(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Louis-Napoléon and Mademoiselle de Montijo;"

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 



at |http : //books . google . com/ 




oogle 



Digitized ^by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



LOUIS NAPOLEON 

AND 

MADEMOISELLE DE MONTIJO 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE NEW YORK 

PUBLIC LIBRAR-' 



ASTOR. I INOX A-'-D 
TILDEN FOUNDATION 



Digitized by 



Google 




LOUIS NAPOLEON BONAPARTE 
President of the French Republic 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



LOLMS NAPOLEON 



xnrMOISELLE DF MONTIJO 



fiV 



,MBERT DE SAIN T-A.V.AN:i 



KT.IZAiirni GILBERT MARTIN^ 



WITH poKr:: '.rrs 



NEW YORK 

CHARLES SCRIBNf.R'lS SONS 

1897 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



wA^....:--^^*^ 



X 



"if 



I 



.iȴ*-' 







Digitized by VjOOQIC 






LOUIS NAPOLEON 



AND 



MADEMOISELLE DE MONTIJO 



BY 

IMBERT DE SAINT-AMAND 



TRANSLATED BY 

ELIZABETH GILBERT MARTIN 



WITH PORTRAITS 



NEW YORK 

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 

1897 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Tr;^r:T:v york 

PUB..1C Library 



A8TQR, LENOX AND 

TILX>EN FOUNDATIONS. 

1897. 



COPYRIGHT, 1897, BY 
CHARLES SCRIBNKR'S SONS 



J. 8. QulkliK ft Co. - Berwiek ft Smieh 
Norwood Uau, TJAJL 



Digitized by 



Google 



CONTENTS 



chafob paob 

Ihtboductiov 1 

I. The Childhood of Louib Napoleon. . . ; 16 

IL The Fibbt Restoration 28 

in. The Hundred Days 39 

IV. The First Tears of Exile 50 

V. Rome 62 

VI. The Birth of the Empress 09 

Vn. 1830 77 

Vin. The Itallin Movement 90 

IX. The Insurrection of the Romagna 97 

X. Ancona 107 

XI. The Journbt in France 116 

Xn. Arbnsnbbrq 128 

XUL Strasburo 142 

XIV. Thr Childhood of the Empress 164 

XV. The *• Andbomeda " 161 

XVL New York 170 

V 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



VI CONTENTS 

OBAPTBR PAOB 

XVII. Some Days in London 179 

XVIII. Thb Death of Queen Hortensb 187 

XIX. A Year IN Switzerland 197 

XX. Two Years in England 211 

XXL BouLOONB 222 

XXII. The Concibrosrib 233 

XXm. Thb Court of Pebrb 240 

XXIV. The Fortress of Ham 247 

XXV. The Letters from Ham 261 

XXVI. The Prisoner's Writings 274 

XXVn. The End of the Captivity 281 

XXVm. The Escape 292 

XXIX. The Death of King Louis SOI 

XXX. Louis Napoleon Deputy 312 

XXXL The PRBSiDEirriAL Election 821 

XXXIL The Elys^b 386 

XXXin. The Preliminaries of the Coup d*Btat 352 

XXXIV. The Coup d'etat 365 

XXXV. The Beginning of 1852 377 

XXXVL The Journey in the South 887 

XXXVIL The Re-entrance into Paris 397 

XXXVIII. Abd-el-Kadbr at Saint-Cloud 404 



Digitized by 



Google 



CONTENTS vii 

GHAPTBB PAOR 

XXXIX. Paris 411 

XL. Madsmoissllb db Moktijo 421 

XLI. FONTAIHBBLBAU 433 

XLn. Thb Empibb 441 

XLHI. CoMFiioifB 448 

XLIV. Thb First Days op 1853 463 

XLV. Thb Ankoukcembnt op thb Marriage 472 

XLVI. Thb Civil Marriage 483 

XLVIL Thb Marriage at Notrb Damb 492 



PORTRAITS 

Louis Napolbom Bonaparte, Prbbident of thb Frbnoh 

Republic Frontispiece 

Thb Exprbss Eug^nib at the Age of Twbictt-six 

Face page 432 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



LOUIS NAPOLEON 



AND 



MADEMOISELLE DE MONTIJO 



INTRODUCTION 

nnmS is the fifteenth of November, 1895. At- 
-^ tended only by a warden, I am visiting the 
palace of Compidgne, where, thirty years ago to a 
day, I wished the Empress Eugenie many happy 
returns of her fSte. Everybody offered her a bou- 
quet and kissed her hand, and received in acknowl- 
edgment a gentle and majestic smile. I pass through 
every room of the ch&teau. Here is the large gallery 
which was used as a dining-hall, the salon where the 
sovereign drank her afternoon tea in company with 
some privileged guests to whom a verbal invitation 
had been conveyed in the morning by the lady of 
the palace; there is the card-room where they spent 
the evening ; yonder the drawing-room where people 
met before setting out on a hunt. I walk about in 
rooms which no one used to enter: the Emperor's 
study and his bedroom, the chamber and dressing- 
room of the Empress. What a contrast between this 
furniture, these objects of art, these pictures which 



Digitized by 



Google 



LOUIS NAPOLEON 



have remained absolutely the same, and the royal- 
ties, the empires, whose very ruins exist no longer I 
A pale autumnal sun, which is like a vague reflection 
of vanished splendors, lights up the deserted halls. 

I remember that among the invited guests of the 
Compidgne series of thirty years ago there figured 
Ferdinand de Lesseps, Prosper M^rim^e, Baron 
Haussmann, and Leverrier the astronomer. One day 
this famous discoverer of a planet gave a little lect- 
ure on astronomy to the visitors at the ch&teau. 
He spoke of the plurality of worlds and demon- 
strated that ours is but a barely perceptible atom 
in the immensity of the universe. I seem still to 
hear the Emperor saying slowly, in a melancholy 
voice, at the end of this lesson: ** Great God! what 
petty things we are ! " Napoleon III. was quite 
right, and it is above all in palaces, abodes as 
instructive as churches and cemeteries, that this 
saying needs to be repeated. 

Close to the chapel in the ch&teau of Compiftgne 
there is a small salon which is known as the Salon 
of the Reviews, because it contains two pictures 
representing the shade of the victor of Austerlitz 
passing phantom soldiers in review. For the Second 
Empire, as for the First, there are already phantasmal 
reviews and many an evocation from beyond the 
tomb. Wliat ha^ become of the statesmen, the 
generals, diplomats, literary men, and scientists 
who shone in this chd,teau once so animated, to-day 
so tranquil ? I recall some verses from the Imita- 



Digitized by 



Google 



INTBODUCTION 3 



tton of JesiLS Christ: "Tell me, where are those 
masters whom you have known, and whom in their 
lifetime you have seen flourish by their doctrine? 
To-day their place is occupied by others, and I know 
not -whether they think of their predecessors. So 
long as they lived they counted for somewhat, and 
now they are forgotten. Oh I how quickly passes 
the glory of the world!" 

It was while passing through the apartments of 
the palace of Louis XIV., when the offices of the 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, of which I was a mem- 
ber, were stationed there in 1871, that the idea of 
writing the WoTnen of Versailles occurred to me. It 
was while contemplating the ruins of the Tuileries 
that I determined to recount the lives of the sover- 
eigns and princesses who inhabited that fatal palace. 
The visits which in these latter times I have made 
to the ch&teaux of Fontainebleau and Compidgne are 
what have decided me to occupy myself with the 
Second Empire. After terminating with the death 
of Queen Marie-Am^lie, the thirty-sixth of the vol- 
umes which I had consecrated to the Women of Ver- 
saUles and the Women of the Tuileries^ I was inclined 
to consider my task ended, and feared to weary the 
patience of a public which, to my great surprise, 
had remained faithful to me during twenty-five 
years. Some possibly too kindly persons have per- 
suaded me to resume the pen and to study the Second 
Empire as I had studied the preceding epochs. I 
objected that it is perhaps too soon to speak of the 



Digitized by 



Google 



4 LOUia NAPOLEON 



reign of Napoleon III. They reply that, on the con- 
trary, the time has come to appi-oach this period and 
to profit by the testimony which can be given by 
those of the Emperor's contemporaries who are still 
living. History could wait before steam and elec- 
tricity. Nowadays it makes haste. Possibly this 
precipitation may be a test of verity. When speak- 
ing of recent events one cannot state facts inexactly 
without being immediately contradicted. It is dif- 
ferent when one studies remote periods ; the errors 
committed could in that case be pointed out only by 
a very small number of the learned, who are usually 
too much occupied by their own labors to have lei- 
sure to consider those of others. One might say 
that the history of our days is made instantaneously. 
It is like a judicial inquiry to which ocular and 
auricular witnesses are summoned. 

Under the pretext that I had seen the Court of the 
Second Empire near at hand, some of my friends 
have advised me to write my memoirs. Not for an 
instant did I entertain the notion of following this 
counsel. My humble career is far too obscure to 
tempt me to interest the public in it. Nothing in 
my life merits description. I have been a mere 
spectator. The only thing I can do is to relate 
what I have seen, and speak of illustrious persons 
with whom I have found myself in relations. But 
I will never blend my personality with my stud- 
ies. It suffices me to reconstruct in thought the 
scenes, by turn dazzling and sombre, which have so 



Digitized by 



Google 



INTBODUCTION 



greatly impressed me. I have been present at all 
the acts of the drama, I have witnessed apotheoses 
as well as overthrow and ruin. 1 saw the Empress 
Eugenie going to Notre Dame on the day of her 
marriage. I was very near her in the same church 
when she went with her son to hear the Te Deum 
chanted for the victory of Solferino. The little 
prince was then three years old. I think I see 
him still with his white dress and his blue sash. 
Watching closely every movement of his mother, 
he rose, knelt, and seated himself whenever she 
did. The carriage in which the Empress and her 
child returned to the Tuileries was filled with flow- 
ers. I have been invited to the public and the 
private entertainments of the Court, to those fancy 
balls where the sovereign appeared in resplendent 
costumes, and at other times hid her beauty under 
mask and domino. I saw the Universal Exposition 
of 1867, splendid zenith of a reign, and the crush- 
ing disasters that came after. I was present at the 
birth of the Empire, I witnessed its last agony, and 
from the terraces, surmounted by the Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs, I watched the crowd crossing the 
Pont de la Concorde to invade the Corps L^gislatif 
and proclaim the downfall of Napoleon III. and his 
dynasty. Having been in relations with the greater 
part of the famous men and women who were con- 
spicuous in Paris when I was young, I might say I 
had a proscenium box from which to witness the 
varied and extraordinary scenes which unrolled be- 



Digitized by 



Google 



6 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

fore my eyes, and the memory of which I am 
desirous to retrace. 

I am no longer at an age when one can make 
plans which demand much time, and I know not 
whether I shall have either the years or the leisure 
necessary to delineate a complete study of Parisian 
society under the Second Empire. In the present 
volume I shall confine mjrself to a rapid glance at 
the early lives of the Emperor and the Empress, 
from their birth until their marriage. 

The life of Napoleon III. before his coming to 
the throne has already been the theme of numerous 
and important historic studies. Among others may 
be mentioned the works of MM. de La Gorce, 
Blanchard Jerrold, Georges Duval, Thirria, Fernand 
Giraudeau, and Emile OUivier. Every one of these 
remarkable works we have found very useful. We 
thank and congratulate their authors. 

Whatever judgment posterity may pass upon the 
second Emperor, it is an incontestable fact that for 
nearly twenty-two years he was the ratJJt conspicu- 
ous personage in all the world. No figure in the 
latter half of the nineteenth century has so obtruded 
itself into history. One of the most singular char- 
acters that has ever been examined is certainly that 
of the victor of Solf erino, the vanquished of Sedan ; 
more cosmopolitan than French, at once a dreamer 
and a man .of action, by turns and even sometimes 
simultaneously democrat and autocrat, tormented 
now by the prejudices of the past, and now by new 



Digitized by 



Google 



INTRODUCTION 



ideas, the representative of CsBsarism and, at the 
end of his reign, the champion of popular liberties, 
taking for counsellors men thoroughly antipodal in 
their antecedents and their doctrines, looking like a 
sphinx and not always able to guess his own riddle, 
active beneath an indolent appearaQce, impassioned 
despite an imperturbable indifference, energetic yet 
with an air of extreme moderation, loving humanity 
while contemning it, kind to the humble and com- 
passionate to the poor, very seriously occupied with 
the idea of bettering the material and moral condi- 
tion of the majority, victim of the faults of others 
still more than of his own, and better than his 
destiny. The Republic will always reproach the 
second Emperor with having made the coup d*Etat 
and interfered with liberty. The frightful disasters 
which concluded his reign cannot be forgotten. A 
grudge is borne him for not remaining true to his 
Boideaux programme: "The Empire is peace," a 
truly fecund programme which would have per- 
mitted him to realize his dream of extinguishing 
pauperism. But, on the other hand, people remem- 
ber that he took part in every great affair in all 
quarters of the globe, that he broached all problems, 
raised all questions, that his eagles soared victori- 
ously from Pekin to Mexico, that he strengthened 
universal suffrage, proclaimed the principle of 
national sovereignty and the principle of nation- 
alities, realized in Italy, perhaps, alas! to the 
detriment of France, the dream of Dante and of 



Digitized by 



Google 



8 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

Machiavelli, emancipated the petty nations of the 
Balkan peninsula, inaugurated the system of com- 
mercial liberty, sought every means which might 
bring together and unite peoples, and borrowed 
more than one useful reform from socialism. It is 
remembered, in fine, that he declared that nations 
should be the arbiters of their own destinies, and 
that he tried to substitute for the ancient system of 
conquests the maxim : "Right before might." The 
ideas of this modem and revolutionary sovereign, 
this transitional man between the old Monarchy and 
the Republic, were developed in an imperfect man- 
ner only, and fortune, whose favorite he had been 
so long, ended by being pitiless in his regard. 
But his work, though interrupted, had a certain 

grandeur. 

Perdent opera interruptaf — minceque 
Murorum ingentes. 

Others, perhaps, will accomplish what he vainly 
dreamed, and democracy may some day do that 
wherein a CsBsar failed. 

The life of a man whose destiny has been so 
unexpected and so strange will be the subject of 
numberless historical studies, and afford room for 
the most contradictory appreciations. We are per- 
suaded that the best means of judging the character 
and the rdle of Napoleon III. would be afforded by 
publishing his correspondence in full, as that of 
Napoleon I. has been, and adding to it all his liter- 
ary or political works, his professions of faith, and 



Digitized by 



Google 



INTRODUCTION 9 



his speeches from the throne. In these would be 
found the elements of an essentially curious auto- 
biography. 

History attaches itself, by preference, to person- 
ages whose career has been fruitful in contrasts, and 
whose destiny has had a touch of romance. That is 
why the Empress Eugenie will interest so highly 
not merely her own epoch but the centuries to come. 
A living symbol of the vicissitudes and the ironies 
of fortune, she has been by turns a splendid sover- 
eign^ a happy wife, envied and flattered above all 
others, and a mater dolorosa. Much will be said 
about her because she possessed all that is required 
to impress the imagination, and, according to the 
saying of Napoleon I., imagination rules the world. 
At the time when the news of the marriage of Made- 
moiselle de Montijo and Napoleon III. began to 
spread in Paris, some one hastened to carry it to 
M. de Lamartine, thinking it would be badly re- 
ceived and censured by him. Instead of that, the 
great poet exclaimed: **The Emperor has just real- 
ized the most beautiful dream possible to man: to 
i-aise the woman he loves above all other women." 
The Empress was married for love, and nothing is 
more poetic, nothing more popular, than love. The 
unfortunate sovereign has held a sceptre which 
women prize above that of royalty or empire, — the 
sceptre of beauty. She has incarnated all joys and 
all sufferings, and there is not in the world a more 
striking contrast than that between her dazzling 



Digitized by 



Google 



10 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

robes of former times and her widow's dress, the 
black woollen gown she wears to-day. 

The Empress Eugenie is a remarkably gifted 
woman. Truly Spanish in character, impassioned 
for religion and for glory, she loves all that is beau- 
tiful, chivalrous, heroic. There is vehemence in 
her mind and exaltation in her heart. Adventurous 
things have always attracted her. She is pleased by 
what is extraordinary: "I belong," she said one day, 
with a smile, "to the family of the Cid, and the 
family of Don Quixote." She expresses herself 
with vivacity and charm, sometimes even with elo- 
quence, in the languages of her two countries. 
When she broaches any subject of discussion, politi- 
cal, historic, or literary, she examines it on all sides, 
she exhausts it. Her style is impulsive, original, 
full of color and imagery. Her very clear, very firm 
handwriting indicates a character full of energy. 
She reads much and easily assimilates all she reads. 
Hers is a nature full of resources, which immeasur- 
able misfortunes have not beaten down and which 
everything still interests. Her life has glided by 
like a dream, a starry dream that changed into a 
horrible nightmare. But the Empress has been on 
a level with her misfortune, and we do not believe 
that any widow, any mother deprived of her only 
child, has shown more dignity in her sorrow. 

It would be playing the courtier, it would be 
flattering a dethroned sovereign, and consequently 
failing in respect for her, to say that she has not 



Digitized by 



Google 



INTRODUCTION 11 



often JDeen deceived in political matters. But it 
can be affirmed that she has always been so in good 
faith, and that her errors were caused by noble and 
generous sentiments. That is why she has inspired 
a sentiment of commiseration and respect even in 
adversaries who were most irritated against the 
imperial regime. 

Many who were severe upon the triumphant sov- 
ereign are afEected in presence of the unfortunate 
woman. By the very excess of the calamities whose 
weight ennobles her, the widow of Napoleon III. 
has disarmed envy, and when she passes through 
the city where once she reigned with so much splen- 
dor, there is a sort of tacit agreement, a truce of 
God, between all parties and in all the journals, to 
avoid distressing her. Writers have long hesitated 
to mention her, fearing to disturb her sorrow. But 
now, when the historic movement is approaching the 
reign of Napoleon III., it is impossible that his 
companion should escape history. The Empress has 
played a part too active, she has exerted too great an 
influence, to be kept out of nan-atives wherein she 
must necessarily, and perhaps even in her own 
despite, hold a place so important. At present, 
when psychology is intimately united with history, 
and when historians, while scrupulously respecting 
truth, seek to give their narrations the animation 
and attraction of the novel, such a figure as that of 
the Empress Eugenie will thrust itself into the most 
profound and conscientious investigations. The 



Digitized by 



Google 



12 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 



least details of her existence will be studied, one 
might say, with a microscope. Her portraits and 
her letters will be collected. Her least words and 
actions will be recorded. She will excite the same 
curiosity as Marie Antoinette. The f&tes of the 
Tuileries, of Fontainebleau, and Compidgne will be 
described like those of Versailles and the Little 
Trianon. Of all the women who have played a part 
in the second half of the nineteenth century, -vre 
think that the Empress Eugenie is she with whom 
posterity will be most occupied. She would assur- 
edly have had less prestige if the Empire had not 
been overthrown. Which will interest future gen- 
erations most? Is it the bride of Notre Dame? Is 
it the ch&telaine of the Tuileries ? Is it the intrepid 
woman who, at the moment when Orsini's bombs 
had just exploded, ascended the grand staircase of 
the Op^ra, pale but impassible, leaning on the 
Emperor with one arm, and with the other holding 
up the train of her blood-stained robe? Is it the 
sovereign who emulates the Sisters of Charity and 
who, as she leaves the hospital of Saint-Antoine, 
after a visit to the cholera patients, sees women of 
the people, admirers of her courage, spring forward 
to cut fragments from her flounces, regarding them 
as relics ? Is it the Juno reigning over an Olympus 
of emperors and kings at the Exposition of 1867? 
No ; it is the mother who weeps and prays in Zulu- 
land on the spot where her son had fallen after 
fighting like a young lion. What posterity will 



Digitized by 



Google 



INTBODUCTION 18 



prefer to contemplate on the brow of the Empress 
£ag6nie is not a crown of empire, but a crown of 
thoins. 

We make no pretension to write a definitire his- 
tory of the last woman of the Tuileries. Such a 
task would demand a talent we do not possess. 
Our desire is merely to publish concerning the 
nvidow of Napoleon III., and the society by which 
she was surrounded, a modest essay similar to our 
studies of the heroines who preceded her in the fatal 
palace whose very ruins have disappeared. In speak- 
ing of the various dynasties that have reigned in 
France we have thus far sought to hold the balances 
evenly between all, and our appreciations of mon- 
archies have contained nothing that could offend 
republican consciences. Our sole merit, we believe, 
has been a complete impartiality, praising what is 
good, blaming what is bad. This entire sincerity 
will continue to be our rule. Besides, at a period 
when our work is subjected to excessive public criti- 
cism, we could not be partial with impunity. The 
events to be spoken of are too recent to be misrepre- 
sented. We shall tiy to produce, not an apology 
but a sort of photographic representation of persons 
and things. The time for courtiers has passed by. 
To-day there is but one power before whom all must 
bow without exception. That power is the truth. 

CoMPiioiTB, November 15, 180B. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER I 

THE CHILDHOOD OP LOUIS NAPOLEON 

"TTORTENSE DE BEAUHARNAIS, whose 
third son was the Emperor Napoleon III., 
iwras bom in Paris, April 10, 1783. Her father. 
General Vicomte Alexandre de Beauhamais, who 
was president of the Constituent Assembly, and 
general-in-chief of the army of the Rhine, notwith- 
standing the pledges he had given to liberal ideas 
and the Revolution, was guiltotined during the Ter- 
ror, July 23, 1794. His wife, the Vicomtesse de 
Beauhamais, born Tascher de la Pagerie, was incar- 
cerated at the same time in the prison des Carmes, 
and only saved from the scaffold by the execution 
of Robespierre. On March 9, 1796, she married 
General Bonaparte, and the children of her first 
marriage, Eugene and Hortense, were treated with 
great kindness by her second husband. On January 
4, 1802, Hortense married Louis Bonaparte, born at 
Ajaccio, September 2, 1778, the third brother of the 
First Consul. She brought into the world, October 
10, 1802, a son, Napoleon-Charles, who died at The 
Hague, in 1807; October 11, 1804, a second son, 
who died in 1831, at Forli, at the time of the insur- 

16 



Digitized by 



Google 



16 L0m3 NAPOLEON 



rection of the Romagna; and April 20, 1808, a. 
third, who was the Emperor Napoleon III. 

Honors were not lacking to Louis Bonaparte. 
His all-powerful brother could say to him: — 

"J have loaded thee with themj I would overwhelm 
thee with them.^^ 

He had made him general of division, prince, 
constable, commandant of the place of Paris, and 
charged him with the organization of an army 
intended to protect the north of France and the 
shipyards of Antwerp and Holland. Louis had 
acquitted himself so wel} that he had been put in 
the order of the day in a bulletin from the Grand 
Army. It was then that he said to his brother: 
"Enough of grandeurs and of glory. I have but 
one more wish: to live tranquil and retired." The 
Emperor responded by proclaiming Louis King of 
Holland, June 6, 1806, at Saint-Cloud. The new 
King and Queen Hortense made their formal entry 
at The Hague, June 23. 

Notwithstanding a destiny so brilliant, Hortense 
was far from happy. Her marriage with Louis 
Bonaparte had not been one of inclination on either 
side. There was a constantly increasing incompati- 
bility of temper between the pair. However, the 
death of their eldest son, the prince royal, who was 
carried off by croup. May 4, 1807, caused them a 
sorrow which brought about a brief reconciliation. 
They went together at this time to Cauterets. The 
breach seemed to be healed, and when it was learned 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE CHILDHOOD OF LOUIS NAPOLEON 17 

that the Queen was again pregnant, people thought 
it was definitively closed. On the contrary, this 
was even the precise cause of a misunderstanding. 
Hortense wished her child to be born in Paris. 
She obtained permission from the Emperor, in spite 
of her husband, who returned alone, and deeply 
offended, to The Hague. 

Queen Hortense's house in Paris was situated in 
a street then called Cerutti, but now Laffitte. At 
present the number is seventeen. The future Em- 
peror was born there at one o'clock on Wednesday 
morning, April 20, 1808. Salvos of artillery an- 
nounced the prince's birth throughout the vast 
extent of the Empire, from Hamburg to Rome, from 
the Pyrenees to the Danube. The new-born child 
was privately baptized by Cardinal Fesch, but as the 
Emperor was absent, he received at first no Christian 
name. It was not until June 2 that he was given 
those of Charles-Louis-Napoleon. A family register, 
intended for the children of the Napoleonic dynasty, 
had been deposited in the senate-house. It was a 
sort of great book of rights to the imperial succes- 
sion, and Charles-Louis-Napoleon was inscribed 
therein. The only prince who figured there after 
him was the King of Rome. 

Louis-Napoleon did not remain a Dutch prince 
long. His father, King Louis, would not accept the 
r81e of a crowned prefect. He quarrelled with the 
Emperor, whose requirements seemed to him incom- 
patible with the independence and dignity of the 



Digitized by 



Google 



18 LOUia NAPOLEON 

Dutch nation. July 1, 1810, he signed at Harlem 
his abdication in favor of his eldest son, Napoleon- 
Louis, and, failing him, in favor of his second son, 
Charles-Louis-Napoleon. The act was accompanied 
by a proclamation to the Hollanders, in which he 
said: "I shall never forget a people so good and 
virtuous as you; my last thought, my last wish, will 
be for your welfare. Now that I can no longer be 
reached by malevolence and calumny, at least in 
what concerns myself, I have the just hope that you 
will at last receive the reward of all your sacrifices 
and of your courageous perseverance and resigna- 
tion." Fearing lest an attempt should be made to 
seize his person, the King desired the two acts to 
remain unknown until after his departure, which 
took place at midnight, July 2. He wept over his 
eldest son, whom he left at Harlem, and quitted his 
pavilion on foot and secretly, passing through the 
garden to reach his carriage. While doing so he 
had a fall which nearly prevented his departure. He 
carried away with him only ten thousand florins and 
his decorations in brilliants. He sent a Dutch 
counsellor of state to Plombidres, where Queen 
Hortense then was, to invite her to assume the 
regency in the name of the prince royal. The 
Queen had no time to accept this invitation, for 
six days after the abdication of the King, the Em- 
peror issued a decree annexing Holland to France. 
One of his aides-de-camp, General Lauriston, went 
to find the prince royal, and brought him back 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE CHILDHOOD OF LOUIS NAPOLEON 19 

to France, where he was put in charge of his 
mother. 

Taking precautions to prevent being arrested by 
his brother, Louis sought refuge in Bohemia, and 
arrived at Toplitz, July 9. When he learned that 
the rights of his son had been disregarded, he 
addressed a protest to all the courts. M. Decazes 
went to Toplitz to induce him, in the name of the 
Emperor Napoleon, to return to France. The de- 
throned King refused, and took shelter at Gratz, in 
Styria, where he remained until 1813. 

The happiness of having her eldest son again, and 
of being able to educate both of her children in 
Paris, completely reconciled Hortense to the loss of 
a crown. The Emperor treated the little princes 
with great kindness. November 10, 1810, the 
younger, Louis-Napoleon, and the children of sev- 
eral great personages of the Empire (Prince de 
Neufchfttel, Due de Montebello, Due de Bassano, 
Due de Cadore, Comte de Cessac, Due de Trevise, 
Due de Bellune, Due d'Abrantds, Comte Dejean, 
Comte de Beauhamais, Comte Rampon, Comte 
Daru, Comte Duch&tel, Comte Capulli, Comte de 
Lauriston, Comte Lemarrois, Comte Defrance, 
Comte de Turenne, Comte de Lagrange, Comte 
Gros, Baron Curial, Baron Colbert, Baron Gobert, 
and Comte Becker) were solemnly held at the bap- 
tismal font by the Emperor and the Empress Marie 
Louise, in the chapel of the palace of Fontaine- 
bleau. The music of a new mass by Lesueur was 



Digitized by 



Google 



20 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

performed. Monseigneur de La Roche, Bishop of 
Versailles, officiated. On leaving the chapel the 
Emperor said, alluding to the interesting condition 
of Marie Louise: ^^ Before long, gentlemen, I hope 
we shall have another infant to baptize.'* The next 
day he sent Queen Hortense a magnificent pearl 
necklace, the clasp of which was a sapphire set in 
brilliants. All members of the Queen's household 
who had been present at the ceremony likewise 
received rich presents. Louis-Napoleon passed from 
the care of his nurse, Madame Bure, into that of his 
governess, Madame de Boubers, and of Mademoiselle 
Cochelet, the Queen's reader. The Abb^ Bertrand 
was appointed his tutor, while his elder brother was 
under the instruction of the famous Hellenist, M. 
Hase. 

The birth of the King of Rome did not change the 
Emperor's sentiments toward his young nephews. 
They were well brought up by their mother, who took 
pains to convince them that they were nobodies, and 
could rely only on themselves. She forbade their 
being addressed as Monseigneur and Imperial High- 
ness. They were often called: "My little Napo- 
leon, my little Louis." After examining her sons 
on what they knew already, Hortense would run 
over the list of what they had still to learn in order 
to be self-sufficing and able to create the resources 
necessary to their existence. One day, while hold- 
ing them both on her knees, she said : — 

" If you had nothing more at all, and were alone 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE CHILDHOOD OF LOUIS NAPOLEON 21 

in the world, what would you do, Napoleon, to get 
out of such a scrape? " 

**! would become a soldier, and fight so well that 
they would make me an oflBcer." 

** And how would you earn your living, Louis ? " 

"I would sell bunches of violets, like the little 
boy at the door of the Tuileries, from whom we buy 
some every day." 

The second Emperor recorded his recollections of 
his childhood in a fragmentary memoir, communi- 
cated by the Empress Eugenie to M. Blanchard 
Jerrold, who has given an English version of them 
in his interesting volume, The Lrfe of Napoleon UL^ 
from which we shall borrow numerous documents. 

"My first recollections," says the Emperor, "go 
back to my baptism; I was baptized in my third 
year. Next I remember Malmaison. I still see the 
Empress Josephine in her salon on the ground floor, 
covering me with caresses, and already flattering my 
self-love by repeating my bright sayings. For my 
grandmother spoiled me in the full sense of the 
word, while my mother, on the contrary, from my 
earliest infancy, took pains to correct my faults and 
develop my qualities. I recollect that when my 
brother and I arrived at Malmaison we could do 
whatever we pleased. The Empress, who was pas- 
sionately fond of plants and hot-houses, allowed us 
to cut the sugar canes to suck them, and always told 
us to ask for whatever we wanted. One day, when 
she made this remark on the eve of a feast, my 



Digitized by 



Google 



22 LOUia NAPOLEON 

brother, who was three years older than I, and hence 
more sentimental, asked for a watch with our 
mother's portrait. But when the Empress said to 
me: 'Louis, ask for just what will please you best,' 
I asked to go and walk in the mud with the street 
Arabs." 

The Emperor thus describes his passion for mili- 
tary things: "Like all children, but perhaps more 
than all others, soldiers attracted my eyes and were 
the subject of all my thoughts. Whenever I could 
escape from the salon at Malmaison, I would hurry 
towards the grand staircase, where two grenadiers of 
the Imperial Guard were always on duty. I remem- 
ber saying to them: 'I can do the exercise, too; I 
have a little gun.' And the grenadier would tell 
me to command him, and I would say: 'Present 
arms I Carry arms I Shoulder arms ! ' and the grena- 
dier would execute all the movements to give me 
pleasure. My rapture can be imagined. Wishing 
to prove my gratitude I would run to a place where 
biscuits had been given us, take one and run to 
put it into the hand of the grenadier, who would 
laugh and accept it." 

Happy in the progress of her children and the 
good will of the Emperor, Hortense was at this time 
contented with her lot. Very much the fashion, 
flattered by the best society, both French and foreign, 
she led a princely existence in Paris, where her 
house, in the rue Cerutti, was the rendezvous of 
all the leaders in politics, letters, and arts. She 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE CHILDHOOD OF LOUIS NAPOLEON 23 

painted, she sang, she composed pleasing romances. 
This was an artist queen, amiable, gracious, attrac- 
tive, having friends and admirers in all parties. 

Meanwhile the unhappy Louis, a king without a 
crown, a husband without a wife, a father without 
children, was leading the saddest of lives in his 
voluntary exile. When the news reached him of 
the senatorial decree of December 15, 1810, by 
^which an appanage around his estate of Saint-Leu 
i^as awarded him in place of his throne of Holland, 
he wrote to Queen Hortense : " My pain and sorrow 
would be at their height could I accept the shameful 
appanage intended for me. ... I command you to 
refuse even the least portion of this vile and dis- 
graceful gift. I annul in advance any acceptance or 
consent which you could give either for yourself or 
for my children. All my private estates are at your 
service and theirs. I authorize you to take posses- 
sion of them. That, with your own property, will 
enable you to live as a private person; as queen, 
wife, mother, under every aspect, any other gift 
would insult you, and I would disown you at all 
times, as in all places." 

No sooner was France unfortunate than Louis 
wished to serve her. January 1, 1813, he wrote to 
his brother: "I come. Sire, to offer to the land where 
I was bom, and to you, my name, my remaining 
strength, and all the services of which I am capable, 
if only I may do so with honor." This oflfer was 
not accepted. Seeing that war was about to break 



Digitized by 



Google 



24 LOUIS NAPOLEON 



out between Austria and France, Louis was unwill- 
ing to remain in the dominions of the Emperor 
Francis, and set off for Switzerland, July 10. Be- 
fore leaving Styria, he wrote a little poem in which 
he said: — 

AdieiL^ florxBsante contrdey 

Ok nul ne comprit tous mes maux^ 

Mais ouy Vdme triste, eplor^e, 

J*ai souvent rive le repos, . . . 

Confidents d*un cceur solitaire. 

Jeunes arbresy mes seids amis, 

Puisse votre ombre hospitalihre 

Mieux abriter d*autres proscriisA 

Louis hoped for a moment that his brother would 
send him back to Holland, where he still had real 
sympathizers. But Napoleon said: "I would prefer 
that Holland should return to the control of the 
house of Orange, than to that of my brother." The 
allies, having entered Switzerland, Louis left that 
country, December 22, 1813, and reached Paris, 
January 1, 1814, where he went to the house of 
Madame Mfire. January 10, he obtained an inter- 
view with the Emperor, through the intermediation 
of the Empress Marie Louise. The meeting was 
frigid. The brothers did not embrace. Louis saw 
Napoleon a second time, on the eve of his departure 

1 Adieu, flourishing country, — Where no one comprehends my 
woes,— But where, soul-sick and weeping, — I often have dreamed 
repose. ... — Confidants of a solitary heart, — Young trees, my 
only friends, — May your hospitable shade — Give better shelter to 
other exiles. 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE CHILDHOOD OF LOUIS NAPOLEON 25 

for the army. Mai'ch 16, he wrote him these pro- 
phetic lines: ^^If Your Majesty does not sign a 
peace, you may be thoroughly convinced that your 
government will not last three weeks longer. A 
little coolness and good sense are all that is required 
to judge how things stand at this moment." Louis 
lived in Paris from the beginning of January until 
March 80, when he accompanied the Empress Marie 
Louise to Blois, after vainly counselling her to 
remain in Paris even after the entry of the allies. 
Hortense was an ardent, energetic, impassioned 
woman, whose heart throbbed responsive to every- 
thing soldierly and chivalric. At the time of the 
invasion she thought and acted like a •true patriot, 
and notwithstanding their extreme youth, her sons 
shared her generous emotions. At the first rumor 
of invasion by a foreign army she tried to make them 
comprehend how they would be affected by such a 
calamity. After describing the devastated countiy, 
the burned cabins, the f oodless peasants, the orphaned 
children, she asked if, since they were not old 
enough to fight, they would not at least share all 
they possessed with the unhappy. The little princes 
at once offered all their toys, their money, and what- 
ever they had. Mademoiselle Cochelet, who relates 
this anecdote, adds : ^^ The Queen accepted their sac- 
rifice, but made it tell in a manner they would feel 
daily, and so be reminded of the misfortunes of a 
country with which they ought to identify them- 
selves. It was agreed that they should go without 



Digitized by 



Google 



26 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

dessert so long as there was war on French territory. 
Prince Napoleon told me this with a sort of pride; 
he had made his brother Louis, who was only six 
years old, understand that to associate them in this 
way with the common distress was to make them of 
some importance." 

If Marie Louise had had the sentiments and the 
energy of Hortense, she would at least have saved 
the cause of the King of Rome, if not that of the 
Emperor. "Sister," said the Queen to the Empress, 
who was about to start for Blois, "you know that in 
leaving Paris you neutralize the defence, and thus 
lose your crown ; I see that you are making the sac- 
rifice with much resignation. " Marie Louise replied : 
"You are right; it is not my fault, the council has 
settled it this way." Hortense exclaimed: "I wish 
I were the mother of the King of Rome ; the energy 
I would display would inspire everybody else." 

The weakness displayed by public opinion made 
her angry, and she said, bitterly: "Can an army 
take possession of a capital so easily? and with the 
Emperor so near! But I remember that Madrid 
held out for days against our armies; there are 
thousands of such examples and we are French- 
men!" 

It was the 29th of March. The enemy was ap- 
proaching. Marie Louise had just quitted the 
Tuileries. King Louis, learning that his wife and 
children had not yet departed, sent word to the 
Queen that she seemed to forget that if Paris were 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE CHILDHOOD OF LOUIS NAPOLEON 27 

taken her children might be seized as hostages. At 
nine o'clock in the evening the carriages started. 
The Queen rode in the first one with her children ; 
the Comtesse de Mailly, under-govemess to the 
princes, the Comte and Comtesse d'Arjuzon, and 
Madame Bure were in the second, and Mademoiselle 
Cochelet in the third, carrying with her all the 
Queen's fortune, that is to say, her diamonds. As 
the Cossacks had already been seen near Paris, the 
Queen, dreading to meet them, ordered her courier 
to ride well in advance of the carriages, and to fire 
a pistol in the air if he perceived an enemy. Such 
a signal was to make the carriages turn back. 

Hortense would not yet despair. She fancied that 
Napoleon was about to appear as a deliverer. For 
that reason she went away slowly, and spent the 
night at the Little Trianon. The next day, March 
SO, Marshal Moncey and a handful of soldiers made 
a heroic defence at the Clichy barrier. 

From the garden of the Trianon, Hortense heard 
the cannonading at Paris distinctly. When the 
fighting was over, and the capitulation signed, the 
despairing Queen, deciding to continue her route, 
went first to Rambouillet, and then to the ch&teau 
o£ Navarre, near Evreux, where she rejoined her 
mother. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER II 

THE FIEST BBSTORATION 

n^HE death agony of the Empire had just begun. 
"^ The allies were masters of Paris. Napoleon 
was at Fontainebleau ; Marie Louise and the King 
of Rome at Blois ; Josephine, Hortense, and her chil- 
dren at the ch&teau of Navarre. The senate had 
recalled the Bourbons. The Emperor had abdicated, 
April 6, for himself and his dynasty. April 11, the 
Powers signed a treaty conferring the sovereignty of 
the island of Elba on Napoleon and granting pecun- 
iary advantages to the members of his family, espe- 
cially an annual pension of four hundred thousand 
francs for Queen Hortense and her sons. 

Hortense had protectors among the allies : Prince 
Leopold of Saxe-Goburg, afterwards King of the Bel- 
gians (Leopold I.), Prince Mettemich, and Comte 
de Nesselrode, both of whom had been in Paris, one 
as Austrian ambassador and the other as chief secre- 
tary of the Russian embassy, and both were then 
frequenters of the Queen's salon. However, she 
took no steps toward securing the advantages con- 
ferred on her by the treaty of April 11. On the 
9ih, she wrote a letter from Navarre to Made- 

28 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE FIB8T BE8T0BATI0N 29 

moiselle Cochelet in which she said: ^My dear 
Louise, not only you but everybody is writing to in- 
quire what I want, what I ask for. Nothing at all, 
I answer. What can I desire ? When one has suf- 
ficient strength of mind to make a great decision and 
to contemplate a voyage to India or America with 
coolness, it is useless to ask for anything whatever. 
Really, I am not so very much to be pitied person- 
ally, for I have suffered greatly amidst grandeurs. 
Perhaps I am going to taste tranquillity and find it 
preferable to all the brilliant agitation which sur- 
rounded me. I do not think I can remain in France; 
the deep interest displayed for me might result in 
giving umbrage. That idea is crushing; but I will 
cause uneasiness to no one." 

What especially troubled the Queen was the fear 
that her sons might be taken from her. "Ah I " she 
adds, in the same letter, " I hope that my children 
will not be reclaimed, for then I would have no 
courage left. Brought up by my care they would 
find themselves happy in all positions. I would 
teach them to meet either good or evil fortune 
worthily, and to place their happiness in their own 
self-approval. That is worth more than crowns. 
They are well, and that makes me happy." 

Mademoiselle Cochelet replied to the Queen : " I 
have just seen M. de Nesselrode again; he asked 
many questions about you. . . . Prince Leopold 
lodges in the same house as the Comtesse de Tascher; 
he is constantly thinking of you and your mother; 



Digitized by 



Google 



30 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

he is no ingrate; he remembers how kind both of 
you were to him. . . . Your friends insist that you 
shall return to Malmaison as soon as the Emperor 
Napoleon leaves Fontainebleau. They assert that 
the Emperor of Russia intends to go and see you at 
Navarre if you do not come to Malmaison. So you 
cannot avoid him; and remember that he has the 
future of your children in his hands." 

Hortense replied, April 12: "My resolution 
afflicts you, my dear Louise I You all accuse me 
of childislmess ! You are unjust I The advice of 
the Due de Vicence may be followed by my mother; 
she will go to Malmaison, but for me, / stay; I must 
not separate my cause from that of my children. It 
is they and their relatives that are sacrificed in all 
that is being done; therefore, I will not come to 
terms with those who are spoiling their destiny. . . . 
I have no doubt that the Emperor of Russia would 
be most kind to me ; I have heard many good things 
about him, even from the Emperor Napoleon; but 
though I once had a curiosity to make his ac- 
quaintance, at present I do not wish to see him; 
is he not our conqueror? . . . My mother opposes 
all my plans; she says she needs me, but none 
the less I shall go to her who must be still more 
unhappy." 

It was the Empress Marie Louise who, from 
Hortense's point of view, must be the most un- 
happy. She was then at Rambouillet, where she 
was awaiting the arrival of her father, the Emperor 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE FIBST BE8T0RATI0N 81 

of Austria. Hortense rejoined her there, April 16. 
She met with a very cool and embarrassed reception. 
Hortense perceived at once that Marie Louise, al- 
though afBicted, was not so heartbroken as Josephine. 
"I thought," the Queen has said, "that I was still 
more necessary to my mother, who felt so keenly the 
misfortunes of the Emperor; and since I embarrassed 
the Empress Marie Louise instead of consoling her, 
I went away. Her father was about to arrive; I 
had, in fact, met him on the road, in a little calash 
with M. de Mettemich." 

April 20, Napoleon, after bidding adieu to his 
guard, quitted Fontainebleau for the island of Elba. 
The Emperor Alexander may be said to have become 
at once the courtier of the Empress Josephine at 
Malmaison. There Hortense rejoined her mother, 
and at first maintained a reserved attitude toward 
the Czar. M. de Nessebode said at the time to 
Mademoiselle Cochelet: "Your Queen, who is usu- 
ally so amiable, seems not to be so with our sover- 
eign. This distresses him, for he greatly desires to 
be useful to her, and also to Prince Eugene. He 
finds the Queen very cold, very dignified; she has 
not responded to the offers he has made on behalf of 
her children ; it will not be easy for him to oblige 
her if she refuses so obstinately. As for the Empress 
Josephine, he is charmed with her gentleness, her 
kindness, her unreserve." The Emperor Alexander 
had the greatest desire to please those whom he 
esteemed, but he suspected those who were too for- 



Digitized by 



Google 



82 LOUIS NAPOLEON 



ward. Hortense's coolness piqued him to the quick. 
He returned to Mahnaison, and his exquisite cour- 
tesy soon won her over. "I find a truly feminine 
delicacy of feeling in the Emperor of Russia," said 
she; ^^he thoroughly comprehends our position, even 
our pride and reserve towards him, and it is impos- 
sible not to be grateful to him for it." To the great 
despair of legitimist society, the Czar displayed a 
sort of enthusiasm for Josephine, Hortense, and 
Prince Eugdne. " What is the faubourg Saint-Ger- 
main to me?" said he. "So much the worse for 
those ladies if they have not captivated me. In the 
Empress Josephine and her children, I find all that 
wins admiration and attachment. I take far more 
pleasure with them, in the ease of private life, than 
with persons who act as if they were possessed, and 
who, instead of enjoying the triumph we have pre- 
pared for them, think only of annihilating their 
enemies, beginning with those who so long protected 
them; their exasperation wearies me." The Czar 
wished to pay a visit to Hortense at her house in 
the rue Cerutti. In receiving him she said: "You 
find my apartment empty; I have no longer any one 
to receive you with ceremony. But what difference 
does it make ? Do you suppose that ante-chambers 
full of gilded liveries are what give pleasure to 
those who will come to see me nowadajrs ? " Alex- 
ander replied : "I was for the regency, and especially 
wished that the country should be consulted; but 
they were in a hurry to recall the Bourbons, with- 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE FIRST BJE8T0BATI0N 38 

oat any guarantees. So much the worse for the 
French, if they turn out badly; it was they who 
wanted them and not I. I will always make your 
family respected. ... If Russia suited you, I 
would be only too happy to offer you a palace ; but 
you would find the climate too severe for your deli- 
cate health. . . . You are so much loved in France I 
Why not stay here?" 

May 14, the Czar, wishing to see the chftteau of 
Saint-Leu, was received there by Josephine and 
Hortense. He came without ceremony, in a little 
calash, with Comte Tchemischeff. The 21st he 
visited the machine of Marly in company with Hor- 
tense and her children, and in the evening dined at 
Malmaison with Josephine, who g^ve him a fine 
cameo, presented to her by Pius VII. He dined 
there again, the 23d, together with the King of 
Prussia and his sons (the future Frederick William 
IV. and the future Emperor William). When they 
saw the two sovereigns arrive Hortense's children, 
who were used to seeing kings of their own family, 
asked their governess if Frederick William III. and 
Alexander were also their uncles, and if they ought 
to call them so. "No," said the governess, "you 
will merely say Sire." She added: "This Emperor 
of Russia is a generous enemy who wishes to be of 
ilse to you in your misfortunes, and also to your 
mamma. Except for him you would have nothing 
left in the world, and the fate of your uncle, the 
Emperor, would be much worse than it is." Prince 



Digitized by 



Google 



84 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

Napoleon replied: "Then we ought to love him?" 
— "Yes, certainly," returned Madame de Boubers, 
"because you owe him gratitude." Little Prince 
Louis listened to this conversation without saying 
a word. Soon after, he tiptoed close to the Czar, 
and very quietly, without attracting any one's 
notice, slipped a tiny ring into his hand, and 
scampered off as fast as possible. His mother 
called him back to ask what he had been doing, 
and the child replied: "Uncle Engine gave me that 
ring, and I wanted to give it to the Emperor Alex- 
ander, because he is good to mamma." The Czar 
attached the little ring to his watch and said that 
he would always wear it. If Napoleon III. had 
recalled more frequently this incident of his child- 
hood, perhaps the Crimean war, that heroic but fatal 
mistake, would not have occurred. 

Alexander returned to Malmaison, May 28. This 
time the Empress Josephine could not receive him. 
She was suffering from a throat complaint, the germ 
of which she had contracted during an evening 
excursion on the pond of Saint-Cucuphat. On the 
following day, Whitsunday, she breathed her last. 
Her funeral took place June 2. Twenty thousand 
people followed the hearse to the church of Rueil, 
where she was buried. The sons of Queen Hortense 
were the chief mourners. Alexander, who had sent 
a representative to Josephine's obsequies, leffParis 
the next day. Before departing he had obtained 
from Louis XVIII. the erection of Saint-Leu into a 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE FIRST BE8T0RATI0N 86 

duchy, with an appanage, for the benefit of Hortense 
and her children. 

While his wife was coquetting with the allied 
po^wers, King Louis had maintained the noblest 
attitude. He did not separate himself from Marie 
Louise until she passed into the hands of foreigners, 
and then took refuge at Lausanne, under the name 
of Comte de Saint-Leu, although the allies had sent 
him an authorization to reside in France. On learn- 
ing that Louis XVIIL, without notifying him, had 
erected the domain of Saint-Leu into a duchy, he 
made a formal protest in which he renounced all the 
advantages granted him by the treaty of Fontaine- 
bleau of April 11, 1814, adding that he likewise 
renounced them for his children, and that being 
simply a private individual since his abdication, 
and having refused all the offers and rejected the 
appanage with which the senate decree of December 
10, 1810, had sought to endow him, he did not 
intend to retain at his estate of Saint-Leu other de- 
pendencies than those which were there in 1809, and 
which alone belonged to him. 

Louis was deeply affected when he learned that 
his wife had obtained an audience from Louis 
XVIIL to thank him, and had been received most 
courteously. M. de S^monville said to Mademoi- 
selle Cochelet: "Have you heard the news? Your 
Queen has turned the head of King Louis XVIIL ; 
he talks of nobody else; he is enchanted with her 
wit, her tact, and all her ways, — in fact, they joke 



Digitized by 



Google 



36 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

him about it at the cb&teau. ^Arrange a divorce,' 
they say to him in his family, ^and marry her, since 
you find her so charming.'" The society of the 
faubourg Saint*Germain sharply criticised the sym- 
pathy of Louis XVIII. for Hortense, and maintained 
that her salon was merely a centre of incessant con- 
spiracies against the Bourbons. Hortense did not 
conspire personally, but it is certain that at her 
house young Bonapartist officers, such as the Lawoes- 
tines, the Flahauts, the La B^doydres, talked vehe- 
mently against the court, and made no ceremony 
about announcing the prompt return of Napoleon. 

December 31, 1814, many ladies who had gone to 
the Tuileries early in the evening to wish the mem- 
bers of the royal family a happy New Year, went 
afterwards to the house of Queen Hortense, as if the 
Empire had not yet fallen. During the carnival of 
1815, the procession of the Fat Ox made its visit 
to the former Queen of Holland, the same as on 
preceding years. All the Bonapartists in Paris 
rejoiced whenever they heard Queen Hortense 
mentioned. 

Meanwhile, the Queen was in bitter distress. 
King Louis demanded possession of his elder son, 
while consenting that the younger should remain 
with his mother. Hortense having opposed a plea 
in bar to this nevertheless very just demand, the 
cause went to the courts. Two celebrated law- 
yers, Tripier for the husband, and Bonnet for the 
wife, pleaded it before the civil tribunal of the 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE FIRST BE8T0BATI0N 87 

Seine. The latter, after recalling the fact that by 
letters patent Louis XVIII. had granted the duchy 
of Saint-Leu to the former Queen of Holland and 
her descendants, added these curious words: ^^AU 
is ended by the signal benefit which has found 
grateful hearts. What do you think, then, of the 
indiscreet reclamation which tends to make a for- 
eigner of the young Due de Saint-Leu, — to take 
him from his mother, his country, and his king?" 
The court was unconvinced by this argument, and 
decided, March 7, 1815, that the elder son should 
be given back to his father within three months. 
But at the very moment when this decision was 
announced, it was learned in Paris that Napoleon 
had landed in France. That might change things. 

The legitimists were so clamorous against the 
Queen that, seeing herself on the point of being 
treated as a suspected person, and perhaps impris- 
oned, she resolved to ensure the safety of her chil- 
dren and had them taken secretly to a shopkeeper on 
the boulevard, and hid herself in a house in the rue 
Duphot. Something told her that she would soon 
leave this asylum to make her reappearance at the 
Tuileries, and that Napoleon could not have taken 
such a step without having substantial chances of suc- 
cess. Notwithstanding her declarations of love for 
tranquillity and peace, Hortense's soul was ardent 
and craved emotions. With her adventurous and 
romantic character, she did not find it unpleasant to 
be present at the terrible game about to be played. 



Digitized by 



Google 



88 LOUia NAPOLEON 

The hope of soon beholding the Emperor, whom she 
fairly worshipped, enchanted her. Hence she felt 
assured that this all-powerful protector would, 
doubtless, grant her what she most desired: the 
authorizatioji to keep possession of both her sons, 
in spite of the suit she had just lost. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER III 

THE HUNDBED DAYS 

QUEEN HORTENSE was not in the secret of 
the return from Elba. She was as much sur- 
prised as the royalists by the news of the Emperor's 
landing at the Gulf of Juan. None the less it was 
claimed that she had conspired, and deep resent- 
ment was displayed against her. In the notes left 
by Napoleon III. under the title: Souvenirs de ma 
Ffe, he has written on this subject: "The royalists 
and body-guards manifested great irritation against 
my mother and her children. It was rumored that 
we were to be assassinated. One evening, our gov- 
erness came to fetch us and, followed by a valet, 
she took us through the garden of my mother's 
house, No. 8, rue Cerutti, to a little room on the 
boulevard, where we were to remain in hiding. 
This was the first sign of a reverse of fortune. We 
were flying for the first time from the paternal roof, 
but our youth prevented us from comprehending the 
import of this event; we were delighted with the 
change of situation." 

Hortense, who had accepted the title of Duchesse 
de Saint-Leu, with an appanage, from Louis XVIII., 



Digitized by 



Google 



40 LOUia NAPOLEON 

and been treated with great consideration by the 
Emperor Alexander, found herself very delicately 
situated toward both sovereigns, as well as toward 
Napoleon. Some years later she said to Madame 
R^camier: "I received the news of the Emperor's 
landing only through public channels, and it gave 
me more vexation than pleasure. I knew the 
Emperor too well to believe that he would have 
attempted such an enterprise without good reasons 
to expect success ; but I was profoundly afBicted by 
the prospect of a civil war, and convinced that it 
could not be averted. The speedy arrival of the 
Emperor disconcerted all previsions ; on hearing of 
the King's departure, and picturing him to myself 
old, infirm, and again forced to quit his country, I 
was deeply affected. The idea that he might at this 
moment accuse me of treason was insupportable, and 
in spite of the inconveniences to which such a step 
might expose me, I wrote to him to exculpate my- 
self from all share in the events which had just 
occurred." 

Hortense may have been a royalist, or passed for 
such, during the whole of the first Restoration, but 
all her imperialist ardor revived as soon as she 
found herself in the presence of Napoleon I., her 
benefactor, and it was with enthusiasm that in the 
evening of March 20, 1816, she beheld the victor of 
so many battles resume possession of the ch&teau of 
the Tuileries. She was awaiting him there, with 
the host of functionaries who had remained loyal to 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE HUNDBED DATS 41 

the Empire, in the great illuminated apartments, 
and witnessed the frenzied applause, the delirious 
joy, the passionate transports, which saluted his 
return. 

M. Thiers relates that Napoleon was affectionate 
towards all who were present, except Hortense, on 
perceiving whom he exclaimed, "You in Paris I 
You are the only one I did not wish to find here." 
The historian cites other very severe remarks which 
Napoleon may have added. According to the ac- 
count given by the Queen to Madame R^camier, and 
related by the latter in her souvenirs, things did not 
happen precisely as they are described by M. Thiers. 
It was not on the evening of March 20, but the next 
day, that Napoleon sharply reproached his sister-in- 
law. This version is the more pi-obable, for the 
Emperor would, doubtless, wish to spare her a public 
reproof. 

Here, moreover, is the story told by Hortense her- 
self to Madame R^camier: "The tumult was such 
that I found it difficult to approach the Emperor. 
He received me coldly, said but a few words, and 
appointed an hour for me the next morning. The 
Emperor always frightened me very much, and the 
tone in which he made this appointment was not 
calculated to reassure me. I went to it, neverthe- 
less, with as tranquil a countenance as I was able to 
assume. I was introduced into his cabinet. No 
sooner were we alone than he came quickly toward 
me. ^Did you comprehend your situation so little,' 



Digitized by 



Google 



42 LOUIS NAPOLEON 



he said, brusquely, 'that you were able to renounce 
your name and the rank I had given you, and to 
accept a title from the Bourbons? Was that your 
duty?' 

"'My duty, Sire,' said I, summoning all my cour- 
age to reply, 'was to think of my children's future, 
since Your Majesty's abdication left me no other to 
fulfil.' 

"'Your children I ' exclaimed the Emperor. 'Were 
not your childi-en my nephews before they were your 
sons ? Have you forgotten that? Do you think you 
have the right to degrade them from the rank which 
is theirs ? ' — And as I looked at him in amazement, 
he added, with increasing anger: 'Have you not 
read the Code ? ' I confessed my ignorance, remem- 
bering, meanwhile, how ill he used to take it if any 
woman, and especially those of his family, dared 
display any acquaintance with legislation. There- 
upon he volubly explained the article of the law 
which forbids any one to change the condition of 
minors or make any renunciation in their name. 
While speaking he was striding up and down his 
cabinet, the window of which was open to the first 
rays of a lovely spring sun. I followed, trying to 
make him understand that, not knowing the laws, I 
had thought of nothing but the interests of my chil- 
dren, and taken counsel only of my heart. The 
Emperor suddenly stopped short, and turning 
brusquely towards me, said: 'Then it should have 
told you, Madame, that when one has shared the 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE HUNDRED DATS 48 

prosperity of a family, one should know how to 
endure its adversities.' At these last words I 
melted into tears." 

A great clamor broke out at this moment. Napo- 
leon approached the window. The crowd filling 
the g^den of the Tuileries greeted him with 
applause, and Hortense dried her eyes. 

The wrath of the Emperor was appeased. "I 
am a good father," said he to his step-daughter, 
embracing her. 

Before this reconciliation with the Emperor, 
whose anger had perhaps been more feigned than 
real, Hortense had written to her brother. Prince 
Eugdne de Beauhamais: "My dear Eugene, an 
enthusiasm of which you have not the least idea 
has brought back the Emperor to France. He has 
received me very coldly. I think he does not 
approve of my remaining here. He told me he 
counted on you, and that he had written you from 
Lyons. My Godl if we only do not have warl It 
will not come, I hope, from the Emperor of Russia; 
he disapproves it sol Ah I talk peace to him, use 
your influence with him; the needs of humanity 
demand it. I hope I shall soon see you. I was 
obliged to conceal myself for twelve days, because a 
thousand rumors were in circulation concerning me. 
Adieu, I am dead with fatigue." This letter, hav- 
ing been intercepted, was laid before the Congress 
of Vienna. Some wished to see in it the proof of 
Prince Engine's participation in the return from 



Digitized by 



Google 



44 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

Elba. But the Czar defended the Prince, to whom 
the Congress awarded the enjoyment of his endow- 
ments and personal property, and assigned him the 
ch&teau of Bayreuth as a residence. Eugene had no 
notion of rejoining Napoleon in Paris. He remained 
in Bavaria, near his father-in-law, King Maxi- 
milian, while Hortense was doing the honors of the 
Tuileries, and afterwards of the Elys6e, where 
Napoleon installed himself, April 17. 

One thing that contributed to the joy caused the 
former Queen of Holland by the Emperor's return, 
was his authorizing her to keep possession of her 
two sons, in spite of the legal decision which had 
just condemned her to restore the elder to King 
Louis. The latter had taken refuge at Rome, Sep- 
tember 24, 1814, where he received a cordial recep- 
tion from Pope Pius VII. During the Hundred 
Days, he thought for a moment of returning to 
France, but on conditions which his brother would 
not accept. Napoleon said, on the rock of Saint 
Helena: "On my return from Elba, in 1815, Louis 
wrote me a long letter from Rome, and sent me an 
embassy; he said it was his treaty, his conditions 
for returning to me. I replied that I was in no case 
to make treaties, but that, if he returned, he was my 
brother and would be well received. 

" Would it be believed that one of his conditions 
was that he should be at liberty to divorce Hortense? 
I was very rough with the negotiator for having 
dared to burden himself with such an absurdity, for 

Digitized by VjOQQIC 



THE HUNDRED DATS 46 

haying entertained the notion that such a thing was 
negotiable. I reminded Louis that our family stat- 
utes explicitly forbade it; policy, morality, and 
public opinion were not less adverse, I told him, 
assuring him, moreover, that if through his means 
his children came to lose their rank, I would inter- 
est myself far more in them than in him, albeit he 
was my brother." 

During the whole of the Hundred Days Queen 
Hortense, who was in as great favor as ever with 
Napoleon, exerted a real influence. It was through 
her good oflBces that the dowager Duchesse d'Or- 
l^ans, mother of Louis Philippe, and the Duchesse 
de Bourbon, aunt of that prince and mother of the 
Dnc d'Enghien, were authorized to remain in France, 
and received a pension from the Emperor. Napoleon 
treated Hortense as an affectionate father treats his 
daughter. He protected her and her children. The 
presence of the two princes consoled him somewhat 
for the absence of the King of Rome. 

The Queen, accompanied by her two sons, was 
present, June 1, at the ceremony of the Field of 
May, where Napoleon and his court appeared for the 
last time in all the splendor of imperial pomp, and 
where the sovereign whom fortune was about to 
betray, standing erect on the first step of a pyrami- 
dal platform, exclaimed: "Soldiers of the national 
guard of the Empire, soldiers on land and sea, I con- 
fide to you the imperial eagle of the national colors. 
Swear to defend it at the cost of your blood against 



Digitized by 



Google 



46 LOUia NAPOLEON 

the enemies of the fatherland. Swear to die rather 
than suffer foreigners to dictate the law to the 
country." In the evening of June 11, Hortense 
took her sons to the Elys^e to bid adieu to their 
uncle, who was about to start for the fatal campaign 
of which Waterloo was to be the issue. The Queen 
was still there at half-past thi-ee in the morning, 
when Napoleon quitted the Elys^e and said to the 
wife of General Bertrand, before entering the car- 
riage : " We must hope, Madame Bertrand, that we 
may not soon have to wish for the island of Elba." 
Nine days later, June 21, Napoleon returned van- 
quished to the Elys^e. Again he found Hortense 
there. The next day she witnessed the death strug- 
gle of the Empire, the drama of the second abdica- 
tion. 

"In the afternoon," writes Mademoiselle Cochelet, 
"Queen Hortense went to the Elysde; I had the 
honor to accompany her, and I remained in the 
attendants' room while Her Majesty was with 
the Emperor. I presently saw her walking in the 
gardens with Madame Mdre, while the Emperor, a 
few paces away from them, was talking with his 
brother Lucien. All of a sudden, cries of 'Long 
live the Emperor!' made us all rush to the win- 
dows. The crowd, exasperated by the abdication, 
was surrounding the palace and the gardens, de- 
manding the Emperor with loud cries; and when 
they saw him walking about, several men had 
climbed over the walls to run towards him; they 



Digitized by 



Google 



TRE HUNDRED DATS 47 

had thrown themselves at his feet and, with those 
penetrating accents which come from the soul, had 
implored him not to desert them, to abandon this 
plan of abdication which reduced them to despair, 
and to place himself at their head to repel the 
enemy." All this devotion was fruitless. Napo- 
leon, stricken down by fatality, could do nothing 
more. 

Hortense returned home heartbroken. In the car- 
riage she said to Mademoiselle Cochelet: "The 
Emperor asked if Malmaison belonged to me, and I 
replied that it was my brother's, but it was all the 
same thing. Then he said he wished to go there 
and begged me to accompany him." 
"And you consented, Madame?" 
" Certainly, I am too happy to be able to show him 
my gratitude for all he has done for me." 

"But reflect, Madame, on the danger of the cir- 
cumstances in which we are ; surely it is very unsafe 
for you to identify yourself in this way with the 
Emperor's fate." 

" That is an additional reason why I do not hesi- 
tate to do sol I make it a duty, and the more risks 
the Emperor runs the better pleased I am to show 
him all my devotion." 

After placing her two sons in safety at the house 
of Madame Tessier, in the boulevard Montmartre, 
Hortense went to Malmaison to receive the Emperor. 
He arrived at about one o'clock in the afternoon, 
June 25, and remained until five in the evening. 



Digitized by 



Google 



48 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

June 29. This sojourn, the first station of his cal- 
vary, was a torture to the vanquished of Waterloo. 
Louis XVI. had not been more undecided, more 
troubled, nor more cast down. Hortense witnessed 
all the agonies of the man of destiny, expiating by 
moral tortures his long triumphs. Madame Mdre 
was the last member of the imperial family who 
came to take leave of Napoleon. Their separation 
was a scene from the antique, a scene worthy of 
Plutarch. At the moment of departure they ex- 
changed these simple words: "Adieu, my son!** — 
"Mother, adieu!" At the same moment, Hortense 
entreated the Emperor to accept a diamond necklace 
which might be the last resource of a man who had 
distributed so many treasures. Napoleon refused, 
but as Hortense insisted with tears, he finally 
allowed her to slip the necklace into his overcoat 
pocket. Talma, in the uniform of a national guard, 
witnessed the farewells of the hero and his family. 
Never, in any of the plays he had enacted, had the 
great tragedian witnessed a more pathetic scene. 
Under the reign of Napoleon III. there was placed 
in the court of Malmaison a bronze eagle on a ped- 
estal with a commemorative inscription, on the very 
spot where Napoleon entered his carriage, departing 
never to return. 

Louis Napoleon was a child of only seven years 
when the drama of the Hundred Days was unfolded 
before his eyes. But the spectacles he witnessed 
during that period, so tragic and so short, must 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE HUNDRED DAYS 49 

have left an ineffaceable impression on his youthful 
imagination. He had seen the last beams of the 
imperial sun, a setting sun, but still magnificent. 
He had received his uncle's caresses. He had seen 
the joy and the tears of his mother. Associated 
with the dazzling pomp of the ceremony of the 
Field of May, and then sheltered in the lodging of 
a shopkeeper, he was already accustomed to vicissi- 
tudes of fortune. In the foreign land, where all his 
family were to be pursued by the suspicions and the 
ill 'will of the great European powers, he could say, 
like the Louis XVII. of Victor Hugo: — 

Et pourtant, ^coutez^ bien loin dans ma m^moire, 
J*ai cTheureux souvenirs avant ces jours d'effroi, 
J*entendais en dormant des bruits confus de gloire, 
Et des peuples joyeuz veUlaient autour de moi.^ 

The grand figure of the Emperor Napoleon was to 
be eternally graven in the mind of this proscribed 
and unfortunate child, whose existence was destined 
to know all the extremes of good and evil fortune. 
He was about to begin an exile which was not to 
end until thirty-three years later, after having been 
interrupted only by six years of captivity. 

1 Yet listen, far distant in my memory, — I have happy souvenirs 
before these frightful days, — Sleeping I heard the confused sounds 
of glory, — And joyous peoples watched around me. 

B 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER IV 

THE FIKST YEAKS OF EXILE 

TTORTENSE and her children could not remain 
"^"^ in France. The Emperor Alexander no longer 
protected them. They left Paris, July 17, 1815, at 
nine o'clock in the evening. The Queen entered 
her carriage with her sons. Her equerry, M. de 
Marmold, and Comte de Voyna, aide-de-camp of the 
Austrian general, and Prince de Schwartzenberg, 
who had been commissioned to guard the fugitives, 
followed in a berline. The night was spent at the 
ch&teau of Bercy, the dwelling of M. de Nicola'i, 
who received the exiles most respectfully; and then 
they turned towards Switzerland. At Dijon, the 
Queen was the object of a hostile demonstration. 
Some officers of the royal guard wished to prevent 
her from continuing her journey, and to make her a 
prisoner. It required all the energy of M. de Voyna 
to foil this brutal attempt. At D81e there was a 
different manifestation. The population was Bona- 
partist, and seeing an Austrian officer near the 
Queen, imagined that she was a captive and must 
be delivered. Hortense herself had to undeceive 
the crowd. She finally reached Geneva with her 

50 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE FIRST TEARS OF EXILE 61 

children, and alighted at a modest inn, the Hdtel du 
S^cheron. As she had set ofiE for Switzerland pro- 
Tided with passports signed by the ambassadors of 
all the great powers, she thought herself safe in 
Switzerland. But the day after her arrival, the 
governor of the city, in spite of M. de Voyna's pro- 
tests, informed her that she must go away. Not 
knowing where to find an asylum, she said, with a 
smile, to the Austrian officer: "Throw me into the 
lake, for I certainly must be somewhere." After 
quitting Geneva, she went to Aix in Savoy, which 
remained a French possession for a few days longer, 
and where she had made several sojourns in the 
splendid imperial times. She was much liked there. 
The alms she had given and the hospital she had 
founded were not forgotten. Hortense was still at 
Aix when she experienced one of the greatest griefs 
of her life. She was forced to part with her elder 
son in obedience to the entirely just claim of her 
husband. Relying on the suit he had gained in 
Paris, the effect of which had been impeded by 
Napoleon on his return from Elba, Louis, who had 
taken refuge in Rome, sent Baron de Zuite to Savoy 
in search of the young Prince Napoleon. This 
prince and his brother had not been parted for a 
single day since 1810, and were profoundly attached 
to each other. They were not less deeply afflicted 
than their mother. Mademoiselle Cochelet writes : 
"I did not know how to soothe the grief of my dear 
Prince Louis, and divert him from his loneliness. 



Digitized by 



Google 



52 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 



This amiable child was gentle, timid, and reserved 
in disposition ; he said little, but his mind, at once 
quick, reflective, and penetrating, expressed itself 
in well-chosen words, full of justice and finesse, 
which I liked to hear and to repeat. He was so 
grieved by his brother's departure that he fell ill 
with a jaundice, which, fortunately, was not dan- 
gerous. The Queen became so seriously ill that I 
nearly went distracted. She had fainting fits sev- 
eral times a day, which alarmed me to the last 
degree, and from which she recovered only to fall 
into a state of depression from which nothing could 
rouse her." 

Not many days later, the ministers of the allied 
courts authorized Hortense and her second son to 
reside in Switzerland. Signed by Castlereagh, 
Hardenberg, Humboldt, Weissenberg, Rasoumosky, 
Mettemich, and Capo d'Istria, the procds-verbal of 
their conference of October 21, 1815, was thus 
worded: " The request of Madame the Duchesse de 
Saint-Leu (the powers no longer gave any other 
name to Queen Hortense), being conformable to the 
resolution by which the ministers agreed, in their 
session of August 27, to authorize her sojourn in 
Switzerland, under the surveillance of the missions 
of the four courts and that of the legation of His 
Most Christian Majesty, and the French Minister 
having signified that he finds no inconvenience in 
her settling in the canton of Saint-Gall, it has been 
agreed that the respective envoys of the four courts 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE FIRST TEARS OF EXILE 68 

to the Helvetic Confederation shall be charged to 
request that government to permit Madame the 
Duchesse de Saint-Len and her son, together with 
their suite, to establish themselves in the canton of 
Saint-Grail, under a promise not to leave it." 

Hortense and her son quitted Aix in Savoy, 
November 21, and in the evening of the same day 
arrived at Pr^gny, near Geneva, a domain belonging 
to the Queen. On the 30th they were at Lausanne. 
They spent the night of December 1 at Payerne. 
On the 6th they arrived at Zurich. Cold, snow, 
the slow pace at which they travelled, and the poor- 
ness of the inns all aided in making the wanderings 
of the exiles more painful. 

The Queen had just obtained from the allied 
courts a new authorization to remain at Constance 
in the grand-duchy of Baden, which was very near 
Switzerland, until she could install herself in the 
canton of Saint-Gall. She arrived there with her 
son, December 7. Half dead with cold and fatigue, 
the Queen had all the difficulty in the world in 
climbing the narrow winding stairs which led to the 
apartment of the wretched inn at which she alighted. 
The wife of Charles-Louis-Frederic, Grand-duke 
of Baden, the Grand-duchess Stephanie, daughter 
of Comte Claude de Beauhamais, a senator under 
the Empire, a peer of France under the Restoration, 
was a near relative and intimate friend of Queen 
Hortense. But as a Frenchwoman, a cousin-german 
of Hortense, and an adopted daughter of Napoleon, 



Digitized by 



Google 



54 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 



the Grand-duchess Stephanie was suspected by the 
Allies, who wished her husband to repudiate her. 
Notwithstanding her good will, she could not openly 
display her affection for her cousin : " Be patient, " 
she wrote to her, "keep very quiet, and perhaps 
by spring things will be settled to everybody's satis- 
faction; by that time passions will be calmed, and 
many things forgotten." 

Hortense hired a more than modest house, situ- 
ated on a tongue of land near Constance, at the spot 
where the lake narrows near the Rhine. She fur- 
nished it with a piano and some movables that came 
from Paris. "At last," she exclaimed, "I have a 
little home.^^ A few days afterwards some former 
conventionists, who had been ordered to leave Berne, 
passed through Constance, nearly all of them infirm 
and in a state of destitution. Hortense assisted 
them in their distress. Her reverses of fortune did 
not prevent her from being charitable. 

Hardly had the Queen taken possession of her 
new abode when she received a visit which deeply 
moved her, that of the Princess of HohenzoUem- 
Sigmaringen. Bom Princess of Salm-Kirbourg, 
this great-hearted woman had been married when 
very young to the sovereign of the petty principality 
of HohenzoUem-Sigmaringen, on the Danube, some 
eighty kilometres from Stuttgart. In her youth she 
had lived much in Paris, with her brother, who had 
built on the bank of the Seine the fine mansion of 
Salm, now the Hdtel of the Legion of Honor. Inti- 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE FIB8T TEARS OF EXILE 56 

mately connected with the Vicomte and Yicomtesse 
de Beauhamais, she had given their children, Engine 
and Hortense, the most affectionate care while they 
were imprisoned under the Terror. At the time of 
his power in Germany, Napoleon testified his inter- 
est in the Prince and Princess of Hohenzollern by 
marrying their son to a niece of Murat. As a child, 
Hortense had found a protectress in the Princess. 
An exile, she once more found a friend in this gen- 
erous woman. The proximity of Sigmaringen had 
counted for something in the desire Queen Hortense 
had displayed to settle in Constance. She experi- 
enced profound pleasure in receiving the Princess 
there, and returned her visit at Sigmaringen, where 
she was welcomed as if she still occupied a throne. 

Let us note, by the way, that from the marriage of 
a HohenzoUem-Sigmaringen with a niece of Murat 
was bom Prince Antoine, who manned, in 1834, a 
daughter of the Grand-duke of Baden, and became 
the father of the present King of Roumania and of 
that Prince Leopold whose candidature to the throne 
of Spain was the pretext, if not the cause, of the 
Franco-German war in 1870. When General Prim 
proposed this plan, he fancied that it would be 
acceptable to Napoleon III. on account of the family 
connection and his early memories. Alas! it was 
otherwise. 

But let us return to the year 1816 and the villa 
of Constance. Prince Eugdne came there from 
Munich, where he was treated with much generosity 



Digitized by 



Google 



56 Loma napoleon 

by his father-in-law, the King of Bavaria, to spend 
Holy Week. The brother and sister passed eight 
days together, which were full of charm. 

Not long afterwards, the Queen, accompanied by 
Louis Napoleon, returned Prince Eugene's visit. 
He was at the time in Bavaria, near Lake Wurmsde, 
in a fine residence lent him by his father-in-law at 
Berg. Eugdne and his wife, the Princess Augusta, 
received Hortense most cordially. They were sur- 
rounded by their five children: Josephine, bom in 
1807, who, in 1823, married the Prince-royal of 
Sweden, afterwards King Oscar I. ; Eugenie, bom 
in 1808, who married Frederick, Prince of Hohen- 
zoUem-Hechingen, in 1826 ; Auguste, bora in 1810, 
who married Donna Maria, Queen of Portugal, in 
1885, and died two months after his marriage; 
Am^lie, bom in 1812, who married in 1832 Dom 
Pedro I., Emperor of Brazil; Th^odolinde, bom in 
1814, who married Count William of Wurtemberg 
in 1841. At the time of Hortense's visit to her 
brother, his second son, Maximilien, was yet un- 
born. He came into the world the following year. 
It was he who married, in 1839, the Grand-duchess 
Marie of Russia, daughter of the Emperor Nicholas, 
and was the father of the present dukes of Leuch- 
tenberg. 

Engine was delighted to show his superb children 
to his sister. Carrying her the youngest, little 
Th^odolinde, "This one is yours," said he; "I think 
her astonishingly like what you were as a baby, and 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE FIRST TEAB8 OF EXILE 67 

I greatly hope she may resemble you in every way." 
Louis Napoleon was at first intimidated by the sight 
of so many unknown &ces, but he was soon reas- 
sured and took great pleasure in playing with his 
little cousins. 

After a short stay in Berg, Hortense returned to 
Constance. Louis Napoleon's studies now began in 
earnest. Accomplishments were taught him by his 
mother; other thin^ by his tutor, the Abb^ Ber- 
trand, assisted by M. Lebas, son of a member of the 
Convention. The young prince displayed good 
qualities: a love of study, gentleness, and charity. 
During his hours of recreation he played with the 
neighboring children, especially with the son of the 
miller at the Rhine bridge, and sometimes wandered 
beyond the precincts of the garden. One day he 
returned home in shirt sleeves and barefooted, 
through mud and snow. On being asked how he 
got into that condition, he answered that he had 
met a destitute family, and that, having no money, 
he had given one of them his shoes and another 
his coat. 

It was in this year, 1816, that Queen Hortense 
began writing her memoirs, which she finished, but 
of which only the fragment including the years 
1831-32 has appeared. This fragment is deeply 
interesting. The memoirs are in the possession of 
the Empress Eugenie, and it is to be hoped that 
they may be published in their entirety. 

In 1817, the Grand-duchess of Baden had ex- 



Digitized by 



Google 



68 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

pressed a wish to go and see her cousin. This 
project alarmed the diplomatists, who forced the 
6rand-duke to refuse a refuge in his dominions to the 
exile. Hortense knew not where to lay her head. 
Now that Napoleon could no longer protect her, she 
could apply to herself these lines of her friend, the 
poet Arnault: — 

Dt ta tige detach^ 
Pauvre fsuille dessdeh/ej 
Ou vas'tut — Je n*en sais mn, 
L*orage a brise le chene 
Qui geul Hait mon soutien* 
De son inconstante haleine 
Le Zephyr ou VAquilon 
Depuis ces jours me promhie 
De la montagne a la plaine 
Et de la plaine au vaUon^ 
Je vais oit le vent me mene 
Sans me plaindre et sans crier. 
Je vais oit va toute chose^ 
Ou vont la /euille de rose 
Et la feuUle de laurier.^ 

Hearing of the Queen's distress, the magistrates 
of the Swiss canton of Thurgau, the nearest one to 
Constance, sent her word that if she wished to estab- 
lish herself in their country both authorities and 

1 Torn from thy stem — Poor withered leaf, —Whither goest thou? 
— I know not. — The storm has rent the oak — Which was my 
sole support. — With its inoonstant breath — Zephyr or Boreas — 
Since then has driven me — From mountain to plain — And from 
plain to valley, — I go where the wind leads me — Without com- 
plaint or outcry. — I go where all things go, — Where go the rose 
leaf — And the leaf of laureL 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE FIB8T TEABS OF EXILE 69 

people would uphold her in so doing. Like all the 
newly formed cantons, Thurgau was democratic, and 
feared neither the Bourbons nor their allies. 

Very grateful for this hospitable offer, Hortense, 
February 10, 1817, bought, for thirty thousand 
florins, the little ch&teau of Arenenberg in this 
canton. The house, however, required many re- 
pairs to make it habitable, and she was unable to 
live in it until 1819. 

Prince Eugdne, for his part, as soon as he learned 
that his sister could no longer remain in Constance, 
urged her coming to him in Bavaria. But the 
Queen had so great a fear of embarrassing him that 
she would not at first consent, and did so only after 
ascertaining that King Maximilian was of her 
brother's mind. But even then she would not go 
to Munich, where her presence might have incom- 
moded the court, but remained at Augsburg, a city 
fifty-seven kilometres distant, where her brother 
could visit her often. She left Constance with her 
son. May 6, 1817, and established herself at Augs- 
burg, at whose excellent university Louis Napoleon 
pursued his studies for more than four years. His 
first communion was also made there. His father 
wrote him as follows, April 9, 1821: "I have re- 
ceived your letter of March 18. I thank your 
mamma, your tutor, and the abb^ for having pre- 
pared you to fulfil the first solemn duty proposed to 
you by religion. I give you my blessing with all 
my heart. I pray God to create in you a heart pure 



Digitized by 



Google 



60 LOUia NAPOLEON 

and grateful to Him who is the author of all good^ 
to give you the lights necessary to fulfil all the 
duties that your country or your parents may lay 
upon you, and to render you always able to discern 
good from evil. Adieu, my dear, I embrace you 
with all my heart, and I renew on this solemn occa- 
sion the paternal blessing which I give yon in 
thought e^ery morning and every night, and at all 
times when my imagination turns in your direction. 
Your affectionate father, Louis." At Augsburg, 
the Prince also received the sacrament of confirma- 
tion, which was conferred by the bishop of the city, 
in presence of Prince Eugdne. 

Louis Napoleon was still at Augsburg when he 
heard of the Emperor's death at Saint Helena. On 
receiving this news he wrote his mother a letter 
(published for the first time in English by Mr. 
Blanchard Jerrold, and in French by M. G. Duval), 
in which he said, under date of July 24, 1821: "My 
dear mamma, the day approaches when I shall see 
you again, and when I can try to console you for 
this unhappy event. As you may believe, this 
death has caused me great sorrow, which is in- 
creased when I think of the grief it will occasion 
to all my family; happily he is in a better world 
than ours, where he peacefully enjoys the fruit of 
his good actions. . . . When I do wrong, if I 
think of this great man^ I seem to feel a spirit 
within me which bids me make myself worthy of 
the name of Napoleon. . . . You can well fancy 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE FIRST TEAB8 OF EXILE 61 

the consolations lavished on me by M. Le Bas on 
this occasion. He gave me a holiday for three 
days after the sad news arrived. Fortunately, 
I am young, and often seem to have forgotten 
this misfortune, but although my habitual gaiety 
sometimes reappears, that does not prevent my 
heart from being sad, nor from having an eternal 
hatred against the English." One might say that 
the mind of the young prince was already haunted 
by the spirit of Napoleon, but his hatred against the 
English was not to be so enduring as his cult for 
their prisoner. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CHAPTER V 

BOMS 

A FTER installing herself, in 1819, at the chft- 
teau of Arenenberg, Queen Hortense used to 
spend the whole year there, with the exception of 
the winter months, which she passed either at 
Geneva or Rome. In alternating thus between 
Switzerland and the Eternal City, she entered into 
the views of the Emperor. 

In his letter on the Hutory of France^ addressed 
to Prince Napoleon, son of King Jerome, the Due 
d'Aumale has written: "No, your uncle had not 
that aversion to the papacy with which you credit 
him. You cannot have forgotten the curious in- 
structions which General Bertrand brought back to 
King Joseph from Saint Helena in 1821. On his 
deathbed Napoleon urged his family to establish 
itself at Rome and attach a powerful theocracy to 
its interests ; it would soon have a pope and cardi- 
nals. A few years more and the desire of Napoleon 
might have been fulfilled; one of your cousins 
might have been seated on the throne of Saint 
Peter, which might have been better defended." 

The instructions alluded to by the Due d'Aumale 



Digitized by 



Google 



BOME 68 

may be found in volume ten of the Memoirs of King 

Joseph^ under the heading : "Extracts from Napoleon's 

conversation of April 21, 1821*': "The Emperor 

has desired the Grand Marshal to say to Madame 

Mdre that she cannot do better than marry her 

daughters into Roman families; that they should 

ally themselves with all the princely families; 

namely, with all those which have had popes ; that 

the alliance with the Hercolanis and the Gabriellis 

was well managed; that he had strongly disapproved 

the Swedish marriage (one of Lucien's daughters 

had married a Swede); that his nieces might wash 

the feet of a pope, but not those of the Queen of 

Sweden or any other. The Emperor added that the 

Bonapartes might also intermarry, but they ought 

not to marry in France, at least until there was a 

change of government." 

Napoleon returned to the same subject, April 24, 
1821, eleven days before his death. He said that 
his family was, in fact, of Roman origin, there hav- 
ing been Bonapartes in Rome in the year 1000 ; that 
it was the imprecations launched at the Constable 
de Bourbon by a Bonaparte which caused the sack of 
Rome. The Emperor added that his name would 
always be popular in Italy, where he had renewed 
the souvenirs of the country.- His conclusion was 
that his family could establish itself only in a theoc- 
racy like Rome, or a republic like Switzerland, 
which had force enough to maintain its indepen- 
dence. In making one's self an oligarch of Berne 



Digitized by 



Google 



64 LOUia NAPOLEON 

or any other canton^ one was independent and owed 
nothing to anybody. Madame Mdre should compre- 
hend this thoroughly. With a score of marriages 
the Bonapartes could possess themselves of Rome and 
Switzerland. Lucien ought to make cardinals of his 
sons as soon as possible. 

Lucien had not awaited the Emperor's downfall 
to settle himself in Rome. Pius VII., who showed 
him the utmost good will, had, in 1814, made him 
a Roman prince, with the title of Canino. Madame 
Mdre had likewise taken shelter in the Papal states, 
arriving with her brother, Cardinal Fesch, at the 
very time when Pius VII. re-entered in triumph 
after the captivity of Fontainebleau. The Holy 
Father said to them : ^* You are welcome to Rome, 
which has always been the fatherland of great 
exiles." Madame M^re had rejoined Napoleon at 
the island of Elba, and during the Hundred Days 
at Paris. When her son departed for Saint Helena 
she returned to Rome, where she arrived August 16, 
1815. Then she wrote to Cardinal Consalvi, secre- 
tary of state : " I am verily the mother of all sorrows, 
and my only remaining consolation is to know that 
the Holy Father forgets the past, to remember only 
the kindness bestowed by him on all the members 
of my family. We iSnd no support save in the pon- 
tifical government, and our gratitude for such a 
benefit is great." She established herself in the 
Falconieri palace, rue Julia, at the comer of the 
Corso and the Piazza di Venezia. Cardinal Fesch 



Digitized by 



Google 



ROME 66 

occupied the second story. This residence became 
the meeting point for those members of the Bona- 
parte family who were not in exile elsewhere. 
Lucien, Loais» and Jerome came there in turn. 
They had been preceded by Elisa and Pauline. 

Madame R^camier has given some curious details 
concerning Hortense's visit to Rome in 1824. She 
arrived with her two sons in the month of February. 
The friend of M. de Ch&teaubriand and the former 
Queen of Holland had not seen each other since the 
Hundred Days. They met, to their great surprise, 
in Saint Peter's, where they prayed beside each 
other. Madame R^camier was closely connected 
with the French ambassador, the Due de Laval- 
Montmorency, and politics prevented the two ladies 
from exchanging visits. But they met by appoint- 
ment 4n the Coliseum, and sat down together on the 
steps of the cross in the middle of the amphitheatre. 
Listen to Madame R^camier: ^^ Night had come, a 
night of Italy; the moon was rising gently in the 
sky, behind the covered arcades of the Coliseum; 
the breeze of evening resounded in the deserted 
galleries. Beside me was this woman, herself a 
living ruin of so astonishing a fortune. A vague 
and undefinable emotion forced me to silence. The 
Queen also seemed absorbed in reflections. 'What 
events has it not required, ' she said at length, turning 
towards me, ' to bring about our meeting here 1 Events 
of which I have often been the puppet and victim 
without either having seen or provoked them I * " 



Digitized by 



Google 



66 Loma napoleon 

Some days later there was a masked ball at the 
house of Torlonia, the banker. Hortense and 
Madame R^camier agreed to wear the same costume : 
a white satin domino covered with lace, the sole 
difference being that Madame R^camier was to have 
a wreath of roses and the Queen a bouquet of the 
same flowers. Both were to wear their masks all 
the evening. Madame R^camier entered on the arm 
of the French ambassador, while Hortense was 
accompanied by Jerome Bonaparte, the former King 
of Westphalia. Thereupon the two women invented 
a gay little conspiracy. They found means furtively 
to exchange the wreath for the bouquet. The am- 
bassador of Louis XVIII. paid court to Hortense, 
taking her for Madame R^camier; the former Queen 
of Holland was soon surrounded by all the represen- 
tatives of foreign courts, while Madame R^camier 
was attended by all the Bonapartes then in Rome. 
"However," she says, "this ruse, which was finally 
siispected, caused trouble in the respective societies. 
A rumor spread at the ball that Queen Hortense and 
I had exchanged disguises, and the embarrassment 
of those who accosted either of us, so long as they 
had not ascertained our identity, prolonged our 
enjoyment of this pleasantry. Still, everybody took 
part in it with a good grace, with the exception of 
the Princesse de Lieven, who always adhered to 
policy, even at a ball, and who was greatly aggrieved 
at having compromised herself with a female Bona- 
parte." 



Digitized by 



Google 



BOMB 67 

Soon afterwards, Madame R^camier received this 
letter from Queen Hortense: "Friday morning. — 
My dear Madame, it seems fated that I shall never 
have any pleasure, diversion, or interest without 
some attendant sorrow. I have received news from 
my brother. He has been suffering, but was better, 
they assure me, when the letter was sent; but I am 
extremely anxious. I hope that God will not de- 
prive me of my only remaining friend, the best and 
most faithful man in existence. ... I cannot go 
out with you to-day; however, I shall be happy to 
see you if you will meet me at Saint Peter's. I 
know you are not afraid of those who suffer, and 
you must do them good. That I wish for you at 
present sufficiently proves my sentiments toward 
you." 

Hortense had not time to reach Munich before the 
death of her brother, who expired February 24, 1824, 
in his forty-third year. The end of his life had been 
tranquil. Sheltered in Bavaria, near his father-in- 
law, he was surrounded by universal affection. In 
1823 he had married his daughter Josephine to the 
prince-royal of Sweden, afterwards King Oscar I. 

Hortense returned, in deep affliction, to Arenen- 
berg, whence she wrote to Madame R^camier: "This 
life so full of troubles no longer disturbs those 
whom we regret. I have nothing but tears, and 
doubtless he is happy! ... I am at present in my 
retreat. Nature is superb. Notwithstanding the 
beautiful sky of Italy, I still find Arenenberg very 



Digitized by 



Google 



68 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

lovely; but I must always be attended by regrets; 
no doubt it is my destiny. Last year I was so con- 
tented here! I was very proud of neither regretting 
nor desiring anything in this world. I had a good 
brother and good children. At present I find it 
needful to remind myself that there are still those 
to whom I am necessary. . . . Adieu ; do not forget 
me altogether; believe that your friendship has done 
me good. You know what it is to have a friendly 
voice reach you from your country in misfortune and 
isolation. Pray tell me again that I am unjust if I 
complain too much of destiny, and that I still have 
friends." 

Louis Napoleon was profoundly grieved by the 
death of an uncle who had been a second father to 
him. He sadly resumed, in Switzerland, the course 
of his studies. The year 1825 was not marked for 
him by any incident. The woman of whom he was 
to be the husband, was bom the following year. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER VI 

THE BIBTH OF THE EMPBESS 

IV^AY 6, 1826, five years to a day after the death 
"*" -^ of the Emperor Napoleon I., at Saint Helena, 
there came into the world, at Grenada, the child des- 
tined to be the wife of the Emperor Napoleon III. 
In 1867, the municipality of the city put a mar- 
ble plaque with an inscription in honor of ^^The 
Empress of the French, its noble compatriot," on 
the front of the house where she was bom. No. 12, 
Grratia street. 

The "calle de Gratia" is one of the aristocratic 
streets of the city. The houses lining it are nearly 
all built in the same style. The exterior is usually 
very simple, although embellished with balconies of 
wrought iron in the Louis XV. style. From the 
time of the domination of the Moors, Andalusia has 
maintained the custom of reserving luxury for the 
interior of houses. The impression of seyerity is 
modified as soon as one crosses the threshold. The 
patio comes into view with its graceful colonnades 
of marble surrounding the central fountain where 
the water flows amidst flowers, and all whose cor- 
ners are occupied with narrow benches with long 

69 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



70 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

wooden backs, spreading at the top into the form of 
a shield bearing the arms of the family and its alli- 
ances. The doors of the chambers and boudoirs 
open upon this patio^ a summer residence whose 
atmosphere is always kept fresh by an ingenious 
system of aeration. The reception-rooms are on 
the first story. Such is even now the Guzman resi- 
dence in Grenada, where the Empress Eugenie first 
saw the light. 

In the acts of her birth and baptism the future 
sovereign is designated under the name of Marie- 
Eug^nie-Ignace- Augustine, daughter of Don Cipri- 
ano Guzman Palafox y Porto-Carrero, Count of 
Teba, Marquis of Ardales, grandee of Spain, and of 
Maria-Manuela de Kirkpatrick y Grivegn^e, Countess 
of Teba, Marchioness of Ardalds. 

At the time of the Empress's birth her father was 
styled the Comte de Teba. He did not assume the 
title of Comte de Monti jo, belonging to his elder 
brother, the head of the family, until after the lat- 
ter's death. The most illustrious souvenirs relate 
to this family, whose origin goes back much farther 
than the institution of nobility. Among its ances- 
tors it counts Alfonso Perez de Guzman, that hero 
whose exploits are still recounted by Spanish peas- 
ants, Gonzalvo de Cordova, sumamed the Great Cap- 
tain, and Antonio de Leve, the most skilful of the 
generals of Charles Fifth. 

Don Alfonso Perez de Guzman, born at Valla- 
dolid, in 1278, died in 1320, has left a legendary 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE BIBTH OF THE EMPRESS 71 

memoiy. He was goyemor of Tarifa, under Sanoho 
IV., King of Castile, when the place was besieged 
by the In&nte Don Juan, in revolt against the King, 
his brother. Don Juan, who had taken prisoner a 
son of Guzman, threatened the father with cutting 
the child's throat under the walls of the fortress if 
he would not surrender it. Guzman's only reply 
was to throw down a cutlass into the ditch below 
the ramparts. The child's throat was cut, but the 
besiegers, forced to raise the siege, beat a retreat. 
It was in memory of this stoical loyalty, immortal- 
ized by the verses of Lope de Vega, that the Guzman 
&niily took the noble device: ^My King before my 
Kin.'' 

The Comte de Monti jo and his younger brother, 
the Comte de Teba, father of the Empress, both dis- 
tinguished themselves in Spain in the first years of 
this century, but they adopted different lines of 
conduct. The one was opposed to France, the other 
was her partisan. In March, 1808, when the mob 
tried to prevent Charles IV. from quitting Aranjuez 
by force, the Comte de Monti jo was foremost amongst 
those who sought to impede his departure. Concern- 
ing this matter M. Thiei-s has written in his History 
of the Consulate and the Empire: "The throng at 
Aranjuez was extreme, and the most sinister and 
strange faces began to appear there. A singular 
personage, persecuted at court, who united to the 
birth and fortune of a great noble the art and incli- 
nation to move the^ popular masses, was in the midst 



Digitized by 



Google 



72 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

of this crowd, ready to give the signal for the insur- 
rection.'* The Comte de Monti jo, uncle to the 
Empress, declared himself energetically against the 
French invasion. He was one of the principal lead- 
ers of the insurrection in the kingdom of Valencia, 
and fought against the troops of Marshal Monc^y. 

Unlike M. Thiers, who expresses himself in rather 
contemptuous terms concerning the Comte de Mon- 
ti jo, M. Auguste Filon has eulogized him greatly in 
his fine study on Merim^e: '^At the beginning of 
the century," he says, "the Comte de Monti jo came 
very near changing the fate of the Spanish nation, 
and wresting his country from the most humiliating 
of tyrannies. He was akin to the conspirators of 
old by his audacity, and to the modem revolution- 
ists by the breadth of his views. He entered the 
palace of Aranjuez at the head of a small but reso- 
lute troop, and for several hours kept the upper 
hand of the King, the Queen, and the favorite 
Godoy. But the nation remained inactive, and not 
a voice replied to his appeal. Eugenic de Monti jo 
was regarded as a madman because he failed; he 
would have been a hero had he succeeded. His 
brother Cipriano (Don Cipriano Guzman Palafox y 
Porto-Carrero, Comte de Teba, father of the Em- 
press) offered his sword to Napoleon." 

Ardent by nature, the Comte de Teba was impas- 
sioned by the glory of the victor of Austerlitz, in 
whom he thought he saw the regenerator of Spain. 
He distinguished himself among those whom his 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE BIRTH OF THE EMPRESS 78 

compatriots called the afrancesadosj and served glori- 
ously under the banners of France. At the battle 
of Salamanca, also called the battle of Arapiles, he 
lost an eye, and had a leg broken by a cannon ball. 
A colonel of artillery in 1814, he was again 
wounded at Buttes-Chaumont, where he commanded 
the students of the Polytechnic School. Invaded 
France was not defended more valiantly by any 
Frenchman than by this Spaniard. He fired the 
last discharges of cannon which delayed for a day 
the entry of the allies into Paris, and as M. Auguste 
Filon has said, ^^It is amidst this smoke that one 
loves to contemplate that beautiful pale face, en- 
nobled rather than disfigured by the terrible wound 
which had deprived him of an eye, that soldier 
philosopher, his brain haunted by vague dreams of 
deliverance and progress, and bearing his misfortune 
proudly to the last." 

Averse to the reactionary policy of King Ferdi- 
nand VII., the Comte de Teba did not at once return 
to Spain. It was at Paris, in 1814 and 1815, that 
he began to pay court to a charming young girl 
whom he aspired to marry. He met her at the 
house of M. and Madame Mathieu de Lesseps who 
then lived at No. 17 rue Saint-Florentin. This 
young girl, a native of Madrid, was called Maria 
Manuela de Kirkpatrick. Her genealogy is clearly 
established in the notes left by her cousin-german, 
Ferdinand de Lesseps, the illustrious creator of the 
Suez canal. 



Digitized by 



Google 



74 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 



Maria Manuela de Kirkpatrick, who married the 
Comte de Teba, afterwards the Comte de Monti jo, 
and became the mother of the Empress Eugenie, i^as 
descended from one of the most ancient and honor- 
able families of the Low Countries, that of Grive- 
gn^e, whose members lived in Li^ge and were 
several times enrolled among its aldermen. 

Henri de Grivegn^e, bom at Lidge, June 2, 1784, 
established himself at Malaga, where he married a 
Spanish woman, Dofla Antonia de Gallegos. From 
this marriage two daughters were bom, Fran^oise 
and Catherine. 

Fran^oise de Grivegn^e married, at the close of 
the eighteenth century. Baron William Kirkpatrick 
of Closeburn, bom at Dumfries, in Scotland, and 
belonging to an illustrious family, the head of which 
had been created a baron by Alexander III., King of 
Scotland, in 1227. William Kirkpatrick's devotion 
to the cause of the Stuarts forced him to leave Eng- 
land in order to escape persecution. He emigrated 
to the United States at the period when they pro- 
claimed their independence, and the new govern- 
ment appointed him its consul at Malaga. 

At this epoch Mathieu de Lesseps was residing at 
Cadiz in the capacity of special charg^ d'affaires of 
the French republic in that city. He married the 
second daughter of Henri de Grivegnee and Antonia 
de Gallegos, Catherine de Grivegnee, who was bom 
June 11, 1774, and died January 21, 1853, just 
before the marriage of her great-niece with the 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE BIBTH OF THE EMPRESS 76 

Emperor Napoleon III. Mathieu de Lesseps, pre- 
fect and count of the Empire, died consul-general 
of France, at Tunis, in 1832. From bis marriage 
with Catherine de Grivegn^e were bom Theodore 
(director of consulates and then senator under the 
Second Empire); Addle (who married Dr. Cabarrus, 
the son of Madame Tallien); Ferdinand (the creator 
of the Suez canal); and Jules (who represented the 
Bey of Tunis at Paris). 

Baron Kirkpatrick and Mathieu de Lesseps became 
friends in Spain and renewed their friendship in 
France. Maria Manuela Kirkpatrick, after com- 
pleting her education in a Parisian school, went to 
the house of her aunt, Madame Mathieu de Lesseps, 
and there, as we have already said, made the 
acquaintance of the Comte de Teba. The Count 
and the young girl returned to Spain almost at the 
same time, and were married in Grenada, December 
15. From this marriage was born, January 29, 

1825, Frangoise (the Duchesse d'Albe), and May 5, 

1826, Eugenie (the Empress). 

Maria Manuela Kirkpatrick, Comtesse de Teba, 
and later de Montijo (mother of the Duchesse 
d^Albe and of the Empress of the French), had a 
sister, Henrietta Kirkpatrick, who married the Comte 
Fran9ois de Cabarrus, son of the former minister of 
finances to King Charles III. of Spain, and brother 
of Therezia Cabarrus, the celebrated woman who was 
successively the Marquise de Fontenay, Madame 
Tallien, and the Princesse de Chimay. 



Digitized by 



Google 



76 LOUU NAPOLEON 

The following table sums up the genealogy of the 
Empress Eugenie and her relationship with M. Fer- 
dinand de Lesseps. 

Henri de GRnnBONiEy married to Antonia de Gallboob. 

I 

Fran^oise de Grivegn^e, Catherine de GBr^BGNBE, 

married to Baron Eirkpatrick. married to Mathieu de Lesseps. 

I \ 

Manuela, Comtesse de Montija Ferdinand de Lesseps. 



The Empress Eugenie. 



Hence the Comtesse de Monti jo and Ferdinand de 
Lesseps were cousins-german, and the man who 
pierced the isthmus of Suez was the uncle, in Brit- 
tany fashion, of the sovereign of the French. This 
was one reason why the Empress was so deeply 
interested in one of the greatest enterprises of the 
century, and presided in such faiiy-like splendor at 
the opening of the Suez canaL 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER Vir 
1880 



TTTHILE the child destined to be one day the 
^ " Empress of the French was beginning life in 
Malaga, Louis Napoleon, having quitted the uni- 
versity of Strasburg, was punsuing his studies in 
Switzerland. He took the courses in artilleiy and 
engrineering at Thun, in the canton of Berne, under 
the direction of the brave colonel (afterwards gen- 
eral) Dufour, formerly an officer in Napoleon's army. 
During the great manoeuvres the young prince 
marched from ten to twelve leagues a day, loaded 
with a knapsack, and slept in a tent at the foot of 
glaciers. 

Early in the year 1829, Louis Napoleon desired to 
enlist under the Russian flag and fight against the 
Turks. January 19, he wrote the following letter to 
his father, which was published for the first time by 
M. Femand Giraudeau in his fine work entitled. 
Napoleon HI. intime : " My dear Papa, I have come 
to a great determination which I hope you will 
approve, because it is so fine and noble. Allow me 
to say that I love you with all my heart, and desire 
your permission above all. I am inexpressibly 

77 



Digitized by 



Google 



78 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

anxious to make the campaign against the Turks 
next spring, as a volunteer in the Russian army. 
Mamma, to whom I have spoken of the matter, has 
wavered greatly, but feeling how useful it might be 
to me, has fully consented. As far as she can judge 
from his relations with her, the Emperor would be 
very kind to me; I would doubtless be on his staff. 
Mamma would select a former military man to 
accompany me. Lastly, I would do something 
worthy of you I If you will consent, everything 
will go wonderfully well, and mamma will make an 
application to the Emperor. Ah I my dear papa, 
remember that you were not as old as I when you 
had already covered yourself with glory! In mak- 
ing this campaign as a volunteer (which would bind 
me to nothing) I could have the advantage of in- 
structing myself perfectly, of displaying to the 
world the courage I received from you at birth, and 
thereby of attracting general interest. My aunt, 
the Grand-duchess of Baden, to whom I mentioned 
it some months ago, induced me to ask your permis- 
sion, saying that it was an action very worthy of 
one who is your son. Finally, my dear father, I 
beg you to answer me as soon as possible. Consider 
that I desire so greatly to make this campaign that 
if you will not give, me your consent and blessing 
before I start, I shall die of vexation. Adieu, my 
dear papa, I entreat you again, in the name of all 
you hold most dear, permit me to render myself 
worthy of your name." 



Digitized by 



Google 



18S0 79 

King Louis replied : — 

^ I suspected that the great viotories of the Rus- 
sians over the barbarous Mussulmans would arouse 
your warlike ardor. But your understanding and 
your qualities are so good that a little reflection 
will calm you thoroughly. . . . War, excepting 
the case of legitimate defence, that is to say, unless 
it is made for the welfare of one's country and in de- 
fence of its homes, is simply a barbarity, a ferocity, 
which differs from that of savages and ferocious 
beasts only by greater skill, deceit, and futility in 
its object. • • . This is enough on that head. I 
can only conclude by repeating what I have often 
said to you: A man should fight far his country only.^^ 

Louis Napoleon yielded regretfully to his father's 
wishes. March 3, 1880, he addressed him a letter 
ending thus : " Adieu, my dear papa, believe in my 
sincere attachment. I have proved its reality by 
renouncing my project, for had I not loved you so 
well I could not have resisted the desire to carry it 
out, even against your will." 

April 21, he wrote again : " To-day I am twenty- 
one; I have attained majority: but I see in that 
only another reason to obey you always, and, follow- 
ing your advice, to become worthy of you. I cannot 
employ this day better than in writing to my dear 
father to assure him anew of my sincere attachment 
and tender gratitude." 

Nevertheless, the young prince, athirst for action 
and tormented by an ardent ambition to distinguish 



Digitized by 



Google 



80 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

himself in some way, chafed with impatience while 
awaiting an opportunity for action. In July he 
imagined thftt the time had come. 

The revolution of 1880 was the retaliation of the 
tricolor on the white flag, the result of the alliance 
contracted during the whole period of the Restora- 
tion between the republicans and the imperialists. 
It originated in what might be called the policy of 
B^ranger's Chansons. 

In a very curious opuscule entitled: Napoleon I. 
»ince his deaths M. Ernest Legouve has written: 
^^^ Requiescant in pace — they rest in peace — does 
not apply to all the dead. Some of them are more 
active than when alive. Very few statesmen at the 
head of our government within sixty years have 
been more deeply implicated in our affairs while in 
this world than Napoleon has been since he left it. 
This shade re-enters active life, this dead man 
becomes a party chieftain. The liberals enroll him 
in their ranks. As a matter of fact, nothing is 
more absurd than this amalgam of Bonapartism and 
liberalism. But the masses do not look into things 
so closely. Nor young men either; all of us, boys 
of from eighteen to twenty, were at the same time 
frantic Bonapartists and frantic liberals. As to the 
enthusiasm of the political leaders, it was premedi- 
tated; the alliance with Napoleon brought them two 
powerful auxiliaries: the people and the army. 
Hence they used his name as a weapon against the 
Bourbons; so much so that, when the July ordi- 



Digitized by 



Google 



18S0 81 

nances precipitated the entire people on Paris in an 
attack on the monarchy, one might say that the 
assailants were led by the captive of Saint Helena : 
Napoleon is one of the July combatants." 

Instructors of the conscripts of the riot, during 
the three days the veterans of the Empire led the 
charge against their former companions in arms, 
large numbers of whom were in the ranks of the 
royal gnard. The men who were ignorantly laying 
the foundations of the throne of Louis Philippe, 
believed themselves to be fighting for the King of 
Rome. 

Read Victor Hugo's poem entitled: "Dictated 
after July, 1830." It is a sort of Napoleonic can- 
tata. What says the poet to the victors of the three 
days? 

Trow jourt vous ont suffi pour hriser voa erUraves. 
Vous etes les aines d*une race de braves; 
Vau8 etes les JUs des g^nts. 

Cest pour vous gu^Us tra^aient avec des funiraiUes 
Ce cercle triomphal de plaines de batailles, 
Chemin tnctorieux^ prodigieuz travail, 
Qui, de France parti pour enserrer la terre 
En passant par Moscou, Cadiz, Rome et le Caire^ 
Va de Jemmapes h Montmirail, 

Vous etes les en/ants des heUiqueux lyceesf 
Lh vous applaudissiez nos victoires passdes. 
Tous vos jeux s'ombrageaient des plis d'un dtendard 
Souvent Napoleon, plein de grandes pensdes, 
Passant les bras crois^ dans vos lignes pressies, 
Aimanta vos fronts d^un regard. 



Digitized by 



Google 



82 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

Aigle quHU devaient suivre! Aigle de noire armdCf 
Dont la plume sanglarUe en cent lieux est sem^, 
Dont la tonnerre un soir 8*detgnit dans les JiotSf 
Toi, qui les a couv^s dans Pair patemelle, 
Regarde, et sois joyeuse, et crie, et bats de raUe, 
Mere, tes aiglons sont eclosl^ 

If the Napoleonic legend excited to this degree 
men who had no personal interest in developing 
it, one easily comprehends what effect it must 
have produced on the ardent youths who bore the 
Emperor's name and were his nephews. The revo- 
lution of July, made in the name of the tricolored 

^ Three days have been enough to break your ohains. 
You are the eldest of a race of heroes, 
You are the sons of giants. 

•Twas for you they traced with funerals 
That triumphant circle of plains and battles, 
Victorious pathway, prodigious labor, 
Which, starting from France to surround the world, 
And passing by way of Moscow, Cadiz, Rome, and Cairo, 
Goes from Jemmapes to Montmiiail. 

You are the pupils of warlike schools I 
There you applauded our pstst victories. 
The folds of a standard shaded all your sports. 
Often Napoleon, full of great thoughts, 
Passmg with folded arms amid your crowded ranks, 
Magnetized your foreheads with a glance. 

Eagle whom they must follow 1 Kagle of our hosts. 
Whose bloody plumes in thousand fields are strewn, 
Whose bolt one eve was quenched beneath the floods, 
Thou who hast brooded them in the paternal air. 
Look and be glad, and scream, and beat thy wings, 
Mother, tldne eaglets have chipped the shelL 



Digitized by 



Google 



18S0 88 

flag, filled the sons of Louis Bonaparte with enthusi- 
astic joy. "This revolution," their mother writes, 
** found my eldest son in Tuscany, in the midst of 
the industrial inventions with which he had occu- 
pied himself since his maniage for lack of some- 
thing hetter, and my youngest in Switzerland, where 
he was studying artillery and engineering. Both of 
them seemed recalled to new life by the news of the 
events in Paris. Although apart, their impressions 
were the same : keen regrets at having been unable 
to fight with the Parisians, enthusiasm over their 
heroic conduct, and the legitimate hope of serving 
that fair France they loved so much. They said to 
me: ^ At last she is free ! Exile is ended, the father- 
land is open ; we will save her, no matter how I ' 
Such were the contents of all their letters. I was 
&r enough from sharing their hopes." 

Queen Hortense received many letters at this 
period. Some of them said: "Come, we are free at 
last, and we are to see you again I" The others: 
"We thought of your cause when fighting." Her 
son, Louis Napoleon, wrote her, August 12: "The 
tricolored flag is floating in France! Happy they 
who could be the first to restore its former glories I " 
And on the 14th: "I hope that after these events 
we shall be allowed to enjoy the rights of French 
citizens. How glad I should be to see soldiei-s with 
the tricolored cockade I " Queen Hortense had more 
experience than her children. Their illusions dis- 
tressed her. It was not the combatants of July who 



Digitized by 



Google 



84 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

were to profit by the revolution. The sie vos nan 
vobis received its application. 

At the very time when Napoleon seemed the 
object of universal enthusiasm at Paris, and when 
his memory attracted not merely fanatics but devo- 
tees, his family continued to be proscribed in virtue 
of article 4 of the law of January 12, 1816, which 
was thus expressed: ^^The ascendants and descend- 
ants of Napoleon Bonaparte, his uncles and aunts, 
nephews and nieces, his brothers, their wives and 
their descendants, his sisters and their husbands, are 
excluded from the kingdom in perpetuity, and are 
bound to leave it within a month under the penalty 
imposed by article 9 of the penal code." This same 
law of January 12, 1816, had likewise proscribed a 
list of regicides. Article 7 was as follows : " Those 
of the regicides who, in contempt of a boundless 
clemency, have voted for the Additional Act or 
accepted functions or employments from the usurper 
and thereby declared themselves irreconcilable ene- 
mies of France and the legitimate government, are 
excluded in perpetuity from the kingdom; they 
cannot enjoy any civil right therein, or possess any 
property, titles, or pensions bestowed upon them 
gratuitously." 

September 2, 1830, the chamber of deputies occu- 
pied itself with the law of January 12, 1816. It 
put an end to the proscription of the regicides, 
and maintained it for all members of the Bonaparte 
family. Article 7, which exiled the regicides, was 



Digitized by 



Google 



18S0 85 

abrogated, and article 4, which proscribed the Bona- 
partes, was the object of the following stipulation: 
^^ Nothing is abated from the provisions contained in 
article 4 of the law aforesaid." Not one voice arose 
in favor of the Napoleonic family. The Emperor's 
name was not even mentioned. 

No proscriptive law against Charles X. and his 

family had yet been decreed. (The Bourbons of the 

elder branch were not outlawed until April 10, 

1832.) In 1880 the only exiles were the Bona- 

partes, and why were they banished? Because they 

were relatives of that Napoleon whom France was 

hailing as a demigod? All his marshals, all his 

generals, were overwhelmed with honors, and his 

kindred were proscribed I Such an anomaly wounded 

the heart of Queen Hortense. She made no public 

complaint. But in her private letters she breathed 

forth all her sadness. ^^I have just read," she 

wrote, *^a law which amazes as much as it afflicts 

me. What! in this moment of enthusiasm and of 

liberty ought not France to open her arms to all her 

children, to those who for fifteen years have shared 

humiliation and suffering with her? Instead of 

that, for one single family an act of proscription is 

renewed. What are its crimes ? Was it not driven 

out by foreigners? Was it not France which it 

served? To fear this family is to do it an honor 

which it repels. Its head exists no longer. If he 

conferred a grandeur and glory which at last are 

accepted, ought they to reject all who belonged to 



Digitized by 



Google 



L0UI8 NAPOLEON 



him instead of paying a sacred debt by executing 
the treaty made by him for his family?" Hortense 
added, in speaking of the relatives of Napoleon: 
"There they remain, with all their misfortunes, 
unprotected and a prey to every annoyance which 
governments take pleasure in heaping on them. 
What can I, who only seek to temper their youth 
and maintain in them the love of country and of 
justice, say to my children? All I can do is to 
teach them that although men are ingrates and 
egotists one must still love them, and that it is 
sweeter to pardon than to inflict suffering. 

"Adieu; you wished to hear from me, and you 
see that the impression of the moment is painful. 
I did not expect to go to Paris ; far from that; I was 
making preparations for a journey to Italy. But 
the sight of this law, which expels us forever from 
that France we love so much, and where we still 
hoped to die, has renewed all my griefs. The pro- 
scription announced in days of misfortune was no 
doubt painful, but it came from enemies. To have 
it renewed by those whom we believed our friends 
strikes directly at the heart." 

The former Queen of Holland thus expressed her- 
self in another letter: "I have been more afflicted 
than any one else by this severe law; but I have 
resigned myself to it because, a Frenchwoman before 
all things, I cannot credit my dear fellow-country- 
men, free at last, with an ingratitude which forms 
no part of their character. I have heard that strong 



Digitized by 



Google 



18S0 87 

reasons had to be assigned in order to keep us away 
any longer. Our exile, it was said, seemed neces- 
sary to the peace and welfare of the country; it 
could not last long; why not submit to it when the 
glory of France was always our prime interest? I 
advise you then. Monsieur, always to depict regen- 
erated France as free and happy in your poems, but 
not to add to them a single murmur on our account. 
You will make them sad, and your verses, if I may 
judge from those I have received, are too good not 
to produce an effect out of harmony with our resig- 
nation." 

Nevertheless, Queen Hortense, and especially her 
sons, were embittered at heart. 

In Octx)ber, the Chamber of Deputies examined 
several petitions asking them to intervene in order 
to have the remains of Napoleon placed beneath the 
VendSme column. The Chamber proceeded to the 
order of the day. Two days later, Victor Hugo wrote 
his ode to the column. Here are some of the most 
inflammatory strophes of the Napoleonic bard: — 

Oh ! quand par un beau Jour sur la place Vend&me, 
Homme doni tout un peuple adorait le fantome, 

Tu tins grave et serein. 
Et que tu ddcouvris ton auvre magnifiquey 
TranquUle, et contenant d'un geste pacifique 

Tes quatre aigles d'airain, . . . 

Oh I qui fe(U dit alors, a ce faxte sublime, 

Tandis que tu revais sur le traphde opime 

Un avenir si beau, 



Digitized by 



Google 



88 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

Qu*un jour h eet affront U U faudrait detcendre, 
Que troii cent avoccUs oseraient h ta cendre 
Chicaner ce tonibeau, 

Ain$i cent villes aasUgeeSf 
Memphis^ Milan, Cadiz, Berlin^ 
Soixante bataUles rangiee, 
L'univers d'un seul homme plein ; 
N^avoir rien laissd dans le monde, 
Dans la tombe la plus profonde, 
Qu*il n'ait dompte, quHl n*ait atteint; 
Avoir, dans sa course guerrihre, 
Ravi le Kremlin au Czar Pierre, 
L'Escurial a Charles Quint; 

Ainsi ce souvenir qui pese 
Sur nos ennemis effares; 
Ainsi dans une cage anglaise 
Tant de pleurs amers devores ; 
Cette incomparable fortune, 
Cette gloire aux rois importune 
Ce nom si grand, si vUe acquis, 
Sceptre unique, exU solitaire, 
Ne valent pas six pieds de terre 
Sous les canons qu*il a conquis!'^ 

^ When one fine day upon the place VendOme, 
Man whose shadow was adored by a whole people, 

Thou earnest serene and grave. 
And when thou didst uncover thy magnificent work, 
Tranquil, and restraining with a pacific gesture 

Thy four bronze eagles. . . . 

Who would have told thee at this sublime height, 
While thou wert dreaming over this supreme trophy 

A destiny so fair, 
That one day thou must descend to this affront, 
That three hundred lawyers would dare to thine ashes 

To deny this tomb. 



Digitized by 



Google 



18S0 89 

The echo of these impassioned dithyrambs reached 
the ears of Queen Hortense's children and thrilled 
them in their exile. Frenzied by their worship of 
their uncle's memory, excited by reading the Vic- 
tories and Conquests^ the Memorial of Saint Eelena^ 
and all the tales of the imperial epic, eager for 
action and emotion, they believed themselves born 
for audacious adventures, for war, for glory, for 
release from servile actions; they were carried away 
by the ardor of youth and devoured by the ambition 
to play a part. Despairing of an immediate chance 
to display themselves in France, they were about 
to attempt doing so in Italy. 

So a hnndred besieged cities, 

Memphis, Milan, Cadiz, Berlin, 

Sixty pitched battles. 

The universe filled with a single man ; 

Not to haye left in the world, 

In the prof oundest tomb, 

A thing unconquered, nnattained ; 

To have, in his warlike career, 

Wrested the Kremlin from Czar Peter, 

The Escnrial from Charles Fifth ; 

So this sonvenir which weighs 

Upon our frightened enemies ; 

So in an English cage 

To haye devoured so many bitter tears ; 

That incomparable fortune, 

That renown importunate to kings, 

That unique sceptre, that solitary exile. 

Are not worth six feet of ground 

Beneath the cannons he conquered 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER VIII 

THE ITALIAN MOVEMENT 

T^HE origin of the Italian movement, in 1881, 
■^ was the French revolution of 1830. A wave of 
liberalism agitated men's minds on both sides of the 
Alps, and the nationalities oppressed by the treaties 
of 1815 sighed for deliverance. The two sons of 
Louis Bonaparte regarded Italy as a marvellous field 
open to their activity. They were about to cast 
themselves headlong into adventures which pleased 
their heated and romantic fancy. 

Concerning this, M. Fernand Giraudeau has re- 
marked: "To comprehend so daring an enterprise, 
such a spurt of unreasoning enthusiasm, one must 
go back to an epoch different from ours. Ah! yes, 
Gam betta was quite right in saying: * Heroic times 
are past. ' But about 1830 they were at their best. 
Less reasonable, less practical than at present, the 
young men of that period were enthusiastic for 
nations more or less oppressed; some for Greece, 
whither many Frenchmen had hastened, and where 
Paul Bonaparte, Lucien's second son, was to die; 
others for Poland ; still others for Italy, where many 
of our compatriots had risked their lives." The two 

90 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE ITALIAN MOVEMENT 91 

sons of the former King of Holland, moreover, con- 
sidered themselves almost as much Italians as 
Frenchmen. Was not their family of Italian ori- 
gin, and had not their uncle been simultaneously 
Emperor of the French and King of Italy? 

What the two princes desired was not the suppres- 
sion of the pontifical power, but its transformation 
into a modem and liberal regime similar to that 
which Pius IX. essayed to inaugurate some years 
later. Their objective point was a reformatory and 
anti-Austrian papacy, placing itself at the head of 
emancipating ideas. Such, also, was the ideal of 
Queen Hortense, who wrote, in 1881 : " If the Pope 
were man enough to make suitable concessions, he 
would be the leader of all Italy to-morrow. He 
might again dictate laws in Europe, and restore to 
religion, allied to liberty, the splendor which it had 
of old.'^ 

It must be remembered, moreover, that the revo- 
lutionary party was not alone in thinking that 
reforms in the Papal States were necessary. Louis 
Philippe and his government were of the same 
opinion. The instructions addressed by General 
S^bastiani, minister of foreign affairs, to Comte de 
Sainte-Aulaire, French ambassador at Rome, March 
6, 1831, contained the following passage : "For 
nearly twenty years the Legations, withdrawn from 
the pontifical authority, were subject to a government 
founded on the great bases of modem civilization ; 
public prosperity and enlightenment made rapid 



Digitized by 



Google 



LOUia NAPOLEON 



progress. The Vienna Congress replaced them 
under Roman domination. An enlightened policy 
wonld have taken into consideration the condition 
in which they had been for such a length of time, 
and prudently accorded institutions resembling as 
closely as possible those they had just lost. Far 
from that, even the privileges they had enjoyed until 
1797 were not restored. The fatal effects of such 
an error were not long in making themselves felt. 
Restrained, to a certain degree, so long as Cardinal 
Consaloi held the reins of state with a firm hand, 
they broke out under the feeble administration of 
his successor. Poverty and general discontent, 
coming to the aid of the secret societies, engen- 
dered conspiracies and troubles. An unskilful and 
inquisitorial police, arbitrary imprisonments, mul- 
tiplied and futile prosecutions, such is the spectacle 
presented by the Legations during several years, 
and it is not inapt to remark that in 1828 the 
French Government, in the instructions given to M. 
de Chateaubriand, pointed out, in energetic terms, 
the dangers of so disastrous a system.'' 

The least spark was sufficient to kindle a confla- 
gration on ground thus prepared, and a great effer- 
vescence already existed, in a latent condition, when 
Queen Hortense left the ch&teau of Arenenberg in 
October, 1830, to go with her second son, Louis 
Napoleon, to Rome. On the way she stopped at 
Florence, where she spent fifteen days. She did not 
meet her husband, as he was then in Rome with 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE ITALIAN MOVEMENT 98 

Madame Mdre. But she did meet her elder son, 
Napoleon, bom October 17, 1804, and married to 
his first cousin, the Princess Charlotte Bonaparte, 
second daughter of Joseph, the former King of 
Spain. Prince Napoleon had just entered his 28th 
year. His mother has thus described him: ^^He 
was remarkably handsome and good, full of intelli- 
gence and ardor, and longing to employ his faculties 
for the welfare of others. ... He had adopted 
these maxims: That one must be a man before 
being a prince; that high rank simply imposes an 
additional obligation towards one's kind, and that 
ill-fortune nobly endured heightens all our noble 
qualities. -^ The innumerable misfortunes of his 
family had also been the best of lessons. Thus, 
devoid of prejudices, with no regrets for the advan- 
tages he owed to his birth, making it his sole honor 
to be useful to humanity, he was a natural repub- 
lican who disregarded the prerogatives he had lost, 
and believed that his assistance was due. to all who 
suffered." This prince lived at Florence, near his 
father, of whom he was the consolation, and being 
very much attached to his young wife, he spent a 
peaceful life, engaged in industrial pursuits since 
he was not permitted to occupy himself with poli- 
tics. He and his brother were never so happy as 
when together. 

Queen Hortense and Prince Louis left Florence 
for Rome, November 15, 1830. Her elder son es- 
corted her on horseback as far as the first station. 



Digitized by 



Google 



94 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

He was radiant with happiness and health. But let 
his mother tell the story: "And this heart so sim- 
ple, noble, and affectionate was to beat only so short 
a time for the welfai^e of humanity! I embraced 
him again and again. I found it hard to leave him: 
I feared everything, but I was far from imagining 
the worst of all ! 

" On reaching Bolsena, I learned that my husband 
was to spend the night at Viterbo. My son Louis 
wished to set out on a post-horse to meet his father 
and pass some hours with him. Our carriages met 
about noon. He gave me back my son, and ex- 
pressed his fears concerning the political ideas 
manifested by his children, and his desire that they 
should hold aloof from all events. In his anxious 
affection he would have wished, as I did, to keep 
them for himself alone; he would not consent to 
return me my son Louis except on condition that 
I should send him back a month or two before mj 
journey to Florence." 

Queen Hortense had been in Rome several days 
with Louis Napoleon when Pope Pius VIII. died, 
November 80, 1880. " He was loved and respected," 
she has said; "if he had lived, things would doubt- 
less have remained tranquil. The interregnum 
seemed a favorable moment for young men full of 
ardor to shake off the yoke of a government which 
afforded no outlet to their activity, since at Rome 
every career, save an ecclesiastical one, is inter- 
dicted." During this interregnum Cardinal Fesch 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE ITALIAN MOVEMENT 96 

learned that the government wished Prince Louis 
Napoleon to leave Rome. The cardinal having 
inquired the reasons for such a measure, none could 
be given^ except that a young man named Bona- 
parte, who put a tricolored saddle-cloth on his horse, 
attracted too much attention and became dangerous 
to the government at a time of disorder. Fifty 
policemen surrounded the palace inhabited by the 
young prince and conducted him across the frontier. 
Thenceforward Queen Hortense foreboded that 
her two sons would take part in the Italian move- 
ment. She wrote from Rome, January 8, to dis- 
suade them from so doing. She explained in her 
letter the causes which rendered success impossible. 
"Italy," said she, "can do nothing without France; 
it must also wait patiently until France has settled 
her own affairs. Any imprudence will be prejudi- 
cial to both causes, because a fruitless resort to arms 
depresses for a long time both the forces and the 
members of a party to exalt the other at its expense ; 
and those who fall are despised." Both princes 
replied that they approved their mother's conclu- 
sions, and for a time the Queen was reassured. 

Meanwhile, Cardinal Capellari had been elected 
Pope, February 2, 1831, and took the name of Greg- 
ory XVI. Three days later the insurrectionary 
movement broke out at Bologna. It spread rapidly, 
and Queen Hortense, receiving no news from her 
sons, began to entertain serious fears that they had 
joined the insurgents. She left Rome in great 



Digitized by 



Google 



96 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

anxiety, and went with all speed to Florence. 
^^Even at the gate of the city," she has said, ^'I 
still hoped to see my children coming as usual on 
horseback to meet me ; but in vain. I reached the 
inn, my legs trembling so beneath me that I could 
scarcely alight from the carriage. I spoke of them, 
but no one could tell me anything; they were sup- 
posed to be with their father. I had not yet lost all 
hope. M. de Bressieux ran to my husband's house. 
This moment of uncertainty was frightful. He re- 
turned at last to give me the most cruel blow. 
They were gone." 

An instant later, a domestic, left in Florence by 
Louis Napoleon, brought a letter from him to his 
mother. "Your affection will comprehend us," said 
the prince; "we have taken engagements to which 
we could not be faithless, and the name we bear 
obliges us to assist the unfortunate people who 
appeal to us. Make my sister-in-law believe that I 
led away her husband, who suffers at having hidden 
from her any action of his life." 

Menotti, that patriotic Modenese who was to be 
executed after the failure of the insurrection, had 
come to Florence to say to the two sons of Louis 
Bonaparte: "Italy has need of you," and the princes 
had responded to this appeal. Their father and 
mother, and their uncle J^rfime, did all they could 
to induce them to return. But it was too late. 
The more perilous the enterprise appeared, the more 
attractive they found it. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER IX 

THE INSUBBEGTION OF THE B0MA6NA 

T^HREE days after the election of Gregory XVI., 
"^ the movement described as constitutional broke 
out among the people of the Komagna. The colors 
of the ancient kingdom of Italy, red, white, and 
green, were run up at Bologna, February 5, 1831, 
and a provisional government constituted. It was 
composed of conspicuous members of the nobility, 
among whom were Comte Marescalchi and Comte 
Pepoli, who were connected by marriage with the 
Bonapartes. The pontifical troops evacuated the city 
without resistance. The pro-legate, Monseigneur 
Clavelli, retired to Florence. At Forli, the same 
day, the pro-legate, Monseigneur Gazzoli, published 
a notification in which he announced that, ceding to 
the unanimous wish of the people, and desiring to 
prevent grave disorders, he had determined to resign 
the reins of government to a committee composed 
of the gonfalonier and sixty other persons. At 
Ravenna, February 6, the pro-legate, Monseigneur 
Zacchini, a young prelate of recognized merit, sum- 
moned the notables of the city and himself created a 
governmental provisional committee. The tricolored 
B 97 



Digitized by 



Google 



98 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

Italian cockade was displayed the same day in Ri- 
mini. The pontifical government took no steps 
toward arresting the progress of the insurrection. 

The Marquis de La Tour-Maubourg, ambassador 
of France at Rome, wrote, February 12, to Louis 
Philippe's minister of foreign affairs: ".The insur- 
rectionary spirit is spreading rapidly in the states 
of the Pope. The province of Urbino and Pesaro 
has established its provisional government. The 
new authorities have made haste to proclaim respect 
for religion, the clergy, persons, and property; the 
abolition of the tax on grinding grain, and the 
reform of legislation." The ambassador adds, in 
another despatch, dated February 15: "I do not see 
to what means the Holy See can resort in order to 
re-establish its dominion over the provinces it has 
just lost. Force it does not possess; conciliation it 
cannot attempt without intending to comply with 
the demands of the people. No one ought to expect 
to see it enter into that system, and it must be 
admitted that there is a certain incompatibility 
between the form of sacerdotal government as it 
exists in Rome, and the institutions which the 
insurgents undoubtedly demand. Power, and all 
the means by which it is exerted, are in the hands 
of the princes of the Church; the superior council 
is composed of cardinals ; prelates are the governors 
of the capital and the principal cities; even the 
minister of war is a prelate. Such means could 
not be retained in the establishment of a govern- 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE INSUBBECTION OF THE ROMAQNA 99 

ment in which a shadow of liberty should prevail. 
To make some changes adapted to the times, even 
were they but feeble and few in number, would be 
to endanger the safety of the edifice; hence no one 
even thinks of it. No one imagines that the sover- 
eign pontiff could dispense his authority except 
through hands consecrated at the altar. Unable to 
employ force, yet unwilling to concede anything, 
what means are left whereby the Holy See might 
regain its provinces? Not one, unless it be the 
support of Austria." 

The two sons of Louis Bonaparte have quitted 
Florence, unknown to their father, and ranged 
themselves under the Italian flag. The constitu- 
tionals^ — the name assumed by the insurgents — are 
proud of counting in their ranks two nephews of 
the Emperor Napoleon ; they give them an enthusi- 
astic reception. Prince Louis writes to Queen 
Hortense, February 12: "My dear Mamma, we are 
delighted to find ourselves in the midst of people 
who treat us with the greatest affability and who are 
elated by patriotism. . . . Send us all the money 
you can ; this is no time to think of economies. I 
hope, my dear mamma, that you will not be troubled 
on our account, and that you will try to pacify our 
father, who must be very angry with us." To his 
young brother's letter, Prince Napoleon added these 
few lines : " My dear Mamma, do not distress your- 
self about us. We are very well and in safety. 
I would be very contented if my separation from 



Digitized by 



Google 



100 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

Charlotte, the first and, I hope, the last, did not 
make me horribly sad. It will not last long, and 
that is a consolation." 

The two princes were full of illusions. The 
future Napoleon III., in particular, experienced a 
sort of intoxication. He wrote to his mother, Feb- 
ruary 26 : " This is the first time I have perceived 
myself to live. Until now I only vegetated. Our 
position is one of the finest and most honorable. 
The enthusiasm is very great. . . . Our sole 
chagrin is to have disquieted you." The dream 
was to have a cruel awakening. 

The resolution taken by the two brothers had 
thrown the whole Bonaparte family into actual con- 
sternation. Their father, accustomed to absolute 
submission on their part, could not imagine who 
could have induced them to disobey him. He sent 
courier after courier, order upon order, to bid them 
return. Their uncle J^rfime, former King of West- 
phalia, made still more urgent remonstrances. From 
Rome he sent them the following letter, dated Feb- 
ruary 26: "My dear Nephews, I learn with the pro- 
foundest annoyance, that misunderstanding your 
own position and that of your whole family, you 
have allowed yourselves to be dragged into this 
movement. If the Emperor could see his nephews, 
destined to be, some day, the upholders of his 
dynasty, what would he say to find them paying 
for the asylum the Holy Father has accorded to all 
his family by taking up arms against him? . . . 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE INSURRECTION OF THE ROMAQNA 101 

Consider, my dear nephews, the annoyance, the 
affliction of your father, your mother, your worthy 
grandmother, if you persist in an undertaking into 
which you may have heen dragged in a moment of 
enthusiasm, but which both reason and policy com- 
mand you to abandon. I implore you, listen to 
an old soldier, to an uncle who loves you as if you 
were his own children, and who would never coun- 
sel a proceeding contrary to honor and your character 
as men." 

This letter was carried to the two princes by 
Baron Stoelting, an officer formerly attached to the 
household of King J^r6me. He found them in com- 
mand of all the young men of the cities and country 
places, and organizing the defence from Foligno to 
Civita Castellana, in the hope of taking the latter 
city, delivering all the state prisoners confined in 
its dungeons within the last week, and then march- 
ing on Rome. 

M. de Stoelting, notwithstanding the mission 
given him by King J^rdme, comprehended at once 
that nothing in the world could induce the princes 
to desert the cause they had just embraced with so 
much ardor. He wrote from Terni to Queen Hor- 
tense: "I have been forced to conclude that the 
orders I received were impracticable, that the 
princes cannot withdraw, and that the very idea of 
so doing is repugnant to them on account of the 
generous part they feel called upon to play. This 
part is that of mediators, conciliators, conservers of 



Digitized by 



Google 



102 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

religion and good order." M. de Stoelting returned 
to Rome, bearing a letter to the Pope from Prince 
Napoleon, in which the latter submitted in respect- 
ful terms the aspirations of the youth of the 
Romagna. 

Meanwhile, European diplomacy was disturbed 
by the presence of the princes in the ranks of the 
little constitutional army. The representative of 
France at Rome wrote to his government, February 
26 : ^' It is announced that the two sons of M. le Due 
de Saint-Leu (the title by which the former King of 
Holland was designated) are at the head of the 
insurgents at Spoleto. Madame de Saint-Leu left 
Rome eight days ago, foreseeing this determination. 
The Pope is painfully affected by conduct from 
which he hoped these young men would have been 
deterred by the memory of the hospitality received 
in his dominions during many years." And on 
February 27 : " The secretary of state has confirmed 
to me the presence of the sons of Louis Bonaparte 
at the outposts of the insurgents near Civita Cas- 
tellana." He adds that this treason has rekindled 
exasperation against the French, which had some- 
what cooled down! At this same period, Queen 
Hortense was made acquainted with the contents 
of a letter in which a diplomatist said: ^^If these 
young men who always consider themselves imperial 
princes are taken, the way in which they will be 
treated will certainly teach them what they really 
are. 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE INSUBRECTION OF THE ROMAGNA 108 

The two princes, so confident and happy in the 
beginning of the enterprise, were speedily subjected 
to cruel disappointments. Menaced by the arrival 
of an Austrian army, the only remaining hope of 
the insurgents was France, which, in their opinion, 
would oppose to Austria the principle of non-inter- 
vention. Their leader, General Armandi, fancied 
that the presence of the two Bonapartes in the ranks 
of the constitutionals would prevent King Louis 
Philippe and his government from acting in favor of 
the Italian cause. Great were the indignation and 
surprise of the princes when they received from their 
companions in arms the order to retire to Ancona. 
Louis Napoleon wrote to his mother, March 1: 
'* Really I do not understand it at all. You ought 
to know what we are, what we desire. . . . We 
have just been ordered to return to Ancona. The 
order is said to have come from Florence. So they 
want to make out that we are dastards. If no one 
sends us any money, we can get along without it, 
by living on the rations, and instead of being vol- 
unteers we will be under the orders of the first 
comer. . . . We have done what we ought to do, 
and we will never turn back." And again, March 
5 : " The intrigues of Uncle J^rdme and papa have 
accomplished so much that we have been obliged to 
quit the army. Armandi is the cause of it. He 
has credited the assurance given him by our rela- 
tives that, if we remain with the army, we shall 
interfere with the system of non-intervention." To 



Digitized by 



Google 



104 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

this letter of his brother, Prince Napoleon added a 
word of his own : " Have the kindness to tell papa 
that if he makes us leave this country, we shall do 
so only to go to Poland." 

Queen Hortense's afflictions were at their height. 
King J^rdme and Cardinal Fesch sent word from 
Rome that if the princes were taken by the Ans- 
trians they were lost. Lostl the word made the 
unhappy mother shudder. As she related in her 
memoira, she said to herself: "The Austrian army is 
going to enter. These poor unarmed Italians will be 
beaten, and I mean to go to the battlefield to save 
those of the vanquished who are so dear to me I " 
She was almost in despair. Throwing herself on 
her knees, "O my God I" she cried, "give them 
back to me in life. I ask nothing more." The 
princes had despairingly obeyed orders, left their 
command, and repaired to Ancona. From there 
they had gone to Bologna, still anxious to serve as 
volunteers. Their mother hastened to meet them, 
hoping to rescue them from the advancing Austrians, 
from impending prison, perhaps from death. She 
left Florence March 10, after obtaining a passpoit 
representing her as an English lady returning to 
London through France with her two sons. On 
that very day the Austrians were to enter the Papal 
territory. If Queen Hortense wished to save her 
sons there was not a moment to lose. 

The unhappy mother undertook her dangerous 
joumey. "How shall I find my children again?" 



Digitized by 



Google 



TBE INaVBHECTlON OF THE ROMAQNA 106 

she asked herself. "Wounded, perhaps! Ah I I 
resign myself to having a wounded man; he can 
lie down in this carriage, I will nurse him once 
more, and he grateful to God I" But when her 
thoughts went beyond this, she was seized by a 
deadly chill, her ideas became confused, she felt 
that she was likely to lose the use of her faculties 
and her courage. She arrived at Perugia, where 
people still entertained illusions and fancied that 
France would oppose the Austrian intervention. 
The Queen went on her way. At the first gate 
after leaving Foligno she met a carriage. A man 
alighted and said to her: "Prince Napoleon is sick. 
He has the measles. He is asking for you." At 
those words: "He is asking for you," the poor 
mother trembled. "He is very ill, then," she 
exclaimed. Then she said: "I have been too un- 
happy I No I that is impossible! Heaven is just. 
It would be too much! No! he will not die! He 
will be given back to me." The faces of all who 
surrounded her announced a calamity. At every 
gate she heard the crowd saying: "Napoleon dead! 
Napoleon dead!" And yet she still doubted her 
misfortune. She entered Pesaro, and was put to 
bed almost inanimate. Her second son made his 
appearance. He threw himself into her arms and, 
breaking into tears, cried: "I have lost my brother, 
I have lost my best friend. Except for you, I 
would have died of sorrow over his body, which I 
would not leave." Prince Napoleon, attacked by 



Digitized by 



Google 



106 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

measles, had died at Forli, March 17. All the 
inhabitants attended his funeral, and testified uni- 
versal regret at so premature a death. The next 
day the city fell into the hands of the Austrians. 
Queen Hortense had but one son left. To save him 
she was to work miracles. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER X 

ANCONA 

npHE Austrians were advancing rapidly. Queen 
Hortense and Louis Napoleon made haste to 
precede them at Ancona. There they alighted at 
the finest house in the city, on the shores of the 
Adriatic. The English passport of the Queen pur- 
ported to be in favor of an English lady and her 
two sons. Some one must be found to replace the 
son that was missing. The young Marquis Zappi 
undertook the part. Recently married to a daughter 
of Prince Poniatowski he had just been commis- 
sioned to carry despatches to Paris from the con- 
stitutional government. More compromised than 
anybody, he associated himself to the fate of Queen 
Hortense ; by the aid of the passport he might pos- 
sibly escape with her and her son. 

Ancona was full of insurgents trying to embark 
before the coming of the Austrians, but certain, in 
any case, to find difficulty in escaping from their 
flotilla, which was already in the Adriatic. Two 
vessels at anchor in the harbor were the sole resource 
of the insurgents. 

"Would one believe it?" says Queen Hortense. 

107 



Digitized by 



Google 



108 LOUIS NAPOLEON 



"The price of places rose on account of the many 
unfortunates who needed them, and the majority of 
these young men who had abandoned fortune, fam- 
ily, all the pleasures of life, for liberty, could not 
pay their passage. Many applied to me, and I ii^as 
so fortunate as to be of use. I gave all that I had, 
except what I needed for my journey. From my 
window I saw the boat which was about to take 
away the remnant of those valiant young men, 
imprudent, doubtless, since they had not calculated 
their means; but prudence is so selfish. Let us not 
reproach youth with the defects which enhance its 
brilliant qualities; it is always in disinterested 
souls that we find that which ennobles man." 

The situation of Queen Hortense was made all 
the more terrible by the fact that her son had just 
been attacked by measles and was unable to travel. 
It was necessary that she should nurse him in 
Ancona, and that no one should suspect her con- 
tinued presence there. The Queen may be said to 
have had the same aptitude for mystery and con- 
spiracy as her sons. The cunning and address she 
employed in order to screen him from observation 
and shield him from danger are inconceivable. Not 
only must she herself have been intrepid, but her 
domestics must have evinced rare devotion and intel- 
ligence to render her plan of escape practicable. 

Ancona capitulated March 26. The Austrians 
were to enter the next day. What stratagem was 
invented by Queen Hortense? She succeeded in 



Digitized by 



Google 



ANCONA 109 



convincing eyeiybodj that her son had just em- 
barked for Corfa in the night of March 26-27. 
The domestics, who seemed to be carrying luggage, 
deceived those who were curious about this pre- 
tended embarkation. Even the vice-consul of 
France at Ancona was duped by this skilfully 
contrived ruse. March 27, he wrote to the French 
ambassador near the Holy See: ^^A Jessieu boat 
sailed to-night for Corfu with thirty-nine of the 
most compromised individuals, among others a son 
of Louis Bonaparte, the other having died at Forli. 
The mother is still here." 

On the 27th, the Austrian troops made their entry 
into Ancona. The house occupied by Queen Hor- 
tense being the finest in the town. Lieutenant-gen- 
eral Baron Geppert, commander-in-chief, and his 
staff, were quartered there, the Queen reserving 
only a few rooms for herself. ^'A closed double 
door," she has said, ^^ separated me from the general, 
but we were so close that I could overhear his con- 
versation, while on the other side the soldiers 
remained in my antechamber with my domestics." 

Here was an essentially critical situation, a really 
romantic episode. The Queen herself describes her 
anguish: ^^My son's illness followed its course. 
My watchfulness only became more active. The 
least thing might betray us. If he coughed, I was 
obliged to close his mouth. I prevented him from 
talking, for a man's voice could be heard so easily 
by those who surrounded us." Only a partition 



Digitized by 



Google 



110 LOUia NAPOLEON 

separated the future Napoleon III. from his ene- 
mies. The Austrian general was far from thinking 
that he had beside him the man who, in 1859, was to 
take his revenge for 1831. 

Meanwhile the health of Louis Napoleon was 
improving. The doctor, who was in the secret 
and pretended to be visiting Queen Hortense, who 
affected illness, certified that the prince could at 
last depart. Thereupon his mother received Gen- 
eral Geppert, a courteous and well-bred man, who 
treated her with deference and respect. She told 
him she intended to leave Ancona and embark at 
Leghorn for Malta, where her son would rejoin her 
from Corfu. At the same time she asked the gen- 
eral for a permit in which her name should not be 
mentioned, and he gave it. The Queen started on 
Easter Sunday, and as she wanted to hear Mass in 
the celebrated church of Our Lady of Loretto, some 
twenty-one miles from Ancona, she said she would 
set off before sunrise. 

The young Marquis Zappi, who had passed for 
one of her sons while Queen Hortense was using 
her English passport, now assumed the character of 
a domestic. He put on a suit of livery, and Louis I 
Napoleon another. Followed by her two pretended 
servants, Queen Hortense crossed the antechamber j 
between sleeping Austrians. Two post-chaises were i 
at the foot of the stairs. Prince Napoleon mounted j 
the box of the one his mother entered. Marquis I 
Zappi the dicky of that containing the waiting 



Digitized by 



Google 



AJSCOyA 111 



maid. In this manner they arrived at Loretto, 
where they heard Mass while the horses were being 
changed. They resumed their route without diffi- 
culty, thanks to the permit signed by the general. 
At Macerata some one recognized the prince but 
maintained silence. Foligno and Perugia were 
traversed. They arrived in Tuscany. There the 
danger was, perhaps, greater than in the Roman 
states, because the prince was better known there, 
and at every post station, on every road, in every 
inn, they might meet people who would recognize 
him. Neither he nor Marquis Zappi now wore 
livery but travelled as the sons of the so-called 
English lady, who had a passport for Italy, France, 
and England. Amidst incessant disquietudes they 
passed through Siena, Pisa, and Lucca. They 
made a brief halt at Seravezza, a picturesque spot 
where Prince Napoleon had enjoyed spending the 
summer. "He had been so well received," says his 
mother. "He liked everybody so muchl He had 
built a small house and a paper mill there. There, 
too, he wrought in marble, and made sketches of 
all those marvellous places. In fine, it was there 
he had experienced all the little happiness he could 
have in his too short life." 

One of the most dangerous places to go through 
was a dependency of the Duchy of Modena, for no- 
where else had the reaction been so cruel and san- 
guinary; if Louis Napoleon had been arrested there, 
his situation would have been most terrible. The 



Digitized by 



Google 



112 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

false passport saved the fugitives. "And yet," says 
the Queen, "it was a very bold thing to pretend 
that all of us were English, when not a soul except 
ray son spoke the language, and he with an easily 
(Jetected French accent, as we soon found out. An 
open carriage stopped in front of us ; a man stepped 
out of it, approached my carriage, saw two ladies 
inside, and ran to the other. Thinking that he was 
addressing his own countrymen, he asked in Eng- 
lish where he could find Minister Taylor, for whom 
he had despatches. My son replied in the same lan- 
guage. The man thanked him by saying: ^I beg 
your pardon, I was mistaken ; I took you for English 
people.' At last we entered Massa. We saw all 
the troops under arms, the duke being momentarily 
expected. He had left Modena just when the insur- 
gents who were in his power were being condemned. 
My son sorrowfully remembered that Menotti, an 
Italian, so patriotic, so energetic, so generous 
toward the duke, who received his death from him 
whose saviour he had been." However, the fugi- 
tives passed safely through the states of the terrible 
duke, arrived at Genoa, where the English consul 
visaed their passport without objection, reached 
Nice, and entered, by way of Antibes, that land of 
France where, though victims of a proscriptive law, 
they were about to seek a refuge. 

All was over, and for many years, with the Italian 
liberal movement. Austria triumphed, and diplo- 
macy had no pity on the vanquished. Comte de 



Digitized by 



Google 



ANGOLA 118 



Sainte-Aulaire, ambassador of France, at Rome, 
wrote to Ills government, March 81, 1881: ^^The 
Italian revolution died a shameful death; to wear 
mourning for it would be in bad taste ; moreover, it 
w^ould accredit those calumniators who accuse us 
of having provoked it. We cannot blink the fact 
that imprudent and culpable provocations did pro- 
ceed from France, and great efforts will be needed 
to reject all responsibility for them. I am in a 
much less favorable position for obtaining liberal 
concessions and soliciting consideration in favor of 
the rebels. However, I shall always deem it my 
duty to assist those whose lives may be threatened. 
I have instructed our brig at Civita Vecchia in this 
sense. To the hints given in order to find out 
whether or not we would refuse asylum to some 
conscripts I have replied with reserve, but never- 
theless in a way to make it understood that we will 
not the death of sinners. Still other hints have 
been dropped, and these I have repelled more 
harshly. They authorize me to tell you that Bona- 
partism was at the bottom of all this, and not 
merely by the concurrence of those members of the 
family who avowed it." The day before. King 
J^rSme had written to the Duchesse de Rovigo: 
"The constitutionals are exasperated against 
France, which has sacrificed them, according to 
what they say." It is certain that the Italian 
liberals, misled by certain speeches delivered in the 
French chamber of deputies, as well as by the tone 



Digitized by 



Google 



114 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 



of the Parisian journals, had fancied that France 
would proclaim the principles of non-intervention, 
and prevent the Austrians from penetrating into the 
heart of the peninsula. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte 
was among the vanquished, but the events in which 
he had just played so unfortunate a part were to 
have very great influence on his future destinies; 
one might say that the victories • of Magenta and 
Solferino lay in germ in the defeats of the insurgents 
of the Romagna. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XI 

THE JOUBNEY IN FBANCB 

QUEEN HORTENSE had left France a proscript 
in 1815. In 1831 she returned there, a pro- 
script still. A merciless fatality pursued her in 
that country which she loved so well and where she 
had been so happy. Louis Napoleon was but seven 
'years old when he quitted his native land. He 
retnmed thither a young man of twenty-three, 
matured already by misfortune and exile, but al- 
though surrounded by calamities, and in spite of 
cruel disillusions, still believing in his star and 
breathing with elation his native air. Yet, like 
his mother, he could enter France only under an 
assumed name. He had no right to call himself a 
Frenchman, and owed his only safeguard, his Eng- 
lish passport, to the nation which had enchained 
his uncle, like a second Prometheus, on the rock of 
Saint Helena. 

The mother and son went their way, unrecog- 
nized, from Antibes to Paris. They stopped for a 
few moments at Fontainebleau, melancholy and 
poetic abode, evoking the souvenir of so many van- 
ished grandeurs. There, on the morrow of the treaty 

116 



Digitized by 



Google 



116 LOUIS NAPOLEON 



of Tilsit, the Emperor, entering while alive into 
the splendor of apotheosis, had given brilliant fStes. 
In the chapel of the palace he had held Louis Napo- 
leon over the baptismal font. Her face covered 
with a heavy veil, Hortense passed through tlie 
apartments where she had shone in all the lustre 
of her youth and beauty. She meditated before the 
table where the Emperor, expiating his triumphs by 
the most terrible anguish, had been constrained to 
sign his abdication, and remained silent in the court 
where he bade adieu to his guard. 

"Some of the domestics at the ch&teau," Queen 
Hortense has said, "were still the same. Although 
convinced that I must have changed greatly in so 
many years, I took the precaution of keeping my 
veil dovni. I heard my name repeated so often 
apropos of the different apartments I had occupied, 
that it was plain they had remained faithful to the 
memory of our times. I found everything as I had 
left it. 

" The only change which affected me was in the 
English garden we had planted, and which had 
become so large and magnificent that it made me 
sigh to think of the length of time which had sepa- 
rated me from my country! " 

Hortense arrived at the barrier of Paris, April 24, 
1881: "I took a sort of personal pride," she says 
again, " in showing this capital on its best side to 
my son, who could barely remember it. I told the 
postilion to drive through the boulevard as far as the 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE JOURNEY IN FRANCE 117 

rue de la Paix, and stop at the first hotel. I went 
oyer the same route I had taken sixteen years before, 
under the escort of an Austrian officer, when quit- 
ting in the evening this city from which the Allies 
had hastily expelled me." The postilion stopped 
the carriage in the rue de la Paix, in front of a 
hotel bearing the name of the country over which 
Hortense had reigned, the Holland, where she and 
her son put up. From one of their windows they 
could see the boulevard, and from another the Place 
and the column Venddme. Their arrival in Paris 
was coincident with the royal decree of April 8, 
1831, by which Louis Philippe decided that the 
statue of the victor of Austerlitz should be re-estab- 
lished on the summit of the column. 

In the France of that day Napoleon had become a 
demigod. He had not merely admirers but adorers. 
His memory was extolled, idolized, and even official 
circles shared, or pretended to share, this extraordi- 
nary infatuation. "There was an efflorescence of 
Napoleonism on all sides," says M. Thureau- 
Dangin. ^. . . Both grand and petty literature 
sought its inspiration in him, and Victor Hugo led 
the large and noisy choir of political imperialism, 
while Barbier was almost the only one who protested 
against the idol. Not a theatre that did not put 
Napoleon on its stage, at every age and in every 
posture. Any one going about in Paris at that 
epoch and looking at the showcases of the venders 
of engravings and statuettes, turning over the 



Digitized by 



Google 



118 LOUIS NAPOLEON 



pamphlets, listening to popular ballads of street 
harangues, might have supposed that the revolution 
of 1830 had just restored the imperial dynasty." 
And, meanwhile, the family of the man thus deified 
by the masses was not merely proscribed but plun- 
dered. By the treaty of April 11, 1814, Napoleon 
had surrendered all that he possessed and restored 
the crown diamonds to France, on condition that a 
pension should be paid to him and his family. This 
petition was signed by Talleyrand in the name of 
Louis XVIII., and guaranteed by all the powers, 
and yet, not merely was it left unexecuted, but all 
the fortune of the members of the imperial family 
was confiscated. Nor was it their fortune only 
which was wrested from them, for Louis Napoleon 
had neither the right to make himself known nor to 
bear his own name in France. Such were the bitter 
reflections of Hortense and her son on entering 
Paris. Not a soul suspected their arrival. They 
were believed to be in Malta. 

The Queen did not at once acquaint the govern- 
ment with her presence. Colonel Comte Franz 
d'Houdetot, aide-de-camp to King Louis Philippe, 
was first apprized of it. This officer came to the 
Holland hotel at the request of Mademoiselle 
Masuyer, not expecting to find any one else. Great 
was his surprise when brought before Queen Hor- 
tense. She expressed to him her desire to be 
received by the King, and he promised to support 
her request. 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE JOUBNEY IN FRANCS 119 

Colonel d'Houdetot returned the following day. 
The King had protested against the traveller's 
imprudence and said that it was absolutely impossi- 
ble for him to receive her. A constitutional sover- 
eign, he must even apprize the president of the 
council, M. Casimir P^rier, who would repair to 
the Holland hotel. He did, in fact, go there, and 
the former Queen said to him : " I was obliged to go 
through France, and was unwilling that you should 
learn it from any one but myself. If this journey 
becomes known hereafter, you will not attribute to 
me any desire but that of saving my son. ... I 
know very well that I have transgressed a law; I 
have weighed all the consequences of so doing; you 
have the right to arrest me; it would be just." 
"Just, no; legal, yes," responded the president of 
the council. Colonel d'Houdetot came the next 
evening to seek Hortense and take her to the King. 

Louis Philippe had not yet installed himself at 
the Tuileries. This mysterious interview took place 
at the Palais Royal. The situation was delicate on 
both sides. The King's mother and aunt were 
under obligations to Queen Hortense who, during 
the Hundred Days, had obtained for them an 
authorization to stay in France and a pension from 
the Emperor. Louis Philippe did not disguise 
from himself the fact that the Bonapartists had 
been, and still were, of use to him, and that the 
restoration of his throne would have been impossible 
without the evocation of imperial glories and the 



Digitized by 



Google 



120 LOUia NAPOLEON 



resurrection of the tricolored flag. More than one 
souvenir created a sympathetic link between him 
and Queen Hortense. General de Beauhamais, her 
father, had been the friend of the King of the 
French when the King of the French called himself 
the Due de Chai-tres. Louis Philippe had a liking 
also for the Grand-duchess Stephanie of Baden, who 
was a Beauhamais. A great many of the politi- 
cians, marshals, and generals who surrounded the 
new monarch had been the courtiers of the attrac- 
tive and amiable Queen Hortense. Louis Philippe 
would, doubtless, have desired nothing better than 
to let her live quietly in Paris in company with 
her son. But for that it would have been essential 
that the young prince should renounce his dreams, 
his hopes, his faith, and nothing was further from 
his thoughts than such an abdication. Hence an 
agreement was impossible, notwithstanding an ex- 
change of couiteous speeches. 

Hortense arrived secretly at the Palais Royal by 
a private staircase. She was not even received in 
the King's apartments, but in Colonel d'Houdetot's 
modest chamber, the furniture of which was limited 
to a bed, a table, and two chairs. Hortense and 
Queen Marie Am^lie had to sit on the bed, Louis 
Philippe and his sister, Madame Adelaide, on the 
two chairs. Colonel d'Houdetot stood against the 
door to prevent any indiscreet entry. According to 
Queen Hortense, Louis Philippe was polite, and 
even gracious. "The time is not far off," said he, 



Digitized by 



Google 



TEE JOURNEY IN FRANCE 121 

^when there will be no more exiles; I want none 
under my reign. ... I know that you have 
pecuniary claims to make, and that you have 
applied in vain to all the preceding ministries. 
Write me a note of what is due you and send it to 
me alone. I understand business, and offer to be 
your attorney." Hortense was touched by so kindly 
a reception. ^^It is impossible," she has said, **to 
be more gracious than he was in all he said to me, 
and that air of good nature which I found in him, 
and which reminded me somewhat of the excellent 
King of Bavaria, that old and constant friend of my 
brother and me, inclined me to confidence." Hor- 
tense avowed that her son was with her in Paris. 
"I fancied as much," said Louis Philippe; "but I 
recommend you to let no one else suspect your 
arrival; I have concealed it from all my ministers 
except the president of the council, and I insist that 
nobody shall hear of your passage." The former 
Queen of Holland promised not to make herself 
known. Queen Marie Am^lie and Madame Ade- 
laide produced the best impression on her. " I was 
feeling so unhappy," she has said, "that their con- 
solations did me good. Could I ever have tried to 
do them harm?" Hence they parted on terms that 
were not merely polite but affectionate. 

On returning from the Palais Royal, Queen Hor- 
tense found her son in a high fever. Still passing 
herself off at the Holland as a Frenchwoman married 
to an Englishman, she sent for a physician she had 



Digitized by 



Google 



122 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 



never seen, and whom she took great care not to 
acquaint with her real name. She received several 
visits from M. Casimir P^rier, who offered to ad- 
vance her money, which she refused. One remark 
of his dispelled all Hortense's illusions by demon- 
strating the incompatibility existing between the 
situation of her son and that of Louis Philippe. 
"After what we have just agreed upon for you," 
said the president of the council to Queen Hortense, 
" people will gradually grow accustomed to see you 
in France and your son also. As to you personally, 
general consent would at once be given for your 
admission; as to your son, his name would be an 
obstacle; and if, later on, he accepted service, he 
would have to relinquish it. We are obliged to 
keep on good terms with foreigners; we have so 
many parties in France that war would ruin us." 
In repeating these remarks of M. Casimir P^rier, 
Queen Hortense adds : " It would be impossible for 
me to express what I felt at the time. What! it 
was necessary to conceal that beautiful name with 
which France should adorn itself, to disguise it as 
if it were shameful! And why? Because it re- 
called the glory of France and the humiliation of 
the foreigner." Louis Napoleon, somewhat against 
his mother's wishes, had written a very respectful 
letter to the King, asking permission to serve in the 
French army; but the idea that he could not do so 
under his own name, the name he regarded as a 
talisman, had not even occurred to his mind. When 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE JOURNEY IN FRANCE 128 

his mother told him what M. Casimir P^rier had 
just said, ** Give up my name ! " he exclaimed, with 
vehemence. **Who dare propose such a thing to 
me! Don't let us think any more about all that, 
but go back to our retreat. Ahl you were right, 
mother!" 

Meanwhile the anniversary of the Emperor's death 
was approaching. A Bonapartist manifestation was 
in preparation for the 5th of May; ten years before, 
the prisoner of Saint Helena had breathed his last. 
The government seemed anxious. Given the char- 
acter of Louis Napoleon, so extremely inclined to 
secret activities, it was credible that he might have 
entered into relations with the republican leaders. 
M. Casimir Purler's language had literally exasper- 
ated him at a time when every tendency of his mind 
was already disposing him to unite with the double 
opposition, Bonapartist and republican, which was 
attacking the July monarchy with such violence. 
After what he had just done in Italy, he was looked 
upon as a conspirator and a man of action. Hence 
Louis Philippe's apprehensions are not difficult to 
understand. From early morning on the 5th of 
May, Louis Napoleon beheld from his window 
people going to lay flowers on the column and 
crown the eagles with bouquets. It was claimed 
that he had been seen to mingle with the crowd of 
manifestants. 

That very day. Colonel d'Houdetot presented him- 
self at the Holland hotel. ^^ Madame," said he to 



Digitized by 



Google 



124 LOUIS NAPOLEON 



Queen Hortense, ^^you must start at once; you can- 
not remain here any longer, I have orders to tell 
you so; unless it will positively endanger your 
son's life, you must go." Hortense made no re- 
criminations. She and her son spent the next night 
at Chantilly, whence they started for England. 
They were most cordially received in the best cir- 
cles. They visited Lady Holland, who had shown 
so much delicate attention to the captive of Saint 
Helena, and were present at a breakfast given in 
their honor by the Duchess of Bedford. On the 1st 
of August they received from Prince Talleyrand, 
then ambassador of France at London, a passport 
authorizing them to return to Switzerland, again 
through France. They embarked for Calais, August 
7. Hortense would not pass through Paris, which 
was then in a state of disturbance. She was afraid 
of over-exciting her son, who had said to her: "If 
we go to Paris, and I see people sabred before my 
eyes, I shall make no effort not to join them." She 
confined herself to visiting the environs of the 
capital with him: Morfontaine, formerly owned by 
King Joseph ; Saint-Denis, which the Emperor had 
thought would contain the graves of the Bona- 
partes; Rueil, where the Empress Josephine was 
buried in a humble church. " What a painful feel- 
ing oppressed me," Josephine's daughter has said, 
'^ when the sad thought came to me that of all she 
had loved, I and my son alone remained, isolated and 
obliged to flee even the place where she reposed." 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE JOURNEY IN FRANCE 126 

The fate of the unhappy Queen inspired Made- 
moiselle Delphine Gay (afterwards Madame Emile 
de Girardin) with the following lines, set to music 
by M. de Beauplan : — 

Soldats, gardiens du sol Jrangai$f 
Vous qui veillez iur la eolline, 
De no8 remparts livrez Vacchf 
LaUsez passer la pelerine. 

Les accents de sa douce voix. 
Que nos echos ont retenue^ 
Et ce luth que chanta Dunois 
Vous annoncent sa bienvenue. 

Sans peine on la reconnattra 

A sa pieuse reverie, 

Aux larmes qu'elle r^pandra 

Aux noms de France et de Patrie, 

Son front couvert d'un voile hlanc 
N*a rien gardd de la couronne; 
On ne devine son haut rang 
Qu'aux nobles presents qu*elle donne, 

Elle ne vient pas sur ses hords 
Reclamer un riche partage ; 
Des souvenirs sont ses triors 
Et la gloire est son heritage. 

Elle voudrait de quelques Jleurs 
Parer la tombe matemelUf 
Car elle est jalouse des pleurs 
Que d'autres y versent pour elle. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XII 

ABENEKBBBG 

'T^HE ch&teau of Arenenberg, in Switzerland, fif- 
"^ teen kilometres from Frauenfeld, chief town of 
tlie canton of Thurgau, is built on the slope of a 
hill that dominates Lake Constance. Skilfully 
arranged plantations extend their shade, yet now 
and again open to display picturesque points of 
view. On one side may be discovered the little 
town of Reichenau with its vines and chalets re- 
flected in the waters of the lake. On another, one 
beholds the Rhine, plunging to the foot of the cas- 
cades of Schaffhausen to surround, with an azure 
zone, a smiling landscape. Further still you may 
perceive the vaporous contours of the Black Forest, 
and the towers and steeples of the city of Constance. 
The approaches to the ch&teau are very rugged. 
On leaving Ermatingen, a pretty hamlet situated 
in an undulation of the shore, a stair-shaped path 
detaches itself from the road and leads to a bridge 
thrown across a narrow ravine. You cross this 
bridge, whose balustrades are adorned with vases 
filled with hortensias, and arrive first in the park, 
and then at the chfiteau. SuiTounded by flowery 

126 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ABENENBSBG 129 

borders, springing fountains, and clumps of verdure, 
you see its two stories, from the ridge of which the 
eje embraces immense and distant horizons. The 
architecture is simple but graceful, without turrets, 
high walls, or battlements ; an entirely modem resi- 
dence with nothing feudal about it. 

The dining-room, reception-rooms, billiard-room, 
library, and Queen Hortense's study were on the 
ground floor. In the room leading to the library 
might be admired Prudhon's large portrait of the 
Empress Josephine, a canvas full of charm and 
melancholy, wherein the painter has represented the 
sovereign lying on a grassy seat in the shadow of a 
thicket. The succeeding rooms were adorned by 
portraits of Napoleon and the members of his fam- 
ily ; a bust of Lord Byron, one of the Queen's 
favorite authors ; and a white marble statue of the 
Empress, one of Bosio's finest works. 

Here it was that Queen Hortense received the 
visits of a small group of courtiers of misfortune 
and exile: the Princesse de la Moskowa, widow 
of Marshal Ney, M. Vieillard, M. and Madame 
Parquier, M. Mocquard, Madame Salvage de 
FaveroUes, who, having once been an enthusiastic 
legitimist, had attached herself with the same ardor 
to the ch&telaine of Arenenberg, and Casimir Dela- 
vigne, of whom M. Ernest Legouv^ has said in his 
charming book, Soixante Am de Souvenirs^ " Casimir 
Delavigne was then the god of youth. The triumph 
of the VSpre$ SieilienneSj the brilliant success of 



Digitized by 



Google 



180 Loma napoleon 



the ComSdiens^ the popularity of the MessSniennes, 
placed on his brow, for us rhetoricians, the triple 
crown of tragic poet, comic poet, and lyric poet. 
We knew that at the first representation of the 
Sicilian Vespers the enthusiasm of the pit was such 
that the applause continued during the entire inter- 
val separating the fourth act from the fifth. That 
had turned our heads. We recognized in Casimir 
Delavigne a yet superior title. He had sung of 
Greece, liberty, France, — he was the national poet. 
We admired Lamartine greatly, but Lamartine was 
a royalist; Lamartine had attacked Bonaparte. 
The famous line, 

Rien (Thumain ne battait sous son ipaisse armurey^ 

seemed to us a blasphemy, for at that time we were 
all frenzied liberals and frenzied Bonapartists." 

In August, 1832, Queen Hortense and her son 
received, at the same time, two deeply affecting 
visits, that of M. de Ch&teaubriand and that of 
Madame R^camier. The young prince had neg- 
lected no means of securing the sympathies of the 
illustrious author. He had written him on the 4th 
of the preceding May: "You are the sole redoubt- 
able defender of the old royalty; you would render 
it national if one could believe that it thought as 
you do. Hence, to praise it, it is not enough to 
declare yourself on its side, but rather to prove that 
it is on yours." Admitting, as he has said himself, 

1 Nothing that was human beat underneath his thick armor. 



Digitized by 



Google 



ARENMNBERG 181 

that the Boui-bons had never written him such let- 
ters, M. de Ch&teaubriand had replied: "One never 
finds it easy to respond to eulogies; when he who 
gives them with as much spirit as suitability is, 
besides, in a social condition to which unparalleled 
souvenirs are linked, embarrassment is redoubled. 
I would have been glad to thank you orally for your 
obliging letter. We would have talked of a great 
fame and of the love of France, two things which 
touch you closely." Hence, the ground was well pre- 
pared for a reconciliation between the former Queen 
of Holland and the author of the brochure Buona- 
parte et les Baurbansj that sanguinary pamphlet 
which had been worth more to Louis XVIII. than 
an army. 

Queen Hortense was endowed with an irresist- 
ible attraction. She charmed the great writer. 
Mother and son vied with each other in amiability 
towards him and admiration of his fame. Hence, 
he has mentioned his visit in his M6moire% d'Outre- 
Tombe^ in terms flattering to both the chfttelaine and 
the prince: "August 29, 1832, I dined at Arenen- 
berg. There, after having been outrageously calum- 
niated. Queen Hortense has come to perch herself 
upon a rock. . . . The strangers were Madame 
R^camier, M. Vieillard, and I. Madame the 
Duchesse de Saint-Leu (the name then borne by 
Queen Hortense) extricating herself very well from 
her difficult position as Queen and as Demoiselle de 
Beauharnais. • . . Prince Louis occupies a sepa- 



Digitized by 



Google 



182 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 



rate pavilion, where I saw arms, topographical and 
strategic charts, things which made me, as it were 
by chance, think of the blood of the conqueror with- 
out naming him ; Prince Louis is a studious, well- 
informed young man, most honorable, and naturally 
grave. 

The time when M. de Chftteaubriand made his 
visit to Arenenberg was precisely the epoch when 
Louis Napoleon began to have those imperial aims 
which presently became his fixed idea. As long as 
his cousin, the Due de Reiihstadt, considered by 
him as his legitimate sovereign, lived, the thought 
of aspiring to the throne had not occurred to him. 
On learning that the former King of Rome was ill, 
he wrote to the young and unfortunate prince, July 
12, 1882: ^'If you knew all our attachment to you, 
and how far our devotion goes, you would under- 
stand our g^ief at not having direct relations with 
him whom we have been taught to cherish as a 
relative and to honor as the son of the Emperor 
Napoleon. Ah I if the presence of your father's 
nephew could do you any good, if the care of a 
friend who bears the same name could somewhat 
assuage your sufferings, it would be the crown of 
my desires to be able to be of use in some way to 
him who is the object of all my affection. I hope 
my letter may fall into the hands of compassionate 
persons who will pity my grief and not prevent 
wishes for your recovery and the expression of a 
tender attachment from reaching you." This letter 



Digitized by 



Google 



ABENENBSRG 188 

had been intercepted, and the Duo de Reichstadt, 
with whom Louis Napoleon would never have 
dreamed of contesting the throne, died at Schon- 
bninn, July 22, 1832. From that day, Louis Napo- 
leon, who knew that his father and uncles would 
not lay claim to the Empire, considered himself the 
legitimate heir of Napoleon I. M. de Ch&teau- 
hriand and Madame R^camier were struck by the 
care which Queen Hortense, in spite of all her pro- 
testations of having renounced human grandeurs, 
took, as did all the members of her household, to 
treat her son as a sovereign; he took precedence 
everywhere. He presented Madame R^camier with 
a sepia drawing he had made, representing a view 
of Lake Constance, with a shepherd leaning against 
a tree and playing the flute while watching his 
flock. But he was already dreaming of something 
quite different from sheepfolds. 

Before seeking to gain France, the prince applied 
himself to conciliating the Swiss. Having received 
from the canton of Thurgau the right of communal 
citizenship in 1882, he had responded: ^^I am glad 
that new ties bind me to a country which for six- 
teen years has given us so benevolent a hospitality. 
Believe that in all circumstances of my life, as a 
Frenchman and a Bonaparte, I shall be proud to be 
the citizen of a free state. My mother charges me 
to tell how much she has been affected by the interw 
est which you testify in me." In 1888 he published 
his Political and Military Comiderations on Switzer- 



Digitized by 



Google 



184 LOUIS NAPOLEON 



land^ in the preface to which he said: "If, in speak- 
ing of Switzerland, I have not been able to ayoid 
thinking often of France, I hope my digressions may 
be pardoned, because the interest inspired in me by 
a free people can but increase my love for mj 
country." 

Queen Hortense manifested an affection for her 
son which bordered on idolatry. " What a generous 
nature I " she wrote at this epoch. " What a good 
and worthy young man ! I would admire him if I 
were not his mother, and I am proud of being so. 
I enjoy the nobility of his character as much as 
I suffer from my inability to make his life more 
pleasant. He was born for * noble things.' " On the 
feast of Saint Louis, August 25, 1833, which was 
the prince's name-day, his mother gave an evening 
party to which several ladies of Constance were 
invited. A lottery was drawn in which the princi- 
pal prize was a water-color painted by the Queen. 
There was a dance and a gay supper. For awhile 
the prince forgot the annoyances of exile. 

In 1834, after a winter employed in study, Louis 
Napoleon wBnt to Thun, to perform his military 
service. The next day, April 12, his mother re- 
ceived this note: "A few days' absence is enough 
to make me desire to return to you at once." And 
two days later: '^It demands more courage for me 
to leave you than to brave a danger." 

At the same epoch his name was mentioned as 
a possible candidate for the hand of Donna Maria, 



Digitized by 



Google 



ABSNENBERQ 185 

Qaeen of Portugal, and some of his friends sug- 
gested that with the throne of Lisbon as a stepping- 
stone he might pass from the Tagus to the Seine. 
** The road is too roundabout," he replied ; " I like 
a straight line better." And he caused the follow- 
ing rectification of the rumor to be published in the 
journals: ^^ However flattering to me might be the 
conjecture of an alliance with a young and virtuous 
queen, I esteem it my duty to give it a contradiction 
all the more energetic because there has been noth- 
ing on my part to authorize such an error. Con- 
vinced that the great name I bear will not always 
be a cause of exile, I will wait patiently in a 
free and hospitable country until the people recall 
amongst them those who have been banished by 
twelve hundred thousand foreigners. Expectation 
of the day when I shall be permitted to serve France 
in the capacity of citizen and soldier keeps up my 
heart, and is worth more, in my opinion, than all 
the thrones in the world." 

Louis Napoleon was not prince^^onsort at Lisbon, 
but he obtained a grade in the Swiss army. " Dear 
Mother," he wrote to Queen Hortense, July 13, 1834, 
" I have just received from the government of Beme 
the brevet of honorary captain of artillery. This 
flattering manner of responding to my request gives 
me all the more pleasure because it proves that my 
name finds no sympathy except where democracy is 
regnant. Yesterday, I was walking on the road to 
Zurich when I was passed by a chariot full of Bernese 



Digitized by 



Google 



136 LOma NAPOLEON 

sharpshooters. As soon as they saw me thej began 
shouting: ^Long live Napoleon!' These friendly 
demonstrations are so many consolations for a pro- 
script like me." However, nobody as yet had any 
faith in the star of this prescript, and one might 
say he had no adherent but himself. 

No Bonapartist party existed in 18S4. The prince 
avowed as much in a letter written from Arenenbei^ 
to M . Vieillard, February 18 : " Look at the Emperor 
Napoleon, the greatest man of modem times ; if the 
people at large preserve an affectionate memory and 
a feeling of gratitude towards him, yet he has cer- 
tainly been unable to retain a party for his family. 
Discouraging thing I Bertrand, to whom the dying 
lips of Napoleon gave the name of friend, he, the 
victim of the island of Elba and the island of Saint 
Helena, accuses the manes of his Emperor of an un- 
measured ambition. Soult, a soldier of the Empire, 
rises up to stigmatize what remains of that glorious 
epoch. . . . Ah ! you are quite right ; it is neither 
in gilded salons nor the reunions of timorous people 
that we find our friends, but in the streets." In 1835 
the future Emperor was well aware of the vagueness 
and indecision of his aspirations. He wrote on Janu- 
ary 80 : ^^ I know that I am a great deal by name, 
nothing as yet in myself, an aristocrat by birth, a 
democrat by nature and opinion, taxed with personal 
ambitions the moment I make a step outside of my 
ordinary path, taxed with apathy and indifference 
when I remain quietly in my comer ; in fine, inspir- 



Digitized by 



Google 



ARENENBERQ 137 



log the same fears in both liberals and absolutists 
on account of the influence of my name, I have no 
political friends except among those who, accustomed 
to the tricks of failure, thiuk that amoug the possible 
chances of the future I may become a useful make- 
shift in case of emergency." Hence at this epoch 
Louis Napoleon's star was only a nebula, and in spite 
of his fatalism he must occasionally have doubted 
himself and made personal application of what he 
wrote, April 29, 1885, apropos of the death of his 
cousin the Due de Leuchtenberg, son of Prince 
Eugdne de Beauharnais, and husband of the Queen 
of Portugal: "The young men of the Bonaparte 
family all die in exile like shoots from a tree which 
have been taken to a foreign climate ; to die young 
is often a piece of good luck ; but to die before one 
has lived, to die ingloriously in one's bed of sickness, 
is frightful." Like all men of ardent imaginations, 
the proscript of Arenenberg alternated between mel- 
ancholy and ecstasy. Sometimes he foreboded a 
premature death in a foreign land, and again, to 
use his own expression, saw himself "soar high 
enough to be illuminated by one of the declining 
rays of the sun of Saint Helena," and fancied that 
he was to be conducted to the palace of the Tuil- 
eries by the shade of Napoleon. 

At the close of 1835 and the beginning of 1886, 
the prince was diverted for a little while from his 
ambitious schemes by thoughts of matrimony. There 
was some talk of marrjring him to his cousin, the 



Digitized by 



Google 



188 LOUIS NAPOLEON 



Princesse Mathilde, daughter of J^rdme Bonaparte, 
former King of Westphalia. Born at Trieste, May 
27, 1820, this charming young girl was in her six- 
teenth year, and her rare beauty, lofty intelligence, 
amiability, taste for literature and the arts, already 
made her very attractive. Louis Napoleon saw her 
at Lausanne, where she was staying with her father, 
and declared that he would be happy to have her for 
his wife. Queen Hortense greatly desired this union, 
and King Louis did not oppose it The proposal 
was delayed by the death of Madame Mere. Louis 
Napoleon had seen her often when staying in Rome, 
and this woman, "worthy of all respect," — the ex- 
pression is the Emperor's, — inspired him with pro- 
found affection and veneration. He had written her, 
June 1, 1835 : " My dear grandmamma, I am unwill- 
ing to quit Geneva without recalling myself to your 
memory and recommending myself anew to yoiu: 
kindness. The letter you wrote lately to my mother 
gave me great pleasure. In it you mentioned me 
with such affection that it brought tears to my eyes. 
You can understand what a sweet impression I must 
needs receive from the blessing of the Emperor's 
mother, since I venerate him as a god, and worship 
his memory most sacredly. . . . Adieu, my dear 
grandmother; be sure that no one comprehends better 
than I do all the duties imposed upon me by the 
g^eat name I have the honor to bear, and that my 
sole and unique ambition is to show myself ever 
worthy of it." Madame Mdre died at Rome, Febru- 



Digitized by 



Google 



ARENENBEBG 189 

aiy 2, 1836, at the age of eighty-six. On the 14th, 
Louis Napoleon wrote: ^^It is not merely as a 
grandson that I lament her death. It is also in 
thinking that she was the Emperor's mother that I 
deplore this irreparable loss. . . . But one idea 
consoles me, and that is to think that if she sees 
me from heaven and reads mj heart, she will find 
there so much attachment for my parents, such ven- 
eration for her memory and that of the Emperor, in 
a word, I dare to say such love for what is good, 
that she will say: ^I have a grandson worthy to 
bear the great name which his father left to him 
unsullied.' " 

The Princesse Mathilde was at this time doubly 
afflicted. November 29, 18S5, she had lost her 
mother, Queen Catherine, Princess of Wurtemberg, 
who had displayed admirable loyalty to a dethroned 
and proscribed husband, and of whom Napoleon 
said, on the rock of Saint Helena : *'* By her noble 
conduct in 1814 and 1815, this princess has inscribed 
her name in histoiy with her own hands." 

At the commeucement of 1886, the projected 
marriage between Louis Napoleon and his cousin 
was not abandoned, but merely adjourned. Directly 
after the death of Madame Mdre, Prince Napoleon, 
the brother of the Princesse Mathilde, came to spend 
some time at Arenenberg, where his cousin, who 
showed him much affection, gave him lessons in 
mathematics. 

The mourning of the Bonaparte family made life 



Digitized by 



Google 



140 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

at Arenenberg very dull. The winter there is very 
cold, and on stormy days the neighboring moun- 
tains, half-veiled in clouds, wear an aspect of inde- 
scribable melancholy. It annoyed Louis Napoleon 
to find the negotiations concerning his marriage 
drag so slowly, and his generous nature, averse to 
pecuniary cares, could not comprehend the questions 
of portion and dowry which preoccupied his father 
and his uncle. At this time he was in a state of 
agitation and uncertainty which displays itself in 
the following letter written to his brother's widow : 
"My dear Charlotte, I should like greatly to see you 
again. I should like to go shopping with you in 
Regent street. I should be glad to be in Florence ; 
I should like to press in mine the hands of my cousin 
or the handle of a sabre. And of all these longings, 
which will be granted? Probably none." 

It is likely that if a marriage with the Princesse 
Mathilde had then been decided on, the Prince would 
not have made the expedition to Strasburg. But 
seeing that his dreams of domestic happiness were 
not to be realized, he once more threw himself with 
vehemence into his rashly ambitious schemes. In 
spite of his extreme affection for his mother, he con- 
cealed the secret of his enterprise from her with 
amazing dissimulation. Queen Hortense believed 
her son to be exclusively employed in completing a 
manual of artillery, and was living with him in pro- 
found retirement. " While you are occupied with 
great events," she wrote at this time to a friend in 



Digitized by 



Google 



ABENENBEBQ 141 

Paris, " we spend our life tranquilly with no excite- 
ment but what is caused by the passing of the steam- 
boat, and discussing as to whether a picket is more 
or less well placed to mark a route. My God I is 
this not happiness ? It is at least a very sweet repose 
after so many storms." 

The Prince kept up a pretence of sharing his 
mother^s philosophy even while preparing a plot 
whose very audacity made it senseless. He was 
acting under the pressure of a sort of mysterious 
and irresistible fatality which was pushing him 
toward the abyss. October 24, 1836, he tranquilly 
announced to his mother that he would leave Are- 
nenberg very early the next morning to hunt for 
some days in the principality of Echingen. In 
bidding her adieu that evening, he thought he might 
be embracing her for the last time. But he had 
already such self-command and power of dissimula- 
tion that, although a most affectionate son, not a 
trace of emotion was visible on his imperturbable 
countenance. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER Xm 

STRASBURG 

TN composing the second act of the Prophet^ Scribe 
-*- and Meyerbeer must have thought of Louis 
Napoleon. Jean de Leyde, going to embrace his 
sleeping mother, reminds one of the young Prince 
quitting Arenenberg without acquainting Hortense 
with his projects or bidding her adieu. Like the 
prophet, Louis Napoleon had listened to men who 
muttered: ^^And vengeance I And hope!" Like 
the prophet he had had a vision, and an interior 
voice, a voice secret, mysterious, had said to him: 
" Thou shalt reign ! " 

Let the Prince himself describe what he felt on 
parting. " You know," he has written, " what pre- 
text I gave on my departure from Arenenberg ; but 
what you do not know is what was then passing in 
my heart. Strong in the conviction which made me 
consider the Napoleonic cause as the only national 
cause in France, as the only civilizing cause in 
Europe, proud of the nobleness and purity of my 
intentions, I had fully decided to lift up the imperial 
eagle or to fall a victim to my political faith. 

^^ I set off in my cai'riage over the same road I had 
li2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



8TRASBUB0 143 



taken three months before in going to Unkirck and 
Baden; everything around me was the same, but 
what a difference in the impressions animating me I 
Then I was as gay and serene as the daylight ; now, 
sad and pensive, my mind had assumed the color of 
the cold and foggy air by which I was surrounded. 
I shall be asked what forced me to abandon a happy 
existence in order to incur the risks of a hazardous 
enterprise. I shall reply that a secret voice enticed 
me, and that nothing in the world could have in- 
duced me to put off to another time an enterprise 
which seemed to offer so many chances of success." 

However, these chances of success scarcely existed 
except in the imagination of the Prince. He had 
gained the adherence of Colonel Vaudrey, com- 
mander of the 4th regiment of artillery at Stras- 
hurg, Commander Pasquine, chief of squadron of the 
municipal guards, on furlough, and some young offi- 
cers to whom he had promised honor and money. 
As has been said by M. Thureau-Dangin : "These 
were the only means by which an unknown young 
man of twenty-eight, with no past, fancied that he 
could overthrow a monarchy in full security and 
prosperity, and possess himself of France, which 
not merely had not summoned him but was not 
thinking of him." We quote also a passage from 
the Memoirs of M. Guizot : " Prince Louis was un- 
known in France to both the army and the people; 
nobody had seen him; he had never done anything; 
some pamphlets ou the art of war, certain JRSveries 



Digitized by 



Google 



144 LOUIS NAPOLEON 



Politiqueu^ a Projet de Constitntion^ and the eulog^ies 
of some democratic journals, were not very strong 
claims to public favor and the government of France. 
He had his name, but his name might have remained 
sterile without a hidden and entirely personal force ; 
he had faith in himself and his destiny." 

The dominant note in the Strasburg conspiracy is 
the fanaticism of a sectary. No document is more 
striking from the psychological point of view than 
the account sent to his mother by the Prince himself. 
These pages are written in the style of an illuminate. 
No remarks on the mental and moral characteristics 
of the future Emperor could be so interesting as this 
autobiography. It resembles both a chapter from an 
historical work and an episode from a poem. Writ- 
ten out at sea, to the sound of the waves, under the 
equator, this strange, impassioned narrative resem- 
bles the prologue of a drama in which the most 
bizarre vicissitudes occur. 

October 27, 1836, Louis Napoleon arrived at Lahr, 
a small town of Baden, where he expected news. 
The axle-tree of his calash having been broken, he 
had to remain there all day. In the morning of the 
28th, he retraced his steps, and crossed through Frei- 
burg, Neubrisach, and Colmar. He reached Stras- 
burg at eleven o'clock in the evening, where he put 
up at a small room that had been engaged for him in 
the rue de la Fontaine. The next day, the 29th, he 
saw Colonel Vaudrey and submitted to him his plan 
of operations. The plot was to be carried into exe- 



Digitized by 



Google 



aXBASBUBG 145 

cutiozi the SOth, and the conspirators assembled that 
very evening in two rooms on the ground floor of 
a house in the rue des Orphelins. 

** The 29th, at eleven o'clock in the evening," says 
the Prince, ^^ one of my friends came to the rue de la 
Fontaine, to conduct me to the general rendezvous. 
We went together across the whole city ; the streets 
were lighted by a beautiful moon ; I took this fine 
weather as a favorable augury for the next day; 
I looked attentively at the places I was passing; 
the silence pervading them affected me ; what was to 
replace this silence on the morrow? " 

The adventurous conspirator could say like Victor 
Hugo: — 

Oh ! dernain, c'est la grande ckose^ 
De quoi demain sera-t-il fait f 
L'homjne aujourd*hui shne la cause, 
Demain Dieu fait mUrir Veffet> 

He had the temperament of a gambler, and took 
pleasure in the risks which he was taking. His 
imagination became excited. He believed himself 
to be obeying an imperious call of duty. While on 
the way from the rue de la Fontaine to the rue des 
Orphelins, he said to his companion : ^^ I make this 
revolution by means of the army with the express 
intention of preventing the troubles which often 

1 Oh I to-morrow is the great thing, 
Of what will to-morrow be made ? 
To-day man sows the cause, 
To-morrow God ripens the effect. 



Digitized by 



Google 



146 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 



accompany popular movements. But what confi- 
dence^ what a profound conviction in the nobility 
of a cause, are required to brave, not the danglers 
we are about to incur, but the public opinion which 
will tear us to pieces, which will overwhelm us with 
reproaches if we do not succeed! And yet I take 
God to witness that it is not to g^tify a personal 
ambition, but because I believe I have a mission to 
fulfil, that I risk what is dearer to me than life, the 
esteem of my fellow-countrymen." 

On arriving at the house in the rue des Orphelins, 
the Prince found the conspirators : M. de Persigny, 
Commanders Parquin and de Bruc, Lieutenants 
Laity and de Qu^relles, and Comte de Gricourt. He 
thanked them for their devotion, and added that 
from this hour they would share good and evil 
fortune together. Some one had brought the eagle 
which once belonged to the 7th regiment of the 
line. "Lab^doy fire's eagle!" they exclaimed, and 
each pressed it to his heart with emotion. 

Listen to the Prince's narrative: "The night 
seemed very long to us. I spent it in writing my 
proclamations which I had been unwilling to print 
beforehand, through dread of indiscretion. It was 
agreed that we should remain in this house until 
Colonel Vaudrey notified me to go to the barracks. 
We counted the hours, minutes, and seconds. Six 
in the morning was the time appointed. How difiS- 
cult it is to express what one feels in such circum- 
stances; in one second one lives more than in ten 



Digitized by 



Google 



8TBA8BUBG 147 



years; for to live is to make use of our organs, 
our senses, our faculties, of all those portions of 
ourselves which give us the sentiment of our exist- 
ence; and in these critical moments our faculties, 
our organs, our senses, excited to the highest degree, 
are concentrated on a single point ; this hour is to 
decide our destiny; one is strong when one can 
say : To-morrow I shall be the liberator of my coun- 
tiy or I shall be dead." To conquer or to die, such 
had been his motto, and yet destiny was to grant 
him neither victory nor death. Filled with strange 
illusions, he imagined that his enterprise would be 
a new edition of the return from Elba, and that he 
had only to appear to be enabled to exclaim like 
Csesar: Veni^ vidh vtW. After such a dream, the 
awakening must have been terrible. 

The quarter of the 4th regiment of artillery com- 
manded by Colonel Vaudrey was called the Auster- 
litz quarter. The name seemed a good omen to the 
Prince. " At last," he says, *' six o'clock sounded ! 
Never did the strokes of a clock re-echo so vio- 
lently in my heart ; but in an instant the trumpet 
of the Austerlitz quarter came to renew its palpi- 
tations. The great moment was approaching." 

Some one came to tell the Prince that Colonel 
Vaudrey awaited him. He rushed into the street, 
accompanied by M. Parquin, in the uniform of a 
brigadier general, and a chief of battalion carrying 
the eagle. He himself wore an artillery uniform and 
a staff-officer's chapeau. 



Digitized by 



Google 



148 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 



The regfiment was in line in the court of the quar- 
ter. Colonel Vaudrey drew his sword and ciied: 
^^ Soldiers of the 4th regiment of artillery! a great 
revolution is accomplishing at this moment; you 
see before you the nephew of the Emperor Napo- 
leon. He comes to reconquer the rights of the peo- 
ple; the people and the army can rely upon him. 
It is around him that all who love the glory and 
liberty of France should gather. Soldiers, you will 
feel, like your leader, all the grandeur of the enter- 
prise you are about to attempt, all the sacredness of 
the cause you are about to defend. Soldiers, can 
the nephew of the Emperor count on you?" He 
was answered by shouts of ^^ Long live Napoleon ! 
Long live the Emperor I" Then the Prince began 
to speak: ^^ Determined to conquer or die for the 
cause of the French people, you are the first to 
whom I wished to present myself, because there 
exist great memories between you and me. It was 
in your regfiment that the Emperor Napoleon, my 
uncle, served as captain; it was with you that he 
distinguished himself at the siege of Toulon, and it 
was again your regiment which opened the gates of 
Grenoble to him on the return from Elba. Soldiers ! 
new destinies are reserved for you. Yours is the 
glory of commencing a new enterprise; yours the 
honor of being the first to salute the eagle of Aus- 
terlitz and Wagram." Then Louis Napoleon seized 
the eagle carried by M. de Qu^relles, and, present- 
ing it to the soldiers, he exclaimed: ^^Here is the 



Digitized by 



Google 



8TBA8BURG 149 



syinl)ol of French glory, destined likewise to become 
the emblem of liberty I During fifteen years it led 
our fathers to victoiy ; it has shone above all battle- 
fields; it has traversed every capital of Europe. 
Soldiers I will you not rally to this noble standard 
which I confide to your honor and courage? Will 
you not march with me against the traitors and 
oppressors of the fatherland, to the cry of Long 
live France 1 Long live liberty ! " The artillerymen 
shouted for the Prince, They began to march, with 
the band at the front. One platoon went to the 
printer's to have the proclamations published, an- 
other to the house of the prefect to arrest him ; six 
more were given different commissions. The Prince, 
taking only a part of his forces, went to the house of 
General Voirol, commander of the military division. 
^* General," said he, " I come to you as a friend ; it 
would afflict me to raise our old tricolored flag with- 
out a brave soldier like you. The garrison is for 
me ; make up your mind and follow me." The gen- 
eral replied : " Prince, some one has deceived you, 
and I am going to prove it to you this minute." 
Thereupon Louis Napoleon went away, leaving a 
picket to guard the general. Then he marched 
through a small lane into the Truckman barrack, 
then occupied by the 46th infantry regiment of the 
line. There a complete check awaited him. Lieu- 
tenantK5olonel Talandier rejected all his offers. Colo- 
nel Paillot and other officers arrived and persuaded 
the soldiers against the Prince. He was set upon, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 

i 



150 LOUIS NAPOLEON 



his clothing torn, his insignia taken from him, ELnd, 
himself shut up in a guard-house. "Prince," s&id 
one of his accomplices, Commander Parquin, at this 
moment, "we shall be shot, but we will die well." 
" Yes," replied Louis Napoleon ; " we have failed in 
a fine and noble enterprise." He was afterwards 
taken to the new prison. " Here I was, then," he 
says, "between four walls, with barred windows, in 
the abode of criminals. Ah I those who know what 
it is to pass suddenly from that excessive happiness 
induced by noble illusions to that excessive misery 
which leaves no moi-e hope, and to cross this enor^ 
mous interval without a moment's preparation, will 
comprehend what was passing in my heart." 

The conspirators met again in the office of the 
clerk of court. True fanatics, they did not repent 
of their mad enterprise. " Prince," said M. de 
Querelles, "notwithstanding our defeat, I am still 
proud of what I have done." Louis Napoleon sub- 
mitted to a preliminary examination with imperturb- 
able calmness. 

" What induced you to act as you have done ? " 
"My political opinions and my desire to see my 
country once more, which the foreign invasion pre- 
vents me from doing. In 1830 I asked to be treated 
as a private citizen ; I was treated as a pretender ; 
very well, I have acted like a pretender," 

" Did you wish to establish a military government ? " 
"I wished to establish a government founded upon 
popular election." 



Digitized by 



Google 



8TBASBUBG 161 



"What would you have done had you succeeded? " 

"I would have assembled a national congress." 
Louis Napoleon added that having organized his 
plot alone and been the sole persuader of his accom- 
plices, he must also assume the whole responsibility. 

After the examination the Prince was taken back 
to prison. "I threw myself," he says, "on a bed 
that had been made ready for me, and in spite of 
my torments, sleep, which alleviates by giving a res- 
pite to the afflictions of the soul, came to quiet my 
senses; repose does not fly misfortune; it is only 
banished by remorse. But how frightful was the 
awakening! I thought I had had a horrible night- 
mare ; what grieved and disquieted me most was the 
fate of those who were compromised." 

The Prince was notified during the evening of 
November 10 that he was to be transferred to another 
prison; he came out of his room and met General 
Voirol and the prefect, who took him in their car- 
riage, but did not tell him where he was to go. On 
arriving at the prefecture, he saw two post-chaises 
standing in readiness, one of which he entered in 
company with two officers of gendarmerie ; four non- 
commissioned officers got into the other. The two 
carriages reached* Paris at two o'clock in the morning 
of the 12th. There the Prince spent two hours at the 
prefecture of police, in a hall of which we shall speak 
hereafter. At four in the morning he once more set 
off under good escort, and, in the night of November 
13-14, arrived at the citadel of Port Louis, near 



Digitized by 



Google 



162 LOUia NAPOLEON 



Lorient, where he remained several days before em- 
barking for the United States. 

Queen Hortense had hastened to France under an 
assumed name to ask pardon for her son. Her efforts 
were fruitless, for the Government had already deter- 
mined to send him to the United States, where he 
would be free. 

It seems that Louis Napoleon's plot had included 
not merely open and avowed conspirators, but others 
whose adhesion was less complete. Certain men, it 
is said, while contriving not to be compromised in 
case of failure, were ready to assert themselves in 
case of success. If the Prince had induced the gar- 
rison of Strasburg to march with him on Paris, he 
would probably have been joined on the route by 
many officers and soldiers. But for that it would 
have been necessary to succeed at the outset, and 
whatever may have been said about it afterwards, 
such a thing was almost impossible. To perform a 
prodigy like the return from Elba, one must have 
won innumerable victories, and the Emperor's nephew- 
had not gained one. He was under the same sort of 
illusions as the Duchesse de Berry. His enterprise, 
like that of the mother of the Due de Bordeaux, was 
pre-eminently an affair of the imagination. 

" The Government," M. Guizot has said, " consid- 
ered that the nephew of Napoleon, like the daughter- 
in-law of Charles X., ought not to be handed over 
to the courts; in such a trial everything was to be 
dreaded : the humiliation of a prince, as well as the 



Digitized by 



Google 



8TBA8BURQ 168 



bringing a pretender on the scene; the severity 
of a condemnation, or the scandal of an acquittal. 
Hence no judicial proceedings. The memory of 
Blaye was too recent for the embarrassment of a de- 
tention not to be felt." By a strange anomaly, the 
accomplices of the Prince were prosecuted, while he, 
the principal author of the conspiracy, was not. He 
was himself amazed at the King's clemency; but 
while acknowledging the generosity of the Govern- 
ment in his regard, he expressed in a letter to M. 
Odilon Barrot, of November 14, his regret at being 
unable to share the fate of the other conspirators. 
In the same letter he made the following avowal: 
"We were far from expecting a pardon in case of 
failure." 

To sum up, the ill-concerted enterprise of Stras- 
burg had produced no sensation, in France or else- 
where, but that of profound surprise. Gomte de 
Sainte-Aulaire also affirms as much in his unpub- 
lished Memoirs : " The pretensions of Prince Louis 
were a subject of derision ; I never met any one who 
took the trouble to discuss them." The failure had 
been absolute; it was considered irreparable. No- 
body ventured to think that the hour of retaliation 
might yet strike for the vanquished man of Stras- 
burg. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XIV 

THE CHILDHOOD OF THE EMPRESS 

\\r E have said that on November 12, 1836, Louis 
^ ^ Napoleon arrived in Paris, where he spent two 
hours -at the prefecture of police, in a hall of which 
we would speak later on. This room, in which he 
was received with perfect courtesy by the prefect, 
M. Gabriel Delessert, was the large dining-room of 
the prefecture. In this very hall the children of 
the prefect, C^cile and Edouard, came nearly every 
morning, under the direction of a subaltern ofiBcer 
of the firemen's battalion, named M. Delestr^e, to 
take lessons in gymnastics with two veiy young 
Spanish girls, the elder of whom was one day to be 
the Duchesse d'Albe, and the younger the Empress 
of the French. A collation was offered to the Prince, 
but he took nothing except some biscuits and a glass 
of champagne. At four o'clock in the morning he 
set out again, never suspecting that on his road to 
outlawry he had halted for some moments in a room 
entered nearly every day by the child destined to sit 
with him upon the throne of France. 

Sixteen yeare later, when Napoleon III., at the 
Tuileries, announced his marriage to the great bodies 

154 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE CHILDHOOD OF THE EMPRESS 165 

of the State, he said that his betrothed was ^^ a 
woman of high birth, a Frenchwoman by inclination 
and education." As has been observed by M. Fernand 
Girandeau, many persons believed, at the time, that 
in thus speaking. Napoleon III. exaggerated a trifle, 
in order to render their new sovereign more accept- 
able to the French people. Nothing, however, could 
be more inexact. We have already pointed out the 
valor displayed by the Empress Eugenie's father 
when a colonel in Napoleon's army. No Frenchman 
had shown greater devotion to France than this great 
Spanish sefior. He brought up his daughters in a 
sentiment of respect and admiration for the Emperor's 
memory. At Madrid, his house on the calle del 
Sordo was filled from top to bottom with Napoleonic 
souvenirs. Moreover, the future sovereign learned 
the imperial legend from two great story-tellers, — 
Prosper M^rim^e, author of the Ohronique du regne 
de Charles /X, and Stendahl (Henri Beyle), author 
of La Chartreuse de Parme. From earliest infancy, 
her romantic imagination was impressed by the bril- 
Uant conversation of these men, who narrated so well 
the glories of the imperial epic. 

M. M^rim^e saw the father of the Empress for the 
first time in 1830. As the latter did not assume 
the title of Comte de Montijo until after the death 
of his brother, in 1834, he was then known as Don 
Cipriano Guzman Palaf ox y Porto Carrero, Comte de 
Teba. M^rim^e was travelling in Spain when they 
made acquaintance in a stage-coach. They were 



Digitized by 



Google 



166 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 



friends at once, and the brilliant French writer bein^ 
soon afterwards presented to the Comtesse de Teba, 
in Madrid, became one of the most constant visitors 
in the calle del Sordo. In the remarkable book he 
has devoted to Prosper M^rim^e, M. Auguste Filoo 
has recalled this fact, and justly eulogized Colonel 
Porto Carrero, the name borne by the Empress's 
father when a colonel of artillery in the French 
army. "At the defence of Paris, in 1814," says 
M, Filon, " he commanded the students of our Poly- 
technic School; and the last discharges of cannon 
which from the heights of Montmartre delayed our 
shame for one more day, were fired by Colonel Porto 
Carrero. It is amidst this smoke that one likes to 
catch a glimpse of that fine, pale countenance, 
ennobled rather than disfigured by the terrible wound 
which had deprived him of one of his eyes ; of that 
soldier philosopher, brain-haunted by vague dreams 
of deliverance and progress, disgraced for having 
loved liberty and France too well, and to the end 
bearing his disgrace proudly." The Empress Eu- 
genie placed a miniature of her father in her apart- 
ments at the Tuileries. It represented him with a 
silk bandage crossing his face on the side where he 
had lost an eye in consequence of a wound he had 
received in the service of France. The Ukeness to 
his daughter was not less striking; there were the 
same noble features, dazzling color, and golden hair. 
M^rim^e entertained a sincere affection for the 
De Teba family. "There was both Scotch and 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE CHILDHOOD OF THE EMPBE88 167 

Flemish blood in the veins of the Comtesse de Teba/' 
says M. Filon. ^^She amazed and enchanted M^ri* 
m6e by her grace, her mental activity, the variety 
of her conversation, and the extent of her knowledge. 
She knew the history of Spain, its former kings, its 
languages, and its monuments, by heart. ^Do you 
remember,* he wrote afterwards, ' the beautiful stories 
about the Alhambra and the Generalifat, which you 
told me in 1830, in the calle del Sordo?' To 
complete the attractiveness of this dwelling, one 
should fancy two little girls of four and five years 
old, Eugenia and Paca, playing at their mother's side. 
Eugenia, the god-daughter of her uncle, the Comte 
de Montijo, born in a garden at Grenada, during an 
earthquake, impressed one by her pensive, wonder- 
ing, melancholy glance, a glance which Paris beheld, 
later on, in the eyes of her son. One might have 
thought her not yet recovered from her strange 
entry into life; or else that her vague, infantine 
reveries were interrupted by dramatic surprises. But 
who could have thought of all this when the young 
visitor in the calle del Sordo was stroking the 
golden hair of little Eugenia while her mother 
repeated legends of the Moorish kings, the exploits 
of the Campeador or of Boelo, and the souvenirs of 
P^lagie and Don Pedro? " 

Comte de Teba, who was not rich until after the 
death of his brother, the Comte de Montijo, gave his 
daughters a simple, modest, and austere education. 
When, in 1814, he inherited the title and fortune 



Digitized by 



Google 



168 LOUIS NAPOLEON 



of his brother, the new Comte de Montijo did not 
alter his accustomed ways. He still wished his 
daughters brought up as if they were to be poor, 
and to inure them to privations and fatigue. 

Serious troubles broke out in Spain that year. 
July 29, General de Castellane, who was then in 
command at Perpignan, witnessed the arrival in that 
city of the Comtesse de Montijo with her two daugh- 
ters and her son Paca, who was to die in infancy- 
Many Spanish families, fleeing from civil war and 
cholera, sought refuge in France. The Comte de 
Montijo, a senator since his brother's death, re- 
mained in Madrid while sending his wife and chil- 
dren across the Pyrenees. General de Castellane 
found the countess intelligent and beautiful. 

Madame de Montijo went afterwards to Paris, 
where she contracted an intimacy with the De La- 
borde family. An accomplished man of the world and 
a distinguished savant^ a member of the Academy of 
Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres, and of the Academy 
of Moral and Political Sciences, Comte Alexandre de 
Laborde and his wife had three charming daughters, 
one of whom was married to M. Gabriel Delessert, 
prefect of police, another to M. Edouard Bocher, and 
the third to M. Odier. Among their frequent guests 
were M^rim^e and Henri Beyle (Stendahl). The 
former was well pleased to renew his friendship with 
the beautiful Comtesse de Montijo in Paris. It was 
she who told him the anecdote which he made the 
subject of Carmen^ and she also who later on sug- 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE CHILDHOOD OF THE EMPBESS 159 

gested Don Pedro. He was very fond of her daugh- 
ters, used to take them out walking, corrected their 
French exercises, and gave them lessons in writing 
and style. 

M. Henri Beyle likewise frequented the salon of 
the Comtesse de Montijo, and told little Paca and 
Eugenia tales about Napoleon which delighted them. 
But again we resign the story to M. Filon, who gives 
us these details: — 

"The Empress has often told me that the even- 
ings when M. Beyle came were things apart. *We 
expected them with impatience, because on those 
days we sat up later. And his stories did amuse 
us so I ' " The former preceptor of the unfortunate 
prince imperial adds: "Fancy the two little girls, 
seated on Beyle's knees, drinking in his words, and 
him unfolding, episode by episode, the prodigious 
drama he had witnessed, almost as he has described 
the battle of Waterloo in the Chartreuse de Parme^ 
with that sincerity of touch, that gift of suggestive 
detail, which renders things vivid, present, and very 
near. In the midst of these tales of glory and 
misery, whose defeats vie in grandeur with the tri- 
umphs, the man of Marengo and Moskowa, the hero 
in the little hat and the gray great coat, made 
brusque and dazzling apparitions. To render him 
visible to the eyes as well as the mind, Beyle gave 
the children pictures. The Empress still preserves 
one of the battle of Austerlitz, presented by her 
friend." 



Digitized by 



Google 



i 



160 LOUIS NAPOLEON 



In 1837, the future sovereign and her sister en- 
tered the Convent of the Sacred Heart in the rue 
de Varenne, Paris, where she made her first Com- 
munion. She was known there hj one of her an- 
cestral names, — Palafox. Eugenie Palafox, as she 
was then called, was a gay and charming young 
girl, much beloved by the nuns and their pupils. 
Some years later, when she was affianced to the 
sovereign of France, her first visit was to the con- 
vent where one happy year of her childhood had 
been spent. She wanted to see everything, — the 
study hall, the refectory, the dbmiitory, and, above 
all, the chapel, where she had prayed to God with 
so much fervor. She recognized an old nun who 
filled one of the humblest positions in the convent, 
and cordially embraced her. 

We have just glanced at the childhood of the 
Empress Eugenie. Let us return to Napoleon. We 
left him in the citadel of Port Louis, near the road- 
stead of Lorient, where he was to take ship for the 
United States. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XV 

THE "ANDEOMBDA" 

"D EFORE embarking for the United States, Louis 
Napoleon remained a prisoner for ten days at 
Port Louis. The winds continued contrary, and pre- 
vented the frigate Andromeda^ on which the Prince 
was to make the passage, from leaving the harbor. 
Before departing from the shores of France, he wrote 
the following letter to a friend : " I go away heart- 
broken at having been unable to share the fate of 
my companions in. misfortune ; I wished to be treated 
like them. My enterprise having failed, my inten- 
tions ignored, my &te, in spite of myself, made dif- 
ferent from that of the men whose existence I have 
compromised, I shall pass in everybody's eyes for a 
fool, an ambitious man, and a coward. I shall be 
able to endure this new exile with resignation, but 
what disheartens me is to leave the men in irons 
whose devotion to the imperial cause has been so 
fatal. I should like to have been the only victim. 
" P. S. — It is false that I have had the slightest in- 
timate relation with Madame Gordon. It is false that 
I have tried to borrow money ; it is false that I have 
been required to swear not to return to Europe." 

M 161 



Digitized by 



Google 



162 LOUia NAPOLEON 



November 21, 1886, the Andromeda was towed out 
by a steamboat, and M. Villemain, sub-prefect of 
Lorient, notified the Prince that he was about to 
depart. The drawbridges of the citadel were low- 
ered, and the prisoner passed out, accompanied by 
the sub-prefect, the commander of the place, and the 
officer of gendarmerie at Lorient, as well, as by the 
two officers and subalterns who had brought him 
there. They all entered the boats which were to 
take them to the frigate. As he was about to go on 
board, he said to M. Villemain : " I cannot return to 
France until the lion of Waterloo no longer stands 
erect on the frontier." The sub-prefect then asked 
him whether he would find any resources on reaching 
the United States. "None at all," replied Louis 
Napoleon. "Eh! well, Prince," returned M. Ville- 
main, " the King has ordered me to give you fifteen 
thousand francs, which are in gold in this little box." 
Louis Napoleon accepted. He cordially saluted the 
persons who had accompanied him, the voyage began, 
and the Prince beheld the shores of France disappear 
in front of him. 

The first fifteen days were very distressing. In- 
cessant tempests and adverse winds tossed them 
about and drove the frigate into the British Channel. 
Not a step could one stir on board without clinging 
fast to whatever one could lay hands on. However, 
the Prince did not complain. He even felt happy to 
be detained a while longer near his country. "If 
my native land is contrary to me," he wrote, " the 



uigmzed by Google 



THE ''ANDROMEDA'' 168 

winds seem favorable. They will not urge me far 
from the shores of France." 

For seventeen days they remained in the Bay of 
Biscay. 

In the thirty-second degree of latitude, the captain 
of tlie Andromeda opened the sealed orders, written 
by the Minister of Marine, which enjoined him to take 
the Prince into the roadstead of Rio Janeiro, but not to 
allo^ev him to go ashore or receive any manner of com- 
munication, and, after provisioning the vessel, to cany 
him to New York. The frigate was destined for the 
South Seas, where she was to be stationed two years. 
This change of route obliged her to go three thou- 
sand miles out of her way, for from New York she 
had to return to Rio, coasting far to the east, in 
order to catch the trade-winds. The mystery sur- 
rounding the determination of the Government and 
the resulting inconvenience to the Andromeda from 
so long a detour, prove that the measure had been 
decreed solely to prevent the Prince from communi- 
cating with his friends before the close of their 
trial. 

But Louis Napoleon, always impassible, made no 
audible complaint. He seemed affected by the re- 
spect shown him by the captain, M. Henri de Ville- 
neuve, " an excellent man, frank and loyal as an old 
sailor." When, in 1851, M. de Villeneuve received 
the cross of a commander of the Legion of Honor, a 
journal recalled the fact that in 1836, on board the 
Andromeda^ this officer had shared his wardrobe with 



Digitized by 



Google 



164 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 



Louis Napoleon. The Prince said to him at the 
time: "I am very poor and very unfortunate; but 
remember that he whom you oblige will one day be 
Emperor of the French." 

Captive on a ship which he himself described as a 
^^ floating fatherland," Napoleon's nephew continued, 
in spite of his cruel disillusions, to believe in his 
star, even though obliged to admit that for the 
moment it was eclipsed by heavy clouds. There 
were times when a singular self-possession was re- 
quired to prevent the profound melancholy which 
penetrated his soul from becoming evident. Decem- 
ber 14, 1836, when in sight of the Canaries, he 
wrote to Queen Hortense: "My dear Mamma: Each 
man carries a world within himself, made up of all 
that he has seen and loved, and which he incessantly 
re-enters, even when he would like to think of the 
world without. At such times I do not know which 
is most painful, to recall the miseries which have 
stricken one, or the happy days which are no more. 

"The winter is over, and it is once more summer; 
trade-winds have succeeded the tempests, and that 
permits me to spend most of the time on the bridge. 
Sitting on the poop, I reflect on what has happened 
to me, and think of you and Arenenberg. Situations 
depend on the dispositions one brings to them ; two 
months ago I wished never to return to Switzerland; 
now, if I should abandon myself to my impressions, 
I would ask nothing better than to find myself once 
more in my little room, in that beautiful country 



I 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE ''ANDROMEDA " 166 

where it seems to me I should have been so happy. 
ALis ! when one has a soul that feels deeply, one is 
fated to pass one's days crushed by his own inaction 
or in the conyulsions of a£9icting situations." 

The Prince was under no constraint with his 
mother. Recalling his chagrin at having been un- 
able to obtain the hand of his cousin, the Princesse 
Mathilde, he added in the same letter: ^^When I 
returned, some months ago, from taking Mathilde 
home, on entering the park I found a tree broken 
by the storm, and I said to myself: ^Our marriage 
will be broken off by fate.' What I vaguely fancied 
has been realized. Have I then exhausted, in 1836, 
aU the share of happiness that fell to my lot?" 

This letter, pervaded by a dreamy melancholy, 
ended as follows: ^^Do not accuse me of weakness 
if in communicating with you I give free rein to all 
my impressions. One may regret what he has lost 
without repenting of what he has done. Our sen- 
sations, moreover, are not so independent of interior 
causes that our ideas do not change somewhat in 
accordance with the objects which surround us; the 
brightness of the sunlight or the direction of the 
wind have a great influence on our moral condition. 
When the weather is fine, as it is to-day, and the 
sea as calm as Lake Constance; when we walk up 
and down in the evenings, and the moon — the same 
moon — sheds the same bluish light upon us; when 
the atmosphere, in fine, is as soft as that of a Euro- 
pean August, — then I am more sad than usual: all 



Digitized by 



Google 



166 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 



memories, joyous or painful, weigh with the same 
heaviness on my breast; fine weather dilates the 
heart and renders it more impressionable, while bad 
weather contracts it; the passions alone are above 
the inclemencies of the seasons." 

Louis Napoleon, almost alwajrs melancholy, was 
never discouraged. The ardor of his political faith 
reanimated and sustained him. He was not merely 
a dreamer, but a fanatic. His idolatry for the memory 
of the man of Austerlitz kept his soul in a state of 
perpetual ecstasy. He wrote to Colonel Vaudrey: 
"Between the tropics and under the wind from 
Saint Helena for two months, alas! I was unable 
to catch a glimpse of the historic rock; but it always 
seemed as if the breezes bore me the last words 
addressed by the dying Emperor to his companions 
in misfortune: — 

" ^ I have sanctioned all the principles of the Revo- 
lution, I have infused them into my laws and actions; 
there is not one of them I have not consecrated ; un- 
happily, the circumstances were grave. . . . France 
judges me indulgently; she credits me with my 
intentions, she cherishes my name, my victories; 
imitate her, be faithful to the opinions you have 
defended, to the glory you have acquired; beyond 
that there is nothing but shame and confusion.' " 

The Prince had won the officers and sailors by his 
gentleness and extreme politeness. "To see him 
amongst us," one of them has said, "you would 
have supposed him admiral on his own deck rather 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE ''ANDROMEDA" 167 

than a banished man." He dined at the table of tbe 
captain, who was most considerate, and had given up 
to him the after-cabin. They crossed the line De- 
cember 28, and the captain dispensed him from the 
usual ceremonies. On New Year's Day he was vis- 
ited by all the officers, and wrote this letter to his 
mother : — 

" January 1, 1837. — My dear Mamma : This is New 
Year's Day ; I am fifteen hundred leagues away from 
you, in another hemisphere; fortunately, thought 
traverses all that space in less than a second. I am 
near you, I am telling you all my regret for the tor- 
ments I liave occasioned you ; I renew the expression 
of my tenderness and my gi*atitude. 

^This morning the officers came in a body to 
wish me a happy New Year. I was affected by this 
courtesy on their part. We sat down at table at 
half-past four o'clock; as we are 17° of longitude 
west from Constance, it was then seven o'clock at 
Arenenberg ; you were probably eating your dinner ; 
mentally I drank your health; perhaps you did as 
much for me ; at any rate, it pleased me at the mo- 
ment to think so. I thought also of my companions 
in misfortune ; alas ! I am always thinking of them I 
I thought that they were more unhappy than I, and 
that thought made me more unhappy than they." 

January 6 the Prince wrote another letter to his 
mother: "Yesterday we had a squall which broke 
upon us with extreme violence. If the sails had not 
been torn by the wind, the frigate might have been 



Digitized by 



Google 



168 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

in danger ; a mast was broken ; the rain fell so im- 
petuously that it turned the sea quite white. To-day 
the sky is as fine as usual, the damages are repaired, 
bad weather is already forgotten ; why is it not the 
same with the storms of life ! Apropos of the frig- 
ate, the captain tells me that the one which bore 
your name is now in the South Seas, and is called 
la Flore:' 

The Andromeda entered the roadstead of the 
capital of Brazil, January 10, and the Prince wrote 
to his mother: "We have just arrived at Rio Ja- 
neiro; the view of the harbor is superb; to-morrow 
I will make a drawing of it. I hope this letter may 
soon reach you. Do not think of rejoining me; I 
do not know yet where I shall settle; perhaps I 
shall find more chances of living in South America ; 
the labor to which the uncertainty of my fate con- 
strains me will be the only consolation I shall have. 
Adieu, mother; remember me to your old servants 
and our friends in Thurgau and Constance. I am 
in good health. Tour affectionate and respectful 
son." 

After a short stay in the roadstead of Brazil, dur- 
ing which the Prince was not permitted to go ashore, 
the Andromeda continued its voyage to the United 
States, and arrived at Norfolk, March 80, 1837. 
Louis Napoleon set foot upon American soil. He 
was at liberty. 

And yet his only thought was for the flag and 
the compatriots from whom he was separated. " Be- 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE ''ANDROMEDA'' 169 

hold the oddity of human sentiments," he wrote to 
Colonel Vaudrey. "Twice only in my unfortunate 
enterprise have tears betrayed my sorrow; once 
when, dragged far away from you, I knew I could 
not be there to share your fate, and again when, 
on quitting my frigate, I was about to regain my 
liberty." 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XVI 

NEW YORK 

A T the very moment when he set foot on the soil 
•^■^ of the United States, Louis Napoleon heard 
a piece of news which overwhelmed him with joy. 
His accomplices in the Strasburg affair had been 
acquitted by the jury of that city, January 18, 1837. 
Enthusiastic manifestations had proceeded from all 
parts of the hall when the verdict was rendered. 
People shouted: "Long live the jury! Long live 
Alsace!" The accused men when set at liberty 
entered a carriage which was followed by applauding 
people. Strasburg had put on a festal appearance^ 
and even the garrison had shared in the popular 
satisfaction. 

The Prince left Norfolk at once and went to New 
York, where, on the day of his arrival, he dined at 
the house of General Watson Webb, with General 
Scott and several senators and statesmen. He had 
just received, on entering the great American city, 
some letters which had been a very precious conso- 
lation. They were written by King Louis and Queen 
Hortense. He replied as follows to that of King 
Louis: — 

170 



Digitized by 



Google 



NEW YORK 171 



"New York, April 10, 1837. — My dear Father: 
After passing four months and a half at sea, I finally 
landed at Norfolk, March 30. On arriving here I 
found a letter which sent me your blessing. Of all 
I could expect here, this was the sweetest to my 
heart. I have received many letters, and in my 
misfortune I esteem myself happy to meet so many 
persons who show me a real attachment. I have 
been unfortunate, but, believe me, I have done noth- 
ing contrary to either the honor or the dignity of 
the name I bear." 

Queen Hortense's letters had been accumulating 
in New York for several months, she being ignorant 
of the long detour made by the Andromeda. Her 
correspondence was like balm to the exile's heart. 
The heart of a mother is an asylum where all the 
disinherited of fate find ineffable consolations. Hor- 
tense was far from having approved the Prince's 
audacious enterprise. He had sedulously concealed 
it from her, knowing that had she been aware of 
such a project she would have done everything to 
dissuade him from it. But when her son was un- 
fortunate and abandoned by nearly all the Bonaparte 
family, she would not write him a single line which 
might distress him. Glad to know that he would 
be rejoined in New York by his faithful attendant, 
Charles Th^lin, and by his best friend, M. Arese, 
a Milanese, she sent only words of encouragement 
and affection to this beloved son, who had been 
betrayed by fortune. Louis Napoleon read and 



Digitized by 



Google 



172 LOUia NAPOLEON 

re-read these letters which re-kindled hope in his 
soul. 

In the first one, dated December 18, 1836, Queen 
Hortense said : *^ Arese has gone to get his passports 
so as to rejoin you. He will tell you about the 
sadness of the country. The poor Princesse de 
HohenzoUem has been to see me. Josephine also. 
The poor princess grieves like a mother in tliinking 
she will never see you again. Never have I received 
so many proofs of interest, and yet I have been more 
unhappy. For you live, and I ask no more. I dare 
not think I am to be pitied, since we may yet see 
each other." 

Here are several extracts from the other letters : — 

"December 26. — Charles Th^lin will tell you 
that all the prisoners are well and hopeful. I sent 
another hundred louis lately to assist in their ex- 
penses. If they are acquitted, Colonel Vaudrey 
will come here to me, and I will keep him until 
you can find a place for him in America, and I 
will give a pension of a thousand francs to each of 
his children." 

" December 26. — One thing that has pleased me is 
that Napoleon has been well, and I conjecture that 
he has held his own against your uncles in all the 
unpleasant things they said about you. . . . This 
villanous year is almost over. It seems long to 
18871" 

"January 8, 1887. — I wrote to your Uncle Joseph 
that I hoped to see him very soon; and I am not 



Digitized by 



Google 



NEW TOBK 178 



supposed to have any notion of his great anger. 
Tour dear &milj resemble the rest of the world in 
always crediting me with ambitions ideas. How 
well people know me I I am so disgusted with 
men and with worldly things that you would not 
believe how I congratulate myself on your enter- 
prise having turned out badly. You will live tran- 
quilly and without danger, and if you had succeeded, 
you w^ould live amidst the most despicable passions. 
Grandeur is surrounded only by vultures who look 
upon it as their prey. ... In misfortune, at least, 
they will abandon and turn their backs upon one; 
when one lives alone one is happier." 

The Prince wrote to his mother from New York, 
April 20, 1837. " Here I am, then, on terra firma ! 
. . . On landing I heard that my friends had been 
acquitted. You understand what joy that gave me, 
for, during the four months and a half that I had no 
news, the dread of learning that they had been con- 
demned was like an incessant nightmare. On quit- 
ting the frigate over which the tricolor floated, and 
where so much interest in me had been shown, I wept 
as if I were leaving my country again." 

The next day, April 21, he addressed a long letter 
to his Uncle Joseph to explain his conduct, and com- 
plain of what he considered the injustice of his fam- 
ily in his regard. The letter began thus : " My dear 
Uncle : On arriving in the United States, I hoped to 
find a letter from you. I own that I was deeply 
grieved to learn that you were prejudiced against 



Digitized by 



Google 



174 LOUIS NAPOLEON 



me; I was even astonished, knowing your judg- 
ment and your heart. Tes, uncle, you must have 
been singularly led astray concerning me to have 
repelled as enemies the men who devoted them- 
selves to the cause of the Empire. 

"If victorious at Strasburg (and very little was 
lacking to make me so), I had made my way to 
Paris, drawing after me the population fascinated 
by memories of the Empire, and on reaching the 
capital as a 'pretender' I had possessed myself of 
legal power, oh I then there would have been a 
friendly prudence in disowning my conduct and 
coming to a rupture with me I But what! I at- 
tempt one of those hardy enterprises which alone 
restore what twenty years of peace have sunk into 
oblivion ; I fling myself into it at the sacrifice of my 
life, persuaded that even my death would be useful 
to our cause ; I escape, against my will, from bayo- 
nets and the scaffold, and, on arriving in port, I 
find on the part of my family only contempt and 
scorn." I 

The conclusion of this letter was worded as fol- j 
lows: "I know you too well, my dear uncle, to I 
doubt your heart or cease to hope for your return 



to juster sentiments toward me and those who have I 
compromised themselves for our cause. As for me, I 
my line of conduct will always be the same. The 
sympathy of which so many persons have given me 
proof, my conscience, which reproaches me with noth- 
ing, in fine, the persuasion that if the Emperor sees 



Digitized by 



Google 



NEW TOBK 175 



me from the height of heaven, he will be satisfied 
with me, are so many compensations for all the dis- 
appointments and injustice I have experienced. My 
enterprise came to nothing, it is true, but it has 
announced to France that the Emperor's family 
is not yet dead, that it still has loyal friends; in 
fine, that its pretensions are not limited to a de- 
mand on the Government for certain funds, but 
to establishing in favor of the people what foreign- 
ers and the Bourbons have destroyed. That is 
what I have done; is it for you to begrudge it to 
me?" 

April 80, Louis Napoleon developed the same 
essay at personal justification in a long letter ad- 
dressed to his friend M. Vieillard, from which we 
make some extracts: " I was doing, by a bold stroke, 
in one day, the work of perhaps ten years ; succeed- 
ing, I was sparing France the struggles, troubles, and 
disorders which will, I think, sooner or later happen. 
My position was clear, precise, and therefore easy. 
. . . Making a revolution with fifteen persons, if I 
reached Paris, I should owe my success to the people 
only, not to a party ; arriving as a conqueror, I would 
willingly lay my sword down on the altar of the 
country. . . . But, on entering France, I did not 
think of the rftle created for me by defeat; I re- 
lied, in case of a misfortune, on my proclamations as 
my last testament, and on death as a benefit." 

In New York, as in Europe, Louis Napoleon was 
alwajTS haunted by the same imperial vision, but he 



Digitized by 



Google 



176 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 



adjourned to an indefinite period the realization of 
his dream. His attitude caused the French legation 
no anxiety. M. Paget, charg^ d'affaires from France 
to Washington, contented himself with announcing 
his arrival to his government in these lines, unaocom- 
panied by any comment : " The frigate Andromeda^ 
with Prince Louis Bonaparte on board, arrived last 
Thursday from Rio Janeiro at Norfolk, after a 
voyage of fifty-eight days." The presence of the 
future Emperor on American soil seemed an unim- 
portant fact. At this period he did not conspire. 
In New York he had found two of his cousins, 
Achille and Lucien Murat, who were living in the 
simplest style. The first was occupied in the post- 
office. The second had married an American, Miss 
Carolina Georgina Frazer, who conducted an insti- 
tution for young girls. Louis Napoleon had also met 
in New York several French Bonapartists, Lieutenant 
Lecomte, who had followed King Joseph in 1815, 
and the Peugnier brothers, formerly implicated in 
the conspiracy of Belfort. But in America the Prince 
did not dream of organizing any conspiracy. He 
lived chiefly in the society of certain American fami- 
lies by whom he was received in the most hospitable 
manner. They considered him a gentleman^ full of 
gentleness and reserve. One of the persons whom he 
saw most frequently, the Rev. E. Stewart, a brothe^ 
in-law of General Scott, has written in a book enti- 
tled Vindication : ^^ If I had noted down all the words 
of Louis Napoleon, and could reproduce them now 



Digitized by 



Google 



NEW YORK 177 



that his yisions have been realized, it would be seen 
that the greater part of them were as prophetic as 
those that have been attributed to the prisoner of 
Saint Helena. When the Prince spoke of his mother, 
his voice became as soft as that of a woman." 

The youthful civilization of the great American 
republic and the prodigious rapidity of its progress 
interested Louis Napoleon to the highest degree. It 
was his intention to remain a whole year in the United 
States and study its institutions in the course of a 
long journey, the itinerary of which he was already 
arranging with the Rev. E. Stewart. He was dining 
at the latter's house, June 8, when he received a 
letter which modified all his plans. He had scarcely 
read the first lines when he exclaimed: ^^My mother 
is ill I I must see her I Instead of making a tour 
through the United States, I shall take the first ship 
for England. If necessary, I shall apply for a pass- 
port to every consulate in London, and if they refuse 
it, well! I shall continue my journey in spite of 
them." 

Before departing, the Prin,ce wrote a letter in Eng- 
lish, June 6, to the President of the United States. 
It ran as follows : " Mr. President : I am unwilling 
to leave the United States without expressing to 
Tour Excellency my regret at having been unable to 
make your acquaintance in Washington. Although 
taken to America by fatality, I hoped to employ 
my exile profitably in studying its great men; I 
would have liked also to study the manners and 



Digitized by 



Google 



::8 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 



institutions of a people who have made more con- 
quests by commerce and industry than we in Europe 
have made by arms. 

" I hoped, under the flegis of your protecting laws, 
to travel through a country which has excited my 
sympathy, since its history and prosperity are so 
closely united to French glory. An imperious duty- 
recalls me to the Old World. My mother is danger- 
ously ill, and no political consideration detaining me 
here, I am starting for England, whence I shall try 
to reach Switzerland. 

" It is with pleasure, Mr. President, that I enter 
into these details with you, who may have given 
credence to certain calumnious rumors designating 
me as under engagements to the French Govern- 
ment. Appreciating the attitude of the representa^ 
tives of a free country, I should be happy to have it 
well known that with the name I bear, it would be 
impossible for me to depart for a moment from the 
path laid down for me by my conscience, my honor, 
and my duty." 

June 12, 1837, Louis Napoleon embarked at New 
York for England, on the packet-boat George Wash- 
ington. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XVn 

SOBIB DAYS IN LONDON 

TOURING a voyage which lasted twenty-three 
"^^^ days, Louis Napoleon forgot his political 
dreams. He had now only one fixed idea: to see 
his mother alive. He wrote her this letter the day 
before landing on the coast of England : — 

" July 9. At sea. — My dear Mamma : The news I 
received concerning your health induced me to re- 
turn to Europe as soon as possible. The first packet 
was the Qeorge Washingtori, and I secured my berth 
at once. . . . On reaching London I intend to ask 
the Prussian minister for a passport to Switzerland, 
and claim his government's permission to remain 
there. I hope it will be granted ; but as I should be 
obliged to remain in London if they are cruel enough 
to forbid my going to take care of you, a sick woman, 
have the goodness to write me there in any case. 
You can well understand how impatient I am to 
know how you are. I dare not dwell on the happi- 
ness of seeing you so soon. Ah I how the thought 
of climbing the hill of Arenenberg sets my heart 
beating already. If Heaven permits me to be with 
you within a few weeks, I shall believe that all that 
has happened to me is a dream." 

170 



Digitized by 



Google 



180 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

The Prince landed the next day at Liverpool, 
where he posted this letter, and then went at once 
to London, where he wrote to King Louis: "My 
dear Father : Although I am still far away from you, 
yet as the ocean no longer divides us, it is pleasant 
to think that I can hear from you in a few days. 
The day I left New York I received a letter from 
you which gave me great pleasure, for the tenderness 
of a father and a mother console one for many things. 
... Of the seven months since I left Europe, I 
have spent five at sea. I hoped to see my Uncle 
Joseph here, but he left London as soon as he 
heard of my arrival. . . . You say my mother is a 
little better, but that nevertheless her malady is very 
serious. You also tell me that your own health is 
declining. Must I then have causes for sorrow and 
regret on every side? I am awaiting my passports 
here with impatience. If they are refused, I shall 
not know what to do. However, the object of my 
journey is so legitimate, that it seems impossible that 
any obstacle to it should be interposed." 

In the same letter, Louis Napoleon described the 
state of his mind in sombre colors: "If you knew, 
my dear father, how sad I am, alone amidst the tur- 
moil of London, alone amongst relatives who fly from 
me or enemies who suspect me ! My mother is dying, 
and I cannot bring her the consolations of a son ; my 
father is ill, and I cannot hope to see him. What 
have I done to be the pariah of Europe and my 
family ? I have carried the flag of Austerlitz for a 



Digitized by 



Google 



SOME DATS IN LONDON 181 

few minutes in a French city and offered myself in 
holocaust to the memory of the captive of Saint 
Helena. Ah I yes, it may be that you blame my 
conduct; but never refuse me your affection. That, 
alas I is all I have left ! " 

As soon as he arrived in London, Louis Napoleon 
tried to obtain a passport for Switzerland through 
the intermediation of the Austrian ambassador. 
Prince Esterhazy. The latter found no more press- 
ing business than to communicate this fact to the 
French ambassador, General Comte S^bastiani, after- 
wards marshal. July 11, the ambassador of King 
Louis Philippe wrote to Comte M0I6, Minister of 
Foreign Affairs: ^^ Louis Bonapai*te is in London. 
No proceeding on his part has as yet explained to 
me his presence in this country, and I was about 
to limit myself to giving you the news, when an 
interview I had to-day with Prince Esterhazy, fur- 
nished me with the information I desired. This am- 
bassador came to acquaint me with a visit he had 
received from Lady Dudley Stuart (daughter of 
Lucien Bonaparte), in which she solicited his inter- 
mediation with me. They wanted a passport, or 
rather, in case I would not be authorized to deliver 
it immediately, to obtain in the name of the King's 
Government, and by my intervention, a permission 
to pass through French territory in order to reach 
either Tuscany or Switzerland* I answered Prince 
Est«rhazy that I would not make such a request; 
that I might think proper to acquaint my govern- 



Digitized by 



Google 



182 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

ment with the projects of Louis Bonaparte, but that 
I did not think it my duty to become his interme- 
diary with Your Excellency. I added that to me it 
seemed unfitting for any government to show an 
interest in this person by intermeddling with his 
affairs. The Austrian ambassador was entirely of 
my way of thinking, and he will acquaint Lady 
Dudley with my refusal, which he understands and 
approves." 

The French Government no sooner heard of Louis 
Napoleon's presence on English soil than it became 
uneasy. Comte Mol^ replied as follows, July 19, to 
General S^bastiani: "I have received the despatch 
by which you do me the honor to inform me of the 
arrival of Louis Bonaparte in London, and the strange 
request transmitted to you on his part. I beg you 
to neglect no means of obtaining exact information 
of the proceedings of this young man, and his plans 
of travel. In case he should leave England, you 
will be so kind as to inform me at once, by a courier, 
and by telegraph, of the direction he may take." 

The ambassador replied by this despatch, on July 
21: "I have received the letter in which Your 
Excellency informs me of the just indignation with 
which the King's Government heard of the incon- 
ceivable request of Louis Bonaparte. I immediately 
put myself in communication with Lord John Russell 
""^osibtain the surveillance of the London police over 
the piwc-eedings of that young man, and have been 
promised that the King's ambassador shall be in- 



Digitized by 



Google 



80ME DATS IN LONDON 183 

formed of whatever may interest him in that par- 
ticular. None the less, I must remark to Your 
Excellency that police action in this country is 
insufficient, and that nothing is easier than to with- 
draw one's self from all investigation. I think 
that, even from Paris, means of surveillance might 
be suggested, which the English Government, I am 
sure, would second with all its energy. In any 
case. Your Excellency may rely on mine." 

Despairing of a passport from the French Em- 
bassy, the Prince tried to obtain one from that of 
Austria, or from the Prussian legation. But both 
Prince Esterhazy and Baron von Billow met him 
with an absolute refusal. 

On the other hand, he received the following 
letter from his mother, dated July 17: "My dear 
child: I am very happy to know you have at last 
returned to Europe. It is a consolation; for that 
America is at the end of the world! Every one 
here will be rejoiced to see you; and the canton 
says you are its citizen, and that if you once arrive, 
no one will have the right to send you away. You 
must come, then; but no one will give you a 
passport in your own name. The matter will not 
be easy; and yet France wishes to be kindly. 
M. Desportes has written me, in the name of 
General Gerard, that the Government would find 
it a very simple matter for you to come and take 
care of your mother, and that you would not be 
disturbed; but no authorization would be given. 



Digitized by 



Google 



184 LOma NAPOLEON 



because, in any case, they want to retain the means 
of banishing you, if you cause alarm. Austria will 
be the most kindly disposed; but you ought to 
ask nothing from Prussia but a simple visa. I am 
better, on the whole, but still very feeble ; and though 
I sleep again, I have no appetite. I do not walk yet 
They carry me out to take the air. Anyhow, your 
return will do me good, I hope. I embrace you very 
tenderly. I will not write any longer." 

Following his mother's advice, the Prince gave 
up the attempt to obtain a passport in his own 
name. He determined to make use of one given 
to a man named Robinson, in the United States; 
and after having it visaed by the Swiss consul at 
London, he attempted to outwit the English police 
and leave England without their knowledge. He 
succeeded in doing so. M. de Bourqueney, French 
charg^ d'affaires in the absence of General S^bastiani, 
wrote to Comte MoW: "London, July 31, 1837, 
7 P.M. — Sir F. Roe, chief of the London police, 
has just announced to me that all trace of Louis 
Bonaparte has been lost; he is thought to have 
started for the continent. Saturday, the 29th, he 
left the hotel where he had been staying. His 
luggage was taken to a saddler's, where he had 
recently bought a caniage. Post-horses had been 
demanded by the servant who brought the luggage, 
and the loaded carriage left London. While this 
pretended change of quarters was going on, Louis 
Bonaparte announced his departure for Richmond, 



Digitized by 



Google 



SOME DATS IN LONDON 186 

where he spent the night at an inn. Yesterday, 
Sunday, he came back from Richmond in a post- 
chaise. But he stopped at the first toll-gate outside 
of London. There he got into an omnibus. Since 
then, no one knows what has become of him. Sir 
F. Roe has no doubt that he rejoined his carriage 
at some distance from London. . . . The English 
police can give me no information as to the port at 
which he meant to embark." 

AngQst 8, Comte M0I6 wrote to M. de Bour- 
queney : " The contents of your despatches, as well 
as the information that reaches me from the Court 
of Baden, incline me to believe that Louis Bonaparte 
has now left England. I will tell you, for your guid- 
ance, that I have written to the King's ambassador 
in Switzerland to have patience until the Duchesse 
de Saint-Leu shall either die, or escape the imminent 
danger which all the reports that reach me agree 
in recognizing. The King, whose generosity is inex- 
haustible, is unwilling, notwithstanding the ingrati- 
tude and inconceivable conduct of Louis Bonaparte, 
that this young man should be torn from the arms 
of his dying mother. But when he has either 
regained or lost her, we shall not allow him to 
make Switzerland again the theatre of his intrigues, 
but will make an explicit demand that the Govern- 
ment of that country shall rid itself of so incon- 
venient and dangerous a guest. I confide these 
details to your prudence. You will understand 
what is confidential in them.'' 



Digitized by 



Google 



186 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

The French Government received the following 
information through a despatch from M. de Bacourt» 
Minister of France at Baden, under date of August 
10, 1837: "Louis Napoleon left London July 30, 
with a passport given him under the name of Robin- 
son. He landed at Rotterdam, and afterwards went 
up the Rhine in the ordinary steamboat as far as 
Mannheim. From there he went by way of Hechin- 
gen to Sigmaringen, where he arrived the 4th. He 
made a call on Madame the Princesse von Hohen- 
zoUern-Sigmaringen, the niece of Murat. She is the 
only person with whom he spoke at Sigmaringen, 
and she says she found him very much cast down 
and disgusted with the results of his foolish enter- 
pnse. 

The Princesse von Hohenzollem was mistaken. 
What depressed Louis Napoleon was not his failure 
at Strasburg, but the poignant anxiety caused him 
by his mother's ill health. August 4, at ten o'clock 
in the evening, he arrived at Arenenberg and threw 
himself into the arms of this beloved mother. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XVm 

THE DEATH OF QUEEN HOBTENSE 

T^HE Duchesse de SaintrLeu, as Queen Hortense 
^ had been called since the downfall of the Em- 
pire, was awaiting her son with the keenest impa- 
tience. Her health had been seriously affected for 
several months, and the doctors, although they did 
not tell her so, agreed in considering her condition 
hopeless. A very dangerous operation had been con- 
templated in the spring, and she wrote to her son, 
April 8, 1837: " My dear Son : They say I must sub- 
mit to a necessary operation. If it is not successful, 
I send you my blessing by this letter. We shall meet 
again, shall we not, in a better world, where you 
will put off coming to rejoin me as long as possible ; 
believe, too, that in quitting this one I regret noth- 
ing but you, but your dear affection, which alone has 
made me find here any charm. It will be a conso- 
lation for you, my dear, to think that your cares have 
rendered your mother as happy as it was possible for 
her to be. 

^^ Believe that one has always a clearnsighted and 
benevolent view of what one leaves here below ; but 
most surely that we shall meet again. Believe this 
sweet idea ; it is too necessary not to be true. That 

187 



Digitized by 



Google 



188 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

good Arese, I give him my blessing also, as to a 
son. I press you to my heart, my dear. I am very 
calm, very resigned, and I still hope we shall see each 
other again in this world. May the will of God be 
done. Your loving mother, Hortense." 

This letter was not sent, as the operation was not 
performed. Despairing of a cure, the doctors con- 
cluded to spare the invalid any useless suffering. 
The Queen wrote to her son, April 11 : " My dear 
child, I am going to tell you m3rself how I am. I 
am glad that they have given up the idea of an 
operation, for it would have been to run too many 
risks." From that time her condition continued to 
grow worse, and her son sorrowfully wondered 
whether God would accord him the grace of seeing 
her alive. With what emotion he remounted ^jhe 
hill of Arenenberg on the evening of August 4, 
1837, which he had left on tlie 25th of the preced- 
ing October for his fatal expedition to Strasburg. 
On that day, pretending he was going on a hunting 
party, he had quitted his mother, who had not the 
least suspicion of the audacious enterprise that he 
was risking. His mind was then full of hopeful 
illusions; and, with the naivete of a young man 
and the confidence of an illuminate, he fancied that 
within a few months his mother would meet him 
at the Tuileries, the triumphant master of France. 
And now behold him returning to Arenenberg de- 
feated, proscribed, humiliated, jeered at by all the 
world, and abandoned, almost disowned, by nearly 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE DEATH OF QUEEN H0BTEN8E 189 

eTeiy member of his family. But his mother still 
^was left him. The more unfortunate she knew him 
to be, the more she loved him. She had vowed never 
to say a word calculated to sadden or discourage 
him, but rather to elevate him in his own eyes and 
strengthen that confidence in himself and his star 
which in spite of his disillusions he still preserved. 
Of all the proofs of maternal love which he had 
received, this must have touched him most. His 
heart beat fast when he caught sight of Switzerland, 
his second country. He thanked Providence on 
finding himself once more on that hospitable soil. 
Once more he was to see his mother, but alas ! to 
see her altered, ill, on the verge of the tomb ; and his 
]oy was blended with an immense sadness. One can 
imagine with what effusion the son and the mother 
fell into each other's arms. 

At Arenenberg the Prince found three faithful 
adherents who had participated in the Strasburg 
affair, and been acquitted by the jury of Alsace, — 
MM. de Qu^relles, Parquin, and de Gricourt. M. 
Arese, Doctor Conneau, M. and Madame Vieillard 
were also the guests of Queen Hortense. Courtiers 
of exile and misfortune, all of them manifested an 
absolute fidelity to her and to her son. 

Louis Napoleon was closely watched by the French 
Government. The representatives of Louis Philippe 
in Switzerland and the grand-duchy of Baden re- 
ceived orders to neglect no means of ascertaining 
his least proceedings. 



Digitized by 



Google 



190 LOUIS NAPOLEON 



The Grand-duchess Stephanie of Baden, who 
a Beauharnais, had a strong affection for the Priiice, 
and showed great interest in him. But that very 
fact excited the suspicion of the powers, and she 
could not prevent the territory of the grand-duchy 
from being interdicted to the Prince. The Giand- 
duke's Minister of Foreign Affairs wrote to the 
Minister of France, September 22: ^^I have the sat- 
isfaction of informing you that the director of the 
Constance club has just notified Louis Bonaparte 
that under existing circumstances he can no longer 
be permitted to sojourn in the grand-duchy of Baden, 
especially at Constance, and that if he does not con- 
form to this decision, he must expect ulterior meas- 
ures, and attribute solely to himself the disagreeable 
consequences that may result." 

Louis Napoleon was an outlaw. The refuge af- 
forded him in Switzerland was soon to be contested^ 
and he well knew that as soon as his mother should 
breathe her last, French diplomacy would do its 
utmost to drive him from his second country. 

Queen Hortense had but a few more days to live. 
In September, when heavy rains had been succeeded 
by fine weather, a slight amelioration took place in 
her condition, and it became possible for her to spend 
two hours daily in the garden. But the skies soon 
clouded over. The equinoctial winds began to blow. 
The Queen suffered much, but always without com- 
plaining. M. Vieillard wrote, on September 15: 
^^ Nothing can give an idea of such angelic gentle- 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE DEATH OF QUEEN H0RTEN8E 191 

ness and patience. She takes absolutely nothing but 
a few grapes and a little wine and water. Ah ! well, 
when any one asks her how she is, she replies : ^ Not 
badly ; I am improving.' And she often has scarcely 
strength enough to say it." And on October 2: 
"The Queen is extremely ill; by to-morrow, prob- 
ably, this excellent woman will be dead. . . . She 
utters none but gentle and kindly words. . . . Her 
poor son never leaves her bedside. The sorrow of 
the Prince is profound, but calm and simple, like 
everything else about him, for he has no affec- 
tations." 

Even on her deathbed Queen Hortense retained 
the charm and attractiveness of which she had pos- 
sessed the secret all her life. She did not recognize 
her own condition until within a few hours of her 
death, and then, without betraying either fear or 
regret, she bade all her fiiends the most affecting 
farewells. In the night of October 4-6, she called 
her son, gave him her blessing, and tenderly em- 
braced him. Then she expressed her satisfaction 
with his private conduct, and all her maternal love. 
Seeing his tears, she recommended him to be calm 
and courageous. Afterwards, in broken words, she 
dwelt upon her affection for her countrymen, whom 
she described as ingrates. She spoke of her suffer- 
ings in 1815, when her country was invaded, and of 
the harshness with which the Government had sent 
her out of France when she went thither in 1836 to 
ask pardon for her son. Towards four o'clock in the 



Digitized by 



Google 



i 



192 LOUia NAPOLEON 



morning she sent for her friends and attendants: 
"Are you all there?" she asked, and when they 
had replied yes, she resumed: ^^ Adieu! adieu, my 
friends I" She asked Doctor Conneau to promise 
her that he would never quit Louis Napoleon, and 
with what fervent loyalty the doctor kept his promise 
is well known. In a dying voice the Queen mur- 
mured these words: ^^My friends, pray for me. I 
have never done harm to any one, and I hope that 
God will have mercy on me. Adieu, Louis!" Her 
son threw himself into her arms. She pressed him 
to her heart, and once more cried : " Adieu ! adieu ! " 
Then she fell back exhausted, her features assumed 
an angelic serenity, and her eyelids closed. Louis 
Napoleon bent over her, and in a voice he vainly 
tried to control, said to her : " Mother, do you recog- 
nize me? It is your son, your Louis, mother!" 
The djring woman made a last effort to speak and 
to open her eyes, but her lips were already cold, and 
her paralyzed eyelids could respond to her son's cry 
only by an imperceptible movement. An instant 
later she rendered her last sigh. It was a quarter 
past five in the morning. Her agony had lasted five 
hours. 

A Swiss journal, the Helvetia^ published these 
lines : " One must have witnessed an equally heart- 
rending scene to realize how horrible it was to see 
Queen Hortense, once crowned with so much honor 
and respect, dying to-day in exile, surrounded by a 
small number of friends, not one of whom had shared 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE DEATH OF QUEEN H0RTEN8E 198 

her happy days, and expiring in the arms of a son 
whom she leaves without a country or support/* 

All the inhabitants of the chftteau of Arenenberg 
and the neighborhood considered Queen Hortense as 
their sovereign. Her death excited universal regrets. 
Her funeral took place October 11, in the church of 
the village of Ermatingen. An immense crowd was 
present. From early morning, at Constance all pro- 
cnrable horses and vehicles had been put in requisi- 
tion. Barks crowded with people furrowed the 
lake, although the weather was bad. The Schaff- 
hausen road was thronged, as well as those which 
terminate at Ermatingen. The cofi&n, at first exposed 
in the chapel of the ch&teau, was borne on the shoul- 
ders of eight men to the church of Ermatingen. 
Louis Napoleon and Comte Tascher de la Pagerie, 
who had come from Munich, walked behind it. The 
clergy of the parish were followed by Protestant 
ministers, a deputation from the federal Diet, and all 
the inhabitants of the region. It was painful to see 
the afflicted son, although he preserved all his dignity 
of demeanor and sufficient self-control of himself to 
restrain his sobs. The ceremony was even more 
affecting than if it had taken place at Notre-Dame 
de Paris. The Queen had expressed a wish to be 
transported to France and placed in the same vault 
with her mother at Rueil. While awaiting the deci- 
sion of the French Government on this point, the 
body was placed in the chapel of the ch&teau of 
Arenenberg. 
o 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



194 LOUIS NAPOLEON 



The death of Queen Hortense produced an impres- 
sion in France, where this most charming woman 
had left many friends, even amongst the bitterest ad- 
versaries of the Empire. Madame Emile de Girardin 
wrote, October 18, in her Lettrea Pariaiennes in the 
Prease : " To be a woman and to die in exile, — 13 
not that a horrible destiny ? Poor Queen Hortense ! 
What an unhappy existence was hersl For a few- 
brilliant days, how many stormy ones ! For a little 
glory, how many tears ! And yet what woman better 
merited happiness I She had received from heaven 
all the gifts which make life cherished: she wa9 
beautiful, gracious, beloved; she possessed the charm, 
the secret, of attraction, an involuntary power which 
the throne does not give, and which exile did not 
take away ; she was good and generous, — so much 
for the enjoyments of the heart ; she was dreamy and 
inspired, — so much for the delights of the imagina- 
tion; she was adorned with every talent, — so much 
for the pleasures of pride. What fortunate elements, 
what treasures, what a beautiful lot, nature had pre- 
pared for her I Alas 1 a crown spoiled all. To die 
far from France, after twenty years of exile, is cruel. 
How she must have suffered! Ah, my God! her 
mother, whose fate excites so much pity, had a less 
sorrowful end ; happily, her husband. Emperor, had 
repudiated her before she was dethroned, and her 
tomb is here." 

The will of Queen Hortense was dated at Are- 
nenberg, April 8, 1837. She forgot none who was 



Digitized by 



Google 



THB DEATH OF QUEEN H0BTEN8E 195 

dear to her. She bequeathed souvenirs to her nieces, 
Josephine, princess royal of Sweden; Am^lie, Em- 
press of Brazil ; Theodolinda, princess of Leuchten- 
berg; Mathilde, daughter of King J^rdme; and Marie, 
princess of Baden. " I leave," said she, " to the dow- 
ager princess of HohenzoUem-Sigmaringen, who has 
always been a mother and friend to me, two jasper 
columns given me by Pope Pius VII. ... To my 
danghter-in-law, the Princesse Charlotte Napoleon, 
my little bracelets with the portraits of my two sons, 
and a bouquet of diamonds. ... I leave to Madame 
R^camier, in remembrance of the attention and inter- 
est she displayed towards me in Rome at the time of 
one of my most painful losses, a lace veil. I leave 
to the Government of the canton of Thurgau a gilded 
clock, which I would like them to place in the Great 
Council hall. May this souvenir remind them of 
the noble courage with which they have maintained 
a tranquil hospitality towards me in this canton.'' 
Many other persons received gifts or sums of money. 
These are the last sentences of the will: "May 
my husband give a thought to my memory, and know 
that my greatest regret is to have been unable to 
make him happy. 

"I have no political advice to give my son. I 
know that he understands his position and all the 
duties imposed upon him by his name. 

**I pardon all the sovereigns with whom I have 
had friendly relations, for the levity of their judg- 
ments on me. 



Digitized by 



Google 



196 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

^^1 pardon all ministers and charges d'affaires of 
the powers the falsity of the reports they have con* 
stantly made about me. 

"I pardon certain Frenchmen to whom I have 
been able to be useful the calumnies with which 
they have requited me. I pardon those who have 
credited them without examination, and I hope to 
live a little while in the memory of my dear com- 
patriots. 

^^ I thank those who surround me, as well as my 
attendants, for their careful solicitude, and I hope 
they will not forget me." 

In this testament, the dignity of the queen and 
the kindness of the woman are attested by the bit- 
terness of the prescript and the melancholy of the 
exile. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XIX 

A YEAB IN SWrrZERLAKD 

T^HE French Government hoped that Louis Bona- 
parte would retui-n to America immediately 
after his mother's death, and it was claimed that 
the Queen herself had so advised him. This rumor 
was contradicted by the Prince in the following 
words published in the Helvetia newspaper: "It is 
absolutely false that Queen Hortense, with her last 
breath, counselled her son to return to America." 
Louis Napoleon was to remain in Switzerland an- 
other year. 

The ambassador of France at Berne was at this 
time the eldest son of Marshal Lannes, the Due de 
Montebello, who was afterwards the ambassador of 
Napoleon III. at Saint Petersburg. He wrote, Octo- 
ber 26, to Comte Mole, Minister of Foreign AfEairs : 
"Everything seems to point to a determination on 
the part of Prince Louis not to leave Switzerland. 
The Duchesse de Saint-Leu was building a ch&teau 
at Gottlieben, which she intended for her son. The 
work has gone on with the same activity since her 
death. Nevertheless the Prince seems to be expect- 
ing that we shall take some measures to banish him 

197 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



198 LOUIS NAPOLEON 



from Switzerland. The prohibition forbidding^ him 
to pass the Badenese frontier is regarded as the 
prelude. This prohibition does not seem to be very 
rigorously observed, for I know that he goes to Con- 
stance very often. The goings and comings of the 
guests at Arenenberg are continual, and their cor- 
respondence with France very active." December 
15, 1837: ^^I have just learned this instant that 
Colonel Vaudrey is at Arenenberg. No one seems 
at all disturbed at the ch&teau, and they consider 
it certain that the government of Thurgau and all 
radical Switzerland would energetically refuse any 
demand for expulsion." January 16, 1838: '^It is 
the radical party and the press which have laid hold 
of the affair. Already they challenge us to venture 
on pushing it further. In this condition of things, 
nothing remains but for the King^s Government to 
make a demand couched in such terms that it will 
be impossible to doubt that we will carry it out to 
the utmost; and in that case we think we can 
answer for its success." January 19, 1838: "The 
Swiss press expresses itself concerning Prince Louis 
as if the Strasburg affair had not occurred, and in- 
dignantly attacks the French Government for mali- 
ciously troubling |tjiis Swiis citizen^ this burge88 of 
Thurgau in his solitude." 

The July monarchy entertained anxieties concern- 
ihg Louis Napoleon which the future has justified, 
and kept a watchful eye on his least proceedings. 
The Due de Montebello wrote again to Comte Mole, 



Digitized by 



Google 



A TEAS IN SWITZEBLAND 199 

January 26, 1838 : " Young Bonaparte has left Are- 
nenberg to establish himself at the chateau of Gott- 
heben, which was built by the Duchesse de Saint- 
Lieu, and which he has just completed and furnished 
with care. It seems certain that he has purchased 
Wolfsberg, Parquin's estate. He has just bought 
eighty thousand francs' worth of silverware, dishes, 
etc. The reunion of his accomplices is now com- 
plete. Persigny is among them. It even appears 
that he has been there for a long time, but has taken 
precautions to prevent his presence from becoming 
known." 

When the Prince went to install himself at 6ott- 
lieben, the people of the neighborhood gave him a 
reception which suggested the following reflections 
to the ambassador of King Louis Philippe (despatch 
to Comte Mol^, February 8, 1838): "The radical 
journals report that when Louis Bonaparte went to 
take possession of his new residence of Gottlieben, 
he found a triumphal arch erected on the road he 
had to pass over, and that the population received 
him with cries of Long live Napoleon ! They make 
a great fuss over these honors paid to a man who^ 
say they, has shown himself so worthy of the great 
name he bears that France did not dare to bring him 
to an open trials but preferred to cover its weakness 
with the mantle of cleTnency. If I repeat to you in 
this way. Count, the language of the journals, it is 
because they have more importance here than else- 
where, on account of their being nearly always the 



Digitized by 



Google 



200 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

organs of the men who direct the cantonal govern- 
ments." 

King Louis tried in vain to induce his son to re- 
nounce his dreams of ambition and glory. In vain 
he wrote to him : ^^ I conjure you hereafter to keep 
your mind at rest, and to make use of those eminent 
qualities with which Heaven has endowed you, not to 
pursue chimeras, but to seek in life only what is posi- 
tive." In vain the old King, disillusioned as to all 
things, appealed to religion and philosophy in order 
to recall to prudence an ardent and impetuous young 
man. " For my part," he added, " when I saw myself 
abandoned by all things and all men, I was unhappy 
and almost despairing up to the moment when I re- 
flected that in spite of this absolute denudation, one 
refuge yet remained to me ; and that refuge was God. 
In fact, what is there to fear when one can unite him- 
self to so powerful a support? I urge you then to do 
as I did, if your misfortunes and your premature ex- 
perience have sufficiently unsealed your eyes. Cor- 
dially relinquish politics and what are called the 
great affairs of the world to those who are obliged 
to concern themselves therewith, or who are so blind 
as to seek them, and try to extract some real enjoy- 
ment from this brief existence. But be sure that 
the greater part, I will even say nearly all, of the 
enjoyments which men generally seek are false and 
deceptive." Rarely does an old pilot, who has retired 
forever from the shore, succeed in discouraging a 
young navigator who is impatient to brave the tempest. 



Digitized by 



Google 



A YBAB, IN SWITZERLAND 201 

Louis Napoleon did all he could to render himself 
popular in Switzerland. Nearly every peasant in 
Thurgau had his portrait. May 20, 1838, he was 
present at a military dinner given in his honor in a 
tavern at ICreuzlingen by forty Swiss officers. June 
23, the annual meeting of the sharpshooters of the 
canton took place at Dissenhofen, and the Prince was 
nominated president. On that occasion he made a 
speech in German which ran as follows : " Marksmen 
and friends, it is my duty to express my gratitude to 
you for nominating me as president of our associ- 
ation. Some months have elapsed since the Swiss 
people were requested to expel one of their citizens, 
but they responded : ' We keep him I ' [All the mem- 
bers of the assembly shouted : ^^ Yes I yes I we keep 
him 1 "] Hence I have never feared being deserted by 
my fellow-citizens. For I place entire confidence in 
the people^s sense of justice, and truly, I have not 
deluded myself, since instead of banishing me, the 
men of Thurgau nominated me as a member of their 
Great Council. This distinction has keenly affected 
me, but I feel unable to accept it, taking into con- 
sideration the interests of the country which protects 
me. A year ago I resolved to devote myself to a 
great cause, and my devotion was looked upon as a 
mean and personal ambition. If I had entered a 
political assembly of Switzerland, the same fate would 
have befallen me ; my words would have been misin- 
terpreted, my intentions misunderstood, and conse- 
quently I should have found myself incapable of 



Digitized by 



Google 



202 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

being of use to you, and perhaps have drawn the most 
serious difficulties upon your canton. Hence it -wras 
my duty to refuse this dignity. I hope, however, 
that the citizens of Dissenhofen will not be the less 
friendly to me on that account, for I wish them to 
understand how highly I prize their esteem. Thej 
render homage to misfortune rather than to power. 
They are fearless and independent ; two fine qualities 
for a free people." 

The federal shooting-match was about to. open 
at Saint-Gall. The Prince sent the directors a 
fowling-piece inlaid with gold and silver as a prize 
for the winner of what was called the target of 
patriotism. July 8, 1888, Louis Napoleon made his 
formal entry at the federal shooting-match at the 
head of the Thurgau carbineers. On the 8th he 
returned to Gottlieben. 

At this very time Paris was occupied with one 
of the Prince's accomplices in the Strasburg affair, 
— M. Armand Laity. This former officer of artillery 
had published a brochure entitled : Relation historique 
des SvSnemenU du 30 Octobre^ 1836^ in the produc- 
tion of which Louis Napoleon had doubtless collabo- 
rated, and which was a fervid vindication of the 
abortive attempt. The Government was as excited 
by this publication as if it were a real danger. June 
21, 1888, the author was arrested and the brochure 
seized. The 28th, the Court of Peers, assembled 
in the council chamber, found an indictment against 
M. Laity, accused of an attack on the security of 



Digitized by 



Google 



A TEAR IN 8WITZEBLAND 208 

the State. July 10, be was condemned to five years' 
imprisonment and a fine of ten thousand francs. All 
the opposition journals found fault with this sentence. 
The National said: *^By a confusion of things and 
principles, which even the Restoration did not vent- 
ure to make in more serious circumstances, M. 
Laity's brochure has been construed into an attack. 
All the journals of the day protest against this 
sentence." July 2, Louis Napoleon sent his former 
accomplice a letter in which he said: ^^I am sure 
that with your noble character you will suffer with 
resignation for a popular cause. They will ask you 
where the Napoleonic party is. Answer that the 
party is nowhere, and the cause everywhere. The 
party is nowhere because our friends are not enlisted, 
but the cause has adherents everywhere, from the 
artisan's workshop to the King's council room, from 
the soldier's barrack to the marshal's palace. • • • 
Say that in authorizing you to make your publica- 
tion, my object was neither to disturb the tranquillity 
of France nor to re-kindle half-extinct passions, but 
to show myself to my fellow-citizens as I am, and 
not as I have been painted by a selfish hatred. But 
if the parties some day overthrow the existing power 
(the example of the last half-century permits the 
supposition), and if, habituated as they have been 
for twenty-three years to despise authority, they 
sap all the foundations of the social edifice, then 
perhaps the name of Napoleon would be an anchor 
of safety for all that is generous and truly patriotic 



Digitized by 



Google 



204 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

in France. It is with this motive that I maintain 
that the honor of the eagle of October 30 remains 
intact, in spite of its defeat, and that men should 
not take the nephew of the Emperor for an ordinair 
adventurer.'* 

The French Government was not satisfied with 
having M. Laity condemned by the Chamber of 
Peers. It oflScially demanded from Switzerland the 
expulsion of Louis Napoleon. July 26, Comte Mole 
wrote to the Due de Montebello: "The King has 
exhausted his clemency and kindness toward Louis 
Bonaparte. Instead of biinging him to trial after the 
Strasburg attempt, he sent him to America through 
respect for the name he bears. On learning of his 
return to Arenenberg, the King dwelt upon the 
thought of a dying mother towards whom her son 
wished to perform the last duties. Finally, when 
this son asked France to receive the remains of his 
mother, the King gave this permission. From that 
moment, Louis Bonaparte has not ceased to brag 
about his culpable schemes and his past attempts. 
His whole conduct proves his continual efforts to 
pick up their broken threads. Henceforward the 
King must put an end to a generosity which has no 
apparent effect but to encourage the audacity and 
folly of the very persons it has spared. These con- 
siderations, Duke, are of a sort to appeal to Vorort's 
mind, and convince all the honest inhabitants of 
Helvetia. On receipt of this despatch, you will 
have the goodness to bring its contents to the cog- 



Digitized by 



Google 



A TEAB Ur SWITZERLAND 206 

nizance of Yorort and remit to him the annexed 
note." This note, dated August 2, demanded the 
expulsion of the Prince. 

M. Thirria, in his remarkable work, Napoleon HI. 
— Avant V Empire^ has summed up very well the 
phases of the ensuing debate between the French 
and Swiss governments. Louis Napoleon had re- 
ceived, in 1832, the right of honoraiy citizenship in 
the canton of Thurgau. The Swiss regarded him 
as their fellow-citizen. King Louis Philippe's Gov- 
ernment, on the other hand, maintained that Article 
25 of the constitution of the canton of Thurgau 
provided that a foreigner cannot become a Swiss 
citizen until after renouncing his citizenship in the 
foreign state, and that Louis Napoleon had never 
renounced his title as a Frenchman. The Prince 
replied (letter of August 20 to the Grand Council 
of Thurgau) that France did not recognize him as 
such, since it condemned to perpetual banishment 
him and all members of the imperial family. Comte 
Mole, the King's Minister of Foreign Affairs, was 
irritated by such a response, and he wrote to the 
Due de Montebello, September 1 : " This vague and 
ambiguous declaration has every appearance of a 
subterfuge, well worthy assuredly of the man whose 
conduct after the event of Strasburg, and when the 
King had just exhausted in his regard the proof of 
a boundless clemency, makes it evident that he is 
a stranger to every noble sentiment, every generous 
inspiration." The Grand Council of Thurgau unani- 



Digitized by 



Google 



206 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

mously declared, August 22, that the demand for 
expulsion was inadmissible. September 3, the Diet 
decided that the several cantonal councils should be 
consulted, and adjourned the solution of the affair 
until October, 

Exasperated by this attitude of the Swiss, the 
French Government assembled an army corps on 
the frontier, whose leader. General Aymard, ad- 
dressed the following order of the day to his troops, 
September 8: '*Our turbulent neighbors will soon 
perceive, though perhaps too late, that instead of 
declamations and insults it would have been better 
for them to satisfy the just demands of France." 
Three days before, Louis Napoleon had addressed 
a letter to M. Anderwers, president of the Petty 
Council of Thurgau, in which he said: "Switzer- 
land demonstrated a month ago by her energetic 
protestations, and now by the decisions of the Grand 
Councils which have thus far assembled, that she 
was ready to make the greatest sacrifices in order 
to maintain her dignity and her rights. She has 
known how to do her duty as an independent na- 
tion; I shall know how to do mine and to remain 
faithful to the path of honor. I may be persecuted, 
but never disgraced. 

"The French Government having declared that 
the refusal of the Diet to comply with its demand 
would be the signal for a conflagration of which 
Switzerland might be the victim, nothing remains 
but for me to quit a country where my presence is 



Digitized by 



Google 



A TEAR IN 8WITZEBLAND 207 

the sabject of such unjust pretensions, and where it 
might also be the pretext for great disasters. 

"I pray you, therefore, Mr. Landamann, to 
announce to the federal director that I will go as 
soon as I have obtained from the different powers 
the passports I require in order to reach a place 
where I may find a secure asylum." 

The letter terminated thus: ^^I hope that this 
separation may not be eternal, and that a day will 
come when I may, without compromising the inter- 
ests of two nations which ought to remain united, 
regain the asylum where twenty years of sojourn 
and acquired rights had created for me a second 
country. Be, Mr. Landamann, the interpreter of 
my sentiments of gratitude toward the Councils. 
Only the thought of averting troubles from Swit- 
zerland could alleviate the regrets I experience in 
quitting her." 

Paris followed the phases of this curious affair 
with great attention. All the opposition journals 
agreed in blaming the Government of King Louis 
Philippe. The Courrier-Franfais said : " Up to now 
the public considered Prince Louis a madman ; the 
Ministry have almost made a hero of him." The 
Slide : " Our ministers have succeeded in covering 
themselves with ridicule by offering young Bona- 
parte an opportunity to interest France in his des- 
tiny which he has seized with equal generosity and 
seemliness." The Gazette de France^ the legitimist 
sheet: ** Honor to the federal Diet, to the Grand 



Digitized by 



Google 



208 Loma napoleon 

Council of Thurgau I Honor to M. Kern, who has 
at last brought conspicuously before the eyes of 
kings and peoples the fine motto of the Dugues- 
clins, the Bayards, the Bonchamps, the Talmonts, 
and the La Rochejacqueleins: Do what you oughts 
no matter what may happen! Honor to the brave 
and generous Helvetic nation which proclaims the 
authority of duty and the sacred rights of hos- 
pitality ! " 

The French Government awaited the departure of 
the Prince with extreme impatience. The Due de 
Montebello wrote to Comte Mol^, October 10 : ** Ac- 
cording to my private advices, Louis Napoleon does 
not intend to leave Switzerland before the 25th. I 
consider it indispensable, therefore, in order to obtain 
his prompt departure, that the military dispositions 
be maintained. The expense which each day's delay 
entails on Switzerland will exert the most powerful 
of all influences on public opinion ; and it is well, in 
the interests of the future, that Switzerland should 
not get out of the affair without its costing her 
something." Comte Mol^ replied, October 13: "I 
charge you to announce to President du Vorort that 
our troops will remain in their positions until Louis 
Bonaparte has quitted Switzerland." The French 
Government was finally reassured. A passport de- 
livei'ed for the Prince by the English minister, and 
visaed by the ministers of Prussia and Baden and the 
consul of Holland, was sent by the Directory to the 
Government of Thurgau, October 10. Four days 



Digitized by 



Google 



A YEAB IN aWlTZERLAND 209 

ciriterward, Louis Napoleon left Switzerland. The 
IDac de Montebello forwarded to M. Mol^ the fol- 
lowing letter, written by a person who had accom- 
panied the Prince as far as Constance: — 

"Constance, October 14, 1888. — The friends of 
t;he prince met to-day at Arenenberg to take leave 
of him. There were about thirty of them, as many 
from Ermatingen as from neighboring places. The 
Prince had wine served, made a short speech expres- 
sive of his hope for a speedy return, and entered his 
carriage about two o'clock. We were in eighteen or 
twenty little calashes which escorted him. He trav- 
elled with two carnages, one drawn by four and the 
other by two horses. He was alone with Persigny 
in the first one, and the second was occupied by his 
physician. Dr. Conneau, his valet Charles, and two 
other domestics. Persigny accompanied him to 
London. All the afternoon he was much afifected 
and often shed tears. At five minutes' distance from 
Constance he stopped the carriage and alighted, 
everybody following his example. All his escort 
gathered around him; again he spoke a few words 
of thanks and hope to meet again soon, shook hands 
with every one (there were about forty of us), got 
into his carriage again, and went on alone towards 
Constance, where M. de Bittendorf, Minister of For- 
eign Affairs of Baden, arrived at the same moment. 
They did not speak to each other." 

Reaching Constance at three o'clock, the Prince 
alighted at the Eagle Hotel, where he remained but 



Digitized by 



Google 



210 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

a short time. He crossed Germany, then Holland, 
and embarked at Rotterdam for England. Octo- 
ber 25, he was in London. The Q-azette de France 
made this reflection: **We should be glad to know 
what the Government gains by Prince Louis being 
in England instead of at Arenenberg. London is 
nearer Paris than Arenenberg." And in the Mom- 
ing Chronicle^ Lord Palmerston's organ, one could 
read : ^* One thing remains to be seen. Will any 
one address to Great Britain the threatening notes 
launched against the Helvetic cantons? Should 
that happen, Lord Melbourne's answer will be 
prompt." The French Government had not solved 
the question; it had merely displaced it. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XX 

TWO YEABS IN ENGLAND 

/^CTOBER 26, 1888, General Comte de S^bastiani, 
ambassador of France in England, made the 
following announcement, unaccompanied by any com- 
ment, to Comte Mole: >' Prince Louis Bonaparte 
arrived in London yesterday. He is stopping, as 
he did before, at Fenton's Hotel," The Prince re- 
mained in England neariy two years, leaving only to 
attempt his adventurous Boulogne expedition. 

Louis Napoleon was by nature essentially cosmo- 
politan. Speaking Italian, German, and English as 
well as if he had been bom in Italy, Germany, or 
England, he excelled in conforming to the customs 
and assimilating the characteristics of the inhabitants 
of every country to which the vicissitudes of his 
exile conducted him. In the Romagna, in 1831, he 
had thought, spoken, and acted like a carbonari. In 
the German cantons of Switzerland he had shown 
himself a democrat, a beer-drinker, a federal sharp- 
Bhooter, an officer of the Helvetic artillery, and an 
honest .Thurgau burgess. In England he was to 
assume the manners, sentiments, and language of a 
gentleman who was at once a student, a sportsman, 

211 



Digitized by 



Google 



212 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

a pleasurenseeker, frequenting fashionable clubs as 
well as libraries, fond of horses, races, and theatres, 
carrying on simultaneously, as many English states- 
men do, the most contradictory occupations, and dis- 
tinguishing himself equally in the exercises of the 
mind and those of the body ; he was attempting to 
gain the peerage of London as he had won the in- 
habitants of the canton of Thurgau. | 
The Prince installed himself in Carlton House, 
the property of Lord Cardigan, between St. James's 
park and Regent street, in the vicinity of the 
United Service, Athenaeum, and Travellers' clubs. 
He lived afterwards at Carlton Cardens, in a house 
belonging to Lord Ripon. The drawing-room was 
adorned with historic souvenirs : a bust of Napoleon 
by Canova ; a portrait of the Empress Josephine by 
Guerin ; another of Queen Hortense ; the tricolored 
scarf worn by General Bonaparte at the battle of 
the Pyramids; the coronation ring placed on the 
Emperor's finger by Pius VII. during the corona- 
tion ceremony; the ring which Napoleon put upon 
Josepliine's finger on the same occasion ; the talisman 
of Charlemagne, found in the tomb of the great 
Carlovingian emperor and given to Napoleon by the 
cathedral clergy. The Prince was surrounded by a 
small court, comprising Colonel Vaudrey, M. de 
Persigny, M. Bouffet de Montauban, formerly a 
colonel in the Colombian army, and Dr. Conneau. 
His retinue was not devoid of a certain luxury. 
The imperial eagle figured on the panels of his 



Digitized by 



Google 



TWO TEAB8 IN ENGLAND 218 

principal carriage. He had a pair of draught horses, 
a horse for his cab, and two saddle horses. The 
Court Circular^ the Morning Poat^ and the THmea 
gave detailed reports of his ways and actions in 
society. He did not go to Court, nor to the houses 
of the ministers, but he was in constant relations 
with the greatest lords and ladies in England. In 
1839 he took part in the famous tourney organized 
by Count Eglinton. The Marine Club having offered 
him a dinner, he said to his hosts : *^ I do not speak, 
gentlemen, of your military triumphs, for all your 
glorious memories are to me a cause for tears ; but I 
will speak with pleasure of the finer and more last- 
ing glory you have acquired by carrying civilization 
to a thousand barbarous peoples and the most distant 
regions." Thus it was that a Bonaparte found means 
to make himself agreeable to the English. 

Under his dandy-like appearance Louis Bonaparte 
cloaked an inveterate conspirator. The French em- 
bassy strongly suspected that he was concocting 
some new enterprise, but did not feel able to keep an 
effective watch upon him. General Sebastiani wrote 
to Comte Mole, February 10, 1889 : ^^ Louis Napoleon 
has just hired Lord Cardigan's house in London. I 
learn from various quarters that his partisans moot 
and cherish illusions there which he is only too well 
disposed to share. I have more than once already 
had occasion to call Your Excellency's attention to 
the impossibility of my exercising the slightest sur- 
veillance in this respect. The Minister of the In- 



Digitized by 



Google 



214 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

tenor will doubtless esteem it necessary to charge a 
special agent from this department with the affair." 
Some days after the fruitless attempt at(^trasburg 
the Prince had owned, when examined before the 
commission of inquiry of the Court of Peers 
(August 19, 1840), that he had been conspiring for 
a certain time. ^^ It is only about a year or a year 
and a half ago," said the accused, ^' that I began to 
maintain relations in France. So long as I believed 
that honor forbade me to undertake anything against 
the Government, I remained tranquil, but when I was 
persecuted in Switzerland under the pretext that I 
was conspiring, I began to occupy myself once more 
with my former projects." 

In Paris, the emissaries of the Prince were trying 
to bring him into relations with the republicans. 
M. Vieillard wrote to him, January 8, 1839 : " You 
doubtless know, Prince, that I was present, some 
time ago, at an interview with several leaders of the 
republican party. You know or you divine the 
object of it. It was a question of getting them to 
accept your intervention, and of demonstrating to 
them that in the interests of the country, of liberty 
and equality, it was useful and even necessary to 
have an indisputable name which, taking universal 
suffrage by storm, as one might say, would imme- 
diately get rid, by that very fact, of the fatal co-oper- 
ation of subordinate ambitions and thus avert the 
dangers of anarchy ; I think they are agreed on this 
point. They have adopted you, but on one condition ; 



Digitized by 



Google 



TWO TSAB8 m ENGLAND 215 

namely, that you shall recognize that whatever form 
of government is established, the head of it shall be 
responsible." 

Louis Napoleon himself made a long plea pro dome 
stLo, by publishing in London, at the commencement 
of 1840, a work he had composed under the title Les 
IdSes NapoU(mienne9. The author considered his 
book as the gospel of the democratic empire, as the 
testament of Napoleon I., and the programme of the 
reign of Napoleon III, In reading it, people won- 
dered whether it were the dream of a visionary or 
the work of a politician. A touch of illuminism, of 
mysticism, in its thought and style, reminded one 
of De Lammenais' Paroles dCun croyant. In the eyes 
of Louis Napoleon, Bonapartism was not an opinion, 
but a cult. The Emperor's nephew spoke of his 
uncle as if he were a supernatural being. ''Great 
men," said he, "have this in common with the di- 
vinity, that they never altogether die. Their spirit 
survives them, and the Napoleonic idea has sprung 
forth from the tomb of Saint Helena just as the 
morality of the Gospel has arisen triumphant in spite 
of the death on Calvary. The political faith, like 
the religious faith, has had its martyrs ; it will like- 
wise have its apostles and its empire." 

According to Louis Bonaparte, the Napoleonic 
idea consisted in combining the rights of the people 
with the principles of authority, in beholding in 
France none but brothers easy to reconcile, and in 
the different nations of Europe only membera of a 



Digitized by 



Google 



216 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

single great family. '^It levels mountains, crosses 
rivers, facilitates communications, and obliges peo- 
ples to give each other the hand. It employs all 
arms and all inteUigences. It goes into cabins, not 
with steiile declarations of the Rights of Man, but 
with the means necessary to quench the thirst of the 
poor man and appease his hunger, and, moreover, 
with a tale of glory to awaken his love of country. 
Humble without baseness, it knocks at every door, 
receives insults without hate or rancor, and never 
pauses in its march because it knows that tbe Ught 
precedes it and the peoples follow. Desirous above 
all to persuade and convince, it preaches concord 
and confidence and appeals more willingly to reason 
than to force. But if, driven to extremes by too 
many persecutions, it becomes the only hope of 
miserable populations and the last refuge of the 
glory and honor of the fatherland, then, resuming 
its helmet and its spear and ascending the countr}''s 
altar, it will say to the people, deceived by so many 
ministers and orators, what Saint Remigius said to 
the haughty Sicambrian : * Tear down thy false gods 
and thine images of clay; burn what thou hast 
adored, and adore what thou hast burned.' " 

The work at times assumed the lyric tone. The 
author exclaimed: *^ France of Henri IV., of Louis 
XIV., of Camot, of Napoleon, thou who wert always 
for the west of Europe the source of progress, thou 
who possessest the two mainstays of empire, the 
genius of the arts of peace and the genius of war, 



I 



Digitized by 



Google 



TWO YEAB8 IN ENGLAND 217 

hast thou no further mission to fulfil? Wilt thou 
exhaust thy forces and thine energy in ceaseless 
struggles with thy children? No; such cannot be 
thy destiny. Soon the day will come when, to govern 
thee, it will be necessary to comprehend that it is thy 
i61e to put thy sword of Brennus into all treaties on 
behalf of civilization." 

The programme developed in the Id6e9 NapoUth 
niennes was summed up in three points : alliance be- 
tween the Empire and democracy, free trade, the 
principle of nationalities. 

This was the conclusion: ^'Let us repeat it in 
concluding, the Napoleonic idea is not an idea of 
war, but a social, industrial, commercial, humanita- 
rian idea. If to some men it appears always sur- 
rounded by the lightning of combats, it is because 
it was, in fact, too long enveloped by the smoke 
of cannon and the cloud of battles. But now the 
clouds are dispelled, and we perceive athwart the 
glory of arms a civil glory more durable and grand. 

^^ May the spirit of the Emperor rest then in peace. 
His memory will wax greater every day. Each wave 
that breaks against the rock of Saint Helena brings 
with it a breath of Europe, a homage rendered to 
his memory, a regret to his ashes, and the echo of 
Longwood repeated above his coffin : The free peoples 
labor everywhere to re-commence thy work.'' 

A few days after the IdSes NapolSoniennes^ there 
appeared in England another work, unsigned, but 
written by M. de Persigny, and entitled : Lettres de 



Digitized by 



Google 



218 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

LondreSy Visite au Prince Louis. Louis Napoleon 
already had fanatics. In the front rank of them 
figured M. de Persigny, at once a dreamer and a 
man of action, with the manners of a conspirator 
and the intuitions of a seer. Few persons have com- 
bined in the same degree the genius of initiative and 
the gift of prophecy. The Letters from London was 
a skilful puff. The author made a portrait of Louis 
Napoleon which was equally flattering to mind and 
body. He waxed enthusiastic over *'the imposing 
haughtiness of this Roman profile whose lines, so 
pure and noble, so solemn even, are like the signet 
of great destinies." And he added: " What especially 
excites interest is that indefinable tinge of melancholy 
and meditation spread over his whole person which 
reveals the noble sorrows of the exile. The sombre 
tints of his physiognomy indicate an energetic nature; 
his daring mien, his glance at once keen and thought- 
ful, everything about him, shows one of those excep- 
tional natures, those lofty souls which are nourished 
by a preoccupation in great things, and which alone 
are able to accomplish them. All men who have 
played a great part in history have had secret and 
mysterious personal attractions which inspire devo- 
tion, enchain the will, and fascinate the masses." 

The propaganda began to be visible simultaneously 
in Paris and London. The prince sold the ch&teau 
of Arenenberg in order to subsidize, in 1839, two 
Parisian journals : the Commerce^ directed by MM. 
Mocquard and Mauguin, and the Capitole^ one of 



Digitized by 



Google 



TWO TEARS IN ENGLAND 219 

whose editors was M. Paul Merruan, who, under the 
Second Empire, was secretary general of Baron Hauss- 
mann at the prefecture of the Seine. The founder of 
this last sheet was M. de Crouy-Chanel, who received 
one hundred and forty thousand francs from the 
Prince, a very considerable sum for the modest fortune 
of the pretender, but not enough to keep the jour- 
nal alive more than six months. Two Bonapartist 
clubs were established in Paris: the Cotillion Club, 
to which belonged, among other ladies, Mesdemoi- 
selles de Salvage, de FaveroUes, Regnault de Saint- 
Jean d'Ang^ly, de Qu^relles, Gordon; and the Old 
Soldiers^ Cluh^ composed of General de Montholon, 
MM. de Vaudoncourt, Voisin, Laborde, Bouffet de 
Montaubon, Dumoulin, General Piat, etc. 

The French Embassy at London did not watch 
the intrigues of the Prince. M. Guizot, who had 
replaced General S^bastiani as ambassador, devoted 
himself entirely to grand diplomatic speculations 
on the Eastern question. The eminent statesman 
thought more about Mehemet Ali than about Louis 
Napoleon. 

Meanwhile, all France was exciting itself about 
the approaching return of the Emperor's remains. 
May 12, 1840, Comte de R^musat, without any pre- 
vious notification of such a communication, had laid 
before the Chamber of Deputies an order of credit 
for one million, in order to bring the ashes of 
Napoleon from Saint Helena to Paris. July 7, the 
frigate BelU'Poule^ under command of one of Louis 



Digitized by 



Google 



220 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

Philippe's SODS, Prince de Joinville, had sailed for 
Saint Helena. Never had the memory of the hero of 
Austerlitz been the object of such homage. Never 
had the Napoleonic legend, propagated by the author 
of the HiBtoire du Oonsviat et de V Empire^ M. Thiere, 
then president of the ministerial council, provoked 
a like infatuation. The nephew of him of whom 
M. R^musat had just said, '^He was Emperor and 
King, he was the legitimate sovereign of our coun- 
try," thought the hour had come for striking a new 
blow. A skilled conspirator, he found means to 
conceal his proceedings, not merely from the Em- 
bassy of France, but also from the English Govern- 
ment. 

We read in a despatch from the embassy (August 7, 
1840) : " One must have lived in England a long 
time to be convinced that such an enterprise as that 
of Louis Napoleon can be arranged and completed 
in the port of London without the least official 
knowledge of it reaching the English Government. 
That is the truth, however, and it is my conviction 
that Lord Normanby, I will not say upon a formal 
notice, but on a mere suspicion, would not have 
lost a moment in informing the French Government 
through its embassy at London. The embassy itself 
has several times warned the King's Government of 
its absolute inability to exercise surveillance here 
over the plots of refugees of every shade. But it 
believed that there were active and loyal agents in 
London who were especially charged to attach them- 



Digitized by 



Google 



TWO TEARS IN ENGLAND 221 

selves to the Prince. One only of these agents had 
put himself in relations with the embassy, and he 
transmitted through it his letters to the Department 
of the Interior. Yesterday I stUl had in my hand 
the third edition of the Morning Poat^ announcing 
the debarkation at Boulogne, when a letter from 
this agent was sent to me for the Minister of the 
Interior. It opened with these words : 'Prince Louis 
has given up all manner of attempt at landing.' 
I leave Your Excellency to judge the value of such 
information as we could extract from this source, 
the only one open to us." The Prince had hired 
from the Commercial Company of Steam Navigation, 
under an assumed name, the boat Udinburgh Castle^ 
under the pretext of an excursion along the coast of 
Scotland. August 4, he and his accomplices em- 
barked on this vessel. On the 6th they were before 
Boulogne. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XXI 

BOULOGNE 

A LEXIS DE TOCQUEVILLE has written in 
his Souvenirs apropos of Louis Napoleon: 
" One may say, however, that it was his folly rather 
than his reason which, thanks to circumstances, con- 
stituted his success and his power; for the world is 
a curious stage. There are moments when the worst 
plays produced upon it succeed the best." It is cer- 
tain that the ill-concerted scheme of Boulogne was a 
poor performance, and that its failure was complete ; 
but perhaps, without this sorry adventure, Louis 
Bonaparte would never have been Napoleon III. 

The conspirator of Strasburg and Boulogne was 
haunted uot simply by visions of the French Empire, 
but by those of the Roman Empire as well. He 
said to himself that Napoleon had been a Csesar, and 
he would be an Augustus. This passage from Ver- 
tot's RSvolutions romaines^ cited by M. de Persigfny 
in his Leitres de Londres^ had particularly impressed 
him: "Caesar's young nephew is at ApoUonia, on 
the coast of Epirus, where he is finishing his studies 
and exercises and shedding abundant tears over his 
uncle's death. Banished far from Rome, he languishes 

222 



Digitized by 



Google 



BOULOGNE 228 



a piej to sadness and regrets ; but his ardent soul 
longs to avenge the outi^aged memory of his uncle, 
and presently by a public act he will reveal the ob- 
ject of his ambition to the world. His relations and 
friends entreat him to remain in exile. But young 
Octavius rejects these pusillanimous counsels; he 
declares that he would a thousand times rather die 
than renounce the great name and the glory of 
Csesar. Condemned by iniquitous laws, he does 
not fear to brave them and to start for Rome. One 
day he arrives on the coast of Brindisi and lands 
near the little town of Lupia, without other escort 
than his servants and several of his friends, but 
sustained by the great name of Caesar, which alone 
will presently give him whole legions and armies. 
And, in fact, no sooner have the officers and soldiers 
of Brindisi learned that the nephew of their former 
general is near their walls than they flock out to 
meet him, and after giving him their fealty, intro- 
duce him into the place, of which they make him 
master. This first success is but ephemeral; it is 
soon succeeded by pains and tribulations, but after 
all it was there and in that way that the great des- 
tiny of Caesar's nephew began." The debarkation 
near Boulogne was to be the imitation of the debarka- 
tion near Lupia, and Louis Napoleon was to take 
Octavius as his model. 

The companions of the Prince for the Boulogne 
expedition numbered about sixty. Among them 
figured several former officers, — Colonel Vaudrey 



Digitized by 



Google 



224 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

and Commander Parquin^ both of whom had alreadj 
taken part in the Strasburg affair, Colonel* Voisin, 
the commander of M^sonan and the highest in lank. 
General de Montholon, Napoleon's companion in 
captivity at Saint Helena. We cite also among those 
who took part in the expedition M. de Peisigny, the 
Vicomte de Qu^relles, M. Bataille, M. Bachon, Dr. 
Conneau, M. Bonffet de Montauban, and M. Bnxe, 
the Prince's foster brother. To this little group 
were added some thirty discharged soldiers who had 
been engaged in France in the quality of domestics. 
A Parisian old-clothes dealer had sold them uniforms. 
Dr. Conneau had bought a press and printed with 
his own hand the different proclamations, signed 
" Napoleon, " which were to be issued in France. The 
first of them, which was addressed to the army, was 
worded thus : " Soldiers 1 France was made to com- 
mand, and she is obeying. You are the ^lite of the 
people, and you are treated like a vile herd. You 
have asked what has become of the eagles of Austerlitz 
and Jena. Behold those eagles ! I bring them back 
to you. With them, you will have glory, honor, fort- 
une. Soldiers I the great shade of the Emperor 
Napoleon speaks to you by my voice. Soldiers I to 
arms." In another proclamation, the Prince said to 
the French people : " Banished from my country, if I 
alone were unhappy, I would not complain ; but the 
glory and honor of the country are banished as well 
as I. To-day, as I did thi-ee years ago, I come to 
devote myself to the popular cause. Chance made 



Digitized by 



Google 



BOULOGNE 226 



me fail at Strasburg; the Alsatian jury proved to me 

tli&t I had not deceived myself And all of 

yoxi^ poor and laborious classes, remember that it 
waa from amongst you that Napoleon selected his 
lieutenants, his marshals, his ministers, his princes, 
his friends. . . . Frenchmen, I see before me the 
brilliant future of the fatherland. I feel behind me 
tlie spirit of the Emperor, which urges me onward." 
Then comes a decree ejiacting that the dynasty of the 
Orleans Bourbons has ceased to reign, that the 
Cliamber of Peers and the Chamber of Deputies are 
dissolved, that a national Congress shall be con- 
voked immediately upon the arrival of the Prince 
in Paris, that M. Thiers is appointed president of 
the provisional government and Marshal Clausel 
commander-in-chief of the troops assembled at Paris ; 
lastly, that all officera, non-commissioned officers, 
and soldiers who will display their sympathy for 
the national cause shall receive a striking reward 
in the name of the country. 

August 8, 1840, all the stores had been taken 
aboard the Edinlmrgh Castle^ lying in the port of 
London. They comprised money, munitions, two 
carriages, chests of uniforms, baskets of wine and 
liqueurs, nine horses, and a live eagle. On the 
morning of the 4th the Prince went on board to pick 
up his accomplices at different places, the little band 
having separated so as not to attract the attention of 
the English authorities. The vessel did not go 
direct to its destination. It proceeded by long tacks, 

Q 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



226 LOUia NAPOLEON 

and it waa not until the 6th of August, after mid- 
night, that it anchored a quarter of a league iiwa. 
the coast, opposite Vimereux, a little port about 
four kilometres north of Boulogne. 

The present conspiracy presented even fewer 
chances of success than that of Strasburg. There, 
Louis Bonaparte could at least rely on the com- 
mander of one of the regiments, Colonel Vaudrej. 
At Boulogne his only accomplice was a single officer 
of the garrison. Lieutenant Aladenize, of the 42d 
of the line. The Prince fancied that this lieutenant 
would suffice to gain the entire regiment ; that after- 
wards he would go to Lille, followed by General 
Magnan, commanding the department of the North; 
and that, received wherever he went by the acclama- 
tions of the troops and the population, he would 
march in triumph as far as Paris. All illusions, to 
be dispelled both cruelly and soon I The game was 
lost even before it was begun. Never has an enter- 
prise made a more lamentable failure. 

Between two and three o'clock in the morning, a 
yawl pushed off from the vessel and made four suc- 
cessive trips in order to land the entire personnel 
of the expedition. Some customhouse officers came 
up. In spite of all persuasions and promises of 
money, they refused to join the conspirators. The 
latter went on their way, and arrived at Boulogne 
about five o'clock in the morning. They received 
their first check on D' Alton place, where a post 
comprising a sergeant and four men refused, as the 



Digitized by 



Google 



BOULOGNE 227 



customhouse officers had done, their participation in 
the plot. They reached the barracks of the 42d of 
the line. Seconded by Lieutenant Aladenize, the 
I*rince endeavored to gain the soldiers over. Cries 
of "Long live the Emperor 1" resounded. But 
Oaptain Puygelier shouted: "Soldiers, they are 
deceiving you. Long live the Kingl" And he 
succeeded in ejecting the conspirators from the bar- 
racks, the doors of which he closed. Then the 
Prince and his accomplices essayed to rouse the 
people, but with no better success. After a vain 
attempt to enter the ch&teau, they determined to go 
to the Grand Army column, situated about a kilo- 
metre from the city. Some one climbed to the top 
of it and raised the imperial standard. But a de- 
tachment of the 42d of the line appeared and put the 
conspirators to flight. The Prince wanted to kill 
himself at the foot of the column, but was prevented 
by his friends, who took him with them. A majority 
of the confederates, pursued by the soldiers and the 
national guard, gained the shore and were arrested 
there. The Prince and several others jumped into 
the sea in hopes of swimming to their yawl. But 
the soldiers and national guards fired at them point 
blank. The Prince was struck by a ball, which was 
lost in his uniform. M. Viengiki was grievously 
wounded. Colonel Voisin received two balls. Cap- 
tain d'Hunio was drowned. M. Faure was killed. 
The lieutenant of the post, M. Pollet, got into a 
boat with five men and two gendarmes, and picked 



Digitized by 



Google 



228 LOUia NAPOLEON 

up the Prince and other swimmers exhausted by 
fatigue, among whom were M. de Persigny, Colonel 
Voisin, Dr. Conneau, and M. de M^sonan. The 
Prince was landed and taken in a carriage to the 
chftteau, where he was permitted to go to bed at 
once. All the conspirators were prisoners. It wu 
eight o'clock in the morning. The affair had lasted 
about three hours. The sub-prefect sent the follow- 
ing despatch to the Minister of the Interior: ^^ Louis 
Bonaparte is arrested. He has just been transferred 
to the ch&teau, where he will be well guarded. The 
conduct of the people, the national guard, and the 
troops of the line has been admirable." 

M. Guizot had quitted London August 6, leaving 
the direction of the embassy to Baron de Bourquenej, 
who became, under the reign of Napoleon III., am- 
bassador at Vienna and second plenipotentiary of 
France at the Congress of Paris. The latter wrote 
to M. Mole, August 7: "The great event of yester- 
day was the news of Louis Napoleon's landing at 
Boulogne. The reports came by express to the 
Morning Post^ which has published a third edition. 
The first impression produced was that of absolute 
disbelief in the folly of such an enterprise, and in 
society, where I thought it my duty to appear in the 
evening, if only to display the most profound con- 
tempt for so absurd an attempt, I met none but 
those who were convinced that the news was a mere 
speculation in stocks. To-night the details have 
arrived." Before Prince Louis left England a rumor 



Digitized by 



Google 



BOULOGNE 229 



had been put in circulation that he had seen Lord 
Palxneiston. The latter had the rumor denied by 
the ministerial organ, the Globe. He said, more- 
over, to M. de Bourqueney : "You know the freedom 
of EInglish official manners, and you know that I and 
my colleagues could have given a rendezvous to 
Louis Napoleon, met him accidentally at the house 
of a third party, in short, have had any sort of for- 
tuitous or social relations with him. Well! there 
baB been nothing of the sort. I npear to you upon 
my honor that we have not seen the face of Louis 
Napoleon or any one of the adventurers surrounding 
him. It is plain to me that the news of a visit, 
made or received, was invented here and trans- 
mitted to the French journals, either to accredit the 
lie of there being some indirect support, or else to 
embitter and compromise the relations of our two 
governments." The defeated man of Boulogne was 
disowned by all statesmen, whether foreigners or 
Frenchmen. 

M. Guizot relates in his Memoirs that on arriv- 
ing, August 7, at the ch&teau d'Eu, he found the 
King, M. Thiers, and all their circle at once very 
animated and very tranquil concerning what had 
occurred. "They beheld the simultaneous explo- 
sion and conclusion of the Bonapartist mancBuvres ; 
they jeered at and were amazed by them. What 
an odd spectacle, said they, Louis Napoleon swim- 
ming out to regain a wretched yawl under fire from 
the national guard of Boulogne, while the son of the 



Digitized by 



Google 



280 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

King and two French frigates are sailing across the 
ocean in search of what remains of the Emperor 
Napoleon at Saint Helena 1" 

At Paris, the journals received the adventure of 
Boulogne with contemptuous scorn. Here is Tvhat 
might be read, August 8, in three of the principal 
organs of public opinion. 

The Journal dea D4baU : " This outdoes comedy. 
Madmen are not killed, but they are put in prison." 

The Constitutionnel : " In this miserable affair the 
odious vies with the absurd. Louis Bonaparte will 
have the shame of being only a grotesque criminal." 

The Presse : " The son of the ex-King of Holland 
has no more mind than heart. He is not even the 
leader of a party, but only the wretched caricature of 
one. 

The foreign journals were not more indulgent. 
The correspondent of the Times wrote : " I have just 
seen Louis Napoleon. The poor devil is in a sorry 
plight. He failed to drown himself, and the bullets 
pressed him hard. If he had received one it would, 
after all, have been the best end for such an unlucky 
imbecile." None but the radical sheets of Paris, 
such as the National^ and Louis Blanc^s journal, the 
Revue du Progres^ affected to shelter the defeated 
man under their rather supercilious protection. 

There was also a woman who raised her voice, not 
to justify the Prince, but to plead extenuating cir- 
cumstances in his favor. This was Madame Emile 
de Girardin. She wrote in one of her Lettres pari- 



Digitized by 



Google 



BOULOGNE 231 



nennes^ then very much in vogue: "Unhappy pro- 
script I he wished to conquer France to have at least 
the right to visit it; and have we not reason to say, 
it is not a throne he asks for, hut a countiy? But 
being unahle to know France as it is, he thought he 
could judge of it by means of those who claim to 
represent it and express its mind; he studied it in 
our patriotic journals, and this dangerous study has 
caused his mistakes and his misfortunes." Madame 
de Girardin concluded thus : " Eh I what, all the jour- 
nals of France have been shrieking for two years to 
this exile! — 'France is perishing in slavery; it is 
ruined, despised, dishonored, despairing, betrayed, 
sold, lost I ' And now they dare to find him guilty 
for coming to its rescue 1 Alas I they are right, 
for in politics it is a crime to listen to impostors 
twice." 

The Prince was transferred from Boulogne to 
the fortress of Ham, where he arrived August 9. 
The same day, a royal ordinance handed him and his 
confederates over to the jurisdiction of the Chamber 
of Peers. Most of the journals blamed this decision 
and maintained that the affair should have been 
brought before a jury. But the Journal des DShaU 
said: "We are aware that as a pretender to the 
throne M. Louis Bonaparte is ridiculous in the eyes 
of everybody; as a prisoner, it is perhaps not im- 
possible that the nephew of the Emperor might find 
another Strasburg jury; that is a risk which, how- 
ever improbable it seems, is one to which the Gov- 



Digitized by 



Google 



282 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

ernment would be mad and guilty to expose itself." 
The Prince, after haying remained for three days in 
the citadel of Ham, was taken to Paris, where he 
arrived in the night of August 12-13, and was in- 
carcerated in the Conciergerie. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XXII 

THE GONCIERGSBI£ 

"VTAPOLEON III. often said to great foreign 
personages who wished to see Paris: "Go to 
the Conciergerie ; it is very interesting." He had 
been a prisoner there himself, and retained an in- 
effaceable recollection of it. If, in fact, there is a 
spot in the world adapted to inspire philosophical 
reflections on the vicissitudes of fate, it is certainly 
that ancient palace of Saint Louis, the vaults of 
which once served as a foundation to the high quad- 
rangular tower from which was held every fief of the 
realm, and which has become a place of anguish and 
of terror. For a century the martyrology of our his- 
tory is inscribed upon its fatal stones. All dynasties 
and all parties have had their victims there. The 
eldest branch of the Bourbons has been represented 
by Marie Antoinette and Madame Elisabeth; the 
younger by Philippe Egalit^ ; the Empire by Louis 
Napoleon; the Republic by the Girondins, Madame 
Roland, Robespierre, and many others, republicans 
or royalists, who laid their heads upon the scaffold. 
Louis Napoleon's situation at the Conciergerie 
was painful. What a bitter disillusion! What a 



Digitized by 



Google 



284 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

distance between the dream and the reality! To 
imagine a triumphant entry into the Tuileries, and 
to be led a prisoner into the dungeon of Fieschil 
To dream of acclamations, fanfares, hosannahs^ 
transports of enthusiasm, and awake to nothings but 
invectives, jests, and sarcasms! Armed as he was 
against the blows of fortune, the captive found it 
hard to struggle with discouragement. This tran- 
scendently audacious man of action had a dreamy 
and poetic side. Andr^ Ch^nier, who likewise Jiad 
been a prisoner in the Conciergerie, had composed 
these verses there a few moments before leaving it 
for the scaffold : — 

Comme un dernier rayon, comme un dernier zepkyre^ 

Anime la Jin d*un beau jour, 
Au pied de Vechafaud, fessaie encore ma lyi'e^ 

Peut-itre est-ce hientot mon tour; 
Peut-itre avant que Vkeure en cercle promenee 

Ait pose' 8ur V-mail brillant, 
Dans les soixante pas ou sa route est bomde, 

Son pied sonore et vigilant, 
Le sommeil du tombeau pressera ma paupihre. 

Avant que de ses deux moities, 
Le vers que je commence ait atteint la dermere, 

Peut-etre en ces murs effrayes 
Le messager de mort, noir recruteur des ombres, 

Escort^ d*infames soldats, 
Remplira de mon nom ces longs corridors sombres.^ 

^ As a lingering ray, as a lingering breeze, — The close of a fair 
day revive, — At the scaffold's foot on my lyre I seize, — Perhaps 
my turn may soon arrive. — For tlie circling hour may not yet 
have placed — Upon the shining dial plate — His resonant, vigilant 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE CONCIEBGERIE 285 

In his gloomy dungeon Louis Napoleon thought 
of the poet Schiller, whose works he knew by heart, 
and on the 18th of August, 1840, he translated into 
French prose the celebrated poem called The Ideal. 
Here are some fragments of this translation : — 

"Oh I happy period of my youth, wilt thou leave 
me never to retiu-n? Wilt thou pitilessly take to 
flight with thy joys and thy sorrows, with thy sub- 
lime illusions ? Can nothing arrest thee in thy flight ? 
Are thy billows to lose themselves irrevocably in the 
night of eternity? The brilliant stars which illu- 
mined my entry into life have lost their lustre ; the 
ideal which dilated my heart, inebriated with hope, 
has fled away. It is annihilated, that sweet belief 
in beings created by my imagination ; those dreams 
once so fair, so divine, have fallen a prey to the sad 
reality!" 

In this poem of Schiller's how many things are 
suggestive of the vexations and disenchantments of 
the prisoner! "With an immense effort ray con- 
tracted breast dilated in an immense circle, and I 
wished to enter life by words and actions, by illu- 
sion as well as by sensation. How great was this 
world, so long as it had not unfolded before my 
eyes! But how few things I have seen expand; 

foot, or have paced— The sixty steps ordained by fate — Ere the 
sleep of the grave o'er my eyelids has passed. — Before of its two 
moieties, — The line I commence has attained to the laat, — These 
frighted walls my name may seize, — Along the sombre corridors 
sounded — By the herald of death, dark recruiter of souls, — By 
soldiers infamous surrounded. 



Digitized by 



Google 



286 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

and those few, how little and how mean thej 
were I" 

The defeated man of Strasburg and Boulogne 
recognized himself in these lines: ^With -whsX 
audacity, transported by what noble ardor, the young 
man launched into life when the delirium of his 
dreams rendered him happy and no care had as yet 
put a barrier to his impetuosity 1 The lofty flight 
of projects carried him to the summit of the firma- 
ment; nothing was so distant that in his intoxica- 
tion he thought himself unable to attain it." 

The prisoner of the Conciergerie exclaimed with 
Schiller: "I have seen the sacred crown of glory 
withering on commonplace foreheads. Alas I the 
happy time of love has had but a brief springtime, 
and my road becomes more and more deserted. The 
silence increases, and hope now scarcely throws a 
feeble lustre across my obscure path." 

Louis Napoleon had one consolation. Knowing 
him to be so unhappy, his father, although he blamed 
him, sent him a token of sympathy. Then the pris- 
oner wrote this letter: "At the Conciergerie, Sep- 
tember 6, 1840. — My dear father, I have not yet 
written you, because I was afraid of causing you 
distress. But to-day, when I learn what interest 
you have manifested in me, I come to thank you and 
to ask your blessing as the only thing which now 
has any value for me. My sweetest consolation in 
misfortune is to hope that your thoughts sometimes 
incline towards me. I shall endure to the end with 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE CONCIERQERIE 287 

courage the fate which awaits me, and, proud of my 
self-imposed mission, I will always show myself 
worthy of the name I bear, and of your affection." 

Some days later, Louis Napoleon, still in his 
prison, received a visit which greatly moved him. 
Madame R^camier, although she had not kept up 
any personal relations with the Prince since the 
journey she made to Arenenberg in 1832, was sum- 
moned to appear before a magistrate on the occasion 
of the Boulogne affair, and subjected to an examina- 
tion. This did not prevent her concerning herself 
about the captive. She asked and obtained permis- 
sion to see him. The "permit to communicate with 
Prince Louis Bonaparte '' was dated September 12, 
1840, and authorized two visits. Madame R^camier 
made only one. The Prince was much affected by 
the interest manifested in him by this good and 
generous woman. He thanked her cordially, and on 
her departure accompanied her as far as the officials 
would allow. 

The future sovereign of France retained his faith 
in his star even in the Conciergerie. To be sum- 
moned before men whom his uncle had loaded with 
benefits did not displease him. The Capitole^ the 
Bonapartist journal, said: ^^Can one imagine the 
nephew of the Emperor seated on the bench of 
the accused in presence of two hundred creatures 
of the Empire, each one of whom he might remind 
I of ten or a dozen oaths taken to his dynasty, and 
as many benefits received from Napoleonic munifi- 



Digitized by 



Google 



238 LOU 18 NAPOLEON 

cence? Can one fancy, for example, M. Pasquiex 
the greatest dignitary of the peerage, reminding tin 
illustrious accused of the sanctity of an oath anc 
the claims of gratitude? M. Pasquier, the auditoi 
of the Council of State, the master of requests, the 
procurator general of the seal of titles, the oflScer ol 
the Legion of Honor, the baron, the director of 
roads and bridges, the prefect of police of the 
Empire 1 " The legitimist journal, the Gazette de 
France^ said in its turn: "The accused, then, will 
be condemned by marshals and generals who, at the 
time of the return from Elba, took arms by usurpa- 
tionl Their sentence will be signed by MM. 
Grouchy, Gerard, Soultl . . . Louis Bonaparte 
will reply that the election of Louis Philippe was 
accomplished by two hundred and nineteen depu- 
ties, appointed by one hundred and fifty thousand 
electors, while the hereditary Empire obtained four 
millions of votes. • . . Will he be told that there 
is no sympathy for the Empire in the country? He 
will show you the Venddme column, and the monu- 
ment erected at the Invalides by M. Thiera, and all 
the pictures displayed in our streets. Will it be 
objected that as far as the country is concerned the 
Empire has no heir? He will answer: 'What do 
you know about it?'" 

August 19, 1840, an examining conunittee ap- i 
pointed by the Chamber of Peers, and consisting of 
Chancellor Pasquier, the Due Decazes, Comte Por- 
talis, Baron Gii-od de TAin, Marshal Gerard, and i 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE CONCIEBGERIE 289 



M. Persil, had gone to the Conciergerie and inter- 
rogated the Prince and the other accused persons 
from noon to five o'clock. September 15, M. Persil, 
who had been appointed to draw up their report, 
submitted his work to the Chamber of Peers, and 
on the 16th the upper house presented an indictment 
against Louis Bonaparte and his accomplices for the 
crime of an attempt on the safety of the state. The 
Prince impatiently awaited the hour when he should 
appear before his judges. In his eyes, the bench of 
the accused would be a pedestal from whose summit 
he could utter, urbi et orbi^ solemn words which 
would find their echo not alone in France, but 
throughout the world. He would pass from dark- 
ness into light. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XXIII 

THE COURT OP PEERS 

n^HE debates opened in the Luxembourg palace, 
•^ where the Chamber of Peers held its sessions, 
September 28, 1840. Very few people hung about 
the entrances. The trial of Madame Lafargue, 
which was just then going on, interested the Pari- 
sian public far more than that of the Emperor's 
nephew. 

Louis Napoleon, in a dress coat, white vest, black 
cravat, and wearing the star of the Legion of Honor, 
made his entry into the hall, followed by his coun- 
sel, M. Berryer, the celebrated legitimist leader. 
After the indictment had been read, the Prince, 
having asked permission to speak, read a somewhat 
lengthy declaration, which opened thus : " For the 
first time in my life, I am at last permitted to raise 
my voice in France and to speak freely to French- 
men. In spite of the guards who surround me, in 
spite of the accusations I have just listened to, the 
souvenirs of my childhood and my presence within 
these senate walls, surrounded by you, gentlemen, 
whom I know, make it impossible for me to believe 
that I need to justify myself, or that you can be my 

240 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE COUBT OF PEERS 241 

judges. A solemn occasion is afforded me to ex- 
plain to my fellow citizens my conduct, my in- 
tentions, my projects, what I think, and what I 
wish/' 

The Prince proceeded to expound the plebisci- 

tarian doctrine. ** During the fifty years in which 

the principle of popular sovereignty in France has 

been consecrated by the most powerful revolution 

the world has ever known, the national will has 

never been proclaimed so solemnly nor sanctioned 

by votes so free and numerous as in the adoption 

of the constitutions of the Empire. The nation has 

never revoked that great act of its sovereignty, and 

the Emperor has said: ^Anything done without it is 

illegitimate. . . . ' I have thought that the vote of 

four millions of citizens which elevated my family 

imposed on us the duty of appealing to the nation 

and inquiring its will. . • . The nation would 

have responded: republic or monarchy, empire or 

royalty. Upon its free decision depend the end of 

our calamities, the term of our dissensions." 

The accused assumed entire responsibility for 
what he had done. ^^ As to my enterprise," said he, 
'* I have had no accomplices. I decided everything 
alone; no person has known in advance either my 
projects, my resources, or my hopes. If I am 
guilty, it is only towards my friends. Yet, let 
them not accuse me of having lightly abused cour- 
age and devotion such as theirs. They will compre- 
hend the motives of honor and prudence which did 



Digitized by 



Google 



242 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

not permit me to reveal even to them the extent and 
strength of my reasons for expecting a success." 

The declaration terminated thus : ^^ One last word, 
gentlemen. I represent a principle, a cause, a de- 
feat: a principle, the sovereignty of the people; the 
cause, that of the Empire; the defeat, Waterloo. 
The principle, you have recognized; the cause, you 
have served; the defeat, you wish to avenge. No, 
there is no discord between \is, and I am unwilling 
to believe that I can be doomed to bear the penalties 
of the defections of another. 

*^ Representing a political cause, I cannot accept a 
political jurisdiction as the judge of my intentions 
and my actions. Your forms deceive nobody. In 
the struggle that is beginning there is but one victor 
and one vanquished. If you are the victor's men, I 
cannot expect justice from you, and I will not have 
your generosity." 

One of the judges, General de S^gur, has written 
in his Memoirs: "This speech, when it is re-read, 
will produce some effect. It produced little on 
those who heard it, either through reprobation of 
the deed it tended to justify, or the unlikeness 
between the attitude and the words, and because it 
was delivered coldly. . . . We beheld the Prince 
singularly careless of the effect he was producing on 
our assembly. I will add that during the debates 
his countenance seemed to us without expression, 
his glance without fire, his attitude simple, unem- 
barrassed, and even of a dignified firmness, but calm 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE COURT OF PEERS 248 

even to impassibility, — another singular anomaly, 
another unexpected contrast with the impatient 
temerity of his rash actions." 

The accused had not attempted to win his judges. 
Feeling himself condemned beforehand, he had not 
addressed his discourse to them, but to France. 

The sessions of the 28th and 29th of September, 
and part of that of the 30th, were devoted to exami- 
nations and to the hearing of witnesses. The 30th, 
the attorney general, Frank-Carr^, in his speech, 
said to the Prince : " The sword of Austerlitz is too 
heavy for your feeble hands. The name of the Em- 
peror, understand it well, belongs to France more 
than it does to you." On the same day, M. Berryer 
began his speech in defence of Louis Napoleon. 

The great legitimist orator, always skilful in the 
art of reconciling the requirements of his personal 
situation with those of the causes confided to him, 
had willingly accepted the rdle of advocate of a 
Bonaparte, in order to have an occasion to criticise 
the origin and tendencies of Louis Philippe's Gov- 
ernment. He sought to render this Government 
itself responsible for the Bonapartist propaganda. 
"The tomb of the hero," he exclaimed, "is about to 
be opened! His ashes are to be disturbed in order 
to transport them to Paris I Can you not compre- 
hend the effect such manifestations must have 
produced on the young Prince? The need of re- 
animating the souvenirs of the Empire has been so 
great that under the reign of a prince who, in other 



Digitized by 



Google 



244 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

times, asked to bear arms against the imperial armies 
and to combat him whom he called the Corsican 
usurper, the ministry has said: 'He was the legiti- 
mate sovereign of our country; ' and you are unwill- 
ing that this young man should say to himself: 'The 
name they are shouting belongs to me. ' " The advo- 
cate then made a violent assault upon what the oppo- 
sition of the day called the weakness of the foreign 
policy of the Government, and attempted to find in 
it an extenuating circumstance, if not a justification, 
in favor of his client. In his peroration he addressed 
this apostrophe to the French peerage : " You allude 
to the feebleness of the means, the poverty of the 
enterprise, the ridiculousness of the hope of success. 
Weill if success is all, lay your hands on your 
hearts, and tell us, before God: 'If this cause had 
succeeded, if it had triumphed, I would have denied 
it, I would have declined all participation in this 
power, I would have despised, I would have repelled 
it. ' For me, I would accept that supreme arbitrage, 
and whichever one among you, before God and the 
country, will say to me: 'If it had succeeded, I 
would have abjured it,' I accept him as judge." 

October 1, Lieutenant Aladenize, of the 42d of the 
line, was defended by M. Jules Favre. Like his 
legitimist associate Berryer, the republican advocate 
bitterly criticised the foreign policy of the Govern- 
ment of July. "This vaulted roof," said he, "still 
resounds with the manly accents of a powerful voice 
which yesterday reminded you of the utter pusilla- 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE COURT OF PEERS 245 

nimity of a system unworthy a great nation. . . . 
To those who are concerned about the dignity and 
grandeur of the country, who desire that the French 
name should everywhere be the most powerful and 
the most respected, as it is the most generous, it is 
permissible to be afiflicted and to turn their thoughts 
toward the epochs of our glory. These sentiments, 
gentlemen of the peerage, were those of Aladenize. 
In his modest sphere he endured impatiently the 
miseries of the present and longed ardently for a 
future which might realize his dreams of national 
greatness." M. Favre represented his client as a 
disillusionized combatant of July, as a patriot in 
despair at not yet seeing France plant its standard 
on the borders of the Rhine ; and, alluding to the 
menaces of war, he exclaimed in his peroration: 
** You will permit Aladenize, when the day arrives, 
to march under the orders of these veterans of vic- 
tory whom I see before me, and who, at need, will 
not have forgotten the road to the capitals of Europe." 
The Court of Peers rendered its verdict October 6. 
Louis Napoleon was condemned to perpetual impris- 
onment in a fortress situated within the continental 
territory of the realm; Lieutenant Aladenize to 
transportation; General de Montholon, MM. Par- 
quier, Lombard, and de Persigny each to twenty 
years' detention; nine other accused persons to vari- 
ous penalties ranging from fifteen years' detention to 
two years' imprisonment. The Prince addressed to 
M. Berryer the same day a letter in which he said : 



Digitized by 



Google 



246 LOUia NAPOLEON 

** I do not know what fate reserves for me, I do 
not know whether I shall ever be able to prove my 
gratitude to you, I do not know whether you would 
accept such proofs; but, whatever our reciprocal 
claims may be, aside from politics and its desolating 
obligations, we can alwajrs entertain a mutual amity 
and esteem ; and I own that if my trial is to have no 
other results than that of winning me your friend- 
ship, I shall still feel that I have gained immensely, 
and shall not complain of my fate." The next day, 
October 7, 1840, Louis Napoleon was incarcerated in 
the fortress of Ham. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XXIV 

THE FORTRESS OF HAM 

TXAM is a city of four thousand souls, in the 
department of the Somme. At the right, 
approaching it from the city, one sees a vast fortress, 
whose origin goes back to the eighth century, and 
whose dungeon was constructed by Louis of Luxem- 
bourg, Constable of Saint-Pol, under the reign of 
Louis XI. In form the citadel is a great square, 
flanked by four round towers united by three ram- 
parts. It has but one door, which is on the town 
side, and is entered by means of a drawbridge thrown 
across a dry moat. On the south and east the walls 
of the fortress are bathed by the canal of Saint-Quen- 
tin. In the middle of the enclosure are two brick 
Wildings, which are used as barracks. At the ex- 
tremity of one of these, opposite the door of the for- 
tress and near the other side of the quadiangle, a 
sort of barrack-guardhouse has been built, resembling 
those of the fortifications of Paris. All the windows 
are grated. In this, state prisoners were detained, 
and in it Louis Napoleon was incarcerated. 

The same building had been the prison of four 
ministers of Charles X., from the end of December, 

247 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



248 LOUia NAPOLEON 

1880, until the amnesty of 1886. These were Prince 
de Polignac, Comte de Peyronnet, M. de Chante- 
lauze, and Comte de Guemon de Rauville, all of 
whom had signed the ordinance that caiised the 
downfall of the throne. One of them, M. de Pey- 
ronnet, wrote, August 28, 1831, these lines, which 
were reproduced in the Quotidienne newspaper: 
*'The prison of Ham is very badly situated, and, 
moreover, unhealthy. It is enveloped in fogs half 
the day. The promenade covers a space of about 
one hundred and fifty feet at the end of a rampart, 
where not more than two persons can walk abreast." 

Condemned to perpetual imprisonment, Louis 
Napoleon arrived at the fortress of Ham, October 7, 
1840. By a strange coincidence, this was precisely 
the day on which the Belle-PauU^ commanded by a 
son of King Louis Philippe, sighted the island of 
Saint Helena, where it had gone to seek the ashes of 
the Emperor Napoleon and bring them back trium- 
phantly to France. 

This was not the first time that Louis Bonaparte 
had been a prisoner at Ham. As we have said 
before, he was shut up there during four days, after 
the escapade of Boulogne. He had arrived there 
August 8, between midnight and one o'clock in the 
morning, in a carriage escorted by dragoons, and on 
a night so dark that it had been necessary to light 
torches in order to guide the postilions to the prison 
door. The Carlist general, Cabrera, was then de- 
tained there. He had been brought down to room 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE F0BTBX88 OF HAM 249 

1, on the ground floor, in order to give the Prince 
rooms 7 and 9 on the second story. In his enrions 
work entitled L(mU-NapoUon prisannier au fort de 
Ham, M. Hachet-Stouplet relates that on that occa- 
sion Lardenois, commandant of gendarmerie, fearing 
that the Prince might attempt suicide, forbade him 
to shave himself, and made him give up a notched 
old knife which had long been useless. At the same 
time he proscribed books, pens, and pencils. And 
yet Louis Napoleon still hoped, even in this cruel 
situation. On one of the walls of his chamber he 
wrote with a piece of charcoal: "The Napoleonic 
cause is the cause of the people's interests ; it is the 
European cause; sooner or later it will triumph.'' 
And below this : " Left England August 4. Arrived 
before Vimereux, August 5. Landed at Boulogne, 
August 6. At Boulogne, August 7. At Ham, 
August 8." 

Returning to the fortress of Ham October 7, the 
Prince was incarcerated in the chamber he had occu- 
pied already. If he was badly lodged, he was well 
guarded. Four hundred infantrymen occupied the 
bairacks of the fortress, and sixty sentries, scattered 
on every side, obeyed strict orders. At Boulogne, 
among the officers who had shown noticeable firm- 
ness against the Prince figured the commandant of 
the place. Captain Demarle. For that reason he had 
been chosen as commandant of the fort and city of 
Ham. He was ordered to exercise the strictest 
watchfulness over the acts and gestures of the pris- 



Digitized by 



Google 



250 LOUIS NAPOLEON 



oner, and he rendered a detailed account of them, to 
the Minister of the Interior, 

The beginnings of the Prince's captivity were very 
painfuL No companion had been assigned him. 
But this severity was soon abated, and the Govern- 
ment accorded him the precious favor of having throe 
of his most loyal friends beside him. He was re- 
joined in prison by Dr. Conneau, October 11, 1840^ 
by General de Montholon the 16th of the same 
month, and by Charles Th^lin the 25th of the fol- 
lowing May. The general had been condemned to 
twenty years' imprisonment and the doctor to five, 
while Charles Th^lin, the Prince's faithful servant^ 
had been acquitted. All three requested and ob- 
tained permission to be incarcerated with him. No 
courtiers of misfortune could have been more wel- 
come. 

Bom in 1783, General Comte de Montholon be- 
longed to an old and distinguished military family, 
and had signalized himself in Italy, at Austerlitz, 
Jena, Friedland, and Wagram. The Emperor's aide- 
de-camp during the Hundred Days, he accompanied 
him to Saint Helena. April 80, 1821, after having 
written much from the dictation of Napoleon, who 
was to die five days later, he felt exhausted, and 
General Bertrand offered to replace him at the sick 
man's bedside. ^^ Montholon suffices me," said the 
Emperor. "It is your fault if I have accustomed 
myself to his attentions, which are like those of a 
son. At present I desire no others. It is he who 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE FORTRESS OF HAM 251 

will receive my last sigh; it will be the reward of 
his services." Montholon was one of the executors 
of the Emperor's will and the depositary of his 
manuscripts. On returning to Europe he published 
in 1828 the Memoirs contributing to the history of 
France under Napoleon, and written under his dic- 
tation. Devoted to the nephew as he had been to 
the uncle, when in presence of the Court of Peers, 
he uttered these words to justify himself for having 
taken part in the expedition of Boulogne: *^I re- 
ceived the Emperor's last sigh; I closed his eyes; 
that is enough to explain my conduct." 

Doctor Conneau was deeply attached to Louis 
Napoleon. After having been the secretary of the 
former King of Holland, he studied medicine in 
Florence. In 1831 he took part in the insurrection 
of the Romagna. From there he went to France, 
whence he wrote to Prince Louis for letters of recom- 
mendation. The Prince replied by inviting him to 
Arenenberg, where the doctor was so well received 
by Queen Hortense that he never wished to leave 
her. The following lines occur in the Queen's will: 
"I give to Dr. Conneau a present of twenty thousand 
francs and a watch, as a souvenir of his devotion in 
coming to attend me. I greatly desire that my son 
may retain him. " " This last wish, gentlemen, " said 
M. Barillon, in defending the doctor before the Court 
of Peers, "has been religiously observed; for on this 
sorrowful bench you perceive Conneau beside the son 
of his benefactress." Blondel was not more faithful 



Digitized by 



Google 



252 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

to Richard CoBur-de-Lion than Dr. Gonneau to Louis 
Napoleon. 

As to Charles Th^lin, he was a model servant 
At the moment when he saw the Prince flying toward 
the coast of Boulogne, he had done all in his power 
to enable him to re-embark. Th^lin infinitely pre- 
ferred captivity with his master to liberty without 
him. M. Capo de Feuillide has written: ^^Th^lin 
prided himself from childhood on the title and func- 
tions of the Prince's valet-de-chambre; the Prince 
raised him to his own level by the title of friend." 

According to M. Hachet-Stouplet, Louis Napoleon, 
General de Montholon, and Dr. Conneau were in- 
stalled as follows in the building assigned to them: 





Ground floor. 


Door. 




Nal. 


Boom used as a chapel. 


« 2. 


General de Montholon*s study. 


« 3. 


Bathroom. 


« 4. 


The General's bedroom. 


" 5 and 6. Guardrooms. 


Stairway 






Second story. 


No. 7. 


The Prince's study. 


« 8. 


Dr. Conneau's bedroom. 


« 9. 


The Prince's bedroom. 


*^ 10 and 11. Rooms whose doors were walled ap. 


"12. 


Laboratory. 



Stairway. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE F0BTRES8 OF HAM 268 

The floors were very unevenly tiled; there were 
holes in the ceilings ; the curtains were in rags ; the 
windows closed badly. 

However, the Prince did not complain of his new 
lodgings. "I am now installed," he wrote to 
Madame Salvage, October 16, 1840; "I have a good 
bed, white curtains, a round table, a commode, and 
six chairs." He had also in his chamber a looking- 
glass measuring 3x6 inches, a faience stove, and two 
deal shelves on which were placed his silver toilet 
articles, marked with the imperial arms. 

Room No. 7, which the Prince used both as study 
and salon, was furnished with a mahogany bureau, 
an old commode, a sofa, an armchair, four straw 
chairs, and a screen, which the prisoner placed there 
to shield himself from draughts. He amused him- 
self by decorating this screen with caricatures care- 
fully cut out from Charivari. Gradually he added 
to this furniture some pictures relating to the history 
of the Empire, a portrait of his mother, busts of 
Napoleon and Josephine by Charvet, and a certain 
number of books and newspapers, notably a collec- 
tion of Moniteur% and fifty volumes of the Journal 
de8 DShaU. Books and journals were placed on 
white wooden shelves fastened to the wall. Later 
on we shall see what use the prisoner made of one of 
these shelves. Comte de R^musat, Minister of the 
Interior, gave an order for six hundred francs to 
make some absolutely necessary repairs, and an allow- 
ance of seven francs apiece was made for the daily 



Digitized by 



Google 



254 LOUia NAPOLEON 

nourishment of the captives. Their cooking was 
done by the gate-keeper, who served asyutler. The 
Prince wore either a military cloak and foraging cap, 
or a blue frock coat and red kepi trimmed with gilt 
braid. He rose every morning at six, and worked 
until breakfast, that is, until ten o'clock. He 
walked for some minutes on the ramparts after that, 
and then resumed his work until the dinner hour. 
In the evenings he played whist or chess with Gen- 
eral de Montholon and Dr. Conneau. Every Sunday 
the cur£ of Ham came to say Mass in room No. 1, 
on the ground floor, which served as a chapel. From 
the upper part of his windows, which were barred 
and very close to the ramparts, the vicinity of which 
intercepted both air and daylight, the Prince per- 
ceived a line of curtains the summit of which was 
gained by sodded parapets. In the middle of the 
court, as if by some irony of fate, there was a liberty 
tree, planted in 1793 by a member of the Convention 
(Bourdon de I'Oise). 

Louis Napoleon at first complained rather sharply 
of the conditions made for him. He wrote to M. 
Vieillard, May 22, 1841: "During the nine months 
I have passed in the hands of the French Govern- 
ment, I have patiently submitted to its mean treat- 
ment of every description ; however, I will no longer 
maintain a silence which might seem to indicate 
acquiescence in the oppressive measures of which I 
am the object. . . . 

"I should have nothing to complain of in the Gov- 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE FOBTJRESa OF HAM 255 

emment's treating me as an enemy and depriying 
me of the means to harm it, but its conduct will be 
inconsistent if it treats me as an ordinary prisoner, 
— me, the son of a king, the nephew of an emperor, 
and connected with all the sovereigns of Europe. 
"During the first months of my captivity every 
kind of communication with the outer world was 
interdicted, and inside the prison I was constrained 
to the completest isolation. Now that several per- 
sons have been authorized to see me, these restrictive 
measures on the inside can have no further object, 
and yet it is when they have become useless that an 
efEort is made to augment them. Everything which 
is intended for my personal use is daily subjected to 
the minutest examination. . . . Such a system of 
terrorism has been put in operation in the garrison 
and among the employees of the chftteau that no one 
dare lift his eyes to me; a man needs a great deal of 
courage to be simply polite. How could it be other- 
wise when a glance is considered a crime and those 
who would like to ameliorate my captivity without 
failing in their duty are denounced to the authori- 
ties and threatened with losing their positions ? In 
the midst of France, which my family has made so 
great, I am treated like an excommunicated person 
of the thirteenth century. In a myriad ways, too 
many to enumerate, they seem to be trying to make 
me feel my captivity every minute of the day, and 
to re-echo that mournful and incessant cry: Woe to 
the vanquished I " 



Digitized by 



Google 



266 LOUia NAPOLKON 

The conclusion of the letter was as follows : ^The 
treatment I receive is at once unjust, illegal, and 
inhuman. If they think to conquer me in this waj, 
they are mistaken. It is not outrage but kindness 
which subjugates the hearts of those who know how 
to suffer." 

Such complaints were exaggerated. If one con- 
siders the matter from the Ooyemment's point ot 
view, one must, in fact, recognize that the authori- 
ties of Ham did not take too many precautions 
against the prisoner, but too few. With a stricter 
surveillance his escape would have been impossible. 
It must be admitted that Louis Napoleon was treated 
with consideration. His two best friends, General 
de Montholon and Dr. Conneau, were left with him, 
as well as an absolutely loyal servant, Charles 
Th^lin. The latter was permitted to leave the for- 
tress and take walks in the city. A large number 
of persons were authorized to visit the Prince : MM. 
Louis Blanc, Laity, Vieillard, Fouquier d'Hirouel, 
Degeorges, Calixte Souplet, Pauger, Capo de Feuil- 
lide, Poggioli, Baron Larrey, Lord Malmesbury, Sir 
Robert Peel, Lady Cramford, etc. 

The prisoner was able to correspond with several 
provincial journals, in which he published a great 
many political articles. He was allowed to have a 
garden of some forty yards on the rampart leading 
to the grand tower, in which he cultivated flowers. 
It was apropos of this that he wrote to M. Vieillard, 

** luary 20, 1841 : " Gardening is what occupies me 



Digitized by 



Google 



THS FOBTBSSa OF HAM 257 

a good deal just now. I have a little piece of ground 
on one of the curtains, in which I am planting hardy 
seeds and shrubs. The pleasure which I find in 
remoTing cubes of earth some yards makes me think 
that our nature has many resources and consolations 
unknown to those who are always happy. When 
we lose one sense, Providence has ordained that we 
shall be compensated for its loss by the perfection 
attained by those we haye left. So one who has lost 
his libei-ty finds inside his prison walls, within his 
narrow atmosphere, sources of delight which, when 
free, he trampled indiscriminately under foot, germs 
of pain as well as germs of pleasure." The inhabi- 
tants of Ham were always asking the Prince for 
bouquets from his garden, and the Prince took pleas- 
ure in sending them. It was from the highest part 
of this garden, which reached as far as the great 
tower and overlooked the country, that the Prince 
looked down upon the passers-by, and was seen from 
below by many persons who were interested in his 
fate. Thus it was that nearly all detachments of 
troops passing through the city of Ham halted at the 
foot of the fortress to look at and salute the prisoner. 
Louis Napoleon was also permitted to buy a horse 
and ride a little within the court. He amused him- 
self by galloping at full speed up the glacis and 
stopping suddenly on the summit of the ramparts, on 
the very edge of the precipice ; and the boldness of 
the rider aroused the admiration of the promenaders. 
Louis Napoleon distributed much alms among the 



Digitized by 



Google 



258 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

poor of Ham, and was on excellent terms with the 
cur^ of the town^ who was the medium of his boun- 
ties. M. Hachet-Souplet relates that the Prince 
frequently offered collations on Thursdays to board- 
ing-school children, under an enormous lime tree, 
which has become legendary. He even went so &r 
as to distribute medals among them representing^ 
patriotic allegories. But the rector of the academy 
of Amiens disapproved of this ; and going to Ham, 
he scolded roundly the principals of institutions who 
had tolerated the accomplishment of such a crime. 
It may be said that, during his captivity, the future 
Emperor developed all those instincts of a conspirator 
which characterized him by nature. He tried to 
captivate all with whom he came in contact, begin- 
ning with the commandant of the fortress. By his 
gentleness, affability, simplicity, and extreme polite- 
ness he made friends of his very jailers. According 
to M. Femand Girandeau, the soldiers detailed to 
guard him, who were forbidden to speak to, salute, or 
stand up in his presence, contrived means of secretly 
displaying their sympathy; several even offered to 
facilitate his escape. Every week the sentry boxes 
had to be washed to efface inscriptions of, ^^hong 
live Napoleon 1 " "Long live the Emperor 1 " which 
some seditious but anonymous crayon had chalked 
there during the night. Hence the little garrison 
at the fort had often to be changed. One might say 
that the prisoner took more pains to conciliate the 
sympathies of his keepers, and the soldiers, and 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE F0BTBE8S OF HAM 259 

inhabitants of the city of Ham than he did after- 
wards to possess himself of France. 

Greneral de Montholon had obtained permission for 
his wife to live with him in the fortress- There it 
was that their son, Comte de Montholon, at present 
the minister of France at Brussels, was bom. The 
latter has inherited from his father several objects 
pertaining to the captivity of Ham : a small bronze 
timepiece with a gilded dial, representing Time with 
bis sickle, with the words : " Louis-Napoleon, Ham, 
1841," inscribed with a penknife on the lower part; 
two little chandeliers and two small bronze cups 
Tfhioh ornamented the Prince's chimney-piece; and 
the inkstand he used in writing all his letters and 
works when in prison. Still more curious is a sepia 
drawing representing the fortress from the side of 
the entrance door, and signed: "Napoleon L. B. 
1840." In addition to these are the following 
sketches made by General de Montholon, who had a 
^ery pretty talent as a draughtsman : bird's-eye view 
of the fortress (1842); Ixxstion of the Constable de 
Saint-Pol's tower (the dungeon); salon and bedroom 
of the Prince ; garden made and cultivated by him ; 
bedroom of the general ; salon of his wife. Are not 
these drawings the best illustrations of a captivity 
whose scenes they reproduce with such exactness? 
This captivity, which lasted the same time as that of 
Saint Helena, is assuredly far less pathetic, far less 
poetic, but it too has its interest. The prisoner of 
Saint Helena converted his rock into the pedestal of 



Digitized by 



Google 



260 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 



a gigantic glory, he resumed there the dazzling sou- 
venirs of his past. The prisoner of Ham made a 
place of meditation and study of his prison, a uni- 
versity, as he said himself, in which he silently com- 
pleted his education and prepared his political future. 
The captivity of Saint Helena is an epilogue, that of 
Ham a prologue. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XXV 

THE LSTTEB8 FBOM HAM 

T GUIS NAPOLEON wrote a great deal. We 
"^ shall glance over his correspondence in the 
first place, and then at the newspaper articles and 
works which he published during his captivity. 
Buffon's remark: ^^The style is the man," applies 
very well to the Prince, and his correspondence 
makes one comprehend his character, his ideas, his 
hopes and illusions, his medley of practical thoughts 
and dreams, of sadness and of concentrated enthu- 
siasm. 

In 1841, the prisoner seemed resigned to his fate. 
He wrote to a great English lady, January 18 : " Here 
I am in my place ; with the name I bear I need either 
the darkness of a dungeon or the light of power." 
And on August 14: "My life goes on here in a veiy 
monotonous way, because the rigors of authority are 
always the same ; yet I cannot say that I feel dull, 
because I have created occupations which interest 
me. I am writing reflections on English history, 
and besides, I have planted a little garden in one 
comer of my retreat. ... I make no complaint of 

261 



Digitized by 



Google 



262 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

the position I have created, and I resign myself to it 
completely.'* 

The same note of resignation appears again in the 
letter addressed to M. Vieillard, December 17, 1841: 
^^The year is almost over. Receive my best wishes 
for 1842. I wish both you and Madame Yieillard 
all that a friend desires for a friend. As for me, I 
do not complain ; I have no right to accuse fate ; my 
misfortunes are my own work, and to deplore them 
would be to revolt against myself." 

The prisoner accepted his situation calmly, but he 
remained convinced that his prison was the vestibule 
of the Tuileries, and adhered to his plans with a 
tenacity that nothing could discourage. This is 
what he wrote to M. Vieillard, June 10, 1842: ** You 
say I try to further my cause by puerile efforts. 
Good heavens! success depends upon a number of 
infinitesimals which only at the very end attain a 
body and count for something. If you saw a man 
abandoned, alone in a desert island, you would say 
to him: 'Don't try to make a skiff out of tree- 
trunks, which would founder in a storm; wait till 
chance brings a liberating vessel.' I would say to 
him: 'Use all your endeavors to create instruments 
with which you may succeed in building a vessel. 
This occupation will sustain your moral force, and 
you will always have an aim before you. This will 
develop your faculties by the obstacles you have to 
overcome ; if you succeed, it will prove that you are 
superior to destiny. When your vessel is finished, 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE LETTERS FROM HAM 263 

enter it boldly. If you succeed in reaching the con- 
tinent, you will owe your success to nobody but 
yourself. If you succumb, well, you will have met 
a better end than if you had allowed yourself to be 
devoured by wild animals or by the enemy. ' No, 
there is nothing puerile in efforts when they always 
proceed from the same motive and always tend 
towards the same end." 

In this curious letter, the Prince defends his con- 
duct since 1832. He recalls the fact that at this 
epoch he wrote a pamphlet on Switzerland in order 
to gain the good opinion of those with whom he was 
obliged to live ; that afterwards, during nearly three 
years, he applied himself to a work on artillery, in 
order thus to win some hearts in the army; that this 
permitted him to attempt the Strasburg expedition ; 
that he had the Laity pamphlet published so as to 
give the French Government a pretext for banishing 
him from Switzerland; that his expulsion restored 
his moral independence, which he had in a manner 
lost by a forced restoration to liberty ; that in Lon- 
don, contrary to everybody's advice, he had published 
the IdSes Napol^onienneSj in order to formulate the 
programme of his party and to prove that he was not 
merely an "adventurous hussar"; that by means of 
the newspapers he had tried to prepare the public 
mind for the event of Boulogne, but that this was 
not the business of editors, who merely want to make 
their living by controversy, while he wished to make 
it serve him. 



Digitized by 



Google 



264 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

"Boulogne," adds the Prince, "was a frightful 
catastrophe for me, but after all I retrieve it by that 
interest which always attaches to misfortune, and 
that elasticity inherent in all national causes which, 
although frequently compromised by events, resume 
their first position in course of time." 

An inveterate conspirator, thoroughly resolved on 
conspiring again, he does not repent of a single one 
of his enterprises, and even felicitates himself on his 
defeats : — 

"But in fine what results from all this series of 
petty feats and petty pains ? An immense thing for 
me. In 1832, the Emperor and his son were dead. 
There were no longer any heirs of the imperial cause. 
France did not know a single one. Several Bona- 
pai-tes made their appearance, it is true, here and 
there in the background of the world's stage, like 
bodies without life, petrified mummies or imponder- 
able phantoms; but for the people the line was 
broken; all the Bonapartes were dead. Well, I 
have reunited the thread ; I have come to life by my- 
self and by my own strength, and to-day I am twenty 
leagues from Paris, a sword of Damocles for the 
Government." 

Louis Napoleon accuses M. Vieillard of being too 
prudent, too timorous. "Do you know," he says in 
the same letter, "the difference between you and me 
in the appreciation of certain things ? It is that you 
proceed with method and calculation. For me, I 
have the faith which makes one support everything 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE LETTERS FROM HAM 266 

trith resignation^ which makes one spurn domestic 
joys, which almost every one desires ; that faith, in 
fine, which alone is able to remove mountains." 

Speaking afterwards of his political writings, the 
Prince adds : — 

^I admit without hesitation that there are writers 
cleverer than I. But ask Bastide, Liouis Blanc, 
Greoige Sand, all of them in fact, if in developing 
their political ideas they have ever affected their 
readers to tears. £hl well, I am sure that such a 
thing has never happened, whereas I have seen, and 
seen a thousand times, that my writings have pro- 
duced that result. And why? Because the Na- 
poleonic cause goes to the heart; it stirs, it awakens 
palpitating souvenirs, and it is always by the heart 
that one moves the masses, never by cold reason. 
To sum up, I am going to commence my review, and 
I count on you as my first subscriber." 

A journalist by temperament and calculation, 
Louis Napoleon in his captivity was incessantly 
thinking of the power of the press and the services 
he expected from it. 

In 1844 the Prince had a curious correspondence 
with a very honorable republican, M. Peauger, which 
has been published by the latter's son, M. Marc 
Peauger. The object of this correspondence was 
the purchase or founding of Parisian journals; it 
shows the tactics employed by Louis Napoleon in his 
attempts to win the democrats. 
He wrote March 9, 1844: "Brought up in demo- 



Digitized by 



Google 



266 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

cratic sentiments from the time when I arrived at 
the age of reflection, I admired the head of my family 
not merely as a great captain, but above all as the 
glorious representative of the French Revolution. 
I saw then but two distinct causes in Europe, — that 
which was victorious July 14, 1789, and that which 
triumphed June 18, 1815. . . . To-day the ques- 
tion is the same for me; I see only the vanquished 
and the victors of Waterloo. 

" Convinced that the actual Government will make 
France unhappy, I have resolved to do all in my 
power to overthrow it, although determined to allow 
the entire people afterwards to choose the form of 
government which will suit them best. The rdle of 
liberator satisfies my ambition, and I am not fool 
enough to expect to found a dynasty on a soil strewn 
with all the debris of those that are past. At pres- 
ent I neither have nor can have any other ambition 
than that of recovering my rights as a French citizen. 
Nevertheless, if my fellow citizens should believe in 
my name as a useful standard to oppose to feudal 
Europe, I should be glad and proud to represent the 
greatest nation of the world, and to do all in my 
power to assure its prosperity. But these dreanis 
belong to the future ; the Government triumphs by 
the divisions of its enemies, and so long as these 
divisions subsist it can trifle with the greatest inter- 
ests of the countiy with impunity." 

Even while seeking reconciliation with the repub- 
licans, the Prince did not share the admiration enter- 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE LETTERS FROM HAM 267 

tained by some among them for the terrorists. We 
quote the following passage from one of his letters to 
M. Peauger, bearing date September 8, 1844: "In 
general, history can absolve the absolute and terrible 
government which sheds the blood of the guilty, but 
that which sheds innocent blood ought to be de- 
stroyed. I cannot help thinking that if Robespierre 
had lived two days longer, the head of my grand- 
mother, the Empress Josephine, the best of women, 
must have rolled upon the scaffold. One might 
claim that the Saint Bartholomew massacre saved 
French unity; and yet, who would dare boast of 
Charles IX. ? I am by no means of the opinion that 
injustice and cruelty have ever been good auxilia- 
ries. An unjust action sooner or later produces an 
equally unjust reaction." 

In another letter to M. Peauger (September 80, 
1844), Louis Napoleon said that an openly Napole- 
onic journal would not succeed, because, according 
to the Prince, " a knife must be offered by the handle 
and not the blade " ; the thing would be to found a 
journal of the extreme left, which should ally demo- 
cratic ideas to the souvenirs of the Empire. That 
was why he had written on June 6 of the same year 
to M. Ledru-Rollin : " I should be happy to have as 
representative a man whose political convictions are 
so intimately allied to mine." He declared himself 
to be in community of ideas with so fervent a repub- 
lican as M. Peauger, sajdng to him in a letter dated 
February 3, 1845 : " Now that I have in you a man 



Digitized by 



Google 



268 L0UI8 NAPOLBON 

eapable of fertilizing them^ I often despair at having 
no longer at my disposal the resources I formerly 
possessed. Heretofore I have always lacked men; 
now I lack means. But I believe in fatality. If my 
body bafi miraculously escaped all dangers^ if my 
soul has risen above so many causes of discourage- 
ment, it is because I am called to accomplish some- 
thing." 

The letters we have just cited have shown as 
Louis Napoleon the politician, the conspirator, the 
publicist. Those which are to follow represent tiie 
dreamy, melancholy, poetic side of his character. 
They were addressed in 1844 to a Frenchwoman, the 
daughter of a former prefect of the Empire, who lived 
in Florence, where King Louis often saw her. On 
the 5th of May, anniversary of the death of the Em- 
peror Napoleon, she had written a letter to the 
Prince which deeply affected him. Here is his 
response, dated May 6, 1844: — 

^^ Madame, I received yesterday the letter yon 
have deigned to write me; like its predecessor, it 
has come amidst the sad memories of a sad anni- 
versary to awaken hope and say to me : All is not 
over, since there is still a noble and lofty heart 
which is interested in thee I — You do not know, 
yon cannot comprehend, the effect produced upon 
me by your letters. How describe it to you ? I will 
resort to a comparison. You have doubtless seen a 
fine English engraving which represents Our Lord 
walking upon the waves and reanimating with a 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE LETTSB3 FROM HAM 269 

glance the courage of one of His apostles who is 
about to disappear in the abyss: *Come on,' He says 
to him; ^ faith saves.' — Ah I well, your sweet inter- 
vention in the midst of my solitude produces the 
same effect; at your voice I have felt my heart re- 
yiye, and the atmosphere of my prison, which the 
indifference and hostility of my family sometimes 
render so heavy, seems lighter to me. I rise up 
again; a ray of hope has shone into my soul, and I 
feel transported into another world." 

Louis Napoleon was bent, moreover, on making it 
clear that misfortune had been xmable to master him 
or break his force of character. ^^ Still, Madame," 
he adds, ^*do not believe that I am discouraged. 
No; there are in me two beings, the politician and 
the private man ; the politician is and will remain 
unshaken; hatred, calumny, captivity, will not 
wrench from him one complaint, one sigh ; but the 
private man, when his turn comes, is very unhappy. 
Abandoned by all the world, by his old friends, his 
family, even by his father, he often succumbs to his 
memories and regrets ; he sees himself buried alive 
while still young; he would like to go out, to act, to 
love, and all is forbidden him, save thought; hence 
he uses, he abuses even, his sole remaining faculty." 

The sentimental man reveals himself wholly in 
these lines: ^^I hardly know you, Madame, but the 
memory of you is linked with that of the being 
whom I loved most in all the world, my poor brother. 
How then should I not love you ? Then, too, when 



Digitized by 



Google 



270 LOUia NAPOLEON 

everybody, except perhaps the soldiers who guard 
me, displays indifference, you come to heal one of 
my deepest wounds by restoring to me the affection 
of my father. Why not believe in a secret sym- 
pathy which communicates itself at great distances, 
like the electric fluid? For my part, I believe in 
all that I experience, and even in all that pleases 
and elevates my soul. Yes, I am sure that you com- 
prehend the sentiments which have guided my past 
actions, and that you render justice, if not to the 
deeds, at least to the intentions. Ordinary people 
neither see nor approve anything but success ; lofty 
minds scrutinize chiefly the morality of the aim, and 
then they often accord a few tears, a few consola^ 
tions, to the vanquished." The Prince terminates 
his letter thus : " If you do not answer me, it will 
be because I have displeased you, because I have 
deceived myself; it will be another illusion which 
I shall have lostl But it will not be so; your heart 
is too generous not to bear with the abiding griefs, 
the fleeting joys, of those who suffer." 

The 28th of the following September, the Prince 
addressed a still more sentimental letter to the same 
lady: ^^It appears that happiness, like misfortune, 
is often at our door without our suspecting it; you 
have been on the point of coming to see me, you 
say, and I was unaware of your near presence, and 
of your intention, and of your sympathy. But alas 1 
you did not come, and unhappiness alone has 
entered my prison.. I hope that if a similar cir- 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE LETTERS FROM HAM 271 

cumstance ever presents itself, you will not listen 
again to the counsels of your all-powerful relative 
[M. Thiers]. Believe me, the all-powerful have 
no generosity. One needs to wear a halo in order 
to please them; and they were unable to appreciate 
your noble decision to make yourself, morally speak- 
ing, a sister of charity. You would like to send 
me the air you breathe ; and certainly, it would be 
the finest present you could make me; for, do you 
see, although I scarcely know you, I love you ten- 
derly. That is stupid, you will say, and perhaps 
you are right. But so it is. Your face, which is 
lost in the vagueness of my memory, is always 
present to my eyes. I think, I dream of you. 
Why? Ahl I beg you not to ask so prosaic a ques- 
tion. Do we know why then ? the why of all our 
sensations ? Do you know why the dove, torn from 
its nest and carried to a distant country, finds in 
the air the road that leads it back to its birthplace ? 
Do you know why you yourself feel transported by 
a sentiment of sweet beatitude on beholding from 
a mountain the laughing valleys and the horizon 
losing itself in mist? I understand happiness 
almost as you do ; to command in order to do good, 
or to obey what one loves, this, for a man, is true 
felicity." The imagination of the prisoner is ex- 
cited by this dream of love and glory. Then he 
relapses into melancholy, and his heart grows tender: 
" How often, when wandering over the mountains 
of Switzerland, and enraptured by the spectacle 



Digitized by 



Google 



272 LOUia NAFOLEON 

before my eyes, have I not wished for some one, or 
rather for some woman, who would share my im- 
pressions and identify herself with all my being! 
How often, in the midst of London crowds^ haye 
I not found myself more isolated than on the rocks 
of Switzerland I *' It is no longer the poet but the 
lover who speaks : ^ When from the summit of the 
blue hills surrounding Florence, at the close of a 
lovely day, you look down upon that city scattered 
throughout the valley of the Amo, when you fix 
jour gaze on the horizon, a point that always charms 
U3 because it is vague, indefinite, poetic, like our 
future, then think of me, and remember that there 
is a loving, respectful, and loyal soul that breaks its 
bonds, crosses the Alps and Apennines, and flies to 
you whenever summoned fay memoiy. A story is 
told of two palm trees, one of which, planted near 
Taranto, scattered the dust from its flowers upon 
the wind, which carried it to the other, vegetating 
on the shores of Greece ; and this aerial correspon- 
dence sufficed to vivify, sustain, and yearly renew 
their leafage, withered by the sun. I always 
laughed at this story; to-day I believe in it, 
because it touches me." 

In this correspondence there is a continual blend- 
ing of exaltation and depression. The prisoner 
writes to the same woman, February 15, 1845: ^I 
have moments of discouragement so painful that I 
have not strength enough left to write. So many 
causes of chagrin have been added to my griefs. I 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE LETTERS FROM HAM 278 

have lost my fortune and my friends; all whom I 
loved have given themselves to others, and I remain 
alone without other impressions than that of a vague 
and uncertain hope." Another impassioned letter 
on the 3d of the succeeding March: ^^I detest those 
mediocre natures which are never gay or sad, because 
they feel nothing keenly; they vegetate, they do not 
live. . . . Although I do not budge, the world 
turns around me, and I own to you that one of the 
ideas that torments me most is to think that I may 
never see you again/* 

Louis Napoleon did see again the woman to whom 
he wrote these sentimental letters. She visited him 
in prison in August, 1845. "Madame," he wrote 
her on October 2, " it is eight days since I had the 
happiness of being with you. Your appearance has 
been like a happy dream to me, but only like a 
dream ; for your visit was so short that I had scarcely 
time enough to recover from the emotion it produced, 
and when I had grown calm enough to enjoy it, you 
were already gone." 

What specially strikes one in all the letters we 
have cited is the ardent soul of their writer. To 
look at his impassive face, his impenetrable mask, 
his imperturbable coolness, no one would have 
suspected all the passions which agitated both the 
politician and the private man. By nature he was 
a volcano hidden beneath a glacier. 



Digitized by 



Google 



i 



CHAPTER XXVI 

THE prisoner's WRITINGS 

FT pleased Napoleon III. to say that the prison of 
-^ Ham had been his university. He finished his 
education there, studying science, history, political 
economy, and transforming himself into a publicist 
and even a journalist. The writings of the prisoner 
are very numerous. The day that Napoleon's re- 
A < ^ • mains were brought to Paris,^ebruar3/l5, 1840, he 

composed a dithyramb in prose entitled: Aux tndnes 
de VEmpereur! "Sire, you return to your capital, 
and the people of France hail your return ; but I, 
from the depths of my prison, cannot perceive a ray 
of the sunlight which illuminates your obsequies! 
. . . Montholon, whom you loved best of all among 
your devoted companions, who paid you the atten- 
tions of a son, has remained faithful to your memory 
and your last wishes : he brought me your last words, 
and he is with me in prison 1 

" A French vessel, commanded by a noble young 
man, went to reclaim your ashes; but you would 
have sought in vain from its bridge for any of your 
kindred; your family was not there 1 . . . The 
people throng as of old upon your passage; they 

274 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE PRISONER'S WRITINGS 276 

salute yon with acclamations as if you were living ; 
but the nobles of the day, even while they pay you 
homage, say under their breath: ^Godl do not 
awaken him! . . .' 

** Sire, the 15th of December is a great day for 
France and for me. From the midst of your splen- 
did cortege, disdaining a certain kind of homage, 
YOU have glanced for a moment at my dark abode, 
and remembering the caresses you lavished on my 
childhood, you have said to me: 'You suffer for me, 
friend; I am pleased with you.' " 

In 1841, the Prince wrote a study on English 
history entitled: Fragments hiatoriqiies, 1688 et 1830. 
In the preface, dated May 10, he thus expressed 
himself: "While they are deifying the mortal re- 
mains of the Emperor in Paris, I, his nephew, am 
buried alive in a narrow enceinte; but I laugh at 
the inconsequence of men, and thank Heaven for 
having given me as a refuge, after so many bitter 
trials, a prison on French soil. Supported by an 
ardent faith and a pure conscience, I clothe myself 
with resignation as a garment, and am consoled for 
the present by seeing the future of my enemies 
written in indelible characters in the history of all 
peoples." 

The study concluded as follows : — 
" The example of the Stuarts proves that foreign 
assistance is always powerless to save governments 
not adopted by the nation. And the history of Eng- 
land says loudly to kings : March ahead of the ideas 



Digitized by 



Google 



276 LOUIS NAPOLBOIf 

of your time, and these ideas will follow and sup- 
port you. March behind them, and they will drag 
you along. March against them, and they will 
overthrow you." 

In August, 1842, Louis Napoleon published an 
Analyse de la question des Sueres. In 1848 he pro- 
duced one of his most singular writings. This 
study, which was entitled: De Vorganitatian mili- 
taire de la Pru$$e^ is a prophecy. **It no longer 
su£5ce8 nowadays," said the Prince, ^^for a nation to 
have a few hundred armed cavaliers, or a few thou- 
sand mercenaries and adventurers to maintain its 
rank and independence; it must have millions of 
armed men. Prussia has 14,880,000 inhabitants; 
its army numbers 145,000 men; the landwehr, 
885,000. Thus Prussia, whose population is only 
one-half as large as that of France, can raise an army 
of 530,000 drilled men to defend its territory. . . . 
The Prussian system solves the problem morally and i 
materially too; for this organization is not only ad- 
vantageous from the militaiy point of view, but it 
also merits admiration from the philosophic side, 
because it destroys all barriers between the citizen 
and the soldier, and elevates tlie mind of every man , 
by making him comprehend that the defence of the 
country is his first duty." Louis Napoleon pro- 
posed an army of 200,000 men for France, and the 
creation of a reserve analogous to the Prussian 
landwehr. With this system an effective force cf * 
1,200,000 men would be available in case of danger. 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE PRISON SB* a WRITINGS 277 

"France," said the Prince in concluding, "would 
be safe from any invasion. She could defy the oni- 
yerse and repeat with greater justice those words of 
the haughty Grauls: 'If the skies fall, we will hold 
them up on the points of our spears/ " It is really 
regrettable that the Emperor Napoleon III. did not 
think himself able to carry out the programme of the 
prisoner of Ham. 

In 1842 and 1843, the Prince had a large number 
of unsigned articles inserted in two republican jour- 
nals, the Progri$ du Pai^e-Calaii and the Guetteur 
of Saiut-Quentin, whose editors-in-chief, MM. 
FrM^ric Degeorges and Calixte Souplet, were con- 
vinced and honest democrats. The first of these 
journals made this ayowal in its issue of October 28, 
1848: ^^It is no longer a secret, and we haye neyer 
made a mystery of it to any one: for over fifteen 
months Prince Louis Napoleon has been sending 
articles from his prison to the Progris du Pa^-de- 
Calais,'' These articles broached a multitude of 
political and economic questions and nearly always 
contained bitter animadversions on the Government 
of July. The latter finally became exasperated and 
notified the two journals through the public prosecu- 
tors that their printers' certificate would be with- 
drawn if the Prince's collaboration continued. 

Unable longer to continue his rdle as a journalist, 
the prisoner decided to publish, in 1844, a sensa- 
tional brochure, which he entitled: ^oiiTietion du 
paupSriime, There are many absurdities in this 



Digitized by 



Google 



278 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

work, but it is very curious, because the author 
develops in it the principles of the most advanced 
socialism. 

In the preface to his brochure Louis Napoleon ex- 
pressed himself thus: "To spread comfort, instruc- 
tion, and morality among the working classes, who 
are the majority, is to extirpate pauperism, if not 
altogether, at least in great part. Hence to propose 
a means capable of initiating the masses into all the 
benefits of civilization, is to dry up the sources of 
ignorance, vice, and poverty. Therefore I think I 
may without boldness retain for my work the title of 
Extinction of Pauperism, I deliver my reflections 
to the public in the hope that, developed and put 
into practice, they may be useful for the solace of 
humanity. It is natural in misfortune to think of 
those who sufEer." 

The author's thesis was this: "The working 
classes possess nothing; they must be made pro- 
prietors. They have no riches but their arms; these 
arms must be given an occupation useful to all. 
They are like a nation of helots in the midst of a 
nation of sybai'ites ; they must be given a place in 
society and their interests attached to those of the 
soil. Finally, they are without organization, with- 
out rights, and without a future ; it is necessary to 
give them rights and a future, and to elevate them 
in their own eyes by association, education, and 
discipline." The combination proposed toward this 
end is the creation of agricultural colonies, sugges- 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE PBISONER'S WRITINGS 279 

tive of the phalanstery S3rstem. "In France," said 
the Prince, "there are 9,190,000 hectares of unculti- 
vated land. Let the Chambers decree that all these 
waste lands belong by right to the workmen's asso- 
ciation, reserving an annual payment to the present 
proprietors equal to what they now receive ; let them 
give to these idle hands the lands which are likewise 
idle, and the two unproductive capitals will recreate 
each other to new life. The agricultural colonies 
once created, a sort of intermediary body of trades- 
men would have to be instituted between the work- 
ing classes and the capitalists. From the profits of 
each establishment a sum destined to create an indi- 
vidual share for each workman should be deducted 
in the first place." The Prince added: "What 
would be needed for the realization of such a proj- 
ect? One year's pay of the army, a sum equal to 
that employed on the fortifications of Paris. And 
this advance would return a million to France at 
the end of twenty years, to the working classes eight 
hundred millions, to the treasury thirty-seven mill- 
ions 1 Let the Government put this idea into execu- 
tion, modifying it by whatever the experience of men 
versed in these complicated matters can offer in the 
way of useful hints or novel views ; let it cordially 
enter into all great national interests and establish 
I the well-being of the masses upon immovable foun- 
dations, and it will be immovable itself. Poverty 
i will no longer be seditious when opulence is no 
longer oppressive." The brochure terminated by 



Digitized by 



Google 



280 LOUJS NAPOLEON 

these lines : *^ To>day the aim of everj capable gov- 
eminent ahould be so to direct its efforts that men 
majr presently say: ^The triumph of Christianity 
destroyed slavery; the triamph of the French Revo- 
lution destroyed serfdom; the triumph of democratic 
ideas has destroyed pauperism/ " 

The prisoner of Ham ascended the throne, and 
pauperism has not become extinct. But in 1844 his 
theories were received in the democratic camp with 
a certain sympathy, and the republic of Salente, 
which the imprisoned Prince dreamed of for the 
working men, was not regarded by every one aa an 
Utopia. Oeorge Sand wrote at the time: ^ Speak to 
us often of deliverance and enfranchisement, noble 
captive! Like you the people is in irons. The 
Napoleon of to-day personifies the sufferings of a 
people, as the other personified its glories." 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XXVII 

THE END OF THE CAPTIVITY 

T OUIS NAPOLEON had written, April 18, 
"■^ 1843: "If to-day they opened the doors of my 
prison, if they came to offer to change my present 
position into exile, I would refuse such a proposi- 
tion, for to me it would be an aggravation of the 
penalty. I prefer to be a captive on French soil 
rather than a free man in a foreign land." In 1845 
the prisoner was no longer of the same mind, and 
asked to be set at liberty. What had occurred to 
cause this change of attitude? Merely that King 
Louis, who was very ill, had expressed a wish to see 
his son before his death, and asked him to come to 
Florence. 

Louis Napoleon had always had a profound venera- 
tion for his father. The old King had never spared 
him either severe language or remonstrances. He 
had always reproved him for nourishing himself on 
vain hopes, and had blamed his escapades of Stras- 
burg and Boulogne in the most energetic manner. 
But for all that the young Prince had remained faith- 
ful to the duties of filial piety. His father's coldness 
was an affliction for which he could not be consoled. 
' 281 



Digitized by 



Google 



282 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

The former King of Holland having sometimes in- 
sinuated that his son's demonstrations of affection 
were tainted by self-interest, the latter indignantly 
repelled a suspicion against which his whole charac- 
ter protested. He wrote to his correspondent in 
Florence, May 6, 1844: "I act from interest! My 
God, now when I have spent nearly all my fortune 
in order to support the men who were compromised 
by me, I would give my whole existence for one 
caress from my father. Let him give all his fortune 
to Peter or Paul, it does not matter to me, I will 
work for my living; but let him give me his affec- 
tion ; I have never shown myself unworthy of it, and 
I need affection. There are many men who can get 
along very well with the heart empty and the stomach 
full; but my heart must be replenished, my stomach 
concerns me little." 

The Prince was in this state of mind when he 
received a letter from his father, dated August 18, 
1846, which influenced his destiny. The old King 
expressed himself as follows: — 

"My son, you deceive yourself strangely if you 
believe me indifferent to your position and your 
sufferings. Doubtless I am unable to forget that 
you placed yourself in this position out of mere 
wantonness, but I suffer from your sufferings 
because I had hoped for some solace in your happi- 
ness, a happiness which is independent of all the 
glories of life. Moral sufferings have reduced me 
to the point of being no longer able to stand up- 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE END OF THE CAPTIVITY 288 

right, or even to rise from my chair without assist- 
ance, and yet I have no one who can assist me. I 
cannot even write any more, and you will see from 
my signature how I can sign. I have taken some 
measures for you, but it is only too probable that 
they will be useless, like all that have been attempted 
hitherto." 

King Louis had sent M. Poggioli from Florence 

to Paris to seek the good offices of MM. de Montali- 

vet, Decazes, and Mol^, hoping that the Government 

of King Louis Philippe would allow the prisoner of 

Ham to go to his father. On learning this, and 

receiving the letter of August 18, Louis Napoleon 

was deeply affected. He replied thus : " Fortress of 

Ham, September 19, 1845. —My dear Father: The 

first real joy I have felt in five years I experienced 

in receiving the friendly letter you were so kind as 

to write me. M. Poggioli succeeded in reaching 

me, and I was at last able to talk with some one who 

is entirely devoted to us, and who saw you not long 

ago. How happy I am to know that you always 

retain your tenderness f or me ! . . . I am of your 

opinion, my father; the older I grow, the more I 

perceive the void around me, and the more convinced 

I am that the only happiness in this world consists 

in the reciprocal affection of beings created to love 

each other. What has touched me, affected me 

most, is the desire you manifest to see me again. 

To me this desire is a command, and henceforward I 

will do all that depends on me in order to render 



Digitized by 



Google 



284 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

possible this meeting, which I thank you for desir- 
ing. . . . Even the day before yesterday I had 
determined to make no effort to leave my prison. 
For where should I go? What should I do, alone 
again in foreign lands, far from my own people ? A 
grave in one's native land is better. But to-day a 
new hope lights up my horizon, a new aim presents 
itself to my endeavors ; it is to go and surround you 
with attentions and prove to you that if for the last 
fifteen years many things have come between my 
head and my heart, nothing has been able to uproot 
filial piety, the first foundation of all the virtues. 
I have suffered much. Sufferings have destroyed 
my illusions and dispelled my dreams, but happily 
they have not weakened the faculties of the soul, 
those faculties which permit one to comprehend and 
love all that is good." 

King Louis' application having proved fruitless, 
his son resolved to make a personal appeal to the 
Government. He wrote, December 25, to Comte 
Duchfttel, Minister of the Interior: '*! come, M. 
Minister, to declare to you that if the French Gov- 
ernment will permit me to go to Florence and per- 
form a sacred duty, I promise, upon honor^ to return 
and become a prisoner again, whenever the Govern- 
ment expresses its desire that I shall do so." The 
Prince went further still. January 14, 1846, he 
addressed to the King himself the following letter: 
" Sire, it is not without keen emotion that I come 
to ask Your Majesty, as a benefit, for permission to 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE END OF THE CAPTIVITY 285 

leave France, even momentarily, I who have, for 
the last five years, found an ample recompense for 
the torments of captivity in the air of the father- 
land. But at present my sick and infirm father 
demands my care. In order to obtain my freedom, 
he has addressed himself to persons known for their 
devotion to Your Majesty; it is my duty, on my 
own part, to do all that depends on me to reach 
him. 

*^ The Ministerial Council, not thinking it within 
its competence to grant the request I have made to 
go to Florence, promising to return and become once 
more a prisoner when the Government shall manifest 
its desire for me to do so, I come, Sire, with confi- 
dence, to make an appeal to Tour Majesty's humane 
sentiments, and renew my request by submitting it, 
Sire, to your high and generous intervention. 

"Your Majesty, I am convinced, will appreciate 
as it deserves a step which pledges my gratitude 
in advance, and, touched by the isolated position 
in a foreign land of a man who on the throne merited 
the esteem of Europe, will hear the prayers of my 
father and my own. 

"I beg. Sire, Your Majesty to receive the expres- 
sion of my profound respect." 

This letter was transmitted to the King by the 
General Prince de la Moskowa, eldest son of the 
illustrious marshal, and peer of France. The Coun- 
cil of Ministers thought it insufficient, and that the 
clemency of the King could not be exercised unless 



Digitized by 



Google 



286 L0UI8 NAPOLSON 

the Prince formally begged pardon. Now, he was 
irrevocably determined never to pronounce the word 
pardon. M. Odilon Barrot, who interested himself 
greatly in the prisoner, sent him the draught of a 
letter by M. Duchfttel, and strongly urged him to 
sign it. 

The Prince replied to M. Odilon Barrot February 
2, 1846 : ^' I do not think I can put my name at the 
bottom of the letter of which you have sent me a 
model. To sign it would in reality be to ask pardon 
without daring to avow it. I should be hiding my- 
self behind my father's request like a poltroon who 
shelters himself behind a tree to avoid the bullet. 
I find the situation scarcely worthy of me. If I 
thought it honorable or suitable for me to invoke 
purely and simply the royal clemency, I would write 
to the King: *Sire, I beg pardon.' But such is not 
my intention. I suffer, but every day I say to my- 
self: I am in France, I have kept my honor intact; 
I live without joys, but also without remorse, and 
every night I go to sleep contented. . . • It is not 
my duty to subscribe to a request for pardon dis- 
guised as filial piety. ... I will not move a step 
fui-ther in advance. The path of honor is narrow 
and shifting; there is but a hand's breadth between 
firm ground and the abyss. ... I await calmly 
the decision of the King, a man who, like me, has 
passed through thirty years of misfortunes. . . . 
For the rest, I resign myself to destiny, and envelop 
myself beforehand in my resignation." 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE END OF THE CAPTIVITY 287 

Instigated by M. Vieillard, who was at the time 
deputy from the department of the Manche, several 
other deputies displayed an interest in the Prince. 
Some thirty of them met in one of the offices to ex- 
amine his situation and contrive means of being 
useful to him. Among them were MM. Dupont (de 
I'Eure), Berryer, Gamier-Pagds, Marie, Odilon and 
Ferdinand Bairot, They separated without coming 
to any conclusion. But at the close of the meeting, 
M. Dupont (de rEure)said: "Let M. Odilon Barrot 
go and see the King, not as leader of the opposition, 
but in his private capacity, and plead the situation 
of the aged, infirm, solitary father, comparing it 
with that of the King, who is also a father, but sur- 
rounded by a numerous family." M. Odilon Barrot, 
having consented to this semi-official measure, went 
to the Tuileries the next day and pleaded the pris- 
oner's cause with his usual eloquence. According 
to the account he hss given in his Memoirs, he 
sought to persuade the King that it would be good 
policy to end a captivity which, if indefinitely pro- 
longed, might attract attention to the prisoner, and 
that it would be better to crush this ambitious youth 
once more under the weight of royal generosity: 
that the approaching death of King Louis afforded a 
favorable opportunity, as the favor would seem to be 
granted to the father rather than to the son. Louis 
Philippe replied that the Government could not con- 
sider the Prince's engagement to return to prison as 
a serious guaranty, and ought not to set him at 



Digitized by 



Google 



288 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

liberty until he had explicitly acknowledged that he 
owed his pardon to the royal generosity. The sover- 
eign added that the question had now become a state 
affair and could not be settled without a deliberation 
of the Ministerial Council. As M. Odilon Barrot 
exclaimed: "Ahl Sire, you send me back to the 
Ministers ; there is no longer any hope ! " " Pardon ! 
pardon I" returned the King, and the conversation 
terminated courteously, but without any result. 
An English peer, Lord Londonderry, made equally 
unsuccessful efforts. It was in vain that he de- 
clared, on behalf of Louis Napoleon, that if the 
Prince were released from the fortress of Ham, he 
would pledge himself to go to America after passing 
a single year in Italy with his father. 

When Louis Napoleon became convinced that all 
his efforts would fail, as he was firmly resolved 
never to utter the word pardon, he took a resolution 
which he has descril)ed as follows in a letter ad- 
dressed to M. Degeorges: "The desire to see mj 
father once more in this world has urged me to the 
most audacious enterprise I ever attempted; one 
that demanded more courage and determination than 
Strasburg or Boulogne, since I was resolved not to 
endure the ridicule attaching to a man arrested 
under a disguise, and a failure would have been 
insupportable. " In the history of celebrated escapes, 
none is more astonishing than that of the prisoner 
of Ham. 

The prisoner confided his scheme to two persons 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE END OF THE CAPTIVITY 289 

only: his valet, Charles Th^lin, and Dr. Conneau. 
The dcN)tor had carried his devotion to such lengths 
that when amnestied, in 1844, he had asked the 
&ivor of remaining in prison with the Prince, and 
wrote on November 28: **I declare that I have 
elected my domicile in the prison of Ham and sub- 
mitted to all conditions which the authorities have 
seen fit to impose upon me." Charles Th^lin was 
fully determined never to quit his master, and his 
captivity being entirely voluntary, as he had never 
been condemned, he was treated in a special manner 
and allowed to leave the fortress at times and go 
about in the town. But for this permission granted 
to his servant, the escape of the Prince would have 
been impossible. It was Thdlin, in fact, who bought 
in Ham the clothes in which his master disguised 
himself, and who arranged the details of the flight. 

As to General de Montholon, the prisoner took 
good care not to tell him. The general had disap- 
proved of the Boulogne expedition, of which he 
had known nothing until the very moment when the 
vessel containing the conspirators was about to land 
at y imereux. The Prince was veiy well aware that 
the general would be as energetic in his condemna- 
tion of what seemed to be a folly, an absurdity. But 
the improbable is occasionally the true. History has 
still greater surprises than the novel. 

When Louis Napoleon acquainted Dr. Conneau 
with his plans, the latter made every effort at dis- 
suasion. Failure seemed inevitable, and one still 



Digitized by 



Google 



290 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

wonders how a man could be rash enough to attempt 
such an enterprise. Any one who glances at a plan 
of the fortress of Ham will find that the way in which 
the prisoner succeeded in getting out without the 
connivance of a single jailer or soldier is a miracle. 
Some fortuitous circumstances, of which Louis Napo- 
leon availed himself with unheard-of audacity and 
coolness, could alone have rendered this miracle 
possible. 

The Prince's prison, guarded by three jailers, two 
of whom were always on duty, was on one side of 
the barracks, near the dungeon, at the back of the 
court. To go out of the only door of the fortress it 
was necessary in the first place to pass in front of 
the two jailers, cross the entire length of the court, 
go under the windows of the commandant, who 
lodged near the drawbridge, and through the wicket, 
where there was an orderly, a sergeant, a gate- 
keeper, a sentry, and lastly a post of thirty men. 
That the Prince should conceive the idea of going 
out alone, in broad daylight, in sight of everybody, 
was a contingency so strange, so inconceivable, that 
not even the most suspicious of jailers would have 
admitted its possibility. The prisoner himself 
would never have thought of it but for an alto- 
gether peculiar circumstance. At the time when 
he was arranging his plan, a sum of six hundred 
francs had been placed at the disposal of the com- 
mandant of the fortress for certain indispensable 
repairs in the Prince's apartment and the stairway 

/ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE END OF THE CAPTIVITT 291 

leadingr to it. There was a continual going and 
coming of workmen in the court. Louis Napoleon 
remarked that they were carefully searched when 
they entered, but much less so on going out. This 
was an illumination for him. He took the strange 
determination to disguise himself as a workman and 
leave the fortress in open daylight. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XXVIII 

THE ESCAPE 

T OUIS NAPOLEON had settled on the 26th of 
"■-^ May for his escape. On the 26th the work- 
men would have completed their task. But on the 
25th they were all to be there, and the commandant 
of the fortress, who had been unwell for some time, 
was expected to rise somewhat later than usual. 
Here were two circumstances which must be availed 
of without delay. On the 24th, in bidding General 
de Montholon and his wife good night, the Prince 
embraced them with an emotion that came very near 
betraying him. But neither of them suspected what 
was going on. 

On the 25th, the Ahh6 Tirmache, cur^ of Ham 
(who under the Second Empire was a bishop and 
almoner of the Tuileries), was to say Mass at the 
fortress in the chapel on the ground floor. Very- 
early in the morning, the Prince wrote and sent this 
letter to him: ^'M. Dean, I should be glad to have 
you put off until to-morrow or the next day the Mass 
you were to celebrate to-day at the ch&teau, for, as I 
suffered great pains on rising, I am obliged to take 
a bath to alleviate them." 

202 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE ESCAPE 298 



It is half-past six o'clock in the morniog. The 
workmen are already at work repairing the paint on 
the staircase. At the same time the Prince finishes 
disguising himself. Among the papers found at the 
Tuileries after the revolution of September 4, was 
the bill for the articles used in this disguise. It 
amounted to twenty-five francs. The dress was a 
complete workman's costume. The Prince puts on 
a blue blouse, soiled with plaster, over his frock 
coat; on his head he wears a black wig with long 
hair, and a peaked cap worn threadbare with pumice 
stone; he is shod with sabots, which make him look 
taller; he has dsirkened his complexion, and, to make 
himself totally unrecognizable, has shaved off his 
moustache. The future Emperor looks like a real 
mason. 

*'I myself," said Dr. Conneau afterwards, "would 
have met and not recognized the Prince in a work- 
man thus accoutred." Under his apparel the pris- 
oner conceals a portfolio containing two letters, one 
from the Emperor his uncle, and the other from 
his grandmother, the Empress Josephine, which he 
never lays aside, because he regards them as talis- 
mans. This is a grave imprudence, for if the fugi- 
tive is arrested on his way, these letters would be 
sufficient to identify him. But what of that? 
Superstitious and a fatalist, the captive abandons 
himself to his destiny. 

His disguise accomplished, Louis Napoleon puts 
a pipe between his teeth, and a long deal plank over 



Digitized by 



Google 



294 LOUIS NAPOLEON 



\ 



his shoulder. This plank is one of his library 
shelves, and the letter N is inscribed upon it. It 
is the initial of Napoleon's name; the Prince fan- 
cies it will bring him good luck. As he will 
say afterwards, that plank is to be his plank of 
salvation. 

The time to start has come. But the workmen 
are still on the staircase, where they are at work, 
and if the Prince passes in front of them they will 
wonder at this comrade whom they do not recognize. 
How to get them out of the way? Charles Th^lin 
asks them to take a drink. They accept, and going 
into a room on the ground floor, they empty several 
bottles. Quitting them for an instant, Th^lin 
hastily runs up to his master's room and tells him 
it is time to depart. But the two wardens, Dupin 
and Issali, are on duty at the door, and how is their 
vigilance to be eluded ? Th^lin, who has gone down 
again and is chatting with them, remarks that the 
Prince was seriously ill during the night. 

Just then Louis Napoleon leaves his room. On 
the stairs he meets a workman and recoils for a 
moment. Dr. Conneau gives him a push, saying in 
an undertone: "Go on." The Prince is at the foot 
of the stairs, face to face with one of the wardens. 
He puts the plank before his face and passes. 
Romantic and eager for emotions in spite of his 
phlegmatic appearance, he experiences a violent 
satisfaction in braving fortune and in saying to 
himself: If the escape is a failure, I will not sur- 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE ESCAPE 295 



vive the ridicule ; but if it succeeds, I shall become 
the master of France. 

No-w he is in the couit, the whole length of which 
he is obliged to traverse. He keeps the plank con- 
stantly between himself and the sentries and other 
persons whom he meets. When passing in front of 
the first sentry he lets his pipe fall, stops for a mo- 
ment to pick up the pieces, and then walks on agiiin. 
Next he meets the officer of the guard, but the latter 
is reading a letter and does not notice him. The 
Prince passes under the commandant's windows, 
beside the only door of the fortress. Until now he 
has not been recognized. But will it be so at the 
wicket? The soldiers at the guard house seem sur- 
prised at the dress of the pretended mason. The 
drum rolls several times. However, the orderlies 
open the door, and the fugitive is outside of the 
fortress. But hardly has he left it when he meets 
two workmen, who look at him attentively. He 
shifts his plank to the shoulder next them, but fears 
he cannot escape, when he hears them say: "It is 
Bertrandl " He is safe. 

Charles Th^lin goes out soon after his master, 
taking care to say that he will not come in until 
very late, so that his prolonged absence may not 
arouse suspicion. He runs to Ham for the cab he 
had hired the day before from one Fontaine, and 
drives along the Saint-Quentin road to meet the 
Prince, who meantime has been walking. 

On leaving the fortress, Louis Napoleon follows 



Digitized by 



Google 



296 Louia n/lpolbon 

the rampart as far as the Saint-Quentin gate, then 
takes the faubourg of Saint-Sulpice, and afterwards 
the high road. He passes the cemetery of Ham, and 
returns thanks to Heaven. The 6th of the next 
June he will write to M. Vieillard: '^ When about 
half a league from Ham, while awaiting Charles, I 
found myself opposite the cemetery cross and fell on 
my knees before it and thanked Grod. . . . Ah I do 
not laugh at it I There are instincts which are 
stronger than all philosophic arguments." The 
Prince abandons the plank that has done him such 
good service. He throws it on the road in front of 
the cemetery of Ham, and then, sitting down on the 
side of a ditch, he counts the minutes and wonders 
when Th^Iin will arrive. At last he sees a carriag-e 
coming. It is the cabriolet, into which he hastilj^ 
enters with his faithful servant. In less than an 
hour they reach Saint-Quentin. 

At the entrance of the city the Prince alights from 
the carriage, hides his workman's dress in a ditch on 
the right-hand side of the road, and makes the tour 
of the city extra muroSy while Th^lin goes to find 
another carriage. The master and servant agree to 
meet on the Valenciennes road, and do so. Both 
get into the carriage taken at Saint-Quentin. I 
Towards three o'clock in the afternoon they arrive 
at Valenciennes, and they alight at the railway ; 
station, where, for two hours that seem very long, 
they await the train for Brussels. For one instant 
the Prince believes that he is discovered, that he is 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE ESCAPE 297 



going to be wrecked in port. Th^lin hears a loud 
voice calling him by name. Who is it that speaks ? 
A foi-mer gendarme of Ham, who is now employed 
on the railway. This individual asks for news of 
the Prince and begins a long conyersation. But 
the alarms are dispelled. Louis Napoleon is not 
recognized. He gets into a railway car with Th^lin 
and crosses the frontier unmolested. King Louis 
Philippe's Government has no further hold upon him. 
A few days later the escaped captive wrote to a 
republican, the editor-in-chief of the Progris du 
Pas-de- Calais : **My dear Degeorges, if I experi- 
enced a lively sentiment of joy when I felt myself 
outside the fortress, I experienced a veiy painful 
impression in crossing the frontier; to determine 
me to leave France I needed the certainty that the 
Government would never set me at liberty unless I 
consented to dishonor myself; I needed, lastly, to 
be urged by the desire of trying every means in 
order to console my father in his old age. . . . 
Although free, I feel very unhappy. ... If you 
can, try to be useful to my good Conneau." 

Now let us see what went on at the fortress of 
Ham during the evening of May 26. All day long, 
Dr. Conneau had experienced almost as many emo- 
tions as the fugitive himself. It was essential that 
several hours should elapse before his departure was 
suspected. For if any inkling of it should be 
gained, orders for his arrest would be telegraphed 
to the authorities of • Saint-Quentin and Valen- 



Digitized by 



Google 



298 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

ciennes. It was necessary first of all to gain time 
and prevent any one from entering the empty 
chamber. The doctor pnt a sort of manikin into 
the bed, made out of a cloak and a silk handker- 
chief. He said that the Prince, who was suffering 
greatly in the morning, had gone to bed again after 
taking a purgative, and was sleeping after a night 
of insomnia, and that his slumber ought to be 
respected. It was not until evening that Comman- 
dant Demarle began to have vague suspicions. At 
seven o'clock he said to Dr. Conneau: "If the 
Prince is suffering, make your report. He has not 
been seen all day. This is the third time I have 
come here. I wish to see him." And he went to 
the door leading into the bedroom. The drums 
began to roll as he opened it, and he exclaimed: 
" That is going to awaken the Prince. I think he 
turned round in his bed." M. Demarle entered the 
chamber, approached the manikin, which he mistook 
for Louis Napoleon, and said: "It seems to me I do 
not hear him breathe," Then in a moment, perceiv- 
ing that there was nothing but a manikin in the 
bed, "What does this mean?" he exclaimed; "are 
you playing a trick on me ? Where is the Prince ? " 

"iSfow Diew," replied the doctor, "it is useless to 
conceal it from you any longer; the Prince is gone." 

"Gone! How? Where?" 

"Excuse me, but that is my secret; I have done 
my duty; do yours and search." 

"But, at least, tell me at what hour?" 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE S8CAPX 299 



** At seven o'clock this morning." 

"Very well, sir; re-enter your prison." 

On learning, as he did at this time, that Louis 

Napoleon had left the fortress without bidding him 

adieu, General de Montholon, who had been his 

companion in captivity for six years, was not merely 

surprised, but very much offended. This consolatory 

letter had been left for him by the Prince: "My 

dear General, you will be much astonished by the 

decision I have taken, and still more so that, having 

taken it, I did not inform you of it sooner. But I 

thought it was better to leave you in ignorance of 

my plans, which date only a few days back; and 

besides, I was convinced that my escape could not 

be otherwise than advantageous to you and to other 

friends whom I leave in prison. The Government 

only detains you on my account, and when it sees 

that I have no intention of using my liberty against 

it, it will, I hope, open the doors of all the prisons. 

. . . Believe, General, that I greatly regret having 

been unable to see you and press your hand before 

departing; but that would have been impossible ; my 

emotion would have betrayed the secret I wished to 

keep. ... I will write you as soon as I have 

reached a place of safety. Adieu, my dear General ; 

receive the assurance of my friendship." A few 

weeks later. General de Montholon was pardoned by 

King Louis Philippe and set at liberty. 

On July 9, Commandant Demarle, Dr. Conneau, 
and the two jailers, Dupin and Issali, appeared 



Digitized by 



Google 



800 LOUI8 NAPOhBON 

before the correctional tribunal of P^ronne, charged 
with complicity in the Prince's escape. Judgment 
was rendered the next day, and the commandant and 
the two jailers were acquitted. Charles Th^lin was 
condemned in default to six months' imprisonment 
and Dr. Conneau to three months'. As M. Femand 
Girandeau has said, the doctor would willingly have 
endured ten times as much in order to save his 
Prince, and no one has ever seen a condemned man 
in better spirits. 

In France people like audacity, and political pris* 
oners who make good their escape always interest 
the public. The same persons who had ridiculed 
the unsuccessful attempt of Boulogne applauded an 
escape made improbable by its very boldness. Op- 
ponents in all pai-ties were amused by the trick just 
played by a prince disguised as a mason. It was 
like a novel which had excited general attention, but 
whose succeeding chapters no one could yet guess at. 



Digitized by 



Go'Dgle 



CHAPTER XXIX 

THB DBATH OF KIKG LOUIB 

T OUIS NAPOLEON had escaped from the for- 
"^^^ tress of Ham on Monday morning, May 25, 
1846. He was in Belgium eight hours later, and 
twelve hours after that in England. Just as he ar- 
rived in London he passed Lord Malmesbury in the 
street, who was on horseback. Lord Malmesbury 
met one of the attaches of the French Embassy at 
dinner that evening. " Have you seen him ? " said 
he. "Seen whom?" — "Louis Napoleon; he has 
just arrived^ in London." The young diplomat left 
the table at once and went with all haste to commu- 
nicate the news to his chief, Comte de Sainte-Aulaire. 
The first thought of the escaped prisoner was for 
his father. He wrote him from London, May 27: 
"My dear Father: The desire to see you again made 
me attempt what otherwise I never should have done. 
I have eluded the vigilance of four hundred men and 
arrived in London safe and sound. I have powerful 
friends there. I am going to put them to use in 
trying to reach you. I entreat you, my dear Father, 
to do all in your power in order that I may speedily 
rejoin you. My address is: Comte d'Arenenberg, 
Brunswick Hotel, Jermyn street, London." 

801 



Digitized by 



Google 



802 LOUia NAPOLEON 

At the same time, the Prince addressed the fol- 
lowing letter to the ambassador of King Louis 
Philippe : " Sir, I consider it my duty to inform 
you of my escape from the fortress of Ham and of 
my arrival on the hospitable soil of England. I 
have endured six years of captivity without com- 
plaining, because I wished to prove, by my resigna- 
tion, that I was worthy of a better fate. But my 
aged and infirm father having desired to see me once 
more in this world, I asked permission to go to 
Florence from the French Government, assuring it 
of my pacific intentions and offering it every guar- 
anty consistent with my honor. The Government 
was inexorable. I took my departure. Now that I 
am free, I come, sir, to give you the formal assur- 
ance that if I have quitted my prison, it was neither 
to concern myself with politics nor to seek to disturb 
the repose enjoyed by Europe, but simply to fulfil a 
sacred duty." 

The filial piety of the Prince had caused him to 
accomplish a thing that bordered on the miraculous. 
He was amazed himself at the success of his escape, 
and returned thanks to Providence. He vnrote to 
M. Vieillard, June 1, 1846 : " I have been very well 
received here. Really one must do the English jus- 
tice ; they have a great deal of independence in their 
character. Yesterday I dined at a most delightful 
villa on the bank of the Thames, and when I remem- 
bered that just eight days ago I was meditating with 
Conneau, on the top of the ramparts, concerning my 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE DEATH OF KING LOUIS 808 

escape, I thought I must be dreaming." And on 
June 6: ^^The agitation has done me good. But I 
have not yet recovered from the fear I had of not 
succeeding. When I remember that I was scruti- 
nized from head to foot by the warden, the soldiers, 
and the workmen, I tremble at the thought of a third 
failure." 

While the Prince was making repeated efforts to 
obtain a passport which would enable him to rejoin 
his father in Tuscany, the unfortunate old man, who 
had but a few days more to live, was awaiting with 
agonizing impatience the only child whom God had 
left him. The sole desire of the dying man was to 
see this son upon whom all his affection was concen- 
trated, but it was a wish which met with insur- 
mountable obstacles. Concerning this M. Femand 
Girandeau has justly remarked: "The right to go 
wherever we please, to which we are now accustomed, 
was not then accorded to all; and those who set out 
on a journey without the required papers could not 
go far. If we now go everywhere, or almost every- 
where, without passports in our pockets, it is because 
at this epoch, having suffered cruelly from such an 
impediment, Louis Napoleon resolved to suppress it 
as soon as he should come to power, and kept his 
resolution, and because most of the other govern- 
ments were brought to act like his." 

All the Prince's attempts to obtain his passport 
were in vain. The Embassy of France at London 
met him with an absolute refusal. The Austrian 



Digitized by 



Google 



804 L0UI3 NAPOLEON 

ambassador, who was also chargi d'affaires for Tus- 
cany, answered him by saying: ^ You are neither an 
Austrian nor a Tuscan subject; to us you are a for- 
eigner, or, rather, under suspicion as a former car- 
bonaro; your request should not be addressed to us." 
The Grand-duke of Tuscany caused him to be notified 
that he would not tolerate his presence for twenty- 
four hours in his dominions. 

Meanwhile the unfortunate King Louis was wait- 
ing for his son with feverish impatience, counting 
the days and hours, and alas I in vain. Few destinies 
have been so sad as that of the former King of Hol- 
land. Bom at Ajaccio, September 2, 1778, he was 
but thirty-one years of age when he was dispossessed 
of his throne. From that time he had lived in re- 
tirement and in an exile interrupted for a few weeks 
only in 1814, at the time of the invasion. As deeply 
afflicted by the sufferings of his country as by those 
that were personal to himself, he dragged out a dis- 
mal existence in a foreign land. A dethroned king, 
an unhappy husband, a father whom death had de- 
prived of two of his three children, and life forced 
apart from the only one that remained, he saw all 
things human under the most gloomy aspect. Of 
all his ephemeral grandeurs he had retained noth- 
ing but a memory replete with bitterness. The de- 
testable state of his health had induced a moroseness 
of disposition which annoying trifles affected more 
than great calamities. A retired old pilot, he was 
still more surprised than chagrined by seeing his 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE DEATH OF KING LOUIS 806 

audacious son affronting tempests through mere 
wantonness. Such adventures as those of Strasbuig 
and Boulogne seemed to him culpable absurdities, 
inexcusable follies. And yet his foolhardy son 
moved him rather to compassion than to anger. His 
severity had lessened, and the motive which had 
inspired the escape from Ham touched his paternal 
heart profoundly. Providence refused him the reali- 
zation of his latest hope. He died, alone and sad, at 
Leg^horn, July 25, 1846, without having been able 
to see and bless his son. 

King Louis bequeathed to Amsterdam all the 

property he possessed in that city, expressing a 

desire that the income arising therefrom should be 

devoted to the relief of the victims of the yearly 

inundations. He made rather important bequests to 

his brother. King J^rdme, and his three children, and 

to the son of Lucien Bonaparte, Prince of Canino. 

His will terminated thus : " I leave all the rest of my 

property, my palace in Florence, my large estate of 

Civita Nuova, etc., all my real estate and personal 

property, shares, claims, — everything in fact which 

at the time of my death shall constitute my heritage, 

— to my universal heir, Louis Napoleon, my only 

remaining son, to which son and heir I leave, as a 

testimony of my tenderness, my Dunkerque^ placed in 

my library, with all the decorations of foreign orders 

and all the souvenirs it contains, and in testimony 

of a yet more particular affection, I leave him all the 

objects which belonged to my brother the Emperor 



Digitized by 



Google 



806 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

Napoleon^ which are enclosed in the small receptacle 
intended for that purpose." 

Louis Napoleon was deeply afflicted by his ina- 
bility to close the eyes of a father whom he venerated, 
and to whom he bore more than one resemblance, 
both physical and moral. The countenance of King 
Louis bore no likeness whatever to that of the Em- 
peror his brother. His eyes were full of gentleness. 
His expression was kindly. Those portraits of him 
which were painted under the First Empire, some of 
which are to be found in the museums of Holland, 
and others in the attics of the ch&teau of Versailles, 
prove the resemblance which existed between his 
features and those of Louis Napoleon. Their char- 
acters presented similar analogies. In the son as in 
the father there was a noticeable propensity to melan- 
choly, a blending of coldness and affability, and a 
pronounced taste for literature, humanitarian dreams, 
and generous Utopias. 

The dethroned King wished to be a man of letters, 
a prose writer, and a poet. He wrote a great deal. 
As early as 1800 he published a novel in three vol- 
umes entitled: Marie ou les Peines de V amour. He 
brought out a second edition of it in 1814, under the 
title of Marie ou les JBollandaises. In 1819 he pub- 
lished BocumentB historiquea sur le Q-ouvemement de la 
Hollander which have a real value ; in 1820, an His- 
toire du Parlement Anglais ; in 1826, an ^ssai sur la 
, Versification^ in which he proposed to render the 
French language prosodical, like Latin, which would 



Digitized by 



Google 



TBE DEATH OF KING LOUIS 807 

permit the suppression of rhyme ; in 1828, a collec- 
fcion of poems and a response to Walter Scott's life 
of Napoleon: Certain works of his contain Utopian 
schemes like those broached by his son in his book 
on the JExtinctian of Pauperism. We instance that 
passage in Marie ou lea Hollandaiaes^ in which the 
quondam sovereign describes, under the veil of fic- 
tion, a country after his own heart, governed 
paternally but despotically, in which marriages 
are regulated by the supreme authority, and large 
sodalities of nurses who have gained the prize for 
virtue (rosiires ffardes-maladea) sing together on 
church festivals. 

If certain analogies between the characters of King 
Louis and Napoleon III. can be affirmed, one must, 
on the other hand, acknowledge great differences. 
The second Emperor was far more ardent, more am- 
bitious, more daring, than the former King of Hol- 
land. His personal charm and attractiveness were 
greater. He knew better how to win attachment, 
and had a confidence in his star which was entirely 
wanting to his father. Morose, ill, disenchanted, 
King Louis endured life as a burden, and longed for 
nothing but moral and material repose. His son, a 
man of action, avid of adventures, vehemently desir- 
ous of power, an indefatigable political gamester, 
was not discouraged by Strasburg or Boulogne, nor 
even by Sedan. After having lost a formidable 
game, he still dreamed of taking his revenge. As- 
suredly it was not the example of that resigned 



Digitized by 



Google 



808 L0UI8 NAPOLMON 

philosopher his father which had inspired him with 
such tenacity in his projectSt such inreteracy in 
tempting fortune. 

No historian, it seems to us, has better summed 
up the career and character of the Emperor Napo- 
leon's brother than M. Albert R^ville. The studies 
published by him in 1870, in the Metme de9 Deux 
Mondei^ under the title : La Hollande et U roi LauU^ 
are truly remarkable. He relates that Hollanders of 
distinction journeying to Italy never passed through 
Florence without going to pay their respects to their 
former King, who received them with affability, 
willingly conversed with them about Holland, and 
showed his interest in all that went on there. M. 
Albert R^ville finds, on the whole, that the history 
of Louis Bonaparte leaves a very melancholy impres- 
sion on the minds of those who study it, and that 
the faults he may have committed were out of all 
proportion with his misfortunes. ^^The country 
over which he reigned, and which did not desire 
him, which scarcely thought of recalling him when 
it might have done so, this country is the best judge 
of his conduct as a king. Well, it is impossible to 
deny that Holland, without distinction of parties 
and opinions, has retained an affectionate memory 
of Louis Bonaparte. Nothing in this sentiment of 
the Dutch people bears even a remote resemblance 
to a dynastic attachment, but for all that, when one 
is speaking in Holland of the prince who directed 
the destiny of the country from 1806 to 1810, he 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE DEATH OF KINO LOUIS 809 

usually hears him styled the good King LouU." M. 
Albert R^yille has reason to add that this title is 
worth more than many pompous epithets invented 
by flattery. 

Louis Napoleon haying been unable to be present 
daring his father's last moments, and not being 
authorized to repair either to Italy or Switzerland, 
remained in England until the revolution of Febru- 
ary 24. At the beginning of 1847, he was living in 
London in one of the new houses in King street, 
Saint James. February 16, he wrote to M. Vieil- 
lard: ^^For the last fortnight I have been installed 
in a new house, and for the first time in seven years 
I enjoy the pleasure of being at home. I have as- 
sembled here all my books, all my albums and family 
portraits, in a word, all the precious objects which 
bave escaped shipwreck. The portrait of the Em- 
peror by Paul Delaroche is very fine. This generous 
present has given me great pleasure and forms the 
most beautiful ornament of my salon." 

The Prince combined the life of a student with 
that of a man of the world. He frequented both 
drawing-rooms and libraries. He occupied himself 
with a scheme for a Nicaiagua canal between the 
Atlantic and the Pacific. He prepared a new edition 
of his Marnuil of Artillerg, It was said that, loyal 
to the promise he had made to the ambassador of 
France, he had become indifferent to political mat- 
ters. The sign of a pretender was visible in nothing 
but his liberality toward those of his partisans who 



Digitized by 



Google 



810 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

lacked resources. Moreover, the Bonapartist cause 
seemed absolutely lost. In spite of the parlia- 
mentary disturbance, the dynasty of Louis Philippe 
was believed to rest upon a secure foundation. A 
throne upheld by young, brave, and popular princes 
seemed impregnable to every danger. There was no 
Bonapartist party either in the Chambers or the 
press, the army or the navy, the country as consti- 
tuted by law, or in the masses. The Emperor who 
died at Saint Helena was worshipped, but nobody 
believed in a resurrection of the Empire. The 
Bonapartes themselves seemed to have renounced 
every lurking idea of ambition. King Joseph had 
died leaving no male descendants. The children of 
Lucien, who was also dead, were all of them papal 
subjects and Roman princes. King J^rdme, in Sep- 
tember, 1847, had been authorized to sojourn in 
Fiance during three months with his family. This 
sojourn seemed to have become definitive. The 
former King of Westphalia had been promised a 
yearly pension of one hundred thousand francs, and 
it was even said that Louis Philippe intended to 
give him a seat in the Chamber of Peers. His son, 
Prince Napoleon, had been kindly received by the 
King, who had noticed the learning and intelligence 
of this young man, whose sister, the beautiful and 
witty Princesse Mathilde, married since 1840 to a 
great Russian nobleman, Prince Demidoff of San 
Donato, frequented the salon of Queen Marie-Am^lie. 
Whoever should have predicted, at the close of 1847, 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE DEATH OF KINO LOUIS 311 

that one year later Prince Louis Napoleon would be, 
bj legal means, the head of the French Government, 
would have been thought a fool. The pretender was 
the only person who believed in his star; and in his 
London retreat, apparently so calm, he was waiting 
patiently for the moment when it should rise above 
a horizon as yet absolutely hazy. They say that his 
cousin. Lady Douglas, daughter of the Grand-duchess 
Stephanie of Baden, being in London one evening, 
said to him : " Now that you are at liberty, will you 
lesign yourself to repose ? Will you give up these 
illusions which have cost you so dear, and whose 
cruel deceptions have been felt so keenly by all who 
love you?" "My cousin," returned the Prince, "I 
do not belong to myself, but to my name and my 
country. Although fortune has twice betrayed 
me, my destiny will be accomplished all the more 
speedily." The hour expected by the untiring con- 
spirator was about to strike. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XXX 

LOUIS NAPOLBON DBPUTY 

TpEBRUARY 25, 1848, Louia Napoleon arrived 
in Paris. He stayed at the house of his friend, 
M. Vieillard, rue du Sentier, and on the 28th he 
wrote thi^ letter to the members of the Provisional 
Government: '^Gentlemen, the people of Paris hav- 
ing destroyed by their heroism the last vestiges of 
the foreign invasion, I hasten from exile to range 
myself under the flag of the Republic which has just 
been proclaimed. With no other ambition than that 
of serving my country, I come to announce my arri- 
val to the members of the Provisional Government 
and to assure them of my devotion to the cause they 
represent, and of my personal sympathy. Accept, 
gentlemen, the assurance of my sentiments." The 
Prince was answered by an order to recross the fron- 
tier without delay. Far from being irritated by this 
injunction, he submitted to it without a murmur 
and set off at once for London; after addressing this 
second letter, dated February 29, to the Government: 
"Gentlemen, after thirty-three years of exile and 
persecution, I believed I had acquired a right to a 
home in my fatherland. You think that my presence 

312 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



LOUia NAPOLEON DJCPUTT 818 

in Paris will cause embarrassment just now, and 
therefore I go away for a while. This sacrifice will 
make evident to you the purity of my intentions and 
my patriotism. Receive, gentlemen, the assurance 
of my high esteem and sympathy." 

The Prince is once more in London, where he 
seems to take no interest in French politics, and 
where he has his name inscribed beside those of the 
most honorable men in the city, in the list of special 
constables stationed in Trafalgar square to restrain 
the Chartist agitation. He comprehends very clearly 
that on the morrow of February 24, Lamartine's 
popularity would outweigh his own, and instead of 
attempting a sti-uggle in which he would be at a dis- 
advantage, he leaves the great poet to squander the 
power and political prestige which within three 
months will have disappeared. 

The elections for the Constituent Assembly take 
place in April. Louis Napoleon does not offer him- 
self as a candidate. Three of his cousins, Prince 
Napoleon, son of King J^r6me, Pierre Bonaparte, 
son of Lucien Bonaparte, and Lucien Murat, son of 
the King of Naples, are elected. The Assembly holds 
its first session on May 4. It cheers the Republic 
seventeen times in succession, and yet the majority 
of the representatives is reactionary. The man of 
Boulogne and Strasburg waits, and watches his 
opportunity. May 11, he writes to M. Vieillaid 
from London: "I was unwilling to present myself as 
a candidate for the elections, because I was con- 



Digitized by 



Google 



814 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

vinced that my presence in the Assembly would have 
been extremely embarrassing. ... I do not know 
whether you blame me for this resolution, but if you 
knew how many ridiculous propositions reach me 
even here, you would comprehend how much more I 
should be exposed to all these intrigues if I were in 
Paris. I will not interfere in any way; I desire to 
see the Republic increase in wisdom and in power^ 
and meanwhile exile is very sweet to me, because I 
know it to be voluntary." 

The Prince learns that it is a question whether to 
maintain against him alone the law of exile aimed at 
the Bonapartes, enacted in 1832. On hearing this, 
he addresses a letter to the National Assembly, dated 
May 24, which concludes as follows: "In presence 
of a king elected by two hundred deputies, I might 
remember that I was the heir of an empire founded 
upon the consent of four millions of Frenchmen ; in 
presence of the national sovereignty, I neither can 
nor will claim any rights except those of a French 
citizen, but those I will never cease to assert with 
all the energy imparted to an honest soul by the 
feeling that he has never wronged his country." 

Who is it that defends the Prince's cause before 
the Assembly? A republican, a member of the Pro- 
visional Government, the Minister of Justice, Citi- 
zen Cr^mieux. "The renown of Napoleon," he says 
in the tribune on June 2, "remains as one of those 
immense souvenirs which extend over the history of 
a people and cover it with an eternal splendor. All 



Digitized by 



Google 



LOUIS NAPOLEON DEPUTY 816 

that is popular in this glory we accept with eager- 
ness; the proscription of his family by the France 
of to-day would be a shame." The Assembly takes 
under consideration by an almost unanimous vote 
the Pietri proposition, which is thus worded: 
"Article 6 of the law of April 10, 1832, relative 
to the banishment of the Bonaparte family, is abro- 
gated." The imprudence of the republicans has just 
opened a new career to Louis Napoleon. 

Supplementary elections take place on June 4. 
The Prince does not present himself, but some of 
his friends, more impatient than himself, bring for- 
ward his name without his knowledge. Certain 
former conspirators of Strasburg and Boulogne, 
MM. de Persigny, Laity, Bataille, begin to bestir 
themselves. Louis Napoleon does not appear, or 
make any proclamation, and yet, to his great sur- 
prise, he is elected by four departments : the Seine, 
Yonne, Charente-Inf^rieure, and Corsica. 

In spite of a Bonapartist agitation, which had 
begun in Paris itself, who is it that speaks in the 
Assembly in favor of confirming the election of the 
Prince? Two eminent republicans: Jules Favre 
and Louis Blanc. One of them says : " Can you not 
understand that if Citizen Louis Bonapaite were fool 
enough, mad enough, to dream at the present time of 
a sort of parody of what he did in 1840, he would be 
overwhelmed by the contempt of his fellow citizens 
and that of posterity?" The other thus expresses 
himself: "The Republic is like the sun. Allow the 



Digitized by 



Google 



S16 LOUia NAPOLEON 

nephew of the Emperor to approach it. I am sure 
that he will disappear in its beams." The admiaaioii 
of the Prince is voted by a large majority. 

Meanwhile the Bonapartist agitation in Paris con- 
tinues. There are meetings on the terraces of the 
Tuileries, on the Place de la Concorde, and on the 
boulevards. A Napoleonic propaganda which as- 
sumes a democratic and popular form is openly 
carried on. The Government begins to be uneasy. 
Thereupon the Prince writes from London, June 4, 
to the president of the Assembly: *'I was about to 
set out for my post when I learned that my election 
serves as a pretext for deplorable troubles and fatal 
errors. I did not seek the honor of being a repre- 
sentative of the people, because I was aware of the 
unjust suspicions of which I am the object; still less 
did I seek power." The following sentence comes 
near spoiling everything: "If the people impose 
duties on me, I shall know how to fulfil them; but 
I disavow all who credit me with ambitious inten- 
tions which I have not." On hearing these words 
read, "If the people impose duties on me, I shall 
know how to fulfil them," a violent clamor breaks 
out. " This is a pretender! " is shouted on all sides. 
General Cavaignac springs to the tribune and says : 
" I am so excited by emotion that I cannot express 
all I think as I would like to. But what I notice is 
that in this document, which becomes historic, the 
word Republic does not appear." If a vote had been 
taken, the Prince would certainly have been con- 



Digitized by 



Google 



LOUIS NAPOLEON DEPUTY 817 

deinned; but the discussion is postponed to the fol- 
lowing day, June 16, and on that day the president 
of the Assembly receives another letter from Louis 
Napoleon, in which he says : " I desire order and the 
maintenance of a prudent, great, and intelligent Re- 
public, and since I involuntarily facilitate disorder, 
I place, not without keen regret, my resignation in 
your hands. Soon, I hope, tranquillity will be re- 
stored to France, and I shall be allowed to re-enter 
there as the simplest of her citizens, and also as one 
of the most devoted to the prosperity of the country." 

A few days later the formidable insurrection of 
June breaks out. It is a great piece of good luck for 
Louis Napoleon not to have witnessed it. Present 
in Paris, he would have been obliged to declare for 
one or other of the parties in dispute. Besides, 
there were many Bonapartists in the insurgent ranks. 
It was far better for him to be playing the part of a 
special constable in London than to have been obliged 
to put on the uniform of a national guard in Paris. 
It was his lucky star which kept him out of all par- 
ticipation in the Diaconian measures, the fusillades, 
the wholesale transportations, which were the con- 
clusion of the lamentable days of June. 

The insurrection once suppressed, the Prince 
makes no haste to come upon the scene. For several 
weeks he seeks to make himself forgotten. The 
National Assembly has just decreed that General 
Cavaignac had deserved well of the country, and he 
would have only to express a wish for the dictator- 



Digitized by 



Google 



318 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

ship to obtain it. To attack it prematurely would 
be a grave mistake. The Prince does not commit 
it. He keeps patience three months longer. 

Elections are to take place in September to fill the 
existing vacancies in the National Assembly. In 
spite of the rectitude of his intentions, General 
Cavaignac has incurred enmities in the ranks of the 
advanced republicans, and still more among the con- 
servatives. Louis Napoleon concludes that it is time 
for him to come forward. A most active electoral 
propaganda is organized in his favor. He is nomi- 
nated by five departments, — Seine, Moselle, Yonne, 
Charente-Inf^rieure, and Corsica. He prefers Paris, 
his native city. When the elections are announced 
at the Hdtel de Yille, the two names most lustily 
cheered by the crowd are his and that of RaspaiL 

Coming from London, the new deputy arrives in 
Paris September 24, and lodges at the Hdtel du Rhin, 
Place Venddme, opposite the column. The National 
Assembly has been in session for some time the next 
morning when all eyes begin to turn, all opera glasses 
to point, toward the middle of the left side, over 
the bench occupied by M. de Lamartine. It is the 
Prince, coming in quietly through a lobby, and tak- 
ing his place on one of the benches of the left, 
between M . Vieillard and M. Havin. Presently he 
asks leave to speak, and, ascending the tribune, reads 
the following address: "Citizen representatives, it 
is impossible for me to keep silence after the calum- 
nies of which I have been the object. I must give 



Digitized by 



Google 



L0UI8 NAPOLEON DEPUTY 819 

axil expression here, on the first day on which I am 
permitted to seat myself amongst you, to the real 
sentiments which animate, and always have ani- 
mated, me. After thirty-three years of proscription 
and. exile, I once more find my country and my fellow 
citizens. The Republic has given me this happi- 
ness ; let the Republic receive my oath of gratitude 
and devotion. For a long time all I could conse- 
crate to France were the meditations of exile and 
captivity. To-day the career in which you are 
marching is open to me ; receive me into your ranks, 
my dear colleagues, with the sentiments of affection- 
ate sympathy by which I myself am animated. My 
conduct, as you should not doubt, will always be 
inspired by duty, always animated by respect for 
law. My conduct will prove that no man here is 
more devoted than I to the defence of order and the 
consolidation of the Republic." This little speech 
was favorably received by the Assembly. 

As a deputy, Louis Napoleon maintains a prudent 
reserve. His appearances at the Chamber are very 
infrequent. As crowds station themselves in front 
of the railing to see him pass, he enters through the 
small doors in order to shun curiosity. He takes his 
seat on the left, but he votes neither with the left 
nor the right. 

An adroit tactician, he withdraws on important 
occasions. He chats very politely with his col- 
leagues of different parties, but never commits him- 
self, or abandons safe generalities. However, as he 



Digitized by 



Google 



820 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

is courteous, has an air of modesty, and always pre- 
serves a well-bred calm, he makes friends of several 
of his neighbors, and habitually oscillates between 
the republicans and the royalists, seeking to gain 
the sympathies of each. But if one studies him 
closely, it is easy to see that he is out of his element 
in the hall of the Palais-Bourbon, and that for this 
hap-hazard deputy the legislative mandate is but a 
stepping-stone. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XXXI 

THB PBBSIDBNTIAL ELECTION 

TTP to the time of his escape from the fortress 
^^ of Ham, Louis Napoleon had been pursued by 
fatality. All his enterprises had failed in a wretched 
manner. One might have said his forehead was 
branded with the indelible mark of proscription and 
misfortune. Disgraced, flouted, vilipended, ridiculed 
in every way, disowned even by his family, exciting 
a disdain yet more offensive than anger, he seemed 
forever condemned to irreparable failures. Suddenly, 
as if at the stroke of a magic wand, the same person 
is to become, no one knows why, the favorite of 
fortune, and to profit by one of the most unforeseen, 
most extraordinary, most unheard-of chances that 
ever carried a politician to the pinnacle of power. 
All that should have harmed him will turn to his 
advantage, and the very persons who ought, it would 
seem, to have been his most dangerous adversaries 
will contribute to his triumph. 

It is the 5th of October, 1848. The National 
Assembly is about to decide on the mode of electing 
the president of the Republic. If it decrees that he 
should be appointed by itself, there is no manner of 

T 321 



Digitized by 



Google 



822 LOUia NAPOLEON 

doubt that General Cavaignac will be elected. It 
seems, then, as if all the republicans would agree 
in order to bring about such a combination. Well ! 
the contrary happens ; and the man who induces the 
Assembly to have the head of the state appointed 
directly by means of universal suffrage, and thus 
prepares the downfall of the Second Republic, is its 
founder, M. de Lamartine. " I have faith," he says, 
" in the maturity of a country which fifty-five years 
of political life have fashioned to liberty ; but should 
this confidence prove to be misplaced, I will repeat 
that there are epochs when we must say, like the 
ancients : Alea jacta est^ the die is cast I Something 
must be left to Providence, who knows better than 
we what is suitable for us." The poet prophet ter- 
minates his fatalistic discourse in this fashion: ^^If 
the people will to be led back into the paths of 
monarchy, if it desire to quit the realities of the 
Republic, and run after a meteor which will bum 
its hands, it is free to do so ; after all, it is the real 
King; it is its own Sovereign, and there will be 
nothing left for us except to say, like old Cato: 
Vtctnx causa diia plaeuit sed victa CatoniJ*^ The 
amendment of M. Gr^vy which would suppress the 
presidency of the Republic is rejected by 643 votes 
against 138. By a vote of 627 against 130, the 
following article of the Constitution is adopted: 
"The president of the Republic is elected by ballot 
and by an absolute majority of voters, by universal 
suffrage." 



Digitized by 



Google 



TEE PBE8IDENTIAL ELECTION 823 

LfOuis Napoleon has just taken a long step for- 
ward. But parliamentary ground is a quicksand. 
The Prince still needs great reserve and prudence. 
Any proposition well presented to the Assembly 
might crush his imperial eagle in the shell. The 
future Caesar must disguise himself skilfully under 
the republican mask. It is his interest to belittle 
himself. He will not succeed unless he can lull the 
suspicions of the old parties by persuading them 
that at the close of four years of power he will be 
thoroughly used up. The Prince intends the masses 
to consider him a providential man, but the Bur- 
graves (the name given to the principal royalist 
deputies) to rate him as a nullity. 

After the attempts of Strasburg and Boulogne, it 
would seem natural that Louis Napoleon should be 
treated as a pretender. The Republic has exiled 
both branches of the Bourbons. It would seem 
quite simple that it should exile the Bonapartes also, 
or, at any rate, that one of them who has posed as 
the Emperor's heir. Even if he were not exiled, it 
might be decreed that he cannot be a candidate for 
the supreme magistracy in a republican country. 

October 9, M. Antony Thouret suppoits the fol- 
lowing amendment: "No member of the families 
which have reigned in France may be elected presi- 
dent or vice-president of the Republic." M. Lacaze 
exclaims: "He who might affect pretensions to 
sovereignty is here. Let him explain himself I He 
has protested his devotion to the Republic; ought 



Digitized by 



Google 



824 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

we to deem him capable of failing ia this solemn 
obligation?" All eyes turn instantly towards the 
Prince. Speak I Speak I the whole Assembly cries 
to him. This time he has nothing ready, no dis- 
course to read ; he is obliged to improvise. Luckily 
for him, he has absolutely no talent for oratoiy. 
Should he make a fine address, should he succeed 
as a parliamentary speaker, he would arouse the sus- 
picions of his colleagues and seriously compromise 
his cause. But he hesitates, he hums and haws. 
He articulates with difficulty these few sentences, 
interrupted by several pauses: "I do not come to 
speak against the amendment. Certainly, I have 
been recompensed enough in regaining my rights 
as a citizen to have now no further ambition. But 
it is in the name of the three hundred thousand 
electors who have elected me that I come to protest 
against and that I disavow the name of pretender 
which people are always throwing at my head.*' 
The Prince comes down from the tribune. M. Antony 
Thouret goes back to it, and sajrs disdainfully, that 
after what he has just seen and heard, he withdraws 
his amendment as being henceforth useless. The 
Assembly laughs ; the Prince they are jibing at 
remains impassible. 

Louis Napoleon has nothing further to dread; 
people think him mediocre. They will allow him 
to become president of the Republic. 

The electoral contest begins. It is one of the 
most curious recorded in history. France and all 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE PBE8WENTIAL ELECTION 325 

Earope attach extraordinary importance to it. It 
narrows itself between two competitors: Louis Na- 
poleon and General Cavaignac. The Prince is forty 
years old, and the general forty-six. The souvenir 
of the imperial epic is linked to the one, and that 
of the African wai-s to the other. Honest Bonapart- 
ists cannot avoid paying homage to a character like 
that of General Cavaignac. "In all respects," M. 
Emile Ollivier has said, "such a man was worthy 
of the supreme magistracy." If Louis Napoleon had 
been his sole antagonist, the general would doubtless 
have been the victor. But his real competitor was 
not the nephew of the Emperor, but the Emperor 
himself. Cavaignac wiU be vanquished by a shade. 
The all-powerful agent of the electoral propaganda 
is a dead man — is Napoleon. Defunctus adhue 
loquitur. Caesar made Augustus; Napoleon First 
will make Napoleon Third. 

Within a few days the Prince holds all the cards. 
His candidacy is favored by politicians who ought, 
it would seem, to be the most opposed to it. He 
is supported by legitimists like M. Berryer and 
Comte de Falloux, by former ministers of King 
Louis Philippe like M. Thiers, M. Guizot, M. MoW, 
the Due de Broglie. The most heterogeneous ele- 
ments, the most contrary forces, from partisans of 
divine right to socialists, combine in his favor. His 
electoral manifesto is not of a nature to alarm or 
discourage any one. " If I were elected president," 
he says, "I would devote myself entii*ely, without 



Digitized by 



Google 



826 L0VI8 NAPOLEON 

mental reservation, to the consolidation of a republic 
wise in its laws, honest in its intentions, great and 
strong in its deeds. I would make it a point of 
honor to leave to my successor, at the end of four 
years, this power confirmed, liberty intact, a real 
progress accomplished." 

M. Thiers, to whom the Prince submitted this 
manifesto before publishing, protested ag^ainst it in 
vain. "What are you about?" he exclaimed. 
"Strike out this imprudent sentence. Beware of 
promises of this kind." The sentence was not sup- 
pressed. The manifesto terminated with this noble 
thought which, unfortunately, Louis Napoleon for- 
got when he attained to power: "The Republic 
should be generous and have faith in its future ; 
hence I, who have known exile and captivity, ar- 
dently invoke the day when the countiy can without 
danger put an end to all proscriptions and efface 
the last traces of our civil discords." 

The success of the Prince's candidacy was very 
soon beyond a doubt. General Cavaignac disposed 
of all the governmental forces, but his competitor 
had a name which was a talisman. Men had for- 
gotten what France suffered under the Empire to 
remember only the glory it had given it. M. Pierre 
de La Gorce has said in his Hutoire de la Seconde 
RSpublique: "Peoples are made that way; when 
the sacrifices demanded of them have cost equality 
nothing and have been rewarded by glory, they end 
by forgetting the price of these sacrifices ; to the 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION 827 

powers which have abused them most they are ready- 
to offer their blood anew, just as vines give their 
most generous substance to those who tread them 
under foot in the wine press." 

The partisans of both candidates in Paris and the 
proTinces, and above all in country places, engaged 
in controversies whose violence often equalled their 
bad taste. The Prince was unceremoniously called 
an idiot, and General Cavaignac a slaughterer. But 
the two adversaries were personally as correct, as 
courteous, as their partisans were deficient in those 
qualities. A workman brought the Prince a litho- 
graphic stone on which the general was represented 
as an executioner massacring the defeated men of 
June: "How much do you want for this stone?" 
demanded Louis Napoleon. The workman having 
named his price, the Prince paid it and then, sending 
for a hammer, broke the stone in pieces. On his 
part. General Cavaignac, a man as well bred as his 
rival, did not say a single offensive word against 
him. 

The unpublished Memoirs of General Fleury, the 
devoted adherent and faithful friend of Napoleon 
III., contain some very curious details concerning 
the period of the presidential election. The gen- 
eral, then a major of spahis, on leave in Paris, went 
to the H6tel du Rhin to call on the Prince, to whom 
he had been presented in London in 1887. Louis 
Napoleon received him as an old comrade who had 
not been forgotten. Accepting his proffered services, 



Digitized by 



Google 



828 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

he said: "Among the crowd who hang around the 
Place VendSme, to watch me when I go out, there 
may be ill-intentioned persons. Some of the reports 
I receive from trusty agents, tell me that I incur 
great dangers. Although I put very little faith in 
these sinister predictions, it is my duty to protect 
myself against perils that are pointed out to me. 
Hence I never go out without a revolver and a 
sword-cane. As you are going to play the part of 
my aide-de-camp, until you shall be such in reality, 
I confide to you the attributes of your commission." 
Then the Prince drew a revolver from a drawer, 
and taking a sword-cane from the chimney-piece, 
he shook hands with his new coadjutor and gave 
him these weapons. 

Some days afterward, Louis Napoleon being out 
riding with Commandant Fleury, they passed over 
the Quai d'Orsay, where the 2d Dragoons were in 
barracks under the command of Comte de Goyon, 
who in 1816 had replaced my father there as colonel. 
The Prince was tempted to enter the barracks. But 
let General Fleury tell the story. 

" Hardly had I told the non-commissioned oflScer 
of the Guard the name of the almost unknown 
visitor, when this magic name flew from mouth to 
mouth, and from one story to another, and the 
soldiers running to their windows, shouted for 
Louis Napoleon with all their might. The colonel 
of the regiment, who happened to be at the barracks, 
carried away by this example, shared the sponta- 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION 829 

neons movement, and with a vibrant voice cried: 
*' Long live Napoleon 1 " 

Still another passage from the Memoirs : " A very 
short time before the election, I had accompanied 
the Prince to the house of M. Thiers, Place Saint- 
Greorges. On our way back he said to me : ' What 
a singular little man M. Thiers is! Just now he 
asked me what costume I would assume when 
elected president, a civil or a military one. "That 
of the First Consul would be very suitable, it seems 
to me." — "I don't know yet," I replied. " But prob- 
ably I shall select either the uniform of a general of 
the National Guard, or of the army." — " But then," 
said M. Thiers, "how would you expect us to do, 
I or some one else when we are called to succeed 
you? Believe me. Prince, take the dress of the First 
Consul." I did not insist, and left him believing 
that I would follow his advice.' " 

The result of the election was no longer doubt- 
ful. "The steady current of the most contrary 
opinions," M. Odilon Barrot has written, "had be- 
come irresistible. . . . Let no one say that such 
or such a personage who supported this election 
is politically responsible for it. . . . MM. Mol^ 
and Thiers, for example, who believed they ought 
to favor openly the candidacy of Louis Napoleon, 
have merited neither reproach nor thanks on that 
account, for though they had abstained from vot- 
ing, as I did, the result would have been abso- 
lutely the same." 



Digitized by 



Google 



880 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

The balloting, opened on December 10 and 11, 
gave the following results : — 

Voters 7,617,811. 

Louis Napoleon 5,572,834 

Cavaignac 1,469,156 

Ledru-RoUin 876,834 

RaspaU 37,106 

Lamartine 20,938 

Changarnier 4,687 

December 20, at three o'clock in the afternoon, 
just as the National Assembly was discussing the 
draught of a proposed law of minor importance, the 
member of the commission who had been appointed 
to draw up the official report of the presidential 
election was seen to enter the hall. This was 
M. Waldeck-Rousseau. He announced the result. 
Then M, Armand Marrast, president of the National 
Assembly, proclaimed Charles-Louis-Napoleon Bona- 
parte president of the Republic. General Cavaignac 
afterwards asked leave to speak, and uttered but this 
one sentence, which was greeted by loud applause: 
"The National Assembly will comprehend better 
than I can express the sentiments of gratitude 
which I derive from the remembrance of its con- 
fidence and kindness towards me." As soon as 
the general came down from the tribune, the new 
president of the Republic ascended it. In a black 
coat, with the star of the Legion of Honor, he took 
the oath prescribed by the Constitution and pro- 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE PBESIDENTIAL ELECTION 881 

nounced, amidst profound silence, a short harangue : 
^^The suffrages of the nation," said he, '^and the 
oath I have just taken will guide my future conduct. 
I shall see the country's enemies in all those who 
seek to change by illegal means what France has 
established. I have called honest and capable men, 
devoted to the country, to my assistance, convinced 
that in spite of diversities of political origin, they 
will agree to concur with me in the application of 
the Constitution, the improvement of the law, and 
the glory of the Republic." Then he paid this 
deserved compliment to his competitor: "The con- 
duct of the honorable General Gavaignac has been 
worthy of the loyalty of his character and of that 
sentiment of duty which is the chief quality of a 
ruler of state." And he concluded thus a discourse 
which was well received by the Assembly: "We 
have a great mission to fulfil, and that is to found 
a Republic in the interest of all, and a just, firm 
government which shall be animated by a sincere 
love of country without being reactionary or Utopian. 
Let us be men of the country and not men of a 
party, and, God helping, we shall at least do good, 
if we cannot do great things." Descending from the 
tribune, the Prince went up as far as the bench on 
which General Gavaignac was sitting, and offered 
him his hand. The general, in surprise, allowed his 
hand to be taken rather than gave it. Then Louis 
Napoleon left the hall and, attended by several 
friends, went to the Elysee palace, which he had 



Digitized by 



Google 



382 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

chosen for his residence. He was to remain there 
three years, and leave it only to take possession of 
the Tuileries. 

Commandant Fleury, who was to organize the 
household of the new president of the Republic, 
had got ready the carriage and horses which con- 
veyed him from the Palais-Bourbon to the Elys^e. 
The carriage was a large coup£ which had belonged 
to the Princesse de Li^ven, M. Guizot's friend. The 
two horses had been bought from General Cavaignac, 
who purchased them in Algeria, after the revolution 
of February, at the sale of the Due d'Aumale's 
stud. On either side of the carriage, driven by one 
Ledoux who had been Louis Philippe's coachman, 
rode Colonel Edgard Ney and Commandant Fleory, 
one destined to be thereafter master of the hounds 
and the other grand equerry of the Emperor. On 
entering the Elysee, the President was greatly sur- 
prised at finding all the requisites for a piincely 
abode. Footmen in the imperial livery were mar- 
shalled in the ante-chamber. The Swiss porter was 
striking his halberd on the ground, and ushers were 
stationed at the inner doors. " The Prince sat down 
at table," General Fleury tells us in his Memoirs. 
" At this first dinner intimate friends were present : 
Persigny, Laity, Mocquard, Bataille, Colonel Vaudrey, 
Edgard Ney, and L The dinner, though not elabo- 
rate, was well served. The long gallery, with its 
paintings by Carle Vernet, brought back the days 
of his earliest childhood to the Prince. He seemed 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION 888 

to feel the contentment of a traveller who, after long 
years of absence, returns to his own home." 

Louis Napoleon's guests at the first dinner at the 
Eljs^e were all ardent Bonapartists. But not one 
of the ministers whom the Prince had just appointed 
belonged to that party. By the antecedents of its 
members, two names alone excepted, the cabinet of 
December 20, 1848, was a ministry of the left centre 
and Orleanist. An eminent orator, a distinguished 
representative of the honest and liberal middle 
classes, M. Odilon Barrot, president of the Council 
and Minister of Justice, had been a loyal partisan 
of the July monarchy, and his opposition while that 
lasted had never ceased to be dynastic. The politi- 
cal affinities of his colleagues. General Rulhidre, 
MM. Drouyn de Lhuys, de Malleville, de Tracy, 
Hippolyte Passy, L^on Faucher, all recommended 
to Louis Napoleon's choice by M. Thiers, resembled 
those of M. Odilon Barrot. There was but one repub- 
lican in the cabinet, M. Bixio, and he kept his port- 
folio only a few days. The sole legitimist minister 
was Comte de Falloux, who had been induced to 
accept the double portfolio of Public Instruction 
and of Worship by the urgent solicitations of MM. 
Mol^, Thiers, de Montalembert, Madame Swetchine, 
and the Abb^ Dupanloup, who hoped through his 
influence to secure the passage of the law granting 
liberty of instruction, so keenly desired by the Catho- 
lic party. However, M. de Falloux hesitated much 
before accepting. " I wished," said the Prince, " 



Digitized by 



Google 



884 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

rely upon the Conservatives, but since this point of 
support fails me, I shall seek one elsewhere. To-day 
the legitimist party (by preventing M. de Falloax 
from accepting) raises its standard; to-morrow the 
Orleanist party will do likewise. I cannot remain 
in the air, and I shall ask the left for the support 
which the right is not willing to lend me. I will 
see M. Jules Favre this evening." This threat had 
put an end to the hesitation of Comte de FaUoax. 
As to General Changarnier, called by the president 
of the Republic to the double command of the 1st 
Military Division and the National Guards of the 
Seine, although this plurality of offices was contrary 
to the law of 1831, the royalist salons found it pleas- 
ant to consider him as a future Monk, and proposed 
doing all in their power to cajole and win him over. 

Fated to struggle against embarrassments and 
difficulties of every kind, Louis Napoleon was now 
to oscillate between the right and the left as he did 
afterwards between the Papacy and the Italian revo- 
lution, between Russia and Turkey, between Austria 
and Prussia. This see-saw system, so fatal to him 
from the standpoint of foreign policy, was from the 
domestic point of view marvellously favorable to 
the accomplishment of his designs. His mother, 
very ambitious for her race if not for herself, in spite 
of all her protestations of detachment from human 
things, had left him written counsels by which he 
was to be guided. In this programme Queen Hor- 
^^Tse said: "Napoleon, the author of our celebrity, 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE PBESIDENTIAL ELECTION 835 

doubtless crushed peoples under the weight of his 
ambition, but he has awakened magnificent hopes 
among all the poor and astonishing admiration every- 
where. . . . When those who own property are 
afraid of losing their advantages, promise to be their 
guaranty. If it is the people who suffer, show that 
you have been oppressed like them ; make it under- 
stood that apart from you there is no safety. Be- 
lieve that it is not impossible to become literally 
an idol, something like the Redeemer. 

" It is so easy, moreover, to gain the affections of 
the people. They have the simplicity of childhood. 
If they think you are occupjring yourself about them, 
they leave you free to do it ; it is only when they 
believe there is injustice and treason that they re- 
volt. . . . Rebuff nobody, yet give yourself away 
to nobody. Welcome every one, even the sight- 
seers, the schemers, the advisers. All that is ser- 
viceable. ... Be everywhere a little, always 
piTident, always free, and show yourself only when 
the opportune moment comes." 

It was in following such a line of conduct, in 
applying the maxim "divide to reign," and in using 
men of the most oppcJsite opinions, and elements the 
most contradictory to attain his end, that Louis 
Napoleon was to profit by his imperturbable calm- 
ness, his surprising temperament, his power of dis- 
simulation, his experience as a conspirator, his 
hardihood as a political gamester, and his faculty of 
tranquil and sweet seductiveness. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XXXn 

THB SLY8BB 

nno the mind of the new president of the Re- 
-^ public the Elys^e suggested ideas alternately 
brilliant and sinister. This elegant palace has had 
the most widely different destinies. Built in 1718, 
it was successively the residence of the Comte d'Ev- 
reux, the Marquise de Pompadour, her brother the 
Marquis de Marigny, the financier Beaujon, and the 
Duchesse de Bourbon, mother of the Due d'Enghien. 
When this princess emigrated, the Elys^e became 
national property, and was handed over to con- 
tractors, who gave public balls in the gardens, and 
transformed the palace into a sort of casino, where 
games of chance, roulette especially, were played. 
Murat bought it in 1803, and when he went to 
occupy the throne of Naples, transferi-ed it to the 
Emperor, who gave it to Josephine after the divorce, 
and who resided there during a part of the Hundred 
Days. It was from there that he departed for Water- 
loo, and there he signed his second abdication. Under 
the reign of Louis XVIII., the Elysde was the dwell- 
ing of the Due and Duchesse de Berry from the 
date of their maniage until the day when the Prince 

886 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE ELTSEB 887 



was stricken down by Louvel's poniard. One of 
the earliest memories of the president of the Repub- 
lic was of seeing his nncle, the Emperor, at the 
Elysfe. There the power of Napoleon "First had 
given way. There that of Napoleon Third was to 
be established. 

January 1, 1849, at ten o'clock in the morning, 
the President, wearing the uniform of a general of 
the National Guard, and surrounded by Marshals 
Molitor, S^bastiani, Bugeaud, Reille, and Admiral 
de Mackau, all in full uniform, received the ofiBcials 
and diplomatic corps. To the nuncio he expressed 
the hope of seeing Pius IX. speedily restored to his 
dominions. January 4 he went to install King 
J^r6me as governor of the Invalides, and was re- 
ceived at the entrance of the hotel by General Petit, 
made famous by the farewells of Fontainebleau. On 
the 17th he dined at the house of M. de Falloux, 
Minister of Public Instruction. Among the guests 
one noted M. Armand Marrast, president of the 
National Assembly, the Archbishop of Paris, Marshal 
Bugeaud, Generals Changarnier, Bedeau, de Lamori- 
cidre, MM. Thiers, Mol^, de Noailles, Viennet, 
Victor Hugo, Cousin, de Saint-Priest, de Maill^, 
de Mouchy, Berryer, de La Rochejaquelein. January 
29, Louis Napoleon dined at the house of M. L^on 
Faucher, Minister of the Interior, with MM. Armand 
Marrast, de R^musat, Mol^, Berryer, de Montalem- 
bert, Mignet, Meyerbeer, de Luynes, Victor Hugo, 
M^rim^e, Marshal Bugeaud, General Changarnier. 



Digitized by 



Google 



888 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

February 16, he gave a ball at the Elys^e which wa8 
attended by the most eclectic society. The National 
Assembly was represented by MM, M0I6, Thiere, 
Guinard, Flocon, Bixio, Armand Marrast, General 
Cavaignac, General Changarnier. The faubourg 
Saint-Germain had sent some of its greatest ladies. 
All eyes rested on Madame de Gramont (mother 
of the Duke, who was Minister of Foreign Affairs 
in 1870), with whom the President promenaded for 
a long time in the salons. The Patrie newspap>er 
described the ball in an article reproduced by the 
Moniteur^ in which it said: "This fete, which was 
characterized by the most cordial gaiety and the 
most excellent good taste, will doubtless produce 
the best effect on the Parisian public; it will help 
to restore confidence in the commercial world and 
the laboring classes of the population, who have long 
been alarmed and discouraged by hearing it repeated 
in every tone that the fashionable classes are g^ing 
away." 

February 24, the anniversary of the Revolution, 
Mass was said at the Madeleine by the Archbishop of 
Paris. The President was present. I seem still to 
see him going up the church steps in the uniform 
of a genei-al of the National Guard, with the grand 
cordon of the Legion of Honor and a silver-laced hat 
surmounted by a very tall tricolored plume. In the 
evening the public edifices were illuminated. 

The next day, Louis Napoleon inaugurated the 
section of the railway from Creil to Saint Quentin 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE ELY SEE 839 



jLngf between Compidgne and Noyon. In the latter 
sity he said : ^^ I share the desire of the country for the 
sonsolidation of the Republic. I hope that all the 
parties by which the country has been divided for 
the last forty years may find here a neutral ground 
where they can agree to unite for the greatness and 
prosperity of France." He held a review at Com- 
pidgne the same day. He held another in Paris, at 
the Champs de Mars, the 2l8t of May, forty thousand 
men taking part in it. After the review he wrote to 
General Changarnier : " With soldiers like these our 
young Republic would soon resemble its elder, that 
of Marengo and Hohenlinden, if the foreigners forced 
us to it. And within, if the anarchists raised their 
flag, they would be instantly reduced to order by this 
army ever faithful to duty and honor. To praise the 
troops is to praise the chief who commands them. I 
am glad of this new occasion of expressing to you 
my private sentiments of high esteem and friend- 
ship." At this time there was complete accord be- 
tween the President and General Changarnier. Nor 
did any conflict arise between Louis Napoleon and 
the Constituent Assembly, which broke up May 27, 
1849, and was replaced by the Legislative Assembly 
on the following day. 

The new Assembly was composed of more than 
seven hundred members. Five hundred of these 
were conservatives, nearly two hundred of them be- 
longing to the legitimist party, while the rest were 
former friends of the July monarchy. The moderate 



Digitized by 



Google 



840 LOUIS NAPOLEOy 

republicans numbered about seventy, and the socUlI- 
ists one hundred and eighty. The majority were 
averse to the republican regime, but did not agree in 
their schemes for a monarchical restoration. Tlie 
Assembly was divided against itself. 

One especially irritating subject, the Roman ques- 
tion, divided the Right from the Left. After the 
assassination of his minister, M. Rossi, Pius IX*, who 
was threatened by the revolution, had succeeded in 
escaping from his capital, November 24, 1848, and 
had taken refuge in Gaeta, on Neapolitan ground. 
February 9, 1849, a Constituent Assembly, held in 
Rome, had proclaimed the downfall of the pontifical 
power and the establishment of the Republic. At 
Novara, March 28, the Piedmontese army had been 
destroyed by the Austrians. Charles Albert having 
abdicated, his son Victor Emmanuel had ascended 
the throne. The French Government had allowed 
Austria to vanquish at Novara, but wished to pre- 
vent its intervention at Rome. The National Assem- 
Wy» ty a majority of three hundred and ninety-five 
against two hundred and eighty-three, had voted a 
loan intended for the Roman expedition. Com- 
manded by General Oudinot, this expedition landed 
at Civita Vecchia, April 25. Having rashly ad- 
vanced to the walls of Rome, it was defeated there, 
April 80. Louis Napoleon wrote to General Oudinot, 
May 8 : *' I hoped that the inhabitants of Rome, open- 
ing their eyes to evidence, would cordially receive an 
army which came to accomplish a disinterested and 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE ELY SEE 841 



benevolent mission amongst them. It has been other- 
^w^ise; our soldiers have been received as enemies; 
our military honor is involved, and I will not allow it 
fco be injured; reinforcements shall not be lacking 
to you. Tell your soldiers that I appreciate their 
bravery, that I share their grief, and that they may 
always rely on my support and my gratitude." 

At bottom, Louis Napoleon was struggling be- 
tween his youthful souvenirs, which favored Italian 
liberalism, and the governmental interest, which 
urged him to conciliate the clergy and the con- 
servative party in France. He would gladly have 
avoided irritating either the republicans of Rome 
or the Papacy. But that was impossible. A con- 
ciliatory mission was confided to M. Ferdinand de 
Lesseps, but it was a failure; and the negotiator, 
who was accused of having inclined too much to 
the side of the Roman republic, was disavowed. 
Confronted by the disposition manifested in Paris 
by the majority of the National Assembly, Louis 
Napoleon, had he wished to do so, could not have 
declared against the Pope's cause. Hence the expe- 
dition was continued with extreme energy. Hence, 
also, arose an exasperation among the Mountain 
party which brought about the insurrection of 
June 13, the very day on which the breaching 
batteries of the French army opened fire on the 
ramparts of Rome. Numerous groups assembled in 
the boulevard region, which extends from the Porte 
Saint Martin to the Place de la Bastille. A column 



Digitized by 



Google 



842 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

of from fifteen to twenty thousand men came down 
the boulevards, growing larger as it came. General 
Changarnier waited until the head of this column 
reached the church of the Madeleine. Then, de- 
bouching by the rue de la Pais with a strong divi- 
sion, he cut this manifestation in two. The leaders 
had designated the Conservatory of Arts and Trades^ 
in the rue Saint Martin, as the headquarters of the 
insurrection. It was there that M. Ledru-Rollin 
and one hundred and nineteen other representative 
Mountain deputies had signed this proclamation : 
"To the French People, the National Guard, and 
the Army. The Constitution is violated ; the people 
are rising to defend it. The Mountain is at its 
post." However, the people remained indifferent. 
The troops, after removing some barricades with 
ease, entered the Conservatory. Then ensued a gen- 
eral sauve qui pent among the Mountain deputies. 
They fled through every outlet, even the windows. 
The disturbance had been quelled, one might say, 
without a combat. As soon as the boulevards were 
cleared, Louis Napoleon, on horseback, attended by 
several generals and an escort of lancers, rode all 
along the line of the boulevards and through the 
Faubourg Saint-Antoine, coming back to the Elys^e 
by the rue de Rivoli. He was everywhere greeted 
with applause. According to what has been related 
by M. Odilon Barrot, he replied, half seriously, half 
laughingly, to General Changarnier, who was compli- 
menting him on the day : " Yes, General, the day has 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE SLT8EE 848 



been good, very good. But you hurried me past the 
Tuileries." 

The president of the Republic profited by the fine 
^ireather to make official excursions to several cities 
in the neighborhood of Paris. The inauguration of 
railways, and distributions of flags to the National 
Guard, served as pretexts for these excursions, on 
which he was always received as a sovereign. At 
Chartres he remembered that Saint Bernard had 
preached the second crusade in that city, and Henri 
IV. been crowned there, and evoking both memo- 
ries, he drank a toast to religion and concord. At 
Amiens he spoke of the treaty of 1802. At Ham, 
July 22, he went to the fortress, and visited every 
part of his former prison, then occupied by the 
Algerian chieftain Bon-Maza, whom he pardoned. 
The town offered him a banquet. "Believe me," 
said he, " if I have come to Ham, it is not through 
pride, but through gratitude. I had it at heart to 
thank the inhabitants of this town and its environs 
for all the marks of sympathy they constantly ' 
gave me during my misfortunes. To-day when, 
elected by all France, I have become the head of 
this great nation, I cannot glorify myself on account 
of a captivity caused by an attack on a regular gov- 
ernment. When one has seen how many woes fol- 
low in the train of the most righteous revolutions, 
one scarcely comprehends the audacity of having 
been willing to assume the terrible responsibility of 
a change. I do not complain therefore of having 



Digitized by 



Google 



344 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

expiated here by six years of imprLsonment my 
temerity against the laws of my country, and it is 
with happiness that, in the very places where I suf- 
fered, I propose a toast in honor of the men who 
determined, in spite of their convictions, to respect 
the institutions of their country." 

Some days later, Louis Napoleon affirmed his per- 
sonal ideas in a letter which had a wide publicity. 
The French army entered Rome July 8, 1849, and 
the temporal power of the Pope was re-established 
there. Pius IX. remained at Gaeta, and did not 
return to his capital until the 12th of the following 
April, but he sent three cardinals thither who, ar- 
riving July 81, governed in his name and inaugu- 
rated a period of reaction. It was then that Louis 
Napoleon wrote to his orderly officer, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Edgard Ney, who accompanied the Roman 
expedition, a celebrated letter dated August 18. 
The Moniteur reproduced it in its non-official col- 
umns, September 7 : " My dear Ney," said the Presi- 
dent, " the French Republic did not send an army t^ 
Rome to stifle Italian liberty there, but on the con- 
trary to regulate it by preserving it against its own 
excesses, and to give it a solid foundation by replac- 
ing on the pontifical throne the Prince who was the 
first to place himself boldly at the head of all useful 
reforms. I learn with pain that the benevolent in- 
tentions of the Holy Father, like our own action, 
remain sterile in presence of hostile passions and 
influences. They would like to make proscription 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE ELY SEE 846 



and tyranny the bases of the Pope's return. Say for 
me to General Rostolan that he must not permit any 
act to be committed under the shadow of the tri- 
colored flag which can distort from its true meaning 
the real character of our intervention. I sum up 
thus the re-establishment of the temporal power of 
the Pope: General amnesty^ SecvJarization of the 
ddministrationy the Code Napoleon and liberal Gov- 
emmefit. I have felt peraonally offended, in read- 
ing the proclamation of the three cardinals, to find 
that the name of France was not even mentioned, 
nor the sufferings of our brave soldiers. Any insult 
offered to our flag or our uniform goes straight to 
my heart, and I beg you to make it plainly under- 
stood that if France does not sell her services, she 
at least exacts gratitude for her sacrifices and her 
abnegation. When our armies made the tour of 
Europe, they left everywhere, as traces of their pas- 
sage, the destruction of feudal abuses and the germs 
of liberty ; it shall not be said that in 1849 a French 
army could have acted in another sense and to bring 
about other results." The President had not com- 
municated this letter, in which his ideas of 1881 
reappeared, to any of his ministers. 

As to domestic politics, the accord between Louis 
Napoleon and his ministry was merely apparent. 
'Hie president of the Council, M. Odilon Barrot, 
•m written in his Memoirs : " I felt that there was 
&Q abyss between Louis Napoleon's ideas and my 
own. Gentle, easy, full of distinction and good will 



Digitized by 



Google 



846 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

in his habitual relations, talking little, and knowing 
how to listen a great deal, wherein he di£Fered widely 
from Louis Philippe, it sometimes happened that he 
betrayed his opinion by sudden sallies; but, at the 
slightest opposition, he withdrew it into his secret 
soul, and seemed to peld to the arguments of his 
advisers, while in reality he merely postponed and 
waited. It was not difficult for me to divine this 
character, at once enterprising and reserved, and 
to foresee that although we might pass through 
critical times together and in unison, yet this accord 
would cease as soon as danger no longer diverted 
attention from the profound contradiction between 
our sentiments and opinions." M. Alexis de Tocque- 
ville, Minister of Foreign Affairs at that time, has 
written: "We wanted to make the Republic live; 
he wanted to be its heir. We merely supplied him 
with ministers, while he needed accomplices." 

The situation of the Cabinet was difficult. The 
republicans accused it of being clerical, and the 
majority of the Assembly thought it too republican. 
MM. Thiers and Mol^, who went often to the Elys^e, 
constituted, with the other heads of the conservative 
party, a sort of occult ministry which wounded the 
susceptibilities of the Cabinet. The Right, wishing 
to regain possession of all the places for its tools, 
displayed irritation because the Minister of the 
Interior, M. Dufaure, who had occupied the same 
position under General Cavaignac's government, had 
refused to dismiss republican officials. Dividing to 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE ELT8EE 347 



reign, Louis Napoleon sought to turn the quarrels 
between the Right and the Left to his own advantage. 
He made them an occasion for dismissing his Cabinet, 
although it had not ceased to possess a majority in 
the Chamber. Even while parting with M. Odilon 
Barret in this way, he signed a series of decrees 
which appointed him, on the same day, chevalier, 
officer, commander, grand officer, and grand cross of 
the Legion of Honor. M. Barrot refused this dis- 
tinction, and clearly comprehended that the advent 
of personal power was approaching. " A day came," 
he has written in his Memoirs, "when M. Thiers 
cried out dolefully : * The Empire is ripe ! ' It was 
on the 28th of October, 1849, that he should have 
uttered that cry; that is, when a ministry truly 
parliamentary, and in full possession of the majority, 
was replaced by ministers who were mere under- 
clerks ; it was on that day, assuredly, that the first 
foundations of the imperial throne were built up 
anew." 

Louis Napoleon had the art of advancing and 
recoiling according to circumstances. Haughty as 
had been his message of October 81, which contained 
such phrases as these : " France, unquiet because it 
has no direction, seeks the hand, the will of the 
man elected on December 10; . . . the mere name 
of Napoleon stands to it for a programme ; it means 
order, authority, religion, the welfare of the people 
' in the interior, and on the exterior, national dignity," 
I — the attitude of the new ministry in face of the 



y Google 



348 LOUia NAPOLEON 

Assembly was dijSereiit. The *^ Buigiaves *' triumphed. 
The law grranting liberty of instractioii, so much 
desired by the Catholic party^ was passed, March 15, 
1850, by 899 votes against 137. '' The expedition to 
Rome is necessary in the interior," said M. de 
Montalembert. On the 31st of the following May, 
by 483 votes against 241, the Assembly adopted the 
law mutilating universal suffrage under pretext of 
purifying and moralizing it. This law struck not 
merely vagabonds and vagrants, those whom, during 
the discussion, M. Thiers described as a ^^ vile multi- 
tude," but many poor but honest citizens as well. 
More than three millions of citizens found themselves 
stricken from the electoral lists. Louis Napoleon 
counted on making the Assembly bear the recoil of 
this unpopular measure. As M. Odilon Barrot has 
said, ^^ The conservative party was unable to see that 
it was wantonly forging the weapon with which it 
was to be assailed." 

At the same time, the President sought every 
occasion of entering into direct personal relations 
with the provincial populations. He was welcomed 
by the ringing of bells and by salvos of artillery. 
•He said, at the banquet of Soissons, June 9, 1850: 
•*If I were always free to do as I please, I would 
come among you without pomp or ceremony. I 
would like to participate, unknown, in your labor 
as well as in your festivals, so as to judge better for 
myself of your wishes and your sentiments. But it 
appears that fate always puts a barrier between you 



Digitized by 



Google 



THJB ELTSEJB 349 



and me, and it is my regret never to have been able 
to be a private citizen of my countiy. As you know, 
I spent six years not many leagues from this city, 
but walls and moats divided us." At Dijon he said, 
August 13 : ^' When I see my name still retaining 
influence over the masses, an influence due to the 
glorious head of my family, I congratulate myself 
upon it, not for me, but for you, for France, and for 
Europe." At Lyons, August 15, he disavowed in 
this way the schemes attributed to him: ^^Rumoi-s 
of a coup cTUtat have perhaps reached you ; but you 
have put no faith in them, and I thank you for it. 
Surprises and usurpations may be the dream of parties 
lacking support in the nation ; but he who is elected 
by six millions of votes executes the will of the 
people ; he does not betray it." Nevertheless, at 
Strasburg, Nancy, Metz, Rheims, Caen, Cherbourg, he 
appeared surrounded by all the pomp of sovereignty. 
The Assembly, which adjourned from August 11 
to November 11, had instituted a permanent com- 
mittee of twenty-five members, all of whom were 
opposed to projects of imperial restoration. The 
two powers were observing each other with mutual 
distrust. October 30, 1850, Louis Napoleon was 
holding a grand review on the plateau of Satory, 
near Versailles, when several regiments of cavalry 
shouted: "Long live the Emperor!" The com- 
mittee demanded explanations. General Changar- 
nier addressed the following order of the day to 
the troops: "By the terms of the law, the army 



Digitize! by 



Google 



860 LOUia NAPOLEON 

does not deliberate; by the terms of the military 
regulations, it must abstain from all demonstratioD^ 
and utter no cry when under arms. The genend- 
in-chief reminds the troops under his command of 
these stipulations/' From this moment there was 
a ruthless struggle between it and the President 
but as yet a silent one. Louis Napoleon did not 
think the hour had come for throwing off the 
mask. November 12, he addressed a message to 
the Assembly which concluded thus : " What espe- 
cially preoccupies me is not to know who will govern 
France in 1852, but to so employ the time at my 
disposal that the transition, whatever it may be, 
shall take place without agitation and disturbance. 
The aim most worthy of a lofty soul is not to seek, 
when in power, for expedients by which it may be 
perpetuated, but to watch incessantly for means of 
consolidating, to the advantage of all, the principles 
of authority and morality which defy the passions 
of men and the instability of laws. I have loyally 
opened my heart to you, you will respond to my 
frankness by your confidence, to my good inten- 
tions by your concurrence, and God will do the 
rest." Louis Napoleon, having lulled the vigilance 
of the Assembly in this way, waited until January 
9, 1851, to rid himself of the chief obstacle to his 
projects. General Changamier. The latter had not 
merely become the general of the Parliament, but 
the legitimists and Orleanists regarded him as a 
future Monk. The president of the Republic, from 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE ELT8EE 851 



whom he held command of the 1st Military Division, 
and also of the National Guards of the Seine, took 
them from him. From that day a conflict began 
between Louis Napoleon and the Assembly which 
was to end only by a coup cTJEtat 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XXXIII 

THB PEELIMINAEIBS OF THE COUP D'eTAT 

T^O revenge itself for the dismissal of General 
-^ Changarnier, the Assembly declared, January 18, 
1861, that the ministry did not possess its confidence. 
Louis Napoleon changed his ministers, but not his 
policy. Disembarrassed of the man who had been 
the chief obstacle in the way of his projects, he pur- 
sued his object calmly and patiently, seeking to con- 
ciliate the clergy, the army, and the masses of the 
people. On Good Friday, which in 1851 fell on 
April 18, the procession of relics at Notre Dame was 
preceded by a discourse from Pdre Ravignan. The 
Prince-President — as people were beginning to style 
the chief executive — seated himself in the church- 
warden's pew, as did Marshal Exelmans. May 23, 
he reviewed the army of Paris on the Champ-de- 
Mars. June 1, at the inauguration of the Dijon rail- 
way, he made a speech at the banquet o£Fered him bj 
that city, in which Parliament saw a menace. " For 
three years," said the Prince, " it has been remarked 
that I have always been seconded by the Assembly 
when there was a question of combating disorder bj 
repression. But when I have wished to do good, to 

352 



Digitized by 



Google 



PBELIMINABIES OF THE COUP B'ETAT 868 

ameliorate the condition of the people^ it has refused 
me this concurrence. If France recognizes that no 
one has the right to dispose of her without her con- 
sent, France has but to say so : my courage and my 
energy will never fail her. . . . Whatever the duties 
my country may lay upon me, it will find me deter- 
mined to obey its wishes. And, be very sure, gen- 
tlemen, France will not perish in my hands." 

General Changamier, thinking he ought to reply 
indirectly to the Dijon speech, delivered from the 
tribune, June 8, a short and important harangue, 
which ended thus : ^^ The army does not desire more 
than you to see any one inflict on France the mis- 
eries and shames of a government of Csdsars, alter- 
nately imposed and reversed by debauched plebeians. 
... No one will oblige our soldiers to march against 
this Assembly. Into that fatal path they will not 
drag one battalion, one company, one squad, and they 
will find in front of them the leaders whom our sol- 
diers are accustomed to follow on the road of duty 
and of honor. Mandataries of France, deliberate in 
peace." 

Meanwhile Louis Napoleon continued his tri- 
umphal excursions in the provinces. July 1, he 
inaugpirated the section of the railway between 
Tours and Poitiers, and on the 6th, at Beauvais, 
the statue of Jeanne Hachette. On that day the 
bishop said to him : " Whatever may be the future 
now hidden from us by heavy clouds, the Church 
will gladly repeat that under your government the 

2a 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



854 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

august chief of Catholicity returned to the capital 
of the Christian world, and that education has been 
partially delivered from the shackles which impeded 
the development so necessary to religious principles." 
At the banquet o£Fered him by the city, Louis Napo- 
leon delivered an address on providential mLssions, 
which was stamped with a sort of mysticism: ^^It 
is encouraging," said he, ^^ to think that, in extreme 
dangers. Providence often reserves to one alone to 
be the instrument of the salvation of all, and, in cer- 
tain circumstances, it has often chosen this one from 
amongst the weaker sex, as if by the fragility of the 
envelope it wished to prove more fully the empire of 
the soul over human things, and to make it evident 
that a cause does not perish when it has an ardent 
faith, an inspired devotion, a profound conviction to 
guide it. Thus, in the fifteenth century, at an inter- 
val of only a few years, two women, obscure but ani- 
mated by the sacred fire, Jeanne d'Arc and Jeanne 
Hachette, appeared at the most hopeless moment to 
fulfil a sacred mission." 

It was only because he too wished to pose as a 
saviour that Louis Napoleon evoked such souvenirs 
as these. A rumor had been put in circulation to 
the effect that during the year 1852 society would 
be exposed to the most serious perils. In the month 
of May, within a few days of each other, the powers 
of the president of the Republic and those of the 
Assembly were to expire ; the prophets of misfortune 
were announcing the most terrible catastrophes for 



Digitized by 



Google 



PRELUilNABIEa OF THE COUP B'ETAT 865 

that date. The great art of Louis Bonaparte's par- 
tisans was to maintain and profit by the terrors which 
had laid hold of the middle and lower classes. 

Article 45 of the Constitution declared the presi- 
dent of the Republic ineligible, and fixed on the sec- 
ond Sunday of May for the election of his successor. 
The new Assembly was to be chosen April 29, 1862, 
and the old one to sit until May 28. In a report 
read from the tribune, July 8, 1861, M. de Tocque- 
ville expressed himself as follows on the danger of 
such a situation : ^^ Thus, in the same month, and 
only a few days apart, the executive power and 
the legislative power will change hands. Never, 
assuredly, has a great people, as yet ill-accustomed 
to the use of republican liberty, been thrown sud- 
denly by law into so hazardous a position, never has 
a nascent Constitution been subjected to so rude a 
trial. . . . The existing status quo must necessarily 
result either in usurpation or in anarchy, in any 
case, in the ruin of the Republic and perhaps of 
liberty." 

Consequently, M. de Tocqueville and the com- 
mittee whose report he drew up proposed a revision 
of the Constitution. In August, 1850, out of eighty- 
five councils-general, fifty-two had passed a resolu- 
tion to this effect. By July 1, 1861, the number 
of petitioners expressing the same desire had risen 
to 1,128,000. There was evidently a majority in the 
Assembly in favor of the revision, but it was not a 
majority of three-fourths. Now, according to its 



Digitized by 



Google 



366 L0UI8 NAPOLJKON 

article 111, the Constitution could not be revised 
unless the revision were demanded bj a three-fourths 
majority of all the votes cast. 

Louis Napoleon was irrevocably determined to 
remain in power. But of all solutions which woald 
have permitted him to attain this end, that which he 
would certainly have preferred would have been a 
legal re-election following a revision of the Consti- 
tution. The deliberations of the Assembly on the 
project of revision began July 14, 1851, and did not 
close until the 19th. After magnificent but fruitless 
oratorical tournaments and a series of discourses, 
each more eloquent than the others, on the respec- 
tive merits of the Republic and the Monai*chy, the 
revision had 446 votes against 278. A three-fourths 
majority would have been 543, and 97 were lacking 
to the legal figure. From that moment Louis Napo- 
leon made ready for the coup d^Etat. 

After nominating a permanent committee, the 
Assembly adjourned from August 9 to November 4. 
During this interval the Prince-President lost no 
means of assuring the concurrence of the army. 
General de LamoriciSre had said at the house of 
the Due de Luynes: "The coup d'JEtat will not b^ 
made until the President has found the man for 
it. . . . His man is in Algeria. That fellow will 
stop at nothing. When you see Saint-Amaud Min- 
ister of War, say: 'Here comes the coup cTMat.'" 
The prophecy was accomplished in every particular. 
Louis Napoleon had an orderly o£Bcer, Commandant 



Digitized by 



Google 



PBELIMINABIE8 OF THE COUP D'ETAT 367 

Flemy, in whom he had absolute confidence. Him 
he sent to Algeria to dram up recruits among the 
generals and officers who would take part in the 
coup cTJEtat. In the first rank was General de Saint- 
Arnaud, who explicitly promised his concurrence. He 
was only a brigadier-general at the time, but in July 
he was given the command of a little expedition in 
Kabylia, which the journals devoted to the Prince- 
President exploited in the most pompous style. Ap- 
pointed a general of division, he was called to a 
command in Paris. October 27 he was appointed 
Minister of War. 

A noteworthy circumstance is that the three men 
who were to be Louis Napoleon's chief collaborators 
in the accomplishment of the coup d'Mat, General 
de Saints Arnaud, Comte de Morny, and M. de Maupas, 
were Bonapartists of very recent standing. Jacques 
Leroy de Saint-Amaud, born in Paris August 20, 
1798, entered the bodyguards in 1815. Having 
resigned from service, he entered it again after the 
revolution of 1830. At the age of thirty-four he was 
still a second lieutenant. Throughout the reign of 
Louis Philippe he displayed great loyalty to the 
King and his dynasty. His correspondence with 
his brother during that period has been published, 
and it contains not a trace of Bonapartism. He 
was General Bugeaud^s orderly officer when the 
general was governor of the fortress of Blaye, dur« 
ing the captivity of the Duchesse de Berry, and by 
his tact and intelligence succeeded in obtaining the 



Digitized by 



Google 



858 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

friendly regards of the captive. In 1836 he went 
to Algeria, where he distinguished himself. The 
Due d^Aumale described him as a promising officer, 
and, in 1851, wrote to congratulate him on his ap- 
pointment as a general of division. 

Comte de Morny, for whom Louis Napoleon re- 
served the post of Minister of the Interior for the 
coup cTJEtatj was the reputed son of Queen Hortense 
and General de Flahault. But that did not prevent 
him from being a militant Orleanist. Born in Paris, 
October 23, 1811, he had distinguished himself as a 
cavalry officer, served in Algeria under the eyes of 
the Due d'Orl^ans, who displayed much good will 
towards him, and made the campaign of Mascara 
and the first campaign of Constantine. He was 
decorated for having saved the life of General Tr^zel, 
whose orderly officer he was. Resigning from the 
army in 1888, he occupied himself with industrial 
pursuits. Becoming in 1842 a deputy from Puy-de- 
Ddme, he figured as one of M. Guizot's most loyal 
partisans until the end of the July monarchy. A 
friend of the princes and much sought after in 
Orleanist society, as a man of pleasure and a man of 
business he was equally interested in the salons, the 
Bourse, and politics. Up to the revolution of Feb- 
ruary he had never been in relations with Prince 
Louis, and they met in London, toward the close of 
1848, for the first time. It was only after the death 
of Queen Hortense, in 1837, that the Prince learned 
of his mother's liaison with General de Flahault, and 



Digitized by 



Google 



PBELIMIN ABIES OF THE COUP D'ETAT 859 

the revelation had caused him profound chagrin. 
As to General de Flahault, he was one of King 
Louis Philippe's favorites, and was representing him 
as ambassador to Vienna when the revolution of 
February broke out. 

After the downfall of the dynasty of July, M. de 
Morny is said to have had some slight tendencies 
toward the legitimists. The journal of the Princesse 
M^lanie de Mettemich in fact contains the following 
passage, dated in August, 1848 : " M. de Morny came 
to see Clement (Prince de Mettemich) ; he said to 
him that he no longer saw more than one chance 
of saving France: Henri V. must be called to 
the throne. He wished to make the journey to 
Frohsdorf without the knowledge of his friends." 
Returning to parliamentary life in 1849, M. de 
Morny voted with the monarchical majority in 
the Assembly, and never went over to the side of 
the Elys^e until a breach had occurred between the 
Right and the Prince-President. 

As to M. de Maupas, the prefect of police of the . 
coup cTJEtat^ he had never been esteemed a Bonapart- 
ist under the r%ime of Louis Philippe, and he served 
the King loyally, as sub-prefect of Beaune, until the 
revolution of February. 

To the list of the principal coadjutors in the work 
of the 2d of December let us add General Magnan, 
who was called, July 15, 1851, to the command-in- 
chief of the army of Paris, and in whom Louis 
Napoleon had entire confidence. 



Digitized by 



Google 



860 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

The hour of the decisive conflict was drawing 
near. Facing cleverly about, the Prince-President, 
who wished to conciliate the popular masses, pro- 
posed to the Assembly the abrogation of the law of 
May 31, 1850, by which universal suffrage had been 
restricted. The Left approved the Prince. One of 
its most ardent leadei-s, M. Michel (of Bourges), 
said from the tribune : ^^ When a man who is called 
the chief executive takes measures which in my 
opinion compromise liberty and order, I oppose him ; 
but when he takes such as assure order and liberty, 
I support him, and glory in so doing." However, on 
November 18, 1861, the Assembly, by 851 votes 
against 847, decreed the maintenance of the law of 
May 31. This was to put one of his best cards 
into the Princess hand. 

A frankly republican Assembly would have ren- 
dered any coup cCEtat impossible, but an Assembly 
divided against itself, and composed of a majority of 
royalists at odds with each other, could have no 
, power of resistance. The attempts at fusion which 
we have described in detail in our book. The Hxilet, 
had produced no result but that of increasing the 
chances of the Bonapartist cause by accentuating 
the antagonism that existed between the elder and 
the younger branches of the Bourbons. It was the 
legitimists, with M. Berryer at their head, who, 
through opposition to the Orleanists, bad combined 
with the republicans to prevent the National As- 
sembly from abrogating the law which exiled both 



Digitized by 



Google 



ncHLIMUSrABIES OF THE COUP D'ETAT 361 

branches of the Bourbons. On tlie other hand, the 
royalists of the Assembly had completely roused the 
suspicions of their republican colleagues, who had a 
far greater repugnance to a legitimist restoration 
than to the triumph of Bonapartism. Louis Napo- 
leon's chief auxiliaries, in fact, were the white flag 
and the red spectre. 

There were two men in the Assembly, M. Thiers 
and General Changarnier, to whom the republicans 
were more hostile than to the Prince-President him- 
self. They were openly accused of preparing with 
their friends for a royalist dictatorship, and at all 
costs it was desired to deprive them of the means 
of executing such a scheme. This is why nearly 
all the republicans opposed the only proposition 
which might have averted the coup (TJEtat. The 
three questors of the Assembly, General Lefld, 
M. Baze, and M. de Panat, had proposed a law 
on November 6, granting to the president of the 
Assembly the right to call on the army and all 
authorities whose concurrence it might deem neces- 
sary. The Left, with the exception of General 
Cavaignac, Colonel Charras, and several other depu- 
ties, were adverse to this proposition. During the 
discussion which took place November 17, M. Cr^- 
mieux said : ^^ The Assembly does not need a guard 
around it. Its guard is the people." M. Michel 
(of Bourges) expressed himself as follows: ^^The 
army is ours, and I defy you, whatever you might 
do should the military power fall into your hands. 



Digitized by 



Google 



862 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

to make a single soldier come here for you against 
the people. No, there is no danger, and I permit 
myself to add that if there were danger, there is 
also an invUible sentinel that guards us. I need not 
name this sentinel, it is the people.'^ Jules Favre 
put this dilemma to the Right : " Either you believe 
the President to be conspiring, in which case accuse 
him; or you do not believe it, and in that case it 
is you who are conspiring against the Republic/^ 
And yet there was a moment during the discussion 
when it seemed as if the proposition of the questors 
would be voted. " The Minister of War thought so 
too," writes M. Odilon Barrot ; " for he made haste to 
leave the Assembly, signalling M. Magnan, who was 
present in a gallery during the session, to follow him. 
M. de Morny left also, looking pale and disconcerted ; 
they went to the Elys^e to concert the measures to 
be taken in order to ward off in advance the blow 
that seemed to be impending. An order to confine 
all the regiments in their barracks was in fact given 
immediately." Useless precaution, for, thanks to 
the agreement between the partisans of the Prince 
and the members of the Left, the proposition of the 
questors was rejected by 408 votes against 300. On 
learning this news, Louis Napoleon, who was ready 
to mount on horseback, contented himself by saying : 
"Now, gentlemen, we will go to table." 

It was clear to all men of discernment that the 
Assembly had just signed its own death warrant 
But notwithstanding so many alarming symptoms. 



Digitized by 



Google 



PRELIMINARIES OF THE COUP D'ETAT 868 

it was still blind to the fate reserved for it. The 
language of the president of the Republic should 
have opened its eyes. On November 9, when re- 
ceiving at the Elys^e six hundred officers of the 
regiments of Paris, he had said to them: "If ever 
the day of danger should arrive, I would not act 
like the governments that have preceded me, nor 
would I say to you: 'March on, I am following 
you ' ; but I would say : * I am marching, follow 
me.*" November 25, in distributing rewards to 
the French exhibitors of London, he thus expressed 
himself: "How great the French Republic might 
be if it were permitted to attend to its real busi- 
ness and reform its institutions, instead of being 
incessantly disturbed by demagogic ideas on one 
side, and monarchical hallucinations on the other ! " 
He ended this discourse by the following sentences, 
which were the announcement of the coup d'Mat: 
"Do not dread the future. Tranquillity will be 
maintained whatever happens. A government which 
rests upon the entire mass of the nation, which 
has no motive but the public good, and which is 
animated by that ardent faith which is a sure guide 
across a space where no road is traced, this govern- 
ment, I say, will be able to fulfil its mission; for 
it has in it the right that comes from the people 
and the strength that comes from God." 

It is said, however, that Louis Napoleon hesitated 
before committing an act of violence contrary to 
the mildness of his character. Impassible when in 



Digitized by 



Google 



864 LOtTIS NAPOLEON 

action, he was by nature very irresolute before act- 
ing. The coup cTUtatt fixed for November 20, was 
put off to the 25th, and then to the 2d of Decem- 
ber. The Prince would have dallied yet longer 
before crossing the Rubicon, but counsellors more 
rash than he were urging him on, and he allowed 
himself to be beguiled by the prophetic date of a 
double anniveraary, — that of the coronation of Na- 
poleon, and of the battle of Austerlitz. As none of 
his ministers, excepting General de Saint-Ai-naud, 
were in the secret of what was going on, peo- 
ple in official spheres were in perfectly good faith 
when contradicting the rumors of a coup cTJEtnt. 
After so many alarms which had come to nothing, 
the Assembly began to be reassured, at least for 
December, saying to each other that the Prince 
would not alienate the tradesmen of Paris by dis- 
turbing what people were already calling the con- 
fectioners' truce. "We have at least a month 
before us," said General Changarnier. On Decem- 
ber 1 the Assembly debated, with absolute tran- 
quillity, the municipal-electoral law and the question 
of the railway between Lyons and Avignon. It 
could hardly have suspected that this was its last 
session. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XXXIV 

THE COUP D'BTAT 

/^N Monday, December 1, 1851, there is a soiree 
^^ at the Elys^e. Never has the Prince-President 
shown himself calmer or more affable. His counte- 
nance betrays no trace of any emotion whatever. 
The same evening, the Op^ra Comique gives the first 
representation of the Chdteau de Barbe-Bleue^ the 
music of which is by Limnander, and the words by 
M. de Saint-Georges, brother of the director of the 
National Printing-house. M. de Momy reaches the 
theatre at the same time as General de Cavaignac 
and General de Lamoricidre. He enters the box 
of Madame Liadidrce. ^^ They say there is to be a 
sweeping out," says this lady to him. " On which 
side shall you be?" "On the handle side," he an- 
swers. Then he goes to the Elys^e. The guests have 
just departed. A conference takes place between 
him, the Prince, General de Saint-Amaud, and M. 
Mocquard. Colonel de Seville sets off in a cab for 
the National Printing-house. He is the bearer of the 
decrees and proclamations which are to be posted 
up at daybreak the next morning. A company of 
mobilized gendarmes is at the printing-house to look 

366 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



866 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

after the workmen. The doors are hermetically 
closed. At two o'clock in the morning everything 
is printed. 

Half an hour later the police commissioners are 
summoned to the prefecture by the prefect, M. Mau- 
pas. He tells them that a plot having been formed 
against the President, they are to arrest sixteen rep- 
resentatives, Generals Bedeau, Changarnier, Lamo- 
riciftre, Cavaignac, Lefl8, Colonel Charras, M. Thiers, 
M. Roger (du Nord), M. Baze, and seven members of 
the Mountain, MM. Cholat, Valentin, Greppo, Nadaui 
Miot, Baune, Lagrange. At half-past six o'clock in 
the morning, the sixteen representatives are arrested 
at their domiciles and incarcerated at Mazas. Not 
one of the ministers, with the exception of General 
de Saint^Amaud, has been forewarned of the coup 
d'Etat. On awakening, the Minister of the Interior, 
M. de Thorign}^, is greatly surprised to see the sol- 
diera. He sends the following telegram to the prefect 
of police : " December 2, seven o'clock a.m. What 
has happened? The court of the ministry is full of 
troops." The prefect responds : " 7.10 a.m. M. de , 
Morny is charged to tell you ; you will see him in an i 
instant; wait for him." At half-past seven, M. de i 
Morny arrives at the Ministry of the Interior and ' 
hands M. de Thorigny a letter from the President, 
announcing to him that he has been replaced as Min- 
ister of the Interior by M. de Morny. The latter 
installs himself without diiBculty, and at once tele- i 
graphs instructions to all the prefects. 



Digitized by 



Google 



TBE COUP D'ETAT 867 

The Parisians are much astonished at reading on 
the walls the decree and proclamations of the Presi- 
dent. 

The decree dissolves the National Assembly and 
the Council of State, re-establishes universal suffrage 
by abrogating the law of May 31, convokes the peo- 
ple in their general assemblies, and establishes the 
state of siege throughout the extent of the first 
military division. The proclamation to the people 
proposes to submit to them a political system sum- 
marized as follows : 1. A responsible head elected 
for ten years; 2. Ministers depending solely upon 
the executive power; 3. A council of state prepar- 
ing the laws and supporting them in debate; 4. A 
legislative body debating and passing the laws, to be 
elected by universal suffrage, without balloting for a 
list ; 5. A second assembly, composed of all the illus- 
trious men of the country, as a balancing power, a 
guardian of the fundamental compact and the public 
liberties. " For the first time since 1804," says the 
President, "you will vote with a full knowledge of 
the case, and thoroughly understanding for whom 
and for what. If I do not obtain the majority of 
your votes, I will summon a new Assembly and re- 
turn to it the mandate I have received from you. 
But if you believe that the cause of which my name 
is the symbol, that is, France regenerated by the 
Revolution of '89 and organized by the Emperor, 
is still your cause, proclaim it by sanctioning the 
powers I ask of you." In the same proclamation. 



Digitized by 



Google 



868 L0U18 NAPOLKON 

Louis Napoleon accuses the Assembly of bdng a 
nest of intrigues, and of wishing to oyerthrow die 
Republic which he claims to be desirous of uphold- 
ing. ^^ Soldiers," he says in his proclamation to the 
army, ^^ be proud of your mission, you will save the 
country, for I rely on you not to violate the laws. 
but to make the first law of the country respected 
the national sovereignty of which I am the legitimate 
representative. ... In 1880, as in 1848, you were 
vanquished. After having stigmatized your heroic 
disinterestedness, they disdained to consult your in- 
clinations and wishes, and yet you are the ^te of 
the nation. Now, at this solemn moment, I wish the 
army to make its voice heard. Vote freely then as 
citizens ; but, as soldiers, remember that passive obe- 
dience to the orders of the head of the government 
is the rigorous duty of the army from the general to 
the soldier." 

Since morning twenty-five thousand infantrymen 
of the line and six thousand cavalrymen, with a large 
force of artillery, have been occupying the Place de 
la Concorde, all the approaches of the Palais-Bourbon 
and the Elys^e, the Carrousel and the Place de 
rH8tel-de-Ville. Some hours later these troops are 
reinforced by a regiment of dragoons from Saint- 
Germain and a division of heavy cavalry from 
Versailles. 

Prince Napoleon, who lives in rue d' Alger, in the 
same house as M. Gavin, goes out with him and, on 
perceiving the troops, displays an exasperation which 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE COUP D'JSTAT 869 

M. Gavin has great difficulty in calming down. As 
to King J^rdme, then governor of the Invalides, he 
had not been apprised until morning of what was 
going on. But at the first news of it that he receives 
he dons his uniform, mounts a horse, and goes to 
rejoin the President at the Elys^e. 

At ten in the morning Louis Napoleon, with King 
Jdrdme on his left, and followed by his military 
household and a very large staff of general and supe- 
rior officers, leaves the Elys^e on horseback to pre- 
sent himself to the troops. They give him a warm 
reception. It depends on himself alone to take 
possession of the ch&teau of the Tuileries at once. 
As to the National Guard, it is nowhere to be 
seen. Its commander-in-chief. General Marquis de 
Lawoestines, has been ordered to prevent any assem- 
bling of the legions. To preclude the possibility of 
beating the roll-call, the drums have been broken or 
carried off. 

What will the National Assembly do in the way 
of organizing a resistance, or, at least, offering a 
protest? The Palais-Bourbon, where its sessions are 
held, is occupied by the 92d of the line, commanded 
by Colonel Espinasse, who recently made the Kaby- 
lia campaign with General de Saint- Amaud. 

The authors of the coup oTMat fear the President 
of the Assembly, M. Dupin, so little that they have 
not thought it worth while to arrest him. No sen- 
tries are placed at the little door opening on the rue . 
de Bourgogne. A certain number of representatives 

2b 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



870 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

enter by this door and hold the simulacrom of a 
session. A chief of battalion and some soldiers sum* 
mon them to withdraw. " A sort of tumult ensaed,'' 
writes M. Odilon Barrot in his Memoirs, "which 
furnished M. Dupin an occasion to address this 
opportune reproach to his colleagues: *But, gentle- 
men, you yourselves are making more noise than 
all these worthy soldiers put together.' Another 
remark of his is quoted which gives a still better 
notion of him. To some one who reproached him 
for having yielded so easily, he replied naively : * If 
I had had a man at my ordere, I would have caused 
him to be killed.' What is certain is that after thus 
exhausting all the courage he had, he retired into 
his apartments and was not seen again all day. 
Those who had believed in the force of abstract right 
in our country could now recognize how great had 
been their error." 

Another reunion of deputies took place in the rue 
de Lille, at the house of Comte Daru, who in 1870 
was Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Ollivier Cabi- 
net. This also was forcibly dispersed. A third, 
much more important, was held at the mayoralty 
of the tenth arrondissement. The house, now de- 
stroyed, was situated on the square of the Croix 
Rouge, near the entrance of the rue de Grenelle. 
The National Guard of the quarter was commanded 
by General de Lauriston, a deputy of the Right, and 
favorable to the Parliament. It was eleven o'clock 
in the morning when nearly two hundred and fifty 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE COUP D'ETAT 871 

deputies, nearly all belonging to the Right, arrived 
at this mayoralty and held a session of which M. 
Berryer -was the ruling spirit, and in which Louis 
Napoleon's deposition was formally decreed. Gen- 
eral Oudinot was invested by it with the command 
of the army, and took for his chief of staff a deputy 
from the Mountain, Captain Tamisier. But some 
troops under the orders of General Forey arrived 
with orders to break up the assembly, allowing those 
representatives who should offer no resistance to 
leave the mayoralty, and taking all others to Mazas. 
"All to Mazas!" shouted the representatives with- 
out exception. There were not carriages enough 
to convey them. It was determined to house them 
provisionally in the cavalry barracks of the quai 
d'Orsay. The column began its march at three 
o'clock. M. de la Gorce has written in his HUtoire 
de la Seconde RSpuhlique Franpaise: "The display 
was not less singular than that of the session just 
ended. The representatives advanced between two 
rows of foot-soldiera. These foot-soldiers, now agents 
of Louis Napoleon, had belonged to the Vincennes 
chasseurs, the same who had formerly been organized 
by the Orleans princes. The troops were commanded 
by General Forey, but lately Changarnier's right-hand 
man, now a prescript. In the procession deputies of 
all opinions mingled, adversaries yesterday, united 
to^Jay, and destined to separate anew to-morrow ; for 
several of them, and not the least ardent, were to 
rally to the Elys^e later on." The representatives 



Digitized by 



Google 



8T2 L0UI8 NAPOLXON 

thus arrested spent the night at the barracks of the 
quai d'Orsay. The next morning some were trans- 
ferred to Mazas, others to Mont-Val^rien, and still 
others to Vincennes. One of their number, M. 
Odilon Barrot, shall tell us the rest: ^^When we 
were crossing the Faubourg Saint- Antoine/' he writes, 
" the workmen were beginning to leave their houses 
to go to their workshops; they asked each other 
whom these welI>escorted carriages might contain. 
^ Ah ! ' said they, af t«r learning who we were, ^ it is 
the twenty-jive francs they are going to lock up. 
That is well played.' This was all the interest 
displayed in the appointees of universal suffrage by 
the population of a faubourg so famous and so 
dreaded on account of its democratic passions. So 
vanished successively, and one by one, all the illu- 
sions cherished by either conservatives or republicans. 
They had said : He will not dare^ and he had dared. 
They had affirmed that not one soldier would march 
against the National Assembly, that they would 
rather disobey their officers; and the soldiers had 
marched and the officers had been perfectly obeyed. 
They had affirmed with great solemnity that the 
entire people would rise in defence of the Law and 
Constitution, and the people had nothing but sar- 
casms for the victims of both. At last the draw- 
bridges of the old fortress of Vincennes were 
lowered, and we were received by the general, who 
placed at our disposal the apartments occupied by 
the Due de Montpensier at the time when that 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE COUP jyETAT 878 

prince commanded the artdlleiy during his father's 
reign/' M. Odilon thus relates the manner in which 
they left Vincennes the next day. "Some one 
came," he says, " to teU us to get our packets ready. 
After long detours we reached the exterior boule- 
vai-ds, not far from La Salpetridre, where the car- 
riages suddenly stopped. The police commissioners 
alighted, saluted us respectfully, and announced 
that we were at liberty. For some minutes we could 
hardly credit so unexpected a denouement ; then each 
of us picked up his bundle and looked about for a 
vehicle." 

Generals Cavaignac, Bedeau, de Lamoricidre, 
Changarnier, Lefld, Colonel Charras, M. Baze, and 
Comte Roger (du Nord) were treated more severely. 
After thirteen hours on a tiresome road, they were 
shut up in the fortress of Ham. General Cavaignac 
had the chamber occupied by Louis Napoleon during 
his six years' captivity. 

To sum up, the reunion at the mayoralty of the 
tenth arrondissement had resulted in nothing but a 
protest. It had been almost exclusively composed 
of members of the Right, and they had not the 
faculty for rousing the masses. " What could they 
have done with the people?" says Victor Hugo. 
^^Can one fancy Falloux a tribune, stirring up the 
Faubourg Antoinet^^ However, the leaders of the 
Left were not yet discouraged. They hoped that a 
real insurrection would break out on December 8. 
On the previous day the masses had shown more 



Digitized by 



Google 



874 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

surprise than anger, the shops had remained open, 
the omnibuses continued running, payments were 
made at all the public banks, the theatres did not 
close their doors. About half-past eight o'clock on 
the morning of the 3d, a dozen representatives and 
several newspaper men arrived in the Faubourg Saint- 
Antoine, shouting: "To arms! To the barricades! 
Long live the Republic I Long live the Constitu- 
tion ! " A Mountain deputy, M. Baudin, offered a 
musket to a workman. The man replied : " Oftener 
than not, we get killed for your twenty-five francs." 
" Very well 1 " replied the intrepid deputy, " you are 
going to see how we kill for twenty-five francs." 
Then he mounted a barricade, shouted, " Long live 
the Republic!" and fell, riddled with balls. His 
death inflamed men's minds. A good many barri- 
cades were erected, and a battle was imminent. 

M. de Maupas wished to have it on the Sd of 
December, but it was otherwise determined. Greneral 
de Saint-Amaud concluded to rest the troops until 
noon the next day. Fifty thousand francs, all that 
was left of Louis Napoleon's patrimony, and supple- 
mentary rations of food and wine were distributed 
amongst them. It was thought better to end matters 
by one hard blow than to exhaust the soldiers by 
a protracted struggle of several days. This pro- 
gramme was strictly followed. The insurgents were 
allowed to develop in peace for fifteen hours. The 
troops did not leave their barracks until half-past 
one o'clock on the 4th of December, and the attack 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE COUP jyETAT 375 

did not begin until two. A barricade occupying the 
whole length of the boulevard between the Gymnase 
and the Porte Saint-Denis was destroyed by the 
72d of the line, and General Canrobert's brigade 
disposed of those that had been erected in the 
vicinity of the Porte Saint-Martin. On the boule- 
vard Montmartre, as far up as the Prophite shops 
and the house of M. Sallandrouze, shots having 
been fired from the windows, a discharge of grape 
made breaches in this house that were yawning 
for several days thereafter. At the Point Saint- 
Eustache and in the rue Rambateau there was 
desperate fighting. General Courtage's brigade, 
coming from Vincennes, went down the Faubourg 
Saint-Antoine and destroyed all the barricades they 
found. For nearly three hours Paris listened to an 
uninterrupted roaring of cannon and volleying dis- 
charges of musketry. The insurrection tried to 
reach the rue Saint-Honor^, the Place Notre-Dame- 
des-Victoires, the region of the Bourse and the 
Bank. But it was everywhere thrown back. By 
five o'clock in the evening all was over. The army 
had 25 killed and 184 wounded. As to the civilians, 
the different figures given agree so badly that no 
exact computation can be anived at. What is un- 
happily certain is that the majority of the victims 
were inoffensive people, mere spectators. On the 5th 
of December, Paris resumed its usual appearance. 

Serious disturbances occurred in the middle and 
south of France. One after another came the insur- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC^ 



376 LOma NAPOLEON 

rections of Nievre, H^rault, DrSme, the troubles of 
Allier, the Jura, Lot-et-Garonne and Gers, and the 
taking of Var and the Basses- Alpes by the socialists. 
At seveitil points, common-law crimes were com- 
mitted, which the reaction did not fail to tarn to 
its own advantage. The repression was terrible. 
Thirty-two departments were placed in a state of 
siege. Mixed commissions decided summarily and 
arbitrarily on the fate of thousands of republicans. 
Some were sent to Cayenne, 9530 transported to 
Algeria, 1545 expelled, and 2804 condemned to in- 
ternment. A decree momentarily exiled Generals 
Changariiier, Lamoricidre, Bedeau, Lefld, MM. Thiers, 
Duvergier de Hauranne, Baze, Ohambolle, de R^mu- 
sat, Creton, de Lasteyrie. General Cavaignac did 
not leave the fortress of Ham until February, in 
order to many Mademoiselle Odier. 

Nothing is so contagious in France as success. 
The official result of the plebiscite of December 
20-21, gave 7,439,216 ayes to 646,737 nays. If 
Louis Napoleon had failed he would have been called 
a criminal and a fool, as he had been after the ill- 
contrived enterprises of Strasburg and Boulogne. 
He succeeded, and he was saluted as a liberator. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XXXV 

THE BEQINKING OF 1852 

^ I ^HE Republic no longer existed save in name. 

Its president surrounded himself with all the 

pomp of sovereignty. He did not yet sleep at the 

Tuileries, because the ground floor was undergoing 

repairs, but he received and gave fStes in the large 

apartments of the second story. The functionaries 

came there to pay their respects on New Year's day, 

1852. There was a Te Deum on the same day, at 

Notre Dame, which the Prince attended, escorted 

by numerous squadrons of cavalry. On the 7th he 

was present at a full-dress representation at the 

Op^ra, and the orchestra played, for the first time, 

the march from Le Prophete. 

A large number of Orleanists seemed disposed to 
rally to the new power. But the decrees of January 
22, which unjustly deprived the Orleans family of 
a part of its property, caused them to persist in 
their opposition. Louis Napoleon's most devoted 
servitors blamed a measure so contrary to ideas of 
conciliation ; and four of his ministers — MM. de 
Momy, Fould, Rouher, and Magne — handed in 
their resignations. 

877 



Digitized by 



Google 



878 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

January 24, the decree of the Provisional Grovem- 
ment, by which titles of nobility were abolished^ was 
abrogated. February 23, there was a grand ball at 
the Tuileries. Eight thousand persons were present 
Three hundred major-domos, in the uniform prescribed 
by the ceremonial of the former imperial household, 
were noticed. 

March 29, the Prince opened the session of the 
Senate and of the legislative body in the hall of 
the Marshals, at the Tuileries. After congratulating 
himself, in his discourse, on the cessation of his 
dictatorship, he disavowed, in these terras, the pro- 
jects for a monarchical restoration : " On seeing me 
re-establish the institutions and souvenirs of the 
Empire, it has been often repeated that I would like 
to re-«stablish the Empire itself. If such were my 
constant preoccupation, this transformation would 
have been accomplished long ago; for neither the 
means nor the occasions for it have been lack- 
ing. Thus, in 1848, when six millions of suflErages 
elected me, in spite of the Constituent Assembly, I 
was not unaware that a mere refusal to acquiesce 
in the Constitution might give me a throne. But 
an elevation which might entail serious disorders 
had no attraction for me. On January 18, 1849, it 
would have been just as easy to change the form of 
government. I did not wish to do so. Finally, on 
December 2, if personal considerations could have 
outweighed the grave interests of the country, I 
might at once have asked a pompous title from the 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE BEGINNING OF 186$ 879 

people, who would not have refused it. I contented 
myself with the one I have." The Prince concluded 
thus : " Resolved, to-day, as heretofore, to do every- 
thing for France, nothing for myself, I would not 
accept modifications of the present state of things 
unless compelled to do so by evident necessity. 
Whence could this arise ? Solely from the conduct 
of the parties. If they resign themselves, nothing 
will be changed. • . . Do not let us preoccupy our- 
selves with difficulties which are doubtless improba- 
ble. Let us preserve the Republic; it menaces 
nobody, it can reassure all the world." 

Even while preserving the name Republic, Louis 
Napoleon re-established the imperial eagles. He 
made a ceremonious distribution of them on the 
Champ-de-Mars, the 10th of May. The ceremony 
was at once military and religious. All the clergy, 
with the Archbishop of Paris at their head, were 
present. The Prince, coming from the Tuileries, 
arrived by the Jena bridge a little before noon, 
followed by a platoon of Arab chiefs. After passing 
the troops in review, he dismounted from his horse, 
and ascended an immense platform resting against 
the Military School. "Soldiers," he said, "the his- 
tory of peoples is in great part the history of armies. 
On their success or their reverses depend the fate 
of civilization and the fatherland. Vanquished, it 
is invasion or anarchy ; victorious, it is glory or 
order. . . . The Roman eagle adopted by the Em- 
peror Napoleon at the beginning of this century was 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



880 LOUia NAPOLEON 

the most striking sign of the regeneration and the 
glory of France. It disappeared in our calamities. 
It must reappear when France, risen from her de> 
feats, mistress of herself, seems no longer to repudiate 
her own glory. Take back this eagle then, soldiers, 
not as a menace against foreigners, but as the symbol 
of our independence, as the souvenir of an heroic 
epoch, as the signet of nobility of each regiment 
Take back these eagles, then, which have so often 
led our fathers to victory, and swear to die, if need 
be, to defend them." 

After delivering this address, the Prince gave a 
standard to each colonel. Surmounted by an eagle, 
this standard bore the President's monogram, an R 
and an F (R^publique Fran9aise), and the names 
of the principal battles in which each regiment had 
been engaged. The religious ceremony was after- 
wards celebrated. Salvos of artillery announced the 
beginning of the Mass, which was said by the Arch- 
bishop of Paris. At the Elevation, a cannon was 
discharged, the drums beat a salute, the trumpets 
sounded a march, the troops presented arms, the 
flags were lowered. After Mass, the Archbishop de- 
livered a discourse in which he gave Louis Napoleon 
this prudent advice : ^^ Prince, pay less attention to 
the present than to the future. You may talk of 
peace when armies so valiant are at your command. 
Your eagles will have space enough for their lofty 
flight, from the summits of the Atlas to the summits 
^f the Alps and the Pyrenees." The prelate con- 



Digitized by 



Google 



THS BEGINNING OF 1852 881 

eluded his harangue in this wise: ^^God, sovereign 
master of war and of peace, come Thyself to bless 
these standards ; impress them with striking tokens 
of Thy power and sanctity. . . . May they enclose 
peace and war within their glorious folds for the 
security of the good and the terror of the wicked ; 
and may France breathe freely in their shadow, and 
be, for the welfare of the world, the greatest and 
happiest of nations!" Then the Archbishop pro- 
ceeded to the benediction of the standards. After- 
wards the Prince mounted his horse again, and the 
troops began to file off. In the evening all the 
public buildings were illuminated. 

Two days later. May 12, the army offered the 
Prince-President a grand ball at the Military School. 
Although I had not yet finished my studies I was 
present at this fSte, which I recall as if it had taken 
place but yesterday. There were fifteen thousand 
invited guests. A palace had been improvised in 
the court of honor as if by enchantment. Stars of 
steel, broadsword blades, gun-barrels, the pommels 
of pistols, the points of poniards, appeared in the 
trophies. A parterre of women and flowers glittered 
in the amphitheatre on benches arranged on two 
sides of the dancing-hall, where a carpet of striped 
rubber cloth represented an immense Oriental stuff. 
On the walls the names of French victories shone 
in letters of gold. A chime of bells, placed in the 
orchestra, rang a full peal on the entry of the Presi- 
dent, and drums beat and trumpets blared together. 



Digitized by 



Google 



382 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

At the back of the hall rose a vast platform orna- 
mented by a bust of the Emperor Napoleon, a bast 
of his nephew, a gigantic cross of the Legion of 
Honor, and a colossal military medal. The first 
quadrille was danced by the Prince-President with 
Madame de Saint-Arnaud, wife of the Minister of 
War, by General de Saint-Amaud with Lady Doug- 
l^y las, and ^ith^ General Magnan with the Princease 
Mathilde. The Prince danced a second time with 
Madame Sautereau, General Magnan's daughter. 

June 28, at the close of the session, Louis Napo- 
leon sent a message to the legislative body, in which 
he thus expressed himself : ^^ Tell your constituents 
that in Paris, this heart of France, this revolutionary 
centre which sheds light or conflagration over the 
world by turns, you have seen an immense popula- 
tion applying themselves to the removal of the traces 
of revolution, and devotiug themselves joyfully to 
labor, secure as to the future. . . . You have seen 
this haughty army, which has saved the country, 
rise still higher in the esteem of men by kneeling 
devoutly before the image of God present upon the 
altar. This is as much as to say that in France 
there is a government animated by faith and the 
love of goodness, which rests upon the people, the 
source of all power, upon the army, the source of 
all strength, and on religion, the source of all 
justice." 

The satisfaction of the Prince-President was un- 
mixed. But there was a man who, more Napoleonic 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE BEGINNING OF 1852 883 

than Louis Napoleon, more of an imperialist than 
the future Emperor, could hardly conceal his dis- 
satisfaction. This was the Minister of the Interior, 
M. de Persigny. This man found that the Republic 
was lasting too long and the Empire not coming 
sufficiently soon. "After the coup d^Etat^'* he has 
written in his Memoirs, "the Republic no longer 
existed except in name ! But the passage from the 
republican to the monarchical form, desired by some, 
dreaded by others, still appeared so diflBcult of real- 
ization that no one would have dared publicly to 
declare himself in favor of it. Obeying as it were 
a sentiment of shame, the nation seemed to banish 
the necessity of another transformation from its 
mind. It was so short a time since it had hailed 
the Republic, that in spite of its desire for stability, 
it shrank from dreaming of another evolution. The 
President openly censured all idea of change, and 
especially all attempts to bring about constitutional 
manifestations." 

Things were at this point when Louis Napoleon 
decided to make a long excursion in the departments 
of the South. At this time M. de Persigny said to 
the Ministerial Council: "What attitude ought we 
to recommend to the prefects in delicate circum- 
stances ? " " What attitude ? what circumstances ? " 
cried his colleagues. "What circumstances?" he 
returned; "but suppose they shout: *Long live 
the Emperor 1'" At tliis speech, adds M. de Per- 
signy, in relating the incident, " an unheard-of scene 



Digitized by 



Google 



884 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

occurred. It seemed as if I had put mj foot into 
an ant-hill. Questions rained on me from every 
side. The members of the Council got up, left 
their places, shouting and gesticulating. Thej 
grouped in the embrasures of the windows, talking 
animatedly together, then turning toward me like 
madmen, and asking if I wanted civil war. ... I 
withdrew alone, followed by the disturbed and irri- 
tated glances of my colleagues, and wondering 
whether I should not at once receive an invitation 
to hand in my resignation." After this scene, the 
Minister of the Interior spent one day in a sort of 
stupor. The President was about to begin his 
journey. Not a moment was to be lost. M. de 
Persigny wrote a telegij^phic despatch ordering the 
prefects of several departments through which Louis 
Napoleon had to pass to come to him without delay. 
The prefect of Cher, M. Pastoureau, was the fii'st 
to arrive. ^^ There is a train that starts for Bourges 
within an hour," the minister said to him. " Do not 
miss it Go back to your post without seeing any 
one here, and without acquainting a living soul with 
the secret instructions for the journey. These are 
the instructions : The Empire I Long live the Em- 
peror ! And let us make no mistake. The Due de 
Reichstadt, Napoleon II., never reigned, but the 
people knew him under that name for a long time. 
He was proclaimed by his father. Let us render 
this homage to his memory, and call the nephew of 
the Emperor, Napoleon III. This title will make 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE BEGINNING OF 1862 885 

the dynasty seem older. Do not lose a moment in 
arranging to distribute flags to each municipality, on 
one side of which shall appear the words : Long live 
the Emperor I and on the other : Long live Napoleon 
III. ! and when they are filing before the Prince let 
them sliout. Do the same about triumphal arches. 
. . . Manage your preparations as secretly as pos- 
sible." 

Haying taken so audacious a resolution without 
the knowledge of the President and the ministers, 
M. de Persigny was in anguish. "At every mo- 
ment," he says, "at every noise, at every changing 
of sentries at my door, I feared lest some one might 
be coming to replace or to arrest me, — how could 
I tell? — and the work might be compromised. Then 
secret doubts and terrors occurred to me. Had I not 
presumed too far upon popular sentiment? Would 
not the acclamations in favor of the Empire provoke 
collisions? Sometimes my face was covered with a 
cold sweat." However, the terrors of the adventu- 
rous minister died away. When the Prince-Presi- 
dent started on his journey to the South of France, 
M. de Persigny had the satisfaction of seeing him 
enter a railway car without either himself or any 
one around him seeming to have the least suspicion 
of what was going to happen. The prediction of 
il. Thiers was on the verge of accomplishment. One 
might say that the Empire had succeeded. 

Thus, the same man who, in 1848, had caused 
Louis Napoleon to be elected a deputy, without his 
2o 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



886 L0UI8 NAFOLBON 

knowledge, was, again without his knowledge, to 
have him acclaimed Emperor. One may question 
whether the imperial fanatic was well inspired in act- 
ing thus, and whether a Napoleonic republic would 
not have been preferable to an empire. Would not 
the First Consul have been wiser, happier, more 
truly- great than the Emperor? Was the pompous 
display of a court in harmony with modern ideas? 
Was it to Louis Napoleon's interest to efface the 
R and F which he had just inscribed upon the eagle- 
surmounted standards, and to abandon to his adver- 
saries such a talisman as the word Republic? 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XXXVI 

THE JOURNBY LN THE SOUTH 

XT was the 14th of September, 1852, when Louis 
"^ Napoleon left Saint-Cloud to make his jour- 
ney in the South. His first stop was at Orleans, 
where the prefect had not received special orders. 
The Prince was received in the usual way, with 
cries of: "Long live the Republic! Long live the 
President I Long live Napoleon ! " but without the 
slightest imperialist manifestations. He arrived the 
same day at Bourges. There M. de Persigny's pro- 
gramme was carried out to the letter. The Prince, 
not without astonishment, heard the whole popula- 
tion shouting: "Long live Napoleon HI.! Long 
live the Emperor ! " He was at Nevers the 15th of 
September, at Moulins the 16th, at Roanne the 17th, 
at Saint-Etienne the 18th. At all these places the 
imperialist manifestations reappeared. Telegraphic 
despatches giving an account of them were sent to 
the Ministry of the Interior, and from there for- 
warded to all the departments to be posted up in 
every commune of Prance. 

The Prince arrived at Lyons on the 19th. There 
he found M. de Persigny. " The reception he gave 

387 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



888 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

me," writes the latter, ^^ was glacial. Never had he 
treated me so coldly. He made no allusion to my 
initiative, but he was evidently offended by the 
determination to which I had dared to come alone, 
aud contrary to or lacking his advice." The Prince 
had just written a speech to be delivered at Lyons, 
in which he declared his intention to maintain the 
Republic. M. de Persigny, General de Saint- 
Arnaud, M. Mocquard, and M. Bret, prefect of 
the Rhone, united in trying to persuade him that 
it was too late to arrest a movement which had 
taken possession of all France. Louis Napoleon 
yielded without great resistance, and the speech 
was altered forthwith. "But it seemed to me," 
adds M. de Persigny, "that even in the midst of 
an unheard-of triumph the soul of this great prince 
experienced a sort of sadness in thinking, on one 
hand, of the collisions to which his person might 
be exposed, and on the other, of regret at having 
been surprised by an event which he had not fore- 
seen." 

On the 21st, the Prince unveiled the statue of 
Napoleon at Lyons. On this occasion be made a 
speech in which he said: "At every point of my 
journey has arisen the unanimous cry of ' Long live 
the Emperor ! ' But in my view, this cry is much 
rather a souvenir which touches my heart than a 
hope which affects my pride. Prudence and patri- 
otism require that in moments like these the nation 
should reflect before fixing its destinies, and it is 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE JOURNEY IN THE SOUTH 889 

Btill difficult for me to know under what name I can 
render the greatest services. If the modest title of 
President can facilitate the mission entrusted to me, 
and from which I have not recoiled, it is not I who, 
through self-interest, would desire to exchange it for 
that of Emperor." 

The Prince-President was at Grenoble on the 22d 
of September, the 23d at Valence, the first garrison 
of the Emperor his uncle, the 26th at Avignon and 
Marseilles. The day before, preparations had been 
discovered in this city for the employment by con- 
spirators of an infernal machine. The only result of 
this discovery was to assure the Prince a still more 
cordial welcome. The 27th he was at Toulon, the 
80th at Aix and at Ntmes, the 1st of October at 
Tarascon, the 2d at Montpellier and Narbonne, the 
8d at Carcassonne, the 4th at Toulouse, the 6th at 
Agen, the 7th at Bordeaux. 

Baron Haussmann, who soon afterwards became 
justly famous as prefect of the Seine, had organized 
the reception of the Prince with that skill and admin- 
istrative science of which he had the secret. In his 
curious Memoii's he has described the minutest de- 
tails of the reception with the fidelity of a Dangeau. 
We will leave the account to him : " For the entry 
of Bordeaux by the bridge there was a stated cere- 
monial, which had been many times employed, and 
of which people were growing weary. The arrival 
of the Prince by the upper part of the river, which 
I proposed, and his entrance into the city by that 



Digitized by 



Google 



890 LOUia NAPOLEON 

beautiful roacUtead of which the arches of the bridge 
seem to be the fluvial portico, admitted, on the con- 
traiy, of an unexampled splendor for which I made 
myself the guaranty. My opinion prevailed. We 
agreed that one of the vessels of the steamboat 
company of the upper Garonne, decorated for the 
occasion, and abundantly provisioned for a breakfast 
on board, should be at the orders of the Prince at 
Agen, in the morning of October 7, with another 
boat to follow it. The departure from Agen would 
take place at seven o'clock precisely, the tide thus 
permitting, so that the arrival at Bordeaux might not 
occur later than three o'clock in the afternoon." 
This programme was faithfully executed. M. Hauss- 
mann adds: ^^The Prince by his affable reception, 
his simple manners, his willingness to chat with 
every one, even were it but for a moment, and to 
ask questions about everything, completely charmed 
all present. He noticed the country, the course of 
the Garonne, and asked the names of the cities and 
towns lying on either bank, the houses of which 
were covered with flags, and whose inhabitants were 
shouting, ^ Long live the Emperor I ' as he passed by, 
and making powder speak in every way at their 
command.'' 

On approaching Bordeaux, Louis Napoleon went 
up on the captain's bridge, wishing to get a better 
view of the general outlines of the city. Behind the 
bridge, when he was actually in port, this unex- 
pected sight struck him with admiration and sur- 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE JOURNEY IN THE SOUTH 891 

prise. Pres^ng the arm of the prefect, he exclaimed: 
" How beautiful it is 1 *' 

From the bridge to the landing-place of the 
vertical wharf, in front of the Quinconces, the 
French vessels, with their sailors in the mizzen 
tops and on the yards, were drawn up in six un- 
interrupted parallel lines, three on either side, leav- 
ing a space four metres in width in the middle. 
Below, opposite the facade of the Chartrons, rose, 
like the background of a picture, the forest of masts 
of foreign vessels, all decked with flags, in front of 
which lay the vessels of the state, which greeted the 
arrival of the Prince by salvos of artillery, all the 
bells of the city ringing meanwhile. Louis Napoleon 
landed on the platform of the vertical quay, and the 
authorities received him under a velarium sown with 
golden bees. He mounted a horse and rode to the 
extremity of the Place des Quinconces, where the 
deputations from the five hundred and forty-four 
communes of the department of Gironde filed past 
him, preceded by banners, their mayors and deputy 
mayors wearing their ofiicial sashes. The members 
of these deputations comprised twenty thousand men, 
each of whom wore in his buttonhole a bronze medal 
stamped with the Prince's eflBgy, and on the other 
side, the words " Journey to the South. Bordeaux, 
October 7, 8, 9, and 10, 1852." They marched to 
cries of, " Long live the Emperor 1 Long live Napo- 
leon IIL ! " Afterward they drew up in lines from 
the Place des Quinconces to the primatial church 



Digitized by 



Google 



892 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

whither the Prince was going. He went on hoise- 
back, escorted by a guard of honor composed of the 
fashionable young men of the city, all very well 
mounted. On arriving in front of the church portal, 
he was complimented by the Cardinal-Archbishop, 
Primate of Aquitaine, who conducted him to ike 
choir, intoned the Te Deum^ and gave the benedic- 
tion of the Blessed Sacrament. The procession then 
resumed its march to the Municipal Palace, where 
the Prince was to lodge during his stay. Id the 
evening a dinner was laid for sixty persons, and 
a concert given ill the garden by the Saint Cecilia 
Society. The whole city was illuminated. 

The next day, October 8, another dinner of sixty 
plates at the Municipal Palace, and a ball at the 
Grand Theatre, one of the finest theatres in Europe. 
Baron Haussmann was already collaborating with M. 
Alphand, the skilful engineer of roads and bridges, 
who had built the vertical quay of Bordeaux. They 
laid their heads together to decorate the hall in a 
magnificent manner. Faithfully reproduced on the 
level of the stage, it formed with it an immense 
oval which accommodated eight thousand persons. 
The coup d'ceil was dazzling. 

The Prince had accepted a dinner for the next 
day from the Chamber of Commerce. The repast 
took place in the hall of the Bourse. One hundred 
and eighty guests were seated around an immense 
table. A vast space had been contrived in the mid- 
dle of this table, hollowed out so as not to impede 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE JOURNEY IN THE SOUTH 898 

the view of the guests, and containing a real garden 
and a reservoir with gushing fountains. Eight hun- 
dred spectators occupied the first row of galleries. 
At nine o'clock, when the repast ended, Louis 
Napoleon rose, and in a vibrant voice, amidst a 
profound and religious silence, uttered these words : 
" There is a fear to which I must respond. Certain 
persons say, distrustfully: *The Empire is war.' I 
say: ^The Empire is peace.' It is peace, because 
France desires it, and when France is satisfied, the 
world is tranquil. Glory is rightfully bequeathed 
as a heritage, but not war. Have the princes who 
pride themselves so justly on being the grandsons of 
Louis XIV. reopened his strifes ? War is not made 
for pleasure, but through necessity, and at these 
epochs of transition, when everywhere, at the side 
of so many elements of prosperity, there germinate 
so many seeds of death, one may truly say : * Woe 
to him who shall be the first to give the signal for 
a collision in Europe ! ' " Alas ! why have the sov- 
ereigns, and Napoleon III. himself, so frequently for- 
gotten this prudent reflection ? 

Continuing his discourse, the Prince developed his 
programme in the following terms : " I admit, how- 
ever, that, like the Emperor, I have many conquests 
to make. I wish, like him, to win the dissident 
parties to conciliation, and to bring back into the 
great popular stream the hostile currents which 
are wasting themselves to no one's profit. I wish 
to gain to religion, morals, comfort, that still very 



Digitized by 



Google 



894 LOUia NAPOLEON 

numerous portion of the population who, in the 
micUt of a land of faith and conviction, hardly 
know the precepts of Christ, who in the heart 
of the most fertile countiy on earth can scarcely 
enjoy its products of prime necessity. We have 
immense uncultivated territories to bring into culti- 
vation, roads to open, harbors to dig, rivers to render 
navigable, canals to finish, our chain of railways to 
complete. Opposite Marseilles we have a vast king- 
dom to assimilate to France. We have all our great 
western ports to bring nearer to the American conti- 
nent by the rapidity of communication which we yet 
lack. We have everywhere, in fact, ruins to rebuild, 
false gods to cast down, truths to be made triumphant. 
This is how I understand the Empire if the Empire 
is to be restored. Such are the conquests that I 
meditate, and all of you who listen to me, and who 
desire as I do the welfare of our country, are my 
soldiers." 

Unanimous plaudits gfreeted this pacific discourse, 
which was to produce as great an effect abroad as 
it did in France. Some time after concluding it, 
Louis Napoleon went up to the first row of gal- 
leries, from which he watched the illuminations of 
the harbor and the neighboring hillsides. Fireworks 
were shooting into the air on every side. 

There was a second edition — a popular edition — 
at the Grand Theatre that night of the ball given 
the night before. Offered by the city, it was intended 
for the working people. Its democratic character 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE JOUBNST HV THE BOUTH 895 

was especially pleasing to Louis Napoleon, who sur- 
prised the guests by attending it and remaining 
longer than he had done at the ball of the night 
before. As he entered, fifteen young girls ap- 
proached him. One of these, Mademoiselle Aim^e 
Raspino, daughter of an overseer who had formerly 
been a city fireman, carried an immense basket of 
flowers. Each of the others, who were uniformly 
dressed in blue, held a bouquet in her hand. Made- 
moiselle Ruspino addressed a compliment to the 
Prince, who opened the ball with her, the prefect 
dancing ms-d-ms with another workman's daughter. 
Both of the girls received a cross set with dia- 
monds the following day, presented by the Prince 
and the prefect. The lively gaiety of this popular 
ball had enchanted Louis Napoleon. Never had he 
felt happier than when surrounded by these prole- 
tarians who gave him so cordial a reception. How 
men should felicitate themselves on not knowing 
their future destinies 1 What a gloom would have 
pervaded the Prince's countenance, then so trium- 
phant, had he known, during these ovations of 
October 9, 1852, that on February 29, 1871, in this 
same hall of the Grand Theatre of Bordeaux, trans- 
formed into a parliamentary chamber, the downfall 
of his dynasty would be proclaimed! 

On the day settled on for his departure, October 
10, the Prince said to the Municipal Council : " Gen- 
tlemen, you have received me as a sovereign. Kindly 
remember me as a friend." Then he walked to the 



Digitized by 



Google 



896 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

cathedral, where he was received by the Cardinal- 
Archbishop. M. Haussmann accompanied him as far 
as Laroche-Chalais, where he took his leave. The 
Prince said at this time: *^I could not be better 
pleased with my stay here and with all I have seen 
in Bordeaux, nor with the place you have taken in 
this fastidious region and the services you are here 
rendering me." And he added with a smile : " When 
the Prince is satisfied, the prefect may be tranquil." 
In the Charentes he was welcomed still more 
cordially than in the Gironde. According to Louis 
Napoleon's own testimony, this was undeniably the 
most energetically sympathetic reception offered him. 
The least hamlet paid its tribute like the largest 
city. The Prince was at AngoulSme October 10, 
at Saintes and at Rochefort the 11th, at Rochelle 
the 12th, at Niort the 13th, at Poitiers the 14th, at 
Tours the 15th, and on the 16th he re-entered Paris, 
where a triumphant return had been prepared for 
him. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XXXVII 

THB BE-ENTBANOE INTO PABI8 

"^TEVER did a sovereign make a more ceremo- 
nious and splendid re-entrance into his capital 
than that of Louis Napoleon to Paris, October 16, 
1852. The president of the Republic, who was to 
be Emperor before the year was out, wished already 
to show himself to his future subjects in imperial 
pomp. That which he displayed was a sort of preface 
to the plebiscite which was to put the sceptre into his 
hand. Along these boulevards, so recently the field 
of civil war and bristling with barricades, a chief of 
state advanced, beneath triumphal arches, in all the 
prestige of force and of authority. Republican sen- 
timent was far from having disappeared in Paris, 
especially among the workmen, and a ceremony 
which resembled the ovations of Roman emperors 
was not calculated to please all. But it had been 
so cleverly got up that the spectacle attracted even 
those who opposed it.. The crowd was enormous; 
and from the outskirts of the city and the neighbor- 
ing departments a stream of real Bonapartists had 
been brought in who counted for a good deal in the 
sympathetic manifestations. The Parisians came, 

897 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



398 LOUI8 NAPOLEON 

some through genuine enthusiasm, others from simple 
curiosity. Great deployments of troops, drums, mili- 
tary music, fine uniforms, brilliant processions, have 
the gift of charming them. All along the road the 
Prince had to traverse, from the Orleans railway 
station to the Tuileries, — about two leagues, — ap- 
peared decorated houses, sheaves of arms, flags, ban- 
ners, corporations of working men, innumerable groups 
of children crowned with flowers, and of young girls 
dressed in white. The weather was superb. A mag- 
nificent autumnal sun was shining. 

The platform of the Orleans railway station, by 
which the Prince was to arrive, had been richly 
decorated. An armchair of red velvet, sown with 
golden bees, and surmounted by a dais, had been 
placed on a platform. Delegations from the great 
bodies of state were in the waiting-room. As two 
o'clock struck, salvos of artillery and bands of 
choristers announced the coming of the train into 
the station. The Prince was saluted by cries of 
" Long live the Emperor ! " as he stepped from the 
car. After exchanging a few words with several 
persons, especially with the Archbishop of Paris, he 
mounted a horse, having a« escort fifty-two squad- 
rons of cavalry, and the procession began its march. 
At the exit of the platform the railway employees 
had erected a triumphal arch. For an instant the 
Prince was obliged to halt, so thick was the rain 
of flowers that fell at his horse's feet. One hun- 
dred young girls of the twelfth arrondissement were 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE BE-ENTBANCE INTO PABI8 399 

offering him bouquets. On arriving at the Place Wal- 
hubert, he turned towards the pavilion occupied by 
the prefect of the Seine and the Municipal Council. 
" Monseigneur,'* said the prefect, " the city of Paris, 
your faithful capital, is happy to see you re-enter 
within its walls to-day. For a month its heart and 
mind have been following you in your triumphant 
march, and awaiting with impatience the day when 
it too might greet your return with acclamations. 
Comply, Monseigneur, with the wishes of an entire 
people; Providence borrows its voice to bid you 
terminate the mission it has confided to you by 
resuming the crown of the immortal founder of 
your dynasty." Louis Napoleon replied : " If France 
desires the Empire, it is because it thinks that 
form of government better ensures its greatness 
and its glory. As for me, under whatever title 
it may be granted me to serve it, I will consecrate 
to it all that I have of force, all that I have of 
devotion." 

The procession resumes its march. Here on the 
Place Walhubert is an arch of triumph with this 
inscription : " The City of Paris to Louis Napoleon, 
Emperor." The names of the cities visited by the 
Prince at the time of his last journey stand out 
in letters of gold, with their arms on the front of 
the arch. They cross the Austerlitz bridge. On the 
Place Mazas they find thirty thousand people from 
the department of Seine-et-Oise. On the boulevard 
Bourdon is another arch of triumph with this inscripr 



Digitized by 



Google 



400 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

tion: *^The artists of the Hippodrome, to Napoleon 
ni." At this moment a balloon rises, canying a 
oolofisal gilt eagle with a wreath of laurel in its 
talons. On the right side of the same boulevard 
a second arch appears, with these inscriptions on its 
two sides : ^^ France and Napoleon," and on the front, 
** Empire. Long live Napoleon III." They reach 
the Place de la Bastille. Here the deputations from 
Seine-et-Mame are stationed. 

The Prince, still on horseback, and riding a few 
paces ahead of his immense escort of cayaliy, passes 
over the whole line of the boulevards from the Bas- 
tille to the Madeleine, under successive arches of 
triumph. One at the upper end of the boulevard 
Beaumarchais is surmounted by an eagle with out- 
spread wings, and bears this motto: ^^The eighth 
arrondissement to Louis Napoleon." Another appears 
in front of the Winter Circus, which has just been 
completed. On the summit of the entablature this 
inscription may be read: "To Louis Napoleon, the 
workmen of the circus," and beneath it the three 
words, "Amity. Respect. Devotion." On either 
side of the bay are these stanzas : — 

Ami des travailleurs^ et leur ami sinchrej 
Non content de leur rendre un labeur quatidieny 
Pour euxj dans Vavenir, combattant la mislre^ 
11 veut de leurs vieux jours etre encor U soutien.^ 

^ Friend of the working men, and their sincere i^iend, 
Not content to furnish them a daily task. 
For them in the future warring with poverty, 
He wills to be their mainstay in their age. 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE RS-ENTBANCE INTO PARIS 401 

Dieu nous garde la paix ! Mais tin jour si la gutrrt 
En lui nous menafait^ apr^ nos vaux, nos bras, 
Du paisible chantier courant h la Jrontiere, 
Pour combattre avec lui, nous serions tous soldats,^ 

Now comes the triumphal arch of the Th^tre 
Lyrique, with this inscription: "To Napoleon, pro- 
tector of the arts." And this of the Porte Saint- 
Martin, with these words : — 

Ave CcBsar Imperator. 

The Empire is peace. France is satisfied. 

On the facade of the Gymnase is a gilt eagle with 
the thunderbolt and the imperial crown in his talons ; 
on that of the Vari^t^s, draperies and military emblems. 
A little farther off, on an immense canopy sown with 
golden bees, may be read this inscription : "To Napo- 
leon III. Long live the Emperor!^' This is the 
offering of the two theatres which already style 
themselves by anticipation the Imperial Academy of 
Music, and the Imperial Theatre of the Opera Com- 
ique. At the upper end of the rue Vivienne are two 
oriflammes erected by the stockbrokers, and a rich 
green drapery with these words in gold letters : " To 
Louis Napoleon, the Tribunal of Commerce of the 
Seine and the Chamber of Commerce of Paris." 
Here on the boulevard des Capucines is a great arch 

^ God keep our peace ! But if one day war 
In him should threaten us, after our prayers, our arms, 
Prom peaceful work-yards running to the frontiers 
To combat with him, we would all be soldiers. 
2d 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



402 LOUia NAPOLEON 

of foliage. The Prince arrives at the church of the 
Madeleine. At the foot of the steps, all occupied bj 
the pupils of the communal schools and those of 
the lyceums, conducted by Brothers of the Chris- 
tian Doctrine and professors in their robes, stands, 
with his clergy, the cur^ of the parish, the Abb^ 
Deguerry, one day to be a victim of the Commune 
of 1871. The Prince reins in his horse in front of 
the church porch, the magnificent colonnade of which 
produces an effect so grandiose. The cur^ says to 
him: ^* Monseigneur, it has pleased God to invest 
you with an immense power, and since He has put 
an ardent love for the people into your heart, what 
good He has called on you to do I What good you 
have already done and will you not do again ! May 
you be blessed then, Monseigneur, in the name of 
that God who loves France, the eldest daughter of 
the Church." 

The aspect of the rue Rojrale, from the Place de la 
Concorde to the garden of the Tuileries, is not less 
animated than that of the boulevards. From the 
middle of an innumerable crowd a forest of flags and 
banners stands out in full relief; corporations of 
working men, deputations from rural communes, vet- 
erans of the First Empire, young girls dressed in 
white, crowned with laurels and roses, representing 
the markets and workshops of Paris. At the en- 
trance of the Tuileries garden rises a grand arch 
of triumph. On the front of it appears the inscrip- 
tion: ^^To Napoleon III., Emperor and Saviour of 



Digitized by 



Google 



TRE RE-ENTRANCE INTO PARIS 408 

Modem Civilization, Protector of the Arts and Sci- 
ences, of Agriculture, Industry, and Commerce, the 
grateful working men." On the left side: "Consti- 
tution of the Year VIII. Constitution of 1852. Con- 
version of Annuities. Credit Foncier." On the right : 
" Works of Public Utility. Railways. Construction 
of the Louvre. Rue de Rivoli." 

At the moment when Louis Napoleon, having 
passed under this triumphal arch, enters the garden, 
he is inundated as it were by a rain of flowers. The 
acclamations redouble until his arrival at the chateau, 
that architectural emblem of sovereignty. He rests 
for an instant in his apartments, and then, as the 
deputations which stand in the garden still continue 
shouting for him, he shows himself on the balcony 
of the hall of Marshals, and thanks the crowd by 
a salute. In the evening the streets and boulevards 
are filled with promenadei-s. A great many houses 
and all the monuments of Paris are illuminated. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XXXVIII 

ABD-EIrKADBB AT SAINT-GIiOlTD 

A T ^6 timG when Louis Napoleon made his cere- 
^ monious entry at the Tuileries, the restoratioD 
of the grand apartments was in progress. The con- 
clusion of this task was to coincide with the restora- 
tion of the Empire. Meanwhile, the Prince lived at 
Saint-Cloud. When he arrived there, October 17, 
the mayor thus addressed him : ^^ Prince, for the last 
month France has been existing on a single thought 
She has been intent on the details of the marvellous 
journey which has convinced you that a great peo- 
ple, which you have saved from the dangers of ship- 
wreck, still places in you all its hopes for the future. 
Reign, Prince, reign for long years over a country 
that will repay you in love and devotion for the 
care you are taking for its welfare." 

At Saint-Cloud, on October 80, Louis Napoleon 
received the visit of Abd-el-Kader. A few days pre- 
vious, just before ending his journey, he had gone 
out of his way to see the Emir at Amboise. 

Abd-el-Kader had been a prisoner in France nearly 
five years, notwithstanding the promises made when 
he surrendered to the French, December 23, 1847, on 

404 



Digitized by 



Google 



ABD-EL-KADER AT SAINT-CLOUD 406 

the plateau of Sidi-Brahim. The day before, along 
with the promise of the aman^ General de Lamori- 
cidre had sent him his own sword as a pledge of his 
promise. The Emir wrote in reply: "I wish you 
would send me your French parole, which cannot be 
gainsaid or altered, and which will guarantee that 
you will have me transported either to Alexandria 
or Akka (Saint John of Acre), but not anywhere 
else." The general replied: ^^I have orders from 
the son of our king (the Due d' Aumale) to grant you 
the aman and the passage from Djemma-Ghazouat 
to Alexandria or Akka. Tou will not be taken 
elsewhere. Come at your own convenience, either 
by day or night. Our sovereign will be generous 
toward you and yours." The Due d' Aumale, then 
govenior-general of Algeria, ratified the pledge given 
by General de Lamoricidre, and expressed his firm 
expectation that it would be sanctioned by the Gov- 
ernment. Nevertheless, in the middle of October, 
1852, Abd-el-Kader was still a prisoner at Amboise. 

The interview between Louis Napoleon and the 
Emir had a touch of solemnity in this ch&teau to 
which are attached so many historic souvenirs. 
With its terraced gardens, eighty feet above the 
ground, its bold bell-turrets, its pointed arches, and 
its two great towers to north and south, — inside of 
which a carriage might be driven to the very top, — 
it was a noble frame for this memorable scene. The 
Prince said to the Emir : " Abd-el-Kader, I come to 
tell you that you are free. You will be taken to 



Digitized by 



Google 



406 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

Broussa, in the Sultanas dominions, as soon as tbe 
needful preparations can be made ; and there yon 
will receive from the French Government a salary 
worthy of your former rank. As you know ali-eady, 
your captivity has long caused me real pain ; for it 
always reminded me that the government which 
preceded mine had not kept all the pledges given 
to an unfortunate enemy ; and, in my view, nothing 
is more humiliating for the government of a great 
nation, than to misconceive its own strength to the 
point of breaking its promise. Generosity is always 
the best counsellor, and I am convinced that jour 
residence in Turkey will not disturb the tranquillity 
of our African possessions. Your religion, like ours, 
teaches submission to the decrees of Providence. 
Now, if France is mistress of Algeria, it is because 
God has so willed it, and the nation will never 
abandon this conquest. 

" You have been the enemy of France, but I do 
not render less justice on that account to your cour- 
age, your character, your resignation in misfortune ; 
and this is why I feel it an honor to end your cap- 
tivity, relying fully upon your promised word." 

Abd-el-Kader replied by assuring the Prince of 
his respectful and eternal gratitude, afterwards 
swearing on the Koran that he would never make 
any attempt against French domination in Algeria. 
He added that to suppose the law of the Prophet 
permitted the violation of promises made to Chris- 
tians would be to misunderstand both its spirit and 



Digitized by 



Google 



ABD-EL-KADER AT SAINT-CLOUD 407 

its letter, and he showed the Prince a verse of the 
Koran which explicitly condemns, without exception 
or mental reservation, whoever violates sworn faith, 
even with infidels. 

The chd,teau of Amboise has been the abode of 
several French kings, beginning with Louis XI., who 
there created the Order of Saint Michael. Charles 
VIII. was born and died there. Claude of France, 
wife of Francis I., brought nearly all of her children 
into the world there. To so many souvenirs, history 
will add the release from captivity of Abd-el-Kader 
by Louis Napoleon. This event has already been 
made the subject of a large picture, which is in one 
of the galleries of Versailles. 

The Emir saw the Prince again October 80, and 
this time at the ch&teau of Saint-Cloud, where he 
came with General de Saint- Amaud, Minister of War, 
and General Daumas, director of Algerian affairs. 
While waiting for the Prince, he said his prayers 
devoutly. Doubtless it was the first time that a 
Mussulman had performed his religious duties at 
Saint-Cloud. 

When Louis Napoleon made his appearance, sur- 
rounded by his ministers and aides-de-camp, Abd-el- 
Kader stooped to kiss his hand. Louis Napoleon, 
raising him up, clasped him affectionately in his 
arms. After warmly expressing his gratitude, the 
Emir added : " I wish to leave a document in your 
hands which shall be to all a witness of my oath. 
Hence I give you this letter ; it is a faithful repro- 



Digitized by 



Google 



i 



408 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

duotion of my mind/* Some of the principal sen- 
tences of this document are thus translated : ^ Praise 
to the only God I May God continue to give victory 
to Napoleon, to our Lord, the Lord of Kings I . . . 
He who is now before you is the former prisoner 
whom your generosity has delivered, and who comes 
to thank you for your benefits, Abd-el-Kader, son of 
Mahhi-ed-Din. He has approached Your Highness 
to offer thanks for the good done by you, and to 
rejoice in beholding you, for I swear by God, the 
Master of the world, that you, Monseigneur, are 
dearer to my heart than any of those whom I love. 
. . . You have believed in me, you have not put 
faith in the words of those who doubted me, you 
have set me at liberty, and I swear to you solemnly 
by the word of God, and by His prophets and messen- 
gers, that I will never forget your benefits nor ever 
again set foot in Algeria. When God willed me to 
make war against the French, I made it; I have 
fought as well as I could, and when God so decided, 
I ceased to combat. . . . 

^' I am a witness of the greatness of your Empire, 
the strength of your troops, the immensity of the 
riches of France, of the equity of its leaders, the 
uprightness of their actions. It is impossible to be- 
lieve that any one could vanquish you or oppose 
your wishes except Almighty God." 

A real sympathy had evidently been established 
between the prisoner of Amboise and the former 
prisoner of Ham. It was openly displayed in the 



Digitized by 



Google 



ABD-EL-KADER AT SAINT-CLOUD 409 

closing words of this beautiful letter : " I hope that 
in your benevolence and goodness you will keep a 
place in your heart for me, for I was far distant, and 
you have placed me in the circle of your intimate 
friends ; if my services do not equal theirs, I equal 
them at least in the friendship I bear you. May 
God increase love in the hearts of your friends and 
terror in the hearts of your enemies I I have noth- 
ing more to add, unless that I confide myself to your 
friendship. I offer you my good wishes, therefore, 
and renew my oath." 

Louis Napoleon said to Abd-el-Kader : " Your let- 
ter touches me more deeply because I had not asked 
you for a written promise, finding a sufficient guar- 
anty in my knowledge of your character. This 
spontaneous action on your part is a proof that I was 
right in believing in you." 

The Prince then took the Emir through the cha- 
teau of Saint-Cloud and to the stables to see his 
favorite horses. He also told him that he would 
presently show him a grand review of cavaliy and 
have him try the horse he meant to give him. 

Louis Napoleon and Abd-el-Kader were very well 
satisfied with each other when they parted. The 
libei-ation of the prisoner had produced a good effect 
in all quarters. He assisted a few days later at the 
festivities of the inauguration of the Empire, and his 
presence, a symbolic homage of Algeria to France, 
attracted great attention from the crowd. I remem- 
ber that although very young at the time, I had the 



Digitized by 



Google 



410 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

honor of being presented to the African hero. His 
grave and noble visage, his glowing eyes, his dull 
complexion, the blue mark in the skin of bis fore- 
head, his white burnous, his soldierly and priestly 
bearing, produced an impression that was poetic and 
imposing. One saw in him the veritable cherif, the 
descendant of the Prophet. 

Louis Napoleon had been happily inspired in ac- 
complishing an act of generosity and justice a few 
days before ascending the throne. It created a pub- 
lic opinion in his favor both in Algeria and France. 
Abd-el-Kader, moreover, justified in a striking man- 
ner the confidence placed in him, when, nearly eight 
years afterward, at the time of the massacres in 
Syria, he saved the lives of so many Christians 
threatened by Mussulman fanaticism, and merited 
the grand cordon of the Legion of Honor by his 
humanity and courage. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XXXIX 

PARIS 

"TDARIS, ungovernable at one time, easy to govern 
-^ at another, is a city which at certain hours 
thinks of nothing but political hatreds, strifes, and 
passions, and at other periods takes for its motto : 
"Gain money, and amuse yourself." Mobile and 
versatile, by turns revolutionary and docile to au- 
thority, passing almost without transition from the 
regime of democracy to that of aristocracy, the same 
men at an interval of a few years raise barricades 
against one sovereign and triumphal arches for 
another. Now they scorn power, and again they 
worship it, and in either case they know not why. 
To-day liberty seems to them the chief good; to- 
morrow they will lose it without the least regret. 
A few only remain faithful to their principles, 
and, persuaded that the parliamentary regime is the 
best guaranty for the prosperity and dignity of mod- 
ern society, continue to believe that there never are 
suflBcient reasons for veiling the Statue of Liberty. 
But these men are rare, and in the ^dew of many 
Frenchmen a coup d'Etat is legitimized by success. 

411 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



412 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

The right they recognize most willingly is the right 
of the strongest. They abandon to a few isolated 
Catos the honor of delighting in defeated causes. 

At the end of 1852 men no longer concerned them- 
selves with politics in Paris. Parliamentarism they 
considered as a woni-out and unfashionable ByzantiDe 
subtlety. The tribune was almost an archaic ruiD^ 
and very few persons thought of repairing it. The 
last assemblies, by their discords, their inconsequence, 
their sterile wordy wars; the parties by their divi- 
sions, and the press by its excessive violence, had 
fatigued men's minds. The same city which had 
shed its blood to combat the ordinances of Charles X. 
saw Louis Napoleon muzzle all the journals with 
indifference. 

Doubtless, a large number of workmen remained 
loyal at heart to the Republic; but as their wages 
were higher than ever, they quietly enjoyed their 
comfort. They had just finished the rue de Rivoli ; 
they were going to finish the Louvre. The transfor- 
mation of Paris was their work, and they took a 
certain pride in making it the capital of capitals, j 
The furious diatribes of political refugees in London 
and Jersey had no echo in the Paiisian proletariat. 
Louis Napoleon drove himself in his own phaeton, 
and unattended, through the most crowded quar- 
ters of Paris, and was menaced by no attempt at 
murder. 

As to the middle classes, glad to be rid of riots and , 
barricades, they enjoyed a quiet which seemed par- 



Digitized by 



Google 



PABIS 418 

ticularly sweet after the crises of recent years. The 
service of the national guards, so lately tiresome 
and dangerous, was now only a harmless recreation. 
At the head of this Parisian militia, once so turbu- 
lent, now so calm and well-disciplined, there had been 
put an old general, very Bonapartist but with the 
manners of the old regime, the Marquis Lawoestine. 
He gave excellent breakfasts to a very brilliant staff 
in a fashionable hotel in the Place Vend8me. Young 
men of the wealthy middle class were very proud 
of caracoling in the national guard on horseback, 
and of showing themselves in uniform at balls and 
on parade. Business men are always in good humor 
when they are making money, and at the end of 1852 
they were making a good deal. That is why they 
were nearly all imperialists. The pacific programme 
of Bordeaux had given trade and commerce a scope 
and security which permitted men who were at all 
enterprising to make fortunes as considerable in 
quantity as they were swift in the making. The 
financiers both great and small, the merchants, the 
speculators, were nearly all supporters of the Govern- 
ment. 

As to the aristocracy, its drawing-room antagonism 
was altogether spiritless and could not be taken 
seriously. The society of the faubourg Saint-Ger- 
main, much more biilliant and especially much more 
exclusive than it is at present, religiously retained 
its legitimist faith, but at bottom was extremely glad 
to be rid of the red spectre and of having preserved, 



Digitized by 



Google 



414 LOma NAPOLEON 

in spite of so many disquietudes, its titles of nobility 
and its property rights. Moreover, it could not 
forget that the greatest names of French aristocracy 
had figured in the household of Napoleon I. and 
in those of the empresses Josephine and Mane 
Louise. Let us add that in 1852 Louis Napoleon 
was esteemed the saviour of the Papacy. The acts 
that had committed him to the Italian revolutionary 
party dated twenty years back> and the conservatives 
considered them as youthful errors which had been 
long forgotten. The French clergy, with very few 
exceptions, had noisily rallied to the inheritor of the 
Empire, and it was the bishops who had given him 
the roost active approbation. Hence the legitimist 
party could not summon the theory of the throne 
and the altar to the support of its ancient preten- 
sions. On the whole, the partisans of the Comte de 
Chambord were far less bitterly opposed to Louis 
Napoleon than to Louis Philippe. Take it all in all, 
the Empire was less distasteful to them than the 
reign of the golden mean, and they owned themselves 
that if they were in power they would prefer to be 
governed with the Constitution of 1862 rather than 
with the Charter of 1830. 

As to the Orleanist party, it had dwindled to not 
much more than a few personal friends of the Orleans 
princes, and a little group of doctrinaires^ as people 
then styled men who remained faithful to parlia- 
mentary principles. Efforts at an agreement be- 
tween Claremont and Frohsdorf were abandoned. 



Digitized by 



Google 



PABI8 416 

Between the white flag of the elder branch of the 
Bourbons, and the tricolored flag of the younger 
branch, all accord seemed impossible. Hence there 
was no more talk of that famous fusion which not 
long before had given rise to so many proceedings, 
and such frequent goings and comings. There was 
the less temptation to renew these negotiations, since 
there was no denying that even if they succeeded, 
they could produce none but a purely theoretic re- 
sult in the existing condition of France. Besides, 
Louis Napoleon had neglected no means of rallying 
the former servitors, both military and civil, of the 
preceding reign to his side. The men who had made 
the coup cCMat^ — General de Saint-Arnaud, General 
Magnan, Count de Momy, the greater part of the 
ministers and counsellors of the Prince-President, 
MM. Achille Fould, Drouyn de Lhuys, Rouher, Ducos, 
Billault, Magne, and many others, — had been Or- 
leanists. The July monarchy was scarcely repre- 
sented at Paris, except in the French Academy and 
certain centres where Louis Napoleon had been for- 
given neither the coup cTJStat^ nor, above all, the de- 
crees of January 22, which had confiscated a part 
of the fortune of the Orleans princes. 

To sum up, the majority of the Parisians had 
abandoned all interest in politics, and were thinking 
only of their business and their pleasures. Every- 
thing was prospering, especially the trade in articles 
of luxury. The ball season — which at that epoch 
commenced with winter, and ended at the beginning 



Digitized by 



Google 



416 L0VI8 NAPOLEON 

of Lent — promised • to be very animated. It nvas 
known that there were to be magnificent f 6tes at the 
Tuileries and the ministerial residences, and that the 
grand salons of the faubourg Saint-Germain would 
also be open, and the two societies vie with each 
other in elegance. Women had never spent more 
money on their dress. Never had more splendid 
equipages been seen in the Champs Elys^es and the 
Bois de Boulogne. 

All the theatres were doing a splendid business. 
The dilettanti arranged to meet at the Op^ra on Mon- 
days, Wednesdays, and Fridays ; and on Thursdays 
and Saturdays at the Italiens, in the Salle Ventadour, 
that sanctuary of the art of song. There the chief 
star was Mademoiselle Sophie Cruvelli, a Grerman, 
who had Italianized her name, and who has become 
the Vicomtesse Vigier. Blooming with youth and 
beauty, she aroused general admiration by her spir- 
ited acting and the incomparable power of her voice, 
which had a prodigious compass, and was both so- 
prano and contralto. Two artists destined to become 
famous — Faure at the Op^ra Comique and Got at 
the Com^die Fran§aise — made their debut at this 
period. Apropos of the latter, who had just been 
playing in the LSgataire Universel^ the critic of the 
Moniteur had written : " Got has the same qualities 
which Paliprat attributed to Regnard, — the art of 
enlivening the stage, finesse^ and grace. Laughing 
suits him ; he is clever, he is natural, he is diverting, 
he is pleasant, he is easy." The Th^&tre Fran^ais 



Digitized by 



Google 



PABI8 417 

had a whole troop of first-class artists, — Augustine 
Brohan and her sister, Madeleine, Beauvallet, Ligier, 
Geffroy, Samson, Provost, Regnier; and, above all, 
the sublime interpreter of Racine and Corneille, 
Rachel, the tragedienne of genius. In October, 1862, 
she played the r81e of Emilie in Cinna, Hippolyte 
Rolle, the critic, wrote at the time : " Mademoiselle 
Rachel is Emilie herself; she has her insatiable 
hatred, her ferocious ardor to bathe herself in blood, 
her blind contempt of danger, her audacities, her 
impatience, her pitiless disdain for hands that hesi- 
tate or hearts that waver, all, even to her cruelty ; 
but, by an exquisite art, at the moment when the 
generosity of Augustus and his natural clemency 
fall upon this ulcerated soul like a beneficent dew, 
which extinguishes its fire and heals its wounds. 
Mademoiselle Rachel expresses the appeasement of 
her hatred, astonished and disarmed, with a charm 
of look, and gesture, and attitude, which makes one 
comprehend the completeness of the victory of 
Augustus over the rebel, and to what a degree she 
is suddenly subdued and mastered." 

The courtiers of Louis Napoleon, who called his 
uncle the Emperor Csesar, and himself Augustus, 
thought Cinna an opportune play, and it was agreed 
that it should be performed before the Prince in a 
gala representation given at the Th^&tre Fran9ais, 
October 22, 1852. Long before the play began, the 
approaches to the theatre were thronged by an im- 
mense crowd, and the windows of the neighboring 
2e 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



418 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

houses were filled with persons waiting to salute 
Louis Napoleon as he came from Saint-Cloud. The 
brilliantly lighted fa9ade was decorated with eagles, 
the letter N surmounted by imperial crowns, and 
a triple row of gas jets. Cries of "Long live the 
Emperor ! " announced the arrival of the Prince, 
who, on alighting from his carriage, was received by 
the director, M. Arsdne Houssaye, and entered his 
box through the apartments of the Palais-Royal. 
The hall presented a dazzling spectacle. The 
women, in richly ornamented ball-dresses, nearly 
all carried bouquets of violets, — the Bonapartist 
flower. In the pit a sheaf of tricolored flags sur- 
rounded a bust of Louis Napoleon. During the 
representation, the applause of the spectators empha- 
sized all passages which could be interpreted as flat- 
tering allusions to the Prince. Mademoiselle Rachel 
surpassed herself. After the tragedy she came on 
the stage again surrounded by all the artists of the 
Com^die Fran5aise, and recited an ode entitled. The 
Umpire is Peace^ and written by M. ArsSne Hous- 
saye. It commenced in this way: — 

Je suis la Muse de Vhistoire, 
Mon livre est de marhre ou d*airain, 
Quand vient Vheure de la victoire 
Je prends mon stylet souverain. 

Un nouveau cycle recommence^ 
Le vieux monde s*est reveille. 
Dejh dans Vhorizon immense 
Vetoile d^or a scintille. 



Digitized by 



Google 



PARIS 419 

L* Empire, c*est la paix ! paix qui sera fdconde, 
Quand Dieu vetU que du Nil les flots soient assoupiSf 
Ou le Nil dehordait jaillissent des epis. 
U Empire a deborde pour feconder le monde. 

Grande ruche en travail par les beaux arts charm^ef 
Paris, une autre Athene, Alger, une autre Tyr, 
Des landes a peupler, des vUles a batir, 
Voila les bulletins de notre Grande Armee, . • • 

O Prince, Vavenir qu'hier tu fecondas 
Nous ramene aux splendeurs des ages magnifiques, 
Et pour suivre avec toi tes aigles pacijiques 
Les Fran^ais, tu Vas dit, seront tous tes sddats.^ 

These are the two last stanzas, which were noisily 
applauded: — 

La jeune France martiale, 
Qui va guidant Vhumaniti 
Avec Vidde imp^iale, 
Rentre enfin dans sa majesty, 

1 1 am the Muse of history, — My book is of marble or of 
bronze. — When the hour of victory comes — I take my sovereign 
stylus. — A new cycle recommences, — The old world is awaking. — 
Already in the immense horizon — The star of gold has sparkled. — 
The Empire is peace 1 peace which will be fecund. — When God 
wills that the floods of the Nile shall be abated, — Where the Nile 
overflowed the ears of grain spring up. — The Empire has over- 
flowed to fertilize the world. — Great hive at work by the fine arts 
charmed, — Paris another Athens, Algiers another I'^re, — Waste 
lands to people, cities to upbuild, — These are the bulletins of our 
Grand Army. . . . — O Prince, the future thou didst fertilize 
yesterday — Brings us back to the splendors of the magnificent 
ages, — And to follow thee with thy pacific eagles— The French, 
thou hast said it, will all be thy soldiers. 



Digitized by 



Google 



420 LOUia NAPOLEON 

Nous recdiserons le reve 
Qu*avait forme Napoleon, 
Le Louvre, qui hientoi s^ackkve^ 
Prince, sera ton Pantheon.^ 

1 Martial young France, — Which is to guide humanity — With 
the imperial idea, — Enters at last into its majesty. — We shall 
realize the dream — Formed hy Napoleon. — The Louvre, soon to 
be finished, — Prince, will be thy Pantheon. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CHAPTER XL 

MADEMOISBLLB DE MONTUO 

T A ROCHEFOUCAULD has said: "Men often 
-'-^ pass from love to ambition, but seldom return 
from ambition to love." Louis Napoleon was to o£fer 
a contradiction to this maxim. There are ambitious 
persons who, their proud dreams realized, suffer as 
it were from a homesickness for love, and who say 
with Alfred de Musset: — 

Eire admire n*est rien, Vaffaire est d*etre aime,^ 

Louis Napoleon belonged to this race of the ambi- 
tious. At the moment when he reached his goal 
after so many trials, and could exclaim like the 
Charles V. of Victor Hugo : — 

Oh! r Empire! V Empire! 
Que m*importef fy touche, et le trouve a mon gre; 
Quelque chose me dil: Tu V auras! Je Vaurai!^ 

He allowed himself to be charmed by reveries and 
aspired after the greatest happiness in life: love in 
marriage. 

^ To be admired is nothing, the thing is to be loved. 

^ Oh I the Empire ! the Empire I — What matters it to me, I have 
it, and I find it to my liking; — Something tells me: Thou shalt 
have it 1 I shall have it 1 • 

421 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



422 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

Francis I. used to say that a court without women 
is a year without spring and a spring without roses. 
Louis Napoleon was of the same mind as the Knightly 
King. He could not understand an Empire without 
an Empress. During the three years of his presi- 
dency he had not dreamed of marriage, because a 
cloud of doubt still hung over his political destinies. 
He had brought with him from London to Paris a 
very beautiful woman who was very devoted to him, 
but whom he never allowed to appear in the salons 
of the Elys^e and who had in no wise the character 
or the r81e of a favorite. M. Odilon Barrot has re- 
produced in his Memoirs (Vol. III. p. 361) a cmious 
letter written him by the Prince apropos of thia 
beautiful Englishwoman. In it occurs the follow- 
ing sentence: "As until now my position has pre- 
vented me from marrying; as, amidst the cares of 
government I have, alas ! in my own country, from 
which I have so long been absent, neither intimate 
friends nor acquaintances of childhood, nor relatives 
who give me the sweetness of family life, I may be 
pardoned, I hope, an affection which injures nobody, 
and which I do not seek to parade." 

The prettiest women of the upper classes, both 
French and foreign, figured at the fetes of the Elysee. 
The Prince-President was courteous and obliging to 
all, and showed no special preference for any one. 

After the coup d^Etat the ministers and friends of 
the Prince sought to marry him to some princess of 
royal or imperial blood. But their attempts were not 



Digitized by 



Google 



MADEMOISELLE DE MONTIJO 423 

fortunate, because there still existed many prejudices 
against Louis Napoleon in European courts. Never- 
theless there was one matrimonial negotiation which 
for a moment seemed likely to succeed. 

The Grand-duchesse Stephanie of Baden, born Beau- 
harnais, had had three daughters by her marriage with 
the Grand-due Charles Louis Frederic of Baden, who 
died in 1818 : Louise Amelie Stephanie, born in 1811, 
married to Prince Gustavas Vasa; Josephine, born 
in 1813, married to the Prince of HohenzoUern- 
Sigmaringen; Marie, born in 1817, married to the 
Marquis of Douglas, son of the Duke of Hamilton. 

It was in 1830 that the eldest of these three prin- 
cesses married Prince Gustavus Vasa, son of Gus- 
tavus IV. of Sweden, who was dethroned in 1809 and 
replaced by his uncle, Charles XIII., who adopted the 
French Marshal Bernadotte as his heir. Exiled from 
Sweden, Prince Gustavus Vasa lived in Austria, where 
he became a lieutenant field-marshal in the Emperor's 
service. By his marriage with Princess Louise Ame- 
lie Stephanie of Baden, from whom he separated in 
1844, he had a daughter. Princess Caroline Vasa, born 
August 5, 1833. There was a question of marrying 
this princess (now Queen of Saxony) to Louis Napo- 
leon. Prince Gustavus Vasa said he was not opposed 
to this marriage on principle, but that he would ask 
the consent of the Austrian Court. The Emperor 
Francis Joseph made him understand that consider- 
ing the fate of the archduchesses Marie Antoinette 
and Marie Louise he should not be at all anxious 



Digitized by 



Google 



424 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

to favor a marriage with a French prince, and the 
scheme was abandoned. Louis Napoleon felt little 
regret at the failure of this negotiation, for his heart 
was not at all engaged in it. 

There was at this time in Paris a young Spanish 
woman who attracted the attention of the principal 
salons by the splendor of her beauty. This was 
Mademoiselle Eugenie de Montijo, Comtesse de T^ba. 
We have already spoken of her childhood, and we left 
her in Paris, in 1887, a pupil at the Sacred Heart 
Convent in the rue de Varenne, where she made 
her iSrst communion. She lost her father March 15, 
1839. On the first tidings of his illness she and her 
sister left France to rejoin him at Madrid. They 
were accompanied by their governess, Miss Flower. 
" You would not believe," wrote their old friend 
Merimee at the time, " the chagrin I experienced at 
their departure." In his book on the author of the 
Chronique du rSgne de Charles IX.y M. Auguste Filon 
has said, apropos of this departure : " They were thir- 
teen and fourteen years old, that indeterminate age 
when the woman begins to peer through the eyes of 
the child, with braids of hair hanging down their 
backs and an edge of embroidered pantalettes peep- 
ing below their petticoats. The beauty of the second 
was as yet only in the prophetic stage, but already 
one recognized a certain veiled glance and a certain 
bend of the neck. . . . Merimee was moved by a 
fine, delicate, penetrating emotion when he saw the 
stage-coach which was to cany Paca and Eugenie 



Digitized by 



Google 



MADEMOISELLE DE MONTIJO 425 

away swing into the court of the Messageries. 
A little later, yielding to a heartfelt necessity, he 
parted with them. He made the children and Miss 
Flower promise to write to him. *From all this,' 
he wrote to their mother, * there will surely come 
a letter.' From Oloron, in fact, where the three 
travellers were detained by the bad weather which 
made it impossible to cross the mountain, Eugenie 
wrote a fine letter, on ruled paper, to M. Merimee." 

After her husband's death, the Comtesse de Mon- 
tijo became a female politician. She belonged to 
the party of Marshal Narvaez, and her salon. Place 
d'Angel, exercised a certain influence in Madrid. 
Her Sunday evenings were very popular. Grandees, 
members of the Cortes, the diplomatic corps, the 
leaders of art and literature, met there by appoint- 
ment. During the summer the countess lived at 
her estate of Carabanchel, which had belonged to 
Comte Cabarrus, the minister of Charles IV., and 
where his daughter Terezia, famous afterward under 
the name of Madame Tallien, had passed her earliest 
years. 

We have often had the honor of seeing Madame 
the Comtesse de Montijo when she was staying in 
Paris during the reign of her son-in-law. She was 
a very great lady of whom we have preserved a re- 
spectful memory. A thorough Spaniai'd, an impas- 
sioned patriot, profoundly loyal to her country and 
her friends, she united a lofty intelligence to an 
extremely energetic character. She was a woman of 

uigmzed by Google 



426 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

mind and heart. No one who had the honor of fre- 
quenting her salon has forgotten with what distin^ 
tion she presided over it. Amiable, wittjr, full of 
life and gaiety, she was interested in all the news oi 
Madrid and Paris, and her conversation was varied 
and animated. French literature had as great aa 
attraction for her as Spanish. She was veiy fond 
of music and knew all the operas of the repertorj' 
by heart. Very constant in her attendance at the 
theatre, she patronized the players and received 
them kindly at her house. At Madrid and Cara- 
banchel she gave little balls and got up society 
comedies. Merim^e put his talents as a mechanic, 
scene-painter, prompter, and stage-manager at the 
disposal of the hospitable countess. 

"In the estate of Carabanchel," writes M. Auguste 
Filon, "the Comtesse de Montijo planted some trees, 
and with that admirable power of illusion which 
makes all things possible, hardly did they spring up 
when she saw them grow large and enjoyed their 
shade. On her little country stage she ventured to , 
produce grand operas. She made everybody sing 
and dance ; she married and amused people till her 
latest hour. She distributed pleasure, she imposed 
happiness on all around her; a way of acting which 
could displease those only who have very indepen- 
dent and very particular notions. Most people are 
enchanted to accept a ready-made happiness.*' 

The two daughters of the countess, Fran§oise 
(in Spanish Paca), born January 29, 1825, and 



Digitized by 



Google 



MADEMOISELLE BE MONTIJO 427 

Eugenie, bom May 5, 1826, excited general admira- 
tion, and one of the questions mooted by Madrid 
society was which of the two was the more beauti- 
ful. Their admirers were divided into two camps. 
The elder made a brilliant marriage, February 14, 
1844, with the Duke of Alba, twelve times grandee 
of Spain. The younger was thus spoken of by 
M. de Mazade, who, at the end of Louis Philippe^s 
reign, had been charged by the Ministry of Public 
Instruction with a mission in Spain: "Mademoiselle 
Eugenie de Montijo had made a great reputation in 
Madrid society by her daring imagination and the 
ardent vivacity of her character. She impressed one 
by a sort of virile grace which might easily have 
made her a heroine of romance, and before assuming 
the imperial diadem she proudly wore that crown 
of hair whose color a Venetian painter would have 
loved." It was in the fortnightly chronicle of the 
Revue des Deux Mandes for January 31, 1863, that 
M. Mazade published the lines we have just quoted. 

The two sisters were very much noticed at the 
time of the fStes given at Madrid for the celebrated 
Spanish marriages (that of Queen Isabella with her 
cousin the Infante Francis of Assisi, and that of the 
Infanta Louise, the Queen's sister, with the Due de 
Montpensier, son of King Louis Philippe). At the 
soiree given by Comte de Bresson, ambassador of 
France, October 7, 1846, the Due d'Aumale, who 
had accompanied his brother the Due de Montpen- 
sier to Madrid^ had a very long conversation with 



Digitized by 



Google 



428 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

Mademoiselle Eugdnie de Montijo and fell under the , 
spell of her wit and beauty. Madame the Comtesse 
de Bresson, widow of the ambassador, recently told 
us so. The Due d'Aumale has not forgotten this 
souvenir of his youth, and recalled it to the widow 
of Napoleon III., for whom he professes a chivalrous 
respect. Some years since, on arriving at Naples, 
the son of King Louis Philippe learned that the 
Empress was also there. He called on her and re- 
minded her of that soiree of October 7, 1846, when 
he spoke to her for the first time. "What a beauti- 
ful young girl Your Majesty was!" said he. "And 
you, Monseigneur," responded the unfortunate sov- 
ereign, "what a handsome cavalier!" The Due 
d'Aumale and the Empress Eugenie met again in 
May, 1896. The duke owns an estate in Sicily, on 
the slopes of Zucco, which is famous for its vine- 
yards. He was entertaining his grand-nephew, the 
Due d'Orleans, there. The two princes had accepted 
an invitation to breakfast on board the Namouna, 
the yacht of Mr. Goixion Bennett, the rich Ameri- 
can who is the director of the New York Herald, 
On going aboard the Due d'Aumale learned that 
the Empress Eugenie's yacht, the ThUUe^ had just 
anchored in the roadstead of Palermo. After break- 
fast he called upon her and mentioned the desire of 
the Due d'Orleans to pay her his respects. The 
widow of Napoleon HI. graciously responded that 
she would be happy to make the acquaintance of the 
young prince. Mr. Gordon Bennett immediately 



Digitized by 



Google 



MADEMOISELLE DE MONTIJO 429 

lowered the launch of the Namouna^ which took 
the Due d'Aumale and the Due d'Orl^ans on board 
the Empress's yacht. Her Majesty and the two 
princes had a friendly chat which lasted more than 
an hour. The next day, the widow of Napoleon, 
the Due d'Aumale, and the Due d'Orl^ans break- 
fasted together in the ch&teau of Zucco. 

Now let us return to the youth of the Empress 
Eugenie. The year following the Spanish marriages 
her mother occupied the highest position at court 
which a woman can be entrusted with in Spain. In 
October, 1847, she was appointed camarera mayor of 
Qaeen Isabella. M^rim^e wrote to her: "So you 
are really camarera mayor j and are satisfied ; that is 
enough to make me satisfied also. You can do good; 
that is suflScient. Whatever you may say about it, 
you were made for combat, and it would be ridicu- 
lous to desire for Csesar the tranquil life of the 
second citizen of Rome. I may tell you that people 
have already been courting me on your account, and 
I suppose they will soon present me with petitions. 
In such a temper as I am, you can guess how I shall 
dispose of them." It alarmed M^rim^e to know that 
the countess went out alone in a phaeton with a 
sovereign menaced by numerous conspiracies. How- 
ever, she was camarera mayor for a very short time. 
"Less than three months after her appointment," 
writes M. Auguste Filon, " the Comtesse de Montijo 
spontaneously resigned the post she had accepted 
with joy, but whose difficulties and dangers she 



Digitized by 



Google 



430 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

was soon to learn. An intrigue was formed to 
deprive her of the Queen's confidence. Merimee 
was surprised that the Government should not have 
been better able to defend so useful an auxiliary. It 
was not long before he comprehended that the in- 
telligence and increasing influence of the eamarera 
mayor were precisely what gave umbrage to the 
masters of Spain, and Madame de Montijo made 
up her mind at once. Her ambition was of the 
right kind, and would not accept a precarious, con- 
tested authority, purchased by compromises or con- 
cessions. She preferred to resign rather than to 
submit." 

Madame and Mademoiselle de Montijo were in 
Madrid when the revolution of February 24, 1848, 
broke out. They followed its phases and results 
with extreme attention. Mademoiselle Eugenie 
found Spanish affairs less interesting than those of 
France. Perhaps she already had a presentiment 
that she would play a great part in that country 
whose history is a tragi-comedy that has the gift 
of interesting and exciting all the world. 

From February 10 to December 26, 1849, Prince 
Napoleon, son of King JerSme Bonaparte, former 
sovereign of Westphalia, was the ambassador of 
Fitince at Madrid. They say he conceived at this 
time a great admiration for Mademoiselle de Montijo 
and even thought of asking her in marriage, but that 
this idea was not encouraged either by her or her 
mother. 



Digitized by 



Google 



MADEMOISELLE DE MONTIJO 431 

In 1849 the Comtesse de Montijo and her daughter 
came to Paris. Like all foreigners of distinction, 
they assisted regularly at the fStes of the Elysee, 
and the Prince-President received them with the 
attentions due to their rank. But no one as yet 
foresaw that the Prince would fall in love with the 
young and beautiful Spanish woman who, for all 
that, had made a profound impression on him the 
first time he met her, and one that constantly in- 
creased. 

The persons whom Madame de Montijo and her 
daughter saw most frequently at this period were 
not Bonapartists. They visited the Marquis and 
Marquise de Dampierre at the ch&teau de Plassac 
(Charente-Inferieure), where an asylum had been 
given to the Duchesse de Berry before the resort 
to arms in 1832. At Paris they usually frequented 
the houses of legitimists or Orleanists. Still, there 
was no Bonapartist society at that period. The offi- 
cial world and the ministers themselves were not 
in reality partisans of Louis Napoleon. 

Mademoiselle de Montijo, however, who had been 
brought up from childhood on the Napoleonic epic, 
believed in a speedy restoration of the Empire. The 
passionate interest she displayed for the success of 
the coup (TMat profoundly affected the Prince- 
President. M. Auguste Filon has written that his 
inclination for her began in 1849 and "sprang up 
stronger than ever when the young enthusiast, in 
the height of the December battle, before the result 



Digitized by 



Google 



432 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

had been decided, wrote to the Prince to place all 
she possessed at his disposal in case of failure." 

The year that followed the coup cTEtat was a series 
of incessant ovations for the Emperor Napoleon's 
heir. The quondam proscript passed his life under 
triumphal arches. The incredible favors lavished on 
him at this time by capricious fortune did not in- 
spire him with haughtiness or pride, but with sen- 
timental reveries. The more he was flattered and 
applauded, the more ecstatically he dreamed of the 
young girl who had conquered his heart at the very 
time when he had conquered power. He forgot 
the fetes, the reviews, the applause, the fanfares, 
to remember BruySre's sentence : " A beautiful face 
is the most beautiful sight of all, and the sweetest 
harmony is the tone of voice of the woman we love." 
According to the statement of an ocular witness, it 
was between a sojourn at Fontainebleau and a sojourn 
at CompiSgne that his love was seen to grow with 
great rapidity. We are about to describe these 
sojourns at full length. 



Digitized by 



Google 




THE EMPRESS EUGENIE 
At the age of Twenty-six 



Digitized by 



Google 



THEN^-v 



'vV y 



^i^^KJ 



(PUBLIC li3.-::ar, 

A8T0R. lENo^^^p 
Tl;-DLN fOUNDATlONS. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XLI 

FONTAINBBLBAU 

ryiHURSDAY, November 11, 1852, the Prince- 
President left Saint-Cloud to go to Fontaine- 
bleau, where he intended to spend several days and 
receive a certain number of guests. He arrived 
there at three o'clock in the afternoon, accompanied 
by M. Achille Fould, Minister of State, General 
Roquet, first aide-de-camp, the Due de Caumont- 
Laforce, senator. General Vaudrey, governor of the 
national palaces, Lieutenant-Colonel Fleury, and 
Baron de Pierres, one of whom acted as first and 
the other as second equerry. The homage he 
received gives an idea of the sort of wild flattery of 
which he was then the object. As he descended 
from the train the mayor of Avon said to him: 
" Prince, the commune of Avon is happy to possess 
the Fontainebleau station on its own territory. 
This procures it the privilege of being presented to 
Your Imperial Highness and of uniting its feeble 
voice to that immense concert which salutes you 
from all points of France. Obscure as it may be, 
you will not disdain this homage ; you are the friend 
of the humble and the poor ; you especially love the 
2f 433 



Digitized by 



Google 



434 LOCIS yAFOLEON 

country people, and when they present themselves 
to you with their naive simplicity, they please you 
as well as the city with its magnificent honors/' 

The 6th regiment of hussars, commanded by 
Colonel Edgard Ney, was di-awn up in line in the 
court of the station. It escorted the Prince, who 
went from the station to the ch&teau on horseback. 
At the entrance of the city a triumphal arch had 
been erected, before which he halted. The maj'or 
of Fontainebleau at the time was General Comte 
Heraclias de Polignac, a near relative of the minis- 
ter of Charles X. The general made the following 
speech: " Monseigneur, the city of Fontainebleau 
is happy to receive Your Imperial Highness at the 
solemn moment which is to alter the destiny of 
France. It repeats with conviction: 'The Empire 
is peace,' while adding : ' It is prosperity, it is glory, 
not the glory of conquests, but that which is given by 
good institutions and the people's love.' To-day, 
Monseigneur, the city of Fontainebleau forms but 
a single wish, which is that, having been the last to 
salute the Empire, it may be the fii-st to salute 
Napoleon III. Emperor." M. Charpentier, the arch- 
priest, surrounded by the clergy, was still more en- 
thusiastic in his allocution : " Religion and justice," 
said he, " are the two rails of the human way. For 
an instant we dreaded to see these salutary lines, 
so deeply embedded in French soil, carried away by 
the torrent of revolutions. Bat God protects France, 
and when the car of state was about to be diished to 



Digitized by 



Google 



TONTA INEBLEA U 485 

pieces in the abyss, Providence raised you up to 
sustain it. Your advent to the imperial crown will 
therefore be a source of great joy to all the people, 
and on the day when its grateful voice shall have 
placed the diadem upon your august brow, the Church 
will intone a hymn of hope and gladness : Glory to 
God in the highest, and peace on earth to men of 
good will ! " Twenty-five young girls robed in white 
offered baskets of fruit and flowers to the Prince, 
who rode very slowly, on account of the greatness 
of the crowd. Bouquets rained from every window, 
and all the houses were hung with flags. At four 
o'clock the procession arrived in front of the ch&teau 
gate. The Prince crossed the celebrated court of 
the Adieux, where he seemed still to see Napoleon 
embracing General Petit and pressing the eagle to 
his heart. Then he ascended the horseshoe stair- 
case and entered his apartments, which were those 
that had been inhabited by his uncle. 

The next day, November 12, the guests arrived 
from Paris by a special train. Among them were 
the Princesse Mathilde, Prince Napoleon, General 
de Saint-Arnaud, Minister of War, M. Drouyn de 
Lhuys, Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Madame 
Drouyn de Lhuys, Lord Cowley, ambassador of Eng- 
land, and Lady Cowley, M. de Maupas, Minister of 
Police, General, Madame, and Mademoiselle Magnan, 
the Marquise de Contades, daughter of General Cas- 
tellane, the Comtesse de Montijo and her daughter. 
Mademoiselle Eugenie. No one as yet suspected 



Digitized by 



Google 



486 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

that three months later the young and brilliant Span- 
ish woman would be Empress of the French. She and 
her mother were modestly lodged at the ch&teau in 
the Louis XV. wing, where they occupied rooms on 
the second story, looking out on the English garden. 

There was a great hunt with the hounds in the 
forest on November 13. The rendezvous was at 
Belle-Croix. From the picturesque point of view 
nothing can surpass the forest of Fontainebleau when 
illuminated by a radiant autumnal sun. The trees 
have a nameless air of unreality. Beside leaves that 
are still green glimmer other leaves, red, some of 
them, as blood, others yellow as gold. It is a sight 
that borders on apotheosis and enchantment. In 
this marvellous scenery Mademoiselle de Montijo, 
riding a horse from the Prince's stables, was like an 
intrepid amazon. She followed the chase with a fear- 
lessness admired by all the cavaliers. In the evening 
the ceremony of the " Cur^e aux flambeaux '* took 
place in that magnificent and gracious oval court at 
one end of which rises the baptistery of Louis XIII. 

It pleased the Prince to show a young girl whom 
he greatly admired those two masterpieces of nature 
and art, — the forest and the palace of Fontainebleau. 
We do not believe there is a forest in the world 
which has more charm, more poetry, than this one 
which has inspired so many great landscapists. As 
to the palace, it is assuredly the most interesting, the 
most varied, the most fairy-like of the imperial or 
royal residences. Every epocli, from that of Saint 



Digitized by 



Google 



FONTAINES LEAU 487 

Louis to our own days is represented there by ad- 
mirable specimens of architecture, decoration, and 
furniture. What a frame to set in full light the 
beauty of a woman is this chateau where so many 
enchantresses have shone, and where lively imagi- 
nations call up spirits so magnificent! In passing 
through the galleries of Francis I. and Henri II., 
does not one seem to catch a glimpse of the heroines 
of the Valois court, the demoiselles of honor of 
Catherine de' Medici, the radiant Mary Stuart, the 
magical Diane de Poitiers? Has not the ch&teau 
become a place haunted by the phantoms of the 
princesses and favorites of other days? Having a 
veneration for the memory of Marie Antoinette, 
Mademoiselle de Montijo wished to visit the apart- 
ments occupied by the martyr queen in her days of 
splendor ; the salon of her ladies of honor, her music 
room, the boudoir with her monogram incrusted in 
the solid mahogany floor, the bedroom, which has 
been called the chamber of the five Maries, in 
memory of five sovereigns who inhabited it : Marie 
de' Medici, Marie Therftse, wife of Louis XIV., 
Marie Antoinette, Marie Louise, and Marie Amelie. 
When pausing there, in deep emotion, had Made- 
moiselle de Montijo a presentiment that this legen- 
dary chamber would soon be hers? 

The four days spent by the Prince's guests at 
Fontainebleau passed very agreeably. They break- 
fasted and dined in that glittering gallery of 
Henri II. where the architecture and art of the six- 



Digitized by 



Google 



438 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

teenth century have said their last word in the way 
of elegance and splendor. How beautiful is that 
gallery of fetes with its gigantic windows, deep^m- 
brasured, five on the garden, five on the oval court; 
its ceiling divided into octagonal panels outlined on 
a ground of gold and silver ; its richly panelled floor; 
its monumental fireplace ; its tribune for musicians ; 
its walls adorned with oaken wainscoting covered 
with monograms and gilded emblems up to the 
height where mythological frescos, painted from 
the designs of Primaticcio by Niccolo dell' Abbate, 
begin to bloom in dazzling colors ! In the evenings 
they chatted or walked a little in the salons adjacent 
to the gallery ; some of the guests played a charade 
got up by General de Saint-Arnaud. 

On Sunday, November 14, they heard Mass in the 
chapel of the chateau, that chateau of the Holy 
Trinity built by Francis I. on the site of the oratory 
of Saint Louis. Between the columns of the altar, 
appear in niches marble statues of Charlemagne and 
Saint Louis, and above, four bronze angels attributed 
to Germain Pilon. The altar is surmounted by 
colossal statues of two angels who support the es- 
cutcheons of France and Navarre ; opposite, at the 
other extremity of the sanctuary, is the tribune with 
the arms of the Bourbons and the Medici. It was 
in this chapel that the marriage of Louis XV. and 
Marie Leczinska took place, and also the baptism 
of the future Napoleon III., which was conferred 
November 10, 1810. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

K 



FONTAINEBLEAU 439 

The 14th of November was the vigil of Saint 
Eugenie, Mademoiselle de Montijo's patix)n saint. 
The Prince offered her a bouquet. At the same 
time he presented her with the horse she had ridden 
on the day of the hunt, and whose admirable quali- 
ties she had fully appreciated. During the four 
days Louis Napoleon displayed the utmost respect 
for the young Spaniard, but without the slightest 
affectation, and no one suspected he had any idea of 
presently asking her hand. 

The Prince would not leave Fontainebleau with- 
out giving largesses to the poor. He visited the 
hospital, the Brothers' school, the Sisters' house, and 
that of the orphans, leaving tokens of his munifi- 
cence at each, and he gave from his privy purse 
two hundred thousand francs for the restoration of 
the parish church. On Monday, November 16, he 
went back to Paris with his guests. 

In the evening of the same day they all met again 
at the Opera Comique, where a representation had 
been commanded, which was a sort of continuation 
of the series of Fontainebleau. After the Domino 
Noir^ a cantata entitled Chant de Vavenir^ the words 
by Mery, the music by Adolph Adam, was executed. 
Flattery took every form to exalt him who was already 
emperor in fact. The cantata began thus : — 

La France est satisfaite et le monde tranquille, 
Car le monde a toujours les yeux sur nous ouverts, 
Et quand la paix descend sur cette immense ville^ 
Le calme de Paris s'etend sur Vunivers, 



Digitized by 



Google 



440 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

Sire, voire oeuore est faite ; oui, deux foix elle s*ouvrty 
L'lre de Pencles, d'Auguste et de Leon. 

Un aigle plane sur le Louvre^ 

Une croix sur le Pantheon; 
Et le peuple applaudit le soleil qui decouvre 
Ce rive colossal des deux Napoleon,^ 

A couplet in honor of Queen Hortense, the crowned 
artist, touched the heart of her son. At the close 
of the representation tlie curtain at the back of the 
stage was lifted and displayed a scene representing 
the completed Louvre. 

^ France is satisfied and tlie world tranquil, — For the world 
always has its eyes open on us, — And when peace descends on 
this immense city, — The calm of Paris spreads over the universe. 

— Sire, your work is done ; yes, it opens twice, — The era of Peri- 
cles, of Augustus and of Leo. — An eagle hovers above the Iiouvre, 

— A cross above the Pantheon; — And the people applauds the 
sun which discovers — This colossal dream of the two Napoleons. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XLII 

THE EMPIBB 

T GUIS NAPOLEON had accustomed men's minds 
-*-^ to the Empire by astute gradations. At first he 
had been styled the President of the Republic, then 
the Prince-President; afterwards he was addressed 
as Monseigneur and Highness before the appellations 
of Sire and Majesty were given hira. Finding no 
resistance either within the country or without, he 
had only to put out his hand to seize the crown. 
Even before the people had been convoked in their 
assemblies to change the form of government, he 
sent a message to the Senate, November 4, in which 
he said: "In the restoration of the Empire the 
people find a guaranty of their interests and a 
satisfaction of their pride; this restoration guar- 
anties their interests by assuming the future, by 
closing the era of revolutions, by reconsecrating the 
conquests of '89. It satisfies their just pride be- 
cause, lifting up freely and with reflection what all 
Europe overthrew by force of arms thirty-seven 
years ago, amidst the disorders of the country, the 
people nobly avenge themselves for their reverses 
without making victims, without menacing any inde- 

441 



Digitized by 



Google 



442 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

pendence, without disturbing the peace of the world. 
Nevertheless, I do not shut my eyes to all that is to 
be dreaded in accepting and placing on my head at 
this time the crown of Napoleon, but my apprehen- 
sions are lessened by the thought that, representing 
by so many titles the cause of the people and the 
national will, it will be the nation which, in raising 
me to the thi^one, will crown itself." 

The date of the plebiscite was fixed for November 
21 and 22. The result was doubtful to nobody; it 
was a mere formality which gave rise to no manner 
of discussion in the country. 

No real opposition existed except among the politi- 
cal refugees of London and Jersey. But there are 
times when governments are so favored by fortune 
that even attacks on them have no result but to 
increase their strength. Far fi-om preventing the 
publication of the manifestoes of the refugees, Louis 
Napoleon had them inserted in the Moniteur of 
November 15, in the place devoted to official docu- 
ments. The ComitS RSvolutionnaire of London thus 
expressed itself: "The democracy has had to im- 
pose upon itself several months of waiting and 
suffering before striking the brigand who sullies 
our country, in order to reorganize in spite of the 
BonapartLst terror. ... As soon as you learn that 
the infamous Louis Bonaparte has received his just 
chastisement, whatever the day or hour may be, 
start from every point at once for the rendezvous 
agreed on between several groups, and from there 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE EMPIRE 448 



march together on the cantons, the arrondissements, 
and prefectures, so as to hem in with a ring of iron 
and of lead all traitors who, in taking the oath, 
have become the accomplices of their master. Purge 
France once for all of the brigands she has nour- 
ished, and who are preying on her." 

The manifesto of the proscribed " sociate " demo- 
crats of France residing in Jersey, among other sig- 
natures, bears that of Victor Hugo, whose style is 
easily recognized in its composition: "M. Bona- 
parte finds that the moment for styling himself 
Majesty has come. He has not restored a pope to 
leave him nothing to do. He intends to be con- 
secrated and crowned. . . . Friends and brothers, 
in presence of this infamous government, the nega- 
tion of all morality, the obstacle to all social 
progress; in presence of this government raised 
up by crime, and which should be overthrown 
by justice, a Frenchman worthy of the name of 
citizen neither knows, nor cares to know, whether 
there are pretended ballotings, comedies of univer- 
sal suffrage, and parodies of appeal to the nation; 
he does not inquire whether there is a herd called 
the Senate which deliberates, and another herd 
called the people which obeys ; he does not ask 
whether the Pope is going to crown at the high 
altar of Notre Dame the man who — there is no 
doubt of it, it is the inevitable future — will be 
bound to the stake by the executioner ; in presence 
of M. Bonaparte and his government, the citizen 



Digitized by 



Google 



444 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

worthy of the name does but one thing, has bat 
one thing to do : to load his mosket and abide the 
hour." 

The Moniteur^ having reproduced this manifesto, 
added: "It is regrettable to see a prince who 
endures his misfortune nobly also arrive, by an 
exaggerated sentiment of what he believes to be his 
duty, at denying the right of the people to choose 
their government," following up its remark by re- 
publishing the manifesto of the Comte de Cbambord, 
written at Frohsdorf and dated October 25, 1852. 
The conclusion of this document was as follows : '* I 
owe to myself, my family, and my country to pro- 
test openly against combinations which are decep- 
tive and full of danger. I maintain my right, which 
is the surest guaranty of yours, and taking God as 
witness, I declare to France and the world that, 
faithful to the laws of the realm and the traditions 
of my ancestors, I will religiously preserve, until 
my latest breath, the charge of the hereditary 
monarchy which Providence has intrusted to my 
care, and which is the only port of safety wherein 
France, the object of all my love, can at last attain 
repose and happiness after so many storms." 

Written in a grave and noble style, with great 
moderation of thought and language, this protest 
had a purely academic character. It was not the 
work of a conspirator. The Comte de Chamboi-d 
was far from desiring anything analogous to the 
resort to arms of 1882. This attempt of his mother, 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE EMPIRE 445 



the Duchesse de Berry, was to be the last effort of 
the legitimist party, from the point of view of action. 
Twenty years later, even the Vendee had become 
imperialist. Not a recruit could have been found 
there for an insurrection in favor of the white flag. 
The plebiscites of November 21 and 22 surpassed 
the expectation of the partisans of the Empire. Out 
of 8,140,060 votera, there were 7,824,189 ayes to 
253,145 nays. December 1, the membera of the 
Senate and the Corps Legislatif carried this result 
to the new Emperor at Saint-Cloud. On this occjv- 
sion he delivered an address which ended thus : 
" Aid me, all of you, to establish upon this soil, torn 
up by so many revolutions, a stable government 
based upon religion, justice, probity, and the love 
of the suffering classes. Receive here the oath that 
nothing shall cost me too dear which shall assure the 
prosperity of the country, and that even while main- 
taining peace, I will concede nothing that touches the 
honor and dignity of France." The next day, De- 
cember 2, the new regime was inaugurated throughout 
the Empire. 

In the morning, at Saint-Cloud, Napoleon III. 
signed a decree elevating Generals de Saint-Arnaud, 
Magnan, and Castellane to the dignity of marahal 
of France. At noon he set off on horseback from 
this chateau, escorted by the 12th dragoons and the 
division of cavalry reserve, carbineers and cuirassiers, 
to make a formal entry into Paris. At one o'clock 
the cannon thundered, and the drums beat a salute 



Digitized by 



Google 



446 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

to announce that the Emperor had just arrived at 
the Arc de Triomphe de I'Etoile, and was passing 
under the gigantic vault of that monument conse- 
crated by his uncle to the glory of the French army. 
At the same moment the sky cleared up and a lay 
of sunlight pierced the clouds. Greeted on all sides 
with acclamations, the new sovereign passed through 
the Champs Elysees, the Place de la Concorde, and, 
still on horseback and followed by his escort of 
cavalry, crossed the pavilion of the Horloge and on 
the Place des Tuileries and the Place du Carrousel 
reviewed the troops of all arms drawn up there, who 
saluted him with vivats. Several women, among 
others the Comtesse de Montijo and her daughter, 
had been invited to contemplate this spectacle from 
the windows of the palace, where Abd-el-Kader was 
also present. After the review the Emperor went 
up to the grand apartments which had been newly 
restored and whose magnificent decorations were ad- 
mired by everybody. On reaching the hall of the 
Marshals he showed himself on the two balconies, 
one looking on the garden and the other on the 
court. At the same moment. Marshal de Saint- 
Arnaud, surrounded by generals on the Place des 
Tuileries, was reading to the army the proclama- 
tion of the Empire, Comte de Persigny, Minister of 
the Interior, accompanied by General de Lawoestine 
and his staff, reading it meanwhile to the national 
guard on the Place de la Concorde. At nightfall 
the public edifices and many piivate houses were 



Digitized by 



Google 



TBB EMPIRE 447 



covered with illuminations; in the evening there 
was a grand reception at the Tuileries. The Napo- 
leonic propaganda, imprudently developed in the first 
place by the Liberals under the Restoration, and after- 
wards by the Government of July, was bearing its 
fruit. The prediction of M. Thiers was finding its 
fulfilment. The conspirator of Strasburg and Bou- 
logne, the prisoner of Ham, was realizing his dream : 
the Empire was made. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XLIII 

COMPIBGKE 

T"N December, 1852, at the ch&teau of Compiegne, 
the Emperor inaugurated those sojourns described 
as series^ which were to become so famous, and invi- 
tations to which were as much sought after as were 
those of Louis XIV. to Marly. In the stays he 
made at Compiegne up to the end of his reign, 
Napoleon III. was much more like a great noble 
receiving his guests in a chateau than a sovereign 
surrounded by the prestige of a throne. But he 
desired his first residence in an illustrious palace to 
be characterized by a majestic display. At the be- 
ginning of the Empire he was minded to habituate 
people to monarchical pomp, and besides, he was 
glad to appear in all the brilliancy of supreme power 
before the young girl whom his heart had chosen. 
The journey was delayed for several days, the 
Emperor having determined to wait until Made- 
moiselle de Montijo should have recovered from a 
cold. 

The aiTival at the chfiiteau was ceremonious. It 
was on Saturday, December 18, 1852. The rainy 

448 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



COMFIEGNE 449 



^weather suddenly cleared up and the sun was shin- 
ing brightly, — the sun of Austerlitz, as the courtiers 
ijirere pleased to say, — when, at three o'clock in the 
afternoon the great bell of the City Hall and the 
cannons of the national guard artillery announced 
that the imperial train had just entered the station 
of Compifigne, All the church bells began ringing, 
and at this signal the crowd flocked in compact 
masses to the approaches of the streets through 
which the procession was to pass. As the sovereign 
stepped down from the car the mayor, M. Deverson, 
said to him: "Sire, the Emperor your uncle loved 
CompiSgne, which he loaded with his benefits; he 
often visited its palace, which was restored and em- 
bellished under his glorious reign. Let it be per- 
mitted us. Sire, to found upon this memory the hope 
of frequently greeting Your Majesty's presence within 
our walls by acclamations." After a few words of 
thanks, Napoleon III. entered the station, where sixty 
young girls dressed in white, with a wide green 
satin ribbon over the shoulder, were assembled to 
bid him welcome. One of them, Mademoiselle Dev- 
erson, niece of the mayor, made an address and 
offered him flowers. Then he mounted a horse, 
accompanied by a numerous staff. At the moment 
when he was leaving the platform, the oldest of the 
market-women, Madame Leguin, recited to him the 
following verses, composed by M. Alphonse Marcel, 
which we have found in one of the city newspapers, 
the Progre% de VOise : — 
2o 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



460 L0V18 NAPOLEON 

Compiegne est un grand livre ou cheque fetuUe es^ique 
Et voire oncle immortel, et son sublime nom. 
Ce palaiSf ce jardin, ce berceau magnifique. 
Tout rappeUe Napoleon. 

Napolion! V Europe h ce nom se dicoumrt. 
Son ombre vous protkge, et dirige vos pas. 
La guerre Va grandi. Vous, que la paix couvre 
De lauriers qui h'attristent pas ! 

A present que le calme a b^ni les orages. 
Que, grace a vous, les flots apaisent leur furettr, 
Sire, venez souvent sous nos riches ombrages 
Mediter comme VEmpereur!^ 

The national guards of Compidgne and the sur- 
rounding country formed the line on the right, and 
the troops of the garrison on the left. The sovereign 
passed them in review and then made his entrance 
into the city. A triumphal arch had been erected 
on the Oise bridge. After crossing the bridge and 
the City Hall place, the Emperor arrived at the 
church of Saint Jacques. The Bishop of Beauvais 
was waiting for him under the portal, and said: 
"When hardly yet proclaimed, the Emperor, at 
Paris, directed his steps toward the basilica of Notre 

^ Compiegne is a great book each leaf of which explains — Both 
your immortal uncle and his sublime name. — This palace, this 
garden, this magnificent arcade, — All recall Napoleon. — Napo- 
leon I At that name Europe uncovers. — His shade protects you 
and directs your steps. — War aggrandized him. You, may peace 
cover — With laurels that do not sadden ! — At present, when calm 
has blest the storms, — When, thanks to you, the waves appease 
their wrath, — Sire, come frequently beneath our plenteous foliage 
~ To meditate like the Emperor 1 



Digitized by 



Google 



COMPIJSGNE 461 



Dame and the asylum of suffering ; and to-day, before 
entering that palace which reminds him of so many 
souvenirs, Your Majesty desires to bow before the 
King of kings, from whom all empires are derived." 
Napoleon III. replied : " Monseigneur, it is my duty 
to have recouree to prayer to fulfil my mission on 
this eaith. Prayer is the pledge of the benedictions 
of Heaven; by it and by assisting the suffering 
classes we attain the goal towards which we all 
should tend." On leaving the church, the Emperor 
mounted his horse and resumed his route. Acclama- 
tions resounded on every side. 

On the Place du Ch&teau the crowd was so dense 
that the corporations ranged beneath their banners 
could not keep their ranks or distances. The old 
soldiers of the First Empire were nearly disbanded 
when a command made itself heard,- and on the 
instant the old heroes rallied. It was M. S^zille, 
cur^ of Beaulieu, who by a sudden inspiration made 
his appearance as leader of the old phalanx. This 
venerable ecclesiastic, who was decorated the next 
day, had been a non-commissioned officer and had 
made nine campaigns and received four wounds in 
the armies of Napoleon I. 

No palace lends itself better to the entry of a sov- 
ereign than the chdteau of Compidgne, with its fagade 
flanked by two pavilions projecting from the main 
front, its two wings united by an Ionic colonnade, 
crowned by an Italian gallery forming a terrace, its 
beautifully wrought grille, its vast court of honor. 



Digitized by 



Google 



452 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

its central building ornamented by a stone baleonj 
and surmounted by a sculptured pediment represent- 
ing the hunt of Meleager. 

The sovereign traversed the entire court of honor, 
alighted from his horse, passed through the hall of 
columns on the ground floor, in which are the marble 
statues of Chancellors THdpital and d^Aguesseau, 
ascended the grand staircase, entered the hall of the 
Guards, ornamented with bas-reliefs representing the 
triumphs of Alexander, and gained his apartments. 
His chamber was that which had been used as a 
study by Louis XV., and a bedroom by Napoleon I., 
Louis XVIII., Charles X., and Louis Philippe. The 
bed has pilastera of gilded wood with a tenb-like 
canopy supported by lances. The chamber is situated 
between two rooms, one of which was the study of 
Napoleon III. and the other the council hall of the 
ministers. The former, which had also served Napo- 
leon I. as a study, has been very exactly reproduced 
in one of the principal scenes of Victorien Sardou's 
Madame Sana- GSne. Unfortunately, all the shelves 
of his bookcase are now empty. Some one conceived 
the unlucky notion of transferring the books to the 
National Library. The only one that was respected 
has been placed under a globe ; it is a volume which, 
in this very place, was struck by a Prussian bullet 
when the city was invaded in 1814. As to the coun- 
cil hall, once the bedroom of Louis XVI., one may 
still see there a large round table covered with green 
velvet, around which tlie ministers of Louis Nape- 



Digitized by 



Google 



COMPIEGNE 453 



leon assembled. These three rooms — the study, the 
Emperor's bedroom, the council hall — give on the 
park, like all those comprised in what are called 
the grand apartments of the ch&teau, and their win- 
dows form part of that fafade of the park, so regu- 
lar and so imposing in aspect, which stretches to a 
length of two hundred metres. Its ground floor cor- 
responds with the first story of the buildings in the 
court of honor. 

Before dinner, the Emperor found his guests 
assembled in the salon of the maps, so called because, 
instead of hangings, it contains three immense maps 
of the forest of CompiSgne. Besides the Comtesse 
de Montijo and her daughter, the principal guests 
were Prince Napoleon, the Princesse Mathilde, Prince 
Murat, Lord Cowley, ambassador of England, and 
Lady Cowley, Marshal de Saint-Arnaud, Minister of 
War, M. Drouyn de Lhuys, Minister of Foreign Af- 
fairs, and Madame Drouyn de Lhuys, the Comte de 
Persigny, Minister of the Interior, and the Comtesse 
Persigny, the Marquis de Vald^gamas, Minister of 
Spain, the Due de Mouchy, the General Prince de la 
Moskowa, father of the Comtesse de Persigny, the 
Marquis and Marquise de Padoue, Baron and Bar- 
oness de Pierres, the Marquis and Marquise de Las 
Marismas, the Marquise de Contades, daughter of the 
Marshal de Castellane. The Emperor chatted a few 
minutes with several of his guests, and then they 
went to dinner in the gallery of fStes. This gallery, 
where the repasts were eaten during the Compifigiie 



Digitized by 



Google 



454 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

series^ was built by Napoleon I. and its paintings are 
by Girodet. Its ceiling, arranged as the covering of 
an arch, is supported by twenty columns iu stucco 
with gilded capitals. This vast hall presents a mag- 
nificent aspect. After dinner they returned to the 
salon of the maps, where they assembled before meals, 
and there after dinner they chatted, played charades, 
and danced to the music of a mechanical piano which 
played but three tunes : a quadrille, a waltz, and a 
polka, the handle of which was turned by a chamber- 
lain, and often by some greater person. 

While the Emperor and his guests were spending 
the evening of December 18 in the salon of tlie 
maps, the whole city of CompiSgne was enfSte. An 
immense crowd circulated in the squares and streets. 
The public buildings and a great many houses were 
illuminated, and the working men's corporations gave 
a grand ball in the city theatre. 

The next day, December 19, was Sunday. The 
Emperor heard Mass in the chapel of the ch&teau, 
which was built by Louis Philippe on the occasion of 
the marriage of his eldest daughter, Louise, with 
Leopold L, King of the Belgians. On the left of the 
hall of the guards there is a room called the salon of 
the chapel, which is hung with Gobelins tapestries 
representing the " Miracle of the Mass," " Heliodorus 
driven from the Temple," after Raphael, and the 
"Battle of Constantino against Maxentius," after 
Giulio Romano; the salon is on a level with the 
tribune in the chapel which the Emperor occupied 



Digitized by 



Google 



COMPIEGNE 466 



during divine service, and communicates with it. 
Mademoiselle de Montijo, her mother, and several 
other persons seated themselves in the tribune. 
Opposite, above the altar, there is a large window- 
painted by Ziegler after designs made by the Prin- 
cesse Marie, daughter of King Louis Philippe. It 
represents a woman in a violet robe, who holds a 
book on which may be read the word Ama^ "love," 
and who is giving her hand to a young man in a 
red robe who cames a cross and looks upward. 
The future Empress kept her eyes on this window, 
whose device, Amay was like an exhortation to love 
the sovereign who was to give her so great a proof 
of his own love. After Mass the Emperor received 
the national guards, the troops, and the working 
men's associations. The weather wa£f superb. It 
was simply a long ovation. 

December 20, there was a hunt with the dogs in 
the forest. The horses and carriages were brought 
in front of the park fa§ade, on the terrace where the 
statues of Ulysses and Philoctetes may be seen. 
The hunting costume was the same as in the days of 
Louis XV. except in color, the royal blue with silver 
trimmings being replaced by the cabbage green of 
the imperial livery. No forest is better adapted to 
hunting than that of Compi^gne with its 14,859 hec- 
tares, its 8 highroads, all meeting at the King's 
Wells, its 278 crossroads, its 27 streams, 16 ponds, 
and 16 fountains. The author of a pleasant book 
called Compiegne^ M. Lefebvre Saint-Ogan, has 



Digitized by 



Google 



456 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

written : " This great quantity of water which the 
forest contains essentially distinguishes it for the 
painter from that of Fontainebleau, where there is 
none at all. The diy atmosphere of the forest of 
Fontainebleau gives the landscape clearer and more 
precise outlines. At Compidgne, the humid air 
imparts a softer brilliance. A silvery vapor floating 
before the eye softens the edge of the object per- 
ceived and reflects the light with intensity." Made- 
moiselle de Montijo followed the hunt on horseback. 
Never had a more graceful and intrepid amazon been 
seen. The Emperor, himself a bold and elegant 
rider, could not but admire her. In the evening, at 
eight o'clock, the dogs were fed by torchlight in the 
court of honor, footmen in full livery and with pow- 
dered hair holding the torches. 

Tuesday, December 21, the Emperor, accompanied 
by one of his aides-de-camp, General Canrobert, left 
the palace in a two-horse carriage, at ten o'clock in 
the morning, to visit the city asylums. Entering the 
chapel of the hospital for the poor, he made a short 
prayer, after which he passed through the wards and 
decorated the Superior, Sister Massin. The saintly 
religious made some difficulty about receiving this 
recompense for all the services she had rendered to 
the hospital she had directed for many years. 

A touching scene took place at the poor-asylum. 
The Emperor, who had been told that there w^as in 
this establishment a female pensioner who had wit- 
uessed his baptism at Fontainebleau, expressed a 



Digitized by 



Google 



COMPIEGNE 457 



wish to see her. Being infirm, the woman came for- 
ward with difficulty, in spite of the sovereign's ex- 
press prohibition to disturb herself. He hastened 
toward her, shook her hand, and said some affection- 
ate words. 

Tuesday, December 22, there was a dramatic repre- 
sentation in the theatre of the ch&teau. Situated at 
the end of the north wing, near the chapel door, on 
the site of the old tennis court, tbis hall, which still 
remains unchanged, had been constructed by Louis 
Philippe for the festivities attendant on his daugh- 
ter's marriage with the King of the Belgians. The 
representation of December 22, 1852, was the first 
of the forty-nine given there under the reign of 
Napoleon III. The troupe from the Paris Gymnase 
played Un File de Famille^ a comedy-vaudeville 
in three acts by MM. Bayard and Bieville. The 
principal interpreters of the piece were Bressant, 
Lafontaine, Lesueur, Priston, and Rose Cheri. The 
imperial box, which faced the stage, could contain 
more than one hundred and fifty places. 

The Emperor, his guests, and all members of his 
civil and military households who were on duty, 
seated themselves in this box. The beauty of Made- 
moiselle de Montijo centred all eyes upon it. The 
right and left sides of the gallery, separated from the 
imperial box only by light railings, were exclusively 
reserved for ladies. Officers, up to and including 
the grade of captain, all of them in uniform, occupied 
the orchestra and the pit. The superior officers and 



Digitized by 



Google 



458 LOUia NAPOLEON 

the civil authorities were in the amphitheatre, which 
was between the pit and the imperial box, some two 
metres below the latter. A second row of boxes was 
filled with the ch&teau servants, and a second gallery 
with invited guests from the city and the suburbs- 
Between the acts the spectators of the orchestra, pit, 
and amphitheatre remained in a standing position 
facing the Emperor. Footmen in full livery passed 
ices, cakes, and other refreshments. The representa- 
tion went off as well as could have been desired. 
Play and players had a real success, and the Emperor 
several times gave the signal for applause. At the 
end of the piece the actors sang some couplets com- 
posed by M. Lemoine-Montigny, director of the Gym- 
nase. These lines, entitled BepoB de la France^ are far 
from remarkable ; but we cite some of them because 
they give a very good notion of the sort of flattery of 
which the new Emperor was then the object: — 

D Empire est fait, un peuple immense 

A parte haul et librement 

Et la grande voix de la France 

Eclate aoec entrcanement 

En un long cri de ralliement. 

Salut rhgne de delivrance, 

Grand nom que VUnivers conncdt! 

Sauveur d*un si^le qui renc^ 

Donne le repos h la France, . . . 

Out, tout renaitf plus de mishre. 
Le travail est dans chaque main, 
La maison du pauvre s*cclaire; 
II a de Vair, U a du pain. 



Digitized by 



Google 



COMPIEONE 459 



Et Vepargne du lendemainy 
n salt qu'h gudrir sa souffrance, 
Le pouvoir 8*appliqu€ aujourd'hui, 
Et son JilSf conseilld par lui 
Behit le repos de la France. 

Peuples combattus par nos peres, 
Ne voyez pas d*un ceil jaloux^ 
Venir la Jin de nos miseres. 
L*orage qui gronda sur nous 
N*a point passd si loin de vous ! 
Ah! gardez-en la souvenancel 
La France, on ne peut Vdhranler, 
Sans vous /aire tous chanceler. 
Respect au repos de la France,^ 

This is the final stanza, which was sung by Rose 
Cheri; it was an homage paid to the memory of 
Queen Hortense, which was what touched the Empe- 
ror most : — 

Reine, de grace et de genie, 

Mhre d'un en/ant glorieux, 

1 The Empire is made, an immense people — Has spoken aloud 
and freely, — And the grand voice of France — Bursts forth with 
animation — In a long rallying cry. — Hail reign of deliverance, — 
Great name known to the Universe ! — Saviour of a new-bom era, 
— Give repose to France. . . . — Yes, all revives, no more of pov- 
erty. — Work is in every hand, — The poor man's house brightens, 
— He has air and he has bread, — And money for to-morrow. — 
He knows that to relieve his sufferings — Power applies itself to- 
day, — And his son, advised by him, — Blesses the repose of 
France. — Peoples combated by our fathers, — Do not behold with 
envious eyes — The end of our miseries approach. — The storm 
which muttered over us — Did not pass so far away from you ! — 
Ah! be mindful of thatl — France cannot be shaken — Without 
making all of you totter. — Respect the repose of France. 



Digitized by 



Google 



460 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

On Va vue, iUustre banniti 
Pour $aurer ses jours precieuxy 
Braoer un destin rigoureux. 
Lor$que tu vois, keureuse Hortense^ 
Le JU$ par tes soins conserv^^ 
Sois Jiere ausH d'avoir sauvt^ 
Reine, U repot de la France.^ 

A second hunt in the forest on December 23, was 
as brilliant as its predecessor. The Emperor had at 
first intended to remain but four days at the ch&teau 
of Compidgne. He remained eleven, not returning 
to the Tuileries until December 28. For him the 
great attraction of Compi^gne had been the joy of 
living under the same roof as Mademoiselle de 
Montijo, sitting with her at table, listening to her 
alwa3'^s lively and glowing conversation, and seeking 
to merit her heart. Accustomed as he was to mas- 
ter and conceal his emotions, he had not found it 
easy to restrain his passion. As much in love as a 
young man of twenty, he was softened, subdued, 
fascinated. And yet he never departed from the 
most correct reserve, nor gave the young girl so 
much admired any precedence which would have 
been contrary to etiquette. The bitterest enemies 
of Napoleon HI. have never denied him the manners 
and sentiments of a perfect gentleman. His attitude 

^ Queen, of grace and of genius, — Mother of a glorious child, 
— Thou hast been seen, illustrious exile, — In order to save his 
precious life, — Braving a rigorous destiny. — When thou seest, 
happy Hortense, — The son preserved by thy cares, — Be proud 
also of having saved, — Queen, the repose of France. 



Digitized by 



Google 



COMPIUGNE 461 



throughout this first of the Compidgne series was 
absolutely irreproachable. Possibly his projected 
marriage was already settled in his own mind. But 
neither Madame de Montijo nor her daughter knew 
anything about it as yet. The courtiers treated the 
charming Spanish woman as a foreigner of distinc- 
tion, worthy of all respect, but not at all as a future 
Empress. Those who could have believed that Na- 
poleon III. thought for an instant of obtaining the 
favor of Mademoiselle de Montijo otherwise than by 
marriage could have had little knowledge of the 
character of this noble and haughty young girl and 
the profound respect in which the Emperor held her. 
M. de Maupas relates in his MSmoires sur le Second 
Empire^ that on one bright autumnal morning dur- 
ing this stay at Compidgne, the Emperor, accom- 
panied by a few persons only, among whom were 
Madame and Mademoiselle de Montijo, was walking 
in the park. "The lawns," adds M. de Maupas, 
" were covered with an abundant dew, and the rays 
of the sun gave the drops still hanging on the 
herbage the glow and transparency of diamonds. 
Mademoiselle Eugenie de Montijo, whose nature was 
full of poetry, took pleasure in admiring the capri- 
cious and magical effects of light. She especially 
called attention to a clover leaf so gracefully charged 
with dewdrops that one might have thought it a real 
gem, fallen from some ornament. When the walk 
was over, the Emperor drew aside Comte Bacchiochi, 
who started for Paris a few minutes later. The next 



Digitized by 



Google 



462 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

day he brought back a charming trinket, wliich was 
no other than a trefoil, each of whose leaves bore a 
superb diamond dewdrop. The count had caused 
the leaf so much admired by his future sovereign on 
the previous day to be imitated with rare perfection/' 
In the evening a lottery was drawn at the ch&teau. 
It was managed so that this trefoil should be gained 
by Mademoiselle de Montijo. In the Emperor's 
mind the trinket was the equivalent of an engage- 
ment ring. But no one except himself yet attached 
this idea to the poetic present the beautiful Spaniard 
had just received. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XLIV 

THE rmST DAYS OF 1863 

""^TAPOLEON III. took his resolution definitively 
•^^ at the beginning of 1863. The information 
given on this head by the former preceptor of the 
Prince Imperial, M. Auguste Filon, appears authentic. 
He writes in his work, entitled MSrimSe et aes amu^ 
and dedicated to the Empress : " Between a sojourn 
at Fontainebleau and a sojourn at Compidgne — so an 
ocular witness tells me — the love of the Emperor 
was seen to increase with great i-apidity. But how 
many people were interested in combating it I And, 
in the Prince's heart, policy and reasons of state 
were not yet vanquished. I have not to relate the 
incident which occurred at the Tuileries, in the hall 
of the Marshals, on the evening of December 31, 
1862. On that evening the Emperor showed himself 
a different man from the one who had allowed Marie 
Mancini to depart." The incident to which M. Filon 
alludes is, we believe, the following: Mademoiselle 
de Montijo, who was leaning on the arm of Colonel 
de Toulongeon, having passed in front of the wife 
of a high official, the latter gave vent to her ill- 
humor in some offensive words. Veiy much moved, 

463 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



464 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

Mademoiselle de Montijo complained to Napoleon III. 
and made him understand that she could remain no 
longer in a court where she was treated in such a 
way. The Emperor answered her, "I will avenge 
you.'' And the next day he asked her in marriage. 
She was then living with her mother at No. 12 
Venddme place, on the first story, very near the 
Rhine Hotel where Louis Napoleon was lodging 
when he was elected president of the Republic. 
The Place Venddme had brought happiness to each. 

January 3, there took place at Paris a ceremony 
calculated to touch the heart of the young girl 
whom the Emperor was about to take as his com- 
panion. Very Catholic, like nearly all Spaniards, it 
pleased Mademoiselle de Montijo to see the capital 
rendering homage to Sainte-Genevifive, and the so- 
lemnity which coincided with the Emperor's oflEer 
of marriage seemed a good omen to the future 
Empress. At nine o'clock in the morning, the relics 
of the patroness of Paris were taken in great pomp 
from the Metropolitan church, and carried through 
the most populous quartera of the capital, to resume 
the place they had formerly occupied under the 
vaulted roof of the Pantheon. The crowd pressed 
piously around the venerated reliquary. The basilica 
was chiefly occupied by working people, and their 
presence imparted a popular character to the cere- 
mony. At the end of the Mass the Archbishop of 
Paris, mitred and holding the crosier, ascended the 
pulpit, and recalled the numerous vicissitudes en- 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE FIM8T DATS OF 18SS 466 

countered by France, and the temple restored by the 
Emperor to Catholic worship. " And now," said the 
arclibishop, " sweet and glorious protectress of Paris, 
x*esume the place prepared for you on the summit 
of this mountain by the piety of fourteen centuries. 
Xlie glory of to-day effaces the misfortunes of yester- 
day. Turn by your powerful intercession, turn from 
tliis capital, storms like those that have stricken it 
so often for more than half a century, since the day 
when impiety drove you from your tutelary throne. 
Xhen protect this Emperor, who repairs the insults 
of the past, and augments the glory of this sanctuary." 
To religious festivals worldly fStes very speedily 
succeeded. January 12, 1858, the grand balls of the 
Second Empire were inaugurated at the palace of 
the Tuileries. The guests all arrived at nine o'clock 
precisely. The reception-rooms of the palace had 
never been so brilliant. People went up the grand 
staircase and entered the vestibule of the gallery 
des TravSes, The luminous emblem of Louis XIV. 
had been substituted for a heavy rosette which dis- 
figured the ceiling, and around the emblem of the 
Sun-King M. Vauchelet had fitted in two medallions 
and four cameos representing Wisdom, Justice, Sci- 
ence, and Force, with their attributes. He had com- 
pleted the decoration of the ceiling by a picture 
which represented Glory, holding a palm in one 
hand and a crown in the other. The guests crossed 
the gallery de9 TravSes^ then the gallery of Peace, 
where, over the chimuey-piece, hung a portrait of 
2h 



Digitized by 



Google 



466 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

Napoleon III. on horseback, in the uniform of a gen- 
eral of division, painted by Charles Louis Miiller. 
Next they entered the hall of the Marshals, entirely 
renovated by the architect Visconti. Four doors 
had formerly given entrance to it; but now t\i'o 
more had been opened, corresponding with the two 
principal fa9ades of the ch&teau. The decoration 
of the vaulted ceiling had been entirely modified. 
Four arches had been disposed in full relief, the 
springs of which, resting against the four comers 
of the hall, were hidden by four great trophies, sur- 
mounted by eagles, and inscribed with the names 
of the victories gained by Napoleon in person. The 
hall contained full-length portraits of the fourteen 
oldest marshals of the great man and twenty-two 
busts of his generals. 

The women wore magnificent costumes, and all 
the men were in uniform or court dress. " Strange 
thing!" wrote M. de Mazade, the chronicler of the 
fortnight in the Revue des Deux Mondes; *' how man}- 
men there were a few years ago, who made it a point 
of honor to defy etiquette and appear at court in 
democratic costume ! It is no longer the same now- 
adays, and etiquette resumes its empire. We cer- 
tainly do not complain because the great functiona- 
ries of the State give fStes, because ceremonies have 
their pomps and regulations, and one must dress 
properly in order to appear at court. Very likely 
there are industries which are well content that peo- 
ple shall wear velvet, and silk stockings become in- 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE FIRST DAYS OF 185S 467 

dispensable ; but besides these external things, there 
is evidently a profounder task, which consists in 
leading society back to the cult of its own dignity; 
to the superiorities which make its strength ; to the 
distinction which has established the influence of 
France in the world. This inner and profound task 
once accomplished, the transformation of manners 
and usages will follow its course. It will go as far 
as it can, and be arrested by the limits set by our 
time and modem life." 

While the guests were reaching the hall of the 
Marshals, the sovereign left his apartment, and en- 
tered the salon of Louis XIV., likewise called the 
Emperor's cabinet. A copy of Lesueur's Olympus 
decorated the ceiling of this hall, which was adorned 
by three pictures: a superb portrait of the Great 
King, by Rigaud; a copy of Gerard's celebrated 
canvas, representing the Due d'Anjou (Philippe V.) 
receiving the Spanish ambassadors at Versailles; and, 
finally, a composition by Mignard, which represented 
Anne of Austria giving instructions to her young 
son, Louis XIV. Napoleon III. afterwards passed 
through the throne-room, which had just been splen- 
didly restored. The canopy of the throne was sur- 
mounted by an eagle with outspread wings. The 
draperies of crimson velvet, sown with golden bees 
and bordered with laurel leaves, were attached by 
rich bands to two candelabras, of which the extremi- 
ties supported a globe and a crown. A platform, 
raised on three circular steps, upheld the throne, the 



Digitized by 



Google 



468 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

pedestal of which formed a footstool. This throne 
had been used on a solemn occasion, — the cFowning 
of Napoleon I. On the background of the draperies, 
surrounded by a wreath of oak and laurel, appealed 
the imperial escutcheon, embroidered in gold, accom- 
panied by the hand of justice, the sceptre of Charle- 
magne, the insignia of the Legion of Honor, and 
surmounted by a helmet and a crown. 

Leaving the throne-room, the Emperor pa^ed 
through the hall of Apollo, so called because the 
panel at the farther end represented Apollo sur- 
rounded by the Nine Muses, and then entered the 
Avhite salon (designated afterwards as the salon of 
the First Consul), where the members of his family, 
the officers of his household, the diplomatic corps, the 
ministera, and the great dignitaries were waiting for 
him. The pictures, the gildings, the cameos of 
Nicolas Loyr had just been restored, and fourteen 
Boule cabinets, supporting very costly objects of art, 
adorned the intermediate spaces. In this salon of 
Apollo the presentations were made and the sover- 
eign's cortege formed. A decree of January 10 
had just regulated the rank of princes and prin- 
cesses related to the Emperor but forming no part 
of the imperial family ; the decree decided that these 
princes and princesses should take pi'ecedence im- 
mediately after the diplomatic corps when united in 
a body, and after the ambassadors when the diplo- 
matic corps should not be thus united. A great 
many foreigners of distinction were presented by the 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE FIRST DAYS OF 185S 469 

ambassadors and heads of legations. Then, at half- 
past nine o'clock, an usher cried, "The Emperor!" 
and Napoleon III. entered the hall of the Marshals 
as the orchestra struck up the air of Partant pour 
la 8yrie^ composed by Queen Hortense. The Em- 
peror wore the uniform of a general of division, with 
white cashmere knee-breeches, silk stockings, and 
buckled shoes. The chamberlains had scarlet frock 
coats, the equerries green ones, the masters of cere- 
monies violet with gold ornaments, while those of 
the orderly officers were light blue, embroidered in 
silver, with shoulder knots. Several rows of benches 
for women surrounded the hall of the Marshals. In 
the middle, on a slightly raised platform, was a 
large armchair for the Emperor. The chamberlains 
formed and maintained the circle reserved for dan- 
cing, and the ball opened with a quadrille of honor, 
which Napoleon III. danced with the ambassadress 
of England, Lady Cowley. He danced another qua- 
drille with Mademoiselle de Montijo, whose resplen- 
dent beauty and extreme elegance excited general 
admiration. Of all the women present she was as- 
suredly the most beautiful, but no one suspected 
that before the end of the month she would reign as 
sovereign in this palace, where she was still only an 
invited guest. 

It was not Mademoiselle de Montijo, but the am- 
bassadress of England, whom the Emperor led to 
supper in the theatre of the chateau, where four 
hundred ladies took their places. This theatre, 



Digitized by 



Google 



470 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

which adjoined the pavilion of Marsan in the body 
of the building which is now torn down, occupied 
the whole width and height of the palace. Built on 
a part of the site of the former machine-room and 
the site of the Convention, its gi-andiose propor- 
tions and the richness of its decorations gave it a 
fairy-like aspect Filled with flowers, inundated 
with lights, it was a frame well adapted to bring out 
such beauty as that of Mademoiselle de Montijo. 

Everything shone in this first ball of the Second 
Empire: the prestige of a new government, the re- 
turn to monarchical pomps and elegance, the daz- 
zling toilettes, the new uniforms all embroidered 
with gold and silver. There was a sort of apotheosis 
at the Tuileries. Doubtless no one thought of the 
dismal souvenirs inseparable from this fatal abode. 
Did any one reflect that evening that Louis XVI. 
had worn the bonnet-rouge in the salon of Apollo? 
Who dreamed then of the 20th of June and the 
10th of August, 1792, of the Committee of Public 
Safety sitting in the pavilion of Flora, of the tumult- 
uous and sinister sessions of the Convention, of the 
invasion of the ch&teau by the populace in 1830 and 
1848, of Louis Philippe's throne broken in pieces 
and then delivered to the flames? The guests for- 
got the past, and no one dreaded the future. With 
what stupefaction would they not have been struck 
had some prophet of misfortune come to predict the 
fate reserved for this brilliant, radiant theatre where 
they were supping so gayly and pleasantly! And 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE FIRST DATS OF 1868 471 

Mademoiselle de Montijo, how she would have shud- 
dered could she have foreseen the state in which she 
would find this supper-room in 1870, at the begin- 
ning of the fatal war! Then she would install an 
ambulance there. Instead of operatic decorations, 
foliage, flowers, rich vessels, dazzling lights, crowds 
of courtiers, the aspect and atmosphere of a hospital, 
the doctors, the surgeons, the wounded, the dying! 
Instead of the joyous sounds of the orchestra, cries 
of agony and the death rattle! Instead of women 
loaded with jewels, sisters of charity with their 
white cornettes! During the ball of January 12, 
1853, while all the candelabras, all the sconces of 
the Tuileries were shedding such vivid lights, who 
could have caught a glimpse in the future of gleams 
more glowing still : the conflagration of 1871 ? But 
away with dismal forebodings, and let us return to 
the epoch when the young Empire, full of hope and 
confidence in itself, fancied that it had made a pact 
with happiness. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XLV 

THB ANKOUNCEMBNT OF THE MABRXAGB 

"DEOPLE did not begin talking of the Emperor's 
^ marriage until after the Tuileries ball. Madame 
the Marquise de Contades (now Comtesse de Beau- 
laincourt) wrote to her father, Marshal Castellane, 
January 16, 1868: "You must hear, even so far 
away, the echo of the rumors of Paris, where nothing 
is talked of but the marriage of the Emperor and 
Mademoiselle de Montijo. Eh! well, between our- 
selves, that might happen. The Emperor has con- 
ceived a very violent passion for her, and he seems 
to me to take the thing quite in earnest. As for 
her, she conducts herself with reserve and dignity. 
From the political point of view this marriage seems 
at first glance to have inconveniences; but if it 
does not take place, it is more than probable that 
the Emperor will not marry at all, seeing that his 
repugnance to marriage up to now has been but too 
well proven, and that certain old English chains^ 
which are still very near, and which are the terror 
of those who love him, may restrain him." Speak- 
ing of Mademoiselle de Montijo, the Marquise de 
Contades added : " This young girl is pretty, good, 

472 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE MARRIAGE 473 

and witty; and along with this I believe she has 
much energy and nobility of soul. I have been 
watching her a good deal of late and I have observed 
nothing but what is good." 

At the same time, Marshal Castellane's other 
daughter, the Comtesse de Hatzfeld, wife of the 
Prussian minister at Paris, wrote to her father: 
"They are talking in the city of the Emperor's 
marriage with Mademoiselle de Montijo; this news 
needs confirmation. If it is true, he will at least 
have a beautiful wife; that is something for him. 
It means preferment by choice." 

The Marshal, who was then commanding the army 
of Lyons, responded : " For my part, I am glad of it. 
I hardly suspected when Madame her mother came 
to me at Perpignan, July 29, 1834, leading her and 
her sister by the hand, for she had two little girls 
with her and a little boy named Paco, that she would 
be Empress of the French one day. The Comtesse 
de Montijo was then fleeing from Spain, and I gave 
her letters of recommendation to our relatives in 
Toulouse. I find her described in my notes of the 
period as between thirty and thirty-five years old, 
tall, fine looking still, and with a remarkable mind. 
Madame de Montijo was very kind when I saw her 
again in 1849, with her daughter Eugenie. In Made< 
moiselle de Montijo the Emperor will have a very 
beautiful, very intelligent, and, I think, a very good 
wife. Madame de Montijo will have realized a fine 
dream." 



Digitized by 



Google 



474 L0UI8 NAPOLEON \ 

The rumors concerning the Emperor's betrothal 
still encountered many unbelievers until the follow- 
ing lines were published in the Moniteur of Janu- 
ary 19, 1868 : " The bureau of the Senate, the bureau 
of the Corps Legislatif, and the members of the 
Council of State will meet on Saturday at the 
Tuileries to receive a communication from the Em- 
peror in relation to his marriage. The members of 
the Senate and the Corps Legislatif may join their 
colleagues." Thenceforward all Paris knew that Na- 
poleon III. was affianced to Mademoiselle Eugenie 
de Montijo, Comtesse de Teba. The news occasioned 
surprise, but in general men of feeling received it 
sympathetically and appreciated the noble and chiv- 
alric sentiments which had inspired the Emperor's 
resolve. If there were adverse criticisms, they pro- 
ceeded from statesmen who would have desired a 
princess of royal or imperial blood for Napoleon III. 
They came especially from a small group of coquet- 
tish and ambitious women, who, jealous already of 
the striking beauty of Mademoiselle de Montijo, 
could not see her elevated to the supreme rank 
without a spiteful pang. But these murmurs were 
stifled by the great voice of the masses, always 
affected by thoughts springing from the heart ; and 
the speech delivered by Napoleon III. appealed to 
popular sensibility. This discourse, at once reason- 
able and sentimental, full of familiar ideas and ro- 
mantic aspirations, captivated the French nation and 
found an immense echo throughout the world. 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE MARRIAGE 476 

At noon on Saturday, January 22, the three great 
constituent bodies assembled in the throne-room of 
the Tuileries to listen to the communication from 
the sovereign. Standing in front of the throne, with 
King Jer8me on his right and Prince Napoleon on 
his left, he read the following discourse in a vibrant 
and emphatic voice : — 

^^ Gentlemen, I comply with the wish so often 
manifested by the country, by coming to announce 
jto you my marriage. 

" The union which I contract is not in accord with 
the political traditions of ancient times ; therein* lies 
its advantage. (^Sensatian.^ 

" Prance, by its successive revolutions, has been 
rudely separated from the rest of Europe ; all judi- 
cious government should seek its return to the pale of 
the ancient monarchies ; but this result will be much 
more surely attained by a frank and upright policy, 
by loyal transactions, than by royal alliances, which 
create false securities and often substitute family 
interests for those of the nation. Moreover, the 
examples of the past have left superstitious beliefs 
in the minds of the people ; they have not forgotten 
that for the last seventy years foreign princesses 
have ascended the steps of the throne only to see 
their oflEspring scattered by war or revolution. 
(^Profound sensation.^ One woman alone has seemed 
to bring happiness and to live longer than others in 
the people's memory, and this woman, the good and 
modest wife of General Bonaparte, was not the issue 



Digitized by 



Google 



476 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

of royal Uood." This homage paid to his grand- 
mother, the Empress Josephine, was greeted with 
applause and cries of ^^ Long live the Emperor." 

^^ Yet it most be recognized/' added Napoleon III^ 
'Hhat in 1810 the marriage of Napoleon I. with 
Marie Louise was a great event : it was a pledge of 
the future, a real satisfaction for the national pride, 
since people beheld the ancient and illustrious house 
of Austria, which had so long made war upon us, 
seeking an alliance with the elected chief of a new 
empire." There was great tact in this allusion to 
the Empress Marie Louise. Perhaps that which the 
Emperor made afterwards to the Princess Heldne de 
Mecklenburg-Schwerin, widow of the Due d'Orleaas, 
was less opportune. " Under the last reign, on the 
contrary, was not the self-love of the country 
wounded when the heir of the crown vainly solicited 
during many years the alliance of a sovereign family, 
and obtained in the end a princess who was doubt- 
less accomplished, but only of secondary rank and of 
a different religion?" Many persons thought that 
Napoleon III. would have done better not to mention 
an unfortunate princess who was still living and 
suffering from an unjust exile. 

On the other hand, the following passage was 
greeted with enthusiasm: ''When, in face of old 
Europe, one is carried by the force of a new principle 
to the height of the ancient dynasties, it is not by at- 
tributing age to his blazon and seeking at any cost 
to introduce himself into the family of kings that he 

Digitized by VjOOQIC j 

i 



THE ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE MABBIAQE 477 

makes himself acceptable. Far rather is it by always 
remembering his origin, by preserving his own char- 
acter, and frankly taking the position of a new-comer 
in the face of Earope, a glorious title when one arrives 
by the free suffrages of a great people. ( Unanimous 
applause.^ 

*'Thus, obliged to deviate from the precedents 
followed up to this day, my marriage was simply a 
private matter. There remained only the choice of 
the person." 

Here the Emperor expressed with emotion all his 
affection for his betrothed: "She who has become 
the object of my preference is of lofty birth. French 
by education, by the memory of the blood shed by 
her father for the cause of the Empire, she has as a 
Spaniard the advantage of having no family in France 
to which honors and dignities must be given. Gifted 
with all the qualities of the soul, she will be the 
ornament of the throne, as in the hour of danger she 
would become one of its courageous supporters. 
Catholic and pious, she will address to Heaven the 
same prayers that I do for the welfare of France ; 
gracious and good, she will, in the same position, 
I firmly hope, renew the virtues of the Empress 
Josephine." 

Happily for Napoleon HI., the Empress Eugenie 
was much more virtuous than Josephine. One ex- 
cuses a grandson for praising, possibly with exagger- 
ation, a grandmother who, in spite of excellent 
qualities, did not possess all the " virtues," and the 



Digitized by 



Google 



478 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

phrase about the first wife of Napoleon I. was re- 
ceived with applause. 

The Emperor terminated his discourse by these 
really eloquent words : ^^ I come then, gentlemen, to 
say to France : I have preferred a woman whom I 
love and respect to an unknown person, the advan- 
tages of an alliance with whom would be mingled 
with sacrifices. Without showing disdain for any one, 
I yield to my inclination, but after consulting my 
reason and my convictions. Finally, in placing inde- 
pendence, the qualities of the heart, family happiness, 
above dynastic prejudices, I shall not be less strong, 
because I shall be more free. Very soon, in betaking 
myself to Notre Dame, I shall present the Empress 
to the people and the army ; the confidence they have 
in me will assure their sympathy for her whom I have 
chosen, and you, gentlemen, in learning to know her, 
will be convinced that this time also I have been 
inspired by Providence." 

Seldom do words springing from the heart fail to 
move an audience. When the Emperor had con- 
cluded his discourse, it was replied to by unanimous 
and sincere applause. 

For several days the approaching marriage of the 
sovereign was the only theme of conversation in 
Paris. In the Revue des Deux Mondes M. de Mazade 
summed up the general impression very well in these 
lines: ^^ There are events which as soon as they 
occur have the singular privilege of eclipsing all 
others and of creating diversions in political affaiis 



Digitized by 



Google 



TEE ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE MABBIAQE 479 

even while linking themselves to the general course 
of things. People talk about them, comment on 
them ; for some days they become the inexhaustible 
aliment of conversation. Doubtless this is explain- 
able by their importance, and also because on some 
side or other they address themselves to the imagina- 
tion, — the imagination which has played so great a 
rSle in our history. The Emperor's marriage is 
certainly one of these events. But a few days since 
it was not thought of at all. The Emperor has acted 
as he often does, surprising those who ought to be or 
might be the most prescient, disconcerting them per- 
haps as much by the rapidity of his f esolutions as by 
the secrecy of his private deliberations, and suddenly 
lifting, by the mere fact of his station, a private act 
of his own will to the level of a political event. . . . 
A new path opens for the brilliant Spanish woman, 
linked at this moment to the Empire, and is not 
the same path opened for French society as a 
whole?" 

As soon as the Emperor had announced his be- 
trothal to the great bodies of the State, Madame de 
Montijo and her daughter quitted their apartment 
in Place VendSme and installed themselves in the 
Elysee palace, where they were to remain until 
Sunday, January 30, the date fixed for the celebra- 
tion of the religious marriage at Notre Dame. Until 
then the Emperor made daily visits to the Elysee, 
where he paid his court to his betrothed and carried 
her bouquets. The historic souvenirs attaching to 



Digitized by 



Google 



480 LOUia NAPOLEON 

this channing palace are not all of good omen. It 
was from the Elysee that Napoleon I. started for 
Waterloo. It was to the Elysee that he returned to 
sign, in cruel anguish, his second abdication. It was 
from the Elysee that the Due de Berry went out, 
February 18, 1820, to fall on the threshold of the 
Opera beneath an assassin's poniard. But no one 
was thinking now of these sinister pages of history. 
Mademoiselle de Montijo was especially remembering 
that since 1848 the Elysee had brought good fortune 
to her betrothed, that he was installed there after his 
election to the presidency of the Republic, and tiiat 
there, overcoming the g^atest difficulties, he had 
prepared the Empire. 

People read in the Moniteur of January 27 : ^ This 
morniug, at ton o'clock, Monseigneur the Bishop of 
Nancy,' first almoner to the Emperor, celebrated Mass 
in the Elysee chapel, in the presence of His Majesty 
and Her Excellency the Comtesse de Teba (the official 
name borne by Mademoiselle de Montijo from the 
announcement of her betrothal to the celebration of 
her marriage). His Majesty and Her Excellency 
received Holy Communion from the hand of His 
GiandQur." ' " ^ , * 

Napoleon III., in spite of his youthful eiTors, had 
always respected religion and believed the Christian 
verities. Like all men who form a marriage of in- 
clination, he was sincere in promising God and him- 
self to be always faithful to the companion whom 
his heart had chosen. Convinced that the greatest 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE MAliRIAQE 481 

happiness of life is in love legitimately shared, he 
thanked Heaven on finding that his betrothed loved 
and understood him. Never had he felt so happy at 
any period of his existence. On her side, Mademoi- 
selle de Montijo, touched by the affection she in- 
spired, joined herself from the depths of her soul 
to all the sentiments and all the hopes of the Em- 
peror. Very devoted to the Catholic Church, she 
longed above all things that her husband should 
merit the name of "Most Christian Majesty." 

On the eve of ascending the throne, the fiancee had 
a charitable inspiration which pleased the Parisians. 
On January 28, at the opening of the session of the 
Municipal Council at the Hdtel de Ville, the prefect 
of the Seine read a letter addressed to him by 
Mademoiselle de MoDtijo as soon as she learned 
that the Council had determined to present her mth 
a set of diamonds. This letter ran as follows : " Mr. 
Prefect, I am much affected on learning the generous 
decision of the Municipal Council of Paris, which 
thus displays its sympathetic adhesion to the union 
the Emperor is contracting. Nevertheless, I ex- 
perience a painful sentiment when I think that the 
first public act attaching to my name at the moment 
of the marriage is to be a considerable expense for 
the city of Paris. Permit me then not to accept 
your gift, however flattering to me ; you would make 
me happier by employing in charity the sum you 
have fixed upon for the purchase of the ornaments 
the Municipal Council wished to offer me. I desire 
2i 



Digitized by 



Google 



482 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

that my maniiige shall not be the occasion of any 
new expense to the country to which I belong hence- 
forward, and the sole thing I aspire to is to share 
with the Emperor the love and esteem of the French 
people. I beg you, Mr. Prefect, to express all my 
gratitude to the Council, and to receive for your- 
self the assurance of my distinguished consideration. 
Eugenie, Comtesse de Teba. Elysee Palace, January 
26, 1853." 

Moved by this simple and noble letter, the Munici- 
pal Council unanimously agreed that in conformity 
with the intentions of the future sovereign the sum 
of six hundred thousand francs, which had been 
destined for the purchase of a set of jewels, should 
be employed in founding an establishment where 
poor young girls should receive a professional edu- 
cation, and which they would leave only when 
provided with suitable positions. This establishment 
was to bear the name of the Empress and be placed 
under her protection. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XL VI 

THE CIVIL MARBIAGB 

^T^HE civil marriage was celebrated at the Tuileries 
-^ on Saturday, January 29, 1858. At eight o'clock 
in the evening the Due de Cambacerfis, grand master 
of ceremonies, went to the Elysee palace with two 
escorted carriages, to seek the Emperor's betrothed 
and conduct her to the Tuileries. The first carriage 
was occupied by two ladies of the palace and the 
master of ceremonies; the second received Made- 
moiselle de Montijo, her mother, the Marquis de 
Valdegamas, Minister of Spain at Paris, and the Due 
de Cambacerds. The cortdge entered the ch&teau 
by the gate of the pavilion of Flora. The Due 
de Bassano, grand chamberlain. Marshal de Saint- 
Armand, grand equerry. Colonel Pleury, first equerry, 
two chamberlains, and the orderly officers on duty 
were awaiting the imperial betrothed at the foot 
of the staircase. At the entrance of the first salon 
she found Prince Napoleon and Princess Mathilde, 
and all passed on to the family salon. The first 
chamberlain announced the arrival of his affianced to 
the sovereign. The Emperor, surrounded by his 
uncle, King Jerdme, the members of his family whom 

488 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



484 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

he had designated, — Prince Lucien Bonaparte, Prince 
Pierre Bonaparte, Prince Lucien Marat, Princess 
Bacciochi Camerata, Princess Lucien Murat, the 
cardinals, marshals, admirals, secretaries of state, 
great officers of the crown, officers of his civil and 
military households, French ambassadors and minis- 
ters plenipotentiary on furlough, — appeared in the 
uniform of a general of division, with the collar of 
the Legion of Honor worn by Napoleon I., and the 
collar of the Golden Fleece which had belonged to 
the Emperor Charles V. He came forward to meet 
the Comtesse de Teba, and at nine o'clock the 
cortege moved toward the hall of the Marshals, where 
the civil marriage was to be performed. 

At the back of the splendidly lighted hall, in front 
of the embrasure of the window giving on the 
garden, two precisely similar armchairs had been 
placed on an estrade, the one on the right for the 
Emperor, the other for his betrothed. On the right 
King JerSme and Prince Napoleon took their places, 
on the left the Princesse Matbilde, the Comtesse 
de Montijo, the Spanish minister. Prince Lucien 
Bonaparte, Prince Pierre Bonaparte, Piince Lucien 
Murat, Princess Bacciochi, and Princess Marat. 
On the left side of the estrade, and below it, was 
a table on which lay the register of the civil 
condition of the imperial family, going back to the 
reign of Napoleon I. The first act recorded in it, 
dated March 2, 1806, is the adoption of Prince 
Eugdne as son of the Emperor and Viceroy of Italy. 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE CIVIL MARRIAGE 486 

The last act, immediatelj preceding the marriage 
act of Napoleon III., is that of the birth of the King 
of Rome, dated March 20, 1811. M. Achille Fould, 
Minister of State, and of the Emperor's household, 
acting as officer of the civil State, and assisted by 
M. Baroche, president of the Council of State, stood 
beside the table. The first bench was reserved for 
the wives of the ministers and great officers of the 
crown, and the widows of great dignitaries of the 
First Empire and of marshals and admirals of 
France. All the women rose on the entry of the 
Emperor and the future Empress, and remained 
standing, as did all the spectators, until the close of 
the ceremony. The Due de Cambacerds, having in- 
vited M. Achille Fould to present himself in front 
of the Emperor's armchair with M. Baroche, the 
betrothed couple rose, and the following words were 
exchanged between them and the Minister of State : — 

" Sire, does Your Majesty declare that he takes in 
marriage Her Excellency Mademoiselle Eugenie de 
Monti jo, Comtesse de Teba, here present?" 

^^ I declare that I take in marriage Her Excellency 
Mademoiselle Eugenie de Montijo, Comtesse de Teba, 
here present." 

*^ Mademoiselle Eugenie de Montijo, Comtesse de 
Teba, does Your Excellency declare that she takes 
in marriage His Majesty the Emperor Napoleon III., 
here present?" 

"I declare that I take in marriage His Majesty 
the Emperor Napoleon, here present." 



Digitized by 



Google 



486 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

The Minister of State then pronounced the mar- 
riage in these terms : ^^ In the name of the Emperor, 
of the Constitution and of the Law, I declare that 
His Majesty Napoleon III., Emperor of the French 
by the grace of God and the national will, and Her 
Excellency Mademoiselle Eugenie de Montijo, Com- 
tesse de Teba, are united in marriage." 

After these words had been pronounced, the masters 
and aids of ceremonies took up the table on which 
lay the civil register, and placed it in front of the 
armchairs of the Emperor and Empress. Then they 
proceeded to the signing of the act, the preamble 
of which was thus worded: "We, Achille Fould, 
Minister of State and of the Emperor's household, 
and Pierre-Jules Baroche, president of the Council 
of State, notified by the grand master of ceremonies, 
have presented ourselves before the Throne, with 
intent to proceed, in virtue of the sealed letter 
herein below transcribed, to the ceremony of mar- 
riage between the Emperor Napoleon III., bom in 
Paris, April 20, 1808, and Her Excellency Marie- 
Eugenie Guzman y Palafox Fernandez de Cor- 
dova, Leyva y la Cerda, Comtesse de Teba, de 
Bancs, de Mora, de Santa-Cruz, de la Sierra, Mar- 
quise de Moya de Ardalles de Osera, Vicomtesse 
de la Calzada, etc., grandee of Spain of the first 
class, bom in Grenada, May 5, 1826, daughter of 
His Excellency Cipriano Porto-Carrero y Palafox, 
Comte de Montijo, Due de Penaranda, Marquis de 
Valderravano, Vicomte de Palacios de la Valdueraa, 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE CIVIL MABRIAOE 487 

Baron de Quiuto, etc., grand marshal of Castile, 
grandee of Spain of the first class, chevalier of the 
order of Saint John of Jerusalem and of the Legion 
of Honor, who died at Madrid, March 15, 1839, and 
of the Comtesse de Montijo and de Miranda, Duchesse 
de Penaranda, grandee of Spain of the first class, 
honorary grand mistress of Her Majesty the Queen 
of the Spains, dame of the order of the nohle dames 
of Mademoiselle Louise and dame of the Society of 
Honor and Merit, Her Excellency Eugenie Guzman, 
Comtesse de Teba, being authorized by Her Excel- 
lency the Comtesse de Montijo, her mother, and as- 
sisted by His Excellency the Marquis de Valdegamas, 
eovoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary of 
Her Majesty Isabella U., Queen of the Spains." 

On the request of the grand master of ceremonies, 
the president of the Council of State presented the 
pen to the Emperor, and then to the Empress. 
Their Majesties signed it sitting, without leaving 
their places. The Comtesse de Montijo, the princes 
and princesses, the Spanish minister, afterwards 
received the pen from the hands of the president 
of the Council of State, and approaching the table 
signed according to their rank. Then the other 
persons designated by the Emperor aflBxed their 
signatures, and, the act being terminated, the Due 
de Cambac^rfis announced to Their Majesties the 
close of the ceremony. The spectators, to whom 
were added a large number of invited guests, then 
repaired to the Palace Theatre. A few moments 



Digitized by 



Google 



488 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

later Their Majesties, accompanied bj the princeB 
and princesses, ministers, foreign ambassadors, and 
great officers of the crown, made their entry into 
this hall, where, in their presence, a cantata was 
song for which Auber had composed the music. 

The Empress was afterwards reconducted to the 
Elys^e with the same ceremonial observed for her 
arrival at the Tuileries. Thenceforward she was 
to be treated as a sovereign. The Moniteur of Janu- 
ary 26 had already made known the formation of 
her household, which was composed as follows: 
grand mistress, the Princesse d'Essling; lady of 
honor, the Duchesse de Bassano ; ladies of the pal- 
ace, the Comtesse Gustavo de Montebello, Madame 
Feray, the Vicomtesse de Lezay-Marnesia, the Ba- 
ronne de Pierres, the Baronne de Malaret; grand 
master. General Gomte Tascher de la Pagerie ; cham- 
berlain, the Vicomte de Lezay-Marnesia; equerry, 
the Baron de Pierres. 

The religious marriage, which was to be celebrated 
at Notre Dame the day after the civil marriage, was 
to be one of those solemnities with which the whole 
world concerns itself. Since the betrothal of the Em- 
peror had been known, all the journals of Europe were 
full of comments on the resolution he had taken. 

We will cite some extracts from journals pub- 
lished in two countries, to whose opinion Napoleon 
III. attached special importance, — England and 
Spain: — 

The Standard: "The Emperor Napoleon has at 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE CIVIL MARRIAGE 489 

last concluded to marry. His Majesty being now at 
the mature age of forty-five, no one can say that his 
marriage is hastily undertaken; and his betrothed 
being young, beautiful, amiable, and of spotless repu- 
tation, such a union cannot be described as impru- 
dent. . . . We think the conduct of the Emperor 
of the French a good one to imitate. We think 
that in taking a wife whom he loves for herself, he 
has obtained guaranties of happiness, and that it is 
the best example he could give to the people who 
have chosen him as their chief." 

The Morning Post : " Napoleon is inspired by love, 
and for almost the first time since less civilized 
periods, we see a potentate elevate to the throne a 
woman not of royal blood. Romance has carried 
the day against policy. . . . There is a tinge of 
independence in this which cannot fail to please the 
French nation. For ourselves, we are glad of it. 
Experience has thus far proved that Napoleon has 
followed nothing but his own impulsion, and we 
think he will persist in that line. The marriage 
will give the nation new hopes ; it will create a new 
tie between the Emperor and his people ; it will add 
a new consideration to his court." 

The Q-lobe: "We think the Emperor's marriage 
appeals more favorably to public opinion in England 
than any event of his career." 

The Times: "We shall speak of the future 
Empress of the French with all the deference due 
to her, for it is impossible to have remarked the 



Digitized by 



Google 



490 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

attractioDfl of her peison, the distinction of her 
manners, and the vivacity of her mind (as manj of 
us have been able to do in her visits to England), 
without taking a more than ordinary interest in her 
extraordinary destiny. ... By birth she combines 
the energy of the Spanish and Scottish races, and if 
our opinion of her is correct, she is made not merelj^ 
to adorn the throne, but to defend it in the hour of 
danger." 

The Morning Herald: "Napoleon III. has appealed 
to honest hearts and the univei*sal conscience. His 
people will not leave him because they see at his 
side a beautiful, gracious, and courageous Empress, 
whom he marries for reasons which all men respect 
at the bottom of their hearts." 

The same note is struck in the majority of the 
European journals. The imagination of the public 
was impressed, and as Napoleon I. had said : " It is 
imagination which governs the world." 

The Spanish journals manifested a satisfaction 
blended with a sentiment of patriotism. In the 
Heraldo of Madrid, of January 25, one reads: 
"The French mail brings us very important news. 
. . . She who is about to assume the crown as 
Empress is one of the most distinguished women of 
Madrilene society: the Gomtesse de Teba, daughter 
of the Gomtesse de Montijo, and sister of the 
Duchesse d'Albe, she is as remarkable for beauty 
as for wit, and has been known by all Madiid since 
her childhood." 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE CIVIL MAHRIAGE 491 

The Espafla^ of January 26, thus expressed itself : 
^ It is a Spanish woman who is going to impart to 
the throne of a great nation the lustre of her grace. 
The Comtesse de Teba, who charmed us hy her 
affability, and was the ornament of our reunions, is 
about to assume the purple of the Caesars, and share 
the destiny of him who is at once the heir of the man 
of the century and the conqueror of anarchy. It is 
our sympathetic compatiiot who is chosen to reign 
on the social heights of a great people. It is the 
bright and witty Spanish woman who is to preside 
over the development of the sciences, arts, industries, 
and civilization in France. At this moment we envy 
Spaniards who reside in Paris; we doubt not that 
on seeing our fair compatriot amid the solemn pomps 
of the august ceremony, they will be proud, finding 
her worthy of the majesty of the throne. . . . The 
lustre of a throne, however brilliant, will not eclipse 
the lustre of Maiie-Eug^nie's eyes, and the fortune 
which is crowning her with its gifts will not alter 
the noble serenity of her heart. For the glory of 
our country, we express the wish, and have the firm 
expectation, that the former pearl of Castilian aris- 
tocracy will be the best of Frenchwomen." 

All nations sent the new Empress the homage of 
their sympathy and admimtion. No woman, for 
many years, had attracted general attention to so 
great a degree, and never had beauty won so great 
a triumph. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER XLVri 

THE HABBIAGB AT KOTBB DAME 

/^N Sunday, January 30, 1853, all Paris is en fSU. 
^-^ A clear sky, a spring-like temperature, favor 
the ceremony in preparation. An innumerable pop- 
ulation is thronging to every point which the 
imperial procession is to pass: the Carrousel, the 
court of the Louvre, the rue de Rivoli, the Place 
de I'Hdtel de Ville, the quai Gesvres, the bridge of 
Notre Dame, the quai Napoleon, the rue d' Areola, 
the space in front of the cathedral. Two squadrons 
of guides are drawn up in battle array in the court 
of the Tuileries. On the Place du Carrousel appear 
in serried columns a brigade of cuirassiers, a brigade 
of carbineers, a squadron of the gendarmerie of the 
Seine. The national guard and the army form a 
double line from the palace of the Tuileries to Notre 
Dame. Bodies of working men from Paris and its 
outskirts, deputations of young girls dressed in 
white, old soldiers of the First Empire, are grouped 
already along the line of the procession. The Place 
du Louvre, the rue de Rivoli, the Hdtel de Ville, 
the wharves, are decked with masts, pennants, 
panoplies, and escutcheons bearing the monogram 
of the Emperor and Empress. 

^92 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE MARRIAGE AT NOTRE DAME 498 

It is half-past eleven o'clock. Two court carriages, 
escorted by a picket of cavalry, go to seek the bride 
and conduct her from the Elysee to the Tuileries. 
In one of them are seated the Princesse d'Essling, 
grand mistress of her household, the Duchess^ de Bas- 
sano, her lady of honor, the Comte Charles Tascher 
de la Pagerie, her first chamberlain ; in the other the 
Empress, the Comtesse de Montijo, and the General 
Comte Tascher de la Pagerie, gmnd master of Her 
Majesty's household. Her equerry. Baron de Pierres, 
rides on horseback beside her carriage. 

At noon the cannon of the Invalides thunder 
joyous salvos, the clarions sound, the drums beat a 
salute. It is the moment when the sovereign arrives 
at the Tuileries by the gate of the pavilion of Flora. 
She alights from the carriage in front of the pavilion 
of the Horloge, on whose threshold she finds the grand 
chamberlain, the grand equerry, the first equerry, four 
chamberlains, and the orderly officers on duty. Prince 
Napoleon and Princess Mathilde are awaiting her at 
the foot of the grand staircase. She ascends its steps 
and crosses the gallery of Peace, the hall of the Mar- 
shals, the white salon, the salon of Apollo, the throne- 
room. Accompanied by King Jerdme, the ministers, 
marshals, and admirals, the grand marshal of the 
palace and the grand master of the hounds, Napo- 
leon III. advances beyond the salon of the Emperor 
to meet the Empress, leads her into this salon, and 
giving her his hand, appears on the balcony with her. 
Both are received with immense applause. 



Digitized by 



Google 



494 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

Carriages are ranging in line before the pavilion of 
the Horloge. Now the procession begins its march. 
It is preceded bj the band of the 7th lancers, the 
staff of the national guard, the mounted national 
guard, a squadron of the 7th lancers, the staff of the 
army of Paris and of the first military division, the 
staff of the place of Paiis, a mounted platoon from 
the staff school, the 7th lancers, the band of the 12th 
dragoons. Next come the- two-horse carriages : those 
of the household of the Princesse Mathilde, the 
Empress's ladies of the palace, her first chamberlain, 
the officers of the Emperor's civil household, the sec- 
retaries of state. Then three carriages drawn by six 
horses: that containing the grand marshal of the 
palace, the grand chamberlain, the grand master of 
ceremonies, the grand master of the Emperor's house- 
hold, and the lady of honor ; that of the Princesse 
Mathilde and the Comtesse de Montijo ; that of King 
JerSme and Prince Napoleon (which is the coach 
used in 1811 for the baptism of the King of Rome). 

Now comes, preceded by a squadron of guides and 
the general officers not provided with commands, 
all on horseback, in white pantaloons and military 
boots, the eight-horse carriage ; that of the Emperor 
and the Empress. It is the magnificently gilded 
coach, surmounted by an imperial crown, which, on 
December 2, 1804, conveyed Napoleon and Josephine 
to Notre Dame for the ceremony of the coronation. 
The marshal of Fi-ance, grand equerry, and the gen- 
eral commandant supeiior of the national guard of 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE MARRIAGE AT NOTRE DAME 496 

Paris ride on the rightrhand side of the carriage ; the 
marshal of France, grand master of the hounds, on 
the left. The Emperor's aides-de-camp, equerries, and 
orderly officers escort the carriage, the aides-de-camp 
on a line with the horses, the equerries on a line 
with the hind wheels, the orderly officers behind. 

The procession had just begun to move when an 
accident occurred which might be considered an 
unlucky omen. General Fleury gives this account 
of it in his Memoirs: "At the moment when the 
carriage which conveyed Their Majesties left the 
arch of the Tuileries, the imperial crown that sur- 
mounted it became detached and fell to the ground. 
It was necessary to replace it as quickly as possible and 
to suspend the march. This could not be done with- 
out creating a certain sensation. An old servitor of 
the First Empire pointed out that the same thing had 
occurred under precisely the same conditions at the 
time of the maniage of Napoleon I. and Marie Louise. 
It was the same carriage, surmounted by the same 
imperial crown, and it was the same accident. 
Napoleon III. inquired the reason of this delay. 
When I explained it to him, his impassive counte- 
nance betrayed, as usual, no emotion. But in any 
other circumstance, he, who knew the history of 
the Empire as if he had been part of it, would not 
have failed to tell me what happened at the time of 
the marriage of Napoleon I." 

To come back to the ceremony of January 80, 
1853. After the imperial carriage came a squadron 



Digitized by 



Google 



496 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

of guides, the 6th and 7th cuirassiers, the 1st and 
2d carbineeis, a squadron of the gendarmerie of 
the Seine, and a squadi-on of the municipal guard. 

Mingled with the crowd in the court of the 
Louvre, I saw the procession pass. Seen through 
the windows of the glittering carriage, the Empress 
appeared an ideal being. Her pallor enhanced her 
sculpturesque profile. I shall never forget the im- 
pression produced on me by this sweet and radiant 
image. A nameless presentiment told me that like 
all incomparably beautiful women, like Cleopatra, 
like Mary Stuart, like Marie Antoinette, this admira- 
ble sovereign was destined to calamities as excep- 
tional as her fortune and her beauty. I asked God 
to bless the Empress, to remove the chalice of bitter- 
ness from her lips, and not to make her some day 
expiate immense joys by immense sorrows. 

The dazzling vision had gone by. The procession 
was pursuing its route amid acclamations. It passed 
through the rue de Rivoli, which had just been 
finished and resembled a triumphal road. Women 
waved their handkerchiefs and scattered flowers; 
the soldiers and the national guard presented arms. 
There was an ovation at the Place de THStel de 
Ville. At one o'clock the sounding of trumpets 
and the acclamations of the people announced that 
the cortege had just arrived at Notro Dame. 

In front of the portal a gothic porch had been 
erected, the panels of which represented the saints 
and kings of France. The two principal pilasters 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE MARRIAGE AT NOTRE DAME 497 

upheld equestrian statues of Charlemagne and Napo- 
leon. Nine green banners, sown with bees, with the 
monogram of the Emperor and Empress, floated 
above the great windows and the rose window in 
the middle. The flags of eighty-six departments 
overhung the balustrade of the great gallery. Four 
eagles and two tricolored banners looked down from 
the summit of the towers. The Archbishop of Pai^is, 
vrith mitre and crosier, preceded and followed by 
his clergy, had moved processionally beneath the 
portal. The great door opened, and the Emperor, 
giving his hand to the Empress, made his entry into 
the cathedral under a dais of red velvet lined with 
white satin, an orchestra of five hundred musicians 
executing a nuptial march meanwhile. In crossing 
the threshold of the ancient basilica where so many 
generations had kneeled, the Empress turned pale. 
The dazzling perspective of the cathedral, lighted 
by fifteen thousand candles, with its pillars hung to 
their capitals with red velvet bordered with golden 
palms, seemed to her a mystical, supernatural appa- 
rition. Advancing as in a celestial dream, with 
her trained robe of white satin, her cincture of dia- 
monds, her diadem wreathed with oitinge blossoms 
from which fell a lace veil which enveloped her 
like a cloud and fell to the very ground, the gentle 
and majestic sovereign experienced an emotion which 
communicated itself to all the spectators. There 
was something so tender and so frightened in her 
glance. Timid, and as if doubtful of herself, modest 

2k 



Digitized by 



Google 



498 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

and seeming all astonished at her triumph, she ap- 
peared to be asking envy and hatred to spare her. 
She was imploring the affection of her new country. 
She was like an august suppliant. 

Two seats had been placed in the middle of the 
transept, one for the Emperor, the other for the 
Empress. The imperial arms were embroidered on 
the backs of the armchairs, the kneeling-benches, 
and the cushions. Above the platform rose a mag- 
nificent canopy, sown with bees, and surmounted by 
a gilt eagle with outstretched wings. At the foot of 
the platform, on the right, chairs had been reserved 
for Prince Jerdme, Prince Napoleon, and the Princesse 
Mathilde. Prince Lucien Bonaparte, Prince Pierre 
Bonaparte, Prince Lucien Murat, the Princesse Bac- 
ciochi Camerata, the Princesse Lucien Murat, and the 
Gomtesse de Montijo occupied faldstools on the left. 
The ministers were placed on the right of the transept 
in front of the tribune of the Senate. On the left side 
of the altar sat the cardinals, archbishops, bishops, 
and members of the metropolitan chapter. The hus- 
band and wife sat down on the two armchairs. The 
grand mistress of the Empress's household, her lady 
of honor, and her ladies of the palace took their 
places on a bench behind her. The great oflScers 
and the officers of the Emperor's household remained 
standing, as did the grand master of the Empress's 
household, her first chamberlain, and her equerry. 

The emotion of the Empress constantly increased. 
General Tascher de la Pagerie, who was behind her 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE MARRIAGE AT NOTRE DAME 499 

throughout the ceremony, thought several times that 
she was going to faint, and heard the Emperor trying 
to strengthen her with tender words. 

Notified by the Due de CambacerSs, the Arch- 
bishop of Paris bowed to Their Majesties, who went 
forward to the foot of the altar and stood there, 
holding each other by the hand. "You present 
yourselves here," the archbishop said to them, "to 
contract marriage in the presence of Holy Church?" 
They replied, " Yes, sir." The first almoner of the 
Emperor then presented on a silver-gilt plate the 
gold pieces and the nuptial ring to the archbishop, 
who blessed them, and the following words were ex- 
changed between the prelate and the married pair: — 

" Sire, you declare, you recognize before God and 
His Holy Church that you now take for wife and 
legitimate spouse Madame Eugenie de Montijo, 
Comtesse de Teba, here present?" 

" Yes, sir." 

"You promise to observe fidelity to her in all 
things, as a faithful husband should to his wife?" 

"Yes, sir." 

"Madame, you declare, you recognize and swear 
before God and His Holy Church that you now take 
for your husband and legitimate spouse the Emperor 
Napoleon III., here present?" 

"Yes, sh-." 

" You promise and swear to observe fidelity to him 
in all things, as a faithful wife should to her husband, 
according to the commandment of God ? " 



Digitized by 



Google 



500 LOUIS NAPOLEON 

"Yes, sir." 

The archbishop then presented the gold pieces 
and the ring to the Emperor, who first gave the 
pieces to the Empress, saying, " Receive the sign of 
the matrimonial conventions made between jou and 
me ; " then, placing the ring on her finger, he said, 
^^ I giye you this ring in token of the marriage we 
are contracting.*' 

Then the spouses kneeled down, and the arch- 
bishop, extending his hand over them, pronounced 
the sacramental formula and the prayer: God of 
Abraham^ Q-od of Isaac. They afterwards returned 
to their armchairs and the Mass began. The Credo 
chanted was that of Cherubini's Coronation Mass. 
The wax candles of the oflfertory were presented to 
the Emperor by Prince Napoleon and to the Empress 
by the Princesse Mathilde. The musicians executed 
the Sanctus of Adolphe Adam's Mass, the Salur 
taris of Chenibini's and the Domine Salvum fae 
Imptratorem instrumented by Auber. The Mass 
being ended, Lesueur's Te Deum was chanted. At 
this moment, the archbishop, accompanied by the cure 
of Saint-Germain-FAuxerrois, the parish church of 
the Tuileries, approached the married pair and pre- 
sented the register on which was written the act 
of the religious marriage, for their signatures. The 
, witnesses for the Emperor were (Princeyjei'dme and 

• - I \ \ft ?^"^^® Napoleon, and for the Empress, the Marquis 
' ^ ^ ^Aq Valdegamas, Minister of Her Catholic Majesty at 
. Paris, the Due d'Ossuna, and the Marquis de Bed- 
Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE MARRIAGE AT NOTRE DAME 501 

mar, grandees of Spain, the Gomte de Galve, and 
General Alvarez Toledo. 

The religious ceremony was ended. Old people 
who had been present since the beginning of the 
centuiy at the g^eat solemnities of Notre Dame, said 
that neither the Empress Josephine on the day of 
her coronation nor the Duchesse de Berry on the day 
her marriage had had an Sclat comparable to that of 
the Empress Eugenie. 

The archbishop and his metropolitan chapter re- 
conducted the spouses to the portal of the cathedral, 
five hundred musicians executing, meanwhile, the 
Urbs Beata of Lesueur. The procession reformed 
on the parvis of Notre Dame, and the return to the 
Tuileries was effected amidst cordial acclamations. 

The route followed was the rue d'Arcole, the quai 
Napoleon, the quai aux Fleura, the Pont au Change, 
the quays on the right bank, the Place de la Con- 
corde, the garden of the Tuileries, where the mar- 
ried pair found corporations of working men and 
deputations of young girls in white, with banners 
at their head, who offered them flowers. They re- 
entered the ch&teau by the pavilion of the Horloge. 
Then they made a turn in a carriage round the Place 
du Carrousel, where the troops were massed, and were 
received with unanimous vivats. Then they ascended 
the grand staircase, went to the hall of the Marshals, 
and showed themselves successively on the two bal- 
conies, the one giving on the court, the other on the 
garden. Those who then saw the Empress saluting 



Digitized by 



Google 



502 L0UI8 NAPOLEON 

the crowd will never forget what elegance and aSEa- 
bility, what grace and majesty, were in that salute. 
In casting a long look of exquisite and penetrat- 
ing sweetness upon the surging crowd, and bowing 
in a manner at once so imposing and so modest, 
the new sovereign seemed to be saying to the army 
and the people, "Love me and protect me.*' So 
terminated this day of triumph and of apotheosis of 
which the Empress Eugenie was reminded in the 
hour when she quitted the ch&teau of the Tuileries 
forever. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



INDEX 



Abd-«1-Kader» received by Louis 
Napoleon at Saint-Cloud, 404- 
410. 

Aladenize, Lieutenant, in the Bou- 
logrne expedition, 226, 227 ; de- 
fended by Jules Favre, 244, 245; 
sentenced to transportation, 243. 

Alexander, Emperor, the courtier 
of Empress Josephine, 31; and 
Queen Hortense, 32-34 ; at Saint- 
Lea, 33. 

Ancona, Queen Hortense at, 107- 
110 ; Austrians enter, 109. 

Andromeda^ the, Louis Napoleon's 
voyage to the United States in, 
161-169. 

Antoine, Prince, father of the King 
of Bonmania, 65. 

Arenenberg, the chftteau of, Queen 
Hortense purchases, 58, 51); de- 
scription of, 128, 129; sold by 
Louis Napoleon, 218. 

Assembly, National, the, elections 
in, 313 ; cheers the Republic, 313 ; 
Louis Napoleon's letter to, 314; 
abrogates the banishment of the 
Bonaparte family, 315; supple- 
mentary elections in, 315 ; Louis 
Napoleon's election to, 315-318; 
decides mode of electing the 
president of the Republic, 321, 
322; the presidential election in, 
323-330; the Constituent is re- 
placed by the Legislative Assem- 
bly, 330; the Roman question 
in, 340, 341; the suffrage law 
adopted, 348 ; the change in, 
.'.'."» ; weakened by divisions, 360- 
363. 



Aumale, the Due d', his interest 
in Eugenie de Montijo, 427, 428. 

Barrot, Odilon, his interest in se- 
curing release of Louis Napo- 
leon, 286-288; in Louis Napo- 
leon's cabinet, 333 ; not in accord 
with Louis Napoleon, 345, 346; 
refused honors conferred on him 
by Louis Napoleon, 347; his 
words on the suffrage law, 348. 

Beauharnais, Eugene de, suspected 
of assisting in the return of Na^ 
poleon from Elba, 43, 44; visits 
and is visited by his sister Hor- 
tense in exile, 55, 56 ; his children, 
56 ; his death, 67. 

Beauharnais, Hortense de, the 
mother of Napoleon IIL, 15; un- 
happy in marriage, 16; her life 
in Paris, 22, 23 ; a true patriot, 25 ; 
her words to Marie Louise con- 
cerning the latter's leaving Paris, 
26 ; leaves Paris, 27 ; her condi- 
tion after the Emperor's abdica- 
tion, 28-30; and Emperor Alexan- 
der, 32 ; charms Louis XVIII. , 35 ; 
trial concernin<^ possession of her 
children, 36, 37 ; not in the secret 
of Napoleon's return from Elba, 
39 ; Napoleon's severity and cold- 
ness to, 41, 42; her letter lo her 
brother Eugene concerning Na- 
poleon's return, 43; authorized 
to retain possession of her sons, 
44 ; her influence during the Hun- 
dred Days, 45 ; her conduct after 
Waterloo and her ffirewell to the 
Emperor, 46-48 ; her exile, 50 et 



608 



Digitized by 



Google 



504 



INDEX 



seq. ; compelled to part with her 
eldest son, 51 ; aathorized to re- 
Bide in Switzerland, 52 ; is visited 
by the Princess Hohenzollern- 
Sigmaringen, 64 ; visits her 
brother Engine, 56 ; her memoirs, 
57; purchases the chftteaa of 
Arenenberg, in the canton of 
Thorgau, 58, 59; goes to Aogs- 
barg, 59; her visit to Rome in 
1824, 65 ; with Madame Steamier 
at masked ball, 66; her words 
on the proscription of Napoleon 
Bonaparte's relatives, 85, 86 ; her 
ideas concerning the papacy, 91 ; 
her visit to Rome, 92-96; fore- 
boded that her two sons wonld 
take part in the Italian move- 
ment, 95; joins her son at An- 
cona, 104-107 ; her experience at 
Ancona, 107-110; her flight to 
France, 110-112; in Paris, 115- 
124; her interview with Louis 
Philippe, 118, 121 ; leaves France 
and returns to Switzerland, 124- 
127 ; her life at Arenenberg, 129 
et seq. ; is visited by Casimir De- 
la vigne, Chftteaubriand, Madame 
R^camier, etc, 129-133; her de- 
votion to her son Louis, 134 ; her 
letters to her son Louis in New 
York, 171 et aeq,; her illness, 
177, 178, 180, 184 ; her letter of 
advice to her son Louis in Eng- 
land, 183, 184 ; her last hours and 
death, 187-102 ; her funeral, 193 ; 
Madame Emile de Girardin's 
words concerning, 194 ; her will, 
194*196 ; not true that she coun- 
selled her son to return to Amer^ 
ica, 197. 

Bedeau, General, arrested, 366; 
imprisoned at Ham, 373. 

Bennett, James Gtordon.reoei ves the 
Due d'Aumale on his yaoht, 428. 

Berryer, his speech in defence of 
Louis Napoleon before the Court 
of Peers, 243, 244; Louis Napo- 
leon's letter to, 246, 371. 



B^ville, Colonel de, 365. 

Beyle, Henri, and the Monttjos, 
15S, 159. 

Bizio, M., in Louis Napoleon*s 
cabinet, 333. 

Blanc, Louis, his words oonceming 
Louis Napoleon, 315. 

Bonaparte, Jerome, goes to Borne, 
65; his remonstrance with his 
nephews on their joining tba 
Italian movement, 100, 101, 306 : 
authorized to sojourn in France, 
310; installed governor of the 
Invalides, 337; Joins the eovp 
d'Etat, 369, 475. 

Bonaparte, Joseph, hia displeaaore 
with his nephew Louis Napoleon 
on account of the Straaburi^ ool- 
spiracy, 173, 174; leaves no de- 
scendants, 310. 

Bonaparte, Louis. See Louis Bona- 
parte. 

Bonaparte, Louis Napoleon. See 
Louis Napoleon. 

Bonaparte, Lucien, settles himBelf 
in Rome, 64, 305, 310. 

Bonaparte, Napoleon. See Napo- 
leon Bonaparte. 

Bonaparte, Pierre, son of Lucien 
Bonaparte, elected to the Aasem- 
bly, 313. 

Bonapartism, the cause of, appar- 
ently lost, 310 ; agitation ui Paris 
in May, 1818, 315, 316. 

Boulogne expedition, the, 222-232 ; 
comments of the press on, 230. 

Capellari, Cardinal, becomes Pope 
Gregory XVI., 95. 

CapUole, the, journal founded by 
Louis Napoleon, 218, 237. 

Castellane, General de, a marshal 
of France, 445. 

Cavaignac, General, his words con- 
cerning Louis Napoleon's letters 
to the Assembly, 316 ; his power 
in the Assembly, 317, 318; his 
candidacy for president, 325-330 ; 
his words on his defeat, 330; 



Digitized by 



Google 



INDEX 



605 



Lonis Napoleon's compliment to, 
331, 361; arrested, 366; impris- 
oned at Ham, 373, 376. 
Ohambord, Comte de, manifesto 

of, 444. 
Ohangamier, General, considered 
as a fntare monk, 334; Loois 
Napoleon's compliment to, 339; 
quelling the insurrection of 
June 13, 1843, 342; rebukes tlie 
troops for tiailing Louis Napo- 
leon as Emperor, 349, 360; re- 
moved from command by Louis 
Naix>lcon, 351 ; his reply to Louis 
Napoleon's Dijon si>eech, 353; 
the republicans in the Assembly 
hostile to, 301; arrested, 366; 
imprisoned at Ham, 373, 376. 
Ch&teaubriand, M. de, visits Queen 
Hortense at Arenenberg, 130, 132, 
133. 
Ch^ier, Andr^, his verses com- 
posed in the Conciergerie, 234. 
Clausel, Marshal, 225. 
Commerce^ the, journal founded 

by Louis Napoleon, 218. 
CJompi^gne, the palace of, 1-3 ; fes- 
tivities at, in honor of the visit 
of Louis Napoleon, 448-462; Mar- 
cel's lines on, 449, 450. 
Conciergerie, the, 233 ; Louis Napo- 
leon in, 233-239 ; Andr^Gh^nier's 
verses in, 234. 
Gonneau, Dr., his proclamation of 
appeal for Louis Napoleon, 224« 
225; imprisoned at Ham, 260; 
his career, 251 ; voluntarily re- 
mained in prison with Louis 
Napoleon, 289; his share in the 
escape of Louis Napoleon, 294, 
297-300. 
Constitution, the, proposed revi- 
sion of, 355, 356. 
Cotillion Club, the, a Bonapartist 

club, 219. 
Coup (VEtatt the preliminaries of 
the, 352-364; arrest of sixteen 
representatives, 366 ; decrees and 
proclamations of the president, 



367, 366 ; the accomplishment of, 

368-376. 
Cowley, Lady, at the f 6tes at the 

Tnileries, 469, 470. 
Cr6nieux, M., 361. 
Crouy-Chanel, M. de, founder of 

the CapitoU, 219. 
Cruvelli, Mademoiselle Sophie, 416. 

Delavigne, Casimir, the god of 
youth, 129, 130; visits Queen 
Hortense at Arenenberg, 129. 

Denmark, Captain, commandant 
at Ham, 249, 298. 

Douglas, Lady, and Louis Napo- 
leon, conversation of, 311. 

Dupin, M., in the cotq) d^Etait, 309, 
370. 

Edinburgh Castle, the, Louis Na- 
poleon embarks on, for the Bou- 
logne ezi>edition, 221, 225. 

Elys^e, the first dinner of Louis 
Napoleon at the, 333; its widely 
dififerent destinies, 336; various 
festivities in, 337, 338; Madame 
and Mademoiselle de Montijo 
installed in the, 479, 480. 

Empire, the Second, inaugurated, 
441-447. 

Esterhazy, Prince, Austrian am- 
bassador, refuses Louis Napoleon 
a passport, 181-183. 

Eugenie de Montijo, afterwards 
Empress Eugenie, her character 
and personality, 9-13 ; her home, 
her birth, and her family, 69- 
76; genealogical table of, 76; 
her early home life and educa- 
tion, 156 ; enters convent of the 
Sacred Heart, 160 ; her imagina- 
tion and vivacity, 427; much 
noticed at the fStes at Madrid, 
427; the Dae d'Aumale's inter- 
est, 427, 428 ; is brought to Paris, 
431; at Fontaineblean, 435, 436; 
at Compi^gne, 453, 457, 460-462; 
a fine horsewoman, 466; Louis 
Napoleon's offer of marriage to, 



Digitized by 



Google 



506 



INDEX 



463, 464; at the fdtes at the 
Tuileries, 460; the announce- 
ment of and comments on the 
marriage with Lonis Napoleon, 
472 et 9eq.; installed in the 
Elys^e, 479, 480; declines a gift 
of diamonds and requests that 
tlie sum represented by the gift 
be turned to charity, 481, 482; 
the civil marriage ceremony at 
the Tuileries, 483-488; the re- 
ligions marriage ceremony at 
Notre Dame, 49^-602. 

Fallonx, Comte de, in Louis Napo- 
leon's cabinet, 333, 334. 

Faucher, Ldon, in Lonis Napoleon's 
cabinet, 333. 

Faure, at the Op^ra Gomique, 416. 

Favre, Jnles, his words concerning 
Louis Napoleon, 315, 362. 

Flahault, General de, 358, 359. 

Fleury, Oeneral, his account of the 
presidential election, 327, 328; 
grand equerry to Louis Napo- 
leon, 332. 

Fontainebleau, festivities at, in 
honor of Louis Napoleon's visit, 
433-439. 

Francis I., his remark about a 
court without women, 422. 

Frank-Carr^, his words to Louis 
Napoleon in the Court of Peers, 
240. 

Gay, Mademoiselle Delphine, her 
lines on the fate of Queen Hor- 
tenso, 135, 126. 

Girardin, Madame Emile de, her 
words concerning Queen Hor- 
tense, 194; her words on the 
Boulogne expedition, 231. 

Gordon, Madame, 161. 

Got, M., at the Commie Fran- 
9aise, 416. 

Gramont, Madame de, 338. 

Grivegn^e, Henri de, 74. 

Guizot, M., ambassador to Eng- 
land, 219, 228; his words con- 



cerning the Boulogne expedition, 
22<), 230. 
Guzman, Don Alfonso Perez de, 
70, 71. 

Hachette, Jeanne, the inaogan- 
tion of the statue of, 353, 351. 

Ham, the fortress of, 247 et 9eq, ; 
prison life of Louis Napoleon 
and his associates, 248-259 ; Louis 
Napoleon's escape from, 288-297. 

Haussmann, Baron, his account of 
the reception to Louis Napoleoa 
at Bordeaux, 389, 390. 

Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Prin- 
cess of, a friend of Queen Hor- 
tense in exile, 51, 55; receives 
Louis Napoleon during his exile, 
186. 

Hortense de Beanhamais, Queen. 
See Beauhamais, Hortense de. 

Houdotot, Ck)lonel d', escorts Qaeen 
Hortense to Louis Philippe, 119. 

Houssaye, Ars^ne, his ode 77i9 
Empire is Peace, 418, 420. 

Hugo, Victor, his poem Dictated 
after July^ 1830, 81,82; his ode 
to the Vendome column, 87, 88; 
his words concerning Falloux, 
373; his hand in the manifesto 
of the "sociate" democrats, 
443. 

Italian movement, the, origin of, 
90 et seq. ; the insurrection of 
the Romagna, 97 et teq.; the 
Princes Napoleon join, 95, 96, 
99-102; dies a shameful death, 
113. 

Josephine, Empress, at Malmaison, 
31 ; her death, 34. 

Kirkpatrick, Henrietta, sister of 

Gomtesse de Teba, 75. 
Kirkpatrick, Maria Mannela de, 

marries Comte de Teba, 74, 75. 
Kirkpatrick, William, marries 

Fran9oise de Grivegn^, 74. 



Digitized by 



Google 



INDEX 



607 



Laborde, Alexandre de, Gomte, 
and Comtesse de Montijo, 158. 

LAcaze, M., his words to Louis 
Napoleon in the Assembly, 323. 

Laity, Armand, his vindication of 
the Strasburg conspiracy, 202; 
imprisoned and fined, 203; Louis 
Napoleon's letter to, 203. 

LAmartine, M. de, his words on the 
marriage of Napoleon m., 9; 
his words in the Assembly on the 
Republic, 322. 

Lamorici^re, General de, his words 
concerning Saint- Arnand and the 
coup d'Etat, Zl^\ arrested, 366; 
imprisoned at Ham, 373. 

Lawoestine, Marquis, at the head 
of the Parisian militia, 413. 

Ledru-Rollin, M., 342. 

LegouY^, Ernest, his Napoleon I. 
since his deaths 80, 81. 

Lemoine-Montigny, M., his lines 
Repos de la Fi'ancCf addressed 
to Lonis Napoleon at Com- 
pibgne, 458, 459. 

Lesseps, Ferdinand de, his antece- 
dents, 76, 76; an uncle of Em- 
press Eugenie, 76. 

Lesseps, Mathien de, marries 
Catherine de Grivegn<^e, 74, 75. 

Lhuys, Drouyn de, in Louis Na- 
poleon's cabinet, S33. 

Louis Bonaparte, made King of 
Holland, 16; marriage with Hor- 
tenso Beanharnais, 16 ; abdicates 
throne of Holland, 18; in volun- 
tary exile, 19, 23 ; refuses an ap- 
panage around his estate of Saint- 
Len, 23; returns to Paris, 24; 
his prophetic lines to his brother 
Napoleon, 25 ; accompanies Marie 
I^uise to Blois, 25; renounces 
advantages granted him by the 
treaty of Fontainebleau, 35; de- 
mands po88e8.sion of his eldest 
son, 36, 37; takes refuge at 
Rome, 44 ; Napoleon's words con- 
cerning, at Elba, 44, 45; sends 
Baron de Zuite for his eldest 



son, 51 ; his letter to his son on 
the latter's receiving his first 
communion, 59, 60; refuses his 
son permL'»ion to enlist against 
the Turks, 79 ; bids his sons re- 
turn from the Italian movement, 
100; tries to induce his son 
Louis to give up his dreams of 
ambition, 200; very ill, and 
wishes to see his son, 281-283; 
his last hours and death, 303- 
305; his career, ;^04; his will, 
305 ; compared with his son, 306, 
307 ; Albert R^ville's estimate of, 
308,309. 

Louis XVni., his interest in Qneen 
Hortense, 35, 36. 

Louis Napoleon, his character and 
position in history, 6-9 ; his love 
marriage, 9; his birth, 16, 17; 
baptism, 19 ; his early childhood, 
20-22; his early studies and oc- 
cupations, 57 ; at the University 
of Augsburg, 59; receives his 
first communion and his con- 
firmation, 5^, 60; his letter to 
his mother on tlie death of the 
Emperor, GO ; his military studies, 
77; his letter to his father re- 
questing permission to enlist 
against the Turks, 77, 78; his 
request refused by his father, 
79; joins the Italian movement, 
95, 96, 99; ordered to Ancona, 
103, 104 ; sick with fever in Paris. 
121; desires to serve in French 
army, 122 ; refuses to give up his 
name, 123 ; said to have shared 
in Bonapartist manifestation of 
May 5, 123 ; begins to entertain 
imperial ambitions, 132, 133; ap- 
plies himself to conciliating the 
Swiss, 133 ; publishes his Politi- 
cal and Military Considerations 
on Switzerland, 133, 134 ; goes to 
Tliun to perform his military 
service, 134 ; his name mentioned 
as a candidate for the hand of 
Donna Maria, Queen of Portngal, 



Digitized by 



Google 



508 



INDEX 



136; made honorary captain of 
artillery in the Swiss army, 135 ; 
his words concerning Bonapar- 
tism and his own aspirations, 136, 
137 ; project of his marriage with 
his cousin Princesse Mathilde, 
137-140; his words concerning 
his grandmother Hadame M^re, 
138, 139 ; plans and conducts the 
Strasburg conspiracy, 140-149; 
arrested and imprisoned, 149, 
150; sent to United States, 151, 
152; his words concerning his 
betrothed Eng^ie, 155 ; his let- 
ter from prison concerning the 
failure of his plan, IGO ; conoern- 
iug Madame Gordon, 161; his 
voyage to the United States on 
the Andromeda, 161-169; hears 
that his accomplices in the Straa- 
burg affair were acquitted, 170; 
his sojourn in New York and 
correspondence, 170 et seq.; his 
appeal against his uncle Joseph's 
displeasure, 173, 174; his self- 
justification for the Strasburg 
conspiracy, 174, 175 ; his manner 
of living in America, 176, 177; 
his letter to the President, 177, 
178; goes to England, 178-180; 
his letter of appeal to his father, 
from London, 180, 181; endeav- 
ors to obtain a passport to Swit- 
zerland, 181-183; outwits the 
English police and makes his 
way to Arenenberg, 184-186; 
closely watched by the French 
Government, 189 ; at his mother's 
death-bed, 192 ; his year's sojourn 
in Switzerland, 197-208; leaves 
Arenenberg and goes to the cha- 
teau of GottUeben, 199; his ef- 
forts to make himself popular 
with the Swiss, 201, 202; his let- 
ter to his former accomplice, 
M. Laity, 203 ; his expulsion from 
Switzerland demanded, 204, 2a5 ; 
receives honorary right of citi- 
zenship Jn canton of Thurgau, 



205 ; offers to leave Switzerland, 
206, 207; leaves Switzerland for 
England, 209, 210; his two ytais 
in England, 211 et »cq. ; by nat- 
ure cosmopolitan, 211, 212; his 
life and companions in London, 
212, 213; his Ze« Id^et iTop^- 
Uoniennu, 215-217 ; portrait of, 
drawn by de Persigny in hia 
Lettre9 de Londres, Fisite au 
Prince Louis, 218; sella Arenen- 
berg to found two Panaian jour- 
nals, 218 ; his plans for the Bou- 
logne e^^iedition, 220 ei mq.; 
de Tocqueville's words ooneeni- 
ing, 222: his companions in the 
Boulogne expedition, 223, 224; 
arrested and imprisoned, 227, 
231, 232; in the Coneieigerie, 
233-239; tranalates Schiller's 
poem. The Ideal, 235; the in- 
dictment against, 239; his ad- 
dress to the Court of Peers, 240- 
243; condemned to perpetual 
imprisonment in the fortress of 
Ham, 245; his letter to M. Ber- 
ryer, 246 ; his prison life at Ham, 
248-250, 253-259 ; his letters from 
Ham to Yieillard, Peanger, and 
others, 261-273; his ardent nat- 
ure concealed beneath an im- 
passive exterior, 273; his writ- 
ings in verse and prose during 
imprisonment, 274-280 ; his lines 
Aux manes de VEmpereur, 274, 
275 ; his Fragments historiques, 
275, 276 ; his study De Vorgani- 
sation milUaire de ia Prussf, 
276; his Extinction du pau- 
pirisme, 277-280 ; his veneration 
for his father, 281 ; preferred to 
be a captive on French soil than 
a free man elsewhere, 281; ap- 
plies for permission to visit his 
father, 284, 285; determined not 
to beg pardon, 286-288 ; his es- 
cape from prison, 288-297; his 
letters to his father, to Louis 
PhUippe, and to VieiUaxd from 



Digitized by 



Google 



INDEX 



609 



London, SOl-303; bis vain at- 
tempts to secure a passport, 303 ; 
compared with bis father, a06, 
307 ; wishes to be a maa of let- 
ters, 306; his books, 306, 307; 
combines the life of a student 
with that of a man of the world, 
309; his confidence that his star 
-would rise, 311; his words to 
Lady Douglas, 311 ; visits Paris 
and offers his serrices to the 
Bepublic, 312; ordered oat of 
France, 312, 313; his letter to 
the National Assembly, 814; 
elected to the Assembly by four 
departments, 315; his letters to 
the Assembly concerning his 
election, 316, 317; as a deputy 
to the Assembly, 318-320; his 
sadden turn of fortune, 321 ; the 
danger of his position in the 
Assembly, 323; his words in 
the Assembly concerning the 
presidential election amend- 
ment, 321; bis candidacy and 
election to the presidency, 325- 
330; his costume as president, 
329 ; his compliment to his com- 
petitor, Gavalgnac, 331 ; his car- 
riage, 332; his cabinet, 333; his 
policy, 334, 335; receives at the 
Elys^, 337, 338 ; inaugurates the 
railway from Creil to Saint Quen- 
tin, 338, 339; reviews troops at 
Gompi^gne and compliments 
General Changamier, 339; his 
attitude in the Roman trouble, 
341; after the Mountain party 
disturbance of June 13, 1848, 342, 
343 ; makes official excursions to 
several cities near Paris, 343 ; his 
letter to Colonel Edgard Ney con- 
cerning the Roman trouble, 344, 
345 ; his attitude in domestic poli- 
tics, 345-348 ; sought direct per- 
sonal relations with the provin- 
cial population, 348; hailed as 
Emperor by troops, 349 ; his mes- 
sage of assurance to the Assem- 



bly, 350 ; rids himself of General 
Changamier, 350, 351 ; his words 
at the inauguration of the Dijon 
railway, 362, 353; continues his 
triumphal excursions into the 
provinces, 353; his preparations 
for the coup d^EtcU, 366 et seq, ; 
his hesitation and irresolution, 
363, 361 ; his decrees and procla- 
mations to the people, 367, 368 ; 
presents himself to the troops, 
869 ; disavows monarchical resto- 
ration, 378, 379; re-establishes 
the imperial eagles, 379, 380; his 
address to the soldiers on the 
Champ-de-Mars, 879, 380; of- 
fered by the army a grand ball 
at the MiUtary School, 381, 382 
makes a journey south, 383-396 
his speech at Lyons, 387, 888 
his reception at Bordeaux, 389- 
395 ; opened the ball with Made- 
moiselle Buspino, daughter of 
an overseer, 395 ; his re-entrance 
into Paris, 397-403 ; receives Abd- 
el-Kader at Saint-Cloud, 404- 
410 ; esteemed the saviour of the 
papacy, 414; his devotion to a 
beautiful Englishwoman, 422; 
proposed marriage of, with Prin- 
cess Caroline Vssa, 423 ; flattered 
and applauded, 432; visits Fon- 
taineblean, 433-439 ; becomes 
Emperor, 411-447; bis eleven 
days* visit to Compi^gne, 448» 
462 ; visits the asylums, 456, 457 ; 
has a diamond clover leaf made 
for Eugenie de Monti jo, 46t, 462 ; 
offers his hand in marriage to 
Eugenie de Montljo, 463, 464; 
at the f^tes at the Tuileries, 467- 
470 ; announcement of and com- 
ments on his marriage with Eu- 
genie de Montijo, 472 et Btq. ; his 
address on the subject of the 
marriage, 475-478 ; respected re- 
ligion, 480; the oeremony of his 
marriage at the Tuileries, 483- 
488; comments of the press on 



Digitized by 



Google 



610 



INDEX 



his marriage, 488-491; the re- 
ligious ceremouy of his marriage, 
at Notre Dame, 4ir2-W2. 
Louis Philippe, favored reforms 
ill the Papal Stotes, 91; his 
interview with Queen Horteose, 
119-121; refuses to release 
Louis Napoleon except on the 
latter 's begging pardon, 287, 
28i. 

Magnan, General, .%9; made a 
marshal of France, 445. 

Malleville, de, in Louis Napoleon's 
cabinet, 333. 

Manciui, Marie, 463. 

Marcel, Alphouse, his verses on 
Compi^gne, 449, 450. 

Maria, Donna, Queen of Portugal, 
project of marriage with Louis 
Napoleon, 135. 

Marie Louise, leaves Paris for 
Blois, 25, 2(3 ; at Rambooillet, 
30. 

Mathilile, Priucesse, daughter of 
Jerome Bonaparte, project of her 
marriage with Louis Napoleon, 
137-140; marries Prince Demi- 
doff, 310. 

Maupas, M. de, prefect of police 
of the coup tVEtat, 359, '^m. 

Menottl, appeals to the two princes 
Napoleon to join the Italian 
movement, 96. 

Mere, Madame, her farewell to 
Napoleon, 48; takes shelter at 
Itome, 01 ; her death, 138, i:%». 

M^rira^e, Prosper, and the Teba 
family, li/Ti-lST, 158 ; the subject 
of Carmen suggested by Com- 
tesse de Montijo, 158; and the 
two daughters of Comtesse de 
Montijo, 424, 425; his letter to 
Comtesse de Montijo on the lat- 
tor's becoming camarera mayor, 
429. 

Michel, M., 361. 

MoM, Comte, his letters to England 
concerning Louis Napoleon, 182, 



185; his letter to Switzerland, 
204 ; in Louis Napoleon's minis- 
try, 346. 

Montebello, the Due de, his reports 
on Louis Napoleon in Switzer- 
hiud, 197-200, 208, 209. 

Montholon, General de, imprisoned 
at EEam, 2C0 : his career, 250, 251 : 
his wife with him in prison, *23L*; 
his son bom, 259; his draw- 
ings, 259; not advised of Louis 
Napoleon's plan of escape, 289; 
pardoned and set at UL^rty, 
299. 

Montijo, Comte de, goes to France, ! 
158; his death, 424. 

Montijo, Comte de, ancle of Em- 
press Eugenie, 70; opposed to 
France, 71, 72. 

Montijo, Comtesse de, her personal 
attractions, 157; intimate with 
the de Laborde family, 158; sug- 
gested subject of Carmen to , 
Merimt^e, 158 ; becomes a female 
politician, 475; on her estate of 
Carabanchcl, 426; appointed ' 
camarera mayor at court of 
Queen Isabella, 429 ; resigns the 
position, 429; comes to Paris, 
431; her interest in the coup 
(VEtat, 431; at Fontainebleau, 
435, 4%; at Compibgnc, 453 ; in- 
stolled in the Elys^e, 479. 

Montijo, Frau9oisc, marries the | 
Duke of Mba. 427. 

Montijo, Mademoiselle de, after- 
wards Empress Eugenie. See 
Eugenie de Montijo. 

Morny, Comte.de, his parentaire 
and his career, 358 ; his words to 
Madame Liadierce at the Opera 
Comique, 'Min ; installed as Min- 
ister of the Interior, 366 ; resigns. 
377. 

Mountain party, brought abont 
the insurrection of Jane 13, 1843, 
341, 342. 

Mnrat, Lucien, elected to the As- 
sembly, 313. 



Digitized by 



Google 



INDEX 



611 



iNapoleon Bonapai'te, makes his 
brother Louis King of Holland, 
1() ; abdicates, 28 ; returns from 
Elba, 37-40 ; his severity to Queen 
Hortense, 41, 42 ; authorizes Hor- 
tcuse to retain possession of her 
children, 44; his words at Elba 
concerning his brother Louis, 44, 
45 ; his words at the ceremony 
of the Field of May, 45; Ids 
downfall, 46, 47 ; farewell to his 
family, 48 ; his death, 60 ; urged 
his 'family to establish itself at 
Rome, 62-4>4 ; his spirit continued 
after his death, 80-8:i, 117, 118; 
his relatives and descendants 
proscribed, 84 et seq. ; petitions to 
have remains of, placed beneath 
Vendome column, 87; his ashes 
to bo brought to Paris, 219, 220. 

Niipoleon, Prince, eldest son of 
Queen Hortense, taken from his 
mother, 51, 52; in Tuscany, 83; 
his marriage, 93 ; his personal ap- 
pearance and character, 93 ; joins 
the Italian movement, 95, 96, 99 ; 
ordered to Ancona, 103, 104 ; his 
death, 105; at Seravezza, 111. 

Napoleon, Prince, son of Jerome 
Bonaparte, elected to the Assem- 
bly, 313 ; ambassador of France 
to Madrid, 430, 476. 

Ney, Colonel Edgard, 332; Louis 
Napoleon's letter to, concerning 
the Roman trouble, 344, 345. 

Notre Dame, the ceremony of mar- 
riage of Louis Napoleon and 
Eugenie de Montijo at, 492-^502. 

Old Soldiers' Club, Bonapartist 

club, 219. 
Orleanist party, the, reduced in 

1852, 414, 415. 
Oudinot, General, in the Roman 

trouble, <Vt0, 341; in the coup 

d'Etat, 371. 

Paris, characterized, 411; condi- 
tions of, in 1852, 412-418. 



Pasquier, Chancellor, 238. 

Passy, Hippolyte, in Louis Napo- 
leon's cabinet, 333. 

Peauger, M., Louis Napoleon's cor- 
respondence with, 265-268. 

Peers, the Court of, its indictment 
against Louis Napoleon, 239 ; the 
debates in, 240-246. 

Perier, Caslmir, his words to Queen 
Hortense concerning her remain- 
ing in France, 122. 

Persigny, M. de, his Lettre$ de 
LondreSf Vinte au Prince LouiSf 
217, 218, 222, 223; sentenced to 
twenty years' detention, 246; 
Minister of the Interior, 383; 
impatient for the Empire, 383- 
386 ; his programme, 384, 385. 

Peyronnet, M. de, his words con- 
cerning the fortress of Ham, 248. 

Pietri proposition, the, 315. 

Pius VII., Pope, his welcome to the 
Bonapartes, 64. 

Pius VIII., Pope, death of, 94. 

Pius IX., takes refuge in Gaeta, 
340. 

Poggioli, M., sent by Louis Bona- 
parte to his son in prison, 283. 

Prim, General, 55. 

Proscription, the, of the relatives 
and descendants of Napoleon 
Bonaparte, 84. 

Rachel, Mademoiselle, 417 ; recites 
an ode by Arsfene Houssaye, 418. 

R^camier, Madame, her account of 
Queen Hortense's visit to Rome 
in 1824, 65 ; wears same costimie 
as Queen Hortense at masked 
ball, 66; visits Queen Hortense 
at Arenenberg, 130, 131; visits 
Louis Napoleon at the Concier- 
gerie, 237. 

R^musat, Comte de, lays before 
the Chamber of Deputies an 
order for one million to bring 
ashes of Napoleon L to Paris, 219. 

R^ville, Albert, his estimate of 
Louis Bonaparte, 308, 309. 



Digitized by 



Google 



512 



INDEX 



Bomagna, the insmrectloti of the, 

97 et seq. 
Roman trouble, the, in 1848, 340-^15. 
Bossi, M., assassinated, 34a 

Saint-Amaad, General de, his 
career and his importance in the 
coup d*Etat, 356, 357, 365; made 
a marshal of France, 445. 

Sainte-Anlaire, Comte de, his 
words concerning the Italian 
revolution, 113. 

Sainte-Gtenevi^ve, religions cere- 
monies in homage to, 464. 

Schiller, his poem 7^ Ideal trans- 
lated by Louis Napoleon in the 
Gonciergerie, 235. 

Sebastian, General Comte, his let- 
ters reporting on Louis Napoleon 
in London, 181, 182, 211, 213, 214. 

Stephanie, Grand-duchess, a cousin 
of Queen Hortense, 53 ; her three 
daughters, 423. 

Strasbnrg conspiracy, the, 142- 
153; liOttis Napoleon's accom- 
plices in, acquitted by jury, 170. 

Stuart, Lady Dudley, daughter of 
Lucien Bonaparte, solicits a 
passport for Louis Napoleon, 181. 

Suffrage law, the, in the Assem- 
bly, 348. 

Teba, Comte de, afterwards Comte 
de Montijo, father of Empress 
Eugenie, his family, 70 ; a par- 
tisan of France, 71-73, 155; 
marries Maria Manuela de Kirk- 
patrick, 74; at the defence of 
Pans in 1814, 15G; becomes 
Comte de Montijo, 157, 158. See 
Montijo, Comte de. 

Teba, Comtesse de, afterwards 
Comtesse de Moutijo. .See Mon- 
tijo, Comtesse de. 

Teba, Mademoiselle de, afterwards 
Mademoiselle de Montijo ; after- 
wards Empress Euginie. See 
Eugenie, Empress. 

Th^in, Charles, at Ham, 250; 



his devotion to Louis Napolecm, 
252; his share in Louis Napo- 
leon's escape from Hant, 2SD, 
294, 295, 297; condemned to six 
months' imprisonment, 300. 

Thiers, 21., 225; his protest against 
the manifesto of Louis Napolecc, 
326 ; his oonversation with Louis 
Napoleon concerning the cos- 
tume of the president, 329, 346, 
361; arrested, 366. 

Thorigny, M. de, removed from 
office of Minister of the Interior, 
366. 

Thouret, Antony, his amendment 
in the Assembly concerning elee- 
tiou of president, 323, 324. 

Timarche, Abb^, cur^ of Ham, 290. 

Tooqueville, Alexis de, his words 
concerning Louis Napoleon, 221!, 
316; his report on the danger of 
the change of Assembly, 255. 

Tracy, de, in Louis Napoleon's 
cabinet, 333. 

TuUeries, festivities at the. 378; 
f§tes of the Second Empire at 
the, 466-471 ; the marriage cere- 
mony of Louis Napoleon and 
Eugdnio de Montijo at, 483-48(i. 

Vasa, Princess Caroline, proposed 
marriage of, with Louis Napo- 
leon, 423. 

Vaudrey, Colonel, in the Strasbnrg 
conspiracy, 144-148 ; in the Bou- 
logne expedition, 223. 

Vertot's R^ohttions romaines^ 
quoted, 222, 223. 

Victor Emmanuel, ascends the 
throne, 340. 

VIeillard, M., 282, 264, 287. 

Vigier, Vicomtesse, 416. 

Villeneuve, Henri de, commander 
of the Andromeda^ 163. 

Zappi, Marquis, takes the place of 
Prince Napoleon at Ancona, 107; 
assumes character of a domestic, 
110. 

Zuite, Baron de, 51. 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE SECOND EMPIRE, 

By IMBERT DE SAINT-AMAND. 



CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS, PUBLISHERS. 



LOUIS NAPOLEON AND MADEMOISELLE 
DE MONTIJO. 

With Two Portraits. Price $1.50. 

With this Tolume M. Imbert de Saint-Amand begins an elaborate 
study of the history of France during the reign of Napoleon III. The 
accession of the new dynasty marked a new era which, in its own way 
and under the changed conditions of modem times, was as brilliant as 
that of the First Empire. It had its strongly marked characteristics in 
every field of thought and activity. It was the period of the alliance 
with England and the emancipation of Italy. Except during the years 
of Napoleon I.*s supremacy, the influence of France was never greater. 
L.ouis Napoleon was the arbiter of Europe, the Empress Eugenie was 
the most popular of sovereigns, and French learning, letters, art, luxury, 
and fashion were conspicuously the models of the rest of the world. 

No more romantic story is to be found in the pages of fiction than 
that which forms the theme of this first volume of the series. Nothing 
more unpredictable ever happened than the establishment, first in the 
ElysSe and afterwards in the Tuileries, of the exiled nephew of the 
great emperor. The secret of Louis Napoleon's success, however, lay 
in the peculiar constitution of his own nature, in his curious admixture 
of finesse and nalvet6, of policy and persistence, of self-confidence and 
sccretiveness. Better than any work of the kind M. de Saint-Amand's 
shows the reader the development of this interesting character from the 
days of his early childhood, through his varied experiences in Italy, 
Switzerland, England, and America, his fiascos of Strasburg and Bou- 
logne, his long imprisonment at and escape from the fortress of Ham, 
his election to the Chamber of Deputies, to the Presidency of the 
Republic, and finally the coup d^etat and the proclamation anew of the 
Empire. The picture, too, of the true Empress Eugenie, in her early 
years, and the story of her romantic elevation to the throne of France, 
is painted in lively colors, and adds much to the personal interest of 
the volume. 

Besides the present volume, a second, entitled, ** The Beginnings of 
the Second Empire," and recounting the history of the reign up to the 
birth of the Prince Imperial, is in preparation, and others will follow at 
appropriate intervals, bringing the narrative down to the dethronement 
of the Napoleonic dynasty and the establishment of the present 
Republic. 

I 



Digitized by 



Google 



FAMOUS WOMEN OF THE FRENCH COURT. 



" In these translations of this interesting series of sketches^ rat have 
fonnd an unexpected amount of pleasure and profit. The autkor cites 
for us passages from forgotten diaries, hitherto unearthed letters^ extracts 
from public proceedings, and the lihe^ and contrives to combine and 
arrange his material so as to make a great many very 7nvid and flee i- 
ing pictures. Nor is this all. The material he lays hefore us is of real 
value, and much, if not most of it, must be unknown save to the special 
students of the period., IVe can, therefore^ cordially commend these 
books to the attention of our readers. They will find them attractiz*e in 
their arrangement, never dull, with much variety of scene and incident^ 
and admirably translated." — The Nation. 

" Indeed, a certain sanity of vision is one of M. de Saint-Amand*s 
characteristics. ... He evidently finds it no difficult task to do justice 
to Legitimist and Imperialist, to the old world that came to an end loith 
the Revolution and to the new loorld that sprang from the old iwrLPs 
ashes. Nor do his qualifications as a popular historian end here. lie 
has the gift of so marshalling his facts as to leazfe a definite impressicn. 
These are but short books on great subjects ; for Af. de Saint' Amand is 
not at all content to chronicle the court life of his three heroines^ and 
virites almost more fully about their times than he does about themselvis; 
but yet comparatively short as the books may be, they tell their story, in 
many respects, better than some histories of greater pretension sP — Tpie 
Academy, London. 

FOUH VOLUMES ON WOMEN OF THE VALO/8 AND VENSA/UE8 QOUSTS. 

Each with Portraits, $i.tts. Prict per set, in box, cloth, $5.00; half calf, $io.oa 

WOMEN OF THE VALOIS COURT. 
THE COURT OF LOUIS XIV. 
THE COURT OF LOUIS XV. 
THE LAST YEARS OF LOUIS XV. 

The splendid pageantry of the court over which Catherine de* Medici presided 
and in which she intrigued, and the contrasting glories and shames of the long reigns 
of the " Sun King " and of Louis XV. are the snhjccts of these four volnmes which 
depict the moM brilliant days of the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. 

2 



Digitized by 



Google 



FAMOUS WOMEN OF THE FRENCH COURT 

THREE VOLUMES ON MARIE ANTOINETTE. 

Each with Portrait^ $1.35. Price per set^ in ficx, c^M, $375; hal/" cal/^ $7.50. 

MARIE ANTOINETTE AND THE END OF THE OLD REGIME. 

MARIE ANTOINETTE AT THE TUILERIES. 

MARIE ANTOINETTE AND THE DOWNFALL OF ROYALTY. 

In this series is unfolded the tremendous panorama of political events in which 
th« unfortunate Queen had so influential a share, beginning with the days imme- 
diately preceding the Revolution, when court life at Versailles was so gay and unsus- 
pecting, continuing with the enforced journey of the royal £amily to Paris, and the 
agitating months passed in the Tuileries, together with the ill-starred and unsuccess- 
ful attempt to escape from French territory, and concluding with the abolition of 
royalty, the proclamation of the Republic, and the imprisonment of the royal family, 
— the initial stage of their progress to the guillotine. 

THREE VOLUMES ON THE EMPRESS JOSEPHINE. 

Bach with Portrait^ $x.a5. Price per sety in hoxy clothe $3.73; half calf y $7.50. 

CITIZEN ESS BONAPARTE. 

THE WIFE OF THE FIRST CONSUL. 

THE COURT OF THE EMPRESS JOSEPHINE. 

The romantic and eventful period beginning with Josephine's marriage to the 
young commander whose " whiff of grapeshot " had just saved France from anarchy, 
and whose wonderful career was about to begin, comprises the astonishing Italian 
campaign, in which the power of Austria was so unexpectedly and completely hum- 
bled, the Egyptian expedition, the coup d'itat of Brumaire, and is described in the 
first of the above volumes: while the second treats of the brilliant society which issued 
from the chaos of the Revolution, and over which Madame Bonaparte presided so 
charmingly ; and the third, of the events between the assumption of the imperial title 
by Napoleon and the end of 1807, including, of course, the Austerlilz campaign. 

FOUR VOLUMES ON THE EMPRESS MARIE LOUISE. 

Each with Portrait, $1.25. Price per set, in box, cloth, $5.00; half calf, $10 00. 

THE HAPPY DAYS OF MARIE LOUISE. 

MARIE LOUISE AND THE DECADENCE OF THE EMPIRE. 

MARIE LOUISE AND THE INVASION OF 1814. 

MARIE LOUISE, THE RETURN FROM ELBA, AND THE HUNDRED DAYS. 

The auspicious marriage of the Archduchess Marie Louise to the master of 
Europe; the Russian invasion, with its disastrous conclusion a few years later; the 
Dresden and Leipsic campaign; the invasion of France by the Allies, and the mar- 
vellous military strategy of Napoleon in 1814, ending only with his defeat and exile 
to Elba; his life in his little principality; his romantic escape and dramatic return to 
France; the preparations of the Hundred Days; Waterloo and the definitive restora- 
tion of Louis XVIII , closing the era begun in 1789, with ** The End of the Old 
R^me," — are the subjects of the four volumes grouped around the personality of 
Marie Louise. 

3 



Digitized by 



Google 



FAMOUS WOMEN OF THE FRENCH COURT 
TWO voLumen <m we oucnesB of AMOUtime. 

MmckwitkPortrmU,%i,n, J*rict ^^ Mt, in Ux, cittA, $».$»; Aalf cmiT, $5joo, 

THE YOUTH OF THE DUCHESS OF ANGOUL^ME. 

THE DUCHESS OF ANGOUL^ME AND THE TWO RESTORATIONS. 

The period eoveitd m thk lint of these tolames hegau with the life of the 
daughter of Louit XVI. and Marie Antobette imiMiaoned in the Tempk after the 
ezccutioQ of her parents, and ends with theaocessioo of Louis XVIII. after dbe abdica- 
tion of Napoleon at Fonlaioebleao. The first Restoration, its illusions, the charactess 
of Louis XVIII., of his brother, afterwards Charles X., of the Dukes of Aagouldme 
and Berry, sons of the latter, the life of the Court, the feeling of the dty. Napoleon's 
sudden return from Elba, the Hundred Days from the Rojralist side, the second 
Restoration, and the vengeance taken by the new govenuBeut on the Impeiialisis, 
Ibm the subject>matter of the seoond Tolume. 

THfi££ VOLUMES ON We DUCME88 OF BEIfMY. 

Etch wWk Portrait^ $r.S5. Prie* per set, in A^x, cleik, $3.7$: kaff cm^, $7.5°^ 

THE DUCHESS OF BERRY AND THE COURT OF LOUIS XYIII. 
THE DUCHESS OF BERRY AND THE COURT OF CHARLES X. 
THE DUCHESS OF BERRY AND THE REVOLUTION OF JULY. 1830. 

The Princess Marie Caroline, of Naples, became, opon her marriage with the 
Duke of Berry, the central figure of the Fiench Court during the reigns of both 
Louis XVIII. and Charles X. The former of these was rendered erentful by the 
assassination of her husband and the birth of her son, the Count of Chambofd, and 
the latter was from the first marked by those reactionary tendencies which resulted 
in the dethronement and exile of the Bourbons. The dramatic Rerolutiaa which 
brought about the July monarchy of Louis Philippe, has never been more vividly 
and intelligently described than in the last volume devoted to the Duchess of Berry. 

THE REVOLUTfOM OF 1949. 

Wak Four Portrmils. Prict $1.95. 

M. Imbert de Saint- Amand's volume on ** The Duchess of Berry and the Revo- 
lution of 1830," which described the tuibulest accession of Louis Philippe to the 
throne of France, is followed by the account of the Citisen King's equally agitated 
abdication and exile during the Revolution of 1848. As always, the historian writes 
from the insiJe, and his descriprion of the exciting events of the February days that 
led to the overthrow of the Orieanist d]rnasty, the flight of the last king France has 
had, and the dramatically sudden establishment of the Second Republic is Cuniliar 
and intimate rather than formal, and the reader gets a view of what passed bdiind 
the scenes as well as on the stage at that interesting and fiiteful nuNnent. 

4 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by GOQglC £^ 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



'Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



'"^ in 



r- 



c 




igitized by Google