Fenner, A., 93, Waller-road. 
Gallehawk, C, 276, Evelyn-street. 
Heald, F. W., 21, Breakspears-road. 
Howell, J. G., " Casella House," Casella-rd 
Jacob, B. J., j.p., 29, Pepys-road. 
Jones, D. J., 44, Lewisham High-road. 
Lockyet. J< F„. 244. Evclyn-rtreet. 
Malt*, 1J H ¥,, 20, Tin* Broad w;l 4 v. 
Middleton, F. T 1a. coiiibuiy-road, 
Naflh, W„ 25, Tyrwhitt-road* 
cj is ; u 1 , J . , b&. I Vpy,«- rvmd t 
ltohmNm, T;, 335, New I'rOFft-runrt. 
simniouds, E. G., 62h Er laager-road. 
Sopor, It,, 20&. Lewi ^ hum High -road. 
Stanley. J, J tp 66 t l^wishiLiu Hi^hnwl. 
Thomas, J. G., B8 h Wu klutui rojtd. 
Thomas, K, J., 86, Break ^pears-road. 
VoliiiuuiTj, II. A, t 9l. Kveiyd-atret't. 
Vatcrworth, J. H.. 385^ QueeoVroad. 
W ob lj . C. p 60 , Pcpy^ n i&d . 
Webster. J., 38, Wickham-road. 
WHderljura, F, W., 467, Xew Crossroad. 
WMtton. J..7, Arm-r^hum-vaie. 
Willis, W. A r ,7, The Broadway, 
Yoagt\ J. V. h 28, Manor mad. 



Borough Councils. 



249 



FINSBURY. 

Town Hall: Eosebery Avenue, E.C. 
(Meetings : First and third Thursdays, at 6 p.m.) 



The borough of Finsbury is the 
area of the Central and East 
divisions of the Parliamentary 
borough of Finsbury. It consists 
of the greater part of the Holborn 
Union. The settlement of this 
borough was probably one of the 
hardest tasks set the Commis- 
sioners by the London Government 
Act, involving as it did financial 
adjustments between many exist- 
ing districts, as well as the rectifica- 
tion of areas between county and 
county. The creation of Finsbury 
meant the amalgamation of the 
whole of two existing local govern- 
ment districts, viz. : the parishes of 
Clerkenwell and St. Luke, a small 
part of the Holborn district (the 
parish of St. Sepulchre and the 
liberty of Glasshouse -yard), and 
the extra parochial place of the 
Charterhouse. The liberty of Glass- 
house - yard formed part of the 
parish of St. Botolph without 
Aldersgate, the main part of the 
parish being in the City of London, 
but Glasshouse-yard is without the 
City. 

Another difficult question of 
areas arose in connection with 
the detached part of Clerkenwell, 
situated more than four miles 
from the main part of the parish 
and one-and-a-half miles beyond 
the county boundary. This outlying 
part, only 64 acres in extent, had 
already caused much trouble to 
London. It had been embraced 
in the London building area and 
drainage questions became acute. 
It was physically impossible 
to drain Muswell Hill into the 
metropolitan main drainage area, 
and none of the neighbouring 
districts were anxious to take the 
responsibility. Subsequently Friern 



Barnet took the drainage for the 
consideration of a Is. 3d. rate pay- 
able for thirty years by the London 
County Council which itself levies 
on Clerkenwell a rate of only 
Is. \%d. for all purposes. The 
Commissioners added Muswell 
Hill to the parish of Hornsey. 
Besides these questions, important 
financial matters were involved 
in the amalgamation of areas 
with loans of such varying magni- 
tude as those of St. Luke, Clerken- 
well, and Holborn, and with such 
different criteria of local efficiency. 
Holborn district has libraries and 
a Town Hall (situated however in 
the Holborn borough) ; Clerken- 
well also has libraries and a Town 
Hall; St. Luke has a convenient 
Vestry Hall in City -road and the 
right to use the library of the 
Cripplegate Institute, which is 
situated in the City of London. In 
size the borough is the smallest in 
London save Holborn, being only 
588 acres in extent. Its rate- 
able value is very high, viz., 
£1,022,302, and it is still increasing. 
Its population in 1901 was 
101,463. Its estimated population 
in 1905 was 98,207. It reached its 
climax in 1861 (129,031), and is 
now declining but not nearly at so 
great a rate as is the area avail- 
able for residence, which is be- 
coming more and more limited by 
the increase of business premises. 
The district is an example of the 
effect of the encroachment of the 
central business area on the area 
occupied by working class popula- 
tions living in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of their work. 

In general character the different 
parts of the borough are not greatly 
dissimilar. They are all fully built 



250 



Borough Councils. 



upon and densely populated, the 
persons per acre for the whole 
borough Deing 170, as compared 
with 64 for all London. There 
is much overcrowding. The pro- 
portion of tenements with less 
than five rooms averages 85 per 
cent., and 11 per cent, of the popu- 
lation live in such tenements. In 
open spaces Finsbury is very defi- 
cient, there being only sixteen acres 
of breathing space for a population of 
100,487. The average death rate for 
the borough in 1905 was 18*9, 
the metropolitan average for that 
year being 15'6. 

Under the Adoptive Acts scheme 
the Baths and Burial Acts are to 
be in force in no part of the 
borough, the Libraries Acts only in 
Clerkenwell, St. Sepulchre, and 
Glasshouse-yard, and not in St. 
Luke or Charterhouse, but the first 
mentioned Acts have since been 
adopted for the whole borough. 

The electricity supply for the 
borough is mainly in the hands 
of the County of London and Brush 
Provincial Electric Lighting Com- 
panies. A Horsf all Dust Destructor 
is in operation. 

The borough council consists of 
9 aldermen and 54 councillors (re- 
tiring triennially), who have taken 
the place of about 214 members 
of extinct bodies. The borough is 
divided into 11 wards. 

Public Libraries. 

The Public Libraries Acts are, 
as already stated, in force in 
Clerkenwell, St. Sepulchre, and 
Glasshouse - yard. The central 
library is in Skinner - street, 
Clerkenwell, and there are 
branches at Penton-street, Penton- 
ville, and 48, St. John - street. 
The total number of volumes in 
the library exceeds 28,000, The 
issue of books in 1905 was 169,000 



volumes (an increase of about 
27,000 over the previous years, 
which are exclusive of refer- 
ences to directories and some 
hundreds of encyclopaedias, dic- 
tionaries, and similar works in 
the open reference library). This 
library adopted the open access 
system of lending books in 1894, 
and in 1900 the principle was ex- 
tended to a selection of books in 
the reference library. The institu- 
tion also has a special juvenile 
library. News-room open from 8 a.m. 
to 10 p.m. Beading room open on 
Sundays from 3 to 9. 

Officers. 

Town Clerk— G. W. Preston. 

Borough Accountant — E. J. Hay- 
thornthwaite. 

Borough Surveyor — P. G. Killick. 
May be seen at the Town Hall 
daily, from 10 to 11.30 a.m., when 
and where all applications for 
licences, hoardings, nouse drainage. 
&c., must be made. 

Borough Medical Officer of Health 
— G. Newman, m.d., d.p.h., Town 
Hall. 

Chief Sanitary Inspector— Wm. 
Green. 

Sanitary Inspectors — Messrs. 
Davis, Longden, Norman, Peverett, 
Watson, Draper, and Jackson ; 
Mrs. Greenwood and Miss Jones. 

Meat Inspector — G. T. Billing. 

Public Analyst— J. Kear Colwell, 
F.J.C., F.C.S., Town Hall. 

Superintendent of Cleansing. — 
A. May. 

Bate - Collectors — J. T. Kid- 
man, J. H. Pickup, G, A. Potter, 
E. J. Sans, and H. Taylor. 

Borouah Librarian and Clerk to 
the Public Libraries Committee — 
Harry G. T. Cannons. 



Borough Councils. 



261 



Mayor. 

Councillor Rev. Prebendary G. H. Perry, 

M.A., j.p. 

Aldermen. 
Crowle-Smith, J., 25, Lloyd-sauare, W.C. 
Gibson, J., 45, Penton-street, N. 
Howes, E., " Fairview," 121, Bethune-road, 

Stamford-hill. N. 
Howes, W., " Brama," 85, Ainhurst-park, 

Stamford-hill, N. 
Miller, E., 25, Re&enfs-park-road. N.W. 
Penny, E. J., "Fernsbury," Muswell- 

road, Muswell-hill, N. 
Pond, A., 106-108, Old-street, E.C. 
Tripp, E. H., 17, Amwell-street, E.C. 
Wildbore, T., 165, Farringdon-road, E.C. 

Councillors. 

Abrahams, W. F., 65, Rosoman - street, 
and 30, Cloudesley-square. 

Barnes, H. G., 98, Farringdon-road.E.C. 

Barton, H. B., 22, Mildmay-park, N., and 
20, Bath-street, St. Luke, E.C. 

Bassett, G., 32, Cumming-street, Penton- 
ville, N. 

Beard, C. M t ('rnuhitmtm fumA , Mu^welt 
U i 1 1 , N\ , an (1 22 , G rui'ii -terrace . 

Houd, E., 146, old-street, RO, 

Bora, i:< J tt 6, Amwell-street, E.U. 

Brown. W. N M 37 + Ch:irterlioiise-pqnare, E.C. 

Brnst.C. F.,53. Amwi U^th vr, E.C". 

CfrfMily, G.. 47, Northampton -.sired-, ti.<\ 

ChapuMn. M,, 2, Chattel huii^f huil.lHi^. 

Gala*, F. f;., 6. Myrfrtlekin KnH. l-:.r.' 

COOkwr, [)., 52 h Atutvell'StrtiPt. B,Oi 

Oorke, w\ R„ 27 and 28, Niirthrimpton j*i« 

Curni^h, R,,5 and 7. Central -street, 1LC. 

Dovey, -J., 126, fiirimiess-buildings. Lever- 
street* E.C. 

Ueighton, W. T., 54, Great Percy-street. 

Dingle, W. A., 46, Finsbury-square, E.C. 

Evans, G., 103, Mountview-road, Stroud- 
green, N. 

Garrity, E., 4, Hall-street, E.C. 



Gibson, C. G., 17a, Barnsbury-park, N. 

Gower, W., 56, Bunhill-row, E.C. 

Grey, A. E., 20, Canonbury -villas, Canon- 

bury-road, N. 
Hull, J.. 27. ruTiimiEiy-st.rivt, lVnttmville, 
Kinir. K. K„ J, Northampton- Niiuire, K.r. 
Li mmihtf. W.. 138 k ,St, .Tohii's-Htreet, E.l' T 
Llndtwy.C.,294, rioswcll road, E.C. 
Kilhralfl, jL, 2. Albemairle-street.. K.C. 
Viv^ t W. T.» 74, ftitupton *rnvt. H.C. 
Paine, R., 17, 11 Bloc k. Poabody buildings 

DnrTurin-street, K.t\ 
I'urtersmi. C, 2, Presiilent-str^et, E r C, 
IVrry, G. H. p M.A., j.i\. St., Luke* Itee- 

tory, Hoi met row, Old -street. B.C. 
Phillips* L., 44, EEmotith-st. t dor kt-n well, 
RrihriiilL. l'.,b, dimming -st., Pf.iitutirtlle.N. 
ltttrlitie, &,&, 167, Whtf«rroNi-rtrePt-, KA\ 
Reran, W., 33, ttn ker-s t reel . Wji , 
Richards, (P. M,. 13. White CmultiLt^treot. 
lltnu'h, W„ 95, t'eutrnl-atreet. E.C, 
FE/ihhiftm, 4. r 5, LJnyd-RquaiwW.r. 
Shaw. H... 33» Peinh&rutD-roarl. Hurriugay* 

and 60, Speocer-iilTeet, B«C 
Slurry. J. J. A., 329, GomH-roftd, E.C. 
timall, E. T 185. St. fohu-Htreet. 
Smith, G. t St. Paul's Vicarage, liuuhitl- 

row f E.C. 
Smith, Wn "EverRfldd," Shoot-up- hiU, 

Brotidesbtiry, N.W. 
Stand ri ug. G., 31, St, Paul street, N., and 

7 9, Fiii«hury -street, E.C. 
Ktern. GL, 21. Kin^sqimre. E.C. 
St aw, H. h 9 t Cam berlanrt- terrace, 9tiSat 

Perry-street, W.C. 
Trewby, H., 64, St. John street EX 1 . 
Tro( I , K.. ^6r Sokfortlcst., ClerkeiivrolL 
Walton, J., 7, Uppwr Charles jitreet, KX. 
Wilkes, f*. T,, 262, tia^well-rortd. E.C, 
Wllkins, J., 241 and 243, St. John xtreot. 

E C 
Williams, D., 69, Great Percy-street, W.C. 
Wood, T. W., 59, Red Lion-street, Clerken- 

well. 



FULHAM. 

Town Hall : Walham Green, S.W. 
(Meetings: Alternate Wednesdays, at 7 p.m.) 



The metropolitan borough is the 
parish of Fulham, and is coincident 
with the Parliamentary division 
and the old local government area. 
The Poor Law area also is now co- 
terminous with the new borough, 
the Fulham Union (comprising 
Fulham and Hammersmith) having 
been dissolved on the 25th March, 
1899, following the precedent of the 
dissolution of the Fulham District 
Board in 1886. Fulham is one of 



the eight new boroughs that are 
autonomous for all purposen. 

In area Fulham is below the 
average. It is two and two- 
thirds square miles in extent, 
as compared with an average of a 
little over four square miles. Out 
of its 1,701 acres, only 68 are open 
spaces, made up of five small places — 
a proportion of only 4 per cent, as 
compared with a proportion for all 
London of 8*2 per cent. In 1891 



252 



Borough Councils. 



m per cent, of the population 
lived in overcrowded conditions. 
The death rate in 1901 was 
15*8 per 1,000 living, as compared 
with 177 in 1900. In 1902 it was 
171, and in 1903 139. In popu- 
lation Fulham has been in- 
creasing very rapidly. Until the 
middle of trie past century it 
had a population of less than 
10,000, in 1881 it had increased to 
42,900, in 1891 to 91,639, while in 
1896 it had reached 113,781, equal 
to an average of 67 persons per acre. 
At the last census the figures were 
137,289; estimated now at 160,000. 

In municipal enterprise Fulham 
is advanced. It has adopted the 
Baths Acts, the Burials Acts, and 
the Libraries Acts ; and the Council 
has laid down a very large plant 
for the supply of electric energy in 
the borough. In combination with 
the electric lighting scheme are 
worked a dust destructor, disin- 
fector, and brick and flag-making 
plant. 

The rateable value is about 
£920,000, of which £709 is the valua- 
tion of agricultural land. 

The borough council consists of 
6 aldermen and 36 councillors, who 
have taken the place of 97 members 
of extinct bodies. The borough is 
divided into 8 wards. 

Public Libraries. 

The parish adopted the Act in 
1886. The library contains over 
15,100 vols., and is open on Sundays. 
Chief Library : 592, Fulham-road. 
South Branch Library: 132, Wands- 
wort h-bridge-road. North Branch 
Library: Lillie-road. 

Chief Librarian — W. S. C. Rae. 

Baths and Wash-Houses. 

The Act has been adopted, and 
baths and wash-houses, erected on 
a site in Melmoth-place, in the 
centre of the borough, were opened 



on 10th April, 1902. The establish- 
ment has three swimming ponds, 
private baths for ladies and men, 
douche baths, &c, and a commodious 
public wash-house. The wash- house 
contains stalls for 66 washers, and a 
large ironing room. The whole 
establishment cost over £80,000, the 
architect being Mr. H. Dighton 
Pearson, A.R.I.B.A., of Chancery- 
lane, W.O. 

Superintendent — A. A. Baker. 
Electric Lighting. 

The supply was inaugurated in 
January, 1901, the t generating 
station being worked in conjunc- 
tion with a 12-cell Horsfall destruc- 
tor situated near Wandsworth 
Bridge. Particulars of the scheme 
are given in the Electric Light 
section. 

Borough Electrical Engineer. — 
A. J. Fuller. 

Officers. 

Town Clerk, Solicitor, and Par- 
liamentary Agent — Richard Mel- 
ling Prescott. 

Deputy Town Clerk — J. Percy 
Shuter. 

Surveyor — Francis Wood, 

M.INST.C.E. 

Medical Officer of Health — J. C. 
Jackson, d.p.h., Camb. 
Borough Treasurer — R. H. Meyer 

F.S.A.A. 

Public Analyst — C. H. Cribb, 

B.SC, F.I.C., F.C.S., &c. 

Sanitary Inspectors — C. B. Jones, 
W. H. Grigg, C. B. Lloyd, F. 
Manning, S.- Chapman, H. J. 
Gentry. 

Bate - Collectors — W. Barrett, 
94, Edith-road, W. ; E. Warren, 43, 
North-end-road, W. ; P. Lawson, 
87, Finlay-street ; J. Nicholson, 10, 
Dancer-row ; J. Parker, 1 1, Par- 
son's-green-lane ; J. C. F. Rainger, 
18, Chipstead-street ; W. Dell, 534, 
Fulham Palace-road. 



Borough Councils. 



253 



Mayor. 

Councillor J. M. Littleboy, j.p. 

Aldermen. 

Atkinson, W., 70, Margravine - gardens, 

West Kensington, W. 
Bennetts, W. P., 35, Ringmer-avenue, Ful- 

ham, S.W, 
Clarke, J., 59, Garvan-rd., Hammersmith. 
Davidson, A. T., 13a, Napier-avenue, Ful- 

ham, S.W. 
Hunt, J., 19, Doneraile-street, Fulham. 
Parfltt, A., 51, Chaldon-road, Fulham, S.W. 

Councillors. 

Andrew, E., "Milicent," 21, Elmstone-rd, 
Fulham, S.W. 

Bavin, J., 24, Yarrell-mansions, Queen's 
Club-gardens, W. 

Birch, W. C, m.a., 71, Gunterstone-road, 
West Kensington, W. 

Boyton, F. A., 23, Lebanon-park, Twicken- 
ham. 

Brad ban, W. R., 175, Munster-rd., Fulham. 

Clark. G. F., " Xascot," 718, Fulham-road, 
Fulham, S.W. 

Cook, A., 86, Margravine-gardens, Ham- 
mersmith, W. 

Corbin, W. R., 37, Doneraile-st, Fulham. 

Crew, H. G., 85, Wandsworth Bridge-road, 
Fulham, S.W. 

Cronin, P., 103, Rylston-road, Fulham.S.W. 

Dodimead, H., 9, Broomhouse-rd., Fulham. 

Easton, E. G., 38, Edith-rd., W. Kensington. 

Evans, T. H. R„ 137, New King's-road, 
Fulham, S.W. 



II ^ ln\ G, A., 106, Kemlworth - court, 
Putney, B.W. 

Gntl ridge, A. ( €7. St. DuutUu'B - road, 

H:imm?rsnuth, W. 
K,i iris **.< 50, Edttn-road, W. EettrfltfUtt. 
II vat til i ma. .1. H.. 4, Fii!h.mL-p.i[-k-jj;iNU'Tis. 

I I I ► v f 1 J . t ; . .1 . , 226 , North K ail -mid. West 
Ketisiiiyt.iHi, W. 

.Ijiniiiiway, It., 9. Mnnf^Triit-ril., Putney. 
J. mi. 's.| Jr. ILJ.,30>LtlUertL. Fnimuu, S>\ 
Kpfti.fi. A ri 74, May St., W. Kensington. 
1 it I li- Lm iy, J . M, , j r r. , B, Kul hruu-pk- g'rd'Dft* 
U'.v'f.llL -Tlic Cottagp," 21 , Cole hi U- 

1. 1 Ml', PlllhllHl, S.W. 

>"<i!iinjii. A. I'.. 92. LlUto-roatf, Fulham. 
Morris, EL G tH *' Sirrun Lodge/' Rue- 

hampton. 
Peachey, G. W.. " Ro«e Villa," Fulham 

park-road, S.W. 
Pendlebury, C, m.a.. 40, Glazbury-road, 

West Kensington, W. 
Sadler, A. H., 797, Fulham-road, Fulham. 
Sainsbury, E. J., b.a.., 33, Clonmel-road, 

Fulham. 
Shaw, F. J., 45, Coniger-road, Fulham.S.W. 
Sop3r, W. C, 333, Fulham Palace-road, 

S.W. 
Varge, E., 91. St. Dunstan's-road, Ham- 
mersmith, W. 
Walborn, J., 169, North End-road, West 

Kensington, W. 
Waldron, W. J., 28, Redcliffe - square, 

South Kensington, S.W. 
Winfleld, F., "Balfour Cottage," 238-240. 

Dawes-road, Fulham, S.W. 
Whitty, Rev. W. J. S., m.a., St. Matthew's 

Vicarage, Clancarty-road, Fulham, S.W. 



GREENWICH. 

Town Hall: Greenwich Eoad, S.E. 
(Meetings : Every third Wednesday, at 7.30 p.m.) 



The metropolitan borough of 
Greenwich is the area of the Parlia- 
mentary borough of Greenwich, 
but it conflicts with every other 
area of administration. It com- 
prises part of the Greenwich Poor 
Law Union, and part of the Wool- 
wich Union ; and its constitution 
necessitated the division and 
arrangement of two local govern- 
ment districts— viz., Greenwich Dis- 
trict, from which it took two 
parishes, St. Nicholas Beptford 
and Greenwich, and Lee District, 
from which it took Charlton and 
Kidbrooke, two parishes which were 
united by the Charlton and Kid- 
brooke Order, 1900. 



It is six square miles in 

area, and contains within its 
boundaries several important open 
spaces — Greenwich Park, parts of 
Blackheath and Woolwich Com- 
mon, and many smaller spaces, to 
an extent of 390 acres in all. 

With regard to questions of over- 
crowding and death rate, it is not 
possible to give exact statistics 
owing to the difference between 
the borough area and the areas for 
which statistics are available. 

The borough is still but thinly 
inhabited; the estimated popula- 
tion is 105,350— an average of 2b*'56 
persons to the acre, ranging from 
8t5'64 in West Greenwich to 11.67 in 



254 



Borough Councils. 



Charlton and Kidbrooke. There 
is thus room tor a greatly increased 
population. At a proportion of 
120 persons to each acre available 
for building', the borough has a 
capacity for 408,000 inhabitants. 

The rateable value is £650,654, 
of which £1,132 is the value of 
agricultural land. 

With regard to local services, the 
Baths Acts, Burial Acts, and 




GREENWICH CHAIN AND BADGE. 

Manufactured by the Goldsmiths' 

and Silversmiths' Company. 

Libraries Acts are in force through- 
out the borough. 

Electric lighting is in the hands 
of the London and the Blackheath 
and Greenwich Companies. 

The borough council consists of 5 
aldermen and 30 councillors, who 
have taken the place of about 290 
members of extinct bodies. The 
borough is divided into 8 wards. 



Baths and Wash Houses. 

Established 1851. Last year 
78,944 persons used the baths, and 
2,767 washers ; total, 81,711. Char- 
ges : Private baths, Id. to 6d. 
Open in summer from 6 a.m. to 8.30 
p.m. Saturdays, 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. 
Sundays, 7 to 9.30 a.m. Winter, 
7 a.m. till dusk. Sundays, 8 to 
9 a.m. 

Officers. 

Toivn Clerk and Solicitor — Fran- 
cis Robinson. 

Deputy Town Clerk— F. J. Simp- 
son. 

Medical Officer of Health— Ernest 
G. Annis, m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p., d.p.h. 

Borough Engineer and Surveyor 
— E. J. Seward, f.s.i. 

Public Analyst — R. H. Harland. 

Borough Accountant — Wm. C. 
Chaffey. 

Borough Treasurer— H. Wright. 

Borough Librarian — W. E. 
Barnes. 

Sanitary Inspectors — C. T. Wil- 
son, A. E. Bache, C. W. Nettleton, 
T. Clark, E. Martin. 

Mayor. 

Councillor Charles Stone, j.p. 

Aldermen. 

Benn, J. H., "Hendra," 32, St. John's- 

park, Blackheath. 
Bingham, F. C, 12, South-st., Greenwich. 
McCall, D., j.p., 32, South-st., Greenwich. 
Soames, W. K.. "Maze- hill House," 17, 

Maze-hill, Greenwich, S.E. 
Tysoe, J., "Colwyn," Westcombe-park- 
road, Blackheath. 

Councillors. 

Ashby, J., 4, Nelson-street, Greenwich. 

Batchelor, J. W. A., 11, Vanbrugh -park- 
road West, Blackheath. 

Catt., G. B.. 14, Ruthin-road, Westcombe- 
park. 

Charlton, W. T., "Mansfield," Mycenae- 
road, Blackheath. 

Cooney, B. W., 43, London-street, Green- 
wich. 

Dannatt, T. W., " The Croft," Coleraine- 
road, Blackheath. 

De Havilland, H. C, 32, Vanbrugh -park, 
Blackheath. 

Dixon, J., 37, Delafleld-road, Charlton. 

Lovibond, Major A. E., 169, Greenwich-rd„ 
Greenwich. 



Borough Councils. 



255 



Luckett, A. H., Langdale House, 136, 

Greenwich-road, Greenwich. 
McLean, J. W., 2, Union Wharf , Greenwich. 
Meers, G., 15, Hervey-road, Kidbrooke. 
Newbery, C, 32,Annandale-rd„Greenwich. 
Newington, H. A. H., 33, Kidbrooke-park- 

road, Blackheath. 
Nicholas, W. H., 29, The Village, Old 

Charlton. 
Nixon, C, 70, Humber-road, Blackheath. 
Parker, J. G., d.sc, •' Scotscmig," Beacons- 

fleld-road, Blackheath. 
Perou, W., 17, Greenwich-road, Greenwich. 
Richardson. W., 60, Annandale-road, 

Greenwich. 



Ross, J., 21, Blissett-street, Greenwich. 

Scarr,W. S.,3, Ingleside-grove.Blackhea.th 

Shaw, J. E.,88, lioudou-street, Greenwich. 

Skinner, H. 8., 13, Albury-st., Deptford. 

Skinner, T., 10, Swallowfleld-rd.. Charlton. 

Soames, W. P., 12, St. German 's-place, 
Blackheath. 

Stone, C, j. p., 6, Vanbrugh-ter., Blackheath. 

Stone, J. M., 5, St. Gennan's-place. Black- 
heath. 

Watson, H. M., "Kildonan," Coleraine- 
road, Westcouibe-park. 

Wild, R., 39, Trafalgar-road, Greenwich. . 

Williams, E. P., " ElnihuNt," We^tcombe- 
park-road, Blackheath. 



HACKNEY. 

Town Hall.- Mare Street, N.E. 
(Meetings: Second and fourth Thursdays in the month at 7 p.m.) 



The borough is the parish, con- 
terminous with the local govern- 
ment district, but only part of the 
Hackney Poor Law Union, which 
comprises Stoke Newington as well 
as Hackney. The Parliamentary 
borough of Hackney ,too,differs from 
the municipal borough by reason of 
Stoke Newington being part of the 
North Division, the divisions wholly 
in the borough being Central and 
SouthHackney. 

In area Hackney holds the third 

Elace among single-parish boroughs, 
eing nearly bk square miles in 
extent. Of its 3,299 acres, 018 
acres are open space — a proportion 
of 18*7 per cent. The estimated 
population is 230,000, consider- 
ably over three times what it 
was in 1861 ; and in 1901 it was 
219,288. The density of popula- 
tion is 65, or on the area available 
for building about 80. Thus, if 
Hackney becomes as thickly popu- 
lated as Marylebone, say, there is 
room for 120,000 more people, or 
335,000 in all. The rateable 
value of the borough is £1,230,580, 
of which £297 is the valuation of 
agricultural land. 

Hackney has adopted the Baths 
and Wasn-houses Act, and the 
electricity supply is under muni- 
cipal control. 



The borough council consists of 
10 aldermen and 60 councillors, who 
have taken the place of about 150 
members of extinct bodies. The 
borough is divided into 8 wards. 

Public Baths. 

The public baths are situated in 
Lower Clapton - road, and were 
opened in February, 1897. Prices : 
Swimming baths— Men's 1st Class 
(with use of two towels, &c), 6d. ; 
Men's 2nd Class (with use of towel, 
&c), 2d. Women's 1st Class (with 
use of two towels and costume), (yd.: 
Women's 2nd Class (with use of 
one towel and costume), 2d. Private 
Baths — Men's 1st Class (with use of 
two towels and soap), 6d.; Men's 
2nd Class, warm (one towel and 
soap), 2d.\ cold, (with use of towel, 
soap $d.) t Id. Women's 1st Class 
(with use of two towels and soap), 
6d.; Women's 2nd Class, warm 
(one towel and soap), 2d.; cold 
(with use of one towel, soap W.), 
Id. First Class only — Book of 12 
tickets (Male or Female), Private 
or Swimming, 58. Schools — Book 
of 100 tickets, 1st Class Swimming 
only, 258.; 2nd Class Swimming 
only, 128. (yd. Clubs, 4<d. each 
member. During the year ended 
Lady Day, 1906, the number of per- 
sons who used the baths was 336,852, 



258 



Borough Councils. 



There are no wash-houses on the 
establishment. 

Public Library. 

The borough council has adopted 
the Public Libraries Acts and has 
accepted a gift of £25,000 from Mr. 
Andrew Carnegie for the erection of 
one central and two branch libraries. 
The Central Library is in course of 
erection, and sites have been secured 
for the two branch libraries. 

Electric Light. 

Electricity works were established 
in conjunction with a refuse destruc- 
tor, and the supply was inaugurated 
on 3l8t October, 1901 . For financial 
and other particulars of the scheme 
see the section on Electric Light. 

Officers. 

Town Clerk and Solicitor — W. A. 
Williams. 

Borough Treasurer — Andrew 
Millie. 

Borough Engineer and Surveyor 
— Norman Scorgie, M.I.C.E. 

Medical Officer of Health — J. 
King-Warry, M.D., d.p.h., &c. 

Borough Electrical Engineer — 
L. L. Robinson, m.i.e.e., m.i.m.e. 

Borough Accountant — J. A. Jen- 
kins. 

Public Analyst — Leo Taylor, 
F.I.C., &c. 

Assistant Town Clerk — F. E. 
Lampard. 

Mayor. 

Alderman Frederick Montagu Miller, j.p., 
L.R.C.P. (Lond.), M.R.C.S., L.S.A.. 

Aldermen. 

Beurle, W. L., 331. Victoria-park-road, 

South Hackney, N.E. 
Billing, G., "Arundel," Crescent-road, 

Chingford. 
Corby, T., m.r.c.v.s., 184, Evering-road, 

Clapton, N.E. 
Feesey,R.,113, Downham-road, Kingsland. 
Holmes, G. B., j.p., 84, King Edward-road, 

South Hackney, N.E. 
Miller, F. M., j.p., l.r.c.p. (Lond.), 

m.r.c.s., L.9.A., "Northolme," 135, 

Upper Clapton-road, N.E. 



Rawll, H. C, 42, Oakfleld-rd., Clapton, N.E. 
Reynolds, E., 120, Clapton-common^, N.E. 
Sheehan, J., 110, Mortimer-rd., Kingsland. 
Whitemore, L., 248, Millfleld3-rd., Clapton. 

COUNCrLLORS. 

Barley, J. R., 97, Clapton-common, N. 
Barlow, R. N., 132, Shacklewell-lane, N.E. 
Beadle. E. J., 66, Albert-rd., Dalston, N.E. 
Bennett, H., 52, Lower Clapton-road., N.E. 
Bishop, W. H., 150, Stoke Newington-road. 
Bond, W. H., 20, Brooksby's-walk, Homer- 
ton, N.E. 
Brown, E. C, 80, Albert-rd., Dalston, N.E. 
Bunch, J. B., 116, Clapton-common, N.E. 
Butler, A. S., 68, Filey-avenue, N. 
Carr, G., " Elm Villa," 123, Upper Clapton- 
road. N.E. 
Ca=e, F. M., 34. Horton-road, Dalston, N.E. 
Chapman, T., 23, Shore-road, N.E. 
Clarke, R.. 11, Fletching-road. N.E. 
Cornish, W., 34, Gore-road, N.E. 
Davenport, H. E., 4, Linthorpe - road, 

Stamford-hill, N. 
Day, C. F., 241, Lower Clapton-road, N.E. 
Elliott, J. R. R., 62, Mount Pleasant- 
lane, N.E. 
Evans, D. H., 285, Victoria-park-road, N.E. 
Farmer, E., 172, Richmond-road, N.E. 
Fenton-Jones, W. F., 12, King Edward-rd. 
Frye, F. E., 60, Shacklewell-lane, N.E. 
Garnham, R. J., 90, Greenwood - road, 

Dalston, N.E. 
Grant, H., 30, Elderfield-road, N.E. 
Greenwood, F., 230, Amhurst-road, N.E. 
Hammer. W., 98, Rendlesham-road, Clap- 
ton, N.E. 
Hasemer, G. A., 30, Cawley-road, N.E. 
Hillman, J., 51, St. Thomas'-road, N.E. 
Holmes, G. J., 135, Victoria-park-road, N.E 
Holmes, J., 178, Graham-road, N.E. 
Ho5good, T., 84, Osbaldeston-road, N. 
Inkpen, J., 35, Blackhorse-road, Waltham- 

stow. 
Johnson, L. S., 17, Linthorpe-road, Stam- 
ford Hill, N. 
Jones, G. W. H., 33, Darenth-road, Stam- 
ford-hill, N. 
Juniper, J. T., 18, Brooksby's-walk, N.E. 

King, A., 48, Bodney-road, N.E. 

King, C. A., 212, Mare-street, N.E. 

King, F. W., 127, Kyverdale-road, Stoke 
Newington, N. 

Lashmar, W. A. L., 255, Mare-street, N.E. 

Leigh, V. S., 313, Mare-street, N.E. 

Lewis, W. G., 40, Amhurst-road, N.E. 

Lockie, J. J., 72, London-road, N.B. 

Lockyer, F. J., 60, Graham -road, N.E. 

Margetts, L. A. T., 23, Warwick-road, N.E. 

Morpole. D. W.,4, Sutton-place, Homerton, 

McCann, F., 522, Kingsland-road, N.E. 

McClelland, J. J., 263, Victoria-park-road. 

Meredith, M. T., 55, Mortimer-road, Kings- 
land, N. 

Munro, C, 47, Rushmore-road, N.E. 

Pengelly, W., 6, Mildenhall-road, N.E. 

Pitt, T. R., 49, Cawley-road, N.E, 



Borough Councils. 



257 



Ridgway, W. G„ 18, Lower Clapton-road. 
Rashbrooke, T., 93, Stamford-hill. N. 
Shaw, C. J., 81, Londoa-road, N.E. 
Simpson, B., 11, Charnock - road, Lower 

Clapton, N.E. 
Smith, C. G. t 15, Portland-avenue, N. 



Southerton, G. R.,25,Meynell-crescent,N.E. 
Stapleton, W. J., 47, Brooke-road, Stoke 

Newington, N. 
Stowers, H.» 29, Myrtle-st., Dalaton, N.E. 
Walsh, R. F., 161, Lower Clapton-rd., N.E. 
Watford, J. F., 80, Chatsworth-road, N.E. 



HAMMERSMITH. 

Town Hall: Broadway, Hammersmith. 
(Meetings : Alternate Wednesdays, 6.30 p.m.) 



Hammersmith, like Fulham, is 
an area autonomous for all pur- 
poses. It was formerly joined to 
Fulham for municipal and for Poor 
Law purposes, but it is now sepa- 
rated from the parish for both pur- 
poses. In size it is near the average, 
being three and a half square 
tniles in extent, 10h per cent, of 
which is open space (242 acres out 
of 2,286). The population has 
increased very rapidly during the 
last few years. A village of 5,600 
inhabitants at the beginning of last 
century became a district of 17,000 
inhabitants by the middle of the 
century, of 71,939 in 1881, 97,239 in 
1891, and 112,233 in 1901. It is still 
increasing, and the density of 5661 
persons to the acre leaves a wide 
margin for expansion. The borough 
contains a large proportion of small 
properties, and in 1891 there was a 
proportion of 1344 per cent, of the 
population living more than two in 
a room — a rather large proportion in 
comparison with the thm population 
of the district. The death rate in 
1904, 15*4 per 1,000, was 1*2 less 
than the average of all London. The 
rateable value is £820,763, of 
which £448 is the value of agricul- 
tural land. 

Hammersmith has adopted the 
Burial, the Public Baths and Wash- 
houses, and the Libraries Acts. The 
borough cemetery, which was ac- 
quired in 1869, is situate in Margra- 
vine-road, and additional land for 
the same purposes has recently been 



secured at Mortlake. The Central 
Public Library, which is in Brook 
Green-road, was provided by the mu- 
nificence of Mr. Andrew Carnegie, 
and there are other libraries at 
RavenscourtPark and at Uxbridge- 
road, the latter being erected on 
land g[iven by the Ecclesiastical 
Commissioners, the building itself 
being the gift of Mr. Passmore 
Edwards, whose name it bears. 
There is also a public reading-room 
in Waldo - road, College - park. 
Public Baths and Wash-houses 
are in course of erection on a 
site at Lime Grove, and will 
be completed daring the present 
year. A municipal supply of 
electric lighting was inaugurated 
in June, 1897, for financial details 
of which see our Electric Light sec- 
tion. The handsome Town Hall, 
which was opened in 1897 by his 
Grace the Duke of Fife, is situate 
in the Broadway. 

The borough council consists of 
6 aldermen and 36 councillors, who 
bare taken the place of 81 mem- 
bers of extinct bodies. The borough 
is divided into 7 wards. 

Expenditure 1905-6; £197,459 
excluding amounts paid on the pre- 
cepts of central authorities. Debt : 
£398,079. 

Officers. 

Town Clerk — H. Thompson. 
Treasurer — J. F. Long. 
Borough Surveyor — H. Mair, 

M.I.C.E. 

Medical Officer of Health — N, C. 
Collier, L.R.O.P., l.s.a. 



258 



Borough Councils. 



Public Analyst — P. A. Richards, 
F.I.C., F.c.s. 

Electrical Engineer — G. G. Bell. 

Chief Librarian—S. Martin. 

Accountant — A. G. Keen. 

Assistant Town Clerk— T, C. 
Jarvis. 

Assistant Surveyor — J. Gair. 




HAMMERSMITH CHAIN AND BADGE. 

Manufactured by tfie Goldsmiths' 

and Silversmiths' Company. 

Chief Clerk Rating Department 
— G. Mussared. 

Superintendent of Roads, Sec— 
E. Mitchell. 

Sanitary Inspectors — S. Addison, 
W. Brown, J. S. Cromack, J. Cosson, 
C. Gee, S. H. Brown, H. Neighbour, 
C. Y. Nutley, and H. Oatley. 

Rate-Collectors— G. Dexter, 27, 
Bloemfontein • road, Shepherd's. 



bush; H.E.Rogers, 33, St. Stephens- 
avenue; F. Jeffery, 21, Westwick- 
gardens ; T. Hanks, 44, Glenthorne- 
road. Hammersmith ; J. A. Beak, 
12, Elm-gardens ; 0. F, Chatfield, 
45, Bridge-avenue, 

Mayor. 

Mr. E. C. Rawlings, 

6, Gunnersbury-avenue, Ealing-common, W. 

Aldermen. 

Apsey, J. L.,4, Godolphin-road, Shepherd's- 

%ush, W. 
Chamberlen, T., j.p., 24, Rivercourt-road, 

Hammersmith. 
Hunter, W. P., 50, Mall-rd., Hammersmith. 
Mulholland, J. B., King's Theatre. 
Phillips, A., " Acton Lodge," London-road, 

Isleworth. 
Smythies, Major R. H. R., 20, Addison - 

court-gardens, W. 

Councillors. 

Atkinson, A., 2, Down-place, Hammersmith. 
Be van, R., 31, Girdler's-road. 
Bewsher, S., " Colet Court," 138, Hammer- 
smith-road. 
Boyle, J., 58, Bassein-park-road. 
Burns, W. I., 170, Hammersmith-road. 
Carter, A. J., 75, Shepherd's-bush-road. 
Cockerel), A., 43, Rowan-road. 
Cracknell, A. R., 5, Devonport-road. 
Davidson, W. A., 235, Uxbridge-road. 
Da vies, T. W., 49, Ashchurch-grove. 
Davies, W. P., 261, Goldhawk-road. 
Ebbs, A., 183, The Grove. 
Fletcher, J. F., 75, Goldhawk-road. 
Gillies, W. A., 31, Pennard-road. 
Gilham, A.. 57, Blomfleld-road. 
Green, J. J. R., " Clyde House," Spring- 
grove, Isleworth. 
Hodgson, T. G., 41, Bassein-park-road. 
Hooper, H. R. D., " Pavilion Hotel," North 
Pole-road. 

Hunt, J. W., "Coniston," Holland-road, 
Sutton. 

Johnson, H. T., 28, Eyot-gardens. 

Keogh, C. G. N., 12, GirdTer's-road. 

Levy, J. M., 28, Rivercourt-road. 

Lewis, J. J., 174, Uxbridge-road. 

May, H. J., 164, Percy-road. 

Mayle, F., 15, Amherst-avenue, Ealing. 

Morris, T„ 33, Cambridge-road. 

Pascall, C, 52, Digby-mansions. 

Pomeroy, S. R., 49, Bloemfontein-avenue. 

Ratcliffe, F. A., 9, Netherwood-road. 

Thomas, W., 33, Poplar-grove. 

Tomes, W., 29, Bath-road, Bedford-park. 

Walker, Rev. R. J., m.a., " Little Holland 
House," 6, Melbury-road, Kensington. 

Wallace, R. B., 55, Shaftesbury-road. 

White, H. W., 13, Sinclair-gaidens. 

White, J., 4, Bloemfontein-road. ^ 

Wright, H„ 17, Dalling-road. 



Borough Councils. 



259 



HAMPSTEAD. 

Town Hall: Haverstock Hill, N.W. 
(Meetings : Alternate Thursdays, at 8 p.m.) 



The borough is nearly coter- 
minous with the parish, the old local 
government district, the Poor Law 
area and the Parliamentary borough. 
It is three and a half square 
miles in extent, and contains 350 
acres of open space (15£ per cent, 
of the whole area), including the 
finest open space in London. The 
population has increased con- 
siderably of late years: it was 
12,000 in 1851, 45,452 in 1881, 68,416 
in 1891, 75,449 in 1896, and at 
Census 1901, 81,942. In character 
the borough is almost wholly resi- 
dential, and the average rateable 
value of the houses is high. 
There is very little overcrowding, 
and the death rate for 1905 was # 
9*3 per 1,000, being the lowest rate" 
ever recorded for Hampstead, and 
the lowest in London. 

The rateable value of the 
borough is £1,088,075, of which £274 
is the valuation of agricultural land. 

The parish has adopted the Baths, 
the Burial, and the Library Acts, 
and the municipal electric fighting 
undertaking is in a flourishing con- 
dition. 

The borough council consists of 
the mayor, 7 aldermen, and 42 
councillors, who have taken the 
place of 80 members of previously 
existing bodies. The borough is 
divided into 7 wards. 

Public Baths. 
(175, Finchley Road.) 

The baths were opened in June, 
1888, and consist of four swimming 
baths and about 50 private baths. 
The three largest swimming baths 
are floored over for the winter season, 
two being used as gymnasia, and 
the third for indoor cricket. 

Superintendent— C. W. Biggs. 



Free Public Libraries. 

Public libraries have been estab- 
lished. The central library building 
cost about £5,000, which was pre- 
sented by Sir Henry Harben, J.P. (ex- 
Mayor), then chairman of the vestry. 
The site of this library, one of the 
best in London, is at the corner of 
Finchley-road and Arkwright-road. 
It contains a reference library, 
lending department, news - room, 
and magazine - room. There are 
also branch libraries at Worsley- 
road (Town), Antrim-street (Bel- 
size), Westbere-road (West-end), 
and Cotleigh-road (Kilburn). 

Chief Librarian— W. E. Double- 
day. 

Electric Lighting. 

Municipal electric lighting was 
established in 1894. See section on 
Electric Light. 

Officers. 

Town Clerk— A.. P. Johnson, M.A 

Borough Engineer and Surveyor 
—Oliver E. Winter, M.I.C.E. 

Electrical Engineer — Gr. H. Cot- 
tam, M.I.B.E. 

Medical Officer of Health — Geo. 
F. McCleary, m.b., m.d., d.p.h. 

Public Analyst— A. W. Stokes, 
F.C.S., F.I.C. 

Borough Accountant — Chas. E. 
Moon, F.S.A.A. 

Mayor. 
Councillor Charles Hendrick. 
Aldermen. 
t Andrews. E. C, 110, Finchley-road. • 
•Bousfleld, J. E., 9, Parsifal-road. 
tHanhart, N., 35. Fellows-road. 
tMcMillan. D., 12, Willonghby-road. 
•Pitt, W. A., 1, Cantley-mausion3,68, Fair- 
hazel-gardens, 
♦Pritchard, C. F., 17, Maresfleld-gardens. 
•Randall, T. G., 42, England's-lane. 
♦ Retire in 1909. t Retire in 1912. 



280 



Borough Councils. 



Councillors. 
Ash eu den, T. E.. 45 K Lowfleld-ri>w. 
Bailey. H„ 4, Howlyn-hiN. 
R 1 fcmft v . A . W . 59, HiJlilf W mad . 
Hiirkle, (i., 6L Heath street. 
Candler, H,, 113. GreenrruJ 
1 I ...it, J. D,, 7. Quex-road + 
ftumilttfltfufl. C. W., 86, West E rid -lane. 
LKjuffalf, K.4..J7, Beteis^pntk garden*. 
Ptmner, L.. 13 H Mortimer-eresceDL 
Fr.miphm, A.. 10. Greeiumft-Kardens. 
Fra&er. J. I tf 25, Kingduii-mad, 
G*dsby r C. H., 6. Minster road. 
Green, a T.. 45, Ark Wright i'"aci. 
Greeiihill H T, h 7, Itaua-ftfed, 
Gundry, J. P 158, Adelaide-mad 
Hall. <\ h 3a r Fairfax-mad. 
Hamlltttfl, W. E. f 25, Fairfax* road, 
Heiulrirk. C.,4i h Fiirkhill-rojd. 
HottzapffeL II. \V., itf, Kln& Henry V-riKid. 
HiiJIs. t-. H., 10, Ih'nhiii^toii pk r uijin^ions, 

West-end -lane. 
Jupp, T. T,., 219. UaUizt^roiLd. 



King, C. B., f 5, Frognal. 

Lake, E. E., " East Heath Lodge,' 

Heath-road. vs 

Lloyd, W. E., 44, Holmdale-road. T. 

Lyell, J. P. R., 51, Downshire-hill. 
Neave, P. G., 19, Stanley-gardens. 
Nunn, T. H., 11, Rosslyn-hill. 
Osier, J. T., 43, Belsize-park-gardens. 
Parker, A. G., 75, Alexandra-road. 
Payne, E. S., 45, Rosslyn-hill. .. 

Pocock, W., 58, Fla*k?walk. 
Preston, C. S., 4, Lyndhurst-road. 
Rider, W. R., 143, Haverstock-hill. 
Spriggs, W. J., 16, Parsifil*road. 
Swinburne- Hanham, J. 0. 106, Goldhurst- 

terrace. 
Symmon3, r. A., 55, Sherriff-road. 
Taylor, K. C., 18, Rosslyn-hill. 
Taylor. J. G , 5, Lindfleld-gardeps. 
Todd, E., 57, Belsize-p irk-gardens. 
Turner, G. H.. 35, Rosslyn-hill. 
Woodward, W., 10, Church-row. 
Wrentmore, J. H„ 1, John-street. * .; 



HOLBORN. 

Municipal Offices : 197, High Holborn. Tgwn Hall : Gray V 

Inn Eoad. ? 

(Meetings : Second and fourth Wednesdays, at 5 p.m.) • ; 



The Metropolitan Borough of 
Holborn consists principally of the 
area of the Holborn Division of the 
Parliamentary Borough of Finsbury , 
but certain portions of the Holborn 
Division have, by virtue of the 
London Government Act, 1899, 
become parts of the City of West- 
minster and of the Metropolitan 
Boroughs of Finsbury and St. Pan- 
eras. The borough consists of the 
united Parishes of St. Giles-in-the- 
Fields and St. George, Bloomsbury, 
St. Andrew, Holborn-above-the- 
Bars, and St. George-the-Martyr, 
and the Liberty of Saffron Hill, 
with Lincoln's Inn, Gray's Inn, 
Staple Inn, and so much of Fur- 
nival's Inn as is outside the City of 
London. 

For Poor Law purposes the 
borough is divided between two 
Unions, i.e., St. Giles-in- the- Fields 
and St. George, Bloomsbury, and 
the Holborn Union ; but Lincoln's 



Inn is not in any Poor Law Uniom 
For assessment purposes, the 
parishes of St. Giles-in-the-Fielde 
and St. George, Bloomsbury, Lin- 
coln's Inn, and Gray's Inn are 
dealt with by the Assessment Com- 
mittee appointed by the council, 
and the remaining parishes are 
dealt with by the Assessment Com- 
mittee appointed by the Guardians 
of the Holborn Union. 

The superficial area of the 
borough is 405 acres, and the rate* 
able value on the 6th April, 1906, 
was £1,037,710. 

The population, according to 
the census taken on the 31st Marcl*, 
1901, was 59,405, but at the middle 
of the year 1905 it was estimated 
at 56,522. The total number of 
parochial electors is 12.075. 

The borough is divided into nine 
wards, and the council consists of 
seven aldermen and 42 councillors. 

Since the council came into 
power the Public Libraries Acts, 



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262 



Borough Councils. 



which were only in force in parts of 
the borouerh, nave been adopted 
over the whole of the borough with- 
out limit of rate. 

The Baths and Wash houses Acts 
are also in force in the whole 
borough, but the Burial Acts are 
not in force in any parts of the area. 

Powers to supply electricity are 
possessed by the Metropolitan 
Electric Supply Company, the 
Charing Cross and Strand Elec- 
tricity Supply Corporation, and the 
County of London and Brush 
Electric Lighting Company. 

Public Libraries. 

(198, High Holborn, and 10, John- 
street, Bedford-row.) 

Borough Librarian — W. A. 
Taylor. 

Baths and Wash-Houses. 

(Endell-street and Broad-street.) 

Superintendent — Gr.W. Simmons- 

Officers. 

Town Clerk — Lionel Walford. 

Borough Surveyor — E. Spurrell. 

Medical Officer of Health— W. A. 
Bond, M.A., M.D. 

Public Analyst — J. K. Colweh. 
F.I.C., F.c.s. 

Sanitary Inspectors — Messrs. 
Bennett, Clarke, Larard, and Miss 
Lovibond. 

Borough Accountant — Bernard 
G. Pocock, A.S.A.A., F.S.S., &c. 

MA.TOE. 

Alderman W. Donaldson Rawlins, k.c., j.p. 

Aldermen. 

♦Dibdin, C, 33, Woburn-square, W.C. 
tDibdin, R. W., 56, Russell-sq., W.C. 
•Doll, C. FitzRoy, 5, Southampton-street, 
Bloomsbury, W.C, 



tGlave, N., 80, New Oxford-street. 
tRidge, L. W., 5, Verulam - buildings, 

Gray's-inn. W.C. 
•Rawlins, W. D., k.c, 1, New-square, Lin- 

coln's-inn, W.C. 

• Willoughby.G. P., j.p., 4, Bedford-square, 

W.C. 
♦ Retire in 1909. t Retire in 1912. 

Councillors. 

Angel, E., 12, Howard-road, Cricklewood. 

Baddeley. W., 37 and 38, High Holborn. 

Buer, J. B., 78, Tulse-hill, S.E. 

Canney, Rev. E., The Rectory, Cross-street, 
Saffron-hill, E.C. 

Chapman, A., 8, Warwick : court, Gray's 
Inn, W.C. 

Clarke, M., 4, Queen-square. 

Coleman, E. J., 12, Woburn-square, W.C. 

Coxen, W. G., 21, Hart-street, W.C. 

Davies, R., 59-60, Chancery -lane, W.C. 

Gammon, V. E., 94 and 96, Lamb's Conduit- 
street, W.C. 

Green. C. E., 49, Hatton-garden, E.C. 

Hardy, B. E., 66, Ladbrokegrove, Notting- 
hill, W. 

Hazell, W., j.p., 82, Bedford -c'rt-mansions. 

Heckscher, E. J., 11, New-sq., Lincoln's-inn. 

Hill, J. H., m.d., 2, Bedford-square, W.C. 

Tamr^, S. T. T., 8, Warwick court, Gray's- 
inn.. W.C, 

J f we II, H.,132, High Holborn. W.C. 

Kent, W. G., '" Southampton Villa/* 
Tirickflniimwfc 

• Murrta, T. K., 57, Great Ormonde-street. 
Motion, J. S^ 42, ti 3 ocmi&bui'y -square, W. 
M in t . H. J.. 7. Ncw-Miiiaro. Lincoln's-inn, 
O' Hiiro, \>, 10, Argyli'-Mirerr, W.C. 
iMrkf r, G. ]'., 15, Blooms bury -St., W.C* 
l H juki-r, T..Q. Little AiiUrew-straet, W.C. 
r,.n n, « '. W. h 35, Grtut OrmCPPil-st., W.C. 
Porter. H, r ifi, RussHJ -squaro, W.C, 
Pyke, K. L rt 17B, Cliuriug Ctus^-roud, W.a 
Reilly, J., 29. Bettmozi-atreet, WXL 
Shi^Lni, W. U„ 5, Tumn^tou-pluje, W.C, 
SUoppee, C. H.,41, Mecklenbargh-iOyW^C. 
Simmons, 1". V., 29, Kn^'l! -square, \v_<\ 
Sin it li, J.. 3 5, Grtait RufMell street W.C. 
Muuli, \\ , lL t M,it r . j,i', t 74, Gt. Klfigell- 

strppt W (.* 

Takon, J. W.', 277, High Holborn, W.C. 

Talker, H. F., 2, John-st., Bedford-row. 

Tollinton, Kev. K. B., 19, Wo burn-square. 

Wagstaff, W. H., 371, London-road, Thorn- 
ton Heath, Surrey. 

Warner, G.,7, King's Bench-walk, Temple. 

Wheatley, W. M., 15 and 16, Brook-street, 
Holborn, E.C. 

Wilkinson, P. A., " Craven House," Kings- 
way. 

Williams, G. C. W., 20, Bedford-square, 
W.C. 

Wrentmore, J. H., 29, Bedford-row. 



Borough Councils. 



263 



ISLINGTON. 

Town Hall: Upper Street, N. 
(Meetings: First and third Fridays in the month, at 7 p.m.) 



The borough is the parish of 
Islington, a unit of local govern- 
ment and of Poor Law administra- 
tion, and a Parliamentary borough 
containing the four divisions of 
North, East, West, and South 
Islington. The area is over four 
and three - quarter square 
miles and it is very nearly built 
over. The population has been 
increasing rapidly: in 1801 it was 
10,212 ; it rose fifty per cent, each 
decennium till 1841, when it was 
55,690; forty years later it was 
282,865; in 1891 it was 319,143; 
in 1896, 336,764; and in 1901, 
334,991. Islington is not well off as 
regards open spaces. Highbury 
Fields, the most important, occu- 
pies only 27£ acres and all of the 
open spaces together only male up 
40 acres, a very small proportion of 
the total of 3,092 acres, and in re- 
lation to the population providing 
only one acre to every 8,375 persons. 
The proportion of overcrowding in 
1891 was 2,025, a percentage a little 
above the average of all London. 
The death rate in 1906 was 146 
per 1,000. The borough has baths 
and a cemetery, and public libraries. 
(See Public Libraries.) 

It has an electric lighting under- 
taking, upon which it has spent 
over £428,813. the gross revenue 
from which amounted during the 
year 1905-6 to over £55,974. 

Income from rates for the year 
1905-6, £681,753; income from all 
sources for the year 1905-6, £791,780 ; 
■expenditure, £799,400; debt 31st 
March, 1906, £645,089 (including 
electric lighting, baths and wash- 
houses, conveniences, public lib- 
raries, and cemetery) ; rateable 
value at Lady Day, 1906, £1,960,274. 

The old vestry had all the local 



services in its own hands, and was 
the only body superseded by the 
borough council. It had a mem- 
bership of 123. Tbe new council 
consists of 10 aldermen and 60 
councillors. The borough is divided 
into 11 wards. 

Public Baths and Wash-Houses. 

There are three establishments, 
situated in Caledonian-road, Horn- 
sey-road, and Essex-road, which 
were respectively opened to the 
public in May, 1892, July, 1892, and 
April, 1895. During the year ended 
31st March, 1906, the number of 
bathers at the Caledonian-road 
establishment was 208,519 ; at 
Hornsey-road, 294,236; and at 
Essex-road, 200,724, or a grand total 
of 703,479. Charges: Swimming 
baths, 1st class, 6d., or books of 
12 tickets for 4s. 6d. ; 2nd class, 
2d. Private baths : 1st class, 
warm, 6d. ; 1st class, cold, 
3d. ; 2nd class, warm, 2d. ; cold, Id. 
Baths open as follows :— Week- 
days (except Saturdays), Novem- 
ber to March (inclusive), 8 a.m. to 
9 p.m. ; April and October, 7 a.m. to 

9 p.m. ; May to September (inclu- 
sive), 7 a.m. to 9.30 p.m. Satur- 
days, at 9 p.m., with the exception 
of the months of April and October, 
when the baths are closed at 
9.30 p.m. Sundays, November to 
March (inclusive), 8 a.m. to 

10 a.m. April to October (inclu- 
sive), 7 a.m. to 9.30 a.m. 

The number of washers last year 
at Caletlonian-road was 31 ,316 ; at 
Hornsey-road, 25,557 ; and at Essex- 
road, 50,084; or a grand total of 
106,957. Charges: l£i. per hour. 
Open daily, from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m., 
Sunday excepted. 

Superintendent of Baths— F. A. 



264 



Borough Councils. 



Burch, Hornsey - road Baths, 
Hornsey-roa'l, if. 

Public Libraries. 

Three polls have been taken— the 
first in 1887, when the voting was— 
for 10,152, against 15,774 ; in 1891, 
when 7,542 voted for and 10,912 
against; and the last in January, 
1898, when 11,344 voted for and 
14,413 against the adoption of the 
Acts, but on the 29th July, 1904, the 
Council, acting under the powers 
conferred upon them by the London 
Government Act, adopted the 
Public Libraries Acts, 1892 and 
1893. The Northern Library was 
opened in September, 1906. It is 
expected that the West Library 
and the Central Library will be 
opened before the end of the present 
year, and two further branch 
libraries are contemplated. Mr. 
Carnegie has promised £40,000 
towards the cost of the erection of 
these libraries. 

Electric Light. 

The supply of electricity was 
commenced in 1896. (See Electric 
Light section.) 

Officers. 

Town Clerk— Wm. F. Dewey. 

Assistant Town Cleric — D. Mc- 
Monnies. 

Medical Officer of Health — A. E. 
Harris. 

Borough Treasurer and Account- 
ant — G-. H. Meakin. 

Borough Engineer and Surveyor 
— J. Patten Barber. 

Assistant Borough Engineers and 
Surveyors — N District : J. E. 
Cooke. S.-E. District : P. A. Moss. 
S.-W. District: W. Gallon. 

Electrical Engineer—Albert Gray. 



Chief Assistant Engineer — Alex. 
P. MacAlister. 

Solicitor to the Council — A. M. 
Bramall, East India-chambers, 23, 
Leadenhall-street, E.C. 

Public Analyst— F. L. Teed, 9, 
Mincing-lane, E.C. 

Chief Librarian— J. D. Brown. 

Superintendent of Public Health 
Department and Chief Sanitary 
Inspector— J. R. Leggatt. 

Superintendent of Horse and 
Depot Department— J. W. Wroot. 

Superintendent of Baths and 
Washhouses-F. A. Burch. 

Superintendent of Cemetery— 
Alfred King. 

Inspector of Meat—R. Wilkin- 
son. 

Inspector of Food and Drugs- 
W. W. Ward. 

Inspector of Workshops and 
Bakeliouses — Gr. West. 

Inspectors of Houses Let in Lodg- 
ings— (Jr. J. Bridel and T. H. Han- 
cock. 

Inspectors of Factories, Work- 
shops, Sec, in which females are 
employed — Miss J. J. Brown and 
ana Mrs. A. Catherine Brown. 

Sanitary Inspectors— District 1 : 
W.Cook. District 2 : H. J. Bicknell: 
District 3 : A. Bagshaw. District 4 .- 
C. T. Bacon. District 5: W. H. 
Flood. District 6 : C. E. Horsman. 
District 7 : E. I. Fortune. District 8 ; 
J. Metcalf. District 9: W. Irving. 
District 10 : H. J. J. Watson. Dis- 
trict 11 : T. L. Burrell. District 12 ; 
T. W. Agar. District 13: J. J. 
Jordan. District 14: H. Callow. 

Bate-Collectors — Ward No. 1 : 
J. Williams, 34, Harberton-road ; J. 
Chisnell, 44, Mercers'-road, Hollo- 
way-road. Ward No. 2: J. Wil- 
liams, 34, Harberton-road; E. F. 



Borough Councils. 



265 



Baker, 34, St. John's- villas, Upper 
Holloway. Ward No. 3 : J. 
Williams, 34, Harberton - road; 
X. E. Hitchin, 229, Seven Sisters- 
road; T. Rust, 25, Hanley-road, 
Hornsey-rise. Ward No. 4 : C. R. 
Butcher, 484, Caledonian-road; J. T. 
Baker, 17, Richmond - crescent, 
Barnsbury ; J. Chisnell, 44, Mercer's- 
road, Holloway-road ; J. Tucker, 
67, Cross - street, Upper - street. 
Ward No. 5 : A. E. Hitchin, 
229, Seven Sisters - road ; John 
Moffat, 4, Benwell-road, Drayton- 
park. Ward No. 6 : F. W. Saffery, 
20, Newineton-green; J. Moffat, 
4, Benwell - road, Drayton - park ; 
0. Hill, 82, Ockenden-road. Ward 
No. 7 : S. F. Strong, Public 
Baths, Caledonian-road; J. T. 
Baker, 17, Richmond - crescent, 
Barnsbury. Ward No. 8: J. T. 
Baker, 17, Richmond - crescent, 
Barnsbury. Ward No. 9 : J. Tucker, 
67, Cross - street, Upper - street; 
A. V. Davis, Public Baths, Essex- 
road. Ward No. 10 : O. Hill, 82, 
Ockenden - road ; J. Tucker, 67, 
Cross-street, Upper - street. Ward 
No. 11 : A. Y. Davis, Public Baths, 
Essex-road. 

Mayor. 
Alderman George Samuel Elliott, J. p. 

Aldermen. 

Dryden, G., 51, Medina-rd., Seven Sisters-rd. 
Eggett, H. G., 41, St. James's-road, N. 
Elliott, G. S., j. p., 14, Upper-street, N. 
Mills, H., j.p., 38, Wray-crescent, N. 
Moffat, C, 20, Canonbury-park South, N. 
Myers, A., 39, Highbury New- park, N. 
Saint. T. W., 81, Tollineton-park, N. 
Small wood, E., 133, Highbury -quadrant, N. 
Walkley, A., 17, Cromartie-road, Hornsey- 
rise, N. 
Wyllie, A. E., 424, Camden-road, N. 

Councillors. 

Aldridge, W., 21, Highbury-terrace, N. 
Andrew-Marshall, G., 42, Canonbury-park 

South. 
Auber, G., 13, Highbury-park, N. 
Baker, J. G., 62, Richmond-rd., Islington. 
Batty, J., 60, Canonbury-park South, N. 
Bennett, S. J., 12, Penn - road - villas, 

Holloway. 



Biddle, J. W., 379, Camden-road, N. 

Box, H. A., 237, Caledonian-road, N. 

Bradbear, W. M., 102, St. Paul's-road, N. 

Bumberry, T. W., " Hippie Lodge," Holly- 
park, N. 

Case, S. E., "Bokesley House," Middle- 
lane, Hornsey, N. 

Clarke, A. O., 5, Highbury-quadrant, N. 

Clarke, H. J.. 356, Camden-road, N. 

Cooksey, W. T., 266, Upper-street, N. 

Cornell, W. H., 83, York-road, N. 

Cowling, J. W., 98, Carleton-road, Tufnell- 
park, N. 

Crole-Bees, C, " Ingle wood," 21, High- 
bury-quadrant, N. 

Davis, E. W., 104, St. Paul's-road, Canon- 
bury, N. 

hey, T, H., 23, iKiuglas-rOEld, X. 

[Jidnbury, K*< W. f 4, ilro^ilen-roiiil, N. 

Edis, J. W..24, R,U:hmwni-road 4 N\ 

Elliott, W., 140a, Upper. st reel, N. 

Kline*, A. E,, 60. Marque js-road, N t 

Ksaex, J.. 95 r Sev«ii Sisters road, N. 

I'rn'iJi.LiL, H. S., 279, Xew North-road. N". 

Qrqndy, II, H*. 30, Duncan- terrain, N. 

liutl ridge, ft. T 29. Yonge-park, N. 

Harper, $, C, BQ. Mercers road, N, 

Harper, T. W„ 498. Honirey road, K. 

Harwood, T. L.. 28, Clephaneroail, %\ 

Hill. A T U.. B4, Adelaide road, X.W. 

Kind, A. tt M 10 f Uemmui^toii -jhcuii^ New 
Sourhgate, X. 

Keeves, J, H. T,, H The Grove." Bu*h hill, 
WiuthmuTO'liill, K. 

Kington, H. M. T 297, Caledonian road, N. 

Lumbert* S>. 125. Barnsbury -roadi, >r, 

louder. J, li., 132, FairbHdge road. N\ 

Lander. M. T.. 2, Ash brook road, Upper 
Holloway. 

Loomos, E.. 83, C-arlptou-rd.. TufucUpk. 

Kadgett, T. It., 25, (Jheverton-road. N. 

Mam hitter. W. E.. 23, Froegrove road. X. 

Markhaoi, A. G., 2t, Ttiomhill creseeux, N\ 

Mark ham. W. K,, 79, Esse* road, N. 

Herri ngton, W, J., 147, Upper street, N. 

Monk, A., 291a, CatudeuToud. N, 

Natter, J,, 38 r Hi^b bury grove, ft". 

Palmer, J. ti*. 194, Brecknock-road, N. 

Pratt, E. \V. t 27. Liberia-road. ft, 

Prior, \V., 38, Durham-road, ST. 

Seal* W,, 243, Cam dun- road, N, 

Scania n. W. M.. lib, York-road, N, 

Smith. W. J., 311, Horaaey-road, N, 

JSnare. R.. 45, Queen Elizabeth'* -walk, 
Stoke Xewintrtou, N. 

Sparkle, T., 24, Quadrant-road, K. 

Spider . J ., 2. St, jlary'a-road. Oauonbury. 

vorloy, H. B., 54, Highbury New-park, tf> 

Wa^liorn T F\, 10, Pemberton gardens, St. 
John a- park. 

Weuborn. K. M., '* Umywlck Hoaae," 139, 
Green-lanea, N, 

WUitbard, A, J., 96, Carlatonroaci. Ttrfnell- 
park, 

WtlHams. A t L„ 18. Hignbury-tamu.'^ N. 

Wilson, 0, H,j 29, TUwrnhiliroad, N, 



266 



Borough Councils. 



KENSINGTON. 

Town Hall : High Swieet, Kensington, W. 
(Meetings : Alternate Tuesdays, 8 p.m.) 
The Royal borough is the parish the Brompton and Kensington, aud 



of Kensington, hitherto an au- 
tonomous area for local govern- 
ment, Poor Law, and electoral pur- 
poses, the Parliamentary borough 
being divided into the ftorth and 
South divisions. 

The special provision in the Act 
which allowed Kensington Palace 
to be transferred from Westminster 
to Kensington has been put into 
operation. Kensington, also receives 
the part of Chelsea detached (Ken- 
sal Town) lying to the south or west 
of a line running along the south 
side of Grand Junction Canal, and 
the centre of Wedlake-street and 
Ken sal-road. These additions cause 
considerable difference between the 
borough and the county and Parlia- 
mentary electoral areas. 

The area of the borough is a little 
over three and a half square 
miles, nearly all of which is occu- 
pied. The population in 1901 was 
176,623, an increase of about 10,000 
upon the population of 1891. The 
period of greatest increase was 
between 1861, when it was 70,108, 
and 1881, when it had reached 
163,151— an addition of 93,000 in 
twenty years. There is but little 
open space in the borough, some 
twelve acres in all, but on the 
eastern boundary lie Kensington- 
gardens and the succession of parks 
stretching three miles to the river. 
The death rate in 1906 was 139 
per 1,000; the rateable value 
in November, 1906, was £2,395,590, 
of which £12 was the valuation of 
agricultural land. The Baths, 
Burials, and Library Acts have 
been adopted in the borough, 
and the Town Hall is one of 
the finest in London. The elec- 
tric lighting is in the hands of 
three companies— the Notting Hill, 



the Kensington and Knightsbridge. 
The borough council consists of 
10 aldermen and 60 councillors, 
who have taken the place of local 
bodies having a membership of 152. 
The borough is divided into nine 
wards. 

Baths and Wash-Houses. 

(Lancaster-road, Notting-hilL) 

These were opened in 1888. The 
number of bathers during 1905-6 
was 97,144, and persons using the 
laundry, 70,776. Charges: Men's 
tickets : cold, first class, 3d. ; second 
class, Id. Warm, ifirst class, 672. ; 
second class, 2d. Swimming, first 
class, 6d. ; second class, 3d. ; third 
class, 2d. 10 first class (transfer- 
able), 4s. 2d. ; second class (transfer- 
able), 28. 6d. 50 first-class (trans- 
ferable), 16s. Sd. 100 second class 
(transferable), £1 . Women's tickets ; 
Cold, first class, 3d. ; second class, 
Id. Warm, first class, 6d. ; second 
class, 2d. Swimming, first class, 
6d. 10 first class (transferable), 
48. 2d. 50 first class (transferable), 
16s. Sd. 

Instruction in swimming is given 
at the baths at a moderate fee. 

There are 60 separate washing 
compartments, with an unlimited * 
supply of hot and cold water, and 
steam for boiling, steam wringers 
and mangles, with drying chambers, 
containing 55 horses, and ironing 
room with stoves, tables, and 
blankets. Open on week days 
throughout the year from 8 a.m. to 
8 p.m. Each person is furnished 
with a separate washing compart- 
ment, and the use of a drying- 
horse, mangles, tables, pails, scrub- 
bing boards, flat irons for ironing, 
&c, at the charge of lid. per hour. 



Borough Councils, 



267 



Public Libraries. 

The parish adopted the Public 
Libraries Act in 1887. Central 
library : Kensington High-street, 
W. North Kensington branch : 
108, Ladbroke-grove, W. Bromp- 
ton branch : Old Brompton-road, 
S.W. There are at present 54,667 
books in the libraries, and in year 
ending March, 1906, the total issues 
numbered 179,428. 

Offcers. 

Town Cleric — Wm. Chambers 
Leete. 

Chief Assistant Cleije — Horace 
Kapson. 

Borough Treasurer — Edward A. 
Coombs, F.s.A.A. 

Borough Engineer and Surveyor 
A. R. Finch, c.e., m.s.a. 

Borough Medical Officer of Health 
— T. Orme Dudfield, m.d. 

Public Analyst — Col. C. E. 
Cassal, f.i.o. 

Lighting Engineer — P. Monson, 

M.I.E.E. 

Chief Librarian— Herbert Jones. 

Rate- Collectors— -Percy Hunt, 5, 
Campden-hill-road ; C. Manchester, 
1a, Launceston - place, Victoria- 
grove ; L. W. Westwood, 33, Alfred- 
place West, Brompton; J. H. Roberts, 
10, Wetherby-bsrrace, Earl's Court, 
S. W. ; A. V. Parkhouse, Campden 
Institute, Lancaster-road, Notting- 
hill, W.; T. S. Ware, Camjxlen 
Institute, Lancaster-road, Notting- 
hill, W. ; H. Hume, 58, Earl's Court- 
road; G. King, 10, Wefcherby- 
terrace, Earl's Court, S.W. ; P. 
Chadwick, Campden . Technical 
Institute, Launceston-road, Notting- 
hill, W. ; J. Hunt, Campden 
Institute, Lancaster-road, Notting- 
hill, W. * 

Sanitary Inspectors and Inspec- 
tors of Nuisances— (jr. M. Pettit 
(Chief Sanitary Inspector), A. E. 
Friend, H. Dawes, J. Steward, N. 
Males, C. G, Sexton, J, Cutting, J, 



R. Bagshaw,' E. J. Bennett, J. 
H. Fowles, and G. W. McQuinn. 
Women Inspectors (appointed by 
the council to inspect workshops, 
workplaces, &c, where women are 
employed)— Miss N. T. F. de Chau- 
mont and Miss G. A. Looker. 
Health Visitor— Miss A. Gauntlett. 

Mayor. 
Alderman Henry Robson, j.p. 

Aldermen. 

♦Bennett, H. Curtis, j.p., 118, Lexham- 

gardens, Kensington, W. 
tClay, Sir A., Bart., j.p., 19, Hyde-park- 
Kate. 
♦Frye, F. C, j.p., 25, Arundel-gardens, 

Notting-hill. W. 
tGates, P. G., 5, Manson-place, South Ken- 
sington, S.W. 
tlsaacs, Major L. H., 3, Pembridge-square, 

Bavswater ^V 
♦Pennefather,' Rev. Canon 8. E., d.d., The 

Vicarage, Kensington, W. 
tPhillimore, The Hon. Sir W. G. F. Bart., 

Cam House, Campdeu-hill, W. 
tPope,W.,3,St. Ann's-villas, Notting-hill. 
♦Robson, H., j.p., "Aubrey Lodge," 

Aubrey-road. 
♦Trevor, Sir C, c.b., m.a., 23, Bramham- 
gardens, South Kensington, S.W. 
♦ Retire in 1909. t Retire in 1912. 

Councillors. 

Alder8on, F. H„ m.b., m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p., 
21, Queen's Gate-terrace, S.W. 

Anderson, J., 4, Clareville-grove, South 
Kensington. S.W. 

Bawcombe, W. J., 11, Archer - street, 
Notting-hill, W. 

Baxter, R. D., 18, Stanley-crescent, Not- 
ting-hill, W. 

Betts, C. E., 85, Kensington High-st., W. 

Brooke- Little, J., 28, Lausdowne-creicent, 
Notting-hill W. 

Bruce, Col. E. A., 38, Dray ton-gardens, S.W. 

Bruce-John»ton, G., 30, Aldridge-road- 
villas, Notting-hill, W. 

Burton, A. E.,6, Leonard-place, Kensington. 

Butler, J. D., 11, Redchffe-gardens, West 
Brompton, S.W. 

Carroll, D., 25, West-row, North Kensington . 

Cavaye, Col. W. F., 40, Egerton-crescent. 

Colvile, A. G„ ll.b., 45, Einperor's-gate , 
S.W. 

Colvile, Lt.-Col. C. F., 45, Emperor's-gate. 

Corry, H., 15, Ledbury-road, Notting-hill. 

Craies, W. F., m.a., 33, Holland-villas-road, 
Kensiugton, W. 

Cuffe, Surgeon-General Sir C. McD., k.c.b., 
61, Kensington-mansions, Trebovir-road. 

Davis, D., 40, Ladbroke-grove, W. 

Davison, W. H., 37, Kensington - park- 
gardens, Notting-hill, W. 



268 



Borough Councils. 



Dennis, C, 17, Silchester-rd. , N. Kensington. 

Douglas, J., 1, Langhain-mansions, Earl's 
Court-square, S.\l . 

Ellis, H. I)., 7, Roland-gardens, South Ken- 
sington, S.W. 

Forster, H., 54, Acklam rd., N. Kensington. 

Freyberg, H., 4, Woodville-rd., Ealing, W. 

Fripp, J., 177. Lad broke - grove, North 
Kensington, W. 

Godwin, C, 53, High-street, Notting-hill- 
gate, W. 

Hamill, W. J., 116, Clarendon-road, Not- 
tl lg-hill, W. 

Hatt, C. G., 82, Kensington High-street, W. 

Jarrett. W. J., 66, Bevingtonroad, North 
Kensington, W. 

Key, W. T., 15, West Cromwell-road, Earl's- 
court, S.W. 

Kitchingman, J. E., 112, Fulhamrd., S.W. 

Langford, F. P., " Kensington-park Hotel," 
139, Ladbroke-grove, North Kensington. 

Langman, Lieut.-Col. A. W. F., 22, St. 
James'-square, Notting-hill, W. 

Lausdown, G. A., 10, Russell road, Ken- 
sington, W. 

Leach, F., i.s.o., 7, Stanford-road, Ken- 
siugton, W. 

Lew in, H., 245, Lancaster-road, Notting-hill. 

Lock wood, C. J., 42-44, Silchester-road, 
North Kensington, W. 

Ljell, Capt. F. H., 2, Elvaston-place, S.W. 

McArthur, A. G., m.a., 23, Linden-gardens, 
Notting-hill-gate, W. 

Malkin, R. C, m.a., j.p., 46, Phillimore- 
gardens, Kensington, W. 

Marler, W. H., ** Keuilworth," 2, Chats- 
worth-gardens, Acton Hill, W. 



Morley, G. W., 23, Lancaster-road, Notting 
hill, W. 

Noel- Walker, SirE., k.c.m.o., 52, Warwick- 
road, Earl's-court, S.W. 

O'Dell, G. E., 96, Cambridge-gardens, 
North Kensington, W. 

Reade, Rev. C. D., m.a., j.p., 83, Holland- 
road, Kensington, W. 

Rice-Oxley, A. J., m.a., m.d.,5, Kensington- 
square, W. 

Rubinstein, J. S., 76, Addtson-road, Ken- 
sington, W. 

Shepherd, C, 41, Hewer-strest, North 
Kensington, W. 

Squire, F., 168, Lancasteird., Notting-hill. 

Stainforth, Col. W. f 13, Albert-place, Ken- 
sington, W. 

Symonds, Capt. R. J., R.K., 26, Langham- 
mansions, Earl's Court- quare, S.W. 

Tanner, A. W.,* a.r.i.b.a., 29, Pel ham - 
place, South KensingtOu, S.W. 

Tisdall, A., 25, Kidderpore-avenue, Hamp 
stead, N.W. 

Urquhart. F. W., 15, Royal-crescent, Not- 
ting-hill, W. 

Vesey-Fitzgerald, J. V„ k.c, j.p., 9, Camp- 
den-hill-road, Kensington, W. 

Vinrace, D., m.r.c.s., 24, Alexander-square, 
South Kensington, S.W. 

Webb, Col. R. F., j.p., d.l., 6, West Crom 
well-road, Earl's-court, S.W. 

Williams, F. E., 89, Dray ton-gardens, 
South Kensington, S.W. 

Woolf, E. P., 83, Clarendon-road, Notting- 
hill, W. 

Wool land, M., 69, Evelyn-gardens, South 
Kensington, S.W. 



LAMBETH. 

Town Hall: Kennington Green, S.E. 
(Meetings: Alternate Thursdays, at 6.30 p.m.) 



The borough is the parish of 
Lambeth— the old Local Govern- 
ment district, Poor Law area, and 
Parliamentary borough. The last 
is divided into North Lambeth, 
Kennington, Brixton, and Nor- 
wood, for electoral purposes. The 
area of the borough is six and 
a half square miles, the whole 
of which is not yet built upon. 

The population in 1901 was 
301,895, inl896 it was 295,033, an in- 
crease of nearly 20,000 on that of 
1891, which was itself double that 
of 1851. The borough has 235 
acres of open space, including 130 
acres of Brockwell Park, 19£ acres 
of Kennington Park, 8J acres 



of Vauxhall Park, 9 J acres of Arch- 
bishop's Park, 24 acres of Rusk in 
Park, and 14£ acres of Myatt's 
Fields. These supply one acre 
to 1,242 people. The death rate 
in year ended 1905 was 14*8 per 1,000. 

The rateable value at 1st 
October, 1906, was £1,953,856. The 
Baths, Burial, and Libraries Acts 
have all been adopted in the borough. 
The electric lighting is in the 
hands of three companies — the 
London, the Crystal Palace, and 
the South London. 

The borough council consists 
of 10 aldermen and 60 coun- 
cillors. The combined membership 
of the local bodies which were 



Borough Councils. 



263 



superseded by the borough council 
was 145. The borough is divided into 
nine Wards. 

Baths. 

Act adopted in 1890. A splen- 
did set of baths, designed by 
Mr. A. Hessell Tiltman, f.r.i.b.a., 
was opened by his Majesty the 
King, then the Prince of Wales, 
on 9th July, 1897. They are situated 
at the corner of Lambeth and Ken- 
riington roads, the site alone costing 
£14,350. There are three swimming 
baths (one of which during the 
summer is set apart entirely for 
ladies), 98 slipper baths, and a large 
public wash-house accommodating 
o4 washers. A special feature has 
been made of the chief swimming 
bath, the pond of which is 132 feet 
by 40 feet; it is provided with a 
commodious gallery, being specially 
suitable for swimming entertain- 
ments, while in winter it is adapted 
for the purpose of holding dances, 
concerts, and public meetings. A 
* fine Press gallery has been added, 
and other improvements made. The 
total number of bathers for the year 
ended 31st March, 1906, was 203,187, 
and the total number of washers 
was 23,289. 

Superintendent— H. T. Hancock. 

Public Libraries. 

Act adopted in 1886. Central 
Library : Tate Library, Brixton- 
oval. Branch Libraries: West 
Norwood Library, Knights - hill - 
road; Durning Library, Kenning- 
ton- cross ; Tate Library, South 
Lambeth - road ; North Lambeth 
Library, Lower Marsh ; Minet 
(joint) Library, Knatchbull-road, 
Camberwell ; Upper Norwood 
(joint) Library, Westow-hill. Mr. 
Andrew Carnegie gave £12,500 
for the establishment of a further 
Branch Library at llerne-hill, which 
has been erected^ in Herne-hill- 
road. There is a fine general refer- 
ence library at the Brixton Central 



Library, and an exhaustive special 
collection of books relating to 
Surrey at the Minet Library. 

Chief Librarian — F. J. Burgoyne, 
Tate Library, Brixton-oval. 

Officers. 

Town Clerk—Henry J. Smith. 

Accountant— J. A. Inglis, F.s.A.A. 

Medical Officer of Health — J r 
Priestley, B.A., M.D., D.P.H. 

Borough Engineer and Surveyor. 
— H. C. J. Edwards, a.m.i.c.e. 

Public Analyst— J. Muter, PH.D., 
F.R.s.E., p.i.c, South London Labo- 
ratory, 325, Kennington-road, S.E. 

Sanitary Inspectors : W. R. Bott, 
F. E. Baxter, J. S. Smith, J. M. 
Jones, J. Barfoot, G. Gavin, W. 
Wallis, T. H. Hooper, T. H. Jack- 
son, W. J. Perrin, W. W. Howea, 
J. M. Scorrer, and J. S. Clements. 
Lady Inspectors: Miss E. Gr. Gamble 
and Miss L. M. H. Pearson. 

Smoke Inspector and Inspector 
under Food and Drugs Act — W. J. 
Perrin. 

Rate-Collectors — District 1 : H. W. 
Baxter, 172, Lambeth-road, S.E. 
District 2: T. Giles, 163, Lambeth- 
road, S.E. District 3: F. Phil- 
pot, 170, Clapham - road, S.W. 
District 4 : J. W. Henley, 57, Ken- 
nington-oval, S.E. District 5: W. 
F. Marchant, 292, South Lam- 
beth - road, S.W. District 6 : 
J. T. King, 101, Clapham-road, S.W. 
District 7: T. Mills, 9, Kellett-road, 
Brixton, S.W. Districts : W. Doble, 
253a, Milk wood - road, Herne-hill, 
S.E. District 9 : J. F. Sutton, 162, 
Loughborough-road, Brixton, S.W. 
District 10 : J. Squires, 1, Belgrave- 
terrace, Stockwell-road, S.W. Dis- 
trict 11: F. Foat, 44, Bonham- 
road, Brixton-hill, S.W. District 
12 : W. J. Hill, 68, Rosendale-road, 
West Dulwich, S.E. District 13: 
S. Smith, 27, Alexandra - road, 
Gipsy-hill, S.E. District 14: A. 

K 



270 



Borough Councils. 



Wills, Town Hall, Kennington- 
green, S.E. 

Arrears Collectors — Districts 1 
to 6, and part of 10, T. A. Wille, 
i70A, Kennington-park-road, S.E. 
districts 7 to 9, part of 10, and 11 
to 13, R. W. Moore, 4, Shakespeare- 
road, Herne-hill, S.E. 

Mayor. 
Alderman F. A. Powell, p.R;I.b.a., j.p* 

ALDERMEV. 

Andrew, Capt. C. W„ j.p., ** Rutland 

House," 5, Kennington-terrace, Kenning- 

ton-park, S.E. 
Corben, H., 4, Trigon-road, Clapham-road. 
Dean, G., 49, Brixtonhill. S.W. 
Howlett, G., 193, Clapham-road, S.W. 
Hunt, S. C, " Hillside," Gubyon-avenue, 

Herne-hill, S.E. 
Johnson, E„ 49, Gresham-road, Brixton-rd. 
Newton, A. J., 140, Stockwell-road, S.W. 
Partington, 0. F., "The Highlands," 7, 

. Christchurch-road, Streatham, S.W. 
Powell, F. A., p.r.i. b.a., j.p., 344, Ken- 

nington-road, S.E. 
Woolley, C, p.r.g.s,. "Verulam," 35, Dul- 

wich-road, Herne-hill, S.E. 

C0C3TC]LLt>KS. 

Ansell h 0„ 90 h T horn hi w -road, W. Norwood. 
Arter, W.. 24, Vtiper KeimlHgton-Iauu,S.K. 
Ayles, I*. A,, 44. Umuti-road.CluplKinj.S.W. 
Baldwin. H,, 9S t Loughborough -rd.*Hrlxton, 
Blytmi, C, D., 102 > IjptHn' Koumcgtou-Ume, 
Kott> J,, 64. Heme hill. S,E. 
Bowfs, S. R t , 14, St* Jotu/fi-rri., ttrixiiro-rtl. 
Bragg, W. Lu h 60, lEnrringtou id., llrUtou, 
BriiiUt, Fy 10, Lambeth -walk. S.E. 
Bri.tiiiit, <i., 2*1. Eeunisgtoa-load, 8.R 
Brillufi, H. VT n 20, Thurlby road, \\\>${ 

iiuiwuuu, is. h. 

Broadbent, W., 90, Stamford-st., Lambeth. 
Brock, C, 3, Lorne-road, Brixton, S.W. 
Budge, F., 28, Albert-square, Clapham-rd. 
Capon, J., 68, Lower Kennington-lane, S.E. 
Carter, C, 6, 7, and 8, Springfield-parade, 

Wandsworth-road, S.W. 
Chapman, C. E., 223, South Lambeth-road. 
Chapman, J. J., 113, Vassall-rd., Brixton-rd. 
Clark, E. E., 110, Thornlaw-rd., W. Norwood. 



Clark, J. E. L„ 415 and 417, Brixton-roacTi 
Corben, H., 7, Trigon-road, Clapham-road} 

S.W. 1 

Cox, J., 7, Crozier-street, Lambeth, S.E. • 
Davey, W. J., 22, Overton-road, Brixton. 
Davies, A. W., 223, ColdharbouMane, S;W' 
Davis, W. A., 61, York-road, Lambeth. S.B*. 
Day, G. W., 27, Carlisle-st., Westminster* 

bndge-road, S.E. 
Dunkin, J. H., 132, Westminstebbridge-rdt 
Evans, J. ¥ if 25, Hainthorpe-road, Aftest' 

Norwood* S.E. 
Farmer, P. C., "Cambrian House," York-. 

road, West Norwood, S.E. 
Faulds, A., 9, Binfleld-road, Clapham, S.E. 
Fielder, F., 152, Knighfs-hill, West Nor- 
wood, S.E. 
Gibbs, C. H.,20a, Herbert-rd., Stockwell-rd. 
Hale, C. R., 5, Kellett-road, Brixton, S.W. 
Hamblin, G. W., 105, Lyham-rd., Brixton,. 
Hawkey, J. F., 75, Arlingford-rd., Brixton. 
Hinds, G., 27, Becmeade-avenue, Streatham. 
Hopkins, J., 36, Ryde Vale-road, Balham. 
Hunt, G., 39, Hanover-gardens, Kenning-' 

ton-park-road, S.E. ; 

Hutchens, E. C, 36, Lower Kennington-lane. 
Huteon, A. J.. 54. Holland-road, Brixton. ( 
lly^lop. A. V. r 33. ftlnfljal&riL Clapham.: 
.In'iiLinijfi-r, { T ., 19, Kcnchester-fftreetj South! 

Limibeth, & W, \ 

Kent. J. It.. 3, Horace-tit.. WaudE worth *rd.* 
Knight, Jp Jh P. M\. 14, St. Lou|*r*lerroce t i 

We&t Norwood, S.E. « 

Lang-Sims li.,16, Hiiyter-rdi.Britton-Mll,; 
Letkiiiug. A. K. S., 22, He] is road. Brixton., 
M asters, <n t 3, A jgbovth -mansions, Chapel- 

street, Brixton. S.W. ! 

Mills. E. A.. 27, Herbert *d., Btockwell-nLJ 
Newman, H« W.,2,Milkwood-rd.. Heine- hi! L * 
Noun , E , I-:, , L 2. Wind mi I l^o w, S.E. 
OiTurii. a., i, Cawon-roidj WiBt Dulwicb.i 
1'arker. A. J., B, Herne-hill, S.E. 
Slack, G., F.K.G.8., 5, Kellett-road, Brixton. • 
Thompson, G. A., 60, Knollys • road, 

Streatham, S.W. 
Townsend, I. F., 52, Thurlestone-road, • 

West Norwood, S.E. I 

Whyte, H., 33, Stockwell-park-road, S.W. 
Williams, J., 204, Lambeth-road, S.E. 
Williams, J., 38, Dalberg-rd., Brixton.S.W. 
Wood, F. B., 100, Leander-road, Brixton. 
Wood, J. E., 202, Lambeth-road, S.E. 



LEWISHAM. 

Town Hall: Catford, S.E. 
(Meetings : Alternate Wednesdays, at 6.30 p.m.) 



The metropolitan borough is 
" the area of the Parliamentary 
borough o£ Lewisham," consisting 
of the parishes of Lewisham and 
Eltham, an area that is cotermi- 
nous with no other area of adminis- 
tration. In the Lewisham Poor Law 



union there is in addition the parish • 
of Lee ; while for local government : 
purposes Lewisham is part of the J 
Lewisham district and Eltham is j 
part of the Lee district. The ; 
area is very large, eleven , 
square miles, the third largest 



Advertisement. 



271 



Telephone Nos.— 

645 EAST. 

646 EAST. 

647 EAST. 

Telegrams— 

" DOWELLED, 

LONDON/' 



Every Description of 

Wood Paving 



and 

Flooring 



Blocks 



Supplied, cut 
ready for use or 
laid complete* 



Sole Manufacturers of 



W. DUFFY'S PATENT 

DOWELLED BLOCK PAVING, 

and of the 

11 IMMOVABLE-ACME " System of 

Wood Block Flooring. 




00D PAVING 
00D FLOORING 



WEST AUSTRALIAN 

Jarrah & Karri 

^04- 

DEAL AND OTHER 80FT WOODS 

(Plain and Creosoted). 



All specially selected & treated 
for paving purposes. 



For Particulars and Estimates apply to the 

Acme Flooring & Paving Co. 

(1904), LTD. 

Wood Paving Contractors and 

Flooring Specialists, 

GAINSBOROUGH ROAD, VICTORIA PARK, 

LONDON, N.E. 



K 2 



272 



Advertisement. 




Borough Councils. 



273 



of all, and more than seventeen 
times as large as Holborn. At pre- 
sent the area is only thinly ixjpu- 
lateJ by about 14 persons to an acre. 
The population estimated to 
middle . of 1905 was 15:5,21(5. The 
rateable value is £1,0(38,071, of 
which £3,069 is for agricultural 
land. \ 

■ The borough contains 114] acres 
of Blackheath, 46} acres in Lady- 



Mltfe 




LEWISHAM CHAIN AND BADGE. 

Manufactured by the Goldsmiths'- 
and Silversmiths' Company. 

well recreation ground, and 45i 
acres in Hilly Fields, besides other 
open spaces maintained by local 
bodies, comprising in all 266 acres. 
There is veiy little overcrowding in 
the borough, and the death rate is 
low: in Lewisham it was in 1902= 
137 per 1,000. 

Under the Adoptive Acts scheme, 
the Baths and Burial Acts are to be 
in force throughout the borough, 
the Libraries Acts in Lewisham 



parish only. The electric lighting 
is in the hands of the Lewisham 
and District Electric Supply Com- 
pany, Limited, and the Blackheath 
and Greenwich District IClectrio 
Lighting Company, Limited. (See 
Electric Light section.) 

The borough council consists of 7 
aldermen and 42 councillors. Local 
bodies with a membership of 
more than 250 were superseded by 
the borough council. There are 9 
borough wards. 

Public Baths and Wash- Houses. 
(Lady well and Forest-hill.) 
Opened 1885. Number of bathers 
19Q6 were — Lady well, 95,092* 
Forest-hill, 53,760. 

Free Public Libraries. 

Lewisham adopted the Free 
Public .Libraries Act in J890, levy* 
ing a rate at first of only a half- 
penny in the pound. Libraries: 
High-street, Lewisham, Dartmouth* 
road, Forest-hill, Sydenham-road, 
and Brockley-road. Lending Lib- 
rary, Manor House, Lee ; open from 
10.30 a.m. to 9 p.m. News Rooms : 
open from 8.30 a.m. to 9 p.m. 
Officers. 

Town Clerk— E. Wright. 

Deputy — E. H. Oxenham. 

Medical Officer of Health and 
Public Analyst — Dr. A. Wellesley 
Harris, M.R.C.S., D.P.H. 

Surveyor — E. van Putten. 

Accountant — Henry P. Hall* ».„ 

. MA.YOE. 

Councillor Rev. E. C. B. Philpott, b.a., j.p. 
Aldermen. 

Brown, W., *' Garthmyl," New Church- 
road, Hove. 

Carman. H., "Brunswick House*" South- 
road, Forest- hill, S.E. 

Garside, A., 20, St. Margaret's - road, 
Brockley, S.E. 

Luck, M. S., 93, Lewisham-rd., Lewisham. 

Stebbing, H. P., j.p., "Inglemere House," 

• Inglemere-road, Forest- hill, S.E. 

Thomson, T., 20, Lewisham-road, Lewis- 
ham, S.E. 

Warmington, G. S., 146, IBurnt Ash-hill, 
Lee, S.E. , - * 



274 



Borough Council*. 



COUNCILLORS. 

Adam# H H + . "The Cedar?" Brnrkley 

View, Furust-hiil. 
Anderson, G, JL, 23, Bishopsthorne-road, 

Sydenham. 
Kiill. K., 57, Lewi shsun-tt 111, LewishanJ. 
Babdou, J, h te, High load. Lets. 
Burnett, A. C, '-'JSuffleLd/ 1 Addluglon- 

grove. Sydenham. 
Burrow. Meut.-Col. P. tf., R.A,tf,c., 50, 

N u Igarde-rord , Catford, 
Baxter, M. A., 3, St. German h s-r<I. F Kuresi. 

hilL 
Hevao/W.CiL, 10, Sydenham rd., Sydenham. 
Hurrell, W„ 21 f S!iiithwaiterd bf Lewishuui, 
Chamberc, Q. P., J. p., "Let hen (.% range, " 

La wrie- va rk -a veti ue, ,Sy r I ei i h;» tn . 
Chllds, V. t " Fair balm, ,r 4& ft ushey -green, 

Catford, 
Clayton. J,, "Hough Villa/' 27, Baring 

road. Lee. 
Cook p. C + J., 194. li«wiihatu-rd. h Levrifham. 
Croft, Mjijiir A + V. W. f 6, Bel it ha* v LIU* 

Sooth end -lane, l*ower Sydenham. 
Dawes, H. W it 33. I*ee- terrace. Lee. 
Fenner, 1L A. 6, Kliot-hitL Lev? is ham. 
FbOt, T., IISb, Riihlity -green, Catford. 
Filzgibbon*. A, J.* 309, Brockley - road, 

Brock ley. 
Good, J. ' A.. 10, St. Margaret'* * roud, 
' BrockJey. 
Higson. Dr + J, It.. " Gakinere/* Honor Oak* 

park. Format- hill. 



Howes, J. J., 346, Brockley-rd., Brockfej^f 
Ilsley, G. W., 10, Northbrook-road, h»* r ) 
Jackson, R., 24, Montem-roexUForest-bilL 
Lee, W. H., 22, Sonthbrook-road, Lee. 
Mellor, T. H.» 296, Stanstead-foad, ForestJ- 

bill. ,' 

Morley, W., 325, BrownhiU-road, CatferaV 
Morrell, H. H., 21, Vennerrd., Sydeobant 
Morris, Rev. J. C., m.a., 41, ClarenddB,rck 

Lewisham, S.E. 
Obee, W., 25, Highroad, Lee. < : q 

Parry, W. P., " Woodville," Inglemere- 

road, Forest-hill. 
Parsons, J. C-. 11, Slaithwaite-rd., JLewis* 

bam, S.B. 
Penfold, P., 8, Sydenham-park, Sydenham. 
Phllpot, Rev. \. C. B.. b.a.. j.p., 293, 

Brownhill-road, Catford. ' , 

Ross, W., 75, Broadneld-road, Catford. , 
Randall, A. P.. " Pen Caeder," Lowther'. 

hill, Forest-hill. sh 

Revill, Capt. W. C. B.. 4, Dacre-gardens, 

Lee. - 

Saunders, A., 7, Qoeensthorpe-road, Syden- 
ham. ' - 
Sweet, W. G., 157, Burnt Ash-hill, Lee. 'to 
Trencbard, A. H. R., 1, Wa4eraad-raaj4{ 

Lewisham hill. «r«— ~ wu 

Tnrpin, J. J., 156, High-road, Lee. n * 

Weeks, A. O., 54, Algernon-rd.,' Lewisham? 
West, Major T., "The Elms," Southend* 

Catford. ^^ 



PADDINGTON. 

Town Hall: Harrow Road, W. 
(Meeting's : First and third Tuesdays in the month.) 



The Metropolitan borough is the 
parish of Paddington which ' was 
previously the PoorLaw and local 
government area and the Parlia- 
mentary borough consisting of the 
north and south divisions. The 
area of the borough is nearly 
two square miles, containing a 
slightly increasing population, 
estimated at middle of 1906 at 
148,621. In 1871 the population 
was 96,813, in 1841 it was 25,173, in 
1801 it was 1,881. Of the total area 
of 1,354 acres, 132 are open spaces ; 
102 acres are in Kensington Gardens. 
The proportion of overcrowd- 
ing in 1901 was 13*56 per cent. 
The rateable value of the 
borough for 1906-7 is £1,549,911, 
of which £3 is the valuation 
of agricultural land. The part 



of Chelsea detached (Kensal 
Town) which has been 'added to 
Paddington lies to the north and 
east of a line drawn along the 
southern boundary of the Grrand 
Junction Canal, and the centre of 
Wedlake-street and Kensal-roacL 
The Baths and Burial Acts are' 
in force throughout the borough, 
but not the Libraries Act. in- 
Queen's Park Ward, however, tljere 
is a library founded by Chelsea, 1 
which costs more than the matintttm 
rate of Id. in the pound on that 1 
ward alone will produce, and 1 a. 
special scheme has been prepared for 
the settlement of this difficulty. 
The baths and library in Kensal 
Town are transferred to Paddingtott 
nnder Sec. 2 of the Adoptive AoW 
scheme. J 

The electric lighting powers are* 



Borough Ooaneilt. 



295 



in the hands of the Metropolitan 
Company. 

The borough council consists of 
10 aldermen and 60 councillors, 
who took the place of the vestry 
wita 72 members. There are 8 
wards. 

Public Baths and Wash -Houses. 

A public baths institution was 
established in Queens-road, Bays- 
water, in 1874, and another in 
Kensal-road. Kensal Town, in 1893. 
Charges : Private baths, Id. to 
6& ; 8wimminff baths, Id. (for school 
children) to 64. 

Free Public Libraries Act. 
'Act not adopted in the old portion 
of the borough. Ballot taken in 
1887, when there voted— For 1,652, 
and against 5,845; and in 1891, 
when the figures were— For 1,590, 
against 4,528. There is a free 
public library in the transferred 
area of Chelsea detached (Queen's 
Park Ward), and it contains about 
10,900 volumes. A free library exists 
in the borough, supported by 
voluntary subscriptions. 

Officers. 

i Town Clerk — Arthur W. J. 
Russell. 

Deputy Town Clerk — Percy H. 
$ray, Barrister-at-Law. 

Borough Accountant — John B. 
Carrington, F.8.A.A., F.s.S. 

Borough Surveyor — 13. B. B. 
ISewton, A.M.LC.K., F.S.I. 

Medical Officer, of Health— R* 
Qudfield, m.a., m.b. 

Borough Public Analyst — A. W. 
Stokes, f.c.s.,.fj.c. 
s. Inspector of Lighting and Over- 
headWires—W. H. Cox. 

S Sanitary Inspectors— C. J. Biorn, 
. J. Potter, J. W. Webster, E. 
nthony, Jun., T. Mitchell, G. J. 
ners, C. S. Wansbrough, C. 
wrence, S. W. Wingfield, E. J. 
9iiveU» Miss Nicolas, Miss O'Kell. 



Inspector under tits Sale of Food 
and Drugs Act—T. A. Parker. 

Rate-Collectors — Harrow Rood 
Ward : W. H. Mitchmson, 4, Corn- 
wall-road. Maida ttfale Ward: 
J. E. Walker, 33, Castellain-road. 
Church Ward : A. J. Croxford, 12, 
Oakington - road. Queens Park 
Ward West: C. A. Birtles, 85, 
Ilbert-street Queens Park Ward 
(East) and Westbourne Ward 
(North): A. W. Davison, 85, 
Ilbert-street. Westbourne Ward 
(South) : A. Sales, 5, Rundell-roacL 
Lancaster Gate Ward : J. M. 
Huish, 98, Ledbury-road. Hyde 
Park Ward: A. J. White, 5, 
Oakington-road. 

Mayo*. 

Alderman Herbert Lidiard, jr.*. 

Aldbbxbh. 

Blcker-Caarten, A. G., 9,Upper Westbonrne- 
tetrace, W. 

Blair, CoL H, P.. e.b., 21, Norfolk Crescent, 
Hyde-park, W. 

Cols, 8. J.,."Fernleigh/' 123, Fernhead- 
rdad, W. 

Handover, H. G., 3, Oxford-gardens, Ken- 
sington, W. 

Lidiard, H., j.p., 114, Westbounie-tferraca, 
Hyde-park. W. 

Kenyon, H. H., 45, Edgware-road, w. 

ShaW-Stewart, Maj.-Gen. J.. B.B., 7, Inver- 
nets-terraos, Hyde-park, W. 

Urquhart, W.. 107, Portsdown-road, W. 

Whur, R. P., 42, Elgin-avenue. 

Williams, J., j.p., 236, Elgin-avenue. 

Councillors. 

Angus, Dr. J. A., 58, Cambridge-street, W. 

Appleton, H. J., 38, Warwick-avenue. W. 

Armstrong, F. C, 507, Harrow-road, W. 

Bannerman, Col. P. W., 8, Somers-plact, 
Hjrde-park, W. 

Bannbter, E., 11, Harrow-road, W. 

Bates, 8. E., m.a., j.p., 20, Hvde-park-sq. 

Bean, A. W. T., c.b.,52, Porchester-terrace, 
Hyde-park, W. 

BeH, W., 57, Hampden-street, W. 

Bevan, C. M., m.a., 38,Orsett-terrace, Hyde- 
park, W. 

Beverly, M. P., 98, Maida-vale, W. 

Blackwood, J., 505, Harrow-road, W. 

Broughton, H. W., 39, Cambridge-terrace. 

Butt, C. T.. 17, Chichester-street. W. 

Chabpeil. W., 243, Elgin-avenue, Maida- 
vale, W. 

Cbatterton, Dr. E., 2, Upper %te*ttairne- 
terrace.W. 

Cobb, F., 18, Westbourne-gaEdens, W. 



in 



Horough, GoiiruMs. 



i t.*W. B. i 29. Writ hffrljidil ■ iil\tvt\ Ita ywtatAi 
■: i i> ■. E.K.. m<a., 4a. Ltrin-ter-g&rdvii£,'W? 

Cox. Rev, J, M., 106. Sbtrlaud-rund. M"; 

frusta ud* It., \, Rurlitliili-njad, X.W. 

Dubby, J.jWfc StvHtepheii'tf-rrad. W. 

DihicIhs, fibdft ft. J. H., L ALl)ioti-:tr<>rt. 
Hyde -inu-ii. W, 

1:v;lIi- C, D,, 138, itortiuilL-vond. W. 

Fairbauk, J, r G, Anibtrrlo'-ivliiiru's-". M:iM:i 

l';LiJLUi[rt, Col, St; .r. F. H-, c.Ji.. 21. St. 

1'lu i>|jmtfb pluiv, \\, 
r,Lrtlf)l T S TiA?<.i„ m.f.,ij i „96 i Hvde-pflrk- 

*tr*ct, w: 

i , 1 1: - ,■■ ■: r r J .. 226, K i Umru-Jiitir, QnqenV-imi'k. 

Hart, \V, A,, nr.v*o„ 23, Westpourne-mrk- 
vlliii$ p .W. 

Horstej l 7l!\ 8., 2, Lhit'li^lei-tixM't. W, 

jEHiea, JVr. J. T. P lOJ.SiiLUcrhind avenue, W*- 

Jitflin, li.JtjS.l'UiMiMiinn id.. Ui"ii'ii--l"'iry, 

FvEii^liik^ J. B. P. s k.a,* 11, tkmthwkk- 
Ci*6sc*tH». V, 

Ljurie, Lt^Gtfti. J, M„ c.n.. j.i\, im'vl., 
47, Porchester-terrace, W. 

Lewis- Barned, Major H. B., 3, Sussex- 
square, W. 

Lnkef, C". H., 133a, Queen' s-road, W. 

Marshall, Col. C. H.T.y 6, Chester-place, W. 

McKenzie, J., 80, Sutherland-avenue, W. 

Mead, Col';* H. r R., r.e., 161, Gloucester- 
terrace, Hyde-park, W. 



Mitcnilfebn, T., 18, Richmond-road, West- 
bourne-grove, W. 

Morrelli G. H., 119, Elgin-avenue, W. 

MunfOrd*,^., 25, St. Stepheirs-square, W. 

Muzzell,TUW., 7, Harrow-rood; W. 

Nolan, Dr. W. J. , 20, Talbot-road, W. t . 

Norman, A. C, 71, Moscow-road, W. 

Perowne, E. S. M., f:s.a., 20, Randolph-rd. 

Poulter, J. H., b.a., j.p., 23, Westbourne- 
terrace, W. 

Rickards, (VF., 12, Spring-street, W. T 

Saltwell. H. G., 16, Wrentham-gardens. 

Smith, Chancellor P. V., ll.d., 116, West- 
bourne-terrace, W. » 

Smith-Rose, W.,39, Park-place, Bayswater. 

Sutton, H.. 2, Formosa-street, W.' 

Swift, H. H., m.a., j.p., 45, Westbourne- 
terrace, W. 

Tapling, A. J., "10, Monmouth-road, W, . 

Thoipe, J., 262, Kilburn-laue, W, 

Turnham, T. B., 10, Piaed-street, W. 

Urquhart, A., 107, Portsdown-road, Maida- 
vale>W. • ' .: 

Wall, G.,- 2, Chureh-pjace-, Paddingfara- 

' green, W. 

Waycott, J. F., 10, Wharves, South Side, 
Paddington. 

Whyte, J[. M., 51, Marylands-road, Pad- 
dington, W. 

Wilkin,G., M.A.,130,Westbourne-terrace,W.' 



POPLAR. 

Council Chamber: High Street, Poplar. 
(Meetings : Alternate Thursdays, at 7 o'clock p.m.) 



The borough is the district of the 
late Poplar Board of Works, and con- 
sisted of the parishes of St. Mary, 
Stratford - le - Bow, St. Leonard, 
Bromley, and All Saints, Poplar, 
which, under an Order in Council, 
has been amalgamated in one 
parish from 1st April, 1907, to 
be known as the Parish of Poplar 
Borough. It is conterminous with 
the area of the Poplar Board of 
Guardians and with the Bow and 
Bromley and the Poplar divisions 
of the Parliamentary Borough of 
Tower Hamlets. 

In area it is a little over three 
and a half square miles, all 
of which is fully occupied. The 
population is stationary ; in 1896 
it was 169,207, in 1891, 166,880; 
between 1851 and 1881, however, it 
increased from 47,162 to 156,510. 



In 1901 it was 168,822. In general 
character the three parishes in the 
borough vary considerably : Poplar 
is to a large extent occupied by the 
docks; Bow is more residential in. 
character; Broniley has a large 
poor population. In Poplar Parish 
the open spaces include the Island 
Gardens and Tunnel Gardens, main- 
tained by the London County 
Council, a recreation ground, and 
two public gardens maintained by 
the borough council; Bow has 72 £ 
acres of Victoria Park ; and Brom- 
ley has a recreation ground pro- 
vided by the London County 
Council. The death rate of the 
borough in 1905 was 17*63, and the 
rateable value is £841,022. 

Under the Adoptive Acts scheme 
the Baths and Libraries Acts are 
in force throughout the borough, 



■Borough - Councils. 



277 



but the Burial Acts in no part. 
Poplar has a town hall, a public 
hall, and a swimming bath is 
floored and let during" the winter 
months. 

• The borough has the electric 
lighting powers in its own hands, 
and supply was commenced in 
October, 1900. (See Section on 
Electric Light.) : / 

The borough council consists of 
7 alcfermen and 42 councillors,, ana 
has superseded bodies having a 
membership of over 400. There are 
14 three-member wards— 4 for Bow, 
5 for Bromley, and 5 for* Poplar. 

Baths and Wash -Houses. 

(241, Roman-Toad, Bow.) 

Baths and wash-houses were 
established here in 1892, Charges : 
1st class swimming baths &£$ 
2nd class, 2d.. Private baths (for 
men and women), Id. to Is, 
Iuaundry, lid. per hour. 

(East India Dock-road, Poplar.) 

.Established 1852. Charges :. 

Baths, Id. to- la.; laundry,: lid. 

per hour. , . 

(Grlengall-road, MillwalL)' '- 

Established 1900. Swimming 
Baths, 2d. and 3d. ; private baths, 
Id. to $d. 

.' Season tickets issued, and re- 
duced charges for school children" 
at all the baths. < 

Total bathers and washers last 
£ear was 311,993. 

Free Public Libraries. 

; Poplar : High - street (1892) j 
(Strattondale- - street, Cubitt Town 
1904). Bow: Roman-road (1900). 
Bromley : Brunswick-road (1895), 
transferred to new building 1906. 
Volumes issued last year, 254,730. 
Borough Librarian— PL Rowlatt. 

Officers. 

, Town Cleric— Leonard Potts. 

Assistant Cleric -Charles H. Shil- 
linglaw. 



Borough Accountant — W, M. 
Mead. 

Clerk for Valuation and Rating 
— J. B. Skeggs. 

Medical Officer of Health— F. WV 
Alexander, 84, Bow-road, Bromley. 
. Public Analyst — W. C. Young. ! 

Borough Surveyor — Harley Heck-* 

ford, A.M.I.O.E. \ : 

.Electrical Engineer— J. Horace 

Bowden. - ! ■ ! [ 

Borough Sanit&ry Inspector^ — 
Poplar, K Division t J. BuUocki 
S. Division : G. Foad. Bromley, 
N, Division; H. J. Langley. S. Divi- 
sion} R. E; Miners. Bow, E. Divi- 
sion: A, J, Field. W. Division: W. 
Boyce. 

Fehiale Sanitary Inspector — Miss 
Alice Tattersall. 

Jlate* Collectors — POPLAR : Dis- 
trict 1 : J.. M'Donald. District 2j 
A. G. Terdre. District 3: J. P. 
Burchell. Bromley : District 4 : 
W„ H. PuUinger. District 5 : A. 
Ashton. District 6: T. T. Burt. 
Bow -.District 7 : H. J. Chatterton! 
District 8,: Gr. H. Mayhew. Dis* 
irict 9 : G. Mann. 

Mayor.. 
Councillor Fred Thome, j.p. 
Aldermen. 
Banks, J. H., 6, Campbell-rd., Bromley, E* 
Dalton, M., 34aand520B, Old Ford-rd., Bow. 
Halket, J. P., 135, East India Dockrd., E. . 
Sumner, C. E.,61, Knapp-road, Bromley, B. ; 
Thorp, A. E.,. Bryant and May, Fair-' 
. field-road, Bow, E. 

White, P. A., 40, Brunswick-rd., Bromley. 
Williams, L., 8, Woolstock-rd., Poplar, E. 

Councillors. 
Aldruk, K.J,, 53, Mph'-i-Mnrl. MillwalT. K. 
Barga, If. R.,4, Woodstock rd, h Poplar, E. 
Baasott. V. If., 17. Cardigan mm. Now, E. 
IMI>hLktn..f.,l&4. AbbuM-mari. Ilromlpy, E.- 
Hrowxi, R., 20, Al>h«ithnsiirl, f Brunt ley, K, 
1'a.hlU, J. K., West fiiflliL Docks, Poiib'ir, B; 
Crtibb, S, J, <W, < i Leu gi U I -rd ; , Cubitt Town. 
Darby, a, H„ 49, Gouf#i-streflt # Poplari K. 
Dhimuid. B„ 48, Be. Stephnis nL r H?w, E. 
Durante \t r H., 30, (Juagtf-Ktrt^t;, Poplur, R 
Fisher, W. A.. 223, Abbuff-nU UnmUey, E, 
Foxtm, L. T. r Cuiil lh. J p>l f msfaifi -riu.l, 

poplar, K. . ," ' , „ 

Girton, H. G\, 47. Mostyn-ro.id, Bow, E. : 
Green, R.: . H.,j j.p;, Blaokwall Ta?d< 

Poplar,. E„ : ^ 



278 



Borough Councils. 



Hayes, Rev. D. + 10, Harlgy street. Bow, K. 
HubbritTd, U. W,, 223 t Mauoli ester- road. 

Cubit. t TttwD t 
Hunt. A. E.. B. Kimpp km-K llriuiilcy. If, 
James. A. ,20, Fetiraeyniiid, Mow, E, 
Joutu, W, H.p 179, St, Leonard "^ road, 

HroroIej T . E. 
Jotigblut. H„ 43. Upper North -et., Poplar 
Uuutmry. G. t 101 h St, Step hen'* road. Bow, 
Jir Maocpiaiti, J. K.. 13, Tomlin* ^rove, 

Kow-roaU, K. 
Mnddnois, <.J., b, Uku'kt horn-st . , Bromley. 
March, B,, Li, I'ppcr North afreet. Poplar. 
MiU'helt. IK, m, (»lil Fi>rd-r«td. Bow, 
Miiuio, A, t 56, Bow -mad. E, 
Partridge. A., 23. Old Ford-rd.. Bow. E. 
I'liitlips. .*,.#, ti Iitlipni'l, Bromley, K. 



Riddall, J. C, 184, High-street, Poplar, a* 
Sambridge, R. J., 101, Fairfleld-rd.. Bow. r> 
Sedgwick, F., 36, West FeiTy-road,,^- 

wall,B. ^ 

Smith, A. 6., 109, Armagh-road, Bow, S, >•'*• 
Sopwith, J., Bridge House, New-rd.. Petptafe; 
Stephens, J., 41, Alpha-road. MillwaU.. E. , . 
Stewart, H. J.. 688, Old Ford-road. Bow, B. 
Suckling. W. C. . 10, Marner-8t., BromMJr. B« 
Taylor, C. 45, Rot h bury -rd.,4iomert©Oi B. 
Thome, F., 122, East Ferry-road, Cubity 

Town, B. 
Warren, A. H.. 132, High-street, Poplar, B.' 
Willmer, A., 19, Hepscctt-rd./Ilomerton, E. 
Wrigglesworth. A. V.» 367, Bast India 

Dock-road, E. 
Teo, A. W., j.p., 86 A 88, 8t Leonard's-rd., B. 



ST. MARYLEBONE. 

Towk Hall: Marylebonb Lank, Oxford Street, W. 
(Meetings : Alternate Thursdays at 5 p.m.) 



The borough is the parish of St. 
Marylebone, which is conterminous 
with the existing local government 
district and the Poor Law area, but 
differs slightly because of the recent 
adjustment of boundaries from the 
Parliamentary borough of Mary- 
lebone (containing the east and 
west divisions). The area is two 
and one-third square miles. 
with a population in 189b' of 
141,188— 20.000 less than the popu- 
ation of 186U At the 1901 census 
the population was 133,301. The 
number of inhabited houses has 
shown a corresponding decrease 
from 16,357 in 1861 to 13,536 in 
1901, the uninhabited houses having 
increased by 1,596 in the same 
period, an indication of the con- 
version of . dwelling houses into 
business premises, principally no 
doubt along the main thorough- 
fares — Oxfora r street, Regent-street, 
Edgware-road, &c. 
. The borough is fortunate in 
having about 362* acres of Regent's 
Park, besides small spaces, making 
in all 372 acres of open space— one- 
fourth of the whole area of the 
borough. This (?ives one acre to 
every 379 inhabitants. In adjust- 
ment of boundaries St Marylebone 



has lost its portion of Primrose •] 

but gained an addition in the % 

The death rate in 1906 was 15 
per 1,000. The rateable value 

is £1,957, 05: The Baths and Buttaf 
Acts are adopted in the boronghj 
but not the Libraries Acts. :; ''. 

The Borough Council, after much 
litigation, and after promoting a 
Bill in Parliament in the Session 4 
of 1904, obtained fresh statutory 
powers to enable it to complete the 

Surchase of the undertaking of the 
[etropolitan Electric Supply Com? 
pany, Limited, in accordance with 
the award of the umpire in the 
arbitration proceedings ^between the 
Council and the company. 

The Council formally completed 
the purchase of the undertaking on 
the 5th July, 1904, and at once pro- 
ceeded with the erection of a new 
generating station and other works 
lor a self-contained system of elec- 
tricity supply in the borough, the* 
generating station of the company 
being outside the borough, and 
used to supply other areas. These 
works and the "change-over" of 
the current from an alternating to 
a continuous supply of 240 volts, 
have now been completed, and the 
Council are now supplying the 



Borough Council*. 



279 



whole of the borough. The old 
consumers at present have the 
option of continuing at the old 
rates of charge or of being charged 
according to the maximum demand 
system on the new tariff recently 
adopted by the Council. 

The borough council consists of 
mayor, 10 aldermen, and 60 coun- 
cillors. The number of wards is 9. 

Public Baths and Wash-Houses. 

; (181, Marylebone-road.) 

St. Marylebone has possessed 
public baths and wash-houses in 
Marylebone-road since 1848. New 
buildings have been recently erected, 
with a handsome frontage facing 
Marylebone-road. Gliarges: 
private baths for men and women, 
la, to 6d. ; swimming baths, Id., 
3d., and 6dV The private baths for 
men t are open from 7 a.m. to 8.45 
run, in the summer months, and 
from 8 a.m. to 7.45 p.m. in the 
winter ; open on Sunday mornings, 
in summer, from 7 to 8.45, and on 
Saturday nights till 9.15 through* 
out the year. Women's baths are 
open at 7 a.m in the summer 
months and at 8 a.m. in the winter, 
closing at B.45 p.m. in the summer 
and 7.45 p.m. in the winter ; Satur- 
clays, 9.1o p.m. The wash-houses 
are open from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. 
Each person is provided with 
separate washing and drying rooms, 
the use of table, iron, and ironing 
blankets, at the charge of Id. for 
tor first hour, 2d. second hour, ltd. 
each for third and fourth hours, 
and 6rf. for every hour after. 

In the winter the first - class 
swimming bath is used as a 
gymnasium at popular prices. 

Superintendent — O. L. Marchant. 
• Matron — Mrs. O. L. Marchant. 

1 Under the Cleansing of Persons 
Act free hot baths and disinfection 
of, clothing are provided by the 
council in a building adjoining the 



council's depot, Richmond-street, 
Edgware-road. 

Public Libraries Act. 

There have been five ballots in St. 
Marylebone, but on each occasion 
there was a majority against adopt* 
ing the Act At the poll in 1895 
5,&6 voted "no" and 1,632 "yes." 
A poll was taken in May, 1898; 
result— against $ie proposal, 4,617; 




ST. MARYLEBONE CHAIN AND 
BADGE. 

Manufactured by the Goldsmiths* 

and Silversmiths* Company. 

for the proposal, 4,214. Majority 
against, 376. The result of two votes 
taken at council meetings was 
also adverse to the adoption of the 
Acts. The last one took place in 
1902, when the Council had before 
it an offer from Mr. Carnegie 
of £30,000 for the erection of one 
central and four branch establish- 
ments for the borough. The offer 
was not accepted. 



280 



Thorough Councils* 



Office re. 

Tow n die rh — James W Usod . 

Borough Surveyor — J. Paget 
Waddington, M.I.C.E. 

Borough Accountant — T H. 
Puzey, F.S.A.A. 

Chief Assistant Clerk— A. Wils >n. 

Medical Officer of Health and 
Public Analyst— A. W. Blyth, 
M.R.C.8., P.C.S., p.i.cv flours of 
Attendance (at 3, Upper Gloucester- 
place,.. NM.) ~ Medical . Officer, 10 



a. ' * j > 



ark, 9.30 
i^Ja.m. 



a.m, to o p.in. ; tflfari 
to 2 p.iA. 

Co tisTt ft ing J?k flfvci I A\r ghier - 
A. Wright" 

R?3.ifient ElevJfu-al Ktigtneer—F. 
A. wilkiasoiL, AiwCf.E.E^ m.i.m.e., 
19 ami 2 >, Yurk-pW_*, VV\ 

Sir Thoma? Henry Brooke-Hitching, j.p., 
2, Park-crescent, Portland-place, W. 

ADDERttKN. 

Anglim, J., 1% Should ham-street, W. 
Davies, F. T„ 9, Cavendish-square, ,W. 
Dennis, W., "Ifleld House,/ Carehalton, 

Surrey. ' 

Elgood, G. J., j.p., 98, Wimpole-street, W. 
Fowler, E. T„ 47, Avenue-road, N.W. 
Michell, J. A., j»p„ 9, Market-place, W. 
Morris, M., "Oaklands/' Wembley 

Middlesex. 
Thomas, J., 74, Wigraore-street, W. 
Wakefield, Rev. H. B,., 86, Gloucester 

placed, W. 
Wateort, J., 4r, Fellows-road, South Hamp 

stead, N.W. 

. Councillors. 

Bacon, E. G., " Onnby," North-road, East 
Finchley. 

Beaumont, Rev. J. A., m.a», St. John's Par- 
sonage, St. John's Wood-road. N.W. , 

Bokenham, T. J., m.r.c.p., l.r.c.p., 10, 

.. Devonshire-street, Portland-place, W. 

Brinslty-Harper, P., 6e, Bickenhall-man- 
sionp, W. 

Buckingham, J. W., 1, Hentsridge-villas. 

Bushnell, E. J., 23, St. Chrifctopher's- 
place, W. 

Capon, H. J., m.d., 40, Upper George-st., W. 

Cobb, T., 39, Finchley-road, N.W. 

Cooper, E. L., 112. Crawford-street, W. 



Crichton, A. M. M., 17a, Great Cumber- 
land-place, W. 
Debenham, E. R., 8, Addison-road, Kne- 

sington, W. 
Djmpsej , M., 53, Devonshire-strest, Lisson- 

grove. N.W. 
D-mn, H. A., 41, Hamilton-garden?, N.W. 
Fettes, J., 5«,. Hyde-park-mansions. N.W* 
Fowler, G.. 97, Gt. Portland-street, W. 
Fuelling, T\, 93b., High-street, W. 
Garro il d , A. H . , 14. Bron 4esbury-park. 
Gross. W.,. B,A.,49„Upper Gloucester- plac2. 
Hartnell, H. B., 2, Streatham-hill, S.W. 
Harvey, A. G„ 50, Church-street, N.W. 
rfead, G. H., 5n, Portmin-mansions, W. 
Helsdon, H. f.f rr i.b.a., a.R.s.i., 14, 

St. Edmund's-terrace, N.W. 
Heywood, J., 42, Queen Anne-street, W. 
Hopkins A. J., 78, Oxford - gardens, 

No.tiQg-hill, W. 
Isaics, D. L., 79, Portl md-placei W. 
Jennings E. J., 101, ^rawfo :d-street, W. 
Johnston, D., 57, Cambridge-street, Wi 
Kelaart, E. F., 4w., Bickenhall-mjiasion3, 

W. 
KftiiVpicm. £\>99,'MortimzT-?tn.vh W, 
Kitf, J., 167. Grei^TrtcIifieldtttreat, W. 
KuigliL G. J.*452,JS4gw*re ru^t}, W. 
! , , F. lv. h 16. Elm Trt-c nprt T N.W. 
tagrwlgc, R. J„ $)k. Bxtter-sfcrfcek NYW, 
Leach, 1^4, UtglMt.,W. 
|,-;i-Siiii[!i ; j„ 41, Br yiiiuton-g quarts W« 
\A*vtls t J., " Spadiui Tower,'* West Heatb. 

tfofnpstmtl, N.W. 
laehreufulri, J.» 15. Ifolland-piitfc-avpottr, 
Little, J. V.. m.js.,9, titcm-rd., Hfimp^tuvd, 
Margetsnn. It. fi., 76, Gt, Port-In nd ftL* W. 
Mtmda r Lieot.-CoL A. M. r 50, Seymour -*fc. W. 
Midwinter. Rev. E. A„'m.a 4t 8 t Rossniuft^ 

road, X.W. 
Mmnly. tfujor-Gcu. Sir S. M.. 29. Tapper 

rfetteey-^treet, W, 
Nnv. H, fr\ r 9. Great Wo^sJbcfc-strtttt, W, 
Sonweilcr, A. 11. IK, S4, Buthertod- 

fLYL'uiii'. Padditjtrton, W\ 
P»i *l o n , 1 1 . . 40 . Pr hu rose- h i L J - r oa (1, N . W . 
Peutoa* \l. jwi., 53, HarJey House. 

RegL*ut s-p nk. N.W. 
I'M 1 1 ii [is, H,,2G, Thuycr-.^., W. 
Ki'dnun, J., 123, l^nry street, N.W, 
HisJiarJs, T. r 45. Quet'H's-rtaid, St. JoImV* 

WtJdd-purkj M.W '. 
Ki'vuioitr, L., 25. Sl Mary's - iiiausion«, 

Paddiugton. 
Story, E, H., 42, Great €astle-street, W. 
Swanton, J. H„ m.d.,40, Harley-streat, W T . 
Sykes, H. T., 33, Gieat Castle-street* Wv . 
Vandersluis, B., 69, Upper Gloucester-place. 
W r alford, H. J., 47iHamUton-terrace. N.W. 
W r arren,C.,225, Ponsdowu-rd., Paddiugton. 
W T hite, E., J.r., 20, Upper Berkeley-st.. W. 
Willett, 11. B., 16, Kent-terrace, N.W. 
Williams, H. S./50. Hamilton-gardens. _ 
Wojder, W. W., 15S, Cre^t Portlands., W. 



MALCOLM MACLEOD I CO. 

(ESTABLISHED 1869). 

85, GRACECHURCH STREET, E.C. 

Telephone No. 6082 Avenue. 

GRANITIC STONE PAYING LAID "IN SITU" 

Suitable for Footpaths, Floors of Stables, Coach- 
houses, Dairies, laundries, Breweries, Warehouses, 



FIREPROOF CONCRETE STAIRCASES A SPECIALITY. 



Manufacturers of "Patent" Stone Paving Flags, Steps, Coping, 
Cills, &c, &c. 

TERRAZZO AND ROMAN MOSAIC 

WOOD BLOCK FLOORING 
In Maple, Teak, Pitch Pine, Oak, Yellow Deals, &c. 

PRICES AND PARTICULARS ON APPLICATION. 



WILSON & STOCKALL, Bury, Lancashire. 

Ambulance Specialists, Inventors and 

Patentees. 

LARGEST BUILDERS OF AMBULANCES 

IN ENGLAND. 

MAKERS OF MOTOR AMBULANCES. 

Paris Exhibition, 1900, Three Prize Medals Awarded. 

Received Highest Awards (Silver Medals) at Sanitary 

Institutes (of London) Health Exhibitions. Leeds, 1897. 

Birmingham, 1898. Southampton, 1899. Bradford, 1903. 

Glasgow, 1904. 





Hospital Dinner Wagon. 



, , L „ , . . , , ,., Telegrams: "Ambulance, Bury." 

Patent ^"K^^Jj^ closes like a Nat , ona , TeIepnone 0296i 

Also builders of the most up-to-date types of Accident and Brougham Motor Ambulances. 



282 



Borough Councils. 



ST. PANCRAS. 

Town Hall : Pancras Road, N.W. 



(Meetings : Every third 

The borough is the parish of St. 
Pancras, the boundaries of which 
have been altered by Order in Coun- 
cil, and is conterminous with the 
Poor Law area, but is not con- 
terminous with the Parliamentary 
borough (containing the north, east, 
west, and south divisions) . It is one 
of the large single-parish boroughs* 
being a little over four square 
miles. The whole area is now 
practically built upon. The popu- 
lation in 1891 was 234,379, and in 
1901 235,317. In 1801 the population 
was31,799,in 1811 it was 46,333, from 
which date it increased in each ten 
years by 25, 32, 26, 37, 33, 23, and 
15 thousand, reaching 235,317 in 
1901. 

The borough has numerous open 
spaces— 194 acres of Parliament 
Hill, 29 acres of Waterlow Park, 
72 j acres of Kegent's Park, together 
with several smaller areas under local 
administration, making up a total 
of about 350 acres. Overcrowding 
is prevalent in the southern parts, 
particularly in Somers Town, and 
27'6 per cent, of the population of the 
whole borough in 1891 lived in small 
tenements more than two in a room. 
The death rate in 1905 was 157 
per 1,000, and the birth rate was 24*5 
per 1,000. The rateable value 
for 1905-6 was £1,804,497. 

The Baths, Burial, and Public 
Libraries Acts have been adopted 
in the borough. Schemes are also 
being carried out by the Council 
under the Housing Acts, and, in 
connection therewith, buildings have 
already been erected to accommo- 
date &J2 people. 

The borough council consists of 
10 aldermen and 60 councillors, 
who took the place of local bodies 
with a membership of about 160, 



Wednesday at 6 p.m.) 

There are eight wards. The whole 
of the councillors retire together 
triennially, pursuant to an Order 
in Council. 

Expenditure, 1905-6: Rate ac- 
counts, £640,605; electric light 
account, £76,171 ; burial account, 
£5,497; baths and wash-houses, 
£19,993; public libraries, £283; 
capital account, £30,080 ; loans out- 
standing, £826,655, including elec- 
tric lighting, baths, and cemetery: 
rateable value, £1,805,797; general 
rate, including relief of the poor, 
County Council, and Police, in 
1905-6, was 7s. Id. in the £. 

The amount received by the coun- 
cil under the Equalisation of Bates 
Act. 1894, during the year ended 
31st March, 1906, was £6,977. 

The council during the year ended 
31st March, 1906, paid under precept 
to the London County Council and 
for Education purposes £263,155: 
Metropolitan Police, £37,574; and 
Guardians of the Poor (including 
the Metropolitan Asylums Board), 
£152,000. 

Cemetery Department. 

Chief Clerk— W. E. Brown. 
Cemetery — East Finchley. 
Superintendent of Cemetery — 
T. Buckerfield. 

<+ Baths and Wash- Houses. 

Cleric- F. V. Creed. 

Prince of Wales-road Baths: 
Superintendent— Edward Akroyd. 
Matron — Mary Akroyd. 

Whitfield-street Baths : Superin- 
tendent—Thomas Barrett. Matron 
— Marion Barrett. 

King-street Baths, Camden Town: 
Superintendent — Thomas Barrett 
(acting). Matron — Mrs. Annie M. 
George (acting). 



Borough Councils. 



283 



The baths are open as follows: 
From April to September from 
7 a.m. to 9.30 p.m. except Fridays 
and Saturdays, when the time of 
closing 1 will be 10 p.m. ; from October 
to March from 8 a.m. to 8.30 p.m. 
except Saturdays, when the baths 
will close at 10 p.m. 

Tepid swimming' baths, for ladies' 




ST. PANCRA8 CH/VIX AXD BADffE. 

Manufactured by the Goldsmiths' 

and Silversmiths' Company. 

use, as follows: -Prince of Wales- 
road: First and second-class (two 
baths specially reserved for ladies) ; 
King- street, on Thursdays. W hit- 
field-street: Wednesdays, 1st class, 
until 11 a.m., 2nd class from 11 a.m. 
until the time of closing. 

The wash - houses are open 
throughout the year from 8 a.m.- to 
8 p.m. 

Public Libraries Act. 

The Acts were adopted on the 
23rd November, 1904, and the 



Council has decided to erect one 
central and four branch libraries, 
and to levy a rate not exceeding Id. 
in the £ for the financial year. Mr. 
Andrew Carnegie has promised to 
contribute £10,000 towards the 
erection of these libraries. The 
Duke of Bedford has contributed 
£500, which has been expended in 
purchasing the site for the branch 
library which has been erected and 
opened in the Highgate district. 
Competitive designs for the central 
public library, to be erected on a 
site which has been purchased in 
Prince of Wales'-road, have been 
received from six architects chosen 
by the President of the Koyal 
Institute of British Architects, who 
acted as assessor. The Council 
has accepted the design of Messrs. 
Ilussell and Cooper, of Gray's Inn- 
square, W.C. The Council has 
under consideration the question of 
sites for the other branch libraries. 
Borough Librarian— HenryBond. 

Electric Light. 

St. Pancras was the pioneer in 
electric lighting among the London 
parishes : the capital cost has been 
£1-98.296, and the gross revenue is 
£72,086. (See section on Electric 
Light.) 

Housing.] 

The Council has cleared the 
insanitary areas in Brantome-place 
and Prospect-terrace, and is taking 
steps to erect dwellings to re-house 
about 850 persons. For details of 
the scheme see the Housing of the 
Working Classes section. 

Officers. 

Town Clerk— C H. F. Barrett. 

Deputy Town Clerk — H. T. 
Richards. 

Borough Treasurer and Account- 
ant—W. H. Booth. 

Asseasmnt and Valuation Clerk. 
—A. H. Conford. 



284 



Borough Councils. 



Rutc-( 1 ollectors -District No. 1 
(Xorth): C. H.Clare, 117, Fortess- 
road, N.W. ; Mondays and Thurs- 
days, 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. ; Mondays, 6 
to 8.W p.m. District No. 1 (South) : 
A. G. Husk, 20, Allcroft-road, 
N.W. ; Mondays and Thursdays 
10 a.m. to 3 p.m., Monday even- 
ings 6 to 8.30. District' No. 2: 
G. W. Rule, 63, Prince of Wales-road, 
N.W. ; Mondays and Thursdays, 
10 a.m. to 2 p.m. ; Monday evenings, 
6 to 8.30 p.m. District No. 3 : W. H. 
Clisbv, 16, Patshull-road, N.W. ; 
Mondays and Fridays, 10 a.m. to 4 
p.m., and Wednesdays 6 to 8.30 p.m. 
District No. 4 : R. G. Robinson, 7, 
Rutland - street; Tuesdays and 
Thursdays, 10 a.m. to 3 p.m., and 
Tuesdays 6 to 8.30 p.m. District 
No. 5 : W. Crane, 24, Robert-street, 
N.W. Mondays and Thursdays, 10 
a.m. to 3 p.m., and Mondays 6 to 8.30 
p.m. District No. 6 : H. A. Spinks, 
144, Seymour-street ; Mondays and 
Thursdays, 10 a.m. to 2 p.m., and 
Mondays 6 to 8.30 p.m. District 
No. 7 : P. Love, 28, Gordon-street, 
"W.C, ; Mondays and Thursdays, 11 
a.m. to 2 p.m. ; and Mondays 6 to 
8.30 p.m. District No. 8: R. E. 
Dingle, 130, Judd-street, W.C; 
Mondays and Fridays, 10 a.m. to 2 
p.m., and Wednesdays 6 to 8.30 p.m. 
Arrears Rate-Collector and In- 
quiring and Collecting Officer — 
A. G. Edwards, 144, Seymour-street, 
N.W. ; Tuesdays and Fridays, 2 to 
4 p.m. 

Works Department.— Borough 
Engineer and Surveyor — W. Nisbet 
Blair, M.INST.C.E. Deputy Engineers 
and Surveyors (Western District) — 
G. F. Ellis. (Eastern District)— 
A. N. Hawtrey, a.m.i.c.e. 
Chief Clerk-C. Worrell. 
Public Health Department— 
Medical Officer of Health — J. F. J. 
Sykes, M.D., D.Sc. Public Analyst — 
Sir T. Stevenson, m.d. Chief Cleric 
— A. P. Coke. Sanitary Inspectors — 
J. Osborne, H. G. West, J. Landen, 



J. I. Lonnon. W. L. Brown, H. R. 
Child, C. H. Johnston, W. G. 
Auger, G. Rackham, A. H. Walker, 
W. J. Storer, G. W. Adkins, R. E. 
James, E. G. Holmes, and E. J. 
Dillon ; Miss Mary E. Bibby and 
Miss Blanche Gardiner. 

Electricity and Public 
Lighting Department.— Office : 
57, Pratt-street, N.W. — Chief 
Electrical Engineer — Sydney W. 
Baynes, M.I.E.E., &c. Resident and 
Supervising Engineer, Regent* s 
l\irh and King's Road Stations — 
J. T. Baron, M.I.E.E. Distributing 
Engineer — Wm. Anderson Brown. 
Chief Cleric of the Department — 
Albert E. Pycraft. 

Dusting and Refuse De- 
structor Department — Depot, 
Georgiana-street : Superintendent, 
John C. Scoble. 

Mayor. 
Alderman D. McGregor, J. p. 

Aldermen. 
Cox-Sinclair, E., J. p., 26, Camden-square. 
Davies, D., 11, Woburn-ouildings, Duke's- 

road, W.C. 
Gauntlett, J., 23, Dartmouth-pk.-hill, N.W. 
Hennessey, D.,105, W T eedington-rd., N.W. 
Lamble, S. R., 15, Queenswood-avenue, 

Musyell-hill, N. 
McGregor, D., j. p., 76, Tottenham-court-rd. 
Matthews, C. W., 62, Carleton-road, N. 
Matthews. W. H.,276, Gray 's-inn-rd. , W.C. 
Reguart, H. G., J.P., 29, Gordon-sq., W\C. 
Suttle, Rev. G. A., 45, Forest Drive East, 

Leytonstone. 

Councillors. 
Atkinson, G. T., 120, Tollington-park, N. 
Avant, F. W., 60, Onslow-gardens, Mus- 

well-hill, N. 
Binge, J., 7, Camden-square. 
Blount, G., 6, Lady Margaret-road, N.W. 
Brown, H. J., 63, Maiden-road, N.W. 
Brown, H., 141, Hampstead-road, N.W. 
Bryan, J., 257, Camden-road, N. 
Birmingham, C, 53, Georgiana-st., N.W\ 
Coggan, C. A., 32, Croftdown-road, N.W. 
Collins, T. A., 11, Frederick-street, W.C. 
Cousins, A. S., Purchese-street, N.W. 
Croak, W., 34, Charrington-street, N.W. 
Dowdle, T., 134, Ossulston-street, N.W. 
Forbes, Dr. J., 4, Hurd wick-place, Hamp ? 

stead-road, N. W. 
Freemantle, H., 1, Lady Margaret-road. 
Groom, H., 213 and 215, Gray's Inn-road. 
Harley, Rev. J. H., 8, Kiugston House, 

Camden-street, N,W, 



Borough Councils. 



285 



Heron, E. T.. 46. Lady Margaret-rd., N.W. 
Hewitt, J. W., 29, St. Augustine's-rd.. N.W. 
Hickling, G., 16, Willes-road. N.W. 
Hiscox. J., 64. Bartholomew-road, N.W. 
Ingram, H. W., 74, Oseney-crescenfc, N.W. 
Ives, W., 222, Camden-road, N.W. 
James, H., 44, Park-street, N.W. 
Jennens, H. H., 56, Pemberton-gardens, N. 
King, L. R., The Kims, Fitzroy-park, 

Highgate, N. 
Knight, W. S. M., 8, King's Bench-walk, 

Temple, E.C. 
May, J., 8, Howland-ftreet, N. 
Maycock, J., 7, Seaton-street, N.W. 
McClnne, J. F., 119, Brecknock-rd., N. 
Mil]-, v.g, it' rr r t-! mi i lUrrhwaar, S. 
Mitchell. J. LL, J/mtfJey l^irk, Mill hill. 
Mvirs. H. S.,19, Eriwiintatrrat, N.W. 

Parker, v.. 5. Alfeerkrod* N,W. 
Parmnore, l>r K it., 2, Cfardtiii-miuavLS \va\ 
E^fttersoDj D. R.,75. Cravi'n-park, N.W. 

JVr-Ult, [I. J.. 40], r.iN'd-ii]i:in P L 

Rahiagt;, Ui. J., 6, Uluuecoler ruuii, N. W. 
Robinson, R9V. A. B. C, 22, Robert-street. 
Robinson, E. W., 1, Seymour-street, N.W. 
Robins, W., 7, M irsden-street, N.W. 



Russell, Rev. T. H., St. Martin's Vicarage; 
Vicar's-road, N.W. 

Sanderson, H. E.. 14, North-villas, Cam- 
den -square, N.W. 

Shearing, A. G., Oak-lodge, Highgate- 
avenue. N. 

SmiHwoori. ll, H,, 44, ArgylM}tMOT. w.r, 

Smllli. & A» a 3T, lUrtuniiith-piirk-iiVtimie. 

.soiijiinii, a.. 46, WoodsMHo-rowJi NVW, 

Mim-y, Uov. ft. S, F 30, Me khiihiiitfh ^|. 
Swift, M, .f rT ti, Ay lesfum»-tt vim ut'. HI -i i > L. 

Imry iiiuk, SM. 
Tapping, O. J], Tottenham -ivuirl -rmit, W. 
TIhum is, A. .f. T 14 T favuiTtUam-rotLd. N.W. 
Trill H., 131. Hi*n-rtrwrt< Camden Town. 
V : v i h, l\ \l„ 69, I tak -street. N\W, 
\ uspi?t, l*r, P., l T St, f kwge's - square, 

Begeto-parit. N.W, 
Wartiw, Dr. ft., 2H. CiliadeD -rond, N.W. 
Whlstu fttJV, A. H..29, Cavrr.-diiiiihriud. 
Wi ■Mii'oiiibt! 1 H, IK H 80 h HLifh^triwr. Cftan 

den Town, N.W. 
Williams, C, 179, High-st., Camden Town. 
Wills, J., 119, Holland-road, W. 
Woffendale, Rev. Z. B., "W r hite House," 

Dartmouth-park-avenue, N.W. 



SHOREDITCH. 

Town Hall : Old Street, E.C. 
(Meetings : First and third Tuesdays in the Month at 6.30 p.m.) 



The borough is, with some adjust- 
ments of boundaries, the parish of 
Shoreditch, which is identical with 
the Poor Law area and with the 
Parliamentary borough (comprising 
the divisions of Hoxton and Hagger- 
ston). The old local government 
district was slightly less than the 
new borough — a small portion of 
the parish in the neighbourhood of 
Broad Street Station formerly 
within the City sanitary area being 
now in Shoreditch. This fringe is 
less than an acre in extent; it is 
occupied by three houses and ten 
people, and has a rateable value of 
£7,969. 

In size Shoreditch is the smallest 
of all the boroughs, except Holborn 
and Finsbury; it is just one 
square mile in area (664 acres). 
It is fully built upon, and has a 
population of 189 to the acre. The 



population reached its climax in 
1861, when it was 129,364; since 
then it has decreased at each census 
until in 1901 it was 118,705. This 
decline in the population l£s been 
accompanied by a decrease in the 
number of inhabited houses from 
17,072 in 1861 to 12,743 in 190L, to 
an even greater degree — the number 
of persons per house having in- 
creased from 7'6 in 1861 to 9*3 in 
1901. There is some overcrowd- 
ing in the borough, the propor- 
tion in 1891 being 33' 7 per cent. 
There are but few open spaces, 
and the total acreage is only 6g acres. 
The death rate in 1905 was 19*6— 
the proportion of deaths of infants 
being unduly large. The rate- 
able value of the whole borough 
at the present time is £813,929, 
and is rapidly increasing. There 
is no agricultural land. The borough 
has municipal electric lighting 
works, which, combined with a 



286 



Borough Councils, 



dust destructor, have been com- 
pleted, and are working satisfac- 
torily. Another lighting station 
has been opened, situate at Whiston- 
street, in order to supply the Hag- 
gerston division of Shoreditch. 
Baths and wash-houses form part 
of the scheme, while a central 
library is also included in this 
new gronp of buildings. The 
Free Public Libraries Act was 
adopted in 1891. The Housing of 
the Working Classes Acts have also 
been adopted, and two schemes 
have been carried out. Several 
other important schemes have been 
carried out, including the redecora- 
tion of the Town Hall, consequent 
upon a disastrous fire, and the erec- 
tion of baths at Haggerston. These 
baths are now completed, and are 
open for swimming all the year 
round. Alone of all the boroughs 
in London, Shoreditch has muni- 
cipal costers' stalls. 

The electric lighting supply is in 
the hands of the local authority, 
except for a very small part in the 
west, which is supplied by the 
County of London Company by 
mutual arrangement with the 
council.# 

The looal government services 
were concentrated in the borough 
council, with a membership of 49. 
The borough council consists of 
7 aldermen and 42 councillors. 
There are 8 borough wards. 

Free Public Libraries. 
(Kingsland-road and Pitfield-street.) 
Libraries open on Sundays during 
winter montns from 6 to 9 p.m. 
The library for Hoxton, in Pit- 
field Street, was opened 20th April, 



Chief Librarian — W. C. Plant. 

Bathe and Waeh-Houses. 

(Pitfield-street and Mansfield-street, 

Haggerston.) 

Baths and wash-houses were 

opened in Pitfield-street in March, 



A notable feature is that no 
boilers are used either in the baths 
or wash-houses, the heat being sup- 

Elied by condensers fed by the ex- 
aust steam from the adjoining 
electric lighting station. Baths and 
wash-houses were also opened in 
Mansfield-street, Haggerston, in 
June, 1904. 

Electric Light. 

Shoreditch was the first borough 
in the world to combine a dust- 
destructor with an electricity gene- 
rating station for a town's supply 
of electricity. (See Electric Light- 
ing section.) 

Housing. 

The Shoreditch Vestry cleared a 
large insanitary area in Moira-place, 
displacing 533 persons. Artisans' 
dwellings were erected in 1899, 
capable of rehousing 400 people in 
25 tenements of two rooms and 50 
tenements of three rooms each. 
Further blocks of dwellings, with 
s^ops, have been erected on the site, 
giving accommodation for another 
148 persons. Under Part III. 
of the Act the Council has also 
purchased an estate at Haggerston, 
and intends developing it for 
housing purposes. (See section on 
the Housing of the "Working 
Classes.) 

Office re. 

Town Cleric and Solicitor — H. M. 
Robinson, ll.d. 

Deputy Town Cleric — J. A. D. 
Milne. 

Assistant Solicitor — Gr. S. "Walton. 

Borough Treasurer and Ac* 
countant — E. A. R. Adams, f.s.a.a. 

Deputy Treasurer — J. W. Phillips. 

Medical Officer of Health— h. T. P. 
Bryett, M.D., D.P.H. 

borough Surveyor — T. L. Hustler. 

Assistant Surveyor — E. H. Dean. 

L'iohting Engineer — C. H. 
Dougnty. 



Borough Councils. 



287 



Sanitary Inspectors — H. Alex- 
ander, J. W. Lear, W. Firth, E. T. D. 
Jordan, C. Langstone, and J. H. 
Pearson. 

Public Analyst— Sir T. Stevenson, 
M.D. 

Electrical Engineer — C. N. Bus- 
sell, A.M.I.C.E. 

Rate - Collectors Moorfi&lds and 
Church District No. 1 : H. L. Loly. 
Church District No. 2: E. Cranston. 
Hoxton Ward: H. Gregory. Wen-, 
lock Ward : D. Burton. Whitmore 
Ward : W. G. Sheale. Kingsland 
and Haggerston District : A. Barr. 
Haggerston East and Acton Dis- 
trict : F. S. Case. 

Mayor. 
Alderman E. T. Pearce, j,p. 
Aldermen. 
Eldridge, E. G., 88, Shepherdess-walk, N. 
Elsdon.W. C, 40, Marlborough-rd., Dalston. 
Francis, T. W., Dowlais Road, Wanstead. 
Hunt, T. J., " Hainault House," 237, Hain- 

ault Road, Leytonstone, Essex. 
Kershaw, H. E., Viewfleld, Kenley, Surrey. 
Pearce. E. T„ 2, Albany, Piccadilly. W. 
Timmins, J., 271, Hackney-road, N.E. 

Councillors. 

Adams, W. W., 49, Murray-street, N. 

Bailey, G. W., 11, Bookhamstreet, Hox- 
ton, N. 

Baker, J. S., 2, Middleton-road, Kingsland, 
N E 

Bibby, J. T., "Beechcroft," Colney Hatch, 
lane, Muswell-hill, N. 

Bird, H. B., 211, Hoxton-street, N. 

Burnell, T., 3, Darnley-road, Holland-park- 
avenue, W. 

Bye, J., 258, Kingsland-road, N.E. 



ttiok, T. W. t 166, Kiu^liuid road. N.E. 
I U i rb y ( R. , 44,Cedars-a yrnfl e, Walt hatitftow. 
I Javier, Dr. J., J.P., 87 .Cnm bridge- gardens, 

Kf;iL^liiKtou, VV + 
Duwe^Vhite. J Hh 56. Prince Gearge-roud.N. 
Dixon. T. W.,259. Ha£kney-rotirf,N + K* 
T)oiiovu.u t W. H.. 55, New North road. N, 
Dunging I). H M 33, Ti irrlngt<(j|i- road. Hither- 

green, S.E. 
Kniuiett. H. ^., 41. Hoxl on- street, X, 
1'VdJtf, E., 2, Mount Ploiwaul -J =mt J . < .'Upton, 
Gates. E. k ;.!>., " KLmeLitfh„"222.WmH>8den- 

Itine. Hrotide^buiy, N + W. 
Girling W. H., 13, Wim borne- street* Hox- 
ton,, N, 
H Eir wood , J , E. , h * ] jy jiri h p ret, M H arlesden- 

road, N.W. 
Hoililer, ,\. C>, 27, New North -mud, N. 
HuwJett. G. W.. 93. GHfton-ntreet, E.G. 
Kiut F ' M., 25, Church road, SouthgiteroacL 
Knight, Is. H., 68. Howe^st.. Ha#£er=jton. 
Know La ml, P, t 18, Murray -struct. New 

North-mart, N. 
Lewis, C.<<>. 123, Ki upland *road t N", 
>Ln iiti, \V. E M 12. Churrh-rond, Southgate- 

ruad, N. 
Matthews, C. F., 31, Osbaldeston-road, 

Stoke Newington, N. 
Merritt, F., 52, Northbrook-gardens, Ilford. 
Moseley, E. H., 62, New North-road, N. 
Morton, L., 46, Clarissa-st., Haggerston. 
Parkes, W. J., 43, Haberdasher-street, 

Hoxton, N. 
Penney. A. E., 69, New North-road, N. 
Porter, S. G., 49, Shrubland-road, Dalston, 
Robinson, A. E.„3, Elm-court, Temple, E.C. 
Sherratt, H., 5, Bevenden-street, Hoxton. 
Smith, J. W„ 3, Upton-road, Downham- 

road, N. 
Styman, J., 56, Brunswick-place, City -ro id. 
Such, S. W., 28,Cropleystreet, New North- 
road. N. 
Warden, W., 60, Pownall-road, Dalston. 
Wheatley, H. W., 64, Buckland-street, New 

North-road, N. 
Wills, Rev. F., m.a., 42-44, Sun-street, E.C. 
Wilton, C, 18, Eagle Wharf-road, New 
North-roid, N. 



SOUTHWARK. 

Town Hall : Walworth Eoad, S.E. 
(Meetings : Alternate "Wednesdays, at 6 p.m.) 



The borough is " the area con- 
sisting of the parishes of St. George- 
the-Martyr, Southwark, and New- 
ington, and the district of the St. 
Saviour's Board of Works " (com- 
prising the parishes of St. Saviour 
and Christ Church, Southwark). It 
is coterminous with the South- 
wark Poor Law Union, but not with 
Parliamentary divisions. It in- 



cludes practically the whole of the 
borough of Newington, with its two 
divisions of West Newington and 
Walworth, and part of the borough 
of Southwark. namely, the West 
Southwark division (which consists 
of the parishes of St. Saviour and 
Christ Church, and two-thirds of 
St. George-the-Martyr), and part 
of the Bermondsey division, namely, 



288 



Borough Councils. 



the remainder of St. George-the- 
Martyr. 

In size it is among the smaller 
boroughs, being only one and 
four-fifths square miles in 
extent; but its rateable value 
is high, £1,305,548. 
. The borough has been fully occu- 

Eied at least since 1831. At the 
eginning of the century it con- 
tamed 11,151 houses ; in 1831 
there were 20,226 ; and in 1896 there 
were 22,970; a slight decrease on 
the numbers in 1891 and 1881, 
which were 24,680 and 25,251 re- 
spectively. The population, how- 
ever, during these same years has 
been increasing continuously. There 
were 62,669 .inhabitants in 1801, 
116,006 in 1831, 195,164 in 1881, 
202,693 in 1891, 206,582 in 1896, and 
206,180 in 1901, which, spread over 
an area of 1,165 acres, gives a density 
of 176*9 to the acre. Of this area 
only 11 acres are open space, made 
up of thirteen small gardens — thus 
there is only one acre to every 
18,743 persons; and there are no 
large open spaces near the borough, 
(except Kennington Park at the 
south end). There is a great deal 
of overcrowding: in 1891 22'3 per 
cent, in Newington, 32'4 per cent, 
in St. Saviour's district, and 33*6 
per cent, of the population of St. 
George-the-Martyr lived in small 
tenements crowded more than two 
to a room. 

The death rate in 1906 for the 
whole borough was 17'9 and the 
birth rate 291. 

With regard to local services, 
the Public Libraries and Baths and 
Wash-houses Acts are in force 
throughout the borough, while the 
Burial Acts are in force in the 
district comprising the parishes 
of St. Saviour and St. Mary, 
Newington. 

St. Saviour has also a market 
under the management of the 
Borough Market trustees, from 



which about £5,000 per annum is 
appropriated to the relief of local 
rates, while Newington possesses 
the Walworth Common Estate, 
which produces about £8,000 a year 
in relief of poor rate. 

Newington Vestry alone of the old 
local authorities had electric light- 
ing powers within the borough, the 
London, the County of London, 
and the City of London Companies 
having powers of supply in the 
rest of the borough. 

The borough council consists of 
10 aldermen and 60 councillors. 
The number of members of local 
bodies whose powers have been 
taken over by the borough council 
was 275. 

There are 10 wards, 5 for Newing- 
ton, 3 for St. George-the-Martyr, 
and 1 each for Christ Church and 
St. Saviour. 

Baths and Wash-Houses. 

(Lavington-street.) 

Opened 1895. Open during the 
summer months from 7 a.m. to 
9.30 p.m., and on Sundays from 6.30 
a.m. to 9.30 a.m. Charges : Private 
baths, Id. to 6d. ; swimming baths, 
2d. to 6d. ; laundry, l?d. per nour. 

(Manor-place, Newington.) 

These baths were opened in 
March, 1898. They post £65,000, 
and are amongst the finest in Lon- 
don.' Charges : First-class baths, 
6d.; second-class, 2d. First-class 
swimming, 4d.; second-class swim- 
ming, 2d. 

Electric Light. 

(See Section.) 

Free Public Libraries and 
Museum. 

Special features: Open access 
system, lectures, nights with popu- 
lar composers, readings to children, 
juvenile libraries, ladies' rooms, 
occasioaal exhibitions. Museum 



Borough Councils. 



289 



and reading rooms open on Sundays 
from to 9 pjn. 

Central Library and Cuming" 
Museum. 
(Walworth Eoad, adjoining Town 
• Hall.) 

Act adopted 1890. Library opened 
1893/ The library is open from 9 
a.m. to 10 p.m. 39,0(55 volumes, 
of which 18,526 are in the Beference 
Department. 194,300 volumes issued 
last year; 4,038 borrowers; average 
daily attendance, 3,000. 
Borough-road (Passmore Edwards) 
District Library. 

Opened in 1899, Library con- 
tains 11,580 volumes. Issues last 
year, 126,224. Attendance in news- 
room, about 1,000 per day. 

Southwark Bridge-road District 
Library. 

Act adopted in St. Saviour's 
parish in 1891. Library opened 1894. 
Contains 16,755 volumes ; 41,370 
issued last year for home reading. 
Average week-day attendance, 1,500, 

Plackfriars-road District Library* 
Opened in 1889. The library 
contains 6,242 volumes. The total 
issue for last year was 15,353. 
(Old Kent Road.) 
A site for a new library at the 
junction of the Old and New Kent 
feoads has been presented to the 
borough by Lord Llangattock and 
his son (the Hon. J. Rolls) ; and 
Mr. Andrew Carnegie has agreed to 
give the sum of £'7,000 for trie erec- 
tion of the necessary building. 
Various sums have also been 
promised towards the fitting, fur- 
nishing, and books for the library. 
Officers. 
Tuini Cleric — J. A. Johnson 
F.C.I.S., [Solicitor. 

Borough Treasurer and Acnmn- 
Uint—\V. E. Houghton, a.s.a.a. 

Borough Engineer and Surveyor 
—Arthur Harrison, M.i.C.K. 



Medical Officer of Health -Ct. 
Millson, L.R.C.P., M.R.C.S. 
. Public Analyst— William Scott 
Tebb, M.D., f.i.c. 

Solicitor (for Prosecutions and 
Actions in the Courts)— Gr. C. Top- 
ham, 19, Borough High-street. 
• Chief Librarian and Curator — 
Richard W. Mould, F.S.A. (Scot.). 

Sanitary Inspectors — A. Long, J. 
Weatheritt, J. E. Rugg, O. Fisher, 

E. Howes, J. Sweeney, R. H. 
Goodfellow, P. David, A. A. Grist, 

F. Jenkinson, T. Fairhurst, J. C. 
Nicholson. 

Women Inspectors — Misses A. 
Elliott (Chief), M. R. Burrows, 
H. Blackwell. 

Cashier and Collector — F. O. 
Wright. 

Rate-Collectors— R. J. H. Eccles, 
W. T. P. Montgomery, F.. Mac. 
kenzie, T. Brown, &. Robertson, J. 
Beale, H. J. Metcher, E. O. Jones. 

Mayor, 
Councillor R. C. Davis. 

Aldermen. 
Boyd. ,1,. 19, Futrriiiiort'-roftil, Wn.lworth. 
UtM)k r |j. H.<(£, Jli'tlojihuj^t r<wd, Uapham 

park,8.W, 
Ilt'WHt/r. K.G.St, Ague? plaei-p H riming* 

t,i[L-|»;irk, S»B. 
Olillk'M. 1)i\ b\ 85, Villa -street, Walworth, 
i \wles, I...9, rterrick-Bquare, Trinity -riMflfc 
Tfnu*h'y, \l Q. t 25, Old Kytitroftft B.K. 
VentOU* II," Mayville " 2&7>Cruxted tudd. 

WuHtMulwkh, g.B. 
ttVlhiM. l--.'>- ISL'<ir..i>l.stiLVi. Walworth. 
\Viiikk\v. K. -L, -1, Smith wnrk-atret'tp tf.R 

Councillors. 
Aiifl<M>fxi t V. B„ ** Duniiugluii." Sauilforrl- 

hpjil, Bromley* 
Autonjii -L*51, Hi?vesforU"H.r«st,^dlwnn h. 
Ittviibiffuutfb, B« B«jtt. OW KyiU-n. ri 
Mi^aley, IL. 30, Holland 'flttfeet, Suiith- 

wark-Etn?et» s,i:, 
Itarkvr, K H,. 315 221. numnah Klffh tf» 
IVllimv, .1.. 77, Invilli.' TWHl, WftlWUrttl, 
H i i'd . P* . 4 £ J, M em i w -*L , Will w t n 1 1 i . &K, 
Bird. N.T.* I&l. Uittaer Uraeu lain 1 , LfHffe- 

ham.S.K. 
Bowers, R. W.,89. Blackfriars-road, 8.K. 
Brotherhood, T., 27, Park-st., Southwark. 
Bunyard, II. R., 92, Walworth -road, S.K. 
Oloake, W. J., 81, Union-street, Southwark. 
Corder, J. G„13, Glengall-rd., Old Kent-rd. 
Cuthbert, R. S.,11, Southwark Bridge-road. 



290 



Borough Council*. 



Datls. R. a, 7, FalracHitfa-road, S.E. 

SflMV, J. K„ B.C.L., M,A..J,F.. L.C.C., 71, 

KeuuiuKtoaparkroasi, GUI 
Peveuny. I>, ± 106, New Kent- road, S,E, 
IteYereu*, J, G,< 20, Nelson squats, Black 

frian*'rmd, ft,E, 
Duck, 0,. 322, Old Kent-road, S,K, 
Ettu'iiri]. \. li., 45, IVurose st ,. Wajworth, 
Field, W. B tt 105, Bla^kfrtors-road, S.H. 
Oill. T. K., 89, Uodney-ilreet, Walworth, 
{jrmt. H.,46, 1 k h Id iugton -grove, Kennine- 

ton, S,E, 
Hall, E. J., 267 t Borough Htiph street, S.E. 
Runner, W.,61, Greit Dover-st., 8.E, 
Haworth, W. II., 14, Berrytield rd., Wal- 
worth, S.EL 
Hayri&s T„ 23, Oroavinoret., Cambenvell 

road, S.E. 
Worsley, B^v, Ouhon J.W.. h + a,. The Eec- 

tor v. Liverpool street. Walworth, S.E. 
1 srciel , II . , 11 , W es t-snjiare , Sou Hi war It , 8 . K 
Jarvte. H.. 29, Trial ty- quarts S,E t 
■faghmu, Kev. I -anon A. W,, m.a., tft, John's 

Vicarage, lfl, Lurcorn-slreet, tf,E. 
J one*, J., 607, Old Kent-raid. RE, 
Jud|*i\ E. Rf„ 8, Great Si tin ilk -street, S.E. 
Kirke, tk W.. 91. Pol uiutith- road. S.E. 
Bfassto, lir. T., 197. Simthwurk-h ridgi 1 - road, 
McDonnell, r.M.,231, East ?t. r WiUwirth* 
MorUw, W. /., 6*, CamfterwelNroad, S.E, 






Nock, H,, 56, West-square, South war] 
Norman, E. H,, 179. Munnr-plAW.Wftli 
Of h re as, K, T.. 5, II am u ton House. Ham] 

ton -st reet . Wal wort h road . S> K, 
Oviatt, N. W., School Hi him, H;ttu\£lJ -i 

HUwk friars. &R 
Phillips, J. 1L, 1, Rodney^t,, Walworlh. 
Pickett, T. H.. 21, Park street. Knuttwar 
RifJer F. 1\,131, V mon -street.. Sou tliwar 
Savage. W„ 17M73. Southwark bridge-r 
Scxiven, J. T., 7, South war It bridge road ♦ 
Smith. Dr. F., j,p„ 103, East-street, "" 

wurth, S.E. 
SomerTillc, Rev. W. J., n.A., St. George 1 * 

lUvtory, 15, Paragon New Kent -road. 
Sih'h, W. C„ 1B3, Union street, Borough. 
Terry, W.. 6, Nelson-Fquare, Rlackfriars-rd. 
Thomas, M. J„ 23, Tniiity-street, S.E. 
Welrh, J.. 33, HatfieM-ftreet, HlaskfTia 
Weslcott. W. T 33, l>ommore-pquari&, W, 

worth, S,E, 
TVilliania. B. W„ 300, Kenningtonpar 

mod f K(at5),B.S. 
Williams, W,C, 3, Sutherland-street, w 

worth. K,E. 
V i I J-S t ; . I „, 53, Gil m berwe 11 road . S. E, 
Wilson. A., 13 & 15, Tnion-st.. Borough, 8 
Youlrk»u T J.. 2, Orb -street,, Walworth!**, » 
Young, T. t;., 33, Nelson-square, Blacl 

friars -road, S, K, 



STEPNEY. 

Municipal Offices: 15, Great Alte Street, E. 
(Meetings: Alternate Wednesday*, at £.'30 p.m.) 



The borough is " the area cont 
sisting of the Hamlet of Mile End 
Old Town, the Parish of St. George- 
in-the-East and the districts of the 
Limehouse and Whitechapel Boards 
of Works." It includes the rating 
areas of Mile End Old Town, St 
George-in-the-East,Limehouse,Rat- 
cliffe, Shadwell, Wapping, White- 
chapel, Norton Folgate, Old Artil- 
lery Ground, Christchurch, Middle- 
sex, Mile-end New Town, and St 
Botolrjh (Without), Aldgate, and 
comprises the whole of the Parlia- 
mentary borouffh of Tower Hamlets, 
except the Poplar and the Bow and 
Bromley divisions ; the five electoral 
divisions comprised in the borough 
being Mile End, Stepney, Lime- 
house, St. George, and Whitechapel. 
The Poor Law areas within the 
borough are Mile End Old Town, 
St George - in - the - East, the 



Rtopuey Union, and the 
of the Whitechapel Union. 



who^ 
B, 

the Whitechapel Union include* 
tin* whole of the parish of Whita4 
elm pel, whereaH the boroug-h ei^ 
elude*! that part of the parish in the 
Portnoken Ward of the City, Thi 
anomaly was corrected as from tW 
2i>th March, 1901, The Tower of 
London i8 within the area of thft 
borough. 

. The area of the borough is tw<> 
and three - quarter square 
miles, and is below the average^ 
but the population is 298, (SOU, on" 
two boroughs having a hi«-h 
popula-tion. As a consequence t 
density of population la very great 
over 1 70 per acre. The borough _ 
ittil'ortujiati' in having very few o|»eji 
spat 'os. and these exceetlin^ly ^niaUL 
The churchyara of St Ihmstan>: 
Stepney, sevca acres in extent, is 



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in an efficiently-lighted factory. In lighting, 

the most of the best for the least 

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them the least for tho most. 



292 



Borough Councils. 



the largest, and the total acreage 
is only 48. There are <>,4JK> persons 
to each aero of open space. The 
death rate ia high: in 1905 it 
was 10*9 in Mile " End, " 15*4 in 
Whitechapel! 203 in Limehonse,* 
and l3Q'4 in.Sk George, the average . 
being 177. 

The population is, inci!easing, 
yet the building area has been filled 
up for many years, and the expan- 
sion of business neighbourhoods 
has taken up' much of the space 
formerly available for residence. 
Stated in statistics, the population 
in 1891 was 285,225, in 1896 it was 
895,547, or 10,322 more ; the number 
6f inhabited houses in 1891 was 
33,866, in 1896 it was 32,445, in 
1901 the number had decreased tc 
31.350. Thus between 1896 and 
1901 the population increased by 
13,423, while the number of inhabi- 
ted houses available for the popu- 
lation was 2,516 less.. Of tnis 
decrease part was no doubt due 
to the substitution of one block of 
dwellings for several houses ; but 
business requirements accounted 
for at least 153 houses, .and rail- 
way extensions were responsible for 
Others. 

The Libraries and Baths^ and 
Wash - houses Acts have been 
adopted throughout the borough. 
The Borough Council is the under- 
taker for electric lighting through- 
out the borough, the area of the 
Whitechapel District Electric 
Lighting Order, 1892, having been 
extended by the provisions of 63 
and 64 Vict., ch. ccvii. Part III. of 
the Housing of the Working Classes 
Act, 1890, has- also been adopted. 

The rateable value of the 
borough, according to supplemental 
lists which came into force on 6th 
April, 1907, is £1,501,782. 

The borough council consists of 
the Mayor, 10 aldermen and 60 
councillors, and superseded local 
bodies having a membership of 



nearly 800. There are 19 borough 
wards. • • - .** 

Baths and Wash -Houses. 

The Baths and Washhouses Acts 
are in force throughout the borougli«- 
Whitechapel. 

Private baths were opened in. 

Whitecbapel in 1878, and there are 

•^fclso three^ swimming* J^afcljs, one q| 

^hich is ^reserved ^r^ad^ The 

"^t and 2£id class intends Shimming 

baths were opene.i*in the year 1886? 

"~aSid tne ladies* ~swiirtming bath iff . 

1896. The dimensions of the swim* 

ming baths a^e — 1st class men'sj 

100ft. by 33ft.; 2nd class men's* 

80ft. by 30ft. ; and ladies' bath, 65fti 

by 27ft. # . ' j 

The private bathing accornmodaj 
tion now provided consists of 4(1 
first class slipper bathsV 31 for j 
and 9 for women ; 78 second c 
slipper baths: "60 for men aTIcl. 
for women. 

St. George-in-the-East. ? 

The public baths at St. George* 
in-the-East were opened in 1888, 
and as a result of private munifiV 
cence public wash-houses were added 
to the baths and opened in 1890,. 
The buildings contain a swimming; 
bath, 734ft. by 30ft., 13 first class, 
and 19 second class private baths* 
for men, and 5 first class and & 
second class private baths for women* 
Ratcliff. 

These baths, which have recently 
been extended, consist of 13 private 
baths for women, and 15 private 
baths for men. The cost of the sit^f 
was subscribed by private donors, 
and the cost of the additions 
has been borne by Mr. F. (X 
Mills, J.P. - 

Libraries. ; i 

The Public Libraries Acts are nij 
force throughout the borough. All 
official communications to be 
addressed to Mr, A. Cawthorn$j 
the Borough Librarian, Stepnejjj 
. Reference Library, Bancroft-roaafl 
Mile-end, E. y 



Borough Councils. 



293 



Whitechapbl. 
Open weekdays 8 a.m. to 10 p.m. : 
Sundays, 11.00 a.m. to 10 p.m. ; and 
Bank Holidays, 3 p.m. to 10 p.m. 
Established 1892. Stock, 25,879 
volumes. Daily attendance at the 
reading" rooms 2,7b'4<, and on Sun- 
days and Bank Holidays 1,024. 
Last year's issues 170,521 volumes. 

St. Ueorue-in-the-East. 
Open weekdays 9 a.m. to 10 p.m. 
Established 1898. Stock, 10,184 
volumes. Daily attendance at the 
reading-rooms, 800. Last year's 
issues, 95,98b* volumes. 

Limehouse. 
upen weekdays 9 a.m. to 10 p.m. 
Established 1901. Stock, 10,010 
volumes. Daily attendance at the 
reading-rooms, 1,095. Last year's 
issues, 88,238 volumes. 

Mile End. 
, Open weekdays 9 a.m. to 10 p.m. 
Established 1902. Stock, 17,959 
volumes. Daily attendance at the 
reading-rooms, l,2t>b\ Last year's 
issues, 93,270 volumes 

Museums. 

The Borough Museum is located 
in the Whitechapel Public Library, 
and is open weekdays, 12 noon to 9 
p.m., excepting Saturdays, when 
it is open from 10 a.m. to 9 p.m. ; 
Sundays, and Bank Holidays, 
3 p.m. to 9 p.m. Geological, 
mineralogical, anthropological, 
ethnological, zoological, and other 
collections. There is also a branch 
museum devoted to nature study in 
the Recreation Ground, St. George's- 
in- the East. 

Borough Curator. — Miss K. M. 
Hall. Office, the Museum, White- 
chapel Public Library, London, E. 

Electric Light. 

The Whitechapel Board of Works 
commenced supply in its area in 
1900, and the borough council is 
now extending the scheme through- 



out the whole of the borough. 
Most of the main thoroughfares 
are electrically lit. (See Electric 
Light section.) 

Housing. 
• Under the powers of the Housing 
Acts the borough council has 
erected the '* Edward. Mann 
Dwellings" on an area in the 
hamlet of Batcliff, and the " Potter 
Dwellings " in the parish of Lime- 
house. Particulars are given in 
the Housing of the Working Classes 
section. 

Officers. 
Town Clerk— George William 
Clarke, A.K.c Barrister-at-Law. 

Assistant Toini Clerk—J. G. 
Parker. 

Borough Engineer — M. W. 
Jameson, a.m.i.c.e. 

Medical Officer of Health— Daniel 

Lewis Thomas, M.R.c.s., L.R.C.P., 

d.p.h. (London), Barrister-at-Law. 

Borough Treasurer and Accoun- 

tant— Hugh Carter, F.s.A.A. 

Assistant Accountant — E. G. 
Pilkington. 

Borough Librarian — A. Caw- 
thorne. 

Curator Borough Museums — Miss 
K. M. Hall, f.l.s. 

Mayor. 
Alderman Rowland Hirst, J.r. 
Aldermen. 
Barker, W. J., 8. East Pier, Wapping, E. 
Brady, G. F., 8, Spital-square, E. 
Chidgey, H. T. A., Grove Cottage, George- 
lane, Waustead, Essex. 
Harris, J., j. p., C;C, 3vS,Gordou-square,W.C. 
Jones, W. H., 28, Old Gravel-lane, St. 

George's, E. 
Kearsey, R. A., 77, Amhurst-park, N. 
Musto, J. J.. 17, Cottage-grove, E. 
Potter, H , 60, 62, Artillery-lane, E. 
Warren, G. J., J. p., 20, Rhodeswell-road, E. 

Councillors. 
Algar, J., 177, Burdett-road, E. 
Anderson, J. T., 59, Newick-road, Clapton, 

N.E. 
Anderson, W. O. C, 15, South Block, Pea- 
body-buildings, Shadwell, E. 
Atkinson, S. B., j.p,, 4, Ewiug-street, E. 
Bacon, J. E.,66. Buxton-!«treet, E. 
Barber, A., 240, Rom ford-road, Forest Gate,. 
Essex. 



294 



Borough Councils. 



Ifekher,^ 220, Cable-street, E. 

Berrtnger, P., 158, Hiinbnry-etreet, B. 

Birley, M., 2 and 27, Tojmbee Hall, 28, 
Commercial-street, E. 

Boitenx, W., " Lichfield/ * Cronbrook-rd., 
Ilford, Essex. 

Bonstred, O. R., 83, Clark-street, E. 

Brennan, E., 34, Medland-street, E. 

Chappell, J., 15, Mount-et.,Whitechapel, E. 

Collins, J., 32, Crispin-street, E. 

Daniel, W. P. T., 273, Cable-street, E. 

Daniels, J., 48, High-street. Shadwell, E. 

Davies, O., 186, Commercial-road, E. 

Delevante, G. T., 79, Lichfleld-road, E. 

Dingwall, T. £., 92, Downs Park-road, 
Clapton, N.E. 

Ellis, P., 60, Button-street, E. 

Evans, T. J., 53, Lyttleton-road, Leyton, 
Essex. 

Friend, B. J., 11, Morgan-street, E. 

Gamer, A. E., 119, Bhodeswell-road, E. 

Gibbs, J., 229-231, Cable-street, E. 

Gilder, S., 37, New-road, Whitechapel, E. 

Gordon, H. H., l.c.c, 39, Chester-ter- 
race, N.W. 

Gould, T. f 146 r Hurdctt-road, R 

Gover, C< ( 1. Sheridan street. E. 

Grimes, C, A„ S, Bridge-street, R 

Gruvea, w. B., 14G T Hlgh-sU S bad well, E. 

HargrarB* H + T. ± 34, tt hite H<irn«jitreet,E. 

Harper. J. W., 85, Gill street, E. 

HiKgiiL^ W\, 556. romtnerdiU-raad. E. 

liodsell, B, F. *■ Free School Press/' Lum- 
beth -street, K, 



Holland, J., 9, Exmouth-street, B. . • 

Hook, J., 47, Leatherdale-street, B. . '.\ 
Jackson, E., Rectory Works, White Hors*) 

lane, B. 
Jones, W. E., 3, Fonrnier-sifeet, E. ■'• 

Jones, W. H., 63, Cranhurst-road, CrtekW- 

wnod, N. W. • : 

Kay, H t W,.425. Mileetidroad, E. 
Kt*ky, IL, 36, WhitKhapctroad, E. 
Cruder. G. A., 123, High-st., Wappiog, E»> 
Lnftus, J, Km Q t Mile-emlroiid> E, * 

Newell, J. E. ± 2U f Lce-tft, Thninn*-^, E. 
l J urry, Hev. E. G., fit, Fbul'a Yiearage/ 

I HK.k street, E. 
Peterken. H. G.. 63. Three Cblt-ttreet, B- 
Trevost, A. J. H.. 176, Mile-end road, E. 
Heidy, J. J., 314, Uommerviii.l-riiad, It* 
It? illy. P. J,, 268, Cable-street, K, 
Etobimo&j J, H., 91, Globe-rood, E, 
ScandreM, Hey, J.. The Rectory, 57, High- ' 

street, Wappkng. E. 
Bchtter, E.. 39. Ful bourne street, E. f 

Shearmur, (; T K. 257, Kurdtrtt-road, E, r 
Smith, G, T,, 258, BurdeU-rearl, E. ; 

Stetlauer, C. t Lynsted Lodgv.St, Edmond'e- • 

ttuTru-f, Regent's pi i r k, X.W. . 

Valentine. A,, 44, Bock-street, B. 
Wn in wright, Rev. L. S., St. Jeter's Clergy 

Htmse T 65, Old Gruvtd-latie, E, > 

Whirf. J., 16, Welle lose-square. K. 
Willett, J, 5 143, Lcman street. E. 
Wwir, E„ 29. WUtechapel H igh-Ftreet, M, ' 



STOKE NEWINGTON. 

Town Hall : Milton Eoad, N. 
(Meetings : Third Tuesday in each month, at 7.30 p.m.) 



The borough is " the area con- 
sisting of the pariah of Stoke New- 
ington and of the urban district 
of South Hornsey or so much 
thereof as may be incorporated 
with the County of London." At 
the last census the population 
was 51,247, 

South Hornsey detached con- 
sisted of two separate islands sur- 
rounded by the County of London 
— the smaller one is a tongue of 
land consisting of little more than 
the west side of Albion-road, and 
containing 71 houses, with a popu- 
lation of 417 persons; the larger 
one is in the form of two squares, 
one lying to the north-east of the 
other, but joined by a short extent 



of common boundary. The nortk^ 
east square contains 569 houses^ 
and 4,034 inhabitants, while the J 
south - west square contains 545 
houses and 5,653 inhabitants; in: 
the latter are situated the offices- i 
of the late district council The 
remainder of South Hornsey was 
a wedge-shaped area jutting into > 
the County of London betweca ' 
Stoke Newington and Islington;' 
more than tworthirds of its boun- 
dary touching these two parishes^ 
and the rest of its boundary being 
the boundary of Finsbury Park,' : 
a London park. South Hornsey. c 
was in a peculiarly advantageous „ 
situation as regards open spaces, 
for besides the proximity of, Finis- 



Borough Councils. 



295 



bury Park, 115 acres in extent, there 
are within its area 32 acres of Olissold 
Park, of which the remaining 25 
acres are in Stoke Newington. Both 
of these parks are maintained by 
the London County Council. 

The decision of the Commw- 
si&ntfrs, which was embodied in 
Orders in Council, was that the 
whole of South Hornsey should be 
incorporated in the County of 
London. 

South Hornsey is part of the 
Hornsey division of the Parliamen- 
tary county of Middlesex ; Stoke 
Newington is part of the North 
division of tne Parliamentary 
borough of Hackney. The London 

S*vernment Act provided for the 
dition of the transferred area to 
the appropriate county electoral 
division, and South Hornsey will 
vote in the London County Council 
elections as part of the North Divi- 
sion of Hackney; but it specially 
forbade an alteration of the Parlia- 
mentary division, and South Horn- 
sey will still vote in Middlesex for 
Parliamentary elections. 

South Hornsey was transferred 
from the Edmonton Union to the 
Hackney Poor Law Union as from 
the 26th March, 1900. It is added 
to the Finsbury School Board 
Electoral Division. 

With regard to the general charac- 
ter of the borough, South Hornsey 
is fully built upon ; in Stoke New- 
ington there is still room for a 
slight increase. The valuation of 
agricultural land in Stoke Newing- 
t5» is £97; there is no agricultural 
land in South Hornsey. 
.The density of population in 
Stoke Newington is 52 per acre, or 
without the open spaces, 62£; in 
South Hornsey it is 74 and 88 per 
acre respectively. In neither is there 
any great amount of overcrowding. 

The death rate in Stoke -New- 
ington in 1901 was 131. 



The rateable value for 1906-7 
was £852,976. In rateable value and 
in population the borough is the 
smallest in London. 

Under the Adoptive Acts scheme 
the Burial, Libraries, and Baths 
Acts are in force throughout the 
borough. The Council buys elec- 
tricity in bulk from the North 
Metropolitan Electric Power Com- 
pany and distributes it. 

The borough council consists of 
5 aldermen and 30 councillors for 
the 6 wards of the borough. There 
were 72 members on the old bodies 
in the parish of Stoke Newington, 
whose powers have been taken over. 

Public Library. 

(Church Street.) 

The Public Libraries Act was 
adopted in 1890 and the library 
opened in 1892, considerably en- 
larged in 1904 by the munificence of 
Mr. Andrew Carnegie and Mr. 
Alderman Wm. Eve. News-rooms 
open daily on week-days from 9.30 
a.m. to 10 p.m. Lending library 
open on Wednesdays from 11 a.m. 
to 1 p.m. ; other week-days, 11 a.m. 
to 9 p.m. Volumes in stock, 23,962. 
Number of issues, 143,232. 

Librarian — Gr. Preece. 

Officers. 

Town Clerk— G. Webb. 

Borough Accountant — Geo. T. J. 
Willis. 

Borough Medical Officer qf Health 
and Public Analyst— Professor H. 
B. Kenwood, m.b., l.r.c.p. 

Borough Surveyor — W. F. Love- 
day. 

Sanitary Inspectors — D. W. Mat- 
thews, H. Cox, and Thos. Topping. 

Bate-Collectors— J. D. Hankey, 
A. W. Barnes, P. Hemingway, Town 
Hall, Milton-road. 

Mayor. 

Alderman William Borrow Trick, j.p. 

Ald brmjs n 

Brough, J. R., 29, Alexandra-villas, Seven- 

sister's-road. 



296 



Borough Councils. 



Eve, W., 195, Albion-road. 

Page, J., 52, Clissold-road. 

Savery, W. H., 22, Wood berry- down. 

Trick, W. B., 6\ Qneeu Elizabeth's-walk. 

Councillors. 
Alcock, G. W., 18, Hawksley-road. 
Andrews, C. J„ 28, Bethune-road. 
Beavis, H. I., 13, Woodberry Down. 
Blower, T., 64, Milton-road. 
Boyd, J. A., 20, Palatine-road. 
Broadbridge. U. G., 86, Wilberforce-road. 
Carmichael, W. S., 23, Brownswood-park. 
Cowles, 0. H., 54, Park-lane. 
Dee, G. J., 95, Fairholt-road. 
Ernst-Champness, A. H., 48, Park-lane. 



Hargrave, W. H., 75, Lordship-road. 
Hildreth, W. G., 28, Alexandra-road. 
Jackson, V. C, 3, Hayling-road. 
Moore, T. H. G., 75, Church-street. 
Ormond, H. J., 147^-149, High-street. 
Ostlere, H., 47, Stoke Newington-road. 
Runtz, Sir J. J., 131, Lordship-road. 
Sheffield, J. L. f 112, Manor-road. 
Thatcher, W., 70, Clissold-road. 
Turner, H. P., 42, Allerton-road. 
White, S., 133, Lordship-road. 
Williams, J., 6, Allen-road. 
Winckworth, G. B., 1, Alexandra-road. 
Wooderson, H., 77, Church-street. 
Wright, W. S.. 192, Albion-road. 
Young, C. V., Hadley Wood. 



WANDSWORTH. 

Council House : East Hill, Wandsworth. 
(Meetings: Alternate Wednesdays, at 4 p.m.) 



The borough is "the district of 
the Wandsworth Board of Works," 
consisting of the parishes of Clap- 
ham, Putney, Streatham, Tooting 
Graveney, and Wandsworth ; it 
comprises the whole of the Wands- 
worth Poor Law Union, with the 
exception of the parish of Batter- 
sea, and it includes the Wands- 
worth Parliamentary borough, 
together with part of the Clapham 
division of the Parliamentary 
borough of Battersea and Clap- 
ham (namely, the parish of Clap- 
ham). 

The Wandsworth district at the 
time of the passing of the Act of 
1855 contained the parish of Batter- 
sea: the area was 18 square miles, 
the population only 60,000. The 
district grew rapidly until in 1871 it 
contained 125,050 inhabitants, which 
increased by 1881 to 210,434. In 
1888, when the population had 
reached 275,000, Battersea separated 
from the district and obtained inde- 
pendent local government, leaving 
the area of the district fourteen 
and a half square miles. Con- 
sequently at the census of 1891 the 
population of- the new Wands- 
worth District was only 156,931, 
which increased in the next five 



years to 187,264. At the last 
census the numbers were 232,034. 
The estimated population in April* 
1906, for the purposes of the Equali- 
sation of Rates Act was 296,020, 
This population is spread over a 
large area, for the borough is the 
largest in London, and there is 
room for a greatly increased popu- 
lation, since at present there is, 
an average of only 32 09 persons to 
the acre. A density five times as 
great as this is not an impossible, 
contingency, and a prospective* 
population of one million would 
not be an absurd estimate of the * 
capacity t)f the borough of Wands- 
worth. • .. 

The borough is fortunate, in 
having many large open spaces. 
Tooting Common, Putney Heath, 
Streatham Common, parts of 
Wandsworth and Clapham Com-* 
mons, and Richmond Park are all 
situated in Wandsworth borough, 
the total area of open spaces reach- 
ing 1,163 acres, or one acre to every 
254 inhabitants. 

There is very little overcrowdip* 
(4'43 per cent.), and the death 
rate is one of the lowest in London 
(viz., 1114 per 1,000 in 1906)* 



Borough Councils. 



297 



The rateable value of the 

borough for 1907 is £2,005,347, of 
which £4,702 is the valuation of 
agricultural land. 

The Baths," Burials, and Libraries 
Acts are in force in the whole of the 
borough. 

The powers of supplying elec- 
tricity within the borough are in the 
hands of the County of London 
Company. The refuse disposal is 
carried out by the council, which 
has a fine destructor (Messrs. Mel- 
drum Brothers' patent). » 

The borough council consists of the 
mayor, 10 aldermen, and 60 council- 
lors, all the councillors retiring every 
third year. The membership of 
local bodies which were superseded 
by the borough council was 450. 
There are 9 wards — o for Wands- 
» worth, 2 each for Clapham and 
Streatham, and 1 each for Putney 
and Tooting. 

Libraries. 
(1, North-side, Clapham-common.) 

Act adopted July, 1887. Number 
of volumes, .14,380. 

Librarian — J. Reed Welch. 

(Disraeli-road, Putney.) 
Act adopted March, 1887. Num- 
ber of volumes, 10,715. 

Librarian-in-Charge — W. T. 
Bradley. 

(Streatham : Central Library, 
Streatham - high - road ; Branch 
Library, Ramsden-road, Balham.) 
Act adopted December, 1889. 

(Mitcham-road, Tooting.) 
Act adopted November, 1901. 
Number of volumes, 32,884. 
Librarian — T. Everatt. 

(Wandsworth : Central Library, 
West- hill; Branch Library, All- 
farthing-lane; and Branch for 
exchange of books, Earlsfield.) 
Act adopted July, 1883. Number 

of volumes, 20,000. 
Librarian— Cecil Ti Davis* 



Baths. 

The new baths in High-street, 
Wandsworth, were opened in July, 
1901. They cost £39,800 (including 
well, tank, &c). 




WANDSWORTH CHAIN AND 3ADGE. 

Manufactured by the Goldsmiths' 

and Silver smiths' Company. 

Officers. 

Town uierh— H. Gr. Hills. 
Accountant — C. F. Richards. 

Surveyors — Eastern District: H. 
J. Marten, 215, Balham High-road, 
S.W. Western District: P. Dodd, 
41, High-street, Wandsworth. 

Medical Officer of Health — P. 
Caldwell Smith, M.A., M.D., Hu- 
guenot-place, Wandsworth. 

Solicitor- W. W. Young. 

Public Analyst — J. Muter, 325, 
Kennington-road. 

Offices: Counctt House, Wands- 
worth, and (Rating Department) 
Town Hall, Wandsworth* 



298 



Borough Councils. 



Mayor. 

Councillor James Wise, j.p. 

Aldermen. 

Bulcraig, H., Stanley House, 127, Roden- 
hurst-road, Clap ham -park. 

Ennis, G., j.p. 18, Dorlcote-rd., Wandsworth 

Hewett, W. J., 1, Ktrkstall-rd., Streatham. 

Hunt, W„ j.p., L.C.C, •' Hillcrest," Upper 
Tooting-park. 

Kipling/ J. G., " Primrose Lodge," King's- 
avenue, Clap ham-park. 

Lorden, J. W., 45, Earlsfleld-road, Wands- 
worth. 

Parker, J. B., 14, Atney-rd., Putney. 

Penfold, W. F., Burwood House, 54, Upper 
Tooting-rd. 

Robinson, M., 79, East-hill, Wandsworth. 

Rucker, J. M., j.p., 95, West-hill, Putney. 

Councillors. 
Anderson, Rev. J. H., m.a., The Rectory, 

Tooting. 
Baines, T., 5, Thornton-avenue, Streatham- 

hill. 
Bates, W. F., 304, Balham Highroad. 
Blunt, G., " Magnolia Lawn," Garrads-rd., 

Streatham. 
Buchanan, W. E., "Oriel," Magdalen-road, 

Wandsworth. 
Bulstrode, F., "Down Lodge," Merton- 

road, Southflelds. 
Campbell, Rear- Adm. H. J. F., c.b., "Beech 

Lodge," Park-side, Wimbledon-common. 
Carter, J. E. V., 118, Putney-bridge-road. 
Clark, S. P., 36, Merton-road, Wandsworth. 
Comins, T. E„ "Croxteth," 1, Rodenhurst- 

road, Clapham-park. 
Cooke, V. C, 1, Deauville-mansions, Deau- 

vi lie-road, Clapham. 
Couzens, E., 47, Allfarthing-lane, Wands- 
worth-common. 
Cresswell, S., " Viewfleld," Viewfleldroad, 

Wandsworth. 
Cundall, J. W., 3, Orlando-road, Clapham. 
Danielli, G. F., 10, Colinette-road, Putney. 
Dawnay, A. D., 4, Cedars-road, Clapham. 
Downer, H. G., 39, Elms-road, Clapham. 
Eastwood, H. P., 155, Clapham-park-road. 
Eaton, F., 12, Earlsfleld-road, Wandsworth. 
Fletcher, F., 60, Elmsleigh-road, East-hill, 

Wandsworth. 
Garrett, J., jun., 85, Balham-hill, Balham. 
Harrison, W. J., 17, Patten-rd.,Wandsworth- 

common. 
Hickman, E. H., 24, Veronica-rd., Balham. 
Hobbs, E., 11, Kirkstall-road, Streatham- 

hill. 




Hoile, E. C, 24, Egliston-road, * uw * r 
Jackson, D., 29, Carlton-road, Putney, 
Laceby, C, 2, Greyhound-lane, Stn ** 
Lance, Lieut.-Gen. F., c.b., The 

Alton-road, Roehampton. 
Law, W. E., 1, Oflerton-road, Clapham. 
Lidiard, J., " Guildford House," 4, Elms- f 

road, Clapham. i 

Lindsey, J., 105, High-street, Putney. I 

Lucas, F. W., 169, Trinity-road, Upper J 

Tooting. _ * ! 

Mason, A. E., " Wentworth House,'* t, I 

Killieser-avenue, Streatham-hill. 
Mathias, A. W., 12, Gwendolen-av., Putney. ' 
Mellhuish, W. P., 22, Totterdown-stroet, . 

Tooting. 
Mondayjw. H., 40, Albion-road, Clapham. 
Munt, E., 6, Spencer-park, Wandswort^- v 

common. 
Ninnis, B., " Brockenhurst," 50, Aldring- \ 

ton-road, Streatham. j 

Nutting, J., " Fairlawn," 17, Temperley- 

road, Balham. : 

Palmer, E.,20,West-hill-road,Wandswortlu . 
Pasfleld, S. G., 34, Kingscliffe-garden*, ( 

Southflelds. , ] 

Phillips, R., 64, Culver den-road, Balham* i 
Radford, J. C, "Cranleigh," Howards-lane, \ 

Putney. * { 

Richardson, W. S., 148, Abbeville-road, J 

Clapham. ' 

Roberts, J. A. , 42, Ritherdon-road, Balham. : 
Robertson, T. A., 43, Abbeville-road, Clap- { 

ham. 
Robinson, A. D., 21, Streatham High-road, 1 

Streatham. > 

Robinson, J. A., 8, Westover-road, Wands- 1 

worth. j 

Rogers, C, 288, Balham High-rd., Balham. i 
Shillington, D. F., 31, Spencer-park, Wands- i 

worth-common. 
Simmons, J., 647, Wandsworth-road. 
Swain, C. H., M Fernlea," 7, Pretoria-road, ." 

Streatham. 
Taylor, J. V. E., 84, North Side, Wands- . 

worth-common. < 

Turnbuil, J. O., 18, St. Nicholas-road, } 

Upper Tooting. \ 

Walker, J., "Maryfleld," 19, St. Johns- - 

road, Putney. 
Wallis, A. J., 26, Balham-park-road. 
Welton, T. A., " Ixworth Court," 22, Palace- 
road, Streatham. 
Wise, J., 20, Earlsfleld-road, Wandsworth. 
Yeowell, G., 44, Poynder's-road, Clapham- 
park. 
Young, T., "Clovelly," 36, Union-road, 

Clapham. 



WESTMINSTER CITY. 

City Hall : Charing Cross Road, W.C. 

(Meetings : Alternate Thursdays at 3 o'clock.) 

The city is the "area of the parishes of St. Margaret and St. 
ancient Parliamentary borough of John Westminster, the parish of St* 
Westminster, comprising the G«orge HanoVer Square, the parish 



I 



B 



ENSON'S EVERLASTING 

IMPERIAL PLATE 

SPOONS, FORKS, & CUTLERY «&«. 

Ko. 7358. THE "COTTAaB" 
CAKTBBN. SOLID OAK CASE, 
■Willi Lilt-out Tray, containing 6j articles 
of Best A Quality "Imperial "Plate and 
Cutlery. Service for 6 persons. £8 . 10. 

g 4tc €\it lime*" sys t f em 
MONTHLY 

PAYMENTS 

BENSON'S do not charge extra for 
buying this way, 

"Imperial" Plate, 

Spoons and Forks 
from 17/- per dozen. 





BENSON'S 

SEIECTED GEM RINGS, 





- , , Amethysts & Diamonds, Amethyst, Diamond u .... . 

Am^t lysts an I I ) a n m Is, £9 9^. Points, £6 6s. Militants, 



Brilliant and Rubies or 
Sapphires, £2 1Ss, 



S^K 




SYSTEM OF 



MONTHLY PAYMENTS 



Opals & Brilliants, £13 is available. 

Benson's do not charge extra 

for purchasing this way. 
ILLUSTRATED BOOKS FREE. 

tto. 1, of Watches, Chains, and Jewellery. 
No. 2, of Clocks, *• Imperial M Plate, Bags, and 
._ « , . «. . Silver Articles. 

Brilliant! & Rubies, £13 Mention London Manual. 




Brilliants and Rubies 
or Sapphires, £1 8 1 6s. 



62 & 64, LUDGATE HILL, E.C. 



3W 



Borough Councils. 



of St. James Westminster, the 
parish of St. Martin-in-the-Fields, 
and the district of the Strand Board 
of Works, and including the jfelose 
of the collegiate church of v St. 
Peter Westminster." The Strand 
district comprises the Liberty of 
the Rolls, the parishes of St. Anne, 
Soho r St. Clement Danes, St. Paul 
Co vent Garden, and Sfy Mary-le- 
Strand, and the Royal precinct of 
the Savoy. The city council is the 
successor of the ancient Court of 
Burgesses, commonly called the 
Corporation of Westminster, esta- 
blished in the reign of (J u ©en Eliza- 
beth, under the auspices of Lord 
Burleigh, the first Lord High- 
Steward, and the title of City was 
granted by Royal Charter of Queen 
Victoria m the last year of her 
reign. The city comprises three 
Poor Law areas, St. George's 
Union, Westminster Union, and 
the Strand Union. It includes 
the three Parliamentary boroughs 
of St. George's Hanover Square, 
Westminster, and the Strand. The 
area is nearly four square 
miles (2,5027 statute acres), the, 
rateable value £6,043,785, and 
the population 183,011. The 
population is decreasing : in 1861 it 
was at its highest, 257,232, nearly 
64,000 more than it became thirty- 
five years later. 

The city contains the finest parks 
in London— Hyde Park, Kensing 
ton Gardens, Green Park, and St. 
James's Park, as well as the 
Thames Embankment and Gardens. 
In all, the area of open spaces is 
723 acres, 28 per cent, of the whole 
city,. The city also contains most 
of the Government and official 
buildings. Buckingham and St. 
James's Palaces, the Houses of 
Parliament, the Whitehall and 
Pall Mall offices; the South Ken- 
sington Museum, as well as practi- 
cally the whole of fashionable town, 
are within the city of Westmin- 



ster ; but parts contain much 
poverty. The death rate for 
the city was, in 1901, 156 per 1,000 
persons, in 1902 160 per 1,000, in 
1903 13*5, in 1904 13* 1, in 1905 133, 
and in 1906 128 per 1,000. 

The city council found, on 
coming into office, that the various 
districts differed considerably in 
municipal services: St. Margaret 
and St. John and St. George Han- 
over Square had adopted the three 
optional Acts ; St. Martin had baths 
and libraries, St. James had baths, 
but in the Strand district, with the 
exception of the Burial Acts in St. 
Anne's and Library Acts in St. 
Paul's, none of the Acts had been 
adopted. The Adoptive Acts have 
been adopted for the whole of the city, 
whilst two schemes have been carried 
out under the Housing of the Work- 
ing Classes Acts. St. Margaret and 
St. Martin had town halls. The latter 
has been reconstructed, and is now 
the permanent headquarters of the 
council. Financially, too, the dis- 
tricts showed great variation — the 
rates in St. James were consistently 
below 5s., in other parishes they were 
above 6s. ; the debt of St. James 
was 97i per cent, of its rateable 
value, the debt of St. Margaret was 
110£ per cent, and of St. Martin 
117 per cent. The rates in the £ for 
31st March, 1906, to 31st March, 
1907, were as follows : St. George, 
6s. 8d. ; St. Margaret and St. John, 
6s. 9d.; St. Peter, 6s. 5d. ; St. 
James, 6s. 6d. ; St. Anne, 6s. 7d. ; 
St. Martin, 6s. 10d.; St. Clement 
Danes, 6s. 8d. ; St. Paul, 6s. 7d. ; 
St. Mary - le - Strand, 6s. ; the 
Rolls, 7s. Id. ; the Savoy, 7s. 6d. 

The electric lighting is in the 
hands of companies — viz., the Lon- 
don, the Westminster, the St. James 
and Pall Mall, the Kensington and 
Knightsbridge, the Charing Cross 
and Strand, and the Metropo- 
litan. 



Borough Councils. 



301 



A Horsfall Dust Destructor is in 
operation. 

The city council consists of 10 
aldermen and 60 councillors. There 
are 14 wards. 

The city council has appointed 
the following standing committees: 
Finance Committee, General Pur- 

g>ses Committee,Works Committee, 
ighways Committee, Valuation 
Committee, Assessment Com- 
mittee, Public Health Committee, 
Improvements Committee, Baths 
and Wash - Houses Committee. 
Public Libraries Committee, Hous- 
ing Committee, Law and Parlia- 
mentary Committee, Watch Com- 
mittee. 

Public Baths and Wash-Houses. 

The old vestries now comprised 
in the City of Westminster were 
among the first to establish baths 
and wash-houses. The city council 
now has five establishments : — (1) 
Buckingham Palace-road (erected 
in 1889-90), and (2) Davies-street, 
Berkeley - square (erected in 1852). 
(3) Great Smith-street (erected in 
1893). (4) Marshall-street (erected 
in 1851). (5) Orange - street, 
Leicester-square (erected in 1846-7). 
General Superintendent — Mr. C. 
Newman. The baths are open 
in November, December, Janu- 
ary, February, and March from 
8 a.m. to 8 p.m., and in April, 
May, June, July, August, Sep- 
tember, and October from 7 a.m. 
to 9 p.m. The following are 
the charges : — Swimming Baths — 
Gentlemen, 1st class, 6d., 2nd class, 
2d. ; ladies, 6d. ; children, 3d. 
Clubs, 1st class, 4d., 2nd class, 2d. 
Private Baths — Men and women, 
1st class warm, 6d., ditto cold 3d. ; 
second class warm 2d., ditto cold 
. Id. ; children 3d. ; shower 3d. 
Laundries— First four hours, lid. 
per hour; every subsequent hour, 
6d. per hour, 



Public Libraries. 

Westminster was the first London 
district to adopt (19th May, 1856) 
the Free Public Libraries Act of 
1855. The following are the present 
establishments in tne City : — 

Buckingham Palace-road— Refer- 
ence library, 12,150 vols.: lending 
library, 20,500 vols. South Audhy- 
street — Reference library, 1,700 
vols.; lending library, 12,200 vols. 

Great Smith-street — Reference 
library, 6,400 vols. ; lending library, 
20,000 vols. Trevor-square — Lend- 
ing library, 5,500. 

St. Martins - lane — Reference 
library, 20,000 vols. ; lending library, 
12,500 vols. 

The reading rooms are open. to 
the public every day (except 
Good Friday, Christmas Day, 
and Bank Holidays) from 9 
a.m. to 10 p.m. The reference 
departments (except that at the 
Public Library in South Audley- 
street, which is closed at 9 p.m.) and 
the magazine rooms are open from 
10 a.m. to 10 p.m. on weekdays, and 
Buckingham Palace-road and St. 
Martin's-lane Libraries are open on 
Sunday evenings from 6 to 9.30 
p.m. from 1st October to 31st 
March, unless closed by order of 
the Public Libraries Committee, 
and the lending libraries are 
open for the issue and receipt 
of books every day except Wed- 
nesdays, Sundays, Good Friday, 
Christmas Day, and Bank Holidays, 
from 10 a.m, till 9 p.m. On Wed- 
nesdays the lending libraries are 
open from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. 
Chief Librarian— F. Pacy. 

Housing. 

A large scheme has been carried 
out by the city council under the 
Housing of the Working Classes 
Acts. A site was acquired in 
Regency-street, and three blocks 
of dwellings, which contain 344 

L 



302 



Borough Councils. 



tenements, have been erected. A 
further Scheme has been carried 
out in Marshall - street, Golden- 
square, and one block of dwellings 
containing 20 tenements has been 
erected. 

Officers. 

Town Clerk — John Hunt, Bar- 
rister-at-Law. 

Assistant Town ClerJc—T. H. 
Munsey. 

City Comptroller— Lister Wood- 
house, A.C.A. 

City Engineer-— J. W. Bradley, 
M.I.C.E. 

Valuation Surveyor — J. W. 
Marsh. 

Medical Officer of Health — F. J. 

Allan, M.D., D.P.H., F.R.S.E. 

Mayor. 
Councillor George William Tallents, j.p. 

Aldermen. 
tAntrobus, R. C, j.p., 3, Wilton-st., S.W. 
•Berkeley, G. A., 72, Belgrave-road., S.W. 
tCheylesmore, Major-Gen. Lord, c.v.o., 
. j.p., 16, Prince's Gate, S.W. 
•Coleman, G., "Fernlea," New Park-road. 
•Egerton, Hon. A. de T., 9, Seamore-place, 

Mayfair, W. 
•Emden, T. W, L., j.p., 2, Lancaster-place, 

Strand, W.C. 
•Everitt, W., 3, Lower Belgrave-st., S.W. 
tProbyn, Lieut.-Col. C. j.p., l.c.c, 55, 

Grosvenor-street, W. 
tSpencer-Smith, C, 51, Palace-street, S.W. 
tWalden, R. W., "Bella Vista," Upper 

Warlingham, Surrey. 
• Retire in 1909. t Retire in 1912. 

Councillors. 

Abady, J., 16, Nassington-road, Hampstead- 
heath, N.W. 

Barnes, F.. 1, Charles - street, Knights- 
bridge, S.W. 

Barton, W., 12, 1 ddesleigh -mansions. 

Batten, J. H., "Moorlands," Horsell, 
Woking. 

Bayley, F. C, 34, Strand, W.C. 

Bennett, J. F. C, 58, Ashley-gardens, S.W. 

Bingham, F. H.,46, Dulwich-road, S.E. 

Bradford, H.W.,j.p.,86, Eccleston-square. 

Brown-Martin, J., 28, Victoria-street, S.W, 

Catterall, J. L., 270, Vauxhall-bridge-road. 

Cocks, E. L, S., 47, Wilton-crescent, S.W. 



Conway, P., 9, Vincent-square-mansions. 

Cook, C. H., 162, Cromwell-road, S.W. 

Courtney, W. D„ 34, Great Chapel-street. 

Cox. G. p 264, Strand, W.C. 

('"X. If.. 64, En ton square. S.W. 

rrak*\ W, a, 395 utiti 397. Oxford-street. 

Cnlita, i\ L, t 38. So ho- square, W. 

Davis, W, S. E., JA/Kegents park rd„ N.W. 

Dawson-Green, H.. 109. KnUm square, S.W. 

Pud in* . J, tt\ p 26. Jame^ ■street, Covent 

GArden. W.C, 
UummJl^ The Right Hon. The Viscount, 

91. Victoria-street, S.W. 
Draper, H., 49, BeltfnivT-mad, S.W. 
\hi\iU. H., M.l>„8. Berkeley -rreet, W. 
Frmtf-, R„ 6S-70, Wardum --street. W. 
(fatti, J. >1., 4, laiuhrid^*' t«ate T Regent's- 

park, NM. 
Gitn -KM-'iTj. S.. I99 r Piccadilly, W, 
iHild.-imlii,F. II. H„i,,<.\c, 14, Mouth-street, 

Mayfair. 
Granville - Smith, R. W„ j.p., l.c.c, 

27, Ashley-place, S.W. 
Gray, H., 26, Buckingham Palace-road. 
Greenwood, H. J., l.c.c, 26, Buckingham* 

gate-mansions, 31, Buckingham-gate. 
Griffith, Godfrey de G., Eaton Chambers, 

50, Buckingham Palace-road. 
Hall, L. D., d.l., j.p., 15, Grosvenor-place. 
Hexamer, J., 160, Ebury-street. 
Hill, R. C, 65, Poland-street, W. 
Hillersdon, Rev. F. H., m.a., 20, Taviton- 

street, Gordon-square, W.C. 
Hobart, Col. G. B. B., d.l., j.p., 1, Hobart- 

place, S.W. 
Horne,W. E., 33, Albert-hall-mansions, S.W. 
Humphreys, Col. J. C, "Homestead Place," 

Cuckfleld, Sussex. 
James, Lieut. -Col. W. H„ j.p., 7, Lowndes-st. 
Jessel, Capt. H. M., j.p., 50, Mount-st., W. 
Jones, E. S., 19, St. Stephen's-square, Bays- 
water, W. 
Lawrence, G. W.,29, York-terrace, Regent's 

park, N.W. 
Lyon, H. T., 34, St. James'-street, S.W. 
Offer, A. J., 81, Elizabeth-street, Eaton- 

Ffiunre, H.W, 
Payne., W., 53* , Fall JLill, S,W. 
PMHips, w. L.,134, Sutherland -avenue, W, 
t'ilditMi. P. K h 2, Pull Mull Kast, S.W, 
Biniuei, V. R. Q. A., 137. Vu-fonM >\. s W 
Smith,*;, \Y.,5% St, George "s-sq., S.W, 
Bnicer, G. B.,12, BlrHimfleTdterraee, s.\v. 
Tiki lent*, G. \\„ 49, Warwick square, S.W, 
Tm7,»'i ■, n,, " Hrookdera/' Kavetotoouro** 

l-iifk. CiLll'nrd. 
Twining, H. 1 1. 1 222, Strand, W.C, 
Van Raa Id 1 . K.,2, Ulusshouw-stroet W, 
\ uic, tile Thu \ er> liu-r. CaUuu L. G., 2Ll, 

Soho-square, W. 
Wall, T., Worcester-road. Sutton. 
Wallis, J. P., 359, Oxford-street, W. 
Watts, E. H., Coburg Hotel, W. 
Wilson, H„ 5, Little Newport - street, 

Leicester-square, W.C. 



J 



Borough Councils. 



303 



WOOLWICH. 

Town Hall-. Wellington Street. 
(Meetings : Every third Thursday, at 7 p.m.) 



The metropolitan borough is " the 
area of the Parliamentary borough 
of Woolwich." It comprises three 
parishes, Woolwich, Plumstead, and 
Eltham. As regards Poor Law ad- 
ministration, Woolwich and Plum- 
stead are two of the four parishes 
in the Woolwich Union, while 
Eltham is one of the three parishes 
in the Lewisham Union. The former 
local government administration 
was in the hands of the Woolwich 
Local Board, the Plumstead Vestry, 
and the Lee District Board (for 
Eltham). The Woolwich local 
board was unique in being" the 
only Local Board of Health in the 
kingdom. Constituted a Local 
Board by an order under the Public 
Health Act, 1848, Woolwich was 
incorporated in the Metropolis 
Management Act of 1855, not as 
a vestry in Schedule A, but as 
a local Board, and as such it had 
powers beyond those possessed by 
vestries — it administered the Burial 
Acts itself, it managed a local 
market, and contributed to the 
Woolwich Polytechnic under the 
Technical Instruction Acts, and so 
on. In 1894 all the other local 
boards in the kingdom became 
district councils, and Woolwich 
was left alone. Now it is included 
in a metropolitan borough. Plum- 
stead, also, was a parish which had 
some claims on autonomy; by a 
special Act passed in 1893 — along 
with Hackney and Stoke Newing- 
ton — it obtained separation from 
a district in Schedule B and con- 
stitution as an independent parish 
in Schedule A. In size Woolwich 
borough takes the second place 
among the boroughs, being no less 
than 13 square miles in 
extent, more than twenty times 



as big as the smallest borough. 
Of its 8,986 acres 355 are open 
space, including 100 acres on Plum- 
stead Common 133 acres in Bostal 
Heath and Woods, 50 acres on 
Eltham Common and Green, and 
55 acres of Woolwich Common. 

The population in 1891 was 
98,966, in 1896 it was 106,477, and 
in 1901 117,178, now estimated at 
125,885. I he borough is still only 
thinly inhabited, the average being 
15 persons per acre. There is thus 
room for a greatly increased popu- 
lation; with a density of popula- 
tion equal to that of Battersea 
or Lambeth, Woolwich would have 
625,000 inhabitants ; with the density 
of Chelsea it would have a million. 

There is little overcrowding in 
the borough : in Woolwich there 
was 145 per cent, in 1891, aud in 
the Plumstead and Lee district 
only 6'4 per cent. The death rate 
in Woolwich last year was 15*5, in 
Plumstead, 12'3, and in Eltham 
10'0, an average of 13*1 for the 
whole borough. 

The rateable value for 1901-2 
was £645,032, of which £5,613 was 
the value of agricultural land, and 
for 1904-5 £740,470, and for 1905-6 
£782,901. 

With regard to optional services 
the borough is advanced, both 
Woolwich and Plumstead having 
adopted the Baths, Libraries, and 
Burial Acts, and Eltham the Baths 
and Libraries Acts. 

The electric lighting powers are 
under municipal control through- 
out the borough, the council 
having bought out the Woolwich 
and the Blackheath and Greenwich 
Companies. (See section on Elec- 
tric Light.) The counsil also has 
L 2 



304 



Borough OounoiU, 



a splendid refuse destructor (12 
cells, on Messrs. Meldrum Bros.' 
designs) for burning the refuse of 
the borough. 

The borough council consists of 
6 aldermen and 36 councillors, the 
membership of local bodies super- 
seded being 182. There are 11 wards. 

Public Baths. 

Public baths were erected at 
Woolwich in 1894 at a cost of 
£25,000, and at Plumstead, baths 
estimated to cost £40,000 are near- 
ing completion. 

Public Libraries. 

The Public Libraries Act has 
been adopted throughout the 
borough. At Woolwich the build- 
ings were opened on the 8th 
November, 1901, at Plumstead the 
library was opened in 1905, and at 
Eltham a branch library, erected 
by direct labour, was opened in 
October, 1906. Mr. Carnegie has 
presented £15,000 to the borough 
for library purposes. 

Cemeteries. 

The council owns two cemeteries 
— at Woolwich and Plumstead re- 
spectively. 

Markets. 

The council owns a municipal 
market at Woolwich, which yields 
a profit of about £600 a-year, and 
has obtained Parliamentary powers 
for the extension of the Woolwich 
market rights to the remainder of 
the borough. 

Technical Education. 

The sum of £500 is contributed 
oy Woolwich parish annually to the 
Woolwich Polytechnic for the pur- 
poses of technical education. 

Electric Light. 

A Provisional Order for the 
whole of the borough is in force. 



Mains are laid, and a station and 
plant, which cost £81,000, was 
erected at Plumstead. The Council 
has an electric light station in the 
parish of Woolwich, and three sub- 
stations have been erected by direot 
labour. 

Housing. 

Part III. of the Housing of the 
Working Classes Act has been 
adopted by the borough council, 
and a block of 25 dwellings has been 
erected on land belonging to the 
council at North Woolwich. 

Milk Depot. 

The Council has recently opened 
a milk depot for the sale of sterilised 
milk for infants under two years o€c 
age, nnder the control of the Medi-i 
cal Officer of Health, Miss Petty 
having been appointed manageress^ 

Officers. ' 

Town Clerk's Department. 

Town Cleric and Solicitor — 
Arthur B. Bryceson. Assistant 
Town Clerk — Frederick Ferni- 
hongh. Legal Assistant — D. LI. 
Griffiths. Clerk to Baths, Markets, 
and Cemeteries Committee — J. W: 
Eccles. Clerk to Rating and Valu- 
ation Committee — J. A. Arnold.* 
Clerks — H. W. Tansley, G. K. f 
Harris, A. M. Colban, W. H. Davie, 1 
H. Eley,E. H. Austin, H. T. Clark, 
T. B. Williams, P. May, H. Cooke, - 
and W. R. Pankhnrst. 

Treasurer's Department. ' 
Borough Treasurer — A. Thomas. 
Assistant Borough Treasurer — 
J. Gronow, a.s.A.A. Cashier ^- 
M. J. Mackay. Chief Book-keeper- 
— H. T. Goldsworthy. Clerks -*; 
J. D. Munro, W. G. Watson, 
C. E. Napper, E. H. Cage, B. H. 
Chamberlain, R. J. Evans, J. Hv 
Edmonds, A. F. Hill, C. H. Jolley, [ 
A. J. Dobson, K. Anderson, H. fi*. 
Morgan, C. A. Randall, W. Ej, 
Smith, E. Riding, A. G. Brazier, 
E. V. Hancock. 



Borough Oowutts* 



305 



Engineer and Surveyor's 
Department. 

Borough Engineer and Surveyor 
—J. R. Dixon, A.M.I.C.E. Chief As- 
sistant Engineer and Surveyor — 
R. E. Waldram. Assistant Engineer 
and Surveyor — R. Findlay. Sur- 
veyor's Assistants — T. Mundy, W. 
T. Schlund, P. E. Weeks, F. Dike, 
W. H. Butler, and T. J. Miller. 
Drainage Assistants — A. N. 
Hudswell and E. Hall. Chief 
Architectural Assistant — H. W. 
Horswill. Temporary Architect 
tural Assistants — H. H. Gold- 
ing and C. Oldrey. Chief Clerk 
— A. Batchelor. Works Com- 
mittee Clerk- -P. J. Killick. Clerks 
H. Fletcher, G. D. Roe, J. Skipper, 
W. Grayson, A. C. Martyn, F. 
Smith, H. Smith, F. J. Maude, and 
A. Harris. 

Electrical Department, 

Acting Electrical Engineer — G. 
W. Keats. Commercial Assistant — 
T. W. Ellis. Draughtsman— C. E. 
Trayte. Distribution Engineer — ' 
S. H. Penning. Charge Engineers 
— F. H. Edwards, J. W. Speight, 
H. H. Clare, C. G. Eley, and T. W. 
Bunce. Canvasser — S. P. Ives. 
Chief Olerk and Clerk to Electricity 
Committee — F.Kershaw. Clerks — 
J. W. Giles, Miss A. E. Redwood, 
Miss L. Miles, R. H. Vickers, and 
G. R. Smith. 

Public Health Department. 

Medical Officer of Health— Dr. 
S. Davies. Borough Analyst — Prof. 
W. R. Smith. Chief Sanitary 
Inspector— A.. G. Duck. Sanitary 
Inspectors — W. Woolley, J. W. 
Ranee, W. Little, W. Wood, A. G. 
Potter, W. Tedham, F. Powell, 
Miss A. M. Middlebrooke, and Miss 
M. Fitzgerald. Committee Clerk — 
0. Ellis. Clerks— A. Britter, G. H. 
Triggs, and H. M. Collyer. 



Public Libraries. 

Borough Librarian— E. A. Baker, 
M.A. Mbranans-in-Charge — W.&. 
Chambers, P. C. Bursill, and E. 
Luke. Assistants— W. H. Parker, 
W. H. Shawcross, V. Usherwood, 
C. P. Jackson, E. Terry, J. H. Wale, 
A. D. Carlisle, A. S. Lockyear, 
C. T. Hughes, E. Bishop, A. Kidd, 
and C.H. Bird. 

Baths and Markets. 

Superintendent of Woolwich 
Baths— W. Frost. Matron— Mrs. 
C. Frost. Market Inspector and 
Market Toll Collector— A. Allen. 

Cemeteries. 

Superintendent of Woolwich 
Cemetery— W. Horner. Superin- 
tendent of Plumstead Cemetery — 
G. B. Ismay. 

Mayor. 

Councillor William James Squires, j.p. 

Aldermen. 

♦Broughton, J., 10, Whitworth-road, Plum- 

tCuff, S. H. f " Blmslie/'Court-rd., Eltham, 

tHughes, Col. E. T. f c.b., 239, Burrage-road, 
Plumstead. 

•Macnamara, T., 42, Wilmount-street, "Wool- 
wich. 

tMessent, J. J., 5, Thomas-st., Woolwich. 

♦Tydbmouth, A. M., 25, Greenvale-road 

* Retire in 1909. t Retire in 1912. 
Councillors. 

Berry, H., 7, Paget-terrace, Plumstead. 

Bull, W. J., 280, Plumstead-common-road 
Plumstead. 

Campbell, R., 68, Federation-road, Plum- 
stead. 

Chambers, P., 33, McLeod-road, Plumstead. 

Dawson, W. H., 187, Eglinton-road, Plum- 
stead. 

Fennell, E. T., 5 and 6, Church-street, 
Woolwich. 

Francis, W. J„ 4 and 5, Green's-end, 
Woolwich. 

Hall, A., 98, Vicarage-road, Plumstead. 

Harper, J., 18, St. Margaret's-road, Plum- 
stead. 

Hodgin, J. H., 45, Thomas-st., Woolwich. 

Home, J., 4, Greenholm-road, Eltham. 

Illidge, J„ 36, Federation-road,Plumstead . 



309 



B&hmgK (hmeUa 



Ingram, Dr. T. A., 160, Herbert-road, 
Plnmstead. 

Ingram, W. B., 94, High-street, East Ham. 

Jackson, W. P., 7, Woolwich-common, 
Woolwich. 

tlooes. Rev. L. J., " Broomhill," Shrews- 
bary-lane, Plumstead. 

Mahony, J. J., 67, Beresford-s* f , Woolwich. 

Mitchell, H. R., Sales' Wharf, Globe-lane, 
Woolwich. 

Moors, T. N., 56, Vernham-rd., Plumstead. 

Motimer, M., 53, Wrottesley-rd. .Plumstead. 

Newman, J., 75, Heavitree-rd., Plumstead. 

Pitt, Major J., 179, Eglinton-road, Plum- 
stead. 

RavenjW.. 72, Samuel-street, Woolwich. 

Ross, W. H., 6, Cantwell-road, Plumstead. 

Sheppard, J. T., 6, Burwash-road, Plum- 
stead. 



Somers, D. K., 233, Eglinton-road, Plum- 
stead. 

Squires, W. J., j.p., 95 & 96, Wellington, 
street, Woolwich. 

Syer, H. S., 45, Plumstead-common-road 
Plumstead. 

Turnbull, J. A., 37, Kaehgar-road, Plum- 
stead. 

Turner, W., 306, Plumstead-common-road, 
Plumstead. 

Wakelen, R. B. B., 79, Greenvale-road, 
Eltham. 

Wale, R. R., 20. McLeod-road, Plumstead. 

Walters, R. A. M., 16, Craigton-rd., Eltham 

Widger, J. O., 113, Chesnut-rd., Plumstead. 

Wilson, A., 20a, McLeod-road, Plumstead. 

Woodford, W., 15, Nightingale - place, 
Woolwich. 



For a subscription of Twelve Shillings, paid in advance, 

we will send, post free, to any address in the 

United Kingdom, 

1. The . 

Municipal Journal 

Weekly for Twelve Months. And 

2. A Copy of the 1907 

Municipal Year Book 



Address: THE PUBLISHER, 12, Salisbury Square, London, E.O, 



#ooi- fcato Contain 



POOR Law administration in London is carried on by thirty-one boards of 
guardians, four boards of managers of school districts, and two boards of 
managers of sick asylum districts. These boards of managers are practi- 
cally joint committees representing two or more boards of guardians, but 
they enjoy a separate constitution. The Metropolitan Asylums Board is 
also a Poor Law body, though its institutions are used for many non- 
pauper cases. 

During the half-year ended Lady Day, 1906, the actual amount ex- 
pended on poor relief* was higher than in any previous half-year, and in 
relation to population the rate per head was higher than in the nine half- 
years since Lady Day, 1897. During this period the expenditure on 
in-maintenance has increased by 40 per cent. Out-door relief was 38 per 
cent, higher in 1906 than in 1899. 

For the parochial year 1881-2 the mean number of indoor paupers in 
the metropolis was 51,136, or 13*4 per 1,000 of the population; for 1905-6 
it was 76,875, or 164 per 1,000. The number of outdoor paupers (ex- 
cluding casual paupers and insane) was 41,072, or 10*8 per 1,000, in 1881-2, 
and 49,036, or 10*5 per 1,000, in 1905-6. In twenty of the intervening years 
the rate was less than 10 per 1,000. 

In the following table, relating to the Cost of in-maintenance and out- 
door relief, the figures as regards London and the rest of England and 
Wales are shown side by side in respect of the half-year ended Lady Day, 
1906. It should be noted that the expenditure on in-maintenance in 
workhouses and in other establishments under the control of Poor Law 
guardians comprises all the expenses incurred in and about the mainten- 
ance, treatment, and relief of the paupers and patients, exclusive of the 
cost of repairs and furniture, and of the salaries and other remuneration, 
rations, and superannuation allowances of the officers and servants, but 
inclusive of charges for apprentice fees, outfits, burials, and the necessary 
expenses incurred in warming, cleansing, and Hghting the workhouses 
and other establishments, and otherwise keeping them fit for daily use. 

As regards the establishments not under the control of guardians of the 
poor, the expenditure shown in the returns represents the full cost of the 
j maintenance of the paupers with which the guardians, are charged. 

The expenditure on out-door relief comprises the charges for all out- 
relief, whether afforded in money or in kind, and other expenses incurred 
t with respect to paupers not relieved in workhouses or other institutions, 
exclusive of the salaries of officers and the cost of relief stations. 



308 



Poor Law London. 





Expenditure in Unions 
and Parishes. 


;> 


Cltu* of Relief. 


In London. 


Outside 
London. 


Total. 


I.— In-maintenance : 

In establishments under the control of 

Guardians of the Poor :— 
Workhouses,* exclusive of casual wards... 

Infirmaries or sick asylums 

Casual wardst >. 

Separate or district schools (82 Unions) ... 
Cottage, scattered, and small homes for 

children (160 Unions)* 

Homes for aged poor (7 Unions) 

Institutions belonging to the managers 
of the Metropolitan Asylum District, 
other than fever and small-pox hos- 
pitals:- 

Imbecile asylums 

Training Ship 

Other institutions 

Other establishments 

In establishments not under the control 

of Guardians of the Poor .— 
Institutions for blind, deaf and dumb, 

epileptics, idiots, Ac 

Hospitals and Convalescent Homes for the 

Training Ship "'. 

Training and Industrial Homesand Schools 

not included under previous headings ... 

Other Institutions ... .« 


£ 

242,738 "> 
171,939 f 
4,772 
49,106 

26,423 
5,066 

30,612 

2,140 
66,477 

1.340 

4,911 

8,631 
5 

29,562 


£ 

993,205 

19,782 
24^99 

55,536 
2,420 

2,235 
1,439 
2,919 

15*343 

12,585 
2,737 

37,681 
-327 


£ 

1.407.882 

24,554 
74,007 

81,968 
7,475 

30,612 
4,375 ' 

67,916, 
4.259 

/ 

20,254 : 

21,216 ■ 
2,742 

66,243 
327 


Total 


£642,713 


£1,171,107 


£1313,820 


II.— Qut-door relief : 

Other than that of children boarded out 
and casual paupers :— 

In money 

In kind 

To children boarded out (512 Unions) :— 

Within the Union 

Beyond the Union 

Belief of casual paupers otherwise than in 

workhouses or casual wards (78 Unions) 
Belief by way of meals to underfed school 

children (31 unions) 


117,109 
28,682 

5,274 
1 


1,320,140 
98,464 

36.646 
7,142 

920 

1,419 


1,437,249 
127,136 

35,646 
12,416 

920 

1,420 


Total 


£151,066 


£1,463,721 


£1,614,787 


Grand Total 


£793,779 


£2,634,828 


£3>42$607 



• In a very few cases the expenditure on in-maintenance in homes for children and 
aged poor is included in the amounts shown in respect of Workhouses. 

t In the majority of cases the expenditure on the maintenance of persons relieved in 
casual wards in unions and parishes outside London is approximate, and in some cases it 
is also stated that only the cost of provisions supplied is included in the sum entered 
under this head. 

The total Poor Law expenditure in London for the half-year ended in 
March, 1906, was £1,999,893, allocated as follows .—In-maintenance, 
£642,713;. out-door relief, £151,066; maintenance of lunatics in cotmty 



Metropolitan Asylums Board. 



309 



asylums, registered hospitals, Ac., £272,996; salaries, Ac., and super- 
annuation allowances of union officers and servants, # £428,946; loan 
charges (principal repaid and interest), t£235,955 ; other expenditure con- 
nected with relief, J£268,217. 

METROPOLITAN ASYLUMS BOARD. 
Office: Embankment, E.O. 



The Metropolitan Asylums Board 
is a central authority created by the 
Metropolitan Poor Act of 1867, to 
provide accommodation for the 
infectious sick and the harmless 
insane. There are 73 managers, 56 
of whom are elected by the boards 
of guardians from among their 
members as a rule, and 18 are 
nominated by the Local Government 
Board. Before the Board was esta- 
blished there was no suitable pro- 
vision for the poor who were stricken 
with fever or small-pox, or for the 
imbecile ; they were kej>t in work- 
houses, or in workhouse infirmaries. 
The nature and scope of the work 
entrusted to the Asylums Board 
has greatly expanded, and it now 
owns and manages twelve fever 
hospitals (including two con- 
valescent hospitals), with accom- 
modation for over 6,400 patient*', 
five imbecile asylums with accom- 
modation for about 6,800 patients, 
including a school where imbecile 
children are taught as far as their 
limited intellects will permit, 
and three hospitals (including 
temporary buildings) at Dartford 
for the treatment of about 2,040 
small-pox cases. The Board main- 
tains an ambulance service for the 
whole of London. Besides being a 
hospital and asylum authority, the 
Board maintains a training ship, 
the Exmonth, where 600 boys from 
workhouses are educated and trained 
for the Navy, the mercantile marine, 



and the Army; and homes and 
schools for certain classes of Poor 
Law children, to wit — (a) those 
suffering from ophthalmia or other 
contagious diseases of the eye; 
(6) those suffering from contagious 
diseases of the skin or scalp: 
(c) those requiring either special 
treatment during convalescence, or 
the benefit of seaside air; (d) those . 
who by reason of defect of intellect 
or physical infirmity cannot pro- 
perly be trained in association with 
children in ordinary schools — this 
class remaining till they are 21 
years old ; (e) those who are ordered 
by two justices or a magistrate to 
be taken under the Industrial 
Schools Act, 1866, or by the Youth- 
ful Offenders Act, 1901, to a work- 
house or an asylum of the district. 
To further indicate the magnitude 
of the work which devolves upon 
the asylum managers, it may be 
mentioned that the board and its 
various committees held 251 meet- 
ings during last year, at which 
4,602 attendances were made, in 
addition to 5,207 attendances at 
meetings of sub-committees and 
visits to institutions. 

Since 1890 the Board has had to 
provide hospital accommodation for 
other than pauper patients, as fever 
can be more effectively treated in a 
hospital than in a patient's house. 
Diphtheria cases were first admitted 
into the Board's hospitals in 1888. 

The Board's revenue expenditure 



* Excluding registrar* of births and deaths, vaccination officers, clerks to assessment 
committees and parochial officers. 

t In respect of all loans other than those raised under the Union Assessment Acts. 

X Comprising, inter alia, expenditure on furniture, buildings, and repairs ; certain 
establishment charges, including cost of printing, stationery, and advertisements; tents 
and rates ; settlement and removal expenses ; and purchases on stone, farm; &c„ accounts. 



310 



Metropolitan Asylums Board. 



has been as follows during the last 
twelve years : — 



1894 . 


.. £575,214 


1900 


... £832,466 


1895 . 


.. £553,976 


1901 


... £867,607 


1896 . 


.. £625,122 


1902. 


.£1,013,102 


1897 . 


.. £665,393 


1903. 


.£1,123,130 


1898 . 


.. £719,128 


1904. 


.£1,002,198 


1899 . 


.. £766,784 


1905. 


.£1,036,697 



The average number of the indoor 
staff at the fever hospitals in 1890 
was 670 ; in 1900 it numbered about 
2,635. The total cost per fever 

Eatient was £36 in 1885, and in 1895 
etween £10 and £11, in 1900 £12 
6s., and in 1905 £11 16s. The aver- 
age total annual cost of each imbe- 
cile patient was £26 2s. M. in 1885 ; 
£24 68. Qd. in 1895 ; £23 9*. 6U in 
1900; and £28 12*. 9d. in 1905. 
The ambulance service notification 
of diseases and maintenance of 
children have involved new and 

Sowing expenditure, 
anagers elected by boards of 

guardians 55 

Managers nominated by the 
L.G.B 18 



MEMBERS OF THE BOARD. 

(For the three years ending May 15, 1910.) 

Managers Elected by the Several 

Metropolitan Boards of 

Guardians. 

Bermondsey— * 
Ecroyd, W. H., 64, Bermondsey-street, 
Bermondsey, S.E. 

Bethnal Green- 
Barnard, A. P., 309, Hackney-road, N.E. 

Bloomsbury— 
Smith, Prof. William R., m.d., j.p., 74. 
Great Russell-street, Bloomsbury,W.C. 

Camberwell— 
Brown, R., 32, East Dnlwich-road, S.E. 
Sayer, S., 302, Southampton-street Cam- 
berwell, S.E. 
{/helsea— 
Crosse, T. Warren, 10, Cresswell-gardens, 
South Kensington. 

City of London- 
Benson, C. J., 10, Bury-court, St. Mary 

Axe, E.C. 
Doughty, Rev. G. B., 27, Westbourne- 

gar Jens, W. 



Lile, J. H., 4, Ludgate-circus, E.C. 
Monckton, A., 189, Upper Thames-street, 

E.C. 
Wilkinson, C, 66, Holland-park, W. 
Fulham— 
Botterill C, St. Botolph's, Fulham Palace- 
road, S.W. 
Greenwich— 
Oldman, F. J., 85, Arbuthnot-road, New- 
cross, S.E. 
Hackney- 
Bates. T., 67, Clifden-rd., Lower Clapton, 

N.E. 
Beurle, W. L., Linden House, 331, Vic- 
toria-park-rd., N.E. 
Hammersmith- 
Pope, Rev. G. W., 155, Holland-road, 
Kensington, W. 
Hampstead— 
Sheffield, Col. F., Palaspal, Daleham- 
gardens, Hampstead, N.W. 
Holborn— 
Baker, Miss I. M., 37,Brooke-st. , Holborn. 

E.C. 
Edwards, J. H., 10, Osbaldeston-road, 
Stoke Newington, N. 
Islington- 
Elliott, G. S., 14, Upper-street, Islington, 

N. 
Guttridge* G., 29, Yonge-park, Seven 

Sisters-road, N. 
Lambert, S., 125, Barnsbury-road, N*. 
Kensington— 
Fleming, Sir Francis, k.c.m.g., 9, Sydney- 
place, South Kensington. 
. Webb, Col. R. F., j.p., d.l., 6, West 
Cromwell-road, South Kensington, S:W. 
Wilde, Miss M. J., 84, Lexham-gatdens, 
W. 
Lambeth- 
Baldwin, H.,93, Loughborough-road, S.W. 
Clark, Arthur, Lynton, Crane's - park, 

Surbiton. 
Gough-Cook, W., 26, Herne-hill, S.E. 
Lewisham— 
West, Major T., The Elms, Southend, 
Catford, S.E. 
Mile End Old Town- 
Hirst, R., 237, Mile End-road, E. 
Paddington— 
Cole, S. J., Fernleigh, 123, Fernhead 

road, W. 
Humphry, Miss A. M„ 41, Sussex-gardens, 

Poplar^ 

Moore, W. B„ 89, Malmesbury-road, Bow 
E. 
St. George's— 

Bramston, Miss Georgina, 39, Greycoat 
gardens, Victoria-street, S.W. 

Hobart, Col. G. B., j.p., d.l., 1, Hobart- 
place, Eaton-square, S.W. 

Luttman- Johnson, H., Oxford and Cam- 
bridge Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 

Walden, R. W., Bella Vista, Upper War- 
lingham. 
St. George-in-the-East— 

Martineau, P. M., j.p., d.l„ ll.b„ Little- 
worth, Esher, Surrey. 



Metropolitan Asylums Board. 



311 



St. Marylebone— 
Browne, Elliott 8., l.r.c.s.i., l.e.c.p.i.,5, 
Cavendish-mansions, Langham-street , W. 
Dennis, Walter, Ifleld House, Carshalton, 

Surrey. 
White, Edward, j.p., 20, Upper Berkeley- 
street, W. 
cf T*fl.norjifl— " 
Boden, A., 34,Maitland-park-villas, N.W. 
Thornley, Joseph, j.p., 53, Camden- 

square, N.W. 
Wetenhall.W. J., j.p., 8, Maitland-park- 
villas. N.W. 
Shoreditch— 

Bye, J., 258, Kingsland-road, N.E. 
Southwark— 
Cornell, Thomas, 63, Borough-road, S.E. 
Devereux, J. O.,20, Nelson-square, Black- 
friars-road, S.E. 
Stepney— 
Higley, Rev. F.H., 636, Commercial-road 
East, E. 
Strand— 
Wylson, O. C, 16, King William-street, 
Strand, W.C. 
Wandsworth— 
Lower, J., 123, Sugden-road, Lavender- 
hill, S.W. 
Penfold, William P., Burwood House, 

Upper Tooting, S.W. 
Sullivan, A., 3, St. Nicholas-road, Balham, 
S.W. 
Westminster- 
Lyon, H. T., 34, St. James'-street, S.W. 
Whitechapel— 
Brown, James, j.p., 5, Kent - terrace, 
Regent's-park, N.W. 
Woolwich- 
Graham, Lt.-Col. W. J. B.,v.d.. White- 
house Villa, Woodlands, Old Charlton. 
Kent. 

Managers Nominated bt the 
Local Government Board. 

Doneraile, The Right Hon. The Viscount, 
91, Victoria-street, Westminster, S.W. 

Drage, Geoffrey, 29, Cadogan-square, S.W. 

Gell, H. W., m.b., 24, Palace-court, Bays- 
water ^V 

Goldie, Col*. J., 41, Charleville-road, West 
Kensington, W. 

Helby, J. T., Glengarriff, Cobham, Surrey. 

Hensley, Sir R. M., j.p., Glenton House, 
Putney, S.W. 

Hunt, Jackson, j.p., 23, Montagu-square, W. 

Inderwick, Miss E. F., 8, Warwick- 
square, S.W. 

Meinertzhagen, E. L., j.p., 4, Cheyne-walk, 
Chelsea.S.W. 

Portman, Berkeley, 22, Tedworth-gardens, 
Chelsea, S.W. 

Ritchie, Gerald, 39, Cheyne-walk, Chelsea, 
S w 

Rol'fe,* Vice- Admiral E. N., c.b., 167, Vic- 
toria-street, Westminster, S.W. 



:■*■ ■"■' .-ll. A. i\, J.r., 8, Primrose-mansions, 
Ratteraa Park, g t W. 

Spender Hurokl. 18, Pembridge-crescent, 
Hnys water. S,W. 

SjiMiikliiiff. ftev t James, St. George's 
r'lthodrnl H<m»<. southwark, S.E. 

Stanley, Hon. Mai irk* A., 32, Smith-square, 
Wejttmioiiter. S.W, 

Strong, Richard, j.p., Helstonleigh, Cham- 
pion-park, Caiiibprwell. S.E. 

Vi 1 lain* iWll liam , J . p, 1 55, Tressillian-road, 
St. John**, 8.B. 

Chief Officers (Central 
Staff), 

Clerk — T. Duncombe Mann, Bar- 
rister-at-Law. 

Treasurer and Accountant — 
Morris Heyes, a.c.a. 

Assistant Clerk — John Mallett. 

Engineer— W. T. Hatch, M.INST. 
C.E., M.I.MECH.E. 

Medical Investigator — H. E. Cnff, 
m.d., b.s. (lond.), f.r.c.s. (kng.). 

institutions and staff. 

Imbecile Asylums. 
Leavesden Asylum, King's Langley, 
Herts. — Accommodation, 1,877 

Satients (859 males,l,018 females), 
[edical Superintendent— F. A. 
Elkins, M.D., CM. (EDIN.); 
Steward — (Vacant); Matron — 
Miss E. M. Howell; Chaplain — 
Rev. E. Athelstan Clark. 
Caterham Asylum, Caterham, 
Surrey. — Accommodation, 1,943 
patients (888 males and 1,055 
females). Medical Superinten- 
dent— P. E. Campbell, M.B., cm. 
(EDIN.) ; Steward — (Vacant) ; 
Matron—Mrs. E. A. Warren; 
Chaplain — Rev. C. A. Green- 
land. 
Darenth Asylum (Training School 
and Industrial Colony), Dartford, 
Kent. — Accommodation — School, 
502 patients (272 males and 230 
females) ; Industrial Colony, 1,052 
patients (450 males and 602 
females) ; Pavilions, 440 patients 
(352 males and 88 females). 
Medical Superintendent — A. 
Rotherham, M.A., M.B., B.C. 



312 



Metropolitan Asylums Board. 



(CAMB.); Steward— F. Firth; 
.Matron (Industrial Colony) — 
Miss Jeanette Ferrier; Head 
Mistress and Matron (Training 
School)— Miss M. Hargreaves; 
Chaplain — Rev. C. M. Jenkins. 

Tooting Bee Asylum, S.W. — Accom- 
modation 891 patients (401 males, 
490 females, 22 isolation beds). 
Medical Superintendent— E. H. 
Beresford, M.R.C.S., L.B.C.P.; 
Steward— W.J. Gibbs; Matron- 
Miss E. M. Cottrill ; Chaplain- 
Rev. G. Royds. 

Belmont Asylum, Sutton, Surrey. 
Accommodation at present for 
336 patients. Acting Medical 
Superintendent — E. B. Sherlock, 
M.B., B.SC. (LOND.), D.P.H. ; 
Steward (Assistant)— T. L. Wil- 
liams ; Matron — Mrs. M. E, 
Williams. 

The Visiting Days for friends of 
patients at all the asylums are— 
Every Monday *) tjv^™ 

The First Sunday in ( o*IT<w 
every month I 2 ^ M 

Bank Holidays ) pm ' 

Fever Hospitals. 

Eastern Hospital, The Grove, 
Homerton, N.E. (362 beds).— 
Medical Superintendent— E. W. 

Goodall, M.D., B.SC. (LOND.) ; 

Steward— A. W.Weston; Matron 
—Mrs. F. E. M. Day; Chaplain- 
Rev. A. B. Winter. 

North~Eastern Hospital, St. Ann's- 
road, South Tottenham, N. (662 
beds).— Medical Superintendent 
— F. H. Thomson, M.B., cm. 
(aber.), d.p.h. ; Stewards. E. 
Wells: Matron — Miss H. M. 
Schooling; Chaplain — Rev. H. 
J. E. Barter. 

North-Western Hospital, Lawn- 
road, Hampstead, N.W. (462 
beds). — Medical Superintendent — 
F. N. Hume, M.R.C.S. ; Steward— 

. A. Fraser ; Matron— Miss M. M. 

. Lloyd; Chaplain— Rev. T. H 

. Russell 



Western Hospital, Seagrave-road, 
Fulham, S.W. (452 beds).— 
Medical Superintendent — R. M. 
Bruce, M.R.C.S., L.S.A. ; Steward— 
A. B. Moule ; Matron — Miss E. 
Ross ; Chaplain — Rev. J. F. 
Downes. 

South-Western Hospital, Landor- 
road, Stockwell (345 beds).— 
Medical Superintendent — F. F. 
Caiger, M.D., B.S. (LOND.), D.P.H. 
(cantab.), F.R.C.S.; Steward— 
S. Crick; Matron— Miss C.KL 
Burton; Chaplain — Rev. W. H. 
Longsdon. 

Southeastern Hospital, Avonley- 
road. New Cross, S.E. (488 beds). 
Medical Superintendent— F. M. 
Turner, m.d., B.c, bjl (cantab.), 
b.sc. (LOND.); Steward— G. H. 
Essery; Matron — Miss^ F. M. 
Ambler- Jones ; Chaplain — Rev. 
J. Hodson. 

Orove Hospital, Tooting- grove, 
Tooting Graveney, S?W. (518 
beds). — Medical Superintendent 
—J. E. Beggs, M.D.. B.C., B.A. 
(cantab.), d.p.h. (Grove and 
Fountain Hospitals) ; Steward 
(Grove and Fountain Hospitals) 
— E.Ackitz; Matron— Miss A. A. 
Browne; Chaplain — Rev. J. H. 
Anderson. 

Fountain Hospital, Tooting-grove» 
Tooting Graveney, S.W. (402 
beds). — Deputy Steward (Grove 
and Fountain Hospitals) — E. 

• Kellett; Matron — Miss S. A. 
Villiers; Chaplain— Rev. A. C. 
Wolston. 

Brook Hospital, Shooters - hiU, 

* Woolwich (560 beds.)— Medical 
Superintendent — J. MaeCombie, 
M.A., M.D., CM. (aber.) ; Steward 
— W. H. Mathews;. Matron— 

. Miss E. M. Bann; Chaplain- 
Rev. A. A. Dauncey. 
Park Hospital, Hither-green, Lewis- 

. ham, S.E. (548 beds).— Medical 
Superintendent— R.. A.Birdwood, 
M.A., M.D, (CANTAB.), M.R.C.S. ; 



Metropolitan Asylums Board. 



313 



Steward— H.Harrington ; Matron 
— *Miss A. Thomas; Chaplain — 
Rev. J. A. Drummond. 

Northern Hospital (for convalescent 
patients), Winchmore Hill. — Ac- 
commodation, 738 patients. Medi- 
cal Superintendent— C. E. Mat- 
thews, M.D. (OXON.), D.P.H., 
M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. ; Steward — H. 
Jay ; Matron — Miss L. A. 
Morgan; Chaplain — Rev. A. J. 
B. Dewdney. 

Gore Farm Hospital — Upper Hos- 
pital: Accomodation, 940 pa- 
tients. Lower Hospital : Accom- 
modation: 850 patients. Medical 
Superintendent— W. T. G-. Pugh, 
M.D. (LOND.), B.S. (LOND.). ; 
Steward — (Vacant) ; Matron — 
Miss M. Jones ; Chaplain— Rev. 
. K. M. Ffinch. 

Southern Convalescent Hospital, 
Carshalton, Surrey. — A new 
institution not yet opened. 
Small-Pox Hospitals, 
Dartpord, Kent. 

Joyce Green Hospital — Accom- 
modation, 940 patients. Long 
Reach Hospital — Accommoda- 
tion, 300 patients. Orchard Hos- 
pital — Accommodation, 800 pa- 
tient*. Medical Superintendent, 
— T. F. Ricketts, m.d., b.s., B.sc. 
(lond.), d.p.h. ; Steward— G. B. 
Morss ; Matron — H. Wacher ; 
Chaplain— Rev. K. M. Ffinch. 
Ambulance Service. 

Eastern Ambulance Station, Brooks- 
bv's Walk, Homerton, N.E. 
South -Eastern Ambulance 
Station, New Cross-road, S.E. 
Western Ambulance Station, Sea- 
grave-road, Fulham, S.W. Brook 
Ambulance Station, Shooters-hill, 
Woolwich. South- Western Ambu- 
lance Station, Landor-road, Stock- 
well, S.W. North- Western Am- 
bulance Station, Lawn-road, 
Hampstead, N.W. Mead Am- 
• bulance Station (closed), Town- 
mead-road, Fulham, S.W. 



River Ambulance Service* 
Under the control of the Medical 
Superintendent and Matron of the 
Small-pox Hospitals. Chief Officer 
— C. E. Sullivan, a.m.i.n.a. 
WJiarves and Piers : North Wharf 
— Managers'-street, Blackwall, E. ; 
South Wharf — Trinity -street, 
Rotherhithe ; West Wharf — 
Townmead-road, near Wands- 
worth-bridge, S.W. 
Small steamers convey, between 
the London wharves and Long 
Reach, not only all sick and re- 
covered patients, but also the staff of 
the Small-pox Hospitals, and all 
visitors to patients, as well as stores 
and parcels. They are named the 
Maltese Cross, Albert Victor, Geneva 
Cross, White Cross, and Red Cross. 
The total number of fever 
patients removed by the land am- 
bulance service during 1905 was 
23,736. Small-pox patients, 80, 
The number of patients carried by 
the ambulance steamers was 51. 

Telephones, — The ambulance 
stations, the North and South 
wharves, the fever and small-pox 
hospitals, Darenth Asylum, and 
Tooting Bee Asylum are all in tele- 
phonic communication with the 
Head Office. 

Training Ship Extnouth, off Gravs, 
Essex (600 boys). — Preparation 
for Navy and Mercantile marine. 
Captain Superintendent — Capt. 
R. B. Colmore, R.N. 

Children's Schools and Homes, 
ophthalmia. 

Ophthalmic Surgeon— E. Treacher 
Collins, P.R.C.S, 

High Wood School, Brentwood 
(300 beds.) Matron — Miss E, 
Baker. Station — Brentwood 
(G.E.R.). See also " After-Care 
of Defective Children." 

Wliite Oak School, Swanley 
Junction, Kent. (300 beds,) 
Matron — Miss E, D. Lynch, 



314 



Poor Law School Districts. 



Station — Swanley Junction 
(S.E. andCK.). 

RINGWORM. 
Visiting Dermatologist — T. Colcott 

Fox, M.B., M.R.C.S. 

The Downs School, Sutton, Surrey. 

— Matron — Miss Emily Turton; 

Visiting Medical Officer — G. 
_ Rice, m.b., CM. (420 beds.) 

SEASIDE. 

St. Annes Home, Heme Bay, 
Kent (134 beds). — Matron — 
MissE. Palmer; Visiting Medical 
Officer— C. K. Bowes, M.D., b.ch. 

(oxon.). 
East Cliff House, Cliftonville, 
Margate (130 beds). — Matron — 
Miss E. K. Jacob; Visiting 
Medical Officer— W. G. Sutcliffe, 

F.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 

Mill field, Rustington, Worthing. — 
(100 beds.) —Matron — Miss G. 
Kingcott; Visiting Medical 
Officer — C. E. Last, m.r.c.s. 
Station — Littlehampton (L.B. 
and S.C.R.). 

DEFECTIVE CHILDREN. 

Lloyd House, Lloyd-street, Penton- 
ville, W.C. (accommodation for 
20 girls), and 12, Lloyd-street, 
Pentonville,W.C. (accommodation 
for 8 girls). — Matron — Miss A. 
Green. Stations — King's Cross 
(Met.) or Angel (Ci+y and South 
London). 

16, Elm Grove, Peckham, S.E. (for 
boys, 14 beds). — House Mother 
— Mrs.Whiddett; Station— Peck- 
ham Rye. 

60, 62, and 64, Kingwood-road, 



Fulham, S.W. (for boys, 22 

beds). — House Mother — Mrs. 

Hill. Station — Walham Green 

(District Railway). 
81, Earlsfield-road, S.W. (for girls, 

10 beds). — House Mother— Miss 

Timbrell. 
Surrey House, 66, St. Ann's Hill, 

"Wandsworth, S.W. (for boys, 16 

beds). — House Mother — Miss E. 

Mason. 
AFTER-CARE OF DEFECTIVE 
CHILDREN. 

Bridge Industrial Home, Witham, 
Essex (for males). — Superinten- 
dent— T. C. Gibbs. 

High Wood School, Brentwood, 
Essex. — Two pairs of cottages are 
. at present used for the accommo- 
dation of 40 defective females 
over 16 years of age. (See 
"Ophthalmia Schools. ) 

Medical Attendant for these iix 
Homes — Miss Rose Turner, 

L.R.C.P., L.R.C.S. 

REMAND CHILDREN. 

36, 37, and 38, G amber welUgreen, 

S.E. — Superintendent — W. 

Craig. Station — Camberwell 

New - road (S.E. and C.R.). 

(50 be3s.) 
70, 72, and 74, Pentonville-road, N. 

— Superintendent — J. E. Seal. 

Station— King's Cross (Met.) or 

Angel (City and South London). 

(55 beds.) 
203 and 205, Harrow-road, W. 

Superintendent — W. E. Tall. 

Station — Royal Oak (Met.). 
. (45 beds.) 



POOR LAW SCHOOL DISTRICTS. 



central london. 

(For the City of London and 
Southwark Unions.) 

Glerh to the Managers — G. P. 
Morrell, Cuckoo Farm School, 
Hanwell. 

Matron- Superintendent — Mrs. C. 



A. Hall, Cuckoo Farm School, 
Hanwell, W. 

List of Managers. 
Finney, A. (Chairman), 37, Grosvonor- 

terrace, Wal worth-road, S.E. 
(Representing the City of London Union), 
Young, T. Pallister (Vice-Chairman), 29, 

Mark-lane, E.C. 



Poor Law School Districts. 



315 



Abbott, R. H., 26, Beacon-hill, Camden-rd. 
Akers, J., 5, Houndsditch, E. 
Benson, C. J., 10, Bury -court, St. Mary- 
axe, E.C. 
Clementi-Smith, Rev. P., The Rectory, St. 

Andrew's-hill, E.C. 
Dunn, F., 4 and 5, Brown's-buildings, St. 

Mary-axe, E.C. 
Evans, R., 176, Brooke-road, Clapton, N.E. 
Key, H., 262, Central Markets, E.C. 
Lile, J. H., 4, Ludgate-circus, E.C. 
Mann, J., 33, City Cottages, Ferndale-road, 

Brixton, S.W. 
Pa»f\ W, H., 22, St. Andrew 'a-streeti 

H"]!j<>in riirus, E,C. 
Wrsu*rby, J. h 8fi h Evering rcail, Stake 

tfetrSnaton, N.E. 
Wild, J t tl. t 3440, Ludgntu hill t E.C. 

[RepreHrintintf Svnthwark Union). 
Bryant, Rpv. D„ 63, Walworth -wed, S<K. 
■Juuksgy , T« VeOD* iu . LuUn inl,, H j l > r 1 1 1 «> . 
Uiirtiall, T„ 63, Borough n-iL S.K. 
Gregory, H., 65, Borough High street, B.E, 
Halt. Mrs., 68 d Ljiuilieth -rtwil, S.K t 
Keatley, O. L., 46 h DoddlngtOii -grove. K*u- 

OiflatOH, B.1B. 
jLkhTj^ou. Miss J,, 32, Viucout-siiuurs, 

Wt'StUUII-tlT, s.W. 

XoiiHiUi, E, H,,179 d Miuj<n-|>lme. Wnlwuith. 

Rottetaon, tl 1, York-street* Walworth- roan L 
S.E. 

Sommerville, Rev. W. J., St. George's Rec- 
tory, New Kent-road, S.E. 

Upheld, T„ 39, Sutherland -square, Wal- 
worth, S.E. 

KENSINGTON AND CHELSEA. 

Cottage Home School. 

For the education and training of 
the Poor Law children chargeable 
to the parishes of Kensington and 
Chelsea. 

Boys are trained as carpenters, 
painters, plumbers, smiths, tailors, 
shoemakers and bakers, others are 
enlisted into army bands, or sent to 
training ships for the navy. 

Girls are trained and placed out 
as domestic servants. 

Clerk to the Managers — H. D. 
Aslett, Offices : 253, King-street, 
Hammersmith, W. 

Banstead School: Superinten- 
dent — G\ Langley. Matron — J. A. 
Langley. Medical Officer — G-. H. 
Hooper, m.d. Chaplain — Eev. G. F. 
Crowther, M.A. 

Branch School, Hammer- 
smith: Superintendent — A. J. 
Warren. Matron — Miss E. Miller. 
Medical Officer— F. E. Pocock, m.d. 



List of Managers. 
Smith, W. H. (Chairman), 123, Mitcham- 

road, Tooting, S.W. 
Corry, H. (Vice-Chairman) 15, Ledbury- 

road, W. 
Chambers, P. G„ 14, Ashburnham-road, 

Chelsea. 
Edgcombe, F. J. S. (ex - officio), 8, 

Gloucester-walk, W. 
Franklin, H. A., 49, Ladbroke-grove, W. 
Jeffery, J. j.p., l.c.c, 37, College-street, 

Chelsea. 
Keeling, Miss C. 45, Lansdowne-road, W. 
Lockwood, C. J., 42-44, Silchester-road, 

Kensington, W. 
Pope, W„ l.c.c, 3, St. Anne's-road, Ken- 
sington. 
Rendel, J. M., 15, Melbury-rd., Kensington. 
Wilde, Miss M. J., 84, Leaham-gardens. 

S.W. [One vacancy.] 

NORTH SURREY. 

(For Wandsworth and Lewis- 
ham Unions.) 

Chairman — Bey. Canon Curtis, 
The Ascension Vicarage, Balham- 
hill, S.W. 

Clerk to the Managers— H. J. 
Chaldecott, Solicitor, Dorking. 

Anerley School : Superin- 
tendent and Head Mastet — ^F. F. 
Thrower. Matron— Mrs. Thrower. 
Chaplain — Kev. M. C. Sturges. 
Medical Officer — H. J. Prangley. 

Wainwright Home, Broad- 
stairs : Nurse - Matron — Mrs. 
Tonkin. Medical Officer — Hugh M. 
Raven. 

List of Managers. 
Chowii, J. C^ai, Home-rd., Battersea, S.W. 
Curtis, J, L M Kineral Wells, Valley-road, 

&tWfttfa,&jUi S <W. 
Out is, Ciuion. The Ascension Vicarage, 

BalhAm-ttlll, S.W. 
Hewett. W. -J., 1, Kirkstall-road, Streat- 

ImnhjJl,s,\v\ 
Hiigiu.v H W, U., Victoria Villa, Victoria- 

r«ul. ElUiam. 
Mackerell, Miss L. M., Dunningley, 

Halhaui-hilL, S.W. 
M.l -. --. -l rut , 1 ' 1 1 . 1 ip, 5, Cloudesdale-road, Upper 

Tooting, S. W . 
Miles, A. H., 49, St. Fillan's-road, Catford. 
Morris, Rev. J. C, 41, Clarendon-road, 

Lewisham, S.E. 
Staines, Mrs. E. S., 50, Vicar's - hill, 

Lewisham, S.E. 
Stanley, Isaac, The Highlands, Short- 
heath, Farnham. 
West, Major T., The Elms, Southend, Cat- 
ford, S.E. 
Worthy, Mrs. Jane A., 170, Battersea-park- 

road, S.W. 



316 



Sick Asylum Districts. 



west london. 

(For the Parishes of Fulham, 
Hammersmith, and Padding- 
ton, and St. George's Union.) 

Chairman — J. Tasker. 

Vice-Chairman— W. Elliott. 

Clerk — F. G. Beeching, The 
Schools, Ashford, Middlesex. 

Auditor — H. Donald Gordon. 

Inspectors— Dr. A. H. Downes, 
H. Lockwood, E. C. Streatfeild. 

Treasurer — C. H. Burnand. 

Chaplain — Rev. G. J. M. King- 
ston. 

Medical Officer— Dr. P. W. De 
La Motte. 

Dentist- F. J. F. Rooke. 

Superintendent — J. L. Gosling. 

Matron — A. Gosling. 

List of Managers. 

Baker, H. A., 39, Palace-court, W. 
Best, F. G., Wanganui, Routh-road, S.W. 
Brinsdon, W. A., 34, Strutton-ground, West- 
minster. 



Chamberlen, T„ j.p., 24, Rivercourt road, 

Hammersmith, W. 
Davies, Rev. G., 164, Gro3venor*road, S.W. 
Davies, Lieut-Col. T. W., 49, Ashehurch- 

grove, Shepherd's-bush, W. 
Dent, Rev. C, m.a.. 104, Gloucester-terrace. 
Elliott, W„ 97, Devonport-road, Shep- 
herd's Bush, W. 
Elliot, F. A. H., c.i.e., 77, Kensington- 
gardens- square, W. 
Empson, C. W., j.p., 71, Kensington-gar- 

dens-square, W. 
Everitt, w., 3, Lower Belgrave-street, S.W. 
Hill, J., 8, Dean's-yard, Westminster, S.W. 
Huntly, Lt-Col. H. C., 27, Orsett-terrace, 

Hyde-park, W. 
Marvin, Lieut.-Col. W., 45, Agate-road, 

Hammersmith, W. 
Mildmay, Lieut.-Col. H. A. St. John-, 31, 

Gloucester-street, S.W. 
Mylne, Mrs. J., 83, Gloucester-terrace, 

Hyde-park, W. 
Propert, Rev. P. S. G., 247, Lillie-road, 

Fulham, S.W. 
Sayer, W. R., j.p., 24, Mosgrave-creseeat, 

Fulham, S.W. 
Tasker, J., 121, Lupus-street, S.W. 
Templeton, Mrs. L. L., 43, Gunterstone- 

road, West Kensington, W. 
Torrey, Mrs. M. R., 125, Victoria-st., S.W. 
Wheeler, Mrs. E. L., 2, Bessborough- 

gardens, S.W. 



central london. 

Offices : Cleveland Street. 
Asylum : Cleveland Street, W. 

(Meetings : alternate Mondays at 
4 p.m.) 

The Central London Sick 
Asylum District was created 
. by order of the Poor Law Board, 
dated May 2nd, 1868, for the treat- 
ment of the rjoor chargeable to the 
parishes within the district, com- 
prising" the united parishes of St. 
Giles-in-the- Fields and St. George, 
Bloomsbury, the Strand Union, 
and the Westminster Union. The 
board of management consists of 
13 members — three for St. Giles and 
Bloomsbury, five for the Strand, 
and five for Westminster. 

The district possesses an infir- 
mary in Cleveland-street, W. (264 
beds), and an infirmary (331 beds), 
at Hendon, Middlesex. 

Chairman — S. G. Connor. 

Vice-Chairman — J. Smith. 

Clerk— ¥. W. Bailey. 



SICK ASYLUM DISTRICTS. 

Assistant-Clerk. — H. E. Skinner. 

Chaplain of both Institutions — - 
Rev. C. P. Baxter. 

Medical Superintendent of both 
Institutions — J. Hopkins, F.R.C.S. 

Deputy Medical Superintendent 
—J. Fraser, M.B., CM. 



List of Members. 

(Elected by the Guardians of the Strand 

Union.) 
Audy, J. T., 443, Strand, W.C. 
Bolcnier, T. H., 12, Houghton-street, W.C. 
Brown, G. S., 52, Florence-road, Stroud- 

green, N. 
Harris, G. H., 104, Strand, W.C. 
Middleton, F. H , 77, Long Acre, W.C. 

{Elected by the Guardians of the West- 
minster Union.) 

Connor, S. G., 42, Oxford-street, W. 
Doncaster, J. G., 72, Dean-street, Soho, W. 
Fraser, W. J., 78, Dean-street, Soho, W. 
Goddeo, D., 109, Jermyn-street, S.W. 
Pearce, J., 20, Crown-court, Pall Mall, S.W. 

(Elected by St. Giles-in-the-Fields and St. 

George, Bloomsbury.) 
Smith, J., 15, Great Russell-street, W.C. 
Westlake, N. H. J., 22, Endell-street, W.C. 
Willoughby, G. P., j.p., 4, Bedford-square. 
W.C. 



Board* of Guardians. 



317 



List of Members. 

Beaumont, W.G., 13, Priory-street, Bromley. 
Bellsham, J., (Chairman of Board), 164, 

Abbott-rd., Bromley, B. 
Cordery, Mrs. B. J., 74, Devas-street 

Bromley, E. 
East. Mrs. P. A., 21, East India Dock-rd., E. 
Finden, A. E., 29, St. Leonard's- road, 

Bromley, E. 



Higley, Rev. F. H., 635, Commercial-road, 

Limehouse, E. 
Jungblut, H.,43, Upper North-st., Poplar. 
Lindsay, J., May land, Alt home, Essex. 
Marks, H., 36, Three-colt-st., Limehoase, E 
O'Connor, J., 37, Gait-street, Limehouse, E. 
Phillips, A., 8. Botolph-road, Bow, E. 
Poole, C. S., Dock Tavern. We3t-ferry-road, 

Millwall. E. 



poplar and stepney. 

(Representing Unions op 
Stepney and Poplar.) 

Asylums at Devons-road, Brom- 
ley, E M and Blackwall, E. 

Clerk— Walter R. Foskett. 

Assistant Clerk— F. T. Morrison. 

Medical Superintendent — Charles 
Spurrell, f.r.c.s. 

Assistant Medical Officers — H. 
H. Jenkins and A. E. F. Kynaston. 

Steward— George E. Stacey. 

Matron — Miss S. Hannaford. 

CJhaplain— Rev. J. H. Etchel, M. A. 

BOARDS OF GUARDIANS. 

The thirty-one boards of guardians vary greatly in the populations they 
administer, and in their systems of administration. There are 785 elected 
guardians. The members on the various boards range from 18 to 36 
in number, except in the case of the City of London Board, which 
has 50 members. The populations of the areas range from 21,000 in the 
Strand Union to upwards of 401,000 in the Wandsworth Union, which 
latter is also the largest in area, being one-sixth that of London. 

During the past year there have been no unusual developments, but 
public interest m Metropolitan Poor Law questions was aroused by the 
Local Government Board inquiry into the administration of the affairs of 
the Poplar Union. Attention has also been directed to parochial and 
Poor Law government in the City of London. Rival schemes for the 
consolidation of parochial administration in the 114 " parishes and places " 
within the City of London Union were prepared by the Guardians and 
the Coort of Common Council, the proposals of the latter including the 
complete municipalisation of the Poor Law, in the area concerned, by the 
transference of the Guardians' rights, duties, property, &c, to the Corpo- 
ration These proposals have been embodied in a Parliamentary Bill 
promoted by the Corporation. 

Marshall, l.r.cs. (Lond.), M.R.C.S. ; 
W. B. Johnston, M.D., M.S.Q.U.I.; 
B. A. Richmond, B.sc, M.B., B.S. 
(Lond.). 

Believing Officers— District 1 : 
W. H. Walter, 14, Maze Pond- 
terrace, S.E. District 2: M. G. 
Philipps, 24, Gainsford-street, S.E. ; 
District 3: F. J. Collins, 5, Steven- 
street, Tower Bridge-road, S.E. 
District 4: A. B. Maclean, 147, 
Grange-road, S.E. District 5 : C. A. 
Byrne, 104, Drummond-road, S.E. 
District 6: W. Fowle, 12, Longley- 
street, S.E. District 7: G. C. 
Channon, 44, Gomm-road, Bother- 



berhiondsey. 

Offices : 283, Tooley Street, 
S.E. 

(Meetings : Alternate Thursdays 
at 6.30 p.m.) 

Population 129,936. Rateable value 
£941,425. Acreage 1,505. 

Elected Guardians 24 

Chairman — D. Williams. 
Vice-Chairman — Edward Collins. 

Officers. 
Clerk— E. Pitts Fenton. 
Medical Officers — S. R. Thomp- 
son, l.r.c.p. (Lond.), M.R.C.S. ; C. 
Stirling, M.B., M.S. (Glasgow) ; R. P. 



318 



Boards of Guardians, 



hithe, S.E. District 8 : F. C. 
Goodwin, 6, Orange-place, Rother- 
hithe, S.E. District 9: W. Sander, 
son, 157, Lower-road, Rotherhithe, 
S.E. 

General Relieving Officer — S. 
Burnett, Guardians' Offices, Tooley- 
street, S.E. 

Superintendent Relieving Officer 
— W. J. Dyson, Guardians' Offices, 
Tooley-street, S.E. 

Collector to the Guardians — W. 
Boddington, Guardians' Offices, 
Tooley-street, S.^E. 

Institutions. 

Workhouse, Parish-street, S.E. 
Master — A. H. Hope. 
Matron — J. Hope. 
Medical Officer— S. R. Thompson, 
l.r.c.p. (Lond.), M.R.C.S. 
Chaplain — Rev. W. Harrison, 

M.A. 

Workhouse, Tanner-street, S.E. 

Master — W. W. Parkinson. 
Matron — A. L. Parkinson. 
Medical Officer — D. Smart, 
l.r.c.p. (Lond.), l.s.a. (Lond.), 

M.R.C.S. 

Chaplain — Rev. W. Harrison, 

M.A. 

Workhouse, Ladywell, S.E. 

Master — R. Brown. 

Matron— K. Brown. 

Medical Officer — J. T. Macna- 
mara, l.r.c.p. (Lond.), l.r.C.S. 
(Ire.), l.m. (I