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ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 



LOUIS-PHILIPPE 
AND HIS SISTER 

THE POLITICAL LIFE & ROLE 

OF 

ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

(1777-1847) 



BY 

RAOUL ARNAUD 


TRANSLATED BY 

E. L. CHARLWOOD 



WITH PORTRAITS 



1908 

DAVID NUTT 

At the Sign of the Phxnix, Long Acre 
LONDON 






Printed by BALLANTYNE, HANSON & Co. 
At the Ballantyne Press, Edinburgh 



TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE 

IN the following pages M. Arnaud has given an 
animated and picturesque survey of the chequered 
career of a woman who played a decisive part at a 
critical turning-point of French history, and who 
for many years exercised a marked influence over the 
course of European politics. Princess Adelaide was 
the trusted and beloved sister of Louis-Philippe ; 
she shared his hopes and fears during the weary 
years of exile and during the still more irksome 
period of the Restoration ; she was his confidant 
and counsellor throughout the long waiting game in 
which he had to combat the distrust of Legitimacy 
and allay the impatience of Liberalism ; and when, 
for the second time, France threw off the Ancien 

:vic, it was largely thanks to her adroit and 
energetic action that Louis-Philippe secured the 
prize for which he had schemed so long and 
patiently. 

Written with the ease and lightness of a feuille- 
ton, M. Arnaud's work is based upon minute and 
searching study of every source of information that 

V 

48 



PREFACE 

can illustrate the life and times and character of 
Adelaide of Orleans. He has laid under contribution 
the countless memoirs of the period, beginning with 
those of Madame de Genlis, to whom the children 
of Philippe- Egalite owed their education, as well as 
the voluminous correspondence, printed and manu- 
script, of the chief personages of his story ; he has 
worked through the vast mass of pamphleteering 
and periodical literature of which the Restoration 
and Monarachy of July were so prolific ; he has t 
ransacked the National and Municipal archives 
of France and the private archives of the Royal 
Family. Every statement of the author's is based 
upon and buttressed by reference to contemporary 
authorities. It has been thought unnecessary to 
reproduce for the English reader the elaborate 
apparatus of citations to be found in the original. 

One word of caution may be deemed not out of 
place in the English edition. The Monarchy of 
July, with its system of somewhat terre-a-terre com- 
promise, never really appealed to the logical and 
idealist temperament of France; its prosaic . virtues 
were appreciated as little by the partisan of the 
Rights of Man as by the devotee of Divine Right ; 
its leading personages failed to touch the imagina- 
tion or heart of a people which condones everything 
save tepidity, and can forgive any crime save that 



TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE vii 

of boring it. Thus it comes that the services 
rendered to France at a critical moment by the 
Orleans family and the sterling if unattractive 
qualities displayed by Louis-Philippe and his sister 
have received less than their due of recognition. 
In particular, the elder branch of the Royal Family 
and its adherents have never forgiven the younger 
branch for what they deemed its ambiguous and 
unscrupulous attitude. The ignoble calumnies with 
which the adherents of "throne and altar" essayed 
to avenge the Revolution of July find at times a too 
complaisant echo in the pages of M. Arnaud. 

E. L. CHARLWOOD. 



CONTENTS 

PART I 

BIRTH AND EDUCATION 
CHAPTER I 

FACE 

in Paris in 1777 In the streets A stance at the French 
Academy At the Picture Galleries In the caffs The Palais 
Royal Birth of the two Princesses of Orleans . 3 

CHAPTER II 

Mme. de Genlis governess to the Princesses of Orleans Reception 
at the Palais Royal The Due de Chartres, the Duchesse de 
Chartres, and their friends Mme. de Genlis Bellechasse 
Death of the elder of the Princesses of Orleans Mme. de 
Genlis " governor " of the Princes Pamela's arrival at 
Bellechasse .... .17 

CHAPTER III 

Mile. d'Orleans and her fellow-pupils Mme. de Genlis' system of 
education The habitues of Bellechasse Children's ball at the 
Duchesse de Bourbon's Sojourn at Saint-LeuSpaBaptism 
and First Communion of Mile. d'Orle*ans Projected marriage 30 

CHAPTER IV 

The Duchesse d'Orleans Her difficulties with the governess 
Political men assiduous at Bellechasse Mademoiselle 
d'Orleans at the National Assembly Resignation of Mme. 
de Genlis Illness of the Princesse Adelaide Mme. de Genlis 
obtains permission to remain with her pupils Mademoiselle 
and her brothers dance to the tune of "a ira" Mme. de 
Genlis leaves Bellechasse Return of Mme. de Genlis The 
Duchesse d'Orldans separates from her husband . . 45 



x CONTENTS 

CHAPTER V 

PAGE 

Arrest of Mile. d'Orleans and Mme. de Genlis at Colombes The 
two Orleanist parties Departure of Mademoiselle for England, 
Bath, Bury, Isleworth Return of Mademoiselle to Paris She 
leaves France 60 



PART II 

EXILE 

CHAPTER I 

Arrival of Mile. d'Orleans at Tournay The Republican armies 
Defection of Dumouriez The camp at Saint-Amand The 
Due de Chartres obliges Mme. de Genlis to take charge of his 
sister From Saint-Amand to Mons Mademoiselle ill at 
Mons Departure for Switzerland Schafifhausen Zurich 
Zug Attempt upon Mademoiselle's life 73 

CHAPTER II 

Mademoiselle's arrival at Bremgarten The convent of Sainte- 
Claire The Princess's occupations Letters to the Duke of 
Modena and the Princesse de Conti Mademoiselle leaves 
Bremgarten and separates from Mme. de Genlis She retires 
to Fribourg near to the Princesse de Conti, who tells her of the 
execution of Philippe-Egalite 84 

CHAPTER III 

The Princesse de Conti's life at Fribourg Mademoiselle is shut 
up in a convent She has difficulty in getting used to her 
aunt's ways Rupture of the relations between Mile. d'Orleans 
and Mme. de Genlis The Duchesse d'Orleans sends her 
daughter presents The French armies invade Switzerland 
Mademoiselle and her aunt take refuge at Landshut, near 
Presbourg 99 



CONTENTS xi 



CHAPTER IV 

MM 

The Due d'Orle'ans at Brcmgarten His journey to Germany and 
the North of Europe Doings of the Orleanist faction Inter- 
view between the Due d'Orleans and Baron de Roll Negotia- 
tions between the Duchesse d'Orleans and the Directoire 
Government The Orleans Princes in America Their arrival 
in London They are reconciled to the elder branch . . 109 



CHAPTER V 

The Duchesse d'Orleans exiled in Spain Sana Figuieres Mile. 
d'Orle'ans joins her mother The Duchesse d'Orleans' "Chan- 
cellor'' The Abbe* de Saint Farre Princess Adelaide leaves 
the Duchesse d'Orleans. Why? . . 118 



CHAPTER VI 

Death of the Due de Montpensier and the Comte de Beaujolais 
The Due d'Orleans at Palermo His official betrothal to 
Marie Amelie Princess Adelaide meets her brother again 
Her affection for him Their intrigues They go to Mahon 
for their mother The Due d'Orle'ans' marriage The King 
and Queen of Naples The members of the Orleans family 
pester the English Government with demands for money 
The Due d'Orle'ans is driven from Spain The Due, the 
Duchesse, and Mademoiselle d'Orteans conspire against 
Ferdinand IV. and Marie Caroline Exile of the Queen of 
Naples 127 



PART III 

THE RESTORATION 

CHAFFER I 

Fall of Napoleon The Due d'Orle'ans starts for France He is 
received by Louis XVIII. He goes to Palermo for his wife- 
Arrival of Mademoiselle d'Orle'ans in Paris Paris in 1814 
Visit to the Tuileries Louis XVIII 145 



xii CONTENTS 

CHAPTER II 

PAGE 

Princess Adelaide in 1814 Mademoiselle's mother The 
Duchesse de Bourbon The Due de Bourbon The Prince 
de Conde Receptions at the chateau Receptions at the 
' Palais Royal Mademoiselle d'Orldans a "business man" . 153 

CHAPTER III 

Faults of the Restoration Liberals and Bonapartists at the Palais 
Royal Landing of Napoleon The Due d'Orleans sends his 
wife and children to England He is sent to Lyons, then to 
Lille Mademoiselle d'Orleans remains alone in Paris Her 
departure for Lille, then for London Waterloo Manoeuvres 
of the Orleans family Their exile in England Orleans 
House Return to Paris 162 

CHAPTER IV 

Restoration of the Palais Royal The habituts of the Palais Royal 
Influence of Mademoiselle d'Orleans over her brother His 
political influence Humiliations inflicted upon Mademoiselle 
d'Orleans and her brother The Due de Chartres at the 
Henry IV. College Assassination of the Due de Berry 
Birth of the Due de Bordeaux Vexation of the Due and 
Mademoiselle d'Orleans Death of their mother . . .172 

CHAPTER V 

The Chateau d'Eu Last moments of Louis XVIII. His death 
The Due d'Orleans and Mile. Adelaide "Royal Highnesses" 
Coronation of Charles X. Increase of the Orleans fortune 
The Chateau de Neuilly Randan 186 

CHAPTER VI 

Entertainments at the Tuileries and Palais Royal The Due 
d'Orleans and the members of the elder branch Attitude 
of Princess Adelaide Charles X. Intrigues of the Due and 
Mademoiselle d'Orldans Polignac Ministry Dissolution of 
the Chambre des Deputes The King and Queen of Naples 
in Paris Charles X. at the Palais Royal 199 



CONTENT^ xiii 

PART IV 

THE JULY .MO.\-AKCHY 

CHAPTER I 

PACK 

:utc of the ordinances Indignation of Mademoiselle 
d'Orleans Visit of the Comtesse de Boigne to Princess 
Adelaide The evening of July 27 at the Chdteau de Neuilly 
The anxieties of its denizens on the day of the 28th Victory 
of the insurgents The Due d'Orl&ins at Raincy Made- 
moiselle's tricoloured cockades Affluence of visitors at 
Neuilly Dupin, Thiers, Casimir Delavigne Decided 
attitude of Princess Adelaide Marie Amdlie's sadness 
The Comtesse de Boigne's negotiations Departure of the 
Orleans family for Paris on the evening of July i . . -215 

CHAPTER II 

Mademoiselle d'Orleans on the morning of August i, 1830 
Appearance and sentiments of the crowd Princess 
Adelaide at the Comtesse de Boigne's Interview with 
Pozzo di Borga and Pasquier Popular enthusiasm around 
the Palais Royal Mademoiselle visits the hospitals She 
induces her brother to take the title of King of the French 
-Enthronement of Louis- Philippe I. His portrait Open 
house at the Palais Royal Charles X. starts for exile 
Death of the Due de Bourbon The July Revolution merely 
ended in a change in the person of the chief of the State . . 228 

CHAPTER III 

Popularity of Mademoiselle d'Orleans Her enemies attack her 
violently -- The Princess's toilettes Her tastes Mme. 
Messalina Athalie de Bourbon Presumed liaison between 
Mme. Adelaide and General Atthalin - The children she 
might have had by him Madame's parsimony Her house- 
hold Her charities The Hospice d'Enghicn The Princess's 
attachment to her friends She hates etiquette " Bourgeoise " 
life at the Tuileries Louis- Philippe's children Mme. 
Adelaide reproaches the Due d'Orleans for his opposition to 
the King's Government 244 



xiv CONTENTS 

CHAPTER IV 

PAGE 

The Pavilion de Flore Princess Adelaide's friends Madame's 
influence over the King and the Ministers Attempts on the 
King's life Adelaide and Marie Amelie Political role of the 
Princess : the Quadruple Alliance, the affairs of Spain 
Arrest of the Duchesse de Berry Odious attitude of 
Mme. Adelaide Ministerial crises Marriages of the Due 
d'Orleans and the Due de Nemours Royal rejoicings 
Death of the Due d'Orleans 262 

CHAPTER V 

Grief of the Queen and the Duchesse d'Orleans Princess Adelaide 
and the Duchesse d'Orleans The Duchesse de Nemours 
The Princesse de Joinville The Duchesse d'Aumale The 
Due and Duchesse de Montpensier Influence of Marie 
Amelie on the members of her family Illness of Mile. 
d'Orleans Her last journey to Arc, Randan, Chantilly Her 
political occupations Death of Mme. Adelaide Her will 
Her funeral Conclusion . 281 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



PRINCESS ADKLAII^ . Frontispiece 

From the picture by MAKIK-AMEMK COICMKT (Muste 
ConeU. Ckantilly). 

THK Two PRINCESSES OF ORLEANS .... To face p. 27 

From a contemporary print (BiM. A'a/. Dept. of Prints. 
Paris). 

MADEMOISELLE D'ORLANS, ABOUT 1782 30 

By L. CHAUSSE. Inedited miniature (Muste Cond/. 
Ckantilly} 

MADEMOISELLE D'ORLKANS, ABOUT 1790 . 50 

Inedited miniature (Musfe Conde, Ckantilly). 

MALACHITE MUSICAL-BOX (REPRESENTING THE DUKE 

OF ORLEANS, HIS WIFE, SISTER, AND CHILDREN) 146 

MuseeCond*. Ckantillv. (Reproduction forbidden.) 

PRINCESS ADELAIDE 216 

from a miniature by MEURET after WlNTERHALTER 
(Musee CondV. Ckantilly). 

PRINCESS ADELAIDE . 228 

From a contemporary German print (BiU. Nat. Dept. of 
Prints. Paris). 

PRINCESS ADELAIDE ,, 278 

Inedited miniature f>y \V.M. Ross (Musle Conde, Ckantilly). 



PART I 

BIRTH AND EDUCATION 



ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 



CHAPTER I 

c dav in Paris in 1 777 In the sinrts A stance at the 
French Academy At the Picture Galleries In the cafes 
The Palais Royal Birth of the two Princesses of 
Orleans. 

PARIS was awakened very early on Saint Louis' Day, 
August 25, 1777, by the ringing of bells "summoning 
the faithful to the churches, there to hear the pane- 
gyric of the canonised king." 

They chimed in unison those bells, their reso- 
nance intermingling, replying to each other from one 
quarter of the town to another, pausing, then recom- 
mencing their joyful paean louder than before. 

Sunshine flooded with cheerful radiance the tor- 
tuous streets, soon to be enlivened by a crowd in 
Sunday attire, forgetful of yesterday's 2 pleasures, 
ready to be amused anew and to enjoy the oppor- 
tunity of gratuitous merry-making. 

A fete at Trianon had been announced for that 
day. At the last moment this had been counter- 
manded ; the King having refused to take part in it 
as he considered the expenditure of 180,000 francs 



Mdrcier, Tublfau de Paris. 
August 25, 1777, was a Monday. 

3 



4 A; 1> ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

excessive when, from motives of economy, he was 
denying himself the trip to Fontainebleau. And 
Parisians, who had planned to contemplate from afar 
the magnificent preparations for the ceremony, would 
have been disappointed indeed had they not rejoiced 
at the lesson which the King was thus giving to the 
Queen. 

Marie Antoinette was not popular. Alike the 
prudes and Mme. de Marsan, the demireps of the 
old court, and such powerful families as the Noailles, 
the Montmorency, and the Civracs whom she alien- 
ated daily by favours too liberally distributed amongst 
a small number of friends, had begun to <c work up 
the town." It was known that Louis XVI. had just 
paid the Queen's debts, already amounting to 487,000 
francs, out of his privy purse. Paris could not forgive 
the daughter of Marie Therese for her prodigality, her 
frivolous character, her indifference, and, above all, for 
that entire neglect of etiquette which had scandalised 
everybody. 

Thus, on his way to the Tuileries, the Temple, and 
the gingerbread fair, the Parisian was already hum- 
ming the following ditty : 

" Petite reine de vingt ans. 
Vous repasserez la bar r tire" 

As there was no fete at Trianon, Versailles came 
to Paris for the stance at the Academy and the opening 
of the Salon. And though some Parisians had started 
in the morning for Saint-Mand6, Bicetre, Vincennes, 
and to Mondhare's, and others " had taken the boat 



A 1 I 1 i: DAY IN PARIS 5 

IM Sevres, proceeding on foot from thence i<> Ver- 
sailles when- the castle was thrown open to them," 
tlie greater number remained in Paris, whose streets 
wen iT.iuded with pedestrians in gala attire. Milli- 
ner's work^irl strutted about in their short panier- 
gowns ; shop-boys, dressed in spite of the heat in 
heavy " frock-coats of ratteen and breeches of drugget, 
well powdered, clean shaven, frizzed, and bravely 
tricked out, clanked their steel-handled swords like 
real gentlemen," to quote Restifde la Bretonne's vivid 
description. 

The wine-shops are full of thirsty souls. They 
flock to Nouvetle France, and especially to Rampon- 
ncaus (on the site of the present Eglise de la 
Trinitf), where a fresh light wine was to be had at 
three half pence the half pint. Mercier in his Tableau 
dc Paris speaks of the singing, and of the furious go 
with which the guests were accustomed to dance a 
kind of follow-my-leadery^mzwdfo/fc. 

At the Place Dauphine you may see the crowd 

uing to the patter of quacks, applauding musicians 

and strolling singers ; while at the gingerbread fair, 

Place Louis XV., people are jostling one another in 

order to get nearer to the mountebank shows. 

The Tuileries Gardens, thrown open to the " lower 
classes " for the whole day, are overrun with people. 
The "hoarse, shrill, dreary" cries of itinerant vendors 
are heard above the din of the crowd which is amusing 
itself by making havoc of lawns and flower-beds. A 
dirty little man, enveloped in an ample cape, his legs 
encased in linen gaiters, is selling windmills. Here 
scissors and combs, there laces or lanterns are being 



6 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

hawked about. The heat is overwhelming, the sun 
pitiless, the seller of cooling drinks is doing a brisk 
trade. On his back is a barrel swathed in a cloth 
and surmounted by a tuft of feathers ; within reach 
of his hand a tap fashioned like a swan's neck ; on 
his breast, suspended by two little steel chains, hang 
four or five glasses filled with tepid liquorice water ; 
his cry is incessant : " Who wants a fresh drink ? Two 
goes for a farthing." Carnations are at the disposal 
of the ladies, and every organ-grinder from Barbary 
or rather Germany is the centre of a throng. 

Along the quays by the Louvre the people, " curious 
to excess," are watching the fashionable folks on their 
way to the Academy or the Salon of paintings. The 
black-coated magistrate drives by in his old-fashioned 
berline ; the prelate sinks back amid his cushions ; 
the dancing-master smirks in his cabriolet ; the prince 
in his English carriage, preceded by mastiffs and 
dwarfs adorned alike with flowers and silver bells, 
" races along with four horses as if he were in the 
open country," says Madame de Genlis. Dog-carts 
a la Polignac, berlines with cork-screw springs, 
sociables, cabriolets, French coupes, English coaches 
jostle and collide in their haste to be first. 

The humble Sedan-chair slips in between the 
coaches ; the foot-passenger has to scurry out of the 
way to avoid being run over. In her fine carriage 
with its seven windows the lady of quality, shining 
with rouge, displays her diamonds. The dandy, 
whose " drag " has been caught in a block of vehicles, 
loses his temper. "You confounded rascal, when is 
this going to end ? " But he only gets laughed at for 



A 1 I.TK DAY IN PARIS 7 



hi> pains, .uul a woman selling cold cakes chalK him 
with her cry, ' l Hot, all h<>t!" 

On the Esplanade du Louvre, which has been 
mightily improved this year by the planting of grass, 
the following epigram is circulating : 

" Des favoris de la Muse f ran false ^ 
ZfAngevi/ler rend le sort assure* ; 
Devant leur porte ilafait mettre un pre y 
Oft desormais Us pourront paltre a raise" 1 

The Louvre itself wears a sorry look ; wretched 
plaster sheds disfigure the majestic entrance court; 
the noble building, the repairs on which are being 
proceeded with in the most leisurely fashion, is crum- 
bling away and looks sadly neglected. 

The annual prize for Oratory is being discerned 
by the French Academy ; " and many persons of 
quality went without their dinner " in order to be 
present at the stance, if we may believe Grimm. 
Inside "the cramped building" a small man with "a 
delighted expression of countenance is running to 
and fro opening the tribunes and ordering the Swiss 
about." This was D'Alembert. The audience listens 
in silence and without displaying too many signs of 
boredom to the elogium of the Chancellor (de 1* Hos- 
pital), by the Abb Re'my the prize laureate, and to 
D'Alembert, whose diffuse and ultra-academical style 
afford an amusing contrast with his shrill and slightly 

1 The favourites of the French Muse have their future well cared for 
by D'Angeviller at their very door he lays down a meadow where 
henceforth they can browse at ease. 

1 ) Angeviller was director-general of his Majesty's buildings, or 
lust cummisbiuncr of works in modern parlance. 



8 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

ridiculous tones as he declaims : " Withdraw from 
hence, importunate and mighty Eloquence ! " 

At the Salon of paintings, the Royal Academy 
as we should say, a scented and essenced throng 
presses round the pictures. There are fewer por- 
traits than last year, but great subject pictures, sub- 
sidised by Government, are more numerous, and 
have obtained the privilege of "the line." 

Roman and Greek history is a great source of 
inspiration alike to old professors like Halle in his 
" Cymon the Athenian inviting the people to enter 
his garden," and young academicians like Menageot, 
who on a canvas fifteen feet wide, rather loose as 
to composition but interesting in detail and of 
picturesque effect, depicts Fabricius refusing the 
presents of Pyrrhus. 

Mythology is largely represented ; the Triomphe 
cC Amphitrite by Taraval being much praised and 
generally preferred to Vanloo's Aurore et Cdphale. 

French history has its exponents in Brenet's 
" Honours rendered to Duguesclin," and Bar- 
thelemy's " Siege of Calais." 

The taste of the days run to moral sentimentality, 
and Du Rameau is in the fashion when he depicts 
Bayard dowering a young girl who had fallen to 
his lot as a prize of war. As every one knows, the 
picture is a commission from the King. 

Among other pictures that arrest our attention 
is a view of the " Gardens of Versailles," by Robert ; 
there are no signs here of the stern and impressive 
painter of the Terror he was to become later on. 

Hardly a sacred picture to be found amongst 



A FTE DAY IN PARIS 9 

all those historical scenes. We may note one by 
Doyen, which is thus described in the official cata- 
" A private person traversing tlie In rests of 
is . . tails from his horse, his leg being 
caught in the stirrup. Like to perish in such a 
position, he appeals to the Virgin, St. Genevieve, 
ami St. Denis, and is delivered. But pride not 
being the motive which prompts publicity, this 
private person has found it good that the artist 
should sacrifice the prottgt to his deliverers." The 
artist, a man of bold and lofty talent, is popular ; and 
everybody is whispering how Catherine II., the great 
Catherine, had summoned him to Russia, and all 
It proud of the homage thus rendered to French 
art. 

In the sculpture rooms the somewhat cold statue 
of Descartes, by Pajou, finds no admirers. The 
chief attraction is the Morpheus (now in the Louvre), 
which opened the Academy doors to Houdon. 

Chardin's three studies of heads in pastel delight- 
ful, but old-fashioned are passed by with indifference. 
The old painter, ill and neglected, has to look on 
whilst people crowd round the insipid imitators ol 
Yien. 

There are crowds about the King's full-length 
portrait by Duplessis, and the current joke is heard 
on all sides : How like, except for the head. Pajou's 
bust of Louis XVI. looks silly, is the general verdict, 
while that of Boizot gives the King an expression 
of//A'o\NV which is not a distinctive attribute of his 
Majesty's physiognomy. 

But it has already grown late. Outside, on the 



io ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

Esplanade du Louvre, an immense crowd has 
gathered, eager to admire toilettes and equipages, 
and gape at the luxury of others. 

Women of the lower classes, wearing pretty 
marmotte or la Finette caps, stare admiringly at 
the great lady's wide charlotte bonnet and her short 
dress, displaying buckled shoes made of different- 
coloured leathers, and ornamented behind by a 
"trifle" in emeralds. 

Little girls, dainty in their white fichus and simple 
open frocks, gaze enviously at the toilette of a 
" young lady dressed in a caraco of Indian taffeta 
and wearing a round doubled-rowed cap ; " * and can't 
take their eyes from the young lord who, hat in 
hand, struts by "in his summer frock-coat of ver- 
micelli linen, trimmed with little bands of painted 
linen," without paying any heed to the admiration 
he has excited, and flirting with a coquette " whose 
hair is piled up so that it looks like a toque, sur- 
mounted by a puff garnished with feathers and a 
great bouquet of flowers in the middle." 

But the crowd has spread itself all over the town, 
and everywhere on the kerb-stones, in the open 
street the game of biribi is being played, only 
interrupted by the arrival of the sergeant of the 
watch, or the passing of the viaticum, at whose 
monotonous tinkling the keenest player bends his 
knee, and even "philosophers" bow their head, or 

1 All these details are taken from Moreau's admirable series of 
designs "illustrating the history of French manners and costumes," to 
which Restif de la Bretonne wrote the explanatory text. Nowhere else 
are the extremes of society life under the Ancien Regime so faithfully 
and vividly represented. 



A I III- DAY IN PARIS .. 

.should do so, if they follow the prescriptions of 
Madame de Genlis in her " 1 )ii tinnary of Etiquette. 

Paris is one big, dense, noisy crowd. On the 
Punt Neuf, between the Samaritaine and the Bron/e 
II"i-se. the street-singer drones out his chant in 
a feeble, broken voice, painting with his stick pictures 

;hly depicting episodes in the life of Desrues, 
the fashionable criminal of the day his unhappy 
youth, his robberies, his crimes, then his torture 
"at the stake, when his body was reduced to ashes." 
And the crowd which, some weeks before had wanted 
to prevent the execution, grows sentimental over the 
pitiful tale. 

11 Au sermon du chanteur, quoiqtion ait fame ctnuc, 
Le soldat y fait sa recruc 
Et Ufilou son coup de main" l 

The staid citizen passes by, preferring to go 
and see the new buildings of the Comedie Franchise 
and the Palais Bourbon, which are not making much 

;ress, or to admire the houses in the newly 
pierced streets Chauchat, Provence, and Chabanais. 
His wife drags him to the Faubourg Saint Honore", 
where she stops to look enviously into the goldsmiths' 
and jewellers' windows, or to be enraptured at Mile. 
Benin's and Mme. Pagelle's shops, by "the costly 
lay figures decked out in the newest modes" 

On the Boulevard du Temple, the shopkeeper 
has settled down at the Cafc ( d' Apollon to read the 

1 Though the street-singer's song may harrow one's soul, 
Sergeant Kite picks up his recruit, 
And the pickpocket does his job. 



12 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

newspapers, whilst workmen throng the pavements, 
listening to the concert at the Cafe Alexandre. 

The animation is especially great at the Palais 
Royal. There is the resort of women in smart clothes ; 
" people look at each other boldly, talk loudly, laugh 
almost in each other's faces, and the street-walker 
would not make way for an archbishop." 

The cafes are full. In the cellar "small haber- 
dashers and tobacconists," seated with their wives, 
children, and little maid-servants, drink small-beer 
and eat saveloys. 

The girls of the town " lamps " is the slang term of 
the day seem to be mistresses of the place. On good 
behaviour at the artistic Cafe des Arts> they flaunt 
impudently at the Cafe de la Rotonde (quite new, 
brilliantly lighted, and magnificently decorated with 
landscapes by H. Robert), and carry on their trade 
shamelessly to the great scandal of the citizen, who 
may be seen there taking ices in company with his 
wife "after the promenade." Indeed the shameless- 
ness of these women has made the Cafe des Aveugles 
the "scum of the cafes of Paris," and turned the 
wooden booths into "a Tartar camp, the meeting 
ground of all the scamps, rascals, cheats, pickpockets, 
and bad subjects of which the capital is full." 

The vogue of the Cafe Procope has long since 
passed. Men of letters now meet at the Rdgence, in 
a room sparkling with lustres, and with numberless 
large looking-glasses reflecting the gardens. To-night 
chess is out of the question ; there is too much noise 
outside. Public affairs and the news of the day form 
the subject of discussion. The great piece of news is 



A FftTE DAY IN PARIS 13 

th.it thr Trian<n f,'tf had been countermanded The 
Kind's rclusal to attend it is commented upon, hard 
words are said about th< Oueen, tongues wag wickedly 
and venomously. One group criticises the stance at 
the Academy and D'Alembert's discourse, for which 
another expresses unbounded praise. The suicide of 
the Captain of the Town Guard a married man, 
the father of a family, who had left 120,000 francs 
of gambling debts is spoken of. Everybody draws 
the moral, and inwardly resolves to play no more, and 
yet at the very moment in over four thousand houses, 
in the very Palace itself, an infinity of gamblers are 
losing their heads over creps and passe- dix, over trente- 
et-itn and biribi. 

The death of the Captain of the Guard had taken 
place two days previously, on Saturday, August 23, 
to the consternation of Paris, which learned at the 
same time, with joy, of the birth of the two princesses 
of Orleans. 

This happy event was the subject of all conversa- 
tions in the garden of the Palais Royal. The friends 
of the Due de Chartres were surrounded. Every one 
wanted to know details. No one had expected the 
happy event ; the Duke himself had but just returned 
from his journey to Holland. Well-informed persons 
were able to state precisely that the twins were born 
at seven and a half months, a short time after each 
other, so at least says Madame de Genlis in her 
.17 moires, and that they were well. Every one re- 
joiced at the Duchess's happiness. She was good, 
charitable, pious, known to the poor, and the remem- 
brance of her father the old Due de Penthtevre, the 



14 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

hero of Dettingen and Fontenoy, who had now retired 
from the world, but was always charitable had not 
passed away. 

Moreover the princes of Orleans were popular 
from their cradles. They considered themselves, and 
were looked upon as "the liberal reserve of France." 
All, even the monk of St. Genevieve, had opposed 
Versailles ; and the irreverent, stone-throwing, re- 
bellious Parisian reserved his favours for those who 
fought against the Government, whose yoke he bore 
with difficulty. 

The virtues of the Duchess made her worthy the 
affection shown her. She profited, moreover, by the 
animosity of Paris against the Queen. She gained 
in popularity what Marie Antoinette lost each day 
by her haughtiness. She was very particular about 
etiquette, led a dignified life, and was charmingly 
amiable. The Queen, on the contrary, detested the 
pomps of monarchy, wished to live far away from 
Paris and Versailles, and her indifferent and frivolous 
though " white soul " laid itself open to odious 
calumnies. 

Moreover the Duke, by his very vices, contrived 
to make himself beloved by the people, who forgave 
him Duthe", his first mistress, and the opera-dancers 
who went into mourning on the day of his marriage. 
They were pleased because he spent money freely. 
His petty parsimonies went unnoticed, whilst his open- 
handed profusion was applauded by all. The Due de 
Chartres was frivolous but charming, a gambler and 
drinker on a magnificent scale, eager for pleasure as 
the people who recognised themselves in him. They 



A II 1 E DAY IN PARIS 15 

attributed to him "the soul of Louis XII., the wit of 
Philippe, the heart . >l his father," to quote the inscrip- 
tion on a print of the period. 

Thus, a little while after the birth of the twin- 
rs, these verses appeared in the Mercurc //< 

>tce, over the signature of M. Ponsinet de 
Sivry : 

" Restez aux Cieux, brillants Gtmeaux, 
Rtstez au sSjour du tonnerre. 
C'edez id la place a deux ,'-tres noiweaux 
Nes pour le bonheur de la terre. 
Les crimes vont cfsser, tous les maitx vont finir ; 
Les virtus peupleront le monde. 
Astree est doublement flconde 
Et tage (for va revenir/" l 

Shortly afterwards an allegorical engraving was 
published by the Freemasons. The Duke was 
Grand Master of the society, and his sister, the 
Duchesse de Bourbon, Grand Mistress. This engrav- 
ing represented " Hymen holding two crowns symbol 
of the birth of princes and placing upon the escut- 
cheon of H.R.H. two other crowns of roses, repre- 
senting the newly born twins." 

It was, therefore, amidst popular enthusiasm of 
good augury that the coming into the world of the 
princesses was welcomed. 

And the crowd, watching the lighted windows of 
the Palais Royal, contrasted the fecund maternity 

1 Stay in the Heavens, brilliant Twins Remain in the abode of 

thunder -Yield your place hrre to two new beings Bom for the happi- 

<>f the earth Crime and every evil will cease The virtues will 

people the world Astraea's fecundity is doubled And the golden a ge 

returns once more. 



16 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

of the Duchess with the shameful sterility of the 
Queen. 

But daylight had faded ; from the cloudless sky a 
gentle peace descended upon the shouting, sweating, 
gesticulating people, busying itself about, and filling 
with their overflowing joy every street which led to 
the Tuileries Gardens, where already " the grand 
charivari ', called a concert, had begun." Time- 
honoured music was played, "two or three hundred 
thousand souls thronged together. . . . The scene is 
lighted only by the moon. Ladies monopolised the 
chairs, their lovers sat at their feet," to quote Mercier, 
the faithful portrayer of the modes and fashions of 
the day. 

The evening was prolonged, and not until mid- 
night did the fagged-out Parisian regain his lodging, 
through the dim streets feebly lighted by the flicker- 
ing flame of the sorry lantern he had just bought. 



CHAPTER II 

Mine, de Gen/is governess to the Princesses of Orleans Re- 
C'-ption at the Palais Royal The Due de Chartres t the 
Dnchesse de Chartres, and their friends Mme. de Genlis 
Hclltrhasse Death of the elder of the Princesses of 
Orleans Mme. de Gen /is " governor " of the Princes 
Pamela's arrival at Bellechassc. 

THE two princesses had come into the world "with 
their feet blackened, as though bruised, and very 
delicate," says Madame de Genlis. Old Doctor Tron- 
chin was in attendance, and, some days after their 
birth, their health appeared so good that he " in- 
noculated them." Then, contrary to custom, a gover- 
ness Mme. de Genlis was chosen for them. This 
hasty appointment resulted from a promise which 
Mme. de Genlis had obtained during a journey in 
Italy the preceding year, when she had accompanied 
the Duchesse de Chartres. In order to devote her- 
self exclusively to the bringing up of her pupils, the 
governess even decided to go into the convent with 
them. This plan was approved of by the Duchess, 
who decided to spend part of each day with her 
daughters, and by the Duke, who had a pretty pavilion 
built in the garden of the convent of Bellechasse for 
th<- accommodation of twins and governess. While 
this was being done, the princesses were confided to 

17 B 



i8 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

Mme. de Rochambeau ; but Mme. de Genlis went to 
see them in their room for an hour every day. 

The religious canonesses of Saint Se'pulcre, 
vulgarly called nuns of Bellechasse, had been in 
Paris since 1632. They had been brought from 
Charleville by the Baronne de Planci. After many 
misfortunes they obtained permission to establish 
themselves at the end of the Clos de Bellechasse, 
which belonged to Saint-Germain-des-Pres. 

In July 1635 tne Y bought a house, and, thanks 
especially to the liberality of the Duchesse de Croix, 
built a nunnery. In May 1637 they obtained from 
Louis XIII. letters-patent confirming their establish- 
ment under the name of regular " Canonesses of the 
order of Saint Sepulcre of Jerusalem under the rule 
of Saint Augustine." From the plans of Gomboust 
and Ballet one sees that they were designated in the 
beginning under the name of Lorraine nuns. They 
subsequently enlarged their gardens and built a chapel 
which was consecrated in 1673. 

At the end of the eighteenth century the convent 
comprised twenty-four nuns and six novices, and had 
at the time of the Revolution a revenue of over 30,000 
francs. The convent church and adjoining gardens 
then became national property. The buildings facing 
the Rue Saint Dominique were pulled down when 
the Rue de Bellechasse was continued in 1829. A 
new quarter has sprung up where the gardens used 
to be, and in the heart of this the church of Sainte 
Clotilde was erected between 1848 and 1850. 

Some time before her establishment at Belle- 
chasse, the new governess was present at a dinner 



RECEPTION AT THE PALAIS ROYAL 19 

iMvrn in her honour at the Palais Royal by the 
Ihichesse de Clurtn-s. It was not an "opera day," 
but the Duchess " whose fondness for Mme. de 
Genlis made one believe in witchcraft," according to 
the Duchesse d'Abrantes, had decided to make an 
important function of this dinner party. 

Thirty guests were seated in the great oval dining- 
room. The fashion for epergnes, and the more recent 
one of sticking flowers in potter's clay on the table- 
cloth had passed. The taste of the day was more 
refined although bizarre and costly : the " Sand- 
man " had traced on the table, with varicoloured 
marble powder, ground glass, and bread crumbs, a 
most complicated and ingenious design. The dishes 
were small, and were scarcely touched. People were 
in a hurry to leave the table, and it was good manners 
not to be hungry. 

In the great white and gold drawing-room, where 
the guests, preceded by the Duke, withdrew after 
dinner, it was considered unseemly to sit on the large 
sofas sumptuously displayed in their niches or in the 
heavy armchairs of gilded wood ; the guests sat on 
"a quantity of small, very convenient, upholstered 
chairs." Such was the usage of the Palais Royal as 
noted by Madame de Genlis in her "Dictionary of 
Etiquette." 

The women, powdered and farded, bent beneath 
the weight of their enormous head-dresses, their gowns 
much be-trimmed with bouquets, flounces, fruits, and 
bands sewn downwards, round and across in gar- 
lands, with kiltings, pearls, and precious stones. 
Seated round a large table, covered with a green 



20 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

cloth, they unravelled stuffs, or did fancy-work. The 
men stood behind, attired in sombre frock - coats, 
a Anglaise^ and wearing two watches and several 
rings. Conversation was gay and witty ; society 
at the Palais Royal combined the tone of the old 
court with the new ways of the Due de Chartres' 
boon companions. They chatted, laughed, bantered 
each other, and exchanged ten thousand agreeable 
nothings. 

The Duchess, whose beauty had now reached 
perfection, talked but little. Her slightly languid 
and nonchalant grace was very pleasing, and although 
Madame Junot found her " conversation rather null," 
she attracted every one by an infinite kindness of heart 
which her soft and beautiful eyes in no wise belied. 
Near to her, and unravelling stuff like herself, were 
the Marquise de Fleury sure to be talking nonsense 
and the beloved companion of her girlhood, the 
Baronne de Talleyrand (Mile, de Montigny), looking 
charming in an old rose taffeta gown which suited her 
old-fashioned prettiness. T\\e petite baronne was doing 
her best to brighten up the cold and frowning Due de 
Chartres, who, as usual, walked up and down without 
saying a word. Tall of stature, with the suppleness 
of carriage which the daily habit of physical exercise 
gives, the Due de Chartres had a very grand air, but 
vice had already coarsened and degraded him ; he was 
bald, his features drawn, and his face bloated, brick- 
coloured, and spotty. Tormented by Mme. de Talley- 
rand's dainty mischievousness, he paused, and leaning 
his elbow on the great marble mantelpiece, added his 
cold and mocking quota to the conversation. 



RECKI'TION AT THE PALAIS ROYAL 21 

Gathered round the table were the Comtesse de 
Pardaillan, Mines, de Beauveau and de Boufllers, the 
Marquise de Laage as ugly as she was spirituclle 
and the Comte d'Ecquevilly. 

The young Comtesse de Clermont-Gallerande went 
to and fro, chattering and making everybody unbend 
even her husband, whose laugh was a grimace. In 
front of the pier-glasses, which reflected the garden, 
stood the Comte d'Osmond, " wide-eyed and open- 
mouthed," in absent-minded pursuit of some whimsical 
fancy ; and near to the count, who did not see him, 
the droll little negro Scipio crept along on his hands 
and knees, jumping up every now and then and 
putting out his tongue. Not far from the Duchesse 
de Chartres sat Mme. de Rochambeau, gracefully 
telling an anecdote of the last reign, and the handsome 
Marquis de Barbentane, so different from his wife, who 
was common, had a great red nose, and might be a 
mere middle-class person, was rallying with haughty 
politeness the Comtesse de Montauban, who confessed 
gaily that she regretted the dinners of former days, 
when the table was loaded "with a monstrous display 
of meats " that were intended to be eaten. 

In a whispering group, the good and virtuous 
Mme. de Blot who, unlike her obese husband, aimed 
at being an "ethereal essence" was languidly defend- 
ing the Comtesse de Genlis from the rather heavy 
attacks of the Chevalier de Bonnard and the lively 
and amusingly pointed remarks of M. de Thiars, 
whose ugliness was so remarkable that it had inspired 
notorious passions. 

At one of the Comte de Thiars' sallies, a burst of 



22 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

hobbledehoyish laughter broke from the Chevalier de 
Boufflers, who had remained as awkward as in his 
youth. 

The emphatic and gallant Chevalier de Durfort 
would be trying to turn a madrigal to the Comtesse 
de Reuilly, who had risen to sing, but was prevented 
from doing so by the ceaseless chatter of M. de Saint- 
Blancart. The Comte de Reuilly's widow took no 
notice, indeed, of the chevalier ; but what seductive 
arts does she not employ towards the Due de Piennes, 
faithless to his sweet young wife, whose sad and 
beautiful eyes recalled other beings neglected in life 
and too soon swept away by death ! l 

But now Mme. de Genlis, at the Duchess's request, 
was tuning her harp. Her skilful fingers modulated 
a piece by Piccini. Congratulated upon her playing, 
when the praises had ceased, she sketched in bold 
outlines, with the authority which her new functions 
gave her, what she considered her role of educator to 
be. And beneath the resigned smile of the listening 
Duchess, one might discern a regret and a presenti- 
ment that this intriguing woman, who had stolen 
her husband's affection, would try to take that of her 
children also. 

The young Comtesse de Genlis was in truth pretty 
and captivating; her figure might lack nobility and 
her attitude ease, but she was sprightly and coaxing, 
and her unrouged countenance of pure oval form 
glowed wiihjfinesse and intelligence. True, her mask 

1 Every detail of this description of a dinner party at the Palais can 
be vouched for from the correspondence of Madame du Deffand, Bachau- 
mont, Grimm, &c., or from the newspapers of the time. 



MADAM 1 DK GENLIS 23 

..I austerity 1ml a greedy soul, but who could help 
being takc'ii in by her prudent reserve, her well- 

;ied modesty? 

Introduced at the Palais Royal some years pre- 
viously by her aunt, Mme. de Montesson, the Comtesse 
de Genlis quickly managed to take up a position 
there quite disproportionate to her birth. For she 
had been born poor, in 1746, not far from Autun, 
on the poverty-stricken estate of Champceri, where 
her people noble, but up to their ears in debt 
only differed from the peasants in that they carried 
swords and called themselves gentlemen. Her father, 
Ducrest, Marquis de Saint-Aubin who had married 
Mile. Beraud de la Haie de Riou, Mme. de Mont- 
esson's sister was incarcerated for debt at Fort- 
1'fiveque where he died. She had spent her youth 
"in rusticity," badly clothed, ill-cared for, but none 
the less a noble canoness of the chapter of Alix at 
the age of six. At that age she was already an 
actress and a pedagogue, and it was disguised as a 
cherub, or a comic opera peasant, that she taught the 
children in her village what she had learned with 
prodigious facility the day before. 

In spite of an education very superior to what 
young girls of her epoch received, and a precocious 
intelligence coupled with a remarkable capacity for 
intrigue, Mile. Ducrest would doubtless have re- 
mained miserable and ignored at Champceri with her 
mother, if a rich farmer-general, La Popeliniere 
Pollion, as he liked to be called in love perhaps with 
Mme. Ducrest, had not brought the two women to 
Paris. They lived there in great difficulties; the 



24 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

penniless young girl being received " less as a young 
lady of rank than as an artist," sought after on account 
of her fine talent for playing the harp, which provided 
meagrely for their domestic expenses. She was paid 
twenty francs when she did not stay after midnight. 

At fifteen, when " venturing morning calls at men's 
houses," she met a young and brilliant naval officer, 
Bruslart, Comte de Genlis, who fell in love with her 
and married her; "for better, for worse" is Talley- 
rand's malicious comment. 1 

"Caressing, attentive, bright, and not in the least 
awkward,'* as Talleyrand describes her, Mme. de 
Genlis pleased everybody, even her husband's family, 
and some years later, thanks to Mme. de Montesson, 2 
entered the Palais Royal. With flattery and protesta- 
tions of devotion, she duped the honest Duchesse de 
Chartres na'fve, confiding, and newly married, whose 
letters she corrected and cajoled the duke, whose 
adored mistress she became, and over whom, long 
after their liaison, she retained a quasi - maternal 
influence. 3 She manoeuvred so well that the Due 

1 Having entered the navy very young, he was made captain of a 
vessel in India. Taken prisoner by the English and speedily released, 
he obtained, thanks to his uncle, M. de Puyseulx, the honorary title of 
Colonel of the French Grenadiers. Married in 1762 to Mile. Ducrest de 
Saint-Aubin, he became captain of the Due de Chartres' Guards, and 
shared his life of debauch. A member of the Jacobin Club, and one of 
the most active agents of the Orleanist cabal, he was arrested after the 
defection of Dumouriez and executed October 31, 1793. He manifested 
great courage on the scaffold. 

2 Charlotte- Jeanne Bdraud de la Haie de Riou, born and died in Paris 
(1737-1806). Married first the old Marquis de Montesson, lieutenant- 
general. Widowed in 1769, she succeeded in getting the Due d'Orle'ans 
(whose mistress she had long been) to marry her morganatically. J. 
Turquan, Mme. de Montesson. 

8 In her letters she always called him "my dear child." 



MADAM1 I) I- GBNLIS 25 

de Chartres had the sad courage to make his forme* 
mistress -uvenx ss oi his daughters, and the Duchess 
the passive cowardice of yielding to her husband's 
wish. 

Mme. de Genlis arrived at Bellechasse at mid-day. 
The entire community, headed by the prioress, came 
to receive the little princesses at the convent gate. 
They were taken to the pavilion reserved for them, 
and which was decorated throughout like a school- 
room ; geographical maps papered the walls of the 
staircase, and above the dining-room door mytho- 
logical subjects had been painted. 1 

The convent rules as applied to the pavilion were 
easy enough. Men were received until ten o'clock in 
the evening, but were not allowed to go into the 
garden. At ten o'clock the doors were closed and the 
nun on guard carried away the keys. No man spent 
the night in the pavilion, which communicated by a 
wicket-gate with the servants' quarters, where the 
grooms of the chamber and footmen slept, and could in 
case of need have been called up and brought in by a 
nun. 

In order to make the life Mme. de Genlis had 
chosen as pleasant as possible, she was allowed to have 
her mother and her two daughters with her. After- 
wards she had her niece Henriette de Sercey also ; but 

1 This pavilion bore the number 185 Rue Saint Dominique. It 

rd as forage warehouse during the Revolution, and was vacated in 

the year IV. Sold Messidor 21, in the year V., by virtue of the law of 

;iinal 9 of the same year, for the sum of 142,100 francs to the 

\\om.in Hrion, residing at No. 143 Rue Vieille-du-Temple, it was pulled 

down in lyoo. It was on the site of the present No. 13. Nothing in the 

interior remained as it had been when inhabited by the Princes and 

1'rincesses of Orleans. 



26 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

"to avoid needless expense" she decided that none of 
her friends should dine at Bellechasse except her 
husband, brother, and two sisters-in-law as a matter 
of fact " they seldom dined " there. 

The Due and Duchesse de Chartres went nearly 
every day to Bellechasse. Five or six times a year 
the Due de Penthievre brought pretty toys to his 
grandchildren, of whom he was very fond. As to the 
Due d'Orleans and Mme. de Montesson, they doubt- 
less disapproved of what Mme. de Genlis was doing, 
for they did not appear at the convent and never sent 
any New Year's gifts. 

It is difficult to imagine exactly what were the 
duties of a governess to such young princesses, and 
Mme. de Genlis says nothing on the subject in her 
Mdmoires. What is known, though she would not 
acknowledge it, is that being imbued with Rousseau's 
principles on education, she tried, as he advises, to 
take the first place in her pupils' affections. Grimm 
describes a fete given at Bercy when there was tilting 
on the water, besides fireworks, &c. ... at which the 
two princesses, who were barely three years old, sang 
the following duet : 

Mile. d'Orleans (laying her hand on her heart) : 

" Maman^ Genlis \ ces deux noms-la 
Sont la!" 

Mile, de Chartres (Adelaide) :- 

" Et tous deux font dire de memc 
f aimer x 

1 Mamma, Genlis, these two words 

Are here ! 

And both alike make me say, 
I love. 



1 ] OV/'i 3HT 
kMwP^^ 

.vas the 




THE TWO PRINCESSES OF ORLEANS 

From a contemporary print 
(Bibl. Nat. Dept. of Prints, Paris] 



EDUCATION OF A PRINCESS 27 

Some time after this/ A at Bercy, Mile. d'OrK ,ms 
h.ul measles. As it appeared necessary to separate the 
two sisters and as the Duchesse de Chartres would 
not leave her sick daughter, Mme. de Genlis started, 
unwillingly, for Saint Cloud with Mile, de Chartres, 
and the Duchess established herself at the bedside of 
Mile. d'Orleans at Bellechasse. " But Dr. Barthes, 1 
who had taken Tronchin's place, thought, quite mis- 
takenly, that the princess might be moved to the 
Palais Royal. ... It was cold, and despite the pre- 
cautions taken, the move caused a relapse and the 
child died six days afterwards." 

The Duchesse de Chartres, " who had remained 
constantly" with her daughter "night and day up to 
her last moments," - took the measles, but had them 
slightly, and happily recovered. " The princess who 
remained to me," wrote the Comtesse de Genlis, 
44 took the name of Orleans ; she was then five years 
old. Nothing can express the sorrow felt by this 
child at the death of her sister." 

Some months after the death of Mile. d'Orleans, 
in the same year, 1782, the Due de Chartres having 
gone as usual to Bellechasse between eight and nine 
o'clock in the evening, spoke to Mme. de Genlis about 
the necessity of giving his sons 3 a tutor. " M. de 
Schomberg is pedantic, the Chevalier de Bonnard 
wanting in the usages of the world and too provincial, 
the Chevalier de Durfort is emphatic and exaggerated, 

1 Paul-Louis Barthes, born at Montpellier 1734, died 1806. 

1 Journal de la vie de S. A. S. la duchesse & Orleans par Delille, son 

in lime. 

3 The Due de Valois, afterwards Louis 1'hilippe I., born 1773; the 
Due dc Monlpciibicr, born 1775 J aQ d Comic dc Bcuujohm, born 1779. 



28 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

and M. de Thiars is flighty." " Well ! what about my- 
self?" insinuated Mme. de Genlis. "Why not?" 
admitted the Duke, delighted to make himself singular. 
And lo ! and behold the princesses' governess became 
at the same time the princes' tutor. What induced 
her to assume so heavy a responsibility ? Was it the 
pecuniary emoluments which she hoped to get out of 
it? No, her husband had become captain of the Due 
de Chartres' Guards, and his brother was Chancellor 
with a salary of 100,000 francs, besides she was rich 
enough through the Bruslart family, and had monetary 
expectations. But the Orleanist party was at its 
apogee ; the gold which he had scattered had brought 
partisans round the first prince of the blood ; the 
storm so long in preparation was on the point of 
bursting forth. Therefore, confident in the success of 
a conspiracy which was in great part her work, it 
behoved her to be governess to him who according 
to all her previsions she would one day see seated 
on the throne of France. 

The young princes slept at the Palais Royal. 
They rose at six o'clock. Towards eleven o'clock, 
after a Latin lesson and gymnastic exercises, they 
were taken to Bellechasse by the wise and honest 
M. Lebrun. 1 

1 The household was organised as follows : 
For the Princes 

Governess : Mme. la Comtesse de Genlis. 

Preceptor : Abbe Guyot. 

Reader : M. Lebrun. 

Gentleman-in-waiting : Comte de la Rochemont. 

Chaplain : Abbe Famin. 

English Master : Mr. Powell. 

Valets de Chambre : Paulin, Barrois, Delile, Plie, Zeny. 



EDUCATION 7 OF A PRINCESS 29 

Mme. dc GenliY task was a heavy one ; however, 
she did not hesitate to take her nephew, Cdsar Ducrest, 
also ; the boy had just lost his mother, and, like the 
other pupils, did credit to the education his aunt gave 
him. Then, as "the tutor" had asked the Due de 
Chartres for a little English girl, in order that 
mademoiselle and her brothers might learn English 
while they played, the Chevalier de Graves, first equerry 
to the Duke, brought a child from London who did 
not know a word of French. " They overwhelmed 
her with sweets and caresses." Nancy Syms, "whose 
name seemed too common," became the charming 
Pamela adopted by Mme. de Genlis whose daughter 
perhaps she was and who later on married the Irish 
patriot, Lord Edward Fitz-Gerald. 

Mme. de Genlis, therefore, had under her care 
the Princesse d'Orle"ans, the three princes, her two 
daughters, her nephew Ce*sar Ducrest, her niece 
Henriette de Sercey, and the little English Pamela. 
These, eight children, who were all clever and amiable, 
lived together in the most perfect harmony. 

-'/, I'rincess 

Governess : Mme. la Comtesse de Genlis. 
First Woman of the Bed-chamber : Mile. Nonon. 
Music Master : M. Lecuyer. 



CHAPTER III 

Mile. d'Orle'ans and her fellow-pupils Mme. de Genlis' system of 
education The habitues of Bellechasse Children's ball at the 
Duchesse de Bourbon's Sojourn at Saint-Leu Spa Baptism 
and First Communion of Mile, d* Orleans Projected marriage. 

MLLE. D'ORLANS was not beautiful ; her features 
were rather strongly marked, irregular and severe ; 
her forehead was too large, and gave her face a 
disagreeable expression of maturity. Her abundant 
hair blonde, soft, and waving served as a foil to 
her " brunette complexion " ; her eyes were magnificent, 
her look grave and somewhat hard. Her lips were 
thick, her profile irregular, her figure ungraceful. 
She was headstrong and " domineering," violent also, 
like her grandfather the Due de Penthievre, but, like 
him, good-natured. Judicious and reasonable like her 
brother the Due de Valois, her precocious gravity 
and masculine manners contrasted with the " charming 
figure, wit, and character of the Comte de Beaujolais, 
whose defects even were pleasing," is the verdict of 
his governess. 

The daughters 1 of Mme. de Genlis being older 
than Mademoiselle, the latter played chiefly with 
the "giddy" and violent, but witty and sensitive 

1 Caroline, who married the Marquis de Lawoestine (she was very 
beautiful), and Pulcherie, who married J. B. de Timbrone Tunbrune, 
Comte de Valence, from whom she was separated in 1793. She died 

in 1847. 

30 



I DUCATION OF A PRINCESS 31 

ir Ducrest; with Henrietta de Sercey, "an ex- 
cellent creature having an essentially good character " ; 
and with Pamela, whose lively mind and quick-witted- 
ness she liked, and whom she laughingly called 
" Milady," according to Mme. de Gontaut. 

Although Mme. de Genlis brought the princess 
up with great severity, she contrived to inspire a 
lively attachment, and to modify the girl's character 
and even her temperament. So keenly sensitive that 
the slightest contradiction made her cry, nervous to 
the pitch that the least trouble made her ill, Mademoi- 
selle grew up a " model pupil," with perfect health, 
44 no nonsense about her, and no predominating defect." 
Rising winter and summer at six o'clock, fed upon 
milk, roast meat, and bread, she was never allowed 
any delicacies, and often to harden her Mme. de 
Genlis made her lie upon boards. 

It would be difficult to understand how she could 
endure this regime, and, above all, care for the person 
who insisted upon it, if one did not know that all the 
children brought up by Mme. de Genlis were pas- 
sionately attached to their governess. <4 1 have seen 
the Princes and Mademoiselle," wrote the Duchesse 
de Gontaut l in her MSmoires, 4< kiss the ground 
upon which she had walked, and I confess, to my 
shame, that one day wishing to distinguish myself in 
sentiment, I threw myself upon an arm-chair, from 
which she had just risen, and, having kissed it fervently, 
filled my mouth with dust, which calmed my zeal." 

The governess, however, never gave her pupils 

1 Mile, de Montaut Navailles, who became governess to the Royal 
children at the Restoration. 



32 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

a moment's respite. Everything was a subject for 
instruction to her. The princess spent her recreation 
time in learning manual work which did not require 
strength such as basket and sheath making ; she 
made ribbons, laces, did wood gilding, hair work, 
and even made wigs. If she went into Paris with 
her companions it was to visit picture galleries and 
manufactories, about which they had previously read 
in the Encyclopedia. Mile, de Montaut Navailles 
(afterwards Mme. de Gontaut) obtained her mother's 
permission to accompany Mademoiselle and the 
princes in these expeditions. One day she went 
with them to see mustard and vinegar made at 
Maille's. " The mischievous ones among us," wrote 
Mme. de Gontaut, " made great fun, which put 
the governess in a bad humour." Another time 
they visited a pin factory. " Mme. de Genlis 
scolded the princes for having said nothing, and 
forbade the young girls to speak." 

After dinner the children did not play ; each read 
aloud in turn for a quarter of an hour from a history 
book. Mme. de Genlis corrected faults of pronuncia- 
tion, then " gave the tone " herself. This lasted two 
hours. At the time when she was writing the Veilttes 
du chateau she pretended to consult her pupils upon 
the merits of the work. "It was a critical moment," 
acknowledges Mme. de Gontaut ; " if the remarks were 
badly expressed or futile, she showed her displeasure 
with severity." 

Every Saturday at Bellechasse Mme. de Genlis 
received a limited and chosen set, at first composed 
of writers and literary men. Mile. d'Orleans, the 



EDUCATION OF A PRINCI.SS 

princes and their fellow-pupils, did not leave their 
governess's drawing-room, for she wished to accustom 
them e.irly to the usages of society. 

In company with his witty and pedantic friend 
Schomberg, D'Alembert sometimes went to Belle- 
diisse. He was endured there, but not much liked. 
The austere "mother of the Church" (as Mme. de 
Genlis was called) could not forgive his philosophical 
opinions, and detested him for his fine irony which 
could " pinch without biting." He was already ailing 
and looked commonplace at first sight in his plain and 
uniform suit ; but when he spoke in his shrill piercing 
tones his small eyes lighted up with intelligence. 

Huffbn paid rare visits. Old, worn out, "unbear- 
ably monotonous," according to Mme. du Deffand, 
" he devoted his time to animals, and had become 
one from giving himself up to this occupation." The 
old marquise came also, but failed to shake off her 
eternal boredom, and her thin body, bent spine, big 
white head and melancholy eyes told of a grieving 
disposition and a dried-up heart. 

Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, " the unhappy Chevalier 
de Saint-Pierre," as Mile, de Lespinasse called him, 
brought his sadness, poverty, and ill-humour to the 
salon at Bellechasse. He left before the others, 
always in an angry mood, returning to his miserable 
lodging in the Rue Saint Etienne du Mont to wait 
for the mission with which he was to be charged and 
which he never obtained. 

La Harpe, Mme. de Genlis' docile admirer, had 
not lost all hope. He arrived every Saturday at 
the same hour, "well powdered, and decked out in 

c 



34 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

his black velvet coat, gold jacket, and cuffs of em- 
broidered net." Ostensibly he sought to pass un- 
perceived, but his bad temper soon gained the 
mastery, and " the baby of literature " (as Fre"ron 
nicknamed him) flew into a passion, growled and 
became unbearable. 

At this period Joseph Chenier was one of Mme. 
de Genlis' cherished visitors ; he flattered the " tutor's " 
hobby by continually speaking on educational ques- 
tions. Marmontel also " took great pains to be 
witty " without compromising himself, and lazily 
defended himself for having eaten meat on Friday 
at Mme. Necker's. " The beautiful Hypatia " (as 
the latter was called), tall and angular, stiff, pompous, 
and worn out with illness, effaced herself at her own 
house in the Rue Bergere and elsewhere, before her 
daughter, the ugly and " mannish " young Baronne 
de Stael, who always appeared to be in ecstatic 
contemplation, but who won the approval of this 
pedantic circle by her naturally poetic if slightly 
ridiculous enthusiasm. 

The painter Giroux chatted in a corner with 
Meyris the princes' drawing-master, and his friend 
David "lord of the learned brush" slipped away 
from them to talk politics. Schlumberger said 
nothing, and Palissot listened to some malicious 
scandal which he could draft into the scurrilous 
comedy he was writing but not signing. Quillard 
discussed the merits of Gllick and Piccini with 
Marmontel, the author of the Contes Moraux, and the 
quarrel would have waxed venomous if the Chevalier 
de Chastellux, the friend of Voltaire and the admirer 



I DUCATION OF A PRINCESS 35 

of " Pnmonr," l had not pacified him with a big 
(irrman pun which raised a laugh. 

\\'hen the princess had reached the age of seven, 
there used to be music in order to form her taste. 
She already played well enough on the harp 2 to 
take her place in the orchestra with Mme. de Genlis, 
and the latter was so pleased with her pupil's pro- 
gress that she remarked, " The Princess always 
paid the greatest attention to the lessons I gave 
her. I can truly say that I have never known a 
single defect in Mile. d'Orle"ans ; she was naturally 
possessed of a lively piety and all the virtues. She 
witty, and her wit resembled her father's greatly : 
it was particularly shrewd and to the point. This, 
combined with goodness, kindness, and reasonable- 
ness, made up a personality as amiable to meet as 
it was steadfast in the intercourse of life." Mme. 
d'Oberkirch, on the contrary, invited by the Duchesse 
de Bourbon to dine with Mademoiselle, who was 
then nine years old, wrote : " The child is not pretty : 
the courtiers pretend that she will become so ; I 
believe, on the contrary, that she will be less so as 
she grows up. She has a decided masculine air 
which does not please me in a young girl. Her 
governess, or rather her governor, Mme. de Genlis, 
praises her up to the skies. This young Princess 
is indeed very clever, and gives promise of great 

1 Mme. de Marchais; she married d'Angeviller afterwards. Mme. 
du Deffand christened her " Pomone " on account of the exquisite fruits 
she cultivated in her gardens at Montreuil. 

1 A large portrait has been preserved in the Orleans family of 
moiselle playing the harp, with Pamela sitting on a stool at her 
feet, her black eyes sparkling with malice and intelligence. 



36 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

talent. Her character is domineering, ungracious, 
and difficult : at least that is what her august aunt 
tells me, for I had scarcely any opportunity of 
judging for myself." 

Mme. d'Oberkirch met Mile. d'Orteans on dif- 
ferent occasions at the Duchesse de Bourbon's, who 
separated from her husband lived alone in her 
fine house in the Rue de Varennes, and liked to 
bring her nephews and nieces together in her mag- 
nificent garden. " She did not keep up a great 
household," but entertained nobly, " assisted by the 
Comtesse Julie de Se"rent," lady-in-waiting to her 
Serene Highness. "February 25, 1786, wishing to 
do something for Mme. d'Oberkirch's daughter, the 
Duchesse de Bourbon invited a number of children to 
a little ball. Amongst these were Mademoiselle, her 
young brothers, and the Due d'Enghien. . . . These 
dainty little people were delightful. They had been 
dressed with the greatest elegance ; it was amusing 
to watch their coquetries, their airs and graces, their 
pretentions and their rivalries. The world was 
already in their little heads and in their little hearts. 
A child of six very quickly attracted the attention 
of everybody. . . . Anglomania was just beginning, 
. . . his parents had dressed him up in an English 
frock-coat, turned-down boots, and a coachman's 
wig. . . . They ate, danced, sang from noon till nine 
in the evening." 

During the fine season Mme. de Genlis took 
all her young people to Saint- Leu, where they stayed 
for several months at a time. There, as in Paris, 
even games were made instructive. Each pupil had 



EDUCATION OF A PRINCESS 37 

his little garden, under the direction of a German 
LMrdener, who was only allowed to speak his own 
language. At dinner English was spoken, at supper 
Italian. 

" We lived on the ground floor," wrote Mme. 
de Genlis. "One entered a vestibule first, the 
fresco paintings of which represented the meta- 
morphoses of Ovid ; after that came a beautiful 
square drawing-room looking on to the garden. 
The walls of this room were covered with pictures 
from Roman history, painted in oils on large can- 
vases mounted on lathes." The entire painting of 
this drawing-room only cost 900 francs, Mme. de 
Genlis tells us. On one side were " the most 
celebrated Roman ladies . . . and all the empresses 
since Constantine. . . . Each face was seen in profile 
only. . . . Around each profile was written the name 
of the personage and the year when she died." 
Beyond the drawing-room was a gallery, hung in 
the same fashion with portraits of the great men 
of Greece. In Mademoiselle's bedroom a hundred 
and twenty small water-colour pictures represented 
subjects from French history. These only cost 
eighteen francs apiece framed. 

M. Meyris, a Pole, whom Mme. de Genlis had 
discovered, taught the children to paint in water- 
colours. The governess made him paint historical 
scenes on magic-lantern slides. She also invented 

ime quite in keeping with her time: costumes 
were made for her pupils who played at famous 
voyages, such as those of Vasco da Gama. " The 
fine stream in the park" (of Saint-Leu), wrote the 



38 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

governess, " represented the sea, a series of pretty 
boats formed our fleets. I also had a little port- 
able theatre made, which was placed in the large 
dining-room, where they arranged historical tableaux 
vivants" David, the celebrated painter, amused 
himself by grouping the actors. Among other 
things they played a pantomime Psyche perse- 
cuted by Venus. Mme. de Lawcestine personified 
Venus, her sister Pulche"rie, Psyche, and Pamela, 
Love. "One will never see three figures together 
presenting so much beauty, charm, and grace. David 
was enthusiastic about this pantomime which, he 
said, showed the perfection of ideal beauty." 

Mme. de Genlis loved to show off Pamela. One 
day Mme. de la Rochejaquelin went with her 
grandmother to see the pictures exhibited at the 
Louvre, and met there " the three little Orleans 
Princes and their sister, Mademoiselle, with Mme. 
de Genlis at once their governor and governess. . . . 

" I was delighted," she wrote, "to see the writer 
whose children's books I read, whose little plays 
I acted ; I had so often noticed people smiling and 
whispering when she was spoken of, that my 
curiosity had been aroused ; thus the incident I 
am about to describe is as clear to my mind as 
though it only took place yesterday. Mme. de 
Genlis was very simply dressed in quiet colours ; 
I am almost sure that the hood of her little black 
mantle was drawn over her head. She appeared 
thin and brown to me ; her physiognomy was 
pleasing, the mouth, teeth, and eyes lovely ; she 
seemed so amiable, so gentle, so captivating, and so 



EDUCATION OF A I'KINCKSS 39 

ituclk ! The little Princes louked very peculiar 
tor those days, as their hair was done like that of 
little Knglish boys. . . . Whilst their under-tutors 
and the painters explained the pictures to them, my 
-raiulmother and Mme. de Genlis paid each other 
a thousand pretty compliments. The latter intro- 
duced her daughter, afterwards Mme. de Valence. . . . 
My grandmother noticed a charming little girl of 
seven at her side. ' You have only two daughters,' 
she remarked (the elder, Mme. de Lawcestine, was 
already married); 'who is this lovely little creature?' 
' Oh ! ' replied Mme. de Genlis in a low voice 
which was quite audible to me, ' this little one's 
story is very touching, very interesting; but I 
cannot tell it you now.' . . . Then raising her voice, 
she added, ' Pamela, do Heloise ! ' 

" Pamela at once took out her comb ; her beautiful 
unpowdered hair fell in long curls ; she threw herself 
on one knee, and raising her eyes and one arm to 
Heaven, put on a wrapt expression of passionate 
ecstasy. Pamela remained in this attitude ! Mme. 
de Genlis appeared delighted, and made signs and 
remarks to my grandmother, who complimented her 
on the beauty and grace of her young pupil. As 
for me, I was simply stupefied and unable to under- 
stand anything. My grandmother hurried away to 
laugh over this encounter, and for a week after- 
wards she told the story to those who came to see 
her. And oh ! what endless jests were made over 
Pamela's education ! " 

In 1787 M. de Sillery's aunt, Mme. de Puyseulx, 
having died, Mme. de Genlis 1 health suddenly 



40 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

suffered in consequence of this bereavement. The 
doctors advised her to go and take the waters at 
Spa. Not wishing to leave her pupils, she refused 
to do so. Full of solicitude, the Due d'Orleans 1 
decided to take the Duchesse d'Orleans and all 
the children to the waters. " I was naturally much 
touched by this mark of consideration and kindness," 
wrote Mme. de Genlis. 

They set out for Spa. At that epoch everything 
was very primitive along the provincial highways, 
which they were obliged to travel posting. The 
princes amused themselves by travelling like ordinary 
tourists, and had not secured lodgings beforehand at 
the inns. " At Richemont, all the good rooms being 
taken," says Mme. de Genlis, " we were horribly 
badly lodged. . . . Our courtiers and women were 
detained on the way, but the Princes, especially M. 
le Due de Chartres, 2 waited upon us like good servants. 
M. le Due de Chartres arranged our room, climbed a 
ladder in order to nail quilts to the windows, which 
had neither curtains nor shutters, and Mademoiselle, 
Henriette, and Pamela made our beds. All the 
children were charming." 

1 The Due de Chartres had taken this title upon the death of his 
father. Mile. d'Orleans' grandfather died November 18, 1785, at his 
house in the Rue de Provence, where he had retired since his morgan- 
atic marriage with Mme. de Montesson. Neither Mademoiselle nor 
her brothers were present at the obsequies of the old duke. But a 
funeral service was celebrated at Bellechasse, February u, 1786. 
The Abbe Bourlet de Vauxcelles (reader to the Comte d'Artois and 
Vicar-general of Autun) had been directed to pronounce a discourse 
before the grandchildren of the deceased, beginning thus : " Illustrious 
children, you have been brought to a lugubrious ceremony." 

2 Known as Due de Valois before the death of his grandfather ; 
afterwards Louis- Philippe I. 



EDUCATION OF A PRINCESS 41 

\Ylu-n they reached their destination, "a brilliant 
crowd had already assembled for the Spa season." 
The Abbe Delille, the Due de Liancourt, and M. de 
Chastdlux were there. The usual watering-place life 
led. Between nine and ten o'clock in the morn- 
ing they went to drink the water at the Gerontiere 
spring, while the afternoon was given up to excursions 
in the mountains. 

Mademoiselle and her brothers visited M. de 
Limbourg's beautiful park, and, going one day to the 
Abbey of Franchimont, they had the prisoners con- 
fined there for debt liberated by means of a sub- 
scription. 

The waters of Sauveniere having proved beneficial 
to their mother, they organised a fine fete for her, 
decorating with tall flowering heath and garlands the 
grove which surrounded the spring, and raising an 
altar on a hillock of grass to "Gratitude." The day 
<>t the fete "the prettiest persons in Spa" had been 
invited ; they were dressed in white, with wreaths of 
heather. The Waux Hall band played as soon as 
the Duchesse d'Orleans appeared. She was then con- 
ducted to the altar where her four children, with 
Henriette and Pamela, formed a sort of tableau 
vivant . . . the Due de Chartres "holding a style 
and appearing to write the word 'Gratitude." "All 
who were there burst into tears." (Mme. de Genlis' 



On returning from Spa, Mademoiselle, the princes, 
and Mme. de Genlis stayed at the Chateau de Sillery, 
which had just been restored. On the occasion of 
this visit M. de Sillery had had as many little islands 



42 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

constructed in the park as the governess had pupils ; 
these were all connected by a charming bridge with 
a large island which bore the name of Mme. de 
Genlis. 

It was after this trip that the Due d'Orleans went 
so far as to buy, at Mme. de Genlis' request, the 
estate of Mothe, near Treport, in order that his 
children might have facilities for learning marine 
natural history. 

A little while after the journey to Spa Mile. 
d'Orleans was baptized. The ceremony took place 
at Versailles, after the king's mass before the whole 
court. The castle chapel had been draped and 
decorated with flowers. The young princess, whose 
sponsors were Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette, 
wore a white dress spangled with silver. She 
received the names - - Eugene, Adelaide, Louise. 
Adelaide was her mother's name ; the Duchesse 
d'Orleans- Penthievre being, in fact, the godchild 
of Mme. Adelaide, daughter of Louis XV. 

" The name of Eugene recalled the mutual promises 
of two convent friends." The Duchesse d'Orleans had, 
in fact, been brought up in the Abbey of Montmartre 
with Mile. Eugene de Montigny. They were married 
at the same time, the one to the Due de Chartres, the 
other to M. de Talleyrand, and each had vowed to 
give her first child her companion's Christian name ; 
but the princess could not keep her promise without 
the king's consent, and he, " surprised at the name and 
at the importance the Duchess attached to her request, 
told her that he would give his consent provided that 
he knew her motive. Somewhat embarrassed the 



MARRIAGE PROJECTS 43 

Print-ess informed the Kini; what had passed bet\v< -'ii 
herself and her friend. The day after the christening 
Louis \\'l., will) his usual kindness, said to Mme. de 
Talleyrand: ' /V///V ttaronnc* (he always called her 
thus), you have not kept your word.' ' May I know, 
Sire, how I have merited Your Majesty's reproach?' 
* Mine, la Duchesse d'Orleans has a daughter called 
Eugene,' replied the King. These words reminded 
the Baroness of the conversation at the convent. . . . 
She answered the King that she was grieved that God 
had not permitted her to keep her word to the person 
she cared for most." l 

After the ceremony they left the castle so that the 
courtiers might throw christening sweets to the crowd ; 
then Mademoiselle, who had been presented at court, 
got into the queen's coach. The interview with the 
Due d'Angouleme followed. From that moment the 
projected marriage between the Princesse Adelaide 
and the elder son of the Comte d'Artois was publicly 
talked about. It was decided that the marriage 
should take place as soon as the young prince had 
attained the age fixed by law ; he was still three 
months too young. "They began to form the house- 
hold of the future Duchesse d'Angouleme. The 
Duchesse d'Orleans, on this occasion, got her father 
to promise his granddaughter the Hotel Toulouse in 
Paris and the estate of Ferte in Le Perche. But the 
king took so little part in these arrangements that he 
never offered anything for the Due d'Angouleme, 
giving as a reason for his refusal the uncertainty of 
what he could do after the disturbances had ceased . . . 

1 Delille, Journal (U la vie de S. A. S. la Duchesse cTOrUans. 



44 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

and, for the same reason, the Due d'Orleans offered 
nothing personally, though M. Montjoie makes out 
that he provided for an annual revenue of a million ; 
that is to say, four hundred thousand francs at the 
time of the marriage and six hundred thousand in the 
succession. . . . So that, properly speaking, it was only 
the Comte d'Artois and the Duchesse d'Orleans who 
busied themselves over the project " l which had soon 
to be abandoned not only because the Revolution was 
on the point of breaking out, but because the king 
refused to give his consent to a union which Marie 
Antoinette had long opposed. 2 

1 Comte Rouzet de Folmont, Explication du roman de Montjoie. 
(The Duchesse d'Orleans-Penthievre certainly inspired this book which 
was a counterblast to the work published in 1796 by Galard de Montjoie : 
Histoire de la conjuration de Louis- Philippe-Joseph-d? Orleans surnommc" 
Egalite") 

2 The Prince de Condd, who wanted his grandson to marry, pro- 
posed the Princesse Adelaide to him. The Due d'Enghien is said to have 
repulsed these overtures energetically, repeating the words of his aunt, 
Louise de Conde, Soeur Marie Joseph de la Misericorde : " I do not like 
that blood ! " This anecdote reported by a pamphleteer is scarcely 
credible, the Due d'Enghien being also, through his mother, of " that 
blood." 



CHAPTER IV 

Thr Duchcsse d*Orle"ans Her difficulties with the governess 
rolitical wen assiduous at Bellechasse Mademoiselle 
tf Or leans at the National Assembly Resignation of 
Mr, .>-nlis Illness of the Princesse Adelaide 

Mme. de Gen/is obtains permission to remain with her 
f>nf>ils Mademoiselle and her brothers dance to the tune of 
" fa ira " Mme. de Gen/is /wrs Hellechasse Return of 
Mme. de Gen Us The Duchesse a* Or leans separates from 
her husband. 

THE breaking off of the projected marriage between 
Mademoiselle and the Due d' Angouleme a humiliation 
added to so many others made the Due d'Orteans 
Marie Antoinette's enemy for ever, just at the moment 
when he would have desired to be in closer touch with 
the court. The Duchess showed no resentment to the 
queen. Surprised at first, then pained, she simply 
accused her husband and her daughter's governess, 
Mme. de Genlis, towards whom her feelings had 
changed considerably. " She was deeply grieved," 
a Mme. de Gontaut, "at seeing so little of her 
children." The circumstances of the journey to Spa 
had made it impossible for Mme. de Genlis to show 
herself pitiless in this respect, and the Duchess was 
thus afforded the pleasure of living with her children 
for some weeks, but the separation on their return to 



< 



46 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

town was cruel, and she suffered all the more at being 
systematically kept away from them. 

" What must have been the Princess's joy at 
finding herself with her children in all the freedom 
of travelling and country life ! " exclaims Mme. de 
Genlis in her Mtmoires, a propos of this journey. 
" Although she said nothing, the Duchess had suffered 
at seeing her influence over them taken away, for she 
had never been permanently admitted at Saint- Leu, 
which would have been very natural, but might have 
slightly interfered with games and studies." 

Already, indeed, at the period of the journey 
to Spa the Baronne d'Oberkirch was writing in 
her Mdmoires anent the Duchesse d'Orleans : " The 
appearance of this Princess pleased and touched me . . . 
her smile is sad, her eyes melancholy ; when not talk- 
ing she sighs. She loves her children passionately, 
and one great source of grief is to see their direction 
and education taken away from her by Mme. de 
Genlis. I do not like setting down scandals, but this 
one goes farther than all the others." 

This scandal was aggravated by circumstances. 
As the princes and Mademoiselle grew older, the 
state of affairs in France became more and more 
threatening, and the weak and vindictive Duke, 
worked upon by Laclos, made daily concessions to 
the extreme parties. The Duchess, who had made 
the best of her husband's infidelities, would have 
liked to retain a certain influence over him and 
especially over her children. Like her old father, 
the Due de Penthievre, whom she loved, she was 
loyally attached to the throne ; Mme. de Genlis, on 



MADAME DE GENLIS 1 INFLUENCE 47 

the rontrary, was enthusiastic over the new ideas 
and cultivated opposite sentiments in her pupils. 
The associations to which she had subjected the 
Orleans children troubled the Duchess to such an 
extent that she dared not go to Bellechasse any 
more for fear of meeting revolutionists there; and 
her daughter and sons invited their friends to parties 
at which she was not present. Mme. de Gontaut, 
in her MSwoires, mentions some of these fetes. 
The Duchess's name does not appear. The governess, 
indeed, was all-powerful ; the Duke himself dared 
not go against her domineering will. Mme. de 
Gontaut gives the following vivid account of an 
every-day incident : 

" The year 1789 was very cold; the streets were 
covered with snow. They talked of a sleighing party 
at Bellechasse and Mademoiselle offered me a seat 
in her sleigh, which was driven by her father, the 
Due d'Orleans. The plan was a children's dinner 
at Mousseaux, blind man's buff, &c. ... It was a 
charming fete. After dinner Mme. de Genlis retired 
to the apartments of the castle with the Due 
d'Orleans leaving us to the care of tutors, masters, and 
several members of the household. ... At the most 
lively moment of blind man's buff a groom came to 
announce the hour of departure to the great vexation 
of everybody. . . . We held a council, and it was 
decided that I should be deputed to ... go and ask 
Mme. de Genlis for an hour's grace. There were 
several drawing-rooms ; we directed our steps towards 
the one where we heard many voices. I was so much 
intimidated, that having got into the room and finding 



48 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

myself in a group of men, I could not see Mme. de 
Genlis. She had caught sight of me, and the Due 
d'Orleans, noticing my embarrassment, took me by 
the hand and led me to her. I did my commission 
very awkwardly, being completely disconcerted by her 
displeasure, and she reluctantly granted the favour 
I had come to ask." 

The Duchess might perhaps have consented to 
abandon her sons to the "tutor," but she could not 
make up her mind to renounce all interest in her 
daughter's education. And what were the kind of 
men who went to Bellechasse, whose conversation 
would help to form the mind of this young princess 
of the blood ? Neither La Harpe, the discomfited 
lover of Mme. de Genlis (who was more accessible 
to others, however), nor Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, 
who had quarrelled with Sillery, nor any of the witty 
grands seigneurs who formerly frequented the Rue 
Saint Dominique. The men of letters and learning, 
the artists who used to assemble there had been 
replaced by politicians so much in demand in the 
salons just then. Mathieu de Montauron and 
Alexandre de Lameth were timid conservatives by 
the side of most of the habitues of Bellechasse. 
Here the eloquent and passionate Barere declaimed 
and Talleyrand sneered. David, Alquie", Beauharnais, 
Volney, Voidel, and Grouvelle talked politics, sapping 
the old beliefs, turning secular traditions into ridicule 
before Mademoiselle, who listened, applauded without 
understanding, and unconsciously learned to hate the 
ancien regime. 

Petion " cold as an extreme politician, rude as a 



COQUETTING \\TIII REVOLUTION 49 

parvenu^ as Eamurtinr describes him, solemn, ill- 
mannered, and puffed up with pride, openly courted 
the mistress of the house, who did not disdain the 
tardy homage of Mirabeau, and received with perverse 
pleasure the juvenile compliments of the Due de 
Chartres. 

But the Duchesse d'Orleans belonged too 
thoroughly to her time to be greatly shocked by 
the licentious example set to her daughter. She 
cared little if " capricious and charming" Camille 
Desmoulins entered the drawing-room at Bellechasse, 
whilst " Mme. de Genlis was singing verses en- 
couraging inconstancy, to her own accompaniment 
on the harp " ; or that " the tutor's daughter, the 
beautiful Pamela and Henriette de Sercey should 
execute a dance with seduction and voluptuousness." l 
The Duchess's real grievance was that Desmoulins 
and all the enemies of the state of things to which, 
by blood and education, she was profoundly attached, 
habitually formed the society of her daughter ; and 
that the latter, born on the steps of the throne, should 
take pleasure in listening to a miserable attorney's 
son [Potion], or to a poor provincial barrister [Barere]. 

Then she feared for her children the dangers she 
foresaw approaching. Events succeeded one another 
rapidly, justifying her fears. April 27 the Hotel 
Re*veillon was sacked ; on July 14 the Bastille was 
taken, and the people (stirred up by Camille Des- 
moulins) in the Palais Royal gardens accepted the 
Orleans colours as an emblem. And it is easy to 
understand the princess's emotion when she heard 

1 Camille Desmoulins' deposition before the Revolutionary Tribunal. 

D 



50 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

that the " tutor " of her children had had the audacity 
to walk about Paris on the evening of the riot, with 
little Pamela dressed entirely in red, after being 
present with Chartres and Beaujolais, and perhaps 
Mademoiselle, in Beaumarchais' gardens during the 
assault on the citadel. 1 Neither did she ignore the 
fact that on July 10, when every one in Paris was 
trembling with fear, Mme. de Genlis had given an 
entertainment at Saint- Leu, where she had played 
at being unconcerned. 

" There were theatricals at Saint-Leu, July 10, 
in honour of Mme. de Genlis," wrote Mme. de 
Gontaut in her Mdmoires ; " we received a pressing 
invitation to be present. My mother was there with 
the Comtesse de Gontaut (inere) and myself. People 
were excited, my mother uneasy. The Due d'Orl^ans, 
who was expected, did not arrive. Some one during 
the evening told my mother in a low tone that there 
was fighting in Paris ; she wanted to go away, being 
very uneasy about the Marquis de Saint-Blancard, 
who was captain of the French Guards. Mme. de 
Genlis treated these fears as imaginary. Her en- 
treaties did not prevent us from going away." 

But the violence of the popular disturbances in- 
creased, their object became more definite and riots 
more frequent ; already the insurrection had spread 
to the provinces ; rebellion was no longer spoken of, 
for the Revolution threatening those even who had 
unchained it had begun. The days of October 5 
and 6 could not fail to terrify a princess accustomed 

1 Beaumarchais' gardens were situated on the spot where No. 2 of 
the Boulevard which bears his name now stands. 



ILLNESS OF THK PRINCESS 51 

to prostrate herself before royalty, and the vote of 
the civil constitution of the clergy on the following 
day chafed her Christian spirit. Would the "Mother 
of the Church" (Mme. de Genlis), who prided herself 
upon her devoutness, moderate her revolutionary 
ardour? Not so! She frequented the clubs, the 
Cordeliers, the Assemby where she was seen on 
June i, 1790, with Mile. d'Orteans who appeared to 
take a lively interest in the discussion. What a 
spectacle for a young girl of thirteen! 

The Duchess could bear this no longer ; wounded 
in her prejudices, her pride, her interests, her faith, 
she remembered that she was a mother also and 
trembled for her children. Her indignation burst 
forth and she succeeded at length, on July 10, 1790, 
in inducing Mme. de Genlis to send in her resignation 
to the Duke, who obstinately declined to accept it, 
but promised, on the contrary, to bring about a re- 
conciliation. 

Whilst these negotiations were going on, Adelaide, 
who was highly nervous and had been present at 
some painful discussions, fell ill. Belonging entirely 
to her governess, the daily opposition of her mother 
the only one about her who raised her voice in 
defence of the old society tottering to its fall irritated 
the girl. 

Then she scarcely knew that mother, and judged 
her through the veil which Mme. de Genlis had 
stretched before her eyes. She mistook the goodness 
and gentleness of the rather ignorant Duchess for 
stupidity, and the latter's great desire to be near her 
children for obstinacy. Adelaide's real mother was 



52 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

the person who had taken her from her cradle and 
brought her up according to her own ideas and tastes 
the vain little woman, cette Mme. Necker dldgante 
whom caricaturists represented " armed with a stick 
of barley-sugar and a ferule." That being the girl 
loved with all her heart. Truly it must be said that 
Mme. de Montesson's intriguing niece cajoled all who 
came near her ! 

Even the Marquis de Puyseulx, a tiresome old 
dotard, allowed himself to be smoothed over by a 
relation who had been forced upon him ; the in- 
constant and frivolous Due d'Orleans always retained 
a grateful attachment for his tendre amie; the Duchess 
took to liking a rival whom she loaded with favours ; 
Bruslart, shamefully deceived, did not abandon a wife 
who would not live with him, and the pupils whom 
Mme. de Genlis treated so harshly Mademoiselle, 
whom she sent to sleep on boards kissed the im- 
pression of her footsteps. Thus Adelaide's affection 
for her mistress became sickly and exclusive, en- 
couraged by those around her, who were all devoted 
to Mme. de Genlis Cesar Ducrest, Pamela, Hen- 
riette de Sercey, the habitues of Bellechasse, the Due 
d'Orleans, even the Due de Chartres who between 
a mother he neither loved nor knew, and a " tutor" 
who flattered his amour propre and set his senses 
quivering used his ever-increasing influence over 
his sister. Characteristic of his sentiments is the 
following passage from a letter of his dated January 
i, 1791: "I was the first to have the joy of 
wishing 'A Happy New Year' to mon amie. 
Nothing could make me happier ; in truth I know 



ILLNESS OF THE PRINCESS 53 

not what will Ix-coim- of me when I am no longer 
with h 

OIK- day Mademoiselle fainted in the garden at 
Bellechasse. This was reported to Mme. de Genlis. 
4i I ran, said the latter, "and found her in the most 
frightful convulsions. On opening her eyes and see- 
ing nu she burst into tears. That scene, which will 
never be effaced from my memory, led to an explana- 
tion in which I formally undertook to finish her educa- 
tion." The governess communicated her resolution 
to the Due d'Orl&ins, who begged her to write to 
the Duchess. In that letter, which we find in her 
MtmoireSt Mme. de Genlis was very eloquent, but 
did not touch upon the political causes which had 
occasioned her disgrace. She described the scene 
with Adelaide, and continued : " It is impossible for 
me to resign, since in the state in which things are 
I am certain that Mademoiselle's delicate constitution 
would not bear such a sorrow. ... In three or four years 
I shall retire from the world not to return to it again, 
but what a difference it will make to Mademoiselle to 
leave me only when her education is finished, to see 
nn happy at having completed my work, to restore 
her to your arms, Madame, and to hear you applaud 
all I have done for her and for you." 

The Duchesse d'Orl^ans wavered between the 
pleasure of having her daughter near her, her legiti- 
mate motherly jealousy, her distrust of Mme. de Genlis, 
and her anxiety for Adelaide's health, the latter's ner- 
vous malady troubling her greatly. Acting on the 
advice of those about her, she decided to accept a 
compromise. It was settled that Mme. de Genlis 



54 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

should remain with her pupil, and that the girl should 
go and see her mother at the Palais Royal every day. 
The Duchess also went three times a week in the 
morning to see Mademoiselle at Bellechasse, and had 
her alone with her for an hour, overwhelming her with 
affectionate words and caresses. 

It was about this time that the Duchesse d'Orle"ans 
wrote a letter to the Duke thus defining the quarrel : 

" I will not revert to the past any more, the wrongs 
with which I reproach Mme. de Sillery exist, and 
cannot be done away with by her journal or anything 
she may tell you ; I saw and heard for myself all that 
displeased me. It is only, therefore, on account of 
the future that I return to the subject of Mme. de 
Sillery. She cannot justify herself, but she may make 
reparation, and if I see that her behaviour and that of 
my children is such as I have a right to expect and 
require, I am just, and shall be happy to forget the 
subjects for complaint she has given me. There, mon 
ami, is what is in my heart, and what I have already 
begun to feel. Mme. de Sillery was out of temper 
lately. I bore it ; but next day she paid me attention 
and wrote me a decent note. I thanked her through 
my daughter, and replied to her in a manner with 
which you were as pleased as she was. . . . Tres 
cker ami, I must also tell you that on Sunday Mont- 
pensier begged me to allow Cesar to come to dinner ; 
I consented, but I confess I should be angry if this 
became a habit ; from time to time I consent ; but I 
consider it quite unnecessary that this little boy should 
come to all my daughter's parties. I should, besides, 
be afraid of her asking to bring her companions also, 



MOT11KK AND GOVERNHSS 55 

which I should very certainly decline to allow her to 
do. Thus, chcr ami, it would be better to avoid this 
being dour, and you can easily manage it." 

After reading this letter, in which she likewise 
mentions and excuses her husband's liaison with 
Madame de Button, the character of the writer is 

er discerned. An indulgent wife and a not 
very affectionate mother, the Duchesse d'Orl^ans is 
especially anxious that attention should be shown her ; 
a princess before everything, her sentiments were the 
outcome of her pride. 

Mme. de Genlis, however, continued none the less 
to receive men of advanced opinions, and the enter- 
tainments given at Bellechasse were not always calcu- 
lated to please the Duchesse d'Orl^ans. 

"Towards the end of the year 1790," wrote Mme. 
de Gontaut, " my mother was obliged to return to 
Paris. I had received kind letters from Mile. d'Orl^ans, 
who begged me to go and see her. My mother had 
a distaste for Bellechasse which my young heart could 
not understand. I was so well received there that I 
always wanted to go again. 

" My mother consented to take me, but with such 
repugnance that she forbade all dressiness in order to 

ble, if need arose, to shorten the visit. 

" On entering the pavilion at Bellechasse we saw 
the Due d'Orleans at the top of the staircase talking 
to a personage whose name I forget, but who made a 
very painful impression upon my poor mother. We 
entered the drawing-room ; Mme. de Genlis was there, 

1 Corrcspondance dc Louis-Philippe-Jostph tfOrttatis, published by 
L. C. R. 



56 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

not powdered (powder was still used), and wearing a 
strange costume in three colours, while her altered 
face seemed to me to have lost its habitual charm. 
Dancing was going on, and, I am pained to add, the 
orchestra was playing the tune, Ah ! fa ira, &c. A 
quadrille had been made of this horrible refrain, which 
was being sung all over Paris. The Due de Chartres 
asked me to dance with him ; my mother would not 
allow me to do so. This refusal caused a sort of 
commotion round us, and my mother noticed it. * Oh ! 
Josephine,' she said to me, ' you wanted to come and 
I reproach myself for my weakness.' 

"The little Princes perceived the trouble my 
mother's vexation caused me, and talked together in 
low tones. My mother suffered martyrdom. I saw 
this, and pressed her to go away on the pretext of 
indisposition. We left Bellechasse never to return 
there again." 

These receptions, Mme. de Genlis' attitude, the 
assiduous visits of Voidel, Barere, Petion, and Volney 
to Bellechasse, the fact that the Due de Chartres had 
become a member of the Jacobin Club on the intro- 
duction of de Sillery, could not fail to sadden the 
Duchesse d'Orleans, kept au courant by Adelaide 
" from whom it was very easy to find out the truth 
by caresses, reiterated questions, and a mother's 
rights." So, all at once these tete-a-ttes ceased. 
Mme. de Chastellux and several other persons were 
always there to make a third between the Duchess 
and her daughter. 

From that moment, without any fresh incidents 
occurring, the Duchesse d'Orleans declined to see 



MOTHER AND C.nVKRNESS 57 

, de Cicnlis any more. To sonic of her friends' 
questions she replied that she felt an unconquerable 
dislike to her. Mademoiselle gave four afternoon 
dances at Bellechasse at which her mother refused 
to be present, and the governess no longer accom- 
panied her pupils when they went to dine at the 
Palais Royal. 

In the end the Due d'Orleans was forced to yield 
to the Duchess's entreaties, and Mme. de Genlis re- 

ed orders to leave Bellechasse on a fixed day. She 
\\ent away secretly, taking care to write three letters 
to Mademoiselle to be given to her after her departure. 
The first one was very clever, full of reticence, useless 
regrets, and base, veiled accusations against Adelaide's 
mother. It began thus : 

" DEAR CHILD, I am forced to go away from you, 
at least for a time, but we shall meet again, I hope. For 
the sake of your fondness for me be reasonable and 
take care of your health. . . . Mme. la Duchesse 
d'Orleans has forced me to leave you, but my heart 
remains. Chcre antic, you must submit to a mother's 
will, but in spite of her severity, your mother loves 
you, and would adore you if she knew you better. . . . 
Ilelieve that though absent from my child, ma tendre 
aiie, I only think of her. Yes ! I will write to you 
every day." 

This letter, the two which followed, the presence 
of Henriette de Sercey, whom Mme. de Genlis had 
cleverly obtained permission to leave with Made- 
moiselle, and that of the Due de Chartres, always in 
love with his amii\ only served to keep alive Adelaide's 
sorrow, and she fell ill soon after the departure of her 



58 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

governess. She grew thinner every day, her nerves 
were shaken, and her hands trembled continually, so 
that she was prevented from playing the harp. 

Mme. de Genlis started for Auvergne, but at 
Claremont received disquieting letters respecting 
Mademoiselle's health. This was just what she 
had counted upon, and relinquishing a journey 
which she had been forced into taking, she resolved 
to return to Paris. Not far from Auxerre a courier 
from the Due d'Orleans met her. "Chere amie" wrote 
the Duke, " enclosed is a copy of the letter I sent 
to Mme. la Duchesse d'Orleans this morning, and 
upon which I base the hope of my daughter's life, 
health, and happiness. ... Her mother, as you see 
from the letter she has written to Montpensier, 
declares that she has no rights over her, can do 
nothing with her, and depends entirely upon me 
to do all that is necessary for her." He begged 
Mme. de Genlis to return to Bellechasse, and 
speaking of Mademoiselle, added : " She counts 
upon you, her fondness for you renders it a duty. 
My children and I unite with her in asking you 
to do this." Sillery doubtless at Philippe-Iigalite's 
request had added a letter to the packet, in which 
he remarked : " Monsieur le Due d'Orleans has 
formally assured his daughter that your return de- 
pends solely upon yourself. . . . The poor little thing 
is intoxicated with the happiness of imagining that 
she will see you again. . . . Come back then ; all 
who love you are waiting for you impatiently, and 
will not be happy till they see you again." 

Mme. de Genlis did not hesitate to return to 



MOTH IK AND GOVERNESS 59 

Achasse. He-sides, the Duchesse cl'( )rlrans had 
left Paris aiul separated from her husband. Alt< T 
tliis futile struggle on the subject of the education 
of their children, she had gone to live with her 
father at the Chateau d'Ku. The governess, there- 
fore, resumed her accustomed existence freed from all 
constraint. "I returned," she wrote, "and found my 
youn^ pupil in a state which cut me to the heart. 
My care and tenderness soon restored her to health." 



CHAPTER V 

Arrest of Mile, d* Orleans and Mme. de Genii's at Colombes 
The two Orleanist parties Departure of Mademoiselle for 
England, Bath, Bury, Isleworth Return of Mademoiselle 
to Paris She leaves France. 

SOME time after her return to Bellechasse, Mme. 
de Genlis, frightened at the progress of the Revo- 
lution, thought of leaving Paris with Mademoiselle. 
To retire to Sillery, Raiticy, or any other estate 
was not to be thought of. The peasants having 
obtained what they desired "the suppression of 
pigeons, rabbits, and monks " and what they would 
never have asked for " no more feudal rates, 
twentieths, tithes, and the rest " terrorised the 
country. Mile. d'Orleans, indeed, as well as Mme. 
de Genlis had a sad experience of this. They were 
going to Colombes in an open carriage with the 
Comte de Beaujolais, Henriette de Sercey, and 
Pamela, when at the beginning of the village the 
vehicle was surrounded by a large crowd. It was 
fair day, and the people had danced much, drunk 
more, and were greatly excited. The projected de- 
parture of the royal family was the sole topic of 
conversation in the suburbs of Paris. The peasants 
imagined that the carriage contained the Queen, 

Madame, and the Dauphine. M. de Baudry, the 

60 



ARRKST OF THE PRINCESS 61 

commandant of the National Guard, might harangue 
the people, but could obtain nothing save that the 
travellers were brought to him as prisoners. An 
infuriated rabble followed Mme. de Genlis and her 
pupils, grossly insulting the young girls, and utter- 
ing cries of death and hatred. They soon over- 
ran M. Baudry's house. Mme. de Genlis stepped 
forward and tried to persuade them that she was 
not the Queen, but the wife of a member of the 
Assembly. She was not listened to, and the dis- 
trustful and tenacious peasants would not even 
allow a courier to be sent to Paris. It was a criti- 
moment ; happily a man stepped up to Mme. 
de Genlis, and soothed the distress of the prisoners. 
I am," he whispered, "an old keeper from Sillery ; 
make your mind easy, I am going to Paris." At 
this moment the mayor, who had been hastily sent 
for, appeared with his scarf of office. He de- 
manded Mme. de Genlis' papers. The latter handed 
him some letters, and as she was surprised at see- 
ing that he did not look at them, he admitted that 
could not read ; but he kept the letters. At 
length the invaders agreed to retire, but not with- 
out placing twelve armed men before the door of 
the house. These rather drunken guardians after 
bavin- sung fa ira several times stretched them- 
es on the ground. The children were then 
able to sleep ; but during the long hours of 
waiting the ( nc Bruslart mistaken for the 

n whom she detested ; arrested as her enemy, 
the Duchesse d'Orkans, had been some time 
n tlu- Faubourg Saint Germain maltreated, 



62 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

hooted at, a prisoner, must have had bitter 
thoughts ! 

At last, at five o'clock in the morning the Sillery 
keeper returned. He brought a laisser-passer from 
the municipality of Paris. Then, sobered by sleep, 
the inhabitants of Colombes no longer opposed the 
departure of their prisoners. 

Some weeks after the arrest of Mme. de Genlis 
at Colombes, the royal family fled from Paris. The 
king gone, the Orleanists intrigued. The Palais 
Royal became the Palais d'Orleans. The Due de 
Montpensier mounted guard at the Tuileries and 
had himself elected by the Jacobins. But the 
Orleanist faction was divided. Laclos, Dubois- 
Crance" and Danton demanded the dethronement 
of the king, foreseeing a council of regency pro- 
vided for by the Constitution ; it was the ascend- 
ency of the Due d'Orleans, for which they were 
preparing. Mme de Genlis, Sillery, and Potion 
baffled their intrigues. The Due de Chartres came 
back hastily from Vendome, proud of his civic crown, 
and was cheered by the people. The Citoyenne 
Bruslart published Les Lefons d^i, Gouverneur, wherein 
she extolled her pupil's virtues and her own. The 
papers daily sang the praises of the Due de 
Chartres. The idea of a regency made headway, 
however. Then, Mme. de Genlis exerting her in- 
fluence over the Due d'Orleans, whose irresolute 
character she knew well, made him write to the 
journal of the National Assembly : " If there is a 
question of a regency, I renounce for ever the 
rights which the Constitution gives me." The 



ARREST OF THE PRINCESS 63 

riv.ilry of the two Orleanist parties brought about 
the- failure of their mutual manoeuvres. The 
Champs de Mars petition ended in blood, and the 
National Assembly having formally recognised 
Louis XVI. as king, Mme. de Genlis resolved to 
start for England with Mademoiselle. 

Doctors' orders, advising Princesse Adelaide to 
take the waters at Bath, served as pretext to 
obtain passports. But Mme. de Genlis' enemies 
heard of this plan of departure and tried to pre- 
vent it ; desiring thus, by separating the governess 
from her pupils, to annul the influence she had 
retained over their father. A petition was addressed 
to the Duke to which thousands of signatures were 
appended. 

"It is asserted, Monseigneur," ran this docu- 
ment, "that following the advice of the female 
governor you have given your children, you want 
to get them away from this kingdom and are 
sending them to Italy. ... If they did not know how 
to read, the National Assembly would decree and 
resolve that they should now be taught to do so. 
Does this ambitious and domineering woman seek 
to twist and identify all your thoughts and plans 
with her own ? Or has she merely wit, wild ideas, 
and principles which make her look at everything 
from her own point of view ? Ought the first 
Prince of the blood in France to be subjected still 
at seventeen years of age to frequent and ridi- 
culous punishments, and to the harshness and cap- 
rices of this woman ? The people are alarmed at 
this proposed journey ; and nowadays the people 



64 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

murmur, banish, and condemn promptly. It would 
be dangerous to identify your conduct in any way 
with that of our enemies. . . . Leave in our midst 
scions who are dear to us on account of the hope 
we cherish of seeing them animated by the same 
spirit, the same love of public welfare as yourself." 

The Duke, anxious before all things to spare 
his beloved daughter the dangers he saw increas- 
ing daily, assented to Mme. de Genlis' plan, and 
on October n, 1791, Mademoiselle started in 
company with her governess, Henriette de Sercey, 
and Pamela. But Mme. de Genlis, fearing with 
reason that "her departure might create a dis- 
agreeable sensation in the provinces," " especially 
as she had no man" with her "who could," if 
needful, " harangue the people and the munici- 
palities," communicated her fears to Potion, who 
offered to escort her to London. In a letter 
written by her from Bath to the Due d'Orle"ans, 
November 3, 1791, she explained how it was that 
Voidel also joined the party : 

" I had settled that Petion should go with us to 
London, and afterwards, having decided to set out all 
of a sudden, fancied he would not come, as we had 
arranged to start only on the 4th or 5th of this month. 
Then I thought of M. Voidel. M. de Sillery answered 
for him on condition that I should provide him with a 
carriage to Bath, send him back to London, and have 
him conveyed from Calais to Paris. This arrange- 
ment was made one evening, and being obliged to set 
out on the morrow, I wrote to Petion to tell him I 
was starting, that he need not come though I should 



ESCAPE TO ENGLAND 65 

be glad to have him. He took me at my word, and I 
not sorry to have two instead of one to help me 
through the terrible dangers I had to face. That was 
how it was I came to take them both. 

" lY-tion I left in London while we were changing 
h >rses and brought M. Voidel here. I sent him back 
to London in a chaise which Dufour paid for." l 

When Mile. d'Orleans arrived at Bath the season 
was nearly over ; but hotels and villas were still full 
of people. Always pleasing, with its bright houses 
dotted along the banks of the lazy Avon, encircled 
by pretty wooded hills, Bath was no longer the 
sort of common drawing-room of which Goldsmith 
spoke, but a great town " Londonised, crowded with 
buildings, immeasurably aggrandised." Mademoiselle 
nevertheless enjoyed the contrast which existed 
between Bath and Paris at that epoch. For " Bath, 
happy Bath," to quote Hannah Moore's words, was 
gay as though there were no wars, crimes, or 
sufferings in the world." Brilliant dramatic re- 
presentations took place every day. There were 
numerous entertainments, but manners were dis- 
solute, liaisons easy, debauch habitual. 

Mademoiselle, Henriette, Pamela, and Mme. de 
Genlis took no part in the gaieties of Bath because 
these were too costly. They had left Paris with only 
a hundred louis in their pockets, and not knowing 
when they would receive money they economised. 

As soon as the season was over, Mme. de Genlis, 
Mademoiselle, Henriette, and Pamela went to Bury 

1 Correspomlance df L.-Thilippc- Joseph (COrltans^ published by 
L. C. R. (2nd edition, 1801). 

B 



66 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

in the county of Suffolk. There they stayed quite 
safely for more than a year. Only money was want- 
ing. For economy's sake the princess had to content 
herself with frugal fare and a bed without coverings. 
That, besides, was quite in accordance with Mme. de 
Genlis' system of education, and she thus showed 
a sort of preference for her most illustrious pupil 
by accustoming her to shiver with cold, whilst she, 
herself, Henriette de Sercey who was only a niece 
Pamela who was . . . one knows not who, slept 
warmly on soft feather beds. But perhaps Victor 
Hugo, who is our authority for this, is not altogether 
to be believed. 

At Bury Mme. de Genlis was called Mme. 
Bruslart. Her manners gave offence, and she be- 
haved with the greatest foolishness. According to 
the whim of the moment she would introduce the 
persons around her and they were numerous enough 
as great nobles, artists, servants, or equals. 

It was said at Bury that the distress of Made- 
moiselle and her governess doubtless arose from the 
fresh difficulties produced by the regime of equality. 
As may well be imagined, it was nothing of the kind ; 
but the Due d'Orleans had sent no more money since 
the decree of October 9, 1792, confiscating the property 
of the dmigrds. He wanted his daughter and Mme. 
de Genlis to return to France, believing that after his 
long explanations and humiliation at the Hotel de 
Ville he could obtain a dispensation for Mademoiselle. 

The Due d'Orleans went to the Hotel de Ville and 
presented Manuel, the procureur syndic, with a petition 
which has since been published. In it he stated that 



S< tJOURN IN ENGLAND 67 

not wishing to leave his daughter in Paris without 
himself fearing that "his wife might return, take 
possession of her, and change her education " ; the 
girl's health having besides " been upset by the shocks 
caused by his differences with Mme. d'Orleans respect- 
ing her" ... he decided to send her to England with 
Mme. de Genlis. . . . But he had written to Mme. 
de Sillery and his daughter to come back . . . 
"their health alone had retarded their return up 
till then." 

Manuel refused to accept the petition unless the 
I )uc d'Orteans took another name, and with a dramatic 
gesture, pointing to the two statues of Liberty and 
Equality, he suggested the latter as godmother. The 
Duke, who had come to solicit for his daughter, was 
obliged, though not without repugnance, to accept 
this ludicrous name. 

Mme. de Genlis, who was frightened and, besides, 
in safety at Bury, declined to obey the order to re- 
turn. " I have just, cher ami" she wrote to the Due 
d'Orteans, " received your letter of the 4th in which 
you inform me that we must be in Paris by the first 
days of May ; that is to say, in a month's time. It is 
vry surprising to recall us at a moment when there 
are far more disturbances than when we left, and war 
as well either probable or declared. Potion, who 
writes by the same post, sends me word that it would 
be great folly to return at this moment ; as being in 
safety, I ought at least to wait until the end of the 
summer when everything will be cleared up. M. de 
Beaujolais gives his sister details of very alarming 
disturbances ; other letters which I have received 



68 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

confirm this ; the emperor's successor shows the 
same disposition as his father, it is inconceivable to 
send for us at this juncture." 1 

And she remained at Bury till the day when she 
learned of the arrival of the Due de Liancourt. 
Doubtless imagining that he had been sent by 
Philippe-Iigalite, she lost her head and fled without 
paying her numerous creditors who, on hearing of her 
precipitate departure, invaded the house she had just 
quitted. To " prevent alarm " she had left her niece, 
Henriette de Sercey, as hostage, and when the poor 
little thing found herself surrounded by people she 
had never seen, who having rummaged everywhere 
without finding anything spoke to her very angrily, 
she was so overwhelmed with terror that she went 
into violent hysterics. Thereupon Mme. de Genlis 
returned, bringing the money she had had much 
difficulty in borrowing. Having settled her creditors, 
she started off once more, taking with her the still 
terrified Henriette de Sercey. 

From Bury she went to London with her pupils, 
but only remained there a few days, preferring to 
accept Sheridan's invitation to stay with him at 
Isle worth. 

During Mme. de Genlis' sojourn under his roof, 
Sheridan fell in love with Pamela and asked for her 
hand. The girl attracted him on account of her great 
likeness to his wife who some time before her death 
had run away with Lord Edward Fitz-Gerald. 
Pamela agreed to marry Sheridan, but, it must be 

1 Correspondence de Louis- Philippe-Joseph tf Orleans, published by 
L. C. R. 



KKI I R.N TO PARIS 69 

owned, \\iihout enthusiasm, and as she could never 
quite make up her mind they were not really engaged. 
Shortly afterwards Fitz-Gerald met Pamela and fell 
in love with her for the same reason as Sheridan had 
done. He was unhesitatingly accepted. Thus the 
charming Irish patriot, who was to play a prominent 
part in the political troubles of his country, took from 
Sheridan, one after the other, the two women he had 
loved. 

The Due d'Orleans' orders reached the governess 
even in this retreat. They were so categoric that it 
was impossible to refuse to obey them. M. Maret 
(afterwards Due de Bassano) had been sent by the 
Due d'Orleans to bring Mademoiselle and Mme. de 
Genlis back to Paris. The latter tried, nevertheless, 
to evade the duke's commands, and it seems that the 
attempt at kidnapping mentioned in her Mtmoires 
the result of a plot hatched, according to her, by a 
group of tmigrts who wanted to place Adelaide in the 
hands of a foreign sovereign was merely a tale 
invented afterwards. However that may be, Made- 
moiselle did arrive in Paris with her governess, 
Henriette de Sercey, Pamela, and M. Maret in the 
first days of November 1792. 

11 1 went to see Mme. de Genlis at Bellechasse," 
wrote Barere, "two days after her arrival. I was 
astonished to find M. Gaudet there; but was told 
that he had been commissioned by M. de Sillery, who 
knew him, to ask the Convention to make an exception 
to the emigration decree in favour of Mme. de Genlis 
and Mile. d'Orleans, whose father was a member of 
the Assembly. M. Gaudet and I undertook to ask for 



70 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

this exemption after having each separately consulted 
the opinion of our colleagues." 

These proceedings occupied several days, and 
Mademoiselle " could only imperfectly enjoy the 
happiness of once more" seeing her father, her 
brother Beaujolais, her friends, and her mother, 
who was " much changed and frightfully weak " ; 
" for I am afraid," she says, " that we shall be obliged 
to leave them yet again." l It was, in fact, decided to 
postpone the demand for exemption and to wait until 
the public mind was pacified, and Mme. de Genlis 
was constrained to retire from Paris with Mile. 
d'Orleans. They set out for Belgium, M. de Sillery, 
the Due d'Orleans, and Cesar Ducrest accompanying 
them as far as the frontier. Mademoiselle was not to 
return to France until twenty-two years later. 

i Letter from Mile. d'Orleans to her brother Louis - Philippe at 
Tournay (November 20, 1792), published in the Intermddiaire des cher- 
cheurs et curieux^ July 20, 1897, by Comte Beugnot. In this letter 
Mademoiselle already interests herself in politics. She speaks of the 
" ci-devant roi" apropos of the iron safe, and as she states that nothing 
was found in it, " does not understand what that means," and suspects 
that there is " some treachery underneath." 



PART II 

EXILE 



CHAPTER I 

Arrival of Mile, d* Or leans at Tour nay The Republican 
armies Defection of Dumouriez The camp at Saint- 
.Imand The Due de Chartres obliges Mnte. de Genlis 
to take charge of his sister Front Saint-Amand to 
Mons Mademoiselle ill at Mons Departure for Switzer- 
land SchaffJiausen Zurich Zug Attempt upon Made- 
moiselle's life. 

THE " four Jacobin dmtgr&s" arrived at Tournay in 
the first days of December 1792. Namur had just 
been taken by assault, and the whole of Belgium was 
in the power of the French. The army, confident 
in its general-in-chief, had conquered, singing the 
patriotic hymn ; but ill-clothed and starving, the soldiers 
(who had forgotten their sufferings in the joy of 
victory), feeling incapable of a winter campaign, began 
to desert in large numbers, and the inactive officers 
lolled idly about the towns. 

Many "very alarming" revolts occurred amongst 
these undisciplined troops ; and Mademoiselle was 
taken ill one day after seeing two men killed under 
her windows. Mme. de Genlis nursed her devotedly 
" day and night." The loss of Pamela 1 the joyous 

1 Pamela (1777-1831) was, according to contemporaries, the daughter 

of Mme. de Genlis and the Due d'Orleans. She married Lord Edward 

Fitz-Gerald (1763-1798), younger son of the Duke of Leinster, at Tournay 

._. After the reverse of the Irish revolutionists, Fitz-Gerald (who 

73 



74 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

companion of her infancy, had depressed Mile. 
d'Orleans, who was nevertheless cheered by frequent 
visits from her brothers, Chartres and Montpensier, 
and by the presence of Mme. de Genlis' daughter, 
Mme. de Valence. Besides which all the French 
passing through Tournay came to sympathise with 
"this young princess " who, to quote Lamartine, was 
" endowed with noble grace, a precocious mind, and 
an energetic soul." 

It was at the period when Adelaide arrived at 
Tournay that Louis XVI. was brought to judgment. 
" Thinking solely of his duty," the first prince of the 
blood voted for the king's death. The Due de 
Chartres did not approve of Philippe-^galite's odious 
conduct, and " wrote a very hard letter to his father, 
who never forgave him." 1 Mademoiselle was dis- 
mayed, and she and Mme. de Genlis (whose husband 
had excused himself) centred all their hopes and 
affection upon the Due de Chartres. 

The execution of Louis XVI. provoked a storm 
of indignation throughout Europe. The secretary of 
the French legation at Rome was massacred, the 
Empress of Russia turned the French out of her 
dominions, and the French ambassador in London 

was their generalissimo) committed suicide. Pamela then took refuge 
with Mme. de Genlis at Hamburg, where she married again the 
American consul Pitcaris. Divorced in 1812, she returned to Paris and 
made herself notorious for her eccentricities at the Due de la Force's 
at Montauban. At fifty years of age, dressed as a shepherdess of the 
eighteenth century, she kept sheep. In 1830 Pamela tried to see Louis- 
Philippe, who refused to receive her. She died in 1831 in great poverty. 
^Journal de Mme. Elliott: "I remember the letter perfectly, for I 
had it in my possession for two days. The Duke burnt it in my room, 
the last time he came to see me." 



\\ITil DUMOUKIKZ 1 ARMY 75 

ived orders to leave Kngland within eight days. 
Then hostilities broke out afresh. On March 16 
Diimouric/ attacked the Austrians at Tirlemont and 
i".>ived them to fall back, but the next day he was 
beaten at Nerwinde. Danton and Lacroix, who 
knew and had perhaps approved of their general's 
plans, arrived at Louvain just as Dumouriez retreated 
vanquished into that town. They tried to make him 
realise the unfortunate consequences of a defeat. He 
put them off, and the same evening there took place 
at Ath that famous conference at which the Due de 
Chartres, Mack (the mandatory of the Prince de 
Cobourg), Dumouriez and his lieutenants, Montjoie 
and Valence, were present ; it was a sort of general 
staff of that constitutional monarchy which the re- 
bellious general dreamed of giving to France. Then, 
as if the better to demonstrate their attachment to the 
Orleans family, the conspirators repaired to Tournay 
to see Mile. Adelaide and Mme. de Genlis. The 
latter was "charmed," she said, "to see that cele- 
brated man, Dumouriez," and doubtless still more 
charmed to take part in a conspiracy, the happy 
issue of which would have meant the consummation 
of all her intrigues. 

During the two days the Ath confederates re- 
mained at Tournay, General Dumouriez gave Mile. 
d'Orleans " whose virtues and misfortunes made her 
interesting " proof " of the respectful interest she 
deserved," and, as she was afraid of falling into the 
hands of the Imperialists, he took her to Saint-Amand 
with Mme. de Genlis and Henriette de Sercey. 

At the camp of Saint-Amand, which was filled 



;6 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

with spies from the Convention, it was easy for Mme. 
de Genlis to gain an idea of the state of mind of the 
troops. She foresaw the check to Dumouriez' plans, 
and no longer thought of anything but how to join 
Lady Edward Fitz-Gerald in England. The en- 
treaties of the Due de Chartres, the supplications of 
her " dear Adele," above all the impossibility of getting 
horses delayed her. 

During this time the Convention, which had long 
hesitated, passed decrees against Dumouriez and his 
accomplices, and the Comite du Salut Public summoned 
to its bar not only the rebellious general but also the 
Due de Chartres. Four commissioners the austere 
Camus, 1 the barrister Lamarque, 2 Bancal, 3 Quinette 4 
and the Minister of War Beurnonville, were dele- 
gated to Saint-Amand. Dumouriez resolved to refuse 
obedience to the Convention, and eluded the affectionate 
counsels of his friend Beurnonville ; then, in face of 
the threats of Camus, he had the Conventionals 
arrested and placed as hostages with the Austrian 
general Clairfayt. " They came at midnight to tell 
me this strange news," wrote Mme. de Genlis, " which 
still further increased the extreme desire I had to 

1 Camus, born and died in Paris (1740-1804) ; he was exchanged in 
1795 f r Mme. Royale and became president of the Cinq-Cents. 

2 Lamarque (i7S3-i%39) became president of the Cinq-Cents in 1797 ; 
exiled in 1816, he returned to France in 1818 and lived in retirement 
until his death. 

3 Bancal des Essarts, born 1750 near to Montpellier; he remained 
two years and a half in captivity and died in 1826. 

4 Quinette, born at Soissons in 1762, died in 1821 at Brussels, whither 
he had retired in 1816, attainted by the law against the regicides. He 
was prefect of the Somme in 1800 and a peer of France during the Cent 
Jours. 



WITH DUMOURIEZ' ARMY 77 

start, hut I could ;;et no horses until ten o'clock next 
day, . . . Mademoiselle's position cut me to the heart, 
but as I was no longer her governess, I decided not 
to associate her either with my misery or my perils 
and to leave her in her brother's hands." 

Hut "everything pointed to a speedy revolt in 
the camp " ; the Due de Chartres was under sentence 
of arrest, and Mademoiselle long ago condemned to 
death for contumacy. Keep his sister with him, fly 
with her, or pass her through France, the young prince 
could not think of doing ; and the selfishness of which 
Mme. de Genlis gave proof, when mad with terror 
at the dangers which threatened her, did not fail to 
estrange the Due de Chartres from his chcre amie. 
He doubtless sought other means of placing Adelaide 

ifety, but finding none and time pressing, decided 
to confide her to her governess at whatever cost. 
Up to the last moment before starting the latter 
continued to meet the young prince's entreaties with 
an inflexible refusal. She had already said good-bye 
to her pupil and stepped into the carriage, when the 
Due de Chartres ran to his sister's room, where she 
lay in bed shivering with fever, threw some clothes 
over her, carried her down and placed her fainting 
and in tears on Mme. de Genlis' lap. The latter, 
disarmed and having no more time to lose, ordered 
the postillion to start. Such is Mme. de Genlis' 
own account in her Precis de ma conduite pendant 
la Resolution. 

" There were four of them in the berline : " 
Adelaide, Henriette de Sercey, Mme. de Sillery, and 
M. d<- Montjoie. The women's faces were hidden by 



78 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

great veils. Mademoiselle wept, cold as marble in 
her light muslin dress. After a two hours' drive 
they reached a village filled with volunteers, half a 
league from Valenciennes, where the carriage broke 
down, and the travellers had to wait in a low wine- 
shop for an hour while it was being repaired. When 
they started again, night had fallen and "the roads 
becoming worse and worse," they were " obliged, in 
spite of the excessive cold, to alight from the carriage." 
They had gone but a few leagues when suddenly 
they were stopped " by soldiers," who from afar had 
perceived the man with a lantern who was " guiding" 
them. Mme. de Genlis went straight to the officer 
in command of the little troop, spoke to him in 
English, laughed loudly, did a thousand silly things 
and contrived, one knows not how, to continue her 
way. 

Not far from Qu^vrain they were stopped again. 
This time by a patrol of the enemy. Mme. de Genlis 
insisted upon being taken before the governor of the 
town. The latter, thinking he recognised her as 
Mme. de Langsberg, Princess of Moravia, showed 
the prisoner a deference which addressed itself more 
to the great German lady than to the Citoyenne Brus- 
lart. Owing to this mistake the travellers obtained a 
good escort to the frontier. 

On reaching Mons outside France at last the 
fugitives only found a little inn in which to lodge, 
situated on the principal place, and full of people. 
They expected only to sleep there, but Mademoiselle, 
who was ill when they left Saint-Amand, coughed all 
night, the next day " measles were declared," and 



RETREA I TO S\VI r/I- KLAND 79 

som- days later Henrietta de Sercey was attacked 
also, which obliged Mme. de Genlis to remain at 
Mons for a longer time than she desired. 

The Due de Chartres, who had managed after a 
revolt to take refuge in the enemy's camp at Tournay, 
came to see his sister in the night of April 5. 

Mme. de Genlis busied herself with getting pass- 
ports from Mack, which allowed her to pass into 
Switzerland with M. de Montjoie and her two pupils. 
They quitted Mons April 13; the 2Oth they were at 
Wiesbaden. After Wiesbaden, to avoid the trenches 
of the French armies [at Cassel] they were obliged to 
follow an inconvenient road, and to circle round the 
Hessian camp for more than an hour. The situation 
was terrifying. They crossed devastated fields, aban- 
doned farms, villages in flames. The cannon thundered 
in the distance, and sometimes they heard the crackling 
of a fusilade. ... At length, after several days of 
tribulation, the travellers arrived "safe and sound" at 
Schaffhausen. The need of rest for Mile. d'Orl^ans 
made them "stay some time in that town," which to 
this day has still preserved its aspect of the Middle 
Ages, with its houses ornamented with bay-windows 
and its varicoloured frescoes. The great tower of 
Fort Munoth calls to mind the combats of other days, 
and beneath the gloomy arcades of the cathedral 
cloister one is quite surprised at meeting a peaceable 
pedestrian in place of an old-time bravo. 

The Due de Chartres soon joined his sister at 
SchafThausen ; by short stages and not without danger 
h< had traversed Germany in a cabriolet At Frank- 
fort he had read in the papers Marat's threatening 



8o ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

words to the Convention : "Set a price on the heads 
of the fugitive Bourbons. ... I have already de- 
manded the death of the d'Orle"ans, and now renew 
the motion ; " at the same time he saw an account of 
" a more than eight hours' seance," and how Barbaroux 
and Boyer-Fonfrede insisted upon Egalite and Sillery 
being guarded at sight. Lassource a friend of 
Roland's accusing Danton of being in connivance 
with Dumouriez, demanded the arrest of Philippe 
Joseph d'Orleans. This was refused at first but 
granted afterwards. 

Thus the pleasure of finding herself in safety with 
the Due de Chartres, after the dangers both had run 
and those they had escaped, was clouded for Made- 
moiselle by the sadness of learning that her father 
had just been arrested with all their relations who 
had been singled out by the vengeance of the Con- 
vention. The Duchesse d'Orleans alone appeared to 
have been forgotten ; but the Duchesse de Bourbon 
the Duke's sister, the Prince de Conti, his uncle, and 
lastly his son, the young Comte de Beaujolais, had 
been incarcerated at Abbaye on April 7. In the 
night of the 9th to loth they were transferred to Mar- 
seilles. A prison had been prepared at Notre Dame 
de la Garde, where the Due de Montpensier, who 
was serving in the Republican armies at Nice, had 
been ordered to join them. 

Mile. d'Orleans and her brother, accompanied by 
Mme. de Genlis and Henriette de Sercey, left Schaff- 
hausen May 6 ; they arrived at Zurich the same day, 
and took up their abode at the Hotel de l'Epe"e. 
This hotel, with its projecting storeys, its sharply 



STAY IN SWITZERLAND 81 

pointed gables, covered with varnished tiles, was situ- 
ated in the centre of the town, on a small place, 
ornamented by a pretty Renaissance fountain. Zurich 
not then the sumptuous city it has since become. 
Its streets were steep and narrow, its houses, as high 
as towers, confined by the old ramparts, were chiefly 
on the left bank of the Limmat, with its clear and 
rapid waters. Close to the lake several new edifices- 
corporation buildings for the most part had just been 
erected. These were in that heavy style known as the 
German Louis XV., and foreshadowed the massive 
buildings which in our days have invaded the town. 

Ott, the hotelkeeper, who was a magistrate of 
Zurich, received the Orleans family with deference. 
"Yesterday evening," he wrote to his wife at Baden 
on May 7, "a good many strangers French and 
Irish arrived. They came with thirteen horses. . . . 
Amongst them was the Due de Chartres. . . . There 
are, besides, three gentlemen, three women, and three 
servants. All dine at five o'clock, and have asked 
the price of everything. They want to stay here 
some days." * 

They had even counted upon settling down at 
Zurich, but "when they had to give their names to 
the magistrates the unfortunate appellation of Mile. 
d'Orluans and her brother put an end to this arrange- 
ment." They then decided to take refuge at Zug in 
the cant n of Argovie. 

At this epoch the mountain roads were rough and 
difficult, and Mademoiselle, who was barely convales- 

1 Unpublished letter, the original of which, in German, is to be found 
in the \Vasserkirche Library, Zurich. 

F 



82 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

cent, was greatly fatigued by the short journey. She 
cheered up, however, on perceiving, amongst the 
already budding nut-trees, the pleasant houses of 
Zug reflected in the lake. They lodged in a villa 
a little way out of the town. It was small, but light 
and bright, surrounded by a large meadow, and only 
separated from the lake by the road. Adelaide took 
to her usual occupations at Zug, going out but little, 
and then only to visit the poor or pray at the church. 
And perhaps she might have forgotten the sorrows of 
exile in a country, isolated seemingly from the rest of 
the world by a barrier of high mountains, if Zittum 
with its wooden cages and dreary prisons had not 
called to mind the fact that there, also, men actuated by 
hatred had made innocent victims. The hideous witch- 
craft trials, in the last of which thirty-seven victims 
had perished at the stake, were still a living memory. 
The exiles lived under an assumed name ; they 
were believed to be Irish, and thus hoped to remain 
undisturbed. One day, however, the Due de Chartres 
was recognised by some tmigrts who had seen him 
formerly at Versailles. Some hours later the whole 
of the little town of Zug knew who they were. Articles 
appeared in German newspapers, and the Senate at 
Berne reproached the authorities at Zug for giving 
shelter to the Prince and Princesse d'Orleans. The 
chief magistrate of the town was obliged to banish 
from his canton " persons who by their conduct were," 
he confessed, " an example to everybody." " He com- 
municated his decree with the greatest consideration," 
says Mme. de Genlis, contenting himself by inform- 
ing them of his embarrassment. 



STAY IN SWITZERLAND 83 

Driven from Zug, Mme. de Genlis and her pupils 
formed a " thousand romantic plans," and would 
doubtless have been obliged to carry one of them 
into effect, if General de Montesquiou-F^/.ensac, a 
deputy of the nobility in 1789, who, taking refuge in 
Switzerland, had rendered great services to the autho- 
rities at Geneva, had not obtained permission for 
Mile. d'Orlans and her companions in misfortune to 
enter the convent of Sainte-Claire at Bremgarten. 

The day before their departure from Zug, the 
princess nearly fell a victim to a cowardly attempt 
upon her life. It was ten o'clock in the evening, 
and, somewhat earlier than usual, she had just left 
the drawing-room, where she was accustomed to re- 
main every day after dinner reading until rather late. 
On leaving the room she had placed her hat on the 
knob of a chair near to an open window. Thus from 
outside it might have been thought that Adelaide 
was still seated in her usual place. She had scarcely 
left the room when a great stone was thrown through 
the window, breaking the glass, causing the hat to 
fall, and smashing to atoms a Japanese vase which 

at the back of the drawing-room. 

The Due de Chartres failed to catch the scoundrels, 
who were supposed to be French tmigrts ; and during 
the night the harness belonging to his horses was cut 
to bits. These incidents did not, however, retard the 
departure of the prince and princess and their suite. 

ihelemy, French ambassador in Switzerland, men- 
tioned their presence at Lucerne, where the Due de 
Chartres took a bath, and they arrived at Bremgarten 
towards the end of J une. 



CHAPTER II 

Mademoiselle s arrival at Bremgarten The convent of Sainte- 
Claire The Princess's occupations Letters to the Duke 
of Modena and the Princesse de Conti Mademoiselle 
leaves Bremgarten and separates from Mme. de Genii's 
She retires to Fribourg near to the Princesse de Conti, who 
tells her of the execution of Philippe- -galite'. 

WHEN the Due de Chartres arrived at Bremgarten 
with his sister, General de Montesquieu said to him : 

" There is nothing for it but for you to wander 
in the mountains, stopping nowhere for any length 
of time." 

Leaving his sister, whom he was not to see again 
for fifteen years, and accompanied only by his faith- 
ful servant Beaudoin, the young prince travelled all 
over Switzerland on foot, " not spending more than 
thirty sous a day for food, bed, and the satisfaction 
of all his other needs," according to Governor 
Morris. At last, " not possessing more than thirty 
francs in all the world," he went to M. de Montes- 
quiou, who, through the medium of Captain Jost 
de Saint-Georges, got him into the college of 
Reichnau, in the Grisons, as professor of mathe- 
matics at a salary of 1400 francs a year, under the 
name of Chabaud-Latour, an dmigrt, to whom the 
post had been promised and who did not come to 
take it up. 



THE PKINCKSS AT BlfiMGARTEN 85 

1 he Due de Chartres had left Mademoiselle 

against his will, and it was not without reluctance 

th.it he had again confided her to Mme. de Genlis' 

Urged by M. de Montesquieu, he decided 

lo so after assuring himself that under the cir- 
cumstances he could not find a safer retreat for his 
sister than a convent. The convent of Sainte- 
Claire was very well situated outside Bremgarten 
and in the midst of fields. " It was not like 
those then in existence in France." The nuns 
were not under severe rules, and spent the 
greater part of their day in reading, praying, or 
music. 

Mile. d'Orteans had taken the name of Mile. 
Stuart. She was believed to be an Irish orphan, 
and passed as Henriette de Sercey's sister and 
Mine, de Genlis' niece, the latter being called 
Mistress Lennox. 

Some time after her arrival at Bremgarten 
Mademoiselle was attacked by very violent dysentry 
from which she suffered for several months. It was 
during her convalescence that Egalite' and Sillery 
were executed. Mme. de Genlis fell ill in her turn 
under the pressure of grief which she could not 
show, but she managed so \vell that her pupil 
(who did not read the newspapers) was long in 
ignorance of the crimes of the Terror, and only 
learned of the death of her father after leaving 
Bremgarten. Mme. de Genlis, in fact, had reason 
to tear that any violent emotion, coupled with the 
constraint of not betraying herself, might for ever 
undermine Adelaide's health, for her naturally very 



86 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

acute nervous sensibility had been increased by the 
miseries of exile. 

During the first months of her sojourn at Brem- 
garten, Mademoiselle received a few visitors (Cesar 
Ducrest, M. de Jouy, &c.), but her illness and 
that of her governess kept callers away. Even M. 
de Montesquiou, whom Mme. de Genlis had pro- 
bably annoyed, came no more to the convent. Mile. 
d'Orlans was obliged to content herself solely with 
the companionship of the nuns who, however, were 
very good to her. Mme. Muller, the superior, spent 
long hours with the young girl whose painful 
position she had either guessed or knew about. 
Adelaide became friendly, too, with a novice of 
her own age, Antonia, the sister of a M. Conrad, 
a citizen of Bremgarten, who sent bouquets of rare 
flowers daily to Mademoiselle, which she amused 
herself by painting. 1 

Besides, Mme. de Genlis, who was always more 
or less of a pedagogue, would not have suffered 
her pupil to remain idle for a moment. Every 
morning Mademoiselle attended mass in the con- 
vent chapel ; three times a day she walked in 
the garden ; she spent three hours in painting, the 
harp took up the same amount of time, and she 
even learned to play the piano. One hour a day 
was devoted to writing real or imaginary letters. 
She was in correspondence with the Due de 

1 A great-grandson of this Conrad is still living at Bremgarten. His 
name is Fritz Conrad, and owns the Hotel des Trois Rois at Bremgarten. 
He showed us water-colours painted by Mile, de Sercey which were 
given to his great-grandfather by Mme. de Genlis. 



THE PKIXCKSS AT BREMGARTEN 87 

Chartres and Lady Edward Fitz-Gerald, and wrote 
letters to her father every day, which were not 
sent away. In the evening she sewed, knitted, 
embroidered, and did tapestry work. 

In spite of her occupations and the affection 
shown her, the princess's health remained uncertain. 
Imagine the position of this young girl separated 
from her eldest brother, having no news of the 
father whom she loved, and still believed to be in 
this world ; ignorant of the fate of her brothers 
Montpensier and Beaujolais, whom she knew to 
be imprisoned at Marseilles ; and away from a 
mother who though still free at Vernon had not 
answered one of her letters. Thus " Mademoiselle," 
wrote Mme. de Genlis, " whose gaiety was naturally 
exuberant, had lost this happy gift of nature ; but 
her character had changed without becoming em- 
bittered. Her melancholy was so gentle that it 
was less like sadness than the development of an 
extreme sensibility. . . . Neither complaint nor mur- 
mur ever escaped her lips. When she was troubled, 
she wept, kept silence, and prayed fervently to 
God. . . . Her piety, which was truly angelic, gave 
her true philosophy ! " 

Monetary troubles added to this sadness. Mme. 
de Genlis, who alone contributed to Mile. d'Orl&ms' 
maintenance, saw her resources diminishing, and it 
was doubtless she who prompted her pupil to ask 
for help from the Duke of Modena, the Due de 
Penthievre's brother-in-law. 1 In the letter she wrote 

1 Hercule Renaud d'Este, born 1727, was then 66. His sister, 
, married to the Due de Penthievre, was Adelaide's 



88 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

to her great-uncle, which is to be found in the 
Marquis de Piers' collection, Mademoiselle begins 
by giving all the details of her wandering life 
since the beginning of the Revolution ; " On arriv- 
ing in Switzerland," she continued, " I was ab- 
solutely helpless and penniless, hearing nothing 
from my Mother, to whom I have written several 
times to tell her of my position, living entirely at 
Mme. de Sillery's expense, who has had no other 
means of providing me with the necessaries of 
existence but by selling a work in manuscript. . . . 

". . . In this extremity, I apply to you, my 
dear Uncle, having the honour to belong to you, 
and as the person whom my Mother always re- 
garded as a father ; besides, I remember that some 
months ago a person remarked in my presence that 
my Mother had said she fervently desired that I 
might be in Italy with you, my dear Uncle. Had 
I had enough money to go there, I should have done 
so. What ought I to do ? Would you be kind 
enough to receive me? Would you give me 
shelter ? Would you consider it suitable for me 
to be in a convent in Italy ? I will do everything 
you wish. 

"But as I have been obliged to send all my 
servants back to France, it would be necessary, if 
you decide for me to go to Modena, that you 
should be kind enough to send a woman and 
servants to fetch me, money to pay for the journey, 
and also two hundred and fifty louis, out of which 

grandmother. His other sister, Fortunee-Marie, had married Louis- 
Frangois-Joseph de Bourbon Conti. 



THE rKINCKSS OF CONTI 89 

I awe Mine, de Sillery two hundred (which she 
has advanced for my keep), the other fifty I owe 
here in the town ; and the wherewithal, besides, 
to buy an out- fit in order that I may appear 
decently at your court, having the honour, my 
dear Uncle, to be so nearly related to you. If my 
dear Uncle desires me to remain here in my 
convent, I should not ask for so much. ... I venture 
to beg my dear Uncle to give me his advice and 
orders, and to help me out of a position which I 
have not deserved since on account of my age, 
sex, and the time I have spent in foreign countries 
I have in no way contributed to the misfortunes 
of the Revolution, from which I suffer, however, 
more than anybody." 

The Duke of Modena was a coward, and 
niggardly to boot, although very rich. He replied 
to his niece that " political reasons prevented him 
from receiving her," and sent her the meagre sum 
of a hundred and eighty louis. 

But the Due de Chartres who kept up a 
correspondence with his sister and had long been 

king the means of taking her away from Mme. 
dc Genlis, "about whom he had so much to com- 
plain " heard that his ^reut-aunt, the Princesse 
d< Cunti, was living at Fribourg. He knew the 
princess to be "very kind, extremely charitable, 
helpful, and <^ood-natured." l Confident, therefore, that 
she would not refuse to send for the daughter of 



1 Carmontelle painted her in 1768 in an elegant white 

Tim portrait is at Chantilly. "The Princess's goodness almost makes 
one forget her ugliness." (Gruyer, Lcs I'ortraits de CarmontdU.} 



90 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

her dear niece, the Duchesse cTOrleans, he made 
Mademoiselle write the following letter to her : 

" MY DEAR AUNT, For the last eleven months I 
have been in Switzerland, and for the last ten 
cloistered in a convent. On arriving in Switzerland 
I did not know that my Aunt was here, and wrote 
to my Mother (then at large) to inquire her com- 
mands. I gave four letters to my people (whom I 
sent back to France) for her, besides writing several 
times when favourable opportunities occurred ; but 
not one of her replies has reached me, and I have 
been vainly waiting and hoping for one for the 
last four months. At length, losing hope, I ap- 
pealed to the Duke of Modena as the only person 
in my family who could help me. After taking 
this step five months ago, I learned that my dear 
Aunt was in Switzerland. As I see absolutely 
nobody, I had been in ignorance of the fact till 
then. The Duke of Modena cannot receive me. 
When his reply arrived I was dangerously ill from 
the effects of measles and a languishing malady 
from which I have not yet quite recovered, so that 
I had not the honour of writing at once to my 
Aunt. Six weeks afterwards I begged M. Honeggre, 
a magistrate here, to be good enough to have my 
letter safely conveyed to Fribourg. I did not wish 
to trust it to the post, because I fancied that my 
Aunt was not living there under her own name, 
and did not know the one she had taken. M. 
Honeggre absolutely declined to undertake this 
commission without being able to give me a reason 



THE PRINCESS OF CONTI 91 

l'ir his refusal. Two months ago, M. Hoze, a 
famous doctor, came here whom I consulted about 
my health, asking him at the same time if he knew 
any one in Fribourg to whom he could send a letter 
that would be delivered to my Aunt. M. Hoze 
replied that he knew nobody at Fribourg, but 
would endeavour to find some one, and would under- 
take my commission ; that is why, my dear Aunt, 
tin application I take the liberty of making to-day 
has been so long deferred. . . . 

" . . . It will of course be a very great trouble to 
me to be separated from a person (Madame de Genlis) 
whom I have never left since infancy, who has taught 
me all I know, has made great sacrifices for me, and 
who during the last six months especially has be- 
stowed such care and attention upon me, and rendered 
me services to which I owe my life ... for a long 
while I have unhappily been prepared for this separa- 
tion. . . . It is, therefore, sincerely with the desire of 
obtaining this favour that I venture, my dear Aunt, to 
ask you earnestly to receive your unhappy niece! I 
am sixteen and a half. For two years and a half 
I have been out of France, I have neither enough 
knowledge nor experience to have an opinion upon 
affairs ; and not only have I never been talked to 
about them, but for two years I have not been allowed 
t< ) read any newspapers ; I only know that these are 
full of such cruel and impious things that it is im- 
possible for a young person to read them. Nothing 
can ever change the principles of religion and 
humanity which have been instilled into me from my 
cradle. If my Aunt deigns to receive me and give me 



92 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

the most honourable and loving shelter I can now 
have, she will find in me all the submission, respect, 
and affection of the tenderest daughter. I am con- 
vinced that in placing myself in her hands I am carry- 
ing out my Mother's wishes. And it is doubtless 
better for my Mother's safety that I am only writing 
this now that she is no longer at liberty ; for if I had 
gone at once to my Aunt while she was still free, 
it might have been supposed in France that I was 
acting upon her orders, and this might have implied 
a correspondence between herself and me which 
would have been accounted a crime to her. But this 
inconvenience unhappily no longer exists, since for 
several months she has not been at liberty, and I 
have been eleven months in Switzerland. I implore, 
my dear Aunt, kindly to take into consideration the 
fact, that if she does not deign to give me shelter, 
and Mme. de Genlis is obliged to go away, I 
absolutely do not know what is to become of me. It 
would be impossible to remain in the convent where 
I am without her ; besides which the air of this place 
does not suit me ; the convent garden is not a large 
one, the accommodation is dreadful, and I feel that I 
should succumb to my troubles if I were alone with 
a strange person. My eldest brother is only twenty ; 
his age and position prevent him from acting as my 
adviser or guardian ; and even if he could come and 
stay with M. de Montesquiou (as they seem to think) 
in a few months' time, I could not be in the same 
house, as M. de Montesquiou has young unmarried 
men living with him ; besides, I confess that living in 
Bremgarten, where I have gone through so much 



THE PRINCESS OF CONTI 93 

trouble, would be terrible without the person who has 
brought me up since infancy. ... I take the liberty 
of entering into all these details in order that my Aunt 
may thoroughly understand my position ; for the rest, 
I only want to do as she wishes. I ask her commands, 
and will carry them out, whatever they may be. I 
earnestly implore her to be kind enough to let me 
have them promptly, because Mme. de Genlis will 
probably be obliged to take a journey soon on her 
own business. I hope that my dear Aunt will excuse 
this long letter, and kindly receive the assurance of 
the respect and attachment of her unhappy niece, 

" ADELE D'ORLANS. 

"This 3rd April 1794, 
at Bremgarten." 



Ten days afterwards Mademoiselle received a 
n-ply "at once simple and touching" from her aunt. 
The Princesse de Conti gladly accepted the charge, 
but the difficulties she encountered with regard to the 
Kribourg magistrates caused the departure of her niece 
to be postponed for a month. 

The last weeks spent by Mademoiselle at Brem- 
garten were saddened by the real pain she felt at 
parting from her governess, and by the stupid in- 
terference of M. Diffenthaler, a magistrate of the 
town. Heing doubtless in communication with the 
DiK de Bourbon or the Prince de Conde, this 
istrate had received orders to watch over Mile. 
d ( )rl( ans for fear lest Mme. de Genlis should carry 
her off secretly. And Adelaide was subjected to such 
annoying surveillance that she was even deprived of 



94 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

the permission she had enjoyed up till then of walking 
in the country beyond the convent. She complained 
with so much firmness in several letters to M. 
Diffenthaler that she had already gained her point 
when Mme. de Pons Saint- Maurice arrived at the 
convent of Sainte-Claire, sent thither by the Princesse 
de Conti. This lady was very beautiful, and her 
graciousness softened a separation which Mademoiselle 
submitted to against her will. The Comtesse de 
Pons took Adelaide to a village not far from Con- 
stance, 1 where she stayed for two months, and then 
her aunt insisted upon her entering Fribourg by night 
and hiding herself in a convent. It seems that Mme. 
de Conti had had " great trouble in obtaining leave 
from the authorities to send for her niece, and was 
not altogether without anxiety respecting the per- 
mission she had obtained." 1 

On arriving at Fribourg, Mile. d'Orleans " knew 
hardly anything about the misfortunes of her family." 
She was not ignorant of the fact that " for some 
months" her mother had been "no longer free," but 
she knew nothing of the circumstances which pre- 
ceded her arrest. The Princesse de Conti told her 
that the Duchesse d'Orleans, having taken refuge first 
at Eu with the Due de Penthievre, then at Radepont, 
and afterwards at Anet the Chateau d'Anet now so 



1 Perhaps Mademoiselle was permitted to see a sort of community 
formed of religious e'migre'es whom the Comtesse de Pons Saint- Maurice 
who had had time to place funds abroad had gathered together at 
Constance where " she made them work at embroideries under discipline 
and provided for them." 

Cf. the Memoires de VAbbt L ; also Comtesse de Boigne, Memoires. 

2 Memoires de FAbbe L . 



EXECUTION 01 TIIK DUK1 95 

dreary, once so gay had subsequently settled at 
\ near Vernon. It was while there that the old 
duke heard of the death of Louis XVI., and, broken 
down by grief, expired gently on March 4, 1793, in 
the arms of his daughter, who was arrested some 
months afterwards and taken to the Luxembourg 
where at the time of Mademoiselle's arrival at Fri- 
bourg in the beginning of July 1794 she still was. 

Reassured as far as she could be with regard to 
hrr mother's fate, Mademoiselle inquired about her 
brothers, still prisoners at Marseilles with their Aunt 
Bourbon and the Prince de Conti. To the questions 
she put respecting the Due d'Orl&ins no one dared 
reply ; suspecting some misfortune, she insisted upon 
knowing the truth, and they were obliged to tell her 
that her father had been guillotined by those for 
whom he had sacrificed his fortune and his honour. 
I n her terrible sorrow Adelaide shed floods of tears ; 
then, after close questioning, obtained the details she 
wanted to hear the Duke's detention at Notre Dame 
de la Garde, his transfer to Fort Saint Jean, the 
terrible journey from Marseilles to Paris in company 
with commissioners of the Comite* de Surete* Ge*ne>ale; 
the insults of the populace at Aix, Orgon, and 
Auxerre; the outrages which awaited the Jacobin 
Prince in Paris, then the Conciergerie, the Revolu- 
tionary Tribunal - - presided over by the Marquis 
Antonelle (a former habitut* of the Palais Royal), and 
last of all the execution (November 6, 1794). 

Thus the Revolution, pitiless for all, did not dis- 
criminatr in the choice of its victims. The guillotine 
worked permanently. Ex-priests, magistrates, finan- 



96 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

ciers, were delivered to the executioner. Even the 
revolutionists were not spared. Petion, who had 
taken the journey to London, Potion, who loved Mme. 
de Genlis, had forestalled the scaffold, and his body 
was found in a field half devoured by dogs. And 
Barbaroux, Philippe Egalite's accuser? Executed at 
Bordeaux. Sillery, Duprat, Barnave, Vergniaud, 
with their Girondin friends, had been guillotined. And 
Danton, the Septembriseur, Danton the " Orleanist " ? 
Sacrificed also to the ambition of Robespierre, with 
Camille Desmoulins whom Mademoiselle d'Orleans had 
so often seen at Bellechasse. 

The greater number of those whom Adelaide had 
known were dead. Nobody, indeed, was sure of the 
morrow. 

" La guillotine la-bas^ 

Fait toujours merveilk. 
Le tranchant ne mollit pas. 

La loifrappe et veille" * 

Every evening " at the hour when the sun was 
leaving the city to its shadows at the hour of ruddy 
skies, with a clank of iron and the gallop of horses, 
the grand hecatomb surged on to the Place de la Re- 
volution. ..." And the carts succeeded one another 
more numerous every day. "The knife fell, and the 
earth could not absorb all the blood from the guillo- 
tine. And those who returned from the Place de la 
Revolution dragged two bloody soles through the 
town. . . ." 

A profound sadness took possession of Mademoi- 

1 There the guillotine still works wonders its keen edge is not 
blunted the law strikes and watches. 



I XECUTION OF PIIILI1 r.ALITK 07 

srllr. Strangers enemies almost surrounded IVT. 
There was no one about her who did not secretly 
hi, unc her father, no one who had a word of pity for 
him. That father who had cherished her, she must 
weep for in secret ; his name was odious to every- 
body ; all the crimes of a revolution of which he was 
neither author nor master but merely an instrument 
alternately employed and broken by it were imputed 
to him. To whom could Adelaide confide her dis- 
tress ? She turned to her whom she had always called 
sa chtre maman. Completely crushed, but grateful to 
Mme. de Genlis for having concealed her own grief for 
the sake of her pupil's health, she wrote the following 
letter to her : 

"Oh! ... darling friend, to what consummation 
of misfortunes has Heaven reduced me ! Alas ! . . . 
I know all. . . . Ah! what sorrows and what suffer- 
ings . . . my too unhappy heart experiences! How 
cruel life is! ... But my religion and my heart, 
beloved friend, order me to bear it for the sake of 
those I love ; my life belongs to others, not to myself, 
and I take care of it as a trust which they have con- 
fided to me. Alas ! it is only those dear ones whom 
I love so tenderly who can attach me to it. Oh ! my 
friend, do you think that those who are thoroughly 
unfortunate and do not kill themselves are with- 
out religion ? No, I cannot believe it ; without this 
all-powerful incentive who would not get rid of an 
existence become altogether too painful ? . . . And, 
thanks to the principles you have given me, do not be 
uneasy, very dear friend, God sustains your unfortunate 
Add.-, and ogives her a strength and courage truly 

G 



98 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

superhuman. My aunt shows me such feeling and 
tenderness that I am much touched, and softens as 
far as is possible by her excessive goodness my cruel 
and horrible position. Good-bye, fond and darling 
friend. I embrace you with all the tenderness of my 
unhappy heart. I cannot write you a longer letter 
to-day, it will be for the next time. Give me news 
of your dear self often ; alas ! I have more need of 
that every day ! . . ." 



CHAPTER III 

l^rincesse dc Contfs life at Fribourg MoJUmoMU is shut 
up in a convent She has difficulty in getting used to 
her aunfs ways Rupture of the relations between Mile. 
ins and Mme. de Genii s The Duchesse a" Orleans 
sends her daughter presents The French armies invade 
Switzerland Mademoiselle and tier aunt take refuge at 
Landshitt, near Presbourg. 

THE Princesse de Conti was known at Fribourg 
under the name of Comtesse de Friel. The Comtesse 
de Coursac, the Canon of Malta, the Chevalier de 
Ravenel, and the Comtesse des Roches formed her 
household. Everybody lived upon the subsidies sent 
by the Duke of Modena, who had made "a very 
advantageous bargain" with his sister. He had had 
all the jewels she possessed sent to him, and in return 
paid her an annuity of small importance. This annuity 
allowed the Princess, by the exercise of economy, to 
help the numerous Emigre's who had taken refuge in 
Fribourg, and were for the most part destitute of any 
means of subsistence. " True, there was no longer any 
smartness of dress ; the women had no ornaments 
but their virtue and cleanliness; dainty materials and 
laces had disappeared ; all clothing was strong and 
durable. The Princess herself had the courage to set 
an example for this reform, and wore a costume which 
had only cost thirty francs altogether." She enjoyed 



ioo ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

" no consideration" at Fribourg on account of "her 
title of Princess," but " was regarded in the same light 
as the other dmigrds" and " was amenable to the same 
regulations" . . . "they never spared her a visit, and 
were perpetually coming to inquire her age, as if they 
did not know it already, after having asked so many 
times." l 

As soon as Mademoiselle arrived at Fribourg she 
was shut up in the Couvent de la Visitation de la 
Chapelle au Bois. There she lived a very retired life, 
" having no acquaintances save those authorised by her 
venerable aunt." * Only with M. Babe, her confessor, 
could she speak freely. M. de Dax, President of 
the Parliament at Dijon, the Princess Louise's friend 
and adviser, and the "good" Bishop of Fribourg, 
had alone been allowed to see her. In order that 
the young girl's isolation might be greater still, the 
windows of her prison were decorated with purple and 
gold ; that is to say, " she was not excused one of the 
tiresome formalities which regulate the decorum of 
her high rank." * Mme. de Conti made sacrifices for 
her, giving her her own lady-in-waiting, and several 
femmes-de-chambre, and insisting that her niece's table 
should be better served than her own. 

All these precautions and this exaggerated atten- 
tion to etiquette prevented anybody from approaching 

1 The Abbe Lambert, who gives these details in his Mfrnoires, had 
been private chaplain to the Due de Penthievre. Since 1793 he had been 
charged by the Duchesse d'Orle"ans to negotiate a reconciliation between 
the members of the elder branch of the Bourbons and those of the 
younger branch. His memoirs are all the more interesting, as he only 
reported what he saw. Unfortunately all the part relating to the negotia- 
tions he had undertaken has not been published. 



Lll-K AT FkrebtJRG ioi 

Adelaide. It had l>een ^i veil out in Fribour^ th.it she 

;in enthusiastic Jacobin ; the Princesse de Conti 

d Irst the tmigrts might do her harm, and at 

the same time she herself mistrusted the opinions of 

Philippe Hyalite's daughter. 

Madame de Boigne recounts in her Mbnoires that 
Mademoiselle found herself "hounded by the perse- 
cutions of the Emigration" and "they wanted, in 
the form of a letter to the king, to wring from her 
a profession of faith, wherein she should deny her 
father and repudiate her brothers." Such a thing 
is incredible, for what value could be attached to a 
profession of political faith signed by a young girl 
of seventeen ? 

Mademoiselle, who, at Bellechasse, had been accus- 
tomed to the companionship, on terms of equality, of 
Mme. de Genlis' daughters and niece, bore the con- 
straint imposed upon her with difficulty. She suffered 
without complaining, however. But when the Superior 
of the Visitation, who filled the anomalous position of 
companion to her, wanted to give herself the airs of a 
governess, she was severely reprimanded. A princess, 
and obliged to submit to the annoyances of etiquette, 
Mile. d'Orlcans insisted upon being treated as a prin- 
cess, and "only recognised Mme. de Conti as having 
the ri^ht to her obedience." 

The Abbe Lambert was the "fourth person ad- 
mitted to the honour of presenting his respects. ... I 
recognised her," he wrote, " still more from the expres- 
sion of goodness with which her countenance glowed, 
than from the points of resemblance I found to her 
respected mother . . . and I attributed an air of 



102 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

embarrassment, which I noticed, to the presence of 
the Princesse de Conti, to whose ways I fancied she 
was not yet quite accustomed. A melancholy expres- 
sion lingering upon her visage indicated a heart still 
more suffering than her body. She also bore some 
traces of illness, but it was impossible to confound 
them with those left by deeply felt sorrows." 

The Princesse de Conti was nevertheless very 
kind. Whatever the weather, she went every even- 
ing to see Mile. d'Orleans, who, for her part, only 
wanted to become more intimate with her aunt. It 
was not that the princesses were hostile to each other : 
they were dissimilar. Like all the members of her 
family, the Duke of Modena's sister was very much 
attached to the old regime. Her prejudices were 
great, her knowledge small, her religion sincere but 
superstitious and exaggerated. Mademoiselle, on the 
contrary, bore the imprint of the virile education she 
had received. A wide instruction had made her clear 
sighted and thoughtful. She was pious in moderation, 
but, at that epoch, still frankly so. And though her 
father's death had cooled her revolutionary ardour, 
without realising the fact, perhaps, she remained at- 
tached to the liberal ideas in which her infancy had 
been cradled. Thus she continued to keep up a 
correspondence with Mme. de Genlis, which her in- 
dulgent aunt had not ventured to interrupt without 
having a good reason for doing so. The opportunity 
soon occurred. Mme. de Genlis sent her dear A dele 
a miniature " representing a white rose and a red rose 
on a blue ground ; the Princesse de Conti said that 
these were the three colours, and consequently a re- 



LIFE AT FRIBOURG 103 

volutin,iry rml)!rm." It was difficult to prove the con- 
trar\ ; M.ulnn. >iscllc assorted, however, "that there 
\\rn- live colours, is there were some little brown 
stalks and a green box "... but the Princess persisted 
in her interpretation of the gift, and forbade her niece 
to write to her former governess any more. Such 
at kast is the version given by Mme. de Genlis in 
her Mtmoires. She adds: " Mile. d'Orl&ms found 
means of obeying whilst still giving me news of her- 
self; she told her confessor about her trouble, and 
begged him to write to me on his own account ; this 
ecclesiastic did so for eighteen months ; I sent him 
letters which he passed on ; finally, however, he was 
obliged to go to Vienna. Mademoiselle wrote to 
him there, and our communications continued for six 
months ; but one day I received a letter from a person 
in Vienna, whom I did not know, telling me not to 
write to the priest any more as he had just died. I 
wept for him sincerely since I had no more news of 
Mile. cl'Orleans. . . ." 

On the morning of July 29, when Adelaide had 
been settled for two months in the Ursuline convent, 
the cry, "It is over; Robespierre is dead!" echoed 
as far as Switzerland, where the news of the opening 
of the prisons was received with joy. Mademoiselle 
was then able to correspond with the Duchesse 
d'Orleans, who had been transferred to Dr. Bel- 
h< mime's house. She was detained there, but enjoyed 
greater liberty than at the Luxembourg. The house 
was a refuge for prisoners who had interest. As long 
as they paid Dr. Belhomme kept them ; if their 

urces were exhausted he sent them back to an 



104 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

ordinary prison, where the revolutionary tribunal 
knew how to find them ; and this the Duchesse du 
Chatelet and M. de Gramont experienced to their 
cost. 

Mademoiselle wrote affectionate letters to her 
mother, and a M. Prevost was entrusted to carry 
them to Paris, where he was sent by the Abbe 
Lambert. He was not able to see the Duchesse 
d'Orle"ans, but, through the medium of Madame de 
la Noue, the latter had 180 louis, three gold rings, 
some hair, and three letters conveyed to him. 

The letter addressed to Mademoiselle x " under the 
guise and title of extracts from Mme. de Sevigne*, 
was worthy of that celebrated lady on account of the 
turns of expression and the warmth of the maternal 
sentiments it contained." 

The Abbe Lambert remitted 160 louis to M. 
de Montesquiou, who was providing for the Due 
d'Orleans, and went to take Mademoiselle from her 
mother, the Duchess, a wand encircled with a little 
gold plaque on which these words were engraved : 
" When will this bring you to me ? " 

It was the beginning of the year 1795, Mile. 
d'Orleans had already been living near to her aunt 
for a year. Mme. de Conti was so kind and indulgent, 
and Mademoiselle's conduct had been so filial, that 
"confidence had been established between them, and 
all the ease which the differences of age, character, 
and position rendered possible existed in their rela- 
tions. . . . Mademoiselle had won all hearts by her 
goodness. . . . Kindly and very good to every- 

1 The quotations on this page are from the Abbe Lambert. 



LIFE AT PRIBOURG 105 

body, sh< was particularly so to the persons who 
served her. . . . Every one in the nunnery lik-d 
In r ; the good spoken of her had gone beyond the 
convent walls, and all in Fribourg thought as well of 
her as did the nuns amongst whom she dwelt, and 
whom she edified by her example. The tmigrts 
themselves had forgotten their unjust prejudices and 
felt an interest in and an esteem for her. . . . Un- 
fortunately her health was still indifferent and fluctu- 
ating. . . ." 

M. Provost had brought back news with him from 
France as well as letters and presents. This news 
was satisfactory to the princesses. The nation seemed 
to have gone off its head and was hurrying towards 
a reaction, Paris was terrorised by a band of young 
men "in grey hats, green cravates, white stockings, 
and flowing garters." These were the jeunesse dorde 
of Fr^ron who had thrown Marat's bust into the 
stream. The Compagnies de J^sus and du Soleil 
were plundering, killing, and burning at Lyons, Aix, 
Tarascon, and Marseilles. Carrier had already been 
guillotined. Fouquier-Tinville, Hermann, Lanne, and 
thirteen of their accomplices were to be executed at 
the Place de Greve, and Billaud-Varenne and Collot 
d'Herbois were on their way to exile. 

The tmigrts rejoiced, believing that the end of 
their life of misery and privations was in sight ; 
everybody talked of returning to France ; the most 
audacious had already crossed the frontier. But 
S t->iTlct and Charette were defeated and arrested, 
ami the last of the Chouans dispersed after the 
rout at Ouiberun ; the Vendemiaire elections had 



io6 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

been favourable to the Directoire, and the rising of 
the 1 2th had been repressed by a general of twenty- 
eight, bearing with him the hope of the entire nation, 
that nation which in the words of Suleau " was to 
bend in silence under his iron rod." A wind of 
democratic folly blew through Europe. On August 
25, 1796, the inhabitants of Reggio, who bore 
the Este domination unwillingly, appealed to Bona- 
parte. The latter broke through the armistice con- 
cluded with the Duke of Modena, and with the Duchy 
and the neighbouring provinces formed the Cispadane 
Republic. 

At this period the Princesse de Conti, deprived of 
the pension which her brother allowed her, was in 
"the most alarming position." 1 The Abbe Lambert 
wrote to the Duchesse d'Orleans, who was " powerless 
to do anything," and went to see the Prince de Conti, 
a prisoner at Marseilles, and still more helpless. The 
Princess thereupon settled herself for economy's sake 
in the Ursuline convent with her niece, " whose health 
had somewhat improved." The Comtesse des Roches 
was in the confidence of both princesses ; " her age 
between the extreme youth of the one and the old 
age of the other fitted her to serve as a happy link 
between two persons made to love and esteem one 
another." 

When the Duke of Modena found himself safely in 
the emperor's dominions with the major portion of 
his wealth, though he had been obliged to give up ten 
million francs and many pictures and statues to the 
French, he had " his sister informed that he would 

1 Abbe Lambert. 



DEPARTURE I- ROM SWITZERLAND 107 

faithfully continue to keep the engagements lie had 
contraeted with her." Hut money troubles having 
disappeared, graver t 'Mi^ed the princesses to 

e Switzerland. For in spite of the outposts of 
safety with which that country had surrounded its 
frontiers, Switzerland seemed desirous of authorising 
the French armies to violate its neutrality. Besides 
the greater number of cantons had already got rid of 
the frnigrds. Bale, Lucerne, Zurich, S chaff hausen, les 
Grisons had recognised a democratic constitution, and 
Brune, having been able without fighting to penetrate 
the Vaud country, was marching upon Fribourg, whilst 
Schauenberg, having crossed the Rhine, threatened 
Soleure. Barthelemy, French Ambassador to Switzer- 
land, knew that Mademoiselle was with her aunt. 
"They told me," he wrote to his Government, "that 
Mme. de Conti had had Mile. d'Orl^ans taken away 
from that slut Mme. de Sillery." 

It was necessary to depart. So, by short stages, 
in an open carriage, concealing their names, the two 
princesses (separated from part of their suite) took 
refuge in Bavaria, where they received a favourable 
welcome from the Elector. 

Through a dreary, muddy plain they reached the 
marshy banks of the Isar, which encircles with its 
graceful curves the coquettish town of Landshut, 
whose red brick houses, surrounded by gardens, are 
dominated by the old castle of Trausnitz, a sort of 

^ed fortress, which the French armies had occu- 
pied two years previously. The two princesses settled 
in a district of the town called the Valley of the Blest. 
The Duke of Bavaria had assigned them an old build- 



io8 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

ing as residence, which was only separated from the 
monastery of Seligenthal " by the church to which it 
belonged." It had none of the magnificence its title 
of electoral apartment suggested. It was small, incon- 
venient, almost abandoned, and furnished merely with 
indifferent chairs and a few rickety tables. The 
Princesse de Conti was obliged to procure a complete 
set of furniture at her own expense, and to have some 
repairs done. Thus the lodging was made habitable, 
but there was only just room for the princesses, the 
Comtesse des Roches, and a small number of 
servants. 

" As at Fribourg," wrote the Abbe Lambert, who 
doubtless accompanied Mme. de Conti, "the table 
was served by trie community. The Princess prided 
herself upon the kind of magnificence which reigned 
there. Indeed, such is the difference in fertility and 
in the abundance and price of commodities between 
Bavaria and Switzerland, that at the same cost she 
found herself better off than she had yet been since 
leaving France. I know even, through Mme. des 
Roches, that in more than one way she was better off 
than in the times of her prosperity. Above all, she 
had better health and greater ease of mind." 

Mile. Adelaide d'Orleans remained two years in 
Bavaria ; she was then again obliged to fly before the 
invading French armies and, accompanied always by 
her aunt, to take refuge in a convent at Presburg in 
Hungary, until the day when she was able to join her 
mother in Spain. 



CHAPTER IV 

Tin I)HC tfOrl.-an* at Bretngarten His journey to Germany 
and the North of Europe Doings of the Orleanist faction 
Interview between the Due a* Orleans and Baron de Roll 
Negotiations between the Duchesse a* Orleans and the Direc- 
toire Government The Orleans Princes in America Their 
arrival in London They are reconciled to the elder branch. 

AT the period when Mile. d'Orl^ans left the convent 
of Sainte-Claire, her eldest brother was still at 
Reichnau in the Grisons. There he had learned of 
the death of his father. "This blow struck him pain- 
fully." But having become the head of the House of 
Orleans he sought to play his part. The essential 
thing for him was to leave Reichnau, and, thanks to 
Captain Jost de Saint - Georges, he succeeded in 
obtaining a passport in the name of Corby. 

Under this name he arrived at Bremgarten 
(January 2, 1794), which, for the sake of prudence, 
he entered by night. At the house of M. de 
Montesquieu he met the Comtesse de Flahaut, an 
old family friend. 

The Countess had kept up friendly relations with 
Gnuverneur Morris, at one time Ambassador of the 
United States to France, 1 whom the Duchesse 

1 Horn 1752 ; died 1815. A lawyer, then United States Minister in 

France-, lx had had some difficulties with the revolutionary (Government. 

>n suspicion, he left France in 1793 ant ' travelled in Europe for 

sever 

109 



no ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

d'Orleans had formerly welcomed with much kind- 
ness at the Palais Royal. Mme. de Flahaut put 
Morris au courant of the new Due d'Orleans' position ; 
" his whole ambition," she wrote, "is to go to 
America and there forget the grandeur and sufferings 
of his youth." 

Morris approved of this projected voyage and sent 
the money necessary for it. .Mme. de Flahaut ad- 
dressed him "a thousand thanks for his affectionate 
and consoling letter " ; then, to reassure him com- 
pletely as to the repentant sentiments of the former 
member of the Jacobin Club, she added : " Hamburg 
is full of people he does not want to see ; Mme. de 
Sillery is at Altona . . . there is also General Valence 
three hours' from Hamburg ... he has personal 
reasons for desiring never to meet these people 
again." 

The Due d'Orleans started some time afterwards 
for Germany, taking the Comtesse de Flahaut, 
Beaudoin, and M. de Montjoie with him. Every- 
body rejoiced at this departure, about which the 
Duchesse d'Orleans kept au coiirant by Morris- 
felt " inexpressibly happy." The Duke had agreed 
to everything so as to have the means of leav- 
ing Switzerland. Arriving at Hamburg he met 
Dumouriez doubtless amongst the persons he did 
not wish to see and . . . put off his departure for 
America. " To hide himself from everybody," or 
rather to be " ready for anything " and " near every- 
thing," he undertook a journey to the north of 
Europe, passed through Copenhagen, Elsenor, Goth- 
enberg, visited the Gulf of Salten, the Quastrom, and 



LOUIS-PHILIPPF AM) LOUIS XVIII 



i i i 



the fisheries of the Lofoden Isles. Then he crossed 
h Lapland, ran through Finland, and after 
bavin- stayed some weeks at Stockholm, took up his 
residence at Frederikstadt in Holstein. 

Politics had alone prevented the departure of the 
Due d'Orleans for America ; thus during his trip to 
the north of Europe he was not inactive. Mme. de 
Genlis, who knew her pupil well and did not hesitate 
to criticise his conduct, wrote of him at this epoch : 
" The Due d'Orldans has many partisans ; if people 
do not take care, he will get together a number of 
.persons who have taken part in the Revolution . . . 
for instance, all those forty thousand individuals who 
have bought, re-sold, or are still possessors of national 
property." Mme. de Genlis saw clearly. M. de 
Vauban notes: "The Orleanist faction is being 
stirred up in every way, and reinforced by everything 
that calls itself constitutional ; it acquires greater con- 
sistency day by day. The people who are most 
attached to the Bourbons even would allow them- 
selves to be won over to the Duke's party, since 
some of them although monarchists refuse their 
support to Puisaye, unless Monseigneur le Due 
d'Orl&ms goes and puts himself at the head of the 
royalist provinces, such is their ultimatum." Others 
went so far as to write: "The first Bourbon who 
puts himself at our head will become King." 2 

Louis XVIII.'s attempt to approach the Due 
d'Orleans under these circumstances was inopportune, 
to say the least of it, and not likely to prove successful. 

1 Letter dated from Hamburg, quoted by Mallet du I'.m 
1 D'Allonville, Mtmoircs Secrets. 



ii2 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

In 1795 the Comte de Provence who, since the death 
of his nephew the dauphin, had had himself pro- 
claimed King of France and Navarre being driven 
from Verona had gone to Riegel in the duchy of 
Baden, and placed himself at the head of Condi's 
army. From Riegel he sent Baron de Roll to his 
cousin the Due d'Orleans, " bearing a letter in his own 
handwriting, wherein it was stated that all that was 
necessary to secure pardon for regrettable mistakes 
and errors was for the Prince to express his sincere 
repentance to him, by word of mouth, when he should 
come and join the army of Condd" 

Baron de Roll's report, giving minute details of 
his interview with the Duke, remained amongst the 
papers of the Mare"chal de Castries, and was first 
published by the Temps, November 27, 1902. The 
Due d'Orle"ans had tried to keep out of the way at 
first, and Roll did not get to him till June 4. After 
energetic protestations of devotion, the Prince said to 
Roll : " The King talks about mistakes and errors, in 
the tone of a father or master, that is always the same 
language as the proclamation. . . . ' You were faith- 
less to the God of your fathers. . . . You were rebel- 
lious to the authority which had been established to 
govern you. . . . There are crimes the atrocity of 
which are beyond the bounds of clemency.' ... As 
to my joining Condi's army it is impossible. . . . 
That army is under the command of an Austrian 
general. ... So long as His Majesty has not made 
known his intention of giving France a limited mon- 
archy ... I shall look upon it as my duty not to 
participate in measures contrary to my principles and 



EXILE IN AMI- RICA 113 

opinions, which I never can or will sacrifice." The 
next day the Due d'Orle.ms "persisted in these 
in^s," adding that were he to take part in intrigues 
against his country, he should compromise his mother 
and brothers. And he would neither write nor send 
any one to the King. 

In face of this categorical refusal, the royalists took 

The infamous Due d'Orle*ans lives again 

in his son," writes the pamphleteer Puisaye ; and the 

Directoire Government grew uneasy and tried to 

remove the Due d'Orle*ans. 

The occasion was propitious. The Duchesse 
d'Orteans had left Dr. Belhomme's, September 1 3, 1 795, 
but her property was always sequestered and her sons, 
Montpensier and Beaujolais, still in prison at Marseilles, 
though she was always begging for them to be released. 
So a bargain was concluded ; the princes should be set 
at liberty, but must start immediately for America, 
preceded by their eldest brother. The Duchess made 
this arrangement known to Louis-Philippe : " Your 
country's interest and that of your relatives," she 
wrote, " requires you to put the barrier of the seas 
between us ; I am persuaded that you will not hesitate 
to give this proof of your attachment, especially when 
you know that your brothers, imprisoned at Marseilles, 
are starting for Philadelphia. . . . Reverses must have 
early made a man of my son ; he will not refuse his 

d mother the consolation of knowing that he is 
near to his brothers. . . . Let the prospect of soothing 
the ills of your poor mother, of making the position 
of your relatives less painful, and contributing to 
secure the tranquillity of your country ... let this 

H 



ii4 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

prospect excite your generosity and sustain your 
loyalty. . . . May I soon learn that my Charles and 
Antoine have embraced their elder brother. . . . Try 
to arrive at Philadelphia at the same time as they 
do, sooner if you can. The minister of France at 
Hamburg will facilitate your voyage." It was difficult 
for the Due d' Orleans to remain deaf to the Duchess's 
entreaties. " When my fond Mother receives this 
letter," he replied, " her orders will have been carried 
out, and I shall be on my way to America." 

The Due d'Orl&ms wrote at the same time to 
Morris : " I have just received a letter from my 
Mother, who orders me to undertake a voyage to 
your country, and informs me that this voyage will 
ameliorate her position and that of her family. 
Consequently I am starting in all haste." 

He embarked, in fact, on the America, September 
24, 1796, and arrived at Philadelphia, October 21, 
where his two brothers joined him, February 8, 1797. 
The Due de Montpensier wrote as follows to his 
sister, August 14: 

" I hope you received the letters we wrote to you 
from Pittsburgh nearly two months since ; we were 
then in the midst of a long journey which came to 
an end a fortnight ago. It lasted four months ; we 
have been a thousand leagues in that space of time, 
and always on the same horses, except for the last 
hundred leagues which we have covered partly by 
water, partly on foot, partly on hired horses, and 
partly in a stage coach. We saw a great many 
savages, and even stayed several days in their 
country ; they are, in general, the best natured people 



l.nriS-PHILIPPE IN AMERICA 115 

in the world, except when drunk or excited by anger. 
Th< us a wonderful welcome, and our b< 

French contributed greatly to this good reception, 
for they are very fond of our nation. The most 
intrrrsting sight we saw afterwards was the Niagara 
Falls, whither I told you we were going from Pitts- 
burgh ; it is the most imposing and majestic spectacle 
I have ever set eyes on. I made a sketch of the 
Falls, and hope to paint a water-colour which my 
dear little sister will certainly see at our fond mother's ; 
but it is not yet begun, and will take a good deal 
of time, as it is not by any means a small piece of 
work. 

" To give you an idea of the delights of travelling 
in this country, I must tell you, dear sister, that we 
spent fourteen nights in the woods devoured by all 
kinds of insects, often wet to the skin without being 
able to dry ourselves, and having nothing but bacon 
to eat. ... I could never, I declare, advise anybody 
to go on such a journey ; however, we are far from 
repenting having taken it, as we have all returned 
in excellent health and have naturally made some 
more acquaintances." 

Some months later the three brothers were at 
New Orleans. On March 31, 1798, they landed at 
Havana. The Spanish Government, an ally of the 
Directoire, wanted at first to drive them 1 away from 

ue dc Frobcrff, representative of the Dues d'Orldans who 
are in the island, has solicited help for them and permission to travel 
in the Kind's dominions in America. Hut His Majesty, on account of 
the statr of finances, has not been able to accede to the first demand, 
ni>! after due consideration to the second, and he has charged me to 
warn Your Excellency that he does not wish the said seigneurs to remain 



n6 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

the island ; then, afraid lest they should go and join 
their mother in Spain, kept them prisoners. In May 
1799 they managed to escape; but England declined 
to receive them, and towards the end of that year 
they were at New York. After the i8th Brumaire 
they embarked on the Grantham with England's 
permission, and reached London in January 1800. 
Bonaparte was all-powerful in France, and "accom- 
panied by the god of war and the god of fortune," 
was preparing the way for the Empire. It was to 
the Due d'Orle"ans' interest to get in touch with the 
members of the elder branch and propose a sort of 
alliance against the "usurper," and he did not miss 
this opportunity. As early as the month of February 
he obtained the interview he desired with the Comte 
d'Artois, and on the i6th he and his two brothers 
signed a letter in which they offered the " legitimate 
King" "the tribute of homage of their inviolable 
fidelity." 

The Comte de Provence responded graciously, 
and, as a token of forgiveness, decorated the Due 
de Montpensier and the Comte de Beaujolais with 
the order of the Saint Esprit, besides consenting to 
be godfather to the youngest son of Philippe-Egalite" 
(who, as yet, had only been privately baptized) on 
condition that his grandson was not called Joseph : 

in Havana, nor in any part of the Spanish possessions in the New 
World, except in Louisiana. I inform Your Excellency of this so that 
he may know the King's will and may carry it out. God keep Your 
Excellency many years. 

"Signed: MARIE ANNE Louis DE URQUIJO. 

"At ARANJUEZ, May 21, 1799." 

Quoted in L? Explication du roman de Montjoie. 



RECONCILIATION WITH LOUIS 117 

"You can call him Louis," IK- \\n>tr to his brother, 
" and any other naim: you consider suitable, but not 
Joseph, for th.it was their father's name, and it must 
not be found in this branch again." 

In the: fervour of reconciliation the Due d'Orle*ans 
agreed to join the English lleet and Condi's army 
at Minorca, though his desire to see his mother was 
afterwards put forward as a reason for this decision ; 
but he made no attempt to join her ; and it was not 
until eight years later that he went to see her, not 
from affection, but in order to obtain her necessary 
consent to his marriage. It was simply owing to a 
counter-order that he was able, in after years, to 
affirm that he had never borne arms against his 
country. He could not, however, destroy the letters 
he had written at this period. " If the unjust use 
of superior force succeeded in placing in fact, though 
not by right any other than our legitimate King on 
the throne of France, we should obey, with as much 
confidence as fidelity, the voice of honour which 
enjoins us to call with our last breath upon God, 
the French and our sword.^ 

" I am attached to the King of France, my senior 
and my sovereign, by all the oaths which can bind a 
man, by all the duties which can bind a prince. . . ." 

At the court of Sicily, where the Due d'Orleans 
soon went to seek his fortune, he will be seen giving 
still greater proof of his attachment to ideas which 
he had opposed in his youth, and which he again 
opposed, from interested motives, under the Resto- 
ration. 



CHAPTER V 

The Duchesse d Orleans exiled in Spain Saria Figuieres. 
Mile, d" Orleans joins her Mother The Duchesse d* Orleans 
and her " Chancel/or" The Abbe de Saint Far re The 
Princesse Adelaide leaves the Duchesse d* Orleans. Why? 

AFTER the coup d'ttat of Fructidor 18 the Directoire 
deported people in masses. " Not a drop of blood 
must be shed," the Deputy, Boulay de la Meuthe, 
had said to the Cinq-Cents ; " we must send away 
conspirators. Henceforth deportation will be the sole 
means of securing public safety ; and we shall thus 
get rid of priests and dmtgrds." Aristocrats were 
got rid of in the same manner. Thus the decree of 
September 6, 1797, drove the Citoyenne Egalite (the 
Duchesse d'Orleans) and her sister-in-law, the Citoy- 
enne Veritd (the Duchesse de Bourbon) out of 
France. They left Paris in the night of Fructidor 
28 (September 14), taking with them a number of 
servants and a few faithful followers Mmes. de la 
Tour du Pin and de Chastellux, Dr. Gueydan, and the 
Abbe de Kayser (the Duchesse d'Orleans' chaplain). 
The Directoire put four or five ramshackle berlines at 
the disposal of the exiles, wherein " they hastily piled 
so many packages and provisions that the attendants 
could scarcely find room for themselves." The 
journey was long and trying ; it took eighteen days 
to reach Perpignan. 



zz8 



THE DUCHESS IN SPAIN 119 

Rou/et, a member of the Conseil des Cinq-Cents, 

<xl to be allimrcl to ;iccompany the convoy. He 
had known the Duchesse d'Orleans at Dr. Belhomme's 
house, where accused of " moderantisme " he had 
been incarcerated during the Terror. The desired 
permission was refused ; but he had vowed a respect- 
ful cult to the widow of Philippe-6galit " an in- 
finitely tender feeling, wherein pity for the misfortunes 
of that noble woman had as much place as admiration 
for the smiling philosophy with which she bore them." 
He set off, nevertheless, stowing himself somehow 
amidst the baggage, and was only discovered at 
Uzerches famished and footsore, but more devoted 
than ever. 

The travellers reached the Pass of Perthus, in 
the Pyrenees, on Vend^miaire 13, and after remaining 
two months at Figuieres, settled at Saria, a quarter of 
a league from Barcelona. 

The house inhabited by the princesses was "old, 
full of rats and still more objectionable insects," says 
the Abbe Lambert. They had to pay 300x3 francs 
a year for it, though the property was not worth 
10,000 francs altogether. The Duchesse d'Orleans' 

rtment " comprised two little rooms, separated by 
a secret closet from her maid's room." The Abb 
Lambert's description of the furniture is worth quot- 
ing : 4< Her work and card table was a mere assem- 
blage of planks badly joined together by a coachman, 
who had turned carpenter from a desire to be useful. 
The dining-table was on movable legs, and could be 
folded up against the wall, so as to occupy no more 
than one or two feet Mme. la Duchesse de Bourbon 



120 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

had helped to construct the magnificent screen, com- 
posed of cardboard boxes strengthened with diverse 
pieces of wood and reeds, the colouring and ornamen- 
tation of which had been carried out by her. The 
chimney-piece was small and low ; it had been made 
narrower in accordance with French taste. Wicker 
chairs of the commonest description were ranged 
round the room. In the middle next to the cabinet 
was an arm-chair (also in wicker-work, but completely 
lined with morocco cushions) which, by sheer in- 
genuity, had been converted into a sofa. This was 
a present from their cousin, the King ; opposite to 
it stood a curtainless bed, and in the corner an antique 
table with gilt feet. A mirror hung against the wall 
between these old pieces of furniture and the French 
window, which opened on to the terrace at the side of 
the fire-place." 

During her stay at Saria the Duchesse d'Orleans 
often received news of her daughter. September 17, 
1799, the Empress of Russia wrote thus: " My 
dearest friend, I have just seen some one who lives 
in the same place as Mademoiselle, your daughter, 
and sees her frequently ; he does nothing but praise 
her. If only you could be near each other! What 
a consolation for you to have her in your arms, to 
weep with her and live together ! " l This consolation 
was soon granted to the Duchesse d'Orleans. Louis- 
Philippe, then at Twickenham with his brothers and 
reconciled to the Comte de Provence, succeeded in 
obtaining from foreign governments the authorisation 

1 Letter quoted by Delille, Journal de la vie de S.A.S. la Duchesse 
d 'Orleans. 



TIIK Pl'CHl'SS IN SPAIN 121 

which his mother .mil sister had long bt:< n 
And on November 29, 1802, Adelaide arrived at 
licrcs, where the Duchesse d'Orleans had been 
living since the month of April of the same year. 
" What joy for this fond mother to embrace her dear 
dan- hu-r ! " wrote Delille. " How happy she was to 

in her to her heart every day! . . . Mademoiselle 
possessed all the qualities calculated to soften Her 
Highness's position. She was remarkable for a care- 
fully cultivated mind, for infinite grace, and a great 
talent for playing the harp and painting." 

On arriving at the Ermitage (as the house was 
called) Adelaide found that a large establishment of 
twenty-one persons lived at her mother's expense. 
It was true that Rouzet, "the good Rouzet," who had 
assumed the title of chancellor to Her Serene High- 
ness, directed the Princess's household with zeal and 
economy. His devotion had in no wise decreased, 
but he behaved as if he were master of the house, and 
his influence over the Duchesse d'Orleans became 
-rcater every day. Thanks to the King of Spain 
less miserly with his titles than with his cash he had 
become Comte de Folmont, and "wore on his em- 
broidered satin coat the Maltese cross and the cordon 
of Saint Charles of Naples." 

Mademoiselle did not greatly enjoy being with a 
mother whose chancellor absorbed all her time, and 
in a small town where the diversions were the same 
every day, and consisted of much church-going, a few 
visits to the hospital, and a short walk under the 
galleries of the grand place. Sometimes during the 
fine season, however, they took a volland (hired 



122 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

carriage) and drove across the vast plain of Muga, 
planted with olives, to the little port of Rosas ; 
or else they climbed the mountain road, shaded by 
green oak-trees, to the Chateau de Bellegarde to view 
the land of France from afar. 

One evening a smart tartane (a two-wheeled car- 
riage with a white linen awning) drawn by a team 
of mules, their harness adorned with pompoms and 
bells, stopped at the Ermitage. An abbe was lolling 
back comfortably among the cushions. He wore a 
" puce - coloured cassock in fine cloth, fastened by 
diamond buttons, jabot and sleeves of lace, and shoes 
with gold buckles set with rubies." This was the 
Abbe de Saint Farre, the careless prodigal son of 
Mme. de Villemonble and half-uncle of the Princesse 
Adelaide. Bored at Garcia with his sister, the 
Duchesse de Bourbon (who gave him moral lectures), 
he had come hoping to find greater indulgence from 
the Duchesse d'Orle"ans, a little pocket-money, and 
freedom to divert himself as he liked. 

He was gladly welcomed, " lived in clover," shar- 
ing the Duchess's modest fare "soup, a piece of 
boiled beef, two entrees " and paid his footing with 
his high spirits, good humour, and sparkling wit. His 
niece did nothing but tease him, and far from being 
angry at this, when not away amusing himself at 
Barcelona, he would take the girl on the sea in a 
little boat he had bought for her. Saint Farre was 
at Figuieres when the Queen of Etruria and her son 
stopped there. The Queen had a saintly soul, but 
her appearance was vulgar. As to her son, he was so 
timid that he cried when he had to ride on horseback, 



DEPARTURE FROM SPAIN 123 

and turned taint at si^lit of a L^UII. Despoiled of 
IHT estates by Bonaparte, she was on her way to 
take possession of that chimerical kingdom of Oporto 
which Napoleon had promised, but never gave her. 

In February, 1808, a French army invaded Cata- 
lonia and occupied Figuieres. The princesses were 
not interfered with, but the soldiers lived on plunder 
and soon wore out the patience of the inhabitants, 
who rose against them on June 12, 1808. The French, 
n unawares, were obliged to fly before the rioters. 
They took refuge in Fort San-Fernando, whence they 
bombarded the town. The first bomb fell upon the 
Duchesse d'Orle"ans' house. The frightened prin- 
cesses hastily gathered some clothes together and 
prepared to leave the Ermitage, when the French 
troops, having made themselves masters of the town, 
came and occupied the cross roads. On the i3th 
Figuieres was again bombarded, and as it was im- 
possible to fly in broad daylight, they waited until 
nightfall ; but a detachment of soldiers surrounded 
the house, and they had to make up their minds to 
endure the fire of the I4th. On the evening of that 
day the cannonade ceased, and the way being clear, 
they started at nine o'clock. 

Their departure was both romantic and comical 
tragic also, for the least imprudence would have be- 
trayed the princesses. They had to take away as 
much linen as possible, provisions and souvenirs, so 
that their servitors brushed against the walls as they 
went out with the heavy burdens they were carrying 
on their shoulders. 

The Duchess decided to ask for shelter at the con- 



i2 4 ADELAIDE - ; OF ORLEANS 

vent of Villasacra, situated more than a league from 
the town. In order to get there they had to cross 
the Manolde, a torrent which was generally dried up 
in autumn, but in spring was full of swirling waters ; 
into this the fugitives plunged, the Duchess and her 
daughter being carried across, and after a painful 
climb they arrived at the convent. It was midnight. 
The Duchess, Mademoiselle, and their ladies were 
obliged to sleep on mattresses placed for them on 
the floor of the hall. 

The princesses stayed three weeks at the con- 
vent of Villasacra. Then, when all hope of returning 
to Figuieres was at an end, they set out for Terruel 
de Montgris. From there Mademoiselle took ship to 
join her brother at Malta. " This separation," wrote 
Delille, "although necessitated by circumstances, was 
very painful for Mademoiselle who, during the six 
years she had been with her mother, had given con- 
vincing proof of her affection and filial piety." 

Delille does not explain what the imperious cir- 
cumstances were which thus forced Mademoiselle 
d'Orleans to leave her mother. Perhaps monetary 
considerations impelled her to do so ; the Duchess 
indeed " had not received the moderate pension given 
her by the French Government since January 1808," 
and had had to have recourse to Rouzet, which made 
Mademoiselle's position rather delicate. It is, indeed, 
Rouzet 's presence near the Duchess which accounts in 
great measure for the Princesse Adelaide's departure. 
Certainly there had never been the least sympathy 
between mother and daughter. When, on arriving 
at Fribourg, Mademoiselle heard of her father's death 



DF.PARTITRF FROM SPAIN 125 

and of the terrible things which had happened during 
the Revolution, she had written letters to her mother 
full of an exaggerated remorse for her own wrong- 
doing in the past. She was then under the influence 
of her aunt; her great desire was to live with her 
mother, and she did not realise that the latter was 
so much attached to her chancellor. But, once at 
Figuieres, she quickly perceived that the affection 
which subsisted between Folmont and the Duchess 
was exclusive and tiresome. Added to which, Rouzet, 
with the jealousy of a man deeply in love, took a 
violent dislike to Princess Adelaide, whose presence 
she was then thirty-one years of age might be- 
come inconvenient, and who was not of a character to 
put up easily with the " strange proceedings of M. 
Folmont," according to the testimony of Mme. de 
Boigne. Indeed, the following letter, written in 1810 
by Louis-Philippe to Queen Caroline of Naples, ex- 
plains better than any commentary why Mademoiselle 
was obliged to leave her mother : 

" . . . I must, therefore, express very sincerely 
my profound gratitude for all the efforts you have 
made to restore my poor Mother to herself, and to 
revive the fondness for her children in which she 
gloried. If she would but examine her pretended 
grievances against her children, in good faith, she 
would see that these are reduced to the imaginary 
reproach of not having regard for him for whom they 
have done much more than my Mother should ever 
(for her own sake) have desired them to do ; and to 
the none the less imaginary reproach of having wel- 
comed, and treated well, those whom the incompati- 



126 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

bility of temperament of the said personage had driven 
from her, reducing her to a tte-a-tte, of which we are 
victims as well as herself ; for do not doubt, Madam, 
that she does suffer greatly in every way. . . ." l 

The Duchesse d'Orleans was only able to stay 
two months at Terruel de Montgris. She took refuge 
at Palamos with M. Taverne, captain of the port, 
then three months afterwards set out for Tarragona. 

A violent storm prevented her from landing at 
that town. New Year's Day, 1809, she was at 
Mahon, where Mademoiselle and the Due d'Orleans 
soon came to fetch her. 

1 This letter was published in the Intermediaire des chercheurs et 
curieux (January 10, 1902). 



CHAPTER VI 

'h nf the Due de Montpensier and the Comte de Beaujolais 
The Due <rOrli'-ans at Palermo His official betrothal to 
Marie Ann' lie Princess Adelaide meets her brother 
again Her affection for him Their intrigues They 
go to Mahon for their mother The Due d* Orleans' 
marriage The King and Queen of Naples The wr tu- 
bers of the Orleans family pester the English Government 
with demands for money The Due a" Orleans is driven 
from Spain The Duc t the Duchesse t and Mademoiselle 
a* Orleans conspire against Ferdinand IV. and Marie 
Caroline Exile of the. Queen of Naples. 

THE Orleans princes lived at Twickenham in a 
mansion which they rented from George Pococke, a 
Member of Parliament. Mme. de Boigne describes 
as follows the early part of their life in England : 
" All three having retired to a little house at Twicken- 
ham in the neighbourhood of London, lived there in 
the most modest and comfortable manner. Their 
friend, M. de Montjoie, composed their court, and 
fulfilled the function of gentleman of the chamber 
on the rare occasions when any form of etiquette 
was necessary. 

"In spite of my first dislike, I soon perceived that 
M. de Montpensier was as amiable as he was clever 
and distinguished. He was passionately fond of the 



128 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

arts and music, which the Due d'Orle"ans tolerated 
out of regard for his brother. Nothing could be more 
touching than the affection of these two princes for 
each other, and their devotion to M. de Beaujolais, 
who did not respond to their care. He was idle, 
flighty, and inconsistent, and when able to emancipate 
himself in London, plunged into all the scrapes possible 
to a young man of fashion. In spite of a charming 
face and distinguished appearance, he had got into 
such bad habits that he had lost the bearing of persons 
in good society, so that when one saw him coming out 
of the opera one avoided meeting him, lest he should 
be in a state of complete intoxication. 

"The Due de Montpensier was ugly, but per- 
fectly gracious and amiable ; his manners were so 
noble that his face was soon forgotten. The Due 
d'Orle"ans, who was handsome enough, had no dis- 
tinction either in figure or manners, and never seemed 
completely at his ease. His conversation, although 
very interesting, was a little pedantic for a man of 
his age. In short, he had not the good fortune to 
please me as much as his brother, with whom I should 
have greatly liked to talk more than I dared." 

The Due d'Orle"ans, who went a great deal into 
London society, became more and more English in 
his manner of living and even in his dress. 

The great subject of anxiety to the Prince was the 
health of his two brothers. During the course of their 
long detention in the prisons at Marseilles, the Due 
de Montpensier and the Comte de Beaujolais had, 
indeed, contracted the germs of the disease which was 
to prove fatal. In the beginning of 1807 tne 



DKPARTrRK FOR SICILY 129 

(1 ( )rlc ans took them to Christchurch, in the south of 
Kn^land, where the climate was warmer. The Due 
de Montpensier soon died there, and was buried in 
Westminster Abbey. The Comte de Beaujolais, to 
please his elder brother, consented to go to Malta. 
The heat there was so i^reat that Louis- Philippe wrote 
to Ferdinand IV., King of Naples, asking for per- 
mission to take his brother to the foot of Mount Etna 
in Sicily. When the reply came it was too late ; the 
Comte de Beaujolais had died, May 29, 1808. He 
was twenty-eight years old. 

Some weeks after the obsequies of his brother, 
to whom " the greatest honours were paid," Louis- 
Philippe, summoned by a fresh letter from Ferdinand 
IV., 1 went to the casino at Camastra, where the royal 
family of Naples was assembled. " The Queen," the 
Due d'Orl6ans related afterwards, " was waiting for 
me on the steps of the palace when I presented myself. 
She took me by the hand, and led me to her apart- 
ment. There, in the embrasure of a window, holding 
my head in her hands, she looked at me for a long 
while without speaking. ' I ought,' she said at length, 
' to detest you, for you have fought against us for a 
long time, and nevertheless I feel a liking for you.' ' 
After this she sent for the Princesses Isabelle and 
Marie Amlie, and presented them to the Due 
d'Orteans. " He is of ordinary height," Marie Amelie 
noted in her diary that same evening, " rather stout, 

1 The House of Naples had certainly thought of a marriage between 

Marie Amtlic and the Due d'Orldans. The placing of Marie Caroline's 

numerous children was not easy. Count Tedor Golowkin notes in his 

The Queen's liaison with a lover had prevented her eldest 

daughter from marrying the Due d'Aoste." 

I 



130 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

neither handsome nor ugly in appearance. He has 
the features of the House of Bourbon. He is polite 
and very well educated." 

Being a clever man, the Due d'Orl^ans professed 
very legitimist sentiments at the court of Palermo, and, 
after having officially concluded his betrothal with 
Marie Amdie, went so far as to agree to "act as 
mentor " to the Prince of Salerne, his future brother- 
in-law, whom Ferdinand IV. was sending to Spain to 
exercise the regency over that kingdom, after the en- 
forced retirement of Ferdinand VII. Once in Spain, 
the Duke counted upon tl inducing Murat and Junot to 
betray the Empire, and proposed to cross the Pyrenees 
and march upon Paris in the name of Louis XVIII.," 1 
but the junta of Seville, yielding to pressure from 
England, interdicted Spanish territory to the two 
princes. The Due d'Orleans then set out for London 
and tried to get this prohibition withdrawn, but in 
vain. 

While Louis-Philippe was in England, his sister, 
Mademoiselle Adelaide, had gone to meet him first at 
Malta, then at Gibraltar ; it was only at Portsmouth 
that she caught him up. 

One can imagine how delighted the brother and 
sister were to meet again. It was fifteen years since 
they had seen each other. They swore never to leave 
one another again, and, indeed, from this time forward 
Princess Adelaide gave herself up to her brother. 
She manifested a disinterested, ardent, and almost 
maternal affection for him ; shared his joys, sorrows, 
and dangers ; identified her ideas with his ; often 

1 Fauche Bore), Memoires, 



DEPARTURE FOR SICILY 131 

directed and always assisted him, and lived in his 
home in complete abnegation and forgetfulness of 
self. 

At Portsmouth the brother and sister embarked 
on the English man-of-war for Sicily. Leaving 
Spithead, October 15, they arrived at Gibraltar, 
December 20. Thence they went to Malta. The 
Due d'Orle"ans busied himself with keeping up intrigues 
in Spain, which were intended to impress the insur- 
rectional regency with the importance of his inter- 
vention. And he was always actuated by the desire 
of being the first Bourbon to re-enter France. But a 
more pressing affair called him to Sicily. A number 
of persons at the court of Palermo had banded them- 
selves together with the object of preventing the Duke's 
marriage to Marie Ame*lie. Fabrizio Ruffo, Prince de 
Castelcicala, Ferdinand IV.'s Ambassador in London, 
and the Marquis de Circello, who knew "the bound- 
less ambition of the Duke," were at the head of this 
coterie. 

Leaving his sister at Malta with Mme. de Mont- 
joie, therefore, Louis-Philippe started for Sicily. He 
landed at Girgenta and went on horseback as far as 
Palermo. A few days sufficed to dissipate the pre- 
judices against him. 

From Palermo the Duke embarked for Cagliari, 
where he counted upon meeting his mother, but the 
Duchess had left Sardinia three months previously and 
settled at Mahon ; all the same her son stayed 
some time at Cagliari, where they were busily getting 
troops together against France. "There are, "wrote the 
Duke at this epoch, " French armies in Spain, Naples, 



132 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

and Dalmatia which are likely to find themselves in 
disastrous positions at least I hope so. That will be 
the time to appeal to men's passions." The first thing 
was to induce the vanquished generals to become 
traitors, the next to rouse all the royalists in the south 
of France. 

But Eckmlihl, Essling, and Wagram shattered the 
Prince's illusions. He returned to Palermo, where he 
was joined by his sister. Leaving Malta, September 
i, 1809, on the Py lades, she had the delight of seeing 
the whole panorama of the Conque d'Or slowly unfold 
before her eyes on the morning of the 3rd, as Palermo 
appeared in all the gracious radiance of its white 
houses emerging from the mists. She set foot on the 
Place de I'^glise de la Catena, which recalled the loggia 
at Florence, was received with much deference at the 
royal palace, and soon became "my good, my dear 
Adele" to the Princesse Am6lie, who thus traces in 
her diary the portrait of her future sister-in-law : 
11 She is my height and very delicate; has a broad 
face, a large mouth, great eyes, and beautiful fair hair ; 
she appears to me very amiable, has plenty of wit and 
pleases me greatly." 

After spending a few days only in Sicily, Made- 
moiselle started for Mahon in company with her 
brother. There they met the Duchesse d'Orle"ans, 
who had been informed of their approaching arrival. 
" What rejoicing for so fond a mother! What tears 
of gladness she shed on seeing her only son again ! 
The tenderest caresses were bestowed upon her two 
children," wrote Delille sanctimoniously, feigning to 
ignore the fact that the sole object of this journey was 



MARRIAGE OF LOUIS-PHILIPPE 133 



to briii^ tin- Duchesse d'Orleans to Palermo, wl 
her presence was required by Marie Caroline. 

Tin; Princess, who till then had ; d her child- 

ren's entreaties, allowed herself to be won over on 
condition that the K'mg consented to the projected 
marriage of the first prince of the blood. The Due 
d ( Means acquiesced in his mother's desire. He wrote 
to Louis XVIII., and addressed a packet to the 
Comte d'Artois containing letters from the Duchesse 
d'Orl&ins to the Queen, Monsieur, Madame d'Angou- 
leme and the Comte de Provence, who sent his 
authorisation. 

Louis-Philippe hastened to share his delight with 
his friends and wrote to M. de Guilhermy : "Follow- 
ing your advice I am going to marry her whom you 
wished me to marry, and if I were all I am not, and 
the times were everything they are not, it would be 
difficult for me to make a better match in every 

>ect. What an advantage this marriage will be to 
me ! and what a blow to prejudices! It means that I 
shall be in closer touch with my family as well as with 
the House of Austria! What an excellent thing for 
me to marry a Bourbon, and probably (at least I think 
so) to have children ! " 

The Duchesse d'Orleans embarked on board the 
Knglish frigate Resistance, and arrived at Palermo, 
October 15. She took up her residence at the Palace 
5 mta-Croce in the middle of the town on the way 
to Montreal. She received the most gracious welcome 
from Marie Caroline, and begged the Queen to re- 
member that in 1776 her Majesty had had the kindness 
to say to her " that the first daughter God should give 



i 3 4 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

her should be the wife of her eldest son, the Due de 
Valois." Marie Caroline remembered very well having 
formerly expressed this desire, and urged by " that 
angel," the Duchesse d'Orleans, she set to work to 
make the arrangements for the wedding ceremony. 

The contract was signed November 15, " the 
letters from the King of France, dated from Hartwell, 
being included." But Ferdinand IV. having fallen 
down the palace staircase, the marriage could not be 
celebrated before November 25. Mgr. Monarchia 
united the happy pair in the chamber of the " august 
invalid," where a temporary altar had been placed. 
Then they went down to the Palatine Chapel, which 
was only twenty-six metres in length, but so arranged 
that it looked like a great church, and combined the 
beauties of Moorish, Byzantine, and Roman art. 

The King and Queen of Naples, " in order to 
avoid the bickerings which are never wanting, at court 
as elsewhere, between households too closely asso- 
ciated, assigned the Santa Teresa Palace to their 
daughter and son-in-law. But this palace was old, fall- 
ing to pieces, uninhabitable. While waiting for it to 
be restored the Duke and the new Duchess settled in 
a separate apartment of the royal palace. Instead of 
going to live with her mother at Santa Croce, Adelaide 
remained near her brother. The relations between 
the sisters-in-law became every day more affectionate ; 
Mademoiselle's cult for the Due d'Orleans was, besides, 
not likely to displease the young wife, who had sur- 
rounded herself by French people, and taken the 
Comtesse de Verac as lady-in-waiting. Her long 
sojourn with Mme. de Genlis had embued Princesse 



MARRIAGE OF LOUIS-PHILIPPE 135 

Adelaide with u love of instructing others, and she 
forthwith set to work to teach Marie Amclie French, 
a language the latter did not understand before her 
marriage. The Due d'( )rKans cultivated his garden, 
and received a great many people. Among these was 
M. de Montron, an bnigrt who had been driven from 
France by the imperial police. He amused Palermo 
as he had entertained Paris, enlivening the long idle 
evenings in the Colli Palace by the charm of his 
conversation. 

But the inhabitants of the palace itself did not 
escape the espionage which hung over everybody in 
Palermo, for Catrone, the chief of police, aided by the 
" Queen Mary rifle corps," as the Queen's bravoes 
were styled, spared nobody. The King of Naples, 
Ferdinand IV., was, however, a good man, "intelli- 
gent, clever, good-natured, but weak, inconsiderate, 
and careless" ; he only looked after the affairs of the 
kingdom against his will, and would have liked to 
live simply in the country. " My wife knows every- 
thing," he was wont to repeat, and abandoned the 
government to her. Marie Caroline's chief supporters 
were lawless French and Neapolitans, who took 
advantage of the Queen's "innumerable vices." 1 

Tall, well educated, but haughty and proud, Marie 
Caroline had "an eminently Austrian cast of counte- 
nance, but much less agreeable than that of her 
sisters," says Count Golovkine ; besides she had aged, 
and with her wrinkled face looked like a " witch " ; 
" intoxicated with opium, covered with the blood of 

1 Gagnidres, La Reine Marie Caroline de Naples. Quotations from 

ihc diary of Lord Anncslcy (British Museum, manuscript 19,246). 



136 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

her subjects, she had fallen into all sorts of disorderly 
ways." " Her lovers Saint Clair and the stiff and 
ugly Afflito ; her fanatical partisans, the Chevalier de 
Bressac, a bandit, Marialese, a forger went about 
covered with jewels, watches, chains, and fandangles." 
The Government of Naples was in great distress. 
"The Due d'Orleans," as the Duke of Kent wrote, 
" has made a very bad bargain." And all the members 
of his family, usually so little disinterested, were taken 
aback. They assailed the English Government with 
their petitions, wrote to the Duke of Kent, the Duke 
of Portland, and to all their friends demanding money 
"again and again." The fact was that since the 
beginning of the year 1808 the French Government 
had not paid Adelaide's mother her pension, and that 
she herself had received nothing from the English 
Foreign Office since leaving Malta. The position of 
the Due d'Orle"ans was no better : he had not received 
his allowance since his departure from England. So 
he wrote daily, soliciting, begging, imploring. " My 
Mother is ill," said he, "she owes money, send her 
her allowance in whatever part of the Mediterranean 
she may be. ... Another object which I have more at 
heart than my Mother is what concerns my sister. . . ." 
And he asked for the Princesse Adelaide, "of the 
goodness of the King of England and his Govern- 
ment," the two hundred francs a month formerly 
given to Beaujolais, " that sum being the same as 
Lord Castlereagh had ordered Sir Alex. Bell to remit 
every month" to his sister at Malta. In April 1810, 
he wrote to the Duke of Kent to obtain " some sort of 
help, and that immediate" for the Dowager- Duchess 



LOUIS-IMIIUIM'K IN SPAIN 137 

and lor Madenn >isclle ; and the latter wrote to Guil- 
hrrmy, October 22, 1810: "I hear from my brother 
th.it my allowance is granted ; but the order for me to 

receive it has not yet come. This delay is awkward 

You can understand my anxiety.'* And in her letters 
the Due de Penthievre's daughter complains of the 
" excessive cost of living." 

But lo ! and behold, in the midst of this dissolute 
court, amid depression and monetary embarrassments, 
threat news arrived. Louis-Philippe's intrigues had 
succeeded, and the Spanish regency had just offered 
him a command in Catalonia. He started at once on 
the frigate Vengenza bound for Tarragona, leaving 
his poor wife "very sad and low," 1 but glad to see 
him get out of the " dormitory " at last. Mademoiselle 
rejoiced at her brother's departure : Spain, where the 
French armies were engaged, was near to France, 
and a check to Napoleon might be expected at 
any moment. Queen Marie Caroline, who perhaps 
already found her son-in-law in the way, was doubly 
glad. " Go to glory," said she, " you deserve it, save 
and cure Europe." The Duke started, spirits were 
at Palermo, where they already imagined him 
back covered with laurels. "His portrait in 
the uniform of a Spanish general, wearing the Saint- 
Esprit," the old French decoration, had been engraved 
in London for propaganda purposes. 

Louis - Philippe left Sicily bearing with him 

another hope. " My wife has now been enceinte 

for five months," he wrote to M. de Guilhermy. 

. . The greater number of persons who pretend 

1 Letter from the Due d'Orlcans to Guilhermy. 



138 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

to understand these things predict a boy ; Cosisia ! I 
will take what comes willingly. ... I have the prin- 
cipal thing, I am married, my wife is enceinte, and the 
child moves a good deal, Alleluia ! " 

Yes ! Alleluia ! if it were a boy ! for Marie AmeUie, 
inspired by her "dear Adele," already shared the 
family ambition, and wrote to her husband, July 
1810: "Here everybody calculates that your son 
will be heir-presumptive to the kingdom of France." 

What results did they not expect at Palermo from 
this Spanish campaign " amongst a foreign people, 
overwhelmed with reverses ! " The 'Emigre's were 
disappointed, especially the little group gathered in 
London under the name of the " Manchester republic." 
The sister and wife of Louis-Philippe were exultant. 
There was only one black spot the fear lest the Due 
d'Angouleme or the Due de Berry should forestall 
their cousin. But the intrigues of the elder branch 
proved abortive : they breathed freely at Palermo, the 
Duke was " full of hope, of well-founded hope." 1 

Every one in Spain, however, was prejudiced 
against the Due d'Orl^ans. He was obliged to leave 
Tarragona without taking up the promised command, 
and the Cortes requested him to leave Cadiz, whither 
he had retired. He tried to resist, not wishing to 
return to Sicily unless "absolutely obliged" to do 
so ; but they threatened him with arrest, and he 
had to embark, October 5, 1810, on the frigate 
Esmeralda bound for Palermo. 

He brought no laurels back with him, having 
been again foiled by a force superior to his own. His 

1 Broval to Guilhermy. 



Kl-lUKN TO SICILY 139 

.iiul sisirr were broken-hearted. "'1 uson 

is return/ 1 wrote Adelaide to Guilhermy, "gives 
me more pain than I can expn 

The time for action had not yet arrived. How 
many blows had missed their aim already since the 
defection of Dumouriez ! No matter ! He must in- 
trigue again, intrigue always, be skilful, manoeuvring, 
Haltering, compliant, and the Due d'Orl&ms was a 
past-master in these things ; besides, had he not a 
valuable auxiliary in Princesse Adelaide, who "loved 
her brother more for his own sake than for hers" ? 

On arriving in Sicily, 1 the Due d'Orl&ms was at 
first obliged by the English at that time all-powerful 
in the country to live as a private individual. He 
could not resign himself to this, and besought 
Wellington to employ him "on the frontier of 
B^arn, in raising a body of troops destined to 
penetrate the fatherland of his ancestor, the great 
Henri IV." Having failed in this scheme, he put 
himself at the head of the Sicilian opposition ; his 
Villa Bagheria, situated outside the walls, became 
what the Palais Royal in Paris was later on the 
meeting-place of all those who were discontented with 
court politics. Princesse Adelaide and Marie Amelie 
elf seconded him unhesitatingly. 

1 He landed at Palermo, October 21, 1810. Marie Amdlie presented 
him with the Due de Chartres, "who is lovely, very like his father," and 
will one day, perhaps, be "heir-presumptive to the throne of France." 

In January 181 1, M. de Folmont, whose influence over the Dowager- 
Duchess of Orldans was paramount, contrived to embitter the little dis- 
cussions about business matters which arose between herself and her 
children so as to bring about an open rupture. People were one day 
surprised to learn that, without informal}; any one of her intentions, 
without thanking or taking leave of her hosts, she had taken ship to 
return to Mahon. 






140 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

Laying aside all amour-propre^ the Duke sought 
the support of England and her ambassadors Lord 
Amherst first, Lord William Bentinck afterwards. 
Cleverer at taking advantage of events than at pro- 
voking them, he avoided engaging himself entirely ; 
managed all parties, and never neglected his personal 
interests. Marie Caroline treated him with suspicion, 
and did not hide, even from her daughter, the aversion 
with which her son-in-law inspired her ; whilst, by the 
king's order, he was retired from the post of captain- 
general of the Sicilian army, which he had held since 
his marriage. One day even, the Princes de Bel- 
monte and de Villafranca, Angio, and Castelnuovo 
all habitue's of the Villa Bagheria having been 
arrested, the Due d' Orleans began to fear for his 
personal safety, indeed his wife tells us in her journal 
that he had a horse ready saddled in order to flee 
the country. But, thanks to Lord William Bentinck, 
Castelnuovo and Belmonte passed from prison to the 
ministry. The passing reconciliation between Murat 
and Napoleon ruined the plans of Marie Caroline, 
who was intriguing to deliver Sicily to France in 
exchange for the kingdom of Naples. " And things 
had even reached the point," wrote Baron de Durant, 
French minister at Naples, " that the English ambas- 
sador thought of dethroning the Prince Royal," in 
whose favour Ferdinand IV. had abdicated in 1811, 
and substituting a council of regency at Palermo 
composed of the Due d'Orleans and the Prince de 
Belmonte. 

At this juncture, the King of the Two Sicilies, 
urged thereto by his wife, decided to make an effort 



RI-TURN TO SICILY 141 

to regain power. On March 9, 1813, amid the cheers 
of the populace, he informed his son that he would 
take the direction of affairs into his own hands again. 
The prompt and energetic intervention of Lord William 
Bentinck, who threatened to bombard the town from 
the English man-of-war, caused the King to give way, 
and the latter, in order to obtain pardon, was forced 
to exile the Queen. It was the Due d'Orteans who 
undertook to induce Ferdinand IV. to consent to 
this cruel measure ; and Marie Caroline, relegated to 
Castelvetrano, waited there for three months so that 
the conditions of her departure might be arranged, 
and that the season might permit of her taking to the 



sea. 1 



But the year 1813 was drawing to a close; the 
allied armies were marching towards the capital of 
France. The capitulation of Paris was about to put 
an end to the Due d'Orle*ans' intrigues, by throwing 
open a theatre more worthy of his ambition. 

1 Marie Caroline arrived at Vienna where, after hearing of the 
alliance between Austria and Murat, she died from an attack of apoplexy 
in the night of September 7-8, 1814. 



PART III 

THE RESTORATION 



CHAPTER I 

Fall of Napoleon The Due d* Or leans starts for France He 
is received by Louis XVIII. He goes to Palermo for his 
wife Arrival of Mademoiselle a* Or leans in Paris Paris 
in 1814 Visit to the Tuileries Louis XVIII. 

ON April 23, 1814, the English man-of-war Abonkir, 
entered the Bay of Palermo bringing news from 
France. The lazzaroni of the port had gone down to 
the harbour on the arrival of the boat, and their noisy 
shouts of joy first intimated to the Orleans family 
that Napoleon had fallen. The extreme delight of 
the exiles when the news was confirmed may well 
be imagined. The Duke rushed into his wife's room 
exclaiming: " Bonaparte is done for! Louis XVIII. 
has been established on the throne, and I am off in 
the vessel which has just come for me." Marie 
Amelie threw herself "into her husband's arms," 
Mademoiselle d'Orle'ans mingled her tears with those 
of her brother and sister-in-law, then all three hurried 
to the Colli Palace to announce the happy event to 
Ferdinand IV., who knelt down faccia in terra per 
rengraziare Dio ( " with his face to the ground to 
thank God"). 

This rejoicing was short-lived, however, for neither 
Louis XVIII. nor Monsieur had thought of sending 
letters of recall to their cousins. And fearing that 
this forgetfulness might be premeditated, the Orleans 



146 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

family decided not to make any overtures to the 
new king, and to act without his permission. Lord 
William Bentinck placed the Aboukir at the Due 
d'Orl^ans' disposal, and the latter left Palermo, May i, 
accompanied only by his valet, White, and the English 
Captain Gordon. 

At Genoa, after reading the Comte d'Artois' 
declaration in the Moniteur, the Duke remarked, 
"This is absolute power again," but he prudently 
restrained his criticism, and on landing in France, 
sought to resume the ancient prerogatives of the first 
prince of the blood. At Marseilles he contrived to 
borrow the uniform of a general of division, and, 
having put it on as well as he could, with the cordon 
of Saint Louis across his breast, gravely reviewed 
the troops of the garrison. At Lyons he did the 
same, and in all the towns he passed through he 
insisted that honours should be paid him. 

Arriving at Melun, and so near to Paris that a 
refusal from the King was impossible, he wrote to 
Louis XVIII. The latter, "much amused at having 
forgotten his cousin," authorised him to continue his 
journey. 

In Paris, the Due d'Orl&ms alighted at the Hotel 
de la Rue Grange Bateliere where an apartment had 
been taken for him the day before by Captain Gordon, 
and that very evening he went to the Palais Royal. 
He found it encumbered and devastated. Declared 
national property the day of Philippe-Egalite's exe- 
cution, the palace had been occupied by the Tri- 
bunat till 1807. After the Tribunat was dissolved, 
several portions of it were let off, and the apartments 




, ; , 



nil- RESTORATION 147 

of the Dues d'Orlcans utilised as a furniture ware- 
house ; indeed, the palace became so degraded and 
discredited that " during the last years of the Empire 
it was proposed to sell it as a speculation." 

May 17, the day after his arrival in Paris, the 
1 )uc d'Orteans went to the Tuileries ; the King received 
him graciously, saying: "Twenty-five years ago you 
were lieutenant-general, you are so still." Louis 
XVIII. went further than this; for by an ordinance, 
dated May 18, he restored the Palais Royal and the 
Park of Mousseaux to the Due d'Orlcans and his 
sister, and a second ordinance two days later put 
them in possession " of all property belonging to 
them which had not been sold, whether administered 
by the department of domains or employed as public 
establishments." 

On the strength of these ordinances, the Due 

rteans set to work to have the palace restored 
for the reception of his family. During his stay in 
Paris, and, in spite of the unhoped-for favour accorded 
him, he received a certain number of Liberals and 
Bonapartists ; then, after going to London to put his 
affairs in order, he embarked for Sicily on the 
Admiral's ship Ville de Marseille, with Baron Atthalin 
and the Comte de Sainte-Aldegonde. 

Arriving at Palermo, July 14, he left that town 
a few days later accompanied by his sister, wife, son 
(the Due de Chartres), and his daughters Princesse 
Louise J and Princesse Marie. 2 Mademoiselle and the 
Duchesse d'Orleans gladly left an "island where they 
had experienced nothing but annoyance, bitterness, 

1 Born April 3, 1812. * Born April 12, 1813. 



148 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

and anxiety," as the Duchess's own journal testifies. 
The travellers reached Marseilles, August 18, 1814, 
then went up the Rhone as far as Aries, after which 
they took coach, stopping at Avignon, Valence, 
Vienne, and arriving at Lyons September 4, where 
they were received by General Augureau. That 
same evening Mademoiselle had the pleasure of 
taking her sister-in-law to the theatre, where Mile. 
Mars (then on tour) was playing Araminte in Les 
Fausses Confidences. The naturalness, grace, admir- 
able voice, and superb eyes of Napoleon's favourite 
actress captivated the two princesses, who occupied 
their five remaining days at Lyons with less worldly 
diversions. 

On the 9th the travellers embarked on the Saone. 
From Chalon they continued their journey by land. 
At Dijon the Comte d'Artois came to meet them. 
This agreeable, charming, French prince was not in 
very good health. He seemed determined to look 
upon Louis-Philippe merely as a friend and relative, 
and appeared to have forgotten even the name of 
his boon companion, Philippe-Egalite'. He showed 
himself gallant, thoughtful, attentive as he was, 
chivalrous and generous as he might have remained 
had he not become a sort of Trappist monk as he 
grew older. He had fastened a large white cockade 
in his hat and distributed others amongst the travellers. 
White horse, white plume such was the prince's 
mania. 

They reached Paris on the evening of September 
22. Everything had changed in the mother-country 
manners, institutions, religious spirit. A new genera- 



THE RESTORATION 149 

had sprung up, more excitable than the one 
Mademoiselle had known, and she was forcibly re- 
minded of the noisy crowds of Palermo. The aspect 
of Paris was changed also ; business had progressed, 
the streets of the capital were gay with numerous 
shops, which had been painted over with fresh colours 
since the change of rtgime. The great city had been 
washed clean of the outrages of the Revolution. 
Fifteen years of absolute power had sufficed to 
sweep away the accumulated ruins. Numerous public 
buildings embellished Paris, bridges had been thrown 
over the Seine, new streets had been made, the town 
was decorated and had a festive air, the imperial 
attributes being hidden beneath clusters of white 
flags. 

At Fontainebleau, Marie Amelie had heard of the 
death of her mother, the Queen of Naples ; but in 
spite of this bereavement and of the fact that the 
Duchess was enciente, all the members of the Orleans 
family went to the chateau the day after their arrival 
in Paris, to lay the homage of their fidelity and 
devotion at the feet of the "legitimate king." 

Louis XVIII. had reorganised the military estab- 
lishment of former kings on a luxurious footing. 
Musketeers, light horse, men-at-arms, and body-guards 
in their brilliant uniforms crowded together in the 
vicinity of the Tuileries. At the Pavilion de Marsan 
the Swiss Guards did the honours ; at the Pavilion 
de Flore, whilst the Princes and Princesses of Orleans 
were ali^htin^ from their carriages, the Royal Guard 
presented arms, and, in the vestibule of the stone 
staircase, the drums of the Cent-Suisses beat a salute. 



150 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

A majestic red-coated groom of the chambers ushered 
the visitors into the King's cabinet. All the members 
of the royal family were gathered round an old man, 
" seated in an arm-chair on wheels, still wearing 
powder and queue, boots and velvet, and showing 
legs like posts or posts like legs, ..." as the Duchesse 
d'Abrantes describes him. His hands rested upon 
the knob of a cane, the point of which was thrust 
into his shoe. This was Louis XVIII. He had a 
"handsome, expressionless face," according to Mme. 
de Boigne ; his lips were compressed as he smiled, 
and his sufferings caused him to sink back immediately 
in his arm-chair. 

He welcomed the Due d'Orleans and Mademoiselle 
with rather cold politeness, offered his condolences 
to Marie Ame'lie, praised the Queen of Naples, and 
then indicating Madame " with an affected and 
theatrical gesture," again reminded them that she 
had been his Antigone. " By her heightened colour 
and the brilliancy of her eyes," the daughter of Louis 
XVI. belied the "words of goodwill" she was obliged 
to address her cousins. She spoke, too, "in a dry 
way and with a hoarse voice, while vengeance and 
hatred were depicted on her countenance." Monsieur 
was very amiable as usual. The timid and awkward 
Due d'Angouleme and the absent-minded Due de 
Berry stood apart ; the two Condes were also there. 

Mademoiselle, the Due d'Orleans, and especially 
Marie Amelie thanked the King for his kindness. 
The son of Philippe-Egalite placed his hand on his 
heart, protested his devotion, and offered his services, 
while Louis XVI.'s brother, the successor of Saint 



THE RESTORATION 151 

Louis, listened with condescension and apparent 
impassive approval. For twenty years with order, 
method, and sagacity he had been preparing himself 
for his kingly mtticr, and he knew how to play the 
part admirably. Past-master in the art of pretence, 
" he had succeeded in adapting his physiognomy to 
every emotion suited to circumstances." He excelled 
in assuming a noble and dignified attitude, and in 
giving to his countenance an air of haughty majesty 
combined with conciliating good nature. Artful, 
cunning, and distrustful, "a man of philosophical mind 
but false as a counterfeit coin." (thus the old Prince 
de Conde spoke of the King), he was a clever 
pretender but a mediocre sovereign. He had a clear 
judgment, great skill in managing parties, but took 
narrow views, did not generalise, and was obstinate 
over police arrangements and court ceremonial. " Sel- 
fish, infirm, old before his time," afraid of work and 
shrinking from all worry, he was not interested in 
the affairs of State. He was impatient and complain- 
ing, but his sufferings were the cause ; his idleness 
and selfishness proceeded from his malady. Physical 
pain shrivelled him up. The way to please him was 
to keep him in ignorance of bad news, to listen with 
great attention to his remarks, and to praise adroitly 
the little notes he wrote to his intimates in clear, 
precise, though slightly affected language. Infatuated 
by his own superiority and full of pride, he expected 
compliments. Unable to be a debauchee in fact, he 
was so in imagination ; his conversation was licentious 
and often gross ; reading police reports was his 
delight. He brought an amiable and sceptical sort 



152 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

of dillettantism to bear upon business matters which 
did not detract from his prestige, and managed his 
pendulum policy very well, but did nothing to solve 
coming difficulties'; and though he succeeded in 
lengthening his reign by concessions, he left an 
embarrassing situation to his brother whom he knew 
to be incapable. He believed, or feigned to believe, 
that the Due d'Orleans was more envious of his civil 
list than of his crown ; from lassitude he gorged him 
with gold, and from fear kept him at a distance. It 
was a false calculation. The immense fortune of the 
Due d'Orleans and his estrangement from court laid 
the foundations of a popularity which very nearly 
carried him to the throne after the Hundred Days, 
and did so in 1830. 



CHAPTER II 

Princess Adelaide in 1814 Mademoiselles mother The 
Duchesse de Bourbon The Due de Bourbon The Prince 
de Condc Receptions at the chateau Receptions at the 
Palais Royal Mademoiselle a" Orleans a " business man" 

AT the time of her return to France Mademoiselle 
was thirty-seven years old. The Due d'Orl&ms had 
tried to marry her while she was still at Palermo, 
but the project was quickly abandoned by Princess 
Adelaide, who would never have consented to be 
separated from her brother, and whose independent 
character would have made it difficult for her to 
endure tutelage. The Princess's resemblance to her 
mother had increased since her face had filled out. 
Il'T mouth was like that of the Dowager-Duchess; 
she had the same rather strong chin and a similar 
habit of holding her head down. Her glance was 
more direct and less gentle, however, and she had 
inherited the large forehead and also, unfortunately, 
the complexion of Philippe-Egalite\ Added to which 
she possessed no distinction of manner, had a per- 
emptory fashion of speaking, a deliberate walk, 
vigorous dislikes, and defects that were attributed to 
a somewhat trying education. But her countenance 
animated and mobile, she had fine eyes, a luminous 
intelligence, vjreat judgment, immense indulgence for 



153 



154 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

the faults of others, and a boundless devotion to her 
brother. 

Marie Amelie, unlike her sister-in-law, was "tall 
and thin," and had a "very grand air." Madame de 
Boigne describes her as carrying her clothes off well, 
and as gracious and very dignified. 

Only a month after settling at the Palais Royal 
the Duchesse d'Orleans gave birth to the Due 
de Nemours. "Louis XVIII. and the Duchesse 
d' Angouleme held the new - born infant over the 
baptismal font, in the chapel of the Tuileries, with all 
the ceremonial of the old court." 

When Marie Amelie's health was re-established, 
Mademoiselle took her to see old Paris the charming 
Paris of legend and history. There was not a church 
or a public building which they did not visit. 
Princess Adelaide, who had preserved the recollection 
of the instructive expeditions she had made with her 
governess, took her sister-in-law to all the museums. 
They visited the studios of celebrated painters also, 
were sometimes seen at the Jardin des Plantes, and 
often at the theatre. 

In the delight of returning to France the Dowager- 
Duchess forgot the differences which separated her 
from her children, and welcomed them either at her 
estate at Ivry or at the Hotel de Nivernais 1 where, 
not being able to get back the Hotel de la Vrilliere, 2 

1 Rue de Tournon. It was the house of Mardchal d'Ancre ; inhabited 
for some time by Louis XIII., who wanted to be near his mother; 
granted to Charles de Luynes ; the Due de Nivernais lived there in 
1789. It was sequestrated during the Revolution, and has served as 
barracks since 1830. 

2 Built by Mansart in 1635 > inhabited afterwards by the Due de 
Penthievre ; the Bank of France since 1812. (Rochegude.) 



THE DUCHESSE DE BOURBON 155 

she had taken up her residence. The Comte de 
I'olmont lived with the Duchess and was continually 
at her side. According to Madame de Boigne he 
was so completely master of the house that it was 
said that he was her husband. The Dowager- Duchess 
overwhelmed him with absurd attentions ; knowing 
what a gourmand he was, she had all the choicest 
dishes handed to him first at table, in spite of the 
constrained attitude of the guests. She prepared his 
coffee with her own hands, and no one would have 
dared to take the place in the drawing-room reserved 
for the " good Rouzet." The house was kept up on 
,i very bourgeois footing, and the Duchess ended by 
not receiving any but M. de Folmont's admirers. It 
can thus be readily understood why Adelaide pre- 
ferred the society of her Aunt Bourbon to that of 
her mother. 

Philippe-Egalite's sister was bright, charming, 
witty, and very charitable. She was quite small and 
dressed ridiculously, wearing a cap in the fashion 
of the time of Louis XVI. A mystical devotion 
confused her brain, if we may believe the Duchesse 
d'Abrantes. Her two brothers, the town abbe" and 
the country abbe*, 1 enlivened her house. 

The Due de Bourbon (who was still separated 
from his wife) lived with his father, the Prince de 
Conde\ grand-master of the King's household and 
colonel-general of the French infantry. Both lived 
on their estates, but chiefly at Chantilly or Saint-Leu. 
The Prince de Cond, a venerable, sleepy, old man, 
with white wig and queue, had retained the scruples 

1 Saint-Albin and Saint-Farre. 



156 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

and pretentiousness of the army of princes. Chateau- 
briand thus portrays him : " The Emigration was his 
domestic god. ... He was uncertain as to whether 
he had had a grandson or not ; he merely felt 
that the glory of his name had been increased by 
some Cond6 or other whom he no longer remem- 
bered." He called the king M. de Provence, and 
blamed him for not having been in the first Emigra- 
tion. The Due de Bourbon was rough and wild. 
Mme. de Reuilly, his natural daughter, had great 
ascendency over his mind ; but though she had almost 
succeeded in making him give up his gross behaviour, 
she had not been able to vanquish his sordid avarice 
and timidity. He only cared for hunting. " His 
days began with the sound of barking dogs and ended 
with the blasts of a hunting-horn." 

The princesses entertained a great many people 
at the Palais Royal, and Mme. de Genlis had the 
" inexpressible" happiness of seeing her pupils again. 
" Both," she wrote, " gave evidence in these first 
interviews of the emotion, feeling, and joy I experi- 
enced myself. Three beloved pupils, alas ! were 
missing M. de Montpensier and his brother, the 
Comte de Beaujolais, both dead in exile, and also my 
dear and unhappy nephew, Cesar du Crest. ..." 

" This interview so touching for me had lasted 
a quarter of an hour, when the Due d'Orleans left us, 
saying that he would go and fetch the Duchesse 
d'Orleans. He returned almost immediately, leading 
her by the hand. The princess came forward, did 
me the honour of embracing me, saying that she had 
long desired to make my acquaintance, and added : 



THE COURT OF LOUIS XVIII. 157 

' For there are two things I love passionately your 
pupils and your works.' It was assuredly impossible 
to express with more charm, wit, and grace, in a single 
sentence, the sentiments of wife and sister, and to 
show more kindness to me." 

A few tmigrts only, faithful to their dislike to the 
Orleans family, were disagreeable to the princesses, 
who, however, were favourably received at court. 
The court of Louis XVIII. was austere and cold, the 
King being an invalid, and Madame always sad and 
haughty. The elegant Galaor (Comte d'Artois) had 
aged and become devout as he grew older. This 
made him tiresome, but the charms and graces of his 
youth were those of a rake, and would have shocked 
his confessor. Morally and physically he had the 
head of a bird ; he was narrow - minded, always 
surprised at something, and his narrow forehead 
seemed empty of ideas. But he possessed natural 
distinction, a majestic and graceful carriage, and 
looked thoroughly the grand seigneur. He was indeed 
the last representative of that eighteenth - century 
nobility which had the art of combining amiable 
politeness with the ironical impertinence of the 
patron. 

The Due d'Angouleme did not talk at court, 
where he was intimidated by his own ignorance ; and 
the absent-minded Due de Berry seemed to be always 
thinking of Mile. Virginie, so at least says the 
Duchesse d'Abran 

The magnificent drawing-rooms at the Tuileries 
were filled with bishops, priests, and monks ; an 
ecclesiastical etiquette, recalling masses, benedictions, 



158 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

often De Profundis services, reigned there. The 
imperial emblems had been covered by draperies of 
carnation velvet, all the arrangements had a temporary 
look, in keeping with the heterogeneous collection of 
personages who surrounded the new king. " Here an 
officer who had escaped from Moscow, there another 
who had once more donned the uniform of Condi's 
army, further on a Vende"en dressed in green . . ."* 
"The uniforms of Napoleon's Guards," said Chateau- 
briand, " are to be seen mingling with those of 
the Royal Bodyguard, which had been cut exactly 
after the same pattern. The old Due d'Havre\ with 
powdered wig and black cane, strolls, with shaking 
head, up to Marechal Victor ; the Due de Mouchy 
passes Marechal Oudinot at mass . . . and Madame 
Royale talks to the daughter of Philippe-^Egalite ! " 

Etiquette had been re-established in its most rigor- 
ous and petty form. It made even pretty women look 
ugly. " No diamonds, no jewels, no flowers, a few 
feathers, and that was all," laments the Duchesse 
d' Abrantes. A ridiculous court dress 2 had been in- 
sisted upon by the Duchesse d'Angouleme, the long 
discarded model for which was kept by her dress- 
makers, and had to be copied exactly. The ceremony 
of the grande table had been revived, where the pre- 
sence of duchesses of the " villainous nobility " was 
scarcely tolerated. 

" The elder branch, on account of this rigorous, 
old-fashioned etiquette, which it was considered a 

1 Madame de Boigne, Me moires. 

2 Madame de Boigne : " Ridiculous lappets were attached to our 
Greek head-dresses, and the elegant cherusque was replaced by a heavy 
mantilla and a sort of kilted plastron." 



THE COURT OF LOUIS XVIII. 159 

grave fault t<> neglect, could not infuse life, much 

ty. into its royal receptions; but those of the 
Orlr.ms family were of quite a different character, for 
they combined the dignity of a palace with the amuse- 
ments and pleasures of good society. . . . People 
w< re shy, bored and ill at ease at the Tuileries, while 
they were gay, amiable, charmed at the Palais Royal, 
where they enjoyed themselves." The tlite of the 
oldest families in the kingdom were to be met there, 
as well as " marshals, generals, and senators who had 
been created peers of France ; all the prominent per- 
sonages of the Revolution and Empire were sure of a 
consideration which they did not always meet with at 
the Tuileries." 

" The condition in which the Due d'Orl&ms had 
found the dwelling of his fathers did not permit of the 
great and splendid receptions for which the Palais 
Royal became famous later on ; but under the tasteful 
direction of Mademoiselle, seconded by Paer, the com- 
poser, excellent concerts attracted a choice but neces- 
sarily restricted society." One evening Chateaubriand 
read an unpublished story from the Dernier des 
Abenccrrages, and was accorded the applause "to 
which he was very sensitive." 

The Palais Royal receptions took place on the first 
Wednesday in each month. Nobody went in court 
dress, and they had not invented, as at the Tuileries, 
those processions which separated men from women, 
which seemed so absurd to Madame de Boigne. The 
-r.u -iousness, simplicity, and politeness of the Due 
d'Orl^ans were vaunted by every one. His sister, 
who was very kind and hospitable, had a profound 



160 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

horror of etiquette. She liked talking politics and 
entertaining in Marie Ame'lie's salon, for the latter, 
though Talleyrand held her to be perhaps " the 
greatest lady in Europe," was certainly not the most 
talkative. 

Freed from all anxiety, they lived in the heart of 
their native land, enjoying to the full those happy 
days of revived prosperity. Mademoiselle and her 
brother took advantage of these favourable circum- 
stances to look after a fortune which they had not yet 
divided. Already a " thousand big and little law- 
suits " had been begun by them. Nothing was done 
without Dupin, their confidential man of law. Brusque 
and uncultivated, his ugliness was far from being dis- 
advantageous to him. He had a caustic wit, quick 
repartee, was an indefatigable worker, and an im- 
mense help to the Due d'Orleans and his sister. 
Princess Adelaide knew men ; it was she who 
had singled him out, and he was always grateful to 
her for it, never called her anything but la belle 
mademoiselle, and in her presence concealed his 
frankness under a cloak of great servility. 

The dry business of lawsuits, thanks to Dupin, 
supported by the Due d'Orleans and Princess 
Adelaide, who " possessed greater business capacity 
than anybody in the world," was despatched with 
extraordinary rapidity. True, no sentiment was taken 
into consideration, and the Dowager-Duchess herself 
was not proof against the rapacity of her son and 
daughter. In a matter of auditing accounts and liqui- 
dating common debts, the decision was deferred to royal 
arbitrage and given in favour of the Duchess. For old 



THE RESTORATION 161 

creditors the statute of limitation was invoked ; while 
advantageous arrangements were made with regard to 
more recent debts. The Prince and Princess thus 
contrived with four millions and a half of francs to 
satisfy twenty-five millions of debts, and enter into 
possession of the great fortune which their father had 
dispersed in his struggle against royalty. And this 
fortune, wisely administered, increased every day, 
allowing Mme. de Genlis' former pupils to prepare the 
way and realise at length their governess's "grand 
idea." 



CHAPTER III 

Faults of the Restoration Liberals and Bonapartists at the 
Palais Royal Landing of Napoleon The Due a" Orleans 
sends his wife and children to England He is sent to 
Lyons, then to Lille Mademoiselle d" Orleans remains 
alone in Paris Her departure for Lille, then for London 
Waterloo Manoeuvres of the Orleans family Their 
exile in England Orleans House Return to Paris. 

AT the chateau^ and especially in the Pavilion de 
Marsan, the tnigr6s y believing they had conquered 
France, never imagined that they could be driven 
from it. The Government of the Restoration had, 
however, " made grave mistakes." The return to old 
customs, to superannuated forms of language and 
costume, the introduction of chaplains into regiments 
with the rank of " first captain," and the obligation of 
attending mass for Protestants and Catholics alike, 
had shocked the whole country. The abandonment 
of the three colours, Louis XVIII.'s imprudent letter 
declaring that he owed his throne, " after God, to the 
Regent of England," the putting old soldiers of the 
Empire on half pay, their expulsion from Paris, and 
the disdain manifested by old officers of Conde's army 
towards Napoleon's lieutenants, had wounded the 
national pride ; and the purchasers of national pro- 
perty, " who covered the length and breadth of France 
and exercised great influence, were in a state of 



162 



THE RESTORATION 163 

peculiar anxiety." Discontent was general. A sort 
of slow, latent conspiracy threatened the Government. 
It was made up of small, isolated plots, the principal 
of which were hatched in Paris, where some members 
of the imperial family still remained. Generals, rich 
bankers, and artists of talent gathered in the drawing- 
room of the Duchesse de Saint-Leu (Queen Hortense), 
and were preparing for the return of the Empire. A 
campaign was being begun in the Press ; patriotic 
songs circulated amongst officers ; pamphlets, portraits, 
and caricatures belonging to the propaganda had been 
distributed everywhere, and to the spirited attacks of 
the Nain Jaune, to the close reasoning of the Censeur 
Europten, the royalists could only oppose tearful 
articles in the Quotidienne and the Journal Royal. 

Mademoiselle d'Orle*ans and her brother were kept 
au courant by their friends with regard to an agitation 
which Louis XVIII. wanted to ignore. Liberals, 
republicans, constitutionals, even Bonapartists fre- 
quented the Palais Royal. Mortier, Valence, Beur- 
nonville, Macdonald, met the banker Laffitte there 
with Benjamin Constant, Camille Pe>ier, Guizot, and 
the Due de Broglie. The Due de Bassano * the chief 
leader of the Bonapartist plot, with Mrs. Hamilton 
and Regnault de Saint Jean d'Angely did not fail to 
call often upon his former travelling companion, the 
young exiled girl, whom he had brought back to Paris 
with Mme. de Genlis by Philippe-Egalite"s orders. 

Thus, on the evening of March 5, 1815, when the 
Due d'Orl&ins was hastily summoned to the Tuileries 

1 Marct. Some years later a lawsuit embroiled him with the Orleans 
family. 



1 64 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

by Blacas, who told him in a tone of careless banter 
of the arrival of Napoleon with " some hundreds of 
men," he did not share the King's optimistic opinions, 
or believe that a royal ordinance declaring Buonaparte 
a traitor and a rebel, and enjoining every citizen to 
courir sus (fall upon him), 1 was sufficient to arrest the 
Emperor's march. And he set out for Lyons " like a 
man whom one takes by the shoulders." He feared 
to compromise himself in an adventure the issue of 
which he foresaw, and would much have preferred 
to see the Due de Berry go in his stead ; but Louis 
XVIII., who wanted to keep his cousin away from 
Paris, insisted upon his going, and the Due d'Orle"ans 
was obliged to submit. He took Montmorency, 
Atthalin, and Sainte-Aldegonde with him, but only 
stayed three days at Lyons ; on March 1 2 he went 
to the King and told him that all resistance had been 
impossible. That same evening, by means of false 
passports, and without the permission of Louis XVI II., 
he sent his wife and children to England, 2 under 
the care of the faithful Comte de Grave. Princess 
Adelaide remained at the Palais Royal. " It was a 
real consolation," wrote Louis-Philippe in his journal, 
"to keep my sister near me . . . my sister's presence 
rendered the departure of my wife less noticeable, 
and . . . if I were obliged to go away suddenly, 

1 Royal Ordinance, March 6 (Afoniteur, March 7). " Courir sus in 
1815!" cried Chateaubriand; "fall upon him! and upon whom? upon 
a wolf? upon a brigand chief? upon a lordly felon ? No : upon Napoleon, 
who had trampled upon kings, had seized and marked them for ever on 
the shoulder with his ineffaceable N. !" 

2 The Duchess wrote to the King announcing her departure, but so 
late that Louis XVIII. only received her letter the day after she left 
Paris. (Trognon, Vie de Marie Amelie.} 



NAPOLEON'S RETURN 165 

my sister could stay long after me to settle up my 

ff * 



These affairs were chiefly of a political nature. A 
plot existed in fact, but "the return of Napoleon was 
not its object." At the head of this conspiracy were 
General Drouet d'Erlon, Colonel Lefebvre-Desnou- 
ettes, and the brothers Lallemand, all in garrison in 
the north of France. That was why the Due d'Orle"ans 
had so cleverly got himself appointed to PeVonne, and 
had none the less cleverly left his sister in Paris. He 
knew that he could count upon her more than upon 
himself, and that Princess Adelaide's hatred of the 
members of the elder Bourbon branch, and "the 
bitter feelings she still entertained towards the dmigr^s, 
who had filled her youth with mortifications," were 
stronger even than the affection which bound her to 
her brother. The King, although angry at being dis- 
obeyed in the matter of sending Marie Ame'lie and 
her children away, " deigned to promise the Duke that 
he would watch over his sister, and see that she was 
duly informed in time of anything that might inte- 
rest her." 

It is difficult to find out what was exactly the 
princess's role during the days of fright and of alter- 
nate hopes and fears which preceded the arrival of 
Napoleon. She did not appear at the Tuileries after 
the departure of the Due d'Orl^ans, and made many 
inquiries on the quiet in Paris, which she only left 
March 20, when convinced that nothing could pre- 
vent the entry of Napoleon into the French capital. 
She set off in a carriage with four horses which her 
brother had taken the precaution of leaving her. Some 



i66 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

hours earlier, Blacas had been to see and take her an 
order for 100,000 francs from Louis XVIII.; but he 
did not see Mademoiselle, who was either out or had 
not consented to receive him. March 21 the prin- 
cess, with Mme. de Montjoie, rejoined her brother at 
Lille. 

Towards noon next day, whilst the Due d'Orleans 
was holding a review, the King's arrival was announced, 
accompanied by the Prince de Poix, the Due de Duras, 
and Comte de Blacas. Louis XVIII. was so mistrust- 
ful of his cousin that, at sight of the troops, he feared 
a conspiracy, and thought of turning back. This 
showed that he knew the Due d'Orle"ans a man of 
half measures, not of extremes very little. The 
latter went up to the king, made the usual protesta- 
tions of fidelity, and a few days later persuaded Louis 
XVIII. to go to Dunkerque and defend himself there. 
At the last moment, however, all these arrangements 
were changed. The King was distrustful and not 
entirely without reason and had decided to cross the 
frontier instead. 

After the departure of Louis XVIII. Mademoiselle 
left Lille with her brother and Mme. de Montjoie, 
March 24, at five o'clock in the morning. The Due 
de TreVise accompanied them to the gates of the 
town. They arrived at Tournay at dawn, and were 
in London by April 3. " The Due d'Orleans was 
glad, on the whole, to find himself out of the fray ; 
the ambiguity of his conduct bears the impress of his 
character," was Chateaubriand's verdict. His journey 
to London "made without the consent of the King, and 
against the evident trend of circumstances," afflicted 



WATERLOO 167 

al! sincere: royalists; and Louis XVIII. never forgave 
the first prince of the blood for his letter to the Due 
de Tr^vise (Marshal Mortier) : " I count upon what- 
ever your pure patriotism may suggest to you in the 
best interests of France ; " or for the order of the 
clay addressed to the troops, absolving them from 
their oath to the King. 

The Due and Mademoiselle d'OrMans joined Marie 
Amelie at Grillon's Hotel, London. A month later 
the whole family settled at the Star and Garter Hotel, 
situated on the highest part of the pretty town of 
Richmond, leaving soon afterwards for the mansion 
at Twickenham, which became henceforth Orleans 
House. At this epoch the Duchesse d'Angouleme 
was sent to England by her uncle, the King, doubtless 
in order to keep an eye on the doings of the Orleans 
family, but she could not rake up the smallest thing 
against any of its members. Louis-Philippe and his 
sister were clever enough not to plot in full daylight ; 
they held themselves " apart and inactive," and awaited 
the course of events. 

The defeat at Waterloo disconcerted them ; their 
plans were not ready. The Due d'Orldans sent 
Valence to Paris with the mission to back up his 
candidature, which was supported also by Pouche", 
Napoleon's minister, by Talleyrand, minister of the 
king of France, and to which the Tzar himself had 
been won over ; though the Regent of England re- 
sisted what he called a family usurpation, and all these 
doings only served to envenom the resentment of 
Louis XVIII. 

Thus the Duke," wrote Villele in his Mdmoires, 



i68 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

" instead of being called to preside over an electoral 
college, remained in London. . . . This Prince had 
hesitated to leave Lille with the King after Bonaparte's 
return, and had publicly made certain remarks which 
came to the ears of Louis XVIII. He had said that 
he would make no difficulty about adopting the tri- 
coloured cockade, with which he had first served in 
arms, and had expressed regret at seeing his pro- 
spective rights to the crown inconsiderately compro- 
mised by the mistakes of the elder branch. Besides, 
the King could not ignore the fact that representatives 
sent by Wellington to treat for the capitulation of 
Paris had proposed to confer the crown of France 
upon the Due d'Orl^ans. The prolonged sojourn of 
the Prince in England was looked upon with reason 
as a temporary exile inflicted by Louis XVIII." 

Nevertheless, in order to have the sequestration 
which the empire had placed upon his property and 
that of his sister removed, Louis Philippe went to 
Paris in the month of July 1815. He was "very 
well " received by the King ; but was only away four 
weeks. Returning to England, the prince took his 
wife and sister to see the university town of Oxford, 
as well as to the castles of Blenheim, Stowe, and 
Hatfield. When back at Twickenham the Orleans 
family received a visit from Prince Leopold of Saxe- 
Coburg, 1 who had just married Princess Charlotte of 
Wales. 

The Princess was more than blonde, and her blue 
eyes of a metallic brilliancy had neither eyelashes 

1 Became King of the Belgians, and married, as his second wife, 
Princesse Louise, eldest daughter of the Due d'Orleans. 



LOUIS-PHILIPPE IN LONDON 169 

nor eyebrows. She was not ugly, however, but 
;ig heiress to three kingdoms affected the haughty 
riage of the head and the decided manners of the 
great Elizabeth. Very much in love with her hus- 
band, she opposed the government of her father, the 
Regent, detested the Queen, and lived away from 
London at Claremont, where she was very popular. 
She and Princess Elizabeth often came to Twicken- 
ham for shopping, and between Oatlands, the Duchess 
of York's residence, and Orleans House there was a 
continual exchange of pleasant intercourse. 

Unhappily all the members of the Orleans family 
as well as their suite the Comtesse de VeVac and 
Mme. de Montjoie, Montmorency, Sainte-Aldegonde, 
and Atthalin suffered from the stupid annoyances 
caused them by M. de la Chatre, French Ambassador 
in London, who, in order to curry favour with the King, 
had them watched by paid spies, and misinterpreted 
their most innocent actions in his reports to Louis 
XVIII. When the Marquis d'Osmond succeeded 
La Chdtre " this espionage came to an end of itself 
... the most loyal confidence was established . . . and 
though Mademoiselle was the last to be won over, she 
was so completely and for ever," reports Madame de 
Boigne. 

On the occasion of the christening of the little 
Princesse d'Orl^ans, 1 there was a grand dejeuner at 
Twickenham, at which the Prince Regent (who led 
the ordinary life of a man in society and visited 
private persons), was present with his brothers the 

1 Mile, de Montpensier, who died about the same time as the old 
1'rince de Cundd. 



170 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

Dukes of York, Kent, and Gloucester. The Princess 
Charlotte excused herself on account of a bad cold, 
but later on she confessed to the Duchesse d'Orleans 
that her antipathy for her aunts and grandmother had 
alone prevented her from attending the ceremony. 

At the end of the summer of 1816 Mademoiselle, 
who was not very well, went to Cheltenham to take 
the waters, while her brother and sister-in-law tra- 
velled through the western counties of England. At 
length, in February 1817, the Due d'Orleans set out 
for Paris, and although he had just contributed to a 
subscription opened in aid of French exiles who had 
taken refuge in the Low Countries, and was, it seems, 
not exempt from culpability in the Didier affair, he 
obtained Louis XVIII.'s pardon which was what he 
had gone for and, at a dinner at the Tuileries to 
which he had been invited, was authorised by the 
King to go and fetch his family from England. 

The Duchesse d'Orleans, Mademoiselle whose 
health retarded the date of their departure the young 
princes and princesses arrived at the Palais Royal, 
April 15, at half-past eight in the evening. The 
journey had lasted eight days and gone off well, but 
the day after her arrival Princess Adelaide, wishing 
" to force herself to pay a round of visits," was taken 
ill; her state of weakness " above all nerves" was 
" terrible," and prevented her from going out for some 
days. She had been painfully impressed by the re- 
ception Louis XVIII. had given her. The visit had 
been a trying one. The daughter of Marie Antoinette 
had treated Mademoiselle with " marked repulsion," 
the Duchesse d'Orleans herself being quite saddened 



RETURN TO PARIS 171 

by it. "In the dining-room,' 1 wrote Mme. de Boigne, 
" the cloud hanging over their spirits was dissipated 
by the entrance of a great dish of smoking patties. 
' Ah ! the Palais Royal patties ! ' they exclaimed. And 
love of their native land, the joy of being back in the 
mother -country once more, effaced the impression 
made by their reception at the Tuileries." 

Notwithstanding this, Adelaide was with Louis 
XVIII. on April 23, and went nearly every day with 
her brother and Marie Am^lie to see the royal family. 
September 3, Monsieur dined at Neuilly, whence he 
returned on the 9th with his two sons, the Duchesse 
d'Angouleme and the young Duchesse de Berry. On 
Twelfth Night the Orleans family dined at the chateau. 
January 13, 1818, there was a reception at the Palais 
Royal ; and on the 22nd the daughter of ligalite' was 
seated at the left of the catafalque during the fourth 
anniversary service of the interment of Marie Antoi- 
nette and Louis XVI., and May 27 the Due d'Orle"ans 
presided at the obsequies of the Prince de Cond^, at 
which Adelaide was present in the tribunes reserved 
for the princesses of the blood. 



CHAPTER IV 

Restoration of the Palais Royal The habitues of the Palais 
Royal Influence of Mademoiselle d* Orleans over her 
brother His political influence Humiliations inflicted 
upon Mademoiselle d y Orleans and her brother The Due 
de Chartres at the Henry IV. College Assassination of 
the Due de Berry Birth of the Due de Bordeaux Vexa- 
tion of the Due and Mademoiselle d* Orleans Death of 
their mother. 

ON his return from Elba, Napoleon offered the Palais 
Royal to his brother Joseph, who would not have it. 
Lucien, once more in favour, was careful not to vex 
the Emperor by refusing such a fine residence. He 
occupied it during the Cent- Jours, but refrained from 
making any alterations during that time. On July 7 
the allies rushed upon the palace, which "again ex- 
perienced the joy and insolence of conquerors." But 
in 1817 the Due d'Orle"ans came back to France 
and continued the restorations begun in 1814. The 
architect Fontaine was entrusted with the direction 
of the work, which lasted for more than eighteen 
years, and cost no less than eleven millions of francs. 
The entrance court was not altered in any way, but 
the Chartres and Proues galleries, ornamented with 
portals and columns and surmounted by terraces, were 
constructed, as well as the Orleans gallery, which 
took the place of the horrible wooden galleries " with 



172 



THE PALAIS ROYAL 173 

muddy earthen flooring, occupied entirely by modistes' 
shops and it was said thousands of rats." After the 
fire in 1827 the Montpensier wing and pavilion were 
built, and " passages and corridors " were, besides, 
constructed on each floor, " giving easy access ... to 
drawing-rooms, galleries, libraries, archives, and 
chapel," &c. 

Mademoiselle d'Orl^ans lived in the wing to the 
right of the palace entrance, Rue Saint Honore*. 
The reception rooms were next to those of the Duke 
in the centre. In the principal part of the building 
was the family drawing-room a sort of large gallery, 
where the young princes were allowed to play on holi- 
days and this communicated with the first floor of 
the Valois pavilion, which was the wing occupied by 
the Duchess. 

44 The children's games did not prevent the coming 
and going of visitors and friends. Among these were 
the Due de la Rochefoucauld the good duke as he 
was called much dreaded by the children because 
he was always kissing them and smelt of tobacco, 
M. de Lally-Tollendal, Marshal Gerard, Raoul de 
Montmorency, Mme. de Boigne, the Princesse de 
Poix, the Princesse de Vaud^mont " ; l peers such as 
the Due de Broglie, Comte Mole* ; deputies like 
Camille Jordan, Dupin, Stanislas de Girardin, Casimir 
Pe>ier, "who were with the prince either on grounds 
of friendship or in simple community of political 
opinions." There were literary men, artists, finan- 
ciers, manufacturers ; Cousin, Laffitte, Manuel, Chau- 
vclin, de Salvandy, Casimir Delavigne, " Francois 

1 Prince de Joinville, Souvenirs, 



174 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

Arago, the astronomer, with his inexhaustible wit and 
spirit. . . . And then there were Macdonald, Mar- 
mont, Molitor, and Mortier the four marshal M's 
heroes of a hundred fights," as the Prince de Join- 
ville calls them, while Villemain, bent and slightly 
deformed, brushed against the author of the Martyrs, 
whose fiery eyes, energetic physiognomy, and regular 
features made him look young in spite of his baldness. 

Quite unlike the Duchess, who wrote in her 
diary : " I listen to what is said to me, keep silence 
and reflect," the Due d'Orle"ans liked to mingle in 
the conversation, and sometimes even preferred to 
direct it. Besides, he possessed an easy flow of lan- 
guage, strong good sense, the faculty of giving to his 
thoughts an expression at times graceful, at times 
trivial, but always striking. 

The Abbe" Dupanloup and Horace Vernet, the 
painter of the Epopee Orttaniste, often met at the 
Palais Royal. Talleyrand, " who looked like a dead 
lion," had become the friend and adviser of Princess 
Adelaide, perhaps on account of their mutual taste 
for intrigue, or rather because the former Bishop of 
Autun, the Grand Constable of France, was secretly 
working against a government which no longer de- 
sired his services. Then Mademoiselle liked people 
of worth ; she sought the society of men, and especially 
of serious men, and took her share in their discussions 
on religion, history, philosophy, music, and painting, 
speaking " naturally and good-humouredly " upon all 
subjects. When quite sure of those who were listen- 
ing to her, she would give her own views with vehem- 
ence, and express her liberal opinions loudly, turning 



THE PALAIS ROYAL 175 

the courtiers who disliked her into ridicule, and 
scarcely sparing the King, by whom she was detested. 
She was, besides, often incapable of disguising her 
feelings, and this excess of frankness created im- 
placable enemies for her, while at the same time 
lu T lack of openness, combined with the fear of con- 
fiding mal & propos, caused her to be accused of 
falsity. 

The opposition deputies came under the Princesse 
Adelaide's influence ; this flattered at once her woman's 
pride and her passion for politics, but, "as she was 
experienced in men and things," "she did not allow 
herself to be carried away by appearances," avoided 
useless discussions, and, as Mme. de Boigne puts it, 
" brought her interlocutor neatly to the point." She 
exercised great ascendancy over her brother, who 
undertook nothing without consulting her ; being 
more enthusiastic than the Due d'Orteans, less clever 
perhaps, but franker and especially more decided, 
it was she who arrived at important decisions. She 
presided over a sort of "little coterie which Talley- 
rand frequented, and where Mar^chal Gerard, M. 
Dupin, Flahaut, a General de Lawaestine, and some 
other faithful friends" met. 1 Her knowledge was 
superior, she was fond of the arts, and protected 
artists, especially all those who had incurred disgrace 
at court, " where she only appeared when etiquette 
obliged her to do so." 

She was often to be seen engaged apart in revolu- 
tionary converse with Benjamin Constant (so poor that 
it had been easy to buy him), with General Foy, the 

1 Prince dc Joinville. 



176 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

eloquent orator of the opposition, and Se"bastiani, the 
most brilliant of drawing-room talkers. 

One of the young princes' tutors, M. Cuvillier- 
Fleury, has left the following description: "When 
there was a grand cercle at the Palais Royal, one 
met the dlite^ the cream, the flower of the court and 
courtiers there ; dukes led the conversation, and 
Ministers were the humblest persons amongst the 
numerous guests. . . . Towards eight o'clock they 
adjourned to the magnificent gallery of the Theatre 
Fran$ais. . . . There was plenty of room for 
everybody on the tiers of handsome benches, but 
half the seats were vacant, for the entire crowd 
gathered round the princes' arm-chairs in a part of 
the gallery where they alone could be seen." 

" Sometimes when they remained in the drawing- 
room, a bell would be heard half-way through the 
evening. ... It was the signal announcing a visit 
from the Dauphine, or the Duchesse de Berry. The 
Duke then ' went out with an elastic step to receive 
the visitor on the staircase."' The relations of the 
Orleans family with the "left" were, in fact, so 
adroitly managed that they in no wise interfered with 
their intercourse with the chateau. After the Due de 
Berry had espoused Marie Amelie's niece although 
the marriage " provoked many a bitter feeling," writes 
the Duchess the family dinners, to which all the 
princes without distinction of royal or serene high- 
nesses were invited, became more frequent. We hear 
that on January 6, 1819, when the Twelfth Night 
Cake was cut, and Mademoiselle got the 'king,' she 
chose Louis XVIII. for her partner. They met at 



KING AND DUK1 177 

the play also, at the Champs de Mars races, and the 
Longchamps promenade. Unhappily, the elder and 
younger branch were separated by the etiquette upon 
which Louis XVIII. insisted. Alone among the 
members of the family, the Duchesse d'Orl^ans, as 
a king's daughter, and a descendant of Philip V. of 
Spain, son of Louis XIV., had the title of royal 
highness. This in itself was slightly ridiculous. 
When the Due d'Orl^ans went to the Tuileries with 
his wife and sister, the Duchess was announced first, 
the double doors being opened wide for her; one 
half only remained open to allow her husband, the 
Dowager-Duchess, and Mademoiselle to enter. 

The King would not grant his niece, the Duchesse 
d'Angouleme, Monsieur, the Duchesse de Berry even, 
the title of royal highness which they asked for the 
Due d'Orlans. " He is quite near enough to the 
throne. I shall take care not to bring him nearer," 
he used to repeat, and when an opportunity arose of 
doing so, he made these needless vexations public. 
After the congress at Aix-la-Chapelle the King of 
Prussia came to spend some time in Paris. Louis 
XVIII. gave a good many dinners in his honour. 
People were astonished that the Orleans family was 
not invited. On the other hand, the Duke was present 
at a play at the Tuileries with his wife and sister, and 
instead of their being shown into the royal box, where 
Louis XVIII. had given seats to foreign princes as 
well as to his own family, the first gentleman of the 
chamber showed them into another box, where they 
were mixed up with ambassadors and officers. 

Thus, when the Duke of Gloucester arrived in 

M 



i;8 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

Paris, a concert was given in his honour at the 
Tuileries, but no members of the Orleans family were 
present, although the King had invited them all. 

December 13, 1819, at the baptism of Made- 
moiselle, the affront was still more patent. The car- 
dinal-chaplain, who officiated, presented the pen to 
the Due d'Orleans, when the King cried out in the 
imperious tone of voice which was customary with 
him : " Leave the pen and let it be presented by the 
clerk of the chapel." 

The Due d'Orleans revenged himself for these 
humiliations by going in for what Louis XVIII. called 
populacerie. He bought pictures recalling the vic- 
tories of the Republican armies, " associated his name 
with a number of philanthropic societies and good 
works," founded schools, and protected liberal publi- 
cations. 1 He wanted to go even farther and strike 
a great blow. On the morning of October 15, 1819, 
the papers published the following brief announce- 
ment : " It is said that the young Due de Chartres, 
eldest son of the Due d'Orleans, is to attend the sixth 
class at the Henri IV. College." The King, who could 
not believe in this audacity, at once sent Decazes to 
Neuilly, where the news was confirmed. Summoned 
by Louis XVIII., the Due d'Orldans hastened to the 
chateau. A lively discussion ensued. The Duke re- 
mained firm, quoted the example of Henri IV. and 
the Prince de Conde, the one sent to the public schools 
of Be"arn, the other to those in Paris. He added that 
his decision on a family matter was irrevocable. The 

1 Biographic des contemporains^ which Joury and Arnault published 
in order to vie with the Biographic universelle of Michaud. 



DEATH OF THE DUG DE BERRY 179 

King, at i loss for arguments, ordered his cousin at 
least to take the advice of the Duchess ; that same 
evening the latter wrote to Louis XVIII. that she 
deferred to " the desire of her husband, as much from 
duty as from sentiment . . . for," she added, " my 
convictions make me desire that my son should par- 
ticipate for a time in public education." The King did 
not insist, and the Due d'Orldans knowing how much 
he would gain in popularity in the country, was not 
deterred by the calumnious abuse of the salons and 
ultra-royalist Press . . . and his son, the Due de 
Chartres, began, November 9, the course of study he 
was to follow for six years at the Henri IV. College, 
and which his brothers were to follow after him. 

February i3th, 1820, the last Sunday of the car- 
nival, all the Orleans family went to the opera. The 
children left after the "Carnaval de Venise" ballet. 
At ten o'clock the Due and Duchesse de Berry arrived 
at the theatre. At the beginning of the second act 
the Due de Berry "escorted the Duchess, who was 
fatigued, to her carriage." * . . . A few minutes later, 
cries of " Help, robber, assassin ! " were heard in the 
street. The Due d'Orl^ans went out, and " recog- 
nising the Prince's livery in the passages," went down 
to the royal box, where he found the Due de Berry 
lying back in an arm-chair before the fire-place 
mortally wounded. His clothes and those of the 
I hichess were covered with blood. 

The Due d'Orle"ans, who had forbidden his wife 
and sister to follow him, went back to tell them of the 

1 Account given by Roullet, " the husband" of the woman who waited 
on the King's box, quoted by Dr. Cabanes, Les Indiscretions de PHistoire. 



i8o ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

crime which had just been committee!. Marie Ame'lie 
and Mademoiselle hurried to the manager's office, 
where the wounded man had been conveyed on a 
folding bed. When the princesses arrived "they 
were bleeding the Prince for the second time," and 
Roullet was preparing an improvised altar for the 
last sacraments. Mademoiselle d'Orl^ans could not 
long bear " so harrowing a spectacle." She fell down 
fainting and had to be carried away. Some instants 
later the Due de Berry breathed his last surrounded 
by the royal family. 

The assassination of the Due de Berry, which was, 
as Capefigue said, "the isolated frenzied action of one 
man," might have been imputed to the d'Orleans ; 
indeed people accused them under their breaths; the 
interest they had in the Due de Berry's death made 
them objects of suspicion. Accordingly, as early as 
February 17 they were all with the King; the day 
before Mademoiselle had already gone to Saint Cloud 
"to share that day with the Duchesse d'Orldans the 
devoted care which H.R.H. had lavished upon her 
august niece." The Duchesse d'Orleans had spent 
the night with the " unfortunate widow and would only 
leave her when her sorrow was calmer and more 
resigned." 

"Together," wrote the Duchesse d'Orl^ans in her 
diary, " we received the ashes from the Bishop of 
Amiens' hand, a ceremony in accordance with the sad 
spectacle of which we had been the witnesses." 

The Due d'Orleans presided over the obsequies of 
his cousin ; the Duchesse de Berry continued to go 
to the Palais Royal, and even consented, two months 



IUKTH OF THE DUG DE BORDEAUX 181 

after her husband's death, to be godmother to the Due 
de Penthievre, the Due d'Orle*ans' fourth son, who, 
born in Paris January i, 1820, died 1828. 

At the time of the assassination of the Due de 
Berry it became known that the Duchess was enceinte! 
She was confined in the night of the i8th-2Oth Sep- 
tember, the Due d'Albufera and the soldiers of the 
Royal Guard being called as witnesses. The birth of 
the Due de Bordeaux "did not give rise to the same 
transports of delight at the Palais Royal as at the 
Tuileries," remarked Trognon. It might even be 
said that the disappointment was great, and perhaps 
the Due d'Orle*ans (seeing that he would never be 
" anything in France ") was really the instigator of the 
odious protest which appeared in the Morning Chron- 
icle* His friends called the new-born infant "the 
child of miracle," and the Duke himself put the finish- 
ing touch to his misdeeds by an inconsiderate step. 
He went to Marshal Suchet, who had been com- 
manded by the King to be present at the birth of the 
royal child, and said to him : " Monsieur le Mare*chal, 
your loyalty is known to me, you were a witness of the 
accouchement of the Duchesse de Berry, is she really 
the mother of a prince ? " " As truly as Monseigneur 
is the father of the Due de Chartres," replied Suchet. 

Mademoiselle d'Orle*ans was frankly grieved by 
the birth of the Due de Bordeaux. She said to Mme. 

1 When the Duchesse de Berry threw herself on her husband's body 
(Princess Adelaide told Mme. de Boigne), the King cried out: "Due 
d'Orl&ns, take care of her, she is pregnant ! " (Mme. de Boigne, 

lade with the view of proving that the Due de Bordeaux was not 
the ion of the Due de Berry. 



182 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

de Gontaut : "You also are angry with my brother, 
Josephine, but one must pardon a very natural 
first impulse : one does not lose a crown without 
regret." 

To avoid scandal Louis XVIII. abstained from 
taking any rigorous measures against his cousin. 
Some days after the birth, a Te Deum was sung at 
Notre Dame, when the entire Orleans family was 
present. The Duke was in full uniform, booted, with 
the blue cordon across his breast. The Duchesse 
d'Angouleme had taken the princesses in her carriage 
and, May i, 1821 (the day of the christening), their 
serene highnesses, the Due, the Duchesse and Made- 
moiselle d'Orle"ans were conducted by the Marquis de 
Dreux-Bre'ze' to the seats reserved for them, " round 
the King's throne, which had been placed in the centre 
of the crossing in the church and surmounted by a 
magnificent canopy." 

The Dowager-Duchess of Orleans had not been 
able to be present at the ceremony of the baptism of 
the Due de Bordeaux. She had been seriously ill for 
a long time. The death of her faithful friend, the 
Comte de Folmont, saddened her last days and 
occasioned a fresh breach with her children. In spite 
of them she had had him buried at Dreux, beside the 
place she had reserved for herself in the crypt. 1 

i " When Louis Philippe caused the present sumptuous monument to 
be erected round the humble chapel, he had the tombs which were in the 
crypt brought up. The only one left below was that of de Folmont. Even 
the marble slab which covered his body was carried away, and replaced 
by a mural tablet bearing these words : 

" Jacques Marie Rosay, comte de Folmon, 
decede a Paris le 20 mars 1820. 



DEATH OF THE DOWAGER-DUCHESS 183 

" The Dowager-Duchess passed through nearly 
six months of continual suffering, which she bore with 
much counige. This long and hopeless illness was a 

; trending spectacle. She died of several incurable 
maladies : cancer, paralysis, and dropsy. . . . She 
ended her career on a Saturday. . . . The Duke and 
Mademoiselle d'Orl&ins watched over her during the 
last three days of her life, and she gave them her 
solemn blessing," according to Mme. de Genlis. 

The Due d'Orlans consulted Mme. de Genlis 
"about the sad ceremonial." " Everything was done 
in the way which could best honour the Princess's 
memory." On the morning of July 2 the Dowager- 
Duchess's body was conveyed from Ivry to Dreux. 
The coffin was placed upon a hearse drawn by six 
horses and followed by several mourning carriages. 
The Due d'Orldans, accompanied by his aides-de-camp, 
followed his mother's body. The cortege was escorted 
by the Lancers of the Guard and the Gendarmerie of 
the Department. 

August 7, at eleven o'clock in the morning, a 
solemn service took place in the Metropolitan cathe- 
dral. The Coadjuteur officiated. "H.S.H. the Due 
d'Orleans was placed in the stall next to the arch- 
bishop's throne; the Duchess, Mademoiselle d'Orleans, 
and the Duchesse de Bourbon were seated in the 
tribune above the chief altar. Mass was said accom- 
panied by music ; the middle of the choir was filled 
with ladies ; the numerous servitors of the house of 

The name was doubtless purposely misspelt . . ." (Lenotre, Vtcilles 
Maisons, Vicux Papiers.) 

Rouzet was married. Unpublished letters are still in existence 
addressed by the Comtesse de Folmont to the Duchesse d'Orldans. 



1 84 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

Orleans surrounded the catafalque, After the Gospel, 
the Abbe" Feutrier pronounced a funeral oration 
enlarging upon this double truth the Dowager- 
Duchess of Orleans showed herself superior alike 
to the dangers of greatness and the rigours of 
adversity." 

June 6, M. Chodron, notary, had received H.S.H.'s 
testament : " I give and bequeath to my dear son, 
as participant and without division, the third of all 
the property which comprises my estate. According 
to this disposition, my son will inherit two-thirds of 
my estate, and my dear daughter the other third. 
My son having a great number of children, I am 
intimately persuaded that my daughter will approve of 
the disposition which I make in favour of her brother, 
for whom she has a quite peculiar friendship, and 
that she would have been the first to advise me to 
do this. They know that my dearest wishes have 
been to satisfy them both. 

" I give and bequeath to the Princesse Amelie, 
my daughter-in-law, the use and enjoyment of my 
duchy of Aumale during her life, and after the death 
of my daughter-in-law, who will have enjoyed it 
unrestrictedly, my said duchy shall return to my 
estate. 

" I give and bequeath to my grandson, the Due de 
Penthievre, who bears the name of my beloved father, 
the duchy of that name ; but, in consideration of the 
fact that the revenue of that duchy is almost nil, I 
give and bequeath to him the marquisate of Albert, 
such as it is actually administered by M. Danicourt, 
notary at Peronne, for my said grandson, the Due de 



THE DOWAGER-DUCHESS' WILL 185 

IVmhirvre, to be proprietor of the said duchy of 
Penthievre and of the said marquisate of Albert, 
dating from the day of my decease, but not to enter 
into the enjoyment of them until the day of his 
majority, my will being to reserve the enjoyment of 
them to my son until that epoch." 



CHAPTER V 

The Chateau d'Eu Last moments of Louis XVIII. His 
death The Due d" Orleans and Mile. Adelaide " Royal 
Highnesses " Coronation of Charles X. Increase of the 
d* Orleans fortune The Chateau de Neuilly Randan. 

KEPT at a distance from affairs by Louis XVIII., 
who mistrusted him, the Due d'Orleans appeared to 
be entirely absorbed in the desire to make his appanage 
profitable. His sister and he managed intelligently 
a fortune which they saw increasing each day. A 
bourgeois intimacy bound the members of the Orleans 
family together amongst themselves ; the greatest 
pleasure to all of them was to get away from the 
Palais Royal and live peaceably in the country. 

In 1824, the day after the christening of the Due 
de Montpensier, Princess Adelaide not being very 
well and Marie Ame"lie still weak, they started 
for Eu. 

" The old castle of the Guises was at that time 
a mere barrack with corridors undulating like waves." 
In storms the whole house rocked ; but the antique 
manor had nothing banal about it. It overlooked 
the pretty valley of Bresle and was surrounded by 
a magnificent park of venerable beech trees. The 
facade of red brick with stone pilasters was 90 metres 
long. The sea was close by at Treport, and they 

186 



THE CHATEAU D'EU 187 

often \vrnt as far as Dieppe, which the Duchess of 
y made her summer residence. 

The ComM d* Eu seized in 1658, was sold August 
20, 1660, to Mile, de Montpensier for the sum of 
2,550,000 francs. Given to the Due de Maine, 
February 6, 1681, the comtt passed into the hands 
of his son, Louis Auguste de Bourbon (1700-1755), 
then to his grandson, Louis Charles de Bourbon 
(1701-1775), on whose death it reverted to his heir 
and cousin-german, the Due de Penthievre. 

Mile, de Montpensier had reconstructed the castle 
and enlarged the park. The Due de Penthievre, as 
soon as he became Comte d'Eu (1775), took up his 
residence there. He had a canal dug from Eu 
to T report, constructed a sluice, and improved the 
port and piers at T report ; he visited the castle 
every year, and was at Eu when the Revolution 
broke out. 

Under the Empire the castle and senatorial rights 
of Rouen were given to General Rampan. Napoleon 
stopped there twice, and thought towards 1813 of 
making it one of the Imperial palaces. 

In 1821 Louis-Philippe, who had often been to 
Eu in his grandfather's time, when he was only 
Due de Chartres, settled there with his family. He 
occupied himself at once with restoring the castle, 
forming the picture-gallery, embellishing the park, 
restoring the church and mausoleums, &c. 

Louis-Philippe entrusted the architect Fontaine 
with the work of restoring the castle to the state in 
which we see it to-day. It was he who furnished it, 
for though the Due de Penthievre had, since 1776 



i88 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

(the date of his first visit), accumulated furniture and 
pictures there, the castle had been sequestered by 
decree, October 4, 1793, and all it contained sold by 
auction or burnt, and the castle converted into a 
military hospital. 

The Due d'Orl&ms, the Duchess, and Mademoiselle 
had not left Paris without anxiety. Louis XVIII.'s 
health declined each day ; his legs were now one 
open sore, horrible sufferings chained him to his arm- 
chair, "his head hung down upon his breast and 
could only be raised with the greatest difficulty." The 
King's end was far from edifying. The covetous and 
ambitious Mme. du Cayla continued to excite the 
imagination of the more than ever helpless old man. 
Louis XVIII.'s excesses shortened his days. 1 The 
Due d'Orleans had scarcely settled down at Eu when 
he received a letter (August n, 1824) from the 
Comte d'Artois, who wrote : " The King's weakness 
has increased so much since yesterday, my dear 
cousin, that I find myself under the painful necessity 
... of inviting you to return here as soon as you 
possibly can." 

August 14, Adelaide, her brother, and sister-in-law 
were with Louis XVIII., who was no longer able to 
recognise them. They stayed at the Tuileries from 
midday till four o'clock. On the i6th " the King 
being at the worst," 2 they went again to the chateau. 
" Everybody was ranged round the chamber of the 
august invalid." 3 The Abbe" Rocher repeated the 

1 Wednesday after the favourite's departure Dr. Portal found the 
King with " feeble, very feeble pulse ! " 

2 Journal de Marie Am'elie, quoted by Trognon. 

3 Ibid. 



DEATH OF LOUIS XVIII. iS 

vcrs for the dying; but the king was no longer 
able to hear anything. " At four o'clock in the 
morning, they held alkali under his nose," 1 he made 
ii" movement, then the Due d'Angoulme went up to 
Monsieur : 4< Father, everything is over," said he. 
11 Sire, the King is dead," added Comte de Damas. 
The new King embraced everybody, sobbing ; they 
kissed the icy hand of "the defunct monarch," 2 and 
as Charles X. went out of his brother's room much 
overcome, M. de Damas opened both sides of the 
door into the Gallery de Diane, and in a solemn 
voice cried out : " Gentlemen, the King." 

An hour afterwards, Charles X. set out for Saint 
Cloud, surrounded by his whole family. This was 
the chateau ceremonial. 

An immense crowd gathered on the Tuileries 
quays on September 19. At a quarter-past two the 
Duchess and Mademoiselle d'Orle*ans arrived at the 
Pavilion de 1'Horloge in a carriage draped with 
black and drawn by the eight horses to which the 
duchess, as a Royal Highness, was entitled. The 
Due de Bourbon came next. At three o'clock, 
the cheering of the people announced the arrival 
of the sovereign; then the funeral of Louis XVI 1 1., 
to which more than twelve thousand persons had 
been invited, took place. 

Charles X. was received at the foot of the grand 
staircase by the Due d'Orl^ans, the Due de Bourbon, 
the Duchess and Mile. d'Orle"ans, the marshals of 
France and the great officers of the household. He 
wore a violet coat and silver epaulettes. The state bed 

1 Journal de Marie Amtlie. * Ibid. 



ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

of the late King had been prepared in the throne-room. 
After the Miserere, holy water was sprinkled, and, 
for the first time, the sprinkler was presented to the 
princes of the blood by the chief chaplain himself. 
The Due d'Orleans hastened to thank the King for 
his kindness. He had been " particularly sensible 
of the attention he had had for him on the occasion 
of the sprinkling." * 

" Yes," said the King, " I desired it to be so, and 
I wish to tell you that I grant you the title of Royal 
Highness." " The King grants it to all of us?" 
inquired the Duke hesitatingly. " Yes, to all," replied 
Charles X. amiably, "to Princess Adelaide, and the 
Due de Bourbon." At last the Due d'Orleans saw 
the object of all his desires realised. It was even 
said that the Duchesse de Berry had a plan for the 
future of her daughter whom she wished to marry to 
the Due de Chartres, who had been appointed colonel 
of the ist Hussars by the King. 

It was in the uniform of this regiment, and with 
the cordon of the Saint Esprit, that the young colonel 
was present, May 29, 1825, with his father and all the 
members of his family at the coronation of Charles X. 
{< The Due d'Orleans, like the Ambassador of England, 
displayed a truly royal luxury," is the remark of a 
spectator (Appert). The equipages of the first prince 
of the blood surpassed all the others in elegance, and 
it seems that he wore the ducal crown and the ermine 
and gold robe of Pharamond without looking too 
ridiculous, if we may trust the Prince de Joinville. 
After the diplomatic corps, whose brilliant costumes 

1 Letter from the Due d'Orleans to the Due de Bourbon. 



CORONATION OF CHARU-S X. 191 

glinted in the sunshine, came M. Rothschild, described 
by an eye-witness as wearing a " red uniform with two 
little epaulettes, which reminded one of those vendors 
of Swiss vulnerary waters who hang about the cross- 
roads in Paris." The Dauphine had a robe em- 
broidered with silver on a gold ground. Madame 
wore her hair dressed under a crown of flowers 
mingled with diamonds, and her toilette of rose silk 
was flecked with silver. Mademoiselle and the 
Duchess of Orleans were garbed in white robes 
relieved with embroideries. 

After the Veni Creator, the Archbishop of Rheims, 
Monseigneur Latil, advanced towards the King and 
crowned him. The princes then approached the 
monarch crying, " Vivat Rex in aeternum!" The 
cries of " Vive le Roi!" lasted uninterruptedly for a 
quarter of an hour, filling the nave of the ancient 
cathedral. . . . On June 6 the crowned King made 
his state entry into Paris, preceded by the Due 
d'Orle"ans and the Due de Bourbon. 

To the title of royal highness, Charles X. was 
to add a more important favour. In the projected 
law respecting the civil list which the Minister of 
Finances (Villele) deposited on the bureau of the 
Chambre des Dfyutds, Article IV. ran: "The pro- 
perty restored to the Orleans branch . . . and 
accruing from the appanage provided for Monsieur, 
brother of King Louis XIV., for him and his heirs 
male, shall continue to be possessed on the same titles 
and conditions by the head of the House of Orleans." 
The eloquence of General Foy, as M. Dupin ac- 
knowledges, "covered the appanage," which, thanks 



192 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

to the King's intervention, was voted by the Chamber. 
Thereupon the law of the thousand millions voted as 
indemnity to former proprietors of landed property 
despoiled by the Revolution, although opposed by 
General Foy with the approval of the Prince, gave 
the Due d'Orleans and his sister seventeen millions 
more, thanks to the favourable opinion of the Conseil 
d'tat? The death of the Duchesse de Bourbon, 
which had taken place two years previously, had 
further augmented their fortune. 

Philippe-Egalite"s sister, who since her return to 
France had lived on good terms with her vicar, had 
made a devout end. She expired suddenly while 
attending vespers, January 10, 1822, at the ancient 
and formerly pagan Pantheon, which had been conse- 
crated some days previously by Monseigneur de Paris. 
Her nephew and niece became her heirs ; the fine 
house in which she had lived in the Rue de Varenne 
(now the Austrian Embassy), was left to Princess 
Adelaide, who never occupied it, as she always pre- 
ferred to live near her brother when not at the estate 
in Auvergne, which she had purchased from the Due 
de Praslin in 1821. 

Mademoiselle loved country life, and retired to it 
willingly. " Always eager to start for Randan, she 
was never so to come back," wrote her brother in a 
letter to M. de Rumigny, and would leave the woods, 
orchards, fields, and isles of the Chateau de Neuilly 
regretfully in order to return to the Palais Royal. 

1 Of this milliard of indemnities, one hundred millions still remained 
to be distributed in 1830, when Louis Philippe coolly ordered that they 
should be returned to the Treasury. 



NEUILLY 193 

On leaving Engl.md, Louis-Philippe had looked 
about for a country house. Raincy and Mousseaux 
were divided up and had no suitable residence ; 
Villers-Cotterets was without park or garden ; so he 
exchanged the Chartres stables, Rue Saint-Thomas 
du Louvre, with the Crown 1 for the mansions of 
Neuilly and Villiers. 2 

The Chateau de Neuilly had been embellished 
and enlarged by its different possessors. Of the 
pretty Pavilion which Cartaud had constructed for 
Voyer d'Argenson in 1741,* there only remained the 
principal building in " Roman style," the Ionic 
columns of which were decorated with figures repre- 
senting the attributes of the chase and fishing. After 
the Revolution 4 Neuilly was let to Talleyrand, who 
furnished the pavilions overlooking the water magnifi- 
cently. Then Murat, who had acquired the Chateau 
de Villiers from Madame de Bullion in the year IX., 
bought Neuilly three years afterwards. He spent a 
portion of the millions brought from Italy upon it. 
The left wing and the vast dining-room in mahogany, 

' The Act was passed March 28, 1820, after the law of July 16, 1819 ; 
in reality Louis-Philippe had already occupied the Chateau de Neuilly 
for three years, as Clementine was born there May 3, 1817, and Joinvillc 
August 14, 1818. 

8 They were valued at 1,184,353 and Neuilly at 1,034,187 francs. 

1 Marc Re*ne" de Voyer de Saulmy d'Argenson sold it through Guyet, 
a bourgeois of Paris, to Radix de Sainte-Foix ; d'Argenson had it from 
Marie-Ade'laide de Gramont, Comtesse de Gontaut-Biron, who had 
acquired it from the administrator of the vacant property of Sieur 
Desassenage. The sale took place in 1766. 

4 April 5, 1792, Claude Pierre Maximilien Radix de Sainte-Foix, 
former Minister Plenipotentiary in Germany, had sold the Chateau de 
Neuilly to Jeanne Charlotte Hcraud de la Haye de Riou (Mme. de 
Montesson) for the sum of 370,000 francs. 

N 



194 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

decorated with truly royal magnificence " with hang- 
ings representing birds and flowers," had been erected 
by his care. He also built the right wing in which 
the grand ballroom was situated : " it was in perfect 
harmony with the dining-room, and there, in 1810, 
the fetes took place at which Napoleon was present." 

It was thus, except for the damage done by the 
allies in 1815, that Louis-Philippe found the castle. 
Pauline Borghese, indeed, to whom Napoleon had given 
it when Murat became King of the Two Sicilies, 1 had 
done nothing to it, save that, loving flowers, and 
afraid neither of ostentation nor of expense, she had 
arranged the garden with great taste. 2 

Louis-Philippe made numerous purchases. As 
far back as 1817 he had bought several little islands 
in the Seine and the isle of La Grande Jatte. In 
1819 he enlarged the park; in 1820 the right wing 
was pulled down, and in its place were erected the 
apartments of the Due d'Orleans and his sister. 3 It 
was there that the Duke's cabinet was situated. " This 
room was one of the most modest in the castle, and 

1 Murat became owner of Neuilly, Ventose 12, year XII. He had 
bought it for 230,000 francs from Marc Antoine Joseph Delannoy, a 
Paris merchant, and from Barbe Rosalie Lemaire, wife of Ignace 
Vanlerberghe, a merchant of Amsterdam, who had acquired it from 
Mme. de Montesson. 

2 Letter from Pauline to M. Michelet, her gardener, from whom she 
ordered 6000 feet of rose-trees, 1000 seringas, 500 oleanders. Quoted in 
documents about the park of Neuilly, communicated by Dr. Marmottan 
to the Commission municipale de Neuilly. 

3 Part of the pavilion occupied by Mme. Adelaide still remains at the 
angle of the Boulevard d'Argenson and the Boulevard de la Saussaye. 
The architecture is rather heavy. Nothing has been preserved in the 
interior. They still show the old nettle-tree in the garden, under the 
shade of which the Princess played piquet with her brother. 



NEUILLY 195 

only differed from the others by the great number of 
family souvenirs collected in it." In 1821 he erected 
the chapel, which came next to the dining-room con- 
structed by Murat ; and the principal facade and gate 
of honour were renovated in 1823. 

In spite of all these restorations, however, Neuilly 
was never more than a large unpretentious country 
house, with " no claim to any particular style of 
architecture, consisting almost entirely of ground- 
floor buildings added one after the other, and having 
lovely gardens," records the Prince de Joinville. The 
immense park extended from the fortifications to the 
Seine, an arm of which it enclosed, and was bright 
with fields of roses and flowers everywhere. 

The interior of the castle was ornamented with 
numerous works of art ; the antechambers in the 
Louis XIV. style, the magnificent strangers' draw- 
ing-room, with the remarkable ceiling painted for 
d'Argenson by Doublet and representing the rising 
sun ; the vast reception-saloon had a very grand air, 
but the family preferred to gather in the billiard- 
room. " I can see that billiard-room now," wrote 
Joinville, "with the pictures which decorated it: the 
Improvisateur of Leopold Robert ; the Femme du 
Brigand by Schnetz ; Faust and Marguerite au rouet 
by Ary Scheffer ; Venice by Zeigler all master- 
pieces. I see the habitue's also ; first two abbe's 
with significant names the Abbe* de Saint Phar 
and the Abbe* de Saint Albin, legacies of the frailty 
of great-grandparents long before the Revolution ; 
then, asjain, an abbe* with a bushy periwig, the 
Abbe* de Labordere, former grand vicar of Frcjus, 



196 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

become, I know not how, mayor of Neuilly. Then 
Marshal Gouvion Saint-Cyr, our near neighbour, 
around whom there was always a circle ; next the 
admirals Comte de Sercey, a veteran of the Indian 
wars, with his queue, and Admiral Villaumetz ; and 
lastly generals and officers who made us wild with 
the stories of their campaigns." 

But Princess Adelaide preferred the Chateau 
de Randan to Neuilly. 1 This was the only one of 
her private residences which pleased her. Curiously 
enough it was the destiny of this manor to serve 
constantly as the dwelling of a woman. The mother 
of the learned Pic de la Mirandole undertook the 
first buildings, Marie de Beauffremont raised the 
estate of Randan into a peerage-duchy, Genevieve 
de Durfort de Lorge bequeathed to it the remem- 
brance of her grace, and the Comtesse de Grollier 
parted with it reluctantly. Mademoiselle d'Orl^ans 
desired, like her predecessors, to enlarge her domain 
and increase the out-buildings. " She spent more 
than 50,000 francs a month in purchases, construc- 
tions, and repairs," says Appert. But instead of 
improving it she made it ugly. She pulled down 

1 By a decree of August 18, 1806, the division of the property of the 
Due and Duchesse de Praslin was ordered. It was necessary to sell the 
estate of Randan ; the new Due de Praslin and his aunt, the Comtesse 
de Grollier, made themselves adjudicators. In 1819 Comtesse de 
Grollier sold her share to Comte Lavallette and to the latter's son-in-law 
Baron de Forget. 

September 18, 1821, the Due d'Orleans and Mademoiselle went to 
Puy-de-D6me (Constitutional)) and Adelaide bought from the Comte de 
Praslin the other share, which comprised the castle. In 1826 Princess 
Adelaide acquired the part sold by Messrs, de Lavallette and de Forget 
at the same time as the ancient domain of Pragoulin which Comte de 
Lavallette had had from the house of Pons. 



RANDAN 197 

th< ancient donjon which seemed to protect the 
country, and replaced it by a vast building erected 
without any art and destitute of elegance. The 
scenery on the contrary was magnificent ; from the 
castle terrace, the view stretched in turn over fertile 
Limagne and the nearer mountains. 

Randan is situated a hundred leagues from Paris, 
not far from Riom. Mademoiselle often took her 
nieces and nephews there, and their parents nearly 
always accompanied them. They went in the Due 
d'Orleans' great carriage, a sort of " English chest 
of drawers," which resembled a "travelling men- 
agerie" if we may trust the Prince de Joinville. 
They slept on the way, at Nogent-sur-Vernisson 
and at Moulins, where the authorities came out to 
greet the Princess. At Aigueperse, they left the 
highroad. The justice of the peace, the mayor, 
and the vicar made eloquent speeches ; a naive and 
enthusiastic population cheered Mademoiselle. The 
carriage was drawn by six or seven oxen ; " Auver- 
gnats in big hats and costumes (there were costumes 
still) armed with poles directed the team ; the car- 

e oscillated in the muddy roads intersecting the 
mountains and valleys ; progress was difficult, but 
we reached the castle at length." 1 

At Randan the princes rose very early and went 
in the morning to see Mademoiselle d'Orleans' new 
purchases. At ten o'clock the bell rang for dejeuner. 
Those cttjcuners at the Chateau de Randan have 
remained famous. Kitchens had been arranged 
with an extraordinary quantity of saucepans, frying- 

1 Prince de Joinville. 



i 9 8 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

pans, stock-pots in which to stew, fry, and boil all 
the fruits and vegetables, all the flesh and fowl in 
Limagne. 

During the day everybody did as they liked. 
Some walked in the forest of Montpensier, others 
settled down to read in the magnificent library. 
Mademoiselle more often than not went round her 
domain. 

In the evening there were a great many people 
to dinner. The Princess exercised a pleasant, easy, 
country hospitality. After dinner the Due d'Orleans 
read the papers or played billiards with the princes, 
whilst the princesses busied themselves with needle- 
work. Atthalin showed the rough sketches he had 
made during the day, Montlosier told mountain 
romances, and Pae'r improvised, "jesting freely," or 
else sang the Marseillaise, which did not prevent the 
inhabitants of Randan from going next day as far 
as Vichy to pay a call upon the Dauphine. 

The peasants held "the good Mademoiselle" in 
profound veneration. The Princess loved and helped 
them, she was their support and adviser ; in less 
than thirty years she spent several millions in the 
country. Under her direction schools were opened 
for young girls and workshops for men ; she had 
houses built for the poor, gave clothing to children, 
and her sojourn was marked each year by " fresh 
favours." 



CHAPTER VI 

Entertainments at the TuiUries and Palais Royal The Due 
(f Orleans and the members of the elder branch Attitude 
of Princess Adelaide Charles X. Intrigues of the Due 
and Mademoiselle d 'Orleans Polignac Ministry Dis- 
solution of the Chambre des Deputes The King and 
Queen of Naples in Paris Charles X. at the Palais 
Royal. 

THE favours Charles X. had accorded the Due 
d'Orle*ans, the old King's graciousness, the affection 
which the btwna Delfina, as Marie Ame'lie called 
her, showed to the latter had rendered intercourse 
between the two branches of the royal family more 
amicable. The receptions at the Palais Royal be- 
came more numerous and brilliant each year. The 
Due and Duchesse d'Angouleme were often present, 
the ministers were invited, and the Duchesse de 
Berry retired the last when there was dancing. 
She, also, gave superb entertainments, at which 
the Princesse Louise and the Princesse Marie were 
much noticed, the one on account of her beauty 
and distinction, the other for her high spirits and 
love of pleasure. 1 Their sister, the little Princesse 
Clementine received the congratulations of Charles X. 

1 January 14, 1829, at a masked ball at the Duchesse de Berry's 
"they were dressed as Tartar women, with the addition of diamonds 
ami precious stones with the finest effect." (Cuvillier-Fleury.) 

199 



200 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

at a children's ball at the Tuileries, in January 
1829. She represented a great lady of the court of 
Louis XV. The King was delighted : " It is as 
though I saw my wife again," said he, while 
Mademoiselle de Beaujolais, with grave solemnity, 
was dancing a minuet of the good old times. The 
Due de Chartres also had a great measure of 
success. He spoke little, and was not expansive, 
but danced wonderfully. With his great height 
he had the bearing of a soldier, but his clear eyes 
and slightly effeminate features had preserved the 
grace of childhood. " He was a charmer a charmer 
of soldiers, a charmer of artists, a charmer of 
women also," is his brother's verdict. All the 
papers on Shrove Tuesday, 1829, spoke of the easy 
elegance with which the evening before, at Mme. 
de Gontaut's, he had worn the doublet and ruff 
of Fran9ois II.; whilst the Duchesse de Berry, 
dressed as Mary Stuart with her hair in disorder, 
her attitude ungraceful, "was painful to look at." 1 

Concerts, balls, soirees, plays, succeeded one 
another at the Palais Royal. Mile. Sontag tried 
to surpass her rival Mme. Malibran. Mademoiselle 
d'Orleans directed the music. Mme. de Bignon 
sang a ballad by Isolina, and Nourrit Casimir 
Delavigne's Ballade Napolitaine. Tulou played 
the flute and Pae'r improvised. 

Thus Madame (the Duchesse de Berry) deserted 
the Tuileries where her rigid sister-in-law would 
like to have kept her cloistered during her widow- 
hood. In the month of August 1829, nevertheless, 

1 Cuvillier-Fleury. 



LOUIS. PHILIPPE AND CIIARLLS X. 201 

the Dauphine followed the Duchesse de Berry, 
and they both stayed for several days at the 
Chateau d'Eu with the Due d'Orldins. 

Adelaide the contrary of Marie Ame*lie was 
never a friend of the princesses of the elder branch, 
and knowing "that they did not like her, she recipro- 
cated the feeling," says Appert. She never mingled 
in court festivities except when forced to do so and 
lived apart, in a sort of censorious sulkiness. If she 
organised concerts at the Tuileries, it was in obedience 
to a courteous request from Charles X., and also at 
the express desire of the Due d'Orl^ans, who did not 
wish to give offence. 

The Duke, in fact, differed from his sister in 
character and by calculation, not in sentiments for 
he thought as she did but in the manner of express- 
ing them. He was waiting ; it was his policy to wait. 
He appeared inactive, but all the while was acting 
with prudence, wisdom, tact, and consummate clever- 
ness. He watched the Bourbons growing more and 
more unpopular, and counted upon time, which is a 
great master. Mademoiselle, not knowing how to 
temporise, might easily have compromised a policy 
of which she later on assured the success. Too great 
boldness would have lost everything ; the true tactics 
were to keep in the background. 

Charles X., indeed, was working for the Due 
d'Orlcans, for he daily involved himself more deeply 
in an absurd and fatal policy ; and, like all persons 
destitute of the capacity for desiring the right thing, 
he was extremely obstinate. Not that he sought 
complete power, he had neither the taste for, nor 



202 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

the means of exercising it ; but he believed it to be 
advisable for France and honourable for himself to 
re-establish the old regime and absolute power of 
Louis XIV. It was an inopportune attempt, in which 
even the cleverest would probably have failed. 

The stubbornness of Charles X. was only equalled 
by his want of tact. " Plus gentilhomme que roi" he 
protected the nobles those incapable and unpopular 
nobles who had returned from exile " without having 
forgotten anything or learned anything" and his 
tardy devoutness caused him to support the Jesuits 
in a country where, even before the time of Voltaire, 
the people, although much attached to religion, were 
by no means so to its ministers. In this way he 
alienated the middle classes, who had always supported 
the monarch against the nobility and clergy. The 
last King of France not only did not understand the 
great changes which had come over French society, 
and that the bourgeoisie having grown rich had in- 
creased in power, but he ignored the history of his 
country as well. 

Thus Louis-Philippe saw " the royal destinies of 
the members of his family improve in proportion as 
his elders compromised theirs by their conduct." 1 He 
seemed to stand aside, allowing others to intrigue 
for him, and while very meek at court had, by the 
apparent sincerity of his protestations of loyalty, gained 
the confidence of Charles X. 

On the death of Louis XVIII. the new King had 
had a memorandum on the state of public opinion 
drawn up for him by M. de Lalot. The chiefs of the 

1 Appert. 



LOUIS. PHILIPPE AND CHARLES X. 203 

( Mr.mist party were mentioned therein : Dupin, 
Camille PeVier, Laffitte, S^bastiani, "but," it was 
added, "the King need not distrust H.R.H. the 
Due d'Orteans ; that good relative is always devoted 
to him." 

Charles X. did not distrust him. He was con- 
fident, credulous, and, " like all beings destined to 
perish, was at heart with his enemies." The police 
report was significant, however ; Camille Perier and 
Laffitte, Dupin and Se'bastiani, were they not the 
protdgts of the first Prince of the blood? And 
Marshals Macdonald, Molitor, Mortier, Gouvion Saint- 
Cyr, who had been pointed out to the King as being 
in opposition to the Government, did they not find 
an eager welcome and flattering attentions at the 
Palais Royal, whilst at the chateau they ranked after 
the sub-lieutenants of a nobility more ancient than 
theirs ? 

" The Protestants rally under the Orleanist banner," 
said the police report, " and the Republicans, whose 
role is to be the dupe of Bonapartists and Orleanists, 
would, in case of a crisis, have as ostensible chiefs, 
the Marquis de Lafayette, 1 and Marshal Jourdan. . ." 
But the Due de Broglie, Guizot, Cuvier, and Lafayette, 
also, had long ago been won over by the Orleans 
party. 

Still, it was not only the guests, but even more 

1 Visit of Appcrt to Lafayette (1823). Lafayette replied to Appert, 
\\lid had asked him whether the Due d'Orleans might not become Kin# 
of KraiK < : "1 c btct in the Due d'Orleans greatly . . . but in a revolution 
one can answer for nothing. However, this Prince would have many 
chances in his favour and, for my part, if I were consulted on a choice 
in such a case, he would certainly have my vote." 



204 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

the hosts at the Palais Royal who should have been 
suspected by the police. The Duke had secret rela- 
tions with the Spanish Ambassador and the Foreign 
Office. He subsidised a Sieur Muller, a conspirator 
by profession, and went alone in the evening to the 
Due de Dalmatie, where he met General Foy, Manuel, 
and Benjamin Constant. He patronised a Voltairian 
museum established at Bossange's, the bookseller's, 
sent important subsidies to the Greek committee, and 
made use of his fortune for increasing his popularity. 

His sister, Princess Adelaide, was still less in- 
active. She received as many people as possible, 
computed men's opinions, and obliged them to take 
sides at a time when they would have preferred " not 
to explain their views or involve themselves fully," 
says Madame de Boigne ; seeking to " know from 
people what she wanted to learn," and organising 
around her the nucleus of an opposition which criti- 
cised the actions of the Government boldly. She was 
not displeased at being called the Jacobin Highness, 
and encouraged with money and words the zeal and 
liberalism of her faithful followers. 

At court still less regard was paid to the influence 
exercised by Mademoiselle d'Orle"ans than to that of 
her brother ; she therefore used it more openly than 
he did. She went to Colonel Chaillot, General 
Barton's friend, and received with kindness the sons 
of David, a proscribed regicide, sent 6000, then 3000, 
then 2000 francs to the Greek committee, took an 
interest in all subscription lists, and distributed money 
in charity. L? enseignement mutuel, which the Liberal 
Party encouraged in opposition to the Brothers of the 



THE POLIGNAC MINISTRY 205 

Christian schools, was supported and patronised by 
her ; she welcomed political men whose names united 
the suffrages of electors and independent populations, 
and was bold enough to support Jewish charities. 

In the month of August 1829, the Martignac 
Ministry, the opinions of which were sincerely con- 
stitutional and rather tolerated than accepted by the 
court, fell under the coalition of the left and right. 
Charles X., freed then from all constraint, chose as 
first Minister the Prince de Polignac, the favourite 
and confidant of his youth. The news of the compo- 
sition of this Ministry was like the tolling of an alarm 
bell throughout France. The Orleans family was at 
that epoch gathered at the Chateau d'Eu, where they 
were preparing to receive the Dauphine. "On 
going into the drawing-room," wrote Cuvillier-Fleury, 
" I perceived a general air of pre-occupation. Mme. 
de Montjoie gave me the Moniteur. . . . Polignac, 
Minister! Courvoisier, Minister! Du Montbel, Minis- 
ter ! Bourmont . . . had I read aright ? Bourmont 
of 1815, Bourmont of Waterloo Minister! . . . 
The drawing-room was full of rumours ; Mme. de 
Montjoie groaned, Mademoiselle, who was not very 
well, appeared overwhelmed. ..." 

After the Journal des Ddbats had been convicted, 
2Oth August, the Royalist Quotidienne attacked the 
Due de Chartres, whom Charles X. had reprimanded 
for going into court to enter a protest against the trial. 
Some time afterwards the opposition Globe, in which 
Trognon and Cuvillier-Fleury collaborated, 1 was seized 

1 The one tutor to the Due de Joinville, the other to the Due 
d'Aumale. 



206 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

on account of the article by Dubois on the France of 
the Bourbons, and the eldest son of Louis-Philippe 
received an admonition from the King for having 
gone to see General Drouot. 

Still the relations between the Tuileries and the 
Palais Royal always appeared cordial. November 
15, 1829, the Due de Nemours had received the 
Cordon Bleu; January i, 1830, the Dauphine gave 
presents "of great magnificence and exquisite taste" 
to the children of the Orleans family, and the recep- 
tions recommenced as in the preceding winter. 

The opening of the Chambers took place 2nd 
March. The Dauphine, the Duchesse de Berry, and 
Mademoiselle d'Orle"ans went to the hall of stances 
through the Louvre. The diplomatic tribune, where 
the absence of two or three Ambassadors had been 
very marked on the previous year, was an imposing 
sight ; all the members of foreign legations were 
gathered there. Towards half-past twelve (noon) an 
usher announced in a loud voice the Chamber of 
Peers. Thereupon, the Peers of France entered, 
having the Chancellor at their head (in a violet gown) 
and the Keeper of the Seals. State messengers and 
ushers with gold chains accompanied the cortege. 
The Peers were in full dress, their mantles trimmed 
with ermine and their Henry IV. hats shaded with 
white plumes. Nearly all the deputies were present, 
and many of them were obliged to place themselves 
in the corridors and embrasures of the windows. 

At one o'clock a salvo of artillery from the Inva- 
lides announced his Majesty's departure from the 
Tuileries. The King traversed the grand gallery of 



THE POLIGNAC MINISTRY 207 

the Louvre, and passed through the grand gallery 
d'Apollon to a first salon, where he received deputa- 
tions from the twelve Peers and twenty-five deputies, 
headed by the Grand Master of the Ceremonies. 

The corttge soon started ; the Heralds-at- Arms, the 
Guards of la-Manche, dressed in their tunics of gold 
and silver, and armed with halberds, were arranged 
along the platform of the throne. The heartiest 
cheering greeted the entrance of the King and Princes, 
behind whom were placed the officers of the Royal 
Household. 

In his speech Charles X. spoke of " perfidious 
insinuations," of "culpable manoeuvres," and " his 
rights." * The Assembly replied by the famous 
address of the 221, which Royer-Collard (though 
loyally devoted to the reigning family) had inspired ; 
it was to the effect that " the permanent concurrence 
of the political views of the King's Government with 
the desires of his people did not exist." 

The Chamber was thereupon prorogued, then dis- 
solved This was a provocation. It was greeted in 
the country by a formidable outburst of opinion. The 
crown openly entered into a struggle with the nation ; 
it was necessary to take sides and to pronounce, not 
for or against such or such Ministers, but for, or 
against, the King. The Due d'Orl^ans could not 
hesitate this time. The Due de Chartres had given 

1 At this threatening sentence the King's hat fell at the feet of the 
Due d'Orlcans, who picked it up and held it till the end of the speech. 
ny people noticed this circumstance." Mile. d'Orldans said to the 
Comtesse de Boigne in the evening : " It is to be hoped that the Gazettes 
will not take up that incident, and make their silly commentaries 
upon it ! " 



208 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

his opinion in public and Princess Adelaide, who 
entirely agreed with her nephew, had had the opposi- 
tion programme promulgated by General Atthalin at 
Colmar. Charles Dupin was a candidate for Paris, 
and the 221 voters of the address were for the most 
part friends of the Prince. 

Besides, it was known at court that the Due 
d'Orleans subsidised a newly-founded journal Le 
National, the policy of which was characterised by 
Thiers as " monarchical and anti-dynastic," and that 
the Prince also patronised the " Help yourself and 
Heaven will help you" society. 

The result was a coolness in the intercourse 
between the branches of the royal family. The 
invitation to le jeu du Roi (join the King at cards) 
reached the Palais Royal rather late, and when his 
cousin arrived in time for the Dauphine's " game " 
Charles X. greeted him coldly, saying : " I have not 
seen you for a century." One day even, as Marie 
Amelie and Mademoiselle were taking leave of the 
King at the Tuileries, he said to them : " There is 
nothing so easy as to oppose my Government at 
random, but it is not so easy to justify this opposi- 
tion." " There was sharpness both in his words and 



manner." 



The arrival of the King of Naples caused a truce 
to these hostilities. He dined at the Palais Royal on 
May 1 8. " Madame la Duchesse d'Orleans," wrote 
Cuvillier-Fleury in his "Journal," " presented us to 
the Queen, who grinned at us. She and her grimace 
are very ugly. The King is a septuagenarian at fifty ; 
he is bent, and his face covered with a forest of white 



THE POLIGNAC MINISTRY 209 

hairs, which made him look like a white bear from the 
Bali 

The Orleans family wanted to entertain the King 
and Queen of Naples officially at the Palais Royal ; 
but, as these sovereigns were the guests of Charles X., 
it was necessary for that purpose that the King of 
France should consent to grant his mere cousin the 
" immense favour" of attending a ball at the house of 
a royal highness. Charles X. hesitated, but the 
Duchesse d'Angouleme made it clear that Marie 
Amelie was a very near relation of hers, aunt to the 
Duchesse de Berry, and sister to the King of Naples. 
In order to get her uncle to make up his mind she 
even added : " This dear Princess, who belongs to our 
race and family, is really so very kind." The King 
gave way and named his day. 

At seven in the evening of May 31, a company of 
Guards in their magnificent uniforms arrived at the 
Palais Royal. The illuminations began at nine o'clock. 
All the lines of the palace were traced with lamps ; 
strings of coloured glasses gleamed between the trees, 
and pyramids of fire had been placed on the terraces. 
The Due d'Orlans had issued numerous invitations 
without distinction of political opinions. The Due de 
Choiseul, Laffitte, Benjamin Constant, Jouy, Arnault, 
Gilbert de Voisin. General Thiers, Ternaux, and the 
elder Dupin . . . all in opposition had been invited. 
Towards eleven o'clock couriers, grooms, Guards on 
horseback and the beating of drums, announced the 
arrival of Charles X. He entered the palace draw- 
rooms preceded by all his attendants, then gave 
his arm to the Duchesse d'Orl^ans, the Dauphin did 

o 



210 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

the same to Mademoiselle Adelaide and the Due 
d'Orl^ans to the Dauphine. There was " an excel- 
lent band, selected by Paer with the assistance of 
Mademoiselle. The King's handsome Body Guards 
were at their posts to do honour to the sovereigns. 
The dresses and diamonds, the luxury, of the apart- 
ments, the hangings, gilding, pictures, and bronzes 
were reflected a thousand thousand times by the 
great mirrors which gave a fairy-like aspect to this 
entertainment." * 

" After the introductory quadrilles in costume," 
wrote the Prince de Joinville, " the King sauntered 
out upon the terrace which extends above the gallery 
d' Orleans. Women moved about ddcollettes, so fine 
and warm was the night, lighted as though it were 
midday by dazzling illuminations. ... I slipped in 
front of Charles X. while he was taking his pro- 
menade, and saw him advancing with his straight 
figure and truly royal air towards the parapet of the 
terrace on the garden side. He waved his hand 
several times to salute the crowd. . . . There was no 
shout of Vive le Roi, nor were there any hostile cries. 
A last wave of the hand, accompanied by a ' Good- 
day, my people ! ' which the King uttered half-seri- 
ously, half-laughingly, and Charles X. went away. I 
was never to see him again. Almost immediately 
afterwards the crowd took possession of the chairs in 
the garden, piled them up in the parterre where the 
midday cannon was, and set fire to them. The troops 
had to be called in to clear the garden." 

Charles X. had gone, followed by the Dauphin and 

1 Appert. 



THE rOMGNAC MINISTRY 211 

Dauphine, with the same ceremonial as on his arrival. 
It w is the last time that a Due d'Orldans received the 
King of France at his house. 

Some days later the Dauphin and Dauphine came 
to pay a call at the Palais Royal. Mademoiselle 
<!'< Means being ill, did not leave her apartment, but 
the Due and Duchesse d'Angoulme had themselves 
conducted to her. " This visit (a very rare favour 
for H.R.H. on the part of the august couple) lasted 
about twenty minutes, and when Mme. la Duchesse 
d'Orl&ins had replaced, according to etiquette, the 
mantle on the shoulders of the Dauphine, the Tuile- 
ries Princes were conducted by the Duchess and the 
Due d'Orl&ins to the first step of the grand staircase. 
Then the Dauphin, instead of saying Adieu, absent- 
mindedly pronounced the words, ' Parole d honneur ! 
parole cChonneur! 1 several times. The Dauphine 
took hold of his arm and they went to their car- 
riage. . . . 

"... I described the Dauphin's absent-minded- 
ness at the moment of leaving Mme. la Duchesse 
and Monseigneur to H.R. H.," says Appert. "I am 
not surprised, man cher" replied the Princess, " after 
what he said to me himself; really the poor Prince 
is going down hill sadly. I do not know what this 
intellectual failure will lead to, his wife is evidently 
conscious of it and suffers accordingly. God grant 
that it may not cause greater incongruity of be- 
haviour. 



PART IV 

THE JULY MONARCHY 



CHAPTER I 

Signature of the ordinances Indignation of Mademoiselle 
cT Orleans Visit of the Comtesse de Boigne to Princess 
Adelaide The evening of July 27 at the Chateau de 
Neuilly The anxieties of its denizens on the day of the 
28/// Victory of the insurgents The Due d' Or leans at 
Raincy Mademoiselle's tricoloured cockades Affluence of 
itors at Neuilly Dupin, Thiers, Casimir Delavigne 
Decided attitude of Princess Adelaide Marie A me lie's 
sadness The Comtesse de Boigne' s negotiations De- 
parture of the Orleans family for Paris on tlie evening of 
July I. 

ON the morning of July 26, 1830$ Paris read in the 
Moniteur of the ordinances which dissolved the newly- 
elected Chamber, re-established the censorship of the 
Press, abridged the existing electoral law, and replaced 
it by "a mode of election which restricted political 
rights already so limited and rendered representa- 
tive government illusory." 

The Orleans family had been settled for some 
days at Neuilly, where there was " general conster- 
nation " when they learned of the coup d'ttat of Charles 
and his Ministers ; " from that moment all the peace- 
ful regular habits of the house were changed, and 
the drawing-room became a political rendcz-vous" 1 

1 With a desire for impartiality we have quoted largely in this 
chapter from the writings of persons who were continually with the 

Orleans family during the July days Cuvillier-Fleury, Trognon, &c 

215 



2i6 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

The Due d'Orleans sat on the great divan, listening 
sadly but saying little, while the others gave their 
opinions. The Princes' tutors (I? Education, as they 
were called) were present. Trognon remarked that 
France had not been taken unawares, but was pre- 
pared to resist taxation. The Prince interrupted him 
very sharply : " No, no, do not imagine that things 
will pass in that way. ... A box on the ear has been 
given and will be returned." 

"They are mad," he kept repeating ; "they want 
to have us exiled again ! Oh ! as for me, I have been 
exiled twice ; I will not stand it again ; I shall stay in 
France ! " 1 

Mademoiselle faced the situation firmly ; she had 
already made up her mind, and only sought to van- 
quish Marie Ame'lie's family scruples and to break 
down the last hesitations of Louis-Philippe. She ex- 
pressed herself with vehemence, with indignation, 
"commanded every one to be reserved/' but spoke 
rather bitterly of the King and his Ministers. 

They heard of the journalists' protests that same 
evening, and "deep sympathy was expressed for them 
by the whole family." Thiers, Mignet, Carrel, editors 
of the National, de Remusat and Guizard, editors of 
the Globe, Cauchois-Lemaire, editor of the Con- 
stitutionel, Alexis de Jussieu, editor, and de Lape- 
louse, manager of the Courrier Fran$ais, Leon 
Pillet, manager of the Journal de Paris, were political 
friends of the Due d'Orleans. Thus, when Comte 
Mole", who dined at Neuilly, spoke of the legal resist- 
ance which must be opposed to the ordinances, his 

1 Prince de Joinville, Vieux Sottvenirs. 




. 



THE RKYOI.rriON OF JULY 217 

mn.irks were badly received. Princess Marie fore- 
saw insurrection ; her aunt, Mademoiselle d'Orl^ans, 
adjured her brother to go to Paris and put himself at 
the head of the opposition. Mme. de Montjoie sup- 
ported this idea with great energy, and Princess 
Louise attacked her governess, 1 Madame de Malet, 
who, alone with the Duchesse d'Orle"ans, seemed to 
approve of Comte Mole\ 

On Tuesday 27th, details of the previous day's 
disturbances were made known at Neuilly ; there had 
been a mere skirmish and nothing more. The Prince 
had promised to show the park to an old English lady, 
his neighbour at Twickenham, and did so. At four 
o'clock the Comtesse de Boigne arrived, and was re- 
ceived by Mademoiselle, whom she found " distressed 
by the ordinances, very uneasy respecting the popular 
effervescence . . . and especially impatient because 
she dreaded lest her brother's name should be com- 
promised." 

" We talked for a long time," wrote Mme. de 
Boigne, "bat there was no question of the remedy 
that Neuilly might eventually furnish in a state of 
affairs which had become so critical." " Had it not 
been for two ceremonies the mass of the Saint Esprit 
and the opening of the Chambers which we were 
obliged to attend," said Princess Adelaide, "and the 
miserable trap set for us, we should have started for 
Eu on Saturday and been away from all this rioting. 
When I think of it, I am ready to tear my hair out." 

The daughter of Philippe-Iigalite', as we see, did 
ii' >t confide even in the most devoted friends of her 

1 Cuvillier-Fleury. 



2i8 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

family : " If the Princess's intention was to mystify 
me, she succeeded perfectly," remarked the malicious 
Comtesse de Boigne, on quitting Neuilly, where she 
had met neither the Duchesse d'Orle"ans, who was 
walking in the garden, nor the Duke, who was hiding, 
nor the children, who had gone to the swimming 
school. 

Before leaving she went to see Mme. de Montjoie. 
Princess Adelaide's lady-in-waiting employed almost 
the same language as her mistress, and seemed 
" in despair also that they were not at Eu." 
" That appeared to me to be the impression of 
the house." 

On returning in the evening the young Princes 
related what they had seen in Paris. The Place 
Louis XV. was occupied by troops ; there was a regi- 
ment of Guards and the artillery from the Ecole 
Militaire " mdche allumte" Near to the Porte Maillot 
they had met the Duchesse de Berry on horseback, 
surrounded by a great number of equerries, and had 
bowed to her amicably. 

After dinner there was not a single visitor at 
Neuilly. Reaume and Vatout came and went bringing 
news. The billiard-room, panelled with costly stucco, 
the arches and ceiling of which were ornamented with 
paintings and gilded sculpture, had not its customary 
air of quiet family cheerfulness. The doors on to the 
terrace were only slightly ajar. " Everybody was 
seated on the settees." Nobody dared to speak. The 
Duke sighed. Sometimes he turned towards Princess 
Adelaide and said a few words to her in a low tone. 
The Duchess, sad and depressed, " wrapped up in her 



THE REVOLUTION OF JULY 219 

grief," avoided looking at any one, "and was doubtless 
engaged in prayer. 1 ' 

Wednesday morning (July 28) Cuvillier-Fleury 
set off for Paris, where his family had remained. 
He had great difficulty in getting back to Neuilly. 
Paris was in a ferment, he recounted ; carriages 
were stopped and broken up to make barricades. 
It was stiflingly hot. At "all the cross roads 
stone dikes " had been constructed by bare-armed 
and coatless people ; they were preparing for battle 
everywhere. 

At Neuilly the day passed in the anguish of un- 
certainty. Nothing but contradictory news and 
rumours were to be had. During dinner they began 
to hear the cannon thundering. In the afternoon the 
family gathered in the Prince de Joinville's study ; 
Larnac was " beside himself," Trognon indignant and 
loud-voiced, while Cuvillier-Fleury was " ferocious and 
talked of nothing but massacring the enemy." Then, 
hearing the great bell of Notre Dame sounding the 
tocsin, every one anathematised Mgr. de Qulen, who, 
they said, having suggested the ordinances to the King 
was responsible for the disturbances in Paris. '* The 
indignation of the Prince and Madame Adelaide was 
expressed much more strongly than that of the others," 
says Cuvillier-Fleury. 

In the evening they gathered on the terrace in 
front of the drawing-room. It was a magnificent 
ni^ht, but over Paris the cannon boomed uninter- 
ruptedly. News arrived : it was terrible. " The 
Prince, with his wife and sister, walked up and down 
apart, in a narrow space, stopping continually and 



220 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

retracing their steps." Towards ten o'clock the 
cannon was heard no more. At midnight Tuthill, the 
Englishman, who had been sent to Paris, arrived 
breathless and covered with perspiration. The people 
had not lost all hope, but it was feared that they would 
be obliged to give way from want of ammunition. 
They went to bed with this news, which was confirmed 
by Ary Scheffer, the painter, on the morrow : " The 
royalists are victorious," said he ; " the Parisians are 
discouraged, their defeat is certain. Thiers and 
Mignet have fled." l 

" These accounts made us feel very much troubled," 
wrote Cuvillier-Fleury. They were distressed, and 
already thought of leaving Neuilly to escape reprisals, 
but, an hour afterwards, when the family had taken 
refuge in the little castle, Princess Marie came running : 
" Victory ! victory!" she cried, "the Royal Guard 
has surrendered and is disarmed ; come back to the 
drawing-room ! " 

In the drawing-room M. Badouix gave the details 
of the great event. He had seen a battalion of the 
5th line fraternising with the people in the Rue de 
la Pepiniere, and changing their uniforms for civil 
clothing. 

After Badouix, other messengers came to announce 
the victory of the insurgents and the occupation of the 
Louvre and the Tuileries ; indeed they heard the 
battle coming nearer ; the royal troops retired in 
the direction of Saint Cloud and Boulogne ; a cannon 

1 It has been said that Thiers started for Montmorency, but Mile. 
Dosne often related (as one of her friends has assured us) how her 
brother-in-law took refuge at the house of a friend at Bessancourt. 



THK UK VOLUTION OF JULY 221 

ball fell hissing near the mansion, 1 just as the routed 
soldiers knocked at the park gates. " They opened 
thr gates and admitted them, gave them food, caps 
and blouses . . . and passed them over to the other 
side of the Seine in boats." 

In the night between Tuesday and Wednesday, 
the Due d'Orle"ans, warned by Mme. de Bondy, 
and fearing an attack upon his person, left the 
Chdteau de Neuilly and hid himself in an isolated 

iiion in the park. Only the Duchesse d'Orl^ans 
and Mademoiselle Adelaide knew his retreat, and 
secretly transmitted news of Paris to him. But 
thinking that in the excess of their displeasure the 
royalists might come and take possession of the 
Due d'Orlans by main force, Mademoiselle made 
him start for Raincy on Friday morning, accom- 
panied only by the faithful Oudart. 

The Duke was very simply dressed, and wore a 
grey hat with a tricoloured cockade, which his sister 
had given him. Princess Adelaide indeed, after the 
cannon shot fired from Courbevoie, had said to the 
Duchesse d'Orl^ans, "Ma chtre amie, from this 
m< >ment we can no longer take the others' part ; they 
massacre the people and fire upon us ... we must 
sides." And she tore up red, white, and blue 
silk materials from her wardrobe, and, with the help of 
her little nephews and nieces, manufactured national 

1 Prince de Joinville. After 1830, Mile. d'Orle'ans had an allegorical 
fountain erected on the spot where the cannon ball had fallen, on which 
were insciibed the words : "Thursday, July 29, 1830. The cannon ball, 
which is the principal motif of this bas relief, was shot into the park of 
the C li.arau of Neuilly, by troops of the Royal Guard who, repulsed from 
Paris, had retired to the wood of Boulogne." 



222 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

cockades, which she distributed herself to all the 
servants in the palace. 

After the Duke's departure, the Duchess and Made- 
moiselle remained alone in the castle, as the night 
before they had sent the Princes and Princesses in 
haste to Villiers. That day a crowd of importunate 
or zealous persons streamed through Neuilly. Thiers 
arrived on horseback towards noon with Ary Scheffer, 
the painter. Dupin and Persil had preceded him. 
" I was ushered alone into the presence of Madame la 
Duchesse d'Orleans," wrote Dupin. " When I an- 
nounced that people were turning their attention to 
the Duke, in order to confide the government of the 
affairs of State to him, she was much overcome . . . 
and said, * But the Due d'Orleans is an honest man ; 
he will not undertake anything against the King.' 
The Duchess shed tears. ... I told her I had only 
wished to inform the Due d'Orleans of what had 
passed, and expressed a desire to see Madame 
Adelaide. . . . She was much more decided. ' I do 
not know,' she said, ' what my brother will do ; but I 
know his love for his country, and think he will do 
everything that depends upon him to save it from 
anarchy. . . ." 

A few minutes afterwards Thiers and Scheffer 
received the most gracious welcome. But at the first 
words they began to utter, " Monsieur," cried the 
Duchess, addressing Scheffer, " how could you under- 
take such a mission ? That monsieur has dared to do 
so, I can conceive : he knows us little ; but you who 
have been admitted into our circle, who have had 
opportunities of understanding us ... ah ! we will 



THE REVOLUTION OF JULY 223 

r-ive this!" Whereupon, whilst the two nego- 
tiators remained speechless, Mademoiselle Adelaul'- 

aimed : " Let them make my brother a President, 
a National Guard, anything they will, provided that 
do not make him an exile!" It was an accept- 
ance. Thiers was careful, for fear of displeasing 
Marie Am^lie, not to ask anything further, and 
on taking leave turned towards Princess Adelaide : 
" Madame," said he, " you are placing the crown in 
your house ! " 

Messengers succeeded each other in the drawing- 
room. " Amongst the real friends of the family the 
two Delavignes distinguished themselves. Casimir's 
devotion was admirable, his earnest entreaties noble 
and pathetic, his prayers eloquent. The Duchess took 
his hands with emotion. " My husband feels the 
scruples of an honest man," said she ; but the more 
decided Mademoiselle remarked : "It is necessary 
that the Chamber of Deputies should come to a deci- 
sion ; that done my brother cannot hesitate, and if he 

s, I will go to Paris myself and promise in his 
name on the Place Palais Royal in the midst of the 
people and the barricades." She would have kept her 
word. She was ambitious, of an adventurous disposi- 
tion, and endowed with, great resolution. Her hatred 
for the elder branch was active ; indeed she did not 
hide it that day, and spoke of the Bourbons with such 
violence that she even astonished her hearers. 

It was settled, therefore, that the Duke should be 
informed by M. de Montesquiou of what had trans- 
pired ; besides, it seems that secret communication 
had been kept up between Neuilly and Kaincy ; and 



224 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

it has been said also that the proclamation 1 issued that 
morning from the house of Laffitte the banker had 
been inspired by Princess Adelaide. But every- 
thing that occurred that day remains shrouded in 
mystery. 

The announcement of the result of the sitting of 
the Chamber of Deputies reached Neuilly at five in the 
evening, and there the Due d'Orle"ans appeared some 
hours later. As it was necessary that his coming 
should be kept secret, he did not return to the castle. 
His wife and sister joined him " in a retired spot in 
the park," called the poteaux ronds. There they said 
good-bye, for the Prince, whose courage had been 
braced up by Mademoiselle, " soon started on foot for 
Paris, although worn out with fatigue." 

The following day, at all the cross-roads in the 
town, men were to be seen standing and read- 
ing aloud the proclamation 2 of the Due d'Orleans, 
Lieutenant-General of the Kingdom. 

They learned at the same time of the formation of 
the provisional Government. General Sebastiani, it 
was said, formed part of the new Ministry. The 
Comtesse de Boigne, who knew the hereditary aver- 
sion of Pozzo di Borgo 3 for Sebastiani, decided, on the 
advice of Pasquier, to make an attempt to see 
Princess Adelaide and prevent the General's appoint- 

1 It was the one beginning : " Charles X. cannot return to Paris ; he 
has caused the blood of the people to flow." " A republic would expose 
us to frightful dissensions ; it would embroil us with Europe. The Due 
d'Orleans is a devoted prince, c. . . ." 

2 The one ending with the words : " The Charter will henceforth be a 
reality." 

3 Russian Ambassador to France, and, like Sebastiani, of Corsican 
origin. 



THE REVOLUTION OF JULY 225 

ment if possible. She warned Mme. de Montjoie of 
\vh.it NV.IS passing, and on receipt of a note from the 

-in-waiting summoning her to Neuilly, set off on 
foot, in spite of the intolerable heat and the difficulties 
of the road. She was received by Mme. de Dolomieu 
and immediately ushered into Mademoiselle's study by 
Mme. de Montjoie. 

The Princess thanked Mme. de Boigne for her de- 
votion, and showed her, besides, a word from the Due 
d'Orlans which said : "There is no hesitating. Pozzo 
must not be alienated. S^bastiani shall not be ap- 
pointed. Try to make this known." The Comtesse 
de Boigne undertook the commission. Afterwards 
she reported to Mademoiselle the terms of the pro- 
clamation published that same morning in Paris. 
Adelaide appeared satisfied. Indeed she no longer 
dissimulated. " Her brother's intervention was neces- 
sary," said she ; "he ought to throw himself into the 
midst of the combatants to avert civil war, and take 
possession of power under the most modest title, so as 
to alarm nobody." 

Whilst she was speaking Mme. de Dolomieu 
entered. "Go quickly to my sister," then said 
Mademoiselle to the Comtesse de Boigne, " and 
try to raise her spirits ; she is in a terrible state 
of mind." 

The Duchesse d'Orldans was in her bedroom. 
"Oh! what a catastrophe, what a catastrophe!" she 
sobbed out ; "and we might have been at Eu. . . ." 
And as Mme. de Boigne, in order to "calm her a 
little," tried to compare the Due d'Orl^ans to 
William III. of England. "God forbid, God forbid, 

p 



226 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

ma chere ; they called him the Usurper!" responded 
Marie Amelie, weeping. 

The Countess then begged her " not to be so cast 
down," and even dared to advise her to go to Paris, with 
all her children in gala carriages with grand liveries. 
At this idea the Duchesse d'Orle"ans revolted. " That 
would-be very repugnant to me," said she ; "it would 
look like a kind of flaunting triumph . . . you under- 
stand ... to the others. I had much rather arrive 
at the Palais Royal without making any fuss." 

This was eventually what was decided upon, and 
that same evening at nightfall Marie Ame"lie, Made- 
moiselle, and all the children, Princesses Louise, 
Marie, and Clementine, the Dues de Nemour, 
d'Aumale, de Montpensier, and the Prince de Join- 
ville, went off to Paris to join the new Lieutenant- 
General of the kingdom. They went out of the park 
of Neuilly by the little gate leading to the Ternes 
road, and seeing a Caroline pass they got into it, 
with Messieurs de Montesquiou, de Canonville, and 
Oudart, without being recognised. The omnibus 
could not get past the Place Louis XV. on account of 
the barricades, so they had to alight ; one man even, 
while M. de Montesquiou parleyed with the insur- 
gents, aimed at the travellers. They decided, there- 
fore, " after giving a gold napoleon to the astonished 
conductor," to divide into three parties ; the Duchesse 
d'Orle"ans took Oudart's arm, Mademoiselle took the 
princesses with her, M. de Montesquiou carried the 
princes off with him. 

" Paris was very strange that evening," wrote the 
Prince de Joinville in his Souvenirs, " illuminated 



THI-: REVOLUTION OF JULY 227 

entirely by lanterns and with tricoloured flags at every 
window. . . . The streets were completely torn up, 
and all the paving stones were piled up as barricades, 
with a mixture of overturned carriages, barrels, and 
ttibris of all sorts ; behind these barriers were impro- 
vised guards, passers-by, and pedestrians armed and 
shooting guns at every instant ; everybody men and 
women alike wore gigantic tri-coloured cockades in 
their hats, caps, hoods, or in their hair. . . . Although 
it was late when we arrived the Palais Royal was all 
lighted up, and all the doors were open ; any one 
could enter who liked, and when we mounted the 
staircase many people were already settled on the 
stairs, preparing to spend the night there. . . ." 

The family entered by the stables. The Duke was 
waiting in great impatience. The drawing-rooms of 
his suite were filled with all sorts of persons, and he 
had taken refuge in his study with Dupin and General 
Se*bastiani. He was wearing the uniform of a general of 
the National Guard and the g rand cordon rouge of the 

ion cC Honneur, which, henceforth, took the place 
of that of Saint Louis. Some hours previously he 
had received consecration at the hands of the people 
at the H6tel de Ville. In fact the revolution was 
over and Princess Adelaide might rejoice, for at 
length all her dreams of fraternal ambition were 
realised. 



CHAPTER II 

Mademoiselle d* Orleans on the morning of August i, 1830 
Appearance and sentiments of the crowd Princess 
Adelaide at the Comtesse de Boignes Interview with 
Pozzo di Borgo and Pasquier Popular enthusiasm 
around the Palais Royal Mademoiselle visits the hospitals 
She induces her brother to take the title of King of the 
French Enthronement of Louis- Philippe I. His portrait 
Open house at the Palais Royal Charles X. starts for 
exile Death of the Due de Bourbon The July Revolution 
merely ended in a change in the person of the chief of the 
State. 

ON the morning of August i, Mademoiselle had risen 
very early. Established in the little gallery next to 
her study, the mirrors of which had been shattered 
and the wood-work riddled with bullets, she received 
friends of the house and partisans of her brother who, 
came to seek advice or ask for orders. The Princess 
appeared very calm and resolute, and her firmness 
contrasted with the state of excitement of those 
around her. The Duchesse d'Orleans was particu- 
larly upset, her face worn, her eyes reddened by 
tears and want of sleep. She hesitated over the 
smallest obstacles, and went to consult her sister-in- 
law every instant about the attitude she ought to 
assume. A groom of the chambers from the Duchesse 

de Berry having come for news, Marie Amelie rushed 

228 



SUCCESS OF THE REVOLUTION 229 

sobbing to Princess Adelaide to ask her advice. 

iy something polite and insignificant, but do not 
writr," Mademoiselle advised coldly; and as Louis- 
Philippe's wife went away discomfited and saddened, 
Adelaide rose hastily and reiterated: "Above all 
things, sister, do not write." 

The Duchess returned almost immediately : " Sister, 
sister," said she quite frightened, " here is Se'bastiani ; 
he is furious, you know." " I will undertake to speak 
to him," 1 replied Mademoiselle d'Orl^ans, and she 
had the General and his wife brought to her in the 
little gallery. They stayed a long while, but the 
Princess managed to calm her old friend's resentment. 
She chose the right words with which to soothe the 
cruel wounds of amour-propre, and succeeded in 
making General Se'bastiani still more attached to her. 
The latter quitted her presence, "looking very cross" 
certainly, but resolved from devotion and without 
making a fuss to give up a post he had been formally 
promised, and which he thoroughly deserved. 

Since seven o'clock that morning, Princess 
Adelaide had been trying to arrange an interview 
with the Russian Ambassador ; but Pozzo di Borgo 
thought it more prudent not to go to the Palais 
Royal, so Mademoiselle decided to make an appoint- 
ment with him at the Comtesse de Boigne's house in 
the Rue d'Anjou Saint Honore*. The Countess, who 
had been entrusted with all these negotiations, accom- 
panied the Princesse d'Orl&ins. The two women left 
the palace by the little turret staircase, attended by a 
butler, without being recognised. 

1 See for all this part Mine, de Boigne. 



2 3 o ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

It was a splendid summer day with a cloudless 
sky, but the heat was intolerably heavy. The fusillade 
had ceased, and Paris only thought of rejoicing at her 
victory. The whole town had turned out, the people 
were gaily and noisily promenading the streets, boule- 
vards, and public places. "The crowd was like an 
immense flock of sheep whose shepherds had been 
driven away. . . . There was no ill-feeling whatever, 
though at times a panic seized the people, who took to 
their heels without knowing why, then paused and 
began to laugh. 1 Of course there was a good deal of 
drinking, indeed the pavements, barricades, and road- 
way looked like one immense wine-shop where they 
danced and sang and got drunk. The crowds 
laughed, and their laughter was sincere, for they had 
forgotten the massacres of the previous day, and were 
amused at sight of the felled trees, overturned lamp- 
posts, and houses riddled with bullets. The patrols 
which passed were composed of improvised soldiers 
dressed merely in shirt and trousers, who had appro- 
priated some of the helmets and cuirasses which were 
" piled up everywhere, in the artillery museum amongst 
other places." 

Draping the houses, serving as ensigns to shops 
(where the word " royal " had been effaced), crowning 
the piles of paving stones which barred the streets, 
dominating all edifices flags, streamers, oriflammes 
floated in the wind, flaming in the sun. The three 
colours brightened up women's bodices, encircled 
their waists, tied their hair ; ribbons in buttonholes, 
cockades in hats, they became standards again in the 

1 Prince de Joinville, Vieux Souvenirs. 



MICCESS OF THE REVOLUTION 231 

hands of men and children who carried them like a 
toy long desired and obtained at length. 

The gates in the Tuileries garden on the Place 
Louis XV. side being shut, Mademoiselle d'Orteans 
and the Comtesse de Boigne were obliged to retrace 
their steps and go along the Rue de Rivoli. They 
discussed the political situation as they walked, and 
the Princess promised her support to Chateaubriand 
and Glandeves, whom her friend recommended to her. 
When passing Talleyrand's house, Rue Saint Flor- 
entin, Adelaide shrank back trying to hide herself, 
saying : " I do not want the lame old man to see 
me." They crossed the Place Louis XV. without 
difficulty. At the Rue des Champs Elyse*es the 
Countess stopped at the porter's lodge at the Russian 
Embassy, while Mademoiselle pursued her way to the 
Rue d'Anjou. She had scarcely got there when Pozzo 
arrived and was ushered into the drawing-room, where 
she was. The interview lasted a very long time, and, 
when it was over, Baron Pasquier being informed that 
the Princess would see him, came into her presence. 

On the way back to the Palais Royal in a 
wretched cab that they had had much trouble in 
finding Mademoiselle communicated her impressions 
to the Comtesse de Boigne. She seemed very pleased 
to have met Pasquier. " One can see," said she, " that 
he is a man accustomed to look at questions from all 
points of view . . . but one can also see that he is not 
in a hurry to commit himself. He has evidently been 
in many revolutions and distrusts them. . . . 

41 But with our good Pozzo I am delighted. He 
is perfect, my dear Madame de Boigne, perfect, he is 



232 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

quite one of us. ... I am in a hurry for him to see 
my brother, and hope to arrange a meeting for next 
evening." 

The carriage stopped in the Rue de Valois. The 
Palais Royal had a devastated look, as advantage had 
been taken of the sojourn at Neuilly to do some 
repairs, and the parqueterie, furniture, and hangings 
had been removed. " All kinds of people " were to be 
met with picnicing in all the rooms ; delegations kept 
coming from the Hotel de Ville to salute the Lieu- 
tenant-G^neral, and tramped coolly through the draw- 
ing-rooms where " people embraced each other with 
fervour." l A sudden clamour would arise from the 
Place. People called for the Due d'Orleans, who 
appeared at a window surrounded by his family. 
They cried : " Vive le Due, vive le Lieutenant-General, 
vive la Duchesse ! " and Princess Adelaide, on her 
brother's left, bowed proudly and happily, for was it 
not her work that they were applauding? The 
Duchess, on the contrary, forced herself to smile at 
these people who mingled their cries of joy with 
outrages and blasphemy. 

Then a voice intoned the Marseillaise, the re- 
volutionary hymn, which was listened to bare- 
headed in silence till everybody in chorus took up 
the inspiriting refrain. Then louder shouts were 
heard ; a delegation passed which every one wanted 
to accompany inside the Palais Royal ; and often to 
please the multitude the Due d'Orleans, Marie Ame"lie, 

1 Prince de Joinville. A virago in tight trousers was presented by 
the pupils of the Ecole Polytechnique to Marie Amelie and Madame 
Adelaide, who were obliged to receive her kindly. 



SUCCESS OF TIII: REVOLUTION 233 

Mademoiselle Adelaide, the princes and princesses 
stood on the balcony before everybody embracing 
the men, women, and children who came to see the 
master they had just given themselves in his own 
home. Whereupon a frantic enthusiasm would take 
possession of all the people, who shouted, cheered, 
clapped their hands, and stamped their feet. Intense 
joy filled the place whence a thousand arms were 
raised towards the Palais Royal. Hats flew about in 
the air, handkerchiefs were waved, and the Lieutenant- 
Gnral threw copies of the proclamation (posted up 
that same day in the streets of Paris) to the delirious 
crowd. People pushed and scrambled round the 
palace so as to reach those little squares of paper, 
just as in villages, on fair days, simple peasants gather 
round the gilded carriage of the mountebank who 
distributes magic prospectuses, promising to cure all 
maladies. 

In the evening Paris was illuminated with tri- 
coloured lamps and lanterns, and thousands of voices 
in the streets sang La Parisienne 

" Soldat du drapeau tricolore, 
& Or Hans, toi qui Fas portc . . ." l 

and were only silenced by a tremendous storm which 
burst over the town that night. 

But they could not rejoice for ever. There had 
been numerous victims of the " three glorious " days. 
The dead had been buried in silence, now the wounded 
must be looked after. The hospitals were crowded 

1 The words of L<i 1'iirisicnnc were by Casimir Delavigne : 

ildier of the tricoloured flag, 
D'Orlcans, you who have carried it. . . ." 



234 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

with them there were 500 at the Hotel Dieu, 100 
at the Charite", 200 at the Gros-Caillou, 80 at the 
Beaujon Hospital, 50 at Val - de - Grace. It was 
resolved at the Palais Royal to pay them a solemn 
visit. The Duchesse d'Orle*ans, Mademoiselle Ade"- 
laide, the Princesses Marie and Clementine went to 
the Hotel Dieu. Marie Ame"lie, who was uncalcu- 
latingly sympathetic, stopped beside the first wounded 
men chance placed in her way. They were Royal 
Guards. " Is it to console our enemies that these 
ladies come?" asked a July combatant, whose bed 
was decorated with tricoloured flags. Mademoiselle 
d'Orteans overheard the question, and went up to this 
sick man who was so much more interesting than the 
others. " Where are you from ? " she asked. " From 
Randan." "Ah! so much the better. My country 
house is there ; you will spend your convalescence 
in it, will you not ? " 

The misery was great in Paris ; the revolution 
having brought about an exodus of capital, com- 
mercial relations were interrupted, and workshops 
had for the most part closed their doors. " Each 
day added to the distress of the people " ; bread was 
already lacking, immediate help was necessary. The 
Duchesse d'Orl^ans sold scrip which came from her 
dowry, and Princess Adelaide, more generous still, 
borrowed money to help the unfortunates, but either 
from characteristic meanness, from prudence, or an 
exaggerated sense of order, she required a receipt 
from all persons who were assisted by her. 1 

1 Appert. It was he whom the Princess commanded to demand a 
receipt from the persons helped. 



ABDICATION OF CHARLES X. 235 

On the morning of August 4, General cle Latour- 

:isac came to the Palais Royal, bringing the act of 
abdication of Charles X. and the Due d'Angoul^me. 
An inflexible order prevented the King's envoy from 
being received by the Lieutenant-General. But, as 
M. de Latour- Fronsac was entrusted with two 
letters one from Mme. de Gontaut, the other from 
Mademoiselle d'Artois, addressed to the Duchesse 
d'Orle*ans he succeeded after earnest entreaties in 
seeing Marie Ame'lie, who still repeated that her 
husband was an honest man and would remain 
faithful to his oath. 

He was nothing of the kind. Long ago, from 
the very beginning, the Due d'Orldans had "brushed 
aside all scruples." He no longer hesitated to accept 
the crown ; but he was harassed by the difficulty of 
stipulating the conditions upon which the new Govern- 
ment should be based. 

The Due de Broglie and Comte Mole*, partisans of 
a "quasi-legitimacy," proposed that Philippe d'Orle"ans 
should be called to the throne because he was a 
Bourbon ; Odillon Barrot, Laffitte, and in particular, 
Dupin (who was supported by Princess Adelaide), 
wanted to break down all bonds between the old 
and new regimes, so that Louis-Philippe, although 
a Bourbon, became not King of France by the grace 
of God but King of the French by the will of the 
nation. This was mere quibbling, still, beneath these 
w>r<Js the Liberals fancied they would find guarantees ; 
and in spite of the Due d'Orleans' secret desire to 
" re-forge the chain of time " broken by a Revolution 
effected with shouts of " Down with the Bourbons ! " 



236 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

it was no longer possible to do otherwise. Besides, 
Louis-Philippe had allowed it to be posted on the 
walls of Paris that he was a Valois, and all the papers 
had freely published, coupled with loathsome outrages 
against the Duchesse de Berry, the article which had 
appeared in the Morning Chronicle in 1820, protesting 
against the birth of the Due de Bordeaux. 1 

Mile. d'Orleans' opinion prevailed without difficulty. 
It was the only reasonable one, and was besides 
supported by the young Due de Chartres, who 
arrived in Paris at the head of his regiment with 
the tricoloured flag unfurled, on the morning of 
August 3. 

The future monarchy had thus conciliated the 
advanced parties ; it tried to attract all the men 
whom Louis XVIII., or Charles X. had disgusted. 
Mademoiselle was entrusted by her brother with a 
mission to Chateaubriand. The old writer refused 
all the posts that were offered to him. " Pity me, 
Madame, pity me," said he to the Duchesse d'Orleans, 
who was present at the interview. " I do not pity 
you, Monsieur de Chateaubriand, I do not pity 
you," responded Princess Adelaide acrimoniously, 
for she did not understand that there could be 
scruples of conscience and the feeling of sanctity 
for an oath. 

On August 7, the Chamber adjourned in a body 
to the Palais Royal. The Due d'Orleans was waiting 
surrounded by his family. " I receive with deep 

1 The Constitution^^ a journal absolutely devoted to the Due 
d'Orleans, said that the origin of the Due de Bordeaux was "more than 
doubtful." 



LOUIS-PHILIPPK KING 

emotion the declaration with which you present me," 
the Duke replied to M. Laffttte, President of the 
Chamber, who had just read " the bill of rights of 
I regard it as an expression of the National 
will, and it seems to me in conformity with the political 
principles I have professed all my life. . . ." Cries of 
"Vive le rot!" made the vaults of the palace which 
the Regent had inhabited ring again, and two days 
later these same cries welcomed the Lieutenant- 
General at the Chambre des De'pute's. 

In the hall of stances, they had raised a throne, 
draped with tri-coloured flags and surmounted by a 
red velvet canopy. The princesses were in the 
tribunes. The Deputies and Peers rose when Louis- 
Philippe entered with the Due de Chartres on his 
right and the Due de Nemours on his left. The 
cannon boomed. The three princes seated themselves 
on folding chairs which had been placed below the 
velvet canopy. Casimir PeVier read the declaration 
of the Chambre des De'pute's in a firm voice, Pasquier 
that of the Chambre des Pairs. Thereupon, Louis- 
Philippe signed the two declarations and mounted 
the throne. 

The new King was fifty-six years old. Tall and 
robust, in spite of his massive exterior he still appeared 
young on account of the agility of his movements and 
his easy carriage. His face was broad and fat ; thick 
whiskers framed his cheeks, and his great prominent 
eyes were lacking in expression. 

He affected a slightly vulgar laisser-aller, and 
his attire was neglected ; he preferred civilian dress 
to brilliant uniforms. Nankin trousers strapped under 



238 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

the boot, a blue coat with gold buttons, a large white 
waistcoat, a grey hat and but only in the beginning 
of his reign an umbrella which has become legendary. 
He had the appearance of a peaceable National Guard 
and the qualities of a shopkeeper in the Marais. He 
was a bourgeois without greatness or nobility of soul, 
who regulated his expenditure if not with avarice at least 
with parsimony. His love of money, his excessive 
fondness for lawsuits, his habits of work and order 
made his fortune ; and he gained the throne by his 
duplicity, the cleverness of his manoeuvres, and the 
hollowness of his flatteries. He took advantage of 
subterfuges, knew how to feign sentiments he did 
not possess, and never shrank from the pettiness of 
any expedient whereby he might achieve his end. 
The confidence he had in himself made him con- 
temptuous of other men. He had great courage, but 
no firmness of character, and more finesse than large- 
ness of mind. He was domineering and authoritative, 
yet wished to appear conciliating and liberal ; his 
religious scepticism and the recollections of his youth 
had never effaced in him the prejudices of birth and 
the vanities of caste. With sound sense and clearness 
of view he lacked resolution, hesitated, temporised, 
eluded, held aloof and avoided committing himself 
completely ; and but for Princess Adelaide, who liked 
to come forward whilst her brother thought it clever 
to hold back, whose conduct was valiant and her 
ambition restless, he would never have decided to 
accept the crown after having intrigued for fifteen 
years to try and obtain it. 

Every evening for more than a month crowds 



LOUIS-PHILIPPE KING 239 

red under tin- windows of th<- P.ilais Royal 
and called for the royal family, which showed itself 
on the balcony each time. Delegations from all the 
departments in the State succeeded one another at 
the palace. To the speech made by Dupin (President 
of the order of advocates) on August 10, who came 
at the head of the bar, the King responded that he 
loved liberty and respected the laws ; and as Dupin 
taking leave, Princess Adelaide took his hand 
and said : " Ah ! yes, Monsieur Dupin, you know 
our sentiments ! " 

There was open house at the Palais Royal ; two 
or three times a week sixty or eighty persons of all 
ranks sat down at the " King's table." The society 
was very mixed. The table was at all times perfectly 
served, "the wines old, delicious, and of excellent 
quality," wrote Appert greedily; "the King/' he 
added, " looks after his guests in a very bourgeois 
way." At one of these dinners, August 20, the 
commissioners who had been deputed to accompany 
the retreating Charles X. were present. They de- 
scribed that lugubrious journey. The deposed King 
travelled slowly, surrounded by his civil and military 
household. He had preserved all his serenity and 
preceded the cortege on horseback, often in spite of 
pouring rain. The princesses were sad, especially 
the hard and haughty Dauphine who, shut up within 
herself, remained unapproachable. In most of the 
villages they passed through, the exiles met with 
silent pity and consideration, and when the young 
Due de Bordeaux and Mademoiselle put their fair 

Is out of the carriage window, and kissed their 



240 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

hands to the crowd as they had been taught to do, 
they were greeted with bravos. 1 

This solemn journey, which Charles X. was obliged 
to hasten in obedience to his cousin's impatience, came 
to an end at Cherbourg. At the moment of em- 
barking, the sobbing princesses embraced several of 
the officers ; the old King saluted the standards, then, 
when the anchor had been raised, he went on to the 
bridge, and with a grand gesture, at once noble and 
beautiful, made his adieu to France. 

While Charles X. was solemnly journeying towards 
exile, the new King, the Queen, and Mile. d'Orl&ms 
Mme. Adelaide 2 henceforth rejoiced in their victory. 
The royal family walked about Paris seeking ovations 
from the populace, and went to the theatre where the 
Marseillaise and the Parisienne were sung every 
evening by an actor. The desire to be popular 
" severed the bonds of relationship " and made them 
forgetful of seemliness. Thus in spite of the death 
of the Due de Bourbon, August 27, the princesses 
were present on the 2Qth in mourning but with great 
pomp at the review of the Parisian Guards on the 
Champs de Mars, and the presentation of the tri- 
coloured flags to the troops by the King. They 
remained for six hours on the balcony at the Ecole 
Militaire, continually bowing their acknowledgments 
to the crowd which cheered them. 

The tragic end of the Due de Bourbon, last of 

1 Odilon Barrot, Memoires. With Marechal Maison, de Schonen, and 
La Pommeraie, he was deputed by Louis-Philippe to accompany Charles 
X. as far as Cherbourg. 

2 An ordinance of August 14 made Princesse Adelaide Madame^ 
and the Due de Chartres Due d Orleans. 



THE DUG PI- BOURBON 241 

the Conds crime or suicide, will it ever be known 
which :> brought an immense fortune into the hands 
of his heir, the Due d'Ainn.ilr. 1 By what equivocal 
solicitude, what devious ways, what disloyal practices, 
what perfidious machinations, had the prejudices of 
the chief of the emigration towards the man who 
prided himself upon having fought at Jemmapes, and 
of being the son of Philippe- Iigalite', been overcome? 
The basest flatteries were lavished upon the old Duke's 
mistress. They fawned upon the prottgde to please 
the protector. Louis- Philippe, Marie Amelie, and 
Adelaide surpassed themselves in their assiduous 
attentions to a prostitute, whom the allurements of 
gain rendered dear to them. 2 

Mme. de Feucheres, when she went to Neuilly 
or to the Palais Royal, saw the place of honour re- 
served for her; she had succeeded even, thanks to 
the reiterated entreaties of the Due d'Orle"ans, his wife, 
and sister, in getting herself received at the court of 
King Charles X., 3 and the princesses of Orleans did 
not spare their visits to her. 



1 It was at the christening of the Due d'Aumale, whose godparents 
Princess Adelaide and the Due de Bourbon were, that Mme. de 
heres (the tetter's mistress) appeared for the first time at the 
Palais Royal. 

* The Revolution of 1848 brought to light thirty-two letters exchanged 
between Louis-Philippe, Marie Ame'lie, the Due de Bourbon, and Mme. 
de Feucheres. The envelope containing these letters bore these words 
in Mme. Adelaide's handwriting : "Affaire de M. le Due de Bourbon." 

3 The repugnance of Charles X. was overcome, thanks to the 
Duchesse d'Orleans and Adelaide. "Mme. la Duchesse d'Orle'ans and 
my sister," wrote Louis-Philippe to Mme. de Feucheres, " have not been 
useless (in the admission of Sophie Daws to court) ; they depute me to 
congratulate you for them, and to tell you how pleased they have been." 

The conduct of the Orleans family towards Mme. de Feucheres, 



242 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

Adelaide went the oftenest. 1 She took her god- 
son, the little Due d'Aumale, with her, and placed 
him on the lap of the courtesan, to whom besides she 
did not fail to address the most fulsome compliments. 
" Mon Dieu, how beautiful she is! Do look at her, 
is it possible to be lovelier ? " 

After the death of the Due de Bourbon, and in 
spite of the suspicions hanging over her, Mme. de 
Feucheres continued to be received at the court of 
the King of the French, and though the accusations 
in circulation reached Louis-Philippe indirectly, he 
took care not to refuse a heritage so long coveted, 
and which, besides, increased the growing prosperity 
of his house. 

Everything, in short, succeeded with the children 
of Philippe-Egalite. They had money and power. 
Forgetful of his origin, the citizen-king, seconded by 
Princess Adelaide, no longer sought for anything 
save to increase his fortune still more, and prepare 
the way, by devious methods, for what was called 
" personal government." The required oath forced the 
Legitimists to give up their seats in Parliament, the 
administration was monopolised, the National Guards 
became masters of the streets, and the riots in October 
17, 1830, and February 15, 1831, were repressed with 
violence. During that time Louis-Philippe flattered 

however blamable in itself, in no way differed from that observed 
towards other royal mistresses, and the chief reason why it excites the 
indignation of M. Arnaud seems to be the fact that the Due de Bourbon 
took his lady love from off the streets of London. (Translator's note.) 

1 Billault de Gerainville gives a letter from Adelaide to Mme. de 
Feucheres, dated September 25, 1829, and Lasalle a reply from the Due 
de Bourbon to the Princess, September 16, 1829. 



LOUIS PHILIPPE KING 243 

thr v.inity of the middle classes by his pretended sim- 
plicity, ;uul while conciliatory about everything which 
concerned his dignity, showed himsdf intractable for 
all that mi^lit in the slightest degree lessen his autho- 
rity or diminish the extent of his property. Then, 
doubtless "in order to re-forge the chain of time," he 
settled with his family, first at Saint Cloud, and after- 
wards at the Tuileries. 1 It is true that the day they 
entered this palace Princess Adelaide wore the Re- 
volutionary colours, "a sky-blue dress, a white can- 
nezou, and an amaranth hat." But the people were 
no longer taken in by superficial forms of Liberalism, 
and seeing that the July days had ended "simply in a 
change in the person of the chief of the State," they 
re venged themselves by singing: 

" On ne peut pas m'en faire accroire, 
Peyronnet valait un Dupin. 
Tintin, tintin, tintaine, tintin. 
Charles X. valait une poire, 
Et Caroline une Atthalin. 
Tintin, tintaine, tintin" - 

1 The eve of the day on which Louis-Philippe settled at the Tuileries 
he said to Odilon Barrot : " Do they not know that on every one of 
the walls of that fatal palace are written the misfortunes of my family? " 
and he added that in spite of the ministers he would never live in it. 
* I am not to be taken in Peyronnet was worth a Dupin Jingle, 
le, jangle, jingle Charles X. was worth a pear (i.e. Louis-Philippe) 
And Caroline an Atthalin (Mme. Adelaide was said to be secretly 
married to General Atthalin) Jingle, jangle, jingle. 



CHAPTER III 

Popularity of Mademoiselle d Orleans Her enemies attack her 
violently The Princess's toilettes Her tastes Mme. 
Messalina Athalie de Bourbon Presumed liaison be- 
tween Mme. Adelaide and General Atthalin -The children 
she might have had by him Madame s parsimony Her 
household Her charities The Hospice d'Enghien The 
Princess's attachment to her friends She hates etiquette 
" Bourgeois " life at the Tuileries Louis-Philippe's chil- 
dren Mme. Adelaide reproaches the Due d 1 Orleans for 
his opposition to the King's Government. 

THE people of Paris were not ignorant of the part 
Mme. Adelaide had taken in the July days. When 
she went out driving she was cheered, and the numer- 
ous delegations which succeeded one another at the 
Palais Royal, after the three glorious days, always 
asked to be presented to her. She kept up the loyalty 
of the delegates, thanked them, and gave tricoloured 
flags. In newspapers and speeches they did not fail 
to speak of her, and to call her the " august sister of 
the citizen-king, the benevolent, liberal-minded prin- 
cess, so good, so charitable, endowed with all the 
combined virtues." l Deputations from the depart- 
ments came to salute her at all hours ; and on the day 

1 See, for example, M. Auguste Barbel's speech, who came to compli- 
ment the King, August n, 1830, at the head of the deputation from the 
Seine Inferieure. (Journal des Debats.) 

244 



I'OITLAKITY OF PRINCESS 245 

of her fete the detachment of the National Guards on 
duty at the Palais Royal or at Neuilly offered her 
baskets of flowers. Concerts lasting several hours 
were organised under the windows of her apartments. 
Couplets were sung in the streets in her honour ; a 
stanza was presented to her on 4< polished vellum " 
by M. Kerimadoux de Kerlanfle* : 

" O toi princesse^ en qui toute sagesse brille> 
Tu surpasses, dit-on, encore ta famille 
En tendresse^ en amour pour la liberte sainte, 
La bonte> la vertu dont tons tes traits sont peintes. 
De la Revolution sincere partisane^ 
Ne crois pas que pour fa ma Muse te condamne ! 
Et comment autrement cela pourrait-il etre ? 
& Orleans fut ton pere et Petion fut ton maitre." 

These verses were not very beautiful, but the naive 
rhymes, or rather the servile flattery they exhibited, 
doubtless pleased Mme. Adelaide, for she had one 
hundred and fifty copies printed and distributed 
among her faithful followers. 

But this cheering, homage, and praise was not 
without its counterblast in the terrible attacks which 
appeared in the opposition papers. The Legitimists 
especially Carlists, Mme. Adelaide called them 
were remarkable for their violence. They did not 
forgive the daughter of Egalite' her hatred of the 
Bourbons and her decided attitude on the day after the 
Revolution which had dethroned Charles X. Mme. 

1 Oh ! thou, Princess, in whom all wisdom shines Thou dost sur- 
pass, they say thy family In tenderness, in love for holy liberty Good- 
ness, virtue are depicted in thy face A sincere partisan of the Revolu- 
tion Do not think my Muse condemns thee for that ! How could it 
be otherwise P D'Orldans was thy father, and Potion thy master. 



246 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

Adelaide was scoffed at, defamed, vilified. She was 
railed at without measure, wounded in her womanly 
modesty, insulted in her honour. 

She could not go out without her dresses, often 
in fact, ridiculous enough, being described with 
ironical complacency in the gazettes. It is true she 
was fond of startling jewellery, feathers, and flounces, 
and that she did not always choose the colours which 
suited her best. The grotesque garb in which she 
tricked herself out the day of the inauguration of the 
Tuileries in 1831 is known; that same year, on the 
occasion of Marie Amelie's fete, she was dressed in 
a horrible gown she had been seen wearing at one 
of the ceremonies connected with the coronation of 
Charles X., a simple Bareges material " with mixed 
stripes of deep yellow, black, deep red, and carme- 
lite." Her headdress, too, was ornamented with "an 
extraordinary amount of " the most beautiful violet 
" feathers." 1 

She was laughed at for the spots on her face, the 
reddish-brown complexion inherited from her father, 
and this sufficed to lay her open to the accusation of 
an inordinate love of wine and spirits. Hence rude 
jests, which were current in Paris and got into the 
papers, and which, though mere inventions in the 
worst possible taste and vulgar buffooneries, were 
accompanied by scandalous libels. 

1 La Mode, 1831. "The Queen wore a dress of white syrnakas, with 
a cannezou of a new and very distinguished cut, and a hat with white 
feathers lightly tinged with green. The young princesses had costumes 
of organdi muslin, without embroideries or trimmings, except a cerise 
sash for Mile, de Chartres, Swedish blue for Mile, de Valois, white for 
Mile, de Beaujolais." 



LEGITIMIST SLANDERS 

In spite of the trial with closed doors (commanded 
by tin- King) of the author of a basely calumnious 
pamphlet, and his condemnation to two months' 
imprisonment, 1 the insults became more and more 
violent. The Princess was taxed with shameless 
conduct ; in the libels directed against her, she 
was called Madame Messalina, and they dared 
to accuse her of a liaison with the Kin-. This 
odious and cowardly calumny was doubtless the 
one which caused the Princess most pain, for 
she had the liveliest and purest affection for her 
brother. 

Nothing besides appears to justify these attacks ; 
Mme. Adelaide, though doubtless not altogether 
untouched by passion, had not the character of a 
grande amonreuse ; she was above all things a 
" statesman," passionately interested in public affairs, 
and in spite of her fondness for her brother, 
"she showed more concern for the country than 
for the sovereign." Her greatest pleasure was, 
surrounded by the books and austere furniture of 
her study, to talk politics with her faithful followers, 
and discuss with Talleyrand the difficulties raised 
by the ill-will of Nicolas I., or the enthronement of 
the little Queen Isabella in Spain. 

The newspapers, however, never ceased to com- 
pare her to a Messalina, and to reproach her for her 
bad behaviour. They had nicknamed her Madame 

1 It has not been possible to find a trace of this trial which took 
place i /, ami of which the greater number ol rs made 

mention at the end of May 1833. 

8 Comtesse de Mirabeau, I* rrince de Talleyrand ct la maison 
dOrL 



248 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

Atthalin 1 or Athalie de Bourbon, an allusion to 
the morganatic union she was supposed to have 
contracted with General Atthalin, being fascinated 
by the physical attractions of the " handsomest man 
in the French army." It is a fact, on the one 
hand, that the whole court talked openly of this 
secret marriage, which was never officially denied, 
as were the similar rumours current in 1814 re- 
specting Raoul de Montmorency ; 2 and, on the 
other hand, that Atthalin, having wedded Frangoise 
Therese Lelandais, December 19, 1836, could not 
have been regularly married to Mme. Adelaide. 

What, besides, was the character of the inter- 
course which drew the General and the Princess 
together ? That is not easy to determine ; but it 
is not without significance to note that Baron 
Atthalin was fifty-two years old at the time 3 of 
his marriage to Mile. Lelandais, and that, in spite 
of gossip, he always remained attached to the court 
of Louis- Philippe, where he was noted for "his 
rather proud gravity, the amenity of his language, 
and his distinction." In the obituary notice pub- 
lished in the Ddbats, October 14, 1856, Cuvillier-Fleury 
described him as possessing ''delicate judgment, 
exquisite taste, infallible tact." He was " a clever 
draughtsman, and won the Salon medal in 1819, 
and would have been one of the great artists of 

1 " Smir de Louis Philippe et femme d' Atthalin 
Altessejacobine et, qui plus est, eating 

(MS. song preserved in the Municipal Library of Paris.) 

2 Madame de Boigne 

3 He was born June 22, 1784. 



ALLEGED MARRIAGE 

his country if he had not been one of the most 
renowned officers in his branch of the service." 

Appointed field-marshal by Louis-Philippe after 
1830, he was placed at the head of the King's house- 
hold. "Nobody," wrote Cuvillier-Fleury, "combined 
less flattery with more amiability, or remained in- 
dependent with a better grace. It was conscien- 
tiousness applied to everything, to small things as 
well as great," and in that respect he resembled 
the master he served, for it was said that Atthalin 
was a medal bearing the King's effigy. 

It has been asserted that Mme. Adelaide had 
several children by General Atthalin, but all the 
information on this subject is contradictory. One 
writer mentions a son and daughter, another a 
daughter only, a third two boys and a girl. The 
Quotidienne, a Legitimist journal, and the Mode, a 
weekly review in the pay of the Duchesse de Berry, 
even pretended that the Princess had had a child 
in England in 1793, when she was not sixteen 
years old and had lived continually at Bellechasse ! 
But this is certainly a wilful confusion either with 
the Chevalier d'Orle"ans, natural son of Philippe- 
Egalite and Mme. de Buffon, or a child which the 
Due de Montpensier had in London after 1800. 

Those who have written on the subject in our 
days have shown themselves to be either too 
partial or too discreet. In the Intermtdiaire dcs 
ckcrchcnrs ct curicux of March 30, 1899, one reads, 
under the signature H.T., that of the secret marriage 
between Princess Adelaide and Atthalin there was 
Lehr, L* Alsace noble. 



250 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

issue one boy and one girl. And the author, having 
given details of the mysterious upbringing of these 
two children by Granville fisher-folk, informs us 
that the son, under the name of Rey, became a 
surveyor of taxes at Dijon, and that the girl married 
a rich auditor of the Conseil d' lit at, M. Laurent, 
and had four children, one of whom holds a high 
position in the magistrature at the present time. 
It would be impossible to confuse more thoroughly 
the real facts of a case which is far simpler and 
less romantic. General Atthalin's sister married 
Colonel Laurent of Colmar. Of this marriage there 
was a daughter, who became Mme. de Dartein, 
and a son (born 1818) who became auditor of 
the Conseil d^Etat, and married Mile. Rey, with 
whom he had four children. He and his sister 
inherited General Atthalin's fortune. 

Philibert Audebrand, from whom we quote the 
following passage, 1 does not explain how the lady 
mentioned could be, as he affirms, the daughter 
of the Princesse d'Orldans. 

" Madame Adelaide's daughter was a charming 
woman, with a pleasant face and highly distinguished 
mind. She had been brought up in England whence, 
later on, she was obliged to return to France under 
a name which I do not feel it right to divulge here. 
Towards 1840 she was married to a talented artist 
and had two sons. Both of them entered the army 
and became officers. Left a widow she married 
for the second time a naval surgeon, who was ap- 
pointed physician-in-ordinary to an Oriental Prince. 

1 Printed in L! Intenntdiaire des chercheitrs et curieux, June 22, 1899. 



ALLEGED MARRIAGE 

She left France to establish herself with her second 
husband at a court in Asia Minor. That is fifty 
years ago. Is she living still ? I could not say, 
and am inclined to think that she is no longer in 
touch with Europe. 

" When I had the honour of being presented to 
her, she resided at Villa Lutoetiana, Faubourg 
Poissonniere, a very fine private hospital, with a 
garden where tolerated by Louis-Philippe's Govern- 
ment shelter was given to journalists condemned for 
Press delinquencies ; where young society women, 
after some infringement of the marriage contract, 
waited for a decree of separation ; and where 
contemplative widows grew old in a quiet shady 
corner. It was, indeed, an oasis with water and 
trees ! 

" Mme. X., who was a very good musician, was 
supposed to be patronised by Marie Am^lie, and 
went three times a week to the Tuileries where she 
gave music lessons to the princesses daughters of 
the King. This provided her with an honourable 
subsidy upon which to live and maintain her position. 
It goes without saying that she never spoke of the 
royal family save in terms of the greatest tenderness 
and respect. 

"A woman of the world, fond of the arts, poetry, 
music, and fine prose, she had created a little salon 
for herself very simple but comfortably arranged 
where she received once a week. As a rule her 
modest court was composed of the boarders in the 
house. It was a curious thing that most of those 
gathered there were republicans and persons most 



252 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

hostile to the dynasty, such as my friend, Pierre 
Joigneaux the future senator of the Cote d'Or 
and the writer of these lines ; but like Daniel in 
the lions' den, Mme. X. possessed in the highest 
degree the art of appeasing the anger of wild 
beasts." 

It seems wiser on the whole, not to form any 
opinion upon a subject profitable to pamphleteers 
and the delight of scandalmongers, but which, 
after all, is of no great interest to the historian. 

Mme. Adelaide was also reproached for her 
avarice and " inordinate thirst for riches." Truth 
to say, the Princess's character in this respect did 
not differ from hereditary traditions, nor was she 
endowed more exceptionally than other members 
of her family with the special qualities which con- 
tribute to the rapid accumulation, preservation, and 
prosperous development of a large fortune. 

Her flatterers excused her. If she economised, 
said they, it was because " she mistrusted the un- 
known," and if she demanded discount from trades- 
men, it was because " her exact mind liked to 
account for everything." 1 Her taste, indeed, had 
nothing refined about it, her expenses nothing 
excessive. Living with the King, she had no 
luxuries, no table to provide for, no carriages, and 
one knows that her gowns were seldom renewed. 

When, in 1824, diverse heritages permitted her 
to have a private household, she took as major- 
domo Alexandre Pieyre, the son of a draper, a 
draper himself; as first gentleman the Vicomte 

1 Dupin, Memoir vs. 



ALLEGED MARRI^CI 253 

du Authirr; as lady-in-waiting the Comtesse de 
Montjoie; and as lady-companion Zcphyrinc dr la 
Tour du Pin. After 1830, she added a Chevalier 
d'Honneur the Comte Alfred de Chastellux, son 
of the marquis, and another lady-companion the 

:itesse de Saint-Mauris. 1 She had only twelve 
or fifteen horses for the members of her suite, and 
a dozen maids, footmen, and grooms. 

M. Lamy, who had replaced his uncle Pieyre, 
had three employes and a clerk under him. He 
looked after Madame's interests with great care. 
A good education, total absence of ambition, pro- 
found respect and humble attachment to H.R.H., 
an almost extreme punctiliousness in the discharge 
of his duties, a keen mind beneath a very simple 
exterior, made of him an excellent private secre- 
tary. Excessively prudent as he was, the safety 
of his cash-box preoccupied him greatly, says 
Appert. 

Princess Adelaide's real worth consisted in what 
lay beneath the surface ; and although her charity 
was carefully regulated it excepted nobody. Out 
of her annual revenues (which were considerable, 
if we may trust Appert, who says they amounted 
to 800,000 francs, and she left an income of 3,000,000 
to her nephews!) she distributed a sixth in charity, 
pensions, the encouragement of artists, men of 
letters, and on her schools and hospitals. 

She founded a school for / ' enseignement mutuel at 
Randan, and built a church there which cost 35,000 

1 Later on she added the Comtesse de Chasterac and Mme. de 
nsac. 



254 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

francs ; patronised the asylums for children ; * sent 
help to unemployed workmen; 2 pensioned the July 
combatants, 3 helped the peasants ruined by fires and 
inundations, 4 distributed considerable sums amongst 
the families of drowned sailors, 5 and did not forget 
the poor. 6 

In August 1830 she had meat and linen distributed ; 
and during the cholera epidemic in 1832, gave more 
than 500,000 francs in help. 

Through her aunt she possessed a very fine house 
in the Rue de Varenne. In the out-buildings of this 
house the Duchesse de Bourbon had founded a 
hospital, and Mile. d'Orleans, wishing to extend the 
scope of this work, bought a large house and garden 
at Picpus, and organised the Hospice d'Enghien on a 
large scale. As to the house, she lent it to the mayor 
of the Xth Arrondissement for giving balls and cor- 
poration banquets. 

According to Appert, she was " frank and sincere " 

1 March 17, 1833, she gave 1000 francs to support establishments 
opened in Paris for young children from two to seven years old ; July 18, 
1834, 300 francs to the asylum at Rouen, &c. 

2 December 8, 1836, 10,000 francs to Lyons workmen, and 500 francs 
May 3, 1837. 

3 July 1 8, 1832, she sent 2000 francs to the committee, having as 
object the gratuitous instruction of children of the July combatants. 
August 21, 1834, she sent 300 francs to Mile. Lepelletier who had zeal- 
ously nursed the wounded in 1830. 

4 100 francs, July 18, 1834, to the burnt-out people of Villars (Seine 
et Oise), and August 21, 300 francs to those of Puy-de-D6me, &c. 
November 12, 1840, she sent 50,000 francs to the victims of the inunda- 
tions (the Queen had only given 25,000 francs). 

5 1000 francs to families of sailors drowned in the dock at Arcachon, 
April 1835, and 5 francs, January 29, 1842, to those of the sailors 
wrecked in the Teste-de-Buch. 

6 300 francs to the poor of Compiegne, March 1837. 



Till- PRINCESS'S cil. \UITIES 255 

hut exclusive in her affections ; hot-headed and vindic- 
tive- mwards h-r enemies, she defended her friends 
with /e.il. In 1835 Oiul.irt w.is ill. He was one of 
the most attached servitors of the house of Orleans. 
"He had no great instruction, but was straightfor- 
ward, ri- id in the accomplishment of his duties, honest, 
modest, upright, disinterested." Madame Adelaide 
had tears in her eyes when she entered the Queen's 
drawing-room after paying him a visit. " I would 
give one of my fingers to save him," said she, " he 
is a devoted friend of the King's, and we shall 
make no more friends of his kind." 

She always protected the servitors of the family : 
Heymes ; Fain, who was " simple, easy to get on with, 
extremely discreet, straightforward, frank, and oblig- 
ing " ; Fontaine, the architect, a brute of genius whom 
she defended in his contests with the King, when he 
held to his plans with too much independence ; Dr. 
Marc, who, instead of pills, had always " a little story 
to tell of the assemblies of such and such great lords, 
or of actors and actresses in the green-rooms." 

To Cuvillier-Fleury she one day addressed re- 
proaches " as unbecoming in substance as they were 
in form," but an instant afterwards she found means 
of speaking to him with " unimaginable charm." She 
conciliated him completely and " increased the esteem 
he had for her eminent and solid qualities." 

She was always very good to all persons who had 
helped her during her long years of exile. The 
Comtesse de Montjoie, her lady-in-waiting, she 
treated as an equal and loved like a sister. Mme. de 
had been attached to Mademoiselle since 



256 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

their youth, and identified herself in such a way that 
she had no other family or interests, says Mme. de 
Boigne. 

Grandeur had not increased the Princess's pride. 
She detested etiquette and attended mass quite simply 
at Saint Roch with her nieces ; they went in and out 
like other churchgoers. She refused the title of 
Madame which they wanted to confer upon her, 
insisting that it should be followed by her name. 
" Why not the old titles of the Dauphin and his 
retinue ? " she asked, and was annoyed at seeing 
" the qiieue of ladies reappearing in the mornings." 

One day they had insisted upon leaving Mme. 
Angelet, wife of the stockbroker, in the first waiting- 
room. She recounted her adventure to Mme. Ade"- 
laide. " Yes, I know," said the Princess, "they want 
to impose the etiquette of the old court upon us 
and to divide our drawing-room in two, but, so long 
as I have any influence, neither I nor the King will 
consent to that ; you can be quite easy, therefore, 
Madame Angelet ! " x 

Louis-Philippe and his family lived, indeed, more 
like rich middle-class people than princes. At ten 
o'clock all the royal family were at ddjeuner except the 
King, who was not often present. At eleven o'clock 
they went into the drawing-room. "The princesses 
placed themselves each at her work-drawer, the key 
of which she kept herself. The needlework was 
always for the poor. It consisted of layettes for un- 
fortunate mothers of families. 

They often had a game of billiards. Marie Amelie 

1 Cuvillier-Fleury. 



DAILY LIFE 25; 

the best player, it was said. " She filled the post 
of billiard-marker. They had a pool, each player 
giving fifty centimes, the money from each game 
bein^ destined for the poor." 

The time for the promenade was arranged with 
Louis - Philippe, and the members of the family 
mbled to go out together. Towards three o'clock 
they went to Neuilly, sometimes to Versailles or 
Saint Cloud. At five they returned to the Tuileries. 
Dinner took place at six o'clock; there were gene- 
rally twenty-five to thirty places. Towards half-past 
seven they entered the King's great drawing-room 
"situated on the first floor of the Palais des Tuile- 
ries, the furniture of which with few exceptions was 
that of the Empire and Restoration." 

Every morning, before or after dejeuner, all the 
papers, political pamphlets, and caricatures were 
deposited on the round table of the drawing-room. 
Louis-Philippe and his sons read the articles written 
against them aloud. They examined the caricatures 
and showed them to the persons present, asking what 
they thought of them. This tortured the poor Cheva- 
lier de Broval, "an affectionate servitor, a sincere and 
disinterested friend, who identified himself with the 
popularity, future, and happiness of his beloved 
Princes," from whom he tried to hide especially 
from Madame the newspaper articles and pamphlets 
which attacked them. 

Mme. Adelaide loved her brother's children as if 
they had been her own. It was she who educated 
Princess Marie completely, and alone taught the 
eldest of her nieces to play the harp. 

R 



258 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

Mile, de Chartres, the good Louise, had a " fresh 
pink and white complexion, and a profusion of fair 
hair." l She resembled her mother in character ; was 
reasonable beyond her years, and everybody ex- 
tolled her docility and sweetness. " Princess Marie 
was not so perfect as Louise, but her follies were so 
clever, and her repartees so witty, that people were 
almost unjust enough to prefer her." Ci She was lively, 
an artist to the finger tips, and " of remarkable capa- 
city in spite of her apparent flightiness." " To be in 
everything," said she, "see, everything, take part in 
everything without being enslaved by anything, take 
a hand sometimes in politics on behalf of liberty, enjoy 
interesting conversations with friends, and possess 
Aunt Adelaide's house in the Rue de Varenne in 
which to receive them that would be supreme hap- 
piness." 

The two princesses were very fond of politics. 
The elder, the Due d'Orle"ans' favourite sister, pro- 
nounced unhesitatingly against the Government of 
the King, her father, and vexed her governess, Mme. 
de Malet, " who was at the opposite extreme in her 
opinions." The second allowed herself to be influ- 
enced by her aunt, whose liberal tendencies she exag- 
gerated. One day she testified her republican faith 
before Mme. de Dolomieu, her mother's lady-in-wait- 
ing, who was scandalised by it. 

The witty and playful Clementine had become a 
pretty young girl, whose gracious visage, beautiful 
chestnut hair, and great blue eyes, contrasted with 

1 Madame de Boigne. 

2 Comtesse de Boigne. 



LOUIS-PHIUPPK'S CIIILDRKN 259 

the severity of her large forehead. She was intelli- 
gent and ambitious already. 

In 1830, Totone (the Due de Montpensier) was 
still a child. His brother, the Due d'Aumale, who 
was steady and studious, followed the classes at 
the Henri IV. college, and though Mme. Adelaide 
rejoiced in the school successes of her godson, she 
deplored a little the fact that he was richer than 
herself. 

She took especial pride in the Prince de Joinville 
(nicknamed Hadji in the family). " I see my father 
and a little of myself in Joinville," said she, " and that 
is why I care for him more than for my other nephews." 
He was, it seems, the cleverest and most amiable of 
Louis-Philippe's sons. A sailor and an artist, rather 
than a prince, he dressed without the least elegance, 
and drank, smoked, and swore like a true sea-dog. 
He drew with great humour, wrote in a charming 
fashion, and had a veritable passion for the fine arts. 
One day, as he tells us himself, when he had taken 
an immense fancy to a picture of Marilhat's, he was 
seized with a great desire to buy it, but only succeeded 
in doing so thanks to the generosity of his good Aunt 
Adelaide. 

As for Nemours, Tan or Moumours as they called 
him, he was a handsome youth, with clear eyes, a wild 
look, and beautiful waving blonde hair. He improved 

icquaintance, for at first he seemed rather proud. 
He was astonishingly like Marie Ame"lie and his 
grandfather the King of Naples, was reserved, and 
one never knew what he wanted. 

Marie, Clementine, and Joinville were Madame 



2 6o ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

Adelaide's favourites, while the Due de Nemours and 
Princess Louise let themselves be influenced by their 
eldest brother, the Due d'Orleans. 

It was not that the latter was not loved by his 
aunt. "Chartres," she was in the habit of repeating, 
4 'is a very good fellow. He tells us all he thinks." 
And she spoiled him, but reprimanded him also when 
he let himself be drawn into some perilous love affair. 
The admonitions of the Princess were given indul- 
gently, and the good aunt who thought it her duty to 
scold a little, forgave much and did not long resist the 
coaxings of her nephew, le Biau, as his brothers had 
nicknamed him. All the same, she was always vexed 
with him for holding out a hand to the men who were 
in opposition to the King's Government, and for giving 
his opinion at the meeting of the Council of Ministers, 
at which he was present. 

Some time after the July Revolution, war seemed 
inevitable. The King and his sister resisted the move- 
ment. The hereditary Prince, " brave to temerity," 
combated in the Tuileries drawing-room the policy of 
concessions and renunciation adopted by his father. 
Princess Adelaide could not bear contradiction, and 
reproached her nephew in unmeasured terms for 
damaging the Government by his opposition. " After 
all, my dear aunt, I have some right to mix in affairs ; 
I am, at least, as much interested in them as your- 
self!" he responded. 1 

The Prince Royal, indeed, complained at finding 
himself exposed to attacks based on the distrust 
inspired by his aunt, who insisted upon representing 

1 Cuvillier-Fleury. 



THE DUG DE CHARTRES 261 

him as a demagogue who compromised France 
abroad and would endanger the throne. Mme. 
Adelaide, in fact, had such a passion for politics, 
and so great an affection for her brother, that she 
could not bear that any other influences should 
counterbalance hers. 



CHAPTER IV 

The Pavilion de Flore Princess Adelaide 's friends Madame' s 
influence over the King and the Ministers Attempts on 
the Kings life Adelaide and Marie Ame'lie Political 
" role " of the Princess : the Quadruple Alliance, the affairs 
of Spain Arrest of the Duchesse de Berry Odious 
attitude of Mme. Adelaide Ministerial crises Mar- 
riages of the Due d* Orleans and the Due de Nemours 
Royal rejoicings Death of the Due d Orleans. 

MME. ADELAIDE received visitors in the morning in 
the charming apartments on the ground floor of the 
Pavilion de Flore. The drawing-room where she sat 
had windows overlooking the Pont Royal and the gate 
of the Tuileries garden. From these windows one 
had an admirable view over the Seine and the flower- 
beds, and beyond the wide moat, which Louis-Philippe 
had had dug, one could see what was passing in the 
street. 

The drawing-room was filled with stiff furniture of 
the Empire or Restoration periods. The arm-chairs 
in heavy shining mahogany, relieved by finely chiselled 
bronze, were upholstered in green silk like a working 
study, one would have said. The Princess was often 
seated at a writing-table and, when she occupied the 
deep, low, easy-chair placed near the fireplace, she 
was rarely seen holding a needle ; for her time was 
spent chiefly in reading or looking through documents 



262 



Tin: PRINCESS'S SALON 263 

which IH.T brother had entrusted to her. There was 
nothing feminine about this room, neither flowers nor 
nicknacks, but papers and books. Sometimes, how- 
ever, the barking of a little dog, which alone, with the 
parrot Jacquot, had the right to interrupt political 
conversations, reminded visitors that they were with 
an old maid and not a Minister of State. 

General S^bastiani owed it to his grand and 
slightly distant air and the correctness of his manners 
th.it he was called upon to preside over the reunions 
which took place in Princess Adelaide's salon. He 
talked a great deal with much wit and brio; but 
had to keep quiet when Talleyrand was there. 

Madame manifested a very keen friendship for the 
Prince de B&ievent and treated him with the greatest 
regard. She saw him often, and when he was absent 
from Paris wrote to him nearly every day, to ask his 
advice on the conduct of State affairs. 

In the last years of his life Talleyrand had him- 
self carried by two lackeys to the first waiting-room. 
As soon as he was announced Mme. Adelaide went 
forward and welcomed him " in terms employed for 
him alone." He accepted this homage as his right. 
He was pale and emaciated, his white cravat went up 
to his chin, and the sharp points of a much-starched 
collar arrived in the middle of his flabby cheeks. . . . 
His long waving hair looked as though it had been 
done with tongs. His physiognomy was still imposing, 
and he had retained his shrewd smile and an expres- 
sion "of deep thought." Huddled in the depths of 
the best arm-chair, he put his club foot affectedly on a 
stool before everybody and began to talk. His con- 



264 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

versation was more serious than witty ; he expressed 
himself slowly in short sentences, pausing at every 
moment for approval : " it was like the last words of a 
dying person," says Appert. He wanted to be listened 
to, and he was listened to. It was necessary to 
admire, and admiration was forthcoming. 1 

Marshal Gerard was assiduous in his attendance 
at the Pavilion de Flore. He had great affection for 
the whole royal family, but was firm in his ideas and 
frank in his language ; this did not displease Mme. 
Adelaide, who " liked political loyalty." The Marshal 
was not, indeed, a vivacious talker, but he did not seek 
to impose his opinions, and tolerated those of others. 

Mile. d'Orteans' ladies, like herself, discussed the 
affairs of State, and the Comtesse de Montjoie, 
the Princess's lady-in-waiting, had the same ideas as 
her mistress. Sometimes they would criticise the 
fashionable painters of the day, Ingres, Vernet, De- 
laroche, or gave their opinions on the musical pro- 
ductions in vogue : Le Philtre by Audran, U Orgie by 
Carafa, and Robert le Diable, but they did not talk 
about fashions at the Pavilion de Flore ; politics, 
foreign politics especially, were what interested them 
most. 

Nevertheless a few women came to see the King's 
sister : Mme. de Valence, the daughter of Mme. de 
Genlis, the old friend and companion of her youth ; and 

1 A few moments before the death of Talleyrand, the King and 
Madame went to see him. When His Majesty retired, the sick man 
. . . made an effort to say to the King : " The visit of your Majesty is the 
greatest honour that has ever been received in my house. Allow me 
to present my faithful valet-de-chambre to you." This eternal adieu of 
the Prince was perhaps the proudest moment of his long life. 



Till". PRINCESS'S SALON 265 

Mme. Lehon, the Ambassador's wife. Pretty Mme. 

lures wandered in once or twice, but did not return. 
Mine. Angelet was delighted to find herself treated 
with consideration by a royal personage ; Miss Opie 
ventured there with her bizarre Quaker headdress, and 
Princesse Belgiosojo was much admired for her remark- 
able beauty and her bizarre ivory-tinted complexion. 

Besides Flahaut and Lawoestine " a courtier who 
grovelled before the Princess, her parrot, and her 
groom of the chambers " 1 M. de Celle, M. Lehon, and 
Comte de Bondy were to be found there ; while old 
M. Ballanche and thin M. Briffaut slumbered at 
Mme. Adelaide's, and M. de Montalivet made those 
present forget his youth in the tiresome seriousness 
of his conversation. Anatole de Montesquiou, the 
Queen's gentleman-in-waiting, Saint-Marc Girardin, 
Edmond d'Anglemont, Victor de Tracy, the two 
Dupins, Broval, Oudart, Lamy, and Fain met great 
functionaries of State there the Chancellor Pasquier, 
President S^guier, the whole Ministry in fact, "all 
attentive to her Royal Highness, to whom requests 
destined for his Majesty were frequently addressed. 

The King had the most marked deference for the 
judgment, opinion, and advice of his sister. He went 
to see her "each time he had a free moment during 
the day, "and, it was said, compared his own thoughts 
every evening with those of Princess Adelaide who, 
" having the same interests and the same fortune, could 
not be suspected by him." It is true that Madame 
only lived for her brother, and that she watched over 
him with motherly affection. 

1 Prince de Joinville. 



266 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

Louis- Philippe rode fearlessly through Paris when 
disturbances were going on, attended merely by a few 
aides-de-camp, and the numerous plots against his life 
- which had either come to a head or failed never 
caused his courage to falter. At the time of the 
cholera outbreak in 1832, it was necessary to keep 
the King from visiting the sick in the hospitals, and 
it required all Mme. Adelaide's influence to dis- 
suade him from doing so ; indeed, she did not always 
succeed in preventing her brother from incurring 
danger, in which case she would ask, and often obtain, 
permission to share it with him. 

In June 1832 Heymes went to see Louis-Philippe 
at Saint Cloud to take him back to Paris, which was 
given over to pillage and massacre : "I shall go with 
you," said the Princess. The King agreed, and by 
his presence " crushed the attempt at revolution in 
the embryo." * 

But this affection for her brother rendered Prin- 
cess Adelaide the more sensitive to all that concerned 
the dignity or safety of the King. In 1834, when 
she heard that Bergeron, who two years previously, 
on the day of the opening of the Chambers, had fired 
a pistol z at Louis-Philippe, had been acquitted, she, 
" so gentle, so patient, and usually so calm, could not 
restrain an expression of very lively resentment " at the 
cowardice of the jury. She exaggerated the dangers 
which her brother might run and sometimes foresaw 
them. 

1 Prince de Joinville. 

2 Princess Adelaide often found herself at the King's side when 
attempts were made upon his life. (That of d'Alibaud, 25th June, 1836 ; 
of Darmes, I5th October, 1840; of Leconte, i6th April, 1846.) 



ATTEMPT !!) MURDER OF KING 267 

July 28, 1835, a review <>! the National Guards 
and the army was to take place. The family, marshals, 
generals, and aides-de-camp were all assembled at the 
Tuileries in the salon next to the throne-room. The 
anxiety of the princesses was such that at the moment 
of departure, Mme. Adelaide, pointing to the Kin^, 
said to Thiers : " I hope you will bring him back to 
us alive." The review was going off very well when, 
just opposite the Cafe* Ture, " a sort of company fire 
like a discharge of grapeshot," burst forth. Colonels 
Rieussec and Raffet, Marshal Mortier, General de 
Ve>igny, Captain Willatte, and nine other persons 
were killed on the spot. Heymes was badly wounded, 
and the King himself had a slight scratch on the 
forehead. 

The Commandant Boerio hurried to inform Prin- 
cess Adelaide of the attempt, and she at once ordered 
her carriage and went to the Chancellor's office, Place 
Vendome, where the troops marched past. When 
the King dismounted there was a thunder of cheering, 
and he burst into tears as he embraced his sister and 
wife. The Prince's clothing and the white kersey- 
mere trousers of Thiers were covered with blood. 1 
The King and Princess Adelaide went at once with 
the Queen to condole with the Duchesse de Trdvise 
(wife of Marshal Mortier), and, a week later, the royal 
family followed the eighteen coffins with their tears 
and prayers. 

Mme. Adelaide and the Queen, in Appert's 
opinion, " spoiled the King by an almost complete 
subordination of their will to his." This common 

1 rrince de Joinville. 



268 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

affection for Louis-Philippe was the only link which 
united the two princesses. Marie Amelie had suffered 
rather than desired a crown, which she owed, in great 
part, to her sister-in-law ; but once Queen, she sought 
to re-establish etiquette, whilst Adelaide preserved the 
outward good-nature which she had employed with so 
much success up till then. This was soon noticed at 
the Tuileries receptions. The Queen, covered with 
diamonds, grave, dignified, and very often sulky, 
received with haughtiness ; while Madame, simply 
dressed out of opposition, was very gay. All the 
sympathies of the daughter of the Queen of Naples 
went out to the elder branch of the Bourbons, and 
being very religious, she secretly protected the priests, 
whose passionate and dangerous hostility irritated the 
King's sister, indifferent enough in matters of religion. 
Besides, the Queen never sought to enter into 
political discussions to the same extent as Princess 
Adelaide, who welcomed all the public men who came 
to her with a good grace, from the President of the 
Chambre des Deputes, the Ministers, Ambassadors, and 
great functionaries to Prefects, Mayors, and Justices of 
the Peace. She talked affably to all, and was anxious 
to persuade and please in order to rule. When the 
Chateau de Versailles was being restored, she seldom 
failed to accompany the King thither to view the 
work ; and during the country outings of the family 
at Neuilly, Eu, and Saint Cloud, each time that Louis- 
Philippe was called to Paris he took the Princess 
with him. Thus the King's sister was often mistaken 
for the Queen. An amusing story reported in the 
Journal des Ddbats of January 28, 1833, may be quoted : 



THE PRINCESS IN THE COUNTRY 269 

ue day a mayor in the neighbourhood of Lille had 
been deputed to compliment Marie Ame'lie on her 
through the town. Madame Adelaide, being at 
the he; id of the cortege, he addressed her. The speech 
was made with great assurance, listened to with 
tranquillity, but when the municipal magistrate reached 
the end of his harangue the Princess said to him : 
4 Hut, monsieur, I am not the Queen.' . . . ' It is all 
the same/ responded the mayor good-humouredly ; ' I 
have finished, and shall not begin again. Be kind 
enough, madame, to repeat to the King's wife all I 
have just said to you/' 

It is necessary to read Mme. Adelaide's letters 
to Talleyrand 1 in order to understand the decisive 
action which the Princess exercised over events and 
the preponderating influence she had over men. There 
is no charm in these letters nothing to recall the 
delightful epistles of women of the eighteenth century ; 
instead, they are couched in the simple, clear, precise 
1 moruage used in business. Mile. d'Orl^ans reveals 
herself in them such as she really was prompt to 
understand, bold to resolve, and having the greatest 
ascendency over the King's mind and that of his 
Ministers. She had all the defects and all the qualities 
of her epoch, neglected the brilliant for the solid, 
principles for interests, never troubled herself about 
the means employed, but entirely about the results 
obtained. Her sole aim was to augment the power 
of her family, which explains her implacable hatred 
towards the members of the elder branch, and her 

1 Comtesse dc Mirabeau, Lc />/// tie Talleyrand et la maiscn 



2 ;o ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

intrigues in order that the authority of the citizen- 
king might become greater every day. 

It was a fatal policy, the insults and miserable 
treatment inflicted upon the family of Charles X. by 
the sovereign who had deposed him, rendered the July 
monarchy odious to honest folks ; and the struggle 
entered into by the constitutional King against the 
very conditions of the Government he had accepted, 
alienated even those who had set him on the throne. 

At first, however, this policy was successful, for 
Louis - Philippe had complete power in his hands 
during the last years of his reign ; and after the 
accouchement of the Duchesse de Berry, and the vote 
in the Chamber stigmatising the conduct of the 
Legitimist deputies who had carried their homage and 
their vows to the proscribed pretender, the Comte de 
Chambord's party was vanquished. 

Princess Adelaide had set everything working 
with the greatest cleverness in order that these 
results might be attained. But as she had business 
intelligence, a keen political sense, and seldom de- 
ceived herself upon the value of men, her actions, 
especially abroad, always contributed to the aggrand- 
isement of France. If she had Talleyrand appointed 
Ambassador in London, it was in order that the 
business he had to settle might rest between the 
King, herself, and him ; 1 but the fortunate consequence 

1 Letter from Madame Adelaide to Prince de Talleyrand, dated 
Neuilly, 2oth May, 1834: "It is entirely between the King, you and 
me," she wrote. See also the Princess's letter to Talleyrand, 22nd 
January, 1834 : " It is essential that all despatches should be submitted 
to the King." "There is only one policy," said Louis-Philippe else- 
where, " It is mine." 



THK PRINCESS'S INFLUEN' 271 

of this appointment was the siiming of the treaty of 
thr Quadruple Alliance. 1 If by sending Mignet to 
Madrid, she got Isabella II. recognised as Queen of 
in, it was because the triumph of the pretender, 
Don Carlos (the protege 1 of the old nobility, the priests, 
and the monks), would have been the first step towards 
the return of the Due de Bourdeaux to France. 2 But 
in that affair, as in all else she undertook, the Princess 
manifested a wise prudence. Did Thiers propose armed 
intervention in Spain ? She refused obstinately, see- 
ing "the danger, the uselessness, the absurdity of a 
declaration of war upon Don Carlos," * and that that war 
would only increase the pretender's popularity, and 
would be "desired not dreaded by the Powers in the 
north, since it would weaken France on the Rhine 
and on the Alps." 4 

Madame Adelaide easily accepted political exig- 
encies. If she and her brother agreed to the nomi- 
nation of the Prince of Coburg (an Englishman by 
adoption) to the throne of Belgium, if she made the 
King refuse the crown offered by the Belgian Congress 
to the Due de Nemours, it was because she had 
already negotiated the future marriage of her niece 
Louise with Leopold. No sentimental considerations 
tapped her ; it mattered little to her that the King of 

1 Signed between France, Spain, England, and Portugal against Don 
Carlos. (Letter from Madame to Talleyrand, 22nd June, 1834.) 

1 44 What puzzles me completely," wrote the Princess to Talleyrand, 
44 is the million M. de Blacas has put at his disposal (Don Carlos) ; it 
s that they are far from wanting money" (June 22, 1834). For all 
these letters see /> 1'rince de Talleyrand et la tnaison tCOrUans. 

1 Letter from Madame Adelaide to Talleyrand, 2$th July, 1834. 

4 Letter from Princess Adelaide to Talleyrand. 



272 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

the Belgians was a widower twenty-five years older 
than his wife, 1 she remained indifferent to the tears of 
Marie Amelie, the King, the Due d'Orleans, the princes 
and princesses of the family ; but she was indignant 
when Leopold, on the death of his eldest son, had the 
pretension alone and of himself to endeavour to 
secure the succession to his nephews of the House 
of Saxony. 2 She intrigued, wrote to Talleyrand, and 
made Louis- Philippe send 3 a comminatory letter on 
this singular subject, wherein the King of the French 
assured his son-in-law that he would not allow him to 
Germanise Belgium. 

Nothing that concerned politics remained alien 
to Madame Adelaide. She regretted the English 
Minister, Lord Grey, 4 was " broken - hearted," that 
Talleyrand had to give way before Lord Palmerston's 
arrogance, 5 and rejoiced in the success at St. Peters- 
burg of Marshal Maison, 6 the successor of General 

1 The wedding took place at Compiegne, August 9, 1832. " Louise 
wept," wrote the Queen in her journal. " The King and Chartres sobbed. 
All, including little Montpensier, shed hot tears." Leopold was forty-five, 
Louise twenty. On August 10 there was a theatrical representation. 
They played Le Prisonnier : "The couple must be well matched," said 
one of the characters, " young wife, young husband." 

2 Madame Adelaide to Talleyrand, May 23, 1834. The King of the 
Belgians had just lost his eldest son. 

3 Letter from H.M. Louis-Philippe to H.M. King of the Belgians, 
the copy of which had been sent by Madame Adelaide to Talleyrand. 
One can easily see, by the letter written to Talleyrand at the same time, 
that it was she who had managed the affair, and insisted upon the King's 
writing to his son-in-law. 

4 Madame Adelaide to Talleyrand, July 15, 1834. 

5 See letters exchanged in the month of November 1834 between 
Talleyrand and Madame Adelaide, who insists upon our Ambassador 
withdrawing his resignation, which the Viennese Ambassador proposed 
to him, &c. 

6 Madame Adelaide to Talleyrand, February 1834. 



ADELAIDE AND THE BOt Kl.oNS a 

Moriicr, whose embassy had only been a series of 
cruel mystifications ; on the other hand, she did nothing 
to help the Polish patriots who had risen against 
Russia in November 1830. The fact was that her love 
of liberty sprang chiefly from her antipathy to the 
Bourbons. " I heard," wrote La Rochefoucauld in 

his Mtmoires, " regarding a M. S , that, being at 

the Palais Royal for the first time after the July 
Revolution, Mademoiselle d'Orldans went up to him 

oon as she noticed him. ' Well, Monsieur S , 

what do you say?' * Madame, that the July throne 
has very dangerous enemies in the July Revolution/ 
* Oh ! ' returned Mademoiselle quickly, * our enemies 
are not Liberals but Carlists ! ' ' 

In her hatred of the partisans of the elder Bourbon 
branch, and her desire to annihilate their influence for 
ever, she did not hesitate to employ the vilest man- 
oeuvres. When the Duchesse de Berry was arrested, 
Princess Adelaide induced her brother to treat her 
harshly, and declined to listen to Marie Amlie, who 
pleaded for her niece. On January 30, 1833, there 
was a great ball at the Tuileries to inaugurate the 
new gallery, and the Princess, desirous of giving a 
striking proof of esteem to Gonzague Deutz (who had 
been the chief instrument in the arrest of the Duchess), 
asked 

" Ce rent gat i fopprobre et It rebut du tnonde> 
Cef tilde apostat, cet oblique ttrangcr " l 



1 This turncoat, byword, and refuse of the world this fetid apostate, 

irtuons alien. 

It must he recollected that Victor Hu^o had by no means shed all 
his early Legitimist prepossessions at this time. Translator** n 

S 



274 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

as Victor Hugo branded him in the Chants du Cre 1 - 
puscule to dance the first quadrille with her. 

When she heard of the Duchesse de Berry's 
accouchement she triumphed openly, and encouraged 
the vile jests made daily in her salon at the expense 
of an unhappy and vanquished woman, applauding 
the courtier who recalled Charles X.'s words on his 
return to France in 1814 : " It is nothing ; it is only a 
Frenchman the more." 1 

Madame Adelaide always tried to influence the 
King in his choice of ministers. On the fall of Laffitte 
she suggested Odilon Barrot, who was not afraid of 
the Republican party, and wanted to base the Govern- 
ment " upon that middle class which has always 
covered, defended, and rendered fruitful the soil of 
the mother-country." : But the bad state of finances, 
and the necessity for doing something to improve 
them, called for a business man Casimir Perier, who 
imposed hard conditions upon the King, and insisted 
upon being master of the ministerial actions for which 
he would be held responsible. 

As may be imagined, this choice was not calcu- 
lated to please Madame Adelaide. She restrained 
herself, however, and endeavoured to conciliate the 
minister, 3 whose impetuosity she succeeded in over- 
coming by dint of patient good-will. 

1 The Duchesse de Berry was secretly married to the Marquis Lucchesi- 
Palli. She hoped to conceal this fact, which practically wrecked her 
influence in the Legitimist party ; but the birth of a child compelled her 
to disclose it. Translators note. 

2 Odilon Barrot's speech at the Chambre des Deputes, November n, 
1830. 

3 Cuvillier - Fleury : " Madame Adelaide came and entertained 
Casimir Perier in private, and had been with him for an hour when 
I went to the opera." 



Till- PRINCESS AND MINISTERS 275 

On the occasion of the debates on the civil list, the 
King's demands were so excessive that the Chambers 
resisted them. These demands comprised eighteen 
millions (,720,000) civil list, four millions (,160,000) 
of revenues from land, eleven magnificent and sumptu- 
ously furnished palaces, two millions and a half 
(; 1 00,000) of appanage, and the private property. 

"They want to annihilate me and reduce me to 
nothing I and my wife but it shall not be so!" 
exclaimed Louis-Philippe, and his sister, who agreed 
with him, was indignant at the insults poured forth 
daily by such men as Cormenin and Latouche, and 
especially at the ingratitude of Laffitte, Maugin, and 
Treilhard, who had all received money and places. 
However, when the law had been voted, Madame 
blamed her brother for showing his resentment, and 
endeavoured to calm him and soothe his vexation. 

When the Due de Broglie (who lacked flexibility 
too much to please at the Tuileries) was obliged to 
abandon power, the Princess put forward the name of 
Dupin. He was the first person consulted, but his 
surliness annoyed the King, and Louis-Philippe was 
obliged, in spite of his own repugnance and that of 
his sister, to take Thiers, Guizot, and Broglie back 
a^ain into a ministry nominally presided over by 
Marshal Soult. 

Thenceforward Princess Adelaide and the King 
only sought to set the three influential ministers at 
variance. They succeeded without difficulty, and 
from this period one of them, Guizot, drew nearer to 
the crown. In February 1834, after the disturbances 
at Lyons, " which made the necessity for a law 



276 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

respecting associations felt, 1 Guizot his head high, 
his body trembling, his arm extended carried this 
anti-Liberal bill through Parliament after a great 
struggle, applauded by the whole court. This was 
the law which Madame had advocated with great 
energy on the previous evening, in the drawing-room, 
against M. de Laborde. 

When Marshal Soult, being out of harmony with 
his colleagues, sent in his resignation, Dupin was 
again requested to form a cabinet. But the situation 
was so difficult that, rather than risk his position, he 
declined. "Well!" said Louis-Philippe, " compose 
a ministry for me of your own choice." Dupin took 
up a pen and wrote at once. Next day the Moniteur 
contained the names of the new ministers the " brave 
and good " Marshal Gerard, an old friend of Made- 
moiselle d'Orleans, and an habitut of the Pavilion de 
Flore, became President of the Council. He had 
only accepted this post out of personal devotion to 
Louis - Philippe and Madame, and because Dupin 
had promised him " help and support in the 
Chamber." 2 The King agreed to the appointment 
against his will, fearing "the Marshal's stiffness with 
regard to anything about which he had made up his 
mind." 

Gerard's " hobby," as Cuvillier-Fleury called it, 
was the amnesty he wished to have voted in favour of 
the April culprits. In face of Louis-Philippe's oppo- 
sition, who held, on the contrary, that the trial ought 
to take place, and also from the fear of exposing himself 

1 Letter from Adelaide to Talleyrand, February 27, 1834. 

2 Letter from Madame Adelaide, July 18, 1834. 



THE SOULT MINISTRY 277 

to tin- " m.ichinations of tin- supporters of representa- 
tive ->vernment," the minister preferred to retire. 
This resignation called forth bitter complaints from 
Madame, who thought that " these gentlemen had not 
1 well," l and it was not until long afterwards 
that she forgave Marshal Gerard for "the straight- 
forwardness of heart and mind " which he had shown 
in this affair. 

After the Three Days' Ministry presided over 
by the Due de Bassano, the King and Madame 
Adelaide, though they would not be dictated to, 2 
were obliged to accept Thiers and the Due de Broglie 
again. This ministry fell on February 21, 1835. 
Thiers then took the sole direction of affairs, and was 
replaced some time afterwards by Mole", who, in his 
turn, was succeeded by Marshal Soult in conjunction 
with Guizot. 

It was during the Marshal's ministry that the 
Chamber rejected the proposed allowance to the Due 
de Nemours, who was about to marry Princess Victoria 
of Saxe-Cobourg. But this vote did not prevent the 
marriage, which was solemnised at the Chateau de 
Saint Cloud, April 27, 1840. Three years previously, 
the eldest son of Louis- Philippe, who had been re- 
pulsed by the Archduchess The>ese, had wedded 
the Princesse Helene of Mecklenbourg. 

When the young Duchesse d'Orl^ans entered Paris 
by the Champs Elys^es, followed by princes on horse- 
back and princesses in carriages with the Orleans 
state livery, she had been cheered by immense 

1 Letter from Madame Adelaide to Talleyrand, November 1834. 
' Madame Adelaide to Talleyrand, November 10, 1834. 



278 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

crowds. On August 24, 1838, she had given birth 
to a son, whom they called the Comte de Paris, and 
on November 9, 1840, the little Due de Chartres 
was born. May 2, 1841 Monseigneur Affre having 
succeeded the implacable Monseigneur Quelen the 
Comte de Paris was baptized with great pomp at 
Notre Dame. It was the clergy's acknowledgment 
of the younger branch. 

Business was flourishing in the country. Louis- 
Philippe had succeeded in imposing his will upon the 
nation, and governed more than he reigned. Victor 
Hugo, the great poet whom the King had created 
peer of France, had rallied to the July Monarchy and 
tuned his lyre to hyperbolical praise, and the Citizen- 
King gave national obsequies to Napoleon (December 
14, 1840). 

At Compiegne, Chantilly, Fontainebleau, Neuilly, 
and the Tuileries, fetes succeeded fetes. April 15, 
1842, Madame Adelaide gave a grand dinner of a 
hundred and fifty persons to the Queen of the Belgians 
and Marie Christine of Spain, in her old apartments 
at the Palais Royal; but nothing could surpass the 
magnificence of the balls, soirees, and receptions given 
by the Due d'Orleans at the Pavilion de Marsan. 
The newspapers spoke at length of the " splendid " 
costume ball which took place at the Prince Royal's 
towards the end of January 1842. Representatives of 
the aristocracy, of letters, of the arts, went there in 
great numbers. The Prince de Wagram, the Due 
d'Albufera, Courmont, Morny, the two Greffulhes, 
Lamy, Gudin, Raffet, and Jadin were present. Mes- 
dames Murat, Place, and de Contade were a trio of 







. 



DEATH OF DUG DE CHARTRES 279 

srductive Aspasias; Madame Thicrs, in contr 
represented a ^rcat lady of the Middle Ages ; Mme. 
de Plaisance was an elegant huntress, and every one 
noticed Mme. de Liaderes in a lovely dress with 
panniers. Boulanger 

"... avail le manteait, la rapier e et la /raise, 
Ainsi qu'un raffing du temps de Louis XIII " * 

as Th^ophile Gautier described him, and Henriquel 
Dupont, Eugene Sue, Tony Johannot were similarly 
dressed in costumes of that period, which novels 
and plays had made fashionable. Wintherhalter had 
chosen the garb of the Tuscan painters he tried to 
imitate. Horace Vernet was disguised as an Arab, 
and Eugene Delacroix as a Moor. 

The heir to the throne, who had grown cautious, 
henceforth only held out his hand to the Liberals 
from policy. He was the hope of the nation and the 
royal family, and neglected affairs of State in order 
to devote himself entirely to the organisation of the 
army. 

On July 13, 1842, he left Neuilly towards eleven 
o'clock in the morning for a review. Some minutes 
after his departure, as the King, Queen, and Mme. 
Adelaide were preparing to get into their carriage, 
a commissary of police, Trouessart, entered the red 
drawing-room at the Chateau de Neuilly. He went 
up to General Gourgaud and spoke to him in a low 
tone ; after a gesture of consternation, the latter 
whispered a few words in Louis-Philippe's ear. 

1 ... wore the mantle, the rapier, the ruff just like a dandy of the 
time of Louib XIII. 



280 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 



Mon Dieii!" cried the King overwhelmed. 
The Queen and Princess Adelaide questioned him in 
strained tones. " Chartres has had a fall and they 
have taken him to a house at Sablonville," he 
answered. Immediately, without asking Trouessart 
for further particulars, Marie Amelie ran on foot 
towards the Route de la Revoke. The King and 
his sister soon caught her up in a carriage. A few 
minutes later, they were all three at an inn where, 
on a mattress on the ground at the back of a dark 
room, the Due d'Orl^ans lay dying. Dr. Pasquier 
ordered the vicar of Neuilly to be sent for. He came 
and administered the last sacraments to the Prince, 
while all the family wept and prayed upon their knees. 
A moment later the Duke breathed his last. 

This " immense irreparable loss," as the Prince 
de Joinville describes it, was equivalent to a revolution. 
It was the " chief of to-morrow " who had disappeared, 
he on whom not only the friends of the July Monarchy, 
but many of the discontented had placed their hopes. 
The throne was henceforth shaken, and that cruel 
unexpected death came at a time when even Princess 
Adelaide, broken with age and illness, began to be 
no longer able to take an active part in the affairs 
of State. 1 

1 La Nouvelle Mode, January 15, 1843. (La Nouvelle Mode was a 
weekly review, inspired by Mine. Adelaide to counteract the Legitimist 
La Mode> which attacked the Princess with violence.) 



CHAPTER V 

Grief of the Queen and the Duchesse <t Orleans Princess 
Adelaide and the Duchesse d Orleans The Duchesse de 
Nemours The Princesse de Joinville The 'Duchesse 
d Aumale The Due and Duchesse de Montpcnsicr 
Influence of Marie Amelie on the members of her family 
Illness of Mile, d' Orleans Her last journey to Arc, 
Randan, Chantilly Her political occupations Death of 
Mme. Adelaide Her will Her funeral Conclusion. 

Tin: death of the Due d'Orl^ans was cruelly felt by 
the whole royal family, especially by Marie Ame'lie, 
who multiplied the pious practices and mortifications 
which she had inflicted upon herself since her daughter, 
Princess Marie, had gently passed away at Pisa, 1 in 
the arms of the Due de Nemours. Sadness and 
despair had succeeded the joyous fetes of former 
days. The daily events, the arrival of the Prince of 
Wurttemberg, January 17, 1843, t ^e inauguration of 
the Chapel of Saint Ferdinand, July 13, in the same 
year, reminded the Queen of bereavements which had 
struck her so cruelly. Her children's distance from 
her increased her sorrow ; the joyous Princesse 
Clementine lived chiefly in Germany since the simple 
happy union she had contracted, on the advice of 

1 Princess Marie married the Uuc Alexander of Wurttemberg, 
October 1837, at Trianon, and died January 2, 1839. She left a son, born 

July 30, 1838. 

281 



282 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

her deceased brother, with the Prince of Saxe- 
Cobourg; 1 Joinville had embarked on the Belle 
Poule in company with the Due d'Aumale, who was 
about to take up a command in Algeria under the 
orders of Marshal Bugeaud. Thus when they learned 
at the chateau of the capture of the smalah of 
Abd-el-Kader, the legitimate pride of the King and 
Queen in their son but added to the regret of feeling 
how much the Prince Royal was missed amid the 
joys as well as the sorrows of the family. 

The Duchesse d'Orl^ans was inconsolable ; she 
had never left off her widow's veil, and her two 
children, dressed in black, were always with her. 
In December 1843, however, wishing to please the 
Queen, she reappeared in the drawing-room ; but the 
Prefect of the Vosges whom she had not seen since 
her season at Plombieres after her husband's fatal 
accident was there, and they were obliged to lead 
her away in tears. 

Madame Adelaide, who had counted upon the 
softening effect which time has upon human sorrows, 
was vexed with her niece Helene. " Her sadness is 
obtrusive," said she, and, observing that the young 
widow shut herself off completely from the rest of 
the family, she added : " Her grief is oppressive ! " 
It is true that this saying rests on the authority of 
the virulently Legitimist La Mode. 

Like her brother, Mme. Adelaide felt a sort of 
jealous susceptibility towards all who did not belong 
directly to her family. She allowed her suspicions 

1 Brother of the Duchesse de Nemours. The wedding took place 
April 28, 1843. 



THE DUG DE NEMOURS 283 

to weigh upon the Due d'Orl^ans' widow, and feared 
tin effect of the influence her grave and elevated 
mind and lively intelligence might allow her to 
exercise. This was clearly to be seen, a few days 
after the death of the Prince Royal, in the stubborn- 
ness with which Louis-Philippe and his sister supported 
the law which accorded the contingent regency to the 
Due de Nemours. 

Nevertheless, the King showed great courtesy to 
the mother of the heir to the throne. When, in the 
private family drawing-room, she rose to return to 
her apartments, Louis-Philippe "always polite even 
if not tender" leaving the chimney corner where, 
sometimes standing, sometimes sitting, he talked over 
business affairs with visitors and habituts would 
go and offer his daughter-in-law his arm, and chat 
with her as they walked up and down the room. 

At the time of the Due d'Orldans' death, his 
younger brother, the Due de Nemours, was already 
married. His wife was not the object of the same 
suspicions as the Duchesse d'Orl^ans. This was 
because Mme. de Nemours spoke little, and, like 
her husband, blindly obeyed the orders of her father- 
in-law, mother-in-law, and Aunt Adelaide. The 
Duchesse de Nemours was beautiful, with a good 
complexion and a grand air, but an habitut of the 
p.ilace. Cuvillier-Fleury, has said that one glance 
from the Duchesse d'Orl^ans was worth a hundred 
of hers. 

At the chateau, as throughout the country, every 
one was bored. Age and asthma, complicated by 
heart disease, rendered Mme. Adelaide less smiling 



284 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

than ever, and she could very rarely leave her apart- 
ments. She no longer accompanied the King on 
his journeys, and when she went to Eu or Randan, 
she who had formerly been so restless and active, 
took her airings in a sedan chair. In spite of her 
infirmities, however, and out of affection for her 
favourite nephew Hadji (the Prince de Joinville was 
thus nicknamed) she went to her Chateau de Bizy, 
on July 27, 1843, to welcome the young wife whom 
the Prince had brought back like a conquest from 
Brazil. 

The Princesse de Joinville had beautiful light 
chestnut hair, a high forehead, and reminded one by 
her walk, gestures, and the expression of her counte- 
nance, of the unfortunate Princess Marie. Like her, 
she was frail and her glance pure, her physiognomy 
grave, almost sad, though at times radiating with 
gaiety. She was lively, amiable, often joyous, frank 
always, slightly talkative. She was the most gracious 
and attractive of Louis-Philippe's daughters-in-law ; 
but they compared her to a desert flower: "In the 
desert there is no cultivation, and the history of the 
court of Brazil is somewhat the same. ..." Thus, the 
day after her arrival at the Tuileries, the Princess 
began to sing while sitting at the round table, to 
the great scandal even of Mme. Adelaide, who of 
all the royal family cared least about the laws of 
etiquette. 

The Princesse de Joinville became a mother for 
the first time * at the same moment as her husband 
was under fire from the batteries in Morocco, and 

1 August 14, 1844, birth of the present Duchesse de Chartres. 



Ol'FKX MARIR AMKLIK 

almost at the same time the Due d'Aumale to 
the Queen's great joy married the daughter of the 
Prince de Salerne at Naples. The Duchesse d'Aumale 
was very short, dainty, and small as a Tana^ra statuette ; 
her features were fine and delicate, she spoke with the 
melodious accent of the country of her birth. Being 
very pious she pleased Marie Amelie, whose great- 
niece she was. Besides, the Queen after this marriage 
and that of her youngest son to the sister of Isabella 
of Spain, saw her influence increasing every day, if 
not over affairs of State, at least' over the greater 
number of the members of the royal family. 

She had succeeded in making a sort of religious 
community of the feminine portion of the court. 
Mesdames de Nemours, d'Aumale, de Joinville, and 
de Montpensier could not go out without express 
permission from the Queen, who was always informed 
where they were going, the time of their departure, 
and that of their return. The Duchesse d'Orle'ans, 
being independent in character and religion, contrived 
to escape from her mother-in-law's tutelage. 

Marie Amelie's piety, indeed, became every day 
more ardent. To the two priests who visited the 
chateau she had added a third chaplain, and remained 
long hours in the morning praying at the Church of 
Saint Roch. Even the King allowed himself to be 
guided by his wife, and had become devout, as is 
evident from a conversation reported by Cuvillier- 
Fleury, in which his Majesty remarked that the uni- 
versity wanted to absorb everything, and that Catholic 
education was the only moral one. He lived with 
Marie Amclic in the suite of apartments between the 



286 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

Pavilion de Flore and the Pavilion de 1'Horloge, 
where the Due and Duchesse de Saxe-Cobourg were 
also lodged when they came to Paris. The Pavilion 
de Marsan was occupied by the Duchesse d'Orleans, 
the Comte de Paris, and the Due and Duchesse de 
Nemours, and the gallery on the other side over- 
looking the Rue de Rivoli by the Montpensiers. 

The last named were now the favourites at the 
chateau. The Duchesse de Montpensier had won 
the King by her attentions, her girlish manners, her 
beautiful black eyes, fine hair, and majestic mien. The 
Duke was the youngest of Louis-Philippe's children, 
and resembled his father " feature by feature," even 
to the turn of his mind, the similarity of his habits, 
equal prudence, coldness of imagination, and identical 
positivism of thought. Like his father the Due de 
Montpensier expressed himself with facility, though 
more like a man of business than a man of the world, 
and he was the only one of the family who liked 
display. "Totone's influence," wrote a malicious 
Legitimist observer in La Mode, "grows like a beard. 
He encroaches on the ground of his elders every day, 
while the future regent allows his thoughts to wander 
in a vague and confused fashion towards the future, 
while Joinville thinks of nothing but going back to 
sea, and Aumale calculates and regulates his expendi- 
ture." 

During the day the grand-nephews of Princess 
Adelaide brightened up the Chateau des Tuileries, 
but the evenings were sadly monotonous. There 
were now two distinct courts ; the new one consist- 
ing of the princes and princesses, and the old one of 



OLD AGE OF MME. ADELAIDE 287 

the King, Queen, and Madame Adelaide. During the 
family dinners Louis-Philippe and his sister talked a 
great deal, and it was only in undertones that the 
others present could exchange a few words. After 
dinner they assembled in the drawing-room, next to 
the throne-room. The princesses sat at the great 
work-table. Etiquette was "very carefully observed." 
The Queen always had the Duchesse d'Orl&uis on her 
ri^ln, and her sister-in-law on her left. 

Madame Adelaide became more sedentary every 
day. She went to Eu to receive Queen Victoria, who 
was graceful but not beautiful, and the Prince Con- 
sort a good-looking, rather foppish, fair man ; but 
she did not accompany the King to England. In 1845, 
as her nephew, the Prince de Joinville, reports, she took 
him with her to visit the estate she possessed at Arc- 
en -Barrois. Only ruins remained of the castle which 
had belonged to Vitry, that captain of Louis XII.'s 
Guards who killed Concini, and had passed by inherit- 
ance to the Due de Penthievre. It was a " large, wild 
forest domain, inhabited by wolves and boars," whither 
Adelaide's grandfather liked to retire at the hunting 
season. 

Madame also paid a few visits to Randan, and 
even, on June 26, 1847, in spite of fatigue, went in 
response to the Due and Duchesse d'Aumale's en- 
treaties to Chantilly by rail, in company with Louis- 
Philippe and Marie Amelie, in a carriage "remark- 
able for its comfort and luxury." All the brigades of 
gendarmerie for six miles round had been brought 
up and stationed as far as Chantilly, where the Due 
d'Aumale's equipages awaited the royal family. 



288 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

The great age and infirmities of Madame Adelaide 
did not prevent her from retaining a large part of her 
influence, but as the Princess was obliged more often 
than not to remain in her apartments, it is difficult to 
define exactly the part she played ; the King continued 
to consult his sister, but they discussed affairs of State 
between themselves, and naturally no trace of these 
conversations remains. It is known, however, that 
on May 3, 1843, the Princess went to thank Guizot 
for the speech he had made on the subject of the 
secret funds, and, Cuvillier-Fleury reports, that being 
present in the Chamber when the Legitimist deputies 
who had gone to Belgrave Square were stigmatised, 
she showed her displeasure at seeing Berryer " try to 
bring himself into notice." It appears also that her 
action was not without importance at the time of the 
Spanish marriage, 1 which was one of the consequences 
of Madame's " family policy." Even as late as May 
1847, she intervened with M. Lacave-Laplagne on 
the subject of the change of ministry, and, as La Mode 
satirically put it, "this new Renaud was vanquished 
by a new Armide." 

Confident in the ability and growing power of her 
brother, Madame Adelaide believed that the King, 
having done everything to ensure peace without and 
to safeguard material interests within the kingdom, 
had definitely founded the Orleans dynasty. 

On December 30, 1847, there had been a reception 

1 Isabella II. married her cousin, Frangois d'Assize, and the sister 
of Isabella the Due de Montpensier. These two marriages embroiled 
us with England. " I'll resent it," said Lord Palmerston, and he soon 
proved this. 



MIA III <>! PR1NCKSS ADMLAIDK 

at the chateau, and Madame Adelaide had seemed 
more tired and oppressed than usual. In the night, 
t"\\,trds one o'clock in the morning, alarming symp- 
toms manifested themselves. Doctors Pi^ach- and 
I'ouquier were hastily summoned. The vicar of Saint 
Roche had scarcely time to administer the sacraments 
t> the Princess, who died from suffocation at three 
o'clock. 

Louis-Philippe was present at his sister's death- 
bed. It is related how, at the supreme moment, he 
took her hand and said au revoir to the faithful com- 
panion of his whole life, and the one who had inspired 
his policy. The King remained the whole morning 
in the death chamber. At midday he had Gerard, 
Sdbastiani, and Dupin summoned to his study, 
and followed by his sons, Nemours and Mont- 
pensier, and weighed down by sorrow, led the 
way to the Pavilion de Flore. Madame Adelaide 
lay on her bed, " her hair arranged for the night, 
with a white fichu knotted in front of the head, her 
face serene, the mouth slightly open, and seemed 
to be asleep." 1 

After having sprinkled holy water, the Due de 
Montpensier opened the drawers and found a large 
envelope which bore the word " Will " written in large 
1< 'tiers. The certificate of death was next made out. 
Then in the Princess's drawing-room, under the presi- 
dency of the Due de Nemours, in the presence of the 
Prince de Joinville, Guizut, President of the Council, 
the Keeper of the Seals, Marshal Gerard, Sebastiani, 
and Dupin, head of the Privy Council, the seals of 

1 Dupin, Mtmoircs. 

T 



2 9 o ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

the envelope were broken. The will consisted of 
three parts : 

1 . Chief legatees. 

2. Special legacies, 

3. A book of " souvenirs" too private to be 
divulged. 1 

Madame Adelaide left her favourite nephew, the 
Prince de Joinville, a legacy amounting to a million 
francs (,40,000) a year, and the Due de Nemours 
two million (80,000) a year ; the Chateau de Randan 
she bequeathed to the Due de Montpensier. The 
Prince de Joinville and the Due de Nemours were 
residuary legatees. By an earlier will the former had 
been made sole heir ; but after the refusal of the 
Chambers to vote the allowance, Madame Adelaide 
had given the future regent the advantage for political 
reasons. 

The Princess's body was embalmed on January i. 
On the 7th the funeral took place at Dreux, From 
three o'clock in the morning masses were said at the 
different altars in the chapel. The King, Queen, and 
princesses arrived there early. When the Queen of 
the Belgians arrived, Louis-Philippe threw himself 
into her arms weeping. 

Nemours, Joinville, and Montpensier had been 
deputed to escort the funeral procession, which started 
that same morning from Paris, and stopped two kilo- 
metres from Dreux. There a number of clergy, pre- 
ceded by the Archbishop of Chalcedonia, the Bishops 
of Versailles, Evreux, and Amatta, came to receive 

1 Dupin. 



FUNERAL OF PRINCESS ADELAIDE 291 

the body. A detachment of gendarmerie, a squadron 
of cuirassiers, another of dragoons, a regiment of in- 
t.uury, and the national guards of the department 
formed the guard of honour. 

Behind the funeral car, which was covered with 
white and black ornaments, and preceded by a groom 
of the defunct Princess, came the Due de Nemours, 
the Prince de Joinville, and the Due de Montpensier 
on foot. Three of their father's aides-de-camp Mes- 
sieurs de Rumigny, Gourgaud, and de Chabannes 
accompanied them, with Messieurs de Grave and 
Che'zelle, ordinance officers of the King. Lieutenant- 
General Roy, naval Captain Touchard, MM. Vatout, 
L twcestine, Baron Fain, Sainte-Aldegonde were close 
by, as well as Marshal Gerard, who was sobbing. 

At Dreux the coffin was taken from the hearse 
,u id deposited on a catafalque. The King then came 
to take the head of the cortege, and conducted it to 
the chapel of the Virgin, where the Queen and prin- 
cesses were waiting on their knees. After mass each 
of the bishops present gave the absolution. After 
the De Profundis, at the moment when the Princess's 
body was being lowered into the vault, Louis- Philippe 
could no longer restrain his sorrow, and, very pale, 
leaned weeping on his sons. 

The death of Madame Adelaide left the royal 
family in a difficult position. The following was 
written, January 6, 1848, by a sincere Legitimist, 
Nettement, in a journal (La Mode], which had been 
noted for the violence of its attacks upon the King's 
sister : 

"It would have been better, we speak here from 



292 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

the point of view of the political interests of the 
Orleans' family, if Mile. Adelaide had survived her 
brother. And for this reason : she had the tradition 
of her policy, and exercised great influence over her 
family by the authority of her knowledge, her age, and 
her great fortune. She must then have contributed 
powerfully, in the case of her brother's demise, towards 
maintaining the unity of direction and union of senti- 
ments amongst the princes, her nephews, during the 
period of transition between two reigns, We say this 
without pretending to insinuate, in any way, that 
this unity is destroyed, that this union is altered ; but 
every one knows that families, like societies, have need 
of a head, who holds the knot tightly drawn which 
binds the sheaf of particular private wills together. 
Now conventional influences only imperfectly replace 
natural influences. From this point of view espe- 
cially the death of Mile. Adelaide is a grave political 
event." 

It is difficult to conceive what would have hap- 
pened if Louis-Philippe had died before his sister, 
and how that Princess ill and suffering as she was 
could have been able to draw the members of her 
family together, separated as they were by different 
opinions 1 and opposite interests. 2 Neither can one 
tell what would have been her role had she lived after 



1 Marie Amelie, who was always attached to the elder branch, desired 
a " fusion " between the members of the Bourbon family. Joinville did 
not think his father's government liberal enough. Montpensier was under 
the influence of his wife, &c. 

2 The Due de Nemours, prospective regent, and the Duchesse 
d'Orleans, who had kept up with her husband's friends, and knew that 
the Liberals would have liked to confide the regency to her. 



CHARACTER OF MM I ADELAIDE 293 

tin- I-Ybruary revolution. But although it has been 
j.r< t< -nded tli.it her tlr.uh haMrned tin- tall of royalty, 
it Mema rather th.it she died at the ri-lit moment 

i iti.mi of^port imitate viortis ! for, "although her 
courage was unshake d.le, what would have become 
<>f her in the state of physical weakness consequent 
upon her illness ? " l 

It is certainly probable that Madame Adelaide 
might have urged the King either to make frank con- 
cessions or to resist ; but he was old and tired and 
still sorrowful after his sister's death, and so he did 
not even try to struggle against the insurrection. Yet 
was not his action on February 22 a proof of Louis- 
Philippe's prudence and ability, for did it not save 
his family from all responsibility on June 24? Then, 
whatever she might have done, and admitting even 
that she had succeeded in gaining time, the Princess 
could not have saved the dynasty she had helped to 
found. The July Monarchy could not satisfy tradition, 
and it had maladroitly entered into a struggle against 
liberty. It was a transitory government, created out 
of fear of a republic, and because of the difficulties 
in the way of re-establishing the Empire. But the 
Republicans and Bonapartists, who had cheered the 
Due d'Orteans in 1830, had long waited for their 
turn, and their united efforts must, sooner or later, 
have caused the downfall of a monarchy born on the 
barricades. 

Adelaide d'Orle*ans, whose bold initiative during 
the July days is known, "bound to Louis-Philippe 

1 Letter from the Due d'Orldans to Dupin, written from Claremont 
(quoted by Dupin). 



294 ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS 

by a long and close friendship," never lost interest in 
the affairs of State. Thus it may be said that she 
contributed in giving the nation seventeen years of 
commercial prosperity and outward peace. But, under 
her brother's reign, characters became effeminate, 
public morals were impaired by the propaganda of 
corruption, and the ambition of men was limited more 
narrowly than ever to material enjoyments. Money 
became all powerful, and the people of France, de- 
prived of an ideal, but desirous before all things of 
" becoming rich," began that process of degeneration 
which has gone on increasing since then, and to which, 
in particular, the cause of the moral enfeeblement of 
our country may be ascribed. 1 

1 It is the duty of the English translator to protest against this expres- 
sion of a pessimism which is fashionable in certain circles of French 
society. It is not true that France is less devoted to ideals, more given 
over to material enjoyments, more morally enfeebled than she was under 
the Legitimist monarchy, or under the Second Empire. All assertions to 
the contrary are based upon uncritical appreciation of the past and that 
invidious form of intellectual snobbery which is always disgusted with 
the present. With all her faults, Madame Adelaide was " on the side of 
the angels that is, in however imperfect and halting a way, on the side 
of liberty against obscurantism, political or intellectual, and this it is 
which gives significance and value to her career. 



Printed by BALLANTYNE, HANSON &> Co. 
Edinburgh &* London 



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