Skip to main content

Full text of "Long Island : its early days and development"

See other formats


Wmmmim^^i 



e'v*'^ 




A NEW AND COMPLETE 

VOLUME OF INFORMATION 

With Original Pen and Inic Sketches 

by 
EUGENE L. ARMBRUSTER 



Eaale Cibrary 



Itfo. 182 











A VIEW OF THE HAIRDRESSING ESTABLISHMENT OF MRS. TYLER-MILLER AT 80-82 FLEET STREET, BROOKLYN. 

MRS. TYLER-MILLER'S HAIRDRESSING 
ESTABLISHMENT 



Mrs. Tyler-Miller conducts at 80 Fleet 
Street, one of the oldest and best known hair- 
dressing establishments in Brooklyn, having 
given satisfaction to her many patrons at that 
address for over twenty years. Last sea- 
son, on account of the large increase in her 
patronage, she added the building at 82 Fleet 
Street, thus doubling her space. Mrs. Tyler- 
Miller's establishment is fitted up in the most 
elegant manner and is equipped with every 
modem convenience needed in her business. 
Her patrons include many of the leading so- 
ciety women of Brooklyn and Long Island, as 
they find in the private rooms, which are a 
special feature of the establishment, the lux- 



ury and privacy of their own boudoirs. Mrs. 
Tyler-Miller has a large force of helpers, who 
are experts in their respective lines, such as 
the making of hair goods, shampooing, scalp 
treatment, hairdressing, facial massage, and 
manicuring, but Mrs. Tyler-Miller gives her 
personal supervision and advice to each pat- 
ron and her personal attention to every detail 
of the business, and, as she is an expert in her 
line, the business is conducted on a first-class 
basis. Her prices are moderate and she of- 
fers special inducements to ladies living on 
Long Island. She is very glad to show visit- 
ors her establishment and they will find much 
to interest them there. 




THE EAGLE LIBRARY 



>;iiJ^- 




LONG ISLAND 

ITS EARLY DAYS 
AND DEVELOPMENT 



WITH 



ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS 

By EUGENE L. ARMBRUSTER 

(Copy righH^ 1914, \>y E. L. Armbruster) 





PUBLISHED BY 
THE BROOKLYN DAILY EAGLE, BROOKLYN-NEW YORK 

Entered at the Brooklyn-New York Post office as second-class matter. Vol. XXIX 

No. 7, of the Eagle Library, Serial No. 182, June, 1914. Trademark 

"Eagle Library," registered. Almanac Number $1.00. Yearly 

subscription, $1.50, including Almanac. 




Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



The Queens County Trust 

Company 

Offices and Safe Deposit Vaults, 375 Fulton St., Jamaica, N. Y. 

CAPITAL, $600,000.00 



^-,F^^-:■^i;&^" 




Queens County Trust Co., Jamaica, Queens Borough. 

Conducts a General Banking Business. 



BANKING 
DEPARTMENT 

Deposits Subject lo Checks. 
Special Deposits not Subject to Check. 
Interest Allowed on Daily Balances. 

Foreign Exchange, Travelers Cheques 



TRUST 
DEPARTMENT 

Executor Estates Managed 
Administrator Registrar 
Guardian Transfer Agent 
Trustee Legal Depository for 

Receiver moneys paid into Court 



SAFE DEPOSIT 
VAULTS 

Boxes rented $5.00 per year and upward. 

Robert B. Austin, Pres. 
Willis H. Young, V. Pres. 
Thomas Napier, V. Pres. 
W. E. Stecher, Sect'y. 
Leander B. Faber, Counsel. 



BRANCH OFFICE 

Queens Plaza North, Long Island City, N. Y. 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 




DR. BERNARD LISSEY 



One of Queens Borough's leading dentists is Dr. Bernard Lissey, witli offices at 339 Fulton street, 
Jamaica, and his dental operating room, a picture of which is shown above, has been declared the best 
equipped and the most elaborate and costly on Long Island. 

As an artisan is judged by his tools and uis workmanship, so a dentist is judged by his appliances 
and his pleased or displeased patrons. The fact that Dr. Lissey has a large clientele and that his pa- 
tients invariably leave his office with pleased expressions on their faces, is sufficient proof of Dr. Lissey's 
worth. 

Dr. Lissey desires to please his patrons by not only giving them the best possible workmanship and 
dental surgery under absolute aseptic conditions, but by giving surrounding cleanliness and comfort. 

Upon arriving in New York, at the age of 17 years, Dr. Lissey Immediately proceeded to educate 
himself. He secured employment as a junior clerk in a drugstore and within a short time re- 
ceived his license as a graduate pharmacist. In 1903 he decided upon entering the College of Dental 
and Oral Surgery of New York. He had a very successful college career, graduating in 1906, receiving 
a silver medal. Shortly after his graduation. Dr. Lissey was married and in 1907 he established himself 
modestly at Jamaica, L. 1. By close application to his work and constant effort to please, Dr. Lissey soon 
made for himself an enviable reputation. 

Despite the fact that he is a very busy dentist, Dr. Lissey still finds time to devote to civic, political, 
fraternal and charitable work. He is a member of the Jamaica Citizens Association, a member of the 
Board of Directors of the Iroquois Democratic Club, of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum, of Jamaica Council 
of the Royal Arcanum, of Jamaica Conclave, Independent Order of Heptasophs; of the Council of Im- 
migration of New York, of the Woodmen of the World, of the Foresters of America, of the Knights of 
Pythias, and of Ionic Lodge No. 486, F. and A. M., and of various dental societies. 

Dr. Lissey is still a comparatively young man. He is thirty-three years old. He lives with his wife 
and two children — Jeanette Frances and Dorothy Marion Lissey — in a handsome home at 63 Shelton 
avenue, Jamaica. 

Dr. Lissey is always pleased to receive members of his profession, medical doctors, as well as the 
public in general, and permit them to inspect his handsome dental offices at 339 Fulton street, Jamaica. 
Telephone 281-597 Jamaica. 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



1827 




1 BROOKLYN SAVINGS BANK 

CORNER PIERREPONT AND CLINTON STREETS 



New Entrance 
300 Fulton Street 



BROOKLYN, N. Y. 



Due Depositors 
Surplus (Par Value) 



$51,400,000 
$5,900,000 



CROWELL HADDEN - - 
DANIEL J. CREEM - - 
RICHARD L. EDWARDS 



CRO'^VELIi HADDEBT 
RICHARD L. EDWARDS 
EDW. H. LITCHFIELD 
FRANK LYMAN 
DAVID G. LEGGET 
WILLIS L. OGDEN 
JOHN F. HALSTED 
JONATHAN BULKLEY 



OFFICERS : 
President LAURUS E. SUTTON 
Vice-Pres. ARTHUR C. HARE - 
Vice-Pres. CHARLES C. PUTNAM 



Comptroller 

Cashier 

Ass't Comp'r 



TRUSTEES: 

FRANK L. BABBOTT 
HENRY P. NOYES 
SANFORD H. STEELE 
DANIEL J. CREEM 
CLINTON R. JAMES 
B. HERBERT SMITH 
FRANCIS L. NOBLE 
FREDERICK A. M. BURRELL 
-W^ILLIAM L. MOFFAT 



HAROLD I. PRATT 
EDWIN P. MAYNARD 
CHARLES J. PEABODY 
MARTIN JOOST 
ALBERT L. MASON 
FRANK D. TUTTLE 
■WILLIAM MASON 
CHARLES L. MORSE 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



OAK PARK NURSERIES 




i^x-Mi^M^ 



s^msu^.'iS 



On East Main street, Patchogue, is situated the Oak Park Nurseries, E. C. and S. V. 
Tiger, proprietors, comprising many acres. As the picture indicates, their specialty is 
evergreens. Established in 1888 the nursery has been spreading out year by year, until 
it now covers a large acreage of superbly stocked nursery specialties. Their reputation 
is such that it has gained for them customers who continually renew their orders, as 
they realize they can place their orders in perfect confidence and receive just exactly 

what they buy. 

Special attention is given to the culture of trees that will succeed best in this 
climate, and those grown here are already acclimated. Write for their beautiful cata- 
logue and when in need of anything in this line write the Oak Park Nurseries, which 
will exert an effort to please you and make you a satisfied and permanent customer. 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



Jamaica Park South Realty Corporation 



120 West Thirty-second Street, New York 
Telephone 2914 Madison Square 



236 Fulton Street, Jamaica, L. I. 
Telephone 878 Jamaica 




The Best Moderate Priced Residential Section in Queensborough 

19 Minutes From the Pennsylvania Station, 33d Street, New York. 
30 Mmutes From Manhattan by the New Subway System. 

LOTS FROM $250 TO $1,500 

The City, State and National Governments have united to open what the "New York World" 
aptly calls "America's New Front Door." It will be at Jamaica Bay, adjacent to our property. 

New York dock authorities declare at this hour that there are countless vessels which, upon 
arrival, have no prospect but delay, uncertainty and extortionate dock charges when they try to 
unload. 

A READJUSTMENT OF THE COMMERCE OF THE WORLD IS NOW UNDER WAY AND 
JAMAICA BAY IS TO HANDLE IT. 

We are showing you history in the making. Facts are here which your mind can build to- 
gether. It is a cold business proposition. The alert will grasp it to their certain profit. We 
can prove to you every assertion. 

JAMAICA PARK SOUTH REALTY CORPORATION 



120 West Thirty-second Street, New York 
Telephone 2914 Madbon Square 



236 Fulton Street, Jamsuca, L. I. 
Telephone 878 Jamaica 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



Jamaica Park South Realty Corporation 



120 West Thirty-second Street, New York 
Telephone 2914 Madison Square 



236 Fulton Street, Jamaica, L. I. 
Telephone 87S Jamaica 



EVERY DOLLAR IN THE PENNSYLVANIA TUNNELS AND TERMINALS, 

EVERY DOLLAR IN THE CITY'S DUAL SUBWAY SYSTEM, 

EVERY DOLLAR IN JAMAICA BAY'S GREAT HARBOR, 

EVERY DOLLAR IN THE NEW ERIE BARGE CANAL, 

EVERY DOLLAR IN HELL GATE BRIDGE, 

Every dollar in each and all of these projects is a lever raising Jamaica Park South realty 
values to a higher level. 

Our proposition is an open book. These big improvements are right there doing business — 
ready for your inspection. You take nothing on faith. The facts speak for themselves. When 
you see, you will say what every other man says — "IT IS BETTER THAN IT WAS REPRE- 
SENTED." 

Any of these improvements will create enough big business to make an ordinary city. 

Think what it means to build a harbor. Here will be miles of wharfage, steamship terminals, 
docks, etc. Jamaica Bay Harbor means the creation of a thousand new business centers — a city 
within a city. Shipping facilities bring manufacturers. The increase in Queens manufactures, 
314% in 10 years, is a demonstration of that fact. 

If the National Government were spending $70,000,000 in the construction of a new harbor 
on some barren shore, miles from any city, property there would be a good investment. But at 
Jamaica Bay the harbor is being built at the backdoor of the greatest commercial city in the world 
— a city with water or rail transit to all points on the globe. 

Suppose even ONE of these improvements was being worked out in any community — you 
know it would be good business to buy property there and wait its completion. But suppose the 
entire five came together in that community — what then? 

If some big business concern would spend $500,000 establishing a plant in a town, you 
would figure that property there was a good investment. 

But here is an expenditure of eight hundred and twenty million dollars on the biggest enter- 
prises this country ever saw — all of them working together to make Jamaica Park South the 
greatest commercial center in the United States. 

If real estate does not reach high values here, there is no place on earth that it will. If real 
estate is not a good investment here — there is no such thing as a good investment. 

It is GOOD BUSINESS to investigate our proposition before you make any investment any- 
where. 

LET US TAKE YOU OUT AND SHOW YOU THE PROPERTY. 

JAMAICA PARK SOUTH REALTY CORPORATION 



120 West Thirty-second Street, New York 
Telephone 2914 Madison Square 



236 Fulton Street, Jamaica, L. L 
Telephone 878 Jamaica 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



r' 



THE 



^ 



Patchogue Bank 

OF F»AXCHOGLJE, IM. Y. 



Capital .... $75,000.00 
Surplus and Profits Over $65,000.00 



JOHN A. POTTER, Pr€sident 



JESSE C. MILLS, Vice President 



FRANK A. POTTER, Cashier 



L 



JOHN A. POTTER 
JESSE C. MILLS 
JOHN M. PRICE 
JOHN J. ROE 
ARCHIBALD S. HAVENS 



DIRECTORS 

FRANK OVERTON 
SMITH W. CONKLIN 
NATHANIEL 0. SWEZEY 
GEORGE H. FURMAN 
HOWARD S. CONKLIN 



JOSEPH T. LOSEE 
JAMES H. MILLS 
JAMES H. SNEDECOR 
J. ROBERT BAILEY 
DANIEL R. DAVIS 



FRED B. NEWINS 



DAYTON HEDGES 



J 







215 MONTAGUE ST. 

TELEPMOME 3613 I^.AIM. 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND: ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



FRED M. RULAND 



Granite, Marble and Statuary. Artistic Granite Work a Specialty. Office and yards, corner of Lake 

street and North Ocean avenue, Patchogue, L. I. 




The monuments manufactured i Island are many examples of Ru- 
at the establishment of Fred M. land's superior work, admired and 



Ruland are noted for their original 
design and artistic workmanship. 



highly commended for their excel- 
lence of finish. An established 



In the cemeteries of eastern Long i business of thirty years, that has 



kept pace with the demands of the 
times for better cemetery work, 
assures all Ruland customers of 
prompt, courteous, efficient, honest 
service. The most modern elec- 
trical lettering devices, the highest 
grade of workmanship, elevating 
cranes and all up-to-date equip- 
ment are the best evidence to offer 
that Ruland can meet any and 
all requirements for monuments, 
headstones, statuary, etc. If you 
are looking for the genuine prod- 
ucts — no substitutes — of the fa- 
mous quarries of Barre, Vt.; 
Quincy, Mass., and Westerly, R. I., 
or the noted imports from Aber- 
deen, Scotland, or Italy, ask 

FRED M. RULAND, 
North Ocean Av., Patchogue, L. L 



IF YOU PLEASE- 

will you send us a sample of that job of commercial printing which you soon 
will need and permit us to quote you a price upon it — 

Remembering That Our Reputation for 

producing printing which is technically and commercially correct gives you all 
reasonable assurance that, our price being right, you need have no hesitancy 
in entrusting your order to us? 

THE AMITY PRINTING HOUSE 

CHARLES F. DELANO, Proprietor 
AMITYVILLE, LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 

Long Distance Telephone No. 77 Amityville. 
(All Hours) 



10 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



UNIQUE THEATER 




On South Ocean avenue, 500 feet from Main street, is located the "Unique Theater," a new 
and modern house, equipped with all improvements, including a gallery seating over 300. The latest 
capacity of theater nearly 1,000. Mr. Nathan Goldstein, proprietor and manager, caters to the elite 
of Patchogue, exhibiting all the latest films as soon as released. This beautiful theater was opened 
to the public last July and has, under Mr. Goldstein's able management, proven a great success. 




WILLIAM L. MANTHA COMPANY, Inc. 



Have been established nine years in Bayport and four 
Fully equipped with power to make any repairs that 
employed. Mr. Mantha makes a study of each new c 
with all types. The cut represents a Reo car for whi 
are also selling agents for the Mitchell automobile, 
and those seeking an automobile can make no mistake 
engaged here at reasonable rates. There is also am 
assured they will receive first-class service. 



years in Sayville, operating a garage in each place, 
an automobile may require. Expert mechanics are 
ar as it appears upon the market, and is familiar 
ch this company are the local selling agents. They 
These two high-class cars have a splendid reputation, 

in selecting either of them. Touring cars can be 
pie storage room for private owners, who can rest 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



11 



THE BANK OF HUNTINGTON 

HUNTINGTON, L. I. 




Just about twenty-six years ago there was started in Huntington, N. Y., a bank. The exact date is July 
I, 1888. The institution sprang from the private bank of the late James M. Brush, Henry S. Brush and 
Douglas Conklin. These men virtually did business "over a soap box," and when it was announced that "The 
Bank of Huntington" was to be opened as a public enterprise, folks were inclined to laugh. Today the bank 
is the best known on rural Long Island, is the ninth strongest bank in the United States, is the second strong- 
est State bank in New York State, topped only by the famous Fifth Avenue Bank in New York City. It 
occupies a place well toward the top on the "roll of honor" of the national banking world. 

The rise of a community into prominence is generally the rise of its business institutions. Huntington 
is a good example. The town is composed chiefly of agricultural and residential interests, and for a town of 
about 6,000 inhabitants it is practically unrivaled on Long Island for general prosperity. If the truth be told, 
the Bank of Huntington takes a very large percentage of the credit for putting the village on the map, and has 
much to do with the solidity of its present financial condition. 



The Mercantile and Financial Times said recently: 

" * * * when an institution operating or doing business in a small community can show 
on a capitalization of 530,000 a surplus and undivided profits account more than six times its 
capital, and total resources of almost one and three-quarter million dollars, it is indeed a most 
enviable condition and a decided testimonial to the abilities that have been and are directing its 
affairs. Such is the condition shown upon its completion of a quarter of a century of existence 
by the 'Bank of Huntington,' which institution now shows a surplus of $200,000, deposits of more 
than 81,400,000, and total resources of 81,700,000." 

As an indication of the value of the capital stock of the Bank of Huntington, a short time ago two shares 
were sold at auction. One share went for $1,025 and the other for $1,020. Par value, 8100. 



OFFICERS: 



DOUGLASS CONKLIN. President. 
HENRY F. SAMMIS, Vice President. 



ROSS W. DOWNS, Cashier. 

ADDISON W. SAMMIS, Assistant Cashier. 



WILLARD N. BAYLIS, 
HENRY S. BRUSH. 
CARLL S. BURR, 



DIRECTORS: 

GEORGE WOODHULL CONKLIN. 
DOUGLASS CONKLIN, 
AUGUST HECKSCHER. 



JOSEPH IRV7IN, 
JOH.N T. ROBE, 
HENRY P. SAMMIS, 



J. NEWELL SAMMIS, 
THOMAS YOUNG. 



Statement of The Bank of Huntington, N. Y., May 2, 1914. 



Resources. 
Bills discounted $919,755.61 



Mortgages 

Stocks and bonds 

Real estate 

Cash on hand 

Due from reserve banks. 



98,462.05 

431,141.23 

16,000.00 

84,078.56 

170,478.23 

$1,719,915.68 



Liabilities. 

Capital stock $30,000.00 

Surplus 130,000.00 

Undivided profits 106,143.38 

Due depositors 1,451,046.61 

Due banks 2,725.69 



$1,719,915.68 



12 Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



The Eastern District 
OF Brooklyn 

WITH FORTY-SIX 

PEN AND INK SKETCHES 

BY 

Eugene L. Armbruster 

SIZE 5x7. CLOTH BINDING. P. P. 205, 
WITH GENERAL INDEX 

Price, ^2-^^ Postpaid 

ORDER FROM 

EUGENE L. ARMBRUSTER, 

263 Eldert Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



The Eagle Library 



Contents 



Page 

Sohquompuo 15 

The Indians 16 

Dutch and English Claims 17 

The English Towns 18 

Political Division of the Island 18 

Long Island's Population at Different Periods 18 

The Borough of Brooklyn IS 

Towns: 

Brooklyn 20 

New Utrecht 23 

Gravesend 24 

Flatbush (and New Lots) 25 

Flatlands 26 

Bushwlck (and WlUiamsburgh) 26 

Newtown (and Long Island City) 27 

Flushing 29 

Jamaica 30 



Paga 
Towns (Continued) : 

Hempstead (and North Hempstead) 30 

Oyster Bay 31 

Huntington (and Babylon) 33 

Smithtown 34 

Islip 35 

Brookhaven 36 

Southold 37 

Shelter Island 38 

Riverhead 38 

Southampton 39 

Easthampton 40 

Statistics 40 

Long Island a Century Ago 41 

Map of New York Harbor 41 

Conclusion 43 

General Index 44 to 48 



Illustrations 



Page 

Map of Original Lake 15 

Map of Indian Tribes 17 

Map of Roads in Kings County 18 

De Heere Gracht 19 

Map of West Riding of Yorkshire 19 

De Hart or Bergen House 21 

Gowanus Stone House 21 

Freeke's Mill and Yellow Mill 21 

Second Breukelen Church 22 

Long Island Ferry Landing, 1740 22 

Fulton Ferry, 1840 23 

Dutch Church and De Sille House, New Utrecht 24 

First Dutch Church, Gravesend 24 

Gravesend Town Hall 25 

Original Long Island Church, Middelwoud 25 

New Amersfoort Church, Erected 1663 26 

Schenck Homestead, Canarsie 26 

On Old Woodpoint Road, Bushwlck 26 

Bushwlck Church and Town Hall 27 

Old Bay Tavern on the Poor Bowery 28 



Page 

Jackson Tide Mill 29 

Duryea House, Flushing 30 

Stone Meeting House, Jamaica 30 

Cedarmere 31 

Monument at Near Rockaway 31 

Youngs House, Oyster Bay 33 

Lighthouse, Cold Spring Harbor 33 

First Presbyterian Church, Huntington 34 

Lefferts Homestead, Huntington 34 

Paper Mill on Orlwie Lake 35 

Fire Island Lighthouse 35 

Old First Presbyterian Church, Southold 37 

Horton House, Southold 37 

Mill on Mattituck Creek 37 

Champlain House, Orient 37 

Mulford House, Orient 37 

South View of Riverhead, 1840 38 

Sayre House, Southampton 39 

Payne's Childhood Home, Easthampton 40 

Map of New York Harbor in the Dutch Times 42 



The Eagle Library 



Introduction 




j-— n — SE^ STRUS STUYVESANT reported to his 
"^^J^JStClB' superiors in the Netherlands, on taking 
office as Director General of the colony 
of New Netherland in 1647, that "he 
found the colony so stripped of inhabi- 
tants, that, with the exception of the 
English villages of Hempstead, Flush- 
ing and Gravesend, fifty bouweries and plantations could 
not be enumerated, and there could not be made out in 
the whole province 250, or at the farthest 300, men capa- 
ble of bearing arms." 

Thus the population of Long Island in 1647 may be 
estimated at 500 men, women and children. We have 
the figures of later times, viz: In 1700, about 9,000; 
in 1800, 42,391; in 1900, 1,452,611. In the next decade 
the increase was 645,849, or approximately 19 times 
the increase during the century from 1700 to 1800. At 
this rate Long Island will be transformed so rapidly that 
it may be well to picture the old towns, while it yet is 
possible, while we still have some of the old landmarks 
with us. 

The first fact on record in the story of Long Island 
is the arrival of the Half Moon in the bay of New York. 
Thompson says: "The opinion has sometimes been ad- 
vanced that the bed of the Long Island Sound was at 
some remote period covered by the waters of a lake," 
etc.; but the geologists are silent on this subject. Thomp- 
son also says "that the language of the Montauk was 
very close to that of the Narragansett and other New 
England tribes"; and he quotes Heckewelder, saying, 
"that from the best accounts he could obtain, the Indians, 
who inhabited Long Island, were Delawares, and early 
known as Matou-sjakes, according to De Laet and Pro- 



fessor Ebeling." Silas Wood tells us: "It appears that 
Long Island had been overrun by hostile tribes and many 
of the natives must have been destroyed by them." 

These are the few hints we have regarding the history 
of the island, while occupied by the Indians exclusively. 
The writer has endeavored to find parts of the unwritten 
histoi-j' of the Indians in the names of localities on the 
island, and the story of Sohquompuo and the chapter on 
"the Indians" are the result of this undertaking. The 
Indian names of localities in the counties of Kings and 
Queens are of the Delaware dialect, and are more sig- 
nificant than is generally believed; the Dutch names in 
many cases and the English names in some cases are 
again translations of the Indian names of these locali- 
ties. The history of the Indians of Long Island prior to 
Hudson's coming has been a sealed book, and thus no 
authorities can be quoted; the absence of geological 
proofs relating to the formation of Long Island Sound 
makes it necessary to give the story of Sohquompuo 
simply as a narrative, although the writer has found it 
indirectly confirmed by the recorded history in a higher 
degree than many things which are generally accepted 
as true historical facts. 

The spelling of names of towns, villages, rivers, Indian 
tribes, sachems, etc., is not uniform throughout the book. 
This is due to several causes. The old documents and 
records were written by men who had come to this coun- 
try from all parts of Europe. These men took down the 
names according to sounds. Names of towns, rivers, etc., 
in many cases were corruptions of Indian words, which 
were gradually transformed into names, more agreeable 
to the ears of the white men. Hence the great variety 
of spelling in names of the same localities at different 
periods. 



The Eagle Library 



LONG ISLAND 



ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT 



SOHQUOMPUO. 

Captain C. was a native of Long 
Island; the farm on which he was 
reared was located on Manhasset Neck, 
and had been in the family for gener- 
ations. Here he lived the life of a 
farmer's boy, which fitted him for a 
future full of adventures and hard- 
ships. His only recreation was to 
spend an hour or two in the cool of 
the evening upon the waters of the 
Sound, after a day's hard toil in the 
fields. Rowing away from the shore 
he would let his boat drift along while 
he listened to the noise of the water 
and the chirping of the birds and thus 
became familiar with many secrets of 
nature. These evening hours had a 
great fascination for the boy. One 
night he was surprised by a storm; 
he had not noticed the change in the 
atmosphere and the storm was upon 
him without any warning. He tried 
his best to reach the shore but _the 
boat was hard to manage in the angrily 
splashing waters; it was driven down 
the Sound, and while passing a rock, 
against which the waves dashed furious- 
ly, he thought that he heard the sound 
of a human voice between the thunder 
crashes. He forgot his perilous situa- 
tion, all his senses were concentrated 
upon that black rock. The sky was of 
an inky color, but when now a flash of 
lightning tore the darkness, the figure 
of a human being seemed to stand on 
top of the rock; all disappeared in a 



moment and the storm soon subsided. 
Rowing back, he tried to locate the 
rock, without success, and reached 
home, completely tired out, at mid- 
night. Many times afterward he went 
searching for the mysterious rock, but 
in vain. 

When he had reached his twentieth 
year he left home and went West. 
After many adventures he crossed the 
line at the great lakes and lived for 
years among the Indians of Canada; 
here he became acquainted with the 
various dialects of the Algonquin 
tribes. He forget civilization, amass- 
ing a fortune in the fur trade. But one 
thing he could never fully forget — that 
black rock in the Sound. Many a night 
while lying awake in his wigwam in 
the wilds of the far-northern forests, 
he vainlv tried »" =olve the mystery. 
The years rolled by and his hair was 
now white. No matter how long a 
man may have been away from home 
some day the memory of that place 
will stand out so clearly that he is 
compelled to overcome all obstacles and 
return to it, to see once more the place 
where he has spent his childhood days. 
This happened to Captain C. and he 
obeyed willingly. 

We meet him again on the paternal 
farm on Manhasset Neck. His parents 
had closed their eyes many years ago. 
His younger brother lived now in the 
old home; the captain decided to live 
with him and his fmni'-r This was the 



only place in the world for him with 
which any pleasant recollections were 
connected; the snow-covered forests of 
the high north had lost much in his 
memory, he began to feel his age. 

Just now he had returned from a 
ride on horseback; it had been a typi- 
cal August day and now, at evening, 
heavy clouds began to gather and a 
storm promised to bring relief by mid- 
night. He walked down Middle Neck 
Road, expecting to find the air cooler 
near the shore '^i-.o waters of the 
Sound had not lost their old power 
over him and he decided to row to 
Execution Rocks Lighthouse. On the 
way his mind was occupied by recol- 
lections, his boyhood and later life 
passed in review, and he did not notice 
a dense mist settling over the water. 
The rolling thimder made him look up 
and around and he realized that he had 
lost all direction. The night grew 
darker and the storm broke loose with 
full force; the boat drifted along with 
the water for some time. A flash of 
lighting enabled him to see an object 
ahead of him; he hoped that it might 
be the lighthouse; the next flash, how- 
ever, showed it to be a steep, bare rock, 
and the boat was alarmingly close up 
to it. The memory of that mysterious 
rock of long ago flashed through the 
captain's mind; a moment later the 
boat was thrown against the rock and 
capsized. Holding on to the upturned 
vessel, he managed to keep above 




16 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT 



water until the sky was lit up again. 
He noticed that the rock fell off grad- 
ually on one side and he pushed the 
boat in that direction. Leaving the boat 
in a fairly secure position in a split in 
the rock, he climbed up. 

Exhausted, Captain C. stood still. 
Amidst the howling of the storm he 
imagined he heard the wailing of a 
human voice. Forgotten was his exhaus- 
tion, danger and storm. He ran into the 
dark until he stumbled; a flash, fol- 
lowed by a terrible crash revealed the 
figure of a man with outstretched 
arms. The mystery of the black rock 
was to be solved; the half century 
which had passed since that night was 
wiped away, he was ready to face any- 
thing in order to succeed. As sudden 
as the storm had set in it died out 
again and the moon broke through the 
black clouds, flooding the rock with 
silvery light. The captain walked 
toward the dark shape, it was the fig- 
ure of an Indian. His arms, before 
stretched out, had fallen down on his 
sides. The Indian broke the silence; 
his words sounded strange at first, but 
the captain, familiar with the dialects 
of the various Algonquin tribes, could 
grasp the meaning of most sentences. 
The stranger said: 

"It was a night like this, when," 
pointing to the water all around, "the 
rocks were swept away; down the 
Sound they went, tearing away large 
pieces of land. Hundreds of men, 
women and children were killed. Hob- 
bamock had told me, while I was lying 
In my wigwam half asleep, to warn 
the women and children, but I had not 
the courage to go upon the water; the 
waves were angry, and I fled toward 
the middle of the island. Many died; 
all are dead — dead for a long, long 
time; *Shoquompuo alone is alive. 
Hobbamock says he cannot find rest 
until the rocks come back again. My 
people had a tradition that where we 
now stand was the shore of a lake, 
which extended eastward beyond Pau- 
manack, the Fishers' Hook. Many 
hundreds of years ago this lake was 
destroyed, and the water, rushing down 
toward the open sea, broke the land 
Into pieces all along on its way. It 
formed many islands, which the pale- 
faces have named Fishers, Gull, Plum, 
Manhattan, etc., islands; it also made 
a channel, or what you call the East 
River; a chain of rocks across the 
Sound was all that remained here of 
the shore of the lake. About the time 
when the first paleface came to this 
continent, way down in the South, far, 
far from here, Hobbamock was angry 
at my people, but he did not want to 
destroy the women and children. He 
sent the rocks down the Sound, the 
waters tore away pieces from our 
island, which fragments the palefaces 
now call Ward's, Blackwell's and Gov- 
ernor's Islands. Randall's Island also 
was torn from the main; Manhattan 
Island was flooded so that few could 
escape from it. Staten Island trem- 
bled all the time; the pieces of land 
were thrown against it, when they be- 
came piled up in the Narrows, and 
the waters, held up, ran over the 
island. When the Dutch came here 
they were told of this and they called 
the place Stooten Eylandt, which 
means the island which was tossed. 
The goose-band, living upon it fled over 
the pieces of land, which were pressed 
in the Narrows, to the westerly end of 
our island, and drove my people away. 
They made a village there, which was 
known as Maereckkaakwick; that is, 
the place of the gray goose-band. 
Staten Island was later occupied by 
men of the Manhattan tribe, who 
called it Aquehonga Monacknong; that 
is, the abandoned place of the goose- 
band. Westward from Staten Island, 
on the Jersey coast, lived one of the 

•Sohquompuo — Fainthearted, coward. 



wolf bands; they also fled over to our 
island and settled west of the goose- 
band. Their totem was the wolf; the 
Dutch called them bears or Canarsee. 
The Maereckkaak found themselves 
crowded and renewed their warfare 
upon my people; they drove them 
along the north shore; at Nesaquake 
there was a place of slaughter; at Se- 
tauket they dispersed them in consecu- 
tive attacks; at Unkechaug or Patchoag 
they were finally driven apart and fell 
in a snare; at Secatoag was the hid- 
ing place of the last who remained of 
their number. 

"The Canarsee were less cruel to my 
people. They allowed them to remain 
among them. One band was called by 
them Mispat; that is, a separate peo- 
ple. They were not captives, but they 
were without the power of alienation. 
The Jamaica were of the same class. 
They had given up their land withou'. 
resistance. At Keshkechqueren, or the 
bay, and at Rechhouwhacky they had 
villages of their own tribe. The goose- 
band started a village near here, at 
the stones, which was called Sintsink 
or Matinecoc, and another at the great 
river. This was called Marospinck, or 
Matsepe. Later on the tribes on the 
Fishers' Hook took the last of my peo- 
ple under their protection. The east- 
ern tribes had come from the main 
across the Sound. They landed at 
Corchaug, the old place; afterward they 
spread over the pine lands, and be- 
came thus known as Sinnecox. When 
the whites bought their land they called 
the most eastern band Montauk, or 
those toward the east, or sunrise. An- 
other band, on Shelter Island, they 
knew as Manhanset; that is, on the 
island. 

"Manhattan Island suffered terribly. 
The people fled from it, crying out 
Manetto — that is, god, for they knew 
not what had befallen them. It was 
supernatural; way beyond their com- 
prehension. The island still bears the 
name Manette, or Manhattan. When 
the palefaces came, the Indians had 
a few small places upon that island 
to give shelter during the hunting sea- 
son. At the time of the flood, they 
had fled to the northern limit of their 
territory, and that part of the band 
which stayed there became known as 
Wecquaeskeek. Those who came south 
again were known as Manhattan. 
They had a village at their original 
place, or what you call Yonkers. They 
were of the Wappinger tribe. The 
Wappinger and my people, the Ma- 
touwacs, were of the Mahican nation. 
The Maereckkaak and Canarsee were 
Delawares, or Leni Lenape. They 
were called Souwenos, because they 
came from the southwest, and the 
land which they had taken from my 
people was called *Sowanohke, or 
Suanhacky. In later times the Mae- 
reckkaak, or Maereck, removed from 
their first place on the most western 
end of this island and settled among 
their brethren, taking up their abode 
on the Great South Bay. There they 
became known as Merricoke, or 'Mer- 
ric' " 

The Captain had listened to the old 
chief without interrupting him. Sud- 
denly the shrill whistle of a Sound 
steamer broke the charm. He looked 
in the direction from whence the noise 
came. When he turned his eyes back 
his bronze-colored friend had vanished. 
The first signs of the new day ap- 
peared. 

He felt a chill run down his spine, 
his limbs were stiff and with difll- 
culty he reached the boat, and rowed 
back to Sands Point Light. The cap- 
tain spoke to his relatives about the 
adventure of that night. His wish was 
fulfilled, the mystery was solved. He 
never again tried to find the rock. Not 
many years later he closed his eyes 

•Land of those from the Southwest. 



in peace. His brother's family still 
lives on Manhasset Neck. The project 
recently mentioned in the papers, to 
construct a lake, which is to take the 
place of the Long Island Sound, has 
vividly brought back to their minds 
the adventure of their relative, for if 
it be carried out, it will give to his 
strange acquaintance, Sohquompuo, the 
rest which he has been longing for for 
ages. 

THE INDIANS. 

The Maereck or Maereckkaak; i. e., 
Goose band, a tribe of the Delaware 
family, on coming over from Staten 
Island, made a village on the extreme 
western end of Long Island, which was 
known as Maereckkaakwick or Mary- 
chkenkwickingh; i. e., the place of the 
Maereckkaak. They occupied the ter- 
ritory of the town of Brooklyn with 
the exception of Bedford and Binnega- 
conck (Wallabout village); and New 
Ltrecht and Midwout (the original 
town of Flatbush). The Maereckkaak 
also sold to the Dutch Ward's and 
Blackwell's Islands. 

They were followed by another Dela- 
ware band, which had been located on 
the New Jersey shore, west of Staten 
Island. This band established a vil- 
lage on Jamaica Bay, which was called 
Keshkechqueren; i. e., at the bay. They 
occupied Gravesend, Flatlands, New 
Lets, Bushwick, Bedford, Rinnega- 
conck, Jamaica, Newtown and part of 
Hempstead. They also sold Governor's 
Island to the Dutch, which latter called 
them Bears or Canarsee. Barren Island 
and Coney Island together were prob- 
ably a secure place for the women of 
the tribe. Barren Island was called by 
the Dutch f beeren eylandt; i. e., the 
Island of the Bears, and the name 
Coney Island may come from Konooh, a 
bear. 

The Canarsee made a new village at 
Rockaway Bay, called Rechouwacky; 
i. e., "place of their own people," dis- 
tinguishing it thus as a place where 
men of their own tribe resided, in op- 
position to Mispat and Jamaica, which 
places were occupied by men of con- 
quered tribes. The Dutch considered 
the Rechouwhacky or Rockaway band 
to be a separate tribe, but the Canar- 
see chief, Penawitz, i. e. "one of a 
different tongue or country," sold all 
the land of the entire tribe to the 
Dutch in 1640. 

Tracts of land within the limits of 
the Canarsee were granted by Director 
General Kieft in 1642 to Tymen Jansen 
behind Dominie's Hoek, in 1643 to the 
Rev. Francis Doughty and others at 
Mispat, to Anthony Jansen from Salee 
at Gravesend, to Burger Jorlssen and 
Richard Brutnell at Dutch Kills, In 
1644 to Gysbert Op Dyck at Coney 
Island, etc. 

The Maereckkaak soon felt the need 
of a larger territory, being closed in at 
all sides by the water and the Canar- 
see; they renewed their warfare upon 
the tribe or tribes which had been 
driven back into Queens County. The 
names of the tribes, thereafter four In 
number and located in Suffolk, outside 
of the Sinnecox confederation, tell the 
story of the war. The Long Island 
tribes were driven along the north side 
of the island; at Nesaquake was a place 
of slaughter; at Setauket they were 
scattered; at Unkechaug or Patchoag 
they fell into a pit or snare; at 
Secatoag was the hiding place of those 
that remained of their number. 

The Maereckkaak established in their 
new territory a village on the water- 
way now known as Massapeaque River. 
This place they called Marossepink, 
Matsepe or Massapeaque; another one 
near the rocks off Cow Neck they named 
Sintsink or Matinecoc. In 16S9, Mech- 
owodt, chief sachem of Marossepink, 
Sintsink and its dependencies, sold all 
the territory of the tribe in Queens 
County to the Dutch. The chiefs of 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



17 




The dotted line on the map indicates the boundary between the Souwenos and Mattouwacks, which is identical with the Suffolk Count; 
line. However, the Matinecoc and Massapeague had, during the War of 1643, retreated into the lands of the Nesaquake and Secatoag and 
remained in possession of parts of these tracts. The Eastern tribes, on taking the four old Long Island tribes under their protection, 
would have sent the invaders back to their own territories, but were probably prevented by the English from doing so. For it would 
have established the title of the Dutch to the territory of the town of Oyster Bay beyond a doubt, as the Dutch had purchased all the lands 
belonging to the Matinecoc and Massapeague in 1639. But now these tribes occupied lands in Suffolk County, to which they held no 
other title save by squatter-right, and the English acquired these lands. On the strength of this purchase the English could lay claim to 
other lands held by the two tribes and on this base they constructed their claim to parts of the town of Oyster Bay. 



Maereckkaakwick sold their land with- 
in the town of Brooklyn in the following 
year and the band removed to Najack, 
in the town of New Utrecht. In 1643 
the war broke out, and after peace be- 
ing restored in 1645, Seysey and two ' 
other chiefs sold the land within the 
town of New Utrecht to the Dutch and ; 
removed to the land along the south 
side, in Queens County, and we find 
them recorded as Merric, or Merri- 
coke, with a village at Hicks Beach. 

Director General Kieft granted a par- 
cel of land within the bounds of Mae- 
reckkaakwick as early as 1639 to Thom- 
as Bescher, near Saphorakan, at Go- 
wanus; this land, however, had been 
purchased some years prior, by indi- 
viduals, from the Indians. In 1640, land 
was granted to Frederick Lubbertsen 
i;ear the Indian village; in 1641, to Jan 
and Pieter Monfort next to Rinnega- 
conck; in 1642, to Cornelius Lambert- 
sen Cool, at Gowanus, and to Claes 
Cornelissen Schouw, near the ferry; in 
1643, to Wouter Van Twiller, at Red 
Hook, and to Jacob Wolphertsen, near 
the Navy Yard, etc. 

The Indians on the eastern end of 
the island and the conquered tribes 
called the Maereckkaak and Canarseo 
"Souwenos;" i. e., people from the 
scuthwest and the territory occupied 
by them, Sowanohke;" i. e., land of the 
Souwenos. The Dutch gave the name 
of sewan or zewand to all shell money, 
while the English used the word wam- 
pum. Thus the Dutch understood 
Sowanohke or Suanhacky (Delaware) 
to denote the land of shell money, i. e. 
Sewanhacky, and the latter name ap- 
pears on deeds for land in Kings 
County of 1636. These deeds were for 
three "flats" in the bay, called Caste- 
teuw, and for land at Gowanus. In 1637 
Governor's Island, Blackwell's Island, 
Ward's Island and Rinnegaconck were 
purchased by individuals, and the first 
purchase of land by the Government; 
i. e.. the West Indian Company, was 
made in 1638 for the territory of the 
town of Bushwick. 

The Canarsee and Maereckkaak sold 
their lands on the condition that they 
wore to be permitted to remain there- 
on, to plant corn, to fish and hunt. 
Certain parts were set aside for their 
use, and through continued occupancy 
tliey acquired a certain title to these 
regions— by squatter right. When the 
land became more settled and these 
sections were required for farm land, 
the best thing for the whites to do 
was to purchase these plots apain; 
this was done with Conorasset; 1. e., 
the planting land of the Bears on Ja- 
maica Bay, by the town of Jamaica, 
and with the greater portion of the 
town of Middelburgh or Newtown. The 
Canarsee also sold, after they had re- 
tired to Staten Island, Sintsink; i. e., 
Htllgate Neck (not to be confounded 
with the Sintsink of the Maereckkaak), 



in 1664, and Bedford in 1670. New 
Utrecht was again sold in 1652 by the 
Maereckkaak, Hempstead in 1643, etc. 

Kanapaukah was the waterland of 
the Bears, along the East River, in the 
tcwn of Newtown, the later "Water- 
tide'' or Ravenswood. 

The Sinnecox confederation embraced 
the Montauk, Shinnecock, Corchaug 
and Manhasset tribes. Their first abode 
seems to have been the Corchaug ter- 
ritory; this name denotes "the old." 
When the plantation of Southold was 
established it was named South Old, 
to describe its location. The eastern 
tribes spread later out over the Pine 
region and became then known as Sin- 
necox. Their entire territory was later 
covered by "the three Plantations," 
viz.: Easthampton, Southampton and 
South Old, the last named including the 
later towns of Riverhead and Shelter 
Island. 

The deed of the town of Easthamp- 
ton of 1648 was signed by the chiefs of 
these four tribes; the chiefs are said 
to have been brothers. In 1645 the Shin- 
necock chief appeared before the Dutch 
Governor, representing the four tribes 
and the neighboring weaker tribes, 
Setauket, Nesaquake, Unkechaug and 
Secatoag, which they had taken under 
their protection. Three years later, in 
the Easthampton deed, the Manhasset 
chief appears to be the leader, and 
after that Wyandance, the Montauk 
chief, takes this position, and he, re- 
spected by the Indians, the English 
and the Dutch alike, held this place 
as long as he lived. 

Thus the whites found the Indians 
of the Island divided into three dis 
tinct parts. In Kings and Queens 
Counties were the Canarsee and Mae- 
reckkaak, collectively known as Sou- 
wenos and their territory as Sowan- 
ohke. The Canarsee were divided into 
Canarsee proper and Rockaway; living 
among them were the Mispat and Ja- 
maica bands. The Maereckkaak were 
known at first as Maereck or Maereck- 
kaak at Maereckkaakwick, in Kings 
County, and later as Merric or Merri- 
coke, and Matinecock and Massapeague 
in Queens County. In the western part 
of Suffolk County were the conquered 
tribes, known as Setauket, Nesaquake, 
Unkechaug and Secatoag. These and 
the Mispat and Jamaica bands wer. 
probablv the survivors of the Matou- 
wacs, who formerly had inhabited the 
entire island. In the eastern part of 
Suffolk County were the Montauk, 
Shinnecock, Corchaug and Manhasset, 
collectively called Sinnecox; their ter 
ritory was called Paumanack. 

The Maereckkaak and the Canarsee 
sold their lands independent from each 
other; the deeds read: The Canarsee 
fhief sells, or else the chiefs of Mary- 
kPMwickingh sell; there was no com- 
munion among these two tribes. When 
I Wyandance of Montauk became the 



leader of the Eastern tribes, about 1652, 
he being the most trusted among the 
chiefs on the island, had to append hi.5 
mark to most deeds for land within the 
territory of the four protected tribes, 
as well as on other places on the is- 
land. When Tackapousha was chosen 
chief sachem of the Western tribes, in 
1656, the Secatoag formally joined their 
union; the Canarsee were reduced by 
this time to a small number. In 1660 
Takapousha is called by the Dutch 
the "Chief of the Savages on Long Is- 
land." In 1669 Governor Lovelace in- 
quires whether Takapousha, of Massa- 
peague, had a right to sell the lands of 
the Matinecoc, in 1643, and whether the 
Montauk chief, by conquest, had power 
to dispose of said lands. The Hemp- 
stead people replied later, in 1671, that 
Takapousha was intrusted by the 
Matinecoc to sell their land, and the 
sale was confirmed by the Great Sa- 
chem of Montauk. About 1677 Taka- 
pousha appeared before Governor An- 
dios for all the Indians, as far east as 
Unkechaug; i. e. all except the four 
En stern tribes. 

The Indians applied the name Mat- 
touwac to the island, the Dutch Ge- 
broken Land or Broken Land, is a 
translation of it. By an act passed in 
1693 the name of Long Island was 
changed to Nassau, but this name be- 
came soon obsolete. 

DUTCH AND ENGLISH CLAIMS. 

From the time of the earliest set- 
tlement on Long Island until the sur- 
render of the colony of New Nether- 
land to the English, the western end 
of the Island was within the jurisdic- 
tion of the Dutch, whose claim in- 
cluded the town of Oyster Bay, which 
claim, however, was disregarded by 
the English. . . 

The Plvmouth Company issued, in 
1635 by order of Charles I, letters 
patent to William, Earl of Sterling, 
for the entire Island. Sterling exe- 
cuted in the following year a power of 
attorney to James Farrett, to dispose 
of lands on Long Island. Four years 
later the Earl died. His grandson, who 
had succeeded him, survived him but 
a few months. Their heirs surrendered 
the grant for the Island to the Crown. 
The settlers on the eastern end were 
left to themselves, and regulated their 
affairs accordingly. Purchases of land 
were made by the towns and were in 
later years confirmed by the governors 
appointed by the Duke of York. Van 
der Donck savs: In 1640 a Scotchman 
claimed Long" T.sland. In 1647 Captain 
Andrew Forester of Dundee, Scotland, 
claimed Long Island for the Dowager 
of Sterling. In 1660 Charles II ascended 
the throne of England, and Winthrop, 
the Governor of the Colony of Connec- 



18 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



ticut, was sent to England to obtain 
a charter. In 1662 he received a char- 
ter covering the territories of the colo- 
nies of Connecticut and New Haven, 
and now the colony which became later 
known as Connecticut Colony, laid 
claim to Long Island, as being one of 
the islands adjacent. 

In 1664, in the month of January, 
Major John Scott came to Long Island 
with some royal authority, and formed 
a combination of );he English villages — 
Hempstead, Gravesend, Flushing, New- 
town, Jamaica and Oyster Bay — with 
himself as president. On March 12, 1664, 
Charles II granted, by letters patent, 
to his brother, James, the Duke of 
York, the country occupied by the 
Dutch, together with Long Island. The 
Duke appointed Colonel Richard Nic- 



POLITICAL DIVISION OF THE 
ISLAND. 

After the surrender of New Nether- 
land to the British, Long Island was 
incorporated with the Colony of New 
York. In 1665, Governor Nicolls called 
together delegates of the several towns 
to meet at Hempstead. At this assem- 
bly Long Island and Staten Island were 
created into a "shire" called Yorkshire, 
and the Duke's laws were formulated 
at this occasion. Yorkshire was di- 
vided into three ridings like its name- 
sake in England. These were divisions 
of territory for the convenience of the 
courts, implied in the Saxon word "try 
things," long since called ridings. The 




oils governor, and to him New Nether- 
land was surrendered by the Dutch on 
August 27, 1664. 



THE ENGLISH TOWNS. 

Lyon Gardiner was the first settler 
on the eastern end of the Island, locat- 
ing on Gardiner's Island in 1639. South- 
old and Southampton were settled in 
1640, Easthamptou in 164S, Shelter 
Island in 1652, Oyster Bay and Hun- 
tington in 1653, Brookhaven in 1655 and 
Smithtown in 1663. Each town was 
in the beginning a colony bj' itself, in- 
dependent of each other. After a few 
years they voluntarily placed them- 
selves under the protection of the New 
England colonies. Southampton ob- 
tained, in 1644, the protection of Con- 
necticut; Easthampton in 1657, Brook- 
haven in 1659 and Huntington in 1660. 
Southold united, in 164S, with the New 
Haven colony, together with Shelter 
Island. When the colonies of New 
Haven and Connecticut were united, 
in 1662, and a new clitirter was granted, 
including in the territory "the islands 
adjacent," Connecticut claimed Long 
Island as one of these islands. This 
claim had the support of the eastern 
towns. Oyster Bay also placed itself 
under the protection of Connecticut. 
The other English towns on the west- 
ern end, within the Dutch jurisdiction, 
were trying to join this union, and then 
the grant of 1664 to the Duke of York 
was made, and in the same year the 
Colony of New Netherland was sur- 
rendered to the English. 



"shires" in England were also called 
counties, because they were governed 
ijy a count or earl. The word shire 
is derived from Anglo-Saxon "sciran" 
to cut or divide, and means "division." 
"York" is derived from "Ure" and 
"wic." L^re was the name of a part of 
the river later known as "Ouse." "Wic" 
means a village. In Anglo-Saxon the 
name was Eurewic; the old Roman 
was Eboracum. 

The several towns had up to this time 
existed without having their bounda- 
ries properly fixed. The settlers of a 
district came together from time to 
time to regulate their local affairs, and 
these men, associated for the purpose 
of government, constituted the town. 
Now the towns were recognized and 
; w^ere required to take out patents for 
' the lands within their boundaries, 
which the towns themselves, or else the 
West India Company, had purchased 
from the Indians. 

After the reconquest of the colony by 
the Dutch, in 1673, the Island came soon 
again into the possession of the Eng- 
lish by treaty, and the Duke of York 
obtained a new patent for the province 
I of New York in 1674. 

The present Suffolk County had con- 
.'itituted the East Riding. Hempstead 
Flushing, Jamaica and Oyster Bay the 
North Riding, and the present King." 
County, Newtown and Staten Island 
the West Riding. In 1675 Staten Island 
w.-is sonarated from the West Ridins:. 

In 16S3 the first General Assembly 
of the colony met and repealed some of 
the Duke's laws, the ridings, also, were 
abolished, and the Island was re- 
divided into three counties, viz., Kings, 
Queens and Suffolk. The town of New- 
town, formei'ly a part of the West Rid- 
ing, was now made a part of Queens 



County. Kings and Queens Counties 
were named in compliment to King 
Charles and his wife. Staten Island 
was made a county by itself and named 
Richmond. Richmond was the title of 
a son of Charles. 

In 17SS the towns were recognized by 
the laws of the newly established State 
of New York. The division of the 
Island into three counties, made in 
16S3, remained in force until Greater 
New York City came into existence, 
which took in, of Long I.sland territory. 
Kings County and a large part of 
Queens County. In 1S99 Queens County 
was divided. The part included within 
the greater city retained the old name 
Queens County and the remainder was 
incorporated as the County of Nassau. 

LONG ISLAND'S POPULATION AT 
DIFFERENT PERIODS. 



Year. 


Kings. 


Queens. 


Suffolk. 


1698 


2,013 


3,565 


2,679 


1703 


1,915 


4,392 


3,346 


1723 


2,218 


7,191 


6,241 


1731 


2,150 


7,995 


7,675 


1737 


2,.348 


9,059 


7,923 


1746 


2,331 


9,640 


9,254 


1749 


2,283 


8,040 


9,384 


1756 


2,707 


10,786 


10,290 


1771 


3,623 


10,980 


13,128 


1786 


3,986 


13,084 


13,793 


1790 


4,495 


16,014 


16.440 


1800 


5,740 


16,916 


19,735 


1810 


8,303 


19,336 


21,113 


1814 


7,655 


19,269 


21,368 


1S20 


11.187 


21,519 


24,272 


1825 


14,679 


20,331 


23,695 


1830 


20,.535 


22,460 


26,780 


1835 


32,057 


25,130 


28,274 


1840 


47.613 


30,324 


32,469 


1845 


78,691 


31,849 


34,579 


1850 


138,882 


36.833 


3^,922 


1855 


216,355 


46,266 


40,906 


1860 


279,122 


57,391 


43,275 


1865 


311.090 


57,997 


42,869 


1870 


419.921 


73,803 


46,924 


1875 


509,154 


84,011 


51,873 


1880 


599,495 


90,574 


53,888 


1S90 


838,547 


128,059 


62.491 


Year 


Kings. Queens. Nassau. 


Suffolk. 


1900 


1,166,582 


152,999 55,448 


77,582 


1910 


1,634,351 


284,041 83,930 


96,138 



THE BOROUGH OF BROOKLYN. 

The Borough of Brooklyn comprise.^ 
the territory of the County of Kings, 
one of the three original counties of 
Long Island. Until eighty years ago 
Kings County was the least among 
these, not only in area, but also in 
population, as may be noticed from the 
following list, containing the number of 
inhabitants at various times. 

Kings. Queens. Suffolk. 

169S 2,013 3,565 2,679 

1749 2,283 8,040 9,384 

1800 5,740 16,916 19,735 

1830 20,535 22,460 26,780 

3835 32,057 25,130 28,274 

The population of Kings County was 
thus: in 1698, 2,013; in 1800, 5,740. and 
in 1840, 47.613. The increase was very 
slow outside the limits of the two later 
cities of Brooklyn and Williamsburgh. 
Of the 5,740 inhabitants in 1800, 3,298 
resided in Brooklyn, and of the 47,613 
in 1840. 36,233 resided in Brooklyn and 
5,094 in Williamsburgh; and the number 
of people li\'lng outside of these two 
centers of population was in 1800, 2,442; 
and in 1840. 6,286. 

A description of the other towns with- 
in the county in the year 1700 closely 
fits the state of things in 1800. In 1700 
the land was nearly all under cultiva- 
tion; a century later some of the farms 
had been divided, and the number of 
inhabitants had correspondingly in- 
creased. During the first four decades 
of the nineteenth century, the popula- 
tion rose more rapidly, viz.: from 5,740 
in 1800 to 47,613 in 1840, yet this In- 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



19 



crease was mainly caused by the influx 
of people into Brooklyn and Williams- 
burgrh, where ropewalks and factories 
had been built; the other towns were 
still farming districts. 

Indian footpaths connected the shores 
of the East River and Jamaica Bay. 
They followed the line of least resist- 
ance through the flats or level lands, 
which had been the cornfields of the 
Indians for many years, and these flats 
the white men were eager to possess. 
Along one trail settlements were estab- 
lished which were known as "het veer" 
or "The Ferry," Breukelen, Bedford, 
Middelwoud and Nieuw Anicr.sfoort, 
along another trail the Boswijck and 
"het kruispad" settlements carne into 
existence. In 1636 several settlers bought 
lands from the Indians in Flatlands, 
Flatbush and probably in Brooklyn. In 
1638 the West India Company purchased 
the territory of the town of Bushwick 
and during the following two years the 
remainder of Kings and all of Queens 
County. 

The Indians had been friendly toward 
the settlers, and persuaded by them to 
do .so, refused to pay any longer tribute 
to the Mohawks. They were attacked 
by the latter and were nearly extermi- 
nated. In the uprising against the Dutch 
in 1643 they sustained further losses, 
epidemics also reduced their numbers. 
When the second uprising of the In- 
dians in the colony occurred, in 1655, 
some of the settlers on the Long Island 
side of the East River wished to attack 
their red-skinned neighbors and to drive 
them from their planting lands. The 
remnant of the Canarsee tribe disposed 
of the lands which were in their pos- 
session, and which they claimed to own, 
and removed across the Narrows to 
.Staten Island, and after a few years to 
other parts. The last one of the Can- 
arsee tribe died aljout 1800. 

Until 1636 the territory of the present 
Borough of Brooklyn had been a wilder- 
ness of marshes, hills and woods; a few 
"plains" with waterways on two sides 
were cultivated by the Indians. Such 
plains were situated between Gowanus 
Creek and the Walboght; Gowanus 
Creek and East River; Newtown 
Creek and Bushwick Creek; Bedford 
Creek and Gerretsen's Creek. They 
were traversed by the Indian trails from 
river to bay. There seem to have been 
a few white squatters located on the 
western end of the island then, but doc- 
umentary nroofs are lacking. 

It has been the general belief that 
the towns founded xmder the Dutch on 
Long Island were named after towns in 



the Netherlands, at the time when each 
settlement was begun, as Breukelen, 
.Vmersfoort, Gravesend, New Utrecht, 
Middelburgh, etc. When settlements 
were started by single settlers locating 
here, nobody thought of selecting names 
for the same — they were dots in an im- 
mense wilderness— but within a short 
time localities became known by spe- 
cific names. These names described the 
location of a settlement, generally noint- 
ing- out some peculiar feature of the 
ground, which served as a landmark. 
Thus the present Flatlands was called 
"bouwery," or district of Achtervelt, i.e., 
the bowery or plantation in the rear, 
meaning in the rear of the hills, from 
achtei-, behind, and feld. field. 

One of the landmarks considered by 
the Dutch of greatest importance, was 



j caused no doubt the application of the 
j name Grenewijck to this region, from 
grenen (fir) and wijck (quarter, district 
refuge, retreat). On Van der Donck's 
map of New Netherland, 1656, is a 
settlement marked Greewijck, on the 
site of the later New Utrecht. Several 
other localities received their names 
from this same word "grenen," as 
Greenpoint, from grenen punt or grenen 
hout-punt. Grenen Berghen, the hills 
forming the boundary line between the 
Towns of Newtown and New Lots, 
were anglicized into Green Hills or 
Cypress Hills; the cemeteries located 
upon them, viz.. Cypress Hills and the 
Cemetery of the Evergreens, are trans- 
lations of the original Dutch name, both 
having the same meaning. Bennett 
and Bentyn's reasons for selecting the 




DE HEEBE GBACHT, OB, GRAFT, ABOUT 1645. 



a forest of flr trees; it must be remem- 
bered that the Netherlands depend, even 
to this day, upon other countries for 
timber. The low lands do not produce 
strong and tall trees, and they have al- 
ways had a great need of such trees, 
suitable for masts and planks for their 
many ships, as well as for building ma- 
terial. Thousands of majestic flr trees, 
taken from the Black Forest, are an- 
nually floated down the Rhine to sup- 
ply the demands of the Netherlands. 

The wooded ridges on the northern 
border of the Town of New Utrecht, 



Gowanus region for a plantation may 
be found not only in the condition of 
the ground, but also in the nearness 
of the wooded ridges of New Utrecht; 
as the settlers needed building material 
to erect houses, palisades, fences, etc. 

The Dutch settlements originated by 
individuals settling in a certain neigh- 
borhood, each one by himself, and as 
these settlers became more numerous 
the Director General appointed magis- 
trates, with more Or less power, as he 
judged proper in each case, without 
any uniformity as to their number or 




20 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



title of office. Their dutj' was to see 
that the fields were fenced and the 
fences kept in repair, to open a com- 
mon road through the settlement, to 
erect a blockhouse or other public 
building, to attend to the division of 
the lands, which were held in com- 
mon, provide for the security of the 
settlement and decide all differences. 
Cases in which sums of fifty guilders 
or over were in dispute could be ap- 
pealed to the Director General and 
Council. 

During the first Indian War the scat- 
tered farmers had been advised by 
Kleft to concentrate themselves, in 
1644, and again in 1645. After the second 
outbreak of troubles Stuyvesant Issued 
an order on January 18, 1656, that vil- 
lages were to be formed in the spring 
to reduce the danger of Indian attacks. 
On February 9, 1660, the final order 
came to the farmers to remove their 
houses, goods and cattle before the 
last of March or at the latest by middle 
of April to the villages or settlements 
nearest or most convenient to them, or 
with the previous approval of the Di- 
rector General to a favorably situated 
and defensible spot in a new palisaded 
village, to be hereafter formed, where 
all those who shall apply shall be 
shown and granted suitable lots by 
the Director and Council, who would 
thus be better able to protect their 
good subjects in case of any difficulty 
with the cruel barbarians. The last 
clause of the order led to the forma- 
tion of Boswijck Village. 

The planters brought the produce of 
their farms to "de heere gracht" on 
Manhattan Island, to which place also 
the Indians came with peltries, to ex- 
change these for things needed. The 
gracht or graft was an inlet of the 
East River, which extended, nearly 
paralleling Whitehall street and Broad- 
way, to Wall street along the line of 
present Broad street: its water rose 
and fell with the tides as far as Ex- 
change place. The canal was crossed 
near its mouth, at "De Brugh straat." 
and "Brouwer straat," now Bridge and 
Stone streets, by a large bridge, and 
farther up by smaller stone bridges. 
Near the river shore were the store- 
houses of the West India Company. 
Here, too. was the anchorage ground, 
where all vessels had to unload. The 
boats of the planters were drawn up 
the sides of the gracht and the farm 
produce was sold from the boats. The 
banks of the gracht formed the mar- 
ket place of the colony until 1656. and 
the bridge was the commercial center. 
De Kermis or "annual fair." lasting ten 
days, in the fall of the year, was inau- 
gurated in 1648. From the gracht ex- 
tended "de smit's vly," or "the smith's 
flat." along the shore to the Long Is- 
land Ferry, at Peck's Slip. 

When the ridings were created. 
Oravn^end was made the shire town of 
the West Riding. This communitv had 
been founded by Englishmen, and was 
the only town in the later Kings 
County with which the English Gov- 
ernor could transact official business in 
his own language. In 16GS the several 
towns in the West Riding were as- 
sessed for a Sessions House, to be 
erected at Gravesend, as follows: 

£ s. d. 

Gravesend 16 4 5 

Newtowne 26 2 3% 

Bushwick 5 11 2% 

Amersfoort 13 19 71^ 

Bruycklyn 15 3 n 

Flat Bush 19 3 8 

New Utrecht 7 

Staten Island 6 14 10% 

Total fllO 

The other settlements carried on 
their legal affairs in the Dutch tongue. 
Breukelen, which was now named 
Brookland; Midwout, now called Flat- 
bush; Nieuw Amersfoort, now called 



Flatlands: Boswijck and New Utrecht 
were, therefore, made a separate dis- 
trict, under the appellation of "The Five 
Dutch Towns." A register was com- 
}nissioned by the Governor for this dis- 
trict, to take the proofs of all docu- 
ments, which were required to be re- 
corded at the "Office of Records," in 
New York City, where certificates were 
issued with the seal of this office. This 
was continued until 1690. The Five 
Dutch Towns also formed an ecclesi- 
astical society, and joined in the sup- 
port of their ministers until the colle- 
giate system was abolished, about the 
end of the eighteenth century. 

In 1840 the Town of Williamsburgh 
was separated from Bushwick, and on 
January 1, 1852, the City of Williams- 
burgh came into existence. In 1852 the 
Town of New Lots was separated from 
Flatbush. On January 1, 1855, the 
Cities of Brooklyn and Williamsburgh 
and the Town of Bushwick were con- 
solidated, and incorporated as the City 
of Brooklyn. In 1886 the Town of New 
Lots was annexed to this union, fol- 
lowed, in 1894, by the Towns of Flat- 
bush, Flatlands. New Utrecht and 
Gravesend. On January 1, 1898, Brook- 
lyn became a borough of the City of 
New York. 

The taxable property of the Five 
Dutch Towns in 1675 was valued at 
£20,319, and taxed at 1 stuyver per 
pound. The tax amounted to 1.015 guil- 
ders and 19 stuyvers, or £84 13s. 2d. In 
1676 the tax on £19,892.14, at Id per 
pound, amounted to £82 17s. 8Hd. The 
taxable property in Kings County In 
IMl was valued at $2,456,061. 

The regiment of militia in Kings 
Countv consisted, in 1700. of 280 men. 
and in 1715 of 255 men, including a 
"troop of horse" of 52 men. 

The population of Kings County was. 

16M 2.013. including 296 blacks 

1703 1,915 

1712 1,925 

IVS 2,218, including 444 blacks 

1731 1 2.150. including 492 blacks 

1737 2.348, including 574 blacks 

1749 2.283, including 783 blacks 

175S 2.707, Including 845 blacks 

1771 3.623. including 1.162 blacks 

1786 3.986 

1790 4.495 

1800 5.740 

1810 8.303 

1820 11.187 

1825 14.079 

1830 20.535 

1835 32.057 

1840 47.613 

1845 78.691 

1850 138.882 

1855 216,355 

1860 279,122 

1865 311,090 

1870 419,921 

1f7S 509,154 

1S80 599,495 

1890 838,547 

1900 1,166.582 

1910 1.634.3B1 „ ^  , 

\fter Williamsburgh and Bushwick 
had been consolidated with Brooklyn 
the population of Kings County m 185o 

was as follows : . -r^ ^ 1,0-'-^ 

Brooklyn. First to Twelfth Wards.148. , /4 
Brooklyn (Williamsburgh). Thir- 

teenth to Sixteenth Wards 48.3b i 

Brooklyn (Bushwick), Seven- 

teenth to Eighteenth Wards .... 8.109 

Flatbush 

Flatlands 

Gravesend 

New LTtrecht 

New Lots 



3.280 
1.578 
1.256 
2.730 
2.261 



Total -1*^'^°^ 

In the sketches of the several towns 
the population, number of houses, etc., 
of a century ago— census of 1810— are 
given for the sake of comparison with 
present day conditions: also, the num- 
ber of inhabitants in 1835 and 1840. 



TOWN OF BROOKLYN. 

More than fifty years ago the theory 
became generally accepted that the 
towns of Breukelen, Amersfoort and 
New Utrecht were named after towns 
in the Netherlands. The three names 
appear on the map of the Netherlands, 
in the neighborhood of Amsterdam, as 
well as on the map of New Netherland, 
near New Amsterdam. Believing that 
the first chapter of the story was lack- 
ing, the writer has tried to find the 
missing part. After the settlement be- 
tween Gowanus Cove and the Wal- 
boght had become known as Breukelen, 
the other places were later named, so 
as to have three towns near New Am- 
sterdam, corresponding to those near 
Amsterdam. 

The first settlements In the colony of 
New Netherland had been made under 
"Patroons," and the Manors of Zwaan- 
endal, Pavonia and Renselaerwijck had 
been granted in 1630 and 1631. This 
feudal system was abolished in 1638 
and the privilege to hold and cultivate 
land in allodial proprietorship was ex- 
tended to everj-body, Dutchmen and 
foreigners alike. Whosoever should con- 
vey besides himself five grown persons 
to New Netherland was to be recog- 
nized as a Colonist and could occupy 
200 acres of land. If such settlements 
of colonists should Increase, municipal 
government was promised. Manhattan 
Island had been reserved to the West 
India Company. Staten Island and the 
Jersey coast formed the Manor of Pa- 
vonia. The latter territory was bought 
back from the Patroon by the West In- 
dia Company, but was reserved for 
tliat corporation's special purposes. 
The land on the Long Island side of 
the East River was now purchased 
from the Indians for the purpose of 
starting plantations of moderate size. 
These plantations were Inaugurated 
under conditions totally different from 
those under which the manors had 
come into being. Instead of paying a 
fee— farm rent to the patroons, the 
farmer received land as "a free loan;" 
I. e., they became the owners of the 
land, subject to a quit-rent, consisting 
of the tenth of the produce of their 
farms, payable "annually to the West 
India Company, after they had the 
plantations under cultivation for ten 
years. 

While the patroons had procured as 
many planters for their lands as they 
possibly could, still the greatest part 
of their immense tracts lay waste, and 
would have remained in that state for 
a long time to come. Now, by granting 
smaller parcels to the settlers, the 
West India Company had reason to ex- 
pect better results, for each farmer was 
bound to cultivate his land or else for- 
feit it. 

The Dutch word for manor or loan 
is "leen," and the one for tenant is 
"bruyker"; "bruykleen" means "a free 
loan, given to a tenant or user for a 
certain consideration." The name 
Bruykleen was given to this experi- 
mental colony, started under the new 
regulations, because the planters were 
to be the owners of the land, subject 
to the quit rent, which was to be paid 
to the West India Company. Bruyk- 
leen was the name of the original 
Dutch colony on Long Island, the name 
Breukelen was adopted in remembrance 
of the old Netherlands town, when a 
village was formed in 1645. At this 
time an order was Issued by the Col- 
lege of the XIX to the colonists, to 
establish themselves on some of the 
most suitable places in towns, hamlets 
and villages, "as the English are in 
the habit of doing." In Kieft's com- 
mission or brief of 1646 the name ap- 
pears as JBreuckelen, in the Nicolls 
charter of 1667 as Brueckelen. On va- 
rious other documents we find: 
Breucklyne, Brueckljm, Breucklyn, 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



21 



Breuklen, Broockeland, Broockland, 
Brookland, Bruycklandt, Breuk Land, 
Bruckland, Breuklin, Bruckline, 

Bruycklyn, etc. 

The first purchase of land In the 
town of Brooklyn Is supposed to have 
been made at Gowanus, about 1636; the 
deed, however, has been lost. In 1639, 
Thomas Bescher sold to Cornells Lam- 
pertsen Cool a plantation formerly oc- 
cupied by Jan Van Rotterdam. Jan, 
being indebted to the West India 
Company at the time of his death, the 
land reverted to the company. The 
name of that locality was probably de- 
rived from Cowanes — briar. Genista 
tinctoria, a shrub used for dying pur- 
poses. The point of land on the south 
side of Gowanus Bay was called by the 
Dutch 't Gheele Hoek, the later Yel- 
low Hook, probably on account of the 
great abundance of yellow blossoms on 
these bushes, which may have attract- 
ed the attention of the man who named 
this piece of land, or else they trans- 
lated the name used by the Indians into 
their own language. 'T roode hoek, or 
Red Hook, may have received its 
name for similar reasons. Roode Hoog- 
ties, or Red Heights, was the name of 
an elevated ground on Red Hook. 
Rhode Island is supposed to have been 
named by Adriaen Block, "de roode 
eylandt," on account of the redness of 




THE OLD DE HART OR BERGEN HOUSE, 
Near 36lh Street, Gowanus. View in 1863. 



the foliage at the time of his visit to 
thi! neighborhood. Red Hook in 
Dutchess County is said to have been 
named Roode Hoek by the Dutch on 
account of a marsh near by being cov- 
ered with ripe cranberries, when first 
seen. 

In 1637, Kakapoteyno, "the Crow," 
and Penhawis, as owners of the dis- 
trict, sold to Joris Jansen de Rapalle, 
a piece of land at the Walboght, called 
Rinnegaconk, from woonkag-onck — 
"at the crooked place;" i. e., at tho 
bend. In 1640, Director General Kieft 
granted to Frederick Lubbertsen the 
land at Werpos, between Red Hook and 
The Ferry. The Cripplebush Patent 
was granted in 1654 to settlers located 
at the Walboght; at Bedford a settle- 
ment was started In 1663; some of the 
Canarsee chiefs, who had removed to 
Staten Island, laid claim to the land, 
and the town of Brooklyn purchased it 
from them. Bedford is probably angli- 
cized from Bestevaar; i. e., i^randsire 
or old man ('s place), named thus after 
some patriarch who was tilling the 
ground here, before the land was ac- 
quired by the town, in 1663; Marcus du 
Susoy had a plantation near this re- 
gion, in the Cripplebush. Iiipetong:a; 
1. e., high sandy bank, was, according 
to Schoolcraft, the Indian name of 
Brooklyn Heights. 

During the Indian uprising of 1643, 
most of the plantations on Long Island 
were destroyed, the houses burned down 
and many people were slain. The home 
government urged the Director General 
and Council to do all in their power to 
Induce the colonists to "establish them- 
selves on some of the most suitable 
places, with a certain number of in- 
habitants, in the manner of towns, 



ha.alets and villages, as the English 
are in the habit of doing." 

After peace was restored, in August, 
1645, a number of small farms came 
Into existence on both sides of the old 
Indian trail. To this distinct settle- 
ment the name Breukelen was now 
applied. and in June, 1646, the 
Director General and Council issued 




THE GOWANUS STONE HOUSE. 
VIEW IN 1848. 



a proclamation, wherein they said, 
that "whereas on May 21st, Jan Evert- 
sen Bout and Huyck Aertsen from Ros- 
sum, were unanimously chosen by those 
interested in Breukelen, situate on 
Long Island, as schepens to decide all 
questions which may arise, as they 
sl-all deem proper, according to the Ex- 
emptions of New Netherlands, granted 
10 particular colonies, which election is 
subscribed by them, with express stip- 
ulation that if anyone refuse to submit 
in the premises aforesaid to the above- 
mentioned Jan Evertsen and Huyck 
Aertsen, he shall forfeit the right he 
claims to land in the allotment of 
Breukelen, and in order that e">9iry 
thing may be done with more author 
ity, we, the Director and Council afore- 
said, have therefore authorized and ap- 
pointed and do hereby authorize the 
said Jan Evertsen and Huyck Aertsen 
to be schepens of Breukelen, and in 
case Jan Evertsen and Huyck Aertsen 
di. hereafter find the labor too onerous, 
they shall be at liberty to select two 
more from among the inhabitants of 
Breukelen to adjoin them to them- 
.selves. We charge and command every 



nelis Van Tienhoven, on March 11, 
1647, for a piecj of land which had 
loen surveyed by the Surveyor, Adrian 
Hudde for Jan Aertsen, and the latter 
had failed to improve the land, the 
location is described as follov/s: "Situ- 
ate in the allotment of Breukelen, for- 
merly called Marechkawick." 

About 1657 the lots in the settlement 
were reduced from small farms to 
house and garden lots and a more 
compact village was established. 
Thompson remarks in his History of 
Long Island that there are on record 
many references to a general town 
patent granted to Breukelen by Stuy- 
vesant in 1657. 

On February 9, 1660, an ordinance 
was passed in relation to the establish- 
ment of villages, and it became now 
compulsory for the farmers to remove 
to the villages. Stuyvesant's order 
says: "We have war with the In- 
dians, who have slain several of our 
Netherland people." An order of Feb- 
ruary 23, 1660, reads as follows: 
"Whereas it is highly necessary that 
the lately formed villages of Breuke- 
len and Utrecht be surveyed, enclosed 
with palisades, and put in a good state 
of defense as quickly as possible, 
therefore the Director General and 
Council have hereby specially commis- 
sioned and authorized the Honorable 
Nicasius de Sille, Councillor and Fiscal 
of New Netherland, to have this nec- 
essary work quickly done, using all 
possible means and making such ar- 
rangements thereto as he shall think 
1 est for the public good and the inhab- 
itants especially." 

The motto in the corporation seal of 
Brooklyn, "Eendraght maakt maght," 
is a free translation of the Latin motto 
in the seal of the Republic of the Seven 
I'nited Provinces of Holland: "Con- 
cordia res parvae crescunt," which lit- 
erally means "By unity little things 
ii. crease." The motto in its Dutch form 
I', found as early as 1556 In the coat of 
arms of William the Silent, Prince of 
Cirange. Wlien the Repul^IIc of the 
Seven United Provinces of Holland was 
formed, in 1579, William of Orange was 
invited to become its leader. 

The Dutch mctto in the seal of 
Brooklyn proves that the seal came 
into use during the Dutch administra- 
tion, as Its adoption in later years 
would have brousht the displeasure of 




FREEKE'S MILL, WITH YELLOW MILL IN DISTANCE. 



inhabitant of Breukelen to acknowl 
edge and respect the above-mentioned 
Jan Evertsen and Huyck Aertsen as 
their schepens, and if anyone shall be 
found to exhibit contumaciousness to- 
wards them he shall forfeit his share 
as above stated. On December 1st of 
the same year Jan Teunlssen was ap- 
pointed Schout of Breukelen, and thus 
the town was established, in 1646. In 
the patent granted to Secretary Cor- 



any one of the English Governors upon 
the town. Thus the seal must have 
been created by Stuyvesant, for under 
his rule a voluntary adoption of it 
was out of question; all matters of this 
kind were regulated by the authori- 
ties on Manhattan Island. The be- 
stowal of the motto in the seal of the 
Fatherland upon the settlement shows 
that the founding of the Bruykleen 
colony was looked upon by the Gov- 



22 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



ernor as the beginning- of a new era 
in the colonization of New Netherland. 
In the absence of positive proof, cir- 
cumstantial evidence is admissible, and 
thus it must be remembered that Stuy- 
\esant in 1660 issued an order directing 
all Colonists to remove from their ex- 
posed farms and to concentrate them- 
selves within the neighboring towns. 
He then laid out Bushwick, naming it 
"Eoswijck." This name signifies a col- 
lection of small things, packed close 
together (bos) and refuge (wijck). 
I'latbush, also settled under Stuyve- 
sant, but prior to Bushwick, was 
known as 't Vlakkebos, and also as 
Middelwoud or Midwout. The first 
name means a collection of small 
things packed close together on the 
plain, and the second name means 
surrounded by forest. The two words 
seem to have formed a compound name 
in the earliest days. The motto in 



New Amsterdam, made in 1653, that the 
city should have a seal, wrote to Sluy- 
vesant: "We have decreed that a seal 
for the City of New Amsterdam shall 
be prepared and forwarded." The seal 
v/as sent across the sea, and in De- 
cember of the same year the Director 
General delivered to the presiding Bur- 
gomaster, Mart. Crigier, the painted 
coat of arms with the seal of New Am- 
sterdam and the Silver Signet, which 
was sent by the Directors. This inci- 
dent may have caused Stuyvesant to 
create also a seal for the Bruykleen 
Colony. 

In response to a letter of Adrian 
liegeman. Secretary of the Courts of 
Midwout, Amersfoort, Breukelen and 
Now Utrecht, Stuyvesant issued an or 
der on February 14, 1664, "to take care 
that no deed or mortgage of any piece 
of land, house or lot be passed, of 




SECOND BKEUKELEN CHURCH EDIFICE, ERECTED 1706. 



the seal "Eendraght maakt maght" is[ 
usually translated Unity makes 
strength. Still, we have seen that the 
motto is a free translation of the Latin 
motto, which literally translated means 
"By unity little things increase." The 
man who selected the phrase for the 
seal's motto would also coin the names 
of Boswijck and Midwout. The phrase- 
ology is very similar. 

In 1654 the Directors of the West 
India Company at Amsterdam, refer- 
ling to a request of the burghers ofj 



which no proper patent can be pro- 
duced, so that our good inhabitants 
may not be cheated and misled, for 
deeds and mortgages of property for 
which no patent has been issued are 
null and void. In passing deeds, mort- 
gages, etc., you will use the seal sent 
herewith until further orders." This 
probably was the seal later known as 
the seal of the City of Brooklyn, but 
originally used for all the territory of 
the Bruykleen colony. 
In the month of April of the same 



year, Breukelen, Amersfoort and Mld- 
j wout obtained full municipal govern- 
ment. Breukelen had now four schep- 
ens instead of two, Midwout had three, 
Amersfoort two, and there was a Su- 
perior District Court, composed of 
delegates from each town court, to- 
gether with the sohout. 

The face of the country in the town 
of Brooklyn was broken and uneven, 
the soil of various qualities, along the 
New York Bay considerably stony, but 
favorable for agriculture, and the gen- 
eral character of the soil rather light, 
though productive. Breukelen, the 
name of the town in the Netherlands, 
denotes "marshy land," and is also ap- 
propriate for the site of the original 
long Island village. The name Brook- 
ItLUd was applied by the English to 
thr town, it being a free translation of 
thp Dutch name. The tow.i of Breuke- 
len was organized in 1646, Brooklyn vil- 
lage was incorporated as a fire dis- 
trict In 1801, and as a village in 1816, 
and the City of Brooldyn in 1834. Be- 
sides Breukelen there were other set- 
tlements within the town limits, known 
as Gowanis or Gowanus, Bedford, 
Kreupelbosch or Cripplebush, Het Veer 
or the Ferry, VA'alboght or Wallabout, 
Roode Hoek or Red Hook, Gheele Hoek 
or Yellow Hook, and in later times 
there were sections known as South 
Brooklyn, North Brooklyn, East Brook- 
lyn, West Brooklyn and New Brook- 
lyn. 

The Dutch church was organized in 
1060, when the population consisted of 
134 persons, in thirty-one families. The 
congregation used a barn for a placo 
of worship until 1666, when a church 
edifice was erected in the middle of the 
tcwn road. A new structure was built 
on the same site in 1706, a third one 
on Joralemon street in 1810, which was 
replaced by a fourth one on the same 
site; this, too, has been removed and 
ihn church has been transplanted to 
another section. 

.\s early as 1642 a rowboat ferry was 
operated by Cornells Dircksen between 
JN anhattan Island and Long Island, 
with landing places on both shores on 
ground owned by this farmer. In 1G54 
the municipal government of New Am- 
sterdam took over the control of the 
ferry, and in 1699 a new ferry house 
was erected by the corporation at the 
Long Island shore. The illustration 
shows the little ferry house and the 
new stone building, the barn and the 
cattle pen. In 1707 new landing places 
were established on the New York side. 
On Mondays and Thursdays the boats 
landed at Countess Key (Maiden lane), 
on Tuesdays and Fridays at Burgher's 
path (Hanover square), and on 




FERRY LANDING, LONG ISLAND, 1740. 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



23 



*-^>j-WJ!SJlesdays and Saturdays at Coenties 
Slip. In 1717 two ferries were estab- 
lished, running from the original Long { 
Island landing, the present Fulton i 
street, the one v.as called the Nassau 
Ferry, which carried passengers as well 
as goods and cattle to the three slips 
mentioned; the other, called the New 
1 ork Ferry, conveyed only passengers 
and goods to the slip at Burgher's path 
and to "the great dock" at Broad 
street,, the former "heeregracht." The 
Long Island Ferryhouse, erected in 
I'iPD, was burned down, supposedly by 
incendiaries .about 1747, and a new 
stone building was erected in 1749 by 
the corporation of New York. It was 
used as a tavern and was known as 
"the Corporation house"; this building 
was destroyed bv fire in 1812. The New 
York ferry established in 1717, was 
later discontinued and only one ferry 
line was running for many years. In 
1774, three ferries were established, one 
to Coenties Slip, another to Fly Slip 
(Maiden lane), and a third to Peck Slip, 
the original site of the ferry. On the 
Long Island side were now for some 
years two landing-places, one at "The 
bid Ferry" and another at present At- 
lantic avenue, at Philip Livingstone's 
Wharf. "The New Ferry" from Main 
street, Brooklyn, to Catherine street. 
New York, was opened in 1795. 

William A.'irianse Bennett, one of the 
first settlers, erected his house on Gow- 
anus Cove; it was destroyed during the 
Indian War of 1S43; on its foundations 
was later the Schermerhorn Mansion 
erected. The De Hart or Bergen house, 
in the same neighborhood, was bqilt 
some thirty years after the destruc- 
tion of the Bennett house. The Vechte 
Cortelyou or Gowanus stone house, was 
built in 1693. The Debevoise mansion, 
standing near the church, and later 
known as the Duflield house, was de- 
stroyed by fire in 1857; in the rear of 
the house was the burial place of the 
Diiffield family. The "old Gowanus 
Mill" and the Yellow Hook Mill were 
burned in 1776 by the British. The 
Gowanus Mill was the oldest mill 
structure in the town, others were the 
P.ed Hook, Cols's, Luqueer's and Rem- 
sen mills. The last mentioned stood at 
or near the site of the tide mill, built 
at an early period at the head of Wal- 
labout Bav. The Rapalje Mansion, 
near the ferry, built of stone, was 
taken down in :S16. The old Rem Lef- 
ferts house, at Bedford, was torn down 
in 1340, the Leffert Lefferts house, near 
by, in 1877 and the Nicholas Bloom 
house, which stood near these two Lef- 
ferts houses and had come into the 
possession of Leffert Lefferts in 1791, 
was demolished in 1909. The land oc- 
cupied bv the Navy Yard -was ceded 
by the State of New York to the i ed- 
oral Government in 1807. 

In 1810, Brooklyn had a population 
cf 4,402, and there were 400 houses, 50 to 
CO ships (brigs and schooners) docked 
annuallv at its wharves, and there 
were then 6 grain or tide mills, 3 maga- 
zines for storage of gunpowder, sev- 
eral distilleries, 3 ropewalks, 1 Epis- 
ronal stone church, 1 Reformed Dutch 
stone church, 1 Methodist church, l 
poor house, 2 market houses, construct- 
ed of wood, and situated on the open 
spaces near the old and new ferries. 
I'he one at the old ferry was estab- 
lished in 1675, and both were aboli-shed 
in 1814 The postoffice of Kings County 
n-as in this town, and was a principal 
point of concentration for all the stage 
and other roads on the island. There 
was one weekly newspaper. A draw- 
bridge was at this time contemplated 
to connect Brooklyn with New York. 
There wore sixty-one freeholders -with- 
in this town in 1706. and m 1802 their 
number had increased to eipty-s's:- 
The population of the town of Brook- 
Ivn was in 



170G at £3,112, and the tax amounted to 
i'-ll; the valuation in 1810 was $1,175,- 
5:^.9 ; in 1824 it was $2,600,000, and the tax 
amounted to $7,000; in 1834 the valua- 
tion was $7,257,473. 



TOWN OF NEW UTRECHT. 

Cornells Van Werckhoven, a director 
of the West India Company, purchased 
on November 22, 1652, from Seiseu and 
Mattano, chiefs and owners, the terri- 
tory of the later town of New Utrecht, 
"as the same has previously been 
bought on behalf of the Honorable 
Company, and for which payment was 
to be made yet." On December 1 of 
the same year he secured from Mat- 
tano, Mattaveno and Cossikan, on be- 
half of themselves and as attorneys 
for all other inhabitants and supposed 
owners of the land now come into the 



ISOO 3,298|1sr<E 



25,31: 



1810 4,402 

1820 7.175 

1830 15,292 



1840 36,233 

1345 59,574 

1850 96.838 




FULTON FERRY, 1840. 



The taxable property was valued in 



possession of Van 'Werckhoven by the 
foregoing act, their promise "to remove 
immediately from the land now occu- 
pied by them, called Naieck." After 
starting a settlement at Nayack, which 
is called "Greewyck" on Van der 
Donck's map. Van Werckhoven went 
to Holland, with the intention of re- 
turning. He died, however, there in 
1655. 

Jacques Corteleau, the tutor of Van 
Werckhoven's son, asked the Director 
General and Council on January 16, 
1657, as the agent of the heirs of Cor- 
nells Van Werckhoven, for permission 
"to establish a village on Long Island, 
on the bay of the North River." His 
request being granted, he laid out and 
surveyed the place, dividing it into 
twenty lots of twenty-five morgen each. 
The village was named New Utrecht, 
in honor of Van Werckhoven's birth- 
place Nicasius de aille, the Fiscal or 
Attorney General of New Netherland, 
was among the settlers; he built his 
house here in 1657, which stood for two 
ctntuiies: in this building General 
WoodhuU expired from his wounds in 

1776. . ^ „„ 

Stuyvesant granted on August -(, 

1657 to the newly begun village of New 
Utrecht, one hundred and thirty mor- 
gen of meadowland "on the east hook 
of the bay of the North River, oppo- 
site Coney Island." On August 13, 

1658 Anthony Jansen from Salee 
proved to the Director General that he 
had bought the aforesaid meadow from 
the Indians on September 26, 1651, and 
as he had no other meadow for mak- 
ing hay, part of the meadow nearest 
to his house was given to him. 

It appears that Jacques Corteleau 
was the owner of the neck of land 
called Nayack, the site of the present 
Fort Hamilton. He also was a lot- 
holder in the village of New Utrecht, 
and resided there, no doubt, during 
the last years of Stuyvesant's admin- 
istration." On his land, on the neck, he 
.allowed the "Nayack Indians; ' i. e., 
Manhattan Indians, who had removed 
to this place from Staten Island, to 
remain for many years, where they 
planted their corn. 



In 1659 Stuyvesant appointed Jan To- 
massen to the ottice of Sergeant, to 
keep order in the village, and Jacob 
Van Corlear was soon after made the 
Secretary of New Utrecht. In the fall 
of 1659, when a renewal of troubles 
with the Indians was e.xpected, the Fis- 
cal gave order to fortify his house, 
whicli was the only one within the 
town having a tUeu rout. The iiouse, 
forty- two feet long, together with the 
garden, was now surrounded with high 
palisades, set close together, as a 
place of refuge for the townspeople. 
On February 6, 1660, Stuyvesant visited 
the village in company of the Fiscal; 
the latter had given to the town a flag 
of the Prince of Orange, which was 
now hoisted on a pole in the center 
of the village. The mottoes in the 
Prince's coat-of-arms and in the seal 
of the Bruyckleen Colony being iden- 
tical, the hoisting of the flag repre- 
sented the salute of the Long Island 
Colony to the Director General. 

On February 23, the Fiscal was au- 
thorized to have the lately formed vil- 
lages of Breukelen and New Utrecht 
surveyed, enclosed with palisades, and 
put in a good state of defense. Per- 
suaded by some of their fellowmen, 
the people of New Utrecht tried to 
delay the work, and the Fiscal asked 
the Director General to send over, as 
promised, some of the company's ne- 
groes, to do the work. This was grant- 
ed two days later, and the palisades 
were cut and set up. A blockhouse 
was now ordered to be erected in the 
center of the village, and a public 
well dug, also a pound to be construct- 
ed for the cattle which may have 
committed damage to any person. To 
the end that the village might be 
quicker settled and built up, it was or- 
dered that whosoever be first ready to 
build, should have a preference of 
choice, even notwithstanding such per- 
son's chance may have fallen to a dif- 
ferent lot. Such plantations in the 
town which were not as yet fenced, 
as well as village lots, were to be 
fenced. In the same year a horse-mill 
which had been in Use in New Amster- 
dam was purchased and set up near 
the blockhouse. On December 22, 1661, 
the town received a village charter, 
.^.drian Hegeman, the successor of 
Schout Tonneman, toolc charge of New 
Utrecht, together with Breukelen. Mid- 
wout and Amersfoort, and Jan Tomas- 
sen, Rutger Josten and Jacob Hella- 
kers were appointed Commissaries. 
Van Corlear was directed to hand over 
to the Schout all documents relating to 
New Utrecht. On August 24, 1662, the 
Commissaries asked that the meadow 
land be divided between the village 
and Nayack. 

In a letter dated April 2S, 1664, and 
addressed to the Directors of the West 
India Company, at Amsterdam, Stuy- 
vesant states: "Concerning the set- 
tling and securing of both Long and 
Staten Islands, near the Narrows, the 
orders have been carried out some time 
ago, by forming hamlets on both is- 
lands. The village of New Utrecht was 
laid out on Long Island, about a quar- 
ter of an hour's travel inland from the 
Narrows, there being no convenient 
place nearer for the location of a vil- 
lage; it is settled by about twenty-two 
to twenty-four families of the Dutch 
or Netherland nation. A hamlet not 
yet named was begun on Staten Island 
about two years ago, and has now 
about twelve to fourteen families of 
Dutch and French from the Palatinate; 
it lies about half an hour's walk from 
the Narrows, there being no more con- 
venient place for a village nearer the 
water. Both these places were provid- 
ed with commodious blockhouses for a 
defense against the attacks of the sav- 
ages last summer; the blockhouses are 
built by putting beam upon beam and 
for their better defense are each pro- 
vided with two or three light pieces 



24 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



of ordnance, of which one or two arf 
pedereroes; the hamlet on Staten Is- 
land, being the weakest, and too far 
to be relieved in time, is garrisoned 
with ten soldiers for its greater safety." 
The Dutch Church was organized In 
1677. A stone edifice of octagonal 
shape was erected in 1700, surrounded 
by the graveyard, on the Kings High- 
way, and what is now Sixteenth ave- 
nue; it was demolished in 1828. A new 
structure was built on the present site. 
Eighteenth avenue, between Eighty- 



Church edifice, the taxable property 
was valued at $275,765; the population 
was then 907; in 1835, 1,027; in 1840, 
1,283. Neighborhoods in this town were 
Bay Ridge, Fort Hamilton, near the 
United States grounds, and Bath on 
Gravesend Bay. The latter was a fa- 
vorite place for sea bathing, hunting 
and fishing. The fortress known as 
Fort Hamilton was constructed during 
the years 1824-1832. Fort Lafayette 
was built upon Hendrick's Bluff, 200 
yards from shore, in 1812, and was orig- 



iliSiMHSi! 




=54fe^i^,-; 




^-f'wtf . -^ — ~ — *■ 

DUTCH CHURCH AND DE SILLE HOUSE, NEW UTRECHT. 



third and Eighty-fourth streets, and 
dedicated in 1829. The old church edi- 
fice had been used by the British dur- 
ing the Revolutionary War at various 
times for a hospital and riding school. 
The Simon Cortelyou house was built 
long before that struggle, on the 
Shore road; in its rear was the burial 
ground of the Cortelyou family. This 
house was the headquarters of Lord 
Howe after his landing in Gravesend 
Bay in August, 1776, for about a 
month. After Simon's death it came 
into the possession of one Napier, who 
transformed it into a tavern. After 
Napier's death, Simon Cortelyou's son, 
Simon, became the owner and later on 
the Stillwell family owned the house. 
In 1892 the Federal Government pur- 
chased it, and finally it was destroyed 
by fire in 1901. The Van Pelt Manor 
house was built about the latter part 
of the seventeenth century, and is still 
standing on Eighteenth avenue and 
Eighty-first street: nearby is one of the 
two remaining milestones in the coun- 
ty, which were erected by the King's 
order, to mark the postroad from Bos- 
ton to Philadelphia. The road was 
known as the King's Highway; it cut 
through New Utrecht and Gowanus to 
Denyse's Ferry, where the connection 
with Staten Island was made by boat. 
At every turning point in the road a 
stone was set up. At Denyse's Ferry 
the British landed their first troops in 
1776; near the shores of this town, too, 
the squadron of Colonel Richard Nic- 
olls, the first English Governor of 
New Tork. had anchored in 1664. and 
his letter to Director General Stuyve- 
sant bears date on board the Guyney, 
riding before Nayack, on the 20th day 
of August. 

Along the Narrows the land is hilly 
and stony, and on the northern town 
line were some considerable hills. These 
wooded ridges formed the extreme 
western end of the backbone of Long 
Island, which extends all along the 
northern side of the "Great Plains," as 
far as Southold, on the eastern end of 
the island. The interior part of the 
town is level, and the soil consists of 
light loam and sand. 

In 1810 the village contained forty 
houses and the Reformed Dutch 



inally known as Fort Diamond. A few 
feet below the surface, at the Narrows, 
was found, in 1837, more than a wag- 
on-load of Indian arrow-heads. 

TOWN OF GRAVESEND. 

A tract of 100 morgen of land oppo- 
site Coney Island was given to An- 
thony Jansen from Salee in 1639, and 
a patent for it was issued in 1644. Thii 



commissary at "the Hope." At least 
he laid claim to all three in later years, 
though on account of the clanger of at- 
tacks by the Indians, in an extremely 
exposed position, he had never taken 
po.ssession of the property. The patent 
describes it as "situate on the east side 
of the bay, running into the North 
River." 

In 1643 English settlers from Massa- 
chusetts came here; in 1645 they re- 
ceived a general town patent, issued 
December 19, to Lady Deborah Moody 
and associates. The origin of this 
town differs from that of the Dutch 
towns. Gravesend was intended to be- 
come a commercial port. Ten acres 
of land were laid out and surrounded 
by palisades. When, however, it became 
evident that there was not sufficient 
depth for vessels of a larger class, the 
original plan was abandoned. The 
English settlers held religious services 
in the town and Stuyvesant stated that 
the Inhabitants of Gravesend had more 
privileges than the exemptions gave to 
any Hollander. In 1655 the settlement 
was saved from destruction at the 
hands of the River Indians by a guard 
sent over from New Amsterdam. In 
the following year the inhabitants ob- 
tained three small cannon from the fort 
for their protection. In 1659 a mill was 
erected. 

Of the 7,000 acres of land in the town 
3,500 were farm land, 500 woodland and 
the balance salt meadows and a ridge 
of sand hills near the seashore. It 
has been suggested that the town was 
named after the former home of some 
of the original settlers, viz., Gravesend 
in England; another suggestion is that 
it was originally called "s'Graven- 
sande," i.e., "the count's beach." Di- 
rectly opposite Gravesend, on the other 
side of Lower New York Bay, are the 
Navesink Highlands; along these high- 
lands and the Navesink River the sand 
Is of a reddish color, hence the name 
"Red Bank" in this neighborhood. On 
the Long Island shore the sand is of a 
grayish color, and this fact may have 



4^'/^%'»i "^■■^' ' 




,^ ^- "-^'^'^^ 

EIRST DUTCH CHURCH EDIEICE AT GRAVESEND. 
Sketched After Old Description. 



land, described as situated "near the 
bay," became later known as "the old 
bouwery." Adjoining Anthony Jan- 
sen's patent a tract of 90 morgen, lying 
partly in Gravesend and partly in New 
Utrecht, was granted in 1645 to Robert 
Pennoyer. 

The present Coney Island consisted 
originally of three parts, viz., Conijne 
Eylandt, Conijne Hoek or the later 
Pine Island, and Gysbert's Eylandt, or 
the later Johnson's Land. Apparently 
these three parts were granted on May 
24, 1644, to Gysbert op Dyck, the former 



led the settlers to name this shore 
"Graauwezande," or Grauesand, as the 
name is often written in old documents, 
i.e., "Grayishsand." 

The Dutch Church was organized in 
1763 and a church edifice was erected, 
which was replaced by a second one in 
1833 and this one again by a third one 
in 1894. Shortly after the conquest of 
1664 the town was made the seat of 
justice, a court house was erected in 
1668 and the Courts of Sessions of the 
West Riding were held here, also the 
Courts of Kings County until 1686, 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



25 



when the County Court at Flatbush 
was opened. 

The Strycker house, on Gravesend 
avenue, near present Avenue U, was 
destroyed by fire about 1894. The Still- 
well house was formerly known as the 
Van Siclen house. The Johnson house 
was buiJt upon "the bouwerij of ye Lady 
Moody." The Wyckoff homestead, on 
present East Nineteenth street, near 
Avenue Q, was erected about the latter 
part of the eighteenth century and was 
torn down during- the first years of the 
present century. A block awav is 
standing- the still older Bennett farm 
house. The Wyckoff house, on Kings 
Highway, near Fourteenth street, was 
built about forty years ago. 

In 1649 Coney Island is called Manna- 
hanning, i.e., island place. A locality 
at the mouth of Gerrettsen's Creek was 
called Moeung. This probably was the 
place called by the Dutch fvlaeck, i.e., 
a stain or blot, a black or muddy place. 
Another locality in this neighborhood, 
the upland, was called Makeopaca. An 
Indian burying ground was found in 
1897 on Avenue U, near Ryder's Pond. 
Deep beds of oyster shells, the outer 
sides of the shells uppermost, were 
found, also pottery and more than a 
dozen of skeletons. 

In 1810 Gra-vesend village contained 
twenty houses, the Reformed Dutch 
Church edifice and a schoolhouse. A 
lighthouse was desigrned to be erected 
at Coney Island, on the west end of 
Schryer's Hook. There were two tide 
mills. The taxable property was val- 
ued at $178,477; the population was 520, 
mcreasing to 695 in 1835 and 810 in 1840. 

The settlement on Sheepshead Bay 
was originally known as "The Cove," 
and later as Sheepshead Bay. Other 
neighborhoods were Unionville and 
Guntherville on Gravesend Bav, South 
Greenfield on the Kings Highway and 
on the head of Gerrettsen's Creek, ex- 
tending over the Flatlands line. 



TOWN OF FLATBUSH. 

(Including the Later Town of New 
Lots.) 

Flatbush was originally known as 
Midwout and was settled in 1651, 
though single settlers had been on the 
ground earlier. It is named in old 
documents variously 't Vlakke Bos, 
Midwout and Middelwout. 'T Vlakke 
Bos means small things packed close 
together, i. e., "a bunch" on the plain; 
Midwout and Middelwout means "in 
the midst of the fcre.-^t "or surrounded 
by forest." In 1653 Stuyvesant wrote, 
in answer to a remonstrance presented 
to him: "It is not true that general 
town-patents had been promised to the 
inhabitants of Middelburgh and Mid- 
wout. The contrary can be proved 
by living witnesses and by the written 
conditions, now deposited in the secre- 
tarv's office, under which lands were 
allotted and taken possession of in the 
said villages. If they have not their 
Individual deeds, they may come and 
call for them; they will not be carried 
home to everybody." Cornelius Van 
Ruyven, the secretary of the colony, 
and son-in-law of Domine Megapolen- 
sis, bought in 1654 a farm of twenty- 
five morgen in this town for the sum 
of 525 guilders. On October 16, 16.55, a 
plan was approved for concentrating 
the village of Midwout. Five or six 
lots were to be reserved for public 
buildings, such as for the schout, the 
minister, the .secretary, the school- 
master, village tavern and public 
courthouse. On February 22, 1656, a 
plan was ready to lay out the village, 
set up palisades, and erect a block- 
house. On May 26, 1656, the Schout and 
"the magistrates of Midwout and 
Amersfoort" issued orders that those in- 
habitants who had not as yet set up their 



share of palisades must do so within 
eight days or pay a fine of 25 guilders 
for each lot. On February 26, 1660, the 
magistrates of Midwout and Amers- 
foort were ordered to have the pali- 
sades surrounding the villages repaired 
and kept in good order by assigning 
to each inhabitant a certain portion, 
for which he was to be held responsible. 
On March 31, 1661, separate inferior 
courts were erected in each of these 
villages. Part of the town, known as 
Oostwout, or the New Lotts of Flat- 




GRAVESEND TOWN HALL. 



bush, was settled in 1654, and was 
separated in 1852 from the town of 
Flatbush and organized as the town of 
New Lots. A horsemill was erected 
here in 1660. 

A low, broad range of hills extended 
along the town border; the remainder 
of the territory was level, the soil being 
light loam. Prospect Hill was elevated 
300 feet above the plain, overlooking 
the neighboring townships. In Oost- 
wout, the southern half of the terri- 
tory consisted of salt meadows; the 
soil of the remainder was light loam. 

The first Dutch church edifice on 
Long Island was begun here in Mid- 
wout, in 1654, when the church was or- 
ganized. There were 100 morgen of 



fire in 1832, the courts were transferred 
to Brooklyn. Erasmus Hall was in- 
corporated in 1787. The Vanderveer 
homestead, on Flatbush avenue, oppo- 
site Dorchester road, took, in 1787, the 
place of an earlier structure on land 
granted in 1660. It was demolished in 
1911. The Bergen House, said to have 
been built in 1735, was torn down about 
1840; the Strycker House, which also 
has been removed, had been erected in 
1696, of brickstones. Nearly opposite 
stood the Zabriskie homestead, another 
brickstone building, and as old as its 
neighbor, until 1877. The original Lef- 
ferts homestead, built in the latter 
part of the seventeenth century on 
the junction of Flatbush and Wash- 
ington avenues and Lincoln road, and 
the Martense house, opposite, were both 
burned down by the British in 1776; 
the Lefferts house was rebuilt on its 
old lines. The Suydam-Ditmas Man- 
sion, near the junction of Ditmas ave- 
nue, was erected about 1700 and stood 
until 1911. The old farmhouse on 
Church lane, near Story street, and 
known as the Story homestead, was 
formerly occupied by the Martense 
family. Melrose Hall, built in 1749 by 
John Lane, near Flatbush avenue and 
Clarkson street, was torn down at the 
beginning of the present century. 
Judge Isaac Terhune erected a house 
about a halt-mile distant from the 
Kings Highway station of the Brighton 
Beach Railroad, in 1812, which was later 
purchased by Benjamin Hitchings. 

In 1810 Flatbush was known as the 
"Capital of the County." The village 
contained about 100 houses, standing on 
the town road and covering a stretch 
of one and a half miles in length; the 
stone building of the Reformed Dutch 
Church, the courthouse and jail, Eras- 
mus Hall Academy and two common 
schools, also two tide mills and one 
windmill, were within the town limits. 
The taxable property was valued at 
$.169,118; the population was 1,159, and in 
1835, 1,537; in 1840, 2,099. The poorhouse 
of the county Is located in this town. 
The farm of sixty acres was purchased 
for $3,000. Neighborhoods in the town 
were: Greenfield, ParkviUe, Oaklands 
and Windsor Terrace. 

The region known as Keuters' Hook, 
received its name from the fact that 




ORIGINAL LONG ISLAND CHURCH, ERECTED AT MIDDELWOUT. 



land set aside for the church, the little 
structure on the Indian trail was In- 
closed with a strong palisade, and in 
time of danger the settlers, after till- 
ing their farm land all day, retired at 
nightfall within the protecting stock- 
ade, until they were able to erect more 
substantial houses upon their farms. A 
second structure was built in 1699, 
which was altered in 1775, and the 
present building was erected in 1795 on 
the original site. 

The courthouse of the County of 
Kings was erected in Flatbush village 
in 1685, and in the following year the 
courts were removed from Gravesend 
to this place. The courthouse was re- 
built in 1793. After its destruction by 



this tract was given over in the earlier 
days to the mechanics of the town, 
who could only take care of small par- 
cels of land. The name is derived from 
the word Keutel-boer, used in opposi- 
tion to boer. The word boer was ap- 
plied to farmers on large farms in the 
older part of the town. 

In the later town of New Lots, the 
farmhouse built in 1715 by William 
Howard, near the present junction of 
Broadway and Fulton street, was 
known as the Rising Sun Tavern, or 
Howard's Halfway House, of Revolu- 
tionary War fame. The Howard es- 
tate was sold in 1867, and soon there- 
after turned into building lots, and the 
old tavern was torn down. Among the 



26 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



landmarks are the Schenck homestead, 
on Jamaica avenue, and the Eldert 
homestead, on New Lots road, between 
Lincoln and Sheridan avenues, on land 
granted to Johannes Eldert in 1667. | 
JJaniel Rapelje built a stone house on j 
what is now Sheffield avenue, before i 
the Revolution, which has been taken i 
down. His son, Simon, built the house j 
now known as the McGee house; Wil- I 
liam Rapelje built the present Rapelje j 
house, on the north side of New Lots 
road, between Sheffield and Georgia , 
avenues, in 1820. The Wyckoff house i 
is standing on New Lots road, between 
Miller avenue and Bradford street, 
and the Van Siclen, near Hendrix 
street. The Reformed Dutch Church of 
New Lots was organized in 1824, and 
an edifice erected on New Lots road 
in the center of the settlement. The 
former town hall of New Lots, stand- 
ing on Jamaica Bay, at present Stan- 
ley and Atkins avenues, was destroyed 
by fire in 1912. 

TOWN OF FLATLANDS. 

The principal village of the Canarsee 
was in this town and known as Kes- 
kaechqueren, i. e., at the bay. The name 
Flatlands is derived from het vlakke 
land, i. e., the flat country. The soil 
is light sand or sandy loam. The town 



tervelt. In January, 1651, a village was 
established, which was named Nieuw 
Amersfoort. Twenty-eight lots were di- 
vided by lot. Stuyvesant owned a farm 
here in 1655; in the same year a mili- 
tarj' guard was stationed in the town 
on account of the Indian troubles; the 
village was inclosed by a stockade. 

Van Twiller's and Corlear's flats, con- 
taining 1,600 to 2,000 morgen of land, 
were used as a common pasturage by 
the people of Amersfoort and Midwout. 

The Dutch church in the town was 
founded in 1654; a first edifice was 





^^ 



NEW AMERSFORT CHURCH. ERECTED 1663 



was settled in 1636. One of the first 
grants for lands wa* for Barren Is- 
land, which was then considerably 
larger and called Equendito. The 
Dutch called it 't Beeren Eylandt, i. e.. 
Bears Island. Upon Barren Island the 
pirate Charles Gibbs had secreted a 
portion of the wealth which he had 
plundered upon the high seas. Part of 
it was recovered after the pirate and 
his companions had been executed upon 
Gibbet Island in New York Harbor in 
1830. The islands and meadows ad- 
joining Barren Island were called by 
the Indians Hoopaninak, Shanscoma- 
cocke and Macutteris. There are im- 
mense shellheaps at Canarsie and Ber- 
gen Island. 

Achtervelt was a plantation in this 
town, comprising a tract of land of 
about 1,800 morgen, of which only a 
small part was cultivated; a patent for 
the same was granted in 1638. The 
patents for the Castateuw purchases 
of 1636 from the Indians were annulled 
in 1652. They consisted of the two 
smaller flats, claimed by Wouter Van 
Twiller and the great flat, also called 
"at the bay" or Amersfoort flat, 
claimed by Wolphert Gerretsen and 
Andries Hudde. At the same time 
patents for other large tracts were an- 
nulled, as the maize land, flatland and 
valley of Canarisse, conveyed by gift to 
Jacob Wolphertsen to the serious dam- 
age of the new village of Midwout, 
further the islands in the Hellgate, 
Nooten Eylandt ,Red Hook, the land at 
Sloops Bay and Oyster Bay, called 
Matinnecough. 

The territory of the town is later 
called the Bouwery or District of Ach- 



erected in 1663; it was enlarged in 1762; 
a second one was built in 1794 and a 
third one in 1848. The graveyard was 
established upon an old Indian burial 
hill, and the Indian graves were in- 
cluded in the graveyard. 

The house on Flatlands Neck was 
built in 1664 by Pietbr Claes Wyckoff, 
who had purchased the land from the 
Canarsee at an early date. There is 
a tradition that the name Wyckoff was 
given to him on account of his settling 
in this isolated neighborhood; its mean- 
ing being "to depart" (wijken) and 
"beyond" (over), i. e., to depart to a 
distant place. The homestead was re- 
paired in 1819. The little schoolhouse 
on the neck was built in 1786. 

The mill on Gerrettsen's Creek, the 
former Stroomkil, occupies the founda- 
tions of the original gristmill. The Jan 
Martense Schenck house was built 
about 1656 near a creek, on which later 
a mill was erected. Mentelaer Island, 
called by the Indians Wimbaccoe, is 
now known as Bergen Island. Mus- 
kytte Hool was the name of a locality 
on Flatlands Neck. 

In 1810 Flatlands Village contained 
twenty houses. There was the Re- 
formed Dutch Church edifice and one 
tidemill in this town. The taxable 
property was valued at $14,039; the pop- 
ulation was 517, increasing to 684 in 
1835 and 810 in 1840. Canarsie village 
was a settlement upon the road lead- 
ing to the bay. 



TOWN OF BUSHWICK. 

(Including the later Williamsburgh.) 

The name Bushwick has been said 
by some writers to signify "Town in 
the Woods," while others have trans- 
lated it "Heavy Woods." In the town 
records we read under date of April 5, 
1663, that some of the inhabitants pe- 
titioned the Director General and 
Council to allow them to inclose their 
lands near the village with a common 
fence, "in view of the great expense 
of individually fencing their land, said 
expense being greatly increased by the 
scarcity of wood in their neighborhood, 
etc." This was three years after the 
settlement had been_ started, and It Is 
inconceivable that a'region, which hai 
been remarkable for its wealth of tim- 
ber, in such a degree as to cause the 
Governor to name the town for this 
very pecularity of the region "Town 
in the Woods," to be so stripped of 
timber within a short time, as the pe- 
tition shows. To the writer it seems 
more likely that the village was named 
for the compact form in which it was 



laid out by Stuyvesant. The latter 
had ordered in February, 1660, that all 
settlers should remove to villages; a 
few days later a party of men peti- 
tioned him to select a site for them, 
suitable for a settlement, and he took 
them to the plain between the New- 
town Creek and Bushwick Creek, where 
he laid out a village of twenty-two 
lots. 

A year later he again visited the new 
settlement, and, requested by the in- 
habitants to give a name to the place, 
he named it Boswijck. As noted above, 
the Director-General would no longer 
permit the planters to occupy their 
scattered farmhouses, and with this 
point in view, he had established this 
place of concentration on the plain. 
The name Boswijck, coined by Stuy- 
vesant on this occasion, expressed per- 
fectly what the Governor's order was 
intended to enforce, i.e., to take the ex- 
posed homes of the several settlers 
and bring them together at a central 
point for the sake of their own safe- 
ty. The word is composed of "bos," 
meaning a "collection of small things 
packed close together" and of "wijk," 
i. e., a retreat, refuge, guard, defend 
from danger. The site selected was 
suitable for a settlement, as it was lev- 
el land or "a flat," bounded by creeks; 
that part of the town known in later 
times and to this day as Greenpoint 
was in the olden days known as Gren- 
en Hout Punt, or Hout Punt. It was 
the neck of land from «'hich the set- 
tlers of Boswijck secured the timber 
for palisades and building material; 
Hout Punt means "timber place." The 
name was later anglicized into Wood- 
point, and the remnant of the town 
road, which led to the place, is still 
known as "Old Woodpoint road." 
Grenen Hout Punt indicates that the 
woods consisted of fir trees. 

The territory of the town was pur- 
chased by Governor Kieft from the Ca- 
narsee in 1638; settlers which had lo- 
cated here prior to that date were con- 
firmed in their possessions, and pat- 
ents to new settlers were granted in 
rapid succession. The soil was princi- 




ON OLD WOODPOINT ROAD, BUSHWICK. 



pally a light loam and the surface con- 
siderably hilly, in some parts stony, 
though productive. 

On March 31, 1661, an Inferior Court 
was established and thus the town was 
organized. Adriaen Hegeman, the 
Schout of Breukelen, Amersfoort and 
Midwout, had now also jurisdiction 
over New Utrecht and Boswijck. In 
1662, the village, which was inclosed 
with palisades, contained twenty-five 
houses; according to Brodhead, two 
blockhouses were erected within this 
town in 1663; this no doubt refers to 
the blockhouse upon the Kijkuit near 
the Strand and another one in the 
village. A Dutch church was erected 
about 1720 and a second edifice was 
built in 1829 on the original site (de- 
molished last January); in the same 
year a chapel was opened in Williams- 
burgh. In 1810, the town contained the 
Reformed Dutch Church edifice in the 
village, a Methodist meeting house in 
the Williamsburgh region, two tida 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



27 



mills, two schoolhouses and two tav- 
erns. The taxable property was valued 
at $263,025; the population was 798; in 
1835, 3,341, and in 1840, 6,389, including 
Williamsburgh. In 1827, the village of 
W'illlamsburgh was incorporated; this 
community was separated from Bush- 
wick in 1840 and incorporated as a 
town. The City of Williamsburg'h 
came into existence in 1852. 

Of the old farmhouses, the oldest 
still standing is the Duryea house on 
Meeker avenue, near Newtown Creek; 
the Conselyea in Bushwick village, 
erected prior to 1700, has been taken 
down. Other old buildings were the 
Skillman house, the two Devoe houses 
on the Woodpoint road, where also 
stood the Mansion House, built by 
Theodorus Polhemus, and the Debe- 
voise house, both erected before the 
Revolution. At the Crossroads settle- 
ment, the former Kruis-pad, was the 
Whaley house and Rapalye's Tavern. 
In Williamsburgh, the Miller house 
stood on the site of the blockhouse up- 
on the Kijkuit; it was taken down in 
1860; the Fountain Inn was situated 
near Grand Street Ferry; near Union 
avenue was the house of Jan de Swede, 
who lived here before the land was 



avenue and Woodbine street; it was 
taken down about 1901. 

The original cemetery on the Wood- 
point road was abandoned in 1879; a 
churchyard, surrounding the Dutch 
church had been established in 1814; 
there were family burial places on 
many of the farms. 

The Bushwick Ferry was started by 
James Hazard in 1797, a rowboat being 
operated between Hazard's farm on 
Corlear's Hook and the Fountain Inn 
on the Long Island side. WoodhuU's 
Ferry was started a few years later; 
Morrell's Ferry in 1812. The Will- 
iamsburgh Ferry was incorporated in 
1824: the Peck Slip Ferry was establish- 
ed in 1836; tlie Hou.ston Street Ferry 
in 1840; the Greenpoint Ferry to Tenth 
street, Manhattan, in 1853. The ferry 
which had been operated for some 
years from Calvary Cemetery to Twen- 
ty-third street was also transferred to 
Greenpoint avenue in 1857; the James 
Slip Ferry, running from .South Tenth 
street, was established in 1857. In 1860, 
the Roosevelt Street Ferry began to 
run a boat to Williamsburgh. The 
Broadway Ferry to Twenty-third 
street was opened in 1885, and some 



The water flowing into this reservoir 
comes from a chain of lakes and creeka 
scattered over the towns of Hempstead 
and Jamaica. Near the eastern ex- 
tremity of this chain was a railroad 
station of the old South Side Railroad, 
called Ridgewood, twenty-seven miles 
distant from Brooklyn and close to the 
Oyster Bay town line. From the fact 
that the Aqueduct and canal, as they 
were laid out, when the great enter- 
prise was commenced, started in the 
Ridgewood tract, the reservoir con- 
structed upon the Cypress Hills be- 
came known as the Ridgewood Reser- 
voir and the thinly settled neighbor- 
hood in its rear as Ridgewood. Thus 
the reservoir received its name not 
from being located near the Ridge- 
wood settlement, but the settlement 
received its name from being located 
near the reservoir. A few years before 
the latter was built, another settlement 
had been started near the northern 
entrance of the Cemetery of the Ever- 
greens, which was named South Will- 
iamsburgh. This being the most com- 
pact neighborhood, the name Ridge- 
wood was gradually applied to it and 
when a large area was later embraced 




BUSHWICK CHURCH AND TOWN HOUSE A CENTUKY AGO. 
The View of the Church Is Taken From Long Island Miscellanies and the View of the Town House From the Brooklyn Manual of 1868. 



bought from the Indians. In Green- 
point Dirck Volkertse, the Noorman 
had built a stone house on the shore 
of Bushwick Creek, which later was 
named after him "Noorman's Kil"; 
Dirck was also one of the early set- 
tlers. The Provoost house was de- 
.'troyed by Are about 1832. Abraham 
Jansen erected a mill in 1664 on New- 
town Creek, near Bushwick village, 
and on its site was "Masters' Mill," 
standing until a half century ago; 
Schenck's Mill was nearby. The 
Schenck family burial ground is near 
the site of the mill, on the former 
Wyekoff farm. The Wyckoff house 
is located on Flushing avenue, near 
Cypress avenue; there are several 
other old houses on this farm. The 
Suydam house, built about 1700 and 
formerly owned by Leffert Lefferts, 
was situated on the Old Bushwick road 
on the corner now known as Evergreen 



years later boats were run to For- 
ty-second street. 

The Ridgewood section in Queens 
Borough is the territory over which a 
legal flght was carried on for more 
than a century between the towns of 
Bushwick and Newtown. By granting 
the New Lotts of Bushwick to the 
town, Stuyvesant had made the present 
Ridgewood section apparently a part 
of Bushwick; still when in 1769 the dis- 
pute was settled, the tract was decided 
to be a part of the town of Newtown. 
However, today the section is most 
intimately connected with the upper 
part of the former town of Bushwick, 
and in considering the Ridgewood sec- 
tion the territory situated in Kings 
and Queens Counties must be taken as 
a unit. The name came into use here 
when a small settlement sprang up in 
Queens County near the Ridgewood 
Reservoir, about a halt century ago. 



under the designation Ridgewood, this 
part became known as Evergreen, as 
most of its denizens were in some way 
connected with the Cemetery of the 
Evergreens, as florists, laborers, etc. 
The name Ridgewood was now identi- 
fied with a large tract in Queens Coun- 
ty and with a considerable part of 
the Eastern District of Brooklyn and 
the old South Side Railroad station 
became known as Wantagh, its name 
having been changed in 1891, at the 
request of its inhabitants. 

TOWN OF NEWTOWN. 

(Including the later Long Island City). 
Part of this town was set off in 1870 
and incorporated a city under the name 
of Long Island City. The Indians called 
the territory of the greater part of the 
town, i. e.: the eastern portion, "Wan- 



28 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



dewenock," meaning "the fine land be 
tween the long streams," viz., Flushing 
and Newtown creeks. The Mispat band 
had their village on the head of Mispat 
Kil, or Newtown Creek. When the 
Rockaways sold the land to the settlers 
of Middelburgh in 1656, they reserved 
"a tract of upland, lying under the 
hills, southward from the town place, 
now seated," as hunting ground. The 
west branch of Mispat KlI was called 
Quandoequareus, 1. e., "at the further- 
most branch of the long tidal stream." 
In 1640 the Rev. Francis Doughty 
was granted the so-called Mispat pat- 
ent, including nearly all the territory 
of the town; he and his associates 
found on their arrival two or three 
squatters on the ground. In the Indian 
War of 1643 the Mispat settlement, hav- 
ing then more than eighty inhabitants, 
was wiped out. At this time, lands were 
taken up at the junction of Newtown 
Creek and the Dutch Kills Creek, at 
Kanapaukab; i. e., "the Bears' water- 
land." On the east side of Kanapaukah 
Kil, or Dutch Kills Creek, was Rich- 
ard Brutnell's •plantation, deeded to 
him in 1643; it came later in the posses- 
sion of William Herrick. Herrlck's 
widow married Thomas Wandell, who 
was living on the Bushwick shore of 
Newtown Creek as far back as 1648. 
Wandell enlarged the property by pur- 
chase and it became later known as the 
Alsop farm. The Alsop house, erected 
by Wandell In 1665, was destroyed In 
1879. On the west side of the Kana- 
paukah, lands were granted to Tymen 
Jansen and Burger Jorissen in 1643, and 
to .Jan Jansen in 1647. Dominie's Hook 
received its name from its owner, 
Dominie Everardus Bogardus of the 
Church in the Fort on Manhattan 
Island, the son-in-law of Tymen Jansen, 
as early as 1643. This tract, known as 
"The Old Farm," consisted of 212 acres; 
it was purchased in 1697 by Captain 
Peter Pra, who lived then on the Bush- 
wick shore of Newtown Creek. The 
captain's granddaughter married Cap- 
tain George Hunter, and from him the 
"point" received the name "Hunter's 
Point." Hunter's wife died in 1833, and 
two years later the farm was sold and 
the old homestead disappeared. Brou- 
card Burgon, or Bragaw, a French 
Huguenot, who emigrated from Mann- 
heim, in the Palatinate on the Rhine, 
in 1675, settled at Sunnyside in 1688, 
after having sold his farm in Bushwick 
and after a short residence on Staten 
Island. He erected a gristmill; in 1757 
the farm came into the possession of 
Isaac Bragaw, who erected the house 
on Jackson and Skillman avenues, near 
the present Queensboro Bridge Plaza; 
it was taken down in 1912. After sev- 
eral changes the land came into the 
Payntar family in 1831. The Debevolse 
house on Hill street, near Anable 
street, was destroyed bv fire about 
1909; among the other old houses are 
the Van Pelt, Stevens, Gosman, Dur- 
yea and Washington houses. 

At Ravenswood, formerly called the 
waterside. John Delafield erected in 1792 
the mansion known as "Sunswick"; 
the Blackwell homestead on Webster 
avenue, near the river, was built in 
1664. About 1834 the corporation of the 
City of New York erected buildings for 
a poorfarm at Ravenswood, which 
were sold in 1847, when the institutions 
were transplanted to the islands in the 
river; the owner leased the buildings 
to the Commission of Emigration for a 
ship-fever-hospital, etc. After many in- 
effective protests, the citizens de- 
stroyed the buildings. Ravenswood was 
connected with New York City a half 
century ago by stages running via As- 
toria and Eighty-sixth street, or Hell 
Gate Ferry, to Chatham Square. 

William Hallett, born in Dorsetshire, 
England about 1616. received a grant 
for 160 acres at Hellgate in 1652, for- 
merly In possession of Jacques Bentyn, 



the site of the later Astoria village. In 
1655 his house and outbuildings were 
destroyed during the Indian uprismg, 
and he removed to Flushing; later he 
settled again in this section. A small 
shell heap was at Sandford's Point, op- 
posite the north end of Blackwell's 
Island, showing that the Indians had 
a village there. There were early, as 
well as later, relics. A blockhouse was 
built at Hellgate during the Revolu- 
tion, and a water battery, "Fort Ste- 
vens," during the War of 1812. The 
Woolsey mansion, opposite East Nine- 
ty-sixth street, Manhattan, was erected 
about 1726; other old houses are the 
Barclay mansion, on the Shore Road, 
and the Rapelje mansion. Patents for 
five small plantations of about 50 acres 
each and extending from the river to 
the great swamp, or Lubberts' swamp, 
were granted about 1653; they were 
later purchased by Homer Lawrence, 
who also obtained a patent for the ad- 
Joining "Round Island." in 1665. Round 
Island is now known as Berrian's 
Island, and contains 12 acres. The 
Greenhook, later known as the G. M. 
Woolsey farm, was granted to Jean 
Gerardse in 1653, and in the same year 




THE OLD BAY TAVERN ON THE 
POOR-BOWERY. 



the later Dr. Ditmars farm, to PhlllE 
Gerardse, and the later Polhemus es- 
tate, to Tenen Craye. In 1654 Anneke 
Jans, the widow of Dominie Bogardus, 
obtained an additional patent on Pot 
Cove. 

Abraham Rycken, or de Rycke, had 
received in 1638 a large grant of land 
In Bushwick. He obtained another 
grant in 1654 at the "Poor Bowery," 
which had originally been granted to 
the Dutch Church on Manhattan Island 
for an "armen bouwery" — that is, a 
poor farm. Abraham Rycken died in 
1689; his son Abraham enlarged the 
property; the family burial place Is on 
Bowery Bay, near the site of the house 
erected by the younger Rycken. Hen- 
drick Rycken, a grandson of the orig- 
inal settler, removed to Hallett's Cove 
prior to the Revolution, and bought 
the sawmill on Sunswick Creek. The 
foundation of the gristmill at the 
mouth of the Sackhigneyah stream was 
laid by Cornelius Luyster in 1668. 
Thomas B. Jackson bought the mill 
property on "Fishpoint" in 1835, and 
erected a gristmill on the old founda- 
tions. Sack-ig-naiag means a "point of 
land near the mouth of a stream." 
Riker's Island, containing 50 acres, and 
formerly known as Hewlett's Island, 
from its being the residence of George 
Hewlett, was conferred to Guysbert 
Rycken in 1667. The Rev. Francis 
Doughty, the leader in the original 
Mispat settlement, conferred his bouw- 
ery on Flushing Bay, at Stevens Point, 
on his daughter Mary at her marriage 
in 1645 to Dr. Adrian Van der Donck, 
who obtained a patent for it in 1648. 
About three years later, Thomas Ste- 
venson, an Englishman, living at 
Flushing, removed to this farm as 
tenant for Van der Donck, and after 
the departure of the latter to Holland, 
where he died, Stevenson obtained a 
patent from Stuyvesant, conferring 
these premises to himself. To this farm 



belonged original y, a wooded eminence 
of twelve acres, lymg on the Fi"shin| 
Meadows; this was named \onkers 
Island, after Van der Donck who was 
called "de Jonker." or "Joni^^-^^^^^J^ 
place was also known as St. R?°a-n 3 
Well," and In later years, when it was 
a favorite place for picnic excursions, 
It was called "Snake Hill." 

After the Mispat settlement had been 
destroyed by the Indians, a new set- 
tlement was commenced by some Eng- 
lishmen from New England; the old 
Mispat or English Kills settlement was 
located where Maspeth Is today; the 
new place was midway between the 
old site and Flushing, along a meadow 
from which creeks flowed into Newtown 
Creek and Flushing Creek. Here they 
settled in 1651, and named the place Mid- 
delburgh, the "village midway be- 
tween"; in 1662 the name was changed 
to Hastings, and later to Newtown. 

Another settlement was made in 
1655 on Smith's Island, the later Mas- 
peth Island, or Furman's Island, in 
Newtown Creek. This settlement, 
named New Arnheim, was broken up 
by the Dutch Governor, as being detri- 
mental to Boswijck village, laid out 
by Stuyvesant near by. Major Daniei 
Whitehead testified in court in li04 
that at the time of the coming of Gov- 
ernor Nicolls, his father and he, then 
living at "Mespatt Kills," which then 
did not belong to Newtown, chose dep- 
uties to the Assembly at Hempstead 
in 1665, as other towns did. When 
Yorkshire was created at this Assem- 
bly, the former Middelburgh, then 
called "Hastings," was Included In the 
West Riding under the name of "the 
new towne," being enlarged by the out- 
plantations, comprising the Poor Bow- 
ery, Hellgate Neck, the English Kills, 
the Dutch Kills, etc. 

In 1670 a town house was erected on 
the site now occupied by the Fish 
House, on Grand Street and Hoffman 
Boulevard. In this building the serv- 
ices of the Presbyterian Church were 
held, the church having been organ- 
ized in 1651, until a church edifice was 
erected in 1717. This was used as a 
guardhouse and hospital by the British 
while they occupied Newtown, from 
1776 to 1783, and was finally demolished. 
On the same site a new edifice was 
erected in 1787, which was enlarged In 
1836; it is now used for Sunday school 
purposes. Opposite this old frame 
structure a stone church was opened 
for service, in 1895. The Dutch church 
was organized in 1704, and an edifice 
was erected in 1732; this building was 
used by the British for a powder maga- 
zine; it was taken down in 1832, and a 
new one erected. The Protestant Epls- 
' copal Church was organized in 1731. 
Jonathan Fish joined the Middel- 
burgh settlement In 1659; his grandson, 
Jonathan Fish, built, about 1700, the 
Fishhouse, on the site of the first town- 
house. Samuel Fish, the son of the 
younger Jonathan, kept it as an Inn; 
he also purchased the farm at "Fish 
Point," on Flushing Bay, a part of the 
Luyster farm, or Poor Bowery farm. 
The Palmer, Riker, Luyster, Kowen- 
towen and Jacob Rapalje houses are 
located on this farm. John Moore, who 
died in 1657, was the first minister of 
the town; several "Moorehouses," built 
by his descendants, are to be noted. 
One, a Colonial mansion, Tvas erected 
on the shell road, more than a century 
anterior to the Revolution; another, 
later owned by the Penfold family, and 
a third one, on the Bowery Bay road, 
with the Moore family burial place 
near by. The last-named house was 
the headquarters of Sir Henry Clinton 
after the Battle of Long Island. Cap- 
tain Richard Betts was one of the first 
settlers on the disputed lands along 
the Bushwick boundary. He built his 
house on the old Newtown road, be- 
tween Calvary Cemetery and Maurice 
avenue. The old house on the Bur- 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



29 



rough farm was built long before the 
Revolution by John Burrough, who 
died here in 1750. The Furman house, 
later owned by Jonathan Howard, and 
standing on the road to Flushing, was 
erected at an early date. Willem Van 
Duyn settled in Hempstead Swamp, in 
this town, in 1719; the homestead on 
this farm was later known as the Van- 
derveer farmhouse; Abraham Remsen 
also settled at Hempstead Swamp; his 
son Jeromus bought the farm in 1735; 
the Remsen family burial place is on 
"Van Duyn Hill. Abraham Brinckerhoff 
settled on a large farm on Flushing 
Meadows; the family burial place is on 
Flushing Bay. The Jackson homestead, 
on Jackson avenue, was built a century 
ago. Some months ago an article ap- 
peared in the papers, stating that the 
old house was to be taken down and 
to be re-erected at Sea Bright, N. J. 
At Corona, the Leverich homestead, 
facing the meadow, which is situated 
between Newtown and Flushing, was 
built by Caleb Leverich, who died here 
in 1717. It became later known as the 
Elliott House; its oldest part is said 
to date back as far as 1664; in the de- 
velopment of Elliott Manor, one street 
runs directly through the site of the 
old house. Here, too, the old stone 
house on the Old Mill road, built by 
the Coe family, dates back to the sev- 
enteenth century; its front, facing the 
creek, is built of Holland brick. 

Gideon Hallett, a descendant of 
William Hallett of Hellgate, settled at 
Maspeth; on his farm stood the Quaker 
Meeting House, surrounded by the 
burying ground, iit the Newtown Turn- 
pike and Fresh Pond road. A general 
meeting of Friends in 1724, held at 
Newtown, Is recorded. Indian corn 
grinders, axes and arrowheads were 
often plowed up at the Maspeth 
hills. Governor DeWitt Clinton's house 
is still standing on Flushing and Mas- 
peth avenues, at Maspeth. It was the 



home of Judge Joseph Sackett, who 
died about 1756; then Walter Franklin, 
a New York merchant, occupied it un- 
til his death in 1780. After him his 
brother-in-law. Colonel Isaac Corsa, re- 
sided here. DeWitt Clinton's wife was 
the daughter of Franklin and a niece 
it Colonel Corsa. 

Middle Village was the site of the 
first Methodist church on Long Island; 
it was built in 1785. Prime mentions it 
in 1845 as still standing, though con- 
verted into a dwelling. The Williams- 
burgh and Jamaica Turnpike was built 
about 1813, and a toUgate was erected 
at what is now East Williamsburg. 
John Culver lived here in 1790. Francis 
Titus had a farmhouse before the 
Revolution, on the site of the later 
Schumacher's Hotel; the White farm 
existed as a farm since about 1700; 
John Cozine was one of the earliest 
settlers in this neighborhood. The 
cemeteries of the Evergreens and 
Cypress Hills are situated upon the 
elevation known as Green Hills, or 
Cypress Hills, partly in Kings County 
and partly in Queens County. The 
general act referring to cemeteries for- 
bids these establishments to hold more 
than 250 acres of land in one county, 
and hence these two cemeteries vyere 
laid out in two counties. A special act 
allows Cypress Hills to hold 100 acres 
more in Queens County. The town had 
a population of 2,437 in 1810. 



TOWN OF FLUSHING. 

The Matinecoc had a village at the 
place where some Englishmen settled 
in 1644; these men had formerly re- 
sided at Vlissingen in the Netherlands, 
and bestowed upon the new settlement 
the name of their old home, which 
name was in later times Anglicized 
into Flushing. The settlers erected a 
block house near the pond, at a point 



later known as Union street and 
Broadway; it was a long, low building; 
in it wei-e kept the town records; also 
arms and ammunition were there in 
readiness in case of an attack by In- 
dians or other enemies. The "guard 
house" was further used occasionally 
as a place of public worship by differ- 
ent denominations; also as jail in later 
years. 

A general town patent was granted 
to the settlers on October 10, 1645; 
Flushing is called Newwark in an Eng- 
lish document of 1663-4. The Garrett- 
sen house on Main street was erected 
about 1659; it was used as a hospital 
for soldiers during the Hessian occu- 
pancy, while St. George's Church, 
across the way, served as a stable for 
the horses of the troops quartered in 
the vicinity. The Bowne house was 
built in 1661 and the Friends Meeting- 
house in 1695. In 17S9 the house of the 
town clerk, John Vanderbilt, was de- 
stroyed and with it the town records. 
In the olden days communication with 
Manhattan Island was had by a large 
canoe, which a man, living near the 
shore, had bovight from the Indians at 
Bayside. In ISOl a stage commenced 
to run daily from Flushing through Ja- 
maica and Bedford to Brooklyn Ferry, 
a distance of twenty miles; then a 
bridge was built over Flushing Creek 
and a road and causeway by way of 
Yonkers Island over the salt meadows 
on Flushing Bay; the stages eventually 
ran to Williamsburgh Ferry, a distance 
of eight miles. 

The Duryea house on Fresh Meadow 
was built in 1662, a stone building with 
a low and wide window between the 
ceiling and the roof. Out of this win- 
dow, it is said, a cannon pointed, while 
the house was the headquarters of Hes- 
sian officers during the time the main 
army of the British was lying from 
Whitestone to Jamaica; the house was 
taken down in 1906. The Mitchell 




JACKSON TIDE MILL. 



30 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



homestead was erected long bpfore the 
Revolutionary War; it was the head- 
quarters of Colonel Hamilton, who was 
in command of the Hessians encamped 
in Flushing during the winter of 1779. 
At a ball given by the commander on 
Christmas Eve, the house caught fire 
and burned to the ground: it was re- 
built in the following year and came 
in 1S04 in the possession of Henry Mit- 
chell, whose descendants still own it. 
Cadwallader Colden, while being 
Lieutenant Governor, built a mansion 
upon the Spring Hill farm; here trie 
statesman died in 1776, and was 
buried on the farm. His son, David, 
became an active loyalist and the prop- 
erty was confiscated and sold; it was 
purchased by Walter Burling, who kept 



/ 



^■^^n. 




DURYEA HOUSE, FLUSHING. 



a store on the site of the later Flush- 
ing Hotel. A century ago the village 
consisted of 40 or 50 scattered houses; 
near the Friends Meetingliouse was the 
village pond. The whipping post stood 
nearly opposite the Flushing Hotel; it 
was abolished in ISIO. In 18-13 a little 
village hall was erected, containing ono 
room and four cells beneath it. San- 
ford Hall, on Jamaica avenue, was 
erected by Chancellor Nathan Sanford 
in 1S36 at an expense of $130,000; 
shortly after it was completed the 
owner died and the house stood vacant 
until 1S45, when it was purchased by 
Dr. McDonald and his brother, who re- 
moved their sanitariimi from Murra, 
Hill, in New York City, to this place. 
In the Linnaean gardens eleven skele- 
tons of Indians were uncovered in 1841; 
all the skulls were to the east. In ISSO 
an Indian burying ground was opened 
on Thomas P. Duryea's farm, a mile 
from the village; stone relics were 
found here. 

College Point, formerly called Strat- 
tonport, is the northwestern portion of 
a tract of land which was known as 
Lawrence's Neck or Tew's Neck. The 
neck was named after William Law- 
rence, who resided thereon. John, Will- 
iam and Thomas Lawrence, three 
brothers, were living at Flushing and 
were among the earliest English settlers 
on Long- Island. Thomas, the young- 
est, purchased from the settlers the 
whole of Hellgate Neck and removed 
to that place. John, the eldest, took up 
his residence in New Amsterdam, 
where he died in 1699, aged more than 
80 5'ears. William continued to reside 
in the town of Flushing; his house 
stood on Lawrence's Neck; he died in 
1680. Eliphalet Stratton purchased in 
1790 three hundred and twenty acres 
of land on the neck for £500. About 
1S50 his daughter disposed of one hun- 
dred and forty acres, the site of the 
later village, for the sum of $30,000, re- 
taining the balance of the land in the 
family. Here was located since 1S35 
St. Paul's College, an institution for 
the education of young men for the 
ministry in the Episcopal Church un- 
der the direction of Dr. Muhlenburgh. 
The college was discontinued, but the 
name College Point is still in use. 

Whitestone was settled nearly as 
early as Flushing village; it was first 
named Cookie Hill a.nd later White- 
stone, for a large white rock that lies 
at the point, where the tides of the 
Sound and East River meet; in a docu- 



ment of 1654 this rock is called "de 
witte klip." Here was the house of 
Francis Lewis, the only signer of the 
Declaration of Independence who re- 
sided in Queens County. During the 
popularity of DeWitt Clinton the place 
was known as Clintonville. A century 
ago there were within the circumfer- 
ence of one mile only twelve houses in 
the village. About this time a ferry 
was in existence, running from this 
point to Throgg's Neck in Westchester 
County, mostly used for the convey- 
ance of cattle, a sailboat being em- 
ployed for the purpose. 

Bayside, three miles north of Flush- 
ing village, on the west side of Little 
Neck Bay, was settled soon after 
Flushing. Dr. Rodman settled here; 
he died in 1731. 

The land at Douglass Point was 
owned by Thomas Hicks long before 
the Revolution. He had taken the land 
from the Indians; the latter retired to 
the south side of the island and lo- 
cated in the vicinity of Springfield 
After several changes the property 
passed into the hands of George Doug- 
lass. Prior to 1821 the only road be- 
tween Little Neck and Flu.shing Vil- 
lage was through what was later 
known as "the alley," winding its way 
round about and over hills and increas- 
ing the distance more than two miles 
before reaching its terminus at "the 
lonely barn." In 1824 the road from 
Little Neck Hotel was donated, a 
causeway constructed and a bridge 
bviilt at Wynandt Van Zandt's expense, 
who owned the land just prior to Doug- 
lass. In 1834 the road was turnpiked to 
Roslyn and three years later to Oyster 
Ray; it was known as Flushing and 
North Hempstead Turnpike Road and 
later as Broadway. At the time of the 
arrival of the first settlers in this sec- 
tion an Indian trail existed where now 
the road is; in widening the road to one 
Inundred feet part of the Indian bury- 
ing ground at Little Neck will have to 
be cut off. For two centuries the re- 
mains of Indians have been resting 
here in this litt'e burial place. There 
were many relics and shellbanks about 
Little Neck. Douglass Point was the 
most interesting spot among them. 

In 1.810 the population of the tcwn 
was 2,730. 

TOWN OF JAMAICA. 

The Jamaica band of Indians dwelt 
upon the shores of Rockaway Inlet; 
the territory around Jamaica Bay was 
called Conorasset, i e., the planting 
land of the bears (or Canarsee tribe). 
The first purchase of land was made 
of the Canarsee; part of the town's 
territory was again purchased from 
the Rockaway, who laid claim to the 
eastern portion. Jamaica is the name 
of the original Indian village, corrupted 
from Cha-makou, or in the' Delaware 
dialect, Cha-raeken. In 1656 some Eng- 
lishmen who had formerly lived in 
the New England Colonies, and others 
from Hempstead made a settlement on 
land "beyond the hills by the Zout 
Zee" (i. e.. Salt Sea). Stuyvesant, 
wishing to impress upon these men 
that their "U'andering ought to cease 
Jiow, and that this place was to re- 
main their permanent home, named the 
village "Rustdorp," i. e., place of rest. 
Near the village was a large and deep 
pond, where beavers were plentiful, 
hence its name "Beaver Pond." In Co- 
lonial times a race track was laid 
around its border; in later times the 
pond was drained. The "beaver-path" 
led from the Indian village to the pond. 
Jamaica is called Crafford in an Eng- 
lish document of 1663-4. 

The Presbyterian meeting house, at 
the head of Meetin.ghouse lane, the 
later Union Hall street, was built of 
stone, forty feet square, in the middle 



as a prison by the British in August, 
1776; in 1813 it was taken down. The 
first edifice of the Dutch Church was 
erected in 1715; on its side stood an 
old-fashioned haj'stack; this building 
was torn down in 1833. 

When Queens County was created, 
the courts were transferred from 
Hempstead to Jamaica village and a 
County Court was erected in 1684 ; when 
the building became too small for its 
purposes, and the stone meeting house 
had been erected, the courts were held 
for some years in that edifice. In 1709 
a new courthouse was built and used 
until the seat of justice was removed 
in 1788 to North Hempstead. The first 
building of Union Hall Academy was 
erected in 1791. Increase Carpenter's 
Tavern, in recent vears known as 
Goetze's Hotel, was used as a tavern 
since 1710. The inn was the scene of 
General WoodhuU's capture. The prop- 
erty purchased by Rufus King, in 1805, 
consisted of a roomy house and about 
ninety acres of land, situated a little 
west of the village, on the main road. 
The house fronted .south. At that time 
it stood on a bare field alxiut one hun- 
dred yards back from the road, along 
which ran a white-painted picket fence. 
Rufus King died in New York City in 




STONE MEETING HOUSE, JAMAICA. 



1827, and he was buried by the side of 
his wife, who had died eight years 
prior, in the Jamaica village church- 
yard within sight of his old home. The 
house is still standing and is known as 
King's Manor. 

The town has been at several times 
the seat of Colonial Legislatures. 
Queens was known until 1857 as Brush- 
ville. The remains of a mastodon were 
found in excavating at Baisley's Pond 
in this town in 185t<; they consisted of 
six molar teeth and some small frag- 
ments of bones, blackened, but not 
mineralized. In 1810 the population of 
the town was 2,110. 



TOWN OF HEMPSTEAD. 

(Now Hempstead and North Hemp- 
stead.) 
In 1784 the town of Hempstead was 
divided into North Hempstead and 
South Hempstead. The latter name 
was afterward altered into Hempstead. 
The Rockaway tribe lived about Rock- 
way and Hempstead, scattered over 
the plains, and extending northwest 
through Newtown. Their principal 
village was Rechouwhacky, at "Near 
Rockaway," besides which they had 
another village on Hog's Island in 
Rockaway Bay. At Hempstead pur- 
chases of land from the Rockaway 
tribe were made in 1643 by a company 
of Englishmen. The name of the town 
is supposed by some to have been de- 
rived from Heemstede; i. e., home- 



of the main road, in 1699; it was used stead. Broadhead says it is named 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



31 



after a village on the Island of Schou- 
wen in Zeeland. 

As early as 1640 there was a farm- 
house standing on Cow Harbor, and 
from this fact the bay itself seems to 
have been named Heemsteed Harbor 
before the village of Hempstead was 
established. The name is derived from 
heem (house), farm and steedc (stead), 
place, spot, town. The name of the 
village appears in 1647 as Heemsteede. 

In Hempstead village, near the 
"Burly Pond," the Presbyterian Church 
edifice was erected in 1648, 20 feet 
square. Governor NicoUs convened a 
meeting in this town of delegates from 
the several towns on the Island and 
from Staten Island, in 1665. On this 
occasion the "Duke's Law" was made 
the law of the colony, and It was in 
force until the first Colonial Legislature 
met, in 168.3. 

The mansion of George Duncan Lud- 
low, at Hempstead Plain, later called 
Hyde Pai'k, was one of the largest 
and best houses on the Island. It was 
destroyed by fire in 1773. The loss was 
estimated at £3,000. With it was con- 
sumed a library worth £1,200, which 
must have been a large and valuable 
collection of books in those days. The 
house was immediately rebuilt on the 
old site. Ludlow was one of the 
judges of the Supreme Court of the 
colony. His estate was after a wnlle 
confiscated in consequence of his ad- 
herence to the cause of the British 
during the Revolution. The famous 
English Radical, William Cobbet, re- 
sided here in 1817, when the house was 
again destroyed by fire. 

South of Hyde Park, upon the open 
grounds, known as Salisbury Plains. 
Governor Nicolls established a race 
course in 1665. It was called the New 
Market, and continued to be devoted 
to the sport of the turf for more than 
a century. Between Hyde Park and 
Success Pond 618 acres of land were 
given by the towns of Hempstead and 
Flushing to Governor Dongan, who had 
a country residence here. The Dutch 
Church of the original town of Hemp- 
stead was erected at Success in the 
midst of a settlement of Dutch fami- 
lies in 1732. The place received its 
name from Success Pond. It was 
changed in 18.35 to Lakeville, N. H. 
This edifice never had any heating ap- 
paratus of any kind within its walls 
except the foot-stoves which the farm- 
ers brought along and prepared them 
at the Cornell house, across the road, 
before service. In warm weather, be- 
tween services, they would gather un- 
der an old white oak tree, to eat their 
basket dinner. In 1813 the northern 
part of the congregation withdrew and 
organized a separate church at Man- 
hasset, N. H., where an edifice was 
erected three years later. 

Success Pond, N. H., about 500 rods 
in circumference, and with an average 
depth of 40 feet, was called by the 
Indians "Saccut." Warlike imple- 
ments of the Indians have been found 
here. The pond was stocked by Dr. 
Mitchell, in 1700, with yellow perch 
from Ronkonkoma Pond. The site of 
an old Indian village and a single 
grave were discovered in 188.1, at Port 
Washington, N. H., on Manhasset 
Neck. The name of the neck was for- 
merly Cow Neck. Its Indian name 
was Sint Rink. Manhasset village was 
formerly called Head of Cow Harbor. 
At the most northern part of the neck 
is Sands Point, named after an early 
owner. The Federal Government erect- 
ed a lighthouse here in 1809, built of 
stone, and 80 feet high. It was named 
Mitchell's Lighthouse, in honor of Dr. 
S.-unnel I>. Mitchtll. whose country 
seat. "Plandome." was at Cow Bay. 
Near the lighthouse was formerly a 
rock of immense size, called Kidd'a 
Rock. It was the general belief that 



Captain Kidd had hidden under it some 
of his treasures. 

Roslyn, N. H., was formely known 
as Hempstead Harbor. The old Skill- 
man house is standing upon a little hill 
overlooking the crossroads in the vil- 
lage center. Across the dam is the 
still older Bogart house. This was the 
home of Henry Onderdonck in 1769, who 
established the paper mill here on the 
second of the three ponds whicli ex- 
tend back front Hempstead Harbor. 
Washington visited the mill on his 
journey over the Island and took 
ireakfast at the Bogart house on that 
occasion. He traveled in a quaint 
barouche, drawn by four white horses. 
Not many years ago there was still a 




group of old houses on the slope oppo- 
site the Bogart house. The last one 
to be removed was prominent in the 
village history as "the inn," and in 
later times was known as the Miller 
House. Around the corner, with its 
back door facing the mill pond, is the 
old Thompson house. Part of Roslyn 
was, in 1842, laid out and mapped as 
Montrose village. In this section was 
included the William CuUen Bryant 
property, and other lands on the east- 
ern shore of the harbor. The Bryant 
house, known as "Cedarmere," was 
built by Richard Kirk some twenty-five 
years before the Revolution, and is 
situated on the east bank road, near 
the steamboat landing. It was pur- 
chased by William Cullen Bryant about 
the middle of the last century and was 
partly destroyed by fire about 1901 or 
1902. The old Valr-ntine house near 
the stone bridge, at the depot, was built 
before the Revolution. The Losee 
house was erected in 1757. The flour 
mill was erected about the close of the 
eighteenth century. 

At Westbury, N. H., a Quaker meet- 
ing house was erected at an early 
date. Another one was built at Man- 
hasset in 1720, which was rebuilt in 
1810. 

The courts of this part of the colony 
were originally, for the most part, held 
at Hempstead, where the Governor on 
several occasions ordered meetings of 
the different towns. The A.ssemblv of 
1683 transferred the courts to the vil- 
lage of .lamaica. In 17SS a courthouse 
was built upon the north side of Hemp- 
stead Plains and the courts were re- 
moved thereto. 

St. George's, the Episcopal Church 
at Hempstead village, received a royal 
charter in 1735. Its first building was 
erected a year prior; the present one 
in 1822. The rectory was built in 1793 
The silver communion service, given 
to the church by Queen Anne, is still 
In use. Sammis' Hotel, on Front street, 
in Hempstead village, H.. is an inter- 
esting old structure, said to be two 
centuries old. There is a tradition that 
Washington slept under its roof one 
night. 

Foster Meadow, H., three or fo\ir 
miles south of Hempstead village, 
was settled at an early period. Shortly 
before the Revolution a Presbyterian 
church was erected, which was tal<en 
down bv the British and removed to I 



Jamaica for the construction of bar- 
racks, where it was later destroyed. 
Clinktown, named after an Indian 
chief, who resided here a mile or two 
farther south, on Parsonage Creek, was 
later called Near Rockaway. In the 
graveyard of the old Methodist Church 
are laid at rest the 200 victims of the 
wrecks of the Bristol and Mexico of 
1S36 and 1837. At Far Rockaway the 
Marine Pavilion was erected in 1834, 
seventy rods from the ocean. About 
1730 Governor Martin of the Province 
of Antigua removed to New York 
and built a large mansion on an 
estate of 600 acres at Rockaway Beach. 
It is known now as Rock Hall, and 
came, in 1824, into the possession of the 
Hewlett family. The Merric tribe had 
a village on Hicks Neck. Freeport, H.. 
was formerly known as Raynorstown, 
named after Edward Raynor, the first 
settler. New Bridge, H., was formerly 
called Little Neck. At Meadow Brook, 
H., the old homestead on the Dan. 
Smith farm, built in the early part of 
the nineteenth century, was of the old 
Dutch type. It was destroyed ,by fire 
in 1910. Harbor Hill, N. H., the high- 
est point of the backbone of Long 
Island, is 405 feet above the level of 
the tides. 

In 1810 the population of Hempstead 
was 5,804, and of North Hempstead 
2,750. 

TOWN OF OYSTER BAY. 

The town of Oyster Bay was the bone 
of contention between the Dutch and 
the English, and although the bound- 
ary lines were arranged by the treaty 
of Hartford, the last of Dutch Gover- 
nors never relinquished his claim of 




MONUMENT AT "NEAR ROCKAWAY," 

To the Memory of the Victims of the Wrecks 
of the Bristol and Mexico, 1836-37. 



jurisdiction over the town or any part 
of it until the colony was taken by the 
British. The territory of the town was 
inhabited by the Matinecoc and Massa 
peaque tribes; the Matinecocs occupied 
the north shore. Before the arrival of 
the whites tills tribe had been greatly 
reduced, probably through wars with 
the Mohawks, to whom they paid trib- 



32 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



ute; in 1650 Secretary Van Tienhoven 
reported but fifty families left of the 
once important tribe. The Massa- 
peaques lived on the south shore, with 
tneir main village Marossepinck at Fort 
Neck. 

The Dutch claimed that they had 
begun the settlement of the western 
end of the island as early as 1632 and 
that the territory of the town was a 
part of the western end; the English 
claimed that the Earl of Sterling was 
made the proprietor of the island by 
an order of Charles I, and that he 
gave power to his agent James Farrett 
to dispose of lands upon it. Then in 
1639 b'arrett granted two necks of land 
on both sides of Oyster Bay to one 
Mattiiew Sinderman or Sunderland, a 
sailor, for the consideration of ten 
shillings, in lawful money of England, 
per annum. In the following year Far- 
rett authorized Daniel How and others 
to purchase land around Oyster Bay 
Harbor of the Indians, but the Dutch 
Governor on being informed of this, 
sent some soldiers there to break up 
the settlement. They found six men, 
a woman and an infant on the ground; 
one house had been erected and an- 
other was in course of construction. 
The settlers were brought to the fort 
on Manhattan Island, and, after hav- 
ing signed an agreement to leave the 
place, they were dismissed. Another 
attempt, two years later, had a similar 
fate. The treaty of Hartford made 
the westernmost part of the harbor the 
boundary, the line running straight to 
the ocean, then the West India Com- 
pany ordered the Dutch Governor to 
erect a fort or blockhouse on the East 
bay in order to more effectually resist 
the encroachment of the English. How- 
ever, the conquest of the colony by the 
latter ended the dispute and although 
the Dutch came once more into pos- 
session for a short time, Peter Stuy- 
vesant had retired to his bouwery on 
Manhattan Island and the fighting 
spirit had departed with him. 

About 1650, when the Hartford treaty 
had given this section of the town to 
the Dutch, they started a settlement, 
m accordance with the order of the 
West India Company to the Governor, 
at a place at Shoobrook, above Beaver 
Swamp, to guard their eastern border. 
The Indians called the spot "Susco's 
wigwam," it being the residence of 
Sachem Susconamon of the Matinecoc; 
the Dutch named the settlement Wol- 
ver Hollow, it is now known as Brook- 
ville. This settlement was claimed by 
Hempstead as part of that town, it is 
located four miles southwest of Oyster 
Bay village. 

Early in the eighteenth century, 
Dutch farmers from Kings and Queens 
Counties removed to this neighborhood 
settling at Wolver Hollow, the present 
Brookville, others at Cedar Swamp, the 
present GlenheajJ, some at Norwich, 
the present East Norwich, some at 
Eastwoods, the present Syosset. In the 
beginning the settlers attended services 
at the Dutch Church in Jamaica, six- 
teen miles distant; in 1732 a church 
was organized, and in the same year 
the rrpsent site of the church at Wol- 
ver Hollow was purchased from Ed- 
mund Wright for the sum of $30; sub- 
scriptions were taken up for the build- 
ing- and when the sum of $800 had been 
raised, the edifice was started. The 
present structure was erected in 1832. 
nnd It was remodeled in 1875: it is a 
frame building, standing in the valley 
of Brookville on a small knoU at the 
jtmction of the crossroads leading to 
Jericho. In back of the edifice are the 
sheds for the horses a^^d wagons, some 
were built in the earliest days, each 
one being- the nronerty of the family 
who huilt it. In 1734 the church was 
associated -with the churches of Ne-w- 
to-wn, Taniaica and Manhawset. it was 
tho ntilv Reformed Church in the town 
until 1871, when the church at L/Ocust 



Valley was organized. The church edi- 
hce, csiimateu lo ue of a value ol ^lo,- 
OUO, will be sold and a chapel will be 
erected at Glenhead, this being a more 
central point just now. 

Oester tiaai; i. e.. Oyster Bay was 
named on account of the fine oysters 
found in this bay; the town is called 
Folstone in an English document of 
1663-64. There were large shellheaps 
near the shores of Oyster Bay; Indian 
cornfields had been abandoned there in 
1650. In 1653 the Kev. William Levericn 
and others, in all ten families, pur- 
chased about twenty thousand acres of 
land in the town from the Indians for 
the consideration of six Indian coats, 
six kettles, six fathoms of wampum, six 
hoes, six hatchets, three pair of stock- 
ings, thirty awl blades or muxes, 
twenty knives, three shirts and peaque 
to the value of £4. When the vessel 
arrived, which brought these settlers 
from Rhode Island, it sailed into 
Hempstead Harbor, which was within 
the Dutch jurisdiction and landed the 
cattle and goods there, because there 
was no house erected on Oyster Bay, 
in which the goods could have been 
received. At that time war prevailed 
between the Dutch and the English in 
Europe and Rhode Island took part 
with the mother country. One George 
Baxter, who was cruising against 
Dutch commerce under a commission 
from Rhode Island, captured the vessel 
while within the Dutch limits and the 
United Colonies had to interfere to 
procure its restoration. 

Glen Cove, known as such since 1834, 
was originally called Mosquetah, later 
Musketo Cove, and at one time Pem- 
broke, but this last name was never 
formally adopted. In 1661 Thomas 
Terry and Samuel Dearing asked for 
permission to settle seven families at 
Hempstead and ten at Matinecock; 
when the last named settlement was 
made, a dispute arose between Hemp- 
stead and the new settlement. Hemp- 
stead claimed the territory as far east 
as "Musceata Coufe," while the line 
laid down by the Sachem Takapousha 
was the western shore of Hempstead 
Harbor. So when .loseph Carpenter 
asked for, and received a grant for 
land on both sides of the river at Mus- 
ceata Coufe to settle there two or 
three plantations and a saw and full- 
ing mill, the constable and overseer of 
Hempstead refused to assist him in 
laving out his gi'ounds, etc. The Court 
of Assizes decided: "That the governor 
has given his grant that Joseph Car- 
penter shall have leave to sit down 
nt 'Musketo Coufe' on the east side of 
Hempstead Harbor, whether belonging 
to Hempstead or not." In 1668 Carpen- 
ter and four others purchased the land 
from Susconamon and Werah. chiefs of 
the Matinecocs. The sawmill erected 
by Carpenter was carried away by a 
freshet in 1699, but his dwelling house 
was standing until about fifty years 
ago. The "Five Proprietors" erected 
their houses on the north side of the 
creek and called the settlement "The 
Place" which name has clung to the 
oldest pajt of the village. At the time 
of the Revolutionary War there were 
but twelve houses at Musketo Cove. 

Dosoris is situated on the Sound, two 
miles north of Glen Cove; the original 
purchase of about one thousand acre.= 
of land was made by Robert Williams 
in the same year when Carpe^iter 
bought his land. Dosoris includes West 
Island and East Island. Williams sold 
the property to Lewis Morris, who 
ogain sold it to Daniel WTiitehead and 
the latter to his son-in-law. John Tay- 
lor. Taylor was in possession in 16''3. 
his daughter married the Rev. Benja- 
min Woolsey. who named the place 
Dosoris, i. e., "dos uxoris," the wife's 
dower. Between Lattingtown and the 
road leading to the Islands are the 
two burial places of the Woolsey 
family. Woolsey used to hold services 



in the Episcopal church at Hempstead, 
riding thither on horseback over Do- 
soris l>aue. The old Woolsey house is 
still standing, the right-hand doorway 
of the wide long hall is the spot, where 
in the time of the Revolutionary War 
the whale boatmen made an unsuc- 
cessful attempt to bang General Na- 
thaniel Coles, rhese marauders infested 
the Long Island Sound, making raids 
on both shores in whaleboats. In 1760 
Captain John Butler purchased East 
Island, he built the first flouring mill 
of Dosoris on the dam between East 
Island and the mainland, his son-in- 
law, Nathaniel Coles, added by pur- 
chase the remainder of the Woolsey 
estate and his four sons erected two 
more mills on the dam between the 
two islands. The first mill was taken 
down and the two others were ae- 
stroyed by fire. 

Bayville was formerly called Oak 
Neck on account of the many large 
oaks here. At Francis Cove, on the 
east side of the neck, the Indians had 
a camping place. At Matinecock land 
■ivas granted, in 1663, to Captain Joun 
Underbill, famous as the Indian killer; 
John Feexe and William I'rost. Three 
years later. Underbill, in a letter to Gov- 
ernor Nicolls, begs to be excused from 
military duty on account of his ad- 
vanced age. He says: "Myself and 
seven other families have farms at 
Matinecock, and are on good terms 
with the Indians there." In 1643 he had 
been the leader of an expedition of 
three yachts which landed at Oyster 
Bay harbor, sent out against the In- 
dians in the later Queens County. One 
hundred and twenty Indians were killed 
and three hundred he had destroyed 
north of the Sound. In 1653 he had at- 
tacked the Massapeaque at I'ort Neck, 
and had killed a number of them. 
Prime says: "The Indians had erected 
this fort on Fort Neck in 1649; it meas- 
ured thirty by fifty yards." Under- 
bill kept possession of the fort to pre- 
vent a reunion of the Indians. In 1667 
the Matinecoc gave Underbill one hun- 
dred and twenty acres of land, which 
he named Killingworth; he died in 1672 
and was buried on his farm. At Ma- 
tinecock is an old Friends academy, 
and directly across the way the meet- 
ing house had been erected in 1725. 
Just beyond the present Locust Valley- 
is Mill Hill, where fortifications were 
built by the British during the Revo- 
lution. At Buckram was the old Cocks 
farm of 250 acres, part of it is the pres- 
ent Piping Rock farm, comprising 100 
acres, with the Cocks homestead 
upon it. 

In Oyster Bay village the Summers 
House on South street Is one of the 
oldest houses, built long before the 
Revolution. The Townsend House on 
Main street, erected in 1740, was the 
quarters of the British officers, Col- 
onel Simcoe and others, during the 
Revolution. On Fort Hill are the re- 
mains of the old fort, then occupied 
by the Hessian soldiers. Part of the 
Youngs House on the Main road is said 
to have been built in 1655 by Thomas 
Youngs. Washington was the guest 
of the house on his journey over the 
island. Near by is the family burial 
place, one of the tombstones bearing 
date of 1720. The first Baptist church 
in the village was erected in 1724. about 
twenty feet square, with a quadrangu- 
lar pointed roof; it was later con- 
verted into a stable. In 1801 a new edi- 
fice was erected near Fort Hill. 

Center Island was sometimes called 
Hog Island, and was in the original 
deed reserved by the Indians, but it 
was soon after purchased by the whites 
and transferred to the town in 1655. 
East Norwich was formerly kno-^vn a- 
Norwich, and was settled in 1680 by 
.Tames and George Thompson. The 
name was altpre-^ ''t the suggestion of 
the postal authorities to distinguifih it 
from another Norwich in this State 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



33 



At Cold Spring Harbor the Indian 
name of the land on the west side of 
the creek was \\ awepex, and Nauha- 
uuatuck on the east side. The latter 
name appears in 1666 as a Matinecoc 
village near the present Cold Spring 
Harbor. The old settlement, East 
Woods, became, later, Woodbury and 
Syosset. Daniel Whitney, who was 
born at Stamford, Conn., in 1758, came 
after the Kexoimiunary War to Long 
Island and settled near Eastwoods; his 
sou Daniel was burn here in the old 
homestead in 1781. The house is to be 
removed from its old site to make it 
possible to straighten the tracks of the 
Long Island Railroad. The Indian 
name of Jericho was Lusam. It was 
also known at one time as Springfield, 
and at auutner time as The J? anus. The 
Friends meeting house was first erected 
in 1689, at which time several families 
of Friends took up their residence here 
and soon after in the neighboring lauds 
about Westbury, in the town of Hemp- 
stead, now North Hempstead. 

The Bethpage tract was purchased 
from the Indians Ijy Thomas Powell.i 
an active Friend from Huntington, in' 
1695, and an additional purchase was 
made by him four years later, A. meet- 
ing house was built in 1742, and a new 
one in 1816. Hardscrabble, now Farm- 
ingdale, was included in this tract. 
Manetto Hill, north of Bethpage. re- 
ceived its name, according to Furman, 
from an Indian tradition concerning a 
spring of water which, having been 
found during a severe drought, was 
considered a "godsend." 

Fort Neck was bought from the Mas- 
.sepeaque in 1693 for £15, by Thomas 
Town.send. who gave the tract to his 
son-in-law. Major Thomas .Tones. The 
Indians had a fort here, a square 
earthwork, surrounded by a ditch. An- 
other place of defense consisted of pal- 
lisadoes .set in the meadow. The tide 
has worn away the meadow and the 
pl.Tce is now covered with water. Be- 



TOWN OF HUNTINGTON. 

(Now Hmitington and Babylon.) 
The four original Long Island tribes 
were distributed as follows: The Nesa- 
quake occupied the northern half of the 
original town of Huntington and also 
Smith town; the Setauket the northern 




half of Brookhaven; the Secatoag oc- 
cupied the southern half of Hunting- 
ton and also Islip, and the Unkechaug 
the southern half of Brookhaven 
Some of the tribes were in a weakene'i 
condition, and this fact explains many 
of the recorded irregularities. 

The Matinecoc removed in 1643 tem- 
porarily to the territory of their neigh- 




tween the beach and the meadow are 
the Squaw Islands. To these the 
squaws and children were sent in time" 
of battle. The Jones homestead on the 
Massepequa stream, and known as the 
old brick house, was erected in 1696. 
It was taken down in 1837. The Fort 
Neck House was built in 1770. The 
population of the town of Oyster Bay 
in 1810 was 4,725. 






bors, the Nesaquake, and later they 
even sold part of that territory to the 
white settlers. Two years after the 
Matinecoc had invaded the Nesaquake 
land the eastern tribes took the four 
tribes under their protection. In 1659 
Wyandance, the Montauk chief, gave 
part of their territory to Lion Gardiner 
and the Nesaquake chiefs gave after- 
ward a release for the land to flar- 
diner. 



If the Matinecoc, Massepeague and 
Merric would have had any claim to 
the territory of the town of Hunting- 
ton, this tract would have been in- 
cluded in the sale to the Dutch made 
by Mechowodt, in 1639, yet the Dutch 
never tried to lay claim to any part 
of this town. 

Babylon was taken in 1872 from the 
Town of Huntington, and was incor- 
porated a distinct township. The ter- 
ritory of the original Town of Himting- 
ton was claimed by the Matinecoc, 
Massapeaque and Secatoa.g: The earliest 
deed for land in this town was issued 
to Governor Eaton of the Colony of 
New Haven, in 1646. The actual set- 
tlement of the town was commenced in 
1653, when a purchase of land was 
made by some men from Massachusetts. 
The name of the town originated from 
the fact that in this first purchase a 
neck of land was reserved by the In- 
dians for the purpose of hunting. In 
the following extracts from a court pro- 
ceeding, the witnesses state that the 
Indians reserved the neck of land for 
their hunting. Hence the name Hunt- 
higton, i c, the l-.unting-town. or the 
town around the hunting-grounds, 
was applied to the original town, which 
comprised six square miles, i, e., the 
land between Cold Spring and East 
Cow Harbor, and extended from the 
Sound to the country road. Of this 
territory, Caumsett, or Horse Neck, the 
later Lloyd's Neck, was excluded, and 
was in 1654 sold by the Indians to three 
men living in Oyster Bay. 

At the General Court of Assizes, held 
at New York City in September, 1665, 
Mr. Leveredge, the attorney for the de- 
fendant in the case, viz.: the Town of 
Huntington, produced an assignment 
from the inhabitants of Oyster Bay 
of all their rights to the land at Hunt- 
ington, etc., bearing date of April 2, 
1653; wherein, he said. Horse Neck is 
included (though not by name men- 
tioned), as not being excepted. Daniel 
Whitehead, one of the first purchasers 
of land at Oyster Bay and Huntington, 
declared that Horse Neck did never be- 
long to either of the towns, it being 
reserved by the Indians at their first 
sales "for hunting," and yet Mr. Lever- 
edge, being told by a chief sachem, 
he wrote to the said Daniel Whitehead, 
to buy it, otherwise, he should not come 
to live at Huntington. Robert Will- 
iams, also one of the first purchasers, 
declared that Horse Neck was excepted 
by the Indians in the first sale, as re- 
served for their hunting, so Oyster 
Bay could not resign, what they had 
not. He said, moreover, that they 
being sensible of their want of title to 
the said neck, he struck a bargain with 
an Indian for it and delivered him a 
coat in part payment, but the Indian 
coming no more, he could not get 
through with his bargain, which after- 
wards Daniel Whitehead did perform. 

Ketanomocke was the name of an 
Inilian village at or near the site of 
Huntington Village, derived from 
Keht anome ohke (principal inside 
pl;ice: i. ■>.. in b;ick of the bay). 

In 1660 the town put herself under 
the jurisdiction of Connecticut, this 
connection was dissolved in 1664, on the 
conquest of New Netherland. A town 
patent was issued in 1666. 

The first church in Huntington Vil- 
lage was organized in 1658. These 
earliest churches on Long Island, out- 
side of the jurisdiction of the Dutch. 
were variously called Presbyterian. 
Independent, Congregational, Puritan, 
etc. The church edifice was erected 
in 1663, a little west of the present site, 
and was enlarged in 1685. In 1715 a 
new building was started, but after a 
beginning had been made, it was taken 
down again and removed to the present 
location, on the corner of Main and 
Spring streets: it was furnished with a 



34 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



bell. In 1777 the British converted the 
church into a military depot, the bell 
was taken away, and though it wa.=) 
afterwards restored, it had been so in- 
jured as to be useless. In 1782 Count 
Rumford, who was then in command o£ 
the troops, had the building torn down 
and the timber was used to erect bar- 
racks for the troops in the center of the 
cemetery; the graves were leveled and 
the tombstones used for building the 
fireplaces and ovens for baking pur- 
poses. The remains of the Britisn 
fortifications, made then, are still to be 
seen. Some of the tombstones in the 
cemetery date back to the seventeenth 
century. A new church edifice was 
constructed in 1784; the manse was 
built nearly a century ago. The first 
building of St. John's Episcopal Church 
was erected in 1750, the Silas Wood 
House is said to be over two centuries 
old; the Lefferts homestead, too, is a 
very old structure; the Chichester 
homestead gave shelter to Nathan 
Hale. ■■^* 

Lloyd's Neck, formerly called Horse 
Neck, contains 2,849 acres of land, and 
is situated between Cold Spring and 
Huntington harbors; wigwams and 
shellbanks were frequent along the west 
shore. The neck, called by the Indians 
"Caumsett," was purchased in 1654 from 
Eatiocan, the Sagamore of Cow Har- 
bor; twenty- four years later James 
Lloyd of Boston became the owner, and 
from him the neck received its present 
name. Under the name of "Queens 
Village," the neck was made an inde- 
pendent plantation or manor (English 
fashion) in 1685, but in 1790 a renewal 
of this privilege of the estate was de- 




FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 
HUNTINGTON. 



nied by the Legislature of the newly- 
established State. The British built 
Fort Franklin, named in honor of the 
Tory Governor of New Jersey, during 
the Revolutionary War here. Lloyd's 
Point Lighthouse marks the entrance 
to the harbor. Lloyd's Neck was 
made part of the Town of Oyster Bay 
in 17SS, but has in later times been 
incorporated with Huntington. 

Eaton's Neck was known as Eaton's 
Manor, and as Gardiner's Neck; it was 
annexed in 17S8, when the town was 
recognized by the law of the State. 
Eaton's Neck Lighthouse was erected 
in 1798; the steamer Lexington was 
destroyed by fire near the neck in 1840. 
The Northport region was formerly 



Great Cow Harbor, and Centerport wan 
Cow Harbor; there is an old mill at 
Northport. The Walt Whitman home- 
stead is located at West Hills. Mel- 
ville was formerly Sweet Hollow, its 
Indian name was Sunsquams. Vernon 
Valley was formerly known as Red 
Hook. 

Babylon Village, B., was originally 
known as Sampawam's Village, and 
existed as a settlement on Sampa- 
wam's Neck long before the Revolution. 




^M;^ 



LEFFERTS HOMESTEAD. HUNTINGTON. 



An Indian deed for the neck was ob- 
tained in 1689 from several Indians, who 
called themselves "the chiefheads of 
the Secatoag." In 1730 a small church 
edifice was erected, it was taken down 
by the British and its timber was used 
for military purposes; in 1784 a new 
building was erected. The oldest part 
of the Conklin homestead at West 
Deer Park, B., is said to have been 
built in the earliest days of the settle- 
ment of old Huntington Town. Castle 
Conklin is situated on Cap Tree Island, 
B.; Havemeyer's Point Inn is on tlw 
Great South Bay, B.; Amityville, B., 
was formerly West Neck; Powell's 
Creek at this place was called "Nar- 
rasketuck." In 1810 the population of 
the Town of Huntington was 4,424, in- 
cluding 53 slaves; the taxable prop- 
erty was valued at $736,350. 



TOWN OF SMITHTOWN. 

Richard Smith, jr., came with his 
father, Richard Smith, sr., from Glou- 
cestershire, England, to Boston in 1630, 
where he married. He settled with his 
father at Taunton, in 1641; he purchas- 
ed a large tract on Narragansett Bay 
and built a trading house at Wickford. 
At various times up to 1659 he acquired 
other large parcels of land. 

In 1654 the war broke out between 
Ninigret and the eastern Long Island 
tribes; in one of his attacks Ninigret 
captured the daughter of Wyandance 
of Montauk. Lion Gardiner restored 
the daughter to the Montauk chief, 
who then gave him in 1659 the Nesa- 
quake lands on the north shore of 
Long Island, for which he received a 
release from the Nesaquake chief 
three years later. 

In 1663, Gardiner sold the Nesaquake 
lands to Richard Smith, jr., who hav- 
ing had differences with his neighbors 
in Rhode Island removed to here and 
purchased in 1665 the remaining part 
of the later town, west of the Nisso- 
quogue River, from the Indians. 

On March 27, 1666, Secretary Matthi- 
as Nicolls sent a letter to the Con- 
stable and Overseers of Seatalcott, 
in which he said: "That upon consider- 
ation of an agreement heretofore made 
between the Coramissioners of His Ma- 
jesty's Colony of Connecticut and Mr. 
Smith of Nesaquake, Governor Nicolls 
has been pleased to confirm the same 
and to grant to Mr. Smith a patent 
for his lands, with the privilege that 
it shall be free from all rates and taxes 



from the first settlement until a cer- 
tain term of years shall be expired, 
as in the patent is expressed. Now his 
honor's meaning therein is that from 
the time of Mr. Smith's arrival here, 
until such a time, the land shall be 
free, so that if your late seizure of any 
beasts for a rate or tax be for any 
such thing, before the time of the Gov- 
ernor's coming, they are not cleared 
by this patent; but if it be for any rate 
since, you are to make return of the 
beasts, or any other goods you have 
seized, and also to forbear doing the 
like in the future." 

On April 3, 1666, Matthias Nicolls 
.sent a letter to Richard Smith, in which 
he states: That since the letter was 
sent by him to the constable and over- 
seers of Seatalcott, the Governor was 
informed that Mr. Smith had not only 
been notified of the tax, levied on his 
property, but that he had also given a 
bond to the officer of the town for 
the payment thereof and he has de- 
creed: "That the time of your lands at 
Nesaquake being freed from rates, 
shall begin only from the day of the 
date of your patent and what you 
have been assessed at before for those 
lands, is to be paid to the oflficers, 
empowered by the law, to receive it; 
and if you go on with your bargain 
with Mr. Delavall, about the two 
horses, you were treating about, and 
draw a bill upon him for so much as 
your rate amounts to, he will allow 
it; and upon the delivery thereof to 
Mr. Lane, there will be orders taken 
for the return of your oxen. I am, 
moreover, to put you in mind of your 
former engagement before his honor, 
to contribute to the allowance of the 
Minister of Seatalcott until you shall 
otherwise be provided what will be 
expected from you." 

On April 5, 1666, Francis Mancy, 
constable, and Daniel Lane, one of the 
overseers of Seatalcott, and Richard 
Smith, being called before the Gov- 
ernor, agreed: "That the said Richard 
Smith, notwithstanding- any clause or 
circumstance in the patent, lately 
granted by his honor, unto him or any 
former agreement with the commis- 
sioners of His Majesty's colony of 
Hartford, is and shall be lyable to 
pay all rates and levyes according to 
the proportion of his estate at Nesa- 
quake until the day and date of the 
said patent, and likewise that he pay 
towards the maintenance of the minis- 
ter at Seatalcott during the term in 
}'e said patent mentioned, or until he 
shall be otherwise provided, and that 
nothing in the said patent expressed 
shall hinder the said Richard Smith 
from trying his title at Jaw to any 
land, that now is. or hereafter may be 
in question between him and the town 
of Seatalcott or any others." 

In the following March an agreement 
was made between Richard Smith and 
the town of "Brookhaven," by which 
he was to convey to the said town 
all the right, title and interest, which 
he has or claims in and to a certain 
parcel of land, lying within the west 
line of the said town. The town prom- 
ised to reimburse him for all expenses 
and all money laid out by him for the 
town's use. Also for the next year, his 
land shall not be rated or taxed, nor 
any levy be made thereupon toward 
the maintenance of the minister, but 
he shall be wholly excused for the 
said year, the town making good the 
same. 

It appears from the foregoing para- 
graphs that Richard Smith, on the 
strength of the patent granted to him 
by the Commissioners of Connecticut, 
refused to pay part of the rate of the 
town of Seatalcott. His patent guaran- 
teed exemption from taxation for a 
certain number of years, but Seatal- 
cott apportioned a part of the town 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



35 



rate upon a section of his land, which 
they claimed was within their town 
limits, and on his refusal to pay the 
tax, the constable seized some of his 
oxen. 

Probably on the occasion of his meet- 
ing with the town ofiicers of Seatal- 
cott, in the presence of the Governor, 
he coined the word "Bull rider." "Bull" 
denotes a diploma, a decree, given by 
some high authority; "rider" Is an ad- 
ditional clause to a document, in- 
serted after its completion; it Is de- 
rived from the Anglo-Saxon "ridan," 
to oppress, to burden, to lie heavily 
upon. The patent issued by Governor 
Nicols stated that the plantation was 
to be free from taxation for a certain 
number of years from the date of Mr. 
Smith's arrival. Afterward the Gov- 
ernor decreed that the time of freedom 
from the taxation was to begin with 
the date of the patent, granted by him. 
This last clause is what Richard Smith 
termed the "buUrider," and to this 
day his descendants are called Bull- 
Smiths. 

The Matinecoc had retired during the 
war of 1G43 to the territory of the 
Nesaquake tribe. Here the first set- 
tlement was made in 1668 at Nisse- 
quogue on the harbor on the north 
shore; near the point were shellheaps. 
The name of the plantation appears m 
the patent as "Smithfield or Smith- 
town." Smithtown village was also 
known as "Head of the Harbor." 

Richard Smith was buried at Nisse- 
quogue, near his residence. The Pres- 
byterian Church of Smithtown was 
organized about 1698 and the first 
edifice was erected at Nissequogue; 
in 1750 the church was removed 
of Smithtown Branch and here, about 
six feet in the rear of the present 
edifice, the first structure on the new 
site was erected. It was a mere shell 
covered with boards, the shingles and 
rafters were exposed and no plaster 
was on the walls. In 1827 this build- 
ing was removed and was for years 
used as a woolen factory at New Mills; 
the present building is standing about 
100 feet back from the road, the 
churchvard being in front of the edi- 
fice; it was dedicated in 1827, the 
church was regularly organized in 17oj. 
In 1911 the old building located west of 
the church and built about the same 
time, when the first church was erected, 
was removed to another site on the 
Hauppauge roafl. Epenetus Smith, 
who was born in 1724, erected the 
house and occupied it as a tavern from 
about 1750 until his death in 1803; it 
was then used as a dwelling for about 
sixty years. In the early sixties it was 
again" opened as a tavern by Israel 
Whitman, who sub.sequently purchased 
the building; in the early days the 
tavern was the stopping place for the 
second night on the stage trip from 
New York Citv to Sag Harbor; the fare 
from New York City to Smithtown was 
8 shillings. Special terms of court 
were held in a large room in the sec- 
ond story of the tavern. Hauppauge 
or Hoppogue, formerly called "Wheel- 
er's," after an early settler, is an old 
settlement; on the Nissequogue South 
Farm is an old mill. Indian burial 
places were discovered near Fort Sa- 
longa. This fort, also called Fort 
Slongo, was constructed by the Brit- 
ish during the Revolutionary War at 
Tread well's bank; it was captured by a 
party of Americans in 1781, who de- 
stroyed the fortifications and two 
cannon, took twenty-one prisoner?, one 
brass piece, the British colors and a 
quantity of small arras; also ammuni- 
tion, returning without the loss of a 
man. 

In 1810 the population of the town 
was 1592. including seventy-four slaves; 
the taxable valuation amounted to 
$374,209. 



TOWN OF ISLIP 

On September 29, 1650, Nasseconsack, 
"Sachem of Long Island" sold to Ed- 
mond Wood, Jonas Wood, Jeremy 
Wood, Timothy Wood, Daniel White- 
head and Stephen Hudson a tract of 
land, from the Nesaquake River east- 
ward to a river called Memanusack, 
lying on the north side of Long Island; 
and on the south from Connecticut four 
necks westward. 

Jonas Wood, Jeremy Wood and 
Daniel Whitehead went to view the 
four necks of meadow, lying westward 
from Conecticutt River, and there lived 
and old Homes (homos=Narrag.ansett, 




PAPER MILL ON ORIWIE UKE, ISLIP, 
ERECTED 1820. 



an old man) and his son, whose name 
was Wanequaheag, who owned these 
necks, and the purchasers of the land 
told them that Nasseconseke had un- 
dertaken to sell to them these four 
necks and "they seemed very willing." 

The deed covers the land on the north 
side from the east side of Nesaquake 
River to Stony Brook and extending 
across the island, embraced the four 
necks west of Connetquot or NieoUs 
River. Thus a great part of the later 
towns of Smithtown and Islip were sold 
in 1650 to these men, whose names ap- 
pear among the purchasers of Indian 
lands in various towns of Long Island, 
but it seems that they never applied 
for a patent for this tract. 

Nasseconsack was, no doubt, a Nesa- 
quake chief and Wanequaheag a 
.■^ecatoag chief. In 1683 Winnequaneag, 
Indian Sachem of Connetquot (Wane- 
quaheag mentioned in 1650) sold to Wil- 



line. In 1701 he established his perma- 
nent residence at Great Neck. He was 
twice married; in 1693 he married Anna 
Van Rensellaer, daughter of Jeremiah 
Van Rensellaer, and widow of Killian 
Van Rensellaer, one of the heirs of 
the original proprietor of the Manor 
of Rensellaerwyck. In 1704 William 
Nicolls became the proprietor of a tract 
of land on Shelter Island, embracing a 
great part of that island, by the will 
of Giles Sylvester. 

The name Islip was, no doubt, origin- 
ally applied to the Nicolls estate ex- 
clusively, but in course of time to the 
entire town. In a manner similar to 
the one of the Van Rensellaer family, 
the Islip estate was always devised to 
the eldest son, and the Shelter Island 
property to a younger son; and the 
Islip estate remained undivided for 
more than a century. 

William Nicolls died in 1723, his wife 
having died eight years prior. The 
town began to be settled In 16GG, and 
was organized in 1710. 

The Patchoag tribe occupied the land 
east of the Connetquot Brook or Nic- 
olls River, the Secatoag, nearly ex- 
tinct, when the island was first settled 
by the whites, were on the west side 
of the waterway, extending along the 
south coast as far west as Oyster Bay 
Town; their principal village was about 
a mile southwest of the present Islip 
Village, near Olympic. From this point 
are shell heaps westward to the county 
line. 

The neck of land adjoining Skook- 
wams Neck on the east, then known 
as George's Neck, with Port Neck, 
called by the Indians Sequatogue 
Neck, and Oak Neck, alias Oquenock, 
were purchased from the aborigines 
by Thomas and Richard Willett in 
1692. East of these necks, Sagthekoos, 
or Appletree Neck, was patented to 
Stephen Van Cortlandt, in 1697; east 
of this neck was the land granted to 
John Mowbray, in 1708, extending to 
the Oriwie Creek. Mowbray acquired 
this tract of land from the Van Cort- 
landt brothers, who had bought it from 
the Secatoag five years prior, viz, in 1703. 
The land farther east extending to 
Winganhauppauge Creek, or Cham- 
plain's Creek, was granted to Andrew 
Gibb; the tract extending east from 
this point as far as Blue Point, was 
granted to William Nicolls in parts, 
viz., in 1684, 1686 and 1697, also the 
Seal Islands, or Fire Islands, in 1688. 

In 1769 a small church edifice was 
erected by a descendant of Nicolls near 




FIRE ISLAND LIGHTHOUSE. 



liam Nicolls the neck of land between 
the Connetquot and Cantasquntha 
Rivers. 

William Nicolls was the son of 
Matthias Nieolls, who was descended 
from an old family at Islip, Northamp- 
tonshire, England, and he probably ap- 
plied the name of the family's old 
home to his estate here. William 
Nicolls received a patent from Gov- 
ernor Fletcher in 1697, by which his 
several purchases of land in this town 
were confirmed to him, extending from 
Champlain's Creek to the eastern town 



the middle of the town, the later 

St. John's; it was occasionally used 
by the Episcopal Church, though it re- 
mained unblessed by the bishop until 
1843. The paper mill on Oriwie Lake 
was built in 1820; the Fire Island Light- 
house, situated on Fire Island Beach, 
was built in 1858. 

Lake Ronkonkoma is located In the 
northeastern corner of Islip, portions 
of it are within the limits of Brook- 
haven and Smithtown. The lake is 
in the midst of an extensive forest, 
pear-shaped, three miles In clrcumfer- 



36 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EAE^Y DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



ence, and covers a surface of 460 acres. 
Its greatest depth Is 63 feet; great 
quantities of white quartz arrowheads 
have been found on the east side of the 
lalie, they are common eastward. 

In 1810 the population of the town 
of Islip was 885, including 13 slaves, 
the taxable property was valued at 
$211,200. 



TOWN OF BROOKHAVEN. 

The territory of this town on the 
south side was purchased from the 
Patchoag and that on the north side 
from the .Setauket tribe. The last 
named tribe, which occupied the north 
shore from Stony Brook to Wading 
River, sold their last remaming lands 
in 1675. The first settlement in this 
town was made by men from Boston 
in 1655, at a point where the Setau- 
ket had their principal village and it 
was named for that reason Setauket. 
The town was known at first as Setau- 
ket and was organized in 1658. In the 
list of delegates of the several towns to 
the meeting at Hempstead in 1665, this 
town is called Seatalcott, in a docu- 
ment of 1668, Seatalcott alias Brook- 
haven, in another of 1672, Seatalcott 
alias Brook Haven, in 1680 we find a 
record of Seatalcutt South. 

In 1631, the Earl of Warwick, Presi- 
dent of the Council of New England, 
had granted to Lord Say and Seal and 
Lord Brook and several others land on 
the main, extending from Narragansett 
River westward 120 miles along the 
Sound. In 1635 the younger John 
Winthrop brought a number of men to 
Kievifs Hoeck at the mouth of Connecti- 
cut River, and changed the nam« of the 
place to Point Say-Brook in honor of 
the patentees. The settlers tore down 
the Dutch arms, which were found fast- 
ened to a tree. Lion Gardiner, ,vho was 
with them, erected a fort at Say Brook 
and acted as its commander until he 
purchased, in 1639, Manchonock, or the 
Isle of Wight, i. e., Gardiner'."? Island, 
and removed to it. 

On the same patent was another set- 
tlement made in 1638 by men from 
Boston under the leadership of Eaton 
and Davenport. The place, called by 
the Indians Quinnipiack, and by Adri- 
an Block Rodenbergh, i. e.. Red Moun- 
tain, was named New Haven. 

In 1643, the New England Colonies 
formed a confederacy and John Win- 
throp became the presiding commis- 
sioner. The right of Connecticut to set- 
tle colonies on Long Island, which was 
denied by the Dutch, was recognized. 
Say- Brook became a part of Connecti- 
cut in 1644 and in the same year the 
independent plantation of Southamp- 
ton or Southton, on Long Island, was 
taken into the jurisdiction of Connec- 
ticut. Seatalcott, or Setauket, placed 
itself under the protection of Connec- 
ticut in 1659, and became a part of 
that colony in 1662. 

On March 12, 1664, Charles II., by let- 
ters patent, granted the land occupied 
by the Dutch, together with Long Is- 
land, to his brother James, the Duke 
of York. Governor Winthrop, on seeing 
the letters patent, informed the Eng- 
lish on Long Island that Connecticut 
had no longer any claim on the island. 
Silas Wood says: "It seems, however, 
that the colony of Connecticut was 
still desirous of retaining Long Is- 
land under her jurisdiction and the 
several towns on the island, which had 
been connected with that colony, were 
as anxious that this connection .should 
be continued." 

In 1666, John Winthrop purchased a 
tract of land on the south side ex- 
tending from the western limit of the 
town to Carman's River. On occasion 
of a hearing on Indian affairs on No- 
vember 5, 1677, a Patchoag Indian ap- 
peared before Governor Andros and 



said that "Governor Winthrop came 
over upon the island and the speaker's 
people gave him a piece of meadow, he 
being a very good man, but he is 
now dead, and did not buy any upland, 
and the meadow was given to him; 
and yet one Dayton and those of Sea- 
talcott claim both upland and meadow 
and Dayton has built a house upon 
the upland. There is no record that 
Governor Winthrop had ever improved 
the land, still it may be assumed that 
he acquired the land on the south side 
of Long Island for a definite purpose. 

It will be remembered that Winthrop 
had founded Saybrook on the mouth of 
the Connecticut River, in 1635. The 
Narragan.sett River being the eastern 
line of the tract patented to Lord Say 
and Seal and Lord Brook et al. The 
nearest river on the east, outside of 
this tract, was the Mystic River. 

It would seem that Governor Win- 
throp purchased the tract from the 
Patchoag Indians in 1666 for the pur- 
pose of duplicating his enterprise of 
1635, by starting a colony on the south 
side of Long Island, in a neighborhood 
which resembled the site of his New 
England -settlement. To make the re- 
semblance still more real he called the 
waterway Connecticut or Connttquot, 
and the settlement itself Brook Haven. 
The tract of land he named Sayfield on 
the west and Brookfleld on the east. 
The sandbar across the Great South 
Bay "Seal Island," and the creek on 
the east, outside of his tract he called 
Mystic River. 

Brook Haven and Brookfleld remind 
of Lord Brook. Sayfield and Seal Island 
of Lord Say and Seal. The latter had 
in 1660 become a leading member of the 
Committee on Colonies, which was cre- 
ated for the purpose of receiving, hear- 
ing, examining and deliberating upon 
any petition, memorial or other papers 
presented by any persons, respecting 
the plantations in America, and to re- 
port these proceedings to the council 
from time to time. 

There is a village of the name of 
Sayville, just outside the western town 
limit, now within the town of Islip. We 
are told that the village was named 
after Sevilla, a city in .Spain, and that 
the name Sayville came into use 
through an error of the secretary of 
the meeting, at which the name was 
adopted. There is a probability, how- 
ever, that Sayville is the modern form 
of Sayfield, now applied to a distinct 
settlement. Seal Island, we are told, 
was the name given by the Indians to 
Fire Island Beach on account of seals 
having selected the spot for their fa- 
vorite place. The Mystic River we 
know as Mastic or Forge River, in 
course of time the name altered into 
Mastic, may have been applied to the 
neck on which the L^nkechaug had a 
village. The Brook Haven settlement 
was near the mouth of the Connecticut 
River, about the present South Haven. 
The house erected by Davton stood on 
Dayton's Neck, about present Brook- 
haven village and was occupied by 
men engaged in the making of tar. 

Setauket Village, the Sichteyhackv 
Indian village of the Dutch records, is 
situated on both sides of the harbor, 
on the cliffs, overlooking Port Jef- 
ferson, in the hollow. The old ceme- 
tery divides it into East and West Se- 
tauket. In the early days a structure 
was erected in the village, which served 
as Town Hall and church. The first 
Episcopalian Church on Long Island 
was erected here in 1730, having been 
organized five years prior; it was 
named, when built, Christ Church, but 
when Queen Caroline, the wife of 
George II, donated a silver Communion 
service to the church, its name changed 
to Caroline Church; tradition has It 
that the edifice, which is still standing, 
was used as barracks by the Hessians. 

The site of the village of Port Jef- 
ferson was called by the Indians Sou- 



wassett; the first settlers named it 
Drowned Meadow; the present name 
was adopted about seventy years ago. 
The wooded peninsula, forming the 
^astern shore of the village, was called 
by the Puritans "Mount Misery"; 
the place now occupied by Cedar Hill 
Cemetery was named by the Indians 
Cumsewogue. 

The Roe House, built in the first 
quarter of the eighteenth century, 
forms now a part of the Townsend 
House. A grist mill was erected in Se- 
tauket Village in 1690. which was in 
use for about eighty years; before the 
mill was built, the farmers sent their 
grain to Connecticut to have it made 
into flour. Dyker's Neck or Poquot, 
divides the harbors of Setauket and 
Port Jefferson. At Port .leflferson the 
shipbuilding industry was started in 
1797, prior to 'hat the village had but 
flve houses. 

The Indian name of Stony Brook, on 
Smithtown Bay, was Wopowog. Im- 
mense quantities of shells were found 
here. A Methodist church was erected 
at this place in 1817. Mount Sinai was 
formerly known as Old Man's; the In- 
dian name was Xonowantuck. A Con- 
gregational church was erected here in 
1720, which was rebuilt in 1805. Millers 
Place was settled by Andrew Miller, 
about 1659. The oldest part of the 
Miller homestead was built by his 
grandson, William, in 1700. William's 
son built the second section, and his 
grandson the third, in 1816. At Wading 
River are many shellheaps. Eight 
families settled here in 1671. 

Corum. or Coram, is a very old set- 
tlement. A Baptist church was built 
here in 1747. In this neighborhood are 
some of the highest hills in the county. 
Yaphank was called at one time Mill- 
ville. and later Brookfleld. Its present 
name is derived from a creek and neck 
of land at South Haven. The first set- 
tlement of the place dates back over a 
century. There is here an old sawmill. 

Moriches still retains the Indian name 
of the section. At Centre Moriches the 
large Hotel Brooklyn was destroyed by 
fire a few years ago. Mastic is the 
name of a large tract; parts of it were 
know as Sabonock, Necommack, Coos- 
putus, Paterquos. Uncohoug and Mat- 
temav. At Mastic Neck, a short dis- 
tance from Mastic Station, is the reser- 
vation of the Poosepatuek. The tract 
between the Islip line and Heliport was 
purchased from the Indians by Gov- 
ernor Winthrop, in 1666. 

Little Neck, now known as Strong's 
Neck, by the Indians called Minasser- 
oke, on the north shore, was purchased 
bv Colonel William Smith, in 1686. 
Along the south shore Smith acquired, 
in 1691. the large tract of land between 
, the former East Connetquot River — 
I the present Carman's River — and the 
Southampton line. These purchases 
were confirmed under the title of 
"Manor of St. George." Manorville, or 
Manor, received its name from being 
included in this patent as a then al- 
ready existing settlement. The village 
has an old, interesting church. Colonel 
William, called Tangier Smith, built 
the St. George manor house, on Smith's 
Point, on Great South Bay. A third 
structure was erected in 1810; the fam- 
ily burial place is close by. Near 
Smith's Point the British erected a 
stronglv fortified fort, which they 
named "St. George." This fort was 
surprised and taken by a party of 
eighty Americans in 1780. They crossed 
the Long Island Sound from Connecti- 
cut, landing at Old Man's Harbor. 
They marched to Corum, where they 
destroyed 300 tons of hay; then to Fort 
St. George, which was captured with- 
out any loss on the side of the Ameri- 
cans. Over fifty of the enemy were 
made prisoners, and a large amount of 
property was destroyed. Near the fort 
is the house where William Floyd 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENF. 



37 



Smith, one of the signers of the Decla- 
ration of Independence, resided. At 
Fire Place, or Southaven, formerly 
called "The Mills," on account of grist 
and sawmiliir siiuated there, and eigh'' 
miles west of Moriches, a church was 
organized in 1767. 
Bellport, on Occombamack Neck, is 




OLD FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 
SOUTHOLD. 



three miles west of Fire Place. The 
Bell House, built by Captain Bell about 
seventy-flve years ago, is now known 
as Mallard Inn. Patchogue is named 
after the tribe which had its principal 
village here. Besides this one thoy had 
others at Fire Place, Mastic and 
Moriches, the tribe extending then 
from Patchogue to Kastport, along 
the coast. A few mixed bloods 
are still living on the reserva- 
tion of SO acres on the Forge River, 
near Mastic. This reservation was 
ceded by the lord of St. George's 
Manor, Colonel William Smith, to their 
sachem, Toliaccus. The survivors, 
known as Poosepatuck, have no knowl- 
edge of the language nor the customs 
of their ancestors. Elizabeth Joe, their 
woman sachem and last chief, died in 
1832. In 1890 they numbered ten fami- 
lies. They are governed by three 
trustees. 

A Congregational church was built in 
Patchogue in 1767; a second building 
was erected in 1822. Among the land- 
marks are Terry's old gristmill, the 



Old Fields Point, on the north shore, 
was called by the Indians Cometico; a 
lighthouse was built here in 1823. 

Wampmissic was the name given to 
a large tract of swamp land in this 
town. There were wigwams and shell- 
heaps from this town westward, neai 
the shore. 

In 1810 the population of the town 
Was 4.176. including 126 slaves. The 
taxable property was valued at $767,740. 



TOWN OF SOUTHOLD. 

Until 1730 Shelter Island was united 
with Southold, but in that year it was 
set off as a distinct township. River- 
head was taken off In 1792. The pres- 
ent town of Southold includes Fishers 
Island, Plum Island, Robins Island and 
the Gull Islands. The territory east of 
Cutchogue was called by the Indians j 
Yennecock, and by the English North- 
fleet. The land was purchased from the 
Corchaug tribe in 1640 by English set- 
tlers from New Haven, under the lead- 
ership of the Rev. John Youngs. The 
town put itself under the jurisdictioji 
of New Haven in 1648, and later, 'n 
1674. of New York. Southold was orig- 
inally an independent plantation, the 
three towns on the east end of the 
island were styled the Three Planta- 
tions. The Presbyterian Church of 



1,'Homniedieu house. The Horton 
house was erected by Barnabas Hor- 
ton, one of the first settlers. There is 
an Indian burial ground with pottery 
lialf a mile east of the village. Lodge 
sites are on the opposite shore .south- 
ward. A lighthouse was erected on 
Horton's Point. 
The Corchaug tribe had a village at 




MILL ON MATTITUCK CREEK. BUILT BY 
. RICHARD COX. 1820. 



Southold Village was organized by the 
Rev. John Youngs. An edifice was 
erected in 1642. which was used as such 
until 1684, when it was converted into 
a county jail, serving the purpose until 
1725, when the court house and jail 
were built at Riverhead. A new 




HORTON HOUSE, SOUTHOLD. 



Case homestead and the Roe Hotel. 
Blue Point is situated on a neck of 
land southwest of Patchogue. The 
creek west of this point is called Man- 
owtasquott. Near Blue Point, on the 
Merrick Road, is "Ye Anchorage Inn." 



church was erected in 1684 and a third 
structure in 1813. The churchyard wa^ 
established in the earliest days of the 
settlement. The son of the Rev. John 
Youngs built the Youngs house here, 
which is still standing. Close by is tho 




CHAMPLAIN HOUSE, ORIENT. 



Cutchogue. South of this place, on the 
east side of Fort Neck, on Peconic 
Bay, was a fort. The lines of earth are 
distinct and inclose one-half to three- 
fourths of an acre. Lodge sites are 
near the shore, east of Cutchogue. A 
church was erected in the village m 
1732, which was repaired in 1838. 

The territory, including the present 
town of Riverhead, was purchased from 
the Corchaugs in 1649. Mattituck vil- 
lage is two miles west of Cutchogue. 
The old mill here was erected in 1820 
by Richard Cox on the Mattituck 
Creek. The Presbyterian Church was 
organized in 1715 and an edifice was 
erected. A second structure on the 
same site was built in 1830. 

Greenport Village was commenced in 
1827. The site of the village was for- 
merly the Webb farm, which was laid 
,,ut in building lots in 1820. Seventy 
vears ago the place was known as 
Sterling. The house which gave shel- 
ter to Washington one night is still 
standing, now within the village limits. 
The Clarke House on Main street was 
opened as a hotel in 1831. It was 
once the home and hostelry of Sheriff 
Clarke, a magnate of the county. An- 
other old hotel is the Booth House. Long 
Beach Lighthouse marks the entrance 
to Greenport harlior. Lodge sites and 
shellhcaps are along the south shore 
of the point, east of Greenport. East 
Marion was formerly known as Rocky 
Point. , , 

Orient, formerly Oyster Ponds, and 
by the Indians called Poquatuck, is a 




MULFORD HOUSE, ORIENT. 



peninsula, five miles long, and one raile 
broad, containing about 3,000 acres. 
Peter Hallock purchased the land from 
the Indians in 1646. Orient Village is 
situated on the southwestern part of 
the peninsula. The settlement of this 
territory was started in 1647. The 
Champlain House on lower Main street 
was built in 1735, the Mulford House 
in 1666. A lighthouse was erected on 
Orient Point. A little northwest of Orient 



38 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



and between two considerable eleva- 
tions near the Sound is a burial place, 
established by the original settlers and 
filled with graves almost to the very 
summit of the hills, many inscriptions 
dating from the seventeenth century. 
Upon the eastern part of Oyster Ponds 
e. fort was erected during the Revolu- 
tion by a party of American soldiers, 
under the command of Colonel Living- 
ston, for the purpose of preventing the 
landing of British troops upon this 
part of the island. 

Nearly a mile easterly of Oyster 
Point, or Oyster Ponds Point, is Plum 
Island. This island probably received 
its name from a rock which lay upon 
it, in a level field. The rock was quite 
regular in form, rather roundish in 
shape and about ten feet in diameter. 
It stood upon the very edge of another 
larger rock, resting upon a very small 
foundation, and to all appearances it 
would have required but a slight effort 
to throw it off its balance. The rock 
remained in its peculiar position until 
1814, when it was dislodged by a few 
of Commodore Hardy's sailors. The 
island was purchased from the Cor- 
chaug, who called it Manittuwond, by 
Samuel Wyllys of Hartford, in 1659— 
Thompson says 1667 — and a patent for 
It was granted by Governor Andros in 
1675. It is about three miles in length 
and contains 800 acres. A lighthouse 
was erected in 1827 on its eastern end, 
standing upon a hill. It is 34 feet in 
height. The island appears on Van der 
Donck's map, 1656, as Pruym Eyland. 
Plum Gut is called in a Dutch docu- 



ern end as Race Point. Near the 
western end is a sand bluff, called 
Mount Prospect. John Winthrop, the 
later Governor of Connecticut, pur- 
chased the island from the Indians in 
1644. Fisher's Island was made a 
township by patent from Governor 
Nicolls in 1668. For a time it was 
claimed by Connecticut. The first 
lighthouse was built in 1825, the second 
in 1858. This is 150 feet in height. 

The Dumplings are a group of rocks 
in Fishers' Island Sound. A lighthouse 
was erected in 1848 on the North 
Dumpling; it is 25 feet in height; the 
light is 70 feet above the level of the 
water. 

Robins Island, called by the Indians 
.■Vnchannock, contains about 450 acres. 
It was sold by Farrett to Robert Car- 
mand, after whom it was probably 
named, viz., Robert's or Rob's Island. 
Carmand sold the island to Stephen 
Goodyear. 

Between Orient Point and Plum Is- 
land is Plum Gut. Between Plum Is- 
land and Fishers' Island are Great 
Gull Island and Little Gull Island and 
"The Race." This part of the entranc 
of the sound was named The Race on 
account of the swiftness of the cur- 
rent. Great Gull Island contains about 
fifteen acres of land. Little Gull Island 
contains one acre of land. A lighthouse 
was erected on the last mentioned is- 
land in 1806, 56 feet in height. The Gull 
Islands are solid rock. The name was 
probably derived from the Dutch word 
gulletje, i. e., a little codfish, or "a cod- 



lands on Long Island, he was at lib- 
erty to select for his own use 12,000 
acres. He decided to take Shelter Is- 
land and Robins Island, in Peconic 
Bay, both of which came in 1641 into 
the possession of Stephen Goodyear of 
New Haven. Goodyear conveyed the is- 
lands to Thomas Middleton, Thomas 
Rouse, Constant Sylvester and Na- 
thaniel Sylvester for 16 hundredweights 
of good merchantable Muscovado sugar. 

Nathaniel Sylvester married and set- 
tled on Shelter Island in 1653, which 
was then inhabited by the Manhasset 
tribe. Shelter Island was incorporated 
by patent, issued to Constant and Na- 
thaniel Sylvester in 1666 by Governor 
Nicolls; its government was united 
with that of Southold until 1730, when 
the island was organized as a distinct 
township. In 1673 the Dutch Governor 
Colve, after the reconquest of the col- 
ony, proclaimed Middleton and Con- 
stant Sylvester "public enemies of Hol- 
land" and sold their interests in the 
Island; they were bought by Nathaniel 
Sylvester and the purchase money was 
collected by an armed force. Brlnley 
Sylvester erected in 1737 a new manor 
house on the site of the old homestead; 
it is still standing and known as the 
Sylvester house. A church was erected 
in 1733; a new structure on the same 
site was built in 1817. 

During the Revoluti^in the Island was 
stripped of timber for the use of the 
British army and navy, but it partly 
recovered from this injury. Shelter Is- 
land was at one time known as Far- 




mWOTMffi? 



^Ha SOUTH VIEW OF CENTBAX, PART OF RIVERHEAD, 1840. 



ment Pluym Gate. Pruym is the Dutc'n 
word for plum, and pluym is the Dutch 
word for plume or feather. Thus it 
would seem that the Dutch did not 
know the origin of the name of the 
island. Plum Island was at one time 
known as Isle of Patmos. 

Fishers Island was called by the 
Indian.s Munnawtawkit. Captain Ad- 
riaen Block, who visited the island in 
1614 named it Visschers' Bylandt, be- 
cause the Indians, who came to this 
neighborhood at certain seasons for the 
purpose of fishing menhaden, made it 
their headquarters. Its name is a 
translation of the Indian name. The 
island was also called Long Island, 
from its shape. On Lucini's map it 
appears as Isola Langs. Isola is the 
Italian word for Island, and Lange is 
a Dutch word, meaning the long; thus 
■we have Long Island. Fishers Island 
is nearly nine miles in length and has 
a medial width of one mile and con- 
tains 4,000 acres. It is four miles dis- 
tant from Stonington and nine miles 
from New London. The eastern end is 
known as Passquesset, and the west- 



ling." The codlings probably selected 
the waters around these islands for 
their favorite playground. 

Bookum is a small but old settle- 
ment near the south shore. I 

In 1810 the population of the present | 
town of Southold was 2,613, including 
30 slaves; the taxable property was 
valued at $401,300. 



TOWN OF SHELTER ISLAND. 

This town comprehends the island of 
that name in Gardiner's Bay, six miles 
in length and four miles in breadth, 
and containing 8,000 acres of land. Its 
Indian name was "Manhan-sacka-aha- 
quatu-wamock." Manhanset was an- 
other name applied to it by the abo- 
rigines. There were at least four In- 
dian villages on the island; also a fort, 
shell mounds now indicating its site. 
Shelter Island was purchased from the 
Indians by James Farrett in 1637; in 
the power of attorney executed by Wil- 
liam Alexander, Earl of Sterling, to 
Farrett, authorizing him to dispose of 



rett's Island, and afterward as Sylves- 
ter's Island. Cedar Island lies about 
a mile southeast of Shelter Island; Lit- 
tle Pern's Island and Great Ram's Is- 
land are part of Shelter Island; this 
portion probably received its name 
from a point of land upon it, still 
known as Ram's Head. 

In 1810 there were fifty houses on 
Shelter Island, a Presbyterian meeting 
house and a schoolhouse; the popula- 
tion of the town was 329, including 
eight slaves; the taxable property was 
valued at $80,240. 



TOWN OF RIVERHEAD. 

This town was separated from South- 
old in 1792. In 1690 a settlement was 
started at Rlverhead village by John 
Griffin and others, who erected a grist- 
mill at the head of Peconic River, or 
creek, a small stream about two miles 
from Peconic Bay. Hence the name 
Rlverhead. Among the landmarks are 
a Griffin house, the old Peconic Mills, 
the Howell homestead, the eastern por- 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



39 



tlon of which was built by Silas Howell, 
one of the first settlers. 

The Suffolk County Courthouse and 
jail, under one roof, were erected here 
in 1725 at the head of the bay; in 1804 
the hamlet contained ten or twelve 
houses and the courthouse. 

At Bating Hollow, settlement was 
commenced about 1719; the stream 
Wading River, or Wading Brook, was 
called by the Indians Pauquacumsuck. 
Jamesport is situated on Great Peconlc 
Bay; the point of land and the creek 
near by are known as Miamogue, or 
Miamegg. 

In 1810 the population of the town 
■nas 1,711, including 22 slaves; the tax- 
able property was valued at $233,415. 



TOWN OF SOUTHAMPTON. 

Captain How and others, who had 
made an attempt to settle on Oyster 
Bay and had been driven from there by 
the Dutch Governor, came, in looking 
for another site for a settlement upon 
Long Island, to a place on the eastern 
end, which, as our historians claim, 
was called by the Indians Agawam. 
With them came more people, alto- 
gether about forty families, mostly 
from Lynn, Massachusetts. They land- 
ed at North Sea in Peconic Bay in 
1640 and settled three miles southward 
in the woods. In 1648 they decided 
upon a more permanent abode. The 
result was the laying out of Main 
street, Southampton Village, a half 
mile south of the first settlement. 

The first settlers of this town came 
from the New England colonies, in- 
tending to start a plantation on Long 
Island: the name appears on Van der 
Donck's map as "Hampton." Many 
places in England were formerly called 
Hamtun and later Hampton. Orig- 
inally such places were named merely 
"Ham," very insignificant ones "hani- 
iet,' but if they increased in size the 
term 'ton" was affixed to "ham." Ham 
means "an abode," it is used for a 
single estate or a village; "ton" means 
"town," Hamton here is identical with 
the word plantation, as it was the in- 
tent of the settlers to form "a plan- 
tation." Southampton is the South 
Plantation, or "the plantation in the 
South," away from the old home and 
from civilization. 

Easthampton was originally named 
Maidstone, but soon the name was 
changed to Easthampton; i. e., the 
eastern plantation, from its relative sit- 
uation to the older plantation. 

On Van der Donck's map, 1656, ap- 
pears the name "Cromme Gouwe." In 
Dankers & Sluyter'.s Journal, 1679-80, 
we read as follows: 

"The end of Long Island, which is 
144 miles long, runs off low and sandy. 
Continuing east you pass Plum Island, 
which is about 4 miles in length. Be- 
hind the bay of Long Island called the 
Cromn-.e Gouwe (Crooked Bay), there 
are several small islands, Gardiner's 
Island and others." A footnote says 
"Peconic Bay is meant." 

The several bays are not distinctly 
marked on Van der Donck's map. 
Cromme Gouwe very likely should 
read Comme Gouwe. and this name 
may have embraced the entire territory 
of the "Three Plantations." A Dutch 
dictionary of 170S. in the possession of 
the writer, gives the definition of the 
word "Kom" as follows, "an inclosed 
place, where ships may lye safely." A 
modern dictionary gives, "basin" for 
kom, and district or province for goiiw. 
Thus Comme Gouwe or Komme Gouwe 
would denote, "Basin District." The 
Bay of Long Island of the Journal of 
1679-80 is Peconic Bay of today, and 
Shelter Island protects the entrance 
of the basin. Vessels coming from the 
open sea during a storm were in a 
safe harbor after they had reached 
Shelter Island, and from this fact the 



name Shelter Island may have origi- 
nated. 

Orif;inally it was an independent 
plantation. In 1644 the town was re- 
ceived within the jurisdiction of Connec- 
ticut and until 1664 was represented in 
General Court at Hartford. Upon the 
reconquest of the colony by the Dutch 
in 1673 the town again sought a union 
with Connecticut; the request was 
granted, and c^outhampton. Easthamp- 
ton and Southold were erected into a 
county. This condition, however, was 
of a very brief duration. 

A small, temporary church edifice 
was erected in the original settlement 
in 1641; a second building, in the vil- 
lage, in 1651, a third one in 1707, and 
a fourth one in 1843; the last one was 
furnished with 'a bell and clock, while 
formerly a drum had been employed 




SAYRE HOUSE, SOUTHAMPTON. 
Recently Condemned. 



to assemble the people to worship. An 
academy was built near the church in 
1^31, the Sayre House on the main 
street is said to have been built in 1648. 
the Halsey house was erected in 1735, 
the Pelletreau house was the headquar- 
ters of Lord Erskine in 1779; the ruins 
of three forts, erected by him, are 
near by. St. Andrew's-on-the-Dunes, 
the Episcopal church near the ocean 
surf and at the extreme end of Silver 
Lake, was formerly a government lite 
saving station. 

Along the road from Southampton 
village, parallel with the ocean, to- 
ward the east, is an old graveyard 
with tombstones dating 'way back in 
the seventeenth century, which mark 
the resting places of people who once 
dwelt in Cobb and the country around. 
Cobb has today a population of thirty 
people and consists of a few farm- 
houses, all about a century old. This 
district was formerly called Cob's 
Pound. „ ... 

Water Mill, on Mecox Bay, and three 
miles from Southampton, received its 
name from the oldest mill on Long Is- 
land Edward Howell erected in 1644 
a mill on the head of Mill Creek, and 
the old mill in the center of the present 
village, carefully preserved as a relic, 
is most likely a structure, erected in 
later days, on the original site. At 
Bridgehampton the land was called by 
the Indians Saggaponock and Mecocks 
In 1640, when the settlement at North 
Sea was begun, Thomas Topping set- 
tied here. Bridgehampton village was 
sometimes called Bull Head; in 1689 
BrMgehampton and Mecoxe were made 
a distinct parish, when the actual set- 
tlement of the section was started A 
church was erected at Sagg Pond in 
1690, a new edifice was built in 1737 
a mile north of the old site, and a third 

""rhe Shinnecock or Southampton Bay 
iB 10 miles long and 3 to 4 miles wide; 
the Shinnecock lighthouse is standing 
at Ponquogue Neck. The tract between 
Canoe Place and Shinnecock Creek was 
conveyed to the trustees of the town 
by Pompumo, Chico and Maumanum, 
the sachems of the Shinnecock tribe, on 
August 16, 1703, and on the same day 
the trustees leased the lands back to 
the Indians for the term of 1,000 years 
at an annual rent of one ear of corn. 
This land, known as the Shinnecock 



Reservation in the Shinnecock Hills, was 
used as such until 1859, when the hilla 
were sold to a corporation, and the 
remnant of the tribe took vip their 
abode on Shinnecock Neck, east of the 
settlement at the Shinnecock Hills. 
There were scattered shell heaps along 
the shore, an Indian fort and a ceme- 
tery between Southampton and the 
Shinnecock Hills; west of these are nu- 
merous lodge sites for some miles along 
the shore, and also on two small coves 
on the south shore of Peconic Bay. 

At Canoe Place the Peconic Bay and 
Shinnecock Bay are connected by a 
short canal built by the Federal Gov- 
ernment. Niamuck and Merosuck were 
names applied to the isthmus between 
the bays; the Indians carried their 
canoes here from the one bay to the 
other. The Indians had a tradition that 
a canal had been built here once be- 
fore by their ancestors, who construct- 
ed a small ditch between the bays un- 
der the direction of Mongotucksee, or 
Longknife, then the greatest chief of 
the Sinnecox federation. Ye Olde 
Canoe Place Inn is said to have been 
built in 1735 by Jeremiah Culver; it was 
frequented by British soldiers in the 
days of the Revolutionary War. The 
Hercules figure of the ship Ohio, which 
was wrecked on the coast in this re- 
gion, is set up in the grounds surround- 
ing the inn. Near the inn are the ruins 
of an old British fort; also a monu- 
ment erected in the early part of the 
last century to the memory of the Rev. 
Paul Cuffee. the last of the Indian 
preachers; the little church in which 
he used to preach is not far distant. 
At Good Ground some of the boarding 
houses face on Peconic Bay and others 
on Shinnecock Bay; Good Ground is 
the English form of he Indian name 
of the locality; the railroad station is 
called Bay Head. 

Quogue, situated between QuantucK 
Bay and Shinnecock Bay, is one of 
the" oldest places in the town. West- 
hampton village was settled In the lat- 
ter part of the seventeenth century; a 
church was built about 1765, on a point 
called Beaver Dam, standing in the 
midst of a pine forest, with only two 
or three houses in sight; in 1831 it was 
abandoned and another edifice was 
erected at the head of Quantuck Bay. 
The settlement at Beaver Dam today 
consists of an old gristmill and a few 
old houses around it; there is also the 
graveyard, where the first settlers of 
Westliampton are laid at rest. The 
Ramsom Jagger farmhouse is standing 
on a large estate. Near the village 
Is Onek Point, with the summer hotel 
Onek House: the old Dix farm is on 
the ocean; the Howell House is located 
on Westhampton Beach. 

The Shinnecock tribe occupied the 
south coast from Seatuck Cove east- 
ward- manv of them joined the Broth- 
erton Indians in New York State. On 
the reservation, before mentioned, 
which embraces about 750 acres, and is 
situated three miles west of Southamp- 
ton, remain about 150 people. The In- 
dians have intermarried with negroes 
until now their aboriginal character is 
almost obliterated: they have lost all 
the old customs, and but few words of 
their native language survive, even in 
the memory of the oldest among them^ 
although it was more or les;; in us 
sixty or seventy years ago. Nowedo- 
nah,' brother of the noted Wyandanch, 
was one of their chiefs, and on his 
death his sister succeeded him. In De- 
cember, 1876, twenty-eight Shinnecocks 
lost their lives in an nttempt to sav« 
the ship Circassian, which was strand- 
ed off Eastham'-ton, since which time 
a number, especially the younger 
people, have left the reservation and 
became scattered; they have a Presby- 
terian and an Adventist church. 

Tn 1810 the population of the town was 
3,899, Including 61 .slaves: the taxable 
property was valued at $622,210. 



40 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



TOWN OF EASTHAMPTON. 

The Indian deed of the town bears 
the date of 1648, and the marks of the 
four chiefs: Poggatacut of the Manhas- 
set tribe; Wyandanch of the Mianta- 
cutt tribe, Momoveta of the Corchalci 
tribe, and Nowedonali of the Shina- 
coclv tribe. Easthampton is the most 
Eastern town on Long Island and in- 
cludes Gardiner's Island, which was 
purchased in 1639. The town was set- 
tled in 1649, when 35 men, mostly from 
Lynn, Massachusetts, came here, they 
named the settlement Maidstone. It 
was an independent plantation until 
1657, when it put itself under the ju- 
risdiction of Connecticut. However, 
the rigors of the ecclesiastical court of 
this colony caused the Long Island colo- 
nists to secede and Easthampton and 
Southold proffered allegiance to the 
Colony of New York, which was ac- 
cepted in 1674. In 1687 the population 
was 502 including 25 slaves; in 1810 the 
population was 1,484, including 26 slaves; 
in the same year the taxable property 
was valued at $365,600. 

In Easthampton village, first chur'ch 
services were held in a public 
house; a church edifice was erected 
in 1652, which was repaired and en- 
larged in 1673, and again in 1698; a 
new building was reared in 1717, which 
had a bell and clock; this was remod- 
elled in 1S23. The first settlers estab- 
lished a school here, and in 1784 a brick 
building was erected in the center of 
the village, and the institution, the 
first of its kind on the island was in- 
corporated as Clinton Academy; its 
funds raised by subscription among 
the inhabitants, amounted then to 
$2,500. The old village street is shaded 
by glorious old elms; among the land- 
marks are the Gardiner Homestead, 
the Tyler Homestead, the hotel known 
as Osborne House, John Howard 
Fayne's boyhood home; the parsonage, 
in which Lyman Beecher lived when he 
preached in the old church, and the 
old windmill near the village, erected 
in ISOO; an Indian burying ground is 
in the southeastern part of the village. 
In 1810 there were SO houses, the Pres- 
byterian meeting house, the academy 
and two schoolhouses within the vil- 
lage. 

Half way between Easthampton and 
Sag Harbor was "The Sachem's Hole": 
on this spot rested Chief Poggatacut's 
head, when his body was set down on 
the way to the grave in 1651; the hole 
was 1% feet wide and deep, and was 
kept clear by the Indians for nearly 
two centuries, viz., until it was de- 
stroyed when the Easthampton turn- 
pike road was built. 

Sag Harbor is situated on Shelter 
Island Sound; about 1730, a few fisher- 
cottages were erected here. Shortly 
after the Federal Government was or- 
ganized. Sag Harbor was made a port 
of entry, and custom house officers 
were appointed. Henrv P. Deering was 
made Collector of the Port by President 
Washington in 1790. In 1810 the ton- 
nage of the harbor was about 5,000 
tons. The office of Collector of the Port 
of Sag Harbor was abolished in 1913 
and the custom house closed. The first 
church edifice was erected in 1768, with 
a board covering for a roof, which ad- 
mitted the rain; no ceiling or plaster 
was ever put in it. A. new church was 
built in 1817, and a third one in 1843. 
a little distant from the old site on 
the block now bounded bj' Union and 
Latham streets. In ISIO the village 
contained about 80 houses: Oakland 
Cemetery, on South and Suffolk streets, 
was opened in 1840 for burial purposes, 
and was then situated in the midst of 
an oak forest. A large Indian village 
site with graves is at Novae, which is 
regarded as a suburb of Sag Harbor. 
There are several other sites of Indian 
villages in this neighborhood, as Hoyo- 
nock, etc.; at Three Mile Harbor the 



earth is white with shells, which were Great Pond was called by the In- 
used in making wampum. Cedar Island dians Quawnotiwock and covers an area 
lighthouse is standing on Cedar Island of 500 acres, this sheet of water is on 



at the entrance to the port of Sag Har- 
bor, and was built in 1839. 

Gardiner's Island, or the Isle of 
Wight, contains about 3,300 acres of 
land; northeast to northwest it is l^i 
miles; the nearest point to Long Island 
proper is 3 miles. There are shellbanks 
on the west side of the island: the 
first settler was Lyon Gardiner, a na- 



the peninsula Montauk, a tract of land 
of about 9,000 acres, which was con- 
veyed by the Indians to the colonists 
in 1661. There was an Indian fort on 
Nominick Hill, near Neapeague. On 
a hill on the eastern side of Konkhunga- 
nick or Fort Pond was another Indian 
tort, which was still standing in 1661, 
and its outlines were visible until ob- 




JOHN HOWARD PAYNE'S CHILDHOOD 
HOME. EASTHAMPTON. 



tive of Scotland; he bought the island literated in 1898 by Fort Wikoff. The 
from the Indians, who called it Man- detention camp, established at the be- 
ginning of the war with Spain, occu- 
pied a portion of the hill. The Indian 
fort was 180 feet square, with a round 
tower of earth or stone on each cor- 
ner. Fort Pond was the scene of the 
battle between the Narragansett and 
Montauk; the Lebanon Cedar or "Flat 
Top Tree" is supposed to have been a 
mute witness of the bloody struggle; a 
little west of the pond is the old Indian 
burial ground. CuUoden Point, on 
North Neck, helps to make the har- 
bor, the point is named after the Brit- 
ish frigate Culloden, which sank here. 
At Montauk Point, the extreme end of 
the peninsula, a lighthouse, 100 feet 
high, was erected of stone on Turtle 
! Hill by the Federal Government in 1795 
at an expen.se of $25,000. 

Of the Montauk Indians living here. 
King David Pharaoh reigned over two 
families, his own and the Fowlers; he 
died in the 70s. His cousin Stephen 
succeeded him. 

STATISTICS. 

-Although the statistical data are In- 
corporated in the sketches of the sev- 
eral towns, the following list has been 
prepared, giving the population of the 
Long Island towns and counties in 
their relation to the entire Colony of 
New York; also other matter relating 
to different periods in the existence of 
the towns. Special attention has been 
given to the census, etc.. of 1810, to 
enable the reader to compare present- 
day-slatistics of any one of the towns 
with those of a century ago: 

POPULATION OF ITOWNS. 

Including 
Whites. Slaves. Indians. 



chonock; they had a tradition that an 
epidemic had depopulated the island 
some time prior to Gardiner's arrival. 
Gardiner received a grant for it from 
James Farrett; Captain Kidd visited 
this place and buried some treasures 
here, which were taken out of their hid- 
ing place by a commission sent by Gov 
ernor Bellamore after the execution of 
the pirate in 1699, the commi.ssion gave 
a receipt to John Gardiner for the 
goods found. Ram's Island belongs to 
Gardiner's Island; until 1788 Gardiner's 
Island was an independent plantation, 
but was now annexed to the town of 
Easthampton, Lyon Gardiner took 
possession of the island in 1639, ten 
years later, when Easthampton vil- 
lage was settled, he removed to it and 
died in the village in 1683. His son, 
David, about that time mentions, in a 
petition to Governor Dongan, his father 
as the first Englishman who settled in 
the colony of New York. 

Amagansett is a very old settlement, 
three miles east of Easthampton; in 
1810 the village contained twenty 
houses and a schoolhouse; there are 
here some interesting old mills and the 
Sea View House, also an Indian well 
southeast of the village, near the shore. 
Other villages in this town, a century 
ago, were: Wainscott, Accobonuck and 
Northwest, each having about fifteen 
houses and a schoolhouse. 



1687. Easthampton.. 502 25 

1698. Southampton.. 973 235 

1698. Southold S81 41 

1698. Flushing 643 113 

1698. Brooklyn 50? 65 

1698. Bushwick 301 52 

1698. New Utrecht.. 25r< 48 

1698. Flatlands 256 40 

1698. Gravesend 210 17 

1698. Flatbush 476 71 



40 



POPULATION OF COUNTIES. 



-1698- 



Whites. 

New York 4,237 

Kings 1,721 

Queens 3,366 

Suffolk 2,121 

Richmond 654 

Westchester 917 

Albany 1,453 

Orange 200 

Dutchess, 1 

y 1,228 
Ulster, J 



Negroes. 
700 
296 
199 
558 

73 
146 

23 

19 

136 



1703. 
Total. 
4,436 
1,915 
4.392 
3,346 

.504 
1,946 
2 273 

'268 

1,669 



-1723- 



Whites. 
5,886 
1.774 
6,068 
5,266 
1,251 
3,961 
5,693 
1,097 
1,040 

2,357 



Totals 15,897 2,170 

1737. 
Total. 

New York 10,664 

Kings 2.348 

Queens 9.059 

Suffolk 7,923 

Richmond 1,889 

Westchester 6.745 

Albany 10.681 

Orange 2,840 

Dutchess 3.418 

nster 4,870 

Gloucester 

Cumberland 

Totals 60.437 



20,749 34,393 
1756- 



Whites. 

10,768 
1.862 
8,617 
9.245 
1,667 

11,919 

14.805 
4.446 

13,289 
6,605 



Slaves. 
2,272 

845 
2,169 
1,045 

465 
1,338 
2,619 

430 

859 
1,500 



83,223 



13,542 



Slaves 

1,362 

444 

1,123 

975 
255 
448 
808 
147 
43 

566 

6.171 

Whites. 
18,726 

2,461 

8,744 
11,676 

2,253 
18,315 
38.829 

9,430 
21.044 
11,996 

3,935 
715 



1731. 
Total. 

8,622 
2,150 
7,995 
7,675 
1,817 
6,033 
8,573 
1,969 
1,727 

3,728 



-1771- 



50,289 



Slaves. 

3,137 

1,162 

2,236 

1,452 

594 

3,430 

3,877 

662 

1,360 

1,954 

12 

7 



148,124 19,88-? 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



41 



TAXABLE VALUATION OF TOWNS, 
1675. 

i s. (I. 

Easthampton 6,842 16 8 

Southold 10,;i35 10 . . 

Southampton 13,667 16 8 

Hempstead 11,532 19 4 

Jamaica 5,700 .. .. 

Brookhaven 3,065 16 8 

Flatbush 5,079 10 . . 

Brooklyn 5,204 . . . . 

Bushwick 3,174 10 .. 

New Utrecht 2.852 10 .. 

Flatlands 4.00S 10 .. 

MILITIA OF THE PROVINCE OF 
NEW YORK IN 1700. 

Suffolk 614 

Queens ' 601 

Kings 280 

Richmond 152 

New York 684 

Westchester 155 

Ulster and Dutchess 325 

Albany 371 

Total men 3,182 

Men. 

Kings County Militia in 1715 255 

Freeholders of Suffolk Countv in 
1737 328 

The Legislature passed acts in March, 
1788, by which the State of New York 
was divided into sixteen counties, and 
these again into townships. Kings 
County contained six townships. Poii- 
ulation in 1786, 3,986, of which 1,317 were 
negroes. Chief towns were Brooklyn 
and Flatbush. Of the State tax of 
£24,000 were apportioned to Kings 
County £2,000. 

Queens County contained six town- 
ships. Population in 1786, 13,084, of 
which 2,183 were negroes. Chief town, 
.lamaica. State tax, £2,000. 

Suffolk Countv contained eight town- 
ships. Population in 1786, 13,793, of 
which 1.068 were negroes. Chief towns, 
Easthampton and Huntington. State 
tax, £2,000. 

POPULATION, 1810. 

Kings County, 8,303— Brookljn, 4,402; 
Bushwick, 798; Flatbush, 1,159; Flat- 
lands, 517; Gravesend, 520; New 
Utrecht, 907. 

Queens County, 19,336— Flushing, 
2,730; Hempstead, 5,804; .lamaica, 2,110; 
Newtown, 2,437; North Hempstead, 
2,750; Oyster Bay, 4,725. 

Suffolk— Brookhaven, 4,176; East- 
hampton, 1,484; Huntington, 4,424; Islip, 
835; Riverhead, 1,711; Shelter Island, 
329; Smithtown, 1.592; Southampton, 
3,899; Southold, 2,613. 



LONG ISLAND A CENTURY AGO 
(1810). 

KINGS COUNTY— Taxable property 
valued in 1811 at $2,456,061. Population, 
8 303 

Town of Brooklyn— Taxable property 
valued at $1,175,539. Population, 4,402. 
The incorporated village contained 
about 400 houses, three churches, sev- 
eral factories, ropewalks, distilleries 
and the postofHce of the coimty, Bed- 
ford settlement. 

Town of New Utrecht— Taxable prop- 
erty valued at $275,765. Village had 
about 40 houses and church. Popula- 
tion, 907. . , 

Town of Cravesenrl—Taxahle property 
valued at $178,477. Population, 520. Vil- 
lage contained 20 houses, church and 
schoolhouse. 

Town of Flatbush— Taxable property 
valued at $369,118. Pouplation, ],15J. 
Village contained about 100 houses, 
countv buildings, church, academy and 
two schoolhouses. In this town were 
two tidemills and one windmill. 

Town of Flatlands— Taxable property 



valued at $14,039. Population, 517. Vil- 
lage contained about 20 houses an-" 
church; one tidemill in town. 

Town of Bushwick— Taxable property 
valued at $263,025. Population, 798. In 
this town were one church, one chapel, 
two tidemills, two schoolhouses, two 
taverns. Williamsburgh settlement. 

QUEENS COUNTY— Population, 19,- 
336. Six towns and seven postofBces. 

Town of Flushing— Population, 2,730. 
Flushing village. 

Town of Hempstead — Population, 
5,804. Hempstead village and post- 
office, Merricks (postofflce discontinued 
in 1811), Rockaway. 

Town of Jamaica — Population, 2,110. 
Jamaica village and postoffice, three 
churches, academy. 

Town of Newtown— Population, 2,437. 
iSTewtown village, three churches. 

Town of North Hempstead — Popula- 
tion, 2,750. Queens Court House or 
North Hempstead and postofflce. 

Town of Oyster Bay- Population, 
4,725. Oyster Bay Village and post- 
office, Jericho postofflce. 

SUFFOLK COUNTY— Taxable prop- 
erty was valued at $3,742,264 in 1811. 
Population, 21,11,3. Nine towns, 21 post- 
offices. 

Town of Easthampton — Taxable prop- 
erty valued at $305,600. Population. 
1,484, including 26 slaves. Easthampton 
village had 80 houses, one Presbyterian 
Church, one academy and two school- 
houses, Wainscott had 15 houses and 
one schoolhouse. Amagansett had 20 
houses and one schoolhouse. Acco- 
bonuck had 15 houses and one school - 
house. Northwest had 15 houses and 
one schoolhouse. 

Town of Huntington— Taxable prop- 
erty valued at $736,350. Population. 
4.424, including 53 slaves. Huntington 
village, postoffice, academy and two 
churches. Dixhills, postofflce. Babylon, 
postofflce. 

Town of Islip — Taxable property 
valued at $211,200. Population, 885. in- 
cluding 13 slaves. 

Town of Riverhead— Taxable property 
valued at $233,415. Population, l,7n, in- 
cluding 22 slaves. The town was known 
as the capital of Suffolk County, or 
Suffolk Court House. Riverhead, post- 
offlce, 14 houses and county buildings. 
St. George's Manor had 35 families 
Wading River had 30 houses. Baiting 
Hollow had 28 houses. Aquebogue had 
140 houses. The town contained In al' 
270 dwellings, four churches and seven 
schoolhouses. On Peconic Creek were 
three grainmills, four sawmills, two 
fulling mills, etc. 

Town of Brookhaven— Taxable prop- 
erty valued at $767,740. Population, 
4.176, including 126 slaves; nine post- 
offlces. Coram, near the center of the 
town, was the site of town business; 
six Presbyterian Churches and one 
Episcopal Church in this town. 

Postofflces: Brookhaven — Setauket, 
with two churches, two schoolhouses, 
grainmill and town library; Stony 
Brook, Middletown, Patchogue, Fire 
Place, Forge, Drowned Meadov/, Mori- 
ches. 

Town of Shelter Island— Taxable 
property valued at $80,240. Population. 
?29. including eight .slaves. Island of 
Shelter Island, 8,000 acres area; had 50 
dwellings, Presbyterian meeting hous" 
and schoolhouse. Great Hog Neck Is- 
land 3% miles long. 

Town of Smithtown— Taxable prop- 
erty valued at $374,209. Population. 
1,592, including 74 slaves. Villages- 
"The Branch," Presbyterian Church 
schoolhouse and postofflce. "The 
River," some mills. 

Town of Southampton— Taxable prop- 
erty valued ni $622,210. Population, 
3,899, including 61 slaves. Sag Harbor 
was called the metropolis of Suffolk 
County and contained 80 houses, one 
academy, meeting house, etc., on a 
street one mile in length. Five post- 
offlces in town: Sag Harbor, West- 



hampton, Southampton, Brldgehamp- 
ton. Canoe Place. 

Town of Southold— Taxable property 
valued at $401,300. Population, 2,613, in- 
cluding 30 slaves. Matatuc Postoffice 
had 60 families, a street four miles 
lung. Cutchogue had 60 families, meet- 
ing house, schoolhouse. Southold Post- 
offlce had 160 families, meeting hoiise, 
two schoolhouses, on street five miles 
long. Sterling had 60 families. Oyster 
Ponds Village had 70 families, meeting 
house, two schoolhouses. Plum Island 
had 10 families. 



MAP OF NEW YORK HARBOR. 

Map on Page 42. 

(In the Dutch Times.) 

In the upper center of the map is 
the island of Manhattan, on the south- 
ern extremity of the island is Fort 
Amsterdam and the town of Nieuw 
Amsterdam; further north is Sappo- 
iiaiiicke, the pausuiieu tobacco plan- 
tation of Director General Kieft. On 
the east side is a point called "de ver- 
brande meulen" or "the burnt mill," 
the ruin of which was for a long time 
a landmark on Director General Stuy- 
vesant's land; on Corlear's Hook was 
Uie Indian village K^'chtauk. 

"De Noort Rivier' is the name ap- 
plied to the present North River above 
Sappohanicke; the river was thus 
named, because it reached farthest 
north of all the rivsrs in the colony 
of Nieuw Nederland; other names ap- 
plied to this river were Manhattans 
Rivier, Nassau Rivier, de groote 
rivier, Montaigne Rivier, Maurits or 
Mauritius Rivier; the Mohegan called 
it Shatemuck. 

Below Sappohanicke the waterway 
was known as "de kleyne baai," i. e. 
the little bav, in the earlier documents 
it was also called de baai van de Nourt 
Rivier, i. e., the bay of the North 
River. Below the Narrows it was called 
de baai van le hamels-hootden, i. e , 
the bay of the Narrows. Beyond 
Barren Island is de Canarsee baai or 
7out Zee. i. e., the salt bay. From the 
Narrows to Zant Hoeck, 1. e., Sandy 
Hook, extended de groote baai, i. e., 
the Great Bay, also called Port May 
or Godyn's Baai. 

Nootcii Kvlandt, called by the In- 
dians Paggauck, an island of abotit 
fO morgen, is the later Governors 
Island. The name Governor's Island 
came into use about the time of the 
Hevolutionarv War; the name Nooten 
Eylandt was applied on account of the 
abundance of fine nut trees upon it, 
when it became the property ot Di- 
rector General Van Twiller. Cornelius 
Hendricksen and his men. who spent 
the winters of 1614-15 and 1615-16 m the 
colony, probably stayed on Nooten 
Evlandt. Dancker & Sluyter's Journal 
of 1679-80 states that this island was the 
first place the Hollanders ever occupied 
in this bay. ^ , , . 

The Indian name of Ellis Lsland is 
said to have iieen Kicshk; it vas also 
known at various times as Bucking, 
Gibbet's and Brown's Island; on sonie 
maps it is marked Bedloe's Island, 
probably from the fact that it was at 
one tinie the property of one Bedloe, 
together with Love Island; upon it Fort 
Gibson was erected 1841-1844. 

Oester Evlandt, i. e.. Oyster Island, 
called by the Indians Mlnnisais, was 
.-^Iso known ,ns Love Island. Corpora- 
tion Island, Kennedy's Lsland, Gover- 
nor Nlcolls gave it to one Needham, 
who transferred it after a few days to 
Alderman Isaac Bedloe. In 1670, when 
it was the property of Bedloe, and was 
known as Love Island, Governor Love- 
lace made it a city of refuge; upon it 
warrants of arrest were inoperative. 
A fort was built here in the beginning 
of the nineteenth century: on its site 
F'lrt Wood was erected in 1841, now the 
island is known as Bedloe's Island. 



42 



Eagle Library— LONG ISIJ^lND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



The name Oyster Island has been ap- 
plied to several of the islands in this 
neighborhood at various times; they are 
all parts of what was known as the 
Oyster Bank. 

Across the North Elver Is 't kol, the 
present Bergen Neck; this neck was 
shaped like the head and neck of a 
horse; on the part forming the horse's 
head, was a plot of solid land sur- 
rounded by swamp. This peculiar 
feature of the ground, in connection 
with the shape of the piece of land, 
probably caused the Dutch to name the 
neck 't kol. 'T kol 's the white spot on 
the forehead of a black horse; the 
word is also applied to a horse marked 
in this way (blaze). 

Achter Kol, the name given to New- 
ark Bay, denotes "behind the Kol"; the 
bay is also called Pauwe Baal on an 
early map, after the Patroon of Pa- 
vonia. The name Achter Kol has been 
used, In a wider sense, to embrace the 
land west of Arthur Kill and the 
Hackensack River, in fact the land be- 
hind the Kol. 

Kil Aehtor Kol, tiie present Arthur 
Kill or Staten Islani Sound, is the out- 
let or passage of Achter Kol or New- 
ark Bav. 

Kil van Kol is the Kil of the Kol, or 
the present Kill Van KuU; it separates 
't Kol from Staten Island. 
,Oamoenepa or Gamoenipan was 
the name of a village of the Hacken- 
sack on 't Kol, the name denotes 
"where the water remained.' At times 
the entire neck of land is called 
Gamoenepa; in the Revolutionary War 
It was known as Barren Neck; its 
present name is Bergen Neck. The 
name of its southern extremity. Con- 
stable's Point, is still retained. At 
Gamoenepa a village Avas established 
by the Dutch; the present Cominunipaw 
is a corruption of the Indian name. 

Paulus Hoeck is now a part of lower 



Jersey City. Harsimus, Ahasimus or 
Hossemus, the site of a former Indian 
village of the same name, perhaps of 
the Unamie tiibe, was north of Paulus 
Hoeck. Harsimus, denoting "at the 
little spring," was called "the garden 
of the West Indian Company," and 
later "the Duke's farm," i. e., the Duke 
of York's. Above Harsimus was Ho- 
buk, the present Hoboken, and the 
Hopoakanhacking of the Indians, i. e., 
the pipe-making place; here the Indians 
procured the clay for making tobacco 
pipes. 

Weehawk or Ahweehawk is the Wee- 
hawken of today. Bergen village was 
in the center of the neck, at the be- 
ginning of the Tieights. 

Sisakus, Siskakes or Sickakes i. e., 
"rattlesnakes," the present Secaucus, 
was a tract of solid land, surrounded 
by swamp, the Indians called it an 
Island ; on its southern end was "de 
Slangenbergh," the present Snake Hill. 

Newark, alias Milford, Elizabeth 
town, now Elizabeth, Woodbridge and 
Perth Araboy are names of English 
settlements. Amboy is said to come 
from ompaere, denoting "rocky shore." 

De Noort Kil is now known as Hack- 
ensack River, and de Noort West Kil 
as Passaic River; the last named was 
also called Rivier Achter Kol and de 
Kleyne Rivier, i. e., the little river. ] 

Schutters Eylandt was so named 
because the early settlers came here 
to shoot wild fowl, its present name 
is Shooters Island. 

Staaten Eylandt is generally said to 
have been named by Hudson, but this 
belief has no foundation; it was con- 
sidered to be part of the mainland by 
most of the early writers. De Laet 
points out the several islands In the 
harbor, such as Governor Island and 
the lesser islands, like Ellis, Bedloes, 
etc., even Robbins Reef, but does not 



mention Staten Island. The name 
was apparently coined some eighteen 
years after Hudson had come here by 
some Dutchman, who was aware that 
it was an island. This man must have 
been informed by the Indians that in 
the past this piece of land suffered 
greatly by a flood, when pieces of land, 
which had been detached from larger 
bodies, had been driven down the East 
River, became pressed in the Narrows, 
between Long Island and this island. 
They were continually tossed against 
this island, causing it to tremble, and 
the hemmed-in masses of water found 
an outlet by running over the island. 
This man gave to it probably the name 
Stooten Eylandt, i. e., the island which 
was tossed. At the same time Newark 
Bay may have been formed. Oude 
Dorp, i. e., the old village, was the 
first village established on the island, 
to protect the entrance of the inner 
harbor; Nieuwe Dorp was the second 
village. 

De Oost Rivier is the present East 
River; the name Rivier Hellegat seems 
to have embraced the East River and 
Harlem River in the early narratives; 
Adriaen Block called the Ea.st River 
"Hellegat." Vander Donck called the 
East River and Long Island Sound 
combined. East River; he says: "The 
East River connects on both ends with 
the sea." Hellegat, the present Hell 
Gate, denotes gap, hole or opening of 
hell; Deutel Bay, from dertel or dartel, 
denotes the wanton or sportive bay. 

The two Barent islands were named 
after Barent Jansen, who was the 
farmer here in 1639; het Kleyne Barent 
Eylandt is now known as Randall's 
Island; it contained about sixty mor- 
gen of land, and was granted in 16S9 
to one Delaval; later it was known as 
Belle Isle, Talbot Island and Montres- 
sor Island. Hot Groote Barent Eylandt, 




Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



43 



called by the Indians Tenkenas, con- 
tained about 100 morgen ot land; it is 
now known as Ward's Island. 

Minnahanonck, later Varken Ey- 
landt, i.e., Hog Island, also Manning's 
Island, is now known as Blackwell's 
Island. 

The settlements on the Long Island 
side are fully described in the sketches 
of the several towns. 



CONCLUSION 

We have followed the development of 
Long Island from the earliest time 
possible, we had an opportunity to 
see how the Indian tribes, who had 
possession of it in prehistoric times, 
were driven from their old time hunt- 
ing grounds by men of their own race. 
We have followed the growth of the 
struggling isolated colonies on the 
eastern end, as well as of those under 
the rule of the Dutch Governors on the 
western end. We have seen the island ] 
become the property of an English i 
prince, whose rule was interrupted by 
the reconquest of New Netherland byi 
the Dutch. For nearly a century the i 
island was part of a British colonial { 
province; finally it became part ot the i 
sovereign State of New York. I 

The first century in the history of 
the island under these new conditions 
Is marked by a steady, healthy de- 
velopment. Since then a few decades 
have passed, each one surpassing its 
predecessor by far in the development 
of the island. It is now no longer only 
the goal of the wage-earner, whose 
dream it is to own a little home in a' 
healthy neighborhood, but many rnen 
of great means have acquired large 
tracts on Long Island for their coun- 
try homes. These princely estates 



have, as a natural consequence, caused 
vast improvements in roads, railroad 
service, etc. The fact that so many 
men of wealth have selected sites on 
Long Island for their country seats, 
has been the means to convince the 
outside world that this island is all 
that it ever has been claimed to be. 
Its natural beauty, the purity of its 
air and water and other advantages 
are no longer doubted, because these 
men had the choice of all the lands 
surrounding New York City, and Long 
Island received the preference. 

The length of the island is the same 
as when Captain Block sailed along its 
coast, just three centuries ago, but 
the distance has been reduced to a 
minimum, not in miles, to be sure. 
Thanks to our modern means of trav- 
eling, 125 miles have no terror for a 
traveler, an express train can cover the 
distance in two hours. In the book en- 
titled "The Eastern District of Brook- 
lyn" the writer remarked in the pref- 
ace, referring to that locality: "Its fa- 
vorable situation was noticed by Gov- 
ernor Kieft and he acquired the land 
from the Indians at a time when New 
York City was confined to the south- 
ernmost end of Manhattan Island, and 
its great future was foreseen by the 
founders of Williamsburgh a century 
ago. Not every town on Long Island 
can be a next-door neighbor to Man- 
hattan Island, but Nassau County is 
today as close to New York City as 
Kings County was then and sooner or 
later Suffolk County will hold this 
same position. But in bringing far-off 
Suffolk closer the Eastern District 
will gain, as it has gained so far in this 
process." 

Within a few more years a journey 
from Montauk Point to New York City 
will not consume more time than a 
journey from Bushwick to the fort on 
Manhattan Island did in Governor 
Kieft's time. 



The population of the island in 1910 
was: 

Kings County 1,634,351 

Queens County 284,041 

Nassau County: 

Town of Hempstead 44,297 

Town of N. Hempstead.. 17,831 
Town ot Oyster Bay 21,802 

83,930 

Suffolk County: 

Town of Huntington 12,004 

Town of Babylon 9,030 

Town of Islip 18,346 

Town ot Smithtown 7,073 

Town ot Brookhaven 16,737 

Town ot Riverhead 5,345 

Town of Southold 10,577 

Town of Shelter Island.. 1,064 

Town ot Southampton 11,240 

Town ot Easthampton... 4,722 

96,138 

Total 2,098,460 

According to estimates prepared by 
the U. S. Census Office, the population 
will be on July 1. 1914: 
New York State 9,899,761 

New York City: 

Manhattan 2,536,716 

Brooklyn 1,833,696 

Bronx .529.193 

Queens 339,886 

Richmond 94,043 

Total 5,333,539 

The figures for the counties of Nas- 
sau and Suffolk are not given, but can 
be estimated. Long Island would show 
then as follows: 

Kings County 1,833,696 

Queens County 339,885 

Nassau Count v (approximate). 90,000 
Suffolk County " . 105,000 

Total 2,368,582 

These figures show that about 24 per 
cent, ot the inhabitants of the State ot 
New York, and over 40 per cent, of the 
inhabitants of New York City (Bor- 
oughs of Brooklyn and Queens) live on 
Long Island. 



The Eagle Library 



General Index 



A 

Page 

Abraham Jansen 27 

Accobonuck 40, 41 

Achter Kol 42 

Achtervelt 19. 2S 

Agrawam 39 

Ahasimus 42 

Ahweehawk 42 

Albany County 40, 41 

Algonquin tribes 15. 16 

Alley. The 30 

AKsop Farm. 28; house 28 

Amagansett 40, 41 

Amboy 42 

Amersfoort. 20, 21, 25; flat 26 

Amityville 34 

Andros. Governor 36. 38 

Anneke Jans 28 

Anthony Jansen 16. 23. 24 

Anchonnock 38 

Appletree Neck 35 

Aqueboque 41 

Aquehonga Monacknong 16 

Armen Bouwerij 28 

Arthur Kill 42 

Astoria 28 

At the Bay 16.26 

B 

Baai van de HameIs-Hoofden.41 
Baai van de Noort Rlvier....41 

Babylon 33. 34. 41. 43 

Baisley's Pond 30 

Barclay Mansion 28 

Barent Islan3s 42 

Barren Island 16, 26, 41 

Barren Neck 42 

Basin District 39 

Bath 24 

Baiting Hollow 39,41 

Battle of Long Island 28 

Baxter. George 32 

Bay Head 39 

Bay of Long Island 39 

Bay of the Narrows 41 

Bay of the North River... 23. 41 

Bay Ridge 24 

Bayside 29. 30 

Bayville 32 

Bears' Island. 26; planting 
land. the. 30;. the, 16: 

waterland. the 28 

Beaver Dam, 39; Path, 30; 

Pond. 30; Swamp 32 

Bedford. 16. 17. 19, 21; creek.. 19 

Bedloe. Isaac 41 

Bedloe's Island 41, 42 

Beecher, Lyman 40 

Beeren Eylandt 16. 26 

Bellamore, Governor 40 

Bell, Captain 37 

Bell House 37 

Belle Isle 42 

Bellport 36, 37 

Bennett farm house 25 

Bennett house 23 

Bennett. "William Adrianse.l9, 23 

Bentyn 19 

Bentyn, Jacques 2S 

Bergen House. Brooklyn 23 

Bergen House. Flatbush 25 

Bergen Island 26 

Bergen Neck 42 

Bergen Village 42 

Berrian's Island 28 

Bescher. Thomas 17, 21 

Bestevaar 21 

Bethpage 33 

Betts, Captain Richard 28 

Blackwell Homestead 28 

Blackwell's Island 16. 17, 42 

Block. Captain Adriaen.31 38, 42 

Bloom house, Nicholas 23 

Blue Point 35, 37 

Bogardus, Dne Everardus 28 



Page 

Bogart house 31 

Bookum 38 

Booth house 37 

Boswijck 19 

Boswljck Church 26 

Boswijck Court 26 

Boswijck Town 20 

Boswijck Village 20.22.26.28 

Bowery Bay 28 

Bowery Bay Road 28 

Bowne house 29 

Bragaw. Broucard 28 

Bragaw, Israel 28 

Branch, The 41 

Breukelen 19. 20. 21 

Bridgehampton 39. 41 

Brinckerhoff. Abraham 29 

Brinckerhoff family burial 

place 29 

Bristol, ship 81 

Broadway 30 

Broken Land 17 

Bronx Borough 43 

Brookfleld 36 

Brookhaven 18. 33. 34. 36. 41 

Brookhaven, population . 37. 41. 43 

Brookland 20 

Brook. Lord 36 

Brooklyn, Borough of, 

IS. .19. 20, 43 

Brooklyn Church 22 

Brooklyn City 18. 19. 20. 22 

Brooklyn Corporation Seal.... 21 

Brooklyn Ferry 22 

Brooklyn Fire District 22 

Brooklyn Heights 21 

Brooklyn Hotel 36 

Brooklyn population . 20. 23. 40, 41 
Brooklyn Town, ' 

16. 17. 19. 20. 22. 41 

Brooklyn Village 19. 22 

Brookville 32 

Brotherton Indians 39 

Brown's Island 41 

Bruyckleen Colony 20 i 

Bruyckleen Colony Seal 22 

Brushvllle 30 . 

Brutnell. Richard 16, 28 j 

Bryant. William Cullen 31 

Buckram 32 j 

Bucking Island 41 1 

Bull Head 39 

Bullrider 35 

Bull-Smiths 35 \ 

Burgon. Broucard 28 | 

Burger, Jorissen 16, 28 I 

Burling, Walter 30 

Burly Pond 31 

Burnt Mill 41 

Burrough farm 28 

Burrough, John 29 

Bushwick Church 26 

Bushwick Creek 19, 26, 27 

Bushwick Crossroads 27 

Bushwick Ferry 27 

Bushwick Kruispad 27 

Bushwick Manorhouse 27 

Bushwick, New Lotts of 27 

Bushwick Population. . .27, 40, 41 
Bushwick. Town of, 

16, 17, 19. 20. 26, 41 

Bushwick Village 27, 43 

Butler, Captain John 32 



Calvary Cemetery 2S i 

Canarisse 26 ! 

Canarsee Baai 411 

Canarsee, the... 16, 17, 19, 26, 30 1 

Canarsie Village 26 , 

Canoe Place 39, 41 

Cap Tree Island 34 I 

Carmand. Robert 38 

Carman's River 36 ' 

Caroline Church 35 1 



Page 

Carpenter, Joseph 32 

Carpenter's Tavern, Increase.. 30 

, Case Homestead 37 

j Castateuw 17. 26 

Caumsett 33, 34 

Cedar Hill Cemetery 36 

Cedar Island (Kasthampton) . . 40 
^ Cedar Island (Shelter Island). 3S 
i Cedar Island Lighthouse 40 

 Cedarmere 31 

; Cedar Swamp 32 

 Center Island 32 

j Centreport 34 

! Centre Moriches 36 

i Chamakou 30 

j Chameken 30 

I Champlaln House 37 

I Champlaln's Creek 35 

j Charles 1 17, 32 

j Charles II 17. IS. 3fi 

Chichester Homestead 34 

I Chlco 39 

Christ Church 36 

! Circassian. Ship 39 

I Claes Cornellssen Scbouw 17 

Clarke house 37 

! Clarke. Sheriff 37 

I Cllnktown 31 

Clinton Academy 40 

Clinton house. De Witt 29 

Clinton. Sir Henry 28 

! Cllntonville 30 

Cobb 39 

I Cobbet William 31 

I Cob's Pound 39 

Cocks farm 32 

Cocks homestead 32 

 Coe family 29 

Golden. Cadwallader 30 

Colden, David 30 

Cold Spring Harbor 33. 34 

Cole's Mill 23 

Coles, General Nathaniel 32 

College of the XIX 20 

College Point 30 

Colonial Legislature 31 

Colve. Governor 38 

Cometico 37 

Comimunipa.v 42 

Coney Island 16, 24. 25 

Conl jne Eylandt 24 

Conijne Hoek 24 

Conklin Castle 34 

Conklin homestead 34 

Connecticut, Colony of, 

17, 18. 34, 36, 38, 39. 40 

Connecticut River 35, 36 

Connetquot Brook 35 

Connetquot River 35, 36 

Conorasset 17, 30 

Conselyea House 27 

Constable's Point 42 

Cookie Hill 30 

Coosputus 36 

Coram 36, Al 

Corchaki tribe 40 

Corchaug 16. 17, 37 

Corlear's Flat 26 

Corlear's Hook 27, 41 

Cornells Dircksen 22 

Cornelius Hendricksen 41 

Cornelius Lambertsen Cool. 17. 21 

Cornell House 31 

Corona 29 

Corporation House 23 

Corporation Island 41 

Corsa. Col. Isaac 29 

Corteleau. Jacques 23 

Cortelyou house 23 

Cortelyou house, 'Simon 24 , 

Cortelyou Simon 24 I 

Corum 36  

Corum Baptist Church 36 | 

Cossikan 23 ! 

Counties, the 18, 41 

Count's Beach, the 24' 



Page 

Cove, the 25 

Cow Bay 31 

Cow Harbor 31, 34 

Cow Neck 16. 31 

Cox. Richard 37 

Cozlne, Jrhn 29 

Crafford 30 

Craye, Tenen 28 

Crlpplebush 21 

Cripplebush patent 21 

Cromme Gouwe 39 

Cuffee. Rov. Paul 39 

Culloden ship 40 

CuUoden Point 40 

Culver, Jeremiah 39 

Culver. John 29 

Cumberland County 40 

Cumsewogue 36 

Cutchogue 37, 41 

Cutchogue Church 37 

Cypress Hills 19. 27 

Cypress Hills Cemetery. . .19. 29 



Danckers & Sluyter's Journal, 
^ 39, 41 

Davenport 36 

Dayton 36 

Dayton's Neck 36 

Debevoise House. Bushwick. . .27 
Debevolse House, Newtown. . .28 
Debevoise Mansion. Brooklyn . 23 

Dearing. Samuel 32 

Deerlng. Henry P 40 

1 De Hart House 23 

De Laet 14. 42 

Delafleld Mansion 28 

Delaval 34.42 

Delawares 14. 16 

Denyse's Ferry 24 

De Rapalle. Jorls Jansen 21 

De Rycke. Abraham 28 

De SlUe. NIcasius 21, 23 

Deutel Bay 42 

Devoe Houses 27 

Dlrck Volckertse 27 

Ditmas Farm .28 

Dix Farm 39 

Dixhills 41 

Dominie's Hook 16. 28 

Dongan, Governor 31, 40 

Dosoris 32 

Dosoris Lane 32 

Doughty, Mary 29 

Doughty, Rev. Francis. . . .16, 28 

Douglass, George 30 

Douglass Point 30 

Drowned Meadow 36. 41 

Duffield House 23 

Duke's Farm, the 42 

Duke's Laws, the 18, 31 

Dumplings, the 38 

Duryea Farm, Thomas P 30 

Duryea house. Bushwick 27 

Duryea house, Flushing 29 

Duryea house, Newtown 28 

DuSusoy. Marcus 21 

Dutch and English Claims... 17 
Dutch Church on Manhattan 

Island 28 

Dutchess County 40, 41 

Dutch Kills 16,28 

Dutch Kills Creek 28 

Dyer's Neck 36 



East Bay 32 

East Brooklyn 22 

East Connetquot River 36 

Eastern District of Brooklyn, 

27, 43 

Eastern Plantation 39 

Eastern tribes, the 17,34 

Easthampton Church 40 

Easthampton Plantation. 

17. 39, 40 



Eagle Library— GENERAL INDEX 



45 



Page 
Easthamptr.n Population. 

40, 41. 43 
Easthampton Town. 17. 18. 40. 41 

Ea.sthampton Turnpike 40 

Easthampton Village 40 

East Island ^2 

East Marion 37 

East Norwich 32 

Eastport '' 

East Riding 18 

East River 16. 19. 20, 42 

East Setauket '^ 

East Williamsburg 29 

East Woods 32. 33 

Eaton. Governor 33,36 

Eaton Manor 34 

Eaton's Neck Lighthouse 34 

Eaton's Neck 34 

Ebeling. Prof 1* 

Eboracum 13 

Eldert homestead 26 

Eldert. Johannes 26 

Elizabeth *- 

Elizabeth Joe 37 

Ellzabethtown *~ 

Elliott house 



Page 

Fort Amsterdam ■'1 

Fort Franklin 34 

Fort Gibson 



.41 



Fort Diamond 24 

Fort Hamilton ^3,24 

Fort Hill 



.32 



Fort Lafayette 24 

Fort Neck (Hempstead). 

31. 32. 33 

Fort Neck (Isllp) 35 

Fort Neck (Southold) 37 I Griffin 

Fort Neck House 33 

Fort Pond '"' 

Fort Salonga 35 

Fort Slongo 35 

Fort Stevens 



Page 

Green Hook 28 

Greenpoint 19. 26 

Greenport 37 

Greenport Harbor 37 

Greewijck W. 23 

Grenen Berghen 19 

Grenen Bout Punt 19. 26 

Grenen Punt 19,26 

Grenewijck 19 

Griffin House 38 

John 38 

Groote Baal, de 41 

Groote Barent Eylandt 42 

Groote Rivler. de 41 

Gull Islands 16. 37 

Guntherville 25 



Page 

Hoyonock *** 

Hudde. Adrian 21. 26 

Hudson. Hend 14, 42 

Hudson, Stephen 35 

Hunter, Captain George 28 

Hunterspoint 28 

Huntington Church 33 

Huntington Harbor 34 

Huntington Population. .34. 41, 43 

Huntington Town 18. 33. 41 

Huntington Village 33,41 

Huyck. Aertsen 21 

Hyde Park 31 



I 



.21 



Elliott Manor 29 

Ellis Island 41,42 

English Kills 28 

English Towns, the 18 

Equendlto 26 

Erasmus Hall 25 

Ersklne. Lord 39 

Eurewlc 18 

Evergreen - * 

Evergreens. Cemetery of the, 

19. 27. 29 
Execution Rocks Lighthouse. .15 



..33 
. .33 
. .31 
8, 40 
. .38 
..32 



Farmlngdale 

Farms. The 

Far Rockaway 

Farrett. James 17.32, 

Farrett's Island 

Feexe. John 

Ferry. The 17.19.21 

Fire Island 35 

Fire Island Beach 35,36 

Fire Island Lighthouse 35 

Fire Place 37, 41 

Fire Place Church •.  37 

First Dutch Church on Long 

Island 26 

First Episcopal Church on 

Long Island 36 

First General Assembly. . . .18. 31 
First Methodist Church on 

Long Island 29 

Fishers' Hook. The _.16 

Fishers' Island 16.37.38 

Fishers' Island Lighthouse. .. 33 

Fishers' Island Sound 38 

Fish House 28 

Fish, Jonathan 28 

Fish Point 28 

Fish, Samuel 28 

Five Dutch Towns, The 20 

Five Proprietors, The 32 

Flatbush Church 25 

Flatbush Population. .. 20. 40. 41 
Flatbush Town. 

ir, 19. 20. 25. 26. 41 

Flatbush Village 25 

Flatlands Church 26 

Flatlands Neck House 26 

Flatlands Neck Schoolhouse. .26 
Flatlands Population. 

20. 26, 40, 41 
Flatlands Town. 16, 19. 20, 26. 41 

Flatlands Village 19, 26 

Flats 1' 

Flat Top Tree 40 

Fletcher. Governor 35 

Flushing and N. Hempstead 

Turnpike 30 

Flushing Bay 28. 29 

Flushing Creek 28. 29 

Flushing Guardhouse 29 

Flushing Hotel 30 

Flushing Meadows 28 

Flushing Population ...30.40.41 

Flushing Town 29.31.41 

Flushing Village. .. .14, 18. 30. 41 

Flushing Village Hall 30 

Folstone 32 

Forge *1 

Forge River 36. 37 

Forester. Captain Andrew....!" 



Fort St. George 36 

Fort Wikoff 'SO 

Fort Wood *1 

Foster Meadow 31 

Foster Meadow Presbyterian 

Church 31 

Fountain Inn 27 

Fowlers. The ■"• 

Francis Cove 32 

Franklin. Governor 34 

Franklin. Walter 29 

Frederick Lubbertsen 17. 21 

Freeport 31 

Fresh Meadow 29 

Friends Academy 32 

Friends Meef.ng Home. Beth- 
page 33 

Friends Meeting House. Flush- 
ing 29 

Friends Meeting House. Jer- 
icho 33 

Friends Meeting House. ,Ma- 

tinecock 32 

Frost. William 32 

Furman House 29 

Furman's Island 28 



Guyney 24 

Gysbert Op Dyck 16, 24 

Gysbert Island 24 



H 

Hackensack Indians 42 

Hackensack River 42 

Hale, Nathan 34 

I Hallett, Gideon 29 

I Hallett's Cove 28 

i Hallett, William 28 

I Hallock, Peter 37 

i Halsey House 39 

Hamilton, Col 30 



Hamton 



.39 



Gamoenepa * " 

Garden of the West India Co. 42 

Gardiner, David 4" 

Gardiner Homestead 40 

Gardiner. John 40 

Gardiner. Lyon. 18. 33, 34, 36. 40 

Gardiner's Bay 38 

Gardiner's Island 18, 36, 40 

Gardiner's Neck 34 

Garretsen House 29 

Gebroken Land 17 

George II 36 

George's Neck 35 

Gerrettsen Creek 19.25 

Gerrettsen Creek, Mill at 26 

Gheele Hoek 21,22 

Glbh, Andrew 35 

Gibbet Island 26, 41 

Glbbs. Charles 26 



Glen Cove 



.32 



Glenhead 32 

Gloucester County 40 

Godyn's Baal 41 

Goetze's Hotel 30 

Good Ground 39 

Goodyear. Stephen 38 

Gooseband. The 16 

Gosman House 28 

Governor's Island.. 16, 17, 41. 42 

Gowanls 22 

Gowanus 17, 19, 21, 22 

Gowanus Cove 20,23 

Gowanus Creek 19 

Gowanus Mill 23 | 

Gowanus Stonehouse 23 

Gravesend Bay 25 

Gravesend Church 24 

Gravesend Population. . 20, 40. 41 
Gravesend Town... 16, 20, 24. 41 

Gravesend Village 14, 18. 19 

Gray Goose Band, The 16 

Great Bay. The 41 

Great Cow Harbor 34 

Greater New York City 18. 43 

Great Flat. The 26 

Great Gull Island 38 

Great Hog Neck Island 41 

Great Neck 35 

Great Peconlc Bay 39 

Great Plains. The 24 

Great Pond 40 

Great Rams Island 38 

Great South Bay 16. 34, 36 

Greenfield 25 

Green Hills 19 



Harbor Hill 31 

Hardscrabble 33 

Hardy. Com 38 

Harlem River 42 

Harslmus 42 

Hartford. Treaty of 31. 32 

Hastings 28 

Hauppauge 35 

Hauppauge Road 35 

Havemeyer Point Inn 34 

Hazard, James 27 

Head of Cow Harbor 31 

Head of the Harbor 35 

Hecke welder 7. .."... .". 14 

Heemstede 30 

Heeregracht, de 20. 23 

Hegeman. Adrian 22, 23, 26 

Hellegat 42 

Hellgate 28, 42 

Hellgate Ferry 28 

Hellgate Islands 26 

Hellgate Neck 17,28,30 

Hempstead Dutch Church 31 

Hempstead Episcopal Church, 

31, 32 

Hempstead Harbor 31,32 

Hempstead Plain 31 

Hempstead Population. 31, 41, 43 
Hempstead Presbyterian 

Church 31 

Hempstead Rectory 31 

Hempstead Swamp 29 

Hempstead Town, 

16, 17. 18, 30, 32. 41 

Hempstead Village 14, 18, 31 

Hendrick's Bluff 24 

Hercules 39 

Herrlck, William 28 

Hewlett family 31 

Hewlett, George 28 

Hewlett's Island 28 

Hicks Beach 17 

Hicks Neck 31 

Hicks, Thomas 30 

Hltchings. Benjamin 25 

Hobbamock 16 

Hoboken 42 

Hobuk 42 

Hog Island 32, 42 

Hogs Island 30 

Hoopanlnak 26 

Hope, The 24 

Hopoakanhacking 42 

Hoppoque 35 

Horse Neck 33,34 

Horton, Barnabas 37 

Horton House 37 

Horton's Point 37 

Hossemus 42 

Howard, Jonathan 29 

Howard's Halfway House 25 

Howard, William 25 

How, Daniel 32, 39 

Howell, Edward 39 

Howell Homestead 38 

Howell House 39 

Howell. Silas 39 



Ihpetonga 

Indian Trails 19 

Indian War.. 17. 20, 21, 23. 26. 28 

Indians. The 1^ 

Island of the Bears 16 

Isle of Patmos 38 

Isle of Wight 36,40 

Islip 23. 35. 36, 41 

Islip Estate 35 

Islip Population 35, 41, 43 

Isola Lange 38 



Jackson Homestead 29 

Jackson, Thomas B 28 

Jacob Hellakers 23 

Jacob Wolphertsen 17,26 

Jagger Farmhouse 39 

Jamaica Band 16. 17, 30 

Jamaica Bay 16, 17. 19, 30 

Jamaica Court 30 

Jamaica Dutch Church 30, 32 

Jamaica Population 30, 41 

Jamaica Presbyterian Meeting 



House 



.30 



Jamaica Town 16.30,41 

Jamaica Village 18, 30, 31, 41 

James. Duke of York 18, 36 

Jamesport 39 

Jan Aertsen 21 

Jan de Swede 27 

Jan Evertsen Bout 21 

Jan Jansen 28 

Jan Teunlssen 21 

23 



Jan Tomassen 

Jan Van Rotterdam 21 

Jean Gerardse 28 

Jericho 33, 41 

Johnson House 25 

Johnson's Land 24 

Jones Homestead 33 

Jones, Major Thomas 33 



.21 



Kakapoteyno 

Kanapaukah 17,28 

Kennedy's Island 41 

Keshkechqueren 16, 26 

Ketanomocke 33 

Keuters' Hook 25 

Kidd, Captain 31,40 

Kldd's Rock 31 

Kieft, Governor William. 

16, 17, 20, 26, 41, 43 

Kievlt's Hoeck 36 

Kljkult 26, 27 

Kll Achter Kol 42 

Kill Van KuU 42 

Kll Van Kol 42 

Killingsworth 32 

King David Pharao I . .40 

King. Ruf us 30 

Kings County. 

14. 17. 18. 19, 20. 41 

Kings County, Capital of 25 

Kings County Court 24, 25 

Kings County Courthouse 25 

Kings County Jail 25 

Kings County Militia 20 

Kings County Poorhouse 25 

Kings County Population, 

18, 20, 40, 41, 43 

Kings County Postofflce 22 

Kings County Taxable Valua- 
tion 20, 41 

King's Highway 24, 25 

Kings Manor 30 

Kloshk 41 

Kirk, Richard 31 

Kleyne Baal, de 41 

Kleyne Barent Eylandt 42 

Kleyne Rivler. de 42 

Kol. 't 42 

Konkhunganlck 40 



46 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



Page 

Konooh 1^ 

Kowenhowen House 2« 

Kreupelbosch 22 

Krulspad, het 19 



Lake Ronkonkoma 31. 35 

Lakeville 31 

Lane. Daniel 34 

Lane, John 25 

Lattingtown 32 

Lawrence. Homer 28 

Lawrence, John 30 

Lawrence's Neck 30 

Lawrence, Thomas 30 

Lawrence, 'William 30 

Lebanon Cedar <" 

Lefterts Homestead (Hunting- 
ton) 34 

Lefferts House (Flatbush) 25 

Lefterts House, Leffert (Brook- 
23 



lyn) 



Lefferts House, Leffert (Bush- 
wick) 27 

Lefferts House. Rem (Brook- 
lyn ^,1 

Leni Lenape i" 

Leveredge 33 

Leverlch. Caleb 29 

Leverlch Homestead 2» 

Leverlch. WUllam 32 

Lewis. Francis 30 

Lexington, Steamer 34 

L'Hommedieu House 37 

Llnnaean Gardens 30 

Little Bay. The <1 

Little Gull Island 38 

Little Gull Island Lighthouse. 3s 

Little Neck 30, 31. 36 

Little Neck Bay 30 

Little Neck Hotel 30 

Little Rams Island 38 

Little River. The 42 

Livingston. Col 3S 

Lloyd, James 34 

Lloyd's Neck 33, 34 

Lloyd's Point Lighthouse 34 

Locust Valley 32 

Locust Valley Reformed 

Church 32 

Lonely Barn. The 30 

Long Beach Lighthouse 37 

Long Island.. 14. 17, IS. 36. 38, 42 
Long Island a Century Ago... 41 

Long Island City 27 

Long Island Ferry 20,22 

Long Island Population 14. 18 

Long Island Sound.. 14, 15, 16. 42 

Long Island Tribes 16, 17, 33 

Longknife, Chief 39 

Lord Howe's Headquarters. .. 24 

Losee House 31 

Love Island 41 

Lovelace, Governor 17,41 

Lubbert's Swamp 28 

Luclni's Map 38 

Ludlow. George Duncan 31 

Luqueer's Mill 23 

Lusam 33 

Luyster, Cornelius 28 

Luyster Farm 28 

Luyster House 28 

M 

Macutteris 26 

Maereck, Maereckkaak 16,17 

Maereckkaakwick 16, 17, 21 

Mahlcan 16 

Maidstone 39.40 

Makeopaca 25 

Mallard Inn 37 

Manchonock 36,40 

Mancy, Francis 34 

Manetts 16 

Manette 16 

Manetto Hill 33 

ManhansackaahaquatuwamockSS 

Manhanset 16, 17, 38, 40 

Manhasset 16, 17, 38. 40 

Manhasset Neck 15. 16. 31 

Manhasset Village 31 

Manhattan Borough 43 

Manhattan Indians 13. 23 

Manhattan Island. 

16, 20, 28, 41, 43 

Manhattan Tribe 16 

Manhattans Rivier •. . .41 

Manittuwond 38 

Mannahaning 25 



Page 

Manning's Island 42 

Manor 36 

Manor of St. George 36 

Manors. The 20 

Manorville 36 

Manowtasquott 37 

Marine Pavillton 31 

Marospinck 16. 31 

Martense Family 25 

Martense House 25 

Martin. Governor 31 

Marychkenwickingh 16, 17 

Maspeth 28 

Maspeth Hills 29 

Maspeth Island 28 

Massapeaque 16,17 

Massapeaque River 16 

Massapeaque Tribe 31. 32. 33 

Masters' Mill 27 

Mastic 36, 37 

Mastic Neck 36 

Mastic River 36 

Matinecoc 16 

Matinecoc Tribe, 

17, 29, 31. 32. 33. 35 

Matinecock 32 

Matinecough 26 

Matouwac 17 

Matouwacs. The 14. 16. 17 

Matsepe 16 

Mattano 23 

Mattaveno 23 

Mattemay 36 

Mattltuck 37.41 

Mattituck Creek 37 

Mattltuck Presbyt. Church.... 37 

Mattltuck Village 37 

Maumanum 39 

Mauritius Rivier 41 

Maurlts Rivier 41 

McDonald. Dr 30 

McGee House 26 

Meadowbrook 31 

Mechowodt 16. 33 

Mecox Bay 39 

Mecoxe. Mecocks 39 

Megapolensis. Rev 25 

Melrose Hall 25 

Melville 34 

Memanusack 35 

Merosuck 39 

Merrlc, Merricoke. .16, 17, 31. 33 

Merrick Road 37 

Merricks P. O 41 

Mespatt Kills 28 

Meutelaer Island 26 

Mexico, ship 31 

Miamegg 39 

Miamogue 39 

Miantacutt 40 

Middelburgh 17. 19, 25, 28 

Middeiwoud 19. 22, 25 

Middle Neck Road 15 

Widdleton. Thomas 3S 

Mlddletown 41 

Middle Village 29 

Middle Village Meth. Church.. 29 

Midwout 16, 20. 22, 25 

Milford 42 

Militia of Province 41 

Militia of Kings County 41 

Mill Creek 39 

Miller, Andrew 36 

Miller House (Millers Place)... 36 

Miller House (Rosiyn) 31 

Miller House (Williainsburgh).27 

Millers Place 36 

Miller, William 36 

Mill Hill 32 

Mills, The 37 

Miliville 36 

Minasseroke 36 

Minnahanonck 42 

Minnisais 41 

Mispat Band 16, 17, 28 

Mispat Kii 28 

Mispat Settlement 28 

Mitchell. Dr. Samuel 31 

Mitchell. Henry 30 

Mitchell Homestead 29 

Mitchell Lighthouse 31 

Moeung 25 

Mohawks 19. 31 

Momoveta 40 

Mongotucksee 39 

Montaigne Rivier 41 

Montauk Peninsula 40 

Montauk Point 40.43 

Montauk Tribe 14, 16. 17. 40 

Montfort. Jan 17 



Page 

Montfort. Pleter 17 

Montressor Island 42 

Montrose Village 31 

Moody. Lady Deborah 24, 25 

Moore Houses 28 

Moore. Rev. John 28 

Moriches 36, 37, 41 

Morris, Lewis 32 

Mosquetah 32 

Mount Misery 36 

Mount Prospect 38 

Mount Sinai 36 

Mowbray. John 35 

Muhlenburgh, Dr 30 

Mulf ord House 37 

Munnawtawklt 38 

Murray Hill 30 

Musketo Cove 32 

Musgytte Hool 26 

Mystic River 36 

N 

Nachaquatuck 33 

Naleck 23 

Napier 24 

Narra&ansett River 36 

Karraganset Tribe 14. 40 

Narrasketuck 34 

Narrows. The 16. 24, 41 

Nassau 17 

Nassau County 18. 4 3 

Nassau Ferry 23 

Nassau Rivier 41 

Nasseconsack 35 

Navy Yard 17. 23 

Nayack 17, 23 

Nayack Indians 23 

Neapeague 40 

Near Rockaway 30, 31 

Near Rockaway Methodist 

Church 31 

Xecommack 36 

Needham 41 

Nesaquake 16, 17, 33. 34. 35 

Netherlands 20 

New Amsterdam 20. 21 

Newark 4 2 

Newark Bay 42 

New Arnheim 28 

New Bridge 31 

New Brooklyn 22 

New England Colonies. .18. 36, 39 
(Tribes 14.) 

New Ferry. The 22 

New Haven Colony, 

18, 33, 34, 36. 37 

New London 3S 

New Lots Church 26 

New Lots Population 20 

New Lots Town... .16, 19, 20, 25 

New Lots Town Hall 26 

New Lots Village 25 

New Lotts of Bushwlck 27 

New Lotts of Flatbush 25 

New Market 31 

New Mills 35 

New Netherland ...14, 17, 18, 20 
Newtown Creek.... 19, 26, 27, 28 

Newtown Dutch Church 28 

Newtown Presbt'n Church 28 

Newtown P. E. Church 28 

Newtown Town, 

16. 17. IS, 19. 20, 27. 28. 41 

Newtown Village 18, 41 

New Utrecht Church 24 

New Utrecht Population, 

20, 24, 40. 41 
New Utrecht Town. 

16. 17, 19, 20. 23. 41 
New Utrecht Village.. 19, 21, 23 

Newwark 29 

New Tork City 43 

New York. Colony of. . .18, 37, 40 

New York, County of 40, 41 

New York Ferry 23 

New York Harbor, Map of.... 41 

New York. Province of 18 

New York. State of 43 

Niarauck 39 

Nieuw Am^ersfoort 19, 20, 26 

Nieuw Amsterdam. 20, 41 

Nieuwe Dorp 23, 24, 42 

Nieuw Nederland 41 

Nicolls, Col. Richard 18, 24 

Nicolls, Governor... 24, 31. 34. 38 

Nicolls. Matthias 34, 35 

Nicolls River 35 

Nicolls. William 35 

Ninlgret 34 



Page 

Nlssequogue 35 

Nlssequogue River 34. 35 

Nlssequogue South Farm 35 

Nomlnick Hill 40 

Nonowantuck 36 

Noorman's K!l 27 

Noort Kil. de 42 

Noort Rivier. de 41 

Noort West Kil 42 

Nooten Eylandt 26, 41 

North Brooklyn 22 

North Dumpling Lighthouse. .38 

Northfleet 37 

North Hempstead 30, 41 

North Hempstead, pop. 31, 41. 43 

North Neck 40 

Northport 84 

North Riding 18. 31 

North River 41 

North Sea 39 

Northwest 40. 41 

Norwich 32 

Nowedonah 39. 40 

Noyac 40 

O 

Oakland Cemetery 40 

Oaklands 26 

Oak Neck 32, 35 

Occombamack Neck 37 

Oester Baal 32 

Oester Eylandt 41 

Ohio, Ship 39 

Old Bouwery. the 24 

Old Brickhouse, the 83 

Old Bushwlck Road 27 

Old Farm, the 28 

Old Fields Point 87 

Old Fields Lighthouse 37 

Old Man's 36 

Old Man's. Congregational 

Church 36 

Old Man's Harbor 36 

Old Newtown Road 28 

Old Place. The 16 

Old Woodpolnt Road 26 

Olympic S5 

Onderdonck. Henry 31 

Onek House 39 

Onek Point 39 

Oost Rivier, de 42 

Oostwout 25 

Oquenock 35 

Orange County 40 

Orient 37 

Orient Point 37 

Orient Village 37 

Orlwie Creek 35 

Oriwie Lake 35 

Osborne House 40 

Oude Dorp 42 

Ouse 18 

Oyster Bank 42 

Oyster Bay 32, 39 

Oyster Bay. First Baptist 

Church 32 

Oyster Bay. population . 33, 41, 43 
Oyster Bay Town. 

17. 18. 31, 32. 33, 41 

Oyster Bay Village 32, 41 

Oyster Island 42 

Oyster Ponds 37 

Oyster Ponds, fort at 38 

Oyster Ponds Point 38 

Oyster Ponds Village 41 



Paggauck 41 

Palmer House 28 

PapermiU on Oriwie Lake 35 

Papermill Rosiyn 31 

Parkvlile 25 

Passquesset 38 

Passaic River 42 

Patchoag 16, 35, 36. 37 

Patchogue 37, 41 

Patchogue Church 37 

Paterquos 38 

Patmos, Isle of 38 

Patroons 20 

Paulus Hoeck 42 

Paumanack 16, 17 

Pauquacumsuck 39 

Pauwe Baal 42 

Pavonia 20, 42 

Payne Boyhood Home 40 

Payntar family 28 

Peck Slip Ferry 20 

Peconic Bay 37, 38, 39 



Eagle Library— GENERAL INDEX 



47 



Page 

Peconlc Creek 3S, 41 

Peconlc Mills 38, 41 j 

Pelletreau house 39 

Pembroke 32 

Penawitz. Penhawis 16, 21 

Penfold Family 2S 

Pennoyer. Robert 24 

Perth Amboy 42 

Philip Gerardse 28 

Pine Island 24 

Pine Lands 16 

Pine Region 1" 

Piping Rock Farm 32 

Place, the 32 

Plandome 31 

Plum Gut 3S 

Plum Island 16. 37, 38, 41 

Plum Island Lighthouse 38 

Pluym Gate 38 

Plymouth Company. The 17 

Poggatacut 40 

Point Say-Brook 36 

Polhemus Estate 28 

Polhemus. Theodorus 27 

Political Division of the 

Island IS 

Pompumo 39 

PonQUogue Neck 39 

Poor Bowery 28 

Poor Farm 28 

Poosepatuck 36, S7 

Population of Colony of N. Y. .40 
Population of Long Island. 

40. 41. 43 
Population of New Netherland. 

14. 40 

Poquatuck 37 

Poquot 36 

Port Jefferson 36 

Port Jefferson Harbor 36 

Port May 41 

Port Washington 31 

Post Road 24 

Pot Cove 2S 

Powell's Creek 34 

Powell. Thomas 33 

Praa, Captain Peter 28 

Prospect Hill 25 

Provoost House 27 

Pruym Eyland 38 



Quaker Burying (iround 29 

Quaker Meeting House, 

Manhasset 31 

Quaker Meeting House. 

Maspeth 29 

Quaker Meeting House, 

Westbury 31 

Quandoequareus 28 

Quantuck Bay 39 

Quawnotiwock 40 

Queen Anne 31 

Queen Caroline 36 

Queens 30 

Queens Borough 43 

Queens County. 

14, 16, 17. IS. 19. 30. 41 
Queens County Population, 

IS, 40. 41, 43 

Queens Court 41 

Queens Village 34 

Quinnipiack 36 

Quogue 39 



Race. The 38 

Race Point 38 

Rams Head 38 

Rams Island 40 

Randall's Island 16, 42 

Rapalje house. Jacob 28 

Rapalje Mansion (Brooklyn) .. 23 
Rapalje Tavern (Bushwick) . . 27 
Rapelje house (New Lots).... 26 
Rapelje Mansion (Newtown) .. 28 

Ratlocan 34 

Ravenswood 17, 28 

Ravenswood Poorfarm 28 

Ray nor. Edward 31 

Raynorstown 31 

Rechhou whacky 16. 30 

Rechtauk 41 

Red Heights 21 

Red Hook (Brooklyn) .. 17. 21. 26 

Red Hook (Huntington) 34 

Red Hook Mill 23 



Page 

Remsen. Abraham 29 

Remsen, Jeromus 29 

Remsen Mill 23 

Renselaerwijck 20, 35 

Rhode Island 21, 32 

Richmond Borough 43 

Richmond County 18, 40, 41 

Rldgewood 27 

Ridings. The 18 

Riker House 28 

Riker's Island 28 

Rinnegaconck 16. 17, 21 

Rising Sun Tavern 25 

Riverhead 37 

Riverhead Courthouse & Jail.. 37 
Riverhead Population ... 39. 41, 43 

Riverhead Town 17,37,38.41 

Riverhead Village 38,41 

River Indians 24 

River, The 41 

Rivier Achter Kol 42 

Rivier Hellegat 42 

Robbins Reef 42 

Robins Island 37. 38 

Rockaway band 16 

Rockaway Bay 16, 30 

Rockaway Beach 31 

Rockaway Inlet 30 

Rockaway Tribe 17. 28, 30 

Rockaway Village 41 

Rock Hall 31 

Rocky Point 37 

Rodenbergh 36 

Rodman. Dr 30 

Roe Hotel (Patehogue) 37 

Roe house (Port Jefferson) ... 36 

Ronkonkoma Pond 31, 35 

Roode Hoek. 't 21, 22 

Roode Hoogtles 21 

Roslyn PapermlU 31 

Roslyn FlourmlU 31 

Roslyn Village 31 

Round Island 28 

Rouse, Thomas 38 

Rumford. Count 34 

Rutger, Josten 23 

Rustdorp '. 30 

Rycken, Abraham 28 

Rycken, Gysbert '. 28 

Rycken, Hendrick 28 

Ryder's Pond 25 



Sabonock 36 

Saccut 31 

Sachem's Hole 40 

Sackett. Judge Joseph 29 

Sackhigneyah 28 

Saggaponock 39 

Sagg Pond 39 

Sag Harbor 35. 40. 41 

Saghtekoos 35 

Salisbury Plains 31 

Salt Bay 30, 41 

Sammis Hotel 31 

Sampawam's Neck 34 

Sampawam's Village 34 

Sandforfs Point 28 

Sand's Point 31 

Sands Point Lighthouse. .. 16, 31 
Sanfort, Chancellor Nathan... 30 

Sanfort Hall 30 

Sandy Hook 41 

Saphorakan 17 

Sappohanicke 41 

Say and Seal, Lord 36 

Say Brook 36 

Sayfietd 36 

Sayville 36 

Sayre House 39 

Schenck Homestead (New 

Lots) 26 

Schenck House, Jan Martense.26 

Schenck's Mill 27 

Schermerhorn Mansion 23 

Schryers Hook 25 

Schumacher's Hotel 29 

Schutters" Eylandt 42 

Scott. Major John 18 

Seal Islands 35, 36 

Seatalcott 34, 35 

Seatalcutt South 36 

Seatuck Cove 39 

Sea View House 40 

Secatoag 16, 17, 33, 34, 35 

Secaucus 42 

Sequatogue Neck 35 

Sessions House of West Riding. 20 



Page 

Setauket 16 

Setauket Church 36 

Setauket Gristmill 36 

Setauket Harbor 36 

Setauket Town 36 

Setauket Town Hall 36 

Setauket Tribe 17, 33, 36 

Setauket Village 36, 41 

Sevilla 36 

Sewan 17 

Sewanhacky 17 

Seysey, Seiseu - 17, 23 

Shanscomacocke 26 

Shatemuck 41 

Sheepshead Bay 25 

Shellmoney 17 

Shelter Island 16. 35. 37. 39 

Shelter Island Population. 

3S. 41. 43 

Shelter Island Sound 40 

Shelter Island Town. 

17, 18, 37. 38, 41 

Shinacock 40 

Shinnecock Bay 39 

Shinnecock Creek 39 

Shinnecock Hills 39 

Shinnecock Lighthouse 39 

Shinnecock Neck 39 

Shinnecock Reservation 39 

Shinnecock Tribe 17, 39. 40 

Shoobrook 32 

Shooters Island 42 

Sichteyhacky 36 

Silver Lake 39 

Simcoe. Col 32 

Sinderman, Matthew 32 

Sinnecox 16. 17. 39 

Sintsink (Hempstead) . 16, 17. 31 

Sintsink (Newtown) 17 

Sisakus 42 

Skillman House (Bushwick) ... 27 

Skill man House (Roslyn) 31 

Skookwams Neck 35 

Slangenbergh 42 

Sloops Bay 26 

Smith, Col. William 36,37 

Smith. Epenetus 35 

Smith Family Burial Place .... 36 

Smith Farm, Dan 31 

Smithfield 35 

Smith, Richard. Jr 34 

Smith's Island 28 

Smith's Point 36 

Smith. Tangier 36 

Smithtown Bay 36 

Smithtown Branch 35 

Smithtown Population. 35, 41. 43 
Smithtown Presbyt. Church... 35 
Smithtown Town, 

IS. 33. 34, 35. 41 

Smithtown Village 35 

Smith. William Floyd 37 

Smit's vly, de 20 

Snake Hill 28, 42 

Sohquompuo 14, 15 

South Brooklyn 22 

South Greenfield 25 

Southampton Bay 39 

Southampton Church 39 

Southampton Plantation, 

17. 36, 39 
Southampton Population. 

39. 40, 41. 43 
Southampton Town. .18, 36, 39. 41 

Southampton Village 39,41 

South Haven 36, 37 

South Hempstead 30 

Southold Church 37 

Southold Jail 37 

Southold Plantation. . . .17, 37, 40 
Southold Population. 38, 40, 41, 43 

Southold Town 18,37,38.41 

Southold Village 37, 41 

South Plantation 39 

South Wllliamsburgh 27 

Southton 36 

I Souwassett 36 

Souwenos 16, 17 

] Sowanohke ic, 17 

Springfield 30, 33 

Spring Hill Farm 30 

i Squaw Islands 33 

j St. Andre ws-by-the-Dunes 39 

I St. George Church ^(Flushing) . 29 
\ St. George Church (Hemp- 

j stead) 31 

St. George Manor House 36 

St. George's Manor 36, 37. 41 

St. John's Episcopal Church 
(Huntington) 34 



Page 

St. John's Episcopal Church 

(Islip) 35 

St. Paul's College 30 

St. Ronan's Well 28 

Staaten Eylandt 42 

Staten Island.l6. 17, 18. 19, 20, 23 

Staten Island Sound 42 

Statistics 40 

Stephen, Chief 40 

Sterling, Dowager of 17 

Sterling, William. Earl of, 

17, 31, 38 

Sterling Village 37, 41 

Stevens House 28 

Stevens Point 28 

Stevenson. Thomas 28 

Stillwell Family 24 

Stillwell House 25 

Stonington 38 

Stony Brook 35, 36. 41 

Stooten Eylandt 16, 42 

Story Homestead 25 

Strand, The 26 

Stratton. Eliphalet 30 

Strattonport 30 

Strong's Neck 36 

Stroom Kil 26 

Strycker House (Flatbush) . . . .25 
Strycker House (Gravesend) . .25 
Stuyvesant, Director General, 

14, 20. 26, 32, 41 

Suanhacky 16, 17 

Success 31 

Success Pond 31 

Suffolk County 16. 17. 18, 41 

Suffolk County Population, 

18. 40 41. 43 
Suffolk Courthouse & Jail. .39, 41 

Suffolk Freeholders 41 

Summers House 32 

Sunderland, Matthew 32 

Sunnyside 28 

Sunsquam's Village 34 

Sunswick 28 

Sunswick Creek 28 

Susconomen 32 

Susco's Wigwam 32 

Suydam Ditmas Mansion 25 

Suydam House 27 

Sweet Hollow 34 

Syosset 32, 33 

Sylvester, Brinley 38 

Sylvester. Constant 38 

Sylvester, Giles 35 

Sylvester House 38 

Sylvester, Nathaniel 38 

Sylvester's Island 38 



Takapousha 17. 32 

Talbot Island 42 

Tangier Smith 36 

Taxable Valuation of Towns, 

20. 41 

Taylor, John 32 

Tenkenas 42 

Terhune. Judge Isaac 25 

Terry's Gristmill 37 

Terry. Thomas 32 

Tew's Neck 30 

Thompson 14, 21, 38 

Thompson, George 32 

Thompson House 31 

Thompson, James 32 

Three Mile Harbor 40 

Three Plantations, The.l7. 37, 39 

Throgg's Neck 30 

Titus. Francis 29 

Tobaccus. Sachem 37 

Tonneman. Schout 23 

Topping. Thomas 39 

Towns. The 18. 40 

Townsend House (Oyster Bay). 32 
Townsend House (Port Jeffer- 
son) 36 

Townsend. Thomas 33 

Treadwell's Bank 35 

Turtle Hill 40 

Tyler Homestead 40 

Tymen Jansen 16. 28 

U 

Ulster County 40, 41 

Unamie Tribe 42 

Uncohoug 36 

Underhlll. Captain John 32 

Union Hall Academy 80 

Unlonville 25 

Unkechaug 16, 17, 23 

Ure 18 



48 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



Page 

V 

Valentine House 31 

Van Corlear 23 

Van Cortlandt, Stephen 35 

Vanderbilt. John 29 

Van der Donck 17, 28, 42 

Van der Donck's Map, 

19, 23. 38, 39 

Vanderveer Farmhouse 29 

Vanderveer Homestead 25 

Van Duyn Hill 29 

Van Duyn. Willem 29 

Van Pelt House (Newtown) .. .28 

Van Pelt Manor House 24 

Van Rensellaer. Anna 35 

Van Rensellaer Family 35 

Van Rensellaer, KlUian 35 

Van Ruyven. Cornells 25 

Van Slclen House (Graves- 
end) 25 

Van Siclen House (New Lots). 26 

Van Tienhoven. Cornells 21 

Van Twlller. Wouter 17, 26, 41 

Van Twiller's Flat 26 

Van Werckhoven. Cornells. ,. .23 

Van Zandt. Wynandt 30 

Varcken Eylandt 42 

Vechte-Cortelyou House 23 

Veer, het 19. 22 

Verbrande Meulen, de 41 

Vernon Valley 34 

Vlsschers' Eylandt 38 

Vlaeck, 't 25 

Vlakke Bos, 't 22, 25 

Vlakke Land 26 

Vlissingen 29 



w 



Wading Brook 39 

Wading River. . .'. 36.39,41 



Page 

Walnscott 40, 41 

Walboght 19,20.21,2a 

Wallabout 21, 22 

Wallabout Village 16 

Wampmlsslc 27 

Wampum 17 

Wandell, Thomas 28 

Wandewenock 27 

Wanequaheag 35 

Wantagh 27 

Wapplnger Tribe 16 

Ward's Island 16, 17. 42 

Warwick, Earl of 36 

Washington. George. 31, 32, 37, 40 

Washington House 2S 

Watermill 39 

Waterside, The 17, 28 

Wawepex 33 

Webb Farm 37 

Wecquaeskeek 16 

Weehawk, Weehawken 42 

Werah 32 

Werpos 21 

West Brooklyn 22 

Westbury 31, 33 

Westchester County 40, 41 

West Deer Park 34 

Western Tribes 17 

Westhampton 39, 41 

West Hills 34 

West India Company. 

17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 32 

West Island 32 

West Neck 34 

West Riding 18,20,24 

West Setauket 36 

Whaley House 27 

Wheelers 35 

White Farm, The 29 



Page 
Whitehead. Major Daniel. 

28. 32. 33. 35 

Whltestone • 30 

Whitney. Daniel 3? 

Whitman Homstead 34 

Whitman, Israel 35 

Wight. Isle of 36. 40 

Willett. Richard 35 

Willett, Thomas 36 

Williams, Robert 32, 33 

Wllllamsburgh and Jamaica 

Turnpike 29 

Wllllamsburgh City 19, 20, 27 

Wllllamsburgh Ferries 27 

vVllllamsburgh Fountain Inn.. 27 
Wllllamsburgh Methodist Meet- 
ing House 26 

Wllllamsburgh Town 20.27 

Wllllamsburgh Village. .19. 27. 43 

Wlmbaccoe 26 

Windsor Terrace 25 

Wlnganhauppauge Creek 35 

WInthrop. Gov. John, ...17, 36, 38 

Wltte Klip, de 30 

Wolphert Gerretsen 26 

Wolver Hollow 32 

Wolver Hollow Ref. Church.., 32 

Woodbrldge «,.,42 

Woodbury 33 

Wood. Edmond 35 

Wood House. Silas 34 

Woodhull. Gen 23. 80 

Wood, Jonas 36 

Woodpolnt 26 

Wood. Silas 14 

^'ood. Timothy 35 

Woolsey. Rev. Benjamin 32 

Woolsey Burial Places 32 

Woolsey Estate 32 



Page 

Woolsey Family 32 

Woolsey Farm 28 

Woolsey House (Oyster Bay). 32 
Woolsey Mansion (Newtown) . .28 

Wowopog 36 

Wright. Edmund 32 

Wyandance, Wyandanch. 

17. 33. 84 

Wyckoft Farm 27 

Wyckoff Homestead 25 

Wyckofr House (Bushwlck) ... 27 
Wyckoft House (Gravesend) . .25 
Wyckofr House (New Lots)... 26 

Wyckoft. Pleter Claea 26 

Wyllls. Samuel 38 

Y 

Yaphank 36 

Te Anchorage Inn 37 

Tellow Hook 21.22 

Yellow Hook Mill 23 

Yennecock 37 

Ye olde Canoe Place Inn 39 

Yonkers 16 

Yonkers Island 28. 29 

York 18 

York. Duke of 17, 18. 42 

Yorkshire 18 

Youngs Burial Place 82 

TounKS House (Oyster Bar).. 32 

Youngs House (Southold) 37 

Youngs. Rev. John 37 

Youngs, Thomas 32 

z 

Zabrlskle Homestead 25 

Zant Hoeck 41 

Zeewant 17 

Zout Zee 30,41 

Zwaanendal 20 



i^^i^^«^^^^^^^^W^V^S/VS«V^'^'^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^>^^^^^^^^^'>^^^^^^^^^^^^«^^^^^'^ 



THE EAGLE is the recognized authority for Long 
Island news. Constant effort is made to strengthen 
its service. Branch offices and staff' employees are main- 
tained throughout the Island. No newspaper in the 
United States covers its territory so thoroughly as The 
Eagle. 

This Library number is one of a series of annual 
publications that are found invaluable to subscribers. 
The Eagle Almanac is acknowledged to be the best ref- 
erence book of its kind. No home or office library is 
complete without a copy. 

The Eagle was founded in 1841, and the first edition 
of the paper was printed on the third floor of 39 Fulton 
street, on October 26. On October 26, 1911, The Eagle 
celebrated its seventieth anniversary, and was in receipt 
of a most remarkable series of tributes from public men, 
journalists, business men and newspapers, as well as 
readers in all parts of the world. 

Visitors are welcome at The Eagle Building at all 
times. New improvements and additions are being made 
at the present time, in accordance with the dominant 
purpose of making it the most completely equipped 
newspaper plant m the United States, if not in the world. 



Eagle Library— SOME PROMINENT MEN OF LONG ISLAND 



49 



DAYTON HEDGES 



As an example of a self-made 
man, Dayton Hedges of Pat- 
chogue occupies a unique position. 
By his own efforts Mr. Hedges has 
risen from a lifesaver to one of 
the leading business men of Pat- 
chogue and to the head of the 
largest asphalt concern in the 
United States, besides having held 
many political honors. 

Mr. Hedges was born at Bridge- 
hampton. L. I., in 1885, the son of 
Mr. and Mrs. Nathan .0. Hedges, 
one of the oldest families on Long 
Island. The house in which he was 
born is said to be the oldest house 
in New York State. It is a fa- 
mous landmark and an object of 
much interest to thousands of 
tourists each year. 

Mr. Hedges received his early 
education in public schools. When 
a young lad he went with his par- 
ents to Centre Moriches, where 
they took over the Moriches Inn, 
a retreat for summer vacationists. 
Later they came to Patchogue and 
ran the Mascot House, a famous 
shore resort. 

As a young man, Mr. Hedges 
had a love for adventure, and one 
of his first outsets in life was that 
of a lifesaver at the United States 
Lifesaving Station on Great South 
Beach, opposite Patchogue. He has 
had some thrilling experiences in 
that position. 

In 1907 Mr. Hedges left his life 
of adventure on the beach and re- 
turned to Patchogue, where he en- 




gaged in the coal and feed business 
under his own name. He was very 
successful. Last year his company 
was incorporated as the Patchogue 
Coal and Feed Company. He was 
married in 1907 to Mary Elizabeth 
McCormick, daughter of the late 
James H. McCormick, a well- 
known horseman, who died in Ber- 
lin two years ago. 

Even when only a boy Mr. 
Hedges became interested in poli- 
tics, and the year he became of age 
found him a candidate for assessor 
of the Town of Brookhaven on the 
Democratic ticket. He was de- 
feated by a narrow majority. 

In 1909. when he was only 24 
years old, he ran for supervisor 
of the Town of Brookhaven, and 
was successful in turning the nor- 
mally Republican town into a 
sweeping Democratic victory for 
himself. Two years later, in 1911, 
he was renominated and re-elected. 
He declined a renomination for a 
third term in 1913. As a cam- 



paigner he has an unparalleled 
reputation, possessing the unusual 
ability to win friends and support- 
ers from all factions and parties. 

Mr. Hedges was largely talked 
of as a candidate for Congress in 
1912, and he was urged by many of 
his party leaders to make the run, 
but he declined a nomination, 
wishing for the time to be relieved 
of political worries on account of 
the stress of business. He had re- 
cently formed the Dayton Hedges 
Asphalt Company in New York 
City, and was engaged with large 
street contracts in the metropolis. 

This company has just been in- 
corporated as the Municipal As- 
phalt Company, with Mr. Hedges 
at the head, and it is said to be 
the largest concern of its kind in 
the United States. 

Through his political and busi- 
ness connections, Mr. Hedges has 
a large acquaintance throughout 
New York State. He is a congenial 
man, who never fails to make a 
friend. He is a member of the 
Masonic orders, the Elks and sev- 
eral other lodges. He is also a 
member of the New York Athletic 
Club, the Transportation Club and 
others. He is a director in several 
banks and institutions. 

Mr. Hedges' office is at 1451 
Broadway, New York City, and his 
home is on North Ocean avenue, 
Patchogue. He has two children, 
James Dayton Hedges, 5 years old, 
and Burke Osborn Hedges, 3 years. 



50 



Eagle Library— SOME PROMINENT MEN OF LONG ISLAND 



HENRY P. KEITH 

Henry P. Keith of Hempstead is a tempts he became recognized as the I gressman secured the nomination, 
unique and spectacular figure in the ' real leader of the Democracy of Nassau 1 Owing to this friendship Mr. Keith has 
civic life of Nassau County. No man County and every year there has been I been able to secure his hold on the 
has a more loyal foUovifing and no man I a useless and futile attempt to wrest i leadership and to bestow a number of 



is more greatly admired than he by his ! this title from him. He was recognized 
political opponents. He is at the pres- ] as an ally of the Tammany machme of 



post office appointments. Mr. Keith 
was formerly counsel to the State 



ent time counsel to the Board of Super- 



Manhattan, but two years ago, at the I Controller in Nassau County, but re- 



visors of Nassau County and is the rep- ' earnest solicitation of his many Demo- signed from that office to become 
resenfative of Suffolk and Nassau cratic friends he threw down the gaunt- i counsel to the Board of Supervisors. 
Counties in the Democratic State Com- j let of war to the Tammany leaders and J He is a lawyer of keen acumen and 

mittee. Although a young man, he has I has absolutely divorced the party ma- ' his services to the Hempstead Village 

i 

been the leader in the Democratic i chinery of Nassau County from the Board will be remembered for the 
party of Nassau County for the past Tammany interests. The representa- j soundness of his advice, when the 
decade. He is a native of Brooklyn, i tive of the Democratic party in the ! sewer system was being inaugurated, 
but has lived in Hempstead Village | State Committee was former Senator I Although his numerous political activi- 
ever since his boyhood. He is a law- 
yer by profession. His early profes- 
sional career is interesting. He was 
one of the trial lawyers for the Brook- 
lyn Rapid Transit Company and it was 
here that he learned those qualities 
which fitted him for the leadership of 
men. As a boy he was employed in 
the office of former Lieutenant Gov- 



Edward Bailey of Patchogue, a recog- 1 ties necessitate his frequent absence 
nized Tammany ally. Notice was served from his office and home, he devotes a 
on the Suffolk County resident that his ' great portion of his time to the prac- 
seat was to be contested by the anti- tjce of his profession and enjoys a 
Tammany faction. It was thought that i i^^gg gj,j lucrative practice. He is a 
the position of former Senator Bailey : j^gg,, student and is known as an om- 
was impregnable, but despite the over- j^j^gfous reader. At the election this 



whelming odds Mr. Keith became the 
candidate and when the votes in the 



ernor Sheehan, with whom he became convention were canvassed the Nassau 
very intimate. Upon his attaining the 
age of 21 he attempted to seize the 
party machinery and was but barely 



defeated. It was during this campaign 
that he secured the title of "boy 
orator," a name that has been applied 
to him ever since. After several at- 



fall he will play an important part and 
at this early time he is holding confer- 
ences with the end that there shall be 



County leader was declared the winner. ] j^^^^^^ny in the Democratic party. He 
Ever since that time he has been the ! ^g^ygs ;„ Hempstead Village on Fulton 
recognized leader on Long Island of I ^^^^^^ ^jjj^ j^jg {^^[\y [^ a large, old- 



the anti-Tammany faction. He is a 
great personal friend of Congressman 
Lathrop Brown and it was through the 
activities of Mr. Keith that the Con- 



fashioned mansion, where he may be 
seen evenings with his beloved books. 



Eagle Library— SOME PROMINENT MEN OF LONG ISLAND 



51 



GEORGE H. FURMAN 



George H. Furman of Pat- 
chogue, a prominent lawyer of 
the Suffolk County Bar, is a man 
whose name will figure in the 
political history of the county as 
passing time will make that his- 
tory valuable. Not only as a 
lawyer of prominence, but as a 
public servant of various offices, 
will Mr. Furman be known. 

Born in Brooklyn, the son of 
Joel N. and Sarah Homan Fur- 
man, he has a claim to member- 
ship in one of the oldest of Long 
Island families. Furman street, 
in Brooklyn, is named after his 
branch of the Furman family. 
He is a member of the Sons of 
the Revolution, his forefathers 
having taken part in the strife 
for liberty in 1776. 

Like many other self-made 
men, Mr. Furman's early life 
was given up to school teaching. 
Following his academic educa- 
tion, he engaged as a teacher, 
and was principal of several 
schools on Long Island, his last 
being at Brookhaven near his 
present home. As a pedagogue 
his success can be best measured 
by the fact that during his last 
year at Brookhaven, he was of- 
fered the principalship of River- 
head High School, one of the 
largest and best paying schools 
on Long Island. 

But Mr. Furman had other 




views in mind. He had always 
had a leaning toward the law, 
and that fall he entered law 
school at Columbia University, 
New York City. Four years 
later, in June, 1893, he gradu- 
ated with honors, and com- 
menced the practice of law. He 
was admitted to the Bar in May, 
1893, shortly before his gradua- 
tion. 

Mr. Furman took up his prac- 
tice in Suffolk County, where he 
had been successful as a teacher, 
and where he had many friends. 
He soon built up a large prac- 
tice, among his clients being 
some of the most prominent peo- 
ple of Suffolk. He gained an 
enviable reputation, not only for 
his broad and thorough knowl- 
edge of the law, but also for his 
ability as a pleader and a cross- 
examiner. 

After holding several minor 
honorary offices, Mr. Furman 



was elected District Attorney of 
Suffolk County in 1905, taking 
office on January 1, 1906. In 
1908 he was re-elected by a large 
majority and served until Janu- 
ary 1, 1912. 

As District Attorney, Mr. 
Furman made a record for the 
large number of convictions, but 
he also gained popularity among 
the people of the county for his 
fairness as a prosecutor, always 
working in the ends of Justice, 
but scorning the opportunity to 
build a personal reputation at 
the sacrifice of the guiltless. On 
the other hand, however, he was 
a relentless and uncompromising 
antagonist of the real criminal. 

In the fall of 1912 Mr. Fur- 
man was the Republican candi- 
date for County Judge. The 
Progressive split in the party 
defeated him, but he polled a 
flattering vote, considering the 
odds against him, running far 
ahead of the rest of his ticket. 

Six years ago Mr. Furman 
married Margaret Conklin, 
daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Smith 
W. Conklin of Patchogue. Mr. 
and Mrs. Furman have one son, 
named after his father. 

He is a member of the Masonic 
and other fraternities. He is also 
a member of the Patchogue Vol- 
unteer Fire Department in which 
he takes a great interest. 



52 



Kagle Library— SOME PROMINENT MEN OF LONG ISLAND 



Mr. Daniel J. Hegeman, treasurer of 
Nassau County, is now serving the 
fourth year of his second term, and is 



DANIEL J. HEGEMAN 

Savings Bank and takes an active in- ; oldest son, George D., resides on the 
terest in all affairs pertaining to Nassau' fa'rm, and his daughter is at home with 

County, as well as the Village of Sea ' her parents, and his younger son re- 

i . 
Cliff, where he resides. Mr. Hegeman sides at Hempstead Harbor, Port Wash- 



igton. Nassau County is a busy one 



a man big enough to handle a big job 

successfully. Mr. Hegeman is a rep- ' is a native Long Islander, having re- 

resentative man of the county, and fori sided in the county all his life, and the! and Mr. Hegeman, as its treasurer, is 

I 1 

eighteen years has been assessor of the Hegeman farm, owned by his consin, very busily engaged looking out after 

I ' 

Township of Oyster Bay. Besides hold- i has been in the family since 1 71 7. Mr. ' its finances. Many wealthy families 



ing many important positions in the 



Hegeman's own farm has been recent- 1 have here very beautiful estates, and be 



large financial institutions of Nassau ' ly sold to Cox & Willetts, who are I it said to the credit of Nassau County 



County, he is a director of the Glen going to develop it into a high-class 



officials its affairs are governed by 



Cove Bank, a trustee of the Roslyn , residential property. Mr. Hegeman's j men of ability. 



Eagle Library— SOME PROMINENT MEN OF LONG ISLAND 



53 



JAMES F. RICHARDSON 



The career of James F. Richardson, 
the present highly efficient County 
Clerk of Suffolk County, has not been 
of that meteoric sort that goes up 
like a rocket and comes to naught 
just as speedily. Rather, it has been 
of a steady, solid growth — a growth 
gained by strict honesty, square deal- 
ing with all, and a close application 
to business. 

Mr. Richardson was left an orphan 
and homeless at the age of 12 years, 
but, having been born with the "stuff 
in him" that makes men of value to 
the community, no matter under what 
trying conditions they are placed, he 
was not unduly cast down by what, to 
others, might have seemed an insur- 
mountable barrier. Inheriting his 
parents' integrity and good business 
mind, and imbued with the knowledge 
that to succeed his probity should be 
above reproach, he started out to 
make his own way. Working with 
such an ambition, it is not surprising 
that within a few years he should 
have reached a high round on the lad- 
der o£ influence and affluence, that 
ladder of real success. 

Born at Bay Shore, L. I., on June 
3, 1871, a son of Thomas and Eliza 
Richardson, he moved with his parents 
in a short time to Brooklyn, where he 
attended Public School No. 6 for a 
few brief years. At the age of 12 it 
was necessary for him to go to work. 
His f rst employment was in a real 
estate office, where the remuneration 
was small, yet out of which he man- 
aged to pay his way and save a little 
besides. He was likewise determined 
to obtain more book knowledge, so, in- 
stead of fooling away his time nights, 
he "plugged away" at night school, 
taking up principally bookkeeping and 
other business subjects. 

Completing his course, he sought 
and obtained employment with Fred- 
erick Loeser & Co., Brooklyn, as a 
bookkeeper. There, as in other subse- 
quent positions, he made good in a 
way that was a credit to himself and 
brought pleasing acknowledgment 
from his employers. Still he was 
hardly satisfied with his lot. It seemed 
too confining for his progressive 
nature. He wanted to do something 
through his own initiative — he wanted 
a business of his own. 

Imbued with a broadening-out policy 
he went to Islip, L. I., in 1889, and 




started in as a newsdealer. Soon he 
also obtained a position as newsboy 
on a Long Island Railroad train run- 
ning from Long Island City to Pat- 
chogue. Here he was enabled to dis- 
play his talents and ability. Here 
he proved that a smiling face, a 
courteous manner and magnetic per- 
sonality, coupled with careful detail 
to business and strict honesty, are the 
stepping stones to success. For six- 
teen years James F. Richardson 
worked on that train. He was hailed 
as "Jimmy" then, and though digni- 
fied and a man of affluence now, he 
is not yet above being hailed as "Jim- 
my" to this day, wh'ch, to the mind 
of his friends, marks the finer char- 
acter of the man. 

During his years on the train nat- 
urally he met thousands of men. He 
treated them so squarely and did 
I business so capably that practically 
! all became fast friends. Many of 
] these were his own neighbors, and 
j their friendship proved later to be a 
' great business asset. 

Naturally a man of his character 

and ability, and a man of his friend- 

I ships, was sought by politicians. Hav- 

i ing previously identified himself with 

i the Democratic party, he was first 

chosen as an assistant to the tax col- 

! lector, then he was appointed on the 

Election Board, and given various 

other positions. His party leaders 

pleaded and coaxed for him to accept 

a nomination for Town Clerk of Islip. 

1 Being "all business" he declined many 

 such overtures. Finally, in 1907, he 

' consented to run. He was elected, of 



course. In 1909 he was re-elected by 
the biggest majority ever given any 
candidate in that town. In 1911 he 
was elected again. During his in- 
cumbency he brought new ideas of 
business detail into the clerk's office, 
making it a model for public con- 
venience. 

Having made such a success of the 
Town Clerk's office, he was induced 
to accept a nomination as County 
Clerk in 1912. Again, of course, he 
was elected. He made a phenomenal 
run. His business ability and un- 
blemished public and private reputa- 
tion had preceded him all over the 
big county, and voters were pleased 
to 'record themselves under his banner. 
This is one of the most important 
offices in the county. It needs a man 
of capacity; such a man is now in a 
very business-like, yet courteous, way 
attending to its intricate details. Be- 
ing public spirited to a large degree, 
he has spent large sums of his private 
purse in modernizing the indexing 
system relating to court proceedings 
and other matters. This is indeed a 
vast improvement for public benefit. 
Other new ideas for the betterment 
of the office have also been intro- 
duced by him. 

Mr. Richardson married Bertha E., 
daughter of Joshua Stevenson, of 
Brooklyn. They have one daughter, 
Miss Marguerite, now in college. As 
a fraternity man he is also well 
known and esteemed. He has asso- 
ciated himself with Meridan Lodge, 
F. and A. M., Islip; Awixa Lodge, 
I. O. O. F., Islip; Suffolk Council, 
Royal Arcanum, Bay Shore; Islip 
Council, Jr. O. U. A. M., Islip; Court 
East Islip, F. of A.; Suffolk Encamp- 
ment, Bay Shore, and the Freeport 
Elks. He has been honored as Dis- 
trict Deputy Grand Master of his Odd 
Fellows' district, serving with un- 
usual capacity. 

He is a self-made man in the best 
sense of that term. His career shows 
what can be accomplished by any poor 
boy who starts with a determination 
to be honest and industrious, and who 
sets his eyes on the goal of success 
to be reached only through good 
means. Naturally his friends are 
legion, and naturally they are proud 
of him, both as a citizen and as a 
public official, and it will be strange 
indeed if he is not further rewarded 
in public way. 



54 



Eagle Library— SOME PROMINE^a■ MEN OF LONG ISLAND 



THOMAS P. BRENNAN 



Thomas P. Brennan, one of Pat- 
chogue's foremost citizens, has had a 
varied and interesting career. Mr. 
Brennan is agent of the Patchogue 
Terminal of the Long Island Railroad 
Company, which position he has held 
for the past fifteen years. 

From coal miner, telegraph operator, 
newspaper man, politician, real estate 
man and railroad man, Mr. Brennan 
has grasped his opportunities until he 
has risen to several places of promi- 
nence as a holder of public office, both 
in his native State of Pennsylvania 
and in the State of his adoption, New 
York. 

Born at Tamaqua, Pa., in 1S60, he 
was educated in public schools and by 
private tutors. Of Irish parentage, he 
was an ambitious lad, and, like most 
of the boys of his neighborhood, found 
a fascination in the hazardous calling 
of the coal miner. He ran away from 
school to enter the dark mouths of the 
coal mines and take his place among 
the men of the little mining commu- 
nity. His first occupation in life was 
that of coal miner. He rose rapidly 
with the company with which he was 
connected, but soon realized the fact 
that he must look higher and, with that 
purpose, studied telegraphy and later 
taught his brothers — the boys becom- 
ing a "family of telegraphers." He 
afterward taught a number of young 
men, but refused to accept a dollar for 
his services. 

When a young man, Mr. Brennan 
became interested in politics, and on 
becoming of age he was elected Town 
Clerk of the township of Kline, in the 
County of Schuylkill, Pa. 

Such was the eflBciency of his ad- 
ministration in his first public office 
that the following election found Mr. 
Brennan re-elected town clerk of the 
township of Kline. 

At the expiration of that term he 
was nominated for justice of the peace 
by the Democratic party and indorsed 
by the Republican party, and elected 
for five years. He was the youngest 
justice of the peace ever elected in 
Kline township. 

During his political activities Mr. 
Brennan was not idle in other respects. 
By his own efforts he secured a busi- 
ness education while engaged at the 
work of telegraphy. He had ability for 



^;-*» 




f 





writing, and engaged in newspaper 
work for local and city papers. 

Being prominently identified with 
the literary and debating societies of 
Hazleton, Audenried and Wilkes-Barre, 
Pa., Mr. Brennan was recognized as 
one of the gifted speakers and ready 
debaters of those communities. Mean- 
while, he devoted his spare hours to 
study for ten years under some of 
the best private tutors of tne State. 

Coming to New York City, Mr. Bren- 
nan was for a time on the reportorial 
staff of several of the New York 
dailies. 

In 1SS9 he came to Long Island and 
first located at Lynbrook and later at 
Hempstead. He was in the railroad 
and steamboat business, and as a side 
issue ran a news syndicate to the New 
York daily papers. At the same time 
he was the publisher and editor of a 
local weekly, the South Shore Advo- 
cate. 

He has also alwaj-s been active in 
real estate investments and holds con- 
siderable property in different parts of 
Long Island. 

In 1900 Mr. Brennan came to Pat- 
chogue as terminal agent for the Long 
Island Railroad. An efficient, pleasant 
man, he has made many friends in that 
capacity, and has a wide acquaintance 
among the travelers and residents 
generally of Long Island. 

Mr. Brennan has been interested in 
local and State politics, and is re- 
garded as an active and potent factor 
in the Democratic organization on 
Long Island. He has twice been a 
candidate for member of the State As- 
sembly from the First District of Suf- 
folk County, on the Democratic ticket, 
but both years were sweeping Repub- 



lican victories, and Mr. Brennan, with 
the rest of his ticket, was naturally 
defeated. As a candidate he won a 
reputation as a campaigner and public 
speaker. His eloquent addresses won 
for him the popular title of the "silver- 
tongued orator," and he is still in de- 
mand as a public speaker, both for 
his party and at social gatherings and 
dinners. 

He is reputed — and does not deny 
the mild impeachment — to have a quick 
temper, and that other quality of men 
of Celtic blood — a ready forgiveness. 

In addition to his other literary 
qualities, Mr. Brennan occasionally 
"drops into verse." His spirited poem, 
"The Superannuated Life Saver," won 
such spontaneous welcome, in its mer- 
ciless arraignment of the powers at 
I Washington, that a request was sent 
to him to have thousands of copies 
! printed, at the expense of the Life 
Saving Service at Washington, and 
! the copies were sent to every member 
of Congress. They were alleged to 
have done more to arouse Congress 
to grant pensions to the life savers 
than any other single factor, mt. 
Brennan is a great favorite with tue 
life savers and is usually a guest at 
their annual dinner. 

On January 1, 1910, Mr. Brennan 
became financial clerk of the Senate 
of the State of New York, serving four 
jears until January 1, last. In that 
office he made the acquaintance of 
politicians and prominent men through- 
out the State and developed a host of 
friends. 

Unassuming in manner, Mr. Brennan 
is, nevertheless, always alert, and his 
opinion is frequently sought on mat- 
ters of moment by friends and neigh- 
bors. 

j He claims to have "few of the 
virtues and many of the faults" of his 
fellowmen, and thinks "that is the 
average of a fairly representative citi- 
zen." 

Mr. Brennan is, primarily, a railroad 
man and is popular with his fellow 
railroad men, both employers and em- 
ployees. He is a widower, with four 
children — two married, T. David Bren- 
nan of Sayvllle and Mrs. William Reil 
j of Rockville Centre. His younger chil- 
dren — R. Gerard Brennan and K. Bea- 
trice Brennan — live with their father 
at his home on Baker street. 



Eagle Library— SOME PROMINENT MEN OF LONG ISLAND 



55 



CHARLES J. ODELL 



Many real gentlemen and men of 
capacity in public and private business 
affairs have been graduated from the 
school of hard knocks, a school that is 
bound to broaden the mind and which 
makes more optimists than pessimists. 
With this preamble let us introduce 
Charles J. Odell, the Sheriff of Suffolk 
County. 

There are many people, yes, several 
thousand, in Suffolk County and else- 
where who agree that Suffolk and not 
the man himself is the gainer because 
he consented to listen to the leaders of 
the Republican party and accept the 
job of Sheriff. These same people will 
likewise say that the brief introductory 
herewith fits Sheriff Odell to a nicety. 
For Sheriff of Suffolk nowadays it' 
needs a real man, a humane man, yet 
one with grit; a man of executive abil- 
ity, a man of uprightness, and a man 
of business ability. To treat the public 
right and to treat the prisoners right, 
as well as to attend to the intricate 
civil duties and privileges of the office 
a man must have those qualifications, 
and those who didn't think "Charlie" 
Odell possessed them before he was 
elected are sure of it now. 

Literally he has knocked around the 
world considerably. He has even par- 
ticipated in a real shipwreck, one in 
which death stared him in the face. 
Yet every time he got a bump, instead 
of souring his nature against men and 
the world in general it had the oppo- 
site effect — it expanded his smile and 
his bump of geniality; it increased his 
determination to hew to the straight 
and narrow path that leads to the suc- 
cess attainable through right living and 
the square treatment of your neighbor. 
Charles J. Odell was born in Harlem 
December 14, 1862, the son of George 
H. Odell, sr., and Hannah Jennings 
Odell of Patchogue. When a little 
shaver his parents moved to Patchogue, 
moving back again to New York after a 
short residence in Suffolk County. He 
attended school in Fordham and Kings- 
bridge, and later for a little while at 
Patchogue. At the age of 14 years he 
returned to Patchogue alone, and im- 
mediately started his life's career by 




going to sea. For three years or more 
he sailed up and down the Atlantic 
coast in coasters, which in those days 
were anything but comfortable. Dur- 
ing the last year of this hard life he 
was wrecked off Cape Hatteras. To 
be precise, it was on August 18. The 
gale was a memorable one for many 
not then at sea, for the tornado was 
felt along the coast and did great dam- 
age. The subject of this sketch was in 
the rigging with other members of the 
crew for fourteen hours on a stretch. 
Eventually all hands were rescued by 
lifesavers. 

Following this for seven years he 
was engaged in the menhaden fishing 
business, shipping on the Commodore 
and the J. W. Hawkins, both of which 
boats were singularly enough lost dur- 
ing the Spanish-American war while 
engaged in filibustering. 

Then he entered into the commercial 
life of Patchogue by establishing a 
grocery store, which he conducted for 
twenty-two years. He disposed of his 
interests just after being elected 
Sheriff. In 1890 he was asked to ac- 
cept a nomination as town trustee of 
Brookhaven. He was beaten by one 
vote, and that was his own ballot. 
Frank Tuthill had been on the board 
and his public work was liked by Mr. 
Odell, so he voted for him instead of 
for himself. In 1891 he ran again and 
was elected. Three times since he has 



been similarly treated by the voters, so 
for sixteen years he has been con- 
scientiously transacting the town's 
business in that direction. From 1893 
to 1913 he was president of the board. 
From 1881 up to the time he was first 
elected the bay had been leased to 
private parties. He was elected on a 
free bay ticket, and as soon as he took 
his seat the bay became a free bay to 
the oystermen. His accurate knowl- 
edge of conditions and his conscienti- 
ous work in treating bay subjects has 
been of incalcuable benefit to the town 
and the baymen. 

His great executive ability is best 
seen in the management of the jail, 
he being elected Sheriff in 1913. He 
understands human nature thoroughly. 
He believes there is some good in the 
worst of us, and is proving it by the 
prisoners themselves who are placed on 
their honor in the big building, and be- 
cause of considerate treatment they 
have not broken faith with him yet. 
He allows no abuse of prisoners or pro- 
fane language in handling them, yet in 
that dignified, courteous way of his 
they are made to understand that rules 
must be obeyed. His is a business ad- 
ministration of the correct sort, tem- 
pered with justice. 

During 1893-4-5 he was assistant 
financial clerk of the Assembly, a job 
in which he made good, as in all of 
his other public and private undertak- 
ings. For years he was a prominent 
volunteer fireman and headed the big 
Patchogue department as chief. He is 
also well known in the Masonic fra- 
ternity. 

In January, 1885, Sheriff Odell mar- 
ried Miss Harriet Dayton of Patchogue, 
a daughter of Samuel and Phebe Day- 
ton. They have three children — Miss 
Bernice, now teaching school at White 
Plains; Miss Hazel, now teaching at 
Oceanside, and Miss Arminda, a stu- 
dent at the Riverhead High School. 

As to personal probity, he is as 
stanch as a rock; as to geniality, he 
radiates sunshine. Hence it is small 
wonder that he is considered a citizen 
of the best sort and that every new 
acquaintance is a firm friend. 



56 



Eagle Library— SOME PROMINENT MEN OF LONG bLAND 



For over a quarter of a cen- 
tury, on Main street, Patchogue, 
has stood the best known cafe on 
Long Island. Bob Bartlett, 



BENJAMIN GRAHAM 

(BARTLETT'S) 

favorably with any metropolitan i Elk, of pleasing personality and 
hotel. This new innovation will 1 a man mentally fitted to cater to 

make the new Bartlett's the only ! the public. Bartlett's in the past, 

i 

European hotel on Long Island ' as we feel sure it will in the fu- 



known to every one touring the j outside the city of Brooklyn. 



Island, passed away last fall, 
leaving Bartlett's without his 
genial presence. 

Mr. Benjamin T. Graham has 



While Bob Bartlett during his 
life was a genial soul, well and 
favorably known to everybody 
for many years, it is such a hard 



ture, has entertained every 
prominent man going through 
the Island, as the slogan always 
is. Chauffeur, when you reach 



Patchogue, be sure to pull up at 
just taken over the businessfrom I proposition for a new man to Bartlett's. Success to vou, Mr. 

the estate and is very busily en- ! step in and take his place. But Graham, and in the thriving vil- 

1 . I 

gaged renovating the entire j in Mr. Ben Graham you will find j lage of Patchogue you will meet 

premises from top to bottom, and ' a man equipped in every way tc I and make very many good 



is filling a long-felt want by fur- 
nishing in the most modern and 
beautiful manner fifteen rooms, 
that when finished will compare 



fill your wants to your complete j friends, and never, we trust, re- 

i 

! 

satisfaction. Mr. Graham is a ' gret leaving Flatbush to make 
hotel man of experience, an i this attractive place your home. 



Eagle Library— SOME PROMINENT MEN OF LONG ISLAND 



57 



Perhaps no man in Suffolk 
County is better known than C. 
Mihon Rogers of Sayville, who is 
chairman of the Suffolk County 
Democratic Committee and also 
chairman of the Suffolk County 
Board of Supervisors. Mr. Rogers 
has had a varied and interesting 
career that ranks him among the 
foremost of Long Island's self- 
made men. 

Born in Sayville, and always 
making it his home, the best 
tribute that can be paid to him is 
that he is most popular in the 
thriving village of his birth, where 
he is best known. 

Mr. Rogers comes from an old 
Long Island family. His father 
was Thomas Halsey Rogers, a sea- 
man. The sturdy son, who spent 
many of his boyhood days fishing 
at Fire Island Inlet, or cruising on 
the bay or going on a voyage with 
his father, naturally leaned toward 
the seafarer's life. After his edu- 
cation had been completed in the 
public schools, he went to sea. 

The art of navigation came natu- 
rally to the boy of Great South 
Bay, and at the age of 16 young 
Rogers had charge of a small coast- 
ing vessel. He loved the life of the 
sailor. He followed it until he was 
35 years of age, and with a great 
deal of success. 

There was only one thing that 
Navigator Rogers liked better than 
the sea. That was politics. There 
was only one thing that he liked 
better than politics. That was the 
Democratic party. And let it be 
said for Mr. Rogers, that since he 
has come into power in the Demo- 
cratic party, he has done his best 
to keep it free from politics in the 
interest of the community which it 
has been his privilege to serve. 

Ever since he was old enough to 
vote, the young follower of the sea 
took a deep interest in the political 
discussions and problems that con- 
fronted the State and Nation from 
time to time. On voyages he had 
plenty of time to read, and he read 
the sort of literature that was in- 
structive, and, when he came ashore, 
he was by no means "rusty" on the 
political and economic problems 
of the day. He surprised the old- 
time politicians with his store of 
information, and the force of his 
arguments, which were always ad- 
vanced in behalf of Democratic 
principles. 



C. MILTON ROGERS 

So it was not surprising when 
the seafarer, at the age of 35, gave 
up the mariner's life and settled in 
his native village, that he soon be- 
came a factor in the political life 
of the town. That was over twenty 
years ago. Mr. Rogers engaged in 
the ice business, and the present 
large Hygeia ice plant at Sayville 
bearing the firm name of C. M. 
Rogers & Son is evidence of his 
ability as a business man. The 
Rogers plant is one of the most up 
to date on Long Island, equipped 
with every modern device for man- 
ufacturing the best and cleanest ice 
that it is possible to make. 

Although often solicited to en- 
ter the field of office holding, Mr. 
Rogers for many years avoided any 
activity in politics except that 
which he could render to his party 
as a private citizen. In 1900, how- 
ever, when Julius Hauser of Say- 
ville, who was then Commissioner 
of Highways of Islip Township, be- 
came New York State Treasurer, 
Mr. Rogers was prevailed upon to 
accept an appointment as Commis- 
sioner of Highways to fill the un- 
expired term of Mr. Hauser. 

Always interested in good roads, 
Mr. Rogers made an excellent Com- 
missioner, and served until 1904. 

In 1905, Mr. Rogers was elected 
Supervisor of Islip Town, and he 
has held that office ever since. 
During his term of office he has 
been identified with every move- 
ment that has tended to public wel- 
fare in the Town of Islip and in 
the County of Suffolk. He has 
been particularly keen in fighting 
the battles of his town, and through 
his efforts, in a great measure, the 
town has received some of its best 
State and town roads. 

An instance of Mr. Rogers' fight 
for good roads was shown two 
years ago, when the Bayshore- 
Patchogue State highway was 
started under State construction 
with specifications that were in- 
ferior and objectionable to the peo- 
ple living along the line of the 
road. Mr. Rogers was one of the 
first to stake a stand in fighting the 
construction of -the road, although 
it was being done under Democratic 
rule. 

In a strong letter which he wrote 
to the then Governor Sulzer, Mr. 
Rogers pointed out wherein the 
specifications were inadequate, and 
were not what they should be for 



the amount of money the neoole 
were paying. His past experience 
of road construction told him just 
what was needed to accommodate 
the heavy traffic along the main 
highway of the South Shore. Mr. 
Rogers led a delegation of citizens 
who went to Albany and waited on 
Governor Sulzer in the matter, who 
took it up with the Highway De- 
partment, with the result that the 
undesirable contract was canceled, 
and with the further result that the 
road is now being constructed at 
Stats expense just as the people 
v/ant it done. It will be one of the 
best highways in the State when 
completed, and experts estimated 
that the road first proposed would 
not last a year. 

Two years ago the popularity of 
Mr. Rogers in the Board of Super- 
visors was shown by the fact that 
he was elected chairman of the 
board, which office he still holds. 
He is a fair and dignified presiding 
officer, giving everybody an equal 
voice, regardless of party or faction. 

Mr. Rogers has also been chair- 
man of the Suffolk County Demo- 
cratic Committee for two years. A 
man of pleasing address and cour- 
teous manner, Mr. Rogers makes 
friends easily. He has a faculty of 
keeping the ones made. Tact and 
diplomacy are among his chief 
characteristics, and he has made 
an able head for the County Com- 
mittee. 

During the term of his office 
Mr. Rogers has been interested ift 
all real reform movements. He 
has been an advocate of adopting 
some means of straightening out 
the present method of handling 
county tax matters. He is a strong 
advocate bf an inland waterway 
constructed along the South Shore 
at State and National expense. He 
believes in assessment reform for 
the various towns. 

Mr. Rogers is a member of the 
Masonic Order, of the Odd Fellows 
and Royal Arcanum. He is also a 
member of the Sayville Fire De- 
partment, and is an enthusiast in 
all firemanic matters. 

At the age of 23 he was married 
to Miss Alice A. Smith, who was 
the daughter of Henry Smith of 
Smithtown. Mr. and Mrs. Rogers 
have one son, Clarence M. Rogers, 
who is in the automobile business 
in Sayville, and also connected with 
his father in the ice business. 



58 



Eagle Library— SOME PROMINENT MEN OF LONG ISLAND 



LEONARD RUOFF 



Through the efforts of Leonard Ruoff, 
Clerk of the County of Queens, a bill 
for the purpose of establishing a block 
index of conveyances, mortgages, etc., 
in his office, has been placed upon the 
Statute Books. 

This bill passed both Houses of the 
Legislature, was approved by the 
Mayor and has been signed by the 
Governor. It provides for the estab- 
lishing in the office of an index under 
every block of all transfers, mortgages, 
incumbrances, etc., against the real 
estate in that county, and is similar 
to the block and section indexes in the 
counties of Kings and New York, but 
it goes even further than that and 
provides for indexing against the lot 
also. It is considered an improvement 
on the system now in use in both New 
York and Kings counties. It is an 
improvement very much needed in 
Queens County, and through the action 
now of Mr. Ruoff, the County Clerk, 
it can be installed in the office at the 
present time and relieve a congested 
condition of indexing now in the office. 

This is only one of the many im- 
provements that Mr. Ruoff has in con- 
templation, and during his term of 
office he has made many improve- 
ments in the matter of public records. 
His activity in forcing the matter of 
contracts for the reconstruction of the 
building is too well known to require 
any mention here. 

Among the many changes made in 
the office, one which has been a 
great advantage is that of having a 
separate index of judgments for each 
letter of the alphabet, while heretofore 
the judgment dockets were divided 
into three parts, one containing the 
judgments indexed against the names 
from A to G, another from H to P, and 
a third from Q to Z. This permitted 
only three books in the office which 
could be used by the office at any one 
time, whereas now the indexes are so 
divided that it takes but a few minutes 
for the examination of a judgment 
record under the one letter. The en- 
larging of the system of indexing no- 
tices of pendency of action, where one 
index was used in the office, now three 
indexes are made. One of the most 
desirable improvements was that of 
separating the tickler indexes of deeds 
and mortgages. Heretofore all papers 
recorded were indexed in one set of 
ticklers, whereas now they are divided 
so that the deeds, leases and agree- 
ments are indexed in one set of tick- 
lers and mortgages and assignments 
indexed in another set. 

The system of numbering and check- 
ing all papers recorded and filed is 
such that it is almost an impossibility 
for a paper to go astray. On the sys- 




tem of deeds there is the record num- 
ber, and a separate deed number, and 
in that of mortgages the same system, 
in addition to that of the serial number 
under the mortgage tax. All the re- 
ports on these papers are made in 
carbon, and every delivery made by 
clerks from one to another is receipted 
tor, so that by a simple examination 
of the reports the location of a paper 
is made. Every paper received for 
record or file receives a number, so 
that at the end of each month it is 
but a small matter of addition of but 
a few minutes to determine just how 
many papers of any particular kind 
are received for that month. Singu- 
larly active in his endeavors to make 
the office as fireproof as possible, he 
has purchased nothing but steel furni- 
ture, cabinets, desks, tables, etc., and 
has endeavored, as far as lies within 
his power, to place the public records 
in as safe and secure receptacles as 
has been within his power so to do. 
Owing to the uncertainty as to the re- 
contruction of the building, he has 
been unable to procure any appropria- 
tion of sufficient size and to meet the 
needs of his office in this respect there 
is considerable uncertainty as to just 
what will be furnished with the new 
building, and for that reason the Board 
of Estimate and Apportionment has 
not seen fit to make an allowance for 
this steel furniture. The purchases 
which he has made were from funds 
that were allowed him in the regular 
course of business for office furniture, 
and while he has had to make sacri- 
fices in some instances, still the ad- 
vantages to be gained by the purchas- 
ing of steel furniture will be two-fold. 
'Ine purchases have been made with 
an eye to the distant future, and are 
not for the present time only. Steel 
furniture is the most serviceable and 
is fireproof and the most sanitary. 



For a number of years past it has 
been the custom in the office to take 
from two or three months before a 
recorded paper is returned to the party 
recording it. All this has been done 

; away with, and papers recorded on one 
day are in the hands of the copyists 
before two o'clock on the following 
day, so that a paper is now returned to 
its owner in about ten days. This in- 
cludes comparing, checking, indexing, 
copying, etc., and is the shortest period 
of time that has been known in cases 
of this kind in the County of Queens 
since the establishing of the Greater 
City. 

Of great advantage and convenience 
to the members of the bar who have 
business dealings at the Court House 
at Long Island City has been the es- 
tablishing of a branch office of the 
County Clerk's Office in the Court 
House. In this office almost any busi- 
ness of the County Clerk's Office can 
lie transacted, with the exception of 
filing and recording papers wherein 
the hour and minute are essential. Of 

I course, it is impossible to have two 

' offices in the one county, as where it 
is necessary in the recording to have 
the hour and minute on it this could 

: be done in only the one place. Lawyers 
throughout the county and other coun- 
ties have found the branch office a 
great convenience, and Mr. Ruoff had 
a bill introduced in the Legislature, 
which bill was passed and has become 
a law, permitting the installing of a 
duplicate County Seal at that office. 

Where the law was heretofore silent 
on a matter of this kind while the 
Court House was located at such a 
distance from the County Clerk's Office 
the act introduced by Mr. Ruoff has 
been made general, and it is not only a 
benefit to Queens County, but also to 
other counties in the State similarly 
situated. 

His attitude since he has assumed 
his duties as County Clerk has been 
one of public spiritedness, acting in 
the interests of the public, and in an 
endeavor to make the office of the 
Clerk of Queens County as efficient as 
is possible. 

A very important addition made to 
the office by Mr. Ruoff is that of the 
bookbindery. In former years it was 
the custom to give out the binding of 
books to private contractors, and for 
this purpose the city appropriated 
from $2,000 to |7,000. Mr. Ruoff has 
succeeded in having the position of 
bookbinder established in his office, 
and by an appropriation allowed by the 
Board of Estimate has established the 
bookbinding plant, at a cost of less 
than $1,000. 

In examining records in the Coun- 
ty Clerk's office and seeking the liber 
it has been found that the libers are 
very often in use, and in order to as- 
certain just who is using the liber it 
was necessary to turn it over to see 
the number or nature of the record. 
This has all been dispensed with, as 
the County Clerk has had little leather 
tags or titles put on the margin of the 
cover of the book, so that no matter 
which way the book is placed a search- 
er can see at a glance the number or 
nature of it. 



Eagle Library— SOME PROMINENT MEN OF LONG ISLAND 



59 



GEORGE H. KENNAHAN 

OF 
THE LONG ISLAND FARMER 



A daily newspaper, published 
in Jamaica by Mr. John C. 
Kennahan and his son, Mr. 
George H. Kennahan, repre- 
sents to what heights a small 
beginning can grow. The Long 
Island Farmer presents the ap- 
pearance of a metropolitan 
daily, has a large circulation 
and is the representative paper 
of the town. Mr. John C. 
Kennahan was for many years 
on the staff of The Eagle, hav- 
ing entire charge of the Long 
Island Department, in those 
days covering the entire Island. 
Connected with the Long Island 
Farmer is a modern printing 
plant, comprising three large 
cylinder presses, three jobbing 
presses and a Colt Armory 




press, three linotype machines, 
each and every machine in the 
plant run by individual motors. 
The plant has its own bindery 
and is equipped to turn out any 
job from a business card to a 
2,000-page book. This plant is 
the largest printing establish- 
ment outside of Kings County 
on Long Island, employing a 



large force of men and is strict- 
ly a union shop in every sense 
of the word. The Long Island 
Farmer also publishes the 
North Hempstead Record and 
the Oyster Bay Pilot. Mr. 
George H. Kennahan is busi- 
ness manager of the Long Is- 
land Farmer, proprietor of 
the North Hempstead Record, 
which is the Democratic paper 
of Nassau County. He is prom- 
inent in politics, a member of 
long standing of Typographical 
Union No. 6, known the world 
over as "Big Six"; a native 
Long Islander, being connected 
on his mother's side with the 
Webb and Giffing families, 
both of whom date back to the 
early settlers of Long Island. 



60 



Eagle Library— SOME PROMINENT MEN OF LONG ISLAND 



E. POST TOOKER 



No young man on Long Island 
has enjoyed a more rapid rise to 
success in his chosen profession 
than E. Post looker of Port Jef- 
ferson, head of the architectural 
and landscape engineering firm of 
looker, Marsh & Barnett, of 101 
Park avenue, Manhattan, and Port 
Jefferson, but it is a success that 
has been won in the correct way 
and is therefore permanent. 

A good old Long Island trait is 
for one's neighbors to lay aside 
jealousy and be proud of the suc- 
cess of a native son, when that 
success is obtained through honest 
endeavor and doing business in a 
way that stamps one as a good 
citizen in every way; therefore it 
is quite natural that in Port Jef- 
ferson the residents boast that Mr. 
looker "belongs to us." They say 
it with real pride, and mean it. 

There is probably no class of 
work that an architect is called 
upon to do that is subject to as 
much criticism as public work. In 
this line the architect deals with 
many minds. At first he works 
through committees, generally of 
several members. Naturally there 
are "many minds." Later, v/hen 
the building begins to ?row, the 
public in general seer .'lc full re- 
sult of the work, and again comes 
the "many minds" to be satisfied. 
When one can fully satisfy all of 
the committee members and get 
the contract, and later can hear the 
public express themselves as satis- 
fied with the final result, then is 
one entitled to be stamped a de- 
signer of the first order. Briefly 
let it be said that Mr. Tooker has 
worked chiefly on large public 
buildings and has won open ad- 
miration for originality, careful- 
ness and accuracy — his work has 
been of more than a pleasing sort. 

At present he may be referred 
to as the "designer for Suffolk 
County." A week after winning 
the contract to pmvide plans for 




the most modern and elaborate 
public cow barn and dairy building 
in the state, to be erected at the 
Suffolk Almshouse farm at Yap- 
hank, he had won the contract to 
build the most modern high school 
building in the county. This is in 
his native village of Fort Jefferson. 
The superintendent of schools says 
it is the nearest to the ideal school 
building he ever saw. Shortly 
after this he again entered the 
arena and secured the job of de- 
signing the $50,000 addition to the 
county clerk's office at Riverhead 
— three big public jobs in a small 
county in less than two months, 
and all secured from a large class 
of competitors. His friends may 
well be proud of his success. 

Mr. Tooker was born at Port 
Jefferson, November 7, 1886, the 
son of Wallace H. and Endora 
Frances Davis Tooker. In 1903 he 
graduated from the Port Jefferson 
High School. Little did he think 
then that he would within a few 
years be called upon to design a 
new building to take the place of 
the old one where he spent his 
happy school days; but for once 
this is the justness of fate. 

After leaving his home town 
school, he entered Lehigh Univer- 
sity, graduating in the class of 
1907. He is a member of the 



Kappa Sigma fraternity, Lehigh 
Club and the Kappa Sigma Club 
of New York. Leaving college, he 
started out in earnest to carve his 
name. The letters have been well 
cut and deeply set. He b'icame 
the landscape engineer for the 
Dean Alvord Co. at Belle Terra anl 
elsewhere; from 1908 to 1913 was 
landscape engineer for Charles W. 
Leavitt, Jr., and during 1913 he 
organized the firm of which he is 
at the head. Though young in 
years, the firm has already per- 
formed a vast amount of work 
with its skilled staff of assistants 
Here's a partial list: Five resi- 
dences and landscape work at Al- 
bertson, L. I.; estate of Felix VI. 
Warburg, Hartsdale, N. Y.; estate 
of Francis E. Osborne, Derby, 
Conn.; landscape engineer to the 
National Fair and Exposition As- 
sociation; fifty residences in N-^w 
ark for Andrew Radel; estate A. E. 
Atkinson, Allendale, N. J.; estate 
John G. Quinby, Brewster. N. Y.; 
estate John K. Branch, Pawling, 
N. Y.; estate Dwight J. Baum, 
Fieldstone, N. Y. ; landscape layout 
for Indiana Hospital, Indiana, Pa. 
— all in addition to the public work 
in this county mentioned above. 

Thus will it be seen that much 
of Mr. Tooker's time has been 
taken up with public work — a work 
that bears inspection and approval 
after the severest of all tests. 

One of his mottoes has been to 
first have the work right and then 
make all of those performing the 
services under him do their parts 
exactly right. This is evident from 
his bearing and his past perform- 
ances, and is one of the chief key- 
notes of success. Personally of a 
likable disposition and a genial, 
whole-souled manner, and a deter- 
mination to win success by deserv- 
ing it — these are characteristics 
that indicate a still more brilliant 
future for this prominent young 
son of Port Jefferson. 



Eagle Library— SOME PROMINENT MEN OF LONG ISLAND 



61 



ROBERT S. PELLETREAU 



Robert S. Pelletreau, one of 
the most prominent lawyers in 
Suffolk County, Long Island, 
comes from a family whose 
names are linked with the his- 
tory of Long Island. 

Mr. Pelletreau, the son of 
Jesse Woodhull Pelletreau, was 
born at East Moriches October 
1, 1867. Following his prelim- 
inary education, he entered Yale 
University from which he grad- 
uated in 1890. In 1892 he was 
admitted to the Bar of New 
York State, and the same year 
he began practice in Patchogue, 
where he has followed his pro- 
fession ever since. 

During his twenty-two years 
of practice Mr. Pelletreau has 
built up a reputation that is the 
envy of many of his less success- 
ful contemporaries. As a realty 
lawyer, he is, perhaps, the best 
known. He is a trustee and ex- 
ecutor of many estates, a director 
in many banks and institutions, 
and a member of a number of 
societies. 

Mr. Pelletreau was married in 




1895 to Mary Rogers of Bridge- 
hampton, daughter of Hiram S. 
Rogers. 

Although an orator of ability 
who has lent his voice to the in- 
terests of the Republican party, 
in which he is a firm believer, 
Mr. Pelletreau has, however, 
never sought political office. He 



is often heard at campaign meet- 
ings, and is much in demand as 
a lecturer and speaker at festive 
functions. 

Coming from an old Long Is- 
land family, Mr. Pelletreau is a 
member of the Sons of the Revo- 
lution. He is a life member in 
the Huguenot Society of New 
York and is also a life member 
of the American Bible Society. 
He is a member of the New York 
State Bar Association. He was 
for several years vice president 
of the Suffolk County Bar Asso- 
ciation, until he was elected 
president of that body on Janu- 
ary 1, 1914, in which capacity he 
is still serving. He belongs to 
the Blue Lodge and Royal Arch 
Masons. 

Mr. Pelletreau is a trustee of 
the Union Savings Bank of 
Patchogue, a director of the Citi- 
zens National Bank of the same 
place, a director of the Nassau- 
Suffolk Bond and Mortgage 
Guarantee Company, Mineola, 
and a trustee and director in 
many other institutions. 



WILLIAM J. McVAY 



• Mr. William J. McVay, who began 
his term as postmaster of Far Rock- 
away on April 1. was born in the York- 
ville section of Manhattan on April 19, 
1861. His parents, Mr. and Mrs. Pat- 
rick McVay, wisely enabled him to 
secure the advantages of a public 
school education. Upon graduating 
from the public school he entered St. 
Mary's Nautical School. When he had 
completed his course in this school he 
was one of a crew of eight young men 
selected by the captain of the school to 
man the bark "Iron. Age." The bark 
was wrecked on the coast of Java. 

Mr. McVay followed the sea for some 
time. He made seven trips on the mail 
steamer Colon to the Isthmus of Pan- 
ama, serving as quartermaster. He 
then took a post-graduate course in the 
nautical school, serving as an instruc- 
tor and earning a first mate's certi- 
ficate. 

He came to Rockaway Beach twenty- 
seven years ago and has been promi- 
nent in the social and business life of 
the section. For the greater part of 
this time he was in the employ of the 
State or the County. For eight years 
he was foreman and general foreman 
on the Queens Bureau of Highways 

anH fnr 'ipvpn vpars: Mfa<i rnnnpntpH u/ith 






.' ' \ %i 



in this department and surveyed every 
State road on Long Island. 

Mr. McVay was at one time proprie- 
tor and editor of the "Wave," a local 
newspaper of Rockaway Beach. He 
was also at one time a member of the 
reportorial staff of a Manhattan news- 
paper. 

Mr. McVay has always been active 
politically and has always been a con- 
sistent Democrat. It is agreed that 
Congressman Dennis O'Leary, in act- 
ing on the indorsement of the Queens 
County Democratic Committee and 
bringing about his appointment as post- 
master, acted in accordance with the 
wishes of the greater part of the peo- 
ple of the Rockaway section. 

Mr. McVay is married and has six 
sons. His wife was Miss Matilda 
Broadhurst. His sons are John C, 
Joseph, George, William, Theodore and 
Francis. His home is at 16 Kane ave- 
nue, Rockaway Beach. 

Several prominent organizations of 
the Rockaway section claim Postmaster 
McVay as a member. He is an Elk, a 
Forester, an Eagle and a Knight of 
Columbus. He is a member of the 
Holy Name Society of St. Rose of Lima 
j Church, of the Cardinal Players, the 

»u f. i u- u r, » 1 rv,._ ' foremost dramatic organization of his 

the State Highway Department. Dur- , ^^^.^^^ ^^ ,^g Rekawaha Democratic 
ing the SIX years immediately preced- Cut, ^„^ ^f ^^e Queens County Demo- 
ing his appointment as postmaster he cratic Committee, Volunteer Firemen's 

antpH 3*3 nn in^npptnr nf mncitriirfinn ' Orpaniyatinn Stfltp of Npw York. 





"WILLIAM J.M?VAy 



=i^f= 



62 



Eagle Library— SOME PROMINENT MEN OF LONG . ISLAND 



WOODHULL RAYNOR 



Woodhull Raynor, the only un- 
dertaker in the progressive vil- 
lage of Sayville, is a widely 
known man in his locality, not | 
only through his business, but as 
a prominent fireman and citizen. 
He has been for many years the 
chief of the Sayville Volunteer 
Fire Department, and is enthu- 
siastic in his support of any 
measure that tends to benefit 
the volunteer firemen. 

Mr. Raynor was born in Say- 
ville on October 9, 1854. He was 
the son of the late Charles L. 
Raynor, who was a member of 
an old Sayville family. Educated 
in public schools, Mr. RajTior, as 
a young man engaged in busi- 
ness with his father, who was in 
the produce business. Later he eral years. 




He entered the un- 



became interested in lumber, | dertaking business with his fa- 
following that business for sev- j ther years ago, and succeeded 



him in business. He has an up- 
to-date undertaking establish- 
ment with monumental works 
connected. 

In 1889 he was appointed post- 
master of Sayville under Presi- 
dent Benjamin Harrison. He 
made an efficient and popular 
postmaster. 

Mr. Raynor was married in 
1878 to Ella Bella Woodhull of 
Sayville, daughter of the late 
Charles A. Woodhull and Anna 
Greene Woodhull. Mr. and Mrs. 
RajTior have six children. 

For several years Mr. Raynor 
has been chief of the Sayville 
Fire Department. He was re- 
elected at the annual election this 
year and now stands at the head 
of the local fire fighters. He is 
a member of the Roj^al Arcanum 
and the Odd Fellows. 



JOHN T. DARE 



John T. Dare, postmaster of the 
thriving village of Patchogue, is prob- 
ably the most efficient postmaster the 
village has ever had, and as a result, 
his record at Washington won for him 
a reappointment regardless of other 
party indorsements in 1912. 

Mr. Dare is a native Long Islander, 
born at Stony Brook, May 5, 1870, the 
son of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph R. Dare of 
that place. 

He came to Patchogue in 1881, where 
he entered the Patchogue High School, 
of which he is a graduate. Following 
his education he entered the law of- 
fice of Arlington H. Carman and took 
up the study of law, which he intended 
to be his life profession. He later en- 
tered the office of the late Justice of 
the Supreme Court Wilmot M. Smith, 
where he remained until his health 
broke down, and he had to retire from 
the confining office. 




He served for six years as secretary 
of the Patchogue Board of Education, 
and has held other positions of honor 
and trust. 

In 1896 Mr. Dare was appointed as- 
sistant postmaster of Patchogue under 
the postmaster, Charles E. Rose, who 
was a Democrat, although Mr. Dare is 



I a Republican. He served in that posi- 
tion until 1908, when he was appointed 
j postmaster. He was reappointed by 

I President Taft in 1912 solely upon his 

I 

! merits of efficiency and without po- 

! litical backing. His term expires in 

1916. 
Mr. Dare is a charter member of the 

Union Hook and Ladder Company, was 
i a substitute member of the famous old 
i "Honey Bee" Cortipany, and a member 
; of the Exempt Firemen's Association. 
! He is an enthusiastic vamp. He is a 
j member of South Side Lodge No. 493, 
i F. & A. M., and also belongs to the Odd 
' Fellows, Woodmen, Junior Mechanics 
' and other fraternities. 

He was married October, 1899, to 
j Lucille Gillette Roe, daughter of Mr. 
I and Mrs. Thomas R. Roe of Patchogue. 

Mr. and Mrs. Dare have two children, 

George Roe Dare, 14, and Norma Lu- 
I cille Dare, 6 years of age. 



Eagle Library— SOME PROMINENT MEN OF LONG ISLAND 



63 



HORACE GREELEY KNAPP, A. I. A., Architect 



A Few Press Clippings 
Concerning 

Horace Greeley Knapp 

Architect 
New York City 

From the N. Y. Jonrnallst. 

Horace Greeley Knapp. architect, laid 
the foundation of his rapid and continu- 
ous success in thorough training and 
practical experience. He was a master 
builder at 18, a member of the American 
Institute of Architects when scarcely 21, 
and soon thereafter originated the scien- 
tific system of building construction 
which now bears his name and is popular 
in all parts of the world. 



From tbe N. Y. Scientific Times. 

Mr. Horace Greeley Knapp is an archi- 
tect of rare originality and skill, whose 
beautiful buildings dot the landscape in 
almost eyery State in the Union, stamp- 
ing their author as one of the master 
minds of that noble profession. 



From the AVyomlns (Illinois) Herald. 

The handsomest buildings in Northern 
Illinois were designed by Mr. Horace 
Greeley Knapp. They may be called 
truly the Knapp style, and are a good 
study for those interested in architecture. 



From the <\. Y.) Home Journal. 

The buildings do credit to the skill and 
taste of the architect. Mr. Horace Greeley 
Knapp. to whose thorough knowledge of 
his art and fine perceptions of the fitting 
and becoming some of our suburbs owe 
so much of their architectural beauty 
and good taste in landscape embellish- 
ments. 




From the Toledo Chronicle. 

Some of the most beautiful buildings 
we have seen were designed by Mr. Hor- 
ace Greeley Knapp. He is an architect 
of very superior ability, and 'we do not 
believe his work can be surpassed. 



From the Centrevllle, Md., Record. 

Maryland is indebted to Architect 
Knapp for many of its best and most 
beautiful buildings. There were some 
individuals who would not vote for the 
original Horace Greeley for President, but 
everybody will vote that Horace Greeley 
Knapp is a first-class architect. 



From the Mannfncturer and Bnllder. 

Mr. Horace Greeley Knapp is an archi- 
tect of superior ability. 



From the Bujtnlo Courier. 

Mr. H. G. Knapp. one of our brightest 
and best architects, has successfully 
solved the problem of a perfect portable 
building system. 



From the New York Press. 

Mr. Horace Greeley Knapp is the 
genius who has given us such gems of 
architecture, and whose creations are so 
in harmony with the surroundings of na- 
ture. The marvel is how Mr. Knapp com- 
bines the elegance and workmanship of 
a costly structure in buildings of very 
moderate cost. 



From the Jewish Messenger. 

HORACE GREELEY KNAPP, 

Architect. 

The distinguishing characteristics and 
established rules of practice of this able 
and talented architect have met with 
widespread appreciation during the past 
eighteen years, and conspicuously illus- 
trate the value of a thorough, practical, 
and theoretical training united with ar- 
tistic feeling and a faithful devotion to 
both patrons and profession. Buildings 
erected from Mr. Knapp's designs have 
i7ivariably sustained a valuation far in 
advance of their cost. This is accom- 
plished by scientific and skilled con- 
struction, originality, and artistic excel- 
lence, without extra cost ; personal and 
prompt attention to every detail ; active 
and thorough supervision, with practical 
experience and skill to execute as well 
as direct ; clear and explicit specifica- 
tions and full-sized working details. 



STEPHEN P. PETITT 



Stephen Petitt, Sheriff of Nassau I expanse of lawn. The jail, over his office. He is well and favor- 
County, holding this important of-! which Sheriff Petitt presides, is a j ably known to the residents of the 

i 
fice and fulfilling its many arduous | model prison in every sense of the 

duties to the satisfaction of all. 1 word, and one larger communities 



county, who find, in having busi- 
ness with the sheriff's office, their 



Nassau County Courthouse and jail 
are buildings any county might 



could well pattern after. Sheriff i matters are handled with dispatch 



Petitt has to his credit of perform- 



well be proud of. The courthouse, I ing his many duties (some of 
presenting a beautiful appearance, 1 which are necessarily bound to be 
is situated in the midst of a wide I unpleasant) in a manner befitting 



and in an intelligent manner by 
the Sheriff and all his efficient staff 
under him. 



64 



Eagle Library— SOME PROMINENT MEN OF LONG ISLAND 



CHARLES H. REDFIELD 



"A man who can make such a success 
of his private life and private business 
ought to make a good public official," 
said the electorate of Southampton town- 
ship in the spring of 1913, so they prompt- 
ly chose Charles H. Redfield of West- 
hampton Beach to head their town gov- 
ernment and represent them on the 
Board of Supervisors. Taking a back- 
ward glance now and carefully mentally 
itemizing his very business-like admin- 
istration and noting his square, open and 
above-board way of doing things, they 
are inclined to congratulate themselves 
on their wisdom. 

In discussing Mr. Redfield we have 
another case of Brooklyn and eastern 
Long Island swapping good men — Suf- 
folk County born men go to the City of 
Churches and make good ; Brooklyn's 
sons come to Suffolk County and do like- 
wise. Mr. Redfield was born in Brooklyn, 
April 16. 1S70. the son of Edwin H. and 
Carrie Cullum Redfield of Sag Harbor, 
citizens of whom Sag Harbor had Just 
cause to be proud, because of many ex- 
cellent traits of citizenship. Charles H. 
moved to Sag Harbor when 9 years old. 
There he spent his boyhood, attending 
school under that well-known instructor, 
the Rev. John J. Harrison, whose mem- 
ory is revered by many Suffolk County 
"boys." Subsequently, Mr. Redfield en- 
tered the employ of the Fahys Company 
and learned the engraver's trade, work- 
ing as an expert in that profession for 
several years, filling positions in Phila- 
delphia, Trenton and elsewhere, as well 
as in Sag Harbor. 

Seventeen years ago it occurred to him 




^X 



/^"^ ' 



if 










'f^ 


i 




^ifl m 






WP 








0.wJ«n 


JHW 


^ J^-A W.S 


S JWXMCM- 


~i 



!i. 



that he wanted a business of his own. 
so he learned the plumbing business and 
entered into partnership with William S. 
Grimshaw, establishing a business at 
Westhampton Beach. By strict applica- 
tion to business and square dealing with 
the public, the business prospered from 
the start. It is now one of the biggest 
and best known in the county. It exe- 



cuted the big contract at Suffolk's new 
Jail ; it has the big contract for the new 
school at Port Jefferson. These two 
alone are sufficient to Illustrate the size 
of the business. * 

Practically ever since he first went to 
Westhampton Beach he has been one of 
the prominent men there, taking an ac- 
tive part in every good work that seeks 
as its end the advancement of the vil- 
lage. For years he was a member of 
the Board of Education, Is now a fire- 
man. Is Interested in the development 
of real estate, and. generally speaking, 
is a part and parcel of the civic as well 
as the political and governmental ma- 
chinery of the town. Fraternally, he is 
prominent in the Masonic orders, belong- 
ing to Riverhead Lodge, Suwasset Chap- 
ter. Patchogue; was a charter member 
of Patchogue Commandery, and belongs 
to Kismet Temple. He is also a membei 
of the Mechanics and the Oddfellows. 

He married Lena Heidlngsfeldcr of 
Manhattan. They have no children. 

As a member of the Supervisors he not 
only looks carefully after the interests 
of his town constituents, but of the 
whole county. He is a member of the 
most important committees — Repair .\nd 
Supplies and Roads — and is extremely 
valuable in both. As to classification, he 
is a Democrat, but with him politics 
come last when the public's business is 
being considered. He has a pleasing t.er- 
sonallty that converts an acquaintince 
into a friend, and this knack, coupled 
with his business ability, makes a man 
to whom, it is reasonable to except, the 
public will give further him.irs. 



JAMES EARLY 



rn selecting clerks for the large and 
prosperous town of Southampton, there 
has been an unbroken record of suc- 
cesses for over 250 years. Not the 
least of these successes came when 
James A. Early of Sag Harbor was 
chosen in that capacity in the spring 
of 1913. Southampton is peopled by 
a steady-going, conservative class, who 
look before they leap, who consider 
well character and fitness before 
they elect, and who naturally, because 
of their pure Americanism, believe in 
"by their work ye shall know them." 
And that's how they know Mr. Early 
and that's why they believe in him — 
because they had closely followed his 
career from boyhood and believed he 
would serve the town well. He has. 

Mr. Early was born in the good old 
town of Sag Harbor on August 11, 
1881, a son of Thomas and Bridget 
Early, citizens held in high regard for } 
their sterling qualities, and who 
reared their family in that careful way: 
that impresses on them the necessity j 
of a strict adherence to moral virtues i 
if one would reach the most success- 1 
ful goals in life. Starting out with that 
equipment, it is not surprising that we 
find the subject of this sketch holding 
important positions in early manhood I 




and being honored by carefully critical 
neighbors. 

Mr. Early's schooling was received ' 
in the Sag Harbor Parochial School 
and in that broader school of mingling 
closely with the public, absorbing and 
exchanging ideas by keeping eyes and 
ears open. Reaching his majority, he 
affiliated himself with the Democratic 
party and did much good work for that 
political cause. His temperament is 
genial to the last degree without being 
burdensome; he is broadminded and 



charitable without self consciousness. 
Seven years "on the road" in commer- 
cial lines made him a close student of 
human nature, and being quick in in- 
tellect he was able to turn his knowl- 
edge to good account when the occa- 
sion demanded. Naturally, a man with 
these attainments and one living the 
good life he had lived, is popular where 
best known, so when he was nomi- 
nated for Town Clerk in a big Republi- 
can town to defeat C. Arthur Payne it 
was confidently believed by his friends 
that he could accomplish the trick, and 
he did. Since taking charge of the of- 
fice he has accomplished many reforms 
for the benefit of the town, and the 
people generally are glad they put him 
there. 

Another remarkable instance of pub- 
lic honor came a few days after his 
selection as Town Clerk when the 
Supervisors, representing ten towns, 
picked him from a large class of aspi- 
rants for the important job of Clerk of 
the Supervisors. This position is not 
only a most important one, but the 
work is arduous and intricate, yet Mr. 
Early is performing his duties in a 
way so capable to the Board that he 
has just been re-elected for another 
term. 



Eagle Library— SOME PROMINENT MEN OF LONG ISLAND 



65 



CAMPBELL & DEMPSEY 



A history of Suffolk County would 
be far from complete without reference 
to the work of Campbell & Dempsey in 
erecting public buildings. Although 
not to the "manner born" these men are 
almost as well known personally 
throughout the county as some of the 
native sons; and in passing it can be 
said that they are thoroughly known 
by reputation, and a mighty good repu- 
tation at that. 

The headquarters of the firm is in 
Kingston. There they are rated as 
among the best contractors — wood, 
steel, concrete, brick or stone — in that 
city. There their reputation is of long 
standing, and it has well stood the test 
of time and critics. It has been the 
good fortune of many private concerns 
to employ them in structural work that 
required accuracy, skill and a con- 
scientious application to duty. 

This firm first came into prominence 
in Suffolk County about three years 
ago when it secured a contract to build 
the county "quarter-million palace jail" 
at Riverhead. Although the county seat 
contains many excellent and modern 
buildings, there are none that com- 
pares with the jail. It is declared by 
competent critics to be the last word in 
prison construction; it is declared to 



I be the most modern jail in America to- 
j day. It is a beautiful building inside 

and out. Since its completion hun- 
I dreds of prominent people, many of 
, them officials from distant places, have 

visited and closely inspected the plant, 
I and nothing but words of praise have 
I been heard, particularly as to the ex- 
i cellence of the construction. Grand 

juries have placed an official O. K. 
I upon it, and have publicly commended 
I the builders for giving so much value 
' for the money. 

These contractors think nothing of 

taking hold of a $250,000 contract. 

Their reputation is such that the usual 

bonds are quickly supplied them. Their 

intimate knowledge of every branch of 
i building construction work is of prime 
I importance to those who engage them, 
i for there is the assurance that these 
I men carefully look after every detail. 
' The firm is constantly employed on 
j big jobs. Often they have several jobs 
I under way at the same time, while the 
j contractors themselves travel back and 
; forth between them constantly, giving 

instructions to their equally capable 
I foremen. They are called to all parts 
j of the State to execute work of an ex- 
[ acting nature. They have built bank 



buildings and churches and schools, 
and big private residences, as well as 
business blocks and jails. Speaking of 
jails, it is pertinent here to add that 
the handsome jail at Monticello, Sulli- 
van County, and the one at Poughkeep- 
sie were both recently erected by the 
Campbell & Dempsey firm. 

Returning to their part in the history 
of Suffolk it is interesting to note that 
while this is being written they are 
erecting the county's most modern 
school house — the Port Jefferson High 
School — which is to cost nearly SlOO,- 
000, and they are also erecting the 
large addition to the Suffolk County 
Clerk's office, to cost about $50,000. 
In these two latter jobs the work so far 
done is spoken of as comparing very 
favorably with the completed jail at 
Riverhead. And when these are com- 
pleted the Campbell & Dempsey firm 
will need no further recommendations 
to Suffolk County people as builders 
of skill and conscience. 

Both members of the firm are per- 
sonally popular wherever known, and 
make friends by the score — friendships 
cemented by a jovial nature and a well 
grounded impression of strict honesty 
and square dealing. 



S. F. ROBINSON 



Samuel F. Robinson, Supervisor 
of the Town of Brookhaven, is a 
member of a historic Long Island 
family. Mr. Robinson is promi- 
nent as a business man, and in 
public office he has shown himself 
to be in favor of business admin- 
istration of the people's affairs. 

Mr. Robinson was born in East 
Patchogue in 1870. He is a son 
of the late Terry Robinson, and 
up to his death a few years ago 
was associated with him in busi- 
ness. Mr. Robinson and his father 
were the first of Long Islanders 
to engage in the artificial manu- 
facture of ice, and in that business 
the firm has been most successful. 
In 1893 Mr. Robinson married Ada 
Tuttle of Wading River. They 
have no children of their own, but 




they have one adopted daughter. 
Mr. Robinson's entrance into 
politics was in 1911, when he was 
elected overseer of the poor of 
Brookhaven Town. He served in 
that office efficiently, and while he 
was always mindful of the eco- 



nomic interests of the taxpayers, 
yet he ever had an open ear and 
open heart to the appeal of the 
real needy. 

The spring of 1913 found Mr. 
Robinson a candidate for super- 
visor on the Democratic ticket, and 
he was elected. During his term 
of office he has manifested an in- 
terest in the economic and efficient 
administration of the people's 
business, and directly as a result 
of his work several needed reforms 
have been made. He was a leader 
in the fight against paying out the 
town's money for poorly construct- 
ed state roads, and the result has 
been that some indictments and 
convictions have been found, and 
the people of Brookhaven vindi- 
cated. 



66 



Eagle Library— SOME PROMINENT MEN OF LONG ISLAND 



DR. FREDERICK CHARLES MERRITT 



Dr. Frederick Charles Mer- 
ritt, for twenty-two years a 
practicing physician and sur- 
geon, whose residence and office 
is now at Sayville, is well known 
among Long Island's prominent 
physicians. He has a large prac- 
tice extending from Blue Point 
to Islip. 

Dr. Merritt was born in 
Waterford, Ontario, Canada, on 
July 4, 1868, the son of Dr. 
Joseph A. Merritt and Sarah 
Mariah Dolson Merritt. Fol- 
lowing in his father's footsteps, 
he had a liking for the medical 
profession, and following his 
preparatory education at the 
Collegiate Institute, Toronto, he 
entered the University of Trinity 
College, Toronto, where he took 
up the study of medicine. He 
was a keen student and had a 




special leaning toward the sur- 
gical science of his profession. 

He graduated from Trinity 
with honors in 1892, and at once 
entered the General Hospital in 
Toronto, where he served as in- 
terne for one year. 

In 1893 Dr. Merritt came to 



Long Island seeking restoration 
for his broken health. He served 
for a time as a surgeon at the 
Kings Park State Hospital, and 
later he came to Sayville, where 
he started the building of his 
present large praltice. 

Dr. Merritt was married in 
1906 to Evelyn Woods of Brook- 
lyn, daughter of John A. Woods, 
; corporation counsel of the West- 
inghouse Electric Company. 
They have no children. 

Dr. Merritt is a Mason and an 
Odd Fellow. He is also medical 
examiner of the Royal Arcanum. 
He is a member of the Suffolk 
County Medical Society, the As- 
sociated Physicians of Long Is- 
land, the New York State Med- 
ical Society, the American Med- 
ical Association and the Cana- 
dian Club of New York. 



Hiram R. Smith, Supervisor of 
Hempstead Town, is a resident of Free- 
port, wliere lie has lived all his life. 
He was elected to the Board of Super- 
visors on the 15th of March, 1913, as 
the candidate of the Republican party, 
despite the fact that the Progressives 
also had a candidate. He was instru- 
mental, to a great degree, in securing 
the preferential primaries, and the first 
held in New York State were the pri- 
maries in Hempstead Town at which 
he was nominated for the office of 
supervisor. He has always taken a 
keen interest in governmental affairs, 
and is considered one of the leaders of 
thought in Nassau County. In private 
life he is a banker, and until a few 
weeks ago was the president of a well- 
known financial institution of Rock- 
ville Centre. He retired from this 



HIRAM R. SMITH 

position owing to the stress of public 
business, but the directors insisted 
upon his retaining an interest in the 
institution and he was urged to become 
chairman of the board of directors, 
which position he reluctantly consented 
to take. He has large real estate hold- 
ings on the south side of Hempstead 
Town, and is one of the leading men 
of affairs in that section of Nassau 
County. Prior to his incumbency of 
the office of supervisor he was keenly 
interested in educational matters, and 
for fourteen years was a member of 
the Freeport Board of Education. The 
latter part of his term of service he 
was chairman of the board. In ad- 
dition to his service in the cause of 
education, he is well known as a philan- 
thropist. As vice president of the Nas- 
sau Hospital Association he is well 



known to the residents of Nassau 
County. This position has occupied 
a great portion of his time, but not- 
withstanding his numerous activities 
he has devoted himself unselfishly to 
the interests of the Nassau Hospital. 
Two years ago when a financial cam- 
paign was being made for that insti- 
tution he gave up weeks of his time. 
Since his incumbency of the office of 
supervisor he has made a study of road 
conditions. Hempstead is the largest 
and richest town in New York State, 
and the upkeep of the roads is the vital 
question. Although not familiar with 
road building, Supervisor Smith has 
made an earnest study of the condi- 
tions and when his term of office will 
be completed the Town of Hempstead 
will have a thoroughly modern system 
of roads. 



Eagle Library— SOME PROMINENT MEN OF LONG ISLAND 



67 



LeRoy J. Weed of Garden City is an 
up-State man, but to use his own ex- 
pression, "A Long Islander by choice." 
He was born in Schenectady and was 
graduated from Union College. After 
the completion of his college course 
he engaged in the school book business 
and is very well known to the school 
men not only of Nassau County but 
throughout the State. His political as- 
pirations have been with a view of 
securing better educational facilities, 
and in this he has had the support of 
the school men of the county. In fact, 
it was at their solicitation that he be- 
came a candidate for the Assembly, 
when the Progressive party was organ- 
ized he was one of the original organ- 
izers and has been a consistent member 
of the party ever since. He was a can- 
didate for the office of assessor on the 
Progressive ticket in the spring of 1 



LE ROY J. WEED 

1913, and although defeated ran far 
ahead of his ticket. Last fall at the 
earnest solicitation of his friends he 
became the candidate of his narty for 
the Assembly and was subsequently 
indorsed by the Democratic party. Al- 
though his opponent was Controller 
John Lyon, one of the most popular 
and strongest men in Nassau County, 
he was elected by a handsome plural- 
ity. His career in the Assembly has 
been an eventful one. Representing as 
he does the Democratic and Progres- 
sive parties with greatly divergent in- 
terests, so tactful has he been that he 
will no doubt receive a renomination 
from the Democratic party. He has 
been the author of many very striking 
articles of legislation, and his cham- 
pionship of a county commission for 
the revision of the government of 
Nassau County has endeared him to 



the residents of the county. What has 
brought him particularly to the atten- 
tion of the taxpayers of the county was 
his attempt to remove the administra- 
tion of water district from the realm of 
politics. The water systems of the 
county are supported by the taxpayers, 
and he will have the undivided support 
of the property owners of the county. 
Mr. Weed has made great sacrifices to 
serve the people of the county, and his 
constant devotion to the duties of the 
office has necessitated his absence 
from his business. He is doubtful 
about becoming a candidate for the of- 
fice again, but a non-partisan organi- 
zation has been formed with the 
avowed purpose of securing his re- 
election. He may be prevailed upon 
to again become the candidate. He re- 
sides in a pretty home in Garden City 
with his wife and children. 



HARRY B. HOWELL 





It Is an acknowledged fact that bank- 
ing Institutions have played an Import- 
ant part In the development of Suffolk 
County. They go hand in hand with 
Its prosperity. Speaking of banks, one 
that naturally comes first to mind, be- 
cause of its size and standing, is the 
Suffolk County National of Riverhead. 
and in thinking of this bank the name 
of Harry B. Howell, its efficient cashier. 
Is immediately linked with it, because 
of his prominence In the banking world 
of the county. 

Mr. Howell is a native son of River- 
head, and the village is proud of it. 
He is one of the country boys who 
has stayed at home and made good in 
many different ways, and in making 
good personally he has also been ma- 
terially responsible for the wonderful 
growth of the bank with which he Is 
connected. 

He has been associated with the bank 
almost from the time it opened its doors 
in 1892, first as assistant cashier and 
for several years as cashier. Though 
bearing the title of assistant, he was 
virtually the "head and tail" of the bank 
in those early days. The institution pros- 
pered mightily from the very beginning. 
Even many of the directors will say that 
Its commanding position now is most 
largely due to Mr. Howell's pleasing per- 
sonality and business capabilities. In 
fact the bank has prospered so greatly 
under his management that it has paid 
15 per cent, annually to the lucky stock- dent of Brooklyn. The subject of this 

i^^^Vi ,, . - sketch was born November 18, 1866. His 

Mr. Howell Is a son of Benjamin F. , education was obtained only In the high 
"°r of '*'**°„^ promment^rnanhere, and | schools of his village. Always courteous, 
•nr /^ o „„„ » „ .,, ,. _  alwBys Smilingly optimistic, always with 




who at one time was a well-known resi- 



a hand ready and a heart eager to help 
one in distress, it is little wonder that 
he became one of the most popular young 
men in the village. With the same quali- 
fications becoming more pronounced as he 
accumulated years it is again little won- 
der that he became popular as a busi- 
ness man, and that prosperity smiled on 
his business efforts. Aside from making 
a success in the banking line he en- 
gages in a wholesale fish and retail 
store business at Montauk, as the head 
of the Montauk Fish and Supply Company, 
which is also eminently successful un- 
der his management. Likewise he be- 
came a realty investor, and has been suc- 
cessful in that, too. 

In 1907 he was elected Supervisor of 
the town of Riverhead on the Repub- 
lican ticket. His majority was the largest 
ever given to any candidate in his town. 
It was a fitting recognition of his popu- 
larity and qualifications. He served two 
years with distinctive credit to himself 
and his town's affairs were most care- 
fully looked after. He declined a re- 
nomination. For many years he was 
treasurer of the Suffolk County Agricul- 
tural Society, and a manager of that so- 
ciety's big fair. He resigned that po- 
sition to give more time to his private 
business and the bank. 

His wife was Miss Frances B. Wells, 
who also formerly lived in Brooklyn. 
They have no children. Generally speak- 
ing, Mr. Howell has for many years 
taken a most active interest in all the 
civic and social affairs of the town and 
village, and is considered one of the most 
prominent citizens. His acquaintance is 
a delightful one to possess, and he num- 
bers intimate friends by the score. His 
great drawing card of personal popularity 
is in meeting all, rich or poor, on tile 
level and acting on the square. 

Fraternally he has held various of- 
fices in Riverhead Lodge, F. and A. M., 
and is also an Odd Fellow. 



68 



Eagle Library— SOME PROMINENT MEN OF LONG ISLAND 



LEMUEL B. GREEN 

Justice of the Peace L. B. Green ot Pat- 
choffue, one of Long Island's prominent men, 
was bom at Belmar, N. J., on January 26, 
1856. He was the son of the late Samuel M. 
and Deborah Qreen of Brooklyn. 

At the age of 4 years he went with his 
parents to Montpelier, Surry County, Va., 
where his parents had a plantation. His 
father was mortally wounded in the Battle of 
Gettysburg. 

In 1S68 he came North and located at Hemp- 
stead, L. I. He entered newspaper work as a. 
compositor In the spring of 1876, and later 
became associate editor of the Suffolk County 
Journal, then published at Northport. In Sep- 
tember, 1884, he established the Patchogue 
Argus, a live weekly paper, ot which he Is 
still owner and editor. 

Judge Green took a keen Interest in politics 
as a young man, always leaning toward the 
principles of the Democratic party. Although 
he has always loyally supported his party In 
his newspaper, he has never permitted It to be 
a party organ where public welfare was In 
jeopardy. He has never sought political office 

His only public office Is the one which he 




now holds as justice of the peace and to 
which he was elected five years ago. His pres- 
ent term expires on December 31 of this year. 
He ran fifty votes ahead of his ticket In his 
own election district. 

Judge Green was married In ISSO, on No- 
vember 24, to Minnie Bunce of Northport. 
They have two sons. Arthur P. Green and 
Alden W. Green, both of whom are associated 
with their father In the newspaper business. 
Judge Green has been an officer In the New 
York State Press Association, New York State 
Democratic Association, and Is president of 
the Suffolk County Press Association. He Is 
a member of the Masonic order and for sixteen 
years was secretary of South Side Lodge No. 
403. F. & A. M., and secretary of Suwassett 
Chapter No. 195, Royal Arch Masons, for fif- 
teen years. He Is a charter member of Pat- 
chogue Commandery No. 65. Knights Templar, 
and Is a member of Kismet Temple, A. A. O. 
N. M. S. of Brooklyn. He has served aa 
district deputy grand master of the Odd Fel- 
lows of the First District, and In that office 
formed the Second District of Suffolk County. 
He belongs to other fraternities. He is a 
member of Engine Hose Company of Patchogue, 
and has been its treasurer for twenty-one 
years. He is enthusiastic in his support of 
anything that tends to promote the interests of 
the volunteer fire fighters. He Is also a 
member of the executive committee of the New 
York State Waterways Association. 



When the Suffolk County Shellfish HT 4 ¥ I * nV 
Commissioners learned, in 1904, through I W Al .1  Al K 
a legislative act, that It was necessary " r^LiLil-L\yRj 

to employ a skilled engineer to make ' 
maps of the vast waters of Gardiner's 
and Peconic bays and their tributaries 
for the purpose of plotting the val- 
uable oyster grounds and the natural 
shell beds of those bays, they selected 
Wallace H. Halsey of Bridgehampton to 
do the work. It was soon found that 
their selection was a wise one. Indeed. 
For two years he worked under the di- 
rection of Erastus F. Post, then he was 
made the official county engineer of shell 
fisheries, a position that he still holds 
with credit to himself and the county 
He has charge of 40,000 acres of oyster 
lands and 35,000 acres of natural lands. 
The work necessary to prepare the maps 
was intricate and arduous, yet he ac- 
complished it with an ease that betokens 
his sidll and the charts and maps fur- 
nished tiie county are models of ac- 
curacy, prepared in such a way as to 
be readily understood by even a "layman. 
The service he performed for the county 
has been valuable indeed. 

In addition to this work, Mr. Halsev, 




as a skilled engineer, has a large pri- 
vate practice. He has held many im- 
portant positions in his profession. For- 
merly he was connected with Peter 
Elbert Nostrand, the present county su- 
perintendent of roads. He is chief en- 
gineer for the Devon Estates at Amagan- 
sett. For a time he was one of the 
leading engineers in the construction of 
the joint sewer in New Jersey. Still 
again he was a special engineer for 
the Conser\'atlon Commission. These are 
but a few of the important posts he has 
held, but which speak well of his flt- 
' ness In the engineering Iworld. Otto 
W. Van Tuyl Is one of his chief assist- 
ants, the two making a team that lead 
in their profession. Mr. Halsey also 
maintains an office at Greenport as well 
as Bridgehampton. 

He was born at Bridgehampton, July 
4, 1S81, the son of C. E. and Isabel 
Haines Halsey, and was educated prlncl- 
pally at the Bridgehampton Academy. In 
(January, 1911, he married Elizabeth 
I Barnes of Amagansett. He has a wide 
acquaintance, is personally popular, and 
Is regarded as a citizen of the highest 
type. 



ROBERT E. BISHOP 

Town Clerk of the town of Brookhaven, Suffolk County, is now serving his sec- 
ond term, first taking office April 15, 1911. Mr. Bishop is a native of Long Island and 
one of Patchogue's progressive business men, being the proprietor of large bottling 
works. Mr. Bishop has to his credit the fact that both times he has run for office of 
running far ahead of his ticket. 



ELKANAH S. ROBINSON 



Elkanah S. Robinson, postmaster of 
Centre Moriches, comes from an old 
Long Island family, and Mr. Robin- 
son's name is a familiar one on the 
pages of the public records of Brook- 
haven Town. He has held several im- 
portant public offices and is widely 
known throughout the town. 

Mr. Robinson was born in Centre 
Moriches in 1851. He is the son of 
Hiram Robinson, now enjoying good 
health at the age of 91. His mother 
is dead. Mr. Robinson was educated 
in public schools at Centre Moriches. 



free life on Great South Bay, he be- 
came a bayman as a young man. He 
acquired a knowledge of conservation 
and supply that made him a popular 
candidate for a member of the Town 
Board of Trustees, whose duty it is to 
regulate town property and public 
waters, and he was elected to that body 
in 1892. He served as a member for 
six years, his final term expiring in 
1898. 

In 1898 Mr. Robinson was elected 
Highway Commissioner of the Town 
of Brookhaven. He served in that office 



On May 24, 1912, Mr. Robinson was 
appointed postmaster of the village of 
Centre Moriches, and his term will ex- 
pire in 1916. 

Mr. Robinson married Sarah M. 
Baker of East Moriches in 1874. They 
have five children, all living. Mr. 
Robinson is a member of the Odd 
Fellows. He has been an elder in the 
Presbyterian Church for forty years, 
having been ordained at the age of 22. 
He is associated in various lines of 
village improvement work and served 
as President of the Village Improve- 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



69 






Be a Lifter 
Not a Leaner! 



Spend some hours each week getting capital 
in your head where nobody can steal it from you. 
Read good books like The Brooklyn Daily Eagle 
Almanac and all The Eagle Libraries as they ap- 
pear each month. 

Get a good insight into everything worth 

knowing at a cost of only ^1.50 a year for a 

year's subscription to all the libraries, including 

the high-class and very instructive Eagle Almanac. 

Be a lifter, not a leaner. People will soon 
see that you have a good head on your shoulders 
and they will seek your opinion about different 
happenings; your family will look to you for the 
good, sensible advice you will be able to give, and 
your neighbors, your employer and acquaintances 
will all respect you. 

Try a year's subscription to The Eagle 
Libraries. 



•^^^ 



9C^ 



70 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



PATCHOGUE GARAGE COMPANY 




is situated at North Ocean avenue and Oak street, a few feet north of Main street. 
They are the selling agents for the Cadillac, Case and Ford cars, which can be delivered 
immediately. Mr. J. A. Udall, jr., is president and treasurer. Mr. S. L. Tuthill, man- 
ager. The business is conducted in the most modern style and the garage is equipped 
with every improvement. They carry a full line of supplies. Expert mechanics are 
employed on repair work. Ample room for storage in the garage, which is fireproof. 
Up-to-date cars can be rented with competent chauffeurs, at moderate rates. Here the 
automobilist touring the Island will find perfect service and satisfaction. 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



71 



THE CLARENCE M. ROGERS COMPANY 




At Sayville, Long Island, is located the new automobile garage of the Clarence M. 
Rogers Company, erected about a year and a half ago. It is on the Merrick road, that 
great highway of automobilists touring Long Island. The garage is equipped with all 
the modern and latest improvements, and has constantly in attendance expert mechan- 
icians. The Rogers Company are the agents of the famous Ford cars, carrying in stock 
always from 12 to 20, thus insuring instant delivery, and report they are delivering a car 
a day. This is undoubtedly the best equipped garage on Long Island, and is the only 
one you meet on the Merrick road after leaving Sayville, until you reach Patchogue. 
The new State road now being built will pass directly in front of their door. Auto- 
mobilists using the Parkway, and upon reaching Ronkonkoma and following Lakeland 
avenue, will lead them directly into the Merrick road at Sayville, from which they can 
continue their journey the entire length to the South Shore. 



72 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



CENTRAL HOTEL 

PATCHOGUE 

The Central Hotel location on Main Street, directly opposite the Postoffice, has 
been established over 40 years and is the best known hostelry to commercial men on 
Long Island. Here all the boys put up. The present proprietor, Mr. Fred C. Thurber, 
has been the host for the past eleven years, and is one good, genial fellow, making you 
feel at home from the time you register until you settle. The Central Hotel entertains 
many automobile parties touring the Island and one is insured a good meal at prices 
that you do not have to sell the car to pay for the dinner checks, as is the case with 
many road resorts. The rooms are large and airy, well screened and comfortable. The 
Great South Bay is only a mile away, easily reached by permanent guests by stage or 
trolley, running every few minutes. Mr. Thurber is an enthusiastic yatchsman and has 
the reputation of being the most skilled sailor of ice boats in the country, his scooter, 
"The Eagle," holding the championship of the Great South Bay. Mr. Thurber is 
Commodore of the Scooter Club, and the coming winter will see him competing with 
the cracks of the Shrewsbury. 



1680 JAMAICA. 




. 463 Fulton Street, 

<dAMAICA,N.Y. 



Art in Portraiture 
Scientific Lighting 
Artistic Posing 
Snappy Styles 



ESTABLISHED 
12 YEARS 



Legal, Commercial, 
Architectural, Landscape 
and Flashlight 
Photography 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 73 



Farmhouse for rent, on Huntington Bay — $500 season. 

FOR SALE 

A farm of 106 acres, near Greenlawn Station; views of the Sound and 
Ocean, at $350 an acre. 

Farm of 112 acres near Huntington Station; fine, level, fertile fields, 
with excellent building site. Price $350 an acre. 

Five-acre farm at West Hills. All kinds of fruit. Price moderate. 

Fifteen room house, located on Huntington Bay, with two acres of 
land; bathing and dock privileges. Price ^18, 500. Rent $900. 

For sale on Huntington Harbor, a boathouse lot, with 50-foot shore 
front. 

For sale, beautiful building plots, located on high ground, in Hunting- 
ton village. 

Oyster Bay Cove — Fine farms of 65 acres each, high elevation; lake 
on property. 

RICHARD M. CONKLIN AGENCY 

Box 375, Huntington, L. I. 



TliMOTHY F. SCUDDER 

SIGN PAINTER 

Auto and Carriage Painting 



NEW YORK AVENUE 

Opposite L. I. Express Office 

HUNTINGTON, L. I. 



74 Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 

Telephone, 358-M Huntington P. 0. Box 129, Huntington, N. Y. 

J. H. HEMINGWAY 




Oils '^ —^ ™_ ^ Gasoline 

Greases iliife?.^.^-^ .^.^ '"^^^^ . Ejs Batteries 



Soaps V^ '"^^^MJMlBiBKkii Etc., Etc. 



Steam Vulcanizing and Garage 

AUTOMOBILE SUPPLIES 

NEW YORK AVE., HUNTINGTON, L. I. 

CYLINDERS CLEANED BY THE NEW OXYGEN CARBON PROCESS 



TELEPHONE 138 



J. B. F. THOMSON 
Plumbing 



AND 



Heating 



Main Street Huntington, N. Y. 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 75 



J. D. MARTENS 

WHITESTONE, LONG ISLAND 

Telephone, Flushing 777-M 



Groceries, Paints^ Hardware, Etc., Etc. 

J. D. Martens is one of the most progressive men of Whitestone. In all matters pertaining 
to the welfare of Whitestone the name of Martens has always been prominent. 

In the establishment of J. D. Martens can be found a most complete line of Groceries, 
Paints, Hardware, etc. Here, under one roof, you can find all the necessities of a home, from 
the time you build your foundation until its occupancy, while the Grocery Department is fully 
equipped and well stocked to minister to your needs. 

The business, originally founded by Mr. Martens' father in 1865, was successfully carried 
on until his death in 1 882, at which time Mr. Martens then conducted the business for his mother 
until 1 906, when he assumed control. 

All interested in planting can find a most complete line of Seeds" and Garden tools at 
Martens'. 

J. D. MARTENS, 

EIGHTH AVENUE AND EIGHTEENTH STREET 
WHITESTONE, L. I. 



TELEPHONE 166 



Freeport Artificial Stone Company 

TRANSPARENT AND ^""^ '^^^''^-^''^SlSS^^SS GRANITE CRYSTALS 

PASTE WATERPROOFING ^"^^^B^B MARBLE DUST 

LALLY FIREPROOF > ^^H PORTLAND CEMENT 

COLUMNS ^^^^^H WHITE CEMENT 

METAL WALL PLUGS - ^^|B ETC., ETC. 

CONCRETE BLOCKS 

Made by High Pressure Hydraulic Press 

CORNER LONG BEACH AVENUE AND LONG ISLAND RAILROAD 

(Adjoining Standpipe) 

FREEPORT, NEW YORK 



76 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 





FAR ROC K AWAY GARAG] 




/ 



lie [T" 




FAR ROCKAWAY GARAGE-MOH & SMITH, Proprietors 

Cars Stored and Cared for by the Week or Season. First Class Cars to Hire — Expert Mechanics in Attendance 
Agents for Hudson and E-M-F Cars — Automobile Supplies and Tires 

338-360 Central Avenue Far Rockaway, New York 

Garage Telephone 148 Far Rockaway 



Knapp Portable-Permanent Building System 



TELEPHONE CONNECTIONS 

Portable-Permanent 

COTTAGES & VILLAS 
STORES, STABLES 
CHURCHES, THEATERS 
BOATHOUSES & PAVILIONS 
BUNGALOWS, CABINS 
AUTOMOBILE GARAGES * 



NEW YORK, N. Y., U. S. A. 

DESIGNERS AND MANUFACTURERS OF 

Portable-Permanent Buildings 

IN WOOD, STEEL, STUCCO AND OTHER MATERIALS 

Folding Furniture and Household Accessories 

(Patents Pending in the U. S. and All Foreign Coontries) 



CABLE: "KNAPPORTA" 

Portable-Permanent 

OFFICE BUILDINGS 
HOTELS, SCHOOLS 
FACTORIES, WAREHOUSES 
TUBERCULOSIS HOSPITALS 
BOOTHS, PLAYHOUSES 
BUILDINGS FOR EXPORT 




Pronounced by Eminent Architects and Engineers "The System to Supersede All Others" 

"A Revolution in the Science of Construction" 

"No Make of Portable Houses on the Market Today Equals Those of the Knapp System" 

United Stales Trade Reports. 

F*ortat>le Garages 

Dwellings and All Other Buildings 

Desigrned and Constructed Under the 



KIMAF»F» SYSXEIVI 

^\'hether of Steel, Stucco, "Wood or Other Ma- 
terials. Invariably Sustain an Appraised 
Valuation of 

Nearly Double Their Actual Cost 

AVe are Originators and Pioneers In Portables 
and have devoted over a Quarter of a Century 
to the development of this marvelous innova- 
tion in building methods, whereby we Cut the 
Cost at least One-third and at the same time 
enhance the Standard of Artistic and Structural 
Excellence. 

T\Tiether you wish a Modest Bungalow or a 
Mammoth Hotel, a Garage or a Forty Storj' 
Structure, this office will Most Faithfully and 
Efficiently Ser\-e and Safeguard Your Interests. 




Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



77 



THE OLD OAK HOTEL 




About one-half mile east of the center of Patchogue, on Main 
street, one is attracted by the splendid old oak trees in the front 
of mine host hotel, very appropriately named The Old Oak Hotel. 
The genial boniface presiding over this truly rural hostelry is Mr. 
George A. Link, an old-time Eastern District man. Mr. Link is 
progressive in every way. The grounds adjoining the hotel are the 
meeting place of the Patchogue baseball and football teams. Here 
automobilists will find an excellent meal awaiting them at prices 
commensurate with good service. Permanent and transit guests 
accommodated. The latest bowling alleys are installed, and for a 
good time The Old Oak Hotel is the place to go. Garage on grounds, 
with expert mechanic in charge. 



MORTGAGE LOANS 



NOTARY PUBUC 



JOSEPH B. SWEZEY 
REAL ESTATE AND INSURANCE 



Roe's Block, Ocean Avenue 

(ROOM 1) 



Farms and Country Seats My Specialty 



PATCHOGUE, N. Y. 



J. M. HORTON ICE CREAM CO. 

French and American Ice Cream, Bisques, Ices, Charlotte Russe, 
Fancy Cakes and Pastry of All Descriptions. 

Prices as Reasonable as Quality Will Allow 

Orders From One Quart to Any Amount Promptly Delivered 

1416 Fulton St., BROOKLYN. 521 Fulton St. 

Phone 3010 BEDFORD 



Why Not Live in Amity ville? 
The Home of the Amityville Sun 
Paul Bailey, Publisher 



78 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 




BOROUGH PARK CLUBHOUSE 

Under Xcw >Innageinent, Nott 

CALLED 

BOROUGH PARK INN 

Block front 13th Av., OOtli to Blst Sta. 

An establishment of superiority for Weddings, Recep- 
tions, Entertainments. An unexcelled spacious Dancing Floor. 
MEALS A LA CARTE. 
Unexcelled Cuisine at All Times. 
Unusual facilities for private club meetings. Organiza- 
tions will be shown special attention. The management will 
be pleased to show facilities and quote rates. 
Tel. 8169 Borough Park. 
EXCELLENT BOWLING ALLEYS 
ERNEST WILLIAMS, Owner and Manager. 




LEO'S INN, PATCHOGUE, L. L 

Just as you enter Patchogue from the west 
j-ou notice Leo's Inn, a resort for automobilists 
conducted by Mr. Leo Waldheimer and his good 
wife, Mrs. Waldheimer. Mr. and Mrs. Wald- 
heimer are a genial pair and this being their first 
year, have to their credit the entertaining of 
many prominent people. Facing the famous 
Merrick road, directly in front of West Lake, 
makes the popular resort a delightful place to 
visit. 



GRAVEL ROOFING 



SPECIALTY 




Steel Portable Buildings Fireproof Garages 

MANUFACTURED IN BROOKLYN 

WILLIAM BUCHANAN 

488-490-490V2 Sumner Avenue 1587 Fulton Street, Brooklyn 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



79 






LONG ISLAND'S 
NORTH SHORE 



<^//V//^//'/V////'/V//y//'/Vy/^^^^ 



Estates, Shore Fronts, Farms and Acreage 
at Very Attractive Prices. 

Furnished Cottages for Rent 

All Inquiries Receive Prompt and Personal Attention. 



W/M/WWM//WW/MMMWM///W/MM WW//W//W//////////M////M^^^ 



Daniel M. Gerard, Huntington, l. i. 



SWAN RIVER NURSERIES 

As you journey from Patchogue toward Bellport you notice a sign, Swan River 
Nurseries, conducted by Mr. C. W. Avery. Mr. Avery comes from an historical family 
and the ground covering over 60 acres, occupied by the nursery, has been in the family 
over 150 years. The Swan River Nurseries have a large and varied assortment of 
beautiful ornamental and shade trees, showing many different varieties. A visit to 
this establishment is well worth while. Swan River Nurseries have furnished trees 
and plants to many of the beautiful estates of Southampton and other towns in Suf- 
folk County. 



L. F. LUDWIG 

UPHOLSTERING 
AUTOMOBILE TOPS AND TRIMMINGS 



Telephone Huntington 358-R 



New York Avenue, Huntington, L. I. 



80 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



THE THIELER BIRD STORE 

H. G. SUTTON, Manager 

Dealer in All Kinds of Song Birds, Parrots, Etc., Cages and Supplies 

"Our Song Restorer" — the Best on the Market 

Also a Fine Assortment of All Goldfish, Japanese Fantails and Fringetails, Telescopes, 

Shubunkins, Medaka (the New Fish), Golden Orfe, Etc 

AQUARIUMS AND ALL KLNDS OF SUPPLIES 

33 FLATBUSH AVENUE, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 
Telephone Main 7798 



Instead of Paying 25c. for This Book 

Why not subscribe to the 

EAGLE LIBRARY 

At a Cost of $1.50 a Year? 

Which includes The Eagle Almanac, City Charter and 
all the valuable Eagle publications. Address 

Eagle Library, Eagle Building, Brooklyn 



-^ 



THE DAILY npTTT^ T7 A /^ T T7 

ISSUES OF 1 rlLL r>x^i^i^rL 



THE NEWS 

The six week-day issues of The Brooklyn Eagle 
represent the most complete afternoon newspaper pub- 
lished in the city. It is the only daily in Brooklyn that 
receives the world-wide service of the Associated Press. 
In addition, it has experienced correspondents in Wash- 
ington, Albany and in all important cities. A valuable 
feature of the daily edition are the financial pages, 
with complete tables and news of the stock market 
quotations and other financial news. 

If you live in Brooklyn you can't afford to be un- 
informed about what is going on in the borough. The 
Eagle will keep you posted on all the news of Brooklyn 
affairs, civic, financial, political and social. 

EACH DAY 

in addition to the above. The Eagle has a wide range 
of features. Here Is a schedule of some of them: 

MONDAY 

Two full pages of sermons by noted ministers of all 
denominations with special religious news. 

TUESDAY 

Review of all the new attractions in Manhattan and 
Brooklyn playhouses. 

WEDNESDAY 



Junor Eagle puzzle solvers' names- 
members. 



-New puzzle club 



THURSDAY 

Home Dressmaking Department, Weekly Public Forum. 

FRIDAY 

The Jewish Review — An article on Beauty and Hygiene 
— Humane Club news, letters from members, new mem- 
bers, etc. 

SATURDAY 

News of Churches, both Catholic and Protestant — The 
weekly real estate page — Reviews of the new books — 
News of women's club's — Missionary societies and 
W. C. T. U.— Table and kitchen notes. 

SUNDAY 

Bright, snappy and filled with many features in its 
enlarged form- — Magazine Section, freely illustrated 
Special Stories by special writers — Two pages of for- 
eign news and gossip. Many pages of sports, profes- 
sional, amateur and scholastic. A Junior Eagle Section 
and the news, local and general, fully covered. 

EVERY DAY 

The Eagle contains special features of interest to men, 
women and children. For instance, here are some de- 
partments you will find EVERY DAY: 

PICTURE SECTION 



WOMEN'S DEFT. 
WALKS AND TALKS 
CHILDREN'S DEPT. 



SPORTS 
SOCIETY 

BETWEEN THE LINES 
PAGE OF LONG ISLAND 
NEWS 
SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES 



i 

J 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 81 



Merrick Park— The Choice of Long Island 

It possesses attractions not offered by other subdivisions, being destined to 
advance in value more rapidly than any other site around New York City. 

Merrick Park lies in the heart of Jamaica, in the Fourth Ward of the Bor- 
ough of Queens, in the healthiest section of Long Island. The climate is equable, 
tempered by the ocean, and is an ideal all-year-round place of residence. 



r <^^!i--' «:, 




'nicdl-smith: 







Beautiful homes surround Merrick Park. Within a few minutes' walk are schools, 
churches, libraries, theaters, banks and up-to-date stores. If you are seeking ideal 
transportation, splendid home appointments, beautiful and healthful surroundings at 
a comparatively moderate price, you will find Merrick Park the place offering more 
advantages than any other in Greater New York. 

Purchasing lots in Merrick Park at present prices is like buying gold dollars at 
a liberal discount. 

Write, phone or call for booklet and full particulars. 

The Nicol-Smith Company, 

Telephone Greeley 430. 
820 Marbridge Building, 34th St. and Broadway, New York City 



S. GOHLIEB 

Mr. S. Gottlieb of 43 Ocean avenue, Patchogue, is an importer and wholesale dealer 
in wines and liquors, has been established eleven years and carries in stock a full selec- 
tion of goods in his line, all well-known brands being represented. Mr. Gottlieb's estab- 
lishment is the largest of its kind on the eastern end of the Island. He is the special 
agent appointed by S. Liebmann's Sons to nandle the famous Rheingold beer, brewed by 
this well-known brewery. Rheingold beer has been indorsed by physicians everywhere 
as a healthful and nourishing beverage. 



"The Golden Rod" 5c and 10c and Variety Store 

A thousand different things, useful in the home, shop, office, m camp and on the road. 

IVIACHINfE SHOF» ANNEX: 

Mechanical drawings, pattern makmg and machme work. Light automatic labor-saving machinery and devices designed 

and constructed. J\ieTe % Moncy in Simple Inventions 

We develop mechanical ideas and give you free advice as to their probable commercial value, 

EDWARD F. SHORE, Broadway, Amityville, L. 1. 

THE BROOKLYN DAILY EAGLE 

Gives All the Latest Items of Interest Every Day From All Over Long Island 

The Brooklyn Daily Eagle Is 73 Years Young 

Its Reliability Is Undisputed. A Great Home Newspaper. 



82 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



Palms, Vines and Fresh Flowers 

Supplied and Artistically Arranged for Weddings at Reasonable Rates 



FLORAL 

DECORATIONS 

FOR 

ALL 

OCCASIONS 




etc 



T^trr^ 




PLANTS 

AND 

FLOWERS 

DELIVERED 

ANYWHERE 



Thirty=five Greenhouses 

HORTICULTURIST 

734 Fifth Avenue 

Branches: Fort Hamilton Parkway, 

TELEPHONES 27 South— 3410 Flatbush. Gravesend Av., and 291-313 24th St. 

PLOTS IN GREENWOOD CEMETERY IMPRO\TED AND CARED FOR. 




gXSXS®®®®®®«<iXi>®(iX5Xi)®®®SX9 i)®i)S>®®®lS®@&S®<tiSr^hsJfsf^ 



wOO 



i® 



WW 
WW 

®w 



Wi*) 

i 






COLLECT YOUR ACCOUNTS 

OUR SYSTEM PRODUCES MAXIMUM RESULTS. 

WE COLLECT AT A MINIMUM COST. 

WE COLLECT FOR EVERY ONE GIVING CREDIT. 

WE ARE BONDED FOR $10,000.00 TO PROTECT OUR 

CLIENTS FROM ALL LOSS. 



The Only Bonded Collection Association in the World. ^^ 

Write Us and a Representative Will Call, 

The Allied Mercantile Profective Ass'n (Inc.) 

43 CEDAR STREET, NEW YORK 

Phone 1745 John 



'®®®®®®®®®®®®®' 
®®®®®®®® 



d)®®®®®S<5X£xj^^ 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



83 



DO 

YOU 

KNOW 



that it is easier to go to the nearby North 
Shore of Long Island than to the crowded 
apartment house sections of the city? 

that the L. I. R. R. (Penn. System) runs 
the finest suburban electric train service in 
the world? 

that a home at MALBA provides all the joys 
of country life on the waterfront, yet is 
close to the heart of Manhattan? 

that Malba is in the Borough of Queens, 
which at present is the most favored of the 
boroughs in point of rapid transit improve- 
ments being constructed there now ? 

that the money that now purchases your 
rent receipts could buy you a charming 
country cottage at MALBA — built to your 
order if desired? 



Information concerning the above sug- 
gested facts is more fully given in our 
pamphlet C, sent free upon request. 



MALBA ESTATES 
CORPORATION 

60 LIBERTY STREET, NEW YORK 



FOR SALE 

A Private Residence 

IVcar Sea Beach Subway Sfation 

This 7-room house is a beauty. No one 
who has ever seen it has said otherwise. 
Tiled bath, tiled vestibule; handsome com- 
bination gas and electric light fixtures; par- 
quet floors; steam heat and automatic hot 
water plant. Cement cellar, with laundry 
and gas heater. Large kitchen gas range. 
Duo-tone shades in every room. Will dec- 
orate to suit. On beautiful, quiet street. 
Congenial neighbors. All street improve- 
ments. Exceptionally fine drinking water. 
Typhoid unknown. Macadam roads, city 
sidewalks. $500,000 school in course of 
construction. All churches. 

THE SUBWAY 

which will run from Columbus Circle down 
Broadway (in Manhattan), across the Man- 
hattan Bridge, up Fourth avenue (in Brook- 
lyn), to Sixty-second street, and down to 
Coney Island (5 cent fare), will have three 
stations within reach of my house. Sub- 
way now 25 _% completed; guaranteed to be 
finished April, 1915. 

TODAY'S PRICE, $5,500 

Value in 12 Months From Today 
Is Conservatively Predicted at $7,500 

I WILL ACCEPT 

$25o cash and allow the balance to remain 
on mortgage. The chance of a lifetime to 
buy a cozy 7-room home and make a good | 
investment. 

SILSBY 

CARE OF 

ALCO BUILDING CO. 

60 LIBERTY STREET, NEW YORK 
Telephone— Cortlandt 2552 



84 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 




HARRY G. MAYBECK 



MANUFACTURER OP 



AWNINGS and FLAGS 

FLAG DECORATOR 

2396 JAIVIAICA. AVENUE 

Telephone, 1034 Richmond Hill RICHMOND HILL, N. Y. 




Presided over by Will Graham, whom Vp ANCHORAGE 

everybody knows, is a different place 
than any you have ever visited. Here 
originality stands out everywhere. It 
would take volumes to describe what 
you see as soon as you enter, yes, 
before you enter. Motoring along the ! 
Merrick road at Blue Point you are j 
attracted by a Sphinx on the lawn. \ 
Your turn in, alight from your car, and 
there is Will Graham to welcome you. 
Every niche of the walls is hung with 
all sorts and kinds of curios. After a 



INN 




Triicii the lifjhta are lotr. aiirf 
ffentle shadotcs 



hurried look around you will see 
j records of the visits of many famous 
I men who many times have enjoyed the 
hospitality of Ye Anchorage Inn. You 
are now ready to attend to the inner 
man and this is one place he is well 
attended to. 

Space does not permit us to do this 
subject justice, but a motoring trip on 
Long Island without making a stop at 
Will Graham's Anchorage Inn is by 
no manner of means complete, and you 
will remember it as long as you live. 



THE FLUSHING DAILY TIMES 

Published at 70 Broadway, Flushing, N. Y. 

Is THE local newspaper of the Third Ward of Queens. The only newspaper which has consist- 
ently and persistently worked and fought for the upbuilding of this section. The only newspaper 
in the Third Ward which has an opinion, and expresses that opinion straight. 



CHILDREN TEETHING 

Baby Is Very Comfortable and Laughs During the Teething, Period, 

THANKS TO 

Mrs. Winslow's Soothing Syrup 

Contains Neither Opium nor Morphine nor Their Derivatives 
PURELY VEGETABLE NOT NARCOTIC 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



85 




beautiful 
^renttijooti 




nestling among its magnificent 

gi'oves of pine, fir and balsam, 

is the offspring of a passionate 

desire for social and economic 

equality. Its founders were a 

fiery band of reformers, who 
felt called to work out their theories of social freedom; and its history is woven full of faith and aspiration; 
of high ideal and noble resolve. And as it now lies peacefully basking in the sunshine, waiting and ready for 
its new destiny, it seems as though the shades of the fathers still walk its streets and breathe their bene- 
diction upon it. It was back in 1851 that the loyal band of reformers, with Josiah Warren at their head, 
founded on the Islip plains the village of IVIodern Times. Among them were Horace Greeley (whose heirs 
still own property here), then looming up as the forceful editor of the "Tribune"; Charles A. Dana, who had 
not yet founded the "Sun," but was still writing editorials for the "Tribune"; Stephen Pearl Andrews; 
George Ripley, the historian, and others. Most of them had taken part in the "Brook Farm" movement in 
Massachusetts, which Hawthorne made famous in his "Blithedale Romance." But it did not go to the bottom 
of the economic theories of the day, especially so far as the interchange of labor was concerned; and these 
choice spirits felt that in the newer environment they could work out their plans to better advantage. So a 
large tract of land near (the then) Thompsons Station was purchased and laid out on broad, comprehensive 
lines. The pioneers toiled with great energy. Blocks of four acres were laid out; and the curb and lot lines 
set with evergreen and deciduous trees, as well as many fruit trees. The latter owe their presence to the broad 
humanitarian spirit underlying the movement, even though their presence did not practically carry out its 
demands. One of the fathers said : "Brethren, let us plant fruit trees along our streets, so that the way- 
farer may not have to demean himself by begging at our doors"; and to him they all agreed, despite the cap- 
tious query of a brother of weaker faith: "What will the wayfarer do in winter?" So they dug in the rich, 
warm soil which the leaders had shrewdly and wisely chosen; planted their orchards and berries, their trees 
and shrubs, their school and village hall; and all prospered under the glow of ardor and enthusiasm. One of 
the cardinal principles of the movement was the interchange of labor; and, to facilitate this, scrip was issued, 
signed by the Village Treasurer, which was received among the members as currency. 

The values of a bushel of wheat, a pair of shoes, a day's labor were fixed by schedule; and scrip of appro- 
priate value was issued to the man or woman who had created anything tangible wherewith he or she might 
procure the necessaries of life. The plan worked well in theory and among themselves, or until the "outside 
barbarians who »old them goods demanded greenbacksin payment," as the former Treasurer (the late Charles 
A. Codman) quaintly expressed it; and it naturally fell of its own weight. But they had a paper-box factory, 
a harness shop, and raised wonderfully good fruits and berries, and developed into a prosperous community. 
They were all bright and brainy. The writer recalls summers spent there fifty years ago as a boy, in which 
wit flashed against even brighter wit, debate ran high, and the fountain of literary culture was full to over- 
flowing. All the old dramatists found exponents at the village hall before appreciative audiences. The glee 
club sang, artists painted, poets wrote, philosophers poured forth copious streams of wisdom, and a peace too 
idyllic for this practical world hovered over the community. It is quite untrue that free love ever had any 
foothold in the scheme. To the minds of its followers it was too sei'ious a problem to admit of any lower 
ideals. They hoped to regenerate the world, to cut out wrong and misery, to stimulate a general and lasting 
brotherhood of man which should place even the weakest brother on a par with those more capable. It was a 
sharing of ideal and substance if needed; and, like most altruistic notions, was not appreciated by the coldly 
practical life in the world about it. And so it pa.'^sed, gradually. A faithful few, within their intimate circle, 
clung to the old brotherhood idea. But the grim Reaper gradually thinned their ranks until now only four 
of the old guard are left with a wealth of memories to sweeten their declining years. But the village still 
feels the impress of the founders. The wide streets and ample grounds of the old part of the village, with 
its magnificent growths of trees planted over sixt^ years ago, testify to their love of nature and the beauti- 
ful. The houses nestle behind bowers of shrubs and vines or tall hedges. One acre was allotted to each per- 
son and each was expected to show his industry thereon by his fruits. And it is still a singularly cultivated 
village, with the old spirit of self-help so dominant that there is not a person within its limits on the poor- 
funds of the town today. As a natural sequence of this history, the village is now the seat of a great institu- 
tion of learning as well as a large sanitarium. A strong and capable development movement has taken the 
newer portion of the village in hand, and along lines of perfectly good taste has made it into a graceful and 
dignified enlargement of the old village and in perfect harmony with it. Twinkling electric lights shine under 
the old trees; stores and a garage with auto delivery meet the temporal wants; three churches supply the 
spiritual demands, and several hotels house and feed the wayfarer. 

And in no derogation of the older idea is the newer one that here health of mind and body may be best 
served by nature's own beneficent provision. Lying "In the Heart of the Great Pine Belt" of Long Island (the 
largest in the State outside the .-Vdirondacks) — the trees, the air, the soil, the pure water, give off their com- 
bination of healing influences to tired and sick humanity. The island itself is a great sanitarium, projecting 
as it does like a huge dock out into the broad Atlantic. It has its own climate, not that of the Continent from 
which it is detached. Swept on every side by breezes that are not only absolutely free from germ or taint, but 
laden with the salt breath of the sea as well as the fragrant balsam of the pine, it furnishes an ideal retreat 
for the tired and overworked toilers of the city. And Brentwood is the Capital City in this work of healing. No 
other spot on the Island quite so admirably combine all these features. 

It is far enough from the sea .so that the rawness is taken from the air, and yet near enough so that the roar 
of its breakers can be heard on a south breeze, and all of its attractive features be made available. If the plans 

of the present leaders in the 

village life can be carried out, 

a modern hotel is to be quite 

speedily erected that will make 

all these attractions available; 

and if the visitor who has tired 

of the rush and glare of city life 

can get into the spirit of the old 

days that still prevades the 

place, he will find rest and heal- 
ing for body and mind in a most 

peculiarly helpful way. 





86 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



We desire to call your attention to the fact that we are now 
ready for our Summer season, and we make Summer Suits and 
Dresses (from your own material) at the usual Summer prices, 
ranging from 

SUITS, $6.50 DRESSES, $4.00 SKIRTS, $1.50 

RELIANCE DRESS CO. 

MAKERS OF 
Women's and Misses' Outer Wearing Apparel of All Description 
234 LIVINGSTON ST., BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

OPPOSITE ELM PLACE 



" Booksellers 
to the World'' 



Any Book in the World, 

in any language, promptly 

an|d safely delivered to any 

point on the Globe, through 



BRENTANO'S 
AIL ORDER SERYIC 



Mail, Cable, Telephone, Tele- 
graph, and Messenger Ser- 
vice given immediate and 
intelligent attention. 

BRENTANCS 

Sth Av. «nd 27di S^ 

Nnr York 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



87 



Strang's Montauk Storage Co. and Moving Vans 

BOXING, PACKING 



^^-■*4^f^^-^ 




AND SHIPPING 
TO ALL PARTS 
OF THE WORLD 



Storage Rooms $2.00 Per 
Month and Upwards 

AUTO VANS FOR CITY 

AND COUNTRY 

MOVING 



OFFICES AND WAREHOUSES 

189 TO 199 

SO. PORTLAND AVE. 

BROOKLYN, N.Y. 

Telephones 4500 & 4501 Prospect 



:q 



THE DAVIS & WEISS 

SPECIAL ^18 ^f^ TO 
SUIT OR TOPCOAT 

Cannot be Duplicated $0^ 
Elsewhere for ^^ 

OPPOSITE BOROUGH HALL 

361 FULTON STREET 



BRANOH STORES : 



^ BROADWAY at Gates Ave. 80 WALL ST., N. Y. ^ 



88 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 









I 



I 






I 

I 




THE AFTERNOON FORCH IN NASSAU COUNTY 

Summer in the Suburbs 

is attractive because you are in a position to see nature unfold, because it 
indicates the coming of summer pleasures that abound in Nassau County, 
the great residential section of Metropolitan New York. 

WINDSOR LAND AND 
IMPROVEMENT CO. 

offers several substantially built houses that embody all the features of 
city conveniences at very low prices, and choice building plots in subdivi- 
sions that are thoroughly improved with curbs and sidewalks, electric light, 
gas, telephone, etc., all within easy commuting distance. We have suc- 
cessful developments at Hempstead, East Rockaway, Oceanside, Floral 
Park, Valley Stream, Lynbrook, Rockville Centre and Rosedale, all on 
Long Island in the southern half of Nassau County. 

Send for a booklet. It will show you the way to own your own home. 

Windsor Land and Improvement Co. 

D. MAUJER McLaughlin, President 

LONGACRE BUILDING, Entire Eleventh Floor 

1476 Broadway Telephone, Bryant 146 



^^ 



M 






^^ 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



89 



Safety and Security 



IN THE PURCHASE OF 



REAL ESTATE 



^ OL > 
(SCHWENCKEl 



ISCHWENCKE 



WE INDORSE the campaigns for the protection of real estate investors by exposing the real 
estate companies selling worthless stocks and bonds, represented as being secured by real 
estate. 

THESE CAMPAIGNS deserve the support and co-operation of all real estate interests, and the 
public should appreciate the efforts in their behalf. 

ESTABLISHED IN 1897, this Company owns and controls over 10,000 acres of real estate on 
Long Island and has developed and sold 7,000 acres. 

NO BONDS 

of any kind have ever been issued. 

NO STOCK 

has ever been offered for sale. 

NO MORTGAGES 

are on any of the properties of this 
Company. 

NO ENCUMBRANCES of any kmd whatsoever on any property offered for sale, every parcel being 
absolutely free and clear. 

NO HIGH PRICES asked for property, due to the foresight of the president of the Company in 
purchasing holdings prior to the great activity in Long Island real estate. 

IN HEMPSTEAD and vicinity we have concentrated our efforts to develop and sell suburban 
real estate, being confident that property in this section offered the most desirable and con- 
veniently located home sites. 

WE ARE NOW OFFERING houses, bungalows, acreage plots, villa sites and lots at attractive 
prices and on easy monthly payments. 

Call, Write or Phone Worth 4657 for Hempstead Booklet and References 

0. L SCHWENCKE LAND & INVESTMENT CO. 

GENERAL OFFICES 

277 Broadway, New York 

Established 20 Years 



90 Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 

I Wonder If You Can Tell Me? 

Yes ! We Can ! ! 

If you desire information about Travel, Resorts, Hotels, Railroad and Steam- 
ship Lines, Auto Tours, Walking Trips, Educational Instruction or data in regard to 
any kindred subjects, use the free services of The 

Brooklyn Daily Eagle 
Information Bureau 

Your question will be answered cheerfully and promptly. Over 10,000 varie- 
ties of free literature for distribution to you or your friends. 

Eagle Bureau — Johnson and Washington Sts. 



BROOKLYN— JAMAICA— No. .354 Fulton St 

Bath Beach, Bath Ave., near Bay 19th St. MANHATTAN 

Bedford Ave., No. 1248, near Fulton St. 
Broadway, No. 210, near Driggs Ave. 
Ninth St., No. 321, near Fifth Ave. 
Flatbush Ave., No. 838, near Linden Ave. 



Fifth Ave., No. 225, Room 321. 

World Bldg., 21 Park Row, Room 305. 
WASHINGTON— 608 14th St. 
PARIS— 53 Rue Cambon. 



Gates Ave., No. 1022, near Broadway. LONDON— 3 Regent St. 



Classified ! 



Quick Results==Econoniy of Time==Saving of Money 

THREE REASONS why The Brooklyn Eagle is both 
the LEADING and practically the ONLY classified 
advertising medium in Brooklyn. When a Brooklynite 
or Long Islander wants anything, he can find it without 
waste of time in its proper classification among The 
Eagle classified ads. Naturally, the advertiser gets Quick 
Results at a Saving of Money. 

Advertising in the 
Brooklyn Daily Eagle 

Dd^rc Both Advertiser 
i^Ciy^ and Reader 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



91 



THE EAGLE LIBP.ARY 

A Series or PuDUcations on Topics or Contemporaneous Interest 

(Nombera Ont of Print are marked thns*. Copies may be seen on application at The Eagle Information Bnrean) 



("Libraries from 1 to 2S are out of print.) 

No. 28— New York State Canal Frauds, 
August, 1898. Price 5 cents. 

No. 30— "The Political Campaign of 1898. 

No. 31— The Federal Bankruptcy Law of 
U98. with Tabulated Index, by Theodore Aub. 
Cloth cover, small size. Price Jl-00. 

No. 32— 'The Civil Service Law of New 
York State; the Ford Tax Franchise Law and 
the Aheam and McCarren Teachers Bills. 

No. 32a— "A Complete Review of the Span- 
ish-American War. (Illustrated.) 1899. 

No, 3S— •Municipal Ownership. Articles by 
Wm. H. Muldoon. (Illustrated.) 

No. 34 — Spoopendyke Sketches, by Stanley 
Huntley. Paper cover, price :s cents; Cloth 
cover, 50 cents. 

No. 35— -The Charter of the City of New 
York, with Amendments. 

No. 30 — "The Primary and Election Laws as 
Amended by the Legislature of 1899. 

No. 37— 'The Building Code of New York 
City. 1899. 

No. 38— "Father Malone Memorial, (nlua- 
trated.) January, 1900. Price 6 cents. 

No. 89— "Plymouth Church Annals. (Illus- 
trated.) February, 1900. Price 5 cents. 

No. 40 — Annual Meeting Suffolk County 
Historical Society, 1900. Price 5 cents. 

No. 41— Workers and the Trust. (Illustrat- 
ed.) By Chas. M. Skinner, May, 1900. Price 6c, 

No. 42— "The (Charter of the City of Now 
York with Amendments. 

No. 43— Building Code of New York City, 
1900. Price 6 cents. 

No. 44— The New York Primary and aen- 
eral Election Law, 1908. Price 35 cents. 

No. 45— Sanitary Code of the Board of 
Health, City of New York, 1900. 

No, 40 — "Questions and Answers. 1900. 

No. 47— "Education Directory. Price 6 centa 

No. 48— The Political Campaign of 1900 with 
Platforms. Letters of Acceptance. Price 6 cents. 

No. 40— "The Proposed Charter of Greater 
New York, as Prepared by the diarter Reri* 
Blon Commission, December, 1909. 

No. 50— The American Communes, Practi- 
cal Socialism In the United States. (lUui- 
trated.) By C. M. skinner. 

No. 51— "Christian Science Claims— Unscien- 
tific and Un-Chrlstlan. By Wm. H. Muldoon. 

No. 62— "Character Sketches of Prominent 
Americans. (Illustrated.) Price 10 centa 

No. 63— "Tenement House Laws, 1901. 

No. 54— "Charter of the City of New York, 
UOl. 

No. 55— A Qulde to the Pan-American Expo- 
sition, Buffalo, N. Y., 1901. Price 6 cents. 

No. 66 — "Summer Resort Directory, 1901. 
(Illustrated.) Price 10 cents. 

No. 67— The American Soldier; Studies In 
Army Life, by Cliarles M. Skinner, Septem- 
ber, 1901. (Illustrated.) Price 10 cents. 

No. 68— "Educational Directory. Price 10c 

No. 6»— "The McKlnley Memorial. (Illus- 
trated.) Price 10 cents; Cloth cover, 60 cents. 

No. 60— Public Officials In New York State 
and City, December, 1901. Price 10 cents. 

No. 61- "Prisons of the Nation and their In- 
Bates, by Charles M. Skinner. Price 10 cents. 

No. 62— "The Tenement House L*w and 
Building Code of the City of New York. 

No. 63 — excise Law of New York State, as 
Amended by the Legislature of 1903. Price 16o. 

No. 64— "The Civil Service Law. 

No. 65— Trolley Exploring About New York, 
1908 edition. (Illustrated.) Price 10 centa 

No. 66— "Paris Guide. (Illustrated.) 

No. 67— "Summer Resort Guide, 1902. Price 8c. 

No. 68— The United States and the PhUli>- 
plne Islands. Price 10 cents. 

No. 6&— Water B}xplorlng. Price 10 cents. 

No. 70— Municipal Court Practice. Price 10 
cents. Revised 1908. 

No. 71— "Educational Number. Price 10c. 

No. 72 — Questions and Answers, vnce 10c 

No. 73— "The Modem Pulpit. Price 10c. 

No. 74— "The Beecber MemorlaL (Illnstrat- 
ed.) Price 10 cents. 

No. 76— Municipal Misrule. Price 10 cents 

No. 76— New York City Guide. Price 15a 



No. 77— Washington Guide, 1907. Price 15c 

No. 78— "Summer Resort Guide and Foreign 
Hotel List. (Illustrated.) Price 10c. 
No. 79— "Modern Religious Thought. Price 10c. 
No. 80— Pope Leo XIII. (Illustrated.) Price 
15 cents. 

No. 81— Charter of the City of New York, 
1893. Price 50 cents; Cloth Edition, $1.00. 

No. 82— Rapid Transit Act and the Fran- 
chise Laws. Price 25 cents. 

No. 83— Tax Laws Affecting New York City. 
Price 25 cents. 

No, 84 — Sportsman's Book, with Game Laws. 
Price 25 cents. 

No. 85— Building and Health Laws of New 
York City. Price 25 cents; Cloth, 75 cents. 

No, 8(5— Book of Pictures and Stories for 
Young People. Price 60 cents. 

No. 87— "Current Religious Thought. Price 
15 cents. 

No, 8.8— "Educational Directory. Price 10c. 

No. 88— Special Laws Enacted by the State 
of New York Legislature, 1903. Price 10 cents. 

No. 90— "Civil Service Guide. Price 15 cents. 

No. 91— Eagle Cartoons. Price 25 cents. 

No. 02-'The American Pulpit. 

No. 93— "Guide to Paris and the Principal 
Countries of Europe. 

No. 94— "Summer Resort Guide. Price 10c. 

No. 95 — The Democratic Handbook, 1904. 
Price 15 cents. 

No. 96— "The Republican Handbook, 1904. 
Price 15 cents. 

No. 97- "Educational Number. (Illustrated.) 
September, 1904. 

No. 98— The Scottish Free Church Appeal 
Case, October, 1904. Price 15 cents. 

No. 99 — "Sermons by Rev. Wm. J. Dawson. 
Price 10 cents. 

No. 100 — Questions and Answers, 1904. Price 
10 cents. 

No. 101— Eagle Almanacs, 1830 to 1909, In- 
clusive. 

No. 103— Catsklll Guide. Price 10 cents. 

No. 103 — Problems of Life Insurance. Price 
10 cents. 

No. 104— The Royal Arcanum and Fraternal 
Insurance. Price 10 cents. 

No. 105 — Mortgage Tax Law. Price 10 cents. 

No, 106 — "Summer Resort Directory. Price 
5 cents. 

No. 107— "Guide to Paris and the Principal 
Countries of Europe, 1903. Price 15 cents. 

No. 108— "The American Pulpit. Price 10 
cents. 

No. 109— Questions and Answers. Price 10 
cents. 

No, llO— "Practical Notes on Photography. 
Price 25 cents. 

No. Ill— Two Americans in a Motor Car 
Touring In Europe. Price 50 cents and $1.00. 

No. 112— DIngendlefer, Citizen and Publicist. 
Price 10 cents. 

No. 113— "The American Pulpit. Price 10 
cents. 

No, 114 — Life Insurance. Armstrong Recom- 
mendations and Bills. Price 10 cents. 

No. 116 — Summer Resort Directory. Price 
10 cents. 

No. 116— Guide to Paris, 190«. Price 16 
cents. 

No. 117— Re-apportlonment of 1906. Price 10 
cents. 

No. 118— The Railroad Rate Law, and the 
Pure Food Law. Price 10 cents. 

No. 119— Charter of Greater N. Y. Revised. 
Price 60 cents. 

No. 120— Boundaries of Election Districts, 
New York City. Price 10 cents. 

No, 121— Building and Health Laws, New 
York City. Price 25 cents. 

No. 122— The American Pulpit. Price 10c 

No. 123— "Autobiography of Emma Bullet- 
Paris correspondent of the Eagle. Price 10c. 

No. 124 — "Constitution of the United States, 
and of New York State. Price 10 cents. 

No. 126— Automobile Handbook. Price 10c. 

No. 126— The Gipsy Smith Revival In 
Brooklyn, 1907. Price 10 cents. 

No. 127— A Visitor's Guide to Paris (190« 
edition.) Price 10 cents. 

No. 128— European Resort Number, 1904 
Price 10 cents. 

No. 129— The Public Service Commlsslona 
Law. Price 10 cents. 



No. 130— Civil Service Guide. Price U 
cents. 

No. 131— Educational Directory, all years. 
Price 6 cents. 

No. 132-Naturallzatlon and Immigration 
Laws. Price 15 cents. 

No. 133— Civil Service Examination Ques- 
tions. For Patrolmen and Firemen. Price 10c. 

No. 1.14— American Pulpit. Price 15 cents. 

No. 135— Marriage License Law and Sun- 
day Observance. Price 10 cents. 

No. 136— Brooklyn's Call to Homeseekers 
Price 10 cents. 

No. 137— The Torrens System. Price 25 cents. 

No. 138 — The Emmanuel Movement. Price 
10 cents. 

No, 139— Summer Resort Directory, all years. 
Price 6 cents. 

No. 14(»— The National Parties. Price 10c. 

No. 141— American Board of Foreign Mis- 
sions. Price 10 cents. 

No. 142— Prison Ship Martyrs' Monument 
Dedication and History. Price 10 cents. 

No. 143— American Pulpit. Price 10 cents. 
FolIowinB; insned dnrlnc 1909, Inclnil- 

Inc Bagle Almanac and Nos. 121, 

127, (i.-). 139, 12n, 119. 

No. 1'44 — Torrens Law and Garnishee Law. 
Price 10 cents. 

No, 145— Lincoln Centenary. Price 10 cents. 

No. 146 — Proposed New York (Charter. 
Price 10 cents. 

No. 147— The Proposed Tariff Revision. 
Price 10 cents. 

No, 148 — Grover Cleveland Memorial. Price 
10 cents. 

No. 149— L. I. Automobile Qulde. Price 50 
cents. 

No. 1 .%0— Theodore L. Cuyler Memorial. 
Price 10 cents. 

No. 161— Rapid Transit Law. Price 10 cents 

No, 162— Business Laws. Price 10 cents. 

No. 153— Tariff Law. Price 10 cents. 

No. 154— Penal Code. Price 25 cents. 

No. 155— American Pulpit. Price 10 cents. 
Following: insned dnrlnj? 1910. tnclnd- 

InST Encle Almannp and Nos, 0.5, 128, 

121, 127, 77, 119, 131. 139. revised. 

No. 15H — Our Taxes. Price 25 cents. 

No. 157 — Jamaica Bay Improvement. Price 
10 cents. 

No, 158 — Government Cook Book. Price 10 
cents. 

No. 169— The Liquor Tax Law. Price 25 
cents. 

No. too— Employers Liability Law, Inherit- 
ance Tax Law, and Automobile Law. Price 
25 cents. 

No. 161— Questions and Answers. Price 10 
cents. 

No. 102— American Pulpit. Price 10 cents. 
Following ls«ncd dnrlns 1911, Inclnd- 

Insr Enerle Almanac nnd Nos. 0.5, 121, 

128, 131, 139, 149, 1.50. 162, revised. 
No, 103— Chapman-Alexander Evangelistic 

Mission. Price 10 cents. 

No. 164 — Real Estate Laws. Revised. Price 
15 cents. 

No. 165— Proposed Charter, N. T. City. 
Price 60 cents. 

No. 166— Levy Election Law and Election 
Dlf'trlct Boundaries. Price 25 cents. 

No. 167— Direct Primaries Law. N. Y. State, 
1911. Price 25 cents. 
Followinc Usned dnrfngr 1912, Inclnd. 

Inc Bnele Almanac and Nos. 66, 119, 

121, 128, 131, 139, 164, 100, re-rised. 

No. 168— Government Cook Book, new. Price 
10 cents. 

No. 169— Civil Service. Price 25 cents. 

No, 170 — Presidential Campaign Cartoons. 
Price 25 cents. 

No. 171— American Pulpit. Price 10 cents. 
Following Issued dnrlng 1913, Inclnd- 

InK Ba^le Almanac and Nos. 06, 121, 

128, 131, 139, revised. 

No. 172— Making My Mind Mind Me. 10 cents. 

No, 173— Poultry Raising. 10 cents. 

No. 174— Motorist's Manual. 28 cents. 

No. 176— Labor Law. 10 cents. 

No. 170— United States Tariff Law of 191S. 
Price 10 cents. 

No. 1 77 — Between the Lines. Price 15 cents. 

No. 178— American Pnlplt. Price 10 cents. 

Following issued durinK 1914, inolnd- 
itiK Eag;le Almanac and No. 05 re- 

VlMOfl. 

No. 179— Federal Banking and Currency Law. 
Price 25 cents. 

No. ISO— Workmen's Compensation Law. Price 
25 cents. 

No. 181— Constitution of U. S. and N. Y. 
State. Price 10 cents. 



Subscription Price 



TO EAGLE LIBRARY 

{PUBLISHED MONTHLY) 

FOR ONE YEAR. 
INCLUDING THE EAGLE ALMANAC 



$t-50 



1 



92 Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 

A Good Buy! 

Real Estate on Long Island 

Men of Wealth Purchase If! 



Long Island property is becoming more valu- 
able year after year. The reason of this is Long 
Island today is being searched by the discriminat- 
ing man for a location for an all-year-round home. 
When you are ready to join the Long Island Colony 
be certain to consult the classified columns of The 
Eagle. Many bargains of this charming section are 
daily advertised. 

Are You Familiar 



with what is going on in your neighboring town? 
If not, The Eagle will tell you. It prints all of the 
social, business and all other reliable news of the 
entire island. It's one of The Eagle's distinct 
features. 

The Brooklyn Daily Eagle 

3 Cents 

And Worth it! 

b . : J 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 93 



vyymyyfyyyyffyym'JWM'/'jmw»MyMmy^M////////^^f/WyMMym^^ 



WWM^MM^;'>///»MMMW M///MM/M/^W//WMMM//M/MMMA 



Andrew Carnegie 

once said : 



* ^^\ THER men's brains have made 
X^ me rich — I seldom fail to read 
their catalogs. 'Tis said I've more 
money than some. If so, 'tis because 
I've had more courage than some. I 
let the slow-coaches use the old ma- 
chine — mine I chucked into the scrap- 
heap — quick. 

"The latest machine I bought from 
the latest catalog. That plan is the 
earliest by which to make money in a 
staple business. 

"There's brains in catalogs — but 
only for brains." 



Try the stimulating effect of Catalogs in pushing 
your business. We'll be glad to talk it over with 
you, suggest styles and quote prices. 








IralSy^ ^ 



W.w/yyy-w/t^^^yvv ' v-'^.^>.^^^^^^^>^/'>/^^^^^^^ 



94 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



C. W. RULAND, 

Funeral Director, Embalmer and Undertaker 

PATCHOGUE, L. I. 



The undertaking and embalming establishment of 
C. W. Ruland. situated at North Ocean Avenue and 
Lake Street, Patchogue, is one of the most up-to-date 
concerns of its kind on Long Island. Mr. Ruland's ex- 
perience of forty years in business has been marked 
with success. Every modern device known to the pro- 
fession is found at Ruland's, and efficiency, combined 
with prompt, courteous, honest service, has met with a 
large and merited patronage. 

Mr. Ruland can well be called the pioneer in his 
profession on Long Island by reason of his leadership 
in modernism. He is the first man in Suffolk County 
to erecl a funeral chapel, morgue and embalming par- 
lors, all in one building, fully equipped with the most 
modern devices. This beautiful building, just com- 
pleted on North Ocean Avenue at the corner of Lake 
Street, is one of the show buildings of the village. The 
funeral chapel on the first floor, accommodating over 
100 persons, and fittingly decorated and equipped, is 
the first of its kind in this section of Long Island. A 
deep underground basement is used as a morgue. The 
upper story is used as an embalming laboratory-. This 
up-to-date establishment has a vault in Cedar Grove 
Cemetery for the use of its patrons. 

Associated with Mr. Ruland in the business are his 
two sons, Clarence W. Ruland and John Ruland, both 
licensed embalmers. 




SEEK 



HEALTH 



When you stop to think just where you would 
like to seek health this year, let The Eagle's Free 
Information Bureau aid you. Many good places 
will be spoken of and booklets, photographs and 
circulars can be secured — all to help you. 

BROOKLYN DAILY EAGLE 

Fourth Floor, 307 Washington Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Telephone 6200 Main. OPEN ALL NIGHT. 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 



95 



ty/^y^.vyyyyy/^wvy/w/v>^>>^^^^ 




Mrs. TYLER-MILLER 

Importer and Manufacturer of Fine Hair Goods 
80 and 82 FLEET STREET, BROOKLYN 

Shampooing, Manicuring, Hair Dressing 
Scalp and Facial Massage 

LARGEST LINE OF HAIR GOODS IN THE CITY— LOWEST PRICES 



For gray, bleached or faded hair I 
recommend and use in my establishment 
Empress Improved Hair Stain— does not 
rub off or stain the scalp, leaves the hair 
soft and glossy, so that it can be curled 
or waved beautifully. Guaranteed abso- 
lutely harmless by the leading derma- 
tologists of the Universities of Berlin 
and Leipsic, Germany, and Paris, France. 

MrsTYLER-MILLER 

80-82 Fleet St., Brooklyn 

Opp. Loeser's and New Dime Savings Bank 

TeL Main 1319 



Private Room for Each Patron 




//yyy/y/wy>/<^w^^w^^^^ 



WANTED-OLD SILVER 



CHINA 




AND 

ANTIQUE 
FURNITURE 



Highest Price Paid for Old American and English Silver 

and Antiques \ 

C. R. MORSON, 301 Fulton Street, Brooklyn 




96 



Eagle Library— LONG ISLAND; ITS EARLY DAYS AND DEVELOPMENT. 




Photographic Reproductions and Local View Post Cards Made to Order 
Developing and Printing for the Amateur Photographer 

We Do All Kinds of Photography Everywhere by Appointment 
WRITE FOR SAMPLES OF WORK AND PRICES 

ROTOGRAPH COMPANY, 523 Atlantic Avenue, Brooklyn 

TELEPHONE 7959 MAIN 



MUSIC ROLLS FOR PLAYERPIANOS 

ALL $1.75 and $1.50 Rolls 75c. only 

ALL $1.25 and $1.00 Rolls 50c. only 

ALL 75c. Rolls 35c. only 

From Manufacturer Direct to You 

ORDER BY MAIL 

Local Parcel Post Rate, 5 cents for one roll — 1 cent for each additional roll. 

238 LIVINGSTON ST., BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

SEND NAME AND ADDRESS FOR CATALOG AND WEEKLY 

Special list of new Tangos, One-Step, Hesitation Waltzes and Popular Songs. 



THE MODERN! WAf 

Facts Better Than Manufacturers' Claims 
or Salesmen's Arguments 

IN the old days, when you were on the market to purchase 
machinery or appHances for your business, a salesman called 
on you, showed you a few pictures of the article you were inter- 
ested in and told you what the manufacturer claimed for it; and 
if the salesman talked well and the pictures looked good, the sale 
was made. 

Our method changes all this, completely discards manufacturers' 
claims and enables you to "know" that the appliance meets your 
needs before you purchase. 

There are on display at our new building, 1022 to 1028 Fulton 
Street, between Grand and Franklin Avenues, over two hundred 
types of apparatus and burners. Some of them will be of popu- 
lar interest in your line of business. 

Every appliance is connected with a test meter, so that you may 
not only see the work done for which it is intended, but also note 
the exact amount of gas used in the operation. 

We show you exactly what gas does when correctly used. We 
illustrate to you why our appliances work efficiently. You see 
for yourself why gas is the ideal fuel; clean, economical, starting 
and ceasing work and expense at the turn of a lever. 

Bring a sample of your work here. We can then tell you exactly 
what appliance is most useful to you and you can try it and learn 
for yourself. 

Our services, our appliances and our gas at the demonstration are 
at your disposal without any obligation on your part. 

THE BROOKLYN UNION GAS CO. 

INDUSTRIAL DIVISION: 1022-1028 FULTON STREET 

Telephone Prospect 8096 



Absolutely Fireproof 




T 



O secure tne best care, telephone our Estimate Department, 5560 
^ain, for tne storage or your houseliola goods ana valuaoles. 
Expert packers. Carpets cleaned by electric or vacuum macliinery 

The Eagle Warehouse and Storage Co.fi',!*/'!:' b.Vf^,'!. 

OFFICERS and DIRECTORS of the EAQLE WAREHOUSE AND STORAGE COMPANY 

OFFICERS 

JOHN H. HALLOCK, President JOHN E. CASSIDY, Vice-President & Mgr. 



Andrew D. Baird 
John E. Cassidy 
Daniel J. Creem 



HERBERT F. GUNNISON, Secretary and Treasurer 

DIRECTORS 

JuuAN D. Fairchild T. M. Lloyd 



Herbert F. Gunnison 
William Hester 



Wm. M. Van Anden 
E. Le Grand Beers 



P. J. Carlin 
J. H. Hallock 
W. V. Hester 












J UN 9 1971 



'0"^ 


t';..';.i':; . :* 


.■■;-:.:i-;.||;|: 


''fc^$':7- 


•i,-'" A;; -'^i-'. 


,•;•;;;,■;■• '[ 




i;! :l':'>! :' p:. 


■.^^-.-.yrr 







 '.17 J 1