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Full text of "Louisiana Wildlife and Fisheries Commission-Biennial Report 1966-1967"

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Louisiana Wild Life 
and Fisheries Commission 



12* 



Biennial 




1966 / 1967 



Published by 

LOUISIANA WILD LIFE AND 
FISHERIES COMMISSION 



WILD LIFE AND FISHERIES BUILDING 

400 ROYAL STREET 

NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA 70130 




&tatc nt ICnutiitaua 

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT 

Baton i&am? 



i 




JOHN J McKElTHEN 

GOVERNOR 



Fellow Citizens of Louisiana 



The two year period covered by this report represents countless hours 
of effort by the Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Commission to enhance 
our wildlife resources, including the fresh and salt water commercial 
fisheries which are of tremendous importance to the economy of the state. 
This has involved accelerated research. 

The value of proper wildlife management for a growing population to 
utilize and enjoy cannot be over-emphasized. More and more of our people 
want to hunt, fish, participate in boating and other forms of outdoor 
recreation. 

This increase comes at a time when greater demands are being made 
for land and water for industry and new or expanded forms of agricultural 
production— all of which have adverse effects on wildlife and fisheries 
resources. As a result, it is necessary for continued and expanded research, 
stricter enforcement and the best management program possible. 

It is necessary to acquire land, permanently dedicated to wildlife, 
whenever funds are available for this purpose. The boat launching ramp 
program is progressing well and providing access to State waters that 
formerly were not utilized because they were not accessable. 

Management of wildlife resources throughout the state is most important 
to the people of Louisiana, and this report shows marked progress during the 
past two years; it also contains plans for the future. 

In this age of growth and progress, pollution has become a major 
problem. It is one that must be met head-on. Although industry has 
demonstrated interest concerning the effects of pollution on wildlife 
and fisheries resources, it is the Wild Life and Fisheries Commission that 
must meet the immediate and continuing threat to our rivers, streams, lakes 
and estuarine waters. 

For ourselves and for future generations we must preserve and perpetuate 
our wildlife and fisheries resources. We are making progress in this direction 
The work that is being accomplished has gained national recognition for 
Louisiana, and this report will provide guide lines for many states now seekinj 
to improve the management of this vitally important resource. 



fy^^MikJuJtfU^ 




LESLIE L. GLASGOW 
DIRECTOR 



WILD LIFE AND FISHERIES COMMISSION 
400 ROYAL STREET 

NEW ORLEANS 70130 



JERRY G. JONES 

CHAIRMAN 

CAMERON 
H. CLAY WRIGHT 

VICE-CHAIRMAN 
EVERGREEN 

CLARENCE G. GUIDRY 
HOUMA 

H. B. FAIRCHILD 
SUNSHINE 

JOHN E. KYLE, JR. 
BERWICK 

HOBSON NORRIS 
WEST MONROE 

JIMMIE THOMPSON 
ALEXANDRIA 



May 1, 1968 



To Governor John J. McKeithen 
and members of the Legislature 
State Capitol 
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 

Gentlemen: 



The Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Commission takes 
pride in submitting to you and the people of Louisiana 
this twelfth Biennial Report covering the calendar years 
ending December 31, 1966 and December 31, 1967. 



Because we feel an o 
public informed as t 
Wild Life and Fisher 
merely summarize our 
view this report, we 
only provides an int 
place during the per 
tion which will, in 
document. 



bligation to keep you and the general 
o the activities and programs of the 
ies Commission we have done more than 
revenue and expenditures. As you re- 
believe you'll realize that it not 
eresting narration of what has taken 
iod covered, but offers other informa- 
tive years ahead, make it an historical 



We want to take this opportunity to express our appreciation 
to you and the people of Louisiana for your interest and 
assistance in making these programs and projects possible. 

Respectfully submitted, 



<?£^£u. 7$. /^U^f. 



Leslie L. Glasgow, 
Director 



Louisiana Wild Life 

and 
Fisheries Commission 

JERRY G. JONES, Chairman Cameron 

H. CLAY WRIGHT, Vice-Chairman .Evergreen 

H. B. FAIRCHILD .Sunshine 

CLARENCE A. GUIDRY ..Houma 

JOHN E. KYLE, JR. Berwick 

HOBSON NORRIS West Monroe 

JIMMIE THOMPSON Alexandria 



DR. LESLIE L. GLASGOW 
Director 



L. S. ST. AMANT 
Asst. Director 




R. K. YANCEY 
Asst. Director 



DIVISION CHIEFS 



STEVE HARMON 
Education & Publicity 

TED O'NEIL 
Fur Division 

ROBERT LaFLEUR 
Water Pollution Control 

TED FORD 
Oyster, Water Bottoms and Seafood 

LARRY COOK 
Chief Accountant 



JOE L. HERRING 
Fish and Game 

ALLAN ENSMINGER 
Refuge Division 

CHARLES R. SHAW 
Pittman-Robertson Coordinator 

HARRY SCHAFER 
Dingell-Johnson Coordinator 

SAM MURRAY 
Executive Assistant 



LEONARD NEW 
Enforcement 



Louisiana Wild Life 

and 
Fisheries Commission 




JERRY G. JONES 




JIMMIE THOMPSON 



HOBSON NORRIS 



Table of Contents 

GOVERNOR'S MESSAGE ii 

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL ill 

WILD LIFE AND FISHERIES COMMISSION and STAFF iv 

MEMBERS OF THE COMMISSION v 

ADMINISTRATION 1 

Aviation Section 5 

Building 7 

The Wharf 7 

Accounting Section 9 

EDUCATION AND PUBLICITY DIVISION 28 

LAW ENFORCEMENT DIVISION 32 

FUR DIVISION 38 

FISH AND GAME DIVISION 48 

Education 51 

Predator Control Section 54 

Aquatic Vegetation Control Section 55 

Drafting Section 58 

Engineering and Construction Section 58 

Game Section 60 

Game Research 99 

Fisheries Section 1 32 

Louisiana Cooperative Unit 159 

OYSTERS, WATER BOTTOMS, SEAFOOD DIVISION . __ 166 

Marine Biological Section 179 

Coastal Waste Control 187 

REFUGE DIVISION _____ 190 

Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge 193 

Marsh Island Refuge ___ 198 

Coulee Wildlife Refuge 199 

St. Tammany Wildlife Refuge 200 

Pass-a-Loutre Waterfowl Management Area 200 

State Wildlife Refuge 204 

Refuge Division Research 205 

WATER POLLUTION CONTROL DIVISION 224 



Administration 



PUBLIC USE of Louisiana's wildlife resources 
has grown by leaps and bounds in recent 
years. During this biennium it is estimated 
that over 1,000,000 citizens of the State partici- 
pated in sport fishing and that over 300,000 
hunted game birds and animals. Many more thou- 
sands derived all or a portion of their livelihood 
from commercial fishing for oysters, shrimp, 
crawfish, turtles, fresh and salt water fishes. 
Meeting the increased demands being placed on 
the State fish and game resources has presented 
a challenge to the Louisiana Wild Life and Fish- 
eries Commission. 

The trends of recent years indicate that meet- 
ing public demands in the future will present a 
serious problem. With a rapidly expanding popula- 
tion in Louisiana, coupled with industrialization 
and urbanization, inroads into the remaining 
amount of available wildlife habitat have been 
and will continue to be made each year. With the 
total amount of wildlife range diminishing an- 
nually, maximum production of fish and game 
must be yielded from each acre of land and water. 

Fishing, hunting and boating are tremendously 
important in Louisiana to hundreds of thousands 
of people and it is the goal of the Commission to 
see that these activities are properly supervised 
for maximum benefit of all the people of the 
State. 

In the past two years demands for places to 
hunt have rapidly accelerated. Problems as- 
sociated with sport and commercial fishing have 
also placed increased work loads on this agency. 
Greater public interest in proper enforcement of 
the State's fish and game laws has been reflected 
by an alltime high in arrests and convictions 
being made for wildlife violations. With more 





LESLIE L. GLASGOW 

Director 

and faster boats being used on the State's water 
areas, safety problems have arisen that have 
created a new enforcement burden on this agency 
since it supervises the State boating act. Water 
pollution continues to be a major problem that 
shows no signs of diminishing. 

The Wild Life and Fisheries Commission has 
endeavored to meet these problems as they have 
arisen over the past two years. 

In providing more places for the public to hunt 
and fish two major land acquisitions by pur- 
chase have been made. In lower Concordia Par- 
ish 12,600 acres of land were purchased on De- 
cember 1, 1966, thus establishing the Red River 
Wildlife Management Area. Public hunting, fish- 
ing and camping programs have already been 
initiated on this tract of land. 

In Avoyelles Parish 11,237 acres of land were 
purchased in November of 1966. This made it 
possible to establish the Spring Bayou Wildlife 




LYLE S. ST. AMANT 
Asst. Director 



R. K. YANCEY 

Asst. Director 



Management Area. Heavy use by hunters, fisher- 
men and boaters has been made since this area 
was acquired. 

During the same period two additional areas 
were leased for game management area pur- 
poses by the Commission. These include the 
Peason Ridge portion of the Kisatchie National 
Forest consisting of 60,000 acres, and the Cities 
Service tract comprised of 17,000 acres located 
in Ouachita Parish. Both of these areas were 
leased for public hunting and camping purposes 
and add to the overall wildlife management pro- 
gram of the Commission. 

Purchases of land have been made as funds 
became available for two basic reasons. With 
Commission ownership, timber, water, food and 
cover can be managed for maximum benefit to 
wildlife. Long range programs can be planned 
and carried out in the best interest of wildlife 
production and public use. Also, the acquisition 
of bottomland hardwoods by purchase will guar- 
antee the fact that some limited acreages of this 
type of irreplaceable forest game habitat will be 
preserved for the future. The bulldozer has and 
is rapidly eradicating bottomland hardwoods in 
the delta regions of eastern Louisiana and ac- 
quisitions by the Commission will insure that 
some small acreages of these forest lands will 
be preserved. With ownership much greater lati- 
tude in managing hunting, fishing, camping and 
boating can be realized. Game management area 
leases are subject to cancellation, thereby making 
it impossible to carry out long range plans. 

With the new acquisitions the Commission now 
has under management 945,695 acres in Lou- 
isiana. 

During the past two years the Commission 
has exercised supervision over the State's hunt- 
ing program that has been participated in by 
over 300,000 sportsmen. With the State's land 
areas being made up of some 48,000 square miles 
this has been no easy task. 

The setting of hunting regulations designed to 
perpetuate wildlife populations while at the same 
time providing maximum use by the hunters has 
always been controversial. 

In arriving at hunting seasons that would be 
most acceptable to the majority of the State's 
sportsmen the Commission has conducted public 
hearings annually in Alexandria each summer 
in order to obtain recommendations directly from 
sportsmen's associations, hunting clubs, police 
juries and individuals from throughout the State. 
In addition, hundreds of meetings with sports- 
men's groups have been attended each year by 
representatives of the Wild Life and Fisheries 
Commission. By carefully considering public 
sentiment as well as recommendations from the 
biological staff of the Commission, the hunting 
seasons set during the past two years have gen- 
erally been more acceptable than ever before. 




SAM MURRAY 
Exec. Assistant 

During the 1966-67 season more deer were 
harvested by the State's sportsmen than ever be- 
fore. A total of 32,501 deer were taken as com- 
pared to an estimated 5,000 in 1950. This in- 
creased harvest proves that great progress has 
been made in deer management in Louisiana in 
the past decade. 

September teal hunting has been another high- 
light in the past two years. During the nine day 
hunt in September of 1966, approximately 100,- 
000 blue and green winged teal were bagged by 
Louisiana duck hunters. This expanded hunter 
opportunity was made possible through the ef- 
forts of the Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries 
Commission and the nine day hunts have proven 
to be biologically sound. 

A greatly accelerated program of restocking 
wild turkeys has been carried out during the past 




WILLIAM McCARROLL 

Personnel Officer 



two years. Wild trapped turkey have been secured 
from Mississippi, Florida and Alabama and re- 
leased in the State. Excellent results have gen- 
erally been realized from these transplants and 
nucleus populations have been started in a num- 
ber of game management areas. No game farm 
or pen reared birds have been secured or distrib- 
uted during this period since this practice is not 
biologically sound. Once the stocking of Commis- 
sion controlled game management area lands has 
been completed releases on private lands will be 
initiated in order to spread these birds through- 
out the State. 

Louisiana dove hunters have continued to en- 
joy a bonanza during the past two years as a 
result of efforts by the Wild Life and Fisheries 
Commission. Seventy day seasons split into three 
periods with daily bag limits of twelve have been 
allowed as compared to season lengths of only 
thirty days with bag limits of eight being al- 
lowed only a few short years ago. Between one 
and one-half and two million doves have been 
bagged by Louisiana hunters during each of the 
past two seasons. The expanded hunter oppor- 
tunity was obtained from the U. S. Fish and Wild- 
life Service as a result of research efforts by 
State technicians that proved that more doves 
could be taken without adversely affecting next 
year's fall population of doves. 

Management work on squirrel, rabbit and quail 
has been continued during the past two years. 
Research has revealed that population levels of 
these important game birds and animals are 
largely controlled by land use practices that af- 
fect the quantity and quality of their habitat. 
On those game management areas owned by 
the Commission, timber management programs 
have been initiated to improve habitat for both 
squirrel and rabbit. Research on these species 
has been expanded. Quail food plots and strips 
have been maintained on several game manage- 
ment areas. On most lands in the State, however, 
this superb game bird has been adversely af- 
fected by man's activities that have eliminated 
much food, water and cover. In the delta regions 
of the State clean farming practices have eradi- 
cated thousands of quail ranges. In the pine lands 
the maintenance of high quail populations has 
seldom been consistent with dense pine planta- 
tions. As these plantations begin to reach matu- 
rity in the years ahead, however, the stands can 
be expected to open up and become more produc- 
tive of quail and more useable for quail hunting 
purposes. 

Research on woodcock, snipe and other migra- 
tory birds has been continued by the Commis- 
sion during the past two years. These fine game 
birds are becoming increasingly important each 
year. 

On Louisiana's coastal refuges such as Rocke- 
feller, Marsh Island and State Wildlife, greatly 



expanded marsh management programs have 
been affected. These areas plus the Pass-a-Loutre 
Waterfowl Management Area occupy some 250,- 
000 acres of the most productive coastal marshes 
on the continent. Numerous water control struc- 
tures and other management practices have been 
accomplished on these lands that have resulted 
in improved conditions for migratory waterfowl, 
furbearers and resident wildlife. Hundreds of 
thousands of ducks, geese and coots have win- 
tered on the coastal refuges during the past two 
years. 

Within the past year the Wild Life and Fish- 
eries Commission has initiated a Louisiana Hunt- 
er Safety Program in conjunction with the Na- 
tional Rifle Association. This program is being 
sponsored by the Wild Life and Fisheries Com- 
mission and carried out through the Wildlife 
Education Section. Presently, all field personnel 
of the Commission are being trained in hunter 
safety practices in order that they may work with 
the public and encourage safe use of firearms. 

Interest in sport fishing has greatly increased 
during the past two years. In meeting these de- 
mands the Commission has expanded its pro- 
gram within the limitation of funds. For the 
past two years an average production of 3,000,- 
000 fingerlings have been produced from the 
Commission's three fish hatcheries. These are 
located at Beechwood near Alexandria, James A. 
Noe hatchery near Monroe, and Huey P. Long 
hatchery near Slidell. Fingerlings produced from 
these hatcheries are stocked in newly constructed 
farm ponds and lakes throughout the State. 

Two major experimental fish, the walleyed 
pike and striped bass, have been introduced in 
certain lakes in Louisiana. The walleye were re- 
ceived from Nebraska and the striped bass from 
South Carolina. 

Walleyed pike eggs were flown from Nebraska 
to Louisiana hatcheries where they were placed 
in holding jars and carefully tended until they 
hatched and could be placed in nursery ponds. 
They were generally held in ponds a few months 
until they reached a length of between four and 
six inches. After reaching this size they were 
stocked in such large impoundments as Toledo 
Bend Reservoir, D'Arbonne Lake and Claiborne 
Lake where suitable environmental conditions 
were believed to exist. 

Striped bass were handled in a similar manner 
except they were received from South Carolina 
in the fry stage and were released directly into 
hatchery ponds. 

Largemouth bass and channel catfish have 
been stocked in Cotile Lake; bass, striped bass 
and walleyed pike have been stocked in Toledo 
Bend Reservoir; striped bass and walleye in 
D'Arbonne Lake; channel catfish in Turkey 
Creek Lake; bass, striped bass and walleye in 
Claiborne Lake; striped bass in Tchefuncte Riv- 



er; largemouth bass in Red Chute Cutoff; snook 
and tilapia in Coughlin Lake; channel catfish 
in Lafourche Lake; channel catfish in Phillip's 
Bayou Lake and largemouth bass in Bayou 
Rapides Cutoff. 

Emphasis has been put on crawfish research 
during this biennium. A biologist has been em- 
ployed for the specific purpose of conducting re- 
search on this valuable crustacean. Also, plans 
are in progress for the construction of a labora- 
tory in the District VI Opelousas office which 
will emphasize crawfish research. 

For the first time since the establishment of 
the Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Commis- 
sion a fisheries biologist has been placed in each 
of the Commission's eight districts. With the 
construction of new lakes and artifical impound- 
ments within our State we will need to add many 
more fisheries biologists to our staff. We will 
need answers as to the effects on fisheries result- 
ing from drainage, land use changes and flood 
control. 

Emphasis has been placed on the abatement 
of Water Pollution during the past biennium. 
Every effort has been made by the Louisiana 
Stream Control Commission and the Department 
of Conservation to implement and enforce orders 
requiring the cessation of oil field wastes, es- 
pecially salt water discharges to public waters 
in Caddo Parish and the Little River Drainage 
Basin. To date it is safe to state that 90-95 % of 
the oil field salt water produced in the Caddo 
Parish Area and 75-85% of that produced in the 
Little Drainage Basin is now being subsurfacely 
injected. 

One of the more important endeavors of Water 
Pollution Control has been to comply with the 
Federal Water Act of 1965. Under this act pro- 
posed water quality criteria was deevloped by 
the State for all interstate waters and certain 
coastal waters of Louisiana. The standards, along 
with plans for implementation and enforcement, 
were approved by the Louisiana Stream Control 
Commission and subsequently submitted to the 
Federal Water Pollution Control Administration 
for acceptance. Implementation of these water 
duality standards will assure high quality water 
for multipurpose use by Louisiana wildlife, as 
well as municipal and industrial needs in the fore- 
seeable future. 

During the past two years record numbers of 
cases were made by agents of the Commission's 
Enforcement Division. In 1966 a total of 5,756 
cases were made and a total of 5,858 were made 
in 1967. This establishes a record for number of 
arrests made in a given year by wildlife agents 
of the Commission. 

Emphasis is being placed on wildlife enforce- 
ment since this is the basis of all fish and game 
management. 

All wildlife agents employed during the years 



of 1966 and 1967 were required to attend the 
Louisiana State University basic law enforce- 
ment training school in Bunkie. In addition to 
this, five wildlife agents attended the Louisiana 
State University Law Enforcement Institute 
School in Baton Rouge. This is a three month 
course covering all phases of law enforcement 
and is set up on a Department of Justice F.B.I. 
School basis. 

In addition to enforcing the State's fish and 
game laws, wildlife agents either apprehended or 
assisted in the capture of several wanted crim- 
inals. 

Louisiana continues to be a leader in fur pro- 
duction on the continent. Muskrat, nutria, bob- 
cat, raccoon, opossum, mink and otter are the 
principal furbearing animals found in the State. 
Basic supervision over the fur industry has been 
exercised by the Commission in the past two 
years through the establishment of trapping sea- 
sons and other regulations controlling the har- 
vest of furbearers. 

Muskrat populations have reached high levels 
in certain areas of the coastal marsh during the 
past two years. Nutria numbers along the Gulf 
coast have generally been down from the peak 
experienced in the late 1950's. Populations of 
other furbearers have remained relatively con- 
stant. Demands for nutria meat have continued 
and hundreds of thousands of ponds have been 
shipped out of the State during the past two 
trapping seasons. 

Closed seasons on alligators were maintained 
and many of these reptiles were transplanted 
from Commission refuges to adjacent marshes 
where they had been depleted over the years 
from excessive hunting. Every effort has been 
made to rebuild populations of this valuable form 
of wildlife. If this program succeeds and alliga- 
tor populations are restored this can eventually 
provide a basis for a new industry in the State 
in the years ahead. The Wild Life and Fisheries 
Commission has actively supported legislation in 
Congress that has been introduced to provide ad- 
ditional protection for alligators. Additionally, 
the Commission has conducted the most outstand- 
ing research work on alligators in the country. 

Commercial fisheries, and in particular sea- 
food production in the State of Louisiana is prob- 
ably the least understood segment of the Wild 
Life and Fisheries Commission insofar as public 
recognition is concerned. On the other hand, from 
an economical standpoint, it is one of the most 
valuable portions of the State's natural resources 
and, in fact, is equivalent to or greater than many 
of the more important agricultural crops or sig- 
nificant portions of forestry production. Conser- 
vative net dockside value of seafood is in excess 
of $50,000,000 annually and when one considers 
the subsidiary industries such as freezer plants, 
canneries, transportation, etc. the total economic 



value of the fisheries could approach $100,000,- 
000. Louisiana is blessed with a wide variety and 
high production of various seafood species and 
leads all other states in the production of shrimp, 
oysters and menhaden. 

Aside from the economic value of the seafood 
production some 15,000 to 25,000 individuals are 
directly involved in making their livelihood in this 
industry. 

The Wild Life and Fisheries Commission activ- 
ities in the area of research, management and 
protection of our great seafood industry has been 
expanded and intensified during the past bien- 
nium. We are now reasonably successful in pre- 
dicting the shrimp crop and furnishing such in- 
formation to the industry in advance of each 
season. Studies of the pond rearing of shrimp 
and other types of seafoods are well underway 
and are showing gratifying success. During the 
past biennium additional monies through Federal 
matching funds have been made available to in- 
crease the volume of work in the marine environ- 
ment. These additional funds have allowed the 
expansion of shrimp research to all districts along 
the coast. 

Also, a monument survey program has been 
established to increase the efficiency of oyster 
leasing. A cooperative estauarine study involv- 
ing a continual monitoring of environmental 
parameters has been established. Other studies 
undertaken in the marine laboratory include a 

By way of management of our oyster seed 
basis productivity study of coastal waters, a study 
of menhaden and industrial fishes and a coopera- 
tive project with the New Orleans Big Game 
Fishing Association to study big game sport 
fishes. 

East of the Miss. River on the natural seed 



ground two large shell plantings were carried 
out in 1966-67. These shell plantings serve as 
additional cultch for oyster settings and have 
considerably enhanced seed production which was 
sorely needed to replace resources as a result of 
Hurricane Betsy. 

Aviation Section 

The Aviation Section has been expanded dur- 
ing the past two years to meet the needs of the 
Commission's accelerated program. The section's 
headquarters are at the Lakefront Airport on 
Lake Pontchartrain. The aircraft on floats are 
stationed at the Westwego Airport where there is 
a canal suitable for landings and take offs. 

Equipment includes one twin-engine amphib- 
ious Grumman widgeon, three planes on floats 
and three conventional aircraft on wheels. In 
1966, the Commission had four aircraft, one of 
which has a widgeon that was sold in that year 
and replaced with the present widgeon. The other 
three included a Cessna 185 on floats, a Cessna 
182 on wheels, and a Piper Cub 150 on wheels. 

At present, the air arm of the Commission in- 
cludes the widgeon; a Cessna 185 on floats; two 
Piper Cubs 150 on floats; a Piper Cub on wheels; 
two Cessna 210's wheels, and a Cessna 180 on 
wheels. This brought the total of aircraft to 
seven in 1967. 

C. L. Bienvenu is in charge of the lakefront 
headquarters and one of his most important 
duties is to log the flights and keep records which 
indicate when the mandatory 100-hour engine and 
aircraft checks must be made. 

The Commission employs two full time ex- 
perienced pilots, Preston E. "Buck" Davis and 
Leo Rodriguez ; and one part time pilot Nelson 




Cessna 180 on Floats 
5 




Grumman Super-Widgeon 

Summerell of Ferriday. They are available and 
ready for flights that are scheduled as routine 
enforcement flights, pollution checks, search and 
rescue operations, shrimp sampling and many 
other programs in which the Commission is in- 
volved. 

In addition to other necessary radios for opera- 
tion of the aircraft, all are equipped with Com- 
mission two-way radios. This provides ready con- 
tact with Commission boats and vehicles and the 
aircraft are valuable in enforcement work. This 
includes patrolling inside waters during the closed 
shrimping seasons and in seeking out waterfowl 
violators. In some cases the float planes can land 
near the violators and make arrests. In other 
cases, they can contact nearby Commision boats 
or patroliing wildlife agents and direct them to 
the vicinity of the violations. 

It would be a physical impossibility to ade- 
quately patrol Louisiana's approximately four 
million acres of coastal marshlands and estaurine 
waters without aircraft. Illegal trawling would 
cut deeply into the State's annual dockside land- 
ings of shrimp which are currently valued at 
about $25 million annually. 

Due to the State's expanding industrialization 
and ever-growing oil production, aircraft are 
indispensable in locating oil spillages, broken 
pipelines and possible fish and bird kills resulting 
from such incidents. Immediate reports over the 
Commission's radio network can be submitted 



in a matter of minutes to initiate action to cor 
rect this form of pollution. 

One of the new aircraft obtained in 1967 is 
assigned to the Oyster, Water Bottoms and Sea- 
food Division. It is used in sampling migrations 
of post-larval shrimp along the coast and in the 
estuarine waters. In this fashion, a trained biol- 
ogist can make many samplings in a single day 
This is a task that would take biologists on boats 
days to do. 

This is an operation that is essential in order 
that the Commission can set the dates for the 
spring trawling season in inside waters for a 
period that is more beneficial to shrimp fisher- 
men and the over-all economy of the State of 
Louisiana. 

The airplane assigned to the Fish and Game 
Division was paid for on a cost-sharing basis 
from Pittman-Robertson funds. It is used for 
rapid transportation of wild game such as tur- 
keys for restocking along with importation of 
fish eggs such as wall-eye pike and striped bass 
from states as far away as Nebraska. These are 
sped to the Commission's three fish hatcheries 
where they are hatched and the fry stocked in 
large impoundments. 

This plane is also used to survey well over a 
million acres of forests and other lands under 
management for wildlife, and to make game sur- 
veys in other areas as well. 

One of the most important uses of the plane 
is in making periodic inventories of waterfowl 
within the state, and in assisting in the annual 
mid-winter inventory of waterfowl that is con- 
ducted in conjunction with all of the other states, 
Canada and Mexico. 

Another of the new aircraft has been assigned 
to the Refuge Division and is used by that divi- 
sion to survey refuges and general marsh condi- 
tions. 

Commission staff members who are also pilots 
include Richard K. Yancey, Assistant Director; 
Allan Ensminger, Chief of the Refuge Division; 
Jerry Broome, Assistant Chief Marine Biologist; 
and Clark Hoffpauir, Flyway Biologist. 





Piper Super Cub on Floats 



Cessna 180 



Building 



The Wild Life and Fisheries Commission Build- 
ing is ideally located at 400 Royal Street in New 
Orleans. It's downtown location makes it easy 
for persons to obtain hunting and fishing licenses 
or register boats. 
At the time of its purchase from the City of 
; New Orleans on August 6, 1957, it was estimated 
that it would be 75 years before it would show 
: any sign of marked deterioration and that period 
J of time is being extended by complete main- 
1 tenance. 

The maintenance and custodial crews under 
the building superintendent consists of 22 men, 
working in two shifts. Their duties include opera- 
I tion of the elevators, painting, plastering and 
; general repairs, as well as operating the heating 
and cooling systems. All are on 24-hour call to 
handle any problems that might arise regarding 
operation of the building. 

During the biennium, the main offices of the 
Commission were renovated. 

The Commission utilizes the main floors of 
the building for its offices and the Louisiana 
Wildlife Museum. The curator has an office and 
workshop on the second floor. Other agencies 
located on the second floor include the Greater 
New Orleans Tourist Commission, the Orleans 
Levee Board, State Division of Administration, 
Louisiana State Police Narcotics Division, the 
State Archives Office, The Alcoholic Beverage 
Control Board and the Gulf States Marine Fish- 
eries Commission. U. S. District Courts, and the 
U.S. 5th District Court of Appeals are located 
on the fourth and third floors respectively. Two 
additional offices of the Federal Courts are lo- 
cated on the second floor. 

In addition to other duties listed, this section 
also provides watchman service, and nightly of- 
fice cleaning service. 



Wharf 



During the past biennium the Wharf and the 
Marine and Radio repair department of the Com- 
mission, located in New Orleans on the New 
Basin Canal, near Lake Pontchartrain, has un- 
dergone many drastic changes for the better. 

Major repairs by Wharf personnel have con- 
sisted of construction of 1200 square feet of 
working area for new offices and radio shop and 
the installation of central air and heat systems. 
Many of these repairs have been necessitated by 
storm damage. 

The machine shop and outboard motor shops 
have been completely rebuilt and installation of 
modern testing equipment and tools for complete 
overhaul on all inboard and outboard engines has 




CLAUDE LeBLANC 
Wharf Superintendent 

been effected. This includes facilities for major 
repairs to the newest inboard and outboard en- 
gines. 

A new building, over water, for repairs to ves- 
sels and boats during foul weather was con- 
structed for the Commission. This new building 
is 35 feet wide by 90 feet long. The building is 
also used for dry storage for craft standing by 
for repairs. 

The Wharf is now also equipped to make re- 
pairs on all fiberglass boats owned and operated 
by the Commission. The unit operates with a 
crew of 24 who are on hand to do anything from 
a minor engine adjustment to a major "haul- 
out" and hull repair. 

The Wharf also operates its own stiffleg der- 




This new building at the Wharf for repairs to boats 
during foul weather and dry storage was constructed 
by a private contractor. The building is 35 feet wide 
and 90 feet long. To the left is seen the base of the 
Wharf's 170-feet radio tower and on the right the 
25-ton crane used to lift craft ashore for repairs. 






rick which means that craft up to fifty feet in 
length are simply lifted from the water for re- 
pairs. The craft are deposited into the docks, 
shorn up, and the workmen are able to begin 
their jobs with the workshop facilities right at 
hand. This effects a saving of time and labor. 

Many pieces of equipment in need of repair 
or servicing are brought in to headquarters. How- 
ever, when it is more economical, crews are sent 
out to effect repairs in any part of the state. The 
radio repair and installation section operates a 
completely equipped radio repair van, which con- 
ducts on the spot repairs. 

The 170-foot radio tower at the Wharf has a 
clear range of statewide transmission of com- 
munications and receptions. Remote control 
through the main office makes it possible to have 
constant communications with planes, boats and 
mobile units, throughout the state. The radio 
section also services and effects storm damage 
repairs to the commission's 15 radio towers lo- 
cated at strategic points. 

The commission's marine equipment now con- 
sists of 600 outboard motors ranging from six to 
100 horsepower, four hundred outboard hulls, 
ranging from 10 to 17 feet, and 72 vessels rang- 
ing from 19 to 60 feet. 

During the past biennium there have been ap- 
proximately 250 repairs to the commission's larg- 
er vessels, including overhaul, major repairs, 
haul-outs and engine repairs. During the past 
two year period there were major repairs to all 




It's child's play for the Wharf's 25-ton crane to lift 
boats like these out of the water and set them gently 
on the dock where they are shored up and work done 
on them. This operation contributes to more efficient 
and economical operation of the Commission's boats. 







A. A. SIKES 

Administrative Assistant 

motor boat trailers from 800 pounds to 6400 
pounds capacity. During these past two years 
there have been 500 outboard motor repairs. 

The Wharf is fully equipped to test-run all new 
boats bought by the commission and begins work 
on these new craft as soon as they arrive. 

Personnel at the Wharf also make repairs to 
damaged trawls, seins, plankton nets and other 
types used by the commission. An expert net- 
maker is employed to carry out these repairs. 




Besides major and minor repairs to craft of all sizes 
the Wharf has 600 outboard motors ranging from 
3 to 100 horsepower, to keep in top shape. In the new 
outboard motor shop mechanics will now be able to 
work on motors regardless of the weather. 



' 



Accounting Section 

The Accounting Section is responsible for re- 
ceipt, collection and accounting for all funds and 
income of the Wild Life Commission, the proper 
disbursing and recording of all expenditures of 
the Commission and the preparation of such fi- 
nancial and budgetary reports as are necessary 
or desired. 

The Commission annually receives more than 
$17,000,000 which must be accounted for by Fund 
and type of revenue, against which the cost of 
operation of the Commission are charged. Receipts 
range from pennies for fur sales from trappers 
to large sums received as mineral lease payments. 
The Accounting Section maintains salary records 
and makes all payroll payments as well as pro- 
cessing all expenditures and preparing all checks 
for payments made by the Commission. 

It maintains the motorboat registration for the 
State of Louisiana, with more than 75,000 cur- 
rent registrations in file. This program produced 
$239,000 during the last two fiscal years and in- 
volved 71,500 individual motorboat registration 
transactions processed during this period. These 
figures attest to the popularity of the motorboat 
in Louisiana. 

All of the operations of the Section are adapted 
to and are maintained on I.B.M. punch cards and 
printed data. The I.B.M. machine makes it pos- 
sible to classify income and expense in detail. 
Records kept in this fashion deliver information 
quickly and easily for good budget control and for 
preparation of statements vital to management. 
The motorboat registration program depends on 
the use of I.B.M. machines for its very function- 
ing. 

The installation of a new I.B.M. 360-20 com- 
puter in January 1968 will provide the means to 
speed up present I.B.M. operations and to reduce 
to machine function many of the hand-operation 
and manual record-keeping duties now performed 
in the Commission. The computer will furnish 
more information faster, more up-to-date infor- 
mation and greater detail and breakdown of fiscal 




Index to Accounting and 




Statistical Reports 






Balance Sheet, June 30, 1967 


..Exhibit 


1 


Appropriations — All Funds 


..Exhibit 


2 


Expenditures and Budget — 






All Funds 


..Exhibit 


3 


Receipts — All Funds 


..Exhibit 


4 


Expenditures— 1965-1966 


..Exhibit 


5 


Expenditures— 1966-1967 


..Exhibit 


6 


Budget— 1967-1968 


..Exhibit 


7 


Other Funds 


..Exhibit 


8 


Shrimp Production by Size 






Count 


..Exhibit 


9 


Shrimp Production and Number 






of Trawls 1913-1966 . 


Exhibit 
Exhibit 

s 


10 
11 


Commercial Fish Produced 


Commercial Fishing and Dealer 


Licenses bv Parish 1966 


.Exhibit 


12 


Commercial Fishing and Dealer 


s 




Licenses by Parish 1967 


.Exhibit 


13 


Miscellaneous Licensing — 1966 .. 


..Exhibit 


14 


Miscellaneous Licenses — 1967 .... 


..Exhibit 


15 


Hunting Licenses by Years 


..Exhibit 


16 


Hunting Licenses by Parish — 






1965-1966 


..Exhibit 


17 


Hunting Licenses by Parish 






1966-1967 


..Exhibit 


18 


Fishing Licenses by Years 


.Exhibit 


19 


Fishing Licenses bv Parish 






1965-1966 


..Exhibit 


20 


Fishing Licenses by Parish 






1966-1967 


Exhibit 
Exhibit 


21 
22 


Motor Boat Certificates 





and other reports. Of major importance is the 
plan to install a cost-accounting system in the 
Commission's operation. 

In the fiscal year 1966 67, the General Fund 
provided $360,879 to the Commission for Civil 
Service salary adjustments. Except for that 
amount, the operations of the Commission were 
financed by appropriations from the Conserva- 
tion Fund, Federal funds and the dedicated funds 
in the two years covered by this biennial report. 








LAWRENCE H. COOK 

Chief Accountant 



GEORGE HEINTZEN 

Accountant 



JOE CUADRADO 

Accountant 



Exhibit 1 

LOUISIANA WILD LIFE AND FISHERIES COMMISSION 

BALANCE SHEET 

June 30, 1967 



Cash 

Conservation Fund $1,798,092.03 

Rockefeller Fund 813,847.10 

Oyster Seed Gr. Fund 1,110,798.47 

Commercial Seafood Fund . 1,204,989.82 
Commercial Fisheries Fund . (164,389.12) 

Marsh Island Fund 751,129.19 

Seismic Fund 96,544.00 

APW Boat Ramp Fund (27,592.27) 

Bodcau GMA Fund 9,670.63 

TOTAL $5,593,089.85 



Ass,- Is 



Accounts Total 

Receivable Assets 

$ 846,720.00 $2,044,812.63 

200,000.00 1,013,847.10 

1,110,798.47 

1,204,989.82 

157,392.52 (6,996.60) 

751,129.19 

96,544.00 

(27,592.27) 

9,670.63 

$1,204,113.12 $6,797,202.97 



Accounts 
Payable 

923,883.07 
735,141.00 
98,047.74 
70,071.87 
19,830.35 
52,055.87 



LIABILITIES 



Liabilities 
Surplus 

^1,720,929.56 

278,706.10 

1,012,750.73 

1,134,917.95 

(26,826.95) 

699,073.32 

96,544.00 

(27,592.27) 

9,670.63 



Total Lia- 
bilities & 
Surplus 

$2,644,812.63 

1,013,847.10 

1,110,798.47 

1,204,989.82 

(6,996.60) 

751,129.19 

96,544.00 

(27,592.27) 

9,670.63 



$1,899,029.90 $4,898,173.07 $6,797,202.97 





Revenue officers reviewing "Audits" verifying the 
collection of severance taxes due the commission. 



Our new IBM 360/20 computer and staff which will 
greatly increase the speed and efficiency of the com- 
mission's record storage and reports. 




Motorboat registrations, Sports and Commercial Licenses are being processed, issued and recorded in the 
Revenue Section. 



10 



Exhibit 2 
APPROPRIATIONS 

1965-66 
Actual 

CONSERVATION FUND: $ 3,558,789.00 

FEDERAL FUNDS: 

Pittman-Robertson 298,206.51 

Dingell-Johnson 45,717.17 

Hyacinth Control 159,400.00 

Water Pollution Control 74,500.92 

Bureau of Outdoor Recreation 

Commercial Fisheries 226,019.08 

O.E.P. (Oyster Seed Grounds) 

DEDICATED FUNDS: 

Rockefeller 905,695.00 

Oyster Seed Grounds 445,681.00 

Commercial Seafood 355,302.00 

Commercial Fisheries 110,000.00 

Marsh Island 397,145.00 

GENERAL FUND 

TOTAL $ 6,576,455.68 



1966-67 
Actual 

$ 5,289,278.00 



347,058.19 
89,846.49 

110,000.00 
73,086.00 



1967-68 
Budget 

4,302,655.00 

310,000.00 
85,000.00 

125,000.00 
80,000.00 



200,412.88 


295,000.00 


76,212.58 




,800,967.00 


905,723.00 


447,108.00 


410,876.00 


437,260.00 


406,879.00 


94,254.00 


64,482.00 


559,426.00 


300,350.00 


360.879.00 





$10,297,032.55 



$ 7,285,965.00 





I.B.M. Key Punch Operators and Machine Operators 
are shown processing cards to be used on the new 
I.B.M. 360/20 Computer. 







11 



Exhibit 3 

EXPENDITURES AND BUDGET 

BY FUNDS AND DIVISIONS 

1965-66 1966-67 

Actual Actual 

Administrative $ 227,061.04 $ 372,923.34 

Education & Publicity 175,454.54 166,643.90 

Water Pollution Control 161,129.25 180,653.92 

Enforcement 1,743,876.26 1,890,269.53 

Water Hyacinth Control 371,467.57 412,827.00 

Fish & Game 863,701.19 2,679,247.50 

Pittman-Robertson 413,561.26 411,363.98 

Dingell Johnson 45,772.42 66,352.94 

Fur 33,809.01 35,023.78 

Building 117,096.35 132,181.78 

Ward Mcllhenny 9,338.66 

Total Conservation Fund $4,162,267.55 $6,347,487.67 

Marsh Island 269,686.21 283,635.83 

Rockefeller 886,338.73 1,672,374.47 

Oyster Seed Ground 442,471.56 482,393.61 

Commercial Seafood 353,777.56 355,041.10 

Commercial Fisheries 295,667.72 321,665.15 

TOTAL $6,410,209.33 $9,462,597.83 



1967-68 
Budget 

f 355,726.00 

196,422.00 

188,410.00 

2,023,559.00 

427,225.00 

837,903.00 

647,873.00 

50,000.00 

43,181.00 

170,356.00 



$4,940,655.00 
300,350.00 
905,723.00 
410,876.00 
406,879.00 
359,482.00 



$7,323,965.00 




12 



$ 366,253* 


* 


314,563* 


$ 377,000* 


$ 30,949 
656,113 


$ 


32,988 
717,398 


$ 30,000 
700,000 


$ 687,062 


$ 


750,386 


$ 730,000 



Exhibit 4 

ALL RECEIPTS 

CONSERVATION FUND— DEDICATED FUNDS AND FEDERAL FUNDS 

ACTUAL RECEIPTS 1965-66 AND 1966-67— ESTIMATED RECEIPTS 1967-68 

Actual Aetna! Estimated 

CONSERVATION FUND 1965-66 1966-67 1967-68 

Sport Licenses: 

Fishing— New Orleans $ 50,806 $ 36,427 $ 52,000 

Fishing— Other Parishes _ 315,447 278,136 325,000 

Total Fishing 

Hunting — New Orleans 

Hunting — Other Parishes 

Total Hunting 

Total Sport Licenses $ 1,053,315 $ 1,064,949 $ 1,107,000 

Commercial Fishing and Dealers: 

(Including Fish, Shrimp and Oyster) 

Commercial Fisherman— Bait Seller $ 3,450 $ 3,120 $ 3,100 

Hoop Net 10,690 9,220 10,000 

Fresh Water Seine 1,915 1,850 1,900 

Fresh Water Trammel Net 7,290 7,005 7,000 

Fresh Water Gill Net 24,115 20,795 21,000 

Salt Water Fish and Shrimp Seine 1,190 2,195 2,200 

Salt Water Trammel Net 1,950 1,525 1,500 

Salt Water Menhaden Seine and Vessel 7,600 8,200 8,200 

Oyster Vessel Tonnage 1,313 1,344 1,300 

Oyster Dredging 5,700 5,650 5,700 

Salt Water Fish Vessel 190 235 200 

Salt Water Shrimp Trawl and Vessel 146,335 172,390 160,000 

Salt Water Shrimp Freight 10 10 

Oyster Bedding Ground 96,232 104,053 100,000 

Oyster Shop and Resale 860 1,710 1,700 

Wholesale Dealer 13,650 13,900 14,000 

Wholesale Dealer's Agent 670 670 700 

Retail Dealer 15,885 15,300 15,500 

Non-Resident Minnow Dealer 400 200 200 

Fish Farmer 350 380 450 



Total Commercial Fishing and Dealers $ 339,785 $ 369,752 $ 354,660 

Severance Tax: 

Gravel $ 3,233 $ $ 

Sand 4,664 3,902 4,000 

Fill Material 99,907 196,676 150,000 

Fur 25,482 14,334 10,000 

Oyster 6,543 13,398 13,000 

Shrimp 40,548 35,668 35.000 



Total Severance Tax $ 180,377 $ 263,978 $ 212,00 

Miscellaneous Licenses and Receipts: 

Hunting Club $ 1,840 $ 1,505 $ 1,500 

Hunting Preserve 1,200 1,800 1,800 

Game Breeder 1,580 1,200 1,200 

Transfer of Oyster Lease 35 45 45 

Resident Fur Buyer 3,000 2,625 2,600 

Resident Fur Dealer 2,550 2,850 2,800 

Non-Resident Fur Buyer 100 100 100 

Non-Resident Fur Dealer 1,200 900 900 

Trapper— New Orleans 548 524 500 

Trapper— Other Parishes 4,859 6,119 6,000 

Miscellaneous 3,716 7,077 7,000 

Total Miscellaneous Licenses and Receipts .... 

Motorboat Registration 

Building Rental 

Royalties from Mineral Leases: 

Oil and Gas $ 3,102,559 

Sulphur 480,832 

Salt 1,660 

Bonuses 37,370 



$ 


20,628 


$ 


24,745 


$ 


24,445 


$ 


77,080 


* 


161,556 


$ 


75,000 


$ 


143,090 


$ 


150,213 


$ 


150,000 



4,137,697 


$ 4,500,000 


564,809 


550,000 


1,349 


1,200 




350,000 



Total Royalties from Mineral leases $ 3,622,421 $ 4,703,855 $ 5,401,200 

TOTAL CONSERVATION FUND RECEIPTS $ 5,436,696 $ 6,739,048 $ 7,324,305 



*Sport Fishing licenses were increased from $1.00 to $2.00 beginning 1965 (License good for two year period.) 

EXHIBIT A— Continued Next Page 
13 



Exhibit 4 (Continued) 

ALL RECEIPTS 

CONSERVATION FUND— DEDICATED AND FEDERAL FUNDS 

ACTUAL RECEIPTS 1965-66 AND 1966-67— ESTIMATED RECEIPTS 1967-88 



DEDICATED FUNDS 

Oyster Seed Ground: 

Shell Severance Tax 

Survey Fees 

Rebedding Fees 

Interest 

Miscellaneous 

Total Oyster Seed Ground 

Commercial Seafood: 

Shell Severance Tax 

Interest 

Total Commercial Seafood 

Rockefeller Refuge: 

Royalties fiom Mineral Leases 

Fur Sales 

Interest 

Timber Damage 

Total Rockefeller Refuge . . 

Marsh Island Refuge. 

Royalties from Mineral Leases 
Pass-a-Loutre Hunting Permits 

Pasturage 

Fur Sales 

Right-of-Way 

Interest 

Total Marsh Island Refuge 

TOTAL DEDICATED FUNDS 

FEDERAL FUNDS 

Pittman-Robertson 

Dingell-Johnson 

Hyacinth Control 

Water Pollution Control 

Commercial Fisheries 

Bureau of Outdoor Recreation 

Office of Emergency Planning 

Total Federal Funds 

GRAND TOTAL ALL RECEIPTS . 



Actual 
1965-66 

573,579 

14,885 

51 



Actual 
1966-67 

597,167 
17,227 



$ 1 



,929,876 
2,167 



$ 1,504,505 

1,071 

5,479 

386 



$ 1,932,043 



$ 1,511,441 



701,356 

2,460 

200 



167,528 

4,265 

210 

624 



295,424 
48,500 

159,400 
73,501 

226,019 



110,000 

73,086 

200,413 

411,244 

76,213 



$ 802,844 



.$ 870,956 



$10,071,745 



$10,544,314 




Estimated 
1967-68 

$ 590,000 
17,000 



15,168 




14,612 
15 




15,000 


$ 603,683 


$ 


629,021 


% 


622,000 


$ 573,579 
16,035 


% 


597,167 
17,351 


5 


590,000 
17,000 


$ 589,614 


% 


614,518 


$ 


607,000 



$ 1,300,000 
1,000 
5,000 



$ 1,306,000 



200,000 

4,000 

200 

500 



1,125 
1,733 


767 
5,936 


5,000 


$ 706,874 


$ 179,330 


$ 209,700 


$ 9,268,910 


$ 9,673,358 


$10,069,005 



310,000 
85,000 

125,000 
80,000 

295,000 



$ 895,000 



$10,964,005 




Motorboat registration is a constant endeavor to Payroll, accounts payable and accounts receivable 

keep errors to a minimum. records are kept up-to date in this section. 



14 



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16 



Exhibit 9 
LOUISIANA SHRIMP PRODUCTION BY SIZE 

1966 

Size 
(heads-off Per cent 

per pound) Quantity of Total Value to 

Number 1000 lbs. % Fishermen 

Under 15 804.7 2.0 $1,111 

15-20 2,912.6 7.4 1.058 

21-25 2,707.8 6.8 .997 

26-30 2,234.7 5.6 .925 

31-40 4,912.1 12.4 .792 

41-50 3,230.6 8.3 .696 

51-67 7,468.8 18.9 .552 

68 & Over 14,877.6 37.6 .355 

Sea Bobs 415.0 L0 .244 

TOTAL 39,563.9 100.0 $ .616 



1965 





Per cent 




Quantity 


of Total 


Value to 


1000 lbs. 


% 


Fisherman 


1,057.1 


2.7 


$.923 


3,936.5 


9.9 


.864 


2,405.3 


6.0 


.788 


1,934.3 


4.9 


.691 


4,934.4 


12.4 


.587 


4,199.6 


10.5 


.506 


5,425.0 


13.6 


.424 


15,359.9 


38.6 


.296 


566.2 


1.4 


.193 



39,818.3 



100.0 



$.492 



Exhibit 10 

SHRIMP PRODUCTION AND NUMBER 
OF TRAWLS AND/OR SEINES— 1913-1966 



Barrels 
Calendar Shrimp 

Year (210 lbs.) 

1913 50,000 

1914 52,381 

1915 57,143 

1916 85,714 

1917 57,143 

1918 71,429 

1919 76,190 

1920 152,381 

1921 163,012 

1922 109,050 

1923 153,749 

1924 150,624 

1925 154,722 

1926 123,967 

1927 150,896 

1928 195,303 

1929 210,033 

1930 197,550 

1931 178,815 

1932 152,373 

1933 166,058 

1934 226,576 

1935 252,981 

1936 286,749 

1937 362,942 

1938 363,656 

1939 395,050 

1940 397,189 

1941 554,354 

1942 489,173 

1943 441,445 

1944 544,378 

1945 495,994 

1946 464,981 

1947 365,617 

1948 376,695 

1949 376,040 

1950 361,365 

1951 396,980 

1952 398,952 

1953 437,340 

1954 451,647 

1955 365,542 

1956 318,130 

1957 181,061 

1958 208,586 

1959 254,438 

1960 306,774 

1961 148,423 

1962 208,920 

1963 384,828 

1964 282,852 

1965 297,993 

1966 296,520 

17 



No. of 


No. of 


Seines 


Trawls 


131 




131 




268 




300 


"i.7 


'97 


'499 


135 


983 


111 


699 


128 


1,021 


143 


905 


180 


1,010 


143 


692 


120 


913 


261 


1,454 


125 


1,486 


172 


1,176 


126 


1,131 


66 


699 


67 


1,045 


107 


1,441 


125 


1,433 


30 


1,920 


35 


2,313 


13 


1,662 


26 


1,621 


5 


3,016 


5 


3,028 


4 


2,380 


4 


2,101 


4 


1,866 


4 


2,373 


4 


3,030 


4 


3,408 


4 


3,200 


4 


3,310 


3 


2,819 




2,248 




2,277 


10 


3,543 


4 


3,442 


5 


3,276 


7 


3,072 


9 


2,419 


9 


4,400 


8 


4,154 


7 


4,896 


8 


4,577 




5,453 




7,025 




7,397 


8 


7,296 


21 


7,215 



Exhibit 11 

COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF FRESH AND SALT WATER COMMERCIAL FISH 
PRODUCED BY LOUISIANA FISHERMEN 



19 GG 



1965 



FRESH WATER FISHERIES 



Bowfin 

Buffalofish 

Carp 

Catfish & Bullheads 

Garfish 

Paddlefish (Spoonbill) . . 
Sheepshead (Gaspergou) 

Crawfish 

Baby Green Turtles 

Fresh Water Turtles 

Frogs 





Value to 


Ponvds 


Fishermen 


78,400 


$ 5,843 


2,449,700 


317,587 


184,100 


6,412 


5,058,700 


1,406,491 


1,189,500 


88,037 


15,800 


1,565 


459,900 


56,600 


3,270,900 


538,024 


2,200 


10,650 


45,700 


8,599 


37,300 


17,240 



Total Fresh Water Fisheries 12,792,200 



SALT WATER FISHERIES 

Cobia 

Croaker 

Drum : 

Black 

Red (Red Fish) 

Flounder 

Grouper 

Jewfish 

King Whiting- (Black Mullet) 

Menhaden 555,852,100 

Mullet (Popeye) 

Pompano 

Sawfish 

Sea Catfish 

Sea Trout or Weakf ish : 

Spotted 

White 

Shark 

Sheepshead 

Snapper, Red 

Spanish Mackerel 

Spot 

Tripletail 

Warsaw 

Miscellaneous 

Crabs: 

Hard 

Soft & Peeler 

Shrimp 

Sea Turtles 

Oysters 

Squid 

Terrapin 



Total Salt Water Fisheries 634,624,300 



GRAND TOTAL 647,416,500 



Pounds 

124,900 

2,698,500 

250,800 

6,535,600 

1,141,600 

23,500 

597,600 

8,765,500 

5,800 

69,000 

52,600 



$ 2,457,048 



20,265,400 



4,500 


$ 317 


20,500 


1,057 


247,300 


19,944 


531,400 


90,662 


274,500 


46,814 


15,800 


1,628 


1,700 


85 


783,800 


54,672 


55,852,100 


9,557,646 


9,800 


338 


20,600 


13,518 


4,700 


445 


62,500 


6,260 


646,600 


154,282 


70,200 


7,667 


1,900 


95 


156,200 


10,469 


207,700 


58,633 


2,800 


222 


3,300 


97 


4,600 


446 


1,100 


100 


535,100 


12,633 


7,985,600 


537,422 


127,700 


84,844 


62,284,100 


24,391,715 


3,300 


407 


4,763,800 


2,156,543 


900 


92 


200 


84 



3,400 
14,700 

194,700 

471,200 

261,700 

13,300 

1,300 

550,600 

682,435,200 

7,000 

7,600 

3,600 

86,100 

398,200 

60,500 

800 

103,600 

242,800 
3,800 
1,700 
2,000 
4,700 

155,000 

9,291,300 

203,800 

62,620,500 

5,700 

8,342,700 

1,400 

4,800 



$37,209,137 



765,493,700 



$39,666,185 



785,759,100 



Value to 
Fishermen 

$ 3,889 

318,738 

9,715 

1,725,736 

65,097 

2,252 

60,019 

1,034,950 

23,200 

11,097 

20,183 



$ 3,274,876 



& 284 

740 

16,939 

82,790 

42,230 

808 

85 

42,396 

11,790,362 

396 

4,849 

204 

6,055 

99,924 

6,631 

45 

9,179 

56,654 

449 

90 

205 

472 

3,750 

635,904 

140,686 

19,592,300 

627 

2,401,607 

150 

2,400 



$34,939,211 



$38,214,087 



Fish production figures presented were obtained in cooperation with U.S. 
Wild Life Service, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. 



Department of the Interior, Fish and 



18 



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22 






Exhibit 14 



Exhibit 15 



1966 MISCELLANEOUS LICENSES 
SOLD BY PARISH, STATE, AND CLASS 



1967 MISCELLANEOUS LICENSES 
SOLD BY PARISH, STATE, AND CLASS 



Parish 

5 3 

Acadia 

Allen 1 

Ascension 

Assumption .... 2 

Avoyelles 1 

Beauregard 2 

Bienville 2 

Bossier 6 

Caddo 14 

Calcasieu 10 

Caldwell 47 

Cameron 3 

Catahoula 5 

Claiborne 2 

Concordia 3 

DeSoto 

E. Baton Rouge 16 

E. Carroll 35 

E. Feliciana ... 1 

Evangeline 1 

Franklin 29 

Grant 

Iberia 

Iberville 2 

Jackson 10 

Jefferson 

Jefferson Davis . 3 

Lafayette 1 

Lafourche 

LaSalle 2 

Lincoln 4 

Livingston 5 

Madison 1 

Morehouse 28 

Natchitoches ... 3 

Orleans 9 

Ouachita 49 

Plaquemines 

Pointe Coupee . 3 

Rapides 7 

Red River 

Richland 29 

Sabine 

St. Bernard 

St. Charles 2 

St. Helena 

St. James 

St. John 

St. Landry 2 

St. Martin 

St. Mary 3 

St. Tammany ... 2 
Tangipahoa .... 2 

Tensas 12 

Terrebonne 

Union 9 

Vermilion 10 

Vernon 1 

Washington 

Webster 6 

W. Baton Rouge . . 

W. Carroll 8 

W. Feliciana ... 5 

Winn 3 

TOTAL 

LOUISIANA 

Arkansas 

Mississippi . . . 
New York . . . 
Texas 

TOTAL 403 



■5 -K. «> 











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S ^z 


7t t- 


O-S 


<s 


OKI 


kc,cq 


kt) 


E-^ 


^« 


5 






5 


$ 50 


2 






3 


25 




"2 




"i 


60 


2 


2 




5 


75 


1 






3 


20 


2 






4 


30 


4 


1 




12 


295 


14 


2 




30 


260 


13 


4 


1 


28 

47 


430 
235 




4 




7 


115 


1 






6 
2 
3 


35 

10 
15 


4 






4 


40 


9 


1 




28 


595 


1 






36 
1 


185 
5 


2 






3 


25 




1 




30 


170 


5 






5 


50 


1 


3 


i 


5 


235 


2 






4 


30 


4 






14 


90 


4 


13 


1 


18 


515 


7 






10 


85 


4 






5 


45 


4 


12 




17 


490 


1 


1 




5 


245 


2 






6 


40 


1 


2 




8 


85 


1 






2 
28 

4 


15 
140 
215 


5 


7 


6 


27 


1,170 


3 


1 




53 


300 


2 


6 




8 
3 


170 

15 


5 


3 




15 


160 


'i 


'3 




33 


230 


1 






1 


10 


2 


6 




8 


170 


6 


3 


] 


12 


295 


i 






i 


io 


5 


1 




8 


85 


1 


1 




2 


35 


1 


11 


i 


16 


450 


10 


1 


1 


15 


485 


2 


5 




9 


155 


2 


1 




15 


105 


2 


18 


1 


21 


620 


4 






13 


85 


3 


6 


i 


20 


380 


1 


1 




3 


40 




3 




3 


75 


i 




1 


8 


190 


1 






1 


10 


2 




1 


11 


210 


1 






6 


35 




2 




5 


65 



401 


6 158 


127 


17 


709 


$10,510 


1 
1 






1 


2 

1 
2 
2 


305 
5 






i 


2 
1 


600 
400 


403 


6 158 


128 


21 


716 


$11,820 



Parish '•« _ 

Acadia 

Allen 

Ascension 1 

Assumption .... 1 

Avoylles 1 

Beauregard .... 2 

Bienville 3 

Bossier 4 

Caddo 7 

Calcasieu 11 

Caldwell 32 

Cameron 4 

Catahoula 2 

Claiborne 2 

Concordia 11 

DeSoto 1 

E. Baton Rouge 13 

E. Carroll 25 

E. Feliciana ... 1 

Evangeline 

Franklin 26 

Grant 1 

Iberia 

Iberville 3 

Jackson 3 

Jefferson 1 

Jefferson Davis . 2 

Lafayette 1 

Lafourche 

LaSalle 2 

Lincoln 3 

Livingston 2 

Madison 1 

Morehouse 22 

Natchitoches ... 2 

Orleans 5 

Ouachita 28 

Plaquemines 

Pointe Coupee . . 4 

Rapides 6 

Red River 

Richland 25 

Sabine 

St. Bernard 

St. Charles 3 

St. Helena 

St. James 

St. John 

St. Landry 

St. Martin 

St. Mary 3 

St. Tammany 

Tangipahoa 

Tensas 13 

Terrebonne 

Union 10 

Vermilion 9 

Vernon 

Washington 

Webster 4 

W. Baton Rouge . . 

W. Carroll 8 

W. Feliciana ... 4 

Winn 3_ 

TOTAL 

LOUISIANA .315_ 

Arkansas 1 

New York 

Tennessee 1 

Texas 1_ 

TOTAL 318 





?, s- 


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Oh OO 


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6 






6 


$ 60 




1 3 






4 
1 


230 
5 






4 




5 


105 




i 


2 




4 


65 




1 2 


1 




6 
3 


255 
15 




7 






11 


90 




1 7 


i 




16 


330 




17 


2 


1 


31 
32 


425 
160 






2 




6 


70 








i 


3 
2 


160 
10 




i 






12 


65 




3 






4 


35 




1 8 


2 




124 
25 


395 
125 




i 






2 


15 




2 






2 


20 






i 




27 


155 




5 






6 


55 






4 




4 


100 




i 


1 




5 


50 




4 






7 


55 




8 


11 




20 


360 




1 


2 




5 


70 




4 






5 


45 




5 


6 


1 


12 


350 




2 






4 


410 




3 






6 


45 




2 


1 




5 


55 




1 






2 


15 




1 






23 


120 




1 1 






4 


220 




3 


5 


6 


l'.i 


1,080 




3 




1 


32 


320 




2 


5 




7 
4 


145 
20 




5 


4 




15 


180 






'i 




26 


150 




i 






1 


10 




2 


7 




9 


195 




3 


4 




11 


295 




6 


i 




7 


85 






1 




1 


25 




2 


7 


2 


14 


510 




1 8 






10 


430 




2 


5 




7 


145 






1 




14 


90 




4 


17 


2 


23 


765 




1 






11 


60 




1 


7 




18 


380 






1 




1 


25 




2 


1 








45 




1 






6 


180 




1 






1 


10 




2 






11 


210 




1 






5 


220 






2 




5 


65 



9 143 109 19 595 $10,380 



1 



1 



5 
600 

5 
405 



9 143 110 22 602 $11,395 



23 



Exhibit 16 



Exhibit 17 



NUMBER OF HUNTING LICENSES SOLD 
SEASONS 1939-1940 THROUGH 1966-67 



LICENSES SOLD BY PARISHES 
1965-66 HUNTING SEASON 



Season 



1939-40 98,167 

1940-41 116,653 

1941-42 146,648 

1942-43 119,543 

1943-44 94,609 

1944-45 124,485 

1945-46 162,872 

1946-47 170,396 

1947-48 176,715 

1948-49 222,201 

1949-50 235,447 

1950-51 235,472 

1951-52 235,855 

1952-53 209,665 

1953-54 251,488 

1954-55 242,456 

1955-56 246,731 

1956-57 287,810 

1957-58 284,279 

1958-59 275,622 

1959-60 280,672 

1960-61 317,087 

1961-62 309,367 

1962-63 332,513 

1963-64 347,680 

1964-65 366,976 

1965-66 369,866 

1966-67 394,839 



& ~ 


2=to 




»E-h e» | 


ith 
ide 
son 


|ftj 




u f° 


Z « e 






: CO: 


£:££ 


s^ 


*:>: a; 03 


93,587 


1,335 


3,245 


115,336 


166 


1,151 


144,349 


495 


1,804 


118,300 


163 


1,080 


93,334 


181 


1,094 


121,767 


407 


2,311 


160,795 


409 


1,681 


169,652 


744 






175,482 


1,233 






221,702 


499 






234,964 


483 


1,140 


234,195 


137 


1,140 


234,177 


192 


1,486 


207,428 


169 


2,068 


248,496 


**2,992 






239,695 


**2,761 






243,756 


**2,975 






284,844 


"2,966 






281,708 


**2,571 






272,756 


**2,866 






278,288 


**2,384 






257,438 


528 


2,1 


559 56,462 


247,227 


381 


1/ 


F48 60,011 


260,862 


367 


1,1 


514 69,470 


266,556 


442 


V 


?55 77,927 


278,500 


431 


3,S 


!96 84,749 


276,247 


580 


3,< 


)58 89,081 


293,858 


651 


5,1 


.24 95,206 



: 'No trip licenses issued during these years. 
i: Non-Resident sold on a reciprocal basis. These licenses 
include both season and trip. 




Beaver, a fur producing animal in Louisiana and one 
that is also causing problems by damming several 
streams. 



ft* 

Parish u 

03 4 

Acadia 4,422 

Allen 3,511 

Ascension 2,875 

Assumption 1,358 

Avoyelles 4,260 

Beauregard 2,852 

Bienville 2,023 

Bossier 4,987 

Caddo 15,823 

Calcasieu 14,157 

Caldwell 1,650 

Cameron 1,200 

Catahoula 1,972 

Claiborne 1,697 

Concordia 3,241 

DeSoto 2,350 

E. Baton Rouge 17,352 

E. Carroll 1,553 

E. Feliciana 1,413 

Evangeline 4,149 

Franklin 3,536 

Grant 2,227 

Iberia 4,740 

Iberville 2,323 

Jackson 2,349 

Jefferson 10,712 

Jefferson Davis 3,904 

Lafayette 7,367 

Lafourche 6,254 

LaSalle 2,981 

Lincoln 2,832 

Livingston 3,844 

Madison 1,851 

Morehouse 4,632 

Natchitoches 4,411 

Orleans 13,571 

Ouachita 13,689 

Plaquemines 909 

Pointe Coupee 2,020 

Rapides 12,691 

Red River 1,027 

Richland 3,468 

Sabine 2,742 

St. Bernard 1,019 

St. Charles 2,443 

St. Helena 819 

St. James 1,253 

St. John 1,176 

St. Landry 7,915 

St. Martin 2,329 

St. Mary 4,794 

St. Tammany 5,075 

Tangipahoa 6,341 

Tensas 1,354 

Terrebonne 5,974 

Union 2,691 

Vermilion 4,384 

Vernon 4,496 

Washington 5,322 

Webster 4,259 

W. Baton Rouge 1,799 

W. Carroll 2,556 

W. Feliciana 913 

Winn 2,410 

TOTAL 1965-66 . . . .276,247 

TOTAL 1964-65 278,500 

Increase 

Decrease 2,253 

% Increase 

% Decrease 0.8% 



00 


a. 


CO 




tti§ 


S 






— 99 




12 


219 


5 


179 


1,511 




1 


603 
209 


i 


ii 


1,113 


12 


89 


1,185 


1 


19 


1,008 


1 


8 


2,030 


1 


115 


7,395 


19 


585 


2,600 


1 


28 


1,189 


144 


464 


109 


7 


17 


1,144 


24 


42 


972 


106 


167 


2,066 


11 


30 


932 


5 


75 


5,145 


5 


104 


1,015 


1 


10 


303 




10 


1,125 


6 


43 


2,386 


1 


25 


1,328 


1 


20 


347 
648 




35 


1,555 


i 


5 


850 


7 


153 


384 


2 


108 


679 




13 


397 


2 


17 


1,794 


2 


31 


1,540 




4 


1,611 


35 


176 


1,352 


40 


141 


3,142 


5 


64 


1,763 


5 


125 


1,382 




78 


7,924 
2 


i 


3 


622 


6 


88 


4,926 


2 


29 


579 


2 


52 


2,112 


1 


19 


1,399 
121 




4 


292 




2 


313 
210 




i 


172 


i 


25 


1,538 




5 


172 




2 


680 


32 


40 


884 


3 


18 


1,021 


18 


81 


1,007 


1 


4 


329 


15 


68 


1,938 


8 


249 


246 


14 


81 


2,596 


9 


24 


1,069 


6 


40 


2,101 


1 


3 


460 


7 


87 


1,904 




1 


179 


2 


28 


1,254 



580 
431 



3,958 
3,296 



89,081 
84,749 



149 



662 



4,332 



34.6% 20.1% 



5.1% 



24 



Exhibit 18 



Exhibit 19 



LICENSES SOLD BY PARISHES 
1966-67 HUNTING SEASON 



Parish °3 

•He 

Co O 

111 

Acadia 4,751 

Allen 3,447 

Ascension 3,182 

Assumption 1,470 

Avoyelles 4,504 

Beauregard 3,025 

Bienville 2,240 

Bossier 4,912 

Caddo 16,352 

Calcasieu 15,347 

Caldwell 1,775 

Cameron 1,386 

Catahoula 2,117 

Claiborne 1,814 

Concordia 3,446 

DeSoto 2,279 

East Baton Rouge . . . 19,731 

East Carroll 1,552 

East Feliciana 1,386 

Evangeline 3,887 

Franklin 3,567 

Grant 2,131 

Iberia 4,743 

Iberville 2,853 

Jackson 2,458 

Jefferson 12,109 

Jefferson Davis 4,265 

Lafayette 7,821 

Lafourche 6,789 

LaSalle 3,017 

Lincoln 3,084 

Livingston 4,010 

Madison 1,807 

Morehouse 4,864 

Natchitoches 4,320 

Orleans 14,761 

Ouachita 14,646 

Plaquemines 1,843 

Pointe Coupee 2,074 

Rapides 12,990 

Red River 1,046 

Richland 3,538 

Sabine 2,651 

St. Bernard 1,656 

St. Charles 2,516 

St. Helena 867 

St. James 1,344 

St. John 1,426 

St. Landry 8,192 

St. Martin 2,501 

St. Mary 5,300 

St. Tammany 5,663 

Tangipahoa 6,372 

Tensas 1,331 

Terrebonne 6,627 

Union 2,931 

Vermilion 4,879 

Vernon 4,798 

Washington 5,408 

Webster 4,453 

West Baton Rouge . . . 1,704 

West Carroll 2,603 

West Feliciana 857 

Winn 2,440 

TOTAL 1966-67 293,858 

TOTAL 1965-66 . 276,247 

Increase 17,611 

Decrease 

% Increase 6.4 

% Decrease 



CO 

e 


.8. 


<S> 


=a 


to 


Eh 


is 


s, 

so 


es'§ 


Ǥ 








"(311 


> en 


l 


29 


244 


41 


8 


176 


1,528 


60 




3 


720 


10 


30 




256 


71 


3 


13 


1,123 


33 


19 


85 


1,381 


38 


1 


30 


1,174 


9 




21 


2,318 


4 


7 


164 


7,244 


40 


18 


784 


2,637 


21 


5 


29 


1,277 


24 


163 


596 


93 


198 


3 


30 


1,266 


8 


35 


72 


1,048 


8 


112 


239 


2,304 


7 


6 


54 


989 


16 


1 


130 


6,192 


18 


7 


71 


1,038 


24 


1 


12 


355 


5 




2 


1,166 


22 


3 


40 


2,456 


38 


2 


27 


1,293 


18 


1 


28 


408 


43 




4 


839 


50 


3 


22 


1,622 


28 


1 


10 


963 


128 


8 


272 


456 


197 


2 


153 


759 


6 




12 


499 


242 


2 


34 


1,945 


16 


1 


21 


1,554 


7 




2 


1,864 


31 


28 


194 


1,373 


36 


32 


150 


3,294 


32 


6 


64 


1,850 


13 


4 


171 


1,248 


262 


10 


142 


8,447 


37 




1 


4 


72 




2 


734 


11 


5 


116 


5,027 


56 




25 


597 


10 


4 


72 


2,045 


58 


7 


39 


1,417 


8 




1 


168 


41 




16 


319 


92 




3 


408 


12 






240 


13 






245 


35 


2 


33 


1,837 


37 


1 


7 


214 


61 


1 


11 


749 


295 


29 


54 


995 


34 


3 


17 


1,142 


70 


9 


130 


1,156 


24 




7 


371 


338 


25 


98 


2,160 


15 


4 


325 


315 


237 


19 


86 


2,868 


20 


7 


46 


1,102 


38 


5 


45 


2,204 


24 




2 


409 


6 


7 


69 


1,871 


30 




8 


55 






25 


1,331 


14 



651 5,124 
580 3,958 



95,206 
89,081 



3,592 
3,088 



NUMBER OF FISHING LICENSES SOLD 
SEASONS 1939 THROUGH 1966-67 

Fishing 
Non- 
Fishing Resident 
Fishing Non- 7-Day 

Season Total Resident Resident Trip 

1939 27,096 12,649 14,447 ** 

1940 31,014 16,140 14,874 ** 

1941 52,695 38,080 14,615* ** 

1942 41,661 30,608 11,053* 

1943 36,112 29,492 3,332 3,288 

1944 33,239 25,755 3,743 3,741 

1945 35,002 27,000 4,088 3,914 

1946 52,909 42,621 5,808 4,480 

1947 64,055 59,353 4,702 ** 

1948 66,797 63,657 3,140 ** 

1949 82,942 72,397 5,970 4,575 

1950 83,068 72,044 5,872 5,152 

1951 89,337 76,516 6,477 6,344 

1952 102,715 89,159 6,207 7,349 

1953 205,049 178,994 10,087 15,968 

1954 217,282 187,832 12,048 17,402 

1955 220,835 187,466 13,917 19,452 

1956 218,757 186,106 14,817 17,834 

1957 188,874 159,664 14,124 15,086 

1958 192,290 165,566 13,364 13,360 

1959 179,820 155,074 14,736 10,010 

1960 153,848 134,231 10,519 9,098 

1960-61f 139,899 127,198 4,913 7,788 

1961-62 224,601 202,297 8,508 13,796 

1962-63 220,335 196,419 9,064 14,852 

1963-64 204,224 183,320 8,556 12,348 

1964-65 217,192 196,138 8,779 12,275 

1965-66 232,294 208,279 9,778 14,237 

1966-67 106,673 85,050J 10,452 11,171 

'■Includes both annual and 7-day trip. 
**No 7-day trip licenses issued during these years. 

fLicenses issued on fiscal year basic starting with 1960-61 
Season. 

^Decrease due to 1966-67 being the last year for licenses 
issued covering a two year period starting 1965-66 end- 
ing 1966-67. The total valid licenses during the 1966-67 
fiscal year was 293,329. 



71 1,166 6,125 504 




12.2 29.4 



6.9 16.3 



Severance tax records on the shrimp catch is re- 
corded in the Accounting Section. 



25 



Exhibit 20 

LICENSES SOLD BY PARISHES 
1965-66 FISHING SEASON 



ft? 

Parish .2 o 

3*1 

Acadia 1,483 

Allen 1,708 

Ascension 1.925 

Assumption 285 

Avoyelles 1,746 

Beauregard 2,745 

Bienville 1,281 

Bossier 5,281 

Caddo 14,409 

Calcasieu 11,787 

Caldwell 570 

Cameron 822 

Catahoula 745 

Claiborne 914 

Concordia 1,509 

DeSoto 654 

East Baton Rouge 16,998 

East Carroll 531 

East Feliciana . . . 315 

Evangeline 1,466 

Franklin 1,085 

Grant 1,648 

Iberia 3,897 

Iberville 1,818 

Jackson 894 

Jefferson 14,490 

Jefferson Davis . . 2,059 

Lafavette 5,365 

Lafourche 2,982 

LaSalle 1,350 

Lincoln 1,394 

Livingston 1,902 

Madison 476 

Morehouse 2,466 

Natchitoches 3,513 

Orleans 24,700 

Ouachita 6,333 

Plaquemines 1,344 

Pointe Coupee . . . 2,161 

Rapides 10,387 

Red River 311 

Richland 882 

Sabine 966 

St. Bernard 4,299 

St. Charles 2,115 

St. Helena 121 

St. James 529 

St. John 777 

St. Landry 4,697 

St. Martin 2,658 

St. Mary 2,537 

St. Tammany . . . 6,431 

Tangipahoa 3,338 

Tensas 630 

Terrebonne 4,113 

Union 1,367 

Vermilion 1,400 

Vernon 4,576 

Washington 2,872 

Webster 2,414 

West Baton Rouge 1,995 

West Carroll 506 

West Feliciana . . 142 

Winn 1,165 

TOTAL 

1965-66 208,279 

TOTAL 

1964-65 19 6,138 

Increase 12,141 

% Increase .... 6.2 







e» 






s 


s 




a, 


*i g§ 


«'.&§ 


a 






£ 


8 


9 


30 


15 


43 


53 


6 


9 


10 




1 


42 


26 


139 


36 


136 


331 


31 


20 


158 


4 


27 


300 


10 


707 


1,825 


37 


1,164 


621 


103 


10 


29 


18 


2,427 


503 


127 


110 


324 


7 


88 


41 


4 


1,443 


1,349 


8 


24 


60 


17 


168 


191 


15 


149 


188 


31 


7 


3 


1 


20 


78 


20 


5 


50 


39 


22 


127 


14 


5 


50 


50 


4 


11 


47 


12 


49 


24 


9 


54 


76 


13 


19 


154 


2 


113 


3 




1 


230 


80 


244 


16 


14 


53 


8 


6 


46 


27 


102 


72 


41 


452 


653 


37 


286 


2,268 


15 


165 


204 


274 


32 


270 


43 


1 




51 


21 


109 


7 


35 


231 


48 


61 


267 


14 


11 


47 


57 


5 


27 


8 


3 


23 


12 


3 


21 


95 




2 


11 
3 




6 


16 


18 


135 


39 


18 


68 


52 


7 


78 


268 


626 


341 


35 


64 


94 


65 


143 


543 


20 


10 


27 


291 


511 


377 


12 


2 


15 


157 


149 


426 


21 


210 


207 


35 


45 


229 


24 


14 


34 


6 


27 


48 


28 


3 


7 




27 


389 


11 



9,778 
8,779 



14,237 
12,275 



3,088 
3,061 



999 
11.4 



1,962 
16.0 



27 
0.9 



Exhibit 21 

LICENSES SOLD BY PARISHES 

1966-67 FISHING SEASON 



%U ££% £'£& 

Acadia 524 5 8 

Allen 492 7 20 

Ascension 900 24 30 

Assumption 180 .... 2 

Avoyelles 562 37 160 

Beauregard 1,148 124 352 

Bienville 464 11 127 

Bossier 2,088 19 207 

Caddo 4,775 629 1,115 

Calcasieu 4,975 832 470 

Caldwell 156 12 25 

Cameron 1,558 2,654 335 

Catahoula 399 88 255 

Claiborne 299 145 60 

Concordia 667 1,629 1,262 

DeSoto 254 24 62 

East Baton Rouge 5,884 22 201 

East Carroll 155 320 269 

East Feliciana 114 5 3 

Evangeline 1,012 28 30 

Franklin 221 3 23 

Grant 568 13 108 

Iberia 1,243 2 67 

Iberville 771 4 4 

Jackson 205 7 55 

Jefferson 5,120 11 53 

Jefferson Davis 786 5 18 

Lafavette 1,511 8 96 

Lafourche 1,116 1 6 

LaSalle 499 74 230 

Lincoln 397 19 52 

Livingston 687 37 

Madison 145 78 57 

Morehouse 710 333 347 

Natchitoches 1,417 204 1,138 

Orleans 17,034 262 292 

Ouachita 1,877 48 280 

Plaquemines 531 .... 30 

Pointe Coupee 877 18 101 

Rapides 4,145 51 289 

Red River 168 60 160 

Richland 314 10 33 

Sabine 405 10 30 

St. Bernard 1,400 5 16 

St. Charles 795 5 27 

St. Helena 37 1 

St. James 199 

St. John 437 7 11 

St. Landry 1,333 10 22 

St. Martin 996 17 92 

St. Mary 1,195 12 54 

St. Tammany 2,941 587 362 

Tangipahoa 408 73 62 

Tensas 176 172 542 

Terrebonne 1,600 6 25 

Union 595 1,246 614 

Vermilion 498 11 

Vernon 2,628 139 320 

Washington 713 230 84 

Webster 774 49 184 

West Baton Rouge 463 8 

West Carroll 126 23 35 

West Feliciana 70 5 9 

Winn 313 30 193 

TOTAL 1966-67 85,050 10,452 11,171 

TOTAL 1965-66 208,279 9,778 14,237 

Increase G74 

Decrease* 123,229 3,066 

% Increase 6.9 

% Decrease* 59.2 21.5 

*Decrease due to 1966-67 being the last year for licenses 
issued covering a two year period starting 1965-66 end- 
ing 1966-67. The total valid license during the 1966-67 
fiscal year was 293,329. 



26 



Exhibit 22 



REPORT OF CERTIFICATES OF NUMBER ISSUED TO MOTORBOATS 
Certificates of Number Issued During Period January 1, 1966-December 31, 1966 



Under 16 ft. 



Hull Material 



s. 

e 

© 

•a 
S 



Wood 51 

Steel 1 

Aluminum 13 

Plastic 16 

Other 4_ 

TOTAL 85 



■8 



s 
o 



2,268 

22 

2,345 

2,074 

547 



7,256 



16 to Less 
Than 26 ft. 



579 
15 
29 

273 
41 



1,488 
63 

409 
1,857 

504 



26 to Less 
Than iO ft. 



255 
54 
56 
53 
11 



8 



21 

24 

14 

4 

12 



40-65 ft. 



28 
16 

*6 

1 



Over 

65 ft. 



937 



4,321 



429 



75 



51 



10 



Total 



1 


914 


3,777 


3 


89 


117 




98 


2,768 


i 


349 


3,935 




57 


1,065 


5 


1,507 


11,662 



State Certificates of Number Cancelled and Withdrawn During Period 



Wood 


69 


3,583 


795 


1,866 


409 


19 


34 


1 


1,307 


5,469 


Steel 




22 


34 


34 


100 


20 


11 


4 


145 


80 


Aluminum 


4 


968 


4 


165 


4 


3 


1 




13 


1,136 




6 


992 


34 


469 


4 


1 


1 


1 


45 


1,463 


Other 

TOTAL 




258 


7 


132 


1 


4 






8 


394 


.... 79 


5,823 


874 


2,666 


518 


47 


47 


6 


1,518 


8,542 























Total Valid State Certificates Outstanding to Date July 1, 1960-December 31, 1966 



Wood 333 

Steel 64 

Aluminum 49 

Plastic 48 

Other 18 



17,173 


4,305 


12,440 


2,816 


197 


265 


6 


7 




7,726 


29,816 


107 


240 


288 


847 


206 


119 


::i 


6 




1,276 


632 


10,346 


117 


1,872 


155 


64 


9 


1 




1 


330 


12,284 


8,243 


750 


7,079 


104 


35 


12 


1 


1 




915 


15,358 


2,294 


100 


1,802 


25 


32 


5 


5 






148 


4,133 



TOTAL 512 38,163 5,512 23,481 3,947 534 



410 



44 



14 



10,395 62,223 



REPORT OF CERTIFICATES OF NUMBER ISSUED TO MOTORBOATS 
Certificate of Number Issued During Period January 1, 1967-December 31, 1967 



Wood 303 

Steel 5 

Aluminum 13 

Plastic 61 

Other J16_ 

TOTAL 398 



3,004 


672 


1,885 


318 


26 


35 


2 


1 




1,329 


4,917 


30 


18 


53 


66 


49 


ID 


13 


2 




101 


145 


2,930 


37 


442 


112 


19 


4 


1 




1 


96 


3,393 


2,768 


242 


2,171 


45 


24 


4 


1 






352 


4,964 


758 


32 


591 


6 


20 


1 








55 


1,369 



9,490 



1,001 



5,142 



477 



138 



54 



17 



1,933 14,788 



State Certificates of Number Cancelled and Withdrawn During Period 



Wood 73 3,635 820 1,814 534 30 50 

Steel 2 13 31 44 87 22 9 

Aluminum 6 1,091 5 193 17 1 

Plastic 5 858 50 527 6 1 1 

Other _1 276 S3 148 14 1 

TOTAL 87 5,873 915 2,726 629 64 62 



1,477 

129 

13 

62 

12 



1,693 



5,483 

82 

1,291 

1,386 

429 



8,671 



Total Valid State Certificates Outstanding to Date July 1, 1960-December 31, 1967 



Wood 563 

Steel 67 

Aluminum 56 

Plastic 104 

Other J53^ 

TOTAL 823 



16,542 


4,157 


12,511 


2,600 


193 


250 


4 


124 


227 


297 


826 


233 


120 


41 


12,185 


149 


2,121 


196 


76 


12 


2 


10,153 


942 


8,723 


143 


58 


15 


2 


2,776 


123 


2,245 


30 


48 


5 


4 



7,578 


29,250 


1,248 


695 


413 


14,386 


1,205 


18,936 


191 


5,073 



41,780 5,598 25,897 



3,795 



608 



402 



53 



17 



10,635 



68,340 



27 



Education and 
Publicity 
Division 



The Education and Publicity Division is 
the nerve center of the Louisiana Wild Life 
and Fisheries Commission because it serves 
as the main link between the Commission and the 
general public. It is charged with keeping abreast 
of all activities and programs of the Commission 
and transmitting this information, much of it 
technical, to the public in order that they are 
fully aware of Commission Programs and what 
they mean to the public. This information pertains 
not only to State wildlife and fisheries manage- 
ment but also to National management programs 
and to combined State and National programs. 

The staff works constantly with other divisions 
in the Commission in publicizing their activities 
and programs. This includes photography, writ- 
ing publicity releases, radio and television pro- 
gramming, general public relations, speaking be- 
fore civic, scout, social and sportsmen's groups, 
and exhibit work for conventions interested in 
or connected with conservation problems that 
range from pollution to wildlife resources and 
their management. 

In addition, staff members answer thousands of 
questions that come from the hundreds of thou- 
sands of people who visit our museum in New 
Orleans ; and also from the myriads of school 
children who are engaged in wildlife programs 
now being conducted in schools, youth conserva- 





STEVE HARMON 

Chief 

tion groups, Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts. The 
flow of resource education brochures by mail in 
response to requests for conservation information 
amounts to between 350 to 500 mailings each 
week. 

The film lending library, which has been moved 
to Baton Rouge where films are stored, inspected 
and shipped, has served an ever-increasing num- 
ber of people and organizations. Wildlife films 
are shown before many organizations such as 
garden clubs, school classes, sportsmen's leagues 
and clubs, civic and social clubs, Scout groups and 
many other gatherings expressing a desire for 
pictorial phases of wildlife resources and their 
management. 

The Louisiana Wildlife Museum at the Com- 
mission's building on Royal Street in New Orleans 
attracts more than 120,000 visitors a year. School 
groups throughout the state make annual bus 
tours to New Orleans to visit it. While Louisiana 
citizens make up the greater portion of visitors 
to the museum, it should be noted that the register 




E. T. WALDO 

Information Representative 



McFADDEN DUFFY 

Information Representative 



28 




ROBERT DENNIE 

Photographer 

kept in the museum, that is signed by visitors, 
reveals that persons from every state in the 
Union and many foreign countries tour what is 
considered to be one of the finest wildlife muse- 
ums maintained in the country at a state level. 

Centrally located in the heart of one of Ameri- 
ca's most famous tourist cities, it is one of the 
interesting stops for tourists of all ages. There 
is no admission charge. Consequently, it focuses 
attention on the conservation of wildlife and the 
need for public support of sound wildlife manage- 
ment. In some cases, it stimulates support of 
national programs along that line, support that 
can only be generated from personal interest 
which the museum arouses. 

The main room of the museum, which measures 
35 feet by 90 feet, exhibits most of the three 
hundred and eighty-seven species of birds that 
have been recorded in Louisiana. In addition, 
there are also exhibits of bird eggs, mammals, 
fish, turtles and snakes. The museum is open 
Monday through Friday each week, with visiting 
hours from 8:30 A.M*. to 5:00 P.M. The only 
exceptions are legal holidays. 

The museum contains such rare exhibits as a 
pair of Passenger Pigeons, now totally extinct in 
the world ; and the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker, be- 
lieved virtually extinct; and a mounted replica 
of the State Seal showing a Brown Pelican and 
a nest of three young pelicans. 

Among the many exhibits, twenty-five species 
of ducks and geese are prominently displayed in 
life-like flight. This attractive exhibit is located 
in a separate room 30 feet by 45 feet with the 
waterfowl display, in simulated flight, totalling 
90 feet in length. 

In this same room visitors may view many 
smaller habitat groups, from the little Eastern 
chipmunk to the stately wild turkey. In the 
museum, also, is the Prairie Chicken, once plenti- 




EDOUARD MORGAN 

Museum Curator 

ful but now extinct in Louisiana. All of these 
habitat exhibits are life-like in appearance. Much 
work went into the placement of natural appear- 
ing foliage and placement of the mounted birds 
and animals. 

The Louisiana Wildlife Museum is only one of 
several in the country operated by a state agency. 
Admission is free and the steady flow of visitors 
through its doors fully justifies the value of the 
museum and the deep interest of those who visit 
it. 

In conjunction with the museum's operation, 
there are portable exhibits that are sent to and 
set up at every major fair and festival and at 
many district and regional affairs; also in hotels 
on the occasion of wildlife meetings and con- 
ventions, or associated meetings and conferences. 

During the biennium, this division assisted in 
arrangements for the program and publicity on 
the 21st Annual Conference of the Southeastern 
Association of Game and Fish Commissioners. 
This was held in New Orleans September 24-27, 
1967. 

The division chief also attended the annual 
conference of the American Association for Con- 
servation Information in British Columbia as 
Secretary and Treasurer. He was elected First 
Vice President and prevailed upon the conference 
site selection committee to hold its 1968 meeting 
in New Orleans June 2-5. 

The Southeastern Association of Game and Fish 
Commissioners attracted hundreds of delegates to 
Louisiana from fourteen Southeastern States. The 
American Association for Conservation Informa- 
tion will draw hundreds of delegates from the 
United States and Canada. 

The Louisiana Conservationist, which for a long 
time had been a monthly publication, was cut 
back to a bi-monthly publication several years 



29 




The Education and Publicity Division handles hun- 
dreds of thousands of pieces of paper during a bien- 
nium. Here office staffers Inny Spatofora and Irma 
Westbrook sort outgoing new releases. 

ago when public demand for this magazine began 
increasing at such a rate that the division was 
unable to stay within its allotted budget. At the 
time the last biennial report was published, the 
Louisiana Conservationist' s circulation was 87,- 
500. Since that time, requests from libraries and 
national and international scientific groups but, 
mostly from the people of Louisiana, have brought 
the circulation up to over 100,000 per issue. It has 
been necessary to restrict out-of-state requests to 
a bare minimum in order to meet requests of resi- 
dents of the state. 

During the biennium, mailing of the Louisiana 
Conservationist was shifted to Baton Rouge and 
IBM tape label mailing direct from Baton Rouge 
was instituted in order to expedite the mailing 
of the magazine and getting it into the hands of 
readers as soon as possible following printing. 
The State Division of Administration cooperates 
in the mailing of the magazine. 

Reprints of articles appearing in the Louisiana 
Conservationist and special pamphlets have been 
written and printed for distribution through the 
main office, the office in Baton Rouge, district 
offices and upon written requests. 

Regularly produced publications include hunt- 
ing and fishing regulations and a special booklet 
on hunting and fishing. This booklet is revised 
after each session of the legislature and distrib- 
uted free of charge, as are all of the other publica- 
tions. 

This biennial report is edited and produced by 
the staff of the Education and Publicity division 
and a great number of the photographs that ap- 
pear in it were taken by the staff's full-time 




Visitors to the Education and Publicity Division 
offices find almost any type of wildlife resource 
publications. Many of the information seekers are 
parents with their children in quest of material for 
school scrapbooks. 

photographer. The report is sent to the Governor, 
members of the legislature, each school in Lou- 
isiana, libraries, also other state agencies, and to 
others upon request. It is regarded as the most 
comprehensive reference book on conservation and 
wildlife management available to students en- 
gaged in research for term papers and special 
school programs. 

The photographic department, while limited to 
one full-time photographer, contains thousands 
of negatives which are available to visiting and 
corresponding writers and other state agencies. 
At present, it is taxed to capacity and the need 
for additional personnel in this field is evident 
if the division is to meet the growing number of 
requests for both black and white, and color, 
photographs from other state agencies, outdoor 
writers and national magazines dealing with con- 
servation and hunting and fishing, camping and 
other outdoor sports. 

Additional personnel in the photographic de- 
partment would greatly aid in focusing increased 
interest on Louisiana, primarily from an outdoor 
recreation standpoint but also in promoting tour- 
ism which also falls in the realm of the Education 
and Publicity Division. 

The division also serves as a clearing house for 
all types of information regarding Louisiana's 
wildlife and fisheries resources sought by the 
people of Louisiana, as well as out-of-state resi- 
dents, governmental bureaus and agencies both 
Federal and State, and many of the conservation 
organizations throughout the continent. 

Aside from photographs and stories of special 



30 



events, this division also issues approximately 14 
news releases a month to the state's 130-odd 
newspapers, daily and weekly; and to all radio 
and television stations. Public acceptance of this 
news service is reflected by returns from the 
clipping services that indicate eighty per cent 
of them are used in full or in part. 

In view of the growing awareness of the need 
for conservation and preservation of wildlife 
resources and intensified interest in such prob- 
lems as pollution, public land use and preserva- 
tion of the estaurine areas, additional writers on 
the division staff would greatly assist in this 
much sought-after flow of communication be- 
tween the Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Com- 
mission and the news media. 

Aside from the Louisiana Conservationist, the 
number of brochures and other printed wildlife 
material has increased during the past two years 



from approximately 100,000 pieces of literature 
to well over 200,000 pieces. This does not include 
fishing and hunting regulations or pamphlets 
secured in large numbers from other sources, such 
as waterfowl identification booklets, material 
from the National Wildlife Federation, state 
maps, federal hunting regulations, federal water 
pollution control agencies and others. 

In addition to the thousands of requests for 
information received through the mail, at least 
25 persons visit the division's office daily seeking 
information of all sorts. These visits are from 
tourists, school teachers, students and persons 
wanting information on where to hunt or fish 
and the regulations concerning hunting and fish- 
ing. 

An estimated 35 telephone calls each day along 
the same lines are serviced by staff members of 
the division. 




More than 200,000 people visited Louisiana's Wildlife Museum during the biennium. The facility is located 
in the heart of New Orleans famed Vieux Carre. Many of the visitors are students from all grades and most 
states. 



31 



wm 



Law 

Enforcement 

Division 



LEONARD NEW 

Chief 

IT has BEEN the objective of this division at all 
times to train our agents in law enforcement 
and to select the best people to fill vacancies 
as they occur. The division has also attempted by 
proper and impartial game law enforcement to 
gain the confidence of the public, both young and 
old, and make our state a better place in which 
to hunt and fish and enjoy other outdoor recrea- 
tion. 

During the past biennium the Enforcement Di- 
vision has continued work with federal, parish 
and city lawmen, not only in its own line of duty 
concerning game law violations, but also it has 
aided in the apprehension of other types of law- 
breakers. Two such cases, among many, which 
attracted national attention, were the case when 
game agents apprehended a convicted robber who 
had forfeited 10,000 dollar bond in an attempt to 
avoid going back to a Georgia prison. The con- 
vict lost a high speed chase and gunfight with 
agents Sidney Emfinger and Carl Rials. 

For the second time within the same seven 
months wildlife agents were responsible for ar- 
rests such as the aforementioned. This latter ar- 
rest came when Captain Ted Bonin and Wildlife 
Agent Gilmand J. Landry, captured armed fugi- 
tive Roy Mejia, escaped accused murderer of a 
Berwick mother and her three children, who has 
been since convicted. Cases such as these go to 
show that, in addition to enforcing state fish and 
game laws, game agents also work closely with 
other law enforcement agencies and are subject 
to 24 hour a day call. 

During the last biennium a crack team of un- 
dercover agents, in close cooperation with federal 
agents, delivered a smashing blow to game thieves 
who believed that, they could make a profitable 
business out of the sale of Louisiana game and 
fish. The series of arrests climaxed several 
months of intensive investigation. Both state and 
federal agents participated in the arrests of the 
six violators taken. State agents participating in 
the arrests were Myrle Hebert, Russell Landry 
and Vincent Darby. 

Another facet in the "ever and above" duty 
performed by enforcement agents is seen in the 
rescue work performed by game agents through- 
out the state, whose duties are specifically to en- 




LEONARD NEW 

Chief 

force boating safety laws in our waters, with 
special concern for safety equipment aboard var- 
ious craft. However, on many occasions, too nu- 
merous to be specific, game agents have come to 
the rescue of distressed craft and towed them 
and their craws to safety and have done many 
heroic deeds in time of hurricanes, floods and the 
like. On these occasions game agents have brought 
citizens to safety. A remarkable tribute to per- 
sonnel of the Enforcement Division is that we 
are yet to have one of them ever weigh "over and 
above" duty against the hazards or attempt to 
count extra hours of duty. 

One specific incident was during the recent 
flash floods in and around Baton Rouge where 




WILLIAM GILLESPIE 

Asst. Chief. 



32 



enforcement agents from all over the state were 
called in to evacuate citizens from the inundated 
areas. 

The Enforcement Division operates a large 
fleet of outboard motor boats and nearly all of 
its personnel are equipped with boats, outboard 
motors and trailers and thus are ready to operate 
anywhere in the state. These boats are in touch 
with headquarters at all time by radio. 

Besides the small boats there are four larger 
vessels which can go into any area and operate 
as "base" ships, house and feed personnel. Vessels 




LESMA HEBERT 

Wildlife Agent IV 

Supervisor of Districts 

V and VIII 




now in operation are the Zoric, Tarpon, Pintail 
and the Pelican. 

Besides their regular duties, all agents are sent 
to the basic training school conducted at LSU for 
a two week period. Recently 73 agents finished a 
school conducted by the National Riflemen's As- 
sociation and, after finishing the school, are 
qualified as instructors in gun and rifle use and 
safety. 

A breakdown of activities of the Enforcement 
Division, during the past two years, follows : 



J. L. "SONNY BOY" DeBLIEUX 

Supervisor of Districts I & III 



CASES BY PARISHES 

1966 

Acadia 24 

Allen 37 

Ascension 86 

Assumption 75 

Avoyelles 64 

Beauregard 130 

Bienville 96 

Bossier 18 

Caddo 7 

Calcasieu 112 

Caldwell 34 

Cameron 160 

Catahoula 119 

Claiborne 17 

Concordia 96 

DeSoto 19 

E. Baton Rouge 49 

E. Carroll 10 

E. Feliciana 12 

Evangeline 56 

Franklin 23 

Grant 34 

Iberia 157 

Iberville 424 

Jackson 9 

Jefferson 160 

Jefferson Davis 49 

Lafavette 45 

Lafourche 189 

LaSalle 146 

Lincoln 15 

Livingston 53 

Madison 49 

Morehouse 67 

Natchitoches 97 

Orleans 153 

Ouachita 36 

Plaquemines 118 

Pointe Coupee 207 

Rapides 39 

Red River 9 

Richland 64 

Sabine 20 

St. Bernard 81 

St. Charles 121 

St. Helena 57 

St. James 25 

St. John The Baptist 67 

St. Landry 176 

St. Martin 155 

St. Mary 93 

St. Tammany 451 

Tangipahoa 152 

Tensas 178 

Terrebonne 236 

Union 19 

Vermilion 81 

Vernon 94 

Washington 178 

Webster 7 

W. Baton Rouge 148 

W. Carroll 21 

W. Feliciana 26 

Winn 6 

TOTALS 5,756 



1967 

23 
28 
81 
74 
87 
62 
46 
66 
67 
90 
32 

210 
52 
73 
83 
42 
41 
22 
30 
95 
44 
35 
92 

483 
9 

190 
83 
35 

177 
55 
13 
35 
71 
33 

133 
89 
38 
69 

273 
98 
13 
45 
4 
78 
92 
35 
29 
33 

193 

119 
86 

700 

121 
99 

218 
34 
94 

172 

130 
33 
95 
14 
15 
17 



5,858 



33 



wm 



FINES COLLECTED IN STATE AND FEDERAL COURTS 



1966 



State 



Federa I 



1967 



State 



Federal 



Acadia $ 115.00 $ 

Allen 426.00 

Ascension 798.00 

Assumption 500.00 

Avoyelles 401.50 

Beauregard 1,306.00 

Bienville 1,580.00 

Bossier 410.00 

Caddo 2,300.00 

Calcasieu 550.50 5,920.00 

Caldwell 927.00 

Cameron 1,684.00 

Catahoula 3,303.00 

Claiborne 615.00 

Concordia 2,880.00 

DeSoto 289.00 

East Baton Rouge 1,345.00 

East Carroll 913.00 

East Feliciana 770.00 

Evangeline 180.00 

Franklin 1,452.00 

Grant 1,544.00 

Iberia 15.00 

Iberville 6,145.00 

Jackson 200.00 

Jefferson 

Jefferson Davis 573.00 

Lafayette 707.00 3,230.00 

Lafourche 

LaSalle 1,704.50 

Lincoln 673.00 

Livingston 

Madison 3,034.50 

Morehouse 2,182.50 281.50 

Natchitoches 962.50 

Orleans 10.00 1,295.00 

Ouachita 617.50 1,100.00 

Plaquemine 990.00 

Pointe Coupee 2,775.00 

Rapides 305.00 1,690.00 

Red River 244.50 

Richland 2,350.00 

Sabine 86.00 

St. Bernard 1,733.00 

St. Charles 50.00 

St. Helena 712.50 25.00 

St. James 80.00 

St. John 70.00 

St. Landry 798.00 300.00 

St. Martin 2,315.00 

St. Mary 1,357.50 

St. Tammany 3,100.00 

Tangipahoa 484.00 

Tensas 9,229.50 

Terrebonne 

Union 367.50 

Vermilion 100.00 

Vernon 1,145.00 

Washington 82.00 

Webster 210.00 

West Baton Rouge 1,619.00 

West Carroll 685.00 

West Feliciana 380.00 

Winn 275.00 

TOTALS $69,014.00 $17,486.50 



225.00 

1,214.00 

790.00 

2,117.00 

1.30.00 

575.00 

656.00 

865.00 

271.00 

767.00 

1,009.00 

1,127.00 

1,367.50 

1,839.00 

387.50 

100.00 

1,142.00 

136.00 

592.00 

673.00 

403.50 

100.00 

4,381.00 

306.50 

79.50 

808.00 

275.00 

' 1,130.50 
211.50 
300.00 
1,950.00 
1,077.00 
820.00 
100.00 
710.00 

' 2,418.46 
324.00 

' 1,539.66 

407.56 



212.00 

14.00 

70.00 

1,482.00 

831.00 

296.00 

1,692.50 

63.50 

7,200.00 

' 552.66 
120.00 
672.00 

568.66 

1,955.00 

212.00 

'376'.56 
$49,639.90 



61.00 
3,050.00 
7,100.00 

93.00 



1,720.00 



100.00 



3,152.50 
170.00 



2,435.00 
1,600.00 



2,430.00 



820.00 
250.66 



$22,981.50 



34 



FINES 



1966 



Nolle Pross 310 



Not Guilty 
Decline Prosecution 
Case Dismissed 
Fine Suspended 

Acquitted 

Probation 

Jail 



TYPE OF VIOLATIONS 



20 
53 
74 
60 
3 
22 
29 



16 
15 



17 
12 
10 

29 



1 
37 



23 

29 

29 

43 

153 

196 

6 

121 

67 



Hunting teal w/o license 

Hunting teal w/o federal stamp 

Hunting teal w/o permit 

Overlimit of teal 

Hunting teal illegal hours 

Hunting teal unplugged gun 

Hunting teal closed season 

Hunting teal live decoys 

Hunting teal from running power boat 

Killing snipe closed season 

Hunting doves w/o license 

Hunting doves illegal hours 

Overlimit of doves 

Hunting doves in closed season 

Hunting doves unplugged gun 

Hunting doves over baited area 

Poss. of Grebe 

Hunting ducks with rifle 

Hunting coots w/o license 

Overlimit of coots 

Hunting coots illegal hours 

Hunting coots illegal hours 

Hunting coots unplugged gun 

Hunting coots closed season 

Shooting coots — Powered boat 

Hunting over baited area 

Hunting ducks w/o license 

Hunting ducks unplugged gun 

Hunting ducks w/o federal Stamp .... 
Hunting ducks illegal hours 

Hunting ducks closed season 

Hunting ducks with live decoys 

Overlimit ducks 

Hunting ducks from running boat .... 

No signature on stamp 

Poss. completely dressed birds 

Hunting geese w/o license 

Hunting geese w/o federal stamp .... 

Hunting geese illegal hours 

Hunting geese in closed season 

Over limit of geese 

Aiding and abetting in the sale of ducks 

Hunting ducks from car 

Selling wild ducks 

Trawling w/o license 

Trawling w/o non-resident license 

Trawling in closed season 

Trawling in closed area 

Using over 50' trawl 

Trawling illegal hours 

Illegal butterfly nets 

Blocking passage of fish 

Undersize shrimp 

Improper size mesh 

Selling shrimp no license 

Fishing w/o license 

Selling fish w/o license 

Fishing w/o non-resident license 

Undersize fish 

Undersize crabs 

Using fish traps 

Seine closed area 

Selling & poss. of game fish 

Blocking passage w/seine 

Illegal size mesh 

Untagged hoop nets 

Using illegal tackle 

Shocking fish 

Fishing gill nets — no tags 

Fishing w/o license 1,295 



39 



46 



1 
14 
49 



49 



93 



1 



1967 

258 
22 
55 
95 
51 


10 
18 



3 
5 
9 
18 
23 
4 
3 



1 

31 

22 

8 

22 

12 

3 

4 

4 

4 

10 

9 



5 

28 

9 

8 

8 

30 

90 

119 

2 

38 

13 

6 

1 

1 
2 

"3 

3 

4 

2 

17 

49 

"53 

7 
1 



3 
113 

16 

"69 
1 

4 
57 
57 
17 
11 
13 
29 
25 

6 
1,536 



1966 

Fishing w/o non-resident license 36 

Shocking fish 17 

Selling fish 

Illegal tackle 1 

Undersized fish 

Poss. of telephone devices 

Overlimit of fish 

Contributing to juvenile 

Selling oysters — no license 1 

Poss. crabs in berry stage 

Poss. of Pirranah 

Hunting robins in closed season 

Taking egrets 

Poss. Killdeer 

Disturbing the peace 

Criminal trespass 

Stealing O. B. Motors 

No brake tag 

Simple assault 

Poss. sawed off shotgun 

Hunting on refuge — no permit 

Running through roadblock 

Hunting rabbits w/o license 41 

Hunting rabbits in closed season 80 

Overlimit rabbits illegal 9 

Poss. of rabbits illegal 

Hunting rabbits at night 469 

Hunting squirrel w/o license 20 

Hunting squirrel in closed season .... 91 

Overlimit of squirrel 4 

Poss. of squirrel illegal 

Hunting squirrel at night 

Hunting rabbits — burn grass 

Hunting w/unplugged gun 89 

Hunting on road or hwy 8 

Hunting from vehicle 15 

Hunting in flooded area 4 

Running dogs — with pistol 

Hunting quail in closed season 13 

Hunting quail w/o license 

Overlimit quail 

Hunting on state park 

Hunting deer from boat 

Hunting deer w/o license 29 

Hunting deer w/o big game license .... 12 

Hunting deer in closed season 118 

Hunting deer in closed area 16 

Hunting deer w/unplugged gun 17 

Untagged deer 81 

Hunting deer w/o permit 

Hunting deer on GMA illegal 20 

Hunting deer at night 

Hunting deer w/o dogs — still season 

Poss. of doe deer 1 

Poss. of deer illegal 86 

Hunting deer in flooded area 

Poss. of gun while bow hunting 

Snooting deer off road or hwy 28 

Hunting deer on St. Preserve 

Poss. illegal deer meat 

Hunting with dogs on GMA 

Poss. of ibis 9 

Hunting bear in closed season 8 

Firehunting 2 

Hunting w/o non-resident license 27 

Resisting arrest 18 

Hunting w/o license 227 

Hunting state game pre 

Hunting turkey w/o license 2 

Hunting turkey w/o non-resident license .... 

Hunting turkey in closed season 6 

Hunting turkey — no tag 

Poss. of illegal turkey 

Hunting turkey in closed parish 

Hunting turkey in baited area 

Hunting turkey w/illegal gun 

Hunting turkey with dogs 

Hunting frogs in closed season 38 

Hunting frogs 2 

Illegal gig 3 

Poss. of firearms while f rogging 7 

Selling coon w/o license 3 

Hunting coon w shotgun 14 

Hunting coon w/o dogs 



1967 
29 
2 



3 
3 
1 
2 
1 
2 
51 
2 
1 
8 
6 
1 

3 

5 

1 

1 

1 

53 

25 

6 

9 

653 

26 

65 



3 
40 

11 
1 
2 
5 
5 



15 

7 
100 
11 
11 
50 
17 
40 
SI 

"59 

60 

"2 

55 

2 

4 
4 

"3 
18 
10 

7 

122 

14 

3 

"5 
8 
1 



1 

1 

19 

' '7 
3 

"2 
5 



35 



TYPE OF VIOLATIONS (Continued) 



Hunting alligators in closed season 

Undersized alligators 

Poss. of alligators 

Shipping' alligators — no tag 

Trapping w/o license 

Trapping in closed season 

Buying fur w/o license 

Selling fur w/o license 

Shipping fur w/o license 

Taking at night w/light & gun 

Trapping in closed area 

Unregistered boat 

No numbers on boat 

Expired registration 

No life preserver 

No running lights 

Water skiing w/one operator 

Reckless operation of m/b 

Failing to file report 

Selling rabbits 

Trespassing on refuge with gun . . . 

No camping permit 

Operating hunting club w/o license 

Selling deer 

Poss. of meadow lark 

No fire extinguisher on boat 

Poss. of illegal whiskey 



ma; 
20 

1 



4 

9 

14 



253 

72 



896 
10 
13 



1967 

25 

4 



22 

- 2ii 

75 

77 

861 

23 

31 

7 

1 



2 

37 

5 

"9 
3 
3 
2 



TOTALS 5,756 



5,858 



Below: District Supervisors James Ellis, Vincent 
Purpera, Leroy Seal and Frank Trocchiano. 




JAMES H. ROBERT 

Supervisor of Districts II & IV 




CHARLES VENTRELLA 

Supervisor of Districts VI & VII 




36 




District Supervisors: Jack Stanfield, Harvey Christian, Earl Nugent and Vance Herring. 





ALFRED PRECHAC 

Office Supervisor 



PETER TROCCHIANO 

Office Asst. Supervisor 




Wildlife Agents in the Enforcement Division receiving Bateau boats equipped with 9*4 h.p. motors for patrol. 




Chief Leonard C. New, A. L. Prechac, Jr., Chas. Ventrella, Leroy Seal, with men in District VII during one of 
the field inventory checks. These inspections are made at least twice a year. 



37 



Fur Division 



AT this POINT, Louisiana's fur industry is 
struggling for its very existence. To sum- 
marize the fur activity of this biennium, 
leading up to this disasterous situation, the article 
that appeared in the May-June, 1967, issue of 
the Louisiana, Conservationist covers the begin- 
ning of this two-year decline, the essence of which 
was over-pricing of furs in the field during the 
1965-66 season. That season, trappers received as 
much as $5.00 per pelt for No. 1 Western Louisi- 
ana nutria, and $3.50 per pelt for No. 1 Eastern 
Louisiana nutria. 

The 1967-68 season opened with a complete lack 
of enthusiasm, the market being faced with con- 
siderable carryover from the past two seasons, 
and a number of distress sales during the past 
summer and fall. Buyers, dealers and trappers 
were slow to take out licenses. New York and 
European dealers were more than cautious, being 
faced with our government's policy to curtail 
European trades, and to keep money and industry 
at home. Our latest encouragement in the fur 
industry has all been based on European trade. 
All of this, coupled with the poorest trapping 
conditions possible for the entire month of De- 
cember and the first half of January, has dis- 
couraged the trapper, compelling many to seek 
other employment. 

It is understood that our new stay-at-home 
policy is not just a short term arrangement, but 
will be with us indefinitely. In view of this, the 
only answer is obvious; that is, make every pos- 
sible effort to re-establish the complete wild fur 
industry here in the United States. 

The Fur Division has advocated this for the 
past decade, and much groundwork has been laid 
toward consummating a program of this type dur- 
ing this biennium. Many of the best fur men in 
this country have worked with us here in Louisi- 
ana and offered detailed plans that were never 
so ripe as at the present. 

In studying back through these proposals, we 
can see that any one or all of them would have 
worked; but when things are going reasonably 
well in an industry such as ours, any new pro- 
posal meets with tremendous opposition from 
those that are on the "inside". They are just plain 
scared to "rock their boat"! Now that the boat 
has sunk anyway, we feel that it is time to come 
forth with some "drastic measures", as some 
might consider it. 




TED O'NEIL 

Chief 



PROPOSALS DESIGNED TO 

RE-ESTABLISH THE LOUISIANA 

FUR INDUSTRY 

I. 

In 1954, Sam Singer, owner and operator 
of the Celand Tanning Company of New York, 
and Mr. William Mitchell, Fur Manufacturer of 
New York, came to Louisiana to work with the 
major landowners and the Louisiana Wild Life 
& Fisheries Commission, in organizing and setting 
up a nutria co-op, similar to those operated by the 
mink ranchers. This plan encompassed financing, 
collecting, grading, marketing, dressing, manu- 
facturing and promotion. 

II. 
In 1956, Mr. Motty Eitingon, world renown 
fur promoter, and Mr. Dave Nemorov, manager 
of Russeks Furs, New York, came to Louisiana, 
and worked with the landowners and the Louisi- 
ana Wild Life & Fisheries Commission. These 
men were requested to come here to aid in a 
situation in the nutria market that was even 
much worse than it is today. When they arrived 
on the scene in February, over 200,000 Western 
Louisiana nutria were in the hands of the trap- 
pers, landowners and operators, and the highest 
price offered per pelt was 68^, and then only 
furs taken from certain select areas. A meeting 
was held to arrive at a price suitable to the 
trappers and operators; a price of $1.35 was 
agreed upon. Mr. Eitingon and his associates took 
the entire season's collection of 235,000 pelts 
produced by this organized group. The total state 
production was only 543,000 pelts that season. The 
following is the plan offered by Mr. Eitingon and 
Mr. Nemorov. 



38 



Promotion and Publicity 

A well-rounded campaign hitting every facet, 
the skin merchant, the manufacturer, the retailer 
and of course the consumer. The reviving of in- 
terest in the muskrat through better fashion, bet- 
ter dyeing, dressing and construction. Greater 
promotion and publicity can create a far greater 
acceptance of nutria. Setting a goal of $50,000,000 
volume in furs within the next 10 years. 

RECOMMENDATIONS: For a wide publicity 
and advertising campaign the following is recom- 
mended for the current year: 

1. Romance a story of Louisiana as the greatest 
fur-bearing state in the United States, through 
double spread editorials in Life Magazine, trade 
papers, business magazines, such as Business 
Week, Time and Fortune. 

2. The promotion of "FASHION" in Louisiana 
Nutria. For this purpose we shall order the newest 
creative fashions of fur-lined coats, jackets, capes, 
and sweaters to be made of nutria or lined with 
nutria from the leading designers of the world. 

PARIS 

One model from CHRISTIAN DIOR 
One model from PIERRE BALMAIN 
One model from BALANCIAGO 
One model from DE GEVINCHY 
ROME 

One model from FABIANI 
One model from SIMONETTE 
NEW YORK — Models from 6 leading designers 
in New York. These models and designs will be 
influenced by Russeks, Fifth Avenue, without any 
cost to this fund, whereas the Paris and Rome 
models will cost approximately $1,000 apiece. 

3. THE FASHION Story. The models created 
in Paris and Rome will be duplicated by manu- 
facturers in New York and will be publicized in 
the fashion magazines, such as Vogue, Harpers 
Bazaar, Mademoiselle, etc. A color page advertise- 
ment will be run in both Harpers and Vogue, 
which will insure free editorials and publicity. 

With the foregoing as a foundation, both for 
Louisiana as a fur-bearing state, and the endorse- 
ment of leading designers of the world through 
the creation of new models and through the fash- 
ion magazines presenting this as a new vogue, 
these will insure nation-wide fashion acceptance. 

4. TELEVISION, COLUMNISTS, RADIO, 
FASHION SHOWS. While the budget that is 
recommended cannot possibly pay for the exces- 
sive costs of television or radio shows, the em- 
ployment and cooperation is enlisted from these 
mediums through the public relations of Russeks 
advertising department, and through presents to 
the editors we are enabled to get mention on these 
programs without paying for time or talent. 

5. NEWSPAPERS. This of course is the great- 
est medium to reach the consumer, the manufact- 
urer and other retailers. 

The stores who will be granted monies from 



this fund for the exploitation and advertising of 
Louisiana nutria-lined coats are : 

FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK— 
Russeks — 20 pages 
Bergdorf-Goodman — 2 pages 
Saks Fifth Avenue — 2 pages 

MIDDLE WEST— Marshall Fields— 2 pages 

SOUTHWEST— Neiman Marcus— 2 pages 

WEST COAST— I. Magnin— 2 pages. 

Russeks, Fifth Avenue, is the largest quality 
coat house and have the largest following from 
both the manufacturer and retailer through the 
country who watch their coat promotions and fol- 
low suit. Therefore, if for any reason the appro- 
priation recommended has to be cut down, it is 
preferable to do a consistent job with Russeks 
than a thin and poor job with many. 

The above stores shall run full-page ads that 
are dramatic, compelling and will leave an impres- 
sion, that Louisiana nutria has fashion and quality 
acceptance in fur-lined coats. 

That Russeks shall run a minimum of 20 full- 
page ads or newspaper lineage that shall total, 
including cost of production and overhead, $65,- 

000. Russeks will spend $15,000 of this $65,000. 

Estimate of Cost 

1. Creation of designs by leading 

designers of the world — ..$ 5,000 

2. Fashion magazines . 10,000 

3. Television, Radio and Columnists .... 10,000 

4. Newspaper advertising 

Russeks, Fifth Avenue 50,000 

Saks, Fifth Avenue - _... 20,000 

Bergdorf-Goodman 10,000 

Marshall Fields 5,000 

Neiman Marcus 5,000 

I. Magnin ...._._ _ 5,000 

$120,000 
Motty Eitingon and his interests will pur- 
chase the entire annual production of the better 
quality nutrias and also the possibility of the 
complete crop of every other marketable nutria 
skin annually. This on this condition — "That the 
recommended appropriation of $120,000 for pro- 
motion and publicity be authorized." Without this 
publicity and promotion, furs must eventually dis- 
appear from the face of Louisiana. Mr. Eitingon 
will only commit himself in proportion to the 
amount expended on promotion. This item is dead 
in New York. We feel there is a possibility of 
reviving it. This can only be accomplished through 
a campaign similar to the above recommended. 

It is further recommended that a co-operative 
company be formed consisting of the leading col- 
lectors or dealers of raw nutria pelts. Under the 
leadership of some one to be appointed, this body 
in conjunction and partnership with Motty Eit- 
ingon and his interests shall control the price, 
the policies, the production and the distribution 



39 



■m 



through Motty Eitingon and that no competition 
shall be permitted without the consent of the 
Eitingon interests. The above is not necessarily a 
condition to the consummation of this deal. We 
mention it as an important factor for the future 
protection against inflation and deflation. 

The problem in Louisiana is symbolic of the 
problem facing the Federal Government with the 
farm situation, and just as the Federal Govern- 
ment must save the farmer to insure the economy 
of our country, so is it essential that the State of 
Louisiana make the above investment to insure 
the economy of the State of Louisiana. We sin- 
cerely believe that, we can revive this industry. 
At any rate, we are willing to make a large in- 
vestment in both monies, energies and talents ; but 
we will not do this without the full cooperation by 
the state, the landowners, the collectors and deal- 
ers. 

The Goal 

1. A good living insured wage to the trapper. 

2. A good return to the collector and dealer. 

3. A sound return to the landowner. 

This naturally will increase the revenues to the 
state, which will more than make up even in the 
current year the promotional investment recom- 
mended. 

III. 

In 1959, at the suggestion of Senator Russell 



Long of Louisiana, and his close friend, Senator 
Kefauver of Tennessee, the Louisiana Wild Life 
& Fisheries Commission was called to a meeting 
in Washington. In Senator Long's office, with the 
Ritter Brothers, world renown furriers, the fol- 
lowing plan was set forth by this group : 

Our objective is to develop and create a uni- 
versal appeal for Nutria. In the marshes of Lou- 
isiana, we know there are vast quantities of this 
animal and we feel that the exploitation and 
development of the acceptance for this fur has 
been neglected. Under a program adopted by Rit- 
ter Brothers, the world's outstanding fashion 
house for furs, the proper exploitation can make 
this fur one of the most important throughout 
the entire world. 

Nutria, which is durable, has many advantages 
over beaver, the fur that has been accepted 
throughout the world as one of the most wanted 
furs for many years. Nutria, with a similar tex- 
ture, is much shorter napped and the chamois-like 
texture of the leather, which is soft and pliable, 
lends itself to draping and detailing that can 
make it a favorite fashion for women. 

We have prepared a plan, which if followed, 
should bring this beautiful fur into its own. This 
fur, when handled by someone who has the skill 
to design and create beautiful things, could be- 
come one of the most desirable of all furs. 

The following plan is submitted for advertising, 
publicity and development of Louisiana Nutria 







aalmfSEiS 



Fur Division live trapped and transplanted over 3,500 Western Louisiana muskrats to suitable habitat else- 
where in the state. Most of the 'rats were released in Hurricane Betsy affected marshes of St. Bernard and 
Plaquemines Parishes. Here you see Adam Melerine, land manager for Delacroix Corporation, and his aide, 
Mose, with "Pewee" Gagnoux, trapper with the Fur Division, releasing a cage of live muskrats in the Lake 
Lery marshes. The greater part of nutria transplanting during this biennium has been trapping for fur, 
for weed control, and for research. 



40 



as a major fur and the means of creating a world 
wide demand for same. 

1. The finest quality of nutria pelts should be 
selected for dressing and marketing. 

2. The best colors in this fur should be used 
in natural shades. 

3. Fine quality furs, but in poorer shades, 
should be dyed in the colors that are "the fashion 
of the times". 

4. A name should be registered and stamped 
on every pelt — this to be used in advertising, pub- 
licity, and for the promotion of Louisiana Nutria 
throughout the world. 

5. A wholesale outlet be set up by Ritter 
Brothers for the sale of Louisiana Nutria to the 
trade. 

6. Ritter Brothers, under its nationally famous 
name of "Ritter Originals" will develop a com- 
pletely new line of fashion to be prepared in the 
fall. This line to be designed by Leo Ritter and 
styled for fashion suitable for every part of the 
United States. This fashion shall consist of the 
following: (a) Capes (b) Boleros (c) Jackets 
(d) Coats (e) Fur Liners (for cloth coats) (f) 
Trim (for Fall cloth coats). 

A Marketing group consisting of Ritter experts 
and those designated by the Louisiana Depart- 
ment of Commerce and Industry, shall determine 
the cost of every pelt offered for sale. The price 
is to be determined by (a) quality (b) color (c) 
size. In the sale of Nutria pelts, it is recommended 
that the cost be established by the marketing 
group after dressing. 

The profits over and above the determined cost 
shall be divided by the State of Louisiana and the 
firm set up by "Ritter Brothers". Skins sold to 
Ritter Brothers shall be sold at ten percent over 
this cost. 

Ritter Brothers agrees to set up the following 
organization under a new corporate structure : 

A completely separate floor and showroom for 
the display and sale of Nutria coats and other 
fashions in nutria. 
Approximate Cost of Fixing and 

Decorating this establishment ...$25,000 

Sales Manager 20,000 

Rental, Holmes Protective, Telephone, 

Insurance, Electricity, Incidentals 10,000 

Bookkeeper 3,500 

Model 3,500 

Shipping and Receiving Clerk 5,000 

Additional Sales Personnel 10,000 

Expert Skin Matcher and Assorter 20,000 

Total $97,000 

The above figure, of course, is estimated and 
can be somewhat higher or lower, however com- 
plete organization is necessary for the plan if 
adopted. 

It is further recommended that those profits 
accruing to the State or organization, who is to 
benefit by that share of the profits set aside, 



should accumulate these funds for the continu- 
ation of the program, if adopted as suggested 
above. 

Should there be any deficiency, provision must 
be made for the continuation of this advertising 
campaign, and a minimum budget of $200,000 
per year should be planned for the successive 
years for the follow-up in this campaign. 

The program, at its inception, should provide 
for the expenditure of $250,000 to assure a com- 
prehensive and thorough plan for making Nu- 
tria of Louisiana a household word. This sum of 
money should be spent over the first twelve month 
period, and the following is the detailed plan for 
this expenditure : 

ADVERTISING IN THE UNITED STATES 

No. of Cost. Per Total 

Pages Magazine Circulation Page Cost 

6 Town & Country . 80,011 $1,800 $ 10,800 

6 Vogue 408,468 3,950 23,700 

6 Harper's Bazaar. .384,984 3,800 22,800 

4 New Yorker 421,680 3,000 12,000 

8 Promenade 92,427 823 6,584 

8 Diplomat 47,011 600 4,800 

ADVERTISING IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES 

FRANCE 

3 L'Off iciel 40,000 690. 2,070. 

3 L'Art et al Mode.. 33,000 333.84 1,001.52 

3 French Vogue 35,750 451. 1,353. 

ITALY 

Novita 35,000 239.68 718.04 

3 Bellezza 15,000 226.84 680.52 

GERMANY 

3 Elegante Welt 49,000 728.57 2,185.71 

ENGLAND 

3 Queen 50,443 420. 1,260. 

CANADA 

6 Mayfair 11,705 390. 2,340. 

$ 92,292.79 

The cost of photographic plates, models, 
accessories, props, etc. for twelve fea- 
tures to be used in the above ads (no 
ad to be repeated in any periodical) is 
estimated at $1,800. per picture 21,600.00 

TOTAL MAGAZINE ADVERTISING ..$113,892.79 
Under the Ritter label, Ritter Brothers will 
build "TWO SAMPLE LINES". One shall be the 
sample line for our showroom and shall be pre- 
pared at the expense of Ritter Brothers and paid 
for by them. This will be the line that will be 
shown to buyers visiting New York making their 
subsequent purchases when the season commenses 
in June. 

A duplicate line shall be made for sending 
around the country, to be used in fashion shows, 
television exhibits, showings in stores and other 
means adopted by the public relations division for 
promotion and publicity of Louisiana Nutria. The 
cost of this line to be used for traveling is esti- 
mated at $20,000. The expenses involved in a 
representative travelling and exhibiting this line 
for the above purposes is estimated at $15,000. 

The following organization should be set up by 
the company, who will promote under Ritter 



41 



Brothers supervision the program for Nutria: 

A top public relations firm will be engaged for 
the program when adopted. 
Estimated cost of this public 

relations firm per year $12,000 

Cost of photographic publicity, etc. 15,000 

A fashion show at a luncheon at the 
Plaza Hotel will be tendered to the 
New York Press, United Press, As- 
sociated Press and Fashion editors of 
all fashion magazines, television su- 
pervisors, and all important fashion 
folk, in the New York area. Estimated 
cost including models, music, lun- 
cheon, etc 5,000 

A Press Show for fashion editors who 
visit New York yearly through fash- 
ion week will be tendered a Cham- 
pagne Breakfast during market week 
in July. Estimated cost of fashion 

show, models, breakfast, etc 3,000 

One of the top fashion advertising agencies 
will be engaged for the advertising plan sub- 
mitted above, and a consistent follow-up cam- 
paign in the fashion periodicals, plus day to day 
publicity releases to the national press, stressing 
Louisiana Nutria or that name which will be 
adopted and registered, should bring this fur to 
the fore before long. 

We propose to start our campaign in stores 
throughout the country. The stores listed below 
are Ritter Original stores which we feel certain 
will cooperate in this program. 



Joseph Magnin Co. 


14 


Stores 


Northwest California 


J. W. Robinson Co. 


4 


Stores 


Southern California 


Famous-Barr Co. 


4 


Stores 


in and around 
St. Louis 


Kaufmann Dept. Store 


1 


Store 


Pittsburg, Penn. 


Miller & Paine 


1 


Store 


Lincoln, Nebraska 


J. L. Brandeis Co. 


1 


Store 


Omaha, Nebraska 


May D-F Co. 


2 


Stores 


Denver, Colorado 


Titche Goettinger 


T 


Store 


Dallas, Texas 


Sterling- Linder-Davis 


1 


Store 


Cleveland, Ohio 


Foley Bros. 


1 


Store 


Houston, Texas 


Joske's 


1 


Store 


San Antonio, Texas 


Woolf Bros. 


1 


Store 


Tulsa, Oklahoma 


Woolf Bros. 


1 


Store 


Kansas City, Missouri 


Phil A. Halle, Inc. 


1 


Store 


Memphis, Tennessee 


Morton's Inc. 


1 


S tori- 


Boston, Massachusetts 


Jandel Furs 


1 


Store 


Washington, D.C. 


Jandel Furs 


1 


Store 


Baltimore, Maryland 


Goldwaters 


1 


Store 


Phoenix, Arizona 


B. Sigele Co. 


1 


Store 


Detroit, Michigan 


Chas. A. Stevens & Co. 


1 


Store 


Chicago, Illinois 


Gimbel Brothers 


1 


Store 


Philadelphia, Penn. 


Holt Renfrew Co. Ltd. 


9 


Stores 


Canada 



This constitutes fifty stores that we feel rea- 
sonably sure will commence the promotion of 
Louisiana Nutria under the caption of "Ritter 
Originals" on a cooperative basis, and we will 
propose the following: 

We will distribute to them, based on the size 
of the city and its importance, a total sum in 
all stores equivalent to $50,000. and they, in 
turn, will pledge to spend a similar amount in 
a campaign planned to promote and develop 




The muskrat is definitely on the way back in the 
Gulf Coast Marshes. The entire muskrat industry 
must be rebuilt, as the quantity of pelts are made 
available. 

Louisiana Nutria. This will mean every store 
will find it necessary to make purchases, so that 
they may have coverage when customers visit 
their store. 

(WHERE THE NAME LOUISIANA NU- 
TRIA IS USED, THIS IS TO SIGNIFY THAT 
A NAME BE ADOPTED AND REGISTERED. 
IN EVERY INSTANCE THIS NAME WILL 
BE USED FOR ALL PUBLICITY PROMO- 
TIONS) 

The total sum estimated to this point is 
$233,000. 

It is proposed that Ritter Brothers designate 
some of the most important women of the world 
and present them, through certain contacts, with 
Nutria coats which, in turn, will give us extreme- 
ly valuable publicity. Amongst the clientele of Rit- 
ter Brothers are numbered the foremost women 
of the world, and it is our desire to see some of 
these women wearing Louisiana Nutria coats. 
We propose to do what we can to make this a 
reality and are sure we can succeed. The balance 
of the money left unspent may be applied to this 
purpose. 

IF THIS PLAN IS ADOPTED, WE WOULD 
HAVE TO HAVE EXCLUSIVE RIGHTS TO 
THE SALE OF LOUISIANA NUTRIA FOR A 
PERIOD OF FIVE YEARS PLUS AN OP- 
TIONAL AGREEMENT FOR OUR PRIVILEGE 
TO RENEW OUR AGREEMENT AT THE TER- 
MINATION OF THIS FIVE YEAR PROMO- 
TION. 

All Nutria pelts sent in to the corporation, set 
up by Ritter Brothers, shall be considered on 
consignment until the merchandise is sold. The 
established cost of these goods will be turned over 
to the State Commission of Commerce and Fi- 



42 



nance, or any organization it shall so designate as 
its authority. 

IV. 
In 1962, at the suggestion of the Louisiana 
Wild Life & Fisheries Commission, Mr. Edwin 
Koehler, a New York fur dresser, banker and 
developer of distress furs, particularly "Laskin 
Mouton", studied our problem in the field with 
landowners and operators, and came up with the 
following plan : 

Comprehensive Plan for The Controlled 

Processing, Selection, Promotion and Sale 

of Nutria From The State of Louisiana 

Purpose: 

To conserve and control a natural resource of 
the State of Louisiana and likewise turn a destruc- 
tive liability into a profitable asset. 

To provide stable employment for the 20,000 
trappers in the State. 

To minimize crop damage through controlled 
kill of the nutria under supervision of the State 
Wild Life & Fisheries Commission. 

To bring a new industry to the State and thus 
provide a new source of employment and revenue. 

To publicize the State of Louisiana worldwide. 
Background : 

Those familiar with the growth of nutria popu- 
lation in Louisiana know that this valuable fur- 
bearing animal, which is strictly herbivorous, 
has reached a point where something must be 
done. They have increased so rapidly that they are 
becoming a crop menace, and last year farmers 
suffered severe crop damage. 

In the meantime, because of lack of interest on 
the part of the fur industry and a consequent un- 
stable and depressed raw skin demand, prices paid 
to trappers have declined to a point where it does 
not become worthwhile for the trapper to expend 
effort. This in turn leads to an increase in nutria 
and more crop damage. 

This situation can be cured in one of two ways : 



wholesale planned slaughter of the nutria by State 
agencies, which is destructive, costly and a waste 
of valuable natural resource, or — planned, sys- 
tematic promotional and sales effort to popularize 
the nutria. — Thus increasing the demand for the 
fur and as a direct consequence, the price. 

To grasp the situation from the marketing 
viewpoint one must bear in mind that the fur in- 
dustry is composed of hundreds of small manu- 
facturers of coats, of trimmings, of linings, of 
scarfs, etc., and that they make what the public 
demands. They do not create a demand for a par- 
ticular fur : they make what the retailer tells them 
he wants, who in turn only stocks those items the 
women of America ask for. 

Only twice in recent years has a demand for a 
fur been deliberately created. In both instances 
this was done by the processors, whose main in- 
terest was the particular fur involved. In both 
instances all the promotion and sale effort was 
handled by the single group. In the first in- 
stance mouton was created, named and popular- 
ized by Laskin ; in the second, the Chinchilla As- 
sociation. The vital point was that initially and 
until the fur was in great demand, in each in- 
stance the processor controlled the fur sale. He 
set the prices, selected the furriers who could 
make up the fur into retail items and controlled 
the entire promotional effort. Only in following 
this pattern can success be hoped for. 

It is not possible, in our opinion, to popularize 
a fur if there is no predominant factor in the 
scheme. Numerous small processors, each selling 
at a different price, each promoting according to 
their own lights and financial ability, spell dis- 
aster to an effort such as is envisaged. 

PROCEDURE— With the foregoing in mind, 
the following plan is proposed : 

Processing : 

As we mentioned before, for the initial effort 
and at least for three to five years it is important 
to control the processing of the nutria. Grading 




Only a small percentage of the thousands of state trappers camps have been occupied in recent years. Deterio- 
ration and the complete disappearance of camps are obvious throughout the coastal marshes and swamps. 

43 



standards, quality, values, etc., must be estab- 
lished on a permanent reliable basis so that both 
the public and the furriers themselves can have 
confidence in the article. It is also most important 
to control the main flow of skins to the market. 
Just to process skins and dump them either to the 
wrong furriers or at the wrong time will defeat 
the entire prospect. 

Therefore, as Step No. 1 it is proposed to set us 
a processing plant near the source of supply in 
Louisiana and invite the five largest owners of 
marsh land to join in the venture, both financially 
as well as to restrict the kill on these lands to 
the company. This applies also to State lands, as 
will be shown. 

We have a competent, experienced tanner and 
dyer who would be in charge of the tanning and 
dyeing and who, incidentally, has worked out a 
method of processing which in the opinion of ex- 
perts is as good or better than the European 
methods and can compete pricewise as well. Up 
to now this has not been the case as union scale 
for certain parts of the process were so high as 
to prove prohibitive and most of the skins that 
were sold in this market were processed abroad 
and shipped back, a most unsatisfactory arrange- 
ment and one which of itself strongly inhibits the 
sale potential. 

It is proposed that the raw skins will be col- 
lected at the time of harvest : namely, from No- 
vember to March, stored and processed to meet 
the demand. 

Since, for the first few years at any rate, 
volume demand would probably not start 'til late 
April and then continue heavy 'til July, slacken 
off in August, increase again for September, Oc- 
tober and November, die down in December and 
continue to slacken except for sampling through 
April, the size of the processing plant can be ef- 
fectively controlled. 

We say, for the first few years, because until 
the fur is popular the individual furriers will 
not stock nutria until he has shown his samples 
and actually has orders in hand. 

After careful analysis it has been estimated 
that a plant which could process 300,000 nutria 
but which could be expanded to double this size 
with little additional expense will cost $125,000. 
Sales : 

The principal market for nutria in the form of 
coats, stoles and jackets is in New York City, with 
a small secondary market in Chicago, St. Louis 
and Milwaukee. 

It will be necessary to have an office, show 
room and small warehouse space combined in 
New York, as the New York trade will not pur- 
chase skins until they have examined them. This 
is not true of the Western market, where no ware- 
house is necessary. However, a representative to 
cover this territory is essential, as this is the 
headquarters for most of the men's and children's 



better lined coat manufacturers and they must be 
visited constantly. 

Two salesmen, a good promotional woman to 
visit department stores, a warehouseman and a 
girl are all the personnel needed for the New 
York office. 
Promotion: 

The key to the success of this venture lies in 
promotion. While nutria has all the desirable 
qualities : namely, it is a luxurious fur, supple, 
warm, light and rich, these qualities must be 
forcefully presented to the American woman. 
While, in our estimation, the volume business will 
be done for coat linings, fur coats and jackets 
must be strongly promoted. These are the prestige 
items and not alone must nutria be handled as a 
prestige fur but this is the area in which the 
higher-priced skins must be sold. 

The nutria processed by the company must be 
given a name, must bear the seal of quality and 
bear the official Louisiana Wild Life Commission 
stamp. Women must be taught to ask for our 
nutria just as we made women ask for Laskin 
Mouton. Of course the French couturiers must be 
subsidized to show nutria coats in their fashion 
shows and some of these coats imported by the 
company for style showings here, and of course 
cooperative advertising with the leading style 
stores must be undertaken. Some advertising will 
have to be done in the leading magazines in co- 
operation with the best furriers, but this is not 
too costly. 

Close cooperation with the department store 
fur departments, the better fur shops and the 
chosen manufacturers with advertising, both co- 
operative and alone, and a tie-in with the French 
fashion leaders are all a "must" in this type of 
campaign. The selection of a competent advertis- 
ing agency and a first-rate public relations setup 
are not too hard to come by. The bulk of the ad- 
vertising money must, however, be spent after 
there is a reasonably good stock of prepared skins 
on hand and the markets have been tested. Ex- 
penses must be held in check until returns are in 
the offering. 
Costs: 

The cost of setting up an enterprise as described 
can be broken down into two parts : 

1. Preliminary costs. 

2. Money necessary to finance the going opera- 
tion. 

Preliminary costs: 

It is estimated that $125,000 will be needed for 
plant and equipment with approximately $25,000 
additional for supervision and training expenses. 

Between $15,000 and $25,000 would have to be 
spent for advertising and promotion before this 
could be placed on a pay-as-you-go basis. 
Permanent Financing: 

Since the bulk of the skins must be purchased 



44 



at the time when sales are at their minimum, it is 
obvious that money must be available to pay the 
trappers when they deliver the pelts. Based on a 
300,000 production in the first year or so and also 
based on a payment schedule of $1.00 down pay- 
ment and a percentage rate which would be paid 
after the skins were sold, $300,000 additional 
would have to be available in one or another form. 
Part of this could probably be financed through 
bank loans. As the skins were sold this money 
would then go into accounts receivable. 
Profit: 

The prospects for profit is excellent and should 
show a rapid payback of all advanced funds — 
based on 300,000 skins : 

Estimated cost of raw skins ...$2.00 

Estimated cost of production 1.25 

Estimated cost of sales & office 25 

Estimated cost of advertising 50 

$4.00 

Estimated sales price 5.00 

Estimated profits before tax ....$300,000 
This is without any profit from the operation 
of selling the carcasses to the dog and cat food 
processors, which should yield a minimum of 
$75,000. 
Proposal for raising the required finances: 

1. Contribution from the State of Louisiana in 
the amount of $350,000 — to be used to build the 
processing plant, pay preliminary expenses and 
provide part of working capital. To be secured by 
ownership of the plant, which would be leased 
to the company for $1.00 for the first two years 
and then at a fair rental to be determined upon. 
Also, by a preferred stock issue for the balance 
of the money retirable out of a percentage of 
profits to be set aside as a sinking fund for this 
purpose. This issue to bear 5% interest after the 
second year of operation. 

2. Contribution from the five large landowners 
in the amount of $50,000 each. To be secured by a 
second preferred stock bearing interest at 5% 
after the second year with a sinking fund pro- 
vision for retirement and a percentage of profit 
according to number of nutria taken from their 
land. This applies to State lands as well. 
Method of operation: 

1. Landowners must give first refusal of all 
nutria killed on their land to the company. 

2. Number and location of kill to be under su- 
pervision of Louisiana Wild Life Commission and 
to conform to their designation as well as the 
needs of the company but at no time to exceed 
the allowable. 

3. Company will process, sell and promote 
Louisiana Nutria exclusively. 

4. Board of Directors to consist of twelve men, 
one from each contributing landowner, one from 
State Wild Life Commission and six designated 
by the company. 



5. No officer of the company to draw any 
salary until the company is making money. 

Conclusion 

The foregoing is advanced as a practical meth- 
od of procedure for the processing and sale of 
nutria. The proponants of this idea are willing 
to show their faith by foregoing any remunera- 
tion until the company can afford to pay. They 
are experienced men, well versed in all the facets 
of the business, and all the data presented is 
based on solid knowledge of the business and what 
is required. 

It is not to be inferred that either the state of- 
ficials or representatives of the landowners have 
been approached relative to their participation. 
However, logic and the pressing necessity indi- 
cates that a proposal, at least approximately this 
one, would meet with favor. 

MARSH STUDIES 

The Fur Division worked closely with the St. 
Bernard and Plaquemines Parish officials on a 
project of introducing Mississippi River water 
into sub-delta marshes. The following report cov- 
ers the views of this division relative to such 
projects: 

Physiography and History of the Area 

There are three distinct types of marsh habitat 
found within Louisiana's 4,000,000 acres of 
coastal marsh, the active Mississippi Delta, the 
inactive ancient sub-delta, and the prairie-type 
marshes of Southwestern Louisiana. All of the 
marshes in St. Bernard and the marsh area lo- 
cated in upper Plaquemines Parish fall within 
the sub-delta type. 

Geologically speaking, the foundation of these 
marshes were deposited by the Mississippi River 
some 2,000 to 3,000 years ago, at which time 
Bayou Terre aux Boeufs and River aux Chenes 
were active distributaries of the Mississippi River. 
Since the silting-up and abandonment of these 
active distributaries and the construction of man 
made protection levees along the present day 
channel of the Mississippi River, these sub-delta 
marshes have not been subjected to annual de- 
posits of river silt and sands, which were re- 
sponsible for the very foundation of this entire 
area. Since the period of man made levees along 
the river, the hard pan, or original sand de- 
posits underlying this area, have continued to 
subside at varying rates. The St. Bernard sub- 
delta has subsided in the past 1,000 to 1,200 
years at the rate of one to two feet per century. 
The existence of the marsh areas of St. Bernard 
and upper Plaquemines Parishes are entirely de- 
pendent upon the peaty materials created by the 
marsh vegetation, and marine deposits brought 
in by occasional storms. This peaty material 



45 



ranges in depth from one foot to 18 inches near 
the Big Mar area on the North, and gradually 
slopes to a depth of 25 to 30 feet Southeast mov- 
ing toward Nigger Lake (or Black Bay). 

Climatical Data 

Average annual precipitation — 60 inches 
Average number of days without killing frost 

—310 
Average July temperature — 82° 
Average January temperature — 54° 

Vegetation of the Area 

Primarily brackish marsh species — three- 
corner-grass (Seirpus olneyi), wiregrass (Spar- 
tina patens), and traces of hogcane (Spartina 
cynosuroides) , cattail (Typha spp.) , yellow cut- 
grass (Zizaniopsis miliacea) , along the fresher 
clay pan spots. The outer or gulfward fringes of 
these marshes gives way to a more broken overly 
drained saline habitat subject to daily tide fluc- 
tuation and marine silts, dominated by Black 
rush (Juncus romerianus) , salt grass (Distichilis 
spicata) and Oyster grass (Spartina alterniflora) . 

Salinities 

At present average salinities range from slight- 
ly brackish near the inside areas to strong brack- 
ish, near 60% sea-water on the outer edges. 
Recent Vegetative History of the Immediate 
Marshes to be Affected by Mississippi River 
Water Introduction 

Of the 4,000,000 acres of coastal marshes in 
Louisiana, only 1,000,000 acres is capable of sup- 
porting three-corner grass (Seirpus olenyi) the 
type vegetation known to be responsible for the 
production of 80 ft of our entire muskrat crop. A 
great deal of studying has been made to determine 
more exactly the delicate balance of edaphic* con- 
ditions necessary to produce this type of vegeta- 
tion on a large scale. 

Three-corner-grass (olneyi) is a subdominate 
species that will occupy only the marsh area ad- 
jacent to or related to coastal estuaries serving as 
a mixing bowl, tending to produce brackish water 
reasonably absent of marine deposits. 

Olneyi is a poor competitor and cannot compete 
with the more tolerant and versatile species of 
vegetation, particularly wiregrass (patens) which 
occupies the same set of edaphic conditions as 
does olneyi. Patens or wiregrass has a greater 
tolerance to salinity, soil makeup and minus ( — ) 
water levels than does (Olneyi). 



*edaphic: commonly used by students of Ecology, mean- 
ing those conditions of soil, water, temperature, mineral, 
etc., which compose the immediate vicinity environment. 
Under a given set of such conditions, only certain ac- 
climated plants will survive. When the conditions are 
changed for any reason, new or different plant com- 
munities result. 



Annual burning is necessary in order to prevent 
wiregrass or other species from crowding out 
three-corner-grass. 

Olneyi grows year round, as does wiregrass 
(patens). The only advantage that a manager has 
in establishing stands of three-corner is that 
olneyi's deeper system of viable roots give it a 
decided advantage in starting new growth im- 
mediately following proper burns, especially so 
when plus ( -\- ) water level conditions occur short- 
ly after burning. Under this treatment, the joint 
nodes and shallow root systems of wiregrass is 
put at a distinct disadvantage. 

In the past proper marsh burning and the na- 
tural water conditions have made this area the 
most productive Muskrat area known. 

Since 1940, this vast band of three-corner-grass 
located in the Lake Lery and Delacroix Island 
area has moved or been shoved Northward or 
rather North Eastward towards the Mississippi 
River, but still tending to encompass approxi- 
mately the same total acreage. Losses to the more 
salt tolerant and valueless vegetation have been 
on the outer or Southern edges where natural 
erosion of the peaty marshes have been great. 
This erosion has allowed salinities and marine de- 
posits to encroach, forcing the suitable three- 
corner-grass producing conditions all the way to 
the extremities of the area, at this point and with- 
out man made aid, all that may be expected is 
stepped-up loss of this valuable type of Muskrat 
habitat. 

Recommendations 

It is recommended that Mississippi River water 
be siphoned and pumped into the marshes. Past 
catch records indicate that the rich siltladen 
waters of the Mississippi greatly enhanced the 
productivity of these marshes. After the crevasse 
at Caernarvon in 1922, Muskrat catches leaped 
to 2,430,792 by the 1926-27 season. Also after the 
man made crevasse in 1927, Muskrat populations 
were virtually wiped out by River flood waters, 
but by 1930-31, the catch was up to 1,110,453. 
Presently as a result of the comparatively small 
50 inch siphon operated at Point a la Hache, a 
sizeable Muskrat population was developing in the 
immediate vicinity prior to Hurricane "Betsy". 

Additional Siphons Needed 

The two additional siphons now in the planning 
stage, for location at Caernarvon, coupled with 
the already existing Plaquemines Parish siphons 
should be ample as far as Muskrats manage- 
ment is concerned. 

Big Mar should be used as a holding pit. The 
levees surrounding Big Mar should be repaired 
and raised with a control gate located at the 
Southeast corner allowing the aerated water to be 
released into Bayou Mandeville leading into Lake 
Lery. This should produce ample aeration even 



46 



during periods of low river stage, assuring pro- 
tection from possible agricultural pesticides and 
river pollution. These precautionary measures 
may not be as necessary after the City of New 
Orleans has completed the present sewerage dis- 
posal plant. 

After the first year of operation, a close annual 
check of marsh condition should be made to evalu- 
ate changes in marsh condition. 

Expected Results 

1. Besides enriching and cutting down the 
salinities of the marshes, the river silts carried 
may hedge against the natural subsidence of the 
area and tend to prevent increasing erosion of 
the loosely connected peat soils. 

2. The back-log of fresh water will act to ex- 
tend the three-corner-grass belt Southerly on a 
broad front, greatly increasing the total acreage 
of Muskrat producing habitat in St. Bernard and 
Plaquemines Parishes. 

3. Such an operation may be used as a pilot 
project for a study in the rejuvination of the 
other hopelessly eroding and drowned sub-delta 
marshes of Southeast Louisiana. 

LOUISIANA COMPARATIVE FUR TAKE 
1965-66 AND 1966-67 SEASON 

The following figures are taken from the sever- 
ance tax records on furs trapped in Louisiana 
and shipped out of the state. The 65.3 c /< increase 
in the muskrat take, over the 1965-66 season, in 
spite of a 60^ per pelt drop in price, is a pretty 
definite indicator that the muskrat is on the way 
back in the Gulf Coast Marshes. 

FUR DRESSING AND PROCESSING 

The wild fur trade, not only in Louisiana but 
world-wide, has had a rough go of it for the past 
fifteen years. Mutation or ranch mink has dom- 
inated the situation, especially here in America, 
and somewhat in Europe. The type furs that we 
produce in Louisiana have heretofore found a 



market only in European countries, where they 
must be sold on the basis of a much reduced 
monetary standard ; this fact, plus the additional 
cost of transportation, duties, etc., keeps the cost 
of the raw fur down, in this case the trappers' 
share. 

Our basic salvation is to re-establish the wild 
fur trade here in America and bring the entire 
operation as close to the source of production as 
possible, for instance Louisiana. One vital link 
now missing in bringing the wild fur industry 
back to America has been the lack of dressing of 
furs locally in the United States or in Louisiana. 
Much planning and groundwork has been laid by 
the Fur Division, working in conjunction with 
the Economic Development Specialists of the De- 
partment of Commerce and Industry to accom- 
plish such a project. This state agency has located 
firms that are definitely interested in locating 
here in Louisiana for that purpose. With proper 
promotional programs, Louisiana will hardly pro- 
duce enough furs to supply the market here at 
home, where our monetary equivalent will at least 
be on the same basis, plus the elimination of great 
transportation and handling costs. Under the 
present setup all the squeeze comes back on the 
trapper. 

In an effort to test and reassure ourselves that 
nutria and other Louisiana pelts should and could 
be handled to a much greater advantage locally, 
a pilot project was set up with a New York manu- 
facturer who, for the past two years, has manu- 
factured items from Louisiana nutria, to be pro- 
moted and sold locally. The project store in New 
Orleans has been Kreegers, and two stores in 
Houston, Furlan and Spitzer Furs, the latter 
leaning more towards sportswear. Also, some 
work has been done with Boswell Foy and As- 
sociates, Interior Decorators, of Midland, Texas, 
in designing decorative items of nutria and other 
Louisiana furs. There is ample and conclusive evi- 
dence from these experiments that, with proper 
promotion and handling, there will be little need 
for distress fur prices ; and European outlets will 
not be a necessity, as they are today. 



Season 



MEAT PRODUCTION 

Nutria 



Raccoon 



Opossum 



1966-67 


10,000,000 


230,000 
200,000 


20,000 


1965-66 


9,000,000 


30,000 


Increase 


1,000,000 


30,000 








10,000 



'A Increase 

'/( Decrease 



11.1 15.0 

LOUISIANA FUR PRODUCTION 



33.3 



Season 



Muskrat 



Nutria 



Opossum Raccoon Mink 



Otto- 



Fox Lynx Skunk 



Ci vat 
Cat Beaver 



1966-1967 
1965-1966 ... 


535,916 
...324,204 


1,306,126 
1,257,385 


6,553 
7,137 


83,876 
78,348 


62,150 
28,216 


4,100 
3,588 


313 

264 


5 
13 


260 
161 


25 
30 


16 
14 




. ,211,712 


48,741 


584 


5,520 


33,934 


512 


49 


'8 


99 


5 


2 


% Increase . 
% Decrease . . 


65.3 


38.7 


8.2 


7.1 


120.3 


14.3 


18.6 


61.5 


61.5 


16.7 


14.3 



47 



MHM 



Fish and Game 
Division 



Wildlife management is a relatively new 
branch of professional science. It is a 
complex field involving many other phases 
of scientific activity such as biology, botany, 
forestry, entomology, agriculture, water conserva- 
tion, law enforcement, veterinary medicine and 
range management to name a few. It also calls 
upon the skills of statisticians, engineers, chem- 
ists, physicists and business administrators. 

Basically, wildlife management attempts to con- 
trol populations of wild animals for the benefit 
of society. Wildlife management may be defined 
as the act of making land and water produce sus- 
tained annual crops of wild game and fish for 
recreational, economical and aesthetic values. 

Through research the Fish and Game Division 
is working toward a better wildlife program with- 
in our State. Personnel of this Division are striv- 
ing to give the sportsman more for his investment 
in game, fish, outdoor recreation of all types and 
the aesthetic values of forests, fields, streams, 
lakes and marshes. 

Louisiana is fortunate in having some of the 
best and most recognized biologists in the Nation 
with our Department. These biologists have been 
the forward leaders in exotic wildlife work, drugs 
for wildlife, squirrel, deer and fisheries, both 
commercial and sport. The scientific regulation of 
wildlife by trained biologists is a new and im- 
portant part of conservation. 

Fisheries biologists in our State have con- 
ducted outstanding research on native commercial 




as well as sport species. They are also working 
with exotics such as tilapia, striped bass and 
walleye. The Fisheries Section has expanded its 
research on crayfish and catfish and plans are to 
increase these studies even more during the next 
two years. Presently, we are not able to employ 
qualified fisheries personnel. 

During this period a new section was created 
under the Fish and Game Division known as the 
Bureau of Outdoor Recreation Section. Functions 
of this section will be to construct boat ramps 
and camping sites and coordinate land purchases 
and other phases of outdoor recreation compatible 
with hunting and fishing. 

Much expansion has been accomplished in the 
physical plant of this Division. New district of- 
fices are being constructed in Monroe, Lake 
Charles and Baton Rouge. The District V office 
headquarters which has been in DeRidder since 
1953 will be moved to Lake Charles. 

Two new areas were purchased for public use. 
These are the Spring Bayou Wildlife Management 
Area in Avoyelles Parish and the Red River Wild- 
life Management Area in Concordia Parish. Two 
new areas were leased for public use, the Peason 
Ridge Wildlife Management Area and the Cities 
Service Wildlife Management Area. 

Division personnel are striving at all times to 
locate additional land to lease and also purchase 
when funds are available. This is one of the most 
important phases of our operation as these State- 
owned or leased areas are now the only places that 
many of our sportsmen have to hunt or fish. In 
the future as more land is posted or cleared for 
agricultural use, suburban use, highway construc- 
tion and other projects necessary for the develop- 
ment of a state with the industrial and population 
growth of Louisiana, such areas will be all that 
our sportsmen will have. 

More emphasis should be placed on land and 




JOE L. HERRING 

Chief 



KENNETH C. SMITH 

Assistant Chief 



48 



water area purchases. Many of our sportsmen 
have not realized the seriousness of losing our 
outdoor areas. Louisiana sportsmen have been 
fortunate in having plenty of areas on which to 
hunt and fish, however, these areas are gradually 
decreasing. At many of our wildlife meetings 
sportsmen have expressed concern with present 
seasons and bag limits, however, without a place 
to hunt or fish seasons and bag limits are im- 
material. If we have areas to hunt and fish on 
then our seasons and bag limits will take care of 
themselves. All sportsmen and outdoor recreation 
enthusiasts must unite and get behind the present 
land acquisition program of the Louisiana Wild 
Life and Fisheries Commission and assist in mak- 
ing funds available for additional purchases. 

Hunting and fishing laws are a vital tool of 
wildlife management. If used properly, they can 
do much to help balance wild populations. No law, 
however, is any better than its enforcement or 
any stronger than its public acceptance. 

Louisiana biologists have represented the 
sportsmen of our State well in keeping our migra- 
tory species seasons such as those concerning 
doves and waterfowl. There has been a move on 
to restrict the dove season, however, with data 
that biologists from our State have collected over 
the past 20 years Louisiana has been able to main- 
tain her status as a good dove hunting state with 
a good season. 

As the land area decreases we will have to pro- 
duce more wildlife on a smaller area. In many 
cases this can now be accomplished, but good 
management practices are not always acceptable 
to the public. The hunting of doe deer is a good 
example. With the Commission Education Pro- 
gram many of these obstacles will eventually be 
problems of the past. 

The Education Section, a very important phase 
of Commission work, has been placed under the 
Fish and Game Division. During the past five 
year period this section has published 100 edu- 
cational bulletins, 12 Master Theses and 36 leaf- 
lets for educational purposes. This section works 
primarily in the schools of our State, but is very 
active in presenting programs on the wildlife re- 
sources of our State to civic clubs, church groups, 
sportsmen's clubs and other organizations. 

Often overlooked is the importance of the 
Noxious Weed Section of the Fish and Game Di- 
vision. Without this section the majority of our 
lakes and waterways would not be passable in a 
two year period. Water hyacinths are one of our 
fastest growing aquatics and can block off a 
stream for fishing, hunting or boating within one 
growing season. 

As one reviews the contents of this Division re- 
port covering the past two years he can see the 
progress that has been made in outdoor rec- 
reation, fish and game management, predator 
control work and the many other phases of the 



Fish and Game Division. Activities have better 
than tripled during the past six years. 

During this biennium the longest archery sea- 
son this century was made available to the sports- 
men. Archery affords many days afield for the 
sportsman and has little affect on our wildlife 
populations. 

BUREAU OF OUTDOOR RECREATION 

What BOR is all about . . . 

During the 1950's, the growing demand for the 
outdoors and the sharpening competition for rec- 
reation resources became matters of increased 
concern. In 1958 Congress recognized a need for 
a nationwide study of these problems and es- 
tablished the Outdoor Recreation Resources Re- 
view Commission (ORRRC). Congress directed 




DEWEY W. WILLS 

Coordinator 

ORRRC to survey the outdoor recreation needs of 
the American people over the next forty years and 
to recommend action to meet these needs. 

ORRRC took inventory of the nation's supply 
of outdoor recreation areas . . . including parks, 
forests and fishing and hunting areas. It ques- 
tioned 16,000 persons to learn what Americans do 
for recreation and what they are likely to do in 




Public boat launching ramp and parking area con- 
structed bv the Commission on Caddo Lake. 



49 



the future. It estimated recreation demands 
through the year 2000, and made more than fifty 
recommendations intended to assure that the 
benefits of outdoor recreation would be available 
to all Americans, now and in the future. 

In 1964, in response to a major ORRRC recom- 
mendation, Congress authorized a twenty-five 
year program of federal grants-in-aid for state 
and local outdoor recreation planning, land ac- 
quisition and development projects. 

The Land and Water Conservation Fund Pro- 
gram was established under Public Law 88-578 
(75 Stat. 897) in 1964. On January 1, 1965, this 
program became effective and is administered by 
the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, Department of 
Interior, Washington, D.C. 

The Land and Conservation Fund derives reve- 
nue from (1) admissions and user fees at federal 
recreation areas which meet certain qualifica- 
tions; (2) net proceeds from the sale of surplus 
federal real property; and (3) existing federal 
tax on motorboat fuels. Normally, sixty percent 
of the fund is available to the states, on a 50-50 
matching basis, to develop plans to meet outdoor 
recreation needs and to acquire and develop the 
necessary land and water areas. A comprehensive 
statewide outdoor recreation plan prepared by 
the state is a prerequisite to receiving grants for 
acquisitions or development. States may transfer 
to their political subdivisions and to other non- 
federal public agencies for approved projects. To 
be eligible for assistance, proposed projects must 
be in accord with the state plan and meet all 
other requirements of the act. 

The sixty percent of the Land and Water Con- 
servation Fund normally available to the states 
is apportioned as follows: (1) Two-fifths, divided 
equally among the states, and (2) Three-fifths 
apportioned among the states according to need. 
The Secretary of the Interior shall determine 
needs under terms set in the act. 

The apportionment to the State of Louisiana 
from the Land and Water Conservation Fund 
Act averages approximately one and one-quarter 
million dollars annually. 

Also, to be eligible to receive these funds each 
state must have a state agency appointed by the 
Governor that has the authority to represent and 
act for the state in administering funds paid un- 
der the Act for approved projects. 

On July 1, 1965, by authority of Act 128 of the 
Louisiana Legislature, the State Parks and Rec- 
reation Commission was given the responsibility 
of administering the apportionment to Louisiana 
of the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act. 

As stated previously, a prerequisite to eligi- 
bility to receive matching grants for acquisition 
and development projects was a comprehensive 
statewide outdoor recreational plan. In accord 
with criteria outlined by the federal government, 
the plan took into account all outdoor recreation 
resources and programs within the state. 



The plan expressed the present supply of out- 
door recreational enterprises in seventeen dif- 
ferent activities, present and future demand, 
present and future needs, and a realistic action 
program for meeting these needs. The Louisiana 
comprehensive outdoor recreation plan was ac- 
cepted and approved by the Department of In- 
terior on October 10, 1965. 

A Louisiana Recreational Advisory Council was 
set up of the same Act (Act 128) that appointed 
the State Parks and Recreation Commission the 
official agency for handling funds available un- 
der the Land and Water Conservation Fund Pro- 
gram. This council is composed of the directors of 
ten state agencies whose functions involve some 
facets of recreation. The Act also provides for 
two members-at-large, one of which must be a 
recreational specialist and the other must be in 
the field of landscape architecture. 

Among other responsibilities, the Louisiana 
Recreational Advisory Council is authorized and 
directed to supervise the preparation, mainte- 
nance and upgrading of a comprehensive, long 
range statewide outdoor recreation plan in order 
to determine and meet the needs of the State of 
Louisiana for outdoor recreation. 

In May, 1967, the Louisiana Wild Life and 
Fisheries Commission appointed a Bureau of Out- 
door Recreation Coordinator to administer the 
Commission's recreational projects under the 
Land and Water Conservation Fund Program. 

Following is a list of the BOR projects that 
the Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Commis- 
sion has either received or has applied for match- 
ing funds from the Land and Water Conservation 
Fund. 

PROJECTS AND FEDERAL FUNDS RECEIVED 

1. Spring- Bayou Wildlife Management Area 
(Acquisition) $411,898.10 

2. Bogalusa Boat Ramp (Acquisition) $ 785.10 

PROJECTS IN PIPE LINES 

1. Red River Wildlife Management Area 
(Acquisition) $400,400.00 

2. Lake Bistineau Boat Ramp (Development) .$ 10,350.00 

3. Spring Bayou Additions (Acquisition) $ 1,475.00 

4. Saline Wildl'fe Management Area Camping 

Area (Development) $ 11,310.00 

5. Davis Lake Boat Ramp (Development) ....$ 10,100.00 
G. Long Lake Boat Ramp (Davelopment) ....$ 10,100.00 

PROJECTS PROGRAMMED FOR NEAR FUTURE 

1. Mermentau River Boat Ramp 

2. Spring Bayou Boat Ramp 

3. Delcambre Boat Ramp 

4. Iberia Boat Ramp 

5. Alexandria Boat Ramp 

6. Sabine Lake Boat Ramp 

7. Lake Bisteneau Boat Ramp 

8. Black River Boat Ramp Site (Acquisition) 

9. Wadill Recreation Area 

(A) Skeets and Archery Range 

(B) Camping and picnic Area 

(C) Picnic Sheds for Group Picnics 



50 



In addition to coordinating the above projects, 
the BOR Coordinator is on the work group com- 
mittee for the Red River Basin Study. The present 
and future needs and problems of outdoor rec- 
reation in the Red River Basin is a comprehensive 
study of all resources in the area. The Coordinator 
will continue to participate on the work group 
committee on this planning project. 

Among other duties of this office is the han- 
dling of the boat ramp program. To date the Lou- 
isiana Wild Life and Fisheries Commission has 
constructed forty-one (41) boat ramps through- 
out the state. The majority of these ramps were 
built under the accelerated public works program. 
The Commission has plans to continue the boat 
ramp program and many other ramps are planned 
for the future. 

The Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Com- 
mission's Bureau of Outdoor Recreation Program 
will continue to move forward to acquire and 
develop needed outdoor recreation facilities to 
meet the ever increasing demands. 



Education 
Section 



The Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Com- 
mission is charged with the responsibility of man- 
aging, protecting and conserving the wildlife 
resources of the State of Louisiana. Tremendous 
population increases, shorter work weeks result- 
ing in more leisure time for outdoor recreation, 
and diminishing wildlife habitat each makes this 
job more difficult. Wildlife management is no 
longer a hit and miss proposition. It is based on 




The ramp at Franklinton on Bogue Chitto shows 
silting. Boat ramps are checked and maintained for 
public use. 




ALVIN M. CARVER 

Supervisor 




A reptile display is being presented showing the rattlesnake, one of four poisonous snakes found in Louisiana. 

51 



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sound scientific research. In many cases today, 
the limiting factor is not lack of knowledge con- 
cerning these various resources, but public ac- 
ceptance of sound management practices. 

The cooperation of all of our citizens is vital to 
the success of our programs, and the Education 
Section has the responsibility of securing this 
cooperation. A program is no better than it is sold 
and accepted by the people it is designed to serve. 
Our Wildlife Instructors must "sell" the activities, 
programs and ambitions of the various divisions 
of the Wildlife Commission. Our work is aimed 
particularly at the youth — the future leaders of 
our state. 

To be successful, each Wildlife Instructor has to 
be thoroughly informed of all the activities, proj- 
ects and wildlife regulations of the Commission. 
Each instructor is equipped with motion picture 
and slide projections, film, slides, wildlife publi- 
cations, mounted wildlife specimens, and other 
visual aids. Also, he is often assisted by a special- 
ist from some other division of the Commission. 

Wildlife programs are presented at elementary 
and high schools, colleges, sportsmen's clubs, civic 
and garden clubs, church groups, and on radio 
and television stations. In the past two years an 
average of 250 wildlife programs were presented 
to some 8,000 students each month during the 
school year. About the same number of programs 
were presented to Scouts, 4-H Clubs, and church 
groups during the summer months. In addition, 
three accredited teachers' workshops were pre- 
sented in cooperation with the State Department 
of Education. These workshops were directed to 
in-service and pre-service teachers, bringing them 
up to date on the latest techniques of scientific 
management. 

Another increasingly important phase of our 
work is the erecting and manning of some thirty 
(30) wildlife displays each year at fairs and fes- 
tivals over the state. Wildlife scenes showing the 
beauty as well as the economic value of our fish 
and wildlife resources are viewed by hundreds of 
thousands of our citizens. 

The Education Section Library, located in Old 
Peabody Hall, Capitol Station, Baton Rouge, Lou- 
isiana, makes available fish and wildlife booklets 
and color and sound movies to schools, teachers, 
libraries, or other interested parties. The free 
booklets are available in limited numbers upon 
request. New booklets published during 1966 and 
1967 are as follows : 

#95— Catfish by the Acre 

#96— More about Crawfish 

#97— Predators 

#98 — Channel Catfish Farming in Louisiana 

#99— A Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of 

Louisiana 
We receive through the Library and the Dis- 
trict offices approximately 5,000 request for pub- 
lications each year (3,400 at the library alone in 
1967). In the library we also have 79 different 



sound movie film titles about fish and wildlife 
resources, most of which are in color, that are 
available to our Instructors, schools, or other in- 
terested parties. The films are loaned without 
charge, the only cost being the return postage 
which must be paid by the person using the film. 
In 1967, 1,048 film loans were made. The follow- 
ing are new films that were added to our library 
during 1966 and 1967 : 

Community Lake 

Family Life of Birds (The) 

Know your Ducks 

Limnology 

Lost Hunter 

Marine Biologist 

Nature's Choice 

Place to Live (A) 

Prescribed Buring in the South 

Science of the Sea 

Sea (The) 

Teaching Gun Safety in Public Schools 

Techniques of Drownproofing 

Water 

Wings from the North 

Requests for information, wildlife programs, or 
wildlife exhibits should be directed to our District 
offices at Minden, Monroe, Alexandria, Lake 
Charles, Ferriday, Opelousas, Baton Rouge, and 
New Orleans, or you may contact the Wildlife 




A portion of the wildlife films made available 
through the film library of the Louisiana Wild 
Life and Fisheries Commission. 



52 



Instructors directly at the following addresses : 
Ben Brown, Route 2, Box 415-A, Lafayette, 

Louisiana 70501 
Harry R. Cook, Post Office Box 4004, Ouachita 

Station, Monroe, Louisiana 71201 
J. P. Culpepper, Post Office Box 471, 106 Mon- 
roe Street, Mansfield, Louisiana 71052 
Paul Jackson, 416 11th Street, Lake Charles, 

Louisiana 70601 
Vincent Pizzolato, 2110 Highway 1 South, Cot- 
tage Courts, Plaquemine, Louisiana 70764 
Huey P. Sanders, Post Office Box 300-A, Pride, 

Louisiana 70770 
Joe F. Tomme, Post Office Box 92, Ringgold, 

Louisiana 71068 
To obtain the cooperation, help and understand- 
ing of the public, we in the Education Section 
must always be trying to improve our techniques 
of getting the aims and ambitions of the Com- 
mission across to the maximum number of people. 

LOUISIANA FIREARMS 
AND HUNTER SAFETY PROGRAM 

BEN R. BROWN 

Wildlife Instructor 

Sportsmen in Louisiana have long been aware 
of the need for hunter safety training for all hunt- 
ers in our state. 

The new Louisiana Firearms and Hunter Safe- 
ty Program sponsored by the Louisiana Wild Life 
& Fisheries Commission with the guidance, as- 
sistance and endorsement of the National Rifle 
Association of America, is the culmination of the 



efforts of those who recognize the value and im- 
portance of a program of this type in Louisiana. 

This new program is designed for and directed 
to the young or beginning hunter and stresses 
safe handling of firearms in the home and in 
transit, as well as in the hunting areas. Courtesy, 
sportsmanship, hunter-landowner relationships, 
and wildlife management are interwoven and 
stressed throughout the instruction. Older, more 
experienced hunters are encouraged to attend and 
participate in the training and are invited to be- 
come instructors if they are interested. 

National statistics show hunting to be one of 
the safest sports. According to the National Safe- 
ty Council Report (1966), there were only 700 
fatal hunting accidents among the more than 
14,350,000 licensed hunters. Firearms accidents, 
whether in the home, in transit, or in the field, 
numbered 2,600 or 2.3% of the total accidental 
fatalities in 1966. Accidental deaths involving 
firearms trailed motor vehicle fatalities (47%), 
fatal falls (17.7%), fatalities involving fires 
(7%), and drownings (6%) in the 1966 accident 
picture. These figures serve only to show us that 
if a program of education can substantially reduce 
the number of hunting accidents in Louisiana, the 
trouble and expense involved in instigating and 
maintaining such a program will be worthwhile. 

The Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Com- 
mission is joining the Uniform Hunter Casualty 
Report division of the National Rifle Association 
of America, in order to have a clearer picture of 
the hunting accident situation in our state. Com- 
mission personnel in the enforcement division will 
investigate every hunting accident and send in a 




During the Monroe Gun Clinic, instructions are also given in archery. Here a group of youngsters are learn- 
ing the proper handling of archery equipment. 

53 



^H^^V^BISOTi 



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comprehensive report which will be kept on file 
permanently. A copy of this report will be for- 
warded to N.R.A. headquarters. 

Hunters in the 0-19 age bracket purchase less 
than 22% of the hunting licenses, yet this group 
is involved in almost 65 f /( of the hunting acci- 
dents. It is natural that a young hunter who has 
the proper knowledge, skill and attitude, will be 
a more pleasant companion for adults who ac- 
company them on hunting trips. Some states with 
a high percentage of hunting licenses sold each 
year, and a state-wide hunter safety program 
have had years without any hunting accidents oc- 
curing at all. These same states had hunting ac- 
cidents numbering in the hundreds and in some 
cases in the thousands before the hunter safety 
program was in effect. 

The Louisiana Firearms and Hunter Safety 
Program was conceived when the Louisiana Wild 
Life and Fisheries Commission met on February 
28, 1967. On that date, the board reviewed the 
possibilities of hunter safety training and the ex- 
periences of other states, after which they ap- 
proved a similar program for Louisiana. The 
Commission's Enforcement division and Educa- 
tion section have handled the bulk of the responsi- 
bilities in the initial phases of the program. When 
it was decided that Louisiana would instigate, 
sponsor and maintain a state-wide hunter safety 
program, the National Rifle Association of Ameri- 
ca was contacted as well as several states who 
already have their programs underway. On Au- 
gust 21, 1967 personnel from the Enforcement 
and Fish and Game divisions and the Education 
section met in Baton Rouge with an employee of 
the N.R.A. The purpose of this meeting was to 
learn the responsibilities of the state, to set up 
policies regarding the program, and to establish 
guidelines which the program will follow. It was 
learned that there were approximately 250 N.R.A. 



Hunter Safety Instructors in Louisiana already. 
These people had been working within the frame- 
work of the N.R.A. program for years, training 
hunters. Since Louisiana has thousands of hunt- 
ers going afield each year, and these 250 instruc- 
tors worked at other jobs and could only teach 
hunter safety part time, it was deemed necessary 
to train Commission employees as instructors. 
This would also serve as a means of familiarizing 
our people with the program and help build up a 
backlog of instructors before January 1, 1968, 
the date on which the Louisiana Wild Life and 
Fisheries Commission would assume the responsi- 
bility for the program in Louisiana. 

On September 10, 1967 thirty Commission em- 
ployees registered at the Mississippi Law En- 
forcement Officers Training Academy in Jackson, 
Mississippi for an intensive hunter safety in- 
structor training course presented by employees 
of the National Rifle Association. Hunter Safety 
Instructor training has been or will be conducted 
in each Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Com- 
mission district office, in order to train and certi- 
fy those employees who didn't attend the seminar 
in Mississippi. Instructor training for volunteer, 
non-Commission personnel will begin when in- 
quiries are received regarding training. The bulk 
of the hunter safety training will eventually have 
to be handled by these volunteers. It is really 
a big job and all interested people making written 
inquiries will be contacted. 

Louisiana joins 38 states and 5 Canadian prov- 
inces in administering hunter safety training on 
a statewide basis. 



Predator Control 
Section 




District II Commission personnel receiving on the 
spot instruction during a NRA Hunter Safety In- 
structors Course. These men were trained to carry- 
out future NRA Safety Programs among civic groups 
and schools. 



T. E. "DOC" HARRIS 

Supervisor 

The Predator Control Section is composed of 
nine trappers and one supervisor plus one full- 
time trapper employed by the Police Jury of Cad- 
do Parish. 

December 1, 1985-November 30, 1966 

Skunks 375 

Coyotes 269 

Housecats 128 

Foxes 667 

Bobcats 113 

Beavers _. 31 

Misc 467* 

^Includes 133 feral dogs 



54 



December 1, 1986-November 15, 1967 

! Skunks ~~ 285 

Coyotes 306 

Housecats 94 

Foxes 763 

Bobcats 123 

• Beavers 39 

> Misc 350* 

I ^Includes 91 feral dogs 

Coyotes have continued to spread in Louisiana 

■ and are found in all areas that will support them. 

■ They seem to be much more prolific than the red 
wolf, which they have replaced, and much more 

• destructive to livestock such as sheep, pigs, goats, 
i newborn calves, and poultry. 

Coyotes have taken a heavy toll of the geese 
used in some cotton fields and have caused heavy 
losses to some sheep raisers. Mr. Bobby Joe Lee 
of Tallulah reported that he has lost two thousand 
dollars worth of sheep to coyotes. These animals 
are also very destructive to watermelons. 

The beaver is an animal of growing concern 
to timber companies because it floods land, kill- 
ing timber and hindering harvest of this timber. 
We receive many complaints of stopped-up cul- 
verts undermined roads, shade trees and shrub- 
bery destroyed, some were even removed from 
under U.S. 190 in St. Tammany Parish where 
the beavers were denning. 

Foxes and skunks continue to be the main 
sources of rabies among wildlife where it then 
spreads to domestic dogs and other animals. 
Several people have been exposed to rabies and 
forced to take the painful treatment — among 
these was the supervisor's daughter who had a 
close call with a rabid fox in December 1966. 
Following is a list of rabies occurrances in Lou- 
isiana : 
1966— 

Foxes — 29; skunks — 10; dogs — 4; cows — 3; 
bats — 4; squirrels — 1. Total: 51. 
1967*— 

Foxes — 31 ; skunks — 6 ; dogs — 9 ; calves — 1 ; 
bats— 14; cats— 3. Total: 64. 
*Through November 15, 1967. 

We always work closely with the Health De- 
partment when an outbreak of rabies occurrs 
among wildlife. Our work also includes collecting 
stomachs of coyotes etc. for LSU for food studies, 
carcasses for disease and parasite studies, car- 
casses for Northwestern State College, and coyote 
skulls for La. Tech. This section assisted in bear- 
trapping in Minnesota in 1966 and 1967. 

Coyotes and beavers continue to increase. Both 
animals (under certain conditions) are beneficial, 
but both can be very destructive. 



Aquatic Vegetation 
Control Section 

FRED MYERS 

Co-ordinator 

DON LEE 
LOUIE RICHARDSON 

Supervisors 

Research Biologist 
Vacant 

The Aquatic Vegetation Control Program for 
Louisiana is a combined effort of the State of 
Louisiana and the U. S. Corps of Engineers. The 
State of Louisiana furnishes 30 percent of the 
monies while the Corps of Engineers furnishes 70 
percent of the total cost of the combined efforts. 
For the fiscal year 1968 the total operational 
budget for the combined federal-state program 
will be $549,000 of which the State contributes 
$152,000 and the Federal Government contributes 
$397,000. The State's operational share is ap- 
proximately 20 percent, $106,000, over and above 
their guaranteed participation. The remainder be- 
ing applied directly to operations by the Corps of 
Engineers in expanding their normal hyacinth 
control program in maintaining the navigable 
waterways in the southern portion of the State. 
The above money contributed by the State to the 
program is in the form of work in kind. 

The Aquatic Weed Control Section is made up 
of the following positions : A Co-ordinator, Two 
Field Supervisors, Two Mechanics, One Secretary, 
Five Hyacinth Control Workers II, and Forty- 
nine Hyacinth Control Workers I. 

The Aquatic Control Co-ordinator is Fred L. 
Myers in charge of the program. Since, this is a 
combined effort of the State of Louisiana and the 
U. S. Corps of Engineers, he coordinates the ac- 
tivities with the U. S. Corps of Engineers, in 
making schedules, inspections, keeping daily and 
monthly records and presenting the U. S. Corps of 
Engineers with a monthly charge for work ac- 
complished. 

Don Lee is the Field Supervisor for the lower 
half of the State. He supervises the activities of 
the maintenance mechanics and the field hyacinth 
workers. The crews he supervises are as follows : 

Crowley, Vermilion Parish 1 Crew 

Martin Lake, Lafayette Parish .... 1 Crew 

Henderson, St. Martin Parish 2 Crews 

Pierre Pass, Assumption Parish .... 1 Crew 

Bayou Pigeon, Iberville Parish 1 Crew 

Rosedale, Iberville Parish 3 Crews 

Bear Island, Livingston Parish .... 2 Crews 

Slidell, St. Tammany Parish 1 Crew 

Madisonville, St. Tammany Parish 1 Crew 



55 



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wmmmm 



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Mr. Lee works out of the Baton Rouge office 
where he helps with paper work and requisitions. 
He also tests out approved chemicals under field 
conditions as to rate and weather conditions try- 
ing to improve their total effects on the several 
plants. He assigns areas to be worked and checks 
the effects of areas sprayed. 

Mr. Louie Richardson is the other Field Super- 
visor. He supervises the northern area of the 
State. He inspects areas to be sprayed, assigns 
these areas to the nearest crew. He follows up 
the spraying by inspecting the work as to its 
efficiency. He also answers many weed problem 
complaints and tries to remedy their conditions. 
He also puts in test plots trying to find more 
effective ways of conducting this program. Mr. 
Richardson is located at the Alexandria office 
where he supervises the following crews : 

Lake Wallace, Caddo Parish 1 Crew 

Lake Bistineau, Webster Parish .... 2 Crews 
Saline Lake, Winn & 

Natchitoches Parishes 2 Crews 

Iatt Lake, Grant Parish 1 Crew 

Spring Bayou, Avoyelles Parish 4 Crews 

Millers Lake, Evangeline Parish .... 1 Crew 

Newellton, Tensas Parish 1 Crew 

Monroe, Ouachita Parish 1 Crew 

Bundick Lake, Beauregard Parish .. 1 Crew 
Each crew is furnished with a boat, outboard 
motor and a spray unit consisting of an air-cooled 
motor and pump. The pumping units are of two 
kinds: One a low pressure unit consisting of a 
small rotary spray-pump, the other unit is a high 
pressure pump which is used in areas where there 
is little or no danger of damage to crops or 
ornamental shrubs. We are proud of our record 
of twenty years without one valid claim having 
been filed against our operations for damage to 
growing cotton or other farm crops. 

Our crews are distributed over the State in 



varied locations, so as, to prevent the cost of time 
and mileage getting to and from work. Crews | 
which are not located on large lakes and need to j 
move about daily are furnished either a 3/4 ton 
stake body truck or a one-half ton pick-up truck. 

At the present time, in addition to water hy- 
acinths, field operations include the treatment of 
water primrose, water lotus, water lily and alli- 
gator weed. 

The objective of the program is accomplished 
by spraying plants with a one-half of one percent 
solution of the amine salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy- 
acetic acid (one quart of acid concentrate to fifty 
gallons of water) which is sprayed at the rate of 
one gallon of concentrate (4 pounds acid equiv- 
alent) in two hundred gallons of water per acre 
treated. 

Although maximum effect is obtained during 
hot weather when the plants are growing rapidly, 
at least in the case of the water hyacinth, spray- 
ing operations are carried on year-round when- 
ever weather conditions permit. In the event that 
rain falls on the water hyacinths or lotus within 
three hours after they are sprayed, they must be 
resprayed because it takes approximately that 
amount of time for the chemical to be absorbed 
into the plant for killing effect. Because of the 
waxy surface of the plants, it is necessary to in- 
clude a wetting agent in the spray solution. For 
water hyacinth, three ounces of liquid detergent 
is added to each fifty gallons of solution, and 
for the other plants, one ounce of commercial 
spreader-sticker is used. 

The state has now cleaned most of the hy- 
acinths and many of the other emergent weeds 
from the many streams and lakes in the northern 
part of the state to the point where only an oc- 
casional "maintenance" spraying is necessary to 
retain control. Constant vigilance throughout the 
years is necessary if we are to maintain this de- 




Clearing water hyacinth and alligator grass in one of Louisiana's lakes by mechanical means. 



56 



gree of suppression. The seed of the water hy- 
acinth is impervious to all of the herbicides now 
;in use. These seeds have been found to remain 
viaible for many years and germinate when tem- 
perature, exposure to air, and moisture conditions 
are favorable. Each of these plants are then 
I capable of producing over 65,000 "daughter" 
plants vegetatively, plus depositing hundreds of 
I new seed produced in the blossoms on each of 
I the flowering stalks. Even though total eradi- 
cation appears to be impossible, the benefits of 
the program are almost incalculable. 

Another phase of the program and one which 
is daily increasing in importance with the in- 
creased utilization of waters of the state for rec- 
reation and the great increase in numbers of boats 
1 and trailers is that of the Research Section to 
provide control methods for the vast complex of 
aquatic weeds for which there are, at present, 
no suitable means of control. Foremost among 
these is pondweed (Pontamogeton sp.), and the 
plant group which is usually lumped together by 
the sportsman and cursed as "moss". The "moss" 
plants which are present and deny access to fish- 
ing and hunting waters of the state are coontail 
(Ceratophyllum demersum), waterweed (Elodea 
densa), parrot feather (Myriophyllum brasi- 
liense), water milfoil (M. heterophyllum), fan- 
wort (Cabomba carolimiana), and bladderwort 
(Utricularia sp.), all of which are problems in 
from one to several of the major fishing waters. 

To a large degree, the ever increasing trend 




Spraying noxious weeds is a constant job with the 
section. 



toward making our water areas more attractive to 
watersport enthusiasts by impoundment and sta- 
bilization, has compounded the problem. Over the 
greater part of the state of Louisiana, still water 
means clear water. Water plants of almost all 
forms prefer clear, quiet, water. In the efforts 
to satisfy the growing demand for clear, clean 
water, we have created perfect conditions for 
producing vast amounts of the very thing which 
would spoil it. In years past, the unimpeded free 
flowing streams, and the natural lakes and bayous 
provided more than adequate space for the small 
number of people then using them. Natural scour- 
ing kept the streams clear of objectionable 
amounts of weeds. Annual flooding with the 
resulting deposition of rich silt, covered and sup- 
pressed plants in the lakes and bayous. Un- 
fortunately, if many people are to have the op- 
portunity to enjoy recreation on waters close to 
home, these natural water areas are no longer 
adequate. Increased acreages of available water 
are constantly demanded and can only be supplied 
by artificial means. The injudicious and some- 
times unnecessary construction of levees and con- 
trol structures by the U. S. Corps of Engineers 
have eliminated much highly productive water and 
produced other weed problems by denying turbid 
water to streams once subject to revitalizing 
flooding, thus causing them to clear and become 
subject to weed infestation. The spread of aquatic 
plants is also accelerated by the transfer of these 
plants from area to area on boats, motors, tackle, 
and particularly on the frames and running gear 
of boat trailers. Seven different species of noxious 
water plants were recently counted on one boat 
trailer found parked at a heavily used launching 
ramp. 

The U. S. Dept. of Health has set up a very 
restrictive list of chemicals which can be applied 
to our portable water supply. At present we are 
limited to three chemicals which can be used on 
submergent weeds. Many chemicals companies are 
making new chemicals for treatment of the sub- 
merged weeds. They send these new chemicals to 
our research department for testing. These new 
chemicals are tested for fish toxicity at our 
laboratory at Monroe, as it is found that pub- 
lished data may not always apply to our local 
conditions. This local evaluation eliminates the 
possibility of an embarrassing fish kill with its 
resulting adverse publicity. These new chemicals, 
which are furnished free, are tested for their ef- 
fectiveness on different plants under various con- 
ditions. If effective they are retreated and again 
retested if good results are obtained these results 
are given to the chemical companies with sugges- 
tions that they be cleared by the U. S. Dept. of 
Health, so they can be added to the list of reliable 
chemicals. At present the U. S. Dept. of Health is 
in the process of giving final tests to several new 
effective chemicals. 

Materials are also carefully screened for danger 



57 



H^B« 



i^m 



to waterusers, spray crews, livestock, fish, game, 
or agricultural crops immediately adjacent to 
spray areas. That these efforts have paid off is 
best shown by the fact that never in the entire 
twenty year period has a just claim for damages 
been presented for payment. 

An increase in research effort is needed to de- 
vise methods of control for these plants to enable 
the Aquatic Vegetation Control program to stop 
the creeping encroachment of these plants ; to ful- 
fill its mission of returning the weed clogged 
waters of the state to the fishermen, hunters, and 
boatmen, and of maintaining these waters in con- 
dition to facilitate their total utilization. 

Drafting Section 

EDDIE L. BENNETT 

Engineering Specialist 

The Fish and Game Division Drafting Office 
is comprised of one full time employee and is re- 
sponsible for much of the general map work that 
is required by the Department as well as the Fish 
and Game Division. Plans for construction of 
buildings by department personnel or by means 
of contract with private concerns are produced 
in detail. Plans for other projects to be consum- 
mated by the same means may include: fences, 
cattleguards, entrance signs and markers, im- 
poundment dams, weirs, etc. Various types of 
graphs, maps, sketches, contract drawings, tables 
and forms are prepared from time to time for re- 
ports, papers, publications and magazines. 

During this biennium plans for an impound- 
ment on Caney Wildlife Management Area was 
initiated, and plans and maps were finished for 
contract of fencing part of Bodcau Wildlife Man- 
agement Area. Plans for cattle guards to be in- 
stalled on various areas were completed and plans 
for comfort stations to be erected on Saline Wild- 
life Management Area were begun. 

The wildlife management area maps of West 
Bay, Caney, Grassy Lake and Biloxi were revised 
and brought up to date with respect to roads, 
pipelines, boundary changes, road names, con- 
struction changes and area hunting restrictions. 
In the instance of new areas recently acquired or 
reclassified, a new map was drawn. Red River, 
Spring Bayou, and Cities Service Wildlife Man- 
agement Areas are in this group. Some other 
maps, such as Jackson-Bienville and Union, were 
redrawn completely because they were expanded 
or changed to such a degree that revision of the 
original map was impractical. These maps are 
compiled by using information from the latest 
available topographic quadrangle maps along with 
personal knowledge from observation by field 
personnel, aerial photographs, records and other 
reliable sources. These maps are then printed, 



used to various management practices related to 
each area and made available to hunters using the j 
area during hunting seasons. 

The annual deer season map, turkey season map 
and wildlife management area location maps were 
compiled for publication in the Louisiana Con- 
servationist and in brochure form each year with 
the outline of hunting seasons and hunting and 
fishing laws. 

Various other projects were completed during 
the last two years. Among this group are the 
following: map of boat launching ramps loca- 
tions ; map of deer releases in the state ; map of 
Catahoula Lake Division Channel ; map of Clai- 
borne Lake; map of deer browse survey areas in 
state; Delta Wildlife Refuge map; plot map of 
Baton Rouge office (Quail Hatchery) location; 
map of Toledo Bend Reservoir; map of state 
drainage pattern; various thesis and report cov- 
ers; honorary hunting and fishing license for 
presentation by the department ; service certif i- j 
cate for employees of the department ; graphs i 
concerning past deer seasons, hunter success, etc. 1 
in poster form ; informative signs for Southeast- ; 
em Convention. 

Other maps and graphs were prepared for use j 
in the Louisiana Conservationist from time to | 
time and for publication in the form of reports I 
and/or technical papers. 

Engineering and 
Construction Section 

The Engineering and Construction Section of 
the Fish and Game Division has the responsibil- 
ities of maintaining and keeping in a good state 
of repair, all buildings and other properties of the 
Fish and Game Division. They are also respon- I 
sible for the care and maintenance of all office i 
buildings which belong to the Commission. 

Examples of work are the repairs and renova- 
tion and addition to the District IV office located 
in Ferriday, Louisiana. This consisted of cleaning 
and repainting the building on both the outside 
and inside. Also there were some alterations made 
on some of the walls to add additional office and 
storage space. There was a new acoustical ceiling I 
added and some offices were paneled. 

The new addition which consisted of about two 
thousand square feet of floor area, which con- 
sisted of four new offices, a 16 ft. x 30 ft. con- 
ference room, a rest room and a waiting area and 
a receptionist office. This new addition is con- 
structed partially on a reinforced concrete slab 
and on peers. The part on peers are built on 
wood frames which consist of 6 inch x 6 inch 
sills, 2 inch x 12 inch floor joist and 3/4 inch 
shiplap sub floor covered with impregnated 
asphalt felting and then covered with plywood 



58 




WILLIAM E. ACKLEN 

Engineer and Supervisor 

and a vinyl tile finish floor. The interior walls 
are wood frame covered in walnut and birch 
paneling. The ceiling is sheeted solid and covered 
with acoustical ceiling tile. The receptionist's of- 
fice has built-in furniture and cabinets with one 
wall made of sliding glass panels. One office is 
equipped with laboratory equipment for the pur- 
pose of testing and preserving various type of 
game. The building is covered with an asphalt 
shingle and asebtos siding. The building is of 
colonial style with two fronts. It is located on 
the banks of Lake Concordia with one front fac- 
ing the lake and one front facing the highway. 
The building is fiber glass insulated and equipped 
with central air-conditioning and central heat. 
The carpenter crew also added an addition to one 
of the storage buildings, which is to be used for 
a work shop and the entire building was cleaned 
and painted. Also another storage building in the 
district was cleaned and painted. 

The District II office located at Monroe was 
also remodeled and repainted, then it was de- 
stroyed by fire and the carpenter crew remodeled 
and added additions to an old storage building to 
make temporary offices until the office can be 
replaced by a new one. This remodeling consisted 
of adding new rooms with concrete floors covered 
in vinyl asbestos floor tile and the walls were 
covered with a wood paneling. There were two 
rest rooms added and the entire building had 
new electrical fixtures and air-condition units 
added. The building was reroofed and repainted. 
There were also some portable buildings moved 
in and converted to office space. 

The carpenter crew did a complete remodeling 
job on the residence located at the Allen Dam 



property in Natchitoches Parish. This consisted 
of recovering the floor with plywood then water 
proof felting and then with vinyl asbestos floor 
tile. The walls of the house were recovered with 
wood paneling and gypsum board. The gypsum 
boards were floated, sanded and textoned and 
painted. There were new acoustical tile installed 
on all the ceiling. The bathroom was remodeled 
and new fixtures set in. The old cabinets were 
removed from the kitchen and new ones were 
added. There was a new utility room added to the 
house, a new heating system and water system, in- 
cluding a new 2,300 gallon water storage tank. 
There was a new fence constructed around all 
the property and a wood picket fence around the 
house and yard. The house was cleaned and 
painted on the exterior and the picket fence was 
painted along with all other storage buildings. 

The carpenter section relocated the main water 
line serving the District VII office and demolished 
the building which was used as a noxious weed 
research laboratory in order to give more space 
for the construction of a new office building being 
constructed by a private contractor. 

The electrical section of the construction crew 
made repairs to the central cooling and heating 
system in the District I office building, they also 
reinsulated all the duct work and added blown 
fiber glass insulation to the entire attic space of 
the building. They also checked out the electrical 
system at the Red Dirt Game Management Area 
Headquarters, which was knocked out by an 
electrical storm. 

The construction section constructed two new 
cattle guards of reinforced concrete and steel at 
the Saline Wildlife Management Area, they also 
built new storage lockers and linen cabinets in 
the headquarters building. 

The electrical section rewired the garage build- 
ing at the District VI headquarters in Opelousas 
and added an air-condition unit. They also con- 
verted a storage area into office space. They have 
also installed flood lights on the parking area of 
the District III office in Alexandria. 

The carpenter crew have built approximately 
fifteen buildings to be used as Permit Issueing 
Stations on Game Management Areas. These 
buildings vary in size from 8 feet by ten feet 
up to ten feet by twenty feet. They are con- 
structed on 4 inch x 6 inch x 12 ft. runners S-2-E 
up to 20 feet in length with 2 inch x 6 inch x 8 ft. 
floor joist with tongue and groove wood flooring. 
Wood framing and galvanized corrugated metal 
are on the sides and ends and corrugated alumi- 
num on the roof, with two windows and one door 
and working shelves in each building. They also 
converted some storage rooms in the old Quail 
Hatchery building to an Aquatic Vegetation Re- 
search Laboratory, this included installing new 
lavatory sinks, new lighting fixtures, new shelves 



59 



and storage areas and new vinyl asbestos floors 
and the installation of two air-condition units. 

They remodeled a storage building which is to 
be converted into a Coastal Marine Laboratory. It 
has a vinyl asbestos floor, with sheet rock walls 
and plywood ceiling. The building was reinsulated 
and a new asphalt shingle roof was added plus 
asbestos shingle siding and the building was re- 
painted both on the interior and exterior. 

The carpenter crew has constructed one combi- 
nation storage and warehouse 25 feet x 65 feet 
in size with wood frame truss rafters and galva- 
nized iron roof with skylight and have the con- 
crete floor poured for two additional buildings 
of the same size. 



Game Section 




CHARLES R. SHAW 

Supervisor, Game Section and Pittman-Robertson 
Coordinator 

The normal activities of the Game Section in- 
clude research, development and management of 
all resident and migratory species of game to be 
found in Louisiana. In addition there is an active 
program dealing with various exotic game species. 



Several species of foreign game birds such as the 
Black Francolin, Red Junglefowl, various types i 
of pheasants, etc. which are potential additions J 
to our game bird list are being checked out care- j 
fully and evaluated. 

The Game Section includes all of the "Pittman- 
Robertson Section", (Federal Aid in Wildlife Re- 
storation) as well as many additional personnel 
who are involved only in activities financed 
wholly by state funds. All cooperate in an in- 
tegrated statewide program of game management 
and research furthering the aims and policies of 
the Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Commis- 
sion. 

Since the conservation and enhancement of nat- 
ural resources for their utilization by the Lou- 
isiana sportsmen of the present and future is one 
of the overall aims of the Fish and Game Di- 
vision, the acquisition and operation of game 
management and public shooting areas is one of 
the primary duties of the game section. These 
facilities are listed in table form for greater con- 
venience of comparison. 

New acquisitions include the Red River WMA 
and The Spring Bayou WMA which were pur- 
chased outright by the Wildlife & Fisheries Com- 
mission. In addition the Peason Ridge WMA was 
placed under agreement with the Dept. of the 
Army. Detailed information concerning the man- 
agement areas is listed under the reports of the 
eight District Supervisors all of whom are biol- 
ogists with technical training and many years of 
experience in the wildlife field. The great em- 
phasis on clearing land for soybeans and other 
agricultural purposes makes it increasingly im- 
portant to purchase areas of woodland for future 
public use. 

Robert E. Murry served as Research Project 
Leader until the fall of 1967 when he took leave 
to teach wildlife management at L.S.U., being re- 
placed by Larry Soileau. Various studies con- 
cerned with several game species are reported on 
by the study leaders actively involved in this 
work. 

Roger Hunter replaced Herb Stern in charge 
of the machine operation involving manipulation 




oJ»-:<i.-..-.'.-»i.-,*&¥3 

Land clearing one of the hazards of wildlife habitat destruction. 



60 




MhE^?3.' "".iVaij**' ~i ij'' i ' J* 2" 



This was the dedication scene when the Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Commission officially opened 
60,000 acres that comprise the Saline Wildlife Management Area, now permanently the possession of the 
Commission and open to hunters, fishermen and campers. 




Dove shooting is for all. 



of data on the Univac, mail survey results, etc. 
This is reported on separately. 

A natural division of the development work is 
by the eight districts into which the state is di- 
vided for administrative purposes by the Fish & 
Game Division. John L. Haygood, former Develop- 
ment Leader was replaced in the fall of 1967 by 
Louis Brunett. His responsibilities include not 
only the development work included under the 
Pittman-Robertson program but also the many ac- 
tivities financed wholly by state funds. The eight 
District Supervisors will report on the develop- 
ment and management activities within their re- 
spective districts. This will include all of the wild- 
life management and public shooting grounds, 
managed hunts, etc. These areas are indicated on 
the map of the state and pertinent information 
concerning them is shown on the table, pages 62- 
63. 



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LOUIS E. BRUNETT 

Development Project Leader 

DISTRICT I 

ROBERT B. KIMBLE 

District Supervisor 

JAMES H. TAYLOR 

Biologist 

The Louisiana Wild Life & Fisheries Commis- 
sion's District One is comprised of seven parishes 
located in the northwest portion of the state; 
Caddo, Bossier, Webster, Claiborne, Bienville, Red 
River and DeSoto. The District One is head- 
quartered in Webster Parish at 806 Talton Street, 
Minden. Four game management areas totaling 
some 85,000+ acres are located in District One. 
These areas are Jackson-Bienville 21,000 acres, 
Bodcau 32,000 acres, Caney W.M.A. 34,000 acres 
and Soda Lake 600 acres. 

Most of the work in District One is done on 
the game management areas, however, various 
jobs within the district pertaining to deer range 
surveys, restocking of game in some areas, game 
research, technical guidance on private and gov- 
ernment owned lands and many other related 
game problems that arise are handled by district 
personnel. 

During this biennium considerable time was 
spent locating suitable sites and constructing pub- 
lic boat launching ramps and parking areas on 
some of the large lakes in this area of the state. 

Bodcau Game Management Area 

KINSEY MARTIN 

Area Supervisor 

The Bodcau Game Management Area is located 
on the U. S. Corps of Engineer's Bodcau Flood 
Control Project. The boundaries include all gov- 



ernment owned lands lying along Bayou Bodcau 
from the Arkansas State Line to Bellevue in Bos- 
sier and Webster Parishes, an area occupying 
approximately 32,000 acres. The Louisiana Wild 
Life & Fisheries Commission has a cooperative 
20 year lease agreement with the Corps of Engi- 
neers to perform game management practices on 
the area. 

This area is designed to furnish as much out- 
door recreation for the public as possible while 
keeping restrictions to a minimum. All persons 
hunting on the area are required to have a season 
permit. The Bodcau Game Management Area is 
among the most heavily used by hunters through- 
out the entire state. 

As a result of a small earthen dam constructed 
several years ago by the Louisiana Wild Life & 
Fisheries Commission approximately 1,500 acres 
of pin oak flats are flooded each fall for duck 
hunting. This area is very attractive to ducks, 
especially mallards and wood clucks, which in turn 
attracts a considerable number of cluck hunters. 
Due to demand this type of hunting area needs 
to be expanded. 

In 1962 approximately 1,000 acres of upland 
old fields and woods were fenced against free 
ranging cattle and hogs. This area has since 
proven its value by the improved condition of 
food and cover for several game species, thus 
furnishing more and better hunter opportunity. 




ROBERT B. KIMBLE 

Supervisor 



64 




BODCAU WILDLIFE AREA 
(SOUTH) 






Several acres of old fields within this 1,000 acre 
fenced area are disced and planted each year to 
better the habitat for turkey, doves, quail, deer 
and other game species. Two game watering 
ponds of one (1) and five (5) acres each were 
constructed and are receiving heavy use by the 
different game animals. Each year this 1,000 acre 
fenced area furnishes excellent dove hunting. 

More of the Bodcau Game Management Area 
should be fenced against over grazing by free 
ranging cattle and hogs. During the past year an 
additional fifteen (15) miles of the west bound- 
ary located in Bossier Parish has been fenced. 
An additional six (6) miles is now in the process 
of being fenced. When completed these two seg- 



ments will eliminate cattle and hogs from about 
12-15,000 acres of old fields and woods. 

Thus far success of wild trapped turkeys re- 
leased on the area has been good. Personnel of 
District One have observed on several occasions 
both young and old turkeys on the area. Attempts 
will be made in the near future to trap and re- 
locate some of these birds. 

When some of the area is fenced against free 
ranging stock, it is planned to create several wild- 
life openings in the heavily wooded areas. Honey- 
suckle or some other good game food will be 
planted in these openings. 

In accordance with the game habitat improve- 
ment plans, control burning of the forest and 
fields is being carried out each winter to improve 
wildlife habitat. Several hundred acres of uplands 
are control burned each winter. Commission per- 
sonnel with assistance and cooperation of Corps 
of Engineer's personnel are continuing the wild- 
life habitat improvement program of thinning 
dense stands of timber. During the past two years 
thinning sales were made and this money was 
spent back on the area for wildlife habitat im- 
provement projects. 

Work toward improving and maintaining pub- 
lic access roads is a continual job. Each year some 
wash gravel and native rock is hauled and spread 
on roads on the area. Concrete culverts are pur- 
chased and installed where needed. As more 
game habitat is made available more roads need 
be developed for access. 

To decrease mileage cost of fencing and to add 
more acreage to the Bodcau Game Management 
Area an additional 1,400 acres of privately owned 
lands was leased and enclosed under fence. This 
wooded acreage borders the existing area on three 




- * . - ** -"-,.1. 



The first posts being installed after completion of 
right-of-way clearing on fencing project at Bodcau 
Game Management Area. 



65 



^■nmMMMM 



HP 



Ml 




sides and will add considerably to better control 
and more good turkey and deer habitat. 

As in previous years several miles of boundary 
lines were brushed out, repainted and boundary 
signs put up. Good boundary lines are an integral 
part of any game management area and each 
year some portion of the boundary will be brushed 
and repainted. 

Hunter bag checks on the Bodcau Game Man- 
agement Area show that hunters are fairly suc- 
cessful in pursuit of the variety of game sought 
after. Of course, success varies each year ac- 
cording to weather, food conditions, and a variety 
of other reasons. An area such as this is not de- 
signed to offer bag limits each time a person 
goes hunting, but merely to offer a good place to 
relax and enjoy a trip out-of-doors where the 
hunter can feel free to do as he pleases. 

As in the past years since 1964 the area has 
been open to trapping of fur bearers. The Dis- 
trict One office issues approximately three per- 
mits each year for this purpose. A few mink and 
a good many raccoons are trapped each winter. 
The price of fur still remains low in this area, 
therefore very few persons trap. 



Caney Wildlife Management Area 

MARION E. AUSTIN 

Area Supervisor 

The Caney Wildlife Management Area is com- 
posed of some 31,000 acres of U. S. Forest Service 
lands with an additional lease of 3,000 acres of 
privately owned lands. The entire tract is broken 
into three smaller units located in Webster and I 
Claiborne Parish. Each tract contains approxi- 
mately 11,000 acres each. Main interest lies in j 
timber production, therefore, the area has been 
under strict pine tree management practices for 
a period of years. In our cooperative agreement 
the Louisiana Wild Life & Fisheries Commission 
is to get five (5) per cent of the area to create 
wildlife openings. During the past two years 25 
wildlife openings ranging in size from 1 to 5 
acres each have been developed. These areas are 
carefully selected and dispersed over the entire 
management area. Ten (10) additional sites have 
been selected and are now in the process of being 
cleared. It is planned to clear 20 such openings 
per year until five (5) per cent of the area has 
been utilized. These openings are to remain in 
the brush or weed stage by control burning, disc- 
ing or bush hogging. Good wildlife foods are be- 
ing planted on portions of some of these openings 
each year. 

A control burning program is to be carried out 
whereby approximately 1,000 acres are control 
burned each year. This phase of the program was 
begun two years ago and will continue each 
winter. 

Request for a comprehensive survey to con- 
struct a green tree reservoir for ducks on the 




t->S*i&2^ 



Van Kelley of Minden with a spike buck killed on 
the Caney Wildlife Management Area by bow and 
arrow in November of 1967. 



66 



Corney Portion has been completed. This survey 
will be initiated in the near future, and if found 
feasible preliminary work will begin on this 
reservoir. 

During the past year wild trapped turkeys 
were released on all three portions of the Caney 
Wildlife Management Area. Recent reports indi- 
cate that these birds are progressing very well 
and it is hoped that reproduction will soon occur. 
The entire area is excellent turkey range and 
these birds should do very well. 

The seasons on the area are opened for public 
hunting in conjunction with the regular statewide 
seasons. Hunter bag checks are made periodically 
during the open seasons. 

The area furnishes excellent deer hunting. A 
good number of large bucks were taken during the 
past two seasons. Hunters from throughout North- 
west Louisiana use the area during the lengthy 



deer season. Hunting is by season permit. Since 
the creation of wildlife openings a noticeable in- 
crease in the quail population has occurred. Dur- 
ing the past two years the area has received con- 
siderable use by quail hunters. 

As is all other game management areas, Caney 
Wild Life Management Area is open for trapping 
during the regular statewide season. Thus far no 
requests for trapping have been received by the 
District One office. 

Jackson-Bienville Game Management Area 

LEVI McCULLIN 

Area Supervisor 

The Jackson-Bienville Game Management Area 
is comprised of some 21,000 acres of heavily for- 
ested lands located in the eastern part of Bien- 
ville Parish and the northwestern part of Jackson 




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CANEY 
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA 




CANEY 
SECTION 




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67 







Releasing wild turkeys on the Caney Wildlife Man- 
agement Area late winter of 1967. 

Parish, about 12 miles south of Ruston and 12 
miles north of Jonesboro. This area is leased by 
the Louisiana Wild Life & Fisheries Commission 
free of charge from several landowners. The own- 
ers are mainly in timber production, therefore, 
most of the area is managed toward pine timber 
production. Three major hardwood producing 
creek bottoms bisect the area. There are ten (10) 
wildlife openings dispersed throughout the area. 
Each year some portion of these openings are 
planted to good game producing foods. In addi- 




tion several acres of pipeline right-of-way arei 
disced and planted each year to good wildlife 
foods. 

There are some 15 miles of public access roads 
that are improved and maintained each year. 
Several miles of old logging roads and trails are 
bushhogged and disced each year both for hunter 
use and game use. 

The Louisiana Wild Life & Fisheries Commis- 
sion has a 10 year lease on two (2) acres of land 
adjoining the game management area which was 
made into a public camping area. A deep water 
well has recently been installed. Garbage pails 
and outdoor toilets were located on the camping 
area. This area has been filled to capacity during 
the past two managed deer hunts. The area is 
used considerably during the squirrel and archery 
seasons on the game management area. 

In January of 1964 eighteen (18) wild trapped 
turkeys were released on the area. District One 
personnel have kept close surveilance on the suc- 
cess of this release. Reproduction has been good, 
especially during the last two years. The District 
One Biologist is performing a research project 
involving a telemetry study on daily movement. 
Birds have been trapped and transmitters in- 
stalled with this study now in progress. More 
birds should be trapped and removed to new re- 
lease sites from this original stocking. 

Hunting on the area is allowed by permit. 
Squirrel and quail hunting is by season permit, 
while deer hunting is by daily permit. During the 
past two years squirrel hunting has been fair to 
good on the area. The area could stand more 
hunter participation. Due to the lengthy season 
no effort is made to measure the total kill or 
hunter participation. 

Quail hunting on the area is poor. Only a very 
few hunters participate with limited success. Due 
to the forest density of the area only a few quail 
are harvested even though the area contains a 
large number of good coveys. 

The 1966-67 season for deer was five (5) days 
"any deer" with an additional seven (7) day 
period of bucks only. During the five day "any 
deer" season 3,430 hunters harvested 172 deer. 
Only a very small number of hunters participated 
with limited success during the seven (7) day 



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Bob Kimble, District I Supervisor, checking a buck 
killed on the Jackson-Bienville Wildlife Management 
Area. 




Camping area on Jackson-Bienville G.M.A. during the 
managed deer hunt in November, 1967. 



68 



JACKSON-BIENVILLE 
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA 




0*n fluj , 1966 



bucks only season. For this reason the season was 
changed for 1967-68 to include three (3) days of 
"any deer" followed the next weekend with two 
days of "bucks only" hunting. During this time 
2,549 of hunters killed 158 deer. During the two 
days of "bucks only" 173 hunters harvested 2 
bucks. Both of these seasons were by daily permit. 

Soda Lake Waterfowl Management Area 

KINSEY MARTIN 

Acting Area Supervisor 

Soda Lake is an old lake bed comprising some 
600 acres located approximately 15 miles north 
of Shreveport just east of Highway 1. Two earth- 
en terraces 5 feet and 3 feet in height, 600 and 
1,400 feet in length respectfully were constructed 
for purposes of holding water for ducks. Two 
concrete water control structures were built for 
purposes of de-watering the area during the 
spring and summer months. Each year several 
acres of this reservoir is disced and planted to 
good duck foods and is flooded in the fall by 
pumping water from adjacent Twelve-Mile Bayou 
by use of a police jury owned pump. 

The area was opened for the first time for duck 
hunting during the 1963-64 season by season per- 
mit. It has been opened each year since. Hunting 
is permitted on Mondays, Wednesdays and Satur- 
days, mornings only, to prevent excessive hunt- 
ing pressure on ducks. Spot checks during the 
duck seasons reveal that the area is heavily used 



and the duck kill is comparable with other good 
duck hunting lakes in this section of the state. 
This area has furnished good teal hunting during 
the past September experimental teal seasons. 




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SODA LAKE 
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA 



69 



DISTRICT II 

CLIFFORD T. WILLIAMS 

District Supervisor 

JOHN H. ROBERSON, JR. 

District Biologist 

CHARLES R. BAUR 

Biological Aide II 

Headquartered in Monroe, Louisiana, District 
II consists of the following 8 parishes in north 
and northeast Louisiana : Jackson, Lincoln, Union, 
Ouachita, Richland, Morehouse, West Carroll and 
East Carroll. 

During the past biennium the main goals of 
the Fish and Game Division has been the con- 
tinued expansion of the turkey trapping and 
transplanting program, the maintenance and fur- 
ther development of the 4 wildlife management 
areas in the district, increased public recreational 
opportunities and public relations regarding the 
promotion of commission policies. 

The following are brief reports of district ac- 
tivities during the 1966-67 biennium. During this 
period, the leases either expired or were dropped 
on the (1) East Carroll Wildlife Management 
Area, (2) Fisher Creek Public Shooting Area, 
and (3) LaFourche Public Shooting Area. 

Two new areas were acquired during the bien- 
nium. The Cities Service Wildlife Management 
Area, approximately 17,000 acres northeast of 
Monroe, Ouachita Parish, was leased for public 
outdoor recreation. The Look-out Point Turkey 
Release Area in East Carroll Parish was leased, 
restocked with wild turkey and is being developed 
for future turkey trapping projects. 

In February 1967, the Monroe Office was de- 





CLIFFORD T. WILLIAMS 

District Supervisor 

stroyed by fire. As a result of this lightning 
caused disaster, the Commission lost most of its 
district records and equipment. Plans are in prog- 
ress to replace the facility. 



The charred remains of the District II main office 
building at Monroe. Lightning caused this 1967 fire 
which resulted in the loss of most records, materials 
and equipment. 




70 



Cities Service Wildlife Management Area 

W. BASIL SANDERSON 

Area Supervisor 

Located approximately 5 miles northeast of 
Monroe, Louisiana, this 17,000 acre game manage- 
ment area was leased from Columbian Fuel Cor- 
poration, International Paper Company, Union 
Producing Company, Ashland Oil Corporation 
and several private interests for a period of 10 
years. 

Boundary lines were marked off, signs erected 
and the area opened to public hunting on a still 
hunt season permit basis. 

The area was restocked with wild turkey from 
the Georgia Pacific Wildlife Management Area 
in 1966-1967. All indications are that this release 
is successful. 

During the past 2 years this wildlife manage- 
ment objective is toward increasing the deer herd 
and then managing this herd on a sound biological 
basis. Hunting pressure has been low to moderate. 
In 1966 only 7 bucks were killed. 

Georgia Pacific Wildlife Management Area 

P. D. "PAT" JONES 

Refuge Warden 

A huntable population of deer, squirrel, rabbit 
and quail exists on the area. The main manage- 
ment area has been opened to the public for squir- 




rel, rabbit, deer, quail and turkey hunting. Hunter 
success has been good. Large scale land clearing 
for farming operations has claimed approximately 
9,000 acres of bottomland habitat with a total loss 
during the next few years of an additional 10,000 
acres. 

Squirrel hunting has been fair to good the last 
two hunting seasons with the average kill per 
hunting effort being approximately 2.0 squirrels. 
This is above the statewide average of 1.5 squir- 




Check station operations on the Georgia Pacific 
Wildlife Management Area. This area recently 
opened for public use has produced excellent hunt- 
ing for the past two years. 

rels per hunting effort. Habitat loss will affect 
the future squirrel population on the area. 

During the 1966 and 1967 deer hunts a total 
of 1181 deer were harvested and 11020 hunting 
efforts were made. In 1966, hunters bagged 329 
deer (189 bucks and 140 does) in 4,231 hunting 
efforts. In 1967, the kill 852 with 6789 hunting 
efforts being made. 

The quail seasons were considered successful. 
Birds were killed but hunting conditions (birds in 
thickets, etc.) hampered hunter success. 

Turkey trapping operations continued during 
the biennium with 90 wild turkey being trapped 
as of November, 1967. These birds were trans- 




Gladney Davidson, Biologist checking a deer killed 
on the Commission operated Georgia Pacific Wild- 
life Management Area. 



71 



planted in various parts of the state where habitat 
was suitable and brings the total number caught 
on Georgia Pacific since 1963 to 178 birds. 

Besides furnishing birds for restocking pur- 
poses, this area was opened to public hunting dur- 
ing the spring gobbler season. A total of 27 gob- 
blers were killed during the biennium with 1204 
hunters participating. A total of 5 one-half days 
of hunting were allowed on the area. 




Doe confiscated on the Georgia Pacific GMA by local 
authorities. After a court trial the Commission was 
given full authority to control hunts on state op- 
erated Wildlife Management Areas. 



RUSSELL SAGE 

WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA 




Lookout Point Turkey Release Area 

LONNIE A. WALTERS 

Utility Laborer 

The Lookout Point Turkey Release Area is 
located in East Carroll Parish, east northeast of 
Transylvania, Louisiana, between the levee and 
the Mississippi River. It was obtained from R. F. 
Learned and Sons and Mr. Ed Ragus on long term 
leases for the purpose of developing wild turkey 
flocks for trapping and transplanting purposes. 
The main reason this area was selected is its 
close resemblance to the Catfish Point, Mississip- 
pi, site from which most of the birds originated. 

During the past biennium the Commission re- 
leased 28 wild turkeys on Lookout Point. Bird 
survival was good and nesting success during 
1967 indicates the project is on its way to being 
successful. If the birds continue to increase this 
area should provide birds for restocking other 
parts of Louisiana within a few short years. 

Russell Sage Wildlife Management Area 

E. S. "JACK" RUSHING 

Area Supervisor 

CURTIS U. PARKER 

Utility Laborer 

The Russell Sage Wildlife Management Area 
comprises approximately 15,000 acres of bottom- 
land hardwoods east of Monroe, Louisiana. It was 
the first area purchased by the State solely for 
wildlife management and public recreation pur- 
poses. It was acquired with funds from the Russell 
Sage Foundation in 1960. 




Johnny Roberson, Biologist and Jack Rushing, area 
supervisor on Russell Sage Wildlife Management 
Area, check one of the food plots planted to brown- 
top millet and bird milo. Plots such as this greatly 
increased duck usage on this bottomland area. 



72 




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Improved roads into the Russell Sage Wildlife Man- 
agement Area east of Monroe aid public hunters in 
reaching areas inaccessible during inclement wea- 
ther. 

The major objectives during the past biennium 
have been aimed at increasing hunter utilization 
and success plus access to the area. 

The headquarters building was maintained for 
overnight usage by Commission personnel and 
an extra bedroom was added to increase the sleep- 
ing facilities. 

During the biennium waterfowl utilization in- 
creased considerably due to construction of the 
2,000 acre greentree impoundment on the lower 




Biologist Johnny Roberson checks young striped oak 
tree on the Russell Sage Area after excess rock elm 
were removed during the 1967 logging operation. It 
is the intent of the Commission to improve wildlife 
habitat with practices such as this. 



part of the area. Hunter participation increased 
steadily. Four food plots totaling 32 acres were 
cleared and planted to brown top millet and is 
flooded annually. In addition, a 16 inch water well 
was drilled and a pump installed producing 2,500 
gallons per minute. This water is designed to get 
an early partial flooding of the area and obtain 
some hunting during the first portion of the duck 
season. Normally, there is not sufficient rainfall 
prior to the season to allow waterfowl utilization. 

The 260 acre refuge which was constructed just 
south of Highway 80 has greatly enhanced the 
area waterfowl hunting by stopping and giving 
sanctuary to several thousand ducks which dis- 
perse to feed over the area. Utilization of this 
area has been by mallards and wood ducks mainly. 

Timber stand improvement work was begun 
with 3 tracts totalling 1200 acres being marked by 
commission personnel and the timber sold on 
competitive bid. This sale has been completed with 
approximately 398,201 board feet of timber being 
sold. This is comprised of those trees, elm, ash, 
etc., that are considered less desirable for wild- 
life. This project is intended to promote both 
browse production and growth of higher quality 
mast producing trees. Additional acreage is being 
marked for this type of management. 

During the past biennium squirrel and water- 
fowl hunting has been good. In 1966 the squirrel 
kill was approximately 4 per hunting effort and 
in 1967 it was similar. Duck usage of the area 
was high and the kill the best since the wildlife 
management area was purchased. Duck species 
bagged were mostly mallards and wood ducks 
plus some teal and a few pintails. 

During the biennium 197 deer (94 bucks and 
103 does) were killed in 4474 hunting efforts. 
During 1966 a total of 91 deer (48 does and 43 
bucks) was harvested on opening day with 1240 
hunters participating. In 1967, the area produced 
106 deer (46 bucks and 60 does). Hunter partic- 
ipation totaled 3234 for the any deer hunt. 

Two new all weather access roads were built 
on the area totaling 4.5 miles. These roads were 
built by the Louisiana Highway Department and 
the T. L. James and Company in exchange for 
highway rights granted for the construction of 
Interstate 20 across the management area. 

Union Parish Game Management Area 

CURTIS L. HOLLIS 

Area Supervisor 

The Union Parish Wildlife Management Area 
is located approximately three miles west of 
Marion, Louisiana, in the north central portion 
of Union Parish. The land is primarily owned by 
Olin Mathieson Chemical Corporation and is 
leased and managed by the Louisiana Wild Life 
& Fisheries Commission on a ten year basis. Most 
of the work done during the biennium has been 



73 




aimed towards maintenance and management. 
Primary objectives have been boundary lines, im- 
provement of access roads, food plots, habitat im- 
provement and managed hunts. Plans were made 
for habitat manipulation to improve the range 
for the existing wild turkey flocks. 

Controlled hunts were conducted during the 
biennium for squirrel and deer on a still hunt 
basis. Separate archery and gun seasons on deer 
were set. In addition, a quail season was added. 

Squirrel hunting was permitted on a season 
permit basis. Hunting pressure was light to mod- 
erate and the squirrel harvest was relatively good 
in 1966 (averaging 2.53 squirrels per hunting 
effort). In 1967, success fell off to 1.85 squirrels 
per hunter effort. This reduction in success was 
attributed to extremely dry conditions during the 
month of October. 

A 5 day either sex deer hunt plus a 7 day bucks 
only hunt was conducted in 1966. The buck season 
was unsuccessful due to heavy rains making ac- 
cess virtually impossible and consequently hunt- 
ing pressure was extremely low. The either sex 
hunt has been an annual affair for the past sev- 
eral years. 

The 5 day either sex season in 1966 provided 
1191 hunter efforts with 71 deer (40 bucks and 
31 does) being killed. 

In 1967, a 3 day either sex season was held with 
a 2 day buck only hunt following the next week- 
end. 

The either sex season yielded 885 hunter efforts 
with 34 bucks and 15 does being killed. This was a 
total deer kill of 49 deer for the 3 days. 

The two day buck only season yielded 1 deer in 
76 hunting efforts. 

The 1966 quail season, the first ever held on the 
area, was quite successful. Approximately 157 



quail were killed with the average success per 
party being about 7 birds. 

The 1967 quail season was considered success- 
ful. 

DISTRICT III 

CLYDE E. HARRISON 

District Supervisor 

ROWLAND P. VERNON 

District Biologist 

DAVID TAYLOR 

District Biologist 

The parishes of Grant, Natchitoches, Rapides, 
Sabine, Vernon and Winn make up this District 
and have a total land area of about 4,227,000 
acres. Historically bearing a predominantly pine 
forest, the past three decades have seen the acre- 
age of piney woods increase through the gradual 
elimination of hardwoods. Furthering the reduc- 
tion of hardwood acreage has been the construc- 
tion of numerous lakes and reservoirs which 
normally are located in areas where the control 
structure may be constructed at a location that 
will retain the most water at the least expensive | 
site. Naturally the hardwood bottoms found in 
conjunction with watercourses form natural 
basins and are selected for the impoundments. 
Hardwood forests have been cleared for pastures 
and other agricultural operations as well. 

Small forest game in huntable numbers, such 
as squirrels are dependent on mast producing 
hardwoods for survival and their numbers can be 
expected to decline below populations attractive 
to hunters. Deer on the other hand, while finding 
acorns desirable, are not dependent on hardwood 
mast, and the continuous cutting cycle of pine 
timber results in a few years production of deer 



74 






browse following each cut whereby herds can be 
expected with the age and stocking level of the 
pine forest. In other words, when the canopy 
is closed, deer populations will be at a minimum 
and following the several thinnings that go with 
pine management the populations will be tempo- 
rarily increased. 

The Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Commis- 
sion owns two hundred fifty-one acres within this 
District and controls all the activities on this 
small acreage. The various management areas of 
this District are made available to the hunters 
without fee through the courtesy of the land- 
owners whose primary interest is not game in 
most cases. Much dissatisfaction is expressed over 
the way forest owners are manageing their land 
but Central Louisianians should consider them- 
selves lucky that soybeans grow best in the bot- 
tom lands. The also are fortunate that approxi- 
mately one-half million acres are owned by the 
U. S. Forest Service and will always be available 
to everyone for hunting and other forms of rec- 
reation. 

The District III Headquarters is located at 
Alexandria with mailing address as Tioga. Be- 
sides District Personnel, two Wildlife Research 
projects, one Fisheries project, the District Wild- 
life Enforcement Section, the Northern Louisiana 
aquatic vegetation control section, and one Wild- 
life Lecturer are headquartered here. Seven Wild- 
life Management Areas, with one to be added soon 
are administered by this District. 

On the various management areas some varia- 
tion in activities may be noted. The differences 
are due to the inherent potentials of a given area 
or to the degree of game work permitted by the 
landowner. The U. S. Forest Service for instance, 
has offered to more or less dedicate five per cent 
of their lands for game work. Personnel and 
equipment have not been available to utilize more 
than a token amount of this land. On other areas, 



land is not even available to provide a centralized 
hunter camp site. 

A brief discussion of each Wildlife Management 
Area follows. 





ALEXANDER 
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA 



Clyde Harrison, Supervisor District III and Dave 
Taylor, Biologist, checking a deer killed on the Cata- 
houla Wildlife Management Area. 



Alexander Forest 
Wildlife Management Area 

THOMAS EARL DEEN 

Area Supervisor 

Located in Central Rapides Parish, the 8,000 
acres of rolling piney hills making up this area 
are owned by the Louisiana Forestry Commission 
and became available for hunting in 1962 when 
authority was granted to the Wildlife Commission 
by the Forestry Commission to manage all game 
located on the area. Drainage is good on the area 
with several large creeks and numerous intermit- 
tent streams. Timber varies from different aged 
shortleaf and loblolly pine plantations to mixtures 
of natural pine and hardwoods to pure stands of 
hardwoods along the stream bottoms. The pure 
hardwoods will soon disappear as the chainsaws 
are now at work removing all that is of any value. 
Most of the larger streams will become a part of 
the Valentine Reservoir scheduled for completion 
in the next couple of years. Excellent fishing 



75 






should result from this action but deer and squir- 
rel populations will suffer. 

Squirrel and deer hunts are held annually on 
this area and draw a good number of hunters. 
Archers also hunt for deer here considerably. 
Squirrel hunting has been off the past two years 
due to failure of the hardwoods to produce mast. 
While the number of deer taken has dropped off 
somewhat from the first year, hunters continue 
to enjoy this area with 1,439 hunting efforts tak- 
ing seventy-seven deer during the 1966 deer hunt 
and 1186 hunting efforts taking 37 during the 
1967 hunt. 

Activities other than managed hunts are limited 
to marking the twenty-six miles of boundary, 
minor road repair and routine patrolling. 

Catahoula Wildlife Management Area 

VOLMER BOWEN 

Area Supervisor 

One of the management areas on U.S. Forest 
Service Lands, the Catahoula Unit, is located 
within the Winn and Catahoula Districts of the 
Kisatchie National Forest in Winn and Grant 
Parishes. Its 36,117 acres are made up primarily 
of gently rolling hills which are broken occasion- 
ally by poorly drained flats. In the hilly sections 
are found stands of longleaf , shortleaf and loblolly 
pines in mixed as well as pure stands. Hardwoods 
are found in the lower elevations. 

This has been a popular squirrel and deer hunt- 
ing area for years, with many hunters looking 
forward to the open season. With the poor mast 
crops of the past two years hunting success has 



been rather poor with an average bag in 1966 of 
one squirrel per effort and a little below that in 
1967. Next year should see an improvement as a 
result of the good mast crop this year. Other 
factors could influence the squirrel population but 
normally greater numbers are found the year 
following good mast crops. 

The deer range over most of this area has 
deteriorated due to the age of the forest and' 
hunters did not take as many deer during the 
period covered by this report as they had in 
recent years. Plant species that deer depend on 
are not as numerous or as luxuriant as they were 
in the past and consequently the herd is smaller 
than what hunters would like to see. The timber 
harvesting program of the U. S. Forest Service 
will result in increased browse production as 
browse plants will be stimulated when the over- 
story is removed. Deer hunting will be continued 
as there are still plenty of animals and those re- 
moved will make room for others. The still hunts 
for deer in 1966 attracted 5,208 hunting efforts 
and 234 deer were taken with approximately 22 
per cent being deer of the year. Either sex hunt- 
ing was permitted for the entire five days. In 
1967, 198 deer were taken with 3660 hunting ef- 
forts recorded. 

During the past three years 20 wild turkeys, 
trapped on another management area were re- 
leased. While there are not enough to have a hunt- 
ing season the outlook looks promising. If there 
is anything to the old saying about the "third 
time is the charm" they have it made because this 
is the third effort at establishing the birds. These 
are wild birds this time. 

Of interest to sportsmen, is the construction of 




CATAHOULA GAME MANAGEMENT AREA 



76 



' a dove shooting field which should be ready for 
shooting the 1968 season. The Forest Service, 
I through a timber sale, sold all timber on a forty 
acre plot in order to provide the space to add to 
hunter opportunity. Brown-top millet will be 
planted and it will be up to the doves to find it. 

Other activities included: wheat planting on 
wildlife plots to benefit turkey and deer but uti- 
1 lized also by rabbits, doves and quail ; wildlife plot 
1 maintenance by bushhogging ; boundary ; road and 
: fence maintenance; vehicle and equipment mainte- 
' nance ; and assistance on research projects under 
'• the direction of the Deer Study. 




EVANGELINE 
GAME MANAGEMENT AREA 



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the many small streams which afford good drain- 
age to the entire area. 

Managed hunts are held annually for quail, deer 
and squirrels. Bird dogs are permitted during the 
quail hunt but other hunts are for still hunting 
only. The growth of the forest and the overgraz- 
ing by range cattle has reduced the game carrying 
ability of this area considerably. The Forest Ser- 
vice's timber harvesting program and their recent 
cattle regulation program should result in more 
food production for deer and quail. 

Spot checks of squirrel hunters indicate they 
average slightly less than one squirrel per effort 
and quail hunters slightly better. Hunting for 
these two game species has dropped considerably. 
Although the deer killed during the managed 
hunts has dropped, about 1,400 hunting efforts 
are made each year. In 1966, five days were de- 
voted to either sex deer hunting and a total of 
1,483 hunting efforts resulted in a kill of forty- 
seven deer. In 1967, three days were devoted to 
either sex hunting with 21 deer taken through 814 
hunting efforts. An innovation was made during 
1967 in that two weekends were devoted to deer 
hunting rather than five consecutive days as in 
the past. The two day period was devoted to a 
hunt for legal bucks only with one buck taken 
and 37 hunting efforts recorded. The three day 
portion of the hunt was held November 24, 25, 
and 26 and the two day hunt December 2 and 3. 

Each year about thirty acres of winter wheat 
is planted to supplement natural forage. This is 
utilized heavily by deer with other game also 
benefiting. During the past two springs honey- 
suckle stolens have been set out in some of the 
wildlife plots in an effort to increase the natural 
year around browse. 

Other activities on the area include maintenance 
of the twenty-five mile boundary, fence mainte- 
nance, roadwork, mowing, patrolling and mainte- 
nance of the hunter camping area. 



— ..— Boundary 



Improved road 
Unimproved road 
Wood* rood 



Dwrv S«pt . rK3 



Evangeline Wildlife Management Area 

THOMAS E. DEEN 

Area Supervisor 

This unit, of 15,000 acres of piney woods, is 
located in central Rapides Parish. It is owned by 
the U.S. Forest Service and is a small part of the 
Evangeline Division of the Kisatchie National 
Forest. Forest cover is of second growth longleaf 
and loblolly pine. Hardwoods are found along 



Fort Polk Wildlife Management Area 

MARVIN DEASON 

Area Supervisor 

This area is located in central Vernon Parish 
and is made available to the Commission through 
the cooperation of the U.S. Army and the U. S. 
Forest Service. Formerly of 52,000 acres, the 
size was increased to about 120,000 acres in 1967. 
It now includes all of the military ownership as 
well as part of the Vernon Division of the Ki- 
satchie National Forest. It is made up of forested 
lands as well as open areas. It is characterized 
by gently rolling hills, high hilly ridges, and 
streams between the ridges. Along the streams 
are found hardwood areas ranging in size from 
major stream bottoms to relatively narrow belts 
of forested areas. Between the hills and in many 
cases on hillsides are found small and large 



77 




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"bay-galls". The hilly areas are either open or 
forested with longleaf and loblolly pines inter- 
mixed with hardwoods as well as in pure stands. 
Pure stands of scrub oaks are also present in the 
hilly areas. 

A few small supplemental food plots are 
planted each spring to benefit quail. Doves utilize 
these plots as well as the three large (25 to 40 
acre) plots planted to attract doves for hunting. 
For some undetermined reason, only one of the 
larger plots can be considered a success from a 
hunting standpoint. Each is planted in the same 
manner and mullet seeds are overly abundant in 
each. 

Many squirrel and quail hunters enjoy their 
sport on this area. Squirrel populations have been 
at a low ebb for the years 1966 and 1967 with 
spot checks of hunters showing the average suc- 
cess to be about 1.5 squirrels per hunting effort 
in 1966 and falling to less than one in 1967. In- 
sufficient data was gathered to estimate the aver- 
age quail hunter success. Attempts were made to 
make intensive checks of dove hunters shooting in 
the large plots and on days the success was 
checked, the average bag varied from one-half 
a dove to 10.5 doves per hunter. 

While deer hunting is permitted during the 
same period that surrounding Vernon Parish is 
open to deer hunting, only Military Clearances 
are required and there is no way for the number 
of deer harvested or efforts made to be checked 
as the same clearance is used for all hunting and 
fishing. During the first three days of the open 
deer season, however, the same system is used 
as on other Wildlife Management Areas. That is, 
each hunter is checked in and out by Commission 
Personnel and all deer killed are examined by a 
technician. Each year hunting efforts have been 
increasing and in 1966, 3,487 individual hunting 
trips were recorded with a harvest of 236 deer. 
As on most of the other management areas in this 
District, this three day hunt was for either sex 



deer. In 1967, a like hunt was held with 4667 
hunter efforts taking 284 animals. While guni 
hunters are limited to the three days for taking] 
either sex deer, archers enjoy a month or more 
prior to the gun season with either sex deer 
being legal. In spite of being able to take any 
deer they can, few deer are killed by archers. 

In addition to the foregoing, other activities 
include routine jobs such as patrolling, mainte- 
nance of the eighty mile boundary, tending fran- 
colins, game observations, machinery and equip- 
ment maintenance, and numerous minor jobs. 



Lutcher-Moore Wildlife Management Area! 

W00DR0W SMITH 

Area Supervisor 

This 55,000 acre management area of pineyj 
woods is leased to the Commission without chargej 
by three lumber companies. The largest landi 
owner is the Lutcher and Moore Lumber Com-I 
pany and the other participating companies are:|i 




78 



Kirby Lumber Company and the Southwestern 
Improvement Company. These companies have 
given the Commission free usage of their lands 
for game management purposes for a ten year 

! period which terminates in November of 1970. 

As this area was virtually cleaned of pine 
timber in the 1930's and it was reforested arti- 
ficially, the overstory is primarily slash pine and 

' is found in even age plantations. The topography 

' is characterized by rolling hills, some of which are 
quite high. The drainage pattern is very good with 
each series of hills and ridges broken by spring 

I fed and intermittent streams. The spring fed 
streams have water all year in most cases. Along 

: the numerous watercourses are found good stands 

! of mast producing hardwoods with associated 
vegetation. In the southern section of the area are 
a number of poorly drained flats which also pro- 
duce hardwoods. The normally good squirrel popu- 

; lations and the excellent deer herd on the area are 

j a result of the hardwood areas. 

Generally speaking, quail hunters find good 
hunting on the area. Only a token amount of quail 
foods are planted on the few small wildlife plots 
and the good bird shooting is due primarily to the 
timber management practices of the larger land- 
owner. Each year, following a well known forestry 
concept that planned, controlled burning is bene- 
ficial to the growth of pine timber and that this 
type of burning reduces the chances of wildfire 
destroying valuable timber, large acreages are 
burned. As it helps timber, it also helps game and 
particularly quail. The controlled burns remove 
the grass rough and other litter which permits 
the growth of native legumes. An abundant sup- 
ply of legumes, associated with cover, results in a 
good quail population. 

Squirrel and quail hunters have made use of 
this area under Commission sanction since 1960, 
and deer hunters since 1964. These hunts have 
been through the use of season permits and ac- 
curate figures as to hunter use or of their harvests 
are not available. Probably about a hundred deer 
have been taken out; of quail hunters checked, 
the best years average was about eight birds per 
effort; the best average squirrel hunters could 
attain was about three and one-half. In 1967, each 
deer hunter was checked in and out and the kill 
examined and recorded. This was during the one 
day either sex hunt and 467 hunting efforts were 
made with 21 deer harvested. A number of large 
animals were taken and some of the older bucks 
had particularly good racks. Following this, a 
seven day — legal bucks only hunt was held 
through the use of season permits. 

Other activities included : maintenance of the 
eighty mile boundary; patrolling; road and fence 
maintenance; bushhogging; and numerous minor 
duties. 



Red Dirt Wildlife Management Area 

H. C. BEASLEY 

Area Supervisor 

Located in south central Natchitoches Parish, 
this area of approximately 88,500 acres of piney 
woods is a small part of the Kisatchie Division of 
the Kisatchie National Forest. Forest cover is 
composed of various timber types with pure pine 
predominating. Narrow stands of hardwoods are 
found along the stream bottoms. The topography 
varies from gently rolling hills to rugged out- 
crops of sandstone. Drainage is good with numer- 
ous intermittent streams in all sections. Several 
larger, spring fed creeks are also present. 

Game management work on this area is of 
varied nature with research projects as well as 
development work included in the activities. In 
addition, routine jobs such as road and boundary 
maintenance, vehicle and equipment maintenance, 
grounds upkeep, patrolling, and a host of minor 
jobs are a necessity. 

Annually about thirty acres of what are planted 
to benefit deer and turkey with other game species 
also benefiting. In addition, about one hundred 



ED DIRT GAME MANAGEMENT AREA 




acres of various size openings are maintained for 
wildlife. Adjacent to the area, the U. S. Forest 
Service has made an old field of about thirty acres 
available that is planted with brown top millet 
for dove shooting. 

Another effort is being made to establish tur- 
keys on this area. In February of 1967, six hens 
and three gobblers were secured from Florida 
and released. These birds were of better quality 
than those released in the past as they were live 
trapped, wild birds. 

Interest in squirrel and quail hunting is waning 
due to the lack of habitat for these game species. 
In 1966, the average squirrel hunter bagged less 
than one squirrel per effort and in 1967 took 
1.4 per effort. The 1967 squirrel hunting was the 
best in several years. Too few quail hunters were 



79 



checked to even estimate their success. The dove 
plot did not draw many doves or hunters. 

In 1966, the five day still hunt for deer drew 
4,861 hunting efforts and resulted in a harvest 
of 297 animals. The entire five days were devoted 
to either sex hunting with the greatest number 
of deer being taken the first day. In 1967, the 
operation of the hunt was changed in that rather 
than five consecutive days of hunting, one three 
day hunt was held immediately after Thanks- 
giving and then the following Saturday and Sun- 
day. The first period had either sex deer legal 
until 225 animals were taken with remaining 
days, if any, devoted to legal buck hunting. The 
last hunting period was only for legal bucks. Dur- 
ing the first three days, 230 animals were taken 
with 3917 hunter efforts; the final two days at- 
tracted 256 hunter efforts and 3 deer taken. 

Sabine Wildlife Management Area 

JOHN I. GENTRY 

Area Supervisor 

This area, located in central western Sabine 
Parish, has an acreage of about 11,000 acres. 
Much of the area has an overstory of loblolly- 
shortleaf pines with intermingled hardwoods. 
Good mast producing hardwood stands are found 
in the southern section of the area. The northern, 
or pine woods section is well drained with num- 
erous intermittent streams. Drainage is not good 
over much of the southern half and water and 



Own Oci , I96S 




SABINE 
GAME MANAGEMENT AREA 



@ 



willow oak flats are found occasionally. Activities 
on this area are limited to boundary maintenance, 
patrolling, game observations, woods road main- 
tenance, and managed hunts. 

Managed hunts are held for squirrels, rabbits, 
quail and archery hunting for deer, with the use 
of season permits. Daily permits are required for 
the gun hunt for deer. During the past two years, 
squirrel hunters have averaged about one squir- 
rel per hunting trip. Quail hunting is poor and 
few hunters come to the area. Archery hunts for 
deer do not attract too many hunters but in 1966 
and again in 1967 the same archer took two deer. 
In 1966, he took two bucks and in 1967, a buck 
and a doe. Ironically, he was unable to bag one 
during the gun hunt. 

The still hunt for deer in 1966 resulted in a 
harvest of seventeen animals with a total of 540 
hunting efforts made. In 1967, 401 hunter efforts 
took 13. During both of these hunts, hunters 
were permitted to take either sex deer. The failure 
of the hunts to produce a better harvest is attrib- 
uted to the lack of hunter interest. The greatest 
hunter concentration recorded was about one j 
hunter to fifty acres whereas on areas with a 
greater kill, concentrations have been as high as 
one hunter per fourteen or less acres. 

DISTRICT IV 

DAN DENNETT, JR 

District Supervisor 

REGINALD WYCOFF 

District Biologist 

HOWARD R. BLOUNT 

Biological Aid 

District IV is comprised of seven parishes. 
These parishes are: Caldwell, Catahoula, Con- 
cordia, Franklin, LaSalle, Madison and Tensas. 
Headquarters for District IV is located in Ferri- 
day. All activities of the Fish and Game Division 
within this district are coordinated through this 
office. The District is fortunate in having diver- 
sified wildlife habitat ranging from the hills of 
the piney woods to the dwindling bottomlands of 
the Black, Red, and Mississippi River systems. 
The area included within this District could well 
be said to be the playground of North Louisiana 
insofar as hunting and fishing are concerned. 
Because of the fact that this area has long been 
noted for the fine fishing and hunting available 
here, many people travel great distances from 
throughout the state to take advantage of these 
opportunities. 

Also located in this District are four wildlife 
management areas which are maintained and 
managed so as to provide the maximum possible 
amount of hunting and fishing opportunity to 
interested sportsmen of this state. Two of these 



80 




DAN DENNETT, JR. 

Supervisor, District IV 

areas, Saline Wildlife Management Area located 
in Catahoula and LaSalle Parishes, and Red River 
Wildlife Management Area located in lower Con- 
cordia Parish, are owned by the Louisiana Wild 
Life and Fisheries Commission, and the other 
two, Concordia Wildlife Management Area lo- 
cated just outside of Ferriday in Concordia Par- 
ish, and Caldwell Wildlife Management Area lo- 
cated in Caldwell Parish, are leased by the Com- 
mission. 

While most of the activities of the Fish and 
Game Division within this District are concerned 
primarily with the management and development 
of the wildlife management areas, personnel find 
time to provide technical assistance to local 
sportsmen with wildlife problems as well as pre- 
senting numerous programs to various civic clubs 
and organizations who are interested in wildlife. 

Caldwell Wildlife Management Area 

WELCH LIVELY 

Area Supervisor 

Caldwell Wildlife Management Area, which con- 
sists of aproximately 12,000 acres, is located in 
southeastern Caldwell Parish. This area supports 
excellent populations of such resident game ani- 
mals as deer, squirrel, and rabbit. Waterfowl are 



also numerous in years when suitable mast and 
weather conditions entice them to the area. 

SMALL GAME 

Squirrel and rabbit seasons were conducted both 
during the 1966 and 1967 hunting seasons. Hunt- 
ers were allowed to utilize this area after obtain- 
ing season permits from the District office. Spot 
checks made during the 1966 season revealed that 
hunter success for both squirrels and rabbits 
could only be considered as average. The same 
type of checks conducted in 1967 showed that 
both squirrel and rabbit hunters were enjoying 
an excellent season. 

DEER 

Caldwell Wildlife Management Area was open 
for deer hunting for two periods in 1966. Both 
of these seasons allowed bucks-only hunting. The 
first season which ran from November 25 through 
November 29, required a daily permit and resulted 




CALDWELL GAME MANAGEMENT AREA 



Miles 

LEGEND : 

^».»«» Boundary m^-mmm Improved rood 

a—«acr^ Slreoms -— ™ Unimproved rood 

'~^ Intermlnenl streome Woods rood 

^ Monh 

LVn- Oct , 1959 



81 



in a total kill of 59 legal bucks for 1,294 hunter 
efforts. A second season of seven day duration 
was conducted which required only a season per- 
mit and provided additional hunting opportunity 
on this area. This season was from December 26, 
1966, through January 1, 1967. A total check was 
not made during the latter period, but spot checks 
indicated that hunter participation was light and 
the kill was, accordingly, low. These checks indi- 
cated that approximately 217 hunter efforts re- 
sulted in a total kill of only two deer. 

The 1967 season was also conducted during 
two periods, but was arranged in a different 
manner. These periods totaled only five days. 
The first period of three days duration was held 
from November 24 through November 26, and 
resulted in 1224 hunters taking 56 deer. The sec- 
ond period of hunting was held the following 
weekend on the dates of December 2 and De- 
cember 3. Statistics for this period show that 337 
hunters took 5 deer. 

Archery hunting was allowed on Caldwell Wild- 
life Management Area during both the 1966-67 
and 1967-68 seasons. It is evident that the high 
population of deer found on this area was highly 
attractive to archers during both of these seasons. 
As would be expected, however, the archers' kill 
was low. 

MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITIES 

Routine maintenance chores, which are a neces- 
sary part of wildlife management, were conducted 
on this area during the past biennium. This in- 
cluded the maintenance of boundary lines, repair 
of damaged fences, and work on major access 
roads. 

In spite of its small size, Caldwell Wildlife 



Management Area continues to be a very popular 
and highly productive segment of available wild- 
life habitat. It is hoped that with proper manage- 
ment this area will continue to contribute out- 
door opportunity to the sportsmen in that area. 

Concordia Wildlife Management Area 

JAMES M. PERRITT 

Area Supervisor 

The Concordia Wildlife Management Area is 
located in northern Concordia Parish near the 
Town of Ferriday. Although originally it was 
approximately 10,000 acres in size, recent timber- 
land clearings have reduced the size of this area 
to approximately 8,400 acres. The loss of these 
timbeiiands is regrettable, but they have not 
materially affected the productivity of this impor- 
tant wildlife area. 

Found on the lands included in this area are 
perhaps some of the finest stands of mixed bot- 
tomland hardwoods to be seen in the Mississippi 
River flood plane. Habitat such as this has the 
capability of maintaining high populations of all 
of the popular species of game quadrapeds, 
namely, deer, squirrels and rabbits. Since the land 
is used primarily for timber production on a well 
managed program, this further enhances the value 
of this small area as a producer of high popula- 
tions of game animals. 

SMALL GAME 

This area while capable of producing high 
populations of squirrels, failed to produce the 
expected numbers of this animal during the past 
two hunting seasons. Both the 1966 and 1967 
squirrel seasons would have to be considered as 




Cleared bottomland hardwood area that will soon be drained and planted in soy beans. Much of the Louisiana 
delta lands are now undergoing such land use changes. 



82 



below average based on information obtained by 
spot checks made by Commission personnel. It is 
thought that this decline in squirrel population 
was brought about by the high winds originating 
from hurricanes in two successive years, 1964 and 
1965. This severely hampered mast produced by 
oak trees of the red oak group, which in turn 
resulted in lowered squirrel populations. Good 
mast production in the fall of 1967 should result 
in excellent hunting opportunities during the fall 
of 1968. 

While the rabbit season has been open concur- 
rently with the squirrel season during both 1966 
and 1967, only a very few rabbits were taken dur- 
ing both years. This is in no way indicative of the 
rabbit population present on this area, but prob- 
ably brought about by the extremely thick ter- 
rain present on the Concordia Wildlife Manage- 
ment Area. Rabbits jumped in thick vegetation 
such as this seldom remain in sight long enough 
to fall victim to the hunter's gun. The rabbit re- 
sources of this area have been virtually untouched, 
both because of a lack of interest on the part of 
the hunters and the limitations of the cover. 

DEER 

The first deer season to be held on Concordia 
Wildlife Management Area was held in the fall 
of 1967. This season was scheduled in two periods 
of hunting. The first season ran from November 
24th through November 26th, and the second peri- 
od occurred on December 2nd and 3rd. During 
the first period 57 hunters took no deer, and 
during the second period 16 hunters took 1 deer. 
The results of these two periods of hunting should 
not in anyway be interpreted as indicative of a 
low deer population. On the contrary, a very good 
deer herd is presently on the area, but is ex- 
tremely hard to harvest due to the extremely 
thick nature of the habitat. We should also con- 
sider the fact that practically no hunter participa- 
tion occurred when the season first opened. In 
an area with a thick overstory such as found on 
Concordia Wildlife Management Area, many hunt- 
ers are needed in order that deer may be roused 
from their beds and moved to the hunters' guns. 

MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITIES 

During the past two years boundary lines were 
maintained and kept well marked with tree paint 
and boundary signs in order that the limits of the 
area could be clearly seen. Existing roads and 
trails were kept in good repair by Commission- 
owned equipment in order that hunter access 
could be kept at a maximum. 

Although this area is extremely small in size, 
it has an extremely high potential for wildlife 
production and should be intensively managed in 
order that the resources found there be fully 
utilized. 



Red River Wildlife Management Area 

JOHN T. LINCECUM 

Area Biologist 

The Red River Wildlife Management Area con- 
sists of 12,600 acres bordering Red River in the 
southern part of Concordia Parish, Louisiana. 
This tract was purchased by the Louisiana Wild 
Life and Fisheries Commission with funds from 
the Russell Sage Foundation for a sum of $800,- 
000.00. An additional 800 acres were leased, with- 
out fee, from the Concordia Parish School Board, 
to be included in the wildlife management pro- 
gram. 

The Red River Wildlife Management Area is 
located approximately five miles west of Shaw, 
Louisiana. The terrain is low, flat, and poorly 
drained. The timber type is mixed bottomland 
hardwood, with the primary tree species being 
overcup oak, bitter pecan, hackberry, elm, honey 
locust, ash, willow, and scattered cypress. The 
understory is composed of swamp privet, decidu- 
ous holly, button willow, trumpet vine, pepper 
vine, climbing dog bane, poison ivy, and grape. 

The boundary, which is approximately eighteen 
miles in length, has been completely surveyed by 
licensed surveyors. This line has been painted 
and boundary signs placed at various intervals. 
A 48 inch x 48 inch entrance marker has been 
erected on both the east and west boundary on the 
Red River levee which traverses nine miles along 
the area's southern boundary. 

DEVELOPMENT AND POTENTIAL 

Deer 

A 40 foot right-of-way is to be cleared around 
the entire boundary, followed by a 48 inch net 
wire hog and cattle-proof fence, which will elimi- 
nate competition between deer and livestock. With 
the exclusion of livestock the herbaceou and 
woody growth will be more abundant, resulting in 
an improved deer habitat. The existing deer herd 
will increase following this type of development, 
and deer hunting success will be thus improved. 
Waterfowl 

With the many shallow lakes and bayous found 
on the area, excellent opportunity exists for 
waterfowl development. Clearing of the slough 
bottoms, plantings and the erection of water con- 
trol structures are programs which will be ini- 
tiated on the area in the future. 
Squirrels 

This area has been heavily logged for the past 
several years, but has maintained a good squirrel 
population. As the timber stand improves over 
the years, habitat will improve and the squirrel 
population will benefit. However, even in its pres- 
ent condition this area provides excellent squirrel 
hunting in years following bumper mast crops, 
as was evidenced by the 1967 season. 



83 



Turkeys 

Fourteen hens and five gobblers were released 
on the area February 22, 1967. The most detri- 
mental factors affecting turkeys on this area is 
the spring overflow ; however, a pumping system 
is to be constructed the next two years which will 
greatly reduce the amount of backwater buildup. 
It is believed that this area will support a wild 
turkey population and that hunters should be 
reaping the benefits of this program in the near 
future. 

Fisheries 

Approximately eight miles of borrow pits are 
found adjacent to Red River along the south 
boundary and are filled by overflow from the 
river at high water stages. These borrow pits 
provide excellent sport and commercial fishing 
periodically each year; however, with nominal 
development, such as the construction of control 
structures, fishing could be greatly improved. 
Also, the many woods lakes provide excellent 
sport and commercial fishing. 

Camping Area 

A camping area and water well have already 
been installed on this new tract and have seen 
frequent use during the fall and winter of 1967. 
Additional improvements will provide top-rate 
facilities for the sportsmen interested in camping. 

The addition of this tract of land assures 
sportsmen that there will always be bottomland 
hardwood available to be enjoyed. This type of 
timber is rapidly vanishing in Louisiana, and only 
through the purchase of areas of this type will 
hunters be able to continue hunting, fishing and 
camping in a type of timberland which has been 
a traditional part of the Louisiana outdoor scene 
for hundreds of years. 





The area inside this fence was protected for two 
growing seasons from livestock on the Saline WMA. 
Notice the bare parklike effect on the outside. 



Saline Wildlife Management Area 

J. W. EMFINGER 

Area Biologist 

R. T. WILLIAMS 

Area Supervisor 

The Saline Wildlife Management Area, having 
a size of approximately 60,000 acres, is located in 
LaSalle and Catahoula Parishes and was pur- 
chased by the Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries 
Commission in 1964. Funds for this purchase were 
obtained from the Russell Sage Foundation. This 
area is dedicated to and managed solely for wild- 
life and public recreation. 

The following is a brief summary of the work 
that has been completed or initiated on the area 
during this two year period : 

CONSTRUCTION 

Approximately 65 miles of boundary line have 
been maintained. These lines have been repainted 
and damaged or missing boundary signs were re- 
placed. There has also been a right-of-way of 
approximately 40 feet in width cleared along 
approximately twenty-five miles of boundary. 
Forty miles of net wire fence have also been 
constructed so as to completely enclose that por- 
tion of the management area south of Louisiana 
Highway 28. The completion of this fence and the 
subsequent removal of free-ranging livestock from 
the management area will eliminate competition 
with wildlife for food and cover and is considered 
essential to the proper management of the area 
for wildlife. During the calendar year of 1967, 
approximately 5-1/2 miles of this fence was de- 
stroyed by vandals and was rebuilt. 

A headquarters facility has been constructed 



84 



and this complex is composed of four buildings; 
an office, bunkhouse and shop, and two resi- 
dences. Drives and parking areas have been built 
and graveled and work has now begun on land- 
scaping the grounds. 

An airstrip is presently under construction on 
the area. A 3,800 foot runway has been cleared, 
using Commission-owned equipment, and prelim- 
inary leveling work is already in progress. This 
airstrip will be completed and available for use 
during the forthcoming year. 

Three boat launching ramps and camping areas 
have been constructed during this biennium. All 
three of these facilities are available for use by 
the public free of charge. Plans for the further 
development of these camping areas have also 
been formulated and the additional construction 
should be completed during the next biennium. 

Commission-owned equipment has been used to 
develop and maintain hunter access roads within 
the area. One major improvement in the road 
system was the construction of .4 of a mile of all- 
weather road to complete the Sandy Bayou Road, 
thus offering all-weather access to the western 
portion of the management area. 

WATERFOWL 

A waterfowl green tree reservoir of approxi- 
mately 500 acres in size is presently under con- 
struction. All of the biological and engineering 
survey work has been completed and the levee 
system is presently being built. Plans call for the 
creation of clearings to encourage the production 
of native waterfowl food plants. Brown top millet 
or other cultivated food plantings will also be com- 
pleted and available for waterfowl hunting dur- 
ing the 1968 waterfowl season. 

DOVES 

Five dove food plots, comprised of approxi- 
mately 115 acres, have been cleared and fenced 
with stock-proof fences. These areas will be strip- 
planted with brown top millet and wheat and are 
designed to provide dove shooting to hunters 
utilizing the management area. 

TURKEYS 

The wild turkey restocking of the Saline Wild- 
life Management Area was completed in Feb- 
ruary, 1967. A total of thirty-nine wild-trapped 
turkeys was released on the area. Field observa- 
tions have revealed that the survival rate of the 
released birds was excellent. The birds have now 
had one breeding season since release and brood 
observations indicate the reproduction was very 
good. Approximately seventy young turkeys have 
been observed by Commission personnel, and 
numerous others reported by local residents. Al- 
though the future looks bright for the establish- 
ment of wild turkeys on the area, additional time 
will be needed to properly evaluate the release. 



ALLIGATORS 

In an effort to supplement a declining alligator 
population, the Commission has released numer- 
ous alligators on the area. Field observations in- 
dicate that some of the released alligators have 
survived ; however, reproduction has not been ob- 
served. 

DEER 

When purchased, the Saline Wildlife Manage- 
ment Area had a nucleus deer herd already pres- 
ent. Through the release of additional deer, pro- 
tection from poaching and free-ranging dogs, and 
the increased amount of food afforded by the 
1,300 acres of study plots which are free of live- 
stock competition, the deer herd has increased 
noticeably. A large steady increase is expected 
following the elimination of livestock competition 
for food and cover. 

The first managed deer hunt conducted on the 
area was held in 1966. A 5-day bucks-only hunt 
yielded a total of 6 deer. The hunter success ratio 
was 1 deer killed for each 41.6 hunter efforts, 
with 250 hunters participating. A 5-day bucks- 
only hunt was held in 1967. A total of 50 deer 
were harvested for 1245 hunter efforts. The hunt- 
er success ratio was much better with one deer 
killed for each 25 hunter efforts. 

SQUIRRELS AND RABBITS 

The management area has been opened for 
squirrel and rabbit hunting by season permit. 
During the 1966 hunting season periodic hunter 
bag checks were conducted. These checks revealed 
that the hunter success ratio was .9 squirrels for 
each hunter effort. Following an extremely good 
mast crop, the squirrel population increased on 
the area. During the 1967 season, periodic hunter 
bag checks were conducted. A total of 706 hunter 
bag checks showed a kill of 1,698 squirrels for a 
hunter ratio of 2.4 squirrels per hunter effort. 

In time, the tremendous potential of this area 
will be realized and the sportsmen of our state 
will be able to reap the benefits of the manage- 
ment and development program now underway 
on this hardwood tract. 

DISTRICT V 
JACK SIMS 

District Supervisor 

HUGH BATEMAN 

District Biologist 

Exotic Game Propagation Unit 
J. T. RAIFORD 

Supervisor 

The purpose of this unit is to produce exotic 
game birds for trial liberations in Louisiana, It 
is a known fact by game technicians that this 
type of operation is not ideal for securing birds 
to be used in attempting to establish populations. 



85 



Due to the fact that all of the species being dealt 
with are native to foreign countries, no wild 
trapped birds are available for release, thus the 
reason for using pen reared stock for liberations. 
The original brood stock was wild tripped, thus 
assuring that the birds being raised have not been 
crossed with domestic stock. 

In January 1966 the birds were moved from 
the old propatation area at the DeRidder Air- 
port to the new site purchased by the Commission. 
This new site is a ten acre tract located about 
three miles south of DeRidder. The entire area 
is fenced with six foot chain link fence. The new 
brooder house is 20 x 100 feet and sheeted with 
aluminum siding. The brooder building has a 
capacity of 1,500 birds reared to eight weeks of 
age. The incubator room is well insulated and 
air conditioned so as to maintain a constant 
temperature. This is very important for efficient 
operation of the incubators and hatchers. The im- 
proved facilities have greatly increased our ef- 
ficiency of operation. 

During the period covered by this report five 
species were being produced. These species were : 
(1) black francolin (2) red junglefowl (3) Japa- 
nese green pheasant (4) bamboo partridge (5) 
spotted tinamou. The production of bamboo part- 
ridge was terminated after the 1966 hatching 
season. The production of the red junglefowl and 
Japanese green pheasant will be terminated after 
the 1967 hatching season. Emphases on production 
during the coming seasons will be focused on the 
black francolin and hatching and rearing tech- 
niques for the spotted tinamou. 

The following table gives egg production, fertil- 
ity, hatching and rearing success by species for 
the two years covered by this report. In the cate- 
gory of birds raised, the tables shows survival 
only to eight weeks of age. This is the normal 



age at which the birds are moved to the release 
condition pens. 

The status of the birds after liberation will 
be covered by the Exotic Game Study Leader. 




JACK A. SIMS 

District Supervisor 



Production 1966 and 1967 



Species 

Black francolin 

Red junglefowl 

Jap green pheasant 

Bamboo partridge 

Spotted tinamou 



Year 


No. 
Hens 


Total 
Eggs 
Laid 


A vg. No. 

Eggs 
Per Hen 


% 
Fertile 


Ch icks 
Ha tched 


Ch icks 
Raised 


1966 
1967 


90 
88 


2,212 
2,486 


24.6 
28.5 


73.5 
67.1 


1,185 
1,061 


793 

822 


1966 
1967 


20 
21 


420 
1,149 


21.0 
54.7 


70.7 
63.4 


201 

452 


168 
386 


1966 
1967 


27 
23 


796 
1,139 


29.5 
49.5 


63.9 
68.03 


335 
430 


185 
259 


1966 
1967 


16 


427 


26.7 


52.6 


109 


49 


1966 
1967 


9 

4 


43 
32 


7 
8.0 


11.6 

35.7 


3 

1 







86 




Jack Sims, Biologist, checking one of the exotic bird pens at the Commission operated DeRidder base. 



West Bay Wildlife Management Area 

E. E. GARLINGTON 

Area Supervisor 

HUEY P. COOLEY 

Area Warden 

This management area is located in north- 
central Allen Parish. About one-third of its 
58,500 acres is low flat forest land that is poorly 
drained. The larger portion is gently rolling piney 
woods. The two major timber types consist of 
near pure stands of both planted slash and native 
pines and pine-hardwood mixtures. The entire 
acreage is leased from private landowners at no 
cost to the Commission. West Bay is situated in 
an intensive timber growing locality where prin- 
ciple interest and tree management is centered 
around pine production. This Area has within its 
boundaries over 500 miles of roads that are main- 
tained by the landowners for the protection and 
harvest of timber. A total of 55 entrance and exit 
points are located along the management area's 
46 miles of marked boundary. While this situation 
affords excellent hunter access, it also creates a 
difficult enforcement problem. 

Intensive logging operations create ideal condi- 
tions for browsing animals on small but numer- 
ous sites in a continuous cycle. This plus occasion- 
al bumper hardwood mast crops gives West Bay 
Wildlife Management Area a tremendous poten- 
tial for producing upland game in large numbers. 

In spite of terrific competition for food and 
space by a large population of range cattle and 
woods hogs, West Bay furnishes a great recrea- 
tional value for the people of Louisiana. 



MAINTENANCE AND DEVELOPMENT 

Maintenance duties on West Bay during the 
past two years have consisted of re-painting 
boundary lines, erecting entrance, boundary and 
road signs, draining water and clearing fallen 
timber from existing road beds, and caring for 
three public camping areas. Duties on these camp- 
ing areas entail periodic clipping with a tractor- 
drawn rotary mower, removal of trash and debris, 
and maintenance of fences and cattle guards. Each 
of the camping sites is provided with trash re- 
ceptacles and deep water wells. 

Artificial salt licks for deer are maintained at 
34 locations throughout the area. Each year in 
early spring about 1,600 pounds of coarse rock 
salt is distributed to these sites. 

Materials and labor for rebuilding and gravel- 
ing four major bridges on the area was supplied 
by the Allen Parish Police Jury and the Louisiana 
Department of Highways. Their help and co- 
operation has benefited the area greatly. 

Development activities for the period covered 
by this report have been confined to rebuilding 
non-passable bridges at key access points within 
the area. 

HUNTING SEASONS 

Season permits are required for archery hunt- 
ing and gun hunting for small game (squirrel, 
rabbit and quail). Daily permits are issued dur- 
ing the managed gun seasons for deer and turkey. 

Results of the 1966 and 1967 seasons are listed 
and discussed in the following paragraphs. 

Deer (Archery) 

During the 1966 archery season. West Bay 
Wildlife Management Area proved to be one of 



87 



the state's most popular bow hunting areas. A 
large deer herd, recent liberal regulations and 
excellent hunter access are primary reasons for 
this popularity. 

During the 43 day season from October 8- 
November 20, 1966, 15 deer kills were confirmed. 
The total number of deer taken by archers was 
estimated to be considerably more than 15, since 
the season permit system does not allow an 
accurate measure of total kill. 

The 1967 bow season for deer is scheduled to 
run from October 1, 1967-January 10, 1968. There 
have been 35 confirmed kills so far this season. 
It is apparent that an increased kill over last 
year is occurring on the area. Present conditions 
indicate continued high interest in archery hunt- 
ing on West Bay. 

Deer (Gun Hunt) 

West Bay Wildlife Management Area has been 
an area of controversy concerning the manage- 
ment of its large deer herd. Season recommenda- 
tions have often been changed to cope with local 
political pressures. The 1966 season was no ex- 
ception and a hunt with unusual regulations was 
the end result. Late and restrictive changes in 
regulations reduced hunter participation and 
failed to allow the removal of an adequate num- 
ber of deer from the area. The 1966 gun season 
consisted of five days of hunting November 25-29. 
The first four days were for bucks only and the 
last day for "antlerless" deer only. In spite of 
the unusual regulations West Bay was on top in 
providing hunter-killed deer (409) on the state's 
management areas. 

The 1967 hunt was five days split into two 
periods with either sex deer legal on the first 
day only, November 24. The season was November 
24-26 and December 2-3, 1967. Legal bucks only 
were taken during the last four days of the season. 

The following tables list daily hunter effort 
and kill data. 



Managed Deer Hunt 1966 

Deer Killed 

Hunter 
Date Efforts Buck Doe Total 

*ll-25-66 2,199 58 ... 58 

*ll-26-66 1,270 19 ... 19 

*ll-27-66 784 15 ... 15 

*ll-28-66 381 3 ... 3 

**ll-29-66 2,288 100 214 314 

5 days 6,922 195 214 409 

* Legal bucks only. 
**Antlerless deer only (Spikes less than three inches in 
length). 

Managed Deer Hunt 1967 

Deer Killed 

Hunter 
Date Efforts Buck Doe Total 

**ll-24-67 4,661 297 301 598 

*ll-25-67 2,116 23 ... 23 

*ll-26-67 1,173 9 ... 9 

*12- 2-67 1,474 9 ... 9 

*12- 3-67 706 5 ... 5 

5 days 10,130 343 301 644 

: Bucks only. 

** Either sex deer. 

Squirrel and Rabbit 

Hunting for these two small game animals is 
provided through the season permit system. Both 
squirrels and rabbits can be hunted with bow and 
arrow as well as gun during the prescribed sea- 
sons. Archery enthusiast however, seldom take 
these animals as their primary interest is in deer. 
Information concerning success of this type of 
hunting is gathered during the season by making 
daily bag checks throughout the area. 

The open season during 1966 consisted of 31 
days, October 1-October 31. Hunter success was 
judged to be rather poor since bag checks indi- 
cated slightly over 1 squirrel per hunting effort. 

The 1967 season ran from October 1-November 
5 (29 days). Data gathered revealed a kill of 
1.5 squirrels per hunting effort. The rather poor 
success in 1967 was attributed to the dry, windy 



WL** - 



^■-i .. 



"^Hfity 'W?'* 



r 


10 


•- 






-m-^S- 



West Bay Wildlife Management Area offers excellent facilities for overnight camping. Water wells and 
trash receptacles are furnished at each of the area's three public camping sites. 



88 




weather experienced during the first part of 
October. A good mast crop of acorns promises to 
yield a better squirrel population for next year. 
Only a small number of rabbits are taken on 
the management area each year. In most cases 
they are incidental kills of archers and squirrel 
hunters. This results from the fact that dogs are 
not allowed on management areas for hunting 
game animals. 

Quail 

The 1966 quail season ran from December 31- 
February 28. Bird dogs only were permitted for 
this type of hunting. 

Hunter participation was poor as the area of- 
fers only limited quail range and a moderate 
population of birds. Hunter success was not re- 
corded though spot checks were made on those 
hunters who did use the area. 

The 1967-68 season opened December 26 and 
runs through February 28, 1968. 

Turkey 

This area experienced its first managed turkey 
hunt in 1967. The area was open for two days, 
April 1 and 2, for gobblers only. Hunter participa- 
tion was very low as only 74 hunters were issued 
daily permits. No birds were killed and only 
two were known to have been shot at. However, 
over half the participating hunters reported 
either seeing or hearing turkeys during the two 
day period. Some information was gained on the 
status and location of turkeys on the management 
area even though there were no birds killed. 



The 1968 season for turkey is set for two days, 
March 30 and 31 — gobblers only. Low hunter 
interest is again anticipated for the coming 
season. It is hoped that the area's excellent po- 
tential for turkey can be developed in the near 
future. 

MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITIES 

The camping facilities on this management area 
are often used for out of door social activities by 
local people. These public camping sites afford 
good public relations for the Commission and pro- 
vides valuable recreational areas for those who use 
them. 

Several research projects have also been con- 
ducted on the area involving deer. Both para- 
sitism and censusing methods were studied dur- 
ing the past two years. 

A trapping season on fur-bearers is provided 
through special trapping permits from December 
10 through February 28 of each year. The Dis- 
trict Five office issued two (2) trapping permits 
for 1966. In 1967 only one (1) trapper requested 
a permit. 




John T. Lincecum, Biologist, ages a nice buck while 
Eddie Bennett, Engineering Aid for the Commission, 
records data during the managed deer hunt on West 
Bay Wildlife Management Area. 



89 



DISTRICT VI 

J. B. KIDD 

District Supervisor 

W. A. GOUDEAU 

Biological Aide 

District VI is located in south central Louisiana 
and encompasses the larger portion of the great 
Atchafalaya swamp. The bottomland parishes of 
Avoyelles, Pointe Coupee, St. Landry, West Baton 
Rouge, Lafayette, St. Martin, Iberville and small 
portion of Ascension make up the district. Three 
wildlife areas are managed in the district which 
total 33,700 acres— Thistlethwaite Wildlife Man- 
agement Area, St. Landry Parish, 11,000 acres; 
Spring Bayou Wildlife Management Area, Avoy- 
elles Parish, 11,200 acres and Grassy Lake Wild- 
life Management Area, Avoyelles Parish, 11,500 
acres. Other activities of the district consist of 
boat ramp construction, the district has eight, re- 
search projects on different game species and 
help and guidance to sportsmen and their organi- 
zations in proper management practices on the 
various wildlife species present. 

Thistlethwaite Wildlife Management Area 

LOUIS BABIN 

Area Supervisor 

SQUIRREL HUNTS 

Managed squirrel hunting was conducted on the 
Thistlethwaite Wildlife Management Area dur- 
ing the two year period 1966-67. The 1967 hunt 
was the tenth consecutive year that controlled 
hunting was allowed on the area by use of daily 
permits. 

It's interesting to point out the rapid increase 
in numbers that was made in the squirrel popu- 
lation between 1966 and 1967. In 1966 the squir- 
rel population hit an all time low since the area 
was opened in 1958. A total of 1425 hunting ef- 
forts resulted in a kill of 1658 squirrels during 
a 16 day hunting period in October and a 9 day 
period in November. All hunting was halted at 
12:00 noon. In 1967 during identical hunting 
periods in October and November hunters lacked 
8 squirrels of killing a total of 5,000 animals from 
the area. Hunting efforts in 1967 totaled 2408. 

It is predicted that the squirrel population will 
increase even more in 1968. Food conditions are 
the best ever seen on the area which should re- 
sult in maximum reproduction assuring higher 
quality squirrel hunting during the fall of 1968. 

MANAGED DEER HUNTS 

A five day deer hunt was granted on the 
Thistlethwaite area during the period November 




This magnificent buck killed on Thistlethwaite Area 
in 1966 and weighing 230 lbs., is inspected by J. B. 
Kidd, Supervisor of District VI. 



25-29, 1966. Either sex hunting was allowed on 
the first day followed by four days of buck hunt- 
ing. Hunter participation totaled 488 efforts 
which resulted in killing 13 animals — 8 bucks and 
5 does. While the kill was low, some magnificent 
animals were killed on the area. Three large bucks 
in particular, weighed 225, 230 and 280 pounds 
respectively. Two of these bucks were from orig- 
inal stocking in 1961 and 1962. 

Managed hunts in 1967 resulted in killing 12 
bucks and 6 does. The total number of hunting 
efforts expended was 848. The three largest bucks 
killed on the area weighed 260, 252, and 217 
pounds. Hunting in 1967 was split into two seg- 
ments with 3 days allowed on November 24, 25 
and 26. The following week-end two days were 
granted on December 2 and 3, 1967. Archery 
hunting was also granted on the area for the 
first time in 1967. No deer were bagged as hunter 
participation was very light. 

RESULTS OF TURKEY RELEASE 

Remnants of 18 wild trapped turkeys from 
Florida, released on the area in 1965 are still 
seen occasionally. Five gobblers and 3 hens were 



90 




On. &»r, '0*1 




MUM 




Rv4 Au? , 1903 
R«0: Aug.. 1964 




L£fi£JU? 






_ 


a~»««, — 


t^Md rood 




^a— 


si-~~ 


UntmjrwM road 




> - 


■nlarmJItvrl ii'iomi - ( -.4--<-- T 


Abondorwd rtiilrood 



observed in October of 1967. As yet no confirmed 
reports of reproduction have been seen after three 
nesting periods. 

FENCING 

One 500 acre exclosure was completed extend- 
ing a previously fenced area to 1,000 acres of 
cattle free woodland. It is planned to fence an 
additional 800 acre area also with the purpose of 
excluding cattle to improve deer range. Fence 
posts have already been erected around this new 
area and is ready for placement of barbed wire. 
More fencing is planned when this project is 
completed. 





From checks made on the Thistlethwaite Manage- 
ment Area since 1958, reveal that more than 44,000 
squirrels have been killed by registered sportsmen. 



This young hunter proudly shows off his squirrel 
kill on Thistlethwaite Wildlife Management Area. 



Spring Bayou Wildlife Management Area 

CLYDE VIENNE 

Biologist 

BILLY K. JAMES 

Area Supervisor 

The Spring Bayou Wildlife Management Area 
was purchased by the wildlife agency in January 
1967. This 11,200 acre area will offer diversified 
outdoor recreation to hunters and fishermen. In 
addition to excellent sport fishing in the many 
lakes, bayous and rivers a great potential also 
exists for development of waterfowl, deer, squir- 
rel and rabbits. 

The area was opened in its initial year to small 
game hunting on a season permit basis. A man- 
aged deer hunt was also allowed on a daily permit 
basis permitting hunters to kill legal bucks. Dur- 
ing the five day period, November 24, 25, and 26 
and December 2 and 3rd, 11 hunters killed ani- 
mals. 

It is planned in the future to create all weather 
access roads into the area, construct public boat 
launch sites, to build camping and picnic areas, 
fence the entire area to exclude livestock and to 
build a headquarters facility to serve the public 
and house the wildlife personnel assigned to de- 
velop the area. 

GRASSY LAKE PUBLIC HUNTING AREA 

Due to recent action by landowners of Grassy 
Lake, 14,500 acres of the 26,000 acre area has 
now been leased to soy bean production. The east- 
ern half of the area was retained by the Louisi- 
ana Wild Life and Fisheries Commission where 
the major lakes and streams are located. The area 
also has a good deer herd and also offers duck 
and squirrel hunting. 



91 




SPRING BAYOU 
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA 






imp«ev»d rood 
Unimproved rood 
Wood! toad 



Worth 



Boat launching ramp and parking area under con- 
struction on Pearl River at Bogalusa. 




DISTRICT VII 

HENRY D. ROBERTS 

District Supervisor 

New Construction 

A new office building, now under construction 
at the site of the old District VII office, probably 
will be ready for occupancy by March, 1968. Orig- 
inally planned as only a district office the plans 
were later revised to furnish office accommo- 
dations for practically all of the Louisiana Wild 
Life and Fisheries Commission personnel in the 
Baton Rouge area. This facility will cost some 
$300,000; an addition, approximating that same 




GRASSY LAKE 
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA 



LEGEND ; 



Boundary 



-^-HV Swamp 



Improved road 
Unimprovtd rood 



_«# InHrmilttn! iir«»i 




Henry D. Roberts, District VII Supervisor is shown 
examining a transfer pen used in transporting ani- 
mals from area to area. 



92 



cost, is in the planning stage now. This addition 
will furnish some of the much-needed laboratory 
space, as well as the remainder of the offices 
needed. 

Zemurray Deer Management Area 

LLOYD C. CUTRER 

Area Supervisor 

MANAGED HUNTS 

Archery 

An archery season for either sex deer was 
opened on this area each week-end from October 
8, 1966 through November 20, 1966. This afforded 
a total of 731 hunting efforts, with no deer 
bagged, and only two reported as hit. 

In 1967 the archery hunt was opened each 
week-end from October 7 through November 19. 
A total of 291 hunting efforts resulted in no kill 
on this area ; several hunters had some exception- 
ally good shots at deer, but none were hit. 
Gun 

The gun hunts also are for either sex deer. In 
1966, six hundred permits (200 per day, for 3 
days) were issued; of these, only 422 were used. 
These 422 hunting efforts resulted in a kill of 
only 17 deer (8 bucks and 9 doe), all of which 
were in exceptionally good condition. 

For the 1967 gun hunt only 588 hunters ap- 
plied for permits; therefore, permits were issued 
to all applicants. The hunt this year was Decem- 
ber 11-13, and resulted in a kill of 24 deer for 397 
hunting efforts. 

TURKEY RELEASES ON AREA 

In 1966 two small turkey releases were made. 
On February 5, six turkeys (1 male and 5 fe- 
males) were delivered to the area from the St. 
Helena trapping site. Four more (2 males and 
2 females) were released on February 11. Some 
of these turkeys were seen several times through- 
out the year, and they seemed to be doing quite 
well. 

During 1967 we made no more releases on this 
area, feeling that we probably had the nucleus 
which we needed for an area so small. None of 
these turkeys have been sighted throughout the 
year of 1967, but a little turkey sign has been 
found, on at least 2 different field trips. 

RANGE CONDITIONS 

Conditions of the range with respect to food 
and cover for both deer and turkey have improved 
markedly since the deer hunts on this area were 
originated in 1959-60. The decreased deer popu- 
lation was showing considerable effect upon range 
recovery, but timber destruction resulting from 
Hurricane Betsy brought about an even more 
pronounced change in the way of openings and 
understory development. 




LEASE ON AREA 

The lease was renewed, early in 1966, for 
another 15 year period. We had hoped to obtain 
the squirrel and turkey management rights on 
this area (as well as renewal of the deer manage- 
ment rights). However, we were able only to 
obtain the turkey management, and permission to 
allow the archery season. 

BEAVER TRAPPING 

This has become, in recent months, little more 
than a token effort within this district, as re- 
gards district personnel. We had practically quit 
trying to trap the beaver, and had adopted use 
of dynamite for blowing out beaver dams, lodges 
and dens. The beaver problems of this district 
are now being handled more and more by person- 
nel of the Predator Control Section. 

Idlewild Experiment Station 

LOUIS A. PELLERIN 

Area Supervisor 

TURKEY TRAPPING 

Trapping of turkeys on this area hasn't been 
as successful as had been hoped for. There is no 
valid explanation for this, as yet, unless it re- 
sults from too much traffic (of both vehicle and 
foot) for a bird as wary as the turkey. None were 
caught on this area in 1966. 

In 1967, on February 6, three were caught dur- 
ing an exceptionally hard rain. There were de- 
livered to District IV and were released on the 
Saline W.M.A. 



93 



Waddill Recreation Area 

LOUIS A. PELLERIN 

Area Supervisor 

Funds have been made available for some 
worthwhile development of this tract as a recrea- 
tion area. Planning for this development has been 
turned over to a firm of architects, who are to 
submit plans for camping areas, nature trails, 
picnic areas, caretaker's dwelling and numerous 
other facilities. The area is presently affording 
considerable fishing, both from the four stocked 
ponds and from the Comite River which forms 
the East (back) boundary; also, some rabbit 
and squirrel hunting is to be had. 

St. Helena Parish Research Area 

LLOYD C. CUTRER 

Area Supervisor 

Turkey trapping on this area has met with a 
little more success during this two year period. 
In 1966, three shots were made with the cannon 
nets, resulting in a catch of 16 turkeys, which 
were all released within District VII (in Tangi- 
pahoa Parish). 

In 1967 twenty five turkeys were caught in 
two shots of the cannon net. Nine of these were 
sent to District I, and were released in Claiborne 
Parish. The remainder were released at two dif- 
ferent sites in Tangipahoa Parish. 

BOAT RAMPS 

At the writing of the last Biennial report, the 
boat ramp at Chene Blanc was the only one of 
four which was completed. Early in 1966 the 
Bogue Chitto Ramp, near Franklinton, was com- 
pleted ; within a few more weeks the Pearl River 
Ramp #2, at Bogalusa, was completed. The Pearl 
River Ramp #1, near Angie, was not completed 
until late in 1966, due to high water and nu- 
merous other unforeseen problems. These ramps 
are all being rather extensively utilized. 

PROPOSED MANAGEMENT AREAS 

Pearl River 

In the winter of 1965-66 some 18,000 acres in 
the Pearl River bottom in St. Tammany Parish 
was offered to the Louisiana Wild Life and Fish- 
eries Commission as a management area in ex- 
change for removal of approximately 40 squatter 
hunting and fishing camps. Owners of these 
camps, mostly from Bogalusa, organized the op- 
position to establishment of the area. They cre- 
ated quite a commotion, which resulted in refusal 
by the Commission to accept the area. 

In the spring and summer of 1966 it was of- 



fered for sale to the Commission. This, too, was 

rejected. 

Amite 

An area along the Tangipahoa River bottom 
and eastward, encompassing some 12,000 to 15,000 
acres was proposed as a wildlife management 
area in the spring of 1966. This went so far as 
to reach the stage of a public hearing (which was 
required by the company who owned approxi- 
mately 7,000 acres of the land). At the public 
hearing this proposal also was voted down by 
the local people. 

DISTRICT VIII 

R. A. BETER 

District Supervisor 

CONRAD P. JUNEAU 

Biologist 

The diversity of game habitats is quite pro- 
nounced in District VIII. It is quite unique in that 
it is comprised almost entirely of marshlands and 
swamps. It is the largest District in the state, by 
virtue of its 13 parishes, namely, Orleans, St. 
Bernard, Plaquemines, Jefferson, Lafourche, St. 
John the Baptist, Terrebonne, St. James, St. 




R. A. BETER 

District Supervisor 

Charles, Assumption, Iberia, St. Mary and part 
of St. Martin. The District Office is located in 
New Orleans in the Old Civil Courts Building. 

The brackish to saline marshes of the southeast 
portion of the district are inhabited by many 
ducks and geese during the winter months, as are 
the other marshes along the southern portion. 
Fresh water environments along the Mississippi 
River and Atchafalaya Floodway give rise to 
ecological conditions which are conducive to wa- 
terfowl, deer, rabbits, squirrels, furbearers, and 
fishes. 

The hastening of the natural process has been 



94 



accelerated by man's exploitation of the land for 
minerals. The introduction of salt water into the 
marshes by access canals and seaways, elimination 
of fresh water outlets to the estuarine areas, 
drainage of fresh water swamps, all have had 
adverse effects on game animals and fishes. Fur- 
ther, the reduction of habitats has resulted from 
reclamation of forests for agricultural crops, 
highways, and housing projects. 

Public Shooting Grounds 

District VIII activities during this biennium 
were comprised of development operations on 
two marshland public shooting grounds and the 
development of a public hunting area on the 
Bonnet Carre Floodway. A total of approximately 
70,000 acres are in the process of intensive de- 
velopment under the auspices of the Pittman- 
Robertson Section, Fish and Game Division. The 
Biloxi Marshlands Public Shooting Ground, com- 
prising 40,000 acres, is the largest of the two 
areas. Although the 30,000 acre Wisner Public 
Shooting Ground is somewhat smaller in acreage, 
it also offers splendid development opportunities. 

Considering the extreme diversity of location, 
vegetation and development aspects, these areas 
shall be treated as separate entities. 

Biloxi Marshlands Public Shooting 
Grounds 

PROJECT W-30-D 

This area comprising 40,000 acres of good 
waterfowl area along coastal Louisiana, was ac- 



quired October 1, 1958. It is located approximate- 
ly 30 miles southeast of New Orleans in St. 
Bernard Parish. 

This public shooting ground is accessible from 
almost any direction. Access points are as close 
as Shell Beach, Ysckloskey and Hopedale. Larger 
boats take the more direct route south across 
Lake Borgne from Chef Menteur and Rigolets. 

The interior marsh is a labyrinth of bayous, 
lagoons, ditches and ponds. Nearly every pond 
and lagoon has an abundance of aquatics, such 
as widgeon grass. Diving ducks (scaup) and 
puddle ducks (mallards, teal, gadwalls, and bald- 
pate) come into the myriad of ponds to feed on 
widgeon grass while geese feed upon the new 
shoots of three-cornered grass following burning 
procedures. 

Isolated ridges which now lie dormant stand as 
mute testimony of the old distributary of the 
Mississippi River, Bayou Loutre. Upon these 
ridges rabbit, deer and the ever present cotton- 
mouth occur. 

Salt water fishes such as speckled trout, red- 
fish, sheephead, etc. are abundant in the waters 
of this area as are freshwater fishes at times, 
such as redear and bluegill sunfish and some black 
bass. The area is heavily utilized by sport fisher- 
men throughout the year. Particular emphasis is 
now placed on fishing around the recently com- 
pleted structures. Success has been phenomenal 
on all species of salt water fish that occur locally. 

Actual physical development commenced in 
January of 1960. A total of 22 wooden structures 
were installed during the prior biennium. In ad- 
dition two small manually installed structures 




District VIII personnel are completing a wooden structure in the Biloxi Marsh area. 



95 



%3m 




BtLOXI 
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA 



were erected. These installations now make water 
level controls possible on 20,000 acres. 

Earthen fills coupled with wooden structures 
will tend to stabilize water levels throughout the 
whole of the developed area. Stabilized water 
levels should insure the annual production of 
submerged aquatics such as widgeon grass. Also, 
stabilized water levels will provide better access 
during winter months when northwest winds 




District VIII personnel mark and tag alligators to be 
introduced to Biloxi marshlands public shooting 
ground. 




Tagged alligator being released on Biloxi marshlands 
public shooting ground. 




Water level is maintained at desired level behind dam during low tide by constructing wooden control struc- 
tures. 



96 



usually blow practically all the water from ponds 
and lagoons. 

No hurricanes interrupted field work during 
this biennium. 

Controlled burning of the marsh will reduce 
the climax vegetation of wire grass, big cord 
grass and oyster grass. Growths of sub-climax 
vegetation of three-cornered grass and leafy 
three-square, which are favored by geese and 
muskrats, should result. 

The waterfowl seasons saw development op- 
erations well under way and more hunters and 
fishermen taking advantage of the hunting and 
fishing opportunities with undeniable proof of 
successes. 

Requirement of a daily permit was initiated on 
the two marsh areas during 1967. 

ALLIGATOR FARMING 

Becoming effective in January of 1968 will be 
new regulations concerning the farming and com- 
mercial handling of alligators. Alligator farmers 
will be required to send in a list of all invoices 
showing any selling or buying that they are in- 
volved in. Commission personnel will then visit 
each alligator farm and inspect breeding pens to 
see that each breeding female has sufficient facili- 
ties for the rearing of young. All alligators 
present on these farms will be marked by means 
of tagging, toe clipping, etc. 

Each alligator farmer will be required to pur- 
chase annually a farming permit. The farmer is 
also obligated to report all newly hatched alli- 
gators which, in turn, will be marked at approxi- 
mately one year of age. The farmer must also 
keep records of all purchases, sales, and new 
brood hatches. 

These new rules and regulations were drawn 
to eliminate the illegal handling of alligators or 
alligator hides. 

Alligator Management on Biloxi Public 
Shooting Grounds 

On June 6, 1967, a total of 87 alligators were 
donated to the Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries 
Commission by Louisiana State University Medi- 
cal School to be released in natural habitats. 
These alligators were moved to the Biloxi Marsh- 
lands Public Shooting Grounds and released in 
several different areas. Many have since been 
sighted throughout the area and seem to have 
become well adapted to their new environment. 

VEGETATIVE SAMPLING 

Vegetative sampling was performed on the 
Biloxi Public Shooting Ground during the latter 
part of October and early November 1967. A total 
of 18 ponds were sampled. Six ponds were 
sampled behind the wooden structures, six ponds 



were sampled behind earthen dams, and six were 
sampled on areas which had no improvements. 
The open ponds are known as controls. 

The sampling procedure consisted of raking 50- 
100 samples across the ponds and determing, 
volumetrically, the amount of vegetation grow- 
ing therein. All vegetations found consisted of 
one species, Widgeon grass, Ruppia mnitima. 
Along with the vegetative sampling, water sam- 
ples were also obtained at each pond to determine 
salinities. 

Table I compares the amount of vegetation in 
the three types of sampled ponds. Table II com- 
pares the salinity of the three different areas. 

Vegetation— Widgeon Grass 



Wooden Structures 
Vol. ml. 


Earthen Dams 
Vol. ml. 


Controls 
Vol. ml 


W-1 ... 3,045 
W-2 . . . 1,185 
W-3 . . . 8,755 
W-4 ... 5,815 
W-5 ... 9,875 
W-6 . . . 1,455 


E-1 ... 3,895 
E-2 ...13,965 
E-3 ...11,145 
E-4 ...14,000 
E-5 ... 800 
E-6 ... 7,450 


C-1 ... 
C-2 . . . 
C-3 ... 
C-4 ... 
C-5 . . . 
C-6 . . . 


Totals ...30,130 


51,255 

Salinities 





Wooden Structures 


Earthen Dams 


Controls 


ppm 


ppm 


ppm 


W-1 ...16,200 
W-2 ...16,300 
W-3 ...15,800 
W-4 . ..18,800 
W-5 ...17,500 
W-6 ...18,600 


E-1 ...12,200 
E-2 ...14,900 
E-3 ... 8,100 
E-4 ...17,600 
E-5 ...15,800 
E-6 ...11,400 


C-1 ...15,700 
C-2 ...12,300 
C-3 ...20,600 
C-4 ...19,000 
C-5 ...16,500 
C-6 ...17,600 



Av. salinity 17,200 



13,300 



17,000 




The Biloxi Area contains an abundant supply of 
widgeon grass, considered one of the best waterfowl 
foods. 



97 




mm 



Pond after installation of earthen dam on the Biloxi 
Management Area. 

It is obvious from the above tables that the 
wooden and earthen dams were very conducive 
to the aquatic widgeon grass. The earthen dams 
were over V/% times more productive than the 
wooden dams. The controls were obvious by their 
complete absence of aquatics. 

Regarding salinities, the wooden and controls 
were almost identical yet the wooden structured 
areas were very productive whereas the controls 
were devoid of aquatics. 

The low salinity in the earthen ponds could be 
the controlling factor in the high production of 
aquatics. 

The most obvious fact is that areas which allow 
the ingress and egress of tidal waters along with 
the resulting high turbidites is not conducive to 
aquatic growths as noted in the control areas. 




Tow boat and dragline moving to location to con- 
struct earthen and wooden dams. 

Wisner Public Shooting Grounds 

PROJECT W-30-D 

This public shooting ground has been active 
since May 11, 1958. The 30,000 acre tract of po- 
tentially good waterfowl land is leased from the 
Edward Wisner Foundation for a period of 10 
years with a 5 year option to renew. It is located 
in the southeast portion of Lafourche Parish be- 
tween Leeville and Grand Isle, Louisiana. 

Boundaries start at the Southwest Louisiana 
Canal on the north, Gulf of Mexico on the south, 
Caminada Bay on the east and Bayou Lafourche 
on the west. 

Actual physical development began on this 
marshland during 1959. During the interim 
period, a total of 16 wooden structures have been 
erected on the area. These 16 structures stabilize 



levels in approximately 12,000 acres of marshland. 
Water depths in bayous in which wooden struc- 
tures are placed range from 5 to 8 feet. 

Due to the characteristics of the marsh with 
the interlacing labyrinth of connecting bayous, 
ditches and lagoons it becomes necessary to con- 
struct numerous earthen levees in conjunction 
with the wooden weirs. The smaller ditches and 
deteriorated spoil banks along bayous are there- 
fore closed by earthen fills. 

In certain portions of the area it has become a 
necessity to reconstruct the deteriorated spoil 
levees created by oil and gas companies in their 
past exploration and development practices. 

Vegetative types on the Wisner tract consist 
almost exclusively of the climax species of oyster 
grass. Controlled burning in some instances will 
revert this climax back to the sub-climax of leafy 
three-square and Olney three-square. Submerged 
aquatics consist of widgeon grass almost exclu- 
sively. 

Each year a new segment of the marsh is 
selected for development through the use of aerial 
photographs. After determination of the acreage 
to be developed by use of aerial photos, an on-site 
inspection is used to determine depths and widths 
of bayous, ditches, and lagoons to be closed. Then 
soil borings are made across these same openings 
to ascertain suitable soil type and texture and also 
whether or not shells or old stumps would hinder 
the installation of wooden pilings. If such con- 
ditions are encountered then a new location is 
plotted and procedures repeated. 

After field inspections are complete and deemed 
satisfactory, then tabulation of materials, costs, 
and personnel needed are computed and docu- 
mented for final approval. Detailed work plans 
are also submitted with respect to approximate 
man days needed, construction, and procedures to 
be followed. 

All developments are scheduled to be done on 
the Wisner tract during the winter and spring 
months. This is necessary due to the area being 
conducive to inside movements of dragline and 
barge without having to go into open water of 
large lakes during winter "Northers" such as it 
is necessary on Biloxi Public Shooting Grounds. 
Such a condition permits the working in six 
month segments on each area and during con- 
ducive weather conditions on both. 

Two shelled boat launching areas were installed 
and maintained adjacent to the area by the La- 
fourche Parish Police Jury. The first launching 
area is located on the south side of the highway 
at Dos Gris, Louisiana, about 15 miles south of 
Leeville. The second public launching area is lo- 
cated on the north side of Hwy. 1, adjacent to 
Bayou Fer Blanc. In addition to these two sites 
an additional parking and launching site has 
been offered by the Department of Highways on 
the new highway to Pass Fouchon. 



98 



Bonnet Carre Public Shooting Ground 

The Bonnet Carre Public Shooting Ground is 
located in St. Charles Parish near Norco, Louisi- 
ana. It is leased by the Louisiana Wild Life and 
Fisheries Commission from the U. S. Corps of 
Engineers for the purpose of managing and 
propagating the fish and wildlife resources on 
the area. 

Bonnet Carre Public Shooting Ground covers 
approximately 3,800 acres and is bounded on the 
east and west by borrow pits, and on the north 
and south by Highway 61 and Lake Pontchar- 
train, respectively. The area is covered partly by 
trees composed mainly of cypress and tupelo gum 
and interspersed with ash, hackberry, black 
willow, maple, honey-locust, and oaks. The center 
portion of the area is mainly open plains with 
grasses, aquatic and semi-aquatic plants being 
dominant. 

Many types of game can be found on the area. 
Native species such as rabbits and squirrels are 
fairly abundant and transients such as doves, 
woodcock, snipe, and waterfowl are plentiful. 

Bonnet Carre Public Shooting Ground also of- 
fers excellent opportunities for fishing, crabbing, 
and crayfishing. Efforts are now being made to 
divide the area and flood or drain each side at 
intervals, thereby producing an excellent attrac- 
tion for waterfowl and crayfish. As stated, the 
impoundment will be divided by a levee which 
will be topped with shell. Several parking sites 
and small boat ramps will be built at intervals 
along this center levee. 

Through such management, Bonnet Carre Pub- 




BONNET CARRE' 
PUBLIC HUNTING AREA 



UGEND : 



— — »■ Boundary 

Improved rood 
—■■••*•"» Unlmpiovad food 



Railroad 

Marth 

Slrtam 

InUrmllttnl •Iraam 



lie Shooting Ground should lend itself in the fu- 
ture as a top-ranking area for both hunting and 
fishing to residents in-and-around the New Or- 
leans area. 



Game Research 

EXPERIMENTAL TEST OF 
DOVE HUNTING REGULATIONS 

LAWRENCE D. SOILEAU 

Research Project Leader 

The mourning dove is the most important mi- 
gratory game species of the Southeastern States, 
whether one speaks of number of hunters, total 
kill or hours of recreation. This bird is also seen 
and enjoyed in cities and suburbs, North and 
South, by those who do not hunt, but who take an 
interest in the dove's well-being. The acknowl- 
edged goal in managing this species is to main- 
tain the population in a healthy, productive state 
which will provide continued good hunting along 
with all the other kinds of enjoyment that the 
dove provides. 

The manipulation of hunting regulations is the 
only practical tool presently available in attempt- 
ing management of the mourning dove. As the 
biology of the bird is presently understood, the 
annual rate of increase is high, with the amount 
of nesting habitat ultimately dependent upon 
land-use practices. The annual rate of mortality 
is also high, with hunting making up some un- 
known fraction of the total. Hunting regulations 
are imposed with the principal objective of pro- 
viding maximum recreation while keeping hunt- 
ing mortality within the ability of the species to 
reproduce and recover the following year. Yet it 
is not known what effects such regulations may 
have upon kill, total mortality or population pro- 
ductivity. 

Hunting regulations have been gradually re- 
laxed during the past 15 years from 8 birds and 
30 half-days of hunting to 12 birds and 70 half- 
days split into 3 segments. This 3-way split sea- 
son has served to satisfy the demands of hunters 
in different sections of our state, each group 
wishing to hunt when birds are most abundant 
locally. The annual index of calling breeding: doves 
during the Spring, the only measure of the dove 
population available before this year's research 
study, has shown virtually no change in the dove 
population of the Eastern Dove Management Unit 
during these 15 years of gradually relaxed hunt- 
ing regulations. The Eastern Dove Management 
Unit is composed of Louisiana plus all states east 
of the Mississippi River. 

Last year the Southeastern States joined with 






99 




m£SSm4HHH 

LARRY SOILEAU 

Research Project Leader 

the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife in 
order to investigate the effects of hunting regu- 
lations by measuring the biological changes pro- 
duced by substantially altering one of the hunting 
regulations. This study will require 4 years to 
complete. During the past 1966-67 and during this 
Fall's 1967-68 dove hunting season, regulations 
will remain unchanged at 12 birds and 70 half- 
days of hunting split into 3 segments. This un- 
changed hunting season will allow 2 years for 
measurement of kill and population and provide 
a base line figure for later comparisons. During 
the next 2 years, the 1968-69 and 1969-70 season, 
one of the hunting regulations will be changed — 
possibly the bag limit increased to 18 or 20 doves. 



Relaxation of a hunting regulation might or 
might not result in an increased total kill of 
doves ; most dove researchers suspect that it will. 
A kill survey is required to determine this point. 
If the total kill is increased, one must look for 
changes in the dove population. The call-count 
survey, a count of breeders in the Spring, will 
reflect any major changes in the breeding popu- 
lation, while banding will provide information 
on changes in total mortality and kill rate. A 
wing collection survey will allow the measurement 
of the production of young birds and furnish 
other useful information on daily bag size and' 
distribution of the kill through the season. Each 
of these four measurements provides a distinctly 
different kind of information, and further, their 
combined use gives added knowledge of the dove 
population. 

Since the study was begun during the 1966-67 
hunting season, a sample of Louisiana dove hunt- 
ers along with those in 5 other Southeastern 
States received a large brown envelope in the 
mail just prior to the beginning of the September 
season. These hunters were selected from the 
1965 dove kill telephone survey. Inside the en- 
velope were 10 smaller ones and a letter which 
began : "Dove Hunters : To insure the future of 
good hunting, we need a wing from each dove 
you kill." Approximately 15,000 dove wings were 
mailed to Gainsville, Georgia, by Alabama, Flori- 
da, Georgia, Louisiana, Tennessee and Virginia 
clove hunters. Dove biologists from Louisiana 
along with those from 18 other states and the 
Bureau met in January 1967 in Gainsville in order 
to determine the age of the doves bagged, which 
is discernible to the practiced eye of the dove 
biologist by feather color of the wing. The dis- 
tribution of daily bag size was also tabulated. The 




Dove shooting in Louisiana has grown to be our most 
popular "wing shooting". Young sportsmen enjoy 
this sport as well as the old. 



100 



I sample of Louisiana hunters sending in wings 
showed that they killed a bag limit of 12 doves 

J on approximately 10% of their hunting trips. 
The average bag in the state is 3 to 4 birds per 

1 trip. 

Each state of the Eastern Management Unit 
was also assigned a quota of 4,000 doves to band 

• yearly during the study in order to measure mor- 
\ tality. Louisiana was able to more than fulfill its 
! quota with 4,763 doves banded in the state prior 
1 to the 1966 season and 5,305 prior to 1967 season. 

Probably the most significant measurement of 
all, however, is a measure of the total dove kill, 
since the primary objective of the study is to de- 

• termine whether a change in hunting regulation 
results in a change in total kill and a subsequent 

l change in the dove population. For the first time 

in the history of dove management, a reliable 

: estimate of the kill over an entire region of the 

■ country has been possible. This is the direct re- 
i suit of the pioneering research by your Wild Life 
i and Fisheries Commission in the field of the dove 
: kill telephone survey. The region-wide survey was 
i directed by Dr. Don Hayne, a noted statistician at 
. North Carolina State University at Raleigh. Dr. 
i Hayne has previously guided our telephone sur- 
veys here in Louisiana. 

The preliminary estimate of the kill of doves 

■ in the Eastern Dove Management Unit is approxi- 
mately 21 million. This kill was distributed among 
the hunting states as listed below : 

Eastern Mourning Dove Management Unit 



Wonhunting States Hunting States 



Estimated Kill 
(1966-67) 



Connecticut 

Indiana 

Maine 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

Ohio 

Vermont 

Wisconsin 



Alabama 3 

Delaware 

Florida 1 

Georgia 3 

Illinois 

Kentucky 1 

Louisiana 2 

Maryland 

Mississippi 2 

North Carolina 1 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 1 

Tennessee 1 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

Estimated Total 21 



,297,000 
146,500 
,953,600 
,034,600 
863,200 
,230,600 
,388,800 
460,100 
,260,500 
,948,800 
290,900 

46,700 
,184,400 
,323,800 
838,300 

39,300 

,307,100 



During the past two hunting seasons the state- 
wide totals were as follows : 



Season 



1965-66 Hunting Season 

Hunters Trips 



Sept. 4-14 44,500 106,900 

Oct. 9-Nov. 7 69,200 208,600 

Dec. 18-Jan. 15 46,200 148,000 



Kill 

407,800 
731,500 
548,600 




Two successful dove hunters after a dav on the corn 
field. 



1966-67 Hunting Season 

Sept. 3-18 72,800 264,000 1,120,000 

Oct. 15-Nov. 6 50,400 183,000 842,000 

Dec. 16-Jan. 15 27,100 89,000 392,000 

As estimated by the telephone survey, the kill 
in Louisiana has steadily increased during the 
past 3 years from 1 million to 1.7 million and 
now to 2.4 million doves. This presents a bright 
picture, indeed, but does not alter the fact that 
dove researchers still do not know how hunting 
regulations effect total dove kill. This statewide 
kill increase during the past 3 years has occurred 
with the same set of hunting regulations. 

The 4 year study is an ambitious and demand- 
ing one. It has been pointed out that the mourning 
dove is now the most important migratory species 
in the Southeast; therefore, this cooperative study 
is even now overdue. If we are not fully utilizing 
the dove resource and this study demonstrates 
that hunting regulation manipulations will allow 
us to achieve our goal of full utilization, this study 
will be well worth its cost. 

This is probably one of the few times in the 
history of wildlife management when research 
has been initiated while a wildlife species is still 
abundant. Research has generally been prompted 
by a shortage of hunting opportunity. With our 
present approach, it is hoped that dove managers 
will learn to wisely use their only present practi- 
cal tool — the manipulations of hunting regula- 
tions. 



101 



INCIDENCE OF LEAD SHOT IN 

GIZZARDS OF PINTAILS AND MALLARDS 

COLLECTED AT CATAHOULA LAKE 1967 

CLARK HOFFPAUER 

On January 30 and February 7, 1967, twenty- 
six pintails and 37 mallards which indicated lead 
poisoning were collected in Catahoula Lake. These 
ducks could either not fly or could only dive. Of 
these 63 ducks, 89 % had at least one pellet in the 
gizzard and 65% had at least 3 or more pellets 
in the gizzard. The average number of shots per 
bird examined was 6.7 pellets. To further check 
the incidence of lead shot ingestion on the 7th 
of February, 35 free flying ducks (i.e. indicated 
by fast flight not to be under the influence of 
lead poisoning) were collected. Twenty-six were 
pintails and 9 were mallards. Thirty-one percent 
of these had at least one pellet in the gizzard and 
14 percent had at least 3 pellets in the gizzard. 
The average number of pellets per gizzard was 
3.3. 

To further check the incidence of lead shot, 137 
apparently healthy free flying ducks were ran- 
domly shot. One hundred fourteen were pintails 
and 18 were mallards. Of these collected 13% 
had at least one shot in the gizzard and 6% had 
at least 3 shots in the gizzard. The average num- 
ber of shots per gizzard was 1.5. 



WATERFOWL INVENTORY 
1966-1967 

Waterfowl census conducted on the wintering 
ground is one method of actually counting birds. 
This method involves the use of an aircraft that 
flies certain predetermined transect lines. All 
ducks seen along this line and 1/8 miles on each 
side of it are recorded by means of a portable 
voice recorder. Number and species of ducks seen 
are recorded. Each line has an expansion factor 
which is the percentage of the total area that the 
transect represents. Total ducks seen on the line 
are expanded and recorded by species. All tran- 
sects are flown at 75 feet altitude and 90-100 
mph. 

Louisiana winters 30-50 % of the ducks found 
in the Mississippi Flyway, and has the highest 
number of ducks recorded in any state in the 
United States during the mid-winter inventory. 
Louisiana is in a very enviable position compared 
to other states as far as waterfowl hunting op- 
portunity is concerned. 

This type of waterfowl census has been con- 
ducted in Louisiana for the past 14 years and has 
provided much information such as arrival and 
departing dates, migration peaks and routes, and 
the total numbers of ducks in the state. 



Table 1 

LOUISIANA WATERFOWL INVENTORY 
1966-1967 

1966 1966 1966 

October Oct. Nov. Nov. Dec. 

Species 3-7 29 9 29 7 

Mallard 100 123,000 342,000 

Black Duck 200 11,000 

Gadwall 12,500 291,000 807,000 

Baldpate 53,000 246,000 539,500 

Green W. Teal 14,500 126,500 626,000 

Blue W. Teal 83,000 85,500 181,000 

Shoveler 17,000 94,500 205,000 

Pintail 93,500 259,000 817,000 

Wood Duck 99,000 * 

Mottled Duck 73,000 75,000 75,000 

Redhead 1,000 16,000 

Canvasback 100 4,500 

Scaup 129,500 61,000 

Ringneck 9,600 35,500 

Ruddy 5,800 12,000 

Merganser 3,400 4,100 

TOTAL 347,200 1,447,500 3,736,60 

Canada Geese 35 * 3,990 

Whitefront Geese 380 * 56,950 

Blue & Snow Geese 370 * 421,350 

TOTAL 785 *_ 482,290 

Coots 41,500 389,000 1,609,000 



1967 


1967 


1967 


October 


October 


November 


9-13 


23-27 


6-10 


1,600 


49,000 


125,500 











7,600 


235,000 


339,000 


22,650 


110,000 


176,000 


21,700 


241,000 


346,000 


17,700 


28,000 


97,000 


11,200 


81,000 


104,000 


85,550 


291,000 


377,000 


49,000 


57,000 


57,000 








3,500 








10,500 





4,500 


489,500 





5,000 


21,000 








10,600 








3,000 



217,000 



8,025 

3,625 

11,650 

37,500 



1,101,500 



2,150,100 



To be conducted bv 
U. S. F. & W. L. S. 



340,000 



538,000 



102 



Table 2 

LOUISIANA MID-WINTER WATERFOWL 
INVENTORY 1966-1967 

1966 1967 
Species January 3-10 January 10-15 

Mallard 665,000 445,000 

Black Duck 7,000 14,000 

Gadwall 887,000 904,000 

Baldpate 495,000 533,000 

Green W. Teal 855,000 667,500 

Blue W. Teal 128,000 186,500 

Shoveler 290,000 289,000 

Pintail 1,113,500 1,024,000 

Wood Duck 99,000 * 

Mottled Duck 53,000 88,000 

Redhead 23,000 25,000 

Canvasback 12,000 15,000 

Scaup 380,000 195,000 

Ringneck 42,000 83,000 

Ruddy 13,200 15,000 

Merganser 10,000 7,000 

TOTAL 5^0727700 4,491,50 

Canada Geese 6,817 6,000 

Whitefront Geese 46,642 46,000 

Blue & Snow Geese 375,220 331,000 

TOTAL 4 28,674 383,000 

Coots 1,015,000 820,000 



PRE-SEASON TEAL TRAPPING RESULTS 

1966 1967 

Mottled Duck 26 7 

Blue Winged Teal 3,167 2,233 

Pintail 102 350 

Wood Duck 175 184 

Fulvous Tree Duck 13 4 

3,483 2,778 

One of the agreements made by the states par- 
ticipating in the early teal season is that each 
state involved would try to trap 2,000 blue or 
green winged teal. Louisiana far exceeded its 
quota in 1966 and 1967. The greatest effort was 
in Districts III and IV on Catahoula Lake. Ap- 
proximately 20 traps were run each day prior to 
the teal season. The trapping effort was started 
the first week in August and continued until five 
days prior to the season. As the trapping was 
done on the refuge area there was no danger of 
a hunter shooting over a baited area. The traps 
were tended daily in Commission airboats. These 
boats greatly facilitated the trapping effort on 
Catahoula Lake. 

Other areas that were trapped in the pre-season 
banding effort were Rockefeller Refuge, Wham 
Brake, Anacoco Lake, Ville Platte ponds and 
Monroe minnow ponds. 

LOUISIANA WATERFOWL HARVEST 
1966 

Louisiana in 1966 killed 1,291,000 ducks and 
127,900 geese as reported by the U. S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service. The kill in Louisiana repre- 
sents 22.2 % of the total ducks and 32.3% of the 



total geese killed in the Mississippi Flyway. Fol- 
lowing is a table of the Louisiana kill by species. 

% of Total No. of 

Species La. Kill Ducks Killed 

Mallard 20.9 269,840 

Black duck 6 7,747 

Mottled duck 3.9 50,353 

Gadwall 15.7 202,703 

Widgeon 8.5 109,743 

Green-winged teal 9.8 126,528 

B. W. Teal 4.7 60,682 

Shoveler 5.1 65,846 

Pintail 11.7 151,059 

Wood duck 7.2 92,959 

Redhead 6 7,747 

Canvasback 5 6,455 

Greater scaup 4 5,164 

Lesser scaup 6.3 81,339 

Ring-necked duck 3.1 40,024 

Ruddy duck 2 2,582 

Large mergansers Tr. = .1 1,291 

Hooded mergansers 6 7,747 

Others Tr . = .1 1,291 

100.0 1,291,100 

Blue goose 52.6 67,275 

Snow goose 17.7 22,638 

White-fronted goose 29.2 37,348 

Canada goose . .5 639 

100.0 127,900 

1966 TEAL SEASON RESULTS 
CLARK HOFFPAUER 

In 1966 a total of 144,784 teal season hunter 
permits were issued in the United States. Louisi- 
ana issued 37,500 of this total. During the 1966 
season Louisiana hunters participated for 43,610 
hunter days and bagged 95,880 teal. This aver- 
aged a season bag of 5.7 birds per hunter. A total 
of 16,800 hunters hunted at least once and 72 % 
were successful. 

In the total bag 88,380 blue-winged teal, 7,500 
green-winged teal and 100 woodducks and 100 
miscellaneous ducks were killed during the 1966 
season. This averaged 2.2 ducks per hunter per 
day afield for Louisiana hunters. The Mississippi 
Flyway average was only 1.56 ducks per day 
afield. 

All the above information is based on the mail 
questionnaires distributed by the U.S.F. & W.S. 

The 1967 Teal Season results were not com- 
pleted by the U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service at 
the time of printing this report. A total of 47,409 
teal permits were issued in Louisiana for the 1967 
season. 

WING AGEING SCHOOL 

On the wings of the most common species of 
ducks, there are usually slight differences in fea- 
ther color, pattern shape, wear or feather re- 
placement, that are sufficient to separate im- 
mature from older birds. Age determination is 
largely a matter of the step by step search for one 
or more of these characters which are found in 
juvenile plumage. Wings on which no traces of 
immaturity can be found or have positive adult 
plumage are classed as adults. Specific determi- 



103 



nation is made from color patterns on the wings. 
This is essentially what is discussed and taught 
at the wing ageing schools. In 1966 Clark Hoff- 
pauer attended the wing school at Fort Collins, 
Colorado and the group at the school examined, 
aged and sexed 27,000 wings. In 1967 Jim Em- 
finger and Reggie Wycoff attended the same 
school and examined 20,000 duck wings and 25,- 
000 goose tails. 

EFFECTS AND EXTENT OF OIL FIELD 
CANALS ON LOUISIANA MARSHES 

Dredging of oil and drainage canals in the 
Louisiana marshes is a very important factor ef- 
fecting ecological changes. A study was initiated 
in 1966 to determine the extent of these canals, 
their progress and their effect. To implement this 
study, canals were sketched on aerial photographs 
and topographic maps. This simple inventory of 
the number of canals and a compilation of their 
physical features such as length, width and depth 
does not give a reliable indication of the magni- 
tude of the changes in marsh ecology. The only 
reliable method previous to this of measuring the 
vegetative changes occurring due to the dredging 
of the canals was to measure by quadrat rule the 
actual composition and growth of the vegetation. 
This is next to impossible for this project due 
to the length of time involved in the actual mea- 
surement. 

A new method of remote sensing by false color 
film is being employed. This method involves the 
use of Infrared Etachrome, a false color film. 
The sensitometric properties of this three dye 
color film will not be discussed here. What hap- 
pens is that the wave length of radiant energy in 
the near infrared part of the spectrum activate 
the visible red dye in the film (i.e. in the 0.7 to 
1.0 wave lengths). Most healthy foliage is very 
highly reflective of this wave length region, 
whereas most unhealthy vegetation is not. There- 
fore, dark red denotes healthy vegetation and 
lighter shades of red through the spectrum de- 
notes a deteriating condition caused by salt water 
intrusion, flooding, sediment or stagnation. To 
date, aerial pictures have been taken from the 
Commission plane using this type film and have 
produced some very interesting results. 

COOPERATIVE CANADIAN BANDING 

This banding effort in Canada is supported by 
every state in the United States and encompasses 
all of Canada. In 1966 the banding effort in Cana- 
da by the United States was greatly curtailed, 
therefore, Louisiana did not send a man to par- 
ticipate in this operation. In 1967 L. D. Soileau 
of the Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Com- 
mission participated in this operation. The band- 
ing site was located on the Water Hen marshes 
south of Kinistino, Sask. This marsh is a Ducks 



Unlimited project and supplies many ducks for 
the United States hunters. Mr. Soileau left Lou- 
isiana on July 22nd and returned on September 
7, 1967. His crew banded 1,934 mallards and 463 
pintails. 

WOOD DUCK TRAPPING AND BANDING 

The wood duck ranks from third to sixth place 
in the Louisiana duck kill and ranks from second 
to fifth in the total Mississippi Flyway kill. For 
this reason a Flyway banding program is carried 
out. Louisiana has a difficult role in this co- 
operative program due to the vastness of the wood 
duck breeding area, i.e. the Atchafalaya Basin. 
Most trapping is dependent on small resident 
flocks. 

The type traps employed are the floating type 
and the old funnel type. Another trap used with 
varying degrees of success is the drive trap. This 
trap is difficult to set up and difficult to operate, 
but when everything is right it is one of the most 
successful traps in catching ducks. In one night 
in St. Landry Parish, 88 wood ducks were caught 
by driving. Following is the 2 year breakdown for 
wood duck trapping. 

Location 1966 1967 

D'Arbonne Lake 39 12 

Anacoco Lake 269 74 

Colombia 5 

Rockefeller Refuge 27 5 

Catahoula Lake 8 

Catahoula ( LaSalle) 36 14 

Point Pleasant 35 

Mill Haven 19 10 

Bundieks Lake 182 

Ferriday 17 

Wisner 1 

St. Landry ^^ _88 

TOTAL FOR YEAR 438 403 

DEER RANGE STUDIES 
LOUIS E. BRUNETT 

The overall objective of this study is to gather 
deer management data from the deer ranges 
throughout the state. Data from all areas must be 
gathered so biologically sound management mea- 
sures can be recommended. 

Specific objectives of this study are (1) to 
learn as much as possible regarding the various 
deer ranges of the state and the herds that oc- 
cupy them, (2) to recommend sound management 
measures for all deer ranges in the state, and 
(3) to compile a record of deer management regu- 
lations for the various ranges during the recent 
history of management. 

Each District Supervisor divided his District 
into deer range survey areas. Each area was to be 
treated as the range of one herd of deer and was 
to be surveyed and reported on separately. These 
areas were set up using roads or streams as 
well defined boundarys. 

The techniques for making the surveys and 



104 



writing the report were prepared as a guide to 
be used by all Districts. Each supervisor is re- 
sponsible for the surveying of the deer ranges 
within his District. Assistance was available from 
all District personnel. Further assistance from the 
Enforcement Division was to be solicited. 

A survey party was to consist of one to several 
men, each familiar with the browse plants of the 
area. A survey route was to be laid out along 
public roads or along water courses which were 
navigable. The party was to travel by vehicle or 
boat between inspection stops. 

Inspection stops were to be located on a map 
of the area. At each stop the investigator was to 
walk perpendicular to the main line of travel 
keeping notes on occurrence and use of browse, 
and deer sign such as tracks, droppings, rubs, and 
sign of dogs and cattle. The timber type and all 
other information believed to be relevant was to 
be recorded. 

Local people were to be contacted as well as 
Enforcement agents, Forestry Commission em- 
ployees, and industrial Foresters to obtain com- 
ments helpful to the survey. 

The physical condition of the deer was to be 
obtained from data recorded during the previous 
season when such data is available. 

A narrative report was to be prepared on each 
area surveyed. The report is to include description 
of area, history of deer herd and hunting seasons, 
factors adversely affecting deer, factors that af- 
fect hunting, condition of the range, condition 
of the herd (if determined), economic liability of 
deer in the area, recommendations for coming 
season, the chances of getting the herd managed 
along sound biological principles, and an estimate 
I of needs to facilitate deer management in the 
area. 

All the deer range survey reports are for- 
warded to the Fish and Game Division Office 
r where the information is available for use in 
setting deer hunting regulations. 

Establishment of Desirable Understory 
Plants in Commercial Forests 

Large landowners are planting vast acreage, 
mostly in cutover pine land, to pine. Some of the 
landowners and timber managers are interested 
in producing deer browse and at the same time 
produce a maximum of commercial timber. A 
study was established to determine if deer browse 
plants can be introduced on pine sites and if com- 
petition will exist between the plants and pine 
and at what stocking rate competition occurs. 

In February, 1967, on the Red Dirt Game Man- 
agement Area, study plots were established with 
seedlings of slash pine. All plots are one-tenth 
acre in size. The slash pine were planted on all 
plots at an 8 foot by 8 foot spacing. Yaupon is to 
j be interplanted in the slash pine plots, three plots 
I at each of three stocking rates. These rates are 



(1) three plots of interplanted yaupon at 720 
plants per acre. (2) three plots of interplanted 
yaupon at 360 plants per acre ; and (3) three plots 
of interplanted yaupon at 160 plants per acre. 
Three plots will remain with only slash pine to 
serve as a control. 

Fruits of various deer browse species were col- 
lected to conduct a germination test of their seeds. 
The seed of the higher preferred browse plants 
that prove to be easy to germinate will be field 
tested for planting in pine forest. 

Cooperative Deer Range Study 

This cooperative study is being carried out by 
the Louisiana Wildlife and Fisheries Commission, 
the Southern Forest Experiment Station and the 
Kisatchie National Forest of the United States 
Forest Service, and the Soil Conservation Service. 
The overall planning and establishment of the 
study was a joint endeavor of the Commission and 
the Southern Forest Experiment Station. 

The overall objective of this study is to gain a 
better understanding of deer and their range in 
the loblolly-shortleaf pine-hardwood forest of 
Louisiana and the carrying capacity of this forest 
type. Specifically, this study has the following ob- 
jectives under three different stocking rates: 

1. To determine the availability of forage and 
the species preference by deer during the summer 
and winter seasons. 

2. To determine forage "indicator" species that 
would serve as management guides in determining 
approximate deer stocking levels per unit of area 
and in regulating proper range use. 

3. To determine the effects of different intensi- 
ties of deer stocking and forage use upon the con- 
dition and trend of the range and forest repro- 
duction. 

4. To determine the production of oak mast and 
its influence upon forage use and deer condition. 

5. To determine the physical response of deer 
to range conditions that prevail under three dif- 
ferent levels of stocking and the prescribed forest 
management practices. 

This study has been in progress since 1960. At 
that time the study area was selected and a sur- 
vey party located the fence line of each of three 
160 acre enclosures and 20 acre enclosures. A bull- 
dozer was used to clear the fence right-of-way 
and excavate a pond, approximately one quarter 
acre in size, in each enclosure. A nine foot deer 
proof fence was completed in January. 1961. 

The three enclosures were stocked with trapped 
deer at the rates of two, four, and eight deer for 
each of the 160 acre enclosures. 

Personnel of the Southern Forest Experiment 
Station put in the study plots and necessary tran- 
sects. The plots are for timber inventory and 
forage production and utilization. The transects 
were established to determine range condition and 



105 



trend. Mast traps were erected to collect acorns 
for production studies. 

All data to date has been collected but an over- 
all evaluation of these data will not be made until 
the study has been in for 10 years. 

The end results of this study are expected to 
have considerable effect upon future deer man- 
agement in this important timber type of Lou- 
isiana. 

Payability of Sprouts Produced by 
Herbicide Treated Browse Species 

Herbicides are becoming more important in the 
control of brush and hardwoods in the pine 
forests. Landowners use herbicides to kill un- 
desirable species so pine can be established. 
Various chemicals are used, but 2,4, 5T is the most 
widely used. The 2,4, 5T is usually mixed at two 
pounds of four pounds acid equivalent per gallon, 
with water and diesel oil as carriers to make a 
total of five gallons. 

When brush is treated with herbicide, various 
species may react differently. Some species may 
be totally killed while others have just the main 
stem killed, and still others that are tolerant to 
the chemical may have the leaves killed and com- 
pletely recover. Those species that have the main 
stem killed usually put out an abundance of 
sprouts around the root collar. 

The objectives of this study were to determine 
if sprouts produced by 2,4,5T treated browse 
species retain the herbicide, the effects the her- 
bicide had on the nutritional value of the plant, 
and its palatability. It was attempted to determine 
if deer would make a choice between sprouts pro- 
duced by plants treated by various methods. 

To accomplish the objectives of this job a study 
area was set up in a cattle free area on the Red 
Dirt Game Management Area. 

This area was situated in a stream bottom that 
was extremely wide. The overhead canopy of the 
study area was of medium density and made up of 
black gum, maple, spring huckleberry, yaupon, 
azalea, water oak, sweetleaf, witch-hazel, white- 
bay, parsley hawthorn, red-bay, snowbell, large- 
leaf gallberry, candleberry, and flowering dog- 
wood. This area was chosen because a variety of 
plants could be treated on a small area. Sprouting 
of deer browse species was induced by three 
methods: (1) herbicides, (2) burning, and (3) 
cutting. 

The study area was divided into four plots. 
Each plot was approximately one acre in size. 
Desirable and intermediate preference deer 
browse species on one plot were treated with 
2,4,5T (four pounds acid equivalent per gallon) 
at a concentration of eight pounds acid equivalent 
per hundred gallons of water and diesel oil emul- 
sion. The herbicide was applied to each plant 
through the use of black pack type sprayer. 

Deer browse species, on one plot, considered to 



be of desirable and intermediate preference were 
cut with a brush blade. There was no effort made 
to cut these at any specific height. The cut was 
made at a convenient height anywhere near 
ground level to 18 inches. 

One plot was burned in March 1966. One plot 
was not treated and is used as a control. Periodic 
observations were made to determine if there was 
a choice, by deer, between the sprouts produced 
on browse species treated by the three methods 
described above. 

In June 1966, samples of sprouts from white- 
bay, redbay, maple, dogwood, azalea, and black- 
gum were clipped from the burned and cut plots. 
The sprouts on the herbicide treated plants had 
not made sufficient growth to collect a sample 
large enough to be analyzed. These samples plus 
those from plants in the control area were not I 
collected until September. Two samples were col- 
lected from each species on each plot. The first 
two inches of the stem tip made up one sample 
and the next four inches of each stem made up 
the other. These samples were taken to the Co- 
operative Wildlife Research Unit at Louisiana 
State University. There they were over dried and 
ground. The Feed and Fertilizer Laboratory at 
the University was to analyze the sample for per 
cent protein, per cent fat, per cent fibre, per cent 
moisture, per cent ash, per cent calcium, and per 
cent phosphorous. They were to also analyze 
samples for retention of the herbicide. 

The results of the analysis of the sprout 
samples have recently been received from the 
Feed and Fertilizer Laboratory at Louisiana State 
University. This data has not been further 
analyzed. 

Winter Plantings for Deer 

In the fall of each year considerable food patch 
acreage on the game management areas is planted 
to wheat. Deer use this wheat heavily each winter. 
A study was set up to determine the feasibility 
of these plantings. 

The objectives of this study are: (1) to de- 
termine the practicability of establishing honey- 
suckle on plots for deer; (2) to determine the 
amount of forage produced per acre of honey- 
suckle planting; (3) to determine the amount of 
green forage produced per acre of wheat planted 
using various fertilization rates; and (4) to de- 
termine the effects browsing has on wheat pro- 
duction. 

To accomplish the objectives pertaining to the 
honeysuckle, a study was to be conducted in the 
two 40 acre deer corrals on the Red Dirt Game 
Management Area. These two corrals are in typi- 
cal Red Dirt timber types and topography. The 
corrals are referred to as the South 40 and North 
40. 

It appears that honeysuckle is high on the pref- 
erence list of foods for deer. It is possible that 



106 



this plant may be established on or around exist- 
ing food plots and once it is established it would 
not require annual planting. For this reason, this 
plant could take the place of wheat that is planted 
in the fall. Wheat planted on plots, on this area, 
is usually used heavily by deer each winter. 

The objectives relating to honeysuckle has been 
in study for three years. There has been a prob- 
lem of getting plants established. Efforts have 
been made each year to establish two acres of 
honeysuckle in the North 40. Survival has been 
poor. At the present time, there is approximately 
one acre of established honeysuckle plants. These 
have been fertilized and are making a consid- 
erable amount of growth. 

To accomplish the objectives of determining 
the amount of forage produced per acre of planted 
wheat and the effects browsing has on its pro- 
duction, a study was initiated on a plot on Red 
Dirt. The patch was flat, poorly drained, and the 
soil was a fine sandy loam. 

In the summer of 1965, soil samples were col- 
lected from this plot and turned over to the 
County Agent of Rapides Parish. The County 
Agent sent the samples to the Soil Testing Lab- 
oratory, Louisiana State University, Agricultural 
Experiment Station, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, for 
analysis. 

The analysis of soils of the wheat study plot 
revealed that all nutrients checked were low in 
availability. The check showed available phos- 
phorous 19 parts per million, available potassium 
20 parts per million, available calcium 120 parts 
per million, and available magnesium 53 parts 
per million. The pH was determined to be 4.4. 

To grow wheat on this soil, it was recommended 
that the least amounts of fertilizers needed per 
acre were three tons of lime, 100 pounds of ni- 
trogen, 80 pounds phosphate, and 80 pounds of 
potash. The three tons of lime per acre were to 
correct the low calcium and pH. The duration of 
the lime would be approximately five years. To 
correct the phosphate and potash deficiency, it 
was recommended to apply 400 pounds of 6-24-24 
or 0-20-20 per acre annually. Nitrogen was to be 
applied at 150 pounds per acre at time of plant- 
ing or top dressed after stand was obtained. 

Each plot was prepared for planting by break- 
ing the soil with a farm tractor and breaking 
plow, and double disking. Eighteen small study 
plots, 20 feet by 30 feet were measured off in two 
groups of nine. Each group of plots was three 
plots wide and three plots long separated by a 
five foot buffer strip. In each group of plots three 
were planted with the lime and fertilization rate 
as recommended from the soil analysis; three 
were planted at the fertilization rate of 300 
pounds 12-12-12 per acre, and three were planted 
with no fertilizer and used as a control. The seed- 
ing rate for all plots was two (2) bushels of 
wheat per acre. The 300 pounds 12-12-12 repre- 



sents fertilization rates used on the plots in the 
past. 

The study plots were planted by applying the 
required amount of lime and fertilizer, or ferti- 
lizer, and seed, on the previously prepared seed- 
bed, and then disked in. The wheat was planted 
on October 12, 1966. 

One group of nine plots was used to get a total 
production figure. The other group was used to 
determine the effects browsing by deer has on 
wheat production. In each group of plots, three 
plots one meter in size, were picked mechanically 
on each of the 20 by 30 foot plots. This made 
a total of nine sampling plots for each treatment 
on each group of plots. To protect the wheat on 
these sampling plots from being utilized by deer, 
protective cages constructed from 1 by 2 inch 
weld wire were used. The cages were round in 
shape and covered an area equal to one square 
meter. On one group of plots, the wheat under 
these cages was clipped and weighed on March 
31, 1967. This wheat was clipped approximately 
one inch from the ground. The weights obtained 
from the clipped wheat were used to compute a 
total production figure. 

The wheat under the protective cages on the 
other group of plots was clipped three times from 
January through March 31, 1967. This wheat was 
clipped each time one inch from the ground. This 
periodic clipping was to simulate deer use. The 
weights obtained from this clipped wheat were 
used to compute a weight that represents a pro- 
duction figure where wheat recovered from simu- 
lated browsing. 

In the fall of 1965, wheat was planted in 
another portion of this plot. It was planted on 
similar plots using the same fertilization rates. 
However, that wheat was top dressed with am- 
monia nitrate on February 1, 1966, at the recom- 
mended rate of 150 pounds per acre. The wheat 
planted in 1966 was not top dressed. The purpose 
of the 1965 planting was to get a total production 
figure under various fertilization rates. 

On the wheat plot, the green forage clipped and 
weighed to obtain a total production figure com- 
puted the following amounts produced per acre 

(1) where lime, fertilizer (6-24-24), and am- 
monia nitrate was applied 17,317 pounds per acre, 

(2) where fertilizer (12-12-12) only was applied 
7,759 pounds per acre, and (3) no fertilization 
(control) 3,096 pounds per acre. 

On this same plot during the winter of 1965-66, 
the production was 27,326 pounds per acre, 10,570 
pounds per acre, and 1,404 pounds respectively 
for each treatment. However, the wheat on the 
plots that received lime, fertilizer, and ammonia 
nitrate was top dressed in February with am- 
monia nitrate. The plots receiving that treatment 
during this segment were not top dressed. 

On those plots clipped periodically to simulate 
deer browsing, the following amounts were com- 
puted to be produced: (1) where lime, fertilizer 



107 



(6-24-24) and ammonia nitrate was applied 
13,044.6 pounds per acre, (2) where fertilizer 
(12-12-12) only was applied 4,835.5 pounds per 
acre, and (3) control 1,461.8 pounds. It is there- 
fore assumed at this time, that deer browsing 
wheat does have a significant effect on the pro- 
duction of green forage. 

A study is presently in on Red Dirt to make an 
evaluation of the amount of green forage pro- 
duced by wheat top dressed with ammonia nitrate 
at various times. This study is on the same large 
plot where the soils were analyzed and the fertili- 
zation rates are those recommended by the County 
Agent. 

Burning Study 

The use of prescribed fire in loblolly, slash, and 
longleaf pine forests has become an advantageous 
management tool for wise landowners. This pre- 
scribed fire is one that is set and controlled under 
the proper conditions. Many landowners recog- 
nize benefits derived from the controlled fire. The 
techniques used in a controlled burn are rather 
unique but are not difficult to learn. The wild- 
life manager has long been aware of the benefits 
resulting from a control burn of pine forests. 

The forest benefits several ways from a con- 
trolled burn. In pine timber the "rough" is re- 
duced offering some protection in event of a wild 
fire. It prunes the lower branches from the plant 
making a more desirable tree trunk. There is a 
reduction in insect and disease damage. The chem- 
ical and physical properties (organic matter) of 
the top two to six inches of soil are increased. The 
quality of grasses, herbs, and brush spouts are 
improved. For deer the fire keeps the browse 
plants down within reach of the animals. As a 
plant grows out of reach of deer, fire will kill the 
main stem. The plant will then put out several 
sprouts at the root collar resulting in several 
stems replacing the one killed. The nutritive value 
of these sprouts are very high the first year, de- 
creases the second and after the third growing 
season the nutritive value is back to that of plants 
not burned. 

Quail and turkey also benefit from burning. 
Fire improves conditions for abundant seed pro- 
duction of annuals and perennials. It also stimu- 
lates grasses to sprout, and reduces competition 
for them to grow and produce a good seed crop. 
Burning on a rotation continues these ideal grow- 
ing conditions. 

A study was established on the Red Dirt and 
Catahoula Wildlife Management Areas to de- 
termine the effects of winter burning every year, 
every two years, and every three years on deer 
browse plants in the longleaf pine, loblolly-short- 
leaf pine-hardwood timber type. On Red Dirt a 
study was put in to determine the effects of sum- 
mer burning on deer browse species along stream 
bottoms in the longleaf pine timber type. 



On the Red Dirt Game Management Area, in 
the stream bottom of Steep Hill Creek, two ad- 
jacent plots, each three acres in size, were estab- 
lished. One of these plots was burned in June, 
1965. The other plot will not be burned and will 
be used as a control. These plots begin in the 
creek bottom and extend out to and includes a hill- 
side. The treated plot is to be burned every two 
years, in June, until it is burned three times. 

On the Red Dirt Game Management Area, four 
plots, each two acres in size, were established. 
These plots begin in a creek bottom of Steep Hill 
Creek, and extend out onto the hillside. These 
plots are being burned in the following manner; 
(1) one burned every year, (2) one burned every 
two years, and (3) one burned every three years. 
Three of the plots were burned in March, 1965. 
One plot will not be burned as it will be used as 
a control. These plots will be used to accomplish 
the objectives related to the longleaf pine timber 
type. 

On the Catahoula Game Management Area, in 
the loblolly-shortleaf pine-hardwood timber type, 
four plots were established. Each of these plots is 
two acres in size. The plots are side by side be- 
ginning in a stream bottom and extending out 
onto a hillside. Three of these plots were burned 
in January 1965. One plot will not be burned, 
one will be burned every year, one every two 
years, and one every three years. 

On Red Dirt and Catahoula, the plot to be 
burned annually was first treated in March 1965 
and again in March 1966. The plots to be burned 
annually and the one to receive treatment every 
two years were treated in March 1967. 

After the 1965 growing season, deer browse 
species on all the study plots were marked and 
checked. They were marked so the same plant 
could be checked each year. The plants were 
checked by noting the condition of the main stem, 
counting the number of sprouts produced by 
each old stem, and by getting the total length, 
to nearest half inch, of the main stem of each 
sprout. 

An effort was made to check, on each plot, 10 
plants of each specie selected for study. However, 
that number of some species was not present on 
every plot. On Red Dirt, on the plots burned in 
winter, those species selected for study were yau- 
pon, blackgum, maple, and whitebay. On Cata- 
houla, the species selected were ash, water oak, 
elm, maple, blackgum, and dogwood. 

On the Red Dirt Game Management Area, on 
the plot burned in the summer, the species selected 
for study were dogwood, maple, whitebay, black- 
gum, and yaupon. 

On the plots burned in the winter on both Red 
Dirt and Catahoula, permanent line transects 
were established to check the species and number 
of annuals and perennials that would come in. On 
Catahoula, six transects one chain long, were 
established on each study plot. A surveyor's chain 



108 



was used for the line. The chain was stretched 
between two points and all plants directly under 
it were identified and counted. 

All data has been collected. An analysis will not 
be made until the plot to be burned every three 
years is treated again and the data is collected. 

Timber-Browse Relationships 

The Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Com- 
mission has purchased approximately 100,000 
acres of land since 1960. This land is now four 
wildlife management areas within six parishes. 
This vast acreage is within the bottomland hard- 
wood timber type. 

A detailed management plan will have to be 
worked up in order to properly manage the tim- 
ber on these areas. This study will provide in- 
formation for a management plan that will 
mutually benefit timber and game. 

Studies are being established on the Saline and 
Russell Sage Wildlife Management Areas. 

On the Saline Area, the objective is to gather 
data on the response of bottomland understory 
plants to two levels of thinning, medium and 
heavy, in three distinct plant communities. The 
objectives of the Russell Sage study are: (1) to 
determine an effective method of eradicating 
overcup oak-bitter pecan understory in bottom- 
land hardwoods; (2) determine the change in the 
vegetation pattern following the various treat- 
ments; (3) determine the approximate amount of 
animal useage on browse species within the study 
area; and, (4) determine survival rate of under- 
planted hardwoods on treated areas. 

On the Saline Wildlife Management Area, 
twenty-seven plots, each four acres in size were to 
be established. These plots are grouped in lots of 
nine. Nine are in the overcup oak-bitter pecan 
community; nine are in the nuttall oak, ash, over- 
cup oak, bitter pecan community with the absence 
of palmetto, and nine plots are in the ash, over- 
cup oak bitter pecan, water oak, nuttall oak, rock 
elm community with palmetto present. Each com- 
munity represents a different topographic eleva- 
tion. Conducting an inventory and logging of the 
plots will be accomplished during the winter of 
1967-68. 

On the Russell Sage Wildlife Management 
Area, the procedures are different than those for 
the study on the Saline Area. Two study areas 
were selected in an overcup-bitter pecan stand. 
The dimensions of each study area is 22 by 23 
chains. Four base lines, 22 chains in length and 
five chains apart are being established in each 
area. Along the base line, six study plots measur- 
ing two chains square with a buffer zone between 
are being put in. Six treatments will be applied to 
the plots on each line. This will make 8 replica- 
tions of each treatment occurring within the total 
8 lines, all to be selected randomly. The six treat- 
ments are: (1) burning, (2) mist blown herbi- 



cide, (3) direct flame treatment with flame 
thrower, (4) mechanical hand cut and herbicide 
treated stumps, (5) bulldozer with brush blade, 
and (6) control. Each treatment will be under- 
planted with hardwood seedlings. 

The study ai*eas, as divided, will have a total 
of 8 rows with six plots per row creating 48 equal 
plots. Each plot in the six plot row will be sub- 
jected to a different treatment to be selected 
randomly. A plot measuring 40 links square will 
be established in the center of each two chains 
square plot, and will be divided into 16 milacre 
plots, two of which will be fenced deer and rabbit 
proof, the other will be unfenced. Animal useage 
will be noted by monthly comparisons of fenced 
to unfenced plots. Composition studies will be 
made by determining the identity and number of 
species present in the two selected milacre plots 
and percentage of the total area each species oc- 
cupies. 

The entire study area will be underplanted with 
selected hardwood seedlings; survival and height 
growth will be measured. 

These studies are in various stages of installa- 
tion and no data has been collected. However, data 
collection will start in the spring of 1968. 

BLACK BEAR RESTOCKING 

The black bear which once ranged over all of 
Louisiana has almost disappeared from most of 
his former haunts. Native bear ranges have 
shrunk to the extent that only northeast Louisiana 
and an area of the lower Atchafalaya were known 
to contain bear. An occasional straggler has been 
reported from other parts of the state. Habitat 
destruction and persecution by man are the two 
factors responsible for the present status of the 
bear in Louisiana. 

The Wild Life and Fisheries Commission real- 
izes that little can be done to renew bear habitat, 
but feels that there is possibly a place for man and 
bear to co-exist on some of the remaining wood- 
land areas of the state. In order to investigate 
this possibility, a bear restocking program was 
begun in 1964. A source of wild black bear was 
found when the State of Minnesota offered bear 
if Louisiana personnel would trap and haul them. 
These bear are of the same species native to Lou- 
isiana and are prized by hunters as a big game 
trophy animal. 

This bear release program has been carried on 
for the past four summers. As the animals are 
trapped in Minnesota they are ear tagged in each 
ear with a monel tag. Then these bruin are loaded 
in a truck and transported to Louisiana. 

In the summer of 1964, 28 bear were released 
in the Atchafalaya River Swamp, in Pointe Cou- 
pee Parish. 

In 1965, the releases consisted of 55 animals. 
Forty-six of these were released in the Atchafa- 
laya River Swamp where releases were made in 



109 



1964. Nine bear were released in Madison Parish. 

The releases of 1966 were made up of 55 bear. 
Twenty-four of these were released in Madison 
and Tensas Parishes and the remainder in the 
Atchafalaya River swamp in the area of previous 
releases. 

The releases of 1967 consisted of 26 animals. 
All of these were released in the Atchafalaya 
River swamp where releases were made for the 
previous three years. 

Of the bear released in 1964, 14 animals have 
been verified as being killed. Of those killed ten 
were shot, three were hit by automobiles and one 
died of an overdose of sucostrin. Four of these 
were killed in Mississippi. One of these was ap- 
proximately 260 air miles from the release point. 
Twelve of the bear released during this year 
were caught and taken back to the release point. 

Of the bear released in 1965, nine have been 
verified as being killed. Three were captured and 
taken back to the release point. 

Of the bear released in 1966, six have been veri- 
fied as being killed. Another bear not tagged was 
also shot and killed. Eighteen were captured and 
returned to the release point. 

Of the bear released in 1967, four have been 
reported as being dead. These died of various 
causes. 

Numerous reports of bear being seen and 
damage complaints throughout the State were re- 
ceived and these were investigated. The presence 
of bear being in some of these areas was verified 
by tracks. Numerous reports were received that 
on investigation proved false. The people making 
the reports of bear tracks did not know bear 
sign. 

Reports of bear being killed by automobiles or 
shot were investigated. Some bear showing up 
around people's houses, especially in towns, were 
caught with ropes and tied; some were caught 
with ropes and put in a hauling crate; and some 
were caught by the use of a tranquilizer ad- 
ministered by a specially designed syringe fired 
through a CO;, rifle. 

In the release areas bear have been sighted and 
sign has been reported. There is also evidence of 
these bear reproducing. 

DEER INVESTIGATIONS 

Deer Studies 
J. W. FARRAR 

Study Leader 

Louisiana is emerging as a leading deer hunt- 
ing state in the south. This is evidenced by the 
111,611 deer hunters who bagged an estimated 
32,501 deer during the 1967 season in the past 
biennium. The demand for deer hunting and the 
interest kindled by this sport has reached an all 
time high. Sportsmen and non-sportsmen alike 
are beginning to realize the tremendous aesthetic 




JERRY W. FARRAR 

Deer Study Leader 

and economic value of our deer herds. These 
people are depending on the Louisiana Wild Life 
and Fisheries Commission to insure a continuation 
of this fine asset for generations to come. This 
obligation is clearly defined, and it is of necessity 
that Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries further 
develop and continue a sound deer management 
program based on scientific principles if it is to 
be met. 

Field data, collected by Wild Life and Fisheries 
Commission personnel throughout the state, has 
served as a basis for the current management 
program. In addition, an effort is made to keep 
constantly abreast and well informed of new de- 
velopments in techniques and research from other 
states. Studies and investigations of the past have 
resulted in the accumulation of a considerable 
amount of data on the life history, ecology, and 
general biology of the white-tailed deer in Lou- 
isiana. 

During the past biennium studies have yielded 
basic information on food habits, general body 
condition, reproduction, parasites and diseases. 
Preliminary studies in telemetry or radio-track- 
ing of deer were initiated. Telemetry and its ap- 
plication makes possible complete new fields of 
study in wildlife management. It offers solutions 
to age old questions concerning seasonal and 
daily ranges and many phases of general activity 
of deer and other animals under investigation. 
The results of these and other studies do not 
necessarily provide for immediate and definite 



110 



Table 1 



COMPUTED LIVE WEIGHTS BY AGE CLASS OF DEER KILLED ON SOME LOUISIANA GAME MANAGE- 
MENT AREAS DURING THE 1966 AND 1967 MANAGED HUNTS 



Sex 



Year 6 Mos. 

Alexander State Forest 



AGE 

1 Va year 



ZVz years 
and older 



Male 1966 (15) 46.6 (12) 87.2 

Male 1967 (9) 57.8 (9) 98.8 

Female 1966 (10) 44.7 (9) 81.6 

Female 1967 ( 4) 57.5 

Catahoula G. M. A. 

Male 1966 (21) 52.8 (42) 91.0 

Male 1967 (33) 56.1 (49) 91.3 

Female 1966 (30) 46.5 (28) 77.7 

Female 1967 (23) 51.9 (47) 75.5 

Evangeline G. M. A. 

Male 1966 (7) 53.7 (10) 92.1 

Male 1967 (4) 66.8 (2) 84.0 

Female 1966 (10) 47.7 (4) 74.5 

Female 1967 ( 5) 51.3 ( 3) 89.6 

Fort Polk G. M. A. 

Male 1966 (44) 51.3 (31) 88.7 

Male 1967 (47) 54.3 (42) 109.5 

Female 1966 (49) 48.7 (33) 72.8 

Female 1967 (48) 47.9 (35) 80.2 

Georgia Pacific G. M. A. 

Male 1966 (41)58.8 (100) 98.0 

Male 1967 (117)61.8 (105) 99.2 

Female 1966 ( 35) 54.8 ( 30) 81.3 

Female 1967 (112) 55.7 ( 79) 86.4 

Jackson-Bienville G. M. A. 

Male 1966 ( 18) 55.0 (32) 122.0 

Male 1967 (23) 56.9 (46) 114.2 

Female 1966 (32) 49.6 (20) 93.4 

Female 1967 (21) 48.2 (15) 96.1 

Red Dirt G. M. A. 

Male 1966 (45) 53.7 (46) 88.7 

Male 1967 (31) 57.5 (40) 120.1 

Female 1966 (32) 52.0 (39) 78.1 

Female 1967 (36) 53.3 (21) 80.0 

Russell Sage W. M. A. 

Male 1966 (17) 59.3 (22) 135.6 

Male 1967 (12) 67.3 (20) 141.0 

Female 1966 ( 9) 52.9 (12) 103.7 

Female 1967 (18) 59.1 (18) 110.5 

Union G. M. A. 

Male 1966 (5) 66.2 (18) 111.9 

Male 1967 (7) 60.0 (16) 112.5 

Female 1966 ( 8) 53.4 ( 6) 92.4 

Female 1967 (3) 64.9 (6) 93.0 

West Bay G. M. A. 

Male 1966 (61) 47.0 (65) 78.5 

Male 1967 (95) 52.5 (113) 80.9 

Female 1966 (58) 41.7 (44) 72.0 

Female 1967 (81) 46.2 (86) 73.7 

NOTE : Age-weight correlations were made only on those areas where sufficient data were collected. 



(13) 139.8 

( 8) 118.3 

(17) 87.0 

( 6) 87.9 



(38) 125.2 

(33) 126.9 

(65) 89.9 

(50) 87.5 



( 5) 137.3 

( 3) 119.2 

(11) 85.4 

( 4) 88.5 



(22) 115.0 

(47) 122.1 

(56) 89.2 

(63) 87.8 



(44) 120.7 

(41) 125.7 

(71) 101.5 

(219) 97.3 



(17) 188.9 

(23) 150.2 

(51) 106.3 

(31) 102.7 



(41) 126.9 

(46) 127.9 

(92) 91.0 

(58) 91.6 



(10) 160.2 

(14) 182.5 

(24) 112.9 

(23) 119.1 



(15) 158.1 

(12) 163.2 

( 9) 110.0 

( 6) 124.8 



( 54) 108.7 

(124) 109.7 

(110) 78.5 

(133) 82.8 



111 



answers to problems of deer management, but 
serve as part of an overall deer research program 
designed to create a growing source of informa- 
tion that will be applied to scientific management 
of deer herds in Louisiana. This systematic ap- 
proach to deer management must be used if the 
production potential of Louisiana's deer ranges 
is to be realized. 

Today, more than ever, the urgent need for 
sound management of our deer herds is apparent. 
This is particularly evident in view of the tre- 
mendous interest in deer hunting from such a 
broad segment of the human population of our 
state. More leisure time for the average individ- 
ual, more money for recreation, and rapidly di- 
minishing wildlife habitat further point out this 
need. Only through wise scientific management 
can we expect future generations to have deer 
hunting as we know it today. 

Louisiana, like many other states attempting to 
properly manage deer herds, has experienced more 
of a problem with misunderstanding and poorly 
informed people than with actual management of 
the deer. It is imperative that the general public 
be made more aware of the merits of sound deer 
management if we are to succeed. 

General Condition Study 

This study is designed to provide for an annual 
survey of the physical condition of deer harvested 
on wildlife management areas in Louisiana. The 
information obtained allows us to keep a close 
check on the physical characteristics of the deer 
from each area, and serves an effective means of 
measuring the efficiency of our management pro- 
gram. 

Physical data including ages, weights, and ant- 
ler development are taken each year from deer 
killed during the managed hunts. This informa- 
tion is then tabulated and compared to data previ- 
ously taken from the respective area to determine 
what changes have occurred among the deer of 
that particular herd. Table I shows age-weight 
correlations for deer killed on some management 
areas during the 1966 and 1967 seasons. Varia- 
tions in average weights and fawn production 
from year to year normally indicate the condi- 
tion of animals within a given herd. Overcrowded 
range produces small deer with poor antler de- 
velopment and low fawn production. These condi- 
tions greatly increase the deer herd's susceptibil- 
ity to parasites, diseases, and starvation. Sound 
management practices, however, will maintain 
proper balance between a deer herd and its range, 
providing for large deer with good antler develop- 
ment and high fawn production. This herd in turn 
will be relatively free from ravages of diseases, 
parasitism, and malnutrition. 

Sound scientific management will ultimately 
produce more deer and deer of higher quality. 
Failure in the past to implement and actively sup- 



port such a program has resulted in a tremendous 
loss of deer that should have gone to the sports- 
men. These losses occurred largely through failure 
to annually harvest either sex deer on over-popu- 
lated ranges. This in turn has allowed for lowered 
reproduction rates, poor quality deer, and even 
serious die-offs in more critical areas. 

Although the problem of deer die-offs is often 
regarded as very minor and occasional occurrences 
of little significance, this certainly is not the case. 
Louisiana has experienced several serious die-offs 
in recent years and some of our herds today are 
infested beyond safe levels, with diseases and 
parasites. There are no known ways to effectively 
manage deer herds without harvesting either sex 
deer. Without this important tool of management 
we can expect more losses to occur in the future. 

The general condition study is the most reliable 
criterion by which we can measure the success of 
our management program. It is therefore one of 
our more important studies. 

Southeastern Co-operative Wildlife 
Disease Study 

The Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Commis- 
sion has participated for the past ten years in the 
Southeastern Co-operative Wildlife Disease Study. 
This study was designed to survey the parasites 
and disease affecting wildlife species throughout 
the Southeastern United States, although to date 
the majority of work has been with deer. These 
investigations have been conducted in nearly all 
the southeastern states in an effort to determine 
the cause, or causes, of disease and parasite out- 
breaks in our southern deer herds. Several out- 
standing contributions to the field wildlife man- 
agement have been made by this co-operative 
study. 

A thorough knowledge and understanding of 
disease and parasite problems are an integral part 
of sound scientific deer management. With this 
objective in mind, the Southeastern Co-operative 
Wildlife Disease Study has continued its survey 
of extroparasites of deer in Louisiana. In addi- 
tion, intensive disease and parasite investigations 
of deer were conducted on West Bay Wildlife 
Management near Elizabeth, Louisiana and on 
Marsh Island Refuge situated on the southern 
coastal area of the state. Each study consisted of 
detailed autopsies of deer taken from the respec- 
tive areas. 

Preliminary Parasite Survey 

Deer in Louisiana rarely go through life with- 
out having parasites of some form. These deer 
may have a certain level of parasitism and yet 
remain healthy and normal in every respect. The 
presence of parasites in our deer herds, however, 
poses a potential threat if not thoroughly under- 
stood. The purpose of this study is to determine 
the common parasites occurring in the deer herds 



112 



of our state. One of our goals is to determine what 
parasites occur in healthy deer, from what area 
of the state they can be expected, and what levels 
are most common. To date most of the work done 
in Louisiana by the Southeastern Co-operative 
Wildlife Disease Study has dealt only with deer 
from overpopulated herds. These findings, conse- 
quently, do not give a true picture of the parasite 
load carried by normal, healthy deer from well 
balanced ranges. 

As in the past the problem of securing the ser- 
vices of a trained parasitologist has continued to 
hinder the progress of this study. In spite of this 
difficulty two additional major deer herd areas 
were surveyed, bringing the total to seven major 
herd areas investigated in the course of this study. 
A preliminary list of the parasites common to 
Louisiana deer has been prepared from the work 
done thus far, and it is hoped that in due time 
every major herd in the state can be surveyed. 

Attempts will be made to identify all parasites 
found during these investigations and determine 
normal infection rates. Familiarization with the 
parasites commonly found in healthy deer will 
enable our biologists to detect increases in normal 
parasite levels and become more aware of trends 
toward overpopulation. A side benefit of this 
study is that it has served as an ideal means of 
acquainting our technicians with autopsy proce- 
dures and internal anatomy of white-tailed deer. 

Rumen Content Analysis 

The food habits of white-tailed deer vary ac- 
cording to area, locality, and seasons of the year 
and generally remain poorly understood by wild- 
life workers. Long range studies of deer stomach 
samples have been initiated by the Louisiana Wild 
Life and Fisheries Commission in an effort to 
understand more about the diet of the average 
Louisiana deer. 

In the course of this study biologists and other 
commission personnel will collect a small sample 
of material from the rumen of deer killed at 
various periods of the year. Samples will be taken 
from deer killed by hunters each fall and winter, 
and from deer killed by cars, poachers, dogs, 
fences and other means during spring and sum- 
mer. Each biologist is furnished with collection 
jars to be used for taking samples whenever the 
opportunity becomes available. Samples from all 
parts of the state and all seasons of the year 
should be represented upon completion. 

Examination of the contents by microscopic 
techniques will enable us to identify much of the 
plant material found in the samples. This work 
will be done in co-operation with the Louisiana 
State University School of Forestry and Wildlife 
Management and the Louisiana Co-operative 
Wildlife Research Unit at L.S.U. The information 
gained will provide for a broader knowledge of 
the food habits of white-tailed deer and serve as 



a contribution toward more efficient management 
of this game animal. 

Telemetry Study 

Telemetry, commonly known as radio tracking 
of animals, has recently come into use in various 
phases of wildlife management work. This space 
age development enables researchers to keep con- 
stantly aware of the marked animal's location, 
general activities, and seasonal and daily move- 
ments within its habitat. This surveilance may be 
continued for weeks or months at a time, depend- 
ing primarily on the life expectancy of the battery 
that powers a small transmitter, placed harm- 
lessly on the animal. When armed with informa- 
tion gained through telemetry studies, wildlife 
managers will then be well on their way to solving 
some of the problems that have plagued wildlife 
management for years. 

Telemetry work with deer has been conducted 
in a few other states, and during the past bien- 
nium the Louisiana Wild Life & Fisheries Com- 
mission has initiated a test study of this type 
on Red Dirt Wildlife Management area near 
Natchitoches, Louisiana. Although a variety of 
valuable data will be obtained, the primary pur- 
pose of the study is to provide more accurate 
information on the deer in regards to seasonal 
and daily ranges. In this study eight deer were 
live trapped within their native habitat; each 
was fitted with a special neck collar containing a 
small battery powered transmitter, and then re- 
leased at the trap site. Each transmitter sends an 
electronic signal of its own enabling the research- 
er, with use of a special receiver, to differentiate 
between the test animals under investigation. The 
deer is completely unaware of these happenings 
and goes about its activities in a normal manner. 
With use of this receiver, a somewhat more com- 
plicated component of the telemetry equipment, 
directions of electronic signals can be easily deter- 
mined. Two or more signal readings taken at dif- 
ferent angles may then be plotted on a detailed 
map thereby determining the accurate location of 
the test animal. This method enables the wildlife 
worker to show directly on a map the complete 
range occupied by the animal for as long as an 
entire year or more. 

This study has not progressed far enough along 
at present to formulate definite conclusions, but 
with a minimum of foresight it is easy to envision 
the contribution that telemetry studies will make 
toward deer management in Louisiana. 

HUNTER SUCCESS AND 
DEER HERD PRODUCTION 

The wildlife management area hunts are con- 
ducted under rigid controls and thereby allow 
for other important measurements of deer herds 
on each area. With the total number of hunters 



113 



known, as well as the total number of deer killed 
for each area, we can easily calculate the hunter 
success ratio. Table II shows the hunter success 
data for the more important wildlife management 
areas in our state. 

It is apparent that "bucks only" hunting results 
in decreasing hunter success even though the deer 
may be overpopulated in that particular area. 
Hunter success on intensively managed areas open 
to "any deer" is almost always very high. It has 
remained well within this category from year to 
year, even though the Commission "allowed them 
to be wiped out" according to some individuals. 
This obviously is not true, as our data clearly 
shows. 

Another good measure of balance between deer 
and their range is the rate of reproduction. It 
has been proven and widely accepted that on the 
average 150 to 160 fawns should be produced an- 
nually per 100 adult females. The doe and fawn 
ratios as calculated from wildlife management 
area kills during the 1966 and 1967 seasons, show 
significantly lower reproduction rates for some 
areas. Table III presents ratios determined from 
data collected during the past biennium. 

These data again suggest that we should be 
harvesting more deer of either sex on some man- 
agement areas in order to bring the herd into 
balance with its range. 



Table 3 

DEER HERD REPRODUCTION RATIOS 
NUMBER OF FAWNS PER 100 DOES 
2V 2 YEARS AND OLDER 



Adult 

Area Does 

Catahoula G. M. A. 

1966 64 

1967 50 

Fort Polk 

1966 56 

1967 63 

Georgia-Pacific W. M. A. 

1966 71 

1967 219 

Jackson-Bienville G. M. A. 

1966 51 

1967 31 

Red Dirt G. M. A. 

1966 92 

1967 58 

Russell Sage W. M. A. 

1966 24 

1967 23 

West Bay G. M. A. 

1966 110 

1967 133 



Fawns 



SHOWING 
OF AGE 



Ratios 



51 
56 


80/100 
112/100 


93 
95 


166/100 
150/100 


76 
229 


107/100 
105/100 


50 

44 


98/100 
141/100 


77 
67 


84/100 
115/100 


26 
30 


108/100 
130/100 


119 
176 


107/100 
131/100 



Table 2 

HUNTER SUCCESS RATIOS FOR SOME LOUISIANA GAME MANAGEMENT AREAS DURING THE 1966 AND 

1967 DEER HUNTING SEASONS 

Game Management Area 1966 1967 

No. of No. of Hunter No. of No. of Hunter 

Hunter Deer Success Hunter Deer Success 

Efforts Killed Ratio Efforts Killed Ratio 

Alexander Forest 1,439 77 1/19 1,186 37 1/32 

*Caldwell 1,294 59 1/22 1,561 61 1/26 

Catahoula 5,208 234 1/22 3,660 198 1/19 

*Concordia (Season Closed) 73 1 1/73 

Evangeline 1,483 47 1/32 851 22 1/39 

**Port Polk 3,487 236 1/15 4,467 284 1/16 

Georgia-Pacific 4,231 329 1/13 6,787 847 1/ 8 

Jackson-Bienville 3,430 171 1/20 2,732 160 1/17 

Red Dirt 4,861 297 1/16 4,173 233 1/18 

Russell Sage 1,240 91 1/14 3,234 106 1/31 

Sabine 540 17 1/32 401 13 1/31 

Saline 250 6 1/42 1,245 50 1/25 

Thistlethwaite 522 13 1/40 848 18 1/47 

Union 1,191 71 1/17 959 50 1/19 

West Bay 6,922 406 1/17 10,130 642 1/16 

TOTAL 36,098 2,054 1/18 42,307 2,722 1/16 



*"Bucks Only" hunting. 
"Manner in which hunts were conducted does not reflect an accurate measure of hunter success. 
NOTE : All hunting is "any deer" hunting unless otherwise indicated. 



114 



RABBIT INVESTIGATIONS 
JACK 0. COLLINS 

One of the most important phases of the overall 
recreational program in Louisiana is the sport of 
rabbit hunting. People from all walks of life 
and from all age groups hunt rabbits. It was not 
long ago when a rabbit hunter was practically un- 
heard of in North Louisiana, but this is changing 
rapidly as in the southern part of the state where 
this type hunting has been very popular for many 
generations. 

Cottontails and swamp rabbits are the two 
kinds of rabbits that occur in this state. Both 
types are common where good habitat or range 
is found. However, available hunting localities 
where good sized populations can be located are 
becoming fewer from year to year. This is mainly 
because of shrinking natural range due to im- 
proved farming techniques and the changing con- 
cept of land use such as clearing wood land for 
soybean planting. 

Consequently, with hunter numbers increasing 
plus natural range and hunter land use privileges 
being reduced, there is a growing need for more 
knowledge on how to provide more rabbits in less 
space for the hunters of Louisiana. A comprehen- 
sive research program is needed to provide these 
facts. 

Most of the material included in this report 
covers the period between January 1, 1966 and 
December 31, 1967. 

During this period the rabbit research was 
concentrated mainly on (1) gathering data on 
population trends, and (2) work towards estab- 
lishment of a habitat study in relation to swamp 
rabbits. 

Population Trends 

Data relating to population trends are gathered 
each month of the year in the eight administra- 
tive districts of the Fish and Game Division. 
The work is assigned to all biologists of the Pitt- 
man Robertson section of this division. The fol- 
lowing method is used to obtain the data which 
is compiled and analyzed at the end of each fiscal 
year by the Study Leader. 

When traveling to perform rountine duties the 
driver records the number of dead and live rab- 
bits observed. Also, the speedometer reading is 
recorded at the beginning and completion of each 
trip. This information is kept only during day- 
light hours, and by day, month, and year. Calcu- 
lations are made on the basis of the number of 
rabbits observed for each 100 miles of travel. The 
annual index figure was 0.52 for the twelve 
month period July 1, 1966 through June 30, 1967. 
During the seven preceding study years the aver- 
age was 0.45, 0.52, 0.55, 0.63, 0.66, 0.69, and 0.70, 
respectively. 




JACK O. COLLINS 

Rabbit Studies 

Habitat Study— Swamp Rabbits 

This job which has been been in the planning 
stages for some time is a population study of 
penned swamp rabbits in a bottomland hardwood 
forest. The study is located on the Saline Wild- 
life Management Area, LaSalle Parish. Primarily, 
it was designed to investigate techniques for de- 
veloping maximum swamp rabbit populations 
through habitat alterations. Basic objectives are 
as follows: (1) to determine effects of hardwood 
thinnings on rabbit numbers, (2) to determine 
kinds of plants used as food by swamp rabbits, 
and (3) to investigate methods of censusing 
swamp rabbits. Students from the graduate school 
of Wildlife Management at Louisiana State Uni- 
versity will assist and cooperate in gathering 
part of the information. 

Twenty four acres of woodland is to be enclosed 
with a five foot high rabbit proof fence. This 
area will be divided into twelve two acre blocks 
by using rabbit proof partition wire five foot 
high. An outside hog and cattle proof fence will 
be constructed around the entire area. In Decem- 
ber, 1966 the property survey was completed. 

Habitat alterations were employed. This in- 
volved different degrees of timber thinning on the 
various plots. For the purpose of determining 
timber densities and species composition, a 100 
percent basal area survey of all plots was made 
in February and early March, 1967. Plots were 
randomly selected for the various treatments. On 
four of the two acre blocks or plots, twenty-five 
percent of the timber was cut and removed ; on 



115 



four plots fifty percent was removed, and no log- 
ging was allowed on the remaining four which 
will be used for comparison or control plots. 
Logging of all eight plots is complete, and fence 
construction is underway. 

When all rabbit proof fences are complete about 
January 15, 1968, an identical number of rabbits 
will be placed in each pen for further study. 

This study which is one of the largest swamp 
rabbit research projects ever started in the United 
States is designed to extend for ten years. 

Much of the information obtained from this 
study of relationships between bottomland hard- 
woods and swamp rabbits will be a valuable tool 
in the timber management program of foresters, 
lumber companies, sportsmen, and other inter- 
ested personnel desiring to maintain and improve 
rabbit habitat. 

EXOTIC BIRD STUDY 

RAY PALERMO 

Study Leader 

Black Francolin 

GUM COVE RELEASE 

A total of 311 adult live trapped black franco- 
lins was released on the Gum Cove area in 1961- 
62. Since that time the birds have apparently done 
well in spite of hurricanes, floods, severe cold and 
drought. 

An L.S.U. graduate student completed a study 
of Gum Cove francolins in 1966. Much was learned 
from this study. During the course of the study, 
he trapped eighty-seven francolins. Forty-one of 
these birds were tagged with identifying field 
markers for use in subsequent observations. 
Twenty-three of the marked francolins were ob- 
served a total of forty-two times. Several nests 
were located, and the progress of incubation and 
the behavior of attending birds was recorded. 

Twenty-nine francolins were trapped at Gum 
Cove during a ten-day trapping period in late 
January and early February, 1966. Fifteen of 




View of typical black francolin breeding pen at 
Exotic Game Propagation Unit. 



these birds were released near Melville, Louisiana, 
in St. Landry parish. The remaining birds were 
banded and released at the trap sites. Very few 
francolin observations have been made at the 
Melville area. It is believed that a much larger 
number of birds are needed for a successful re- 
lease. 

Presently, the black francolin appears to be well 
established on the Gum Cove area within a five 
to ten mile radius of the initial release site. 

A francolin-quail collection was made in late 
winter (January 1967) to determine the physical 
condition of these birds and to analyze and com- 
pare the crop contents of these two species. Sig- 
nificant differences in the food habits of quail 
and francolins were apparent. Plant material 
made up the bulk of the quail's diet while animal 
material made up the greater percentage of the 
francolin's intake. Important quail food items 
were seeds of black cherry and legumes, and leafy 
greens. Small snails, slugs, beetles, and larvae 
were important food items found in francolins. 

A standard call-count route was run in 1966 
and 1967. An average of 1.25 calling males per 
stop was noted in 1966 while .58 was heard 
calling in 1967. 

The 1967 breeding season was a very favorable 
one and we feel that the present francolin popu- 
lation at Gum Cove is high. 

OAK RIDGE RELEASE 

A total of 342 wild trapped black francolins 
was released on this area in 1961 and 1962. The 
birds apparently got off to a good start and did 
well for two years then began declining. The 
population declined through 1966 as evidenced by 
standard call counts made and by very few ob- 
servations. We felt that the main reason for this 
decline was the accelerated clean cultivation that 
has taken place in and around the release area. 

Very few francolin observations were made in 
1966. The overall population in the release vicinity 
is presently believed to be very low. One adult 
male francolin was caught and brought into the 
district office on May 20, 1966. This bird was 
found about five miles southwest of the release 
site and appeared to be either sick or injured 
when captured. It was held for one week when 
it succumbed. Upon examination after death, it 
was determined that the bird had been injured. 
Apparently it had flown into a wire or other 
object as its neck was severely bloodclotted. No 
other unusual marks were found. 

Several call counts were run on the standard 
call count route in 1966 resulting in no calling 
birds heard. It was obvious that a breeding den- 
sity of birds did not exist. 

No francolins were observed by Commission 
personnel during 1967. It is believed that only an 
occasional bird is presently in the Oak Ridge area. 
The accelerated program of clean farming has 






116 



continued to render additional acreage useless as 
black francolin habitat. 

BODCAU W.M.A. 

The Bodcau francolin release area is located in 
extreme northwest Louisiana and consists of ap- 
proximately 1000 acres of cleared land surrounded 
by natural pine woodlands. The cleared area is 
fenced to exclude cattle resulting in a heavy grass 
and weed ground cover. This area was selected 
because of its apparent suitable francolin habitat, 
the "island effect" of the cleared land, and to test 
francolin survival in this northern location. Two 
hundred seventy pen-reared juvenile black fran- 
colins were released on this area in early 1966, 
and two hundred forty-two more were released 
on the area in early 1967. 

Good survival was indicated after releases were 
made and was still in evidence in late summer. 
Many calling males were seen and heard calling 
throughout the summer. One francolin nest con- 
taining six eggs was located while bushhogging in 
a mature wheat field. We are reasonably sure 
that reproduction is taking place. 

It appears, from our initial studies on Bodcau, 
that the black francolin is able to survive and 
possibly maintain itself in this north Louisiana 
habitat. This particular type habitat is common in 
northwest Louisiana and someday the black fran- 
colin might be hunted by sportsmen in this area. 

AVERY ISLAND RELEASE 

Beginning in July, 1967, red junglefowl were 
released on Avery Island in Iberia Parish. This 
area was selected because of its isolation from 
vast woodlands where these birds might wander 
and also because of the excellent habitat on the 
island. 

Approximately three hundred juvenile birds 
were released on the island from July to Decem- 
ber, 1967. These were released at three to four 
week intervals. At the present time birds are 
being reported from all parts of the island. Initial 
survival has been good. We will closely follow 
the progress of this release next spring and hope 
to have some encouraging results from it in 1968. 

FORT POLK W.M.A. 

The Fort Polk francolin release area is located 
in the longleaf pine type of west-central Louisi- 
ana. The prime objective was to test the black 
francolin's ability to survive there and determine 
whether it could be established in a longleaf pine 
habitat. 

One hundred sixty-one pen-reared birds were 
released in early 1966, and three hundred and 
eight were released in early 1967. Supplemental 
feed was made available around the release pen 
vicinity after release. Wheat, millet, and sorghum 



were planted in strips near the release pen in an 
effort to hold birds in the area. 

Francolins on this area are not showing much 
promise. Survival was initially good but only an 
occasional bird was observed three months after 
releases were completed. In 1967, francolins uti- 
lized the planted strips of wheat and millet but no 
nests or broods were observed. At the present 
time we feel that very few birds are in the vicin- 
ity. We believe that one of the reasons the bird 
is not holding on is a lack of quality habitat. Food 
is noticeably scarce especially during the late 
winter months. Releases will be made one more 
year, then a final evaluation of this type habitat 
for black francolins will be made. 

CLOUTIERVILLE RELEASE 

The Cloutierville release area is located in 
Central Louisiana in the alluvial Red River bot- 
tomland. The specific release site is on a large 
ownership which is being established into pecan 
orchards over the entire holdings. There are no 
row crops on the plantation, however, much cul- 
tivation and improved pastures are present ad- 
jacent to the area. 

One hundred sixty-six pen reared black fran- 
colins were released on this area between De- 
cember, 1966 and March, 1967. Two hundred 
seventy-four francolins are presently in condi- 
tioning pens on the area and will be released in 
early 1968. 

Known dispersal of released francolins was 
three miles. Throughout the spring of 1967 sev- 
eral calling males and a few females were ob- 
served. One brood was observed in 1967 and one 
nest containing seven eggs was destroyed by a 
bushhogging operation in June, 1967. This nest 
was one and one-half miles from the release pen. 

At the present time this release looks very 
promising, but it is too early to speculate on the 
outcome of this release. 

Red Junglefowl 

WEST BAY RELEASE 

From December, 1966 to February, 1967, one 
hundred sixty-eight juvenile pen-reared jungle- 
fowl were released on the West Bay W.M.A. Sup- 
plementary feed was scattered in the immediate 
release vicinity in efforts to hold birds near the 
release site. 

Birds were seen quite regularly for a short 
period of time after final releases were made in 
late February, 1967. Observations indicated that 
birds dispersed quite rapidly after that and by 
the middle of April no sign or birds could be lo- 
cated in the release vicinity. One female jungle- 
fowl was located about six miles west of the re- 
lease site in the summer of 1967. In November, 
1967, a male was observed about five miles west 



117 










(riflfB * 




W*'" J * ' 




HfflH ■ 



Brooder building at the Exotic Propagation Unit at 
DeRidder. 

of the release site. No nests or broods have been 
observed. 

Our experience with junglefowl has shown that 
upon release these birds disperse widely and do 
not remain in a breeding density, therefore, we 
terminated junglefowl releases in the vast wood- 
lands of the West Bay W.M.A. and began a re- 
lease on Avery Island, Louisiana where the birds 
will have to remain on the island. 

Bamboo Partridge 

DERIDDER AIRPORT 

A bamboo partridge release was made at the 
DeRidder airport near DeRidder in 1966 and in 
early 1967. Seventy birds were released in 1966 
and sixty-two in 1967. 

Immediately upon release of these birds a good 
deal of predation was in evidence near the condi- 
tioning pen. Some calling was heard in the im- 
mediate release vicinity and a few observations 
were made. Two months after releases no birds 
could be located and no evidence of nesting could 
be found. High initial mortality was believed re- 
sponsible for the immediate disappearance of 
these released birds. 

Other states in the Southeast worked with the 
bamboo partridge in recent years and have ex- 
perienced similar results. Louisiana has termi- 
nated work on this species, and based on our 
experience with the bamboo, we feel that it is 
unsuited to Western Louisiana's habitat. 

Japanese Green Pheasant 

FENTON AREA 

Over two hundred Japanese green pheasants 
were placed in the conditioning pen for release in 
1966 and also in 1967. Heavy mortality has 
plagued this release since it was begun in 1964. 
This heavy pen mortality has resulted in very 
few birds actually being released. 

Dispersal of pheasants has been about five 
miles. No nests have been located on the release 
area ; however, three brood reports were received 
in 1967. 

Survival of released birds appeared to have 
been good in view of the limited number of birds 
actually released. 

This pheasant release will terminate after 



early 1968. The progress of this last release will 
be closely followed and will serve as a guide! 
to future pheasant releases 

Missouri is experiencing excellent results from 
Korean pheasant releases in extreme Southeastern 
Missouri. We are looking in that direction as the 
next species of pheasant to put on trial in Lou-i 
isiana. 

RESEARCH DESIGN, MACHINE 

COMPILATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 

Federal Aid Project FW-2R 

ROGER HUNTER, JR. 

Project Leader 

The primary functions of Project FW-2R entail 
data processing, designs and procedures for data 
processing, designs and procedures for sampling 
programs, analysis of data collected and reports, 
The various programs accomplished or in progress 
during 1966 and 1967 fall within three major 
categories as follows: (1) wildlife surveys, (2) 
bird banding and (3) service programs. 

A Univac 1004 computer was installed in Oc- 
tober, 1965 in place of a tabulator. This has re- 
sulted in significant increases in both speed and 
capacity. Consequently program results have be- 
come more comprehensive and timely. 

The following is a summary of programs which 
have been accomplished by the eight permanent 
employees of Project FW-2R during 1966 and 
1967. 

Surveys 

DEER KILL 

We were able to conduct the 1965-66 and 1966- 
67 deer kill surveys on a parish (county) basis 
for the first time because of the installation of 
the Univac 1004 computer. Also, results were ob- 
tained at an earlier date than was possible in 
prior years. This has provided valuable manage- 
ment information to assist in the establishment of 
ensuing seasons. 

Random samples were drawn from the issue of 
■ 




Roger Hunter, right, and James Sandifer are shown 
examining a data sheet at the Baton Rouge office. 



118 






big game licenses and permits from each parish in 
proportion to the estimated number of licenses 
and permits to be issued within each parish. Per- 
mits are issued free of charge to all persons under 
16 years of age and residents 60 years of age or 
older. Separate survey estimates are made of 



license and permit holders. The minimum sample 
size taken from any parish was 10 percent and 
the total state sample rate was approximately 17 
percent each year. Total questionnaires mailed for 
the 1965-66 season were 18,201 and 20,885 for 
1966-67. 



Item 



Table 1 

1965-66 DEER KILL SURVEY 
Summary of Estimates 

Licenses and Permits — All Parishes 
Estimate 



Hunters 97,758 

Days Hunted 766,508 

Bucks Killed 23,508 

Does Killed 2,222 

Hunters Killing: 

Deer 78,841 

1 Deer 13,706 

2 Deer 3,899 

3 Deer 1,447 

Total Kill 25,765 



95% Confidence 


90% Confidence 


80% Cot 


fidence 


Variation 


% 


Variation 


% 


Variation 


% 


■+■ 




■+■ 




-+- 




854 


.9 


713 


.7 


555 


.6 


16,610 


2.2 


13,870 


1.8 


1(1,797 


1.4 


1,323 


6.5 


1,047 


4.7 


860 


3.7 


371 


16.7 


309 


13.9 


241 


10.8 


1,074 


1.4 


896 


1.1 


698 


.9 


732 


5.3 


611 


4.5 


476 


3.5 


469 


12.0 


391 


10.0 


305 


7.8 


261 


18.0 


218 


15.1 


170 


11.7 


1,419 


5.5 


1,185 


4.6 


923 


3.6 



Table 2 



Item 



1965-66 DEER KILL SURVEY 
Summary of Estimates 

License Only — All Parishes 
Estimate 



Hunters 76,282 

Days Hunted 598,354 

Bucks Killed 20,022 

Does Killed 1,895 

Hunters Killing: 

Deer 60,281 

1 Deer 11,288 

2 Deer 3,341 

S Deer 1,275 

Total Kill 21,945 



95% Confidence 


90% Confidence 


80% Con 


fidence 


Variation 


% 


Variation 


'■■ 


Variation 


% 


■+■ 




-+- 




-+- 




533 


.7 


445 


.6 


346 


.5 


13,825 


2.3 


11,544 


1.9 


8,986 


1.5 


1,156 


5.8 


965 


4.8 


751 


3.8 


338 


17.8 


282 


14.9 


219 


11.6 


756 


1.3 


631 


1.0 


492 


.8 


607 


5.4 


507 


4.5 


395 


3.5 


413 


12.4 


345 


10.3 


269 


8.0 


240 


18.8 


200 


15.7 


156 


12.2 


1,244 


5.7 


1,039 


4.7 


808 


3.7 



Table 3 



Item 



1965-66 DEER KILL SURVEY 
Summary of Estimates 

Permits Only — All Pa7-ishes 
Estimate 



Hunters 21,476 

Days Hunted 168,154 

Bucks Killed 3,486 

Does Killed 327 

Hunters Killing: 

Deer 18,560 

1 Deer 2,418 

2 Deer 558 

3 Deer 172 

Total Kill 3,820 



95% Confidence 


90% Confidence 


80% Confidence 


Variation 


% 


Variation 


% 


Variation 


% 


-+- 




-+■ 




-t- 




668 


3.1 


558 


2.6 


434 


2.0 


9,207 


5.5 


7,688 


4.6 


5,984 


3.6 


644 


18.5 


538 


15.4 


418 


12.0 


153 


46.8 


128 


39.1 


99 


30.4 


762 


4.1 


636 


3.4 


495 


2.7 


409 


16.9 


341 


14.1 


266 


11.0 


221 


39.5 


184 


33.0 


143 


25.7 


103 


59.9 


86 


50.0 


67 


38.9 


684 


17.9 


571 


14.9 


444 


11.6 



119 



Item 



Table 4 

1966-67 DEER KILL SURVEY 
Summary of Estimates 

Licenses and Permits Combined — All Parishes 

95% Confidence 90% Confidence 

Estimate Variation 



80% Confidence 



Hunters 111,611 

Gun Hunters 110,950 

Bow Hunters 7,706 

Gun & Bow Hunters 7,027 

Davs Hunted 943,012 

Deer Tag: 
Holders Killing: 



*0 
1 



Deer 102,935 



Deer 

2 Deer 

3 Deer 

Bucks Killed 

Does Killed 

Total Deer Killed 



15,580 
4,773 
2,579 

29,573 
2,928 

32,391 



899 
934 
546 
524 
18,803 



922 
836 
395 
379 

1,292 
390 

1,393 



% 



7.1 
7.5 
2.0 



.9 
5.4 
8.3 

14.7 
4.4 

13.3 
4.3 



Variation 

~~ 751 
780 
456 
437 

15,700 



770 
698 
330 
316 

1,079 
326 

1,163 



% 

.7 

.7 

5.9 

6.2 

1.7 



.7 
4.5 
6.9 

12.3 
3.6 

11.1 
3.6 



Variation 

584 
607 
355 
340 
12,222 



599 
543 
257 
246 
840 
254 
906 



% 

.5 

.5 

4.6 

4.8 

1.3 



3.5 
5.4 
9.5 
2.8 
8.7 
2.8 



♦Includes approximately 14,000 persons who obtained 1966-67 Big- Game licenses and permits, but who did not hunt this ! 
season. Total issue of deer tags was 125,603 of which an estimated 111,611 persons hunted deer. 

Table 5 

1966-67 DEER KILL SURVEY 
Summary of Estimates 

Licenses — All Parishes 

95% Confidence 
Item Estimate Variation % 



90% Confidence 



80% Confidence 



Variation 



% 



Variation 



% 



Hunters 86,533 664 .8 554 .6 432 .5 

Gun Hunters 85,976 713 .8 595 .7 463 .5 

Bow Hunters 6,973 522 7.5 436 6.2 339 4.9 

Gun & Bow 6,400 504 7.9 421 6.6 328 5.1 

Days 743,377 16,468 2.2 13,751 1.8 10,704 1.4 

Deer Tag 
Holders Kill: 

*0 Deer 74,751 833 1.1 695 .9 541 .7 

1 Deer 12,851 757 5.9 632 4.9 492 3.8 

2 Deer 4,109 364 8.9 304 7.4 237 5.8 

3 Deer 2,300 358 15.6 299 13.0 233 10.1 

Bucks Killed 25,142 1,177 4.7 983 3.9 765 3.0 

Does Killed 2,436 364 15.0 304 12.5 237 9.7 

Total Deer 27,471 1,270 4.6 1,060 3.9 826 3.0 

*Includes approximately 7,100 persons who obtained 1966-67 Big Game licenses, but who did not hunt this season. Total 
issue of license deer tags was 93,616 of which an estimated 86,533 persons hunted deer. 

Table 6 

1966-67 DEER KILL SURVEY 
Summary of Estimates 

Permits — All Parishes 

95% Confidence 90% Confidence 80% Confidence 

Item Estimate Variation % Variation % Variation % 

■+■ -+- -+- 

Hunters 25,078 606 2.4 506 2.0 394 1.6 

Gun Hunters 24,974 604 2.4 504 2.0 392 1.6 

Bow Hunters 733 163 22.2 136 18.5 106 14.4 

Gun & Bow 627 142 22.7 119 19.0 93 14.8 

Days '. 199,635 9,074 4.5 7,576 3.8 5,898 3.0 

Deer Tag 
Holders Kill: 

*0 Deer 28,184 396 1.4 330 1.2 257 .9 

1 Deer 2,729 353 12.9 295 10.8 230 8.4 

2 Deer 664 153 23.0 128 19.2 99 15.0 

3 Deer 279 124 44.4 103 37.1 80 28.8 

Bucks Killed 4,431 533 12.0 445 10.0 346 7.8 

Does Killed 492 140 28.5 117 23.8 91 18.5 

Total Deer 4,920 573 11.6 478 9.7 372 7.6 

*Includes approximately 6,900 persons who obtained 1966-67 Big Game permits, but who did not hunt this season. Total 
issue of permit deer tags was 31,987 of which an estimated 25,078 persons hunted deer. 

120 



Parish 



Table 7 

DEER KILL SURVEY 

Parish Estimates 

Kill Within Parish 
1965-66 Season 1966-67 Season 



Acadia 

Allen 271 

Ascension 57 

; Assumption 201 

: Avoyelles 308 

Beauregard 117 

Bienville 612 

Bossier 570 

Caddo 224 

Calcasieu 60 

Caldwell 879 

Cameron 29 

1 Catahoula 211 

Claiborne 313 

Concordia 1,343 

DeSoto 357 

E. Baton Rouge 40 

, E. Carroll 1,051 

E. Feliciana 14 

Evangeline 179 

Franklin 371 

Grant 731 

Iberia 147 

Iberville 331 

Jackson 651 

Jefferson 18 

Jefferson Davis 5 

Lafayette 

Lafourche 153 

LaSalle 229 

Lincoln 165 

Livingston 162 

Madison 3,210 

Morehouse 897 

Natchitoches 757 

Orleans 

Ouachita 497 

Plaquemines 

Pointe Coupee 434 

Rapides 596 

Red River 128 

Richland 322 

Sabine 301 



St. Bernard 
St. Charles . 
St. Helena . 
St. James . 
St. John . . . 





123 

96 

98 

166 

St. Landry 135 

St. Martin 76 

St. Mary 214 

St. Tammany 193 

Tangipahoa 206 

Tensas 3,759 

Terrebonne 117 

Union 1,088 

Vermilion 180 

Vernon 631 

Washington 127 

Webster 353 

W. Baton Rouge 55 

W. Carroll 57 

W. Feliciana 108 

Winn 770 

Unknown 237 



TOTALS 25,730 




894 
298 
221 
330 

83 
633 
992 
583 

16 
975 
3 
459 
594 
2,008 
434 

38 
1,377 
112 
167 
262 
679 
195 
526 
630 

64 

54 

6 

186 

336 

383 

166 

2,626 

1,197 

1,091 



639 



629 

609 

259 

400 

359 

14 
123 
128 
155 
277 
441 
213 
289 
229 
168 
4,190 
262 
1,411 
254 
806 
228 
357 

75 

46 
285 
877 
696 

33,037 



Three mailings of questionnaires were made at 
one month intervals at the close of each season. 
Response rates were excellent with returns of 75- 
80 percent for both surveys. Survey results and 
confidence limits were gratifying as shown in the 
following tables. Complete deer kill survey results 
could not be presented in this report because of 
limited space. 

DOVE HARVEST 

A clove harvest survey using telephone sub- 
scribers as the sampling frame was conducted 
during the 1965-66 season as had been conducted 
the prior two seasons. A mail survey was used to 
determine dove harvest information during the 
1966-67 season using the Louisiana basic hunting 
license issue as a frame. This survey was con- 
ducted primarily to obtain names and addresses 
for wing collection packets to be used in con- 
junction with a regional dove telephone survey 
and to verify the Louisiana results obtained from 
the regional survey. A 1% sample was selected 
from the hunting license file to obtain a state-wide 
estimate for the three segments of the 1966-67 
dove hunting season combined. This is a joint 
undertaking of Projects FW-2R and W-29R. Sur- 
vey results are reported under the Project W-29R 
section of the Biennial. 

SMALL GAME 

A resident small game mail survey including 
squirrel, rabbit and quail for the 1967-68 hunting 
season is now in progress. State-wide estimates 
will be obtained using the Louisiana basic hunting 
license issue as a sampling frame. Results of this 
survey will be presented in the 1967-68 annual 
report for Project FW-2R and the next Biennial 
Report. 

Bird Banding 

The master bird banding permit issued by the 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to the Louisiana 
Wild Life and Fisheries Commission is held by 
the leader of Project FW-2R. Sub-permits are is- 
sued each fiscal year from this office to field 
biologists of the Commission for our field banding 
activities. 

Field banding reports are carefully edited, 
coded and the data is punched into cards for ma- 
chine processing as received. Reports are sub- 
mitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at 
frequent intervals, numerous interim reports are 
prepared as requested by Commission personnel, 
and annual reports are prepared for publication. 

Bird banding research programs initiated by 
the Commission and cooperative programs have 
resulted in a sharp rise in our total bird banding 
activities during the 1966-67 fiscal year. 



121 



Table 8 
1965-66 BIRD BANDING RECORD 



Species 

Mallard 

Mottled Duck 

Blue-Winged Teal . 

Pintail 

Wood Duck 

Lesser Scaup 

Ring-Necked Duck . 
Lesser Snow Goose 

Blue Goose 

Canada Goose 

Fulvous Tree Duck 

King Rail 

American Coot .... 

American Woodcock 

Mourning Dove .... 

TOTAL 







Ri 


covered 


Recovered 










in 


outside 


Total 


Banded 


Ret rapped 


he 


uismna 


Louisiana. 


Recovered 


4 








6 


6 


138 






ii 


1 


12 


649 


17 




15 


4 


19 


22 






1 


1 


2 


11 






3 


2 


5 


1,105 


118 




12 


32 


44 


18 






. . . 






1 






. ■ . 






41 


2 










1 












35 












1 












387 


6 




3 


2 


5 











1 


1 


1,341 


339 




59 


8 


67 


3,754 


482 




104 


57 


161 



Table 9 
1966-67 BIRD BANDING RECORD 



Species 



Mallard 

Black Duck 

Mottled Duck 

Gadwall 

American Widgeon . . 
Green-Winged Teal . 
Blue-Winged Teal . , 

Shoveler 

Pintail 

Wood Duck 

Canvasback 

Lesser Scaup 

Ring-Necked Duck . . 

Blue Goose 

Canada Goose 

Fulvous Tree Duck . 

American Coot 

Mourning Dove 

White-Winged Dove 
TOTAL 



Table 10 



Banded 

203 

1 

46 

3 

1 

7 

3,208 

1 

510 

599 

3 

1,046 

39 

18 

63 

24 

5,305 

1 



Rctrappcd 
2 



682 



11,078 



131 

30 

1 



1 
930 

1,787 



Recovered 

in 
Louisiana 

7 

"e 



104 

i 

2 
29 



1 
397 

560 



Recovered 

outside 
Louisiana 

4 
'6 



8 

2 
4 

27 


1 



1 
33 

80 



Total 
Recovered 

11 
"(3 



112 

1 

4 

33 

35 
2 
3 



2 
430 

640 



1965-66 RECOVERIES OF BIRDS BANDED IN 

LOUISIANA BY OTHER THAN LOUISIANA 

WILD LIFE AND FISHERIES COMMISSION 



Species 



Recovered Recovered 

in 
Louisiana 



Mallard 2 

American Widgeon . . 
Blue-Winged Teal ... 5 

Wood Duck 4 

Lesser Scaup 12 

Ring-Necked Duck ...17 

Blue Goose 1 

Canada Goose 2 

American Woodcock . . 6 

Common Snipe _4 

TOTAL 53 



itside 


Total 


nsiana 


Recovered 


1 


3 


1 


1 


2 


7 





4 


7 


19 


13 


30 





1 


20 


22 


4 


10 


1 


5 


49 


102 



Table 11 

1966-67 RECOVERIES OF BIRDS BANDED IN 

LOUISIANA BY OTHER THAN LOUISIANA 

WILD LIFE AND FISHERIES COMMISSION 



Species 



Recovered Recovered 

in outside 

Louisiana Louisiana 



Mallard 4 

Mottled Duck 1 

American Widgeon ... 

Blue-Winged Teal 8 

Shoveler 2 

Pintail 5 

Wood Duck 

Canvasback 

Lesser Scaup 5 

Ring-Necked Duck ... 43 
Lesser Snow Goose ... 2 

Blue Goose 8 

Canada Goose and 
Lesser Canada Goose . 1 

Clapper Rail 1 

American Woodcock . . 6 

Mourning Dove 3 

TOTAL 89 



11 

1 
3 
2 

2 
1 
16 
46 



81 


23 



186 



Total 
Recovered 

15 

1 

1 
11 

4 

5 

2 

1 
21 
89 

2 



82 

1 
29 



275 






122 



Table 12 

1965-66 RECOVERIES OF BIRDS BANDED OUTSIDE 
LOUISIANA AND KILLED IN LOUISIANA 

Number 
Species Killed 

Mallard 254 

Black Duck 4 

Mottled Duck 2 

Gadwall 35 

American Widgeon 11 

Green-Winged Teal 15 

Blue-Winged Teal 97 

Shoveler 11 

Pintail 63 

Wood Duck 236 

Redhead 7 

Canvasback 7 

Greater Scaup 2 

Lesser Scaup 82 

Ring-Necked Duck 21 

Common Goldeneye 2 

Ruddy Duck 2 

Lesser Snow Goose 23 

Blue Goose 50 

Ross' Goose 13 

Canada Goose 1 

American Coot 7 

American Woodcock 1 

Mourning Dove 7 

TOTAL 953 

Table 13 

1966-67 RECOVERIES OF BIRDS BANDED OUTSIDE 
LOUISIANA AND KILLED IN LOUISIANA 



Species 



Number 
Killed 



Mallard 338 

Black Duck 5 

Gadwall 31 

American Widgeon 13 

Green-Winged Teal 40 

Blue-Winged Teal 336 

Unidentified Teal 

Blue-Winged or Cinnamon 2 

Shoveler 5 

Pintail ° 141 

Wood Duck 294 

Redhead !!".!! 11 

Canvasback g 

Lesser Scaup ' ' 29 

Ring-Necked Duck 15 

Lesser Snow Goose 45 

Blue Goose go 

Ross' Goose 1 

White-Fronted Goose 27 

Canada Goose and 

Lesser Canada Goose 2 

Hutchins' or 

Richardson's Goose 

American Coot !!."!! 

American Woodcock 

Mourning Dove 



1 
14 

2 
42 



TOTAL 1^62 

Service Programs 

COMMISSION ACTIVITIES 

Project FW-2R provides data processing for 
a number of fish and game studies. Forms used 
for field collection of data, card formats and the 
necessary programming procedures are developed 
as required for each study. Project study leaders 



are furnished computer reports of their studies 
as requested. 

Service programs carried out by Project FW- 
2R included creel censes (Project F-7R), fish 
population studies (Project F-8R), rabbit study 
(Project W-29R), water quality analysis (Water 
Pollution Control Division) and alligator tagging 
(Refuge Division). Findings pertaining to these 
programs are included under the appropriate sec- 
tions of this biennial report. 

BUREAU OF OUTDOOR RECREATION 

During 1965 planning and work was started 
on a program with the State Parks and Recre- 
ation Commission to process data collected by that 
agency for the outdoor recreation program as 
established under the Federal Land and Water 
Conservation Fund Act. A complete state-wide 
inventory of outdoor recreational facilities is now 
in progress and is nearing completion. Field col- 
lection of data including both public and private 
recreational facilities should be finalized during 
the early part of 1968. 

Assistance was furnished in the preparation of 
the field data collection forms, formats for cod- 
ing the data collected and punch card layouts. 
All data collected has been punched into cards in 
preparation for final data processing. The pri- 
mary purposes of this inventory will be to de- 
termine present and projected use of and need 
for outdoor recreational facilities. 

Data processing was accomplished for other 
economic studies made by the State Parks and 
Recreation Commission which included a hunter 
mobility survey of our wildlife management areas 
during the 1966 managed deer hunts and a state- 
wide dove hunter mobility study during the 1966- 
67 season. 



LOUISIANA DEER HUNTER 
MOBILITY SURVEY 

GAYNOR BURLEIGH 

Hunter Mobility Survey 

In recent years the amount of land available 
for hunting has diminished while, at the same 
time, the number of hunters has increased. There 
are usually certain areas in each state which, be- 
cause of their location and or resources, are 
utilized to satisfy this need. Because of the lo- 
cation of certain of these areas, the mobility fac- 
tor plays an important role in the utilization of 
these hunting areas. 

This study was designed to try to determine the 
mobility of deer hunters and their economic im- 
pact within the state. The survey was conducted 
November 25 through 29, 1966, on fifteen game 



123 



management areas. The number of cards sent to 
each area was based upon a percentage of the 
number of hunters that had hunted the area in 
1965 in relation to the total number of hunters 
for all areas in 1965. This percentage had to be 
altered somewhat due to the loss of the Chicago 
Mills Game Management Area as a public hunt- 
ing area. The exact shift of these hunters could 
not be anticipated, so with the advice of the Wild 
Life and Fisheries personnel, the cards were dis- 
tributed as stated in Table One (1) column two 
(2). 

There were approximately 200 cards with 
printing defects which were not detected until the 
cards were being distributed to the hunters, there- 
fore, approximately 9,750 cards were distributed 
for the survey (Table 1) . 

The hunters must leave their hunting licenses 
at the check stations when entering an area. Upon 
completion of the hunt, they must retrieve their 
licenses at the check station. The survey cards 
were distributed by the check-station personnel 
when the hunter retrieved his license. 

The survey forms were printed on 3 x 5 white 
postal cards with the return address and the re- 
turn postage printed on the face of the card 
(Appendix) . 

The following sections will summarize the data 
and draw conclusions from the data. 

Table 1 

DISTRIBUTION OF HUNTER SURVEY CARDS AT 
THE FIFTEEN GAME MANAGEMENT AREAS 

Hunter Number of 
Efforts Cards 

Distributed Per Cent 
Name of Area 1966 at the Area Sampled 

West Bay GMA 6,922 2,000 28.9 

Georgia Pacific GMA . . . 4,231 1,000 23.6 

Catahoula GMA 5,208 1,400 26.9 

Fort Polk GMA 3,487 800 22.9 

Alexander State 

Forest GMA 1,439 600 41.7 

Caldwell GMA 1,294 200 15.5 

Evangeline GMA 1,483 500 33.7 

Jackson-Bienville GMA . 3,430 1,000 29.2 

Red Dirt GMA 4,861 1,100 22.6 

Russell Sage GMA 1,240 400 32.3 

Sabine GMA 540 200 37.0 

Saline GMA 250 300 100.0 

Thistlewaite GMA 522 50 9.6 

Union GMA 1,191 300 25.2 

Zemurray GMA 422 100 23.7 

TOTAL 36,520 9,950 '271 

Printing defects & excess 250 

CORRECTED TOTAL . 9,700 26.6 

Distance Traveled 
The first question on the survey form was de- 
signed to obtain the information concerning the 
approximate drawing power of the average game 
management area. 

A total of 36,520 hunting efforts occurred on 



the fifteen game areas (Table 1), of which ap 
proximately 9700 were issued survey cards i 
(about 27 per cent) and 879 of these returned j 
the forms. This amounts to 2.4 per cent of the 
total hunting effort and 9 per cent of the hunters 
issued cards. 

The 879 hunters who returned cards traveled 
62,700 miles to get to the areas and the same dis- 
tance to return home, for a round-trip total of 
125,400 miles. The average respondent traveled 
approximately 71.3 miles to get to the hunting 
area, or a round trip total of about 142.6 miles 
(Table 2). 

If the sample gives a valid approximation of 
the number of miles traveled by the average 
hunter, then the total hunting effort was the re- 
sult of 2,603,876 miles of one-way trips, or a total 
of 5,207,752 miles traveled to hunt deer at the 15 
game areas. The average of 71 miles puts just 
about every part of Louisiana within the influen- 
tial area of one or more of the managed game 
areas (Fig. 1). The respondents answered the 
question as road-miles to the area, so the in- 
fluential areas may not correspond exactly to 
those indicated on the map. 

Number of Persons Per Car 

Question 2 (Appendix) was designed to help 
determine the number of persons the average 
vehicle transports to the area (Table 2). Those 
persons in the "0" row were respondents other 
than the driver of the vehicle. Approximately 25 
per cent of the hunters returning forms traveled 
in someone else's vehicle. If the persons traveling 
in other person's cars are excluded, it can be seen 
that about 20 per cent were single persons per car 
responses while two, three and four persons per 
car had approximately 36 per cent, 24 per cent 
and 12 per cent of the responses, respectively. 
One, two and three persons per car provided 
about 80 per cent of the car loads, with two per- 
sons per car being the most prevalent. 

Table 2 



NUMBER OF PERSONS PER CAR AND THE 

AVERAGE NUMBER OF MILES TRAVELED 

BY THE CAR GROUPS 

No. of No. of Total Miles Average Miles 

Persons/Car Responses Traveled Traveled/ Group 

0* 222 14,445 65.1 

1 137 7,673 56.0 

2 236 20,114 85.2 

3 160 11,874 74.2 

4 82 5,824 71.0 

5 24 1,569 65.4 

6 12 660 55.0 

7 4 436 109.0 

8 _2 105 52.5 

TOTALS .. 879 62,700 71.3 

*Responses of persons other than the driver of the vehicle. 






124 






Table 3 

ANALYSIS OF MALE AGE GROUPS IN REGARD 

TO NUMBER OF PERSONS PER GROUP, 

AVERAGE NUMBER OF HOURS SPENT 

HUNTING PER GROUP 







Average 








Dollars 








Spent 


Average Houi 




Number of 


Per 


For Trip Pet- 




Persons/ 


Persons/ 


Person/ 


Age Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


0-10* 


7 


$16.8 


41.7 


11-20 


....145 


7.8 


29.8 


21-30 


228 


20.1 


41.4 


31-40 


220 


24.3 


46.5 


41-50 


126 


20.1 


39.5 


51-60 


92 


12.1 


24.2 


61-70 


.... 35 


12.8 


26.1 


71-73 


10 


7.6 


29.4 


TOTALS 


863 


$17.9 


38.2 



*Four persons did not give their ages so they were placed 
in this age group. 



This study was conducted at the managed deer 
hunts, so the species hunted will always include 
deer. Two persons did not answer this question 
but due to the nature of the hunt, it can be as- 
sumed that they hunted deer. There were a few 
persons who indicated they also hunted other 
species. One person reported hunting rabbits, nine 
hunted squirrels, one hunted ducks and three 
hunted quail. 

Of the 879 persons responding 863 were male 
and 16 were female for a ratio of approximately 
55 to 1. The female hunters hunted only deer. 

The male respondents varied in age from 7 to 
73 and the females varied from 15 to 58. Tables 
3 and 4 have the number of respondents in the 
various age groups, the average amount spent per 
person in the age groups and the average time 
involved in hours on the hunting trip. These 
figures were rounded off when data processed. 
Those in the zero age group were respondents not 
giving their age. 

The 863 male respondents were away from 
home an average of 38.2 hours and spent an 
average of 17.9 dollars per person. The female 
respondents were away from home an average 
of 40.9 hours per persons and spent an average 
of $12.7 per person. 

The total time and expenses involved in the 
hunting trips amounted to 33,662 hours and 
$15,644, for an average of 38.3 hours per person 
and $17.8 per person. If these averages are ap- 
plied to the total number of hunters at the game 
management areas, then 1,398,716 hours and 
$650,056 were involved in hunting for deer at 
these areas over a five day period. 

The hunter responses were arranged into two 



groups. These persons who traveled less than 25 
miles to get to the hunting areas (Table 5) and 
those who traveled more than 25 miles to reach 
the hunting area (Table 6). The first group can 
be regarded as the local hunters and the second 
group as foreign hunters. Practically all the 
money spent by local hunters would be of direct 
benefit in the immediate area, whereas, only a 
portion of that spent by foreign hunters would 
be of benefit to the area adjacent to the game 
management area. 

The average local hunter traveled about 14.4 
miles and spent about $7.00. The local hunter 
composed 34.8 per cent of the respondents. If this 
is expanded to encompass the total hunting effort 
at all areas, then the local participation of 12,709 
hunting efforts accounted for 183,009 miles of 
travel to the areas and $86,167 spent on deer 
hunting (Table 5). 



Table 4 

ANALYSIS OF FEMALE AGE-GROUPS IN REGARD 

TO NUMBER OF PERSONS PER GROUP, 

AVERAGE DOLLARS SPENT AND AVERAGE 

NUMBERS OF HOURS SPENT HUNTING 

PER GROUP 



Age Group 
0-10 


Number of 

Persons/ 

Group 

1 


Average. 

Dollars 

Spent 

Per 

Persons/ 

Group 

$ 2.0 
16.6 
26.5 
25.0 
10.0 

$12.7 


Average Houi 
For Trip Per 
Person/ 
Group 

24.0 


11-20 


3 


50.0 


21-30 


9 


33.4 


31-40 . . . 


1 


144.0 


51-60 


2 


16.5 


TOTALS 


16 


40.9 



Table 5 

NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS TRAVELING 25 MILES 

OR LESS TO REACH AN AREA, ANALYZED BY 

AGE GROUPS 



Number of 
Persons 
Age Group Per Group 

0-10* 6 

11-20 72 

21-30 72 

31-40 62 

41-50 35 

51-60 38 

61-70 16 

71-73 _5 

Total Average .306 



Total Miles 

Traveled 
Per Group 



Dollars 

Spent 

Per Group 

$ 25 

341 

537 

506 

231 

201 

203 

32 

$6.78 



*Four persons did not give their ages so they were placed 
in this age group. 



125 



Table 6 

NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS TRAVELING OVER 

25 MILES TO REACH AN AREA, ANALYZED BY 

AGE GROUPS 

Number of Total Miles Dollars 

Persons Traveled Spent 

Age Group Per Group Per Group Per Group 

0-10* 2 394 $ 95 

10-20 76 5,895 843 

21-30 165 18,721 4,145 

31-40 159 19,012 4,867 

41-50 91 8,056 2,307 

51-60 56 4,521 929 

61-70 19 1,470 338 

71-73 _5 223 44 

Total Average .573 10.17 $23.70 

: Four persons did not give their ages so they were placed 
in this age group. 

Table 7 

ANALYSIS OF DISTANCES TRAVELED BY THE 
VARIOUS AGE GROUPS 

Average Miles 
Number of Total Miles Traveled 

Persons Traveled Per Person/ 

Age Group Per Group Per Group Group 

0-10 8 471 $58.9 

11-20 148 6,879 46.5 

21-30 273 19,806 83.6 

31-40 221 19,849 89.8 

41-50 126 8,584 68.1 

51-60 94 5,101 54.3 

61-70 35 1,714 49.0 

71-73 JL0 296 29.6 

All Ages 879 62,700 $71.3 

The average foreign hunter traveled about 101 
miles and spent about $24. The foreign hunters 
composed 65.2 per cent of the respondents, or 
about 23,811 hunting efforts. Upon expansion of 
the figures to the total hunting effort to all areas, 
the foreign hunters influence would amount to 
about 2,421,579 miles traveled to the areas and 
about $564,320 spent (Table 6). 

Age 
The effect of age upon participation rate and 
distance traveled was analyzed to determine the 
average traveled by the various groups (Table 7) . 
Respondents between the ages of 21 and 40 ac- 
counted for over 50 per cent of the sample. They 
traveled an average of about 86 miles to hunt 
deer. The younger and older persons were more 
restricted in their movements. 

APPENDIX 

1. Distance traveled from home to hunting area 
(one-way) miles. 

2. Number of persons traveling to hunting area 

in your vehicle (question applies 

only to driver.) 

3. Game species hunted 



4. Approximate personal expense for this trip, 
including shells, lodging, food. $ 

5. Time spent on entire trip from departure until 
returning home. days. 

6. Age Sex 

DOVE HUNTERS MOBILITY SURVEY 

The morning dove is the most important mi- 
gratory game species of the Southeastern States, 
whether one speaks of number of hunters, total 
kill or hours of recreation (Soileau, 1967). 

The Southeastern States have joined with the 
Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife in order 
to investigate the effects of hunting regulations 
on the dove population. The Louisiana Wild Life 
and Fisheries Commission is the state agency 
responsible for Louisiana's wildlife studies. The 
WLF Commission conducted a mail-out survey to 
determine hunter participation and success and 
the Louisiana Bureau of Outdoor Recreation of 
the State Parks and Recreation Commission par- 
ticipated in this study to try and determine the 
mobility factor involved in the pursuit of this 
game bird. 

A question was inserted on the mail-out ques- 
tionnaire as to the number of miles traveled to 
hunt these birds for the 1966-67 hunting season. 
The Wild Life and Fisheries Commission mailed 
2,757 questionnaires for about a 1 per cent sample 
of the state's total hunting force. There were 
1,833 responses, or 71.1 per cent, of which 566 
were dove hunters and 1,267 were non-dove hunt- 
ers. 

The 566 dove hunters traveled a total of 74,896 
miles on an average of approximately 132.2 miles 
per hunter. The average of 6.2 efforts per hunter 
gives an average distance per trip of 21.3 miles. 

If the above sample is expanded to the total 
licensed hunters, 276,247, the total number of 
dove hunters would be approximately 80,452. 
This would yield a total of 496,276 hunting ef- 
forts. These hunting efforts resulted in 10,570,678 
miles of travel. 

The licensed hunters do not comprise the total 
hunting force. Permits issued to persons under 16 
or over 60 years of age are not included in this 
sample, even though their efforts would influence 
the survey. The exact effects of these segments 
are not known and for the purpose of this paper 
are assumed as non-existing. 

The economic benefits derived from this hunt- 
ing activity are of interest to the sportsman as 
well as the businessman. The exact cost can not be 
determined but an approximation of some of the 
expenses incurred by the nimrod can be deduced 
from his mobility pattern. 

If the rate of 10 cents per mile is used as an 
average mileage cost for the hunters, the esti- 
mated travel cost the sportsman $1,050,861. 
This expense figure assumes that the hunting ef- 



126 



forts were one car — one sportsman efforts. This 
is not necessarily true, but no other method can 
be used from the available information. These 
figures do not include the expense of equipment, 
licenses, and ammunition and etc. These costs 
would surely raise the total expenditures to near 
the two million dollar mark. This money is usually 
spent in the local area because the average trip 
was approximately 21 miles round-trip. There- 
fore, the presence of this game species, and avail- 
able hunting areas, can be an economic asset to a 
community. 

The estimated total kill on a statewide basis 
comes to 2,240,403 doves. If an estimate of the 
average number of shells shot for each dove killed 
is calculated, then a better estimate of expenses 
can be obtained. The author was not able to lo- 
cate a study indicating the average number of 
shells shot to collect a dove. Personnel of the 
Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Commission 
and Louisiana State University School of Wildlife 
Management are of the opinion that approxi- 
mately three shells are used per dove killed. Lack- 
ing the necessary studies, the cost for shells can 
be calculated for 2, 3, and 4 shells per kill. 

If the shells cost an average of 10 cents apiece, 
then the cost could be 20, 30 or 40 cents per kill. 
These figures multiplied by the estimated number 
of doves killed yields a cost of $448,080, $672,120 
or $896, 161 respectively. 

The addition of the various figures to the travel 
cost figure brings the cost for dove hunting into 
the range of approximately $1,498,941, $1,722,- 
981, or $1,947,022 respectively. 

The above costs do not contain the expense of 
food, lodging, licenses, and other hunting equip- 
ment. These costs should bring the total expense 
to approximately 2 million dollars or a figure of 
approximately a dollar per dove. 

The above figures give some idea of the extent 
of recreation provided the Louisiana hunter by 
the morning dove. The 496,276 "user days" is 
surely one of the major hunting efforts in the 
state. These efforts are mostly local and the eco- 
nomic influence is therefore local. 

LOUISIANA COOPERATIVE 
WILDLIFE RESEARCH UNIT 

JOHN D. NEWSOM 

Leader 

Highlights 

THE INFLUENCE OF WATER DEPTH AND SALINITY 
ON WIREGRASS AND SALTMARSH GRASS 

A study was conducted from September, 1965 
to January, 1967 to determine the effects of 
various water depths and salinities on survival, 
growth and seed production of wiregrass (Spar- 
tina patens) and saltmarsh grass (Distichlis 



spicata) . The study was conducted at Rockefeller 
Refuge, Grand Chenier, Louisiana and on the 
Louisiana State University campus. 

The two grasses from burned and unburned 
areas were subjected to water depths and salini- 
ties which fluctuated with evaporation and pre- 
cipitation, and to constant water depths and 
salinities in large plastic tanks. 

Results of the study indicated that survival, 
growth and seed production was best in both 
species at salinities of 5 to 25 ppt. Lower salini- 
ties caused reduction in density and vigor of both 
plants. 

Both species remained dominant at water 
depths from slightly below to approximately one 
foot above the soil surface. When water depths 
exceeded one foot there were drastic reductions 
in density of both species. This was especially 
pronounced in those samples from burned areas. 

Seed production of both species was adversely 
affected by flooding. No seed production occurred 
when flooding was induced immediately after 
burning, and seed production was much lower 
on flooded unburned areas. 

Winter burning, followed immediately by flood- 
ing was most successful in reducing wiregrass 
and saltmarsh grass. 

SPRING AND SUMMER FOODS OF BULLFROGS IN 
LOUISIANA COASTAL MARSHES 

An analysis was made of foods contained in 
425 bullfrog (Rana cateabeiana and R. grylio) 
stomachs which were collected during spring and 
summer in three coastal areas of Louisiana. 

Data obtained revealed that coastal marsh 
bullfrogs are omnivorous although primarily car- 
nivorous. The most important food item was 
crabs, which occurred in 55 percent of the stom- 
ach and comprised 51 percent of the total volume 
of food consumed. Other major foods were craw- 
fish, fish and insects in that order of importance. 

THE INFLUENCE OF FIRE, DISKING, FERTILIZA- 
TION AND PLANTING ON UNDERSTORY IN A PINE 
STAND 

From February 1966 to October 1966 a study 
was conducted to determine the effects of burn- 
ing, disking, fertilizing and planting on under- 
story plant composition of a mature pine stand. 
The effects of these treatments on plant density 
and the relationship of basal area to plant density 
was also studied. 

The study demonstrated that burning affected 
legumes favorably, and significantly increased 
partridge pea (Cassis sp.) ; asters were increased 
and grasses decreased in abundance. Burning de- 
creased total coverage of woody deer browse 
plants, but had no significant effect on the total 
number of stems. Total vegetative density was 
also decreased. 



127 



Disking caused a reduction in total plant densi- 
ty, but benefitted some of the composites and 
caused a significant increase in Rubus sp. Disk- 
ing in combination with fertilizing caused ex- 
tremely dense stands of vegetation, as did the 
treatment of burning, disking and fertilizing. 

Common lespedeza (Lespedeza striata) which 
was planted on some of the plots produced best 
stands on plots which were burned, disked and 
then planted. 

Fertilizing caused increases in abundance of 
some non-leguminous plants at the apparent ex- 
pense of legumes. A major exception to this was 
hog peanut (Ampliicarpa bracteata) which was 
increased significantly by fertilizing. 

The study demonstrated that a highly signifi- 
cant correlation existed between basal area of the 
overstory and total coverage of the understory. 
When basal area increased total understory vege- 
tation decreased, regardless of treatment. During 
this study it was determined that 31 percent of 
the variation in understory vegetation between 
plots was caused by variation in basal area of the 
overstory. 

FOOD HABITS OF THE COMMON SNIPE (CAPELLA 

GALLINEGQ DELICATA) IN PASTURES OF SOUTH 

CENTRAL LOUISIANA 

A study was conducted to determine foods avail- 
able to snipe, foods consumed by snipe and the 
feeding periods of snipe during their stay on the 
wintering grounds, October through April, in 
pastures of south central Louisiana. 

Analyses of soil samples showed that earth- 
worms, beetles, fly larvae, snails and seeds of 
smartweeds, spurges, sedges, clover, grasses and 
rushes were the most available foods. 

Contents of the gizzards of 172 snipe collected 
from October through April were identified. This 
analysis revealed that plant fibers made up one 
fourth of the total volume of material contained 
in the gizzards. The seeds of smartweed, millet, 
clover, sedges and rushes were the most frequent- 
ly occurring seeds. Animal material amounted to 
more than one half of the total weight of all 
foods, with earthworms and insects comprising 
the most important groups of animals. Grit con- 
stituted 9.8 percent by volume of the total gizzard 
contents. 

The major feeding periods of snipe were de- 
termined to be early morning and late afternoon. 

ECOLOGY OF SCIRPUS OLNEYI AND SCIRPUS 

ROBUSTUS IN LOUISIANA COASTAL MARSHES 

From June 1965 to June 1967 a study was con- 
ducted in the coastal marshes of Louisiana to 
determine ecological factors affecting the estab- 
lishment, growth and propagation of Scirpus 
olneyi and S. robustus. 

The study revealed that S. olneyi was associated 



with shallow water levels where total salts ranged 
from 10 to 17 ppt, and where pH varied from 
4.1 to 7.9. S. robustus tolerated higher salinity — 
12 to 22 ppt — and water depths of — 6 to +5 
inches. 

Spartina patens and Distichlis spicata displaced 
S. olneyi and S. robustus at higher elevations, and 
D. spicata tolerated higher salinity and pH values. 

Both sedges were dormant in winter. Spring 
growth began when soil temperatures exceeded 
60°F ; S. olneyi flowered and set seed by early July 
and S. robustus flowered later, and seed did not 
mature until late August. 

Seed production in S. olneyi varied from to 
9.88 pounds per acre while S. robustus proved to 
be a consistent and abundant seed producer rang- 
ing from 784 to 1,874 pounds per acre. 

Ninety seven percent of the rhizomes of S. 
olneyi and S. robustus were located within the 
upper six inches of soil, while rhizomes of the 
two major competitors S. patens and D. spicata 
penetrated deeper. 

Optimum germination in the two sedges oc- 
curred with 35°C temperature with light for 14 
hours and 20°C in darkness for 10 hours daily. 
Light was essential for optimum germination and 
heat was found to slightly stimulate germination. 
Seeds of both species were capable of sustained 
flotation for 129+ days and were capable of 
germinating while floating. A 50 percent reduc- 
tion in germination of S. robustus seed was caused 
by salinity of 8 to 10.5 ppt, while the same re- 
duction occurred in S. olneyi at 4 ppt salinity. 



A STUDY OF THE ECOLOGY OF THE WOODRAT IN 

THE HARDWOOD FORESTS OF THE LOWER 

MISSISSIPPI RIVER BASIN 

An investigation of the ecological relationship | 
between woodrats (Neotoma floridana) and i 
squirrels and woodrats and oak regeneration was 
undertaken in the lower Mississippi River basin. 

The conclusion was drawn that because of ma- 1 
jor differences in habits — woodrats nocturnal;'; 
squirrels diurnal ; squirrels tree dwellers ; wood- 1 1 
rats largely ground dwellers — and the fact that 
acorns are only one item in the diets of both 
species, woodrats are not serious competitors with 
squirrels. Even in years of low mast production, 
the percentage of total mast production consumed j 
by both squirrels and woodrats as compared to 
other animals would indicate that woodrats are 
insignificant competitors with squirrels for food. 

Annual oak regeneration is not essential in 
order to maintain an oak forest. Even though it 
appears feasible that a high population of wood- 
rats in a poor mast year could utilize all the 
acorns produced, this would not adversely affect 
oak regeneration. 

This study also revealed that the highest wood- 
rat population occurred in an oak forest which 
had 4,395 oak seedlings per acre. 



128 



FOOD HABITS OF THE COYOTE 
(CANIS LATRANS) IN LOUISIANA 

A study was conducted to determine seasonal 
food habits and relative frequency of wild and 
domestic species in the food habits of the coyote 
(Cams latrans frustror) in Louisiana. The study 
' was accomplished by examination of 43 coyote 
stomachs from northwestern and central Louisi- 
ana. 

Rodents were the most frequently occurring 
group of animals, while rabbits were second. How- 
ever, rabbits were considered to be more im- 
portant than rodents because of their relative 
| size and the fact that they were taken more fre- 
' quently in summer than any other group of ani- 
mals. 

Domestic cattle were an important item in the 
' diet of coyotes, especially during winter, and as 
frequently as rabbits during the winter months. 

Plant material — watermelons in summer and 
persimmons in the fall — were important items in 
the diet of these coyotes. 

Since white-tailed deer was found in only two 
stomachs, and these during winter months, the 
indication was that the coyote is not an impor- 
tant predator of white-tailed deer. 

; SEASONAL VARIATION IN FOOD CONSUMPTION 
AND WEIGHT GAIN IN MALE AND FEMALE 
WHITE-TAILED DEER 

A study was conducted to determine if there is 
a seasonal variation in food consumption and 
weight gains of penned southern white-tailed deer 
fed a balanced ration, and to determine if there 
is a variation between sexes in the rate of food 
consumption and weight changes at the different 
seasons. 

Feeding trials were conducted over an 18 month 
period in which ten white-tailed deer, 5 bucks and 
' 5 does, were offered ad libitum a balanced ration 
consisting of not less than 13 percent protein, 2 
percent crude fat and not more than 9.5 percent 
crude fiber or 4.8 percent minerals. 

Daily food consumption was recorded to the 
nearest ounce and the weight of each deer was 
determined weekly to the nearest pound. 

Analysis of the data revealed that seasonal 
variation in food consumption and body weight 
in both sexes and between sexes was significant 
at the 1 percent level of probability. Buck deer 
averaged 10 percent weight loss and does averaged 
3 percent during the second winter. Reductions in 
food consumption for bucks averaged from 1/3 
to 1/2 during the second winter while in does it 
averaged 1/4 to 1/5. 

List of Projects 

1. Food Habits of the Common Snipe (Capella 
gallinago delicata) in the Rice Fields of 



Southwest Louisiana — Thurman W. Booth, 
Jr. and John D. Newsom 1-59. 

2. Food Intake and Weight Gain in Southern 
White-tailed Deer — James Fowler and John 
D. Newsom — Southern Forest Experiment 
Station, U.S. Forest Service and Unit Funds 
on a 50-50 basis. 

3. The Effects of Herbicidal Hardwood Con- 
trol on Wildlife Habitat — Don Lee and John 
D. Newsom 5, 1 & 4. 

4. Diseases of Game Birds in Louisiana — John 
D. Newsom and Joe M. Dixon — 59. 

5. Pair Bond Formation and Behavior of Mot- 
tled Ducks — John L. Weeks and Fant M. 
Martin — Unit Funds. 

6. Summer Food Habits of Mottled Ducks — 
Rodney F. McLean and Fant W. Martin, 
Unit Funds — 1 and 6. 

7. Effect of Plant of Nutrition on the Phys- 
iology of Southern Deer — Paul Matthews, 
George L. McCoy and John D. Newsom — 
Southern Forest Experiment Station, U.S. 
Forest Service and Unit Funds on a 50-50 
basis. 

8. Development and testing of cultural Ma- 
chines for Improvement of Marshlands for 
Cattle and Wildlife — George Chandler, 
David M. Soileau and Robert E. Murry — 
Harch Funds (Act. Forest Research funds) 
Unit funds. 

9. A Telemetric Study of Deer Movements on 
Red Dirt Wildlife Management Area. Don 
Lewis and John D. Newsom — 6. 

10. A Study of Deer Population Dynamics on 
Red Dirt Wildlife Management Area — 6 
and Unit Funds. 

11. A Study of Population Dynamics of the 
Swamp Rabbit — Gerald V. Garner and Fant 
W. Martin — Mclntire-Stennis Forest Re- 
search Funds and Unit Funds. 

12. Woodcock Population Study on the Winter- 
ing Grounds — Sartor O. Williams and Fant 
M. Martin — 7, 5 and Unit Funds. 

13. External Sex and Age Criteria in the Com- 
mon Snipe — John W. Hoffpauir and John 
D. Newsom — 1, 5 and Unit Funds. 

14. The Effects of Salinity and Water Levels 
on Three Waterfowl Food Plants (Walter's 
Millet, Sprangletop and Fall Panicum) in 
the Louisiana Coastal Marsh — Robert J. 
Misso and John D. Newsom — Unit Funds. 

15. A Telemetric Study of Wild Turkey Move- 
ments — James H. Taylor and John D. New- 
som — 6. 

THESES 

Babcock, Kenneth Mason 1967. The influence of 
water depth and salinity on wiregrass and salt- 
marsh grass — Louisiana State University, M.S. 
Thesis. 108pp. (Typewritten). 

Fowler, James Frederick 1967. Seasonal variation 



129 



in food consumption and weight gain in male 
and female white-tailed deer. Louisiana State 
University, M.S. Thesis. 40 pp. (Typewritten). 

Hines, Thomas Collier 1967. The influence of fire, 
disking, fertilization and planting on under- 
story in a pine stand. Louisiana State Uni- 
versity, M.S. Thesis. 66 pp. (Typewritten). 

Neal, Wendell Austin 1967. A study of the ecology 
of the woodrat in the hardwood forests of the 
lower Mississippi River basin. Louisiana State 
University, M.S. Thesis. 115 pp. (Typewritten). 

Owens, Jerald Van 1967. Food habits of the Com- 
mon snipe (Capella gallinago delicata) in the 
pastures of south central Louisiana. Louisiana 
State University, M.S. Thesis. 105 pp. (Type- 
written) . 

Palmisano, Angelo William 1967. Ecology of Scir- 
pus olneyi and Scirpus robustus in Louisiana 
coastal marshes. Louisiana State University, 
M.S. Thesis. 145 pp. (Typewritten) . 

Reggio, Villere Caliste, Jr. 1967. Spring and sum- 
mer food of bullfrogs in Louisiana coastal 
marshes. Louisiana State University, M.S. 
Thesis. 46 pp. (Typewritten). 

Wilson, William Carey 1967. Food habits of the 
coyote, Canis latrans, in Louisiana. Louisiana 
State University. M.S. Thesis. 49 pp. (Type- 
written). 

UNIT PUBLICATIONS 

Palmisano, Angelo W. and John D. Newsom 1967. 
Ecological factors affecting occurrence of 
Scirpus olneyi and Scirpus robustus in the Lou- 
isiana coastal marshes. Proceedings of the 
Twenty-Second Annual Conference — South- 
eastern Association of Game and Fish Com- 
missioners. (In Press). 

Fowler, James F. and John D. Newsom 1967. 
Seasonal variation in food consumption and 
weight gain in male and female white-tailed 
deer. Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Annual 
Conference — Southeastern Association of Game 
and Fish Commissioners. (In Press). 

Honors, Awards, Officers in 
Professional Societies 

John D. Newsom served as state representative 
for the Southeastern Section of the Wildlife So- 
ciety and as a member of the Publication Awards 
and Forest Game Research Committees. 

New Facilities— Equipment 

Funds for the construction of a greenhouse 
(100 ft. x 30 ft.) were supplied by the Louisiana 
Wild Life and Fisheries Commission. The facility 
will be completed and in operation in early 1968. 

One additional deer pen was constructed, bring- 
ing the total to three one-acre enclosures with ap- 
propriate internal facilities. 



A new bureau pick-up truck was delivered in 
July. Two new pick-up trucks and a station 
wagon, provided by a special appropriation of the 
Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Commission, 
were delivered in February and March. 



Personnel 

Assistant Unit Leader, Robert H. Chabreck, 
was employed and reported for duty on December 
4, 1967. 

On February 1, 1967, Dr. Fant W. Martin 
joined the staff of the School of Forestry and 
Wildlife Management. 

John L. Haygood resigned his position as assis- 
tant professor of Wildlife Management in July 
of 1967 and was replaced by Robert E. Murry. 

Conservation, Education and Extension 

The Unit Leader assisted with the Marsh Man- 
agement symposium which was held on July 19 
and 20, 1967, on the L.S.U. campus. 

The Unit Leader also assisted with the plan- 
ning and facility arrangements for a woodcock 
symposium which will be held on the L.S.U. cam- 
pus on January 24-26, 1968. 

The Unit Leader presented a talk to the Annual 
Convention of the Louisiana Wildlife Federation 
in March. 

TRANQUILIZER WORK IN LOUISIANA 

In 1961 a New Jersey drug firm made available 
to the Fish and Game Division of this agency a 
group of tranquilizing drugs. These drugs are 
related to, and included, a well known tranquilizer 
used in clinical therapy. 

A search of game literature was made by Com- 
mission biologists assigned to the job of screen- 
ing the available compounds. The syringe gun that 
delivers a drug in a projectile propelled by com- 
pressed CO., was widely discussed in the litera- 
ture, but little could be found about the use of 
oral tranquilizing agents in wildlife work. One 
researcher had stated that the bad taste ruled 
out the possibility of using them for anything 
other than animals that bolt their food, such as 
foxes, coyotes and wolves. He held little hope that 
these compounds could ever be fed to wild deer, 
rabbits, moose, sheep, etc. 

The Commission is well aware of the uses and 
the limitations of the syringe gun. In fact, Lou- 
isiana had used the syringe gun since its develop- 
ment in the late 1950's and has used the dart gun 
from which the syringe gun was developed as far 
back as 1956. The modern syringe gun is very 
useful in some situations, however, it has never 
worked well in areas where animals tend to con- 
centrate. Best results are obtained where animals 
are encountered singly or in small groups. This 
is true because it is very difficult to stalk large 



130 



herds of deer and get within effective syringe gun 
range. 

The primary research with tranquilizers made 
use of racoons, foxes, nutria, squirrels, domestic 3. 

turkey, domestic chickens, and captive deer. As 
commission biologists learned more about the re- 
actions of these test animals to the compounds 
used they began to plan towards development of 
feeding and capture techniques for wild deer. 

Lacking the necessary facilities they turned to 
a private landowner who let them experiment a 

with his captive deer herd. Cautiously mixing 
small amounts of drug with feed it was de- 
termined that captive deer could be fed the drug. 
With larger doses the captive deer were later 
controlled. The same landowner allowed our bio- 
logists to capture wild deer on his land with the 
newly developed technique. 

Many refinements have been made since our 
early experiments. Three technical papers have 
been prepared covering the developments of 
present methods. Several popular articles have 
also come from our work in this direction. Our 
employees have answered a great many inquiries 
from throughout the United States and Canada 
regarding the use of this drug. It is presently be- 
ing used or considered for use on mule deer, elk, 
bighorn sheep, moose, Russian boars and possi- 
bly other animals in addition to the white-tailed- 
deer that our personnel developed techniques for 
capturing. 

Some facts to be used in answering questions. 6. 

1. Does it put the animals to sleep? 

Not usually — it makes most of them groggy 
and incoordinated. Some are asleep. 

2. How long are they affected? 

From five to seventy-two hours. Animals 
dosed heavily require protection from preda- 



5. 



tors for three days. They also must be 

stimulated to rise and exercise occasionally 

to avoid pneumonia infection. 

How are animals that are not overcome 

captured ? 

All capturing is done at night, making use 

of spotlights and strong king-sized deer 

scoop nets. These nets are like extra large 

landing nets and were developed by our 

personnel. 

Does it kill animals? 

We lost some deer during our early work. 
We now know that it was not the drug, but 
the handling and hauling that caused 
foreign body pneumonia to kill the deer. 
We have that problem solved by keeping the 
captured deer in a good body position at all 
times and by frequent exercise of all heavily 
drugged deer at the release site. 
Will this allow the Commission to remove 
surplus does from areas rather than allotv- 
ing hunters to kill them? 
This techniques has some use in a restock- 
ing program, however, Louisiana has about 
completed the initial stocking of all good 
deer ranges. This capture method works 
better than any method known in certain 
situations, but like the box trap, the syringe 
gun and the airboat, it does not offer a 
solution that compares to sport hunting 
when you need to reduce a deer herd. 
Has Louisiana personnel tried this on other 
wild animals? 

Yes, on many forms of wild mammals and 
birds. It shows promise on some, such as 
rabbits. Birds are more resistant and be- 
cause most have a crop the absorption and 
reaction is slow. 



131 



Fisheries Section 

HARRY E. SCHAFER 

Supervisor 

The Fisheries Section is responsible for re- 
search, development and management of all game 
fish and freshwater commercial fish. Fish as 
defined under Title 56 of the Louisiana Revised 
Statutes of 1950 is any aquatic animal that has 
a sporting, commercial and recreational value. 

The Fisheries Section during the last two years 
had another source of funds in addition to the 
three that were reported in the last biennial re- 
port. The new funds were the result of Public 
Law 89-304 or the Anadromous Fish Act passed 
by the U. S. Congress and as signed by the 
president, October 30, 1965. The money is allo- 
cated to the states on a 50-50 matching basis to 
study anadromous fishes. Anadromous fish are 
fish that live in salt water and migrate into fresh 
water to reproduce. 

The other three sources of funds are : first, 
money received from the federal government un- 
der the Dingell-Johnson program. This money 
which is derived from a federal excise tax on fish- 
ing tackle, is allocated to the states based on 
land area and on the number of fishing licenses 
sold in the state. Once again Louisiana did not 
receive its fair share of this federal money be- 
cause not all fishermen are required to purchase 
a fishing license. The federal monies received are 
used on fisheries research. Second, money was re- 
ceived from the United States Department of 
Commerce through the U. S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service under the Accelerated Public Works pro- 
gram. This program was initiated primarily for 
furnishing employment in parishes designated as 
economically distressed areas. The money was 
used to build public boat launching ramps with 
parking areas. This program was completed dur- 
ing this biennium and there will not be any more 
of these funds. Third, money was allocated to the 
section from the Louisiana Wild Life and Fish- 
eries Commission's annual budget. The monies 
from this source are used for research, manage- 
ment, development, maintenance and operational 
costs. 

During the last two years, two Dingell-Johnson 
research projects were completed. One project 
entitled "An Ecological Survey of Factors Affect- 
ing Fish Production in a Natural Lake and a 
River" was the third in a series that catalogues 
the types of waters in Louisiana. The final report 
is being prepared and will be published. The other 
completed project was entitled "Bussey Lake In- 
vestigations". This project was to determine the 
best methods for maintaining good fishing 
through a balanced fish population. The final re- 
port is being prepared and will be published as a 
special report. 

A state project that was completed except for 




HARRY E. SCHAFER 

Supervisor 

the publication of the report is a statewide fish 
inventory. The object of this project was to deter- 
mine the species of freshwater fish present in 
streams and lakes in Louisiana. Both a popular 
and technical publication are being prepared. 

Three new Dingell-Johnson research projects 
were initiated. The project entitled "Life History 
of the Spotted Bass in Six-Mile Creek" is the first 
study in Louisiana on this species and should lead 
to better management of this species. Another 
project entitled "Effects of Water Fluctuation on 
the Limnology, Fish Population and Vegetation in 
Three Impoundments and a Backwater Area" will 
give valuable information on what happens to the 
fish population, fish foods, and their environments 
when the water is fluctuated. The third project 
entitled "Striped Bass Investigation" will give 
valuable information on the requirements needed 
to establish populations of striped bass in the 
waters of the state. 

Some other new projects started during this 
period include the Anadromous fish study, which 
is an inventory of the fish species and a study 
of the water quality in the area where striped 
bass were known. A research project in all phases 
for crawfish was started. Answers to problems in 
crawfish farming are the objective of this project. 

Two D. J. projects that were reported on in 
the last biennial report entitled "An Investigation 
of Sports Fisheries in Coastal Waters in Louisi- 
ana" and "The D'Arbonne Lake Investigation" 
are still active. The coastal project is in its last 
year and will terminate in 1968. 

The three state fish hatcheries were again in 
full production. Another fish hatchery had to be 
leased for one year in order to propagate one and 
a half million bass for Toledo Bend Reservoir. 
The principal species propagated in the hatcheries 
were largemouth bass, bluegill, crappie and cat- 
fish. Striped bass and walleye were hatched and 
grown in the hatcheries. Because of the work with 
these two species, other hatchery research projects 



132 



and the increased demand for fish, the fish 
hatcheries are having a difficult time keeping up 
the required production. It is planned that new 
ponds be constructed at all hatcheries. The bull- 
frog research project at Beechwood Fish Hatchery 
is still active. 

The cooperative fish disease and parasite proj- 
ect continues with Louisiana being one of ten 
participating states. The research center is at 
Auburn University. During this period the super- 
visor attended a seminar at the center. The proj- 
ect personnel from Auburn came to Beechwood 
Fish Hatchery and gave the state fisheries bi- 
ologists a short two day course on the latest meth- 
ods of combating fish disease and parasites. 

The fisheries section continues to have a turn- 
over in fisheries biologists. Five biologists left 
the section — two of them transferred to other 
divisions in the Commission and three biologists 
resigned. Four new fisheries biologists were em- 
ployed. This leaves the section farther under- 
staffed not only because of fewer biologists, but 
also because of an increased work load. We have 
assigned the biologists so that there is now a 
fisheries biologist in each of the eight districts. 

A more detailed report on the activities of each 
project and district follows: 

INVESTIGATION OF FISH 
MANAGEMENT PRACTICES 

DINGELL-JOHNSON PROJECT F-7-R 

JAMES T. DAVIS 

Project Leader 

JANICE S. HUGHES 

Assistant Project Leader 

This project was designed to determine the best 
methods for maintaining good fishing through a 
balanced fish population. We studied many pos- 
sibilities. Three methods looked very promising 
and required further investigation. 

First, was water level fluctuation for the con- 
trol of aquatic weeds and nuisance fish popula- 
tions. We were quite successful in showing the 
value and problems of this method. On Bussey 
Lake, we were successful in maintaining a high 
catch rate. In fact, over 100 pounds of fish per 
acre (three times the state average) were caught 
while this lake was under investigation and man- 
agement. Lafourche Lake demonstrated to us one 
of the major problem areas when low amounts of 
rainfall failed to refill the lake. Fishing success 
was low and did not improve until this had been 
changed. 

Secondly, we found that trees in a lake attracted 
both fish and fishermen. A few trees left in Bus- 
sey Lake attracted most of the fishermen and 



many fish. Catches of fish were excellent and 
only slightly poorer than in the open water. From 
this we concluded that a few trees left in the lake 
will improve fishing and make the fishermen 
much happier. 

The third method tried was the introduction of 
new kinds of predatory fish to control the ever 
present shad populations in a lake. This method 
is still under study under another project but 
our results to date are quite promising. 

Louisiana's outstanding fishing is very impor- 
tant to our sportsman's paradise. As outdoor 
recreation is the third largest industry in the 
state we must have continued good fishing. Lakes 
and impoundments must furnish the bulk of this 
fishing. This project and others are our major 
efforts to assure fish for everyone. 

This project was completed during the bien- 
nium and a complete report will be available early 
in 1968. 

AN INVESTIGATION OF THE SPORT 

FISHERIES IN COASTAL WATERS 

OF LOUISIANA 

DINGELL-JOHNSON PROJECT F-8-R 

BENNIE J. FONTENOT, JR. 

Project Leader 

HOWARD E. ROGILLIO 

Assistant Project Leader 

The purpose of this project is to give the sports- 
fishermen pertinent biological information of the 
salt water sportfish in the estuaries, bays and 
coastal lakes of Southeastern Louisiana. In this 
way the sportsfishermen's catch and outing will 
be more successful and enjoyable. Such biological 
information as seasonal abundance and distribu- 




Howard E. Rogillio, Fishery Biologist, and Warren 
Mones, Biological Aide, doing water chemistry analy- 
sis in the field. 



133 



tion, movement patterns, environmental require- 
ments, spawning and food habits of the sportfish 
present will be derived and published. 

The area under study is the Biloxi Marsh and 
Lake Borgne, located in Southeastern Louisiana, 
east of the Mississippi River and east of the New 
Orleans Ship Channel. The project has been con- 
ducted since 1960 and sampling is to be completed 
by June 30, 1968. When the final data has been 
collected, it will be completely analyzed, written 
and published. 

Trammel Net Samples 

Fish sampling by use of a 200 yard trammel 
net is one phase of the project. This gear is used 
to collect salt water fish in five major sampling 
areas. 

The net is set in a circle with the two ends 
attached to or near the shoreline. A disturbance 
is then made in the enclosed area causing the fish 
to swim into the net and become entangled. The 
net is then retrieved in such a manner so that 
the enclosed area surrounded by the net becomes 
smaller and smaller until all fish within the circle 
become entangled. 

Game fish caught are identified, weighed, 
measured and examined for gonadal development. 
Also stomach content samples are made which 
will be discussed later. Rough or non-game fish 
captured are identified and measured only. 

Preceding each trammel net sample, water 
analyses are run to determine the chemical char- 
acteristics of the water at the time of the sam- 
pling. Tests are made in the field with a chemistry 
kit to determine the parts per million (ppm) 
of carbonates, bicarbonates, and dissolved carbon 
dioxide in the water. Salinities are determined in 
parts per thousand (ppt) . Air and water tempera- 
tures are recorded in degrees centigrade. Two 
water samples taken with each sample and chemi- 
cally preserved are brought to the New Orleans 
laboratory. Turbidity and chlorides are run on 
these samples. 

From the results of these trammel net samples, 
we can determine the following : a species list of 
fish present, the period when these fish enter and 
leave the Biloxi Marsh area, the fishes' growth 
rate, and their period of spawning (gonadal 
development) . 

This information correlated with the water 
chemistries, especially salinity and temperature, 
appears to reveal the possible factors or some of 
the factors, which determine the fishes' habits, 
movements, spawning, growth, feeding and other 
parameters. 

Of the game fish captured, those most avidly 
sought after by the salt water sportsmen are the 
spotted seatrout (speckled trout), Cynoscion 
nebulosus; the red drum (redfish), Scianops 
ocellata; southern flounder, Paralichthys letho- 
stigma, black drum, Pogonias cromis; sheepshead, 



Archosargus probatocephalus; and, the atlantic 
croaker, Micropogou undidatus. The fish are 
found throughout most of the year, but become 
drastically reduced or absent during the colder 
winter months. It is felt that the water tempera- 
ture is one of the main factors responsible for 
the movement of fish into and out of the shallow 
sampling area. Changes in fish populations caused 
by tide, salinity, and chemical factors are not as 
great as the drastic changes created by the de- 
crease of water temperature in the shallow 
estuarine waters in the winter. During the rest 
of the year tide and salinity probably play a 
more important role in fish movement. The exact 
importance these factors are is not clear at pres- 
ent. 

The effects of temperature, tide and salinity 
on the movement and presence of fishes in dif- 
ficult sampling areas are being correlated for 
analysis by the data processing staff of the Lou- 
isiana Wild Life and Fisheries Commission. The 
results of this analysis will be presented in the 
final report. 

Stomach Analysis 

Stomach samples were taken every nine weeks 
to determine the feeding habits of the spotted 
seatrout, red drum, atlantic croaker, southern 
flounder, black drum and sheepshead. 

In the spotted seatrout stomach, both fish and 




Stomach analysis revealing that this spotted seatrout 
had just gourged himself on bay anchovies. 



134 



crustaceans occurred. The fish found most fre- 
I quently was the bay anchovy and the crustacean 
found most frequently was the Penaeus or com- 
mercial white and brown shrimp. Other important 
I fish foods found were the croaker, spot, men- 
haden, coccaho minnows and mullet. The red drum 
, appeared to feed very heavily on the blue crab, 
I Callinectes sapidus. However, Penaeus shrimp 
were also found. The croaker had feeding habits 
similar to the red drum. It also consumed small 
mussels, Mulinia, and like the spot, contained 
i bottom foods composed of unidentifiable plant 
and animal matter and detritus. The black drum 
and sheepshead appeared to feed chiefly on blue 
, crabs, mud worms, mussels and barnacle material. 

Sampling of Small Vertebrate 
and Invertebrate Populations 

Determination of available food organisms was 
done by means of trawl samples conducted at 
approximately the same time and station at which 
the 200 yard trammel net sample was taken. 
| These samples were collected with an eight-foot 
bobbinet having a one-quarter inch mesh. The 
drag period was one minute. A sixteen-foot otter 
trawl, with 3/4 inch mesh was also used ; the drag 
period here was five minutes. 

The contents of the samples were preserved in 
formaldehyde and brought to the laboratory, 
where they were identified, measured and re- 
corded. 

Complete analyses of these samples will be 





Lloyd Freire, Seinefisherman, taking one of the 
weekly cast net samples at a weir in the Biloxi 
Marshes. 



A tagged spotted seatrout prior to being released. 

presented in the final written report. The find- 
ings from these samples will be used to determine 
the spawning periods and the relative abundance 
of small fish in Biloxi Marshes. It probably is 
best used, however, as a means of correlating the 
available food habits of the different game fishes 
and the abundance of these game fishes relative 
to the abundance of the available food fishes. 

Weekly cast net samples were taken on the 
inside and outside at each of two weirs con- 
structed in marsh bayous located within our 
sampling areas. These samples produced quan- 
tities of small forage fish and at times large 
concentrations of juvenile game fishes. By cor- 
relating this data, we can determine the spawning 
period of the game fish captured. 

Along with the fish collected at these stations, 
shrimp and crabs were also caught and recorded. 
Complete analyses of this data will be presented 
in the final report. 

Fish Tagging 

The majority of fishes tagged were spotted 
seatrout, red drum, black drum and sheepshead. 
Although few returns were made, some move- 
ment patterns are being revealed. It appears that 
during winter the above fish seek refuge in deep- 
er water located in marsh bayou holes or passes. 
Also, drum or sheepshead recaptures were in 
proximity to their release point ; whereas, spotted 
seatrout were recaptured as far as twenty miles 
from their release. This seems to indicate the 
spotted seatrout are greater "rovers" than the 
sheepshead and black drum. Also there are indica- 
tions that during winter, spotted seatrout not only 
seek deeper waters in the marsh, but that some 
of the spotted seatrout population ventures a 
distance into the Gulf of Mexico and begins to 
return inland during the early spring when the 
water temperature is again on the increase. 



135 



AN ECOLOGICAL SURVEY OF FACTORS 

AFFECTING FISH PRODUCTION IN A 

RIVER AND BACKWATER AREA 

D1NGELL-J0HNS0N PROJECT F-9-R 

KENNETH E. LANTZ 

Project Leader 

During the 1966-1967 biennial a completion re- 
port of F-9-R was prepared. This study was ini- 
tiated in July, 1960 as an ecological survey 
of physical, chemical and biological factors af- 
fecting fish production in a Louisiana river and 
a backwater area. It included a four year evalua- 
tion of physical and chemical characteristics, 
plankton, benthos and fish populations in the 
Amite River and Spring Bayou Backwater Ai-ea. 
Thomas D. Allen, Jr. was the project leader 
during the first two years of the study and Ken- 
neth E. Lantz was the leader during the latter 
part of the project. The following is a summary 
of findings of this four year study. 

1. Monthly dissolved oxygen, free carbon di- 
oxide, pH and total phosphate values between up- 
stream and downstream regions of the Amite 
River (Job I) corresponded with monthly stream 
flow changes. Increases in alkalinity and total 
phosphate values in Spring Bayou Area corre- 
sponded with late spring backwater flooding from 
the Red River. 

2. Monthly plankton productivity (Job II) in 
the Amite River corresponded with decreases in 
dissolved oxygen and pH values and increases 
in carbon dioxide and total phosphates between 
upper and lower stations. Peaks in Spring Bayou 
Area counts and weights occurred during and 
following periods of backwater flooding. 

3. Seasonal bottom fauna counts and weights 
(Job III) were maximal in winter and minimal 
in late spring and early summer from both study 
areas. Changes and trends in the Amite River 
bottom fauna corresponded with peak and low 
stream flows. 

4. Summer fish population samples (Job IV) 
from Spring Bayou Area indicate this series of 
shallow lakes is supporting one of Louisiana's 
highest standing crop values of total fish, avail- 
able size fish and desirable predator-prey fish 
ratios. Low standing crop values and predator- 
prey fish ratios found in the Amite River were 
similar to values found in infertile lotic areas of 
western Louisiana. 

5. Adequate game fish reproduction (Job V) 
was found each year in both study areas. 

6. Seasonal utilization of fish foods (Job VI) 
indicate Chironomidae and Chaoborinae were 
major food items in summer diets of bluegill, 
redear sunfish and black crappie in Spring Bayou 
Area. There was a seasonal shift in feeding to 
non-benthic Amphipoda in winter collections of 



bluegill and crappie. Stomach samples from the 
Amite River were too few in number to indicate 
any seasonal trends in feeding. 

Emphasis on increased public use of both study 
areas has occurred since completion of this proj- 
ect. Spring Bayou Backwater Area has been pur- 
chased by the State of Louisiana to serve as a 
public hunting and fishing area. The City of 
Baton Rouge is considering creating two multi- 
purpose impoundments on the Amite River. Data 
collected in F-9-R should be invaluable in future 
water management of the Amite River and Spring 
Bayou Backwater Area. Physical and chemical 
water features surveyed during this study were 
also used in preparation of Louisiana water qual- 
ity standards as required by the Federal Water 
Quality Act of 1965 (Public Law 89-234). 

AN ECOLOGICAL SURVEY OF FACTORS 

AFFECTING FISH PRODUCTION IN A 

NATURAL LAKE AND IN A RIVER 

DINGELL-JOHNSON PROJECT F-ll-R 

KENNETH E. LANTZ 

Project Leader 

Project F-ll-R was inaugurated in July, 1964 
to determine what ecological conditions affect the 
production of fish and fish food organisms in a 
Louisiana lake and a river habitat. The project 
was terminated in June, 1967 after three years 
of data was gathered on the normal aquatic con- 
ditions of Lac Des Allemands and Sabin River. 
Analyses of data collected during this project are 
incomplete at present, therefore a summary of 
findings of this project will be delayed until the 
1968-69 Biennial Report. The following is a brief 
description of the study areas and project aims 
of the federal aid project. 

Lac Des Allemands is a shallow, wind swept 
area of approximately twenty-four square miles 
in St. John, Lafourche, and St. Charles Parishes. 
It is virtually a freshwater lake, except during 




Kenneth Lantz (Fisheries Biologist) and W. P. Sel- 
lers (Biological Aide) are checking water contents 
to determine the cause of this fish kill. 



136 



unusually high tides that accompany storms mov- 
ing inland from the Gulf of Mexico. The lake 
annually produces high yields of game and com- 
mercial fish species. Catfish production has stead- 
ily declined in most areas of Louisiana, but Lac 
Des Allemands' catfish production has maintained 
itself for years under heavy fishing pressure by 
sport and commercial fishermen. A survey in 1964 
by fisheries personnel indicated more than 2,500,- 
000 pounds of catfish were bought by wholesale 
fish buyers from this area during that year. Fac- 
tors influencing fish production in this area were 
closely studied during the three years of F-ll-R. 
The river habitat under study was the Sabine 
River which drains the infertile pinelands of 
eastern Texas and western Louisiana, and serves 
as a natural boundary separating these two states. 
A survey of the limnology and fisheries of the 
Sabine River in its natural state is important in 
determining changes following impoundment of 
this stream by the Toledo Bend Dam. This dam 
will impound almost 200,000 acres at full pool 
stage and inundates 265 miles of the river and 
133 miles of its tributaries when filling occurs 
in 1968. 

Fish Population Studies 

The purpose of this job was to determine the 
distribution and production of all species of fish 
in the two study areas. Sampling gear included 
rotenone, electrical fishing gear and various types 
of traps. Data collected included annual fish pop- 
ulation per acre, age and growth of game fish and 
seasonal movements of certain fish species. 

Plankton Studies 

Monthly samples were made of the kind and 
abundance of small plant and animal organisms 
(plankton) found swimming free or floating in 
the water of the two study areas. These organisms 
are the first in a series of aquatic food items 
eaten by fish. Plankton is of great importance in 
the diet of young fish. The success or failure of 
a fishery is directly influenced by the abundance 
and distribution of plankton. 

Bottom Fauna Studies 

Bottom fauna includes all organisms living on 
or in the mud of a body of water. Monthly sam- 
pling of these organisms with a special type of 
dredge permits comparison of numbers and 
weights of available benthos with fish stomach 
data. 

Fish Food Studies 

Fish stomach samples were taken from game 
fish species to determine utilization of available 
food items collected in plankton and bottom fauna 
studies. 



Water Chemistry Studies 

Monthly chemical analyses were conducted at 
various stations in the study areas for dissolved 
oxygen, free carbon dioxide, alkalinity, pH, phos- 
phates, and several nitrogen forms. All of the 
chemical factors have a direct or indirect effect 
upon the production of fish and fish food organ- 
isms in the Sabine River and Lac Des Allemands. 



D'ARBONNE LAKE INVESTIGATION 

DINGELL-JOHNSON PROJECT F-12-R 

JAMES T. DAVIS 

Project Leader 

JANICE S. HUGHES 

Assistant Project Leader 

Proper management of a new 15,000 acre lake 
is quite a challenge. We have had the pleasure of 
advising the D'Arbonne Lake Commission on the 
possible solutions to their problems for the last 
seven years. In this time we have seen a meander- 
ing stream blocked and a beautiful lake result. 

This new lake has had an effect on many citi- 
zens of Northeast Louisiana as well as the fisher- 
men. One of the most pronounced effects has 
been a sharp rise in land values in Union Parish. 
Our economic survey indicates that this lake will 
have generated over $8,000,000 worth of busi- 
ness to the surrounding area before it is five 
years old. This economic impact was predicted 
but the extent has still to be fully documented. 
Further economic expansion depends on the order- 
ly development of the lake. This includes motels, 
park sites, beaches, recreation areas and many 
other facilities to attract the recreation minded 
public from this and adjoining states. 

Good fishing is another essential for the con- 
tinued development of this or any other lake. To 
date D'Arbonne Lake has developed better than 
expected. This is due in part to the excellent 
cooperation we have had in our fisheries manage- 
ment efforts and recommendations. Fishing suc- 
cess has steadily risen. By the end of the spring 
season over 88 percent of all fishermen using the 
lake caught fish. The catch rate was quite good 




Ten inch walleye ready for stocking at Beechwood 
Fish Hatchery. 



137 



with a harvest of 69.3 pounds per acre. This is 
nearly double the average harvest rates for all 
lakes in the state. We are confident that this 
catch rate will continue to rise and should peak 
at about 90-100 pounds per acre. 

Many people want to know what they can catch 
at D'Arbonne Lake. Does our research project 
guarantee them more fish? Actually the answer 
is no. We do intend that the best fishing possible 
will result. We do not guarantee this. On D'Ar- 
bonne Lake our efforts are extended in several 
directions. 

Through an intensive creel census (fishermen 
interviews) we determine catch rates and fishing 
preferences. This information coupled with rote- 
none, electric seine and net samples tells us the 
status of the fish populations. Last year we were 
able to predict a good crappie fishing season. 
This developed as expected and many fishermen 
switched from bluegill fishing to crappie. Bass 
fishing has remained quite good and with well 
planned water fluctuation should remain good. 

Our population sampling has indicated an ex- 
pected increase in shad in the lake. We anticipated 
this and recommended a two-pronged cure. First 
was the water level fluctuation and the second 
was the stocking of additional predators. The 
predators chosen were walleye and later, striped 
bass. 

Three million walleye fry each year have been 
secured. These have been stocked directly into 
the lake or placed in hatchery ponds to grow to 
fingerling size prior to stocking. Results to date 
are still in the experimental stage. Fishermen 
are catching some walleye. Within two more years 
we should be able to determine the success or 
failure of this experiment. 

Striped bass have much the same record in this 
lake. Two large scale stockings have been made 
1965 and 1967. The largest striper caught to 
date weighed over five pounds. Once again please 
remember that we are two years away from an 
answer. 

Aquatic weeds are the third problem on this 




Stocking striped bass in D'Arbonne Lake at North 
spillway ramp. 



lake. Water level fluctuation has achieved control 
but not eliminated the problem. This was ex- 
pected and predicted. Late in 1966 and early 1967 
a federal agency devised a possible solution 
through chemical control. By their estimates over 
1,000 acres in the lake were sprayed to eradicate 
the weed problem. At the end of this biennium 
results have been much less than expected. Unless 
spring growth is heavily retarded we will be 
forced to conclude that this type of spraying for 
under water weed control is not feasible at this 
time. As better methods are devised we will test 
their effects. 

On this research project and many others we 
have not achieved all of our goals. We are still 
striving to work out new solutions to many fish- 
eries management problems. With each success or 
failure we gain a little more knowledge towards 
outstanding fishing for everyone. 

LIFE HISTORY STUDY OF THE SPOTTED 

BASS, Micropterus punctulatus, 

IN SIX-MILE CREEK 

DINGELL-JOHNSON PROJECT F-13-R 

DUDLEY C. CARVER 

Project Leader 

Project F-13-R was initiated in February, 1967 
to obtain basic life history information of the 
spotted bass in its natural environment. The 
project is designed for a three year period. Clean, 
cool, gravel bed streams in most areas of the state 
support good populations of spotted bass that 
furnish many man-days of high quality recrea- 
tion. Impoundments have been constructed on 
several Louisiana streams that once supported 
excellent populations of spotted bass. In some 
cases spotted bass disappeared while in other im- 
poundments they maintained a perpetuating pop- 
ulation. Other reservoirs are in various planning 
stages. A life history record is needed for the 
formulation of better management plans, habitat 
protection plans and for evaluating the effect of 
impoundments on this fish. 

Six-Mile Creek was chosen as the study area 
for this project. Headwaters of Six-Mile Creek 
are in Vernon Parish within the boundary of Fort 
Polk Military Reservation. An east and west 
fork meanders through infertile sandy soil in a 
southwesterly direction, merging into the main 
stem just east of Fullerton, Louisiana. From this 
point the stream continues through Vernon Par- 
ish and into northwest Allen Parish. The stream 
empties its waters into Whiskey Chitto Creek just 
south of Grant, Louisiana in Allen Parish. A dense 
canopy of mixed pine-hardwood overhangs the 
main stream through its entirety. 

Local residents have enjoyed many years of 
excellent spotted bass fishing in Six-Mile Creek. 
They fish mainly from the bank and by wading 



138 



the stream. In recent years people from nearby 
metropolitan areas discovered the excellent 

: spotted bass fishing opportunity and aesthetic 
value afforded by Six-Mile Creek. With increas- 

i ing populations seeking relief from already 

: crowded reservoirs, and a desire to fish "wild" 

: habitats, fishing pressure on Six-Mile Creek is 

. increasing at a rapid rate. 

The overall object of this study is to gain knowl- 

l edge of spotted bass in its natural environment. 

i Specifically, this study has the following objec- 

[ tives : 

1. To determine rate of growth and coefficient 
; of condition ; determine gonadal development, fe- 
cundity and time of spawning; make stomach con- 

i tent analyses and compare foods eaten with sam- 
i pies of foods available; determine movement and 
. indices of abundance per stream mile. 

2. To determine if a correlation exists between 
these factors and the physical and chemical con- 
ditions of the stream. 

A total of seven sampling stations has been 
established on the main stream which vary from 
two and one-half to five miles apart. At present 
insufficient data have been collected to make 
conclusive statements. Accomplishments of jobs 
undertaken follows : 

Physical and Water Chemistry Studies 

Water chemistries are analyzed monthly at all 
stations to determine limnological characteristics 
of the stream. Tests are made for dissolved oxy- 
gen, free carbon dioxide, alkalinity, pH, and 
hardness. Water samples are collected monthly at 
all stations and analyses conducted at the New 
Orleans laboratory for available phosphates, am- 
monia nitrogen, organic nitrogen, nitrites and ni- 
trates. Physical factors recorded are turbidity, 




Spotted bass fishing on Six-Mile Creek furnishes 
a considerable number of man-days of high quality 
recreation. 



air temperature and water temperature. The wa- 
ters of Six-Mile Creek, for practical purposes, 
are almost chemically pure. 

Age and Growth Rate Studies 

A knowledge of age and rate of growth of a 
fish is very useful for proper management. This 
information can solve certain life-history prob- 
lems as rate of growth, age at maturity or spawn- 
ing and longevity. A comparison of the rate of 
growth in different bodies of water may help 
determine good or bad environmental conditions. 

A total of 107 spotted bass has been collected 
thus far. Immediately following collection, the 
fish are measured and weighed. Scale samples 
are removed for age determination and stored 
in coin envelopes along with other pertinent in- 
formation. Because of collecting difficulty with 
an electric shocker and seine, most of the spotted 
bass have been collected with hook and line. 

Sexual Development and Fecundity Studies 

The purpose of this job is to determine sexual 
development, time of spawning, size composition 
of spawning stock, and number of eggs produced 
by mature females. 

All spotted bass collected are sexed by examina- 
tion of the gonads and sexual maturity recorded 
as immature, maturing, mature, ripe, or spent. 
A minimum of ten gonads per month are pre- 
served in formalin for microscopic examination. 
When female spotted bass reach maturity, number 
of eggs will be determined by actual count and 
volumetric method. 

Findings during this biennium indicate gonadal 
development of both male and female spotted 
bass begins in late September and early October. 

Fish Food Studies 

Stomach samples are taken from a minimum 
of ten spotted bass monthly to determine pre- 
ferred foods. Time of collection is recorded to 
determine peak feeding periods. Periodic seine 
samples are taken in order to compare foods 
eaten with foods available. Benthos samples are 
also taken to determine insects and other macro- 
invertebrates available. 

Data collected have not been completely ana- 
lyzed. Preliminary findings indicate spotted bass 
feed mainly on crayfish and darters. 

ANADROMOUS FISHERIES 

The Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Com- 
mission, as well as wildlife agencies from other 
states, are currently involved in an abundance of 
research concerning anadromous fish. The fish 



139 




This is a typical scene of Louisiana Wild Life and 
Fisheries Commission personnel taking a 30 ft. trawl 
sample in Lake Pontchartrain. 

receiving the most attention is the striped bass. 

Louisiana once had a native population of these 
fish in Lake Pontchartrain and its tributary 
streams. We are now carrying out investigations 
into whether or not this population is still present 
in Louisiana and, if not, why. 

These investigations are broken down into the 
areas which require different sampling techniques. 
First, the tributary streams of Lake Maure- 
pas, Lake Pontchartrain and Lake Borgne are 
being sampled with hoop nets, electro-fishing gear 
and drag seines. The purpose of this sampling is 
to locate striped bass, if they are present, and 
establish what other fish are present. Fish taken 
are measured and weighed. Biweekly samples are 
taken from predetermined stations along all major 
tributaries. Seventy species, representing sixteen 
families have been collected in these tributaries. 
No striped bass have been collected. 

Second, monthly trawl samplings are taken in 
Lake Pontchartrain, Lake Maurepas and Lake 
Borgne at thirty-six predetermined locations. Ten- 
minute tows were taken at each station with a 
thirty foot and sixteen foot otter trawl pulled by 



^w' 



Wlffl 



Hi, 



'■" :. V- 



"-" " <C 



W Sit ' ' 





A cast net sample of largescale menhaden at a weir 
in the Biloxi Marshes. 



a twenty-three foot Scottie Craft having a 150 
horsepower inboard-outboard Mercruiser engine 
driven at 1350 rpm. The tows were taken approxi- 
mately one-fourth mile from and parallel to the 
shoreline. All fish captured were measured and 
the number recorded. Surface water tempera- 
tures and salinity were also taken at each samp- 
ling station. Twenty-seven species, representing 
eleven families, were collected. No striped bass 
have been collected during these sampling efforts. 

The third method of sampling is triweekly 
roundup trammel net samples taken at thirty 
predetermined sampling stations. These stations 
are located at the mouths of the tributaries of 
Lake Pontchartrain and Lake Maurepas. Thirty- 
one species have been captured but again no 
striped bass. 

Eight thousand striped bass fingerlings were 
stocked into the Tchefuncte River during 1967. 
These fish were divided and stocked at four loca- 
tions about ten miles apart. 

The Tchefuncte River was chosen as the stock- 
ing area because the entire river lies within 
Louisiana and it was also one of the last places 
striped bass were reported in Louisiana. 

If Louisiana is able to find a native population 
of striped bass, or to establish a population within 
Louisiana, we will then be able to utilize a striped 
bass hatchery. This hatchery will not be the type 
presently found in Louisiana. 

Female fish which are near spawning are cap- 
tured using nets or shocking devices and they are 
taken to a central holding area. Here they are 
injected with a hormone which induces spawning. 
An average size female (about 15 pounds) pro- 
duces about 1,200,000 eggs, and about 85 % of 
these can be expected to hatch. When the female 
fish is "ripe" the eggs are stripped from the 
female into a plastic tray and then sperm from a 
male is added. After a short period of time water 
is added and the eggs begin to swell and harden. 
This is called "water hardening". The hardened 
eggs are then placed in hatching jars into which 
a constant stream of water is flowing. In approxi- 
mately forty-eight hours the eggs hatch. 

When the fry are about six days old, they are 
stocked into rearing ponds. After about sixty days 
they are one to two inches long and can be stocked 
into our lakes and streams. 

The striped bass potential for Louisiana is 
tremendous. It may become one of our more 
sought after game fish as well as a control method 
for our explosive gizzard shad populations. 

At the present time other anadromous fish 
studies are being planned. 



140 



LAKE MANAGEMENT 

CHARLES E. HOENKE 

Project Leader 

With the present population explosion and in- 
creased leisure time, lake management plays an 
ever increasing role in maintaining and creating 
sufficient outdoor recreation to meet the demands 
of the public. Each year brings about needs for 
more lakes to accommodate today's outdoor- 
minded public. These new lakes bring about addi- 
tional management problems. It is at this late 
stage of outdoor development that the Lake Man- 
agement Project is sorely needed. 

The primary job of the project is to make 
management recommendations based upon popu- 
lation samples taken in various lakes and streams 
throughout the state. These samples are analyzed 
to determine the condition of the existing fish 
population. Usually a lake will be in one of three 
conditions: It will be overpopulated with forage 
fish ; it will not have a catchable population of 
game fish ; or it will be overpopulated with rough 
fish. 

Population samples are made using two tech- 
niques. A chemical called rotenone is the major 
sampling tool. One acre is blocked off with a net 
and rotenone is applied within the area. Every 
fish is picked up and sorted into species groups 
by weight and length. This information is re- 
corded, analyzed and then used for management 
recommendations. 

Electro-fishing gear is the other type of equip- 
ment used for population samples. Fish are col- 
lected from a selected area by electrical currents. 
Stunned fish are netted and handled in the same 
manner as fish killed in a rotenone sample. Fish 
collected by electro-fishing may be released after 
needed information has been recorded, without 
harm to the fish. Since this is a relatively new 
sampling technique, additional research is needed 
before it will give the same accuracy as rotenone 
sampling. 

Upon completion of population sampling, the 
real problem begins. Now comes the time to at- 
tempt to correct the deficiencies found after 
analyzing the samples. If the lake is understocked, 
hatchery personnel will be notified, and if it is 
feasible the lake will be stocked with the species 
necessary to obtain a balanced population. 

In the case of overpopulation of rough fish a 
partial kill of the problem fish may be deemed 
necessary. If the rough fish-game fish ratio is 
completely unbalanced, a total kill may be recom- 
mended. These areas will be restocked with proper 
numbers and species of fish. 

The most common problem encountered in lake 
management is an overpopulation of forage fish. 
A water level fluctuation program is the cheapest 
and most effective management tool available at 



this time. This type management serves a three- 
fold purpose. First, it congregates forage fish in 
small areas so that they may be reduced by pred- 
ators. Second, it is used to control obnoxious 
aquatic vegetation by exposing it to either hot 
sun or freezes, depending upon drawdown dates. 
Last, but not least, it exposes submerged matter, 
causing decomposition to begin, thus, releasing 
nutrients into the water. 

During the past two years the lake management 
crew has made 215 samples in thirty-eight lakes. 
(See Table I) The following summaries represent 
some of the management recommendations made 
from data obtained from population samples and 
vegetative studies. 

Table 1 



FISH POPULATION STUDIES 
July 1, 1965— June 30, 1967 

Body of Water Type of Sample 

Lake Pontchartrain Trammel Net 

Lake Maurepas Trammel Net 

Lake Vernon Rotenone 

Lake Bistineau Rotenone & 

Electricity 

Horseshoe Lake Rotenone 

Spring- Bayou Rotenone 

Cane River Electricity 

Lake Providence Rotenone 

Bear Lake Electricity 

Joe's Bayou Electricity 

Coca Cola Lake Electricity 

Anacoco Rotenone 

Bundicks Lake Rotenone 

Lac Des Allemands Rotenone 

Lake Theriot Rotenone 

Bouef River Cut-off Rotenone 

Iatt Lake Rotenone 

Black Lake Rotenone 

Cheniere Lake Rotenone 

Lake Bruin Rotenone 

Brown's Lake Rotenone 

Barksdale Rotenone 

Bogue Falaya. Techef uncte Nets & 

Electricity 

Lake Charles Rotenone 

Lake Prien Rotenone 

Moss Lake Rotenone 

Smithport Lake Rotenone 

Lake Concordia Electricity 

Bayou DeSiard Electricity 

Douglas Reservoir — Tennessee Rotenone 

James Lake Rotenone 

Old River Rotenone 

Red River Rotenone 

Sabine River Rotenone & 

Electricity 

Sibley Lake Rotenone 

Lake St. John Electricity 

University & City Park Lakes Electricity 

Lake Verret Rotenone 



Lake Anacoco 

Lake Anacoco is in its sixth year of a water 
fluctuation program. Prior to fluctuating Ana- 
coco, it was heavily infested with submerged 
aquatic vegetation and was producing only 1.1 
pounds of predatory fish per acre. Population 



141 











Block-off net in place and rotenone being applied in 
a one acre population sample in Caney Lake. 

samples in 1967 indicated that 8.61 pounds per 
acre of predatory fish were being produced. Ex- 
cellent control of submerged aquatics has been 
achieved. One problem however, has been created. 
The water level fluctuation has caused the spread 
of button bush rendering portions of Anacoco 
useless to sportsmen. A study of button bush con- 
trol is being initiated to correct this problem. 



Bundick Lake 

Requests were received from local police jurors 
and the Bundick Lake Commission for a manage- 
ment plan. After careful study, a plan was pre- 
sented. This plan was followed for one year, dis- 
continued for a year, and then picked up for 
another year. During the first year of water 
fluctuation excessive rain fell and there was very 
little drying of the exposed vegetation and very 
little control of vegetation was seen in the lake. 
1967 was an excellent drawdown year and good 
control is expected. Population sampels on Bun- 
dick Lake have shown little change since the pro- 
gram was begun in 1965. An aerial application 
of chemicals to control the tremendous water 
hyacinth problem is planned for this spring. 

Lake Bistineau 

Lake Bistineau is now in the second year of a 
five year management plan. A water fluctuation 
program was initiated in the fall of 1966, primar- 
ily for the purpose of aquatic vegetation control 



and to increase the nutrients in the water. Fish 
population samples indicate that no restocking is 
needed. There is an overpopulation of shad, and 
by drawing the water down, the predatory fish 
should correct this condition. Aquatic vegeta- 
tion is still very much a problem in the upper 
reaches and shallow areas of the lake. It is my 
opinion that the drawdown was of benefit in 
those areas of the lake usually unfishable in the 
spring. In the spring of 1967 these areas were 
clear of vegetation for a period of six additional 
weeks. This certainly is no cure, but is a be- 
ginning. 

There are mixed opinions concerning the pro- 
gram from all interested people in the Bistineau 
area, so the future of this program is uncertain. 
Many people are against the program for various 
reasons. Some water skiiers and boaters say they 
have one month less recreation due to low water. 
Some duck hunters' blinds are left high and dry. 
Many people are inconvenienced from the stand- 
point of access. On the other hand, many fisher- 
men catch limits of fish and in no way mind the 
problem of access. Duck hunters say the shallow 
waters attract and hold more puddle ducks, thus 
providing excellent shooting. It will be interest- 
ing to see the outcome of this particular manage- 
ment plan. 

Horseshoe Lake 

Population samples in 1966 and 1967 indicated 
an overpopulation of bluegill sunfish. Since this 
lake is not of a type for water level fluctuation, 
a partial kill was recommended and accomplished 
in October 1967. Additional samples will be made 
in 1968 to determine the results of this kill. 

Cheniere Lake 

Cheniere Lake, for many years, produced only 
small numbers of game fish. Dense stands of 
cypress prevented access to most areas of the lake. 
A drawdown program was proposed so that areas 
could be cleared for boat trails. Underwater snags 
and stumps would be exposed to the air beginning 
decomposition and increasing the fertility of 
Cheniere Lake. Population samples in 1965 
showed 18.4 per cent of the total poundage of fish 
in Cheniere Lake to be predatory game fish. 
Twenty-eight and eight tenths (28.8 %) per cent 
of the fish were non-predatory game fish. After 
two years of water level fluctuation, the per cent 
of total pounds rose to 23.3 per cent predatory 
game fish and 37.7 per cent non-predatory game 
fish. 



Kepler Lake 

A management plan was presented to the Bien- 
ville Parish Police Jury for a water level fluctua- 



142 



tion program. This program has not been followed 
from year to year so the results are varied and 
cannot be analyzed at this time. 

Joe's Bayou 

Joe's Bayou was found to have a high popula- 
tion of rough fish. A partial kill was not recom- 
mended because high water each spring restocks 
the area with these fish. Commercial fishing was 
suggested to reduce the numbers of rough fish. 
Management recommendations were to beautify 
park areas and add picnic areas, which would 
create a general outdoor recreation area on Joe's 
Bayou, with fishing being a secondary interest. 

Black Lake 

Due to local opposition, the water fluctuation 
program on Black Lake was discontinued so it 
will not be reported on at this time. A request was 
received to restock Black Lake. Population sam- 
ples in 1967 indicated a balanced population of 
catchable game fish plus sufficient fingerlings 
indicating spawning had occurred. It was rec- 
ommended that additional stocking would be of 
no benefit to the existing population. 

latt Lake 

A water level fluctuation program was written 
for aquatic vegetation controls, but has not been 
followed as written, so no results are available. 

A stocking request was received for latt Lake 
but population studies indicated that it was un- 
necessary. 




Population sample caught with electro-fishing gear 
in Cane River. 



The following lakes were sampled for various 
studies that will be reported by other personnel : 
Lac Des Allemands, Bussey Lake, Henderson 
Lake, D'Arbonne Lake, Lake Chicot, Lake Maure- 
pas and Lake Pontchartrain. The data from these 
samples will be included in reports from various 
projects. 

After population samples were made in several 
lakes, management programs were begun. A 
management plan has been or will be presented 
to controlling agencies of Lake Claiborne, Bayou 
DeSiard, Lake Vernon, Brown's Lake, Black 
Bayou Lake, Bouef River Cut-off, Finch Lake, 
Corney Lake, Cocodrie Lake, Caney Lake, Bar- 
tholomew Lake and Phillips Bayou Lake within 
one year. 

In areas where a balanced fish population is 
found, such as Spring Bayou, no management sug- 
gestions are made. Periodic samples will continue 
to insure that no problems are present in these 
areas. 

Electro-fishing 

In addition to population sampling, electro- 
fishing gear is used for a variety of jobs. Our 
state hatcheries are in constant need of healthy 
brood fish. Electro-fishing gear is a fast and 
easy method of obtaining these fish. Approxi- 
mately two weeks of each spring is spent cap- 
turing these fish. 

Many waters of Louisiana at times seem un- 
productive. If there is a doubt of spawning ac- 
tivities, electro-fishing gear is used to verify 
either spawning or lack of spawning. Cane River 
and Lake Bruin are two examples of this type 
activity. In each of the above cases, fingerlings 
of the species in question were found with electro- 
fishing gear. 

In the past, live healthy fish to be tagged for 
fishing rodeos were hard to capture. Electro-fish- 
ing gear is a very effective tool for this task. 
Approximately 1,500 adult fish were tagged 
within the past two years for various rodeos. 

STATEWIDE FISH INVENTORY 

JAMES T. DAVIS and NEIL H. DOUGLAS 

Project Leaders 

The field collections for this project were 
nearly complete by the end of this biennium. Prep- 
aration of a short popular report was completed 
and is available for distribution. As it is in the 
educational bulletin series, it is free of charge. 

Over 1.5 million specimens have been collected 
during this project to date. These have been 
identified, catalogued and placed in the Museum 
of Fisheries at Northeast Louisiana State College 
under the guidance of Professor Neil H. Douglas, 
Curator. The majority of the field collections 



143 



were made through the help and cooperation of all 
fisheries personnel. 

During the coming biennium we will complete 
and publish a book on the inland fishes of Louisi- 
ana. This is a major undertaking that is over 
fifty per cent complete at this time. The book 
will contain photographs, drawings, a discussion 
of identifying characters, habitat and important 
ecological facts. 

STRIPED BASS PROJECT 

JANICE S. HUGHES 

Project Leader 

Striped bass are now being stocked in our 
freshwater lakes and streams. Before we can 
successfully stock these fish, we need to know 
more about their requirements for survival. Many 
of the factors that affect the fish may be deter- 
mined prior to their release. Since January, 1967 
these factors have been studied at the Monroe 
Laboratory and Hatchery- 

The fish for these studies were purchased from 
the state of South Carolina. They were trans- 
ported to Louisiana in plastic bags filled with 
water and oxygen. Our Commission airplane 
brought one million, one day old striped bass to 
Monroe and 750,000 were placed in hatchery 
ponds for rearing. Experiments were conducted 
on the remaining 250,000 fish. 

The first experiment consisted of developing a 
holding tank where the fish could be kept alive 
for at least one week. Striped bass fry are not 
strong enough swimmers to support themselves 
in the water. They will sink to the bottom and 
suffocate without assistance. A tank that had a 
perforated hose in the bottom with water being 
forced through the hose proved to be the best 
method. The water pressure caused a rolling mo- 
tion that kept the small fish suspended. 

After the fish were one week old, we tested 
the effects of several chemicals on them. We 
were interested in such things as dissolved oxy- 
gen, temperature and pollutants. This informa- 
tion helps us decide if a lake is suitable for stock- 
ing. 

Further experiments on striped bass consisted 
of determining the best technique for moving 
striped bass fingerlings from a hatchery pond. 
Several techniques were tried. Most of them were 
successful. We found that anesthetics and anti- 
biotics can be used to reduce the mortality of the 
fingerlings. We will continue to work with other 
techniques in the future. 

All of these results will be published in both 
technical and popular articles for other biologists 
who are working with striped bass. 



BIOASSAY PROJECT 

JANICE S. HUGHES 

Project Leader 

Crawfish Bioassays 

The production of crawfish in rice fields has 
increased extensively during the past few years. 
It is now estimated that the value of crawfish 
produced exceeds four million dollars annually 
in Louisiana. 

Herbicides and other chemicals are used in rice 
fields to control detrimental weeds and fish. 
Therefore, it has become a necessity to know the 
effects of these chemicals on crawfish. 

Bioassays are conducted in one gallon wide 
mouth glass jars. The jars are lined with a poly- 
ethylene bag to prevent contamination and the 
bags are destroyed after each test. One liter of 
water (about one quart) and one crawfish are 
put in each jar. Different amounts of a chemical 
are then added to the jars. At the end of 24, 48, 
72 and 96 hours, the crawfish are checked and the 
results recorded. The concentrations of a chemical 
that kill the crawfish and those that do not kill 
the crawfish are reported. Research workers then 
know how much of each chemical they can use in 
a rice field without affecting the crawfish crop. 

Six chemicals have been tested on crawfish 
since the initiation of this project in early 1966. 
The results have been published in technical bul- 
letins. Many other chemicals will be tested in the 
future. 

Fish Bioassays 

The procedures for conducting toxicity studies 
on fish were reported in the 1964-1965 biennial. 
During the last two years, 42 chemicals were 
tested on bluegill sunfish. Most of these results 
have been published in technical and popular pub- 
lications. 

On February 19, 1967 the constant temperature 
bioassay laboratory and the chemistry laboratory 
were destroyed by fire. The bioassay studies were 
suspended until construction of the laboratory. It 
is anticipated that this new laboratory will be 
completed in early 1968. 

FISH HATCHERIES 

SAMMY STOKES 

Project Leader 

BOBBY T. WALKER 

Assistant Project Leader 

The Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Com- 
mission operates three hatcheries. During 1967 
a seventy acre hatchery was leased to facilitate 
the production of one and one-half million large- 



144 




Loading trucks at fish holding shed prior to stock- 
ing farm ponds from Beechwood Fish Hatchery. 

mouth bass fingerlings that were stocked in To- 
ledo Bend Reservoir. Hatchery space is becoming 
more inadequate as we endeavor to supply neces- 
sary fish for stocking programs over the state 
and to conduct research with exotic species. 

Our hatchery space at present is being utilized 
in the production of largemouth bass, bluegill, 
crappie, channel catfish and experimental species 
such as tilapia, walleye, striped bass, blue catfish, 
albino channel catfish and flathead catfish. Some 
effort is being made to distinguish what species 
of forage fish are best as a source of live food for 
the predatory species. 

Bluegill, bass and crappie are delivered to any 
qualifying applicant's pond and to large impound- 
ments when deemed necessary by fisheries biol- 
ogists. Experimental species are stocked in bodies 




Harvesting Catfish Fingerlings From the Monroe 
Hatcherv. 



of water which have the essential habitat for 
their survival and propagation. The two major 
experimental fishes now in the hatcheries are 
walleye and striped bass. Walleye eggs are flown 
from Nebraska to Monroe Fish Hatchery where 
they are placed in hatching jars and carefully 
tended until they have hatched and can be placed 
in hatchery ponds. They are held in these ponds 
until they reach a length of between four and six 
inches — which can be attained in a few months. 
They have been stocked in Toledo Bend Reservoir, 
D'Arbonne Lake and Claiborne Lake. 

The striped bass are handled in a similar man- 
ner except that they are received from South 
Carolina in the fry stage and are released directly 
into the hatchery ponds. 

We have some brood fish of the walleye and 
striped bass species and will attempt to spawn 
these when they attain the proper age and size. 

The following tables summarize fish produc- 
tion in the three state hatcheries and the Delhi 
Hatchery which was leased for the year 1967. 

Monroe Hatchery 

Species 1966 1967 

Bluegill 368,560 75,000* 

Largemouth bass 281,940 

Black crappie 32,650 

Channel catfish 200,000 250,000 

Striped bass 2s. TOO 

Walleye 125,000 

Total Number Fish 601,210 760,640 

*Unharvested in part at time of writing. 

Beechwood Hatchery 

Bluegill 2,092,300 716,000* 

Largemouth bass 32.600 1.081,200 

Black crappie 27,500 11,250* 

Channel catfish 49,100 

Striped bass 51,080 

Walleye 80,250 * 

Total Number Fish 2,201,500 1,939,780 

*Unharvested in part at time of writing. 

LaCombe Hatchery 

Bluegill 25,000 

Largemouth bass 17,500 

Tilapia (adults) 3,780 

Striped bass (adu lts) 167 

Total Number Fish 17,500 28.947 

Delhi Hatchery 

Bluegill 

Largemouth bass 60,000 

Walleye 3,000 

Striped bass 

Forage fish 1,400,000 

Total Number Fish 1,463,000 

*Unharvested at time of writing. 



145 



Waters That Have Been Stocked 1966-1967 

Farm Ponds — 256 

PUBLIC IMPOUNDMENTS AND RIVERS 

Cotile Lake Largemouth bass, channel catfish 

Toledo Bend Reservoir . . Largemouth bass, striped bass, 

walleye 

D'Arbonne Lake Striped bass, walleye 

Turkey Creek Lake .... Channel catfish 

Claiborne Lake Largemouth bass, striped bass, 

walleye 

Tchef uncte River Striped bass 

Red Chute Cut-off Largemouth bass 

Coughlin Lake Tilapia 

LaFourche Lake Channel catfish 

Phillips Bayou Lake ...Channel catfish 
Bayou Rapides Cut-off . .Largemouth bass 

Any application for fish should be sent to: 

Sammy Stokes, Fisheries Biologist 

P. 0. Box 278 

Tioga, Louisiana 71477 

THE FARM POND PROJECT 

SAMMY STOKES 

Project Leader 

BOBBY T. WALKER 

Assistant Project Leader 

The farm pond project has been carried out 
in much the same manner in 1966-67 as in the 
past. Its purpose and intent is to furnish farm 
fish pond owners with advice in carrying out a 
pond management program designed for sport 
fish production. Since fishing success works hand 
in hand with sound management practices, fishing 
success is also increased. Since there is at least 
one fisheries biologist in each district, pond own- 
ers get prompt attention to their fish pond prob- 
lems. The pond owner must realize, however, that 
most of these fisheries biologists are assigned to 
other major projects and farm pond extension 
work must be worked into slack periods of their 
regular work schedule. 

During 1966-1967 there were eight hundred 
thirty-six (836) farm ponds checked or stocked 
or both by the Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries 
Commission. The pond investigations were carried 
out due to requests from pond owners with 
management problems of various natures. 

Farm fish pond problems are numerous in 
Louisiana with the major ones being overcrowd- 
ing of forage fish, introduction of undesirable 
fish, aquatic weeds and water turbidity. 

After each pond investigation was made, plans 
were devised to correct each problem and pre- 
sented to the pond owner. It must be remembered 
that, with the exception of stocking ponds with 
desirable species of fish suited for farm ponds, 
the Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Commis- 
sion does not have the money or personnel re- 



quired to carry out the actual management prac- 
tices to correct the pond owners' problems. This 
responsibility must be assumed by the pond own- 
er himself. 

A project that was initiated in 1967 in con- 
junction with our regular farm pond program 
is an attempt to evaluate our farm pond program 
as it now exists. 

One hundred (100) farm ponds that were 
stocked by the Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries 
Commission were selected at random and checked 
for balanced fish populations and other problems, 
such as weeds, turbid water, etc. In each case 
where unbalanced fish populations were found the 
reason was noted. Any necessary corrections in 
our procedures will be done after the evaluation 
of these pond investigations is complete. I feel 
that a careful look at the results of this evalua- 
tion project will reveal several facts that should 
benefit the pond owner and the Louisiana Wild 
Life and Fisheries Commission. It should tend to 
prevent several management problems before they 
have a chance to exist after the pond has been 
stocked. A successful farm fish pond program 
will depend largely upon the pond owner's in- 
terest in correcting problems as they occur and 
to prevent as many problems as possible. Preven- 
tion in almost every case is less costly than curing 
or correcting a problem. 

In closing I would like to encourage pond own- 
ers to carry out the best fish pond management 
program that is practical and applicable. In years 
to come more stress will be put on fish and 
water management in farm fish ponds and other 
bodies of water if successful sport fishing is to 
continue in Louisiana. 

Any pond owner wishing to obtain advice in 
regards to stocking or management can obtain 
the desired information by writing to Sammy 
Stokes, P. 0. Box 278, Tioga, Louisiana, Zip 
Code 71477. 



BULLFROG PRODUCTION 
AND REARING PROJECT 

SAMMY STOKES 

Project Leader 

This project was initiated to evaluate the pro- 
duction of bullfrogs (Rana catesbiana) on a com- 
mercial basis under artificial conditions. 

In the beginning we had only three pens at 
Beechwood Fish Hatchery. Six pens at Beech- 
wood and three pens at the Lacombe Fish Hatch- 
ery were added in 1966. This addition was a great 
asset in the program since we were able to expand 
our rearing program greatly. All pens are made 
of tin with walls four feet high. 

The newly constructed pens were stocked with 



146 




Bullfrog spawning pen at Beechwood Hatchery. 

bullfrog tadpoles that were hatched at Beechwood 
Fish Hatchery in April and May 1966. 

These tadpoles were the offspring of brood- 
stock at Beechwood Hatchery that were held over 
from the year before and also from broodstock 
collected from the wild in April 1966. The bull- 
frogs that were captured from the wild spawned 
much better than the broodstock that was held 
over from the previous year. I believe this is the 
result of physical condition. The broodstock held 
over in captivity from the previous year were in 
an apparently starved condition. This was due to 
an unreliable food supply. 

Bullfrogs spawn for the most part during the 
latter part of April and the month of May but 
spawns were discovered through August. 

Three pens at Lacombe were stocked in No- 
vember 1966 with tadpoles at rates of one per 
six square feet, one per eight square feet and 




one per ten square feet. They were not offered 
any feed other than that which they captured 
from the wild. This was done mostly for check 
and comparison. They will be harvested the spring 
of 1968 to compare growth and survival rates 
from tadpole stage to maturity. 

Three of the six pens at Beechwood were cov- 
ered with one inch poultry wire to determine the 
effects of predation such as birds, raccoons, etc., 
upon frogs and tadpoles being held in captivity. 
These covered pens were stocked with tadpoles 
at rates of one per square foot, one per two square 
feet and one per four square feet. The remaining 
three rearing pens were stocked at the same ratio 
as the covered pens for comparison. 

The tadpoles at Beechwood were fed a variety 
of foods but mostly commercial fish food pellets. 
They responded readily and grew rapidly. 

The tadpoles in each pen began transforming 
into frogs in August 1966 and continued to do so 
until the latter part of October. Forty frogs from 
each pen at Beechwood were collected and meas- 
ured in the fall of 1966 at Beechwood. (Table 
below) 







No. 




Pen 


Number 


Tadpoles 


Average 


umber 


Stocked 


Measured 


Length 


3 ... 


2,280 (1 per sq. ft.) 


40 


3.8 in. 


4 ... 


1,140 (1 per 2 sq. ft.) 


40 


4.5 in. 


5 ... 


570 (1 per 4 sq. ft.) 


40 


4.1 in. 


6 . . . 


2,280 (1 per sq. ft.) 


40 


4.0 in. 


7 ... 


1,140 (1 per 2 sq. ft.) 


40 


4.9 in. 


8 ... 


570 (1 per 4 sq. ft.) 


40 


5.1 in. 



Year-old tadpole. 



Data collected October 10, 1967 

There were many frogs but we had no way 
of collecting the total number for a head count 
at this particular time. 

Shortly after the tadpoles transformed into 
frogs was when real problems began. We could 
not induce them to eat any artificial feed. Regu- 
lar type fish pellets, floating trout pellets and 
fish food pellets in gelatin were used. The gelatin 
was cut up into thin strips so as to have a worm- 
like appearance in the water. Some of the float- 
ing trout pellets were dyed red but this was to 
no avail. Since this phase of the project was de- 
signed for artificial feed no other types of feed 
were offered. The death rate was tremendous 
because of apparent starvation and the fact that 
larger frogs ate the smaller ones in much the same 
manner as bass or other predaceous fish. 

The frogs that were stocked as tadpoles the 
previous year at Beechwood were harvested in 
August for a head count. Tables of growth and 
survival and comparison of covered and un- 
covered pens are listed below. 



147 



August 22-24, 1967 



LAKE BRUIN ROUGH FISH REMOVAL 



Number Number % 

Pen. Tadpoles Frogs Re- Avg. Avg. 

Number Stocked Recovered covered Weight Length 

3 2,280 5 .2% 4.0 oz. 9.5 in. 

4 1,140 7 .6% 2.6 oz. 8.7 in. 

5 570 10 1.7% 2.7 oz. 8.6 in. 

6 2,280 7 .3% 2.4 oz. 8.1 in. 

7 1,140 29 2.5% 5.2 oz. 10.6 in. 

8 570 30 5.2% 4.4 oz. 10.6 in. 

Number Number 

Tadpoles Frogs Percent 

Stocked Recovered Survival 

Covered Pens 3,990 66 1.6% 

Uncovered Pens 3,990 22 .5%. 

Totals 7,980 88 2.1% 

After this harvest, eighty eight frogs were 
stocked in a pen, at which time, an artificial feed 
was accidently discovered that the frogs ap- 
parently ate and survived upon. The frogs gained 
weight rapidly on this diet, but feeding closed 6 
weeks later in October, 1967, when they went into 
hibernation. To learn the true value of this food, 
a larger number of frogs will be fed this diet 
during the entire coming growing season. 

r.V \& 




Bullfrog Broodstock at Beechwood Hatchery. 

One other thing noted of some importance is 
that the bullfrogs hatched in 1966 spawned in 
two of the rearing pens in June or July 1967. They 
were aproximately fourteen months old. It was 
believed before this that it took at least three 
years for bullfrogs to reach sexual maturity. 

The project plans at present include restocking 
of pens for additional study of the new artificial 
diet and also some other diets of living nature 
such as crayfish or crickets. These will be com- 
pared for costs and rates of growth if a ready 
supply of such diets can be produced. 



ARTHUR M. WILLIAMS 

Project Leader 

Lake Bruin, a Mississippi River oxbow lake, 
covers 2,733 acres, is 9.2 miles long, has a maxi- 
mum width of 0.5 miles and a maximum depth 
of 58 feet. 

Population samples taken in 1964 indicated 
that 36% of the population by weight was made 
up of non-sport fish. As Lake Bruin is normally 
closed to commercial fishing, it was decided that 
a removal program should be conducted. The Lou- 
isiana Wild Life and Fisheries Commission opened 
the lake to commercial fishing on a permit basis 
in 1966. These permits were issued to any licensed 
commercial fisherman. These permits required a 
weekly written report and also required the 
commercial fisherman to remove all non-sport 
fish taken in their webbing. Table I shows the re- 
sults of the rough fish removal totaling 120,427 
pounds for the period October 3, 1966 through 
May 1, 1967. Netting was not allowed during the 
warmer months because of probable interference 
with water sports. District IV Enforcement per- 
sonnel, under the direction of Captain William J. 
Gillespie, Jr. supervised the entire fishing opera- 
tion. 

The season was again opened in September, 
1967 and as of November, 1967 39,619 pounds 
of non-sport fish have been removed from the 
lake. This is not equal to last year's catch. This 
is due in part to a decline in fishing effort which 
cannot be explained. 

The rough fish removal program will not solve 
the entire problem of overpopulation in Lake 
Bruin, but it is an effort toward proper manage- 
ment. 

Table I 

TOTAL NUMBER AND POUNDS OF ROUGH FISH 
REMOVED FROM LAKE BRUIN 

October 3, 1966 through February 15, 1967 

Species Pounds 

Catfish 629 

Buffalo 82,721 

Carp 17,551 

Gar 4,900 

Freshwater Drum 1,839 

Shad 1,839 

Suckers 16 

109,495 
Turtles 5,204 

TOTAL 114,699 



148 



TOTAL NUMBER AND POUNDS OF ROUGH FISH 
REMOVED FROM LAKE BRUIN 

September 15, 1967 through November 27, 1967 

Species Pounds 

Catfish 227.0 

Buffalo 25,859.5 

Carp 7,513.5 

Gar 832.5 

Freshwater drum 1,257.5 

Shad 7,563 

Suckers 

36,446.3 

Turtles 1,751.0 

TOTAL 38,197.3 



TOLEDO BEND RESERVOIR 

PREIMPOUNDMENT INVESTIGATIONS 

PROJECT 

DUDLEY C. CARVER 

Project Leader 

The need for development of the Sabine River 
resulted in the formation of State River Author- 
ities in both Louisiana and Texas. The two Au- 
thorities sponsored the formation of a Compact 
between the two states for the apportionment of 
the waters of the Sabine River between Texas and 
Louisiana. 

The Compact opened the way for development 
of Sabine River, along the state line that forms 
the boundary between the two states, with the 
initiation of Toledo Bend Dam. 

Toledo Bend Reservoir will be completed in 
the very near future. As of September 14, 1967 
construction of the reservoir was 96.3 per cent 
complete. Water was impounded to elevation 
138.53 MSL or approximately 52,000 surface 
acres. Target date for completion of the reservoir 
is July, 1968. 

Primary purposes of the reservoir are water 
supply and hydro-electric power generation. Nu- 
merous other benefits will accrue from this res- 




ervoir which included tremendous facilities for 
fishing and water related recreation. 

During this biennium a preimpoundment in- 
vestigation of the fish fauna of Sabine River was 
initiated and completed. Data collected was used 
for formulating stocking recommendations for 
Toledo Bend Reservoir. 

Location of Reservoir and 
Physical Features 

Toledo Bend Dam is located on the Sabine River 
eighteen miles west of Leesville, Louisiana, at 
river mile 156.6. The dam site is in Newton Coun- 
ty on the Texas side and Sabine Parish on the 
Louisiana side. The spillway is located to the left 
or Louisiana abutement and the power plant is 
located to the right or Texas abutement. 

The dam is designed to impound water in the 
power pool to elevation 172.0 MSL and will con- 
tain 199,000 surface acres. The maximum flood 
design is to elevation 175.3 MSL. The reservoir 
at normal power pool level will extend upriver 
for approximately sixty-five miles to Logansport, 
Louisiana. On the Texas side the reservoir will 
lie mainly in Sabine and Shelby Counties with a 




A portion of Sabine River in its natural state. Pres- 
ence of native rock was one of the reasons biologist 
considered stocking walleye in Toledo Bend Res- 
ervoir because rocky areas are preferred spawning 
areas of this fish. 



Impounded waters of Toledo Bend Reservoir inun- 
dating one of the tree crushed areas. 

very small portion in Newton County. On the 
Louisiana side it will lie in Sabine and DeSoto 
Parishes. 

Toledo Bend Reservoir will be a long and nar- 
row body of water. The maximum width will be 
approximately fifteen miles. The reservoir will 
extend up four major bayous in Louisiana (Ne- 
greet, LaNana, San Miguel, San Patricio) for 
distances ranging from five to ten miles with a 
width up to two miles. Maximum depth will be 
ninety-nine feet with an average depth of sixty 
feet. The reservoir will contain approximately 
1,200 miles of shoreline. Because Toledo Bend 
Reservoir is a power reservoir, drawdown will 
occur during generation of hydro-electric power. 
Drawdown will not exceed ten feet and a draw- 
down in excess of five feet will not occur more 



149 



than five per cent of the time. The reservoir is 
expected to be full thirty per cent of the time. 

All the reservoir is not designated for clear- 
ing, but a large area of the lower half of the 
reservoir will be clear of trees. Because of its 
depth a considerable portion of standing timber 
will be submerged. The feasibility report of For- 
rest and Cotton, Inc. (1958) estimates that ap- 
proximately 20,000 acres of timber will be sub- 
merged at all times and another 30,000 acres will 
have various degrees of submergence. It is esti- 
mated that approximately 75,000 acres of the sur- 
face area will be clear of timber. 

Fish Population Sampling of Sabine River 

The successful management of impoundments 
for quality fishing in Louisiana in certain cases 
present a problem because of insufficient, or no, 
preimpoundment data. With this fact paramount 
in mind an investigation of the fish fauna of 
Sabine River was launched in March, 1966. 

The primary object of this investigation was to 
obtain fundamental information on the fishery 
resource of Sabine River that would be inundated 
by Toledo Bend Reservoir. Fisheries personnel 
of the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department con- 
ducted basic surveys of the fish in portions of 
Sabine River in 1954, 1956 and 1960 but it was 
believed necessary to conduct an additional survey 
due to several years lapse of time of the Texas 
studies. 

Data reported for this job covers the period 
of March through September, 1966. Fifteen sta- 
tions in the river proper were sampled and Blue 
Lake, an oxbow, adjacent to the river. Sampling 
stations in the river extended from approximately 
ten miles south of Toledo Bend Dam to Logans- 
port, Louisiana. 

Hoop nets, wire traps, common sense seine, and 
an electric shocker were used to collect the fish. 
All gear was not used at each station. Some sta- 
tions were sampled only with hoop nets and wire 
traps, while other stations were sampled with an 
electric shocker only. Some stations were sampled 
more than once and some were sampled only 
one time. 

Hoop nets were fished at ten stations. Small- 
mouth buffalo were caught at all stations fished 
and river carpsucker at eight stations. White and 
black crappie were collected at six of the ten 
stations. Channel and flathead catfish were col- 
lected at five stations. 

Wire traps were fished at eleven stations and 
caught predominately sunfish. The longear sun- 
fish was the only fish collected at all stations 
fished with traps. Small channel catfish were 
caught in the wire traps at seven stations. 

This survey resulted in the collection of fishes 
representing seventeen families, thirty-five genera 
and sixty-five species. The minnow, sunfish, and 



perch families were represented by the greatest 
number of species. Data obtained during the sur- 
vey of individual families are much too complex I 
and numerous to be given in a report of this 
nature. Therefore, only a brief summary of some 
of the more important families will be presented. 
The reader desiring more detailed information 
is referred to the annual report. 

HERRING FAMILY 

Only two species of this family were collected 
during the survey. Gizzard shad exhibited a wide 
distribution but were never collected in large 
quantities. Threadfin shad were also collected in 
limited numbers. 

Members of this family are valuable forage 
fish ; however, the gizzard shad has the potential 
to cause problems when the reservoir fills be- 
cause of its tremendous reproductive capacity and 
rapid growth. This fish becomes overpopulated in 
Louisiana impoundments and retards growth of 
desired sport fish. 

MINNOW FAMILY 

Members of this family are very important fish. 
Their great abundance and small size make them 
valuable as food for other fish. Sabine River sup- 
ports an abundant population of these excellent 
forage fish. 

Eighteen species of minnows were collected dur- 
ing the survey. The red shiner was the most 
abundant. Species of this family are heavily fished 
commercially by bait fishermen using minnow 
jugs set on the sandbars. The commercial catch 
of minnows will be greatly reduced when Toledo 
Bend Reservoir is completed due to loss of habitat. 

Other abundant minnows were silvery minnow, 
cypress minnow, emerald shiner, sabine shiner, 
bullhead minnow, and blacktail shiner. 

Carp were widely distributed and are more 
abundant than indicated. Several large catches, by 
commercial fishermen, were observed by the proj- 
ect leader. Carp have the potentiality to be 
troublesome after the reservoir fills due to over- 
population. 

SUCKER FAMILY 

Six species of this family were collected during 
the survey. Several are excellent commercial fish. 
If these are not heavily fished commercially in 
Toledo Bend Reservoir, they will probably become 
overpopulated. 

Smallmouth buffalo were abundant in Sabine 
River and also had a wide distribution pattern. 
Many smallmouth buffalo were collected in April 
when the river was fluctuating due to spring 
rains. 



150 



River carpsucker were widely distributed but 
never collected in any quantity. 

The blue sucker were another common fish in 
Sabine River. 

CATFISH FAMILY 

All the larger members of this family are de- 
sirable food fishes. Although classified as a com- 
mercial fish in Louisiana, certain species are 
gaining in popularity as a sport fish. 

Channel catfish were abundant in Sabine Riv- 
er and widely distributed. They are heavily fished 
by commercial fishermen. Commercial fishermen 
complained constantly that catches were poor, 
but several excellent catches were observed by 
the project leader. It appeared that heavy com- 
mercial fishing pressure has had no adverse ef- 
fects on this species. 

Flathead catfish are a common fish in Sabine 
River and were also widely distributed. Blue cat- 
fish were collected at only one station and only 
two specimens collected. There apears to be a very 
low population of this excellent predator in Sa- 
bine River. 

SUNFISH FAMILY 

The sunfish family contains not only the sun- 
fishes, but also the crappies and black bass. Mem- 
bers of this family are favorites of the sport 
fishermen and are excellent game and pan fishes. 

This family is well represented in the Sabine 
River with eleven species being collected during 
the study. 

Sampling indicated the spotted bass to be the 
most abundant member of this family. At the 
majority of the stations sampled, large number 
were collected, especially young-of-year fish. 
Largemouth bass is also a common fish in Sabine 
River. 

The longear sunfish is the second most abun- 
dant member of the family and has a wide dis- 
tribution pattern. Bluegill is common in the river 
and also widely distributed. 

Black and white crappie occur in good numbers 
with the black crappie being the more abundant. 

Stocking of Toledo Bend Reservoir 

Thus far, data collected during the preimpound- 




ment survey was used to formulate a stocking rec- 
ommendation. 

After analyzing data collected on this project 
and data of past surveys it was evident that Sa- 
bine River supported a high population of forage 
and rough fish. 

Recommendations were made to stock Toledo 
Bend Reservoir with 3,000,000 largemouth bass 
fingerlings. A meeting of Louisiana Wild Life 
and Fisheries and Texas Parks and Wildlife per- 
sonnel was held to discuss interstate efforts in 
the management of wildlife resources of Toledo 
Bend. Texas fisheries personnel sanctioned the 
stocking recommendation and agreed to supply 
1,500,000 bass fingerlings. 

Stocking of bass fingerlings in Toledo Bend 




Stocking Largemouth bass in Toledo Bend. 



Royce Norsworthy, Biological Aide, releasing a por- 
tion of the 1,500,000 largemouth bass fingerlings 
stocked by Louisiana in Toledo Bend Reservoir. 

began in April, 1967. At this time 15,000 surface 
acres of water were impounded. Seven release 
sites were used that extended from the dam loca- 
tion to Logansport. Both Louisiana and Texas 
completed stocking by June, 1967. The foremost 
reason for stocking largemouth bass was to estab- 
lish an efficient predator in large numbers in the 
reservoir, as far ahead of the forage and rough 
fish as possible. 

No other native game fish were stocked in the 
reservoir. Bluegill and redear sunfish populations 
rapidly expand in newly created reservoirs. 
Another factor for not stocking other native game 
fish was 188 oxbow lakes, ponds, and sloughs will 
be inundated when the reservoir reaches normal 
pool level. Native stocks of fish in these bodies 
of water will greatly enhance the population ex- 
pansion potential of these species. 



Stocking of Exotic Fish 

In recent years interest in the possibility of 
stocking striped bass, in Louisiana lakes has been 



151 




A portion of the 73,280 walleye fingerlings released 
in Toledo Bend Reservoir. 

heightened by the apparent success of introduc- 
tions in other Southeastern states. This fish uti- 
lizes open water areas of lakes and is capable of 
controlling shad in shad-filled reservoirs. 

Since Toledo Bend Reservoir will contain large 
areas of deep open water which will be unsuited 
for native game fish, plus an expected shad prob- 
lem, 48,630 striped bass fingerlings were stocked 
in Toledo Bend Reservoir in the spring of 1967. 

In an effort to create a better predator-prey 
relationship and fill an existing niche, 73,280 wall- 
eye fingerlings were stocked in the reservoir in 
the spring of 1967. 

DELTA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE 

POST HURRICANE FISH SAMPLING 

PROJECT 

DUDLEY C. CARVER 

Project Leader 

The fish population of Delta National Wildlife 
Refuge was reported by Kelley (1965) and Car- 
ver (1965). The studies extended from August, 
1963 through January, 1965 with major sampling 
effort being conducted in the spring and summer 
of 1964. Sunfish represented the second largest 
family in number of species and first in pound- 
age of fishes occurring on the refuge. Redear 
sunfish, warmouth, spotted sunfish, black crappie, 
and largemouth bass were the most abundant sun- 
fishes, respectively (Carver, 1965). White crap- 
pie, bluegill and orangespotted sunfish are also 
listed in the report (Carver, 1965). Kelley (1965) 
lists thirty-three families and seventy-nine species 
of fish occurring on the refuge. Drum was the 
most abundant family of marine fishes and sun- 
fish was the most abundant freshwater family. 

On September 9, 1965, Hurricane Betsy struck 
Delta National Wildlife Refuge. No official meas- 



urements were taken of the tide, but refuge per- 
sonnel estimated a tide rise between nine and 
eleven feet. A tide of this magnitude would in- 
undate most of the refuge by seven or more feet. 
Refuge personnel were completely occupied dur- 
ing and for some time following the hurricane 
with the struggle for their own survival. There- 
fore, there is no definite record of physical and 
chemical changes in the aquatic environment dur- 
ing this time. A quarantine was placed on lower 
Plaquemines Parish for several weeks and travel 
to the refuge was prohibited or discouraged. 

Delta National Wildlife Refuge is presently 
closed to sport fishing. Commercial fishing for 
catfish is allowed for a limited time in the spring 
on a permit basis. 

The primary object of this project was to deter- 
mine the effects of Hurricane Betsy on the sun- 
fish population of Delta National Wildlife Refuge. 

Fish Population Sampling 

In November, 1965 and March, 1967 fish sam- 
ples were taken by a Fishery Services Biologist, 
Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife and the 
project leader. Sampling effort was concentrated 
in areas having the greatest sunfish populations 
during the time of the previous works, namely, 
Gondle, Horseshoe and Major Inside Ponds. 

During the November, 1965 sampling, rotenone- 
block-off net combination and rotenone used as 
a drift sample were used to collect the fish. Dur- 
ing the March 1967 sampling gill nets, trammel 
nets, electric shocker, and rotenone as a drift 
sample were used to collect the fish. 

The most obvious change in the fish population 
of Delta National Wildlife Refuge immediately 
following Hurricane Betsy was the disappearance 
of sunfish. Refuge personnel were asked if a 
large fish kill was observed. They stated dead fish 
were seen but little attention was given because 
of pre-occupation with their own survival. If 
such a kill did occur, evidence would not remain 
long in this area because of the abundance of 
scavengers. 

During the November sampling, salinity and 
turbidity were within the limits of those found 
during the previous study. The greatest salinity in 
which a sunfish was taken during the studies of 
Kelley (1965) and Carver (1965) was 4.10 ppt. 
Spotted sunfish, largemouth bass, warmouth, and 
redear sunfish were collected at this concentra- 
tion. Spotted sunfish were taken most often at 
the higher salinities. 

In March, 1967 the same areas sampled in 
November, 1965 were resampled. Salinities were 
within the limits of those found during the previ- 
ous sampling. 

Redear and spotted sunfish were collected in 
limited numbers in Major Inside and Gondle 
Ponds. All seven species of sunfishes reported by 



152 



' Carver (1965) were collected in Horseshoe Pond 

I during this sampling. 
Horseshoe Pond is the deepest pond on the 
refuge and completely surrounded by a dense 
I stand of roseau cane. These factors could ac- 
I count for all sunfishes surviving the increase in 
ij salinity during the hurricane. Dilution was prob- 
I ably greater in this pond and the dense roseau 
[ may have diverted the flow. Sunfish in Horse- 
l shoe Pond had a much greater body condition than 
reported by Carver (1965). This is an indication 
• that the population was greatly reduced but is 
ii presently thriving well because of an increase of 
available space and food. 

Data collected during this project is being tabu- 
lated and analyzed. A technical report of findings 
\ will be submitted during the next biennium. 

CRAWFISH CULTURE AND 
MANAGEMENT INVESTIGATIONS 

CECIL G. LaCAZE 

Project Leader 

Louisiana crawfish provide a unique industry 
and a considerable recreational fishery. Natural 
areas and crawfish farms yield several million 
pounds annually for the food market. Crawfish 
] farms came into being after it was found that 
natural areas could not produce enough crawfish 
to meet the growing demand. The Louisiana Wild 
Life and Fisheries Commission initiated the Craw- 
fish Project in February, 1966. The primary ob- 
jectives of the project are to (1) work closely 
with crawfish farmers in improving and stand- 
ardizing crawfish cultural procedures and (2) to 
apply workable procedures, where possible, to 
natural areas. 

The first true crawfish farms were constructed 
in about 1959. Rice farmers have attempted to 
grow crawfish in rice fields since about 1949. 
Many of these attempts were unsuccessful. The 
primary cause of most of the failures was insuf- 
! ficient knowledge of the basic habits and needs 
of the crawfish. 

The first six months of the project were de- 
voted mainly to a survey of crawfish farms. This 
resulted in a firmer understanding of the prob- 
lems that actually existed. It was found that 
crawfish were being cultivated in ponds that (1) 
were generally from six inches to five feet in 
depth, (2) contained large amounts of organic 
matter in the form of grass, weeds and leaves and 
(3) were flooded with "free water" from bayous 
and canals. 

It was found that the most common problem in 
impoundments of this type was oxygen depletion. 
This caused heavy mortality when crawfish were 
confined overnight in traps. Crawfish growth 
varied inversely with the amount of dead and 
decaying organic matter present. 

With these and other factors in mind, the major 



areas for investigation were apparent. These in- 
clude, but are not limited to (1) pond location 
and construction, (2) general pond management, 
(3) harvesting (4) supplemental feeding, (5) 
biological and ecological studies and (6) manage- 
ment practices in natural areas. 

Pond Location and Construction 

Most of the crawfish ponds presently in exist- 
ence have poor water circulation. This is caused 
primarily by poor site selection. When oxygen 
is depleted by decaying organic matter, continuous 
pumping is necessary to alleviate this condition. 
Most of the old ponds have one inflow pipe and 
one or two drains. Several new ponds are being 
constructed with "flume" ditches with inflow 
pipes running inside the levee on the side having 
the higher elevation. This allows the water to 
flow into the pond at intervals along its entire 
width. Multiple drains are provided along the 
low side levee. This system should clear up condi- 
tions of low oxygen quickly and with considerably 
less pumping. 

The open, or non-wooded ponds generally pro- 
duce the most crawfish. New pond builders are 
urged to clear as much broadleaf timber as pos- 
sible. This reduces the amount of dead organic 
material present. Clearing also facilitates harvest- 
ing and prevents the shading out of tender vege- 
tation suitable for crawfish. 

GENERAL POND MANAGEMENT 

Stocking 

Accurate statistics were obtained from a ten 
acre pond in Ouachita Parish. This pond was clear 
of trees and had a dense growth of emergent 
aquatics. It was stocked at thirty-eight pounds 
of adult crawfish per acre in May, 1966. It pro- 
duced 720 pounds per acre harvested with an 
estimated sixty pounds per acre left for brood 
stock. Preliminary harvesting in October and 
November of this year indicate that the sixty 
pound estimate was low. Expected production for 
the December, 1967-May, 1968 harvesting season 
is over 1,000 pounds per acre. Estimates of the 
stocking yield ratio will continue as new ponds 
are constructed. The 7,200 pounds from the ten 
acre pond were stocked into a new 240 acre pond 
from which data will be obtained. 
Flooding 

It has been established that the peak of the 
hatch of young crawfish in ponds begins in late 
September and ends in October. Large hatches 
have been observed at times other than this peri- 
od, but not where water is fluctuated on a regular 
cycle. Ponds are now flooded by October 1st to 
provide open water for the young crawfish and 
are drained in late June or early July. 
Water Depth 

Water is held at about twelve inches deep on 



153 



the higher places in the ponds and about thirty 
inches on the lowest. Water deeper than thirty 
inches tends to retard or kill off emergent 
aquatics which provide food and cover for craw- 
fish. These depths also allow "propping" of traps 
during the harvesting period. When oxygen is 
depleted crawfish will die in traps unless they 
are propped so that a part of the trap is above 
the surface of the water. 

Harvesting 

Harvesting of crawfish represents the greatest 
expenditure outside of pond construction. It is 
accomplished mainly by professional crawfisher- 
men with 3 4 inch mesh chickenwire funnel 
traps or "cages". These fishermen collect roughly 
one-half of the wholesale price of crawfish for 
each pound caught. It is felt that more efficient 
traps or more effective baits would result in a 
decrease in harvesting costs per pound. 

A double-funnelled conical trap of a new de- 
sign has been constructed and will be tested dur- 
ing the coming harvesting season. 

A total of eight artificial baits were tested 
during the 1966-1967 fishing season. None proved 
more than 53 percent as effective as the tried and 
true fish heads. The bait experiments will con- 
tinue concurrently with tests of the new traps. 

SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDING 

No facilities are available for experimental 
work on this phase. However, wild aquatic plants 
were introduced into one completely cleared new 
pond. This pond had been denuded of weed and 
grass cover during clearing. Alligator weed and 
water primrose were transplanted into shallow 
standing water and adequate food and cover were 
realized within three months. After adult craw- 
fish were stocked there was ample evidence that 
predation had been drastically reduced. 

BIOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL STUDIES 

Contributions to this phase have been limited 
to repeated field observations. It is apparent that 
crawfish habits vary widely under conditions of 
irregular flooding. In properly managed craw- 
fish farms, however, these habits are more stable 
and predictable. A few of the more pertinent and 
important findings are as follows: 

Crawfish activity and growth are sharply re- 
tarded at water temperatures below 50 degrees 
Fahrenheit. These temperatures are produced in 
Louisiana crawfish ponds by monthly air tempera- 
ture norms for January and February. 

Young crawfish grow very little when con- 
fined in burrows due to late flooding. After sixty 
days under these conditions young crawfish sel- 
dom exceed 1/2 inch in length as compared to 
over 2 inches for crawfish of the same age in 
open water. 







i&QZ 



s~*+*. 









- lfi> . .'V, ■ -•i-.~~' -— • 



J*Cf* 






An example of what unconfined spoil deposits were 
doing to the woodland areas of the Atchafalaya 
basin prior to the Corps adoption of fish and wild- 
life's recommendations. 

Female crawfish are able to survive for periods 
of 4-5 months without food. Ten females were 
confined in containers containing only tap water. 
After 2-3 weeks these crawfish became almost 
totally inactive and remained so until mortality 
occurred. 

MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN NATURAL AREAS 

The Bonnet Carre Spillway near LaPlace is 
being considered for conversion to a public craw- 
fishing area. A management plan has been sub- 
mitted, with recommendations essentially the 
same as those submitted to crawfish farmers. 

Lake Pearl is a natural "crawfish lake" near 
Marksville. The writer is presently working 
closely with the U. S. Corps of Engineers on this 
area. The Engineers have plans to alter the water 
system in the area. A tentative management plan 
has been formulated, which will preserve the 
valuable commercial and recreational crawfishery 
in the lake. 

RIVER BASIN PROJECT 

GLADNEY DAVIDSON 

Project Leader 

This project reflects the attempt of the Louisi- 
ana Wild Life and Fisheries Commission to save, 
preserve, and enhance as much of our fish and 
game habitat as possible. 

In the past river basin studies have been sorely 
neglected, under-staffed, and the personnel work- 
ing on the project drastically overworked. Only 
once, and then for only a short time, has there 
been more than one biologist employed to work 
on this project. Currently, there is a desperate 
need for at least five biologists or similarly 



154 



trained personnel. There is an immediate need 
for new personnel to be assigned to work in the 
Atchafalaya Basin, in the coastal marshes, and in 
the Mississippi River delta. It is in these areas 
that many of the projects which will adversely af- 
fect fish and wildlife are now occurring. 

An increasing demand for changes in land use 
has been made by new industries, new needs of 
our nation, and the continued expansion of our 
population. An example of these land use changes 
is that over 201,000 acres of Louisiana woodlands 
have been cleared since 1965. Most of it has been 
planted in soybeans. The demand for soybeans 
and the continued high market price has created 
terrific demands for draining and clearing pro- 
grams, especially in the bottomlands and delta 
areas of the state. In many areas, the bottomland 
hardwood areas have been cleared even below 
the elevation that can be effectively drained. In 
some areas residential homes or camps have been 
built below the normal high water stages of our 
rivers and streams. Once such lands are cleared, 
and once homes or industries are constructed, 
heavy pressure is exerted upon those governmen- 
tal agencies charged with flood prevention and 
protection to keep floods from occurring. 

New agencies are constantly being created to 
cope with new problems that arise. Projects of 
these agencies must be screened, investigated, and 
every effort made to coordinate their projects 
so that they do as little damage to our fish and 
wildlife resources as possible. 

Over the past few years, the public has become 
increasingly aware of the diminishing quantity 
of quality fish and wildlife habitat that is result- 
ing from land use changes, navigational, channeli- 
zation and drainage projects, and pollution. In- 
creasingly a demand is being placed upon fish and 
wildlife personnel to do something to stop these 
losses of, or damages to habitat, and to enhance 
the quality of that habitat we have been able to 
thus far save. However, it is almost impossible to 
take the poorest quality of lands — the ones in- 
variably left for wildlife — and turn them into 
prime wildlife habitat. 

Upon being advised by the various agencies 
that a project is being initiated, river basin per- 
sonnel conduct field trips into the area in question. 
At this time they ascertain fish and wildlife 
values, study the proposed plans and offer recom- 
mendations that will minimize losses to fish and 
wildlife. Generally, all projects which involve 
water or possible land use changes will have some 
effect on fish and wildlife. Occasionally, modifica- 
tions that will minimize fish and wildlife losses 
can be suggested and incorporated into the project 
plan. Those projects that will greatly damage fish 
or wildlife habitat are opposed. If these projects 
cannot be stopped or altered, often we recommend 
that mitigation for these losses be included as a 
part of the project cost. In most instances, how- 



ever, only token mitigation is made and often no 
mitigation is ever received. 

It should be remembered that once a project 
is initiated, approved, and a bottomland hard- 
wood area cleared and drained, a river realigned 
and channelized, a marsh leveed and drained or 
a new channel which allows salt water encroach- 
ment dug, the damage is done. The natural habi- 
tat with its game, fish, and fur bearers is gone 
and cannot be replaced — not even in a hundred 
years. Most projects and/or agencies consider it 
economically infeasible to replace fish and wild- 
life habitat, at least by project standards. Thus 
one can easily observe that prevention of damage 
and loss of fish and wildlife habitat is the only 
practical way to safeguard and maintain these 
valuable natural resources. Whenever a project 
is initiated it should be required of the sponsoring 
agency to provide enough money to the approp- 
riate conservation agency to provide for the re- 
habilitation of any damaged habitat to its former 
productiveness. It is the job of the river basin 
section to provide fish and wildlife suggestions 
for incorporation into project plans and it is 
your job (the general public) to help see that 
the sponsoring agencies consider those sugges- 
tions. 

The following are some of the projects river 
basin personnel have worked on during the past 
biennium : 

CORPS OF ENGINEER PROJECTS 

Atchafalaya Basin Project 

Bayou Bodcau and Tributaries Project 

Bayou Lafourche- Lafourche Jump Waterway 
Project 

Boeuf-Tensas Basin Project 

Bogue Lusa and Coburn Creeks Project 

Calcasieu River at Coon Island Project 

Calcasieu River at Devil's Elbow Project 

Calcasieu River and Pass Project 

Cane and Old Rivers Project 

Choctaw Bayou Project 

Cypress Bayou Project 

Eastern Rapides-South Central Avoyelles Par- 
ish Project 

Grand Isle and Vicinity (Hurricane Protection) 
Project 

Houma, La. and Vicinity (Water Supply) Proj- 
ect 

Lake Pontchartrain, Chalmette Area Project 

Lake Pontchartrain, North Shore Project 

Mermentau River, Bayou Nezpique and Bayou 
Des Cannes Project 

Mississippi River at Venice Project 

Overton-Red River Waterway Project 

Plaquemine Locks Project 

Posten Bayou Project 

Red River Backwater Project 

Red River Below Denison Dam Project 

Sabine River Comprehensive Project 

Tensas River Project 



155 



SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE WATERSHEDS 

Avoyelles-St. Landry Watershed Project 
Bossier and Webster Parish RC & D Project 
Cameron-Creole Watershed Project 
Central Concordia Watershed Project 
Central Madison Watershed Project 
Chatlin Lake Canal Watershed Project 
Choctaw Bayou Watershed Project 
Eastern Rapides-South Central Avoyelles Par- 
ish Project 
English Bayou Watershed Project 
North Concordia Watershed Project 
Port du Luce Watershed Project 
Upper Bayou Teche Watershed Project 
Walnut-Roundaway Watershed Project 
West Fork of Bayou Lacassine Watershed 

Project 
West Madison Watershed Project 

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS 

Henderson Lake 

LOUISIANA DEPARTMENT OF HIGHWAYS 

Some sixty different Department of Highway 
project plans were reviewed and commented upon. 

APW and BOR Boat Launching Project 

Six boat launching ramps were completed under 
APW funds during the past biennium. Funds for 
this program were allocated under Public Law 
87-658, Accelerated Public Works Act which was 
to provide employment relief in designated eco- 
nomically distressed parishes in the state. The 
money was available on a 50-50 matching basis 
ending February, 1965. 

The commission is indebted to the Louisiana 
Department of Public Works for the preparation 
of plans and specifications for most of the ramps ; 
for advertising of bids and recommendations on 
acceptance of bids ; and for supervising the work 
of the contractors. 

The Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (BOR) has 
set aside money on a 50-50 matching basis for the 
construction of boat launching ramps. This money 
is channeled through State Parks and Recreation 
Commission. A legislative act has set up a Rec- 
reation Advisory Council (RAC) to review and 
approve all BOR projects, with the Director of 
State Parks and Recreation Commission serving 
as the Liaison Officer. There have been two boat 
launching ramps completed and several have been 
programed for the future under this program. 

During the past two years, eight public launch- 
ing ramps and parking areas were completed. 
Of these, six were APW and two were BOR. 
This makes a total of forty-one boat launching 
ramps in twenty-two parishes. Listed below are 
the six APW ramps completed during this bien- 
nium. 



Body of Water 

ORLEANS 

Lake St. Catherine 
JEFFERSON 

Intracoastal Waterway 

WASHINGTON 

Pearl River 

Pearl River 

Bogue Chitto 
CAMERON 

Calcasieu Ship Channel 



Location 



Fort Pike, U. S. Hwy. 90 

3 miles south of Crown Point, 
Louisiana Hwy. 45 

6 miles east of Angie 
Bogalusa, Hwy. 26 
Franklinton, Hwy. 16 



Adjacent to Cameron Ferry 

The ramps and parking areas listed below were 
completed under the BOR Programs: 

CADDO 

Caddo Lake 2 miles south of Oil City, 

La. Hwy. 1 on Twelve Mile 
Bayou 

11 miles southeast of Homer, 
Louisiana Hwy. 146 

The following are ramps that were completed 
and reported on in past biennial reports : 



CLAIBORNE 
Lake Claiborne 



UNION 

Ouachita River 
D'Arbonne Lake 

D'Arbonne Lake 

D'Arbonne Lake 

LINCOLN 

D'Arbonne Lake 



OUACHITA 
Cheniere Lake 

Cheniere Lake 

NATCHITOCHES 
Clear Lake 



Clear Lake 

GRANT 

Nantachie Lake 



Little River 

VERNON 
Lake Vernon 



Anacoco Lake 



CONCORDIA 
Cocodrie Lake 

CATAHOULA 
Black River 
Bayou Louie 
Saline Bayou 

Youngblood Landing 
Saline Bayou 

FRANKLIN 
Tensas River 

LASALLE 
Muddy Bayou 



Ouachita City, off Hwy. 143 
North side of lake at spillway 

off Hwy. 2 
South side of lake at spillway 

off Hwy. 15 
Hog Pen Landing on Corney 

Arm off Hwy 2. 

North of Hwy. 151 at Lin- 
coln Landing on D'Arbonne 
Arm 

South side of lake at Park 
Area I, off Hwy. 34 

North side of lake at Park 
Area IV, off 1-20 

4 miles northeast and 1 mile 
south of Hwy. 9 from 
Campti 

6 miles east and 1 mile north 
of Hwy. 480 from Campti 

4 miles south of Montgomery 
and 1 mile north of Hwy. 
71 on La. Hwy. 1240 

10 miles southeast of Hwy. 8 
from Fishville 

4 miles west and 3 miles 
north off Hwy. 8 from 
Leesville 

8 miles west of Leesville on 
Hwy. 8 and 2 miles south 
on Hwy. 464 from Hwy. 8 
and 464 intersection 

3 miles east of Lismore Hwy. 
565 

Jonesville, Louisiana 
Sicily Island 

14 miles south of Hwy. 28 on 
Saline WMA 

Saline Bayou on Larto Lake 
Saline WMA 

10 miles southeast of Wisner 
Louisiana Hwy. 562 

Muddy Bayou on Saline 
WMA 



156 



JEFFERSON-DAVIS 
Dredged canal from Lake 
Arthur which comes 
into City Limits of 
town of Lake Arthur 

ST. LANDRY 
Half Moon Bayou 



2 blocks west of main street 
in Lake Arthur, Louisiana 

3 miles west of Melville Hwy. 
10 

15 miles north of Marksville 

Hwy. 115 
2 miles north of Mansura 

Hwy. 1 

Donaldsonville Hwy. 1 
Gonzales on Hwy. 61 

4 miles north of Parks Hwy. 
31 

5 miles south of Henderson 
east of W. Atchafalaya 
guide levee 

25 miles south of Henderson 

on west Atchafalaya guide 

levee 
20 miles south of Henderson 

on west Atchafalaya guide 

levcs 

2 miles east of Head of Is- 
land Hwy. 22 
Port Vincent, Hwy. 42 

5 miles south of Pierre Pass, 
Louisiana Hwy. 70 

Boat launching ramps are maintained by the 
Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Commission, 
Fish and Game Division. The fisheries personnel 
inspect these ramps monthly to determine the 
number of people using the ramps and the repairs 
needed. A report of the repairs needed is given 
to the District Supervisor. He in turn sends per- 
sonnel out to complete the necessary repairs. 



AVOYELLES 
Big Creek 

Old River 

ASCENSION 
Mississippi River 
Bayou Francois 

ST. MARTIN 
Lake Martin 

Butte LaRose 

Atchafalaya River 



Lake Dauterive 

Bayou Benoit 

LIVINGSTON 

Bayou Chene Blanc 

Amite River 

ASSUMPTION 

Lake Verret 




Dr. Ray Allison demonstrates to fisheries personnel 
the proper technique for examination of catfish for 
intestinal parasites. 



FISH DISEASE AND PARASITES 
KENNETH E. LANTZ 

Increased production of pond raised catfish 
and bait shiners during the past five years has 
resulted in numerous incidents of fish disease 
and parasite outbreaks. Identification of causa- 
tive organisms is always necessary before a treat- 
ment can be initiated. In some cases the district 
fisheries biologists has had to call on the identifi- 
cation service of the Fish Farm Experimental Sta- 
tion at Stuttgart, Arkansas and Southeastern Co- 
operative Disease and Parasite Unit at Auburn 
University. 

During the 1966-67 biennium fisheries biol- 
ogists investigated twenty-one cases of white spot 
disease (Ich), seven cases of Costia, fourteen 
cases of Columnaris and eleven incidents of un- 
identifiable Myxobacteria in Louisiana ponds. In 
most cases Ich and Costia affected channel catfish 
commercial pond fish during late winter and early 
spring. Columnaris was a problem in commercial 
shiner ponds during late spring. 

Three cases of disease problems from public 
lakes were investigated during the biennium. In 
twelve other cases the causative organism was 
not identified. An incident of Columnaris in cen- 
trachids in Cocodrie Lake (Rapides and Evange- 
line Parishes) occurred in 1966. An unidentifiable 
Myxobacteria caused an outbreak of red sore dis- 
ease in bluegill sunfish in Henderson Lake (St. 
Martin Parish) and Bundicks Lake (Beauregard 
Parish) in late spring of 1966 and 1967. 

Increased interest in the propagation of com- 
mercial fish in ponds has placed increased loads 
on the services of state and federal fisheries bi- 
ologists. Once a person begins commercial fish 
farming, he is subjected to all types of unforsee- 
able problems. One of the most common problems 
a fish farmer will encounter, particularly in cat- 
fish farming, will be incidents of diseases and 
parasites. Early recognition of infection of fish 
is imperative if identification and treatment of the 
conditions is to be properly made. If a fish para- 
site or disease problem is suspected, a fisheries 
biologist should be contacted immediately. District 
fisheries biologists have been trained in recogni- 
tion of most common disease and parasite prob- 
lems. If an unusual organism has infected the 
fish, the biologist can forward affected fish speci- 
mens to Auburn University or the Stuttgart Fish 
Farm Laboratory for further assistance. The im- 
portant thing is that the condition be recognized 
early and treatment begun as soon as identifica- 
tion is complete. 



157 



FISH KILL INVESTIGATIONS 
CECIL LaCAZE 

Fisheries biologists investigated fish kills over 
most of the state. Kills were reported from six 
of the eight Wildlife and Fisheries districts. Dis- 
trict IV (Ferriday) and District VII (Baton 
Rouge) did not report kills. Number of kills and 
causes of kills are listed below. These figures do 
not reflect kills referred to the Water Pollution 
Section. 
Cause of Kill Number 

Oxygen Depletion 22 

Industrial Pollution 10 

Disease - 15 

Insecticides 9 

Unknown -- 15 

TOTAL - ----- ~f\T 

Late notification was responsible for most of 
the fifteen kills being listed as unknown. By the 
time the biologists were notified the causative 
agents or conditions were no longer present. 

PUBLICATIONS 

In an effort to present information to sports- 
men, school children and teachers, farmers and 
other interested citizens many articles were com- 
pleted this biennium. These included the follow- 
ing: 

Louisiana Conservationist 

Jan.-Feb., 1966 The Spotted Bass— Max W. 

Summers 
Mar.-Apr., 1966 Spring Fish and Fishing — Max 

W. Summers and Gladney Davidson 
May-June, 1966 More About Crawfish — Cecil 

LaCaze 
May-June, 1966 Louisiana Fisheries Hatcheries 

— Sammy Stokes 
July-Aug., 1966 Old River and the Atchafalaya 

— Max W. Summers 
Sept. -Oct., 1966 Freshwater Commercial Fishing 

— Lloyd E. Posey 
Jan.-Feb., 1967 Water Fluctuation— James T. 

Davis 
May-June, 1967 Saltwater Fishing Fever — Ben- 

nie J. Fontenot 
May-June, 1967 Lake Bruin Rough Fish Re- 
moval — Arthur Williams 
July-Aug., 1967 Bullfrogs in Louisiana — Sammy 

Stokes 
July-Aug., 1967 Toledo Bend Reservoir, Bass 

Fingerling Stocking — Dudley C. Carver 
Sept.-Oct., 1967 More Fish for Louisiana 

— James T. Davis. 
Nov.-Dec, 1967 Lake Claiborne— Charles E. 

Hoenke 



Miscellaneous 

Channel Catfish Farming in Louisiana — Jame: 
T. Davis and Janice S. Hughes. Educationa 
Bulletin No. 98. 

Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of Louisiana- 
Neil H. Douglas and James T. Davis. Educa 
tional Bulletin No. 99. 

Crawfish Farming — Cecil LaCaze. Mimeographec 
Handout 

Technical Publications 

In addition to serving the sportsmen of Louisi- 
ana, fisheries biologists are encouraged to improve 
their professional standing through publicatior 
in scientific journals. During the biennium the 
following publications became available : 
Arnold, John G., Jr., Harry E. Schafer, Donalc 
Geagan and R. G. Vulliet. 1967. The Parasites 
of the Fresh Water Fishes of Louisiana. Proc. 
S. E. Assoc. Game and Fish Comm. 20 :462-468.l 
Carver, Dudley C. 1967. Distribution and Abun- 
dance of the Centrarchids in the Recent Delta 
of the Mississippi River. Proc. S. E. Assoc. 
Game and Fish Comm. 20:390-404. 
Davidson, Gladney. 1967. Drum Fishing for Blue 
Catfish, Ictahirus furcatus and Flathead Cat- 
fish, Pylodictus olivaris. Proc. S. E. Assoc. 
Game and Fish Comm. 20:311-314. 
Davis, James T. and Janice S. Hughes 1966. Ef- 
fects of Impoundment on the Benthic Popula- 
tion of Bayou D'Arbonne, Louisiana Proc. S. E. 
Assoc. Game and Fish Comm. 19:364-374. 
1967. Results of Creel Census on 



Four North Louisiana Lakes. Proc. S. E. Assoc 
Game and Fish Comm. 18:495-506. 

Hoenke, Charles and Harry Schafer. 1967. A 
Preliminary Report of Sexual Development of 
Fishes in Biloxi Marsh, Louisiana. Proc. S. E. 
Assoc. Game and Fish Comm. 18:273-280. 

Hughes, Janice S., 1967. Use of the Red Crawfish, 
Procambarus clarki (Girard), for Herbicidalj 
Assays. Proc. S. E. Assoc. Game and Fish, 
Comm. 20:437-439. 

and Neil H. Douglas. 1966. Move- 



ment of Native and Stocked Fish in D'Arbonne 
Lake after Impoundment. Proc. S. E. Assoc. 
Game and Fish Comm. 19:349-364. 
and James T. Davis. 1967. Effects 



of Selected Herbicides on Bluegill Sunfish. Proc. 
S. E. Assoc. Game and Fish Comm. 18:480- 
483. 

Kelley, John R., Jr., and Dudley C. Carver. 1966. 
Age and Growth of Blue Catfish, Ictahirus 
furcatus (Le Sueua), in the Recent Delta of 
the Mississippi River. Proc. S. E. Assoc, of 
Game and Fish Comm. 19:296-300. 

Lantz, Kenneth E., James T. Davis, Janice S. 
Hughes and Harry E. Schafer, Jr. 1967. Water 
Level Fluctuation — Its Effect on Vegetation 



158 



Control and Fish Populations Management. 18 :- 
483-495. 

Lorio, Wendell J., and Harry E. Schafer. 1966. 
A Food Habit Study of the Spotted Seatrout, 
Cynoscion nebulosus, in the Biloxi Marsh Area, 
Louisiana. Proc. S. E. Assoc. Game and Fish 
Comm. 19:289-296. 

Posey, Lloyd and Harry Schafer. 1967. Evaluation 
of Slat Traps as Commercial Fishing Gear in 
Louisiana. Proc. S. E. Assoc. Game and Fish 
Comm. 18:517-522. 

Schafer, Harry, Lloyd Posey and Gladney David- 
son. 1966. The Use of Cans in Harvesting Cat- 
fish. Proc. S. E. Assoc. Game and Fish Comm. 
19:210-217. 

Three fisheries biologist completed the require- 
ments for a Master of Science degree during the 
biennium. 

Fontenot, Bennie J., Jr. 1967. Seasonal Relative 
Abundance and Distribution of Postlarval 
White and Brown Shrimp in Vermillion and 
Cote Blanche Bays, Louisiana. M. S. thesis 
Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana. 96 p. Lafay- 
ette, La. 
Hughes, Janice S. 1966. Movement of Native and 
Stocked Fish in D'Arbonne Lake After Im- 
poundment. M. S. thesis Northeast La. State 
College 46 p. Monroe, Louisiana. 
Williams, Arthur M., 1967. External Morphology 
with the Young Le-piostem M. S. Thesis North- 
east La. State College. 53 p. Monroe, Louisiana 



Meetings 

Many meetings required the attendance of one 
or more fisheries personnel during the biennium. 
Some meetings are to better train our personnel. 
Other meetings are to present our recommenda- 
tions or findings to the general public and other 
agencies. Some of the more time consuming meet- 
ing are in the following list: 

Civic Clubs 38 

Wildlife Federations 59 

Police Juries 121 

Lake Commissions 116 

Coordination w other state depart- 
ments and federal agencies 184 

Extension Training meetings 11 man days 

Gun Clinics 21 man days 

Training schools for our personnel.. 49 man days 
Scientific (technical) meetings .... 47 man days 
In the course of these meetings many people are 
made aware of the needs of fisheries in the state. 
We are there to represent the fisherman, boater, 
and all other citizens of Louisiana. We hope that 
through these meetings Louisiana will come a 
little closer to the Sportsman's Paradise. 



LOUISIANA COOPERATIVE 
FISHERY UNIT 

JERRY C. TASH 

Leader 

WILLIAM H. HERKE 

Assistant Leader 

JAMES W. AVAULT 
BRYANT A. BATEMAN 
LESLIE L. GLASGOW 

Faculty Collaborators 

Introduction 

The Louisiana Cooperative Fishery Unit was 
established on June 26, 1963, with the signing of 
an agreement among Louisiana State University, 
Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Commission, 
and the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. 

Mr. William Herke was Acting Leader from 
June 26, 1963 to February 27, 1964, when Dr. 
R. Oneal Smitherman became Unit Leader. Dr. 
R. Oneal Smitherman resigned as Unit Leader, 
effective July 1, 1967. Mr. Herke was again Act- 
ing Leader from July 1, 1967 until November 4, 
1967, when Dr. Jerry C. Tash became Unit Lead- 
er. 

The Unit is located in the School of Forestry 
and Wildlife Management, Baton Rouge campus, 
Louisiana State University. Office space is pro- 
vided for the Unit Leader, Assistant Leader, and 
eight graduate students. A modest laboratory is 
provided primarily for fishery research and lab- 
oratory teaching. 

The University originally allocated a 17-acre 
pond, a 5-acre pond, and 11 earthen ponds rang- 
ing in size from 0.1 acre to 0.25 acre for fishery 
research. In December, 1966, fisheries interests 
in the School of Forestry and Wildlife Manage- 
ment, including the Unit, was allocated an addi- 
tional 30-acre tract of land near the existing 
ponds. Twenty-one ponds and 39 raceways have 
been dug on this tract but have not had pipe laid 
to them. This area is being developed for addi- 
tional ponds and sites for constructing a wet 
laboratory, fish holding facility and storage build- 
ings. 

All other facilities of Louisiana State Univer- 
sity are available for Unit use in the same manner 
as for any department. 

Through appropriate arrangement most facil- 
ities of the Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries 
Commission are available for cooperative studies 
with the Unit. Unit personnel presently have the 
use of 6 one-third acre ponds at Rockefeller Wild- 
life Refuge. Forty one-tenth acre ponds are al- 
most completed for cooperative brackish water 
studies. Cooperative work with the Commission at 
Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge continued. Pompano, 



159 



and three species of freshwater catfish were cul- 
tured in the brackish water ponds. 

Louisiana has tremendous fishery resources in 
streams, overflow areas, salt and fresh marshes, 
and estuaries. Major emphasis of the Louisiana 
Cooperative Fishery Unit will continue in the 
area of fisheries ecology, with a view toward 
management of the fishery resources. A broad 
program of endeavor will continue including es- 
tuarine fisheries and biology of Louisiana craw- 
fishes. 

Research Program 

UNIT LEADER ACTIVITIES 

Dr. Oneal Smitherman was largely occupied 
with supervising graduate students during 1966 
and thru June 1967. Research conducted by Dr. 
Smitherman was as follows: 

Marine sport fish. 

Length-weight data was collected from 33 speci- 
mens of the bluefish, as an adjunct to the bluefish 
tagging project. The goal is determination of the 
length-weight relationships between the bluefish 
populations of the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic 
populations. 

Brackish water fish culture. 

Croakers and sea catfish were stocked in 6 
brackish ponds on Rockefeller Refuge to deter- 
mine feasibility of culturing these species. Fair 
survival of croakers was noted in one pond over 
the 8-month period. Fish grew at aproximately 
one inch per month, and apparently were almost 
sexually mature in one season. These experiments 
will be expanded in cooperative work with Dr. 
James W. Avault and with the Louisiana Wild 
Life and Fisheries Commission. 

Crawfish biology 

Much of the final quarter of 1966 was spent on 
crawfish studies. A special allocation from the 
Louisiana legislature to the Unit for fiscal 1967 
greatly enhanced our program. Approximately 75 
female red swamp crawfish with eggs or embryos 
were captured and studied for embryological de- 
velopment rates and for fecundity. Data on length- 
weight were obtained and related to fecundity. 

Eighty-four plastic pools 10 feet in diameter 
were stocked with red swamp crawfish, or white 
river crawfish, to determine the value of supple- 
mental feeding, fertilizer, and soil nutrients on 
crawfish production. Cover as a survival factor 
in young crawfish will be studied. Experiments on 
production of red swamp crawfish in earthen 
ponds were conducted in a manner similar to the 
plastic pool experiments. Nine ponds, 0.1 to 0.25 
acre, were stocked. 

Striped bass and hybrids of striped bass and 
white bass as accessory predators in impound- 



ments are being studied in cooperation with Dr. 
Avault. A stock of each type of fish was obtained, 
from Edenton National Fish Hatchery, Edenton, 
North Carolina, and stocked into two large ponds 
overcrowded with forage fish. 

The new Unit Leader, Dr. Jerry C. Tash, will 
stress studies on the limnology of Louisiana wa- 
ters. 



ASSISTANT LEADER ACTIVITIES 

The Assistant Leader finished a contract proj- 
ect on the marsh east of Lake Calcasieu, Louisi- 
ana in 1966. Sampling trips were made bi-weekly 
from January through June, 1966. A final report 
was submitted to the Division of River Basins, 
Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, in De- 
cember, 1966. A technical paper was presented 
on this data at the Marsh and Estuary Manage- 
ment Symposium held at L.S.U. in July, 1967. 

A project plan was approved by the L.S.U. Ex- i 
periment Station for a study to determine the! 
comparative value of semi-impounded Louisiana 
tidal marshes as nursery areas for fishes, shrimps J 
and crabs. Sample stations were located in the 
marsh east of Lake Borgne and on Marsh Island. 
Two modified surface trawls were developed. Pre- 
liminary sampling was accomplished at all sites 
in 1966. Regular monthly sampling began in Feb- 
ruary, 1967. A total of 16 trawl samples were 
taken monthly at each study area. Sampling will 
continue until early 1968. 

CURRENT STUDENT ACTIVITIES 



During 1967 eight students worked toward the 
Master of Science in Fisheries. 

Micropterus punctulatus, in Tchefuncte River 
Food Habits of Spotted Bass, 

Personnel: 

Patrick W. Ryan — Graduate Assistant 
James W. Avault, Jr. — Supervisor 

Funds: 

Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Commission 
Objectives: 

To determine food habits of spotted bass in 
relation to size and age groups, sex, seasonal 
variability, and food availability. 

Progess : 

This is a study of a natural population of 
spotted bass in Tchefuncte River. Stomach con- 
tents were determined from 240 spotted bass. 
Major food items were: insects 50.5 per cent; 
crawfish and grass shrimp 36.9 per cent; and, 
fish 18.2 per cent. 

Mr. Ryan is writing his thesis and should grad- 
uate early in 1968. 



160 



Food Habits of Dolphin, Coryphaena hippurus, 
off South Pass, Louisiana 

Personnel: 

Richard Tomlinson — Graduate Assistant 

James W. Avault, Jr. — Supervisor 
Funds: 

None 
Objectives: 

To determine food habits of dolphin off South 
Pass, Louisiana. 
Progress: 

Approximately 150 dolphin were caught by 
hook and line. Preliminary indications are that 
dolphin are piscivorous. 
Future Plans: 

Continue stomach analyses. 

Mineral Requirements of Red Swamp 
Crawfish, Procambarus clarki 

Personnel: 

Larry de la Bretonne — Instructor of Fisheries 

James W. Avault, Jr.- — Supervisor 
Funds: 

Grant to the School of Forestry and Wildlife 
Management 
Objectives: 

To determine mineral requirements of red 
swamp crawfish, Procambarus clarki. 
Progress : 

Crawfish were stocked into replicated vinyl- 
lined pools. Variables included fertile and infertile 
soils, and four levels of hardness. The total hard- 
ness of water in pools was adjusted in increments 
of 50 ppm with agriculture lime. After the hard- 
ness was adjusted, crawfish were fed daily with 
a commercial fish feed. Crawfish survival and 
growth were poor in waters having a total hard- 
ness of approximately 20 ppm. Crawfish grew 
best in waters having approximately 100 ppm 
total hardness. Hardness values above 100 ppm 
did not affect growth or survival. 
Future Plans: 

Continue studies on mineral requirements. 

Determination of Safe Concentrations of Chemicals 

for use in Pond Culture with the common Pompano, 

Trachinotus carolinus 

Personnel: 

Charles L. Birdsong — Graduate Assistant 

James W. Avault, Jr. — Supervisor 
Funds: 

Grant to School of Forestry and Wildlife Man- 
agement 

Objectives: 

To bioassay LD„, LD r , , and LD 100 of five com- 
pounds that may be used in pond culture of pom- 
pano. 



Progress : 

Acute toxicity tests have been conducted with 
the following chemicals : acrif lavine, copper sul- 
fate, formalin, MS-222 and potassium perman- 
ganate. Pompano were usually tolerant to all 
chemicals except potassium permanganate. 
Future Plans: 

Continue acute toxicity tests. Test new chem- 
icals. 

Food Habits of Pompano, Trachinotus carolinus 

Personnel: 

John W. Bellinger — Graduate Assistant 

James W. Avault, Jr. — Supervisor 
Funds: 

Agricultural Experiment Station, Louisiana 
State University 
Objectives: 

To determine the food habits of juvenile and 
adult pompano. 
Progress: 

Approximately 30 adult pompano have been 
caught by hook and line off the Louisiana coast. 
Fingerlings will be seined from the beaches next 
spring. 
Future Plans: 

Collect physical chemical biological data in 
areas where pompano are captured, and examine 
stomach contents for food habit data. 

Food Habits of Redfish, Sciaenops ocellata 

Personnel: 

Rea Boothby — Graduate Assistant 

James W. Avault, Jr. — Supervisor 
Funds: 

Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Commission 
Objectives: 

To determine the food habits of redfish along 
the Louisiana coast. 

Progress: 

About 30 fish have been caught and preserved 
for stomach analyses. 

Future Plans: 

Continue catching fish for stomach analyses 
data and attempt to seine juveniles. 

Environmental studies of Burrows of the Red Swamp 
Crawfish, Procambarus clarki 

Personnel: 

Edmonde Jaspers — Graduate Assistant 
James W. Avault, Jr. — Supervisor 

Funds: 

Agricultural Experiment Station, Louisiana 
State University 

Objectives: 

To determine the environment in crawfish bur- 
rows including the morphometry. 



161 



Progress: 

Review of techniques. 

Salinity and Temperature Tolerances of Pompano, 
Trachinotus carolinus 

Personnel: 

Kenneth 0. Allen — Graduate Assistant 
James W. Avault, Jr. — Supervisor 

Funds: 

Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Commission 
Objectives: 

To determine the salinity and temperature tol- 
erance of juvenile pompano in aquaria. 
Progress: 

Developing methods to hold and feed captive 
pompano. 

Completed Student Activities 

During 1966-67 eight students received the 
Master of Science in Fisheries in the School of 
Forestry and Wildlife Management. 

Distribution and Abundance of Fishes in Impound- 
ments of Lacassine and Sabine National Wildlife 
Refuges 

Personnel: 

D. David Turner — Graduate Assistant 

R. 0. Smitherman — Supervisor 
Funds : 

Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Commission 
Progress : 

Mr. Turner was awarded the Master of Science 
in Fisheries May, 1966. Mr. Turner is currently 
a fishery biologist at Bass Lake Fish Hatchery, 
Route #3, Knox, Indiana. 
Abstract: 

This study was conducted on Sabine and Lacas- 
sine National Wildlife Refuge in southwestern 
Louisiana to determine species composition of 
fishes in impoundments of both refuges, and to 
estimate standing crops of fishes in impound- 
ments of the two areas. Sampling gear included 
rotenone, block-off nets, electric shocker, trammel 
nets, and gill nets. Rotenone block-off sample data 
were used to make standing crop estimates, and to 
calculate E values, F/C ratios, and At values. All 
other sampling methods were used mainly for 
qualitative purposes. Three impoundments, Pool 
1-A, 1-B, and 3, were sampled on Sabine Refuge. 
One large impoundment, the Lacassine Pool, was 
sampled on Lacassine Refuge. Impoundments on 
Sabine Refuge yielded standing crop estimates 
ranging from 28.5 to 199.3 pounds of fishes per 
acre, with Pool 1-B having the highest estimate. 
Estimates from the Lacassine Pool varied from 
82.4 to 91.3 pounds of fishes per acre. F/C ratios 
calculated from Sabine Refuge samples ranged 
from .015 to 7.4, with few of them within the 



desirable range of 3.0 to 6.0. Ratios from Lacas- 
sine Refuge ranged from 1.2 to 4.4, and most of 
them were within the desirable range. At values 
indicated a large percentage of harvestable size 
non-game fishes on Sabine. Lacassine At values 
were much lower, but most of the harvestable 
fishes were game species. 

The Effects of Wakefield Weirs on the Distribution 
of Fishes in a Louisiana Saltwater Marsh 

Personnel: 

J. Gaynor Burleigh — Graduate Assistant 

R. 0. Smitherman — Supervisor 
Progress : 

Mr. Burleigh was awarded the Master of 
Science in Fisheries in August, 1966. He is in 
charge of the statewide comprehensive outdoor 
recreation plan to qualify Louisiana for participa- 
tion in the Land and Water Conservation Fund 
Act. Mr. Burleigh is currently on leave to pursue 
the Ph.D. in entomology at L.S.U. 

Abstract: 

A study was undertaken to determine the effect 
of Wakefield weirs on fish distribution in the 
brackish marsh bordering Lake Borgne, Louisi- 
ana. Sampling was done from June through Sep- 
tember, 1965. Samples of fish were taken with a 
trammel net, rotenone, and cast nets. Determina- 
tions of salinity, oxygen, carbon dioxide, bicar- 
bonates, and total alkalinity were made at each 
station and were usually found to be within suit- 
able ranges for species of fishes collected during 
the sampling periods. Statistical analyses per- 
formed on twelve of these species captured in the 
trammel net indicated that weirs concentrated 
two of these species and affected the distribution 
of three other species. During this study, the 
weirs did not significantly (P 0.05) affect salinity 
of the marsh under their control. Consequently, 
the effect of salinity on fish distribution was not 
determined. The weirs may act as physical bar- 
riers to movements of large and small fishes, thus 
producing temporary concentrations. In constant 
water levels and more abundant aquatic vegeta- 
tion in the controlled areas, landward of the weirs, 
blue crabs were significantly affected. (P 0.05) 
by the weirs. Analysis of the width-frequency 
data demonstrated significant variation in the 
size of the blue crab among stations. The male to 
female ratio was four to one during the study 
period with no particular sex distribution in re- 
lation to weirs. 

Evaluation of Various Tagging Methods on Several 
Freshwater Fishes and Estuarine Fishes of Louisiana 

Personnel: 

W. Ralph Latapie — Graduate Assistant 
R. O. Smitherman — Supervisor 



162 



Funds: 

Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Commission 

Progress: 

Mr. Latapie was awarded the Master of Science 
in Fisheries August, 1966. He is currently con- 
ducting fishery research for the Louisiana Wild- 
life and Fisheries Commission; Oyster, Water 
Bottoms, and Seafood Division. 
Abstract: 

The retention rates of Atkins, dart, Petersen, 
spaghetti, and strap tags were compared on large- 
mouth bass, bluegill, and Atlantic croaker. Gross 
and microscopic examinations were made on fish 
tissue and wounds caused by tagging to determine 
the cause of tag loss. Antiseptics used in tagging 
operations were evaluated for their usefulness in 
promoting tag retention. The studies were con- 
ducted in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and at the 
Marine laboratory at Grand Terre Island, Lou- 
isiana. Fish used in the study were captured by 
angling, seining, and electric shocking and were 
recaptured with seines and rotenone. Petersen and 
spaghetti tags were the most suitable tags tested 
for bluegills in short-term studies of three 
months. Petersen, spaghetti, and Atkins tags were 
found suitable for short-term tagging (31/2 
months) with largemouth bass. None of the tags 
were found suitable for long-term studies with 
bass. Low retention rates were shown for all tags 
tested at the end of seven months. Almost no re- 
tention after a 5-month period was realized for 
Atlantic croakers tagged at Grand Terre. Steril- 
izing tags and ragging instruments with 70 per 
cent isopropyl alcohol and a post-handling dip in 
malachite green solution had no effect on growth 
or retention of tags on bluegills. Removal of one 
pelvic fin from bluegills tagged with the Petersen 
disc and spaghetti tags had a detrimental effect 
on weight gain. Gross microscopic examinations 
of tagging wounds and fish tissue indicated that 
tag loss was caused primarily by mechanical ir- 
ritation to surrounding tissue and possible secon- 
dary infections. 

Distribution and Relative Abundance of Blue Catfish, 

Ictalurus furcatus, on Channel Catfish, Ictalurus 

punctatus, with Relation to Salinity. 

Personnel: 

W. Guthrie Perry — Graduate Assistant 

R. 0. Smitherman — Supervisor 
Funds : 

Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Commission 
Progress : 

Mr. Perry was awarded the Master of Science 
in Fisheries August, 1966. He is currently the 
fishery biologist at Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge, 
Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Commission. 
Abstract: 

A study was conducted with blue and channel 



catfish to determine the effect of salinity upon 
distribution, food habits and age and rates of 
growth. Sampling for this study was conducted in 
a tidal bayou complex on Rockefeller Refuge, 
Grand Chenier, Louisiana. Stations were spaced 
at locations from the Gulf of Mexico to Grand 
Lake, a large freshwater body of water which is 
apparently quite productive of blue and channel 
catfish. Collections were made primarily with an 
otter trawl towed at 10 minute intervals at each 
sampling station. Hoop nets, wire traps, trammel 
nets, trout lines and rotenone were used to verify 
trawling results. Distributional data indicate that 
2 : 1 ratio exists between blue and channel catfish 
and they are more abundant in areas with maxi- 
mum seawater concentrations of 3.7 to 1.3 ppt. 
respectively. However, both species were collected 
from waters with salinities ranging up to 11.4 
ppt. Diets of young blue and channel catfish con- 
sisted primarily of small bottom-dwelling animals. 
A change from smaller invertebrates to fish and 
larger invertebrates appears to take place for blue 
and channel catfish when they attain total lengths 
of 293 and 376 mm., respectively. They are pred- 
atory upon other fishes at lengths much smaller 
than the 16-inch group which is commonly ac- 
cepted. Growth of blue and channel catfish was 
even throughout life. There was little difference 
in the growth rates of the two species in the 
Rockefeller area. Fishes collected in the study 
represented 40 families and 84 species. 

Acute and Chronic Effects of Salinity on Two 

Populations of Red Swamp Crawfish, 

Procambarus clarki 

Personnel: 

Harold A. Loyacano — Graduate Assistant 
R. 0. Smitherman — Supervisor 

Fund s: 

Louisiana Wild Life and Fishei'ies Commission 
Progress : 

Mr. Loyacano was awarded the Master of 
Science in Fisheries May, 1967. He is currently 
working toward the Ph.D. in fisheries in Auburn, 
Alabama. 

Abstract: 

Salinity tolerance was compared between an in- 
land population of red swamp crawfish, Procam- 
barus clarki, from Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and 
a coastal marsh population from Grand Chenier, 
Louisiana. 

Newly hatched red swamp crawfish were killed 
in less than one week in salinities of 15, 20, and 
30 ppt. Crawfish, 30 mm total length, withstood 
salinities up to 20 ppt, but died in 30 ppt in less 
than one week. Crawfish 40 to 120 mm showed 
no significant mortality after one week in salini- 
ties up to 30 ppt. 

Thirty-millimeter crawfish exposed to salinities 



163 



of 0, 10, 20 and 30 ppt for four weeks grew very 
little when fed fresh fish flesh, tropical fish food 
pellets and Oedogonium sp. All 30-mm crawfish 
in 30 ppt died. Growth vaiied inversely with 
salinity. Crawfish 40 to 50 mm total length held 
in 0, 10 and 20 ppt salinity for four weeks had 
average increases in weight of 4.4, 13.5 and 4.9 
per cent, respectively, when fed mixed green 
algae; although they ate the algae continually. 
Those in 10 ppt grew faster than those in and 
20 ppt. Differences in growth were insignificant 
in and 20 ppt. 

Crawfish Waste as a Supplemental Diet for Channel 
Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, in Louisiana 

Personnel: 

William H. Walker, Graduate Assistant 
R. O. Smitherman — Supervisor 

Funds: 

Agricultural Experiment Station, Louisiana 
State University 

Progress : 

Mr. Walker was awarded the Master of Science 
in Fisheries May, 1967. He is currently working 
toward a Ph.D. in fisheries at Pennsylvania State 
University. 
Abstract: 

A study was conducted with channel catfish to 
compare raw and pelleted crawfish processing 
waste with a commercial feed in ponds. The feasi- 
bility of feeding such foods in shallow ponds was 
explored at Ben Hur Farm, East Baton Rouge 
Parish, Louisiana. 

Raw crawfish processing waste was passed 
through a meat grinder, weighed and fed to cat- 
fish. Dried crawfish waste was ground into a 
meal and compressed into 1/8- x 1/4-inch pelleted 
form. The control was a complex, commercial fish 
ration containing a number of ingredients with 
vitamin and mineral fortification. 

Nine experimental ponds of approximately 0.1 
to .25 acres each were stocked with channel cat- 
fish at a rate of 1,455 per acre. The ponds were 
blocked into three groups according to size and 
the three rations were randomly assigned to the 
ponds in each block. The fish were fed their re- 
spective rations daily at a rate of 3 per cent 
of their body weight for 105 days. The commercial 
ration and the pelleted crawfish waste were fed 
on a dry weight basis while the raw waste was 
fed on the basis of its wet weight. A sample of 
fish was seined every two weeks to adjust feed- 
ing rates. 

Experimental ponds had mean depths of ap- 
proximately 2 feet. Surface temperatures reached 
103°F and maximum bottom temperatures were 
88° F. Channel catfish cleaned up all of each of 
the rations at even the highest temperature dur- 
ing the experimental period. 

Crawfish waste, which is about 35 per cent 



crude protein on a dry matter basis, appeared to 
be a potential feed for catfish when fed in pelleted 
form but not when fed raw. The raw waste rapid- 
ly dispersed in water and most was unavailable 
for feed. Mean weight gains were 0.232, 0.345, 
and 0.447 pounds for raw crawfish waste, pelleted 
crawfish waste and the pelleted commercial ra- 
tion, respectively. Crawfish waste, when fed to 
channel catfish in pelleted form, produced rea- 
sonably good growth, however, the commercial 
ration gave the best growth. 

Food Habits of Bowfin, Amia calva, in Lacassine 

National Wildlife Refuge, and other Locations in 

Southern Louisiana 

Personnel: 

Gus Stacy, III — Graduate Assistant 

R. O. Smitherman — Supervisor 
Progress: 

Mr. Stacy was awarded the Master of Science 
in Fisheries May, 1967. He is a fishery biologist 
for the Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Com- 
mission ; Oyster, Water Bottoms, and Seafood Di- 
vision. 
Abstract: 

Food habits were studied through stomach 
analysis for 248 adult bowfin from Lacassine Na- 
tional Wildlife Refuge and other locations in 
southern Louisiana. Stomach contents of adult 
bowfin, 22.0 to 21.6 centimeters in total length, 
were analyzed as a frequency of occurrence, 
weight, and volume. 

Major food items for adult bowfin were grass 
shrimp, crawfish, fish, and insects. No obvious 
differences in food habits of adult bowfin with 
relation to locations, size, sex, or season were 
detected. Only one gamefish, a bluegill, was found 
in a bowfin stomach. 

Stomach analysis was also made for 10 finger- 
ling bowfin from Lacassine National Wildlife Ref- 
uge. Stomach contents of fingerling bowfin, 3.5 
to 5.3 centimeters in total length, were analyzed 
as to frequency of occurrence and volume. Major 
food items for fingerlings were planktonic crus- 
taceans, and small insect larvae and naiads. 

Adult bowfin apparently feed mainly on crus- 
taceans and small non-gamef ish in the freshwater 
marsh environment of southern Louisiana. 

Effects of the Herbicide Silvex (PGBEE) on Farm 
Pond Fishes and Invertebrates 

Personnel: 

Keith C. Price — Graduate Assistant 

R. O. Smitherman — Supervisor 
Funds: 

Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife 
Progress : 

Mr. Price was awarded the Master of Science 
in Fisheries August, 1967. He is a water pollution 
biologist at Patuxent River, Maryland. 



164 



Abstract: 

The research was initiated to study the effect of 
silvex (PGBEE) on animals and plants in farm 
ponds and to determine the silvex residues in the 
animals. 

Three farm ponds were selected for the study 
and sampled on a regular monthly basis. Fish 
were sampled by seining, shocking, netting, and 
by direct observation. Quantitative benthic sam- 
ples were taken on a monthly basis. Quantitative 
plankton samples were taken monthly before 
treatment and at shorter intervals after treat- 
ment. 

Bluegill and carnivorous fish were collected at 
regular intervals for gas chromatograph analysis 
of the silvex residues. 

The ponds were treated with silvex at the rate 
of eight pounds acid equivalent per surface acre. 

Fish kills were observed after 50 per cent of 
the ten silvex applications. Gizzard shad (Doroso- 
ma cepedianum) , bluegill (Lepomis maerochirus) , 
and largemouth bass (Micropterus sahnoides) 
were the principal species affected. 

In general, residue values followed the same 
course. Maximum levels were reached at 24 hours 
after treatment. This decreased to negligible 
amounts by one to three weeks after treatment. 
The highest residue value recorded was 78 ppm 
for bluegill. 

Benthic organisms showed an overall pattern of 
significant increase in numbers. 

Application of silvex destroyed the normal phy- 
toplankton population which consisted of nu- 
merous species. Euglena sp. and dinoflagellates 
replaced these species. The phytoplankton did not 
regain its normal structure during the three 
months that it was observed. 

Rotifers and crustaceans decreased following 
silvex application. However, they regained their 
normal population size within one to three weeks. 



Other Activities 

Dr. Smitherman met in April, 1966, with the 
University Committee for statewide pesticide 
monitoring in Louisiana. An agreement was made 
for the Unit to continue aid in sampling fish from 
five study streams in Louisiana for compre- 
hensive pesticide residue analyses. Several grad- 
uate assistants worked with the Unit Leader in 
obtaining fish samples from the five locations in 
July, 1966. 

The Unit Leader worked with Don Estes and 
Eugene Whitney, Fishery Management Biologists, 
in coordinating Louisiana studies on evaluation 
of the herbicide silvex in the aquatic environment. 

Dr. James W. Avault joined the staff of the 
School of Forestry and Wildlife Management on 
January 3, 1966. The filling of this existing posi- 
tion for fishery teaching and research with an in- 
dividual of Dr. Avault's interests and calibre was 
of great benefit to Louisiana State University. 

In December, 1966, a new staff position in 
fisheries for the School of Forestry and Wildlife 
Management was approved. This position will be- 
gin January, 1968 and is one-half time teaching 
and one-half time research. Dr. Dudley C. Culley 
was hired and will initiate new courses in fishery 
science, especially relating to pesticides. 

Certain changes have been made in three fish- 
eries course offerings. Ichthyology has been up- 
graded from 2 to 3 credits, and new courses have 
been approved in Fishery Pathology and Fishery 
Research Techniques. The following is a listing of 
graduate courses available to students at Louisi- 
ana State University in 1967. 

Forestry 121 Ichthyology 3 credits 

Forestry 125 Limnology 3 credits 

Forestry 126 Pond and Stream Management 3 credits 

Forestry 213 Graduate Problems 1-3 credits 

Forestry 227 Wildlife Seminar 1 credit 

Forestry 228 Wildlife Seminar 1 credit 

Forestry 230 Fishery Pathology 3 credits 

Forestry 232 Fishery Research Techniques 2 credits 

Forestry 300 Thesis Research 1-6 credits 



165 



Oysters 

Water Bottoms 

and Seafoods 



■■■■ 



D 



ivision 



THE ACTIVITIES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS dur- 
ing the 1966-67 biennium were consistent- 
ly varied and extensive. Much of this was 
due to the recovery from the damaging effects 
of Hurricane Betsy in the fall of 1965. We were 
able to maintain our research program to a large 
extent in every respect except for shrimp pond 
research which was omitted in 1966 due to the 
incomplete repairs of the ponds. It was renewed 
in 1967. The field shrimp research program was 
expanded into the Gulf of Mexico Estuarine In- 
ventory and Study on a coast-wide basis. In- 
formation obtained through this work has been 
discussed with representatives of the shrimp in- 
dustry at annual and periodic meetings so that it 
would be available for their immediate use. 

Oyster biology work was maintained at pre- 
vious levels and expanded in 1967 to include some 
pond studies. This information will augment our 
previous knowledge and understanding about oys- 
ter management, and when tied in with improved 
hydrological data being obtained around the Coast 
will assist greatly in the management of this 
important species in future years. Current trends 
indicate strongly that the oyster industry must 
become considerably more efficient to be econo- 
nomically successful. 

During the past two years, extensive plantings 
of clam shells for oyster cultch were completed 
in the upper Louisiana marshes and in the Black 
Bay area, both east of the River in the natural 
seed ground area. This planting program is de- 
signed to supplement the natural seed production 
which occurs in the area and to assist the oyster 
industry by making more seed oysters available. 
In 1966, we planted 781,771 bushels of approved 
clam shells; while in 1967, 723,838 bushels of clam 
shell were planted. These 1,501,609 bushels of 
clam shells were planted over approximately 2,300 
acres at the rate of 30 cubic yards, or 651 bushels 
per acre. 

Six years of pond studies with shrimp in a 
limited number of ponds was rewarding. Impli- 
cations are that this work should be valuable to 




TED B. FORD 

Chief 

the shrimp industry in future years. Many prob- 
lems are recognized which must be resolved and 
it appears now that much additional work must 
be performed before our present knowledge and 
understanding of this aspect of the shrimp in- 
dustry will be of considerable value to the in- 
dustry. Accordingly, an expansion of the number 
of research ponds is being planned for early 1968 
with the hope that their use will be available in 
early summer. The additional sixteen 1/4 acre 
ponds will provide us with the opportunity to 
examine more than a single factor at any given 
time, provided we can obtain satisfactory num- 
bers of shrimp to test at any given time. 

Various sections of the Division — supervising 
and controlling oyster leases, dredging permits, 
seismic and waste control activities — were main- 
tained at an efficient level of operation. The ef- 
ficient surveying of oyster leases was intensified 
during this period by utilizing two crews simul- 
taneously in the field and, subsequently, by im- 
plementing the Oyster Lease Monument Control 




M. W. SUMMERS 

Assistant Chief 



166 



Program. This program is providing markers in 
the marsh at precise locations so that accurate 
surveys of oyster leases can be made. Already, it 
has eliminated and reduced the overlapping of 
leases caused in prior years by the lack of any 
permanent markers. Thus, as this program is ex- 
tended across the marshes in the oyster produc- 
ing areas, it should prove invaluable to the oyster 
fishermen. 

The "Oyster Lease Monument Control" Project 
is one of several implemented under the Public 
Law 88-309 Program, Commercial Fisheries Re- 
search and Development. Provisions of this pro- 
gram call for a maximum allocation of $300,000.00 
Federal funds to be matched by State funds on a 
50-50 or 25-75 percent basis, depending upon 
whether the program is of local significance or 
regional or National significance. Thus far, our 
allocation on the basis of funds actually appropri- 
ated has been $246,000.00 a year for 1965-66, 
1966-67, and 1967-68. These funds have been 
utilized by us for both research and development 
projects, all directed toward the improvement of 
our commercial fisheries. 

During 1967, we had the privilege of review- 
ing our administrative program with a survey 
team from the State Division of Administration 
which examined it in minute detail. Throughout 
this review, a number of discussions were held 
from which a number of helpful suggestions and 
future guidelines were established. Accordingly, 
it was necessary for us to implement some 
changes in the practices previously followed, some 
for many years. Such practices came about by the 
fact that the various fishery interests which we 
serve is relatively small. Therefore, this Division 
was able to be responsive to their needs. Never- 
theless, the initiation of these practices should 
provide a better working arrangement and, cer- 
tainly, more timely information for the fishermen 
and us. 

This report outlines some of the major activi- 
ties of the Division during the past two years 
and suggests future plans which we hope to im- 
plement depending upon the availability of ade- 
quate funds and competently trained personnel. 

FISHERY PRODUCTION 

Louisiana has been traditionally blessed with 
a bountiful production of fisheries products for 
many years. It immediately becomes obvious that 
the two major factors contributing to this pro- 
duction have been the waters from the Mississippi 
River being dispersed along and through our ex- 
tensive and complex system of coastal marshes. 
Good estimates suggest strongly that 90 percent 
or more of this fishery production is estuarine 
dependent, meaning that throughout all or parts 
of the lives of these animals some time is spent 
in this coastal marsh complex. 

Figures obtained from the Fisheries Statistics 



of the United States for 1965, published by the 
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Fish and Wild- 
life Service, U. S. Department of the Interior, 
show that our total fisheries production was 787,- 
087,000 pounds having a dockside value of $36,- 
852,000.00. It appears that approximately 13,883 
fishermen on either a part-time or full-time basis 
landed these products. The No. 1 fish — poundage- 
wise — was the menhaden which comprised 682,- 
435,200 pounds of this catch at a value of $11,- 
790,362.00. The No. 1 animal— dollar-wise— was 
the shrimp which comprised 62,593,200 pounds of 
this total catch at a dockside value of $19,584,- 
347.00. The other major species among this group 
was the oyster which showed a catch of 8,342,700 
pounds at a value of $2,401,607.00. It is par- 
ticularly interesting to know that the wholesale 
processed value of all of our fisheries products 
totaled $62,890,383.00. At this point it should be 
stated, however, that we consider the shrimp and 
menhaden statistics to be excellent, while the oys- 
ter statistics are probably low due to the nature 
of our fishery and the way this production is 
handled. Therefore, it becomes obvious that the 
total value recognized is a minimal figure and 
the actual figure should increase the landings and 
the dollar value. 

Statistics 

1965 1966 

Shrimp production 

(Heads Off) (lbs.) 39,818,310 39,563,749 

Freshwater fish 

production (lbs.) 11,372,500 9,436,100 

Saltwater fish 

production (lbs.) 698,188,500 559,458,700 

Babv green turtles (lbs.) 5,800 2,200 

Menhaden production (lbs.) ..682,435,200 555,852,100 

Report of Collections (Fiscal Year) 



1965-66 

Oyster bedding ground rentals . . $ 96,232.00 

Oyster privilege tax 6,543.31 

Oyster tonnage licenses 1,313.50 

Oyster dredging licenses 5,700.00 

Oyster resale, shop, etc 860.00 

Transfer fees 35.00 

Shells (oysters) 576,981.72 

Shells (clam) 570,175.94 

Gravel 3,232.77 

Sand 4,663.69 

Fill material 99,906.59 

Survey fee 14,885.00 



1966-67 

$104,053.00 

13,397.68 

1,344.50 

5,650.00 

1,710.00 

45.00 

597,004.94 

597,328.54 

"3,901.82 

196,675.69 
17,227.25 



Report of Production (Calendar Year) 

Total barrels of oysters taken 
from Louisiana waters 



1966 

Terrebonne 44,760.00 

Lafourche 22,459.75 

Plaquemines 24,680.75 

Jefferson 37,204.00 

St. Bernard 55,238.50 



1967 

69,371.00 
36,504.10 
88,596.70 
44,837.00 
126,040.00 



167 



B 



K 




Clam shell being sprayed overboard for catching 
oyster spat. 

Total cubic yards of sand, shells, gravel and fill 
material taken from Louisiana waters 

1966 1967 

Sand 64,534.69 62,297.98 

Ovster shells 4,941,101.36 4,984,443.76 

Clam 5,052,553.99 4,395.178.14 

Gravel 

Fill material 4,323,159.07 10,293,888.74 

SHELL PLANTING FOR OYSTER CULTCH 

The fourth and fifth major clam shell planting 
operations were conducted during the spring of 
1966 and 1967, respectively. These plantings were 
to provide additional cultch material to increase 
the catch of oyster spat. Planting techniques and 
methods using clam and reef shell for oyster 















Results of clam shell planting for oyster cultch. 



cultch has been detailed previously in the Seventh, 
Eighth and ninth Biennial Reports. 

In 1966, two sites were selected in the natural 
oyster producing areas or seed grounds east of 
the Mississippi River. These areas were carefully 
selected on the basis of suitable water bottoms, 
water conditions and current patterns as well as 
their history for good spat catches. The areas, 
one in Bay Boudreau in St. Bernard Parish and 
the other in Black Bay in Plaquemines Parish, 
comprised approximately 600 acres each. Plant- 
ings were made at the rate of 30 cubic yards of 
3/4 inch or larger clam shell per acre or a total of 
18,000 cubic yards of shell per area was planted. 

Funds for these plantings were available 
through Public Law 88-309, the Commercial Fish- 
eries Research and Development Act. Of the total 
cost, 80 per cent was reimbursed because of 
damage to the oyster industry sustained during 
Hurricane Betsy, while 20 per cent will be cost- 
shared on a 50-50 basis under another segment or 
phase of the Commercial Fisheries Research and 
Development Program. The total project cost was 
$125,000.00. 

In 1967, an additional 1,050 acres were planted 
with a total of 33,332 cubic yards of clam shell. 
Again, two different locations were chosen similar 
to those in 1966 and previous years. One site 
comprised 500 acres near Half-Moon Island in 
St. Bernard Parish. This area was planted with 
15,150 cubic yards of clam shell. The other site 
was adjacent to the 1966 planting in Black Bay 
in Plaquemines Parish. This location was planted 
with 18,182 yards of clam shell. This planting 
effort was also cost-shared on a 50-50 matching 
funds basis made possible under the Public Law 
88-309 Program. The total cost of the project 
was $105,000.00. 

After the oyster spawning season, each plant- 
ing site was inspected by divers or by tonging to 
determine the catches of spat. The 1966 planting 
resulted in a 50 percent catch of spat on each clam 
shell examined in Bay Boudreaux. The Black Bay 
site produced a 90 percent spat catch. 

In 1967, the Half-Moon planting caught spat at 
a 23 percent level, while Black Bay produced a 
17 percent catch. These figures do not represent 
the total value of these shell plantings, for each 
area will provide cultch material for several 
years. In addition, the activity of oyster fisher- 
men working these areas when they are open (ap- 
proximately 15 months after they are planted) 
will keep the shells clean and well distributed for 
future spat-fall seasons. 

Both the 1966 and 1967 shell planting opera- 
tions were successful and will provide seed oys- 
ters to fishermen for several years to come. This 
management program will supplement the natural 
production of seed oysters and insure future 
stocks of oysters for the Louisiana and National 
markets. 



168 



OYSTER SEED RESERVATION CAMPS 

Hurricane Betsy took her toll on the Oyster 
Division Camps located adjacent to the natural 
oyster seed grounds or specifically created seed 
reservations established for the maintenance and 
conservation of Louisiana oysters. 

During this past two-year period, major re- 
pairs have been completed at our Bay Gardene 
and Caillou (Sister) Lake Camps. Presently, 
these camps are in good repair and operating at 
a desired level. 

At Bay Gardene it was necessary to perform 
extensive repairs due to wind and water damage. 
Wharves and walkways were replaced. The boat 
house was rebuilt and relocated. A generator 
house was added. The camp proper received a 
complete renovation of the interior. It was also 
necessary to repair a substantial portion of the 
camp roof and exterior. 

Sister Lake Camp escaped severe hurricane 
damage; however, minor repairs were made to 
the cistern and camp exterior. Severe erosion and 
tidal action made it necessary to revet and build 
up a suitable buffer of shell around the front and 
north side of the camp. A new boat slip, wharf 
and walkway were added to this installation. 

Both of these reservation camps serve princi- 
pally as a headquarters for the management and 
patrol of the oyster reservations. Other activities 
of the division also utilize the camp from time to 
time. These camps also provide quarters for other 
Commission personnel working in these areas. 

Grand Pass Camp— Port-of-Entry 

Located south of the Cat Island Channel and 
in the northeast corner of the Louisiana marshes, 
this camp serves as a clearing place for out-of- 
state vessels fishing on permits in Louisiana's 
waters. Our inspector checks their catches and 
authenticates their permits. Confirmation is ob- 
tained at the landing where the catch is handled 
and the fishing permit is returned. 

This camp was maintained in good condition 
during this period. Repairs were completed to 
minor damaged exterior parts of the camp dur- 
ing the summer of 1965. In 1967, fill in the boat 
house was dredged, and access channels to the 
Pass were deepened. Also, storm-caused obstruc- 
tions were removed from the channel area. This 
dredging effort by Commission equipment should 
maintain the navigability of the channel for at 
least a year. 

Biloxi Office 

This office was established as an aid for out-of- 
state fishermen to secure permits for fishing in 
Louisiana's waters. Biloxi is centrally located for 
the majority of this fishing interest, largely com- 
prised of Mississippi and Alabama fishermen. 




Surveyor re-staking oyster lease from point on shore 
of bay using the old system of surveying. 

This location also provides a good opportunity 
for our representative to spot-check the catches 
at dockside and confirm the landings records of 
the various firms. Such records are examined 
regularly and severance taxes are collected. Gen- 
erally, we have enjoyed good cooperation from 
most of them and especially so from the Missis- 
sippi Marine Conservation Commission. 

MONUMENTS FOR LOUISIANA MARSH 

At the turn of the century, oyster fishermen 
were small in number and their leases were scat- 
tered throughout the marsh, wherever they found 
natural reefs. The leased areas were not con- 
gested because the fishermen were limited by 
their equipment. Some applications for leases 
were applied for by mail, sending a drawing or 
description of the immediate location and request- 
ing a survey of the area described. Others were 
applied for in person at the Division Office. Now 
due to the increased congestion in most areas, 
the above procedure in filing an application for 
survey has changed to the extent that all appli- 
cants must appear in person and sign the appli- 
cation. As in the past, these applications are taken 
to the location and a survey made on the area 
that was marked by stakes, the survey being 
tied into a landmark such as a tree, camp, point 
of land, a piling or possibly any object that stood 
out above the marsh. Quite often, these reference 
markers were lost because of marsh fires, storms, 
erosion or rotting away. This practice had to be 
improved because of the difficulty in relocating 
the lease for such purposes as fifteen year limi- 
tations, increasing acerage, or to settle a dispute 
between parties having leases in the same vicinity. 

The Oysters, Water Bottoms and Seafoods Di- 
vision of the Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries 
Commission, supported by Public Law 88-309 
Federal Aid Funds took the initiative to alter 
this condition by means of the "Oyster Lease 
Monument Control Project." 



169 



One might ask, what is a monument? How is it 
used? Is a monument better for surveying than a 
landmark such as a tree, camp, etc.? What is its 
potential to an oyster fisherman? Does it affect 
the survey party ? 

A monument is a block of concrete formed 
around four, one-half inch reinforcement rods 
tied with quarter-inch tie rods. The finished tap- 
ered six-foot-long product measures four inches 
square on the top and is six inches square at the 
base. It has a three-inch brass disk embedded on 
top with a delta symbol (a) marking the center. 

The embossed inscription reads as follows : 

1. State of Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries 
Commission. 

2. For information write the Director, New Or- 
leans, La. 

3. $100.00 fine for the destruction of this 
marker. 

This monument is used as a permanent reference 
marker. It should withstand hazards of destruc- 
tion known in the marsh. 

Monuments are transported to selected areas 
by a survey party crew boat and distributed to 
work boats for placement in proper location. With 
the correct location determined by the survey 
party, the monument is then hauled from the work 
boat by dragging this approximately 170 pound 
monument to its site in the marsh. Preparations 
for placement are made by breaking the crust of 
the marsh after which the monument is then 
placed into the hole and forced down to a point 
to allow nine inches above the ground. To locate 
the monument for future use, a marker is placed 




Party chief running traverse for Oyster Lease Con- 
trol Monuments. 



adjacent to it. The marker is an 8 in. x 12 in. sign 
bolted to a 10 ft. x V/% in. galvanized pipe. 

A monument is better for surveying than land- 
marks such as trees, camps, etc., because a closed 
traverse is taken on the monument stationed in 
that particular area. A traverse is the tieing of 
one monument to the other by making several 
readings of a bearing for accuracy and taking 
calculating distances, turning angles in series and 
tieing back into the starting point. This is then 
tied to a known coastal geodetic monument in a 
nearby location whose "X" and "Y" coordinates 
are known. Thus, from this point, the locations of 
all monuments are calculated to their own respec- 
tive coordinates. Topographic information is also 
recorded at the same time this procedure is taking 
place to insure plotting accuracy on maps and 
charts. From field notes, a re-stake is made of a 
lease in the presence of its legal owner or his 
designated representative. It is, in turn, resur- 
veyed from the nearest monument thereby estab- 
lishing a permanent position that may be found 
by such methods as bearings and distances, lati- 
tude and departure, or X and Y coordinates. 

The implementation of this new system should 
assist the oyster fisherman in a number of ways, 
among which are the following : 

1. It guarantees him that his lease is not over- 
staked by his neighbor's lease. 

2. Should his stakes be destroyed or removed, 
they can be replaced with an accurate sur- 
vey. 

3. By more precise surveys, he may obtain 
through the Division the knowledge of 
available acreage in a specific area he may 
wish to apply for. 

4. Correct detailed lease plats are drawn and 
presented to him as substantial proof of 
ownership for any action which may occur 
involving his lease. 

The actual leased oyster bedding grounds were 
recorded at 48,643 acres ten (10) years ago. This 
climbed rapidly to presently estimated 108,080 
acres, 44,000 having been applied for in the past 
two years. More than 30,000 acres were surveyed 
in the past two years. With such a surge in this 
business and plotting our maps from past prac- 
tices, areas appeared to be more congested than 
they actually were with correct methods. This 
may enable the fisherman to acquire additional 
acreage adjacent to his lease on which to plant 
seed oysters to preserve the growth of his busi- 
ness, provide his total acreage is within the limit 
permitted under the State laws which govern the 
Wild Life and Fisheries Commission. 

It was recognized when the project was initiated 
that several years would be required for its com- 
pletion. Following this, we plan to assign the 
monument survey party to the regular surveying 
of oyster leases. Our purpose is to reduce the time 
between the application date and that of the field 



170 



survey to the absolute minimum — preferably, one 
month at the most, except in those areas where 
tidal conditions delay it. In this way, experienced, 
trained personnel reassigned from the monument 
project would increase the output of surveys now 
being performed some two or three times greater. 



GULF OF MEXICO 
ESTUARINE INVENTORY 

FEDERAL AID PROJECT 2-22-R 

JAMES G. BROOM 

Project Leader 

WILLIAM S. PERRET 

Asst. Project Leader 

BARNEY B. BARRETT 

Hydrographic Section Leader 

WALTER R. LATAPIE 

Study Leader — Area I 

JUDD F. POLLARD 

Study Leader — Area II 

WOODROW R. MOCK, JR. 

Study Leader — Area III 

BENTON G. ADKINS 

Study Leader — Area IV 

WILSON J. GAIDRY 

Study Leader — Area V 

CHARLES J. WHITE 

Study Leader — Area VI 

Estuarine areas along the Louisiana Coast sup- 
port valuable commercial and sport fisheries and 
serve as important nursery grounds. It has been 
estimated that 90 % of commercial and sport fish- 
eries are at some time dependent upon estuaries 
for their existance. The commercially important 
white and brown shrimp inhabit these areas dur- 
ing an important part of their life cycle and the 
commercial oyster production is, for the most 
part, restricted to the estuarine environment. 

Louisiana's marine biologists have long recog- 
nized the importance of these areas to the com- 
mercial and sport fishery, however, due to lack 
of funds, research was coordinated at the Marine 
Laboratory at Grand Terre Island and was limited 
chiefly to the Barataria Bay system. Louisiana is 
now participating in one of the most important 
marine research programs along the northern 
Gulf. This program is the new Commercial Fish- 
eries Research and Development Act (P. L. 88- 
309). The enactment of Public Law 88-309 in 
July, 1964, provided for a federal-state cost shar- 
ing program for commercial fisheries research 
and development. This enabled the Louisiana Wild 




One of the research vessels used in the estuarine 
study, this boat is powered by twin 150 h.p. engines 
and has the mercruiser stern drive units. The units 
can be tilted up to allow running in shallow waters. 

Life and Fisheries Commission to expand its 
marine research and development programs. 

This program will provide an inventory of the 
natural productiveness of Louisiana's estuarine 
areas. The information gained in this study will 
be applied to the preservation and management 
of these valuable nursery grounds and wildlife 
habitat. 

The Gulf of Mexico Estuarine Inventory proj- 
ect in Louisiana was designed to show the im- 
portance and value of Louisiana's estuarine areas 
and their role as nursery grounds and basic con- 
tributors to the size and success of the fisheries. 
To accomplish this, four phases of investigation 
and study have been selected. These are : Phase I 
— Area Description, Phase II — Hydrology, Phase 
III — Sedimentology, and Phase IV — Biology. The 
scope and minimum requirements for each phase 
has been established and approved by the Es- 
tuarine Technical Coordinating Committee of the 
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission. 

Phase I— Area Description 

This phase will include a descriptive account 
of all estuaries along the Louisiana Coast from 
the Mississippi to the Texas State Line and gulf- 
ward from approximately the Intracoastal Canal 
to the near offshore waters of the Gulf of Mexico. 
Priority items under this phase are as follows: 
1. Geographical location and description of each 
estuarine basin showing water volumes, depths, 
channels, etc., 2. Major types of submergent and 
emergent vegetation with maps showing locations 
and approximate acreage, 3. A brief geological 
history of each area, 4. Estimated area of the 
drainage basin, showing significant streams that 
enter the estuarine basin, 5. Economic develop- 
ment in the area, and 6. Presence of industrial, 
domestic, or agricultural pollution in the estuarine 
basin. 

PROGRESS 

A bibliography of material, which will be used 
in writing the final report of this phase, has 
been started. Entries include papers on geological, 
climatological, hydrological and biological data, 



171 



vegetative and soil types, economic development, 
agricultural utilization and industrial statistics. 

There has been some mapping of soil types and 
of plant vegetation. Pollution sources have also 
been located and mapping is near completion in 
some of the coastal areas. 

In some areas work has been done toward de- 
termining the extent of shoreline, water surface 
area and water volumes. This work is extremely 
complicated by the vast area involved and by the 
numerous marsh islands, bayous and small bays. 

Phase II— Hydrology 

The hydrology phase places emphasis on the 
parameters which are believed to be most im- 
portant to sea life and its interrelationship with 
the environment. 

These parameters include salinity, water tem- 
perature, dissolved oxygen, tide, and the nu- 
trients; phosphate, phosphorus, nitrate and ni- 
trite. 

Representative stations have been selected in 
each estuarine system. Some of these stations are 
maintained by continuous recording instruments 
and some are periodically sampled by portable 
meters so that sudden changes and long-term 
trends will be detected. 

Because of the complex nature of analyzing 
nitrates, nitrites and phosphates, water samples 
are taken in the field, quick frozen and brought 
to Baton Rouge. There the water is analyzed for 
nutrient content by a staff chemist. 

The objectives of this sampling program are 
to establish the general nutrient levels in the 
estuaries, and to give a better understanding of 
the characteristics and interrelationship of the 
various chemical and physical parameters as re- 
lated to the biology of the area. 

PROGRESS 

Equipment and supplies necessary for the chem- 
ical analysis of sea water have been obtained. 
Suitable procedures for the phosphate, phos- 
phorus, nitrate and nitrite analyses have been 
determined. 

Phase III— Sedimentology 

This phase of our estuarine project is designed 
to sample every major estuary in coastal Louisi- 
ana. Objectives are as follows : 

1. To provide historic records useful in de- 
tecting trends in environmental quality. 

2. To describe the sediment distribution pat- 
tern and significant parameters for its de- 
velopment in Gulf coast estuaries. 

3. To determine the relationship of sediment 
distribution and environmental parameters 
to estuarine resources. 




This 16-foot otter (shrimp) trawl is one type of gear 
used in the research program. Trawl has a 1/4 inch 
mesh tail which captures larval and juvenile shrimp 
and crustaceans. 

Sediments of the estuaries form a separate and 
distinct environment from the overlaying water 
column. It is believed that knowledge of the physi- 
cal properties and chemical makeup of the bottom 
is necessary to the study of the entire environ- 
ment. 

The sediment samples will be taken from the 
water bottoms by a coring apparatus. Only the 
upper 3 inches of the sediments will be examined 
as this is the region generally utilized by ben- 
thonic organisms. Initially, only color, grain size, 
median, standard deviation, skewness and kur- 
tosis of the sediments will be determined along ; 
with a description of inclusions and structures. | 
Consideration is also being given to analysis of 
carbonate content, organic carbon, nitrogen con- 
tent and carbon nitrogen ratios. Another para- ! 
meter under consideration and which will be of 
particular importance to the oyster industry, is I 
"softness" or "plasticity" of the water bottoms. 

PROGRESS 

Project personnel have visited the Biological 
Laboratory, Galveston, Texas, to determine the 
most suitable procedures and techniques used in 
textural analysis of sediments. 

A sedimentology laboratory is presently under 
construction in the Baton Rouge area. This lab- 
oratory is expected to be completed at the close of 
this biennium, and sampling of this phase will 
be fully implemented at that time. 



Phase IV— Biology 

This phase is designed to study the life history 
of commercially important fishes and crustaceans. 



172 




A view of the standard net used in sampling post- 
larval shrimp with a circular metal frame which 
holds the mouth of the net open. Meter in center of 
the net, gives the number of revolutions made dur- 
ing the 10-minute tow enabling the volume of water 
strained through the net to be calculated. 



Biological sampling will utilize several types of 
research gear. Some of which are : 1. Fine mesh 
plankton trawls will be "fished" to sample surges 
of postlarval white and brown shrimp coming in- 
to the nursery grounds. 2. 16-ft. otter trawl sam- 
ples will be taken in estuarine waters to study 
populations of fishes and crustaceans. 3. 100-ft. 
seine hauls will be made to sample organisms 
along estuarine beaches. Other types of research 
gear may also be utilized. 




Study area locations (1-6) are shown on above map. 
The dotted lines indicate study areas to be imple- 
mented. 



PROGRESS 

The biology phase of this project was the first 
that was fully implemented, and as such, is fur- 
ther advanced than the other phases. 

All research gear has been obtained and sam- 
pling is generally made on a weekly basis. In 
some of the more difficult areas to work, samples 
are made bi-weekly or on a monthly basis. All 
organisms are identified and measured after sam- 
pling. 

For plankton samples, the postlarval shrimp 
are removed, counted, identified and stored. The 
remainder of the sample is then sent to the lab- 
oratory to determine any trends that may be 
occurring at this basic level. Analysis of all other 
samples is handled by field personnel. 

Data is summarized on a weekly, monthly and 
quarterly basis, and any trends or unusual ob- 
servations are recorded. 

To coordinate research activities, the Louisiana 
Coast was subdivided into eight study areas (Plate 
I). Each study area is staffed by a biologist, boat 
captain and biological aide or deck hand. Their 
work program is directed from the Marine Lab- 
oratory. Two areas, the Mississippi River Delta 
and the Atchafalaya Bay complex, have not been 
implemented due to the lack of personnel, equip- 
ment and the inaccessibility of these areas. 

Full implementation of the other six areas was 
completed in December, 1966. Since this time, 
personnel have been actively participating in the 
research sampling program. 

Area I 

Coastal Study Area I was fully implemented in 
December, 1966. The area office is located in New 
Orleans at 400 Royal Street. 

This area is defined by the Mississippi State 
Line on the east and Bayou Terre aux Boeufs 
on the south. The area includes the following 
bodies of water: Chandeleur Sound, Mississippi 
Sound, and Lakes Borgne, Pontchartrain, and 
Maurepas. Sampling effort is concentrated be- 
tween U. S. Highway 90 and Chandeleur Sound. 

Included within Area I are the Parishes of St. 
Bernard, Orleans, Jefferson, St. Charles, St. John 
the Baptist, Livingston, Tangipahoa and St. Tam- 
many. Sampling effort is concentrated in Orleans 
and St. Bernard Parishes. 

Area I is an area of relatively low salinity, not 
directly influenced by the Mississippi River, and 
fairly low in production of fishes and crustaceans. 
Salinities in the marshes on the Lake Pontchar- 
train side of Lake Borgne averaged from 5 to 12 
ppt (parts per thousand) during 1967. In the 
marshes between Lake Borgne and Chandeleur 
Sound, salinities averaged from 9 to 25 ppt during 
1967. The higher values occurred nearer the 
Chandeleur Sound. 



173 



Area II 

Coastal Study Area II was fully implemented 
in October, 1966, and the sampling program was 
initiated at this time. The area office is located 
in the Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Build- 
ing, 400 Royal Street, New Orleans. 

This area is defined by Bayou Terre aux 
Boeufs on the northeast and by Grand Bayou on 
the west. The area on the east side of the Mis- 
sissippi River includes the following major water 
systems : Breton Sound, Black Bay, Bay Gardene, 
Little Lake, Bay Crabe, American Bay, California 
Bay, Quarantine Bay and Grand Bay. Salinities 
range from medium to low in the upper marsh 
zone and from medium to high in the lower part 
of this area. Much oil activity is found in and 
around Breton Sound and adjoining bays. Count- 
less pipelines, oil wells, platforms, storage tanks 
and access canals are located in this general area. 

The area west of the river includes the follow- 
ing major bays: Bay Adams, Bay Bastian, Bay 
Pomme d'Orr, Scofield Bay, Bay Jacques, Skip- 
jack Bay, Sandy Point Bay and Bay Lanaux. 
This area is nearest the westward sweep of the 
Mississippi River, and retains salinities in the 
medium ranges. It possibly ranks highest in the 
production of fishes and crustaceans of any of 
the areas along the Louisiana Coast. 

Located within the confines of Area II are oys- 
ter seed grounds. These are areas designated for 
the planting of oyster cultch for the collection of 
spat (young oysters). These spat are available 
to the oyster fishermen for planting on their bed- 
ding grounds. 

The dominant plant species in this area are : 
oystergrass, wiregrass and black rush. Widgeon 
grass, an attractive waterfowl food plant, occurs 
in small quantities in some of the inclosed ponds 
and pipeline canals on the west side of the river. 

Area III 

Coastal Study Area III was fully implemented 
in February, 1966. This was the first of the six 
coastal study areas to be opened. The office is 
located at the Marine Research Laboratory, Grand 
Terre Island. 

This area is bounded on the east by Grand 
Bayou and on the west by Bayou Lafourche. 
These boundaries encompass approximately 750,- 
000 acres of land, marsh and water. 

Barataria Bay is the largest water body in this 
area. It encompasses approximately 200 square 
miles. Also, included within the area are nu- 
merous smaller bays, bayous, marsh islands and 
pipeline canals. 

Marshes of this area were formed by alluvi- 
ation from the Mississippi River and its dis- 
tributaries. Since the leveeing of the river south- 



ward to the town of Venice, erosion has become 
the dominant activity in the marsh. 

The vegetative cover of this marsh is greatly 
influenced by salinity changes within the area. 
The salt marshes in the southern zone are charac- 
terized by the presence of wiregrass, oystergrass 
and black rush. In the more northern, fresher 
area, cattail, roseau cane, hogcane, saw grass and 
bulrush are found. Natural levees are usually 
characterized by the presence of buckbrush, oaks 
and hackberry. 

Area IV 

This area is composed of Timbalier and Terre- 
bonne Bays, Lake Pelto and the intricate marsh 
zone north of these bays. The study area consists 
of approximately 541,913 acres, with approxi- 
mately 80 f /( of the total area being water. This 
area is a large inland system of lakes, bays and 
bayous. It is bounded on the east by Bayou La- 
fourche, and on the west by Bayou Sale. The 
southern boundary is marked by two barrier 
islands (Timbalier and Last Island). 

The areas around Lake Barre, Bay St. Elaine 
and Caillou Island rank very high in oil pro- 
duction ; countless pipeline canals, oil wells, plat- 
forms and storage tanks are located here. 

The majority of the marsh zone surrounding 
the area is a salt to brackish marsh. Salinities 
rarely drop below 5 ppt. The vegetation is domi- 
nated by salt and brackish water types, which 
are characterized by having a high salt tolerance. 

The type of work carried out thus far by the 
project personnel has been composed of ecological 
sampling to determine the major species normally 
occurring in the area, and the population dy- 
namics associated with these species. Periodic 
sampling of the entire area by trawling, seining 
and plankton hauls have revealed most of the 
normally occurring species ; their movements into 
and out of the area, and also many varient 
species which inhabit the area only for a short 
period of time. 

Area V 

Coastal Study Area V is located in the south- 
west part of Terrebonne Parish. Its eastern 
boundary is Lake Penchant and its western 
boundary is Point au Fer. It has a total area of 
approximately 500,000 acres of which 200,000 
acres is open water and 300,000 is tidal marshes. 
Less than 1% of the total area is suitable for 
agricultural use and normal residential purposes. 

The tidal marshes range from sea level to one 
foot above sea level and are characterized by three 
main marsh zones : salt-water marshes, brackish- 
water marshes and fresh-water marshes. These 
marsh types and the vegetation on them are af- 
fected by salinity patterns. In the salt marshes, 



174 



the dominant plants are oystergrass, black rush 
and black mangrove. Dominant brackish-marsh 
plants are wiregrass and three cornergrass. Domi- 
nant fresh-water plants are paille fine and cut- 
grass. 

The 200,000 acres of open water in this area 
is divided into many lakes, bayous and bays. 
Depths range from 6 to 40 feet. These waters 
are highly productive and are important to the 
fish, shrimp and oyster industries. 

Salinity is extremely important to the biologi- 
cal forms living in these estuarine systems. Week- 
ly salinities are taken throughout the area. Salini- 
ties range from ppt (fresh-water) at the mouth 
of the Atchafalaya River to 30 ppt at Last Island 
in the southern part. Continuous records of water 
temperatures, tidal cycles and tidal amplitude 
are also maintained. 

Shrimp are fished commercially and as sport 
in almost all of the bays in this area. Numerous 
oyster beds are also located in Area V. Four 
League Bay, Lake Mechant, Bay Junop, King 
Lake, Sister Lake and the Pelican Lake areas 
are the principal areas of oyster production. The 
Wild Life & Fisheries Commission maintains oys- 
ter reservations which provide seed oysters to 
growers and, through proper management prac- 
tices, these areas have proven extremely bene- 
ficial to the total oyster production. 

Area VI 

Coastal Study Area VI was implemented dur- 
ing August, 1966. This is the westernmost of the 
group, and constitutes the largest study area. It 
encompasses the area from the western edge of 
Vermilion Bay, westward along the coast to Sa- 
bine Lake on the Texas-Louisiana State Line. The 
area headquarters is located at 2726 Comeaux 
Street, Lake Charles. 

The estuarine systems found within this study 
area are somewhat older and more established 
than the areas to the east. The shoreline is even 
and well defined, as opposed to the wandering 
much broken shorelines of the bay areas farther 
east. The large coastal lakes and bays of Area VI 
are not the result of river deposits and barrier 
islands as in most of the other study areas. They 
are, however, the result of drowned river beds 
and wave erosion ; a condition which is quite 
unique along the Louisiana Gulf Coast. 

Initial investigations of the bottom composition 
of these estuarine systems displayed a high clay 
content. There is considerably less sand and silt 
than is found along other parts of the Louisiana 
Coast. 

The majority of the study area is covered by 
fresh and brackish marsh. The dominant marsh 
grasses are zoned according to their salinity toler- 
ances. The northern part of the area is dominated 
by fresh to low salinity tolerant grasses, such as 
bulrush, and roseau cane. The central portion is 



covered by wiregrass, and the zone near the coast 
is dominated by seashore saltgrass. 

The entire marsh zone is one of low relief with 
only a small portion over five feet above sea level. 
There are approximately 2,000 square miles of 
marsh land within the study area. 

The following embayments are located within 
Area VI : Vermilion Bay, the Rockerfeller Wild 
Life Refuge complex, the Mermentau River Basin, 
Calcasieu Lake which includes Lake Charles and 
Prien Lake and Sabine Lake. 

The hydrographic profile of the area shows 
some differences as compared to other parts of 
the coast. Vermilion Bay, the largest and eastern- 
most estuary in the area is a prime example of 
this condition. Its proximity to the mouth of the 
Atchafalaya River causes this bay to be fresh 
much of the year. Seldom does the average salini- 
ty read above 10 ppt; generally it is less than 5 
ppt. Only during low river stages or after hurri- 
canes does any appreciable amount of high saline 
water enter the area. 

Results To Date 

In each study area or estuarine system there 
is generally a seasonal movement of aquatic ani- 
mals into the estuary. This serves as a nursery 
ground where they feed and develop. After a 
period of growth, the juveniles, sub-adults or 
adults move out of the estuary. The catches of 
some important fishes and crustaceans from the 
study areas tend to substantiate this pattern of 
movement and seasonal peaks of abundance. A 
good example of this phenomenon is in the life 
cycle of the brown shrimp. Personnel in each area 
collected large numbers of postlarval brown 
shrimp in the early spring. In the following two 
to three months, juvenile and sub-adult shrimp 
were taken in the estuaries. The abundance of 
post-larvae is generally reflected by the abun- 
dance of juveniles but is not always directly pro- 
portional. 

Results thus far, show that for blue crabs, 
catches across the Louisiana Coast generally 
shows the peak occurrence in the spring and fall. 
These peaks represent the large numbers of fe- 
male crabs in the berry stage, which are mostly 
taken in the more saline water of these estuaries. 
The male crabs are usually taken in greater quan- 
tities in the upper fresher areas. 

The bay anchovy has consistently been the most 
abundant and frequently occurring fish species 
taken in the trawl samples. This was true for each 
of the six study areas. Other fishes dominant in 
the catches included : Atlantic croaker, spot, sand 
seatrout and sea catfish. 

Largescale menhaden catches were generally 
poor and do not seem to coincide between study 
areas. Because of very frequent sightings of sev- 



175 



eral age groups it is assumed that our sampling 
gear is only partially successful and does not in 
any way approximate the actual menhaden popu- 
lation in Louisiana's estuaries. 

Atlantic croaker and spot both appear in the 
estuaries during the early spring. Large catches 
of juveniles (10-100 mm) were made during this 
time of the year. As they grow to larger sizes, 
the catch drops, probably clue to natural mortality 
and escapage from the net. 

All species caught cannot be discussed fully, 
therefore, several of the more abundant and/or 
commercially important were selected. Table 3 
presents a list of the vertebrates and invertebrates 
taken in each area to date. 

Information gained from this estuarine study 
will provide a more workable knowledge of the 
renewable marine resources in these coastal en- 
vironments. The applied value of part of the data 
accumulated thus far was seen in the 1967 ap- 
praisal of the outlook for brown shrimp produc- 
tion. In the past, brown shrimp productions were 
based principally on research done in the Bara- 
taria Bay area, and was not indicative of the 
populations present along the entire Louisiana 
Coast. Prior to the 1967 brown shrimp season, 
however, data was available from each of the six 
study areas along the coast and predictions were 
made accordingly. In this way, personnel were 
able to review data from each study area, thus 
making possible a prediction that would be based 
on data collected from most estuarine areas along 
the Louisiana Coast. 

Parameters established by this study over the 
coming years should be quite valuable to this in- 
dustry as well as other commercial and sport fish- 
ing interests of Louisiana and the Gulf since this 
estuarine area contributes so greatly to our fish- 
eries' production. 

Table 3 

INVERTEBRATE AND VERTEBRATE ANIMALS 
COLLECTED BY AREA, 1966-1967 

Scyphozoa 

Areas 
12 3 4 5 6 

Rhizophysaliidae 

Man of War — Physalia pelagica XXX 

Rhjzostomatidae 

4 eye Jellyfish — Stomolophus melcagris .XXX X 

Anthozoa 

Sea Anemone XX 

Pelecypoda 

Ostreidae 

American oyster — Crassostrea virginica . X X X X X X 

Veneridae 

Venus clam — Venus mercenaria X X X X X 

Mactridae 

Rangia clam — Rangia cuneata X XXX 

Gastropoda 

Muricidae 

Oyster drill— Thias haemastoma XXX XXX 



Cephalopoda 



Loliginidae 

Squid — Loligunculas brevis 



Areas 
12 3 4 5 6 



X X X X X X 



Polycheata 



Nereidae 

Neris sp XXX 

Other polycheates X X XX 



Crustaecea 

Cymothoidae 

Isopod — Livoneca ovalis 

Penaeidae 

White shrimp — Penaeus setiferus X 

Pink shrimp — Penaeus duorarum X 

Brown shrimp — Penaeus aztecus X 

Sea bob — Xiphopeneus kroyeri 

Roughneck shrimp — Trachypeneus 

constrictus X 

Sergestidae 

Net dinger — Acetes americanus X 

Alpheidae 

Pistol shrimp — Alpheus heterochaelis . . X 

Palaemonidae 

River shrimp — Macrobrachmm ohione 

Grass shrimp — Palemonetes vulgaris 

Squillidae 

King shrimp — Squilla empusa X 

Paguridae 

Hermit crab — Pagurus longicarpus .... X 

Leucosiidae 

Purse crab — Persephona 

punctata aquilonaris X 

Portunidae 



X X X X X X 

X X X X X 

XX X 

X X X X X 

X X X X 

XXX 

X X X X X 

X X X X X 



X 

X 



X X X X 

X X X X X 

X X X X X 

X X X X X 

X 



Blue crab — 


Callinectes sapidus 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Danae crab- 


— Callinectes danae 






X 


X 


X 




Portunus ci 


ab — Portunus gibbesii 


X 






X 






Speckled cr 


ab — Arenaeus cribrarius . . . 






X 








Lady crab — 


-Ovalipes 


ocellatus 








X 






Xanthidae 


















Stone crab- 


-Menippc 


mercenaria 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Mud crab — i 


p anopeus 
id crabs 




X 






X 


X 


X 


Other xanth 






Ocvpodidae 


















Mud fiddlei 




X 




X 






X 


Ghost crab— 


-Ocypode 
le 








X 








Pinnotherid; 






Mussel crab 


— Pinnoth 


cres maculatus . . . 

Asteroidea 






X 








Brittle star 






X 




X 


X 






Scutellidae 


















Sand dollar 


— Mcllita 


quiyiqitiesperforata 

Ascidiacea 




X 


X 


X 






Sea squirt 










X 


X 


X 





Reptilia 

Emydidae 

Diamond back turtle — 

Malaclcmys terrapin X 



Chondrichthyes 

Carcharidae 

Sand shark — Carcharias taurus 

Pristidae 

Smalltooth sawfish — Pristis pectinatus . 

Dasyatidae 

Southern stingray — Dasyatis americana . 

Atlantic stingray — Dasyatis sabina 



X X 



XXX 

X X X X 
X X 



Osteichthyes 

Lepisosteidae 

Spotted gar — Lepisosteus oculatus X 

Longnose gar — Lepisosteus osseus 

Shortnose gar — Lepisosteus platostomus 
Alligator gar — Lepisosteus spatula .... X 



X 
X 

X 



176 



Areas 
12 3 4 5 6 

Elopidae 

Ladyfish — Elops saurus XXXXX 

Clupeidae 

Skipjack herring- — Alosa chrysochloris .XXX XX 

Largescale menhaden — 

Brevoortia patronus XXXXX X 

Gizzard shad — Dorosoma cepedianum ..XX XXX 
Threadfin shad — Dorosoma petenense .XX XXX 
Scaled sardine — 

Harengula pensacolae X 

Atlantic thread herring — 

Opisthorema oglinum XXX 

Engralidae 

Striped anchovy — Anchoa hepsetus .... X X X X 

Bay anchovy — Anchoa mitchilli XXXXXX 

Synodontidae 

Inshore lizardfish — Synodus foetens ... XXXXXX 

Ariidae 

Gafftopsail catfish — Bagre marinus ... XXXXXX 

Sea catfish — Galeichthys felts XXXXXX 

Ictaluridae 

Blue catfish — Ictalurus furcatus X XX 

Anguillidae 

American eel — Anguilla rostrata X 

Ophichthidae 

Speckled worm eel — Myrophis punctatus X 

Shrimp eel — Ophichthus gomesi XX 

Belonidae 

Atlantic needlefish — Strongylura marina XXXXX 

Hemiramphidae 

Halfbeak — Hyporhamphus unifasciatus . XXX 

Cyprinodontidae 

Sheepshead minnow — 

Cyprindon variegatus X X X X X X 

Gulf killifish— Fundulus grandis XXXXXX 

Longnose killifish — Fundulus similis ... XXXXXX 

Poeciliidae 

Sailfin molly — 

Mollienesia latipinna X 

Gadidae 

Southern hake — Urophycis floridanus . . X X X X 

Spotted hake — Urophycis regius X 

Syngnathidae 

Gulf pipefish — Syngnathus scovelli .... XXXXXX 

Northern seahorse — 

Hippocampus hudsonius XX 

Lobotidae 

Tripletail — Lobotes surinamensis X 

Lutjanidae 

Mutton snapper — Lutjanus analis X 

Lane snapper — Lutjanus synagris XX 

Centrarchidae 

Bluegill — Lcmpomis macrochirus X 

Spotted sunfish — Lepomis punctatus ... X 
Largemouth bass — Micropterus salmoides X 

Pomatomidae 

Bluefish — Pomatomus saltatrix XXXXX 

Rachycentridae 

Cobia — Rachycentron canadum XX 

Carangidae 

Crevalle jack — Caranx hippos XXXXXX 

Horse-eye jack — Caranx latus X 

Bumper — Chloroscombrus chrysurus ... XXXXX 

Leatherjacket — OUgoplites saurus XX 

Lookdown — Selene vomer XXXXXX 

Pompano — Trachinotus carolinus XX X 

Atlantic moonfish — Vomer setapinnis . . XXXXXX 
Gerridae 

Unidentified X X 

Pomadasyidae 

Pig-fish — Orthopristis chrysopterus .... XXXXX 

Sciaenidae 

Freshwater drum — Aplodinotus 

grunniens X 

Silver perch — Bairdiella chrysura XXXXXX 

Sand seatrout — Cynoscion arenarius ... XXXXXX 
Spotted seatrout — Cynoscion nebulosus . XXXXXX 

Silver seatrout — Cynoscion nothus X 

Banded drum — Larimus faciatus XXXXXX 

Spot — Leiostomus xanthrus X X X X X X 

Southern kingfish — Menticirrhus 

americana X X X X X X 



Areas 
12 3 4 5 6 

Gulf kingfish — Menticirrhus littoralis . . XX 

Atlantic croaker — Micropogon undulatus XXXXXX 

Black drum — Pogonias cromis XXXXXX 

Red drum — Sciaenops ocellata X X X X X X 

Star drum — Stellifer lanceolatus XXXXX 

Sparidae 

Sheepshead — Archosargus 

probatocephalus XXXXXX 

Pinfish — Lagondon rhomboides XXXXXX 

Ephippidae 
Atlantic spadefish — 

Chaeteodipterus faber XXXXXX 

Trichiuridae 
Atlantic cutlassfish — 

Trichiurus Upturns XXXXXX 

Scombridae 
Spanish mackerel — 

Scomberomorus macidatus X X X X X 

Eleotridae 

Fat sleeper — Dormitator macidatus .... X X 

Gobiidae 

Violet goby — Gobioides broussonneti .... X XXX 

Darter goby — Gobionellus boleosoma ... X X 

Sharptail goby — Gobionellus hastatus . . XXXXXX 

Highfin goby — Gobionellus oceanicus ... XX 

Naked goby — Gobiosoma bosci XXXX X 

Twoscale goby — Gobiosoma longipala . . X 

Cz'ested goby — Lophogobius cyprinoides . X 

Clown goby — Microgobius gulosus X X 

Green goby — Microgobius thalassinus . . X 

Triglidae 

Bighead searobin — Prionotus tribulus . . XXXXXX 

Uranoscopidae 

Southern stargazer — 

Astroscopus y-graccum XXXX 

Blenniidae 

Florida blenny — Chasmodes saburrae . . X 

Crested blenny — Hypleurochilus 

geminatus XX 

Feather blenny — H ypsoblennius hentzi . . X 

Freckled blenny — Hypsoblennius ionthas X X 
Stromateidae 
Southern harvestfish — 

Peprilus alepidotus X X X X X X 

Butterfish — Poronotus triacanthus X XXXX 

Sphyraenidae 

Great barracuda — Sphyraena barracuda X 

Guaguanche — Sphyraena guachancho ... X 

Mugilidae 

Striped mullet — Mugil ccphalus XXXXXX 

Atherinidae 

Rough silverside — Menbras martinica . . X 

Tidewater silverside — Menidia beryllina . XXXXXX 

Ploynemidae 

Atlantic threadfin — 

Polydacttjlus octoncmus XXXXX 

Bothidae 

Ocellated flounder — 

Ancylopsetta quadroccllata XXXX 

Bay whiff — Citharichthys spilopterus ... XXXXXX 
Gulf flounder — Paralichthys albigutta .. X 
Southern flounder — 

Paralichthys lethostigma XXXXXX 

Soleidae 

Lined sole — Achirus lineatus X X X X X X 

Hogchoker — Trinectes macidatus XXXXXX 

Cynoglossidae 
Blackcheek tonguefish — 

Symphurus plagiusa X X X X X X 

Echeneidae 

Remora — Remora remora XXX 

Gobiesocidae 

Skilletfish — Gobiesox strumosus XXXXX 

Balistidae 
Orangespotted filefish — 

Cantherines pullus X 

Triggerfish — Balistidae. sp X 

Tetraodontidae 

Smooth puffer — Lagocephalus laevigatus X 

Southern puffer — Sphaeroides nephelus . XXXXXX 

Diodontidae 

Striped burrfish — Chilomycterus schoepfi XXX 



177 



Areas 
3 4 5 



1 2 
Batrachoididae 

Gulf toadfish— Opsanus beta X X X X X X 

Atlantic midshipman— 

Poriohthys porosissiiiutn X X X X X X 

Gulf of Mexico Estuarine Film 

An audio-video, 16 mm, color, educational mo- 
tion picture film with a running time of approxi- 
mately 28 minutes, showing the importance of the 
estuaries in the Gulf of Mexico, will be prepared 
in cooperation with the other member States of 
the Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission and 
the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. The film 
production organization will be selected by repre- 
sentatives of the five States of the Gulf States 
Marine Fisheries Commission. 

The objectives of this film are: 1. To prepare 
an audio-video film of the environmental charac- 
teristics, resources and problems of the Gulf of 
Mexico estuaries, and 2. To cooperate with the 
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission and the 
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries in the prepara- 
tion of such a film. 



Miscellaneous Project Activities 

MERCRUISER MAINTENANCE SCHOOL 

In order to aid personnel in the operation and 
maintenance of boats with the Mercruiser engines 
and outdrive units, a special training school was 
held at the Marine Laboratory during February 
21 to 24, 1967. Two representatives of the Kiek- 
haefer Corporation, Mr. Cotton Sims and Mr. 
Stan Erickson, lectured during the course of these 
sessions. 

The school was attended by 41 employees of the 
Commission. All P. L. 88-309 project personnel 
involved in the operation of these vessels were 
present. Also in attendance were employees of 
the Administrative, Enforcement and Fish and 
Game Divisions. 

This short session was extremely valuable and 
has resulted in better maintenance of our inboard 
and outdrive equipped boats. It has also been 
most helpful in troubleshooting when breakdowns 
do occur. 



178 



Marine Biological 
Section 



JAMES G. BROOM 

Asst. Chief Marine Biologist 

BARNEY B. BARRETT 

Hydrographer and Geologist 

RICHARD D. WALL 

Marine Biologist 

SAEED M. MULKANA 

Marine Biologist 



INTRODUCTION 

The Marine Biological Section has provided an 
increased supply of technical information and re- 
search data to the fishing industry of the State 
of Louisiana during the past biennium. For the 
most part the great impetus in research has been 
brought about by the extensive and intensive 
shrimp research program that has gradually be- 
come an annual procedure. The manifold prob- 
lems, in the marine environment, however, neces- 
sitates that expansion and continuity of research 
efforts be maintained on a permanent basis to an 
extent that the needs of the fishing industry of 
Louisiana are adequately met. 

Marine seafood production in the northern Gulf 
ranks first in the United States. Louisiana's ma- 
jor rivers are the principal nutrient sources that 
make coastal Louisiana one of the most pro- 
ductive estuarine areas in the world. Since this 
valuable and all important estuarine area is the 
source of Louisiana's great seafood production, 
it should be the aim of our state to be the leader 
in the field of marine research and applied 
biology for the area. To reach this goal, an ex- 
pansion of facilities and manpower must con- 
tinue; this in time will require commensurable 
budget increases. The net result will eventually 
furnish protection, improvement and an under- 
standing of ways and means to maintain Louisi- 
ana's tremendous renewable marine resources. 

Basically, the present program of the marine 
biological section deals with the many phases of 
research needed to maintain our valuable shrimp 
and oyster fishery. In addition, work on com- 
mercial marine fishes, crabs and sport fish is 
contemplated. In general, the type of work being 
done may be categorized as follows : 

1. Long range investigations: Aimed at im- 
proving seafood production and quality, also 
to alleviate various dilemmas of the in- 
dustry. 



2. Short range studies and field examinations : 
Designed to furnish some immediate in- 
formation which may be used by the Wild 
Life and Fisheries Commission in formulat- 
ing rules, regulations and policy concerning 
marine problems. 

3. Federal Aid Program : An extensive effort 
was actuated in 1966 under Public Law 88- 
309, the Commercial Fisheries Research 
and Development Act of 1964. Supervision 
is provided by the U. S. Department of the 
Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau 
of Commercial Fisheries which is primarily 
concerned with a survey of the commercially 
important marine fishes, crustaceans and 
mollusks. The associated fauna and flora as 
well as related physical factors are also be- 
ing studied. 

4. Shrimp Research : An extensive research 
program on shrimp is being developed which 
deals with breeding, growth, movements and 
the effects of salinity and temperature. 

5. Oyster Research : A program aimed at im- 
proving the state's production and quality 
of this valuable resource. Much work is 
planned toward controlling predators and 
diseases. Preliminary work on oyster cul- 
ture and seed production in ponds has begun 
and future work is planned. 

6. Technical aid to oyster growers: This is an 
extension type service offered to the indi- 
vidual oyster grower. Upon official request, 
problems on individual oyster leases are 
investigated and reports prepared. 

7. Development and management: Natural 
state seed grounds and oyster reservations 
are studied and managed annually to 
achieve maximum production. Supplemental 
seed oyster production is accomplished by 
shell plantings. 

8. Plankton Research : Preliminary work has 
been done and, in the near future, an in- 
tensive study will show productivity values, 
another facet of the importance of Louisi- 
ana's coastal marshes. 

9. Cooperative research : Cooperative research 
is carried on with the Food Technology Lab- 
oratory at Louisiana State University and 
other university and governmental research 
agencies interested in marine problems. 

10. Education: The biological staff and the 
facilities of the marine laboratory are avail- 
able and are frequently engaged in various 
cooperative educational programs with the 
universities, colleges, and high schools of 
Louisiana. Short courses, field trips and 
lectures are provided for interested groups 
upon official request. 

11. Water resources and pollution: Continued 
availability of maximum acreage of un- 



179 




Saltwater tank and Main Laboratory building after 
completion of repairs due to "Hurricane Betsy". 

polluted estuarine areas are a necessity if 
Louisiana's seafood industry is to survive 
and grow. The technical staff makes studies, 
prepares reports and acts in matters on in- 
teragency coordination where estuarine 
problems are concerned. Much work has 
been done on the Mississippi River Gulf 
Outlet, various other navigation channels 
and on projects to introduce river water 
into our excessively saline marsh areas. 
Studies of industrial pollution and specific 
pollution problems in oyster areas require 
approximately 30 percent of the work sched- 
ule of the present staff. 
12. Other activities : Some time is spent in pre- 
paring papers and publications to be given 
at various meetings. The senior biologists 
are also active on various interstate and 
national committees, some of which are : 
(a) Shellfish Research Committee, Gulf 
States Marine Fisheries Compact, (b) 
Estuarine Technical Coordinating Com- 
mittee, Gulf States Marine Fisheries 
Compact, (c) Shrimp Research Com- 



mittee, Gulf States Marine Fisheries 
Compact, (d) Pollution Committee, South- 
eastern Section, American Fisheries So- 
ciety. 
During the past biennium, division biologists 
have made trips to Mexico, Texas, Mississippi, 
Alabama, Georgia, Florida, North Carolina, Puer- 
to Rico and Massachusetts. 

The following report will detail typical ex- 
amples of the work outlined above and will de- 
scribe the location and extent of the laboratory 
facilities. 

RESEARCH HEADQUARTERS AND 
LABORATORY 

The Commission's modern and extensive lab- 
oratory facilities were completed in 1960. Dormi- 
tory and duplex facilities and a 42,000 gallon 
freshwater cistern were added in 1965. When hur- 
ricane "Betsy" struck Louisiana's Coast in Sep- 
tember of 1965, damage to all buildings and 
facilities was extensive. The main buildings re- 
mained structurally intact, but virtually every- 
thing at ground level was destroyed or canned 
away. During the past biennium, the following 
construction and repair work was completed. 

1. New roof covering and complete renovation 
of interior of laboratory building. 

2. Floatation, alignment and resetting fresh- 
water cisterns. 

3. Repair roof and siding on dormitory and 
duplex buildings. 

4. Reconstruct dayroom below dormitory. 

5. Replace fill around laboratory grounds. 

6. Extensive repair to airstrip. 

7. Extensive repair and reconstruction of one- 
fourth acre shrimp culture ponds. 

8. Repair boat shed, rock navigation jetties 
and shrimp holding tanks. 




Research ponds. Duplex, Dormitory and Laboratory facilities have been repaired and or rebuilt after "Hur- 
ricane Betsy" at a cost of $165,000. 



180 




Newly constructed shop, generator house and stor- 
age building at the Marine Laboratory. 

9. Construction of a combined workshop, out- 
board boat shed and emergency generator 
shed. 

10. Construction of barge loading pad and ma- 
terial storage rack. 

11. Construction of a new net and storage shed. 
Louisiana can be justly proud of its marine re- 
search facility. The interest shown and the use 
made of the marine laboratory by groups out- 
side the Wild Life and Fisheries Commission has 
been most gratifying and serves only to further 
amplify the long and great need for such a facility 
on the Louisiana Coast. During the existence of 
the laboratory it has functioned as a training 
and research area for university scientists, high 
school teachers, college and high school students, 
and a meeting place for various governmental 
committees and research scientists concerned with 
marine work. 

It is evident that the Wild Life and Fisheries 
Commission's Marine facilities are rapidly ex- 
panding and in time will become a permanent 
station equal to any such establishment on the 
northern Gulf. Equipping the station with physi- 
cal apparatus and housing requires only an ade- 
quate budget and time; on the other hand, staff- 
ing this facility with permanent well-trained 
personnel is a major problem. At the present 
time, the availability of trained marine scientists 
is extremely limited. Salaries, in most cases, are 
not competitive with other states and agencies. 
Even with reasonable salaries, staffing remains 
a problem because of the isolated nature of the 
station and a lack of graduates in marine biology 
in the Louisiana area. Every effort is being made 
to obtain a full complement of research personnel 
who will be satisfied to work permanently in the 
area. 

SHRIMP STAINING 

In November of 1966, a small shrimp staining 
program was undertaken. Commission employees, 
along with personnel from the Louisiana Land 
and Exploration Company, captured, stained and 
released 11,740 white shrimp in Terrebonne 
Parish near Caillou Lake. 



This marking experiment had a different pur- 
pose than any previous shrimp staining in Lou- 
isiana. Its objective was to determine the im- 
portance that the small white shrimp leaving the 
Louisiana marshes late in the fall have on the 
influx of large white shrimp coming into the 
estuaries the following spring. 

The juvenile white shrimp were caught with 
trawls, wing or butterfly nets on stationary plat- 
forms with wing nets on boats and with cast nets 
around water control structures (weirs) . The 
shrimp were then brought to the Commission's 
Caillou Lake camp, injected with a blue biological 
stain and released in Caillou Lake. After several 
weeks, an announcement was made that a reward 
would be paid for the stained shrimp. The reward 
was given to entice commercial fishermen to re- 
turn the stained shrimp, along with the location 
and depth of catch. 

The results of this operation were inconclusive. 
Fishermen returned only a very small percentage 
of the shrimp stained. Those returned were 
caught relatively near the release site and only a 
short time after release. No stained shrimp were 
returned during the spring run of large white 
shrimp. 

POND STUDIES 

Pond Studies on Shrimp 

Pond cultivation studies were begun in 1962 at 
the Marine Laboratory (10th Biennial Report). 
Preliminary experiments were conducted with 
brown and white shrimp and these animals 
seemed to lend themselves well to cultivation. In 
1965, five additional 1/4 acre ponds were con- 
structed, but hurricane "Betsy" destroyed them 
before they could be used. These ponds were re- 
built and used in experiments with shrimp, oys- 
ters and mullet in 1967. 

In the spring of 1967, each of the five experi- 
mental ponds, A-7 through A-3, were stocked 
with 5,000 juvenile brown shrimp. Two of the 
ponds, A-7 and A-5, were fed ground, yellow, 
cornmeal at rates of 10% of the total shrimp 
weight per day. Two other ponds, A-6 and A-4, 
were fed at 5% per day. Pond A-3 was used as 




Shrimp and oyster research ponds which have re- 
cently been restored after being destroyed by "Hur- 
ricane Betsy". 



181 



a control and was not fed. Samples of 50 shrimp 
were removed, weighed and returned to the ponds 
each week. Feeding weights were increased in 
proportion to the weekly weight gain. At the end 
of 80 days, the ponds were drained and the shrimp 
removed, counted and weighed. During the drain- 
ing period, a fish kill was experienced through- 
out the immediate area where the ponds are lo- 
cated. This oxygen deficiency kill, caused by 
several windless, cloudy days, made the end re- 
sults misleading. Mortalities in ponds A-5 through 
A-3 were high, while ponds A-7 and A-6, the 
ponds drained before the kill, had low mortalities. 

In the summer of 1967, ponds A-6 and A-7 were 
each stocked with 5,000 juvenile white shrimp. 
Pond A-7 was fed cornmeal at the rate of 10% 
of the shrimp weight daily and pond A-6, 5% . The 
other ponds were not stocked due to the lack of 
small white shrimp near the Marine Laboratory. 
Weekly samples were made and feed added as 
previously noted with the brown shrimp. After 49 
days, the wall of pond A-7 was broken while 
adding water and the experiment on this pond 
was terminated. 

At the end of 80 clays, pond A-6 was drained, 
the shrimp removed, counted and weighed. Mor- 
talities were low and weight increases were com- 
paratively high. 

During the experimental periods salinities 
ranged from 17 to 31 parts per thousands (ppt). 
The daily average was 23.6 ppt. Salt concentra- 
tion in the ponds did not reach as high a level this 
year as had been previously experienced. Possi- 
bly, this was because of the amount of water that 
had to be added to the new ponds due to percola- 
tion and seepage. Water temperatures ranged 
from a high of 37 C in July to a low of 16°C. in 
October. The average monthlv temperature was 
27.5°C. 

The above tests were the first large scale feed- 
ing experiments conducted at this laboratory. 
They seem fairly successful in that slightly over 
400 pounds of shrimp per acre were produced 
with relatively low mortalities (Table 1). The 
food conversion ratio (C) is very significant. This 
is the pounds of cornmeal needed to produce one 
pound of shrimp gain. Using the C factor, the cost 



of the brown shrimp in A-6 may be calculated as 
follows: 4.1 (C factor) x $.03 (cost of cornmeal 
per pound) equals $.12 per pound of shrimp pro- 
duced over the stocking weight. If costs of feed- 
ing are calculated, it would not seem feasible to 
raise shrimp in this manner. However, the feeds 
used thus far are not intended for commercial 
production. Their use is only to explore the po- 
tential ability of shrimp to use supplemental feeds. 
Future studies will be made to find more com- 
plete and desirable feeds. 

In the near future, more ponds will be built 
at the Grand Terre Island Marine Laboratory. 
These ponds will be used to study the problems 
concerning cultivation of shrimp, oysters and 
commercially important finfish. Some of the 
problems to be studied are : 

1. Control of fish which are not predatory, 
but do utilize supplemental feed. 

2. Control of predatory fishes. 

3. Harvesting methods. 

4. Spawning techniques. 

5. Control of parasites and diseases. 

6. Supplemental feeding. 

7. Stocking rates. 

Pond Studies on Oysters and Mullet 

To enhance the economic feasibility of pond 
culture of marine species, a pilot program for the 
rearing of species compatible with shrimp was 
begun in the spring of 1967. Species selected for 
the study were the American oyster and striped 
mullet. A major factor in the selection of these 
species was the fact that they are non-predatory. 
Other factors considered were compatability, eco- 
nomic importance, food requirements and/or 
availability. 

Long range purposes of the study are : 

1. Determine the optimum number of each 
species required for a maximum yield. 

2. Determine a satisfactory, economical feed 
which can be utilized by all species and the 
amount required for maximum production. 

3. Determine the optimum environmental con- 
ditions required for maximum production. 

Stockings of oysters and mullet into five, 1/4 



Table 1 
1967 POND STUDIES 



Povd: A-7 

Number of shrimp stocked per Vi acre 

pond 5,000 

Number of days in experiment 80 

Percentage of shrimp weight fed daily . . 10 
Number of shrimp removed at end of ex- 
periment 4,803 

Count per pound 50 

Per cent mortality 4 

Pounds of shrimp stocked per acre .... 37.6 

Pounds of shrimp removed per acre .... 381 

Pounds of cornmeal fed per acre 2,296 

Conversion factor (C) 6.7 





Brown Sh rimp 






Win 


l ,e Shrimp 


A-6 


A-5 


A-U 


AS 


A-7 


A-6 


5,000 


5,000 


5,000 


5,000 


5,000 


5,000 


80 


80 


80 


80 


49 


80 


5 


10 


5 





10 


5 


4,393 


3,865 


2,778 


1,540 





4,525 


46 


45 


47 


97 


44 


44 


12 


23 


44 


70 


10 


(Est.) 9.5 


70.8 


68.4 


93.6 


117.2 


94 


109.7 


379 


341 


234 


63.2 


412 


(Est.) 415 


1,264 


2,640 


1,360 





1,406 


1,509 


4.1 


9.7 


9.0 





4.4 


5.0 



182 



acre shrimp ponds, was initiated in April 1967 
at the rate of 40,000, 2 year old oysters and 4,000, 
1 inch mullet per acre. However, we were unable 
to catch a sufficient number of mullet and it was 
necessary to lower their stocking rate to 2,500 
per acre. 

Of the five ponds stocked, four were fed a daily 
ration of finely ground cornmeal on a basis of 
5% or 10% of the body weight of the shrimp; 
the fifth pond was used as a control and received 
no cornmeal. The shrimp population was sampled 
weekly and the feeding ration adjusted accord- 
ingly. For a more detailed description of this 
phase of the study see the section on pond shrimp 
studies. 

Water was supplied to the ponds from Bara- 
taria Bay with a 6 in. pump. Water depth in the 
ponds averaged 2 ft. Additional water was added 
to the ponds once each week to offset losses due 
to seepage and evaporation. Temperature and 
salinity were measured by the use of a continuous 
recording instrument. 

Oysters were placed on the dry pond bottom at 
a density of approximately one per square foot. 
This method required considerable hand labor and 
resulted in the oysters being exposed to direct 
sunlight at high temperatures for a considerable 
time before being covered with water. 

It is believed that this method of stocking con- 
tributed heavily to the death of nearly 3,500 of 
the oysters. Death was evident immediately after 
stocking. These oysters were removed and re- 
placed with live stock. 

The stocked oysters spawned in late April or 
early May. A heavy set of young spat was caught 
on the adult shells and that part of the pond wall 
below the water line. This heavy catch of spat 
raised the number of oysters per acre from 40,000 
to an estimated 958,000. 

Mullet were removed from the ponds in July 
after 80 days of feeding. All appeared to be in 
excellent condition. Data collected from the re- 
covered mullet revealed the following: Moi'tality 
in the control pond was 35%; ponds fed at the 
5% rate was 28% and in the ponds fed at 10%, 
it was 21 % . The mullet grew from an average 
length of 1 in. at stocking to 4-1 3 in. in the con- 
trol pond, 4-3/4 in. in the 5% ponds and 5-14 in. 
in the 10 % ponds. Average weight gain per mullet 
was 14.72 gms in the control pond, 22.01 gms in 
the 5% ponds and 25.54 gms in the 10% ponds. 

The present oyster study in the shrimp ponds 
will continue to mid-1968. These results will be 
in the next biennial report. Additional studies 
are being planned to : 

1. Investigate the possibility of controlling the 
time and place of set of oyster spat. 

2. Investigate the possibility of early season 
fattening of oysters by supplemental feed- 
ing, temperature and light control. 



3. Initiate laboratory controlled spawning of 
oysters. 

4. Develop a satisfactory method of monitoring 
oyster spawning and spat mortality. 

The study on pond rearing of mullet will be 
repeated next year with the fish held in the 
ponds for a longer period of time. Brood stock 
are being over-wintered in the ponds this year. 
They should furnish an adequate supply of young 
mullet for next year's study. The study will also 
be expanded to include other species of salt water 
fishes. 

SERVICES TO THE OYSTERMEN 

Damaged oyster leases are examined by Lou- 
isiana Wild Life and Fisheries Commission per- 
sonnel at no cost to the oystermen as an extension 
service to the oyster industry. 

During 1966-67, Commission personnel ex- 
amined 29 oyster leases, totaling 1,494 acres, for 
reported damages. A summary of these exam- 
inations is given in Table 2. A comparison 
of the 1966-67 period with 1964-65 reveals a 
marked decrease in the number of complaints re- 
ceived from oystermen. It is hoped that this re- 
duction is due to a sense of awareness of the 
importance and value of the oyster industry in 
Louisiana and that the downward trend will con- 
tinue. 



Table 2 



Complaints 



1964-65 1966-67 

Type of damage No. % No. 

Seismic operations 7 12.73 

Silting & dredging 19 34.54 7 

Oily taste in Oysters (Pollution) .13 23.64 

Ecological changes 3 5.45 1 

Exam, prior to industrial activity 1 1.82 5 

Tug & Barge damage 7 12.73 4 

No damage found 4 7.27 3 

Unknown causes _1 1-82 _0 

55 100.00 20 



% 

00.00 

35.00 

0.00 

5.00 

25.00 

20.00 

15.00 

0.00 

100.00 



OYSTER STUDIES 

Oysters are a big business in Louisiana. Louisi- 
ana's coastal marshland is one of the largest oys- 
ter producing areas in the world. About 20 % of 
the oysters marketed in the U.S. are produced in 
Louisiana. However, if we are to maintain and 
improve our position in the world market we must 
have an aggressive and effective research pro- 
gram designed to solve the many problems facing 
the industry. 

During the past 40 years, oyster production in 
the U.S. has dropped 50 % and per capita con- 
sumption has fallen from 1.03 lbs. per person to 
0.28 lbs. It seems evident that there is a large 



183 




Marine Laboratory personnel counting and placing 
oysters in culture pond for growth and longevity ex- 
periments. 

untouched market available if the producer can 
increase production and lower unit costs. 

Louisiana's present methods of production re- 
quire a considerable amount of hand labor which 
is time consuming and expensive. We need im- 
proved methods of handling and harvesting which 
will reduce production costs. At present our oys- 
ters do not generally become prime marketable 
stock for the sack oyster trade early enough to 
meet the peak demand. We need a method of pro- 
ducing a quality oyster which can be placed on 
the market earlier in the season. Additionally, we 
need methods of controlling predators and dis- 
eases, a system of predicting spatfall and mor- 
tality, and improved seed stock. A research pro- 
gram which will provide us with an increased 
knowledge of the ecological factors which affect 
oyster growth and productivity is essential. 

Of course the answers to these and the many 
other problems facing the industry will not be 
found overnight. However, the Commission has 
in progress a study program designed to supply 
some of the answers. Listed below are some of the 
studies which will be initiated at the Marine Lab- 




Oysters that caught on the vertical asbestos sheeting 
which forms the sides of the research ponds. 



oratory in the immediate future or are underway 
at the present time : 

1. Spat Collectors 

Design and evaluate spat collectors of var- 
ious types to perfect a cultch which will 
effectively catch spat for off-bottom oyster 
culture. 

2. Feeding and Fattening 

Controlled temperature experiments with 
various feeds to fatten oysters for early 
season market. 

3. Oyster Marking-Tagging 

Devise a usable method of marking or tag- 
ging oysters used in research. 

4. Spawning (Laboratory Controlled) 
Evaluate and select a method for spawning 
oysters in the laboratory. 

5. Monitoring of Oyster Spat Set (Natural 

Spawning) 
Design and evaluate grid plates for morn- 
ing oyster spawning. 

6. Spat Mortality (Natural Spawning) 

A companion study to #5 above. Same grid 
plates to be used and monitoring continued 
for mortality rate. 

7. Polystream Barrier 

Test bands of various widths of polystream 
around bedding grounds as a barrier to oys- 
ter drill invasion. 



MENHADEN STUDY 

Menhaden support the largest commercial fish- 
ery in North America. In terms of monetary 
value, the largescale menhaden, is the most valu- 
able fish in the Gulf of Mexico. In 1965, the men- 
haden catch exceeded 1.02 billion pounds. Lou- 
isiana's menhaden catch comprised about 67% 
of this total. Menhaden also provide food for 
many species of estuarine and marine fisheries. 

A preliminary study of largescale menhaden in 
Barataria Bay has been initiated. Emphasis will 
be placed on the evaluation of various sampling 
gear and techniques. 

Sampling gear presently under consideration 
include: surface trawls, surface push-trawls, 
variable mesh size gill nets, brail nets, plankton 
nets, seines and fish traps. The use of low flying 
aircraft to locate schools of young menhaden will 
be evaluated. 

After satisfactory sampling techniques have 
been determined, a study of the menhaden popula- 
tion in Barataria Bay will be initiated. Emphasis 
will be placed on age and size class composition 
of the menhaden population. From information 
gathered in earlier studies, it appears that early 
stages of the life history of menhaden are the 
most critical. Young menhaden spend most of 
their lives in estuaries and it is believed that 



184 



population trends can be predicted from data ac- 
cumulated from estuarine sampling. 

Other aspects of menhaden biology will also be 
investigated. These include: life history, move- 
ments, food habits, predation and parasites and 
disease. 

PLANKTON PRODUCTION STUDY 

Passively drifting microorganisms, plankton, 
represent the basic energy source in marine en- 
vironments. All other forms of life must obtain 
their energy requirements, directly or indirectly 
from plankton. Commercially important finfish, 
shellfish, larval shrimp and crabs feed directly 
upon plankton. Industrial fish and shellfish de- 
pend on organisms that feed on plankton. The 
seasonal production and fluctuations of plankton, 
therefore, determine the magnitude of annual 
fisheries, thus l'eflecting upon the economy of the 
fish and shellfish industry. 

Coastal and inshore waters of Louisiana are 
some of the world's most productive areas. Our 
knowledge of production is, however, largely de- 
rived from the landings of fish and shellfish. 

There is a basic need to study the plankton pro- 
duction in the estuarine areas of Louisiana which 
are used as nursery grounds by many species of 
fish and shellfish of sport and commercial signi- 
ficance. The young of these estuarine dependent 
species eventually join the adult catchable popu- 
lations, thus the magnitude of the fishery is de- 
termined by the success of the young in the 
nursery. 

A program has been designed to study the sea- 
sonal changes in the nutritional components of 
standing plankton biomass in Barataria Bay and 
its adjacent waters. The recent approach in 
plankton production studies; estimation of es- 
sential nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates 
and lipids rather than primary photosynthetic 
productivity, will be followed in the analyses. 

Sampling stations have been established in 
Barataria Bay, Caminada Bay, Bay Macoin and 
in Bayou Ferblanc. These represent the typical 
high salinity and brackish water environments. 
Since water masses carry their inherent prop- 
erties, variations in plankton biomass should re- 
flect the differential growth conditions in plank- 
ton in these areas. Plankton production studies 
should provide the basic information to under- 
stand the differential fertility of these areas and 
also should help interpret and predict yields of 
the annual fisheries. 

COOPERATIVE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM 

This program initiated in 1960, has continued 
to increase in popularity during the past bi- 
ennium. A full schedule of University, College, 
High School and Civic groups were given lectures, 



tours and field trips during 1966 and 1967. Due 
to the intensive shrimp and estuarine inventory 
study of Louisiana's Coast and the attendant 
work load on the technical staff, visits were re- 
stricted from March 1 to April 15 of each year. 
The educational program may be categorized as 
follows : 

1. Visiting professional researchers who are 
furnished working space and equipment in 
order to carry out independent research. 

2. Visiting University and College science 
classes actively working in marine biology 
or geology. Such groups are generally under 
the direction of their professors and the 
laboratory furnishes guided field collecting 
trips, lectures, visual education and demon- 
strations of current research or local ani- 
mals. Such trips are short term, one or two 
day events. 

3. Visits from High School science classes and 
science clubs. These, like University classes 
are under the direction of their teachers. 
Laboratory personnel furnish the same pro- 
gram for High School groups as for Uni- 
versity classes except the detail and com- 
plexity of the information offered is 
adjusted to the age level and experience of 
the group. In all cases, preference is given 
those High School classes whose teacher has 
previously attended an organized short 
course in marine biology at this or other 
laboratories. 

4. Visiting Civic groups. These groups, unless 
they have a special interest, are given lec- 
tures on Commission work along the Lou- 
isiana Coast and a tour of the Laboratory 
facilities. 

SUMMER STUDENT PROGRAM 

For the past several years the Louisiana Wild 
Life and Fisheries Commission has employed col- 
lege students to work during the summer at the 
Marine Laboratory. The best qualified students 
were selected from many applicants and, as in 
the past, were assigned to help with established 
Commission projects and to perform other tasks 
as needed. However, in the summer of 1967 spe- 
cific projects were assigned to each student. The 
following are summaries of their work. 

Water Analysis of Culture Ponds 

A study of the plankton productivity in five 
experimental ponds at the Marine Laboratory was 
conducted from June 26 through August 10, 1967. 
The study was conducted on experimental ponds 
3, 4, 5, 6 and 7. Measurements of the following 
factors were determined : Salinities and tempera- 
tures, turbidities, carbon, plankton counts, sus- 
pended matter-dry weights, oxygen and photo- 
synthesis. 



185 



The range of water temperatures was 26.6° to 
30.7°C. The average temperature for all five 
ponds throughout the study period was approxi- 
mately 29.0 C. Temperature differences for any 
two ponds on a given date were less than 1°C. 

Salinities in the ponds ranged from 19.5 ppt. 
to 30.7 ppt. The average salinity for all ponds 
throughout the study was approximately 25 ppt. 
A continued rise in salinities was noted as summer 
progressed. 

Methods of analysis for measuring turbidities, 
carbon, plankton counts, suspended matter-dry 
weights, oxygen and photosynthesis were estab- 
lished. Emphasis was placed primarily on methods 
of analysis since the time period involved was 
considered to be too brief for any really valid 
evaluations of plankton productivity. 

In general, turbidity, suspended matter-dry 
weights, oxygen and photosynthesis measure- 
ments indicated that ponds 5 and 7 were the most 
productive, ponds 4 and 6 were intermediate in 
production, and pond 3 was the least productive. 

While the study was being conducted, ponds 5 
and 7 were being fed finely ground cornmeal at 
a rate of 10% of the total weight of the shrimp in 
the ponds. Ponds 4 and 6 were being fed at a rate 
of 5 c /c, while pond 3 was the control and received 
no feed. These facts agree with the results of the 
study on plankton productivity since feeding 
would be expected to increase productivity of 
plankton, lower oxygen concentration and in- 
crease photosynthesis. 



Comparison of Otter Trawl Catches 

From The Northern And Southern 

Parts of Barataria Bay 

Barataria Bay, because of its length, exhibits 
a wide range salinity gradient from its contact 
with the Gulf of Mexico on the south to its merger 
with marsh areas on the north. Salinity at the 
southern end of the bay reaches 30 ppt at times 
and ranges to ppt in its northern extremities. 
As some fish prefer certain salinities over others, 
distribution of fishes is somewhat influenced by 
the salinity of the water. 

A short study was made of the abundance of 
certain marine species present in the northern 
and southern areas of Barataria Bay. Data from 
which the study was made was collected from 
February, 1966, through January, 1967, with 6 
and 16 ft. trawls. 

There were 33 different species collected in the 
study; however, only 8 were considered for com- 
parison purposes. 

During the study period, the surface salinity of 
Barataria Bay varied from 5.3 ppt in July to 13.9 
ppt in October for the north and from 15.3 ppt 
in March to 25.8 ppt in August for the south. 



As would be expected, the salinities were con- 
sistantly higher in the south. 

The water surface temperature of Barataria 
Bay during the same period varied from 5.3°C. 
in February to 30.0°C. in July for the north and 
from 10.5°C. in December to 30.4°C. in August 
for the southern part of Barataria Bay. 

The general trend in estuaries is to have a 
greater number of different species in the south 
with a greater number of individuals occurring in 
the north. The trend appears to be partially true 
for Barataria Bay in that more specimens were 
caught in the north than the south. 

It has been suggested that food is a prime fac- 
tor affecting marine species movement. Certain 
species and larval fish require certain basic foods 
that are more abundant in the upper reaches of 
the bay. 

However, contrary to expectations on species 
occurrence, there were three more species caught 
in the north than in the south. This is not evi- 
dence in itself that Barataria Bay is different 
than any other estuary, but merely that more 
study needs to be done along these lines. 

Water Bottom Mapping and 
Shear Meter Tests 

The water depths of lower Barataria Bay were 
measured with a recording fathometer and plotted 
on maps. Changes were noted between the mea- 
sured depths and those on the latest navigational 
charts. These changes were quite significant over 
most of lower Barataria Bay. 

Some preliminary work was done in testing of 
a shear meter to determine the feasibility of using 
this instrument for insitu-measurements of the 
"softness" or "plasticity" of unlithified, marine 
sediments. From the limited data obtained, the 
shear meter readings can be useful in comparing 
the relative "softness" of water bottoms. 



The Use of Several Toxicants in the 

Control of Predator Competitor Fishes 

in Shrimp-Oyster Ponds 

The purpose of the study was to evaluate sev- 
eral poisons for the control of predator-competitor 
fishes in shrimp-oyster ponds. In addition, it was 
hoped that one of the poisons would prove ef- 
fective against oyster drill snails without ad- 
versely affecting shrimp and oysters. The poisons 
tested included : Fisher Saponin, Fintrol-5 and 
Polystream. Fisher Saponin and Fintrol-5 are fish 
toxicants, while Polystream is marketed as an 
oyster drill snail toxicant. 

The effects of these poisons were tested on four 
types of organisms. These were: oysters, oyster 



186 



drill snails, sheepshead minnows, and brown 
shrimp. Group tests were conducted in 40 liter 
aquaria, individual tests in gallon jars, and large 
scale test using Fintrol-5 was conducted in a small 
pond. All toxicity tests followed the procedure 
outlined in "Standard Methods for the Exami- 
nation of Water and Waste Water Including Bot- 
tom Sediments and Sludges." 

The results of the test indicated that the con- 
centration of Saponin necessary to kill the fish 
had no apparent effect on brown shrimp or oys- 
ters. However, the cost of Saponin makes it im- 
practical on a large scale. Polystream was found 
to kill 100% of all organisms tested even when 
used at lower concentrations than recommended 
by the manufacturer. Fintrol-5 was the most 
promising poison tested. The results of the pond 
test indicated that Fintrol-5 could be used to 
eliminate large fish populations without causing 
significant shrimp mortality. It was also found 
that Fintrol-5 could be used at very high con- 
centrations without adversely affecting oysters. 

The Use of Fintrol-5 in Controlling 

Predator-Competitor Fishes in 

Shrimp-Oyster Ponds 

The purpose of the study was to determine if 
Fintrol-5 could be used effectively to remove 
predator-competitor fishes from shrimp-oyster 
ponds. 

The organisms used in the study were: brown 
shrimp, white shrimp, sheepshead minnows, oys- 
ters, and the oyster drill snail. After initial test- 
ing in the laboratory, partial testing was done in 
a 1/2 acre pond and finally in two 1/4 acre 
shrimp-oyster ponds. One of the 1/4 acre ponds 
was stocked with oysters and was heavily infested 
with sheepshead minnows. The other pond was 
stocked with white shrimp and oysters, and was 
also heavily infested with sheepshead minnows. 
In all outdoor tests, a concentration of 5 parts 
per billion of Fintrol was used. 

The results of the study indicated that Fintrol- 
5 is very effective in removing one competitor 
fish species from shrimp-oyster ponds without 
directly affecting the shrimp or oysters. The re- 
sults also indicated that Fintrol-5 would not serve 
as a practical oyster drill snail control. 

Anerobic conditions occurred in one pond after 
about two weeks. Studies should be made on the 
effect of Fintrol on planktonic organisms in an 
effort to see if the anaerobic condition was caused 
by this type of fish toxicant. Also, there appears 
to be a narrow limit between concentrations lethal 
to shrimp in 48 hours and safe concentrations 
which will eradicate all sheepshead minnows 
present. This should also be investigated more 
fully. 



Coastal Waste Control 

The purpose of the Coastal Waste Control pro- 
gram is to prevent the pollution of the coastal 
waters and marshes. By legislative act, the en- 
forcement of Coastal Waste Control was conveyed 
to the Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Com- 
mission by the Louisiana Stream Control Com- 
mission. 

The primary purpose of this program is the en- 
forcement of Stream Control Commission regu- 
lations and pollution laws of this State in the 
coastal area. Much of the function of this section 
is involved in supervising waste disposal of the 
vast oil, gas and sulphur industrial complex as- 
sociated with Louisiana's coast. Though the value 
of this great mineral industry makes it of prime 
economic importance, it is necessary not to lose 
sight of the value and need for the protection 
of a $100,000,000.00 seafood industry using the 
same area. Enforcement is deemed necessary by 
the Commission because of the high productivity 
of both minerals and fishery products; every 
reasonable effort must be made to allow each in- 
dustry to operate in the same area without serious 
conflict. 

Routine surveillances are carried out by two 
inspectors and two boat captains with fully 
equipped patrol boats on a year-round patrol of 
the S. E. coastal area from S. W. of Houma to 
the Mississippi State Line. These patrols also 
include an area extending 3 miles offshore. While 
on routine patrol, constant radio communication 
makes it possible to handle emergency pollution 
complaints. 

ROUTINE PATROL 

1. Contacts are made with the oil company 
field representative and they are requested 
to accompany us on the inspection of the 
fields. 

2. The inspection group then proceeds to each 
tank battery which is carefully inspected 
for oil spillage resulting from bleedwater 
discharge, waste pit discharges and general 
requirements of the regulations. It is now 
known that the most feasible and positive 
disposal of oil field waste is by means of 
an adequate burning pit with a continuous 
burning pilot flare; excepted are disposal 
wells. All drilling and workover rigs are 
checked for loss of oil and any other viola- 
tion. While enroute in the field any oil slick 
encountered is traced to the source where 
immediate correction of the problem is di- 
rected by the enforcing officers. 

3. Photos are taken of all major violations and, 
when necessary, samples are also obtained. 
This information becomes a permanent rec- 



187 



ord of the Louisiana Wild Life and Fish- 
eries Commission and the Louisiana Stream 
Control Commission. Any samples taken are 
processed in the Baton Rouge laboratory for 
technical analysis. 

4. Four copies of the oil field reports are made. 
These are signed by the inspector and the 
company field representative. The field rep- 
resentative is given the first copy to be 
forwarded to his district office. The original 
report is filed as a permanent record in the 
New Orleans office. The second carbon is 
sent to Baton Rouge with attached photos 
and sample analysis. The third copy is kept 
aboard each patrol boat for future reference 
when rechecking corrections on previous 
violations. 

5. While enroute from field to field, all oil 
tows encountered are checked for oil losses, 
which may occur from leaks, manifold open- 
ings and loading pumps. 

G. Extra duties performed by this section in- 
clude : 

a. Assisting the biological section in 
making oyster damage reports by 
transporting equipment and personnel 
to the damaged site and assisting in 
the taking of samples, i.e., mud, oys- 
ters, water, salinity, etc. 

b. Check or inspect various dredging ac- 
tivities performed in Lakes Pontchar- 
train and Maurepas. 

(1) Interview both commercial and 
sports fishermen to determine 
their interests with regard to 
dredging activities. 

(2) Check the dredging activities 
with the dredge operator to de- 
termine whether or not this 
work is complying with regula- 
tions established by the Wild 
Life and Fisheries Commission. 

(3) Submit detail reports concern- 
ing dredging activities and 
their effects on sports and or 
commercial fisheries. 

(4) Take samples of water bottoms 
to determine extent and com- 
position of shell deposits and 
their value as a usable resource. 

7. The C. W. C. officers often use Commission 
aircraft for patrolling the heavily indus- 
trialized areas where pollution has been 
reported. 

8. Maintenance of Marine Equipment. 

a. Both patrol boats are maintained in 
first class condition at all times in 
order to be ready to handle all com- 
plaints. 




Patrol boat approaching oil tow underway with in- 
spector preparing to board the barge. 

b. It is the duty of the boat captains and 

inspectors to make minor repairs such i 

as changing oil filters on engines, I 

spark plugs, points, condensors, coils, I 




Inspector pointing out flow line leak to company 
representative. Immediate temporary repairs or cor- 
rections are mandatory. 



188 



wheels and shafts. All major repairs 
such as engine change, rework hull 
and paint work are done at the Com- 
mission's West End Wharf. 
Extra details performed in cooperation with 
other divisions and departments require ad- 
ditional equipment and personnel to keep 
pace with the increased demands on this 
section. One of the more demanding addi- 
tional duties is aiding cooperating agencies 
in the sampling for pesticidal or bacterial 
pollution. It has become necessary to co- 
operate with the U. S. Public Health Ser- 
vice and the State Board of Health in secur- 
ing samples and making various tests over 
a vast area of the coastal parishes of this 
State. This is done to determine the location 



and extent of pollution arising from insecti- 
cides and industrial wastes. This new and 
additional work load strongly points to the 
need for additional crews and patrol boats 
in order to keep abreast of expanding work 
requirements. 
In conclusion, this Commission is pleased to 
acknowledge the increasing awareness, interest 
and assistance on the part of local and parish 
civic and official groups. Even so, a greater re- 
sponse is required if we hope to keep abreast of 
the developing and expanding industrialization 
occurring in this area. Therefore, this Commission 
will continue to cooperate with all groups seeking 
the control of industrial and related pollution of 
these nursery grounds, so rich in renewable na- 
tural resources. 



189 



Refuge 
Division 



Refuge Division activities have been varied 
during- the past two years but have been pri- 
marily directed toward further improve- 
ment and development of the 250,000 acre coastal 

marsh areas. 

The State Wildlife, Rockefeller and Marsh Is- 
land areas were received through gifts of do- 
nations which contain rigid terms and conditions 
under which the areas are to be perpetuated. The 
St. Tammany Refuge is a portion of an original 
purchase of property from the Great Southern 
Lumber Company made by the State during the 
mid-1930's. The Pass-a-Loutre Waterfowl Man- 
agement Area was set aside by an Act of the 
Legislature in 1921 and the Coulee Refuge, the 
only inland refuge of the Division, is a privately- 
owned area near Monroe and is leased to the 
Commission. 

All of the areas, except Coulee, are located 
along the coast and are subjected to storm tides. 
However, during the past two years we have been 
fortunate in not receiving any damages from hur- 
ricanes in Louisiana. Most of the damages result- 
ing from Hurricanes Hilda and Betsy have been 
repaired which permitted our work programs on 
the refuges to be directed toward routine main- 
tenance as well as development and research. Be- 
cause of the close proximity of the areas to the 
Gulf, salt air causes rapid deterioration of equip- 
ment and requires a very extensive maintenance 
program. These state-owned lands are extremely 
important to the State of Louisiana not only from 
a financial standpoint through their mineral in- 
come, but they also provide areas on which in- 
tensive research work can be carried out un- 
disturbed and uninterrupted. The information 
gained from research activities can be applied on 
the refuges and various marsh development pro- 
grams tested. Information gained from the re- 
search and development work is made available 
to private landowners not only in the State but 
throughout the United States and foreign coun- 
tries. 

Louisiana was one of the first states in this 
country to recognize the need for waterfowl ref- 
uges and the State Wildlife Refuge, established 
in 1911, is one of the oldest refuges in North 
America. The purpose for which these areas was 
originally established has not changed, but ac- 
tually has become more important in recent years 
as more and more hunting pressure is applied to 
migratory waterfowl. Many detrimental changes 
have occurred to privately-owned lands which 
were once available to wintering waterfowl thus 




ALLAN ENSMINGER 

Chief 

causing the refuge areas to be even more im- 
portant. 

Several million ducks winter in the Louisiana 
marshes, and approximately three-fourths of a 
million ducks and approximately 125,000 blue and 
snow geese use the refuge areas as wintering 
grounds. Also, thousands of additional ducks 
utilize the refuges in their migrations to and from 
wintering grounds in Central and South America. 

In addition to the importance of the refuges as 
wintering areas for ducks and geese, these areas 
along with the large federally-owned waterfowl 
refuges in Louisiana, are the last remaining areas 
where concentrations of alligators can be found. 
This important species of wildlife has been placed 
on the list of endangered species by U. S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, and strong federal and state 
legislation is needed to protect and properly man- 
age the remaining population. In spite of the 
present Louisiana laws dealing with alligators, 
and the closed season set by the Louisiana Wild 
Life and Fisheries Commission, an illegal traffic 
in alligator skins exists with prices up to $6.00 
per lineal foot being paid for prime alligator 
hides. It is felt by responsible, research tech- 
nicians that a limited harvest of quality alligator 
skins could be carried on in Louisiana if the 
proper legislation was enacted. During recent 
years considerable interest has been exhibited by 
various Louisiana marsh landowners in alligator 
farming as an added income from their properties 
and research activities on the refuges have been 
initiated to analyse the multitude of problems 
which a marsh manager would encounter in such 
an operation. 

A collaborated program of varied research 
projects has been initiated by the Division through 
the Cooperative Wildlife and Fisheries Units at 
Louisiana State University. This is an ideal ar- 
rangement for the Commission as it provides 
competent research personnel to conduct many 



190 



small detailed investigations concurrent with our 
other programs and gain quick answers to com- 
plex problems encountered in marsh management 
work. Assistance is provided the Units in the 
form of a cash grant and field equipment such as 
marshbuggies and boats as well as housing on 
the refuges is made available to the research per- 
sonnel. Technical personnel of the Refuge Di- 
vision provide administrative assistance and tech- 
nical advice on many of the research projects. 

Two separate and distinct development ap- 
proaches have been used on the refuges. Im- 
poundments have been constructed in marshes 
where soil conditions will support levees and low 
level weirs have been constructed in major drain- 
age outlets in marshes where impoundments are 
not practical. 

On the Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge an extensive 
system of impoundments has been constructed and 
gives optimum control over water conditions. Un- 
stable water conditions are not conducive to the 
production of desirable waterfowl food plants. 
Research information has indicated that while im- 
poundments may be very productive in certain 
years during other years when weather condi- 
tions, such as drouth and excessive rainfall occurs, 
virtually no food plants are produced. This situa- 
tion can be corrected only through more intensive 
management of water levels. A contract has 
recently been completed for the installation of 
stop-log structures in three of the impoundments. 
These structures will permit a rapid drainage of 
the impoundments during low tide stages in the 
Gulf of Mexico. On three other impoundments 
large, double divergent pumping units are pres- 
ently being installed. When completed, these units 
will provide our marsh managers with the capabil- 
ity of dewatering the areas at the proper season 
of the year and reflooding or irrigating when 
needed. During drouth years these pumps can be 
used to maintain water levels in specific im- 
poundments to encourage production of aquatic 
plants. Many wintering waterfowl prefer aquatics 
over seed in their diet and, under natural condi- 
tions, usually both aquatics and emergent seed 



producing plants are not produced in the marshes 
each year. It is anticipated that the pumps will 
be completed during May 1968 and should make it 
possible to utilize them during this year's grow- 
ing season to produce plants such as millet and 
fall panicum. 

In addition to the impoundments on Rockefeller, 
several low level weirs have been installed in 
drainage outlets near the Gulf. These structures 
are similar to the ones located on Marsh Island 
and State Wildlife Refuges. These structures were 
installed by Refuge personnel and the crest set 
at an elevation of six inches below marsh level. 
This prohibits flooding of the marshes back of 
the structures but still permits a stable water 
stage during low tides. This work is primarily 
aimed at the establishment and maintenance of 
three-cornered grass and leafy three-square in the 
marshes and aquatics, such as widgeon grass and 
southern Naides, in the ponds and bayous. Three- 
cornered grasses are preferred food plants of blue 
and snow geese as well as muskrat and nutria. 
During the past two years, the refuges have con- 
tinued to winter a large percentage of the total 
blue and snow geese in the Mississippi Flyway. 
Salinities and the amount of turbidity in the wa- 
ter are also controlled to a certain degree back 
of the structures and thus ideal conditions are 
created for many forms of marine life. 

On Marsh Island and State Wildlife Refuges 
soil conditions are not suitable for construction 
and long term establishment of levees so the man- 
agement of these areas has been directed primarily 
along lines using low level weirs. Approximately 
three-fourths of the total Marsh Island area 
has been put under management through this sys- 
tem and one 9,000 acre impoundment was com- 
pleted during the mid-1950's. The levee around 
this impoundment was repaired following Hur- 
ricane Hilda and an oil company road servicing 
producing wells inside the area has been con- 
structed on a portion of the levee. 

On the Pass-a-Loutre Waterfowl Management 
Area located at the end of the Mississippi River 
in Plaquemines Parish annual deposits of fertile 




Several new water control structures have been installed on the Rockefeller Refuge. Pictured above is one 
of the recently completed stop log structures on the Refuge. 



191 



soil during each high river stage takes care of 
most of the management problems. This silt is 
deposited along the Pass banks and creates ideal 
conditions for the production of desirable water- 
fowl food plants. 

The lease has been renewed on the Coulee Wild- 
life Refuge in Morehouse Parish, and this area 
has continued to provide a resting site for ap- 
proximately 30,000 ducks each winter. Birds using 
this area move out into hunting areas each day 
and supply waterfowl hunters a source of ducks 
throughout the hunting season. 

Many people feel that the only purpose of a ref- 
uge is to prevent killing of game animals. This is 
an archaic concept and the real purpose and need 
of refuges is to regulate kills and provide needed 
recreation in the form of hunting on adjacent 
lands. Waterfowl are capable of sustaining their 
population. However, they must be provided with 
areas to which they can retreat if excessive hunt- 
ing occurs. 

A active trapping program has been carried 
out on all of the coastal refuges during the past 
two years in order to maintain the population of 
fur bearers at a low enough level so as not to 
cause damage to the marsh habitat. There has 
been a noticeable increase in the muskrat popula- 
tion on State Wildlife and Rockefeller Refuges. 
However, low fur prices have curtailed trapping 
activities to some extent. 

An active burning program is carried out on 
Rockefeller, State Wildlife and Marsh Island 
Refuges in order to maintain sub-climate plant 
communities which are most desirable for water- 
fowl as well as fur bearing animals. Other types 
of control of undesirable marsh plants are being 
investigated. At the present time, however, the 
scientific use of fire is the only practical means 
by which large acreages can be managed. 

The most important problem regarding land 
management which has faced this Division within 
the past two years has continued to be additional 
development of mineral activities on the refuges. 
A major portion of Pass-a-Loutre, Marsh Island 
and Rockefeller is under existing leases for the 
exploration of minerals. These leases were issued 
by the State Mineral Board in conjunction with 
the Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Commis- 
sion. In the more recent leases rigid regulations 
were incorporated which require mineral opera- 
tors to carry on their activities in such a manner 
so as to cause the least amount of damage to the 
wildlife habitat. 

Mineral development on Rockefeller in recent 
years has been carried out through the construc- 
tion of roads by the mineral operators to reach 
drilling sites. Where this is practical, it is the 
least detrimental to the marshes and actually has 
been beneficial by permitting additional manage- 
ment possibilities in the form of water manipula- 




The marsh burning program usually begins on 
Marsh Island in early fall and continues until 
February depending upon weather conditions. These 
burnings encourage desirable waterfowl food plants. 

tions and also provides access for Commission 
personnel in their management and research 
work. Roads are constructed on top of existing 
levees in instances where they are available, and 
new levees are constructed from alternately stag- 
gered borrow pits in other areas. These borrow 
pits have proved attractive to waterfowl and al- 
ligators especially during summer months. 

On Marsh Island one extensive road system has 
been constructed along the top of the impound- 
ment levee and out into the interior of the im- 
poundment to service two existing wells. On the 
remainder of the island mineral development has 
been through the excavation of floatation canals 
to reach the drilling sites. Every effort has been 
made to require the oil companies to utilize the 
existing waterways to reach these drilling sites 
in order to cause a minimum of damage to the 
marshes. 

Pollution on Marsh Island and Rockefeller is 
not a serious problem because the mineral develop- 
ment is fairly recent and extra precautions are 
exercised by the operators in their activities. 

On the Pass-a-Loutre Waterfowl Management 
Area one of the leases is quite old and many of 
the production flow-lines have deteriorated to the 
point where frequent breaks occur. These breaks 
are attended to promptly by the operators; how- 
ever, each break permits some oil to be spilled 
into the marshes and accumulation causes plants 
to die. The peculiar formation of oil sands on 
Pass-a-Loutre requires the mineral operators to 
dig numerous floatation canals adjacent to each 
other. This not only causes damage to the marsh 
in the form of excavated canals but it drastically 
changes the normal water dispersing pattern 
which is so critical in maintaining the many ponds 



192 



and sub-deltas on this area. Recent leases on 
Pass-a-Loutre require that the mineral operators 
close canals which are not in use or which service 
dry hole locations. 

The coastal refuges of this Division are con- 
sidered the most highly developed waterfowl habi- 
tat in the United States. The importance of these 
areas will increase as the population of this 
country grows in the future. Through an active 
development program, such as that being carried 
out on the areas at the present time, it is antici- 
pated that every acre of these properties will 
eventually be producing a maximum amount of 
desirable conditions for wildlife. This will bene- 
fit not only future populations of wildlife but will 
also provide areas where future generations of 
people can observe wildlife in their natural habi- 
tat and appreciate the efforts being made at this 
time for the perpetuation of such areas. 

The funds received from mineral activities on 
the refuges have provided a source from which 
the Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Commis- 
sion has been able to purchase 95,000 acres of 
quality wildlife habitat in Central and North Lou- 
isiana as well as to carry out the improvement of 
the refuges themselves. Additional income is an- 
ticipated from these areas and it will also be 
used for these purposes. 

Robert H. Chabreck served as Research Leader 
of the Refuge Division until December 1, 1967 
at which time he accepted the position as Assis- 
tant Research Leader of the Cooperative Research 
Unit at Louisiana State University. 



ROCKEFELLER WILDLIFE REFUGE 

NED W. CRAIN 

Refuge Supervisor 

Refuge Patrol and Protection 

The Deed of Donation under which the State of 
Louisiana accepted the Rockefeller Wildlife Ref- 
uge from the Rockefeller Foundation stipulated 
that the refuge was to employ a staff of game 
agents for the purpose of maintaining the area 
as a wildlife refuge. In accepting the property the 
state agreed to staff an adequate number of 
agents necessary for complying with the Deed 
and that the agents would be selected on the basis 
of their qualifications as law enforcement officers. 
In order to comply with this stipulation of the 
contract the Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries 
Commission kept a crew of wardens employed 
on the refuge at all times during the past two- 
year period. These wardens were provided with 
all necessary equipment, lodging and other facil- 
ities necessary to adequately patrol the Rocke- 
feller Wildlife Refuge. In addition to the refuge 
wardens, other personnel on the refuge kept 
watch for violations when traveling about the 
area on other work assignments. Also, Agents of 
the Enforcement Division of the Louisiana Wild 
Life and Fisheries Commission assisted refuge 
wardens in the patrol work as required. 

The summer requires more protection efforts 
on the Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge because of the 
abundance of the alligators and the current value 
of alligator skins on the market. Unless full pro- 



Rockefeller Refuge Head- 
quarters site is located on 
the northwestern bound- 
ary of the refuge along 
with storage sheds, boat 
sheds, office and resi- 
dence for technical per- 
sonnel working on the 
area. 




193 



tection is given this species on the refuge, poach- 
ers will invade the area and take alligators for 
selling on the illegal market. Throughout the sum- 
mer refuge wardens maintained routine patrols 
in order to keep such trespassers off the refuge. 
During the winter alligators are dormant and are 
not susceptible to an illegal kill. However, during 
the spring as the weather warms, the alligators 
come out of dormancy and must be given full 
protection by refuge wardens. 

The sports fishing season extended from March 
1 to October 1, and refuge wardens were required 
to make frequent inspections of boats, and of the 
persons on the refuge to see that they had the 
necessary permits as required. During the winter 
the refuge had a large number of migratory 
waterfowl and refuge wardens maintained fre- 
quent patrols in order to keep hunters from ven- 
turing on to the refuge from private lands ad- 
jacent to the area. 




Ned Crain, Supervisor of Rockefeller Refuge in- 
specting a partially completed levee. 

Lake 6 in 1966 and should be completed during 
1968. A refuge dragline is being used for this 
rebuilding job and operated by refuge personnel. 



Equipment Maintenance 

Because of the number of projects undertaken 
on Rockefeller Refuge and the size of the develop- 
ment program on the area a large number of 
pieces of equipment must be kept on hand. Re- 
gardless of the equipment used, the location plays 
an important part and frequent maintenance is 
required if the equipment is to be kept in good 
working order. In coastal areas such as on the 
refuge, equipment deteriorates much more rapidly 
than other areas and as a result frequent in- 
spections and maintenance are required. 

Most equipment during the past two years was 
maintained by shop facilities on the Rockefeller 
Refuge. The refuge is staffed with maintenance 
personnel and a shop foreman whose duties are 
to perform routine inspection and maintenance 
work of all equipment, such as boats, marsh- 
buggies, miscellaneous engines, tractors, etc. 
Major repair work on equipment is frequently 
done through authorized dealers and the equip- 
ment taken elsewhere for repairs. 

Lake 6 Levee Repair 

The levee surrounding the 13,500 acre Lake 6 
on Rockefeller Refuge was constructed 5 years 
ago. Also, drainage structures have been placed 
in Little Constance Bayou, Big Constance Bayou 
and Dyson Bayou along the south edge of Lake 6. 
The levee begins along the south side of Deep 
Lake and extends eastward to the Cameron- 
Vermilion Parish lines. 

Marsh levees in this area begin shrinking and 
subsiding soon after construction, thus lowering 
the overall height of the levees. Also, decomposi- 
tion of the organic material and erosion cause a 
reduction of the levee height. As a result it is 
necessary to rebuild and reshape the levee after 
original construction. This work was begun on 



Repair Radial Gates 

The ten-foot wide radial gates on Rollover 
Bayou and the Bertram! Canal were installed in 
1956 and after approximately 10 years use under 
highly saline conditions the gates had begun to 
rust through. The Department of Public Works 
had prepared plans and specifications for repair- 
ing the gates, but after advertising for bids on 
two different occasions the prices submitted for 
this work were not acceptable. Consequently, the 
bids were all rejected and plans were made to 
have this work done by refuge personnel and 
equipment. All material was ordered for the job 
from a listing, supplied by the Department of 
Public Works, and the gates were removed from 
the structures and taken to the Rockefeller shop. 
A new covering will be added to the gates and the 
gates will be replaced after this is completed. 

A plug was placed on the north Bertrand Canal, 
thus eliminating the need for a gate at this loca- 
tion. The radial gates were originally designed 
for boat passage and drainage, but since this is 
not necessary at this location plans were made to 
abandon the gates temporarily. A metal culvert 
will be placed in the earthen plug to provide for 
drainage, but the cost of repairing the gates will 
not be taken on at this time. 



Roads and Bridges 

In order to facilitate the maintenance, de- 
velopment and patrol work on Rockefeller Wild- 
life Refuge a road system has been developed 
and requires frequent maintenance. This road 
system also provides valuable access to research 
areas on the refuge and provides a easy means 
of touring the refuge with visitors for the pur- 
pose of viewing the development work and seeing 
wildlife on the refuge. During the period, mainte- 



194 



nance and repair work was done on all refuge 
roads as needed. 

The shelled roadway on the east end of the 
Rockefeller Refuge airstrip was extended 300 
feet to join the levee along the Bertrand Canal. 
Experimental fish ponds are being constructed 
in this area and the shell roadway will provide 
all weather access to the ponds. Also, a plug is 
being placed in the Bertrand Canal at this loca- 
tion and the road will provide access to this site, 
and will also provide additional boat docking 
facilities. 

Grass and weeds were mowed and brush was 
cut along all roads as required during the sum- 
mer and fall. Also, an attempt was made to con- 
trol brush along the Lake 14 road by chemical 
treatment. Sand and shell were added to the 
refuge road system as required. This includes 
the road to Lake 14, the East End Locks, Price 
Lake, refuge airstrip, the animal pens and the 
warehouse. 

Several attempts were made to repair the road 
to Price Lake. The road was constructed by an 
oil company but was abandoned and all mainte- 
nance work was then assumed by the refuge in 
order that access could be maintained to this area. 
However, because of the size of this job plans 
were made to contract rebuilding the road. In 
order to keep the road system on Rockefeller 
Refuge serviceable at all times, a road grader 
was purchased. 

No additional repair was required on the 
bridges on Rockefeller Refuge during the period. 

Wildlife Enclosures 

Approximately two miles of fencing was re- 
placed around the experimental area on Rocke- 
feller Refuge. A two-foot extension was added to 
the original posts in order that higher wire could 
be installed for the purpose of making the fence 
deer-proof. The new fencing consisting of hog 
wire, 6 feet tall, and two strands of barbed wire 
on top of that. Total height of the finished fence 
will be about 7 feet. 

In March, 1967, a fence, one-fourth mile long, 
was constructed along the north side and the east 
of the Rockefeller airstrip for the purpose of con- 
structing a 40-acre pasture. This pasture will be 
used to hold captive Canada Geese and deer and 
was constructed to a height of 7 feet. A wide gate 
was added along the airstrip so that a dragline 
or marshbuggy could be brought into the area 
for necessary repair work. All work on this 
project was done by refuge personnel. 

Alligator holding pens were constructed south- 
east of the West End Camp on Rockefeller Ref- 
uge. The ponds had been constructed several years 
earlier and fencing material was purchased dur- 
ing the spring of 1967. By the end of 1967 all 
fencing had been completed on the south row of 




Waterfowl display pens at the headquarters site are 
viewed by the visiting public. Pens house alligators, 
ducks and geese that are found on the Refuge. 

pens and alligators were placed in the pens for 
the purpose of conducting studies on artificial 
propagation. The new alligator propagation pens 
were constructed with welded wire 7 feet tall. 

Plans and specifications were prepared and a 
contract awarded for constructing additional 
duck, goose and deer holding pens on Rockefeller 
Refuge. The new pens were constructed in the 
same area where the existing animal pens are 
located. The contracts called for constructing 
three additional covered holding pens, plus two 
goose yards, a deer pen and two concrete pools. 
In addition, sidewalks, curbing and watering 
trough were added to the new facility. All phases 
of this work were completed in November, 1967. 



Pumping Units 

Research on Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge over 
the years has shown that practically all types of 
duck food can be grown in the marshes of South- 
west Louisiana by controlling water levels, salin- 
ities and plant competition. For a number of 
years rainfall was adequate and with the drain- 
age facilities installed in the impoundments on 
Rockefeller Refuge an abundance of duck food 
was produced naturally in these areas. A spring 
drying in certain impoundments produced vast 
stands of annual grasses such as ; wild millet, 
springle-top, cyperus, fall panicum, etc. 

Following the years with ideal natural water 
conditions the early 60's brought extreme weather 
conditions that had a large effect on the produc- 
tion of natural duck foods in the impoundments 
on the refuge. The early part of the 60's were 
extremely dry, resulting in low production of 
aquatic vegetation and winters with practically 
no water in the impoundments for migratory wa- 
terfowl. Then the reverse occurred and 1966-67 
were years with extremely heavy rainfall and as 
a result no annual grasses were produced in the 
management units. 

As a result of this plans were made to install 
pumping units in several of the more important 



195 



impoundments so that exact water levels could 
be maintained and control could be gained as 
needed for the production of waterfowl foods and 
for controlling undesirable plants. 

Plans and specifications were prepared by the 
Department of Public Works for pumping units 
in Lake 8, Lake 13 and Lake 14 on Rockefeller 
Refuge. The new pumping units were constructed 
in such a manner that the same unit could be used 
to either drain or fill an impoundment. The con- 
tract was awarded for constructing the pumping 
units in June of 1967. All units should be com- 
pleted and ready for use by the spring of 1969. 

Lake 5 

Lake 5 on Rockefeller Refuge is an impound- 
ment consisting of 5,000 acres of marshland ly- 
ing south of Deep Lake. This impoundment is 
completely surrounded by a salt water system, 
however it now supports one of the most abundant 
stands of three-cornered grass on the refuge. 
Three-cornered grass is a valuable food for blue 
and snow geese as well as for fur bearers. Also, 
the impoundment offers excellent possibilities for 
alligator habitat and by supplying a source of 
freshwater to this impoundment, its productive 
capacity could be greatly increased for wildlife. 

The Department of Public Works prepared 
plans and specifications for a bulkhead across 
the Royalite Canal south of Deep Lake. Bids were 
solicited for this work and a contract awarded to 
the low bidder in June of 1967. In order to pro- 
vide a source of freshwater the plans call for 
construction of a bulkhead across the Royalite 
Canal south of Deep Lake which runs along the 
east side of Lake 5. Several attempts to block 
off this canal earlier using refuge draglines and 
material excavated from the site were unsuccess- 
ful. 

The bulkhead stopped one of the salt water 
canals along this side of Lake 5 and by opening 
a levee from the adjoining Lake 6, freshwater 
from Lake 6 was permitted to drain through 
Lake 5. This source of freshwater will aid the 




Large control gates on Rockefeller Refuge prevent 
salt water intrusion into the fresh water marsh 
zones and permit boat trafic. 



production of three-cornered grass as well as 
wildlife using the area. 

East End Locks 

The most costly project ever undertaken on the 
Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge was the construction 
of the East End Locks. This structure was com- 
pleted in 1961 and provided control over water 
flow in the canal leading eastward from the 
Humble Canal. The locks were of concrete and 
steel construction and were designed by the De- 
partment of Public Works. However, boats and 
barges entering the locks on low tides were hav- 
ing difficulty keeping from ramming into the 
sides of the locks. In order to provide a guide 
for boats and barges entering the locks, plans 
were made to install bumpers on both the east 
and west sides. This work was begun in 1965 us- 
ing refuge personnel and equipment. 

In constructing the bumpers, heavy round pil- 
ing were driven to a depth of 30 feet then braced 
with diagonal piling, bolted firmly in place. Then 
12 x 12 timbers were bolted to the vertical piling, 
thus forming a heavy ramp for barges to follow 
while entering the locks. The bumpers were ex- 
tended for 100 feet on both the east and west side 
of the locks and will prevent accidental damage 
during the period of low tides, when water rushes 
through the locks. During such times it is almost 
impossible to direct the course of the barge. How- 
ever, the bumpers will minimize accidental dam- 
age caused during such tides. 

All work on the protection bumpers for East 
End Locks was completed in March 1967. 

Stop-Log Structure 

In order to provide for flooding and draining 
Lake 2, Lake 3 and Lake 4 on Rockefeller Refuge, 
plans were made to construct stop-log structures, 
similar to those on Sabine National Wildlife Ref- 
uge. Boards will be placed in the structure to 
hold water, but when removed will permit a large 
volume of water to be moved through the struc- 
ture. At present, gated culverts in impoundments 
are insufficient for the proper draining and flood- 
ing of the area. 

In August, 1966 a meeting was held with the 
Department of Public Works and plans outlined 
for constructing these stop-log structures. The 
Department of Public Works then prepared plans 
and specifications and solicited bids for the work. 
Bids were received in the spring of 1967 and a 
contract was issued for this work. 

The contractor completed the stop-log struc- 
tures in the fall of 1967. The new structures will 
provide much more control over these large brack- 
ish water impoundments and will greatly inhance 
the food production for waterfowl in the area. 



196 




In order to combat the constant erosion problem 
caused by wave action on the road systems of the 
Refuge, a bulkhead has been constructed on the 
portion of Price Lake Road where this road crosses 
the lake. 



In order to provide protection of various items 
of equipment and material whenever hurricanes 
threaten the Southwestern Louisiana coast, an 
elevated platform was constructed on Rockefeller 
Refuge. This platform was constructed on con- 
crete piling and placed at an elevation above all 
former storm tide levels. The concrete structure 
is designed to support the weight of all the vari- 
ous pieces of heavy equipment of Rockefeller 
Refuge including ; draglines, bulldozer and marsh- 
buggies. 

All contract work on the platform was com- 
pleted in October of 1967. The area beneath the 
platform will be used for equipment storage and 
will be an ideal place to keep certain pieces of 
equipment when not in use. 



Miller Lake Weirs 

In order to prevent rapid tidal exchange in 
the marsh area south of Lake 3, and to prevent 
the draining of this area during low tides, plans 
were made to construct weirs on Joseph Harbor 
Bayou, which runs north from Miller Lake. Also, 
to facilitate drainage from this area, a canal was 
extended from Joseph Harbor Bayou to the Hum- 
ble Canal and a weir placed on this canal system. 

All material was purchased for the job and 
refuge personnel began work on the structures in 
May of 1967. Refuge barges and draglines were 
used for the work and by the end of July, 1967 
both structures had been completed. The com- 
pleted structures will improve conditions for the 
marsh and marsh wildlife over an area of about 
8,000 acres. 



Hurricane Storage Platform 

Once or twice each year, hurricanes threaten 
the coast of Louisiana. Because of the low eleva- 
tion of Rockefeller Refuge it is necessary to evacu- 
ate all valuable material and equipment to higher 
elevations. A storage area is available about 50 
miles northwest of the refuge, but the big prob- 
lem is transporting the material and equipment 
to this location. 




An elevated platform has been constructed which 
will be used to store heavy equipment such as drag- 
lines and marsh buggies during hurricanes. 



Resident Building 

Because of added personnel to the Rockefeller 
Refuge staff, a new residence was planned for the 
headquarters site to house personnel of the refuge. 

An architect was employed to prepare plans 
and specifications for this job. Bids were solicited 
by the Division of Administration and a contract 
was awarded to low bidder. Work began on the 
house during the spring of 1967 and was com- 
pleted in January, 1968. 

The new residence is on the same basic design 
as the ones originally constructed at the site and 
will be placed on the east end of the headquarters 
area. 



Price Lake Road 

In 1964 the Pan American Oil Company built 
approximately 3 miles of road in the vicinity of 
Price Lake on the western edge of Rockefeller 
Refuge. This road was constructed by the oil 
company for the purpose of drilling an explora- 
tory well. However, this venture proved unsuc- 
cessful and the road was subsequently abandoned. 

This road has proved to be a very valuable ac- 
cess route to this marsh and several study areas 
have been set up in the area transected by the 
road. Also, the road is very handy for patrolling 
the refuge. In addition to this, the spoil has 
proven very valuable in managing the western 
part of the refuge and has greatly increased the 
value of this area for wildlife. 

Realizing these values, plans were made to re- 
build the road in the spring of 1967. Bids were 
obtained for recapping the road with a layer of 
sand and shell and a contract was awarded to the 
lowest bidder. This work began in March, 1967 
and was completed in April, 1967. 



197 



MARSH ISLAND WILDLIFE REFUGE 

HARVEY H. LOURD 

Refuge Supervisor 

Main Camp and Patrol Camps 

During the past two years two patrol camps 
have been constructed on Marsh Island Wildlife 
Refuge. These camps measure 28 feet by 24 feet 
and were built on creosote timber pilings. The 
camp sites were located on Bayou Chene and Scat 
Number 2, and will serve as overnight patrol 
camps for refuge personnel. The Mound Point 
Camp was completely remodeled by the refuge 
maintenance crew of Marsh Island Refuge. The 
interior and exterior of the camp was repainted, 
and all screens changed. The existing roof was 
found to be in need of repairs, and it was decided 
to install a completely new roof rather than re- 
pair the existing one. Also, a wharf was built 
which will facilitate the loading of supplies at 
this camp. 

The main camp which is located on Bird Island 
Bayou received routine maintenance as needed. 
All rotten and broken screens were replaced and 
all porches were painted. Several rooms were com- 
pletely done over and finished with plywood 
paneling. 

Water Control Structures 

With the installation of various water control 
structures in the drainage systems of Marsh Is- 
land Refuge, and with the construction of the 
impoundment system, approximately 50,000 acres 
of marshland have been improved for waterfowl 
habitat. Prior to the installations of these struc- 
tures, this area was greatly affected by daily 
tidal flow, resulting in an unstable water condi- 
tion in the ponds and marshes. This situation 
greatly hampered the production of desirable 
aquatic waterfowl food plants in this area. 

These low-sill weirs are set about 6 inches be- 
low marsh level, allowing high tides to flow over 
the structures, but maintaining permanent water 
in the ponds and pot holes. All weirs on Marsh 
Island Refuge are of two types ; wooden sheet pil- 
ing treated with creosote and steel interlocking 
sheet piling. These weirs vary in size from 10 
feet to as long as 135 feet in length. To date over 
25 weirs have been installed in the drainage sys- 
tem on Marsh Island Refuge. The Refuge Division 
has recently purchased a new spud barge which 
will be used to transport the various equipment 
and dragline to the job sites. 

Plans have been formulated to construct ad- 
ditional water control structures in tributaries of 
Little Charles Bayou, Bayou Platte, Bayou Blanc, 
Bayou Lucien, and Bayou Michael. Nancy and Big 
Charles Bayou were also selected as potential 
sites. All the material for these projects has been 




The Marsh Island Headquarters and boat shed lo- 
cated on Bird Island Bayou has been completely re- 
stored from damages received from the recent hurri- 
cane and provides lodging for personnel working on 
the area. 

purchased, and all work will be done by refuge 
personnel and equipment. 

During the past two years, refuge personnel 
made routine maintenance checks on the weirs on 
Marsh Island Refuge. Erosion had begun around 
one weir in Oyster Bayou. In order to prevent this 
erosion a barge load of shell was placed around 
the ends of this weir. The remaining structures 
were found to be in good shape and not in need 
of any repairs. 

Boat Maintenance 

Because of the shallow water and numerous 
oyster reefs, boat maintenance is a continuous 
problem. It has been necessary to replace wheels, 
struts, and rudders often. All minor repairs were 
accomplished on the refuge and all major repairs 
were sent to the Commission Wharf in New Or- 
leans. During the biennial period, the inboards 
were taken out annually, scraped and completely 
repainted. 

Roads and Bridges 

An oil company has made a well location in- 
side the 9,000 acre impoundment and has used 
portions of this levee as a road bed to the well 
site. The company has : constructed approximately 
two miles of road along the top of this levee; 




Native shell is placed around the ends of the weirs 
preventing erosion and high water from cutting 
around these structures. 



198 




Water control structures, installed on Marsh Island 
Refuge, have placed 9,000 acres of marshland under 
management and waterfowl usage of this impound- 
ment is heavy. 

constructed a bridge across the canal; and a 
board road to the well site inside the impound- 
ment. This road has been extended by refuge per- 
sonnel to encompass the entire impoundment. A 
Commission vehicle has been used to patrol this 
area in an effort to protect the alligator popula- 
tion in this 9,000 acre impoundment. 

Airplane Strip 

During the past two years two landing strips 
for light aircraft have been constructed on Marsh 
Island Refuge. One strip is located on the east 
side of Bird Island Bayou near the refuge head- 
quarters. The second strip is located on the im- 
poundment levee near the overnight patrol camp. 
These strips will facilitate management and pa- 
trol of the area by refuge personnel. Both strips 
are 1,500 feet long and 200 feet wide and are now 
servicable for light aircraft. 

Patrol Towers 

Because of Marsh Island's unique location, 
complete protection is a very difficult task. Due 
to the large concentrations of blue and snow geese 
on the refuge during the winter months, a con- 
stant patrol must be maintained. As the weather 
conditions warm in the spring, alligators become 
more active. With the high market value of these 
skins, constant night patrols during the spring 
and summer months are necessary in order to 




Constant patrols are made to all portions of the 
Refuge. Pictured above is one of the small overnight 
patrol camps used by Refuge Wardens. 



protect these animals from illegal hunting. By 
constructing towers in strategic locations through- 
out the refuge, wardens are able to spot the lights 
of alligator hunters. Radio communication is pro- 
vided by the use of walkie talkies with ground 
units. 

During the past two years, three towers were 
constructed on Marsh Island Refuge. These towers 
were located on Bayou Chene, Scat No. 2, and also 
at the main camp on Bird Island Bayou. These 
towers are approximately 35 feet from the marsh 
floor. 

Marsh Burning and Trapping 

A burning program is conducted on Marsh Is- 
land Refuge each year. This program begins in 
the fall and continues through March, depending 
upon weather conditions. The annual burning 
program removes the coarse vegetation and en- 
courages the growth of more desirable game food 
plants. Also, after a burn the new growth of vege- 
tation is made more palatable to the birds. Ap- 
proximately 60 to 70 per cent of the area is 
burned each year. Blue and snow geese will invade 
a fresh burn and stay concentrated in this area 
until they have consumed all the desirable food 
plants in the burn. Then another burn is made 
and the geese are thus attracted to this new area. 
This process is repeated until the northward mi- 
gration begins. 

Several trappers worked on the refuge in the 
impoundment. Oyster Bayou and Bird Island 
Bayou areas but met with only fair success. A 
total of 738 nutria, 42 otter, 63 mink and 178 
raccoons were taken. 

COULEE WILDLIFE REFUGE 

The lease on the 3,000 acre Coulee Wildlife Ref- 
uge located in Morehouse Parish has been re- 
newed with the private land owners. The two 
basins on the refuge has continued to provide 
an ideal resting place for approximately 30,000 
ducks each winter. This body of birds utilize 
the refuge during the day time and feed out into 
adjacent wetland areas at night located 20 to 30 
miles away from the refuge. 

With the waterfowl development work being 
conducted on the Russell Sage Wildlife Manage- 
ment Area near Monroe, the Coulee Refuge will 
become more important than ever before, as it 
will tend to give the birds a choice of two fine 
refuge areas on which to rest and will provide 
good waterfowl shooting between the two areas. 

The land owners have cleared a portion of the 
area west of the basins ; however, this has not had 
an adverse affect on the refuge as a waterfowl 
resting site because an adequate buffer zone be- 
tween the basins and open hunting area is main- 
tained. 



199 



ST. TAMMANY WILDLIFE REFUGE 

JOSEPH M. DIRMANN 

Refuge Supervisor 

This small 1300 acre refuge is located on the 
north shore of Lake Pontchartrain adjacent to the 
Fontainebleau State Park. Due to its location, 
shoreline erosion from wave action in Lake Pont- 
chartrain has continued to reduce this small 
marsh area annually. 

A complete boundary survey of the refuge was 
made in 1966 by the Louisiana Department of 
Public Works using Refuge Division marsh bug- 
gies and airboats and the boundary was marked 
by creosote posts placed inside transite tile and 
appropriate refuge signs nailed to the post. 

A build up of muskrat has occurred on the ref- 
uge, and two trappers were assigned to trap these 
animals to prevent marsh damage from occurring. 
Even though this area is quite small it does serve 
a useful purpose by providing a resting area for 
a few ducks and geese along the north shore of 
Lake Pontchartrain. Adjacent marsh land owners 
are able to hunt these waterfowl as they go to 
and from the refuge. 

PASS-A-LOUTRE WATERFOWL 
MANAGEMENT AREA 

ELLIS W. LOGA 

Supervisor 

Public Hunting Program 

Since its initiation in 1954 the Pass-a-Loutre 
Public Hunting program has played host to many 
thousands of duck hunters throughout the state. 
This tract of land was set up in 1921 by an Act 
of the Louisiana Legislature as a public shooting 
area and is located at the extreme end of the 
Mississippi Flyway in Plaquemine Parish. Each 
year during the high river stages as the Mississip- 



pi River flows over its banks, it deposits tons 
of top soil carried from the Central United States. 
This material is dropped in the marshes as the 
water slows down and creates ideal conditions for 
the production of desirable waterfowl food plants. 

In September of 1965, Hurricane Betsy struck 
the Louisiana Coast and destroyed three public 
hunting camps. During the past two years these 
three camps were rebuilt by the maintenance crew 
of the Refuge Division and were in service for the 
1966-67 waterfowl season. An additional camp has 
been constructed in the Chenier Pass Area. This 
building is capable of accommodating eight (8) 
hunters with utensils, beds, decoys, boats and bu- 
tane provided by the Commission. 

On 24 morning hunts, with sportsmen from 
throughout the state participating 5,343 birds 
were bagged during the 1966-67 season. Twelve 
hunts were conducted throughout the season, each 
hunt lasting two days plus an additional day for 
traveling. During the 40 day season of 1967-68 
sportsmen from throughout the state bagged 5,123 
birds in eleven two day hunts. Shooting was al- 
lowed on four mornings each week; Tuesday- 
Wednesday and Saturday-Sunday. This prevented 
over-shooting the area and maintained huntable 
concentrations of ducks throughout the entire 
waterfowl season. 

Interest in duck hunting at Pass-a-Loutre has 
steadily increased year after year with 2,298 ap- 
plications received for the 1966-67 season and 
1,939 applications for the 1967-68 waterfowl sea- 
son. Applications came from all parts of the state 
including Monroe, Shreveport, Alexandria, al- 
though the majority of the applications were from 
the New Orleans, Baton Rouge, Covington and 
Hammond areas. Applications were also received 
from adjacent states, although first choice was 
given to resident hunters. A total of 864 permits 
were issued during the 1966-67 season for the 
public camps with 715 hunters making the trips. 
During the 1967-68 season 792 permits were is- 




The Main Headquarters site located on Dennis Pass serves as a base station for personnel who are working 
on the Pass-a-Loutre area. 



200 



sued with 697 hunters making the trips. The 
average daily kill per hunter effort during the 
1966-67 season was 3.3 and was the highest re- 
corded for the past three years, 2.36 for 1965-66 
and 2.16 for the 1964-65 waterfowl season. Hunt- 
ers enjoyed equally good success during the 1967- 
68 season with 3.2 ducks bagged per hunter ef- 
fort. The number of hunters, fees charged and the 
money derived from the present shooting program 
since its initiation in 1954 are shown in Table 1. 

Table 1 

Waterfowl Number of Money 

Season Permits Fee Derived 

1954-55 576 $ 2.00 $1,152.00 

1955-56 1,523 2.00 3,046.00 

1956-57 660 10.00 6,600.00 

1957-58 569 10.00 5,690.00 

1958-59 1,143 5.00 5,715.00 

1959-60 648 5.00 3,240.00 

1960-61 618 5.00 3,090.00 

1961-62 326 5.00 1,630.00 

1962-63 327 5.00 1,635.00 

1963-64 591 5.00 2,955.00 

1964-65 792 5.00 3,960.00 

1965-66 492 5.00 2,460.00 

1966-67 874 5.00 4,370.00 

1967-68 792 5.00 3,960.00 

In addition to the 20,000 acres set aside for the 
public camp hunters, the Commission has a por- 
tion of the area open to the general public who 
wish to use their own equipment and facilities and 
seasonal permits are issued at no cost to the 
hunter. During the 1966-67 waterfowl season 
hunters on the open area were asked to keep 
records after each hunt on the number of water- 
fowl bagged. This was to determine the seasonal 
harvest and number of days hunted on this area. 
The results of this survey indicate hunters on the 
open area of Pass-a-Loutre had an average daily 
kill per hunter effort of 3.7 ducks. A total of 
878 free permits were issued during the 1966-67 
waterfowl season. This number increased to 1,082 
permits during the 1967-68 season. Portions of 
Pass-a-Loutre open for free hunting consists of 
the more remote sections along Pass-a-Loutre, 
Southeast Pass and South Pass. 



Development 

Management of the Pass-a-Loutre area is rela- 
tively simple as compared to the other marsh 
areas under management by the Refuge Division 
because of the annual deposits of silt carried by 
the Mississippi River as it overflows its bank each 
year. It is from the high river stages that the 
entire delta complex is maintained. In many por- 
tions of Pass-a-Loutre as much as four inches of 
fertile soil is deposited annually. Extensive stands 
of delta duck potato and freshwater three square 
are produced as a result of the deposits and the 
normal manipulation of water levels. 

Numerous earthen dams and levees have been 
constructed during the past two years to favor 




Duck hunters on the lower delta marshes experi- 
enced record breaking success during the 1966-67 
waterfowl season. Pictured above is a group of hunt- 
ers with their first day's limit. 

the establishment of desirable waterfowl food 
plants. These dams stopped the daily tidal flow 
thus maintaining stable water condition in the 
areas. With the extensive boat traffic on Pass-a- 
Loutre these earthen dams are short lived and 
must be replaced annually. 

Plans have been formulated to construct three 
weirs in the Sawdust Bend Area. These weirs will 
maintain stable water levels in the marsh ponds 
and potholes thus creating ideal conditions for 
the production of desirable waterfowl food plants. 
All the necessary material and equipment has been 
purchased for this job. Along with the Sawdust 
Bayou weirs an earthen levee will be constructed 
from the mouth of Sawdust Bayou to South Pass. 
Also, earthen plugs will be placed in the cuts in 
the natural pass bank of South Pass. 

The airstrip on Pass-a-Loutre is located on 
Dennis Pass, near the main headquarters building. 
This strip is approximately 2,500 feet long and 
80 feet wide. Work is now underway to widen 
this existing strip to approximately 160 feet. This 
will greatly facilitate its use by Commission 
owned aircraft. 

A new bulkhead has been constructed at the 
main headquarters facility located on Dennis 
Pass. This bulkhead is approximately 300 feet 
long and was constructed of creosote timber pil- 
ings and tongue and grove wooden sheet pilings. 
The bulkhead will not only serve to prevent water 
erosion on the site but also provide much needed 



201 



docking space for Commission owned boats and 
barges. All this work was done by the mainte- 
nance crew of the Refuge Division. 

The development of the various mineral leases 
on the area has continued to be a problem of 
growing magnitude and one which requires con- 
tinuous vigilance by refuge personnel. In April 
of 1967, a production line on the Texas Company's 
state lease 214 broke and polluted approximately 
2,000 acres of marsh. The Texas Company was 
notified and a clean up crew was immediately sent 
to this area. The surface oil was burned off in 
areas where this practice was feasible and a waste 
disposal pit was constructed around the break 
in this line. This oil completely covered all the 
standing vegetation in this area and has greatly 
affected the waterfowl utilization in this area. 
The river was at flood stage when this occurred 
and served to carry this oil to the more remote 
areas of the marsh. 



Research 

During the past two years, biologist of the 
Commission have collected extensive waterfowl 
kill data at the Public Camps on Pass-a-Loutre. 
This information along with research data col- 
lected throughout the state forms the basis from 
which the Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries 
Commission trys to secure a more realistic water- 
fowl season for the Louisiana duck hunter. The 
total kill of waterfowl by hunters participating in 
the public camp for the 1966-67 and 1967-68 sea- 
sons are presented in Table 2. 




Table 2 

WATERFOWL KILL BY SPECIES FOR THE 
PASS-A-LOUTRE PUBLIC CAMP SHOOTING AREA 

1966-67 and 1967-68 



Species 



1966-67 

45 days 

4 duck bay 



Mallards 126 

Gadwall 2,556 

Baldpate 553 

Green-winged teal 170 

Blue-winged teal 132 

Shoveler 256 

Pintail 369 

Mottled duck 98 

Redhead 28 

Canvasback 36 

Lesser Scaup 310 

Ringed-neck duck 78 

Ruddy 2 

Merganser 26 

Others 

Total Ducks 4,740 

Blue Geese 76 

Snow Geese 

* Canada Geese 

Total Geese 76 

Coots 527 

Grand Total 5,343 

'Closed Season, 1966-67 & 1967-68. 



1967-68 

40 days 

4 duck bag 

143 

1,527 

754 

244 

223 

201 

827 

37 

4 

23 

406 

91 

4 

21 

2 

4,507 

35 

'35 

581 
5,123 



Transportation from Venice to the public camps at 
Pass-a-Loutre is provided by the Commission. Pic- 
tured above is a group of hunters returning from a 
hunt. 



Gadwall ranked first in the bag with 2,556 birds 
taken in twelve two-day hunts, during the 1966- 
67 season. This made up 48 per cent of the total 
ducks killed. Baldpate was second with 553 birds 
taken and pintail was third with 369 birds tallied. 
Lesser scaup ranked fourth with 310. The scaup 
did not move inland until mid-December and did 
not show up in the bag check until mid-season, 
when they appeared not only as bonus ducks but 
in some cases made up the entire bag limits. 

During the 1967-68 season, Gadwall again 
ranked first in the bag with 1,527 birds killed. 
This made up 33 per cent of the total ducks 
killed. Pintail was second with 827 birds taken, 
and Baldpate was third with 754 birds killed. 
Lesser scaup ranked fourth with 406 birds tallied. 
Lesser scaup moved inland during mid-hunting 
season and appeared in the bag as bonus ducks 
and in some cases made up the entire bag limit. 
The kill on the ringneck duck was rather insignif- 
icant with 78 and 91 ringnecks killed for the two 
seasons. Fewer ringnecks were taken during the 
1966-67 waterfowl season when this bird was con- 
sidered a bonus bird along with the lesser scaup. 

Age ratios taken from 380 ducks at Pass-a- 
Loutre indicates a 1.03 young per adult ratio. 
This information was collected from random 
samples throughout the waterfowl season (Table 
3). 



202 



Table 3 

AGE RATIOS FROM 380 DUCKS TAKEN AT 
PASS-A-LOUTRE 

1966-67 Waterfowl Season 



Species Adult 

Gadwall 51 

Green-winged Teal 4 

Mallard 4 

Blue-winged Teal 4 

Pintail 22 

Mottled 15 

Widgeon 81 

Ringed-neek 2 

Lesser Scaup 2 

Canvasback 1 

Shoveler 1 

TOTAL 187 



Immature 
70 



11 

2 

95 

4 

6 



4 
193 



In March of 1967, a deer removal program was 
completed on the Delta National Wildlife Refuge. 
In this operation 104 deer were captured in less 
than 5 hours by the Louisiana Wild Life and 
Fisheries Commission personnel, students from 
Louisiana State University and personnel from 
the Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit for re- 
stocking purposes. A light aircraft working in 
conjunction with four radio equipped airboats 
were the principal tool which made this project 
such a success. 

An aerial census of the deer population was 
conducted by the Louisiana Wild Life and Fish- 
eries Commission in January and a permit was 
then granted to the Commission by the U. S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service to carry out the trapping 
program. After receiving the permit the Commis- 
sion assembled its personnel, one aircraft, one 
helicopter (provided by Louisiana Land and Ex- 
ploration Company), four airboats, one marsh 
motorcycle, one tugboat and barge and two trucks 
were employed. As each deer was driven from a 
dry section of a floating marsh it was quickly cap- 
tured in the soft marsh or water, tied up and 
loaded on one of the airboats within three or 
four minutes. The deer were then transported to 
Venice by barge and were dispatched by trucks 
to the various release sites. 

Removal of the deer from the Delta Refuge will 
prove advantageous not only to the areas where 
the transplants were made but also the deer range 
and the herd on the Delta. Annual thinning of the 
herd will reduce heavy browsing pressure on the 
marshes and leave more food for the remaining 
deer. Healthy deer will then in turn produce more 
young that can be used for transplanting pur- 
poses. 

Detailed ecological studies were conducted on 
delta duck potato and freshwater three-square by 
biologist of the Refuge Division, and the Coopera- 
tive Wildlife Research Unit. Efforts were directed 
towards determining the factors that effect plant 



growth, seed and tubur production. Small plots 
were established to sample seed and tubur produc- 
tion periodically. Exclosures were built in order 
to exclude hogs, nutria, and ducks. Results of 
these studies indicated production of delta duck 
potato exceeded 12,000 pounds per acre, and fresh- 
water three-square produced over 600 pounds per 
acre. Production such as this insure a waterfowl 
population on the lower delta in abundance neces- 
sary to supply continual waterfowl hunting 
throughout the entire duck season. 

It has been necessary to limit the taking of fur 
bearing animals on Pass-a-Loutre to begin after 
the waterfowl season closes. This has been done 
so no conflict will arise between the public camp 
hunting program and the trapping program. All 
trappers were required to obtain a permit and to 
report their daily catch at the main headquarters 
facility on Dennis Pass. During the 1966-67 season 
approximately 5,000 nutria were taken. An agree- 
ment has been made with the trappers to reim- 
burse the Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Com- 
mission at a rate of 10 per cent on all fur bearers 
taken during the trapping seasons. 



Maintenance 

Continuous maintenance work has been neces- 
sary at the main headquarters site in order to 
keep these buildings and wharves in good condi- 
tion. During the past two years all the buildings 
on the headquarters site were cleaned and received 
a new coat of paint. This included the boat house, 
storage house, supervisor's residence and the 
main building. Also, the walkways were reshelled 
with native shell. All rotten and broken screens 
were replaced. The access canal in the rear of 
the camp was widened and deepened. The spoil 
from the canal was placed in the yard and allowed 
to settle and dry. A small dozer was used to level 
and reshape this area. The flooding problem which 




Nine public camps are operated by the Commission 
and are used by hunters who are selected in draw- 
ings. Each camp is capable of accommodating 8 men. 



203 




The float plane ramp located at Pass-a-Loutre is in 
the process of being improved which will increase 
its value to refuge personnel. 



existed in this area has now been eliminated. Ber- 
muda grass seed was planted on this new sod and 
a good grass cover has been established. 

Due to the high river stage last spring, the sea- 
plane ramp had been silted in heavily. A dragline 
was used to dig this approach slip deeper. 

As replacements for the camps lost in Hurri- 
cane Betsy, three additional camps have been built 
on Pass-a-Loutre. These camps were constructed 
by the Refuge Division maintenance crew. At the 
termination of each duck season all the equipment 
for the public camps such as decoys, push poles, 
paddles, life preservers, and various utensils and 
supplies including beds, mattresses, blankets and 
cooking utensils, were stored at the warehouse on 
the main headquarters site. This equipment each 
year is taken out and cleaned, put into good work- 
ing order and placed in each camp prior to the 
duck season. 

The patrol boats Sprig and Skimmer received 
extensive repairs during the past two years. These 
boats were sent to the Commission Wharf in New 
Orleans and the necessary repairs were made. 
Numerous outboard motors received maintenance 
during this period. Minor repairs were done on 
the refuge and all major repairs were done at the 
Commission Wharf in New Orleans. 




The Main Headquarters at State Wildlife Refuge has 
undergone extensive repairs during the past two 
years. The camp and buildings received a new coat 
of paint and all defective material was replaced. 



STATE WILDLIFE REFUGE 

HAMPTON GREENE 

Refuge Supervisor 

Water Control Structures 

With the installation of the water control 
structures on State Wildlife Refuge approxi- 
mately 3,800 acres have been improved for water- 
fowl habitat. These structures were constructed 
of steel interlocking sheet piling and creosote 
timber piling. The ends of the weirs were rein- 
forced with native shell to retard erosion. The 
weir on Bayou Prien was damaged by the storm 
tides accompaning Hurricane Hilda. The high 
tides built up against this structure and caused 
it to lean in a downstream direction, also high 
tides washed around this structure. The Bayou 
Prien weir has since been repaired and is now 
functioning properly. Additional timber piling 
were added to this structure and a barge load 
of shell was placed around the ends of the weir to 
prevent erosion. Also, a small aluminum weir has 
been placed in the bayou on Redfish Point and 
is part of the North Bayou weir complex. The 
bayou is approximately 10 feet wide at this point. 

Plans were formulated to repair the remaining 
structure and to install additional water control 
structures. The potential sites are in Toms Bayou 
and in a tributary bayou leading into Lake Fear- 
man. With the installation of these structures ap- 
proximately 6,000 acres will be affected. 

Headquarters and Patrol Camps 

The main camp of State Wildlife Refuge is lo- 
cated on Bayou Fearman and serves as a base 
station for personnel while working on the area. 
The main camp has undergone considerable main- 
tenance during the past two years. All the rotten 
and broken screens have been replaced and the 
entire camp has been cleaned and repainted. Also, 
approximately 300 cubic yards of shell has been 
spread on the headquarters site. 

As replacement for the patrol camps lost in 
Hurricane Hilda a camp 24 feet by 24 feet has 
been constructed on Hog Bayou. This camp was | 
built on timber piling 7-1/2 feet above ground 
level, and is located near the Hog Bayou Weir. 

A small boat dock has been built at this camp 
site and will greatly facilitate loading and un- 
loading supplies at this camp. All work on the 
camp was done by refuge personnel. 

Boundary Signs and Channel Markers 

Reposting the entire boundary line of State 
Wildlife Refuge was completed during the past 
biennium. This was a cooperative project between I 



204 



State Wildlife personnel and the National Audu- 
bon Society personnel. The marsh buggy used for 
this project was supplied by the National Audu- 
bon Society. 

Large timber piling were driven in Vermillion 
Bay to serve as channel marker to Bayou Fear- 
man and also to Lake Fearman and Hell Hole. 
Due to the shallow water surrounding State Wild- 
life Refuge, these markers will facilitate access 
to and from these areas on State Wildlife Refuge. 

Boat Maintenance 

Routine maintenance was done on all boats as 
required. The Lafitte boat was completely re- 
painted and a new wheel and rudder were in- 
stalled. The Osteria received a new coat of paint 
on the hull and cabin. Also, a new engine was 
installed. The outboard motors were serviced peri- 
odically. All major repairs were done at the Com- 
mission Wharf in New Orleans and minor repairs 
were accomplished on the refuge. 

Boat House and Work Shop 

A new equipment shed and a boat house were 
constructed on the headquarters site of State 
Wildlife Refuge. These facilities provide adequate 
storage for boats and equipment that is assigned 
to the refuge. During the past biennium the boat 
house received preventive maintenance as re- 
quired. Also, the utility storage shed was com- 
pletely repainted. 

Marsh Burning and Trapping 

The marsh burning program begins on State 
Wildlife Refuge in early fall and continues 
through March depending upon weather condi- 
tions. These burns encourage the growth of de- 
sirable wildlife food plants. Each year approxi- 
mately 70 per cent of the refuge is burned. Blue 
and snow geese use these burned areas, and this 
annual practice is also a practical management 
tool for muskrat. 





Several earthern dams have been constructed in 
breaks of the natural pass banks. These earthern 
dams are short lived and must be maintained an- 
nually. 



For the past number of years the muskrat popu- 
lation has been on the increase. Pictured above are 
numerous muskrat houses on State Wildlife Refuge. 



Several trappers worked State Wildlife Refuge 
but met with only fair success. These trappers 
were housed in the patrol camps at Hog Bayou 
and also at the main headquarters site. A per- 
centage of the catch was charged each trapper 
for the use of the trapping area and the housing 
facilities in keeping with Commission policy. 

A total of 1,420 nutria and 396 muskrat were 
trapped on the refuge during the 1966-67 trapping 
season. 



REFUGE DIVISION RESEARCH 

TED JOANEN 

Biologist 

HOWARD H. DUPUIE 

Biologist 

W. GUTHRIE PERRY 

Biologist 

Over the past two years the Refuge Division 
of the Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Com- 
mission has conducted a number of studies re- 
lating to marsh animals and plant life. These 
studies were made by a Research Section of the 
division and studies were underway on all refuges 
in Louisiana. The research section is staffed by 
technical personnel, and the objectives of the 
research are to design, to investigate and evaluate 
various management practices for both marsh 
wildlife and plants. With the information from 
the various studies definite plans are made for 
managing the marshes to provide optimum con- 
ditions for the production of wildlife. Only with 
a sound research program can the 250,000 acres 
of coastal marshland owned by the Commission 
be wisely managed. 

The research studies are aimed at devising new 



205 



management practices as well as for evaluating 
those practices now in use on the refuge areas. 
The results of the various studies and manage- 
ment techniques presently used not only serve to 
improve the refuge areas for wildlife, but also 
serve as a guide for private landowners interested 
in marsh management for wildlife. 

Several studies were carried out on Rockefeller 
Refuge and Marsh Island Wildlife Refuge in co- 
operation with the Louisiana Cooperative Wild- 
life Research Unit, the Louisiana Cooperative 
Fishery Research Unit, and Louisiana State Uni- 
versity. Short term studies were set up on the 
refuge areas with the studies aimed at investi- 
gating important wildlife problems. Progress re- 
ports of all refuge research were placed on file 
with the Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Com- 
mission. Final reports were published in journals 
or circulars with international distribution. 

Technicians of the Research Section made 
numerous trips to other states and attended tech- 
nical meetings at various locations. This was done 
in order to determine the methods used for man- 
aging marshes for wildlife elsewhere and evaluate 
their application to Louisiana. The various studies 
on the animals and animal populations and the 
factors influencing plants and plant growth will 
be continued. The purposes of these various stud- 
ies, and the results gained during the passed two 
years are listed as the following: 

Impoundment Studies 

Impoundment studies have been conducted on 
Rockefeller Refuge since the fall of 1958. The 
primary objectives of this study were to determine 
the ecological changes in the vegetation in the 
13 Rockefeller Refuge impoundments and to re- 
late these changes to annual climatic and edaphic 
factors. Sampling is done in each impoundment 
and control area during the early fall of each 
year after the growing season. Sampling is done 
by line transects with markers placed at one 
hundred foot intervals through each impound- 
ment. This line is checked each fall with a marsh- 
buggy or airboat and the vegetation tabulated, as 
it occurs, along the transect. The impoundments 
were sampled on Rockefeller Refuge in Septem- 
ber, 1966, and September, 1967, using this method. 

Water levels and water salinities in each area 
were checked monthly by a refuge biologist and 
a record kept on file in the refuge office. Informa- 
tion on rainfall was determined by a rain gauge 
located at the main headquarters of Rockefeller 
Refuge. 

The total rainfall for 1966 was 73.8 inches. 
This was about 30 inches above the average for 
the past 5 years and almost twice that for the 
1962 and 1963 rainfall. Heaviest rainfall of the 
year was in January and February and in the 
period of August and September. However, rain- 



fall was distributed throughout the year with all 
seasons receiving a large amount. 

The rainfall in 1967 was below that of 1966, 
but still well above the five year average. During 
both years the rainfall was heavy enough that 
the marshes did not dry during the two-year peri- 
od and, as a result, annual grass did not grow in 
the impoundments. 

The water depth in the Rockefeller Refuge im- 
poundments was far above normal during the two- 
year period as a result of the exceptionally heavy 
rainfall. Also, as a result of the heavy rainfall, 
salinities were much lower than normal. In fact 
in many areas the low salinity resulted in al- 
most complete elimination of widgeongrass in 
many of the impoundments. 

Monthly Rainfall 

Month 1966 1967 

January 8.75 2.33 

February 12.31 2.28 

March 1.36 2.51 

April 7.19 1.47 

May 4.07 6.62 

June 4.87 0.53 

July 6.17 7.21 

August 8.75 7.64 

September 8.33 7.94 

October 5.93 8.62 

November 3.92 0.14 

December 2.11 7.39 

TOTAL 73.76 54.68 

One of the main management procedures used 
on the Rockefeller Refuge impoundments in past 
years has been a spring drawdown of water within 
the impounded area. This drawdown usually is 
done in April and May so that annual grasses 
which require exposed soil for germination may 
begin their growth in June and July. However, 
during 1966 and 67 the exceptionally heavy rain- 
fall made it impossible for these impoundments to 
be de-watered. 

Vegetation conditions in the impoundments dur- 
ing 1966 were the poorest, especially waterfowl 
food producing plants, since records have been 
kept on the Rockefeller Refuge impoundments. 
The heavy rainfall prevented annual grasses from 
growing, and the low salinities, which resulted, 
practically eliminated widgeongrass and Eleo- 




Biologists are conducting research with Canada 
Geese in an attempt to establish a nesting popula- 
tion of Canada Geese in Louisiana. 



206 



charts. Wire grass dominated both the impound- 
ments and control areas in 1966. Only in Lake 1, 
4 and 8 were duck food producing plants found 
in abundance. In many of the other impound- 
ments these plants were practically non-existent. 
In 1967, the story was different. Although rain- 
fall was heavy, an abundance of duck food was 
found in most of the impounded areas. Aquatic 
vegetation such as the pond weeds, Najas and 
Cham, were very abundant in most of the im- 
pounded areas. Also, other plants such as Bacopa, 
duck weed, and Eleocharis were very abundant. 

Canada Goose Study 

At one time the Canada Goose w 7 as a very im- 
portant bird for waterfowl hunters in Louisiana. 
However, the number gradually declined over 
the years and, from what was once tremendous 
populations, dwindled to just a few thousand. 
This reduction in number was caused primarily 
by special Canada Goose management in states 
north of Louisiana, which caused a short stopping 
of birds in route to this state. In 1967, the winter- 
ing Canada Goose population in Louisiana was 
approximately 5,000 birds. 

In an effort to rebuild the Canada Goose popu- 
lation in Louisiana, several methods are being 
tried. The first method being studied by U. S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service is the transporting of 
immature Canada Geese to Louisiana and releas- 
ing them, with hopes that they will return the 
following year as migrants. Another method being 
checked on Rockefeller Refuge is the feasibility of 
establishing a resident nesting colony of Canada 
Geese in Louisiana. If established, it is hoped 
that the Canada Goose, like the mottled duck, 
would remain in the state and nest and remain 
throughout the wintering season. A study was 
begun in 1960 on Rockefeller Refuge, during 
which 27 wild Canada Geese were brought to 
Rockefeller Refuge from Wisconsin. Additional 
birds have been added to the captive flock from 
time to time by being brought in from other areas 
and by birds that were reared on the refuge. 

This report summarizes a success of the nest- 
ing Canada Geese on Rockefeller Refuge during 
1966 and 1967. In 1967, nesting began about 
two and one-half weeks earlier than in 1966. In 
1967, nesting began on February 28 whereas in 
1966 it did not begin until March 18. Also, in 

1966, the last egg hatched on May 12 while, in 

1967, the last egg hatched on May 20. 

The number of nests found on Rockefeller Ref- 
uge has continually increased each year since the 
study began. During the first year only one nest 
was found. However, in 1966, the number in- 
creased to 26 and, in 1967, it increased to 40. Dur- 
ing 1966, 47 young Canadas were hatched on 
Rockefeller Refuge, and, in 1967, this number 



declined to 42 Canada Goose eggs hatched. This 
low hatching success is caused by two primary 
factors. The first factor is the high degree of 
predation resulting from the crowding condi- 
tions of Canada Geese in the small pasture. 
Another factor causing the heavy egg losses was 
a faulty incubator. A large number of eggs were 
taken from the early goose nest and placed in 
an incubator for hatching. However, this incu- 
bator was faulty, resulting in a loss of practically 
all of the eggs. 

Common predators in the Canada Goose nest- 
ing area are the raccoons, opossums, and alli- 
gators. Several methods have been used to control 
the predators in the goose nesting area, with 
varying degrees of success. However, the preda- 
tors are attracted from surrounding marshes, and 
control measures must be continued throughout 
the nesting season. 

Most of the Canada Goose nests were scattered 
throughout the 38 acre goose pasture. The average 
distance from the nest to the water was 65 
feet, but a number of the nest were within 10 
feet of the water; however, two nests were over 
300 feet from permanent water. The average 
distance from one nest to the other active nest 
was 142 feet, with a range from 20 to 500 feet. 

Most of the Canadas preferred high grounds 
or well drained places for nesting. Of the nests 
found during 1966 and 67, about one-third were 
on the marsh floor. The remaining were either on 
the levee or small mounds that were constructed 
throughout the goose pasture. Heavy scattered 
wiregrass growing throughout the area, or bales 
of hay, were favorite nest sites for the Canada 
Geese. Wiregrass grew in the marsh, and on the 
levees, and provided a nesting cover desired by 
the geese. Bales of hay were scattered throughout 
the area prior to the nesting season and these 
were also selected as nest sites. Also, weed stub- 
ble was used as nest cover in a number of places. 

Renesting has been noted in a number of in- 
stances among Canada Geese which nested earlier 
in the season and had nests broken up by preda- 
tors, or the eggs removed for incubation by other 
methods. On the geese that were renesting, favor- 
able results were noted in practically all cases. 
Special evaluations w T ere made to determine the 
feasibility of increasing egg production by remov- 
ing eggs early in the season for hatching in an 
incubator, then having the birds to renest for a 
second attempt. 

This study seems to have quite a bit of interest, 
not only within the state, but within the entire 
Mississippi Flyway and Atlantic Flyway. Plans 
have been made to continue it during the next 
few years. More migratory Canada Geese will be 
purchased from game breeders, as they become 
available, and will be added to the captive flock 
on Rockefeller Refuge in an effort to increase the 
number of breeding pairs on the refuge area. 



207 



Weir Studies 

Since 1958 the Louisiana Wild Life and Fisher- 
ies Commission has used Wakefield weirs as a 
management procedure for tidal marshes on the 
refuges located along the coast. Immediately after 
the first weirs were constructed on Marsh Island 
Refuge in Iberia Parish studies were set up to 
evaluate the weirs and to determine their exact 
effect on the marshes and the degree to which 
they improve the areas for wildlife. These studies 
were continued on an annual basis since that 
time and in 1958 checks were made into areas 
where weirs had been constructed 9 years earlier 
to determine the long range effects of the struc- 
tures on the marsh and marsh wildlife. 

These studies reveal drastic differences in the 
marshes effected by weirs as compared to un- 
controlled marsh areas nearby. The ponds behind 
weirs were practically all filled with aquatic vege- 
tation of types favored by ducks as food ; however, 
the natural ponds were frequently barren with no 
food production at all. As a result of frequent wet 
years the marshes on the refuge produced heavy 
stands of three-cornered grass. This grass was 
found both behind weirs and in adjacent un- 
managed marshes nearby. 

Siltation was always feared as perhaps one of 
the main drawbacks to using weirs as a manage- 
ment tool in coastal areas. Earlier thoughts were 
that the silt behind weirs would deposit and 
eventually fill up the bayous and lakes effected by 
the structure. Water depths were taken behind 
three weirs constructed on Marsh Island in 1958. 
These water depths were taken at numerous places 
behind the weirs including both lakes and bayous, 
and after 9 years water depths were rechecked at 
the same locations to determine the degree to 
which siltation had occurred. This study reveal 
that no siltation had occurred in this area in spite 
of the heavy load of silt carried by waters enter- 
ing the refuge from East Cote Blanc Bay. 

One of the major advantages noted for weirs 
have been their value as producing shrimp nurs- 
ery grounds. During March and July each year 
post-larval shrimp move into the marshes and 
flow freely over the weir on high tide. The shrimp 
remain behind the structure in the permanent 
ponds created and grow to maturity. Then, as if 
triggered by some unknown mechanism the 
shrimp move back out to deep water crossing over 
the weir. Sports fishing has been permitted 
around the weirs on Marsh Island and has proven 
very attractive to fisherman in the area. 

In 1967, aluminum weirs were installed on 
Rockefeller Refuge as part of an experimental 
project to evaluate various types of materials that 
could be used for this purpose. The aluminum is 
Porta-Plank made by Alcoa which can be pur- 
chased in the form of sheet piling. The aluminum 
sheet piling can be driven by hand, thus elimi- 
nating the necessity of having heavy equipment 



for construction. Three small weirs were built in 
this manner along Rollover Bayou in September, 
1967 and these structures will be watched for a 
number of years to determine the amount of de- 
terioration which occurs in salt water to this 
metal. Preliminary studies reveal that Porta- 
Plank will be an excellent material for weir con- 
struction in many areas. 

Alligator Censusing 

The high value of alligator skins and a rapidly 
declining alligator population prompted consider- 
able interest in devising sound plans for manag- 
ing the species. These plans were to serve not only 
on a state wide basis, but also to provide guide 
lines for landowners interested in these reptiles. 
In formulating these plans it was evident that for 
proper management and wise utilization on any 
area, a knowledge of the size of the population 
was essential. Several decades ago, Aldo Leopold 
listed a census of game as the first step in man- 
agement. Only with some knowledge as to the size 
of a population could a course of management be 
planned. 

The population status of a species is important 
also when establishing regulations and quota for 
harvest operations. Likewise, information as to 
the number of animals occupying a certain area is 
important when it is necessary that a particular 
animal population be kept in balance with its food 
supply or with other species occupying a common 
habitat. This is particularly true in the case of 
large predaceous animals such as alligators. 

Various methods were used on Rockefeller Wild- 
life Refuge to determine the size and composition 
of alligator populations on the refuge. These meth- 
ods consist of night counts, recapture of tagged 
animals, call counts, nest counts and computations 
based on numerous factors. 

Night counting is widely used because it is 
easy to do and provides a size composition of the 
population. Call counts and nest counts provide 
information on the breeding population. Applying 
the "Lincoln Index" to recaptured, tagged animals 
provided information on total numbers and may 
be suitable for special studies. A method of total 
population computations using a combination of 
night counts, nest counts and data from kill sur- 
veys gave the size and the composition of an alli- 
gator population. 

Alligator Egg Incubation 

In 1966 studies were begun on methods for 
artificial incubation of alligator eggs. The study 
was to determine the best methods of packaging, 
transporting, incubating and to determine the 
best dates for egg collection. At present there is 
considerable interest in alligator farming in Lou- 
isiana and if this is to be successful, artificial 
incubation of alligator eggs will be a very im- 
portant part of the operation. 



208 



Alligators began laying their eggs during the 
last week of June and continue through the first 
week of July. Hatching begins in mid-August and 
continues through mid-September, thus leaving a 
period of about 6 weeks in which the eggs can be 
collected for incubation. During the study eggs 
were collected in mid-June, mid-July and mid- 
August and incubated to determine the period 
where hatching success would be the greatest. 
Nests were located on Rockefeller Refuge and ten 
eggs removed from each nest for the purpose of 
conducting this study. 

Methods were tested for packaging and trans- 
porting alligator eggs. The methods tested in- 
cluded packaging in small metal tubs enclosed in 
moist hay and packaging dry in a paper box 
without any covering material. Some persons feel 
that if the alligator eggs are permitted to dry 
after removal from the nest that hatching is seri- 
ously effected. It is felt that the drying destroys 
something about the egg and will keep it from 
hatching; however, this could not be verified by 
the study. 

All eggs were incubated at room temperature 
using two methods of incubation. In one method 
the eggs were placed in small tubs with moist hay 
beneath and covering the entire clutch of eggs. 
In the second method the eggs were placed in 
glass jars with a hardware cloth rack in the jars 
and about one inch of water inside the jar. Small 
holes were placed in the jar lids for ventilation. 
Both methods were successful in hatching the 
eggs, but on a large scale basis it would be de- 
sirable to use the tubs since a larger number of 
eggs can be handled in this manner. The date of 
collection seem to be the real critical factor and 
eggs collected shortly before hatching time from 
the nest had a much higher hatching rate than 
those collected from the nest early in the season. 

Waterfowl Usage Study 

In 1964 studies were begun on Rockefeller 
Wildlife Refuge to determine the waterfowl usage 
of the various impoundments or management 
units. This study was to provide information on 
the waterfowl population of the various units at 
semi-monthly periods throughout the wintering 
season. The information on the waterfowl popu- 
lation was to be correlated with the vegetative 
composition of the management unit in order to 
determine the methods of management preferred 
by migratory waterfowl. 

The technique used for conducting this study 
was to make aerial inventories of each impound- 
ment and selected control areas at semi-monthly 
intervals throughout the wintering season. Also, 
in the fall of each year the impoundments and 
control areas were to be sampled and the plant 
species present in each area determined. Then, 
knowing the plants present, information would 
be had on the waterfowl food available during 



the following wintering season. This information 
coupled with the waterfowl population in each 
area would give important information on the 
management procedure preferred by the visiting 
waterfowl. This was assuming that the birds 
would most likely be found in areas which they 
preferred or where preferred foods were avail- 
able. 

During the winters of 1966-67 and 1967-68, 
aerial surveys were made on Rockefeller Refuge. 
Also, in the fall of 1966 and of 1967 transects 
were run through each impoundment to determine 
the plant species composition within each area, 
and also in adjacent control areas. 

The year 1966 was exceptionally wet with rain- 
fall, over 70 inches, and as a result very little 
food was produced in the impoundments on Rocke- 
feller Refuge. The winter inventories on the area 
reflected a much lower duck usage than in previ- 
ous years, which was believed to be a direct result 
of the low food production on the area. In 1967 
rainfall was again above normal, but below the 
level of the previous year. The impoundments re- 
mained flooded throughout most of the year, but 
aquatic vegetation began to show up in numerous 
areas and as a result waterfowl were again at- 
tracted to the impoundments by this supply of 
food. 

Plans are made to continue this study several 
more years until a complete cross-section of the 
various weather cycles have been examined. 



Waterfowl Inventory 

Rockefeller 

Refuge 

Jan. Jan. 

Species 1966 1967 

Mallard 7,000 2.000 

Gadwall 38,000 45,000 

Baldpate 25,000 32,000 

Green-winged Teal ...80,000 17,000 

Blue-winged Teal 5,000 6,000 

Shoveler 22,000 32,000 

Pintail 85,000 53,000 

Scaup 3,000 4,000 

Ringneck 200 200 

Ruddy 700 700 

Merganser 550 600 

Coots 25,000 35,000 

Blue & Snow Geese . . . 9,000 7,000 



Mars!) Island 
Refuge 



Jan. 
1966 

300 

6,000 

3,000 

300 

600 

600 

500 

400 

100 

100 

100 

2,500 

10,300 



Jan. 
1967 

100 

4,000 

2,500 

100 

1,200 

800 

1,000 

200 

100 

100 

100 

2,500 

7,900 



Exotic Deer 

Unlike most states, Louisiana has a very small 
number of big game animals. Only the white- 
tail deer, black bear and wild turkey can be clas- 
sified as big game animals in the state; whereas 
in some states this group consist of some 10 to 
15 species. The brackish and saline marshes of 
coastal Louisiana is practically without a big 
game animal. The broad area is unsuitable for 
the big game animals found elsewhere in the 
state and as a result animals released in these 
areas soon find their way to other areas. 



209 




Several exotic deer are presently being studied at 
Rockefeller Refuge. Two species which show promise 
are the Sika and Fallow Deer. 

A study was set up on Rockefeller Refuge to 
evaluate several species of exotic deer which may 
be suitable for introduction into coastal areas. 
Sika deer from Eastern Asia has done very well 
in coastal areas of Maryland and Virginia and 
plans have been made to develop a breeding popu- 
lation in captivity for possible release on experi- 
mental basis at a later date. Personnel of the 
Research Section of the Refuge Division visited 
the Sika Deer areas in Virginia and Maryland in 
March of 1967 to determine their similarity to 
the coastal areas in Louisiana and to evaluate the 
desirability of the species for releasing in Louisi- 
ana. These checks reveal that the Sika deer is a 
very desirable species and under certain condi- 
tions has possibilities for release in Louisiana. 

The Fallow Deer of Europe also is another deer 
that has possibilities for release in areas of Lou- 
isiana. A captive herd of these deer are being 
established on Rockefeller Refuge, also with fu- 
ture plans of a possible release on Marsh Island 
or one of the other refuges where the animals 
can not escape and provide competition for local 
white-tail deer herds. 

Alligator Growth Study 

In 1958 studies were begun on Rockefeller Ref- 
uge to determine the growth rate of alligators in 
that area. The alligator is a very important part 
of the Louisiana wildlife fauna, yet no detail 
studies have been made to determine the rate of 
growth of the valuable reptiles. The value of these 
animals, plus the large number found on the ref- 
uge, prompted interest in this study. From 1958 
through 1968 over 2000 alligators were captured, 
tagged and released. Measurements were taken 
of the total length of each alligator before it was 
released. Since that time 135 tagged alligators 
have been recaptured. Each tagged alligator was 



identified by the mark or tag that had been placed 
on the animal earlier. The animal was remeasured 
and the amount of growth since the original mea- 
surements was recorded. 

Numerous alligators were recaptured five and 
six years after release and one alligator was re- 
captured seven years after the original recapture. 
The data shows some very interesting factors on 
the growth rate, indicating considerable varabil- 
ity. The original studies shows that the alligator 
grows about one foot per year from the time of 
hatching until maturity. However, studies on 
Rockefeller Refuge show that the growth rate 
may be considerably less after the animal reaches 
the length of six feet. 

Plans were made to continue this study with 
hopes of recapturing alligators tagged during the 
early part of this study. Also, attempts are being 
made to devise a technique for ageing alligators 
by certain bone measurements. 

Alligator Feeding Study 

Feeding trials were conducted on alligators held 
in captivity in the display pens on Rockefeller 
Refuge during the fall and winter months of 1966 
to the spring of 1967. This experiment was to 
determine if alligators would continue feeding 
after this partial hibernation had begun. 

Nine alligators were held in a display pen on 
Rockefeller Refuge and were fed throughout the 
summer. Feeding usually stopped, or the alligators 
first showed signs of refusing food, about mid- 
October. This year feeding continued until De- 
cember 7, 1966, and resumed on February 16th, 
and continued until all alligators were feeding ac- 
tively. Feeding was conducted in the same manner 
as it was during the summer months. Water 
temperature, number of alligators feeding, and 
weather conditions were recorded at each feeding. 
These observations were made during the morn- 
ing usually about 7:00 to 7:30 A.M. each day. 
All alligators used in these feeding trials were 
below 5 feet total length. 

After the alligators had entered this partial 




Portion of the display pens housing the captive alli- 
gators at Rockefeller Refuge. 



210 



hibernation, food was made available to them. 
This was begun on October 20, 1966. At that time 
water temperature was 66° F. Only three alli- 
gators were noticed feeding on this date. Alliga- 
tors were observed feeding as long as the water 
temperature remained above 60° F., although 
their movement had slowed down considerably. No 
food was taken on days which had a water 
temperature below 52.5° F. and only one alligator 
fed when the water temperature was 52.5° F. 
The alligators became more active during early 
spring of 1967, and feeding was noticed to in- 
crease on February 28th with a water tempera- 
ture of 56.5° F. It was not until March 4, 1967, 
did all nine alligators begin feeding again on a 
daily basis. At this time the water temperature 
was 64° F. 

During this study it was found that some alli- 
gators will feed throughout this partial hiberna- 
tion period, providing the water temperature is 
above 52° F. It was not until the 4th of March 
did all alligators in the pen begin feeding, al- 
though active feeding did not occur until March 
12th, 1967. At this time water temperature was 
recorded at 69.5° F. 

Frog Reproduction Study 

Frogging, as a commercial enterprise in Louisi- 
ana, has declined sharply, although there is con- 
siderable interest among sportsmen in frogging 
as a recreation. This decline in commercial frog- 
ging can be attributed to several factors, but none 
more outstanding than water level fluctuation. 
With the increase in oil activity in the coastal 
marshes, many thousands of access canals were 
cut to service these well sites. These canals served 
to drain the marshes in periods of low rainfall. 
Also, vast acreage of marshes have been de- 
watered for cattle grazing and housing projects. 
With the severe droughts occurring in South Lou- 
isiana for the past several years, the frog popu- 
lation has been greatly reduced. Louisiana's last 
commercial frogging operation is located in the 
Atchafalaya Basin. This is a vast river bottom 
which has remained relatively untouched by man. 

The frogging season is closed to taking and 
possessing of bullfrogs and lagoon frogs each year 
during the months of April and May. They may, 
however, be taken at any other time of the year. 

Before this species can be harvested so as to 
obtain the maximum yield without over harvest- 
ing this population, information is needed on its 
ecology and life history. Very little is known about 
the life history, breeding and laying peaks and 
management of the pig frog in Louisiana. A study 
has been set up on Rockefeller Refuge and on 
certain nearby privately owned tracks of land 
which are suitable frog habitat. This study will 
mainly involve the pig frog (Rana grylio) . 

Frogs were collected at night with the use of 
an airboat and headlights. Frog's eyes reflect 



light readily and are easily spotted. A careful ap- 
proach was made and the frog was then grabbed. 
This was a two man operation, one drives with 
the other seated on the bow of the airboat. All 
frogs were taken by hand. Frogs were collected 
from April 1 and continued through October, al- 
though frogs are probably up 12 months of the 
year. It was during this period that a sufficient 
sample could be obtained. Collecting trips were 
made every two weeks. 

In the laboratory, frogs were first killed then 
measured, total length and body length in inches, 
then skinned and examined internally. Informa- 
tion recorded on each female frog was presence 
of eggs in ovary, size and color of eggs, and size 
and color of the oviduct. In male frogs the size 
and color of the testes were recorded. 

For the purpose of this study the ovaries in 
females were divided into three classes based on 
the size of the oviduct. The immature frogs were 
given an oviduct size of 22 gage. The description 
of this oviduct would be clear and transparent, 
and almost thread like. The ovaries were de- 
scribed as very thin, small, with small bright 
yellow eggs. The second catagory, or 14 gage ovi- 
duct, was described as an intermediate frog and 
in some cases capable of having mature eggs. 
These oviducts range in color from creamy white 
to pinkish, creamy yellow, yellow and bright yel- 
low. These oviducts had eggs gray-black, gray, 
yellow and a few black. The third class, or 8 gage 
oviduct, grouped together frogs which were sex- 
ually mature and contained mature eggs in the 
ovaries. This oviduct was thick, ranged in color 
from creamy white to creamy orange. The eggs 
in this class were black and large, with a few 
small yellow eggs scattered throughout. After 
laying, this ovary contained a few large black 
eggs scattered throughout and many small yellow 
eggs. These eggs would probably develop into 
mature eggs the next spring. 

In the males, internal examination involved 
measuring testes by using a millimeter rule, and 
color was recorded. Externally, males were han- 
dled in the same manner as the females. 

The breeding time and peak in Southwest Lou- 
isiana was determined by examination of the re- 
productive tracts from 434 female pig frogs. In 
this area the pig frog probably breeds throughout 
the year as indicated by the number of adult 
females that were still in breeding readiness as 
late as October. 

During this study, breeding was found to take 
place from May through October, with the peak 
occurring in August. Over 50 per cent of the total 
adult female frogs examined during the month of 
August had spent ovaries. Prior to this period, 
of the adult females examined, only 8.8 per cent 
had spent ovaries or had eggs loose in the body 
cavity which probably would be laid within a 
24-hour period. During September and October 



211 



39 per cent and 23 per cent respectively had 
spent ovaries. 

Minimum breeding size of female frogs was 
found to be 10 inches total length. However, the 
majority of the females examined exceeded the 
10 inch size class, and were grouped into the 11 
to 14 inch size class. The average weight of 434 
female frogs was found to be 287 grams. 

The minimum breeding size of males, based on 
the color and size of testes, was found to be 10 
inches total length, although some of the 9 to 10 
inch male frogs could be capable of fertilizing 
mature eggs. All males with testes size greater 
than 5 millimeters, and a color ranging from 
creamy yellow, and yellow, to pale yellow were 
considered sexually mature. The average weight 
of 110 males examined during this study was 
found to be 263 grams. 

Gonad development in males, based on testes 
size and color without examination of sperm, was 
found to be an ineffective method of separating 
adult males from immature males. There was a 
great deal of overlap in the color comparison, and 
the sample size of frogs ranging below 9 inches 
total length was quite small. Testes measure- 
ments did show a size difference between the 
organs in the same individual. This difference 
varied as little as 0.1 millimeter in some frogs 
to as much as 1.0 millimeter in others. Possibly 
this smaller testes was non-functional. 

Frogs were collected from two areas; one area 
located south of the Intracoastal Canal, and known 
as the "Big Burn" ; the second area was located 
just east of Money Island near Grand Chenier. 
The Big Burn is a freshwater marsh with large 
bays and ponds and scattered floating turf. The 
vegetation found here was mainly bull tongue 
(Sagittaiia sp.) , four square {Eleocharis quad- 
rangulata) , scattered clumps of bullwhip (Scirpus 
calif amicus) , and wiregrass (Spartina patens). 
Frogs were located around the edges of the float- 
ing turf. Cover was scarce in this area and frogs 
were found to be very scattered. The second area 
was mainly a wiregrass and bull tongue marsh 
with scattered ponds and potholes. Because of 
the concentrations of frogs found in the study 
area, the Big Burn study area was abandoned. 
Water levels remained constant throughout the 
entire study, and ranged between a few inches in 
some ponds to several feet. These marshes are 
subject to annual drying, but due to the heavy 
rains during the summer of 1966, remained 
flooded. 

Biotelemetry of Alligators 

For the past several years intensive studies 
have been conducted on the life history of the 
alligator here on Rockefeller Refuge in order to 
formulate management practices for this species. 
The alligator population has declined to where it 
is found only in good numbers on the refuges lo- 



cated throughout the state. Also, large privately 
owned tracks of land possess sizable alligator 
population. 

E. A. Mcllhenny (The Alligator's Life History, 
Christopher Publishing House, Boston, 79 pp.) 
estimated that 3 million alligators were marketed 
in Louisiana between 1880 and 1933. The alligator 
take between 1939 through 1955 showed only 
314,404 marketed hides. Today the season is 
closed statewide in Louisiana on alligators in 
order to afford them all the necessary protection 
to stage a comeback. 

This decline in the alligator population was 
brought about by several factors, such as severe 
droughts and excessive hunting. Also, the hides 
were in great demand and the price paid at times 
exceeded six dollars per linear foot. This all added 
to an exploit of the total statewide population. 

Very little information is available in the litera- 
ture regarding the management of the alligator, 
and information is needed on the reproductive 
success, habitat preference, and nest predation 
before definite plans can be formulated for the 
management of these reptiles. 

A nesting study has been set up on Rockefeller 
Refuge in order to determine some of the factors 
associated with nesting alligators. The use of tele- 
metry will add the necessary information on the 
management of the female during the incubation 
period. By daily monitoring the female, we will 
be able to determine her home range, and also 
be in a position to better understand the habitat 
requirements needed to manage this species prop- 
erly. 

The objectives of the Biotelemetry study are : 

1. To determine the location, size and shape of 
the home range of nesting female alligators. 

2. To determine the habitat requirements and 
preferences of the nesting female. 

3. To determine the daily activity of the nest- 
ing female under natural conditions. 

Radio tracking of alligators is still in the plan- 
ning stages here at Rockefeller Refuge and we 
are now in the process of purchasing the radio 
tracking gear. A purchase order has been issued 
to Sidney L. Monkusen, Electronic Specialties, of 
Esho, Minnesota, for the necessary tracking 
transmitters and receivers. The field studies will 
begin on this project during the spring and sum- 
mer of 1968. 

Alligator Nesting Study 

Rockefeller Refuge comprises about 85,000 
acres of coastal marshland of which 25,000 acres 
are under an impoundment system of manage- 
ment. These marshes provide excellent nesting 
habitat for alligators, although certain marsh 
types are preferred over others. Information is 
needed on the factors associated with reproduc- 
tion such as; nesting success, nest predation and 
habitat preference before definite plans can be 
formulated for the management of these reptiles. 



212 



Very little is known about the life history and, 
in the past, management on the alligator was 
limited to regulating the harvest. During the sum- 
mer of 1965, observations were made of alligators 
nesting on Rockefeller Refuge, and a study began. 
The objectives of the study were : 

1. To determine the activity of the females dur- 
ing the breeding season, incubation, and 
caring for the young. 

2. To determine the nesting temperature in- 
side and outside the nest. 

3. To determine the preferred nesting habitat, 
nest dimensions, number of eggs present in 
each nest, and reproduction success. 

4. To determine the kind and amount of preda- 
tion on alligator eggs and other types of 
nest losses. 

The alligator nesting season began on Rocke- 
feller Refuge as early as June 9, 1966, with one 
nest being found in Impoundment 15, although the 
bulk of the nesting did not occur until June 25th 
to June 30th, 1966. At this time 72 nest were 
located on Rockefeller Refuge with 76.4 per cent 
located in the natural marsh, 15.2 per cent were 
found in the impoundment marsh, and 7 per cent 
were found on the levees. The 1967 nesting season 
was completed by June 15th and no new nest 
were found after this date. This earlier nesting 
could be attributed to the early spring which 
brought average temperatures of 7° and 6" warm- 
er for the months of March and April in 1967 
as compared to the 1966 temperatures. Sixty-three 
nest were located during the 1967 study with 
82.5 per cent being located in the natural marsh, 
11.1 per cent were found in the impounded marsh 
and 6.4 per cent found on the levees. 

For locating alligator nest, an airplane and 
marshbuggy equipped with radio communications 
were used. When an alligator nest was located 
communication was made with the marshbuggy, 
and the ground crew would then locate and flag 
the nest. After the nests were located, weekly 
checks were made throughout the incubation peri- 
od. Information recorded from each nest consisted 
of nest location, marsh type, number of eggs 
present, nest dimension, egg cavity dimensions. 




Alligator eggs in the process of hatching. Note the 
longitudinal and diagonal cracks. 



vegetation used in the nest construction, size of 
the female, presence of the female, distance of the 
nest to permanent water, date eggs hatched, water 
level in the marsh, water salinities, distance to 
other alligator nest, per cent of eggs hatched, and 
predation on nest. 

There was great variation in the size of the 
nest with the largest being 80 inches wide and 
90 inches long and as high as 29 inches from the 
marsh floor. The average nest found was 59.4 
inches in diameter and 21.8 inches high. Also, 
there was considerable variation in the number 
of eggs present in each nest. Of the 125 nest 
examined during the summer of 1966 and 1967 
the average number of eggs found was 36.5, 
ranging from 7 to 57. During 1966 over 38 per 
cent of these nest contained eggs that were 
cracked with no embryonic development present. 
This varied from 1 to as many as 19 eggs in a 
nest. During 1967, as many as 47 eggs were 
found cracked in a single nest. These eggs were 
evidently cracked by the female during the laying 
process. The majority of the nesting females were 
in the 6 to 8 foot size class (hind foot measure- 
ments taken from tracks of female and related 
to total length). One female was captured at the 
nest site and measured 68-1/4 inches (total 
length). This was the smallest female found to 
have nested during this study, with 28 eggs pres- 
ent in the nest. 

Wiregrass was the dominate plant species on 
Rockefeller Refuge and all nest found were con- 
structed from this material. 

Hatching began as early as August 24 during 
the 1966 study and as early as August 8th for 
1967. Hatching was completed on all nests in 25 
to 30 days when the last remaining young were 
liberated from their respective nest. 

Of the 60 nests followed throughout the incu- 
bation period, 58.3 per cent hatched successfully, 
13.3 per cent were destroyed by predators, 10 
per cent had no eggs present, 10 per cent were 
infertile, and 8.4 per cent were practically in- 
fertile. 

Wiregrass Control 

Several methods of controlling undesirable 
plant species in the coastal marshes of Rockefeller 
Refuge have been investigated. These methods in- 
clude chemical, biological, and physical controls. 
One biological control developed in a study com- 
pleted recently on Rockefeller Refuge was the 
burning and flooding of wiregrass (Spartina 
patens). This was a joint study between the 
Louisiana Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit and 
the Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries Commis- 
sion. With the information gained from this study 
a burning and flooding program was initiated on 
a small impoundment on Rockefeller Refuge. 

In 1963, a levee was placed across the south 
quarter of Lake 2 for the purpose of creating a 



213 




This marsh tiller has been used experimentally to 
cultivate fire breaks and also reduce undesirable 
plant species in the marsh. 

dewatered goose pasture. Since that time a 24- 
inch pumping unit has been installed in this area 
and provides water control over approximately 
220 acres of marshland. This was a dense wire- 
grass marsh which provided little area for ducks 
and geese. In January of 1967, this area was de- 
watered, followed by a burn about one week later. 
Approximately 80 per cent of this area was 
burned. The levee was cut and the area flooded 
with about 1-1/2 feet of water. The water was 
held over this area for approximately a 4-month 
period. Some sprouting of wiregrass occurred dur- 
ing this time, but this took place above the water 
level, and the rate of sprouting was noticed to in- 
crease in the spring. During this time the water 
levels began to receed although a minimum 
amount of sprouting was noticed to take place. It 
was estimated that approximately 35 to 40 per 
cent of the wiregrass that was flooded had been 
killed. This practice has also increased the leafy 
three cornered grass (Scirpus robiistus) in this 
marsh. Also, spike rush (Eleocharis parvala) and 
Bacopa was noticed invading the flooded area. All 
of these plants are good wildlife food plants. 



Botul 



ism 



An outbreak of botulism occurred in Impound- 
ments 8 and 13 on Rockefeller Refuge in August, 
1966, with the heaviest toll being taken in Im- 
poundment 13. Botulism has occurred in this gen- 
eral area on several occasions in the past years. In 
1961 over 500 ducks were found sick and dying 
and again, in 1965, 25 sick and dead mottled 
ducks (Anas fulvigula) were found to have this 
sickness. 

In August, 1966, 50 mottled ducks were found 
sick and dying, along with 15 immature little 
blue herons (Florida caerulia) found dead, and 
several young black neck stilts (Rimantopus mexi- 
canus) found sick. This condition existed for only 



a short period of time, as most of the birds were 
generally in the same state of decomposition. Sev- 
eral sick mottled ducks showed typical botulism 
symptoms, such as loss of support of the head and 
neck muscles, also the membrane that normally 
snaps across the eye to keep it moist and clean 
functioned sluggishly or not at all. 

The Impoundments 8 and 13 only partially dried 
during the summer of 1966 due to the heavy rain- 
fall. As these areas became exposed, the moist 
soil served as an ideal media for the production 
of the botulism organism. As the area was re- 
flooded it became attractive to waterfowl as a 
feeding area, and this toxin-containing material 
was consumed while feeding. Although rails 
(Raihts sp.) and common gallinule (Gallinula 
chloropus) were present in this area none were 
found with this disease. This is probably due to 
the feeding habits of these birds. 

Brush Control 

A study was conducted on Rockefeller Refuge 
in order to study the effects of certain chemicals 
on Baccharis halimifolia on the levee systems. 
Three one-mile test plots were selected which had 
almost pure stands of Baccharis, along with ros- 
eau cane, Plirag mites communis and wiregrass, 
Spartina patens. Aerial spraying was done in the 
fall of 1966 and in the spring of 1967. A mixture 
of 2-4-D and 2-4-5-T esters were used at a rate 
of 5 gallons acid equivalent per acre. At the time 
of spraying, Baccharis was matured and ranged 
in height from 5-7 feet, and, in some cases 4-5 
inches at the base. This plant was in full flower 
at the time of the fall treatment, and full-leaf 
stage at the time of the spring treatments. 

Baccharis affords little food or cover for wild- 
life, and, with its dense canopy, the shading ef- 
fect prohibits plant growth at the ground level. 
Along access channels used daily by oil companies 
and others, the resulting wave wash from boats 
has greatly increased erosion rates. On one study 
plot it was estimated that over 50 per cent of the 
levee had been lost clue to wave action caused by 
daily boat traffic. Without the Baccharis a suit- 
able grass cover could be established which would 
help reduce the erosion. 

Test plot number one was treated with 3 pounds 
of 2-4-D and 1 pound of 2-4-5-T ester along with 
a wetting agent, added at the rate of 1/2 gallon 
per 100 gallons total mixture, and applied at a 
rate of five gallons total mixture per acre. Test 
plot number two was treated with a mixture con- 
sisting of 2 pounds 2-4-D ester and 1-1/2 pounds 
of 2-4-5-T ester, with a wetting agent added at 
the rate of 1/2 gallon per 100 gallons total mix- 
ture, and applied at the rate of 5 gallons total 
mixture per acre. In May, of 1967, a one-third 
mile long, by 60 feet wide, plot was given a single 
treatment of 3 pounds of 2-4-D and 1 pound of 
2-4-5-T esters, along with a wetting agent, added 



214 



at the rate of 1/2 gallon per 100 gallons total 
mixture, and applied at a rate of five gallons total 
mixture per acre. Wetting agents used in this 
study were Ajax detergent and Activate # 107. 

Approximately 36 acres of Baccharis halimi- 
folia was treated with a combination of 2-4-D and 
2-4-5-T esters during the fall of 1966 and the 
spring of 1967. Also, one plot received a single 
treatment during the spring of 1967. 

Results of these treatments indicate that it may 
be possible to obtain an effective kill using a 
single treatment, providing this treatment is ap- 
plied in the spring of the year. The combination 
of fall and spring treatments obtained an average 
kill of 94.3 per cent. The fall applications failed 
to obtain a root kill, but did defoliate over 90 
per cent of the Baccharis on both test plots. The 
spring application did obtain a root kill and was 
found to be the most effective of the two appli- 
cations. The most successful results have been 
obtained on plot number one, using 3 pounds of 
2-4-D and 1 pound of 2-4-5-T esters, with a 
wetting agent, and applied at a rate of five gal- 
lons total mixture per acre. A 97.5 per cent kill 
was obtained on this plot. This area received two 
applications; the first treatment in October, 1966, 
and the second in May, 1967. Plot Number Two 
had a 90.1 per cent kill, although this plot had a 
heavy canopy. This could have reduced the effec- 
tiveness of the chemical on the understory plants. 
Results of the single treatment were 100 per cent 
effective and obtained a total root kill. 

At the present time it is too early to determine 
plant succession in the three study plots, although 
isolated sprigs of wiregrass, Pluchea, sp., and 
deer pea, Vicia ludoviciana, are beginning to make 
an appearance on these levees. 

The limited results of this study show it may be 
possible to use only one treatment of 2-4-D and 
2-4-5-T esters and obtain better than a 90 per 
cent kill, providing canopy cover is not too great. 
However, in areas of dense canopy cover, two 
applications will be necessary. 

Alligator Pen Studies 

In conjunction with the alligator nesting stud- 
ies being conducted on Rockefeller Refuge, ad- 
ditional information was needed on nest building 
and care of the nest after the eggs were laid. With 
the increased interest in pen rearing of alligators, 
pilot studies were set up on Rockefeller Refuge 
to determine the best methods of handling or 
holding alligators in pens and the factors asso- 
ciated with their nesting in captivity. In order 
to obtain this information, pen studies were set 
up to observe the daily routine of the alligators 
during incubation. 

Two 1 4 acre ponds were constructed and 
fenced with 2x4 welded wire 6 feet high, and 
a 7 foot female and 7 foot male alligators were 
released in these two ponds. A hole was cut be- 
tween the two ponds so the alligators could ex- 



change freely back and forth. However, this male 
was not accepted by the female and she immed- 
iately attacked him. Occasional attacks continued 
for a period of about two weeks and finally re- 
sulted in the death of the male. Another 6-1/2 
foot male was captured and placed in this pen, but 
again the female did not accept him. A large bull 
alligator was heard calling near this pen and on 
several occasions the female was heard answering. 
This alligator was later captured with a heavy 
seine. This alligator measured 10 feet long, 
weighed 270 pounds and was released in the pen 
with the female. The female accepted this male 
and copulation was observed on May 13, 1966. 
On June 4th, 1966 the female had begun con- 
struction on a nest on the edge of the pond bank. 
No new nest material was added until the 15th of 
June. Two bales of hay were placed near the nest 
as the vegetation was sparse in the pen, and on 
June 16th the female added some of this material 
to the nest. She made no attempt to protect the 
nest, but would hiss on our approach, although 
she would not come out of the water. On June 
22nd the nest was checked, but no eggs were 
present. On the 24th of June the female was very 
aggressive and would meet our advances to the 
nest by loud hissing and rising to all fours, but 
her advances would stop as she came to rest on 
top of the nest. The nest was opened and 40 eggs 
were found. No additional material was added 
after this date. A period of 21 days had elapsed 
from the time the nest was first seen until the 
eggs were deposited. The male had separated from 
the female during this entire period. 

From June 24th to August 28th daily checks 
were made on this nest. The female was always 
seen at the nest and remained very aggressive, 
and would come out of the water to the nest site, 
but would not approach beyond this point. On 
August 28th the eggs hatched, and the female 
removed the top part of the nest in order to lib- 
erate the young from the egg cavity. The incuba- 
tion period took 65 days to complete. The young 
from this nest were allowed to remain in the 
pond with the female. The female remained ag- 
gressive up to the end of September. She did not 
refuse food any time during the entire incubation 
period. By mid-October food was made available, 
but only a small amount was taken. The animals 
apparently were entering hibernation and had 
reduced their food consumption. 

This study was expanded in 1967 and three 
additional pens were constructed. Additional alli- 
gators were captured and released in these new 
pens. The alligators in Pen 5 were released in 
these new pens early in May of 1967. The re- 
mainder of the alligators were captured after 
the nesting season had begun. The pair of alli- 
gators, which had nested in 1966, for some un- 
known reason made no nesting attempt for 1967. 
The female in Pen 5 began construction of a small 
nest on June 15th. This female was very shy and 



215 



chose to make her nest with the material in the 
pen rather than use the added nesting material. 
On the 21st of June, 31 eggs were deposited in 
this nest. This female remained very shy through- 
out the entire incubation period and made no 
attempt to protect this nest. On September 19th 
these eggs hatched and the female returned to 
liberate the young from the nest. This nest was 
largely composed of mud and the egg cavity was 
located in the levee itself. A total of 91 days had 
elapsed from the time the eggs were found in the 
nest to the time of hatching. Only six of these 
eggs hatched, five were rotten, 10 infertile and 
10 were fully matured but dead inside the shell. 
This extended incubation period could have been 
caused by the lack of vegetation used in the nest 
construction. 

By mid-October the alligators were observed 
sunning, and several were seen enlarging their 
dens. Food was made available to them but only 
a small amount was taken. 



Waterfowl Banding 

A waterfowl banding program was started on 
Rockefeller Refuge during the winter of 1960, 
and, since its initiation, 10,939 birds were banded. 
Efforts were directed towards banding birds 
which played important roles to the hunters here 
in the state. 

During the last two years 3,195 birds were 
banded. This includes lesser scaup, pintails, mal- 
lards, mottled ducks, blue and green-winged teal, 
ringed-neck duck, gadwall, wood duck, fulvous 
tree duck, clove, coots, blue and Canada geese. 

Bird Banding — Refuge Division 

Species 1966 1967 

Lesser Scaup 1,369 727 

Pintal 78 145 

Mottled Duck 12 47 

Mallard 9 21 

Ringed-neck Duck 7 6 

Wood Duck 27 5 

Gadwall 2 1 

Blue-winged Teal 31 468 

Fulvous Tree Duck 19 11 

Green-winged Teal 8 

King Rail 1 

Dove 42 

Canada Geese 33 30 

Blue Geese 19 3 

Coot 2 56 

Shoveler 2 

Clapper Rail 11 

Virginia Rail 1 

Snipe 2 

TOTAL 1,609 X~586 

Post season banding, or banding after the 
waterfowl season has closed, usually begins on 
Rockefeller Refuge in January, and continues 
through March, depending upon weather condi- 
tion. 

Recovery rate of banded scaup was a low 2.02 
per cent. A total of 6,176 scaup were banded, 
but only 125 bands were returned 



Banding recoveries for lesser scaup showed 
65.5 per cent of the banded birds killed were 
taken in the Mississippi Flyway, and 34.5 per 
cent were killed in the Central and Atlantic 
Flyway, Alaska, Canada, Mexico. Of the 65.5 per 
cent killed in the Mississippi Flyway, 42.5 per 
cent were recovered in Minnesota, 34 per cent 
recovered in Louisiana, 10 per cent in Missouri, 
and 9 per cent in Wisconsin. Other states included 
Iowa, Alabama, and Indiana, all having recovered 
1.5 per cent of the Louisiana banded scaup. 

Lesser scaup were found to demonstrate strong 
homing tendencies to the wintering grounds. 
Birds banded during the 1963-64 and 1964-65 op- 
erations were retrapped in the same area during 
the 1966-67 banding program. This pertained 
mainly to the female lesser scaup. 

One blue-winged teal banded here in September, 
1965, was killed four months later in Columbia, 
South America. These birds are early migrants 
through Louisiana and winter in Central and 
South America. 

Bird banding work, and various studies of bird 
migration and distribution, is a cooperative pro- 
gram between the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and 
Wildlife, State Conservation Agencies, private 
groups, and the Canadian and Mexican govern- 
ments. If bird banding is to be a worthwhile 
project, many states and federal groups must 
work together. Rockefeller Refuge is just one of 
the many stations located throughout the United 
States and Canada that contributes information 
which aids in properly managing the continental 
waterfowl population. 

Cooperative Canadian Banding 

During the past decade Louisiana has sent a 
representative to Canada each year to assist in a 
cooperative duck banding project. Banding crews 
work throughout Canada during the summer in 
order to band the birds prior to their southward 
migration. 

Louisiana's representative during 1966 was 
biologist Howard H. Dupuie of the Refuge Di- 
vision. Mr. Dupuie was a member of a three-man 
crew which worked near Cochin Beach, Saskatche- 
wan. In a 5-week period this crew banded 5,062 
ducks. Species captured in largest numbers were 
blue-winged teal, mallards, and pintail. 

The recovery of banded birds at a later date 
provided valuable information on movement, mor- 
tality, longevity and so forth. 

Fishery Research 

During the last biennium, the Refuge Division 
added fisheries to its research section. Much time 
has been devoted to the establishment of projects 
on marine, sport and commercial fisheries. Em- 
phasis was placed upon commercial production 
of fishes in experimental ponds. 



216 



Atlantic Croaker and Sea Catfish 

The first experiment conducted on Rockefeller 
Refuge was a pilot study involving Atlantic 
croakers (Micropogon undulatus) and sea cat- 
fish (Galeichthys felis). This study was designed 
to determine management procedures for upcom- 
ing pond culture experiments. 

Atlantic croakers and sea catfish were placed 
in six brackish water ponds on Rockefeller Ref- 
uge. This project was conducted in cooperation 
with Dr. R. O'Neil Smitherman, Leader of the 
Louisiana Cooperative Fishery Unit, and Dr. 
James Avault, Assistant Professor of Forestry 
and Wildlife Management, Louisiana State Uni- 
versity. 

The croakers and sea catfish were obtained in 
Joseph Harbor Canal, April 2, 1966 near the Gulf 
of Mexico with a 16-foot otter trawl and im- 
mediately counted, weighed and placed in the 
ponds. Stocking rates were 1000 and 100 per acre 
respectively. Two ponds were fed on a 10 per cent 
body weight basis with amounts to be adjusted 
bi-monthly. Fertilizer was added to two of the 
ponds and the remaining two ponds were to serve 
as controls. 

All six ponds were drained in December, 1966. 
The croakers were approximately two to three 
inches long when stocked and seven to eight 
inches when harvested. Most of the croakers had 
advanced or ripe gonads when harvested. No cat- 
fish were recovered. 

Crawfish Study 

Crawfish are found the world over with over 
one hundred species being recorded in the United 
States. Louisiana alone has 29 known species 
present in the state. Two of these species are 
highly valued as a food source. The red swamp 
crawfish (Procambarus clarkii) and the white 
river crawfish (Procambarus blandingi acntiis), 
have been cultured in artificial impoundments for 
the past 20 years. 

Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries biologist re- 
ports that in 1929 there were approximately 2,000 
acres of crawfish farms in the state. Today, there 
are over 6,000 acres in five parishes alone, with 
many farms in other parts of the state not re- 
ported. Crawfish harvesting activities are great- 
est in the areas south of a line extended from 
Lake Charles to Alexandria, east to Marksville 
and down to Baton Rouge and Lake Pontchar- 
train. 

Thus far, very little is known as to the effect 
of salinity upon crawfish production. The Lou- 
isiana marshes, with over 4 million acres of land, 
offer a great potential for future crawfish farm- 
ers. However, the southern most boundary of the 
marsh contains varying amounts of salt water 
depending upon nearness to the Gulf of Mexico. 
It is the purpose of this study to evaluate craw- 



fish production in brackish water areas supple- 
menting laboratory bioassey data. 

Catfish Growth Experiment 

The increase in fish farming in hatcheries and 
impoundments in Louisiana indicates that catfish 
are most desirable to grow as food fish. Com- 
mercial fishing alone can not satisfy the rising 
demand for catfish as food and as a result, 
several southern states are conducting various 
pond culture studies. Numerous studies have been 
conducted on feeding experiments, reproductive 
needs, parasites, transporting and harvesting of 
catfish. However, only a few studies have been 
conducted involving the ecology of the species and 
among these are only limited accounts of fresh- 
water catfish studies in brackish habitats. 

Three species of catfish were obtained and 
randomly placed in nine one-tenth acre ponds on 
Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge for comparative 
growth studies. The three species selected were 
channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), blue cat- 
fish (Ictalurus furcatus) and white catfish (Icta- 
lurus catus). All fish were collected from fresh- 
water hatcheries and placed in the brackish water 
ponds with an equal amount of acclimatization. 

The fish were fed on Purina Fish Chow at a 
rate of 10 per cent body weight. Six weeks later 
the feeding rate was dropped to 3 per cent body 
weight. The ponds were sampled twice a month 
and feeding rates were adjusted accordingly. 

Salinities, at the time of stocking, ranged from 
0.9 to 1.1 parts per thousand, April 16, 1967, and 
when sampled, November 14, 1967, ranged from 
9.0 to 11.2 parts per thousand. 

Slight mortality was evident in two ponds due 
to a combination of low water, high temperature, 
and a lack of a proper water circulation system. 
These conditions joined together resulted in an 
oxygen depletion. 




HM 



Forty 1/10 acre fisheries research ponds are present- 
ly under construction at Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge. 
These are arranged in such a manner as to allow 
ponds to be filled with different concentrations of 
salinity. 



217 



Initial growth was surprisingly rapid in all 
three species. However, the research studies have 
not been completed and final growth data from 
all species have not been analyzed. 

Pompano Culture 

Pompano, one of Louisiana's valued delicacies, 
have recently been considered in pond culture 
studies on Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge. The sup- 
ply of pompano is limited seasonally, and the cost 
of obtaining them is high. The raising of pompano 
successfully in ponds could result in a year round 
supply and a new fishery industry for the state. 

Pompano are known to live on benthic or- 
ganisms, small fish and fish scraps. Growth is 
reported to be from 1 to 10 inches a year and a 
weight of one pound obtained. The life span is 
3 to 4 years. This fish may reach weights of 
6 to 7 pounds, although two have been caught 
by Louisiana fishermen weighing 5.9 pounds each. 

Pompano spawn offshore from February to 
September. April seems to be the peak month. 
Young pompano may be collected from the state's 
shores through November depending upon water 
temperatures. During low temperatures they seek 
warm water. 

Fishermen receive from $.80 to $1.25 a pound 
for pompano and the fish will retail for $.89 to 
$1.53 per pound. 

The objectives of this study are as follows: 

1. To determine the production per acre, the 
susceptibility to disease, food conversion, 
survival and general desirability of pom- 
pano (Trachinotus carolinus) produced in 
brackish water ponds. 

2. To develop methods of management and 
harvest to produce maximum yields of pom- 
pano in impounded coastal, brackish waters. 

This study is being conducted in cooperation 
with the Louisiana Cooperative Fishery Unit, 
Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge. Also, 
contacts were established with personnel of the 
Bureau of Commercial fisheries who are also 
conducting studies with pompano. 

Massive numbers of young pompano appeared 
off the Louisiana coast in May of 1967. At this 
time pompano were collected from Grand Isle, 
Louisiana and transported by specially equipped 
trucks to Rockefeller Refuge, Grand Chenier, 
Louisiana and stocked in ten one-tenth acre ponds 
at stocking rates previously decided upon. 

Young pompano in one of the ponds were found 
to be suffering from a ciliated protozoan similar 
to Scyphida. This evidently interferred with their 
oxygen intake. 

Additional research is necessary before any 
recommendations could be made concerning suc- 
cessful pompano culture. However, it appears that 
satisfactory growth is possible in Louisiana. Ad- 



ditional research is planned for this valuable 
species. 

Catfish Spawning 

Research has been initiated at Rockefeller 
Wildlife Refuge to establish data as to the effects 
of salinity on catfish reproduction. To date, there 
is no mention in any literature of the effects of 
salinity upon catfish. There is however, a limited 
amount of work described for other species. One 
author reports that large mouth bass and blue- 
gill will spawn in waters with salinities less than 
4.24 ppt. It is believed that catfish will react 
similarly and not spawn in waters with concen- 
trations over 3 ppt. 

Three pair of three-year-old blue catfish, three 
pair of three-year-old channel catfish, four pair 
of unknown aged albino catfish and 50 white cat- 
fish of unknown age have been obtained for brood 
stock from freshwater hatcheries and stocked in 
separate ponds. 

Water levels in ponds varied from two to five 
feet. Salinities at the time of stocking, April, 
1967, ranged from 1.3 to 1.7 ppt. The salinity in 
November, 1967 was recorded at 10.1 ppt due to 
a high rate of evaporation. 

A constant recording therometer was placed in 
one of the ponds in an attempt to correlate spawn- 
ing activity with water temperature. 

DISTRIBUTION AND RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF 

BLUE CATFISH AND CHANNEL CATFISH WITH 

RELATION TO SALINITY 

This study was conducted on Rockefeller Ref- 
uge and surrounding waters. The sample sta- 
tions were established in a tidal bayou from the 
Gulf of Mexico to Grand Lake, a large freshwater 
lake. This complex is made up of both natural 
bayous and artifically constructed canals. The 
study canals were approximately 50 feet wide and 
23.5 miles long. Water in the study areas was 
brackish with salinities ranging from 0.18 ppt 
to 35.9 ppt. The depth varied from 7 to 12 feet. 
Turbid waters were frequently present in the 
area with secchi disk readings ranging from 2 
to 13 inches. The canal bottoms were high in 
organic matter and free of rooted vegetation. 
Sample stations were placed in areas of relatively 
low, medium, and high salinity ranges. 

Gear used to capture catfish included hoop 
nets, wire traps, trammel nets, trot lines, rotenone 
and otter trawl. A 16-foot, 1/2 inch bar mesh, 
otter trawl towed for 10 minutes at each station 
demonstrated least selectivity among gears used. 

Data collected from the samples indicated that 
blue catfish were more abundant in waters with 
salinities of 3.7 ppt and below. Channel catfish 
w r ere more abundant in habitats having sea water 
concentrations less than 1.7 ppt. However, a 2:1 
ratio existed between blue and channel catfish 



218 



and they were found in waters with salinities 
ranging up to 11.4 ppt. Data collected from ro- 
tenone samples indicate that both species may 
spawn with degrees of success in waters with 
salinities of approximately 2.0 ppt. 

AGE AND GROWTH OF BLUE 
AND CHANNEL CATFISH 

Age and growth studies were conducted in an 
attempt to compare blue and channel catfish in 
the Rockefeller area. Left pectoral spines were 
removed from the catfish collected in the above 
study. The spines were removed free of tissue and 
required no special treatment. Spines were placed 
in coin envelopes with recorded information on 
species, location, total length (mm.), standard 
length (mm.), and weight (grams). 

Cross-sections of the spines were cut on a 
specially designed apparatus powered by a 110- 
volt Dremel Moto-Tool. The motor was mounted 
on a separate block from the clamp board, with 
a three inch c-clamp attached. The spine was 
placed in the clamp and the first cut removed the 
large articular process from the base of the spine ; 
the second cut was made parallel to that of the 
first. 

The cut sections were immersed in a 70 per 
cent alcohol bath immediately prior to examina- 
tion. This seemed to produce a higher degree of 
differentiation between the translucent and opa- 
que zones. 

Assuming that the increase in the radius of the 
spine was directly proportional to the growth in 
length of the fish, growth rates were computed 
for each fish. 

Age and growth data on blue catfish revealed 
six age groups. Channel catfish were found to 
grow at a rather even rate closely related to that 



of blue catfish. Four age groups of channel cat- 
fish were collected. The data is presented in the 
following tables. 

FOOD HABIT STUDY OF BLUE 
AND CHANNEL CATFISH 

Stomachs for food analysis were collected from 
fishes taken by trawls, trammel nets and trot 
lines and preserved in formaldehyde solution or 
frozen for subsequent examination. Laboratory 
food analysis were carried out according to the 
following procedure : stomach contents were 
sorted and identified, percentage volume of each 
food item was determined by volumetric displace- 
ment, and intestinal contents were also examined 
when available. 

In the blue catfish of the smallest size group 
(95-187 mm.) small invertebrates, including am- 
phipods, shrimp, insects and undetermined or- 
ganic material made up the majority of the 
stomach volume. However, amphipods and in- 
sects were barely represented in the stomach of 
the larger fish. Shrimp, crabs and fish increased 
in the intermediate size classes, reaching a maxi- 
mum consumption in the 463-722 mm. blue cat- 
fish. 

Blue catfish as small as 95 mm. contained fish 
remains, although the transition from small in- 
vertebrates to fish and macro-invertebrates 
seemed to occur when the catfish were 293 mm. 
in total length. 

Evidence from this study indicates that young 
channel catfish (up to 376 mm) had diets that 
consisted primarily of amphipods, small aquatic 
insects, algae and undetermined organic matter. 
Food of the larger catfish included the same ma- 
terial with the addition of fishes and large crus- 
tacean as in the blue catfish. 



Grand average calculated total length at the time of annulus formation of all age groups of blue catfish taken 

in 1965 and 1966 at Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge 






Age 
group 



I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

Average 

calculated 

length 

Average 

annual 

growth 

(increment) 

Number 

of 
specimens 



Year 
class 

1965 
1964 
1963 
1962 
1961 
1960 
1959 



Number 

of 

fish 


51 
91 
35 

7 

6 

3 



Average 
length 
(milli- 
meters) 



189.33 
261.90 
344.80 
438.14 
577.16 
675.66 



Calculated length of each annulus (millimeters) 

2 3 A 5 6 



106.76 
91.62 
98.11 
86.14 

102.50 
81.00 



96.71 



96.71 



193 



193 



193 



190.17 
198.85 
155.14 
211.16 
181.00 



191.28 



94.57 



142 



285.91 
273.57 
316.66 
292.33 



288.90 



97.62 



378.71 
403.83 
393.66 



390.93 



102.03 



505.33 
464.33 



491.66 



100.73 



605.00 



605.00 



113.34 



51 



16 






219 



Grand average calculated total length at the time of annulus formation of all age groups of channel catfish 

taken 1965 and 1966 at Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge 



Age 
group 



I 

II 

III 

IV 

Average 

Calculated 

length 

Average 

annual 

(increment) 

Number 

of 
specimens 



Year 

class 

1965 
1964 
1963 
1962 
1961 





Average 


'umber 


length 


of 


(milli- 


fish 


meters) 







20 


196.50 


37 


268.18 


14 


352.50 


2 


429.00 





Calculated length at each annulus (millimeters) 
1 2 3 U 



118.55 

94.29 

109.14 

109.50 



104.20 



104.20 



208.78 
193.14 
214.00 



204.85 



200.65 



288.42 
354.00 



296.62 



91.77 



379.50 



379.50 



82.88 



73 



73 



73 



53 



16 



Refuge Fish Inventory 

The objective of this study is to determine the 
species of fish present in canals, lakes and im- 
poundments of the refuge. Fish have been taken 
by means of drag seine, otter trawl, nets and ro- 
tenone. Thus far, a total of 84 species of fishes 
representing 40 families have been collected from 
waters of the refuge. Most of the species have 
been prepared and placed on display at the Rocke- 
feller Refuge office in Grand Chenier, Louisiana. 

Population Trends of Fishes on 
Rockefeller Refuge 

Monthly trawl samples have been taken on the 
refuge in an attempt to better correlate fish mi- 
grations and abundance with seasons. An otter 
trawl towed at 10-minute intervals in the prin- 
ciple gear used. However, seine stations have also 
been set up on sandy beaches between Rocke- 
feller Refuge and Sabine Lake. Fishes collected 
are recorded as to species, total length, standard 
length and weight. Salinity, pH, temperature and 
secchi reading are obtained at each sample site. 

Widgeon Grass Control in Brackish 
Water Impoundments 

Louisiana with approximately 4 million acres 
of coastal marshlands has realized the possibilities 
of utilizing coastal lands for aquiculture and other 
uses than as natural habitat for wildlife. Brackish 
water pond studies have begun on Rockefeller Ref- 
uge in an effort to provide information to the 
public as to the possibilities of using the marshes 
for fish production. Marsh levees are composed 



mostly of soft, almost fluid material. The shrink- 
age is considerable, often resulting in shallow 
pond areas which are conducive to the production 
of aquatic vegetation. Among the more trouble- 
some plants in the ponds is widgeon grass, Ruppia 
maritima. 

Control can be obtained physically by increas- 
ing turbidity, fluctuating water levels and in- 
creasing water depth in the deeper ponds. How- 
ever, a chemical control had to be used in the 
shallow ponds. Winter fertilization has been uti- 
lized to stimulate alga production and shade out 
widgeongrass. 

A potassium salt formulation of endothal-silvex 
(1.0 ppmv) was found to give control if used with 
ammonium lignin sulfonate (Orzan A) at the 
rate of 1.0 ppmv for dispersion in laboratory bio- 
asseys but was not successful under field con- 
ditions. 

Marsh Island Fisheries Research 

Mr. William H. Herke, assistant leader of the 
Louisiana Cooperative Fishery Unit, is presently 
conducting fisheries research on Marsh Island. 
His project is to determine the comparative value 
of semi-impounded Louisiana tidal marshes as 
nursery areas for fishes, shrimp and crabs. 

Originally the project was to be restricted to 
the Biloxi Public Shooting Grounds, located near 
Lake Borgne, but in 1965 Hurricane Betsy struck 
the area and pushed several feet of gulf water 
across the study area. Since it would be impossi- 
ble to know whether observed differences between 
semi-impounded areas and natural areas were 
those normally to be expected, the project was 
expanded to include Marsh Island. 



220 



Cooperative Studies 

In addition to the research projects carried out 
by the Refuge Division, the division also coop- 
erated with several other agencies in ecology 
studies on the refuges. In addition to financial 
assistance the Refuge Division provided overnight 
lodging accommodations, lab facilities, library 
facilities, equipment, equipment maintenance and 
supplies and technical assistance. 

Cooperators in this research work were the 
Louisiana Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, 
Louisiana Cooperative Fishery Unit and Louisi- 
ana State University. Participating departments 
at L.S.U. were the School of Forestry and Wild- 
life Management, Agricultural Engineering, En- 
tomology Department and the Agricultural Ex- 
periment Station. 

Breeding Behavior of Mottled Ducks 

The investigation of breeding behavior of 
mottled ducks was begun in September of 1966, 
by Jack Weeks of the Louisiana Cooperative 
Wildlife Research Unit. The purpose of the study 
was to evaluate the behavior and ecology associ- 
ated with pair formation of the mottled duck, to 
investigate the degree of territoriality and home 
range, and to compare the breeding behavior of 
mallards and mottled ducks. 

A fifty mile survey route was set up in the 
area of Rockefeller Refuge for the observation of 
behavior of wild populations and to investigate 
the time of pairing. Sex ratio and grouping data 
is also gathered on this survey. Mottled ducks 
were collected throughout the study to establish 
the time of the onset of gonadal activity. Forty 
wild-trapped mottled ducks have been placed in 
a 100 x 100 flight pen with 4 mallards for in- 
tensive evaluation of courting displays and the 
incidence of inter-specific pairing. Territoriality 
has been observed from a 70 foot tower on Rocke- 
feller Refuge. 

Telemetry equipment has been purchased for 
use in the investigation of home range size and 
movements of mottled ducks. This work began 
in February of 1968. 

Summer Food Habits of Mottled Ducks 
in Southwest Louisiana 

During the summer months of July, August, 
and September, 1967, a study was carried out, 
partially on Rockefeller Refuge, in an effort to 
determine food materials preferred by mottled 
ducks (Anas fulvigula -maculosa) in Cameron 
Parish. This study was conducted by Rodney F. 
McLean. 

Available food samples, consisting of terrestrial 
insect samples, marsh floor soil samples, and 
aquatic-life samples, were also taken to be used 
in a comparison between preferred and non- 
preferred available foods. 



Mottled ducks were collected and their crop 
contents examined, measured, and classified. 

It was determined that wigeongrass, Ruppia 
maritima, comprised the major portion of the 
foods ingested by the adult ducks. Sawgrass, 
Cladium jamaicense, was second in importance. 
The crops of immature mottled ducks, especially 
downy young, contained a majority of insect 
matter. 

Comparisons made between the percentage of 
available food materials of the area and the pre- 
ferred foods of the ducks reveal that many of the 
most available foods of the area rank very low 
in the total content of the collected crops. Only a 
few of the available species of food matter were 
utilized. Availability and preferability of foods in 
the area apparently have very little connection. 

Three Cornered Grass Study 

From June 1965 to June 1967, a study was con- 
ducted in the coastal marshes of Louisiana to de- 
termine ecological factors affecting the establish- 
ment, growth and propagation of three-cornered 
grass and leafy three-square. The study was con- 
ducted by Angelo Palmisano under the Louisiana 
Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit. 

Distribution of three-cornered grass was as- 
sociated with shallow water levels where total 
salts ranged from 10,000 to 17,000 ppm, and 
where pH varied from 4.1 to 7.9. Leafy three- 
square tolerated high salinity and more fluctu- 
ation in water level than three-cornered grass. In 
leafy three-square communities, salinities ranged 
between 12,000 and 22,000 ppm, and water depths 
varied between — 6 and +5 inches. 

Wiregrass and saltgrass displaced three- 
cornered grass and leafy three-square at higher 
elevations. Saltgrass tolerated higher salinity and 
pH values. The sedges were dormant in winter. 
Spring growth began when soil temperatures ex- 
ceeded 60°F. Three-cornered grass flowered and 
set seed by early July. Leafy three-square 
flowered later, and the seed did not mature until 
late August. 

Production of three-cornered grass seed was 
low, varying from 0.0 to 9.88 pounds per acre. 
Leafy three-square seed production was less vari- 
able and much greater than in three-cornered 
grass with production ranging from 784 to 1,874 
pounds per acre. 

Ninety-seven per cent of the rhizomes of three- 
cornered grass and leafy three-square were lo- 
cated within the upper 6 inches of soil. Rhizomes 
of wiregrass and saltgrass penetrated deeper. 

Optimum germination condition for both sedges 
alternated between 35°C with light for 14 hours 
and 20 C in darkness for 10 hours. Light was 
necessary for optimum results. Marsh fire stimu- 
lated germination slightly. Seeds of both species 
were capable of sustained floatation for 129-f 



221 



days and were capable of germinating while float- 
ing. A 50 per cent decrease in germination of 
leafy three-square was recorded between 8 ppt 
and 10.5 ppt salinity. The same reduction in 
germination of three-cornered grass was recorded 
at 4 ppt salinity. 

This study was continued in 1967 with more de- 
tailed studies on the growth requirements. These 
studies were conducted under controlled condi- 
tions in a greenhouse and were designed to de- 
termine the full effect of water levels and salinity 
on plant growth. 

Wiregrass Study 

During the period from September, 1965 to 
January, 1967, a study was conducted at Rocke- 
feller Refuge, Grand Chenier, Louisiana, and on 
the L.S.U. campus to determine the influence of 
various water depths and salinities on wiregrass 
and saltmarsh grass. The study was conducted 
by Kenneth Babcock under the Louisiana Coop- 
erative Wildlife Research Unit. 

These two grasses from both burned and un- 
burned areas were subjected to water depths and 
salinities which fluctuated with evaporation and 
precipitation and also to those which remained 
constant. Large plastic tanks were used to estab- 
lish these conditions. 

The water depths to which wiregrass and salt- 
marsh grass were subjected ranged from two 
inches below to twenty-one inches above the soil 
surface. The salinity range was from 1.47 ppt 
to 34.69 ppt. 

Both species appeared to do best at salinities 
ranging from 5 ppt to 25 ppt. At salinities lower 
than those both species were reduced, especially 
after burning. 

Wiregrass and saltmarsh grass remained domi- 
nant at water depths from slightly below to ap- 
proximately one foot above the soil surface. After 
the depth exceeded one foot, there were drastic 
decreases in the density of both species. These 
reductions were much more pronounced under 
burned conditions. 

Seed production of both species was affected 
by flooding. No seeds were produced when flood- 
ing occurred immediately after burning, and seed 
production was much lower on unburned areas 
with high water levels. 

Winter burning, followed by immediate flood- 
ing, proved to be most successful in reducing 
wiregrass and saltmarsh grass and increasing 
leafy three-cornered grass at the same time. 

Rotary Tiller Study 

Wildlife literature often mentions the need for 
cultural machinery to renovate the marsh. Actual 
field tests have shown the rotary tiller to be very 
effective in controlling or destroying undesirable 
marshland vegetation. After the undesirable 



grasses and weeds are destroyed, desirable forage 
plants must be established by seeding, sprigging, 
or by allowing seeds already present in the soil 
to become established. 

Tests were designed and conducted by Ronald 
D. Sarver to determine whether or not the tiller 
could be used to plant seeds broadcast on the sur- 
face of the marsh. If this were feasible, con- 
siderable savings would be gained by combining 
the eradication and seeding operations. 

Colored seeds were spread on strips of marsh- 
land and mixed into the soil by tilling at depths 
of two, four, and six inches for each of four treat- 
ments. The treatments consisted of "Refilled 
Burned," "Tilled Burned," "Refilled," and 
"Tilled" plots. Four-inch diameter core samples 
were taken to determine seed location after till- 
ing. Each sample was cut into one-inch segments. 
The seeds located in each segment were used to 
calculate the mixing action in the form of a 
variance. 

Results from comparing variances indicated 
that the massive root systems of the wiregrass 
plant affected the mixing action of the tiller, 
while the heavy growth of the wiregrass tops had 
a very slight effect on the mixing action. The 
highest percentage of seeds located in the top 
inch of the soil was obtained while tilling at a 
two-inch depth which is not a sufficient depth 
for destroying the wiregrass. 

Wiregrass Control Study 

A study was conducted in the Price Lake Area 
of Rockefeller Refuge, Grand Chenier, Louisiana. 
Emphasis was placed on: (1) determining the 
effectiveness of (a) burning, (b) tilling, (c) 
chemicals, and (d) combinations of burning, till- 
ing and chemicals to reduce or eliminate wire- 
grass and saltmarsh grass, (2) conducting leafy 
three-cornered grass seeding experiments, (3) 
measuring water fluctuation and determining 
water salinities, and (4) determining the effec- 
tiveness of a rotary tiller to construct fire breaks 
in the marsh. 

After one year the study revealed several im- 
portant factors. All the treatments, excluding 
burning, were effective in reducing wiregrass and 
saltmarsh grass. Burning only slightly reduced 
the number of live stems of wiregrass and ap- 
preciably increased the number of live saltmarsh 
grass stems. Chemicals and the combination of 
burns plus chemicals gave good short-term kills, 
but after nine months the effectiveness dropped 
off sharply. The combinations of (a) till, burn, 
and chemicals and (b) till and chemicals gave 
virtually a 100 per cent kill 15 months following 
initial treatment. Burn plus till and till alone 
gave 79.07 and 85.56 per cent kills of wiregrass 
after 15 months. 

The first year's work on this study was con- 



222 






ducted by Larry McNease and emphasis were 
given to brackish marsh areas. Follow-up mea- 
surements were made during the second year by 
David Soileau using the same procedure. The 
study was expanded in 1967 to include a fresh- 
water marsh and study plots were installed and 
sampled using the same technique. A marshbuggy 
equipped with an 11-foot rotary tiller was ob- 
tained to construct plots. 

Rabbit Parasites 

A study was conducted on the Rockefeller Ref- 
uge to determine the species and seasonal dis- 
tribution of arthropod parasites of wild rabbits 
in the coastal marshes. The study was made by 
E. C. Burns and J. E. Farlow of the Department 
of Entomology at Louisiana State University and 
will provide valuable information on the species 
of bots, ticks, and fleas that affect rabbits in this 
particular habitat. 

Rabbits were collected at monthly intervals and 
inspected for the presence of parasites. All in- 
formation was recorded and will be presented as 
a special report. 

Gallinule Study 

A study was made on Florida gallinules in 
Southwestern Louisiana to determine the effects 
of pesticides. The purposes of the study were to 
evaluate various levels of residue deposits of del- 
drin on the fertility, hatchability and survival of 
young gallinules in the area. 

The study was conducted by Keith Causey of 
the L.S.U. Entomology Department and involved 
periodic observations and collections of gallinule 
eggs and young. A study area was set up in the 
rice growing region in which gallinules carry 
high levels of the insecticide. Another area was 
set up on Rockefeller Refuge where a low level of 
insecticides are found. Comparisons were made 
between gallinules in the two areas. 



Wild Millet Study 

Relatively little is known regarding the ecology 
or management of three important wildlife food 
plants. A study of the ecology and management of 
millet, fall panicum, and sprangletop was begun 
in the summer of 1967. Robert J. Misso, Jr. was 
assigned to the study with John D. Newsom as 
supervisor. The objectives of the study were to 
determine the edaphic and biotic conditions neces- 
sary for optimum germination and growth. Main 
emphasis is being placed on the effects which 
salinity and fluctuating water levels have on these 
species. 

Plastic pools have been set up at Louisiana 



State University. Growth studies will be con- 
ducted in these pools to test the relationship of 
salinity and depth of water to growth and de- 
velopment of the plants. 

Seed germination studies have been initiated 
using seed collected near the Rockefeller Refuge. 
The data collected will be used in conjunction 
with the establishment of plants in the plastic 
pools. 

Field studies were begun in the spring of 1968. 
Study areas were established on which intensive 
soil, water and plant conditions will be studied. 

Horse Fly and Mosquito Host Study 

The objectives of this study were to determine 
the primary hosts from which mosquito and horse 
flies (Tabanids) obtain meals of blood in certain 
areas of Louisiana, and subsequently to evaluate 
the relative importance of both domestic and wild 
animals and birds as hosts of these blood sucking 
pests in the study area. 

The study was conducted by C. D. Steelman, 
B. H. Wilson, C. G. Richardson and R. E. Schae- 
fer of the L.S.U. Department of Entomology. The 
work consisted of collecting birds, mammals and 
amphibians in the area of Rockefeller Refuge for 
use in preparation of anti-sera to be used in the 
standard precipitin ring test for identification of 
blood in blood fed horse flies and mosquitoes. By 
identifying the blood it was possible to determine 
the host on which they had fed. Mosquitoes and 
flies were also collected on the refuge for use in 
the host study. 



Snipe Study 

In the Fall of 1967, a study was begun to de- 
vise a practical method of aging and sexing Wil- 
son Snipe from plumage characters. Other phases 
of the study were to evaluate existing methods 
of capturing snipe and attempt to develop ad- 
ditional methods. Also, snipe will be banded to 
make certain population speculations for birds 
wintering in South Louisiana. 

Snipe were collected from several areas in the 
state. After careful measurements were taken, in- 
ternal examinations were made to determine the 
sex and age of each bird. The wings were re- 
moved, mounted and tagged for further study. 

A review was made of the literature to de- 
termine methods of capture which have been used 
in the past. These will be tested and all snipe 
taken by these methods will be banded. 

The study is being made by Wade Hoffpauer 
under the Louisiana Cooperative Wildlife Re- 
search Unit. If an adequate number of birds are 
banded, certain population analysis will be at- 
tempted. 



223 



Water Pollution 
Control 
Division 

ROBERT A. LaFLEUR 

Chief 

DURING the 1966-67 biennium the Division 
of Water Pollution Control has carried the 
heaviest work load in its history although 
we have lost a significant portion of our technical 
personnel. The present staff is comprised of one 
division chief, one assistant chief, three field 
biologists, one engineer, one chemist, eight waste 
disposal investigators and one secretary. 

The division's activities are largely designed to 
serve the needs of the Louisiana Stream Control 
Commission, the state's water pollution control 
authority. The Stream Control Commission is an 
ex-officio, none-budgeted agency; all of its ex- 
penses are included in those of the Division of 
Water Pollution Control. Other state agencies on 
the commission are : the Louisiana Wild Life and 
Fisheries Commission, the Attorney General, Lou- 
isiana Department of Commerce and Industry, 
Louisiana Department of Agriculture, Louisiana 
Department of Conservation, the Louisiana State 
Board of Health, and the Acts creating the Stream 
Control Commission were amended by the 1966 
Legislature to add the Louisiana Department of 
Public Works. 

The division was engaged in the following ac- 
tivities during the 1966 calendar year : 

1. Continued a statewide water quality moni- 
toring program initiated in 1958. There are 
60 sampling points on 30 streams in the 
state; analyses for thirteen water quality 
parameters are recorded on a monthly basis. 
These data provide a continuous record of 
stream quality in the state and are referred 
to in determining whether or not a given 
stream can assimilate a waste proposed for 
discharge by an industry or a municipality. 

2. Maintained close surveillance on 47 raw 
sugar factories and refineries and streams 
receiving their waste discharges. 

3. Provided the Louisiana Stream Control 
Commission with technical information for 
five meetings. 

4. Conducted investigations of approximately 
30 fish kills — of this total only 5 were at- 
tributed to pesticides. 

5. Began gathering data for the developed 
water quality standards to comply with the 
Federal Water Quality Act of 1965. 




'^' 




ROBERT A. LaFLEUR 

Chief 

6. Conducted a biological and chemical sur- 
vey of Red River from Shreveport to Alex- 
andria. 

7. In close cooperation with the Louisiana De- 
partment of Conservation began the in- 
tensive implementation and enforcement of 
orders issued by the Louisiana Stream Con- 
trol Commission and the Department of 
Conservation requiring the cessation of oil 
field waste, especially salt water, discharge 
to public waters in Caddo Parish. To date 
it is safe to state that 90% to 95% of the 
produced oil field salt water in the Caddo 
Parish area is being disposed of subsur- 
facely. 

8. Urged support for the successful amending 
of salt water discharge control law (Title 
38, Section 16) which closed an "open sea- 
son" permitting oil field water in agricul- 
tural irrigating waters of the state. 




THOMAS GILBERT 

Assistant Chief 



224 



i 






During the 1967 calendar year the Division 
has: 

1. Investigated approximately 30 fish kills of 
which four were believed caused by pesti- 
cides. 

2. Continued the statewide water quality moni- 
toring program. 

3. Provided technical information for eight 
meetings of the Louisiana Stream Control 
Commission. 

4. Conducted an intensive monitoring and sur- 
veillance program of the streams that re- 
ceive discharges from 47 sugar factories 
and refineries. 

5. Continued, in cooperation with the Depart- 
ment of Conservation, the implementation 
and enforcement of orders requiring the 
cessation of oil field waste to the Little 
River Drainage Basin. It is estimated that 
75 to 85% of the total produced salt water 
in this drainage basin is currently being 
subsurfacely injected. 

6. Continued a concerted effort to abate oil 
pollution of coastal waters. Recently there 
have been a number of serious instances 
of significant oil pollution in Louisiana's 
coastal waters. 

7. The Division staff and the Stream Control 
Commission conducted nine public hearings 
throughout the state on water quality stan- 
dards for interstate and coastal waters in 
compliance with provisions of the Federal 
Water Quality Act of 1965. 

ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITIES 

The division staff has filed at least 15 charges 
for criminal violations of the anti-pollution laws 
during 1966-67. Most of the charges stemmed 
from violation of the salt water control law in 
the rice growing area of Louisiana. At least 250 
Notices of Determination and 100 Cease and 
Desist Orders were issued under the provision of 
the Stream Control Commission Act for violations 
of its rules, orders, and regulations. These en- 
forcement actions were initiated for a variety of 
violations, such as pollution caused by paper mills, 
chemical and petrochemical plants, food process- 
ing plants and oil production and petroleum re- 
finers. 

FEDERAL LEGISLATION 

The most significant development in the area 
of federal legislation was enactment of the Fed- 
eral Water Quality Act of 1965 (Public Law 89- 
234). This law required that the state develop 
water quality criteria or standards for all inter- 
state waters, portions thereof, and coastal waters. 
A plan for implementation and enforcement was 
also required by the law. Louisiana's pollution 
control authority complied with this act by: (1) 



Submitting a letter of intent to comply with the 
act in February 1966; (2) developing water 
quality standards for all public streams as re- 
quired; (3) developing the required plan for im- 
plementation and enforcement; (4) submitting 
water quality standards and the implementation 
and enforcement plan to the Federal Water Pollu- 
tion Control Administration, Department of In- 
terior, before July 1, 1967. 

The water quality standards and the imple- 
mentation and enforcement plan were judged un- 
acceptable by the Federal agency. In September 
1967, representatives of the Federal agency met 
with the Louisiana Stream Control Commission 
and acceptable amendments were mutually agreed 
upon. In October 1967 the Stream Control Com- 
mission officially adopted the amendments which 
were immediately submitted to the Federal 
agency. 

Of particular interest to all concerned are sev- 
eral commitments contained in the plan for im- 
plementation and enforcement: (1) all domestic 
waste must receive a minimum of secondary treat- 
ment by 1972, and (2) all industrial waste must 
receive at least secondary treatment or its equiv- 
alent and or control by the end of the 1972 
calendar year. 

The work involved in the compliance with this 
federal act has been the most arduous and time 
consuming assignment the division has ever con- 
fronted. However, stream pollution abatement 
efforts should be favorably rewarded. The water 
quality standards are enforceable by the state au- 
thority, but should the state authority default in 
this matter the standards become enforceable at 
the federal level. 

INDUSTRIAL EXPANSION 

In the last S\'-> years industrial expansion in 
Louisiana has approached 2 billion dollars of capi- 
tal outlay. During 1967 alone, industrial expan- 
sion has reached 750 million dollars. Associated 
with this expansion the Louisiana Stream Con- 
trol Commission has reviewed approximately 150 
proposals for permits to discharge wastes to Lou- 
isiana streams. Approximately 70% of the in- 
dustrial discharges were to the Mississippi River, 
20 r /r were for the highly industrialized complex 
on the Calcasieu River in the Lake Charles area, 
and the remaining 10% were on other streams, 
notably the Sabine and Red rivers. Included in 
the vast industrial influx are five new paper 
mills, two new oil refineries, five new fertilizer 
plants, and numerous chemical and petrochemical 
facilities. Such industrialization as listed will con- 
tinue to provide a tremendous challenge for tech- 
nology of control to develop new and needed 
methodology for waste treatment that is not cur- 
rently available. This challenge is especially prev- 
alent on the Mississippi River because this river 



225 



serves as the only available potable water supply 
for l'-> million people, and the river also serves 
as a nutrient source for a multi-million dollar 
sport and commercial fishing industry in the es- 
tuarine areas at its mouth. 

LOUISIANA RIVER BASINS 

Pearl River, on the state's eastern border, is 
currently in good condition for most of its course. 
The Bogalusa City sewage and paper mill dis- 
charges are being treated prior to discharge. 
Secondary treatment for the paper mill waste is 
now being planned and should be complete with- 
in the next two to three years. This waste treat- 
ment can be expected to significantly enhance the 
river's quality. 

The Bogue Chitto, Bogue Falaya, Tchefuncte, 
Tangipahoa and Amite rivers currently have good 
water quality except for sporadic complaints of 
turbidity caused by gravel mining operations in 
the Bogue Chitto, Tangipahoa and Amite rivers. 

The Mississippi River continues to carry the 
heaviest burden in the entire state. Industrial and 
domestic waste discharges are increasing at an 
almost alarming rate. The challenge of maintain- 
ing good water quality in this stream is and will 
continue to be a most complex assignment. Taste 
and odor problems are the more immediate con- 
cerns as they relate to potable water supplies. 

The Atchafalaya River is perhaps the largest 
stream with good quality water in the state. This 
situation is improving with the removal of oil 
field waste discharges that are currently being 
eliminated. 

Bayou Teche and the Vermilion River are sea- 
sonally in very poor condition because of lack of 
flow and heavy waste loads that the streams are 
incapable of assimilating during low flow periods. 

The Mermentau River received relatively little 
man-made waste, water quality is as good as 
could be expected in the tidally affected stream. 
Some instances of oil field waste pollution have 
been recorded. 

The Calcasieu River is another stream on which 
heavy industrialization has occurred in the past 
two years. Water quality degradation due to 
waste discharges and tidal affects is and will con- 
tinue to be a matter of serious concern. 

The Sabine River currently has good water 
quality. However, industrialization of this basin 
and flow regulation in association with the Toledo 
Bend Dam have the potential of causing problems 
in the near future. 

Red River has for many years served little pur- 
pose except as a drainage basin. Its waters are 
affected by naturally occurring salt flats up- 
stream from Louisiana. Attempts are now being 
made to control this phenomena. Within the past 
two years some industrialization has begun to 



occur on this stream, including two paper mills, 
one detergent plant and three metal plating and 
chemical plants in the Shreveport area. 

The Ouachita River has shown much improve- 
ment as a result of salt water discharge reduc- 
tions from Arkansas and Louisiana and installa- 
tion of treatment facilities for industrial paper 
mill wastes at West Monroe and domestic waste 
from West Monroe. There is intermittent water 
discoloration caused by paper mill waste in 
Arkansas. 

Bayou Beouf, Bayou Macon, the Tensas and 
Black rivers have good water quality and no deg- 
radation of the quality is envisioned at this time. 

Little River water quality has been greatly en- 
hanced by the reduction of oil field brines pre- 
viously discharged to this stream. Continued im- 
provement is expected. 

Dugdemona River has been the recipient of a 
very intensive biological and chemical survey 
conducted by the division biologist located in 
Monroe, Louisiana. At present high color result- 
ing from treated paper mill waste discharge to 
this stream seems to be a limiting factor of fish 
production. A federal research grant to determine 
methodology and feasibility of color removal from 
paper mill discharges has been applied for by this 
paper mill. 

Technical Investigations 

Thomas J. Gilbert, Assistant Chief; Louis R. 
Kuss, Chief Chemist; James S. Mathis, Chemist; 
Darrell B. Reed, Engineer; Jacob P. Yelverton, 
Biologist; John Dale Givens, Biologist, and 
Thomas L. Bradley, Biologist. 

Waste Disposal Investigators 

Rene L. Bourriague; Warden C. Dixon; Elwood 
W. Goodwin; Albert E. Howard; Percy A. Paul; 
Larry D. Racca; Lubert L. Reed; and Leslie J. 
Sewell. 

As stated previously, the technical staff of this 
division faced its greatest challenge to date dur- 
ing 1966 and 1967 — setting water quality stan- 
dards, fair to all water users. We feel that we 
have met this challenge and the inherent multi- 
purpose use of Louisiana waters has been assured 
by the water quality standards. The means to en- 
force these standards are now a recorded fact. 

Incumbent on this division is not only a sound 
knowledge of the quality of waters in our state, 
but also a knowledge of the effects of any and all 
discharges to state water bodies. To reckon with 
these responsibilities, the nucleus of the division 
has been built around two large, well equipped 
biological and chemical laboratories located on 
the campus of Louisiana State University, Baton 
Rouge, Louisiana. Chemical and biological analy- 
ses are conducted on various samples submitted 



226 



by investigating teams, waste disposal investi- 
gators, individual citizens and many industries. 

Data obtained from the laboratory tests are in- 
terpreted and evaluated by our technical staff. 
Conclusions and recommendations are then for- 
warded to members of the Louisiana Stream Con- 
trol Commission and to the individual or industry 
concerned. 

The major questions confronting this organi- 
zation are : 

1. What effect will the discharge of a given 
volume of a specific waste product have 
upon the physical, chemical and biochemical 
properties of a stream? 

2. What type of corrective treatment is neces- 
sary before said waste can be discharged 
into a stream? 

3. How long will it take a given stream to re- 
cover from the discharge of this waste? 

Some of the various types of waste materials 
which are submitted for analyses are : 

1. Oil residues and phenolic wastes from pe- 
troleum and chemical industries. 

2. Any substance thought to contain pesticide 
residues. 

3. Gravel pit washings. 

4. Process and wash water from sugar mills, 
pulp and paper mills, and food processing 
plants. 

5. Oil drilling muds and salt water brine from 
petroleum production fields. 




Routine water quality analyses are performed by 
division chemists in this portion of the laboratory. 



6. Sewerage plants, oxidation ponds, and sep- 
tic tank influents and effluents. 

7. Wash waters, spoiled fluids, and paunch 
contents from slaughter and packing houses. 

It can readily be seen from the above that an 
enormous variety of substances are being intro- 
duced into our waters, both organic and inor- 
ganic. 

The most desirable method of treating wastes 
is to recover these wastes for use or reuse. 
However, in the majority of cases this is not 
economically feasible. Therefore, the primary 
requisite in solving a pollution problem or in 
selecting a method of treatment prior to dis- 
charge is knowledge of the physical state and 
chemical composition of the waste in question. 

The fundamental parameter used in determin- 
ing the relative condition of a stream, its ability 
to maintain a suitable aquatic fauna, is its dis- 
solved oxygen content. The dissolved oxygen 
(DO) is generally determined using the sodium 
azide modification of the Winkler Method. 

The most important single determination used 
for analyses of decomposable organic matter by 
means of aerobic biochemical action is referred 
to as the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD). 
This BOD analysis furnishes the investigator with 
a means of determining the amount of oxygen re- 
quired by microorganisms (bacteria) to decom- 
pose (stabilize) a given amount of waste matter. 
The numerical value of this test is usually ex- 
pressed in parts of oxygen per million parts of 
waste material. 

Briefly, the procedure used in carrying out a 
BOD analysis is as follows: Various quantities 
of the sample to be tested are prepared in dupli- 
cate. These are then mixed with water which has 
been saturated with oxygen (dilution water). The 
dissolved oxygen (DO) is immediately determined 
on one-half of these samples. The remaining half 
of the duplicate samples are placed in a constant 
temperature room where they are allowed to in- 
cubate for five days at 20°C. After this period 
of incubation the residual dissolved oxygen is then 
measured and the BOD values are computed. 

The data obtained from BOD and DO analysis 
make it possible to calculate, with a fair degree 
of accuracy, the ability of a stream to assimilate 
wastes of different composition. There are, of 
course, many other factors that must be taken 
into consideration, such as: (1) thoroughness 
with which the waste is mixed with water; (2) 
changes in the solubility of oxygen in water with 
changes in temperature, the former increasing as 
the latter decreases; (3) lowered microbial ac- 
tivity with a decrease in temperature; (4) rate 
of flow of the receiving stream; (5) changes in 
the solubility of oxygen in water with an increase 
of soluble salts; (6) variations in the concen- 
tration of waste matter. 

Industries concerned with inorganic waste 



227 




Staff member prepares waste sample for BOD 
analysis. 

products have a problem of a somewhat different 
nature. Normally, inorganic wastes are not sub- 
jected to any biological treatment because of their 
relatively inert nature as a substrate for micro- 
bial development. In addition, the discharge of 
these wastes, because of their high alkalinity, 
acidity, or toxicity on microorganisms, may so 
upset the natural balance of life in waters that 
natural biological purification cannot progress 
normally. Therefore, these wastes are usually 
controlled by physical or chemical separation or 
subsurface injection. 

As a result of the many technologic advances 
which have come forth during the last few years, 
we have been forced not only to change our way 
of living, but thinking as well. Modern instru- 
mentation has provided us with the necessary 
means of detecting concentrations of materials 
never before thought possible, consequently, sub- 
stances once thought to be free of contamination 
can now be shown to contain harmful materials. 
This is vividly exemplified by the current em- 
phasis on pesticides and pesticide residue analysis. 

Pesticides, by virtue of application methods, 
both direct and indirect, come into contact with 
just about all things injested by man and animals. 
The isolation and identification of a particular 
pesticide presents many problems to workers in 
this field. Generally, the major problems en- 
countered are as follows : (a) Selection of a suit- 
able solvent, one in which only the pesticide is 
soluble and it itself being easily reduced in volume 
without subsequent loss of the pesticide, (b) Re- 
moval of any interfering substances. 

Significant quantities of a pesticide are gen- 
erally extracted or concentrated by means of 
liquid-liquid extraction techniques. This is ac- 
complished by adding small quantities of a se- 
lected organic solvent into a aliquot of the con- 
taminated sample. This mixture is then agitated, 
stirred or shaken, depending upon the vessel used, 
so that all of the organic solvent comes into con- 
tact with all of the water phase. The layers are 
allowed to separate and the organic fraction is 
removed. (The pesticide being soluble in the or- 
ganic solvent leaves the water and concentrates 



itself in the organic solvent.) This extraction pro- 
cedure is repeated twice more; the organic ex- 
tracts are combined and then reduced in volume 
by evaporation. This concentrated fraction can 
now be subjected to various specialized methods 
in an attempt to remove any interfering sub- 
stances. Some of the procedures used to remove 
these impurities are: (a) acetonitrile partition- 
ing, (b) column chromatography using a Florisil 
column, (c) column chromatography using a mix- 
ture of Magnesium Oxide and Celite, and (d) 
saponification. 

Following the "cleanup" procedures the extract 
is reduced to a suitable volume (approximately 
0.01 ml) and is then injected into the gas chroma- 
tograph. 

Gas Chromatography is a physical method of 
separation in which the components to be sepa- 
rated are distributed between two phases, liquid 
and gas. Separation depends on the relative af- 
finity of the immobile phase for the various pesti- 
cides. Simply stated, a gas chromatography 
functions as follows: (1) A carrier gas (mobile 
phase) is introduced under pressure so that it will 
flow through a packed column. This carrier gas 
is an inert gas and its rate of flow through the 
column is controlled by various devices such as 
pressure regulators and rotameters. (2) The 
columns are nothing more than small diameter 
tubes which have been packed with a sorbent. 
This sorbent material is composed of an inert 
material such as diatomaceious earth (Solid Sup- 
port) which has been previously coated with a 
non-volatile substance such as Dow-Corning high 
vacuum grease. (Liquid Phase.) 

When a sample containing a mixture of com- 
ponents is injected into the moving gas stream, 
the various components pass through the column 
at different rates depending on their respective 
volatilities and interactions (adsorption) with 
the substances contained in the column. There- 
fore, the various components leave the column at 
different time intervals. As each component leaves 
the column it is carried to a highly sensitive elec- 
tron capture detector. The detector produces an 
electronic signal which is recorded on a chart. 

Identification and quantitation of a component 
is accomplished by comparing the retention time 
and peak height of the substance in question with 
the retention time and peak height of a pure com- 
pound. 

Frequently, the results obtained from a par- 
ticular column are confirmed by reinjection (sam- 
ple size permitting) into a column containing a 
different substrate, thereby, obtaining different 
retention times. 

Thin layer chromatography, routinely used, not 
only provides us with another confirmatory 
method but also provides an excellent cleanup and 
separation procedure. This method makes it possi- 
ble for us to measure and identify relatively pure 



228 







A constant flow bioassay technique is used to de- 
termine the toxicity of pesticides. 

compounds with a minimum of interference. Of 
particular importance is the frequent separation 
of components having approximately equal re- 
tention times. 

Thin layer plates are prepared by making a 
slurry of water and some selected substrate such 
as Silica Gel G, Alumina G, etc., which also con- 
tains a binding agent. The slurry is applied over 
200 mm x 20 mm glass plates using a variable 
thickness spreader. After the plates have set they 
are dried in an oven and stored for future use. 

Using a lambda syringe or pipette, the extracts 
are spotted along the base line of the plate. Se- 
lected standards are applied in a like manner. 
During this application procedure a gentle stream 
of air aids in evaporating the solvent in keeping 
the spot to a minimum size. 

The spotted plate is now put in a tank in such 
a manner that the lower edge of the plate is in 
contact with the organic solvent therein. The sol- 
vent is allowed to travel up to the top reference 
line, a distance of 10 cm; then the plate is re- 
moved and the solvent allowed to evaporate. A 
chromatogenic agent such as Rhodamine B in 
alcohol is sprayed over the plate which is then 
exposed to an ultra-violet light source. Within 
minutes those areas of the plate containing heavy 
concentrations will flouresce. The zone of travel 
of an extract is sectioned in relation to the posi- 
tion of the standards on the plate. The substrate 
in each suspected zone is removed from the plate 
by vacuum and retained in an eye dropper plugged 
with glass wool. The extract contained in this 
fraction is eluted from the substrate with a small 
quantity of organic solvent; is reduced to a suit- 
able volume and injected into the gas chromato- 
graph. Again, the retention times and peak 
heights obtained are compared with the standards 
to verify the identity and concentration of the 
pesticide present. 

The introduction of thin layer and gas chroma- 
tography into this laboratory has made it possible 
for us to separate, identify and quantitate nano- 
gram (10 _o g) concentrations. 



The IR-5 Infrared Spectrophotometer has 
played a major role in our analyses, particularly 
so in the identification of oils and oil based muds. 
The majority of complaints originate with oyster 
farmers in the coastal areas; others come from 
individuals who live in oil producing areas. To- 
day's analytical procedures make it relatively easy 
to extract, cleanup, and identify oil residues from 
both mud and water samples. 

Another form of analysis frequently used by 
this organization is the bioassay. This technique 
provides valuable information on the properties 
of a particular waste product. The methods that 
we use are based on two concepts : ( 1 ) The sub- 
stance itself may actually be toxic to fish. (2) 
The second concept is somewhat indirect in that 
although the substance may not in itself be toxic 
to fish it may prove to be detrimental if it is 
capable of interrupting the necessary food cycle. 

The procedure for conducting a bioassy is as 
follows: (a) The test animals are acclimated to 
laboratory conditions. (Blue Gills are used in test- 
ing for direct toxicity.) (b) Testing vessels are 
set up containing a good grade of distilled water 
to which various mineral salts have been added, 
(c) Various concentrations of the substance to 
be tested are added to the vessels over a wide 
range, (d) Observations are made over 24, 48, 
and 96 hour periods. 

The results of the bioassy are usually reported 
as a 24 to 48 hour TLm, that is, the concentration 
of the substance which will kill 50 per cent of the 
test organisms in a given period of time. These 
results are of great value in determining the 
maximum concentration that a healthy fish com- 
munity in a stream may be expected to tolerate. 

OIL FIELD POLLUTION ABATEMENT 
ACTIVITIES 

One of the major pollution problems that has 
existed for many years is caused by oil field 
waste discharge. This waste is primarily salt 
water accompanied by waste oil. The use of sub- 
surface injection wells and good housekeeping 
practices has increased significantly during the 
past several years. As a result many of the long 
existing serious pollution problems have been 
markedly reduced and or eliminated. 

For many years stream pollution caused by oil 
field brine discharge in Southwest Louisiana was 
covered by a statute prohibiting salt water dis- 
charges during the agricultural irrigation season; 
however, this statute also provided for an "open 
season" during which the discharge of salt water 
and other oil field waste were permitted from 
October to January of each year. The 1966 Legis- 
lature amended the Act by eliminating the "open 
season." This legislative action has greatly facili- 
tated the control of oil field waste pollution in 
Southwest Louisiana. 



229 



tmm 




Automated brine disposal system for subsurface in- 
jection. 

Surveys of oil fields in North Louisiana (Caddo 
Parish) and thirteen fields in Central Louisiana 
(Little River Drainage Basin) were made to de- 
termine precise quantities of salt water being dis- 
charged to public waters. Subsequently, similar 
orders were issued by the Louisiana Stream Con- 
trol Commission and the Louisiana Department 
of Conservation prohibiting salt water discharges 
to public waters. In September 1966 rigid en- 
forcement of these orders was begun as a joint 
effort by field personnel with the Louisiana De- 
partment of Conservation and the Division of 
Water Pollution Control, Louisiana Wild Life and 
Fisheries Commission. The Louisiana Conserva- 
tion Department through administrative au- 
thority has suspended permits to transport pro- 
duced oil while the Louisiana Stream Control 
Commission has issued orders to cease and desist. 
These actions have resulted in a very marked 
abatement of salt water pollution in the areas 
involved as well as better housekeeping practices. 

Many problems remain relative to subsurface 
injection, such as: (1) difficulty in injection op- 
eration caused by "plugging" of salt water strata ; 
(2) mechanical failure of equipment due to cor- 



rosion by salt water and difficulty arising from 
disagreement by operators in using unitized wells. 
The data tabulated reflects the sharp decline in 
salt concentration in the Little River Drainage 
Basin which previously was seriously contami- 
nated with oil field brine, but is now approaching 
fresh water characteristics. 

FIELD ACTIVITIES IN 
SOUTHWEST LOUISIANA 

Duties of division personnel in Southwest Lou- 
isiana have greatly increased along with the never 
ending search for oil and the current industrial 
expansion. 

Although use of chlorinated hydrocarbons, 
especially Endrin, is being reduced, the organic 
phosphates that are replacing them are causing 
new problems in cane growing areas. There are 
no practical means of detecting these compounds 
in the extremely low concentrations which can be 
lethal to fish. 

Activities of field personnel during 1966-1967 
have included the following : 

1. Investigated numerous fish kills due to field 
run-off from agricultural pesticide appli- 
cations. 

2. Determined that the cause of a large fish 
mortality in St. Martin Parish was due to 
oxygen depletion resulting from the loss of 
a high BOD material by a sweet potato can- 
ning operation. 

3. Investigated four fish mortalities in the 
Lake Charles industrial complex and de- 
termined that an ammonia bleed line was 
increasing the pH of the water to a lethal 
level. The industry involved has relocated 
the line and no further incidents have oc- 
curred. 

4. Determined the cause of two fish mortalities 
on Bayou D'Inde to be DO depletions result- 



CHLORIDE CONCENTRATION (ppm) 

Little River 

November 1965-November 1967 

Sander's Landing 
(2 Miles upstream 
from Catahoula Lake) Jan. Feb. Mar. April May June July 



370 



365 



196& 

1966 
1967 


415 
117 


12 
182 


218 
98 


Little River Crossing 
1965 








La. Highway 8 
1966 
1967 


455 
116 


12 
215 


28 
123 



May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


251 
52 


480 
28 


765 
76 


1,825 
275 


975 

238 


1,400 
352 


6,350 
615 

285 

5,475 


675 
515 

3,050 


36 
52 


108 
22 


765 
85 


2,175 
315 


950 
255 


1,425 
425 


1,125 
340 


705 



230 




Severely polluted water body in the Baton Rouge 
area. 

ing from the breakdown of high BOD 
wastes. 

5. Maintained close surveillance of the 250 
producing oil and gas fields in this portion 
of the state. 

6. Inspected discharge from the 14 raw sugar 
factories. 

7. Maintained routine surveillance of all in- 
dustrial discharges permitted by the Lou- 
isiana Stream Control Commission. 

8. Initiated criminal proceedings against 10 oil 
operators under RS 38 :216 for willfully per- 
mitting waste oil and oil field brine to be 
discharged to streams used for agricultural 
irrigation. Six of these charges have re- 
sulted in guilty pleas by the operators and 
they were fined without going to trial. The 
remaining four are pending trial. 

9. Conducted a preliminary survey of the 
lower Calcasieu River and determined that 
an intensive ecological and chemical survey 
of the area is needed to locate all sources 




of pollution and determine what can be done 
to bring about abatement. 

10. Furnished rice and crayfish farmers with 
water chemistry data on their irrigation 
water to reduce the possibility of irrigating 
with polluted water. 

11. Conducted limited aerial surveillance of 
coastal as well as inland oil producing areas 
and determined the need for increased sur- 
veillance of this type. 

12. Cooperated with an oil company in perform- 
ing experiments to determine if waste water 
originating from drilling operations could 
be treated and then safely discharged. 




Typical view during aerial surveillance providing 
rapid coverage of large areas. 



Aerial view of gravel mining operation provides for 
rapid identification of pollution source. 

The need for increased aerial surveillance has 
been anticipated and pilot certification of a mem- 
ber of our staff is expected to be of value in this 
area. 

Delivery of the new patrol and survey craft for 
the Lake Charles area will greatly facilitate the 
proposed biological and chemical survey of the 
lower Calcasieu River in addition to routine pa- 
trol and surveillance of known trouble spots. 



FIELD ACTIVITIES-NEW ORLEANS AREA 

The activities of the Division of Water Pollu- 
tion Control in the New Orleans area have varied 
during the past ten months. In addition to aquatic 
mortality investigations and chemical and physi- 
cal determination on various water bodies in 
Southeastern Louisiana, aerial surveillance of the 
marshland's oil producing area has become a 
reality. This surveillance has resulted in locating 
numerous violations ranging from heavy oil in 
bleed water discharges to overflowing tank bat- 
tery and pipeline breaks. The Division of Water 
Pollution Control, working with the Division of 
Oysters, Water Bottoms and Seafoods and mem- 
bers of the Enforcement Division, has brought 



231 



violations in the southeastern area to the at- 
tention of the companies involved and corrections 
have been made. 

Aerial surveillance of the marshland oil pro- 
ducing areas, the use of boats from the Division 
of Oysters, Water Bottoms and Seafood and aid 
from the Enforcement Division have resulted in 
noticeable headway in oil pollution abatement. 
The Department of Conservation has also helped 
with some of the problems in this area so that 
many violations and pollution hazards have been 
corrected. 

Due to numerous crab and fish mortalities in 
the Lake Borgne and Lake Pontchartrain area 



last summer, a survey was conducted throughout 
the winter and will continue during 1968 to better 
understand conditions which may have contri- 
buted to these mortalities. The survey is being 
conducted in conjunction with a survey by the 
State Board of Health and transportation is 
being provided by the Division of Oysters, Water 
Bottoms and Seafood. 

Other projects in the New Orleans area include 
continued surveillance of the Harvey Canal, the 
Inter Coastal Canal, and the Gulf Outlet along 
with the industry bordering the Mississippi River. 
As soon as equipment is available other projects 
will be conducted. 



B-1264, 5-68 



232 















'in ii