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OR i HI: 










Xo\ KMISKR, 1786 ; 




J U J ) ( i I , ( i; N T Y C I J 1 J T 


l ri:i.isii|.-.| ( liv nil. Si \\II.\KD I KINIIM; 

I Si )( >. 

Kntered, according ti.> Act of Parliament of Canada, in 
the year one thousand eight hundred and ninety, by 
T. F. I RIN;I.E, at the Department of Agriculture. 






"Descendants of the United "Empire lio^alist 



Five or six years ago I wrote out my personal recollections 
of the Town of Cornwall for the past sixty years. On 
showing the manuscript to some of my friends, it was 
suggested that I should write a history of the town. I acted 
on the suggestion and began the work, which gradually ex 
panded and at length took the form in which it is now offered 
to the public, " A History of the Settlement and Karly Pro 
gress of Lunenburg or the old Eastern District." To this 1 
have added my personal recollections of the town ; a history 
of the King s Royal Regiment of New York, the old 84th 
Regiment, and the Loyal Rangers, the officers and men of 
which first settled this part of Canada. I also give several 
lists of names that will, I think, be of no little interest to the 
descendants of the original settlers. These lists contain the 
names in the muster roll of the 2nd battalion of the King s 
Royal Regiment of New York; the officers, non-commission 
ed officers and men of the Grenadier Company of the 
battalion of the same regiment ; the officers of both battalions 
and of the Loyal Ran [Sutler s Rangers, Kbenc/er Jes- 

sup s, Drummond s, Peters anil Leake s corps ; the nanu 
the original settlers, with the numbers of their respective lots 
as they appear on McNiff s map, dated ist November, i; 
all the officers, non-commissioned officers and men of the 
above mentioned regiments who settled in the district, and of 



the members of Parliament and the public officers who have 
served in the district from the year 1792. In addition to 
these are given a list of the officers of the battalion of Fen- 
cibles raised in Glengarry, Scotland, in the latter part of last 
century ; of those of the Canadian Volunteers, raised in 
Canada at the same period ; of those of the battalion of 
Canadian Fencibles and of one battalion of the Glengarry 
Light Infantry, raised during the war of 1812 ; of the militia 
of the Counties as it was in 1802 and 1838, and of the Stormont 
militia in 1823, and of several of the corps raised during the 

rebellion of 1837. 

A short sketch of the events of the war of 1812 is given,, 
with the names of those who received pensions and medals 
for the part they took in it. I have endeavored to give as 
full an account of the old times and old ways as it is possible 
to arrive at in the present day. 

I am aware that there must be many omissions in my book 
but the difficulty of getting particulars of the events of a cen 
tury ago will be apparent to all, and will, I trust, be taken as a 
good excuse for my shortcomings. I am indebted to Dr. 
Ryerson s "Loyalists in North America," Dr. Canniff s 
"Settlement of Upper Canada," Sabine s " U. E. Loyalists," 
Croil s " Dundas," Smith s " Gazetteer of Upper Canada in 
1796," Gourlay s work on Upper Canada, McMullen s " His 
tory of Canada," D. Brymner, archivist s " Reports on 
Archives," the account of the U. E. Loyalists centennial, &c, 
&c., &c. for much valuable information, and I have searched 
in the public records of the counties and the town and in old 
newspapers, almanacs and magazines, and from all of them 
have gathered much useful matter. 

I give my hearty, thanks to the public officers of the 
counties, the ministers of the various churches in the town, 
and to D. Brymner, archivist, Dr. Canniff, the Rose Publish 
ing Company, Geo. H. MacGillivray, C. D. Chisholm, J. A. 
Macdonell (Greenfield), C. W. Young, A. Stafford, and many 
others of my friends for the assistance they have given me in 

Preface. vii 

collecting documents and obtaining material for my self- 
imposed task. 

The work has been the occupation of many of my leisure 
hours for the last five years, and I now submit it to the public, 
hoping that it may be found to contain matter both useful 
and interesting, and that for its good qualities, such as they 
may be, its errors and omissions may be overlooked or 
leniently dealt with. 

Before closing this preface I must allude to the wonderful 
changes and improvements that have been made in the pre 
sent century, most of them since the year 1820. At that date 
railways and locomotives were not known. It was not until 
the autumn of 1825 that George Stevenson proved their power 
and utility on the Stockton and Darlington road. Steam 
navigation had been established on inland waters and a few 
steamers skirted the shores of Great Britain, but the crossing 
of the great ocean by steam was looked upon as a wild 
scheme. Lighting by gas had been tried to a limited extent 
in London, but was by no means in common use until many 
years later. The use of electricity as a means of communica 
tion between distant places may have been thought of, but 
was not looked upon as anything more than a dream of 
scientific men. The electric light, the telephone, the phono 
graph, photography, steam fire engines, the spectroscope,, 
tubular and cantilever bridges, roller printing presses driven 
by steam, machines that make paper by the mile, machinery for 
making boots and shoes, improvements in spinning and weav 
ing machinery, agricultural implements, such as seeders, culti 
vators, reapers, mowers, threshing machines and many others, 
appliances for executing public works, as steam shovels and 
derricks, steam hammers and pile drivers, hydraulic lifts and 
presses, appliances for lightening household work as sewing 
and knitting machines, hot water heaters, cooking stoves and 
ranges, iS:c., &c., &c., even the humble friction match, ha 
made their appearance since 1820. 

And what a change has taken place in the British North 

viii Preface. 

American possessions since that date. They were then 
isolated-; with little means of communicating one with an 
other ; each had its own government, and, except the feeling 
of loyalty to Great Britain common to all of them, the}- had 
little to bind them together. The population was scant}-, 
their resources small. The great North-west was an Indian 
hunting ground, under the control of the great fur trading 

o O 

companies difficult of access and but little known. Now the 
Provinces, with the exception of Newfoundland, are formed in 
one Dominion, stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific, 
holding within its boundaries an area of about 3,470,392 
square miles, nearly 500,000 more than the United States. 
The Atlantic and Pacific coasts are directly connected by rail 
ways equal if not superior to any on the continent. A magni 
ficent system of canals (soon to be completed by the Sault 
Ste. Marie canal) connects the waters of Lake Superior with 
those of the Atlantic ocean. Factories are in operation 
throughout the land, so that there are not many articles in 
use that cannot now be supplied by our own people. Our area 
of wheat-producing land is nearly double that of the United 
States. We have about one-half of all the fresh water of the 
globe Our forests are great and our mineral wealth is un- 

*> o 

limited. The population of the British Provinces comprising 
the Dominion of Canada was not quite 200,000 in 1/84. At 
the last census (1881) it was 5,000,000, having increased 25 
times. The population of the United States in 1784 was 
3,000,000 ; at the last census (1880 or 1881) it was 60,000,000, 
an increase of 20 times. Our climate is cool but healthy, ad 
mirably suited to foster the growth of a hard}-, energetic and 
enterprising people such as the Canadians have been and now 
are. What the future may have in store for us none can tell, 
but judging from the past we have even- reason to believe 
and trust that to a sober, industrious, law-abiding and God 
fearing people, true to themselves and to the great Empire of 
which Canada forms no inconsiderable part, it can bring- 
nothing but good. If any arc fearful and doubting let them 

Preface. ix 

consider what Canadians have done in the past. Let them 
believe that the race is not degenerating, and let them pray 
earnestly the prayer of the auld Scotsman, " Lord c, r ie us a 
;4~uid conceit i ourse ls." 

1 889. 



Canada Prior to 1784 Settlement of Upper Canada in that Year North 
America in 1750 Causes of Ouarrel between the British and French Colonies. 


Disputes between British and French Settlers Expeditions Planned in 1755 
Brnddock and Fort Duquesne Sir William Johnson Crown Point- Niagara 
1756, War Declared I7.S7, French Successful at Oswego and Fort William Henry 

Fate of Col. Munro and his Force 17^8, Louisbuig General Wolfe 
Ticonderoga Defeat of Abercrovnbie Gallantry of the Highland Regiments 

. ire of Forts Frontenac and Duquesne 1759, Ticonderoga. Niagara Taken - 
Attack on Huebec by Genera! Wolfe His Death Capture of OuebecDealh of 
Montcalm 1760, Advance of General Amherst against Montreal Surrender of 
Montreal Treaty of Paris, 1763 Conspiracy of Pontiac. 

( n vi i r.u III. 

The Colonies after the Treaty of Paris Conduct of the British ( io\ eminent 
Generous 1704. Beginning of a System of Oppression Stamp Act. 1705 Views 

of the Colonists Courts of Admiralty. 1769 1770, Port Dues Act KepeaK-d 
Duty on TIM t Imposition of the Colonists, 1774 Delegates meet in Philadelphia 

1775, Oppressive Measures of the liriiish Parliament Continued -Congress I eti- 

tions for Redress of Grievances Majority Against Endependence 1776, Declara 
tion of Independence Carried by a Majority of ( )ne. 

( ll MM l.K I\ . 
The Colonists and their ( tpponen .f Indepeiidc, 

Persecution of the Loyali : m Appointed by Conj 

Sabim s B \ of the Loyalists They Abandon the I nited States. 

xii Contents. 

CHAP ! KR A". 

F.mph-e Loyalist- -Allotments of Land- State of the Country -First 
in Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry First Settlement in Cornwall in 
1776 Xo R l ~. I -- Loyalists -Scenes in which Some of 

then [ighlanders- Lxtract from KirbyV Poem. 

Cn.\; iKK \\. 

First Survey in Up] ia Settlement at Niagara- Survey in 1785 -Mc- 

NifFs Surve) Map, 1786 The T<. i own Plot Distribution of 

Land -lime. 1784. Xumlier of Settlers from Different Regiments Log Ho; 
Task of Clearing Land- : in 40 Years -,-l land Mill- ion of Mills 

Wiiv ar Cornwall. 

;-;R VII. 

Settlem, Fariiest Patent for Town Lot -For Land in Matilda 

App of the Town One Hundred Years Ago Mention of it in Smith s 

Gazetteer under name of Xe\\ Johnstown Extracts from Smith V Gazetteer- 
Lai Cornwall, Osnabruck, Long Sank Rap! >er 
Trade Williamsburgh Matilda Edwardsburg Johnstown Isle du Fort ! 
()s\>, , in the Old Kastern District Mentioned in the Ga/.e: 
Vlaps. 1745-1755. 

R \"III. 

Extent of Province of Quebec before 1791 District <>f Montreal included On- 

. until 1788 Lord Dorchester s I roclamation- -District of Lunenburgh 

X .i Townshi ,;missions of the Peace- -Magistrates Courts First 

Sitting of the Court of General (Quarter Sessions of the l e-> cords of the 

;;er and Lower Canada Names of Distriqts Chanj immission of 

the Peace, 1793 Names of Magistrates - \Yhere Court of Sessions to be 

ikU Limits of the Eastern District Changed in 1798 and 1816 Po\\ers of the 

Court of Or.arter Sessions. 


Extracts from Records of the Court of General Quarte First Sit; . 

th. strates and Jurors Cases Tried -Banishment Sabbath 

Old Xames I4th Sept.. 1790. Sentence Flogging 
9th April. 1792. i- ir.-t (.. oun held at Connsall Curious Trial for Seditious \Vord> 

of Requ irks for Hogs. Sheep and Cattle Poundkeepers 1- , 

Gaol and Court Houses to be built at Johnstown and Cornwall Sealers 
Weights and Measures Gaolers Salary Jacob Farrand, Registrar Treasurer s 
.V Unlawful Toll Ferry from Cornwall to St. : Gaol and Court 

House in 1802 or 1803 Penoyer Road Opened from John Milross late in 1806 in ISad Order in 1807 Prisoner Accused of Murder-- 1808, Road from C orn- 
wall to St. Andr;-\\-. 

Contents. xiii 

( ! X . 

uite an Blomlear 

Road to St. Andrews 1 rian Meeting 

House --< ourt House < Jecupied byTro-.p- ilnti^v at Major -\ : rants 

for Streets in Cornwall -Courts of i Market, r\ -f the 

Town Gaol Limits Lots 4 and 5 North Side Fifth Street . land 

Court House Bridge at Wm. Woods nd Court House Burned in \N 

2t> Payment of \Yitr\essc_s attending Co , i! Quarter S 

( arr l!ri ; tion of Is i:rt liouse (Irani lor 

Ninc-mile Road 8th and qth Concession of Lancaster -1830, (ia! Limits Ln- 
F.stimate of Disiric! Expi Rate of A .832, 

(Irant for Fire ! Two Prisoner.- . \e\\ Court i, 

Finished -Fire Company .airman - -1836, Troop.-, >eiit to 

Cornwall -Iiinkeep.-rs. rules for l .\p tht Executi 

Albert French i Expensi mi; ( ;m of Re; 1839, 

Survey of Eastern Boundary of Cornwall an om^h 1841, Distrirt Council. 


Towi iwall List of Patent- i^ .ied ID end of 1810 Abstracts 

i opulation of the Tov.n And Tmui.ships of Cornwall and Ro.\- 
borou<;h Abstract of To\\n Lois, Assessed, [815 to 1850 Property 
1850 Number of Names in 
;. Creek. 

CHAPI r;!: XII. 

\\ ar of 18) rl House and i . rracks Guard at Cap; 

Joseph Anderson s Farm C.uanl at C aptnin Alex. McDonald s \\arin\\. 
Canada First Appearance of the American Army at Point lro-;:iois 
Sent to Occupy Cornwall Skirmish at Hooples Creek Americans near Cornwall 
Battl Farm Col. Pearson s Attack on Mai ildier Wounded at 

1 [copies I )ieam liritish Sail. 


The ToV 11111182425 English Church District School H< 

and Court House Buildings on Water Streel Firsl > 

Third and l- omi!i Si reels PittSn , ; Town Incorpora I, 

Returned a Member to P-.ii .Til ( anal lie^un. 

CiiAi iKk X!Y. 

Mode of Life One Hundre<n IMK-I Abunda.Jil Pri 

Fire Mini and Sle. l Three Rivers StOVi ind Price ot 

\\ood The l.ii;ht of Othei Days Dips DM is Spiini mers l- e\\ Agri 

cultural Imp 1 X iolin, i 

!i Makin- Lumber business (lid Tin 
:iien \i-\\ S] "I ppei Price- i. 

xiv Contents, 


Travelling Grain taken to Montreal on Rafts Batteaux and Durham Boats 
Used on the River Description of Them Kingston Head of Boat Navigation- 
Canals at Cascades, Cedars and Coteau Dixon s Canals at Sheik s Island and 
Moulinette Voyage down the River Rafts Crab Island Travelling to Mont 
real by Batteau Winter Vehicles Summer Travelling Letter of R. I. D. Gray, 
1804 Lumber Waggons Ox Carts Gigs First Steamboat, 1809 Barnabas 
Dickinson, 1812 First Line of Conveyances Between Montreal and Prescott 

Steamboats on Lake Ontario Horse Boat at Cornwall Neptune Highlander 

Steamboats of the Old Time Trip Between Cornwall and Montreal in Spring or 
Fall In Summer Author s Journey to Vork in 1833 Steamboat Iroquois 
Dolphin, Cornwall Canal, 1842 George Frederick North Channel of Long 
Sault Head of Boat Navigation Lake Steamers in 1834 River Steamers, 1853 
Steamer Rapid Miss Powel s Journal, 1789 The Duke de la Rochfoucults Lian- 
court s Travels, 1795 Steam Navigation on the St. Lawrence and the Atlantic. 


Town Assessments Incorporation, 1834 First Election of Members of Board 
of Police Rules and Regulations Hay Scales Sidewalks Market Fire Com 
panyMarketValue of Lots Bridge over Canal Revenue in 1842 Wharf- 
Mill Privileges on Canal Last Board of Police, 1846 First Councillors, 1847 
Immigration Outbreak of Fever Asiatic Cholera, 1849 New Act of Incorpora 
tion, 1850 County Officers, 1852 Macadamized Road Asiatic Cholera, 1854 
Grand Trunk Railway, 1854-55-56 Survey of Part of the Town, 1854 New 
Municipal Act, 1859 Visit of H. R. H. the Prince of Wales, 1860 Town Hall, 
1862 Drill Shed, 1863 Fenian Excitement, 1866 Woollen Factory, 1867. 
Bonus to Factories Police Magistrate Fire in 1874 Town Hall, 1882 New 
Survey New Market Town Debt, 1883 Fatal Fire at Town Hall, 1886 
Revenue and Expenditure, 1888 Taxes Levied from 1864 to 1882 Valuation of 
Property, 1884-1886-1888 Population List of Presidents, Mayors, Clerks and 
Treasurers, &c. Mode of Assessing up to 1850. 


First Improvements in Inland Navigation Lachine Canal Welland Corn 
wall Beauharnois System of Canals Proposed by Robert Gourlay S. Clowes 
Survey in 1826 Statute of 1833 Names of Commissioners Contractors Work 
begun at Cornwall Work at Long Sault Behaviour of the Labourers Murder 
of Stuart Town Applies for a Bridge Engineers Reports Riotous Labourers at 
the Long Sault Murder of Albert French Troops sent to Cornwall Financial 
Difficulties Block House Barracks at Court House Work on Canal Completed 
M ischievous Trick Break in Canal Beauharnois First Boat Through Cornwall 
Canal Bridge at Cornwall Dimensions of Canals. 


Postal Arrangements Mails in 1784-1800-1812-1830-1856 Letters Carried 
by Private Hand Fate of Two of Them Rates of Postage Before 1850 Rate on 

Contents. xv 

English Letters Single and Double Rates Carrying Letters by Private Indi 
viduals Forbidden Copy of an Old Order Steamboats Between Montreal and 
Quebec Notice in "Kingston Chronicle" Changing the Mail Reduction of 
Postage to Three Cents Post Offices in 1801 and 1802, 1816, 1821, 1827, 1838, 


Corps Formed for the King s Service Dr. Canniff s List Mr. Howe s List- 
Sir William Johnson Sir John Johnson The King s Royal Regiment of New 
York 1776 Officers Major Gray The Messrs. Jessup Letters Respecting the 
Regiment General Burgoyne s Expedition Capitulation Expedition to the Mo 
hawk, 1777 1780 3rd of July, 1780, Raising of 2nd Battalion Ordered The 
Regiment to be placed on the Establishment Old Orderly Book Stations where 
the Regiment was Quartered Another Old Orderly Book Completion of 2nd 
Battalion Extracts from Orderly Book, 1779 Alarm Posts King s Birthday 
New Uniform Curious Order, 1780 Expedition, May, 1780 Adjutant s Memo 
randum Book Names of Officers of 1st Battalion, 1783 ; of 2nd Battalion, 1782 
Promotions in 1st Battalion Promotion of Sir John Johnson Preparations for 
Disbanding Uniform. 


Royal Highland Emigrants, 1775-1783 Lieut. -Colonel Difficulty in Convey 
ing Recruits to their Destination Battle in Carolina 1st Battalion at Quebec in 1776 
Arnold s Attempt to Take Quebec Assault Attempted by Montgomery Defeat 
of Arnold by Colonel McLean Good Conduct of the Regiment 2nd Battalion 
Battle at Eutaw Springs 1778, the Regiment was placed on the Establishment 
and Numbered the 84th Uniform Disbanded Grants of Land Extracts from 
Haldimand Papers Edward Jessup s Corps When Raised Officers Ebenezer 
Jessup s Drummond s or McAIpine s Peters Leake s Corps Butler s Corps 
When Raised Officers Cherry Valley Rank of Officers in Provincial Corps 
Provisional Articles of Peace 1783, Orders for Disbanding 84th and Other Corps 
Correspondence as to Surveys and Settlement Forces in Canada in 1782. 


Original Settlers in Glengarry Township of Kenyon Settlers in 1803 
Revd. Alex. McDonell Williamstown Lancaster First Stone House inDistrict 
Indian Land Anecdote. Spogan Dubh" John McDnugall -Officers of the 
Northwest Company Discoverer of Thompson River The Revd. John Mc 
Donald Murdoch McPherson Number of the Clansmen in 1852 Prince Char 
lie s Sword McKenzie Ferguson List of Officers of the Glengarry Fencibles, 
1798; of the Glengarry Light Infantry, 1813 County of Stormont Highland 
Germans Link s Mill Names of Some Old Sutlers - Tcmnship of Osnabruck 
Lutheran Clergymen County of Dundus Settlers Principally ( lermans Lutheran 
Churches First Member-, of Parliament Names of Sonic of the Old Inhabitants 
Henry Merkley Samuel Anderson List of Pensioners, 1812 -Simon Fruser. 

xvi Contents. 


Progress of the District Assessments, Revenue and Expenditure, 179310 1795. 
1796, 97, 98 Aggregate of Assessments, 1815,1825, 1835, 1845 Finance.- 
trolled !>y the Magistrates District Council Township and County Council List 
of "Wardens. Clerks and Treasurer--. 



The Kevd. John Hethune Formed a Congregation in Montreal Came to 
Williamstown. 1787 -Churches Huilt by him at Williamstown. Cornwall, 
Lancaster and Sunimer.-tovrn -Church at Cornwall Ministers who Succeeded 
Mr. lieihuiu New Church begiln in 1823, finished 1826 Bell put up in 
1830 Hirst Ordination of Llders First Celebration of the Lord s Supper at St. 
John s Names of Llders Trustees Building of Manse -Names of Deacon- 
Purchase of Site lor New Church--- Removal of < )ld St. John s- Laying of Cornel- 
Stone wf Xew St. John s Account of Old St. John s List of Subscribers to the 
Building Fund of the Church in 1826 Burial Ground Changes in Old St. form s 
--Disruption in 1843 Formation of New Congregation Knox Church \ 
of Ministers Union in 1875 Old Usages Musical Instrument The Lord s 
SupperOpening of Xew St. John s -Oldest Tombstone. 



First Clergyman in Upper Canada The Kevd. John Stuart Cornwall a Mission 
Station Money Subscribed in 1800 for Building a Church -Meeting in 1805 
List of Subscribers January, 1806 Parsonage, 1813 Burial Ground Used in 
Common until 1831 Alterations and Improvements in Old Church 1868, Pre 
parations to Build Xew Church Consecrated, 1884 Peal of Bells. 1885 Tn e 
Kevd. John Strachan, 1803 Clergymen who Succeeded Him Old Tombs in the 

< !! AITK.R XXV. 
ROMAN C V I ll. >,." CHfRCH. 

Cornwall in the Parish of St. Andrews until 1834 Old Church in 1829 Xew 
Church begun in 1856 Parsonage School Houses Convent Names of Priests 
Old Church at St. Andrews The Kevd. Roderick McDonell Journey fro 
Regis to St. Andrews Priests at St. Andrews. 


From 1794 to 1808 Cornwall was part of the Oswegatchie Circuit Separate 
Circuit in 1824 Separate Charge in 1861 Names of Ministers First Church 
Built in 1861 So , u t 1876. 

THK ii. 

Resident Minister in 1883 Church Built in 1884. 

Contents. xvii 



First Grammar School in Cornwall Established by the Revel. John Strachan, 
1803 Statute of 1807 Names of Mr. Strachan s Successors The Revd. 
Dr. Urquhart Presentation of Testimonials to Archdeacon Strachan and the Revd. 
H. Urquhart-The Old School House-The New-Legend of the Italian-Lists 
of Scholars of the Revd. J. Strachan and the Revd. II. Urquhart High Schools 
Established at Williamstown, Alexandria, Morrisburg and Iroquois Extracts 
from Report for 1888. 



Statute of 1816 How Schools were Managed under it The Old School 
House School House Built in 1834 Teachers in 1843 Salaries School House- 
Built in 1854 Teachers Salaries in 1861, 1865, 1884 Sen-, i House Built in 
1884 List of Teachers from 1850 Schools and School Houses of the Old Times 
-Subjects Taught Books and Alliances The Old Teachers -Arithmetical 
Puzzle Old Soldiers and Sailors Old Time Discipline Trustees, Extracts from 
Reports for 1888. 


First Elections, 1792 Lists of Members for the Counties of Stonnont, Dun- 
das and Glengarry and the Town of Cornual! -First Members for Grenville, Pres- 
cott and Russell, 1812 Election Address, 1796. 


Cornwall as a Garrison Route of Troops from Montreal to Kingston, 
18291836, Company of 151!] Reiriment Volunteers to Coteau di: Lac. ; 
Militia Regiments in Town, 1837-1838 Regiments Sent to Lower Canada Same 
Years L, Grant and the ! , Crawford s Company invasion at 

1 rescott and the Windmill, 1838 Troops sent to -Attack on tlie Rebels 

-Arrival of the 2nd Stormont Troops Waiting for Heavy ,, -rival of 

83rd Regiment and the Artillery Defeat and Surrenr ., al! ,l 

Flag Captured - List of Persons Pros in Killed and Wounded 

-Invasion from Detroit Summary Punishment ] >isposal of Prisonei 
Sch izure of a Steamei 1 >. K. Mclntyi >thers 

Prisoners -Regular Troops and Militia Sent to th >kirmih Vil 

lage Garrison of Cornwall and i r, 1838-1830 5th In d 4 th In- 

Officers sent from England Town Majoi of Cornwall Volunt< 
Troops an, I Companies, 1854-55-62 Fenian i ;o _ \ 1)rt h- 

west Rebel] ,,f Militi 


Improvements in the Tcro -833-34 1841 Lease to D. Me 

Done!! New Buildings on St. John s Church umercial 

Fire in 1876 St.)nnoiil Block Buildings West of Pin Stree( i 

xv jii Contents. 

New Buildings -Bank, 1882-83 American Hotel Post Office, 1885 County 
Buildings D. B. McLennan s Building Rossmore Hotel New St. John s 
English Church built at East End-Roman Catholic Church begun there- 
McLennan s Buildings Ontario Bank New Buildings West Side of Pitt Street- 
Gas and Water Works Sidewalks Sewers Fires Storm in 1846. 



1845!. Harvey Andrew Elliott A. E. Cad well Privilege Granted to 
the Hon. Philip Vankoughnet Bought by Wm. Mattice Wm. Mack s Mill- 
Messrs. Flack & Vanarsdale Cornwall Manufacturing Company Their Factory 
Burned in 1870 Rebuilt in 1871 Stormont Cotton Manufacturing Company, 
1870 Factory Burned in 1874 Rebuilt in 1879 Canada Cotton Manufacturing 
Company, 1872 Toronto Paper Company, 1881 Smaller Factories. 

Prehistoric Relic Ice Shoves and State of the River in Winter Floods, 



Law Criminal and Civil, 1774-1792 Trial by Jury Cases under 10.0.0- 
Courts of Requests for Claims up to Forty Shillings Costs Jurisdiction Increased 
to 5.0.0 Right of Sett-off Statute of 1833 Increase of Jurisdiction to 10.0.0 
Commissioners Appointed-Statute of 1841 -Appointment of Judges of the 
District Courts Six Division Courts in the Three Counties-Clerks Paid by Sal 
arySubsequent Acts-Judges-Courts of Requests in the Eastern District Com 
missioners and Clerks-Clerks at Cornwall from i8 33 -Clerks, 1889- 
Courts Established Probate Surrogate King s Bench Appeal- 
Judges, Non-Professional and Professional Judges and Clerks of District Courts, 
18181794, Sixteen Gentlemen Authorized to Practice as Solicitors Law Society 
-Members of, in 1797 J^ges, etc., ^92 to i82 9 -District Courts, Successive 
Acts Concerning Arrest for Debt Indigent Debtors Allowance to Limits 
Glengarry Man Discharge of Debtors Old Declaration Extravagant Charges- 
Old Forms and Bills of Costs. 


Lists of the Public Officers of the Eastern District and the United Counties 
from 1793 to 1889 Judges of the District Court Judges of the Surrogate Court- 
SheriffsClerks of the Peace Clerk of the District and County Courts Registrars 
of the Surrogate Court Deputy Clerks of the Crown Masters in Chancery- 
Registrars of Deeds Treasurers Barristers and Attornies, 1797 to 1847 Public 
Officers in the Johnstown District, 1802. 


John Baker The Last of those who had been Born in Slavery in Canada- 
Jlis Mother Born in 1759 Captain Gray and his Family Come to Canada Settle 

Contents. xix 

at Gray s Creek Dorine Married to a German Col. Gray s Son, R. I. D. Gray, 
takes John Baker and his Brother Simon to York Letter from R. 1. 1). Gray to his 
Cousin John Baker s Narrative of his Life Loss of the and Death of Mr. 
Gray John Enlists and goes to New Brunswick Was at Waterloo Got a Pen 
sionAccount of the Loss of the Speedy Mr. Gray s Will John came back to 
Cornwall The First Payment of his Pension His Age. 


Short Account of the War of 1812 List of the Actions Fought during the 
War Close of the War Medals Issued in 1847 Names <>t~ those who Received 
them Pensions Granted to the Surviving Soldiers in 1875 Their Ages at that 


Odds and Ends Extracts from Old Newspapers, containing Matters Curious 
.and Interesting Letter from Sir William Johnson, Fel.runry 20, 1755 Extracts 
from Upper Canada Ga/.ette, i8iS Meeting at Cornwall War Losses Circuits, 
18181819 Article about Gas Extracts from Montreal Herald, 1820 Curious 
Literary Gossip Death of a Soldier who had Fought under Wolfe Execution of 
a Man for Treason, 1821 Strength of the British Army Slave Trade Kin. 
Chronicle, 1821 Manufactures- -Execution of Four Men at Cornwall Ma^mic 
Anecdote 1822, Meetings For and Against Union with Lower Canada Canadian 
Spectator, 1823 Death of the First Hindoo Convert to the Protestant Faith - 
Execution of Pirates at Kingston. Jamaica Highland Society at Martintown 
Perkins Steam Gun, 1824 Upper Canada Oa/ette -Steam Navigation Between 
Ireland and Nova Scotia -Colonial Ad\ocate- -Circulation of Papers in 1824 
Corner Stone of the Church of Notre Dame. Montreal. Laid -North Wing of the 
House of Assembly, York, Burned -Opposition to Railroads in England Arrival 
of the Columbus Timber Ship at Blnckwail from (Quebec Statutes of Upper 
Canada in 1824 1830, Death of Sir John Johnston Temperance Society at King- 
1X32. Sale of OKI Men of War at Kingston 1830, Courts of Pacification - 
1833, Cornwall Observer Caledonia Springs Cutler s Quarry Cornwall Canal 
Proposal iii Ogdensl.urg Paper (or a Rival Canal Proposed Line of Steamboats 
from Now York to Liverpool Railway from Montr. ;d to Province Line -1834, 
The Patriot Proposal to Stock the Lakes with Sea Fish -Castle of St. Louis at 
Ouebec Burned Name Toronto Substituted for York -Houses of Parliament, 
London, Murned First Ma/aar at Cornwall -Proposal to Hold DiMrict Courts and 
Session! Alternately in Glengarry and Stormoiit 1835, Cornwall Observer- 
Petition for the Annexation of the Island of Montreal and of the Peninsul 

rn Di.-trict to Upper Canada Lachlan McKinnon- 1850, County Council 
met ;U Williamsburg and Williamstow n 1852, Petition from Glengarry for an 
Act Similar to the Maine Liquor Lav [853, Cornwall Freeholder Defendants 
1 lora McDonald -1889, Copy of an Old Account. 





Prior to the year 1784, that part of the old Province of 
Quebec, called Upper Canada, and now Ontario, was an al 
most unbroken wilderness. The French had extended their 
settlements up to, what is now the line between the Provinces 
of Quebec and Ontario, but had not pushed them further 
west. At an early period of their occupation of Canada, they 
had explored the rivers St. Lawrence and Ottawa, navigated 
the great lakes, visited many parts of the North-west, and 
established military and trading posts, at Frontenac, (now 
Kingston), the mouth of the Niagara river, Detroit and other 
points. Their priests, active and energetic in their holy voca 
tion, had gone far into the country carrying religious instruction 
to the natives, and in too many instances sacrificing their lives 
in their endeavours to benefit and civili/.e the Indians. 

The names of many rapids, headlands and islands still 
testify to the extent of the l-Yench explorations, but it was 
not until 17^4 that the permanent settlement and occupation 

2 Luncnbnrgh, or the 

of Upper Canada began. In that year about ten thousand 
persons were placed along the northern shores of the River 
St. Lawrence, Lake Ontario and Lake Erie. Nearly all of 
them were U. E. Loyalists driven from their homes in the 
thirteen old colonies, and most of the men, old enough to 
bear arms, had served in the corps raised for the King during 
the revolutionary war. The front concessions of that part of 
the country which now forms the counties of Glengarry, Stor- 
mont and Dundas, were divided among the officers, non-com 
missioned officers and privates of the first battalion of the 
King s Royal Regiment of Xcw York, which was disbanded 
in 1/84. There were also among those who settled in Lan 
caster, Charlottenburgh and Cornwall, several who had served 
in the " Royal Highland Emigrants," or as the regiment was 
afterwards called, the " 84th." A number of families were 
sent out from the Highlands of Scotland some years later, and 
settled in the County of Glengarry. As the U. E. Loyalists 
were by far the largest number of the immigrants, it is ne 
cessary to give a short sketch of the events that led to the de 
parture of so many from the homes they had made in the old 
provinces, and to their seeking new ones in the" wild forests 
north of the St. Lawrence. In order to make such a sketch fairly 
comprehensible, it is necessary to go back to the middle of the 
eighteenth century. 

About the year 1750, the continent of North America was 
claimed by Great Britain, France and Spain, and was partially 
occupied by their colonies. Great Britain had possession of 
part of Nova Scotia and the thirteen colonies, viz : Mas 
sachusetts, including Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, 
Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, 
Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina and Georgia. 

France had a much larger tract of country, including 
Acadia, Cape Breton, Canada, the territory bordering on 
Hudson s Bay, a great part of Maine, portions of Vermont 
and New York, and the Valley of the Mississippi. 

Spain had the country bordering on the Gulf of Mexico, 

Old Eastern District. 3 

and the whole of the territory comprising Mexico, Texas and 
California. *Thc British colonies had a population of about 
1,160,000, the French in Canada about 55,000, and with 
Louisiana and Acadia, 80,000. The latter, besides their 
trading and military posts at Frontenac, Niagara and Detroit, 
had others on Lake Champlain, and were building Fort Du- 
quesne at the confluence of the Monongahela and Ohio rivers 
The British finding themselves hemmed in and their trade 
interfered with on the north and west, resisted what they con 
sidered the encroachments of the French on their territory. 
The rivalry between the two nationalities became more 
fierce as time went on, until the struggle became not a mere 
question of trading and of boundaries, but a conflict for the 
mastery of a continent. 

*See Parkman s Mont calm and Wolfe, Part I, p. 2. 

Lunenburgh, or the 


Each nationality had endeavored to secure to itself the 
trade and the help of the Indian tribes, and each had suceeeded 
in acquiring an influence over a portion of them. Frequent 
encounters took place between the rival colonists and their 
savage allies. The hardy adventurer who pushed his way be 
yond the bounds of the remoter settlements, did so at the 
risk of his life, which was often the forfeit paid for his temer 
ity, and many a frontier settlement was the scene of murder 
and rapine in the border warfare carried on by the colonists 
even when the parent nations were at peace. 

The signing of the treaty of Aix la Chapelle, between 
Great Britain and France, in 1748, did not bring peace to 
America. There, it was a dead letter. Mutual aggressions 
were carried on until the British colonists determined to pre 
vent future advances on the part of the French, and to end 
their power on this continent by the conquest of Canada. To 
attain this object three expeditions were planned against the 
French in 1755 : one against Fort Duquesne, built where the 
Alleghany and Monongahcla rivers join and form the Ohio ; 
one against Crown Point on Lake Champlain, and the third 
against Niagara. 

The force intended for the attack on Fort Duquesne con 
sisted of two British regiments of infantry and a number of 
provincial troops, in all about two thousand one hundred men, 
under the command of Major-General Braddock. The little 
army marched early in June; their progress through the forest 
was difficult and tedious, it was not until July that they ap 
proached the fort. When they got within ten miles of it, they 
were suddenly attacked by a body of French and Indians 
who were in ambush in the forest. The battle lasted from two 
in the afternoon until five, when Braddock having been mor- 

Old Eastern District. c 

tally wounded, his men retreated with a loss of one-third of 
their number, and the attempt to capture Fort Duquesne was 
abandoned. For the attack against Crown Point, troops to 
the number of about three thousand four hundred, consisting 
principally of New Fnglanclcrs, were sent under the command 
of Col. William Johnson. They met the French, commanded 
by Baron Dieskau, near the south end of Lake George 
Three sharp actions were fought. The French were defeated 
with a loss of nearly half their number, and Dieskau was 
wounded and taken prisoner. The British loss was also heavy 
about four hundred fell. Col. Williams was killed and Col 
Johnson wounded. Johnson did not follow up his success and 
the intended attack on Crown Point was not carried any 

The projected attack on Niagara was not proceeded with, 
no attempt was made to carry it into execution. 

The campaign of 1755 was a failure for the British colon 
ists, notwithstanding the success of Col. Johnson at Lake 
George, and unopposed bands of Canadians and savages de 
vastated the frontier from Nova Scotia to Virginia. 

In May, 1756, war was declared between Great Britain 
and France, but except in the way of preparation, nothing was 
done in America that year by either party. Twenty-five 
thousand men were raised by the British colonies, independ 
ent of the British regular troops. The French forces all told 
did not exceed twelve thousand. 

In 1757, the French after hard fighting, got possession of 
Forts Ontario and Oswego, at the mouth of the Onondaga 
-1VU-, and of Fort William Henry at the southern end of Lake 
This fort was occupied by Col. Alunro with about 
four hundred and fifty provincial soldiers, and another for. 
numbering about seventeen hundred was intrenched near it 
Muuro and his men held the fort against great odds for six- 
days, when their provisions failing, aml 1)0 help coming from 

: W* share in.this cam, Johnson gol from the British Go 

mem a Baronetcj and .5000.0.0. 

6 Lunenburgh, or the 

General Webb, who was at Fort Edward with four thousand 
men, he and his whole force of about two thousand men 
surrendered to the French with the honors of war, under a 
promise that they would be escorted to Fort Edward. This 
promise was not kept. Notwithstanding the strenuous efforts 
of Montcalm and his officers, the Indians in their service fell 
on the defenceless prisoners with tomahawks and knives, and 
very few escaped their fury. At the close of 1757, the pros 
pects of the British colonists were very gloomy. The Eng- 
" lish had been driven from every cabin in the basin of the 
" Ohio, and the French had destroyed every vestige of their 
" power on the St. Lawrence. France had her forts on each 
" side of the lakes and at Detroit, Mackina, Kaskaskia, and 
" New Orleans. The two great valleys of the St. Lawrence 
" and the Mississippi were connected chiefly by three wcll- 
" known routes, by way of Waterford to Fort Duquesne, by 
" way of Maumee to the Wabash, and by way of Chicago to 
" the Illinois. Of the North American continent the French 
" claimed and seemed to possess twenty parts out of twcnty- 
" five, leaving four only to Spain, and but one to Great Britain. 
" The claims of France to the valleys of the Mississippi and 
"the St. Lawrence seemed to be established, America and 
" England were humiliated." 

Much had been done by the colonists for their own 
defense, but their efforts were isolated and their councils di 
vided and too often antagonistic ; success seemed almost hope 
less, notwithstanding their expenditure of men and money, and 
they wished England to undertake the management and ex 
pense of the war. Several regiments had been sent from Eng 
land to America, but the generals sent to command them were 
wanting either in skill or energy ; they did not understand and 
were unwilling to learn the mode of warfare necessary in the 
forest covered country in which they were called upon to act, 
and the result so far had been disastrous to the armies they 
commanded, to the country and to themselves. 

* Ryerson, vol. I. 

Old Eastern District. 7 

In 1/58, fresh efforts were made. Three expeditions 
were planned, one against Louisbourg,* in the Island of Cape 
Breton, one against Ticonderoga on Lake Champlain/and the 
third against Fort Duquesne. The attack on Louisbourg \vas 
made in June, 1758, by the fleet under Admiral Boscawen and 
an army commanded by General Wolfe. On the 26th of July 
the to\vn surrendered, the fortifications were razed to the 
ground, the stronghold of the French on the Atlantic coast 
was destroyed, and Acadia \vas lost to France for ever. On 
the 5th of July, 1758, an army of sixteen thousand men, Brit 
ish and Provincial, under the command of Lord Howe, crossed 
Lake George to attack Titfonderoga. Montcalm, the French 
General, had taken the utmost precautions against the enemy, 
he had put the works of the fort into the best possible state, 
and had constructed a breastwork across the point of land 
which Lord Howe s army must cross before getting to the 
main work. The British troops landed, the rangers advanced 
to drive in the French outposts, Lord Howe was with the ad 
vance, shots were fired by both parties, one hundred and fifty 
of the French were taken prisoners, a few of the English were 
killed, and unfortunately Lord Howe was among the number. 
The command devolved on General A bercrombic,-f* who direct 
ed an attack on the breastworks.* The order was gallantly 
obeyed, but -all the efforts of officers and men were in vain. 
After repeated efforts, the attacking force was driven back 

* Loui^hmirt;, the strongly fortified seaport of Cape Breton, had been I 
from the French in 1745, by the British fleet under Admiral Warren, and a land 
of NY\\ Finland men under Sir William 1 epperel. and had been restored to 
Fraih lan^e for \Iadra-- \>\ \ of Aix la Chapelle. 

I Not the famous Sir Ralph Abercrombie, who was killed in the m 
ar Alexandria, in F^vpt. in March. ! 

consisted of loir.-, piled up, and of tree?, newly cut down and lell lyi 
with their top-, to\\ard> Amiu < . the whole forming that the sol 

dier:-, could no! make their way through. A lew days alter the battle. Montcalm 
Caused earthworks to be made in place of the rampart of lo^s. The remains ol 
these earthworks -til! e\i>l. The author vi\\ them in July, : lily-two 

alter the battli . and lhe\ \\ere then a formidable obsta^ attackiii 

8 Lunenburgh, or tJte 

with fearful loss, no less than nineteen hundred and forty-two 
having fallen. Abcrcrombie, though he still had from thirteen 
to fourteen thousand men, and the French in all only three 
thousand six hundred, abandoned the enterprise and retreated. 
The Highlanders of the Black Watch, (42nd Regiment), were 
conspicuous for their bravery in the attack on the breastwork, 
and their loss was very severe, eight officers, nine sergeants, 
and two hundred and ninety-seven privates were killed, and 
seventeen officers, ten sergeants and three hundred and six 
privates were wounded. 

The expedition against Fort Duquesne, under General 
Joseph Forbes, set out in July, 1758, and in the following No 
vember took possession of the Fort. There was but little 
fighting, as the French garrison after one successful sortie 
abandoned the place, disheartened on hearing of the capture of 
Fort Frontenac, which had been taken in August by a Provin 
cial force under Col. Bradstreet, and destroyed with the sup 
plies intended for the relief of Fort Duquesne.* 

The capture of Fort Duquesne closed the operations of 
1758, which had on the whole been successful, notwithstand 
ing Abercombie s mismanagement and repulse at Ticonderoga. 
After the retreat of Abercrombie, and his recall, General 
Amherst was appointed commander in chief, assisted by Gen 
eral Wolfe. 

By the plan of operations for 1759, General Amherst was 
to attack Ticonderoga ; General Prideaux and Sir William 
Johnson, Niagara ; and the fleet under Admiral Saunders with 
a land force under General Wolfe, was to attack Quebec. In 
July, General Amherst took possession of Ticonderoga, which 
the French had abandoned after having set fire to the build 
ings ; they also abandoned Crown Point, which Amherst took 
possession of in August. The attack on Niagara was carried 
out successfully by Sir William Johnson, who took command 
of the military forces after the death of General Prideaux, 

*The Highland Regiment, known as Montgomery s, or the 77th, took part in 
the expedition against Fort Duquesne. 

Old Eastern District. 9 

who was killed by the bursting of a mortar. The fleet in 
tended for the attack on Quebec, ascended the St. Lawrence 
and cast anchor at the Island of Orleans, on the 25th June. 
The land force disembarked on the island, and took up a 
position at the upper end, opposite Quebec and Beauport. 
Point Levis was taken possession of by a portion of Wolfe s 
army, who erected batteries and bombarded the upper and 
lower town. An attack made in July on the French defences 
near River Montmorency, was ably met by the French under 
General Montcalm, and repulsed with a loss of about five 
hundred officers and men, killed and wounded. 

After this repulse it was decided by Generals Wolfe, 
Monckton, Townshencl and Murray that the army should be 
taken up the river St. Lawrence and that an attack should be 
made on Quebec from above. This plan was carried out. The 
troops were taken up the river on the 7th, 8th and Qth of 
September. Some of them were landed at different points on 
the ri^ht bank, to distract the attention of the French. About 


i in the morning of the I3th of September a portion of the 
British troops came down the river with the ebbing tide. The 
French sentinels gave the challenge, " Qui vivc ?" and were 
answered in French, " Xc faites pas dc bruit, cc sont les 
vivres." " Hush, this is the convoy of provisions." As such a 
convoy was expected no further notice was taken by the 
sentinels, and the British flotilla passed on, followed by- 
Admiral Holmes ships with the rest of the troops. The 
British vanguard landed without resistance at Wolfe s Cove, 
the guard at the foot of the pathway up the cliff were made 
prisoners, the cliff was scaled by a party of Wolfe s men, who 
attacked and dispersed the guard on the tableland above, the 
remainder of the troops made their way up the steep path, 
and when day broke the British army stood in battle array on 
the Heights of Abraham. 

Montcalm received the intelligence at six o clock in the 
morning, but would not at first believe it. Mr, however, 
marched to the plains with his whole available force and 


LuncnburgJi, or tJie 

ordered an immediate attack, which was begun by the Cana 
dian marksmen and some Indians. The French advanced 
upon the British, but when within forty paces of the latter 
they were assailed with so deadly a fire that they fell into 
confusion. Wolfe chose this moment to attack in return. 
Though wounded in the wrist, he led his grenadiers on to 
charge the French, who fled, hotly pursued by the British. 
Wolfe was mortally wounded as he advanced to the charge 
and was carried to the rear. A person near him called out : 
" They flee !" " Who ?" demanded the dying General. " The 
French !" was the reply. " Then I die content !" the hero 
said, and expired. 

General Montcalm, who had received two wounds, made 
every effort to rally his troops, but in vain. He received a 
third wound through the body and was carried to the city, 
where he died the day after the battle, and four days before 
the surrender of the place he had so gallantly defended.* 

On the 1 8th of September Quebec surrendered to General 
Murray, and the campaign of 1759 closed. 

The season was so far advanced before General Amherst 
could complete his arrangements for an attack on Isle Aux 
Xoix, whither the French had retreated from Ticonderoga and 
Crown Point, that he could do nothing during the autumn of 
1759. He established his winter quarters at Crown Point, 
where he remained until the spring of 1760. He directed 
General Murray to advance to Montreal with all the troops he 
could spare from Quebec. General Haviland was to advance 
from Crown Point and join Murray at Montreal, while Amherst 
himself, with an army of ten thousand men, left the frontiers 
of New York on the 2ist of June and went by the route of the 
Mohawk and Onondaga rivers to Oswego, \vhere he was joined 
by Sir William Johnson with one thousand Indians of the Six 
Nations. The combined force left Oswego and proceeded 
down the St. Lawrence. There was some delay at Isle dc 

*Of the regiments that took part in this action, one of the most famous is the 
Fraser Highlanders. 

Old Eastern District. 1 1 

Fort Levy,* where the French were so strongly posted that it 
took two days heavy firing to dislodge them. Amherst and 
his force then descended the rapids, in which he lost sixty- 
four boats-f- and eighty-eight men, and arrived at Montreal in 
September. General Murray, who had held Quebec with great 
difficulty during the winter against a French force under De 
Levis, ascended the river, following De Levis, who had re 
treated on the arrival of a British fleet before Quebec, and 
reached Montreal two clays after the arrival of Amherst. 
Almost at the same time Haviland joined with his troops from 
Isle Aux Noix. 

The British force now assembled before Montreal was so 
powerful that resistance on the part of the French was hope 
less. The city capitulated, and the power of the King of 
France ceased in the northern portion of North America. The 
treaty of Paris in 1/63 confirmed the British in the possession 
of Canada, which has from that time continued to be a part 
of the British Fmpire. 

After the capitulation of Montreal Major Rogers, a native 
of New Hampshire, who commanded a corps of Provincial 
Rangers, was sent by General Amherst with a portion of his 
corps to take possession of Detroit, Michilimackinac, and 
other western posts. He ascended the St. Lawrence and 
Lake Ontario, made a short halt at Fort Niagara, had his 
boats and stores, portaged past the Falls and proceeded along 
the southern shore of Lake Erie towards Detroit. On his 
way he met Pontiac, the Indian ruler of the western country ; 
the Chief who had led the Ottawas in the attack on Bracldock 
in 1/55, and who had been at first the ally of the French. He 
was shrewd, politic and ambitious, and thought that by making 
friends of the Fnglish he would gain powerful allies, who would 
aid him and give him increased influence oxer the tribes. He 
exerted his influence in favor of Rogers and his force, and 

*( liiinncy Island. 

tThc remains of MHIU- of these lioats \\ere to lie seen in the ,-outli channel of 
the Lonyue Sault rapids sixty fears a 

12 Lunenburgh, or the 

induced the Indians, who were preparing to attack them, to 
abandon their design. 

Detroit was surrendered to the English under Rogers by 
the French garrison on the 29th of November, 1760. The 
forts, Miami and Ouatanon, which guarded the communication 
between Lake Erie and the Ohio, were also taken possession 
of by the English, while Rogers with a small force proceeded 
northward to dispossess the French garrison of Michili- 
mackinac. Storms,* however, drove him back, and it was not 
till the following year that a detachment of the 6oth Regiment 
took possession of Forts Michilimackinac, La Baye on Green 
Bay, and St. Joseph. The forts of Sandusky and Presque Isle 
on Lake Erie, as well as Le Bceuf and Venango on the Alle- 
ghany, were held by English garrisons. Fort Pitt, built on 
the site of Fort Duquesne at the confluence of the Alleghany 
and Monongahela, and Forts Ligonier and Bedford, on the 
route from Carlisle through the Alleghany mountains to Fort 
Pitt, were also occupied by small garrisons of English soldiers. 

All appeared peaceful. The garrisons of the forts cul 
tivated small patches of land near their respective forts. The 
officers whiled away their time as best they could. The 
traders trafficked with the Indians and bought their furs for a 
fair or unfair price, as the case might be. The Indians 
hunted, fished, got drunk when they could get rum enough, 
and now and then quarrelled with one another. And the ener 
getic frontiersmen made new clearings, and each passing season 
found the smoke from new log cabins going up to heaven. 

But the peace was illusory it was a calm before a terrific 
storm. The Indians were disappointed and dissatisfied at the 
way the English and the provincials treated them. They did 
not receive the consideration nor the substantial benefits they 
expected, and they looked back with regret to the days of the 
French rule. 

Pontiac, more disappointed than any of them, used his 

*See 1 arkman s Conspiracy of Pontiac. Vol. I, p. 64. 

Old Eastern District. i 


great influence to form a coalition among the tribes for the 
purpose of attacking and capturing the forts, exterminating 
their garrisons and driving the whole race of the English set 
tlers traders, soldiers, and all out of the country. He suc 
ceeded only too well in uniting the Indians. The Delawares, 
Wyandots, Shawanese, Ottawas, Ojibwas, Pottawattamies, 
Algonquins and Senecas joined him. The Senecas were the 
only members of the Iroquois confederacy who joined the 
league, the rest were kept quiet by Sir Wm. Johnson and took 
no part in the conspiracy. 

In the spring of 1763 Pontiac s designs were ready for 
execution, and an almost simultaneous attack was made on 
the frontier posts. Michilimackinac,* Ouatanon, Miami, Ven- 
ango and St. Joseph were taken by stratagem and their garri 
sons slaughtered almost to a man. Forts Sandusky, Presque 
Isle and Lc Bceuf were defended gallant!} but ineffectually 
and but fe\v escaped from them. Fort La Baye was aband 
oned, and its garrison succeeded in escaping. Forts Detroit,"!* 
Pitt and Ligonicr were successfully defended. The first was 
besieged from May, 1763, till October, 1764; Fort Pitt stood 
a siege of nearly three months, and Fort Ligonier of over a 
month. During the time Detroit was bclcagured by the 

*At .Michilimackinac a large number of Indians assembled for the purpose of 
having a conference between their Chiefs and the officers of the garrison, during 

which a game of ball (the Indian lacrosse) was to be played in front of the fort. 
The officers suspected no danger, the chiefs were admitted to the fort for the pro 
posed conference, the game was begun, and the garrison were on the ramparts, 
unarmed, looking at the play. The squaws, draped in their blankets, stood along 
the roadway to the gate of the fort. Suddenly the ball was thrown near the gate. 
the Indians rushed to it, and as each one passed a squaw he received from her a 
gun, with the barrel cut short, or tomahawk, which she had concealed under her 
blanket. The Indians, now armed, ran into the fort, shooting and cutting down 
every one they met, and taking the place with little loss to themselves. 

t Pontiac endeavored to get Detroit by stratagem, but Major ( dadwyn, the 
commandant, had been warned of the plot and took such precautions that although 
Pontiac and fifty of his chiefs were allowed to come into the fort and meet the 
Major and his officers, they did not attempt to carry their designs into execution. 
They were allowed to depart, and they then began the siege. 

14 Lunenlnngh, or the 

Indians, a storm of blood and fire swept over the frontier 
from Lake Erie to the southern line of Pennsylvania. Hun 
dreds of homes were plundered and burned, hundreds of men, 
women and children were killed, and thousands rendered 
homeless by the Indian tribes, who ravaged the country in 
spite of the efforts made to check them. 

The Provincial troops had been disbanded and the regular 
regiments had been reduced to a very small number after the 
close of the war in 1761. The Provincial Governments were 
slow to act, and were with difficulty induced to levy troops even 
for their own defence. The Legislature of Pennsylvania, largely 
composed of Quakers, refused for a long time to do anything 
of a warlike nature, but at last even they found it necessary to 
act, and after nearly a year and a half of bloodshed and 
misery the Indians were defeated and peace restored. 

Pontiac remained with the Ottawas, but his influence was 
gone, and at last he was murdered near St. Louis by an Indian 
of a hostile tribe. This brought on another war, confined, 
however, entirely to the Indians themselves, the result of it 
being to thin their numbers and reduce them so low that they 
did not for years attempt any further aggression on the whites. 

Old luistcrn District. 


The Treaty of Paris, signed loth February, 1763, closed 
the war between Great Britain and France. Canada passed 
from the French to the British Government, and the Thirteen 
Old Colonies were delivered from the enemy that had disturbed 
their peaee and hindered their prosperity for more than one- 
hundred years. Britain and North America rejoiced at such 
a conclusion to the seven years war, a war prompted and 
commenced by the Colonies, whose existence and liberties 
depended upon its successful issue. Ryerson says : " Xo one 
of the Colonies had a deeper stake in the result of the struggle 
than Massachusetts, no one had more suppliantly and impor 
tunately asked aid in men and money from Filmland, and no 
Colony had benefited so largely in its commerce and resources 
during the contest." In Bancroft s History of the United 
States, it is asserted that Massachusetts with the other Col 
onies dragged England into war with France. Hutchinson in 
his history of Massachusetts Ray, says : " The generous com 
pensation, which had been made even- year by Parliament, 
not only alleviated the burden of taxes, which otherwise would 
have been heavy, but by the importation of such large sums 
of specie increased commerce ; and it was the opinion of some 
that the war added to the wealth of the Provinces, though the 
compensation did not amount to half the charges of the Gov 
ernment" At the close of the war, Massachusetts, in an ad 
dress to the King, especially acknowledged that .the evident 
design of the French, to surround the Colonies, was the imme 
diate anil first cause of the war; that without the protection 
afforded them during the war they must have become a prey 
to the power of France, and that without the compensation 
Ryerson. Vol. i, 269. 

1 6 Lunenburgh, or the 

afforded them by Parliament the burden of the expense of 
the war must have been insupportable. The acknowledge 
ments of all the Colonies, in regard to Great Britain, were like 
those of Massachusetts, full of gratitude and affection. 

Down to within thirteen years of the Declaration of Inde 
pendence, the conduct of England to the North American 
Colonies is acknowledged to have been just and generous.. 
Great Britain had incurred a heavy debt in carrying on the 
war, and as it had been to a very great extent a war for the 
benefit and safety of the Colonies, and had resulted in the 
complete destruction of the French power in the northern part 
of North America, the Government of the Mother Country 
thought that the Colonies should do something towards pay 
ing the interest on this new debt. This they would probably 
have agreed to, if they had been allowed to do it in their own 
way and through their own Governmental organizations. Un 
fortunately the Home Government did not act upon this idea,, 
but contrary to the advice of some of the greatest statesmen 
of the Empire (Pitt and Cambden among others), decided up 
on taxing the Colonists without giving them any voice in the 
passing of the statutes. 

This system of oppression of the Colonies began in 1764, 
by the enforcing of the navigation laws, and the laying of 
heavy duties on articles imported from the French and other 
islands in the West Indies, and causing these duties to be paid- 
in specie into the exchequer of Great Britian. 

Another Act restrained the currency of paper money in 
the Colonies. The Stamp Act was passed by Mr. Grenville in 
1765, not without a great deal of opposition from General 
Conway, Colonel Barre, and others. The Colonies protested 
against these measures, a congress of twenty-eight delegates 
met at New York to deliberate on the condition of affairs, and 
a general feeling of dissatisfaction prevailed, in which many 
merchants in England and Scotland shared. In 1766 the 
Stamp Act was repealed, but another Act was passed, declar- 

Ryerson. Vol. I, 271. 

Old Eastern District. 17 

ing the right of Great Britain to bind the Colonies in all cases 

The Colonists admitted the right of the Mother Country 
to make laws for the Colonies, so long as taxes were not im 
posed ; they strenuously opposed any attempt on her part to 
levy a tax in the nature of an excise, though they ad 
mitted the right to pass laws regulating commerce, because 
the fleets of Great Britain maintained the safety of navigation 
and kept the sea clear of pirates. 

The repeal of the Stamp Act gave great satisfaction. It 
was unfortunately followed by three Bills. The first one to 
impose duties on glass, red and white lead, painters oil and 
paper, and three pence a pound on tea ; the second to secure 
the execution of the first ; and the third to establish Courts 
of Admiralty at Halifax, Boston, Philadelphia and Charles- 
town, for the trial of offences against the first Act. The Col 
onists were dissatisfied with these Acts, all the Provincial As 
semblies petitioned against them. Their remonstrances were 
loyal and reasonable, and they asked for nothing more than 
the rights they possessed down to 1764. 

In 1769, the efforts of the Colonists to obtain redress 
were continued. They determined not to purchase goods of 
British manufacture or importation ; there was no crime politi 
cal or moral in the course they decided upon taking. In 1770 
the Port Dues Act was repealed, but the duty of three pence a 
pound on tea was kept in force. It was generally evaded by the 
C olonists, some of whom gave up the use of tea, and some smug 
gled it into the country. The tax on tea was kept up in con 
sequence of an agreement between the British Ministry and 
the hast India Company, giving the company a monopoly of 
the tea trade to America, and interfering with the ordinary 
and natural channels of trade. The company were authori/ed 
to export their tea free of duty to all places, and they could 
send it to the Colonies cheaper than any others could, who had 
to pay the duty, and even cheaper than before the tax of three 

Kyerson. Vol. I, 324. 

1 8 Lwienburgh, or the 

pence in the pound had been imposed, for the duty taken off 
the tea when it was exported from England, was greater than 
that to be paid on its importation into the Colonies. This 
measure was opposed by English and American merchants on 
selfish grounds, and by the Colonists, because by it they were 
taxed without representation. The strongest opposition came 
from the American merchants, who saw that a profitable branch 
of trade would be transferred from them to the English com- 


pany. The people supported the view of the merchants, and 
the scheme failed. Xo one bought the East India Company s 
tea, and one cargo was thrown into Boston harbour. 

In 1/74, fifty-four delegates from twelve of the Provinces 
met at Philadelphia, (Georgia was the only Province that sent 
none.; The delegates were instructed by their constituents to 
acknowledge the sovereignty of Great Britain, to state their 
willingness to pay the fullest obedience to all constitutional 
laws, to disclaim all idea of separating from her, and to declare 
their regret at the suspension of the confidence and affection 
that had existed between the Mother Country and the Colon 
ies ; but they were enjoined to assert the rights transmitted 
from their ancestors, and to state that opposition would not 
cease until the obnoxious Acts were repealed, and the Col 
onies placed in the same condition the} were in at the close 
of the war in 1763. In 1775, the Parliament of Great Britain 
determined to continue the coercive policy, though the Earl of 
Chatham strongly urged a change. In this he was supported 
by the Duke of Cumberland, the Marquis of Rockingham, 
Lords Shelbourne and Cambden, and by petitions from mer 
chants and manufacturers throughout the Kingdom. In the 
same year the Continental Congress met and again petitioned 
for a redress of grievances, and a restoration of harmony be 
tween Great Britain and the Colonies. Their petition met 
with no success; on the contrary, more repressive measures were 
adopted, the forces naval and military were increased, Hessian 
and Hanoverian troops were to be engaged to bring the Col- 

Kyurson. Vol. i, 372. 410, 443. 

Old Eastern District. 19 

onies into subjection, collisions between the British troops and 
Colonists occured, and Falmouth ( now Portland; was burned. 
The arbitrary measures against the Colonies excited a desire 
for independence on the part of some of the members of Con 
gress, but a large majority still refused to entertain the idea. 
The Colonies, while determined to assert and defend their con 
stitutional rights, were far from being united as to independ 
ence ; in fact reconciliation with the .Mother Country was the 
unanimous wish of the Colonists, until the petition of Congress 
in 1775 was rejected. In Ala)-, 1776, the question of indepen 
dence came up in Congress, and was postponed till July. 
When it came up then, it \\ as found that six Colonies were 
for, and six against adopting the resolution; a certain member 
from Philadelphia was induced to withdraw, and indepen 
dence was carried by a majority of one. 

Kyerson. Ynl. i. 453. 

2O Lunenburgh, or the 


Ryerson in his second volume says : 

" The condition of the United Empire Loyalists for 
months before as well as after the Declaration of Independence 
was humiliating to freemen and perilous in the extreme. From 
the beginning the Loyalists were deprived of the freedom of 
the press and freedom of assemblage, and were under an 
espionage, sleepless, malignant, subjecting them to every 
species of insult, to arrest and imprisonment at any moment, 
and to the seizure and confiscation of their property." 

"Before the Declaration of Independence both parties were 
confessedly British subjects, professing allegiance to the same 
sovereign and constitution of government, and avowing their 
allegiance to the constitutional rights of British subjects, but 
differing from each other as to the extent of those rights, in 
contradistinction to the constitutional rights of the Crown." 
Both parties had their advocates in the British Parliament, 
" but all the advocates of the constitutional rights of the 
Colonists in both Houses of Parliament disclaimed on the part 
of those whom they represented the least idea of independ 
ence or separation from Great Britain." 

" Until the Declaration of Independence they were by far 
the largest party, who not only expected but prayed for a 
reconciliation. England was their home, and by that affec 
tionate name was always spoken of ; all the wrongs that were 
heaped upon the children could not make them forget their 
homes or entirely alienate them from their parent ; the liga 
ments that connect nations are never less powerful, though 
less tender, than those which unite individuals, families and 

Ryerson. Vol. 2, 123. 

Old Eastern District. 21 

" The party of Independence, getting, after months of 
manipulation by its leaders, first a majority of one in the 
Congress, and afterwards increasing that majority by various 
means, repudiated their former professed principles of connec 
tion with England, broke faith with the great men and parties 
In England, both in and out of Parliament, who had vindicated 
their rights and professions for years; and broke faith also with 
their numerous fellow-subjects in America who adhered to the 
old faith, the old flag, and the connection with England, and 
who were declared by resolutions of conventions from Con 
gress, provinces, counties, townships and towns, enemies of 
their country, rebels and traitors, and treated as such. It might 
be supposed that forbearance and respect would have been 
shown to those who remained steadfast and immoveable in 
the traditional faith of British Monarchy and British connec 
tion, notwithstanding that a corrupt and arbitrary party was 
in power for the time being ; but this was not the case on the 
part of those who professed as one cardinal article of their 
political creed that all men are born free and equal, and 
therefore that every man had an equal right to his opinions 
and to the expression of them. All this was reversed in the 
treatment of the Loyalists." 

" Mr. Hildreth well describes the position and treatment 
of the Loyalists before and after the Declaration of Independ 
ence. In the position of that considerable class of persons 
who had remained in doubt, the Declaration of Independence 
and the assumption of State Government made a decided 
change. It was now necessary to choose one side or the 
other. Very serious, too, was the change in the legal position 
of the class known as Tories. 

" In man} of the States a large minority, and in all, 
respectable for wealth and social position, of those thus 
stigmatised, some were inclined to favour the utmost claims of 
the Mother Country, but the greater part, though determined 

KyiTson. Vol. 2, 124 Xnlr. 

1 liMury of tin- I nitcil Static. Vol. 3, 137, 138. 

22 Lunenburgh, or t/if 

to adhere to the British connection, yet deprecated the policy 
which had brought on so fatal a quarrel. This loyal minority, 
especially its more conspicuous members, as the warmth of 
political feeling increased, had been exposed to the violence of 
mobs and to all sorts of personal indignities, in which private 
malice or a wanton and insolent spirit of mischief had been 
too often gratified under the disguise of patriotism." 

" The barbarous and disgraceful practice of tarring and 
feathering and carting Tories, placing them in a cart and con 
veying them about as a sort of spectacle, had become in some 
places a favorite amusement." 

" To restrain these outrages Congress had special!} com 
mitted the oversight of Tories and suspected persons to the 
regular!}" appointed committees of inspection and observation 
for the several counties and districts, but even these commis 
sioners were not always very judicious or discriminating in the 
exercise of the despotic powers implied in that delicate trust." 

" By the recent political changes Tories and suspected 
persons became exposed to dangers from the law as well as 
from mobs. Having boldly seized the reins of Government 
the new State authorities claimed the allegiance of all resi 
dents within their limits, and under the lead and recommenda 
tion of Congress those who refused to acknowledge their author- 
it}- or who adhered to their enemies were exposed to severe 
penalties, confiscation of property, imprisonment, banishment, 
and finally death." * The treatment of the United Empire 
Loyalists, whether the}- remained neutral or not, fully accounts 
for the fierce warfare carried on between the two contending 
parties. The warfare was begun against the Tories, who acted 
at first on the defensive, but afterwards in man}- instances 
cruelly retaliated for the injuries done to them. Sabinc, who 

Kyerson. Vol. 2. I2(>. 

* ( .riieral Haldimand states in a letter to Lord (ieorge Germaine, dated iSth 
Nov., 1781, that "the Loyalists were kept in terror, and that there was no hope 
for their support, except l>y taking post. Haldimand Collection, 15. 57. p. 377 ; 
Report on Canadian Archives, iSSj, p. 361. There are several other references to. 
llie treatment of the Loyalists in the Haldimand Collection. 

Old Eastfrn District. 23 

is by no means friendly to the Tories (or United Empire 
Loyalists), in the introduction to his Biography of the Ameri 
can Loyalists, condemns the Whigs for the cruelties practiced 
on the Tories, and says : " Is there cause for wonder that some 
who still live should say of their own or their father s treat 
ment, that persecution made half of the King s friends ?" 

The good men of the period mourned these proceedings, 
and they may be lamented now. The warfare waged against 

O <"> 

persons at their own houses and about their lawful avocations 
is not to be justified, and the mobs of the revolution are to be 
as severely and as unconditionally condemned as the mobs 
of the present day." He adds: "At the peace, justice and 
good policy both required a general amnesty and the revoca 
tion of the Acts of disability and banishment, so that only 
those who had been guilty of flagrant crimes should be ex 
cluded from becoming citizens. Instead of this, however, the 
State Legislatures generally continued a course of hostile 
action and treated the conscientious and pure, and the un 
principled and corrupt, with the same indiscrimination as they 

Sabine. pp. 75, et se<|. 

NOTE. Mr. Brymner s report on Canadian archives. [886, gives some addi 
tional information about the treatment of Loyalists after the cessation of hostilities 
in \~ 

\ letter from Hugh Wallace, dated \e\v York. 8th August, 17083. to < ieneral 
H.ildimand. states that " the Loyalist.-, are ordered to lease I he country that their 
property is proscribed, and that he has lost all." Report p. 554 Ilaldimand Col 
lection, I!. 75 p. 152. 

A letter Iron) William Jiayurd, dated New York, 8th August, 1783. to Ceneral 
Haldimand, States the confiscation of all property by the rebels." Report p. 
554. Haldimand Collection, I:. 75 i p. 154. 

l)n the 22nd October. 1783, Hugh Wallace wrote again to Ceneral Haldi 
mand lo the Bailie effect. Report p. ^56. 

A letter from Asa I orter, dated Chass (queri Cahoes), 15111 March. 1784, to 
Major Matthews, reports the brutal treatment to Captain White and his son s\ ho 
had gone to dispos,- of property and remove his family to Canada. Report p. 55 
llaldimand ( ollection, II. 75 2 p, 

A letter from J. Fraser to General llaldimand, dated 3 I ~l May, 1784. reports 
the ill treatment of his sister-in-law s family, in tin qnence of their 

loyally. Report p. 500. llaldimand Collection, I:. 75 2 p. 11 

24 LunenburgJi, or the 

had done during the struggle. In some parts of the country 
there really appears to have been a determination to place 
these misguided, but then humbled, men beyond the pale of 
human sympathy. Eventually the popular indignation dimin 
ished, the statute book was divested of the most objectionable 
enactments, and numbers were permitted to occupy their old 
homes and recover the whole or part of their property. But 
by far the greater part of the Loyalists who quitted the coun 
try at the commencement of or during the war never returned, 
and of the many thousands who abandoned the United States 
after the peace, and while these enactments were in force, few 
comparatively had the desire or even the means to revisit the 
land from which they had been expelled. Such persons and 
their descendants form a very considerable portion of the in 
habitants of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Upper Canada." 

The foregoing sketch of the causes that led to the Revo 
lutionary war, and of the treatment and suffering of the U. 
E. Loyalists, is not given with any view to raking up old 
animosities ; the struggle that was ended more than a century 
ago need not be considered now with any bitter feelings by 
either the victors or the vanquished. If the descendants of the 
Revolutionists look back with pride to the fact that success 
crowned the efforts of their forefathers in the contest with 
Great Britain, the descendants of the U. E. Loyalists have 
good reason to be proud of the steadfastness with which their 
forefathers adhered to their view of what was the truth and 
the right, and of their devotion and loyalty to the unity of the 

It has been said that until lately " the history of the 
Loyalists has been written by their enemies." It is well that 
something should be said by their friends, and that their de 
scendants, who now constitute so large a portion of the 
population of Ontario, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, and 
who are helping to open up the great North-west, should not 
forget the race from which they have sprung, a race that for 
+he sake of honour and duty sacrificed all that men hold 

Old Eastern District. 25 

most dear abandoned friends and property, left the homes 
for which they had laboured and in defence of which many 
of them had shed their blood in former wars, and sought 
refuge in the Canadian forests, there to begin life anew. 

The following extract from " The Hungry Year," a poem 
by William Kirby, of Niagara, so well describes the stand 
taken by the U. E. Loyalists arid the sufferings undergone by 
them, that the author of this little work takes the liberty of 
inserting it here, trusting that neither Mr. Kirby nor his pub 
lishers will object to his doing so : 


The war was over, seven red years of blood 

Had scourged the land from mountain top to sea : 

(So long it took to rend the mighty frame 

Of England s empire in the western world.) 

Rebellion won at last, and they who loved 

The cause that lost, and who had kept their faith 

To England s crown, and scorned an alien name, 

Passed into exile, leaving all behind 

Except their honour, and the conscious pride 

Of duty done to country and to King. 

Broad lands, ancestral homes, the gathered wealth 

Of patient toil and self-denying years, 

Were confiscate and lost ; for they had been 

The salt and savour of the land ; trained up 

In honour, loyalty, and fear of (loil. 

The wine upon the lees decanted, when 

They left their native soil with sword belts drawn 

The tighter ; while the women only wept 

At the thought of old fire-sides no longer theirs, 

At household treasures reft, and all the land 

Upset, and ruled by rebels to the King. 

Not drooping like poor fugitives they came 

In exodus to our Canadian wild, 

But full of heart and hope, with heads erect 

And fearless eyes victorious in defeat. 

With thousand toils they forced their devious way 

Through the great \\ilderness of silent woods, 

That gloomed o er lake and stream, till higher rose 

Lurienburgh t or the 

The northern star above the broad domain 
Of half a continent still theirs to hold. 
Defend and keep for ever as their own, 
Their own and England s to the end of time. 

The virgin forests carpeted with leaves 
Of many autumns fallen crisp and sear, 
Put on their woodland state ; while overhead 
Green seas of foliage roared a welcome home 
To the proud exiles, who for empire fought 
And kept though losing much, this northern land 
A refuge and defence for all who love 
I he bio.ulei freedom of a commonwealth 
That wears upon its head a kingly crown. 

Old Eastern District. 

( II. \ITF.R V. 

At the present clay, and in the present state of those 
parts of Ontario settled by the U. K. Loyalists, it is difficult 
to form even a faint idea of the task that was before them, 
when they began the clearing- ;nva y of the forest, and the 
formation of new homes. 

The Government allotted to each settler a liberal grant 
of land, furnished such tools and agricultural implements as 
were absolutely necessary, and supplied rations and cloth 
ing for three years, but the land was covered with forest, 
there were no roads, the only means of communication 
were by the river and the lakes, or by Indian pathways 
through the woods. Rough log huts roofed with bark we re 
the only shelter for the settlers and their families ; there 
was no grain, and if there had been, the mills to grind it 
were not built; in short there \\ere none of the comforts or 
conveniences of life, and but a scanty supply of what was 
absolutely necessary to existence. 

The land grants were five thousand acres to each field 
officer, three thousand to each captain, two thousand to each 
subaltern, two hundred to each non-commissioned officer and 
private, and fifty acres more for his wife and each child. In 
addition to this, each child of a U. K. Loyalist was entitled to 
a grant of two hundred acres on attaining the age of 
twenty-one years. 

All who wished to continue their allegiance to Great Brit 
ain had the right to participate in the grant of land, and were 
directed to reiule/vous at certain points on the frontier, v \7. : 
Oswego, Sackett s Harbour, Niagara and Isle Aux Xoix.* 

< roll s I)unda>. 

* An island at the northern end of Lake Oiamplain. 

28 Lunmburgh, or the 

The first settlers in the front townships of Stormont, Dundas-. 
and Glengarry, were the disbanded soldiers of the first 
battalion of Sir John Johnson s corps, " The Royal Regiment 
of New York," and of a battalion of the " Royal Highland 
Emigrants, or 84th." Part of these corps had been stationed 
at Isle Aux Noix, and another at Carleton Island.* These 
and other Provincial corps were disbanded in the spring of 
1784. In the autumn of the previous year they were joined 
by their families, who had made a weary journey through the. 
forest to Whitehall or Oswego. Many of the men had been 
separated from their families for years, they had now to re- . 
main in barracks for the winter, with the prospect of a long, 
and laborious journey up the St. Lawrence, and of years of 
toil before they could again enjoy the comforts of home. 
Croil, in his " Dundas," says that " In June, 1784, the first 
settlers landed in the County of Dundas." It is probable that 
the landing of the settlers in Glengarry and Stormont was a 
little earlier. 

With very few exceptions, the men of the Provincial 
corps raised for the King s service during the Revolutionary 
war, had been farmers in the old Provinces ; they were 
therefore not so helpless on their new lands as men who had 
been in the regular service, and to whom the barracks and 
the camp had been a home. There were some of this class- 
also, many of whom settled on their lands and made good 
settlers. Some sold their allotments for trifling sums, and it 
was said that in a few instances, a two hundred acre lot 
was exchanged for a bottle of rum. 

Many of the men of the Royal Highland Emigrants were 
placed in the townships of Lancaster, Charlottenburg and 
Cornwall, some of those who had been in the Royal Regiment 
of New York, also settled in Lancaster and Charlottenburg^ 
but the most of them were located in Matilda, Williamsburg. 
Osnabruck and Cornwall. 

Croil s Dundas, p. 129. 

* Between Wolfe Island and the south shore of the St. Lawrence. 

Old Eastern District. 29 

It is stated in appendix B., of the Ontario Agricultural 
Committee s report for 1881, p. 549, that the first settlers came 
to Cornwall in 1776. It is quite possible that some who 
dreaded the approaching war in the old provinces, may have 
moved to Canada at that early date. The number was no 
doubt small. There is no record of their names or of the 
lands they occupied, and the}- have been absorbed in the 
larger immigration of 1784. 

It is unfortunate that no effort was made in the early 
days of the settlement to preserve records of the services, the 
labours and the sufferings of the U. E. Loyalists both before 
and after their coming to Canada. 

One can easily understand why such records are so few. 
For man\- years after 1/84 there were but few who were able 
to keep a diary, and they, in common with the rest of the set 
tlers, were too busy, too much engaged in the stern work of 
subduing the forest and making new homes, to have much 
time for anything but the struggle for existence. 

Each U. E. Loyalist had some story to tell of the stirring 
times through which he had passed. Some of the older men 
could speak of service in the French war, under Howe, 
Abercrombic, Wolfe, Amherst or Johnson ; perhaps of the 
defeat of Braddock, or of the desperate fight at the out 
works of Ticonderoga, where Montcalm drove back Aber- 
crombie s troops; of success at Frontenac or Niagara; of 
scaling the heights at Quebec, and of victor}- with Wolfe on 
the Plains of Abraham ; of the long and perilous voyage 
down the St. Lawrence with Amherst, and of the capitulation 
of Montreal. There were but few who could not tell of ad 
ventures in the seven years war from 1776 to 1783, and of 
loss of home, property and friends, for the part the}- took in 
it ; while main- could speak from personal experience of cruel 
wrong and persecution suffered by them as a punishment for 
their loyalty. No doubt when neighbours met together on a 
winter evening to chat beside the great fireplace filled with 
blazing logs, man}- an hour was passed in the telling of tales 

30 Lnnenburgh, or the 

of the troubles and adventures they had encountered. These 
stories have gradually faded and become dim in the recollec 
tion of the people ; here and there a few facts can be got from 
some family that has cherished the remembrance of them as 
an heirloom. A Fraser could tell of the imprisonment and 
death of a father ; a Chisholm of imprisonment, and escape 
through the good offices of a brother Highlander in the French 
service ; a Dingwall of the escape of a party through the 
woods, of sufferings from cold and hunger, of killing for food 
the faithful dog* that followed them, and dividing the carcase 
into scanty morsels ; a Ferguson of running the gauntlet, im 
prisonment, sentence of death, and escape ; an Anderson of 
service under Amherst, of the offer first of a company, then 
of a battalion, in the Continental army, as the price of treason, 
of being imprisoned and sentenced to death, and of escape 
with his fellow-prisoners to Canada. Some interesting state 
ments are given in Croil s " Dundas" and in Canniff s " Settle 
ment of Upper Canada," but with the exception of these the 
details of most of the early settlers adventures are lost for ever. 

It is probable that not a few of the Highlanders could 
tell of service on one side or the other in the abortive rising 
under " Bonnie Prince Charlie" in 1745, which, after successful 
actions at Preston Pans and Falkirk, was quenched in blood 
on Culloden Muir in 1746. Some, like John McDonell 
(Scotus),f might be able to show a claymore with blade 
dented by blows on the bayonets of Cumberland s Grenadiers. 

The old stories, as well as the actors in them, are gone. 

" The good knights are dust, 
Their good swords are rust, 
And their souls are with the saints we trust." 

Turning from the old days, the reader s attention is direct 
ed to the settlement and early prorgess of the Counties of 
Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry, and the Town of Cornwall. 

* One of the party got the dog s tail which he ate with great relish, declaring 
it to be the sweetest morsel he ever tasted. 

t Grandfather of the late Donald .Kneas McDonell, at one time Sheriff of the 
Kastern District. 

Old Eastern District. 31 


The exact date of the first survey of lands in the Province 
of Upper Canada is not known. It is not probable that any 
were made before the year 1783, although small settlements 
had been formed in the neighborhood of Niagara and of other 
garrisons along the frontier some years earlier. In the Haldi- 
mand Collection, B. 105, p. 408,* a return is given in 1784 of 
the settlement at Niagara. The number of settlers is 46, with 
44 houses, 20 barns, 713 acres cleared, 123 acres sown in 
wheat, 342 acres to be sown, 1 24 horses, 96 cows, 64 young 
cattle, 35 calves and 332 swine. This return shows that the 
work of clearing, building and improving had been going on 
for at least three or four years. 

There are several references to the surveying of the land 
and the settlement of the Loyalists and Indians given in Mr. 
Brymner s Report on Canadian Archives for 1886. By taking 
them according to their dates a fair idea can be formed of 
what was proposed to be clone, and of what was actually ac 
complished, by the authorities. 

On the 2nd of June, 1783, General Haldimand wrote to 
Lord North about surveys on the north of Lake Ontario for a 
settlement of Indians and about the settlement of Loyalists near 
Detroit. He also refers to the openly avowed hostility of the 
Americans to the Indians and Loyalists, and mentions that a 
road was ordered to be opened to Lake Tcmiscouata for com 
munication with Nova Scotia.f On the 2ist of July, 1783, 
Haldimand wrote to Lord North that Loyalist farfiilies were 
preparing to settle near Cataraqui, which had been surveyed by 
Major Holland.* August 27th, 1783, same to the same : The 

*Brymner s Report on Canadian Archives, 1886. Vol. 2, ]>. X}. 

t Brymner s Report, 1X85, p. 350. I lalilimanil ( . illection, 1!. 50, p. 65. 

Brymner s Report, 1885, p. 351. Haliliinainl Collecti. m. 11. 56, p. IOI. 

o 2 Lunenbutgh, or the 

intention of the Mohawks to settle on the north of Lake 
Ontario ; preparing for settlement of Loyalists at Cataraqui ; 
arrival of 700 from New York ; measures for relief and surveys 
for their settlement in different parts of the Province.* 
ember i;th, 1783, same to the same : Plans of a Loyalist settle 
ment near Cataraqui forwarded. November iSth, 1783, same to 
the same: Cannot disband the regiments as ordered till spring; 
preparations for settling Loyalists near Cataraqui.f February 
1 2th, 1784, Matthews to Sir John Johnson : Good effects of the 
Loyalists settling ; arrangements should be made by Major 
Holland for the persons to be employed by McNiff ; hopes he 
will receive instructions which will enable him to leave Mon 
treal on the 20th or 25th.+ February i6th, 1784, Matthews to 
Ross : Lieut. Kotte s attendance upon survey of the Long 
Sault necessary ; guides sent to Cataraqui to take the party 
down.l! Same date, Matthews to Johnson : Enclosing letter 
from Major Holland, to be forwarded to Cataraqui by three or 
four Indians or Loyalists, who arc to assist in bringing down 
instructions for the survey by Lieut. Kottc, in time to meet 
McXiff, Lieut. Sutherland and party. February iQth, 1784, 
same to same : Hopes survey will be begun in March.* April 
1 5th, 1784, Matthews to Maurer : Wives and families of Loy 
alists to move with them, so as to enforce the necessity for 
rapid settling. ft A P ril l6th > T 7 8 4, same to Lieut. Robins: That 
the whole of the Loyalists must move at once to their settle 
ments.^ May 3 ist, 1784, same to Holland : The difficulty of 
mustering the Loyalists beyond Sorel ; he is to settle them 

*Brymner s Report, 1885, p. 352. Haklimand Collection, B. 56, p. 132. 
tBrymner-.s Report, 1885, p. 354. Haklimand Collection, B. 56, p. 184-186. 
J Brymner s Report, 1886, p. 412, H.C., B. 63, p. 85. 
Brymner*s Report. 1886. p. 413, H.C., B. 63, p. 94- 
Brynmer s Report, 1886, p. 413, H.C., B. 63, p. 95- 
"Brymner s Report, 1886, p. 413, H.C., B. 63, p. 97- 
tt Brymner s Report, 1886, p. 420, H.C., B. 63, p. 210. 
^Brymner s Report, 1886, p. 421, H.C., B. 63, p. 225. 

Old Eastern District. 33 

and muster afterwards ; disapproves of the proposal to give of 
ficers front lots ; they must draw promiscuously with the men.* 
After reading these extracts one naturally comes to the 
conclusion that surveys were made in the neighborhood of 
Cataraqui, at Kingston, in. 1783, and that the survey of the 
land east of Cataraqui to the Province line, on the eastern 
boundary of the township of Lancaster, was made early in 
1784. Major Holland appears to have had the charge of the 
surveys, with Mr. McXiff and Lieuts. Kotte and Sutherland 
as his assistants. The names of Stickman and Tewit,-f- men 
tioned in Croil s Dundas, do not appear in the Haldimand 
Collection ; they may have been employed at a subsequent 
period. It is well known that Patrick McXiff made the first 
survey of that portion of the counties of Stormont, Dundas 
and Glengarry that lies along the River St. Lawrence. He 
made a map of this survey, showing the lots as far back 
as the rear of the second concession of the township of 
Lancaster, the second concession north of the River Aux 
Raisin in Charlottenburg, the eighth concession as num 
bered on the eastern boundary of the township of Cornwall, 
the third concession of Osnabruck, and the second concession 
of Williamsburg and Matilda. In each of the concessions 
the lots are marked, and on each lot located or settled upon is 
given the name of the owner. This map,^ which is dated 1st 
November, 1786, and signed "Patrick McXiff," was made by 
him for Sir John Johnson. The title is : 

"A Plan of part of the new settlements on the north hank of the south-\vest 
branch of the St. Lawrence River, commencing near Point au P>otlett, on Lake 
St. Francis, anil extending westerly alonij the said north hank to the \\est boundary 
of Township No. 5, laid down from the latest surveys and observations. 

November 1st, 1786. -ncdi. PATRICK MrNilK. 

* liryinner s Report, iSSO, p. 420. ![.( ., V,. 63, p. 361. 

tThis may be Win. ( In-well, for many years Surveyor-! ieneral of Upper 
iada. Morgan States in his Biography of Celebrated Canadians, that lie v. 
employed in 1780 to survey the district of Lunenburg. 

The map is now in the possession of I). 1 ,. McLennan, of Cornwall, Bar 

34 Lunenburgh, or the 

The townships are designated on the margin, thus, with a. 
short description opposite each township : 

" Lake Township. 
" Township No. i. 
" Township No. 2.. 
" Township No. 3. 
" Township No. 4. 
" Township No. 5- 

" The scale of chains is 40 to an inch. 
. " The bearing of the side lines is N. 24 W. 
"The dotted lines are all run and marked. 
" The double lines are roads left. 

" The bearing of Monsieur Lougelle s west boundary is N. 34 \V. 
" (The dotted lines are the concession lines.)" 

The town plot of Cornwall is set out and named " New 
Johnstown." It is not divided into lots, nor are the streets 
marked. No names of occupants of town lots are given.* 

At the time McNifT s map was made the townships were 
not named as they are now. Lancaster was then called " the 
Lake Township," the rest were numbered from the east. The 
designation of the townships by numbers was commonly used 
by the old people long after the present names had been 
adopted. Osnabruck, Williamsburg and Matilda were much 
more readily known as the third, fourth or fifth towns, than by 
their authorized and legal names. 

It was by the survey from which the McNiff map was 
drawn that the distribution of land was made in these counties 
to the U. E. Loyalists. The distribution was made by each 
man drawing a ticket, on which was written the number of lot 
and the concession. In this way each one had an equal 
chance, and there could be no suspicion of favoritism. 

In the Report on Archives for 1888, page 753, an abstract 
of the number c f men, women and children who settled in the 
new townships on the River St. Lawrence is given; the names 
are not stated. The abstract states that the ist Battalion of 
the King s Royal Regiment of New York settled on Townships 
I to 5 ; total, 1462. Part of Jessup s Corps on Townships 6, 

* It is on too small a scale for the names. 

Old Eastern District. 35 

7 and part of 8 ; * total, 495. The 2nd Battalion of the King s 
Royal Regiment of New York on Townships 3 and 4, Catara- 
qui ; total, 310. Captain Grass party on i, Cataraqui, 187. 
Part of Jessup s Corps on 2, Cataraqui, 434. Major Rogers 
Corps on 3, Cataraqui, 299. Major VanAlstine s party of 
Loyalists on 4, Cataraqui, 258. Different detachments of 
disbanded Regular Regiments on 5, Cataraqui, 259. Detach 
ment of Germans with Baron Reitzenstein on 5, Cataraqui, 44. 
Rangers of the Six Nation Department and Loyalists settled 
with the Mohawk Indians at the Bay of Quinte, 28. The 
whole numbered 3776, namely : 1568 men, 626 women, 1492 
children and 90 servants. 

As soon as possible after the division of the land was 
made, the owners took possession. As they landed in June,. 
1784, they had several months in which to make some prepara 
tion, rude though it might be for the coming winter. Those 
on adjoining lots would join together to put up for each 
settler a log house as a shelter. These houses were small, the 
largest not more than 20 feet by 15, built of round logs 
notched at the corners and laid one upon another to a height 
of seven or eight feet. The roof was made of elm bark, an 
opening for a door and one for a window was cut, the floor 
was made of split logs, the hearth of flat stones, the chimney 
of field stone laid up with clay for mortar as high as the walls, 
above which it was made of small round sticks plastered with 
clay ; the spaces between the logs were "chinked" with small 
pieces of wood and daubed with clay, a blanket did duty as a 
door until a few boards could be cut with a whip saw, the 
window was fitted in course of time with a rough sash, and 
four lights of glass seven and a half inches by eight and a 
half, and the log house would be complete. Bed and bedding 
the settlers in most cases brought with them, but chairs, tables 
and bedsteads had to be manufactured by each man for him 
self. Blocks of wood might serve for seats, the lid of a chest 

( roll s I>iiH 

* Township 6 Mil\\.ir<lsl>urt;. 7 August. i. S I ;ii/alictht<>wii. 

36 Lunenburgh) or the 

could do duty as a table, and a few poles could be put together 
to form a bedstead. Shelter having been provided, each family 
proceeded as best they might to clear a space of ground on 
which to raise a scanty crop the following year. Everything 
had to be done by manual labour ; there were neither horses nor 
oxen to be had, and the task of clearing the farms to fit them for 
cultivation must have appeared almost hopeless. Yet the hardy 
settlers did not despair ; they worked on bravely and persistent 
ly, and year by year cut their way into the forest, until great por 
tions of it were changed into fruitful fields. In forty years after 
1784 the southern portions of the concessions along the river 
were well cleared and cultivated, and the other concessions of the 
front townships shewed the result of steady labour, in the strip 
of cleared and cultivated land along their respective headlines. 

For the first two or three years the crops were of course 
very small, but year by year they increased, and the need of 
mills became more and more apparent Hand mills had been 
supplied by the Government, but the work of grinding by 
them was tedious and laborious. The mills nearest to this 
part of the country were at Gananoque and the Cedars, and 
to one or other of these the farmers went, taking their grain 
by boat in summer and by hand sleigh in winter. In course 
of time mills were erected at Williamstown,* Milleroches, 
Moulinette, St. Andrews, and other places. 

There were no sites on the St. Lawrence, at or near 
the Town of Cornwall, on which a mill could be built, as the 
shoving of the ice in winter would have destroyed any building 
that might have been erected. Two windmills were put up : 
one west of the town, near the bank of the river, on lot num 
ber fifteen ; the other east of the town, on lot number five, in 
the first concession. The first one was built about the close of 
the last century ; it fell into decay or was destroyed, but the floor 
made of large flag stones was to be seen about fifty years ago. 
The second one is still standing ; its usefulness as a mill ended 
before 1830, and in 1839 it was converted into a block house. 

* Sir John Johnson built the mill at Williamstown. 

Old Eastern District. 37 


The settlement and improvement of the town went on sim 
ultaneously with that of the townships, but probably at a 
slower rate. It is impossible now to ascertain how many per 
sons settled in the town plot in 1784, and it is most probable 
that not many did so until some years later. As already 
mentioned, McXiffs map does not give any information on 
this point ; the list of patents granted for town lots, appears 
to be the only source from which the names and number of 
the townspeople can be got, but it is not satisfactory, as the 
earliest patent issued bears date on the I7th of October, 
1803. Many persons may have occupied town lots who 
never got out patents, and others lived in the town for years 
before patents were granted for the lots they occupied. 

The patent mentioned above, as being the first issued for 
a town lot, was made to Aaron Brown, for lot number 15, 
south side of First street. Eight patents were issued in 1804, 
one in 1805, and nine in 1809. The first patent issued in the 
three counties was that to Captain John Munro, for lot I and 
east half of 2 in the first concession of Matilda, which bears date 
on the i ith of September, 1793. The next in date is that to 
Allen Patterson, for lot 9, in the third concession of Matilda, 
dated 4th June, 1796 ; and the next is that to Allan McDonell, 
for lot 8, in the fifth concession, and lot 31, in the eighth con 
cession of Cornwall, dated 6th of June, 1796. 

As the patent to Captain John .Munro is dated more than 
ten years, and those to Patterson and Allan McDonell nearly 
seven years before the first one for a lot in the town, it would 
appear that the first inhabitants of the town were either tran 
sient occupants, or were very dilatory about getting their titles 
from the Crown. 

The appearance of the town a hundred years ago cannot 

2 8 Lunenburgk, or the 

be described exactly, but in all probability the place consisted 
of a few log huts, each standing in its own little clearing along 
the bank of the river ; a store or two, a blacksmith s shop, and 
one may say as a matter of course, a tavern, representing the 
business interests of the infant town. It was not then a dis 
trict town ; no districts were formed until some- years 
later, but it was the headquarters of the officers who dis 
tributed the rations, clothing and other necessaries supplied 
by the Government to the settlers, and it was the centre of 
the business done at the time. This was of small extent. 
Money was scarce. For the first few years there was little or 
no grain for export ; if the farms yielded enough for the sup 
port of their owners it was all that could be expected. Potash 
and timber were in demand, and from them was derived the 
means of purchasing such supplies as the farmers needed. 
The only persons in receipt of a regular income were the officers 
on half pay,* who received an allowance quarterly, which 
though small, was certain during their lives. There was not 
much scope for enterprise in the early days of the town s ex 
istence, and its progress was slow. It is mentioned in Smith s 
Gazetteer of Upper Canada twice in very few words. On page 
seven, after describing Charlottenburg, Smith says : " The 
Township of Cornwall adjoins next. In front is the town of a 
mile square, lying in a commodious bay of the river, and wat 
ered by a small rivulet which runs through the town," and on 
page 93 he has the following : " Johstown, New, in the Town 
ship of Cornwall, is situated upon the River St. Lawrence, be 
low the Long Sault, to the northward of the Grand Isle de 
St. Regis, and is now called Cornwall." 

The " commodious bay " was long ago filled up by the 
embankment of the canal, and the " rivulet that watered the 
town " is now dry in summer, and a troublesome ditch in 
spring and autumn. 

As it will no doubt be interesting to see what was 

[Mseph Anderson, a lieutenant in the King s Royal Regiment, of New York, 
drew half pay from 1783 until his death in 1853. 

Old Eastern District. 39. > 

written of the country eighty or ninety years ago, the follow 
ing extracts are given from the above mentioned Gazetteer, 
published in England, in 1799, by W. Faden, Geographer to 
His Majesty and His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales. 
The title is " A Short Topographical Description of His 
Majesty s Province of Upper Canada in North America, to 
which is annexed a Provincial Gazetteer, drawn up by David 
William Smyth, Esq., Surveyor-General of Upper Canada, at 
the desire of Major-General Simcoe, ist Oct., 1799." The 
book was printed at Charing Cross, London, and the author 
informs his readers that " Point au Bodct is situated nearly 
half way on the north side of Lake St. Francis, which is about 
25 miles long, and narrow throughout. The object of divid 
ing the Province of Quebec at a stone boundary, in the cove 
west of this point, was apparently in order that the seigniorial 
grants under French tenure should be comprehended in the 
Province of Lower Canada, and that the new seigniories or 
townships, which were laid out for the Loyalists, should be 
within the Province of Upper Canada, the said stone bound 
ary being the limit between the uppermost French seigniories, 
M. De Longucil s), on the River St. Lawrence, and the lower 
new seigniory of Lancaster, surveyed for the disbanded troops 
and Loyalists, His Majesty having in 1/88 signified his inten- 
tcntion that they should be placed upon the same footing in 
all respects as the Loyalists in Nova Scotia and. New Bruns 
wick, by having their lands granted to them in free and com 

mon socage. 

" In passing from Point au Bodet westward through Lake 
St. Francis, and up the River St. Lawrence, the route is gener 
ally made on the north shore. Lancaster is he first township 
fronting the lake. It extends nine miles, which is the ordin 
ary si/e of all townships, and extending \2 miles back from 
the front. Lancaster is watered by three small rivers, one of 
which empties itself to the east, and another to the west of 
Point Mouillee, which projects into the lake towards the 
centre of the township." 

.40 LwienburgJi, or the 

" The next township is Charlottenburg, well watered by 
the River Aux Raisins, which rising in the Township of 
Osnabruck runs through that and the adjoining Township of 
Cornwall, and discharges itself into Lake St. Francis, at the 
south-east angle of Charlottenburg, eastward of Point Johnson. 
In front of this township are several small islands. Between 
Charlottenburg and Cornwall is a small tract possessed by the 
Indians, who have a considerable village on the south shore 
called St. Regis ; and in this part of the St. Lawrence lie 
several islands, one called Petite Isle de St. Regis, immedi 
ately opposite the village ; and another, Grande Isle de St. 
Regis, a little higher ^up, opposite to the Town of Cornwall." 

" The Township of Cornwall adjoins next. In the front 
is the town, of a mile square, lying in a commodious bay of 
the river, and watered by a small rivulet which runs through 
the town. Two branches of the River Aux Raisins pass 
through the lands of the township, and in front thereof are 
the Isles Aux Mille Roches et des Cheneaux Ecartee and 
Grand Isle St. Regis, lying in front of the town. In rear of 
this township is the Township of Roxborough." 

" The Township of Osnabruck lies above Cornwall. The 
River Aux Raisins rises here in several branches ; it has two 
other streams which run into the St. Lawrence in front, off 
which lie the Isle au Longue Sault, Isle de Trois Chenaux 
Ecartee, Isles au Diable et Isle au Chat." 

" The rapids called the Long Sault, lie in front of this 
township. The boats in going up keep the north shore, in 
great measure because the south shore is not settled ; but in 
descending they universally pass between the islands and the 
south shore, that being the largest, deepest, and altogether 
the safest passage. The inhabitants of late years have taken 
down their grain with safety on rafts to the Montreal markets." 

" Many people think that the lumber trade is carried on 
with more safety down these rapids than by those which pass 
Chambly from Lake Champlain, it being a frequent observa 
tion at Quebec that the rafts from the upper St. Lawrence are 

Old Eastern District. 41 

less ragged than those which come from Lake Champlain. 
There is, however, some little additional risk to the rafts from 
Upper Canada, by reason of having to pass the small 
lakes St. Francis and St. Louis, all broad waters being more 
or less against the rafting trade. But as Lake St. Pierre, which 
is larger than either St. Francis or St. Louis, must be passed, 
whether from Lake Champlain or the upper St. Lawrence, 
there is no doubt but the lumber trade will find its way down 
the St. Lawrence. Some settlers have already made the 
attempt even from the head of the Bay of Quinte, and when 
the produce of that very fertile country shall be exported for 
the Montreal or foreign markets, the raft will answer a double 
purpose ; it requires but few hands to manage it, and grain or 
potash may be carried as dry as in any other way." 

" The Township of Williamsburg is the next above Osna- 
bruck. It has but few streams. There are some islands in its 
front, among the rest, Isle au Rapid Plat, the west end of 
which lies also in front of Matilda, which is the next township. 
In the front is Point au Pins, and Pointe Iroquois, the latter 
of which has the advantage in a great measure of command 
ing the passage up and down the St. Lawrence. A few islands 
lie in front of this township, and a peninsula which is insulated 
at high water." 

" Fdwardsburg is the next township, in the front part of 
which is Johnstown, of a mile square. This with the Town of 
Cornwall has been most judiciously chosen, the one being im 
mediately above, the other below the rapids of the upper St. 
Lawrence. In the front of this township is Pointe au Car 
dinal, Pointe au Gallop, Pointe Iroquois and Pointe au Koine, 
and several islands, among which arc Hospital Island and Isle 
du Fort Lcvi,* where the French had a garrison, the ruins of 
which are still to be seen." 

" A little above Johnstown, on the south shore, is Fort 
Oswegatchie, situated on a river of that name." -f- 

* Chimney 

42 Lunenburgh, or the 

The following extracts from Smith s Gazetteer, refer to 
places within the counties of Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry 
by the names they bore in 1799, some of which are still in use. 
The names are given here exactly as they are in the original 
book : 

BARBUE POINT, on the River St. Lawrence, about a mile and a half 
above the lower end of the fourth town. (This point is given on McNiff s map 
as being on lot No. 6, Williamsburg). 

BATTEAU ISLAND, in the St. Lawrence, above Bearded Island. 

BEARDED ISLAND, in the River St. Lawrence, above Lake St. Francis. 

BODET, POINTE AU, on the north shore of Lake St. Francis, is in Mon 
sieur de Longueuil s seigniory, and a little to the east of the cove in which is the 
boundary between, the provinces of Upper and Lower Canada. 

BODET, RIVIERE AU, runs through part of the Township of Lancaster, and 
empties itself into Lake St. Francis, east of Pointe du Bodet. 

CHASSE, RIVIERE DE LA BELLE, runs into the River St. Lawrence, about 
two miles below Isle Rapid Plat. 

CHAT, ISLE AU, opposite Osnabruck. (Opposite lots Nos. 29, 30, 31, 32, 

CHENAL ECARTE, ISLE DE, in the River St. Lawrence, opposite the 
Township of Cornwall. 

CHKNE, POINTE AU, lies east of River de la Traverse, and nearly opposite 
to St. Regis. 

DIABLE, ISLES AUX, lie between the Isle au Long Sault and the Town 
ship of Osnabruck. 

EASTERN DISTRICT, THE, was originally constituted and erected into a dis 
trict by the name of the District of Lunenburg, in the Province of Quebec, re 
ceived its present name by an Act of the Provincial Legislature. It is bounded 
easterly by the Province of Lower Canada, southerly by the River St. Law 
rence, northerly by the Ottawa River, and westerly by a meridian passing 
through the mouth of the Gananoque River, in the Township of Leeds. 

GALLOPS* LES, Rapid, off Pointe au Gallop, in Edwardsburg. 

GENETTE, ISLE AU, lies a little above Isle au Chat. (Opposite lots 33 and 
34, Osnabruck). 

HERBKS, POINTE AUX, on the north shore of Lake St. Francis, lies east 
of the River Aux Raisins. 

JOHNSONS, POINTE, lies west of the River Aux Raisins. 

JOHNSTOWN, NEW, in the Township of Cornwall, is situated upon the 
River St. Lawrence, below the Long Sault, to the northward of Grand Isle St. 
Regis, and is now called Cornwall. 

JOHNSTOWN, in the Township of Edwardsburg, is situated on the River St. 
Lawrence, above the uppermost rapids in ascending to Lake Ontario. 

* Galops. 

Old Eastern District. 43 

IROQUOIS, POINTE AUX, on the River St. Lawrence, six or seven miles 

;above the Rapid Plat, in the Township of Matilda. (Lots 24 and 25 Matilda). 

LAC, POINTE DU, the westernmost point as you descend into Lake St. 

Francis, on the north side of the River St. Lawrence. (Probably Glengarry Point, 

lot 26, Charlottenburg). 

LEVI, ISLE DU FORT, on the River St. Lawrence, in front of the township 
of Edwardsburg. On this island are the remains of a French fortification. 

LONG SAULT, ISLE AU, in the River St. Lawrence, and in front of the Town 
ship of Osnabruck, contains from 1,000 to 1,500 acres. 

MALIGNE, GRANDE POINTE, on the River St. Lawrence, is a little above 
Petite Pointe Maligne, and opposite the Grand Island of St. Regis. 

MALIGNE, LA PETITE POINTE, on the north side of the River St. Law 
rence, not far above the lower end of Grand Isle de St. Regis. (These are the 
points above and below the Town of Cornwall). 

MAKANDIER*, POINT, on the north side of Lake it. Francis, east of Pointe 
aux Herbes, in the Township of Lancaster. 

MILLE ROCHES, ISLE AU, contains from six to seven hundred acres. It 
lies partly above and partly parallel to Isle Chenal Ecarte, in the River St. Law 

MoRi iox, ISLE, a small island in the River St. Lawrence, opposite to Pointe 
a la Traverse. 

MORMON, ISLE AU, in Lake St. Francis. A small rocky island lying nearly 
opposite to Pointe Mouille. (In McXiffs map a small island opposite lot number 
16, Charlottenburg, is called Isle Morpions. See Pointe a la Traverse). 

Mori.iNET, ISLES AUX, in the River St. Lawrence, opposite the Township of 
Osnabruck, are very small, and the soil tolerably good. (Opposite lots 7, 8 and 
9, Osnabruck). 

MOUILLE, POINTE, on Lake St. Francis, west of Pointe an Bodet, in the 
Township of Lancaster. 

PINS, POINTE AU, in front of the Township of Matilda, below Pointe 

PRKSENT.VIION FORT, OR OSWBGATCHIE, on the xmth side of the River St. 
St. Lawrence, above Point Gallop. t 

PRKSOUE ISI.K, MAJOR, is in front of the Township of Matilda, above Pointe 

PKKMHK, ISI.K, is in Kdwardsburg, nearly opposite to Ho>pital Island, and 
above Pointe au Gallop.* 

PKIKVIS I si. AM), above Point au Gallop. 

KU.MN ISI.KS, in Lake St. Francis, lie between the mouth of the River 
Aux Raisins, and the point of that name. They are small and rocky. 

RAIMN POINIK, in Luke St. FranrU. lies to tke east of Pointe da Lac. 

* Was this point named after " De la Manuidirrr," nu-ntioiied in a letter 
dated 12 Oct., 1717, from De Vaudreuil, to the French Minister. Hrymiu-r s Re 
port, 1886, p. vi. 

t_Should be Galop. 

44 Lunenburgh, or the 

RAISINS, RIVIERE AUX, runs through the Townships of Osnahruck and 
Cornwall, the Indian lands opposite to St. Regis and the Township of Charlotten- 
burg, emptying itself into Lake St. Francis near the south east angle of the latter 

RAPID PLAT, ISLE AU, in front of the Township of Matilda, contains about 
200 acres, and lies partly in front of the Township of "Williamsburg, also (ex 
tends from lot 35 \Yilliamsburg, to lot 2, Matilda). 

REGIS. ST., a considerable village of Indians. Converted to the Roman 
Catholic faith. Situated on the south shore of the St. Lawrence, above Lake St. 

REMON, GRAND. Third township. River St. Lawrence. Lies between 
the Isle Trois Chenaux Ecartes and the main land, about 44 degrees, 50 minutes,, 
north latitude. (The channel opposite lots 25, 26, 27, Osnabruck). 

SAULT, LONG. Third township. River St. Lawrence. Is the greatest 
rapid on the river. The current runs with great velocity. Very few accidents 
have happened in passing this rift, there being no sudden fall in it except at the 
foot of the Sault. 

SAVATTE, ISLE A LA, a very small island in the River St. Lawrence, a 
little below Isle de Chenal Ecarte. 

ST. REGIS, GRAND ISLE, in front of the Township of Cornwall, contains 800 
to i,oooacres. The soil is good, and the Indians have corn fields there. (Now 
called Cornwall Island). 

ST. REGIS, PETITE ISLE, in front of the St. Regis Indian Land. The soil is 
good and the Indians have corn fields there, the same as on Grand Isle St Regis, 
which is near it. . 

SUTHERLAND S CREEK runs into Lake St. Francis between Pointe an Bodet 
and 1 ointe Mouillee, in the Township of Lancaster. 

TRAVERSE, POINTE A LA, on the north shore of the River St. Lawrence, 
parallel with Isle Morpion, and about three miles above Pointe du Lac, St. 

TRAVERSE, REVIERE A LA, runs into the St. Lawrence a little above Pointe 
au Chene, among the St. Regis islands. (In McNiff s map "Gray s Creek" is 
called Riviere a la Traverse. Pointe a la Traverse is probably the point east of 
Gray s Creek. )* 

TROIS CIIEXAUX ECARTE, ISLE DE, on the River St. Lawrence opposite the 
Township of Osnabruck. Contains from 600 to 700 acres of land. (Extends from 
lot 15 to lot 29, Osnabruck.) 

In 1745, Bellin, a French engineer, published in Paris a 
map of the "Partie Orientale de la Nouvelle France au Canada, 
in which are given the following names of places along the 
River St. Lawrence, from Montreal westward : 

Rapide du Casteau. 
Lac St. Francis. 

* Is Pelo Island the same as Isle Morpion ? 

Old Eastern District. 45 

Isle Aux Testes, (below the Long Sault.) 

Long Sault. 

Rapide Aux Citrons. 

Rapide Platt. 

Le Galot, La Gallette. 

Riviere Chanagatchie, (on the south side of the St. Lawrence.) 

Riviere Onagason, (about the place where Brockville now stands.) 

Baye de Cataracoia. 

Fort Frontenac. 

In 1755, Bellin published a map of the " Partie Occiden- 
tale de la Nouvclle France au Canada," in which the following 
names appear along the course of the River St. Lawrence and 
the lakes : 

Pointe Maligne, (near the site of the Town of Cornwall.) 

La Moulinet, (the rapid at Moulinette. ) 

Long Sault. 

Isle an Chat, (opposite the western part of Osnabruck.) 

Rapide Plat. 

La Galette. 

Tonato, (near the site of Brockville.) 

Les Milles Isles. 

Fort de Cataraqui. 

Lac St. Jean, (now Bay of Quinte.) 

Lac Quentes is the name given to a small lake on the River Moira. 

A fort on the east side of the mouth of the River Niagara. 

Village de Ilurons, (opposite Detroit.) 

Lac Toronto, (now Lake Simcoc. ) 

Yille de Mississaques, (north of Lake St. Claire). 

These maps show the antiquity of some of the names still 

in use. 

These two maps belonged to the late Dr. R k McDonald. His son Aeneas 
gave them to Dr. J. Harrison, who lent them to the author, and subsequently sent 
them, with Mr. McDonald s consent, to I)..Brymner, Ksq., Dominion Archivist. 


46 Lunenburgh, or the 


Until the passing of the Imperial Statute, 3ist Geo. Ill, 
Chapter 31, in 1791, the Province of Quebec comprised the 
whole of Canada. It was divided into the Districts of Quebec 
and Montreal. The latter included the whole of the territory 
now called Ontario, which remained under the jurisdiction of 
the District of Montreal until the issuing of the proclamation 
of Lord Dorchester on the 24th July, 1788, whereby four new 
districts were formed, the easternmost of which, called Lunen- 
burgh,* extended from the eastern limit of Lancaster to the 
mouth of the River Gananoque, and southerly and northerly 
to the limits of the Province. It comprehended the Townships 
of Lancaster, Charlottenburg, Cornwall, Osnabruck, Williams- 
burg, Matilda, Edwardsburg, Augusta and Elizabethtown, each 
of which extended northward to the Ottawa River. 

It is not known when the townships, which were desig 
nated by numbers in McNiffs map, dated 1st Nov., 1786, got 
their names. The change must have been made before the 
20th June, 1788, as a commission dated on that day was issued 
by Lord Dorchester, appointing Jacob Farrand captain in the 
Battalion of Militia of Williamsburg and Matilda.f 

Previous to the formation of the four new districts, and 
while this part of the country formed a part of the District of 
Montreal, magistrates had been appointed. The commission 
under which they acted cannot now be found nor its date 

* The name is given as " Luneburgh" in th<*copy of the proclamation, page 
23 of the " Statutes of Upper Canada, British Statutes, Ordinances of Quebec, and 
Proclamations," published at Kingston by H. C. Thompson and James Macfarlane 
in 1831. In the Statute 32 Geo. Ill, Chap. 8, Sec. 2, page 83 of the same work, 
the name is given as " Lunenburgh." This is the way in which the old inhabitants 
always pronounced the name, and I am satisfied that "Luneburgh" is a misprint. 

t These commissions are in the author s possession. 

Old Eastern District. 47 

ascertained, but it must have been issued before the 2pth July, 
1786, as there is a commission dated on that day from the 
Court of Prerogatives of the District of Montreal " to Samuel 
Anderson, of New Johnstown, one of His Majesty s Justices of 
the Peace in and for the said District," authorizing him to 
.administer oaths to parties in a certain matter before the 
Court.* The gentlemen who had held commissions in the 
disbanded battalions were generally appointed magistrates. 
There are no records here of their having held any Courts of 
General Sessions of the Peace before the issuing of Lord 
Dorchester s proclamation, but there are traditions of Magis 
trates Courts being held, and of justice, rough and rcn:!y, 
somewhat in the drumhead court-martial style, being dealt 
out to offenders ; of a culprit s feet being fastened between 
two rails of the justice s fence, in default of the legitimate 
engine of punishment, " the stocks ;" or of a party convicted 
and sentenced to hard labour, working out his punishment by 
hoeing the convicting magistrate s corn or potatoes. 

The first Court in the District of Lunenburgh of which 
any record exists was the General Quarter Sessions of the 
Peace held at Osnabruck on the I5th day of June, 1789.-!- It 
is not stated in what part of Osnabruck the "Court met ; the 
place must have been in the front, probably near what is now 
known as Dickinson s Landing. The records of the Courts of 
General Sessions for the District of Lunenburgh afterwards 
the Eastern District, and now the United Counties of Stor- 
mont, Dundas and Glengarry have been very carefully kept ; 
the books containing the minutes of the proceedings from the 

* Some commissions of the peace were issued bydeneral Haldimand in 1784 
two to Vanalstine and Sherwood, as mentioned in Urymm-r s Report, 1886, p. 
445; H. C., R 64, p. 181. 

t On the I4th of August, 1793, Chief Justice < >s^oode presided at the Court 
-of Oyer and Terniiner at New Johnstown, in the Kustern District. Aninj; the 
Grand Jurors were Edward Jessup, John Dulma^e, David Brackenridge, Paul 
Heck, Asel Landon, James Brackenridge and Paul Jones. He also presided at 
the Court of Oyer and Terniiner held at Cornwall in July, 1794. [Read s Lives of 
he Judges. 

48 Lunettburgk, or the 

1 5th of June, 1789, until the present time, are in the office of 
the Clerk of the Peace at Cornwall. They contain the names 
of Magistrates, Officers of the Court, Jurors, and parties to 
cases tried, and not a little information of the olden time that 
may be of interest to the present generation. 

The Imperial Statute dividing the Province of Quebec into 
the two Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, came into 
force on the 3ist day of December, 1791. John Graves Simcoe, 
the Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada, issued a proclama 
tion dated the i6th day of June, 1/92, dividing the Province 
into Counties, the easternmost of which are Glengarry, Stor- 
mont and Dundas. On the i5th of October, 1792, the Parlia 
ment of Upper Canada passed an Act changing the names of 
the districts. Under this Act the District of Lunenburgh 
became the Eastern District. 

The magistrates who had been appointed before the Pro 
vince of Upper Canada was formed, continued to act and to- 
hold the Courts of General Quarter Sessions, until Lieutenant- 
Governor Simcoe issued a new commission of the peace for 
the Eastern District. This commission, which is now among 
the records in the office of the Clerk of the Peace at Cornwall,, 
is dated at the Government House, Navy Hall,* on the loth 
day of June, 1793. The old magistrates were re-appointed. 
and some new ones were added to the original number. The 
names of those in the commission of 1793 are: The Honorable 
William Osgoode, Chief Justice ; William Dummer Powell,. 
Esquire ; the Honorable Alexander Grant ; the Honorable 
Peter Russell ; the Honorable James Baby ; Richard Duncan, 
John McDonell, John Munro, James Gray, Edward Jessup,. 
Walter Sutherland, William Falkner, Richard Wilkinson,, 
William Byrnes, Thomas Swan, Jeremiah French, Archibald 
McDonell, Allen McDonell, William Eraser, Peter Drummond, 
Justus Sherwood, Ephraim Jones, William Buel, Thomas Sher 
wood, Alexander McMillan, Alexander McDonell, Samuel 
Anderson, Joseph Anderson, James Stuart, Allan Paterson,, 

* At Niagara, then the seat of Government. 

Old Eastern District. 49 

Malcolm McMartin, Samuel Wright, James Brackenridge, 
Alexander Campbell, of Augusta ; Neil McLean, Miles Mc- 
Donell, Vermiel Lorimier, Hugh McDonell, Alexander Camp 
bell, of Johnstown ; Thomas Fraser, Andrew Wilson and Xcil 
Robertson, Esquires, who are directed " to enquire the truth 
most fully, by the oath of good and lawful men of the afore 
said district, of all and all manner of felonies, poisonings, 
inchantments, sorceries, arts magick, trespasses, forestall ings, 
regratings, ingrossings, and extortions whatsoever, and of all 
and singular other crimes and offences of which the Justices 
of the Peace may or ought lawfully to enquire." 

This quotation is a very small part of the commission, 
which contains over sixteen hundred words. On the first day 
of each Court of General Quarter Sessions, the whole of the 
commission was read by the Clerk of the Peace on the open 
ing of the Court, and before the swearing of the Grand Jury. 
This tedious and unnecessary practice was continued for many 

The Act passed in the first session of the Provincial 
Legislature altering the names of the district, also directed 
that a gaol and court-house should be built in each district, 
and that those for the Eastern District should be erected at 
Johnstown, in the Township of Eclwardsburg. In the next 
session of Parliament, in July, i/93, an Act (33 Geo. Ill, 
Chap. 6) was passed, by which it was directed that the Courts 
of General Quarter Sessions of the Peace for the Eastern 
District should be held at the Town of New Johnstown in the 
months of October and April, and in the Town of Cornwall in 
the months of January and July, in each year. In the follow 
ing session an Act (34 Geo. Ill, Chap. 10) was passed direct 
ing that a court-house and gaol should be built at Cornwall as 
well as at New Johnstown. In 1/98, by the Statute 38 Geo. 
Ill, Chap. 5, the Johnstown District was formed, and the 
Eastern District was limited to the Counties of Stormont, 
Dundas and Glengarry on the St. Lawrence, and Prescott and 
Russell on the Ottawa. The last two counties were formed 

50 LunenburgJi, or the 

into a district, called, the Ottawa District, in 1816. From that 
time no change has been made in the boundaries and dimen 
sions of the Eastern District, or as it is now designated, the 
United Counties of Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry. 

The Courts of General Quarter Sessions of the Peace 
had, besides the jurisdiction over criminal matters, many of 
the powers now given to the municipal corporations of coun 
ties, townships, towns and villages. The court had the control 
of the district property, roads and bridges, assessment of pro 
perty, and the collection and expenditure of the local taxes. 
The records of the courts therefore show not only the proceed 
ings in criminal cases some of which, as recorded in the older 
books, are somewhat startling but also orders as to roads 
and bridges, the erection of county buildings, the management 
of county property, the establishment of ferries, etc., etc., that 
give some information as to the progress of the country. 

The books have been carefully examined, and the follow 
ing extracts from them are given, with the hope that they will 
be of no little interest to the readers of this work. 

Old Eastern District. 51 


The oldest book of the records of the Court of General 
Quarter Sessions of the Peace for the District of Lunenburgh 
shows that the first session of that court began at Osnabruck 
on the 1 5th day of June, 1789. The magistrates present were: 

John McDonell, Justus Sherwood, 

Richard Duncan, Ephriam Jones, 

James Gray, William Falkner, 

Thomas Swan, William Fraser, 

Jeremiah French, Archibald McDonell. 

It is not stated who the Chairman was. The Grand 
Jurors empanelled were : 

1 Alexander Campbell, (Foreman), 13 Gideon Adams, 

2 I eter Drummond, 14 John Dulmage, 

3 Thomas Fraser, 15 James Campbell, 

4 John McKenzie, 16 Alex r Campbell, 

5 George Stuart, 17 David Brackenridge, 

6 John Seymour, 18 Ephriam Curry, 

7 Malcolm McMartin, 19 John Jones, 

8 Neil McLean, 20 Elijah Bottom, 

9 Martin Walter, 21 William Snydcr, 

10 John Pescod, 22 Daniel Campbell, 

11 Ranald McDonell, Jr. , 23 Matthew Howard, 

12 Ranald McDonell, Sr. , 24 Thomas Robertson. 

The first bill of indictment sent before the Grand Jury 
was on a charge of assault and battery : 

The King, on the prosecution of 

Augustus Wolf \ s. Joiachim Denault, 

on which the Grand Jury returned " no bill." 

The first case was tried on Tuesday the i6th day of June, 
1789. The following is an exact copy of the entry of the pro 
ceedings : 

The King, on I ros., 

. \k-v\inln McKay, \ 

vs. In Assault and ButU i\ . 

Ranald MrHmrll, I 

Sent up the bill of indirtmt- m to ihe ( Irand Jury. Tlu- (.rand Jury return a 

C2 Lunenbuigh, or the 

true bill. The defendant, being arraigned, pleads not guilty. It is ordered, on 
motion for the prosecution, that the trial come on immediately, by consent of the 
defendant. The jury empanelled and sworn to try the issue of this traverse were : 

1 William Phillips, 7 Joseph Loucks, 

2 Jacob VanAllen, 8 Anthony Wallaser, 

3 Jacob Weegar, 9 J onn ^Vart, 

4 Michael Hains, 10 Jacob Merkle, 

5 David Taycocks, 1 1 Adam Empey, 

6 John Coons, 12 Nicholas Ault. 

Witness for the prosecution, Angus McKay. The jury having heard the 
evidence, retired to consider their verdict, in charge of Duncan McArthur, bailiff. 
The jury having returned into court, say, by William Phillips, their foreman, that 
the defendant is guilty, as laid in the indictment. The court having considered 
the verdict of the jury, it is ordered that the defendant do pay a fine of one shilling, 
and that he stand committed till paid.. 

There were two other trials at this sitting one on a 
charge of assault and battery, and one " for seditious behaviour 
and against the peace." In each of these cases the same jury 
that tried the first case was empanelled and sworn. The 
defendants were found guilty. The one convicted of assault 
and battery was fined twenty shillings. In the case of the 
one convicted of seditious behavior, the court "considered 
that the defendant is not a British subject of the Province, as 
not having taken the oath of allegiance to His Majesty, and 
do order him to depart from the Province, and that he do 
remain in custody of a constable until he can be conveyed 

from the same." 

On the 1 7th June, 1789, it was ordered that any person 
who should thereafter be found guilty, before any magistrate, 
of breaking the Sabbath, should be fined according to law. 

The following persons were appointed constables for the 
several townships : 

Lancaster Richard Fountain, Benjamin Baker. 

Charlottenburg Finnan McDonell, Charles Ross, Duncan McArthur. 

Cornwall David Wright, David Scheik. 

Osnabruck John Bradshaw, Joseph Loucks. 

Williamsburg Michael Merkle, Jacob Anderson. 

Matilda George Brouse, Philip Shaver. 

Edwardsburg Frederick Lucas, Henry Jackson. 

Augusta Oliver Sweet, Samuel \Veatherhead. 

Elizabethtown David Killmore, Jonathan Mills Church. 

Old Eastern District. 53 

The sittings of the court were held in January, March, 
June and September, and the place of meeting was at Osna- 
bruck until the pth of April, 1792. The names of magistrates, 
jurors, officers of the court, and parties to suits, are very 
familiar McDonell, McGregor, McArthur, McMartin, Snyder, 
Cameron, Campbell, Hains, Merkle, Koons, Empey, Service, 
Shaver, Link, Crysler, Wright, Anderson, Stoneburner, Ault, 
Bouck, Wart, Cadman, Dorin, VanCamp, Garlough, Brouse, 
Vanduzen, Frymire, Marcelles, Vankoughnet, Crowder, Baker, 
Runyon, Milbross, Marsh, Gallinger, Parlow, W aggoner, Ros- 

At the sittings of the court held on the i6th of Septem 
ber, 1789, an order was made that six Justices of the Peace, of 
whom two should be of the quorum, should attend at every 
succeeding Quarter Sessions of the Peace to be held in and 
for the district. On the same day a prisoner convicted of 
petit larceny was sentenced to stand in the pillory one hour. 

At the sittings in March and June, 1790, the rule that six 
justices should attend at every court was disobeyed. Four at 
tended on the 1 6th of March, and only two on the 8th of June- 
James Gray and Jeremiah French. On the following day a man 
was brought before the court, charged with seditious expres 
sions and riotous behaviour. Xo indictment was found, nor was 
a jury sworn. The accused appears to have been examined by 
the magistrates ; it was clearly shown that he had been dis 
orderly and abusive ; the evidence of seditious language was 
that he said "he was a rebel, and would stand by that." Their 
worships found that his conduct was disloyal and improper, 
and ordered " that he be immediately sent out of this district 
by conveying him from one Captain of Militia to another 
until he be out of the district." 

At the sittings on the I4th of September, i 7<.)O, a man 
and his wife were convicted of petit larceny. The man was 
sentenced to be tied to a post and to receive thirty-nine lashes 
on the naked back. The magistrates, after passing this sen 
tence on the man, " pardoned " the woman. 

54 Lunenburgh, or the 

At the sitting on the nth of January, 1791, a prisoner 
convicted of larceny was sentenced to stand in the pillory one 
hour. James Walker appeared as attorney for a prisoner. 

At the next court, held in April, 1791, a man was fined 
I o.o.O for selling spirituous liquors without a license, and 
several jurymen were fined ten shillings each for not appearing 
when duly summoned. 

On the 9th of April, 1792, the court was held for the first 
time at Cornwall. The sittings up to that time had been at 

On the 8th of October, in the following year, the sittings 
of the court were held at Edwardsburg. The following magis 
trates attended and took the oath of office, under the commis 
sion issued on the loth of June, 1793 : 

1 Justus Sherwood, 12 Neil McLean, 

2 Archibald McDonell, 13 Samuel Anderson, 

3 Thomas Swan, 14 Thomas Sherwood, 

4 William Byrnes, 15 Allan Paterson, 

5 Alexander McDonell, 16 Richard Wilkinson, 

6 Alexander McMillan, 17 Allen McDonell, 

7 Miles McDonell, 18 Vernier Lonmier, 

8 William Fraser, 19 Thomas Eraser, 

9 Joseph Anderson, 20 William Buel, 

10 Andrew Wilson, 21 James Breakenridge. 

1 1 Alexander Campbell, 

On the I Oth of October, a man was tried for seditious 
words. The jury having brought in a verdict of " not guilty," 
were sent back to reconsider. They again came in with a 
verdict of " not guilty," when the court required the acquitted 
man to take the oaths required by law and to give security for 
his good behaviour, or leave the country immediately. 

On the I ith of October it was ordered that the limits of 
the different counties in the Eastern District, as described in 
His Excellency Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe s proclamation, 
should be the limits of the jurisdiction of the respective 
justices of the Courts of Requests. This was the first 
organization of the courts for the collection of small debts 

Old Eastern District. 55 

which were established by the Statute 32 Geo. Ill, Chapter 
6, passed on the I5th of October, 1792. 

After the sittings in October, 1793, the Court of General 
Quarter Sessions was held alternately at Cornwall and New 
Johnstown. Jurors for the Western Division were not to be 
summoned east of the eastern limit of Edwardsburg, and those 
for the Eastern not west of the western limit of Matilda. 

An order was made at the sittings in October, 1793, "that 
every person owning cattle within the district shall have a 
particular mark wherewith he shall mark his hogs, sheep and 
horned cattle, which marks shall be recorded in the office of 
the township clerk." A list of fees was established for record 
ing marks, marriages, births and deaths ; one shilling each for 
marks and marriages, and sixpence each for births and deaths. 

Poundkeeper s fees were established, viz : 

s. d. 

For receiving each horse into pound o I o 

Discharging the same o o 6 

( or receiving horned cattle, per head o o 6 

For discharging the same O O 3 

For receiving hogs, per head o i o 

For discharging the same o o 3 

I i >r each sheep received o o 3 

For discharging the same o o 

Feeding each horse and giving proper drink each 24 hours 

after the first 24 hours o o 6 

For every head of horned cattle so kept after the first 24 

hours o o 4 

For every hog so kept after the first 24 hours o o 3 

For every shevj. " " " 002 

At the same sittings it was decided that a gaol and court 
house for the Eastern District be built on a point in the Town 
of New Johnstown, in front of lots 10, I I and 12, and that the 
dimensions thereof be 30 feet long by 24 feet wide in the clear, 
two storys, the lower to be built with square oak or pine logs, 
12 inches thick, and to be eight feet between the floors, the 
upper story to be built with a frame of the like timber, nine 
feet between the floors, with a chimney at one end of the 
house, with one fire-place below and one above. The lower 

^6 Lunenburgh, or the 

floor to be divided into three rooms, to wit : one for the gaoler 
and two for the criminals, with double walls and partitions 
round the criminals room, the upper part to be divided into 
two small rooms and one large room for the convenience of 
the Court and Petit Jury. The floors to be of hewn oak or 
pine timber, 12 inches thick, under and over the criminals 

William Eraser, of Johnstown, merchant, was appointed 
Treasurer for the Eastern District. 

On Tuesday, the I4th January, 1794, the court met at 


The order made at the October sittings, for the build 
ing of a gaol and court-house, was rescinded on the i6th 
.of January, upon the recommendation of William Eraser 
and Joseph Anderson, Esquires, deputed by the magistrates 
of the upper and .lower parts of the district; and a new 
order was made that the money that might be raised 
by the present tax for building a court-house and gaol, 
be equally divided for the purpose of building two court 
houses and gaols in the district, one at New Johnstown and 
one at Cornwall. 

In April, 1794, Alexander McLean, of Elizabethtown, 
was appointed Sealer of Weights and Measures, and in July, 
1794, Alexander Grant, of Charlottenburg, Alex. Millross, of 
Stormont, and John Duncan, of Dundas, were appointed 
Sealers of W eights and Measures for their respective counties. 
On the 1 6th of October, 1794, the Clerk of the Peace was 
directed to furnish the Sheriff with an estreat of fines, which 
the Sheriff is ordered to collect, in order to make a fund for 
paying the necessary expenses for keeping prisoners, for want 

of a gaol. 

At the court, in July, 1795, Robert Gray appeared 
as attorney for John Loucks ; at the same court, Neil Mc 
Lean, of Stormont, was appointed Treasurer in the place of 
William Eraser, resigned. 

Richard Wilkinson, Samuel Anderson and Andrew Wil- 

Old Eastern District. 57 

son, were appointed a committee to enter into contracts for 
the building of a gaol and court-house in the Town of Corn 
wall ; and Jeremiah French agreed to deliver all the large oak 
timber required for the building at two pence half-penny the 
square foot, none of the timber to be less than 12 inches thick. 

At the October Sessions, in 1795, the salary of the gaoler 
at Xe\v Johnstown was fixed at 2$ a year. 

Sose Tegahowage, a St. Regis Indian, being under arrest 
on a charge of Striking William Fraser with an axe, the fol 
lowing chiefs gave bail for his appearance : 

Gilbert X Torega, Tiona X Toyone, 

Itoien X Xogen, Ouxva X Xiente, 

Tsite X \Vo-man, Tega X Nia-to-roque. 

I4th January, 1795, it was ordered that whereas the hold 
ing of the Court of General Quarter Sessions of the Peace and 
the District Court, one in the fore part and the other in the 
latter part of the same day, was inconvenient ; "the two shall be 
held at the same time, and that as the Clerk of the Peace 
holds office in each court, he be allowed to act in the Sessions 
by deputy." 

. William Kay was paid 1.15 for preparing the church * 
in Cornwall for the purpose of holding the Court of King s 
Bench and Oyer and Terminer. 

1 4th January, 1796, Jacob Farrand having been appointed 
Registrar for the Counties of Glengarry and Stormont, entered 
into recognizance, with Richard Wilkinson, of Glengarry, and 
Samuel Anderson, Robert Gray and Captain John McDonell, 
of Stormont, sureties for the due performance of the duties of 
the office. 

On the 1 4th of April, 1796, the Treasurer s accounts were 
audited by the court. The amount of taxes received from ten 
townships, viz., Lancaster, Charlottcnburg, Cornwall, Osna- 
bruck, Williamsburg, Matilda, Edwardsburg, Augusta, Eliza- 
bcthtown and Yonge, was ^486.17.6, all of which was paid 

* The old Presbyterian Church. 

58 Lunenbtirgh, or the 

out, ^"25.0.0 of the payments being for the killing of wolves 
and bears. 

Alexander Campbell having been appointed Registrar for 
Dundas and Grenville, entered into recognizance, with Captain 
Simeon Coville, Captain Thomas Sherwood, Captain James 
Campbell and Captain Matthew Howard, sureties for the due 
performance of the duties of the office. 

In July, 1796, a miller was fined ,10.0.0 (half to the King 
and half to the complainant) together with costs, for taking 
unlawful toll for grinding wheat. 

In January, 1797, 370 bushels of lime for building the 
gaol and court-house were bought from Peter Earner at 7^d. 
a bushel. 

In April, 1798, Samuel Anderson, Judge of the District 
Court, was appointed Chairman of the Quarter Sessions for 
one year. 

At the court in July, 1799, a ferry was established between 
Cornwall and St. Regis, under the management of David Mc- 
Cuen, who was to keep a sufficient boat, or batteau, and two 
good canoes. The charges were fixed as follows : 

s. d. 

A single person from Cornwall to St. Regis o 2 6 

From Cornwall to the Priest s farm, on the east side of the 

mouth of the Black or St. Regis River o 3 o 

Two persons to St. Regis 3 o 

" " Priest s farm o 3 6 

For each person above two to St. Regis o i o 

" Priest s farm o I 3 

Single person and horse or cow to St. Regis o 5 o 

" " " " Priest s farm 060 

One or two persons, horses, cows or oxen o 7 6 

(And 4d. for each cwt. of goods exceeding two. ) 

If a full load or half a load of boat o 12 6 

" " " " canoe 050 

At the same court, John Link and Timothy Johnson got 
an order for ,200.0.0 for work on their contract on the gaol 
.and court-house. 

On the 23rd of April, 1800, a woman convicted of petit 

Old Eastern District. 59 

larceny was sentenced to be tied to a post and whipped with 
small cords " until your body be bloody." 

The District accounts for 1796, 1/97 and 1798, showed 
that the receipts were 537.7.5, the disbursements 513.9.8^, 
leaving a balance of 23.17.8^ on hand. As accounts against 
the district were not promptly paid, the magistrates allowed 
interest on them at the rate of 6 per cent. 

By the Statute 38 Geo. Ill, Chap. 5, passed on the 5th of 
July, 1798, the Counties of Leeds and Grenville were formed 
into a new district, called the Johnstown District. This statute 
came into force on the ist of January, 1800. From that date 
the Eastern District comprised the Counties of Stormont, 
Dundas, Glengarry, Prescott and Russell, until the 22nd of 
March, 1816, when the Statute 56 Geo. Ill, Chap. 2, formed 
the last two counties into the Ottawa District. 

On the 3Oth of April, 1801, Jacob Farrand was sworn in 
as Registrar for the County of Dundas. 1.0.0 was paid to 
the Presbyterian congregation for damage done to the church 
by the Court of General Quarter Sessions. 

In July, 1802, orders were made for the opening of roads. 

In 1803, Thomas Darcy had a ferry across the Grand or 
Ottawa River at Hawkesbury. 

The gaol and court-house were put up and partially 
finished about 1802 or 1803, but the accommodation could 
not have been good, as the court in January, 1804, was held 
in a tavern. At this court an order was made for the payment 
of 4.0.0 to the Presbyterian congregation for damage done 
to their meeting house during the holding of a court there. 

In October, 1805, an order was made for opening the road 
between Sir John Johnson s Mills (Williamstownj and Lower 

In January, 1806, a ferry was granted to Richard McBean 
from his house to St. Regis. (This house was on the west 
half of lot number 2, in the ist concession of Cornwall. It 
stood until 1860.) 

In April, 1806, it was ordered that the Penoyer Road be 

60 Lumnburgh, or the 

opened, to commence at the front road at John Millross * and 
extend to the Province line. 

Friday, 2;th January, 1807, the court met and adjourned 
to a tavern, the landlord of which received 2.0.0 for the use 
of his house. The gaol could not have been in good order at 
this time, as the brother of a man imprisoned on a charge of 
murder got leave to remove the prisoner to a " place of safety," 
a bond being given for the safe keeping of the accused. The 
Sheriff represented to the court that the gaol was insufficient 
and 150.0.0 were granted to finish the building. 

On the 26th of January, 1808, the Treasurer was directed 
to insure the court-house for 700.0.0, and on the 3ist of May 
60.0.0 were granted to finish the court-house and jury rooms. 

In the autumn of 1808, the road from Cornwall to the 
River Aux Raisins was surveyed by J. McCarthy. 

On the 26th of April, 1 809, it was ordered that the road 
between lots 12 and I3,f in the ist concession, be continued 
to the 5th concession. Barnhart s Island^ and Sheek s Island 
were formed into a division for statute labour ; George Barn- 
hart, junior, was appointed pathmaster. The Nine Mile Road 
between lots 6 and 7 was ordered to be opened from the St. 
Lawrence to the River Aux Raisins between lots 9 and 10, 
and 30.0.0 were granted for the purpose to Joseph Anderson 
and Miles McDonell, Commissioners. 

* Quere ? Lot 29 in the 1st of Cornwall ? Andrew Millross name is on that 
lot in McNiff s map. 

t The Nine Mile Road, west of the town. 

J Barnhart s Island belonged to Canada at this time and up to i8i8or 1819. 

This is thepresent road to St. Andrews. 

Old Eastern District. 61 


In January, 1810, a ferry was established at Chute au 
Blondeau, and from Point Fortune to Argenteuil, on the 
Ottawa River. 

The gaoler was allowed rod. a day to furnish provisions 
to each of the two destitute persons in gaol. 

An order was made on the iith of October, 1810, for 
money for a bridge over the creek between Col. French s and 
Albert French s land.* 

In January, 181 1, 20.0.0 were granted to bridge Hoople s 
Creek. In April of the same year, ^"60.0.0 were granted to 
Samuel Anderson, J. Y. Cozens and Neil McLean, commis 
sioners for the road from Cornwall to the River Aux Raisins, 
and in May a further sum of ,50.0.0 was given for the same 

In April, 1812, 20.0.0 were granted to build St. Andrew s 
bridge, on lot No. 9, north and south of Water street, and 
;iO.O.o to pay the contractor for completing the causeway on 
the road from Cornwall to the River Aux Raisins. 

In January, 1813, the court-house was occupied by the 
flank companies, under the command of Licut.-Colonel Xcil 
McLean, and the court was held in the Presbyterian meeting 

During the continuance of the war in 1812-13-14, the 
court-house was used for barracks, and the courts were held 
either in the Presbyterian Church or at a tavern. There was 
not much law business during either of these years ; in 1813 
there were only three trials in the Court of Quarter Sessions. 

In 1814, the Sheriff protested against receiving prisoners 
in the gaol, the greater part of it being used as barracks. 

* The bridge near Maple < Irove. f 

62 Lunenburgh, or tJu 

In January of that year, the Sessions reported in favor of 
a road across lots 18, 19 and the east part of 20, in the first 
concession of Cornwall ; and on the 2ist of June, of the same 
year, they granted 20.0.0 to rebuild the bridge on the front 
road west of Major Anderson s house, on lot 18, in the first 
concession of the same township. This was to replace the 
bridge burned by the American troops in November, 1813. 

In 1815, the court was held in a tavern, in January and 
April. The /oth Regiment was then in Cornwall, and pro 
bably used the court-house and gaol as barracks. 

In 1816, 49.6.9 were allowed to Neil McLean, Sheriff, to 
reimburse him for losses sustained by him on account of the 
insufficiency of the gaol. It was also ordered that he be al 
lowed 150.0.0 for that year, and 73.10.0 a year for four 
following years. 

On the 26th of April, 1816, 20.0.0 were granted for 
streets in Cornwall. 

At the same court it was ordered that the Court of Re 
quests be held in the Town of Cornwall on the first Saturday 
of each month ; at or near the mill of Alex. Ross, in the Town 
ship of Lancaster, on the third Saturday of each month ; at 
the Town of Williamstown, in the Township of Charlotten- 
burg, on the first Saturday of each month ; at the house of 
Adam Baker, in the Township of Osnabruck, on the third 
Saturday of each month ; and at or near the commons be 
tween the Townships of Williamsburg and Matilda, on the 
first and third Saturdays of each month. 

On the 2;th of November, 1818, the Act 59 Geo. Ill, 
Chap. 4, was passed, authorizing the establishment of a market 
in the Town of Cornwall. On the 8th of February, 1819, the 
matter was brought before the Court of Quarter Sessions, and 
was postponed until the first Monday in March. Nothing 
further appears to have been done until the I4th of July, 1819, 
when 50.0.0 were granted to Archibald McLean and Guy C. 
Wood, to build a market house in the town. 

At the court in October of the same year, the Revd. John 

Old Eastern District. 63 

McKenzie, Presbyterian minister, of Williamstown, was duly 
authorized to solemnize matrimony. 

In January, 1820, the Clerk of the Peace was allowed 
40.0.0 a year for stationery and office rent. 

On the 8th of May, 1820, the market house having been 
erected on the market square (lots 10 and 1 1, north side Water 
street), the magistrates adopted the following resolutions : 

RESOLVED, That from and after the loth clay of July next, all articles of the 
following description, viz : butcher s meat, butter, eggs, fowls, bacon, cheese, 
sugar, tallow, vegetables, all kinds of grain and hay, brought into the Town of 
Cornwall for sale, shall be exposed at the market house now erected on the market 
square in the said town, and not elsewhere therein ; and that all persons who may 
be convicted of infringing this resolution shall pay a fine of fifteen shillings, agree 
ably to the Act of the Legislature. 

RESOLVED, That Tuesdays and Saturdays be the market days in the said 
Town of Cornwall ; that any person who shall have remained three hours in the 
market house without having disposed of the article or articles brought for sale by 
him or her, shall be at liberty to dispose of the same in any part of the town where 
a purchaser may be found. 

RKSOLVKD, That a fine at the discretion of the magistrate, not exceeding 2os. 
nor less than los. , be imposed upon any person who may be convicted of purchas 
ing any article or articles herein directed to be sold at the market house, at any 
other place than on the market square, except in cases where the same may have 
been exposed the regular period in the market house. 

It is said that the market house was used for the purpose 
for which it was built, once only. The building stood for 
about forty years. 

On the 24th of January, 1821, the Revd. John McLaren 
was licensed to solemnize matrimony. 

On the 28th of April, 1821, the sum of 15.0.0 was 
granted to Guy C. Wood, for the purpose of surveying and 
ascertaining the streets and boundaries of the town, under 
authority of the statutes then in force. 

The court on the 2/th of April, 1822, fixed the boundary 
of the gaol limits within which prisoners in custody for debt 
might remain, instead of being closely confined in gaol, as 
follows : " The gaol yard, including all the ground in front of 
the gaol lot, to the river s edge ; I ilt street, from the river s 
edge to a line drawn from the south-east corner of lot number 

64 TLunenburgh, or tJie 

sixteen to the south-west corner of lot number fifteen, on the 
north side of Second street ; thence along Second street to the 
south-east comer of the Episcopal burial-ground, and also from 
Pitt street to the western limit of lot number eighteen, on the 
south side of First street, and including the north-west quarter 
of the said lot number eighteen. It is understood and ordered 
that any dwelling houses or shops of any description erected, 
or to be erected, on either of the said streets, shall be con 
sidered within the limits, but excluding the premises attached 
to these houses, except as hereinbefore mentioned, and except 
ing also the paths or ways to the churches, and the paths to 
the houses on the said streets, such house not being more 
than thirty feet from the said street." The fact that these 
limits included two churches and one tavern, proves that the 
magistrates considered not only the spiritual but the spirituous 
needs of the prisoners. In January, 1826, they considered 
their literary tastes by extending the limits to the post office, 
which stood at that time on lot number thirteen, north side of 

First street. 

In April, 1822, the sum of 6.0.0 was granted to Duncan 
McDonell (Greenfield), to be expended on the road from the 
St. Lawrence to the Ottawa. This was the road from St. 
Raphaels Church which passed Greenfield and joined what is 
now called the Military Road to the east. 

In May, 1823, the Revd. H. Leith, Presbyterian minister, 
of Cornwall, was authorized to solemnize matrimony. 

In October, 1823, it was ordered " that lots 4 and 5, north 
of Fifth street, and 4 and 5, south of Sixth street, be reserved 
for a gaol and court-house, and that a petition be presented to 
the Legislature for 5000.0.0 to erect the buildings." 

On the Hth of July, 1824, a sum of 50.0.0 was granted 
to Donald McAulay and Guy C. Wood, to build a bridge* at 
William Wood s Creek, the old one being entirely decayed, 
and presented by the Grand Jury as a nuisance. 

In October, 1825, the Sheriff s salary was raised to 60.0.0 

* In 1885 a stone arch was built in this bridge. 

Old Eastern District. 65 

per annum, and 22.0.0 allowed half-yearly for serving jury 
men. The Gaoler s salary was fixed at .60.0.0 per annum. 

In January, 1826, an order was made that witnesses at 
tending the Court of General Quarter Sessions be allowed 5d. 
a day. 

In the winter of 1826, the gaol and court-house were 
burned. A house * on lot number seventeen, on the south 
side of Fourth street, was rented and fitted up for a gaol and 
Gaoler s residence, and a large room in the second storey of 
the building on the south-west corner of lot number fifteen, on 
the north side of Second street, was rented for a court-room, -f- 
The magistrates appointed Archibald McLean, Guy C. Wood, 
Donald McDonell, Joseph Anderson and John McGillivray, 
trustees to accept the patent for the lots on which the new 
gaol and court-house were to be built. The limits were altered 
on account of the change in the locality of the gaol, and were 
extended so as to include the district school-house. 

In January, 1827, a sum of 35.0.0 was granted to William 
Polly and Jehiel Hawley, towards building a new bridge ncar 
John Marsh s farm, "commonly called the Carr bridge." 

On the 24th of April, 1827, the Rev. Hugh Urquhart, 
Presbyterian minister, of Cornwall, was licensed to solemnize 

In July, 1827, a loan of 4000.0.0 was advertised for, for 
the purpose of building a new gaol and court-house. 

In April, 1828, the Revd. Hcrmanus "Hayunga, Lutheran 
minister, was licensed to solemnize matrimony. 

In October, 1828, constables were paid for their attendance. 

In January, 1829, a grant was made to William Roebuck 
for the Nine Mile Road, from his mill through the 8th and 
9th concessions of Lancaster. An additional tax of a half 
penny in the pound was ordered to pay for the erection of the 
new gaol and court-house. 

toJoM-ph Ka>ton. The rent paid was 10.0.0 a year. 
+ The building i> no\\ the American Hotel. It belonged in iSjn .o Dr. Noah 

I >i<-kiiiM)ii. 

66 Lunenburgh, or the 

In March, 1830, the limits were increased to sixteen 
acres. In July, 1830, they were established as follows: 
" Commencing at the intersection of Augustus street on 
Fourth street, where the temporary gaol is situated, and along 
Fourth street to Pitt street, and along Pitt street to the River 
St. Lawrence ; from Pitt street along Water street to Augustus 
street, and along Augustus street (from Second street) to the 
River St. Lawrence, and along the bank of the said river 
within forty feet of the water s edge to the steamboat wharf,, 
with permission to ride or walk from one end of the wharf to 
the other forty feet from the edge, and from Augustus 
street along First street as far as the office of the Clerk of the 
Peace,* with permission to enter the said office, with permis 
sion to enter into the house now used as a court-house by 
either door, on Pitt street or Second street ; from the said 
court-house to the Episcopal Church on Second street, with 
permission to enter into any part of the Episcopal, Roman 
Catholic and Presbyterian Churches, be the distance more or 
less, and also to enter into any houses or out-houses on the 
streets within the above mentioned limits, and into the yards 
belonging to any of the said houses, the distance of thirty 
yards from the dwelling house, and no further, posts to be 
erected to mark out the limits to prevent any mistakes." 

On the 28th of April, 1831, the Treasurer was authorized 
to effect a loan of 4500.0.0, to build and complete a gaol and 

Standard weights and measures were to be got from the 
Secretary of the Province, and Austin Shearer was appointed 
Stamper of Weights and Measures for the Eastern District. 

Joseph Anderson, Guy C. Wood, John McDonald and 
Philip Vankoughnet, were appointed commissioners for roads 
and bridges in the Township of Cornwall. 

The following estimate of the sums of money required to 
be raised for defraying the expenses of the Eastern District, 
for the year 1831, was made in that year, but was rescinded in. 
* On the south-west corner of lot No. 6, north side of First street. 

Old Eastern District. 67 

January, 1832, because the funds of the district were very 
much in arrears. It is, however, interesting as showing the 
probable annual expenditure of the district fifty-six years ago: 
s. d. 

The Sheriff s Department 280 o o 
The Clerk of the Peace 139 1 1 o s d 

Roads and Bridges 
Cornwall and Roxborough 67 o o 
Osnabruck and Finch 37 10 o 
Williamsburg and Winchester 27 10 o 
Matilda 21 10 o 
.Mountain 6 10 o 
CharloUenburgh 65 o o 
Lancaster 32 10 o 


Kenyon 15 o o 

Lochiel 27 10 o 

Four per cent, on ^"1080.0.0 to the Treasurer 




Four per cent, to the Treasurer for money paid into his 

hands as tax of unoccupied lands 




To the Treasurer for an account of lands on which the 

assessment is eight years in arrear 







Five per cent, to Collectors 




.Seven per cent, to Assessors. 




Surveyor of roads for County of Glengarry. , 




" lands " " 




roads " Stormont 








" lands 




Rates that cannot be collected . . 




Other necessary charges 




Towards erecting a gaol and court-house, under authority 

of the Act passed i ;th February, 1827 




1620 o o 

The rate was fixed at I *^d. in the pound. 

The Clerk of the Peace was directed to get a copy of the 
Provincial Statutes printed at Kingston by Messrs. Thompson 
and McFarlane. 

On the 25th of January, 1832, a grant of 10.0.0 was 
made to Guy C. Wood, towards the purchase of a fire engine, 

68 Lunenburgh, or the 

to be kept in the Town of Cornwall, for the safety and protec 
tion of all buildings therein, both public and private. 

At this court, one prisoner, convicted of larceny, was 
sentenced to be imprisoned and to pay a fine of is. Two 
others (young lads) were, for a similar offence, sentenced to 
receive thirty-nine lashes each and to be imprisoned fourteen 


On the 26th of April, 1833, the magistrates sent a memo 
rial to the Lieutenant-Governor, praying that the license of 
occupation granted to John Gibson, for lot number 16, on the 
south side of Water street, be rescinded, as the building which 
Gibson intended to put up f on that lot would be a serious 
injury to the court-house ; Gibson to be paid by the magis 
trates for the frame he had put up. 

The building containing the new gaol and court-house 
was finished in the summer of 1833, and the Court of Assize, 
Nisi Prius and Oyer and Terminer, was held in the new court 
room for the first time in August or September of that year. 
The building cost the district 5500.0.0.* 

On January 3Oth, 1834, the Gaoler s salary was fixed at 

125.0.0 a year. 

In April, 1835, an order was made that a Court of 
quests be held at St. Andrews. 

In May, 1835, His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor 
was requested by the magistrates to cause Regular troops to 
be stationed in the vicinity of the works in progress on the 
line of the St. Lawrence canal, to aid the civil power in case 
of emergency. This request was complied with in 1836, after 
the murder of Mr. Albert French. A building was put up at 
the west side of the gaol and court-house, which was occupied 
for a few months by a company of the I5th Regiment, under 
Captain Brouncker. 

The author, then a school boy, saw the flogging administered at the corner 
of Pitt and Fourth streets. 

t He intended it for a tavern. 

\ The author was the first witness sworn in this court-room, and the last Judge 
who held court in it before it was altered in 1885. 

Old Eastern District. 69 

On the 2nd of May, 1835, a volunteer fire company was 
formed. The names of the members entered in the records of 
the Court of Quarter Sessions* are : 

1 Walter Colquhoun, 15 William M. Park, 

2 Alex r McDougall. 16 Josephus Bailey, 

3 John Carter, 17 Geo. S. Jarvis. 

4 Patrick Loughry, 18 Del. McDonell, 

5 James Loney, 19 Thos. Marshall, 
t 6 Geo. M. Crysler, 20 Charles McGill, 

7 D. W. B. McAuley, 21 Robert S. Murray. 

8 John Butter, 22 Richard McConnell, 

9 G. A. Mas^on, 23 Duncan McDonell, 

10 Geo. McDonell, t 24 Alex. McDonell (Greenfield), 
t n J. F. Pringle, 25 Angus McDonell, 

12 Vincent Masson, 26 Thomas Spink, 

13 Samuel Hart, 27 Andrew McKay, 

14 John Walker, 28 Thomas Palin. 

In 1834, the town was incorporated. 

On July 1 7th, 1835, David Jones, Judge of the District 
Court, became Chairman of the Quarter Sessions. 

On the 5th of January, 1836, the court issued rules and 
regulations for the innkeepers in the Eastern District. It is 
not necessary to give them in full, but it may be interesting to 
know what was the minimum of accommodation required for 
travellers. Rule No. i provided " that every person keeping 
an inn within the Eastern District must have a comfortable 
sitting-room and bed-room, and at least two good, clean beds, 
for the use of travellers, and be ready at the shortest notice to 
furnish a good, substantial breakfast, dinner or supper." For 
many years the average number of inns in the town was nine. 
The licenses were issued by the magistrates at a special meet 
ing of the Sessions, at which all the innkeepers in the district 
attended. For a good many years the court for receiving 
applications and issuing licenses was held on the 5th day of 

* Under authority of Geo. IV, 1X20. 

t Only three of the company were living in 1888 J. K. I ringle. Alex. Mc- 
Donell and ( ie<>. M. < rysler. 

70 Lunenburgh, or the 

In the autumn of 1836, the Sheriff, D. McDonell, was. 
paid 3 1. 1 7.2, expenses incurred in the execution of Michael 

In this year the following sums were paid out of the dis 
trict funds to the returning officers who held the elections in 

the county and town constituencies : 

s. d. 

James Pringle, Stormont 24 10 o 

Geo. Anderson, Glengarry 24 13 4 

Guy C. Wood, Town 4 i 

James McDonell, Dundas 6 5 o 

In the fall of 1837, the rebellion broke out. In the fol 
lowing year, an order was made that the gaol and court-house 
might be used for military purposes, when so ordered by the 

In October, 1839, an order was made, authorizing the 
surveying and establishing of the eastern line of the Town 
ships of Cornwall and Roxborough, which had never been 
properly defined, owing, it is supposed, to some local attrac 
tion which affected the compass. James West, P. L. S., was 
appointed to make the new survey. He completed it satis 
factorily, and made a map, which was filed either in the office 
of the Clerk of the Peace or of the Registrar for the County 
of Stormont. 

In i84i,f the District Councils were established, and the 
Courts of General Quarter Sessions were relieved from the 
management of the finances, the county property, roads and 
bridges, etc., etc., etc., and were limited to the work of a 
court of criminal jurisdiction. 

* Executed for the murder of Albert French. 

t By Statute 4 and 5 Vic., Chap. 10, passed loth August, 1841, which came 
into force 1st January, 1842. 

Old Eastern District. 71 


The following is a list of the patents issued for town lots 
up to the close of 1810 : 

Aaron Brown 15, South ist Street I7th Oct., 1803 

John Vankoughnet 13, North Water " 1804 

John Mosely 20, South 2nd Street 

Christopher Empey I, South Water Street 

Cornelius Munro 13, South 2nd 

Michael Yankoughnet 9, North 1st 

Walter B. Wilkinson 20, 

Donald McAuley 16, North 2nd " 

Christopher Courlier 17 and 1 8, South Water Street 

John Godfrey Flagh 27, North 2nd Street 1806 

Neil McLean 17, North " " 1807 

Rev. John Strachan 18, South " " 1808 

Jane Kay 14, North " " 

Margaret Bruce 14, South 1st " 

Wm. Bruce 11 and 12, North ist Street 

John Kay 14 and 15, North Water Street 

Charles Clarke 9, South 2nd Street " 

Donald McAulay 16, South 3rd Street 

Nathaniel Morton 10, North 1st " 

Aaron Brown 16, South ist " 1809 

W. I ,. Wilkinson W 1-2 13 4-5 14, North 1st Street 

do 14, South 2nd Street 

John Robert Small 7, North Water " 

Margaret Bruce 13, South 1st " 

John Anderson 18, North 2nd " 

(or 3 Concession on river). 

John Yankoughnet ]/ 2 13 and 14, South Water Street 

Nancy Shannon q. North Water Street 

Joshua V. Cozens 13, North 2nd Street 

Daniel Algier 16, North 3rd Street 

John Fulton 12, North Water Street 

Nathaniel Norton 16, North 4th 

Michael Yankoughnet 10, South 1st 

Jeremiah French 23, North 2nd 1810 

72 Lunenbuigh, or the 

Timothy Johnson 22, North 2nd Street 1810 

do 22, South 2nd " 

David Johnson 15, South 3rd 

(6th range on South side 3rd Street) 

Joseph Emerson 12, South 2nd Street 

Abraham Marsh 24, North " 

Thos. Swan 19. South " 

Mary Talbert 26, North " 

Simon Fraser 7, North 1st Street 

Catherine Valentine 21, South 2nd " 

Erastus Hanshett 8, North ist 

According to this list, forty-three patents had been issued 
down to the close of 1810. Some of the lots patented were 
not built upon, and several lots that were built upon and occu 
pied by families were not patented until many years later. 
It is difficult therefore to form any accurate idea of the popu 
lation of the town at the end of the first twenty-five years 
of its existence, probably it did not exceed three or four hun 
dred persons in all. For several years the Townships of Corn 
wall and Roxborough, and the Town of Cornwall, were 
assessed together ; a general abstract of the assessment rolls 
for the district was made each year beginning with 1815, and 
continuing down to 1850 ; these abstracts with the exception 
of those for the years 1818, 1820, 1821, 1823 and 1824, are in 
the office of the Clerk of the Peace, and from them can be as 
certained the number of town lots assessed from year to year. 
In the abstract for 1815, the number of the persons 
assessed is given at 298 for the Townships of Cornwall and 
Roxborough and the town. The number of town lots assessec 
is given at 73. Taking the proportion of those assessed to the 
whole population as one to eight, * the total population of the 
two townships and the town was 2384 in 1815, and allowing 
one family to every two of the 73 town lots assessed the pop 
ulation of the town was 296. 

The following extract from the general abstracts, shows 
the number of town lots assessed in each of the years given ir 

* As given by Gourley, Vol. I, p. 139, of his work. The author thinks tin 
proportion of one to six would be more correct in the earlier years of the settlement 

Old Eastern District. 73 

the margin, and enables the reader to see how gradually the 
old town grew in the first sixty years of its existence : 

No. OF 

No. OF 

No. OF 













.- 195 

1842 . 



.. 92 




. 214 


.. 90 


. . 212 

1844 . 

. 252 






. 287 





1846 . 

. 288 




.. 215 


. 308 


.. 142 


.. 227 

1848 . 






1849 . 



.. 194 



1850 . 



. . 219 






.. 230 

In the abstract for 1850, the town is given separately from 
the townships. The particulars of the town assessment are as 
follows : 

Number of housts of timber squared or hewed on two sides, one>torev, 14 

Frame houses under two storeys, 167 

Brick or stone houses, one storey, 6 

" Frame, brick or stone houses, two storeys, - 25 

Mills run by water, - 2 

Merchants shops, 1 1 

Carriages kept for pleasure, I 

". Waggons kept for pleasure, - II 

Valuation of property, ^24,212.0.0, $96,848.00. 

.Wessment id. in the ^I.O.O. .100.17.8. 

( >nr-ei^lith of a peniu lor lunatic asylum, /. 12. 12.2. 

School rate, ,31.0.0. 

For the three counties of Stormont, Dundas and Glen 
garry, the number of names given in McNiff s ma]), in Nov. 
1786, is 966, vi/. : 

Lunenburgh, or the 

In the Lake Township, (Lancaster) 69 

In Township No. I, (Charlottenburg) 261 
" 2, (Cornwall) - - 310 

" "3, (Osnabruck) - 129 

" "4, (Williamsburg) 92 

" 5, (Matilda) 105 


The whole number of persons assessed in 18 15, as given 
in the abstract for that year, is 1 592, viz : 

Lancaster, * 296 

Charlottenburg, - 494 

Cornwall and Roxborough, including the town. 298 

Osnabruck - - 216 

Finch, 15 

Williamsburg, - J 34 

Matilda, 1 1 r 


Taking the proportion at one in eight, the population of 
the United Counties of Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry, was 
about 12,736, in the latter year. 

The town plot, a square mile of unbroken forest, could 
not have had a very inviting appearance to the first settlers, 
and very few would see much prospect of advantage in settling 
on a town lot. No doubt several years elapsed before all the 
town lots were cleared of trees. At the time when the author s 
recollection of the place begins, (about 1824-25), very few trees 
were left of the original forest, and most of the stumps of the 
hard wood trees had disappeared. 

The low land, particularly that on the east and west sides 
of Pitt Street, through which Flyf creek runs, was swamp, cov 
ered with small willows and alder brush, and apparently 
useless for either building or cultivation. 

* Lancaster then included Lochiel ; Charlottenburg, Kenyon ; and Williams- 
burgh, Winchester. 

+ Quere " Vlei," a creek. 

Old Eastern District. 75 


Before giving the author s personal recollections of 

Cornwall, a slight sketch of the events of the war of 

1812, so far as they concern the town and district, may be 

fitly introduced. The general history of the war has often 

been given, and need not be repeated here. 

The declaration of war having been issued by the United 
States Government in June, 1812, the flank companies* of the 
militia in the Eastern District were called out and put under 
a course of drill and instruction. Some of these companies 
were stationed in the town under the command of Col. Neil 
McLean. The court-house and gaol were used for barracks, 
and a magazine for artillery stores and an hospital for the sick 
were established. Guards and picquets were stationed at dif 
ferent points above and below the town. One guard was 
placed on Captain Joseph Anderson s farm, No. 18, in the ist 
concession of Cornwall. A guard of American Militia was sta 
tioned at Massena Point, on the opposite side of the river. The 
two guards used to amuse themselves and waste the amunition 
of their respective governments, by firing across the river. 
This was continued without injury for a while. At last one of 
the Americans was wounded. This seemed to have a de 
pressing effect on his comrades, and thenceforward the firing 
ceased. A guard was also stationed at Glengarry Point, at 
the stone house,-f built by Captain Alexander McDonell. 

The brunt of the war was directed against the western 
portion of Upper Canada and the country south of Montreal. 

* Flank Companies The Grenadier Company and Light Infantry Company 
of each regiment ; the first being the company on the right flank, the second that 
on the left flank of each battalion. 

t This was the first stone house built in the district. It was, unfortunately, 
burned in the winter of 1813 or 1814. The ruins of it are still standing. 

76 Lunenburgh, or the 

In each of these quarters the Canadians showed that they 
were not only willing but able to defend the country. The 
capture of General Hull and his army at Detroit, by General 
Brock, and the success of the Canadians at Queenstown, 
Lundy s Lane, Lacolle, Chateauguay, and other places, proved 
that the conquest of Canada was by no means an easy task. 
No American invader set foot in Cornwall until the autumn 
of 1813, when General Wilkinson attempted to take his army 
down the St. Lawrence to attack Montreal. On Sunday, 
the 8th Nov., 1813, his flotilla of boats, about three hundred in 
number, having on board nearly 10,000 men, appeared west of 
Point Iroquois. It was fired on by the picquet of Militia, 
(about a dozen men), among whom were Jacob and Peter 
Brouse. The firing aroused a small party of about 200 men 
of the Dundas Militia, who also fired, but were compelled to 
retreat to the woods on the landing of a portion of Wilkinson s 
force at Jacob Brouse s farm. This party remained on shore 
below Iroquois until Tuesday, when Wilkinson, alarmed by a 
report that a force was coming down the river to attack him, 
re-embarked his men and proceeded down the river, passed the 
rapid Plat, and halted at the lower limit of Williamsburg, 
where he made preparations to pass the Long Sault rapid. 
On the same day he was reinforced from the American side 
by General Brown, with 3,000 men, including some cavalry, 
whom he sent with a portion of his own army by land, to take 
possession of the Government stores at Cornwall. 

Brown s march was opposed at Hoople s Creek by about 
1,300 Glengarry Militia, under Major Dennis, who did not 
venture to risk an engagement, as his men were badly armed, 
and undisciplined ; after exchanging a few volleys with the 
enemy he retired into the interior, and Brown pushed on 
towards Cornwall, his boats ran the rapids and lay at the foot 
of Barnhart s Island, and in the bay in front of lot 18, in the 
1st Concession of Cornwall. 

Before Brown got to Cornwall, the Government stores- 

See Croil s Dundas. 

Old Eastern District. 77 

had all been removed by the \vay of St. Andrews and Martin- 
town to Coteau du Lac. Brown s brigade occupied the 
front of lots 17, 18 and 19,* in the first concession of Cornwall, 
until the afternoon of the I2th. The officers took possession 
of the farm houses, the men bivouacked in the fields. They 
helped themselves to the contents of the barns and granaries, 
and to all the provisions they could lay their hands on ; every 
stick of fence on the farms was burned, and diligent search 
was made for any valuables that might have been concealed 
in cellars or gardens. Mrs. Anderson s winter stock of pre 
serves had been carefully hidden in one of the garden beds, 
but it was discovered by some of the enemy, who prodded 
the ground with their iron ramrods. Fortunately, the good 
lady s small stock of plate and jewelry was more successfully 

All the men able to bear arms were with the militia, and 
none but women and children remained in the houses. Those 
of them with whom the author has conversed on the subject 
of the invasion, have told him that the American troops 
looked very little like soldiers there was neither drill nor 
discipline among them. The officers seemed to command 
neither respect nor obedience from the men, most of whom 
appeared more anxious to get home than to fight. They 
were, however, civil and quiet, and no insult either by word <>r 
act was otlered to any of the inmates of the houses, though 
the intention to destroy the town as well as the farm hou-< 
before the advance to Montreal was continued, was freely ex 
pressed by both officers and men. The town was \isited by 
several parties and the few stores in it were patronixed in a 
way that did not add much to the profits of the owners. 

On the nth of November, the battle of Cryslcr s Farm 

was fought between the British force- of about uoo men, under 

ionel Morrison, and a portion of Wilkinson s army, between 

v> and 3,000 strong, under ( ieneral ( "o\ ington. The- British 

Phese were .>\\>u-c|. iv-,|Hrii\ rl\. by John IV. h Amii-r- 

.id Ili-nrv 

78 LunenlmtgJi, or the 

gained a complete victory, and the Americans retreated, with 
a loss of about 93 killed and 237 wounded, among whom was 
General Covington.* Every cannon shot fired at Crysler s 
farm was heard by Brown s force at the Anderson farm, and 
much they exulted, exclaiming as each report was heard : 
" Now the Britishers are catching it." On the morning of the 
1 2th a different talc was told, when the boats with the retreat 
ing Americans came down the river and some of the wounded 
were landed. General Brown, alarmed by the news of the 
defeat, hurriedly embarked his brigade and retreated to Salmon 
River. Cornwall was saved from the destruction threatened 
by the enemy, and no further attempt was made against the 

The victory at Crysler s Farm over Wilkinson, and that 
at Chateauguay under De Salaberry over General Hampton s 
force, completely broke up the well conceived plan of the 
Americans for the capture of Montreal. 

In February, 1814, Colonel Pearson with a force of 500 
men went from Cornwall to Salmon River-f- across the ice, 
burned the boats left there by General Wilkinson, and ad 
vanced to Malone, where he captured and brought away a 
large quantity of Government stores left by General Brown, 
and destroyed all that could not be removed. 

Previous to the battle of Crysler s Farm, several attempts 
were made by the Americans to capture the brigades of boats 
in which Government stores and goods were being conveyed 
from Montreal to Kingston. They succeeded once only ; all 

*The British troops engaged were a portion of the 49th and 8gth Regiments of 
the line, the crews of three gunboats, a company of the Canadian Fencibles under 
Lieut. De Lorimier, part of a troop of Provincial Dragoons under Capt. R. D. 
Fraser, some companies of the Canadian Voltigeurs under Major Ileriot, a party 
of Militia under Lieut. Samuel Adams, and about thirty Indian warriors under 
Lieut. Anderson. Major Henry Merkley, of the Dundas Militia, and Captain 
Kerr, of the Incorporated Militia, attended with the troops and were of great ser 
vice in the field. Captain Nairn and Knsien Clause, of the 49th, and Lieutenant 
De Lorimier, of the Canadian Fencibles, were killed. 

t Now called Fort Covington, from deneral Covington, killed at Crysler s 

Old Eastern District. 79 

their other attempts were baffled by the vigilance of Colonel 
Pearson and the Dundas Militia.* 

When General Brown and his brigade were attacked at 
Hoople s Creek by the Militia, several of the Americans were 
Abounded. One, who was severe!} injured, was left near the 
house of an old ladyf- on the bank of the creek. She and her 
servant girl (the only inmates of the house) brought the 
wounded man in and took care of him. The old lady attend 
ed to him like a mother, scolded him soundly in German if he 
did not do as she wished, nursed him till he died, and then 
had him decently buried. Some years after his death she told 
a friend * that she had dreamt that she had gone to look at 
the soldier s grave and had found on it a very fine hill of 
potatoes. Her friend interpreted her dream, and without 
telling her his interpretation, represented the facts to the 
American Government, with such good effect that she got the 
sum of $600.00 from the authorities at Washington. 

During the war several companies of Militia garrisoned 
the town. There were also some Regular troops, among whom 
was the joth Regiment, which was stationed in the town for 
some time before and after the close of the war. Occasionally 
a party of sailors would pass up from Montreal to join the 
men-of-war on the lakes. Cornwall was one of their stopping 
places, and they generally made the town lively during their 
stay. The\- appeared to consider themselves at liberty to take 
whatever fruit or vegetables the}- wanted, and the- proprietor 
was wise who gave the products of his garden or orchard 
freely and willingly, and so prevented them from helping 
themselves. One night some of the sailors got several water 
melons ; the next night the}- wished to have another feast, 
but, unfortunately for themselves, took a lot of pumpkins in 
stead of melons. Another part}- killed and supped upon a 
young animal, which they supposed to be a calf, but which 

* ( roil .s Dundas. 

I Mi-, llnoplc. 

; The late Dr. A.vhil.ald. 

8o Luiicnburgh, or the 

was in reality a colt, a fact which the Jack Tars dis 
covered on examining the hoofs the next morning. Some 
wise man in authority put a number of troop horses, captured 
from the Americans, in charge of a party of sailors, to be taken 
up the country to Kingston. Very few of the horses reached 
their destination, the sailors having ridden most of them to. 

Old Eastern District. 81 


Those who recollect what the town was sixtv vears ai>r> 

* * i!"} 

would describe it as consisting of a few scattered buildings 
and a large expanse of cleared, but for the most part, unen 
closed and uncultivated lots. This is the recollection the 
author has of its appearance in 1824. Among the buildings 
at that time the most noticeable were the English Church, the 
old District School-house, and the Gaol and Court-house. 

The church stood until 1876. It had been somewhat 
altered, and had been removed from its original site, but the 
south side did not differ much in appearance from what it was 
half a century earlier. It was a plain wooden building, with a 
square tower at the west end, surmounted by a tin-covered 
spire. The outside was painted white ; the inside . sixty years 
ago) was guiltless of paint, and so remained for main- yeans. 
There was no vestry, and the clergyman, changed his vest 
ments from surplice to gown in the presence of the congrega 
tion.* The reading desks were arranged very differently from 
those of modern churches. There was, first, the desk for the 
clerk a small, square enclosure, raised a step or two from the 
floor. Immediately behind this was the desk from which the 
clergyman read the service ; it was shaped like the clerk s desk, 
and was raised two or three steps higher. Behind this was the 
pulpit, the like of which is to be seen in very few modern 
churches. It looked very much like a goblet, and consisted of 
a pillar six or seven feet in height; on the top of this was the 
pulpit, to which the preacher ascended by a narrow, winding 
stair. Over the pulpit was the sounding-board, suspended 
from the ceiling by a stout iron rod. No doubt many a 

* In ihnso days the rK-i^yman \sniv ;> \shiu- surplice when reading ih 
and ;i black I^O-.MI \\hen preaching. 

82 Lunenburgh, or the 

youngster wondered what would happen to his reverence if 
the rod should break and the sounding-board fall. The pews 
were straight-backed, uncomfortable boxes, some square, some 
oblong, uncushioned, uncarpeted, and unadorned even by paint 
or varnish. They were finished in a manner that the author 
has never seen in any other church. A space about a foot in 
width was left below the top rail, in which were placed small 
turned rods of pine, like miniature balustrades. Many of 
them being loose, the temptation to turn them around was 
irresistable to the youngsters, and occasionally a loud squeak 
would be heard, to the annoyance of the preacher and the 
congregation, and the confusion of the culprit. 

The District School-house was built about 1808, and is. 
still standing on the original site, very little changed in ap 
pearance. The Gaol and Court-house was a two-storey 
wooden building gaunt, unpainted, and weather beaten. 
The court-room in the second storey was small and incon 
venient. This building was burned in the winter of 1826. 

Of the other buildings in the town, as they were a little 
more than sixty years ago,* the following is as accurate a 
description as can be given in the present day. 

Taking the streets in succession from Water street north 
wards, and beginning at the east end of Water street, on the 
north side, there were the following buildings : A log house on 
the south-east corner of lot number I, the market house built 
on lots 10 and u, William Duesler s house on lot 12, a house 
on lot I4,f the stage stables on lot 15, the gaol and court 
house on lot 1 6, on lot 17 a low wooden building occupied as 
a bakery by a German named Serendach (this house was 
pulled down three or four years ago), a dwelling house on lot 
1 8, which was burned in 1881 ; a brick house on lot 22, which 
now forms part of the dwelling house owned by the late 
Honorable J. S. Macdonald. 

in 1824-25. 

+ The late \Y. .M. Park, watchmaker, commenced business in this house 
about 1820. 

Old Eastern District. 83 

On the south side of Water street, there was a house on 
lot number I, which is still standing ; a house on lot 10, 
Colonel the Honorable P. Vankoughnet s dwelling house on 
lot 15, Gibson s tavern on lot 16, and H. Cryderman s house 
on lot 19. The lots on the south side of Water street, from 
number 8 westward, were taken into the canal when that was 
constructed in 1834-35. 

On the south side of First street, the dwelling house of 
Archibald McLean (Chief Justice McLean) stood on lot 8, 
that of Michael Vankoughnet on lot 10 (part of the house is 
still standing), a log house on lot 14, and also the frame build 
ing occupied by D. Carpenter. A frame building, with a log 
building attached to it, stood on the north-west corner of lot 
15 ; these buildings, known for a while as " Sebastopol," were 
pulled down a few years ago. A small frame house, used as a 
grocer}-, stood on the north-east corner of lot 16 ; * there were 
two other small houses fronting on Pitt street on the same 
lot. John Chesley s inn was on the corner of lot 18 ; the frame of 
this house was afterwards moved a few feet to the east, bricked 
up and made into a dwelling house, now owned by Sheriff 
Mclntyre. An unfinished house stood on lot 22, another on 
lot 23, and a rough-cast house on lot 27. 

On the north side of First street, on lot 6 stood a small 
frame building, used as an office by Archibald McLean up to 
1837, when he was raised to the Bench ; a frame building 
(still standing) on lot 8, a frame building on the south-east 
corner of lot 10 (this has been improved and enlarged), a log 
building on lot 11, belonging to Mrs. Bruce. The store of G. 
C. Wood stood on lot 13 ; the post office was kept in this 
building for many years. (The present postmaster, Geo. Mc- 
Donell, removed this house to lot 15, north of Second street, 
and added a second storey to it.) The brick building snow 
the Commercial Hotel) on the east half of lot 14, was erected 
by G. C. Wood for a dwelling house, in place of the log house 

* The Commercial Hou-1 \\as built on that corner about 1834, and \\as burned 
in the winter of 1884. 

84 Luncnburgh, or the 

put up when the town was first settled. On the west half of 
14 was the inn of Thomas Marshall (pulled down in 1883 and 
replaced by a block of brick stores by Win. Warrington.) 
Peter Chesley s store stood on the south-west corner of lot 15, 
and P. Vankoughnet s store (a stone building) on the south 
east corner of lot 1 6 (this was burned in 1884, and Liddell s 
block built in its place.) On lot 17 or iS stood a long log- 
building, owned by Mr. McBean ; it was one of the first houses 
built in the town. H. Pitts house stood on the south-east 
corner of lot 22, and two or three houses on lots 24, 26 
and 27. James Pringle built his dwelling house on lot 21 in 
i 826. 

On the south side of Second street, there were no houses 
east of lot 15. On this lot stood the old Presbyterian Church, 
built about 1787, near the place where the building of J. T. 
Smart now stands. The frame of old St. John s Church was put 
up about 1823-4, and the building was finished about two 
years after. There were three or four buildings fronting Pitt 
street on lot 16, between Second and First streets,* one of 
which was owned by Mrs. Janet Miller. The dwelling house 
and store of Wm. Matticc were erected on the north-east 
corner of 16. On lot 17 were the dwelling houses and stores 
of Wm. Cline and S. V. Chesley. Mr. Mattice s house and 
store were removed and a new block of buildings put up by 
Wm. Colquhoun in 1883. Wm. Cline s and S. Y. Chesley s 
stores were removed many years ago ; the dwelling houses 
still remain in good preservation, occupied respectively by 
John Mclntyre and D. B. McLennan. The District School- 
house stood, and is still standing, on lot 18 ; it was for some 
time occupied as a tenement house. It is now (1888) turned 
into a stable and carriage house. Dr. Moscley s house stood 
on lot 20 ; it was removed in 1848 to lot 15, north of Fifth 
street, where it stood until the spring of 1886 ; it was built in 
1803 or 1804. A building stood on lot 22, which was used as 

~ :: " R. II. lirown is now engaged in repairing the only remaining one <>f these 
old buildings -April, 1886. 

Old Eastern District. 85 

a military storehouse in 1812 and 1814, and a log building- 
stood on lot 27. 

On the north side of Second street, there \vas a dwelling- 
house on lot 8. The frame of the dwelling house lately occu 
pied by Win. M. Park stood on lot 9. The Common School - 
house, a small wooden building, stood on lot TO. The dwell 
ing house of J. Y. Co/.ens stood on lot 13. This building was 
renovated and improved by the Revd. J. P. Bennett, J. S. 
McDougall and (ieo. McDonell ; the latter removed it in 1885 
to lot 1 3, south Third street, and repaired it; it is likely to 
last for many years vet.* Mrs. Kay s house stood on lot 14, 
where half of it is now. On lot 15, Dr. Noah Dickinson 
erected the brick building now the American House.; This 
building was unfinished for main- years ; a portion of the 
finished part was used as a store, another as a dwelling ; a 
large room upstairs was used as the court-room from 1826 
until 1833; from 1838 until 1843, the greater part of the house 
was used as barracks for the troops stationed in the town ; after 
1843, the large room was occasionally uses! as a ball or concert 
room ; finally the building was fitted up for a hotel, and in 
creased accommodation was given by the construction of a 
mansard roof. Donald McAulav s house and store were on 


the south-east corner of lot 16 ; the house has been removed 
to the west side of the lot. R. Cline s office was built on lot 
17, where it now stands; his stone dwelling house was build 
in 1832-33, on the same lot. Alsaint Chesley s inn was built in 
1814, on lot 1 8 ; it is now fitted up and used as a tenement 
house. The English Church parsonage was built on lot 10 : a 
brick addition was put to it about 1850; the original building 
was pulled down a few years ago and a new one erected on 
the old foundation. The old Knglish Church stood on lot 20; 
the present church is built on the same site. Henry Wagner s 
inn stood on lot 22 ; Nicholas Harnhart s house , a tall, ghostly 
frame building, stood on lot 25 ; Talbert s hou>e <>n lot 26, and 

* Tin- rr) HI irs arc so threat, thai little in>iv tlinii the franu- of the 

86 Lunenburgh, or the 

Tracey s on lot 27. The latter, changed into three tenements,., 
is still in existence. 

On the south side of Third street, there was a house on 
lot 7, owned by Richard McConnell, and the brick building 
owned by Geo. S. Jarvis on lot 18. On the north side, Stal- 
meyer s house stood on lot 14 ; L. McDonald s house and 
store on the south-west corner of lot 15 (this building was 
pulled down in 1882 and a brick dwelling house erected.) 
Alex. McDonell s inn and Sheriff McDonell s dwelling house 
were on the north end of the same lot, fronting Pitt street. 
Dr. Noah Dickinson s house stood on the south-east corner of 
No. 1 6. There was a house on lot 18, one on lot 19, and one 
or two further west. 

On Fourth street, there were very few buildings. The 
house erected by Alexander Wilkinson is still standing on lot 
15, on the north side. The old Roman Catholic Church, then 
unfinished, stood on lot 17, on the north side. There was a 
small house on lot 17 or 18, on the south side, which was used 
as a temporary gaol from 1826 until 1833. There was an old 
building on lot 21, on the south side, and another, occupied 
by the mother of the well-known John Baker and her family, 
stood on lot 22, on the south side. 

On Pitt street, north of Fourth street, there were a few 
houses, of which there are still standing one on the north-east 
corner of 16, south of Eighth, and one on the north-east 
corner of 16, south of Ninth. 

There were very few buildings on any of the lots east 
arid west of Pitt street and north of Fourth. The greater 
number of these lots were an open common for some years 
subsequent to 1826 ; very few of them were bought from the 
Government until about 1840 or 1841. 

For several years before and after 1825, the four blocks 
(i. e., twenty-four lots) bounded on the south by Second 
street, on the north by Fourth street, on the east by Adolphus 
street, and on the west by Sidney street were used as a race 
course. The streets bounding them formed a track of about a 

Old Eastern District. 87" 

mile in length, and the only buildings to obstruct the view 
were the school-house on lot 10, the unfinished house on lot 9, 
Palin s house on lot 8, north of Second street, and McConnell s 
house on lot 7, south of Third street. The starting post was 
opposite lot 7 ; the winning post and judge s stand were on 
lot 11, north of Second street ; near them was the grand 
stand for such of the spectators as chose to pay for admission. 
The races were held annually for some years, but were finally 
given up ; the interest in them died out, very few people cared 
to subscribe for the necessary funds, and still fewer cared to 
incur the expense of keeping up horses for racing purposes. 

The aggregate of the assessment rolls for 1826 shows that 
142 town lots were assessed. As some lots were assessed that 
were not built upon, the total number of houses at that time 
could not have been much more than one hundred. 

In 1834, the town was incorporated, and the population 
having come up to 1,000, it became entitled to elect a repres 
entative in the Provincial House of Assembly. At the elec 
tion held in that year, Archibald McLean, who had repres 
ented the county for several years, was elected member for the 
town by acclamation. He served until 1836, when the House 
having been dissolved, a new election was held. Mr. Mc 
Lean was returned for the county, and George S. Jarvis for 
the town. * 

The year 1834 was an eventful one in the annals of the 
town. In addition to the incorporation and the right to elect 
a member, the construction of the Cornwall canal was begun. 
This caused a considerable increase in the population, added 
to the value of property, and led to the erection of many new 
buildings. The lots 15, north side of First street, and 15, 
south side of Second street, belonging to the congregation of 
St. John s Church, were divided into building lots, which were 
let without difficulty at a ground rent of a dollar a foot, (front- 

*Thc election for the county and town \\crc not held on tin- same day ; that 
for the county \va> held tirst. Mr. McLean \\a^ defeated in the county, and 
returned for the t<>\\n. 

88 LunenbnrgJi, or tJic 

age), then considered a very good rental. In a few months 
the lessees put up buildings on their respective lots, other 
buildings were erected in the vicinity of the works, and the 
town assumed a more prosperous and business-like appearance. 
From that date it increased steadily though slowly, the 
population in 1846 having increased to 1,600. The Avooden 
buildings on the St. John s Church property were all pulled 
down at the expiration of the first term of the leases, and brick 
ones erected in their stead. These were considered very good 
thirty years ago, but are now plain and commonplace in com 
parison with the handsome blocks put up in the last three or 
four along Pitt street. 

Old Eastern District. 89 


It would amaze many of the present generation if they 
could see the mode of life of the settlers one hundred years 
ago. There is very little in modern days that can give an 
idea of it. The only knowledge that can be got now on the 
subject must be derived from the few sources of information, 
traditionary or written, that have come down to our times. 

The first thing the settler had to provide was shelter ; 
after this was obtained, as already stated, the next thing to 
be done was to provide means of living. One of the neces 
saries of life was not wanting. If provisions were scarce, fuel 
was abundant. Kach tree of the forest was an enemy to be 
attacked and got rid of as soon as possible. If it was not fit 
for making square timber it was burned, as it could not be 
sold except as timber or ashes. The more wood a man could 
burn, the larger would be the space of cleared land for culti 
vation, and the greater would be the quantity of ashes for sale 
to the potash manufacturer. 

The fire-places in the primitive houses were large and 
amply supplied with wood, the making up of a fire was no 
small labour. A log at least six feet in length, and 12 or 14 
inches in diameter, was rolled into the back of the fire place. 
The coals of fire and the unburned ends of sticks that had 
been pushed to one side as the back log was pushed or rolled 
into its place, were raked forward and put together in front ot 
it ; several sticks as long as the back log, but not so thick, 
were placed o\ er them, and a fire was made with a quantity 
of fuel that would last a modern family a week. At night the 
embers were carefully covered with ashes to keep live coa^ 
->o that the fire could be easily -Parted in the morning. 
If the ( OH]S had all died out in the night, the fire 

cjo Lumnburgh, or tJie 

could be started only by using the flint, steel and 
tinder, or by getting burning coals from a neighbour. 
Matches were not known in those days, nor for 
nearly forty years later.* The author first saw matches about 
1823 or 1824; they were in one compartment of a tin box, 
another compartment held a phial containing phosphorous, 
a third had a taper. The matches coated on one end with 
sulphur, were lighted by being dipped into the phosphorous. 
This box of matches was shown as a great curiosity, until one 
nervous individual, startled by the sudden flash of fire from 
the phial, dropped the lighted match among the rest and 
burned them all. 

Cooking was done by the open fire, the pots for boiling 
were hung by pot hooks to an iron crane fitted into the chim 
ney in such a way that it would swing in or out. Joints for 
roasting were put on a spit so arranged that it could be turned 
while the meat was at the fire ; sometimes the roast was sus 
pended by a string. Baking was done in a brick or stone 
oven built beside the fire-place, or in some cases outside of 
the house. Cooking stoves were not known in the old days. 
The stoves used were large box stoves made at Three Rivers. 
Some of them had an oven on the top, in which some cooking 
might be done, or at any rate, plates and other things could 
be kept warm. The Three Rivers stoves were made of good 
metal, the plates were thick and retained the heat for a long 
time even in the coldest nights. None of the houses of the 
olden time had any of the modern appliances for keeping out 
the cold blasts of winter ; there were neither double doors nor 
double windows. 

The first house in Cornwall that was supplied with double 
windows was that of Guy C. Wood,f in which they were placed 
in 1830. The need of them was not so much felt then as it is 
now, firewood was abundant and cheap, those of the towns- 

* Carrying fire from a neighbours had to be done in a hurry, so it was usual to 
say to one who made a hurried visit : "Why you must have come for tin-. 
tOn lot 14, north side of First street. 

Old Eastern District. 91 

people who had bush lots got it for the cutting and drawing, 
the rest could buy it for sixty or eighty cents a cord, and get 
a man at fifty cents a day to cut it. In those days a cord of 
wood was much nearer its proper dimensions than it is at the 
present time. " The light of other days," so far as artificial 
illumination was concerned, was not brilliant. Gas had not 
been discovered, and if it had, the inhabitants of upper Can 
adian forests could not have used it. Coal oil was unknown, 
no one having as yet " struck ile." The people had to content 
themselves with tallow candles, sometimes in the form of 
" moulds," but most frequently in that of " dips." The for 
mer could be more easily made, the latter were more durable. 
The making of candles was part of the house-wife s autumn 
work. If dips were to be made a number of small sticks 
were prepared, on each one were hung several wicks of cotton 
yarn, the tallow was melted in a large iron pot at the open 
fire, into it the wicks suspended on the rods were dipped ; as 
each set of wicks was taken out of the tallow, the stick from 
which they were suspended was placed on a small frame so 
that the coating of tallow taken by each wick might harden ; 
by the time the last of a dozen sets of wicks had been dipped, 
the first was sufficiently hardened to ^>e dipped again, and so 
the process went on until all the wicks had taken up a suf 
ficient quantity of tallow. The mould candles were made in 
a tin frame, having moulds for six or a dozen candles. The 
wicks were drawn through the tin moulds and properly 
secured at each end, and the tallow was poured in and set to 
cool. Two candles at the utmost were considered enough for 
a part\- of four or five to work or read by ; as the candles had 
to be snuffed about every five minutes, a pair of snuffers and 
a tray were considered necessary in polite society some per 
sons dispensed with these articles of table furniture and 
snuffed the candle with a pair of scissors or with the fingers. 
There was not much opportunity for extravagance in dress, 
home-made cloths and woollens were the ordinarv wear of the 


majority both of men and women. Sometimes on state occa- 

o,2 Lunenburgk, or the 

sions, those \vho could manage to do so appeared in clothing 
of more fashionable material ; some of the women in silks, 
some of the men in broad-cloth, of whatever colour suited the 
taste of the wearer, the black dress suit not being prescribed 
by the rigid laws of fashion.* When the farmer kept sheep, the 
women of the family attended to the carding and spinning of 
the wool. Some used a large spinning wheel which was set in 
motion by the hand, the spinner walking backwards and for 
wards with the thread while the wheel \\as turning. Others 
used the small wheel, turning it with the foot and sitting 
cosily by the fire while they spun through the long winter 
evenings. The yarn was handed over to the weaver, who 
with a hand-loom wove it into cloth or blankets ; the cloth was 
made into garments sometimes by the tailor, sometimes by the 
guid wife and her daughters. Fortunately the men were not 
particular as to fit so long as comfort and durability were se 
cured. The knitting of stockings and mittens was another of 
the winter evening employments general!} attended to by the 
oldest woman of the family. 

The men who attended to their farms had few idle 
moments either in summer or winter ; seed time and harvest 
kept them busy, and th% short days of autumn and winter 
were fully occupied in threshing the grain, taking it to the 
mill or market, and getting out firewood and fence timber for 
the coming summer. There were no machines then for plant- 


ing or sowing, no mowers or reapers to lighten the work of 
harvest, and no machinery to do the threshing in a few days. 
The farmer had to cut the grass with the scythe and reap his 
grain with the sickle. The raking had to be done by hand. 
In winter, from day-light to dark, the regular beat of the flail 
would be heard on the barn floor, as the grain was threshed out, 
varied by the \vhir of the fanning mill separating the grain 
from the chaff. With all the labour there was not a little 
gaiety and social enjoyment. In the country there were husk- 

As late as fifty years ago. a dre*s coat of blue cloth with white satin skirl 

lining and embossed "ill button* was coiiM k-rcd quite correct. 

Old Eastern District. 93 

ing, quilting and apple paring bees, at which the young folks 
gathered, flirted and made love just as satisfactorily as in the 
present enlightened age. Work was by no means the sole 
object of the bee. After a reasonable devotion to duty, the 
room was cleared, the fiddler brought in, and the evening wound 
up with a dance. There were no round dances, there was not 
even the quadrille, but " hornpipes, jigs, strathspeys and reels, 
put life and metal in their heels." These with the old country 
dance satisfied our ancestors, and gave as much enjoyment as 
the present style can. The music was not of the best, but it 
answered the purpose, and the people were not critical. The 
author recollects a one legged negro fiddler, known as " Black 
Jim," who was the musician for the fashionable parties in 
Cornwall less than sixty years ago. This worthy had learned 
by ear six or seven tunes, not one of which did he play cor 
rectly or in proper time, even when sober ; and as he gener 
ally got very drunk about the " wee sma hours ayont the 
twal," the dancers had to wait for a while until he became 
comparatively restored to consciousness, or to press some 
amateur into the service. 

The fiddle was the principal musical instrument. Some 
people gave utterance to their musical fancies on the jevvs- 
harp, and amoru/ our Scottish compatriots the bag-pipe, that 
" auncicnt instrument o great melody," not only gave life and 
vigour to the dancers, but on more solemn occasions, "whustled 
mony a braw lad to his grave." The piano was scarcely 
known in this part of the country; there were three in the 
town and one in the neighbourhood, small instruments with 
spindle legs and wiry tone, generally very much out of tune. 

For many years the trade in ashes was one of the greatest 
importance to Canada. Ashes were the first saleable com 
modity that the settler got from his clearing, and he could 
get cash for them at a time when cash u as a scarce article. 
In the early days of the settlement, after the clearing had been 
chopped came the loggin- bee, when thousands of feet of pine, 


94 Lunenburgh, or the 

maple, oak and elm, were dragged into rough heaps and 
burned. A newly burned clearing is a desolate looking scene, 
but great heaps of white ashes were a welcome sight in the 
eyes of the settler there were in them the possibility of many 
purchases of necessaries, that could not otherwise be procured. 
Some of the settlers manufactured what was called black salts 
for themselves, but generally speaking, some one who kept a 
store set up a potash making establishment, which he ran in 
connection with his other business, and purchased the ashes 
brought in by his neighbours, and the black salts made by 
those who were not skilful enough or had not the means to 
make potash. The potash factory was generally built on a 
piece of waste land near a creek, the leach tubs were set in a 
row on one side of the building. Those made in old days 
were often built of bass-wood or cedar slabs, which were held 
in place at the top by firm heavy timbers framed together, and 
met in a log trough at the bottom. The filling of the leach 
tubs was a matter of great importance, straw or brush was 
placed at the bottom, on which was put a little quick lime 
with the ashes above ; a plentiful supply of water was neces 
sary, as a quantity had to be poured into each tub daily. As 
soon as the lye began to run it was gathered in buckets and 
placed in the large iron kettles, which were built into brick or 
stone arches, so that a good draught was given for the fires 
that had to be kept going beneath them day and night until 
the lye was boiled sufficiently to be poured into the moulds 
where it cooled and hardened. In the back concessions, one 
may occasionally meet with a one-horse waggon with a 
high box of rough boards of the colour of ashes. The horse 
is old and lazy, though not uncommonly fat ; the driver, an old 
ash coloured man, sits on the side of the box smoking a short 
clay pipe this is the gatherer of ashes. He does all his bar 
gaining with the women folks, for the ash heap is the good 
wife s perquisite. 

In the country many people make their own soap and use 
their ashes to make lye for that purpose. 

Old Eastern District. 95 

In 1862, there were exported from Canada 32,945 barrels 
of pot-ash, and 10,176 barrels of pearl-ash, but of late years 
new discoveries have shown that by a very simple process the 
potash necessary for the making of soap can be obtained at a 
much lower cost and of much better and purer quality, and 
the old potash business, yielding to the stern law of the survival 
of the fittest, has almost disappeared.* 

The lumber business appeared to be a very fascinating 
one, many were engaged in it either as employers or as work 
men ; the labor was hard, the winter was spent in the woods 
in rutting and hewing the timber, the spring in getting it 
rafted and taken to Quebec, where the men were paid off, 
and too frequently verified the saying about " earning their 
money like horses and spending it like asses." Large profits 
were made in favourable years, and were almost invariably 
lost in unfavourable ones, which unfortunately were by far the 
most numerous. Many persons made a good deal, but only 
those kept it who had the determination to retire from the 
business when well off. Of course the lumbering helped 
to clear the country, but it had a bad effect on agriculture, as 
the men who were engaged in the work never attended pro 
perly to their farms. The farmers who remained at home and 
worked steadily there, were the best off in the long run. Their 
farms were better cultivated, yielded a better return, and be 
came more valuable year by year, while the owners escaped 
the many excitements and temptations to which the shanty- 
man was exposed. 

Among other things that have passed away for ever, are the 
elections of old days. The last one under the old system was 
held at Moulinette, in February or March, 1841. Under the 
old regime, there was but one polling place for the county ; 
every voter had to attend at that place if he wished to record 
his vote. The proceedings began on the appointed day, which 
was generally a Monday, by the returning officer and the poll 

* Sec an article in the Montreal " Witness," August, 1886. 

Lunenburgh, or tfie 

clerk appearing on the hustings, accompanied by the candidates 
and as many of their friends as could get room. The com 
mission was read by the returning officer, the candidates were 
duly proposed and seconded, a poll was demanded, the 
speeches were rn^de to the free and independent electors who 
assembled from all parts of the county, and the voting began 
without any further delay, and was continued until Saturday 
night. The voting was viva voce, not by ballot, and many 
times in each clay was the poll clerk asked to put on a slip of 
paper the state of the poll, the announcement of which to the 
people outside the hustings was greeted with cheers by those 
whose favourite candidate was ahead, and with oaths loud and 
deep by the losing party. Each candidate had his flag (al 
ways the Union Jack), and in Stormont and Glengarry his 
piper. Each kept " open house," where his supporters wearied 
with travelling, voting, shouting and quarrelling, could refresh 
themselves. There was abundance of cold beef or ham, bread 
and cheese, rum, and in later days whiskey and beer. Some 
refreshed so often that they became overpowered, and 
some who had no votes patronized all the open houses until 
they were ignominiously turned out, and " went to bed happy 
and drunk in the street." A scene from one of the Stormont 
elections, say that of 1834, will give a fair notion of a day s 
proceedings. The hustings were erected on lot II, on the 
north side of Second street, in full view of the houses of two 
of the candidates, viz : that of Archd. McLean, on lot No. 8, 
south side of First street, and that of Dd. /E. McDonell, on lot 
No. 1 8, north side of Fourth stect. Each house was kept open 
and had all the appliances supposed to be necessary for the 
refreshment of the electors. From the hustings, one could see 
the standard bearer come out of one of these houses, bearing 
his flag and wiping his lips with the back of his hand, 
unfurled the flag and uttered a shout which brought out the 
piper, who after the preliminary skirl of the pipes, struck up 
the candidates favourite quick step* and marched off with the 

*Dcl. .!:. McDonell s was the " ; Hauyhs of Cromdale." 

Old Eastern District. 97 

bearer of the flag, followed by ten or a dozen men towards the 
hustings. Up the party came, the piper playing loudly and 
vigorously, the flag waving in the breeze, the men shouting, 
and then, after all this flourish, there would come out of the 
crowd one or two voters who, having given their votes, were 
escorted back to the open house with the same parade and 
noise, and were there duly " refreshed" after their labour. This 
performance having been gone through on behalf of one can 
didate, a similar procession appeared from the open house of 
the other. Sometimes a squabble would arise between the two 
parties, but generally speaking each one made its way back to 
its own quarters peaceably. The election would drag on in 
this way from day to day, until all possible votes having been 
polled, Saturday night brought it to a close. Then came the 
declaration by the returning officer of the result, and the chair 
ing of the successful candidates, an operation that required no 
small amount of faith and endurance on his part. 

The chair was lashed to two stout poles, which were car 
ried on the shoulders of four of the most stalwart adherents of 
the winning party, full of ardour for the cause, and sometimes 
so full of " refreshments " that their legs were by no means as 
steady as their principles. Sometimes the party chairing 
their candidate met with some of the defeated party and a 
row would ensue, but generally speaking, all passed off quietly. 
The candidates, whether successful or unsuccessful, got safely 
home, and so did their friends, and the county recovered from 
its frolic. 

The first elections in Upper Canada were held in 
1792. It is said that at the first or second election for the 
County of Stormont, the votes polled were more in number 
than the whole population of the county, men, women and 
children included. The only qualification required by a voter 
at that time was a freehold in land, of the value of at least 
forty shillings sterling a year ; it was not necessary that his 
deed should be recorded or that he should have had it in his 
possession for any specified time before the election. The 

98 Lumnburgh, or the 

candidates are said to have taken advantage of this state of 
the law, and to have made votes by the score. Each of them 
had an agent stationed at the bay below Petite Pointe Maligne, 
to capture the crews of the batteaux coming up the river, and 
to give each man of them a deed of a lot of land somewhere 
in the county, which then extended to the Ottawa River. The 
whole of them, captain and all, were then marched up to the 
polling place to record their votes for the liberal minded can 
didate who had given them their deeds. Of course the newly 
made voters were treated to meat and drink and sent on 
their way rejoicing. One of the candidates was more shrewd 
than the other. He got a supply of printed forms of deeds,, 
and thus gained a great advantage over his opponent, as the 
printed forms for a whole crew of six or seven men could be 
filled up and executed before the other party could get more 
than one deed written out. 

The scarcity of mills in the early period of the settlement 
has already been referred to. From the aggregate of the 
assessment rolls for 1815, it appears that the number of grist 
mills in the three counties was thirteen, viz : one in Lancaster,, 
five in Charlottenburg, three in Cornwall (township), two in 
Osnabruck and two in Matilda. The number of saw mills in 
the same year was fourteen, of which three were in Lancaster, 
three in Charlottenburg, four in Cornwall, three in Osnabruck, 
and one in Matilda. All these mills were driven by water- 

If the appliances for providing bread for bodily susten 
ance were slowly developed, those for furnishing food for the 
mind were equally tardy.* In 1810, there were five news 
papers in Canada, all of which were published in Quebec or 
Montreal. The " Gazette," "Mercury and "Canadian," in 
Quebec, and the " Gazette " and " Courant," in Montreal. A 
few years later the publication of newspapers began in York 
and Kingston. The official paper, "The Upper Canada 

* Smith s Canada, past, present and future. 

Old Eastern District. 99 

Gazette," was for many years published as part of a weekly 
general newspaper.* 

About 1830, a printing press was brought to Cornwall, 
and a weekly paper, u The Cornwall Observer," was published 
by W. W. Wyman, who after some years took John Carter in 
to partnership with him. The next paper was the " Free 
holder," published weekly by Hy. Patterson. After some 
years the " Observer " was discontinued, and the " Constitu 
tional " took its place. Then came the " Economist " and then 
the " Gazette," which was carried on for some time, but finally 
came to an end. The " Reporter " was the next, and about 
1882 the "News" made its appearance. The " News " and 
"Reporter" were sold in 1885, and the "Standard" is now 
published instead. Whether any of the publishers will attempt 
a daily, is a question that none but the initiated can attempt 
to answer. 

The " Dundas Courier " has been published for some 
years at Morrisburg, as has also the " Morrisburg Herald." 
The " Glengarrian " is published at Alexandria, the " St. Law 
rence News" at Iroquois, and the "Winchester Free Press" at 
West Winchester. 

The author has not been able to get more than one list 
of the prices current in the old days. It was published in the 
York Almanac for 1824, and it gives the prices for the pre- 
ceeding year as follows : " In the York markets, beef, two 
pence a pound ; mutton, three pence to four pence ; veal, three 
pence to three pence half-penny ; pork, two pence ; turkeys,, 
two shillings and six pence ; geese, one shilling and ten pence ; 
ducks, orfe shilling and ten pence a pair ; fowls, one shilling 
and three pence a pair ; butter, seven pence a pound ; eggs, 
three pence to six pence a dozen ; flour from four to five dol 
lars a barrel." 

The prices in the Eastern District were much the same 
at that time. Butter was less, being sold from five pence to- 

* The Duke <le Roclcfin:;u\ll sUUes thai in 1795 a newspaper \\a> pub 
lished ;it Newark. See his n.irrative. post. 

ioo LunenburgJi, or the 

six pence a pound. Firewood was cheap; it cost from seventy- 
five cents to a dollar a cord, and about half a dollar a cord for 
sawing and splitting. A labouring man could be hired at half 
a dollar a day, but he had his dinner and glass of rum or 
whiskey at twelve o clock into the bargain. 

Old Eastern District. 101 


In the early days of the settlement, travelling was 
not a pleasure. The only roads were Indian trails through 
the woods. The navigation of the river was dangerous, 
obstructed as it was by rapids and unimproved by canals. 
Only those men left home who were compelled to do 
so. Some had to make the trip to Gananoque or the 
Cedars, taking with them a small stock of grain to 
be ground ; store-keepers had to make semi-annual trips to 
Montreal to get their goods for the summer or winter s busi 
ness ; members of Parliament had to attend the meetings of 
the House at York ; occasionally a lawyer went there to 
attend to some important case ; the raftsmen (shantymen,* as 
they were called) went to Quebec ; but the greater portion of 
the people remained at home, and it was a common saying 
that one who had been " once to church and twice to mill was 
a traveller." 

Smith, in his topographical description of Upper Canada, 
1799, says that " the inhabitants of late years have taken down 
their grain with safety to the Montreal markets on rafts," and 
recommends that mode for transporting both grain and pot 
ash. One hundred years ago the means of transport down 
the river during the summer was by battcaux, Durham boats 
or rafts, and up the river by the returning batteaux or Dur 
ham boats. The former were about thirty feet long, llat- 
bottomed, and sharp at bow and stern ; the crew consisted of 
a captain and five or six men, who pushed, or, as it was called, 
"set" the boat up the stream with long, stout poles, shod 
with iron. When the current was too strong for them to 
make headway with the setting poles, some of the men would 

* Chanticr? 

IO2 Lunenburgh, or the 

go on shore and tow the boat up with a rope, two at least 
retraining on board to steer and keep her off the shore ; the 
captain stood at the stern and steered with a large paddle. 
Generally several batteaux would go together, the crews of all 
joining to tow each boat up a strong current. Each batteau 
had a moveable mast and a square sail. 

The Durham boats were somewhat larger than the bat 
teaux. The bow was round, the stern square. They were 
decked for some feet at the bow and stern, and had a narrow 
gangway on each side, along which the men walked from bow 
to stern when pushing the boat up the stream with their set 
ting poles. Each man on starting from the bow set the iron- 
shod end of the pole firmly on the bottom of the river, put the 
upper end of the pole against his shoulder, and stooping down 
almost to the deck, went towards the stern along the gang 
way, forcing the boat up the current. The noise made by the 
clanking of the iron against the stones, as the poles were 
drawn up again towards the bow, could be heard for a long 
distance on a calm summer day. The Durham boat was 
steered with a long rudder, had a stationary mast with main 
sail, jib and topsail, and was fitted with a slip keel or centre 

In summer all goods for places west of Montreal were 
brought up in these boats from Lachine, to which they were 
carted from the city. The head of the boat service was 
Kingston, where the goods were transhipped into schooners 
for transport up the lakes. After the introduction of steam 
vessels Prescott became a transhipping port, and a large busi 
ness was done there. The trip from Lachine to Kingston 
took several days. At night the boat s crew bivouacked on 
the bank of the river, and cooked and ate their pea-soup and 
pork, and slept in the open air. Small canals were made to 
overcome the worst part of the rapids at the Cascades, Cedars 
and Coteau ; * at other portions of them tow-paths were made,. 

* The canal at the Coteau ran through the grounds of the fort. See post 
chapter on canals. 

Old Eastern District. 103" 

where horses or oxen could be used to tow up the boats. About 
fifty years ago Adam Dixon made a small canal at the point of 
Sheek s Island, opposite Milleroches, and another at his mill 
at Moulinette, to improve the passage up the narrow channel 
there. In going up the Long Sault and the rapids above, the 
boats were towed by horses or oxen, the goods being unloaded 
and carted up to the head of the Long Sault. When there 
was an east wind the sails were hoisted and a quick run could 
be made up Lakes St. Louis and St. Francis and through the 
less rapid parts of the river, but as the west wind is the pre 
vailing one in the season of navigation, it was but seldom that 
a boat s crew could be relieved from the laborious work of 
using the setting poles or the oars. 

The run down the river was a much more pleasant affair. 
The boats loaded almost to the water s edge with grain or 
potash, floated easily down the stream, taking the south chan 
nel of the Long Sault in preference to the north, which was 
considered very dangerous. The sails were hoisted and 
advantage was taken of a favorable wind whenever it was 
possible to do so. Very few accidents happened in running 
the rapids, as the boatmen were steady, bold and skilful, and 
acquainted with every turn and change of the current. Masts, 
spars and timber were brought down in rafts of large size, 
made up of several portions, technically called drams. When 
running a rapid like the Long Sault, the drams were run down 
separately and reunited at Smart s Bay, on the south side of 
Cornwall Island. A short distance east of the channel south 
of Barnhart s Island (down which the rafts or drams came) 
lie Crab Island and shoal. The island was a ridge of stonesf 
near the south end of the shoal, which extended across one- 
half or one-third of the river, leaving deep channels between 
the ends of the shoal and the north and south banks of the 
river. The raft channel was the one at the south end of the 
shoal ; if that was missed by any error in steering, the dram 
or raft ran on the crab shoal, and was delayed for many days 

t In tlu- List fe\\ year* the island lias disappeared, hut llie shonl remain-*. 

IO4 Lunenburgk, or the 

before it could be got off. There were very few days in the 
rafting season that the shoal had not one or more rafts on it, 
to the serious delay and injury of the owners. 

In summer most persons going to Montreal took passage 
on a batteau in preference to going by land, the only other 
mode of travelling. Before steamboats were placed on Lake 
St. Francis, the traveller would have to wait at the river bank 
until a batteau came in sight, when he would be paddled out 
in a canoe to meet the boat ; a bargain was easily struck 
with the captain, and the traveller made as comfortable as the 
means at the disposal of the boat s crew would allow. Of 
course there were no cabins, staterooms or berths, and the 
wayfarer had to provide his own blankets and " grub." The 
batteaux were invariably manned by French Canadians, and 
it was pleasant to hear them singing some of the old Canadian 
boat songs as their boats glided quietly down the stream on a 
calm summer evening. 

In winter, goods were conveyed by Canadian trains- 
short sleighs, with solid runners. The shafts hung to the 
bottom of the sleigh by a few links of iron chain, so that the 
horse went in the centre of the road. Generally from six to ten 
or twelve trains went together, each drawn by one or two hardy 
Canadian ponies that seemed to know and do their work with 
very little driving. The men, dressed in blanket or etoffe du 
pays, capotes and trousers, with sash begirt waist, feet shod 
with beef moccasins,and the head covered with a bonnet rouge 
or bleu, trudged along behind their loaded sleighs, occasionally 
cracking their short-handled, long-lashed whips, or calling out 
" March Done !" if a horse appeared to be forgetting his duty. 
On one sleigh might be seen a potash kettle, on another a 
crate of crockery or a few bales of goods. The weight of each 
load was carefully adjusted to the proper amount ; if any 
extra weight was put on, two horses harnessed tandem fashion 

were used. 

It was a troublesome matter if a sleigh met a brigade of 
trains. Their drivers would not turn out for anyone, nor 

Old Eastern District. 105: 

would they give any assistance ; they rather appeared to 
enjoy the fun, if the party meeting them got an upset. If 
meeting a brigade was troublesome, overtaking one was ten 
times worse ; the drivers would neither stop nor give an inch 
of the road, and the unlucky travellers might be obliged to 
follow at a walk for a long distance before a favorable place 
for turning out and passing could be found. 

On the return trip to Montreal, grain and potash were 
brought clown. Many of the trains, however, were empty, and 
the drivers of several of them would get together in one and 
let their horses jog on without any attention whatever. 

In winter all travellers went by sleigh. In summer, as 
vehicles were scarce and uncomfortable and roads bad, many 
travelled on horseback. Those who were going up or down 
the lakes generally took passage on a schooner. A letter, 
dated at Kingston on the i/th of June, 1804, written by 
Robert I. 1 .). Gray* to a relative at Cornwall, gives an account 
of his journey from Cornwall to Kingston, on the way to 
York. He says : " I came here to dinner on Friday, very well 
but tired. Shaver s horses brought me to Howard s, or rather 
five miles this side, to one Clowes, whose horses brought me 
to Gananoque. I had a comfortable breakfast from Colonel 
Stone, and with a fine \vind sailed to Kingston. The accounts 
of the road to York, and the impracticability of getting regu 
lar conveyances, delays me here. Had I left Cornwall on 
Tuesday, I would now have been at York, as a vessel sailed a 
little before I arrived herc."-f- 

The ox cart and the lumber wagon were almost the only 
wheeled vehicles in use. The latter was sometimes mad 
little less rough by placing a pole on each side of the interior 
of the box, long enough to reach from end to end ; the seats 

* Tin first Solicitor-Ceneral of Cpper Canada, and son of Colonel James 
( .ray. of ( 1 ray s < reck. 

tin November. 1804. Mr. Gray, with the Judge and several others, Bailed 

from York on hoard the " Speedy," to attend the Court at Newcastle. The ves 
sel \\itli all on hoard foundered in a storm \\lien near her destination. 

io6 Lunenburgk> or the 

were placed on these poles, which gave a little spring to them, 
especially to that in the centre. Occasionally a gig would be 
seen ; this was a two-wheeled carriage, the body of which 
rested on two strong leather straps, and was fitted with a 
cover similar to those now used for buggies. Small wagons 
for one horse were sometimes fitted with leather straps, like 
those used in the gigs, which made them much easier to ride 
in. It is said that the first spring buggy made its appearance 
in Glengarry about 1840. A very few people had English 
carriages ; they were heavy and not at all adapted to the 
country roads. In 1825 the number of gigs in the three 
counties was eleven ; there was the same number of wagons 
kept for pleasure, and there was also one close carriage. 

For more than a quarter of a century after the first set 
tlement of Upper Canada, nothing systematic was done to 
facilitate travelling. In 1809 the first steamboat on Canadian 
waters was launched, and ran between Montreal and Quebec. 
She was named the "Accommodation." Her size was small- 
75 feet keel and her power could not have been great, as her 
first voyage from Montreal took sixty-six hours, thirty of 
which she was at anchor. 

In 1812-13, Barnabas Dickenson, a native of Massa 
chusetts, came to Montreal and got the contract for the con 
veyance of mails, then carried on men s backs, from Montreal 
westward. After the close of the war of 1812-14, he established 
the first line of public conveyances for passengers, and the 
mails by boats and coaches, between Montreal and Prescott.* 

In the spring of 1813 the steamboat " Swiftsure" was 
launched in Montreal, to run between that city and Quebec. 
She made the voyage in twenty-two hours. In 1817 two 
steamboats were built one at Prescott, to run between that 
port and Kingston ; the other at Earnestown, to run on the 
Bay of Quinte. On the i8th of April, 1820, the "Kingston 

* Barnabas Dickenson moved to Cornwall about 1828, and died there of 
cholera in 1832. [Representative Canadians, p. 238. 

Old Eastern District. 107 

Chronicle" announced the arrival at that port of the steamboat 
" Dalhousie," built at Prescott, and stated that " her engine 
(of Canadian manufacture) being of twenty horse power, pro 
pels her at the rate of about seven miles an hour." Two or 
three years later a horseboat began to run between Cornwall 
.and Coteau du Lac ; about 1824-25 a small steamboat was 
put on the same route. The next steamboat was the " Nep 
tune," which ran between Cornwall and the Coteau from 1828 
or 1829 until 1840, when the "Highlander," which was launch 
ed at the Coteau in the summer of 1839, took her place. On 
the first or second trip of the "Neptune" an attempt was made 
to run her up to the foot of the Long Sault rapids. All went 
well until she got into the channel between Barnhart s Island 
and the south shore, where she was caught in the strong chute 
that sets across from the island, and narrowly escaped an up 
set. A steamboat began to run on Lake St. Louis, between 
Lachine, Beauharnois and the Cascades, about the time that 
the horseboat was started on Lake St. Francis. Dickenson s 
.line of stages ran between Montreal and Lachine, the Cas 
cades and Coteau du Lac, and Cornwall and Prescott, in con 
nection with the steamboats on Lakes St. Louis, St. Francis 
-and Ontario. 

The steamboats of the old days were very different from 
those now in use. They had no saloons or cabins on deck for 
passengers. The gentlemen s and ladies cabins were both 
below the deck, the latter being a small apartment at the stern 
of the boat. On each side of these cabins were built berths 
in tiers. The passengers meals were served in the gentle 
men s cabin. The deck, covered in warm weather with an 
awning, was a very pleasant place for lounging or walking on. 
After a while the ladies cabin was placed on deck, and the 
deck which formed its roof was extended to the bow and 
formed a delightful promenade. As the number of travellers 
increased, more accommodation was required for them, and 
was got by building a saloon on the promenade deck, with a 
row of staterooms on each side. By these successive improve- 

io8 Lunmbuigh, or the 

mcnts, the modern steamboat was evolved from the original 

The stage coach is no longer seen in this part of the 
country. It was strongly built, the carriage part of it adapted 
to go through rough roads, if necessaiy. The body was closed 
at the front and back, and covered with a stout roof. The 
sides were open, but protected by curtains that could be let 
down if rain came on ; there was a door at each side, fitted 
with a sliding window that could be lowered or raised as the 
weather was fine or stormy. There were three seats inside, 
each of which was intended for three passengers ; those on 
the front seat sat with their backs to the horses, those on the 
back and middle seats faced them ; the back seat was the 
most comfortable. Outside, there was the driver s seat, 
and another immediately behind it on the roof ; each of 
these would hold three persons. At the back of the coach 
body was the baggage rack for the trunks, which were tightly 
strapped on and protected by a large leather apron. Lighter 
articles of luggage were put on the roof, which was surrounded 
by a light iron railing. The coach body, including the bag 
gage rack, was suspended on strong leather straps, which were 
stretched on the elaborate frame work of the carriage. The 
whole affair was gaudily painted, and with its team of four 
fine horses, with well polished harness, looked very attractive, 
and was by no means on unpleasant mode of travelling when 
the roads were good and the weather fine. 

Covered sleighs were used in winter, and in spring and 
fall strong wagons without covers, built to stand bad roads 
and deep mud. A weary time it was for those who had to 
travel at these two seasons. A journey by stage wagon from 
Cornwall to Montreal in April or November would take 
twenty-four hours of steady ploughing through the mud, varied 
occasionally by the wagon sticking fast in a mud-hole, and the 
passengers being obliged to help the driver in prying it out 
with fence rails. In summer the trip was very enjoyable. The 
travellers started from Cornwall by the " Neptune" about five 

Old Eastern District. 109 

o clock in the morning. After a short stop at St. Regis and 
Lancaster, and a pleasant run of about four hours down Lake 
St. Francis, they landed at Coteau du Lac, where the stages, 
each with its four good horses, were ready to receive them. 
The baggage being transferred from the boat to the stages and 
firmly strapped on, the drive to the Cascades was begun. The 
road was good though dusty, running nearly all the way close 
to the river, so that a good view could be got of the rapids, of 
the old fort at the Coteau, the Village of the Cedars, and of 
the neat looking French cottages on the way. The sixteen 
miles between Coteau du Lac and the Cascades were got 


over in two or three hours. At the latter village the travellers 
embarked on the Lac St. Louis boat,* touched at Beauhar- 
nois, and got to Lachinc about four in the afternoon ; there 
they again took stage to drive to Montreal. The road from 
Lachinc was generally good, the only difficult part being the 
long and steep hill at the Tanneries ; that safely passed, the 
stages gut to .Montreal about six in the evening, the whole 
journey taking about twelve or thirteen hours. The return 
trip was made in about the same time. Good meals were 
served on the boats, the charge for which was included in the 
passage money. 

Travellers going westward from Cornwall had a stage 
drive of about fifty miles between that place and Prescott, 
where they got the lake boat. There was a change of horses 
at the \ViHiamsburg stage house, which stood a short dis 
tance west of Morrisburg. The best seats in fine weather 
were those on the outside of the coach, as they commanded 
a good view of the country on all sides. A traveller who could 
make ftterest \\ith the driver and get the seat beside him, 
could get a good (.leal of information from him about lo 
calities and events on hi* part of the road. 

The author has still a \ivid recollects >n of his first jour- 

from Cornwall to York. Me started from Cheslcy s inn, 

then the Cornwall stage house, about nine in the evening o 

*Tlu- Henry Mini, ^li. mi, I think. t 

no Lunenburgh, or the 

the last Friday of January, 1833, in a stage waggon. There 
was no snow on the ground, but the road being hard frozen 
and smooth, good time was made, and he arrived at the 
Kingston stage house between nine and ten on Saturday 
night, where he remained until about seven in "the morning of 
the following Monday, when he started on the drive to York, 
this time in a comfortable sleigh. He passed through Napa- 
nee, Belleville, Trenton, Cobourg, Port Hope and other small 
towns, travelling continuously day and night until he got to 
Bett s inn, then the York stage house, on Wednesday evening. 
The journey, not including the delay of at least thirty-four 
hours at Kingston, took about eighty-six hours. How would 
the present generation, who think twelve hours between Corn 
wall and Toronto rather slow, like to go back to the travel 
ling of the " good old days." 

About 1830, the steamboat " Iroquois" began to run be 
tween Prescott and Dickinson s Landing.* She was a small 
vessel, fitted with a stern-wheel. Her engine was not power 
ful enough, and she had no little difficulty in ascending the 
Rapid Plat and the Galops. She was taken off the route in a 
year or two and replaced by the " Dolphin," a larger and more 
powerful boat, which easily stemmed the rapids. The use of 
these boats did away with the long stage drives between 
Prescott and the Landing, leaving only the twelve miles be 
tween the latter place and Cornwall. 

The opening of the Cornwall canal, in 1842, did away 
with the summer stage line between Cornwall and Dickinson s 
Landing. That between Montreal and Lachine was not used 
after the construction of the railway between those places ; and 
that between the Cascades and Coteau du Lac was done away 
with on the completion of the Beauharnois canal. The stages 
were still used in winter, spring and autumn, until the opening 
of the Grand Trunk Railway in 1855-56, when they disappear 
ed forever from this part of the country. 

The river steamboats came down the south channel of 

* So called after "Barnabas Dickinson." 

Old Eastern District. \ \ \ 

the Longue Sault for six years after the opening of the 
Cornwall canal. It is said that the first steamboat that tried 
the north channel was the " George Frederic," commanded by 
Capt. Sawyer. The following account of her run through that 
channel is copied from the l< Cornwall Observer," of the rstof 
June, 1848 : 


This channel was successfully navigated on the morning of the 1st June, by 
the steamer George Frederic, commanded by Captain Sawyer, under the man 
agement and superintendence of Messrs. Adam Hanes and \V. Hoople, of Dickin 
son s Landing. The boat left the Landing, at 7 a. m., and arrived at the 
wharf, at Cornwall, after making the run of twelve miles with perfect ease and 
safety in the space of twenty-five minutes." 

Messrs. A. Kezer and J.E.Dixson came down onher from the Landing, and 
they together with the captain and pilots, appear convinced that this channel has 
a great depth of water and is far preferable to that on the south side of Long Sault 
Island for large steamers. " 

"The George Frederic is a new boat, about the si/e of the Henry 
Gildersleeve. She drew at the time of making the passage, about five feet of 
water, and came down the rapid under a full head of steam." 

The example of the " George Frederick " was soon followed 
by the mail steamers, and a new charm was given to the pic 
turesque and exciting run down the St. Lawrence. 

It has been already stated that for many years Kingston 
was the head of the boat navigation. After steamers began to 
run on Lake Ontario, *Prescott became the principal tran 
shipping port, a large business was done there, until the open 
ing of the Rideau canal diverted the carrying trade between 
Montreal and Kingston from the St. Lawrence to the Ottawa 
and Rideau. 

The opening of the Cornwall canal put an end to the 
transhipping at IVescott of such goods as were taken up the 

* In April. 1821, the firm of Jones \ Van Slycke, advertised that they 
were prepared to carry goods between 1 rescott, ( >gdensburg and Larhine. The 
members of the tirm were Levi Sexton. ( . A. Van Slycke. Samuel Crane and 
A. Jones. 

[n the same year tenders were advertised for by the Naval and Military Au 
thorities, for the transporting of stores from Montreal to Lachine, and thence 
to Kingston. X. Radige. Clerk : Kdward Price Coffin. Deputy 


II2 Lnnenbuigh, or the 

St. Lawrence, and interfered to a great extent with the traffic 
from Montreal by the Rideau canal. Before the opening of 
the Cornwall canal there were several passenger steamers on 
Lake Ontario, running between Prescott and Niagara. Those 
in 1834 were the " William IV," the " Great Britain," the " St. 
George," the " Cobour?," starting from Prescott, and the 
"United States," starting from Ogdensburg. The passage 
from Prescott to Niagara took three days, the return the same 
length of time. The fare each way was 2.10.0, including 


In 1853, the steamboats of the river line were the New- 
Era," Capt. Parker ; " St. Lawrence," Capt. Howard ; " Ottawa," 
Capt. Patterson ; " Lord Elgin," Capt. Earlingcr. They ran 
from Kingston to Montreal. 

In 1834, a boat named the " Rapid" was built to run be 
tween Prescott and the head of the Long Saiilt. She was con 
structed on what was called the " Burdon plan," that is two 
long cigar shaped hulls, on which the deck, upper works, 
engine, etc., were placed, and between which one large wheel 
revolved. Her builders expected that she would stcrn^ the 
rapids easily and outrun the other boats on that route. They 
were bitterly disappointed. She went down to Dickinson s 
Landing but never returned ; she totally failed to ascend the 
current, and was run on an Island near Morrisburg, where she 
was sold in November, 1834. 

*In the " Magazine of American History" for July, 1880, 
is published a journal written by Miss Ann Powell.f recording 
the events of a tour from Montreal to Detroit in 1789. The 
party, eighteen in number, left Montreal on the nth of May, 
and reached Detroit a month later. The boat which carried 
them was fitted up with an awning to protect them from the 
weather, they travelled slowly, keeping close to the shore, 

See the Montreal " Witness" of August 16, 1880. 

t Miss Powell was a sister of the- Honorable William Duraraer Powell, who 
was appointed Judge and was sent to Detroit (then a British possession) in 1789, 
II.- \\as judge of the Court of King s Bench in Upper Canada in 1794. 

Old Eastern District. 113 

and spending the nights on land in the homes of the hospit 
able Canadian habitans. The inconveniences which such 
arrangements entailed formed a subject of much merriment. 
Generally the only room in the house was cheerfully given up 
to their accommodation, the family finding refuge in loft or 
barn ; and when, as in most cases the room was small, it re 
quired no little ingenuity to stow them all away. At night 
they always prepared the dinner for the next day, to be eaten 
cold in the boat. 

They were ten days in making the distance from Montreal 
to Kingston, then four crossing Lake Ontario, and five days 
on Lake Eric. Over the Falls of Niagara, but more particu 
larly the rapids, the writer goes into extacies of delight. At 
Niagara they met the celebrated Indian Chief, Joseph Brant. 
At Fort Erie the party had the good fortune to be present at 
an Indian Council of the Six Nations, of which Red Jacket 
was the delegate from the Senecas, then living on the site 
where the City of Buffalo now stands. At the time of their 
visit there was not a solitary white cabin in the vicinity. Miss 
Powell describes the chiefs at their toilet : " They sat upon 
the ground with the most profound gravity, dressing them 
selves before a small looking-glass, showing themselves very 
particular in fixing on their ornaments, and not a little whim 
sical. The women dressed with more simplicity than the 
men, and as usual did all the manual labour." There were 
over two hundred chiefs in all at the council. Each tribe 
formed a circle under a tree, their faces towards each other. 
They never changed their places, but sat or lay on the grass 
as they liked. The speaker of each tribe stood with his back 
against a tree. The old women walked one by one with great 
solemnity and seated themselves behind the men ; they pre 
served a modest silence in the debates, though it seemed that 
nothing was determined without their advice and approbation. 
Of the Indian physique, the lady speaks in the most flattering 
terms : " They are remarkably tall and finely made, and walk 
with a degree of grace and dignity you have no idea of." 

114 Lumnburgh, or the 

Pursuing their journey, the writer described the head of 
Lake Erie and the entrance into the Detroit River as uncom 
monly beautiful. On landing, they were received with great 
hospitality. The ladies of the place visited them in full dress, 
though the weather was " boiling hot." " Fancy," said the 
writer, " walking about when the thermometer is above 90. It 
was as high as 96 the morning we returned our visits." Sev 
eral parties were made for them during their stay a very 
agreeable one to an island up the river, which proved very 
pleasant. " The day was fine, the country cheerful, and the 
band delightful.* We walked some time in the shady part of 
the island, and were then led to a bower, where the table was 
spread for dinner. Everything here is on a grand scale. Do 
not suppose we dined in an English arbour. This one was 
made of forest trees that grew in a circle, and it was closed by 
filling up the spaces with small trees and bushes which, being 
fresh cut, you could not see where they were joined together, 
and the bower was the whole height of the trees, though quite 
closed at the top. The band was placed without and played 
while we were at dinner." 

In Robert Gourlay s " Statistical Account of Upper 
Canada" -f- is given a long extract from the travels of the 
Duke de la Rochefoucault Liancourt through North America. 
This extract refers to the Duke s sojourn in Upper Canada 
and contains much that is interesting, and that the author 
hopes will be acceptable to the readers of this work. The 
Duke was one of the many Frenchmen of rank and station 
who were ruined and driven from their native country by the 
rebellion of 1789. He came to North America, and after 
spending some time in the United States, crossed the Niagara 
River to Fort Erie on the 2Oth of June, 1795. After viewing 
the Falls, of which his description is far from conveying cor 
rect ideas, .he thus proceeds : 

* At that period Detroit was garrisoned by a British regiment. 
t Vol. II, p. 127. 

Old Eastern District. 1 1 5 

" The roads from Fort Erie to Newark * are tolerably 
open, and lie for the most part over a sandy ground, which 
renders it more easy to keep them in repair. The frequent 
passage to and fro in this part of the country does not destroy 
them. Such commodities as are destined for the upper coun 
try are unshipped in Queenstown, and goods expedited from it 
are embarked in this place. The different buildings construct 
ed three years ago consist of a tolerable inn, two or three good 
store-houses, some small houses, a block house of stone, cover 
ed with iron, and barracks, which should be occupied by the 
regiment of General Simcoe, but which are now unoccupied, 
the regiment being quartered in another part of the Province. 
Mr. Hamilton, an opulent merchant, who is concerned in the 
whole inland trade of this part of America, possesses in 
Queenstown a very fine house in the English style ; he has 
also a farm, a distillery and tan-yard. He is a member of the 
Legislature of Upper Canada. 

" The portage was formerly on the other side of the river, 
but as this by virtue of the treaty falls under the American 
dominion, Government has removed it hither. The whole 
country is covered with oak, chestnut, and fine hickory trees, 
and such parts as are watered bear, in common with all other 
parts of America, ash and maple trees. 

" It was on this spot that M. de la Jouquiere, commis 
sioned by the French Court to secure the free navigation of 
the lakes to French traders, formed his first settlements, which 
by permission and under the protection of the Indian tribe of 
Yonnowshouans (who with many other tribes have vanished 
from this part of the globe), were afterwards transferred to- 

" I employed my long residence-^ in Niagara to acquire 
some knowledge of the territory, the attainment of which was 

* Now Niagara. 

t The Duke remained at Navy Hall as the guest of Governor Sinu-oo for 
eighteen days. 

1 1 6 L nnenburgJi, or the 

greatly facilitated by the generous openness of Governor 

" So late as in the year 1791 the administration of Upper 
Canada was separated from that of Lower Canada. It for 
merly constituted a part of the Province of Quebec. The 
administration of it was much the same as that of the English 
Colonies, and depended entirely on the will and pleasure of 
the Governor, yet was undoubtedly here conducted with still 
more precaution, not only because Lord Dorchester by all 
accounts is a man of a mild and just disposition, but also 
because the lesson given by the United States will not prove 
altogether fruitless. The British Parliament at the same time 
when it divided these two tracts of the Province of Quebec 
into Upper and Lower Canada, gave them a representative 
form of government, which, though all the springs of the 
machine are in the hands of the Governor-General, is framed 
in such a manner that if this country should grow more popu 
lous, more opulent, and enlightened, it will not prove an 
arduous task to rescue the management of public affairs from 
this influence, which at present is very great, and in the actual 
state of things perhaps absolutely necessary. 

" The British possessions in North America are divided 
into Upper and Lower Canada, New Brunswick and Nova 
Scotia. Only the first two of these Provinces are governed 
by the new constitution. The others are governed as in for 
mer times. 

" The boundary between Upper and Lower Canada lies 
about one hundred miles* above Montreal. The extent of 
Upper Canada far exceeds that of Lower Canada, as the 
western boundary being undefined, it comprises all the known 
and unknown countries extending as far as the Pacific or 
Great Sea, and is bounded northwards by unknown countries. 
The population of Lower Canada is estimated at about one 
hundred and forty thousand souls, and that of Upper Canada 
at thirty thousand ; but this estimate seems rather high. 

* The Duke s information on this point is by no means correct. 

Old Eastern District. 1 1 7 

" General Simcoe at first intended to make Newark the 
chief town of his government, but since it has been decided 
that Fort Niagara is to be given up,* he has been obliged to 
alter his plans. He has since thought of York, situated on 
the northern bank of Lake Ontario, nearly opposite to Nia 
gara. It is in this place he has quartered his regiment, and 
he intends to move there himself when he shall withdraw from 
the frontier. 

4( York, from its extent, security and situation, offers an 
excellent road. The communication between Lake Ontario 
and Lake Huron is facilitated by several rivers and small 
lakes. The surrounding territory possesses a good soil, and 
affords all possible means to improve the trade on the lake. 
Even in a military point of view, its situation is very advan 
tageous. Yet Governor Simcoe seems to have relinquished 
the idea of establishing his residence and the seat of govern 
ment at York. He intends to remove them to the banks of a 
river which is found in all maps under the name of De la 
Trenche, and which he has named the Thames. It is his in 
tention to build his chief town, to which he has already given 
the name of London, about two hundred miles ~\ distant from 
Lake St. Clair. 

" It is asserted that all Canada, vast as is its extent, pro 
duces not the necessary corn for the consumption of its in 
habitants ; the troops are supplied with flour from London, 
and with salt meat from Ireland. In General Simcoe s opinion, 
Upper Canada is not only capable of satisfying the wants of 
ali its inhabitants, but also of becoming a granary for England, 
and of creating a considerable trade by the exchange of this 
necessary of life for other commodities. 

" The corn trade is, in his judgment, preferable to the fur 
trade, which appears to him at once unprofitable for Great 
Britain and a means of oppression to Canada, inasmuch as it 
throws the whole trade into the hands of a few companies, and 

* Under the Treaty of 1797. 

\ Two hu;wlre<] miles is either an emu of the Duke s or a misprint. 

1 1 8 L unenburgh, or the 

at the same time renders them masters of the commodities 
which are imported from England in return. 

" There is a considerable settlement of French families at 
Detroit. The other settlements in Upper Canada consist of a 
very considerable colony which stretches along the river from 
Fort Erie to Newark ; in a few plantations on the creeks 
which run into Lake Ontario from Newark up to its northern 
point ; in an insignificant beginning of a settlement in York ; 
and lastly in Kingston, extending along the banks of the 
River St. Lawrence to the boundaries of Lower Canada, which 
is the most populous of all. 

" In his private life, Governor Simcoe is simple, plain and 
obliging. He inhabits a small, miserable wooden house, which 
formerly was occupied by the Commissaries, who resided here 
on account of the navigation of the lake. His guard consists 
of four soldiers, who every morning come from the fort and 
return thither in the evening. He lives in a noble and hospit 
able manner, without pride ; his mind is enlightened, his 
character mild and obliging ; he discourses with much good 
sense on all subjects, but his favourite are his projects and 
war, which seem to be the objects of his leading passions. 

" Upper Canada pays no taxes, except a duty on wine 
amounting to four pence a gallon on Madeira, and two pence on 
other sorts of wine; and another of thirty-six shillings sterling a 
year for a tavern license, which during the session of 1793 was 
increased by twenty shillings Canadian currency (four dollars.) 
The sum total of the public revenue amounts to nine hundred 
pounds sterling, out of which arc paid the salaries of the 
Speaker of the House of Representatives, and of the Secre 
taries ; the remainder is destined to meet the expense which 
local circumstances may require for the service and mainten 
ance of society. 

" The Justices of the Peace determine in the Quarter 
Sessions, as they do in England, the amount of the county 
rates for the construction of public buildings, for the repair of 
roads, and for the maintenance of the army. (The last item 

Old Eastern District, 1 1 9 

is not yet known in Canada.) These rates are raised by means 
of a capitation or poll-tax, assessed in proportion to the prob 
able amount of the property of the whole who are in the 
district liable to contribute. The largest assessment on any 
individual exceeds not four dollars. 

" On the same principle is raised the pay of the members 
of the Assembly, who on their return at the end of the session 
deliver to the Justice of the Peace* of the district a certificate 
of the Speaker, proving the number of days they have been 
present, and receive two jdollars per day out of the money 
raised for that purpose, including the days they have been 
upon their journey. 

" All the expenses of the civil and military administration 
of Upper and Lower Canada are defrayed by England. The 
sum total, including the political expenses or the money paid 
to the Indians, though this forms an item of the military ex 
penditure, amounts for Upper Canada to one hundred thou 
sand pounds sterling. Nearly two-thirds of this sum are paid 
to the Indians, including the pay of the agents and interpre 

" During our long residence at Navy Hall all the inhabit 
ants of an Indian village, of the Tuscarora nation, came to 
congratulate the Governor on his late arrival at Navy Hall. 
These Indians generally arrive in the morning in vessels from 
the banks of the river which they inhabit. They were decked 
out with uncommon care, covered with rags of every descrip 
tion, and adorned with horse hair and feathers of birds. In 
their ears and noses they wore rings of the most varied forms 
and colors. Some were dressed in European clothes, others 
wore lacecl hats, and some vvere naked, excepting the double 
apron, and painted from head to foot. In general they prefer 
the harshest colors, paint one leg white and the other black or 
green, the body brown or yellow, the face full of red or black 
spots, and their eyes different colors. In a word, they unite 
in their decorations the utmost absurdity and harshness. 

Clerk of the Peace. 

I2O Lnnenburgh, or the 

" They are every one of them, painted in a different style, 
and furnished with a small looking glass, which they every 
moment consult with as much attention as the most finished 
coquette. They comb themselves again and again, and touch 
up the colours which may have faded from prespiration or ex 
ercise. Many of them wear silver bracelets and chains round 
their necks and arms. Some have a white shirt with long 
sleeves, over their clothes, and this forms their most elegant 
garment ; the major part wear as many silver buckles as they 
can afford. In short, their appearance calls to recollection 
the whimsical masks which throng the streets of Paris during 
the carnival. It must however be confessed that their finery 
in a great measure consists of things which they make them 
selves, of horses , buffaloes or other hair, or of the bristles of 
the hedge hog.* They twist ropes of the bark of trees, and 
make laces of a species of herbs. Many of these articles 
which they use to adorn their dress, their tobacco bags, their 
scalping knives, garters and mockinsons, (a sort of shoe), are 
made by the women, with a regularity, a skill, nay I may say 
with a taste, seldom to be found in Europe. Their chief ex 
cellence consists in the great variety and richness of the 
colours, which they generally extract from the roots of certain 

"The Indians danced and played among themselves. 
Some of their dances are very expressive, and even graceful. 
A mournful and monotonous ditty, sung by one and accom 
panied with a small drum, six inches high, and three in di 
ameter, forms all their music, except that frequently a stick is 
added, with which a child beats the time. They dance around 
the music, which they interrupt by loud shrieks. The hunt 
ing an.d war dances are more expressive, especially the latter. 
It reprepresents the surprise of an enemy, who is killed and 
scalped, and is performed by one person. The rest are hop 
ping about like monkeys, in a semi-circular figure, and watch, 
with the utmost attention every movement of the dancer. 

* Porcupine. 

Old Eastern District. 1 2 1 

The moment when the enemy is supposed to have breathed 
his last, a strong expression of joy brightens every face, the 
dancer raises a horrid howl, resumes his pantomime, and is 
rewarded by universal shouts of applause. When the dance 
was over they played at ball, a game at which they displayed 
their agility to the greatest advantage. Every one had a 
racket, the handle of which was three or four feet in length, 
and bent at the end, so that the racket has the form of a bow. 
The pack thread in made of bark. They grasp the racket 
with both hands, and run after the ball wherever they see it, 
with the view of catching it, one before another. This ball is 
frequently- thrown to a considerable distance, in which case 
they run after it all together, to catch it, either in the air, or on 
the ground. Xo bush, no ditches, no barriers check their ar 
dour. They clear every thing, leap over every thing, and dis 
play in this game, a versatility, swiftness and dexterity which 
are truly striking."* 

" During our residence at Xavy Hall, the session of the 
Legislature of Upper Canada was opcned.f The Governor 
had deferred it till that time on account of the expected ar 
rival of a Chief Justice who was to come from Lngland ; and 
from a hope that he should be able to acquaint the members 
with the particulars of the treaty with the United States. But 
the harvest has now begun, which in a higher degree than 
elsewhere, engages in Canada the public attention far beyond 
what State affairs can do. Two members of the Legislative 
Council were present instead of seven ; no Chief Justice ap 
peared whu was to act as Speaker; instead of sixteen mem 
bers of the Assembly, five only attended, and this was the 
whole number which could be collected at this time. The law 
requires a greater number of members for eac h house to dis 
cuss and determine upon any business, but within two days, a 
year will have expired since last session. The Governor has 
therefore thought it right to open the session, reserving ho\v- 

* The primitix r laCTO 
t Sixth of July, 

122 Lunenburgh, or the 

ever to either House the right of prolonging the sittings from 
one day to another, in expectation that the ships from King 
ston and Detroit will bring the members who are yet wanting, 
or certain intelligence of their not being able to attend. The 
whole retinue of the Governor consisted in a guard of 
fifty men of the garrison of the for<-. Dressed in silk, he en 
tered the hall with his hat on his head, attended by his adju 
tant and two secretaries. The two members of the Legisla 
tive Council gave by their Speaker, notice of it to the As 
sembly ; five members of the latter having appeared at the 
bar, the Governor delivered a speech modelled after that of 
the king, on the political affairs of Europe, on the treaty con 
cluded with the United Spates, and on the peculiar concerns 
of Canada. 

" Fort Niagara stands on the right bank of the river, on 
a point opposite to that of Mississaga, on which Newark is 
built. It was originally constructed by Mr. de la Jonquiere, 
three miles nearer to the falls ; but was some years afterwards 
transferred to the spot where it now stands, and where Mr. de 
Denouville threw up an entrenchment. The fort, as well as 
those of Oswego, Detroit, Miami and Michilimackinac are to 
be surrendered to the Americans.* Thirty artillery men and 
eight companies of the fifth regiment form the garrison. 

" Some trifling excursions we made in the environs of the 
city, and especially a tour of four days with the Governor, 
along the banks of the lake, afforded us an opportunity of see 
ing the interior country. The chief purpose of this journey 
was to reach the extremity of the lake. A boat made of the 
bark of trees and designed for the Governor s excursion, con 
tained the whole company ; which consisted of the Governor, 
Major Seward,f Mr. Pilkington,^ us three, and Mr. Richard, 

All these forts were surrendered to the Americans in August, 1796, pur 
suant to the treaty of 1794. 
t Of the 5th Regiment. 
J Of the Royal Engineers. 
S The Duke and his two companions. 

Old Eastern District. 123 

a young gentleman. Twelve chasseurs of the Governor s Reg 
iment rowed the boat, which was followed by another vessel, 
carrying tents and provisions. We halted at noon to eat our 
dinner, and in the evening to pitch our tents and sup. In the 
morning we walked, then breakfasted, and set out to pursue 
our journey. 

" Forty Mile Creek was one. of the chief objects of our 
town. The road from Forty Mile Creek to the extremity of 
the lake, where we travelled on horseback, is one of the worst 
we have hitherto seen in America. But for one finding now 
and then trunks of trees in the swampy places,* we should 
not have been able to disengage ourselves from the morass. 
Along the road, which is fifteen miles in length, the soil is 
good ; but we scarcely saw four plantations. At the very ex 
tremity of it, and on the most fruitful soil, there are but two 

" Land newly cleared, yields here, the first year twenty 
bushels of corn. The soil is good, though not pf the most ex 
cellent quality. They plough the land after it has produced 
three or four crops, but not very deep, and never use manure. 
The price of flour is twenty-two shillings per hundred pounds; 
that of wheat, from seven to eight shillings a bushel. Labor 
ers are scarce and are paid at the rate of six shillings a day. 

" The winter is here reckoned at five months and a half. 
Wheat and rye are sown in September ; oats, in May ; barley, 
in June ; turnips, in July ; and potatoes in May. The hay 
harvest falls between the loth of June and the lOthofJuly. 
Rye is generally cut about the beginning of July, and wheat 
in the latter days of the same month ; potatoes and turnips 
are dug up in October and November. 

"The taste for news is not by far so prevalent in Upper 
Canada as in the United States. Only one newspaper is 
printed in Newark, and but for the support granted by Gov 
ernment, not the fourth part of the expense of the proprietor 
would be refunded by the sale of his papers. It is a short 

Corduroy Bridge. 

124 Lunenburght or the 

abstract of the newspapers of New York and Albany, accom 
modated to the principles of the Governor, with an epitome of 
the Quebec Gazette. In the front and back of the paper are 
advertisements. It is a weekly paper. The newspaper press 
also serves for printing the Acts of the Legislature, 
and the notices and orders issued by the Governor ; and this 
is its principal use. 

" During our residence at Navy Hall, Messrs. Dupetit- 
thouars and Guillemard took the opportunity of the return of 
.1 gun-boat, and made an excursion to York. My friends in 
formed me on their return, that this town, which the Governor 
had fixed upon as the capital of Upper Canada, before he 
thought of building a capital upon the Thames, has a fine ex 
tensive road.f detached from the lake by a neck of land 
of unequal breadth, being in some places a mile, in others 
only some six score yards broad ; that in the middle of it is a 
shoal or sand bank, the narrows on each side of which may be 
easily defended by works erected on the two points of land at 
the entrance, where two block houses have already been con 
structed ; that this is two miles and a half long and a mile 
wide, and that the elevation of the shore greatly facilitates its 
defence by fortifications to be thrown up on the most conveni 
ent points. 

" Governor Simcoe intends to make York the centre of 
the naval force on Lake Ontario. Only four gunboats are at 
present on the lake ; two of which are constantly employed in 
transporting merchandise, the other two which alone arc fit to 
carry troops and guns, and have oars and sails, are lying un 
der shelter. 

There have not been more than twelve houses hitherto 
built in York. They stand on the bay over the Don. 

" Notwithstanding the navigation of this river, there is a 
portage of thirty miles between York and Lake Simcoe, by 
which the merchandise that comes from Lake Huron might 
reach that place in a straight line, The barracks which are 

* Meaning " Iv > r lint-hour." 

Old Eastern District. 125 

occupied by the Governor s regiment, stand on the road,* two 
miles from the town and near the lake. 

" In a circumference of one hundred and fifty miles, the 
Indians arc the only neighbours of York. They belong 
to the tribe of the Mississagus. 

" After a residence of eighteen days at Navy Hall, we 
took leave of the Governor on Friday, the loth of July. 

" \Yc embarked for Kingston on board the " Onondago, 
one of the cutters which compose the naval force on the lake. 
The cutter is pierced for twelve six-pounders, but carries only 
six in time of peace. 

"The wind was tolerably fair during our passage ; this is 
generally accomplished in thirty-six hours, at times in sixteen, 
but it took us forty-eight hours. Dead calms arc frequent, 
especially at this time of the year, and last sometimes five 
days. Scarcely any motion was observable on the waters of 
the lake. This passage, which is one hundred and fifty miles 
long, offers no interesting objects ; the coast soon disappears 
from your view, especially in hot weather, when the horizon is 
clouded with vapours as when we sailed. Duck Islands 
form, to speak generally, the only trifling danger on this pas 
sage ; no vessel ventures near the islands by night, except when 
the iveather is perfectly fair and clear. A more common and 
real danger arises from the storms, which frequently on a sud 
den arise on the lake, render it even more boisterous than the 
i, and cause the ships to labour and strain more severely on 
account of the shortness of the waves, bounded by the small 
extent of the waters. The ships are then in constant danger 
of being driven on shore, and would hardly be able to avoid 
it if the storms lasted longer, but they generally continue only 
a short time, especially in summer, and the clearing up of tl 
weather is as sudden as was the coming on of the; storms. 
They are only violent gales of wind, \vhich in Autumn fre 
quently blow two days together, and succeed each other very 
rapidly. Five or six ycar> ago a ship was lost with ever) 

* 1 1 a r I K in r. I 

126 Luncnbwgk, or the 

hand on board. From November until April the navigation 
is entirely discontinued on the lake. 

During our passage the weather was very warm and had 
been so for the last eight or ten days. The mercury in Fah 
renheit s thermometer stood at Navy Hall frequently at 
ninety-two, but on board the vessel, in the cabin, it was only 
at sixty-four. It is less the intensity of the heat than its pe 
culiar nature, which renders it altogether intolerable ; it is 
sultry and close, and more so by night than by day, when it 
is sometimes freshened by a breeze, which is not the case in 
the night ; the opening of the windows affords no relief ; you 
do not perspire but feel oppressed ; you respire with difficulty ; 
your sleep is interrupted and heavy ; and you rise more fa 
tigued than when you lay down to rest. 

"We had a detachment of the Fifth Regiment on board. 
They dressed before we arrived at Kingston. Eight days be 
fore, we had seen the Indians painting their eyes with lamp 
black and red lead, and braiding their hair to fix in feathers 
or horses manes, dyed red or blue. This day we saw Euro 
pean soldiers plastering their hair, or if they had none, their 
heads, with a thick white mortar, which they laid on with a 
brush, and afterwards raked like a garden bed, with an iron 
comb, and then fastening on their head a piece of wood as 
large as the palm of the hand, and shaped like the bottom of 
an artichoke to make a cadogan, which they filled with the same 
white mortar and raked in the same manner as the rest of the 

" When the Duck Islands were about twenty miles 
astern of us, the lake grew more narrow and the number of 
islands increased. On the left is Quinte bay, the banks of 
which are said to be cultivated to a considerable extent. The 
eye dwells with pleasure once more on cultivated ground. 

For many years before and after 1795, it was the fashion to powder the hair 
and wear it tied in a long queue or pig-tail hanging down the back. No soldier 
was considered properly dressed unless his hair was powdered and his queue pro 
perly arranged. The fashion was abolished in the army about 1809. 

Old Eastern District. 127 

The houses lie closer than in any of the new settled parts of 
Upper Canada which we have hitherto traversed. In the back 
ground stands the city of Kingston, on the bay of the same 
name, which the French in imitation of the Indians, called 
Cataraque. It consists of about one hundred and twenty or 
one hundred and thirty houses. None of the buildings are dis 
tinguished by a more handsome appearance from the rest. 
The only structure more conspicuous than the others, and in 
front of which the English flag is hoisted, is the barracks, a 
stone building, surrounded with pallisades. 

" All the houses stand on the northern bank of the bay 
which stretched a mile further into the country. On the 
southern bank are the buildings belonging to the naval force, 
the wharfs and the habitations of all the persons who belong 
to that department. The King s ships lie at anchor near 
these buildings, and consequently have a harbour and road 
separate from the port for merchant men. 

" Kingston considered as a town, is much inferior to New 
ark ; the number of houses is nearly equal in both. Kingston 
may contain a few more buildings, but they are neither so 
large nor so good as at Newark ; many of them are log houses, 
and those which consist of joiners work are badly constructed 
and painted. But few new houses are built, no town hall, no 
court house, and no prison have hitherto been constructed. 
The houses of two or three merchants are conveniently situ 
ated for loading and unloading ships. Their trade consists 
in peltry, which comes- across the lake, and in provision from 
Europe, with which they supply Upper Canada. The trade of 
Kingston therefore is not very considerable. The merchant 
ships are only three in number, and make but eleven voyages 
in a year. Here arrive all the vessels which sail up the river 
of St. Lawrence. 

"The barracks are constructed on the site of Fort Fron- 
tenac, which was built by the French, and levelled by the 
English. The latter built these barracks about six years ago. 
During the American War their troops were constantly in 

I2 8 Lunenburgh, or the 

motion, and in later times they were quartered in an island 
which the French called Isle Aux Chevaux, (Goat Island), and 
which the English have named Carleton, after Lord Dor 
chester. At Cataraque were built by M. cle Lasalle, the first 
French ships which navigated the lake. 

" Kingston is at present the chief town of the middle dis 
trict of Upper Canada, the most populous part of which is that 
situated on Queen s* bay. This district not only produces the 
corn requisite for its own consumption, but also exports yearly 
about three or four thousand bushels. This grain, which in 
winter is conveyed down the river on sledges, is bought by the 
merchants, who pay its amount in such merchandise as the 
sellers max- require. In the course of last year, one thousand 
barrels of salt pork, of two hundred and eight pounds each, 
were sent from Kingston to Quebec, The price was eighteen 
dollars per barrel. 

" The process of clearing woodlands is here the same as 
all over America. The husbandmen harrow the cleared 
-.-round, two, three or four years successively, during which 
time wheat is sown. Then they plough, but in a very imper 
fect manner, and sow peas and oats, and again wheat, and so 
on according to the common routine. The land yields in this 
state from twenty to thirty bushels an acre. Snow falls gen 
erally in the latter days of November, and remains on 
ground until the beginning of April. 

Labourers, whose common wages are from three to four 
shillings, (Halifax currency), are paid during the harvest at the 
rate of one dollar or six shillings a clay, borne farmers hue 
Canadians for two or three months, to whom they pay scve 
or eight dollars per month, and find them in victuals. 

The cattle are not subject to contagious distempers 
they are numerous without being remarkably fine. The finest 
oxen are procured from Connecticut at the price of seventy or 
eighty dollar, a yoke. Cows are brought either from the btatc 

o * * 

"Quere "Quinte." 

Old Eastern District. 129 

of \c\v York (and these are the finest), or from Lower Canada. 
The former cost twenty, the latter fifteen dollars. 

" There is no ready market at which a farmer can sell that 
part of his cheese and butter which is not wanted for the use of 
his family. 

"The farmers make but little. maple sugar, though the 
woods abound with trees from which it is procured. The In 
dians import two or three thousand pounds, and sell it to the 
retail traders for one shilling a pound. Maple sugar is pre 
pared in much larger quantities in Lower Canada. The Cana 
dians eat it here on bread, or make cakes of it mixed with flour 
of wheat or Indian corn. On the maple tree frequently grows 
a sort of knobs, or fungusses, of a very large size. If these ex - 
crccences be torn from the tree and dried in the sun, they form 
an excellent tinder,* which the Indians and Canadians use to 
light their pipes. 

The price of wheat is one dollar a bushel ; last year the 
price was much lower, but it has risen from the general failure 
of the harvest. Fire wood delivered in the town (Kingston) 
costs one dollar a cord. 

" The river freezes over at the distance of twenty miles 
from Kingston. 

"The price of land is from two shillings and sixpence to 
one dollar per acre if the twentieth part be cleared. The price 
rises in proportion to the number of acres cleared of wood. 
Two hundred acres, one hundred and fifty of which were clear 
ed, were very lately sold for one thousand one hundred dollars 
The expense for cutting down all the large trees on an acre, 

* This tinder or " ]>unk " as it was railed, together with tin- Hint and steel 
-a necessary article in every household, a.-, well a> in the outfit of every smoker. It 
was dried in thin flakes, was of a light brown colour, and though somewhal tough 
and leathery was easily torn. When used a piece of it was placed under the Hint 
even with the edge of it. so as to catch the sparks Struck by the >leel : it ignited 
very easily, and burned with a steady dull glow, but never broke into Haine. The 
author has often seen it used in his young day-., before the invention of the lucifer 

130 Luncnburgh, or the 


and enclosing it with a fence as rude as in the United States, 
amounts to eight dollars." 

The following information about the first employment of 
steam navigation in Canada, and also on the Atlantic Ocean, 
between the American and European shores, was obtained 
from Mr. Douglas Brymner, the able and efficient historical ar- 
chivest of the Department of Agriculture, and was published 
in the Empire in January, 1888. " Various more or less suc 
cessful attempts were made in the propulsion of vessels by 
steam before the close of last century, that of Miller, of Dal- 
swinton, Taylor and Symington, being apparently the most 
successful. In 1787 they made a series of experiments on 
Dalswinton loch. In 1789 a larger boat was built which made 
seven miles an hour, and in 1801 Symington built a boat for 
Lord Dundas to tow vessels on the Frith of Clyde, which it 
did for some time until it was withdrawn, owing to the danger 
of injury to the banks of the canal. In 1807 Fulton launched 
a steamer on the Hudson, the engines for which were import 
ed from the machine shops of Boulton and Watt, ot Birming 
ham, England. In 1809 Mr. John.Molson placed the " Accom 
modation" on the St. Lawrence between Montreal and Quebec, 
and a year after built the " Swiftsure " for the same trade. 
During the war of 1812 they were used by the military author 
ities for bringing up men and stores. In June and July of 
1813 there were several references to the steamers in the cor 
respondence among the archives. Major-General de Rotten- 
berg wrote from Montreal to Quebec (15 June, 1813,) asking 
that sailors be sent up by her to assist in destroying the Am 
erican fleet on Lake Champlain, There are other letters from 
General Sheaffe, and Major-General Glasgow, in the same 
volume, referring to the service by the steamers, and among 
the volumes relating to the commissaries, it is stated that the 
Messrs. Molson had a contract for carrying military stores. In 
1812 the "Comet" was built for Henry Bell at Greenock on the 
Clyde, and plied for some years until sunk in a collision off 
Kempack Point, when many lives were lost. This was the 

Old Eastern District. 131 

first steamboat disaster. In regard to ocean steamers on the 
Atlantic, it is stated, and repeated in the encyclopedias, that 
the "Savannah" steamed from Savannah, Georgia, to Liverpool, 
in 1819, but this has been incontestably disproved. She cross 
ed the Atlantic, it is true, but it was under sail, being a full- 
rigged sailing vessel with steam machinery fitted up on board, 
which was used for only a few days.* It is, I think, conclu 
sively established, that the " Royal William " was the first to 
cross from this side under steam all the way. She was built 
for the trade between Quebec and Halifax, and left Quebec for 
Liverpool in 1833. The "Sirius" crossed in 1838 from Bristol, 
England, to New York, also under steam. On the 4th of July, 
1840, the "Britania," the first of the Cunard company s fleet,, 
left Liverpool for New York, and steamed all the way, the ser 
vice having been regularly maintained ever since. On the 6th 
July, 1852, Messrs. McKean, McLarty & Co., of Liverpool, en 
tered into an agreement to run a line of steamers fortnightly 
from Liverpool to Quebec in summer,- and to Portland in 
winter, and on the loth of May, 1853, the "Geneva," the first 
of the line, arrived at Quebec. The service, owing to various 
causes, was not satisfactory, and the contract was abandoned, 
the Messrs. Allan agreeing on the 29th day of September, 1855, 
to perform the fortnightly service on the same terms as the 
first contractors. It was agreed subsequently that the service 
should be weekly, the first steamer under the new arrangement 
arriving at Quebec in the spring of 1859, Since then the ser 
vice has been regularly maintained, and there arc now several 
lines of steamers engaged in the carrying trade between Cana 
da and Europe." 

I ICT fuc-1 \\;vs pitch pine. 

LunenburgJi, or the 


For half a century after the first settlement of the town 
it was assessed with the township of Cornwall, and the taxes 
went into the general fund of the district, out of which very 
small grants were occasionally made for the improvement of 
streets and bridges in the town plot, the principal means of 
carrying on local improvements being the statute labour of the 
inhabitants expended within the town limits. This state of 
affairs was put an end to in 1834. On the 6th day of March 
in that year the statute 4th, William IV, chapter 25, was passed 
incorporating the town, dividing it into two wards (the first 
comprising all east of Pitt street, the second all west of that 
street), and authorizing the formation of a Board of Police, 
consisting of five members, two to be elected for each 
ward, the fifth to be chosen by these four at their 
first meeting, or in case of their not agreeing, 
to be elected by the town. The five members 
were to choose one of their number President. The first elec 
tion was held on the first Monday in April, 1834, when Philip 
Vankoughnet and Martin Carman were returned for the first 
ward, and John Chesley and Peter Cheslcy for the second. 
The four elected members met on the 2ist of April, and 
unanimously chose Archibald McLean as the fifth member. 
At their next meeting Mr. McLean was chosen President, 
John Peckman, Clerk ; James Pringle, Treasurer, and Horace 
Spencer, Surveyor of Streets and High Constable. At the 
next meeting, held on the ;th of May, annual salaries were 
fixed on a very moderate scale, viz : Clerk, 12.10.0; I rea- 
surer, two and a half per cent, on money passing through his 
hands ; Collector, four per cent, on money collected ; Street 
Surveyor, 1 0.0.0 ; High Constable, twenty-five per cent, of 
all fines collected. 

Old Eastern District. 133 

Rules and regulations were adopted for the good govern 
ment and welfare of the town, some of which were obeyed ; 
some, strange to say, were disregarded. Among the latter 
was the one forbidding the running at large of horses, oxen, 
sheep and swine. Many years elapsed before piggy was de 
prived of his liberty and prevented from roaming at his own 
sweet will through streets and vacant lots, searching out the 
weak places in walls and fences, and destroying fields, gardens 
and lawns. In fact, the pig had the same liberty then that up 
to the last year or two was enjoyed by that other useful 
domestic animal, the cow, notwithstanding all laws and ordin 
ances to the contrary. 

The town had been visited by that terrible epidemic, the 
Asiatic cholera, in 1832, when several persons fell victims to 
the disease. There was a second attack in 1834. The Board 
of Police took such precautions as were possible to prevent 
the spreading of the disease, and the following gentlemen were 
appointed to examine the premises of the towns-people and 
cause the removal of nuisances, viz : Guy C. Wood, Alexander 
McLean, Dr. Goodall, Donald McDonell, James Pringle, Wil 
liam Mattice, George S. Jarvis and R. Cline. The number of 
deaths from cholera was not as great in 1834 as in 1832.* 

The commencement of work on the Cornwall canal in 
1834 caused a demand for building lots, in consequence of 
which the Board of Police let several lots on Xos. 10 and 11, 
north of Water street, at an annual rent of 2 6 a foot frontage. 
A new weighing machine was bought at an expense of 30.0.0 
and placed on the north-west corner of lot Xo. i 8, south side 
of Second street, where one bought by the magistrates several 
years earlier had stood. 

In May, 1835, the Board of Police advertised for tenders 
for the laying of flag-stone sidewalks on some of the streets. 
l"p to this date sidewalks had not been made, except by some 

* In the height of tin- excitement and alarm, a little <;irl vsh> had been >ent to 
Mr. Wood for a disenfectant, asked for "a pound of cholera alarm." " Plenty of 
that everywhere, try chloride of lime," was Mr. Wood s answer. 

134 Lunenburgh, or the 

private individuals on small portions of two streets. For many 
years the only sidewalk was one made of small round stones 
by Donald McAulay in front of his house on lot No. 16, north 
side of Second street. About 1830 Guy C. Wood had a side 
walk of flag-stones laid in front of his property, the east half 
of lot 14, north side of First street, and William Cline had a 
similar one made in front of the east half of lot 17, south side 
of Second street, which was extended part of the way to the 
west side of Pitt street. With these exceptions, there were no- 
sidewalks laid on any of the streets, and walking in spring or 
fall was a matter of very great difficulty and discomfort, the 
mud being often ankle deep, and in some places so bad that 
people had to crawl along with their feet on the bottom boards 
of the fence, and maintain a precarious balance by holding on 
to the top boards with their hands. 

One of the muddiest of streets as it appears now after a 
heavy rain in April, will give a tolerably correct idea of the 
state of the sidewalks in former days. The improvement pro 
posed to be made by the Board of Police gave great satisfac 
tion, but the work went on very slowly, and it was many years 
before even the principal streets were attended to. The new 
sidewalks were all made with flag-stones, and were in conse 
quence rough and unpleasant to walk on ; they were, however, 
solid, and were a great advantage to pedestrians. One trouble 
was that the people who came in on horseback from the coun 
try utilized the sidewalks as a roadway for their horses, until 
a few heavy fines taught them that this sort of amusement was 

The first sidewalks laid clown in 1835 were from the 
south-cast corner of lot 15, north of Second street, northward 
to Third street ; from Mr. Mattice s corner to Mr, Cline s, and 
from west of Mr. Cline s to the hay scales, that is, along the 
south side of Second street, from Pitt street to> Augustus 

From the Post Office to the corner, that is along the front 
of lot 13, north side of First street, and from Mr. Mattice s 

Old Eastern District. 135 

corner to Hyne s tavern, that is on the west side of Pitt street, 
along lot 16, south side of Second street. All these sidewalks 
were about four feet wide, and cost fifteen shillings ($3.00) 
a rod. 

In 1838 some plank side-walks were laid down, one on the 
north side of Second street, from Pitt street to the east line of 
lot 7, and one on the south side of Second street, from York 
street to the west of the town. 

In the same year an attempt was made to establish a 
market, on lots 10 and 1 1 north side Water street, and an or 
der was made that the old market house on them should be re- 

In 1840 there \\as a proposal to raise a loan of ^500.0.0 
to build a market house. The loan was not raised, and no 
thing further was done about a market until the next year. 

A fire company was formed in 1840 : 


(ieu. McDonell. John S. McDonald. J. K. Pringle. 

Ranald McDonald and Richard Allen. 


Thomas I alin and James Gillie. 


1. S. Mclnnis, S, Adam Dixon, 

2. S. Cline, 9, H. Spencer, 

3. J. XV. Loucks, 10, XVm. Smart, 

4. DM. McDonell, 11, Andrew Fulton. 

5. John Ross. 12, Peter McDonell. 

0. Dunbar L ringle, 13, John Lane, jun. 
7, A. McDonell, 14, Albert Chesley, 


1, Geo, Snetsinger, 5, Lewis Carpenter. 
J. Robert MeMonngle. 6, Ceo. Robertson, 

3, II. Harnhart, 7, Jno. Snetsinger. 

4. Geo. Jackson, S, \Vm. Knipe. 


Alexander Forsyth and John Hell. 

In 1 84 1 the rent of the hay scales was 6. 10.0 for the year. 
The question of establishing a market came once more before 

136 Lttnenburgk, or the 

the board. Several lots were offered for sale to the corporation, 
among which were lot 12, north side of Second street, 
at 200.0.0;* lot 12, south side of Second, at 250.0.0, 
and lot 16, south side of Fourth street, at 150.00. 
The board did not decide on taking either of them, 
but called a public meeting, at which lots 10 and 1 1 
north side of Water street, were proposed as the site 
best adapted for the purpose. The majority of the meeting- 
rejected this proposal, and in 1842 lot 16, south side of Fourth 
street was purchased. A petition was sent to the Honorable 
H. H. Killaly in 1842, for the purpose of getting a bridge con 
structed across the canal. 

A market house was built at an expense of 100.0.0 on lot 
1 6, south side of Fourth street, and was occupied on the 1st 
of January, 1843. 

The revenue of the town for the year 1 842 was 304.4.6. 
The school money was 54.9.8^. It is scarcely necessary to 
say that the whole of the revenue was expended. 

In 1844 a by-law was passed allowing hogs to run at 
large provided they were decorated with yokes round their 
necks and rings in their noses. 

A new wharf was built at the bank of the river, opposite 
to the canal bridge. There had been a wharf at the same place 
almost from the time that a steamboat began to run. The first 
wharf was made in the bay, about the foot of Pitt street, but 
as it had to be of considerable length, and had to be renewed 
every spring, that site was abandoned and the new wharf built 
where the river wharf now is. 

In 1845 the market rents were remitted and the stalls 
were declared to be free for two years. An important move 
was made in this year. The town applied to the board of works 
to grant water privileges on the canal. After a little delay the 
application was granted, and several privileges for mills were 
located and sold by auction. Three on the south side of the 

This lot with the one adjoining it on the north, were sold in 1886 for $7,000. 

Old Eastern District. 137 

canal were bought by Andrew Elliott, John Harvey, and A. K. 


The Board of Police elected in April, 1846, was the last 
under the act of 1834. The members of this board were J. V. 
Pringle and H. Pitts, for the west ward ; John York and Alex 
ander McCracken for the east, and Alexander McLean, presi 

This board continued in office until the beginning- of 1X47. 
when the new act (passed in 1846) came into force. The first 
councillors under it were for the East Ward. Alex. McLean 
and Thos. Kennedy, for the Centre, William Mattice, Geo. Mc- 
Donell and Samuel Hart, and for the West Donald McDonald 
and Austin Kelson Cadwell. The mayor was chosen by the 
council, and George McDonell having been selected was the 
first mayor of the town. 

On the third of April, 1847, leave was given to the tele 
graph company to run their lines of telegraph wires through 

the town. 

In the summer of 1847 typhus fever was raging among 

the immigrants from Ireland. A quarantine station was es 
tablished by the government at Isle, below Quebec, 
where all who were taken ill while (.11 the voyage to 
Quebec were detained. Of those who were allowed to pass 
the Quarantine Station, some were attacked by the fever as 
they proceeded on their way up the St. Lawrence. Many 
were landed and attended to at the hospitals established in 
Quebec and Montreal, and many were taken ill at different 
ports west of the latter city. A hospital was established at 
Cornwall, the site chosen for it was Petite Pointe Maligne, 
nth of the canal t below the town, ere several temporary 
buildings were put up, three 36 feet by iS. and one 
60 feet by i S, for the- sick, one 12 x iS for con 
valescents, and one 12 feet square for the- dead, 
tors K. Macdonald and D. Bergin were appointed to attend 
the sick, and were allowed 2.0.0* day each. Charles Poole 
was appointed superintendent at 7 a day; there- were also 

138 Lunenburgh, or the 

two male attendants, one of whom received $7.00, the other 
$5.00 a week, and two female nurses who received 2 and 3 
dollars a week respectively. The hospital was kept open from 
the i/j-th June till the i8th of October. 234 patients were ad 
mitted, of whom 182 were discharged cured, and 52 died. 
The expense incurred was 835.9.9, which was defrayed by the 
government. The precautions taken by the board of health 
were so effectual, that not a single case of fever occurred in the 

In 1849 there was another visitation of Asiatic cholera, by 
no means so severe as those in 1832 and 1834. 

In 1 850 the statute 1 2 Victoria, chapter 8 1 , came into force, 
under which each of the three wards was to elect three coun 
cillors, who chose one of their number mayor. 

The first councillors elected under this Act were : 

Thomas Kennedy, \ 

Robert Atchison, - For the East Ward. 

James Smart, 

William Mattice, \ 

V. E. Adams, For the Centre Ward. 

D. W. McDonell ; 

Dr. McDonell, \ 

Vincent A. Annable, For the West Ward. 

Austin E. Cadwell, 

William Mattice was chosen Mayor. 

In 1852 the County Council put up a small brick building, 
containing four rooms, each about 12 feet square, and four 
small vaults for the offices of the Clerk of the Peace, Clerk of 
the County Council, Treasurer and Registrar ; a second story 
was added to the building at the expense of a few private in 
dividuals, and used as a lecture or assembly room. The Town 
Council sometime afterwards endeavored to buy this upper 
room for town purposes, but could not succeed. The building 
being utterly inadequate to the purpose for which it was erect 
ed was pulled down in 1885, and the present one put up. 

In 1853 proceedings were taken to raise a loan for the pur 
pose of making a macadamised road from the town to the front 

Old Eastern District. 139 

of Roxborough. A by-law authorising a loan of 3,000.0.0 
was submitted to the ratepayers and carried by a majority of 
one hundred, the yeas being 109, the nays 9. The sum of 
.3,000.0.0 was not more than enough to make the road from 
the South end of Pitt street to Earner s Corners, a distance of 
about four miles. It was expected that the Townships of Corn 
wall and Roxborough would raise a sufficient sum to complete 
the road ; the} , however, did nothing to help the work on. 
The Township of Cornwall actually opposed it. 

In 1854 there was another visitation of Asiatic cholera. 
Seven of the lockmen at the locks at the east end of the canal, 
died of it in one night. There were several other deaths 
(between thirty and forty) caused by the disease in the town, 
.all of which were traceable to the place where the first cases 

In this year the construction of the Grand Trunk Railway 
was began ; the work was pushed on rapidly. On the i/th 
Sept., 1 85 5, the road was opened from Montreal to Hrockville, 
.and in November, 1856, it was completed to Toronto. * 

There was a good deal of difficulty in persuading the com 
pany to have the track brought to the rear of the town. The 
line first decided on was nearly three miles further north. The 
Town Council and the majority of the inhabitants remonstrat 
ed strongly against this arrangement, which would have been 
very injurious to the interest of the town, and happily succeed 
ed in getting the location of the track changed to the line it is 
now on. 

In 1853 and 54, a survey of that part of the town north of 
Fourth street was made and confirmed by Act of Parliament. 
This survey was necessary, as some of the streets north of 
Fourth were taken up by the owners of lots, and in one place, 
at the east end of the town an owner had encroached so much 
that his house, which he had built on the south side of the 
street, as it was before the survey, was found to IK- on the north 

* There \va* a grand gathering in Montreal, carls in NuM-inlu-r. iS^f). t<> 
vli-tiraU- the rvrnt. 

140 Lunenburgh, or the 

side when the street was put on the proper line after the 
survey. The boundaries of this survey were marked by stone 
monuments placed as follows : at the intersection of Pitt street 
with Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth streets, at 
the north-west angle of the intersection of Fourth and Marl- 
borough streets, at the south-west angle of the intersection of 
Fourth street with Gloucester, Adolphus, Amelia, Sidney, Au 
gustus, York and Bedford streets. The boundary at the north 
west angle of the intersection of Fourth and Bedford streets, 
being a mark cut on a large granite boulder. One at the north 
east angle of Fourth and Cumberland streets, and one at the 
south-east angle of the same streets, and two on the east side of 
Cumberland street, at its intersection with each of the following 
streets, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth.* 

In 1858 a gravel sidewalk was made on the east side of Pitt 
street to the Grand Trunk Railwav Station, which lasted for 


several ytars. 

In 1 859 a new Municipal Act came into force, directing that 
the mayor be elected by the town, and also authorizing the 
election of a town reeve. Dr. Charles Rattray was the first 
mayor, and U. F. Mclntyrc the first reeve under the new 

On Tuesday, the 28th day of August, 1860, His Royal 
Highness the Prince of Wales, with his suite, was received at the 
railway station by the mayor and corporation, and the follow 
ing committee : The Rev. Dr. Patton, the Rev. Henry Davies- 
Dr. Allen, and Messrs. Alex. McDougall, S. Finden, Alex. Bils- 
land and L. Kendall, who presented an address. The Prince, 
who was on his way from Montreal to Dickinson s Landing, 
remained about half-an-hour at the Cornwall station, where 
several thousand people had assembled to meet him and give 
him a heart} welcome. He was met with equal enthusiasm at 
Wales and Dickinson s Landing. 

At Wales the ladies had made a carpet of maple leaves, on 
which he walked from the railway car to the carriage that took 

* Sec report tn council. 2lst July, 1876. 

Old Eastern District. 141 

him to the Landing, \vhcrc he embarked in one of the river 
boats,* and went down the river to Montreal. 

In 1862 and 63 the town hall was built, the lower part at 
the south end being used as a market. , 

A drill shed was built, principally by private subscription in 
the winter of 1863. It was erected on lot Xo. i [, X. S. Water 
street; removed subsequently to lot 16, S. S. Fourth street, and 
after standing for some years, was pulled down in 1885 or 86. 

In 1 866 a good deal of excitement was caused by threats of 
a fenian invasion. The three volunteer companies in the town 
were called out in March, and a number of corps, including 
some regular troops, were sent in from Montreal, Brockvillc, 
Kingston, and other places, a garrison being kept in the town 
until November, 1866. 

In 1867 the erection of a woolen factory in or near the 
town was spoken of, and the question of granting a bonus to 
the company was brought forward, public meetings were held, 
speeches were made for and against the proposal, and an in 
formal vote taken, the result of which proved that the majority 
of the townspeople were in favor of giving assistance to those 
engaged in the enterprise. The woolen mill was begun in that 
year. It continued to work and employ a number of hands 
until Christmas, 1870, when it was burned down. 

In the year i 871, the Town Council pledged themselves to 
aid woolen and cotton factories. 

In 1873 a by-law for the granting of bonuses was carried 
by a majority of fifty-two, and an act was passed by the On 
tario Legislature, extending the limits of the town by adding 
to it that part of lot No. 7, in the 1st concession of the Town 
ship of Cornwall, lying between the highway tin- Montreal 
Road i, and the river St. Lawrence, to enable the Town Council 
to exempt the factories built in that quarter from taxation. 

In 1874 a by-law was submitted to the ratepayers and 
carried, the object of which was to raise a loan of $IO,OOO for 
public improvements. The following terms were granted to 

K Tin- Kin^ii MI " I think. K 

142 Lunenburgli, or tJic 

the three factories, vis., to the Cornwall Woolen factory, to the 
Canada Cotton Manufacturing Company, and to the Stormont 
Manufacturing Company, each $400.00 a year for ten years. 
The property of these companies was also exempted from tax 
ation for twenty-one years from the first of January, 1873. 

The ratable property of the town was valued for assess 
ment at $667,300, and the expenditure for the year was esti 
mated at $10.850. 

The bonds of the town were estimated at the following 
rates on the dollar at five years, 92 cents ; at IO years, 85 
cents ; at 15 years, 77^ cents. 

In 1874 Win. C. Allen was appointed Police Magistrate. 
In September, 1874, a fire broke out in Martin & Crilly s 
paper mill on the south side of the canal, which destroyed the 
paper mill, the Stormont Cotton Manufacturing Company s 
cotton factory and storehouse, and P. K. Adams saw mill. 

On the 26th of July, 1876, a wooden building on lot No. 
i 5, south side of First street, took fire. The flames spread ra 
pidly, destroying three handsome brick stores called the Com 
mercial block, to the northward, and several wooden buildings 
to the south. The town at that time had not an engine of 
sufficient power to check the progress of the fire. Fortunately 
there was a steam fire engine standing at the canal wharf, 
which had been brought by the manufacturer for inspection 
and sale. This was put in operation by the engineer of the 
" Bohemian," and worked with such good effect that the fire 
was prevented from crossing First street. The corporation 
bought the engine a few days after. 

In 1880, Angus Hcthune became Police Magistrate, on 
the resignation of Dr. Allen. 

In 1882 the town hall was enlarged. An addition was put 
at the north end, giving space enough in the lower storey for 
the fire engine and hose reels, &c.. and in the second story for 
a stage with dressing rooms below it. The stage is fitted with 
scenery, and the large room in front of it will seat seven or 
eight hundred people. The improvement of the building cost. 

Old Eastern District. 143 

the town $13,000. Man}- persons thought that it would have 
been better to have expended no more on the town hall than 
was necessary to fit it for municipal purposes, and to have left 
the work of providing a theatre for the amusement of the peo 
ple to a joint stock company that would, have done it much 
more satisfactorily. 

A survey was proposed of that part of the town south of 
Fourth street. The surveyor had a good deal of difficult}- in 
ascertaining the original boundaries. One post was found at the 
south-east corner of lot No. I, north Water street ; one on the 
corner of lot No. 12, north side of First street ; another at the 
north-east corner of lot No. 16, on the south side of Second 
street, and the boundary stone set up by the canal commission 
ers at the south-west corner of the town, was taken as fixing 
that point. The survey was made, adopted by the Council, 
and confirmed by the Provincial Legislature. 

A by-law was passed prohibiting burials within the limits 
of the town, and the purchase of ground fora public cemetery 
was much talked of, but nothing came of it. The burial by-law 
was quietly suffered to go into oblivion, and a public cemetery, 
though much needed, was not procured until iSSS. \vhen a joint 
stock company was formed. 

A gas company was formed in I.S82. In July a by-law was 
passeil allowing the company to lay the pipes along the streets 
of the town, and in the fall of the year the street lamps were 
lighted with gas instead of coal oil. 

Tenders were accepted for the building of a market at tin- 
price of $7,350. 

The debt of the to\\ n \\ as then $33,500, without including 
the cost of the proposed market, which amounted to about 
$I3,OOO before it was completed. 

In I SS3 a by-law was adopted by the- ratepayers to raise 
$25,000 for the erection of a public school building. 

The market building was finished and accepted, and sub 
sequently leased for $725.00 a year. It wa> used for a market 
for t\\o n~ three years, and was then leased for manufacturing 

144 Lunenburgh, or the 

purposes. Proposals were made for the construction of water 
works in the town, a very much needed improvement. No 
thing definite was accomplished at that time. 

In January, 1884, there was a fire at the corner of Pitt and 
Second streets, which destroyed the Commercial hotel and sev 
eral other buildings, and clearly demonstrated the absolute ne 
cessity of some means of extinguishing fires better fitted for the 
purpose than the steam fire engine. 

In 1885 an attempt was made to consolidate the floating 
debt of the town, which was carried out in 1886 by the passing 
of a by-law to raise $20,000 for that purpose. 

In April of this year a fire occurred in the lower storey of 
the town hall, which damaged the building a good deal, and 
unfortunately caused the death of two prisoners confined in the 
cells. The cause of the fire is unknown. The results might 
have been much more disastrous than they were, for if the alarm 
had been delayed for another quarter of an hour, the steam fire 
engine and hose would have been destroyed, and there would 
have been no means of saving the town hall or of preventing 
the fire from spreading to other buildings. 

In 1886, the construction of water-works was com 
menced, and was finished in 1887, and since that time the 
supply of water has been abundant for all purposes. See post. 

The town taxes began in 1834, at one penny in the pound 
In 1840, they rose to two pence; in 1846, to four pence; from 
that time, though there were fluctuations, the tendency was to 
rise, until at the present, 1886, they amount to 20 mills on the 

In 1842-43, the revenue of the town appears to have been 
^304.4.6. The school money amounted to 54.9.8^. 

In 1888, the revenue amounted to $59,540.25, made up 
from the following sources : 

Town Hall, $ 722 50 

Licenses. 3<9 62 

Ontario Hauls Discounts. 12,283 7 

l>oo Tax. - 293 oo 

Old Eastern District. 145 

i Siclney Street, $ 13,289 93 

Severs, - Pitt I, 800 oo 

| Albert " 300 oo 

Fire, Light and Police, 539 55 

Interest, 38 43 

Wharfage and rent of 30 oo 

Public Schools. 346 oo 

Mark el. 399 9^ 

Public Property, 144 oo 

Miscellaneous. 115 2 5 

Taxes. 26,228 31 

$ 59,540 25 

The items of expenditure for the same year arc : 

Poor Relief, $ 639 64 

Public Property, 1.092 59 

Roads and Hridees, 2,763 85 

Miscellaneous, 1-546 96 

Salaries, 3,792 70 

Kire, Light and Police. 3-294 9- 

Printing, 179 i/ 

Sidney Street Sewer, - 1 2, 088 47 

Consolidated Debt Debentures, (1st Issue). 875 oo 

(2nd Issue). 1, 600 68 

Ontario Hank, Discount Amount, 5-55 ( 37 

( anada Cotton Company Debentuies, 097 50 

Public School Huilding Debentures, - 1,500 OO 

To\\n Hall Debentures, 910 oo 

Public School Huilding Sinking Kund, i,f>So oo 

Public Schools. i, 088 oo 

Market Debentures, (1st Issue). 520 OO 

Road Debentures. I So OO 

Interest, -. <>-* 05 

County Rates, 1,019 7 

Hoard of Health, 3 4O 

Storinont Cotton Manufacturing Co y Debenture-. 902 50 

Market Debentures, (2nd Issue). 520 oo 

Albert Street Se\\ei. 3OO OO 

Pitt Street Sewer, 1.050 25 

Ontario Hank. Overdrawn on r-l Jan.. --77- 73 

Liabilities of the town for iSSS : 

Town "improvement and Road Debentures. $ 3- xi" 00 


Lnnenlmrgh, or ihe 

Storniont Cotton Co., 

9 Debentures of $500 each, paid 

Town Indebtedness, (1st Consolidation), 
8 Debentures of $500 each, paid, 

Town Hall, 

6 Debentures nt $700 each, paid 

Market, (1st Issue). 

6 Debebentures at $400 each, paid. 

Market, (2nd Issue), 

5 Debentures of $400 each, paid. 

Public School Building, 

5 Payments to Sinking Fund, $840 each, 

Canada Cotton Company. 
Paid to date, 

Town Indebtedness, (2nd Consolidation). 
Amount paid to dale. 

Fly Creek Debentures, 
Note Under Discount, Ontario Hank, 
Sidney Street Sewer, Note Under Discount, 
Albert Street Sewer. <1<> do 

Pitt Street Sewer, do do 

do do do do 

County Rates, 
I liyh School, 
Public School. 
Separate School, 

$10,000 oo 
4,500 oo 

$10,000 oo 
4,000 oo 

$7,000 oo 
4,200 oo 

$4,000 oo 
2,400 oo 

$4,000 oo 


$25,000 oo 
4,200 oo 

8,000 oo 
2,153 oo 

$20,000 oo 
1,240 oo 

5.500 oo 

6,000 oo 

2.800 oo 

i, 600 oo 

2,000 oo 

20.800 oo 
5.847 oo 

18,760 oo 
1.310 oo 
4,000 oo 
4,601 51 

35 60 

814 82 
1,017 25 

1,022 II 

1.225 49 

3,700 65 
1,843 UI 

$89.148 04 

From 186410 iS/i, both inclusive, the amount of taxes 
levied, averaged $4,550 a year. 

In 1873, they amounted to $ 6,473 7 

In 1874, 11,272 oo 

In 1879, 12,392 <><> 

In 1882, I5-4.U 00 

The valuation of property for assessment 

In 1876 amounted t $ 636,495 <><> 

In 1884, 1,070,925 BO 

Old Eastern District. 


In 1886. amounted to $1.220,535 >" 

In iSSS, 45 s - """ " (1 

The population in 1834, was a little over I, OOOj in 1873 
it was 3,000 ; in 1876 it was 3,318 ; in 1878 it was 4,141 ; in 
[886 it was returned at 5,170; and by the census taken in 
May, 1889, it is given at 2,438 for the West ward, 2,428 for the 
Centre ward, and 1,8/3 for the Kast ward, making 6,739 within 
the town limits. If the population of the suburbs Lornevillc, 
Beaconsfield, Gladstone, etc. were added, the total would 
exceed 10,000. 

The following is a list of the Presidents of the Board of 
Police, Mayors, Reeves, Deputy-Reeves, Clerks and Treas 
urers of the town : 
















i S4< > 






I X4 ; 



1 1 





PKKM I>K\ i . 


John Peckman 
I). W. I!. McAulay 
f. S. Macdonald 
( ieo. M. Crysler 
|. ! . Prince 
John Peckman 

James Prinide 


Win. M. Park 

Archd. McLean 

( ieo. S. Jarvi^ 

( ieo. S. Jan is 

koht. ( line 

kohl, ( line 

kohl, ( line 

(ieo. S. jarvis 

|. S. Macdonald 

koht. ( line 

( ieo. McDonell 

kodk. McDonald 

(ieo. McDonell do 

Alex. McLean do do 

The Thirteenth Board continued in office until January. 
1847, when tin- second Act of Incorporation came into force, 
under which seven Councillors were elected two each for the 
Kast and West wards, and three for the Centre ward. One <>f 
the seven was chosen Mayor by the Council. 

James l.oney 
lohn Blackwood 
Archd. J. McDonell 
( has. 1 oole 

M \\<>k. 

( ll.KKK. 

IK i.. \sCKKk. 

N I- \K. \r>. 

1X47 I ( ( ieo. McDonell ( . I oolr \\ ill. Park 

|S.}X 15 < \\-.\~,. kattnix do do 

1X411 id Win. Math do do 

By R.Vic. Chap. 81, each ward elected three Councillor^, 
who chose one of their number t<> be Mayor. 


Lunenburgh, or the 








\Ym. Mattice 

(lias. I oole 







Andrew Elliott 












J. F. I ringle 







2 4 

\Vni. Mattice 




Cha*. Rattray 

Jus. Clint 

In 1859, the Act came into force under which the Mayor 
was elected by the town. 



Clias. Rat tray 

Jas. Clint 



Sol. V. Chesley 








\Vni. Cox Allen 










James Kilgour 



(leo. (. . Wood 

A. I-!. McDonell 

1 . K. Adams 



Win. Cox Alk ii 

J. P. McMillan 

James Kilgour 




Duncan Monroe 



















Aliens liethune 

John Skeith 




Win. Cox Allen 






|as. Dingwall 




Aliens Hethune 

Win. Hethune 


I> S 75 


Andrew I lodge 

( ieo. S. [ar\ is 









C. J. Mattice 















A. J . Ross 


R. W. Marfarlane 



Wm. Col<nihoun 














5 1 

lames T. Kirkpatrick 





fames Leitrli 







R. A. I ringle 



C.en. McDonell 





Angus R. McLennan 



1 XSo 


CJ. Hamilton, M.D. 



Old Eastern District. 






William Mattice 




Andrew Elliott 




Alexander ^ I cDougall 








Dd. McDonell 


D. E. Mclntyre 






J. J. Dickinson 


J. B. McLennan 






Angus Bethune 











Wm. Mack 



C. J. Mattice 

. 1 










\Ym. Mack 









John Mclntyre 



J. T. Kirkpatrick 



John Bergin 



. J. Mattice 



J. Bergin 



James Leitcli 



!>,\ac Skeith 



A. R McLennan 



M. OVallaghan 



J. (1. Hunter 



M. M. Mulhern 



William Mack 

C. J. Mattice 



Robert Craig 
William Mack 
(". J. Mattice 
A. 1 . Rss 
John Mclntyre 
J. Snetsinger 
John Bergin 
J. T. Kirkjwtrick 
II. S. Macdonald 
L. A. l< 
|. L. Loney 
J. ( .. Hunter 

|. Hamilton 

\V. Atcliixin and S. ( m>bie 
Dr. C. J. Hamilton and M. M. Mulhern 
I- .. ( ) ( alhighan and ) . Roue 


Until 1^50, in \vhich \-c;tr the- Assessment Act, 13 and 14 
Victoria, Chapter 6/, \vas passed, the assessment of property 

150 Luncnburgh, or the 

was on a fixed valuation, instead of being, as now, based on 
the actual cash value. The following is the scale, as estab 
lished by 59 Geo. Ill, Chap. 7, passed in 1819 : 

. s. d. 
Every acre of arable or meadow land, . . i o o 

uncultivated . . . 4 


town lots in York, Kingston, Niagara 
and Queenstown, . . 5 

Every town lot in Cornwall, Johnstown and Belleville, 25 o o 

" house built with timber, squared or hewn on two 
sides, one story in height, with not more than two 
fire places, . . . . 20 o o 

Kvery additional fire-place, . .400 

" dwelling house built of timber squared or Hatted on 
two sides, of two stories in height, with not more 
than two fire-places, . . . 30 o o 

Kvery additional fire-place, . . .800 

" framed house, under two stories in height, with not 

more than two fire-places, . . 35 

Every additional fire-place, . . 5 

" brick or stone house of one story in height and not 

more than two fire-places, . . . 40 o o 

Every additional fire-place, . . .1000 

" framed, brick or stone house of two stories in height 

and not more than two fire places. . . 60 o o 

Kvery additional fire-place, . .1000 

" (irist Mill, wrought by water, with one pair of 

stones, . . . . 150 o o 

Every additional pair . . 5 

" Saw Mill, . . . too o o 

" Merchant s Shop, . . . 200 o o 
Every store house for receiving and forwarding goods 

for hire or gain, . 2O 

Kvery stallion, ... 1 99 o o 

" horse of the age of three years and upwards, . 800 

Oxen of the age of four years and upwards, per head . 400 

Milch Cows, per head. . 3 
Horned Cattle from the age of two to four years. . I o o 

Every close carriage with four wheels, kept for pleasure, 100 o o 

Old Eastern District. 151 

Kvery phaeton or other open carrjage with four wheels, s. d. 

kept for pleasure only, . . . . 25 o o 

" curricle, gig, or other carriage with two wheels, 

kept for pleasure only, . . . . 20 o o 

" wa g n k P l f r pleasure, . . . 1500 

Every stove erected and used in a room, where there is 
no fire-place, shall lie deemed and considered to he a 
a fire-place. 

The rate of assessment was limited to one penny in the 

152 Lunenburgh, or the 


Nothing was done to improve the navigation of the St. 
Lawrence or Ottawa rivers during the French regime in Cana 
da * though a canal intended to be built at Lachine is mention- 


ed in a letter written by M. Began to the French Minister, 
dated I2th Nov., 1714. After the British Government got po- 
session of the country, canals were made at the Cascades, the 
Buisson and Coteau du Lac. The exact date of the commence 
ment and completion of these works cannot be ascertained, but 
it is certain that they were first made between 1/79 and 1783. 
In icSoo Colonel Gother Mann, of the Royal Engineers, report 
ed upon their state and recommended enlargement. In 1801- 
5 his report was carried out, a longer canal was made at the 
Cascades, and those at the Split Rock and Coteau du Lac were 
improved. They were very small compared with the canals 
now in use along the St. Lawrence, as will be seen by the fol 
lowing table showing their dimensions, as well as those of the 
Lachine Canal, at different periods. Prior to 1 804 these canals 
and their length were as follows : 


At the Cascades, . . . About 400 Feet 

Trou <lu Moulin, . . . 200 " 

Old Lock at Split Rock. . 200 " 

" Coteau du Lac Canal and two locks. 900 " 

The locks were built of stone and were designed for the 
passage of boats capable of carrying from 30 to 40 barrels of 

* The information about the old canals is taken from I). Krymner s report on. 
Canadian Archives, 1886. p.p. 20 to 30, and p. n. 

Old Eastern District. 






16 Feet 



8 Foot 

10 " 



1.6 Feet 



Not given 
1 20 Feet * 

Yl, \KS. 







1843 l8 4$ 

20 Feet 

45 " 

45 " 

48 I 

120 " 
I 5 " 

5 Feet 

9 l 

14 " 

loo Feet 
200 " 
270 " 

The cost of the canals made in 1779-1783 is not stated. 
The enlargement and improvement in 1801-5 cost about 
,3300.0.0. All the expense was paid by the Imperial Govern 
ment, as the works were required for the transport of naval and 
military stores, from Lachine to the naval stations and military 
garrisons in Upper Canada. The forwarders used them for the 
conveying of merchandise, and paid a toll at first of ten shil 
lings for each batteau. The amount of toll for the season of 
1781 is stated in a letter from Twiss, dated 3rd December of 
that year, to have been 131.10 for 263 batteaux at los. each, 
and 15.0 for 2 canoes and I boat at 55. each. 

In 1783 the amount of tolls received at Coteau du Lac was 
127.0.0 and between the Cascades and the Trou, 46.15.0; 
173.15.00 in all, and it was expected that when the lock at 
the Split Rock was finished, the toll on each batteau would be 
twenty-five shillings, and that the annual amount from 260 
batteaux would amount to 325.0.0 currency, a sum sufficient 
to pay all persons necessary to be employed, as well as the 
expenses for keeping the works in repair. The boats required 
for the King s service passed free. 

The old canal at the Cascades is still in existence, The 
masonry is showing signs of giving way, but the rock cutting 
appears to be almost unchanged. The gates are no longer in 
the locks, and, owing to their absence, the waters rushing 

This length wn.s to allow six batteaux to be priced at onre. 
dicate the beginning and completion of the \\m 

The dates in- 

154 Lunenburgh, or the 

through have made a shoal at the Ottawa end, which impedes 
navigation. The remains of the other canals are perfectly 

The next improvement in the system of inland navigation 
was the construction of the Lachine Canal, which was begun 
on the 1 8th of July, 1821, and completed to St. Gabriel in 1824. 
The levels for the Welland Canal were first taken in 1816. In 
November, 1824, the construction of the canal was commenced. 
The work was finished in a little less than five years, and was 
opened on the 26th of November, 1829. The Cornwall Canal, 
the next link in the chain, was finished in 1842. 

The construction of the Beauharnois Canal was com 
menced shortly after the completion of that at Cornwall, and 
was followed with but little delay by the construction of the 
shorter cuts at Farren s Point, the Rapid Plat and the Galops, 
which completed the line of improvements along the rivers St. 
Lawrence and Niagara. 

In the first volume of Gourlay s "Statistical Account of 
Upper Canada" is a map of the Province, dated 1821, on which 
is given a plan for a grand canal and junction canals, to con 
nect the St. Lawrence river with the Ottawa ; the Petite Nation 
with the St. Lawrence, and the Upper Ottawa with the Lake 
of Two Mountains. 

Three courses arc laid down for this grand canal, the most 
northern is a straight line from Johnstown* to a point on the 
Ottawa, about two miles west of the Province line between 
Upper and Lower Canada. The middle course begins at 
Johnstown, runs in a straight line to a point in the centre of 
the front of Roxborough, and thence eastward to the Ottasva 
river, near the most northern point of Rigaucl. The southern 
course also begins at Johnstown, runs to a point about three 
miles west of the eastern boundary of Matilda, and four miles 
north of the St. Lawrence, thence in a straight line to the Ot 
tawa, which it strikes nearly opposite the northern end of Isle 
Perrot. From the line of the Grand Canal a junction was to 

* A few miles east of the Town of 1 rescott. 

Old Eastern District. !^r 

be made with the Petite Nation river and the Ottawa by a 
canal running northward, parallel to the Township line, from 
the point in Matilda above mentioned to the Petite Nation 
and Ottawa. Another canal is laid down, which was to run 
from Milleroches north-westward, through the Townships of 
Cornwall, Osnabruck and Finch, to the Petite Nation, and an 
other from the southern course of the grand canal to Lake St 
Francis, west of the Coteau du Lac. Gourlay s plan was on too- 
grand a scale to be undertaken by the Province, and it was 
never seriously considered. 

In 182601- 1827 Samuel Clowes, civil engineer, was em 
ployed to survey a line for a canal from the head of the Long 
Sault rapids to Cormvall. The line he proposed was to begin 
at Archibald s Point, across which a cut was to be made to 
Hoople s Creek, which was to be followed for about three 
quarters of a mile. Then the canal was to follow a depression of 
the country, and drop into the river at Brownell s Bay, near 
what is now called " The Sand Bridge." A dam was to be 
made across the channel to Sheik s Island, above Brovvnell s,, 
and another below Milleroches, forming a large basin from- 
which the cutting of the canal was to be made, as it now is to 

Another place which was spoken of, was to bring the canal 
from Hoople s Creek through the first concession, at some 
distance from the river, to the rear of the Town of Cornwall, 
and to enter the river again either above or below the town ; and 
another proposal was to make a dam across the river to Corn 
wall Island either above or below the town, for the purpose of 
raising the water to the level of the foot of the Long Sault 
rapid, the rapid and the clam to be passed by cuttings and 
locks. Of the three projects the last t\\<> were never seriously 
discussed. The first one was carefully considered by the canal 
commissioners.who decided in fax or of the line as it is at present. 
There are, however, not a few who think that a mistake has been 
made, and thai Mr. Clowes plan should even now be adopted. 

The improvement of the navigation of tin- St. Lawrence 

156 Lnnenburgh, or the 

was authorized by the Statute 3, William IV, Chap. 18, pass 
ed on the 1 3th of February, 1833, under which a sum not ex 
ceeding 70,000.0.0 was to be raised by loan at five per cent 
for that purpose, and the following gentlemen were appointed 
commissioners to carry the Act into effect : The Honorable 
Thomas Clark, the Honorable John Hamilton, and Philip Van- 
koughnet, Jonas Jones, Hiram Norton, George Longly, and 
Peter Shaver, Esquires. 

Sect. 14 of the Act directed that the improvements should 
commence and be finished between the head of the Long Sault 
and Cornwall, in the eastern district, before any money could 
be laid out for improvements on any other part of the River 
St. Lawrence." 

The commissioners entered upon their duties without de 
lay, caused further surveys to be made, and after due consider 
ation decided upon adopting the line in which the canal now 


Their head office was at Cornwall, where the secretary 
James Hume, and the agent, Wm. R. F. Burford, resided. The 
solicitor, Henry Sherwood, lived at Brockville. 

The management of the work was intrusted to J. B. Mills, 
civil engineer, who had under him, as assistant engineers, George 
and Samuel Keefer, J. Rodrique, Joseph F. McDonell and Ro 
bert Wells. Benjamin Wright was appointed consulting en 

The following are the names of the contractors. The 
figures are the numbers of the sections reckoned eastward from 
the head of the canal at Dickinson s Landing :- 

Section i, . . Robert and William Hervey 

2, 3, 19, 20, 21. 22. 26. - Charles Kerr & Co. 

4, . . . Rogers iS: Co. 

" 5, . . Adam Dixon 

6, ... S. and W. Fraser 

7 and 8, . . . Ceo. Beeby & Co. 

9 and ro, . . Simpson & MitUebertn-r 

ii, . . . . Peter Anderton 

12 and 1 8. . . Caleb Traux & Co. 

13, . . . . Crawford & Thompson 

Old Eastern District. 157 

Section 14. ... Simon Kraser 

" IJ, , . . . W. <S: I. Bowron 

" 16, . Barlow & Brownson 

17, . . . Reid & Shepherd 

23, 24, 25, . . Simpson & Co. 

27, .... Crawford & Simpson 

Lock I, . . . Bellany & Co. 

" 2 and 3. . . . Reid & Shepherd 

" 4, . . . . Kohl. \- I eter McKay 

" 5 and 6, . . Crawford 

Lock Gates, . . . D. and J. L. Wilkinson 

Retaining Wall. . I ieive & Co. 

Culverts, . . Richards & ISuell 

Sewer at Cornwall. . . . William Johnston 

Basin at Cornwall, . . Adam Dixon 

C.uard Gate-. . . I .enr^e Crawford 

Section I was divided into sub-sections and sub-let 

Sub-Section A. Am;us and Alex. McDonell 

II. David Ballantyne and James I lervey 
" C, Simon Kraser, junior 

D, Robt. Harrison, John Leman aud John I lervey 

I . Chas. Kerr&C... 

F, John Reid and Robt. Shepherd. 

The first sod was turned and wheeled away by Chief 
Justice Robinson in the autumn of 1834, at a spot near the 
mouth of the old channel. A few people from the town at 
tended, but there was no ceremony about the affair, nor so far 
as the author knows was the Chief Justice presented with a 
silver spade or a mahogany wheel-barrow. Soon after this 
formal commencement, the work was regularly carried on 
along the whole line. 

The most difficult part of the undertaking was the em 
bankment on the south side of the canal, from Dickinson s 
Landing along the great rapid of the Long Sault. The high 
bank of the river was cut away, and cart-load after cart-load 
of the earth and stone were thrown into the rapid, only to be 
swept away by the current. Months passed before anything 
like an embankment appeared above the surface of the water. 
The perseverance of the contractors and labourers at last con 
quered the difficult}-, and now the Long Sault embankment is 

158 Lnnetibutgh, or the 

the firmest part of the whole work. Quarries were opened on 
Cutler s property in the rear of Milleroches, and on McLeod s, 
to the north-east of the Town of Cornwall, where an abundant 
supply of lime stone was obtained for the locks and culverts. 

In general the men employed in the town and its vicinity 
behaved very well and gave occasion for very few complaints. 
One very unfortunate affair occurred at the Milleroches 
quarry. On the I3th of December, 1834, Ewen Stuart, deputy 
sheriff, Geo. McDonell, barrister, and Henry Thain, bailiff, 
went to the quarry to arrest a man who had aided in rescuing, 
a prisoner the day before. William Ouinn was pointed out 
by Thain to the deputy sheriff as the man. Ouinn rushed at 
Thain with an iron bar ; the deputy sheriff put his hand in 
the breast of his coat to draw out a pistol, when Richard 
Quinn came behind him and struck him on the head with an 
iron drill, fracturing his skull and causing his death a fe\v days 
after. As soon as the news of the attack on Stuart reached 
the town a number of armed men were sent up to arrest the 
Ouinns, but when the party got to the quarry they were too 
late, the Quinns had escaped and no arrests were made. 

After this an application was made by the magistrates 
to the military authorities for a company or two of regular 
troops to assist in maintaining order. A building was put up 
on the court-house lot for barracks in September, 1835, but no 
troops were sent to the town until the following year. 

As the excavation and embankment were proceeded with 
across the front of the town, the inhabitants began to see that 
they were about to be cut off from the river, to which up to 
that time they had easy access. The only means of com 
munication between the town and the river provided for in 
the plans of the canal commissioners was through the culvert 
constructed on lot number nine, south side of Water street* 
Those who have seen this culvert can form a very good idea 
of the difficulties there would have been in getting through it 
to the river wharf from the town. Petitions and remonstrances 

* This culvert was tilled up in 1883. 

Old Eastern District. 159 

were laid before the commissioners, complaining of the injury 
threatened to the town, and urging the necessity of a bridge 
across the canal. Mr. Mills, the acting engineer, and Mr. 
Wright, the consulting engineer, were called upon to report 
on the subject, and they did so on the /th of September, 1835,. 
decided ly against the request for a bridge. Wright stated 
that the culvert was sufficient for all purposes ; that a bridge 
would cost 2500.0.0 or 3000.0.0, would be dangerous to 
boats and troublesome to manage, and would cause an armual 
expense of 25.0.0 at least ; that if it was found that the cul 
vert and a ferry did not give all the accommodation required, 
a bridge could be erected there after, without much additional 
expense, by founding it on piles and a flooring just under 
water in the canal. Mills said that goods could be landed at 
the canal dock ; that a boat would be detained only twenty 
minutes in getting through the locks, and that the delay 
would be compensated by the greater facilities in getting 
goods from a boat at the canal dock than at the river dock at 
the foot of the sewer. He proposed a dock built out in the 
river from the foot of the culvert, where a boat could lie and 
croods and lumber be landed. He seemed to think the un- 


qualified dislike of the townspeople to being cut off from the 
river rather absurd. The commissioners, acting on these 
reports, refused to construct a bridge, and it was not until the 
year 184^ that the inhabitants of the town succeeded in in 
ducing the Government to build one. 

In March, 1836, Mr. Mills, chief engineer, resigned in 
consequence of some disagreement between the commissioners 
and himself, and Captain Philpotts, of the Royal Engineers, 
was appointed in his stead, and had charge of the work until 
it was completed. 

The labourers at the head of the canal were not by any 
means as peaceable and well behaved as those- at the town. 
There were more than one thousand men employed at the deep 
cutting at the Long Sault, and a very unruly set of men they 
were. So long as they confined their quarrels and fights 

160 Lunenburgh, or the 

among themselves, no one was much concerned about them ; 
but when they began to attack the country people, there was 
danger of very serious trouble. For some time so much alarm 
was caused by the conduct of the labourers that the front road 
was considered unsafe, and many persons preferred going out 
to that in the rear of the first concession, to risking insult and 
injury by taking the more direct route. Matters were brought 
to a crisis in the winter of 1836 by the murder of Mr. Albert 
French, the then owner of Maple Grove. This gentleman 
drove through Cornwall late in the afternoon with a horse and 
cutter, on his way home from Montreal. When he got to 
Woods bridge, west of the town, he overtook two canal 
labourers and a woman, who were returning to Dickinson s 
Landing from a funeral. They asked him to let them ride, 
and on his refusal, stopped the horse and dragged French out 
of the sleigh. He seized a stake from an empty wood sleigh 
that was passing and attacked the men with it ; one of them 
wrenched the stake out of his hands, knocked him down with 
it, struck him when down and fractured his skull. The party 
then got into his sleigh and drove off, leaving him senseless 
and bleeding on the bridge, whence he was taken to the near 
est house, where he died in a few hours. The murderers were 
followed up, but only one of the men was arrested. He was 
tried at the Assizes at Cornwall in the following summer, 
found guilty, and executed. There were many threats of a 
rescue on the part of the labourers, and the Government sent 
a company of the I5th Regiment of the line from Kingston 
to Cornwall, under the command of Capt. Brouncker. This 
company was stationed in the barracks built near the court 
house for a couple of months. They were under arms in the 
barracks at the time of the execution, but there was no dis 
turbance. Soon after the execution they were ordered to join 
their regiment at Kingston. After this tragical affair there 
was very little trouble with the men at the Long Sault. 

Up to the year 1838, the sum of 430,000.0.0 had been 
granted by the Legislature of Upper Canada for the improve- 

Old Eastern District. 161 

ment of the navigation of the St. Lawrence river, within the 
boundaries of that Province. Of this sum 3 50,000.0.0 had been 
raised and expended. 40,000.0.0 or 50,000.0.0 were required 
to finish the work on the Cornwall canal, but could not be raised 
owing to the embarrassed state of the Provincial finances. 

The canal commissioners proposed to raise money on their 
notes signed by the president and secretary. The Government 
offered 10,000 to be expended in paying off arrears due to 
the contractors and workmen, and in placing the work in a state 
to admit of a suspension of operations thereon with the least 
possible damage. In June, 1838, it was decided that debentures 
for 29,000 should be issued, and that the work should be con 
tinued until that sum was expended. In this year Hiram Nor 
ton, one of the commissioners, resigned, and James Morris was 
appointed in his place. 

In October, 1838, an order was issued by the Lieut- 
Govcrnor of the Province to build a stone block house near the 
the locks, at Cornwall. A good deal of stone* was prepared 
and cut for the proposed building, and the excavation for the 
foundation was dug, a little north of where the pottery now is, 
but the order was rescinded, and the work was not proceeded 

The barracks built in 1835 were handed over to Lieut- 
Col. Philpotts for the use of the troops raised in 1838. They 
were occupied by Captain Geo. Crawford s independent com 
pany in that year and in 1839, and afterwards by part of the 
incorporated militia regiment, stationed in the town. 

Work on the canal was suspended from the close of 1838 
until after the Act uniting Upper and Lower Canada came into 
force in 1841, when it was resumed and completed in Novem 
ber, 1842. 

When the canal was completed, and the water let in, it 
was found that some of the implements for working the vah 
of the lock gates had been mislaid either purposely or acci- 

This stone wu> bought liy the late Win. Wood, and u>ed in the building of 
his house we>t of the town. 

162 Luneiilmrgh, or tJie 

dentally, and that the valves that were open could not be closed 
nor those that were shut opened. The water rose a foot or two 
above the gates of the three locks below the town, and was 
pouring over them like a torrent, and there was great danger 
that the unusual pressure might carry some of them away, or 
burst the bank of the canal. Fortunately the missing imple 
ments were discovered, and the water brought to its proper 
level before any damage occurred. Very few accidents have 
happened to the work since it was completed. The worst was a 
break which occurred in October, i85O,-f- in the south bank near 
Moulinette, which emptied the long level between the guard 
lock and that cast of Milleroches, and stopped navigation for 
about two weeks. A propeller, "The England," that was in the 
long level at the time of the break, narrowly escaped being car 
ried out by the rush of the waters. 

The Beauharnois canal was constructed a few years after 
the completion of the Cornwall canal. Then the lock at Far- 
ren s Point, the canal at Morrisburgh, and that from Iroquois to 
the head of the Galops rapid, were made. These works, with 
the enlargement of the Lachine canal, made the system of inland 
navigation by the St. Lawrance route complete from Montreal 

The Cornwall canal was opened for navigation late in the 
autumn of 1842. The " Highlander" was the first of the mail 
line of steamboats that passed up. On her first trip to King 
ston, she was detained for some hours at the head of the 
canal, as the coffer-dam built there had not been taken away 
sufficiently to allow her to pass. After the canal was opened 
for navigation, the people of the town found that the incon 
venience of having no access to the river, except through the 
culvert, was intolerable. Petitions were sent, and strong repre 
sentations were made to the Board of PublicWorks. The Hon 
orable H. H. Killaly, the President of the Board, came to the 

i A break occured near the same spot on the I2th of October, 1888, which 
was not repaired for some weeks owing to the fact that the earth and stone used to 
lill up the jjap slid into the river. 

Old Eastern District. 163 

town, and after a careful examination, consented to the build 
ing of the bridge, which was completed in 1843, ar >d which has 
been maintained from that time by the Government. 
The dimensions of the Cornwall canal are : 

Length, . . . II 4 statute miles 

Breadth at bottom, . . . 100 feet 

" at top, . . 150 " 

Depth of water on sills. . . 9 

Number of locks, . . 7 " 

Length of old locks. . . 200 " 

Width . . 55 " 

Total rise in lockage, . . 48 " 

A new cut was made and two new locks built south of 
the three locks cast of the town, and completed in 1882. The 
dimensions of the new locks are : 

Length, .... 270 " 

Width, . . . 45 " 

Depth of water on sill-,. . . 14 

Length of basin, . . 825 " 

There have been three superintendent; and two collectors 
since the opening of the canal. Superintendents : Godfrey, 
from November, 1842, to September, 1849 ; Duncan A. Mc- 
Donell, from September, 1849, to ist July, 1889 ; Alexander 
P. Ross, from ist July, 1889. Collectors : Daniel Phelan and 
James Phelan, his son, who succeeded him. 

The dimensions of the Farrcn s Point canal arc : 

Length ... ; 4 of a mile. 

I lock, length . . . 2OO feet 

Breadth. . . . 45 " 

Total rise. . . . 4 

Depth of water on sills. . 9 " 

Breadth of canal at bottom, . . 50 

surface. . 90 " 

Contracts were entered into in the autumn of i<S8X for 
the building of three new locks above the town, and tin- 
deepening of the canal to 14 feet. The work is to be com 
pleted in the spring of 1891. 

The contractors for the building of the locks on the 


LunenburgJi, or ike 

Cornwall canal are Messrs. Davis Brothers, and for the deep 
ening of it, the Gilbert Dredging and Blasting Company. For 
the Galops canal, Messrs. Murray & Cleveland. 

miles - 

200 feet by 45 
I5# feet 
9 feet 
50 " 
90 " 

BKAI 1 1 \ i< xois CANAL. 
a % miles - 

9 - 

200 feet by 45 
S2>/ 2 feet 
9 feet 
80 " - 
1 20 " 


No. of locks 

- Dimensions - 

Total rise in lockage 

Depth of water on sills 

Breadth of canal at bottom 

" "at surface 


No. of locks 

- Dimensions - 

Total rise of lockage 


4 miles 

200 feet by 45 

11)4. feet 

9 feet 

- 50 " 
90 " 


- 8)4 miles 

- 5 

270 feet by 45 
45%: feet 

Depth of water on sills - 2 locks. 18 ft.; 3 locks, I4ft. 

Breadth of canal at bottom 
" "at surface 

80 feet 
120 " 

An improvement is now being made in the Galop rapids 
by forming a straight channel, 3,300 feet in length, 200 feet in 
width, and 14 in depth. 

Old Eastern District. 165 


The postal arrangements in the newly settled parts of 
Canada one hundred years ago, did not afford much facility 
for correspondence. The mail between Montreal and Niagara 
was sent by couriers, who travelled most of the way on foot, 
and took six months to make the round trip. In the winter 
of 1784-85 old Jacques Morriseau carried the mail on his back 
twice between Montreal and Kingston. Houses were so 
scarce at that time, between Lachine and Cornwall, that he 
had to sleep in the open air for three nights. The only bed 
he had on these occasions was of boughs of evergreens with a 
single blanket to cover him. 

Before the end of last century mails were dispatched more 
frequently; a mail each way once in two months in winter and 
probably once a month in summer. 

From the year 1800 to about 1812, there was a mail car 
ried by foot-men up and down once a month in winter, and 
with the aid of boats once a fortnight in summer. The late S. 
Y. Chesley says in his memoranda relative to the mails prior to 
1818 : " On one occasion I happened to be a fellow-passenger, on 
a freight batteau, from Coteau du Lac to Cornwall, with one of 
these mail carriers, who perceiving that I spoke his language 
(French), when opposite Lancaster post office, asked me to ex 
amine his various parcels contained in the mail bag, of which 
he carried the key, to ascertain whether there were an}- for 
Lancaster. There being only one letter he concluded not to 
stop then, but would deliver it on his return." 

After i Si 2 (nails were despatched once a week. The next 
improvement was the sending of mails up and down three tinu^ 
a week. This continued until about 1830, when the Post Offi 


1 66 Lunenburgk, or the 

Department decided on sending a mail each way daily to all 
places on the St. Lawrence and the lakes. No further change 
was made until the completion of the Grand Trunk Railway, 
from Montreal to Toronto, in the autumn of 1856, when the 
present system of two daily mails each way, was adopted. 

Considering the lack of postal accommodation in early 
days, it is not a matter of much wonder that few letters went 
by post. The>- were generally entrusted by the writers to 
friends who were travelling to the places to which the letters 
were to be sent ; in fact, until the establishment of the daily 
mails, a person about to take ajonrney to Montreal or York, 
would have been looked upon as very deficient in courtesy if 
he did not let his friends know of his intended trip, and ask if 
they had letters to send. Sometimes letters sent in that way 
failed to reach their destination. When the old English Church 
in Cornwall was pulled down there were found under one of the 
pews two letters that had been entrusted over sixty years pre 
viously to a gentleman to be delivered to friends in Quebec. 
The high rates of postage charged up to 1850 had no doubt a 
good deal to do with the persistent efforts of the people to send 
their letters by private hand. 

The management of the post office in Canada was under 
the control of the Imperial Government, until 1850, when it 
was transferred to the provincial authorities, and the rate of 
postage reduced to three pence (5 cents) the half ounce, upon 
letters between any two places in the Province. This was 
a very great reduction from the high rates previously exacted, 
which were as follows : 

s. d. 

- I IO]4 
2 I 

- 2 3 

2 5 

2 9 

3 2 

These charges were for a "single letter," that is,a letter with- 





and under - 


4 1 / 

701 miles 


Soo - 


( i 


100 - 

- o 


SOI " 

( < 



( ; 





901 " 

t i 


20 1 


i c 

300 - 

- o 



; t 



t . 






I2OO - 


t ; 

1 1 

5OO - 



1201 " 

1 ( 




1 f 




1301 " 

; ( 

I4OO - 

60 1 

i t 

( t 

7OO - 

- I 


I4OI " 



Old Eastern District. 167 

out any enclosure. A letter with one enclosure was charged 
double, with two or more, if it did not wei^h an ounce, treble ; 
if weighing an ounce, it was charged four single rates, and for 
each quarter ounce over that a single rate was added. 

The postage on a single letter to England, by sailing 
packet, was 2s. 5 J/d. On a double letter, 45. I id. After steam 
ships were employed to carry the mails, the rates on English 
letters were increased to 3s. id. and 6s. 2d. respectively for 
single and double letters. 

A letter put in an envelope, in the modern mode, would 
have been charged double under the old system. The letter 
paper used then was at least double the size of the modern 
note paper. Great care was taken to write on every available 
part of the sheet, so that no more than one sheet would be 
used, and the charge for double postage would not be incurred. 
The folding of the letter, so that no part of the contents 
would be exposed, required no little care and neatness, but in 
the present day this, like the making and mending of a quill 
pen, has become one of the lost arts. 

The carrying of letters by private individuals, was an of 
fence punishable by fine. It lessened the revenue, and the au 
thorities of the Post Office Department endeavored by all means 
in their power to put a stop to it. Occasionally an order would 
be issued warning the public, and threatening pains and penal 
ties for the infraction of the law. The following is one of these 
orders, copied from the Kingston "Chronicle" of the 4th May, 
1821 : 


MI-KI;KC, 23rd April, 1821. 

" The Deputy I ostmastei-< u nend, having placed a box for the conveyance of 
letters on each of the steamers in Upper and Lower Canada, \vhich are carried to 
the post-office immediately on their arrival ; irive.s this notice to passengers and 
others on board, that he lias order* from His Majesty s Postmaster-General, to 
prosecute such persons as shall convey and deliver letters to the prejudice of His 
Majesty s revenue." 

When this order was made, the steamboats running be 
tween Montreal and Quebec were the " Malsham," the " Lady 
Shcrbrooke," and the new " Swiftsurc," which left Montreal 

1 68 Lunenburgh, or the 

alternately on the morning of Thursday, Sunday and Tuesday- 
of each week, and Quebec on Saturday night or Monday 
morning,Tuesday night or Wednesday morning, and Thursday 
night or Friday morning, 

News from England came very slowly sixty or seventy 
years ago. Sometimes the voyage of the sailing vessels that 
carried the mails lasted six or eight weeks; for instance, the 
Montreal "Herald" of 5th December, 1820, informs its readers 
that no news had been received from England since the 5th of 

In the Kingston "Chronicle" of 2/th July, 1821, there is an 
advertisement that " a covered carriage leaves the Mansion 
House, Kingston, every Monday and Thursday at 1 1 a.m., for 
Prescott, where it intersects with the regular mail stages to 
Montreal; fare, Kingston to Prescott, IDS. ; Prescott to Mon 
treal, 355. It is probable that the mails were sent by this car 
riage twice a week. When the mails were carried by stage 
coach, the bags were in charge of the driver, and were usually- 
put under his seat or on the top of the stage. When a post 
office was being approached the driver blew his horn lustily to 
warn the postmaster. On getting to the door he tumbled the 
mail bag or bags off the stage, and dragged them into the of 
fice, where the postmaster opened and emptied them, selected 
the matter addressed to his office, and put the rest, with the 
mail he had to despatch from his office, into the bags, and de 
livered them to the driver to be replaced on the stage. The 
changing of the mail took sometimes twenty minutes or more. 
If the post office was at a place where the horses were changed 
or the passengers took a meal, the delay was not irksome, but 
otherwise, it was by no means pleasant to be detained at the 
post office door in the severe cold of a winter s night, the heat 
of a midsummer day, or possibly in a storm of rain or snow. 
In those days, however, post offices were few and far between, 
and the detentions were not many. Before the opening of the 
Grand Trunk Railway and other railways, the mails were car 
ried on the lake and river steamboats in summer, and for many 

Old Eastern District. 169 

years were sorted at the principal post offices on the route. A 
short time before the hour for the arrival of the boat, the car 
rier of the mail would make his appearance at the wharf with 
a rough looking horse and still rougher looking waggon. The 
moment the boat stopped the mail bags were thrown ashore, 
pitched into the waggon, and driven off, at the old horse s best 
speed, to the post office, where the mail was sorted and replaced 
in the bags and then taken back to the boat. After some 
years the plan was adopted of putting the mails in charge of a 
post office clerk, whose duty it was to sort them on the boat, so 
that on her arrival at any stopping place, the mail bag for the 
post office there, was handed to the carrier, who, at the same 
time, delivered the out-going mail to the clerk on the boat, thus 
saving the delay caused by the trip to the post office and back. 
This system is in operation on all the railways, a post office 
car being attached to every train on which the mails are car 
ried. In this car the mails are assorted and made up by the 
post office clerk in charge. In 1867 the postage on letters was 
reduced to three cents the half ounce. In the session of 1889 
a change was made, and now the postage on letters is three 
cents an ounce. There were very few post offices in Upper 
Canada at the beginning of the present century, but the exact 
number cannot be ascertained. Samuel Sherwood was post 
master at Augusta in 1801. 

An almanac published at York for the year 1803 gives the 
following information about the post offices in Upper Canada 
in the year 1802. The Deputy- Postmaster-General for British 
North America was George Heriott, Esq. The postmasters 
in Upper Canada were : 

Cornwall, - Samuel Anderson York, 1). McLean 

Matilda. J. Munro Niagara, Joseph Edwards 

Augusta. Samuel Sherwood Queenston. Thomas I Hckson 

Kingston, John dimming Chippewa Robert Mac-Idem 

I ort Krie, - Vacant Sandwich, Vacant 

The following announcement is added : 

N. 1!. A monthly communication between this 1 rovince and Lower Canada 
will be open during the winter. 

A mail for England is dispatched from Ouebec once a fortnight in the Mimmer 
-and once a month in the winter, to be put on board the first packet boat. 

170 Lunenbutgh, or the 

Miles McDonell was appointed postmaster in Stormont on 
the 1 2th of August, 1803, and Walter B. Wilkinson, at Corn 
wall, on the 24th of August, 1803. He was succeeded by Guy 
Carleton Wood,* who was appointed about 1 804, and held the 
office until his resignation about 1854. He was succeeded by 
his son George C. W T ood, and when he gave up the position in 
1 870- ; i , Geo. McDonell, the present postmaster, was appointed. 
J. J. Dunlop had the post office at Lancaster in 1816. 

In 1821 the post offices in the Eastern District numbered 
three : Lancaster, J. J. Dunlop ; Cornwall, G. C. Wood ; Ma 
tilda, Paul Glasford. In 1827 the number had increased to six, 
the additional ones being Lochiel, James Burton, P. M.; Wil- 
liamsburg, John Oyster, P. M. ; and Martintown, Alex. Mc- 
Martin, P. M. The Matilda office was held by Geo. Brouse, 
instead of Paul Glasford. 

In 1838 the total number of post offices in Upper and 
Lower Canada was 395, twelve of which were in the Eastern 
District, viz. : 


Alexandria, R. Chisholm St. Andrews, D. McDonell 

Cornwall, - - C-uy C. Wood Willinmsburgh, Kast, ^(ieo. Cook 

Lancaster, Wm. Mclntosh Williamsburgh, West, Jas. Holden 

Lochiel, - D. McLeocl Williamstown, - D. McNicol 

Moulinette, A. Dixon Martintown, - A.:McMardn 

Osnabruck, Jos. Backus Matilda, - Geo. Brouse 

In 1888 the number of post offices in the Dominion was 
7,619, 113 of which are in the counties of Stormont, Dundas 
and Glengarry. 

Guy Carleton Wood died 8th June, 1857. He had been for more than 50 
years postmaster. 

Old Eastern District. 171 


After the commencement of the Revolutionary War, a 
number of corps were formed in the Colonies for the King s 
service. The following, taken from Dr. Canniff s work on the 
" Settlement of Upper Canada," is as complete a list as the 
author has been able to procure of the different corps that 
formed the U. E. Loyalist army : 

The King s Rangers. 

" Royal Fencible Americans. 

" Oueen s Rangers. 

Nes\ York Volunteers. 

" King s American Regiment. 

" Prince of Wales American Volunteers. 

" Maryland Loyalists. 
Delancey s Battalions, i, 2, 3. 

The Second American Regiment. 

" King s Rangers, Carolina. 

" South Carolina Royalists. 

" North Carolina Highland Regiment. 

" King s American Dragoons. 

" Loyal American Regiment. 

" American Legion. 

" The New Jersey Volunteers, i, 2, 3, 4 Battalion, 

British Legion. 

Loyal Foresters. 

" ( )range Rangers. 

% Pennsylvania Loyalists. 

(iuidesand Rangers. 

North Carolina Volunteers. 

( ieorgia Loyalists. 

West Chester Volunteers. 

Loyal \\-\\ Lnghuulers. 

" Associated Loyalists. 
\\ 1 iitworth s Volunteers. 
Col. Archibald Hamilton s seventeen companies of Loyal Militia. 

In another part of his book the Doctor mentions the 84th 

172 Lunenburgh, or the 

Regiment,* originally called the Royal Highland Emigrants ; 
Sir John Johnson s corps of two battalions, called the King s 
Royal Regiment of New York ; Butler s Rangers, and the 
Loyal Rangers, commanded by Major Edward Jessup, which 
may be included in the above list under other names. 

The following are added from a list furnished by James 
Howe, of New Brunswick : -f- 

Voluntecrs of Ireland. 
Battalion of Chasseurs. 
Black Pioneers. 
Philadelphia Light Dragoons. 
Buck s County Dragoons. 
Nova Scotia Loyalists. 
Garrison Battalion. 
Royal North Carolina Regiment. 

There arc few records of the formation and career of the 
Royal Yorkers now in existence, % but from such as are avail 
able the following history of the corps has been gathered. 

Sir John Johnson, by whom the regiment was raised, was 
the son and heir-at-law of Sir William Johnson, of Johnson 
Hall, in the Valley of the Mohawk, New York. Sir William 
was in command at the battle of Lake George in 1755, in 
which he was wounded. He served throughout the French 
war, and received a Baronetcy and 5000.0.0 for his services. 
On his death in 1775, his son John succeeded to the title and 

the estate. 

In 1776, an arrangement was made between General 
Schuyler and Sir John, by which the latter agreed to a pacific 
line of conduct, and to remain within certain prescribed limits. 
For some unexplained reason, this agreement was violated, 
Sabine does not say by whom, but the Whigs attempted to 

*P.p. 68, 439. 

The Doctor is mistaken in calling the 84th Regiment " the Second Battalion 
of the King s Royal Regiment of New York. " 

tSee Report on Archives for 1883. D. Brymner. 

* Sabine s Loyalists, p. 594- D- Brymner s reports on Canadian Archives. 
Dr. Canniff s Settlement of Upper Canada, p. 439, 440. Orderly book and mem 
orandum book in the author s possession. The Canadian Antiquary, July, 1889. 

Old Eastern District. 173 

secure the Baronet s person. He, learning of this intention, 
secured his most valuable effects and escaped to the woods 
with about seven hundred followers, determined to proceed to 
Canada. After enduring almost every imaginable hardship, 
he and the principal part of his followers arrived at Montreal. 
He was soon appointed a Colonel, and authorized to raise a 
regiment, called "The King s Royal Regiment of New York."* 

It appears from a letter in the Haldimand Collection, that 
it was known on the 8th of August, 1776, -f that Sir John 
Johnson and his followers were on their way to Montreal. A 
direction was given on the 24th of that month that he be sup 
plied with batteaux.* In September, 1776, he was authorized 
to raise a battalion. On the I9th of September, 1776, 
Edward Foy, D.A.G., wrote to him " that the officers for the 
new corps were to be divided, so as to assist those distressed 
by the rebellion," and on the 24th of September, 1776, Foy 
wrote " that there are to be no pluralities of offices in his 
corps." || On the 26th of September, 1776, Sir John was 
ordered to bring his regiment to Laprairie, to join the army, 
if necessary.** On the nth of November, 1776, -f-f- D. A. G. 
Foy wrote to Major Gray, of the Royal Regiment of New 
York, that refugees with his regiment were not to be com 
pelled to serve, but to be sheltered and supplied with neces 
saries. On the ist of December, 1776, the D. A. G. wrote 
Major Gray about the arrangements for receiving the U. E. 
Loyalists from New York, under the conduct of the Messrs. 
Jessup4 On the I3th of January, 1777, Sir Guy Carleton 
wrote to General Phillips, applauding the spirit of the Royal 
Regiment of New York, and making arrangements for the 

* Report on Canadian Archives for 1885. 
t Haldimand Collection -Hook 20. ]>. 135. 
+ B. 39, p. 109. 
?; H.39, p. 170. 
H. 39, p. 181. 
** H. 39, p. 1 86. 
it 15. 39, P . 251. 
X H. 39, p. 283. 

174 Lunenburgh, or the 

care of refugees with that corps.* On the Hth of January,. 
1777, Edward Foy, D.A.G., directs Major Gray, of the Royal 
Regiment of New York, that the oath of allegiance is to be 
administered to all refugees from New York, or other govern 
ments, f On the 3ist of January, 1777, Foy wrote to Ephraim 
Jones, that there was no foundation for the report that another 
battalion to Sir John Johnson s regiment was to be formed. * 
On the 24th of March, 1777, Lord George Germaine wrote 
from Whitehall, London, to Sir Guy Carleton, that he had 
received notice of Sir John Johnson s arrival at Montreal ; that 
the distress and loyalty of the people in that part of the coun 
try from which he came justify the raising of a battalion there, 
and that the King approves of this, and of Sir John having 
been raised to the command. On the i6th of April, 1777,. 
warrants for clothing were sent to Major Gray. On the 28th 
of April, 1777, Sir Guy Carleton wrote to General Phillips, 
approving of sending to MajorGray the men for Albany.** On 
the 1 2th of May, 1777, Edward Foy, D.A.G., wrote to Major 
Gray, that he is to give orders to Sir John Johnson s corps to 
be in readiness to march ff under Colonel St. Legcr. ** On 
the 1 2th of July, 1780, General Haldimand wrote to Lord 
George Germaine, and mentioned Sir John Johnson s success 
ful expedition on the Mohawk. On the I3th of July, 1780, 
General Halcjimand wrote to Sir John Johnson, authorizing 
him to raise a second battalion.ili! On the I2th of April, 1781,. 
Lord George Germaine wrote to General Haldimand, and 
stated that Sir John Johnson s corps was to be placed on the 

* B. 39, P. 330. 
t B. 39, P- 338. 
t B. 39, P- 345- 

* B. 38, P- 5- 

ii B. 39, p. 432- 
K. 39, p. 447. 

ft The expedition from Oswcgo to the Valley of the Mohawk. See Stones 
" Life of Brant." Vol. I, chap. 10. 
* B. 39, P- 447- 
<$ B. 54, p. 284. 
K 47, p. 10. 

Old Eastern District. 175, 

establishment, and referred to his and Carleton s meritorious 

It is not known whether or not the Royal Regiment of New 
York was with Gen. Burgoyne s army in the attempted advance 
to Albany. Some-j- of those who joined the regiment were 
with Burgoync in the unlucky expedition commanded by him, 
but were not made prisoners under the capitulation, as most of 
the Provincial troops under his command were sent back to 
the frontier, when it was found that the army was compelled 
to retreat. Many of the Provincials considered this a fortun 
ate circumstance for them, as they feared that their fate would 
have been " a lang rope and a short shrift," if they had fallen 
into the power of the Continental army.* Dr. Canniff says 
that the regiment took a conspicuous and noble part in the 
war, although those who feared them, and were unequal 
to meet them in combat, endeavoured to malign them. They 
were stationed at different places along the frontier, and were 
engaged in the border warfare carried on between the Loyal 
ists and the Continentals. They were with Colonel St. Leger 
in his expedition from Oswego to the Mohawk in 1/77, an d 
were led by Sir John to Johnson Hall in May, i/<So. The 

15. 50, p. So. 

t The author has heard Samuel Anderson. \\ho was a Captain in the Royal 
Yorker-.. >pe:ik of his having lieen \\ith Burgoyne s forces in the advance from 
Lake Champlain. 

J The ninth article of capitulation is in these words: - IX. All Canadians 
and persons belonging to the Canadian establishment, consisting of sailors, batteaux- 
inen. artificer-., drivers, independent companies, and many other followers of the 
army \\lio cmne under no particular description, are to he permitted to return 
there (i.e., to Canada): they are to be conducted immediately by the shortest 
route to the tiist [British po-4 on Lake George; are to be supplied with provisions 
in the ^anie manner as the other troops, and are to be bound by the same 
condition <>t not serving during the present contest in North America. The 
wording of the article is somewhat ambiguous, and a doubt might have occurred as 
to whether the loyalist.-* who had escaped from the revolted provinces were Can 
adians or belonged to the Canadian establishment, and whether they were in 
cluded in the capitulation. See the narrative of I.ieut. -Col. John IVters. published 
in the " Toronto ( dobe " of i6th July, 1X77. 

176 Lumnburgh, or the 

names of the combats in which they took part are not now 
ascertainable, but we may rest assured that wherever the 
Royal Yorkers were, whether in the field or in garrison, they 
did their duty as good and gallant soldiers. 

An orderly book that belonged to Capt. Samuel Anderson, 
who commanded the Light Infantry Company of the first 
battalion, Royal Yorkers, is in the author s possession. It 
contains nearly all the garrison and regimental orders from 
the 1/ of May, 1/79, until the 3rd of August, 1780. 

In May, 1779, the battalion was stationed at Carleton 
Island, and with a portion of the Royal Highland Emigrants 
and some of the Royal Artillery, formed the garrison of that 
post. The troops appear to have been employed in complet 
ing the fortifications (named in the order of I4th of May, 1779, 
" Fort Haldimand,") and to have been kept constantly on the 
alert by threatened attacks on the part of the rebels. 

On the 2 ist of September, 1779, the Royal Yorkers were 
sent to Niagara, to oppose the designs of the rebels against 
that post.* They returned to Carleton Island in October, and 
in November they were sent to Chateauguay. Some of them 
were stationed during the winter on Isle Perot, and some were 
sent to Isle Aux Noix. 

On the 23rd of July, 1780, they were ordered to Lachinc. 
* How long they remained there is not known, as the last date 
in the orderly book is the 3rd of August, 1780. 

In the July number of the " Canadian Antiquarian " for 
the year 1885, several extracts are given from an orderly book 
in the possession of Major Latour. From that it appears that 
in October, 1782, the first battalion was in Lower Canada, with 
its headquarters at Terrebonne, where they remained until 
July, 1783, and that they received orders on the i/jlh of that 
month to march to Montreal, where they were stationed on 
the 28th of September of that year. 

As stated already, authority was given on the I3th of 
July, 1780, to Sir John Johnson, to raise the second battalion. 

* See Haldimand Collection, B. 54. 

Old Eastern District. 177 

On the 28th of November, 1780, General Haldimand wrote to 
Lord George Germaine, sent him a return of the Royal Regi 
ment of New York, stated that the first battalion was com 
pleted, that the second battalion was in a foward state, and 
represented Sir John Johnson s conduct favourably. Major 
Latour s orderly book shows that on the 3ist of October, 1782, 
the second battalion was in garrison in one of the upper posts, 
the name of which is not given. It also gives an order dated 
1 2th November, 1782, containing the names of the officers of 
the second battalion, and the promotions in the first battalion 
consequent upon several officers having been transferred from 
the first to the second. 

Recruiting for the second battalion commenced as soon 
as the order for its formation was made known. As officers 
seeking promotion brought the recruits in, companies were 
formed and sent on duty, and on the completion of the bat 
talion the names of the officers who had charge of it were put 
in orders. 

The following are extracts from the orderly book in the 
author s possession. The first order is 


" FORT HAI.DIMAND, May 14, 1779. 
" Parole. Coldingham; Countersign, Berwick. 

" The guards for the future to consist of an officer for the day. one sergeant^ 
two corporals and fourteen private men." 

On the 1 6th of May, it is ordered 

That the corporal at the east end of the island is to lie careful and keep a - 
look out, and keep no tires by night, nor more than one of them to sleep at a time, 
as its apprehended a scouting party of the rebels is on the opposite side of the 
river, and they will endeavour to surprise them if possible. If they observe any 
thing like an enemy, they are to abandon their post and return tothe garrison. No 
soldier should be sent to that guard but young and active men." 

The order of May I7th, 1779, directs 

" That every man of the Royal Regiment of New York is to be in the garrison ; 
the keys to be given tothe commanding officer every night at tattoo beating. 

" CARLETON [SLAND, May 2.\. 1770. 

" I arole, Niagara; Countersign, Detroit. 

The Royal Highland Kmigrants are to take the guard to-morrow I .very man 

178 Lunenburgh) or the 

off duty is to be on parade to-morrow morning at 6 o clock, to work and forward 
the public works as fast as possible, in order to put the garrison in a proper posi 
tion of defence. 

" Officer for the day, to-morrow, Ensign Prentice. 

"The men of the Royal Yorkers, employed as artificers, arc to join the arti 
ficers to-morrow morning." 

By the order of 28th May, 1779, 

"Lieut. David Smith of the Royal Highland Emigrants, is appointed Adjutant to 
the garrison, and Sergeant Dagg, of the Royal Highland Emigrants, is appointed 
Sergeant-Major for the garrison. 

"On occasion of an alarm, the troops in garrison are immediately to repair to 
their alarm posts. 

"The Royal Highland Emigrants alarm post to be from the north-east bastion 
to the artillery hut. 

"The Royal Yorkers alarm post is from the west bastion to their own barracks. 
The alarm post for the engineers department, and the artificers is from the artillery 
hut to the Yorker s barracks. 

"The shipwrights and carpenters belonging to the naval department, when the 
alarm is given, are to immediately to repair to the fort to man the great guns, and 
to receive their orders from Captain Shanks. " 

Garrison orders, June the 3rd, 17/9: 

"The Royal Highland Emigrants and Royal Yorkers are to fire three volleys 
at 12 o clock, to-morrow, in honour of His Majesty s birthday. The artillery are 
to fire seven great guns, and to be be answered by the ships in the harbour by 
seven each, the whole twenty-one." 

June 6th, 1779 : 

"A garrison court-martial ordered. Captain Anderson, president ; Lieut. Mc- 
Donell, Ensign McDonell, Lieut. Damburgess, Lieut. McKen/.ie, members." 

In the orders of July 5th, 1779, the officer for the day is 
Captain Neil McLean ; the officer for the guard, Ensign Neil 

By the order of the 3rd of December, 1779, dram sellers 
are strictly forbidden to sell any kind of spirituous liquor to 
the soldiers, without an order in writing from an officer. 

In the autumn of 1779, the officers got new clothing from 
England, and by the order of the ist of December, 1779, the 
Colonel recommends them to put themselves under stoppages 
to reimburse Mr. Blackburn, by whom the clothing was sent 

The Hon. Neil McLean, father of Chief Justice McLean, Colonel Alex. 
McLean and John McLean, at one time sheriff at Kingston. 

Old Eastern District. 179 

out. They arc also recommended to preserve the new uniforms 
till the regiment appears in their new clothing. In the same 
orders the inhabitants of Isle Perot receive great praise for 
their spirited and loyal behaviour. 

The following order, which is copied verbatim ct literatim, 
shows that some members of the old regiment were not 
strongly imbued with the principles of total abstinence : 

"R. O. 

"SHATUGUE, January 9th. 1780. 

"It is the commanding officers orders, that for the future, each non- 
mnisoned officer and soldier for duty, be warned the day or night before hand, 
or guard mounting, to prevent the indecences apearance of a drunking man going 
upon duty, witch Lieut. Byrnes detekted the same day. an uncommisond officer, 
going even after guard mounting, as corporal of the guard. Beastly Drunk & 
incapable of any service, ocasond from the neglect of the sergt, not timely warned, 
in due notice given the men of the respective companys when for duty, therefore 
every non-commisoned officer, not paying due attencing to their orders, the may 
depend upon being broought to strict account." 

Notwithstanding the display made of himself by the 
unlucky corporal, the men of the regiment showed themselves 
to be sober, steady and industrious, when the} set to work to 
clear their farms. 

On the 27th of June, 1780, a regimental order was issued, 

"That a return of the arms and accoutrements lost on the late expedition under 
the command of Sir John Johnson, be >ent to the adjutant without lo>> of time, the 
return to be signed by the officers commanding companies." 

The expedition referred to in this order must be the one 
made by Sir John Johnson with about five hundred men in 
May, 1780, when he removed the family plate and papers from 
the places where they had been concealed.* It is mentioned 
as having been successful. See General Haldimand s letter to 
Lord George Germainc, 1 2th July, 1780; sec Haldimand 
Collection, H. 54, p. 284 ; see Sir John Johnson s report, Ap 
pendix A, i. 

The names of the officers of the first battalion are given 
in a memorandum book that belonged to the adjutant, John 

* See Stone - " I .id- of Brant." Vol. 2. p. 72. 

i8o Lnnenburgk, or the 

Valentine, and which is now in the author s possession.* The 
list is in the adjutant s handwriting. Some of the entries in. 
the book are dated in 1785 : 

LIEUT. -CoL. Sir John Johnson, Bart. 
MAJOR James Gray 


Angus McDonell Saml. Anderson 

John Munroe John McDonell 

Pat Daly Alex. McDonell 

Richard Duncan Archd. McDonell 



Malcolm McMartin Jacob Farrand 

Peter Everett Hugh Munro 

John Prentice Joseph Anderson 

Hugh McDonell Thomas Smyth 

Wm. Coffin Win. Claus 

John Fredk. Holland 


John Connolly Francis McCarthy- 

Jacob Glen Duncan Cammeron 

Miles McDonell John Mann 

Kben/.. Anderson Jas. Valentine 


ADJUTANT John Valentine. 


SURGEON Chas. Austin. 
SURGEON S MATE James Stewart. 

The officers of the second battalion of the King s Royal 
Regiment of New York were named in the following general 

order : -f- 


"QUEBEC, 12 Nov., 1782. 
"Parole, St. John; Countersign, Torbay. 

"The commandei -in-chief having thought proper to direct Sir John Johnson. 
Knight and Bart., to raise a second battalion to his corps, the following appoint 
ments are to take place : 


John Ross Thomas Gummersal 

Robert Leake Jacob Maurrier 

* The author got this book from Mrs. Valentine, widow of the Adjutant, who- 
died in 1829. 

t See " Canadian Antiquary," for July, 1885. 

Old Eastern District, 


William Morrison 
James McDonell 

Patrick Langan 
Walter Sutherland 
Wm. McKay 
Xeal Robinson 
Henry Young 
John Howard 

Will. Clans 
Alexander McKen/.ie 
Ronald McDonell 


l.ll-.r IKNAXTS 

K\M<;NS : 

(ieo. Singelton 

Win. Redford Crawford 

Jeremiah French 
Phillip Lansingh 
Huzelton Spencer 
Oliver Church 
Wm. Fraser 
Win. (iriffin 

Samuel McRav 
Thim. Thompson 
John McKay 

( HAl LAiN John Stewart. 
ADJUTANT-SERGEANT Wm. 1-raser, of the Thirty-Fourth Regiment. 

R-MASTKR SKKCKAM Matthew Dice, first battalion. Royal Yorker?. 
Si KI.KON Hugh Carson. 

The Commander-in-Chief has been pleased to make the following promo 
tions in the first battalion of Royal Yorkers : 


Archibald McDonell. to be Capt. -Lieut., vice < iummcrsal. promoted. 

Austin Piety, 
P. Fverett, 
J. Prentice. 
H. McDonell, 
J. F. Holland, 
J. Hunter,* 

Hugh Munro. 
Joseph Anderson. 
Thomas Smythe, 
J. Connelly,* 
[ames McAlpin. 
John Valentine. 
|. Glen, 


A. McDonell, 
J. Maurrier. 
W. Morrison, 
J. McDonell, 
( ,. Singelton, 
\\. R. Crawford. 


to be Knsign. 

\ ice 

A. Piety. 
I . Kverett, 
|. Prentice. 
II. McDonell. 
J. Holland. 
I atrick Langan. 
W. Sutherland. 


*The Haldimand I aper^. sericN II.. vol. i.vS. p. 359. giver- this list with 
the exceptions that " Walter Sutherland s" name appears instead of " J. Hunters : 
that of " William C laus " instead of "J. Connelly": and that of " Charles Austin " 
instead of J. C.len. Foi full lists of the officers see A]ipendi\ A.. 1^-14. 

1 82 Lunenbui gJi, or the 

By order of the I5th November, 1/82, the officers of the 
first battalion are distributed to companies in the following 
manner : 

GKNKKALS Capt. -Lieut, Archcl. McDonell, Ensign Smythc. 

MAJORS Lieutenant McKen/ie, Ensign Farrand. 
AR< li i). M< DONKI.I. S -Lieutenant Allan McPonell. 
MCNKO S Lieutenant liyrne. Ensign Munro. 
DALY S Lieutenant Lepscom, Ensign Connelly. 
. DU.NTAN S Lieutenant Piety, Ensign Glen. 

S. AXDKKSON S Lieutenant McMartin. Lieutenant H. McDonell. 
TNO. McDoNKU/s Lieutenant Everett. Lieutenant Prentice. 
AI.K.X. McDoNKi. i. s "Lieutenant Holland. Ensign Valentine. 
J. ANKKKSON S Lieutenant Coffin. Ensign Anderson. 

By general order of the ist of October, 1782, Lieut-Col. 
Sir John Johnson is appointed Brigadier General of the Pro 
vincial troops, and Capt. Scott, of the 53rd Regiment, his Major 
of Brigade. Sir John had been appointed on the I4th March, 
1782, Superintendent-General and Inspector-General of the 
Six Nations of Indians and their confederates, and of all the 
Indian nations inhabiting the Province of Quebec and the 
frontiers thereof. 

On the nth of July, 1/83, a regimental order was issued 
at Terrebonne, as follows : 

" The discharges of the Germans and other recruits who join the regiment 
and have served in other regiments, to he taken from them, and kept in the 
hands of the captain of the companies they belong to, until the regiment is 
disbanded, at which time they will get a discharge from this and the former 
one, which will entitle them to the same advantage as a British subject, pro 
viding their behaviour deserves it. 

This order was preparatory to the disbanding of the corps 
raised for service during the war. Orders were sent from 
England in July, 1783, to the Governor at Quebec, to make 
arrangements for granting lands to Loyalists and discharged 
soldiers. Further orders were sent later in the same year, 
directing a general disbanding of the Provincial corps. On 
the 1 8th of November, 1783, General Haldimand acknow 
ledged the receipt of the orders, and stated that he could not 
disband the troops till spring. The Royal Yorkers were on 

Old Eastern District. 183 

duty in Montreal on the 28th of September, 1/83, and with 
the other corps were no doubt kept on until the spring of 


The author has been unable to obtain any further details 
of the regimental history of the Royal Yorkers, except as to 
their uniform. Both Sabine and Dr. Canniff state that they 
were called " The Royal Greens." On the first formation of 
the corps the uniform may have been green, but it was cer 
tainly scarlet at a subsequent period. The uniform worn by 
Lieut. Jeremiah French, of the second battalion, is still in 
existence, carefully preserved by his grand-daughter, Mrs. 
Knight, now living at Cornwall. The coat is of scarlet cloth, 
with blue facings and gold lace, a small epaulette of gold 
fringe on each shoulder. The buttons are gilt, with the letters 
and words " K. R. R., New York," stamped on them. The 
dress waistcoat is scarlet, with gilt buttons. The undress 
waistcoat and breeches are of white cloth. The suit requires 
only the cocked hat, stockings, boots or buckled shoes, and 
x:rimson sash, to be complete. 

* Set- post, page 189. 

184 Lunenburgh, or the 


The following account of the Royal Highland Emigrants,, 
or the old Eighty-Fourth, is taken from Brown s "History of 
the Scottish Highlands," 1775-1783 

" Two battalions, first battalion, Quebec second battalion, 
settle in Canada and Nova Scotia. 

" The first battalion was to be raised from the Highland 
Emigrants in Canada, and the discharged men of the 42nd, of 
Eraser s, and of Montgomery s Highlanders, who had settled in 
North America, after the peace of 1763. 

" Lieutenant-Colonel Alan McLean (son of Torloish)of the 
late 1 04th Highland Regiment, was appointed Lieutenant- 
Colonel Commandant of the first battalion. Captain John 
Small, formerly of the 42nd and then of the 2ist Regiment, 
was appointed Major Commandant of the second battalion, 
which was to be raised from emigrants and discharged High 
land soldiers who had settled in Nova Scotia. Each battalion 
was to consist of 750 men, with officers in proportion. The 
commissions were dated the I4th of June, 1775. 

"Great difficulty was experienced in conveying the re 
cruits who had been raised in the back settlements to their 
respective destinations. A detachment from Carolina was 
obliged to relinquish an attempt to cross a bridge defended by 
cannon, in which Captain McLeod, its commander, and a num 
ber of the men were killed. Those who escaped reached their 
destination by different routes. When assembled, the first 
battalion, consisting of 350 men, vvas detached up the river St. 
Lawrence, but hearing that the American general, Arnold, 
intended to enter Canada with 3,000 men, Colonel McLean 
returned with his battalion by forced marches, and entered 
Quebec on the I3th November, 1776. The garrison of Quebec,. 

Old Eastern District. 185 

previous to the arrival of Col. McLean, consisted of only 50 
men of the Fusiliers, and 700 militia men and seamen. Gen 
eral Arnold, who had previously crossed the river, made a 
spirited attempt on the night of the i/ to get possession of 
outworks of the city, but was repulsed with loss, and forced to 
retire to Point au Tremble. Having obtained a reinforcement 
of troops, under General Montgomery, Arnold resolved upon 
an assault. Accordingly, on the 3ist of December, he advanc 
ed towards the city, and attacked it in two places, but was 
completely repulsed at both points. In this affair General 
Montgomery, who led one of the points of attack, was killed, 
and Arnold wounded. 

Foiled in this attempt, General Arnold took up a position 
on the Heights of Abraham, and by intercepting all supplies, 
reduced the garrison to great straits. He next turned the 
blockade into a seige, and having erected batteries, made sev 
eral attempts to get possession of the lower town, but Colonel 
McLean, to whom the defence of the place had been intrusted 
by General Guy Carleton, the Commander-in-Chief, defeated 
him at every point. 

After these failures General Arnold raised the seigc and 
evacuated Canada. 

The battalion, after this service, was employed in various 
small enterpri/cs during the war, in which they were generally 

They remained so faithful to their trust, that notwith 
standing that ever\- inducement was held out to them to join 
the Revolutionary standard, not one native Highlander de 
serted. Only one man was brought to the halberts* during 
the time the regiment was embodied. 

Major Small being extremely popular with the Highland 
ers, was very successful in Nova Scotia, and his corps contain 
ed a greater proportion of them than the first battalion. Of 

That is, flowed. The sergeants carried l<m^ pikes, railed hal!>erts, instead 
<>f muskets, and when a man was to he punished \\itli the lash, he \\as fastened 
to a triangle formed of three hallierts. 

1 86 Lnncnburgh, or the 

ten companies which composed the second battalion, five re 
mained in Nova Scotia* and the neighboring settlements during 
the war, and the other five, including the flank companies, join 
ed the armies of General Clinton and Lord Cornwallis. The 
Grenadier Company was in the battalion which, at Eutaw 
Springs, " drove all before them," as stated in his despatches by 
Colonel Alexander Stuart, of the 3rd Regiment. 

In the year 1778 the regiment, which had hitherto been 
known only as the Royal Highland Emigrants, was numbered 
the 84th, and orders were issued to augment the battalions to 
i ,OOO men each. Sir Henry Clinton was appointed Colonel- 
in-Chief. The uniform was the full Highland garb with purse 
of racoon skin. The officers wore the broad-sword and dirk, 
and the men a half-basket sword. At the peace the officers 
and men received grants of land, in the proportion of 5,000 
acres to a field officer, 3,000 to a captain, 500 to a subaltern, 
200 to a sergeant, and 100 to a private soldier. The men of 
the first battalion settled in Canada, and those of the second in 
Nova Scotia, forming a settlement which they named Douglas. 
Many of the officers, however, returned home. f" 

The Royal Highland Emigrants are mentioned in a letter 
from Major Hutchison to General Haldimand dated at Boston, 
3Oth Sept., 1775, in which it is stated that Lt.-Colonel McLean 
is raising a corps (Royal Highland Emigrants) in Canada. * 

On the i6th of April, 1779, Lord Geo. Germaine wrote to 
General Haldimand that the Royal Highland Emigrants were 
put on the establishment of the army and numbered the 84th. 


In August, 1779, the garrison of Halifax consisted of part of the 
Seventieth Regiment, under Lieutenant-Colonel Birne, part of the .second bat 
talion of Emigrants, and about six hundred Hessians. Brigadier McLean sailed 
from Halifax to Penobscot with seven hundred and fifty men, and fortified 
himself there. Brymner s Report on Archives, 1887. p. 470. 

t Colonel McLean, when a subaltern in the Scotch Brigade in Holland, was 
particularly noticed by Count Lowendahl, for his bravery at Bergen-op-/,ooin, in 

t Haldimand Collection B. 20, p. 35. 

Old Eastern District. 187 

Twenty men were to be added to each company, increasing 
each battalion by 200 men, who were to be raised in America.* 

Major Edward Jessup s corps, the Loyal Rangers. 

This corps was raised in 1776. On the ist of December, 
in that year, Edward Foy, D. A. G., wrote to E. Jessup that 
his party is to be provided for by General Phillips, -f- 

On the 1 2th of December, Sir Guy Carleton wrote to 
General Phillips that the Messrs. Jessup were to be appointed 
captains as a provision for them, and stated the arrangements 
about forming a corps of the refugees. * 

The following order was issued from headquarters on the 
4th of November, 1782 : 

" The Commander-in-Chief is pleased to make the following promotions in the 
Loyal Rangers, commanded by Major Edward Jessup : 

" Lieutenant Thomas Fraser is appointed captain to tenth company. 22nd 
June, 1782. 

"John Ruster is appointed lieutenant, vice Thomas Fraser, promoted. 22nd: 
June, 1782. 

" Hermanns Best, to be ensign in Captain Myer s company 301)1 May, 1782.. 

"James Robbins is appointed lieutenant to Captain Fraser s company. 22nd 
June, 1782. 

William Lawson is ensign in Captain Fraser s company 22nd June, 1782. 

" P,nsign Edward Jessup is appointed lieutenant, vice Thomas Fraser, pro 
moted. 22nd June, 1782. 

" Conrad Best from the Pensioners, ensign, vice Fdward Jessup, promoted. 

Sergeant John Ferguson of 29th Regiment is apppointed quarter-master.. 
24th Oct., 1872. 

"(Signed), R. B. LKRNAI-I.T, D. A. (,. 

The full list of the officers of the corps in 1/83, is given 
in Appendix A, 1 1. 

Lists of the officers of the corps raised and commanded 
respectively by Ebenezer Jessup, Peter Drummond (who suc 
ceeded Major McAlpine), John Peters and Major Leake, arc 
given in Appendix A, No. 10. 

Haldimand Collection B. 43, p. 113. 
tllaldimand Collection B. 39, p. 282. 
Haldimand Collection B. 39, p. 298. 
" Canadian Antiduary," July, 1885. 

1 88 Lunenburgh, or the 

The uniform of the Messrs. Jessup s corps appears to have 
been changed thrice. 

On the 1 2th of January, 1777, Major Gray, of the King s 
Royal Regt, of New York, wrote to Sir Guy Carleton that, 
according to orders, he had bought uniforms for the Messrs. 
Jessup and their followers, red, turned up with green. 

On the 9th of December, 1778, Captains Leake, Jessup (2) 
and Adams, represent to General Haldimand the danger of the 
Loyalists wearing the clothing in store, blue faced with white, 
as it is the same as the uniform of some of the enemy s corps, 
and ask to be supplied with red.* 

Major Jessup is informed by a letter dated I4th January, 
1781, that clothing is ordered for his corps of Rangers, and 
that green is to be the colour of the uniform.-f- 

Butler s Rangers appear to have been raised in 1777. In 
a letter written by Sir Guy Carleton, dated I5th of Sep 
tember in that year, he states "that he has sent beating orders 
to Colonel Butler, and instructions to raise a corps of Rangers 
to serve with the Indians. ^ 

On the 3rd of August, 1779, Butler s success at Cherry 
Valley is mentioned in a letter from Lord Geo. Germaine to 
General Haldimand. \ On the I3th of September, 1779, 
General Haldimand, in a letter to Lord George Germaine, 
mentions the efficiency of Butler s Rangers. 

On the 2Oth of November, 1781, General Haldimand wrote 
to Lord Townshend, recommending the officers of Butler s 
Rangers to half pay. 

For a list of the officers in 1783, see the Appendix A, 

On the 23rd of January, 1779, Lord Geo. Germaine sent 

* Report on Archvies, 1888, p. 642. Haldimand Collection, B. 158, p. 9. 

* Report on Archives, 1888, p. 684. Haldimand Collection. B. 161, p. 6. 

* Report on Archives, 1888, p. 725. Haldimand Collection, B. 163, p. 75. 
t Haldimand Collection, B. 40, p. 3. 

J Haldimand Collection, B. 43, p. 169. 
Haldimand Collection, B. 60, p. 36. 

Old Eastern District. 189 

an order to Sir Henry Clinton that officers of Provincial corps 
were to take rank with British officers, to receive gratuities for 
wounds, and to hold permanent rank in America.* 

By an order of the 2nd January, 1/87, no post place or 
garrison was to be surrendered on any terms which might dis 
criminate between the Loyalists and the King s troops, -f- 

On the I4th of February, 1783, the provisional articles of 
peace with the United States of America, signed on the 3Oth 
November, 1782, were sent by Lord Sidney to General Haldi- 
mand. * 

On the 8th August, 1783, Lord North wrote to General 
Haldimand ordering the disbanding of the 84th and Sir John 
Johnson s two battalions. 

Haldimand wrote on the (8th November, 1783, to Lord 
North, that he could not disband the corps until the spring, || 
and that he was making preparations for settling Loyalists-near 

In July, 1783, a survey was made at Cataraqui by Major 
Holland, as many of the Loyalists were coming in. ** 

It is stated in letters written on the i8th and 27th Novem 
ber, 1783, that the Loyalists were to receive their lands by lot.ff 
and that they were to be settled on the St. Lawrence towards 
the Ottawa, and on the Bay of Chaleurs,^ and on the 3rd of 
March, 1785, General Haldimand informed Lord Sydney that 
he had given the Loyalists full rations before they left Que 
bec, and recommended that it be continued till June, i786. 
This recommendation was complied with, and the Loyalists 
were assisted by the Government for three years, until they 
would get some return from their farms. 

* Haldimand Collection. I!. 43, |>. 64. 
t Haldimand Collection, I>. 50, p. 238. 
Haldimand Collection, B. 50, p. 250. 
Si Haldimand Collection, B. 50, p. 139. 

Haldimand Collection, H. 56, p. iXo. 

* Haldimand Collection, B. 57, p. 546, and B. 58, p. 101. 
ff Haldimand Collection. B. 57, p. 594. 
++ Haldimand Collection, B. 56, p. HC;. 
Si; Haldimand Collection. H. 58. p. 45. 

Lunenburgh, or tJie 

In the autumn of 1782 there was a large force in Canada. 
The orderly book of Major Latour contains the following order 
assigning the winter quarters for the army in Canada : 


" October 21, 1782. 

Quebec Detachment of Royal Artillery 44th Regiment, Grenadier com 
pany of 3 ist Regiment. 

" L Ange Gardien, Chateau Richer, Ste. Anne, St. Fereol, St. Joachim 
\\ Regiment of Prince Frederick. 

" Pointe-Aux-Trembles, Jacques ( artier, Cap Sante, Deschambault, Gron- 
dines 3lst Regiment. 

"Three Rivers Detachment of one officer and 25 men of the Regiment of 
jl Speeht. 

"St. Thomas, St. Ignace, I lslet ;| Regiment of Losber. 

"St. Jean, Portjoli, St. Roch, St. Anne, River Ouelle, Kamouraska Regi 
ment of Auhalt Tebbs. 

"St. Nicholas, St. Antoine, St. Croix Regiment of Hesse Hannaw. 

" Pointe du Lac Detachment of Brunswick Grenadiers. 

" Mashise Barracks Loyalist families. 

" Berthier, Lanoraie, La Valtrie || BattaUon of Brunswick Grenadiers. 

"Isle St. Ignace, Isle du Pas Light company 3 1st Regiment. 

" River Sorel, Sorel Royal Artillery, Regiment of Reidhavel, twd 
companies of the Regiment of Rhed/.. 

"St. Ours, St. Denis. St. Charles Three companies of the Regiment of 


" Loyal block houses on the River Yamaska Detachment of Jessup s Rangers.. 

" St. Antoine, .Heloeil ! Brunswick Dragoons. 

" Chambly and St. Johns 29th Regiment and Royal Rangers. 

Isle Aux Xoix and Pointe au Faire 53rd Regiment. 

" Royal block house on Dutchman s Point Detachment of Jessup s Rangers.. 

" St. Sulpice, Repentigny, L Assomption : Battalion of Barner. 

" Terrebonne, Mascouche de Terrebonne, Isle Jesus First battalion Royal 


" N. B. The large families of both battalions to be lodged in the barracks of 


" Montreal -34th Regiment. 

" River du Chene. Mille Isle Loyalists of Vershise. 

Lachine barracks and Coteau du Lac Detachment of 341!) Regiment. 

" Laprairie. St. 1 hillipe, Chateauguay !! Hamran Chasseurs. 

" Upper Posts. Coteau du Lac, Oswego 8th or King s Regiment, 84th 
Regiment, second battalion Royal Yorkers, Butler s^Rangers, Captain Hersha- 
man s Batteaumen." 

Those marked an- German troops. 

Old Eastern District. 191 

On the reduction of the forces at the close of the war in 
1783, most of the German soldiers were sent back to their 
homes. Xot a few of them, however, remained in Canada and 
settled on the lands granted to them. 

Appended to this work is a list* taken from the copy of 
the Old U. E. list" preserved in the Crown Lands Department 
in Toronto, published by the Centennial Committee in 1885, 
containing the names of officers and men of the 84th Regi 
ment, Royal Regiment of New York, and Loyal Rangers who 
settled in the old district of Lunenburg. Appendix C. 

* By permission of the publishers, Messrs. Hunter, Rose & Co. 

192 Lunenburgh, or the 


The greater number of the original settlers in the County 
of Glengarry were Scots (Highlanders.) Nearly all the men 
had served during the Revolutionary War, in the Royal High 
land Emigrants or in the King s Royal Regiment of New 
York, most of them in the last named corps. There appears 
to have been a considerable number of Scotsmen settled in 
the Province of New York, principally in the Valley of the 
Mohawk. They came to America in 1773, adhered to their 
allegiance to the throne of Great Britain, accompanied Sir 
John Johnson to Canada when he was forced to leave his 
home at Johnstown, and joined the corps he was ordered to 
raise in 1776. On the disbanding of this corps, many of them 
settled in Lancaster, Charlottenburg and Cornwall. 

On looking at the list of officers of the Royal Yorkers, it 
will be seen that nearly half of them were Scotsmen ; fifteen 
of the thirty-five officers of the first battalion, and thirteen of 
the twenty-eight in the second battalion, have Scots names. 
The proportion of Scotsmen among the non-commissioned 
officers and privates, does not appear to have been so large. 

The Township of Lancaster, called in McNiff s map "The 
Lake Township," is said to have got the new name from Wil 
liam and Ralph Falkner, who emigrated to Canada from 
Lancashire, in England, in 1776, and gave the name of their 
native county to their home in the new world. 

Charlottenburg, called in McNiff s map " Township No. i," 
probably got its name in honor of Queen Charlotte, wife of 
His Majesty George III. 

Old Eastern District. 193 

In 1798, the rear part of the Township of Charlottenburg 
was formed into a new township, called Kenyon, and in 1818 
the Township of Lochiel was formed from the rear concessions 
of Lancaster. It is stated by Croil * that Lochiel was first 
settled in 1796, by some families from Glenelg, Scotland. It 
would appear from the name of the new township, that some 
of the " Cameron men" had directed their march to the north 
eastern portion of the County of Glengarry. 

A fresh accession of settlers came to the county in 1802-3, 
when three ships arrived at Quebec laden with emigrants from 
the North of Scotland. fAmong them were the disbanded 
soldiers of the Glengarry Fencibles, a regiment that had been 
raised by the then Chief of Glengarry in 1794, for service in 
Ireland. These men were accompanied by their chaplain, the 
Revd. Alexander McDonell, afterwards Bishop of Kingston. 
Several of them settled about St. Raphaels, where they built 
the large stone church, that still remains a monument to their 
industry and zeal. 

Williamstown, so called from the well known Sir William 
Johnson, father of Sir John, was the centre of the old settle 
ment. A mill was built there by Sir John, and the village 
grew up in its vicinity. The Village of Lancaster or Kirk- 
town, as it is called in some old deeds and leases was formed 
at the mouth of River Aux Raisins ; and as mills were erected 
in favorable sites, such as Martintown, Alexandria and Dal- 
housie, small villages sprang up in their neighborhood. 

The Revd. John Bcthune, who had been chaplain to one 
of the battalions of the 84th, came to Williamstown in 1787, 
and gathered the Presbyterians there into a congregation. He 
also took spiritual charge of the Presbyterian families at Lan 
caster, Summerstown and Cornwall, and caused a church to 
be built at each place. That at Williamstown was used until 

* Croil s Historical Report of the Presbyterian Church, and John McLennan s 
paper on Glengarry, read before the Celtic Society of Montreal, ^rd December. 

tjohn MeLennan s paper. 

1 94 Lunenburgh, or the 

about 1812, when a stone church was built ; the one at Corn 
wall stood for about fifty years, that at Lancaster for about 
sixty, and the one at Summerstown attained about the same 
age. There are gravestones in the old Kirk-yard at Lancaster 
with the date of 1785 on them. 

One of the old settlers in Charlottenburg, Captain Alex 
ander McDonell, of the Royal Regiment of New York, drew 
lots 25 and 26, in the first and second concessions of that 
township, and built a stone dwelling house on the point form 
ing the front of his property. This is said to have been the 
first stone house in the district. It was burned in the winter 
of 1813, but a portion of the walls is still standing a little to 
the north of the light-house on Glengarry Point. 

The Indian land, a narrow strip between the western 

townships of Glengarry and the eastern ones of Stormont, is 

said to have been intended for Sir John Johnson, and to have 

been held for the Indians on Sir John s declining to accept it. 

It has always formed part of the County of Glengarry. For 

man>- years the farms in the Indian land were held on leases 

from the Indians, at a small annual rent and for long terms. 

The tenants becoming dissatisfied with this system, and de- 

sirino- to have an absolute title to their lands, the Government 

about forty years ago allowed them to commute the rents for a 
fair equivalent in money, and to obtain patents for their farms. 
The money paid was invested for the benefit of the Indians, 
who receive the annual interest arising from it. 

The author has been unable to procure much personal 
information about the early settlers in Glengarry, or any other 
of the counties. Mr. McLennan, in his paper on "Glengarry," 
tells the story of a mother making her escape to Canada in 
1776, with two young children on her back. " In her weary 
journey through the woods, she thought her burden had be 
come lighter, and discovered that she had dropped one of the 
youngsters. On retracing her steps for some distance, she 
found him quietly sleeping beside a decayed log, over which 
she had passed, his hands begrimed with earth. He lived to 

Old Eastern District. 195 

old age, well known by the name of Spogan Dubh (black 
paws), the exclamation of his mother on finding him." 

The following interesting sketch was published in one of 
the local papers : * "On the ipth of November, 1848, there died 
at the residence of his eldest son, Mr. Duncan McDougall, 
Charlottenburg, Mr. John McDougall, a U. E. Loyalist, at the 
venerable age of 96 years. He was a native of Corrimony, in 
the parish of Urquhart, Invernesshirc, from which he emigrat 
ed in 1773, and settled at Little White Creek, in the State of 
New York. On the breaking out of the Revolutionary \\ ar, 
after receiving much ill-usage at the hands of the insurgents as 
he rejected every inducement to unite with them, he managed 
to join General Burgoyne s army, and acted with it till it sur 
rendered at Saratoga in October, 1777. On recovering his 
liberty he joined the 84th Regiment, in which he served until he 
was regularly discharged at Montreal, in 1779. In 1780 he 
removed to Coteau du Lac, and in 1784 to the front of Lan 
caster, where he lived till within a few months of his death, re 
spected and esteemed by all who knew him. In 1790 he was 
ordained elder of the first Presbyterian congregation in con 
nection with the Church of Scotland, formed in Upper Canada 
under the Rev. John Bethune, and like his brother elders ap 
pointed at the same time, and now gone to the house appoint 
ed for all living, adorned the office by a life and conversation 
becoming the Gospel. At the period of his death he was the 
senior elder in the church in Canada, and probably in British 
North America." 

Mr. McLennan mentions the names of several officers of 
the North-West Fur Company, who settled in Glengarry, \ v/.. : 
Mr. Duncan Cameron,f the Honorable John McGillivray* and 
Hugh McGillis. David Thompson, who lived for many years at 

Freeholder," I2th February, iSS(,. 
t Father of Sir Roderick Cameron. 

Mr. McGillivray succeeded to the estate of I hmma^his in Scotland, now 
owned by his grandson. 

ic>6 Lttn&tburgki or the 

Williamstown, was Astronomer-Royal on the North-West 
Pacific coast, and was the discoverer of the Thompson River. 

The names of Father John McDonald, who officiated for 
many years at St. Raphaels, and died a few years ago at the 
age of nearly one hundred years ; Lt.-Col. Duncan McDonell, 
(Greenfield), Mr. Murdoch McPherson, who settled in Lancas 
ter at an early period and lived more than 100 years, John 
McLennan, of Lancaster, the Rev. John McKenzie, the Hon 
orable Alex. Eraser, of Fraserfield, were all well known fifty 
years ago. 

As a curiosity connected with Glengarry, the following is 
given, copied from the Cornwall "Freeholder" of 5th February, 
1853. It is a list prepared by the late Col. Alex. Chisholm, of 
Alexandria, giving the numbers of the different clansmen in 
Glengarry in the year 1852. No doubt the numbers have 
increased greatly since that date, but the proportion is 
probably little changed from what it was then. The author 
is indebted to Mr. Richard Tanner for two volumes of the 
" Freeholder," in one of which this table was found :- 


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Williamstown, was Astronomer-Royal on the North-West 
Pacific coast, and was the discoverer of ^ ^ 

Tl __ lt-1 

Old Eastern District. 197 

The following item, found in the Kingston " Chronicle" of 
2Oth Dec r, 1822,* may interest some of the Glengarry men, 
many of whom have yet a warm feeling for the gallant and 
unfortunate Prince Charlie : " On the retreat of the Prince 
from Culloden, he took shelter in a peasant s house, and being 
hotly pursued by cavalry, escaped, leaving his sword and spurs 
behind him. The sword was preserved as a sacred relic, and 
was traced by McXab, of McNab, to Lochiel, Glengarry, where 
it was found in possession of a settler named McKinnon, who 
with his forefathers had been tenants of the McNab family, 
who had lost their estates thro attachment to the Stuarts. 
The sworcl is now in possession of the McNab, of McNab." 

In the graveyard in the old Village of Lancaster, there 
are two tombstones dated in 1785, one to the memory of J. 
McKenzie, the other to that of Alex. Ferguson, both of whom 
were U. E. Loyalists. Ferguson suffered severely at the hands 
of the rebels. He was taken prisoner, and was compelled to 
run the gauntlet. He was then imprisoned and sentenced to 
death, but was fortunate enough to make his escape to Canada, 
where he joined the King s Royal Regiment of New York, in 
which regiment McKenzie also served. 

The following list of the officers of the Glengarry Fen- 
cibles, raised about 1794, is taken from an army list for 
December, 1798, in the possession of the author : 


COLONEL Donald McDonald. i8th August, 1796. 

LiKn.-Coi.. Charles McLean. I4th August, 1794. 

MAJOR Alexander McDonelL nth Jan., 1797. 


Arch. Maclachlan Donald McDonald 

Ronald McDonell Hugh Benson 

James McDonald Arch. McDonell 

Rod. McDonald. 

CATT.-LIEUT. AND CAT) AIN Alex. Macdonell 

J.tnt to me ly Colin 1). Chisholm, Esq., of Alexandria, with many other old 
papers, and the list of the officers of the Glengarry Light Infantry. o 


Lunenburgh, or the 


John Macdonald 
Arch. McLellan 
James McNab 
Donald Chisholm 
Ronald McDonald 


Alex. McDonell 
Alex. McDonell 
Donald McLean 
Donald McDonell 
John McDonald 

ADJUTANT Donald McDonell. 

J. McDonell 
D. Mclntyre 
Alex. McDonald 
Allan McNab 

And. McDonell 
Arch. McDonell 
Fran. Livingston 
Chs. Macdonald 

QUARTER-MASTER Alexander McDonell. 
SURGEON Alexander McDonell. 

This is the regiment of which the late Bishop McDonell 
was chaplain. It was on duty for some years in Ireland, and 
was stationed in Kilkenny in 1798. 

When the war of 1812 broke out, a regiment, called the 
Glengarry Light Infantry Fencibles, was raised in the county 
and took a distinguished part in the contest. It was dis 
banded in 1816. The following is a list of the officers, taken 
from an army list of that year : 

COLONEL Edward Baynes. 

LIEUT. -COL. Francis Battersby. 

MAJORS R. McDonell, Alex. Clark. 


T. J. Weeks 
T. Fitzgerald 
R. M. Cochrane 
A. Roxborough 
T. Powell 

James Stewart 
Anthony Leslie 
H. F. Hughes 
Jas. McAulay 
"William Kemble 


A. McMillan 
Jas. Fitzgibbon 
William Campbell 
William Gates 
George Jackson 

Walter Kerr 
Roderick Matthewson 
Angus McDonell 
R. Kerr 
John McKay 

Old Eastern District. 199 


Jas. Frobisher John Fraser 

Alex. McDonell J. Moorhead 

William Blair John Wright 

A. McDonald J. Livingston 

Thos. Gugy Noble Adams 

ADJUTANT J. Livingston 

SURGEON A. Cunningham. 

There were besides a number of companies raised in the 
county, known as the Flank Companies, or " Flankers." Col. 
D. McDonell (Greenfield), and Alex. McKenzie, of Williams- 
town, were captains of two of them. 

In the Counties of Stormont and Dundas, as in the 
County of Glengarry, nearly all the men among the first 
settlers were discharged soldiers. The majority of them had 
served in the Royal Yorkers and Jessup s Rangers. 

In 1786, as appears by McNiff s map, the Township of 
Cornwall, then called No. 2, was occupied as far north as the 
eighth concession.* One-third of the emigrants were Scottish 
Highlanders ; another third were Germans, or Hollanders ; 
the remainder were English, Lowland Scots, and Irish. Some 
of the Highlanders who came out in 1803 also settled in this 
township, and a church was built, in the neighborhood of 
which a village called St. Andrews sprang up. A mill was 
built by J. Link on the River Aux Raisins, a short distance 
below St. Andrews. Mills were also built at Milleroches-f-and 
Moulinette,* which were of great benefit to the country. 

Among the early settlers in the Township of Cornwall 
may be mentioned Cornelius Munro, the first Sheriff of 
Lunenburg ; Captain John McDonell ; Captain Archibald 
McDonell ; Miles McDonell ; Jacob Farrand, the first Clerk 
of the Peace ; Captain Samuel Anderson, the first Judge of 

* As reckoned on the eastern boundary, 
t Robertson s mill. 
IDixon s Mill. 

2OO Lumnburgh, or the 

the District and Surrogate Courts ; Robert I. D. Gray, first 
Solicitor-General of Upper Canada ; the Honorable Neil Mc 
Lean, who was Sheriff in 1812, and afterwards Treasurer for 
many years ; Captain Jeremiah French, the first member for 
the County of Stormont. Of the next generation the names 
of the Honorable Philip Vankoughnet, the Honorable Archi 
bald McLean, Dd. /Eneas McDonell, William Bruce, and 
Alexander McLean, will be remembered as those of repre 
sentatives of the county and leaders in many a hard-fought 
political contest ; while Simon Fraser, who lived for many 
years at St. Andrews after leaving the North- West Fur Com 
pany, must be held in remembrance as the discoverer of the 
Fraser River in the Rocky Mountains.* 

In the Township No. 3, (Osnabruck), many Germans and 
Dutch settled in the first, second and third concessions. In 
1795 they built a church in the front, through the exertions of 
the Revd. S. Schwerdfeger, a Lutheran minister, and the 
Revd. John Ludwig BroefBe, Presbyterian, both of whom 
used the German language only. After the lapse of some 
years, the Revd. Louis W T illiams, an Englishman, officiated for 
a while. Subsequently, Episcopal and Presbyterian congre 
gations were formed, which are still maintained. 

In the County of Dundas, in 1786, the first and second 
concessions of the front townships, Williamsburg and Matilda/ 
were settled. About one-third of the settlers were Germans or 
Hollanders. In 1789 the Lutherans of Williamsburg built a 
church on the centre commons, in which the Rev. Samuel 
Schwerdfeger began to officiate in June, i79O.-f- 

In 1792, a second Lutheran Church was built in Matilda. 
The Rev. Mr. Schwerdfeger officiated in this, as well as at Wil 
liamsburg and Osnabruck, for about fourteen years. He died 
in 1803, and was succeeded in 1804 by the Rev. Mr. Myers- 
On his resigning the charge in 1807, the Rev. J. G. Weagant 
received a call from the three churches, which he accepted. la 

* See page 205. 

f See Croil s "Dundas, 251 et seg. 

Old Eastern District. 201 

i Si i he joined the Church of England. Some of his people 
followed his example, but the greater number adhered to the 
Lutheran Church, and in 1814 induced the Rev. Mr. Myers to 
return to Dundas. He, after struggling with adverse circum 
stances, also conformed to the Church of England in 1817 and 
settled in Matilda. In 1826 the Rev. Herman Hayunga was 
sent to the Lutheran congregations, and by his unwearied zeal 
and earnest ministrations, succeeded in gathering two respect 
able congregations. The second, a union of Lutherans and 
Presbyterians, built a church in the centre of Williamsburg.* 
His zeal and self-denial were remarkable. During the eleven 
years of his labours he was never promised more than $250.00 
a year, and seldom received $150.00. 

Alexander Campbell and Thomas Eraser were the first and 
second members for the County of Dundas. Henry Merkley, 
John Crysler, Peter Shaver, John Cook and George Brouse will 
be remembered as representatives of the county in the good 
old days. With regard to the omission of the names of many 
who have distinguished themselves during the last forty years, 
it must be borne in mind that this work is not intended to give 
anything more than an account of the settlement and early 
history of the Eastern District. Even if it were a history of 
the three counties down to the present day, it would be swelled 
to an unreasonable bulk if an account was given of all those 
men who have done honor to their respective counties in the 
last eight} years in even occupation and phase of life at 
home or abroad. 

The story of the sufferings of Mr. John McDougall, given 
in a previous page, is very similar to those of Col. Henry Merk 
ley, a former resident of Williamsburg, and of Captain Samuel 
Anderson, who settled on his allotment of land about three 
miles east of the Town of Cornwall. The adventures of these 
three stout-hearted Loyalists are not more strange than those 
of many other men of the Revolutionary period, the record of 
whose sufferings has been lost, but they give the reader in the 

* Sec ( roil > : Dundns," 

2O2 Lunenburgh, or the 

present day some idea of what the upholders of the unity of 
the empire had to endure at the hands of the Revolutionary 

The following narrative is taken from the Toronto "Globe," 
published in December, 1885: "Henry Markley,* a young un 
married man, was living in the Province of New York when the 
Revolutionary war broke out in 1776. While at work one day 
in his harvest field, he was set upon by two men, a father and 
son named Young. The son, John Young, with his musket, 
shot young Merkley in the left side, felling him to the ground, 
but not quite killing him. He was about to finish his work 
with the butt of his gun, when the father interfered, saying, 
John, you have done enough. Young Markley was then 
thrown into Scoharie gaol, whence, after his wounds had healed, 
he managed to escape, and succeeded in crossing the Niagara 
river between Queenstown and old Fort Niagara. He joined 
the King s Royal Regiment of New York, and served in that 
corps until the close of the war in 1783, when he settled 
in Montreal. He afterwards moved to Williamsburg, where 
the old homestead is still held by some members of his family. 
He served in the war of 1812 as a field officer in the Dundas 
militia. He was member of the Legislative Assembly for 
Dundas in 1804-1808." 

One of the most heroic deeds in the life of the old soldier 
remains yet to be told. "After the close of the Revolutionary 
war, and when Mr. Markley was living in peace and quietude 
on his farm, he was visited by his old enemy, John Young, who 
asked for forgiveness and something to eat. Mr. Markley, al 
though not feeling quite willing to entirely forgive one who 
had tried to take his life, yet did not give him a stone, but gave 
the desired meal." Mr. Markley died at the age of 82. 

Samuel Anderson, a son of Benjamin Anderson,-f*was born 
4th May, 1736. He joined the King s forces under General 

* The name is spelled " Mercle " in the U. E. List. 

) Benjamin .Anderson, born in the County Antrim, Ireland, in 1699; came 
to America in 1721; died at Cornwall in 1792. 

Old Eastern District. 203 

Abercrombie in 1758, and was for the three years following 
under the command of Gen. Amherst. He was at the taking of 
Ticonderoga in 1759; went to Oswego in the following year ; 
was with Amherst s force in the expedition from that place 
down the St. Lawrence to Montreal ; was one of the party that 
attacked and took the French post near Oswegatchie, Isle de 
Fort Levis,now known as Chimney Island ; was at the capture of 
Montreal ; was sent back to Oswego and thence to Albany, in 
charge of the sick and wounded, whence he was sent in 1761 to 
take charge of the workmen in the engineer s department at 
Crown Point. On the reduction of the troops he settled on his 
farm. In 1775 he was offered the command of a company in 
the Continental service, which he refused. Some time after he 
was offered the command of* a regiment ; this was also re 
fused. He was then taken prisoner, and with many others 
confined in Litchfield jail, where he suffered all but death,, 
until the beginning of 1777, when learning that he and his- 
companions were to be shot the next clay, he, being a very 
powerful man, wrenched the iron bars from the window, and 
with his fellow prisoners escaped to Canada, where he was 
given a captaincy in Sir John Johnson s regiment. He was 
for a while with General Burgoyne s army, in charge of a 
party engaged in making or repairing bridges between Lake 
George and Fort Edward, the principal one being at the latter 
place. On the reduction of Sir John Johnson s regiment 
in 1784, Captain Anderson settled on the 1,200 acres of 
land granted to him near Cornwall. From the time he was 
imprisoned his wife and family suffered fearfully from the 
cruelty of the Continentals until 1778, when she abandoned 
all her property, paid the Rebel Governor 2s. 6d. for a pass, and 
with her children made her way to Sorel, where her husband 
was then stationed. Samuel Anderson was the first Judge of 
the District and Surrogate Courts for the Fastern District. He 
died in 1836 at the age of ioo years. 

Mrs. Anderson s first information of her husband s escape 
from prison, was from hearing a proclamation, offering a re- 

2O4 Lunenburgh, or the 

ward of $500.00 for Samuel Anderson, dead or alive, read by a 
Continental sergeant, who, with the party of soldiers under his 
command, had billeted himself at her house. This party was 
in charge of a number of cases of arms, from one of which 
Joseph (eldest son of Samuel), then a lad of about 14, with the 
assistance of the negro servant, took two muskets and bayonets. 
The following list, taken from the Upper Canada Gazette 
of first of January, 1818, gives the names of the militia-men 
who got pensions on account of wounds received at the taking 
of Ogdensburg, and at the skirmish at Hoople s Creek, in the 
Township of Osnabruck, during the war of 1812 : 


s. d. 

Buell, William 1st Leeds Ogdensburg 22nd Feb., 1813. ..20 o o 

Baxter, Nathan " Brockville 7th " 1814.. .20 o o 

Cain, Daniel " Ogdensburg 22nd " 1813.. .20 o o 

Empey, Phillip 1st Stormont. . . " 22nd " 1813.. .10 o o 

Earner, Lieut. Peter .. ..Osnabruck loth Nov., " ...20 o o 

McDermid, D 1st Glengarry . . Ogdensburg 22nd Feb. , " . . .20 o o 

McKinnon, Charles. .2nd ..Near Cornwall. loth Nov., " ...20 o o 

McBean, Farquhar . . ist ..Ogdensburg 22nd Feb., " ...20 o o 

McDonald, Donald.. 1st .. 22nd " " ...20 o o 

Munro, Finlay 2nd . . Hoople s Creek . loth Nov. , " . . .20 o o 

McDonald, John Ist . . Ogdensburg 22nd Feb. , " ... 20 o o 

Ross, Thomas 1st .. ....22nd " " ...20 o o 

Tlobinson, James B. . . 2nd Grenville. . ....22nd " " ...20 o o 

Randolph, Samuel ... 2nd " . . Prescott . 24th Oct. , 1812. . . 20 o o 

Serviss, Thos Stormont Ogdensburg 22nd Feb. , 1 8 1 3. . . 20 O o 

Simon Fraser, the discoverer of British Columbia, who 
died at St. Andrews, in the County of Stormont, in 1862, enter 
ed the service of North-West Fur Trading Company in 1792, 
and was soon after sent to Lake Athabasca. He remained in 
that vicinity for some years. In the year 1802 he became a 
partner in the company. In 1805 he took part in the confer 
ence of the leading members of the company who met at Fort 
William to consider the project of extending their operations 
beyond the Rocky Mountains, and of occupying the country 
westward to the ocean in advance of the American traders, 
who had been penetrating as far north as the Columbia River, 

Old Eastern District. 205 

and were eagerly pushing their way further up the coast. The 
members of the company, having decided to extend their out 
posts across the Rocky Mountains, and to establish trading 
connections with the tribes of Indians west of the mountain 
ranges, his partners deputed Mr. Fraser to undertake the task 
-of exploring that region, of establishing trading posts in that 
unknown territory, and of occupying the country as British 
traders. Mr. Eraser s diary shows that he left Fort William 
on his long and perilous adventure in August, 1805, passing 
through the Lake of the Woods, Lake Winnipeg, up the Sas 
katchewan, past Cumberland House, then up English River as 
far as Isle la Croix, up Buffalo Lake, then over Portage la Cache, 
into the Athabasca river and lake to Fort Athabasca, up the 
Peace River to the foot of the mountains, to a place which he 
named the Rocky Mountain Portage, where he left two clerks, 
Mr. Jas. McDougall and Mr. Arch. McGillivray, and twelve 
men in charge. He then continued his route, with six men, to 
Lake McLeod, so named by him, where he left three of his 
men to form acquaintance with the Indians. In the year 1806, 
having returned to the Portage for additional men, Mr. Fraser 
penetrated westward to the Fraser River, which received its 
name from him as its discoverer. He explored the Stewart 
River, calling it after John Stewart, a clerk who was with him, 
and at the distance of 120 miles from its mouth he established 
a trading post, leaving Stewart and two men in charge, and 
calling the place New Caledonia. Continuing his exploration 
westward, he established another post at Eraser s Lake. The 
despatches he sent to Fort Athabasca gave increased interest 
to his undertaking, and he was pressed to push on to the ocean 
and trace out the Fraser River, which at first he thought was a 
branch of the Columbia. In the fall of 1807, two canoes with 
goods, in charge of Messrs. Quesnel and Ferres, were sent to 
his assistance. The former gentleman was afterwards member 
for Montreal. They brought letters urging Mr. Fraser to con 
tinue his explorations and to occupy the country in advance 
of the Americans, as Lewis and Clark had, in the previous 

206 Lunenburgh, or the 

year, gone down the Columbia, and were extending the terri- 
tory of the Republic through that region, and John Jacob 
Astor was also enlarging his operations northward. In the 
summer of 1807 Mr. Fraser built another trading house on the 
Fraser river, in about latitude 54. In May 1808 he, started 
from Stewart lake with four canoes and sixteen men, traversing 
the Fraser River to the ocean. The Indians of the interior had 
never before seen the " pale faces," and it required great pru 
dence and skill to avoid a conflict and eventually win their 
friendship. The North-West Fur Company having then add 
ed what is now British Columbia to their sovereignly, it re 
mained under their control till the fusion of that company with 
the Hudson Bay Company in 1821, and 37 years after it be 
came a Crown colony. After the retirement of Mr. Fraser 
from the company he was offered the honour of knighthood in 
recognition of his services. His circumstances did not, how 
ever, warrant the acceptance of a title, and he died poor, leav 
ing his family unprovided for. In 1888 an application was 
made to the Parliament of the Dominion of Canada, for the 
grant of an annuity to Miss Harriet, the only surviving 
daughter of Mr. Fraser, in recognition of the services rendered 
by her father eighty years previously. 

Old Eastern District. 207 


The settlers and their descendants, by steady persever 
ance, gradually changed the forest to cultivated fields, built 
houses, made roads, and year by year became more comfort 
able and independent. It is unfortunate that the Assessors 
and Collectors Rolls, from the first formation of the district, 
have not been preserved. They would now be invaluable helps 
in tracing the annual progress of the townships. The only light 
the author has been able to get as to the taxation from 1789 
up to 1815, is from the records of the Court of General Quarter 
Sessions. From 1815 for about thirty years, the annual 
aggregates of assessments and taxes are extant in the office 
of the Clerk of the Peace at Cornwall. 

The first mention of the amount of the taxes is in the 
record of the Quarter Sessions in 1796. On the i/jlh of April 
of that year, it is stated that the Treasurer s accounts were 
audited, showing that taxes to the amount of 486.17.6 had 
been collected in the district, which then included the front 
townships of the Counties of Leeds and Grenville. The first 
Treasurer had been appointed in October, 1793, the second in 
April, 1794. Xo previous accounting by the Treasurer is 
mentioned. It may, therefore, be safely assumed that the 
sum above mentioned comprised the taxes for 1793, 1794 and 
1795, making an average of 162.5.10 a year. On the 23rd 
of April, 1800, the Treasurer s accounts for 1796, 1797 and 
1798 were audited, showing the receipts to be 537.7.5 for the 
three years, an average of 179.2.6 a year. 

Xo more information is obtainable until 1815, when the 
aggregate for that year shows that the taxes of Stormont, 
Dundas and Glengarry amounted to 675.13.8^4. A copy of 
this aggregate is given in full, and also a copy of the aggre 
gates for 1825, 1835 and 1845, showing the progress of the 
counties to the latter date : 



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2io Lunenbutgh, or the 

Until the close of 1841, the Magistrates in General 
Quarter Sessions, in addition to their duties as Judges in the 
trial of criminal charges, had the control of the collection and 
expenditure of the revenue of the district, and the decision of 
all questions relating to the county property, and to the con 
struction and repair of roads and bridges. 

On the 27th of August, 1841, the Statute 4 and 5 Victoria, 
Chapter 10, establishing District Councils, was passed, and 
came into force on the 1st of January, 1842. Under this Act 
each township was authorized to elect, at the town meeting in 
January, one Councillor ; or, if the number of the voters in 
the township amounted to three hundred or more, two Coun 
cillors. The Warden was appointed by the Government. The 
Council was authorized to appoint a Treasurer, and to submit 
the names of three persons to the Governor, who was to ap 
point one of them Clerk. Four meetings were to be held 
each year. One-third of the Councillors were to retire at the 
end of each year. Those who were to retire at the close of 
the first and second years were drawn by lot at the last meet 
ing in the first year. At the close of the third year, and of 
each succeeding year, the retiring Councillors were those who 
had been longest in office. 

In 1849, the Act establishing District Councils was re 
pealed. The division of the Province into districts was done 
away with, and that by counties substituted. By 12 Vic., 
Chap. 8 1, Township, Town and County Councils were estab 
lished. This system has continued to the present time, but 
with the increasing population of the country there has been 
such an increase in the number of Councillors that some 
change in that respect seems to be advisable. The Councillors 
under the present system are elected annually, the several 
municipalities electing their respective Reeves and Deputy- 
Reeves, and the County Council electing their Warden, and 
appointing their Clerk, Treasurer, and other officers. The 
council of each municipality has the collection and expendi 
ture of its revenue and the management of its public property, 

Old Eastern District. 


roads, bridges, etc. The County Council has the charge of 
the county revenues and property, and of such roads and 
bridges as lie between or connect two township municipalities. 

The following is a list of the Wardens, Clerks and Trea 
surers from 1842 to 1889 : 










-Hon. Alex. Fraser 

Danl. E. Mclntyre 
Wm. Mattice 
Samuel Ault 
Jacob Brouse 
Alex. McDonell 
Wm. Colquhoun 
Dd. A. McDonald 
Alex. McDougall 
William Elliott 
James McDonell 
Geo. McDonell 
Alex. (;. McDonell 
James Craig 
Alex. Mclntosh 
Phillip Cafman 
James Fraser 
A. James Cockburn 
Asaph B. Sherman 
Archibald McNab 
Angus Bethune 
David Kae 
Peter Kennedy- 
John G, Snetsinger 
M. F. Beach 
A. E. McRae 
John Brown 
Adam Harkness 
James Clark 
Wm. Mack 
J. F. Chamberlain 
D. A. McDonald 
I. R. Ault 
Jas. Dickey 
A. J. Grant 
F. I . McXnnghton 



James Pringle Alex. McLean 

" Roderick McDonald 

Peter J. McDonald 


D. Heenan 
J. F. Pringle 


Geo. S. Jarvis 

1 t 

Wm. Bethune 

John Bergin 

t c 

II. S. Macdonald 

; i 

Chas. Poole 




Lunenburgh, or the 


1885 \Vm. McKenzie 

1886 D. A. Me Arthur 

1887 Frank Anderson 

1888 J. F. Gibbons 

1889 P. A. Stewart 


fA. McDonald ) 

\C. J. Mattice I 

C. J. Mattice 

/Kneas McDonald 

Henry Carpenter C. J. Mattice 

Old Eastern District. 213 



The history of the Presbyterian Church at Cornwall is 
almost contemporaneous with that of the settlement of the 
townships of Lancaster.Charlottenburg and Cornwall, by officers 
and men of the Royal Highland Emigrants, or 84th Regiment, 
and of Sir John Johnson s corps. "The Royal Regiment, of 
New York," disbanded in 1784, many of whom took their lands 
in those townships and settled there. A large proportion of 
them were Scotsmen, and of the Scots not a few were Presby 

The Presbyterians were without the help of an ordained 
minister of the Kirk until May, 1787, when the Revd. John 
Bethune came to Williamstown from Montreal. He was born 
in the Island of Skye in 1751. He studied at King s College, 
Aberdeen; became a licentiate of the Kirk of Scotland, and emi 
grated to South Carolina about 1773. On the breaking out of 
the Revolutionary war, he suffered much at the hands of the 
rebels, and was made prisoner by them. On regaining his 
liberty he made his way to Halifax, Xova Scotia, where he 
was largely instrumental in organizing the "Royal Highland 
Emigrants," in which corps he was appointed chaplain in 1775. 
When the regiment was disbanded in the spring of 1784, he 
took up his residence in Montreal, where he preached to a 
small congregation from I2th March, 1786, till May 6th, 1787, 
when he removed to Upper Canada and settled at Williams- 
town, in the neighborhood of which he had a grant of land a 
a retired chaplain and a U. E. Loyalist. It may be mentioned 
as a noteworthy circumstance, that of those Scotsmen who 
were present at the organization of the first Presbyterian con- 

214 Lunenburgh, or the 

gregation, in a room in Notre Dame street, Montreal, on the 
1 2th of March, 1786, not a few had as youths been engaged 
in the fight at Culloden, in 1746, and several of them were the 
children and descendants of those brave men who stood by the 
side of " Prince Charlie" on that fatal field.* 

Mr. Bethune resided at Williamstown, and ministered to 
the Presbyterians there and at Lancaster, the front of Charlot- 
tenburg and Cornwall. A church was built in each of these 
places, in the year 1787^ That at Cornwall was erected on 
the south-west corner of lot No. 1 5, on the south side of Second 
street. In this church Mr. Bethune preached to a small con 
gregation once every four or five weeks^ until his death, which 
occurred in 1815. He was for thirty years the only minister 
of the Kirk of Scotland in Upper Canada. The church which 
was built at Cornwall under his auspices, was a small, low 
building. It was the first church erected in the town, and was 
for some time the only public building in the place. It was 
used on several occasions as the place for holding the Courts 
of Assize and General Quarter Sessions both before and after a 
court-house was built in the town, and the records of the Quar 
ter Sessions contain not a few entries of accounts passed for 
damage done to the Presbyterian Church or meeting house by 
the holding of courts in it. In the year 1805 a meeting of the 
congregation of the Church of England was held in the "Pres 
byterian meeting house," at which resolutions were passed to 
collect the money subscribed for the building of their church, 
and to proceed with the erection of it. After the Revd. Mr. 
Bethune s death, the congregation at Cornwall had no settled 
minister until 1822, though Revd. Joseph Johnston, a licentiate 
of the Synod of Ulster, who had been appointed master of the 
District School in 1817, officiated in the old church until 1823, 

*The Rev. Dr. Campbell s "History of St. Gabriel s, Montreal." 

tThe church built at Williamstown, was replaced about 1812 by a new one 

built of stone ; those at Lancaster and Summerstown, stood for over half a c 

: William Colquhoun, of Cornwall, is a survivor of those who were baptised 

by Mr. Bethune, in 1815. 

Old Eastern District. 215 

when he removed to Osnabruck. He resigned the mastership 
of the school in 1822, when the Revd. Harry Leith was ap 
pointed to the vacant mastership. He was a minister of the 
Kirk of Scotland, and he took charge of that part of the con 
gregation who preferred him to the Revd. Mr. Johnston, and 
held service in the District School-house, the church being 
kept possession of by Mr. Johnston, until his departure to 
Osnabruck, when the whole congregation united and used the 
old church until the completion of the new one in the autumn 
of 1826. 

The new church, now old St. John s, was commenced not 
long after Mr. Leith s arrival. The frame was put up about 
1823, it remained for about two years unenclosed, but vigorous 
efforts were made to have it completed. Subscriptions were 
raised in Montreal, Kingston, Quebec and York, which amount 
ed to ^235.0.5, and which added to the contributions of the 
congregation, enabled the trustees to finish the building. It 
cost about ^500.0.0, and was finished and opened, as already 
stated, in 1826. Three or four years after this date a sum was 
subscribed for the purchase of a bell,* which still hangs in the 
steeple. The old church was not used again as a place of 
worship, but was utilized for various purposes; sometimes as a 
school-house, sometimes as a store-house, until it was pulled 
down about 1834-35. 

Soon after the completion of the new building the Revd 
Mr. Leith got a call to the parish of Rothiemay, in Scotland, 
which he accepted. He left Cornwall in January, 1827, for his 
new charge, and the congregation was again without a minis 
ter. A call was given to the Revd. Hugh Urquhart, a minister 
of the Kirk of Scotland, on the i6th of January, 1827, which 
was accepted by him, and he was inducted on the i8th Fcb y, 
1827, by the Rev. John McKenxie, of Williamstown, and the 
Rev. Archibald Conncll, of Martintown. There were very few 

* For many years this bell was rung thrice every day, vi/. : at 6 a.m., 12 noon, 
and 9 p.m. It was always used to give the alarm in case of lire until iSS<>. when 
an electric fire alarm was connected with the bell of Kno\ Church. 

216 Lwienburgh, or the 

Presbyterian ministers then in Upper Canada, and no Presby 
tery had been formed at that time. 

The Rev. Mr. Urquhart was appointed master of the 
District School, and he attended diligently and faithfully to the 
duties of the ministry and the school until 1840, when he gave 
up the mastership and devoted himself entirely to the work of 
the church. In 1857, he received the decree of Doctor of 
Divinity from the college in Aberdeen, at which he studied for 
the ministry. He continued his labours with great satisfaction 
and benefit to his congregation, until increasing years and in 
firmities rendered it necessary for him to obtain assistance. 

In October, 1866, the Revd. John S. Burnet was chosen 
assistant, and continued to minister acceptably until the 
month of February, 1868, when he accepted a call to Martin- 

The Rev. Neil McNish, B. D., L L. D., was then chosen 
assistant. He entered on the duties in November, 1868, and 
on the death of the Revd. Dr. Urquhart in February, 1871, 
succeeded him as minister of the congregation, and he has 
from that time to the present worthily filled the position. 

When Dr. Urquhart took charge of the congregation in 
1827, no elders had been appointed and no Kirk Session had 
been formed. This defect was speedily remedied. On the 
ist of July, 1827, the members of the congregation, whose 
names head the list of elders appended hereto, were set apart 
to the office of the eldership. The first celebration of the 
Sacrament of the Lord s Supper was held with all the old-time 
solemnity on the 22nd day of July of that year, when tokens 
were distributed to 113 persons; and in the same year the 
first Sabbath School in connection with the church was opened. 

The names of the elders, with the dates of their appoint 
ment, are as follows : 

On the 1st July, 1827 Archibald MacLean, James Fringle, John Chesley, Adam 
Johnston, WUliam Johnston, John Cline, Martin McMartin, James Craig. 

On the 5th September, 1852 Thomas Thompson, James Milroy, William Kay. 
Walter Cohiuhoun. 

Old Eastern District, 217 

On the ist September, 1 86 1 Alexander MacLean, William Cline, John Irving, 
William Mattice, Jacob Farrand Pringle, David Thompson, James Craig. 

On the 20th June, 1875 Donald Ban MacLennan, M.A., John Mclntyre. 

On the toth June, 1877 William Colquhoun. 

On the 23rd October, 1881 Corydon Josephus Mattice, M.A., Alexander Peter 
Ross, Thomas Finlayson. 

The members of the Session now are : 

1 8th June, 1888 Jacob Farrand Pringle, (Judge), Donald Ban MacLennan, M.A., 
John Mclntyre, William Colquhoun, Corydon Josephus Mattice, M.A., 
Alexander Peter Ross, Thomas Finlayson. 

.30th December, 1888 David Liddell, Alexander Gillespie Watson, Guy Carleton 

Clerks of Session : 

From the ist of July, 1827, to the igth June, 1831 (i), Archibald McLean, 

Clerk pro tempore. 
From the igth June, 1831, to the time of his death, on the I3th Oct., 1860 (2) 

James Pringle. 
From the l6th October, 1860, to the time of his death, on the 24th January, 1876 

(3), Walter Colquhoun. 
From the 3Oth January, 1876 (4), John Mclntyre, who is now Clerk of Session. 

Property belonging to the congregation of St. John s 
Church : 

1. Lot No. 15, on the north side of First street, and lot No. 15, on the south side 

of Second street, were granted on the I2th of June, 1819, in the fifty-ninth 
year of the reien of George III, and during the Lieutenant-Governorship of 
Sir Peregrine Maitland, to Neil McLean, John MacDonald, James Forsyth, 
Archibald MacLean and Noah Dickinson, in trust for the congregation. 

On the ist October, 1822, Ambrose Blacklock was appointed trustee in the place 
if Mr. James Forsyth. 

On the 2ist May, 1840, Alexander MacLean, William Mattice and William Cline 
were appointed trustees, in the place of Neil MacLean, Ambrose Blacklock 
and Noah Dickinson. 

2. On the 25th July, 1848, lot No. 12, on the south side of Sixth street, was 

granted by the Earl of Elgin and Kincardine, to Archibald MacLean, Alexander 
MacLean, John MacDonald, William Cline and William Mattice. 

This lot, which contains one acre, has been used as a burying-ground from the 
year 1831. 

J. Lot No. 3, on the north side of Second street, and lot No, 3, on the south side 
of Third street, containing two acres and two-fifths, and known as the manse 
lots, purchased for the sum of ^2OO sold by William Cline, on the 3ist 
December, 1853, to Archibald MacLean, John MacDonald, Alexander Mac- 
Lean, William Cline and William Mattice, in their capacity of trustees for the 
congregation of St. John s Church. 

218 Lunenburgh, or the 

The manse was built on lot No. 3, on the North side of 
Second street, in 1874-75, and cost, out-buildings and fence 
included, $7,000. 

In 1871, an Act was passed by the Legislative Assembly 
of Ontario, vesting the lots which have been already mentioned 
in Messrs. Alexander MacLean, William Mattice, James Craig, 
Daniel Eugene Maclntyre and Jacob Farrand Pringle, and 
their successors in office, as trustees of the congregation. 

The Trustees now are : 

i8th June, 1888 Oliver Groves, Donald Ban MacLennan, Corydon Josephus 
Mattice, Duncan Monroe and John Mclntyre. 

The Deacons are : 

P N Tait Alexander McLennan, lames W. Liddell, G. C. Colquhoun, Dun 
can Monroe, H. Black, Lcvi W. Groves, C. H. Cline, Hugh Urquhart 
Thompson, Herman Regnald Kirk, John Mullen, Hugh Munro WaU 
David Gillespie. 

Superintendent of Sunday School-C J. Mattice. A. G. Watson was appointed 
in 1889. 

Treasurer Hugh M. Watson. 

Treasurer of Trust Fund John Dewar. 

Treasurer of Session Fund John Mclntyre. 

In the autumn of 1886, the trustees bought lot number 14, 
on the south side of Second street, from Mrs. William 
and having removed the church from its original place to the 
rear of that lot, sold the greater portion of the land where 
the church had been for a good price, and in March, 18 
began the erection of a new St. John s. 

On the 1 8th of June, in that year, the corner stone* was 
laid by Dr. McNish, in the presence of a large number 
people of all denominations, among whom were the Revd. 
Hastie, of Knox Church ; the Revd. Canon Pettit of 
Bishop Strachan Memorial Church ; the Revd. 

* The corner stone is just above the weather table course, at the north-east 
corner of the principal tower. In it are deposed a history of the 
report of the building committee, newspapers, coins, etc. 

Old Eastern District. 219 

nolds, of the Methodist Church, Cornwall, and the Revd. Mr. 
Gilmour, of the Baptist Church, Cornwall. 

Old St. John s, in its early day, was thought to be a 
great improvement on the building that preceded it. It 
has been the house of worship for two generations of church 
goers, and many solemn and comforting services have been 
held in it. Now its end has come, and it is a thing of the 
past. In bidding it farewell, the author would like to 
recall its appearance as it was sixty years ago. Changes 
and needed alterations did not improve its architectural pro 
portions, though they added to the comfort of the interior. 
Sixty years ago it was a well-proportioned building extern 
ally, but the internal arrangements were not what would suit 
a modern congregation. He well remembers the small pews 
with narrow seats, and high, straight backs ; the square pews 
in the corners and at each end of the body of the church, in 
which one-third of the occupants had to sit with their back 
to the minister ; the high pulpit, shaped like a goblet, ap 
proached by a winding stair of many steps at each side, and 
overhung by a sounding-board supported from the ceiling ; 
the precentor s desk in front of the pulpit, and the porchless 
front doors, which let in wind whenever they were opened in 
a winter s day ; the floors bare, and the pews uncushioned. 
There was no vestry or session room, and as there were no 
sheds, horses and carriages were exposed to all the changes of 
the weather. 

The lists of subscribers to the fund for building old St. 
John s in 1826, contain the names of many of the leading men 
in Montreal, Quebec and Kingston. The lists of the Montreal, 
Quebec and Kingston subscribers arc the only ones now among 
the church papers ; those of York and of the congregations at 
Cornwall and the neighboring parishes have been lost. 

The Montreal list contains the following name- : 

The Hon. William Mc<;illivray \Ym. Hlark\\<i<i<l 

John Richardson Samuel (ink 

Thomas Thnine Win. Radi^r 

Fredk. I). Krmatinger John Fisher. M. 


Lunenburgh, or the 

George Garden 
George Moffatt 
Samuel Gerarde 
Dr. Sylby, Jr. 
Kenneth Walker 
David Ross 
Rev. John Bethune 
Henry Mackenzie 
T. Pothier 
Geo. Auldjo 
F. Ant. LaRocque 
D. P. Ross 
James Brown 
John Fleming 
Joseph Beckett & Co. 
D. David 

- Jamieson 
George Davis 
John McKenzie 
Gibb & Henderson 
Alex. Skakel 
Mr. O Sullivan 
H Lunn 
Miss Taylor 
Major Loring 
James Hughes 
"William Bingham 
Alexander McKenzie 
J. Reid, (Justice.) 
Dr. Caldwell 

The Quebec subscribers are 

The Chief Justice 
Captain Freer 
David Stewart 
James Ross 
Robt. Scott 
R. Murray 
William Torrance 
D. Sutherland 

A. Campbell 

B. Torrance 
M. Reeves 
David Hanown 
John Thompson 

Mr. McGill 

Mr. Lewis 

Adam McNider 

Joseph Shuter 

D. Fisher 

John Frothingham 

John Forsyth 

Mrs. Col. McKay 

Rev. H. Esson 

J. Porteous 

Thomas McCord 

John Spragg 

H. Yates 

James Millar 

James Grant 

J. McDonell, (Leslie) 

John Fisher, jr. 

H. E. Logan 

Robert Froste 

Mr. De Witt 

Mr. Carswell 

Win. Harvvood & Sons 

J Quesnel 

Colonel Heriot 

James Stuart 

H. Dickinson 

Alexander Fisher 

Miss McGillivray 

B. Gibb 

James Harkness 
Col. A. Fraser 
T. Morrin 
J. McTavish 
J. McNider 
James Smillie 
Win. Petry 
H. Gowan 
Thos. G. Cathro 
W. Hessark 
Samuel Neilson 
Mr. Hunter 
W. B. Colburne 
William Walker 

Old Eastern District. 221 

James Irvine John Ross 

Wm. Price Mrs. Major Van Cortland 

James McKenzie 

The Kingston list has the following names : 

John McLean Arch. Richmond 

John Mowat John Strange 

H. McDonald Sam. Shaw 

A. Fraser John Robertson 

Robt. Beath Arch. McDonell 

W. Rennie Jas. Young 

John Low James Kirk 

Wm. Norrie W. Fraser 

Win. Donaldson Mrs. C. Haggerman 

Peter Crawford A. Marshall 

J. A. Macfarlane John Barclay 

Mr. Benson Alex. Simpson. 

In addition to the above are the names of Mr. Justice 
Campbell, Jonas Jones and Daniel Jones. 

The Montreal subscriptions amounted to 138 14 4 

" Quebec, " " . 38 15 4 

Kingston " - - 28 2 9 

York - 29 8 4 

^235 o 5 

After the vestry of the English Church closed their 
burial-ground to all other denominations, it became necessary 
for the Presbyterians to procure one for themselves. Many 
of the congregation of St. John s, more especially those who 
had come from Scotland, wished to use the lots 15, north side 
of First street, and south of Second street, as a burial-ground 
They thought of the quiet country Kirk-yards around the 
parish Kirks at home, where the members of the congregation 
were wont to assemble and have a " crack" * before service, 
after walking many a mile from their dwellings ; and they had 
a very natural, tho sentimental, feeling in favor of ordering 
matters in the same way here. Fortunately for the good of 
the town as well as the congregation, more practical counsels 

* Anglice a " chat." 

222 Limenburgh, or the 

prevailed.* The two lots were laid out for building purposes,, 
and in a short time were let at what was then thought a very 
good rent. Lot No. 12, south side of Sixth street, was obtained 
from the Government for 10.0.0 or 12.0.0, and was made 
the burial place for the congregation. 

The church was altered and enlarged more than once. 
The square pews were taken away. The high pulpit, with its 
winding stairs ; the extinguisher-like sounding-board suspend 
ed above it, and the precenter s desk in front, have all been 
removed, and given place to a platform with a railing in front,, 
and a reading desk for the minister. 

Soon after the disruption in Scotland and the formation 
of the Free Church there in 1843, many Presbyterians in 
Canada, who were in sympathy with the Free Church, objected 
to remaining any longer in the congregations that were in 
connection with the Church of Scotland, withdrew from them 
and formed new ones, which were united under the title of 
" The Canada Presbyterian Church." 

This movement affected St. John s, from which many 
families and individuals withdrew and formed a new congre 
gation. They met at first in a large room in a private house 
on lot No. 10, north side of First street, where the Revd. Mr. 
Fraser officiated, occasionally, from 1844 till 1850. In that 
year, the congregation built a church on lot 11, south side of 
Second street, called Knox Church. In 1884, this building 
having become too small for the congregation, a new one was 
erected on the lot adjoining on the west. It is a handsome 
brick building in the Gothic style, with a tower and spire. It 
was finished and opened for use in 1885. In the autumn of 
that year, a large bell was presented to the congregation by 
Robert Craig, and put in the tower. 

The names of the successive ministers of Knox Church 
arc : The Revd. J. C. Ouinn, who was inducted about 1850 ; 

- :; Archibald McLean (afterwards Chief Justice) and James Pringle, were chiefly- 
instrumental in preventing the burial-ground scheme from being carried out. 

Old Eastern District. 223. 

Revd. Hugh Campbell, Revd. M. Lowry, Revd. W. H. Heude 
Bourck, Revd. Robert Binnie, and Revd. James Hastie. 

Whether or not there was any need of any of the Presby 
terians in Canada following the example of their brethren in 
Scotland, and withdrawing from the church in Cana da in 
connection with the Church of Scotland, is a question that 
need not be discussed in these pages. Happily, a reunion of 
the two bodies was effected in 1875, the united bodies taking 
the title of " The Presbyterian Church in Canada." To this 
body the congregations of St. John s aud Knox Churches 
belong. Each has a large membership, and there is ample 
work for the two pastors. 

Some of the old usages aud modes of conducting service 
have been changed in many of the city and town congrega 
tions of the Presbyterian Church in this country. One change 
is in the singing. As late as 1861 the singing in St. John s, as 
in nearly all the Presbyterian Churches, was led by the pre 
centor, who occupied a small box or desk in front of the pulpit 
and sang the Psalms and Paraphrases, the congregation fol 
lowing and joining in the singing. In that year the singing 
master came amongst us ; the young people learned to sing- 
by note, and to take their respective parts in the music ; a 
choir was formed, the precentor vacated his accustomed seat 
in front of the pulpit, took his place in the gallery, and became 
leader of the choir. The next move was for a musical instru 
ment to accompany the voices. The question was agitated 
for a while before it was submitted to the congregation of St. 
John s, who decided by a large majority in favor of the " Kist 
of whustles," or its representative, a melodion, which was 
forthwith procured, and remained in use, until a good organ 
was placed in new St. John s in 1889. 

Another change is in the manner of celebrating the 
Sacrament of the Lord s Supper. The change began about a 
quarter of a century ago. Up to that time the ministers and 
people followed the practice to which they had been accus 
tomed in Scotland. In the country congregations the sacra- 

.224 Lunenbuigh, or the 

merit was dispensed once a year, generally in July or August. 
At St. John s, as in other congregations, the services occupied 
four days, beginning on Friday, which was observed as a day 
of fasting and humiliation, and was kept as sacredly as the 
Sunday. At the close of the service on Saturday, tokens of 
admission to the table were given to intending communicants. 
On Sunday the sacrament was administered. There were 
always two or three ministers from neighboring parishes to 
assist the minister of St. John s in the services of the day, and 
as their churches were closed, as many of their people as could 
do so came to Cornwall to take part in the service there. 
After the usual morning service, the communicants took their 
places at the table, which was made of a narrow plank ex 
tending across the church along the aisle in front of the pulpit, 
with seats on each side, accommodating between thirty and 
forty people. There was generally a large attendance, so that 
the table had to be filled four or five times before all the 
communicants were served. Each service of a table was pre 
sided over by one of the ministers, who gave an address to the 
communicants at it. When all the communicants had par 
taken, the solemnities of the day were closed by an address 
from the pulpit, a prayer, a psalm, and the benediction. The 
whole service lasted from 1 1 o clock in the morning until 4, 
and sometimes 5, in the afternoon. On Monday there was a 
thanksgiving service, at which the attendance was small, many 
of the people seemingly being disposed to make their thank 
fulness unobtrusive, a fact of which a reminder was sometimes 
given by the preaching of a sermon from the text : " Were 
there not ten cleansed, where are the nine ?" 

Changes were gradually made in the town congregations. 
The sacrament was administered twice a year. A certain 
number of pews were appropriated to communicants in 
addition to the table, and the service was shortened by nearly 
two hours. Next came the mode now in use, viz., the celebra 
tion of the sacrament three times a year, the giving up of the 
.Saturday and Monday services, the doing away with the table, 

Old Eastern District. 225 

the placing all the communicants in the centre of the church, 
and having only one service, thereby taking up very little 
more time than on an ordinary Sunday. The sturdy Presby 
terians of two centuries ago, who patiently listened to sermons 
of three or four hours in length, would no doubt look with 
suspicion and contempt on their descendants of the present 
day who grumble at the time spent in religious exercises. 

New St. John s was commenced in May, 1888, and was 
completed in March, 1889. It was opened on Sunday, the 
1 7th of that month, the services being conducted in the morn 
ing by the Very Revd. \V. T. McMullen, D.D., Moderator of 
the General Assembly, and in the evening by the Very Revel. 
D. H. McVicar, LL.D., D.D., Principal of the Presbyterian 
College, Montreal. The new church is a large and handsome 
stone building. The interior is very commodiously arranged, 
with ample accommodation for a congregation of 700, the 
Sunday School, and social and congregational meetings. The 
whole cost of the building, internal fittings and furniture, in 
cluding an organ, amounts to $36,000.00. 

In the Presbyterian grave-yard on lot No. 12, south of 
Sixth street, one of the oldest tombstones is dated 1832. It 
was erected to the memory of the Honorable Neil McLean, 
who died in that year at the age of 75. He was the last 
surviving officer of the Royal Highland Emigrants, the old 

226 LunenburgJi, or the 



It is stated by Dr.Canniff,inhis "History of the Settlement 
of Upper Canada," that the first clergyman to settle in that 
part of the country, was the Revel. John Stuart, \vho had been 
chaplain of the second battalion of the King s Royal Regt. of 
Xcw York, and who was one of the refugee poineers of the first 
settlement of Kingston. He was the father of the Upper 
Canadian church. He came to Canada in 1781, and settled at 
Kingston in 1783 or 1784. In 1789116 was appointed Bishop s 
Commissionary for the settlements from River Beaudette to 
the western limit of the Province. Xo doubt he visited Corn 
wall, and made some provision for the supplying of the spiri 
tual needs of the members of the church at Cornwall and its 
vicinity. Unfortunately no record is extant here from which 
full information on the subject can be got. Cornwall was for 
some years a mission station. An old book of common prayer 
printed at Oxford in 1770, now kept among the records in the 
vestry of the Bishop Strachan Memorial Church, bears on one 
of the fly leaves the date June, 1785, which very probably is 
about the time when it was first used at Cornwall. The regis 
ter now in existence shows that on the I3th of April, 1800, a 
sum of money was subscribed for the erection of a church. 
The subscription list has not been preserved, and little or no 
thing appears to have been done towards the commencement 
of the building. On the i5th of April, 1805, a meeting was 
held and a document, of which the following is a copy, was 

agreed to : 

"\Ve whose names are hereto subscribed, do agree to erect a church in the 
Town of Cornwall, of the following dimensions : 

Old Eastern District. 227 

(i.e.) 52 feet in length, and 36 in breadth within the walls, the frame 18 
<-et high, raised on a stone foundation, three feet below, and two feet above the 
ground, in the assistance of such sums as may be subscribed by the Government, 
and the several sums subscribed in a certain instrument, bearing date the I3th day 
of April, 1800, (being a committee appointed by the subscribers to contract and 
superintend the erection of the said church, any three of whom appointed by the 
majority of the remainder, to have power to act in regard to the erection of the 
said building.) 

"Dated I5th April, 1805." 

"John Strachan, minister " J. Y. Cozens 

Michael Van Koughnet Robt. Randall 

Ben. Eastman Jno. Dixon, sen. 

Rich. Wharffe Xadab Eastman 

Jno. Link Joseph Anderson 

Hector Manson Jno. Pescod, sen. 

Frederick Delisle Jno. Smith 

Henry Wagoner T. Johnson 

Win. Bruce For. Rich. Wilkinson 

Harmonious Cryderman by John Strachan 

S. Anderson Henry Gallinger 

D Arcy Boulton W. B. Wilkinson 

Col. Munro." John Dixon, jun." 

At another meeting of the parishioners held in the Pres 
byterian meeting house, it was resolved to collect the money 
subscribed, and to proceed with the erection of the church, and 
Samuel Anderson, John Pescod, and Joshua Young Cozens ( 
were appointed a committee to superintend the work, which 
appears to have been completed in January, 1806. On the 
26th day of that month a meeting was held in the church for 
the purpose of selling the pews, when forty-two parishioners 
became purchasers. The list of the names, and of the sums 

bid, is as follows : 

s. d. s. d. 

Cornelius Munro, Esq., 30 o o Dr. Timothy Johnston, - 10 15 o 

John Pescod, sen. 24 10 o Daniel Wright, 900 

John Dixon, - - 18 o o Joseph Anderson, Esq., 800 

Commodore Steel, - 15 10 o Joshua V. (Wen-. 7 12 o 

Samuel Anderson, Esq., - 16 10 o Robert Randall, 55 

David Sheek, Esq.. - 1600 Abner Voung, 300 

(ieo. Barnhart, sr., - - 19 O O David Robertson. - 35 

Jeremiah French. Esq., 20 o o John Dixon, jr. - 10 5 o 

Robert (Yilquhoun. - 15 o o Nadab Eastman. - - IO O o 

228 Lunenburgh, or the 

s. d. s. d.. 

Daniel Campbell, - - 13 o o John Smith, sen., 10 o o 

W. B. Wilkinson, Esq., - IO o O Wm. Bruce, - - 10 2 o 

Levi Bailey, 1 1 o o Abner Young, 1 1 o o 

J. L. Farrand, Esq., - 10 o o Mrs. Catharine Kay - 10 5 6 

Benjamin Eastman, - 10 o o R. N. Wilkinson, Esq., 8 10 o 

John Vankoughnet, - 10 o o Wm. Wood, ----870 

John Kirk, - - n o o John McNairn, sr., 5 

Michael Vankoughnet, - 12 5 o Robt. Colquhoun, - 5 IO o 

Michael Vankoughnet, 10 15 o Albert French, 57 

Robert Randall, - 10 5 o Jacob Stoneburner, 5 

Robert Randall, 10 5 o Christopher Empey, - 426 

Andrew Milross, 55 Adam Dixon, 400 

Philip Empey, 426 

Total, 457 H o 

In 1808 D Arcy Boulton, the late member for Stormont, 
gave his sessional allowance, 26.0.0, to the church, and in the 
same year the Legislature granted 50.0.0, to be expended 
in completing the steeple, which was finished in 1811. 

In 1813 an application of the Court of Quarter Sessions 
for leave to hold the Court in the church was refused. 

The parsonage was built in 1811 or 1812. There is a 
memorandum of its having been rented to Richard Wharffe 
in 1813. 

Up to 1831 the burial-ground of the English Church was 
used by all denominations, but at a vestry meeting held in 
April of that year, it was resolved that none but members of 
the congregation should be allowed to bury there, "except in 
cases of persons not belonging to the congregation, whose fami 
lies had been in the habit of burying in the yard belonging to 
the church, when leave may be granted by the minister and 
church wardens." This resolution rendered necessary the pur 
chase of a burial-ground by the Presbyterians, who procured 
the lot now used by them for that purpose, No. 12, south of 
Sixth street. 

The old church was altered, improved and enlarged, the 
first alteration being made in 1836 or 1837. The gallery at 
the west end was lowered. A gallery was made at each side? 

Old Eastern District. 229 

and the main entrance, which was originally in the centre of 
the south side of the building, was changed to the west end 
near the tower. A few years after, an addition was put at the 
back of the building, which gave a good deal of additional 

In 1868 arrangements were made to build a new church 
as a memorial of the late Bishop Strachan, who had been 
mainly instrumental in the erection of the old one. The old 
building was removed to the rear of the lot on which it was 
erected, where it remained and was used until the new one was 
fit for occupation, when it was sold and pulled down, and an 
other of the few remaining landmarks of old Cornwall disap 

The new church is well designed, in the Gothic style of 
architecture, with a fine tower, on which it is intended to place 
a spire. The material used in the building is the dark lime 
stone from the Cornwall quarries, relieved by Ohio sandstone. 
The site is rather too near the street to allow of the front being 
seen to the best advantage, and very unfortunately the tower 
has sunk, drawing down with it the south-eastern corner of the 
transept, which is several inches out of level. There are 
several very good stained glass windows, one of which, the 
southern one of the transept, was put in by the children 
attending the Sunday School of the congregation, the others 
by members of the congregation in memory of deceased re 
latives. In 1887 a large one was put in the east end of the 
chancel in memory of the Revd. Archdeacon Henry Patton, 
D. D. The church, which cost about $30,000, was consecrated 
under the name of " The Bishop Strachan Memorial Church" 
on the 9th of Oct., 1884, by Bishop Lewis. 

In the autumn of 1885, a chime of nine bells was present 
ed by the Rev. Dr. Mountain, in memory of deceased relatives, 
and was formally inaugurated on Christmas eve. 

The first minister who appears to have been placed in 

ricrical duidc," 1879, and sermon of Archdeacon I atton, 1868. <> 

230 Lunenburgh, or the 

charge of the congregation at Cornwall was the Revd. John 
Strachan, who was ordained deacon by Bishop Mountain, on 
the 22nd of May, 1803, and appointed to the mission of Corn 
wall. Mr. Strachan was born in Aberdeen on the I2th of 
April, 1778, entered the University of Aberdeen in 1794, tak 
ing his M. A. degree three years later ; at the age of twenty- 
one he was selected as a fit and proper person to organize and 
preside over the college which the then Lieut-Governor "Sim- 
coe" desired to establish in Upper Canada. Mr. Strachan 
left Scotland in pursuance of this object, and after a weary 
voyage and journey of four months, arrived in Kingston. Here 
he met with a grevious disappointment. Governor Simcoe had 
returned to England, and with his departure the projected col 
lege was relinquished. He was so fortunate at this critical 
period as to form the acquaintance of the Hon. John Cart- 
wright and the Revd. Dr. John Stuart. Under the advice of 
Mr. Cartwright, he taught in Kingston, and began the course 
of study necessary to obtain admission into the ranks of the 
clergy of the Church of England. His mind had no doubt re 
ceived a bias in favor of Episcopacy, from his early training. 
His father was a Presbyterian ; his mother a member of the 
Episcopal Church in Scotland, and it is said that he was brought 
up in the creed of that church. He came to Cornwall, as al 
ready stated, in 1803, where, in addition to his clerical duties, 
he opened a Grammar School* In 1804 he was advanced to 
priest s orders. In 181 1 the degree of D. D. was conferred up 
on him by theUniversity of Aberdeen. In i8i2the inhabitants 
of York prevailed upon him to remove to that parish. In 
1827 he was appointed Archdeacon of York, and in 1839 Bishop 
of Toronto, the first bishop of the new See of Upper Canada. 
He died in 1867 at the age of 89, after a ministry of 64 years. 

After the departure of the Revd. Mr. Strachan from Corn 
wall, the Bishop authorized Mr. John Bethune, afterwards Dean 
of Montreal, to read prayers. 

The Rev. Mr. Baldwin was the next who had charge of 

* See chapter on schools, (post). 

Old Eastern District. 231 

the parish, but there is no record of the beginning or duration 
of his ministry. He was in Cornwall about 1813-14. 

In 1817 the Revd. S. J. Mountain was appointed to the 
parish, which he had charge of until his death on the 2/th of 
September, 1830. 

The next incumbent was the Revd. George Archbold. He 
had served in the Peninsular war as an officer in His Majesty s 
68th Regt. of Foot. At the close of the war he went on half pay, 
and entered the ministry of the Church of England. He held 
the parish until his death in 1840. 

He was succeeded by the Revd. Alexander Williams, a 
clergyman from England, who officiated at Cornwall until the 
summer of 1842. 

The Revd. J. G. B. Lindsay was appointed to the vacant 
parish, which he occupied for four years. He caught typhus 
fever while attending one of his parishioners, and died in 1846. 

The Revd. Henry Fatten, D.D., was then appointed, and 
continued until the autumn of 1871, when he was transferred 
to Belleville. While in Cornwall he was appointed successively 
Rural Dean and Archdeacon. He was the prime mover in 
the undertaking of building the Bishop Strachan Memorial 
Church, which was not finished until after his departure from 

His successor was the Revd. J. A. Preston, who came to 
Cornwall in December, 1871, and died very suddenly in Octo 
ber, 1878. 

The Revd. Canon Pettit was then appointed, and is still 
the rector of the parish. 

A small wooden church was put at the east of the town in 
the year 1886, of which the Rev. Mr. Elliott had the charge. 
The expense of erecting this church was defrayed by the Revd. 
Dr. Mountain. 

The graveyard adjoining the Bishop Strachan Memorial 
Church was used from a very early period in the settlement of 
the town. One tombstone in memory of Mrs. Empcy, is dated 
1789. Another in memory of J. Everhardt is dated 1792, 

232 Lunenburgh, or the 

The old burial plot surrounded by a stone wall had at one 
time a wooden tablet attached to it, on which was the follow 
ing inscription : 

"Herein are interred Colonel James Gray, died nth May, 1795, aged 64. 
" Mrs. Elizabeth Gray, died 14* February, 1800, aged 63. 
"Jacob Farrand, Esq., died nth May, 1803, aged 39 years and 6 months. 
"John L. Farrand, Esq., died 29th June, 1814, aged 30 years and 4 months. 
"This memorial is placed by their affectionate relative, Catharine Valentine, 
May, 1820." 

The stone wall which had fallen into ruins was repaired 
in 1883 by J. F. Pringle, Geo. Pringle and T. S. Rubidge. 

Old Eastern District. 233 



Previous to the year 1834, the Town of Cornwall was 
part of the parish of St. Andrews. In that year a priest was 
for the first time stationed permanently in the town. 

The first church was a wooden building, which stood on 
lot Xo. 17, north side of Fourth street, where the brick church 
now is. It was completed in 1829 or 1830, and services were 
held in it occasionally by the priest from St. Andrews. 

The old church becoming insufficient for the congregation, 
a new one was begun about 1855 or 1856. The brick walls were 
put up, but before they were covered by the roof a violent gale 
of wind came on, which blew them down, destroying some 
of the monuments in the grave-yard. The work of building 
had to be begun anew. It was commenced about 1858 and 
finished in about two years. The tower was intended to be a 
storey or two higher than it is, with a spire above, but the 
nature of the soil on which it is built is such that it cannot 
sustain any great weight. The tower sank, bringing down 
with it part of the front wall, in consequence of which the 
front had to be repaired and the tower had to be rebuilt to a 
much less height. 

The congregation has again outgrown the church, and a 
larger one, or an additional one at the east end of the town, is 
needed. In 1887 a new church was begun there, which is not 
yet completed. 

In 1874 the parish erected a very handsome stone build 
ing on lot 17, south side of Fourth street, for the priest s 
residence, and a year or two ago they put up a brick building 
on the adjoining lot for a nunnery and female school. They 
have also a school-house on lot No. 8, south side of the same 

234 Lunenburgh, or the 

The Revd. James P. Bennet was put in charge of the 
parish in November, 1834, and continued until 1842. The 
Revd. Alexander McDonell came in that year, and remained 
until 1843. The Revd. ^Eneas McDonald also officiated in 
1843. Since 1843, the undermentioned Revd. gentlemen have 
been the parish priests, viz : The Revd. Mr. Cannon, the Revd. 
Mr. O Connor, the Revd. Mr. Lynch, the Revd. Mr. Murray, 
and the Revd. Mr. McRae, who is now the parish priest. 

* It is said that the Highlanders who settled in the 
neighborhood of St. Andrews, in the Township of Cornwall, 
put up a chapel soon after their arrival. It was a humble 
structure, in fact a log house, but in it the services of the 
church were conducted, until the first stone church was built. 
This was commenced about 1788, but was not completed for 
some time. It was continued in use until 1864, when the new 
church was consecrated. 

For many years after the first settlement was formed, 
there was no resident priest. The Revd. Roderick McDonell,-f 
who was then stationed at St. Regis, came occasionally to St. 
Andrews to conduct the services there. At that time the 
journey from St. Regis to St. Andrews was, at some seasons 
of the year, not only difficult, but dangerous. The paper 
referred to in the note* gives an account of the dangers and 
difficulties which this pious old clergyman encountered on one 
occasion when his services were required to perform a marriage 
ceremony at St. Andrews : 

" It was in the spring of the year. The groom and bride 
were ready, the preparations for the customary rejoicings were 
all made, the whole countryside was invited, but alas ! no 
priest could be had to bless the happy pair. At length the 
father of the bride started to the front to fetch his reverence. 
No wheel carriage marked the ground in those days, and the 
horse which pater-familias rode sank at every step over his 

*See " :ornwall Freeholder," 7th July, 1864. 

t A brother of Captain Archibald McDonell, of the King s Royal Regiment, 
New York. 

Old Eastern District. 235 

fetlocks in the thick mud and half-melted snow, as he traversed 
the roadless forest. He reached the St. Lawrence, across 
which an Indian paddled him in his canoe to the village of 
St. Regis. The good priest was ready at daybreak the next 
morning to commence the journey to St. Andrews. The river 
was almost crossed in safety, but as the clergyman and his 
guide were preparing to land, an accumulation of ice and snow 
on the bank suddenly gave way, swamped the canoe, and 
threw its occupants into the swift stream. They struggled to 
land, and after drying their clothes at the settler s who had 
taken charge of the horse, started inland, the priest riding, the 
St. Andrews man walking at the bridle rein. In this manner 
they toiled on, hour after hour. The mud was worse than it 
had been the day before, for rain had fallen in the meantime. 
The priest was advanced in years and weakened by his labors. 
It was with difficulty he kept his seat ; indeed, he would have 
fallen from the horse, and died where he fell, but for the strong 
arm of the Macdonald who walked beside him and sustained 
him in the saddle until they reached the longed-for home in 
the forest, and found themselves welcomed by warm-hearted 
friends, eager to enter upon the festivities proper to a High 
land wedding." * 

" The first regular parish priest at St. Andrews was the 
Revd. Mr. Fitzsimmons, who was appointed in 1805. At the 
same time the Revd. Alex r McDonald took charge of Glen 
garry, on the decease of the Revd. Mr. Macdonald (Scotus.) 
Mr. Fit/simmons returned to Ireland in 1807, and for thirteen 
years thereafter the late venerable Bishop McDonell minister 
ed to the people both of Stormont and Glengarry, assisted by 
the then pastor of St. Raphaels." 

The Revel. Mr. O Mcara had charge of St. Andrews from 
1821 to 1827, when he was succeeded by the Revd. William 
Fraser, who died in 18:56, when the Rc\d. Mr. Hay was ap 

* Which fi Mivitk-, ilicii and for many years utUT lasted for about tlm-i- d: 

236 Lunenburgh, or the 



From 1792 till 1808 Cornwall, including part of the adja 
cent country, was connected with the Oswegatchie circuit, and 
was supplied by ministers in connection with the Methodist 
Episcopal Church of the United States until 1824. 

The first minister appointed to Cornwall as a separate 
circuit was the Revd. Wm. Snow. The first appointed by the 
Methodist Church in Canada, was the Revd. Solomon Wald- 
ron, in 1824. From that date until 1860 Cornwall was sup 
plied by Methodist ministers, first from the Augusta circuit, 
and more recently from the Matilda circuit. 

In 1861 the town was formed into a separate charge, and 
the Revd. Hugh McLean was appointed the first pastor. The 
following are the ministers who have successively been in 
charge of the Cornwall congregation from the conclusion of 
Mr. McLean s pastorate : The Revd. J. Hugell, Revd. G. N. A. 
F. T. Dixon, Revd. Wm. C. Henderson, M. A., Revd. Alexan 
der Campbell, Revd. Wm. Hall, M. A., Revd. R. Whiting, 
Revd. Wm. McGill, Revd. A. A. Smith, Revd. Geo. S. Rey 
nolds, Revd. F. C. Reynolds, Revd. Wm. Jackson. 

The first church built in the town by the Methodist body 
was of brick, and stood on lot 19, south of 4th street. It was 
finished in 1 86 1, during the pastorate of the Revd. Mr. Mc 
Lean. The parsonage was built a few years later on the east 
half of the same lot. The church was found to be too small, 
and the locality inconvenient for the congregation ; they there 
fore built a new one on the east half of lot No. 13, south side 
of First street, which was completed about the year 1 876. The 

Old Eastern District. 237 

old church was sold and changed by the purchaser into two 
dwelling houses. 

The new church is built of brick. It is comfortable and 
commodious so far as the interior is concerned, but the exterior 
is not a specimen of architectural beauty. 


There were occasional services held in Cornwall from time 
to time, by Baptist ministers, for some years, but no resident 
minister was sent to the town until 1883, when the Revd. Mr. 
McEwen took charge of the congregation. For a few months 
services were held in a rented hall. In 1884 a neat little brick 
church was put up on lot No. 1 3, south side of Second street. 

The Revd. Mr. McEwen left in the year 188.7, ar >d was 
succeeded in 1888 by the Revd. Mr. Gilmour and the Revd. 
Mr. Scott. 

238 Lunenburgh, or the 



The first statute for the establishment of schools in Upper 
Canada, was passed in 1807. Previous to that time the in 
struction of the youth of the Province was in the hands of 
private teachers. The first school in Cornwall of which any 
record has come down to us was the one established by the 
Revd. John Strachan in the year 1803. Four years afterwards 
the Provincial Legislature passed the Statute 47, George III, 
Chapter 3, directing the establishment of a Public School in 
each of the eight districts into which Upper Canada was then 
divided, viz., The Western, London, Niagara, Home, Newcastle, 
Midland, Johnstown and Eastern, and granting the sum of 
^"800.0.0 per annum for their support. 

The statute directed where the school for each district 
should be situated, naming the Town of Cornwall for the East 
ern District. The school trustees of each school were appoint 
ed by the Lieutenant-Governor, and were empowered to nom 
inate a fit and proper person to be a teacher, and report the 
appointment to the Lieutenant-Governor, who had authority 
to affirm or disallow the nomination. 

The Cornwall school came under the authority of this Act 
in 1807. Up to that time it had been carried on as a private 

*Mr. Strachan, who, as already stated, had been appointed 
to the charge of the Episcopal congregation at Cornwall, find 
ing soon after his arrival that his clerical duties were not oner 
ous, opened the school that soon became known through the 
length and breadth of the land as " The Cornwall Grammar 

* See sermon of Archdeacon Patton, 1868. 

Old Eastern District. 239- 

School." His success as an instructor of youth was very great. 
He studied the character of his pupils, and sought to train 
their moral and spiritual, as well as their intellectual faculties. 
Boys from all parts of the Provinces of Upper and Lower 
Canada were sent to him. The list of his pupils shows the 
names of many who were in their day the leading men in Ca 
nada. In 1812 he was prevailed upon to resign his charge 
at Cornwall and remove to York. His subsequent career was 
not only of Provincial, but one may safely say of National 


While he taught in Cornwall he got a patent (dated 2ist 
January, 1808,) for lot number 18, on the south side of Second 
street, on which lot he had caused to be erected a wooden 
building for a school-house about the year 1806. On his re 
moval from Cornwall he conveyed the school-house and lot to 
trustees, for the purpose of a District School. The building 
was occupied as the District School-house until 1855 or 1756. 

After the Revd. Mr. Strachan s departure from Cornwall, 
the school was carried on by John Bethunc, afterwards Dean 
of Montreal, until 1815. In the year 1817 the Revd. Joseph 
Johnston, a Presbyterian minister, was appointed master. 
He no doubt did all in his power for the school, but he was 
unable to keep up the standing it had acquired in the 
time of its founder, and his connection with it ceased about 
1820, when the mastership was given to the Revd. Henry 
James, and held by him until 1822. 

The next teacher was the Revd. Harry Leith, a minister 
of the Church of Scotland, and a native of Aberdeen, who held 
the position until 1826, when he accepted a call to a parish in 
Scotland. He was a good scholar and an active and energetic 
teacher, but he did not win the affection of his scholars, pro 
bably because he followed too strictly the precept of Solomon : 
" Withhold not correction from the child, for if thou bcatest 
him with the rod he shall not die." 

From Mr. Leith s departure in January of [827, the school 
remained vacant until the- iSth of February, in that year, when 

240 Lunenbutgh, or the 

it was placed under the charge of the Rev. Hugh Urqu- 
hart, who had been educated at King s College, Aberdeen, and 
ordained a minister of the Church of Scotland. He had 
taught from the close of 1822 in the Montreal academical in 
stitution. He remained in charge of the Eastern District 
school until the close of 1840, when he resigned the master 
ship to devote himself entirely to his duties as pastor of St. 
John s Church. He was a ripe scholar and a conscientious 
and highly successful teacher. Under his superintendence the 
school maintained the high character it had acquired in the 
time of Revd. Dr. Strachan. Pupils from all parts of Upper and 
Lower Canada came to it, and many of those he taught rose to 
good positions in after life. 

It is pleasing to note that in 1833 a number of those who 
had received their education at the Cornwall Grammar School 
presented a piece of plate to their old teacher, then Archdeacon 
Strachan, as a token of their esteem and affection for him, and 
that their example was followed by many of the pupils of Dr. 
Urquhart, who testified their grateful appreciation of his efforts 
-on their behalf by presenting him with a silver salver and tea 
and coffee service in 1 848. 

After Dr. Urquhart s resignation the trustees appointed 
Mr. Charles B. Turner, a young gentleman from England, who 
held the mastership about three years, when he returned home 
and became a clergyman in the English Church. 

His successor was Mr. William Kay, who had been an as 
sistant in the school during the latter period of Dr. Urquhart s 
incumbency.* He was appointed in 1844, and held the posi 
tion until about 1858, when he resigned and went into the 
mercantile business with his brother at Goderich. 

He was succeeded by the Revd. H. W. Davies, who had 
been a pupil of Mr. Kay, had finished his education at Trinity 
College, Toronto, and had entered into the ranks of the clergy 

* The assistants in the school under Dr. Urquhart, were Lawrence Donahue, 
William Kay and William Bain, who became a minister of the Church, and was for 
many years minister at Perth, Ontario. 

Old Eastern District. 241 

of the Church of England. He taught successfully for some 
years, and resigned the mastership of the school to take a 
position in the Normal School in Toronto.* 

The next master was Mr. William Bradbury, who after 
teaching satisfactorily for a few years, gave up the school here 
and took the position of head master of the Gananoque Gram 
mar School. 

The next head master was Mr. Briggs, followed in a short 
time by Mr. Coyne. Both of these gentlemen were competent 
teachers. Neither of them intended to adopt teaching as a 
profession, but entered upon it as a stepping-stone to some 
thing better. Mr. Coyne is now a barrister. 

On Mr. Coyne s departure about 1871, Mr. James Smith 
was appointed and held the situation until the close of 1885, 
when he was appointed to the Alexandria High School. Mr- 
Johnson, the former head master of the Alexandria High 
School, was appointed to the Cornwall High School, and now 
holds the situation. 

The accommodation provided for teachers and scholars 
in the Cornwall High School from its first start in 1803 until 
1 877, was very poor. No building was put up for a school- 
house until about 1806, when, as already mentioned, the 
wooden house still standing on lot No. 18, south side of 
Second street, was erected. It never was comfortable, even in 
the earliest stage of its existence, and as age loosened its 
joints and widened the cracks in walls and floor, it became 
almost uninhabitable. The author recollects to this day the 
weary hours spent in it during the winter months. It was 
almost impossible to feel any heat except in the immediate 
neighborhood of the stove, and the unfortunate scholars whose 
seats were at a distance from it had to bear the cold as best 
they could. The room was fitted up with long desks, at each 
of which eight or ten boys sat, the seats provided for them 
being common benches without backs. 

* Thf Kt-v. Henry Wilson, \\ho\vrisfor >oinc time curate at Kingston, was 
a.-sistant to the Rev. H. \V. Ihivies. 

242 Lunenburgh, or the 

The old building, venerable for its age, and more par 
ticularly for its associations, was used as a tenement house 
until May, 1888. It is but little changed outwardly, except 
that the windows, which in its school days were five or six feet 
above the floor, have been lowered to the height of those in an 
ordinary dwelling-house, and many of the clapboards, scored 
with the initials of generations of school boys, have been re 
moved and replaced by others, now weather-stained and 
blackened vvith age. It is still the same square, primitive 
structure, destitute of anything in the way of ornament, black 
ened by age and undefiled by paint or white-wash. It is now 
(June, 1888) turned into a carriage-house and stable, the only 
external change being a wider door at the west end. It is an 
old land-mark of the town, and a good specimen of early 
Canadian architecture. 

In 1855 or 1856, the trustees bought lot No. 12, on the 
north side of Fourth street, on which they built a small brick 
school-house. It was some improvement on the old one, 
though by no means comfortable or adequate to the purpose 
for which it was intended. It was used for about twenty 
years, when the absolute necessity for having a proper build 
ing was so apparent that the trustees got the present High 
School building erected in 1877. This is a fine looking 
structure, and well arranged for the comfort and convenience 
of both teachers and scholars. 

When the author attended school in the old wooden 
school building, there was a tradition among the boys that the 
loft over the school-room contained a box in which were the 
bones of an Italian, who, having been so unfortunate as to 
murder some one somewhere (the boys did not condescend 
upon particulars*), was tried for the crime, convicted, ex 
ecuted, and dissected by the doctors. His disembodied spirit 
was supposed to haunt the school-house, whether for the pur- 

* The author has learned lately, that the Italian murdered his wife s grand 
mother ; what the old lady had done to cause her being violently sent from this 
world to another, and it is hoped a better one, is still a mystery. 

Old Eastern District. 


pose of looking after his bones or of frightening bad little 
boys who might be kept in after school hours, was a point not 
exactly decided upon. One lad, who had been kept in and 
forgotten, was heard screaming at a late hour of the night, and 
was nearly wild with terror when released ; he had seen 
nothing, but the old story and the horror of the darkness and 
loneliness nearly unsettled his reason. 

The following list of scholars taught by John Strachan at 
Cornwall from 1803 to 1812, is copied from a pamphlet pub 
lished in 1868 by John Lovell, Montreal : 

Ahem, Henry 

Anderson, Robt. G. , Teller Bank of 
Upper Canada. 

Bethune John, D.D., Dean of Mon 

Bethunc, Alex. N.,D.D., Lord Bishop 
of Toronto. 

Bethune, James G., Cashier, Branch of 
Hank of Upper Canada. 

Bruce, William, Physician. 

Bowl ton, Henry John, Attorney-Gen 
eral, Upper Canada. 

Boulton, Geo. S., Hon., Member L.C. 

Boulton, James, Lawyer. 

Busby, Alexander 

Chewelt, William 

Chewett, James G., Senior Surveyor. 
Surveyor General s Department. 

Clans, Warren 

Clark, Simon, Capt. Yoltigeurs. 

Campbell, James 

Campbell, Duncan 

Colburn, Krastus 

Crawford, John, Merchant, London, 

Crawford, William 

\i-lsoii, Lawyer. 

Chesley, S.Y., M.I ., Head Clerk, In 
dian Department. 
Dixon, Thomas 
1 > i an, Samiu-1. 

-yth, William A., Merrhrnt. 

Foote, Wm. 

Ford, Jacob, U. S. Colonel. 

Fraser, Simon 

Gates, Walter F. , Merchant. 

Grant, William 

Gregory, George 

Gibb, J. D., Merchant Tailor. 

Grant, Wm. A. 

Guzy, Bartholomew A. C. , Lawyer, 

M. 1 ., Deputy Adjutant-General. 
Gugy, Thovnr.s, Lawyer. 
Griffin, Frederick, Lawyer. 
Hughes, Guy 
Hall, Charles 

Hall, Wm., an eminent Physician. 
Hallowell, Wm., Chief Teller Bank of 

British North America. 
Hollowell, Robt. 
Hays, Moses, Chief of Police. 
I loople, John 
Kingston, Thomas 
Jones, Jonas, M.I ., Colonel, Judge 

Court O.B., U. < . 
Jones, Alpheus, Post-master, Collector, 


Jones, Jonathan, Lawyer, 
[ones, Dunham, Custom House ( )fticer. 
Jarvis, Samuel Peters, Dy. Sec. and 

Reg r U. C. 

Kay, William, Merchant. 
La ( aSM, Andrew 

, J. \Y., Otiicer .24th Regiment. 


Lunenburgh, or the 

Mitchell, Geo. 

Mitchell, James 

MacAulay, Sir James Buchanan, Chief 

MacAulay, John Simeon, Colonel 

Royal Engineers. 

MacAulay, Win., Rector of Picton. 
MacAulay, John, Hon. Member L.C., 

Insp. Gen. U.C. 
MacAulay, J., Lawyer. 
Munro, Cornelius 
Munro, John 
Munro, David 

McLean, Archibald, Speaker of the 
House of Assembly and Chief 
McLean, John, Sheriff, Mid. District, 

and Registrar at Cornwall. 
McLean, Alex., M.P., Colonel, Dis 

McLean, William. (Shot at Niagara.) 
McDonell, Dd. .-K., M. P., Sheriff, 

Colonel, Warden, P.P. 
McDonald, Don., (Greenfield), Sheriff, 

Deputy- Adjutant-General. 
McDonell, Duncan, (Greenfield), Col., 

McDonell, James Fraser, Captain 6and 


McDonell. Alex., Lieut. iO4th Regi 
ment. (Drowned at Quebec.) 
McDonell, John. (Killed at Lundy s 

Lane. ) 

McKenzie, Roderick 
McKenzie, Geo. 
McKenzie, Alex. 
McMartin, Daniel, Lawyer. 
McCutcheon, Wm. 
McGillivray, Peter 
Morton, Asa 
Morton, Leonis 
O Brien, E., Officer in the Army. 

Pyke, Thomas 

Porteous, James 
Porteous, John 
Petrie, \Villiam 

Richardson, Thomas, Judge in India- 

Rankin, David 

Rankin, James 

Robinson, Sir John Beverley, Bart., 
Chief Justice U.C. 

Robinson, Peter, Hon., M.L.C., Com 
missioner Crown Lands. 

Robinson, Win. B., Hon., M. E. C., 
Commissioner Public Works. 

Ridout, Geo., Lawyer, Judge Niagara 

Ridout, Thos. G., Cashier, Bank U.C. 

Reinhart, John 

Radenhurst, John, first Clerk, Sur 
veyor-General s Department. 

Radenhurst, Thomas, Lawyer. 

Short, James 

Smith, David John, Merchant 

Smith, Wm. B. 

Steele. Abraham G. 

Scott, Bolton 

Scott, Robert, Lieut., Can. Fencibles. 

Stanton, Robert, King s Printer. 

Stanton, Wm., Deputy Assistant 

Stevens, Nelson 

Sheek, Isaac, Lawyer. 

Small, Charles 

Small, James A., Judge. 

Yankoughnet, Philip, Hon., M.L.C., 
Colonel, Government Arbitrator. 

VanVoughnet Michael. 

Washburn, David, Lawyer. 

Wilkirson, Alex., Lawyer. 

Wharfte, Andrew 

\Yoolrich, James 

Wood, Guy Carleton, Lieut-Col., 
Post-master, Collector of Customs- 

Old Eastern District. 


List of some of the scholars taught by the Revd. H. 
Urquhart : 

Anderson, Isaac Brock 

Anderson, M. J., Solicitor. 

Arnoldi, Wm. 

Blackburn, John 

Bagg, Solomon 

Bell, David Munro 

Cline, Wm. Robert 

Chesley, Ed. James 

Chesley, Albert 

Chesley, Oscar 

Currmings, Jas. H. 

Cameron, James V., Presbyterian 

Crysler. G. M., Solicitor. 

Colquhoun, Walter 

Colquhoun, Sutherland 

Dickinson, Noah 

Dickinson, J. J., Physician. 

Dickinson. C. M., Dentist. 

Downes, Wm. F. 

Dickinson, Walter 

Dickinson, Moss K., M.P. for Russell. 

Empey, Hamilton, Ensign 5th Incor 
porated Batt. Militia. 

Empey, Silas 

Eraser, John 

Eorsyth,Thos. , Lieut., 32nd Regiment. 

Eraser, Archibald 

Eraser, William 

Elanaghan, J. 

Grant, John 

Hamilton, Robert, Merchant. 

Hamilton, Geo., Barrister. 

Hamilton, Harry 

Hart, Frederick 

Hogan, John 

Hogan, William 

Jones, Charles 

Jacques, Edward, Physician. 

Kearns, Carson 

Myers, William Walbridge, Barrister. 

Mountain, J.E.S., the Rev., D.D. 

Molson, John, Banker 

Molson, Wm. 

Molson, Esdaile 

Munro, J. C. 

McDonell, Arch. John, (Greenfield), 


McDonell, Alex.. (Greenfield), So 

McDonald, John Sandfield, the Hon.. 
Barrister, Premier of Canada, 
1862 to 1864. Premier of Ontario, 
1867 to 1872. 

McDonell, P. J., Barrister 
McDougall, P. A., Physician. 
McLean, Archibald Geo., Barrister. 
McDonell, Angus (Greenfield), Lieut. 

5th Incorporated Batt. 
McUonell Reginald, (Greenfield), Lt.- 

Adjt. Royal Canadian Rifles. 
McLean, John Neil. Barrister, 
McAulay, PAY. 15., Barrister. 
McAulay, Donald 
McLean, Allan Neil 
McDonell, John, (Greenfield), Bar 
McDonell, Robertson, (Greenfield), 

Clerk County Court. 
McPherson, William. 
McPherson, John. 
McPherson, Donald 
McLean, Thos. A. 
McDonald, Roderick. Physician 
McMillan. .Eneas, Barrister 
McDonell, Archibald 
McQueen, David Shank, Judge County 


I riniHe, J. F., Judge County Court. 
I ringle, J. D., Barrister 
Ross, Win., Barrister 
Skinner, Thomas 
Sutherland, Wm., Physician 
Shuter, Joseph, Merchant 


Lunenburgk, or the 

Shuter, James, Officer in the Army. 
Schofielcl, Augustus 
Simpson, William, Custom s Dept., 
Vankoughnet,. Philip, the Hon. , Chan 
cellor of Upper Canada. 

Vankoughnet, M. R., Barrister. 
Vankoughnet, BoltonJ. 
Wood, Geo.C., Postmaster 
Walker, J. A., Merchant. 
Wagner, Wm., Physician. 

On the east end of the old school-house several names 
and initials are cut in the clapboards, some of them by scholars 
who attended the school sixty years ago. " Skinner," after 
his name appear the words, " came to late dinner" ; G. Crysler, 
McR., R. McDonald, Joe Shuter, J. A. McPherson, J. N. Mc 
Lean. There are others of a much later date, viz., H. Davis, 
S.V. K. and L.V. K., and some more that are now illegible 
and are probably as old as the building. 

In addition to the school at Cornwall, Grammar Schools, 
now known as High Schools, were established some years ago 
at Williamstown, Morrisburg, Alexandria and Iroquois. From 
the report of the Minister of Education for Ontario, for the 
year 1888, the following extracts are taken :- 

1 <U 


i ^ 

. J- 



:s i 

c >- 


qj (]J 


3 g g 

H >r 

l | 




r- - r - 


Cornwall .... 

$ 842 63 

$ 3221 81 

$ 5172 42 

$ 2450 oo 

;$ 2977 27 

/ H3 

\ Free. 

1 88 

Williamstown] 428 85 

800 oo 

1881 99 

811 87 1161 12 

\ Free. 

I/ 54 

jTVLt AclllV-li. 1U . . . ! CK/ J iv ^J T V 

(249, $5 
Morrisburgh. 83650 2212251 331325 3c : \prann. 

Iroquois 451 Si 2210 oo j 3281 80 1832 oo 2381 o6| { ^ 

Old Eastern District. 247 



In 1816, the Statute 56th George III, Chapter 36, was 
passed for the purpose of establishing Common Schools in 
Upper Canada. Before the passing of this Act, nothing had 
been done by the Legislature for the support of schools gen 
erally throughout the townships and rural parts of the country. 
The District Schools established under the 4/th George III, 
Chap. 3, were all placed in the county towns, and were avail 
able to very few beyond those towns and their immediate 
vicinity. No doubt some schools were established by private 
enterprise in the townships,* but the want of some public pro 
vision for the education of the young was severely felt, and 
was at last supplied to some extent by the Act passed in 
i8i6. f This statute provided for the annual expenditure of 
,6,000.0.0 for the support of Common Schools. The amount 
was divided among the districts of the Province according to 
population. The Eastern District got 800.0.0 ; the Home, 
Johnstown, London, Gore, Western and Niagara Districts, each 
got .600.0.0; the Newcastle, .400.0.0; the Midland, ,1,000.0.0, 
and the Ottawa, ^,200.0.0. The Act provided that the in 
habitants of any town, township, village or place could, on or 
before the ist day of June in each year, make arrangements 
for Common Schools ; that when a competent number of 
persons should unite and build a school-house and engage to 
furnish twenty scholars or more, and provide in part for a 
teacher, they could, on giving eight days notice, meet and 

* In ( mil s l)midas, il is Mated that Mr. Clark kept a school in tin- Ttmnship 
<>f Matilda, in i;<SS. 

+ A proportion of the land in each township was set apart for school purpo 
luit many years pasM-d U-fore any htr^e amount was derived from that so, 

248 Lunenburgh, or the 

appoint three trustees, to whom power was given to nominate 
a teacher, who was required to be a British subject by birth or 
naturalization. It also provided that the Lieutenant-Governor 
should appoint not more than five persons in each district to 
form the Board of Education, who were to superintend the 
schools of the district and apportion the money among them. 
No school was to receive more than ^25.0.0 yearly from the 
Government grant. The trustees of each school were to report 
to the Board of Education, and the board to the Government. 

Each Board of Education appointed a clerk. The District 
Treasurer acted as treasurer to the board. Each of these 
officers got ,5.0.0 a year for the performance of his duties 
under the Act. The duty of the clerk was to receive the 
reports from the trustees semi-annually, make up from them 
the report of the Board of Trustees, and transmit one copy of 
this report to the Government and one to the District Trea 
surer. The clerk s report stated opposite the name of each 
teacher the names of the trustees of his school, the average 
number of scholars attending the school during the preceding 
half-year, and the amounts, proportioned to the number of 
scholars, to which he was entitled. The duty of the treasurer 
was to pay each teacher the amount so found to be due to 
him. Under this system all the Common Schools in the dis 
trict were managed at a very small expense, until the passing 
of the School Act of 1841, which was the beginning of the 
new order of school management. 

No record is now in existence of any of the Common 
Schools kept before the passing of the Act of 1816, nor of 
those established under that Act, previous to 1842. That a 
school was established in the town soon after the passing of 
the Act of 1816, may be taken for granted, and there is very 
little doubt that the old school-house that stood on lot No. 10, 
north side of Second street, was built either in 1816 or 1817. 
The earliest mention of this and other schools in the town is 
found in the books of the Council in 1842, when the town was 
divided into two school divisions. 

Old Eastern District. 249 

The school-house on lot No. 10 appears to have been 
sufficient for nearly all the Common School children for 
several years. In 1834 a school-house was built on lot No. 
21, south side of Third street, and a school established there 
in connection with the congregation of the English Church. 
Other schools were opened from time to time in different parts 
of the town, until there were in 1843 no I GSS tnan six- The 
names of the teachers, the number of the scholars, and the 
Government allowance to each teacher, are as follows : 

s. d. 

Miss Brown, (Church of England), Scholars, 55 Allowance, 18 6 

Mr. Pitts, 50 16 13 i 

Mr. Ryan, 20 6 13 3 

Miss M. Cozens, (for 9 months, 25 6 4 10 

Mrs. Black wood, (for 8 months) 21 4^3 

Mr. Ross, (for 3^ months), 20 i 18 

The name of John McKerras also appears as one of the 
teachers in 1843. 

In 1844, the superintendent of the Common Schools in 
town complained that he could not get the Government allow 
ance, 64.0.11^, because the Town Council had neglected to 
levy a like sum from the town. 

In 1849 the teachers and their allowances were : John 
McKerras, 10.1.7 ; J. Hartley, 5.2.2 ; Miss Brown, 5.2.2 ; 
Miss Cozens, 4.14.7 ; Miss J. Cozens, 2.10.5. 

In 1853 the need of a new school-house became so evident 
that the trustees obtained from the Town Council the sum of 
740.0.0 for the purpose of building one. The trustees having 
decided, after a good deal of discussion, that it was better to 
erect one school-house to accommodate all the children than 
to put up a building in each ward, a brick house of two storeys 
in height, with two rooms on each flat, was put up on lot No. 
10, north side of Second street. It was sufficient at the time 
for four teachers and their classes ; the schools under the 
charge of Miss Brown and Mr. Bartley being also kept up. 

As the town increased more schools were required, and 
rooms were hired in different parts of the town to receive the 

250 Lunenburgh, or the 

younger children. The particulars in regard to these cannot 
now be got, as all the school records prior to 1858 were burned. 

The records from January 1st, 1858, are extant. They 
show that year by year more interest was taken in school 
matters ; salaries were increased, and greater efforts were made 
to procure the services of competent teachers. 

In 1859 the sum of 345.0.0 was granted for school pur 

In 1861 four teachers were employed, two of whom got 
$300.00 a year each ; the other two $180.00 and $140.00 re 
spectively. In 1865 the salaries were raised to $500.00, 
$350.00, $205.00 and $180.00. 

In 1871 the school property was enlarged by the purchase 
of lot No. 10, on the south side of Third street, for which the 
trustees paid $355-55- 

In 1879 the number of scholars was 340 ; they increased 
to 458 in 1880. As the number of scholars increased from 
year to year, the salaries were raised and more teachers em 
ployed. In 1884 the salaries amounted to $2,580.00. 

In 1883 and 1884 the number of scholars had increased 
so much that the building put up in 1854 could not contain 
them, and the trustees decided upon erecting a new school- 
house. For this purpose they required $25,000.00 from the 
town, which, after a good deal of demur and difficulty, was 
granted by by-law passed by the Council and ratified by the 
vote of the ratepayers. Upon the passing of the by-law, the 
trustees bought lot No. 1 1, on the north side of Second street, 
for $3,000.00. They had some time previously bought lot No. 
11, south side of Third street, so that the Public School pro 
perty consisted of four town lots, nearly five acres of land. 
About the centre of this plot of ground they erected the new 
school-house. It is a large, handsome and commodious brick 
building, two storeys in height, exclusive of the basement, 
which contains the caretaker s aparatments, the hot air fur 
naces, and rooms for storage of coal, etc. This building, as 
well as the High School, are ornaments to the town, and, with 

Old Eastern District. 


the exception of the new Post Office, are by far the finest 
public buildings in it. 

The trustees have also built a small school-house on lot 
No. 2, south side of First street, for the younger children living 
in the eastern part of the town, and they propose putting up a 
similar building for those living in the west. 

The Separate Schools in connection with the Roman 
Catholic Church have already been alluded to. 

The following is as accurate a list as can be got of the 
teachers employed from the beginning of 1850 : 

Miss Brown 


" Cattanach 

" McElroy 

il McDonell 

" Helen McDonell 

" Theresa Irvine 

" McLennan 

" Palmer 

" Snetsinger 

" Styles 

" McDonald 

" Kennedy 

" Kendall 

" Campbell 

" Strickland 

" Falkner 

" Ross 

" Turn) mil 

" Lewis 

" Leitch 

" McDonell 
Mrs. McLeod 
Miss S. M. Carpenter 

" McNaughton 

Samuel Hart 

Wm. Millar 

Charles Poole 

Rev. Mr. Campbell, 1859 

James Bethune, 1864 

Rev. Mr. Hugel, 1866 

Miss Stafford 

" McNaughton 

" Craig 

" Moss 

Mr. Bark ley 

" Mulhern 

" McQueen 

" Mclntyre 

" A. L. Hay 

" R. C. McGregor 

" D. McDiarmid 

" E. Poole 

" McKay 

" A. W. Ross. 

" McKercher 

" D. Maxwell 

" Geo. Mildon 

" F. C. Collins 

" Talbot 

" Bisset 

" W. B. Lawson 

" Ayres, Music Teacher 

" Reed, 


Rev. Mr. Burnett, 1868 
Mr. McDiarmid, 1871 
Rev. Mr. Henderson, 1872 
Rev. Mr. Austin, 1873 
K. H. Carman, Inspector 
A. \Y. K 

252 Lunenburgh, or the 

In the early days of school work, everything connected 
with the schools was very rough. Each board of trustees got 
a little piece of land, which afforded room enough for the 
school-house and possibly for a small shed for wood. No at 
tempt was made to secure a play-ground, that would have 
been considered extravagance. The youngsters went to school, 
not to play, but to study ; and if they needs must waste 
their time in play the road was free to them for that purpose. 
The school-house was almost invariably a log building, barely 
large enough to hold the teacher and the pupils. It was light 
ed by three or four small windows, and was furnished with the 
cheapest kind of desks and benches. A stove, a pail, and a 
tin cup, completed the equipment. Books were very scarce, 
and were as well taken care of as possible. The subjects 
taught were not many, so that a few copies of Mavors spelling 
book, the English reader, Lindlay Murray s grammar, Gold 
smith s geography and history of England, and Walkingham s 
arithmetic, sufficed ; each scholar, of course, furnished his own 
slate, his copy-book, and his pencils, pen and ink. In those 
days there were no steel pens, quills alone were used, and part 
of the master s work was to make and mind the pens (an art 
that is going rapidly out of use in the present day.) The teach 
ers were badly paid, and were in many places obliged to "board 
round" among the families that sent children to the school. 

As the population increased, and money became more 
plentiful, better arrangements were made for the schools. From 
year to year improvements were made, until the present time, 
when in many a section the school-house is a good brick or 
stone building situated in a fine space of ground, with some 
attempt at ornament in the way of setting out shade trees. 

The names of the teachers of "ye olden time" have not 
been handed down to us, though they may linger yet in the 
memory of some grey-haired grand-sires or dames who in child 
hood attended their teachings. Those old teachers were per 
haps not very learned. In fact it is scarcely a matter of doubt 
that very few of them could have worried through a modern 

Old Eastern District. 253 

examination and come out with a certificate even of the lowest 
grade. They were not troubled with examinations until the 
School Act had been in force for some years, when a regulation 
was made that each teacher should be examined by a member 
of the board of trustees for the District School, and get a cer 
tificate of his competence to teach. These examinations were 
not by any means severe, so that a very ordinary amount of 
knowledge sufficed to enable the applicant to pass and get a 
certificate. There was one question in arithmetic that was 
occasionally put by one of the trustees, "If a herring and a half 
cost a penny and a half, how many can be bought for twelve 
pence." More than one aspirant for the position of teacher 
has been floored by this abstruse " brain-twister." The course 
of instruction in the old days was confined almost entirely to 
the three R s, (reading, Yiting and Yithmetic.) Some of the 
teachers were good grammarians, as grammarians went, in the 
days of Lindlay Murray. Some were good arithmeticians ; a 
few could teach book-keeping, and many were admirable pens- 
men. Each of them could in his way give a plain education 
such as suited the times and the wants of the people. 

Several old soldiers and sailors took to teaching. If they 
lacked anything in the way of " book-larnin " they made up 
for the deficiency in discipline, in fact very few of the old 
teachers omitted the duty of impressing on their scholars the 
necessity of being courteous and civil, and of saluting all per 
sons whom they encountered. It would have been thought 
strange if on any one meeting school children, the little lads 
did not touch their hats, and the little maidens did not curtsey 
to the passer-by, who always courteously returned the salute. 
Might not the pupils of modern days take a lesson from the 
old masters in this particular ? 

Under the Public School Act of 1807, the trustees appoint 
ed for the Eastern District were : 

The Rev. Salter Mountain The Hon. Neil McLean 

Samuel Anderson Joseph Anderson 

John Chrysler Alex. McMillan. Ks<|. 


Lunenburgh, or the 

And under the Common School Act of 1816, Donald 
McDonell and Archd. McLean, M.P., composed the Board of 


The board for the general superintendence of education in 

Upper Canada was as follows : 

Hon. and Rev. Dr. Strachan Rev. R. Addison 

Hon. Joseph Wells J- B. Robinson, Esq., Alt. -Gen. 

Hon. G. H. Markland Thos. Ridout, Esq., Surveyor-Gen. t 

The following information about the Public Schools is 
taken from the report of the Minister of Education, Ontario, 
for 1888: 

i $ 


Public School Teachers. 

Separate Schools. 


Av ge Salaries 

- , 

.,, 2 



<u *~ 

"3 ^ 8 




c ^ 

o .-r: 

O "^ 


"0 i^o 





1 JH 


O cj 



^ "3 ^ 

6 rt 



* S 



Stormont . . . 










$ 1392 

., > . y 

Dundas .... 







Glengarry. . . 











Town of \ 
Cornwall J 










f York Almanac for 1824. 
*Not stated. 

Old Eastern District. 255 


In 1792 the first election for members of the Legislative 
Assembly (the Upper Canadian House of Commons) took 
place under authority of the Imperial Statute of 1791. The 
Counties of Stormont and Dundas were each entitled to elect 
one member. The County of Glengarry was formed into two 
ridings, each of which returned a member. The exact date of 
holding the first election is not known. It must have occurred 
at the latest in the summer of 1792, as the first session of the 
House was held on the i7th day of September in that year. 

The author,though he has made many efforts, has not been 
able to procure the names of all the members who have repre 
sented the three counties from the time of the first election. 
The following lists give all the information he has been able to 
procure. They are taken partly from the records of the Court 
of General Quarter Sessions, partly from old almanacs of 1821, 
1824, 1839, &c., and partly from sessional papers and journals 
of the House.* 

On the 7th March, 1820, the Statute 60, Geo. Ill, Chap. 3, 
was passed giving one member to counties with one thousand 
inhabitants, and two to those having four thousand. Under 
this Act Stormont had two members from 1820. Dundas had 
two from 1828. This continued until the union of Upper and 
Lower Canada was effected in 1841, when the three counties 
and the town each returned one member. The following are 
the names of the members for 


Jeremiah French, - 1792 to 1796 

R. I. D. (Iray, I79 6 

D Arcy Boulton, up to - 1808 

Abraham Marsh, 1812 

* For an account of the manner of conducting elections in the old days, see 
Chapter XIV, near the end. 


Lunenburgh, or the 

Philip Vanknoughnet, 
Archibald McLean, 

Don. /E. McDonell, \ 
William Bruce, j 

Archibald McLean, 
Alexander McLean, 
Donald . Eneas McDonell, 

(After the union of Upper and 

Alexander McLean, 

Donald /Eneas McDonald, 

Alexander McLean, 1848 

Wm. Mattice, 

Samuel Ault, 

1818 to 1834 
1820 to 1834 

1834 1835 1836 1837 

1836 to 1837 

1837 1838 1839 1840 

1838 1839 1840 

Lower Canada ) 

1841 1842 1843 1844 
1845 1846 1847 

1849 1850 1851 1852 
1853 to 1861 
1862 to 1867 


Samuel Ault, 
Cyril Archibald, 
Oscar Fulton, 
D. Bergin, - 
D. Bergin, 

1867 to 
1873 to 1878 
1878 to 1882 
1882 to 1886 


Wm. Colquhoun, - 1867 to 1872 
James Bethune, - 1873 to 1879 

Joseph Kerr, - 1880 to 1886 


Alexander Campbell, 
Thomas Fraser, 
Jacob Weager, 
Henry Merkley, 
John Crysler, 
Peter Shaver, 

Peter Shaver, 
George Brouse, 
Peter Shaver, ) 
John Cook. j 

John Cook, 
Geo- McDonell, 
John Pliny Crysler, 
Jesse W. Rose, 
John Pliny Crysler, 
James Wm. Cook, - 
John S. Ross, 


John S. Ross, 1867 to 1872 

Wm. Gibson, 1873 to 1878 

John S. Ross, 1878 to 1882 

C. E. Hickey, 1882 to 1886 

C. E. Hickey. - 1887 

(After the Union.] 


Simon Cook, 
Andrew Brodie, 
Dr. Chamberlain, 
J. P. Whitney, 

1792 to 1797 

1797 to 1800 

1800 to 1804 

1804 to 1808 

1808 to 1824 

1824 to 1828 

1821 to 1830 
1830 to 1840 

1841 to 1845 

1845 to 1848 

1848 to 1852 

1852 to 1854 

1854 to 1857 

1848 to 1861 

1862 to 1867 


1867 to 1875 
1875 to 1886 



Old Eastern District. 



John McDonell, of Aberchallader, first Speaker, 
Hugh McDonell, 
John N. Campbell, 
Angus B. McDonell, 
Alexander McKenzie, 
Alexander McDonell, (Cullachy), 1 
Walter Butler Wilkinson, J 

Alexander McDonell, (Cullachy), \ 
Thomas, Fraser / 

John McDonell, (Greenfield), 
Alexander McMartin, ") 



- 1808 

John Cameron, 

Alex. McDonell, \ 
Alex. McMartin, J 

Alexander McDonell, - 
Duncan Cameron, 
Alexander Fraser, 
Alexander McDonell, \ 
Alexander Chisholm, / 

Donald McDonell, 
John S. McDonald, 
D. A. McDonald, 


D. A. McDonald, . 1868 to 1875 

Arch. McNab, . . 1875 to 1878 

John McLennan, . 1878 to 1882 

D. McMaster . . 1882 to 1887 

P. Purcell, . . 1887 


Archibald McLean, 
Geo. S. Jarvis, 
S. V. Chesley, 
Rolland McDonald, 
John Ilillard Cameron, 
Roderick McDonald, 
Hon. J. S. McDonald, . 


Hon. J. S. McDonald, 1868 to 1872 

D. Berlin, . . 1873 to 1874 

A. F. McDonald, . 1875 to 1878 

P. Bergin, . . 1878 to 1882 

The town was joined to the county in 

1882, and Dr. Bergin was elected 

for the county in that year, and 

again in 1887. 


/ 1820 



1823 1828 
1824 or 1828 and 1830 to 1834 

1834 1835 

. 1836 1837 1838 
1841 to 1858 
1858 to 1867 


James Craig, . . 1868 to 1875 

A. J. Grant, . . 1875 to ^79 

D. McMaster, . . 1880 to 1883 

Jas. Rayside, . 1883 to 1886 

Jas. Rayside, . . 1886 


1834 to 1836 

1836 to 1840 

1840 to 1846 


1847 to 1852 
1853 to 1858. 
1858 to 1868 
Hon. J. S. McDonald, 1868 to 1872 
J. G. Snetsinger, 1873 to 1879 

Wm. Mack, . . 1880 to 1883 
A. P. Ross, . . 1883 to 1886 
William Mack, - .1886 
for Cornwall and Stormont. 

258 Limenburgh, or the 


Ephraim Jones, . . . . 1792 to 1796 

Solomon Jones, . . . . . 1796 to 1800 

Edward Jessup, . ... . 1796 to 1 800 

Thomas Meers, . . . . . 1811 to 1812 

The following copy of an election address, issued by 
Robert Isaac Dey Gray, in August, 1796, is taken from the 
Cornwall "Freeholder" of 2nd March, 1889. The address 
published in the " Freeholder" was handed to the editor by 
Mr. G. A. Forsyth, of Moulinette. It is well printed and well 
preserved, and it has been in the possession of the Forsyth 
family from the time it was issued, nearly a century ago : 



Actuated from an ardent inclination of devoting myself to your particular 
service, and earnestly wishing to become instrumental in promoting your welfare, 
by being classed among those who are to represent this country in its second Pro 
vincial Parliament, I humbly offer myself a candidate for your suffrages at the 
.approaching election for the County of Stormont. 

"And I beg leave to assure you that should I be so fortunate as to have the 
honor of becoming your representative, I shall endeavour faithfully to acquit my 
self in that important duty, by my zealous exertions to support your rights and 
promote your interests ; and rest assured further, that it shall ever be my greatest 
ambition to manifest to you on all occasions, the same readiness and zeal to serve 
you which the greater part of you have uniformly experienced during a course of 
many years, from your late friend and benefactor* ; and it will afford me a source 
of the greatest consolation and happiness, if from my earnest endeavours I shall 
hereafter prove myself equally deserving of your confidence. 

" I have the honor to be, gentlemen, 

" Your devoted and most faithful servant, 

"R. I. D. GRAY." 

"August 3, 1796- 

*^ The friend and benefactor" must mean his father, James Gray, Major of 
the ist Battalion of the King s Royal Regiment of New York, who was the first 
owner of Gray s Creek, and who died in 1795. 

Old Eastern District. 259 


Cornwall was never a regular garrison town, but on several 
occasions troops, either regular or Provincial, have been station 
ed there. At the first settlement of the place most of the men 
in the town and the neighborhood had served in the Royal 
Yorkers, or in the 84th, and were quite ready and able to de 
fend themselves had there been any attack upon them. There 
was, however, no garrison there until the outbreak of the war 
of 1812, when the flank* companies of several of the militia 
regiments were called out for active service, and some of them 
were stationed at Cornwall under the command of Capt. Neil 
McLean, who had been an officer in the 84th during the Revo 
lutionary war. In addition to the companies of militia there 
were detachments of the 49th and /oth Regiments, and some 
of the Royal Artillery stationed in the town. After peace was 
restored, the militia returned to their homes, and the regular 
troops were withdrawn. 

In 1829, troops en route from Montreal to Kingston came 
by steamboat from Coteau du Lac to Cornwall, and marched 
thence to Dickinson s Landing, where they embarked on the 
steamer for Prescott. The first of the regiments that passed 
through Cornwall was the 7gth Cameron Highlanders, some of 
whom bore the Waterloo medal. 

In 1836 a company of the I5th regiment, was sent from 
Kingston to Cornwall on account of the riotous behaviour of 


some of the canal laborers at Dickinson s Landing. This com 
pany was stationed in the town for about two months. When 
the rebellion broke out in Upper and Lower Canada in the fall 

* Flank companies Kadi regiment consisted of ten rmnpanies, that n the 
ri^ht, called I hi C.reiiadier company : that nut lie left, railed the I.itdit Infantry 
.iipanv. were the Hank companies 

260 Lunenbutgh, or the 

of 1837, a volunteer company* of fifty men was raised in the 
town in November, and sent to occupy the fort at Coteau du 
Lac, where they remained until relieved by a company of the 
2nd Stormont Militia about the beginning of December. Two 
regiments of militia, the Cornwall Volunteer Corps, under Col. 
Vankoughnet, and a Glengarry regiment under Col. A. Mc- 
Donell, were sent to Cornwall in November, and remained un 
til the spring of 1838, when they were relieved from duty. 

Two regiments called the Lancaster and the Williamstown 
Highlanders, were raised under the command of Lt.-Col. Don 
ald McDonell, and Lieut-Col. Alexander Fraser, respectively. 
A part of these corps remained in Lancaster and Williamstown ;. 
the rest were sent to Lower Canada, where they were on duty 
until the spring of 1838. On the arrival of the Glengarry regi 
ments in Montreal, they were inspected by Major-General Sir 
John Colborne^ and his staff, all of whom expressed great ad 
miration of the magnificent appearance and physique of the 
men. One of the men of Col. Fraser s regiment, Lewis Grant, 
who stood about 6 feet 7, carried a brass three-pounder field 
piece on his shoulder when the regiment marched past the in 
specting General. In the summer of 1838 an independent 
company of infantry was raised in Cornwall under the com 
mand of Capt. Geo. Crawford, and quartered in the barracks, 
near the jail. On Sunday, the nth of Nov. 1838, a large num 
ber of armed men, who called themselves "sympathisers," left 
Ogdensburg in the steamer "United States" and two schooners,, 
for the purpose of invading Canada. It is probable that their 
motives were of a rather mixed character, and that although a 

* The officers were Martin McMartin, Captain B. G. French, Lieutenant 
and S. I. B. Anderson, Esq. The author was one of the privates. 

t Afterwards Lord Seaton. 

NOTE The winter of 2837-38 was very mild. There was sleighing in the 
latter part of December, 1837; two companies of the 24th Regiment, under Capt. 
Lutman, came up from Montreal in sleighs on their way to Niagara, but the snow 
left early in January, 1838, and about the middle of that month the Head-quarter 
division of the 32nd Regiment came from Coteau du Lac to Cornwall on board the 
"Neptune" steamer. 

Old Eastern District. 261 

wish to aid the unfortunate Canadian, " ground down by the 
minions of British tyranny," was one of them, a desire to ap 
propriate to themselves the possessions real and personal of the 
so-called minions and their victims was another and a much 
stronger one. The band of marauders attempted to land at 
the Town of Prescott, but failing* to do so one of the schooners 
crossed to Ogdensburg, where she ran aground. The other 
drifted down the river, and anchored opposite the Windmill,, 
which stands on a rocky point about a mile and a half below 
Prescott. It is circular and strongly constructed of stone. Its 
walls are about three and a half feet thick, and eighty feet 
high. The interior is divided into several storeys, the small 
windows of which answer for loop-holes.-f- There were a num 
ber of stone houses around it, and most of the fences in the 
neighborhood uere of the same material. Here the schooner 
load of banditti made a lodgement, and were soon joined by 
reinforcements that came from Ogdensburg in small boats. 
The night was spent in strengthening the position in the wind 
mill and the adjacent houses under the command of Von 
Schultz, a Polish exile. 

This invasion caused great excitement at Prescott and in 
the neighborhood. The Canadians showed their gratitude to 
these self-styled liberators in a manner very unpleasant to the 
latter. Men of all shades of political opinion sprang to arms 
at once, ready and eager to "welcome the invaders with bloody 
hands to hospitable graves." The little steamer "Experiment" 
was sent from Brockville early on Monday. She was armed 
with t\vo small cannon, and during the day cruised up and 
down the river firing on the boats of the sympathisers as they 
crossed to and from Ogdensburg. 

The steamer "United States" had been seized at Ogdens 
burg by an armed mob, and was employed in taking men,, 
arms and ammunition to the windmill. As she was returning 

Croil s "Dumlas." 

t It was built by a Mr. Hughes >everal years before 1837 for a windmill, 

but was not a succe>s. It is now a light-house. s 

262 Limenburgh, or the 

on her last trip, a shot from the " Experiment " beheaded the 
pilot, who was steering. The United States marshall, who 
arrived in the evening at Ogdensburg, made a formal seizure of 
the steamer, and prevented her from giving any further aid to 
the invaders. On Monday night the steamers " Queen" and 
" Cobourg" came down with a party of 70 men, marines and 
regulars, from Kingston. A company of Glengarry Militia, 
under Capt. Geo. McDonald, lay on the ground in the neigh 
borhood of the windmill all night under a heavy rain, with 
only their blankets for a covering, and a detachment of 140 
men from the 9th Provisional Battalion, under Lieut-Col. 
Gowan, occupied Prescott. On Tuesday morning a battalion 
of Dundas Militia, numbering 300 men, commanded by Col. 
John Crysler, came up and were joined by a part of the ist 
Grenville Militia. An attack was planned on the rebel force. 
The left wing of the British force, consisting of 30 Marines 
under Lieut. Parker, part of Capt. Geo. McDonell s company of 
Glengarry Volunteers, and a portion of the Dundas and Grenville 
Militia, under Col. R. D. Eraser, took up their position at the 
edge of the woods, where the enemy had posted their picquets 
and drove them in gallantly. The right wing, consisting of 
40 men of the 83rd Regt. of the line, part of Col. Gowan s 
Battalion, 60 men of Capt. Edmonstone s company, and part 
of the Dundas Militia, the whole under the command of Col. 
Young, proceeded along the bank of the river, and having ad 
vanced to within a few rods of the windmill, encountered a 
sharp fire from the enemy. The action on the left commenced 
by a galling fire from the brigands posted behind stone walls in 
rear of the mill. The British being on rising ground were very 
much exposed, nevertheless they advanced steadily, loading 
and firing with great precision. The enemy were driven from 
their shelter in great confusion,* and retreated to another stone 
wall, from which they were also dislodged, and finally driven 
into the windmill and the adjacent stone buildings, from \vhich 
they maintained a vigorous fire upon their assailants, who suf- 

*Croil s "Dundas." 

Old Eastern District. 263 

fered severely from it. Col. C. B. Turner,* with the 2ndf Stor- 
mont Militia, under Col. P. Vankoughnet, came up while this 
action was going on, and took part in it. 

Wednesday and Thursday were passed in comparative 
inaction, the British waiting for reinforcements and for guns 
of sufficient calibre to reduce the place. The Brigands rernain- 
ed shut up in their position, and kept up a desultory fire from 
the windows of the buildings. 

On Friday at half-past twelve the steamers "William IV," 
"" Brockville" and " Cobourg," came down, having on board 
the 83rd Regt. of the line, and a detachment of the Royal Artil 
lery, with three 24 pounders. The 83rd and the Artillery, with 
the heavy guns, opened fire on the enemy, which dislodged 
them from the stone houses, and drove them into the mill ; at 
the same time the three steamers assailed them from the river. 
Within half an hour a white flag was seen to wave from the top 
of the windmill, but it waved in vain. A heavy fire was con 
tinued ; every building in the vicinity of the mill was set on 
fire, and the attack concentrated on the main fortress. At 
length the firing ceased, and the invaders marched out and sur 
rendered at discretion. Von Schultz and many others were 
found concealed in the bushes, and dragged from their hiding 
places. The number of prisoners who surrendered was 110, 
besides those taken during the seige.* In the mill were found 
several hundred kegs of powder, a large quantity of cartridges, 
pistols and swords, and 200 stand of arms, most of which were 
of superior workmanship. Many of the swords and dirks were 
silver mounted, and their hilts elaborately carved. A silk flag 
valued at $100.00 was also taken, on which was displayed a 
spread eagle, beautifully worked, surmounted by a single star, 
and beneath, also wrought in silk, the words : " Liberated by 
the Onondaga Hunters." 

* Col. Turner had command of the Eastern District, 
t The Third Provisional Battalion which was then being raised. 
About fifty men were taken on Tuesday, and every night the picquets took 
who were trying to escape. 

264 Lunenburgh, or the 

The total loss of the invaders in killed and wounded 
could not be accurately ascertained, as many of them were 
taken across the river. Not less than forty are known to have 
been killed, including three officers. In the pocket of one of 
them was found a list of proscribed persons in Prescott, who* 
were to have been put to death. 

The official return of the British loss was 2 officers and 1 1 
rank and file killed, 4 officers and 63 rank and file wounded.. 
The officers killed were W. S. Johnson, Lieutenant 83rd Regi 
ment, and - - Dulmage, 2nd Grenville Militia. Those wounded 
were Ogle R. Gowan, Lieutenant-Colonel Qth Provisional Bat 
talion, slightly ; Lieut. Parker, Royal Marines, slightly ; John 
Parlow, Lieutenant 2nd Dundas Militia, severely ; Angus Mc- 
Donell, Lieutenant Glengarry Highlanders, slightly. Of the 
Dundas Militia 4 were killed and 7 wounded.* 

Another attempt was made at Windsor by a party who> 
came over from Detroit. They were defeated by a force under 
Colonel Prince, who laconically summed up the results thus in 
his despatch : " Of the brigands and pirates 21 were killed,, 
besides 4 vvho were brought in just at the close, whom I 
ordered to be shot on the spot, which was done accordingly."" 

The prisoners taken in these engagements were nearly all 
Americans. One hundred and eighty of them were tried, 
before general courts-martial at Fort Henry and London in 
the spring of 1839, and sentenced to be hanged. A number 
were pardoned in consideration of their youth and other ex 
tenuating circumstances. Ten only of the whole number were 
hanged at Fort Henry ; the rest had their sentence commuted 
and were transported to Van Deiman s Land, where many of 
them died. After several years the remainder were pardoned,, 
and most of them returned to their homes. 

The fate of Von Schultz excited great sympathy. He 
pleaded guilty to the charge against him, " of having been 
unlawfully and treasonably in arms against our Lady the 

* Thomas Fraser, son of Col. R. D. Fraser, received a commission in the- 
regular service for his gallantry in this affair. 

Old Eastern District. 265 

-Queen," and died a victim of the designing traitors who urged 
him into the enterprise and then cruelly abandoned him in the 
hour of danger.* 

While the attention of the authorities was taken up by 
the attack at the Windmill, the discontented among the French 
Canadians tried a little exploit of their own. They seized 
upon the steamer " Henry Brougham" when she put in at 
Beauharnois, on her usual trip from the Cedars to La Chine, 
on the 2nd of November, 1838, and took the crew and pas 
sengers prisoners. Among the passengers were D. E. Mc- 
Intyre,f then surgeon in Lieut-Colonel Fraser s Battalion ; 
and Donald McNicol, of Williamstown ; John S. McDougall, 
Duncan McDonell (Lachlan), and Martin Carman, of Corn 
wall ; Dr. Campbell, of Brockville, and Major Usher and his 
daughter-in-law, of Niagara. This daring outrage caused 
immediate action on the part of the Government, and excited 
great indignation among the people of Stormont and Glen- 
.garry. The first regiment Stormont Militia, under the com 
mand of Lieut-Colonel Dd. yEneas McDoneil ; two regiments 
of Glengarry Militia, led by Lieut-Colonel Duncan McDonell 
(Greenfield), and part of Major Jarvis troop of Lancers, were 
sent to Beauharnois. The ist Stormont and the Lancers 
embarked on the " Neptune" at Cornwall and landed below 
Dundee, whence they marched through mud and mire to 
Beauharnois. The Glengarry men were landed lower down 
the lake, and had a less distance to march. All of them got 
to the point of attack as rapidly as possible, and there joined 
the /ist Highland Light Infantry, who had been sent up from 
Montreal. There was some fighting in the village, but no 
decided stand was attempted by the French, who dispersed, + 
leaving the prisoners, who were liberated without having suf- 

* Thr account (if tin- affairs at the Wind-mill and Windsor U taken from 
< roll s "Dundas." 

f Now Sheriff of Stormont, I hmdas and ( dengarry, 

\V. I). Wood, of the Lancers, armed with a rusty old pistol, pursued and took 
ilnve of the flying enemy. 

266 Lunenburgh, or the 

fered any injury. Though during their imprisonment they 
were moved about from place to place, always under a guard 
of armed men, they were at last brought back to Beauharnois, 
where they were confined in the priest s house at the time of 
the attack. The house was near the scene of the fray, and not 
a few stray bullets whistled through it, fortunately without 
injury to any of the inmates. 

There were neither telegraphs nor railways at the time,, 
and the canals were not completed, therefore the delay in 
sending intelligence and the difficulties in the way of forward 
ing troops were very great, so much so that the prisoners were 
not released for two weeks from the time of the capture of the 

The militia did a good deal of damage, burning several 
houses and barns on their march to Beauharnois. They also 
helped themselves liberally to the horses of the " habitans" ; 
no doubt they needed them to make their way through the 
terrible roads they had to march by, but the old joke that 
" they went away infantry and returned home cavalry" is not 
exactly true, as the horses had to be left on the south shore of 
the lake, where there is little doubt they were reclaimed by 
their owners. 

In consequence of these attacks the ist Provisional Bat 
talion under Lieut-Colonel Vankoughnet, the third regiment 
of Glengarry Militia under Col. Chisholm, the 4th Provisional 
Battalion under Lt.-Col. D. McDonell, Major Jarvis * troop 
of Lancers, Capt. Crawford s company of Infantry, and Capt. 
Pringle s -f- company of Artillery, were stationed in Cornwall 
during the remainder of 1838 and the winter of 1839. At the 
same time the 5th Provisional Battalion under Lt.-Col. Alex r 
Fraser was raised in Glengarry and was on duty along the 
front of that county, and the ist Stormont under Lt.-Col. Dd. 
McDonell was on duty in the Township of Cornwall. In the 
spring of 1839 the ist Stormont, the 3rd Glengarry and Capt. 

* Afterwards Judge of the County Court, 
t James Pringle, Clerk of the Peace. 

Old Eastern District. 267 

Pringle s company of Artillery were relieved from duty, and 
some time later in the season the Provisional Battalions were 
also relieved. The Government then authorised the formation 
of the 5th Battalion of Incorporated Militia, under Lieut.-Col. 
Vankoughnet. The regiment was raised in a few days, the 
men being enlisted for two years. Capt. Crawford s company 
was incorporated with the battalion ; at the expiration of the 
t\vo years the battalion \vas re-enlisted for two years more. 
They remained in Cornwall until April or May 1842, when the 
4th Incorporated Battalion,* which had been stationed at 
Prescott, were sent to Cornwall, the 5th going to Prescott. 
In May, 1843, all the five incorporated battalions were disband 
ed. These regiments were clothed and armed as the regular 
troops were, and were fully equal to them in drill and discip 
line, and had they been kept up would have formed an excel 
lent nucleus for the training of our militia and volunteers.-f* 

In 1838 the military authorities sent out from England 
officers of experience to take command of the militia and 
superintend the formation and drill of the regiments and com 
panies ordered out for service. The names and stations of 
these officers were : 

Col. Chichester, .... Chatham 

Col. Marshall. ..... Brockville 

Col. Cox, K.H., . . . . Whitby 

Major Carmichael, . .(-Lancaster 

^Coteau da Lac.+ 

Col. Young, and afterwards! 

Col. Williams, / Prescott 

Capt. Baron de Rottenburg, . . . Belleville 

Capt. Swan, ..... Niagara 

Col. C. B. Turner, C.B., . . . . Cornwall. 

* The fourth bore the number in Roman numerals IV. The house on the 
south-east corner of lot 22, North Water Street, was the officer s quarters, and 
from that fact got the name of Ivy (IV) Hall. 

company of Glengarry men under the command of Capt. Alex. Greenfield 
McDonald, garrisoned the fort at Coteau du Lac, until June, 1843. 

Major Carmichael was a Highlander and an enthusiastic lover of the 
language, dress and traditions of the Gael. He built the cairn at the north of the 
River Au Raisins, in honor of Sir John Colborne, afterwards Lord Seton, who 
commanded the 52nd Regiment, and distinguished himself greatly in Spain. 

268 Lunenburgh, or the 

Col. Turner had seen a good deal of service in the Peninsu 
lar war, and had three medals. Major Carmichael had served 
in the East Indies. These officers brought the corps under 
their respective commands into a state of great efficiency, and 
continued on duty until the spring of 1843. 

The town major, of Cornwall, during the stirring times 
from 183810 1843, was Major Donald McDonald, who had 
been a lieutenant in the 4Oth Regiment of the line, and had 
seen a great deal of service in the 42nd (the Black Watch.) 
He had the Peninsular medal with ten clasps, for as many 
general actions in which he had taken part, viz., Corunna, 
Fuentes, D Onor, Badajoz, Salamanca, Vittoria, Pyrennes, 
Nevilles, Nive, Orthez, Thoulouse. 

After the disbanding of the 4th Incorporated, a company 
of the 23rd (Royal Welsh Fusiliers) was sent from Kingston, 
under Capt. Williams Watkyn Wynn, to take charge until the 
military stores were removed. From this time Cornwall saw 
nothing military, unless the annual militia muster on training- 
day could be so called,* until the volunteer movement began 
in 1854-1855, when Dr. J. J. Dickinson, who had been a lieu 
tenant in the 5th Incorporated, raised a troop of Cavalry, 
which was drilled for two weeks annually. The Government 
supplied the arms and accoutrements, and gave the men an 
allowance for uniforms. This troop made a very creditable 
appearance, when they turned out for their annual drill, and 
marched through the town headed by their mounted band. 
They were kept up for four or five years. 

In the spring of 1861, in consequence of the Civil war in 
the United States, two companies of the Royal Canadian 
Rifles were sent to Cornwall, and remained in camp a little to 
the west of the town until the month of October of the same 


In January, 1862, two Volunteer Rifle Companies were 

formed in the town ; No. i commanded by Capt. D. Bergin, 

This was held on the 24th of June, until the accession of Her Majesty- 
Queen Victoria, when the day was changed to her birthday, the 24th ;)f May. 

Old Eastern District. 269 

No. 2 by Capt. Oliver. In November of the same year an In 
fantry Company was formed under the command of Capt. J. F. 
Pringle.* These companies were regularly drilled, at first by 
non-commissioned officers sent from the regular regiments in 
Montreal, and afterwards by their own officers. They met for 
drill once or twice a week, and consequently the men had a 
better knowledge of squad and company drill than can be got 
.under the present system of twelve days drill annually. 

In the winter of 1866 there were active preparations for 
an invasion of Canada by a body of men calling themselves 
41 Fenians," who proposed to liberate Ireland by the round-, 
about process of attacking Canada. On the /th of March the 
Canadian Government called out 10,000 volunteers. The 
orders were telegraphed to the commanders of the different 
corps, and by noon on the 8th more than 10,000 men were 
under arms, ready to go wherever their duty called them. The 
three Cornwall companies were among the corps ordered out. 
They remained on duty until the 23rd of July following. 

On the loth of March two companies of the Hawkesbury 
Volunteer Battalion arrived at Cornwall, under Major Higgin- 
son and Capt. Johnston. These, with the three Cornwall com 
panies, were formed into an administrative battalion under the 
command of Major Higginson and Major Bergin. On the loth 
of April, one company of the Victoria Rifles, Capt. Bacon, and 
one of the Royals, Capt. Campbell, came from Montreal and 
joined the battalion. On the 2nd of May, the Hawkesbury 
companies, the Victorias and Royals, were relieved by three 
companies of the Hochelaga Light Infantry from Montreal, 
under Lt.-Col. Hawkes, who took command of the battalion, 
which was inspected on the Qth of May by General Lord 
Lindlay. On the 3ist of May the Fenians crossed the Niagara 
river at Fort Erie, marched into the country to Ridgeway, 
where they met and defeated a small volunteer force, and then 

The subalterns of No. i wen.- : 1st Lieut., James A. McDonell : and Lieut., 
D. McCourt. Of No. 2 ; 1st Lieut., W. ( . Allen : 2nd Lieut., D. A. McDonald. 
Of No. 3; 1st Lieut., D. B. .McLennan : Knsitjn. Huijh McDonell. 

270 Lunenburgh, or the 

returned to Fort Erie, and thence to Buffalo, leaving several 
prisoners in the hands of the regular and volunteer forces sent 
to attack them. At the same time a large number assembled 
at Malone and other places on the south side of the St. Law 
rence, not far from Cornwall, which caused the sending of a 
large number of troops to the town. On Sunday, the 3rd of 
June, the 3<Dth Regiment of the line came up from Montreal ;. 
part of the 25th (King s Own Borderers), part of the 47th Re 
giment of the line, and the Grey Battery Royal Artillery, came 
in on the 4th, together with half a troop of Volunteer Cavalry 
from Montreal, the I4th Regiment of Volunteers from King 
ston, the Argenteuil Rangers from St. Ann s on the Ottawa,, 
half a battery of Volunteer Artillery and two Volunteer Com 
panies of Rifles from Ottawa.* The garrison was under the 
command of Lt.-Col. Pakenham, of the 3Oth; Captain Moor- 
som, of the same regiment, was appointed brigade major. Two 
brigades were formed. The first consisted of the 47th Regi 
ment of the line, the I4th Vol. Battalion, the St. Ann s Vol. 
Battalion (or the Argenteuil Rangers), and a half battery of the 
Royal Artillery. The second consisted of the 25th and 3Oth 
Regiments of the line, the Cornwall Administrative Battalion,, 
a half battery of Royal Artillery, and the half battery of the 
Ottawa Artillery. Major Lauder, of the 47th, commanded the 
first brigade ; Col. Fane, of the 25th, the second. On the pth of 
June, the two brigades paraded together on Mattice s farm,, 
east of the town. In addition to the troops above mentioned,, 
there was stationed below the town a tug called the " Royal," 
manned by officers and sailors from one of the men of war at 
Quebec or Montreal. 

The Fenians, having abandoned their mad design and dis 
persed, all the troops were sent back to their quarters. The 
3<Dth Regiment went to Montreal on the 2ist of June, being 
the last of the regular regiments to leave the town. The Corn 
wall Administrative Battalion, consisting of the three Cornwall 

* Under Major Glasgow and Captain Potter. They were attached to the 
Cornwall Adve. Battalion. 

Old Eastern District. 27 r 

companies, three companies of the Hochelaga Light Infantry, 
and two companies of the Ottawa Rifles, was kept up until the 
middle of July, when an unfortunate quarrel arose between 
some of the men, which led to the Ottawa and Montreal com 
panies being sent home. They were replaced by two com 
panies from Brockville and two from Belleville. The three 
Cornwall companies were then relieved from duty, and the 
battalion, reduced to four companies, remained on duty under 
Lt.-Col. James Crawford, until the 8th of November following. 
The armed tug was withdrawn soon after that date. In 1868 
the Cornwall companies were on duty and drilled twice a week 
for some months, and H. M. gunboat " Minstrel " was anchored 
below the town. 

On the 24th of May, 1870, there was another Fenian ex 
citement, and Cornwall was again filled with volunteers. The 
59th Cornwall Battalion, iSth Hawkesbury, 4ist Brockville, 
the Ottawa Garrison Artillery and Field Battery, with their 
guns, and the Iroquois Garrison Artillery, 1,027 men in all, 
formed the garrison. The excitement only lasted a few days. 
The Fenians were checked at Pigeon Hill by a few men of the 
home guard under Capt. Asa Westover, and some companies 
of volunteers sent from Montreal, and were completely routed 
at Trout River by the 6gth Regiment of the line, and four com 
panies of volunteers. 

No troops were sent from Cornwall during the rebellion 
in the North T West in the spring of 1885, but three Cornwall 
men served in it. Geo. Sandfield Macdonald went with the 
Queen s Own from Toronto, and Dr. E. Graveley and Wm. R. 
Pringle* went from Cornwall as members of the medical staff. 
The latter was on duty on board the " Xorthcote," when she 
passed Batoche, under heavy fire, on the Qth of May, and was 
wounded in the left shoulder at the second or third shot from 
the rebels. 

* These gentlemen have the medal and clasp for service in the North-West 
and on the Saskatchewan, 


Lunenburgh, or the 

A. McGillis, 
D. McPherson, 
P. Ferguson, 
J. McDonald, 
W. Urquhart, 


COLONEL Alex. Fraser, April i, 1822. 
LIEUT. -COL. Alex. McMartin, Mar. 6, 1837. 
MAJOR D. Fraser, Jan. i, 1838. 


June 19, 1822 J. McLennan, 

June 20, 1822 A. McDougall, 

Ap l 13, 1830 D. McPherson, 

Jan. i, 1838 A. Fraser, 

do F. McDonald, 

Jan. i, 1838 

W. McKenzie 

Jan. i 

J. McDonald, 


P. Grant, 


A. McDonell, 


D. Fraser, 


John McPherson, 
A. McPherson, 
A. McDonell, 
R. McLennan, 
J. Rose, 

J. Cummings. 

38 J. Dingwall 

J. Cummings, 
J. McBain 
J. Hay 
K. Murchison, 


June I, 1838 Jas. Grant, 

do D. McPherson, 



M. McGruer, 
J. Curry, 
D. Cameron, 

A. McKenzie, 
W. McLeod, 
D. McMillan, 
J. McDonell, 
Angus Kennedy, 

A. Campbell. 

(Limits, Township of Lancaster.) 

COLONEL Dd. McDonell, Jan. i, 1822. 

LIEUT. -CoL. Dn. McDonell, Jan. i, 1822. 

MAJOR John Mclntyre, April 16. 1812. 


April 21, 1812 Alex. Grant, 

do D. McDonell, 

Jan. i, 1838 

Jan. i, 1838 

D. E. Mclntyre. 

April 25, 1812 
Jan. 25, 1814 

P. Mclntyre, 
A. Wilkinson, 
A. McDonald, 

Jan. 25, 1814 
May 21, 1814 


Feb. 25, 1822 
July. 15, 1822 

Old Eastern District. 


P. Cameron, 
D. McMartin, 
A. S. McDonell, 
R. McDonell, 
A. McDonell, 

D. McPhail, 
J. Mclntyre, 
D. McDonell, 
A. McDonell, 
M. McMartin, 
A. Kennedy, 

April 23, 1812 
April 25, 1812 




Jan. 25, 1814 


Oct. 19, 1825 
Oct. 20, 1825 
Oct. 21, 1825 

Oct. 22, 1825 

R. McLeod, 
J. McDonell, 
J. McMartin, 
D. Chisholm, 


X. Mclntosh, 
K. McDonell, 
T. McGillis, 
K. McDonell, 
J. Fraser, 

Oct. 20, 1815 
Oct. 21, 1815 
Oct. 22, 1815 
Oct. 24, 1815 

Oct. 24, 1825. 
Oct. 25, 1825 
Oct. 26, 1825 
Oct. 27, 1825 
Oct. 28, 1825 


D. McDonell, Oct. 19, 1814. K. McDonell, Nov. 22, 1830 

(Limits Township of Charlottenburg. ) 


(As given in the Militia List of 1838.) 

COLONEL A. Chisholm, June 27, 1825. 
LiKUT.-Coi.. Guy C. Wood, June 27, 1825. 
MAJOR D. McDonald, Dec. 20, 1837. 


Nov. 12, 1820 T. Duncan, 

Nov. i, 1827 K. McKenzie, 

Xov. 7, 1827 D. McDonald, 

Xov. 9, 1827 A. Cameron, 

April 12, 1830 J. Stewart, 


I). McCIoud, 
A. Cameron, 
A. Cattanach, 
A. McXab, 
D. McGillivray 

April 28, 183$, 

Dec. 20, 1837 



K. McMillan, 
I). McDonald. 
D. McCrae, 
D. McDonell, 
A. McDonald, 

T. Chisholm, 
J. McMillan, 
A. Campbell. 

v. 3, 1827 

Nov. 7, 1827 

April 13, 1830 

April 28, 1835 


Dec. 20, 1837 


R. McGillivray, 
D. McMillan, 
W. McDonald, 
D. McPherson, 
J. McMillan, 

D. McDonald, 
K. McLeod, 

April 28, 1835 

Dec. 20, 1837 

(Limits Township of Locheil.) 


Lunettbutgh, or the 


COLONEL Alexander Chisholm. 
MAJOR Donald McDonald. 


Angus Cattanach 
Alexander Cameron 
Donald McDonald 

Angus McDonald 
Donald McDonald 
Donald McMillan 

William McKay- 
Theodore Chisholm 
Alexander McGillis 

Archd. McDonald. 

Allan Cameron 
Kenneth McKenzie 
Duncan McGillivray 



Guy C. Wood. 

Donald McRae 
Donald McDonald 
Angus McGillivray 

Duncan McMillan 
Roderick McLeod 
Alexander Campbell 

Robt. Sharp. 

James Grant. 

<The regiment was stationed in Cornwall in the winter of 1839, and the gentlemen 
above named are the officers who served in it at that time. ) 


COLONEL A. McDonell, June 27, 1837. 

LIEUT.-COL. A. McDonell, Oct. 18, 1837. 

MAJOR A. McDonell, Oct. 18, 1837. 


Oct. 18, 1837 A. McKinnon, 

Oct. 19, 1837 J. McKenzie, 

Oct. 20, 1837 


Oct. 18, 1837 D. McDonald, 

J. McDonald, 

G. McDonell, 
N. McDonell, 
A. McDonell, 

A. McDonell, 

C. Chisholm, 
K. McLennan, 

A. Fisher, 

D. McDonald, 
J. McGillis, 

Oct. 19, 1837 
Oct. 20, 1837 


Oct. 18, 1837 A. McDonald, 
Oct. 19, 1837 H. Hunt, 
Oct. 20, 1837 

(Limits Township of Kenyon.) 

Oct. 21, 1837 
Oct. 23, 1837 

Oct. 23, 1837 
Oct. 21, 1837 

Oct. 21, 1837 

Oct. 22, 1837 

Old Eastern District. 



:S, Fraser. Jan. 4, 

J. Mclntosh, Jan. 13, 

A. McDonald, Jan. 14, 

A. Burton, Sen., Jan. 15, 

H. McDiarmid, Nov. 9, 

D. Scott, May 26, 

A. Burton, jr., Nov. 8, 
A. McDonell, Nov. 9, 

M. McMartin, 
W. Mclntosh, 
P.Amer(or Earner), 

J. Robertson, 
J. McDonell, 
W. Burton, 
A. McDonell, 
I. B. Anderson, 

A. Burton, Jan. 15, 1882. 



, Arch. McLean, April I, 1827. 

-D. AL. McDonell,* Jan. 28, 1830. 

-W. Rainsford, Dec. 26, 1838. 


1822 R. McDonell, 

A. McDonnell, 
R. McDonell 
J. Cameron, 

1827 J. McDonell, 

May 26, 1835 
Feb. i, 1838 


Dec. 26, 



W. McLaughlan, May 26, 1835 
B. G. French, Feb. I, 1838 

Nov. 10, 

D. Campbell, 


May 26, 

lS 35 

A. McDonell, 



D. McDonell, 

Dec. 26, 


Nov. 12, 


D. McMillan, 

Feb. i, 


Nov. 13, 

A. McDonell, 


May 26, 


J. F. Poapst, 



Joel Eastman, 


Feb. i, 


James Groves, 

Dec. 26, 


D. McPherson.f 


CAPTAIN Geo. S. Jarvis, Jan. 5, 1838. 

LIEUT. J. Chesley, Jan. 5, 1838. 
CORNET M. Carman, Jan. 5, 1838. 

(Limits Township of Roxhorough and part of the Township of Cornwall.) 


* D. .K. McDonell was Colonel in 1839, he commanded this regiment that 
t John Copeland in 1838-39. 


Lunenburgh, or the 


COLONEL Phillip Vankoughnet, Feb. 29, 1836. 

LIEUT.-COL. Geo. Anderson, Sept. 27, 1838. 

MAJOR J. Backus, Sept. 27, 1838. 


A. Dickson. 

Feb. 21, 1822 

J. W. Empey, June i, 1837- 

I. Ault, 

May ;>, 1828 

G. Robertson, May 4, 

G. Morgan, 

May 27, 1837 

W. Cline, do 

M. Stewart, 

May 29, 

A. Shaver, Sep. 27, 1831 

H. Shaver, 

May 30, 

J. Vanduzen, Nov. 27, 

P. Chesley, 

May 31, 


I. Sheek, 

Feb. 18, 1822 

G. Morgan, June 4, 

P. W. Empey, 

June 3, 1837 

J Dafoe, May 29, 1837- 

J. Waldorff, 

May 30, 1837 

T. Maxwell, May 4, 1838 

M. Ross, 

May 31, 

J. R. Wood, Sept. 29, 

R. Cline, 

June I, 

James Forsyth, Nov. 27 

J. Eamon, 

June 2, 


H. McLean, 

June I, 1837 

A. McNairn, Jan. 4. 183?. 

T. J. Brown, 

June 2, 

A. Grant, do 

Jas. Link, 

June 3, 

C. Chrysler, do 

J. Eastman, 

June 5, 

N. Empey, Sept. 27, 

P. Vankoughnet, 

Jan. 4, 1838 

D. McMillan, do 

[ames Main, Sept. 27, 1838. 

E. French, Sept. 27, 1838- 

R. Burns, Sept. 27, 1838. 

(Limits Township of Osnabruck, Finch, and part of Cornwall.) 

D U N D A S . 

COLONEL John Crysler, April 29, 1837. 

LIEUT.-COL. J. McDonell, April 29, 1837. 

MAJOR D. Clark, April 29, 1837. 

Old Eastern District. 



J. Markley, 
S. Cassleman, 
J. Markley, jr., 
John Dick, 
P. Munro, 
W. Casselman, 

J. Rose, 
J. Dillabough, 
A. Nudle, 
( ;. Weaver, 
S. Dorin, 

Jno. Williser, 
P. Loucks, 
I. Loucks, 
A. Colquhoun, 
J. L. Markley, 

April 29, 

1837 J. p. Crysler, 

May 6, 


May i. 

J. Hickey, 



G. Cook, 



W. Kyle, 



R. Grey, 





May I, 

1837 W. Swayne, 

May 8, 



C. Casselman, 



C. DeCastle, 



J. Southworth, 




May I, 

1837 J. Suttle, 

May 6, 



J. Dorin, 



W. Bell, 



A. Summers, 



J. Marselles, 


Adjutant J. Dick, (Captain), May 3, 1837. 

Quarter-Master [. Haynes, May n, 1837. 

Surgeon J. Grant, May 11, 1837. 

(Limits Township of Williamsburg and Winchester.) 


Colonel G. Markley, April 29, 1837. 
Lieut. -Col. - J. McDonell, April 29, 1837. 




Jan. 21, 


I. Ault, 

May 8, 







J. lirouse, 



. Brown, 


X. Wart, 



W. Sha 





J. Shaver, 




.. Hall, 




Lwienbvrgh t or the 


G. Brouse, 

April 29, 1837 

P. Carman, 

May 5, 1837 

J- West, 


J. Strader, 


G. Dillabough, 

May I, 

S. Ault, 


S. Shaver, 


P. Sen-ice, 


N. Brouse, 


J. Little, 


G. F. Shaver, 


J. Van Camp, 



E, Van Camp, 

April 29, 1837 

H. McCargar, 

May 9, 

J. Parlow, 

May I, 

P. Shaver, 


D. Coons, 


J. Mclntyre, 


G. Carman, 


H. Boulton, 


N. N. Brouse, 


G. Dorin, 


J. Keeler, 


Adjutant N. Brouse, Jan. 21, 1822. 

Quarter-Master R. Gray, Jan. H, 1822. 

Surgeon Alex. Wylie, Jan. 18, 1822. 

(Limits Townships of Matilda and Mountain. 


Brockville Rifle Company, Brockville and Prescott Artillery Companies, 
Glengarry, Stormont and Grenville Militia, Perth and Brockville Volunteers, 
Col. McMillan. 

Queen s Own Rifles, Capts. Harvey and Jarvis ; Cornwall and Brockville 
Light Dragoons, Col. VanKoughnet ; Cornwall Volunteers march to Brockville 
from Cornwall. 


The Brockville and Perth Volunteers, The Oueen s Own Rifles, Lieut. -Col. 
A. McMillan 8th January, 1838. 

The Cornwall Volunteers, Lt.-Col. P. YanKoughnet 8th January, 1838. 
The Lancaster Highlanders, Lt.-Col. McDonell 8th January, 1838. 
The Williamstown Highlanders, Lt.-Col. Alex. Fraser 8th January, 1838. 
Brockville Troop Light Dragoons, Capt. Robert Harvey 8th January, 1838. 
Cornwall Troop Light Dragoons, Capt. Geo. S. Jarvis 8th January, 1838. 

Old Eastern District. 279 


Lieut. -Col Philip Vankoughnet, Jan. 8, 1838. 
Major George Anderson, Feb. 15, 1838. 


George Crawford, Jan. 10, 1838 Jacob \V. Empey, Jan. 10, 1838 

Michael Empey, do John Ault, do 

Henry Shaver, do Martin McMartin, do 


Jeremiah Vandersen, Jan. 10, 1838 Michael Ross, Jan. 10, 1838 

John Waldorff, do Wm. Harvey, do 

Gordon French, do Nicholas Brouse, do 


Thomas Maxwell, Jan. 10, 1838 Hector McLean, Jan. 10, 1838 

John R. Wood, do Michael Anderson, do 

S. I. B. Anderson, do Wm. Hessen, do 

Paymaster James Hume, Jan. 24, 1838. 
Quarter-Master Austin Shearer, Jan. 8, 1838. 


Captain Geo. S. Jarvis, 1838. 

Lieut. Martin Carman, 1838. 

Cornet Geo. M. Crysler, 1838. 

(General Order, 8th Jan., 1838.) 

Lieut. -Col. Donald McDonell, 8th Jan., 1838. 
Major Alexander McDonell, 8th Jan., 1838. 


Donald McDonell, Jan. 8, 1838 Ranald McDonell, Jan. 8, 1838 

Malcolm McMartin, do Neil McDonell, do 

George McDonell, do Allan Cameron, do 


Angus McDougald, Jan. 8, 1838 Donald Chisholm, Jan. 8, 1838 

Donald McDougald, do John Stewart, 

Thomas Oliver, do Alexander McDonell do 

280 Liimnbuigh, or the 


Alex. McDonell, Jan. 8, 1838 John McDonell, Jan. 8, 1838 

Alex. McGregor, do Alex. Cameron, do 

Angus Kennedy, do Donald McDonell, do 

Adjutant Wm. Hayes, Jan. 8, 1838. 

Paymaster Alex. McDonell, Jan. 8, 1838. 

Quarter-Master Angus McDonell, Jan. 8, 1838. 

(23 officers of whom 12 are McDonells. I2th Feb. 1838.) 

Dr. D. E. Mclntyre, to have medical charge of the troops at Williamstown 

and Lancaster, 

Lieut. -Col. Alex. Eraser, Jan. 8, 1838. 

(Stationed at Cornwall.) 

Lieut. -Col. P. Yankoughnet, Oct. 31, 1838. 
Major Geo. Anderson, Dec. 5, 1838. 


Geo. Morgan, Dec. 5, 1838 William Cline, Dec. 5, 1838 

Henry Shaver, do Austin Shearer, do 

Jacob W. Empey, do M. McMartin, do 


Robert Cline, Dec. 5, 1838 S. I. B. Anderson, Dec. 5, 1838 

P. W. Empey, do J. R. Wood, do 

Geo. Morgan, do James Crawford, do 

P. M.S. Yankoughnet, Dec. 5, 1838 C. Crysler, Dec. 5, 1838- 

Hector McLean, do J. Dickinson, do 

Geo. Grant, do D. W. B. MacAulay, do 

(Quarter-Master Edwin French, Dec. 5, 1838. 
Assistant-Surgeon Robert Burns, Dec. 5, 1838. 

Colonel D. McDonell, Oct. 31. 1838. 

* The author could not procure a list of the officers of this corps. 

Old Eastern District. 


Colonel A. Fraser, Nov. i, 1838. 


Captain James Pringle, Nov. 26, 1838. 

1st Lieut. R. K. Bullock, Nov. 26, 18,38. 

and Lieut. Win. M. Park. 

S. Usher, 

Nov. i 

M. Blair. 


J. Brown. 


F. Field, 



Captain Geo. Crawford, 1839. 

Ensign M. Anderson, 1839. 
Lieut. James Crawford, 1839. 


Lieut. -Col. Sir A. McNab, Oct. 24, 1838. 
Major W. Gourley, Nov. 2, 1838. 


38 John Poore, 

C. H. Leonard, 
B. Erench, 

A. McDonald, 
W. A. Thompson, 
W. Lane, 
J. W. Tallem, 

J. Courtney, 
W. U. Thompson. 
K. 1). Hale, 
W. Metcalf, 

Nov. i, 1838 



(i. H. Ainsley, 
John Turner, 
D. M. Campbell. 
D. Patrick, 

Exsicxs : 

No* I, 1838 J. S. Doyle, 

J. F. Thorne, 
( ,. Wonham. 


Adjutant- -M. Blair, Nov. i, 1838. 
Paymaster -II. J. Tench, Nov. i, 1838. 

Siirge:>nW. Winder, Nov. I, 1838. 

A istant-Surgcon D. Campbell, Dec. 10, 1838. 

Ouarter-Master T. A. Fa \vcett. \<>v. I, 1838. 

Nov. I, 1838 

Nov. i, 1838 



Nov. I, 1838 


Lunenburgk, or the 

T. Cronyn, 

H. J. Tench, 
A. Montgomery, 

W. A. Dixie, 
G. Young, 


Lieut. -Col. K. Cameron, Oct. 24, 1838. 
Major B. Young, Nov. 2, 1838. 

Nov. i, 1838 C. Wood, Oct. 29, 1838 


Nov. I, 1838, A. W. Schweryer, Nov. 19, 1838 

Oct. 30, 


Oct. 21, 1839 J. A. Fraser, Nov. 23, 1838 

Nov. 8, 1838 

Paymaster G. Dugganjr., Nov. 23, 1838. 

Surgeon A. R. Dewsan, Nov. 23, 1838. 

Quarter-Master M. Wells, Nov. 23, 1838. 


Lieut. -Col W. Kingsmill, Oct. 4, 1838. 
Major P. Warren, Nov. 26, 1838. 


J. H. Palmer, 
J. M. Coppinger, 
D. McDougall, 

Oct. 31, 

Nov. i, 


1838 S. Purdon, 
D. Bridgeford, 
J. P. Downs, 

Nov. 3, 1838 



W. Kingsmill, 
C. W. Grange, 
S. Reid, 1 
J. D. Humphries, 

Nov. i, 


1838 N. Gatchall, 
G. \V. Wilkie, 
F. Tench, 
T. Trumbull, 

Nov. 9, 1838 




Eli Ward, 
H. Murray, 
C. S. Finlinson, 

Nov. 7. 

1838 E. Wheeler, 
R. Hamilton, 
F. Garret, 

Nov. 10, 1838- 


H. A. Johnson, 


Adjutant T. Bentley, Nov. 13, 1838. 

Paymaster T. Benson, Nov. 13. 1838. 

Surgeon W. C. Humphrey, Nov. 5, 1838. 

Assistant-Surgeon W. Taylor, Nov. 24, 1838. 

Quarter-Master Thomas Glass, Nov. 24, 1838. 

Old Eastern District. 


J. Landon, 

J. Maitland, 
J. S. Lee, 
T. F. Hill, 
John Black, 

K. McKechnie, 
T. Gamble, 


Lieut.-Col J. Hill, Oct. 24, 1838- 



Dec. i, 1835 - Cameron, 


Dec. i, 1838 

S. Bell, 
John Low, 
W. A. Bowen, 

J. Shaw, 

Nov. 5, 1838 

Oct. 20, 

Nov. 5, 1838- 

Dec. i, 1838 



Oct. 20, 1838 

Nov. 5, 

Adjutant J. Arthurs, Oct. 20, 1838. 

Surgeon P. Diehl, Oct. 20, 1838. 

Paymaster G. Henderson, Oct. 20, 1838. 

Quarter- Master J ohn Ross, Nov. 10, 1838. 

When this regiment was stationed at Cornwall, from May, 1842, nntilVMay, 1843-,, 

the officers were : 

- Arthurs, 

Archd. Ponton, 
Joseph Smith Lee, 

Duncan McQueen, 
- Roach, 

Lieut.-Col. J. Hill. 


Thos. Ritchie, 



John Black, 
E. Kerstein. 

\Vm. K. Parker. 
Arthur Hill. 

raw ford, 
\V. Edmonstone, 

Captain and Adjutant Thomas Wily. 

Captain and Paymaster Henderson. 

Surgeon Peter Diehl. 


(This battalion was raised in 1839.) 

Lieut.-Col. P. Ynnkoughnet. 


James Crawford. 

284 Lunenburgli, or the 


H. J. Ruttan, Angus McDonell, 

J. J. Dickinson, T. W. Sniythe. 


M. J. Anderson, Charles Dickinson, 

Hamilton Empey, P. Crysler. 

Captain and Adjutant Lewis Boyd, nth Regiment. 
Surgeon |. Taylor, 29th Regiment. 

When the regiment was reorganized in 1840, H. J. Ruttan was appointed 
Captain, Stewart having retired. 

In 1842, Grogan was appointed Captain, Captain Geo. Crawford having 
retired, and Messrs. Monk and Duchesnay, late of Col. Dyde s corps, were ap 
pointed Lieutenants. 

In 1841, Edmund Battye, of the 2jrd Royal \Yelsh Fusiliers, was appointed 
Captain and Adjutant, vice Boyd, who rejoined his regiment. 

Lieut. -Col. P. Yankoughnet. 


W. Edmonston, J. B. Monk, 

H. J. Ruttan, E. K. Grogan. 


James Dickinson, P. Duchesnay, 

Terence W. Smythe, H. H. Thompson. 


Gordon H. Crysler, Hamilton N. Empey. 

Charles N. Dickinson, 

Adjutant Edmund M. Battye. 

Paymaster M. J. Anderson. 
Surgeon David Dyce. 

Old, Eastern District. 285 


The commencement of the work on the Cornwall canal in 
1833-34, gave the first decided impetus to improvement in the 
old time. From that time it continued to improve, though the 
growth was sometimes very slow. 

In 1834 nearly all the land on lots 15, north side First 
street, and 15 south side of Second street, available for build 
ing purposes, was let in building lots by the trustees of St. 
John s Church. The tenants immediately put up buildings on 
them. Several lots were let on building leases on lots 10 and 
1 1, north side of Water street, and built upon, and many new 
buildings were put up in different parts of the town. Old 
stores were enlarged and improved, and new ones were erected. 
Among the latter was the stone building on lot 16, south of 
Second street, fronting on Pitt street. In the winter of 1841 
a fire broke out in a small building on lot 15, south side of 
Second street, fronting on that street, which spread rapidly and 
destroyed three other buildings on the same lot, including a 
store and dwelling house on the corner. St. John s Church 
narrowly escaped destruction. The fire company, assisted by 
the people of the town, and the officers and men of the 5th 
Incorporated Battalion of Militia, worked well and saved the 
church as w r ell as the buildings on the west side of Pitt street, 
and North side of Second. After the fire a new lease was 
granted by the trustees of St. John s Church to Duncan Mc- 
Donell, the lessee of the north-west corner of No. 15, south 
side of Second street, for fifty years, on condition of his putting 
up a brick or stone building with metallic or slate roof. The 
building put up by him is the one now held by Samuel Cline. 
The leases of the other tenants of the St. John s Church pro 
perty were renewed at the expiration of the first term of 

286 Lunenburgh) or the 

twenty-one years, for another term of the same length with a 
condition that buildings of brick or stone, with metallic or other 
fire-proof roofs should be put up. In consequence of this con 
dition the wooden buildings disappeared, and those now on 
the property were erected. They were thought at the time to 
be very good, but they have been far surpassed by those put 
up in the last four or five years. About 1842 a brick building 
containing a store and dwelling was put up by Jas. E. Dixon, 
on the south-east corner of 16, north side of Second street. 
This building was pulled down in 1882 to make room for the 
new Post Office. 

About 1871 J. Kirkpatrick bought the north-west corner 
of lot No. 1 5, on the south side of First street, on which a brick 
building was erected, two storeys in height, with mansard roof. 
It was called the Commercial block, and was divided into three 
stores, occupied respectively by Kirkpatrick Brothers, W. H. 
Dunkin and Dennison Brothers. 

In July, 1876, a fire broke out in a small wooden building 
adjoining this block, which extended north and south along 
Pitt street, destroying the stores of Messrs. Kirkpatrick, Dun- 
kin and Dennison, on the north, and several wooden buildings 
to the south. It was with great difficulty that it was prevented 
from extending further north across First, and westward across 
Pitt streets. 

In the autumn of 1873 Thomas Murphy started the first 
cab in the town. He succeeded in his enterprise so well that 
others followed his example, and Cornwall has now a cab ser 
vice that would do credit to a much larger place. 

In the summer of 1877 the block on the corner of lot 15, 
south of ist street, was rebuilt by Messrs. Kirkpatrick Brothers, 
D. McRae, and Nelson Turner & Son. The blank space left 
by the destruction of the wooden buildings that had been on 
this lot was filled up a few years later by the heirs of the Van- 
koughnet estate, putting up the Stormont block. There were 
also five good brick buildings erected fronting Pitt street, on 
lot No. 15, north side of Water street, as well as four or five 

Old Eastern District. 287 

on lot No. 1 6, on the south side of First street, one of which 
was occupied by the Ontario Bank, another of them adjoined 
and formed part of the Commercial Hotel, which was then a 
wooden building, that stood on the north-east corner of the 
last mentioned lot. In the winter of 18843 fire broke out in 
the kitchen of the Commercial Hotel, which rapidly destroyed 
that building and the brick building adjoining it, and extend 
ing across Pitt and First streets, destroyed the stores of the 
Messrs. Kirkpatrick, McRae and Turner, on the east side of 
Pitt, and the old stone building north of First street. 

The burned buildings have all been replaced by much 
handsomer ones. Kirkpatrick and McRae each put up a good 
brick building. Turner & Son, a wooden one with zinc covered 
front and sheet-iron sides. D. Liddell, who owned the old 
stone store, erected in its place a fine brick block containing 
three stores, and J. G. Snetsinger has put up a very fine brick 
building containing four stores on the site of the old Com 
mercial Hotel. These buildings are all three stories in height^ 
with stores on the first flat, offices on the second, and commo 
dious halls on the third. 

A neat brick store was put up by Messrs. Mclntyre & 
Campbell, on lot No. 16, north side of First street, a few years 
ago. In 1882-83, Wm. Colquhoun erected the brick building 
on the north-east corner of 16, south side of Second street,, 
which contains the Bank of Montreal, and two stores on the 
ground flat, with offices and halls in the upper storeys. The 
brick building on the south-west corner of lot No. 15, on the 
north side of Second street, was finished and fitted up for a 
hotel about 1869-70. A few years later the old roof was taken 
off and a mansard put on enlarging the capacity of the house 
to a considerable extent. 

In 1882 the Dominion Government commenced the new 
Post Office and Custom House. The building is of stone, the 
dark limestone from the Cornwall quarries being relieved by 
light grey stone from Ouccnstown, the front door way opening 
on Pitt street, has polished slabs of Canadian granite on the 

288 Lunenburgh, or tJie 

sides, and a carving in limestone at the top. The building, 
which is well finished and well arranged for the purpose for 
which it is intended, was opened to the public in June 1885. 

In the same year the County Council put up a commodi 
ous brick building for public offices in the place of the very 
inconvenient and inadequate one built in 1850. 

The new building is substantial, but plain ; adjoins the 
Court-house on the east, and contains the following accommo-, 
dation : In the first storey, a room for the Local Master in 
Chancery, Judges Chambers, witnesses waiting room, offices of 
the Clerk of the Peace, County Attorney and County Treasur 
er. In the second storey a room for the Junior Judge and Re 
vising Officer, offices of Sheriff, Clerk of the County Court, 
Clerk of the County Council, and County Superintendent of 
Schools. In the basement are rooms for the caretaker and 
for the furnaces and coal. There are good vaults for the offices 
of the Local Master in Chancery, Clerk of the Peace, Treasur 
er, Sheriff and Clerk of the County Court. 

In 1884 D. B. McLennan erected a brick building on lot 
15, north side of Water street, the upper part of which is oc 
cupied as offices by the firm, of which he is senior partner, 
the lower part as a store. 

In 1886 that part of lot 15, south of Second street, where 
St. John s Church stood, was divided into three building lots, 
two of which were sold, and the old church was removed in the 
autumn of that year. In 1887 Geo. Ross, the purchaser of one 
of the building lots put up the building now known as the 
Rossmore, a handsome and well arranged structure which is 
used as a hotel. Mr. H. Pitts put up a building with galvan 
ized iron front, south of the Rossmore House, which is used as 
a store. 

The new St. John s, on lot 14, south side of Second street, 
was finished in March, 1889. 

A new Roman Catholic Church has been commenced in 
the east end of the the town, and a neat wooden church was built 

Old Eastern District. 289 

on the cast side of Maryborough street for the English Church 
congregation in the east. 

In 1887 R. R. McLennan commenced the erection of a 
brick building on lot No. 16, north of Second street, north of 
the post office. It was finished in the following winter. The 
first storey is occupied by the Ontario Bank, the second by 
the offices of Messrs. Leitch & Pringle. Mr. McLennan has 
put up a brick building on the same lot west of the post office, 
which is divided into three parts. The eastern part is the office 
of the Standard. On the north end of the same lot is the large 
building put up for a roller skating rink, but now occu 
pied as a furniture store. 

On lot 15, south side of First street, the heirs of the late 
Honourable Philip Vankoughnet put up a block of nine stores, 
fronting on Pitt street. They erected another and a much 
handsomer block on lot 16, north side of First street, in 1885, 
and two years later the Miller family put up a similar block 
on lot 1 6, south of Second street. 

It would be impossible to give a list of all the private 
dwellings that have been erected in the last ten or twelve years. 
All of them are commodious, and many of them very hand 
some buildings. In the parts of the town adjacent to the fac 
tories most of the houses are of wood. They are, with very- 
few exceptions, well built, and neatly painted, and though 
generally small arc well adapted to the needs of the mechanics 
and working people to whom they belong, and of whose thrift 
and steadiness they are the pleasing evidence. 

In 1882 buildings were erected for the manufacturing of 
gas from petroleum. Many of the streets have gas lamps, 
though in some the old coal-oil lamps arc stilled used. Gas 
was also used in most of the stores and places of business, but 
it was thought rather too expensive for private houses. In the 
year 1887, a company started an establishment for the supply 
ing of the incandescent electric light. Several of the mer 
chants arc using it in their stores, and not a few persons have 
it placed in their dwellings. 

290 Lunenburgh, or the 

In the same year the Cornwall Water-works Company 
got their works into operation, and the town is now well sup 
plied with water for all purposes. The arrangement for the 
-construction of the works was made on the 4th of June, 1886, 
by James Leitch, the Mayor, with Messrs. Moffatt, Hodgkins, 
Clarke, Bassett and Freeman, of Watertown, New York. It 
was satisfactorily carried out under the superintendance of Mr. 
M. O. Ward, and the works were accepted by the Town 
Council on the iSth of May, 1887. 

On the 25th of June, 1889, the Cornwall Cemetery Com 
pany was formed. The following shareholders were appointed 
directors : His Honor Judge Carman, and Messrs. G. C. 
Smith, D. B. Maclennan, Duncan Monroe, C. J. Mattice, J. T. 
Kirkpatrick, Wm. Mack, W. S. Turner. D. B. Maclennan was 
appointed President ; G. C. Smith, Vice-President ; D. Mon 
roe, Secretary-Treasurer, and Wm. Dingwall, Auditor ; and a 
piece of land, 25 acres in extent, was secured, adjoining the 
north-westerly part of the town, which has been laid out as a 
cemetery and the old burial grounds in the town are closed. 
This is an improvement that has been needed for many years. 

The town still requires many other improvements, for in 
stance, a well-arranged system of drainage ; streets that are 
not mud-holes in spring and autumn ; and sidewalks made of 
some indestructable material instead of the rapidly decaying 
planks now used. It is to be hoped that long ere the close of 
another fifty years these pressing wants will be amply sup 

So far Cornwall has not been visited by many serious fires, 
those already mentioned and those at the woollen factory* 
and the Stormont Cotton mill have been the worst. There 
has been now and then a shock of an earthquake, but no dam 
age greater than the breaking of a few cups has ensued from 

In 1846 there was a violent storm, something like the 
cyclones that visit the Western States, though by no means so 

* See chapter on factories. 

Old Eastern District. 291 

destructive. The storm came from the south-west, crossed the 
river a little above the first lock west of the town, and crossed 
the lock, carrying a young girl from the south side to the north, 
where she was dashed against the wall and killed. It then 
passed through the wood on the front of Wood s and Mattice s 
farms, making a clean sweep of the trees in its path ; struck 
and unroofed a building on lot No. 22 North of Water street, 
unroofed the rear part of John Chesley s hotel, damaged a 
building on lot No. 15, on the south part of First street, and 
destroyed part of the roof of Col. Vankoughnet s dwelling house, 
two blocks east of Pitt street, then passed eastward along the 
shore of the river and lake for some miles, doing a good deal 
of damage in its course. Some papers that were blown out of 
J. Chesley s house were found the next morning at Lancaster. 
Pieces of a mirror that stood in an upper room in Col. Van 
koughnet s house were found so firmly embedded in a tree 
about a hundred yards away that they could not be pulled out, 
and one end of a plank twelve feet long was driven through 
the clapboards just below one of the second storey windows of 
Chesley s hotel, so that the plank stood out horizontally at right 
angles to the building. These are some of the authenticated 
freaks of the storm. Other stories were told of it, two of which 
are given, with full liberty to the reader to believe or disbelieve 
them as he pleases. It is said that a man had dug a hole in 
his garden near the west end of the town, intending to plant 
an apple tree therein, and that the storm carried an apple tree 
from Massena, and dropped it into the hole, into which it also 
very considerately blew all the earth that had been dug out of 
it, and firmly planted the tree ! Another man had harnessed 
his horse to his waggon just before the storm came. After it 
had passed, he went out, but could see nothing of horse or 
waggon. They were found a while after some miles down the 
road, whither the storm had carried them, and set them down 
without breaking even a strap or a buckle ! 

292 Lnnenburgh, or the 


In 1845 or 1846, the Government disposed of water 
privileges along the canal in front of and at the east end of 
the town. One of them was rented by John Harvey. It was 
situated on the south bank of the canal, nearly opposite lot 
No. 21, north of Water street, and on it Mr. Harvey erected a 
grist-mill, which he sold to Myron Hitchcock, who ran it for 
a few years. After his death it passed into the possession of 
William Mattice, and was worked by Angus Bethune. When 
the Stormont Cotton Manufacturing Company commenced 
operations in Cornwall, they bought the privilege and the mill, 
which was pulled down to make room for the first factory 
built by them. 

The privilege adjoining Harvey s on the east was rented 
by Andrew Elliot, \vho built the stone grist-mill now occupied 
by Wm. Hodge, who has added to it carding and fulling works 
and a small cloth factory. 

A third privilege, adjoining Harvey s on the west, was 
leased to A. E. Cadwell, who built a saw-mill near the river 
bank. This mill was burned ; another was built, which, after 
passing through several hands, was sold with the water privi 
lege to the Stormont Cotton Manufacturing Company in 18/9. 

The right to water privileges at the east end of the town 
was leased to the Honorable P. Vankoughnet, who sold the 
right and the farm to \Vm. Mattice. Soon after making this 
purchase, Mr. Mattice and the Board of Works caused a chan 
nel to be made from the north side of the canal eastward, to 
supply water to mills and factories. Wm. Mack, about 1861 
or 1862, built a grist-mill on one of the privileges thus sup 
plied. Messrs. Flack & VanArsdale, about the same time, 

Old Eastern District, 293 

started the pottery works, which stand some distance eastward 
of Mack s mill. Both these establishments have been enlarged 
and extended. 

In 1868, the Cornwall Manufacturing Company was incor 
porated. They took water power and built a factory between 
Mr. Mack s mill and Messrs. Flack & VanArsdale s pottery. 
This factory, which was intended for the manufacture of 
blankets and flannels, was burned down on Christmas night, 
1870. The company rebuilt in 1871, and recommenced work 
in March, 1872. The product of the mill is more diversified 
now than at first, and includes tweeds, overcoatings, blankets, 
rugs, etc. The goods manufactured find an outlet in all parts 
of the Dominion from the Atlantic to the Pacific coasts. The 
name of Sir George Stephen, Bart., is closely identified with 
the company, he having been the chief promoter of the enter 
prise. The late Sir Hugh Allan, a large shareholder in the 
company, was its President for many years, in which office his 
brother, Andrew Allan, succeeded him. John Turnbull, of 
Montreal, the present Managing Director, is also a large share 
holder. The value of the company s property is estimated at 
$200,000.00, and the annual production at $275,000.00. James 
P. Watson is Secretary ; the Superintendent is Alexander 
Hope, and the hands employed number 210. Many additions 
and improvements have been made to the works since the 
building was first used in 1872. 

About 1870, the Stormont Cotton Manufacturing Com 
pany, having bought the mill built by John Harvey, erected a 
mill for the manufacture of cotton. It was much smaller than 
their present factory, and was built of stone. In September, 
1874, a small mill that had been built by Martin & Crilly for 
the manufacture of coarse paper and felt, and which stood on 
the west side of Hodge s grist-mill, took fire. The flames 
extended to the storehouse of the Stormont Company s mill, 
and finally to the mill itself, which was totally destroyed. The 
intense heat had the effect of cracking the stone walls and 

294 Lunenburgh, or the 

causing them to fall. The company did nothing until 18/9, 
when they bought land adjoining their property on the west 
and south, including the site of the mill built by A. E. Cadwell, 
and commenced to build a factory much larger than the one 
that had been burned. They started manufacturing in 1880, 
with 250 looms and 300 hands. In 1881 they put up a large 
addition, increasing the number of looms to 500 and of hands 
to 520. The goods manufactured are grey sheeting, checks, 
fine ginghams, ticking and denims. In addition to an ample 
supply of water power, the mill has an engine of 600 horse 
power. Gas was used for lighting until the winter of 1887, 
when Edison s system of lighting by electricity was adopted. 
A large storehouse was added to the other buildings in 1887. 
A. F. Gault is President ; S. H. Ewing, Vice-President ; R. L. 
Gault, C. E. Gault and S. Finley, Directors; S. Greenwood, 
Manager ; Arch d Gault, Secretary. 

The Canada Cotton Manufacturing Company was incor 
porated in 1872. The first directors were Sir Hugh Allan, 
George Stephen, Donald Mclnnes, Edward McKay, John 
Harvey, John Rankin, Bennett Rosamond and W. E. Sanford. 
The mill, which stands east of the town, was originally in 
tended for 10,000 spindles, but was changed to 20,000. It is 
built of brick, is 300 feet by 90, four storeys high, with man 
sard roof. In 1882 the weaving room was built ; it is 5 50 feet 
in length by 120 in breadth, having space for 1,000 looms on 
one floor under one roof, with a basement of the full size. The 
weaving room is lighted by electricity. There are now in the 
mill 33,000 spindles, with room for about 10,000 more, and the 
number of looms at present is 766. The Honorable D. Mc 
lnnes was at one time President and Managing Director ; 
Gilbert Scott, Vice-President ; A. G. Watson, Secretary. The 
motive power consists of two water wheels of 500 horse power, 
and two Corliss engines of 1,200 horse power. The goods manu 
factured are cottonades, ducks (dyed and white), canton flannels 
(grey, bleached and colored), ginghams, sheetings and bags. 

To the west of the town are the buildings of the Toronto 

Old Eastern District. 295 

Paper Company. They were begun in iSSi and finished in 
the spring of 1882, and are built of brick with stone founda 
tions. The machinery is driven by five water wheels of 100 
horse power each, the water being supplied from the canal. 
The total cost of the mill and machinery is a little under 
$250,000.00. The manufactures are fine writing and book 
papers, made principally from rags. The output is about 100 
tons a month. The number of hands employed is about 100. 
This is the only mill in Canada that uses rags almost ex 
clusively, and the only one that makes fine paper. John R. 
Barber is President of the company ; Jas. D. Finlay, Superin 
tendent ; W. J. Wallace, Secretary. The buildings are erected 
on the front of G. Charles Smith s farm, and are the nucleus 
of what bids fair to be a considerable suburb of Cornwall. Mr. 
Barber s father was manager of the first paper mill in Canada. 
In it the paper was made by hand, sheet after sheet, each of 
which was hung up separately to dry. Now the paper is made 
in a continuous roll, at the rate of 120 feet a minute, by ma 
chinery which may run six or eight hours without stopping. 
There are machines making paper for newspapers which run 
at double the rate mentioned above, viz., 240 feet to the 
minute. These improvements in the art of paper making 
were all perfected within the last twenty-five or thirty years, 
with the result of reducing the price of paper to less than half 
of what it was under the old system, In 1887 the company 
built a mill for the manufacture of pulp from wood. 

There are some smaller factories, one for the making of 
batting at the east end of the town, and one spinning mill at 
the west, both of which are under the management of Messrs. 
Mack Brothers. There are also two large sawing and planing 
mills, at which doors, uindow sashes and blinds arc made; one 
belongs to\Ym. Atchison, the other to Messrs. L. A. Ross & Co. 
In addition to these, there arc smaller ones on Fourth street. 
There are also foundries and machine shops, which are kept fully 
-it work. In 1 889 a small factory was opened for the manufactur 
ing of plush and elastic webbing, and another for electro plating. 

296 Lunenburgh, or the 



In the summer of 1868 a discovery was made which proves- 
conclusively that at some period in the far past the site of the 
town was covered by the ocean, or that the St. Lawrence was 
an arm of the sea, the waters of which spread over a large por 
tion of what is now the eastern part of Canada. In the year 
above mentioned, while laborers were engaged in cutting down 
a bank of blue clay on lot number 10, on the south side of 
Sixth street, for the purpose of making brick, bones were 
found at a depth of twelve or fourteen feet from the surface, 
which on examination proved to be part of the skeleton of a 
white whale. The late Charles Poole and the author interest 
ed themselves in having the bones taken care of. Mr. Poole 
took a great deal of trouble in gathering them up as they were 
disinterred, from the grave, where they had lain for, who 
can say, how many thousands of years, and in putting them 
together in their proper places. When his work was done, 
it was found that with the exception of one or two of the 
vertebra, the entire skeleton was recovered in a good state of 
preservation. It was about fourteen feet in length. Probably 
the fish was, when alive, a foot or two longer. The skeleton 
was taken to Montreal by the geologists of the Government, 
or the Natural History Society, and was said by them to be 
the most perfect that had been discovered. Several portions 
of similar skeletons have been found in the low lands near 
Montreal, as well as in Vermont. 

Old Eastern District. 297 


Every winter a thick sheet of ice is formed on Lake St. 
Francis, and the river up to a point about two miles below the 
town. From this point westward for some miles beyond the 
head of the Long Sault rapid, the river does not freeze, but the 
drift ice floating down and coming in contact with the sheet of 
ice already formed, accumulates and fills the channel for some 
distance above the town, causing a stoppage and a sudden rise 
of the water and a shove of the ice. Generally speaking this 
ice jam does little or no injury, but occasionally it causes a 
a good deal of discomfort and loss. In the winter of 1829 the 
water rose very high. The canal had not been begun then, 
nor was the present Court-house and gaol in existence. Col. 
Vankoughnet at that time had his dwelling house on lot num 
ber 15 on the south side of Water street. It stood on the 
bank of the river about one hundred feet south of the southern 
side of water street. There was a lawn and a small garden in 
front of the house. The water came up a foot or so over the 
floor of the first storey ; filled the garden and extended to the 
north side of Water street. Mrs. Vankoughnet and the child 
ren were carried out by the late Austin Shearer and others, 
who had to wade waist deep in the freezing water. A large 
cake of ice was carried partly up the bank of the river and 
stopped within a yard of the south-west corner of the dwelling. 
The Fly creek and the bridges over it were flooded, and Wil 
liam Woods * house and outbuildings were surrounded. Some 
persons returning from a party in town about four o clock in 
the morning got over Woods bridge just in time to escape 
the rush of water. 

In 1860 there was a rise of water which flooded the Fix- 
creek, and did some damage to houses along its course. The 
water came up through the culvert at the creek, high enough 
to flow into the canal over the north bank, but it did not come 
into Water street. The worst floods since that of 1829 were 

* Grandfather of the present owner. 

298 Lunenburgh, or the 

the ones that occurred on Tuesday, the iSth, and Saturday, 
the 22nd of January, 1887. The winter had been exception 
ally cold and stormy, in consequence of which there was an 
unusual quantity of floating ice. The channel of the river was 
blocked up as far as the Long Sault rapids. The water was 
raised about three feet above the level at the head of the canal, 
and all appearance of the great rapid was obliterated for the 
time. The flood rose in the Fly creek, poured into the canal 
over both banks, and about two o clock in the morning of the 
1 8th, came down through Water street, flooding all the houses 
from the west down to lot No. 7, north of that street, and 
extending northward on Pitt street, about 300 feet. It rose 
above the top of the iron railing in front of the Court-house ; 
flooded the market lot and house and the gas works ; rushed 
eastward down the canal and mill race, filling the basements 
of the factories and coming nearly to the second storeys of 
some of the houses to the east of them, and made its escape 
across the low land east of Lorneville. The Stormont mill 
was flooded nearly to the floor of the I st storey, and the Paper 
mill, though not flooded, had to stop working on account of 
the back water. A quantity of manufactured goods in the Cot 
ton mills was damaged by the water, and some of the machin 
ery in the Stormont mill, and in those below the town, was 
somewhat damaged. The water rose high in the creek and 
flooded the houses on the low land along its course, rising 
over all the bridges from Woods eastward. It remained on 
Water street and in the factories and the neighboring houses 
until the following Sunday morning. Meanwhile, on Satur 
day, the 22nd, there was another jam of ice a little west of the 
Stormont mill, which again raised the water, causing it to over 
flow the land along the Fly creek to a greater extent than be 
fore. It came up nearly to the same point on Pitt street that 
it had reached on Tuesday morning, and flooded a portion of 
Beaconsfield, west of the town to a depth of four feet. About 
two o clock on Sunday morning it ceased to rise, and then re 
ceded rapidly from Water street and the eastern part of the 

Old Eastern District. 299 

town, leaving cellars and basements free. There was only one 
life lost, but there were many narrow escapes. Some persons 
had to be taken out of second storey windows, and some from 
the roofs of houses or outbuildings: A good deal of loss was 
suffered by those whose cellars and first floors were inundated; 
winter supplies of vegetables were destroyed, and furniture, 
carpets and bedding were damaged, and it is said that some 
dishonest persons took advantage of the houses being left un 
inhabited to plunder them of a portion of their contents. 

More than once the ice has been solid enough to allow of 
a sleigh road being made from the town to the island, but in 
February, 1887, for the first time in the memory of any of the 
inhabitants, a road was made across the channel between Barn- 
hart s Island and the south shore. 

The Department of Public Works has caused flood gates to 
be placed at the culvert above the town, which it was expected 
would have the effect of preventing the water from flowing up 
the Fly creek, and obviating the danger of another flood such as 
that of the winter of 1887. They did not appear to operate as 
they were intended to do, as the water rose nearly to the top; 
of Woods bridge in the winter 1888. 

300 Lunenbutgk, or the 


Though the law is looked upon by most people as a dry 
and uninteresting subject, and by some as a very sore one, a 
sketch of the early history of the country would scarcely be 
satisfactory without some reference to the old laws and modes 
of proceeding in use in the time of the fathers and grandfathers 
of the present generation. 

The criminal law of England was established in the Pro 
vince of Quebec by 14 Geo. Ill, Chap. 83, passed in 1774, but in 
all matters of controversy relative to property and civil rights, 
resort was to be had to the laws of Canada. The causes were 
to be instituted in the Courts of Justice to be appointed by His 
Majesty in the Province of Quebec. After the separation of 
the Province of Quebec into two Provinces, the Parliament of 
Upper Canada, which met at Niagara on the i^th of Sept., 
1792, passed the Statute 32, Geo. Ill, Chap, i, introducing the 
English law in all matters of controversy, relative to property 
and civil rights, and the Statute 32, Geo. Ill, Chap. 2, establish 
ing trial by jury in all issues of fact in any action real, person 
al, or mixed. At the same session the Statute 32,Geo.III,Chap. 
4, was passed, for the purpose of abolishing the summary pro 
ceedings of the Courts of Common Pleas,* in actions under 
j 10.0.0 sterling. It directed that all causes of action that ex 
ceed in value the sum of forty shillings, Quebec currency, should 
be proceeded with in the same manner as is directed for the 
trial of causes above ten pounds sterling. Dr. Canniff states 
that after Lord Dorchester divided the western portion of the 
Province of Quebec into four districts in 1788, a judge and a 

*The Court, as established prior to the division of the Province of Quebec 
into the Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada. 

Old Eastern District. 301 

sheriff were appointed, and a Court of Common Pleas establish 
ed for each district. He gives the names of the judges as fol 
lows : Richard Duncan, for Lunenburg ; Richard Cartwright, 
Mecklenburg ; Robert Hamilton, for Nassaw, and probably 
William Robertson, for Hesse. By chapter 6 of the statutes of 
the same session, Courts of Requests were established for the 
more easy and speedy recovery of small debts. These courts 
could be held on the first and third Saturday s of every 
month, by any two or more Justices of the Peace, acting under 
His Majesty s commission, within the limits of their respective 
commissions, who were to sit at some fixed place within their 
respective divisions, which were to be ascertained and limited 
by the Justices in General Quarter Sessions. The jurisdiction 
was limited to matters of debt not exceeding forty shillings 
($8.00.) The costs were on a very low scale, viz. : Every sum 
mons, six pence ; every judgment, two shillings ; every execu 
tion, two shillings ; every subpoena, six pence ; copy of judg 
ment, one shilling ; witness, two and six pence a day ; service 
of summons, one shilling ; mileage, four pence a mile ; acting 
on writ of execution and making return, two shillings: 

On the 9th of July, 1794, the Statute 34, Geo. Ill, Chap. 2, 
was passed, establishing the Court of King s Bench in Upper 

By the Statute 56, Geo. Ill, Chap. 5, passed in i8i6,thejuris- 
diction of the Court of Requests was raised to ^5.0.0 in matters 
of debt, but the justices were forbidden to give judgment for 
more than forty shillings, unless the defendant had acknow 
ledged the debt in writing, or the plaintiff produced evidence 
to corroborate his own oath. Up to forty shillings the plain 
tiff could swear to the amount and recover it on his own oath 
merely, and the defendant was helpless if he had no \vitncss< 
as his oath could not be taken.* 

In 1830, by n, George IV, Chap. 5, the right of set-off 
was extended in all the courts, including the Court of Requests, 

* He had to plead a set-off or brint; a cro.-s action for forty shillings, and s\\c;u 
to his account if he had one, or to an imaginary one if he was imMTU]nilc>u>. 

302 Luneriburgk, or the 

so as to allow a defendant to recover any balance that he 
might prove to be due to him. 

In 1833 the Statute 3, William IV, Chap, i, was pass 
ed, which took the Court of Requests out of the hands of the 
magistrates and placed them under two or more commission 
ers, who were appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor for each 
division. The divisions were ascertained and declared by the 
Justices in Quarter Sessions assembled. The jurisdiction of 
the courts was increased to ten pounds in all matters of debt 
or contract. The commissioners were authorized to appoint a 
clerk and bailiff for each division, and the courts were to be 
held on the first and third Saturday of every month. The 
commissioners fees were fixed at two shillings for every final 
judgment. The clerks fees were : For recording judgment, 
six pence ; for every summons or subpoena, six pence ; for 
every copy of judgment, one shilling ; for every execution, one 
shilling ; bailiffs fees, serving every summons or subpoena, one 
shilling ; mileage, four pence a mile, when the distance exceed 
ed one mile ; acting on writ of execution, seizing and selling, 
and making returns, two shillings and six pence, if the judg 
ment did not exceed five pounds ; if above five pounds, in like 
proportion. Under this statute the district was formed into 
eleven divisions, and the gentlemen whose names are given in 
the following list were appointed to act in them respectively. 
This system did not work well, and after eight years trial, it 
was given up, and the present one of having the Division Courts 
presided over by the Judge of the County Court, was adopted. 


IST DIVISION, LANCASTER. John McLennan, Alexander McKenzie,. 
Donald Mcl herson, Angus Cattanach, John McBean, Angus McGillis, John 
McMillan. Clerk Donald McPherson. 

2ND DIVISION, CHARLOTTENBURG Alexander Fraser, Alexander McMartin, 
John McGillivray, David Thompson, John Mclntyre. Clerk Donald McDonald^ 

3RD DIVISION, LOCIIEIL Alexander Chisholm, Angus McDonell, Allan. 
Cameron, Archibald McDonell. Clerk Roderick Chisholm. 

Old Eastern District. 303 

4 in DIVISION, KENYON Allan Cameron, Donald Cattanach, Alex. Mo- 
Donell, (Inch), John McDonell. Clerk Thomas Oliver. 

Vankoughiet, Guy C Wood, Benjamin French, Alexander McLean, James Pringle, 
William Cline, Noah Dickinson, William Mattice, Andrew McDonell, Simon 
Kraser. Clerk James Pringle. 

6nr DIVISION, OSNABRUCK Simon Clarke, Michael Empey, [ohn Archi 
bald, William Bruce, Duncan McMillan, John Waldorff, Jacob W. Empev, Joseph 
Uackus. Clerk Henry Doming. 

7TH DIVISION, WILUAMSBURG I. G. Weagant, John McDonell, Chris 
topher Merkley, Alexander Rose, George Merkley, John Crysler, William Kyle. 
Clerk John P. Crysler. 

STII DIVISION, WINCHESTER John Marsees, John Cook, John Dillabough. 
Name of Clerk not known. 

9Tii DIVISION, MATILDA James McDonell, Duncan Clarke, Miles Mc- 
Cargar, Jacob Brouse, George Brouse, Peter Shaver, fames West, Alexander 
Wylie. Clerk Edward Brouse. 

IOTII DIVISION, MOUNTAIN Hugh McCargar, David Brown, John Madock. 
( U-rk William Bower. 

IITH DIVISION, FINCH John Crysler, Duncan McMillan, John Link, jr., 
Hector McLean, Alexander McMillan, Jas H. Crysler. Clerk Chs. B. Crysler. 

The next statute affecting Courts of Requests, viz., the 
4 or 5 Victoria, Chap. 3, was passed in 1841. This Act did 
away with the commissioners and directed the magistrates of 
each district in Quarter Sessions to appoint the limits of the 
divisons in the districts, in each of which a court was to be 
held once in every two months, by the judge of the District 
Court, who was to be a resident in the district, as provided for 
by 4 and 5, Vic., Chap. 8, passed also in 1841. The old title 
of the Court of Requests was abolished, and the new courts 
were thenceforward called Division Courts. 

The fee to the commissioners was done away with, and 
those to the bailiff increased. The clerks were to be paid by 
an annual salary, ranging from twenty pounds to one hundred, 
according to population, and the fees for summonses, subpoenas, 
hearing executions, &c., were to be paid to the treasurer of the 
District, and by him accounted for to the Receiver-General 
of the Province. This Act was amended by Acts passed in 1845 

304 Lwtetiburgh) or the 

and 1849, and finally repealed in 1850, by 13 and 14 Vic., 
Chapter 53, by which the number of divisions was changed, 
and it was directed that there should not be less than three, 


nor more than twelve, in a district.* Several Acts have been 
passed since, making various amendments, till at the present 
day a court is brought into each township, convenient to ever} 
suitor, which has a larger and more extensive jurisdiction than 
was given to the District or County Courts, forty years ago. 

The Court of Requests at Cornwall was generally presided 
over by Joseph Anderson and Benjamin French, both before 
and after the appointment of commissioners. Occasionally 
some other of the magistrates or commissioners attended, but 
the burden of the work fell on the two named above until the 
autumn of 1835, when Joseph Anderson, then in his 73rd year, 
ceased to attend. The books containing the records of the 
court at Cornwall are extant from the 3rd day of November, 
1824, to the present time. The entries in the books up to ;th 
May, 1826, are in the hand-writing of Joseph Anderson ; after 
that date John B. Rutley appears to have acted as clerk at the 
sittings of the court, up to the time when the appointment of a 
clerk was authorized by the statute of 1833. From that time 
the following gentlemen have held the appointment for the 
Court held at Cornwall : 

James Pringle, 1833 to 1838 

Christopher Collins, 1838 to 1846 

Charles Poole, 1846 to 1855 

William M. Park, 1855 to 1865 

George Sherwood Jarvis, 1865 to 1 868 

Charles Poole, 1868 to 1879 

James F. Pringle, 1879 to 1882 

Corydon J. Mattice, 1882 

The divisions at present are : 

No. i Charlottenburg. Clerk, G. H. MacGillivray. 

2 Locheil, John A. McDougall. 

3 Cornwall, " C. J. Mattice 

* 13 and 14 Vie., Cap. 53, did away with the payment of the clerks by salary, 
and fixed a tariff of fees for their remuneration, and also a general fee fund which 
was to be paid to the District Treasurer and applied to the payment of judges 

Old Eastern District. 305, 

4 Osnnbruck, - Clerk, A. Dawson. 

5 \Villiamsburgh, AVm. (jarvey, jr. 

6 Matilda, J. N. Tuttle. 

7 Mountain, W. J. Ridley. 

8 Finch, lohn A - Cockburn. 

9 Lancaster, " D. C. McRae. 

10 Winchester, - Wm. Rae. 

11 Roxborough, U. Mclntosh. 

12 Kenyon, George Hearnden. 

The Courts of Requests were the first ones established in 
Upper Canada by Provincial Statute. The next were the 
Court of Probate of Upper Canada, and the Surrogate Courts, 
one of which was to be held in each district. These courts 
were established in 1793 by 33, George III, Chapter 8. 

In 1794 the Statute 34, George III, Chapter 2, was passed 
" to establish a Superior Court of Civil and Criminal Jurisdic 
tion, and to regulate the Court of Appeal." The court estab 
lished under the statute was called " His Majesty s Court of 
King s Bench, for the Province of Upper Canada," and had all 
the powers and authorities of His Majesty s Courts of King s 
Bench, pommon Bench or Exchequer. 

The Court of Appeal constituted by the same statute, was 
composed of the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor or person ad 
ministering the Government of the Province, or the Chief Jus 
tice of the Province, together with two or more members of the 
Kxecutive Council of the Province. 

The Statute 34, George III, Chapter 3, was passed in the 
same year to establish a court for the cognizance of small 
causes in each district in the Province. This was the com 
mencement of the County Courts, one of which is now estab 
lished in each county or union of counties. 

At the time when 34, Geo. Ill, Chapter 3, was passed, 
there were very few professional lawyers in Upper Canada, 
and none of them felt disposed to give up the chances of his 
practice for the position of District Court Judge, with the small 
remuneration that would arise from the fees payable to that 
functionary. A non-professional man was therefore chosen by 

Lunenburgh, or the 

the Government and appointed judge in each district. These 
judges resided within their respective districts. As vacancies 
occurred, after the year 1822, the Government adopted the 
plan of appointing a barrister, who practised in one district, 
judge of the court of the adjoining district, the judgeship not 
interfering with his practice in the place in which he lived. 
For instance, Geo. S. Jarvis, Esq., who practised in Cornwall, 
became judge of the Ottawa District Court ; David Jones, 
Esq., who practised in Brockville, became judge of the 
Eastern District Court. This arrangement continued until 
1841, when the present system of having resident judges was 

Samuel Anderson, the first Judge of the District Court of 
the Eastern District, was appointed in 1794. 

According to an almanac printed at Montreal by Nahum 
Mower, for the year 1819, the judges and clerks of the several 
District Courts in Upper Canada in the year 1818, were : 


Ottawa, Peter F. Leroy. 

Eastern, David Sheek, Esq., Geo. Anderson. 

Johnstown, Soloman Jones, Esq., T. D. Campbell. 

Midland, Alex. Fisher, Esq., Alex. Pringle. 

Newcastle, D. M. G. Rogers. Esq., Elias Jones. 

Home, W. \V. Baldwin, Esq., Stephen Reward. 

Gore, Richard Hutt, Esq., George Rolph. 

Niagara, Ralfe Cleuch, Esq., J. B. Clench. 

London, Jas. Mitchell, Esq., R. W. Dease. 

Western, R. Richardson, Esq., (i. T. F. Ireland, 

In 1820, G. Hamilton and John McDonell were Judges of 
the Ottawa District Court, as stated in the York Almanac for 

By the Statute 34, Geo. Ill, Chap. 4, passed in 1794, the 
ordinance of the Province of Quebec concerning advocates, 
attorneys, solicitors and notaries, was suspended for the term 
of two years, and the Lieutenant-Governor was empowered to 
authorize by license, under his hand and seal, so many of His 
Majesty s subjects, not exceeding sixteen in number, as he 

Old Eastern District. 307 

should deem from their probity, education and condition in 
life, best qualified to act as advocates and attorneys in the 
conduct of all legal proceedings in the Province. The names 
of the sixteen so licensed were to be inscribed on a roll to be 
kept among the records of the Court of King s Bench, and no 
one, who was not one of the sixteen, was to be holden as duly 
authorized to receive fees for practising in any of His Majesty s 
Courts of Law in the Province, with this proviso, that persons 
admissible by the ordinance were not disqualified by this Act. 

In 1795, the Statute 35, Geo. Ill, Chap. 5, was passed for 
the public registering of deeds, etc. 

In 1797, the Statute 37, Geo. Ill, Chap. 13, was passed 
" for the better regulating of the practice of the law." By this 
statute the persons then admitted to practice in the law, and 
then practicing at the bar of any of His Majesty s Courts of 
the Province, were authorized to form themselves into a Law 
Society, to be called " The Law Society of Upper Canada." 
The I7th day of July, 1797, and the Town of Newark, in the 
County of Lincoln, were fixed as the time and place of the 
first meetitlg of the members of the society. The first mem 
bers were : 

1. John White 9. Alexander Steward 

2. Robert Isaac Dey Gray 10. Nicholas Hagerman 

3. Walter Roe u. Bartholemcw Crannel 

4. Angus McDonell Beardsley. 

5. James Clark 12. Timothy Thompson 

6. Christopher Robinson 13. Jacob Farrand 

7. Allan Mr Lean 14. Samuel Sherwood 

8. Wm. Dummer Powell, jr. 15. John McKay 

The Chief Justices of Upper Canada from the constitution 
of the Province under 31 Geo. Ill, passed in 1/91, to 2 Wil 
liam IV, (1832), were : 

Wm. Osgoode,* 32 Ceo. Ill, 1792 Wm. Dummer Powell, 50 Ceo. Ill, 

John Elmsley. 37 1796 1816. 

Henry Alcock, 42 " 1802 Wm. Campbell, <> Ceo. IV, iSj S 

Thomas Scott, 40 iS,,i, J ( ,l,,i Heserley Robinson. K> < 


From him Osgoodc Hall, in Toronto, lakes its name. 

308 Ltmenburgh, or the 

The Puisne Judges for the same period were : 

William Dummer Powell, 34 Geo. D Arcy Boulton, 58 Geo. Ill, 1818 

III, 1794. Levius Peters Sherwood, 6 Geo. IV, 

Peter Russell, 35 Geo. Ill, 1794 1825. 

Henry Alcock, 39 " 1798 James B. McAulay, 8 Geo. IV, 1827 

Thos. Cochrane, 43 " 1803 Jno. Walpole Willis, 1827 

Robert Thorpe, 45 " 1805 Christopher A. Hagerman, 9 Geo, 

Wm. Campbell, 52 " 1811 IV, 1828. 

Attorneys-General during the same period : 

John White, 32 Geo. Ill, 1792 D Arcy Boulton, 55 Geo. Ill, 1814 

Thomas Scott, 41 " 1801 Jno. B. Robinson, 58 1818 

William Forth, 48 1807 Henry John Boulton, 9 Geo. IV, 

Jno. McDonell, 51 " 1811 1828. 

Solicitors-General during the same period : 

Robert Isaac Dey Gray, 37 Geo. Ill, Henry John Boulton, 58 Geo. Ill, 

1797 1818 

D Arcy Boulton, 46 Geo. Ill, 1805 Christopher A. Hagerman. 10, Geo. 
Jno. B. Robinson, 55 Geo. Ill, 1815 IV, 1829 

The following gentlemen were advocates in Upper Canada 
at the time of the institution of the Law Society, but who, not 
being then practitioners, and not having subsequently applied 
for admission, never became members of the society : 

David William Smith Davenport Phelps 

Richard Barnes Tickell Charles J. Peters. 

The Statute 34, Geo. Ill, Chap. 3, establishing District 
Courts, was amended by Acts passed in 1797, 1798, 1811 and 
1819. All of these were repealed by Chap. 2, Geo. IV, passed in 
1822, which settled and regulated the jurisdiction and practice 
of the courts for many years. Under this statute the District 
Courts had jurisdiction in matters of contract from forty shil 
lings to fifteen pounds, and when the amount was liquidated, 
or ascertained by the act of the parties or the nature of the 
transaction, to forty pounds, and in matters of tort to personal 
chattels, to fifteen pounds. The Statute 8 Vic., Chap. 13, 
passed in 1845, raised the jurisdiction in personal actions to 
two hundred dollars, and in all suits relating to debt, covenant 
and contract, where the amount is liquidated or ascertained by 

Old Eastern District. 309 

the act of the parties or the signature of the defendant, to four 
hundred dollars, at which sums respectively it has remained to 
the present time. 

One of the greatest hardships under the law as it stood in 
the early days of the Province, was the facility with which a 
creditor could cause the arrest of a debtor for a small amount. 
The statute passed in 1811 (51 Geo. Ill, Chap. 3), fixed the 
lowest sum for which an arrest could be made at forty shil 
lings. The Statute 2, Geo. IV, Chap, i, (1822), raised the 
minimum amount to ,5.0.0; it was increased in 1835 by 5 
\Villiam IV, Chap. 3, to ,10.0.0, and in 1859 by 22 Vic., Chap. 
96, to $100.00. Since that elate no change has been made in 
the amount. 

In 1805, an Act 45 Geo. Ill, Chap. 7) was passed for the 
support of insolvent debtors detained in execution, who up to 
that time had " to depend upon the district or the precarious 
charity of individuals " for their support. This Act directed 
that if the debtor made oath that he or she was not worth five 
pounds, the plaintiff at whose suit the execution was issued or 
his attorney should pay to the debtor five shillings a week so 
long as he or she was detained in prison, the weekly payment 
to be made on Monday in every week. A failure to make the 
payment entitled the debtor to be released. The exact sum 
of five shillings in legal money had to be paid, and an instance 
is on record of a discharge being obtained where the payment 
was partly in silver and partly in copper, and one of the half 
pennies happened to be what was known as a "Brock copper," 
a piece which, though passing freely, was not a coin that could 
be legally tendered in payment of a debt. 

In 1822, the Statute 2, Geo. IV, Chap. 6, was passed, 
assigning limits to the respective gaols in the Province, within 
which debtors in custody under execution might live and move 
and have their being, provided they could get any of their 
friends to go bail that they would not depart from the limits. 
The space allowed as " limits" was at first very small, as will 

3 IQ Lunenburgk, or the 

be seen by referring to the order of sessions already quoted. 
In 1830 the limits were increased to sixteen acres, but debtors 
who had the liberty of the limits were not entitled to the 
weekly allowance. In 1846-47 the gaol limits were extended 
to the limits of the district, and they are now the same as the 
limits of the county, or union of counties, in which the gaol is. 
When the limits were confined to a small space in the Town 
of Cornwall, the magistrates caused cedar pickets, painted 
white, to be put up to mark the boundaries, and a debtor who 
.gave " bail to the limits " was shown the boundary posts and 
carefully instructed to keep within the lines marked by them. 

A story used to be told of a worthy Glengarry man, who 
g^ot into debt and finally into gaol. Some of his friends gave 
bail for him, and he got the privilege of the limits. Of course 
the boundary posts were pointed out to him, and he was 
warned that he must not pass beyond them. Something hap 
pened, however, which gave him a great desire to visit his 
home, and the question was, how could he gratify this desire 
and at the same time save his bail from loss ? He solved the 
question to his own satisfaction by taking up one of the posts 
and carrying it in front of him to his home. Whether or not 
this satisfied the law and the creditor, is not recorded. 

In 1835, an Act (5 William IV, Chap. 3) was passed, for 
bidding execution to be issued against the body of any person 
for costs only, or in any case when the judgment should not 
be rendered for the sum of ten pounds or upwards, exclusive 
of costs, and directing that any person who might be in cus 
tody on the ist of June, 1835, on an execution for a less sum 
than ten pounds, might be discharged on application to a 
Judge. The Act also directed that any person who might be 
in custody on execution for any debt or damages not exceed 
ing twenty pounds, exclusive of costs, and who had been in 
prison for three calendar months, or been on the gaol limits 
for twelve calendar months, might be discharged upon making- 
affidavit that he was not possessed of property, exclusive of 
his necessary wearing apparel and bedding to the value of five 

Old Eastern District. 3 1 1 

pounds. A period of six months in prison was necessary when 
the debt was over twenty and did not exceed one hundred 
pounds, and of twelve months when the debt exceeded the 
latter sum. 

As matters of curiosity, some of the forms of proceedings 
and bills of costs of ninety years ago are given. The author 
has a printed form of a declaration in an action on a promis 
sory note or bill of exchange, and an account that was used 
by some of the solicitors less than half a century ago. It is 
closely printed, and covers three pages of a sheet of foolscap. 
There is a blank near the beginning for the description of the 
note or bill ; the rest of it is made up of all the various counts 
that could possibly be required to describe any claim that any 
onc man could have against another for a debt, the whole 
making about twenty-five folios. The cost of this outrageous 
document at one shilling a folio, with its two copies and the 
record and judgment roll, each at sixpence a folio, would be 
at least seventy-five shillings, or fifteen dollars. Pleadings of 
this kind are not allowed in these degenerate days. 


ERN DISTRICT, I (ieorge the Third, by the Crace of Cod, of Creat 

Britain, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the 
To NY IT : J Faith and so forth. 

ToJ. M . (jf Lancaster, in our County of Clengarry, in the Kastern District 

aforesaid, yeoman. 


\\ e command you, that you do either in per>on, or l>v your attorney, appear 
at our District Court, to lie liolden at Xew Johnstown, on the twenty-fourth d 
September, next, to answer the complaint of A - M<-D , in a plea off 
tract, whereby you have piomi.M-d to pay nim, the sum of eight pounds ten shil 
lings, Halifax currency, for your promissory note, hearing date the 22nd day of 
nber, 1793, which though . you have hitherto denied to 

pay, to his damage twelve pounds, and which you re I". V him as he 

Wit I: \ T f 

EL ANI , KM,., i Judgeofoui 

This twenty-fourth day of July, in the thirty-eighth "ir reign. 

aed,) J. FAKKAND, . J. DONCN \\, 

I ltfs Attorney. A rk. 

312 Lunenburgh, or the 


Eastern District, District Court,) Prosecutor : A - McD- 
September Term, 1798. / vs. 

J McC 

FARRAND, for Plff. 



Donald McDonell, constable for the Township of Charlottenburg, in the said 
District, maketh oath that on the seventh day of August, instant, he did serve the 

within writ on J - McC , the defendant therein named, by reading the same 

to him, and delivering him a copy thereof. 

Sworn before me this ninth day of August,^ 
1798, at Charlottenburg, aforesaid. 

(Signed), ALEX. MCDONELL, T-P- J 



September Term, 1801. J vs. 

A. McD 

And the said John, by Walter Butler Wilkinson, his atttorney, conies and 
defends the wrong and injury, when, etc., and says that he did not undertake and 
promise, in manner and form, as the said John hath above thereof complained 
against him, and of this he puts himself upon the country, etc. 


Attorney for Defendant. 



September Term, 1802. J vs. 

A B . 

s. d. 

Instructions to Prosecute, - 050 

Pnvcipe for Writ, -026 

Process and Copy, - 079 

Brief and Fee, o 10 o 

Motion that Writ be returned, 026 

Motion that Defendant be called, -026 

Motion that Defendant s confession be taken, 026 

Motion for Judgment, 050 

Motion for Execution, - 026 s. d. 


Old Eastern District. 


s. d. 

Judge s Fees, - 

o 17 6 

Clerks " - - 

o 14 6 

Sheriff s " 


Crier s " - 


i T O o 

This bill allowed at three pounds, nineteen shillings, 

i i O y 

3 19 


J. DONOVAN, Clerk. 


DtSTRirr (Y>T, T PT "1 D S 


April Term, 1803. / vs. 

H K- 


s. d. 

Instructions to Sue, 


Drawing Declaration, ... 

- 040 

Notice on - 

O I O 

Brief and Fee, 

- o 10 o 

April ii Motion that Defendant be called, 


Motion that Writ be returned, - 

- 026 

12 Motion that Defendant be called, 


Motion to enter com. appearance, 

- 026 

Drawing same. 


13 Motion that Defendant be called, 

- 026 

Motion for Judgment by Default, 


Drawing Notice of trial for 26th, 

- 026 

26 Motion that Defendant be called, 


Motion to examine Jos. Stoneburner, 

- 2 6 

Motion that jury be empanelled, 


Motion that Verdict be taken, - 


Motion for Judgment on Verdict, 

5 o s. d. 

Judge s fee-. ... 

- I 2 6 

Clerk s " .... 

o 15 o 

Sheriff, for service of sunnim 


Sheriff, for service of notice of trial, 


Sheriff. service of subpu-na, 


Paid witne.-s, 

Paid for suhp. ma-, 

- o 3 (> 

Paid for Jury, .... 


Sheriff", .... 


< Yier, ..... 

o i 9 

314 Lunenburgh) or the 




Samuel Anderson, . . . 1794 to 1814 

David Sheek, . . . 1814 to 1822 

Levins P. Sherwood, . . . 1822 to 1826 

David Jones, . . . 1826 to 1841 

George S. Jarvis, . . . 1841 to 1878 

J. F. Pringle, (Junior Judge), . 1866 to 1878 

do (Judge), . . 1878 
Robert B. Carman, (Junior Judge), . 1883 


Samuel Anderson, . . . 1793 to 1812 

John Low Farrancl, . . . 1812 to 1814 
David Sheek, .... 1814 to 1821 

The Hon. Neil McLean, . . 1821 to 1832 

John McDonold, (Gart), . 1832 to 1844 

Robert Cline, . . . 1844 to 1847 

George McDonell, . . 1847 to 1857 

George S. Jarvis. . . , 1857 to 1878 

J. F. Pringle, . 1878 

J. F. Pringle, . 1879 


Cornelius Munro Donald McDonell (Greenfield). 

John Kerr Alexander McMartin 

Neil McLean Donald .-Eneas McDonell 

Daniel Eugene Mclntyre. 

Old Eastern District. 315; 


Jacob Farrand, . . I? 8 9 to 1803 

John Low Farrand, . . ^ to 1814 

Archibald McLean, . . . 1815 to 1837 

James Pringle, . . ^37 to 1858 


T. F. Pringle, . l8s 8 to 1866 

James Bethune, . . 1866 to 1871 

John B. McLennan, . . 1871 to 1873 

James Dingwall, . . . 


Alexander Campbell, . . . 1794101800 

J. Donovan, . . 1800 to 1810 

Geo. Anderson, . . . ^ lo to l85o 

Angus S. McDonald, . 1850 to 1856 

Robertson McDonell, . . . : 8 5 6 to 1863 

Roderick McDonald, . . ^63 to 1884 

Alexander F. McDonell, . . 


Robert I. D. Gray, . . . 1793 to 1800 

Keph Anderson, . l8oo to I8n 

Richard Wharffe, . . 1811 to 1817 

Archibald McLean, . ^7 to 1837 

Alex. McLean, . . l837 to lgsg 

Robertson McDonell, . l85 8 to 1863 

From the time of the appointment of Roberts, ,n McDonelL the clerks of tlu 
County Court have been registrars of the Surrogate Court. 


>rge Anderson, 

James Pringle. . . . , S42 

Gu y c - Uii " (1 - . . 1843 to 1852 

Angus S. McDonald, . ^52 to 1856 

I ""in the time of the appointment of Alibis S. McDonald, the clcrk> of 
the County Court have been deputy clerks of the Crown. 

MASI KKS i\ < ;HAN< KRY : 

James Pringle, . . lS _,,, .,, , S49 

J. ! . I ringle, appointee and resigned. 1X4(1 

John McDoneil, (Greenfield . ,S 40 to iS68 

John Hergin. . . . lS( ,s ,,, ,s 7 o 

J- I ringle, . . . ,s 70 


Lunenburghi or the 

Jacob Farrand, 


John Low Farrand, 
Archibald McLean, 
John McLean, 
Geo. C. Wood, 
John Copeland, 

Alexander Campbell,"" 
Jacob Farrand, 
John Low Farrand, 
Archibald McLean, 
John Crysler. 
Alex- McDonell, 
J. P. Crysler, 
S. S. Cook, 


Jacob Farrand, 

John Low Farrand, 

Archd. McLean. 

John McDonell, 

Alexander Fraser, 

Duncan McDonell, (Greenfield), - 

Alex. McKenzie, 

A. McDonell, 


James Fortune, 

1795 to 1803 

1803 to 1814 

1814 to 1837 

1837 to 1852 

1852 to 1871 


1795 to 

1801 to 1803 

1803 to 1814 

1814 to 1823 



1867 to i 88 i 

1795 to 1803 

1803 to 1814 

1814 to 1816 


1853 to 1865 
1865 to 1876 



William Fraser, 
Neil McLean, 
Robert McGregor, 
Charles Jones, 
Jacob Farrand, 
Richard X. Wilkinson, 
Neil McLean, 
Alexander McLean, 
Roderick McDonald, 
/L neas McDonald, 
Corydon J. Mattice, 




to 1794 

to 1796 

to 1798 

to 1800 

to 1803 

to 1806 

to 1832 

to 1844 

to 1885 

to 1887 

Mr. Campbell was also registrar for Leeds and Grenville. 

Old Eastern District. 317 


FROM 1797 UP TO 1847: 

Jacob Farrancl, 1797 D. W. B. McAulay, 1838 

Robert I. D. Gray, J. F. I ringle, 

Walter Butler Wilkinson, 1803 The I Ion. J. S. McDonald, 1841 

J. L. Farrancl, 1806 William Smart, " 

J. R. Small, 1808 T. D. Pringle, 1843 

Arch d McLean, 1815 A. G. McDonell, 

Isaac Sheek, 1820 Rolland McDonald, admitted 

. Stephen Jarvi>, 1823 1832, practised in Cornwall 

Robert Cline, 1825 from 1847, for four or five 

Alexander Wilkinson. 1826 years. 

Geo. McDonell, 1830 John Walker, 

Peter Freel, 1832 


Charles Austin, ist Battalion. John Wylie, 

K.R.R., N.V., James McAulay, 

James Stuart, 1st Battalion, William Bruce, 

K.R.R., X.V., John Archibald, 

John Mosely, John Grant, 

( i eo. Wood, ist Dragoon Guards, James Grant, 

T. Johnson, D. E. Mclntyr e. 

Xoah Dickinson, Charles Rattray, 

Cyrus Anderson, John Finlayson, 

J. Johnston. Roderick McDonald. 
Blacklock, Royal Xuvy, 


Judge of the District Court Solomon Jones. 

Clerk of the District Court Charles Jours. 

Clerk of the Peace Edward Jessup. 

Judge of the Surrogate Court Ephraim Ton. 

Clerk of the Surrogate Court- Samuel Sherwood. 

Sheriff Thomas I Y. 

Registrar for Counties Grenville, Carleton and ; I.. I . Sherwood. 

( OK, ner Oliver Everts. 

Collecter of Customs 1,. I . Sher\M> 

Inspector of |lo ur) pot-ash. and pearl-ash I. . I 1 . Sherwood. 

318 Lunenburgh) or the 



A well-known character in Cornwall twenty years ago 
was John Baker, who died in January, 1871. He was a 
mulatto, and had been a slave, as had been also his mother, 
Dorine ; his grandmother, Lavine, and his great-grandfather, 
Cato. The history of his family goes back to a period prior 
to the settlement of Upper Canada, in fact to the time in the 
old Colony days when the war \vith France was a thing of the 
future and the Revolutionary war not dreamed of. 

Cato, John s great-grandfather, was an African. He was 
brought to North America, where he became the slave of Mr. 
John Low, a resident of Newark, New Jersey. While in Mr. 
Low s service, Cato s daughter named Lavine was born, who 
in 1759 gave birth to Dorine, John Baker s mother. The date 
of Dorine s birth is established, from the following facts : Mr. 
Low s daughter Margaret married Dr. Farrand (a physician 
living in the State of New York) in 1752 or 1753. In 1759 
Mrs. Farrand gave birth to a daughter named Hannah, who 
afterwards married Joseph Anderson, a lieutenant in the King s 
Royal Regiment of New York.* It was a well-known tradition 
in the Farrand family that Hannah Farrand and the daughter 
of the slave Lavine were born in the same year. 

In 1763 Elizabeth Low, another daughter of John Low, 
married James Gray, who had been a captain in the 42nd 
Regiment (the Black Watch), and had sold out after the taking 

[u>q>h Anderson and his wife Hannah Farrand, were the author s maternal 
grandfather and grandmother. 

Old Eastern District. 319 

of Havana, in the Island of Cuba, in 1762. Whether Lavine 
and her daughter Dorine, or Dorine alone, was given to Mrs. 
Gray by her father, is not distinctly known, but it was known 
that Dorine was the property of the Grays, and that when the 
breaking up of families began in 1776, Captain Gray and his 
wife, and their nephew and neices, Jacob Farrand and Hannah 
and Catherine Farrand (children of Dr. and Mrs. Margaret 
Farrand), came to Canada, and brought with them Dorine, 
then in her seventeenth year. Captain Gray and his nephew 
got commissions in the King s Royal Regiment of New York, 
the former as major of the ist Battalion, the latter as ensign. 
Mrs. Gray remained at Sorel or Montreal. At the latter place 
Hannah Farrand married Joseph Anderson, a lieutenant in the 
same regiment. Dorine remained with Mrs. Gray and married 
a German named Baker, by whom she had a large family, of 
whom Simon was the oldest, John the second. When the 
regiment was broken up in 1784, Major Gray, his wife and son 
Robert Isaac Dey Gray, left Montreal, bringing with them 
Dorine and her husband and family, and settled at Gray s 
Creek, about three miles east of the Town of Cornwall. Joseph 
Anderson and his wife settled about a mile and a half west of 
the town. On the death of Col. Gray in 1795, Dorine and her 
children became the property of his son, Robert Isaac Dey 
Gray, who was a lawyer. He practiced in Cornwall for a short 
time, and went to York, where he was appointed Solicitor- 
General of Upper Canada in 1797. When he went to York to 
reside he took with him Simon Baker as his body servant. 

In the winter of 1803-04, Robert I. D. Gray went to 
Albany. On his return he wrote a letter to his cousin, Mrs. 
Catherine Valentine,* dated at Kingston, February 16. 1804, 
of which the following is an extract : " I saw some of our old 
friends while in the States. None was I more happy to meet 
than Lavine, Dorine s mother. Just as I was leaving Albany 
I heard from our cousin, Mrs. Garret Staats, who is living in 

"Mr-. \ uk iitinr V" leriiK- I- arrand, si-icr nf Mrs. [n.-cph Anderson. 

She married John Valentine, adjutant of the IS) ll.malion. K.R.R.. \.Y. 

320 Luuenbitrgh, or the 

Albany, that Lavine was living in a tavern with a man of the 
name of Bramley. I immediately employed a friend of mine 
(Mr. Ramsay, of Albany,) to negotiate with the man for the 
purchase of her. He did so, stating that I wished to buy her 
freedom, in consequence of which the man readily complied 
with my wishes, and although he declared she was worth to 
him .100.0.0, he gave her to me for $50.00. When I saw her 
she was overjoyed, and appeared as happy as any person could 
be at the idea of seeing her child Dorine and her children once 
more, with whom, if Dorine wishes it, she will willingly spend 
the remainder of her days. I could not avoid doing this act ; 
the opportunity seemed to have been thrown in my way by 
Providence, and I could not resist. She is a good servant yet, 
healthy and strong, and among you you may find her useful. 
I have promised her that she may work as much or as little as 
she pleases, while she lives ; but from the character I have of 
her, idleness is not her pleasure." Mr. Gray adds : " I saw 
old Cato, Lavine s father, at Newark,* while I was at Colonel 
Ogden s. He is living with Mrs. Governeur, is well taken care 
of, and blind ; poor fellow came to feel me, for he could not 
see. He asked affectionately after the family." Lavine came 
to Canada and lived for the remainder of her life in the family 
of Judge Anderson, near Cornwall. 

In one of the Toronto papers published on the I5th of 
December, 1869, John Baker s story is given in his own words, 
of which the author takes the liberty of giving the following 
copy. He says : " I was born at Quebec, but brought up at 
Gray s Creek. My mother Dorine was from Guinea.f My 
father was a Dutchman ; he married mother at Gray s Creek. 
Mr. Gray was colonel of a Scotch regiment, * and wore kilts ; 

* New Jersey. 

tjohn is mistaken on this point. His great grandfather, Cato, came from 
Guinea; his mother was born in the Province of New York. 

Another error of John s. Col. Gray served first as ensign in Lord Loudon s 
Regiment in 1745, and afterwards as captain in the 42nd until 1762 or 1763. He 
was on half pay as major of the ist Battalion, K.R.R., N.V., when he lived at 
Gray s Creek. 

Old Eastern District. 321 

was married in the United States. I came to live at Gray s 
Creek when a boy. Col. Gray s son, Robert Isaac Dey Gray, 
was his only child, and went to school in Quebec. He was 
member of Parliament for thirteen years running, and became 
Solicitor-General. He studied here with Mr. Jacob Farrand, 
to whom he was related. The Colonel had much property ; 
he was strict and sharp, made us wear deerskin shirts and 
deerskin jackets, and gave us many a flogging. At these 
times he would pull off my jacket, and the rawhide would fly 
around my shoulders very fast. My brother Simon was older 
than me, and was Solisary (sic for Solicitor-General) Gray s 
body servant. He dressed up Simon better than himself. He 
took him to Toronto with him. After Col. Gray died, Mrs. Gray 
lived with the family of Judge* Anderson, who lived about two 
miles and a half west of Cornwall, till she died some years afterf 
and I lived with Mr. Farrand. He used to go journeys on 
horseback, when I would go with him, having his valise strap 
ped on my back ; he rode like a tartar, and the valise used to 
knock on my back as I galloped after. I lived three years in 
Toronto in a large white house north of the landing. \Ve had 
in the house Solisary Gray, Simon, two black women, and 
myself. The people were very proud and grand them times. 
Simon was master s body servant, and dressed finer than his 
master, with a beaver hat and gold chain. Solisary Gray had 
land all over the world. Did not know of Mr. White. Heard 
of the duel,* it was before my time. Governor Hunter was a 
severe and wicked old man. He wore leather breeches. In 
one pocket he carried tobacco, in another snuff When giving 
orders he would take out a handful of snuff, and it would fall 
over his white ruffled shirt. He always wore shoes with silver 
buckles ; never saw him with a boot on. He ordered the trial 

Mils should be Captain Joseph Anderson. Jud^e Amlcrson livo 
( oni\\all. 


t A duel between Al ml Win Mr. John Small, \\hich \\ 

fought on the peninsula, opposite York, in January, iSoo, with a fatal re-nil 
Mr. \\liii,-. Mr. Small \\a-. tried for uuml.-r luit acquitted. 

322 Lnnenburgh, or the 

of the Indian at Presque Isle. The weather was storm} . Mr. 
Gray did not want to go, but Gov. Hunter insisted. Master 
took Simon with him. The schooner started between four and 
five in the afternoon, and we heard of the loss the next morn 
ing ; a brig called the Toronto coming up brought the news. 
Lawyer Weeks, too, had ridden down to attend the trial, and 
came back next day. None of the bodies were ever found. 
There were about twenty houses in Toronto then. I went and 
stayed at Judge Powel s for six months. Then a recruiting 
party came along ; I listed to go to New Brunswick. Judge 
Powel paid the smart for me seven times. He then said 
that if I went again and listed I must go. I said thank you, 
sir, but the second night after I was at the rendezvous and 
listed again. Col. Allan swore me in and dragged me away. 
First we went to New Brunswick; stayed around that ugly, 
miserable place for three years, till our time expired. Col. 
Drummond, afterwards killed at Fort Erie, was our colonel, 
and Col. Moodie, who was shot on .Yonge street, was lieu 
tenant-colonel. When our time was out, Col. Moodie paraded 
our regiment, made us a speech, and called on all who wished 
to list to hold up their right hands. All in the ten companies 
did so. We were after this at Lundy s Lane, Fort Erie, and 
Sackett s Harbor. We \\ere at Waterloo, when Col. Hatch 
commanded us; the iO4th Regiment was ours. I saw Napo 
leon. He was a chunky little fellow; he rode hard and jumped 
ditches. After that we came back to Canada, and got our 
discharges in Montreal. I liked the service. If I were young 
and supple I would not be out of the army. The Queen now 
gives me a pension. Some of my sisters are still living near, 
this. I and mother were freed by Solisary Gray s will. We 
got a little of the money he left for us, but not much." 

In 1804, a man named Cosens had killed an Indian, 
whose brother, failing to find Cosens, killed John Sharpe in 
revenge. Lieutenant-Governor Hunter ordered the trial of the 


Indian to be held at Presque Isle, near Brighton, then a some 
what important place. The Government schooner, "Speedy," 

Old Eastern District. 323 

Captain Paxton, was detailed to take the court party from 
York to the place of trial. It was late in the autumn of 1804, 
the weather was stormy. The " Speedy," never a strong craft, 
was unseaworthy. Hull, spars and sails were out of order, 
and the captain remonstrated strongly against venturing out 
at that season of the year, but the Governor was peremptory 
and the vessel sailed, having on board in addition to her crew. 
Judge Cochrane, A. McDonell, sheriff of the Home District! 
Mr. Gray and his servant, Simon ; John Fiskc, the high con 
stable ; the Indian prisoner, and some other persons. Mr. 
Gray, who dreaded the voyage, had made arrangements to go 
down on horseback with Mr. Weeks, a barrister, who was 
going to the court, but the judge urged him so strongly to 
make the voyage with him, that he consented. The " Speed}- " 
sailed and had nearly reached her destination when she was 
struck by a sudden squall, and sank with all on board. 
Xo trace of the vessel or of any who were on board of her was 
ever seen again. 

At the time of Mr. Gray s death, slavery was still in ex 
istence in Upper Canada. The Statute 33, Geo. Ill, Chap. 7, 
passed on the 9 th of July, 1793, prohibited the importation of 
slaves. It did not liberate any negro then in a state of slavery, 
but provided for the emancipation of children of slaves on 
reaching the age of 25 years. 

Mr. Gray made his will on the 27th of August, 1804, the 
third paragraph of which is as follows: "I feel it a duty incum 
bent on me, in consequence of the long and faithful services of 
Dorinc, my black woman servant, rendered to my family, to 
release, manumit and discharge her from the state of slavery 
in which she now is, and to give her and all her children thci r 
freedom. My will therefore is. that she be released, and I 
hereby accordingly release, manumit and discharge the said 
Dorinc, and all and every of her said children, both male and 
female, from slavery, and declare them and every of them to 
be free." The fourth clause is in these words : " And in order 
that provisions may be made for the said Dorinc and her 

324 Lunenbutgh) or the 

children, and that she may not want after my decease, my will 
is, and I hereby empower my executors, out of my real estate 
to raise the sum of twelve hundred pounds currency, and place 
the same in some solvent and secure fund, and the interest 
arising from the same I give and bequeath to the said Dor- 
ine, her heirs and assigns for ever, to be paid annually." 5 

To his servant, Simon, he left all his wearing apparel and 
his silver watch, and also two hundred acres of land, lot 
number 1 1 , in the first concession of Whitby. 

He gave to John, his other black servant, two hundred 
acres of land, lot number 17 in the second concession of 
Whitby. He also gave to Simon and John, each fifty pounds. 

John Baker remained in York after Mr. Gray s death, un 
til he enlisted, and he appears to have been in the army until 
after the battle of Waterloo. It is not known in what corps 
he was serving at that time. It could not have been the iO4th, 
as that regiment did not take any part in the action.f After 
his discharge, he came back to Cornwall, where he proved 
himself to be an industrious, hard-working man, until old age 
and infirmity incapacitated him for labour. Some ten years 
or so before his death, a pension of one shilling sterling a day 
was procured for him from the British Government. The 
author paid him the first quarter s pension and well remembers 
the old man s pleasure at receiving the long delayed recogni 
tion of his services, and his joyful shout of " God save Queen 
Victoria." For the last few years of his life, he was to be seen 
daily, limping down to the store of the late P. E. Adams, on 
Pitt street, where he did odd jobs, and in the interval took a 
seat in one particular part of the store, where it is said that 
the floor was worn away in the place where his feet rested. He 
died on the i8th of January, 1871, the last of those who had 
been slaves in the old provinces of Quebec and Upper Canada. 

* The executors of the will, instead of raising the Mini of ,1,200 out of the 
real estate, set apart 2, 1 50 acres, which were sold and the proceeds divided be 
tween Dorine and her children. 

t See Alison s History of Europe. 

Old Eastern District. 325; 

It was believed that he was one hundred and four or five years 
of age at the time of his death, but the facts of the case as 
already shown, appear to be against this belief. His mother 
was born in 1759; she came to Quebec wi<-h the Gray family 
in 1776, when she was seventeen, and her sons, Simon and John, 
were born in Quebec. Simon was the elder of the two, and it 
is not probable that John was born before 1778, which would 
make him 93 in 1871. 


3 2 6 Lunenburgh, or the 



The United States of America declared war against Great 
Britain on the 2/th of June, 1812, and expected to make an 
easy conquest of Canada. The Regular troops in the Pro 
vinces amounted at that time to barely 4,000 men, to which, 
if 1,300 Fencibles and 500 Artillery are added, the force for 
the protection of the vast frontier of some 1,000 miles in ex 
tent was only 5,800 men. Of this number there was only one 
regiment, the 4ist, about 600 men, west of Kingston. The 
population of Upper Canada did not exceed 80,000 souls, while 
that of Lower Canada was about 220,000. On the other hand, 
the population of the United States had increased since the 
Revolution and numbered 8,000,000. In point of numbers 
the odds were more than twenty to one against Canada. The 
American Congress sanctioned the enlisting of 25,000 men to 
form a Regular army to act in conjunction with 50,000 Volun 
teers who came forward, while 100,000 Militiamen were called 
out to guard the sea coast and defend the land frontiers.* The 
.armed force called out by the United States, 175,000 men, 
outnumbered the total male population of all British North 
America capable of bearing arms. 

The population of Upper Canada able to bear arms was 
not more than 10,000, of whom there were embodied for service 
550 Cavalry, 350 Artillery, 55 Artificers, and 4,500 Infantry. 
In Lower Canada the Provincial force consisted of embodied 

"*.See<}arneau s History of Canada. 

Old Eastern District. 327 

Militia 5,012, Voltigeurs 567, Chasseurs 538, and Col. Des- 
chambeault s Militia 500. There were also for a few months 
other battalions, numbering 3,638 men, besides 12,606 men 
called out for short periods varying from a few days to two 
months, making a total of 28,316 Militiamen for Upper and 
Lower Canada.* The Regular troops serving in Canada 
during the first twenty months of the war were one battalion 
of the ist Foot, the 8th or King s Own, roth Royal Veterans, 
one battalion of the I3th, the 4Oth, 4ist, 49th, 7oth, 89th, 
looth, I03rd, iO4thf New Brunswick Regiments, the Royal 
Newfoundland Regiment, DeMeuron s, DeWattville s, the 
Canadian Fencibles and the Glengarry Regiment,* the igth 
Light Dragoons, about 800 Royal Marines and Seamen, and 
500 Royal Artillery and Engineers. In the summer of 1814 
several regiments (about 16,000 men) that had served in Spain 
under Lord Wellington were sent to Canada. 

The following is a list of the actions fought in Canada 
and along the frontier during the war : 


June I Attack on Isle Aux Noix, won by the British. 
July i Raid en Plattsburg^won by the British. 

3 Naval engagement near Amherstburg, won by the British. 
17 Capture of Fort Mackinaw by the British. 
29 Engagement near Amherstburg won by the British. 
Aug. 7 Double attack on Amherstburg, won by the British. 
9 Stores captured near Detroit by the British. 

J 6 Taking of Detroit by the British under General Brock, whose force con 
sisted of 700 regulars and militia and 600 Indians. The American 
general, Hull, surrendered with his whole force, amounting to 2,500 


Sep. 9 Raid on Gananoque, won by the Americans. 

Oct. 4 Attack on Ogdensburg, repulsed by the Americans. 

-McMillan s History of Canada. 

\ The 8th and iO4th Regiments were sent during the winter of 1813 over 
.land from New Brunswick to Canada. 

The Glengarry Light Infantry. 

5? The 8ist was one of them. 

McMillan s IIi>tory of Canada, and the " ( ilnl.r " of 2ist March, 1876. 

328 Lunenburgk, or the 

Oct. 9 Brigs " Detroit and " Caledonia " taken on the lake by the Americans- 
13 Battle of Queenstown, won by the British. General Brock killed. 
23 St. Regis taken by the Americans. A counter attack was made suc 
cessfully by the British a few days later. 
Nov. 20 Kingston bombarded by the Americans. 

Battle of Lacolle, won by the British. 
23 Post at Salmon River, taken by the British. 
27 Engagement near Chippewa, won by the British. 


Jan. 19 Skirmish on the River Raisin, won by the British. 

22 American Army taken prisoners at Frenchtown by the British. 
Feb. 6 Raid on Brockville by the Americans. 

22 Ogdensburg taken by the British under Major McDonell, with a force of 
480 regulars and militia. This success prevented any further forays 
by the Americans on that part of the frontier. 
Ap l 27 York taken by the Americans after a resistance of seven hours duration 

by the small British garrison. 

May 5 Attack on Fort Meigs abandoned by the British after they had repulsed, 
with heavy loss a sortie of the garrison. The British carried off all 
their guns and stores, 
27 Fort George, Niagara, taken by the Americans. 

Block Houses Barracks and stores at Sackett s Harbour taken and burned, 

by the British. 
June 3 Capture of the "Growler" and "Eagle" by the British on Lake 

Cham plain. 

5 Battle of Stoney Creek, won by the British. Col. Harvey with 700 Can 
adians and regulars of the 8th and 49th Regiments, attacked the Amer 
ican troops, 3,500 strong, at night, and utterly routed them. 
8 The American provision depot at Stoney Creek taken by the British. The 
Americans made a hurried retreat from Forty Mile Creek, on the ap 
pearance of the British fleet, under Commodore Yeo, abandoning their 
tents, provisions and wounded. 

19 An American provision depot at Great Soclus, taken by the British. 
28 Battle of Beaver Dam, won by the British, *Lieut. Fitzgibbon and Capt. 
Ker, commanding. The British force of 34 men of the iO4th and 200 
Indians, defeated and captured 650 Americans under Col. Boerstler. 
Major De Haren, who came up after the surrender, took charge of the- 
July 4 Kort Schlosser, opposite Chippewa, taken by the British. 

n A naval depot at Black Rock, on the Niagara river, taken by the British. 

*June 28 Mrs. Laura Secord, of Chippewa, whose husband had been 
wouncfed at Queenstown, and whose house had been plundered and destroyed by 
the Americans, walked nineteen miles through the woods to inform Fit/gibbon. 
who was in command at Beaver Dam, of Boersller s intended attack. 

Old Eastern District. 329 

July 21 A flotilla of 15 batteaux and a gun boat taken by the Americans near the 
Thousand Islands. 

23 The American fleet attacked York, which had been left defenceless, and 
retired after having burned the barracks and public store houses, and 
ill-treated some of the inhabitants. 
25 Attack on Fort Meigs, abandoned by the British. 
31 Attack on Burlington Heights, won by the British. 

Plattsburg taken, and arsenal, store-houses and barracks burned by the 
British, who carried off a large quantity of military stores: they also 
burned four vessels at Burlington, and the public stores at Swantonand 

Aug. 2 Attack on Fort Stephenson, repulsed by the Americans. 
. io \uval battle off Put-in Bay, \\on by the Americans. 
29 Attack on < >dellt<mn, won by the British. 
Oct. 3 Americans repulsed at Four Corners. 

5 Battle of the Thames, won by the Americans. 

-Six schooners, with 250 soldiers on board, proceeding from York to King- 
in, without convoy, were captured by the Americans. 

26 Battle of Chateauguay, won by the British. Col. De Salaberry, with a 
small force of Canadian Yoltigeurs, about 400 men and a regiment of 
icibles, under Col. Ceo. McDonell, numbering 600, composed <>f 
I r. nch Canadians and a few Clengarry men. routed Ceneral Hamp 
ton s army. 

Nov. ii -Battle of Cry.sler s Farm, won by the British. 

Dec. 12 Abandonment of For! and burning of the town of Niagara by the 

Americans. They destroyed even house in the town but one, and 

turned 400 helpless \\omen and children into the streets at half an 

hour s noli 

iS Taking of Fort Niagara, followed by the capture and burning of I.ewis- 

ton, Yoimg.stown. Manchester and Tuscurora by the British. 
28 Black Rock and Buffalo taken and burned with three vessels of Perry s 
.squadron, bv the British. The burning of these places was in revenge 
lor the destruction of Niagara. 
2Q -Taking of Fort F.ric by the British. 


Mar. 15 Attack on Burtonville, \\<>n by the British. 

30 Major Handcock with 500 men, Canadians, \oltigeurs. Fencibles and 

Militia, and two companies, of the 131!) Regiment, defeated General 
Wilkinson s army of 5.000 Americans, at l.aclle Mill. 
Ma\ (j (Kuego taken by the British. 

31 Attack at Sandy < reels, won b\ the Americans. 
July 3 faking ol Forl Frie by the Americans. 

5 Attack "ii |-,irt Chippewa. lost by the British, 
io Taking o( I ,,i: I, a Prairie du Chien by the British. 

33 Lumnburgh, or tJte 

July 25 Burning of St. David s village by the Americans. 

25 Battle of Lundy s Lane, won by the British. 
Aug. 4 Attack on Fort Michilimackinaw, repulsed by the British. 

14 Engagement near Fort Erie, won by the Americans. 

Sep. 5 Capture of the " Scorpion " and . Tigress" near Michilimackinaw by the- 

ii Naval battle off Plattsburg, won by the Americans. Attack on Platts- 
burg abandoned by the British. 

17 Sortee from Fort Erie repulsed by the British, who raised the seige and 
retired on the 2ist, unmolested. 

Oct. The Americans blew up the works at P ort Erie, and abandoned the place. 
In the months of July, August and September, that part of Maine, 
between Penobscot River and New Brunswick, was taken possession of" 
by the British, and remained under their rule till the close of the war. 

The war lasted two years and a half, when the Government 
at Washington, finding that their sea coast was dominated by 
the British fleet, that their attacks on Canada had all failed, 
and that their trade was being destroyed, asked for peace,, 
which was agreed to, and the treaty signed at Ghent on the 
24th of December, 1814. 

In 1847, medals were granted by Her Majesty to the 
survivors of those who fought and conquered at Detroit, 
Crysler s Farm and Chateauguay. In accordance with the 
orders then in force regulating the granting of medals, they 
were awarded for those actions only where the General or 
superior officers of the armies or corps engaged had already 
received that distinction, consequently the order did not in 
clude some of the hardest fought battles in Canada. The 
Honorable Hamilton Merritt brought resolutions on the sub 
ject before the Canadian House of Parliament in September, 
1852, but nothing came of his motion, and many of the 
survivors of the war got no distinguishing token of their 

On the 26th of August, 1852, Lieutenant-Colonel Donald 
McDonell, Deputy Adjutant-General for Canada West, pub 
lished a notice in the " Canada Gazette," giving the following 
list of the names of those to whom medals had been awarded : 

Old Eastern District. 



Private Adams, Thomas 

Augustine, Alex. 

Master Arcvison, Gustavus 

Private Arkland, Charles 

Brooks, James 
Bezeau, Peter 
Buckendile, George 
Belain, Paul 
Brigham, Brewster 
Cole, Charles 
Carey, George 
Cameford, John 
Cassidy, Peter 
Cavanagh, Francis 
Cornell, Aaron 
Deaggon, L. 
Delacamp, Jacob 
Davis, Robert 
Freese, Peter 

Ensign Fortier, Charles 

Private Finch, George 

Graham, Richard 
" Glassner, William 

Glennon, Bernard 
Gaulet, Francois 
Gourlay, Francis 
Gordon, Michael 

Sergeant - Grant, John 

Private Glass, George 

Garton, James 
Heron, Andrew 
Harrison, William 

Captain Hall, George B. 

Private Johnson, Moses 

Jones, William 
Jewell, Kbene/er 
Kennedy, Andrew 
Kitchen, Wheeler 
Kintner, Conrad 
Laberte, Claude 
I. re, Francis 
Lawrason, Thomas 
Langvin, Joseph 

Sergeant Langlois, Joseph 


Crysler s Farm 


Crysler s Fann 
ie ii 





Crysler s Farm 


Lunenburgli, or the 







Lamarst, John 
LaRose, Pierre 
Lebeau, John 
Lecompt, Joseph 
McKay, Angus 
Moore, George 
Miller, Jacob 
McDonald, John 
McDonald, Archibald 
Metcalf, Henry 
Neville, Edward 
O Neil, Joseph 
Pelkie, Peter 
Pringle, Henry 
Perrault, Louis 
Plomerfelt, Cornelius 
Ponds, William 
Peltier, Louis 
Parent, Isaac- 
Reed, James 
Roach, Morris 
Runnions, lienjamin 
Roberts, Robert 
Roy, Coleman 
Stuart, James 
Simpson, Thomas 
Stewart, Charles 
Sterling, Mark 
Shaw, John 
ShacKvick, P. 
Sinclair, Samuel 
Sollie, Michael 
Snelling, Asa 
Styles, Martin 
Stenhoof, Benjamin 
Shamerar. James 
Stoner, IV-ter 
Strader, John 
Shaver, Edward 
St. Etienne, John 
Thompson, Andrew 
Thompson, Robert 
Yickcrs. Henjamin 



Crysler s Earm 

Crysler s l- arm 

Crysler s l arm 

Crysler s I- arm 


Crysler s Farm 

Old Eastern District. 



Private Wells, Robert Detroit 

" Whittle. John 

" Whittle, Thomas 

Wilfong, Jonas 
" Wilfong, Joseph 

" Wells, John 

li Williams. John " 

Woodley, Mathias 

\Vilkinson, A. 
" Wood, Thoma> 

Yuyle. Adam 

In 18/5, the Dominion Government granted a sum of 
$50,000 to pay pensions to the survivors of the Militiamen of 
Canada who served during the war of 1812. Two thousand 
five hundred of the survivors were paid $20.00 each in 1876 ; 
fifty-four who did not apply until the grant of $50,000 was 
exhausted, were not paid until the following year. The pen 
sion has been continued annually to each veteran during life. 
The following is a table of the ages of the pensioners in 1876 : 

Aoi . 



Xl MISEK. A(.K. 





170 95 


75 4 



96 . 











58 98 


78 187 

47 99 


7" 231 


54 IO 


Si i () I 

25 101 


.si 250 02 

2- 102 


s_> 2<S() <;, 

1 8 




83 223 04 


I nlsiiou M. 


S 4 234 

334 Lunenbutgh, or the 



Verbatim et literatim copy of a letter from Sir William 
Johnson, taken from the "Argus," published at Albany, 2ist 
March, 1886: * 

NEW YORK, Thursday Feb. 2Oth, 1755. 

After five Days passage I got here, where I found the Assembly ready to 
break up, after having allowed six thousands pounds for Albany Fortifications, 
three thousand Pounds for Schenectady & one thousand for Kinderhook, 20,000 
for New York the rest of the forty-five thousand pounds which is to be struck 
is left in the Treasury for other services. We have no acctt yet here of the 
Troops arrivall in Virginia,t there is a report that some of the store ships ar 
rived. As for raising men or companys as was talked of I find nothing of it 
Here. If there was, be assured I should not be backward in doing what I 


As I am your 

The Assembly broke up yesterday Sincere Friend 

and sett of this Day for their respective & Hearty Wei Wisher 

Homes after passing 3 Bills viz one for WM. JOHNSON. 

the ,45,000 another to prevent provisions 
being sent to Cape Breton or Elsewhere 
on this Continent to the French the 3d is 
the Militia Act wh is Verry full & Strict. 

Adieu In Haste. 

The following extracts are from the " Upper Canada 

The number for 26th July, 1818, gives an account of an 
innovation in medical practice tried by Dr. Everard Home, 
viz. : the injection of medicine into the veins of a patient. 

* Lent the author by Mr. A. Stafford. 

fThe 44th and 48th Regiments, under General Braddock. 

Old Eastern District. 335 

The issue of the same paper of loth September, gives an 
account of a temperance society formed at Hector, Seneca 
County, New York State ; Caleb Smith, President, Dr. Alex. 
McG. Comstock, Secretary. The society advocated total 
abstinence and prohibition. 

The sea serpent haunted the Atlantic coast seventy years 
ago, as the number for i/th September, 1818, informs its 
readers "that the monster had been seen off Gloucester, Mass 

In the same month, an improvement in the manufacture 
of paper is mentioned : the introduction of an endless revolv 
ing wire web, on which the ordinary paper moulds were carried 
forward in endless succession. 

On the ist of October, 1818, an account is given of the 
fall of part of the table rock at Niagara Falls. 

From the number issued on the iQth of October, 1818, it 
appears that the dispute about the fisheries was going on, 
much as it does now, seventy years later. 

The trial of Cuthbert Grant and fifteen others for the 
murder of Governor Robert Semple at Red River on the I9th 
of June, 1816, took place in 1818. 

July 23rd, 1818, an account is given of a meeting held at 
Cornwall, in answer to an advertisement issued by Robert 
Gourlay, calling on the land owners of Cornwall to assemble 
and appoint a fit person to draft an address to the Prince 
Regent respecting grievances said to exist in Upper Canada. 
On the 6th of July, the time appointed, many of the most 
respectable of the inhabitants of the Township and Town of 
Cornwall met to deliberate on the subject of the advertisement. 
Samuel Anderson, Esq.,* was elected chairman, and Archibald 
McLean, Esq., clerk. Resolutions were passed, expressing 
perfect satisfaction with the constitution, denying that there 
were any grievances but what the representatives of the people 
had ample means of redressing without making representations 
to the Prince Regent, and appointing John McDonald, Joshua 

* Then aged 8l. 

336 Limenfyurgh) or tJic 

Y. Cozens, Arch d McLean and Guy Carlcton Wood, Esquires, 
a committee to draft a petition to the Provincial Legislature, 
requesting their attention to the subject of lands for the Mili 
tiamen who served in the late war with the United States, and 
payment of losses to those who suffered in the same war. 

The war losses incurred in the Eastern District are given 
in the " Upper Canada Gazette" of i/th June, 1824, as follows : 

s. d. s. d. 

Anderson, Joseph . . 85 15 6 Eamon, Jacob . . 2 10 o 

Anderson, John . . . 21 10 o Fetterley, Philip . 3 10 o 

Bockhus, Stephen . . 40 15 o Fetterley, Peter . ... 57 4 o 
Baker, Benjamin . . . 22 9 o French, Albert . 20 o o 

Barnhart, George . . 253 10 9 Gallinger, Henry . .8133 

Barnhart, Henry . . . 46 5 o Haines, Jacob . 74 n 9 

Bruce, William . . 143 o o Randall - . . . 4 10 o 

Bruce, Mark . . . 30 19 o Runyons, Henry . 154 o 6 

Cutler, Sewal . . no o o Shaver. Peter . . 500 o o 

Dafoe, Conrad . . ^400 Yankouglmet, John 5 9 6 

Earner, Michael . . 1500 

The following is the list of Superior Court Circuits in 1818: 


Gore District, Hamilton . . 2Oth August. 

London District, Charlotteville . . 26th August. 
Western District, Sandwich . . 7th September. 
Home District, York . . . ipth September. 

Midland District, Kingston . . . loth August. 
Johnstown District, Brockville. . 2"Jth August. 
Fastern District, Cornwall . . 8th September. 

Newcastle District, Hamilton . 2ist September. 
Niagara District, Niagara . . 8th October. 

On the 26th of July, 1818, the "Upper Canada Gazette" 
eives an account of emigrants from New Brunswick travelling 

o * 

with carts and horses to the Bay Quinte. 

The "Upper Canada Gazette" of ist July, 1819, contains 
the following extract from a London newspaper, showing- 
reasons why the city should not be lighted by gas, " coal gas 
and whale oil" : " The gas company in London, England, uses 
30,000 chaldrons of coal a year, requiring 17 ships of 300 tons 

Old Eastern District. 337 

each to bring it to London, each manned by 10 men, and 100 
men are employed in getting out the coal. The whale oil 
fishery employs 11,000 men, who navigate 200 large ships, in 
the fitting out of which 100,000 men are employed. Is there 
a doubt as to which is the best nursery for seamen ?" 

The Bill for the incorporation of the Bank of Upper 
Canada was passed by the Provincial Legislature in July, 
1819, and assented to by His Majesty George IV in 1821. 

A curious piece of literary gossip is given in the " Mon 
treal Herald " of I5th July, 1820. It is a letter from a corres 
pondent, stating that Thomas Scott, brother of Walter Scott, 
and then serving in Canada as paymaster of the /oth Regi 
ment, was the author of " Wavcrly," "The Antiquary," "Guy 
Mannering" and " Rob Roy." The writer asserts that he saw 
the manuscript of "The Antiquary" in Thomas Scott s hand 
writing, and that portion relating to Flora McDonald in the 
handwriting of Mrs. Scott. 

In 1820, Regular troops were stationed at Quebec, Mon 
treal, Sorcl, Chambly, St. Johns, Isle Aux Xoix, Kingston, 
York, Niagara and PenetanguLshene. Kingston, Penetan- 
guishcnc and Isle Aux Xoix were also naval stations. 

The "Montreal Herald" of 3rd October, 1820, records 
the death of Robert Bell, aged 83. He was for thirty-one 
years a private and master tailor in the 58th Regiment, and 
had been wounded in the attack on Quebec under Gen. Wolfe. 

In the same paper, dated 25th October, 1820, an account 
is given of the execution of John Wilson at Glasgow for high 
treason. "There were two executioners. The first hanged 
the prisoner, the second decapitated him. Wilson was driven 
to the scaffold on a hurdle ; the second executioner, dressed 
in black crape with a black mask, was seated before him, with 
an axe and a knife. The prisoner was hanged for thirty 
minutes, taken down and placed on his coffin ; his head was 
then cut off at one blow of the axe, the axe sticking in the 
block. The executioner then held up the head, saying. 
Behold the head of a traitor! " 

33^ Lunenburgh) or the 

In 1821, the population of British North America was 

It is stated in the " Montreal Herald" of 28th of March, 
1821, that the British army was then composed of: 

7 Battalions of Guards Royal Artillery and Engineers 

30 Regiments of Cavalry 10 Royal Veteran Battalions 

93 Regiments of P^oot 2 Battalions of Rifles. 

The troops in British North America were : 

Montreal . 3;th Regiment. Nova Scotia . . 62nd Regiment. 

Quebec . . y6th Regiment. New Brunswick . 74th Regiment. 

Isle Aux Noix 6oth Rifles, 1st Batt. Upper Canada . 68th Regiment. 

Nova Scotia . 6oth Rifles, 2nd Batt. Upper Canada . ;oth Regiment. 

An incident of the slave trade. A London paper of 2oth 
April, 1821, gives an account of the capture off the coast of 
Africa of a boat of eleven tons, the property of the Portuguese 
Governor, which had packed On board of her, for a voyage 
across the Atlantic, seventy-one human beings. Their con 
dition is thus described by the British officer, B. M. Kelly, 
commanding H. M. Sloop " Pheasant," who captured them : 
" Seventeen men were shackled together in pairs by the legs ; 
twenty boys were on the ashes in the main hold, a space of 
eighteen feet long by seven or eight feet wide, and one foot 
eight inches high ; and thirty-four women were in a space 
nine feet four inches long by four feet eight inches wide, and 
two feet seven inches high." 

The " Kingston Chronicle" of 2nd November, 1821, urges 
Canadians to manufacture for themselves. 

The "Kingston Chronicle" of 2/th August, 1821, gives 
an account of the execution, at Cornwall, in that month, of 
McGarry, Harrington, Kelly and Masters, for the murder of 
John B. Sibert, of Williamsburg. When McGarry mounted 
the scaffold he kicked his shoes off. The author remembers 
hearing the waggons passing his maternal grandfather s place 
(18 in 1st con. of Cornwall) at daybreak on the morning of the 
execution, with people going to see the hanging, and he re 
collects his father and grandfather speaking of McGarry s 

Old Eastern District. 339 

conduct, and of his saying that his mother had always told 
him he would die with his shoes on. 

The issue of the " Kingston Chronicle" of ipth November, 
1821, contains a proposal for the erection of a monument to 
General Brock, and mentions the death of Thomas Eraser, of 
Matilda, and gives the following Masonic anecdote : "At the 
battle of the Cedars in 1775, Colonel McKinstry, of the Con 
tinental service, was wounded, and would have been killed, but 
was saved by Joseph Brant (Thayendanega) on his making a 
Masonic sign for help." 

The issue for 23rd August, 1822, mentions the holding of 
meetings for and against union with Lower Canada. 

The " Canadian Spectator" of i6th June, 1823, announces 
the death, by cholera, on the 22nd of August, 1822, at Seram- 
pore, India, of " Kishun Pall," the first Hindoo convert to the 
Protestant faith in Bengal, baptised by Bishop Carey in 1800. 

The "Kingston Chronicle" of i8th July, 1823, gives an 
account of the execution at Kingston, Jamaica, of twenty 
pirates, being the captain, " Argoniz," and part of the crew of 
the " Zaragozana," taken by H. B. M. Sloops "Tyre" and 
" Thraeian." 

The issue of the same paper on the 4th of July, 1823, 
gives an account of a dinner of the Highland Society at Mr. 
T. Gray s inn at Martintown. Chairman, Col. Donald Mc- 
Donell ; on his right hand, McNab, of McXab ; left hand, 
Col. Eraser ; croupier, Duncan Cameron, of Glenncvis ; chap 
lain, the Revd. Mr. McLaurin. 

The same paper, dated 8th August, 1823, prognosticates 
that Perkins steam carriages will be run on good roads at the 
rate of twenty-five miles an hour a prophesy still unfulfilled. 

The " Upper Canada Gazette" of 28th June, 1824, gives 
an account of a meeting held in London, England, for the 
purpose of establishing a line of steam vessels of 1,000 tons 
burden, with 400 tons of coal for the voyage, to run from 
Valentia, Ireland, t;o the most eastern cape of Nova Scotia, the 
voyage to be made in a fortnight. 

34 Lunenburgh, or the 

The "Colonial Advocate" of 5th August, 1824, states the- 
circulation of papers in Upper Canada, as follows : 

Upper Canada Gazette . 300 Brockville Recorder . . 300 

York Observer . . . 290 Niagara Gleaner . . 190 

Kingston Chronicle . . 350 Colonial Advocate . . . 1000 

Kingston Herald . . . 420 

The corner stone of the Parish Church, Montreal, (Notre 
Dame), was laid in September, 1824. 

In December, 1824, the northern wing of the House of 
Assembly at York was burned, with its contents. The library, 
furniture and valuables of the main building and southern 
wing were saved. There was no fire company in York at the 
time. ("U. C. Gazette," 3oth Dec., 1824.) 

The London, Eng., "Sun" of 24th August, 1824, states 
that a meeting at Newcastle-on-Tyne decided against a rail 
way between that town and Carlisle, the opinion of the meeting 
being that nothing but a navigable canal would ensure the 
purpose of extending the intercourse between the east and 

The issue of the same paper for Xov. 5th, 1824, mentions 
the arrival of the " Colombus" at Margate. That of Xov. 23rd 
states that she was lying at Blackwall. She was an immense 
timber ship, built at Quebec in 1824. 

The following are the statistics of Upper Canada in the 
year 1 824 : 

Cultivated land 1,000,000 acres. 

8,067 dwelling houses, exclusive of houses of round logs. 

396 merchants shops. 

304 grist mills. 

386 saw mills. 

30,774 horses over three years old. 

27.614 oxen. 

67,644 milch cows. 

34,975 horned catt e, two to four years old. 

469 pleasure carriages. 

Valuation for assessment ^1,967,074.13.1. 

Population 200,000. 

Old Eastern District. 341 

In January, 1830, "The Patriot" announced the death of 
Sir John Johnson, Bart, at the age of 88. 

In February, 1830, a temperance society was formed in 

In February, 1832, there was a sale at Kingston of the 
hulls of the following ships, as they lay on the shore off the 
King s dockyard there : "St. Lawrence," of 102 guns ; " Bur 
lington," 42 guns; " Kingston," 50 guns; " Montreal," 24 guns. 
Also of the frames of the " Wolfe" and " Canada," 1 10 guns, as 
they stood on the stocks. 

In 1834, all the naval stores at Kingston, Penetanguishene 
and Grand River, were sold. 

The " Kingston Chronicle" of March , 1830, gives an 
account of a Bill passed by the House of Assembly for Upper 
Canada, to establish " Courts of Pacification." The court in 
each district was to be composed of twenty-four persons, 
elected at town meeting. The plaintiff and defendant were 
each to choose one of the twenty-four and agree on a third if 
possible, if not, then an indifferent party was to draw out of a 
box containing the names of the twenty-two remaining pacifi 
cators, one name, the owner of which was to be the third 
pacificator. The three pacificators so chosen were to try the 
case, and their judgment was to be final. Their remuneration 
was fixed at ten shillings a day cash, and one shilling a mile 
each way was allowed for travelling expenses. This piece of 
legislation was thrown out by the Legislative Council. 

On the 22ncl of November, 1833, th e "Caledonia Springs" 
were mentioned in the "Cornwall Observer." They were then 
owned by Mr. Kellogg, and the nearest hotel was at New 
Longeuil, eight miles distant. 

In September of the same year, Robertson and Cutler 
advertised their quarry of black marble This quarry is in the 
rear of Milleroches, A large quantity of stone was taken from 
it for the Cornwall canal. 

The "Cornwall Observer" of 4th October, 1833, mentions 

34 2 Lunenburgh, or the 

a proposal in an Ogdensburg paper to make a canal from the 
head of the Long Sault to the Grass River, at a point three 
miles below the Village of Massena, to get the carrying trade 
away from the proposed Cornwall canal, authorized by statute 
passed in 1833. 

The same paper of i8th October, 1833, mentions a pro 
posal to start a line of steamboats from New York to Liver 
pool, and also a proposal to construct a railway from Montreal 
to the Province line, by way of Lachine and St. Annes, across 
Isle Perot through Vaudreuil, Soulonge and New Longeuil. 

"The Patroit" of 25th February, 1834, reports a debate 
in the House of Assembly for Upper Canada, on a proposal to 
stock the fresh water lakes with fish from the sea. 

In the same month, the castle of St. Louis, at Quebec, 
was burned. 

In 1834, the expenditure on the St. Lawrence canals was 
estimated at ; 1 ,000,000.0.0, and the probable revenue at 
,57,500.0.0 ; the length of canals at thirty-one miles and a 
half, and the lockage at one hundred and fort} 7 feet, or includ 
ing the Lachine canal, one hundred and eighty feet. 

In the same year, the name "Toronto" was substituted 
for that of York. 

The Houses of Parliament in London, England, were 
burned in the autumn of 1834. 

In the autumn of 1834, the first bazaar was held in Corn 
wall. Mrs. Goodall, President ; Mrs. Mountain, Treasurer ; Miss 
Sherman, Secretary. Committee : Mrs. Robertson, Mrs. Yan- 
koughnet, Mrs. S. Chesley, Mrs. Jarvis, Mrs. Campbell, Miss 
McDonell, Mrs. Hart, Miss Malvo. Of these ladies Mrs. 
Campbell is the only one living in 1888. 

In December, 1834, several of the inhabitants of the 
Count} of Glengarry, petitioned to have the District Court and 
the General Quarter Sessions, held alternately in that county 
and at Cornwall. 

The "Cornwall Observer" in 1835 informs its readers that 

Old Eastern District. 343 

the Commercial hotel in that town was kept by Sylvanus 

On the I3th of February, 1835, the same paper gives an 
.account of a meeting held at Thomas Marshall s inn at Corn 
wall, to petition for the annexation of the peninsula east of the 
Eastern District, and of the Island of Montreal to Upper 
Canada, Hugh McGillis and John McGillis mover and second 
er ; committee to draft petition, Geo. S. Jarvis, Geo. McDonell, 
Philip Vankoughnet, John McGillivray, William Clinc. The 
petition drawn up by the committee was adopted by the meet 

In January, 1835, the "Cornwall Observer" published a 
statement that Lachlin McKinnon, who was then living eighty 
.miles below Quebec, and was supposed to be one hundred and 
ten years of age, was in Prince Charlie s army at the battle of 
Culloden in 1746, where he had a brother killed. 

In the year 1850, the County Council met at Cornwall in 
January ; at Broeffle s hotel, Williamsburg, in June, and ;it 
Ranald McDonell s hotel, Williamstown, in October. This 
experiment was never repeated. 

In 1852 the Count}- of Glengarry forwarded to the Legis 
lature a petition thirty-two feet in length, in favor of an Act 
similar to the Maine liquor law. 

The "Cornwall Freeholder" of I5th March, 1853, states 
that the grandchildren of the celebrated Flora McDonald, then 
living, were Major William Pitt McDonald, of the Indian 
army; Mrs. Wyldc, of Landstlownc Crescent, Cheltenham, 
and Mrs. Jeffrey, Western Highlands, daughter of Capt. James 
McDonald, of Flodigarry, Isle of Skye, and that forty of her 
great-grandchildren were living, many of whom were in the 
East India Company s service. 

The Cornwall "Freeholder" of I 5th February, i88<j, gives 
]>y of an account rendered to Mr. Adam Johnston in I 
The old account, which has been carefully preserved, was sent 
to Mr. Young, editor of the " Freeholder," for publication. It 
is as follows : 

344 Lnnenburgh, or the 


January 28th. I Scarlet Milled Cap at 3s. 6(1. . . . ^0.3.6 

4 Ih. Bohea Tea 1.9 

April 5th. y 2 lb. do 1-9 

1795. .DEDUCT ,0.7.0 

March I7th. 31^ bu*h. Ashes .... ,0.10.6 

do 2ist. ig)4 Ditto o. 6.6 

51 .0.17.0 

Out of the above 51 bushels ashes, 43 are passed to the"! 
credit of Mr. Adam Johnson s account with Mr.Wilkin- 14.4 

son, so that the proportion for W. & B. is only 8 bush.J 


Halifax Currency. ^0.4.4 

Cornwall, 3rd August, 1795. Krrors excepted. 


Old Eastern District. 345 



<l 2, .... .... do 4 

1" 3 do 15 

do 4, do 20 

do 5, do 27 

do 6, .... .... do 31 

do 7 do 37 

do S. .... .... do 46 

do 9, d,, 51 

d 10, .... .... do 6l 

do u do 71 

12. .... .... do 75 

d<> 13 do Si 

I" 14, .... .... do 89 

do 15, do I0 i 

do 16, .... .... 132 

do 17, do 152 

do i.S. .... .... do in; 

do 10 do 171 

do 20. .... .... do 184 

do 21 do 102 

do 22. .... .... do 

do 2] do 21;, 

do 24, .... .... do 220 

do 25, 

do 20. .... .... do 

d" 27 do 

d> > 2S. .... .... do 

do 2ii do 25; 

do 30. .... .... do 259 

do 31 do j.s; 

To 32, .... .... do J02 

do 33 do 

.... .... do 

(1 " >5 do 

do j6, .... .... do 318 

do 37 do 


346 Lunenburgh, or the 



1. Report of Sir John Johnston. 

2. Petition of John and Alex. Macdonell. 

3. Petition of Soldiers of King s Royal Regiment of New York. 

4. Numbers of each Family referred to in the Petition. 

5. List of Prisoners with the Rebels. 

6. List of Prisoners Inlisted. 

7. List of men who came in from Tryon County. 

8. List of men Inlisted. 

9. Return of Officers recommended for promotion. 

10. List of Officers of Ebenezer Jessup s, McAlpine s, Peter s, and 
Leake s Corps. 

11. Return of Officers of the "Loyal Rangers," Major Edward Jessup s. 

12. Return of Officers of Butler s Rangers. 

13. Return of Officers of ist Batt., King s Royal Regiment, New York. 

14. Return of Officers of the 2nd Batt., King s Royal Regiment, New York. 


1. Roll of the 2nd Batt. of the King s Royal Regiment, New York. 

2. List of Officers, Non-Commissionecl Officers and Men of the Grenadier 

Company, ist Ball., King s Royal Regiment, New York. 


List of the Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers and Men, who settled 
in the Eastern part of Upper Canada. 

List of Names of Settlers in McNiff s Map. 1st Nov, 1786. 


1. List of Officers of the Royal Canadian Volunteers 1st and 2nd Batt. 

2. List of Militia of Glengarry, Prescott, Dundas, Grenville, Leeds, and 
Stormont Militia in 1802, and of the 1st and 2nd Stormont in 1823. 

3. Officers of the Canadian Fencibles, 1812 1814. 

Letters relating to the War of 1812. 

Old Eastern District. 347 




PAH-US, SERIKS B., VOL. 158, P. 128. 

ST. Jouxs, 3rd June, 1780. 

SIR, I have the honor to report to your Excellency the 
arrival of the troops and Indians under my command at this 
place. \Ye arrived at the settlement, within five miles of 
Johnson Hall, on the 2ist of last month, in the evening, pre 
vious to which I had made known to the Indians the plan I 
wished to pursue, and I thought I had little reason to doubt 
their joining heartily in it, but upon assembling them to ob 
tain their final answer, I was not a little mortified to find them 
totally averse to it, or even to a division of their body. I 
therefore found myself under the disagreeable necessity of 
adopting their plan, which \vas for them to proceed to Trip* 
1 1 ill, within a mile and a half of Fort Johnson, while the troops 
under my command were to march by Johnstown to Caghna- 
waga, where the whole were to join and proceed up the river 
to the nose, and from thence to Stone Arabia. \Ve accord 
ingly proceeded, and met at the house of Dow Kouda, at 
Caghnawaga, destroying all before us as we marched along. 
From thence we proceeded to within a mile of the nose, whi 

348 Lunenburgh, or the 

a halt was found absolutely necessary, the troops and Indians 
being much fatigued and in want of refreshment, having 
marched from six in the morning of the 2ist till ten in the 
morning the da}- following. Some of the Indians and Rangers 
continued burning and laying waste everything before them, 
till thej got above the nose. Most of the inhabitants fled to 
the opposite shore with their best effects, securing their boats, 
which prevented their crossing the river. After the men were 
sufficiently rested and refreshed, I proposed moving on to 
Stone Arabia, to which the Indians objected, alleging that 
the troops, as well as themselves, were too much fatigued to 
proceed any further, and that the inhabitants were all fled into 
their forts with their effects, and that there was nothing left 
but empty houses, which were not worth the trouble of going 
to burn ; indeed, man}- of them moved off with their plunder, 
with which they were all loaded before I knew their intention. 
I therefore found myself under the necessity of following them- 
We burned several houses on our return to Johnstown, where 
AVC arrived about one o clock the same day. After providing 
provisions, etc., we marched back by the same route we came 
to the Scotch settlement. The number of houses, barns, mills. 
etc., burnt, amounts to about one hundred and twenty. The 
Indians, contrary to my expectation, killed only eleven men 
among them Colonel Fisher, Captain Fisher, and another 
brother, of what rank I know not. The prisoners taken 
amounted to twenty-seven. Fourteen of them I suffered to 
return, being cither too old or too young to march, and I was 
induced by the earnest desire of the loyal families left behind 
to set at liberty two of the principal prisoners we had taken, 
in order to protect them from the violence of the people, which 
the\ most solemnly promised to do ; and in order to make 
them pay the utmost attention to their engagements, I assured 
them that the rest of the prisoners should be detained as host 
ages for the performance of this promise. I also sent a Capt. 
Veedcr back in exchange for Lieut. Singleton, of my regiment, 
which I hope will meet with your Excellency s approbation. 

Old Eastern District. 349 

Vast quantities of flour, bread, Indian corn, and other pro 
visions, were burnt in the houses and mills, and a great number 
of arms, cash, etc. ; many cattle were killed, and about seventy 
horses brought off. One hundred and forty-three Loyalists, 
and a number of women and children, with about thirty blacks 
(male and female), came off with us. Seventeen of the latter 
belong to Colon Claus, Johnson and myself. Some are claimed 
by white men and Indians, who are endeavoring to dispose of 
them ; I should therefore be glad to have your Excellency s 
directions concerning them. I enclose your Excellency the 
only papers I could procure, with sundry letters, which will 
shew the early intelligence they had of our approach. I must 
beg leave to refer your Excellency to Captain Scott for further 
particulars, and beg you will excuse this imperfect account of 
our proceedings. I shall transmit exact returns of the Loyal 
ists and Indians from the Mohawk village, who have come in, 
by the next post. I beg leave to recommend my cousin. 
Ensign Johnson, to your Excellency for the vacancy in the 
47th, if not pre-engaged, as he was of great service in prevent 
ing the Indians from committing many irregularities, which I 
was very apprehensive of, and he has been promised the fir^t 
vacancy. I must also beg your Excellency will be pleased to 
grant a flag for the relief of the families left in Tryon County 
who may choose to come into this Province, which is ITK 
earnestly wished for by their husbands and parents. I have 
the honor to be, with great respect. 

Your Excellency s 

Most obedient and 

Most humble servant. 




Endorsed from A. 17.^0, Sir John Johiixm. of the ;,rd June. 
Rec d tin- 5th. 

350 Lnnenbuigh, or the 

The following extract from the " Andover Review" for 
May, 1889, is taken from the " Montreal Star" of June, 1889, 
and is given here to show the ill-treatment the Loyalists re 
ceived from the Rebels, and the provocation which led the 
former to inflict such heavy punishment upon their perse 
cutors : 

"There was naturally persecution of Loyalists during the 
eight years of strife. Measures were adopted in citizens pri 
vate committees and Acts in Legislative bodies for punishment 
of the adherents of the Crown. Tar and feathers were the 
usual decree of the mob, and the committees varied it by 
house-breaking, smoking out, cattle maiming, and poisoning, 
way-laying, insulting, plundering, and driving the owner from 
his estate, or shutting him up a prisoner in his neighbor s 
house, or even in gaol. Legislative penalties were more digni 
fied, but also more severe. Prescription, confiscation, banish 
ment, imprisonment, transportation with prohibition of return 
ing, attainting of treason, were the usual awards." 

It is probable that there was not a white man in the ex 
pedition mentioned in Sir John Johnson s report, from the 
colonel commanding to the private soldier, who had not suffer 
ed one or more of the injuries and indignities mentioned in the 
foregoing extract. 



B..VOE. 158, P. 351. 

To His Excellency General Haldimand, General and Com- 
mander-in-Chief of all His Majesty s Forces in Canada 
and the Frontiers thereof, &c., &c., &c. 

The memorial of John and Alexander McDonell, Captains 
in the King s Royal Regiment, of New York, humbly 

That your memorialist, John McDonell s family, are at 
present detained by the rebels in the County of Tryon, with- 

Old Eastern District. 351 

in the Province of New York, destitute of every support but 
such as they may receive from the few friends to Government 
in said quarters, in which situation they have been since the 
year 1777. 

And your memoralist, Alexander McDonell, in behalf of 
his brother, Captain Allen McDonell, of the 84th Regiment, 
that the family of his said brother have been detained by the 
Rebels in and about Albany since the year 1775, and that unless 
it were for the assistance they have met with from Mr. James 
Kl lice, of Schenectady, merchant, they must have perished. 

Your memoralists therefore humbly pray your Excellency 
will be graciously pleased to take the distressed situation of 
said families into consideration, and to grant that a flag be sent 
to demand them in exchange or otherwise direct towards ob 
taining their releasement, as your Excellency in your wisdom 
shall see fit, and your memorialists will ever pray as in duty 

Kndorsed. Memorial of John and Allan McDonell, Cap 
tain in the King s Royal Regiment, New York, ijth February 
(the year is not given, probably 1779 or 1780.) 

SKRIKS 13., VOL. 158, PP. 352-353. 

To the Honourable Sir John Johnson, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Commander of the King s Royal Regiment of New 

The humble petition of sundry soldiers of said regiment 

That your humble petitioners, whose names are hereunto 
subscribed, have families in different places of the Count-it 
Albany and Tryon, who have been and are daily ill-treated by 
the enemies of Government 


Lunenburgh, or tJic 

Therefore we do humbly pray that your Honour would 
be pleased to procure permission for them to come to Canada. 
And your petitioners will ever pray. 

\\"M. URGHAD,* 

WILLIAM Ciii:ssiM,f 


The names and number 
within petition : 


1, Duncan Mclntyre s 

2, John Christy s 

3, George Mordofi V 

4, Daniel Campbell s 

5, Andrew Rlilross 

6, William UrghadV 

7, Donald McCarterV 
S. Donald Res> 

0. Allan GranlV 

10, William Chissim s 

11, Donald (."hissim .- 

12, Hugh Chi>sim s 

13, Roderick McDonald^ 

14, Angus ( irant s 

15, Alex, (irant s 

16, Donald Grant s 

17, John McDonald *- 
IS. Jclin Mr( llenny s 
19, Alex, l- erguson 

of each family intended in the 


Wife. Sister and Child 
Wife and 3 Children 

do 6 

do 5 
Wife and 3 Children 

do 3 do 












( hildn-n 



















ife and 














1 robubly Ur<|iihart. t I n>bab]y Chi>holm. 

Old Eastern District. 353. 


20, Thomas Ross "Wife and 4 Children 5 

21, Thos. Taylors Wife and I Child 2 

22, Alexander Cameron s Wife and 3 Children 4 

23, William Cameron s do 3 do 4 

24, Frederick Goose s do 4 do 5 

Endorsed Memorial from several soldiers of Sir John Johnson s Corps, received 
27th July. (The year is not given, it was probably 1779 or 1780.) 

SERIES B., VOL. 158, P. 355. 

List of the prisoners with the Rebels of the King s Royal 
Regiment of New York : 

Major s Simon Swart, John Weaver, Alexander Cameron, Isaac Awson, 
Henry Harris, John Lussly. 

Captain Angus McDonell s Hugh McMillan, Duncan McDonell, Thos. 
Kuoman, James Lockwood, Peter Lockwood, John Lewis. 

Captain Monro s John Cayden, Robert Turnbull, John Maddoch, Jno. 

Captain Daly s Charles Johnson, Frederick Rice, William Empey- 

Captain Duncan s Corporal Philip Cook, Adam Shades. Dennis Sullivan, 
John Martell, Adam I Jobber. 

Captain Alexander McDonell s Peter McDougall, Nathaniel Crossley. 
Jxichard Freeman. 

Captain J. Anderson s John Dingwall, ( ieorge Smith, Peter Cross. 

(Signed), J. VALENTINE, Adjutant. 

Ha/elton Spencer, Volunteer, now at Skeenesborough. 

Hndorsed Li.-,t of prisoners with the rebels of the King s Royal Regiment, Ne\\ 
York. (The date is not given, probably 1778 or 1779.) 

SERIES B., VOL. 158, P. 356. 

List of prisoners inlisted by Mr. Halbert for the 2nd Bat 
talion of the King s Royal Regiment of New York : 

M tin Air Taken while Hunting, and were ever called friends. 

Debol j 

- ( a ^ r \y r j t " T ) t t Last spring, attempting to make their escape at Fort 
Ezra Wood were lakcn 

Xacliias (1 ranger 

T I Have no knowledge of them further than their friend- 

I>lItlSl>CllI ,~ > r i 1 %*!* 

ralvin IIill(1> they were forced into the Militia. 

354 Lnnenburgh, or the 

SERIES B., VOL. 158, Pp. 357-358. 

A list of men lately come in from Tryon Count}-, and now 
at Yamaska, desirous of joining the King s Royal Regiment of 
New York : 

Patrick Fitzpatrick - Pettingale 

- Phillipse - Bodgardus 

- Magra One more name forgot. 

Samuel Hurissan, lately brought in, has a brother in the 
above regiment. Sent in his name desiring to join it, but 
could not be got out of confinement ; since released, and en 
gaged by promises of three guineas bounty and permission to 
work in the King s works at 35. per day, and to have his 
brother exchanged by persons recruiting for Major Rogers. 

List of men of the late Major McAlpine s corps desirous 
of serving under the command of Sir John Johnson in the 
Royal Regiment of New York : 

James VanCamp Jacob YanCamp 

Stephen Boiro John Conkling 

Daniel Robertson Jhn Lane 

Joseph Emry Ebenezer Perkins 

Duncan Cameron James McCara 

Tohn Eurhart Abram Ilillikev 

SERIES K, VOL. 158, P. 365. 

A list of men inlisted by order of the late Mr. Hewetson 
for Sir John Johnson s (Bart.) Brigade, and joined Colonel 
Butler s Rangers of their own accord : 

Casper Towsick I rbanus Hain> 

Tunis Sliiigerland Derrick Slingerland 

George Rauzier Aaron Hogtealing 

Isaac Van Volkenburgh John Bratt 
Jacob Quant. 

A list of men inlisted by orders of the late Mr. Hewetson 

Ota Eastern District. 355 

for Sir John Johnson s (Bart.) Brigade, and joined Joseph 
Brant s Volunteers of their own accord : 

P eter Chant Christian Plats 

Nicholas Kerkner Aaron Hollenheck 

Anthony Bratt John Kmmerick Pla 

Christopher Hawk Philip Moake 
William May - Rudley. 

SERIKS B., VOL. 158, P. 366. 

David Williams Ichabod Ilawley 

David Crawfoot Daniel Walker 

Benjamin Reynolds Andrew French 

William Willoughby William Reynold- 

Benegar Benedict John Curtis 

Seth Cook Thomas Graiss 

Aver Northrop Francis Redding 

Peter Beebe Calib Henderson 

Daniel Scott Nathan Brown 
Timothy Hill. 

I do hereby certify that the above named men were in- 
listed by me, and have served under my command in and 
since the year 1777. JI.D. FRF.NCII. 


The following- list of officers, recommended to Mis Excel 
lency General Haldimand for promotion in the 2nd Batt. of the 
King s Royal Regiment of Xew York, is compiled from three 
returns given in Series B., Vol. 158, pages 360, 361 and 3(0. 
It is not considered necessary to give the three returns, as 
several of the names appear in each of them : 

I\l. II K\> IN 

\\ UK i! i IIK NAMI: 

Lieutenant -Colonel i 2 

Major John K< j 

Stephen Watt.-. Captain, 8th I I 

Richard Bn>\\ n, ] 12 

James Kirkman, Lieut. -Adjt. , 2<)tli Raiment I 

Richard 1 laii^litM-:. 1 .1- - I 
Cieo. Singleton. Lieut., K.R.R., N.Y. i 

Win. JohiiMin, ! i 

356 Luncnburgh, or the 

Wm. .Morrison, Lieut., K.R.R., X.Y. i 2 J 

Robert Laeke, cammanding a corps of Loyalists i 2 3 

Thos. Gomersall,-Capt. -Lieut., ist Batt., K.R.R..N.Y. 2 3 

Jacob Maurer. Lieut., do do 2 3 

James McDonell, Lieut,, do do 2 3 
Wm. Redford Crawford, (ijth July, 1778), as Capt.- 

Lieut., I 


Alex. Saunders, Ensign and Quartermaster, 291)1 Regt. I 
Isaac Mann, Lieut, in Leake s I 2 3 

Wm. McKay. do !?79 I 2 3 

Xeil Robertson, Lieut, in McAlpin s, 1777 I 2 3 

Alex. Campbell, do do - I 

Christian Weire, Lieut, in [essup s i 2 3 

John Howard, Lieut, in Leake s, 1777 123 

Jeremiah French, Lieut, in Peters . (Served as Cap 
tain, paid as Lieutenant, 1777) - \ 2 
C.ershom French, Lieut, in Peters i 
Humphrey Arden, Ensign, 34th Regiment - 2 
Patrick Langan, Ensign, 1st Bait., K.R. R. , X.Y.. 

4th Oct., 1779 23 

William Phraser, Lieut, in. Leake s, 4th Oct., 1777 2 3 

Henry Young, do do J u b > ! 777 - 3 

Coffin, 2 

Philip P. Lansintrh, High Sheriff of Charlotte County 2 

Allen McDonell, 3 

Henry Young 3 


Walter Sutherland. Yolunteer, K. R.R..X.Y. I 

Philo Hurlbut, Lieutenant in Peters corps 123 

Oliver Church, Ensign, K.R. R., X.Y, I 2 3 

Ha/elton Spencer, Ensign, K.R.R., X.Y. I 2 3 

Tames McAlpin, do do I 

Jacob Farrand, do do i 3 

William Eraser, Recruiting Ensign i 

William Mann, Yolunteer. K.R.R., X.Y., I 

Ronnell McDonell, taken as hostage in 1776, paid 

.\ i. o.o per muster 2 3 

Samuel McKay, son of late Captain McKay, 2 3 

Timothy Thompson, pensioner at ^n.o.o per muster 2 

- Clinch, 2nd Lieut, in Butler s Rangers 2 

Chaplain [ohn Stewart i 2 

Adjutant Walter Sutherland 1 

Old Eastern District. 357 

Humphry Arilcn, 2 

Quartermaster Alex. Saunders, Ensign 24th Regt. i 
Matthew Dies 2 

Surgeon Williamson, Surgeon s Mate 3ist Regt. I 

( arr 2 


SERIES B., VOL. 167, P. 322. 

List of the officers of different corps of Royalists in 
Canada, specifying the time they joined the King s troops, in 
what rank they commenced pay, and to what corps they be 
long, with remarks, &c., &c., I5th May, 1781 : 


Of What 
( orp.s. 

: When Entered 


How Paid 


Ebene/er Jessiip, Ks<|. 

Jcssup s ( orps 

4th Nov., 1776 

As Captain 

A Family 

Edward Jcssiip, Esq. 





Jonathan Jones, Esq. 





| use ]ih Jessii]) 



As Lieutenant 


( hristi:iii Weher 


In Aug., 1777 


None here 

I )avid Jones 


4th Nov., 1776 



[nines ( > \eil 


In Aug., 1777 


\inie here 

1 Ic-nry Simonds 





( iuysliert Sharpe 





\Vm. I.amson. 1 I ;il<l 


4th Nov., 1776 

As Ensign 


as Lieut, since < >ct., 


John Man 


In July 1777. 

As Lieutenant 

A l- amily 

William Snyder 


4th Nov.. 1776 

As Ensign 


John Duscnliurg 


In Aug., 1777 



( hristian I Inver 





(Taken prisoner in 

Sept.. 1777, came 

to this I rovince in 

July, 1780.) 

Thomas Man 


In March, 1777 



Solomon J<>ne> 


\\\} \i>\ .. 1776 

As Surg s-.M.iie 


Tin Rev. John l!r\ant 


In < >ct.. 1780 

As ( haplain 

A Family 

I eler !)ruminond 
(Taken prisoner 10 
Sept., 1777, rescued 
I came into this 
I n >\ ini e, Au!. . 2O, 
Neil Rolx-rt.son 

(Appninled a Lieut. 

liy Major McAlpine 

in a corps he hegan 

i 77(1 

Late Major 41)1 Nov. 1770 
McAlpine s 

As Lieutenant .None 


Luiienburgh> or the 


Of What 

When Entered 

How Paid. 


William Fraser 

Me Alpine s 

In Aug., 1777 

As Lieutenant 

A Family 

Thomas l "raser 


In July, 1777 



Gideon Adams 


4th Nov., 1776 


(Commenced pay as 

an officer in Oct., 


Daniel Fraser 


In July, 1777 

As Ensign 


James McAlpine 


In Oct., " 



James Campbell 


In July, " 


A Family 

Jacob Millor 


John Peters, Esq. 

Justus Sherwood Peters Corps 

In Nov., 1776 

A Family 

Francis Hogle do 

In July, 1777 


James Parrott 


In Nov., 1776 


( iershom French 


In Aug., 1777 

As Lieutenant 


John Dulmage 


In Nov., 1776 


(Messrs. Sherwood, 

Parrott and Dul- 

mage, commenced 

pay the first as Capt. 

ihe others as Lieu 

tenants in the sum 

mer of 1777- They 

were paid as pri 

vates before.) 

Philip Hullibert 



Titus Simons 


In Aug., 1777 

As Lieutenant 


David McFall 


From 2oth Kcgt. 



(First attached to 

jessup s, joined Pet 

ers in 1777, taken 

prisoner i6th Aug. 


John Peters, junior 


In Aug., 1777 

As Ensign 


I high Munro, Esq. 

Leake s CorpsJn July, 1777 

AsCapt. batteau 

None here 

(Capl. Lcake never 

considered him as be 

longing to his corps) 

William McKay 

In Aug., 1777, 

As Lieutenant 


from 2 ist Regt. 

I lenry Voung 


i;th Aug., 1777 

do None here 

Isaac Man, junior 


In July, 

As Adjutant 


( Belonged to Jes- 

Mip s, and joined 

Capt. Leake by ord 

er of Sir John John 

son in 79, as Lieut) 

\\ illiam Fraserjunior 


17 1 Aug., " 

As Ensign 


( Received pay as 

Lieut, frorq 25th 

Ort. 1777.) 

Old Eastern District. 



Of What 

When Entered 

How Paid. 

[ ami lies. 

John Ruyter 

Leake s Corps 

1 7th Aug., 1777 

A>< apt. to 24th, A Family 

(Commenced pay as 

Oct., 1777 

Lieut, in Canada. 

25th Oct. 1777.) 

Henry Ruyter d<> 

do do dii 

(Commenced pay as 

Lieut, in Canada, 

25th Oct., 1777.) 

Conradt Best d<> do 

As Lieutenant None 

John Howard do In Aug., 1777 do \ Family 

(Taken prisoner in 

Sept., 1777, came 

to this Province in 

Feb., 1778-) 

Anthony La Climet 


(A Canadian. A 

had character put on 

the list and recom 

mended by Capt. 

Sam l McKay, de 


Edward Carscallim 

d< i 

Nov., 1776 


(Paid as a private to 

24th June, 1777 ; 

made Lieut, by Mr. 

Peters. ) 

I)uncan Cameron 


1 7th Aug., 1777 


(Served the whole 

of the last war,* and 

an honest man. ) 

John Wilson 


In Nov.. 1770 


(Employed in the 

Engineer s service ; 

a very good man. ) 

1 Irimanus Best do 

In Aug., 1777 

As Ensign 



Acting Adjutant to the Royalists. 

*" Served the \\lmlr of the last war," meaning the \\ar \vith the Fn -in h 
from 1756 to 1763. 


Lunenburgh, or the 


1 1. 

OK I 11K Ol-TirKKS OK Till-: ( OKI s OK I.OVAI. K.\\r,K.Us C o.M M \ \ I iK.I i 

HV MAJOR K. Jicssri . 


Major Kdward Jessup 

Place of 

Len th 

of Ser 

Former Stations, and Remarks. 

Captain Kbene/er Jessup 

Captain John Peter-, 

( aptain 

fustus Sherwood 

Connecticut 7 years Served the last war a volunteer 
in the Militia, and the campaign. 
I 759- commanded a compam 
of I rovincials, which he raised 
at his own expense : has been 
for some years a lustice of the 
Peace for the Count} of Albanv. 
where he possessed a consider 
able property, until deprived of 
it by the late rebellion. 

Connecticut 7 years Was a Justice of the Peace for 
the County of Albany, in the 
Province ol Nesv York, where 
lie possessed a considerable pro 
perty, until he was deprived ol 
it by the rebellion. He began 
to raise a corps and served as 
Lieut. -Colonel in the campaign 
under Lieut. -Ceneral Burgoyne 
in 1777: from that year Jie re 
ceived pay as a captain, and 
ouing to infirmities when the 
corps was again formed in the 
year 1781, he was continued as 
captain and the command given 
to Major (essup. 

Connecticut 7 year.-, Was a Justice of the Peace for 
the County of (iloucester, on 
Connecticut River, where he 
possessed property. He began 
to a corps, and served 
under Lieut. -Ceneral Burgoync 
in the campaign of 17/7 as 
Lieut. -Colonel, but from that 
year to November, 1781, lie 
was paid as captain, and from 
the impossibility of his filling a 
corps and his own infirmities he 
\\as continued as captain in ye 
Loyal Rangers. 

Connecticut 7 years Was a farmer of property in 
\\hat is now called the New 
Vermont Stale, and deprived ol 
it by the late rebellion, through 
\\hich he has been both acli\ e 
and /ealoiis in opposing it. 

Old Eastern District. 




Len th 

Place of of Ser- 
N ativity. vice. 

Captain Jonathan (ones Connecticut 7 years 

< aptain 

Former Stations, and Remarks. 

Captain William l- rasi-r Scoilam 

Was a Justice of the Peace for 
the County of Albany, in the 
Province of New York, where 
he had a farm, mills, and other 
property, of which he was de 
prived by the late rebellion. 

A farmer of proper!} in the 
Province of New York, of which 
he was deprived by the late re 

Connecticut b ^yrsA farmer of proper!} in the 
Pn>\ incc of Xe\\ York, \\hich 
lie was deprived of by the late 

Peter I )rinnntond Seoilain 

< aptain |ohn \\ . Meyers 

7 years A farmer of jiroperty in the Pro 
vince of New York, of which 
lie \s-\s deprived by the late re 

New York () , yrs A farmer in the Province of New 

Province \ ork, of \\hich with other pro 

perty to a considerable amount 
lost bv the rebellion. 

Captain Thomas Fraser Scoilam 

l.ieut. iuisbert Sharp 

I.ieul. I lenn Sinmn mds 

l.ieut. David [ones 

,vTsA farmer ot property in the 
Province ol New York, losl by 
the rebellion. 

Province (i _. \ rs A \\ ealthy farmer in that Pro- 
New York vince, lo>t by the rebellion. 

Province <) _. yr^A farmer of ])roperl\ in that 
Ne\\ N ork Province, lo^i by the rebellion. 

( onneci icut 7 year-s A farmer of property in the 
Province of New York, lost by 
the rebellion. 

l.ieut. lames Parrot 

I.ieiil. Alex r Campbell 

l.ieut. David McKall 

I. it-lit. |ohn Dulma^c 


Pro\ ince 

Prov ince 
New Y 


I relaii 

7 v ears A farmer of properly in tin- 
Prov ince of Nev\ N ork. lost by 
I he rebellion. 

A wealth} farmer of Mime con 
siderable proper!} in thai Pro 
vince, loit by the rebellion. 

i-\\as many years a sergeant in 
Prov l lilt- 2(>lh Ket;imeill, where In- 
1 .hit- served vs ith credii. 

7 years A lamier ol properly in the 
Proviiu e of New York. 


Lunenbuigh, or the 



Place of 


Len th 

of Ser 

Former Stations, and Remarks. 


(lershom French 


6*4 yrs 

A young man of some property 
who had commenced business 

as a merchant just at the begin 
ning of the trouble in Amerirp. 


Gideon Adams 


7 years 

A young farmer of property. 


John Hitter 

Prov. N.Yk. 

6/ 2 yrs 

A farmer of property in that 


fames Robins 

Old England 

6/2 yrs 

A country merchant in the Pro 
vince of \e\\ York. 


Edward fessu]) 

1 rov. \. Vk. 

6X yrs 

Major-Tessup s son. and entirely 
dependent on his father. 


John Dusenburv 

Prov. N. Yk. 

6/ 2 yrs 

A wealthy farmer s son in that 


John Peters 


6% yrs 

Son of Col. Peters, and depend 
ent on his father. 


Klijah Bottom 


6/2 yrs 

A farmer s son in that Province. 


Thomas Sherwood 


4/4 ) rs 

A farmer in the Province of 
Ne\\ York. 


Thomas Mann 

Prov. N. Vk. 

6/2 yrs 

Son of a gentleman farmer in 
that Province. 


tlarmonius Best 

Prov. N.Vk. 

6/ 2 yrs 

A farmer of property in that 


William Lawson 


7 years 

A farmer in the Province of 
New York. 


Conrad Best 

Prov. N. Yk. 

6 years 

A farmer in that Province. 


Matthew Thompson 


2 years 
Prov l 

A sergeant-major in the 3ist 
Regiment, where he had served 
many years as a non-commis 
sioned officer with credit. 


John Ferguson 


I year 
10 mos 
Prov l 

A sergeant-major in the 29th 
Regiment, where he had served 
many years as a non-commis 
sioned officer with credit. 


( 1 forgo Smyth 


2 l /2 yrs 

A physician in the Province of 
New York. 


Solomon (ones 


7 years 

Student of his profession in .Al 
bany, in the Prov. of New York. 


Commander Loyal Rangers. 

Old Eastern District. 






Place of 

Len th 
of Ser 

Former Situations and 

I A. -Col. 

John Butler 

Near London 

29 yrs 

An officer, from the year 1755. 

Com nt 


William Caldwell 

In the Prov. 

9 years 

Abandoned some property and 


considerable expectation from 

an opulent relation, strongly 

attached to the Americans, by 

making his escape from Phila 

delphia to Niagara, in the year 

775 where he was appointed 

an officer in ye Indian depart 

ment, and afterwards to a 

company in the Rangers, in 

which line he has on frequent 

occasions distinguished himself 

as an active gallant partisan. 


John McDonell 


9 years 

Came to America with his 

shire, Scot 

father and other Highland em 


igrants in 1773 ! settled in Try- 

on County, near Johnstown, in 

the Province of Xew York ; 

entered in His Majesty s ser 

vice as a subaltern officer, I4th 

June, 1775, in the 84th or 

Royal Highland Emigrants. 

< a plain 

Peter Ten Broeck 

In the y 

28 yrs 

A captain in the York Provin 

Co. of Alh v, 

cial Regiment, last war, com 


manded by Col. Oliver de 


Lancey, and one of His 

Majesty s Justices of the Peace 

< ;i plain 

Peter Hare 

Mohawk ri\ - 

7 years 

Private gentleman. 

er, Tryon C y 

( a plain 

( leorge Dame 


24 yrs 

\ subaltern promoted from the 

Xova Scotia 

84th Regiment. 

( aplain 

Bernard Frcy Tryon ( "y 

7 years 

A gentleman s son: on the 

in yi 1 rov. 

Mohawk river, served in ye In 

Xesv York 

dian department : i\\o \ 

from thence joined tlir corps of 



Jolm McKinnon 


Served with the Soul hern army 

and recommended to Ili.s Ex 

cellency the commander-in- 

chief by I ...pi 


Lnnenburgh, or the 




Louis Genevey 

Captain Andrew Bradt 
Cap. -Lt Benjamin Pawling 
1st I.t. ; John Turncv 

1st Ll. .Jacob Ball 

Place of 

Len th 

of Ser 

Former Situations, and 

Switzerland 28 yrs Joined the 6oth Regt. as a 
volunteer in the year 1756, and 
served until the reduction in 
1763. Served as adjutant to 
ye British Militin when Can 
ada was invaded in 1775, and 
was that year appointed quarter 
master to the 3rd Katt. of the 
6oth Regt., and though upon 
service in Canada, with leave, 
and paying another for doing 
his dui\-. he was superceded, 
upon which he was appointed 
to a company in this corps. 

Schenectady 9 years Farmer s son 
Philadelphia 7 years Farmer. 

Slrangford. 25 yrs iS years in King s (Or 8th) 
Co. I>nvvn, 

Regt.. 17 of which as non 
commissioned ( ifficer. 

1st I.t. John Hare 

Jst I.t. Peter Ball 

1st I.t. Thomas Butler 

1st Lt. [oseph "I ennies 

1st Lt. Alex. McDoncll 

Schoharryjn 6 years A farmer. Captain of Militia. 
ye C ounty of Left his estate and family in 

Albany, Pro- 1778, and brought off part of a 

vincc ol Xevv company of men; joined the 

York. corps of Rangers. 

Mohawk Riv 7 years Farmer s son. 

Co.ofAlbanv 6 years Farmer s son. 
Prov. N.Yk. 

Mohawk Kiv jyr.qm Lieut. -Col. Butler s son. 
6 years Farmer. 

Stamford, in 
( Connecticut, 

New Fngla d 

shire. Scut- 

1st Ll. 

1st Lt. 

Ralph Clinch 

Richard Hanson 

7 years Came to America with his 
father and other Highland emi 
grants in 1773 : settled in Try- 
on County, near Johnstown, 
in the Province of New York ; 
entered into His Majesty s ser 
vice as a volunteer in the .S4th 
or Royal Highland Emigrants. 

Pennsvlva ia 5 years Farmer s son. served one v car 
as a volunteer in the King s (or 
Si hi Regiment. 

( u y Tryon. 4 years Farmer. 
Pro v. N.Yk. 

Old Eastern District. 


Rank. Xames. 

2nd I.t. David IJaas 
2ii l I.t Charles Tonnanconr Canada 

in r -en l i 

1 lace in f . rormer Situations, and 

N . . 01 Ser- ., 

Nativity. Remarks. 

Somerset Co. o 2 yrs Mill-wright. 
V. Xc \\Jersev 

Sun of CM]. Tonnaiicour, of the 
Militia at Three Rivers. 

2nd I.t. lolm liradt 

Moha\\k Riv 4 years Farmer s son. 

2nd Lt. Caleb Reynolds I lainfield, 7 years l anin. r > >"n. 


2nd I.t. ChidiesUT Mrl >onell Invernes- 6 \ ears ( a me toAiuerica \\illi his liuln-r 

shire. uid oilier Highland emigrants 

Scotland in 1773; settled in TiyonCounty 

near (ohnMown, in ye I rovincr 
of Xe\v York; entered Ili> Ma 
je-ily s .service a \nliniteer in the 
King s K(yal Keginu iil of Ne\\ 
York in the year 1778. 

2nd Lt. Philip Leek 

2nd Lt. Samuel Tiellie 
2nd I.l. Solomon Secord 

[ericlio, Co. (> years A lainier. served lour years in a 
Albany, I m- body of Relugee.s at \e\s N ork. 

vince o| NV\\ and tun years in I he corps ol 

N ork. 

Three \ -iars a vohinleer in the 
441)1 Regiment, and son ol 
Quarter- Master Tiellie. 

Xew Rochell 7 years Farmer s son. 
\\ est ( lu-sier 
I rov. X. \ k. 

2nd Ll. Da\ id Suilierland Scotland >erve<l a year as volunteer in 

the 841 h Regiment. 

2nd Lt. Andrew JUitler Moha\\k Kiv < mos Lieut. -Colonel ISutlcr s son. 

Adj ant William Smith Halifax. Co.J32yrs In the army; served twenty-nine 

York. Fng d years in the 471)1 Regiment. 

nineteen <>\ which a sergeant 
and three \ ears in tlie corps ol 


Quarter |c>s\ I .nvling I liiladeljihia 6 years Private gentleman. 

Surgeon Roln-rt M. (luihrie Limerick. 8 years Six months hospital mate; came 

Ireland to America with \e first If" 

in Ma\ . 177(1. 

Mau- Patrick Jinrke 

Co. \la\o. 2 \rars A surgeon to diilcrent ti.iding 
Ireland -els. 

[<>!l N III n.K.K. 

} iin-l ( immanding. 

Lunenburgli, or the 




R;uik. Names. 

Place of 

Len tib 

>f Ser 

Former Situations and 


Sir John Johnson, 


8 years 

Succeeded his father, the late Sir 

< om dt. 


\Vm. Johnson, as major-general 

of the Northern District of the 

Province of New York ; was in 

possession of near 2OO,oooacres 

of valuable land, lost in conse 

quence of the rebellion. 

.Major fames dray 


26 yrs 

Ensign in Lord London s Regi 

ment, 1745 ; lieut. and capt. 

in ye 42nd till after taking the 

Ilavannah, at which time he 

sold out.* Had some landed 

property, part of which is se 

cured to his son, ye remnant 

lost in consequence of the re- 


Captain Angus McDonald 


25 yrs 

Ensign in 6oth Regt., 8th July, 

1760; lieut. in same regiment, 

27th Dec., 1770. Sold out on 

account of bad state of health. 

22nd May, 1775- Had no 


< aplain 

John Munro 


8 years 

Had considerable landed prop 

erty lost in consequence of ye 

rebellion, and served in last 

war in America. 

( aplain 

I atrick Daly 

Ireland Q years 

Lieut, in the 84th Regiment at 

the seige of Quebec, 1775 -76. 


Richard Duncan 


13 yrs 

F ive years ensign in the 551)1 


( aptain 

Samuel Anderson. 


8 years 

Had landed property, and 


served in last war in America. 


John McDonell Scotland 

8 years 

Had landed property, 500 
lacres, purchased, and began to 

improve in April. 1774. 


Alex. McDonell 


8 years 

200 acres of land in fee simple, 

under Sir John Johnson, Bart.. 

ve annual rent of 6 per 100. 

(. aplain 

Arch d McDonell Scotland 

8 years 

Merchant. Had no lands. 

Cap. -Lt 

Allan McDonell Scotland 

8 years 

Held 200 acres of land under 

Sir John Johnson, at () per 100. 


Malcolm Mc.Martin 


8 years 

Held 100 acres of land under 

Sir John Johnson, at 6. 


1 eter Everett 


7 years 

Had some landed property. 


John I rentiss 


9 years 

A volunteer at the seige of 

Quebec., 1775-76, 

Ilavannah \\as taken in 1762. Gray sold out in 1763. 

Old Eastern District. 



Name. - Placc " f 

Len th 
of SIT- Former Situations, and 





I high McDonell 

Scotland 7 years Son of Cant. McDonell. 

I. it-lit. 

John ! . Holland America 5 yearsjSonof Major Holland.surveyor- 

general, Province of Quebec. 


\Villiam Cot tin 


3 years Son of Mr. Coffin, merchant. 

late of Hoston. 


1. it-lit. 

Jacol) Farrand 
William Clans 


7 years 
7 years 

\ephe\\ to Major (iray. 
Son of Col. Clans, deputy 

agent Indian affairs. 


Hugh Munro 


6 years 

Son of Capt. John Munro. 


Joseph Anderson 


6 years 

Sun of Capt. Samuel Anderson. 


Thomas Smith 


4 years 

Son of Dr. Smith. 


John Connolly 


2 years 

Private gentleman. 


Jacoh Glen 


3 years 

Son of John (ilen. Fs<|., of 

Schenectady Had consider 

able landed property. 


Miles McDonell 


3 years 

Son of Capt. John McDonell. 


Fbcne/er Anderson 


o years 

Son of Capt. Samuel Anderson. 


Duncan Cameron 


14 yrs 

In service last war preceding 

this one. 

Fn.sign John Mann 
Fusion Francis McCarthy 


8 years 

2<S yrs 

Private gentleman. 
Formerly sergeant in tin- 34th 



John Valentine 


24 vrs 

18 years in 55th and (>2nd 


< hapl n John I),,ty 


S years 

Formerly minister of the ( iospcl 

at Schenectady. 

A<ljt. James Valentine Ireland 

4 \ ears 

Son of ensign John Valentine. 

Mazier Isaac Mann America 

<S years 



Charles Austin Finland 
lames Ste\\ari Scotland 

22 yrs 
14 yrs 

14 years in hospital work. 
Surgeon s mate in the 42nd 

Regiment the war before last. 







Place of 
Nati\ ily. 

Len th 

Robert Leake 


Captain Thomas ( iuiiiinesell Fngland 


Jacob \laurer 



Former Situations and 

7 years Had large landed property,: 

lost in consequence of tin- re 

- Formerly merchant in New 
V ork. 

2.S \isServed in \e arms in the 
Regiment, from 175!) to i 
aflei wards in the quarter 11 
jer general s department. 

Lunenburgh, or the 

1 i 1 

Rank. Name. 

Place of 

Former Situations and 

of . Ser - Remarks, 

( )aptain William Morrison 


8 years Was lieul.. 191)1 June, 1776. in 

1st Matt.: capt.. I5th Nov., 

1781, in 2nd Matt. 

( aptain James McDonell 


8 years Held 2OO acres of land in fee 
simple, under Sir John John 

son, at /. (> per 100. 

Captain C.eorge Singleton 
Captain Wm. Redford Craw 


8 years Formerly merchant. 
8 vears Held lands under Sir John 



Captain - Mvrns 


8 years Held lands under Sir John 

1 * 


Captain Lepscoml) 
Ca]>tain McKcn/ie 


7 years Midshipman. Royal Navy 
8 years Held lands under Sir John 


Lieut. , Patrick Langan 


7 years Private gentleman. 

Lieut. Walter Sutherland 


10 yrs Soldier and non-commissioned 

officer in 2( )th Regt. : ensign. 

I7th Oct., 1779, in 1st Matt. : 

lieut., Nov.. 1781, in 2nd Halt. 

Lieut. William McKay 


1^ yrs 7 years volunteer and sergeant, 

in 2ist Regiment. 

Lieut. Neal Robertson 


S years Merchant. 

Lieut. I lenry Young 


8 years Farmer. 

Lieut. folm Howard 


1 } vrs Farmer: served 6 years last war. 

from 1755 to 1761, as soldier 

and non-commissioned officer 

in 28th Regiment. 

Lieut. Jeremiah French 


7 years Farmer. 

Lieut. Philip P. Lansingh 


4 years High Sheriff, Chariot county. 

Lieut. I la/elton Spencer 


7 years Farmer. 

Lieut. ( Hiver Church 


7 venrs Farmer. 

Lieut. William Fraser 


7 years Farmer. 

Lieut. ( "nristian Wher 


7 years Farmer. 

Fnsign Alex. McKen/ie 

N. Mritain 

4 years 1 armer. 

T , 

Fnsign Ronald McDonell 

N. Mritain 

5 years Farmer. 

Li isj<rn "H av 


5 years Son of ( iovernor I lay at I >etroit . 

F.nsign Samuel McKay 


T, Vears Son of the late Captain McKay. 

Fnsign Timothy Thompson 
Fnsign John McKay 
Fusion Johnson 


-5 years Private gentleman. 
5 years Son of the late Captain McKay 
2 years Nephew to the late Sir William 

f-, J 

fohnson, Mart. 

l- .nsign Crawford 


4 years Son of Captain Crawford. 

Chapl n John Stewart 


} years Missionary for the Mohawk 

Indians at Fort Hunter. 

Adjt. Fraser 


10 vrs 7 years soldier and non-com 
missioned officer in 341)1 Regt. 

Master Hies 


7 ve;irs Farmer. 

Surgeon R. Ken- 


} years Assistant surgeon. 

Old Eastern District. 




Roll of the 2nd Battalion of the Kind s Royal Regiment 
of Xe\v York, copied by permission of Dr. Canniff from his 
work, "The Settlement of Upper Canada." The original roll 
is in the possession of Mr. Sills. Sec pa^c 439 of Dr. Canniff s 
book. I have arranged this copy of the roll alphabetically for 
more easy reference : 

Albery, Richard 
Atherson, Charles 
Ashley, Sniinicl 
Arginsinger, John 
Arsjussik er, Philip 
Albert, Ld \\ard 
Abstrie, Lambert 
Hrefsca, ( labricl 
Mrcfsea. ( !hristopher 
Hanks, John, junior 
Manks, |ohn, senior 
Hrant, Franc 
Haxter. Lawrence 
Benedict, Benjamin 
Mernus, < lot her 
liondish, John 
Madcnach. |olin 
Merrn, John 
Henon, |olin 
Marnhai t. I >avid 
Baltingal, [arob 
Maltini;al. Samuel 
Beedenee, John 
Mnrnhart. ( icor^c 
I .aik r, \VilIinni 
Mell, Johnson 
Uutle. Marnard 
P.arnhart. Nicholas 
l!..inliarl, Jacob 
l!ai nhart. [ohn 
llrown, Xicliolas 
llurcli. Jac.ili 

liuniifal, I. ukc 
P.ainli.nt. ( liar 

lierannv. William 

linner. ( ia*.|>er 

F>oner, Adam 

liender. Samuel 

l!nllinal, Jacob 

lirant, [ohn 

Horveii. \\ illiam. jimior 

Maker. I lenrv 

P>orveii. William. Senior 

Mush, Henry 

Hartley, Michael 

Marllev. Isaac 

I5all. Samuel 

Clark, AK-\aiider 

( obmnn, [acob 

( ooiis. [ac<)b 

< oon->. David 

( ampbell, M-Ulhe\\ 

< ounrad. \\ illiam 

( oolcraft. Chri>iian 
( ook. Selh 
C atchcaich. ( hristian 
( ornell. Patner 
Christie. < leor^e 
;UM-allion, [ohn 
( ai -callion. Luke 
( nlc. [ohn 
( alder, [ohn 
( onus. Simon 
( oolls, I eler 
( ronkhite. [oim 
( i>i nelious, [ohn 

< inii>. [ohn 

( amen in. Alexander 
( ameron. 

( ameron. Donald 
Clarke, Iliiidi 
Chisholm. Donald 
( hristie, ( i 
Chili , [ohn 

< ooper. J homas 
( ook. Sila^ 
Coomb. John 

( oiimb. Barnard 
Christian, [ohn 

< hristian. Simon 

( ameron. \\ illiam 
( ui;h. ( leor^e 
( ulman. Frederick 
( onnor. Christian 
( o\. Alexander 
( row der. Anthi >ny 

< rodi r. John 

( rowder, William 
( adman. William 
( adman. ( i 
( oundouse. < u 

< ritchet, MarllKilomcu 
( hurch, < Hiver 
( otter. Richard 
( lemenl. [nsejih 

< iimcrnn. Archibald 
( ook. Robert 

< lark, 1 

( hishnlm. Allen 
( liisln ilm. I )imcan 
( .iin. fohn 
Coon, [.! 
( ampbcll, [ohn 

< ain. Marne\ 


Lunenburgk, or the 

Cook, Joseph 
Cavan, Thomas 
Christie, Abeah 
Crawford. William 
Crumwell, Nicholas 
Crawford, Bryan 
Clark, facol) 
Clark, John 
Chishoim, Hugh 
Duhell, Cornelius 
I )ewiu. ( laston 
Dyckman. Martin 
Defovest, Abraham 
Deal, Peter 
Deal, Peter 
Dyck, Nicholas 
Dyck. Henry 
Deal, Adam 
Detlor, Valentine 
Detlor. Jacob 
Davis. 1 eler 
1 )agetger, ( lenrge 
Douser, John 
Dire, fohn 
1 lavis, Henry 
Dogstader, Adam 
Dengandre, ( larrett 
Dogstader, Pompey 
I )ow. Thomas 
Delong, |ohn 
Davis, Henry 
1 )odger, Thomas 
Deal, I lenry 
Dogstider, John 
DerviU, John 
Delorm, John 
Donevan. Ilerener 
Deprender, George 
Emerish, Henry 
Earner, Peter 
Karheart, Simon 
Eaverson, John 
Edgar, John 
Earner, 1 hilip 
Evans. Tomy 
Er\\ing, Robert 
Emburg, Andrew 
Evuns. Bolton 
I .glon, Leonard 
Eastwood, John 
Foster, Mose.s 
Friar, Samuel 
File, John 
Franklin, John 
Fend, Andrew 
Fletcher, John 

French, Andrew 
Finkle. George 
Foy, John 
Foy, Daniel 
Fading, John 
I- ike, Peter 
Fairchild, Benjamin 
Faish, Christian 
Fitzpatrick, Ceorge 
Foy, Francis 
I ossern, Daniel 
French, Albert 
Flamsbury, William 
Farrent. Matthew 
Farling, John 
Flanagan, James 
Faber, David 
Fil/gerald, \\ illiam 
Furney, Rodolph 
Furney, Adam 
( lates, Thomas 
Crant, Alexander 
( loose. Frederick 
( lilbert, Luke 
Ciraham, Thomas 
( Irani, Peler 
( iolcl, Kdward 
(lal linger, Ceorge 
( iardiner, John 
Cilbert, Nathaniel 
( iraham, \\ illiam 
( Irani, Peter 
I lopkinson, John 
1 laines. Barast 
Haines, Frederick 
Haines, John 
I laines, David 
I loyle. [ohn 
Iloyle. "L eter 
1 louse, John 
I luffman, Jacob 

I lenerham, Andrew 
Hill, Timothy 

I 1 art, /achariah 

I lowell. Warren 

II u ben, Peter 
Hugh, John 

I lenning, 1 lenry 
Hawley, Jacob 

II else. Frederick 
Hugh, Henry 

I Icndrick, Peter 
1 lelmer. Adam 
I larbinger, John 
1 laudord, Ed\\ard 
Hard, Tod 

Heming, Andrew 
Hamilton, Thomas 
House, Coomroot 

(Conrad ?) 
1 ledler, Adam 
1 lellen, John 
Hummerly, Andrew 
1 leller, I lenry 
I loward, William 
Harding, Richard 
Hellinger, Abraham 
Howell, John 
1 loyt, Francis 
1 larl, Jothan 
1 (art, Nathaniel 
Hough, Ceorge 
1 light. Matthew 
Iloran, Peter 
1 lot an, [acob 
Hubbert, Jubilee 
Hegel, John 
I lam, John 
Helmmer, John 
1 loward, Christian 
1 luran. Joseph 
Johnson. Henry 
Johnson, |ohn 
Jones, Thoma-. 
Jones, John 
Johnson, William 
Johnson, Prince 
Kough. Peter 
Kreem, John 
Kough, fames 
Knight, Benjamin 
Koughnet, John 
Kenedy, Robert 
Kenton, John 
Koughnet, William 


Koliph, Henry 
Koughnet, " Michae 
Koughnet," John 
Laraney, [onas 
Loukes, | acob 
Lount. John 
Lishamblier, David 
Litcher, John 
Latoch, "l lalburt 
Landras, Samuel 
Logest, Andre\\ 
I,a\\, Samuel 
Lonkey, leorge 
IvOiikey, I lenry 
Loukes. Abi-iliam 
Loft, David 
Laryo, Mat then 

These nanu-s are spelleil Roughnet, probably a typographical error. 

Old Eastern District. 


Lambert, John 
Morclen, John 
Morrison, James 
Millross. Andrew 
Matthews. Pompey 
Middle-ton. Reuben 
Mnglc. ( iotlip 
Mcdagh, John 
Myers. John 
Mure, John 
Miller. John 
Murdof f, ( ieorge 
Murdot f, James 
MunlofT, (ieorge 
Moss, Simon 
Matthew, Jaroli 
Martin. Robert 
Martin, Patrick 
Mirile. Jacob 
Minse. John 
Matthew . Nicholas 
Mitchell, John 
McCardy, Jacob 
Mc( nrty, William 
McDougall, Alexander 
Mel )onell. John, senior 
Mel lonell. John, junior 
MeDonell. Roderick 
McDonell. Ronald 
McDonell, Daniel 
McDonald. Duncan 
Mc( lowen. Ste|ihen 
Mc( iran, ( )\\ en 
Mc( ira\\ . I )enis 
Mclntyre, John 
Mclntyrc. Duncan 
McKay. Stephen 
McLennan, folm 
Me I luTson. Janic^ 
Mcl herson, Laughlin 
McPh Tson. Donald 
Mc l aggart. fames 
Vinhrop. Fson 
Noiin. \\ illiam 
\:n rainore. Esau 
Nicholson, Willhm 
Nellinger, Abraham 
( )\bnry. John 
I latio, Alexander 
Phillips. Michael 
I hillips, I eter 
Pembei, I hilip 
Priest, Jacob 
I itchrr. Cornelius 
I lain. I eier 
I rest. ( ieorge 
Parsons. John 

I enn, Matthew 
Prentice, Daniel 
I rite-hell, John 
I hillips. Jacob 
Porker, Isaac 
Peacock, John 
Phillips, Elijah 
Phillips, John 
Rankins, James 
Redding, Francis 
Rahall, John 
Reynold, William 
Ross. Alexander 
Randal, Joseph 
Ranley, Jacob 
Rollin, Thomas 
Rood, Mirchell 
Ramsay. Adam 
Reutuer, (ieorge 
Rogers, John 
Ronibaugh, Jacob 
Rombaugh, John 
Rombaugh, Andn.-\\ 
Rombaugh, William 
Ross. TSornas, senior 
Ross, Thomas, junior 
Ross, John 
Roaf, John 
Ryan. I tennis 
Rowland, Jcrvis 
Rierman, Henry 

Rapole. (ieorge 
Rote, ( ieorge 
Rogers. \\ illiam 
Robertson, Daniel 
Simmons, Jonas 
Scot. I laniel 
Shaw. William 
Shoker. John 
Swartfager, P rederick 
Smith Stephen 
Smith. Jacob 
Sipperly. Phili|> 
Shilliner, ( hri->tian 
Scyler. Nicholas 
Sullivan. ( ieorge 
Snyder. Jacob 
Snider. Ludwick 
Silk. John 
Sills. I.a\\rence 
Sills. ( ie< n ge 

Smith. Michael 
Smith. Philip 
S\\athf,iyer, John 
Sutler. I 

Sullivan. ( orneliiis 
Shirley, John 

Shellop, 1 leiiry 
Smith, Jacob 
Sarrabe, Elijah 
Suckey. Samuel 
Saver, John 
Savanay. Alexander 
Sambert, David 
Sawyer. \\"illiam 
Shellop. Christian 
Smith. Daniel 
Sheek. Christian 
Sclmars, Frederick 
Starring. Jacob 
Severn, I eter 
Seron-. Philip 
Smith, John 
Sherman, \\illiam 
Sclnlles. 1 leiiry 
Service. 1 lenry 
Shaver, Adam 
Sample. I high 
Street, I >aniel 
Staly. Tobias 
Stering, (ieorge 
Sautner, Ja> 
Shaver. James 
Smith. William 
Smith. Peter 
Sweeny, Daniel 
Stewart, John 
Thomson. Thomas 
Thorn. William 
Titehert. James 
Tarhoson, David 

ue, John 
Tute. John 
I ingorac. John 
Turnever. \\illiam 
Tliover, David 
To\er. Richard 
Truax. I- 
Turnburing, John 
Tower. John 
Tovvai . ( antohcrt 

ainv. U, 

I irrang. Abraham 
gUC, Jacob 

. Penjamin 
Tcahv. Adam 
X analstine. James 

. Joseph 

Valentine. Alexander 
Vandregoo, Philip 
W< -vli 

\\ hei. John 
\\allan. Samuel 
\\er-t. John 

372 Lunenburgk, or tlic 

Willoughby, William Woodcock. Peter Weegar, Thomas 

William, Albert Welsh. Morris West, John 

Winter, facol) Wilson, fames Young, Daniel 

Wilson, fames Winter. Vetev Young, Peter 

Winter, Henry Wills, Henry Young, Stephen 

Willinger, Michael Witts, John Young, Peter 

Windaker, John Wright, John Young, Cain 

Warmly, Jacob Walnxla, Jacob Ylline, - 

Woodcock, Abraham Wood, James Zenith, Peter 

Wood, William 

The following list was obtained from the late Donald 
.Eneas McDonell, late Warden of the Provincial Pcnetentiary, 
who was the grandson of Captain John McDonell : 

List of officers, non-commissioned officers and privates of 
the Grenadier Company, of the First Battalion of the King s 
Royal Regiment of New York, in the year 1/82 : 

( ATI \iv -John McDonell. 

Peler F.verilt, Jolm Prentice. 

SKI;KAN i s. 
John McKce Jolm F.mpey Jose|>h IJenediri. 

C< ikl OKAI.S. 

DuiR-an McArthur Nicholas Dennev John ( oilman 

1 )|<C MMKKS. 

Alexander Rose Leonard Stoneburner 


Nicholas Mattice ISalshe/.ar Tablebach Martin Meddock 

fames Dingwall Alexander McDonell John Redick 

Jacob Asten Nicholas Ault Adam F.mpey 

l- rancis Putman Donald Mcllillis Solomon Tutlle 

Peter Loucks David Jacocks David Ketchum 

John Siawing Daniel Morden Joseph Loucks 

"lohn Mullin Richard Langdon Philiji Stottie 

Michael Ault Caspar CoonS John O Brien 

John McDonell John Coons Jacob Denney 

"l- rancis Albraut Abraham Kreese Michael Gallanger 

Marcus Shaver l- rancis Hratham Conrad Devon 

Christien Harris C.eorge Murray Jacob Sheets 

C.mrade Coon- Jeremiah Snyder Duncan Mclntyre 

John Crabtrie John Paddock Francis Prime 

"John Bangle Nicholas premier James Willis 

John Foster Angus Grant Philip Freemier, 

Joseph Molt William Orkard 

Old Eastern District. 



List of officers, non-commissioned officers and men of 
the 84th Regiment, the King s Royal Regiment of \e\v York, 
the Loyal Rangers (Major Jessup s corps), Butler s Rangers, 
etc., who settled in the eastern part of Upper Canada. Copied 
by permission of Messrs. Hunter, Rose & Co., from The 
Centennial of the Settlement of Upper Canada," published in 
1885 : 



N \MKS. 

Abraham, < hristian 
A by, < leorge 
A lams, Andrew 
Adams, Elijah Curtis 
Adams, Krray 
Adams, (iiileon 
Adams, Jame> 
Adams, Joel 
Adams, Samuel 
Adams, Sam. William 
Airhart, Simon 
Albrant, Francis 
Al brant, Henry 
Algire, Martin 
Algire, senior, William 
Alt, Nicholas 
Aman or Ann in, John 
AIIKUI, Jacob 
Arney, John Jame^ 
Amon, Laurence 
Amur, 1 eter, 
Amor, Philip 
Amsberry, William 
Amy, Nicholas 
Anderson, Kbenc/er 
Anderson, Liisha 
Anderson, I fcnry 

R.K.N.V. King s Ko\ \\ Regiment of Xe\\ \<>rl I Sir John Johnson 
1,. R. --Loyal Rangers (Jcssup s corp>. i 
K. R. King s Rangers. 
< i. R. ( )range Rangers. 
15. K,- Butler s Rangers. 

Lrnest to\s n 

R. R. x. y. 

Lastern District 

I- .. District 

K. R. 

Soldier | ( orps not 
Soldier 1 .Mated. 


L. R.. Lieutenant 







pt. under ( )en. Burgoyne 
K. R., Sergeant 
L. R. 

I-".. District 

R. R. X. Y. 













M to\\ n 

K. District 


With ( .en. P.urgovne 
R. R. N. V. " llcssup s] 



Lrnesl town 

L. R. 



I- .. District 

R. R. X. Y., KnMgn 


L. R. 


Lunenburgh, or the 

\ \MKS. 

Anderson, James 
Anderson, Josepli 
Anderson, Samuel 
Amiable, John 
Arkenbrack, John 
Armstrong. John 
Armstrong, Thomas 
AsM lstine, John 
Asselstine, Peter 
Averall, Robert 
Avery, Joseph 
Ault, Fve rhart 
Aidt, Michael 
Ault, John 
Bailey, John 
Bailey, Levi 
Baker, senior, Adam 
Baker, Benjamin 
Baker, Conradt 
Baker, Frederick 
Baker, Henry 
Baker, Martin 
Ball, Shadrack 
Ball, Solomon 
Barnharl, Charles 
^ Barnhart, George 
Barnhart, John 
Barnhart. Jacob 
Barnhart, Nirholas 
Bartley, Isaiah 
Bartley, Michael 
Barton, Thomas 
Batman, Samuel 
Baxter, "William 
Beach, John 
Beach, Samuel 
Bcavins or Bn vins, James 
Behn, John 
Bell, Duncan 
Bell, Thomas 
Bell, William 
Bender, George 
Benedict, John 
Benedict, Joseph 
Bennet, Corporal 
Berkley, Averhart 
Bcrrard or Bernard, Alex r 
Beth line, Angus 
Bethune, Rev. John 
Bettersworth, James 
Birch, Jacob 
Boid, senior, Thomas 
Bishop, John 

" Johnstown District. 

t B. R. Butler s Rangers. 

KKS1UKM ] .. 

E. District 



Kd \\ardsburgh 
ICrnest town 


1C. District 




R. N. 







do Williamsburg 
ICrnest town 
E.District, Matilda 

ICrnest town 


1C. District 
II. District 
1C. District 



E. District 

*J. District 
ICrnest to\\ n 




do Matilda 


Served under ( Jen. Burgoyne 
L. R. 


R. K. X. Y.. Drummer 
do Fifer 


Matilda do 


Ship carpenter 
Delancy s Regiment 
R. R. N. V. 



L. K. 

R. R. X. V. 

L. R. 

R. R. X. N . 

do Sergeant 





L. R. 


R. R. X. Y. 
L. R. 



do Wmsburgh B 





ICd wardsburgh 

1C. District, Matilda 

R. \. Y. 

R. R. X. V. 

K. R., Sergeant 
R. R. X. V. 


do Corporal 

L. R. 

L. R. 

R. R. X. V. 

Chaplain 84th Regiment 
R. R. X. Y. 


(Quarter-master s Dept. 
R. R. X. Y. 

Old Eastern District. 



Benson, Matthew 

Blacker, John 

Bogart, Gilbert or Gyspert 

Bonistal, Jacob 

Booth, Joshua 

Bottom, Elijah 

Bough or Bouck, John 

Bough, senior. Frederick 

Bough, junior, Frederick 

Bouk, Adam 

Bouk, senior, Christian 

Bouck, Frederick 

Bowen, Luke 

Bowen, William 

Bower, Adam 

Bower, Caspar 

Boyce, Andre -v 

Boyce, John 

Boyce, Stephen 

Brackenridge, David 

Brackenridge, James 

Bradshaw, John 

Bradt, Arent 

Brannan, William 

Brant. Henry 

Bready, James 

Bready, Luke 

Briscoe, Isaac 

Briscoe, Nathan 

Browce, George 

Brown, Abraham 

Brouse, Joseph 

Brouse, Peter 

Brouse, Peter 

Brown, senior, Ji 

Brown, junior, Jesse 

Brown, Nathan 

Brown, Nathaniel 

Broun, Thomas 

Bruce, Alexander 

P.romdage, John 

Bryan, John 

Bemsley, Buel 

Bitel, William 

Bulson Cornelius 

Bunker, Bcthuel 

Bunker, John 

Burley, Freeman 

Burnt, Stephen 

Bush, Hemy 

Butler, senior, Freelo\e 

Byrnes, Fs(|., William 

( admen, senior, John 

adman, junior, John 



Adolphustou n 
F. District 
Frnest town 
F. District 




do W msburgh 

F. District, Matilda 

Ernest town 


Frnest town 

F. District, Matilda 

Frnest town 

I-!. District 


do Osnabruck 
1 1. District 
F. District 
I-!. District 
Ernest town 


F. District 
F. District 


F. District 




F. District 

Finest town 
F. District 
M. District 
Ernest town 

( Ibarlottenburgh 

F. District 

Glengarry Soldier (Ouere, 841)1?) 
do Delancy s Regt. 
L. R., Reverend 
K. R. 

F. R.. En-: 
R. R. X. Y.. I )nmimer 



F. R. 

X. R. K. R.. 

R. R. X. Y. 

F. R. 

R. R. X. Y., Captain 

( . R. ( >range Ranger--. 


Lunenburgh, or the 



Cadman William 

Fredericksburgh R. R. X. Y. 

( alder, William 

K. District do 

Caldwell, John 

do do 

Campbell, Ksq. , Alex. 

do L. R. , Lieutenant 

( Campbell, Allen 

Elizabethtown do 

Campbell, Daniel 

K. D t,W msburgh R. R. N. Y.. Sergeant 

Campbell, senior, Daniel 

do Charlottenb g do 

Campbell, junior, Daniel 

do do do 

( Campbell, James 

do Augusta L. R., Lieutenant 

Campbell, James 

do Osnabruck R. R. N. \ . 

Campbell, Richard 

Marysburgh 841)1 

( ameron, Alex r 

E.D t, Lancaster R. R. N. V. 

Cameron, senior, Alex r 

do Cornwall do 

Cameron, junior, Alex r 

do do 

Cameron, Allan 

do do 

Cameron, Angus 

do Charlottenb g do 

Cameron, Arch d . 

do do 

Cameron, Dan l or Donald 

,1.) K. R. 

Cameron, Donald 

do Charloltenb g 841)1 

Cameron, Donald 

do 15 in 5th con. \ Son of John ( ameron, 

Cornwall/ of R. R. N. V. 

Cameron, Duncan 

(In Kdwardsb g L. R. 

Cameron, senior, Hugh 

do Cornwall R. R. N. Y. 

Cameron, Hugh 

do Charlottenb g do | Burgoyne 

("ameron, John 

do do Subaltern under Gen. 

Cameron, John 

do Lancaster R. R. N. N .. 1st Battalion 

Cameron, senior, John 

do Cornwall do 

Cameron, Wm. Buy 

do Charlottenb g do 

Cameron, William 

do Cornwall 841)1 

Carley, Barthow 

do Augusta L. R. 

Carman, George 

do Matilda R. R. N. Y.. 1st Battalion 

( arman, senior, Michael 

do do do 

Cams, senior, Jacob 

do do do 

Carpenter, Peter 

do Corn \\all L. R. 

Carr, senior. Daniel 

Krnest town clo 

Carrigan, Peter 

K. District do Sergeant 

Carr, William 

do Cornwall R. R. X.\. 

Carrscallon, Edward 

l- redcricksburgh do Lieutenant 

Carscallon, George 

do do 

( arscallin, John 

do do Sergeant 

C.arscallon, James 

do do do 

Carscallon, Luke 

do do do 

( asc or Cass, Josiah 

K.D t, ( irand River do 

Case, Joseph Pomroy 

do do Drummer 

Case, Peter 

do do 

Cashin or Casan, John 

do Charlottenh g 84th 

( assleman, Conradt 

do W m^lnirgh R. R. N. Y. 

( assleman. 1 lenry 

do do do Drummer 

( assleman, Richard 

do do do 

( assleman, Suftrenus 

do Matilda do 

( assleman, William 

do do 

< assleman. Thomas 

do W msburgh -do Drummer 

( lasslerrian, Warner or Verner 

do do do 

Caswell, Lemuel 

do R. R. . Sergeanl 

Chambers, James 

do L. R. 

Chavassey. James 

Marysburgh 84(11 

Old Eastern District. 




Chester, John 

I-!. District L. R. 

Chisholm, senior, Alex. 

K. n t, Lancaster R. R. X. V. 

Chisholm, Allan 

do do do Drummer 

Chisholm, Donald 

do Charlottenb g do 

Chisholm, Duncan 

do Lancaster do Corporal 

Chisholm, Hugh 

do do do 

( hisholm, John 

do Cornwall L. R. 

Chisholm, William 

do CharlottenbV K. R. X. Y. 

Christie, Abijah 

do do 

Christie, senior, John 

do do 

Church, Jonathan Mills 

Elizabethtown do Sergeant 

( hurch, Oliver 

Fredericksburgh do Lieutenant 

Church, junior, Oliver 

do tin 

Clark, Alexander 

do do Sergeant 

( lark, Henry 

Krnest town L. R. 

Clark, Robert 

do do 

( lassen, Caleb 

K. Distr t, Augusta do Sergeant 

Clinch, Ralph 

II. District R. R. N. V., Lieutenant 

Clerk, Francis 

M. District do Sergeant 

Clerk, James 

E.D t, Charlottenb g do Corporal 

< lc-\\ <>r Clough, William 

tin L. K., Corporal 

Cline, Adam 

R. R. X. V. 

Clenny, James 

do Augusta L. R., Drummer 

< Ivne or Cline, Michael 

do R. R. X. V. 

Coffin, William 

Kingston do Lieutenant 

Coll, Adam 

K.D t, Kli/,abetht n L. R. 

( ole, John 

do Augusta do 

Collison, John 

Matilda R. R. X. N ., Drummer 

( oilman. John 

II. District do 

( umber, Jacob 

l- .rnst town L. R. 

Comber, Thomas 

do do 

( oncklin. Joseph 


Conlon, Michael 

Kingston . 841)1 

( "nok, Michael 

Kdwardsburgh do 

Cook, Michael 

K.D t, Wmsburgh Commissary Department 

( ook, John 

do Osnabruck South Carolina 

( oons, Conradt 

do Wmsburgh R. R. X. N . 

Coons, Casper 

do Matilda do 

( oons, John 

do Osnabruck do 

< oons. Jacob 

do Wmsburgh 

Corbin, Nathaniel 

tlo 1.. R. 

( orbman, Jacob 

SophiascV Amelias! > g R. R. N. V., Sergeant 

( ornelius, John 

Fredericksburgh dn 

Corby, i George 

1 1. District do 

Cottier, senior, James 

Fredericksburgh do 

( ottier, Richard 

do do Sergeant 

Conville, Simeon 

1- . D t, Augusta L. R. 

( ough, John 

do < (snabruck R. R. N. N . 

Countryman, >en r, Jacob 

do tlo 

Crawford, John 

11. District do 

Crawford, William 

lericksburgh do Knsign 

Critus or Crytes, ( .COIL;, 

Cornwall do 

5, 1 ienrv 

K.D t. Cornwall K. R. 

Crouder, Anthony 

do do R. R. \. Y. 

( rouder. John 

do Charlottenb g do 

( rouder, John 

< Knabruck do 


Lunenburgh, or the 


( muder, Isaac 
Crouder, Jrd William 
C rouse, John 
("ryderman orChrithuman, 

Cryderman, John 
Cryderman or Cniderman, 


Chrysler or Chrysdale, Jno. 
Chrysler, Gerominus 
Chrysler, senior, John 
Chrysler, junior, John 
Crysler, Philip 
Culbert, Donald 
Gumming, William 
Cummings, John 
Curry, Ephraim 
Curry, John 
Curry, James 
Daly, Peter 
Davey, Henry 
Davey, John 
Da vies, Peter 
Davies, Richard 
Defoe, Abraham 
Defoe, Daniel 
Defoe, John 
Deforest, A brain 
Demorest, James 
Denault, Joachim 
Derheart, John 
Derry, London 
Detlor, John 
Detlor, Jacob 
Detlor, Peter 
Detlor, Samuel 
Detlor, Valentine 
Devoe, Conradt 
Dewit, Gaston 
Dewit, John 
Diamond, John 
Diamond, senior, John 
Diamond, Jacob 
Diamond, junior, Jacob 
Dickson, Francis 
Dicky, William 
Dies or Dice, sr., William 
Dingman, Garrett 
Dingman, Richard 
Dingwall, John 
Dingwall, James 
Disman, Timothy 
Dixon, John 
Dixon, senior, Robert 
Dixon, William 


K.D t, Osnabruck 

do Matilda 

E. District 

E. District 
K. D t, Matilda 
do do 
do Cornwall 
E. District 
E. District 
E. D t, Lancaster 

do do 

Ernest town 



E. District 



H. District 
E. District 



E. District 

Ernest town 

Ernest town 


E. D t, Glengarry 
E. District 
W. District 
E. District 



R. R. N. Y. 




L. R. 
K. R. N. Y. 


B. R. , Drummer 
R. R. N. Y. 

841 h 

L. R. , Sergeant 
K. R. 

R. R. N. Y. 
L. R. 
R. R. N. Y. 



do Drummer 

K. R. , Corporal 

R. R. N. Y. 
(.). R., Sergeant 
8 4 th 
L. R. 
B. R. 
R. R. N. Y. 

do Sergeani 

do do 





do Drummer 

K. R. 
R. R. N. Y. 

do Quarter-master 





R. R. N. Y. 
With Gen. Burgoyne 

do do 

Old Eastern District. 



Donavan orDunavan, Flor 

Dopp, Peter 

Dorin or Dorn, Jacob 

Dorin, Jeremiah 

Dorn, Peter 

I tougharty, James 

Downley or Downey, Con- 

Drummond, Esq., Per. 

Dulmadge, David 

Dulmage, John 

Duncan, Esq., Richard 

Dunham, Daniel 

Dunham, John 

Dunham, James 

Dunn, John 

Dugenberry or Durenberry, 

Iranian or Aman, Jacob 

Earhart, Adam 

Karhart, John 

Eastman, Benjamin 

Eastman, Nadab 

Edwards, James 

Embrie or Embury, And. 

Embrie, junior, David 

Embrie or Embury, John 

Emery, Thomas 

Empey, Adam 

Einpey, junior, Adam 

Ernpey, Chris. 

Empey, senior, John 

I- .mpey, junior, John 

Empey, Jacob 

Empey, Peter 

Empey, senior, Philip 

Empey, junior, Philip 

Empey, senior, William 

England, William 

Evans, Bolton 

Elvoton, Edward 

Everett, Peter 

Everson, John 

Eastman, Benjamin 

Earchild, Benjamin 

Fail-field, Archibald 

Eairman, senior, John 

Earlinger, John 

Earrand, Jacob 

Earrington, Robert 

Ennington, Samuel 

Earrington, Stephen 

l-Vader, Lucas or Lucis 

Eennell, John 

Eerguson, Alex. 



E. District 





E. District 
E. District 



Ernest town 



E. District 



E. District 
E. District 


< Xsnabruck 
E. District 





I .. D t, Cornwall 
E. District 
M. District 
E. District 


E. District 
H District 
E. I JiMrict 



I- .. District 




K. K. \. \. 






I,. K., Captain 


do Lieutenant 
K. R. N. \ ., Captain 
L. R. , Sergeant 
R. R. \. Y. 

Yolunteer Indian Dept.. 1776 

L. R., Ensign 
R. R. N. Y. 
L. R. 




R. R. X. Y.. Sergeant 


do Sergeant 


do Corporal 



do Corporal 

do do 






L. R.. Sergeant 

R. R. N. V. 

L. R. 

R R. X. Y., Lieutenant 


L. R. 

R. R. X Y., Corporal 
L. R. 

do Sergeant 
R. R. N. Y. 

do Lieutenant 

R. R. X. Y. 




Lunenburgh, or tJu 




Ferguson, senior, Alex. 

E. District 

R. R. N. Y. 

Ferguson, Peter 



Ferguson, William 



Fetterley, Peter 



Fields, George 


B. K. 

Fields, Gilbert 



Fyke, Daniel 

R. R. N. Y. 

File, John 



Files, John 


do Corporal 

Finkle, George 



Finkle, Henry 

Ernest town 

1 ,. R. , Corporal 

Finney, Peter 

E. District 

R. R. X. Y. 

Fisher, John 

M. District 


Fitchet, James 

Fredericks! >urgh 


Fitchet. Richard, (Fitchell) 



Fitchet, Joseph 

E. District 

R. R. X. Y. 


Adolphus town 

E. R. 

Fitzpatrick, Peter 

E. District 

R. R. X. Y. 

Flynn, fohn 



Forsyth, James 


R. R. X. Y., Corporal 

Foster, Edward 



F oster, Jonn 



Foster, Mose> 



I- o.\, Frederick 



Franks, William 

E. District 


Fraser, Donald 



Fraser. John 


R. R. X. Y. 

Fraser, Jeremiah 


E. R. 

Fraser, Kenneth 

Ernest town 


Fraser, Thomas 


do Captain 

Fraser, Thomas 

E. District 


Fraser, Thomas 



Fraser, William 


R. R. N. Y., Adjutant 

Fraser, William 

E. District 

L. R., Captain 

Fraser, William 



Fraser, William 

E. I )"t, Roxborough 


Fraser, William 

V.. District 


Fraser, William 


R. R. X. Y., Lieutenant 

Frederick, Bainel 



Freeman, John 

Ernest town 

E. R. 

French, Gersham 


do Lieutenant 

French, Henry 

];. District 

do Corporal 

French, Jeremiah 


R. R. N. Y., Lieutenant 

Froom, David 



Froom, junior. James 



Frost, Edmund 

H. District 

L. R., Corporal 

Frymire, Nicholas 

E. District 

R. R. X. V. 

Frymire, Philip 



Fullarton, James 


R. R. 

Furnier, Chris. 


R. R. N. Y. 

Fykes, Peter 



Frederick, Lodwick 



Goffield, Nat. A, 


L. R. 

Galbraith, John 

E. District 


Gallinger, Christian 


R. R. N. Y. 

Gallinger, George 



Old Eastern District. 

x \ I 

Gallinger, Henry 

iHger, senior, Michael 
( iardiner, John 
(iariock, llcnry 
(.jar! rarlough, John 

< Inrlough, Jacob 
Garlough, senior. I eter 
( lay. Kdward 
(icnnan, Chris. 

( icnnan, John 
( ierman, Jacob 
( ieroloniy, fames 

_;e, John 
( ieorger, Chrisloph 

m, John 

( iibson, Matthew 
(jilchrist, I eter 
( llassford, John 
(ilassford, Jonn 
( ilassfon , Robert. 

berry. Tlio 1 
( iordon, Robert 
(iordonier, Henry 

< .ordonier, Jacob 
( . rahain, Oir 

( iraham. Thomas 

( Iraham, William 

(Irani, A 

(irant, Alexander 

(Irani, Allen 

(irant. Angus 

( irant. Arch d 

(irai: [or, 

( irant, junior, I ).>nald 


( iran! , 1 >im< 
(irant, Finlay 

:! . Jollll 

it, John 

:,t, \\ illi 
it. XVilliam 
I ,ia\ . John 
( ira\ 

< ololiel 
i, Ji >hn 

Gril - li 

( iunn, 1 )avid 


I-!. District 

Krnest town 
K. District 


Adolphus town 


Krnest town 


Kings! on 
I-!. District 
\Y. District 
Krnest town 



R. X. \. 


1.. R., Corporal 
R. R. X. Y. 


I, R 
do Corporal 

do Drummer 
L. R. 

841)1, Sergeant 
K. R. 

R. R. X. Y. 
L. R. 

District. Augusta Joined at Xiagara, 177 ) 


K. District 
K. District 


Krnest to\\n 


K. 1 M. Kant : 
K. District 

E.D t, 



R. R. X. Y. 

K. R. 
R. R. N. 
K. R. 



R. R. X. 

841)1. Serg 

Edwardsb g 

R. R. X. Y. 

Elizabetht n 841)1, Scrgean 
do R. R. X. Y. 


ill < h.n lotteilb g 
do do 




K. District 

( lharlottenburgh 

!:. District 

i-:. D 

V onge 




R. R. X. Y. 

841)1, - 

Knsign. Major MoAl; 


R. R. X. Y. 


841)1, Sere.. 

K. R. 

n\\all R. R. 

.borough K. R. 

-ton 841)1 

K. District K. R. 

\\ ]iie-.t ol < .inada 

in 781! nt 

K. R. 


Lunenburgh, or the 


Haggart, John 
Ilaines, Christopher 
Hains, Joseph 
Ilaines, Michael 
Hamblin, Silas 
I lard, fames 
Hard, Phili 
Hare, Henry 
Hare, John 
Hare, James 
II art, Barney 
Hatle, Adam 
Hartle, senior, John 
Hartman, David 
Hatler, Thomas 
Havens, John 
Hawley, Ichabad 
Hawley, Jepth.i 
Hawley, Martin 
I fawley, Zadok 
Hawn, Christian 
Hawn, Henry 
I lawn, 1 lermanus 
I lawn, Jacob 
Heck, Paul 
Hedler, Adam 
Helmer, John 
Helmef, John 
Herman, Valentine 
Heron or Herring, And w 
Hesse, Jacob 
Hick, John 
Hicks, Benjamin 
Hicks, Lewis 
Hickey, John 
Hitchler, Six- 
Hodge, Timothy 
Hodogan or Ilogodoom. 


Hoffman, David 
Hoffman, Jacob 
Hoffman, Philip 
llogan, Major William 
Hoffman, Joseph 
I logic, James 
Hoople, Henry 
Hoople, John 
Hopper, Abraham 
I lover, Henry 
I lough, Barnabas 
Hough, Broner 
! lough, John 
Howard, Edward 
Howard, senior, John 
1 li;\\zird, Matthew 





E. D t,W msburgh 

R. R. N. Y. 

do do 


do do 

do Augusta 

do Sergeant 
L. R., Major 





do Lancaster 

Indian Dept., Lieutenant 


IS. R. 


Indian Dcpt. , Ensign 

E. District 

R. R. N. Y. 





Ernest town 

L. R. 

E. District 

R. R. X. Y. 

Ernest tow n 

L. R. 




Lieutenant of Batteaux 


L. R. 



E. District 

R. R. N. Y. 









( orporal with ( /en. Burgoyne 
R. R. X. Y. 

K.D t, Cornwall 


do W msburgh 



L. R. 


R. R. N. Y. 

Ernest town 

L. R. 

E. District 

K. R. 


B. R. 

Ernest town 

E. R. 

K. District 

R. R. X. Y. 


E. R. 





Ernest town 



R. R. X. Y. 




In war, 1759-1760 

Ernest town 

E. R. 



K.D t, Osnabruck 

K. U. \. Y. 

do do 




Adolphus town 

15. R. 

Ernest town 

K. R. 


K. R. . 


R. R. N. Y. 

Krnest town 



do Lieutenant 

E. District 

Knsign in den. Burgoym- < 


Old Eastern District. 



I Inward, Thomas 
f 1 1 we ll, John 
Unwell, Warren 
Huffman, jr. , Jno. Nicholas 
IlufT, Asa 

1 luffnail or I luffnigle.. \nd\\ 
1 luffnail, Jeptha 
1 lumphrey, Jam 
1 luntsinger. John 
Ilurlbert, M> 
I lunl, Jehiel 
Jackson. David 
Jackson, Henry 
Jackson. James 
Jackson, Thomas 
Jacocks or Jacobs, David 
[essup. Ks<|.. Lduard 
Jessup, 1-M ward 
Jessup, Joseph 
Johns, Solomon 
Johnston, Adam 

Johnson, ( ieorge 
Johnson. ( ieorge 
fohnson, Sir John 

[olinson. Jai; 
Johnston. James 
Johnston, William 
-. David 

- [., Kphraiin 
. I .M|., John 
[ones, Solomon 
[ones, Thomas 
Keller or Koelk-r. ( has. 
Keller, Frederick 
Keller, John 
Kceler, James 
Kelly. Patrick 
Kelsey or Celsiy, [ames 
Kem|), senior, fnlm 
Kemp, junior, John 
Kemp, James 
Kem]>, Joseph 
Kennedy, A! 
Kenny, Jam 

Kimmerly, Andrew 
King. i instant 
King, I 

Kn:ipp. Joseph 

Knight, John 
Knight, [nil. 
Koughnet, William 
Kronkhcit, 1 lercules 


Frnest town 

H. District 



I- .. I )istrict 

II. District 

K. District 


Krnest town 

F. District 

do Augusta 
do do 


F. District 


II. District 
V.. D t, Cornwall 


do Matilda 
II. District 

E.D t. Cornwall 
Ernest town 
M. District 
K. District 






\Iarysl liirgh 
! ,.! > t. Angi. 


I- .. District 
II. District 
F. District 

!:. D l. I .dwardsh g 

I . Districl 

clo Cornwall 


R. R. X. Y. 



I,. K. 


do Drummer 
R. R. N. Y. 
L. R. 

R. R. X. Y. 
K. R. 

R. R. X. Y., Sergeant 
L. R. 




R. R. x. y. 

L. R., Major Commandant 

L. R.. Lieutenani 
do Captain 
do Lieutenant 
Joined Royal Standard at 
Saratoga in 1/77, f. An 
derson, certificate 
R. R. N. Y.. ( orporal 

do Col., or Lt. -Col. 
do .oral 

L. R. 
do Lieutenant 


L. R., Captain 
do Surgeon s-mate 

R. R. X. Y. 

K. R. 

R. R. X. V. 

y Ynlun: 
<S 4 th 

L. k. 

K. R. 


R. R. X. Y.. Corporal 


R. k. X. Y. 


L. R. 

k. ]-: 


Lunenburgh, or the 


Kronkheit, John 
Lake, Christopher 
Lake, Thomas 
Lamb, senior, 1- 
Lambert, David 
Lampson, John 

I.ampson, William 
Lauden, Asa 
l.auden. junior. Asa 
Larraway, Abraham 
Larraway. senior, l>aac 
Larraway. junior, [saac 
Laroway. Jonas 
Larroway, J eter 
Lawer or Layer. William 
Laws, Samuel 
Leaky, William 
Lee, David 

Lerrock, senior, Francis 
Lerrock, junior, Francis 
Lerrock, Peter 
Livingstone, John 
Livingston. Mary, widow 
of Jonathan Mutchmore 
Lightheart, Daniel 
Lindsey, John 
Livermore, Mosi-s 
Loldel, Daniel 
l.odwick, Frederick 
Loeney, John 
Losce. Cornelius 
Losee. senior, Joshua 
Lovelass, Thomas 
Louck, Abraham 
Loucks, George 
Loucks, Nicholas 
Loucks. Abraham 
Loucks, George 
Loucks, Henry 
Loucks, Jacob 
Louckes, Joseph 
Loycl, Daniel 
Loycl, Richard 
Lynch, James 
Lynk, John 
Lynk, Mathias 
Lyst, Andrew 
Ly>t or Loyest. I lenry 
M .uk, Philip 

Main, senior. Thomas 
Malk-ry, Fnoch 
Mandeville. Richard 
Mandeville, Richard 
Marcellis, John 


.1 MENT. 

Frnest town 

R. R. X. Y. 


L. R. 


john>tn\vn District 

joined ( ien. Burgoync in 1777 


"R. R. X. Y. 

!- ..! ) t. Fdwardslui g 

Served in 1777 under ( ien. 


do do 

L. R. , Fnsign 


| Joined Gen. Burgoyne, 


1 served in 1777 


R. R. N.Y., 2nd Battalion 












F. D t. Walford 

L. R. 

do Boston 


Frnest town 





do Drummer 

K.D i.Charlmtcnb g 

R. R. X. Y. . Sergeant 

do do 


M. District 

L. R. 

Krnest town 

K. R. 


L. R. 

M. District 

R. R. X. Y. 



( liarlottenburgli 



L. R. 


F.D t, Grand River 

do Lieutenant 

do Augusta 

R. R. X. Y. 



F.D t. Augusta 

L. R. 

Fred eric ksburgh 

R. R. X. Y. 







F.D t, Osnabruck 

do Sergeant 





F. D t. Cornwall 


do do 


do do 


F. D t. Cornwall 





Indian Dept., under Col. 

D. Clause 


8 4 th 



K.D t, < ornwall 

R. R. X. Y. 

do W msburgh 

do Sergeant 

do do 


Old Eastern District. 



! \II-.N 1. 

llus, Sc\ 

K.D t, < >snabruck 

R. R. X. N". 

Marsh. Benjamin 

M. District 


Matt ice, William 

K. District 

H. K. 

Mattice, fohn 


R. R. X. Y. 

Matticc. Xirii 

K. D t, Lli/abetht n 

1-5. R. 

Mattice, Xicli 

i lottenbundi 

R. R. X. V. 

i L;h. Stephen 

11. Di>trict 


Medau^h. senior, John 

K.D t. Matilda 

Meddourrh. Martin 



Mercle. Henry 

do W msburgh 


le, fohn 

do do 


Mercle. senior, facob 



Mercle. Mich 

do do 


Mercle. Henry 

do < isnabruck 


Merkle. ], 

do do 


Millard or Millar. Tl, 

H. District 


Millard, Jess 


S 4 th 

Miller, Andrew 

Krnrst town 

R. R. X. V. 

Miller or Moeller. And \\ 


L. R. 

Miller. Nicholas 


R. R. X. V. 

Miller. Stephen 

,\ all 

do :>oral 

Millrnss. Andrew 

! . District 


Merkle, Frederick 

do W msburgh 





Mills or Mittz, Henrj 


Mills, Moak or Mitt/, John 



Mon; , ArchM 

]:. Dist,: 

i the I Mack S 

t, lleiny 

Mi.or, Mosa, (Ho- 
Morden. John 
Morrison. William 
Mother. Lew i- 
M usher, Xich 

Mott, Reuben 

MiiLjel. ( iadi 

Munro, David 



Muni- i. 

Munro. 1 John 

Miinm. | 

Munro, junior, fohn 

Murchison, NN illinm 

Murchison, junior, fohn 

Murcl , John 

Murchison, Kenneth 

Murchison. William 

Murdou", senior, ( , 

Murdolt". junior. ( . 

Murdolf. fan 

M u r i 

Myrcs. Michal 

\lpin. Duncan 


11. Disti 

: ^ster 
I- .. Disti- t. A 
do do 

do Cornwall 

1 rivatc 
L. R. 

R. K. X. Y. 

L. R. 
do ( orporal 

do Augusta 

K. R. 

isb rg 

U. K. X. Y. 



K. Disti 

do Lieutenant 


L. R., Lieutenant 

R. R. X. Y.. 1 


do Captain 

L. 1 >istrict Y 



do Lan 

do liarlottenb i; 




do do 


R. R. X. Y. 



11. i 


I-:. District 

R. R. X. Y. 



or the 


McArthur, Archibald 
McArthur, Charles 
McArthur, Donald 
.McArthur, Duncan 
McArthur, Duncan 
McArthur, senior, John 
McArthur, John 
McBane, C.illis 
McCaffrey, John 
McCarthy, Michael 
McConnell, Hugh 
McCrimmon, Donald 
McCue, Y\ m. 
McCain, senior, David 
McDonell, Alex 
McDondl, Alex. 
McDonell, Alex. 
McDonell, Alex. 
McDonell, Alex. 
McDonell, Alex. 
McDonell, Alex. Knoidert 
McDonell, Alex. 
McDonell, Alex. 
McDonell, Alex. 
McDonell, Allan 
McDonell, Allan 
McDonell, Allan 
McDonell, Angus 

McDonell, Angus 



K.D t.Charlottenb gR. R. X. V. 

do Augusta K. R. 

do Charlottenh gR. R. X. Y. 



K. D t, Cornwall 

do do 
K. D t. Cornwall 

do Charlottenh g 
K. District 

do Cornwall 
K. District 

do Charlottenb g 

do do 

do Cornwall 
K. District 

H. District 
K. District 

do Sergeant 

R. R. X. Y. 


I.. R. 
R. R. X. Y. 


R. R. X. Y. 
8 4 th 
R. R. X. Y. 









L. R. 

R. R. X. Y. 


84th, Captain 
R. R. X. Y.. Captain 


( a plain 



Arch d, Col. 

Arch d 

Arch d 








McDonell, Finnan 
McDonell, Hugh 
McDonell, Hugh 
McDonell, Hugh 

McDonell, Hugh 
McDonell, John 
McDonell, [ohn, Captain 
McDonell, John 


do 1 2th Con. 84th 

do 5th Con. R. R. X. Y. 
E. District do Captain 

do do do 

Cornwall 84th 

Marysburg do Lieutenant 

E. D t, Augusta R. R. X- Y., Corporal 

do Rox borough 84th do 

E. District R. R. X. Y. 

do 84th 

Cornwall do 

do R. R. X. Y. 

E. D t, \Vms burg, f do Corporal 

came to America \ Had been in 84th. 
with 26th. taken 
prisoner at Sorel. 

E. District 84th, Sergeant 

Roxborough R. R. X. Y. 

Cornwall do Lieutenant 

E. D t, X. S. River do 
Rasin, Charlotten 
E. District 84th 

do R.R.X.Y., Captain 

do do Son ofCnpr. Alexander 

4th Con., Xo. 17, do 

Old Eastern District. 



McDonell, John 

McDonell, John 
McDonell, John 

McDonell, John 
McDoncll, John 
McDonell, John 
M<-I)ontrll, John, Bane- 
Mr Donell, John 
McDonell, James 
McDonell, James 
McDonell. Kenneth 
McDonell, Miles 
McDonell, Esq., Ranald 
McDonell, Ranald 
McDonell, Ranald 
McDonell, Roderick 
McDonell, William 
McDougald, John 
McDougald, John 
McDougald, John 
McDougall, Peter 
McFall, David 
Mcliillis, senior, Donald 
Mc(jillis, junior, Donald 
Mr( illlis, Donald 
M<-( irawth, Owen 
Mc( iregor, Donald 
McGregor, John 
Mc( iregor, James 
Mc( ircgor. Peter 
Mc( iruer, Donald 
Mc( inter, John 
Mc( iuire, Patrick 
Mcllmoyle, Hugh 
Mcllmoyle, fani< 
Mclniosh, Benjamin 
Mclnto.di, Lauchlan 
M<-lnti)sh. p. 
Mclntosh, Daniel 
Mclntyre, Donald 
Mclntyrr, senior, 1 )uncan 
Mclntyre, junior, Duncan 
Mclnt\ re, John 
Mclntyre. [ohn 
McKarty 01 Mc( arty. Klor 


McKay, Angu.s 
McKay Donald 
Mi-Kay, Hugh 
McKay, John 
McKay. John 
McKay, John 
McKay, Samuel 


4th Con., No. 20, 

5th Con., No. 7, 

5th Con,, No. 10, 

E. District 


do Charlottenb g 

do do 

E. District 

E. D t, Charlottenb g 
E. District 


E- D t, Augusta 
Ernest town 
V.. District 
Ernest town 
E. D t, Lancaster 

do Charlottenh g 

do do 

do do 

("..District, Cornwall 
1".. District 
1 .. District, Cornwall 
E.D t, Charlottenb g 

do do 

do do 



1 .. 1 ) t, Edwarclsburg 

( lharlottenburgh 



E.D t, Charlottenb g 

do Lancaster 

do do 

do do 

do do 

do Charlotienb g 

R. K. N. V. 



R. R. X. Y. 


do Captain 

do Sergeant 

do do 

do Ensign 

84th, Ensign 

K. K. X. Y., Lieutenant 


84th Drummer 
L. K. 


R. R. X. Y. 
L. K. 

do Lieutenant 
R. R. N. Y., Sergeant 





do Corporal 

do Sergeant 


R. R. X. Y., Corporal. 
841)1, Corporal 
L. R., Sergeant 





do Sergeant 

do do 

do do 


I- .. D t, Li 

do do 

do do 

E.D t, Charlottenb g K.k.N.N 

d,i do 

Ernest town 1 .. K. 


3 88 

Lunenburgh, or the 


McKay William 
McKee, John 
McKenzie, senior, Colin 
McKenzie, junior, Colin 
McKenzie, I hmcan 
McKenzie, John 
McKenzie, John 
McKenzie, Kenneth, Capt 
McKenzie, John, Lieut. 
McKenzie, William 
McKim, senior, fames 
McKetchic. John 

McLaren, Hugh 

McLaren, Peter 

McLaughlin, Alexander 

McLaughlin, William 

McLean, Donald 

McLean, Murdock 

McLean, John 

McLeland, senior, John 

McLeofl, William 

McMartin, Malcolm 

McXairn, John 

McNaughton, Donald 

McXaughton, John 

McNeil , Archibald 

McNight or Knight, Thos. 

McPhee, Allan 

McPherson, Alexander 

McPherson, John 

McPherson, Peter 

Mci herson, Murdock 

McPherson, James 

McTaggart, - 

McWilfiams, John 

Neber or Nehor, John 

Xettleton. Daniel 

Nicholson, Alex. 

Nicholson, Arch d 

Noble. William 

Xudale, Adam 

( >gden, John 

Otto, Got let or ( iotlieb 

Papst. Adam 

Paush, Ezekiel 

Parks, Robert 

Parker, John 

Parks, senior. Nathan 
Parlow. John 
Parrott, James 

Palter, Philip . 

Pattingale, Samuel 

1 arks. ( vrciuis or Escry- 

1 arks, James 

Parks, Nathaniel 


! .. D. Lancaster 
( )Miabruck 
Ernest town 


E. District 
Ernest town 


L. K. 

R. R. N Y, Sergeant. 

L. R., Sergeant 

do Drummer 





L. R. , Sergeant 

E.D t, Williamsburg R.R.X.V. Corporal 








Charlottenb g R. R. X 
Cornwall do 

Charlottenb g do 


L. R. , Lieutenant 

S 4 th 


E.D t, Charlottenb g K. R. X. Y 

do do do 

Williamsburgh do 

E.Dt., Cornwall do 

do Charlottenb g do 

do do do 

do Edwardsburg L. R. 
do do 

do 84th 

do R. R. 

M. District L. R. 

Ernest town do 

I-:. D t Charlottenb g R. R. 
do do 


E. D t, Osnabruck 


!:. District 



1 .ancaster 
E. District 
Marys & Sophiasb g 
E. District 


do Cornwall 
H. District 
K. District 

do Matilda 
Ernc-;t town 





N. Y. 

X. Y.. Sergeant 
do do 

do Corporal 



L. R. 



Capt.Herchmer s Batteau ( !o. 
R. R. X. Y. 

P. R. 


Peters Militia. Sergeant 
K. K. \. V"., Corporal 


K. R. 

Artificer at Carletmi Island. 
I ,. R., Lieutenant 
P.. R. 
K. R. X. Y. 


K. R. 

do Sergeant 

do Drininurr 

Old Eastern District. 


Peck, Calah 
1 ember, Philip 
Pcmvick. Samuel 
Perrigor, James 
Perry, [ohn 
Percy, John 
IVny, senior, Robert 
Perry, senior, William 
Peters, John 
Peterson, Conraclt 
Philips, Elisha 
Philips, Peter 
I hillips, /cba 
Pirkle, senior, John 
Pickle, junior, John 
I iller, Michael 
- Pitman, Gary 
Pilnian or Pitman, Russell 
Place, Willnm Simmon 
Papst, Rudolph 
Porter, Timothy 
Post. Frederick 
[ other, John 
Powiss, Fdwanl 
Prentice, Daniel 
Pescod, senior, John 
Price, Thomas 
Prindle, Daetor 
Prindle, Joel 
Prindle, Joseph 
Prindle or Pringle, Tim. 
T rindle, William 
1 runner, senior. Peter 
Purdy, Joseph 
I utman, Fflron or Fphraim 
Otiin. Michael 
Quin, John 
Ouin, Michael 
Rambough, William 
Rambough, Amos 
Rambough, John 
Rambough, Jacob 
Randolph, Benjamin 
Kansier or Ransler, Win. 
Reddick, Christor 
Reddick, ( icorgr 
Redick, John 
Reditis. Francis 
Richards, O\sen 
Richardson, \\ m. 
Rickley or Rightly, And w 
Roberts, Thomas 
Robertson, Joseph 
Robertson, Neil 
Robin.-, James 


F.D t,Wmslmrgli 
Eliza bethtown 
F. District 
Frnest town 




Marys iV Sophiasl/g 
I- .. District 
Fredericks! uirgh 




F. District 


Marys <S: Sophiasb g 
V.. l )istrict 

do (Cornwall 





F. District 
Frnest tir,\n 
F. District 
II. District 

F. 1 )i>trict, ( "i>rn\\all 

do do 

F. District 
F.D l. Osnabruck 
do do 

V onj 


F. D t,W mslmrgh 
do do 

do Osnabruck 

Frnest town 

Marys & Sophiasb g 

Frederick sburjjh 




F. D t, Exfwardsburg 

!:. District 

k!-,(.lMKN I . 

R. R. X. V. 

do C. orporal 

Fieut. in Col. Peters Militia 
R. R. X. Y., Sergeant 
F. R. 


do Sergeant 


do Fnsign 

do Sergeant 
K. R. 

R. R. X. Y. 
K. R., Sergeant 
R. R. X. V. 
K. R. 

R. R. X. Y. 
L. R., Fifer 


K. R. 

R. R. X. V. 
L. R. 
O. R. 

F. R., Fifer 
R. R. X. V. 

do Sergeant 

K. R. 





R. R. X. Y., Sergeant 
19th, Sergeant 
R. R. X. Y. 











do Sergeant 

F. R. 
K. R. 


R. R. X. Y. 
F. R. 

R. R. X. Y.. Lieutenant 
F. R., Lieutenant 


Lunenburgk, or the 


Robins, William 
Rogers, William 
Roice or Roye, sr., Evan 
Koice, jun., Evan 
Rorison, Basil 
Rose, Alexander 
Ko>e, Charles 
Rose,- Daniel 
Rose. Matthias 
Rose, junior, Matthias 
Rose, Samuel 
Rosenbury or Rosenburg, 

Rose. Alex. 
Ro.-,*, Donald 
Ross, Donald 

Ross, Finlay 

Ross, Jacob 

Ross, I hilip 

Ross, Thomas 

Ro>s. \\ alter, \\ illiam 

Ross, /onus 

Rudderbuck, John 

Runnion, I fenry 

Rupert, Podor or Peter 

Rush or Rusk. Martin 

Russell, Michael 

Russell, William 

Sanders, Henry 

Saunders, Abraham 

Saunders, 1 lenry 

Saunders, William 

Saver. John 

Sea fife r or Schaffer, Nicho 

Schermerliorn, Win. 

Schneeider, Abraham 

Schneeider. John 

Schneider. Isaac 

Schneeider, Simon 

Scott, Arch d 

Scott, senior, John 

Scott, Francis 

Scot!, John 

Sea, Hermanns 

Segar, senior, Stoat/ 

Sealey, Joseph 

Sealey, Justus 

Sealey, Justus 

Service, junior, John 

Service, Philip, (died at 

Servo-,. ( hristopher 

Servos, Philip 



X. Y. 

E.D t,Charlottcnb gR. R. 
Ernest town E. K. 

E.Dt., Cornwall R. R. N. V. 

do do do 

Elizabethtown O.K., Lieutenant 

E.D t.Charlottenb gR. R. N. \. 

do do do 

Ernest town E. R. 

do do 

do do 

E.I ) l. Edwardsbu g Joined (Jen. I>urgoyne 
do NY msburgh E. R. 

do do 

do Lancaster 
do do 

do Charlottenb g 
do Osnabruck 
do Charlottenb g 
do Cornwall 
E. D t. Edwardsb g 
do Cornwall 
do Osnabruck 
Ernest town 
E.D t, Matilda 
do do 
do Yonge 
do Ed wards burg 
E. D t, Edwardsb g 
do Matilda 

R. R.N. Y., Drummer 
Of Capt. Watt s Co. 
R. R.N.Y., came with Sir 
J. Johnson, 1776 
R. R. N. V. 
841)1, Sergeant 
K. R. 
E. R. 
R. R. N. Y. 
K. R. 
R. R. N. Y. 
do Corporal 
L. R. 
K. R. 
E. R. 
R. R. N. Y. 
K R., Sergeant 


Ernest town 



1 1. District 
E. District 

do Augusta 

K. R. 

E. R. 




R. R. \. V. 
E. R. 

do Sergeant 



R. R. N. y. 

E. R. 

do Drummer 


Ernest town 
E. District, Augusta R. R. N. V. 

do Matilda do 


I- .. D t, < )>nabruck do 

do Matilda do 

Old Eastern District. 



Servos, Peter 
Sharpe, Cornelius 
Sharpe, junior, John (i. 
Sharpe, (Juesbard or ( luys- 


Sharp, John 
Shaver. John 
Shaver. Adam 
Shaver, John 
Shaver, fohn 
Shaver, Jacob 
Shaver, senior, Philip 
Sha\\ , William 
Sheck, Christian 
Sheets, Ceorge 
Sheets, senior. |acol> 
Sheets, \Vni. 
Shell, John 
Sherman, Simon 
Sherwood, Samuel 
Sherwood; Justus 
Sherwood, Samuel 
Sherwood. Thomas 
Slu-liley, John 
Shihley, Jacob 
Shoe-man. Martin 
Shoe-man, William 
shorey, senior, David 
Shawderor Schrador. M:i\ - 


Sehwertfeyer. John A. 
Silk. Daily 
Sills. ( onrad 
Sills. Ceorge 
Silmeser, Martin 
Silmeser. Nicholas 
Siminonds, Henry 
Simonds, 1 Icnrv 
Siminonds. Nicholas 
Singleton, ( . 
Sipes, Andrew 
Smith, Heiioin 
Smith, < omforl 
Smith, Daniel 
Smith, Daniel 
Smith, Dennis 
Smith, Dennis 
Smith. ( leor^e 


]<!:< ;IMK\ i . 

k. k. N. V. 


L. K. 

Krnest town 



do Lieutenant 

K.D t. Kdwardsl.V 


do Osnaliruck 

n. R. 

do Matilda 

k. k. N. N .. Corporal 

do do 


do W msburgh 


do Matilda 


do do 



do ( ( n poral 

I .. I > t. Cornwall 


ilo do 


do do 


do do 


do W msburgh 



].. k. 


do Lieutenant 

!;. District 

do Captain 




do Knsign 

F.rnest tow i, 

do Corporal 




k. k. N. y. 



Krnest town 

L. k. 



Smith, John 
Smith, John 
>mith, senior. John 
Smith, senior, Jacob 
Smith, Jamrs 
Smith. Michael 


K.D t, KdwardsbV 

K. D t, Cornwall 

do do 

Krnest tow n 

Mrnest tow n 

I- ,. 1 ) t, Augusta 



I- .. I > l. < omwall 


I lli/.abethtow n 
I I. I )istrict 


1 . 1 ) i, Augusta 

do ( oinwall 

I . 1 ) i.< 

I rcdericksburch 

k. k. \. y. 


k. k. N. Y. 


I,, k. 

k. k. N. Y. 

L. 1\., Lieutenant 


k. k. N. Y.. Captain 
I!, k. 

McAlpin s ( orps 
K. k. 

k. k. N. Y. 

L. k. 


k. k. N. V. 

jNth keLJI. ; at taking of < hie- 

bec joined " " 
K. k. 

L. 1\.. Sergeant 

k. k. N. y. 


k. k. N. y. 


Lunenburgh, or the 


Smith, senior, Peter 
Smith, junior, Peter 
Smith, Philip 
Smith, Richard 
Smith. Robert 
Smith, Samuel 
Smith, Stephen 
Smith, Thomas 
Smith, \Ym. 
Snetsinger, Matthias 
Snyder, Adam 
Snycler, Conradt 
Snyder. John 
Snyder, Jeremiah 
SnydtT, Marcus 
Snyder, senior, William 
Snyder, junior, William 
Sowils, senior, William 
Sparam, Doctor 
Spencer, Hazel ton 
Spicer, Daniel 
Spicer, E/ekiel 
Stanford. Wm. 
Starrs or Starr, George 
Stata or Stall, Henry 
Staty, Philip 
Stealy, Martin 
Steely, Tol)ias 
Stevens, Roger 
Stewart, John 
Stiles, Sclah or Silas 
Stoneburner or Stonebrand- 

er, John 

Stoneburner, Joseph 
Stoneburner, Leonard 
Stoneburner, junior, Jacob 
Stocks, Edward 
Storin, George 
Stonn, John 
Storer.s, Gilbert 
Stover, Martin 
Strada, Henry 
Strader, John 
Strader, Simon 
Strader, William 
Stuart, James 
Stuart, Rev. John 
Summers, Andrew 
Summers, Jacob 
Sutherland", Alex. 
Sutherland, George 
Sutherland, John 
Sutherland, Walter 
Swart, Simon 
Swart ieger, Frederick 
Sweet. Oliver 


K Kt; 1 MKN 1 . 

E.D t. Charlottenb g 

R. R. N. V. 

do do 



R. R. X. Y. 

( )snabruck 


E. D t, Elizabethan 



L. R. 

I 7 ,. D t, Eli/abetht n 

R. R. X. Y. 

do Yonge 

do Ensign 


L. R. 

E.D t. Cornwall 

R. R. X. V. 

do do 


do do 


do Lancaster 


do do 


Ernest town 

L. R. 

E.D t, Elizabetht n 

dd Ensign 

do do 


do Matilda 


do Augusta 

1 lospital Mate 


R. R. N. Y., Lieutenant 

E. District 

L. R 

E.D t, Augusta 


do Matilda 

R. R. X. Y. 

do Yonge 

L. R. 

do W msburgh 

R. R. N. Y. 

do Osnabruck 


do Matilda 




E. District 

K. R., Ensign 

Marj sburgh 


H. District 

R. R. N. Y. 

E. District 

do Drummer 


do Corporal 



do Cornwall 


H. District 






Ernest town 

L. R. 



E.D t, W msburgh 

R. R. X. Y. 

do Matilda 


do do 


do do 


do Osnabruck 

do Surgcon s-mate 


do Chaplain 

E.D t, Charlottenb g 


do do 


do Lancaster 


do do 




E.D t, Lancaster 

dd Lieutenant 

Ernest town 


Marys \ Sophiasb g 


E.D t, Augusta 

R. R.. Corporal 

Old Eastern District. 




UKi; I \lli.N 1. 

Swit/er, Philip 

Krnest to\\n 

1 .. R. . < "ornoral 

Taylor. John 



Thicle or Thirl v. John 

Krnest town 


Thomas, Jacob 

K. D t, Eli/abet hi n 


Thomas, I eter 

Krnest town 


Thompkins, Israel 

K. 1 > t. Augusta 


Thompson, George 

do Matilda 

K. R. X, \ ., ( orporal 

Thompson, [ohn 

do Yonge 


Thompson, Timoihy 


do Knsign 

Thompson, William 


K. k. 

Tillebough or Dillebough, 

!:. D t, Matilda 

k. k. \. v. 


Tillibough or Pillebach. 

do do 

I\. Foresters 


Tipple, John 

do ( (snabruck 

k. k. X. V., Sergeant 

Tultle, Nathan 

do N onge 

i.. k. 

Twohy, John 

R. k. X. V. 

Tyler, Gerrard 

l- redericksburgh 

L k. 

L rquhart, William 

K. 1 > i, l,ancn>tcr 

R. R. X. V. 

Valentine, \s idow, C. 


Widow of Adjt John Val 

online, R. R. X. V. 

\ an Allen, Jacob 

do Matilda 

k. k. N. V. 

\ an Alstine, Isaac 



\"nn Alstine, Lambert or 




Van Camp, John 

I .. D 1, Matilda 

L. R. 

Van Camp, facob 

do do 

R. R. X. V. 

Van Camp, 1 eter 

do do 

L. R. 

\ an Debarrich or Yande- 


R k. X. Y. 

berg, Carrel 

\ anderbo/art, I- rancis 


K. R. 

Yanderheyden, Adam 

l- town 

L. R. 

Vanducan. Kal])h or Roelfe 



Vankoutjhnet, Mirkle 

K.D t, Cornwall 

k. k. x. v. 

\ eni, Adam 

Krnest lown 

L. k. 

Wager or Weager, Kver- 


k. k. x. y. 


Wager, Thomas 



Waggoner, Henry 

1 .. I )isii iei. < ornwall 


Waggoner, senior. Jacob 

do do 


\Varcoff, John 


K. k. 

Wail. George 

1 . D t, Cornwall 

k. R. X. Y. 

Wake. Joseph 

do do 

do Coi : 

Walker, senior. 1 )aniel 

^ lown 

L. k. 

Walker, James 

K- I > t, Augusta 

do Surgeon 

Walliser, Anthony 

do Matilda 

k. R. x. Y. 

Walliser, John 

do do 


Walliser, Martin 

do do 


Waller. Martin 

1 . D t. Matilda 


Waller. Philip 

do do 


Warner, senior. Miehai-1 

do Cornwall 


Washburn, Kbene/ei 


I.. R. , Sergeant 

Wear!, Conradt 

i:.D t. < Knabruck 

k. k. \. S . 

\\ Cart, 1 ! p|ge 

1 . D t, \\ ms burg, 


Weart or Whart, John 

Sopias&Amhersb rg 


Weatheihead. Samuel 

K. D t. Augusta 

I., k. 


Lunenburgh, or the 


Weaver, Frederick 
Weaver, John 
Weaver, Peter 
Weiger, Jacob 
Welch, Samuel 
Welch, Wm. 
Wert, Andrew 
Wert, junior, [ohn 
Whaling or Whelane. 


Whealer or Whelin, David 
White, senior, Joseph 
Whitley, John 
Whitley, John 
\\ ichwise, Jonathan 
Wickwise, Lewis 
Wickwise, Philip 
Williams, Albert 
Williams, Armstrong 
Williams, senior, David 
Williams, senior, John 
\\ "illiams, junior, [ohn 
Williams, James 
Williams, Robert 
Williams, Moses 
Williams, Samuel 
Wilsey, Benona 
Wilsie, James 
Wilsie. John 
Wiltsey, junior. Benom 
Winter, Henry 
Winter, J eter 
Wist or Wuist, David 
Wist or Wuist, John 
Wist, junior, John 
Wood, Benjamin 
Wood, John 
Wood, Jonas 
Wood, Roger 
Wood. Thomas 
Wood. William 
Woodcock, Abraham 
Woodcock, John 
Work or Warwick, Jns. 
Wright. As,-] 
Wright, Daniel 



Wright, James 
Wright, Jesse 
Wright, Joseph 
Young, Daniel 
Young, senior. He 
Young, Henry 
Young, senior. IVter 
Young, junior. Peter 
Xufelt, 1 Iciiry 

E.D t, Cornwall R. R. N. Y. 

do do do 

do do do 

do Wm sburg, do Sergeant 

Ernest town K. R. 

I-",. D t, Edwardsb g Naval Department 

do Osnabruck R. R. N. Y. 

do do do 

do Charlottenb g do 

do do 

do Augusta 
do Elizabethto n 

do do 


do Augusta 

do do 

Ernest town 




K. D t, Lancaster 
Ernest town 
K. D t, Augusta 


K. D t, Eli/.abetht Yi 
do Cornwall 
do do 

Ernest town 

K. D t, Charlottenb g 
do Cornwall 
do Wms burg 
do Cornwall 
do EJizabetht n 
do Cornwall 


Ernest town 
I , D t, Cornwall 

K. D t, Klizabetht n 

K. D t, Matilda 


Marys & Sophiasb g 


Marys iX: Sophiasb g 





L. R. 

R. R. N. Y. 
L. R. 


K. R. 
L. R. 

R. R. N. Y. 
L. R. 

do Sergeant 





L. R.. Corporal 
Lt. in Major Ward s Corps 
L. R., Sergeant 



R. R. X. Y. 


L. R. 

R. R. N. Y. 
L. R. 
B. R. 

R. R. \. Y. 


L. R. 

R. R. X. Y. 



L. R. 


Joined Royal Standard 1777, 

S. Anderson s certificate 

R. R. X. Y., Sergeant 
R. R. X. Y. 


do Lieutenant 


dn Drummer 
L. R. 

Old Eastern District. 



E\K( ( 1 1\ K ( . n MII..* 


Claus, William, Captain R. R. \. y., Lieutenant 

Si ITI.KMKN I \KV Llsl .* 

N \\ 


Armstrong, Jonathan 


All, Conrad 


Argassinger, I hilip 


Austin, Isaac 


Archer. Edward 


Aston, facol) 


Allen, John 

L. R. 

Andrew, folm 


Andrew. Jacob 


A) res. Daniel I>. 


Allen, Anclrew 


Alyine, I hilip 


Al^ire, Jolin 


Alexander, David 


Aclier, Lodwirk 

R. R.X.Y. 

Austin, Dalton ( has. 

do Suryfn 

Ashlnim, John, Corporal 

Antonee. Richard 


Hartlemas, Peter 

L. R. 

Marher. Abraham 


Murk. Patrick 


Mall, Jacob 

L R. 

Boket, Dallows 


Mrownhill. Stephen 

R. R.X.Y. 

Mr.idlonl or Murnett, 

L. R. 


Monks, [olm 

R. R.X.Y. 

I"--!. Harmanus 

L. R. or Ri IJ.VIN 

R., Eiisj^n 

Mender. I ,a \\rence 

R. R.X.Y. 

Bauhers /- Mracken, 



Molton. Abraliam 

L. R. 

Hlack, Jacob 

R. K.X.Y. 

i. Adam 


Mank. David 


lilook, John 

( 1 1 

Munis, (iarrei 

1 1 ) 

Mrail. I .lislia 

( 1 ) 

Mlack. Calo 

Mrook.s, Donald 

do 1 >i inn r 

Maxter. Roj^er 

i < } 

Manyell, 1 leni\ 

< < i 

Man^ell, I eter 


Mangel], Adam 



Bangell, William 
Mangel], John 
Becker, Conradt 
Brathower. John 
Beverley, David 
Meiiy. leorgu 
Mrahower, Francis 
Menncuay, Kxekiel 
Hurke, John (. onrad 
Malster. William 
Mennet, Charles 
Uro\\ nson, John 
Mcagle, Daniel 
Momistell, I hilip 
Mobbit, Elkanah 
Mro\\son, Jame> 
Hell, Enos 

KK.IMI-.N I . 

n. I lciiry 
t.s. Henjamin 
Hurgarr, Alex.nuler 
Blasner, Lo/o 

lu-aty. David 
Beckman, Samuel 
Holt\\i)o(l, John 
I>tirro\\s, "riiomas 
Hratt, Abraham 
ISrishin. John 
ISIockley, John 
llrishie, Rohert 
lirisliin, Saiiuiel 
lirisliin. Jaiiu-s 
Mustard. William 
Mro\vn. fame.s 
Marnhardt, Johest 
I u ll. l- rancis 
MiMinin^er, Isaac 
Murke. I eli-r 
liiuvcn. William ( . 
Mocker, John 
I older, fohn 

< loons, Simeon 

( handier--, KoU-rt 

< :itltim or ( ottom. 


In these Lists the plages of residence 01 settlements are not -i\i-n, as Un-v 

in tin- tir>t 

Lunenburgh, or the 


( miner, John 
Cook, Philip 
Courtney, Dennis 
Carrier, John 
( ross. John 
Corregnn, Paul 
Clark, Thos. , Char- 

Curere, , Matlida 
Cameron, Duncan 
Cogdon, John 
( rouse, Peter 
( ampbell, Win. 
Cornelius, Henry 
( aider, James 
Cullegan, Charles 
Carr, Hugh 
Clyne, Jacol> 
Crossley, Nathaniel 
Connolly, William 
Cain, Henry 
Creightoop, John 
( line, Philip 
( ase, Elijah or Klihue 
Cryderraan, Thomas 
( raw ford, David 
Cfair, Francis 
Carrier, Martin 
Crabtrce, John 
Cousins, John 
Cole, Henry 
Cox, Edward John 
Cossens, Jacob 
Carpenter, Beloved 
Cameron, Hugh 
Clark, William 
Coons, Mathias 
(Castle, Elephalet 
Choudv, Jacob 
Costelow, James 
Crisedell, Thomas 
Carpenter, John 
Curtis, Uriah 
Crawford, George 
Crawson, Abraham 
Coleton, Daniel 
Conner, Thomas 
Copeland, William 
Conner, Michael 
Coon, Abraham 
Cline, Henry 
Carpenter, Jacob 
Cotlard, James 
Conklin, Abraham 
Cole, George 
Cole, Francis 



do Corp l 


E. K. 
E. R. 




do Corp l 







do Drum r 






do do 

E. R. 















\ \MKS. 

< arr, John 
Clock, Jacob 
1 ><>dge, Thomas 
Davis, John 
Dennys, Nicholas 
Dusler, William 
I hisler, Andrew 
Davis, John 
Daley, Patrick 
Darcy, Thomas 
I Many, Peter 
Dennis, junior, Jacob 
I )e;il, Adam 
Dunberry, John 
Daley, William 
Dopp, John 
Dopp, Adam 
I hire, John 
Dougherty, John 
Daily, Philip 
Devan, Cornelius 
Davis, James 
Duntan, Levi 
Dunham, Samuel 
Davis, Benjamin 
Dunham, .Solomon 
Dawson, John 
Drake, Benjamin 
I )avis, Daniel 
Dodge, Peter 
Evickhouse, Henry 
Ellice, John 
Embry or Embra, Jno. 
Essling, Garrett 
Elloms, John 
Earhart, Simon 
Ekins, Moses 
Ernest, Anthony- 
Foster, Adam 
Freizc, Jacob 
Freeman, Francis 
Faucher, P. 
Fosborough, John 
Falconer, Thomas 
Freeman, Richard 
Ferguson, John 
Fulton, Michael 
Frats. David 
Kraystown, Michael 
Freeland, John 
Fries, Abraham 
Finknor, John 
Fyke, Francis 
Ferguson, John 
Fenel, Amhersl 
Falterer, John 





E. R. 



do Captain 
do Paymaster 
do Ensign 









do Corporal 
E. R. 




E. R. 



E. R. 
8 4 th 

E. R. 





L. R. 

Old Eastern District. 



l- alieroth, John 

( alkner. 

Ferris. Fn^land 

l rink, Andrew 

! raser. James 

French, Andrew 

Frederick. I tedrick 

Francis, Jeremiah Win. do 

Ferguson, James 

Fuck or Fykes, John 

( ierman, junior, John L. R. 

(libsoii, Andrew 

( Irevassc. AN;; 

(lleeson, Daniel 

(llenn, Jacob 

( lummersall, Thoma> 

( loshee. Peler 

( Jilchrist, |ohn. Kli/.a- 

bethtow n 
(Irani, Alexander. 

( liarlottenbnrg 

< Irani, Allan, Kli/a- 


< Irani, Archibald 
( Irout, fohn 

( Irani, I high 
(Iray, Philip 
( Iriffin, Charles 
i lav in, Thamns 

< lillet, Adonijah 

< ioodw illy, Joseph 
( lilies. John 
(lordineer, Robert 

< Iarhard, Mathew 

< larvey, John 

( lallennoull, Haplistc 

I lopper. i mrad 

I lavne, I lenry 

I lolV, Hans 

1 lattinybrant, Jacob 

I lay, 1 lenrv 

I lolland, John Fred k 

I lainilloii, Roberl 

I lamillon, William 

I leron, ( >wen 

I lamillon, Colin. ( orn- 

wall or Roxboroiigh 
I la\ . John, Charloiten- 

I lenl) . Thi -ma -. 1 law- 

I lo|mc>. Tim-. . ( >Mia 

Hind, Thomas. Fred- 

I Icrn-., John ! 

KK<;iMI-;.V| . 


KK. ,IMK\ 1 

L. R. 

Hciring. John 



I lasion. i/rail 



I lubor. Adam , 



House, Chroiist 



1 leeth, John 



I Towel, (iriftiih 



I Iale>, John 


. do 

I lope, Richard 



1 (ennin^, Henry 



I favilin, Benjamin 


L. R. 

Holland. David 



1 (ylard. Nicholas 


L. R. 

Herrini;. Nathaniel 



llerrinij, Henry 


R R.N. Y.. Lieut 

. Ilaines. Hdnr\- 


do Captain 

1 limmand, Benjamin 



1 lomer. \\ illiam 


L. R., Sergeant 

1 1 vail, ( ornelius 

L. R. 

Ililliker. John 

do Serial. 

do do 

I larris, Jonathan 


Harris. Richard 


do do 

Hard, Limon 


1 lewct, I lenry 


X4tli. Lieut. 

Haath, Phineas 



1 liens, ( !odfre\ 



I lolland, |ohn And w 



Hielle, Andrew 


L. R. 

I hillingcr. Adan, 



Ilo\>ler, Hen/y 



1 lelliker. Abraham 



Hard, Elisha 



1 loyt, Abraham 



1 lulibel, !>;: 



1 lunter. Moses 



Hill, Timothy 



1 land. John 



I (oilman, fai 


. 1 1 

1 lolstead, ]-jnas 



I (utchison, ( leorge 



1 lei\ ey . 1 )a\ id 


( o Lieut. 

1 luntly, John 


. o do 

1 larman, N aleniine 



1 ]n\ -, Alexander 



1 lyalt. ( lilberl 


S4th, Ser.-Maj. 

Ho\ le, John 


i o Cm pi >ral 

Hawley, F.Ii 


1 b li^lr. ( lei tl ^i 



1 [ogedale, Chrisiopher 


1 lo^edale. John 



1 liuldlemai), Jolin An 




1 loeman, |olm 


1 (agerdoon, Peter 



1 1 "trail. F.lward 


1 leymond, Jolm 


<. R.X.Y. 

1 (osier. |. iM-ph 



Lunenburgk, or the 

\ \MKS. 

I lope, Richard 
Hough, ( icorge 
I [esford, Joseph 
I letlar, Adam 
Hard. James 
Johnson, John 
Jones, William 
Johnson, Charles 
Jones, Kphraim 
Jadsrheak, John 
Johnson, Jonathan 
Jackson, [ohn 
Jackson, \Villiain 
Junice, ( lilbert 
Jacobs, John 
Jol)ear, l* ranci> 
Kerr, Robert 
Ke/er, John 
Knave, John 
Kentner. John 
Koughnott, John 
Knave. Adam 
King, Patrick 
Killboume, ( harles 
Koughnet. Michael, 

Fredericks! Hirgh 
Knight, Charles,Wil- 

lianisl mrgh 
Knouglu. , Sophias- 


Keller, I lenry 
Kelly. Thomas 
Kilinan, - 
Kyscr, Michael 
Karn, Jacob 
Ketelnn n, David 
Kelly, John 
Kelly, Martin 
Kctclmin. Lphraim 
Keith. Cornelius 
Kingsheart, Klisha 
Knar, John 
Kef-h, Cornelius 
Kingsbcrry. |ose]>h 
Kaync. Michael 
Kilniire (alias Byrne), 


Lucky, Samuel 
I.oft, David 
1 ,a\\ ray, John 
Lansingh, I . J . 
Louks, I eter 
Lake, Israel 
Lampman, senior, 




do 2nd Bait. 


do do 
L. R. 
L. K. 
L. R. 












L. K. 







L. K.. Sergt. 







do Lieut. 
L. R. 


Lampman, junior, 

Leatch, \Yilliam 
Lent, Elias 
Liddle, Andrew 
Losce, I ompo 
Lucas, I )aniel 
Lummis, ]->.ekiel 
Langan, Patrick 
Lipscombe, Patrick 
Lepayc (dit Amont), 

J. B. 
Lawe, < George 

Lemoine, I lenry 
Link or Lynk, Benj. 
Livingston, 15cnj. 

Li Ssley, fohn 

Lock\\ood, |ames 

Lock \\ood, Peter 

Lewis, John 

Lubdel, James 

Lawyer, John 
.ovelcss. 1 hoiuas 
.ampbear, William 
.ampbear, Samuel 
-ighl, lienjamin 
Doughy, William 
,owson, Joseph 
.eib, John 

Logan, David 

Lean, John 

Lightheart, John 

Lester, senior, Thus. 

Leonard, llaldoff 

Lebarge. Jean 

Monlen, Daniel 

Moll. Joseph 

March, Thomas 

Marcellius, Sevories 

Mitchell, \\inard 

Mann, Isaac 

Mann, John 

Murphy. John 

March, Josiah 

Margan or Morgan, 
Wm. . ( >sn:iliruck 

Mitchell, John, Wil- 


Miller, John 
Murray, Patrick 
Mills, Cornelius 
\Iassey. Janu> 
Martial, John 
Mechison, John 
Moriixin, Angus 


L. R. 







R.R.N.Y., Lieut. 
do Captain 

841)1, ("apt. 
841)1, Ensign 

do ( >lhccr 
2nd Bait. 






L. K. 





841 h 


do Lieut, 
do Lnsign 
Sergt. 5jrd Keg. 

Drum Major 







Old Eastern District. 



Marsellis. ( larrctt 
Mann, William 
Mann, Kdward 
Mitch-,-11. Hugh 
Mantle, J. Baptiste 
Miller, David 
Munro. < orncliu> 
MoMcr. John 
Miles, Thoma> 
Mullen, fohn 
Murray, ( leorge 
Mindoe, John 
Mills. Cornelius 
Mallory, Llisha 
Mallory, Jeremiah 
Mann. Thomas 
Miller. Ralph 
Maynard. Henry 
Moore. Jasper 
Michel, David 
Mead, James 
Mock, |ohn 
Mitchell, David 
Molt, I fenrv 
Maxwell, William 
Millar, John 
Mirier. ( liriMopher 
Moffet, William 
Mitchel, John 
Muklr. Richard 
Miirchison. Murdo 
Molt, |oM i>h 
Matheus. I ompey 
Moot, William 
\l\ ers, ( lodfrcy 
Man-hand, Francis 
McDonell. Jame> 
\lc( aithy. 1- r.incis 
McKay, \\"illiam 
McKcn/ic. Alex. 
McKen/ie. Alex. 
\lcl .can. 1 lector 
Mc( arthy, Kdward 
Mcl herMin. 1 taniel 
McDonell, Patrick 
Mi ( iowan, Stephen 
McMahon, John 
Mc( "arthy, Duncan, 
( lharlottenburgh 
Mc( alley, John, 

\lc( lure, John. 

\\ illi misburgh 

Mcl.ran. N eal 

\l< \ri\ . John 
McKain. Sainiii l 







L. R. 

do Drum r 


do Ensign 









841 h 


do Knsign 
R.R.N.Y. Ens n 

do Knsign 

S4ih, Lieut. 

do di ) 



do Corp l 



S4ih, Lieut. 

Mc.Mullen. Michael, 
Johnstnu n 
McKinty. Krancis 

Me La \\riMi. L\ an 
McCarter. Donald 
l- .van 
. I eter 
Mc( am . < aleh 
Mc\ icar. Douqal 
McKellup, Alex. 
McCormiss. \\"illiam 
Mc.Murdy. Jame.^ 
Mc< artney. James 
Mc( iregor, Duncan 
McKen/.ie, John 
McKen/.ie. Thomas 
McXeil, Alexander 
McSlieehy, Kugciic 
McXeil, James 
Mc<;illivray, Daniel 
McK cn/ic, Alex. 
McMullen, fohn 
McDonald, Michael 
McKen/ie, [ohn 
McDonell, Randy 
\Ii-( lew, Patrick 
McKen/ii . Roderick, 
22 in 12, Lancaster 
Xicholson, \\~illiani. 
Xail, I- redcrick 
Xi-wtiin. fohn 
Xeuton. Thomas 
Nicholas, James 
Xanamaker. facoh 
Northrop, Klihu 
Xoiihro]), A/.er 

n, < aleli 
Xicholas, John 
Xix, [ohn 
( >"Xc~il, John 
( ) l lara, Kcan 
( t I .iyan, Timoih\ 
Orchard, I >nald 
( I liryan. John 

< >rchanl, \\ illiam 
( >:i!man. I li-nry 

( Islnirn. Xathanicl 

( )ko. John 

( Ktrandci , I .\i-rt 

< KII ind.-i. \l,i:diam 

IMI-:\ i . 



do Serg t- 

R.R N.Y. 



do ( orp l 



L. R. Sergeant 
do Drumme 

do ilo 








Joined in I 777 

R. R.X.N .. Serg t 





L. R.. Serg t 




do Lieut. 
R.K.X.N . 




1,. R. 



Lunenburgh, or the 


( > l\ief, Cornelius 
( >rr, Thomas 
Parker, John 
Trait. John 

( tenabruck 
Patterson, Klias 
Punter, ( ieorge 
Tottt v, William 
Prosser. Richard 
I .uliloek, John 
I "rime, Cato 
Pinnecais, Joseph 
I lant/,, John 
Perch, Robert 
Palmer, John 
Perch. Nathaniel 
I rime, Francis 
Put man, Francis 
Price, Jncol) 
Plant, John 
Parker, William 
Preston. William 
Plintcr, Christopher 
Persons, Chalwell 
Proctor, Kphraim 
Plass, Peter 
Pest, John 
Poor, Augustus 
Parthlow. John 
Portable, Baptiste 
Pelers. Andrew 
Pettit, Dunham 
Phelps, Jonathan 
Prosser. Richard 
Phillips, John 
Oui^, Patrick 
Ronoir. John 
Ruff, James 
Roliertson, David 

( "ornwall and 

Rox borough 
Renter. John 

Reynolds. Samuel 
Ross, (, harles 
Roach. John 
Ruport, Francis 
Ru])ort, John 
Rose, fames 
Roach, Jamc> 
Reynoll. \\ m. 
Rose. Win. 
Riley, David 
Robinson, Robert 
Rose. 1 inlay 
Rice. Ftedt-rick 


I, R. 



do Corp 1 

do Drum r 





do Drum r 



do Serg t 



do Corp l 
L R. 












L. R. or R.R., 
I.. K., Sergeant 





I, R. 

do ^ei i^ 





Ka\\lins, ( Irani 
Reid, Alexander 
Robinson James 
Kowstoun, (l 
Ruport, Peter 
Row. Alexander 
Row, James 
Rouse, Cicorije 
Robertson, Duncan 
Richardson, Timothy 
Refenburg, Abraham 
Radiker, Henry 
Russel, l^lisha 
Robins, William 
Smith, Joseph 
Shwarts, l- rederick 
Sutton, Isaac 
Smith. John 

Smith, 1. or J. 
Small, (leortje 
Sutherland. David 
Swartfager, folm 

Scout, John 
Svvope, Ste])hen 
Sangerbanson, (leo. 
Schnyder, Peter 
Schnyder, /achariah 
Sprat ley, Thomas 
Spencer, Barnard 
Serey, Rirhanl 
Shyers, Jacob 
Sutton, Samuel 
Smith. I fiiyli 
Showls, fohn ( . 
Shaver. ( leor^e 
Shaver, ( leori^e 
Shaver. CeoiLje 
Smith, \\illiam 
Sheveritl, John 
Seymour. 1 lenry 
Sprat!) , Thomas 
S\-phert, Joseph 
Shades, Adam 
Sullivan, Dennis 
Schamerhorn, 1 cter 
Siver, Henry 
Stonebcrg, Stephen 
Shaver, Maurius 
Sullivan, ("ornelius 
Stats, Casper 
Solomon, [eremiah 
Simson. Robert 
Sliiris, John 
Smyth, ( Icurge 
Summerville. John 


R.R.XA . 





1.. R., Sergeant 
do do 



L. R. , Ser<j1. 



841)1. and at the 
taking of Quebec 


R.R.X.V., Corp l 
L. R. 



do Sergt. 

















L. R. . Sergeant 

do Surgeon 
do Sergeant 

Old Eastern District. 



Skinkle. Henry 

Simmon. KaNter 

See, Tames 

See. John 

Sole, Timothy 

Sharor. Thomas 

Still, John 

Stafford. Joseph 

Sastera, Josepn 

Stone, James 

Stever, Peter 

Scott, David 

Slater, William 

Scott, junior, David 

Scott. Xeil 

Stenson. Klnathan 

Scott, Daniel 

Stone, Simon 

Sampson. Aaron 

Sampson, Thcophilus 

Sruseth, Henry 

Sullraye, John 

Sutherland, James 

Sharp, Philip 

Scott, Abraham 

Salfara, Joseph 

Simmons, Jonas 

Snurr, Peter 

Sherer, Thomas 

Sanders , junior, Wm. 

Sailmon, John 

Scherbert, August us 

Shoughnessy, William 
1 lenry 

Shaflei, Jacob 

Schrider, Simon 

Smarts, Michael 

Steel. John 

Shalford, ( onnei 

Taylor, Peter 
homas, James 
ipperaine, Clnistoph 
rapp, Richard 
rumliell, Robert 
Olbach, Holsor 
hompson, Thoma> 
timer, Richard 
hompson, Matthe\\ 
ale, Simon 
ullle, John 
mile, William 
ullle, Stephen 
ramble, Asuhel 

little, Joseph 

ruman. Peter 
Talliammei . 1 >avid 

L. R. 






















r do 

do Drum r 




L. R. 

do Adjutant 





L. R. 


Trip. Robert 
Threlie, Laurence 
Tuchout, James 
Tinkney, Abraham 
Tuitle, John 
I Iman, Henry 
I tier, Isaac 
\ anderheyden, Da\ id 
Valentine, John 
Van Camp, - 
Yan Camp, fames 
Van Scott, John 
Valentine, fames 
V woman, Thomas 
\ eeder, Lucas 
Ycrnon, Michael 
Yansnell, John 
Van Salsbury, Corneliu 
\ an Col/, John 
\ oss, Christopher 
\ an Yost, John 
Valentine, Isaac 
\ elie, Andrew ( i. 
\ an Camp, Jacob 
Valentine, (labriel 
\ an Camp, Tunis 
Valentine, (< hiere: 1 |as. 

Ktisi^n, R.R.NY.) 
\"an Snell, l- rederick 
Wade, Klijah 

Winter, Joseph 
Winter, "Butler 
Winter, Jacob 
Waldradt, Jacob 
Weatherwat, Win. 
Wickie, John 

Wllite fessee 

Walter, Martin 
Wcsscck, ( leor^e 
\\ ea\er, Nichola- 
Worth, ( ,eo|oe 

Wall, James 
Wearly, Peter 
Wonnwood, William 
Waile, Abijah 
\\ ard, John 
Whitman, Maxwell 
Ward, Abel 
Whitman, Robert 
Wray, Koswell 
White, William 
\\ illisiiin. William 
Williston, Win., Jim. 
\\ .it si (ii. Aaron 

KlM.IMl.N I . 

L. R. 


L. R. 
K.U.X.Y.. 2 Hat i 

do Adju t 






L. K. 



Fusion R. 



841 h 

L. R. 







L. R., Sergeant 

( O 


< o 

4O2 Lunenburgh, or the 


Webster, Milo I,. k. Williams, Richard L. k. 

Weymore, (ieorge do Wearing, Frederick do 

White, Samuel do Woolf, Ludowick do 

Warwick, James do Waggener, Hertnanus k. k.N.N". 

Webb, (leor^e do Wa ldroff", Martin <lo 

\\ yatt. John do Weaver, Christy do 

The lists irom which numbers 2 and 3 are copied, do not (except in n very few 
cases), give the names of the places where the persons mentioned settled. I have 
therefore i^iven the names of all who are stated to have served in the K.k.k.X.Y, 
the S.|th, and the 1,. K. 

Old Eastern District. 







Lots 1,2, 5, Heirs of Capt. Morrison 21, 

4. Lieut. D. MrFall 22, 

5, Peler Mclnlosh 23, 
<>. loseph Sutherland 24, 
7. Alex. Sutherland 25, 

5. Alex. Sutherland, Thos. Sutherland 26, 
<i. Lieut. W. Sutherland 27, 

10, do do 28, 

11, Mary Sutherland, Anne Sutherland 29, 

12, Willow Campbell 3". 

13, ( icorge Sutherland 31, 

14, Lieut. W. Sutherland 32, 

15, Mary Morrison, Jane Morrison 33, 
[6, I homas Pusby 34, 
17. Nathaniel Hillyear 35, 
iS, do do 

ii). John ( iranl 36, 

20, John Dunn 37, 


Lois i. 2, 3, 1 ieirs of ( apt. Morrison 22. 

4. Lieut. MrFall 2 }. 

6, Arch. \1i-Ilane 

5. James ( urrie 24. 
). Lieut. Sutherland, John Carry 25, 

ID. < ato Prime (a negro). John Win. 2<>. 

Fhn 27. 
1 I , Pen. Paker 

12. Donel MrDoilel 28, 

13, John Lemon 29, 
i i, James Fonda (a negro) 

i 5. Widow lilakely 31 . 

MI. fack Po\\ell la negro) 32. 

17. Kichard Fountain 33. 

iN. [olm Sc.ii mi 34. 

Hi. John ( ,i 35. 

20, John I hum 36. 

21, Jas I [are, Jo-. < ,oii ia ne^roi 37. 

* This is the spelling in the map. 

(allies 1 )are 

Thomas ( iraham 

Lieut. \Y. Sutherland 

William lilond 

Alex. Cameron 

Donald Ko>s 

Alex, and \\ : m. (iranl 

Thomas I. Ross 

Thomas M. lv>^ 

fane Diekson, John Cameron 

Robert Dickson and family 

William Noble. David ( limn 

John McDoiiLjall 

Duncan Murcheson 

Ralph l- alkner and Ralph Falkner, 

William 1-Vdkncr 

do do 

[acob Snyder 

Jacob Snyder s 1 amily. \\"m. Tho 
mas (a ne^i 

Win. l-tlond s family. Jerry Snyder 

Augustus Seel\ p 

fohu ( aslles 

A. and W. ( Irani, Lonronden 
neL 1 

Luke l>o\\ man 

Mar} Ftltje 

^ambo (.1 ne^rol 

R. 1 )ickson s famil} 

\\ in. Noble. David ( .mm 

fohn \\ ri_t;hi 

William 1 al! 
do do 


LunenbufgJi, or the 

TOWNSHIP \ii. i. N,,\\ Cn \Ki,oTTKM;rK(,n. 


( apt. Angus McDonell 
P. Delancey 
D. MeNaughton 

D. Me Arthur 

Alexander Chisholni 

Alexander Ferguson 

R. MeDonnel 

A. MePherson 

Lots I. 2, 3. 4, and the tract between 
the east line of No. i, and the 
west of A. MePherson s lot Sir 
John Johnson, Knight and Bart. 
5 and part 6, Wm. Byrne, Captain. 
Pnrt 6 and 7, Lieut. Wm. Coffin 

8. Adam Summers. Wm. Rose 

9, Alex. McLaughlan. Alex. McDonell 
10, Peter Grant, Kenneth McDonell 

11, John Fraser. Daniel Mclnlyre 

12, Alex. McDonell. Alex. McDonel] 

13, Sergt. Wm. Mcl.eod 

14, Lieut. Hugh McDonell 

15, John McDonell, John McGregor, 


16, Daniel Whealon. John Caldwell 

17, John Cameron. Allen Grant 

18, Sergt. McLean. Donl. McLean 

19, (. apt. J. MeKeivie. John McKay 

20, Sergt. Clark, Sergt. J. Mclntire 

21, R. Wilkinson 

22, Finlay Uoss. John Murchison 

23, Wm. "Dickie. Lieut. R. McDonell 

24, Sergt. D. McCarty, Sergt. Gordon 

25, Capt. Alex. McDonell 

26, do do 


Lots 25, 26, ("apt. Alex. .McDonell 
24, Joseph Husford, Martin Staley 
23, Chas. Calaghan, Wm. Robins 
22, I- ,. Patterson, Dan ! Botirk 
21, Michael Miller 
20, McDonell, R. Wilkinson 
19, R. Wilkinson 

18, do 

17. do Allen McDonell > 

16, Christopher Brinkman. Allen Mc 

15, Daniel Grant, John McGregor, 

14, Lieut. Hugh McDonell 

13, Lieut. Hugh McDonell. Sergeant 

Wm. McLeod 

12, Alex. McDonell, Ale\. McDonell 
II, L. > 2 , Richard Trap 
10, } .. />, John Cameron 


8, W. ,, Arch d Scott 


Lots 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, Thomas Den 
nis, F,SC|. 

11, 12, 13, 14, 1 at. McXiff and family 
6, 7, 8", 9, 10, John (Irani. 


The lots south of the River Raisin and north of Sir John Johnson s land, 

from east to west are marked respectively : 
S. McKane Donald Mclnt<h. 

l rancis Clarke v _ | I )onald McDonell 

James Dingwall 
John Baker 
John McMarton"" 
Hugh McGruer 
Peter J- iiiney 
Patrick Burk 
Thomas Spratley 


Serg t McPherson 
/ Serg t Mc(iillis 
I Donald McDonell 
| 1 >onald McGillis, junior 
(Donald McGillis 
| John McKcn/ie 


I Duncan McKen/ie 


6, Andrew Millross 

7, Allen McDonell, Sergeant J. Hay 

8, Rodk. McDonell, Don. McDonell 

9, Donald McDonell, John McDonell 

10, Jonas Wood, John Wood 

11, ( has., Alex. Kennedy 

12, John McDonell, Duncan McDonell 

13, John Kane, Serg t Wm. McLeod 

McNiff s spelling of names is arbitrary and phonetic. 

Old Eastern District. 


14. John .McDonell. Alex. McDonell 

15. (ieortje Barnhart, John Beach 

16, 17, cicbe 

1 8, Peter Carpenter, Andrew Allen 

19, Phineas Atherton, Capt.. I a trick 


20, Serg t John Hay, John McDonell 

21, Ser^ l I). McC.illis. Serial M unlock 


22, I hilip Ross. Widou Ross 

23, Win. Cameron, John McLelaiul 

24, Don. Malcolm, Don. McKereher 

25, 26, .Mr. John ( Irani 





3, 4- 5 ^i r J onn Johnson 

6, Angus Baker. James Smith 

7. John Mc( imer, Daniel Campbell 
X. Widow (irant, W. Crowder 

9, John Barnhart, Nicholas Barnhart 
Duncan Mclntire. John Crowder 
John Larraway, P. Byrne, James 


Peter ( irant. John ( irant 
I\. McDonell. Thos. Munro 
Danl. Campbell, junior: Alex. Mc- 

( iruer 
15, C orpl. Mc( iruer, John Mclntire. >r. 

2M> < i>M KSSl(>.\ sorill OK 

11, Shadrick Ball, Jacob Ball 

12, John Ball, Amos Martin 

13, Lex 1 , is ( .rant. Donl. (irant 

14, Archd. (irant, John McDonald 

15, Jacob La at wine, Jacob Merkley 
K). Allen Chisholm, Donl. (irant 

17, Heirs of Kenneth McKen/ie, John 

( irant 
iS. l.euis (irant, Duncan (irant 

16, ( has. Atkinson, Thomas Cooper 

17, Peter Rupert, Krancis Ruport 
I.S, Philip ( iray. Peter < irant 

19, John Lone} , Win. McKay 

20, Anthony Crouder. William Crou- 

der, junior 

21, fohn Ross, Donl. McKay 

22, John Munro, Win. Crkert 

23, John Cameron. John McMartin 

24, Duncan (irant, Angus (irant 

25, John McMartin. by pun-hast;: Pat 

rick O Hale 

26, Donl. McDonell 


i.). Donl. McDonell, Rodk. McDonell 

20, Widou Sutherland, Dn. (irant 

21, Malcolm McDonell. Widow Mc- 


22, Don]. McLean. Donl. Prentiss 

23, Win. \\ood. John Muney 

24, Jona.s Wood. Rd. McDonell, Corpl. 

25, John Burton 

26, John Cashen, James Lou e 


John ( irant 

John Bryan. Hugh McCregor 

fohn Haggard. Donl. McBane 

Robert Smith and son 

32, James Milloy and family 

Alex. Ross. Sergt. Dn. Murchison 

1 )d. McArthur and two sons 

Dl. Robertson. Angus McDonell 

Widow of Allen McDonell 

Peter Smith, Lbenr. Lars 

Duncan Mclntyre. Sergt. Mel her- 


Peter Smith, junior 
Sergt. Alex. ( irant 
Sergt. John Mclntire 
Malcolm McMartin. Danl. Camp 
bell. < orpl. 

43. John McCallrev. Angus ( ameron 

2ND ri 1,-MKssI )\ \i IK III 1 

42. Leu is Bright. Donl. McDonell. ( orpl. 

44. John (ameron. Donald McKay 

45. William I Inward 


-> -T 






44, Kenneth Murchison. John Mtirchi- 

son and Inmily 

45, Alex. McDonell, Hu^h McDonell 

46, Donl. Cuthbert. Ser^l. I>e (iray, 

John Dingwall 

47, 48. 49. Sir John Johnson 

50, Peter Ferguson, Archd. < irant 

51. Alex. Cameron, Hu^h McDonell 
^2. Nicholas Weaver, (ieor^e Kintner 

53, Donl. Ross. An^us McKa\ 

54, IhiLdi McKay, John Mel-. 

55, John McDonell, Alex. McDonell 
V>. "llu^h Chisholm. I luidi Cameron 
57. John Mustard. Thos. Dodtje 

5S. "Murd h.McI herson.Donl.Chis] 
59, Allen Chisholm. \\idou Livin- 


oo. \\ illiam ( hisholm 
nil, KI\ i-.u \t \ K \isi\>. 
4<). SerL,M. Clarke. Duncan < hisholm 
51). David I- lynn 
;j. 1 leirs of Lieut. McKen/ie V[ 


Lunenburgh, or the 



D. C. H.. I-:. ,. M;ijor fames Cray 
\V. 2 I , A., Lieut. J.V. Holland 
I, 2, Capt. Samuel Anderson 
3, Win. Carr, David McCoon 

4, Peter Fmpey, Henry I lawn 

5, Christopher Impey, Jacob Impey 

6, I hil. Impey. Will. Impey 

12, Patrick McN ilV 

13, Revd. .Mr. Stuart 

14, Sergt. John Smith 

15, William McLaughlin, Michael ( ial- 


16, George Johnson, James Johnson 

17, I-!. ,. Sergt. Pivscott 

17, \\ . 2 iS. Lieut. ]os. Anderson 

19, Henry Kunnions. (ieo. Barnhart 

20, Ceo. Harnhart, Kichd. Prosper 

21, Ashel Wright. David Robertson 

22, John Mattice. Capt. French 

23, F. 2 24. F.nsign Anderson 

\\ . 2 24. Serial. Moss 
25, John McXairn. |< hn Nave 
2(>. Abraham Marsh 
27. I ., hf. 28, Lieut. William Claws 
W. lit". 28. Sergt. John Amiable 
2<). Andw. Millross. Ste]>hcn Brownell 
30, James Forsyth, Jacob Summers 
! .. hi. 31, Sergt. Spencer 
W. hf. 31, 32. l- .nsii^n Connolly 
33, 34, Sir John Johnson. Knight and 

35, Klislia Anderson. Matt. Snetsin^er 

36, 37, Capt. Dally I Daly i 


D. C. K. hi. I!., Major lames (iray 
W. hf. I!. A.. Lieut." J. F. Holland 
I, 2. C apt. Samuel Anderson 

3, \Vm. Carr s family, Jerrv N anDusen 

4, Win. Tusler. Andreu 1 u^ler 

5, Geo. Crawford, Robt. Robertson 
6, Win. l- er^uson, heirs of D. Robert 
son. Solon Peck 


7, J. Deb bough, Herman I lawn 

8, Henry Gallinger, George Craits 

9, F rederick Boiick. \\ erner Castle- 


10, John Foucks. Chris. < iallinger 

11, Herman and Joseph Crydorman 

12, James Lynch, Win. Palter 

I). C. B. ! . hf.. Major James Gray 

W. hf. B. A., Colon Hamilton, Henry 

r, 2, Capt. Samuel Anderson 

3, John Waite, Hugh Cameron 

4, John McKay, Phil. Impey, senior 

5, fames McCloughedy, Samuel An 


6, John De\\it, Garret Devvit 

7, Nicholas Silmser, (ieorge Waile 

8, T"hn Hawn. Jacob Waggoner 

9, Widow .Austen, Adam Wenzell 
10, John (^uinn, Michael t^uinn 

4 i ll < i (NCESSION, < i.N 

1). C. 1 .. K. hf., Heirs of Kenneth Mc- 


W. hf. B., John Mclntire. Sergt. 
A., Thomas Swan, Joseph Burton 

1, Louis \\eddous. Jas. l-!iitterwortli 

2, John Christie, Paul I )ivw 

3. NYm. Ciimming, Christy and John 

a moron 

4. Alex. Cameron, Dank Mcl.cod 

11, George Painter. Bernard Hart 

12, Widow Cryderman, Jacob Haw n. jr. 

13, Matt. Park, Corpl. "R. Park 

14, Adam Johnson 

15, John Hartle, Adam Hartle 

10. Ralph Christie., Ralph Christie- 
]:. hf. 17. Sergt. Prescatt 
W. hf. 17, 18, Lieut J. Anderson 
Pt. rear 18, Arthur Fagan 

19, Daniel Campbell 

20, John Cook, senior; \\ni. Castehnan 

21 Henry Merkley, Jacob Ro>s 

22 Jamc^ Anderson, lien. Reynolds 

L \s i I;RN 1:1 H NI >AKY. 

5, Heirs ot I). Robertson. Isaac Hall 

(>. A!e\. ( anu-roii. [olm Cameron 

7. Allen Cameron. Corns. Bulson 

S. Andre\\ "1 usler. Michael Cline 

9, John .Alguyer, Philip I- .amer 

10, Peler Famer. Margaret Selemser 

11, George (iallinger. Michael (iallin 

ger. junior 

12, Jacob Alguyer, Martin Alguyer 

Old Eastern Districf. 


13. Luke I .rady. Fred. 1 hit 

14. L). Campbell. Rob. Chambers (by 


15. John llradshaw. Levi lialey 

16. (ieorge Johnson. James Johnson 

17. John Dickson. Ben. Kastman 

1 8. John Milroy, Win. Ferguson 

19. Eflferon 1 utinan. heir^ of I). Kob- 


20, Tho>. Anderson, ( leo. Anderson 

21, Cyrus Andurson, John Shaver 
21, Michael Mattice, Andrew 

and family 

2]. I- ., hi". 24, F .nsign Anderson 
\Y. hf. 24, Sergt. Mos> 

25, Myers Solnmaiis, Matt. Lynk 

26, Joseph Stoneburner, Jacob Stone- 





3 1 




1 1. 




J 5- 










l i. 


C.. Major Wm. 1 logan 
A.. P. Delany 
2, Thomas Swan 
Lieut. Simon> 

Donl. McDonell. Donl. Mc(iregor 
Archd. McDonell. Allen McPhee 
Duncan McDonell 
John McDonell 
"Mr. Allen McDonell 
John McDonell 

Alex. McDonell. John McDonell 
John McDonell. junior: Rani. Mc 

Alex" McDonell. Donl. McDonell 
P. Mc( iuire, Donl Mc( iuire 
John Mclnio^h. Angus McDonell 
Donl. Fraser, \\ 111. Fraser 
Donl. Cameron. \Ym. Cameron 
Dn. McDonell. John McDonell 

dill C( i.N< KSSK iN. o 

A., I, 2. Stephen Delancey 
4. 5, Lieut. Neil Robcrtxm and 

family (1350 acres) 
William McDonell 

L. hf. 8. Alex. McPherson 

hf. 8, 9, R. McDonell pnd family 

Lieut. Neil McLean 

Lieut. R. Mel ). mell, the elder 

Lieut. R. McDonell 

14. Lieut Neil Mel .e 

James McOregor, ( orpl. 

"[8. Lieut. Miles McDonell 

1 8, 19, Levi \Villard 

Lieut. \\ m. Frascr 

AK-.x. 1 ruc". fohn McDonell, Corpl. 

7 l ll ( >N< 

( . and pt. I)., \\alterScott and family 
\ >.. \Ym. Scott and family 
A., John Scott and familv 

1 , |ohn ( hishohn and I amilv 

2. 3. 4, 5,6,7,8, o. KI. M. 12. 13, 14. 

i ;. !!. hi. K), not taken up 

18, Angus McDonell. Angus McDonell, 

( apt. French 

19, Kd. Perry. Duncan McDonell, Hunj. 

French, Albert French 

20, John McDonell, Donl. McMillan. 

Capi. French. Am. Mar>h 

21, Kbenr. \\ right. Ashel Wright 

22, John Jlartle s family and son 

23, ( hris. Templer. Ml. Cook 

24, Samuel Sutton. Henry Imj)ey 

25, Joseph 1 iowiiel. Christ!!. Sheek 

26, Corns. Shatford. John P. Ilelmer 

27, F. hf. 28, Lieut. \\ . Cl.ius 
\\". hi. 28. Sergt. Amiable 

29, John Plant/. John A. 1 Miner 

30, John Finkner, John Hunsinger 
K. hf. 31, Sergt Spencer 

YV. hf. 31. 32, Fnsign Connolly 

33, Jacob Scheets. (ieorge Scheets 

34, Adam .Mattice. Michael Mattice 

22, Kenneth -McDonell, Dond. .Mc 


23, Sergt. 1 rescott s family 

24, Sergt. Annable s family 

25, Sergt. J. Smilh > lamil) 

26, Jos. Stoneburner, \\ m. I!rannai! 

27, Adam Nave. James Forsyth 

28, < ieorge ( hristie s family 

2t). John ( rammer. Fred. Bouck 

30, John Red<lick. Alex. McDonell 

31, Cornelious O Keeff, Thomas Syce 
^2, Corpl. K. Park, Finnan McDonell 
,3. Ralpli Miller, (ieorge \\ agline 

34. Jacob Stoneburner. John llarlc) 

35, [ame- \\ "al>on. Cornelious Smith 
;(>. l.icob Pickle and lamily 

t>\ [ . \s |-|.;u\ BOUNDARY, 

hf. Id. |amc> Met ircgi n 
18. l<). not taken up 
Lieut- \\ m. Fr.i 
I- 1 




22. fas. McDonell. Archil. McDonell. 
>on of Kenneth 


Lunenburgh, or the 

23, Capt. I . Atherton 

24, 25, 1 atfick McNiff 

26, P. Smith 

27, 28. Capt. I . Athcrton 

29, Ashel Wright, Allen Campbell 

30, Duncan Reid. Stephen IJrounell 

31, folin McKay. David Robertson 

Sill < < INVASION, ON 

6, Farquhar McDonell. Korv Mc- 

I <>nell 

7. Allen McDonell. Ilenrielta Mc- 


JO, Angus McDonald, F\a McTavish 
22. Alex. Fr.ishcr. I inlay McDonell 

25, Anna Mclniosh. Angus McDonell 

32, Ranald McDonell. John McDonell 

33, John Maxwell, John McDonell 

34, Colon Hamilton. Henry Dobbins 

35, John Campbell. Win. McLoughlin 

36, Win. Frasher, Kenneth McDonell. 


37, Michael Cryderman, Corpl. 

K AS i KKN \\< >i M>AKY. 

24, Animus McDonell, John Kennedy 

25, Donald McDonell." Alex. McDonell 

26, An^tis McDonell. Wm. McCuire 

27, Colon Frasher, John McDonell 

28, John Mclntosh, Allen McDonell 

29, Aliens McDonell 
34, Colin Hamilton 


NOW ( >SN 


i. 2. Capt. Archibald McDonell 
j, Fvan Rice. Jacob Countryman. 
( orporal 

4. Chris. Servos, John Fennel 

5, Coeml. Wort. Andreu \\ert 

6, John Cadman. John Cadman. jtin. 

7. I-!, hf. 8, Dr. James Stuart. 

W. hf. S. fames Crowder, (a grist mill) 
9, Jacob I- amen. Joseph K.unen 

10. James Mordon. Joseph l- itchet 

11, Henry llooplc, Joh.n IIoo|>le 

12, Michael Cryderman. Corp l ; John 

1 rati. * orp l 

13, Sergt. John Wm Philips 

14. ICnsign Tolin Maun 


jo. MeKenzie Morgan. Sergt. \\ m. 

17, Daniel Morden, l,:c:>b Sheets 

15. John Cook, jun., lienry Icehouse. 

Common between 18 and 19 

19, K. hf. 20, Lieut. Premiss 
VV. hf. 20. Sergt. John McKie 

21. Daniel Fike, I- rancis Fike 

22. Henry Winter, John Kirne 

23. John Shell. John Roddick 

24. facob Denny, Michael Denny. 


25. K. hf. 26, Lieut. P. Fvereit 
W. hf. 26, Sergt. J. Impey 

27, Philip Staety. l- rancis Ptitman 
2>S. Leonard Stoneburner, Adam Im- 

29. Soloman T little. Corp. J. Impey 

30. Joseph Mott. Coen. Devoe 

31. Michael Keyser. John l\e\ ser 
52, Win. Impey. 

33, Abraham Freesc. Francis Albrant 

34, Alex. ROM-, Michael Ault 

35, I eter Loucks, Jo.M-ph Loucks 

36, F. hf.. lohn VlcDonell 

W hi. 36. 37. Lieut. MUes McDunell 

2NI> (. ONCKSSK >N. 

i . 2. (. apt. Arc ud. Mel )oiiell 

3, - - dibsoii 

4, Jesse Wright. !\:ci:,<in kersey 
^. Philip ( line. lames Lynch 

t>. Francis Coie. Michael \\liealan 
7. F S. Dr. fames Stuart 

\Y _, 8, Sergt. Cline, 
(). John (/aidner, 1 hos. Hatter 

10. Cilbert Stuart. Geo. Stuart. 

H.John Stoneburner. Thos. Ca> 

12. James Mordon, Rhdol. Papist 

13. Sergi. lohns, Mancie Curry 
J4- Fiisign John Mann 


16, Sergt. \\ m Morgan s family 

17. Isaac Crowder. James Cro\\ tier 

i From the east side of lot X<>. iS. to 
to the west side of lot No. 26, 
the river bends .so much to the 
northward, that the rear of the 
1st Concession runs to the front 
of the 3rd.) 

27. Balthis Dillabough, Chris. II 

28. Wm. Impey, sen., and family 

29. Corp l I. Impey. Win. Impey. 

30. Jacob Winter. Peter Winter 

31. John Pressley. Richard Loucks 

Oia Eastern District. 



33, Ceorge Murray, John. Paddock 

34. Margaret Jearocks 

35, David Ketchum. Martin Med- 


I- 36, John McDonell 
w - -- :/ si- I-i^it. Miles MrDonell 












- Armstrong, John McXairn 
Hugh Tullocn, Rorv Mcl.eod 
Desmond l>ernard 
Chris. Servos 

John Hrownell, John Donnelly 
Joseph Brownell, Widow Huff and 


John Pratt, Corp l 
( has. (}nscaigne 
John Ser\os. -em or 
Martin and John Dillabough 
Adam Fmpey 

John Moor. Casper ( loones 
Adam ( line. I hilip Moak 

16, John Servos, junior, Adam Rupert 

17. icS. Clebe 
( cinnnon 

19, John Stickeman 

21. John Foster 

22. John Mullen. Capt. I. McDonnll. 

by purchase 

23. John McWilliam, John Davis 

24. John I lunnin^ 

26, Sergt. J. Impey 

27, l.a\\renoe Fmeii 

28, Wiv. Malone 
33. K. Louck s 

35, Daniel l- ike"> tamil} 

Lots 15. IS. 20. 25. 2<>. 30. 31. 32, 

34. 36. 37. nut ixvupied. 


I - I ( DM K-slON. 


I, 2, Caul. T- MeKen/ie 

3. John Ilickey, John M.-.rkley 

3. fohn Markiey, I hilip ( ry.sler 

5. Adam Snycler. < uen. Sn\der. 

Sn\ der s family 

6. (ieo. Weaver, l- ri-deriek \\e;i\ei 

7. >fr v i;t. J. Mclnti.-,h, Sergt. D. 


S and F _, o. Lieut. J. Fnrrand 
\\ . .. 0. l arc|iiliar \!el )onell 

10. I- .duard liny, 1 eter I );i\ is 

11. 1 rederiek Uouek. Adam Fcuek 

12, l.nud. Acker. John Killman 

13, lleir> of Abijali \Vade. John 

< hri.-ler 

j 14. i leorge \\ eri 

>, 14. 15. Adjutant X aleiitinr 
10. Jacob ( i:irlo\\i\ 1 eler < iarli 
I 7. ( liris. lloiick. John ( ri.-<ler 
IS. ( ,illis Mcllane" J.ilm Link 
< c 

I . 
\\ . 


i ami 2. ( api. I. Mackenzie 


4. ferominu 

5. Join, Tuhey, Adam Sn milj 

o. > 

19, Nicholas Frcemire, Jno. liarnhart. 

20, Coend Maker. John Marcelius 

21, ]:. _ 22. hocior Austin 
\Y. hi. 22. Sergt. Mandeville 

23. Coend. ( astleman. Stephen! 


24. Adam ( astleman. Herman < 


25. Chris. Dcpcrioi .s, . fas. llaino. 
F. hi. 27. Lieut. Mc.Martin 

\V. hf. 27. Sergt. M. 1 laincs 
2S. John Shaxcr. Chris. Reddick 

29, 1 hiliy \\ alters, Corp l, |ame> \lac- 

( iaughe) 

30, Michael Markle;. . Marklex 
;i . I-:, hf. }2. Fn>ij;ii \ alcntine 

\\. hi. 32, Henrj MerkJey 
33, I |. ; ihn 1 Iman 

i \. Abraham 1 1 1 .oueks 

^T. f .is. Rose, fohn Me! 

( oinmiin 


,s . L . lii 

\\. : 


Lunenburgh, or the 

11. Peter Frayarline 24, 

12. Widow Van Alstinc. Snml. Van 25, 

Alstine 26, 

13. Robert and Stephen Farrington W. 
E. hf. 14, Henry Garlow 28, 
\V. hf. 14, 15. Adjutant Valentine 29, 

16, Herman I tman, John Wert 30, 

17, Matthias Link 

18, Philip Byrne jl, 
Common V* . 

19 33 

20, Widow O llara, I hilip Cook 34, 

21, E. hf. 22, Doctor Austin 35, 
\V. hf. 22, Sergt. Mandeville 36. 
23, David Reilly 

( ieo. Reddock, John Shaver 
Francis ("Iman 
E. lif. 27, Lieut McMartin 
hf. 27, Sergt. Haines 

Henry Frauts, Sergt. Knight 
Joseph Haines. Richd. Mande 

E. hf. 32, Ensign Valentine 
hf. 32, Sergt. Knight 

Robt. Abril, John Bunker 

John Bishop 

36, Capt. R. Duncan 



Common, Sergt. \\ right 

I, E. hf. 2, Capt. John Munro 
V* . hf. 2 

3, Herman Woggoner, (in red ink, 

Jacob Dorn), Jacob Shierc.>. 
(now Shafer) 

4, John Collison, Edward Stokes. 

5, Robert Glasfonl, John Glasford 
9, Jno. Benedict, Jacob Von Allen 
7, E. hf. 8, Lieut Hugh Munro 

W. hi. 8. Sergt. James McDonell 
9, John MeCarter, Stephen Meddogh. 

(in red ink. Middough) 
10, Richd. Dingnean, David Beverley, 

(in red ink, Term Dorn) 
n, licnn Baker, Jacob Cairnes 
[2. Florence McCarthy, (in red ink. J. 

(Kintners). \Vm. McCormack, 

(now J. Servos) 

13, E. hf. 14"; Knsign Francis McCarty 
\V. hf. 14, Luke Bo\\en 

15, Adam Shaver, John Shaver 

16, Lodok. Frederick, Bern d Frederick 

17, Adaui l- oster. Edward Foster 

18, Jonathan Armstrong. \\"m- Cutt- 

hin\. <in red ink James Everins;- 

< ommon 

19. John Ault. I- .dward Ault 

20. John Meddogh, Michael Ault, (in 

red ink, now Shafers) 

21. Dorothv Russell, Michael Russell 

22. VA\/. ISrouse, Peter Brouse 

23. Jacob Coons. 1 eter Murray 
Y.. hf. 24, Sergt. Martin Walter 

W. hf. 24 and 25, (No name entered 
on map. Patent issued to Peter 
Carman, 4th Oct., 1803). 
Point Iroquois here forms a Conces 
sion in front 

26, Jerry Doring, David , Jacob 

Doring, 1 1- Servos. 

27, Widow Fedar, Lucas Feclar 

28, Caspar Coons. David Doring 

29, John Van Camp, John ISoyer 

30, Martin Wallace. Arth. X. \Yallace 

31, E. hf 32, Lieut. J. Smythe 
YV. hf. 32, Serin. Teeple 

33, C orp l Shaver, Corp ] I . Crou>e 

34, Win. Ba xter, Richd. Davis, (in red 

ink, Clarke) 

35, Henry Albrant, John Saver 

36, 27, Capt. Allen McDonell 

2ND ( (>\t KssION. 

Common, Sergt. Wright 
I, E hf. 2, Capt. John Munro 
W. hf. 2 

4, George Thompson, Fred. \ . Snell 


5, Henry Munro, Cornelius Munro 

6, John Munro, \Vm. Johnson Munro 

7. F. hf. 8, Lieut. Hugh Munro 
W. hf. 8, Sergt. fames McDonell 
9, George Johnson, Garret Fastling 

10, Abraham Kowson, Jno. McDonell 

11. John Strader, Joseph Warte 

13, E. hf. 14, Ensign Francis McCarthy 

\V. hf. 14, Luke Pxmeii 

15, Philip Shaw, Jacob Shaver 

Old Eastern District. 411 

16, John Palmer. Dennis ( ounney 27, Timothy ( ) I5rk-n. Geo, Schrivcr 

17. R. \IrDoiu-ll, Coral J. Van Allen 2,S. 
iS. 29, 

Coiinnoi), Ilcnry \Vitm-r 30, Simon Stri lcr 

19, 31, K, hf. 32, Lieut. J. Sinythc 

20, W. lit". 32, SiTi;t. I t-cplc 

21. Adam Baker 33. Corpl Shaver, Corp l 1 . Cnutso 

22. 34, llenr} Strider, jun. , (it-o. M\ . 
2 ]. 35, Esthor Savrr 

E. hf. 24, John AshUim, Curporal 36, 37, ( apt. Allen Mel ) nit 11. John 
26, Michad r.irman, Henry \\ aley nl 


Lunenburgk, or the 


(From Neilson s Quebec Almanac, 1799.) 



Formed igth May, 1796. Disbanded 25th September, 1802. 


Lieu tenant -Colonel. 

Dejaunies Beaubien 
Francis Piedmont 
I ieerie Marcaux 
C. S. De Bleury 


J. De Longueil. 
Louis De Saleberry. 

Loitvigny Momigny 
Francois Vassal 
J. Bte. D Kstunonville 
Richard Ferguson. 


Daniel Dupre 
Peter Ducheynet 
A. J. Duchesnay 
Joseph De Beaujeuy 
C. (j. Lanaudiere 

Louis Montizambert 
Honore Bailie 
Antoine Lanaudiere 
Richard Hay 
1 Vancois Benches 


.Mate, - 

Uipolite Hertell 
1 ierre Ba/.in 
1 lenry I lay 
Joseph Bouchette 
Bi-njamjn Johe^t 


Rnbm Anderson 
Francois Duval 
1 )enis Alexander 
M. K. De Salaberry 
J. B. Ph. D Kstimanville. 

Rc\d. Salter Mountain. 

Robert Anderson. 

Louis Fromentcau. 

James ^\ nlker. 

Henrv Leodel. 


Lieutenant-Colonel, John Macdonell ( Aberchallader. ) 

Major, lla/.ekoii Spencer. 


Peter Drummond 
Hector McLean 
1 high Macdonell 
Neil McLean 

Miles Macdonell 
Richard Wilkinson 
Alexander McMillan 
Chaussegros De Lery 

Old Eastern District, 



William Fraser 
William Crawford 
Thomas Fraser 
Ranald Macdonell 
William Johnson 

Pierre Boucherville 
William Drace 
1 eter Grant 
< leorge Ermatinger 
Charles Laurnere 

(Quarter- Master, 



Angus McDonell 
- Farcherson 
1 ierre Ignaci Malhiot 
I. B. J. Duchesnay 
Ant. Petrimeulx. 

Joseph Boardmin 
Robert \Voolsey 
Stephen McKay 
Fred. Darue 
Joseph Chinique. 

Kevd. Mr. Dtival. 

John Cram pt on. 

Andrew Crampton. 

James Davidson. 

Cyrus Anderson. 

MILITIA, 1803. 


Colonel, - 



Ranald McDonell * 
Richard Wilkinson 
Alexander McMillan 
Alexander McDonell * 

Murdock McLean 
John Hay 
Duncan Mclntire 
Duncan McKen/.ie 
Allan McDonell 

Jacob Sunimi-r-. 
Jeremiah Sny< lei- 
Hector McKay 
I )uncan McDonell 
Donald McMillan 

(Quarter- Master, 


John McDonell.* 
- Hugh McDonell.* 
Walter Sutherland.* 

Joseph Sutherland 
Duncan Murchison 
John Mclntire * 



John Dunn 
Peter McDonell 
Duncan McDonell 
Donald McGillis 

Norman McLeod 

John McDonell 
Duncan McDonell 
Alexander Grant 
Donald McKay, junior 
John Cameron. 

John Bethune.t 
Murdork McLean. 
Lawrence McKay. 

Served in the King s Royal Regiment of Ne\\ York. 
Served in the S-jth Royal Highland Emigrants. 


4*4 Lnnenburgk, or the 


Colonel, . William Fortune. 

Lieutenant-Colonel, - - - Joseph Fortune 

Major. - . . J __i. . 


Fra s Rawdon Fortune Arthur Wade 

Enoch Fitz Henry Eden Johnson. 


Thomas I . Fortune Jeremiah 1 [aravmi 

Stephen Story Simon Yanckrk 


Omry Eddy l> e ter Iieer> 

Abraham dale Every St<>ry. 

Adjutant. .... 

Ouaiter-: Master, ... 


Colonel, - Archibald McDonell.* 
Lieutenant-Colonel, - - 





Quarter- Master, - 



Lieutenant-Colonel. - - - Allan MrDonell/ 

Major, - - Malcolm McMartin.* 


Michael llains * Cornelius Munro * 

Farquhar McDonell * Allan I aterson. 


Jacob Merkle * Jacob Weegar * 

Henry Merkle * Jesse Wright * 

Michael Ault """ John Serviss * 


John Shaver Jacob YanAllan 

John Munro Michael Carman. 
Frederick \\ ea\ er 

Adjutant, ... . Jacob Weaver. 

Quarter-Master, - - Alexander McDonell. 

Served in the King s Royal Regiment of New York. 

Old Eastern District. 

( ilvKNVII.LK. 


Lieutenant-Colonel, - 

John Dulmage 
James Campbell 
Ciideon Adams 
Solomon Jones + 
Kphraim Curry 

Captan- Lieutenant, 

- William Fraser: 

Thomas Fraser : 

Alexander Campbell : 



Joseph Knapp 
Francis Scott 
Asahel Wright 
William Snyder 
Daniel Burnett 

William Eraser 
Joel Adams 
Thomas Fraser 
1 eter Grant 
.Samuel I licks 
Samuel Stafford 





Samuel Wright 
Samuel Caswell % 
Allan (Irani t 
Bartholomew C;irley :;: 
Benone Watson 




Joseph Neiph 
John Howard 
Reuben Sherwood 
William LaRue 

William I .. Wright 
1 hilip Philips 


Lewis Grant 
Caleb Clauson 
Stephen Burnett * 
Richard Arnold 

Samuel Sherwood 

1 high Munro 
Philip Dulmage 
Thos. Doyle 
Martin Kelly 
Asahiel Hurd 

Jahiel Hurd 
Herman Lanclon 
Abraham Bolton 
Thomas Brown 
James Mills 
Abraham Lake 

William i . 
- ( Miver Inverts 

Joel Stone 

Kdward Jesssup 

Thomas Smyth 

Ji hiel Smith 
Truman 1 licok 
AVilliam Keid 

All:-,]] MrDoiu-11 

Samuel Booth 

I >a\ id Hunter 
Abel ( olcmaii 
Siephcn Wathburn 
J - !/rn Benedick 

A p. Loudon 
William li. Stolid 

"Served in the King .-, Royal Regimen! of New York, 
t Served in ihe 841!) Royal Highland Regiment. 
J Served in the Loyal Rangers, Major I-M ward lessiip . 
Served in Major McAlpine s corps. 

, or tJie 

Archibald McLean 
Nathan Dayton 
Adiel Sherwood 


Jonathan Fulford 
Eathan McCullom 
Richard Day 
Reuben Sherwood 
Dyer Howard 

The appointments to the Stormont regiment of Militia do not appear to have 
been filled up in 1802. 

The following are the lists of the First and Second Stormont, in 1823, as 
given in the " York Almanac " of 1824 : 



Lieutenant-Colonel, - 

The Hon. Neil McLean t 

- Albert French 

Donald McDonell 


Angus Fraser 
Tosh. V. Cozens 
Archibald McDonell 
J. Vankoughnet 

Philip Empey 
Archibald McDonell 
Hugh McDermid 
Duncan Scott 
Ronald MeDonell 

John Cameron 
John McGibbon 
Jonn McDonell 
Arthur Burton 
Allan McDonell 




Simon Fraser 
John D. Campbell 
John Mclntosh 
Alex. McDonell 

Alexander McDonell 
William Bruce 
John Barnhart 
Ronald McDonell 
Arthur Burton, Adjutant 

Martin McMartin 
Win. Mclntosh 
M ichacl Link 
Wm. Ray 
Philip Earner 

Arthur Burton 





Donald McAulay 
Philip P. Empey 
Charles C. Farren 
Geo. Anderson, Adjutant 
Noah Dickinson 
William Macfarlane 

Henry Stuart 
John Ault 
Alex. Cameron 
George Morgan 
Murdoch Stuart 

Joseph Anderson 

Philip Vankoughnet 

Benjamin French 



Joseph Bachus, (spelled Balk- 

William Browne 
Adam Dixson 
MrKen/ie- Morgan. 

Henry Shaver 
Alexander Bruce 
Isaac Sheek 
Peter Chesley 
Jacob W. Empey. 

Served in the 841)1 Royal Highland Emigrants. 

Old Eastern District. 



George Roljertson 
( icrsham French 
William Cline 
Austin Shaver 
lames McAnlay 


William Loucks 
Nelson Cozens 
David Chesley 
John P. Empey 

Captain Geo. Anderson. 



Raised in 1812. 

Colonel, - Thomas Peters, (Major-General. ) 
Lieutenant-Colonel, - Daxid Shank, (Major-General. ) 

George Robertson. 
Major, - - - Francis Cockburn. 


James Kccles 
William de Haren 
Thomas Hay 
Edward Cartwright 
Dougald Campbell 

John Reid 
"William Marshall 
Ronald McDonell 
William Radenhurst 
Henry Weatherston 
John Johnston 

Alexander McMillin 
Charles Pinguet 
Charles F. Gunter 

Quarter- Master, 

Goorge R. Ferguson 
Ewan McMillan 
Alexander McQueen 
James Pautz 


Daniel Dupre 
Archd. K. Johnston 
Alexander Grant 
R. M. Cochrane 
Edward Dewar, (Staff.) 


Benjamin Delisle 
Ulysses Fitzmaurice 

William Marshall, Lieut. 

R. M. Cochrane, Lieut. 

Alexander Eraser 

. - - Michael Mabey 

Alexander Cunningham. 

4i 8 Lunmburgh, or the 




CORNWALL, ist March, 1813. 

SIR, I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the I5th 
xilt., relative to Mr. Philip Yankoughnet s memorial, claiming remuneration for 
four months services as adjutant to the Stormont Militia, nnd in reply beg leave to 
say that Mr. Yankoughnel did duty as adjutant for a period. In order to explain 
how more than one person came to be employed in that capacity, I may refer to 
the many letters I have had the honour of addressing to you on the subject of ap 
pointing adjutants for the Stormont Militia. You will find that previous to the 
declaration of war. ] recommended Mr. P. Yankoughnet as an active, promising 
young man, who, with a little experience, would be useful in the position to which 
he had been nominated by my predecessor. At the same time, I endeavoured to 
have it clearly understood that he was not to stand in the way of any person His 
Honor the President might think fit- to appoint as adjutant to discipline the flank 
companies. I recommended and requested that a suitable non-commissioned officer 
from the line should be appointed to this duty, as; there was no person .vithin the 
county whom I could recommend. Wh en the flank companies were formed and 
war was declared, I found it absolutely necessary to employ the most capable person 
I could find to assist in bringing the regiment, which had been greatly neglected 
for many years, into some order and discipline. For this purpose I fixed upon 
Sergt. Arthur Burton, who had formerly served in my company in the Canadian 
Yohmteers, and whose appointment I recommended on the Jth July, 1812. Find 
ing great occasion for a person of Mr. Vankoughnet s qualifications to assist in the 
work, he was continued and returned on the muster rolls. When estimates were 
ordered to be made out for the payment of the Flankers and staff, it was found 
that not more than one adjutant, and no quarter-master, \\ould be allowed, since 
which period Mr. Yankoughnet has done no duty. I certainly do conceive that he 
has a just claim for remuneration, tho" he had no promise from me. except for what 
Government might think fit to allow. 

Ota Eastern District. 419 



HKAIXU-AKTKKS, YORK, 1st March, 1813. 

SIR, -The memorial of commanding officers of regiments of Militia in the 
Eastern District, transmitted with your letter of the 2ist ultimo, has been laid 
before His Honour Major-General Sheaffe. His Honour feels very sensibly for 
the distresses and privations to which the Militia on duty and their families have- 
been exposed. In order to prevent, as far as may be practicable, their recurrence, 
he some time since determined to establish some new regulations, the final arrange 
ment of which has been retarded by his late severe indisposition, as well as by 
other circumstances. A new mode of paying the Militia is already in operation, 
though the system is not yet perfected, and it is intended to authorize the is>; 
provisions to at least a portion of their wives and children, and means will be 
adopted lor providing the Militia on duty more amply with barracks, bedding 
utensils, etc. , 

llis Honour directs that pay lists be prepared in duplicate in the several 
regiments to which the sedentary militia alluded to belonged, stating the names 
and ranks, the periods employed, and the rate per day. They are h/ be certified 
upon, however, by the officers who were called out. to act with them, and by the 
commanding officers of regiments :the authority by which they were called out, and 
for what service, are to be stated on separate documents, with the signatur. 
the senior officers employed on such occasions, verified by those of the command 
ing officers of corps. Further directions \\ill be given respecting the person to 
whom they are to be transmitted. 

His Honour is perfectly aware of the hereditary as well as personal claims 
which the respectable population in general of the Kastern District have on the 
attention of Government. He feels assured that they will always use their best 
exertions to realise the public expectation and to sustain their high character in the 
Province, and they will ever find His Honour ready on his part to contribute 
everything in his power towards their comfort and welfare. His Honour is pi 
to direct that you will be pleased to communicate this letter to the memorialists. 


LlEUT. -COLONBJ Mrl. I:\N TO M \.JOK-( ;K\KK \i. Sn \\\ . Anj ( i AN i -( i KM.KAI.. 

( IORNWAJ i , 51!) June. iSi.;. 

SIR, Herewith you will receive the return of the Stormont Regiment of 
M ilitia, and also the return of amis, etc., in our possession. You will perceive 
that we are greatly deficient in serviceable arms, and that a large proportion of 
those we have are until for service. To account for llii... it is necessary to ob 
that until last summer a considerable part of them 1m e been in possession of tin- 
Militia of Glengarry and Stormont for nearly thirty years without any repair, and 
that the remaining part were used by different corps M Tving in these Provinces fur 
probably fifty years. It is obvious that arms left to the care of Militiamen, ho,e 
want oi experience and variety of occupation precluded that care essential to 
cfticiericv. mils! soon become defective. [ beg. therefoi- [UCSl lhat you will 

be pleased to inform me in whal manner the arms and accoutrements are to I 
paired and kept in repair. 

Permit me to take this opportunity of recommending Archibald Mcl>onc!l, 
gentleman, to succeed Ensign D.>n.ild McD .nell. of my regiment, \vho died 15111 
i. iSi ;. 

4 2 Lunenlmrgh, or the 


FORT GEORGE, July 12th, 1814. 

MY DEAR FATHER, We arrived at this place on the 6th inst., from York, 
and marched to Queenstown the same evening. \\ e remained there till the 8th, 
when we were ordered up to Chippewa, where General Real s headquarters were, 
and where the enemy were immediately in our front. We had scarcely arrived 
there before the enemy s batteries opened in order to force a passage across the 
Chippewa, and after a short resistance from two field pieces on our sule, we were 
obliged to give way, and the whole force was immediately put in motion for this 
place, not being further molested by the Americans. We arrived here alxnit ten 
o clock at night, having marched about eight and twenty miles during the warmest 
day we have seen this summer, and what added to the fatigue was the immense 
clouds of dust in which we were constantly kept by the Dragoons and Artil 
lery. Since we came to this place, nothing of interest has occurred. Two hun 
dred of our men, under Col. Robinson, have been out about half way to 
Queenstown for forage, but did not meet any of the enemy, though they are now 
in possession of that place, in numbers uncertain. Last night a force of a thous 
and men advanced in order to cut off our piquets if possible, but they found them 
too alert, and after exchanging some shots they retired. There has been no loss 
on our side except a corporal and three or four of the King s missing." The 
enemy s loss is uncertain, but that they have lost a General seems to be under 
stood. One of their wounded officers was left at the house of Mr. Thompson, a 
short distance from this. Before his death he informed the people of the house 
that he was General Swift. He was a Lieut. -Col. of some regiment at the attack 
upon York, and was well spoken of by the people there. We have frequent 
alarms here, but do not expect to have anything to do till the enemy s fleet comes 
up. We are pretty well prepared for an attack, having three months provisions in 
store, plenty of guns, ammunition and men, and I hope plenty of courage. I 
shall send this by a vessel to York, the communication by land being rather 
dangerous owing to its being stopped by the enemy. 



The Loyal Patriotic Society of Upper Canada, anxious to extend the benefit 
of the institution through the whole Province, voted the sum of five hundred 
pounds, Halifax currency, to be distributed in the Eastern District as circumstances 
may require, to such persons in distress as come within the provisions of their con 
stitution. Of this money the treasurer has distributed the sums following, and in 
the name of the Society requests the Revd. John Hethune, the Revd. Alexander 
McDonell, the Revd. Mr. Kaldwyne, Judge Anderson, and Colonel McLean, to 
form themselves into a committee for distributing the remainder by granting relief 
to Militiamen who have been wounded or who are in distress, occasioned by 
military duty, or to those who have been plundered by the enemy, guiding their 
bounty by the constitution of the Society. Mr. John Hethune, junior, is requested 
to act as secretary, and Mr. Guy C. Wood as treasurer. The secretary will bring 
before the committee all such cases as appear worthy of their attention, and the 
treasurer will pay from the funds in his hands any order signed by two or more of 
the committee and countersigned by the secretary, such an order being to him a 
sufficient warrant. 

* The 8th Regiment. 

Old Eastern District. 421 

The General Society at York are led to hope that the aid which they have 
thus given to the inhabitants of the Kastern District will induce them to subscribe 
liberally among themselves in addition to that aid. in order to alleviate as far as 
possible the pressure of the war, and the} beg leave to remind the subscribers that 
by their constitution every person contributing ten pounds per annum during the 
war is virtually a diiector, and has a right to assist at all the deliberations of the 
committee above named, and to be summoned to all meetings by the secretary, so 
that all such subscribers o! ten pounds a year are members of the committee of 
distribution in virtue of their subscription. 

A> it is a principal object with the Society to nourish affection for the Govern 
ment and a determined resistance to (lie enemy, they will be careful to attend to 
that part of the constitution \\hich excludes all those who have deserted their posts, 
or have given just cause of suspicion, from participating in iheir Ijounty. 

Money distributed by the treasurer of the Loyal and Patriotic Society of 
Upper Canada in the Kastern District : 


lo Joseph Anderson, Ksq 2O O o 

do do loan from funds of Society 2O O O 

David Wright 20 5 X 

John Pescod and his son 25 14 10 

Charles McKinnon 25 O O 

Henry Runnions 20 i 4 

I3 1 i 4 
L!\ \ote of the Society 500 O O- 

In the hands of G. ( .Wood, Ksq., and subject to the order 

of the committee 368 l8 & 

l, 41)1 March, 1814. 






ISLE Arx Xoix, 15111 April, 1778. 








Lieut. -Col. 




13 Jan., i775JAllan McLean Jan. 1775 

Donald McDonald Never up to 

date of return. 
15 June William Dunlxir Aug., 1775 

14 June, John Nairne 

21 Nov., :Ale.\. Eraser July. 1 775 

Geo. McDougall Nov.. 1775 
12 June, i Malcolm Eraser July, i?75 
14 June, .Daniel Robertson July, 1775 
Nov., 1776 George Laws 

""Neil McLean, .Never up to Lt., 7th Regt., 1762 

(prisoner.) date of return. 
14 June, 1 775 John McLean Oct., 1777 
31 Dec., " Alex. Firtelier Aug., 1775 
14 June " I Lachlan McLean jApril, 1777 
31 Dec.. : Eran. Damburgess .Aug. , 1775 

Ensign, ist June, 1775 
Ensign, 2Oth Nov., 1775 
Ensign, I4thjune, 1775. 

served 18 years. 
Ensign, I 4 th June, 1774 

Capt., late /8th Regt., 26lh 

April, 1761. 

Lt., late 78th Regt., Feb., 1757 
Lt., 6oth Regt., May, 1759 
Lt., late 8th Regt., 25 Sept., 59 
Lt., 42nd Regt., 19 April, 1762 

Ensign, late Ii4th Regt., 1761 

EnMgn, 2 1st Nov., 1775 

i6July, 1 776,David Cairns 
21 Nov., 1775 Don. McKinnon 
25 Oct., 1776 Ronald McDonald 


9 April, 1777 John McDonell 
Alex. Stratton, 

(a prisoner.) 
Hector McLean 

14 June, 1775 Ronald McDonald 


12 June, 
14 June. 
14 June, 
14 Jan., 


Adjutant 14 June, " 
O r-Mnster June, 1776 
Surgeon June, 1776 
Surg s-Mate 

Archibald (Irani 
David Smith 
i George Daine 

Never up to 
,date of return. 

Nov., 1775 
Aug., 1775 
Aug., 1775 

Archd McDonald June, 1776 
William Wood Oct., 1775 
John 1 ringle June, 1776 

Hector McLean, Never up to 

(prisoner. ) date of return. 
John Bethune, 
(prisoner. ) 

Ronald McDonald Aug., 1775 
Lachlan McLean June, 1776 
James Davidson " 

Ijames Walker June, 1777 

Sergeant for 21 years. In 
service in North America 
and West Indies. 

* When the First Battalion was at Carleton Island in May, 1779, there were two Neil" 
McLean s in it one a captain, the other an ensign. 

X. 1!. It is said that there is S\ Lieutenant I>a\id IVice. as al>o one KiiMtjn 
Ileiin May, \vh<> have commissions in thi> battalion, hut tlie regiment i 
mustereci tlieni. though they have, drawn some money to nrromn o! their pay. 

J )11N X \1K\K. 

( Royal Highland Regiment. 

In Mr. Hryinner s report on Canadian Archives lor i Sijo, pa^e 52. it i> s\ 
that Mr. T" 1 ! Kryn.n \vas in charge ol the Episcopal or Knyli*h Cluirch congrega 
tion at Connvall. at a salary of ,50.0.0. The exact date at which he took 
i- not L^iven. hut it was probable that he did so in 1786 or