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Full text of "The Lords Effingham and the American colonies"

THE LORDS 
AND THE 
AMERICAN 
COLONIES 



EFFINGHAM 




THE LORDS EFFINGHAM 

AND THE 

AMERICAN COLONIES 



by 

Hilda Engbring Feldhake 

1976 



Published by Effingham County Bicentennial Commission 

Effingham, Illinois 



T 33^ t 



(-^{?' 5. 



CONTENTS 

Page 



Foreword 

I The Howards of England 1 

The Howards of Norfolk 1 

The Howards of Effingham 3 

II Lord Francis Howard, Gov. of Virginia 5 

Homes of Virginia Governors 6 

Green Spring Plantation 6 

Rosegill Plantation 7 

III Lord Thomas Howard and the American Revolution 8 

Lord Effingham's Sword 12 

IV Effingham in Surrey, England 13 

V Lord Effingham's Names-sake in the United States 14 

Frigate Effingham — Galley Effingham 14 

World War II Effingham 14 

Effingham County in Illinois 15 

City of Effingham in Illinois 16 

Bicentennial Celebration 18 

Bibhography 21 



FOREWORD 

The celebration of the Bicentennial of the American Revolution has 
stimulated a resurgence of interest in history. It is an appropriate time 
for us to learn more concerning the man for whom Effingham county 
and city were named. Lord Thomas Howard, 3rd Earl of Effingham. 

The geneology of the Howard family is confusing because of the 
interchange of royal titles — Duke, Earl, Baron — and their connections 
with other titled families of England. A continuity has been difficuh 
to achieve because in several generations a nobleman did not leave a 
direct heir and the title passed to another branch of the family. 

Ranks of nobiHty in Great Britain, in order of their importance, 
are Duke, Marquis, Earl, Viscount and Baron. The semiformal title of 
Lord is used for any peer other than a duke. 

Since the earldom of Effingham stemmed from the dukedom of 
Norfolk, only the members of those two Houses have been traced to the 
two Lords Effingham who are the reason for this booklet. 



I 

THE HOWARDS OF ENGLAND 



Howard is the name of an old English House standing at the head of 
English nobility. The remotest traceable ancestor was Sir William Howard 
(1297-1308) of Norfolk, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas to Edward I 

and II. 

Members of the Howard family, in one or another of its branches, 
through inheritance or intermarriage, have through the centuries been 
connected with the titled families of England — Norfolk, Suffolk and 
Bershire, Carlisle, Surrey, Northampton, Nottingham, Arundel, and 
Effingham. 

The Howards served their sovereigns well and were rewarded with 
titles and extensive grants of land. They were at the side of the kings 
in warfare, envoys to foreign lands, lords high admiral in the navy, 
lords lieutenants of northern countries. 

The majority of Howards were Catholic, although after Henry VIII 
broke with Rome and established a national church with himself as 
supreme head of church and clergy of England, several embraced Angli- 
canism. When members of the Howard family were in disfavor, they 
spent years imprisoned in the Tower of London. Several were beheaded, 
one of them being Catherine Howard, one of the wives of Henry VIII 
(1542). 



The Howards of Norfolk 

Norfolk is the premier dukedom of England, ranking next after 
princes of the blood. It has been held by members of the Howard family 
from 1483 to the present time. The Duke of Norfolk is the eari marshal 
and chief butler of the realm, a distinction borne by his male heirs. 

The Earl Marshal is the head of the College of Heralds. It falls to 
him to instruct officials, peers and peeresses on their duties at a corona- 
tion, to give the rulings on points of precedence, of which there are 
many, and to allot seats in the abbey. His most important task is to 
instruct members of the royal family on their part in the ceremony and 
to supervise at the coronation the procession which is known as the 
Royal Proceeding. By a typical English anomaly a Roman Catholic is the 
officer of this most Anglican of all ceremonies. 



Sir John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk , (1430?- 1485), son of Sir 
Robert Howard and Lady Margaret, created by Richard III (1483) earl 
marshal of England and granted much property. Sir John shared in the 
King's defeat at Bosworth Field. Both were killed in battle. 

Thomas (1), 2nd Duke of Norfolk, (1444-1524), son of Sir John, 
also Earl of Surrey, the hero of Flodden Field; imprisoned three years 
in the Tower of London by Henry VII and deprived of his honors. But 
he was released and in 1501 became one of Henry's councilors. One 
son. Lord Edmund Howard, was the father of Catherine, fifth wife to 
Henry VIII; a daughter, Elizabeth, was wife to Thomas Boleyn and mother 
of Ann Boleyn, Henry VIII's second wife. Another son was Lord 
Wilham Howard, founder of the Effingham branch of the Howards. 

Thomas (2), 3rd Duke of Norfolk. (1473-1554) , also Earl of Surrey; son 
of 2nd Duke; married in 1495 Edward IV's daughter Anne, thus becoming 
brother-in-law of Henry VII. By his second wife, Elizabeth, daughter of 
Edward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, he was the father of Henry 
Howard, Earl of Surrey and a celebrated poet who was executed in 
1547 for treason. Thomas was imprisoned in the Tower six years under 
condemnation as accessory to the treason of his son. He was released 
and restored on accession of Queen Mary (1553). 

Thomas (3), 4th Duke of Norfolk, (1536-1572), also 1st Earl of 
Northampton, son of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, and grandson of 
Thomas, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, was accused and executed for attempting 
to marry Mary, Queen of Scots. The family honors were again restored, 
partly by James I and partly by Charles II. 

His eldest son and heir, Philip Howard, (1557-1595), was the 13th 
Earl of Arundel (1st in the Howard line) and premier Earl of England. 
His father was deprived of the Norfolk title before his execution in 1571 
by Queen Elizabeth and Phihp did not succeed to it. A leading light of 
the court of Queen Elizabeth, he became reconciled to Rome. He was 
caught trying to escape to France and spent the last ten years of this life 
in the Tower where he died at the age of thirty-eight and was buried in 
the same grave in the Tower church that had received his father and 
grandfather, Henry Howard, the poet. 

Sir Philip Howard was one of the Forty English Martyrs, canonized by 
Pope Paul VI on October 25, 1970. Bernard Marmaduke Fitzalan- 
Howard, 16th Duke of Norfolk, (1908-1975). attended the function as 
a kinsman and secured, not without some difficulty. Home Office permis- 
sion for the re-burial of the saint's body in Arundel Cathedral in Sussex, 
close by the castle where the Dukes of Norfolk still dwell. 

The 16th Duke of Norfolk died January 31. 1975. He left no direct 
heir and the title will pass to another branch of the family. 



The Howards of Effingham 



Lord William Howard (15107-1572), eldest son of Thomas, 2nd Duke 
of Norfolk, was elevated to the Peerage in the first year of the reign of 
Queen Mary (1553-1554) as Baron Howard of Effingham. Surrey, for 
his part in helping to suppress Sir Thomas Wyatt's rebellion. 

Lord Howard's first wife was Katherine Broughton , daughter of John 
Broughton of Tuddington, Beds., by whom he had an only daughter, 
Agnes. His second wife was Margaret, daughter of Sir Thomas Gamage. 
In 1542 Lord William, his wife Margaret, and his mother, the Duchess of 
Norfolk, were committed to the Tower on a charge of misprision of 
treason, having, it was alleged, concealed what they knew about the 
behavior of one of Henry VIII's wives. Queen Catherine Howard, who 
was Lord William's niece. They were pardoned in 1544. 

At the accession of Queen Elizabeth the Howard family was repre- 
sented by William, Lord Howard of Effingham, "to whom above all 
other Englishmen Elizabeth owed her life and throne." (Froude's History 

of England, Vol. V). 

Lord William Howard died in January 1572 and was succeeded by his 
eldest son by his second wife. 

Charles, 2nd Baron Howard of Effingham (1536-1624), and 1st Earl of 
Nottingham in the Howard line. He became a Knight of the Garter in 
April 1574. Queen Elizabeth appointed him Lord High Admiral to 
command against the Spanish Armada in 1588. Lord Howard was not a 
professional sailor but his strategy was successful. According to David 
Divine's Six Great Sailors, Lord Howard of Effingham's name "is the 
greatest in the long list of Lords High Admirals of England." He died 
at age 87. 

His son Charles (1579-1642) succeeded as 2nd Earl of Nottingham. 
Third Earl of Nottingham was Sir Charles Howard (1610-1681), half- 
brother of the 2nd Earl and fourth son of the 1st Earl of Nottingham. 
It was he who sold the Manor of Effingham to Thomas Turgis in 
September 1647. 

The Earldom of Nottingham expired on his death but the Barony of 
Effingham reverted in 1681 to 

Francis, 5th Baron Howard of Effingham (1643-1695), of Great 
Bookham, Surrey, was the great-grandson of Sir William Howard of 
Linfeld, who was the second son of William, first Lord Howard of 
Effingham. Since Lord Francis Howard played a role in pre-revolutionary 
days as Governor of Virginia, he is dealt with at length in the following 
chapter. 

He was succeeded by his second but eldest surviving son, Thomas, as 
6th Baron Howard of Effingham (1682-1725). Lord Thomas had no sons, 
and the Barony devolved upon his brother 

Francis, 1st Earl of Effingham and 7th Baron Howard (1683- 
1742). His Lordship was a military officer of high rank. Succeeded by 
his only son 

3 



Thomas. 2nd Earl of Effingham and 8th Baron Howard (1714-1763), 
also a military officer of rank. He was succeeded by his elder son, 

Thomas. 3rd Earl of Effingham and 9th Baron Howard (1746-1791). 
Lord Thomas Howard's protest in the British Parliament against England's 
treatment of the colonists, makes him the most important character in 
this booklet. Personal history is contained in a follo^^^ng chapter. 

Lord Thomas died without issue and honors devolved on his brother 
Richard. 4th Earl of Effingham and 10th Baron Howard (1747-1816). 
This title became extinct on the death of the 4th Earl, but in 1837 a 
kinsman was again created an Earl of Effingham. 




II 

LORD FRANCIS HOWARD, 
GOVERNOR OF VIRGINIA 



The men King Charles II sent to govern the colonies were poor 
choices for the position. They were of the nobility and influential enough 
to command consideration by the king, who, in some instances, was 
glad to rid England of their presence. 

On September 28, 1683, Francis, Lord Howard of Effingham, was 
sworn in as Governor of Virginia. Overbearing, high living and generally 
contemptuous of the colonists. Lord Effingham continued the policies of 
his predecessors. Lord William Berkeley and Lord Thomas Culpeper, 
obstructing every move of the burgesses to govern themselves as free 
men. During his five years in office Lord Effingham, by his efforts to 
weaken the power and influence of the General Assembly, increased the 
resistance of the colonists to any action that encroached upon their rights. 

Lord Effingham was a dark man of flabby features and a self- 
satisfied, haughty expression. He was scarcely the type to win the coopera- 
tion of the frontier settlers. 

Before coming to Virginia, Lord Howard received permission to spend 
two months of the hot summer weather each year in New York. The 
one notable act of his administration was the conference held at 
Albany, N.Y., in 1684 with the Five Nations — the Iroquois, Oneidas, 
Onondagas, Mohawks and Cayugas — which brought a measure of 
peace from Indian raids to the provinces of Virginia and Maryland. 
The Oneidas, Onondagas and Cayugas, who had been the offending 
tribes, joined with Lord Howard in the ceremony of burying the hatchet. 

Lord Howard's first residence was "Green Spring." In the spring of 
1685 Lord Ho ward was ill. The following summer illness overtook the 
household, Lady Effingham died, also two pages and five or six other 
servants. Lord Effingham's daughter, who set sail for England with her 
mother's body, died before her ship arrived in the Thames River. Follow- 
ing this siege of illness, Ralph Wormeley II, an intimate friend of the 
Governor, installed His Lordship in one of the smaller houses of "Rose- 
gill." There the family did well. His host shared His Lordship's taste 
for high living, and "feasting and carousing" with high stake gambUng 
were the order of day and night at Rosegill. 

Lord Effingham's controversies with the Burgesses became more 
frequent — every session became more bitter until petitions for his 
removal were sent to England. In the Mother Country James II had 
been deposed and William and Mary were the new rulers. 

Realizing that Lord Effingham could no longer be effective in the 
Colony King William recalled His Lordship to London in the fall of 1688. 
He permitted Effingham to retain his title and half the salary, and 
appointed Captain Francis Nicholson as lieutenant governor. 

5 



Nicholson removed the seat of government from Jamestown to the 
flourishing Middle Plantation, now known as WiUiamsburg. He was the 
first of several competent chief executives whose abilities and attitudes 
contrasted sharply with those of Berkeley, Culpeper and Howard. 

At the end of 1692 in London Lord Effingham finally resigned as 
official governor of Virginia. 

Lord Francis Howard, 5th Baron of Effingham, of Great Bookham, 
Surrey was baptized September 17, 1643. His first wife was Philadelphia, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Pelham, Bt., whom he married July 8, 1673, and 
by whom he had three sons and three daughters. She died August 13, 1685. 
On January 20, 1689, he married Susan, widow of Philip Harbord, of 
Stanninghall, Norfolk, and daughter of Sir Henry Felton, Bt., after 
he had returned to England. 

This second marriage was to last a little more than six years, since 
Lord Effingham died March 30, 1695. She survived him thirty-one years. 
The title passed to his second but eldest surviving son, Thomas. 

Homes of the Governors 

— Green Spring Plantation 

The "very green spring" that gave the name to the estate of Sir 
Wilham Berkeley, Governor of the Virginia colony (1642-52 and 1660-77), 
is still flowing but nothing remains except foundations and the grim little 
prison where Berkeley imprisoned the followers of Nathaniel Bacon. 
Bacon, the leader of the rebels, had used the governor's country home 
as his headquarters for the unsuccessful siege of Jamestown in 1676. 

Governor Berkeley's plantation was one and a half miles from Williams- 
burg which originally was called "Middle Plantation," on the north 
bank of the James River. At the end of a road running about three 
straight miles from Jamestown, the estate was sliced out of a forest of 
oak and poplar, chestnut and walnut, holly and sycamore. 

Construction on the home was begun before 1650 and was on a 940 
acre tract, a holding that had been enlarged to more than 1,000 by 
1661, at which time another 1,000 was added. It was surrounded by 
grape arbors, orchards and tobacco fields. 

Excavations have revealed that there were two adjacent homes on the 
site. The east structure has been designated by a park Service archaeolo- 
gist as the "Old Manor House" and the ell-shaped building as the "Mansion 
House." Ivor Hume in his Here Lies Virginia describes the former: 
"The Old Manor House, believed to have been built between 1643 and 
1649, resembled a typical small brick country house of the period; on 
the east face it was adorned with a pair of buttress-like 'towers' that 
probably provided deeply recessed mullioned windows for the principal 
rooms. Between these flanking rooms was a large entrance hall." The 
solid old house was taken down in 1796 by Wm. Ludwell Lee to make 
way for a new one designed by Benjamin Latrobe. 



Governor Berkeley died in 1677. His widow, Lady Frances (Culpeper), 
remarried in 1680 and Green Spring was rented to Governor Thomas 
Culpeper in 1680 and to Lord Effingham in 1684. 

A plan of part of the Governor's land in the vicinity of Green Spring 
plantation made in 1683 showed sixteen tenants. 

Rosegill Plantation 

Rosegillwas a 5,000 acre plantation on the south side of the Rappa- 
hannock River. The manor house at Rosegill was, except for Green 
Spring, one of the few plantation houses of the day built with some 
grandeur. 

The old Rosegill was a two and a half story house, eighty feet long, 
with a Dutch roof. Immediately inside, a gallery ran the width of the 
house with stairs at each end leading to three bedrooms above. Down- 
stairs there was a large reception room which served for parties, an 
intimate room and a diningroom. All service units, such as the kitchen 
and laundry, were in outside buildings. Accessory buildings also had 
housed the famed library, a chapel, picture gallery, school rooms, and 
quarters for the thirty guests which legend says could be provided there. 

A French Hugenot refugee who visited Rosegill while Lord Effingham 
was staying there, said: "When I reached his place I thought I was 
entering a rather large village." 

Ralph Wormeley II, an intimate friend of Lord Effingham, installed His 
Lordship in one of the smaller houses at Rosegill. Along with the plan- 
tation Wormeley had inherited four indentures, thirteen blacks, cattle, 
sheep, and 24 horses branded with his step-father. Sir Henry Chicheley's 
coat of arms. 




Ill 

LORD THOMAS HOWARD 
AND THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 

It would be difficult to find two personalities at greater variance with 
each other than those of Lord Francis Howard and his great grandson, 
Lord Thomas Howard. The former was a high-living peer, ambitious, 
demanding, and incapable of realizing the injustices suffered by the 
colonists. In contrast Lord Thomas had great sympathy and understanding 
for his embattled countrymen in the American colonies. 

Lord Thomas was a plain, rather rough, country squire, who liked 
his wine and horses. Lady Effingham had the reputation of an expert 
rider; she hunted and rode over five-barred gates. A summer house on the 
estate had been christened Boston Castle — not as a tribute to the 
American cause, but because no tea was ever drunk there. 

Lord Thomas was a regimental officer with the rank of Captain and 
was passionately devoted to his vocation. When there was no fighting 
west of the Carpathian Mountains, he had joined the Russian army as 
a volunteer, and had gone through a campaign against the Turks, being 
recognized for his enterprise and bravery. Lord Effingham's behavior 
was specially marked in 1770, when almost the whole of the Turkish fleet 
was burned in a bay on the coast of Anatolia. He was 24 years of age at 
the time. 

In the early years of the English colonies in America there was genuine 
love for Mother Country, and the colonists were devoted, loyal subjects 
of the Crown. Real trouble developed when England began to consider the 
colonies only as a source of revenue. Repressive tax laws were passed 
on exports and imports. At first these were evaded by smuggling, which 
developed into a high and respected art. 

At the end of the French and Indian War in 1766, when England 
defeated France and secured Canada for herself, she decided that the 
colonies should help pay the costs of that war as well as the costs of main- 
taining ten thousand of her soldiers to protect the borders. The need for 
revenue was great and Parliament was determined to tax the colonists, 
not on world shipping and trade, but on internal affairs. 

King George Ill's greatest blunder in dealing with America was 
simply to underestimate it. He could not see the validity of the discontent 
by men who still thought of themselves as true Englishmen. By 1773 the 
tea taxes brought serious violence to America. 

As a member of the House of Lords Thomas Howard was well aware 
of the situation. He was not alone in his conviction that the colonists were 
freemen driven to resistence by acts of oppresion and violence. He 
warned lest France and Spain take advantage of the conflict between 
Britain and America. 



8 



When it became evident that his Regiment was to be sent to America, 
even though he was not a rich man, he gave up the prospect of 
sure and quick advancement by resigning his commission in the army, 
rather than fight in an unjust cause: 

Adelphi Buildings, April 12, 1775 
To Lord Harrington, Secretary at War. 
My Lord, 

I beg the favour of your Lordship to lay before his 
Majesty the peculiar embarrassment of my present function. 

Your Lordship is no stranger to the conduct which I have 
observed in the unhappy disputes with our American colonies. 

The King is too just and too generous not to believe that 
the votes I have given in Parliament have been given according 
to the dictates of my conscience. Whether I have erred or not, 
the course of future events must determine. In the mean- 
time, if I were capable of such duplicity as to be any way 
concerned in enforcing those measures of which I have so 
pubhcly and solemnly expressed my disapprobation, I should 
ill deserve what I am most ambitious of obtaining, the esteem 
and favourable opinion of my Sovereign. 

My request therefore to your Lordship is this, that after 
having laid those circumstances before the King, you will 
assure his Majesty that he has not a subject who is more ready 
than I am with the utmost chearfulness to sacrifice his life 
and fortune in support of the safety, honour, and dignity of 
his Majesty's crown and person. But the very same principles 
which have inspired me with these unalterable sentiments of 
duty and affection to his Majesty, will not suffer me to be 
instrumental in depriving any part of his people of those 
liberties which form the best security for their fidelity and 
obedience to his government. As I cannot, without reproach 
from my conscience, consent to bear arms against my fellow 
subjects in America in what, to my weak discernment, is 
not a clear cause; and as it seems now to be finally resolved that 
the 22d Regiment is to go upon American service, I desire your 
Lordship to lay me in the most dutiful manner at his Majesty's 
feet, and humbly beg that I may be permitted to retire. 

Your Lordship will also be so obliging to entreat that as I 
waive what the custom of the service would entitle me to, 
the right of selhng what I bought, I may be allowed to retain 
my rank in the Army, that whenever the envy or ambition of 
foreign powers should require it, I may be enabled to serve his 
Majesty and my country in that way in which alone I can 
expect to serve them with any degree of effect. 

Your Lordship will easily conceive the regret and mortifica- 
tion I feel at being necessitated to quit the military profession, 
which has been that of my ancestors for many generations. 



to which I have been bred almost from my infancy, to which 
I have devoted the study of my hfe, and to perfect myself in 
which I have sought instruction and service in whatever part 
of the world they were to be found. 

I have delayed this to the last moment, lest any wrong 
construction should be given to a conduct which is influenced 
only by the purest motives. I complain of nothing; I love my 
profession and course of life, in which I might be useful to 
the public, so long as my constitutional principles and my 
notions of honour permitted me to continue in it. 
I have the honour to be, with great respect. 

Your Lordship's most obedient. 

And most humble servant, 

EFFINGHAM 

— Almon, ed.. The Remembrancer, I, pgs. 165-166. 

In May 1775 Lord Howard made his explanation in Parliament. His 
highest ambition, he told the House of Lords, was to serve his country in 
a military capacity. "When the duties," he said, "of a soldier and citizen 
become inconsistent, I shall always think myself obliged to sink the 
character of the soldier in that of the citizen, till such time as those 
duties shall again, by malice of our real enemies, become united." This 
was a remarkable confession but none of his peers took exception to it. 
In fact, on October 26, 1775, another protest was entered against the 
prosecution of a civil war, signed by the Lords Effingham, Cholmondeley, 
Devonshire, Rockingham, King, Chedworth, Richmon, Portland, Torring- 
ton, Stamford, Boyle, Fitzwilham, Ponsonby, Craven, Archer, Abingdon, 
Scarborough, Thanet, and Manchester. 

Outside Parliament, although he did not seek publicity. Lord 
Effingham became very popular. Rev. William Mason, the poet, wanted 
to know if there ever was anything, ancient or modern, either in sen- 
timent or language, better than Lord Effingham's speech. Public thanks 
were voted to him by the Corporations of London and Dublin. Toasts 
were drunk to the Earl of Effingham who did not forget the Citizen in 
the Soldier. 

Shortly after Lord Effingham made his first appeal the Lord Mayor 
and Aldermen of the City of London remonstrated with His Majesty but 
King George was adamant in his decision to punish the colonies. On 
August 23, 1775, he signed a proclamation declaring America to be in 
a state of "open and avowed rebellion " and ordered his forces to sup- 
press it. Word of the proclamation reached the colonies in November, 
stiffening the sentiment that finally prevailed July 4, 1776. 

George III remained unreconciled even when he formally acknow- 
ledged independence December 4, 1782. "I shall never rest my head. . . as 
long as I remember the loss of My American colonies," he wrote. 



10 



When John Adams arrived in London in 1785 as the first American 
minister to Britain, he was warmly welcomed by Lord and Lady Effing- 
ham, old and faithful friends of the Americans. 

Lord Thomas Howard was born in January 1746, the son of Thomas 
Howard, 2nd Earl of Effingham. He was educated at Eton January 1753 — 
60; entered the army in 1762; becoming a Lieut. Col. in 1782. He was 
Deputy Earl Marshal 1777 - 82; Acting Grand Master of Freemasons 1782 - 
89; Treasurer of the Household (Whig) April 1782 - 83; Master of the Mint 
1784 - 89; Governor of Jamaica 1789 - 91 . He married Catherine, daughter 
of Metcalfe Proctor, of Thorpe, near Leeds. 

Lady Effingham died of a liver disease at sea, on board. H. M. ship 
Diana on October 14, 1791, aged 45 years. One month and five days later, 
on November 19, 1791. Lord Effingham died at the same age at the 
Government House in Jamaica. He left no heir and the title passed to his 
brother Richard. 




11 



Lord Effingham's Sword 

Lord Effingham's offer to resign his commission was refused and he 
retained his rank in the 22nd Regiment even though it embarked for 
America without him. 

It is fitting that the sword of this courageous gentleman should find 
a resting place in the land he championed so strongly. It evidently 
had been handed down in the Earl's family and was given to Mr. Preston 
Davie of New York by Gordon Howard, Earl of Effingham. Mr. Davie 
placed the sword on loan to Colonial Wilhamsburg and the College of 
William and Mary in 1939. At the present time it is the property of 
the College. 




The Sword is displayed in the Old Capitol Building at Williamsburg. Va. 

The sword is of a simple design and a small metal plate on the 
scabbard tells the story: 

"The Regimental Sword of Thomas Howard, Earl of Effingham, who 
refused to draw it in the Attempt of his Country to Subjugate America in 
the year 1776." 

The Effingham Historical Society is negotiating for the loan of the 
sword for display in Effingham County during the summer of 1976 as part 
of the Bicentennial Celebration. 

Word has been received from the British Consulate General's office in 
Chicago, that Lord Mowbray Henry Gordon Howard, 6th Earl of Effingham, 
is to visit the United States as part of the Bicentennial celebrations. The 
Effingham County Bicentennial Commission has respecfully invited his 
Lordship to make Effingham in Illinois one of the places he will visit on his 
tour. 

12 



IV 
EFFINGHAM IN SURREY, ENGLAND 



The history of Effingham, Surrey, England, has been traced back to 
the 7th century. The first documentary evidence of Effingham comes from 
the pen of Venerable Bede who wrote that Erconwald, who became 
Bishop of London in 674 A.D., had founded a monastery at "Ceortesie" 
(Chertsey) by the Thames and that Bishop Frithwald, Viceroy of Surrey, 
had granted to the Abbey 20 dwellings in "Bocham cum Effingham." 
Chertsey Abbey held land in Effingham from the 7th century until the 
Dissolution of the monasteries in 1537 by Henry VIII. 

The original grant of land in Effingham to the Howard family was made 
by King Edward VI to Lord William Howard in 1550 and read in part: 
"County of Surrey - Parcel of lands and possessions late of the Monastery 
of Chertsey in the aforesaid County etc. (Manors of Effingham and Book- 
ham) and a moiety (part) of the Manor of Reigate and Hooley in 
consideration of the good, true and acceptable service done by him." 

The house presently called "Browns" in the center of the village of 
Effingham and close to the Church, was the Manor House of Effingham 
Manor in 1550 and was comprised in the Upper Farm of 94 acres 
included in the Grant to Lord William Howard. It was a timber framed 
structure with a very fine Tudor roof, and two good Tudor brick chimneys. 
It was refaced with red brick in the 18th century, and it has a modillion 
eaves cornice. There is a well in the cellar inside this house which was 
a common practice in the houses of the well-to-do in the later Middle 
Ages and was intended to preserve the water supply for the house from 
contamination. Additions to the Manor were made in 1929. 

The Howard family maintained their estate in Effingham for 97 years. 
Lord Charles Howard, 3rd Earl of Nottingham, dissipated his inheritance 
and to satisfy his debts the Manor and Lordship of Effingham were sold on 
September 18, 1647, to Thomas Turgis, citizen and grocer of London, for 
the sum of 3,600 pounds. 



(Author's Note: The greater portion of this chapter was taken from the 
book The History of Effingham in Surrey, compiled by Monica M. 
O'Connor and published by Effingham Women's Institute, Surrey, 
England, in 1973.) 

13 



V 
LORD EFFINGHAM'S NAMESAKES 

Lord Thomas Howard's action in opposing England's treatment of the 
colonists made him a leader of those Britishers who supported his stand, 
notably his peers in the House of Lords. He crystallized the sentiment that 
existed not only in England, but also in other European countries. There is 
no doubt that word of this support was brought back to the colonists by 
their envoys to England, France, Russia and Holland. Lord Effingham's 
courageous action resulted in two ships being named after him in the Re- 
volutionary War, and one ship during World War IL 

Frigate Effingham — Galley Effingham 

The first Effingham , a 28-gun frigate named in honor of Lord Howard, 
3rd Earl of Effingham, was built in the Delaware River above Philadelphia 
where she was launched on October 31, 1776. Commodore Barry was her 
first and only Commanding Officer. She participated in the fighting around 
Philadelphia, where she was sunk upon orders of General Washington 
during November 1777 to prevent her capture by the British. On May 8, 
1778, she was destroyed by the enemy where she lay. She never was 
completely fitted for sea. 

A galley named Effingham, built early in the Revolutionary War by 
the Pennsylvania Committee of Safety, operated in the Delaware River. 
She belonged to the Pennsylvania State Navy. Her motive power was fur- 
nished by means of oars. She had a length between 47 and 50 feet; beam, 
13 feet; depth of hold, 4 feet, 6 inches. She was armed with two howitzers 
and had a complement of 50 officers and men. 

The Marine Committee ordered Capt. Barry of the Effingham to take 
the four boats belonging to the frigates that had been sunk in the Delaware, 
and proceed on a cruise upon that river. On March 7, 1778, two of them, 
joined by five boats, half manned, attacked and took two of the enemy's 
transport ships and also a schooner. The transports were loaded with 
forage and Capt. Barry, after stripping them of their guns, ordered them 
burned. The schooner, loaded with a variety of useful and valuable 
articles, was a suitable vessel for a cruiser he was ordered to employ on the 
Delaware River. 

The Effingham was sold at Philadelphia December 11,1 778. 

World War II Effingham (APA-165) 

The Effingham that saw service in World War H was built for the 
United States Maritime Commission. Her construction and conversion to 
an attack troop transport was carried on concurrently. She was launched 
on September 29, 1944, under the sponsorship of Mrs. Jay C. Caseda, of 
Portland, Oregon. Acquired by the Navy on a loan charter basis, she was 

14 



placed in commission November 1, 1944, when Commander Claton H. 
McLaughlin, USNR, assumed command. 

On January 2, 1945, ihe Effingham left San Francisco with 72 officers, 
and 995 men of the U.S. army; 13 officers and 73 men of the Royal New 
Zealand Air Force; and 600 tons of cargo for Noumea, New Caledonia, 
arriving there on January 18, 1945. During succeeding months the Effingham 
plied the South Pacific, transporting men and cargo to the Russell Islands, 
Guadalcanal, Okinawa and Guam. 

During six days off Okinawa there were intermittent air attacks both 
day and night. One mass air attack was conducted by the enemy on April 
5, 1945, during which Effingham gunners shot down one enemy fighter. 
Nightly bombing of the transport area occurred or was attempted with little 
success, and suicide plane attacks were numerous. Many planes were shot 
down. No casualties were sustained by the Effingham but two sections of 
fire hose on the forward deck were damaged due to shrapnel from 5-inch 
shells exploding close aboard. 

In September 1945 the Effingham was part of the Task Force that 
landed occupation troops at Taku, China. The following month she trans- 
ported personnel and cargo of the 17th Chinese Nationalist Army from 
Hong Kong to Chinwangtao. The Effingham continued on transport trips 
to Korea, Japan, and China through February 1946. 

On her last voyage the Effingham departed San Diego on March 5, 
1946, to complete transit of the Panama Canal and arrived at Norfolk, 
Virginia, on March 20th, to commence deactivation. She was placed out 
of commission May 17, 1946, and returned to the Maritime Commission at 
Norfolk on June 20, 1946. 

Lord Effingham would have been proud of his namesake. The 
Effingham earned one battle star and two other awards as hsted below: 

1 STAR - OKINAWA GUNTO OPERATION: 

Assault and Occupation of Okinawa Gunto: April 1-7, 1945 

NAVY OCCUPATION SERVICE MEDAL (Asia): 
Sept. 2 - Oct. 1 , 1945; Jan. 20-23, 1946. 

CHINA SERVICE MEDAL: 

Nov. 18-22, 1945; Jan. 24 -Feb. 10, 1946. 

Effingham County in Illinois 

On February 15, 1831, less than fifty years after the end of the Revolu- 
tionary War, a new county came into existence in Ilhnois. It was carved 
out of Fayette County, which in turn had been taken from Bond County, 
and Bond from the mother county of all Illinois counties — St. Clair. 

The bill to create Effingham County was introduced in the State Legis- 
lature by General W. L. D. Ewing, a leading lawyer and prominent state 
politician residing at Vandalia, then the capital of Ilhnois. The Act of the 
Legislature appointed John Haley, James Galloway and John Hall com- 
missioners to locate the seat of justice for the new county. 

The claim has been made that the new county was named after Lord 
Thomas Howard, 3rd Earl* of Effingham, who espoused the colonists' 

15 



cause. Research has failed to reveal the name of the person whose sugges- 
tion was followed in the naming. The first county seat, Ewington, is ob- 
viously named after General Ewing. 

It is very probable that Lord Thomas Howard had relatives in the 
colonies when the strained relations between England and her thirteen 
colonies erupted into war. Conflicting loyalties were separating father 
from son, pitting brother against brother, cousin against cousin. 

Abigail Adams, in the Journal she kept while her husband. John Adams, 
was abroad trying to win friends and monied support for the American 
cause, mentions a Mrs. Howard of Boston. 

Martin Howard, a reputable lawyer of Newport, R. I., was a supporter 
of the British. 

The patriot. Captain Wm. Howard of New Jersey, was married to a 
female adherent of Britain. 

Two of the three Commissioners possibly had ancestors who were 
active in the American Revolution. Joseph Galloway (1729-1805) was an 
American lawyer and a member of the Continental Congress (1774-1775). 
He opposed independence for the colonies. He had either Scottish or 
English forebears. 

Lyman Hall (1724-1790) was an American Revolutionary leader; mem- 
ber of the Continental Congress; signer of the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence. He was governor of Georgia in 1783. 

Rev. John Ewing (1732-1802) was an American Presbyterian clergyman ; a 
pastor in Philadelphia (1759-1802). There were Ewings in Bedford County, 
Virginia. 

All of these men had forebears who originally were Englishmen. It is 
reasonable to expect that their descendants may have made the westward 
trek and landed in Illinois. The certainty is buried in the limbo of history. 

There is no foundation to the legend that Lord Effingham ever visited 
this area. It is a fact that many Britishers were interested in transportation 
developments in this part of Illinois. About 80% of the original stock- 
holders of the Illinois Central Railroad were Englishmen. There may have 
been Howards among them; this could be an interesting topic for research. 

City of Effingham in Illinois 

The present city of Effingham in Illinois had its beginning in a small 
hamlet named Broughton. David B. Alexander and Samuel W. Little 
came to this area from Indiana in March 1853, being drawn by the proposed 
Mississippi and Atlantic Railroad which was to bisect their 260 acres of 
land. At this time there were only two log cabins in what is now Effingham, 
both on the National Trail. 

Their original survey was three town blocks square, from Section street 
north to Railroad (now Market) street; from First street west to Fourth 
street. Perrin in his History of Effingham County 1883 gives as his opinion 
the developers named it Broughton in honor of John Brough, president of 
the proposed railroad, which was refused a charter and never came into 
existence. 

16 



Another proposition might be advanced: The wife of Lord William 
Howard, 1st Baron of Effingham, was Katherine Broughton. If there were 
residents in this vicinity knowledgeable in English History, they may well 
have remembered that fact. 

One of the developers, David Alexander, may have had a Revolution- 
ary War ancestor who also had a claim to royalty. Wm. Alexander 
(1726-1783) was bom in New York City. He was a brigadier general in the 
Continental Army, and an unsuccessful claimant to the earldom of Sterling 

in England. 

There were also Broughtons in New England. On September 3, 1775. 

General George Washington appointed Capt. Nicholson Broughton in 
command of a detachment to proceed on the schooner Hannah and seize 
all vessels "carrying troops, military stores or provisions to and from 
Boston Harbor." It will be remembered that Captain Francis Nicholson 
succeeded Lord Francis Howard as lieutenant governor of Virginia. Could 
his great granddaughter have married a Broughton and their son bore both 

family names? 

A second hamlet, separated from Broughton by a mere city block, 
came into existence two years later. In September 1855, Andrew J. 
Galloway, head of the Western Land Company, had platted the northeast 
quarter of the northeast quarter of Section 20, and named it Effingham. 
For more than three years the two hamlets existed side by side. 

On February 14, 1859, the Legislature passed an act consolidating 
Broughton and Effingham under the name of Effingham. It is not a com- 
mon name, only one other county, in the State of Georgia, and three 
towns, in Illinois, South Carolina and Kansas, being so named. 

Effingham County in Georgia (county seat Springfield) undoubtedly 
was the first to be named for Lord Effingham since it was constituted in 
1777, the second year of the war. It is in the eastern part of the state, 
bordering on South Carolina and very near the ocean. 

The very first hamlets to bear the name are still in existence, although 
they are not Hsted as postoffices. In an area of about 10 miles in New 
Hampshire there are hamlets bearing the names of Effingham Falls, 
Effingham Center, and South Effingham, founded by Scottish and Irish 
settlers brought there by Captain Benjamin Marston of Salem in 1719. 
Captain Marston was a friend of the first Governor. Benning Wentworth. 
who was related by marriage to the Earl of Effingham. Wentworth re- 
named this territory in 1749, caUing it "Effingham," in place of its former 
name of "Leavitt." 



17 



BICENTENNIAL CELEBRATION 
April 11, 1976 

At the November 7, 1974, meeting of the Effingham County Bicenten- 
nial Commission, the suggestion was made by Father Angelo Zwiesler. 
O.F.M.. then of Teutopolis but presently of Springfield, that a monument 
be placed on the courthouse lawn, honoring Lord Thomas Howard, 3rd 
Earl of Effingham, after whom county and city are named. 

The suggestion found unanimous favor and a special celebration was 
planned for Sunday, April 11, 1976, a date lacking one day of being the 
201st anniversary of Lord Effingham's formal offer to resign his commission 
in support of the colonists' cause. 

The monument is to be placed near the northeast corner of the court- 
house square, at the intersection of Washington and Third streets. 

Arrangements for the marker were made by M. L. Rotramel with the 
Effingham-Clay County Monument Co. The firm donated their labor to 

install the stone. 

The legend: "The City and County of Effingham erect and dedicate this 
monument to the memory of Lord Thomas Howard, Earl of Effingham, 
who with courage and loyalty to his principles of freedom and justice 
resigned his commission as Deputy Marshal of His Majesty George III of 
England, rather than draw his sword against American colonies in their 
struggle for independence." 

This event is sponsored by the Effingham County Bicentennial Com- 
mission, Mrs. Zona B. Davis, County Chairman, and Mrs. Peggy Pulliam, 
Effingham Chairman. 




18 



THF 



Ik T N 



Of FFFl 
FPFCT 

'^fDlCATE in 
'' "VIFKT 10 IHI- 
RY r. ■ IRl) 

S HOWARD 
EARL OF PPFINGHA" 
WHO WITH COU»\GF A.m. 

LOVVLI Y TO HIS 
PKINCIPIiS OF f-HELDOM 
AND JUSTICF RFSlGNhD 
mS COMMISSION AS DhP'-^^' 
MARSHAl. OF HIS MAJI i 
GFORGl- III OF 1 NCLA.ND 
RATHER THAN UFAV tilS SV 
AGAINSI THE AMI-*^"'\N' 
COLONIES IN THEIR :>ir^C^" 
FOR INDEPENDENCf 



t 




FlCENir 



A rough draft of the Monument, which will be placed on a granite base, 
in a setting of trees and shrubbery. 

19 



The dedicatory program follows: 

DEDICATION OF THE 

LORD EFFINGHAM MARKER 

Sunday, April 11, 1976, at 2:30 p.m. 
Effingham County Court House, Effingham, Illinois 

Master Of Ceremonies 

Lowell Lewis 

Musical Selections 

Teutopolis High School Band, Directed By Urban (Larry) Uptmor 

Invocation 

The Rev. Angelo Zwiesler. O.F.M.. Springfield, Illinois, 
formerly of Teutopolis 

"The Lord Effingham Story" 

Mrs. Hilda E. Feldhake 

"Wondrous Love" (Arr. Parker) 

Effingham Community Singers, Directed By Mrs. Marilyn Bennett 

"Stephen Foster Medley" (Arr. Du Vall) and 

"The Sow Took The Measles" (Arr. Ehret) 

Effingham Community Singers 

Remarks By Descendants Of Old Settlers 

Miss Eva Dunn and Urban (Larry) Uptmor 

"Recollections and Discoveries" 

Holland T. Tipsword. Taylorville. Illinois 

"Tenting On The Old Campground" 

(Composer - Arr. - Kittredge - Hunter) — Effingham Community Singers 

Unveiling Of The Marker 

The Rev. Angelo Zwiesler. O.F.M. 

Acceptance Of The Marker 

Plaford Davis, Chairman Effingham Co. Board, and Mrs. Zona B. Davis, 
Chairman Effingham County Bicentennial Commission 



20 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Morton, Richard L.: Colonial Virginia. Vol.1. U. of N. C. Press, 

Capital Hill, 1960 

Dowdey, Clifford: The Virginia Dynasties, Little, Brown & Co. 

Boston. 1969 

Lathrop, Elise: Historic Houses of Early America, Tudor Publishing 

Co. New York, 1936 

Harland, Marion: Some Colonial Homesteads, G. P. Putman's Sons, 

New York, 1897 

The Spirit of Seventy-Six, Edited by Henry Steele Commanger and Richard 
B. Morris. Harper & Row, New York, 1976 

Fischwick, Marshall W.: A New Look at the Old Dominion. Harper 
& Bros. Publishers, New York. 1959 

Duke, James B.: A History of the American Revolution, Alfred A. 

Knopf, New York, 1969 

Trevelyan, George Otto: The American Revolution, David McKay Co., 

Inc. New York, 1964 

Osgood, Herbert L.: The American Colonies in the Seventeenth 
Century, Vols. 2 «&. 3. Peter Smith, Gloucester, Mass., 1957 

The Tablet, London, England. Issues of Feb. 8, 1975, and April 12, 1975 

Webster's Biographical Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam Co., Springfield, 

Mass., 1943 

Virginia — A Guide to the Old Dominion. Compiled by workers of the 

Writers Program of the Works Projects Adm. in the State of Virginia. 

Oxford University Press, New York, 1940 

Dabney, Virginius: Virginia, The New Dominion, Doubleday, New York, 

1971 

Perrin, William Henry, Ed.: History of Effingham County. Illinois 1883, 

O. L. Baskin&Co. Chicago. 1883. 



21 



BIBLIOGRAPHY Continued: 

The History of Effingham In Surrey (England). Compiled by Monica M. 
O'Connor. Pub. by Effingham Women's Institute, 1973 

U. S. Navy Department. Division of Naval History (Op. -29), Ships' 

Histories Section. 

Chicago Tribune, Issue of February 1, 1975. 

Burke's Peerage & Baronetage. Avco, 1975. 
Complete Peerage of England, Vol. 5. 




22 




Front Cover Designed By Effingham High School Student 

Pam Wendling.